Ontario Historical Society
PAPERS AND RECORDS
PUBLISHED BY 'THE SOCIETY
Honorary President :
THE HONORABLE THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION.
JOHN DEARNESS, M.A., London.
1st Vice-President :
CLARANCE M. WARNER, Napanee.
SIR EDMUND WALKER, Toronto.
Secretary and Acting Treasurer :
ALEXANDER FRASER, LL.D., Toronto.
J*. J. MURPHY, Toronto. FRANK YEIGH, Toronto.
A. F. HUNTER, M.A. D. S. WALLACE, M.A.
J. STEWART CARSTAIRS, B.A. W. L. GRANT, M.A.
ALEXANDER FRASER, LL.D.
I. Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B. J. A. Macdonell, K.C. - 5
II. Romantic Elements in the History of the Mississippi Valley.
Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D. - - 33
III. Collections of Historical Material Relating to the War of 1812.
Frank H. Severance, L.H.D. ~ : - 43
IV. Despatch from Colonel Lethbridge to Major-General Isaac Brock.
Lieut.-Col. Cole - 57'
V. Military Movements in Eastern Ontario during the War of 1812.
Lieut.-Col. W. S. Buell - - 60
VI. Defence of Essex during the War of 1812. Francis Cleary. - 72
VII. The Economic Effect of the War of 1812 on Upper Canada. **
Adam Shortt, C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S.C. - - - - 79
The Editorial Committee assumes no responsibility for
the accuracy of statements made, or for opinions expressed in
the Papers contained in this volume.
ALEXANDER ERASER, Secretary.
MAJOR-OENEKAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B.*
(Born 6th October, 1769 ; died 13th October, 1812.)
BY J. A. MACDONELL, K.C., GLENGAKRY.
"We are engaged in an awful and eventful contest. By
unanimity and despatch in our councils and by vigour in our
operations, we will teach the enemy this lesson : that a country
defended by free men, enthusiastically devoted to the cause
of their King and constitution, can never be conquered."
It was with these glorious and inspiring words that Major-
General Brock, then Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of
Upper Canada, concluded the speech with which on the 27th
July, 1812, he opened the extra session of the Legislature of
the Province, which he had summoned immediately following
the declaration of war by the United States on the 18th of
He had been appointed Administrator, or President, as
the office was then styled, on the 30th of September, 1811,
assuming his government on the 9th of October, in the
absence of Lieutenant-Governor Gore, who had left York
(now Toronto) on the day previous. It was his fate nobly to
fall at Queenston Heights on the 13th of the same month in
the following year ; he therefore held office for but a few days
over a year. But that short time was sufficient to obtain for
his name immortality, so long as the English language can
narrate what in that brief period he accomplished, and to
hold forth for succeeding generations of British subjects in
Canada and throughout the Empire, the bright example of
his genius and his gallantry, his indomitable spirit and extra-
ordinary fertility of resource.
Isaac Brock was the eighth son of John Brock, Esquire,
a gentleman of Guernsey, of good family and independent
means, who, in his youth, had been a midshipman in the
*Read at the meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Napanee,
ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Eoyal Navy, by Elizabeth De Lisle, his wife. He was born
at St. Peter's Port, Guernsey, on the 6th of October, 1768, the
same memorable year which gave birth to Wellington and
Napoleon; and was thus but forty-three years of age at the
time of his death. Singularly, and sadly enough, of all the
eight brothers who reached maturity, no male descendant is
now in existence to bear that honoured name. Brock is de-
scribed as being always tall and robust for his age; with
strength and determination, the best boxer and swimmer of
his set, yet at the same time always of the most gentle and
kindly nature. In more mature years he was a man of tower-
ing frame and commanding aspect. From a primary school
at Southampton he was sent to complete his education and
perfect his knowledge of the language, to a French pastor at
Eotterdam. He entered the 8th Eegiment as an ensign, when
Sf teenyears but little over fifteen ; raising an independent company, he
was gazetted captain, but shortly afterwards was placed on
half-pay. In 1791, by purchase, he exchanged into the 49th
Eegiment, with which he was destined to be so long and hon-
ourably associated, and which took part in the Battle of
Queenston Heights, when he died. He served with that
regiment in Barbadoes an*d Jamaica, becoming major in 1795,
and lieutenant-colonel in 1797, while yet but twenty-eight
at twenty- vears ^ a g e - The regiment had fallen into bad habits and
eight years worse discipline, but under his command it soon regained its
good character ; the Duke of York, then Commander-in-Chief ,
declaring that Lieut.-Colonel Brock, from one of the worst,
had made the 49th one of the best regiments in the service.
While he exercised his command with vigour and strictness,
his discipline was tempered by reason and justice. He pos-
sessed that happy quality which the French call " camarad-
erie," which has always been found in really great soldiers
and than which nothing more endears a commanding officer
to the men who are fortunate enough to serve under him
indeed, the secret of Brock's influence and success was that
he really cared for his men, and that they recognized that
such was his guiding principle. Under his command, the
49th served under Sir Ealph Abercrombie, and subsequently
Sir John Moore, in North Holland, in 1799, where Colonel
Brock greatly distinguished himself. The regiment suffered
severely at Egmont-op-Zee, where Brock himself was wounded.
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B.
In 1801, he was second in command of the land forces in the
celebrated attack on Copenhagen by Lord Kelson.
In 1802, he came with his regiment to Canada, and ^ a
ada was happily destined to benefit by his untiring services to Canada.
for the following ten years, while here it was his lot to achieve
imperishable renown. The first three years he spent on
regimental duty, being quartered at different times with the
49th at Montreal, York, Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake),
and Quebec. In 1805 he became a full colonel and re turned j^"
to England on leave of absence. While there he laid kefore Recom _
the Commander-in-Chief the outline of a plan for the f orma-
tion of a veteran battalion to serve in Canada. battalion
The Royal Canadian Volunteer Regiment of Foot, of two
battalions, which had been raised and placed in 1796 on the
regular establishment of the army, and the first battalion of
which under Lieut.-Colonel the Baron de Longueuil had gar-
risoned the posts of Lower Canada, and the second battalion
uncjer Lieut.-Colonel Macdonell those of the Upper Pro-
vince, had, together with all Fencible corps in the army, been
disbanded in 1802, during the short-lived Peace of Amiens.
Both Provinces were therefore practically without regular
local forces. But Britain at this time had her hands full
with Napoleon; every available man was required in the
Peninsula, and the British Government, seeing no reason
or occasion for war with the United States, did not believe
that war would take place, and Colonel Brock did not there-
fore succeed in convincing the Home authorities of the neces-
sity of establishing such a corps at the time. He received,
though, the thanks of H.R.H. the Duke of York, Commander-
in-Chief, for his communication and his very sensible and
valuable observations respecting the distribution of troops
in Canada, and the promise that his recommendations would
be taken into consideration at a seasonable opportunity. In
the light of events which transpired in the near future, the
wisdom of Colonel Brock's proposal is apparent. His sug-
gestion was that detachments of the proposed corps should
be stationed at St. John's and Chambly in Lower Canada,
(now the Province of Quebec), Kingston, York (now To-
ronto), Fort George (Niagara), Amherstburg, and St.
Joseph's Island, in the Upper Province.
While on a visit to his family and friends in Guernsey, 1806.
Colonel Brock deemed the intelligence from the United home.
8 ONTAEIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
States to be of so warlike a character that he resolved upon
returning to Canada before his leave had expired ; and such
was his anxiety to be at his post that he overtook, at Cork,
the Lady Saumaurez, a German vessel, well manned and
armed as a letter of marque, bound for Quebec, and left Lon-
don on the 26th of June, 1806, never to return or to see home
and kindred again.
Very soon after his arrival in Canada Colonel Brock suc-
ceeded to the command of the troops in both Provinces, with
the pay and allowances of a brigadier. He resided in Quebec
until the arrival in October, 1807, of that renowned soldier,
Sir James Craig, as Governor-General and Commander-in-
Chief, who appointed him a brigadier, which appointment
was subsequently confirmed by the King.
warns Brit- ^ n September, 1806, ever zealous, alert and watchful, he
of h h?stmty na( i d eeme( l it his duty, immediately upon his return to Can-
of u. s. a( j a an( } on ascertaining the precarious and critical position
of affairs, to address an urgent letter to the Imperial authori-
ties in which he stated that it was impossible to view the late
hostile measures of the American Government towards Bri-
tain, without considering a rupture between the two coun-
tries as probable to occur, if not indeed inevitable and
imminent, and that he was in consequence most anxious that
such precautionary measures should be taken as the exigencies
seemed not only to justify, but to demand.
He warned the Government that even then the Americans
were busily engaged in establishing and drilling their militia,
and openly declared their intention of entering Canada, while
the defenseless state of our frontiers constituted the strongest
possible inducement to them so to do. He stated that the
means at his disposal were too limited to enable him to oppose
them with effect, and that unless he received assistance he
would be obliged to confine himself to the defence of the
Citadel of Quebec.
Recommends Again i n 180? he returned to the subject, when forward-
Gi r e?|arr? of in ^ to tlie War Office tlie P r Psal of Colonel Macdonell, for-
5gibie merly commanding the 2nd Battalion K. C. V. (which had
coi P Mac- of been Disbanded as we have seen in 1802), for the formation
doneii. of a corps of Glengarry Fencibles. He strongly urged the
establishment of such a regiment, to be raised among the
Highland people in Glengarry. His wise suggestion was
not at the time carried into effect, but when a few years
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B.
afterwards our relations with the United States had arrived
at a crisis, the British Government hastened to adopt his
plan, and the " Glengarry Light Infantry Eegiment " was
raised and placed upon the establishment of the army, that
ubiquitous regiment which was to take part in almost every
battle for the defence of the country in the War of 1812-14,
.and to amply justify Brock's selection of the Glengarry High-
landers as the men to face the emergency and rally to the
defence of the country and largely to save it.
But his efforts extended in all directions. The nav
force and craft in Canada were then in an incipient and ?^ k es ver and
exceedingly unsatisfactory condition. General Brock was
firmly impressed with the absolute necessity of our holding
the control of the River St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes
in the event of war, and shortly after taking over the com-
mand of the forces he turned his attention to that urgent and
important subject and directed that the following number of
boats, independent of those required for the Commissariat,
should be kept in constant repair at the several posts for mili-
tary service, viz : Quebec 6, Three Rivers 2, William Henry
(Sorel) 1, Montreal 7, St. John 2, Kingston 4, Fort George
12, York 3, and Amherstburg 4, a total of 41.
In 1808 General Brock appears to have been stationed Mon
at Montreal, where, as elsewhere in Canada, he was a g
social favourite. People instinctively recognized his worth,
his work, his zeal and ability, and appreciated to the fullest west com-
extent the wholehearted manner in which he threw himself g^Jes'of
into the discharge of his every duty. Then, too, whatever auringwar.
the views and misconceptions of English statesmen, as to
what was coming in the comparatively near future, there was
no doubt whatever upon the part of the leading, observant
and influential men in Canada. For years before war was
actually declared by the United States, they were able to
read the signs of the times and were convinced that Brock
was the man for the occasion when we had to face the inevit-
able. These gentlemen, therefore, were naturally desirous
of showing^ their appreciation of the services he was render-
ing in advance to face this great emergency and to forestall
a dire catastrophe. These were the palmy days of the
brated North-West Company, which for years " held a lordly company.
10 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
sway " over the wintry lakes and the boundless forests of the
Canadas, almost equal to that of the East India Company
over the voluptuous climes and magnificent realms of the
Orient. The principal partners, Scotsmen, and mostly
Highland gentlemen at that, resided at Montreal, where they
formed a commercial aristocracy, and lived in a generous and
most hospitable manner. Few distinguished travellers visited
Canada, or leading military men stationed here, at this period,
in the days of the MacGillivrays, the MacTavishes, the Mac-
kenzies, the Frobishers and the other magnates of the North-
West, when the company was in the zenith of its influence
and activity, but must have often recalled in after years, the
round of feasting and revelry kept up by those hyperborean
nabobs. Then, too, they were at the head of what was prac-
tically an army of six hundred voyageurs, hardy, serviceable,
intrepid, inured to danger, amenable to discipline and obedi-
ent to instructions. With these merchant princes, General
Brock lived on terms of intimacy, and that intimacy was
afterwards to be productive of the most important results.
Not only did the North-West Company, when war occurred,
immediately constitute themselves into one of the most use-
ful, active and efficient regiments, the Corps de Voyageurs
Canadien,, in which, with scarcely an exception, the officers
were Highland Scotsmen, partners and officers of the com-
pany, and every voyageur a French-Canadian, but also that
Sir George Prevost, then Governor-General (and unfortun-
ately Commander-in-Chief in Canada), was able to write a
despatch informing Lord Liverpool that hostilities had com-
menced, was due to the zeal and patriotism of the principal
partners of the North-West Company, who, foreseeing the
inevitable, had taken extraordinary precautions and means
to obtain early information of the declaration of war by the
deciar d b ^&* was declared on the 18th of June. It seems almost
18th i ncom P r ehensible that Prevost, then at Montreal, did not
advised by rece i ve official intelligence of this momentous fact from Mr.
fha-rje 1 Foster, who, up to that date, was British charge d'affaires at
mh a ju e iy n Washington, until the 26th of July, fourteen days after
General Hull's army had actually invaded Upper Canada,
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 11
and equally incredible that Mr. Foster did not see fit to find
some means of conveying, also, official intelligence to General
Brock, in command in that Province, and so hard beset there,
leaving him to learn the news by the roundabout way of
Montreal, when, with the greatest despatch, a fortnight fur-
ther must in those days have elapsed for the intelligence by
this channel to reach Fort George, the military headquarters,
or York, then the seat of Civil Government. Thanks, how-
ever, to Brock's personal friends of the North-West Company,
six days after the declaration of war at Washington (on the
18th of June), on the 24th day of that month, it was made 24th * oat
known, both to Sir George Prevost at Montreal, and to Gen-
eral Brock at Fort George, when Prevost wrote a despatch
to Lord Liverpool, and Brock took time by the forelock, with Com P an y-
the result that in a very short space of time Hull's invading
force of 2,500 men was being marched to Montreal, ragged
and dejected prisoners of war, and Brock was in possession of
Detroit and the whole State of Michigan, and had captured
sufficient arms to arm the militia of Upper Canada. This
prompt and invaluable service was rendered possible by the
wise precautions and statesmanlike prescience of the North-
West Company, who had despatched their own trusted emis-
saries to Washington with instructions to watch events, and
had made all necessary arrangements so that the very moment
war was declared, intelligence of that pregnant fact should
immediately be rushed through to Canada by their voyageurs
and Indian runners. It was due to them and thanks to them
alone, that the first knowledge of actual hostilities was not
conveyed at the cannon's mouth. Brock made no mistake in
the selection of his friends ! It was by vigour in our opera-
tions that the country was to be saved and not by the mere
writing of despatches, and seldom indeed was more vigour
shown or greater and more conspicuous service rendered than
on this momentous and memorable occasion.
In 1810 Brigadier-General Brock was stationed as Com- mo.
mandant at Quebec, where he enjoyed the whole confidence command in
of Sir James Craig, who, like himself, was every inch a Canada,
soldier, though embarrassed with the difficult and unwelcome
functions of Civil Government; but so thoroughly did Sir
James trust and rely upon him, that, strongly impressed with
ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
vice in the
the absolute necessity of having a military man of the first
character and reputation take charge of affairs in the Upper
Province, he despatched General Brock to Fort George with
that object, and with the exception of a few months in 1811,
during which he visited Lower Canada on duty, Brock con-
tinued in command of the troops in Upper Canada until his
death, Lieutenant-Governor Gore at first administering the
Government of the Province.
But during all this time great events were transpiring
elsewhere. The Peninsula was the theatre of the greatest
war in which Great Britain had ever been involved, and
against the greatest leader the world had ever produced;
honour and glory and professional reputation were there to
be obtained ; military advancement to a man of Brock's capa-
city was a certainty. Little wonder, therefore, that with the
accounts of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajos and Salamanca ringing
in his ears, he found Fort George, its inactivity, its sombre
life and dull environment, irksome in the extreme.
He had long wished for and sought active employment in
the field, and looking with envy upon those gaining laurels
for themselves and shedding lustre upon British arms in
Portugal and Spain, had frequently applied to Sir James
Craig for leave of absence. He had absolute assurance too
from those who spoke with knowledge and authority, that his
name had been mentioned at the Horse Guards in such a way
as to indicate that no officer of his rank in the service stood
higher in the estimation of the Commander-in-Chief and his
Sir James Craig, however, wrote to him from Quebec, on
the 4th of March, 1811, to say that though far from being
indifferent to forwarding his interests and his wishes for
active employment, he felt that, from the necessity of retiring
from Canada himself, owing to the precarious condition of
his health (which shortly after resulted in his death), it was
indispensably necessary to leave this country in the best state
of security he could, and that under existing circumstances he
was obliged to decline Brock's request for leave; that he
regretted extremely the disappointment General Brock would
thus experience, but requested him to do him the honour to
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 13
accept, as a legacy and as a mark of his sincere esteem and
regard, his favorite charger, "Alfred," satisfied that not else-
where in America could he procure so safe and excellent a
horse, and this war-horse met the fitting fate of a war-horse
shortly after the death of his illustrious owner, as we will
At the close of the year His Eoyal Highness the Duke of
York expressed his readiness to gratify General Brock's service in
wishes for more active employment in Europe should he
be still of the same mind, and Sir George Prevost was author-
ized to replace him by another officer. But when the permis-
sion reached Canada early in 1812, war with the United
States was evidently near at hand, and Brock, with such a
prospect, even a certainty, and with all the instincts of a
soldier, was retained by honour, duty, and inclination, in
On the llth June, 1811, he had been promoted by the Appointed
Prince Kegent, to serve from that day as a Major-General
the staff of North America. Sir James Craig had left on
19th of the same month, and after an interregnum of nearly upper f
three months, Sir George Prevost arrived at Quebec in Sep-jo^
tember, to assume the Government and the chief command 1811 '
of the forces in British North America. I fear it is as a
writer of despatches, disingenuous at that, that Sir George
Prevost is best known to us.
As previously stated, Major-General Brock was appointed financially
Administrator of Upper Canada, taking over the office
the 9th October. In addition to his pay as Officer
manding in Upper Canada he had a salary of 1,000 a
as Administrator, but to add to the other embarrass-
ments with which he now had to contend, at the very time
he was appointed, he became involved in most serious mone-
tary difficulties through the failure of a firm of London bank-
ers and merchants of which his elder brother, Mr. William
Brock, was senior partner. Mr. William Brock had
advanced his brother Isaac at different times 3,000
for the purchase of his commissions in the 49th Eegi-
ment; but being then in affluent circumstances and having
no children of his own, he had intended the money as a gift
14 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
to a favorite and most promising brother. It had, however,
been charged in the books of the firm, and Major-General
Brock was now called upon by the creditors to repay the
amount. He was a man of generous disposition, dispensing
somewhat extensive hospitality, especially of recent years,
since his appointment to his important military command in
Canada, and had saved nothing. It came as a great blow.
The high position to which he had just been elevated neces-
sitated considerable outlay to keep up its proper dignity. But
Brock was, above all things, a man of the most scrupulous
honour, and immediately and instinctively determined upon
the proper course, forwarding a power of attorney to London
to enable his "whole official salary as Lieutenant-Governor to
be appropriated towards the liquidation of the debt, though
he was aware that it would, to some extent, necessitate a loss
of popularity, and, that people unacquainted with the cir-
cumstances would attribute the consequent and unavoidable
frugality of his establishment to motives of parsimony and
not to rectitude of principle and the dictates of the nicest and
most chivalrous sense of honour.
Approach of But events were hurrying on and all tending in the direc-
unprepared- tion of war with our neighbors, who were evidently bent upon
ness of 9 1 *
Government ^' ^ * s unnecessarv now to discuss the pretext upon which
they eventually declared it. It is sufficient to state that with
Great Britain the war was purely defensive. She fought not
for new conquests or to establish new claims, but for the pro-
tection of her colonies and the maintenance of rights which
had received the solemn confirmation of time, while the Cana-
dians fought for the protection of their hearths and homes
and for the retention of those institutions which were inex-
pressibly dear to them; and those objects were completely
secured ; the ratification of the Treaty of Ghent by America
was a tacit abandonment of every assumption against which
the Government of Britain had contended ; while Canada lost
not one foot of soil and Canadians rejoiced in their self-
respect and their connection with the Mother Land, with all
which that implied.
The difficulties which now confronted General Brock and
with which he had to contend and overcome as best he could,
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 15
were sufficient to appal a heart even as stout and to tax to the
utmost a mind as versatile and resourceful as his. When
we calmly consider them all it seems nothing short of marvel-
lous, that any man should have been equal to circumstances
so adverse, labour so incessant and arduous, anxieties so great
and constant, perplexities and complications so manifold, and
able to meet and overcome them all.
Pressed by European embroilments, fighting on the Con-
tinent with her back to the wall, pouring out her blood and
treasure in her gigantic struggle with Napoleon, his marshals
and his legions, Britain was naturally desirous of avoiding
war with the United States, nor could its Government, failing
to recognize any sufficient cause or justification for it, be
brought to recognize and understand that war was inevitable,
that the American President and Government were deter-
mined upon it, and only waited until Britain's embarrass-
ments seemed such that the time was opportune to strike the
In May, a month before the declaration of war, Prevost
was informed that the Government apprehended no immedi-
ate hostilities, while even in July, Lord Liverpool wrote, igi^ U Home
acknowledging an address of the Legislature of Lower Can-^ppage d of S
ada, expressing the willingness of the people of that Province
to defend their country, that he hoped there would be no
necessity for the sacrifices which so willingly would be made,
directed that all extraordinary precautions for defence should
be suspended, and that the arrangements for the raising of
the Glengarry Kegiment should be abandoned ; while further
to show how great was their miscalculation of events, the
Duke of York, as Commander-in-Chief, recommended that
the 41st and 49th Regiments, then stationed in Canada, the
latter Brock's own corps, brought by him to the highest state
of efficiency, having had ten years' continuous service in Can-
ada, and therefore thoroughly acquainted and acclimatized,
should return to England and be replaced by one of the for-
eign regiments (then in the pay and service of the British
Government), and one of the line.
War had even then been declared and an American army
had actually landed and taken post in Canada temporarily,
16 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
however, for they had not reckoned upon Major-General
prevost rge Then, too, Sir George Prevost was a positive blight upon
SponlSm. hi m - He was upon the ground and knew, or should have
known, the circumstances, the position of affairs, the temper
of the American people, and the intentions of their Govern-
ment, unless wilfully blind to all the signs of the times, or
utterly lacking in all those statesmanlike and military quali-
ties and attributes so essential to the dual position he occupied
as Governor-General of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of
On the 2nd of December, 1811, General Brock wrote him:
" I cannot conceal from your Excellency that unless a strong
regular force be sent to this Province, to animate the loyal
and overawe the disaffected, nothing effectual can be ex-
pected." Prevost answered, in February, that he could send
him no reinforcement to Upper Canada, adding somewhat
inconsequently, " Though anxious to afford you every effi-
cient support in my power."
In the same month of December Brock communicated to
him his plan of campaign, urged that on the commencement
of war active operations should immediately be taken against
Detroit, pointed out that Michillimackinac should also be
attacked and taken, and had the sagacity to foresee and fore-
tell that an overwhelming force would enter Canada, or at-
tempt to do so, by crossing the Niagara River, and that the
next invasion of the Province would take place from Ogdens-
burg, with a view to the descent of the St. Lawrence, and the
attack and probable capture of Montreal; Prevost replied
recommending precaution, acknowledged the advantage of
striking rather than awaiting and receiving the first blow,
but gave neither encouragement nor assistance to Brock's wise
and timely suggestions. He derived consolation from the
opinion conveyed to him by Mr. Foster, British charge d'af-
faires at Washington, that war after all might possibly be
avoided, and declared to Brock that it warranted him in
recommending the most rigid economy in carrying on the
King's service and in avoiding all expense that was not abso-
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 17
Even when war had actually been declared, writing to
Brock on the 10th of July, 1812, he held that offensive meas-
ures should not be speedily adopted and ventured upon the
prediction that the attempt of the Americans on the Province
would be but feeble, while two days afterwards Hull began
the invasion of Canada (time and again to be renewed with
unceasing vigour and larger force), at the head of 2,500 men
and, as President Madison somewhat inaptly expressed it,
" With the prospect of easy and victorious progress." Here
again the President failed to take Major-General Brock into
his calculations, or was unaware of the vigour with which that
enterprising officer carried on his operations.
But it was not only the fact that the British Government Traitors
IIT-T'-IOI ii-i within the
was unprepared for war with the United States and had gates,
taken no precautions against it, and the supineness of Sir
George Prevost, who disapproved of all energetic measures,
that caused General Brock so much embarrassment, anxiety,
care and trouble, in the grave emergency which he was now
called upon to face.
He had also to contend with traitors within his gates;
internal disaffection, disloyalty, treason and treachery were
rampant in many parts of the Province of Upper Canada.
A large proportion of its population even then were long
known as " Proclamation men," Yankee settlers, who had
taken advantage of Governor Simcoe's liberal system of land
grants, and had come to Canada from purely mercenary
motives, bringing with them their republican sentiments and
anti-British proclivities, amounting in many instances to
This disloyal element was much more extensive than is
now generally known or supposed, and came nigh to the un-
doing of the country. Brock's letters and despatches are
replete with reference to the anxiety which their machinations
and ill-concealed hostility caused him. After war had broken
out he was obliged to issue a proclamation ordering all per-
sons suspected of traitorous intercourse with the enemy to be
apprehended and treated according to law ; those who had not
taken the oath of allegiance were ordered to do so or leave
the Province. Many were sent out of the country, large
numbers left of their own accord ; those who refused the oath
18 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
or to take up arms to defend the country and remained in
the Province after a given date, were declared to be enemies
and spies, and treated accordingly; a large number of this
disloyal element were arrested and imprisoned early in the
war, as on the day of the battle of Queenston, October- 13th,
1812, the jail and courthouse at Niagara as well as the block-
house at Fort George were filled with political prisoners, over
300 aliens and traitors being in custody, some of whom were
tried and sentenced to death during the war, and others sent
to Quebec for imprisonment; indeed, even the militia were
in some parts tampered with and disaffected. On the 3rd of
August, Brock was compelled to declare to his Executive
Council that " the enemy had invaded and taken post in the
Western district, the militia in a perfect state of insubordina-
tion had withdrawn from the ranks on active service, had
insulted their officers and some, not immediately embodied,
had manifested, in many instances, a treasonable spirit of
mutiny and disaffection, that in the Western and London dis-
tricts several persons had negotiated with the enemy's com-
mander, hailing his arrival and pledging their support, while
the Indians on the Grand River had been tampered with, had
withdrawn from their voluntary service and declared for a
in is the alty ^is disloyal element, too, was not without representation
Legislature. even j n ^ Legislature of the Province, and there they
endeavored to thwart all those prompt and effective measures
which in the crisis were essential to the preservation of the
country and were submitted to and urged upon it by Brock
as Administrator. " The many doubtful characters in the
militia," 'he stated in one of his despatches, " made me
anxious to introduce the oath of abjuration into the bill. It
was lost by the casting vote of the chairman. The great
influence which the numerous settlers from the United States
possess over the decisions of the Lower House is truly alarm-
ing and ought immediately by every practicable means to be
diminished." The bill for the suspension of the Habeas
Corpus Act was also defeated in the session which opened
on the 4th of February, 1812. The leaders of this disloyal
faction in the Legislature were three men whose names should
go down to posterity with infamy: Joseph Willcocks, the
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 19
leader of the Opposition; Benjamin Mallory and Abraham
Markle. At the next session Willcocks and Markle, who were
still members, were expelled from the House " for their dis-
loyal and infamous conduct/' Mallory had not been re-
elected in 1812. Willcocks was killed at Fort Erie in 1814,
in command of a regiment in the American army; Mallory
served throughout the war as major in the same regiment.
After Hull had invaded the Province. Brock summoned Legislature
the Legislature and on the 27th of July opened an extra ses- upon deciar-
sion. In his speech he stated a lew traitors have a lready and proves
joined the enemy; have been suffered to come into the country
with impunity and have been harboured and concealed in the
interior. To protect and defend the loyal inhabitants from
their machinations is an object worthy of your most serious
But notwithstanding that the state of the country required
urgent and decisive measures, many members of the House
of Assembly, under the baneful influence of the disloyal ele-
ment, were seized with apprehension and endeavored to avoid
incurring the indignation of the enemy. They again refused
to repeal or suspend the Habeas Corpus Act, and in conse-
quence of these difficulties, Brock, knowing that General
Hull's emissaries throughout the country were both numerous
and active, called together his Executive Council. So serious
and grave were the circumstances in which he felt himself
placed, and feeling that but little could be expected from ,#
prolonged session, he asked his constitutional advisers whether
it would not be expedient to prorogue the Legislature and
proclaim martial law. The Council adjourned until the next
day, the 4th of August, for deliberation, and then unani-
mously adopted the legal opinion of Attorney-General Mac-
donell, and gave it as their advice that under the circum-
stances of the Province, the House of Assembly should be
prorogued and that the General should proclaim and exercise
martial law under authority of his commission from the King.
Accordingly on the 5th, Brock prorogued the House and
martial law prevailed.
This brought the traitors to time ; large numbers immedi-
ately decamped to the States, among them Willcocks, Mallory
ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and Markle; the atmosphere was cleared and Brock became
master of the situation. But what a situation I
Now let us consider for a moment Brock's position. For
the defence of this Province his entire forces consisted, all
told, regulars and militia, of 1,500 men.
In Lower Canada Sir George Prevost had ahout 3,000
regular troops. The total number of men capable of bearing
arms in Upper Canada was about 11,000, the proportion
available for constant, active service was 4,000.
Against this, at the beginning of 1812, the United States
had a regular army of 5,500 men. On the llth of January,
1812, five months before the declaration of war, an act of
Congress was passed for raising 25,000 men for five years.
In the next month an act was passed to organize 50,000 vol-
unteers, and in April, 100,000 militia were called into active
service. During the whole war the United States' regular
army amounted to about 30,000. The whole militia force
raised during the war was 471,622, making a grand total of
over half a million men engaged in the effort to conquer Pro-
vinces containing a total population of 300,000.
Another great difficulty was the lack of military stores
and supplies ; Brock was obliged to ask the militia to clothe
themselves; many of them were actually drilling in their
naked feet. He was without a military chest, without money
to buy provisions, blankets, or shoes. He had to borrow the
money to fit out the expedition to Detroit. The militia were
practically without arms until the capture of Detroit placed
at his disposal 2,500 muskets of General Hull's army, and
there he also captured a number of pieces of artillery which
were of service in subsequent operations.
The proclamation of martial law was the turning-point;
indeed it may be said to have been the salvation of the Pro-
vince. It would seem probable that Brock's intention to
proclaim it had become known to the Legislature, for on the
very day of prorogation the loyal party in the House suc-
ceeded in carrying a most spirited and patriotic address in
which they called upon the people of Upper Canada to deem
no sacrifice too costly which secured to them their happy con-
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 21
The change in the prospects within a few days was almost hfs cam- n
miraculous. The stirring address of the House of Assembly caiftu're of
went forth to the people of the Province on the 5th of August, steteoV"" 1
and on the 6th Brock left for Amherstburg accompanied by Michigan>
Attorney-General Macdonell, who now became his Military
Secretary and Provincial aide-de-camp. They had with them
some 40 regular soldiers and 260 militia.
Hostilities had actually commenced on the 12th of July,
when General Hull crossed the Detroit Eiver to Sandwich,
invading the Province with an army of 2,500 men and a
blood-curdling proclamation. This f ulmination was promptly
answered by General Brock. The two productions might
well be placed in parallel columns so that the vulgarity and
fanfarronade of the one and the dignified and resolute tone
of the other might be fully understood and appreciated.
General Hull had the insolence to announce to the Cana-
dian people that " he was in possession of their country," to
inform them that an ocean and wilderness isolated them from
Great Britain, " whose tyranny he knew they felt," that his
army was ready and anxious to release them from oppression,
that they must choose between liberty and security as offered
by the United States, and war and annihilation, the penalty
Brock, in his counter-manifesto, properly characterized
Hull's invitation to Canadians to seek protection from Bri-
tain under the flag of the United States as an insult. He
cited the advantages of British connection and warned our
people that secession meant the restitution of Canada to
France, which was the price to be paid by America to that
country for the aid given to the revolting colonies during
the Revolutionary War. He reminded them of the constancy
of their fathers, and urged upon them to repel the invaders
and thus give their children no cause to reproach them with
sacrificing the richest inheritance upon earth, participation
in the name, character and freedom of Britons.
Upon his arrival at Amherstburg, Brock, for the first
time, met Tecumseh, who was to prove such an invaluable
ally, and soon so nobly to die ! At the conclusion of their
interview, the great Indian showed his estimate and apprecia-
22 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
tion of him when he turned to his warriors and declared to
them, " This is a man !"
Nor was General Brock long in determining on his course.
The Americans had evacuated Amherstburg and retired to
their own side of the river, to Detroit, which was strongly
fortified. His entire force now consisted of 330 regulars,
400 militia, and 600 Indians Sioux, Wyandots and Daco-
tahs. " My force/' he wrote to General Hull, " warrants my
demanding the immediate surrender of Fort Detroit," and
knowing Hull's dread of the Indians he warned him that
they might possibly get beyond his control. Colonel Mac-
donell and Captain Glegg carried this summons across the
river under a flag of truce, and shortly returned with the
assurance from General Hull that " he was prepared to meet
any force brought against him and accept any consequences."
Brock thereupon issued orders to cross the river at dawn,
while the Indians crossed under cover of the night. Upon
landing, Brock mustered his men, deploying the Indians in
the shelter of the woods, skirmishing to effect a flank move-
ment, and advanced to the attack, while the battery of Sand-
wich threw a few shells into the American fort.
It seems almost incredible, particularly when we think
of the proclamation ! With the odds about ten to one in his
favour, Hull's heart now failed him when he saw the advance
of the British, and their field pieces trained upon the fort;
the gunners awaited but the final command, when an officer
bearing a white flag emerged from the fort, while a boat with
another flag of truce was seen crossing the river to the Sand-
wich battery. Macdonell and Glegg galloped out to meet the
messenger and returned with a despatch from Hull to General
Brock, as follows : " The object of the flag which crossed
the river was to propose a cessation of hostilities for an hour,
for the purpose of entering into negotiations for the surrender
Again Macdonell and Glegg rode out and returned with
the terms of capitulation signed by General Hull.
One general officer and 3,500 men of all ranks, who were
to have conquered Canada, surrendered as prisoners of war,
while with them were handed over 2,500 stand of arms, 33
pieces of cannon, the Adams brig of war, stores, and muni-
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 23
tions of war to the value of 40,000, and Detroit and 59,700
square miles of American territory the whole State of
Michigan passed into the possession of General Brock.
Brock believed that it was by vigour in our operations
that the war was to be won.
In nineteen days he had met and prorogued the Legisla-
ture, transported his small force 300 miles, 200 of which
was by open boat, captured an army three times his strength,
strongly entrenched in a well-protected fort, and 60,000
square miles of that enemy's territory.
By a strange coincidence his despatches with the colours
he had taken reached London on the morning of the 5th of
October, the anniversary of his birth. The despatches were
immediately published in a " Gazette Extraordinary " and
the clangour of bells and the booming of guns announced his
victory. The Prince Kegent expressed his appreciation of
Brock's " able, judicious and decisive conduct " and bestowed
upon him an extra Knighthood of the Order of the Bath in
consideration " of all the difficulties with which he was sur-
rounded during the invasion of the Province and the singular
judgment, firmness, skill and courage with which he sur-
mounted them so effectually. "
But he never saw the insignia of his rank or learnt of the
Sovereign's approbation. Ere that reached Canada, he had
fought his last fight. The Battle of Queenston Heights was
won, and all that was mortal of Sir Isaac Brock lay under
a cavalier bastion in Fort George.
Having brought affairs to so satisfactory a conclusion ^ armistice
this quarter, and completed all necessary arrangements,
lost not a moment in returning to York to carry on that plan
of campaign upon which he had determined. Quite apart,
however, from the high considerations of public duty by which
he was always animated, there may have been another reason
why he and his Attorney-General, now associated with him
in his capacity as military secretary and aide-de-camp, may
have been desirous of reporting themselves at York. Both
were young, Brock in the prime of manhood, being in his
forty-fourth year, and the other but twenty-seven years of age ;
both were shortly to be married to young ladies then resident
at York, General Brock to Miss Sophia Shaw, daughter of
24 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Major-General Aeneas Shaw, Adjutant-General of Militia,
and amongst the many congratulations and felicitations which
were showered upon him there were those from one especially
which would necessarily and naturally be essentially dear
and welcome to him. It was the fate of both these brave
and ardent men, however,
" To change love's bridal wreath,
For laurels from the hand of death."
His intention was to proceed forthwith to Kingston and
from thence to attack and destroy the American naval arsenal
at Sackett's Harbour on Lake Ontario, and that accomplished,
to sweep the whole American frontier from Sandusky at the
head of Lake Erie to St. Eegis on the Kiver St. Lawrence.
But when crossing Lake Erie, he was met with the astounding
and most distasteful and unwelcome news that Sir George
Prevost had entered into an armistice with the American
General, Dearborn. His mortification at this intelligence,
which paralyzed all his plans, and went far to nullify all the
advantages which his energy and enterprise had already
accomplished, can easily be conceived. To make matters
worse, General Sheaffe, in command at Fort George while
Brock was in the west, had acceded to General Dearborn's
demand that the freedom of the lakes and rivers should be
extended to the United States Government during the armis-
tice, an opportunity of which the Americans did not fail to
avail themselves to bring up reinforcements, provisions and
all the necessary munitions of war, together with 400 boats
and batteaux from Ogdensburg and other points to Lewiston,
with a view to their contemplated attack on the Niagara fron-
tier, which shortly took place at Queenston. General Sheaffe's
extraordinary conduct on this occasion was again to be re-
peated on the very afternoon when they were there defeated ;
instead of following up the victory which Brock's wise pre-
cautions and glorious example had made possible, he agreed
to another armistice.
Had the destruction of Sackett's Harbour, as Brock had
determined upon, been then accomplished, the Americans
could not have built and equipped the fleet which subsequently
gave them the ascendancy on Lake Ontario, and enabled them
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 25
twice in 1813 to capture the capital of Upper Canada. The
project, however, had to be relinquished by express orders
from the Commander-in-Chief. Prevost, indeed, in the fol-
lowing year, endeavored himself to accomplish what he had
forbidden to Brock, and his ignoble fiasco at Sackett's Har-
bour was only to be equalled, even outdone, by his disgrace-
ful failure at Plattsburg, where brave men broke their swords
in the anguish of defeat, and for which he was called upon
eventually to face court-martial, which he only escaped by
the fortunate intervention of death occurring on the very eve
of the assembly of the court which was to meet to try the
charges Sir James Yeo had preferred against him. When we
contrast the methods and the character and the fate of Sir
Isaac Brock and Sir George Prevost we are perforce driven
to a realization of the fact that men " are cast in different
moulds, if not made of different clay."
But we are nearing the end of Brock's career one more Battle of
, , , , Queenston
fight and we have done. Heights.
By the middle of October, the Americans had assembled Brock,
on the Niagara frontier an army of 6,300 men, of which
force 3,170 were at Lewiston under the command of General
Van Rensselaer with them he modestly announced to his
government his intention " to cross the river in the rear of
Fort George, take it by storm, carry the heights of Queenston,
destroy the British ships at the mouth of the Niagara Kiver,
leave Brock no rallying point, appal the minds of the Cana-
dians, and wipe away the past disgrace."
To oppose this somewhat extensive programme General
Brock had part of the 41st and 49th Eegiments, a few com-
panies of militia and about 300 Indians, in all about 1,500
men, dispersed, however, at various points between Fort Erie
and Fort George, so that only a small number was quickly
available at any one point.
