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Full text of "Opals and agates : or, Scenes under the Southern Cross and the Magelhans : being memoirs of fifty years of Australia and Polynesia : with nine illustrations"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 






. Wills, 



■'' n 








an Wills. 

Opals and Agates ; 

OR, 

SCENES UNDER THE SOUTHERN CROSS 

AND 

THE MAGELHANS: 

BEING 

MEMORIES of FIFTY YEARS 

OF 

AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 

(Ltlith i^tnc Illustrations. 

NEHEMIAH BARTLEY. 



PRICE FIFTEEN SHILLINGS. 



flriebaiu : 

CORDON AND GOTCH, 

MELBOURNE, S "ST TJ 1ST E Y , -A. 1ST ID X, O UST T3 O 3ST . 

I 8 i) ? . 



BRISBANE : GORDON AND GOTCH, PRINTERS. 



?R 



on°i 
3xnt>- 



THE AUTHOR 

DEDICATES THIS BOOK 

TO THE 

GIRL PATRIOTS, PAST AND PRESENT, 

OF AUSTRALASIA, 

WHO BELIEVE IN THEIR NATIVE COUNTRY, WITH ALL ITS 

FAULTS, FOR THE SAKE OF ITS MANY PERFECTIONS, AND WHO ARE PROUD, 

AND NOT ASHAMED, OF ITS POINTS OF DIFFERENCE FROM OTHER LANDS. 

SO, TO THEM ARE HEREBY INSCRIBED SUCH 

" Opals and Agates " 

\S Till. WRITER HAS BEEN ABLE TO FIND, BY THE WAYSIDE, 

IN HIS 

MANY WANDERINOS, 

IN THIS OREAT SOUTHERN 

WORLD. 






PREFACE. 



At the suggestion of friends, I have herein collated, for publica- 
tion, some rambling recollections, drawn from a diary that was first 
started in 1846. 1 hold that, neither the era of Dampier (circa 
1690), nor of Cook (in 1770), nor of Macquarie (in 1820), bears so 
deep an interest for posterity as those fateful, stirring years, during 
which, thanks to her gold, Australia rose, from being a mere 
convicts' wilderness, to become one of the most advanced and 
interesting countries in the world. And, besides this, not only is 
truth, at times, stranger, and more readable, than fiction, but a 
book, which is destitute, alike, of dialogue, plot, or hero, and in no 
way built upon the orthodox lines of the three-volume novel, may 
still — if it follows humbly in the wake of such guides as " Robinson 
Crusoe," or the " Essays of Elia " — hope to find some readers ; so, I 
venture. 



CONTENTS. 



Wyndomel, pages 1— 3. Voyage Out, 4. Tasmania (1849), 5— 6. Bagdad, 7. 
Mt. Wellington, 8-9. Off to California, 11. Tahiti and Eimeo, 13— 17. 
Raiatea and Samoa, 19—20. Caroline Island, 21—27. Honolulu, 28—34. 
San Franeisco (18.30), 35—41. Norfolk Island, 42—43. Lakes of Tasmania, 44. 
Launceston Races (1851), 45. The Turf, 46—47. Melbourne (1851), 48—50. 
The Turon (1851), 51—55. Sydney Banking Life (1852), 56—57. Overlanding 
(1853), 58-60. Paika and the " Mallee," 61-66. Riverina (1853), 67. From 
Melbourne to Sydney, 68—69. An Australian in London, 70—88. Site and 
Topography of Brisbane, 89—98. Early Journeys to the Burnett and Darling 
Downs, 99—121. General Reminiscences of Sydney, Melbourne, and 
Moreton Bay, 122—142. Holt's Election, and Other Events of 1856, 
143— 14S. Other Reminiscences of Queensland, 149—163. " Forty Years 
Ago "-Memories of Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, and Hobart, 164—174. 
The Delpard Family in Sydney, 175—180. With Cattle to Cape York 
Peninsula, 181-200. Sinbad's Valley, 201-204. Australian Folk Lore, 205. 
Aladdin's Opals, 206-207. What the " Wild Waves were Saying," 208-212. 
The Brisbane Botanic Gardens, 212—217. The Genius of Australia, 217—218. 
Australian Shells and Butterflies, 218-220. " Sun-Chips," 220-222. Australian 
Gums, Oils, Timbers, &c, 222—224. The Cascade of the Barron River, 225— 
227. About Clubs, 22S-230. The Birth of Queensland, 231. Queensland 
Champion Race of 1861, 232—235. The Duke of Edinburgh in Brisbane, 
235-236. ' ' Yuletide " in Sydney, 236-243. Lord Harris in Sydney, 243-247. 
The "Garden Palace" in Sydney, 247-251. The Princes' Visit (1881), 
251—252. International Cricket (Ivo Bligh) 1883, 252-257. Krakatoa 
Earthquake (1883), 257-260. Melbourne in 1888, 260-265. The Darling 
River 50 Years Ago, 266~ 268. A Chapter on Sentiment, 268-272. About 
Bullock drivers, 272—274. Some Statistics of Nuggets, 275—277. Home- 
sickness, 277—279. Ode to a Piccaninny, 279—282. A Brisbane Reverie, 
282-283. The Brisbane Cup, 285. White Waistcoats, 286. Mosquito 
Baiting, 287. Laycock and Beach, 289. Good Old Times, 290. Usury, 292. 
The Melbourne Cup, 293. "Gothenburg" Wreck, 294. On "Love," 295. 
On Education, 297. Our Boys, 298. Good and Evil, 299. Wholesale and 
Retail, 300. Feminine Prose, 301. Captain Clinch, of the " Swordfish," 301. 
Milton in 1S75, 302. Petrie's Bight (1876), 304. " 1875," 304. "Fuimus," 
306. South Sea Murder, 307. Brisbane in 1822, 308. " Bridget," 309. The 
World's Climates, 311. 



INDEX. 



A 

"Auld Lang Syne," page 12— JDolian Harp, 16— An "Atoll," 25— The 
"Alcalde," 35 — Australian Wines, 71 — Australian Climate, SO — Dr. Armstrong, 
of Drayton, 120— Alboni, 124— Amity Point, and the " Sovereign," 147— The 
"Artemisia," 148— The Adsetts, 158— \V. H. Aldis, 168— Abyssinian Hunt, 170 
— Colonel Arthur, 172 — Archer, of " YVoolmers," 173 — "Anstey Barton," 173 
Atheism, 197— Aladdin's Islands, 199— The Agate Valley, 200— Aladdin's 
Opals, 236 — The Anihurium Flower, 214 — Australian Patriots, 217 — Ait 
Gallery, Sydney, 250— "Attic" Wit, 2S2— Australian Scullers, 289. 

B 

Bagdad (V.D.L.), page 6 — Bread Fruit, 19 — Brooklyn and Buffalo, 32 — 
Belknap and White, 33 — Theodore Bartley, 44, 172 — Ben Lomond, 45 — Sam 
Blackwell, of Green Ponds (T.), 46, 169— " Bay Middleton," 46— " Black 
Thursday," 48—" Bowenfels," 51— F. N. Bume, 57, 146— Life in Borneo, 79- 
The " Bell " at Edmonton, 81— The Brisbane Kiver, 89— William Barker, 95 — 
Balfour and Forbes, 100, 140— The Bottle Tree, 102— Henry Buckley, 104 
—Joshua P. Bell, 104, 127, 229— Fred. Bracker, 105— Blyth, of Blyth. 
dale, 105— Wm. Anthony Brown, 110— Burnett, the Surveyor, 111 — Thomas 
Boyland, 111— "Bush" Inn, Fassifern, 118— Dr. George Bennett, 123— 
Thomas Bell, of Jimbour, 128 — Beck, of the Moonie, 128 — Balbi, of Fassifern. 
133— John Bramston, 133, 228— Dr. Hugh Bell, 133— Burns, Philp, and (Jo. , 
134— F. Bigge, 141— Rev. Thomas Binney, 141— "Billy" Bowman, 142 
William Beit, 146— Balfour, of Colinton, 147— T. C. Breillat, 147, 148— The 
"Bunyip," 149— Martin Boulton, 153— Bribie Island Murder, 157 — J. E. 
Bicheno, 160— Noah Beal, 164— John Black (of the Bank of N. S. Wales), 165 
Gamaliel Butler, 169 — Charles Bath, 169 — Octavius Browne and Co., 172 — 
The Bisdees, 172— Buck Jumping, 188— Ben Boyd, 15, 209— The Barron Falls, 
227 — Sir Geo. Bo wen, 231 —Mr. and Mrs. Boucicault, 235 — Braemar and 
Deeside, 236— Burwood ami Petersham, 240— Brickfield Hill, 240— The 
Leichhardt Bean, 249 — Ivo Bligli in Sydney, 252 — Blackham and Horan, 256 
— The Bullock Driver, 272 — The Brisbane Cup, 285— Brisbane in 1822,306 — 
" Bridget," 309. 

c 

Dr. W. L. Crowther, page 8, 17" The Calaboose, 17 Tin' Convict's Curfew, 
18 — Claret at Tahiti, 17— The "Caroline" Wrecked, 37 Convicts at Norfolk 
Island, 42— " Crucifix," 46 Thomas Winder Campbell, 52- Roberl Cribb, 91, 
109, L30 Captain R. J. Coley, 94, 117 Alpin Cameron, loo Cressbrook and 
Colinton, 100 Cribb and Foote, 103 John Crowder, of Weranga, 106, 160, 
229 Curious Accident; 109 Captain Collins, of Telemon, lio Tim Corbett, 
I!:; W. B. Campbell, 116, 132 Pollel Cardew, II!) "Chucks, the boat 
M,' I 10 Cunningham's Gap, 120 John Croft, of Mount .Adelaide, 123 



Vlll INDEX. 

Covent Garden Opera, 124 -Sir Michael Costa, 124— H. C. E. Childers, 125— 
Clapperton, of Tarong, 130 — Robert Cran, 132— J. H. Challis, 137 — Rev. 
Robert Creyke, 143— H. M. Cockburn, 143— " Tinker " Campbell, 147— The 
"Conrad," 148 — The " Chaseley," 148 — Donald Cameron, of Tarampa, 154 — 
Charles Coxen, 155 — Contts, of Toolbnrra, 160 — Cleburne, of Hobart, 170 — 
The Carandinis, 172 — Schoolmaster Cape, 172 — The Crocodile (Queensland), 
190— Cassiterite, 208— A. W. Compigne, 234— " Tertius " Campbell, 234— 
Prince de Conde, 235 — Christmas Eve in Sydney, 238 — Chirnside and 
Manifold, 263— Cockney Melbourne, 264— Christie, of Paika, 266— N. Chad- 
wick, of the Lachlan, 266— Captain Cadell, 266, 277, 278— Clinch, of the 
" Swordfish," 301 —The World's Climates, 311. 

D 

Delpard Family, page 3 — Degraves's Brewery, 8 — Colonel Despard, 45 - 
Robert Douglas, 95, 228 — John Douglas, 105 — Sylvester Diggles, 107 — W. A. 
Duncan, 107— W. P. Douyere, lit— R. E. Dix, 118— Deuchar, of Glengallan, 
118, 151,229 — Dr. Dorsey, 119, 146, 150 — Adele Dumilatre and Pauline Duvernay, 
124 — Stuart A. Donaldson, 125 — Fred. Daveney, 129 — James Sheen Dowling, 
147, 164 — Judge Dickenson, 157 — Dr. Dobie, 164— Ernest Elphinstone 
Dalrymple, 165 — Earl of Derby, 170— Sir Wm. Denison, 170— Tilmouth F. 
Dye, 172 — Dalgety, Gore, and Co., 172 — A Darling Point Ball, 177 — The Game 
of Dambrod, 182— Maria Van Dieinen, 210— Beevor Daveney, 229— The 
"Dunbar" Wreck, 247— The " Dandenong " Gale, 248— The Dust of 
Ages, 273— Double-banking with 30 Bullocks, 273. 



Earl of Shaftesbm - y,page 7 — Eimeo, 18 — Ecuadorand Bolivia, 34 — Esquimaux 
Dog, 41-Charles Hotson Ebden, 49, 69, 125, 266— Emu's Nest, 60— Hon. 
Emily Eden, 70— An Essex Village, 86— Ambrose Eldridge, 92, 106— George 
Edmonstone, 92 — Geoffrey Eagar, 129 — Eton Vale, 153 — John Eales, 164— 
E. S. Ebsworth, 228— Duke of Edinburgh, 235-" Eerie" and Haunted, 278— 
Education, 297 — Early River Steamers, 305. 

F 

" Peter Finn," page 45— Thos. Howard Fellowes, 69 — A Fishing Inn, 72 — 
John Pascoe Fawkner, 91, 126 — John Stephen Ferriter, 98, 146 — Rudolph von 
Freudenthal, 100 — Albrecht Feez, 107, 131, 235— Sir Charles Fitzroy, 109— 
John Ferrett, 128, 229— Flat Top Island, 130— E. B. Forrest, 133— Peter 
Faucet, 139— Dr. George Fullerton, 141— F. A. Forbes, 144, 148— The 
"Fortitude," 148— George Faircloth, 153, 233— Folk Lore of Australia, 205— 
Charley Fattorini, 209 — Floods and Droughts of a Century, 259 — Feminine 
Prose, 301. 

G 

Giant Clam Fish, page 25 — Grizzly Bear, 3S — Giant Trees at Tolosa, 
Tasmania, 47 — Glyn, Halifax and Co., 84 — Grenier's Hotel, 91, 128, 129 — 
Goode's Inn, Nanango, 101— Walter Gray, 103, 229— Colonel Gray, 103— 
Matthew Goggs, 105, 160— A. C. Gregory, 10S— H. C. Gregory, 108— Gillespie, 
of Canal Creek, 113 — Gammie Brothers, 114 — Robert J. Gray, 117 — Dugald 
Graham, 123 — Captain Geary, 127 — Ralph Gore, 128,229 — St. George Gore, 
140— "Jimmy " Gibbon, 141— John Gilchrist, 137, 169— S. D. Gordon, 169— 



IXDKX. IX 

Arthur Gravely, 169— "Gipsy Poll," 171, 209— The Gellibraiuls, 172— Great 
Barrier Reef, 186, 199— Gold and Malachite, 196— Gold and Quinine, 198— 
A Gold Buyer Murdered, 204 — Grisi and Alboni, 212 — A Guadaloupe Creeper, 
216 — Giant Gum Trees, 224— J. J. Galloway, 229 — John Gammie, 229 — 
Sir James F. Garrick, 232— Gibson, of "Chinchilla," 233— The Garden 
Palace, 247— Gold at Hayti, 276— The Good Old Times, 290— The 
" Gothenburg" Wreck. 294— Good and Evil, 299. 

H 

Hobart, page 5 — Geo. Harrison, R.N., 6 — Hobart Regatta (1849), 11 — 
Hawaii State Cloak, 17 — Huahine, 18 — Hilo, 27 — Hawaiian Divers, 33 — 
Leonidas Haskell, of 'Frisco, 40 — "Ho-Shan-See," 49 — Nicholas Hieronymus, 
58 —Haunted Essex, S8 — Hockings's Corner, 93 — The "Hawk "and "Swallow," 
99— Sir Arthur Hodgson, 106, 230, 236— Hon. Louis Hope, 106— Highgate 
Hill, 112— Tom Hayes, 118— Cecil Hodgson, 113— " Bill " Horton, 114— Wm. 
Handcock, 114— Sir R. G. W. Herbert, 133, 228, 231— George Harris, 133— 
A. T. Holroyd, 139— J. Leith Hay, 140— Dr. Wm. Hobbs, 141, 231— Thomas 
Holt (junr.), 143, 147— Charles Leith Hay, 145— George Hill, 145, 147— 
Hughes and Isaac, 160 — Hood and Douglas, 160 — Hayes, of the Weir River, 
160 — The Howsons, 172 — Heape and Grice, 172 — Norman Leith Hay, 200 — 
T. Skarratt Hall, 233 — Lord Harris in Sydney, 243 — F. Hobler, of Nap Nap, 
266— Over the Hurdles, 306. 

I 
Clark Irving, page 111, 139, 146— Thomas Icely, 164— The Iredales, 169. 

J 

" Merchant " Jones, page 96— Jubb's Hotel, 111— The Judge's Prayer, 131 — 
Joshua Jeays, 141 — A Judge on Fleas, 163 — Dr. Revel Johnson, 164 — Moses 
Joseph, 171 — Gore Jones, 229 — Hugh Jamieson, of Mildura, 266. 

K 

The Kingsmill Group, page 42 — Kanaka Labour, 77 — Henry M'Crummin 
Keightley, 104— "Joe" King, 115, 132— R. A. Kingsford, 126— " Fassifern " 
Kent, 133, 229— Kent and Wienholt, 160— Lord Kerr, 165— Kermode, of 
Mona Vale, 173— Kissing Point and Hunter's Hill, 240 — Krakatoa, 257. 

L 

Commissary Laidley, page 7 — Dr. Lloyd, of St. Bartholomew's, 16 — 
Lahaina, 17 — Los Angeles, 38 — Lake St. Clair, Lake Echo, 44, 172 — Lapstone 
Hill, 50— Wm. Colley Lang, 57 — Sir Charles Lilley. 94 — John Little, 107— 
Patrick Leslie, 111, 133, 160— Judge Lutwyche, 113, 229, 231— James Laidley, 
111, 141, 147— Edward Lord, of Drayton, 114— John Do V. Land), 116, 132 
Prank Lucas, M.D„ 117. 239— Leonard Edward Lester, 122, 233— Dr. J. 
Dunmore Lang, 150— Leichhardt's "Sell," 156— C. -J. Latrobe, 160— R. M. 
Lindsay, 168— Arthur Sidney Lyon, 169— T. Y. Lowes, 171— Laudale, of 
Riverina, 172 -William Long, 174 — Simeon Lord, 174 Lotus of the Nile, 
215 Robert Little, 228- <;. L. Lukin, 233— Louis of Battenberg, 252 Losl 
Sinil.s, 270— Leichhardt Bean, 240— Gigantic "Loo" Party, 286 On 
" Lo e," -l'J7>. 



X INDEX. 

M 

Mount Wellington, page 5, 9 — Mauna Loa, 27 — Maui, 27 — Macfarlane's 
Hotel, Honolulu, 2cS— " Monte " Saloons, 36— Mounts Ida and Olympus, 44— 
Mount Elephant, 48— Mack's Hotel, 49—" Mylecharane's," 51— Monday Point, 
Turon River, 55 — Duncan M'Killop, 50 — " Mallee " Scrub, 02 — Murrumbidgee 
in Flood, 63 — M'lvor Diggings, 68 — Manilla Fire-flies, 75 — Patrick Mayne, 
93 — F. D. Mercer, 95 — Conrad Martens, 97 — Moggill and Woogaroo, 99 — T. L. 
Murray-Prior, 100 — Mondure, 101 — Macquarie M'Donald, 103 — Chessborough 
M'Donald, 106, 234— David M'Connel, 106— De Lacy Moffatt, 106, 127, 146, 
229— Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, 107, 136, 168— Charles Moore, 108— Monteliore, 
(Graham and Co., 109— Stephen Mehan, 111, 151— A. W. Manning, 115, 139— 
Dr. Miles, 115 — Henry Mort, 116 — Arthur Hannibal Macarthur, 118, 132— 
Robert Meston, 119, 169 — Archibald Michie, 126 — General Macarthur, 126— 
Colin Mackenzie, 127— J. F. M'Dougall, 127, 229— Moncrieff, of Drayton, 129, 
140— M'Evoy, of Warwick, 132— Sir R. R. Mackenzie, 133, 147, 236— R. G. 
Massie, 134— A. M'Nab, of Kianga, 135— Herman Milford, 136, 147— Edye 
Manning, 137— Graham Mylne, 142, 229 — Donald Mackenzie, 152 — Marshall, 
of Glengallan, 153— J. D. M'Lean, 153—" Merry Boys of Brisbane," 159— 
Marshall, of Goondiwindi, 160 — Mount Morgan, 185 — " Mitchell " Grass, 186 
— A Man-Eater Killed, 191 — Murdered Gold Buyer, 204 — Askin Morrison, 
212— A. A. May, 229—" Arthur Macalister, 229— Judge Milford, 235- 
" Melbourne " and " Touchstone," 235— Murdoch and Nat Thompson, 245— 
Massie and C. Bannerman, 246 — Morley and GifFen, 225 — Melbourne in 1888, 
260— Menzies' Hotel, 261— The Melbourne Cup, 263— Manifold and Chirn- 
side, 263 — E. Morey, of Euston, 267 — Metempsychosis, 281 — Mosquito 
Baiting, 287— The Melbourne Cup, 293— Milton in 1875, 302. 

N 
Nukuheva, page 20— The Old " Niantic," 35— Norfolk Island in 1850, 42— 
Nepean Girls, 54 — Native Names, 65 — Navigation of the Murray, 66 — Nicol, 
of Ballandean, 113 — Captain Neatby, 126 — Lieut. Nicoll, of Native Police, 153 
— " Bob" Nichol, 164— A Costly Necklace, 178— Native Police of Queensland, 
193 — New Guinea Butterflies, 223 — North Australian Club, 228 — Sir George 
Nares, 229—" Noctes," at Ipswich, 230. 

o 

Oatlands, Tasmania, page 11 — Oahu, 28 — Otis, 33 — Oregon Coast, 35 — John 
O'Shanassy, 49, 135— Captain O'Reilly, 90— Reuben Oliver, 92— Win. Bligh 
O'Connell, 101— P. O'Sullivan, 127— James Ord, 129— Oolawambiloa, 149— An 
Opal Found, 195 — Oriental Bloodstone, 202 — The Opal of Destiny, 207 — Owen, 
of Yandilla, 233— 120° in the Shade, 239— One Taken, One Left, 270— Our 
Boys, 298. 

P 

Page and Hyrons, page 6 — " Poi," 16 — Pitcairn's Island, 18 — Queen 
"Pomare," 21 — A Oahu Princess, 29 — Pirate " Lorcha," 31 — Panama Mail, 37 
— Paved with Flour, 39 — Price, of Norfolk Island, 42 — "Pocahontas" ami 
"Banter," 47— Prince's Bridge to Liardet's, 48^-Pulpit Hill, 51— Phelps, of 
Canally, 62— Andrew Petrie, 92, 142— Murray-Prior, 100— Philip Pinnock, 105 
— Pike, of Pikedale, 106 — James Canning Pearce, 134 — Henry Prince, 107 — 



INDEX. XI 

\V. A. Purefoy, 139— R. Pring, 139— Wm. Pickering, 142, 229— John Petrie, 
147, 152— "Phoebe Dunbar" Wreck, 147— The "Parsee," 148— "Black 
Perry," 151— G. L. Pratten, 154— The "Palmer" Rush, 180— " Poinciana 
Regia," 213— David Perrier, 229— Princes' Visit (1881), 251_A Piccaninny, 
279— Petrie's Bight, 304. 

Q 

Queen Emma, of Hawaii, page 14 — Queen Victoria, 14, 124, 252 — Quamby, 
Tasmania, 45— Queensland Water Lilies, 215 — The "Queensland Club," 229. 

R 

Emma Rooke, page 14 — Raiatea, 19 — Rotumah, 21 — A " Robinson Crusoe," 
24— Russian Gold, 34— Admiral Rous, 46— P. N. Russell, 110— Christopher 
Rolleston, 114-Henry Stuart Russell, 125— F. Roche, 128, 132— R. M. Robey, 
141- D. F. Roberts, 143, 228— E. M. Royds, 147— Andrew Ross, 153— Toby 
Ryan. 104— Lavington Roope, 212— Read and Tylecote, 254. 

s 

The " Sea Witch," page 40— The Sacramento, 40— Shorthand's Bluff, 48— 
Sydney Cockneys, 53 — Sydney Belles, 54 — Shipping Bar Gold, 55- -St. Jude's, 
Randwick, 82— P. L. C. Shepherd, 92, 108—1). R. Somerset, 93, 104— Sam 
Sneyd, 98— John Swanson, 103— R. J. Smith, 110, 147— Sinclair, of Woombo, 
111— Spicer's Peak, 118— Thos. Whistler Smith, 123, 165-Emile de St. Jean, 
128, 233— Henry Gilbert Smith, 129— Shepherd Smith, 133, 226— G. P. 
Serocold, R.N., 142 — Stephens, of Charrapool, 144 — Win. Spreadborough, 146 
—Sir Alfred Stephen, 157 — Shakespeare and Scpieers, 163 — Lord Scott, 165 — 
Edward Salomons, 169— S. K. Salting, 171 — The Sorells, 172 — Sharland, of New 
Norfolk, 172— Gordon Sandeman, 172— A Sydney Villa, 176 —Sinbad's Valley, 
201— The Sardonyx, 201— Sihon and Og, 209— Shells and Butterflies, 218— 
Sun Chips, 221— Strength of Australian Timber, 222— The Solvent Oils, 224— 
Studd and Spofforth, 253-Sable Venus, 280-R. W. Stuart, 307-South Sea 
Murder, 307. 

T 

Clement Tyrrell, page 3— Tahiti, 13, IS— Hamilton Tighe, 13— Tutuila, 20 
— The Turon, 51 —Tyson Brothers, 61, 267 — Taromeo and Simon Scott, 101 — 
E. M. Tobias, 109— Robert fhorrold, 113— Wm. Butler Tooth, 133— Atticus 
Tooth, 115— Talgai Station, 115— Wm. Turner, of Helidon, 119,151,229— 
Terrific Beat, 119— George Thorn, 129, 147, 230— John Tait, 130, 152— Edwin 
Tooth, 137, 170— Robert Tooth, 138— George Salt Tucker, 141— W. R. 
Thornton, 153, 148— Robert Towns, 147, 171, 209— James Taylor, 153— 
Dr. Tuflhell, 155 — Judge Theiry, 157 — Tawell, the Quaker, 151— K. I >eas 
Thomson, 160 — John Thacker, 171 — A. Torning, 172 — Tabart, of Fonthill, 
17'2 Tropical Thunderstorm, 192 Thirlmere and Helvellyn, 210 Tattersall's 
Club Cup, 242 Tylecote and Read, 254— Three Thousand Tons of Gold, 261. 
-Then and Now, 283 Mark Tapley in Queensland, 284 "Tulip ' Wright, 309. 

U 
" Union Club," Sydney, page 208-^Ulyett and Penn, 244-Usury, 292. 



xii INDEX. 

V 

A " Vaudoux " Rite, page 28 — Vienna Steeple, 74— Captain Vignolles, 114 — 
Yaucluse and Wentworth, 240. 

w 

Wyndomel, page 1 — General Wynyard, 10 — The " Wanderer," R.Y.S., 14 
—Washing, 48s. a dozen, 29 — Whirlpool Reach, 43 — Jeremiah Ware, 50 — The 
"Weatherboard" Inn, 50 — Williams, of Erromanga, 52 — W. 0. Wentworth, 
56, 209, 240— Wardour street, Soho, 87— James Warner, 95, 142— Wivenhoe, 99 
—Walsh, of Degilbo, 102, 125— F. J. C. Wildash, 107— Ernest White, 108— 
Wyborn, of the " Palermo," 112 — Wm. Henry Wiseman, 114— Waterfall at 
Tarome, 121— Captain J. C. Wickham, R.N., 123, 140, 160— Joshua Whitting, 
of Pilton, 130— Watson, of Halliford, 132— Wilson, of Wombo, 146— Taylor 
Winship, 147— Edward Wrench, 148— John Watts, of Eton Vale, 153— Wm. 
Wilkes, of the "Courier," 155, 158— Major Walch, of Hobart, 174— "Peg 
Leg" Wilmot, 174 -A White Heroine, 200— The World's Waterfalls, 225— 
W. Duckett White, of Beaudesert, 228, 234— General E. W. Ward, R.E., 229 
— Wallgett and Narrabri, 240— White Waistcoats, 286 — Wholesale and Retail, 
300-" Tulip" Wright, 309-The World's Climates, 311. 

Y 

Wm. Yaldwyn, page 128— W. H. Yaldwyn, 229, 223— Sir Henry Young, 
66, 267. 

z 

H.M.S. "Zebra," page 8— The Zouaves, 16— Zambesi Falls, 225— " Zoe " 
and "Ben Bolt," 234-Zenia and Diez, 276. 



ERRATA. 

Page 28—" Strutted " should be " strolled." 

Page 121 — " Brunton Stephen's " should be " Stephens's." 

Page 124—" Life Guards " should be " Horse Guards." 

Page 163—" They would " should be " would." 

Page 192—" Couple " should be " a couple." 

Page 216— " Seringifolia " should be " Syringi/olia." 

Page 275—" Army " should be " Navy." 



In sooth she seemed 

A marv'llous wench : gifted and crowned with youth's 
Immortal seal of peerless, priceless beauty : 
Dower magnificent ! — Nor, save once, bestowed 
On each fair damsel while she walks this earth : 
And, then, for brief time only. 



The time was just before sunrise : the scene was one of those 
delicious " bits " of Australian bush, wattle scented, breeze swept, 
gemmed with hill and dale, soothed with the sound, and enlivened 
with the sight, of falling water — a place where the " magpie " and 
butcher bird warbled in blithe contralto chorus their matin song, 
and the pale wood smoke curled slowly upwards from the station 
chimneys. Wyndomel Station was 80 miles from the sea, placed 
just where the eastern escarpment of the Great Cordillera of the 
island continent blends with, and merges into, those swelling downs, 
crowned with rich pastoral herbage, born of volcanic soil, where the 
grass alone contains all the nutriment of solid ripened grain, and 
where the sour thin herbage of the sea-board lands is as a thing 
forgotten. Wyndomel was a fine " run," and, as a former owner said 
of it, " If the most experienced squatter had imagined and got made 
to order, a piece of perfect country, his highest soarings might have 
fallen short of this." There were little undulating open plains, 
covered with the sweetest grasses (from a cow's point of view), 
clotted with blue and yellow flowers for miles at a stretch, till it 
really from the hills did look like a carpet. These plains were 
separated from one another by small belts of park-like open timber, 
which formed here and there into jutting promontories of wood, 
sloping from the low hills out into the open sea of grass and dividing 
it into bays, as it were; the trees were low and spreading on these 
clumps on the Downs, and it was only as you ascended into the 
heart of the Main Range that you came to the deep chocolate 
coloured soil, and were astonished with the huge, straight trunks of 
the tall and deeply-rooted old forest giants which grew there : 
fellows 150 feet high and 10 feet round the butt. 



2 THE SISTERS. 

Delicious clear little brooks and creeks flowed east and west from 
the great watershed, 'mid pleasant green wattle country on the 
cloud-melting shoulders of the Great Cordillera, and were all 
comprised in the property ; for Wyndomel extended to the foot of 
the Range easterly, and 25 miles from its watershed westerly, where 
its lowest point was 1,700 feet above the sea ; the house was 2,200 
feet, and the main peak easterly, the giant Kunghi, rose to 3,500 
feet. Fat and well favoured were the cattle and sheep of the owner 
of the property, and every cow and ewe which brought forth its 
young was unconsciously adding to the heritage and wealth of his 
two girls, with the forms of women and the beauty of children, like 
most of the better Australiennes. Lucy and Laura were their 
names, native born ; a Helen of Troy and a fairer Cleopatra of 
Egypt on their complexions ; blonde and brunette, respectively ; 
they were girls who could ride, swim, and perform very well at the 
piano, and very little at billiards and archery. Lucy was a healthy 
damsel, with matchless teeth, and cheeks in which a delicate, 
creamy, sunburnt brown faintly overspread the pink and white 
groundwork of her skin. She was generally known as " Old King 
Cole " by familiar friends, on account of her unflagging spirits and 
good temper. Laura had a more spirifoielle look ; dark, lag dreamy 
eyes, with an attractive half-frightened look in them, and dark as 
were her hair and eyes there was a freckle or two visible on her fair 
face ; and wherever nature could plant a dimple, whether on ankle, 
elbow, wrist, or chin, there it was in all its beauty ; but, with her 
perfect physique, she was a matter-of-fact girl, intelligent, but not 
profound, full of health, and natural in manner, and, having little 
or no sentiment in her composition, was extra dangerous to 
" spoony " men. I like to be exact in the description of my 
heroines, so I may at once state that Lucy weighed nine stone, and 
was five feet three inches. Laura was ten stone, five feet five 
inches, and each of them was seven times as long as her foot, a 
proof that they were well proportioned. One striking point about 
Laura was her beautiful hair. "When "down" it nearly hid her 
from view ; when " up " it packed into so small a compass that you 
would have thought how little she had of it. It was that exquisitely 
fine straight silky hair, which, when stowed away, shows nothing of 
itself, but leaves the little shapely head to be seen in all its classic 
beauty — the pretty head of an Artemis, but not of a Minerva, with 
its unfeminine width at the back, where that useful, but unsightly, 
" bump " of caution (vouchsafed to a percentage, only, of the sex) 
" hangs out." 



COLONIAL EXPERIENCE. 6 

There was a son, Walter, older than either of the girls, and who 
at the time was on a visit to England for the first time in his life. 
The mother was well dowered, and the father, Mr. Delpard, had 
been a navy man and seen service before the Crimean war, and the 
fortune he had received with his wife had enabled him to buy and 
stock the Wyndomel run. Walter was travelling in Europe in 
order to obtain that knowledge of the world which adds such 
keenness to the zest with which an Australian born man, or woman, 
of the better class, enjoys life ; for, the untravelled denizens of Old 
England are blind to one-third of its attractions and scope for 
enjoyment. 

There was one other resident at the Wyndomel head station, in 
the person of a young gentleman, only a year out from England. 
He was the son of one of those iron-nerved Peninsular captains 
whom the times and the exigencies of the years 1809-1812 appear 
to have called into action. His father married late in life, and 
Clement Tyrrell, his only son, and a relative of Mrs. Delpard, had, 
with some sacrifice, been blessed with a university education. 
Clement was acquiring what is called " colonial experience," by 
living at Wyndomel and joining in the station work of all kinds — 
one of those free gentlemen apprentices who can only in this way 
learn to become practical squatters. A clue to his character may 
be obtained from the following incident. There was once a great 
dinner party at the station, and poor Clement had felt very jealous 
at the attention bestowed on the fair-haired Lucy (the mistress of 
all his heart) by some of the wealthy neighbouring young squires, 
and when he thought of his present poverty, and the years that 
must elapse ere he could become like one of his rivals, he felt inclined 
to despair. Better thoughts took possession of him before he slept 
that night, and he said to himself : " She is not for me ; certainly, 
not yet ; perhaps never. ' Work ' is to be my sole mistress for 
many years, and after I have worshipped and served Her to the full, 
and when she has smiled on me in mind and body, then I may with 
better grace approach the daughter of Hugh Delpard." 

But I must hark back a little, and tell my readers how / came to 
know Wynddniel at all. Well, in the year of grace 1 S4 ( J I was a young 
nid r«-st]css cockney, with no parents to tie me to England, and with 
rich relatives settled in Australia. I was weary of walking excursions 
to Cheshunt on the north, and Chiselhurst on the south ; tired of 
Hampton Court on the west, and Shcerness and Rochester on the 
' ; so I found myself one day in the London Docks eyeing the 
" Mary Bannatyne " for China,, and the "Hendrick Hudson" for 



4 SHIPPING A SEA. 

New York, with a Robinson Crusoe sort of feeling tugging at my 
heart, and I got my boxes packed by the deft fingers of pretty 
cousin Lizzie (long since with the angels, bless her), and shipped me 
in the " Calcutta " for Hobart with other passengers, Bisdees, 
Pettingells, and Thomsons on board, bound for Gipps Land, Font 
Hill Abbey, Jericho, and other classic spots in Tasmania (you must 
not judge of them by names). The Bay of Biscay was smooth and 
warm this June, albeit the South Foreland upset our stomachs " a 
wee." (A drink of salt water, it may here be remarked, is the best 
cure for mal de mer). Dimly the Lizard had faded from our sight, 
and the light of Ushant was the last glimmer of Europe seen by us. 
All went smoothly till we were near the Cape of Storms, and then 
the tempest of the century came on us. Never, even on the wild 
coast of Oregon, or oft* the breezy Leeuwin, amidst its towering seas, 
did I ever see such vast waves ; one before us, one behind us, each 
a half mile away, and one on each side, bounded all our view of the 
outside world ; only four waves in sight, but such giants as they 
were. When becalmed and stationary in the watery hollow, a 
relentless billow struck us abaft, sent the stern boat into chips, 
drove the " Calcutta's " whole forecastle bodily into the sea, flooded 
the decks right up to the rail, and for a moment and more it was a 
question as to foundering, for " old teak built " was deep wais'-ed, 
and drew 19 feet of water on a burden of 500 tons only. The 
water was warm, though in the depth of winter, and it must have 
come down the Mozambique Channel from hot Zanzibar, and the 
cross current made this awful sea. But we were not to be drowned 
that time. The ports were knocked out, and up she rose minus her 
jibboom, minus her foretopmast and maintop gallant mast, the bow- 
sprit sprung and the live stock overboard. We concluded to heave 
to and wait a bit after this hint. What a tale the very sight of a 
worn out ship can tell to an imaginative mind ! There (say) lies the 
old " Hebrides," with her vast bows and carved quarter galleries 
on the North shore of the Thames, below Blackwall, ready to bo 
broken up. Grand old " hooker " your history is past ! You have 
lived your life bi'avely out, and have led no passengers or crew to a 
watery grave ; you never damaged a package of cargo, and your 
record is a long and a clean one. Poor dead old Indiaman ! Voyage 
after voyage your ample breadth of beam hath defied alike the 
levelling hurricane of the Antilles and the fierce cyclone of the 
Maldives. You, the ship who had borne in the days when 1825 
and 1835 were the dates on our almanacs, Governor-Generals' wives- 
and fair " coveys " of muslin clothed girls to far off India and 
matrimony. 