He knew that the attack was imminent, and with unwearied
diligence he watched the movements of the enemy. During
the night of the 12th October their troops were concentrated
and embarked from Lewiston under cover of a battery which
completely commanded the opposite shore. Suspecting the
invasion, though not, of course, knowing the exact point at
which it would take place, General Brock had that evening
26 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
called together his staff officers and given to each the neces-
sary and final instructions. Before the break of day on the
fatal 13th, hearing the cannonade which announced their
landing on Canadian soil, he hastily dressed himself, and
calling for his charger "Alfred," he galloped off, followed
closely by Colonel Macdonell and Captain Glegg, his aides-
His first impression is said to have been that the attack
indicated by the firing was only a feint to draw the garrison
from Fort George, and that an American force lay concealed
in boats around the point on which Fort Niagara stands,
ready to cross over as soon as they had succeeded. He, there-
fore, determined to ascertain personally the nature and extent
of the attack ere he withdrew the garrison, and with this in
view he galloped eagerly to the scene of action, stopping for
a moment only, and without dismounting, at the residence
of Captain John Powell, to take a cup of coffee, which was
brought to him by Miss Sophia Shaw, his fiancee, who never
again was to see the gallant man who loved her. Hastily
pushing on, he was met by Lieut. S. P. Jarvis, of the York
Militia, who was riding so furiously that he could not check
his horse, but shouted as he flew by, " The Americans are
crossing the river in force, sir." Jarvis wheeled and overtook
the General, who, without reining up, slackened his speed
sufficiently to tell the rider to hurry on to Fort George and
order General Sheaffe to bring up his entire reserve, including
Brant's Indians, leaving Brigade-Major Evans with sufficient
artillery to batter Fort Niagara. He passed with his two
aides up the hill at full speed in front of the light company,
under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry from the Ameri-
can shore. On reaching the 18-pounder battery at the top
of the hill they dismounted and took a view of passing events,
but in a few minutes firing was heard which proceeded from
a strong detachment of American regulars under Captain
Wool, who had succeeded in gaining the crest of the heights
in rear of the battery, by a fisherman's path up the precipitous
rocks, which having been reported as impassible, was not
guarded. These men charged down upon them, and Brock,
with his aides, and the twelve men stationed in the battery,
after spiking the gun, were obliged hastily to retire. On
MA JOB-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 27
regaining the bottom of the slope he sent Captain Derenzy, of
the 41st, with an urgent message to General Sheaffe to hasten
the advance of the battalion companies of the 41st and the
flank companies of the militia and to join him without delay.
Mounting his horse he galloped to the far end of the village
where he held a hurried conversation with the few officers
present, and despatched Macdonell to Vrooman's to bring up
Heward's company of the York Militia, sending Captain
Glegg to order Captain Dennis with the light company of
the 49th, and Chisholm's company of the York Militia, and
Captain Williams with his detachment to join him. When
they arrived he took command with a view to the re-taking
of the redan, satisfied that to wait for the arrival of the rein-
forcements under Sheaffe would but make the task more
difficult, as it would enable the enemy to establish themselves
in force, drill out the spiked gun and turn it upon his men.
Under a heavy fire of musketry which did considerable execu-
tion they breasted the heights, Brock dismounting, and hand-
ing his horse to an orderly, placed himself at the head of his
men, who, with the support which Macdonell brought up,
numbered less than 190, with which he had to dislodge an
enemy strongly entrenched and numbering upwards of 500,
of whom 300 were regulars. As they advanced in this charge
up the hill, Brock, conspicuous from his dress, his towering
height, his position at the head of his men and the enthusiasm
with which he animated his little band, was soon singled out
by the American riflemen ; a deflected bullet struck the wrist
of his sword-arm, but he paid no attention to it, still urging
on his men. They were now within fifty yards of the redan
above them. He was calling to those nearest him to hold
their fire for a moment, to prepare to rush the enemy and
use their bayonets, when from a thorn thicket, an Ohio scout,
Wilklow by name, singled him out, and taking deliberate aim,
fired at him. The bullet entered his right breast, tore through Death of
his body, leaving a gaping wound. As he sank to the ground Brock,
he begged that his fall might not be noticed, as it would dis-
organize his men, and thus he -nobly died, with his face to
Perhaps it is better that I should now give Mr. Walter
Nursey's account of what immediately followed, rather than
28 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
"After he fell the handful of men who were with
him, overcome by his tragic end, overwhelmed by superior
numbers and a hurricane of bullets and buckshot, wavered
coi. Mac- and then fell back and retreated to Queenston Village. Here,
donell leads ^
forlorn hope. a }) 0ll t two hours after, Colonel Macdonell collected and re-
formed the scattered units, and made another bold dash to
re-scale the heights and take the redan. With the cry of
1 Kevenge the General !' from the men of his old regiment,
the 49th, Macdonell on Brock's charger, ' Alfred,' led the
forlorn attack, supported by Dennis. At the same moment,
Williams, with his detachment, emerged from the thicket;
the two detachments then combined, and Macdonell ordering
a general advance, they once more breasted the ascent. The
enemy, over 400 strong, but without proper formation, fired
an independent volley at the British as they approached to
within thirty yards of the redoubt. This was responded to
with vigour, and grenadiers and volunteers in response to
Macdonell's repeated calls, charged fiercely on Wool's men,
now huddled in disorder around the 18-pounder. Some of
them started to run toward the river bank. One American
officer, Ogilvie by name, of the 13th Regiment, thinking the
situation hopeless, raised his handkerchief on his sword-
point in token of surrender, when Wool, a brave soldier, tore
it down, and a company of United States infantry coming up
at that moment to his assistance he rallied his men.
' " ^he momentary advantage gained by Macdonell's small
band of heroes was lost, and in the exchange of shots that
followed, Macdonell's horse, Brock's charger, t Alfred,' was
killed under him, while he his uniform torn with bullets
was thrown from the saddle as the animal plunged in its
death struggle, receiving several ghastly bullet wounds from
which he died the following day, after enduring much agony.
Williams, a moment later, fell, desperately wounded. Dennis,
suffering from a severe wound in the head, at first refused to
quit the field, but Cameron, having removed the sorely-
stricken Macdonell, and Williams having recovered conscious-
ness, the dispirited men fell back and, retreating down the
mountain, retired upon Vrooman's battery. Here they waited
unmolested, until two in the afternoon, for reinforcements
from Fort George. The fight, though short, had been furious
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 2
and deadly; Americans and British alike were glad to take
" Meanwhile, unobserved, young Brant, with 120 Mohawk Indians
Indians, had scaled the mountain east of St. Davids, outflank- mountain
ing the Americans, and hemmed them in until Captain Der- st - Davids,
enzy, of the 41st, and Holcroft, of the artillery, arrived with
the car brigade from Fort George, and trained two field-
pieces and a Howitzer upon the landing. Merritt, with a
troop of mounted infantry at the same time reached the vil-
lage by the Queenston road. This movement, which was a
ruse, deceived the enemy, who at once disposed his troops in
readiness for an attack from this quarter.
" The American commander was ignorant of the fact that Arrivalof
General Sheaffe, with four companies of the 41st, 300 strong, Sneaffe as
. =" instructed
the same number 01 militia and a company of negro troops by Brock,
from Niagara, refugee slaves from the United States, was at
that moment approaching in rear of the Indians. The British
advanced in crescent shaped formation, hidden by mountain
and bush, and were shortly joined by a few more regulars and
by two flank companies of the 2nd Regiment of militia from
Chippewa indeed many persons of all ranks of life, even
veterans exempt by age, seized their muskets and joined the
column to repel the invaders. The British of all ranks num-
bered less than 1,000 men.
" The United States troops, which had been heavily rein-
forced, consisted of about 1,000 fighting men, on and about
the mountain. Their number was supplemented from time
to time, by fresh arrivals from Lewiston, encouraged when
they saw the American flag planted on the redan; nearly
all the new arrivals were regulars. Colonel Winfield Scott,
of Mexican fame, a tried soldier, six foot four in his stockings,
was now in command, supported by a second field officer, and
many sharpshooters. Van Rensselaer, narrowly escaping
capture, had retreated by boat to Lewiston, nominally to bring
over more troops. Finding the conditions unfavourable, he
did not do so, but sent over General Wadsworth, as a vicar-
ious sacrifice, to take command. The gun in the redan had
been unspiked and the summit strongly entrenched, but as
Scott's men betrayed strange lukewarmness, orders were given
' to shoot any man leaving his post.'
30 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
" SheafiVs men, having rested after the forced tramp, a
few spherical case shot by Holcroft drove out the American
riflemen. His gunners had at last silenced the Lewiston bat-
teries, and finding the range, sunk almost every boat that
attempted to cross. The Indians were now ordered to drive
in the enemy's pickets slowly. Scouting the woods, they
routed the outposts.
" About 4 p.m., Captain Bullock, with two flank companies
of militia and 150 men of the 41st, advanced, charging the
enemy's right, which broke in great confusion. A general
advance was ordered, and with wild warwhoops from
the Indians and cheers by the soldiers, the heights were
rushed. Wadsworth's veterans were stampeded, the redan re-
taken at the point of the bayonet, and Scott's command forced
Flight of the to the scarp of the hill overhanging the river. The Americans
now 'fled like sheep,' to quote their own historians, and
scattered off in all directions. Some raced headlong down
the main road, seeking shelter under the muzzles of Holcroft' s
guns; some sought refuge in the houses, others raced to the
landing, only to find their boats no longer there not a few,
hot pressed by Brant's avenging Mohawks, threw themselves
over the precipice, preferring death in that shape to the fate
which otherwise awaited them, while others plunged into the
Niagara, essaying to swim its irresistible eddies, only to be
blown out of the green water by Holcroft's grapeshot, or
sucked down by the river's silent whirlpools. One boat, with
50 struggling refugees, sank with its entire crew. Two others
similarly laden were beached below the village, with only
twelve out of one hundred souls still living. The river pre-
sented a shocking scene. On the surface of the water, many,
maimed and wounded, fought and struggled for survival. This
pitiable spectacle was actually taking place under the eyes of
several thousand American soldiers on the Lewiston bank,
who, almost impossible to believe, and to their lasting dis-
grace, refused even to attempt to succour their comrades.
tained S by S " " ^ n a ^ ^ 58 American soldiers were taken prisoners by the
both sides. British, ' captured by a force/ as Colonel Van Eensselaer
stated in an official despatch after the battle, ' amounting
to only about one-third of the number of American troops/
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K.B. 3]
Captain Gist, of the United States army, placed their killed
" General Van Rensselaer's defeat was complete and over-
whelming. His chagrin at his failure ' to appal the minds
of the Canadians ' was so great that ten days later he re-
signed his command.
" The account as between Canada and the United States
at sundown on that day stood as follows :
Total American force engaged 1,600
Killed, wounded and prisoners 1,425
The total British force engaged (of whom
800 men were regulars and militia, and
200 Indians) was 1,000
Killed, including Major-General Brock and
Colonel Macdonell 14
Wounded and missing 96
Total American loss 1,425
Total British loss 110
" The next day, General Sheaffe, Isaac Brock's successor, f^f 6
signed another armistice. The second armistice within armistice!
period of nine weeks !"
Brock's lifeless corpse lay for a time where he had fallen,
about one hundred yards west of the road that leads through
Queenston, and after the battle was borne by a few of his old
Regiment to a house in the village occupied by Laura
Secord; later in the day Captain Glegg, Brock's brave
aide Macdonell, the other aide-de-camp, lay dying of
his wounds hastened to the spot, and had it conveyed
to Niagara. On the 16th of October, the bodies
Major-General Sir Isaac Brock and Lieutenant-Colonel
donell were interred at Fort George. It is a tribute to the
magnanimity of the Americans that during the funeral pro-
cession, minute guns were fired at every post on their side of
the river, as their general orders stated, " as a mark of respect
to a brave enemy."
Thus we have seen the last of Sir Isaac Brock, a fitting
culmination to his career and a life devoted to the service of
his King and country.
32 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Amidst the lamentations of his comrades in arms, the
respectful salute of his opponents, the tears and blessings of
the Canadian people, with the posthumous honours of his
Sovereign awaiting him and the gratitude of future genera-
tions of Canadians for all time attending him, in his soldier's
grave, first at Fort George, and now under the monument on
Queenston Heights erected to commemorate his fame, there
let us leave him.
" Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife,
To all the sensual world proclaim
One crowded hour of glorious life
Is worth an age without a name."
ROMANTIC ELEMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE MIS-
BY REUBEN GOLD THWAITES, LL.D.,
Superintendent of Wisconsin State Historical Society.
Perhaps to some of my auditors it may at first seem a far cry from
the field of Ontario history to that of the Mississippi Valley from a
consideration of Sir Isaac Brock, a master of modern warfare in this
highly-developed centre of civilization, to those rude pioneers who, but
improving the methods of savagery, rudely opened to civilization the
vast wilderness of the trans- Alleghany. But the association of the
annals of Ontario with those of our own Middle West is surely intimate
enough to warrant this shifting of the scene.
With you, the roots of our history are deeply planted in the soil of
New France. In this respect, at least, your history is warp and woof
with our own whether it be Minnesota, which once knew Du 1'Hut and
Hennepin ; Wisconsin, claiming Jean Nicolet as her discoverer ; Michi-
gan, proud of her Cadillac ; Indiana, having within her bounds the por-
tage paths of La Salle; Ohio, with her memories of Celeron; Pennsyl-
vania, where Washington met the French advance southward ; New York,
wherein Champlain slaughtered the raging Iroquois, and Jogues met
retributive martyrdom; New England, with her century and a half of
border turmoil by land and sea, long remembered with bitterness, but
at this distance viewed with philosophic calm; or Louisiana, founded
by Iberville and Bienville. Wherever French habitant leisurely toiled
in sweet contentment, French explorer feverishly extended the bound
of empire, French fur-trader wandered, cassocked priest said mass,
white-f rocked soldier kept watch and ward over the interest of the great
Louis, ambitious miner found veins of copper and coloured earths, or
English and French and Indian met in mortal combat on the frontiers
of civilization, the history of New France (of which Ontario was once
so important a part) is taught as the local tradition of every northern
state of the Union, east of the River Missouri.
*Read at the meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Napanee, Ont., 1912.
34 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
I feel, therefore, that you will think it not incongruous if at this
gathering, whose programme * is at least grimly suggestive of an inter-
national conference, I very briefly recite a few of the romantic elements
(French and British, as well as American) in the historical drama,
nearly three centuries in the acting, which has found its stage in the
Valley of the Mississippi. From these elements of romance are to be
fashioned those novels and poems of the future that shall give to this
period and to this region that charm of literary association without
which no annals can long endure in the heart and imagination of the
The advent of the Spanish explorers in our valley was meteoric in
brilliancy and in suddenness of departure. But he who seeks rich color,
will doubtless find the French regime the more entertaining. En-
trenched with apparent security on the rock of Quebec, New France
early despatched her explorers westward through the majestic trough
of the St. Lawrence. With rare enterprise and bravery they gradually
pushed their way up toilsome rivers, along westering portage paths, and
far over into the vast-stretching wilderness of the continental interior
lying to the west and south of Canada.
Where are there finer examples of dramatic adventure than the great
journey of Nicolet, sent by Champlain into Darkest America to dis-
cover a short route to China ? Donning his diplomatic garb of figured
damask, to meet supposititious mandarins, he encountered only naked
Winnebago savages on the inland waters of Wisconsin. What more
stirring incident in history than the famous expedition of Joliet and
Marquette to discover the far-away Mississippi, which in stately curves
glides unceasingly and with awesome power past eroded bluffs and
through sombre forests southward toward tropic seas ? Or, the far-
distant rovings of those masterful fur-trade adventurers, Radisson,
La Salle, Tonty, Perrot, Du 1'Hut, and a host of kindred spirits ? Is
there anywhere a nobler instance of self-sacrifice than the splendid
martyrdom of the Jesuit missionaries, who, imbued with the proselyting
zeal of mediaeval saints, in their quest for souls often suffered the hor-
rors of the damned ?
Annual trading fleets of Indian canoes and batteaux from the far-
distant regions of the Mississippi and the Upper Lakes, laboriously
journeyed over a thousand miles to Montreal and to Quebec, to barter
rich furs for colored beads and glittering trinkets fashioned in the
"The majority of the papers presented had reference to the War of 1812.
HISTORY OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 35
shops of Brittany and Paris. Piled high with bales of peltries, and
propelled by gaily-appareled savages and voyageurs, the flotillas swept
eastward down the broad rivers in rude procession, paddles flashing in
the sun, the air rent with barbaric yells and the roaring quaver of
merry boating songs.
We can hear and see the boisterous welcome from the garrisons of
Lower Canada ; the succeeding weeks of trade and mad carousal on the
strand of Quebec or Montreal ; and then the return of the copper-skinned
visitors to the " Upper Country," tricked out in gaudy finery, bearing
into the wilderness fresh stores of gew-gaws, and accompanied by an-
other contingent of traders and explorers often, also, by Jesuit mis-
sionaries bent on showing them, even against their will, the path to the
White man's Manitou.
Away off in the then mysterious land of the Far West, were insig-
nificant military outposts, bulwarks of the authority of New France
Detroit, Mackinac, Green Bay, Chequamegon Bay, Yincennes; and,
ranged along the Mississippi, lay Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Chartres, and
many another rude bankside fort or stockade, all the way from Lake
Pepin to Natchez.
Around each of these little forest strongholds of logs or of stone,
as materials came best to hand was clustered a tiny hamlet of habi-
tants : boatmen, tillers of the soil, mechanics, according to bent or to
necessity. At the head of society in this rude settlement was the mili-
tary commandant. Next in social precedence was the Jesuit Father,
whose scanty chapel lay just within the gate; perhaps of noble birth
and training, inevitably a scholar, but bound by unalterable vows to a
life of toilsome self-sacrifice for the winning of savage souls in these
inhospitable wilds. Ever was the black-robe coming and going upon
long and wearisome journeys among the tribesmen, his life often embit-
tered by the jealousy of the commandant.
Frequent visitors at the frontier fort were wandering traders, each
at the head of a band of rollicking voyageurs, jauntily clad in fringed
buckskins and showy caps and scarfs, with a semi-savage display of
bracelets, dangling earrings, and necklaces of beads. The coureur de
bois, or unlicensed trader, accompanied by a sprightly party of devil-
may-care retainers, occasionally called, upon unheralded expeditions
here and there through the dark woodlands and along sparkling waters.
He was in his day the most daring spirit and the widest traveller in
36 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Freely mingling with this varied and variegated company were
bands of half -naked, long-haired savages and halfbreeds, glistening with
oils, and tricked out with paint and feathers. For the most part the
boon companions of the French, now and then would they smite their
white allies with cruel treachery, suddenly converting into a charnel-
house many a self-confident outpost of the far-stretching realm of the
Upon this inviting amphitheatre of New France, we find a hetero-
geneous semi-feudal society, with many feudal manners and customs,
and a never-ending variety of connections with the Old World. Social,
political, and mercantile complications were multiplied by the adven-
turous and diversified aims and pursuits of the colonists, scattered as
they were through thousands of miles of savage wilderness.
At last, one fateful summer, the men of the hamlets and wilderness
stations, seigneurs and tenants, traders and voyageurs, commandants
and soldiery, were summoned by Indian runners to hasten to the Lower
St. Lawrence, to free New France from the English invaders, whose
very existence was to not a few of these forest exiles virtually unknown.
On the Plains of Abraham many a brave fellow from the Upper Lakes
and the Mississippi Valley gave up his life for the fleur de Us. But all
in vain, for the time had come to ring down the .curtain on this gallant
drama. New France was no more.
The English, however, won only that portion of the great valley
lying eastward of the river; upon Spain, France by secret treaty be-
stowed New Orleans and the trans-Mississippi. But for a full century,
English explorers, fur-traders, and settlers from Pennsylvania, Virginia;
and the Carolinas had been trespassing on French preserves to the west
of the Appalachians, and tampering with the Indian allies of the
Bourbons. The temerity of these fearless over-mountain adventurers
had directly incited the French and Indian War, which resulted in the
downfall of New France.
Contemporaneously with the uprising of the American colonies
against the Mother Land, there began a great transmontane irruption
into our valley buckskin-clad borderers (largely Scotch-Irishmen)
laboriously crossing from the Atlantic uplands into Kentucky, whither
Finley, Boone, the Long Hunters, and their several predecessors had
led the way. This Arcadia of forests and glades and winding streams
and incomparable game was won from savagery only after long years
of sturdy warfare. The story of that winning is filled to the brim with
HISTORY OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 37
picturesque and tragic incidents. Cherokee, Catawba, and Shawnee,
moved to vengeance by persistent pressure upon their hunting grounds,
fought, after their own wild standards, and fought well, for what they
held most dear ; they would have been cravens not to have made a stand.
The white man, pouring his ceaseless caravans through Cumberland
Gap and down the broad current of the Ohio, brooked no opposition
from an inferior race, for white man's might makes right, and struck
back with a fury often augmented by fear. Such is the bloodstained
story of our method of conquering the American wilderness.
To save backwoods Kentucky from devastating forays by the Indian
allies of the British forces in Canada, George Rogers Clark, at the
head of that now famous band of Virginia frontiersmen, many of whom
were garbed in an airy costume combining that of the Highlander with
that of the savage, undertook his hazardous but successful expedition
against Kaskaskia and Vincennes; an event abounding in dramatic
scenes that will doubtless live long in the history of the United States.
Kentucky, having at last quieted the aborigine by crushing him,
now entered on a period of relative prosperity. Down the swift-rolling
Ohio, through several decades descended a curious medley of oar and
sail-driven craft, fashioned in the boatyards of the Allegheny, Youghio-
gheny, and Monongahela rafts, arks, broad-horns, flat and keel-boats,
barges, piroques, and schooners of every design conceivable to fertile
brain. These singular river fleets bore emigrants eager to found new
commonwealths in the bounding West. Hailing from a thousand
neighborhoods in the Eastern States and from many countries of Europe,
they came with their children, their tools, their cattle, their household
gods lusty, pushing, square-jawed, unconquerable folk, suffering on
the way and in the early years of their settlement privations seldom
if ever surpassed among the tales of the border.
And now Kentucky's crops had become larger than her population
could consume. She needed to convey them to the markets of the world,
to barter them for the goods and products of other communities. But
Spain 'held firm control of the mouth of the Mississippi, and of the rich
lands beyond the broad river, and upon these lands our Westerners
were beginning to look with hungry eyes. The federal authorities of
that day were slow to realize that the free navigation of the Mississippi
was a vital factor in the development of the West. Consequently there
was active discontent among the leaders of Kentucky. Political uneasi-
ness was fomented first by Spanish intrigues, and next by French
38 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
for France was at last beginning to display some jealousy of the young
republic whom she had assisted into life, and apparently she would fain
have unofficially rejoiced both in Western secession and in the utiliza-
tion of trans-Allegheny Americans in filibustering expeditions against
Spanish Louisiana. Thus was the West, through twenty years of its
formative period, in a state of secret ferment. The full story of this
plotting is even yet unrevealed ; but gradually the facts are being brought
to light, and furnish fit material for historical romance.
Spain, fearing that an assault might be made on her trans-Missis-
sippi possessions from British Canada, made flattering offers of land
grants west of the river to American pioneers who should colonize her
territory in that region and cast their fortunes with her people. Many
discontented Kentuckians accepted these terms and moved on to Mis-
souri, among them the wandering Boones, who, now that they might see
from the nearest hill-top the fire-place smoke from neighboring cabins,
were already sighing for " more elbow room " ; glad enough were they
to be rid of the crowds now coming to Kentucky," to get new and cheap
lands in the farther West, to avoid taxes, to hunt big game, and once
more to live an Arcadian life. I love to picture the great Daniel, trans-
planted in his old age to these fresh wilds westward of the great Missis-
sippi, seated at the door of his little log cabin on Femme Osage Creek,
dispensing justice at a Spanish syndic, by methods as primitive and
arbitrary as those of an Oriental pasha. Caring little for rules of
evidence as laid down in the books, saying he but wished to know the
truth, the once mighty hunter oftentimes compelled both parties to a
suit to divide the costs between them and begone.
By now, an incipient American empire had become established in
the trans-Allegheny. Settlement had advanced slowly down the great
eastern affluents of the Mississippi, as along the fingers of the hand
the broad and rich valley bottoms being occupied by a crude but hard-
headed border folk, while the intervening highlands were as yet left
untouched, save as farmer-hunters here roved for game to stock their
The great Napoleon had meanwhile risen to power. Reflecting on
the tragic story of the ousting of France from North America, he
deemed it possible to rehabilitate New France to the west of the Mis-
sissippi, and at the same time to check the United States in its westward
growth. He therefore coerced Spain into retroceding the far-stretching
Province of Louisiana to its original European owner.
HISTORY OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. o9
Now came another fateful move upon the political chess-board. Three
years later, Napoleon was facing a probable war with Great Britain.
He feared that his arch enemy might, in the course of the struggle, seize
this far-away possession, he needed money with which to replenish his
treasury, and at the same time he thought to checkmate England by
allowing her growing American rival at last to expand her bounds. He
therefore sold Louisiana to the United States an event lacking but a
year of two centuries after the first successful settlement of the French
in Canada. Nine years ago, with joyous acclaim, we of the United
States celebrated the hundredth anniversary of this epoch-making pur-
chase that has helped to make the Union one of the mightiest nations
of the earth. The history of the transaction is to-day, in our land, as
But even had not the Louisiana Purchase been made just when it
was, American acquisition of the trans-Mississippi was sure to have
come. A river is no adequate boundary between nations, if on one bank
be a people like the Kentuckians, feverish to cross, and on the other
a lethargic folk, like the Spanish-French of Louisiana Province. The
Valley itself is a geographical unit. Tens of thousands of Americans
had by this time descended the eastern slope of the basin, and many
had not even waited by the eastern riverside for a change in the political
ownership of the western. Before the Purchase, Kentuckians had, -
uninvited as well as invited, settled on Spanish lands along the lower
reaches of the Missouri River. The chief increase in the population
of Upper Louisiana had, during the last two decades of the 18th century,
been American borderers. They had settled on French lands near New
Orleans ; and there was a dense American centre at Natchez. The great
Purchase only hastened and facilitated the national progress of the
The ever-fascinating and thrilling tale of Lewis and Clark, as under
President Jefferson's masterly direction they broke the path for civiliza-
tion all the long rugged way from the mouth of the Missouri to the
estuary of the Columbia, is still ringing afresh in American ears, be-
cause of recent centennial observances.
While still the great expedition was upon its route, other official
explorers were searching the valleys of the Red, the Arkansas, and the
Republican, reaching out to Spanish New Mexico, and pushing on over
the rich grazing plains of Nebraska and Kansas to the snow-capped
peaks of the eastern Rockies. The golden age of American exploration
40 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
through the newly-acquired Territory of Louisiana, forms a splendid
chapter in the annals of the Anglo-Saxon race. The names of Pike,
Long, Fremont, Carson, recall many a rare adventure in the cause of
scientific research. The records of the great rival fur-trading companies
operating in the trans-Mississippi, with their picturesque annual cara-
vans over the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and the stories of roving
bands of trappers and scouts who in following the buffalo discovered
mountain passes that are to-day highways of the world's commerce,
furnish thrilling scenes to grace the pages of a thousand romances.
In due time, the narrow paths of fur-traders, trappers, and explorers
were broadened by emigrants, who throughout the nation's history have
ever crowded toward our Farthest West. The great migration to Oregon
in the forties of the last century was an event of supreme significance,
and in some measure it is part and parcel of Canadian history also.
Bold and restless pioneers set forth from the older settlements in
wagons and on foot, with their women and children, with herds of cattle
and horses, and after slowly traversing the broad plains, painfully crept
over the mountain barrier and spread themselves into the verdant val-
leys of the Willamette and the Columbia.
Soon came the news that gold was discovered in California. Then
followed another mighty westward rush over the transcontinental trails
within three years a hundred thousand men and women from both
hemispheres crossed the Mississippi in their mad struggle to reach the
El Dorado of Pacific tidewater. Ten years later, the Colorado hills
also revealed the story of their hidden wealth. Up the long valleys of
the Platte, the Smoky Hill, and the Arkansas, singly and in caravans,
wearily toiled tens of thousands from all the corners of the earth, many
falling by the way from fatigue, starvation, and the wounds of Indian
arrows. Yet their experience in no wise checked the human tide that
had set in the direction of the everlasting hills.
Overland stages and " prairie schooners " were quickly withdrawn
upon the advance of the Pacific railways. The buffalo and grizzly soon
disappeared from our Western plains. The Indian, stoutly standing
for his birthright, was subdued at last. The cowboy succeeded the
explorer and the trapper. Upon our great rivers the Ohio, the Mis-
sissippi, and the Missouri the introduction of steamboats, and later
the bankside railways, wrought a like transformation. The old river
life with its picturesque but rowdy boatmen, its unwieldy produce-laden
HISTORY OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 41
flats and keels and arks, began gradually to pass away, and water traffic
to approach the prosaic stage.
Prosaic, perhaps, because nearer our present vision. But in America,
at least, we are ever in a period of transition. For example, now that
the great northern forests in the Mississippi Valley have nearly been
obliterated, and the day of the lumber raft is for us fast fading, and
the " lumberjack " in in his parti-colored Mackinac blouse is about shift-
ing his career to new fields of activity in our South and in your North-
west, we can realize that he, too, has been a striking figure on our
stage worthy of a place beside the coureur de bois, the voyageur, the
habitant, the buckskin-clad Scotch-Irishman of the Wilderness Trail,
the flat-boat man, the scout of the plains, the Rocky Mountain trapper,
the Oregon pilgrim, the California " forty-niner," and the cowboy.
In our story of the American West, also, we must leave many a page
for the stout flood of agricultural settlement that poured into the trans-
Allegheny during the quarter of a century just previous to the War
between the States. New England and New York, and almost every
hamlet of western and northern Europe, sent the choicest of their people.
By thousands they .came to found new fortunes on lands recently ac-
quired by purchase from the tribesmen. Our local history is rich in
stirring details of their migration, and in particulars of their priva-
tions and their hardihood. The pioneers have, in the order of nature,
now all but left us, in the United States ; we no longer possess a Western
frontier ; and we are just beginning to understand that the story of these
frontiersmen is a splendid epic still waiting to be sung.
What may we not say, too, of the part our great Valley played in
the war for the preservation of our Union ? As in the earlier days of
the giant struggle between France and England for supremacy in North
America, control of this vast drainage system was hotly contested. What-
ever might have been the result of operations on the Atlantic Coast, the
power holding the interior valley must, in the end, surely have won.
From the population to the west of the Appalachians came the great
bulk of both Northern and Southern armies ; nowhere was the struggle
more nearly brought home to the people. Song and story will always
find abundant theme in our local annals of the war.
Equally important has been the Valley's share in the subsequent
development of our nation the social, economic, political, industrial,
intellectual forces of the interior are to-day dominating us as a people.
42 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Such are some of the elements that lend to the annals of the Mis-
sissippi Valley dignity and national significance. Until the close of
the Eevolutionary War, they are in considerable measure, also, the
annals of Canada. You Canadian historians will, I am sure, rejoice
with us in their picturesque vitality, in the stirring visions which they
bring, and will with us, in the spirit of that reciprocity that should every-
where exist between students of local history in North America, antici-
pate the time when the poet and the novelist shall find in them material
for their art; for after all (to return, in conclusion, to my text), those
annals that may live long in the minds of the people are only such as
shall be interpreted to them by the masters of romance.
COLLECTIONS OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL RELATING
TO THE WAR OF 1812.*
BY FRANK H. SEVERANCE, L.H.D., BUFFALO, N.Y.,
Corresponding Member of the Ontario Historical Society.
The subject assigned to me in your programme is " Collections of
Historical Material Relating to the War of 1812."
Two constructions, I think, may fairly 'be put on the subject. It
seems to call for an account of existing collections in public or private
libraries relating to the War of 1812 ; it also may be treated with pro-
priety by submitting an analysis of the material which makes up the
literature of this subject. The first method of treatment would be
brief; the second method, properly followed, would of necessity be
long and elaborate. For our present purpose it appears best, first,
merely to glance at the collections on this subject as contained in not-
able libraries, and secondly, to survey, so far as time permits, several
phases presented in the general field of literature of this war.
I need hardly remind you that outside of books much " material "
is to be found which has true educative value. Our historical museums
are many of them rich in relics, pictures and other reminders of this
war. This is specially true in communities which during that war
were the scene of special activity. In New England, New York,
throughout the seaboard States, especially at Baltimore and at New
Orleans, are preserved many reminders of this conflict. The regions
about Lake Champlain and the Great Lakes are peculiarly rich for
the student, not only in relics preserved, but in associations. Build-
ings and battlefields are other sorts of "material" which teach, often
more effectively than the document or the printed page. But it is not
with this phase of the subject that I am to deal. My especial theme is
the literature of the War of 1812.
I have made some effort to learn what is contained in great lib-
raries on this subject. The replies from experienced librarians are
those which all library workers would anticipate. I am told in effect
by the Librarian of Congress, by Doctor Thwaites of the State His-
torical Society of Wisconsin, by the Librarian of Harvard University,
* Read at the meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Napanee, Ont., 1912.
44 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and by the custodians of other notable historical collections, that it is
impossible to say with definiteness how much material they have on
this subject. While every library has numerous works brought to-
gether under its classification system relating to the War of 1812, that
same classification system refers to other headings and departments a
vast amount of material bearing on the same subject. It is enough
to remind you that all the general classifications of a large library,
such as biography, individual or collected ; periodicals ; naval history ;
general military history; poetry, etc., would naturally embrace much
material important to the student of the War of 1812 period. Hence
it might follow that a library, the catalogue of which showed by title
comparatively few books or pamphlets or papers on this subject, might
still contain far larger and more important collections on the general
subject than another library which had in its catalogue cards a larger
list under the 1812 classification.
With this general reminder, it is hardly necessary to specify fur-
ther along this line. Naturally the great libraries of our country are
strongest in 1812 as in other collections. Perhaps first in any list
should be named the Library of Congress, which is all-embracing.
After that, and possibly the New York Public Library, the student of
this subject would turn to the great New England depositories: the
Carter Brown Library at Providence, the Library of Harvard Uni-
versity, the Boston Public, and the Antiquarian Society at Worcester.
Other important regional literatures have been brought together by
the Maryland Historical Society at Baltimore, and I believe by the
Library of Tulane University at New Orleans. So far as I am aware,
the best collection of periodical literature on this period is to be found
It is a matter of record, to be mentioned now without comment or
preachment, that two of the most notable collections on the subject,
supposedly housed in secure depositories, were turned to smoke and
ashes by the conflagrations in the Parliament Buildings at Toronto
and the State Capitol at Albany. I had some acquaintance with these
collections and am of the impression that both ranked high in value
relating to the 1812 period.
There is in Buffalo a little library, not at all to be mentioned with
the great book collections of America, in which is to be found an ex-
ceptionally comprehensive collection on the period we are considering.
The Buffalo Historical Society had already a good representative col-
lection on this subject when, a few years ago, there was turned over
to it a larger collection, the formation of which had been for a long
period one of my diversions. As a result, the Buffalo Historical So-
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 45
ciety now has what I believe to be one of the best collections on this
subject. A card list which I prepared some time ago enumerates some
nine hundred titles, not including perhaps twice as many entries of
papers and studies of special phases of our subject contained in local
histories, in periodical publications, and especially in the transactions
of learned societies. While this does not tally accurately with the
material in our possession, it is still fairly representative. As it is
this collection I am best acquainted with, it seems appropriate for me
to consider it in passing to the second phase of my subject.
Our collection, then, contains, as must any collection which aims
to be comprehensive in the literature of the War of 1812, books and
pamphlets which fall into the following classes: Events leading up to
the war, especially the Embargo and non-intercourse ; general naval
histories of the United States and of Great Britain; general military
histories; official gazettes, journals and like publications; periodicals,
not official; special histories of the period of the war; biographies;
memorials, including transactions of institutions relative to the erec-
tion of monuments and the observance of anniversaries; controversial
publications, both political and personal, the latter as to the service
of this or that officer, etc. ; claims, either for Government promotion
for service rendered, pensions, or for damages and losses sustained by
non-combatants; sermons, in which political doctrines were promul-
gated in the guise of religious instruction ; poetry, drama, fiction,
juvenile literature, and, omitting much, modern philosophical studies
in which it is explained how things might have been otherwise.
This list could still be considerably extended and classified. There
are numerous works pertaining to our subject, which consider chiefly
the financial aspect of the times. There are others dealing with
special phases of the causes that led up to the war, as, for instance, the
violation of neutral rights and the impressment of seamen. There is
a considerable literature of wanderers' narratives, including some of
the curiosities of our history; and there is also a considerable litera-
ture of brag and bluster, contributed to, perhaps, in equal proportions
by all the contending parties.
That what is commonly referred to by American writers as " our
second war with Great Britain " has enlisted the pens of able students
is seen when we glance at the title pages of many of the best known
works. To this period ^belong writings of Thomas Jefferson, James
Madison, James Eenimore Cooper, George Bancroft, A. J. Dallas,
Eichard Hildreth, Alexander H. Stephens, General James Wilkinson,
Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, Major-General George W. Cullum,
Henry A. S. Dearborn, George Gary Eggleston, Benson J. Lossing,
46 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
J. C. Gilleland, Solomon Hale, J. T. Headley, T. W. Higginson,
Kobert McAfee, R. B. Mitfee, Charles J. Ingersoll, Major A. L.
Latour, T. O'Connor, James Parton, Theodore Roosevelt. These
among the Americans. Among the English authors, very notably,
William James, John Symons, Frederick Brock Tupper, Major-Gen-
eral Sir Carmichael Smith, G. R. Gleig, the Marquis of Wellesley, and
Of Canadian authors in this field, again omitting many of note, I
may mention G. Auchinleck, Robert Christie, Ernest Cruikshank,
Captain F. C. Denison, Colonel George T. Denison, William Kings-
ford, William Kirby, Captain W. H. Merritt, D. B. Read, Charles
Roger, Thomas Rideout and Matilda Edgar, and especially Major
John Richardson, whose "Narrative of the Operations of the Right
Division of the Army of Upper Canada, during the American War of
1812," printed at Brockville in 1842, is one of the rarest of Canadiana.
The student of this period cannot neglect certain very able chap-
ters in works of wide scope, such as C. D. Yonge's " History of the
British Navy," Yon Hoist's " Constitutional and Political History of
the United States," G. Bryce's " Short History of the Canadian
People," and numerous other works of general character.
Let us glance briefly at some of the books which we have referred
to some of these classes. The literature which may be entitled "Causes
leading up to the war," is surprisingly large and important. I do not
need to remind this audience that no period in history can be separ-
ated from what has gone before, or what follows, and ticketed off as
complete. To embrace all of the causes of this second war thoroughly
and conscientiously would mean to include much of the story of
America. For library purposes, however, it is possible to draw the
lines with fair satisfaction, so that they shall include such studies as
Alexander Baring's " Inquiry into the causes and consequences of the
orders in council, and an examination of the conduct of Great Britain
towards the neutral commerce of America," published in London in
1808. For some years earlier even than that date these subjects occa-
sioned many pamphlets and many discussions in Parliament. Of im-
portance, too, for this period is James Stephen's " War in Disguise, or
the Frauds of the Neutral Flags," a London publication of 1807.
Many others of this character might be mentioned.
Then we have a surprisingly large contemporary literature that
might be gathered about the single word " Embargo," ranging, to
mention only American authorship, from William Cullen Bryant's
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 47
juvenile work, " The Embargo/' printed in 1808, to Thomas Jeffer-
son's voluminous writings, ending with his life in 1826.
The personal phase of this period is picturesquely brought out in
numerous narratives of impressment; such, for instance, as that by
Joshua Davis, " who was pressed and served on board six ships of the
British," etc. ; or the harrowing tale of James McLean, who at Hart-
ford, in 1814, published his " Seventeen years' history of Sufferings
as an Impressed Seaman in British Service." There are numerous
narratives of this character which, taken together, make up an exceed-
ingly lively prelude to the war itself.
The political shelf of our 1812 library must contain, not only long
series of debates in Parliament and speeches in Congress, but a number
of important serial or periodical publications, some of them official,
such as the London Gazette, which through many years contains in
bulletin form precise data invaluable to the student; The Royal Mili-
tary Calendar; Dodsley's Annual Register; and, in America, The
United States Army Register; Nile's Register; The Portfolio; the
periodical entitled " The War," and scores of others of varying value.
Of controversial works, especially pamphlets, there is no end, many
of them illustrating, better than the fuller and more deliberate his-
tories, the temper of the time. It was a period when for one reason
or another anonymity was thought to be an essential of political dis-
cussion. Some of you no doubt can tell me who was the author of the
letters of " Veritas," first published in the Montreal Herald, afterwards
brought together and printed in Montreal in 1815, in which is given a
narrative of the military administration of Sir George Prevost during
his command in the Canadas, " Whereby it will appear manifest that
the merit of preserving them from conquest belongs not to him." In
the guise of " A New England Farmer," John Lowell, of Massachusetts,
bombarded President Madison with numerous pamphlets. In earlier
years, " Juriscola," in a series of fifteen letters, had done his best to
annihilate Great Britain; and "Don Quixote," in a most remarkable
publication, " Ichneumon," laboured as a patriot to settle internecine
Perhaps better known are the papers of " Touchstone," who, it
appears, was DeWitt Clinton. I could go on in this field at great
length. It is a piquant and a tempting one to the bibliographer in its
variety and its occasional discoveries.