A DIADEM OP SNOW. 5 

But to return to the living ship " Calcutta." It is a strange 
thing — to a reflective mind, and one that takes in the i*ealities of 
the position — to lind oneself far out at sea, and watch the ever 
receding frothy wake of the ship. It is not so nice as it looks to 
be, when you realise that there are 15,000 feet deep of salt water 
under your feet, thousands of miles of it sideways in every direction, 
and that the nearest bit of hard land near to you is covered with 
oozy mud three miles straight downwards. So, it is pleasant to turn 
from such considerations to the nightly whist, and to see the 
jovial skipper quaff his punch out of a silver-mounted cocoanut 
shell, which imparts the same flavour to "grog" as does pewter to 
beer. The " Calcutta's " passage ended at last, and a few days 
after we had seen the great masses of kelp afloat off Cape Leeuwin 
(the south-west point of New Holland) we sniffed the delicious land 
odours from the south-west Cape of Van Diemen's Land, grateful as a 
new mown hay field to us brine-wearied voyagers. On, past the 
" Mewstone," which sits proudly on the water like a lion, and quite 
eclipsing its older namesake in the English Channel. What a dark 
looking shore it was ! The olive foliage, so different from the 
light green of England. But on we sailed by the basaltic pillared 
capes, and turned up Storm Bay, past the " Iron Pot " Lighthouse, 
and so on to our anchorage in front of the gorgeous panorama 
of Hobart Town, glowing, a la Naples, in the sun, and looking like 
some rich-toned drop scene at the Lyceum in this glorious mid- 
October. A clean, stone-built, beautifully rising city, but so small 
after London to my Cockney eyes, as yet innocent of bush solitude. 
So it was good-bye for a time to Lea bridge and Epping, and the 
limpid anchorage at Sheerness. But the scene possessed what 
London did not. The magnificent broad old Mount Wellington as 
a new background to its scenery, with the snow crowning its table 
top, and running adown its ravines like a Vandyke collar of white, 
its summit being 4,200 feet over the beautiful estuary of the 
Derwent River, on which Hobart is built ; and the wonderful 
stupendous basaltic " Organ Pipes," 700 feet perpendiculai-, near 
the top, appearing to support, like pillars, his " diadem of snow." 
But I had no heart then for scenery. I wanted to see my mother's 
youngest sister, who had been to me a mother when my own one 
died years before, and whose marriage to a well-known la-ewer of 
Sydney had settled her, and for hygienic reasons, at one of iiis 
numerous malting barley farms at Bagdad, IS miles from Hobart, 
with another at Ticehurst, near Richmond (V. D. L.) 

Ashore went I, and <>n to the box of a well-appointed four-horse 



6 A " DUDE " SUPPRESSED. 

coach, which ran then from Hobart to Launceston daily each way,. 
122 miles. The first thing which struck me on landing was the 
old-fashioned look of the people. The women of the middle and 
lower class were attired in the " rig " of 20 years back. Battered 
old velveteen poke bonnets, and shabby plaid shawls ; for the 
" fashions " took a couple of decades in those days to reach all the 
classes in Australia. Van Diemen's Land was the last place on 
earth where the real old English four-horse stage coach survived in 
its full business glory of basket, blunderbuss, bugle horn, boot, guard, 
red panels and all, and it travelled, also, over the finest road in the 
world, macadamized for 122 miles, arched in the centre and drained 
at the sides, equal to Oxford or Regent street in " traversability," 
and all the work of unpaid convicts ; and so beautifully graded that 
its highest point, "Spring Hill," 2,200 feet, was passed both up and 
down at full ten-mile trot by the splendid coach horses all the year 
round. It was only the glorious view from the highest part of the 
road that let you into the secret that you had got to the summit of a 
mountain range at all. Rival coach proprietors, Page and Hyrons, 
were employed at the time in sinking £10,000 apiece trying to run 
each other off the road, and they took passengers the full 122 miles 
from Hobart Town to Launceston for five shillings, with the finest 
coaches, horses, and drivers in the wide world. 

I arrived at Bagdad, and was tearfully welcomed by the aunt I 
had last seen early in 1843 at Upper Clapton, and " so like your 
poor mother " was my first greeting in Australia. I was then 
introduced to her husband and a visitor, Captain George Harrison, 
R.K., who, with Captain Wickham, of Brisbane, did much marine 
surveying about the Straits of Magelhan and Northern Australia in 
the early part of the century. I mention Harrison in order to bring 
in a story he told us. He was once much persecuted by the 
vapourings of a " dude " of the period at the Club. A wearisome 
creature, who decried all Austi-alia, and vowed there was not a 
building in the country to be compared with his friend Lord 
Mythman's stables, and so forth. "You are quite right" said 
Harrison at last to him ; " it is a beastly country this, and as soon 
as my time is up I'm off out of it. You know, of course, that I got 
seven years in London for pocket-picking, and it will be over in 
another 18 months." What the "masher" of 1848 thought will 
never be known. His face was a study, and no matter whether he 
realized the hoax, or believed the tale, Harrison got his wish, and 
was troubled with no more boredom from that quarter. 

I found myself in a new world at Bagdad. The trees were laden 



GUESTS AT BAGDAD. i 

with lovely parrots and parroquets, then worth a guinea apiece in 
London, but as common as larks or sparrows here. There was a 
hawthorn hedge round the garden, and huge sweetbriar trees 
growing wild by the road side and big haystacks in the farm yard ; 
but the house was quite a gentleman's seat, with beagles in the yard 
and hunters in the stable. My bedroom was a novelty to me, 
panelled with sweet-scented woods, never seen in England. The 
toilet service (from Canton) was scenic china on a foundation of sheet 
copper. When morning came the breakfast surprised me. Never 
before had I seen such tiny "merino" mutton chops, and sardines 
(then a new luxury in London) were here too. But all was not 
"skittles and beer," for cooks "did not grow on trees" in Van 
Diemen's Land in '-49, and the pie crust was " adamantine." I had 
brought with me in the " Calcutta " a renovating supply of glass 
and china in huge hogsheads from Spode and Copeland, at Lambeth, 
for my aunt, as convict servants were great as smashers of crockery, 
and though she often lured the steward, or cabin boy, of some 
English packet ship to take service at Bagdad as footman or 
"buttons," still, as a rule, the colonial "prisoner" article had to be 
fallen back on ; and all the farm hands, except the overseer, were 
of that class. But, despite all drawback, life was pleasant in 
Tasmania then, and the society, like the roads, was the best in 
Australia, and plenty of it did I meet in the old house at Bagdad. 
Amongst the elderly was the widow of Commissary Laidley, of 
Sydney, in 1829. Amongst the young was a midshipman of the 
frigate " Havannah," then lying at Hobart, the Hon. Mr. Ashley 
(son of the philanthropic Earl of Shaftesbury, who, unlike some 
Earls, laboured for and loved his fellow creatures for two-thirds of a 
century), and who now, I believe, is the Earl himself; Major 
Tylee, R.E., and others ; but it was all the same wherever you went 
in Van Diemen's Land. Nice houses, some with marble pillars in the 
hall, like Cox's at " Clarendon ;" carriages, some with postillions on 
the horses (as Mrs. Dunn, at Hobart, had) ; and the backbone 
of society composed of retired army, navy, and commissariat men 
and their families, than whom no better colonists can be wished for. 
And it is just as good, too, in the north of the island, and around 
W'stlmry could be found families that vied with those about New 
Norfolk, in the south, in all that tended to hospitality, social 
happiness, and refinement. 

Victoria at this time was chiefly settled by emigrants from 
Tasmania, w h .k<; original flocks of 200 each had increased t>> 20,000, 
and more, apiece, and who were now full blown "squatters." Ne^ 



8 DEATH ON MOUNT WELLINGTON. 

South Wales was wealthy, but still struggling with the old Botany 
Bay legacies, and their inevitable train. South Australia, save for 
the " Burra Burra," was yet in the infancy of her copper and wheat 
achievements ; while Queensland and New Zealand were in their 
babyhood also. 

By way of bracing myself for a colonial life, I made, with 
Dr. W. L. Crowther, of Hobart, the perilous ascent of Mount 
Wellington. I say " perilous," for, some time previously two mid- 
shipmen of the "Zebra," man-of-war, had gone up. One was never 
again seen or heard of, and the other was found, a week later, raving 
mad from terror and privation, through being lost in the dense 
bush. He turned up at a small settlement, seven miles from the 
mountain, but could give no account of his later wanderings. 
However, this did not deter us. We started before daylight from 
Dr. Crowther's house and his cherry garden, and here a word or two 
as to the climate of Yan Diemen's Land at Hobart Town. It 
resembles that of France more than that of England, though at 
mid-summer and at mid-winter it corresponds exactly with that of 
London. But where the difference exists is, that the spring comes 
on six w r eeks earlier than it does in London. The autumn is longer 
and the winter shorter than in Middlesex. The English potatoes 
we brought from the Thames in the " Calcutta " had perished by 
the time we had been six weeks at sea, while those brought home 
from Hobart on the voyage before ours lasted us good all the way 
out again. Such is the vitalising effect of virgin soil. Well, to 
resume. 

Dr. Crowther and I, armed with some sandwiches and a flask of 
brandy (of which more anon), began our ascent in the small hours 
before the dawn. Passing Degraves's brewery, we toiled up past 
the sassafras bushes to the Fern Tree Gully, fully 2,500 feet, where 
we concluded to breakfast ; but, upon uncorking the brandy, we 
found it had been put in a bottle that once held turpentine. 
Anathemas ! and then, happy thought ! we handed the bottle over 
to a poor man, clothed in the yellow and black harlequin suit which 
marks the lowest grade of convict, and who was picking and 
shovelling a better road up the mountain, and as he had never 
tasted spirits for ten years at least, he did not object to the " turps " 
as long as there was some brandy in it, and so the worthy medico 
and I determined to breast the hill on cold water alone. On we 
went, and up we went- — we were 2,500 feet high by 8 a.m. — and 
arrived at the " Ploughed Ground " in due course. This is a risky 
plain, quite covered with huge boulders, rounded, and some of them 
rs.b-^ 



A DREAD WILDERNESS. 9 

'20 feet in diameter, and you have to leap from one to another, and 
any slip between them would bury you out of sight, like an ant in a 
bag of marbles. Luckily they are not slippery, so we got over them 
all right, and by 11 a.m. we were on the summit of Mount 
Wellington, alongside of Lady Franklin's "cairn," and 4,196 feet 
over Storm Bay. The view from the top of a high mountain is, to 
me, disappointing ; it is always far more picturesque half way up ; 
everything is below you and merged into one level. There was the 
giant " Dromedary " (the height of Helvellyn and Skiddaw) out by 
my aunt's place at Bagdad, and near Glenorchy, and it looked like 
a black spot below us, the said spot being the summit centre ; the 
" Dromedary " and Derwent are like Helvellyn and Thirlmere. Below 
us was Hobart Town ; the streets like a map ; the ships like 
emmets ; the " Iron Pot " Lighthouse, on its long, low, narrow, 
sandy islet, looked like a man sitting up in a wager boat. I was 
very tired with the climb, and would have given much for a glass of 
sherry, but I had to be contented with some melted snow water, 
pellucid and prismatic as the' liquid shown at a filter seller's shop 
in the Strand of London. The snow, where drifted against a rock, 
was in large crystals, like the squares in coarse salt. Away to the 
north and west of us stretched the endless tiers and ranges which 
lead to the " Frenchman's Cap," a crooked peak of 4,850 feet, and 
out beyond it to that dismal wilderness where nineteen escaped 
convicts and twenty-seven soldiers, who went in pursuit of them, 
were, it is said, swallowed up alike, and seen no more by mortal 
men. But the story of convicts and bushrangers is an old and oft 
told one, and I am not going to inflict it here. The doctor and I, 
having seen all that was to be seen from the top of the mountain, 
and having finished the sandwiches, began the descent by a more 
direct cut through the forest than the easier graded one we had 
ascended by, and here our troubles began. A mountain mist 
gathered and rain began to fall, and our way became uncertain. It 
was a fearful forest to struggle through, full of deep pits and fallen 
timber of enormous size. If you found a forest monarch, 150 feet 
long by six feet thick, lying prone, and barring your path, it would 
never do to waste time walking round him, but over him you had to 
climb, and perhaps to fall into a deep hole on the far side, clutching 
atcoarse blady grass as you descend, grass which cut your hands like 
a knife would. Never in my life before, or since, did I perform so 
man)' gymnastic feats in tin; same space of time. Now a passage 
through dense underwood would tear my clothes, for I had to press 
on and keep in sight of the doctor, who had been up -Mount 



10 GENERAL WYNYARD. 

Wellington often before and was pioneering in front of me. Once 
I passed a huge lump of flesh in the bush. Was it a bit of the 
" Zebra's " midshipman, or only part of a kangaroo 1 Quien Sabe ? 
Es muerto, whoever he was, and I had no time to stop, or even 
think, in that mad hurried descent of the awful south slope of " the 
Wellington." Let me draw a veil over the whole scene, which lasted 
from 11-30 a.m. to 7 - 30 p.m. on that long midsummer day of 
December, 1849. By the time we were clear of the mountain (for 
in the mist and rain we had travelled twice the needed distance) 
my new Wellington boots had turned their heels right up, and the 
little nails were looking me in the face. My trousers wei'e tied, the 
tops to the bottoms, with pieces of string (torn asunder by the 
thickets at mid-thigh) ; the dye from my black vest was transferred 
to my skin in dark purple. I was so utterly unpresentable for the 
streets, that we had to send for and take a cab into the town, and 
here ended my first mountain climb in Australia, a matter of 
seventeen hours hard tramping and acrobatic work, without a 
rest or adequate sustenance. Dr. Crowther once took his mother up 
with a party, and they got into much the same trouble in descending 
that we did, and it was only with the aid of the powerful stimulant, 
opium, which he fortunately had with him, that the good old lady 
found strength to pull through the ordeal. 

There was, at the time I write of, no " opening for a young man " 
in Yan Diemen's Land. The country was all parcelled out, and 
still is, amongst the great families of the island, and those who 
wanted to "expand" had to go further afield. My ever kind uncle 
and Dr. Crowther were at that time fitting out a ship — the "Eudora," 
Captain Gourlay — for California, laden with timber, houses, and 
shop fronts, onions, and potatoes, all so saleable in the then new 
El Dorado, where onions had been 4s., and potatoes Is., a lit., and 
they offei-ed me the post of super-cargo, which I joyfully accepted, 
and before I bid adieu for a while to the south, let me give a proof 
of the surpassing excellence of the roads and coaches of Van 
Diemen's Land in those days. 

One day I went across from Hobart to Launceston, 122 miles. 
We had General Wynyard and his daughter as passengers, and 
Frost, the coachman, was so pleased with his aristocratic freight 
that he kept the nags going, and put us through the journey in ten 
hours, including all stoppages to change horses and the mid-day 
meal at the Oatlands Hotel. This was " travelling," as all must 
admit, and over high mountains as well for part of the road (as 
before described). 



REGATTA AT HOBART. II 

I, of course, went to see the Hobart Town Anniversary Regatta 
of December, 1849. Dr. Crowther and I were moored where we 
could see everything. The whale-boat race was most interesting. 
The boats gaily painted, and with the " nose " at each end of them, 
always of a different colour from the middle, and every competing 
boat with its five 18 feet oars, and its 30 feet steer oar, had to carry 
harpoons, lances, lines, «fec, clown to the very last item, as if really 
after a whale in mid-ocean ; or, it was disqualified. Geo. Chase's 
crew, in the " Aborigine," used to win frequently ; the " Traveller " 
also, was a good boat. But, in one regatta, Sydney sent a crew of 
its champion scullers — men like Green and Mulhall, Punch and 
M'Grath — and pulled it off from Chase and Company. It mattered 
not that they were not all bond fide whalers, so long as they carried 
the lances, harpoons, etc. The ferry-boat race was a good one also. 
Little fore and aft schooners of 15 tons burden used to ply between 
Hobart Town and Kangaroo Point, across the harbour, in those 
days, and a race was always made up for them at each regatta. 

A few words here as to the hotel at Oatlands, on the centre of 
the island. No part of Australia exactly resembles England ; the 
differences force themselves on your notice wherever you go ; but if 
a man would draw down the blinds, and refrain from looking out of 
the window at the scenery, grandeur, and gloom of the Table 
Mountain over Bothwell, he might, for once, fancy himself " at 
home " in the old country while dining at the " Royal Hotel," 
Oatlands, Tasmania, in 1849. The old-fashioned green woollen 
embroidered dinner mats, with knives and forks to match ; the 
funny old hunting pictures on the walls of the room ; the quaint 
sideboard, with its out-of-date appliances, in the shape of bygone 
electro-plated ware : the very English-smelling roast goose and 
rhubarb pie ; the " Cascade " di-aught ale, brewed at Hobart, would 
all combine to make one think of the far away fishing and other 
dear old inns of the motherland, with her beechen glades and her 
trout brooks, unknown in Australia. 