I doubt if any period in our history has developed more literature
that may be summed up as curios. Many of them are trifling in his-
torical value, but our library must have them. Here, for instance,
48 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
is the treatise entitled " The Beauties of Brother Bull-us, by his
Loving Sister, Bull-a." Who would think of finding essays on the War
of 1812 hidden under such a title as C. W. Hart chose for his work
printed at Poughkeepsie in 1816, " Colloquy between two Deists, on
the Immortality of the Soul " ? Better known and more amusing is
the work ascribed to Israel Mauduit, " Madison Agonistes, or the
agonies of Mother Goose," a political burletta represented as to be
acted on .the American stage. Among the dramatis personce are Ran-
dolpho and Adamo, Members of Congress, etc. I may also mention
" The Federal Looking Glass," published in 1812, which pictures
General Hull's " surrender to the Devil."
Surely to this -class belongs " The Adventures of Uncle Sam in
Search After his Lost Honour," by Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy, Esq.,
who announced himself as " member of the Legion of Honour, Scratch-
etary to Uncle Sam and Privy Counsellor to Himself." The title-
page motto in " Merino Latin " " Taurem per caudem grabbo "
sheds light on the serious character of the work.
More serious, but I think also more amusing, is the work entitled
" An Affecting Narrative of Louisa Baker, a Native of Massachusetts
who in Disguise Served Three Years as a Marine on board an American
Frigate." This is a Boston imprint of 1815, but is next unique as a
record of a woman disguised serving in this war, for we have still
another work with the following title : " The Friendless Orphan. An
affecting Narrative of the Trials and Afflictions of Sophia Johnson, the
Early Victim of a Cruel Stepmother, whose Afflictions and Singular
Adventures probably exceed those of any other American Female living,
who has been doomed in early life to drink deep of the cup of sorrow,"
etc., etc. Sophia experienced her sorrows in part at Buffalo, Fort
Erie and elsewhere on the frontier disguised as a man, and lost an arm
at the Battle of Bridgewater, of which an extraordinary engraving is
given. Sophia, sans arm, is also portrayed.
I will merely mention G. Proctor's " Lucubrations of Humphrey
Kavelin, Esq., Late Major in the * * * Regiment of Infantry." This
is a London publication, giving some account of military life and Indian
warfare in Canada during the 1812 period. Another curious work is
Gilbert J. Hunt's " Historical Reader," of which numerous editions
were published. The narrative is a poor imitation of the style of Chron-
icles and other historical books of the Old Testament.
Perhaps rarest of these curios, at least in the original edition, is
" The War of the Gulls, an Historical Romance in Three Chapters,"
reputed to be by Jacob Bigelow and Nathan Hale, published at the
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 49
Dramatic Repository, Shakespeare Gallery, New York, in 1812. This
work has been recently reprinted, an honour which it quite deserves.
Among the curios, too, should have place sundry plays and dramas
based on the war. I mention but two of them: one by Mordecai
Manuel Noah, a Hebrew journalist of New York, who undertook to
establish a modern Ararat and Refuge City for the Jews on Grand
Island, in Niagara River, but whose contribution to this field of letters
is entitled : " She Would be a Soldier, or the Plains of Chippewa ; an
Historical Drama in Three Acts." Major Noah's play was enacted for
a time on the New York stage. Half a century later Clifton W.
Tayleure produced another play of this period, " The Boy Martyrs of
September 12th, 1814," which with little literary merit and seemingly
less dramatic possibilities, was staged for a time in New York.
Under the heading of " Prisoners' Memoirs " there are numerous
publications relating to the war, which fall into two classes. First, the
narratives of men who shared in Western campaigns, usually American
pioneers who were taken by British and Indians. An example is the
narrative of William Atherton, entitled " Narrative of the Sufferings
and Defeat of the Northwestern Army under Gen. Winchester ; Mas-
sacre of the Prisoners; Sixteen Months' Imprisonment of the Writer
and others with the Indians and British," etc., a prolix title, the work
itself printed at Frankfort, Kentucky, in 1842. Still other chronicles
of this character are to be gathered.
A wholly different field of experience was that of Americans who
underwent imprisonment at Dartmoor in England. Perhaps the best
known of these memoirs is the volume by Charles Andrews, " Con-
taining a Complete and Impartial History of the Entire Captivity of
the Americans in England from the Commencement of the Late War
until all prisoners were released by the Treaty of Ghent. Also
a particular detail of all occurrences relative to that horrid massacre
at Dartmoor, on the fatal evening of the 6th of April, 1815." Andrews'
tale was printed in New York in 1815.
The next year, at Boston, Benjamin Waterhouse published " A
Journal of a Young Man of Massachusetts, late a Surgeon on board an
American privateer, who was captured at sea by the British, in May,
1813, and was confined, first at Melville Island, Halifax, then at Chat-
ham, in England, and last at Dartmoor prison."
In 1841 appeared " A Green Hand's First Cruise, Roughed out
from the Log Book of Memory of 25 years standing, together with a
residence of five months in Dartmoor." This two-volume work, one
50 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of the scarcest books of the War of 1812, was published at Baltimore by
" A. Younker," probably a pen-name.
As late as 1878 appeared still another contribution to this class of
works : " The early life and later experiences and labours of Joseph
Bates," who records that in early life he was a sailor, was captured by
the English in the War of 1812 and confined in Dartmoor prison. In
later life he became an anti-slavery agitator.
The phrase " Wanderers' Narratives " fairly describes numerous
works which the student of our subject will encounter; books, for
instance, like Eichard J. Cleveland's " In the Forecastle ; or Twenty-
five Years a Sailor." His sailing days were from 1792 to 1817, and
he saw much and records much of privateering during the War of 1812.
Another " wanderer " was Patrick Grass, whose " Life and Times,"
first published, I believe, at Wellsburg, Va., in 1859, has in recent
years been reprinted. When he wrote his Memoirs, Gass claimed to
be the sole survivor of the Lewis and Clark overland expedition to
the Pacific of 1804 to 1806. He was also a soldier in the war with
Great Britain, 1812 to 1815, and fought at Lundy's Lane. About fifty
pages of his book relate to this war, mostly to events on the Niagara.
In this class may perhaps be mentioned a well-known work, Captain
David Porter's " Journal of a Cruise made in the Pacific Ocean in the
United States Frigate Essex, in the years 1812, '13 and '14."
Much less known is P. Finan's " Journal of a Voyage to Quebec
in the Year 1825, with Recollections of Canada during the late Ameri-
can War, in the Years 1812, 1813." In the second part of his book
Mr. Finan gives his personal experiences in the war. He was with his
father, an officer, at the burning of Toronto, April 27th, 1813. As an
eye-witness his record of that and other events is important.
I may dismiss this special phase of our subject with the mention of
but one other work, " The Travels and Adventures of David C. Bun-
nell." After a life suspiciously full of romantic adventure, some none
too creditable, Bunnell joined the American navy under Chauncey,
served on Lake Ontario, 1812-13, and left Fort Niagara July 3, 1813,
in Jesse Elliot's command, going from Buffalo to Put-in Bay in open
boats. According to his narrative, he was on the Lawrence during
the Battle of Lake Erie, and afterwards was put on the schooner
Cliippewa, as second in command, and ran her between Put-in Bay and
Detroit " as a packet," being finally caught v in a gale, blown the whole
length of Lake Erie and driven ashore upon the beach about a quarter
of a mile below Buffalo Creek. He landed safely, remaining in
Buffalo until Perry and Barclay arrived and were given a 'public
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 51
dinner, on which occasion, he says, " I managed a field piece and fired
for the toasts." His account of his services and adventures on the lakes
appears to be veracious, which is more than can be said of some por-
tions of his romantic but highly entertaining chronicle. It may be
noted that his book was issued in the same year and apparently from
the same press as the rare first edition of the Book of Mormon, being
printed at Palmyra, N.Y., by Grandin in 1831.
A considerable shelf, perhaps " five feet long,' 7 could be filled with
stories of the War of 1812. My studies of American history have
well-nigh convinced me that that war was fought, not to maintain
American rights on the high seas, but to stimulate the development of
American letters by supplying picturesque material for budding
romancers. The only drawback to that theory is that the straight-
forward unadorned record of the old sea duels, like that of the Consti-
tution and the Guerriere, has more thrills in it than the romancers can
invent. But for well-nigh a century the novelists have hovered about
this period, like bumble-bees in a field of clover. The war on the lakes
and the Niagara frontier has had a share of their attention. There are
boys' books with Perry for a hero always with the introduction of
things more or less impossible to the character. The events of 1812-14
on the Niagara have been much used by Canadian story-writers. There
is " Hemlock," by Eobert Sellars (Montreal, 1890), which follows
many of the events of the war in our district and is none the less worthy
of American readers because its point of view and sympathies are so
notably Canadian. A work of greater merit is " Neville Trueman, the
Pioneer Preacher, a Tale of 1812," by W. H. Withrow, published in
Toronto in 1886. The fictitious characters mingle with the real, at
Queenston Heights, Fort George, the burning of Niagara, Chippewa
and Lundy's Lane. It is a simple tale, with no affectations; and it
makes a record which we are glad to have of high character and worthy
impulses. There were true patriots in Canada in those days, and it
is wholesome to read of them, no matter on which side of the river one
may live. In this class belongs Amy E. Blanchard's tale, " A Loyal
Lass; a Story of the Niagara Campaign of 1814." The list might be
If this war has inspired the production of fiction, it has also proved,
at least in the earlier years, an unfailing fount of inspiration for the
poets. I do not know of much poetry produced in England on this
account. The affair does not appear to have presented a poetic aspect
to British authors. But to many an American, especially of the type
easily fired to extravagant patriotic expression, it was provocative of
52 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
wonderful results. Some worthy poets produced true poetry with this
war as the theme. Some of the patriotic songs of Philip Freneau
deserve the place they have held in American literature for a century.
Samuel Woodworth's " Heroes of the Lake/' a poem in two books, con-
tains excellent lines. So long a production could hardly fail of being
good at intervals. Many of Woodworth's poems, odes, songs, and other
metrical effusions were based on incidents in this war. So was John
Davis' " The American Mariners," vouched for on the title page as
" A moral poem, to which are added Naval Annals," a delightful com-
bination of the flight of Pegasus and the most uninspired of statistics.
This work, first published at Salisbury, England, in 1822, has had at
least two or more editions.
I can only mention such works as the " Court of Neptune and the
Curse of Liberty," New York, 1817; the " Columbian Naval Song-
ster," and other collections, containing numerous songs celebrating the
exploits of Perry, McDonough and others ; and " The Battle of the
Thames," being an extract from the unpublished work, entitled
" Tecumseh," the author veiling his identity as " A Young American."
Thomas Pierce's " The Muse of Hesperia, a Poetic Keverie,"
appeared in Cincinnati in 1823. A note in Thomson's Bibliography
of Ohio says of this work, " For this poem the author was awarded a
gold medal by the Philomathic Society of Cincinnati College, in
November, 1821, but he never claimed the prize." It relates mainly
to the events of the War of 1812 in the Northwest, and contains notes
relating to persons and events mentioned in the text.
In Halifax, in 1815, there appeared "A Poetical Account of the
American Campaigns of 1812 and '13, with some slight sketches relating
to Party Politics which governed the United States during the War
and at its Commencement," dedicated to the people of Canada by the
publisher, said publisher being John Howe, Jr.
" The Year," a poem in three cantos, by William Leigh Pierce, was
published in New York in 1813. Appended to the poem are seventy
pages of historical notes, the whole production being intended as a
poetical history of the times, including the War of 1812 so far as it had
A poetical curio is " The Bladensburg Races," written shortly after
the capture of Washington City, August 24, 1814. The poem ridicules
the flight of President Madison and household to Bladensburg, and the
erudite author adds an illuminating note : " Probably it is not generally
known that the flight of Mahomet, the flight of John Gilpin and the
flight of Bladensburg, all occurred on the 24th of August."
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 53
The local bibliophile or collector would wish me to mention " The
Narrative of the Life, Travels and Adventures of Captain Israel Adams
who Lived at Liverpool, Onondaga County, N.Y., the man who during
the last War  Surprised the British Lying in the Bay of
Quoenti; Who Took by Strategem the Brig Toronto and Took Her
to Sackett's Harbor, and for whom the British offered a Reward of
Of peculiar local interest to those of us who live on the Niagara
is David Thompson's " History of the Late War," etc., published at
Niagara, Upper Canada, in 1832 ; one of the earliest of Upper Canada
imprints and a better one, I venture to say, than old Niagara could
turn out to-day. It is not a soothing book for a thin-skinned American
to read. If it should fall into the hands of such a singular, not to say
exceptional, individual, he could find balm, if not, indeed, a counter-
irritant, in James Butler's " American Bravery Displayed in the Cap-
ture of 1,400 vessels of war and commerce since the Declaration of
War by the President." This volume of 322 pages, published in 1816,
did not have the unanimous endorsal of the British press.
As I survey the literature of this period I find no bolder utterance,
no fiercer defiance of Great Britain's " Hordes," than in the sonorous
stanzas of some of our gentle poets. Iambic defiance, unless kindled
by a grand genius, is a poor sort of fireworks, even when it undertakes
to combine patriotism and appreciation of natural scenery. Certainly
something might be expected of a poet who sandwiches Niagara Falls
in between bloody battles and gives us the magnificent in nature, the
gallant in warfare and the loftiest patriotism in purpose, the three
strains woven in a triple paean of passion, ninety-four duodecimo pages
in length. Such a work was offered to the world at Baltimore in 1818,
with this title page : " Battle of Niagara, a Poem without Notes, and
Goldau, or the Maniac Harper. Eagles and Stars and Rainbows. By
Jehu O'Cataract, author of ' Keep Cool.' ' I have never seen " Keep
Cool," but it must be very different from the " Battle of Niagara," or
it belies its name. The fiery Jehu O'Cataract was John Neal, or
" Yankee Neal," as he was called.
The " Battle of Niagara," he informs the reader, was written when
he was a prisoner ; when he " felt the victories of his countrymen."
The poem has a metrical introduction and four cantos, in which is told,
none too lucidly, the story of the battle of Niagara, with such flights of
eagles, scintillation of stars and breaking of rainbows, that no quota-
tion can do it justice. In style it is now Miltonic, now reminiscent
of Walter Scott. The opening canto is mainly an apostrophe to the
54 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Bird, and a vision of glittering horsemen. Canto two is a dissertation
on Lake Ontario, with word-pictures of the primitive Indian. The
rest of the poem is devoted to the battle near the great cataract and
throughout all are sprinkled the eagles, stars and rainbows. Do not
infer from this that the production is wholly bad ; it is merely a good
specimen of that early American poetry which was just bad enough to
escape being good.
A still more ambitious work is " The Fredoniad, or Independence
Preserved," an epic poem by Richard Emmons, a Kentuckian, after-
wards a physician of Philadelphia. He worked on it for ten years,
finally printed it in 1826, and in 1830 got it through a second edition,
ostentatiously dedicated to Lafayette. " The Fredoniad " is a history
of the War of 1812 in verse. It was published in four volumes; it
has forty cantos, filling 1,404 duodecimo pages, or a total length of
about 42,000 lines. The first and second cantos are devoted to Hell,
the third to Heaven, and the fourth to Detroit. About one-third of
the whole work is occupied with military operations on the Niagara
frontier. Nothing from Fort Erie to Fort Niagara escapes this metre-
machine. The Doctor's poetic feet stretch out to miles and leagues,
but not a single verse do I find that prompts to quotation; though I
am free to confess I have not read them all, and much doubt if anyone,
save the infatuated author, and perhaps a long-suffering proof-
reader, ever did read the whole of " The Fredoniad."
I have already mentioned several very rare books and pamphlets;
but if asked to designate the rarest of all on the War of 1812, I should
name a fifteen-page pamphlet, published without title-page at the Regi-
mental Press, Bungalore, India, dealing with the relations between
British agents and Indians in the Northwest after the Treaty of Ghent.
But twenty copies were printed. It contains letters from Lieut-Colonel
McDowell to His Excellency Sir F. P. Robinson, Drummond Island,
September 24th, 1815, and later dates; and an account of the pro-
ceedings of a court of inquiry held to investigate charges, preferred by
the United States Government, that the Indians had been stimulated
by the British agents to a continuance of hostilities since the Peace.
This publication, issued three-quarters of a century or so after the
event, from a regimental press in India, is an effort to show that the
Indians were not so stimulated; all the stimulus they received from
the British agents, it may be presumed, was of an entirely different
The field of biography in its relation to our general subject is vast.
Around such figures as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison
COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MATERIAL, WAR OF 1812. 55
there has developed a mass of literature which, if thoroughly listed and
analyzed, would constitute a considerable bibliography in itself. There
are biographies and memoirs of most of the British admirals and other
naval and military commanders in active service during this period.
In our list must be included the life stories of Thomas Jefferson, James
Madison, Lewis Cass, Joshua Barney, Commodore Bainbridge, Win-
field Scott, Oliver Hazard Perry, Henry Clay, Josiah Quincy, John
Quincy Adams, George Cabot, and many other makers of American
Of the British and Canadian officers we have admirable biographies,
including those of General Brock, Admiral Broke, Admiral Sir Edward
Codrington, and others.
The Treaty of Ghent is the subject of numerous publications. An
excellent account of the proceedings of the commissioners, and espe-
cially of the difficulties met and overcome by the American representa-
tives, is by Thomas Wilson, in the Magazine of American History,
November, 1888. A most interesting work on this subject is the scarce
quarto, published in London in 1850, entitled " Memoir es d'un
Voyageur qui se repose." It is the private journal and correspondence
of a diplomatist in the secret service of England. He is here designated
by the pseudonym of " Miller/' and appears to have been entrusted
with four separate special missions to America, one of which, in 1814-
15, was to exchange the ratifications of the Treaty of Ghent. The
volume contains a mass of private information on diplomatic relations
between Great Britain and the United States, including a journal of
the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
A noticeable, not to say notable, feature of much of this literature
is its partisanship. Especially in statistical matters, such as the
numerical strength of the contending forces, the number of guns or the
weight of metal matters which one would suppose would have been
settled by the official reports there has existed for a century, and still
exists, utterly irreconcilable divergence. The unbiased student of this
period, who seeks only to learn the facts, is still bewildered and in doubt
when he compares American with Canadian or English accounts. If
the bitterness and rancour of the old books has abated in these later days
of courtesy and fair speech, the divergence of record, though perhaps
dispassionately stated, still exists. An instance is the battle of Lundy's
Lane, which at last accounts was still being fought.
It may not be a wholly whimsical proposition to suggest, as a fea-
ture of our centenary of peace, the establishment of an international
commission by this Society, say, on the one hand, and the American
56 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Historical Association on the other whose task should be, if possible,
the production of a simply-told history of the War of 1812, which
should meet with equal commendation as a truthful and unprejudiced
chronicle on both sides of the border. But perhaps I suggest the impos-
I could say much of the ever-lengthening list of modern studies of
this or that phase of the war; such, for instance, as Nicholas Murray
Butler's " Influence of the War of 1812 upon the Consolidation of the
American Union," Captain A. T. Mahan's " Sea Power in its Relation
to the War of 1812," and very many others, usually revealing a better
grasp of the significance of events than the earlier works, and usually,
too, written in a better temper. Not least among these modern studies
is the notable group of papers which at this meeting we listen to with
DESPATCH FKOM COLONEL LETHBRIDGE TO MAJOR-
BY LlEUT.-CoLONEL COLE, BROCKVILLE, ONT.
^. Kingston, August 10th, 1812.
My letter to Colonel Cartwright from Prescott will have apprised
you of the reason of my sudden departure from this and most griev-
iously mortified I was on my arrival below to find the Julia Schooner
had the singular good fortune of effecting her escape. My decided
purpose was, in the event of our vessels being detained at Brockville by
a westerly wind till the return of Lieut. Fitzgibbons with the bateaux
from Kingston, to have attempted the Capture of the Julia by an attack
on Ogdensburg with our vessels aided by a detachment on land
but my instructions to the Captains were that in case a strong easterly
wind sprang up in the interim they were then to proceed to Kingston,
having, of course, in my mind your directions for the Earl Moira to
proceed to Niagara. An easterly wind did spring up and the vessels
proceeded for this place.
The enclosed report of the deposition of a deserter from the enemy
will in some degree illustrate their situation at Ogdensburg and I am
much inclined to credit the material parts of it from 'the manner in
which it was related. I proceeded down the river to Williamstown in
Glengarry looking at the different corps of militia as I passed. Of
the Counties of Grenville, Dundas, Stormont and Glengarry, I feel
sincere satisfaction in noticing their uniform zeal to exert their best
endeavours for the defence of their country though as yet almost in the
infancy of discipline, with the execution of the manual and platoon
exercise owing to the general want of instructors. But their wants
and privations are many, but notwithstanding that, at Prescott
they were not only without blankets but even straw was not to be pro-
cured. The alacrity of both officers and men to assist in erecting a
stockaded fort with three embrasures at each of two angles was highly
meritorious, and as no allowance had been made for their trouble in
any shape and under the privations it was represented to me they were
58 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
experiencing, I ventured to order an issue of rum of a pint per man.
This issue I trust will meet with approbation under .this singular
case of His Excellency the Commander of the Forces and yourself.
The Dundas and Stormont Militia are very desirous of having a troop
of cavalry established and being persuaded of its utility, both as pa-
troles and for the purpose of carrying dispatches along the communica-
tion, I am desirous of seconding their propositions. It seems a Mr.
Forrester has been at York and made application on the subject, and
was referred by. you to Major General Shaw, who did not happen to
extend his journey so far down. But though I should recommend Mr.
Forrester for being one of the officers of the troop I do not feel en-
couraged by the accounts I hear of him (though no impeachment on
his loyalty) to suggest his having the command of the troops.
The Dundas Militia are unhappily in a state of schism at least
between the two field officers, Col. McDonnell and Major Mackay. The
former certainly much advanced in years, the latter very shrewd and
I believe extremely able and zealous, though inflexibly stern. I beg
leave to propose my way of healing the breach, the substitution of
Colonel Thomas Fraser to the command of the Dundas Militia, an
arrangement I have been assured would be agreeable to Col. McLean (?)
and I dare say would not be ill taken by Major Mackay. The Cornwall
Militia are very well attended to by Col. *. He has been
obliged to hire a store for the accommodation of his men at the mod-
erate rate -of 20 per annum, which by properly dividing by berth, is
adequate to contain the whole of their present number embodied ; more
arms will be supplied to him when our means are more abundant. No
blankets, but a supply of straw. He has been obliged to purchase some
camp kettles. The flank companies of the Glengarry Militia partly
assembled at McLaughlin's. Colonel McMillan has been under the in-
dispensable necessity, from the situation being destitute of other re-
sources, of contracting for shed to cover his men, to build ovens, and I
authorized his having a supply of kettles, a surgeon to attend the sick,
and I have sanctioned his having the assistance of Mr. Wilkinson, from
Cornwall until your pleasure is ascertained. I do intend removing a
part of the flank companies of the Glengarry to Cornwall as a point
more material to be guarded than the mouth of the Eiver Le Kaisin.
T have been obliged to order them some ketttles. There are four points
in the river more vulnerable from musketry than others from five to
eight hundred yards distant from the American shore between the
Rapid Plat and Cornwall. The best defence for which would appear
*No name given.
DESPATCH: COL. LETHBRIDGE TO MAJOR-GENERAL BROCK. 59
to be two or three light pieces of flying artillery, which the inhabitants
would undertake to furnish the horses for. But of this and the number
of militia and the number of arms received, a more detailed report
shall be forwarded to you at Niagara, to which place I apprehend you
are now removed and will probably reach you before this. I confess I
have had a most fatiguing week and request you will refer any inac-
curacies in this to that cause.
I have the honor to transmit a plan of the proposed work at Point
Henry which I am the more convinced of the utility of. You are, of
course, apprised of the approach of some regular troops to those quar-
ters which I shall permit to come on here in the first instance unless I
receive any instructions from you to the contrary, I have no doubt that
a proportion of those troops are intended for Prescott and I especially
reported the necessity of a force there. The schooner Julia was lying
very quietly in the secure harbor of Ogdensburg, and afforded not the
least molestation to the large brigade of Batteaux under Lieut. Fitz-
gibbons on his return. Colonel McLean is erecting a block house on a
point about twelve miles above Cornwall for accommodation for his
men as a Centrical rendezvous for a part of them and an accommoda-
tion with all. The cost of which will be but trifling, it being done by
the militiamen as far as labor is concerned.
There are, I am sorry to say, several exceptions to universal loyalty
in the County of Leeds and I wish to be honored with your instruc-
tions in respect of men who have lived as peaceable inhabitants but who
being called on refuse taking the oath of allegiance. To send them
across the river is perhaps accomplishing the very object that they have
at heart. I fell in with General Sheaffe at the mouth of the Eiver Le
Raisin and I returned here sooner, perhaps, than I should otherwise
The Royal George is returned to this place; she had been some
way down the river and very near cutting off the Three Durham
Gun Boats. She will sail on the look-out to-morrow.
I have the honour to be, &c.,
Your most H. Servant,
To Major General Brock.
MILITAKY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO DURING
THE WAR OF 1812.*
BY LlEUT.-CoLONEL W. S. BUELL, BllOCKVILLE, O^T.
Although war was declared by the United States on 18th June, 1812,
official notice was not received by Sir George Prevost, the Governor-
General of Canada, until 7th July. Private messages from New York,
however, arrived about 25th of June. On the 29th of June, eight
schooners that were in Ogdensburg Harbor attempted to escape to Lake
Ontario. Mr. Dunham Jones, who resided near Maitland, saw the
movement, and fully appreciating the advantage which would result to
the British interests if this fleet could be prevented from reaching
Lake Ontario, gathered a company of volunteers and pursued them in
rowboats, overtaking them at the foot of the islands just above Brock-
ville, apparently about Big Island. Two of the vessels, the Island
Packet and the Sophia, were captured; the crews were landed on an
island and the vessels burned. The remainder of the fleet made their
way back to Ogdensburg as fast as they could go.
At the opening of the war the American plan of campaign was to
invade Canada with three great armies, viz., the Army of the West on
the Detroit Frontier, the Army of the Centre on the Niagara Frontier,
and the Army of the North from Lake Champlain.
The Army of the West under General Hull was captured at Detroit
by General Brock; and the Army of the Centre, under General Van
Rensselaer, was defeated at Queenston Heights. The Army of the North
was the most pretentious of the three. It was composed of 10,000
troops and was commanded by General Dearborn, the Commander-in-
Chief of the United States army. It mobilized at Lake Champlain
with the evident intention of marching straight on Montreal. Noth-
ing, however, was attempted further than a few unimportant and un-
successful skirmishes and then it retired to safe winter quarters at
Early in the winter of 1813 a detachment of the garrison of Ogdens-
burg, under Captain Forsythe, made a night attack upon Gananoque,
* Read at the annual meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Brockville, Ont, 1910.
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 61
which at that time consisted of a country tavern and a sawmill, with an
adjoining log house. The enemy wounded a lady and carried off a
few pigs and poultry. Yet the event was represented as a gallant
On the night of the 6th of February, 1813, Captain Forsythe, with
200 of his command and some so-called gentlemen volunteers, made an
attack on Brockville, coming across from Morristown on the ice. At
that time Brockville was but a struggling village. It was considered
of no consequence from a military standpoint and there was posted
there but one company of the Leeds Militia. I am sorry to say that
the captain, officers and men of this company, excepting one sentry,
were sound asleep in their beds when the attack was made. Forsythe
had a six-pounder about the centre of the river on the ice. The sentry
was wounded, the officers and about 20 militiamen were captured as
were also about thirty residents. The detachment and gentlemen vol-
unteers proceeded to break into and plunder the houses in the village
and to throw open the jail. They carried off provisions, horses, and
cattle. Among the residents captured were several veterans of the
American Revolutionary War, who according to the custom of the time
had been given honorary military titles by their neighbors. Forsythe
consequently reported having taken as his prisoners so many Majors,
Captains, etc., and so many rifles, leading his readers to infer that he
had captured a large military force. As a matter of fact the bulk of
the rifles he took were securely boxed up en route to the force at Pres-
cott, to which force most of the able-bodied men of the village were
The force at Prescott was about 500 strong, under the command of
Colonel Pearson. He sent Major Macdonell of the Glengarry Fen-
cibles, Light Infantry (known as '"Red George"), to proceed with a
flag of truce to Ogdensburg to remonstrate against such expeditions.
Macdonell was received by the officers at Ogdensburg with extreme
discourtesy, with taunts and boasting. Forsythe, the officer in com-
mand, was no whit behind his subordinates in insolence, and suggested
that the two forces should try their strength on the ice. Macdonell
replied that in two days he, himself, would be in command at Prescott
and that then he would be happy to accommodate them.
Two days later Macdonell succeeded to the command at Prescott,
but on that same evening Sir George Prevost arrived there on his way
from Quebec to Kingston. The British Government had not even by
this time relinquished the idea that the United States did not really
intend to fight with their own kith and kin and had impressed their
62 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
views upon Prevost. Consequently, when Macdonell reported to him
all that had taken place and asked authority to attack Ogdensburg,
Prevost would not entertain his request, saying .that he did not desire
by any hostile acts to keep up a spirit of enmity.
Macdonell then tried another method, and a few hours later told
Prevost that two men had deserted and gone over to Ogdensburg, and
that in all probability Forsythe would by that time know of his, the
Governor-General's, presence, in Prescott. He suggested that the Gov-
ernor-General should at once start for Kingston with a small escort
while he, Macdonell, would make a demonstration in force on the ice,
to keep the enemy occupied. The Governor finally reluctantly con-
sented and started at daybreak on 22nd February, 1813, for Kingston,
and Major Macdonell at once commenced arrangements to meet
Forsythe as promised.
Sir George Prevost evidently repented after leaving Prescott, for
on arriving at Brockville he wrote a note (which he headed " Flint's
Inn"), to Macdonell instructing him on no account to exceed his
instructions and do anything of a hostile nature. This note he
despatched by a galloper, who, fortunately, was too late. Macdonell
received the note in Ogdensburg about eight o'clock a.m.
At Ogdensburg there was an old French Fort, once known as Fort
Presentation. It was situated just south of where the lighthouse now
stands. The village was on the east side of the Oswegatchie River,
which flows into the St. Lawrence at that point, and protected by a bat-
tery of heavy field artillery stationed on an eminence near the shore.
Forsythe had under his command at Ogdensburg between five hundred
and one thousand men, His own report says five hundred, while Mac-
donell estimated them at one thousand.
Macdonell had a force of 480 officers and men. The composition
of his force represented many portions of the Empire. Owing to the
state of the ice, which is said to have been quite weak and dangerous
for so many to cross at once, and owing also to the position of the enemy
in the old Fort, the force was divided into two columns. The right,
commanded by Captain Jenkins, of New Brunswick, was composed of
a flank company of the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, and 70
Canadian Militia. Captain Jenkins' orders were to check the enemy's
left and intercept his retreat, while the left column under Colonel Mac-
donell himself (who was now Lieutenant-Colonel, in command of the
Eastern District of Upper Canada), moved towards his position in the
village. This left column was composed of 120 of the King's Regi-
ment (Liverpool), some of the 41st (Welsh), 40 of the Royal New-
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 63
foundlanders, and about 200 Canadian militia, among whom were
When approaching the south side of the river the snow was found
to be very deep, and the advance of both columns was retarded and
both became exposed, particularly the right, to a heavy cross-fire from
the batteries of the enemy for a longer period than anticipated. But
pushing on rapidly, the left column gained the right bank of the river
under the direct fire of the enemy's artillery and line of musketry and
their right was turned by a detachement of the King's Regiment, their
artillery was captured by a bayonet charge, and their infantry driven
through the town. Some escaped across the Oswegatchie into the fort,
others fled to the woods or sought refuge in the houses, from whence
they kept up such a volume of fire that it became necessary to dislodge
them with our guns, which now came up from the banks of the river
where they had stuck in the deep snow.
Macdonell had now gained the high ground on the east side of
the Oswegatchie (or Black River, as it was then called), and was in
a position to assault the fort, but his men were exhausted by the^rapid
rush across the river, through the snow and up the bank. He gained
a breathing spell for them by sending in under a flag of truce a demand
for unconditional surrender. To this Forsythe replied that there must
first be some more fighting.
During this time Captain Jenkins had led on his column and had
encountered deep snow, when he became exposed to a heavy fire from
seven guns, which he at once attempted to take with the bayonet, al-
though they were covered by 200 of the enemy's best troops.
Advancing as rapidly as he could through the deep snow he ordered
a charge and had not proceeded many paces before his left arm was
shattered by a grape shot; but still he undauntedly ran on at the head
of his men, when his right arm was shot; still he ran on cheering his
men to the assault until exhausted by pain and loss of blood he fell,
unable to move. His company gallantly continued the charge under
Lieutenant McAulay, but had come to a standstill, stuck in the snow
just at the moment when Macdonell's column came swarming over
the Oswegatchie river headed by a Highland company of militia
under 'Captain Eustace and rushed the fort. The enemy retreated
rapidly by the opposite entrance and escaped into the woods, our right
column being unable to intercept them.
Among others mentioned in the despatch of Colonel Macdonell
besides Captains Jenkins and Eustace we find Colonel Fraser, who
was in command of the militia, an ancestor of Colonel R. D. Fraser,
64 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
a former well-known officer of Brockville. The British losses were 8
killed and 52 wounded, among the latter being Colonel Macdonell
The American losses were 20 killed and 150 wounded, while four
officers and 70 privates were taken prisoners. Eleven guns were cap-
tured, among them being two twelve-pounders, surrendered by Bur-
goyne in 1777. There was also a large quantity of ordnance and mili-
tary stores of all descriptions. Two barracks were burned, also two
armed schooners, and two large gun-boats, which being frozen in the
ice, could not be moved. The honor of this action was not tarnished
by any looting in spite of the way the Americans had plundered
Gananoque and Brockville. Macdonell would not let his followers
help themselves to so much as a twist of -tobacco ; he even paid American
teamsters four dollars a day for their labor in hauling the military
stores across to Prescott.
During the following spring and summer success varied. The
Americans captured York (now Toronto), then suffered humiliating
defeat at Stoney Creek and Beaver Dams. Again the United States
Navy were successful on Lake Erie and their army followed it up
by beating Proctor in the Battle of the Thames, where Tecumseh, the
great Indian chief, is supposed to have been killed. Then they drove
our forces in the Niagara Peninsula back to Burlington Heights.
Things looked gloomy for Canada.
The Americans had still their Army of the North at Lake Cham-
plain, now under General Hampton. It had for nearly a year been
constantly drilled under Major-General Izard, who had served two
campaigns in the French army. These troops were all well uniformed
and equipped, and the most efficient regular army which the United
States were able to send into the field during the war.
At this time another army of from ten to twelve thousand (Ameri-
can reports admit ten thousand), were assembled at Grenadier Island,
eighteen miles below Sackett's Harbor, with a huge fleet of boats called
the Invincible Armada of the St. Lawrence.
It was planned that with the aid of their navy in Lake Ontario,
under Admiral Chauncey, they were to capture Kingston, then come
down the river, as a mere matter of detail take Prescott en route, and
uniting with Hampton's army near St. Regis, sweep on to Montreal
and so wind up matters. There was to be a triumphal entry into
Montreal where they would take up comfortable winter quarters.
Such was the plan, but the best laid plans of mice and men gang
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 65
First let us follow the fate of Hampton and his Army of the North.
He was at Burlington, Vermont. His intentions were unknown to the
British. It was supposed that they were to march up the valley of
the Richelieu to Montreal. A corps of observation was sent out under
Colonel de Salaberry with instructions to move parallel to the American
army, breaking up and obstructing the roads in his front and molesting
him in every possible way.
De Salaberry was a French-Canadian gentleman who had entered
the British army at an early age and having served eleven years
returned to Canada. He raised a regiment of Canadian Voltigeurs.
The Eastern Townships during the Old Regime remained an al-
most unbroken wilderness. During the "War of Independence' ' this
wilderness proved an important barrier against invasion and in the
War of 1812 materially retarded the operations of the hostile armies.
Colonel Macdonell (Red George), had lately been appointed to
the command of a regiment of French-Canadian Fencibles, and was
at Kingston organizing and drilling them. On October 20th, Sir
George Prevost, then at Kingston, heard rumors of approaching
activity on Hampton's part and determined to go down to the
Beauharnois frontier to see how matters were. Just as he was about
to start at noon he met Macdonell and asked him how soon he hoped
to have his corps in shape for active service. "As soon as they have
finished dinner, sir," was the reply, so Prevost ordered him to bring
them down to the assistance of De Salaberry, telling him of the infor-
mation which he had received ; and Prevost started on his journey.
Macdonell promptly procured boats, embarked his regiment, ran
down the river and rapids, crossed Lake St. Francis in a storm, then
threaded twenty miles of forest in single file in the dead of night and
arrived just in time to assist De Salaberry, having travelled 170 miles
by water and twenty by land in sixty hours, actual travel, and not one
In the meantime Hampton had left Burlington and marched on
and captured Odelltown in apparently a straight line towards Mon-
treal, but instead of proceeding directly he turned partially back and
then westerly until he arrived at Chateauguay Four Corners, just
on the American side of the border. He arrived there on the 24th of
September and awaited orders. Four roads converged at this point,
running, one towards Lake Champlain, another westerly towards Og-
densburg, another followed the Chateauguay River northeasterly to
the St. Lawrence at Chateauguay and another more easterly.
While Hampton remained at Four Corners, De Salaberry could
not divine which route he was likely to take. Hampton received orders
66 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
on 21st October to move towards the St. Lawrence. De Salaberry, in
order to reconnoitre, attacked Hampton's outposts and evidently
obtained reliable information that Hampton meant to advance along
the Chateauguay. Accordingly he took up a position on the northern
bank of the Chateauguay along which the road ran, his left resting on
the river, his front and right guarded by a series of natural ditches or
ravines strengthened by rough barricades. He constructed an outwork
of fallen trees across the road about a mile in advance of the main
defences, in order to give a first halt to the advancing enemy. The
weak point of the position was that just below it there was a ford, by
which, if not securely guarded, the Americans, if they came down the
south bank, could cross and take the defenders in the rear. But he
placed a company of his Voltigeurs in a hidden spot on this bank.
On the 23rd and 24th Hampton had succeeded in establishing a
line of communication with Ogdensburg, and having brought up his
artillery and stores, on the 25th he matured his scheme of attack.
One column was to cross the Chateauguay, to advance along its southern
bank, to seize the ford and recross in rear of the enemy ; the main force
was to advance on the northern bank through six or seven miles of open
country into the woodland where De Salaberry was posted, and charge
his position by a frontal attack. The column on the southern bank,
3,000 strong, under Colonel Purdy, started on the night of the 25th.
On the morning of the 26th the main body of about 4,000, under Gen-
eral Izard, regarded as the ablest officer of the United States forces,
moved slowly forward along the road on the northern bank of the river.
De Salaberry had under his immediate command 300 French-
Canadians, composed of some of his Voltigeurs and some Beauharnois
militia, and also fifty Indians under Captain Lamothe. In reserve he
had Colonel MacdonelPs Regiment of French-Canadian Fencibles, 600
strong. With the exception of Colonel Macdonell and Captains Fer-
guson and Daly there was not a person of British blood on the field.
De Salaberry was without artillery or cavalry at any time, while
Hampton had 180 cavalry and ten field guns. Purdy 's column was
first engaged by a handful of Beauharnois militia, who were pushed
back, and Purdy made for the ford, expecting to occupy it with little
opposition, but a company of Colonel Macdonell's regiment under
Captain Daly had been sent across the river and received him with a
well-directed fire. It is stated that Macdonell had taught his men to
shoot while kneeling this was apparently something new in those days.
On this occasion it appears to have worked well. Even so, however,
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 67
Daly had to retire before the Americans and was himself severely
wounded. Immediately above the ford the river took a sharp bend
towards the east, and it was just at this bend that De Salaberry had
posted his company in hiding. Purdy was eagerly pressing Daly's
company back when this company of Voltigeurs suddenly poured a volley
into his flank. The surprise was perfect his column stopped, and
the firing on his front and flank became heavier ; at the same moment
many British bugles from many directions were heard blowing the
advance, and loud Indian cries came floating across the river. He
thought he was opposed by thousands, and believing it impossible to
cross the ford against such opposition he ordered a retreat, but even
when he got out of range of our forces the firing on his column did not
cease, for an excited body of Americans on the other side of the river,
mistaking their identity, fired several furious volleys into them before
the mistake was apparent.
Meanwhile De Salaberry and his 300 Voltigeurs were out about a
mile in advance to meet the main body of the enemy, and along they
(the enemy) came with cavalry and artillery.