And now, at length, behold me fairly embarked on board the- 
"Eudora," Captain Gourlay, for San Francisco, with my bills of 
lading securely fastened in the inner recesses of a pocket book. 
The good ship heeled over to the breeze as we slipped down Storm 
Bay, and, shortly, only the snow on Mt. Wellington could be seen 
from our decks. I pass over the sorrowful parting from my kind, 
fond aunt, who did not want me (at nineteen) to risk the dangers of 
early California any more than her loving mother in England 
wished me (her sole comfort) to go to Australia, even to her 



12 TROPIC THIRST. 

daughter ; but young men are hard hearted when unknown lands 
and adventures lie temptingly before them ; and I never realised, till 

I grew older myself, the wrench to other hearts which I was the 
cause of, and so it will be, I suppose, to the end of the chapter. I 
was fearfully sea sick all the way to New Zealand, and a packet of 
musk in my cabin (which was the larboard stern one) made me still 
worse. We were off the " Traps and Snares," the southern point of 
New Zealand on New Year's Eve, '49-50, and coming on deck about 

II p.m. in the clear full summer moonlight, I was surprised by an 
unwonted sight. Some exemplary Scotch people, whom I never 
before, nor since, caught forgetting themselves, were employed in a 
sort of free skirmish all over the decks, cuffing and wrestling with 
hearty good will. Crew and passengers, some, but not all, were 
involved in the fray, while an English sailor, John Mayfield, held 
the wheel, calmly steering over the smooth, moonlit sea, looking 
on with supreme indifference at revels into whose spirit he could 
not enter, not being Scotch. Now, for myself, English as I am, I 
revere the Caledonian character, with its ingrained self-respect and 
plodding, self-denying perseverance (not to continue the catalogue of 
good qualities), and I fairly worship Scotch music, reels and 
plaintive airs alike, and never fail to lift my hat to the world- 
uniting hymn of " Auld Lang Syne " as I would to "God Save the 
Queen ;" but, for the life of me, I never yet could make out why 
Scotchmen should go mad and cease to be themselves on New Year's 
Eve. We had intended to touch, and till up with water, at New 
Zealand, but deceived (like the captain of St. Paul's ship) by a 
spanking fair wind, we held on past it for Tahiti, and were, soon 
after, caught in the repellent embraces of Euroclydon, a ceaseless 
north-easter, and with 80 souls (crew, cabin, and steerage) on board, 
we were soon on the famine allowance of a pint and a-half of fresh 
water each per diem for all hands, fore and aft, served out at 9 a.m. 
on the poop by the steward, to do what we liked with it, and this, in 
January and February in the southern tropic, is a matter which 
must be endured in order to be realised. Salt water soap 
allowed us to bathe still, but as for soup and tea, and the like, they 
" ceased ;" the cook would have boiled it all away. We had 
•champagne, claret, and bottled beer, all useless for thirst, and it was 
melancholy for us at midnight to hear through the saloon bulkheads 
the thirsty babes and children talk in their sleep and murmur 
" Drint o' yorter, Ma." My plan was to mix a little lime juice and 
sherry with the water, and drink once only in the 24 hours, and 
then out of a bottle. Nobody died ; some suffered and some did 



EIMEO PEAKS. 13 

not ; I was amongst the latter. I am very patient of thirst, and I 
never even carried a pannikin in my thousands of miles of solitary bush 
rides in Queensland summer time, but if some of us young fellows had 
not " subscribed " a daily gill apiece out of our scanty allowance to 
aid the " hot coppers " of the confirmed old " pawnee " drinkers on 
board, some of them might have gone under. We were kept at sea, 
baffled by this wind, till we got down to ten inches of water in the 
last tank — which, all must admit, was rather a " tight fit " for 80 
people in such hot weather — when we sailed into the fairy bay of 
Papiete, on Otaheite. What a jump ! From Regent street to 
Otaheite, and bread fruit. The day before this, I had climbed to the 
top-gallant yard to view the conical spiky peaks of the island of 
Eimeo, and, when I came down, my example was followed by young 
Wales, the son of the Police Magistrate at Morven, Van Diemen's 
Land, and two of the sailors (not liking this intrusion on their 
domain) followed him up the rigging with rope yarns round their 
necks, wherewith to bind (till he paid a forfeit) this too-aspiring 
youth; but he was "clear grit," for, coolly waiting till "Johnny 
Flatfoot " was within a few inches of him, Wales slid like lightning 
down the top-gallant backstay to the deck, ruining his " pants " 
with tar and " barking " his palms a bit, but triumphant as a native 
Australian " Hamilton Tighe," should be, and leaving his would-be 
captors lamenting, and laughed at by all hands. The boy had 
" been to sea " before. 

Tahiti has the full tropical beauty of Ceylon multiplied by three, 
with the per contra tiger and cobra business totally eliminated. 
The harbour of Papiete is a semi-circular bay, like a bow, the string 
of which is a coral reef with one opening in it, enclosing a harbour 
smooth as the Docks of London. I now found myself in an 
atmosphere and temperature like unto the palm house at Kew, or 
Loddige's hot house at Hackney, with the odour of guavas and 
oranges hanging about. 

Otaheite was pronounced a thorough " success " by all hands, fore 
and aft, in the " Eudora." A pretty island, with a tiny palace on it, 
adorned the centre of the harbour, and Papiete was not half the dull 
place one would have looked to find, 40 years ago, in a remote 
Pacific island. The French had taken Tahiti by force from the 
natives. There had been a fight on a large scale, and under a lofty 
monument, duly inscribed, reposed a number of the officers and men 
of the " Uranie " frigate who had fallen in the conflict, quite as 
disastrous as a subsequent German loss at .Samoa. The middle-aged 
queen, called by the family and titular name of " Pomare," had a 



14 QUEEN EMMA. 

husband much younger and handsomer than herself. The men are 
handsome in those islands, for when I came down the day before 
from the " Eudora's " cross-trees we were boarded by young men in 
an outrigger canoe from Eimeo, who, as they sat on our bulwarks, 
showed the profiles and heads of Antinous and Achilles, with an air 
of unconscious and unpretentious dignity and manners only to be 
met with in the higher class of European youths. They bartered 
with us their beautiful mother-of-pearl fish hooks for any trifle we 
could spare, and their noble heads, bound with fillet and a feather, 
disappeared over the side as we sailed onwards for Tahiti, whose 
queen was distinguished by a black satin cassock. She was about 40, 
and her aquiline husband 30 years of age. The small-eared beautiful 
girls of Tahiti wore cassocks also, but made of gaily coloured cotton 
prints only, and with a flower in each ear for a pendant, and some 
sweet-scented native flower oil on their long straight black hair. 
Never walking far, never carrying burdens ; always swimming, or 
canoeing, they had diminutive hands and feet to match. Not so, 
however, with some old chiefs, who were pointed out to me as having 
remembered Captain Cook's visit, 70 years before, in their early 
childhood, and their white heads, and their legs and feet swollen to the 
size and shape of a log of wood with elej)Jiantiasis, certainly gave them, 
as they sat in a row, an air of great antiquity. They appear to be 
a longer lived race than the Sandwich islanders, as well as far 
handsomer. The kings of HaAvaii follow each other in quick 
succession, as well as the queens. I met one of the latter, once 
Miss Emma Rooke, a slender creole-looking half-caste girl of 14, 
later in 1850. I sold to her father, Dr. Rooke, of Honolulu, a frame 
house, ex " Eudora," and on my calling to collect the doubloons, she 
officiated for him, as he was out. She was a grand-daughter of John 
Young, one of the companions of Vancouver, and she married the 
fourth Kamehameha, and she became the plump and popular Queen 
Emma, who was made so much of by Queen Victoria in England in 
1865-66, and who deserved it, for she went home to beg for the 
missionaries. She had the same lai'ge, kindly, luminous, half-sad, 
half-winning eyes when I saw her as a girl, and all through life, and 
she died untimely in 1885, the death of their only child having 
killed her husband with grief many years before. But I am 
digressing, and forgetting that I am at Tahiti at present, and not 
yet at Honolulu. I met at Papiete the yacht " Wanderer ,' of the 
R.Y.S., in charge of her owner, Ben Boyd, Esq., of Twofold Bay, New 
South Wales. She was a pretty and luxurious vessel, with a richly 
furnished cabin that extended nearly her whole length, and full of 



BEN BOYD AT TAHITI. 15 

skins and garnered curiosities from all parts, to say nothing of 
piano, bookshelves, and sofas. On deck, amidships, was a long 
smart-looking brass 18-pounder. I had some earnest talk with 
Mr. Boyd, who had just come down from the North Pacific, and 
was on his way back to New South "Wales, which, by the way, he 
never reached, for he was murdered soon after, en route, by the 
savages at Guadalcanal-, Solomon Islands, and I was one of the last 
white men who saw him alive. He told me it would be useless for 
me to take my Tasmanian hardwood timber to glutted San 
Francisco ; that the Yankees would not use it for firewood even ; 
that they had not a tool amongst them that would touch any but 
the Huon pine which I had with me also (a more beautiful wood 
than bird's eye maple), and that I had better call in and sell out at 
Honolulu, where a good and virgin market existed, and I took his 
advice. Tahiti was anything but dull at this time. The French 
military bands, and those of the men-of-war, rendered evening music 
on the beach, such as neither the Melbourne, nor the Sydney, of 
those days could match with their regimental bands. The massive 
foreyard of the " Sybille " frigate, like a fallen gum tree, lay on the 
shore where it had been floated for repairs. A well-kept, tropical- 
thatched French hotel on the beach dispensed glorious claret with a 
divine rough bouquet, and one drank it rapturously out of coffee 
cups, or whatever came handy ; it needed no coddling in any shaped 
glass. They had a cunning method, too, of frying tomatos in 
eschalots and vinegai-, and could work up bananas into all sorts of 
artful pastry, for the Frenchman's mission is to cook, the Briton's 
is to eat, ask no questions, and be thankful. The thin, pale, sour, 
bottled ale from Paisley was execrable, though the jmrfait amour 
and other liqueurs were quite up to the mark for a Polynesian 
island far from civilization ; but I am free to confess that, while at 
Chilian posnda, or East Polynesian hotel, one misses the dear old 
malt and hops, for which the aguardiente and the red, yellow, and 
green liqueurs are no earthly substitute. 

A " wag " amongst our passengers vowed that the Tahitians must 
be of Irish extraction, for their form of salutation was invariably, 

Yure 'anner ;" and, joking apart, there are in some Pacific Islands 
certain rites observed, analagous to those enjoined by the Mosaic 
law. Query 1 ? How did they travel from Mesopotamia to Poly- 
nesia? or were they originated in the latter place? Quien sabel 
We passengers of the " Eudora" got a noble dinner served up to us 
in that hotel n, la, Francais. Queen Pomare's 70 feet carved canoe 
w;is sheltered from the sun under a thatch roof on a bed of bamboo 



<< 



16 AN ISLAND PARADISE. 

leaves, and it was here that, for the first time in my life, I heard the 
romantic hum of the tropic mosquito, a cousin of the gnats and 
midges of the dear old Essex lanes. It was an ^Eolian harp-like 
sound, that suggested ideas of verandah courtship by starlight, the 
glass at 80°, what time the land breeze would cut oft" the head of every 
roller, that, day and night, ceaselessly moaned and beat on the 
guardian coral reef of enchanted Tahiti, and would blow the top 
spray out to sea again. We had to stop several days here in 
order to get in all the water we required for 80 people, with the 
primitive local appliances, so an excursion was planned for three of 
us — namely, Wales, myself, and Turner (a surveyor, who afterwards 
settled at Oahu), to ascend to the mountain stronghold of the island,. 
the last defence from which the natives had been driven, and only 
then because they deemed it inaccessible, and therefore impregnable, 
and not necessary to be guarded. But they had, alas ! to deal with 
that active Zouave breed of biped cats, who, six years later, scaled 
the " Malakhoff " at Sebastopol and dropped inside, a veritable 
Niagara of 30,000 irrepressible red breeches ; and the Tahiti 
warriors (who had never heard of such things as ladders) found the 
enemy, armed to the teeth, suddenly in the midst of their garrison, 
and all was over. It was to this mountain fastness, nearly 4,000 
feet above the sea, that we started to climb. Five times we had to 
cross a beautiful little crystal river, 80 feet wide and three feet 
deep, and didn't I get a fine sore throat next day from the wetting ; 
but our doctor (a brother of Eusebius Lloyd, of St. Bartholomew's,. 
London) soon sent it "flying " with a gargle of dilute sulphuric acid. 
Lovely was the scenery, and fertile the soil, as we began and 
continued the ascent. Cones of rock, 1,000 feet high, rich in 
lichens, and veiled with flowering creepers, towered by the side of 
our route. The wild ginger threw out its gnarled tubers under our 
feet. Grand timber trees, solid and hard as teak or ebony, made up 
the forest, in company with the bread fruit, guava (which scented 
the air), " mammee " apples, papaws, oranges, limes, lemons, 
bananas, &c. It will be noted that, unlike the forest of Australia, 
nearly everything that grew here was food of some sort, and it, 
with the easily caught fish and pigs of the country, made up a bill 
of fare, which caused anything like hunting, or hard labour, to be as 
out of fashion and uncalled for, as hunger, thirst, and want, were. 
Amongst the foods of Polynesia I must not forget to mention 
" po-i " (two syllables, please), a kind of blue arrowroot, made up 
by pounding, after cooking, the " taro," a glutinous blue and turnip - 
looking sort of bulb (an alocasia or caladium, I think). It becomes as 




o 
S 

u 

El 
E-i 



O 

CO 



a: 
< 
m 
o 



O 

H 
O 

►J 

W 



O 



THE TROPIC BIRD. 17 

thick and as sticky as treacle, and is eaten in much the same 
manner as the Italians use with macaroni. Each person dips his 
finger in the dish, winds it round two or three times, and drops the 
food into his mouth, dipping his fingers into clean water between 
each raid on the dough. 

We were made heartily welcome by the Gallic Lieutenant and 
his company of soldiers, who kept the " Pah Fattawah " as the 
fastness was called, and some excellent cognac, with pure cascade 
water, made Turner and me recollect our French and find out all the 
history of the capture of the place, which happened as before 
described. Full in view of the officers' quarters was the loveliest 
waterfall imaginable ; not a broken one, or in a mountain gully 
hidden by underwood, and only visible here and there, but a sheer 
fall of 700 feet over a clean perpendicular wide wall of rock, and, 
poised high in the air above it, hovered, clear cut against the sky, 
a solitary beautiful tropic bird, with one long coloured feather in its 
tail, the feather from which, the priceless state cloak of the kings of 
Hawaii has now been 200 years a-making, at the rate of one bird 
one feather, and no more. This wall of rock bounded our view in 
that direction, and the tumbling water became mere mist and spray 
ere it reached the foot of the fall. But it was a sight never to be 
forgotten, and we dwelt on it as long as we could, compatible with 
the necessity for being back in " town" before gunfire, and onboard 
our ship again, for matters were strict and martial law was not 
<juite in abeyance, and the institution known, in "nigger" countries, 
as the " calaboose " (synonym for watch-house) was open for the 
reception of belated travellers, who might be away from their proper 
domicile, at night, without a passport. A Frenchman named Hort 
was the leading mercantile man of Tahiti at that time. 

Before proceeding to describe my further voyage up the Pacific, 
I would here narrate a phase, or two, of life, from a convict point 
of view, in Tasmania. The mention of martial law puts me 
in mind of them. A youth of 14 (son of old Captain Brookes- 
Forster, R.N., police magistrate of Brighton in that colony) 
rode, with white, scared face, one day, into our front garden at 
Bagdad, and reported that he had just been robbed by a " bolter " 
(or escaped convict) of six-pence, a pencil case, and handkerchief. 
No violence, or weapon, was used, and the property was of small 
value, yet tin; man was hanged for it soon after. It was held, then, 
that, having transported a man for life, if he did any more wrong, 
there was nothing left but to hang him, as he could not be trans 
ported over again, a truly Draconian code, but the way of \ an 



18 THE CONVICT'S CURFEW. 

Diemen's Land in 1S49. Another incident was as follows : I used, 
at that time, to go in from Bagdad hy the afternoon passing coach to 
Hobart, to take tea with Dr. and Mrs. Crowther, and come back to 
Bagdad, 18 miles, by the 7 p.m. night coach for Launceston, which 
would drop me at the gate, about 9 p.m. One evening I missed the 
coach in Hobart, by a quarter of an hour, and resolved to walk out, 
for 18 miles was nothing to me then, and I would be home before 
midnight. When I got five miles out, at O'Brien's Bridge, I was 
accosted by a tall figure in blue serge shirt, cross belt, musket and 
bayonet, the greatest possible contrast to the London policeman of 
that day (who wore a tall black hat, blue-tail coat, and pewter 
buttons), and the following colloquy ensued : He : " Where are you 
going, mate ?" I : "To Bagdad." He : " Where do you come from ?" 
I : "Dr. Crowther's, at Hobart Town." He: " Bond or free?" I : 
" What ?" He : " Bond or free ?" I burst out laughing here. He said : 
<; You must not laugh ; we are obliged to ask these questions after 
8 o'clock (curfew time). What ship did you come out in ?" I : 
" The ' Calcutta.' " He : " That will do, sir ;" and on I went, the 
name of the passenger ship which (he knew) brought no convicts, 
acted as my password, and I was free of the constable sentry at the 
bridge. The same form of dialogue took place at the Brighton 
Bridge and causeway over the beautiful Derwent, 11 miles from 
Hobart, and again I laughed and was rebuked for my levity. By 
this time, about 11 p.m., I was "amazin" thirsty, and I regret to 
say, that I took a drink from the font outside the new church at 
Pontville, and got to Bagdad at midnight. It will thus be seen that 
anyone out of doors after 8 p.m. in 1849 in Van Diemen's Land 
had to be a free man, or have a special " pass." To resume : 

Beautiful, glorious Tahiti, with its lovely sister islands of the 
" Society " group, stands alone and unrivalled in the world, for 
fairy-like enchantment in scenery. The Navigators and Samoa have 
handsome women and brave men ; the Marquesas Islands and 
Nukuheva have kindred waterfalls, with deep, narrow, tree and 
plant-clad, gorges of measureless height and but little span of width, 
and eke a race of giant men and fairy women ; but, after all is seen, 
the prize rests with Otaheite and her sister isles. Eimeo, with its 
" Ortler Spitz " peaks, and its Greek Gods of men ; Huahine, with 
its lovely Queen, her lady-like face set off by a rare Parisian straw 
hat, more refined, even if less workaday and sensible-looking, than 
her half-caste sisters of the " Bounty " Mutiny, and Pitcairn's Island. 
These last are pretty, with the steady beauty of domesticity, 
and a practical agricultural life ; they are the bees to Huahine's 



"SUMMER ISLES OF EDEN." 19 

butterfly ; and then, Raiatea ! What shall I say of that gem island 
of the sea ! It has the very peaks of Otaheite, lost in the clouds, 
7,000 feet, 8,500 feet, and what not, in height. It has the 
inaccessible table lands of the mysterious interior, which men cannot 
climb, nor fly to, girt with keen-edged buttresses of lichen and 
flower-clad rock, high and narrow, vast and steep, that form no 
right-of-way for living foot to traverse ; tier above tier of precipices, 
• each above and behind the other, for thousands of feet, and, above 
them, again, a land of lakes, and fish, and birds, and wild fruits, 
whose men can rarely come to us, or we go to them, but whose 
waterfalls rush clown the unscaleable ravines in cascades of 1,000 
feet at a time, making the sunlit island loom from the far off sea like 
an emerald seamed with veins of silver, or white Honiton lace laid 
deftly on green velvet. Below all this, a wilderness of palms borders 
the sea, where, if a gap exists in the encircling reef anywhere, 
the wavelets rush in, and break, in gentle surf, on the beach, 
rocking the outrigger canoes, laden with fruit, fowls, pigs, and 
pretty girls, flower-decked, flower-scented, and clad in the invariable 
smock frock of coloured and flower-printed calico ; all heads bare, 
as well as their little feet, so much more used to swimming than to 
talking. "Who could " mix up " those islands, their scenery, and 
their people with the ugly savages of the New Hebrides and 
Malicolo ? Animals, some of them, with a skull development below 
that of an enlightened terrier dog, the forehead at times running 
straight back from the eyebrows. No wonder they are murderous 
cannibals. There is no disputing it, that the Society Islands, now 
annexed by France, are the sole remnant of Paradise, in point of 
beauty, left on earth. The mountains, under 10,000 feet in height, 
are not the highest in the world, but are — each island a cluster of 
verdant "Matterhorns " in the tropic sea — decidedly the most peaked, 
the most picturesque, the steepest in precipices, the sharpest in 
outline, and the most wonderfully clothed with fruit and flower, 
considering their abrupt sides, leading men to wonder at the 
richness of the decomposed volcanic soil that can nourish plant life 
under such difficulties of angle. The peaks rise like an island above 
the clouds in some weather, but at times show from sea to summit 
in glorious completeness. The universal odour of guavas and 
oranges is one feature, and the little fresh water crayfish another. 
The breadfruit is not inaptly named, and is nmeh more digestible 
than its "sodden" feel in the mouth, would lead one to expect in 
ordinary bread. An honest, trading, race are the TahitianB, and one 
of them offered me a ship's long boat full of oranges for my little 



•20 VENUS AT SAMOA. 

brindle bull terrier pup from Hobart. In short, except in the' 
fanciful pictures of artists like Mallord Turner, or the scene 
painting of Grieve, Telbin, or Beverley (all of which, of course, is 
ideal and fanciful) you see nothing quite like Tahiti, Eimeo, and 
Raiatea elsewhere on the planet, and they and their hues, and 
outlines, and atmosphere are substantial entities, not ideal sketches. 
A friend of mine, who went with me to Tahiti and California in 
1850, and who returned by way of Samoa to Australia, and 
who had his wife (a pretty Hobart Town girl) with him on the 
voyage, told me of the girls of Samoa, and spoke of some who 
walked into a missionary's house while he was there (whether at 
Upolu, or Tutuila, I cannot now remember), but he described them 
as nearly nude, but modestly, innocently unconscious of any 
impropriety ; and their magnificent physical health was attested by 
their limbs and bodies, which, though they were symmetry itself,, 
were as firm and elastic, as if carved from cork, or indiarubber; and, 
as be said to me, " What white woman, especially one bred in a 
city, ever reaches this standard of health ?" But the Tahiti and 
Eimeo girls were admitted to be " something more exquisite still ;' r 
for my friend saw both places. What a pity it is that England does 
not buy the Society Islands from France, or make an exchange. 
Perhaps it is because they would not " pay." Certain it is, that the 
natives there, men and women alike, hate the French and like the 
English, and would give anything to be under different rulers in 
this respect. 

Much has been written about the girls of Tahiti and Eastern 
Polynesia, but it is difficult to convey a correct idea of them, to those 
who have never been there. Their decided beauty, dainty little 
ears, hands, and feet, wonderful eyes, gentle child-like manners, 
clean, semi-aquatic life, and freedom from the spleen — which haunts 
(more or less) the women of other lands, where conditions of life are 
harder — all combine to add a charm to them, and to render it a 
pleasure to realize that such a race, either pure or mixed, exists at all 
in the world. Their half-castes are at Pitcairn's and Norfolk Islands,, 
and tend to show that the race, grafted on the white one, is a success, 
physically and mentally. A European woman who has become too 
free in her life, has her fits of brazen, rabid reaction, the inevitable 
outcome of outraged feeling, shame, and conscience. There is none 
of this in the freedom of the girl of Tahiti, Nukuheva, or Samoa. 
Her freedom is so native and natural, born in the heart, that no 
reaction in her, is possible. They never go the extreme, either of 
modesty, or shamelessness, that some white women do, and in this- 



BIRDS AND SHELLS. 21 

respect they are simple children. The word " Pomare " is not the 
name, but the title, of each Queen. The dress of the native girls is, 
evidently, a gentle missionary device to ensure modesty, but, in a 
strong breeze, it "clings" in a manner to display, rather than 
conceal, the form of Venus, or Diana. 

And, now, to follow the " Eudora," as we sailed north from 
Otaheite. One night, =is we approached the latitude of 9° south, in 
this month of February, 1850, about 9 p.m., "the shipmen deemed 
that we drew nigh to some land," for, every yard in the ship was 
covered with birds, as if by magic, and the skipper said that we must 
be near some island. He looked at the chart, and found that we 
were approaching " Caroline Island," discovered by the British in 
1795, and, surely enough, next morning the birds were gone, but 
there was a low green island right ahead of us. We resolved to 
make up a party of volunteers to go ashore, and try to shoot some 
pigs, so, with six passengers and four of the crew, including a 
" Rotumah " man, we, ten fools, set out in the deeply laden square 
stern 16-foot dingy for the island. I had an old Sierra Leone rifle 
and a pair of pistols, and " this cockney " little knew the treat in 
store for him. It was high tide when we arrived at the reef 
which begirt the island, the main coral being like red granite to 
look at, and a smart wave catching our flat stern sent us well up at 
high water on the reef. We jumped out as the wave receded, and 
walked our dingy ashore in the shallow water. The edge of the 
reef went down a sheer 1,000 feet into the sea, witli no soundings 
at 200 fathoms. But let me not anticipate. The reef was covered 
with Tyrian purple and other shells, and pretty white coral under 
the shallow, pale green water, but neither soil, fresh water, pigs, 
nor goats were to be found, and no trees except the mangrove. 
But, oh ! the birds ! Millions of them, of all kinds. White storks 
witli crimson ruffs round their necks ; birds like albatrosses, only 
smaller. Birds! birds! everywhere, their eggs and nests littoii iilt 
the ground like hailstones after a storm, and so tame that 
they had evidently never seen a man before. If you ran in 
amongst them, with a wave of the arms and a shout, they would rise 
so thickly that you could catch one, or more, in each hand, like you 
could the gnats by the brook side, in Walthamstow's lanes on 
.Sunday afternoons in the summer time. There were heaps of land 
crabs about, too, but nothing else, eatable or drinkable, excepl s.unr 
turtles' eggs which we raked up in the sand. So, after a couple of 
hours, or more, of shell gathering, we concluded t<> go back t" the 
ship again, as she was standing on and of!, and waiting for us ; hut 



22 FIGHTING THE SURF. 

the tide had fallen greatly since we landed, and we had to face the 
rollers, for, when the sea receded from the edge of the perpendicular 
red reef, a fearsome gulf yawned between, and when it returned, 
towering and curling 30 feet high, ere it broke, it gave one a lively 
idea of the fate of being caught in a small boat down between the 
high wall of red rock on one side and the high wall of green water 
on the other. It was totally different from the gentle, easy break 
at high tide, and very dissimilar was the rush and roar of the terrific 
roller that came to cover the dripping, bright red, scarp, once more, 
especially to those in an unsuitable boat like ours. It would have 
tried the mettle of the best manned surf canoe, or whale boat, that ever 
floated, to have emitted this place at low tide, even with the powerful 
lever of a 30-foot steer oar, and the fate of our squat, square-built,, 
deep-laden dingy may be foreshadowed, when we came to face " this 
little lot." Out we went, bravely facing it on the top of the 
highest wave, but, ere we could get any " offing," down sunk the 
water, leaving us like a boat deep in a Thames lock, but with 
somewhat more lively surroundings, and, before we knew what was 
the matter, we broached to with broadside to shore, were just 
lifted clear of the awful wall of scarlet rock, but we shipped a sea 
that filled us. We got out and waded the boat into shallow water 
and baled her out. I could not swim and did not like the outlook 
much. Some took off their ti'ousers, and some their coats, ere we 
made the second attempt, and they evidently thought they might 
have to swim for it. I took none of my clothes oft ; it was all the 
same to me. We went out again on the top of a receding wave, and 
might, I think, this time have got off, straining might and main, had 
not one of the four oars broken. This stopped our way and gave us 
a second cant round, and broach to, and fill up to the gunwale. Guns 
and pistols and powder were flooded, and the tide was falling all 
the while, and, by the time we had again baled her dry, the 
outlook, where reef and sea alternately met and parted, was something 
terrible. Coats, hats, and trousers had already floated away, and 
at it we went, once more, like bull-dog Britons. Wider and deeper 
yawned the seething gulf between the red bastion and the sea as the 
latter retired, and to break through it now seemed a foolhardy 
attempt ; but we made it, none the less. I sat in the " nose " of the 
boat and had a fearful view of the red coral edge behind, and the 
green water wall in front of us. Old ocean seemed fairly angry 
with us, at last, for thus doggedly challenging and tempting him so- 
often, and, this time, the towering return wave fairly lifted us on 
end, nose up in the air, on the, all but perpendicular, side of the 



CAROLINE ISLAND. 23 

incoming billow, and pitched the ten of us right out, like a sack of 
coals, pell mell on the top of each other, into the water, on the reef, 
luckily, and not outside. The boat, thus freed, righted herself as she 
turned over and bumped a big hole in her planks this time, on a 
boulder of coral. I was thrown on the top of Wales, who was 
swimming well on his back, and he kept me up till the water again 
receded, for, as I said, we had providentially been thrown on to the reef 
again. Once more we waded the boat — to whose gunwale we all hung, 
as the next wave lifted us olf our feet — on shore, to the beach this 
time, for she needed a carpenter ere she could carry passengers 
again. Any one who would like to picture the scene and tumult, 
where reef and ocean met at low tide here, can get a faint idea of it 
by looking at the first engraving in London "Punch" of 1892. 
Damages sustained were, three oars gone out of four, one man (Mr. 
Irwin) had lost boots and trousers (he had a wife and pretty daughter 
on board, who married one of the firm of Crabb and Spalding, of 
Honolulu) ; three of us had lost hats and coats. I lost my manilla 
hat, and one man lost his watch as well. The ship was close in at the 
time, and we spread ourselves out on the beach in a row, 30 feet 
apart, just to show those in the ship that we were all there, and no 
one lost. All our guns and powder were, of course, soaked, and, 
having swallowed a quantity of salt water in the surf, we were all 
most horribly thirsty. My sculling experiences on the placid Lea, 
amongst fat bream, chub, and barbel, under the pollard willows, 
had never prepared me for this experience. The bootless and 
trouserless unfortunate had a "high old time" of it, all night, with 
the attentive land crabs, who tried to eat him. The Rotumah man 
rubbed sticks together, made a tire, and we ate roasted turtles' eggs, 
and sucked birds' eggs, raw ; but it would not do ; thirst reigned 
supreme, and I wished myself in the lowest Whitechapel tap-room in 
London, within reach of ginger beer, or the claret cup of Blackwall, 
rather than on Caroline Island, an "atoll " in the South Pacific Ocean. 
The humblest drink would have been "accepted at sight;" but it 
was no use wishing; there I was ; I could see no chance of getting 
off again, and I wondered what Mr. Tooth and Dr. Crowther would 
say re my "gallivanting" on coral islands, whilst in responsible 
charge of timber, &c, on the " Eudora," and I was a sad and sorrowful 
London youth of 19 summers all that night on the coral isle, you 
bet. I couldn't see where the joke came in at all, or " the sweet sit ata 
of a summer day, the tropic afternoon of Tooboonai " cither. Then, 
as to the sleeping arrangements, some of us preferred the soft sand 
for a bed, and " chance " the hind crabs, while I chose the bard 



24 A FLAG OF TRUCE. 

planks of the broken boat, with the " crustaceans " left out of the 
programme. 

No one slept much (mosquitoes, to wit), and, early in the morning 
I took a stroll along the beach with " Rotumah Tom," whose 
experienced eye saw a spot on the beach, above high water mark, 
where he scooped a hole, which filled up with milky-looking, but 
fresh water, some of which I drank, sparingly, out of a shell — it was 
not the stuff which an Indian staff surgeon, who understood troops 
and dysentery, would prescribe in large quantities — and then I went 
for a bathe with John Guthrie (owner of the " Eudora ") in the 
shallow beach sea, amongst a lot of small seven-foot sharks, who 
took no notice of us, not being able to get below us ; and, then, who 
should we see but Captain Gourlay, who had come ashore in the 
whale-boat with two hands, but had brought, alas ! no " grub " with 
him. We upbraided him, but he replied that he came to scold us 
for stopping ashore and detaining the ship, he not being aware of 
our misfortune and dilemma, till we showed him the stove and 
broken boat, and, while we talked to him, we all became conscious of 
a white flag, and three men, coming towards us from the eastern 
point of the island, we being on the south side of it. Here was a 
new trouble. Savages, perhaps, or treacherous pirates, and not a 
gun, or pistol, amongst us, that would go off, but all saturated. 
However, I said, we need not let them know that, so I tied a red 
handkerchief round my hatless head, put two pistols in my belt 
(Wales had my African rifle), and off we 13 marched to meet the 
"enemy," in the persons of the three new-comers, who might, for all we 
knew, be the heralds of 300 more, ugly customers. When we came 
up with them, we found one to be a striking Robinson Crusoe looking 
figure of a man, with long grizzly beard, wrinkled skin, burnt to leather 
colour with the sun ; his garments in the last stage of dilapidation, 
and only held together with pieces of twine. Such a costume was 
never imagined, or made up, even at a theatre. The other two were 
handsome native " boys " from the neighbouring group of " Chain " 
Islands. He explained to us that the island was a ring of coral, 
five miles across in the central lagoon, and half-a-mile " thick ;" 
that he had a splendid cocoa-nut plantation on the opposite side to 
where we were ; that his name was John Lewis ; that he was an 
American sailor, left there, by the Tahitian firm of Lewsett and 
Colley, to make cocoa-nut oil, for which they sent a schooner once a 
year, with a fresh supply, for him, of rum, tobacco, tea, biscuits, 
sugai', canvas, needles and thread, with 30 dollars a month for 
wages. He liked the life, and, it need hardly be said, was saving 



GIANT CLAM SHELLS. 25 

money at it. He had plenty of pigs, and fish wei*e abundant. He 
had a fresh water cistern in the coral rock at the plantation. He 
and the two boys each had a girl "wife,'' the youngest and prettiest, 
with long eyelashes, voluptuous form, black eyes, full of sub-latent 
amber fire (I never saw such glorious eyes), and feet barely a span 
long, a coy, jolly girl, and veritable " Maitai whahini," was our 
Yankee friend's Sultana, and " sweet sixteen " (sly old dog, Lewis) ; 
while two soberer looking, but splendid, damsels, belonged to the 
boys, with finer eyes, but not finer forms, than the Tahiti girls. It 
was told us that there was a smooth water break in the coral reef on 
the side where he lived (the coral insect, somehow, always leaves one 
opening, at least, in every reef). The captain was recommended to 
go off in his whale-boat and bring the ship round to the other side 
of the island. Two sailors were to walk the broken boat in shallow 
water round the beach to Lewis's place, and the rest of us were to 
wade across the lagoon in a " bee line " to the same haven of rest. 
Lewis and his boys piloted us through the mangroves and across the 
lagoon. 

I may here remark that I registered a vow on Caroline Island 
which I religiously kept for a time, and it was to the effect that 
never again, so long as I lived, would I go ashore at any place again, 
unless there were a civilized wharf, quay, or licensed watermen's 
skiffs and steps, or some such properly constituted landing place 
there. 

And now, we will follow Lewis and his " boys " across the half- 
mile mangrove belt and the salt water lagoon, five miles wide and 
three feet deep, on a coral bottom. Lovely shells of the cone 
variety, purple and pink, were plentiful. The coral was snow white, 
and of all shapes ; some like stags' horns ; some like a coachman's 
wig ; some like a porcupine ; some like knife blades ; and some like 
a salad lettuce in shape ; and huge " clams," 400 lb. in weight, 
like those on the Queensland barrier reef, lay under the water, open 
mouthed, and able and ready to snap off' any human leg that came 
within their gigantic oyster jaws. Beautiful little ones of the same 
class (Tridacna) were there also, with their neatly toothed bivalve 
edges. Fine ornaments would a pair of these giant clam shells 
make for a West End, London, oyster shop, and like the GOO lb. 
clam from a "Key" in the West Indies, which used to figure al 
.Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, even as tusks of the elephant do at a 
cutler's shop. But Londoners would stare if the champion clam of 
th<- planet, could be taken thither to grace a garden, or fish shop. 
Hi; lives and holds his eourt, on an island in Torres' Straits, and 



26 BLACK AMBER EYES. 

weighs half a ton. But no one cares to disturb him. The weight 
of his " oyster " can only be guessed at, but a good ordinary sized 
Queensland one has an oyster of many pounds weight on it. 

It was now that two of the pai'ty began to feel uneasy. One was 
poor Mr. Irwin, who, bootless and breechless, found the sun scorch 
his legs, and the coral cut his feet ; while I, the only one of the 
party with high boots on, found the weight of water lifted at each 
step in the tops of them (fully 40 tons lifted in that five miles) a 
terrific burden, but I dared not face the coral barefoot. Yet, the 
water weight seemed to drag my legs off, ere I had gone one mile 
out of the awful five, and it was in February, and 9° south latitude, 
too. Talk about thirst ! Even / felt it. But all things mundane 
come to an end, and so did our long wade through this pretty, but 
wearisome, lagoon of clear sea water, with all those handsome, but 
sharp, cutting things at the bottom of it. The welcome cocoa-nut 
grove hove in sight, and big " drinks " all round, became an assured 
and delightful fact. Rotumah Tom and the two " Chain " boys 
were soon up the slender hard trunks of the graceful nodding trees, 
and down came a shower of green nuts. I drank the milk of seven 
of them, before I felt my thirst relieved, and, here, let me remark 
that the pure, sweet, milk of a green nut varies considerably from the 
rancid oil of the maturely ripe one, as seen in London and 
Melbourne. Our friend, Jack Lewis, soon put a small pig to death, 
and baked it in hot stones under ground ; but it was not half so 
nice as the dew and parrot fish, fried in lard. Hunger and thirst 
had vanished, and we were introduced to the three ladies before 
described. Their eyes and lashes were a caution. If fire could be 
black it would depict those eyes, deepened till the amber tint 
merged into coal almost. The men's eyes were good, but without 
the female wealth of eyelash. In order to properly imagine the 
eye colour of these girls, you must picture to yourself a clear- 
amber, deepening into darker shades by successive degrees, till it 
threatens at last to merge into pure black, but arrested just before 
the beautiful brown lustre disappears. 