A small working party first met them and retired into a line of
skirmishers ; these made Izard deploy into line, and the working party
then retired behind the abattis where De Salaberry was stationed. A
heavy fire was opened on both sides. The Voltigeurs 300 of them
against 4,000 at one time broke and started to bolt, all but one man
and a boy. The man was De Salaberry, and the boy was a bugler whom
De Salaberry had grabbed by the collar and forced to sound the advance.
Macdonell, back in the reserve, heard the bugle, and, interpreting it
as a demand for support, caused his own bugles to sound and his men
to cheer; he sent the buglers through the woods with instructions to
separate and to continue blowing; he also called upon the Indians to
yell with all their strength, and he rushed forward with his Fencibles
to De Salaberry's assistance, the Voltigeurs going back with him.
The opposition then put up against the United States force was so
brisk that with the cries and bugle sounds they hesitated, then halted.
In such a crisis to halt was to court defeat, and shortly afterwards they
broke and retired, a vigorous fire following them. There was no
attempt to reform or to return the attack. Hampton believed that he
had been opposed by a force of 7,000. Upwards of ninety bodies and
graves were found upon the right bank of the river, and also a con-
siderable number of muskets, knapsacks, etc., showing the confusion
68 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
with which Hampton's column retreated. Twenty prisoners were cap-
tured. The Canadian loss was two killed and sixteen wounded.
Hampton retreated with his full force to Chateauguay Four Corners^
harassed by the Canadians and Indians, 100 odd more of whom had
arrived. On the llth November Hampton retired to Plattsburg, and
thus ended the invasion of Canada by the Army of the North.
Returning now to Grenadier Island, where Wilkinson had finally
on 1st November mobilized his army of 10,000. He was in blissful
ignorance of Hampton's defeat and was acting under the full belief
that Hampton's army was advancing victoriously through Lower Canada
to join him at St. Regis. Wilkinson had been greatly delayed by rough
weather, which had for some time prevented some of his troops leaving
Sackett's Harbor to join him at Grenadier Island.
On 1st November, while the United States fleet on Lake Ontario
under Chauncey attempted to blockade the British squadron under
Yeo at Kingston, Wilkinson moved his vanguard and artillery to French
Creek, about twenty miles down the St. Lawrence on the south shore,
where is now the town of Clayton. In spite of Chauricey's blockade,
two sloops, two schooners and four gunboats got out of Kingston and
attacked them at French Creek, doing much damage on the afternoon
of the 1st and forenoon of the 2nd, when Chauncey 's fleet arrived in
force and the British boats drew off, eluded him and got safely away
through the islands.
On 5th November Wilkinson started down the river with his
Invincible Armada of the St. Lawrence. He had given up all idea of
attacking Kingston, owing to his delay in starting, it is said, but per-
haps also because of Chauncey's failure to keep the British boats bottled
up in Kingston. Wilkinson had a force of 10,000, as shown by his own
reports. He is said to have had eight Generals in his army. At any
rate he had four Brigades, commanded by Generals Boyd, Brown, Cov-
ington and Swartout. He had upwards of three hundred boats and
scows, as well as twelve heavy gunboats. He had two twenty-four-
pounders mounted on scows, so that they could be fired in any direction,
and he had all the St. Lawrence river pilots of the United States. It
must have been a grand sight to one on the south shore, to see this
enormous flotilla glide down our beautiful river, through the Thousand
Islands, but it was not all peaceful gliding. Vigorous pursuit was at
once instituted from Kingston. A force of 600 in eight gunboats with
three field pieces eluded Chauncey's fleet and followed fast, under
Captain Mulcaster, of the Navy. These boats were heavier and slower
MILITAKY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 69
than Wilkinson's batteaux and Durham boats. One of the British gun-
boats, the Nelson, required eighty men to row her, forty on each side.
She had mounted a thirty-two-pounder and a twenty-four-pounder.
Whenever it could prove effective, artillery and musketry were dis-
charged at the Armada. Wilkinson, late that first night, reached a
point on the American shore seven miles above Ogdensburg. There he
remained throughout the 6th, and issued an address to the inhabitants of
Canada offering protection to those who remained quiet at home, whilst
those taken in arms would be treated as enemies.
Because of the batteries at Prescott the troops were landed with the
ammunition, and on the night of the 6th the boats with muffled oars
dropped down along the American shore, and on the following morning
were rejoined below Ogdensburg by the army, which had marched by
Ogdensburg overland. That day a force of about 1,200 men was
landed on the Canadian side to march down parallel with the boats and
clear the way, for the river is narrower and much damage could be
done from the shore. On the 8th a further body of cavalry was landed
on the same shore, and the next day the whole expedition reached a
point near the head of the Long Sault Rapids. At the head of the
rapids Brown's Brigade of 2,500 men were landed, and the next day
marched down towards Cornwall, being delayed by a small militia
force under Captain Dennis, who broke the bridges and held the Ameri-
cans in check. In the meantime the flotilla was waiting at the head of
the rapids for intelligence that Brown had cleared the bank, and most
of the remaining force had been landed under General Boyd to protect,
the rear from the British force in their wake, which numbered about
600 when it left Kingston. It was made up of the 89th, under strength,
and a portion of the 49th, and was under command of Colonel Morrison,
of the 89th. With him was Colonel Harvey, D.A.G., the hero of Stoney
Creek. At Prescott they picked up two more companies of the 49th,
some Canadian Fencibles and some militia, a small party of Indians and
another six-pounder gun numbering, altogether, something over 800.
On the morning of the llth, while Wilkinson, having heard from Brown,
was giving orders for the American flotilla to run the rapids, the British
gunboats opened fire, and at the same time Boyd reported that Morrison
was pressing him on land. Wilkinson accordingly instructed him to
turn about and beat them off, and in the middle of the day the battle of
Chrysler's Farm took place. Boyd had about 2,500 men, including
cavalry, and later in the fight was further reinforced. His cavalry
was posted on the road on his left.
TO ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Morrison, probably under Harvey's advice, had chosen his ground
well. He rested his right on the river, his left on a pine wood, both
flanks being thus protected by nature. The intervening distance of
open ground was about seven hundred yards. Next the river were three
companies of the 89th, with one gun ; away in front, athwart the road,
were the flank companies of the 49th, with some Canadians and a gun,
under Colonel Pearson; on the left and in echelon thrown back arid
reaching to the wood, was the remainder of the regiment, with the third
gun. In the wood were the Canadian Voltigeurs and Indians, whose
duty it was to skirmish in advance and draw the Americans on to the
main British position.
The fight began by the skirmishers being driven in on the British
left, which was followed by an attack in force upon that side of the
position about 2.30 p.m. The Americans came within range before
they deployed, and during deployment regular volleys by platoons were
poured into them and beat them off in disorder. General Covington
then came on the field with his brigade, and an attempt was made to
outflank and crush our right nearest the river. During this attempt
General Covington was killed. The British gunboats immediately
afterwards succeeded in firing some shrapnel into the ranks of the
enemy. The advanced party of the 49th made a counter charge for
one of the enemy's guns, but was pulled up by a threatened American
cavalry charge. The 89th nearest the river then rushed forward in
support, and together they beat off the dragoons and took the gun. This
decided the battle. The Americans after two hours' fighting retreated,
and their infantry was taken on board the boats and down the river,
while the cavalry and artillery followed on land.
The Canadian casualties were 3 officers and 21 men killed, 8 officers
and 137 men wounded, and 12 missing, in all 181 out of 800. Ameri-
can official reports put their casualties at 102 killed and 253 wounded,
which included General Covington amongst those killed; 180 prisoners
were taken and one gun captured. Colonel Harvey, D.A.G., in a letter
dated Chrysler's, 12th November, says there were at least 4,000 Ameri-
cans engaged, and he ascribes our success to the steady countenance of
our men and to superiority of fire, our regiments firing regularly in
volleys by platoons and wings, while the Americans' fire was entirely
irregular. He says the enemy left 180 dead on the field.
The next day Wilkinson learned of Hampton's defeat and retreat
to Lake Champlain, and he decided to give up all idea of attacking
Montreal. Accordingly he took his forces across the river and went
into winter quarters at French Mills and Malone. In February the
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN EASTERN ONTARIO, WAR OF 1812. 71
army was broken up. It had been always harassed by the Canadians.
Thus failed the Invincible Armada of the St. Lawrence.
Before the end of the year, under General Gordon Drummond, who
had taken command in Upper Canada, the Americans were driven out
of the Niagara Peninsula, and Canada was free of them.
The next year Britain was able to spare more troops, and soon the
seat of war was removed to the United States ; and on 24th December,
1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed.
DEFENCE OF ESSEX DURING THE WAK OF 1812.*
BY FRANCIS CLEARY, WINDSOR, ONT.
The Essex Historical Society determined last year to place a tablet
on the River Canard Bridge to record the engagements which took place
there between the British and American troops during the above war.
This tablet has recently been completed and placed in position. It is of
bronze, with raised letters, and is 19 by 24 1 /2 inches in size, and bears
the following inscription :
This marks the place
of several engagements
British and United States
troops in defence of
the River Canard Bridge,
where First Blood was
shed during the War of
July 24th, 1812.
At a meeting of the Essex Historical Society held at the Public
Library here on May 3rd, 1911, a paper was read by one of the mem-
bers, Mr. Gavin, containing a short account of the events which took
place in and around this county during the war, part of which may be
In the " Journal of an American Prisoner at Fort Maiden and Quebec
in the War of 1812," edited by G. M. Fairchild, Jr., and published at
Quebec in 1909, after stating how the Journal came into his possession,
in the preface or historical note he says : " Anticipating the formal de-
claration of war, President Miadison during the winter of 1811-1812 com-
missioned Gov. Wm. Hull, of the Territory of Michigan, as a Brigadier
General to command the Ohio and Michigan troops at Detroit, with the
understanding that immediately upon the announcement of war he was
* Presented at the Annnal Meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Napanee, Ont., 1912.
DEFENCE OF ESSEX DURING WAR OF 1812. 73
to invade all that part of Canada contiguous to Detroit. On June 24th,
1812, General Hull, with several thousand troops, had arrived at Fort
Findlay. Here he received despatches from Washington to hasten his
forces to Detroit. When the troops arrived at the mouth of the Maumee
River, Hull determined to relieve his tired men of as much baggage as
possible by dispatching it by water. Accordingly a considerable por-
tion of the stores, Hull's and his staff's personal baggage, and the trunk
containing Hull's instructions and the muster rolls of the army, together
with other valuable papers, and Lieut. Goodwin and Lieut. Dent, with
thirty soldiers, were transferred to the Cuyahoga packet and an
" On the morning of the 2nd July the Cuyahoga and the schooner
entered the Detroit River, and while sailing past Fort Maiden (Am-
herstburg), the British armed vessel Hunter went alongside the Cuya-
hoga, and vessel and cargo became a prize, while the crew, troops and
passengers, forty-five in all, were declared prisoners of war. The
schooner was also captured. Col. St. George, the commander at Fort
Maiden, had received the news of the declaration of war on the 30th of
June, while General Hull received it only on the 2nd July, when he
immediately sent an officer to the mouth of the River Raisin in Michigan
to intercept the two vessels, but he arrived too late. In the capture of
these two vessels, valuable stores and still more valuable information
fell into the hands of the British."
On July 12th General Hull crossed with his army of 2,500 from
Detroit and took possession of the Town of Sandwich, the few British
troops stationed there retiring to Maiden. It was at this time that
General Hull pitched his tents on the Indian Reserve at Sandwich for
his 2,500 soldiers, and remained there until shortly before the arrival
of General Brock at Amherstburg, when he returned to the Fort at
The Journal in question begins July 1st, 1812, and some of the
events therein recorded, from such observations as were possible to a
prisoner and from stray information, are worth mentioning in connec-
tion with what took place on this border at the time. The journey from
Maiden to Quebec is recounted almost day by day, until the prisoner
with others was sent to Boston for exchange. Here are a few extracts
(taking some liberties with the spelling and grammar) .
" July 1st, 1812. After a long and tedious march, I, with the sick,
went on board the Cuyahoga packet at Maumee. Doctor Edwards,
Surgeon General of the North- Western Army, gave me charge of the
hospital stores and sick to go by water to Detroit. We sailed about
74 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
4 p.m. At sunset we anchored for the night, and about 4 o'clock in the
morning we weighed anchor and with a fair wind entered Lake Erie,
thinking we should be at Detroit by 3 o'clock in the afternoon. To our
surprise, as we were about to enter Detroit Eiver, we saw a boat that
hailed us and ordered our captain to lower sail. I thought it im-
proper to make any resistance, as I had not been informed that war had
been declared. Lieut. Goodwin, two other officers, three ladies and two
soldiers' wives, making in all forty-five in number on board, it would
have been imprudent in the highest degree to have attempted to resist a
boat of eight well armed men and a captain, and another of five men who
demanded us as prisoners of war when we were nearly under the cover of
the guns of Fort Maiden. We gave ourselves up, and were taken into
Maiden on July 4th. We were surrounded with savages singing and
dancing their war dances through the town. O heavens ! what a glory
sun for independence ! Can any person describe the feelings of a free
born subject, to see the savages dancing their war dance and hooting
about the town, and to be confined when we knew they were preparing
to murder our fellow creatures.
" July 5th. Some gentlemen from our side came from Detroit with
a flag of truce and brought news that our army had arrived there safe,
and that the men were in tolerable health and spirits."
This no doubt refers to the fact that Col. Cass was sent to Maiden
with a flag of truce to demand the baggage and prisoners taken from the
schooner. The demand was unheeded, and he returned to camp with
Captain Burbanks of the British army.
" July 12th, Sunday. The American troops crossed the river into
Sandwich and divested the people of their arms and sent them to their
"July 16th. Captain Brown came to town with a flag of truce, on
what express news we knew not, but could judge by the movements.
Two top-sail vessels were sent out of the river and the people were mov-
ing out of the town at night.
" July 17th. The Indians were flocking into town all morning. It
appeared by 10 o'clock that almost every person had left the town." Mr.
Fairchild's footnote to this is to the effect that on the 16th Col. Cass of
the American army, with a force of about 280 men, pushed forward to
the Ta-ron-tee, or Kiviere Aux Canards, about four miles above Maiden,
and engaged the British outposts guarding the bridge across the river.
The British and Indians retreated. Hull retired the force to Sand-
wich, as he said the position was untenable with so small a force.
DEFENCE OF ESSEX DURING WAR OF 1812. 75
"July 19th, Sunday. There was considerable movement to-day;
the Indians again passed armed, and about 2 p.m. we heard firing to-
The footnotes to this are as follows: " On the 18th July Gen. Hull
issued an order for a general movement on Fort Maiden. Col. He-
Arthur, with a detachment of his regiment, joined Captain Snelling on
the 19th at Petite Cote, about a mile from Aux Canards Bridge. A
general skirmish ensued with the Indians under command of Tecumseh,
and McArthur was compelled to fall back. He sent for reinforcements,
and Col. Cass hastened to his aid with a six-pounder, but after another
short engagement with the Indians and the British supports that had
been hastened to their assistance, the American forces returned to Sand-
" Another engagement took place July 24th, When Major Denny
and a considerable force of Americans were engaged with some Indians,
and retreated in considerable confusion pursued by the Indians. Denny
lost six killed and two wounded. This was the first blood shed in the
" August 2nd, Sunday. Nothing extra. The Indians commence to
cross to Brownstown (now Trenton, Mich.), with British and officers."
This is followed with short notes of what took place up to the following
Sunday, viz. : " On 3rd soldiers and Indians crossed to Brownstown,
twelve boats loaded ; I should ju<Jge about 400 in numbers. On 4th the
troops crossed the river as they did yesterday, and returned about 8
o'clock in the evening. 5th. The Indians crossed the river about 11
o'clock, and people appeared very much alarmed. A party of them re-
turned about sunset, but the boats had few in them." Col. Proctor, who
was then in command at Amherstburg, detached the Indians under
Tecumseh across the river to intercept a convoy that Major Van Home
and a force of Americans had been sent to safely conduct within the
American lines, and on the 5th August Tecumseh badly defeated Van
Home's force of Americans near Brownstown. This victory, however,
was reversed on Sunday, 9th, at the battle of Magagua, where Col.
Miller, in command of the Americans, defeated the British and Indians,
and drove them to their boats, when they returned to Maiden.
The Journal entries under dates of August 14th, 15th and 16th are
shortly as follows : " Friday, 14th. There were five boats came up
loaded with soldiers and five more this morning with from 15 to 20 men
in each, making in all about 170 men; another boat arrived about 11
o'clock with 20 men ; the new soldiers all appeared to leave town about
76 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
" Saturday, 15th. Foggy; the drums beat to arms about sunrise and
the troops were all in motion. The citizens all entered boats for Detroit,
as I am told. The Indians went by boats, by land 300. About sunset
the cannons began to roar at Sandwich.
" Sunday, 16th. Pleasant weather but unpleasant news. We heard
about noon that Hull had given up Detroit and the whole territory of
Michigan. The Indians began to return about sunset, well mounted
and some with horses."
This news was soon confirmed. As a matter of history it is known
that Gen. Brock had left Niagara shortly before this date and joined
Col. Proctor at Fort Maiden on the night of the 13th August with 300
militia and a few regulars, and had marched the following day with the
forces under his command and taken possession of Sandwich, which had
been abandoned by the Americans. About 4 o'clock on the afternoon
of the 15th a general cannonading began between the British at Sand-
wich and the Americans at Detroit. Considerable damage was done by
the British artillery, and several American officers were killed. Two
guns on the British side were silenced by the American artillery.
During the night the British crossed to the Detroit side of the river and
prepared for an assault on the town. The guns at Sandwich opened a
heavy cannonading and their range was so accurate that many were
slain. The capitulation of Gen. Hull early followed; by the terms of
surrender the American militia were paroled and allowed to return
to their homes, but the regulars were declared to be prisoners of war and
were sent on board the prison ships.
The American prisoner continues his narrative, giving a detailed
account of the journey of the prisoners of war by sea and by land until
they reached Quebec on the evening of the llth September.
The next issue of the Quebec Gazette newspaper contains the follow-
ing item : " The officers and regular troops of the American army taken
at Detroit and which have no permission to return to their parole, ar-
rived at Anse des Meres Friday afternoon, escorted by a detachment of
the Kegiment of Three Eivers. The prisoners, with the exception of the
officers, were immediately embarked in boats for the transports. The
officers were lodged in the city for the night, and the following day were
conducted to Charlesbourg, where they will be domiciled on parole/'
And the Quebec Mercury of the 28th October, 1812, contains the follow-
ing: " The prisoners taken at Detroit and brought down to Quebec are
on the point of embarking for Boston for the purpose of being exchanged.
Five cannon are now lying at the Chateau Court taken at Detroit."
DEFENCE OF ESSEX DURING WAR OF 1812. 77
In the diary of Wm. McCaw, a militiaman from Niagara, and who
was with Gen. Brock at the taking of Detroit, Aug. 16, 1812, many of
the items in the American Prisoner's Journal are corroborated.
In going through the Fort at Detroit after the capitulation he says
he saw several of the soldiers who had been killed and a number of the
It is worthy of mention here that Captain Frederick Rolette played
an important part in the capture of the Cuyahoga packet already men-
tioned, and also in many of the important events of this war which took
place subsequently. Frederick Rolette was educated at the Quebec
Seminary, and when a mere lad entered the Royal Navy. He saw much
active service, and received no less than five wounds at the battles of
Aboukir and Trafalgar. He returned to Canada in 1807, and shortly
afterwards was appointed to the Provincial Marine. By commission
of October 4th, 1808, he was nominated second lieutenant in His
Majesty's Provincial Marine. In 1812 he received promotion to the rank
of first lieutenant in H. M. Provincial Marine, and was given command
of the brig General Hunter, commissioned to cruise on Lake Erie.
During the early days of Hull's invasion of Upper Canada in 1812, the
General Hunter was in Amherstburg harbor, when Rolette espied a
United States vessel approach, and put out towards her in a boat with
eight armed men. Boarding the stranger, he was surprised, but not
alarmed, apparently, to find himself on the deck of a Government vessel,
the Cuyahoga packet, with four officers and forty men of the United
States army on board, besides her own crew.
His pluck and presence of mind did not desert him. Placing one of
his sailors as a sentry over the arm-chest and others at the companion-
way, he issued orders in a loud voice to shoot down the first man who
showed any disposition to resist. For a time his boldness had the de-
sired effect, but before long some of the United States officers, chagrined
at their position, began to make menacing demonstration. At this time
the prize was approaching Fort Maiden. Rolette, in a menacing voice,
ordered the Cuyahoga to be run in under the guns of the battery. This
quelled all idea of an uprising on the part of the Americans, and rein-
forcements conveniently arriving, the prize, which proved to be of great
value, was secured.
Rolette served ashore with distinction under Brock at the capture of
Detroit, and in the operations with Proctor on the River Raisin, being
seriously wounded while commanding a naval gun detachment at
Frenchtown. During the war he served successively on the schooner
Chippewa, the sloop Little Belt, and the nineteen-gun ship, De~
78 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
troit. In the action on Lake Erie at Put-in Bay, Sept. 10th, 1813, he
assumed command, though wounded, of the Lady Prevost, after her
captain was killed, and was again very dangerously wounded when the
magazines blew up. He was taken prisoner of war and held in captivity
for several months. Upon his return to Canada he was presented with
a sword of honor by his classmates of the Quebec Seminary.
It is fitting that something should be said here of the services ren-
dered to the British by Tecumseh, the brave Shawnee chief, in repelling
the attacks made by the Americans on those defending the Essex fron-
tier during this war. He was with the British with his Indian allies in
many of the engagements, including the capture of Detroit. It was
much against his will that he joined in the retreat with Proctor from
Detroit in October, 1813. The particulars of the battle at Moravian-
town, where he gave up his life, are too well known to be repeated here.
Surely something should be done to erect a monument or other suit-
able memorial in testimony of his services. The question of where this
should be erected has been much discussed. Various suggestions have
been made. We would respectfully submit that it should be at or near
Thamesville, where he gave up his life in the defence of his country, or
at the Town of Amherstburg, where he was an active participator in the
many stirring events in and around its vicinity.
THE ECONOMIC EFFECT OF THE WAR OF 1812 ON
BY ADAM SHORTT, C.M.G., M.A., F'.R.S.C., OTTAWA, ONT.
In considering the economic conditions of any country, and especi-
ally of a new country, many considerations have to be taken into account
besides a mere survey of prices, rates of profit, or volume of trade. Only
when we know the social and economic atmosphere of the various dis-
tricts, the conditions of transportation, labor, local production, etc., can
we come to any rational conclusions. Thus, in dealing with the econ-
omic condition of Upper Canada before, during, and after the War of
1812, we require to know not only the isolated facts as to prices and
values, but the general setting of the country, geographical, social and
In its early days there were two or three important general con-
ditions which vitally affected the economic development of the Province
of Upper Canada. In the first place, the frontier settlements of Ontario
were planted much earlier than the corresponding regions of the adjoin-
ing states to the south of the lakes. The first settlers, being for the most
part United Empire Loyalists, enjoyed the benefit of having been especi-
ally outfitted by the British Government and partially supported at its
expense for several years. For various reasons, partly accidental and
partly of an international nature, the Government established strong
garrisons along the Canadian frontier, contributed largely to the sup-
jport of the civil government, and undertook certain public works. The
I ^requirements of these establishments created very profitable local mar-
kets for the limited produce of the early settlers, much of which could
not support the expense of shipment from the country. They furnished
also a strong market for labor, so that during the first ten years of
Upper Canada's existence as a separate province, the economic condi-
tion of the country was, on the whole, very satisfactory, especially along
the frontier settlements, where the people had access to both local and
central markets. The most important trade of the province in both
exports and imports was conducted for a considerable time by Messrs.
* Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Napanee, Ont., 1912.
80 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Cartwright and Hamilton, who were originally partners and always
close business associates. In various capacities, the Honorable Kichard
Cartwright was associated with practically all the business of Upper
Canada. These varied interests are fully represented in his commercial
and general letter-books, which constitute the most extensive and ac-
curate sources of information as to the more important affairs of Upper
Canada, between the first settlement of the province in 1785 and the
close of the War of 1812. This information is supplemented and con-
firmed by many special papers in the Canadian Archives, and by more
fragmentary letters and records drawn from various private sources.
From these various sources we find that the early settlers of Upper
Canada were by no means dependent upon their own resources for the
establishment and development of the province. In other words, they
were not compelled to pay for what they imported by furnishing exports
to be disposed of in distant markets. Otherwise, their struggle for exist-
ence would have been much harder than it was, for few of them had
much capital and not many of them had much experience in making
their way in the wilderness. The most successful element from the
point of view of individual resources, with a knowledge of agricultural
conditions in a new country, were the subsequent American immigrants,
uch as the Quakers and others, who settled in Prince Edward County,
and in other districts along the Bay of Quinte, the Niagara region, and
at various points along the north shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie.
When the American settlers began to develop along the south shore
of the lakes, they naturally depended upon the Canadians for the larger
mat of their food supplies, as well as for much of their imported Euro-
|/pean goods. These settlements proved to be very valuable and high-priced
markets for Canadian produce. Thus it was, that, except for an odd
year now and again, the greater part of the Upper Canadian agricul-
tural produce found local markets. In such cases the price of agricul-
tural produce in western Canada, instead of being determined by the
price in Britain less the cost of transportation, insurance, commission
and duty, expressed a local demand only, the limit of which was the
price in Britain plus these items; because in those days, and occasion-
ally in the future, Canada found it necessary to import food supplies
It is a common mistake to suppose that since the forests have been
largely cleared from the basin of the Great Lakes, the rainfall has been
lessened and drouth is more common. The fact is that drouth was at
least as common and the rise and fall of the lakes was as much com-
mented upon over a hundred years ago as to-day. The period from 1794
ECONOMIC EFFECT OF WAR OF 1812 ON UPPER CANADA. 81
to 1797 was an exceptionally dry one, and the people, with little past
experience, were alarmed at the prospect of the permanent lowering of
the Great Lakes. Crops suffered severely from drouth, as also from
the ravages of the Hessian fly. In consequence, the harvests were light
and prices high. At this time flour sold in Upper Canada at $4.00 to
$4.50 per cwt., and on the American side of the lakes at even higher
prices. Peas brought $1.00 per bushel, and very inferior grades of salt
pork cost $26.00 per barrel. At the same time, the Government was
importing food supplies from Europe to feed the troops in Lower
Canada. When it is remembered that the cost of transporting a barrel
of flour from Upper Canada to Montreal, up to 1802, had not been
reduced below 80 cents, even when taken on rafts and scows, one can
understand what difference it would make when the cost of transport
was deducted from the price of provisions in Upper Canada. Cart-
wright summed up the situation very well when he said, " As long as
the British Government shall think proper to hire people to come over
to eat our flour we shall go on very well, and continue to make
a figure, but when once we come to export our produce, the
disadvantages of our remote inland situation will operate in their
full force, and the very large portion of the price of our produce
that must be absorbed by the expense of transporting it to the
place of export, and the enhanced value which the same cost must add
to every article of European, manufacture, will give an effective check
to the improvement of the country beyond a certain extent."
A few good harvests in the early part of the nineteenth century, and
the rapidity with which the Americans brought their side of the lakes
, under cultivation, greatly changed the situation in Upper Canada. The
^price of whea^ fell in the Upper Province because it had now to bear
the cost of transportation to the Lower Province, and sometimes to Eng-
land. It was estimated that between 1800 and 1810 the normal differ-
ence in the price of a barrel of flour as between Kingston and Montreal,
including commission and freight, would range from $1.00 to $1.50.
When, therefore, the price of grain fell, the people of Upper Canada
turned their attention to the lumber and timber trade, and to the pro-
duction of staves and potash. The timber, in particular, could be
cheaply transported down the St. Lawrence.
The era of the Orders in Council, after 1808, and the increasing
trouble with the United States before the outbreak of the war, coupled
with returning short harvests, led to a revival of prices, between 1808
1811. Having regard to the price of wheat alone, one would infer
that the province must have been increasingly "prosperous during this
82 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
period, but such was not the case. Prices, it is true, in Upper Canada
were practically the same as in Lower Canada, because there was little
to export, the wheat crop having been particularly poor during 1810.
Moreover, as indicated, agriculture had suffered considerably for the
past few years on account of the settlers going in for lumber and staves,
but now there was a severe fall in the prices of these articles, as also of
potash. The high price of staves during the years 1808 and 1809 had
induced many settlers to go into that line very extensively, but in 1810
prices fell from forty to sixty per cent.
Owing to the slowness and uncertainty of transport, and the closing
of the Canadian ports in winter, merchants required to order their sup-
plies of goods considerably in advance. The result was that in 1810
the merchants found themselves overstocked with European goods, which
the public were unable to purchase, or for which the merchants could
not secure returns. The commercial distress first manifested itself at
Montreal, but spread more or less rapidly to the outlying districts de-
pendent upon it, and especially to Upper Canada. As Cartwright put
it, " The large returns heretofore made in lumber have occasioned an
immense quantity of goods to be brought into this country, and sudden
depression in the price of that article would occasion great deficiency
in remittances." The reaction caused even the price of food to drop.
1 Flour, which had been $11 and $12 per barrel in April, fell to $8.40 in
/ Montreal and $7.50 in the Kingston district. As a natural consequence
I of the depression, specie became very scarce, while merchant bills were
a drug on the market. For lack of a better medium of exchange, notes
of hand were in circulation in local centres. Towards the latter part of
1811 things were looking very blue indeed in all parts of Canada.
Montreal merchants could not collect their debts from their western cor-
respondents, because they in turn could not collect from their debtors.
Bills of exchange, accepted by the merchants, were not met when due,
and the cost of protesting them was heavy. Early in 1812 Cartwright
was offered pork at $18.00 per barrel and flour at $9.00. In June it
could be had at $8.00 delivered in Montreal. Early in July, however,
it was learned that war had been declared and prices immediately took
an upward turn. As the summer advanced, supplies of every descrip-
tion rapidly rose in price. In September flour had risen to $12.00 per
barrel and in November to $13.00. In the spring of 1813 shipments of
provisions down the St. Lawrence had quite ceased, everything available
Jtfeing in demand for the supply of the troops and others in the service
^of the Government. When the army bills went into circulation in
August, 1812, they furnished an easy and safe means of meeting the
ECONOMIC EFFECT OF WAR OF 1812 ON UPPER CANADA. 83
yfmmediate obligations of the British Government without the danger
of shipping specie to Canada, while their being convertible into bills of
exchange enabled the merchants to meet their obligations in Britain
without expense. Towards the close of 1812, we find Cartwright be-
ginning to receive quite a stream of payments from all parts of the pro-
vince in commissariat bills and army bills, which he, in turn, was send-
ing down to Montreal to pay off his indebtedness there.
From the beginning of 1813 to the close of the war, there was little
or nothing going down the river beyond furs from the west and an ever
increasing stream of bills of exchange and army bills. The whole move-
t of commerce was up the river, and the rates of freight were cor-
respondingly high. In 1814 freight from Montreal to Kingston
amounted to $12.50 per barrel of miscellaneous goods. The conditions
referred to by Cartwright in the early nineties were reproduced in an
exaggerated form. The British Government had sent large contingents
of troops and marines to Canada, including Upper Canada. It was also
employing men and horses wherever available from Cornwall to Detroit.
It paid famine prices for all kinds of produce and hired men to consume
it in the province. Owing to the great volume of exchanges drawn
against Britain, the very unusual experience was realized, from the
beginning of 1814, of Government exchange on Britain being at a dis-
count. Thus we find Cartwright, in July, 1814, buying a bill of ex-
change on England for 61 2s. 2d. sterling for which he paid only
55 currency, a pound currency being rated at $4.00. Real estate and
other property in the frontier towns had gone up enormously in value.
As supplies on the Canadian side began to grow scarce during the
last two years of the war, those who had to furnish provisions
for the troops, particularly in the lines of flour and meat, found it neces-
sary to devise means of obtaining supplies from the adjoining districts
of the United States. This was accomplished, as a rule, by the conniv-
ance of people of influence, military and other, on both sides of the line.
This trade, once established, continued very briskly for nearly a couple
of years after the war ; the Province of Upper Canada in particular hav-
ing been practically stripped of everything saleable in the food line.
During the war, certain permanent changes were made in the meth-
ods of conducting business. Money being very plentiful in all parts of
the province, trade brisk, and the returns rapid, the old system of long
credits, extending to at least a year and over, were gradually abolished,
and at the close of the war the business of the province was pretty well
established on a cash basis. On this basis the purely commercial busi-
84 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
ness of the country remained, though in some of the newer sections and
in minor retail trade, longer and more irregular credits once more pre-
vailed. Again, in consequence of the universal employment of the army
bills and the facilities which they afforded for effective exchange, the
people had grown accustomed to the use of an efficient and reliable paper
currency. Hence, when the war terminated and the army bills were
withdrawn, the people were in a proper frame of mind for the establish-
ment of banks. Thus, the Bank of Montreal appeared in 1817, and in
the following year the Quebec Bank, the Bank of Canada at Montreal
and the Bank of Upper Canada at Kingston. \
On the other hand, there were certain unfortunate consequences
which, if they did not originate from the exceptional prosperity of the
war period, were at least greatly fostered by it. Merchants, wholesale
and retail, transporters, laborers and farmers had all alike grown accus-
tomed to obtaining large profits, good wages, and high prices, and all
without any special enterprise, foresight, or industry on their part.
When the fertilizing stream of British expenditure, all of it extracted
from the pockets of the British taxpayer, had ceased to flow, the people
could not believe that the prosperity which they had enjoyed must cease,
and that they must henceforth largely depend upon their own exertions
anji enterprise for such wealth as they might acquire. Many people
wno had cultivated expensive tastes and who found it difficult to severely
/prune their expenditure, fell into financial difficulties and were ulti-
" mately ruined. Much wealth was, of course, left in the country when
the war ceased, and so long as it lasted prices declined but slowly. Upper
Canadian markets were therefore especially attractive to enterprising
^nerican producers. For fully three years the upper province imported
Auite abnormal amounts of American goods. Lastly, the war had not
^improved the social condition of the people. The lack of means to ^
gratify their tastes accounted for the relative sobriety of a considerable
element in the population during the early years of provincial history.
Many of these persons, however, were quite unable to stand prosperity,
hence drunkenness and other forms of vice flourished throughout the
province in proportion to the diffusion of British wealth. Naturally,
the later state of these people was much worse than the first, and the
existence of a regular pauperized class dates from the close of the war.
It is difficult to determine whether Canada was, on the whole, bene-
fited or the reverse by the exceptional period of prosperity which the
war had brought to her doors. It may be said, however, that the more
thrifty elements of the population and those who had not lost their heads
ECONOMIC EFFECT OF WAE OF 1812 ON UPPEK CANADA. 85
through sudden wealth, utilized their savings for the establishment of
permanent enterprises, while for the more unbalanced and incapable the
war period had proved their undoing. A great change, therefore, was
observable in the personnel of the leaders in economic and social life
after the war, as compared with the period before it. On one point,
however, there is no doubt whatever, namely, that the War of 1812, in-
stead of being the occasion of loss and suffering to Upper Canada as a
whole, was the occasion of the greatest era of prosperity which it had
heretofore enjoyed, or which it was yet to experience before the Crimean
War and the American Civil War again occasioned quite abnormal de-
mands for its produce at exceptionally high prices.
PAPERS AND RECORDS
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
Honorary President :
THE HONORABLE THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION OF ONTARI*.
JOHN DEARNESS, M.A., London.
1st Vice^President :
CLARANCE M. WARNER, Napanee.
2nd Vice- President :
SIR EDMUND WALKER, Toronto
Secretary and Acting Treasurer :
ALEXANDER ERASER, LL.D,, LITT D., Toronto.
J. J. MURPHY, Toronto. FRANK YEIGH, Toronto
A. F. HUNTER, M.A. W. STEWART WALLACE, B.A,
J. STEWART CARSTAIRS, B.A. W. L. GRANT, M.A.
ALEXANDER FRASER, LL.D,, LITT. D., F.S.A , SCOT, (Edin.)
The Ontario Historical Society does not assume
responsibility for the statements of its contributors.
Place-Names in Georgian Bay
(Including the North Channel)
BY JAMES WHITE, F.R.G.S.
For convenience and on account of the historical connection,
the North Channel names have also been included in this compila-
Place-names in the area covered by this paper can be assigned
to three distinct periods ; first, those given by Bayfield when he
surveyed it in 1819-22 ; second, the local names given by fishermen,
residents and others between the date of Bayfield 's survey and 1883 ;
third, the new survey by Messrs. Boulton and Stewart in. 1883-93.
Before discussing the derivations of the first period, a few
notes respecting Bayfield may be of interest. He was born in 1795,
entered the Navy in 1806, on H.M.S. Pompee (80), Sir William Syd-
ney Smith, and was in action with a French privateer, six hours
after leaving Portsmouth. Later, he served in H.M.S. Queen (98),
Admiral Lord Collingwood's flagship, and in the Duchess of Bed-
ford, Lieut. Spilsbury. In 1806, he was appointed to H.M.S.
Beagle, Gapt. F. Newcombe, and, in 1811, he was midshipman in
the Wanderer (21), Gapt. F. Newcombe. He was promoted to Lieu-
tenant, 1815, and was appointed assistant to Capt. William Fitz-
william Owen, R.N., in the survey of Lake Ontario. The war of
1812-14 had shown the necessity for a hydrographical survey of the
Great Lakes and Gapt. Owen had been appointed for the survey.
While the naval force at the beginning of hostilities was a negli-
gible quantity, at the close there were upwards of 40 British war
vessels, ranging from one-gun gunboats to the St. Lawrence, a ship
of the line with 102 guns. To permit these vessels to navig&te the
lakes with confidence, a survey was absolutely necessary.
Owen was in charge of the survey of Lake Ontario till its com-
pletion in 1816, when he was succeeded by Bayfield who surveyed
*Read at the annual meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Bran-tford June, 1911
6 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Lake Erie in 1818, Huron and Georgian Bay in 1819-22, and Su-
perior in 1823-25. In 1827, Bayfield was appointed to the survey
of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf. This work was carried on
in Gulnare I, 1827-51, and Gulnare II, from 1852 till his promotion
to Rear Admiral in 1856. He retired with rank of full Admiral,
1867, and died at Charlottetown, P.E.I., 1885. For the quality of his
work it is sufficient to quote Capt. Boulton : "While making a sur-
vey of Georgian Bay and the North Channel of Lake Huron . .
I had a good opportunity of witnessing the marvellous quantity and
excellence of Admiral Bayfield' s work. ... I doubt whether the
British Navy has ever possessed a more gifted and zealous surveyor
than Bayfield. He had a marvellous combination of natural talent
with tremendous physical energy."
The charts that were sufficient for navigation in the "twen-
ties" when the largest vessel on Lake Huron measured a few hun-
dred tons were inadequate for the vessels of a half-century later.
In 1883, the Canadian Government secured the services of an Ad-
miralty surveyor, Capt. J.G. Boulton, R.N. For ten years, 1883-
93, surveys of Georgian Bay and North Channel were carried on un-
der his direction. In 1893, he resigned to return to duty in the Navy
and was succeeded by his principal assistant, the present Chief
Hydrographer, Mr. W. J. Stewart.
So far as the names given by Bayfield are concerned, their de-
rivation is a matter of inference, but the evidence, in some in-
stances, almost amounts to a demonstration. At the date of his
survey, George IV was King of Great Britain and Ireland, hence
Georgian Bay and Lake George ; Prince William Henry, Duke of
Clarence, was Admiral of the Fleet, 1811, and Lord High Ad-
miral, 1827-28, hence Prince William Henry Island ; William Fred-
erick, Duke of Gloucester, married Prince William Henry's sister,
Mary, and was thus, both his cousin and his brother-in-law, hence
Gloucester Point and Bay.
In 1822, Robert Saunder Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville, Sir
Wm. Johnstone Hope, Sir Geo. Cockburn and Wm. Robt. Keith
Douglas were Lord High Admirals, hence Cape Dundas, Melville
Sound, Hope Bay and Island, . Cockburn Island and Point, ,and
Douglas Bay and Point. Capt. Thos. Hurd was Hydrographer
from 1808 to 1823, and Capt (afterwards, Admiral Sir) William! Ed-
ward Parry, from 1823-29, and James Horsburg was Hydrograph-
er to the East India Co. ; hence Cape Hurd, Parry Sound and
Island and Horsburg Point. Barrow Bay is after Sir John Bar-
row, for 38 years, 1807-45, Second Secretary to the Admiralty, and
Croker Cape and Island after John Wilson Croker, First Secretary.
1809-30 ; Dyer Bay, after John James Dyer, for many years Chief
Clerk of the Admiralty ; Hay Island, after Viscount Melville's pri-
vate secretary, and Amedroz Island after an Admiralty official.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 7
As there was a considerable naval establishment on the Great
Lakes, Bayfield named a number of features after naval officers.