Our skipper, who had brought the ship round to this side of the 
island, came ashore through the smooth water passage, bringing 
rum, biscuit, and salt beef, all of which Lewis was "out" of (the 
annual schooner being due in about a month), and I regret to say 
that some of our people made old Lewis " tight " that evening. The 
skipper had, before leaving the ship, told the mate to hang a lantern 
at the gaff, to guide him back at night, so that he might not miss 
her in the dark, and when dusk fell, he announced to us his 



MAUXA LOA. 27' 

intention of going back to the ship, and asked who would go with 
him. Mr. Irwin, whose red and peeled thighs needed the doctor's 
care, made one, and I another ; the rest made a night of it, ashore. 
Piloted by one of the Chain Island boys, in a canoe with a 
lantern, we rowed out through the break in the reefs, and so to sea. 
After pulling out about a mile from the shore (the groans of poor 
Irwin responding to every pitch the whale-boat made) we found, to 
our disgust, that we could see neither ship, nor land. Here was a 
pretty pickle ! Out at sea at night, no compass, food, or water in 
the boat. "Out of the frying pan into the fire" with a vengeance in 
that desolate main. Providence favoured us, however, for, the skipper 
saw a momentary flash on the horizon, and, noting the star that it 
was under, steered us for that star, and was rewarded, for we found 
ourselves right under the ship's beam as she braced about to go her 
" in " board to the island again. The mate had neglected to hang 
the lantern at the gaff, not thinking we should come oft", and the 
light we had seen was the sperm candle lamp in Mrs. Guthrie's cabin 
(the stern one, next to mine), and the port was open, as the night 
was hot, and, but for this, it is difficult to say what would have 
become of us in the empty boat in that solitary sea. I don't know 
what the skipper said to the mate, but, catching a rope that hung 
over, I soon was on board, drank a breakfast cup of the Tahiti 
claret, out of the hogshead we bought there, and went to bed. I 
have been told since, that, when jocosely asked about my adventures 
and general health, I briefly replied " that I would not have clone 
it for £5, had I known beforehand ;" and my former faith in the 
" Robinson Crusoe " business was, already, severely shaken. Next 
morning the rest of our people came ott", with supplies of pigs and 
cocoa-nuts from the island, for which we gave due barter ; and 
once more the " Eudora's " nose pointed northwards to Honolulu. 
Old " Ursa Major " hove in sight again, and the dear " Cross " sank 
from our view. 

We crossed the line again (no shaving this time), and were long 
past the meridian of 180°, and, in due course, the lofty peak of 
" Mauna Loa," 14,000 feet, loomed high out of the sea, for we were 
of!" the islands where Captain Cook met his fate, in 177< s , and where 
Hilo and Lahaina see, at times, the glowing lava come down in mile 
wide streams, like an ocean of slow moving, but red hot, treacle. 
(Excuse the homely simile). Mountains, that rise to this height 
from the sea, or from a plain (like Ararat), show to better advantage 
than those of greater height, but hemmed in by others around theii 
base On, past Maui, and the giant volcano, the biggest (--rater on 



28 BILLIARDS AT HONOLULU. 

earth ; and so to Oahu and Honolulu, where I resolved to unload 
the " Eudora," and not face the glutted 'Frisco market. 

One of the first sights which met me on landing at Honolulu, in 
early 1850, was one which seemed to belong more properly to the 
Atlantic, than to the Pacific, side of North America, as it vividly 
recalled the Vaudoux and Obeah sacrifices of dark Hayti, or 
distant Papua. An African negro, lightly attired, and puffing a 
cigarette, had, on a circular platform raised about four feet off the 
ground, nearly a dozen large hogs, with huge tusks, and securely 
bound, foaming with rage, and lying on their sides ; and as he 
leisurely strutted round the platform, with a keen knife, he 
administered a stab to each of them as he passed, and repeated it 
the next time round if he thought it necessary ; but he was only a 
butcher, and not a priest, after all. At Honolulu I first met with 
those two Brisbane " institutions," the lantana weed bush, and " hop 
beer," the latter called for with the words " Chin Chin " to Hop 
Wah, or some other vendor thei^eof. 

Honolulu was even more lively than Tahiti, but not half so 
picturesque. It was evidently a place of call for shipping even in 
those early days. Chinese merchants — Hop Sing, Hop Wah and 
Co. — sold silks, and tea, and pumpkin pie ; hop beer shops were 
plentiful ; and goat's milk superseded the cow's ditto, and was far 
nicer, at a " real " per bottle (6d. ) in the market place, with cocoa-nut 
fibre for corks. Here, tomatoes and bananas also figured. Native 
girls rode astraddle, and tied on, with gay shawls and sashes wound 
round their legs, to their spirited little horses, and galloped 
fearlessly, if not prudently. Paki, the gigantic seven-foot chief, in 
black suit and hat, watched our ship make fast to the wharf. The 
lights of Honolulu had glittered before us, the night before, as we 
lay outside the reef, and some of us went ashore to Macfarlane's 
Hotel, where I first saw the American custom of selling wine and 
spirit by the bottle, on which the buyer's name was put, and he 
could come back, and help himself again when he liked, from the duly 
labelled, and put away, and paid for, bottle, in the glass cupboard 
behind the bar. Upstairs, to a game of billiards, which I had never 
before seen played, when in London, so as to know what it meant. 
Wales, in attempting a dangerous " screw," tore the cloth for 
11 inches each way, and as billiard cloths, and men who could mend 
them, did not exactly " grow upon trees " in Honolulu in early 1850, 
and as the rule and fine there, and in San Francisco, at that time 
were, for the ripper to cover the rent with gold doubloons, it looked 
serious for the luckless wielder of the cue ; but the matter was 
afterwards compromised for something less than this. 



PRINCESS AND HEIRESS. 29 

Honolulu was not so pretty as Papiete, but there was far more 
business doing. It supplied a good part of the potatoes which San 
Francisco then vised, and it was the laundry field of the Golden 
City. Washing cost, in 1849 and 1850, 48s., or 12 dollars, a 
dozen in San Francisco, and new shirts, in that glutted market, 
could be bought at half the labour price of washing an old one. 
Hence, people sent their dirty clothes 4,400 miles by sea, to 
Honolulu and back, to be washed, as it could be done there by the 
native girls at one dollar per dozen, and the schooners, in the potato 
trade, carried heaps of dirty and clean clothing, backwards and 
forwards, between the two places, and, I suppose, this forms the 
only instance, in the world's history, of clothes being regularly sent 
4,400 miles (there and back) by sea to be washed. Soon after we 
got to Honolulu, there arrived the English man-of-war " Herald," 
fresh from an unsuccessful search up Behring's Straits for Sir John 
Franklin. 

The girls of Honolulu, like the New Zealanders, are not so pretty 
as the Tahitians, but they manage to secure better husbands. The 
swarthy beauties and belles of Lunaliho and Lahaina, aided by their 
seductive climate, aided by their faultless cleanliness and semi- 
aquatic life, aided by the garlands of scented flowers with which 
they are always decked, diffuse an incense and glamour, before which 
the white men bow ; and, when there is a " property " to boot, even 
men of position will offer the wedding ring freely ; and this kind of 
thing is not altogether unknown in Maoriland, I believe. Charley 
Vincent, an American builder and contractor of note (once a 
whaler's carpenter), married, at Honolulu, a native princess, who 
had 800 head of cattle, besides land of her own ; and in addition to 
his being a rich and honest man, he was a " brick " of the first 
water. Captain Joe Maughan, the English harbour master of 
Honolulu, married a handsome native lady, and had daughters to 
match, and with their mother's ancles, too ! I have called Charley 
Vincent a " brick," and I will now proceed to prove it. He gave 
me 250 golden "onzas" or doubloons, worth £3 16s. each, for some of 
the frame houses, ex " Eudora." He begged me to talk " dollars 
and cents " to him, and to spare him the intricacies of the non- 
decimal £ s. d. of old England. A whole row of cottages in 
Nuuanu street were built of my timber. But Vincent's goodness 
was otherwise proved. I had brought with me, from Hobart, the 
most clean cut, close mouthed, brindle, bull-terrier pup, you ever saw. 
A chief at Tahiti, weary of the spaniel mongrels of that isle, bad, aa 
before stated, offered me, in vain, a ship's boat full of oranges for 



30 A FORT BOMBARDED. 

"Towzer," for I thought the latter might be useful to me 'mid the 
irowdies of " Forty-nine 'Frisco." I took the clog ashore for a run at 
Honolulu, where he got sunstruck, and ran off shrieking into the 
jungle, and I saw him no more. Vincent had, before this, offered, 
but in vain, to buy the pup from me, so I went and told " Charley " 
of my loss, and he, unsolicited, had, at once, 500 handbills printed, 
and posted all over the island of Oahu, in the English and native 
languages, describing " Towzer," and offering a liberal reward for 
recovery (like a Chevalier Bayard, as he was), but to no purpose. 
However, " Towzer," the faithful, made his appearance one morning 
at the butcher's shop, wagging his tail to some of our passengers, 
who brought him on board to me, and I made him — as was only 
becoming, and not to be outdone in chivalry — a present to Vincent, 
and he grew into a splendid dog, the terror of all plebeian 
Hawaiians and their bare legs, if they ventured too near his chain. 
Charley Vincent was a great actor, and used to perform in the 
coral-block built theatre of Honolulu, not far from the dismantled 
fort, which the ubiquitous French had bombarded some months 
before. Bless me ! how everything was knocked to pieces, and how 
fragmentary was the debris inside that fort. " Smithereens " was 
no name for it, even with the comparatively " pop gun " artillery of 
those days. I wonder how any place would look after a thorough 
visitation from the artillery of to-day, if only sent in with the same 
hearty good - will, as were the French compliments to Honolulu 
40 years as;o. 

The United States war schooner " Dolphin " called in at Honolulu 
while I was there. I saw the captain land, and never before, or 
since, did I behold so much bullion and gold lace on one uniform. 
No British Admiral, even, so dazzled me as did this commander of a 
mere revenue cruiser ; but I suppose it was necessary to impress the 
Hawaiian of that date with the majesty of " Uncle Sam," and hence 
this lavish display of " upholstery." 

The church at Honolulu, and all the public buildings were made 
from squared blocks of coral in 1850, and an English ship came in 
from China, whose captain had two Chinese lady wives on board. 

A nasty shipwreck took place while I was here. The captain of 
the English barque " Caroline " anchored outside the harbour reef, 
with a gale dead on shore. Our skipper rowed out to him and 
advised him to cut his cable at once and come inside. He asked 
our captain (Gourlay) whether the latter thought that the under- 
writers would pay for cable and anchor, if he did so, and he was told, 
in reply, that they would have to pay for them, and for the ship too, 



A GRISLY CORPSE. 31 

if he stayed out there much longer, and so we left him. Presently, 
I saw the vessel strike, and the three masts jump out of her, for all 
the world like three men jumping off a wall, and a Russian Finn, 
the best swimmer in the ship, was drowned as he executed some 
order alongside, with " Ay, ay, Sir," the last words he ever uttered, 
briskly and cheerfully. I saw his body brought ashore, two days 
afterwards, by the natives, who had found it on the deep inner side 
of the reef. They carried it on a litter ; it sat upright, with its 
arms and legs twisted and dangling, in the same objectless fashion 
as with a stuffed figure of Guy Fawkes when carried about on the 
5th November. The face and head were swollen to double the 
usual height and size, and were purple mulberry in colour. The 
neck was long, and the eyes, nostrils and mouth were all tilled 
with snow-white sand — an awful sight, which (as T had never before 
seen a corpse) dazed me with horror, and even the brave young 
Wales turned pale, as our eyes met, after a glance, each, at this 
hideous, piteous, travesty of life. 

There was another queer sight T saw at Honolulu — tragic, but 

not so terrible. A Chinese pirate "lorcha" came in, and was seized 

for irregularity of papers. Her captain was a Dane, and her crew 

of every nation under the sun, and only one Englishman, and he 

had been shot on Christmas Day, 1849, and had never seen a doctor 

till now (March, 1850), so, I sculled Dr. Lloyd off in the dingy, to 

see him. He screened his wounder, and would tell no tales, but 

professed to have been accidentally hit on shore, when firing at wild 

goats, with his mates, in a dense forest ; but, in reality, he had been 

pistolled over a little dispute, which the pirates had had over some 

bright-eyed, pretty native girls whom the fellows had kidnapped at 

laie " Bonine " Islands, a group somewhere north of Australia. He 

vas shot, and no mistake, for, a little round blue hole, which had cut 

the left pectoral muscle in two, was matched by another little round 

blue hole to the right of his back bone ; and yet, there he was alive, 

12 weeks later, but thin enough, and full of "funk." Our doctor 

simply put two pieces of plaster on him, before and behind, to keep 

the air out, and bade the man eat, drink, and be merry, for that he 

was in no danger at all, no vital part having, strange to say, been 

touched. Here I am going to digress, and anticipate, again, and to 

tell how I saw the man, fat and well, the following June, in San 

Francisco, nothing but fright (whieh the doctor dispelled) having 

been the matter with him, and his wound having procured for him 

mi escape from the fate of his shipmates, and their punishment. 

This sane- June there was a New York and Havre liner burnt 



32 THE FIRE FIEND. 

as she la} 7 in the tier with her sister "liners," amongst the 800 
crewless ships, which adorned the big, land-locked bay of San 
Francisco. They cut her loose, chopped holes to scuttle her at the 
water line, and, hung on to by a swarm of those lovely, gaily 
painted, straight stemmed watermen's skiffs, called, in New York, the 
" Whitehall " boats, she drifted on to Yerba Buena Island, out of 
danger to all but herself. I saw that something else was wanted, 
so, young Marsh (of Hobart) and I launched a whale-boat from the 
old " Maguasha," seized a pair of 18-feet oars, attached the painter 
of a big ship's long boat to our stern, and pulled, like eager 
harpooners, for the burning ship. Marsh could not talk the while, 
and he told me afterwards how he wondered I could chatter all the 
way, as we rowed our hard, weary journey, but the excitement 
kept me from feeling fatigue. We got to the ship at last, and we 
did what the useless flotilla of pretty wherries could not do, and the 
big liner's sails, band of music, and ship's stores (I especially 
remember the loaves of sugar wrapped in blue paper) were soon 
stowed in the long boat, and away pulled Marsh and I back, to her 
sister ships on the tier, and delivered the salvage. Being Britishers,, 
we only got thanks. Had we hailed from Brooklyn or Buffalo,, 
something more substantial would have resulted, no doubt. But 
this fire was as nothing to the one, which broke out a few days later. 
Beginning at 8-30 a.m., in a baker's oven, it had the whole city in 
cinders by 2*30 p.m. A space greater than that of the London fire 
of 1666 was swept of all but brick buildings with iron shutters, and 
they were but few in number, for, the Boston blue tire bricks had to 
be " carted " round " the Horn" in June, 1850, and were too costly, 
even for golden California. The scene and sound of the fire (fanned 
by a fierce north-west Oregon dry gale), and which destroyed six. 
nnillions of dollars worth, were simply indescribable. An incessant 
rattle and crackle, like the noise of 100 railway trains in rapid 
motion, intensified by the occasional explosion of some place where 
gun-powder was stored, aud supplemented by the ceaseless clangour 
of 800 ships' bells rung all the while, made up a din such as, surely, 
was never before, nor since, heard, and not a drop of water 
procurable. It was a pitiful sight to go ashore after the fire, and 
remark the uninsured loss. Here were bales of rich Genoa velvet, 
the sides and edges all charred, and the fabric cut, by fire, into yard 
lengths. Next to this, would be the debris of a gunsmith's shop, 
with rifle barrels all twisted into shapeless iron by the fire heat. 
Then, would come the ruins of an erstwhile restaurant, and here were 
the hungry loafer and the luckless digger, devouring the half opened,. 






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YANKEE " GRIT." 33 

and still warm tins of green peas, tfcc. Delue and Grellet, the 
famous pastry cooks, from Paris, were burnt out, and their niceties, 
notably their pies of mince meat, mixed with rice, boiled in milk, 
ceased for a time. Shrewd and sharp were the Yankees, and, long 
before the lire got much of a start, they had rowed off to the 
" Iowa," of Boston, and other huge ships, full of unsaleable " clear 
pine," and had bought the wherewithal to rebuild their stores, before 
the price icent up, and the gale which blew showed that the entire 
town was "bound to go," and so they were wise in time. As soon 
.as ever the fire had swept past, small cards, in cleft sticks, such as 
are seen in English and Australian front gardens, to mark the spot 
-where the choice flower seed is planted, were stuck on the ground 
on the site of the burnt building to notify, to all concerned, that 
Adams and Co., or Folsom, or Belknap, or Otis, could be seen and 
consulted, and business done as usual, in some tent or shed in 
Vallejo, Kearney, or other street, or up the hill, till the " repairs 
were effected." Not a moment was lost by the "Yanks," over a lire 
that would have paralysed a Britisher for a fortnight at least. 

Your true West Coast and island " swell," dresses very differently 

from the London and Paris "masher." His Panama hat, elegant 

in shape, is worth up to £30, and will wear and wash for years, so 

tough and tine is the grass thereof, and a black ribbon forms its 

sole ornament, and a black ribbon is his only watch-guard, though 

there is a £100 watch at the end of it; there are no finger rings, 

but an .£80 solitaire brilliant stud fastens his shirt front, and, for 

the rest, he is dressed in a sort of a white muslin suit, the only 

colours being white and black. Business and earnest resolution 

stand written in his face ; he is an adept with fist, revolver, or 

knife, for he has to meet strange, coloured, folk at times ; and on the 

whole he is a cleaner looking, purer type of man, than the average 

European, or, Eastern American " swell," and he is the growth, solely, 

of the islands and western shores of the Pacific, north and south, 

be he planter, merchant, or what not. The American stands high 

in the opinion of the Hawaiians, those champion swimmers and 

divers, whom I have seen play " follow my leader " out of pure 

sport, and dive off the top-gallant yard of a 500 ton ship into the 

harbour water. They dive feet first, with legs interlocked, wedge 

like, and at angle of about 75°, with one arm uplifted to aid the 

impetus, and the other holding their drapery together. If they 

dived perpendicularly they would sink too far; if they dived more 

horizontally they would have the breath knocked out of them ; but 

75°, or so, is the happy medium. The angle of entrance into the 

i' 



34 AN EIGHTEEN MILE SWIM. 

water rapidly lessens by its resistance. They can soon be seen.' 
rising, with eyes and mouth open, and teeth glistening, under water,, 
which is expelled from the lips on rising to the surface, and up they 
go again, to repeat the sport off the lofty yard arm. Captain 
Webb's feat, of swimming from Dover to Calais, has often been 
rivalled by unknown, and unsung, male and female Hawaiians. 

A married couple, with their child, started, in an outrigger canoe, 
to cross, 22 miles, from one island to another. When four miles 
out, a strong following gale sprung up, raised the sea, and broke the 
outrigger. Down sank the canoe. The gale was too strong to swim 
back four miles against both it and the sea, so the parents swam, 
18 miles, for the island of their destination, carrying the baby,, 
alternately, on their backs. They arrived safely, but the child was- 
dead from exposure. And now to return from my digression. 

The wharf at Honolulu was soon covered with the " Eudora's ,r 
cargo. Charley Vincent took the bulk of it. Dr. Rooke (Queen, 
Emma's father) took another house, and she paid me for it ; and an 
Englishman, who had worked at the Thames Tunnel, bought 
another. Strange, and mixed, was the money I got in payment. 
Doubloons of Mexico, Spain, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador ; dollars 
of Spain, Mexico, and United States ; coins of Russia, France, and 
Germany. I amused myself by testing the purity and value of the 
coins of different countries. Mexico heads the list. Her heavy 
dollars and doubloons are so pure, as to be cmite soft and ugly in the 
die, and her dollar weighs nearly an English crown. Spain comes 
next ; then England and the United States rank together, a little 
ahead of France and Russia, far behind whom came Prussia and 
Austria, in the poverty of their coinage and assay of metal. The 
handsomest coin of the lot was a Russian sovereign, called, I think,, 
an " imperial," which, for clean cut and artistic die (English made, 
I'll be sworn), quite outshone all its compeers in 1850. 

Half our passengers elected to stay and settle in Honolulu, and 
we filled up their places with those from the " Emma," a New 
Zealand brig, which went no further. Amongst these, was a 
handsome Maori woman, the wife of Mr. M'Cabe, a merchant at 
Sacramento, California, and her little son ; her chin beautifully 
tattooed in blue ; also, two Americans, William Brando, of Vermont, 
and Jerome Feary, with two pretty Honolulu girls, their wives. 
They had done well at Mariposa and the north fork of the Yuba 
River, and were going back for more gold. Big Bill Brando was a 
fearless fellow. I saw him once, in 'Frisco, when the terrific tide 
swept a couple of 800 ton ships, swinging at anchor, rapidly broad- 



THE "niantic." 35 

side on to each other, leap, just in time, into a pretty gig that lay, 
and would have been crushed, between them, and " prize " it out, 
with his hands, clear of them, just one second before it would have 
been cracked like an egg shell, and he never seemed to think of 
what would have become of him, between those two high, flat, 
wooden walls, if his strength and skill had not been in time for the 
" shove clear." 

We had baffling, easterly winds, and a long trip, from the islands 
to the Golden Gate, and were driven far up the coast, towards 
Oregon, 'mid clear skies, high winds, and towering seas, this same 
May of 1850. At last we sighted a rock, covered with seals, and 
entered between two heads, and, after a time, " slewed " to the 
right, and found ourselves anchored, with 800 other ships, in front 
of a straggling town of sand hills and wooden structures, called San 
Francisco. A cold, strong, north-west wind blew daily, and a 
terrific tide ran, for the bay was a land-locked affair, about 70 miles 
by 12, and the entrance was narrow in proportion to this. The old 
" Niantic," of Boston (with scores of others), was newly beached, 
and built over for a store ship. The wharves extended out to her 
when we arrived, and had left her far behind, almost in the middle 
of the town, six months later, so rapidly did the building of wharves, 
and the covering of the shallow w T aters with new stores, progress in 
those days. The old " Niantic " was "dug out" again in 1872, a 
venerable relic of the past. 

The sand hills yielded no water for ship, or shore ; but a bore, 
put down through the sea water, and the mud and clay below it, 
yielded, through an iron pipe, water fairly fresh ; not very whole- 
some, but enough for ordinary purposes. The nearest good water, 
then, was at Saucelito, an anchorage in the bay, sacred to men-of- 
war only. 

I had " no work to do " in San Francisco, till the " Lady Leigh," 
laden with potatoes from Hobart, and consigned to me, arrived, so 
I went ashore, and looked about me at the strange, new sights and 
sounds of an American town, just conquered from the Mexicans, not 
yet incorporated with the Union, and near which gold had just been 
found in fabulous tmantities, and was shown in bowls in the bank 
windows. Here, as police magistrate, still sat the Mexican alcaldt . 
Here, in the Plaza, were massed 300 mules, and a man on horseback 
showed his skill with the lasso, by throwing it unerringly over the neck 
of any one animal in the crowd that any spectator might point out 
to him, for ;i wager. And now a glance at the gambling saloons, 
which, bar tin.- Custom House, wm- the finest, and almosl fche onlj 



36 " MONTE." 

fire-proof buildings in the city. Fancy a room 100 feet long, and 
40 feet wide, with a bar in the middle of one side of it, where all 
the cocktails, juleps, and cobblers of Yankee land were dispensed, 
with crackers and " punkin pie," and, for the rest, three rows (from 
end to end of the room) of gambling tables, each one covered with 
piles of dollars and doubloons, with no room left on any table, 
except for the cards and the stakes. " Monte " was the one 
monotonous game played (needless here to describe), and cloaked and 
stolid Mexicans (to whom gambling is " board, lodging, and 
washing ") stood the live-long day, and won their money and lost 
their money with a set equanimity, born of life-long habit, which 
would puzzle any Celt, or Gaul, to imitate, under like circumstances. 
The banker lays two Spanish cards on the table, possibly " el Re " 
(the King), and the " Cavalier " (for their cards are picturesque, 
and unlike ours), and each is staked on, and the one, King or 
Cavalier, that next turns up, wins from the Bank, and the other 
forfeits to the Bank. The above, which supplies a description of 
the " Empire " saloon, will suffice for all the other similar ones 
which swarmed then openly in San Francisco. I next went to the 
Post Office, and found there only two windows, one for the general 
male public, and one for ladies and clergymen only. Woe to the 
layman who intruded at the second window, and woe, knife and 
bullet, also, to him who " crowded " at the other one, where, it was 
the inexorable rule, that all " ranks and stations " should stand in 
Indian file, each strictly in his turn, merchant or loafer alike, and 
take his place, and leave in the same order as arrived in. On mail 
days, when the " Tennessee " or " Isthmus " steamers came in from, 
or went out to, Panama, the Indian file extended round the corner, 
into the next street. Anyone who attempted to usurp the place of 
another man would be at once shot or stabbed, for all carried arms 
then, and " etiquette " was so much de riguetir, that "all hands" 
dreaded the possible result of even the inception of overt rowdyism ; 
and I never was in such an outwardly quiet spot in the world as 
was 'Frisco, between May and September, 1850. Everyone knew 
the penalty of ruffianism, and no one cared to incur it ; only once, 
in five months, did I hear even an oath in the streets, and that 
seemed quite justifiable. It was one Sunday morning, and I was 
walking down a bye-street, when a door suddenly opened, and a 
man was forcibly ejected, followed by four more, who began to throw 
stones at him. He drew a revolver, and said he would shoot the 
next (adjective) man who threw a stone at him. I suppose it was 
some brothel row ; anyway, it was the only profanity I heard in a 



THE "ALTA CALIFORNIA." 



town where the arch ruffians of the earth, armed to the teeth, were 
congregated. 

I must not forget a lively young American news agent, whose 
shop was in a street just outside the " Plaza," and who (when he 
handed you the " A Ita California" full of arrivals of " bbls.," alias 
barrels, of Haxall and Gallego flour, the leading brand, and 
salseratus, &c.) did not forget to proffer you what he, in his " Ne' 
York " accent, called the " Jernal dez Deebatts" 

A strangely-named old ship, in San Francisco, was the " Balance." 
She had a history, and belonged to an American, but was British 
built. Her owner's father had had four of his ships captured by the 
English in the war, and had taken five of theirs, with a pri\ ateer ; 
so he kept the odd one, and called it the " Balance " (to the good), of 
" profit and loss." 

The daily necessity of rowing ashore, good part of a mile, in order 
to get meat and bread, taught me to become an oarsman. I had to 
row past the bows of a score, or more, of ships, no matter which way 
I took, and, in that terrific tideway and current, the anchored 
monsters would surge on their chain cables, like uneasy giants, anon 
slacking up after an extra taut wrench, when the chain would be 
submerged for a while, but woe to the unwary one who was deceived 
by that, for, the next minute, the iron links would lift like a 
tightened harp string, and toss any boat, that lay across them, up 
high like a pancake ; so, every figure head had to be given a wide 
berth, and the rudder of the ship ahead kept close to. I grew so 
skilled by this at last, that one day, when I put some passengers on 
board the brig '• Waterlily," of Hobart, her owner, the well-known 

John Thomas W , struck by the professional way in which I 

laid the boat alongside, said, " Really, Mr. Bartley, you're quite an 
accomplished waterman." The real hard work made me grow 
heavier that I ever was before, or since, that same time in San 
Francisco. You had to ivork for your rations there. 

Quaint, high beam engine, paddle-wheel steamers were the 
" Tennessee " and " Isthmus," which plied to and from Panama, 
and so, also, were the "Senator" and " New World," magnificent 
boats of their era, which ran up the bay to Sacramento, and the 
San Joaquin. I have spoken of the crowd at the Post Office window 
on mail days, and many a broken down loafer, who expected no 
letters, would take his stand in the ranks, and sell his place near 
the window to a merchant for 10 dollars (£'2), when the merchant, 
arriving late, would prefer to pay the money rather than lost- one 

hour out of the four vhicli intervened between the income and the 



38 RATTLESNAKES. 

outgo of the mail, from and to Colon and New York. Any man 
could sell, or give away, his place at the window, but no one dared 
'• rush " it. 

And now, a glance at the restaurants of that period. Curious 
seemed the food, to an English palate. The white bread, made of 
Haxall or Gallego flour, was inferior in gluten to the matchless 
wheat of South Australia. The butter, from "Goshen," in Indiana, 
was superb, and packed to perfection, and a veritable nosegay. 
There was a native red wine, from Los Angeles, like pale port, which 
was all that could be desired, and it spoke volumes for the old 
monks who introduced the vine into California. Buck wheat cakes 
(a cousin of the London crumpet) were nice ; bear and venison 
steaks were crisp, delicious meat, compared with the wretched 
Mexican beef, which fried white, and boiled red, and disagreed with 
the white stomachs, and was decidedly " uncanny." The only 
American pastry seemed to be " punkin " pie. 

I went for a stroll outside the town, across a pretty little valley 
stream, about five miles, to the " Prasidio," an old Spanish fort, 
now, I believe, the site of some grand hotel, the " Cliff House," 
overlooking the sea, and close to the " Golden Gate," or Heads. I 
heai'd what I thought was the twittering of birds in several of the 
bushes as I passed along, but I could see no feathers. I was not 
aware, till later, that my cockney ears had mistaken the tail of the 
rattle snake, and its merry chirp, for the conversation of feathered 
tribes. A young and tame grizzly bear, sitting up out in the road, 
opposite the " Half-way " Hotel, was about as big as a St. Bernard 
dog, and made me laugh by the way it invariably over-balanced 
itself, and fell over, every time it attempted to scratch itself with 
its hind legs. There, verily, is nothing on earth so uncouth and 
comic as a juvenile bear. There is nothing very funny, however, 
about the full grown " grizzly " of a ton weight, with a forearm 
about 14 inches thick, and hard as an oak limb, and which could 
crumple up any 500 lb. lion, or tiger, that ever lived, with the 
greatest ease. 

My next trip was to the Custom House, where I was horrified at 
the immense ad valorem duties on our English goods, and I realized, 
for the first time in my life, what a fearfully heavy breach that was 
which took place between Lord North and the American colonists, 
about 70 years before, when Stars and Stripes replaced the Union 
Jack, and two sets of once united English speaking people suddenly 
became ceremonious strangers to each other. Well ! well ! Let us 
hope it will never happen again. I sincerely wish that England and 



BANJO GEMS. 39 

Australia were as much united to each other, as they are in my 

heart, and I see no reason why dear old America should not " chip 

in," and form one of the crowd, either. 

What an American " twang " there was about the names of the 

shijns then in harbour ! The "Roanoke/' the "Probus," the "Decatur," 

the "Susan Drew," the "Patapsco," the "Tecumseh," the " Montauk," 

with a flavour of Cooper's novels through them all, a name and a 

history to each place and patronymic. There are certain songs which, 

like certain viands, can never be properly "tasted" outside of their 

native land. Of such is the " Canadian Boat Song," which sounds, 

on American water only, with a native flavour, which it never does 

when transplanted to England and Australia ; and then, again, 

there are nigger and plantation songs, peculiar to Yankee land, 

which were never, and never will be, transported to England, 

such as 

" On ile Ohio blntis, in tie State ob Indiana " 

all racy of the banjo, the tobacco plant, Tennessee, the corn patch, 
and hoe, and whose native flavour is totally lost if exported. The 
guitar twanged also in those days, and " Mas Querida de mi corazon " 
was the burden of many a song from the American youth to the 
Mexican maid. Our Yankee Customs' ofticer on the " Eudora " was 
an " emusin' little cuss," from Albany (N. Y.), who, while he could 
bear to see his countryman chew tobacco and expectorate over 
everything and everybody, nearly went into hysterics, when a lovely 
English girl, in the midst of her splendid singing and playing, 
disenchanted him for ever, by simply blowing her nose. Such are 
the customs and prejudices of different countries ! 

And now the time arrived for the " Eudora " to quit, and go home 
to Hobart again, and I shifted my flag to the " Giraffe," brig, of 
Sydney, belonging to my owners, and which had just brought a 
cargo of bottled beer from Port Jackson ; then, again, to the " Lord 
Hobart," an old war brig of heavy scantling ; and, finally, to the old 
" Maguasha," a whaler, whose " boarding knives," for cutting whale's 
blubber up, were keen "blades of flexible, tempeied steel, worthy of 
Damascus, or "Andrea Ferrara," of old. But I spent plenty of 
time ashore, and saw wonders every day. The planks with which 
tie- sandy sidepaths were paved for walking, were eclipsed in the 
court yard of one merchant, which was, actually, paved with small 
501b. bags, "quintals," of Chili flour, laid edgeways, and watered, s<» 
that they might grow hard and firm as wood, when dry and " caked, 
for it rains not all tin- summer in 'Frisco, and the bag'- en edge 
made a fair imitation of paving blocks, and Hour was valueless, and 



40 A CREW OF SKIPPERS. 

in glut, at the time. Piles, when I left London Bridge in 1849,. 
were driven by hand winch ; but, in this new found land of 
go-ahead Yankees, steam power was used in wharf-making. Iron 
steamers were building on the beach, and red hot rivets from the 
furnace were driven and clinched at a galloping pace, for time was- 
money, and steam "scows," for the increasing up river and bay 
trade, were wanted in a hurry. Beautiful American ships lay at 
anchor. The "Samuel Russell " and "Sea Witch," yachts of 1,000 
tons each, that could do " the Horn " route in 95 days ; black hulls, 
with gold or vermilion " beads," and every taper mast, yard, spar, 
and block, made of richly grained, highly varnished, red Baltic pine ;; 
perfect pictures on the water. A barque, the " Architect," and a 
brig, the " Pacifico," looked each a clipper model, fit for a glass case. 
You never see such vessels in the Thames ; they donH carry enough ;, 
and the huge three-masted, fore and aft schooners, of 700 tons each, 
carried giant spars, that spread those flat, shapely, "dead to 
windward " kind of sails, which won the " America " Cup, jspars 
which, in their mammoth size, gave one a lively idea of what a- 
sudden "jibe" would involve, in the way of rip and tear of wood 
and canvas. 

And now arrived the "Lady Leigh," from Hobart, full to the 
hatches with potatoes for me, and I engaged the skippers of several 
Boston ships, at £2 a day each — men wearing green baize jackets, 
and all deserted by their crews, and with nothing to do but mind' 
their ships meantime — so they acted for me as stevedores, to break 
out, and put on board the steam punts, or " scows," for Sacramento, 
the potatoes, which I had sold to Leoniclas Haskell, at £35 a ton for 
the cargo — for the " Lady Leigh " crew had bolted to the diggings, 
and I had hesitated to accept an offer, from a youthful American 
owner of a store ship, who had a beautiful and stately wife with 
him, for they bore an air of fastness and impecuniosity, which, boy 
as I was, I misgave ; and it was a bad thing for England to sell to 
America on credit, in the way the law courts of 'Frisco were run 
then. Judges, who were paid by fees chiefly, were apt to give the 
case against the party best able to pay those fees. With the sale of 
the " Lady Leigh " cargo, my work in 'Frisco ended. I purchased 
gold dust from Burgoyne and Co., and Argenti and Co. ; also ash 
oars and tobacco as my return cargo, and, on board the " Timbo " 
schooner, Marsh, of the "Maguasha," and I, headed for Honolulu 
once more. 

And, so, it was good-lye to '"Frisco." Good-bye ! Happy Valley ! 
Farewell Rincon Point ! What are your names now, I wonder ? 



THE "VIGILANTES." 41 

I wonder, too, if any other man than myself, lives, who saw San 
Francisco in 1850, and who has never seen it since, to have the living 
picture of what it was then, effaced from his memory by the sight of 
its modern palaces ; cemetery, with priceless monuments ; its streets,. 
no longer all sand and planks. After I left, " etiquette " relaxed a 
little, and thieves from Australia and elsewhere grew bolder, till the 
era of the " vigilantes " set in, and scaffolds and ropes adorned the 
public squares, and the Plaza. Good-bye to my friends from the 
"Emma" brig, with their ceaseless warblings from " Fra Diavolo." 
Good-bye to the " Harmony " bai*que, and the " Una." Good-bye 
to Macondray and Otis, to Moore, Folgor, and Hill, to Belknap and 
White. Farewell ! Kearney street ! Farewell ! Vallejo street ! and 
eke Montgomery of that ilk. Farewell ! Alcalde ! Plaza and 
Prcesidio. Good-bye to the girls from Baltimore and Mexico. 
Good-bye to Sutch's, where I had to nurse my pneumonia, born of 
a cabin stove, and an Oregon blizzard breeze. I brought away a 
Colt's revolver with me, the first that ever went to Australia, silver 
mounted, and cost 55 dollars, to help me guard all the 20-dollar 
pieces in my sea chest. I bought an Esquimaux dog, and was- 
disgusted to find he could not bark. 