James, Lucas and Yeo Islands, after Sir James Lucas Yeo, com-
mander-in-chief on the Great Lakes, 1814 ; Barrie Island after Capt.
Robt. Barrie, Acting Commissioner of the Navy at Kingston :
Bushby Inlet, Boucher Point Clapperton Island and Channel, Hen-
vey Inlet, Wingfield Point and Basin, Worsley Bay, Grant Island
and Thompson Point are al o named after officers of the Royal
Navy serving on the Great Lakes.
Confiance Rock was named after the Confiance, gunboat on Lake
Huron, formerly the U. S. S. Scorpion, captured Sept. 6th, 1814.
This Confiance was the third bearing her name. The first was
Yeo's first command, a French privateer captured by him at
Muros Bay, and the second was Downie's flagship on Lake Cham-
plain, captured by the Americans at Plattsburgh, Sept. nth, 1814,
five days after the capture by the British of what was, later, Con-
fiance III. Bedford Island is, probably, after the Duchess of Bed-
ford, the third ship in which Bayfield served, or, after Admiral
Colpoys Bay, Rous Islands, Mudge Bay and Byng Inlet are af-
ter British admirals, the last named being the admiral who was
shot, in 1757, for his failure to relieve Minorca "pour encourager
les autres." Fitzwilliam Island and Owen Channel are after Bay-
field's former chief in the survey of Lake Ontario, while Cape Com-
modore, Owen Sound,, Point William, Campbell Cliff and Point Rich
commemorate Owen's brother, Commodore Sir E. W. C. R. Owen.
Bayfield' s assistants were : Midshipmen Philip Edward Collins
and Vidal, "immortalized" in Philip Edward Island, Collins Inlet
and Vidal Island. Till his death in 1835, Collins was Bayfield' s
assistant in his survey of the St. Lawrence, and Vidal was the
grandfather of the late Gen. Vidal, Ottawa.
Franklin Inlet now obsolete and Parry Island and Sound
were named after the famous Arctic navigators ; Portlock Harbour
is, probably, after Capt. Portlock, R.N., who commanded a fur-
trading expedition to the Pacific Coast and published an account
of his voyage ; Bigsby Island is after Dr. J. J. Bigsby, geologist
to the Commission appointed under the Treaty of Ghent to define
the International boundary through the St. Lawrence and the
Of the Bayfield family there are : Henry Island, Wolsey Lake
and Bayfield Sound after himself, Elizabeth Bay after his mother,
Helen Bay after his only sister, Julia Bay and Point after a
young lady of Queibec. Honora Bay and Juliet Cove are, proba-
bly, after other young ladies of his acquaintance, but nothing de-
finite is known concerning them.
8 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
The other names given by Bayfield are cither unimportant or
of unknown derivation.
As already stated, during the second period local names were
given to many features, but were only known locally. When Capt.
Boulton commenced his survey in 1883, the only names on the
charts were those given by Bayfield, sixty years earlier. Conse-
quently, while there was a second "name-period," it is not pos-
sible to separate it from the third, namely, those given by Messrs.
Boulton and Stewart. As the circumstances connected with the
names given in the second period were, in nearly every case, of local
interest only, they were incorporated in the charts and no descrip-
tion of them is necessary.
The names given by Messrs. Boulton and Stewart can be divid-
ed into a number of classes, only a few of which need be noticed.
As Capt. Boulton was an officer of the Royal Navy, many features
bear the names of Admiralty officials and naval officers. Thus,
Brassey Island, Hamilton Rock, Hood Patch and Hotham Island
are after Lords of the Admiralty ; Dairy tmple Rock is after Alex.
Dairy tuple, the first Hydrographcr to the Admiralty, and Beau-
fort Island and -Evans and Wharton Points after recent incum-
bents ; Browning Cove and Island, Goalen Island, Harris Bank,
Hoskin Island, Jamieson Island, Orlebar Rock, Fender Islets, Peter
Islands, Pettey Rock, Richards Reef, and Scott Island are after
naval surveyors. An island is named after Admiral Lord Charles
Beresford of "Well done, Condor" fame, and another after Admiral
Sir Thomas Sabine Pasley.
The war of 1812-14 is commemorated by features named after
the Chesapeake and her captain, Lawrence, after the Shannon and
Lieut. Provo Wallis. That there were gunboats on the lakes after
the close of the war is commemorated by islands, etc., named Faith,
Minstrel, Heron, Rescue, Gunboat, Britomart, Cherub, Danville and
Drew. Naval officers who distinguished themselves in 1812-14 are
not forgotten as evidenced by Barclay, Huntly and Finnis Rocks,
Frederic Inlet, Spilsbury Island and Popham Point.
A stucly of tke "First Conquest of Canada" resulted in the
naming of islands after Thomas Kirke, after one of his captains,
Brewer ton, and after two of the vessels, the Gervase and Abigail.
The "Life of Parry" has given numerous names to features. The
Ardent, Borer, Griper, Hecla, Niger, Sceptre, Tribune and Van-
guard were ships in which Parry served, and Baker, Capel, Cath-
cart, Coote, Cornwallis, Glyn, Powys, Quilliam and Ricketts were
captains under whom he served ; Hooper, Hoppner, Liddon, Lyon
and Nias were subordinate officers during his Arctic expeditions ;
IN GEORGIAN BAY, 6
the Christian names of his father and the Christian names and sur-
names of his mother and wife were also utilized.
The defence of Detroit, 1763, is commemorated by Beaver and
Gladwyn Rocks ; the naval battle in Hudson Bay, 1693, by Bering,
Hampshire and Pelican Rocks and French explorers and missionar-
ies by Breboeuf, Champlain, Hennepin, Joliette, I/a Salle, Nicolet,
Talon and Tonty Islands and Roberval Point ; Bauphine Rock is
named after the vessel in which Verrazano made his discoveries in
The Camperdown- Victoria disaster, in 1893, furnished names for
twenty features, nearly all of which were after officers of the ill-
fated Victoria. The eldest son of King Edward VII died 1892 is
commemorated in Victor Bank, Albert and .Clarence Channels and
Buke Island. The Hudson Bay expeditions of 1884, 1885 and 1886,
account for Neptune Island, Gordon Rock and Alert Point. Our
Governors-General are represented by Aberdeen, Buffer in, Elgin,
I/ansdowne, I/orne and Stanley Islands and Monck Point, while
Aide-de-camps Colville, Kilcoursie, Kindersley and St. Aubyn have
not been forgotten. lyieutenant-Governors Aikins, Morris and
Schultz of Manitoba, .Beverly Robinson and Kirkpatrick of Ontario,
Belleau, Masson, Robitaille and I v etellier de St. Just of Quebec,
and I/aird and Royal of the Northwest Territories, have had their
names attached to features, also Sir John Abbott, Sir Mackenzie
Bo well, Sir Wilfrid I/aurier, Sir Hector I/angevin, Sir Francis
Hincks, Sir A'. T. Gait, Sir Charles Tupper and many other Minis-
ters and about forty-five Members and Senators.
Of the remainder it is only possible to enumerate the classes of
name-derivations, (i) Scores of features, principally rocks and
shoals, have been named after lake vessels, usually because the dan-
ger has been reported by one of her officers or because she has
achieved an undesired fame by striking it. Many others have re-
ceived the names of captains and other officers of lake vessels and
of officials of navigation companies. The families and near rela-
tions of Messrs. Boulton and Stewart and of the sailing-master,
Capt. McGregor, account for thirty names. As Mr. Stewart is a
graduate of the Royal Military College, Kingston, he attached the
names of some twenty-five officers and cadets to rocks, etc., in the
North Channel and St. Mary River. The surveys were carried on
under the Bepartment of Marine and Fisheries and the names of
eighty officials of that and other departments have been given.
Seventeen features are named after judges of the Supreme Court
and of Ontario courts and many bear the names of residents of near-
by towns, of clergymen, of citizens of Ottawa, of fishermen, light-
house-keepers and Indian chiefs.
Place-Names in Georgian Bay and
ABBOTT. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sir J. J. C. Abbott
(1821-1892), Premier, 1891-92.
ABERDEEN. Island, Muskoka ; after Lord Aberdeen, Gover-
nor-General of Canada, 1893-98.
ABIGAIL. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after one of
Kirke's vessels at taking of Quebec, 1629.
ACADIA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the propeller
*ADAMS. Point, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; possibly after
an official of Penetanguishene naval station.
AFRICA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after steamibarge
ATKINS .Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. J. C.
Aikins, Lieut. -Governor of Manitoba, 1882-88.
*AIRD. Island and bay North Channel, Algoma ; derivation
unknown ; named by Bayfield.
AJAX. Islands, Parry Sound ; probably after a lake vessel.
ALBERT. Channel, Parry Sound ; after Prince Albert Victor,
Duke of Clarence, (1864-1892).
ALBERTA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the steamer Alberta.
ALEC CLARKE. Rock Manitoulin ; after a fisherman of Col-
ALERT. Point, Cloche I., Sudbury ; after the Alett, an Ad-
miralty vessel, loaned by the Admiralty to the Canadian Govern-
ment for the Hudson Bay expeditions, 1885 and 1886 ; was the -flag-
ship of the Nares Arctic expedition, 1875-76.
ALEXANDER. Island, Muskoka ; after private secretary to
Sir W. C. Van Home.
tfNames distinguished by a ft have same derivation as the first feature bearing same name.
*Names preceded by an asterisk appeared in Bayfield's chart, and, unless otherwise stated, wer
sen by him. All Bayfield's names are noted whether the derivation is known or unknown.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. H
ALEXANDER. Inlet, Parry Sound ; after Alexander Murray
McGregor, sailing-miaster of the steamer Bayfield.
ALEXANDER. Rock, Manitoulin ; after Wm. Alexander,
clerk in Marine and Fisheries Department.
ALFRED. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Alfred D. De
Celles, General Librarian, Library of Parliament.
ALICE. Rock, Muskoka ; after Christian name of Mrs. Libbs,
a widow of Penetanguisheneg
ALICE. island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoina ; after sister of
John Woodman, C.E., Winnipeg.
ALICIA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a daughter of
George Marks, Bruce Mines. \ \
ALLEN. Rocks, Muskoka ; probably after Henry R. Allen,
clerk to Secretary of the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camr
perdown off Tripoli, June 23rd, 1893.
ALMON. Island, St. John Channel, Algoma ; after late M. B.
Almon, C.E., graduated from the Royal Military College, King-
ALVES. Point, Parry Sound ; after a resident.
ALWIN. Rock, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; after a seaman
on the Bayfield.
*AMEDROZ. Island, North Channel, Sudbury ; named by Bay-
field after a clerk in the Admiralty.
AMELIA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Miss Amelia Johnson,
daughter of a Parry Sound merchant.
AMERICAN CAMP. Island, Muskoka ; a party from the Unit-
ed States camped on it.
AMYOT. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Lt.-Col.
ANCHOR. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; good anchorage
ft ANCHOR. Island and rock, Parry Sound.
tfANCHOR. Rock, Muskoka.
ANDERSON. Ledge, Manitoulin ; after Col. Wm. P. Anderson,
Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries.
*ANNARELLA. Islands Sudbury ; named by Bayfield ; de-
rivation unknown ; name now obsolete.
ANNIE. Rock, Manitoulin ; after the Annie Clark, fishing
ANN LONG. Bank, Manitoulin ; after the first vessel used in
the hydrographical survey of Georgian Bay, 1883.
ANSLEY. Island, Parry Sound ; after postmaster at Parry
12 ON? ARID HI&TOfclCAt SOCIETY,
ANTHONY. Island, Manitoulin ; after an Indian of Wikwemi-
APPELBE. Island, Parry Sound ; after a physician of Parry
ARAXES. Bank, Parry Sound ; after the Araxes, a lake ves-
ARDENT. Rock, ParrySound ; after H.M.S. Ardent in which
Parry (q.v.) served, 1815.
ARIEL. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the schooner Ariel.
ARMSTRONG, Rock, Parry Sound ; after a tourist, named
ARMSTRONG, Rocks, Parry Sound; after Judge Arm-
ARNOLD. Point, Aird I., Algoma ; after a mill-owner, Span-
ft ARNOLD. Rock, North Channel, Algoma.
ARTHUR. Island, Muskoka ; after Arthur Street-Macklem,
Toronto. Indian name minnewawa, meaning 'pleasant sound' (as of
wind in the trees).
ARTHUR. Point, Vidal I., Manitoulin; after a son of Capt.
ASHMEAD. Point, Algoma ; after Ashmead Ellis Bartlett
Burdett-Coutts, British politician, Lord of the Admiralty, 1885.
ASIA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steamer
Asia, lost in Georgian Bay, 1882.
ATHABASCA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after steamer Athabasca.
ATLANTIC. --Rock, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after the steamer
AUGUSTA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a daughter of Capt.
Cox, R.N., naval surveyor.
AURORA. Bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after the schooner
AVA. Island, Muskoka ; after the late Lord Ava, eldest son
of Lord Duffer in ; killed in the Boer war.
AZOV. Ledges, Manitoulin ; after the schooner Azov, strand-
ed on Squaw I.
BACON. Island, North, Channel, Algoma ; after late Lt.-Col.
*BADGLEY. Island and rocks, Manitoulin ; named by Bay-
field, 1826, probably after Dr. Badgley, a prominent fur-trader who
came to Montreal about 1788, d. 1841 ; possibly after Capt. Fran-
cis Badgley, ist Batt., Montreal City Militia, on duty during war
of 1812-14. 'Badgeley' on chart.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 13
BAD NEIGHBOUR. Rock, Manitoulin ; "the worst danger in
the main channel."
BAILEY. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
BAKER. Group, Parry Sound ; after the captain of the Trib-
une, vessel in which Parry (q.v.) served.
BAKER. Point, Clapperton I., Manitoulin ; after- E. Crow
Baker, sometime M.P. for Victoria, B.C.
BALD. Island and rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
tfBALD. Rock, North Channel, Algoma.
BAMAGESECK. Bay, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after an
BAMFORD. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
BAND. Island, Muskoka ; after the Bursar of the Reformatory
BANDIN. Bluff, Manitoulin ; after a Roman Catholic priest,
BANSHEE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Ban-
shee, a lake trading vessel.
BAR. Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
ttBAR. Point, Simcoe.
BARCLAY. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Com. Robert Heriot
Barclay (1785-1837), British commander in the battle of Lake Erie,
1813 ; post captain, 1824.
BARIL. Point, Parry Sound ; stated that the name commem-
orates the loss of a barrel of whiskey at this point a doubtful
BARNARD. Bank, Muskoka ; after William Barnard, acting
boatswain in the "Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown
off Tripoli, 1893.
BARREN. Island, Sudbury ; descriptive.
BARRETT. Bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after a boatman
in surveying steamer fiayfield.
*BARRIE. Island, (Manitoulin ; after Commodore Robert Bar-
rie, Acting Commissioner of the Navy ai^ Kingston after the Var of
1812-14 ; made a tour of inspection through Simcoe county about
*BAR&IER. Island, Bruce ; named by Bayfield ; descriptive.
*BARROW. Bay, Bruce ; after Sir John Barrow (1764-1843) ;
from 1807 to 1845, Second Secretary to the Admiralty.
BARTLETT. Point, Algoma ; after Ashmead Ellis Bartlett
Burdett-Coutts, Lord of the Admiralty, 1885.
BASS. Group of islands, Muskoka ; noted fishing ground for
14 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
BASSETT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the captain
of a Georgian Bay vessel.
tfBASvSETT. Rock, Parry Sound.
BATE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Sir Henry N, Bate, Chair-
man of the Ottawa Improvement Commission, Ottawa.
BATEAU. Islands, Parry Sound ; after the passages between
the islands, only passable by small boats (bateaux).
BATH. Island, Parry Sound ; after Bath, city, Somerset,
England. Parry (q.v.) was educated in Bath.
BATOCHE. Point, Bedford I., Sudbury ; after the action at
Batoche, Sask., Riel rebellion, 1885.
BATTERY. Bluff, Manitoulin ; descriptive, resembles a bat-
BATTURE. Island, Manitoulin ; after the reef (batture) join-
ing it to Vidal Island.
BAXTER. Point, Airdl., Algoma; after the captain of a
Spanish River tug.
BAYARD. Island and reef, Manitoulin ; probably after
Thomas Francis Bayard (1828-1898), Secretary of State (U.S.)
1885-89 ; first U. S. ambassador to England, 1893.
BAYFIELD. Bluff, Killarney harbour, Manitoulin ; from "the
surveying steamer Bayfield having occasionally tied up to it during
the progress of the survey in this locality."
ttBAYFIELD. Rock, Parry Sound.
BAYFIELD. Sound, Manitoulin ; after Captain (later, Ad-
miral) Henry Wolsey Bavfield, naval surveyor, who did so much
excellent work upon the Great Lakes between 1817 and 1823.
ttBAYFIELD. &eef, Manitoulin.
BAY OF ISLANDS. Bay, Manitoulin I. ; from the numerous
BAYVIEW. Point, Grey ; descriptive.
BEACH. Point, Fitzwilliam I., Manitoulin ; "derives its name
from the fact of its being the north-easterly termination of a long
BEAR. Island, Georgian Bay ; this name is also applieti to
numerous other features in Canada, usually owing to the unusual
numbers of this animal frequenting the vicinity ; or to some un-
usual occurrence in connection with it at the time of naming ; or, it
is the translation of the Indian name.
tfBEAR BACK. Island and shoal, Algoma.
ttBEAR. Head, Parry Sound.
BEAR'S RUMP. Island and shoal, Bruce ; "the name given
to an island having somewhat the outline of that animal."
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 15
BEATRICE. Bank, Parry Sound ; after Miss Beatrice John-
son, daughter of a Parry Sound merchant.
BEATTY. Bay, Clapperton I., North Channel ; after the man-
ager of the Canadian Pacific lake steamship line, 1887.
BEAUDRY. Point, Algioma ; probably after Hon. J. I,. Beau-
dry, Montreal ; died 1886.
BEAUFORT. Island and reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after
Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), Hydrographer to
BEAUMONT. Pouit, Algoma ; after Dr., H. Beaumont Small,
BEAUSOLEIL. Island,, Simcoe ; after a French-Canadian who
came from Drummond Island ; he settled here in 1819. "Prince
William Henry I." on Bayfield's chart.
BEAUTY. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; descriptive.
ft BEAUTY .Island, Parry Sound.
BEAVER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the schooner Beaver em-
ployed in the defence of Detroit during Pontiac's rebellion, 1763.
BEAVER. Island, Strawberry I., Manitoulin ; probably con-
tained many beaver in the early days.
ttBEAVER ISLAND. Harbour and bank, Strawberry I.,
*BECK WITH. Island ; named by Bayfield, after Colonel Sir
Thomas Sydney Beckwith, 95th Regt., served in the Peninsula
appointed Quartermaster-General, North America, Jan. 7, 1813 ;
*BEDFORD. Islatod, Sudbury ; named by Bayfield, probably
after Admiral William' Bedford, d. 1827. Or, after the Duchess of
Bedford in which Bayfield had served.
BEER. Point, Manitoulin ; after a clergyman, Manitoulin I.
ttBEER. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
BEGLEY. Channel and rocks, Parry Sound ; after a fisher-
BELCHER. Rock, Altroma ; after Admiral Sir Edward Belch-
er (1799-1877), commanded a Franklin search expedition of four
searching vessels and a store vessel, 1852-54 ; his officers, notably
M'Clintock, Mecham, Richards and Osborn, discovered and survey-
ed thousands of miles of coast-line of the Arctic islands of Canada.
BELIZE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the tug Belize.
BELL. Cove, Cloche I., Sudbury ; after Dr. Robert Bell, late
Chief Geologist, Geological Survey.
BELLE. Bay, Parry I., Parry Sound; after Georgian Bay
steamer Northern Belle.
tfBELLB. Rock, North Channel, Algoma,
16 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
BELLEATL Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir Nar-
cisse F. .jMleau, Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, 1868-73.
BEN BACK. Shoal, Manitoulin ; after one of crew in survey-
ing steamer Bayfield.
BENJAMIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Christian
name of lightkeeper at Clapperton Island.
BENNETT. Bank, Simcoe ; after William Humphrey Bennett,
M.P. for East Simcoe for many years.
BENSON. Point, Manitoulin ; after Col. Thomas Benson, Mas-
ter-General of tKe Ordnance, Ottawa ; graduated from Royal Mili-
tary College 1883. ' J T
BERESFORD. Island, Parry Sound ; after Admiral Lord
Charles Beresford, ICC.B., G.C.V.O., Lord of the Admiralty, 1886.
BERGERON. Point, John I., Algoma ; after J. G. H. Ber-
geron, M.P. for Beauharnois , 1879-1900.
BERGIN. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late Dar-
by Bergin, M.P. for Cornwall, 1872-74 and 1878-82 ; for Cornwall
and Stormont, 1882-96,
^BERNARD. Rock, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield, probably
after Alex? Bernard, R.N., Asst. Surgeon during war of 1812-14.
BEVERLY. Island, Manitoulin ; after Sir John Beverly Rob-
inson (1821-1896), Lieut. -Governor of Ontario, 1880-87.
BIG DAVID. Bay, Muskoka ; after an Indian chief.
BIGGAR. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Charles
A. Biggar, D.L-S., Dominion Astronomical Observatory.
*BIGSBY.^Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after John J.
Bigsby, M.D., geologist to the International Boundary Commis-
sion, appointed under the Treaty of Ghent ; was author of "Shoe
BILL A'. Rocks, Aird I. Algoma ; after the late Senator Billa
BIRCH. Island, North Channel, Algoma; descriptive.
BIRCHALL. Island, Muskoka ; after maiden name of Mrs.
Charles Band, Penetanguishene.
BIRD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; characteristic ; fre-
quented by gulls, etc.
*BLACK BILL. Islands, Parry Sound ; named by Bayfield ; de-
scriptive of these black rocks rising a few feet above the surface of
BLACKSTOCK. Point, Manitoulin ; after Geo. Tate Black-
stock, K.C., Toronto.
BLACKSTONE. Point,. Clapperton I., Manitoulin ; descrip-
BLAIR. Landing, Parry Sound ; "after the present occupant,
of the farm house at the mouth of the stream."
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 17
BLAKE. Island, Sudbury ; after late Hon. Edward Blake,
Minister of Justice, 1875-77 President of the Privy Council, 1877-
78 ; M.P. for West Durham, 1867-75 and 1879-91 ; M.P. for South
Bruce, 1872-78 ; elected member of the Imperial Parliament for
Longford V S.D., 1892.
BLIND. Bay, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
BLIND. River, and BLIND RIVER, post village, Algoma ; af-
ter the formation. of the river mouth which is not discernable from
the lake (Huron). Named by the French who settled here, 1837 ;
Indian name penebawabikong, signifying "a sloping rock."
BLOCK. Island, Western Islands, Parry Sound ; after blocks
of stone on top of rock.
BLUE. Mountains, Grey ; name given by the early voyageurs ;
when seen from out in the lake, they have a bluish, hazy appear-
BLUFF. Point, Parry Sound ; characteristic.
BOAT. Cove, Cloche I., Sudbury ; descriptive, navigable only
by small boats.
tfBOAT. Harbour and passage, Cove I., Bruce.
ffBOAT. Harbour and rock, Manitoulin.
, ffBO AT. Passage, Parry Sound.
BOGART. Island, Parry Sound ; after Ven. James John Bog-
art, Archdeacon of Ottawa.
BOLD. Point, Manitoulin ; "so called from the fact of there
being good water close to it."
BOLGER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the late Francis Bolger,
BOLSTER-. Bank, Muskoka ; after Thomas Bolster, Fleet-Sur-
geon in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown off
BONNET. Island, Bruce ; "from its clump of dark coloured
trees, somewhat resembling a plume."
BOOTH. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after J. R. Booth,
manufacturer and lumber merchant, Ottawa, late President of Can-
ada Atlantic Railway.
BORER. Bank, Parry Sound ; after H. M. brig Borer in which
Parry (q.v.) served.
BORRON. Rock, Parry Sound ; after E. B. Borron, Inspector
of Mines, Ontario, 1872.
BOSWELL. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after late
Col. Boswell, goth Regt., Winnipeg.
BOTTERELL. Point, Manitoulin ; after Edward Botterell,
sometime Distributor of Printed Documents, House of Commons.
*BOUCHER. Point, Grey ; named by Bayfield after Capt. Wm.
Boucher, in command of Lake Erie fleet, in 1816.
18 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
BOUCHER. Rock, Muskoka ; after a land surveyor, resident
BOUCHER. Island,. Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
BOUCHIER. Islands, Parry Sound ; after a naval surveyor of
BOULANGER. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after
the farmer who owned it.
BOULDER. Bank, Manitoulin, and bluff, Bruce ; descriptive.
BOUI/TON. Reef, Manitoulin ; after Capt. Boulton, in comr-
mand of survey of Georgian Bay and North Channel, 1883-93 ; now
residing in Quebec.
BOURINOT. Island and rock, Algoma ; after the late Sir
John Bourinot, Clerk of the House of Commons.
BOURKE. Point, Muskoka ; after Hon. Maurice A. Bourkc,
captain of the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown,
BOWELL. Cove, Manitoulin ; after the Hon. Sir Mackenzie
Bowell, P.C., Premier, 1894-96.
BOWEN. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Major
Aylesworth Bowen Perry, Commissioner, Royal Northwest Mount-
ed Police ; graduated from the Royal Military College, 1880.
BOWES. Island, Muskoka ; after a lawyer, Parry Sound.
BOW'KER. Point, Algoma ; after a merchant residing at
BO YD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir John Alex-
ander Boyd, Chancellor of Ontario.
ttBOYD. Islands, Parry Sound.
BOYLE. Cove, Manitoulin ; after a draughtsman at the Ad-
BRADLEY. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after late F.
Bradley, Secretary, Department of Railways and Canals.
BRANDON. Harbour, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a
hotelkeeper, Richards Landing.
BRASSEY. Island, Manitoulin ; after the late Lord Brassey,
Lord of the Admiralty, 1880, 1882-83 ; First Secretary of the Ad-
BRAY. Reef, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; after a seaman in
BREBOEUF. Island, Muskoka ; after Rev. Father Breboeuf ,
Jesuit missionary, put to death by the Iroquois, 1649.
BREWERTON. ^-Island, North Channel, Algoma ; one of the
captains of Kirke's squadron which captured Quebec, 1629.
BRIGGS. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a draughts-
man at the Admiralty in 1887.
PIv ACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 19
BRITOMART. Point, Manitoulin ; after a British gunboat.
BROMLEY. Island, Parry Sound ; after a mill-owner of Pem-
BROTHERS. Islands, Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound ; descrip-
tive of their resemblance to each other.
BROWNING. Cove and island, Heywood I., Manitoulin ; after
an officer in the British surveying service.
BRUCE. Rock, North Channel, Algonm ; from its proximity
to Bruce Mines which, probably, after James Bruce, Earl of Elgin
and Kincardine (1811-63).
BRYMNER. Bay, Manitoulin ; after the late Dr. Douglas
Brymner, Dominion Archivist.
BURBIDGE. Island, Manitoulin ; after the late George Wheel-
ock Burbidge, Judge, Exchequer Court, Ottawa.
BURGESS. Reef, Manitoulin ; after late A. M. Burgess, Depu-
ty Minister of the Interior, 1883-97.
BURKE. Shoal, Parry Sound ; after a Georgian Bay pilot.
BURTON. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a mill-owner of Byng In-
*BUSHBY. Inlet, Muskoka ; named by Bayfield after" Lieut.
Bushby in command of the schooner Newash on Lake Erie, 1816.
tfBUSHBY. Point, Muskoka.
BUSHY. Island, Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
*BUSTARD. Islands, "Sudbury ; named by Bayfield, probably
after numerous wild fowl seen on them.
BUS WELL. Point, Algomia ; after the owner of a mill on
BUTCHER BOY. Bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after the
lake steamer Butcher Boy.
BUZW ALES. Cove. Manitoulin ; after an Indian at Wikwemi-
*BYNG. Inlet, Parry Sound ; named by Bayfield probably af-
ter Admiral John Byng (1704-1757), courtmartialed for his failure
to take Minorca and shot, 1757, as a witty Frenchman said :
"pour encourage r les autres."
*CABOT. Head, Bruce ; after John Cabot, famous explorer ;
commissioned by Henry VIII, discovered Cape Breton and Nova
Scotia, in 1497. Name appears on Bouchette's map, 1815.
tfCABOT HEAD. Shoal, Bruce.
CADOTTE. Point, Parry I., Parry Sound ; after a boatman in
CALEB. Island, Parry Sound ; after Dr. Caleb Hillier Parry,
father of Admiral Sir W. E. Parry, Arctic explorer.
20 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
CALF. Island, North Channel, Algonia ; so named as it is a
small island compared with others in vicinity.
CALLADY. Reef, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in surveying
CA'LVIN. Island, Muskoka ; after Hiram A. Calvin, manager
of the Calvin Co. ; M.P. for Frontenac, 1892-96 and 1900-04.
CAMBRIA. Bank, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after steamer
CAMEL. Rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive of appearance.
CAMERON. Bay, Aird I., Algoma ; after an official of the
Spanish River Lumber Co,
CAMERON. Island, Parry Sound ; after late Chas. Cameron,
Collingwood, manager, Northern Navigation Co., and owner of the
CAMP. Point, John I., Algoma ; from W. J. Stewart having
tfCAMP. Cove, Strawberry I., Manitoulin.
CAMP ANA. Shoal, North Channel, Algoma ; after steamer
*CAMPBELL. Cliff, O-ey ; named by Bayfield after Admiral
Sir Edward William Carnrpbell Rich Owen (q.v.) ; name obsolete ;
now called "The Claybanks."
CAMPBELL. Island, Parry Sound ; after captain of a lake
CAMPBELL. Rock, Parrv Sound ; after D. C. Campbell, De-
partment of Marine and Fisheries ; graduate, Royal Military Col-
ttCAMPBELL. Rock, Manitoulin.
*CAMPEMENT D' OURS. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algo-
ma ; this name, probably, commemorates an adventure with a
bear. Probably a local name placed on the chart by Bayfield.
CAMPING. Point, Vankouahne't Island, Manitoulin ; a hydro-
graphical survey party camped here.
CAMPION. Island, Georgian Bay, Muskoka ; after William H.
Campion, Asst. Paymaster in Victoria, sunk in collision with the
Camperdown off Tripoli, 1893.
CANADA. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the fish-
ery protection cruiser Canada.
CANDLEMAS. Shoal, Muskoka ; named on Candlemas day.
CANOE. Channel, Squaw Island, Parry Sound ; used by can-
ftCANOE. Point, S't. Joseph Island, Algoma ; probably same
CAPEL- R'ock, Parry Sound ; Lieut. W. E. Parry was in
1813, appointed toH.M.S.'La Hogue, Capt. the Hon. Bladen Capel.
PlvACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 21
CARADOC. Point, St. Joseph Island, Algoma ; after Christian
name of Major-General Ivor John Caradoc Herbert, commanding
Canadian Militia, 1890-95.
CAREY. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after Lieut. -Col. H. C. Carey,
graduate, Royal Military College, 1884.
CARIBOU. Point, Algoma ; after the caribou seen on the
island in early days.
CARLETON. Point, Amedroz Island, Manitoulin ; after a
clerk in Marine and Fisheries Department ; now superannuated.
CARLING. Bay and point, Manitoulin ; after the late Sir
John Carling, K.C.M.G., Postmaster-General, 1882-85 ; Minister
of Agriculture, 1885-92 ; Senator, 1891-92 and 1896-1911.
ttCARLING. Rock, Parry Sound.
CARMONA. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
CAROLINE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a sister
of W. J. Stewart, Chief Hydrographer.
CARON. Point and reef, Manitoulin ; after the late Sir Joseph
Philippe Rene Adolphe Caron (1843-1908), Minister of Militia, 1880-
92 ; Postmaster-General, 1892-96.
CARPMAEL- Island, Sudbury ; after the late Charles Carp-
mael, Director, Meteorological Service, Toronto.
CART WRIGHT. Point, Manitoulin ; after the late Hon. Sir
Richard John Cartwright, K.C.M.G., Minister of Finance, 1873-
78 ; Ministei of Trade and Commerce, 1896-1911.
CASEY. Shoal, iNTorth Channel, Algoma ; after late George
Elliott Casey, M.P. for West Elgin, 1872-1900 ; d. 1903.
CASGRAIN. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after P. B. Cas-
grain, M.P. for I/Islet, 1872-91.
CASTLE. Island, Bustard Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
CATARACT. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the schooner Catar-
act, wrecked there.
CATHCART. Island, Parry Sound ; Lieut. W. E. Parry (q.v.)
served in the Alexandria, Capt. Cathcart, 1811-13.
CATHERINE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Lady Parry, nee
Catherine Edwards Hankinson.
CAVE. Point, Bruce ; 'from the number of small caverns in
its cliffy face."
CEDAR. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; from the cedar
trees on it.
tfCEDAR. Point, Simcoe.
CELTIC. Rocks, Manitoulin ; after the steamer Celtic.
22 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
CENTRE. Island, and CENTRE ISLAND, bank, Manitoulin ;
descriptive oi position.
CHAIN. Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
CHALLENGER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the Challenger, a
famous British surveying vessel.
CHAMBERLAIN. Island, Parry Sound ; after the steambarge
CHAMBERLAIN. (Point, Manitoulin ; after the Rt. Hon. Jos-
eph Chamberlain, British statesman.
CHAMPLAIN. Island, Parry Sound ; after Samuel Cham-
plain (1567-1635), famous French navigator and explorer.
CHANCELLOR. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sir John Alexan-
der Boyd, Chancellor of Ontario.
CHANNEL- Point, Cove Island, Bruce ; descriptive of posi-
tion near a channel.
tfCHANNEL. Point, Cockburn Island, Manitoulin.
tfCHANNEL. Rock, Fitzwilliam Island, Manitoulin, and rock,
CHAPLEATL Cove and point, Manitoulin ; after the Hon. Sir
Joseph Adolphe Chapleau (1840-1898), Lieut.-Governor of Quebec,
CHAPMAN. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; error for Chip-
man f after C. C. Chipman, sometime Private Secretary to the
Minister of Marine and Fisheries ; later, Commissioner, Hudson's
Bay Co., Winnipeg.
CHARITY. Point, Christian Island, Simcoe ; because on
Christian Islands, which were, at one time, known as Faith, Hope
CHARLES. Inlet, Parry Sound ; after a son of Capt. Mc-
CHARLIE. Island, Manitoulin ; after a son of Admiral Bay-
CHAT WIN. Rock, Algoma ; after a steward in surveying
CHEROKEE. Rock, French River, Parry Sound ; after the
CHERUB. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Cherub, a
British gunboat on Lake Huron.
CHESAPEAKE. Rock, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound ; after
the U. S. frigate Chesapeake, captured bv the Shannon in war of
CHEVALIER. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after Cheva-
lier St. Onge, a French half breed who, at one time resided on the
western, and larger, of the two islands.
IN GEORGIAN BAY. <&
CHICORA. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steam-
ttCHICORA. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
CHIEF. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Solomon, an Indian chief.
*CHILES. Point, Simcoe ; name obsolete ; now Sturgeon
Point ; possibly alter an official of Penetanguishene naval station.
*CHIN. Cape, Bruce ; named by Bayfield ; descriptive.
CHINA. Reef, Bruce ; after the schooner China, wrecked on
tfCHlNA. Cove, Bruce,
CHIPPEWA. Bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after a lake ves-
CHOWN. Island, Parry Sound ; after George Y. Chown, Regis-
trar, Queen's University, Kingston.
*CHRISTI AN. Island, Simcoe; so called because the Christian-
ized Hurons and the priests, fleeing from the Iroquois, took refuge
on these islands and endeavoured to found a new settlement, trust-
ing that they would there be safe from attack ; name probably ante-
dated Bayfield' s survey.
CHRYSLER. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after F. H.
Chrysler, K.C., Ottawa.
CHURCH. Hill, Manitoulin ; after Roman Catholic church
near the hill.
CHURCHILL. Islands, Parry Sound ; after the late Lord Ran-
dolph Churchill (1859-95), British statesman.
CITY. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the steamer City of Mid-
*CLAPPERTON. Channel, Manitoulin; probably after Lieut.
B. Clapperton who was returned, Oct. 16, 1815, as Acting Lieuten-
ant in the Star on Lake Ontario. Possibly after Hugh Clapperton
(1788-1827) ; made extensive explorations in the Soudan and Niger,
tt*CLAPPERTON. Island, Manitoulin.
tfCLAPPERTON. Harbour, Manitoulin.
CLARA. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs. W. J.
CLARENCE. Channel, Parry Sound ; after Albert Victor,
Duke of Clarence and Avondale, eldest son of Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales ; died, 1892.
CLARKE. Rock, Muskoka ; after the captain of a lake tug.
CLARKE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
CLAUDE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Claude Johnson, son of
a Parry Sound merchant.
CLAY. Cliff, Manitoulin ; characteristic.
24 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
*CLOCHE. Island, North Channel, Sudbury ; the name applied
to the island by the French, from the rocks ringing like a bell (Fr.
cloche] on being struck.
ttCLOCHE. Channel, peninsula, bhifi and mountain, Sudbury.
ttLITTLE CLOCHE. Island, Sudbury.
*CLUB. Island, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield ; derivation
tfCLUB. Harbour, and CLUB ISLAND, ledge, Manitoulin.
CO ATS WORTH. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a
well-known Toronto family.
*COCKBURN.> Island, Manitoulin ; after Vice-Admiral Sir
George Cockburn (1772-1853), Lord of the Admiralty, 1834-35 and
1841-46. Parry says that he named the northern portion of Baffin
Island after Cockburn, "whose warm personal interest in every-
thing relating to northern discovery can only, be surpassed by the
public zeal with which he has always promoted it." Or, after
Lieut. -Col. Francis Cockburn, Deputy Quartermaster General who
was in attendance on the Earl of Dalhousie on a tour of inspec-
tt*COCKBURN. Point, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; name ob-
solete ; now called Gidley Point.
COFFIN. Cove and hill, Grey ; after a farmer residing there.
COGANASHENE. Point, Muskoka ; abbreviation of Mhmacog-
COLBY. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algom-a ; after Hon.
C. C. Colby, M.P. for Stanstead, 1867-91.
COLE. Bay, Manitoulin ; after a Church of England clergy-
man at Manitowaning.
COLIN. Point, Algoma ; after D. Colin Campbell, assistant to
Capt. Boulton during survey of Georgian Bay.
tfCOLIN. Rock, Parry Sound.
*COLLINS. Inlet, Manitoulin ; after Philip Edward Collins,
assistant to Capt. Bayfield during the survey of Lakes Huron and
tfCOLLINS. Bay and reef, Parry Sound.
COLLJNS. Reef-, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; after the light-
housekeeper, Geo. Collins, Collingwood.,
*COLLS. Bay, Georgian Bay, Simcoe ; name obsolete ; now
Hog Bay ; possibly after an official of Penetanguishene naval sta-
COLMER. Ground, North Channel, Algoma ; after J. G. Col-
mer, from 1881 to 1903, Secretary to the High Commissioner for
*COLPOYS. Bay, Bruc ; named by Bayfield ; after Rear-Ad-
miral Sir Edward Griffith Colpoys ; died 1832.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 25
COI/TER. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after N. R.
Colter, M.P. for Carlcton, N.B., 1891-96.
COIyVIIyLE. Island and bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after
Major the Hon. C. R. W. Colville, Secretary to I,ord Stanley,
*COMB. Point, Algoma ; named by Bayfield ; derivation un-
*COMMODORE. Cape, Bruce ; after Commodore Sir E. W. C,
R. Owen (q.v.) ; commanded naval forces on Great Lakes in 1815.
CONE. Island, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
*CONFIANCE. Rock, Bruce ; after the Confiance (2) gunboat
on Lake Huron; formerly the TJ. S. S. Scorpion, captured Sept. 6th,
1814. The first Confiance was Yeo's (q.v.) first command, a
French privateer captured by him at Muros Bay ; the second was a
36^gun ship carrying Downie's flag on L/ake Champlain., captured off
Plattsburg, Sept. nth, 1814 ; the third was the namesake of Con-
fiance rock ("shoal" on Bay field's chart).
CONMEE. Island, North Channel ; after James Conmee, Port
Arthur ; M.P. for Thunder Bay and Rainy River, 1904-11.
COOK. Bay, Manitoulin ; after the late John Cook, first set-
COOK. Island, North Channel, Algoma; after H. H. Cook,
M.P. for North Simcoe, 1872-78 ; for East Simcoe, 1882-91.
COOPER. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after R. W.
Cooper, clerk in Rideau Canal Office, Ottawa.
COOTE. Island, Parry Sound ; lyieut. W. E. Parry command-
ed one of the boats during a "cutting-out" expedition up the Con-
necticut River in 1814. The expedition was under the command of
Capt. Coote of H. M. brig Borer.
COPPER. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; this name is
also applied to numerous other features in Canada, usually owing
to the real or alleged discovery of this mineral in the vicinity.
COPPERHEAD. Island and harbour, Parry Sound ; from cop-
perhead snakes found on the island.
COPPERMINE. Point; Algoma ; descriptive.
CORBIER. Cove, West Bay, Manitoulin ; after a half-breed
chief living at Honora Bay.
CORBMAN. Point, Franklin Island, Parry Sound ; after a resi-
dent of the locality.
CORISANDE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the schooner Cori-
CORNER. Rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
CORNET. Point, Griffi/ths Island, Grey ; after a fisherman.
26 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
CORNWALUS. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Admiral the Hon.
W. Cornwallis, who was in command of the Channel fleet in 1803.
Parry went to sea for the first time, in Cornwallis' flagship.
COSTIGAN. Point, Manitoulin ; after the Hon. John Costi-
gan, Minister of Inland Revenue, 1882-92 ; Secretary of State,
1892-94 ; Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 1894-96.
COUNTS. Bank, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; resident, Sault
COURSOlv. Bay, lUgonm ; after the late C. J. Coursol,
M.P. for Montreal East, 1878 till death in 1888.
COURTNEY. Island and bank, Manitoulin ; after J. M. Court-
ney, C.M.G., I.S.O., late Deputy Minister of Finance.
COUTIyBE. Island, Thunder Bay ; after Chas. R. Coutlee,
C.E., Chief Engineer, Ottawa River Regulation ; graduate, Royal
Military College, 1886.
*COVE. Island, Bruce ; descriptive.
tfCOVE ISI/AND. Harbour and ground, Bruce.
COVE OF CORK. Bay, Bruce ; probably from fancied resem^-
blance to cove at foot of bay, to Cove of Cork, Ireland.
COWIE. Reef, Muskoka ; after F. W. Cowie, Chief Engineer,
Montreal Harbour Commission ; sometime, Chief Engineer, St.
I/awrence ship channel.
COWPER. Island, Parry Sound ; after George B. Cowper, who
was Chief Clerk, Crown I/ands Department, Ontario.
COX. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a draughts-
man in Department of Marine and Fisheries.
CRA'CROFT. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Miss Sophia Cracroft,
niece of Sir John Franklin, the famous Arctic explorer.
CRAFTSMAN. Point, Algoma ; after the schooner Crafts-
CRAWFORD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Hon.
Thomas Crawford, M.P. P. for West Toronto since 1898 ; Speaker
of legislature, 1907.
CREAK. Island, North Channel, Sudbury ; after a naval
officer, Admiralty 1890 probably Capt. Ettrjck William Creak,
C.B., retired, 1891.
CREASOR. Bight, Manitoulin ; after Judge Creasor, Owen
CREBO. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a Killar-
CREIGHTON. Point, Manitoulin ; . after David Creighton,
M.P. P. for North Grey, 1875-90 ; Asst. Receiver-General, Toronto,
CRESCENT. Island, Simcoe ; descriptive of its crescentic out-
tt*CRESCENT. Island Manitoulin, and island, Parry Sound.
P'LACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 27
CRICKET. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Miss
C. Clark, Henderson, N. Carolina.
*CROKER. Cape, Bruce ; named by Bayfield, after John Wil-
son Croker (1780-1853), Secretary to the Admiralty 1809-30 ; he
was an enthusiastic supporter of the search for the Northwest pas-
sage and of the Franklin search.
ft*CROKER. Island, North Channel, Algoma.
CROOKS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Hon.
Adam Crooks, M.P. P. for West Toronto and, later, South Oxford ;
Provincial Treasurer 1872-76 ; Minister of Education, 1876-83.
CROSS. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; "so-called because
it lies athwart the channel into the harbour."
tfCROSS. Ledge, Parry Sound.
CROWLEY. Reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after a fisherman
at Grant fishery station.
CRUISER. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
Cruiser, purchased from Allan Gilmour, Ottawa, and used in fish-
ery protection service on Geeorgian Bay and Lake Huron.
CUBA. Rock, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound ; after the, steamer
CUMBERLAND. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after steam-
CUNNINGHAM. ^Point, Manitoulin ; after Cyril Cunningham
Boulton, son of Capt. Boulton.
CURRAN. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. J. J.
Curran, M.P. for Montreal Centre, 1892-95 ; Solicitor-General,
1892-95 ; Judge, Superior Court, Montreal District, 1895.
CUTKNIFE. Cove, Bedford I., Sudbury ; after action at Cut-
knife Creek, Saskatchewan, Riel rebellion, 1885.
CYRIL. Cove, Manitoulin; after Cyril Cunningham Boulton,
a son of Capt. Boulton.
tfCYRIL. Point, Parry Sound.
DALRYMPLE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Alex-
ander Dalrymple (1737-1808), first Hydrographer to the Admiralty.
DALTON. Reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Dalton
McCarthy, M.P. for Cardwell, 1874-78 ; M.P. for North S&ncoe,
ttDALTON. Reef, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey.
DALY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Hon. T.
M. Daly, Minister of the Interior, 1892-96.
tfDALY. Point, Christian I., Simcoe.
DANIEL. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Rev. A.
W. Daniel, Rothesay, N.B. : graduate, Royal Military College,
28 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
DANVILLE. Ground, Manitoulin ; after commander of a
gunboat on Great Lakes.
DARBY. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Darby Ber-
gin, M.D. (q.v.), sometime M. P. for Cornwall and Stormont.
*DARCH. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; named by Bay-
field ; derivation unknown.
DARLING. Reef, Bruce ; after a fisherman.
DART. Rock, Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound ; after a British
surveying vessel, 470 tons. Another Dart was with Nelson at Cop-
DAUPHINE. Rock, Parry Sound ; in 1524, Verrazano, in
the Dauphine, explored the Atlantic coast of North America from
lat. 34 degrees north, to Newfoundland.
DAVID. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late Hon.
David Mills (1831-1903), Minister of Justice, 1876-78 and 1897-1902.
DA VIES. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir Louis
Davies, K.C.M.G., Justice, Supreme Court of Canada ; Minister of
Marine and Fisheries, 1896-1901.
DAVIN. Point, John I., Algoma ; after Nicholas Flood Davin,
K.C. (1843-1900) ; M.P. for Assiniboia West, 1887-1900.
DAVY. Island and rock, Parry Sound ; after maternal parent
of Mrs. W. J. Stewart.
DAWSON. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after late S.
E. Dawson, M.P., whose representations induced the Dominion Gov-
ernment to commence the survey of Georgian Bay.
*DAWSON. Rock, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield, probably
after George Robert Dawson, Secretary to the Admiralty, 1834-35.
DEAD. Island, Parry Sound ; "from the fact of its having
been in olden times the burial place of the Indian tribes frequenting
DEAN. Bay, Manitoulin ; after David and Thomas Dean who
own timber lands here.
DE CAEN. Rock, North Channel, Mgoma ; after Emery de
Caen, who received Quebec when restored by English, 1632, after
capture by Kirke.
DE CELLES. Island, North Channel, Algoma; after Alfred
D. De Celles, General Librarian of Parliament.
DEEP. Cove, Huckleberry I., Parry Sound ; descriptive.
DEEP. Point, Darch I. Algoma ; descriptive of water off
DEEP WATER. Island, Fraser Bay, Manitoulin ; from having
deep water nearly all around it.
tfDEEP WATER. Point, Parry I., Parry Sound.
tfDEEPWATER. Point, Griffith I., Grey.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 29
DEER. Island, Muskoka ; from its proximity to Moose Deer
DELF. Island, Muskoka ; from broken crockery found on it.
DELOS. Island, Parry Sound ; probably after a half-breed.
Possibly after Delos, an island in the Aegean Sea the mythical
floating island and birthplace of Apollo and Artemis.
DENISON. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Col. George
Taylor Denison, police magistrate, Toronto.
DENNIS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Colonel
Stoughton Dennis, C.M.G., Surveyor-General, 1871-78 ; Deputy
Minister of the Interior, 1878-81.
DENT. Bay and rock, Parry Sound ; after a resident of the
DEPOT. Bay, Parry Sound ; takes its name from being the
landing place in past years of the supplies for the Parry Island In-
DERING. Rock, Parry Sound ; after an armed Hudson's Bay
Co. vessel, which took part in fight with French fleet under d'lber-
DE ROBERVAL.-^Point, Algoma ; after Jean Francois de la
Roque, Sieur de Roberval, first viceroy of New France, 1540.
DESJARDINS. Bay, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after Hon. Al-
phonse Desjardins, M.P. for Hochelaga, 1874-92 ; Senator for De
Lorimier division, 1892.
DEVIL. Gap, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; an experienced
navigator states that it was so called because it is exceedingly diffi-
cult to navigate it.
tfDEVIL. Island, St. Joseph Channel.
DEVIL. Island, Bruce ; the island is surrounded by shoal wa-
ter and dangerous for vessels to approach.
tfDEVIL ISLAND. Bank and channel, Bruce.
DEVILS ELBOW. Channel, Parry Sound ; from a sharp bend
in the channel.
DEWDNEY. Island and rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after
the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, Minister of the Interior, 1888-92, and
Lieut. -Governor of British Columbia, 1892-97.
DIGBY. Bank, Muskoka ; after Hon. Gerald F. Digby, Lieu-
tenant in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camper down,
DIVIDED. Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
DIXIE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the tug Dixie.
DIXON. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
DIXON. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a naval sur-
30 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
DOBIE. Point, Algoma ; after James S. Dobie, merchant,
DOG. Point, Mississagi Island, Algoma ; from a dog being
found there during the survey.
tfDOG POINT. Shoal, Algoma.
DOKIS. Island, Parry Sound ; late Chief Dokis, Nipissing
band of Indians.
DOROTHY. Inlet, Algoma ; after Mrs. W. P. Anderson (q.v.),
DOT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; descriptive (very
DOTY. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after a tug.
DOUBLE. Island, Parry Sound ; "divided into two parts,
hence the name."
tfDOUBLE. Island, North Channel, Algoma, and island, Shnr
ttDOUBLE. Cove, island, and DOUBLE ISLAND, ledge,
DOUBLE TOP. Island, Western Islands, Parry Sound ; "it is
nearly divided into two small rocks."
DOUCET. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; aftei Emile Dou-
cet, C.E., District Engineer, National Transcontinental Ry. ; gradu-
ate of Royal Military College, 1880.
*DOUGLAS. Bay, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield, probably after
Win. Robt. Keith Douglas, Lord of the Admiralty, 1822-27 ; name
obsolete ; now Thunder Bay.
DOUGLAS. Point, Simcoe ; after a marine surveyor (voyag-
eur's statement, probably wrong).
DOWELL. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a merchant of Parry
DOYLE. Rock, Smith Bay, Manitoulin ; after one of the crew
of the Bayfield.
DRAPER. Island, Manitoulin ; after Hon. W. H. Draper, Chief
Justice of the Queen's Bench, 1863-68 ; Chief Justice of Ontario,
DREVER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
DREW. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the commander
of a gunboat on Great Lakes in 1838.
DRIFTWOOD. Cove, Bruce ; characteristic.
DUETT. Rock, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound after a boatman
in steamer Bayfield.
DUFFERIN. Island, Manitoulin ; after the Rt. Hon. Frederick
Temple Blackwood, Marquis of Dufferin and Ava (1826-1902), Gov-
ernor-General of Canada, 1872-78.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 31
DUFFY. Island, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
DUKE. Island, and rock, Parry Sound ; after Prince Albert
Victor, Duke of Clarence (1864-1892).
DUNCAN. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a Marks-
*DUNDAS. Cape, Bruce ; named by Bayfield after Robert
Saunders Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville (1771-1851) ; First Lord'of
the Admiralty, 1812-27, and 1828-30.
DUNLEVIE. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma; after the
late John Dunlevie, Winnipeg.
DUROQUET. Point, Manitoulin ; after the R. C. priest at
DUTCHMAN. Head, Manitoulin ; descriptive of outline.
DUVAL. Island, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after Prof. Duval,
Royal Military College, Kingston.
DWYER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after an engineer,
*DYER. Bay, Bruce ; named by Bayfield after John Jones
Dyer, Chief Clerk of the Admiralty.
DYMENT. Rock, Algoma ; after a lumber merchant, Barrie.
EAGLE. Cove and point, Cove I., Bruce ; after the schooner
EAGLE. Island and point, North Channel, Algoma ; probably
same as Eagle rock.
EAGLE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the steamer Eagle.
ttEAGLE. Reef, Parry Sound.
EAGLE NEST. Point, Algoma ; after eagle's nest on it.
EAGOR. Bank, Muskoka ; after a boatman in steamer Bay-
EARL. Patches, Bruce ; after an old resident (pilot) of Tober-
EATON. Point, Manitoulin ; after a Church of England clergy-
ECHO. Island, Bruce ;, characteristic.
EDITH. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs. F.
A, Beament, Ottawa, nee Belford.
EDSALL. Bank, Parry Sound ; old name of surveying steattir
EDWARD. Island, Parry Sound ; after Admiral Sir William
Edward Parry (q.v.).
32 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
EDWARDS. Bank, Parry Sound ; after Lady Parry, nee Cath-
erine Edwards Hankinson.
*EGG. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; many gulls' eggs were
found on the island.
EIGHT-FATHOM. Patch, Georgian Bay, Bruce ; after the
depth of water on it.
EKOBA. Bay, Algoma; corruption ot Echo Bay ; which from
Echo I y ake ; latter named after the "echo" from the bluffs on its
ELEVEN-FOOT. Rock, Sudbury ; irom having that depth of
water on it.
ELGIN. Rock, Parry S und ; after the Earl of Elgin (1811-
63) ; Governor-General of Canada, 1847-53.
^ELIZABETH. Bay, Manitoulin ; named by Captain Bay field
(q.v.) after his mother.
ttBLIZABETH. Point, Manitoulin.
ELLIS. Point, Algoma; after Ashmead Ellis Bartlett Burdett-
Coutts, British politician, son of Ellis Bartlett, U.S.A. ; m. Bar-
^oness Burdett-Coutts, i88i,and assumed the surname "Burdett-
Coutts" ; Lord of the Admiralty, 1885.
ELM. Island, Algoma ; "from a single tree of that nature
which it still preserves."
ttBLM-TREE. Island, Parry Sound.
EMERALD. Point, Serpent Harbour, Algoma; after the steam-
EMERY. Reef,, Algoma; after the U.S. tug Temple Emery.
EMILY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the wife of
Col. Boswell, 90th &egt., Winnipeg.
EMILY MAXWELL. R ef, Fitzwilliam I., iManitoulin ; after
the U.S. schooner Emily Maxwell ; stranded on Fitzwilliam
EMPIRE. Ledge, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after 'Cana-
dian lake steamer, United Empire.
ENGLISH. Point, Cloche I., Sudbury ; after a Little Current
ERIE. Shingle, Manitoulin ; after the Erie, a trading vessel,
wrecked on it.
ttERlE. Channel and bank, Manitoulin.
ESTHER. Cliff, Grey ; after the daughter of a farmer.
ESTHER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a sistet of Capt. Boul-
ETHEL. Rock, Aird I. Algoma; after Capt. Boulton's daugh-
EUL AS. Ground, Algoma ; after Hon. George Eulas Foster,
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 33
Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 1885-88 ; Minister of Finance,
1888-96 ; Minister of Trade and Commerce since 1911.
EUROPA. Reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Europa, a
EVANGELINE. Patch, Algoma ; after Bishop Sullivan's
EVANS. Point, Badgley I., Manitoulin ; after Sir Frederick
John Owen Evatis (1815-85), British hydrographer.
EVELYN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Evelyn Steele, Dept. of
Secretary of State, Ottawa.
EVERARD. Reef, Parry Sound ; after Commander Thomas
Everard, R.N., who came from H.M. brig Wasp then lying at
Quebec ; commanded expedition of Aug. I, 1813, against PI alts-burg
FAG AN. Ground, Manitoulin ; after a waiter in steamer Bay-
FAITH. Point, Beckwith I., Simcoe ; after the armed schoon-
FALSE DETOUR. Channel between Cockburn and Drummond
Islands ; called "False" to distinguish it from the true Detour
channel which is at the other western end of Drummond Island.;
called "Detour' 1 because it was the passage used by the fur-trad-
ers when going- to Mackinac. As Mackinac was off at one side of the
regular route from Montreal to Lake Superior, they were thus forc-
ed to make a rc detour" to reach it.
FANNY. Island, Manitoulin ; after Christian name of Mrs.
FARR. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
FA WCETT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Thomas
Fawcett, D.L.S., Niagara Falls.
FAWKES. Rock, Muskoka : after Ayscough G. H. Fawkes,
midshipman in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown
off Tripoli, June 23, 1893.
FELIX. Rock, Muskoka ; after Felix Foreman, fleet engineer
in the Victoria sunk in collision with the Camperdown, 1893.
FINNIvS. Rock, Manitoulin ; after Capt. Finnis who was in
command of the Queen Charlotte and was killed in the battle of
Lake Erie, Sept. loth, 1813.
FISH. Point, George I., Manitoulin ; "derives its name from
being the place where the fishermen of Killarney formerly deposited
their fish refuse."
FISH CREEK. Point, Rons I., Sudbury ; after the action of
Fish Creek, Riel rebellion, 1885.
FISHER. Bay and shoal, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after a
farmer, who lived on the shore of the bay.
34 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
FISHER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Hon.
Sidney Fisher, Minister of Agriculture, 1896-1911.
FISHERMAN. Gut, North Channel, Algoma ; so called be-
cause* frequented by fishermen.
ttFISHERMAN. Point, Simcoe.
*FISHERMAN.< Shoal, Simcoe ; name obsolete \ named by
FISHERY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; descriptive.
ttFlSHERY. Island, Parry Sound.
tfFISHERY ISLAND. Cove, Manitoulin.
FISHERY. Point, Manitoulin ; it "affords shelter to boats
employed in attending the pound nets in the locality."
FISK. Reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after the captain of a
FITZGERALD. Bay, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
*FITZWILLIAM. Island, Manitoulin ; after Captain (later,
Vice-Admiral) William Fitzwilliam Owen (1774-1857) ; died at St.
John, N.B. Lieut. Bayfield was his assistant in the survey of Lake
ft FITZWILLIAM. Channel, Manitoulin.
FIVE-FATHOM. (Patch, Manitowaning Bay, Manitoulin ; de-
scriptive "5% fathoms on it."
FIVE-MILE. Bay, Parry Sound ; because supposed to be five
FLAT. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; descriptive ; numer-
ous other features bear this name.
ttFLAT ROCK. Bank, Simcoe.
FLEMING. Bank, Algoma ; after Sir Sandford Fleming, Otta-
wa, eminent Canadian civil engineer.
tfFLEMING. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey.
FLINT. Rocks, Aird I., Algoma ; after the late Senator Billa
FLOOD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late Nicho-
las Flood Davin, M.P. for West Assiniboia.
FLOWER-POT. Island, Bruce ; "derives its name from two
remarkable isolated rocks close to the east shore, both being much
eroded at the bases, with a few small trees on their summits,
much resemble gigantic flower pots."
FLUMMERFELT. Patch, Bruce ; after a fireman in steamer
FORBES. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after John Colin
Forbes, artist^ Toronto,
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 35
FOREMAN. Islands, Muskoka ; after Felix Foreman, Fleet-En-
gineer in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown,
FOR SHAW. Island, St Joseph I., Algoma ; after late Prof.
Forshaw Day, sometime Professor of Drawing at the Royal Mili-
tary College, Kingston.
FORT. Channel, Algoma ; after the remains of a fort in the
FORTIN. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after Pierre Fortin,
M.P. for Gaspe, 1867-74 and 1878-87 ; Senator, 1887 ; d. 1888.
FOSTER. Bank, Sudbury ; after Hon. George Eulas Foster,
Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 1885-88 ; Minister of Finance,
1888-96 ; Minister of Trade and Commerce since 1911.
tfFOSTER. Rock, Parry Sound.
FOUL. Bight, Algoma ; descriptive.
FOURNIER. Islands, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after Hon.
Telesphore Fournier, Minister of Inland Revenue, 1873-74 ; Minister
of Justice, 1874-75 ; Postmaster-General, 1875 ; Judge, Supreme
Court, 1875-95 ; d. 1896.
*FOX. Islands, Algoma ; probably because numerous foxes
found on these islands.
FRANCES. Point, Par y Sound ; after steamer Frances
Smith, which named by first owner after his wife.
tfFRANCES SMITH. Shoal, Key Harbour, Parry Sound.
FRANCIS. Brook, Manitowaning Bay, Manitoulin ; after a
*FRANCIS. Point, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield ; deriva-
FRANK. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Frank
Marks, Marks ville.
FRANK. Ledge, Smith Bay, Manitoulin ; after Frank McGre-
gor, a son of sailing master of the Bayfield.
*FRANKLIN. Inlet, Parry Sound ; after Sir John Franklin,
Captain, R.N. ; famous Arctic explorer ; in 1825, passed through
Georgian Bay on his way to the Arctic and met Bayfield ; name
practically obsolete ; usually called Shawanaga Bay.
*FRASER. Bay, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield ; derivation
tfFRASER BAY.-^Hill, Manitoulin.
FRASER-. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. C. F.
Fraser, Provincial Secretary 1873-74 ; Commissioner of Public
FRECHETTE. Bay and island, Manitoulin, and island, North
Channel, Algoma ; after the late Louis Honore Frechette, French-
36 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
FREDERIC. Inlet, Parry Sound ; after Provincial Lieut.
Chas. Frederic Rolette (1783-1831) ; Centered Royal Navy ; was at
the battle of the Nile (wounded) and Trafalgar ; ist Lieutenant in
the Hunter, 1812 ; captured the packet Cuyahoga, 3rd July, 1812 ;
was at Put-in Bay, taking command of the Lady Prevost when comr-
mander was wounded ; a prisoner of war and confined as a hostage
in Frankfort penitentiary."
FREER. Point, Manitoulin ; after the late Capt. H. C. Freer,
South Staffordshire Regiment ; graduate of Royal Military Col-
FREMLIN. Island and reef, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; af-
ter a Marksville lumber merchant.
FRENCH. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; so called because
a number of islands in vicinity were named after early French ex-
plorers and missionaries.
FRENCH. River, Parry Sound ; the waterway by which the
early French traders came from eastern Canada to the western
FROST. Point, Manitoulin ; after a clergyman at Sheguian-
GAFFNEY. Island, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after an officer of
the U.S. engineers.
GAHAN. Rock, Muskoka ; after Dr. Gahan, Penetanguishenc.
GALBRAITH. Point, Aird I., Algoma; after Dr. John Gal-
braith, Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, University of Tor-
G ALT. Island, Sudbury; after the late Sir A. T. Gait,
G.C.M.G. (1817-1893), Minister of Finance, 1867 ; High Commis-
sioner for Canada in the United Kingdom, 1880-83.
GAMON. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; after a lawyer of
GARDEN. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; named by con-
trast, being a barren, limestone island.
GARDEN. Bay, Algoma ; from Garden Rivei, which from a
cultivated or cleared spot at the mouth.
GARIBALDI. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after a trad-
GARRISON. Point, Simcoe ; where the first fort was built.
*GAT. Point, Cove I., Bruce ; named by Bayfield ; derivation
ttGAT POINT.-Reef, Cove I., Bruce.
GAUGE. Islands, Parry Sound ; "The name was given to this
small cluster on account of a beacon fastened to the eastern islet to
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 37
indicate to the Midland and Parry Sound steamer the depth of wa-
ter in South Channel."
GATJTHIER. Point, Mamtoulin ; alter a resident.
GAVAZZI. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Rev. Father
Gavazzi, whose preaching in Montreal led to riots in 1854.
GAVILLER. Island, Parry Sound ; after a Church of Eng-
land clergyman, Rev. Hans Gaviller.
GEORGE. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; after George
*GEORGE. Island, Manitoulin ; after King George IV, reign-
ing monarch at date of Bayfield's survey.
tt^EORGE. Rocks, Manitoulin.
tt*GEORGE. I/ake, St. Mary River, Algoma.
tt*GEORGIAN. Bay, Lake Huron.
GERALDINE. Island, Muskoka ; after tug Geraldine.
GEREAUX. Island, Parry Sound ; after the light-keeper on
GERMAIN. Island, Key Harbour, Parry Sound; after a launch
owner, Byng Inlet.
GERTRUDE. Island,Manitoulin ;; after a daughter of Admiral
GER VASE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after one of the
ships in Capt. Kirke's squadron which captured Quebec, 1629 ; the
vessel named after Capt. Kirke's father, Gervase Kirke.
*GIANT'S TOMB. Island, Simcoe ; "from the appearance of
the highest part, as seen from 'The Westerns,' when, usually, the
hill appears out of the water, and resembles a huge tomb."
GIBBONS. Point, Manitoulin ; after a retired naval officer,
GIBRALTAR. Cliff, Manitoulin ; fancied resemblance to the
GIBSON. Point, Manitoulin, and reef, Muskoka ; after a
draughtsman at Admiralty in 1890.
GIDLEY. Point, Simcoe ; after the owner.
*GIG. Point, Cove I., Bruce ; named by Bayfield, probably af-
ter his gig (boat).
GILEAD. Rock, Muskoka ; from balm of Gilead trees on rock.
GILLESPIE. Island, Muskoka; after a Mr. Gillespie, of
GILLFORD. Rocks, Georgian Bay, Muskoka ; after Lord Gill-
ford, Flag-Lieutenant in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the
Camperdown, June 23, 1893
GILLMOR. Point, Frechette I., Algoma ; after the late Arthur
H. Gillmor, M.P. for Charlotte, N.B., 1874-96 ; Senator, 1900.
38 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
GISBORNE. Point, Croker I., Algoma ; after the late Francis
N. Gisborne, Superintendent, Dominion Telegraphs.
GLACIS. Island, -Muskoka ; after its "steep, bare, western
GL ADMAN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
GLADWYN. Rock, Parry Sound ; the schooner Gladwyn as-
sisted in defence of Fort Detroit, 1763 ; the fort was commanded
by Captain Gladwyn.
GLADYS. Island, Thunder Bay ; after a member of an Ottawa
^GLOUCESTER. Bay, Simcoe ; after H.R.H. the Princess
Mary (1776-1857), fourth daughter of George III. She was the last
surviving of the fifteen children of George III. Or, after her hus>-
band, and first cousin, H.R.H. William Frederick, Duke of Glouces-
ter and Edinburgh. Name appears on Bouchette's map, 1815, but is
now obsolete ; now, Midland Bay.
^GLOUCESTER. Point Simcoe ; name obsolete ; now Sucker
*GLOVER. Point, Simcoe ; possibly after an official of Pene-
tanguishene naval station.
GLYN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the captain of H.M.S. Van-
guard, in which Parry (q.v.) served, 1808-09.
GOALEN. Island. North Channel, Algoma ; after an assistant
surveyor with Capt. Tooker in hydrographic survey of Newfound-
GODFREY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a friend cf
GO-HOME. River, Muskoka ; translation of the Indian name
tfOO-HOME. Bay, Muskoka.
GOLD-HUNTER. Rock, Smith Bay, Manitoulin ; after schoon-
er Gold-hunter, stranded near here.
GOLDWIN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Prof. Goldwin Smith,
" The m Grange," Toronto.
GOOD CHEER. Island, Parry Sound ; a descriptive name giv-
en by the owner of the island, Chancellor Boyd.
GORDON. Point, Simcoe ; the site of an old trading post es-
tablished by George Gordon, 1825.
GORDON. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after Lieutenant Andrew R.
Gordon, R.N., in command of Hudson Bay expedition, 1888.
ttGORDON. Rock, Sudbury.
GORE. Bay, and GORE BAY, town, Manitoulin ; after the
steamboat Gore which plied between Collingwood and Sault Ste.
Marie in the "sixties" ; the steamboat named after Sir Charles S.
PlvACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. B9
Gore, who assisted in suppression of the rebellion of 1837-38. For-
merly called Janet Cove and named by Admiral Bayfield.
ffGORE. Rock, Simcoe ; the Gore struck on this rock.
GORREL- Point, Manitoulin ; after a farmer of Gore Bay.
GOURDEAU. Patch, Manitoulin ; after Colonel F. F. Gour-
deau, late Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
GOW. Point and shoal, Strawberry I., Manitoulin ; after a
summer resident of the island.
GOWLAND. Point, Parry Sound ; after a doctor, Parry Sound.
GRABURN. Island, Parry Sound ; after an officer of the De-
partment of Marine and Fisheries ; he made a survey of French
GR4CE. Bank, Muskoka ; after the tug Grace.
GRAND. Bank, Manitoulin ; descriptive.
*GRANT. EAST, MIDDLE and WEST, islands, North Chan-
nel, Algoma ; after an officer of the gunboat Confiance, on Lake
Huron in 1826. Or, after Charles Grant (later, Lord Glenelg),
Treasurer of the Navy, 1827-28.
GRANTHAM. iShoal, Georgian Bay, Manitoulin ; after the
GRAVEL. Point, St. Joseph I., Algoma; characteristic.
tfGRAVELLY. Point and bay, Bruce.
GRAVEYARD. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; descrip-
*GRAVIER. Point, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; old voyageur
name ; now translated into English form. See Gravel Point. Ap-
pears on Bay field's chart.
GRAY. Point, Manitoulin ; after Major Gray, formerly resi-
dent engineer, Public Works Department of Canada, Toronto.
GREEN. Island, Parry Sound ; this and numerous other fea-
tures so named after the green timber covering them.
GREENFIELD. Reef, Bruce ; after the colour of the water
enclosed by the reef.
GREENWAY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Thomas
Greenway (1838-1908), som time Premier of Manitoba.
GRIEVE. Rock, Muskoka ; after Arthur C. Grieve, midship-
man in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown off
Tripoli, June 23rd, 1893.
GRIFFIN. Bank, Man'toulin ; after M. J. Griffin. General
Librarian, Parliamentary Library.
^GRIFFITH. Island, Grey ; after Vice-Admiral Sir Edward
Griffith Colpoys (q.v.).
GRIPER. Bank, Parry Sound ; after one of Parry's vessels in
his expedition in search of the Northwest passage, 1819-20.
40 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
*GRONDINE. Point, Manitoulin ; named by the voyageurs af-
ter the grinding (grumbling) sound made by the rocks of the shore
when affected by the waves.
tfGRONDINE. Rock, Manitoulin.
GUANO. Rock, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; so-called because
much resorted to by gulls , etc.
GUIyl/. Rocks, Parry Sound ; this, and other features, so call-
ed because much frequented by gulls.
GUIyNARE. Point, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steam-
er Gulnare, surveying vessel, Newfoundland. The first Gulnare was
used by Bayfield during his surveys of St. I/awrence River and
*GUN. Point, Bruce ; named by Bayfield, probably to corrir
mermorate the loss of a gun or similar occurrence.
GUNBOAT. Shoal, North Channel, Algoma ; after its position
near Minstrel rock which named after a British gunboat.
GUNDERSON. Shoal, Grey ; after a lake captain.
GUY. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a son of Capt. Boulton.
G WYNNE. Bay, Alg>oma ; after John Wellington Gwynne, Jus-
tice, High Cdurt for Ontario, 1868-79 ; Judge, Supreme Court, 1879-
HAG ARTY. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. Sir
John Hawkins Hagarty (1816-1900), Justice of the High Court for
Ontario, Queen's Bench Div. 1862-68 ; Chief Justice of Common
Pleas, 1868-78 ; Chief Justice, Queen's Bench, 1874-84 ; Chief Jus-
tice for Ontario, 1884-97 ; knighted, 1897.
HAGGART. Point, ^Parry Sound ; after late Hon. John Hag-
gart, M.P. ; Postmaster-General, 1882-92 ; Minister of Railways
and Canals, 1892-96.
HA-HA. Rock, Muskoka ; after the tug Ha-ha.
HAIGHT. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a lawyer of Parry
HAILSTONE. Island, Parry Sound ; after a resident.
HAIyCRO. Island, Parry Sound ; after Chancellor Boyd's
HALFWAY. Islands, Waubuno Channel, Sudbury ; because sit-
uated about half-way through the channel.
*HAIvFMOON. Island, Bruce ; descriptive of outline.
tfHAIyFMOON. Bank, Bruce.
HAIyKETT. Rock, Manitoulin ; after J. B. Halkett, chief
clerk, Department of Marine and Fisheries.
HALJv. Reef and rock, Parry Sound ; after a steam barge.
HAI/I/. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after one of the
crew of the Bayfield.
PIvACE : NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 41
HAMILTON. Island, Manitoulin ; after Lord George Hamil-
ton, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1885-92.
ttHAMILTON. Rock, Serpent Harbour, Algoma.
HAMPSHIRE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the Hampshire, an
English vessel, sunk by d'Iberville in Hudson Bay, 1697.,
*HANGCLIFF. Cape, Parry I., Parry Sound ; named by Bay-
field ; descriptive of appearance ; name obsolete ; now I/ion Head.
HANG-DOG. Point and bank, Parry Sound ; "as the name in-
dicates is a broken-up foul point."
HANKINSON. Bank, Parry Sound ; after Parry's brother-in-
law, Rev. R. H. Hankinson.
HANNAH. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Mrs. M. G. Poole, sis-
ter-in-law of W. J. Stewart, Chief Hydrographer.
tfH ANN AH. Ground, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
HANS. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a Church of England cler-
gyman, Rev. Hans Gaviller.
HAPPY-GO-LUCKY. ^-Island, Muskoka ; so named by the own-
er of camp on island.
HARBOTTLE. Islands Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound ; after
late Capt. Harbottle, Steamship Inspector, Toronto.
HARBOUR. Island, Clapperton Island, Manitoulin ; descrip-
tive name applied to this and several other features ^
HARD-HEAD. Point, Hope Island ; from the boulders (hard-
heads) scattered along the shore.
HARDIE. Island, Parry Sound ; after late chief clerk, Depart-
ment of Marine and Fisheries.
tfHARDlE. Rock, Manitoulin.
HAROLD. Point, Parry Sound ; after a son of Capt. Boulton,
ttHAROLD. Point, Vidal Island, Manitoulin.
HARRIETTE. (Point, Algoma ; local name.
HARRIS. Rock, Muskoka ; after a man who was lost in the
HARRIS. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a naval surveyor.
HARRISON. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steam-
HARTNEY. Cove, Manitoulin ; after E. P. Hartney, chief
clerk, House of Commons.
HARTY. Patches, Manitoulin ; after Patrick Harty, King-
ston, Inspector of Lights, Department of Marine and Fisheries.
HASLEYWOOD. < Bank, Parry Sound ; after a lawyer, Char-
lottetown ; a friend of Capt. Boulton.
42 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
HAT. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; descriptive of
outline of island.
HATTIE. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Miss
Hattie Richards, Richards Landing.
HAW.KES. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a
cousin of Mrs. W. J. Stewart.
HAWKINS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir John
Hawkins Hagarty ; see Hagarty.
*H AY. Island, Bruce ; named by Bay field, probably after the
private secretary to Lord Melville, First Lord of the Admiralty.
HAYSTACK. Rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive of appearance.
HAYTER. Point, Christian Island, Simcoe ; after Hayter
Reed, Indian Commissioner 1888-95 ; Deputy Superintendent-Gen-
eral of Indian Affairs, 1893-97.
HEAD. Island, Parry Sound ; "supposed by some to take its
name from the resemblance of the north-east island of the three
to a bald-headed man."
HEART. Bank, Parry Sound ; descriptive of shape.
HECLA, Rock, Parry Sound ; after one of Parry's vessels in
his Arctic expeditions, 1819-20, 1821-23 and 1824-25.
*HELEN. Bay, Manitoulin ; named by Bay field (q.v.) after his
only sister, Lady Page Turner.
HELEN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; aftei Mrs. Hurt,
sister-in-law of W. J. Stewart.
HENNEPIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Father
Henncpin (1640-1701), Recollet missionary and explorer.
HENRIETTA. ^Point, Franklin Island, Parry Sound ; after
the wife of H. B. Small, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
*HENRY. Island, Manitoulin ; after Admiral Henry W. Bay-
tfHENRY. Patch, Manitoulin.
HENSLEY. Bay, Manitoulin ; after the late Capt C. A. Hens-
ley of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers ; graduate of the Royal Military
*HENVEY. Inlet ; named by Bayfield after Lieut. William
Henvy (or Henvey), R.N., who, in October, 1815, was serving in
the St. Lawrence.
HERBERT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Major-Gen-
eral Ivor John Caradoc Herbert, commanded Canadian Militia,
HERCULES. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a lake vessel.
HERMAN. Point, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after Herman
H. Cook, M.P. (q.v.).
HERON. Patch, Manitoulin ; after a gunboat on Great Lakes.
HERVEY. Rock, Musk oka ; after Frederick W. F. Herve> v
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 43
Lieutenant in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown,
June 23rd, 1893.
HESSON. Point, Innes Island, Algoma ; after S. R. Hesson,
M.P. for North Perth, 1878-91.
HEWETT. Shoal, Sudbury ; after late General Hewett, Com-
mandant, Royal Military College, Kingston.
*HEYWOOD. Island and sound, Manitoulin ; named by Bay-
field ; derivation unknown.
ttHEYWOOD. Rocks, Manitoulin.
HIAWATHA. Bank, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; after the tug
HIESORDT. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after the man-
ager of the Spanish River mill.
HIGH. Beach, Badgley Island, Manitoulin ; characteristic ;
name also applied to several other features.
HILLIER. Island, Parry Sound ; after Dr. Caleb Hillier Parry,
father of the Arctic explorer, W. E. Parry.
HINCKS. Island ; after Sir Francis Hincks (1807-1885), Pre-
mier of Canada, 1851-54.
HOAR. Point, Hope Island, Simcoe ; after the lightkeeper of
Hope Island light.
HOFFMANN. Bay, Algoma ; after Dr. George C. Hoffmann,
late Chemist, Geological Survey.
HOLE-IN-THE-WALL. Channel, Parry Sound ; "a remarkable
cleft separating Huckleberry and Wall Islands. The narrowest place
is in feet wide."
HOLMES. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Capt.
Holmes of C. G. S. Cruiser.
*HONORA. Bay, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield : derivation
tfHONORA. Point, Manitoulin.
HOOD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a boatman in
surveying steamtr Bayfield.
HOOD. Patch, Parry Sound ; after Admiral Sir Arthur Wil-
liam Acland Hood, Lord of the Admiralty, 1885.
tfHOOD. Reef, Parry Sound.
HOOPER. Island, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound ; after William
H. Hooper, purser on Parry's three Arctic voyages.
*HOPE. Bay, Bruce ; named by Bayfield after Admiral Sir
Wm. Johnston Hope ; Lord of the Admiralty, 1807 et seq ; d. 1831.
*HOPE. Island, Simcoe ; probably same as preceding ; possibly
after Col. Henry Hope, Member of Legislative Council, Quebec ;
Administrator, 1785, pending the return of Lord Dorchester from
Great Britain ; died 1789.,
44 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
HOPPNER. Island, Parry Sound ; after Lieutenant Henry P.
Hoppner, Commander of the Fury in Parry's third Arctic voyage,
HORACE. Point, Manitoulin ; after a son of Admiral Bay-
HORNE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a boatman in
surveying steamier Bayfieid.
*HORSBURG. Point, Manitoulin ; after James Horsburg
(1762-1836), hydrographer to the East India Company author of
the celebrated "Directions for sailing to and from the East In-
dies, etc.," the basis of the present East India Directory.
tfHORSBURG. Hill, Manitoulin.
HORSE. Island, Manitoulin ; after a shipwrecked horse that
remained on the island for several years.
ttHORSE. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
HORSLEY. Island, Parry Sound ; after a friend of Captain
HOSKIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; said to be after a
naval surveyor. Possibly should be Hoskins, after Vice-Adtniral Sir
Anthony H. Hoskins, Lord of the Admiralty, 1880-82 and 1885-88.
HOSPITAL. Point, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; "so called
from its being the temporary site of a camp for the isolation of ty-
phoid fever patients during an outbreak in the season of 1887."
HOTHAM.r- Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir Chas.
Fred. Hotham, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., Admiral of the Fleet, Lord of
HOUGHT ON. Bay and rocks, Algoma ; after the tug Hough-
HOWLAND. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after Williami H.
Howland, Mayor of Toronto, 1886.
HUDGEN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
HUMBUG. Point, St. Joseph Island, Algoma ; after a back
current that holds boats when in light wind or calm.
HUNGERFORD. Point Manitoulin ; after a lake trading ves-
HUNT. Point, Cloche Island, Sudbury ; after the late" Dr. T.
S terry Hunt, Geological Survey.
HUNTLY. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the com-
mander of a British gunboat on the lakes.
*HURD. Cape, Bruce; after Capt. Thomas Hurd (1757-1823),
appointed hydrographer to the Admiralty, 1808.
tt HURD. Channel, Bruce.
HURT. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a brother-
in-law of W. J. Stewart.
IMPERIAL. Bank, Parry Sound ; after the steamer Imperial.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 45
INDIAN. Bight, Manitoulin ; this and other features so named
because Indians live on the shores or frequent them.
ftlNDIAN. Big-lit, Algoma.
tflNDI AN. Channel, Clapperton and Vankoughnet Islands,
tt*INDIAN. Harbour, Georgian Bay, Muskoka.
tflNDIAN. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma.
tt*INDIAN. Islands, Parry Sound ; name obsolete.
INDIAN BELLE. Rock, Simcoe ; after the steamer Indian
INDIAN JOHN. Point, Algoma ; after a pilot, Spanish River.
INDIAN HARBOUR. Point and reef, Fitzwilliam Island, Mani-
toulin ; "much resorted to by the Manitoulin Indians during the
trolling season for trout in the autumn."
*INNES. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; named by Bay-
field ; derivation unknown.
IREI/AND. Point, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
IRONSIDES. Rock, Manitoulin ; after an officer of the Indian
Department, at Manitowaning.
ttlRONSIDES. Reef, North Channel, Algoma.
IRWIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Lieut. -Colonel
de la C. Irwin, C.M.G. ; retired Colonel, R.C.A. ; was Inspector v of
ISAAC. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steamer
ISABEL. Rock, Algoma ; after Isabel Grant, Ottawa,
ISAIAH. Rock, Parry Sound ; after an Indian.
*ISTHMUS. Bay, Bruce ; descriptive ; name obsolete ; now,
IVOR. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; Major-General Ivor
John Caradoc Herbert, commanded Canadian Militia, 1890-95.
JACKMAN. Rock, Killarney Harbour, Manitotflin ; after a
merchant at Killarney.
JACKSON. Island, Ncrth Channel, Algoma ; after the Inspec-
tor of Fisheries, Georgian Bay.
* JACKSON. Cove, Bruce ; probably after Lieutenant Jack-
son, in command of the Heron, 1816.
ft JACKSON. Shoal, Bruce.
JACQUES. Island, Muskoka ; after the captain of the steam-
JAGGED. Island, Western Islands, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
*JAMES. Bay, Manitoulin ; after James Horsburg (q.v.).
46 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
*JAMES. Island, Manitoulin ; after Commodore Sir James
Lucas Yeo (q.v.).
tfJAMES ISLAND. Reef, Manitoulin.
JAMES. Rock, Parry Sound ; after an Indian.
JAMES FOOTE. Patch, Manitoulin ; after Capt. James
Footc of the steamer Athabasca.
JAMIESON. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a naval
JANE. Island, Parry Sound ; after schooner Jane McLeod.
JANE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Capt. McGregor's wife.
* JANET. Cove, Manitoulin ; named by Bay field, probably af-
ter a friend ; derivation unknown ; now called 'Gore Bay 1 (q*v.)
tt*JANET. Head, Manitoulin.
JENKINS. Point, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
JENKINS. Rock, Sudbury ; after S. V. Jenkins, sometime
Secretary to Hon. George E. Foster, Minister of Marine and Fisher-
JENNIE. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Miss
Jennie Marks, Bruce Mines.
JERMYTtf. Rock, St. Joseph Channel ; after an Indian agent.
JESSIE. Point, Manitoulin ; after Miss Jessie Grant, Otta-
JOE DOLLAR. Bay, Algoma ; after a citizen of Bruce Mines.
*JOHN. Island, Algoma ; named by Captain Bayfield (q.v.)
after his father.
ft JOHN. Harbour, John I., Algoma.
JOHN. Ledge, Manitoulin ; after John McNeil, coxswain in
surveying steamer Bayfield.
JOHNSON. Island, Parry Sound ; after George Johnson, late
JOIylETTE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Louis Jol-
liet (1645-1700), French explorer.
JOLY. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Lieut. -Col.
Alain Joly de Lotbiniere, C.S.I., C.I.E. ; graduated from the Royal
Military College, 1883.
* JONES. Bay, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; possibly after an
officer of Penetanguishene naval station ; name obsolete ; now
JONES. Bluff, Bruce ; after the Wiarton tug J. H. Jones.
JONES. Island, Parry Sound ; after a former resident of Bee-
JONES. Point, Fox Island, Algoma ; after Charles J. Jones,
Assistant Governor-General's Secretary.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 47
JOSEPHINE. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after daughter of Capt.
McGregor, sailing master of steamer Bayfield.
JUBILEE. Island, Parry Sound ; named in 1887, the year of
the late Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
tt^UBILEE. Shoal, Manitoulin.
JUDD. Bank, Muskoka ; after a sister of W. J. Stewart,
JUKES. Island, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
*JULIA. Bay and point, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield (q.
v.) after, probably, Julia, eldest daughter of late Mr. Stevenson
of Quebec. The latter "was an intimate friend of the Admiral's
and for many years supplied the Gulnare." The schooner Julia was
used by Bayfield in the survey of Lake Superior.
* JULIET. Cove, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield ; derivation
KALULAH. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a lake, ves-
KANGAROO. Rock, North Channel, Algoma; after a lake ves-
KAULBACH. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
C. E. Kaulbach, M.P. for Lunenburg, 1878-82, 1883-87 and 1891-
KEATING. Island, Muskoka ; after a friend of Capt. Boulton,
a resident of Penetanguishene.
KEEFER. Island, Parry Sound ; after T. C. Keefer, Ottawa,
prominent Canadian civil engineer.
KEEGAN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer
KENNEDY. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
KENNY. Point and shoal, Innes Island, Algoma ; after
Thomas Edward Kenny, M.P. for Halifax, 1887-96.
KENSINGTON. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after
Col. Kensington, late Professor of Mathematics, Royal Military
KERBY. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Forbes
M. Kerby, C.E. ; graduated from Royal Military College, 1883 ;
now residing in Grand Forks, B.C.
KERLEY. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a
Church of England clergyman.
KERR. Island, Muskoka ; after Mark E. F. Kerr, Lieutenant
in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown, June 23rd,
*KEY. Inlet, . Parry Sound ; so named by Bayfield, because it
48 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
KEYSTONE. Rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
KIDD. Bay and point. White Cloud Island, Grey ; "after the
owner of sawmill here."
KILCOURSIE. Bay, Piarry Sound ; after Viscount Kilcoursie,
Grenadier Guards, A.D.C. to Lord Stanley, Governor-General of
KILLALY. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after H. H.
Killaly, from 1875 to 1892 employed in the construction and en-
largement of the St. Lawrence canals.
KILL ARNEYw Village, bay and peak, Manitoulin ; after Kil-
KILTv-BEAR. Point, Parry Sound ; probably commemorated
an encounter with a bear.
KINDERSLEY. Island, Muskoka ; after Captain Kindersley,
A.D.C. to Lord Aberdeen, Governor-General, 1893-98.
KING. Point, Muskoka ; descriptive of commanding position.
tfKING. Bay, Muskoka.
KING WILLIAM. Island, Manitoulin ; after King William IV.
KIRKE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir David
Kirke, who, in 1629, captured Quebec ; received a grant of New-
foundland, 1637 ; died 1655.
KIRKPATRICK. Island, Sudbury ; after the late Hon. Sir
George Airey Kirkpatrick (1841-99), Speaker, House of Com-
mons, 1883-87 ; Lieut. -Governor of Ontario, 1892-97 ; K.C.M.G.,
KLOTZ 1 . Island. North Channel, Algoma ; after Dr. Otto J.
Klotz, LL.D., Asst. Chief Astronomer, Department of the Interi'or.
KNIGHT. Point, Algoma ; after Staff-Commander Knight,
R.N. (retired), Collingwood.
KNIGHT. Shoal, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
KNIGHTSLEIGH. Island, Parry Sound ; name given by
KOKANONGI VI. Island and shingle, Manitoulin ; Indian
name of a small fish.
LAB ATT. Island, Simcoe ; after a prominent citizen of Hamil-
LABELLE. Reef, North Channel, Algoma, Ont. ; probably af-
ter Lieut. -Col. A E. Labelle, commanded the 65th Rifles during
Riel rebellion, 1885.
LA CLOCHE. See Cloche
LAFFERTY HOUSE. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe, Ont.;
after a fisherman.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 49
LA FRANCE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma, Ont. ; after a
LAIRD. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the Hon. David Laird, Min-
ister of th'e Interior, 1873-76 ; Lieut. -Governor of the Northwest
LALLY. Point, Algoma ; after the Collector of Customs, Al-
LAM ANDIN. Point, Parry Sound ; after a light-keeper, Byng
LAMBE. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Law-
rence M. Lambe, Invertebrate Palaeontologist, Geological Survey ;
graduate, Royal Military College, 1883.
L AMOR ANDIERE. Bay and strait, Sudbury ; after an Indian
trader who resided there about 1825.
LAMORANDIERE. Bank, Bruce ; after an Indian residing at
LAMPEY. Bank v Sudbury ; after a draughtsman in Depart-
ment of Marine and Fisheries.
ffLAMPEY. Island, Parry Sound.
tflvAMPEV. Rock, North Channel, Sudbury.
LANDERKIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Dr.,
George Landerkin (1839-1903), M.P. for South Grey, 1872-78 and
1882-1900 ; Senator, 1901.
LANDRY. Point, Algoma ; after Hon. A. C. P. R. Landry,
M.P. for Montmagny, 1878-87 ; Senator, 1892.
LANGKVIN. Rock, Strawberry I., Manitoulin ; after Sir
Hector L. Langevin, Secretary of State, 1867-69 ; Minister of Public
Works, 1869-73 and 1879-91 ; Postmaster-General, 1878-79.
LANSDOWNE. Channel, Manitoulin ; after Sir Henry Charles
(Fitzmaurice), 5th Marquis of Lansdowne ; Governor-General of
Canada, 1883-88 ; Governor-General of India, 1888-94.
tflvANSDOWNE. Rock, Algoma.
LAPTHORN. Island, Manitoulin ; after Dr. A. Lapthorn
Smith, Montreal, son of late William Smith, Deputy Minister of
Marine and Fisheries.
LA SALLE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Robert
Cayelier, Sieur de la Salle (1643-87) ; explored the Mississippi to
its mouth, 1682.
LASH. Island, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; aftei Z. A. Lash,
K.C., Toronto, Senior Counsel, Canadian Northern Railway.
LASHER. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs.
W. J. Stewart, nee Lasher.
LAUDER. Islands, Parry Sound ; after tfie late Archdeacon
J. S. Lauder, Ottawa.
LAURIER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Rt.
Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier of Canada, 1896-1911.
50 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
LAWRENCE, Bank, Parry Sound ; after Capt. James Law-
rence, in command of the U. S. S. Chesapeake, captured by H. M.
S. Shannon, June I, 1813.
LAWSON. Island, Parry Sound ; after light-keeper at Red
Rock lighthouse, Parry Sound, 1890.
LEFROY. Island, French River, Parry Sound ; after General
Sir John Henry Lefroy (1817-90), an English soldier, administrator
and a man of science, was occupied in taking magnetic observa-
tions at St. Helena 1840-1842 ; transferred to the Observatory,
LEHAYE. Point and rock, Manitoulin ; after a hotclkeeper,
LEO. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a steward in the
surveying steamer Bayfield.
LEONARD. Island, Parry Sound ; after owner.
LEONARD. Reef, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Major R.
\V. Leonard, Chairman, National Transcontinental Ry., graduate of
Royal Military College, 1883.
LE SUEUR. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Dr. W. D.
Lc Sueur, late Secretary, Post Office Department.
LETT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs. Lett,
widow of a clergyman, Collingwood.
LEWIN. Island, Manitoulin ; after Hon. James D. Lewin, St.
John, N.B., Senator, 1876 ; died 1900.
LIDDON. Point, Parry I., Parry Sound ; after Lieut. Matthew
Liddon, who commanded the Griper in Parry's Arctic voyage, 1819-
LIMESTONE. Point, Manitoulin ; "composed of rock of this
LINTER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the chief
engineer in surveying steamer Bayfield, 1886.
ft LINTER. Rocks, Manitoulin.
LION. Head, Bruce ; descriptive of appearance.
tflvION HEAD and LION RUMP. Hills, Sudbury.
LISGAR. Island, Manitoulin ; after Sir John Young, Baron
Lisgar, Governor-General of Canada, 1869-72.
LISTER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Justice Fred-
erick Lister, Sarnia } M.P. for West Lambton, 1882-98.,
LITTLE DETROIT. Algoma ; the strait (Fr. detroit) be-
tween Craftsman Point and Aird Island.
LLOYD. Island, Parry Sound ; probably after Rev. G. E.
Lloyd, chaplain to the Queen's Own Regiment during Riel rebellion,
LOADING. Cove. French River, Parry Sound ; "from its be-
ing a convenient place for the large vessels to take in saw logs."
LOAF. Rock, Bruce, and rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 51
LOCKERBIE. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; after har-
bourmaster at Collingwood.
LOGAN. Bay and island, Manitoulin ; after the late Sir Wil-
liam E. Logan, famous Canadian geologist ; director of the Geolo-
gical Survey of Canada, 1841-69.
LONE. Rock, Parry Sound ; descriptive of position with refer-
ence to other islands.
ftLONELY. Bay, Manitoulin.
tt*IvONELY. Island, Manitoulin.
LONGUISSA. Point and bay, Muskoka ; name given by Mr.
Campbfell, owner of the point, to house which he built on it.
LOOKOUT. Island, Parry Sound ; has a commanding position
over approach to the channel.
LOR NE. Rock, Algoma ; after the Marquis of Lome, Gover-
nor-General of Canada, 18(78-83 ; sue. his father as Duke of. Argyle,
LOTTIE WOLF. Rock, Simcoe ; schooner Lottie Wolf struck
on this rock.
LOUGHLIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a merch-
LOUIS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir Louis Dav-
ies, Judge, Supreme Court of Canada.
LOUISA. Island and rocks, Parry Sound, and island, Sudbury;
after the wife of Captain Boulton.
LUA'RD. Rock, Cloche Island, Sudbury ; after Major-General
R. A. Luard ; commanded the Militia of Canada, 1880-84.
LUCAS. Island, Manitoulin ; after Commodore Sir James
Lucas Yeo (1782-1818).
tflyUC AS. Channel, Manitoulin.
tflvUCAS ISLAND. Reef, Manitoulin.
LUMSDEN. Rock., North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
Alexander Lumsden, M.P., lumberman, Ottawa.
LYNCH. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a clerk in Department of
LYON. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after George Francis Lyon, com^
mander of the Hecla in Parry's second Arctic voyage, 1821-23.
LYON. Cove, St. Joseph Island, and island, North Channel,
Algoma ; after Robert Adam Lyon (1830-1902), sometime Regis-
trar of Deeds, Sault Ste. Marie.
*McBE AN. Mountain, North Channel, Algoma ; "an Indian
trader, of the name of McBean, has been here many years and has
given his name to the spot." (Bigsby.)
tfMcBEAN. Channel and harbour, Algoma.
52 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
McBRlEN. Island/ Parry Sound ; after the owner of the
McCAIvLUM. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
Hon. lyachlan McCallum ; Senator, 1887 ; d. 1903.
MCCARTHY. Point, and MCCARTHY POINT, ledge, Fitzwii-
liam L, Manitoulin ; after the late D'Alton McCarthy, O.C. ; M.P.
for Cardwell, 1874-78, and for North Simcoe, 1878-98.
tfMcCARTHY. Rock, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey.
McCIyELLAND. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
McCORMICK. Island, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in the
steamer Bay field.
*McCOY. Island and shoal, Parry Sound ; named by Bayfield,
probably after J. S. McCoy, R.N., who in October, 1815, was mas-
ter in H.M.S. Champlain.
tfMcCOY. Shoal, Parry Sound.
McCRACKEN. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma , after a resi-
dent of Serpent River.
McCURRY. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after a magistrate, Parry
McDONALD. Shoal, Manitoulin ; after a fisherman.
McElvHINNEY. Ground, Bruce ; after nautical adviser, De-
partment of Marine and Fisheries.,
McGLASHAN. Patch, North Channel, Algoma ; after a fisher-
man at Grant Islands in 1890.
McGOWAN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a lightkeeper at Red
McGREGOR. Bank, Manitoulin ; after Capt. A. H. McGregor,
sailing master of surveying vessel Bayfield.
ttMcGREGOR. Channel, Bruce.
McGREGOR. Harbour, Bruce ; after the father of Capt. Mc-
Gregor, sailing master of the Bayfield.
McGUIRE. Rocks, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma after a boat-
man in surveying steamer Bayfield.
McHUGH. Rock. Parry Sound ; after an officer of the Depart-
ment of Marine and Fisheries.
McINTOSH. Bank, Parry Sound ; after a fisherman.
McKECHNIE. Rock, Parry "Sound ; after a camper.
McKENZIE. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; after a light-
keeper at Strawberry Island light.
McKERREL. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the captain of a lake
McKINNON. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a boat-
man in surveying steamer Bayfield.
PLACE-NAMS IN GEORGIAN BAY. 53
McLAREN. Island, Parry Sound ; after the owner of the
McLEAN. Shoal, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer
McLELAN. Rock, Manitoulin ; after the late Hon. A. W. Mc-
Lelan, Minister ot Marine and Fisheries, 1882-85.
McLEOD. Island, Parry Sound ; after schooner Jane McLeod.
ttMcLEOD. Point, Muskoka.
McNAB. Island and reef, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after
John McNab, captain of- the steamer United Empire in 1889.
tfMcNAB. R!ocks, Parry Sound.,
McNEIL. Ledge, Manitoulin ; after the coxswain in steamer
McPHAIL. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the cap-
tain of the tug Kate Marks.
McQUADE. Island, Parry Sound ; after the engineer and the
purser of steamer Manitou.
McQUEE'N. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
chief engineer, in 1889, of he United Empire.
McRAE. Patch, Sudbury, and patch, North Channel, Manitou-
lin ; after one of the crew of the surveying steamer Bayfield, 1884.
McTAVISH. Island, Algoma ; after D. McTavish, Hudson's
Bay Co. factor at I/a Cloche.
MACK AY. Point, Manitoulin ; after a hotelkeeper, little Cur-
MACKEY. Island, Pa ry Sound ; after Rev. A. W. Mackey,
Church of England clergyman, Ottawa.
MACOUN. Rock, Parry Sound ; " after Prof. John Macoun,
Chief Botanist, Geological Survey of Canada.
MACPHERSON. Ledge, Bedford I., Sudbury; after late Sir
David Macpherson (1818-97), Senator from 1867 ; Minister of the
MACRAE. Cove, Manitoulin ; after a mill ' owner, Mildrum
MAG ANETA WAN. Ledges, Parry Sound ; after the Maganeta-
wan River a corruption of the Indian name, 'mafygawneltcwang,
meaning 'a long channel.'
MAGAZflNE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; contains the
site of old Canadian Pacific Ry. powder magazine.
MAGAZINE. Island, Penetanguishene Harbour, Siincoe ; after
"the remains of an old naval and military magazine."
54 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
MAGKE. Point, Amedroz I., Manitoulin ; after Chas. Magee,
Ottawa, capitalist and banker.
MAGGIE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the tug Mag-
MAGGS. Island, North Channel, Algoma; alter Miss Shep-
herd, daughter of the light-keeper.
*M AIRS. Point, Simcoe ; possibly after an official of Pene-
tanguishene naval station ; name obsolete ; now Flat Point.
MAITLAND. Bank, Algoma ; after a merchant of Owen
MALCOLM. Bluff, Bruce ; after a son of Alex. McNeill, M.P.
for North Bruce, 1882-1901.
M ALT AS. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; after a merchant
of Little Current.
MANITOBA. Ledge, Manitoulin ; after the steamer Manitoba,
MANITOTL Point, Muskoka ; Indian name meaning "Great
MANITOTL Gap, Parry Sound ; after the lake steamer Mani-
MANITOULIN. Island, Manitoulin ; according to Indian tra-
dition ^it is the dwelling place of both the Good Spirit, gitchi-man-
ito and of matchi-manito, the Kvil Spirit.
ttMANlTOULIN. ^-District and bay.
MANITOWANING. Bay and harbour, Manitoulin ; Indian
name, signifying u home of the Great Spirit."
MANN. Rock, Algoma ; after a draughtsman of Marine and
MANN. Island, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; after Sir Donald
D. Mann, Vice-President, Canadian Northern Ry.
MARY. Island, Aird I. Algoma ; after the tug Mary.
MARKS. Bank, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after George
Marks, Bruce Mines.
*M ARKS. Point, Simcoe ; possibly after an official of Pene-
tanguishene naval station.
MARTIN. Reef, Manitoulin ; after one of the crew of survey-
ing steamer Bayfield, 1884 ; lived at Mudge Bay.
MARTYR. Islands, Parry Sound ; after Charles Martyr, Sec-
tary to the Admiral commanding at Halifax, 1816, and an inti-
mate friend of Parry (q.v.)
MARY. Point, Algoma ; after Mary Moodie, authoress.
MARY GRANT. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the secretary to
the Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 1890.
MASSON. Island, Manitoulin ; after the late Hon. L- F. R.
Masson, Lieutenant-Go vernor of Quebec, 1884-87.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 55
MARY WARD. Ledges, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; schooner
Mary Ward wrecked here.
*MATCHEDASH. Bay, Simcoe ; name applied by the Indians
to the shores of the bay ; signifies 'marshy land.' Name appears
on Bouchette's map, 1815.
MATHER. Rock, Muskoka ; after the late John Mather, capi-
MATHESON. Island, Sudbury ; after a boatman in surveying
steamer Bay field.
tfMATHESON. Shoal, Manitoulin.
MAUD. Island, Parry Sound ; after the tug Maud.
MAXWELL. Island, Muskoka ; after the steamer E. B. Max-
MAY. Reef, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steamer Isaac
MAYO. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Mayo Nee-
land, graduate of Royal Military College, 1883.
MAYNE. Point, Christian I., Simcoe ; after Hon. T. Mayne
Daly, Minister of the Interior, 1892-96.
MAYNE. Island, Parry Sound ; after a naval officer.
MAZEPPA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the schoon-
MEAFORD. Shoal, Parry Sound ; fisherman came here from
MEAFORD. Harbour, Grey ; after Meaford town, which after
Meaford Hall, seat, Staffordshire, England ; birthplace of Admiral
Sir John Jervis (1734-1823) Earl of St. Vincent. Meaford town is
in St. Vincent township.
*MELVILLE. Sound, Bruce ; after Robert Saunders Dmndas,
second Viscount Melville, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1812-27.
MELVIN. Bight, Strawberry I., Manitoulin ; after a summer
MENOMINE- Channel, Parry Sound \mene, good, and min, a
grain the Chippcwa name for wild rice.
MERCER. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer
MERCIER. Rock, Parry Sound ; after late Hon. Honore Mer-
cier, Premier of Quebec, 1887-91.
MEREDITH. Island, and rock, Manitoulin ; after Sir William
R. Meredith, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, Ontario.
MERIDA. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a lake
METEOR. Rock, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after the steam-
56 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
METHODIST. Bay and point, Sitncoe ; said to be named after
a camp-meeting held at the point by a pioneer Methodist mission-
ary in early days.
MI ALL. Patch, Manitoulin ; after Edward Miall, Commission-
er of Inland Revenue, 1883-1901.
MICHATJD. Point, Simcoe ; after a French-Canadian who set-
tled there, 1840.
MICHEL- Ground, North Channel, Algorria ; after Bernard
Michel, half-breed, Killarney.
MIDLAND. Bank, Parry Sound ; after the steamer City of
MIDLAND. Bay, point and shoal, Simcoe ; after the town of
Midland which last after the Midland Railway ; the railway so nam-
ed because it traversed the middle of Ontario and name suggested
by the Midland Ry., Eng.
MIDSHIPMAN. Point, Manitoulin ; after Midshipman Philip
Edward Collins, assistant to Capt. Bayfield.
*MILDRUM. Bay and point, Manitoulin ; 'Mildram Point' on
Bayfield' s chart ; derivation unknown ; may be after Meldrum,
parish, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
MILFORD HAVEN. Harbour, St. Joseph Island, Algoma ; af-
ter Milford Haven, village, Wales.
MILLER. Point, QManitoulin, and rock, Parry Sound ; after a
resident of Parry Sound.
MILLIGAN. Island, Parry Sound ; after the owner.
MILLIGAN. Rock, Manitoulin ; after a boatman in the Bay-
MILO. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer Bay-
MINER. Rocks, Parry Sound ; one of crew of Bayfield.
MINNICOG. Bank, Muskoka ; abbreviation of Minnicogana-
MINNICOGANASHENE. Island, Muskoka ; Indian name,
meaning "point of many blueberries." ~ po^upo
MINNIE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a tug.
tfMINNIE. Rocks, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
MINOS. Bank, Simcoe ; in Greek legend, Minos was a king of
Crete ; after his death, a judge in the lower world.
MINSTREL. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Min-
strel, a British gunboat on the Great Lakes.
*MISSISSAGI. River, Algoma ; from Chippewa : missi,
'large,' and sag or sank, 'outlet' (of a bay or river) ; the word sig-
nifies "great outlet" and is applicable to any river estuary.
tt*MISSISSAGI. Bay and island, Algoma.
tt*MISSISSAGI. Strait, Manitoulin.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 57
MITCHELL. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Hon.
Peter Mitchell (1824-1899), one of the 'Fathers of Confederation' ;
Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 1867-73.
MOBERLY. Rock, Sudbury ; after a lawyer of Collingwood.
MOCKING BIRD. Island, Manitouliii ; after a tug.
MOHAWK. Rock, Simcoe ; probably after a vessel.
MOILE. Harbour, John I., Algoma ; after the owner of a
sawmill here. The mill was seized by bailiffs, but was transported
on scows from Detroit to this point.
MONCK. Point, Manitoulin ; after Charles Stanley, fourth
Viscount Monck (1819-94) /; appointed Governor-General of British
North America, 1861-67, and of Canada, 1867-68. Incorrectly,
'Monk' on the chart.
tfMONCK. Point, Cockburn I., Manitoulin.
*MO>NTRESOR. Point, Bruce ; named by Bayfield, probably af-
ter Capt. Henry Montresor who distinguished himself in the cap-
ture of U. S. gunboats at New Orleans, Dec. 12, 1815.
MOODIE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs. Susanna
Moodie, authoress of "Roughing It in the Bush," etc.
*MOORE. Point, Simcoe ; possibly after an official of Pene-
tanguishene naval station. i
MOORHOTJSE. Patch, Manitoulin ; after a boatman in sur-
veying steamer Bayfield.
MOOSE. Point, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound; 'Moose Deer'
point on Bouchet'te's chart, probably translation of Indian name.
MORDEN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a lake captain.
MORELAND. Bank, Manitoulin after a steward in the Bay-
MORRIS. Island, Manitoulin ; after late Hon. Alex. Morris
(1826-89), Minister of Inland Revenue, 1869-72 ; Lieut. -Governor of
ttMORRIS.-* Island, Muskoka.
MORRISON. Islands, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after a law-
yer, Owen Sound.
MOSLEY. Island and rock, Parry Sound ; after a Church of
MOUSE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; "derives its name
from the quantity of mice that abounded on it at the time of the
MOW AT. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sir Oliver Mowat (1820-
I93), Premier of Ontario, 1872-96 ; Lieut. -Governor of Ontario,
tfMOWAT. Island, Manitoulin.
*MUDGE. Bay, Manitoulin ; possibly after Lieut.-Col. R. J.
Mudge, R.E. (1790-1854), Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers, one
of the commissioners appointed in 1830 to report on Maine-Canada
58 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
boundary. Or, after Capt. Z'acharie Mudge (1770-1852), first lieu-
tenant in the Discovery in Vancouver's voyage, 1791-92 ; Rear- Ad-
miral, 1830 ; Admiral, 1849. ;!
MULOCK. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir William
Mulock, Chief Justice, Court of Exchequer, Ontario ; Postmaster-
MURIEL. Island, Parry Sound ; after Muriel Welsh Boulton,
Capt. Boulton 's daughter.
tfMURIEL. Point, Manitoulin.
MURRAY. Point, Parry Sound ; after Capt. Alex. Murray Mc-
ttMURRAY. Rocks, Parry Sound.
NADEAU. Island, Parry Sound ; after a Roman Catholic
priest at Wikwemikong.
tfNADEAU. Point, Smith Bay, Manitoulin.
NANTON. Reef, St. Joseph Channel ; after Lieut. -Col. H. C.
Nanton, R.E., a graduate of the Royal Military College, 1883.
NARES. Point and inlet, Parry Sound ; after Admiral Sir
George Strong Nares ; commanded an expedition to the Arctic,
1875-76 ; attained the, then, 'farthest North.'
NARROW. Island and point, Manitoulin, and point, Noble I.,
Algoma ; descriptive.
NARROWS. Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive of position near
NEEBISH. Island, and EAST NEEBISH, rapids, St. Mary
River ; Indian name ; probably same derivation as Nabobish, In-
dian village, Mich., which from nubobish, "poor soup."
NEEL AND. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Mayo
Neeland, graduate, Royal Military College, 1883'.
NELLES. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Rev.
Samuel Sobieski Nelles, D.D., LL.D. (1823-87), President of Vic-
toria University, Cobourg, now of Toronto.
NEPTUNE. Island, Cloche I., Sudbury ; after the steamer Nep-
tune in Hudson Bay expedition under Lieutenant Gordon, 1884.
NEW. Bank, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; discovered during sur-
NEWBERY. Cove, Manitoulin ; after Christian name of Capt.
NIAS. Islands and rocks, Parry Sound ; Lieutenant John
Nias served on the Fury during Parry's Arctic voyage, 1821-23.
NICHOLAS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
Nicholas Flood Davin (q.v.) M.P. for Assiniboia West.
NICHOLSON. Rock, Manitoulin ; after Moses Vernon Nichol-
son, clerk in Department of Marine and Fisheries.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 59
NICOIyET. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Jean Nicolet, the fam-
ous French explorer who reached Sault Ste. Marie.
NIGER. Rock, Parry Sound ; Parry (q.v.) served as I/ieuten-
ant in the Niger (38) in 1815.
NEWBURN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer
NISBET. Rock, Sudbury ; after the chief engineer of the Bay-
field. , !
NOBIvE. Bank, Manitoulin ; after James Noble, fish merch-
tfNOBIvE. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma.
NORQUAY. Island, North Channel, Algoma; after the late
Hon. Joseph Norquay, Premier of Manitoba.
*NOTTAWASAGA. Bay, Simcoe ; Nottaway (or Nadowa)
'adders' a name applied by various Algonquin tribes to a number
of their neighbouring and most detested enemies sag or sank 'out-
let' (of a river). On Bouchette's map, 1815, the western portion is
called "Iroquois Bay."
NUMBER 9. Island, Muskoka ; number given to the island by
tfNUMBER io. Island, Muskoka.
OAK. Islands, Parry Sound ; this name is also applied to
numerous other features in Canada, usually owing to its predomin-
ence in the vicinity over the other varieties of trees.
O'BRIEN. Islands, Parry Sound, and patch, Manitoulin ;. after
the late Col. W. E. O'Brien, M.P., in command of the I2th York
Rangers and the 35th Simcoe Foresters in Riel rebellion, 1885.
O'CONNOR. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after Rt. Rev. Richard Al-
phonsus O'Connor, R. C. Bishop of Peterborough.
O'CONNOR. Island, North Channel ; probably after late Daniel
O'Connor, K.C., Ottawa.
O'DONNEIvIy. Point and channel, Muskoka ; after the captain
of a local passenger steamer.
O'DONNEIvL. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a boat-
man in the surveying steamer Bayfield.,
O'DWYER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after an engineer
OGIIyVIE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Win.
Ogilvie, D.I/.S. ; Commissioner, Yukon, 1898-1901.
OlyD TOWER. Island, Parry Sound ; from old lighthouse
OLIVER. Rock, Sudbury ; after Major-General J. R. Oliver,
sometime, Commandant, Roval Military College, Kingston ; C.
M. G., 1889.
60 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
O'MEARA. Point, Manitoulin ; after a former accountant, De-
partment of Militia.
OMEMEA. Island, Parry Sound ; Indian name, signifies 'wild
ONE-TREE. Island, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; from a
"single ash tree . . . blown down in 1894."
tfONE-TREE. Island, Western Islands, Muskoka.
ttONE-TREE. Island, Parry Sound.
tfONE-TREE. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma.
ttONE-TREE. Island, Manitoulin.
ORLEBAR. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Commander J. Orlejbar,
R..N., naval surveyor.
OSBORN. Point, Manitoulin ; after chaplain to Bishop Sulli-
OSLER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. Feather-
ston Osier ; Judge of Common Pleas, Ontario, 1875-83 ; Justice of
Appeal since 1883.
OSPREY. Bank, Muskoka ; after Capt. Osprey V. Spain, late
Wreck Commissioner, Marine and Fisheries Department.
OTTER. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after an otter seen
swimming near the islands.
OTTLEY. Island, Muskoka ; after Charles L. Ottley, Comman-
der on the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown off
Tripoli, June 23rd, 1893.
OUIDA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after one of the children of Rev.
H. Gaviller, Parry Sound.
OVERHANGING. Point, Bruce ; "name given to a cliff with a
*OWEN. Channel, Manitoulin ; after Capt. (later, Vice- Admir-
al) William Fitzwilliam Owen (1774-1857) ; in 1815 and 1816, Lieut.
Bay field was assistant to Capt. Owen in the survey of Lake On-
tario. Owen entered the navy in 1788 ; was midshipman in the Lon-
don,, bearing the flag of Vice-Admiral Colpoys (q.v.) at the date of
the great mutiny ; Lieutenant, 1797 ; Commander, 1809 ; Captain,
1811 ; in charge of survey of Great Lakes, March, 1815, to May,
1816 ; Vice-Admiral, 1854 ; died at St. John, N.B., 1857.
tt*0 WEN. Island, Manitoulin.
*OWE}N. Sound, Grey ; after Admiral Sir Edward William
Campbell Rich Owen (1771-1849) ; entered the navy 1786 ; in 1796,
he was acting captain of the Impregnable with Rear- Admiral Sir
Thomas Rich (q.v.), his godfather, and of the Queen Charlotte with
Sir John Colpoys (q.v.) ; K.C.B., 1815 ; in October, 1815, he sign-
ed, as Commodore, a 'Return of officers serving on the Great
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 61
Lakes' ; Commander-in-Chief in the West Indies, 1822-25 ; Rear-Ad-
miral, 1825 ; G.C.H., 1832 ; Vicc-Admiral, 1837 ; G.C.B., 1845 ;
Admiral, 1846. It has usually been assumed that Owen Sound, like
Owen Channel, was named after his brother, William Fitzwilliam
Owen, but Cape Commodore at the western entrance and Point Wil-
liam, Campbell Bluff and Point Rich at the eastern, practically de-
monstrate the accuracy of the above derivation.
tfOWEN vSOUND. Town, Grey.
OWEN. Island, Parry Sound ; after a former resident.
OXLEY. Point, Hey wood Island, Manitoulin ; after the late
James Macdonald Oxley, author, and, sometime, clerk in Depart-
ment of Marine and Fisheries.
PACIFIC. Rock, Sudbury ; after the steamer Pacific, which
struck on it.
PAGE. Rocks, North Channel, Algoitua ; after John Page,
Chief Engineer of Public Works, 1868-79 ; Chief 'Engineer of Canals,
PALESTINE. Island, Parry Sound ; "derives its name from
the circumstance of its having formerly been used as a rearing place
for bees from that country, a reminder of which is a couple of hive-
shaped houses still remaining near the north-eastern side of the
PALLISER. Point, East Rous I., Sudbury ; after Sir Edward
Palliser, famous British gun-maker.
PANDORA. Rocks. North Channel, Algoma ; after a Georgian
PANET. Point, Clapt>erton I., Manitoulin ; after late Col.
Charles Eugene Panet (1830-98), Deputy Minister of Militia and
PAPINEATL Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon.
Louis Joseph Papineau (1786-1871), of Montebello, Oue. ; the prin-
cipal leader in the Rebellion in Lower Canada, 1837-8.
*PAPOOSE. Island, Manitoulin ; because near a larger island,
*PARRY. Sound and island, Parry Sound. As Capt. Boulton
named features in Parry Sound and vicinity after brother-officers
and ships that Parry served in, and after Parry's relations, etc., a
brief summary of his life is given below, the names that have been
given to features in Georgian Bay being in capitals :
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry (1790-1855), s n of
Dr. CALEB HILLIER Parry and SARAH, 'his wife. His mother
was the daughter of John RIGBY and grand-daughter of Dr.
TAYLOR of Norwich. He received the first rudiments of education
under Dr. MORGAN, then headmaster of the Grammar School,
62 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
BATH. In 1803 hei joined as a Volunteer the flagship of the Channel
fleet, commanded by Admiral the Hon. W. CORNWALLIS, Ville de
Paris, Capt. RICKETTS. He contracted a friendship with the
Hon. Chas. POWYS. In 1806, he was appointed midshipman on the
TRIBUNE, Capt. (afterwards Sir Thomas) BAKER. In 1808, he
was transferred to the VANGUARD commanded by Capt. BAKER,
later, by Capt. GLYN. In 1810, Lieut. Parry joined the Alexan-
dria, Capt. John QUILLIAM, later commanded by Capt. CATH-
CART. In 1813, he was appointed to La Hogue, Capt. the Hon.
Bladen CAPEL ; took passage on the SCEPTRE to join his ship at
Halifax. The following year he commanded one of the boats in a
" cutting-out" expedition under Capt. COOTE of the BORER brig,
up the Connecticut River. In 1815, he served in the ARDENT, Car-
ron and NIGER ; was seized with a severe illness when on his way
from Bermuda to Halifax, in the Menai, Capt. PELL. While at
Halifax, he contracted an intimate friendship with the admiral's
secretary, Chas. MARTYR. In 1818, he went to the Arctic as sec-
ond in command of Capt. John Ross' expedition. In the same year,
Lieut. John FRANKLIN sailed in the Trent, another Arctic expedi-
tion, as second in command under Capt. Buchan. In 1819, he was ap-
pointed to the command of an Arctic expedition in the HECLA and
GRIPER with Lieut. LIDDON, as second in command. In 1821, he
made his second voyage, with Commander LYON as second in com-
mand. Other officers were Lieuts. NIAS, H. P. HOPPNER and
PALMER and Purser W. H. HOOPER. In 1841, he married
CATHERINE EDWARDS, daughter of the Rev. R. HANKINSON,
ftPARRY. Harbour, Parry Sound.
tfPARRY SOUND. Town and district.
PARSONS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a Georgian
PASTURE. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; in contrast
to rugged shores in vicinity ; the point is low and flat.
PAT HOWE. Patch, Manitoulin ; after a boatman in survey-
ing steamer Bayfield.
PATRICK. Point, Algoma ; after Col. W. Patrick Anderson,
Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries.
ttPATRICK POINT. Bank, Algoma.
PATTEN. Island, Goat Channel, Sudbury ; after a merchant of
PATTERSON. Island, Parry Sound ; after a boatman in
PATTERSON. Point, Frechette I., Algoma ; after Hon. Wil-
liam Patterson, M.P. for South Brant, 1872-96, for North Grey,
1896-1900, for Wentworth and Brant North, 1900-04, and for Brant
1904-1911 ; Minister of Customs 1897-1911.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 63
*PAULETT. Cape, Bruce ; probably after Capt. Lord H Paul-
PAWSKY. Rock, Muskoka ; after Charles J. Pawsey, Secre-
tary in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown, June
PEASE. Rock,. Parry Sound ; after a boatman in steamer Bay-
PELHAM. Cove, Parry Sound ; probably after Capt. Freder-
ick S. Pelham, Refeir- Admiral, 1907 ; is now, Admiral Superintend-
ent at Gibraltar.
PELICAN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after one of d'Iberville's ves-
sels. In 1697, d'Iberville sank the Hampshire in Hudson Bay and
captured Fort Nelson.
PEI/KIE. Rock, Smith Bay, Manitoulin ; after an Indian at
PELL. Island, Parry Sound ; after Capt. Pell of H.M.S. Menai
in which Parry sailed.
PELLET ANS. Channel, Algoma ; after a Canadian who long
cultivated some land on an island at its east end.
PENDER. Islets, Manitoulin ; after a naval surveyor, Capt
Daniel Pender, R.N. ; surveyed coast of British Columbia, 1857-70.
PENETANG. Rock, Muskoka ; "so called from the fact that
the smaller craft using the passage east of Minnicoganashene
Island, on theii way to Penetanguishene, have to pass round this,
or rather leave the main ship's track here."
PENETANGUISHENE. Harbour, Simcoe ; Indian name
meaning "the place of the white rolling sands" ; from a bank of
sand on Pinery Point on west side of harbour.
PERKINS. Rock, Key Harbour, Parry Sound; after engineer
on Canadian Northern Ry. surveys.
PERLEY. Island, Manitoulin ; island, Sudbury, and rock, Par-
ry Sound ; after the late Major Henry F. Perley, Chief Engineer,
Department of Public Works, 1880-91.
*PERRIOUE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; appears on
Bayfield's chart ; name probably given by French voyageurs to com-
memorate some occurrence in which a wig played a prominent
part. A reference in Badgley's diary shows that the name was in
use in 1792.
PERSEVERANCE. Island, Owen Channel, Manitoulin ; after
the gunboat Perseverance wrecked at, or near, here.
PETER. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after Peter Scott,
PETLEY. Rock, George I., Manitoulin ; after a naval survey-
or ; possibly, Eaton Wallace Petley, Nav. -Lieutenant, retired,
54 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
PHILIP EDWARD. Island, Manitoulin ; after Philip Edward
Collins, Assistant to Capt. Bayfield in survey of Lakes Huron and
PHILLIPS. Shoal, Key Harbour, Parry Sound after William
Phillips, late Gen. Freight Agent, Canadian Northern Ry.
PHIPPS. Point, and PHIPPS POINT, shoal, Manitoulin ; af-
ter the Indian agent at Manitowaning.
PHOEBE. Point, Fitzwilliam I., Manitoulin, and rocks, Parry
Sound ; after the schooner Phoebe Catherine.
PICTURE. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; "derives its
name from a couple of white patches resembling an Indian and
squaw with snowshoes over their shoulders."
PIERCE. Island, Parry Sound ; after caretaker of clubhouse
of Hamilton Canoe Club on the island.
PIERCY. Rocks, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Canon
C. Piercy, Sault Ste. Marie, Church of England clergyman, former-
ly at Marks ville.
PIG, THE. Rock r Muskoka ; "named from the appearance of a
large boulder lying on it."
PINCH. Island, Manitoulin ; after a lumberman at Collins In-
PINCH-GUT. Point, Darch I., Algoma ; local name ; from the
men working in a quarry at this point, having run short of food.
*PINERY. Point, Simcoe ; from the pines that grew there. La-
batte in his narrative of "The Migration of Voyageurs from- Drum^-
mond Island," says : "The barracks of Penetanguishcne were built
of Norway pine from- Pinery Point." "Pine Point" on Bayfield' s
PLOUGH BOY. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the
steamer Plough Boy.
PLUMB. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. Josiah
Burr Plumb (1816-88) ; Senator, 1882 ; Speaker of Senate, 1887.
PLUMMER. Island and bank, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ;
after Wm. Plummer, sometime manager of the Bruce mines.
POLLARD. Island, Parry Sound ; after Rev. Henry Pollard,
Ottawa, Church of England clergyman.
POND. Point, Manitoulin ; "so called from a lake immediate-
lv back of it."
POOL. Rocks, .Western Islands, Parry Sound ; from the pools
of water in hollows in rocks.
POPE- Rock, Manitoulin ; after the Hon. John Henry Pope,
Minister of Agriculture, 1878-85 ; Minister of Railways and Canals,
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 65
POPHAM. Point, Matiitoulin ; after Capt. Stephen Popham,
commanding H.M.S. Montreal (22) on Great Lakes, 1814.
PORTAGE. Island and point, Muskoka ; from a portage across
inner portion of the point.
PORTER. Point, Algoma ; after R. Porter, M.P. for West
*PORTLOCK. Harbour Algoma; probably after Capt. Na-
thaniel Portlock (1748-1817) ; explored and traded on Pacific coast
of Canada, 1785-88.
tlPORTLOCK. Island, Algoma.
POT VIN. Point, Parry Sound ; after a merchant of Byng In-
POWELL. Cove, and POWELL COVE, bank, Heywood I.,
Manitoulin ; after Col. Walker Powell, Adjutant General of Militia,
1873-74 and 1875-95.
POWER. Island, Manitoulin ; after late Augustus Power,
K.C., Department of Justice.
POWYS. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Lieut, the Hon. Charles
Powys, who served in the Ville de Paris, Parry's (q.>v.) first vessel.
PRAIRIE. Point, Bruce ; descriptive, being a broad, flat,
bare, low point.
PRATT. Island and reef, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; after
the Engineer of Terminals, Canadian Northern Ry.
PRATT. Shoal, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
PRENDERGAST. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a
friend of Capt. Boulton.
PRESENT. Island, Simcoe ; so named from the annual gath-
ering of the Indians to receive the customary distribution of pres^
ents from the Government.
*PRINCE WILLIAM HENRY. Island, Simcoe ; after Prince
William Henry, Duke of Clarence, brother of George III, later Wil-
liam IV. Name obsolete, now called Beausoleil.
PR OUT. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a customs offi-
cer, Bruce Mines.
PR OVO. Shoal, Parry Sound ; after Lieut. Wallis Provo of
H.M.S. Shannon, which captured the U.S.S. Cftesapeake, June ist,
PUDDING. Island, Muskoka ; after conglomerate (pudding-
stone) rock on this island.
*PUMPKIN. Point, Lake George, Algoma ; probably a vege-
table garden at this point.
PYETTE. Point and hill, Grey, and point, Huckleberry I .,
Parry Sound ; after a resident.
PYM. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a naval officer.
66 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
QUAI DBS ROCHES. Point, Christian Island, Simcoe ;
"name applied to a pile of stones."
QUARRY. Island, Simcoe ; from an old quarry on it.
QUEBEC. Bay, St. Joseph Channel, Algorna ; after the steam-
QUEEN. Reef, Parry Sound ; after the tug Queen.
QUILLIAM. Shoal, Parry Sound ; Liieut. W. E. Parry served
in the Alexandria, in 1810, under Capt. John Quilliam.,
RAFT. Point, Simcoe ; rafts tie up to it for shelter.
RAGGED. Point, Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound, and point,
Squall I., Manitoulin ; descriptive.
RAINBOTH. Island, North Channel, Lake Huron ; after J. E.
Rainboth, D.L.S., Ottawa.
RAMSEY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after an engineer
on Canadian Pacific Ry.
RANNIE. Rocks, Manitoulin ; after a fishing tug.
RASPBERRY. Island; Manitoulin ; characteristic.
RATTLESNAKE. Isiands, North Channel ; from the number
of these snakes formerly to be found there.
RED. Rock, Muskoka ; rock, Manitoulin ; rock, Parry Sound,
and REDCLIFF, bight, Manitoulin ; "the moss on it gives it a red-
dish or orange colour."
REFORMATORY. Point, Simcoe; from the Provincial Re-
formatory built on it.
*RENNIE. Bay, Muskoka ; named by Bayfield ; possibly alter
an official of Penetanguishene naval station ; is not on Boulton's
chart, but was not surveyed by him.
RESCUE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after gunboat Res-
cue on Great Lakes.
RESTLESS. Bank, North Channel, Algoma ; after a lake ves-
*RICH. Cape, Grey ; after Commodore Sir Edward William
Campbell Rich Owen (q^v.) who was godson of Sir Thomas Rich.
RICHARDS. Reef, Fraser Bay, Manitoulin ; after a naval sur-
veyor, Admiral Sir George Henry Richards (1820-1900) ; surveyed
British Columbia coast, 1856-63 ; commanded the Assistance in the
Belcher Arctic expedition in search of Franklin, 1852-54 ; Hydro-
RICHELIEU. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Cardin-
al Richelieu (1585-1642), principal adviser of Louis XIII of France,
RICHMOND. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the captain of; a tug.
RICKETTS. Island and reef, Parry Sound ; after Capt. Rick-
etts of the Ville de Paris, in which veissel Parry (q.v.) first went to
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 67
RICKCORD. Rocks, Muskoka ; after Valentine D. J. Rickcord,
Fleet Paymaster in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Cami-
perdown off Tripoli, 1893.
RIDOUT. Islands, Parry Sound ; after late F. Ridout, C.E.,
Inspecting Engineer, Department of Railways and Canals.
RIGBY. Island, Waubuno Channel, Parry Sound ; after John
Rigby, rnaternal grandfather of Parry (q.v.).
RIGG. Rock, Parry Sound ; after Major Rigg, Royal Military
RILEY. Patch, Manitoulin ; after a boatman in steamer Bay-
RITCHIE. Point .and rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Sir
William, Ritchie ;>, Chief Justice, Supreme Court of (New Brunswick,
1 865-75 ; Puisne Judge, Supreme Court, 1875-79 ; Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court, 1879-92.
ROBB. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the tug Robb.
*ROBERT. Cape, Manitoulin I. ; named by Bayfield ; deriva-
*ROBERTS. Bay, Muskoka ; not on Boulton's chart, but was
not surveyed by himt ; named by Bayfield, possibly after an official
of Penetanguishene naval station.
ROBERTSON. Rock, North Channel, Manitoulin; after Capt.
Tate Robertson of the Frances Smith, who reported it.
ROBIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; from fancied resem-
blance in outline, to a robin.
ROBINSON. Bay, Manitoulin ; after Hon. John Beverly Robin-
son (1821-96), Lieut. -Governor of Ontario, 1880-87.
ROBITAILLE. Point, Darch I., Algoma ; probably after Hon.
Theodore Robitaille, Lieut. -Governor of Quebec, 1879-84.
ROB ROY. Patch, North Chatinel, Algoma ; after a lake ves-
ROSS. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after A. B. Ross,
graduate of the Royal Military College, 1880.
ROSE. Rocks, North Channel, Algoma ; after a lake vessel.
ROSSEATL Island and shoal, St. Joseph I., Algoma ; after a
former resident opposite the island.
*ROUS. EAST and WEST, islands, Sudbury ; after Admiral
Henry John Rous (1795-1877) ; Admiral of the White, 1864.
ROWLAND. Bank, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; after a hotelman
of Colling wood.
ROYAL. Point, Innes I., Algoma; after Hon. Joseph Royal,
Lieut. -Governor of Northwest Territories, 1888-93.
RYKERT. Point, Algoma ; after J. C. Rykert, M.P. for Lin-
coln 1878-82, for Lincoln and Niagara 1882-91.
68 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
ST. ANGE. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Chevalier
St. Ange, a French half breed who, at one time, resided on Cheva-
ST. AIJBYN. Bay, Parry Sound ; after Major the Hon. J. T.
St. Aubyn, Military Secretary to Lord Stanley, Governor-General,
ST. JOSEPH. Island, Algoma ; so named from its position in
the St. Mary River, which last named by French missionaries af-
ter the Virgin Mary.
ST. JUST. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; aiter the Hon.
LUC Letellier de St. Just, Lieut. -Governor of Quebec, 1876-79.
ST. PAUL. Rock, Aird Island, Algoma ; after a lake steamer.
SABINE. Island, French River, Parry Sound ; after Admiral
Sir Thomas Sabine Pasley (1804-84).
SACKVILLE. Island, Manitoulin ; after Lionel (Sackville),
2nd Baron Sackville (1827-1903), British Minister at Washington,
SALT. Point, Parry Island, Parry Sound ; "after the Indian
Methodist missionary residing here."
SAM SMITH. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a boat-
man in surveying steamer Bayfield.
SANDFIELD. Point, Manitoulin ; after the Hon. John Sand-
field Macdonald (1812-72), Premier of Canada, 1862-64 ; opposed
Confederation ; Premier of Ontario, 1867-71.
SANDFORD. Ground, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; after Sir
Sandford Fleming, an eminent Canadian civil engineer.
SANFORD. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Hon. W. E.
Sanford (1838-1899), Hamilton ; Senator, 1887.
SANKEY. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Major
Sankey, sometime Professor of Military Engineering, Royal Mili-
SANS SOUCI. Islands, Parry Sound ; after Sans Souci pal-
ace, Potsdam, Prussia, built by Frederick the Great, 1745-47.
SAPPER. Island, St. -Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a grad-
uate of the Royal Military College.
SARAH. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a daughter of Capt. Cox,
R.N., naval surveyor.
SARAH. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sarah Rigby, mother of
SAULT STE. MARIE. Town, Algoma ; after the rapids in
the St. Mary River which so named by the French missionaries af-
ter the Virgin ; previously called "Sault du Gaston" after Jean-
Baptiste Gaston, younger brother of Louis XIII and son of Henry
IV. According to tn"e Indian legend, the great demi-god, Nanab-
ozho, "when he found the waters of Lake Superior rising, put on
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 60
his great boots and walked around the lake until he found at the
Sault that the great White Beaver had built a dam and that he
kicked away the dam and opened up" the water course., The Chip-
pewa village was called Pawating (Bawitjing), a cognate form of
bawl liiink, "at the rapids." The old village site is the most
sacred spot known to the old-time Chippewa and a Chippewa who
has been to the rapids has made a holy pilgrimage.
SAYER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a trader at
SCEPTRE. Bank, Parry Sound ; Parry (q.v.) travelled from
England to Halifax in H.M.S. Sceptre in 1813.
SCHREIBER. Island, Sudbury ; after Collingwood Schreiber,
C.M.G., Deputy Minister and Chief Engineer, Dept. of Railways
and Canals, 1892 ; now, Consulting Engineer of same Department.
SCHUI/TZ'. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
Sir John Schultz, Lieut. -Governor of Manitoba, 1888-95.,
SCOTT. Island, Parry Sound ; after Peter Scott, naval sur-
ttSCOTT. Island, and SCOTT ISLAND, passage, North Chan-
SEAGRAM. Rock, near Pt. Magnet, Thunder Bay ; after Jos.
Seagram, M.P. for Waterloo North, 1896-1904.
SEAMAN. Bank, Muskoka ; after tug Seaman.
SECRETARY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Sec-
tary to the Admiralty, John Wilson Croker (q.v.).
SEDGEWICK. Point, Parry Sound ; after Robert Sedgewick,
Deputy Minister of Justice, 1888-93 \ Puisne Judge, Supreme Court,
SEGUIN. Bank, Parry Sound ; after the steambarge Seguin.
SENEGAL. Point, Clapperton Island, Manitoulin ; after A.
Senecal, Superintendent of Printing, 1888-91.
*SERPENT. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; probably voy-
ageur name given because infested with snakes.
SERPENT. Harbour and river, Algoma ; from a perpendicu-
lar rock at the mouth of the river, on which a huge serpent is carv-
SEVERN. River, and PORT SEVERN, village, Simcoe ; after
the River Severn bordering England and Wales. Indian name was
wai-nautkecheaing meaning river running about in all directions.
SEXTANT. Bay and point, Manitoulin ; a sextant was lost
off this point.
SEYMOUR. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a lake steamer.
SHANI.Y. Island, North Channel ; after the late Walter Shan-
ly, C.I5., M.P. for South Grenville, 1867-72 and 1885-91.
70 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
SHANNON. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the British vessel Shan-
non, which captured the U.S.S. Chesapeake, June ist, 1813.
SHAWANAGA. Bay, island and river, Parry Sound ; Indian
name meaning "a long bay or strait."
SHEBASHEKONG. Bay and river, Parry Sound ; from In-
dian name nebeshekong meaning, "at the place of leaves."
SHEPHERD. Reef, North Channel, Alijoma ; a fto.r a light-
keeper at Sulphur Island.
SHlCKIvUNA. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after propeller
Shickluna, which named after owner.
SHIP. Island, Muskoka ; "so called because vessels keep it
close on board to avoid Otonabee shoal."
SHUT-IN. Point, Manitoulin ; descriptive.
SICCORDE. Point, Algoma ; after a local merchant.
SIDNEY. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sidney Band, son of
Bursar of the Penetanguishene Reformatory.
Slt,BOW. Rock, Parry Sound ; local name ; after a dog.
SIMON. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late Simon
J. Dawson, M.P. (q.v.).
SIMPSON. Rock, Manitoulin ; after Sir George Simpson, Gov-
ernor of the Hudson's Bay Co., 1822-1860.
SIMS. Point, Manitoulin ; after Capt. Sims, Sarnia.
SKINNER. Bluff , Grey ; after a farmer residing there.
SKULJv. Island and point, Manitoulin ; a large number of
skeletons were found in a pit in the rock on the island.
ttSKUIyly POINT. Reef, Manitoulin.
SKYLARK. Rock, Muskoka ; after yacht Skylark owned by
Dodge of New York and Waubaushene.
SMITH. Bay, Parry Sound after one of the crew of steamer
*SMITH. Bay and capet Harbour, Algoma ; after late William
Smith (q.v.), Deputy Minister of Marine.
ttSMlTH. Rock, Manitoulin.
*SMITH. Bay and cape, Manitoulin ; probably after Sir Wil-
liam Sidney Smith (1764-1840). Bayfield entered the Navy in 1806
as supernumerary volunteer in the Pompee, the flagship of Sir Wil-
liam Sidney Smith. 'Smyth' on Bay field's chart.
SMITH. Shoal, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma; after the steam>-
er Frances Smith.
SNAKE. Bank and island, and UTTIvE SNAKE, island,
Parry Sound ; noted for snakes.
SNIDER. Island, Serpent Harbour, Algoma ; after a resident
of Serpent River.
SOLITARY. Rock, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 71
SOLOMON. Point, Stewart Island, Algoma, and rock, Parry
Sound ; after Chief Solomon, an Indian chief.
SOPHIA. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a daughter of Capt. Cox,
SOW, THE. Rock, Muskoka ; near "The Pig."
SOW AND PIGS, Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; descrip-
SPAIN. Rock, Muskoka; after Capt. .0. V. Spain, late Wreck
Commissioner , Department of Marine and Fisheries.
^SPANISH. River, Algoma ; Bigsby says that the name "is
given to it from its having been once occupied by Spanish In
dians." This, however, is incredible. It was probably n*ame<*
"Spanish" in centra-distinction to the "French" river further east.
Name appears on Bayfield's chart, but not on Bouchette's map,
SPARKS. Island, Parry Sound ; after a well known Ottawa
SPARTAN. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the steam-
SPECTACLE. Island, Parry Sound ; from resemblance in
form to a pair of spectacles.
SPILSBURY. Island, Manitoulin ;, after Capt. Francis Brock-
ell Spilsbury, R.N., in command of schooner Melville on Lake On-
tario, August loth, 1815 ; commanded the Beresford at Sackett's
Harbour ; *was present in actions off Burlington, Sept. 28th, 1813,
and at French Creek, Nov. ist, 1813 ; Captain commanding Niag-
ara, May 2 ist, 1814 ; present at Oswego, May 6th, 1814. In 1806
Bayfield was serving in the Duchess of Bedford, a hired armed ves-
sel, commanded by Lieut. Spilsbury, and was slightly wounded in
a severe action in the Strait of Gibraltar in which that vessel beat
off two Spanish feluccas with double her crew.
SPLIT. Rock, Muskoka ; descriptive,
SPOHN. Spit, Muskoka ; after P. H. Spohn, M.P. for Simcoe
SPOTTED. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; "so called from
the circumstance of its being patchy."
SPRAGGE. Island, Algoma ; after the late Hon. John God-
frey Spragge, Justice of the High Court, Chancery Div., Ontario,
1850-69, and Chancellor, 1869-81 ; Chief Justice of Ontario, 1881-84.
*SPRATT. Point, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; possibly after
an official of Penetanguishene naval station.
SPRAY. Rock, Muskoka ; from "being bold-to on the west
side, every little sea causes spray to fly over it."
SPROULE. Islands, North Channel, Algoma; after Dr. Thomas
Simpson Sproule, M.P. for East Grey since 1878 ; Speaker since
72 ONTARIO HISTORICAL, SOCIETY,
*SQUAW. Island, Parry Sound ; so named by Bayfield ; small-
er islands near were named "Papoose."
STAIRS. Island, Parry Sound ; after Capt. W. G. Stairs,
graduate, Royal Military College, 1882 ; he accompanied Stanley
STALKER. Bank, Parry Sound ; alter a fisherman.
STANLEY. Island, Manitoulin ; after Lord Stanley, Governor-
General of Canada, 1888-93 ; sue. his father as Karl of Derby, 1893.
STANLEY. Island, Parry Sound ; after Sir Henry M. Stan-
ley, noted African explorer.
STANLEY. Point, Heywood Island, Manitoulin ; after Capt.
Stanley, a naval surveyor, contemporary of Capt. Boulton.
STARVATION. Bay, Parry Sound ; from a camping party
having been wrecked here.
STEELE. Rock, Manitoulin ; after Vivian H. Steele, clerk in
Department of Marine and Fisheries.
STEEPLE. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; "derives its name
from its pinnacly nature."
STEERS. Rock, Muskoka ; after a resident of Penetangui-
STEPHENS. Ground, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; after a
STEPHEN. Cove, Manitoulin : after a physician at Manito-
STEWART. Island, Algoma, and rock, Owen Channel, Mani-
toulin ; after W. J. Stewart, Chief Hydrographer of Canada ; as-
sistant to Capt. Boulton, 1883 to 1893', when succeeded latter.
STONY. Island, Bayfield Sound, Manitoulin ; from being
"connected to the point northward of it by a bank of dry stones."
STORY. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the tug
Story or, after her owner.
STRANGE. Bay and point, Bedford Island, North Channel ;
after late Major-General Thomas Bland Strange ; in 1871 appoint-
ed to command of Canadian artillery ;i commanded Alberta field
force in rebellion of 1885.
STRAUBENZ'IE. Point and reef, Bedford Island, North Chan-^
nel ; after the late Lieut. -Col. Bo wen Van Straubenzie, b. 1829 ;
commanded the Infantry Brigade at the action of Batoche, 1885.
STRAWBERRY. Channel and island, Manitoulin ; from the
wild strawberries growing on the island.
STRUTHERS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a phys-
SULLIVAN. Patch, Algoma ; after the Rt. Rev. Edward Sul-
livan, late Bishop of Algom-a.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 73
*SULPHUR. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; named by Bay-
field ; derivation unknown, but probably in use before date of sur-
SUI/TAN. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a lake vessel.
SUPERIOR. Shoal, Muskoka ; after tug Superior.
SUPPLY. Point, Algoma ; "derives its name from a small
cove on the west side of the point affording good landing for pro-
visions sent in to the parties working on the railway."
SURPRISE. Shoal, Bruce ; from being unexpected ; it is at a
considerable distance from land.
SUSANNA. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Mrs. Sus-
anna Moodie, authoress of "Roughing It in the Bush," etc.
SUTHERLAND. Shoal, Manitoulin ; after one of the boatmen
on surveying steamer Bayfield.
S WE ATM AN. Island, Muskoka ; after the Most Rev. Arthur
Sweatman (1834-1909), Archbishop of Toronto.
*SYDNEY. Bay, Bruce ; possibly after John Thomas (Town-
shend), 2nd Viscount Sydney (1764-1831), Lord of the Admiralty,
1789-93 ; or, after Sir Sydney Smith (q.v.).,
SYLVAIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after L. P. Syl-
vain, Chief Clerk, Library of Parliament.
SYLVIA. Rock, Alexander Inlet, Parry Sound ; after a Bri-
tish surveying vessel.
SYMES. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after a lake captain.
TABLE. Rocks, Muskoka ; "from the flat appearance of the
top of the highest one."
TACHE. Island and TACHE ISLAND, reef, Manitoulin; after
the Most Rev. Archbishop Tache, St. Boniface, Man.
TALBOT. Islands, Muskoka ; after Col. O. E. Talbot, M.P.
for Bellechase, 1896-1911.
TALON. Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after Jean Talon,
Intendant of New France, 1663-68 and 1669-75.
TASCHEREAU. Bay, North Channel ; after late Sir Henri
Elzear Taschereau, Puisne Judge, Supreme Court of Canada,
1878-1902 ; Chief Justice, Supreme Court, 1902 ; died, 1911.
TAYLOR. Island, Parry Sound ; after the great-grandfather
of Parry (q.v.).
TEAT, THE. Rocks, Muskoka ; "so called from the appear-
ance of the southeastern one."
TECUMSEH Cove, Cove Island, Bruce ; the steamer Tecum-
s6h was wrecked here.
TELEGRAM. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the steamer Tele-
74 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
TEMPLE. Rocks, Algoma ; after an American tug, Temple
Emery. , i
TENBY. Bay, St. Joseph Island, Manitoulin ; after Tenby,
town, Wales ; named by late Major Rains, one of the first settlers.
TEN-MILE. Point and shoal, Manitoulin ; "derives its name
from being nearly that distance from Manitowaning."
TENNANT. Point, Parry Sound ; after Lady Stanley, nee Dor-
othy Tennant ; married Sir H. M. Stanley, African explorer, 1890.
TEN-RIB. Rock, St. Joseph Channel, Algomja ; a fisherman
broke ten ribs of his boat by running on this rock.
TERN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the sea-swal-
THEBO. Point and cove, Killarney Harbour ; after a merch-
THE COUSIN. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; descriptive ;
the islands are close together and with shoal water between.
THESSA'LON. River, Algoma ; said by the Chief of the Mis-
sissagi band to mean "slow" ; the Chief of the Thessalon band
says it means "a long, narrow point" ; called by the Jesuits "Tes-
tfTHESSALON. Island and river, Algoma.
THE TOOTH. Rock, Manitoulin ; descriptive.
THE TRIANGLE. Rocks, Manitoulin ; "name given to three
THE TRIPLETS. Islands, Muskoka ; descriptive.
THE WALL- Reef, Manitoulin ; "on account of the steepness
of its eastern side."
THISTLE. Island, Parry Sound ; after the late W. R. Thistle,
THOMAS. Bay and point, Manitoulin ; after Col. Thos. Ben-
son, Master-General of the Ordnance, Ottawa ; graduate, Royal
Military College, 1883.
THOMAS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Thomas
Kirke, in command of the George at capture of Quebec, 1629.
THOMAS LONG. Shoal, Nottawasaga Bay, Grey ; after
Thomas Long, Vice-President, Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Tor-
^THOMPSON. Point, Cockburn Island, Manitoulin ; named by
Bayfield after an officer then serving on the gunboat Confiance.
THOMPSON. Point, Manitoulin ; after the Rt. Hon. Sir John
S. D. Thompson (1844-1894), Minister of Justice, 1885-94 ; Premier
of Canada, 1892-94.
THREE-MILE.-^Point, Parry Island, Parry Sound ; fromi being
(r about three statute miles from the town of Parry Sound."
THREE STAR. Shoal, Parry Sound ; marked by three cross-
es (stars) on old chart.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 75
THUMB. Rock, Western Islands, Parry Sound ; descriptive.
THUNDER. Bay. Skncoe ; present Owen Sound was named
Thunder Bay on Bouchette's map, 1815 ; probably the name was
misplaced and is a translation of the Indian name.
TIE-: Island, Parry Sound ; "so called from the fact of tugs
tying up to it with their rafts in southerly gales."
TILTON. Reef, Bruce ; after Lieut. -Col. J. Ti,lton, Deputy
Minister of Fisheries, 1884-91.
TINDALL. Point, Parry Sound ; after a resident of Parry
TINY. Beach and island, Simcoe ; name originally applied to
the township, which named after one of Lady Sarah Maitland's pet
TOAD. Island, Manitoulin ; from its shape ; resembles a toad.
TOBERMORY. Harbour, Bruce ; after Tobermory, seaport,
Argyllshire, Scotland, which from Gaelic and Irish, tobar moire
"well of the Virgin Mary."
*TODD. Point, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; possibly after an
official of Penetanguisheme naval station.
TODD. Point and shoal, Amedroz Island, Algoma ; after late
Alpheus Todd, LL.D., librarian of Parliament, 1867-84.
TODDS. Point, Simcoel; after an early surveyor of that name.
TOLSMA. Bay, Manitoulin ; after Tolsma, who carried
on an extensive fishing business here.
TOMLINSON. Islands, North Channel, Algoma ; after Joseph
Tomlinson, Engineer and Superintendent of Lighthouses, Depart-
ment of Marine and Fisheries, 1873-80.
TONTY. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after Henri de
Tonti (or Tonty) (1650-1704), lieutenant of JLa Salle in his explora-
tions of the Mississippi.
TOTTENHAM. Shoal, Muskoka ; probably after Tottenham,
parish, suburb of London, England.
TOWNSEND. Island, Muskoka ; after the owner.
TRACK. Island, Parry Sound ; it is near the track for steam-
TRANCH. Rock, Parry Sound, and rock, Manitoulin ; after a
TREE. Island, Parry Sound ; from a single large pine-tree on
TRENT. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the vessel which Lieut.
Franklin commanded in his Arctic voyage to Spitsbergen, 1818.
TRIBUNE. Island, Parry Sound ; Parry (q.v.) was appointed
midshipman in the Tribune in 1806.
TRITON. Rock, Parry Sound ; after the Triton, British sur-
76 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
TROW. Point, and TROW POINT, shoal, Algoma ; after
James Trow, M.P. for South Perth, 1872-92.
TRUDKAU. Point, Manitoulin ; after the late Toussaint Tru-
deau, Deputy Minister of Public Works, 1868-79 ; Deputy Minister
of Railways and Canals, 1879-92.
TRUDEAUX. Point, Simcoe ; after Jean Baptiste Trudcaux ;
was blacksmith in the Navy ; later, settled there.
TRYON. Island, Muskoka ; after Admiral Sir George Try on,
commanding fleet at time of the Victoria-Camperdown collision,
June 23rd, 1893.
TUG.* Rock, North Channel, Algoma ; after the tug Robti.
TULLY. Island, Muskoka ; after late Kivas Tully, C.E., Tor-
onto, father of Mrs. Band (q.v.<).
TUPPER. Island, North Channel, Sudbury ; after Sir Charles
Tupper, Minister of Inland Revenue, 1872-73 ; of Customs, 1873 ;
of Public Works, 1878-79 ; of Railways and Canals, 1879-84 ; High
Commissioner for Canada, 1884-87, 1888-96 ; Minister of Finance,
1888 ; Premier, 1896. ( >
TURNBULL. Island, and TURNBULL ISLAND, passage,
North Channel, Algoma ; after Lieut. -Col. James F. Turnbull,
Commandant, Royal Can. Dragoons, 1883 ; accompanied his corps
to N. W. T. on outbreak of Riel rebellion, 1885 ; Inspector of Cav-
alry, 1895 ; retired, 1895.
TURNER. Cove, Manitoulin ; after postmaster, Little Cur-
TURNING. Island, Parry Sound ; "as its name indicates,
marks the turning point from the middle reach into the main body
of Shawanaga Bay."
ttTURNING. Island, Bruce, and rock, Muskoka.
TURTLE. Channel, Parry Sound ; from a rock in the channel
having a fancied resemblance to a turtle.
tfTURTLE. Rock, Muskoka, and rock, Algoma.
TWIN. Island, Parry Sound ; "as its name indicates, it is al-
most divided into two parts."
tfTWIN. Islands, Manitoulin.
tfTWIN. Rock, Parry Sound.
TWINING. Island, St. Joseph Channel, ALgoma ; after Lieut.-
Col. P. G. Twining, R.E., graduate of Royal Military College,
TWO-MILE. Point, Parry Island, Parry Sound ; from "being
about two statute miles from the town of Parry Sound."
tfTWO-MILE. Narrows Parry Sound.
TYRWHITT. Shoal, North Channel, Algoma ; after Lieut.-
Col. R. Tyrwhitt, M.P. for South Simcoe, 1878-1900.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 77
UMBRELLA. Islands and ledges, Parry Sound ; "presumably
from a single large pine tree growing upon one of the^ inside islets."
UNDERHILL. Point, Badgley Island, Manitoulin ; after H., H.
Underbill, draughtsman in the Hydrographic Department, Admiral-
VAIL. Point, and VAIL POINT, shoal, Grey ; after a Meaford
tfVA'IL. Rock, Parry Sound.
VALENTINE. Rocks, Muskoka ; after Valentine Rickcord,
Fleet Paymaster in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camper-
VANGUARD. Rock, Parry Sound ; Parry (q-.v.) served in H.
M. S. Vanguard, 1808-09.
VANKOUGHNET. Island, Manitoulin ; after the late Lawrence
Vankoughnet, Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 1874-93.
ttVANKOUGHNET. Ground, Parry Sound.
VARIATION. Point, Beckwith Island, Simcoe ; "so called be-
cause the late Admiral Bay field, when surveying Georgian Bay in
1822, observed here for variation of the magnetic needle."
VICTOR. Bank, Parry Sound ; after H.R.'H. Albert Victor
Christian Edward of Wales, Duke of Clarence (1864-92).
VICTORIA. Island, Parry Sound, and harbour, Simcoe ; after
late Queen Victoria (1819-1901).
*VIDAL. Island, Manitoulin ; after an assistant to Capt. Bay-
field ; he was the grandfather of late Gen. Beaufort Henry Vidal.
On Dec. 6, 1815, Monroe, U.S. Secretary of State, wrote the British
representative at Washington, reporting "an enquiry into the case
of Lieutenant Vidal, who had been fined for riot while pursuing of-
fenders into American territory."
tfVIDAL. Bay, Manitoulin Island.
VILLIERS. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Col.
Villiers, D.A.G., Winnipeg.
VIVIAN. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after a cook in steamer Bay-
VIXEN. Rocks, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after a lake
VOYAGEUR. Channel, Algoma ; "it was by this mouth of
French River that the canoes in the early days are said to have
entered Georgian Bay from' Lake Nipissing on their way west-
WABOO. Island, West Bay, Manitoulin ; Indian word meaning
78 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
WABOSON. Island, ManitouTin ; Indian name meaning "little
WAUBUNO. Bank, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
steamer Waubuno, lost with all hands in a snowstorm, Nov. 22nd,
ttWATJBTJNO. Channel, Sudbury.
tfWATJBUNO. Channel and rock, Parry Sound.
WAGSTAFF. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a tourist.
WAIT-A-BIT. Point, Simcoe ; from delay to sailboats by get-
ting into an eddy here.
WALES. Rock, Muskoka ; after tug Wales.
WALKER. Point, Muskoka ; after John Walker, farmer ;
prior to 1875, was known as Long Point. ,
*W ALL- Island, Manitoulin ; "from the south side of Wall
Island, a reef, named The Wall (on account of the steepness of its
eastern side), extends."
tt*W ALL. Island, Parry Sound.
tfWALL ISLAND. Channel, Manitoulin.
WALLACE. Island and rock, North Channel, Algoma; after
the late Hon. N. Clarke Wallace, M.P. for West York, 1878 to 1901.
WALLACE. Rock, Parry Sound ; after a Parry Sound fisher-
WALLIS. Rocks, Parry Sound ; after Lieut. Wallis Provo, of
H.M.S. Shannon which captured the Chesapeake, June 1st, 1813.
WARD. Island, Muskoka ; after Hon. Cyril A. Ward, midship-
man in the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camper down, June
*WATCHER. Islands, NOKTH and SOUTH, and reef, Musko-
ka ; "two small islands acting as a kind of guard to the shore,
hence the name."
WATERS. Point, John Island, Algoma; after late Dr. John
Francis Waters, Department of the Secretary of State.
WATTS. Rock, Heywood Island, Manitoulin ; after a boat-
builder, W. Watts, of Collingwood.
WEBBER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after a draughts-
man at the Admiralty.
WEDGE. Island, Parry Sound ; descriptive.,
WELDON. Shoal, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Dr. C.
W. Weldon, M.P. for St. John, N.B., 1878-91.
WELLER. Island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after J. L.
Weller, Superintendent, Well and Canal ; graduate of Royal Military
W-ELSH. Island, Manitoulin ; after Muriel Welsh Boulton,
daughter of Capt. Boulton.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 79
*WESTERN. Islands, Parry Sound ; most westerly " of the
''30,000 Islands," east coast of Georgian Bay.
WESTERN. Reef, Manitoulin ; "from being the westernmost
of all the patches, being near the west entrance of Clapperton Chan-
WHALESBACK.^-Rock, Muskoka ; has "a round top that is
supposed to resemble the back of a whale."
ttWHALESBACK. Channel and rock, North Channel, Algo-
WH!\RTON. Point, Heywood Island, Manitoulin ; after late
Rear-Admiral Sir William J. L. Wharton, Hydrographer of the
WHEELER. Bank, Nottawasaga Bay, Simcoe ; after a resi-
dent of Collingwood.
WHIP-POOR-WILL. Bay, Bruce ; from the unusually large
amount of whip-poor-wills frequenting the vicinity.
WHISKEY. Island, Simcoe ; "it was the custom of the earlv
voyageurs and Indians to halt there for their first drink of liquor. .' '
WHITCHER. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the late
W. F. Whitcher, Commissioner of Fisheries, 1868-83.
WHITE. Cove, Strawberry Island, Manitoulin ; after the late
Hon. Thomas White, Minister of the Interior, 1885-88.
WHITEAVES. Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after late Dr.
Joseph Frederick Whiteaves, Assistant Director, Geological Sur-
* WHITE CLOUD. Island, Bruce ; probably after an Indian, or
translation of Indian name.
WICKSTEED. Point, Algoma ; after G. W. Wicksteed, Law
Clerk, Legislative Assembly, Province of Canada, 1841-67 ; Law
Clerk, House of Commons, 1867-87.
WICKSTEED. Rock, Key Harbour, Parry Sound ; after H. K.
Wicksteed, Chief Engineer, Canadian Northern Railway.
WIKWEMIK'ONG. Bay, Manitoulin ; Indian name meaning
"beaver bay" ; at one time the beavers were numerous here ; some-
times called Smith Bay after a trader.
WILD GOOSE. Island, Parry Sound ; "from ... a sloping
pine tree with a top branch resembling somewhat a goose on the
wing, near the southern extremity."
WILFRID Island, North Channel, Algoma ; after the Rt.
Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier of Canada, 1896-1911.
*WILLIAM. Island, Manitoulin ; probably* after Sir William
Sidney Smith (q.v.).
WILLIAM. Island, Parry Sound ; after Admiral Sir William
E. Parry (q.v.).
80 ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
*WILLI AM. Point, Grey ; after Commodore Sir Edward Wil-
liam Campbell Rich Owen (q.v.) ; name obsolete ; now Vail Point.,
WILSON. Channel and island, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ;'
after Major Wilson, Indian Agent at Sault Ste. Marie.
WILSON. Point, Croker Island, Algoma ; after Christian
name of John Wilson Croker (q.v.), Secretary to the Admiralty,
*WINGFI ELD. Basin and point, Bruce ; after Lieut. David
Wingfield, R.N. ; in command of the transport Beckwith on Lake
Ontario, 1816 ; Oct. i6th, 1815, was Lieutenant commanding the
Surprise on Lake Huron.
WISE. Cove and point, Bedford Island, North Channel ; after
the late Capt. Henry Ellison Wise, Scottish Rifles, A. B.C. to Ma-
jor-General Middleton, 1884-90 ; graduate of Royal Military Col-
WOLSELEY. Rock, Parry Sound ; after late Lord Wolseley,
Commander-in-chief of the British land forces.
WOLSEY. Lake, Manitoulin ; named by Bayfield after himself
Henry Wolsey Bayfield.
WOLSTAN. Point, Algoma ; after a son of late H. B. Small,
Department of Agriculture.
WOODMAN. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after John
Woodman, C.E., Winnipeg ; graduated from the Royal Military
WOODWARD. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after the
vschooner Mary Woodward.
WOORE. Rocks, Muskoka ; after Francis Woore, Surgeon in
the Victoria, sunk in collision with the Camperdown off Tripoli,
*WORSLEY. Bay, St. Joseph Island, Algoma ; named by
Bayfield after Commander Miller Worsley, R.N., who, in October,
1815, was commander of H.M.S. Star (14), Lake Ontario.
WRECK. Island, Parry Sound; after the remains of the steam-
WRECK. Point, Bruce ; descriptive ; (see China reef).
WTTRTELE. Point, St. Joseph Channel, Algoma ; after Lt.-
Col. E. F. Wurtele ; graduate of the Royal Military College, 1882.
*WYE. River, Simcoe ; after the Wye, an affluent of the Thames
*YAR WOOD. Point, Simcoe ; named by Bayfield ; probably af-
ter Lieut. Thomas Yarwood, 1st Battalion, Montreal City Militia }
served during War of 1812-14.
PLACE-NAMES IN GEORGIAN BAY. 81
*YEO. Island, Manitoulin ; after Commodore Sir James Lucas
Yeo (1782-1818) ; commanded the fleet on Lake Ontario, 1812-15.
ttYEO. Channel, Manitoulin.
tfYEO ISLAND. Spit, Manitoulin.
YOUNG. Island, Parry Sound ; after Rt. Rev. Richard Young,
Bishop of Athabaska.
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