But we are now between the Golden Gates, the 'Frisco Heads, 
bound south, and, as we came out, several vessels were all doing the 
same, and one huge Yankee liner, 1,200 tons, to our 140 ditto, tried to 
get to windward of us. She could forereach us to any extent, but 
not easily weather us. We had another " big un " to leeward of us,, 
so had no sea room ; it was a critical position. We dared not keep 
away, and to "luff," was to get under the liner's bows. I tumbled 
up out of my seasick bunk, quite cured as I saw her huge bulk 
tower over us, and did not feel qualmish again till the clanger had 
passed. The fear of drowning is a certain cure, pro tern., for mal de 
mer. There was a singular place we passed, half way to Honolulu, 
at sea, with a dead calm, and the schooner spinning round like a 
top, from no cause that was apparent. In due time, Honolulu hove 
in sight. " Towzer " had grown into a clog of note, and was no 
longer the stertorous pup of months gone by. I bade a cordial 
farewell to Charley Vincent. His last words to me, as we shook 
hands, were, " Well ! Mr. Bartley, there is nothing left now, 
between us two, but good will, for all time." He was a better man 
to have for a friend, than an enemy, as anyone would own, who had 
seen him throw an offensive 12-stone native, bodily, over a fence. 
He w;is an American — all out. 

Our " Eudora " passengers had settled down, comfortably, u 



i'2 NORFOLK ISLAND IN 1850. 

business, and, after a brief stay, I duly transferred my belongings to 
the "Harriet Rockwell," ship, bound for Launceston, Yan Diemen's 
Land, and full of return California]! passengers, belonging to that 
lovely island. Walker, of "Rhodes," John Pooler, Ritchie, Hartnoll, 
Dr. and Mrs. Bunce, of Adelaide, &c. She was a cotton clipper, 
and left the water behind at the rate of 12 miles an hour. Passing, 
unharmed, by the Kingsmill, and other dangerous groups, we came 
in sight of Norfolk Island, a spot which may be best described as a 
hilly, English park, lifted bodily, and placed in the South Pacific ; 
a natural paradise, ready made, grassed to the water's edge, fertile, 
and flowery, undulating, with hill and dale, rising, in one corner, 
to 1,700 feet above the sea • the noble pine trees, towering high, 
adding to the beauty of the landscape ; exquisite parroquets, 
differing from the Australian ones, and peculiar to the island, 
abound. At that time, 1850, the place was not inhabited, as now, 
by the Pitcairn Island and " Mutiny of the Bounty " half-caste 
people, but was the final depot for the worst of the Tasmanian 
convicts. No strange ships were allowed to call there, on any 
pretence, but, as we were bound for Tasmania, their ruling island, 
and offered to take a mail direct, we were made a special exception 
of, and supplied with bread, milk, and butter, the milk tasting 
strangely " vaccine," and cow like, after the pure goat milk of 
Honolulu. We were all invited to come ashore (while all other 
ships were warned off, by a garrison of soldiers, from the island 
prison). Mr. Price, the commandant, and a handsome lieutenant, 
came off to see us, and their fellow Tasmanians, on board, and were 
rowed out to us, by a prison crew, in a huge surf boat. Mr. Price 
was afterwards murdered, in 1857, by the prisoners at the hulks, 
near Melbourne, and was said to be a martinet, and is so depicted 
in Marcus Clarke's story of " His Natural Life," but, all I saw of 
him, was a mild faced, mild spoken gentleman, with a big head of 
curly, fair hair, a pleasant voice, and gentle manner, and sadly sea 
sick on our moving decks, and, perhaps, it was that which made him 
seem so subdued ; but very different were the crew which rowed him 
off to us. Never shall I forget the monkey-like eagerness of their 
working eye brows, and wrinkled foreheads, under the leathern 
caps, and the mute, appealing look which the said boat's crew, cast 
along our bulwarks at the many heads which crowded there ; a look, 
of which the meaning was lost upon my cockney self, but which our 
Tasmanian tars straightway interpreted ; a look which meant, 
" Tobacco, for the love of Heaven," a smoke, or chew (the wretched 
^convicts' only solace), and, while Mr. Price drank a glass of wine in 



A PERILOUS LANDING PLACE. 43 

-the cabin, to stave oft' the seasickness, our pitying tars threw down 
figs of " Barrett's twist " into the rocking surf boat, which 
" honeydew " treasures were caught by the Norfolk Island crew, as 
famished tigers might catch flying legs of mutton, and were swiftly 
hidden away in the blue serge recesses of their shirts, by those 
battered, and scarce human-faced wearers of leather caps. Poor 
creatures! / was no smoker, and they might have gazed long at 
me, before I should have divined what they wanted, and so earnestly 
asked for, in that indescribable silent, monkey-like look of the eyes, 
and working of the facial muscles. Speak, of course, they dared 
not. 

The landing place at Norfolk Island was a " real terror" in 1850. 
Exposed to the full fury of the sea, it was an uncomfortable spot 
for ladies, or landsmen, to face, and sturdy convicts, with strong 
ropes round their waists, securely fastened at the shore end, were 
in attendance, and rushed out in the seething water, and made sure 
that you did not drown, by grappling you, and hauling you safely 
to land, and, as they were always rewarded for extra zeal, and skill, 
in this department, there was never any half-work performed in it. 
One of them, who rescued the wife of a judge from real danger, 
got an immense slice taken off' the length of his sentence, for the 
feat. 

I bought a dripstone, and some parrots here, and away we headed 
for Bass's Straits, leaving the " Ocean Hell," or "Island Paradise" 
(which you please), behind us, and we were bowling along, a few 
days later, before a fair east wind, with all sail set, and met a 
wretched brig, of 200 tons, the "Maukin," from Sydney, for New 
Zealand, battling to windward, under a shred of sail, and diving 
into the trough of the sea, so that her deck looked like a map before 
us, on the opposite wave. We saluted, and passed on, and by night 
our positions were reversed ; for, we were on our beam ends with a 
westerly "snorter," and, soon, almost on bare poles; while, no 
doubt, our friend, the " Maukin," had all sail set to catch the 
newly-arrived fair wind. And now, shortly, hove in sight the 
Swan Island lighthouse, north-east coast of Tasmania, and we 
entered the Georgetown Heads, Port Dalrymple, and the lovely 
Tamar River, born of the union of the North and South Esk streams, 
back, safe, in dear old V. D. L. But we had to go up that river 
slowly. "Whirlpool Reach " was dangerous. Swan Hay was lake 
like ; boats from the farm houses, on the banks, put off to us, with 
crisp loaves of home made bread, and pats of exquisite butter, and 
iger enquiries from us returned Californians, as i<> absent brothers 



44 LAKE SCENERY. 

and cousins, who had gone to the far-off, wild land, and had not 
since been heard of ; for adventurers seldom wrote, and mails were 
few and far between, and some never were heard of again. We 
were made much of by all hands, and passed between glorious, high, 
wooded banks, twice the height of the Brisbane hills, by the river, 
and, in due course, found ourselves in the " Cornwall Hotel," 
Launceston, " interviewed," and holding levees almost, for returned 
Californians were scarce in those days. Here I met my cousin, 
Theodore Bartley (formerly, in 1822, aide-de-camp to Sir Thomas 
Brisbane, Governor of New South Wales), now a prosperous farmer 
and grazier, about four miles out from Launceston. 

I was delighted, once more, to find myself amid the scenery and 
climate of Tasmania. Some people prefer New Zealand to it, but I 
do not. New Zealand is damper all over, and more " muggy " in. 
the north part, than Tasmania, which has the climate of France,, 
the clear sky of Italy, and a dry pure air beyond the utmost nights. 
of either place. It is true that no mountain in Van Diemen's Land 
exceeds 5,000 feet in height, while New Zealand has them up to- 
13,000 feet; but what of that? Does anyone prefer the gloomy 
grandeur of Norway " fells " and fiords, to sunny France, and the 
sylvan beauty of Languedoc and Provence 1 Are not Clermont, 
and the Auvergne mountains high enough for all purposes of scenic 
beauty 1 I think so, and, therefore, I prefer Tasmania, which, in 
lake and mountains, surpasses, for beauty, anything in France, or 
Britain, save the vivid green hues, which are, however, otherwise 
made up for. Nothing in England, in the way of mountain and 
water, comes up to the bold outline of "St Paul's Dome," a rounded 
peak, of 3,370 feet, as it looks down on, and contrasts with, the- 
silvery surface of the South Esk. Tasmania has its lake districts, 
the same as England, only more beautiful. The largest lake is 
15 miles by five, but it is not the prettiest. Lake St. Clair has an 
area of about 10,000 acres, and about nine miles long, by two in 
width ; its waters, blue as sapphire, are watched, at the head of the 
volcanic gorge, which it fills, by the twin guardians, Mounts Ida 
and Olympus, as amethystine in their hue, as the lower hills are in 
beryl tint, and with thin, fleecy clouds travelling over, and varying 
the light and shade from time to time ; no scene of greater enchant- 
ment, outside the tropics, could be imagined, or desired ; and the- 
little islands, in some of the lakes, are not wanting to complete the 
picture, and are conspicuous on Lake Echo (six miles by three), 
exquisite in colour, full of lovely little bays, and environed by 
mountains, which send their heavy timber down to its very edge. 



BEFORE THE GOLD. 45 

None of your dreary Canadian winters here ! but noble, unfrozen 
irrigation reservoirs, high above sea level, such as the old Romans, 
•of Trajan's day, would have delighted to form aqueducts from. 

And, now, turn we to Ben Lomond, the champion hill of the 
island. No lovely, verdant slopes here ; more of the characteristics 
of Sinai, in the desert. Columnar rocks, upright pillars, like giant 
oriel shafts of ruined abbeys ; rock and stone, of the perpendicular 
school of nature's architecture, pointing upward to the sky, and rising 
out of a lower mound of dense timber and foliage, to over 5,000 feet, 
Such, with a little mirror of a lake at its foot, is Ben Lomond, away 
to the east of the main road of the island. Beautiful are the 
basaltic bluffs of Tasmania, some of them, as at Eldon, giving us a 
sheer fall of 4,800 feet, and in other places, as at " Quamby,'' 
looking as if some gigantic cheese knife had cut straight down from 
the sky, and swept away the further continuity of a range, 4,000 
feet high, all through. 

I spent a day at " Rhodes," the house of my fellow-passenger, 
Walker (son of Assistant Commissary Walker), and here, amongst 
others, I met his sisters, and Miss Despard, whose father was 
colonel of the 99th. of New Zealand fame, and Miss Minnie Allport, 
of Hobart. How those good girls deplored, to me, the dulness 
of the lovely island. No politics, no excitement, no "topics," 
beyond the eternal quotations, amongst the men, of the prices of 
wheat and wool, the only, and staple, products of the period, but 
matters which girls of intellect cared little for. Not much did they, 
or I, then reck of the grand transformation scene, which was so 
close at hand, even then impending in the immediate future, a mere 
question of weeks, when the "jewellers' shops," the hidden gold 
lumps of Ballarat and Bendigo, should render it needless, any more, 
for us Australians to travel the weary way to California for the 
kingly metal, which lay at our own doors, where it would be rolling 
into Melbourne, alone, at the rate of £400,000 a week, soon. 

The next item on my programme was a visit to the Launceston 
races, the first in the world I had ever seen, being, in my steady 
London youth, ignorant, alike, of billiards, and horse racing. I was 
astonished to see how fast, horses could go, when put to it, for there 
was grand, stout blood, even then, in the horseflesh of Tasmania. The 
" Peter Finn " strain was not wanting, and "Shadow,"' the fleetest 
mare south of tin- line, was there located, in the days when 
Homebush, of Sydney, could not compete, and when Randwick and 
Flemington (born of the golden era), as yet, were not. Why ! they 
used to run mile and a-half " heats" then, in Launceston, BO as <<> 



46 ADMIRAL ROUS. 

have lots of fun for their money, and to put them through in 2 '48,. 
2-49, and 2-50, respectively, in early 1851, and what would our 
modern " sprinting " weeds, on four legs, say to this ? I found the 
scene deliciously exciting ; beautiful fresh air ; riding habits ; dog 
carts ; cheerful faces, and friendly greetings ; and such well-supplied 
booths. I made a most impudent bet of two half-crowns, with my 
cousin's sons. There were two splendid mares, from the Hobart side, 
at these races, a black and a bay, yclept " Deception and Modesty," 
and belonging to Samuel Blackwell, of Green Ponds, near " Constitu- 
tion Hill." (By the way, how those Tasmanians have borrowed on. 
the old world names ! The river Scamander is close to Yarmouth ;. 
and the Eddystone, and the Mevvstone ; Bagdad, adjoining 
Brighton ; Ben Nevis, and Tower Hill, close together, form but a. 
few of the names in such strange juxtaposition here). I wagered 
five shillings that the Hobart mares would win any race they 
started for, and so they did, for their adversary (and " master ")• 
bolted. I found a poetic and beautiful side to horseracing, apart 
altogether from its baleful, and gambling aspect. "What can be 
more delightful than the feeling, at early morn, of the fresh, pure- 
air on the Yorkshire wolds, or the breezy Australian Downs, whert 
the elegant and innocent two and three year olds take their matin 
breathers 1 No element, there, of the midnight betting ring, in the 
grand appetite for breakfast, which becomes born of a couple of 
hours in such a scene, and — when we remember that our grandsires 
lived, and moved, in similar rapport, with the bygone racers of 
their day — a feeling of old association and sentiment ties us to the 
time, when the happy youth, of both sexes, 50, or 100, years ago, 
witnessed similar scenes of early morn quietness, and exciting race 
meetings. Human nature is alike all through the decades, and 
people, like good old Admiral Rous, die hard, and are loth to quit 
the scene of healthful excitement. But they must pass on, all the- 
same, men, women, and horses alike, and 1892 sees a different set 
from 1809. Carved stones, and stately trees, mark, in England, the- 
resting places of such horses, and mares, as Crucifix, Emilius, and 
Bay Middleton ; and befittingly are those noble animals so honoured 
in death, for, in life, they ministered healthfully to innocent, human 
pleasures, in their day and generation, and not to them must be- 
imputed the stain, akin to the dice box and card pack, which, 
unhappily, rests upon some phases of that noble institution, known 
(metaphorically) as "the Turf," and which should, rightfully, be as- 
pure, and free from corruption, as the green clover sods after which 
it is named. Little used I to think, as I sailed past the mouth of the 



BRILLIANT PEDIGREES. 47 

Clarence River, in New South Wales (famous for the breed of 
race-horses reared at its mountain head), that, perchance, the spirit 
of old Admiral Rous rested on the spot which he visited in his 
youth ; rested in the cattle ranged gorges, in which this splendid 
river, the birthplace of Searle (the lost, and peerless, sculler), rises, 
and it is possible that the guardian spirit of Rous, R. N., hovers there 
at times; for, in the year of grace, 1828, in H.M.S. "Rainbow," 
he did some marine surveying about this part of the world, not 
forgetting Moreton Bay, and was he not " in great form " at the 
Parramatta races of that same year? And is it any wonder that 
the spirit of horse breeding, and horse racing, has struck deep root 
in that classic, and Rous-haunted, part of Australia ? When I see 
the beautiful animals led up and down in the saddling paddock, it is 
not so much their mere bodily forms, in bay, or grey, in chestnut, 
or black, that come up before me. I seem to look beyond that, at 
each horse's distinguishing and special (albeit invisible) coronet, or 
diadem, in the shape of his brilliant pedigree ; made up gems, 
skilfully blended, like Stockwell, the diamond; Touchstone, for the 
ruby; Pocahontas and Banter, the emerald and sapphire; and, without 
continuing the list, either of animals, or jewels, I need only say that 
the variety, and beauty, of the skilled artist's blending of sires and 
dams, that appear on the genealogy of each one, is, to me, an exact 
reflex of the other artists' work, which we trace in the endless series 
of tiaras, made up from pearl, diamond, opal, topaz, and other 
treasures of the sea and mine. 

To return to Tasmania ; quiet science, and philosophy, a la 
Pickwick, amused the gentry of that placid island in 1851. They 
measured the trees at " Tolosa," 84 feet round at the ground, 78 feet 
at two yards up, and 330 feet to the top. Dr. Milliken sent a 
specimen of the Cypnea umbilicata to the Hobart museum. Sir 
Win. Denison tried to import salmon, alive, in tanks on the poop of 
a passenger ship. Edwin Tooth, of Bagdad, sent in a specimen of 
auriferous quartz from Ophir (New South Wales) ; and Dr. Officer, 
a lump of the same, from " Buninyong, on a spur of the Pyrenees." 
Ha ! say'st thou so? Here was the infant Hercules shadowed forth, 
the germ of the mighty Ballarat of 1852 — -the upheaval force that 
socially revolutionized Australia to the tune of 300 millions, 
sterling, of " El Oro." Are not the annals of those dear old (your for 
ever) days of Australian "Leisure" duly written, and set forth, in 
the " Philosophical Transactions " of Tasmania for 1851 I 

And, now, the time is at hand, when I must, once more, quil her 
shores; for, 1 nerd "colonial experience,' 1 and I must go I 



48 "BLACK THURSDAY." 

Melbourne, on the main land of New Holland, which I have not 
yet seen, and explore the bush beyond it, and learn how sheep are 
bred. So, armed with letters of introduction to Jeremiah Ware, 
squatter, of " Mount Elephant," out west of Geelong, Victoria, I 
take passage, in the brig " Raven," Captain Bell, from Launceston 
to Melbourne, having, for fellow passengers, Mr. Gwynne, a returned 
Californian and squatter in " Riverina," and Miss Agnes Peat, whose 
friends lived at " Shortland's Bluff;" but, before we sail, I must 
narrate a little episode of " Black Thursday," February 6, 1851, as 
it appeared to me. 

There had been little, or no, rain in Tasmania and Victoria for nearly 
18 months, and bush fires were rampant. That afternoon, strolling 
in the bush, near the house, at Bagdad, I noticed, about 5 p.m., that 
all the birds got off" the trees, and sat on the ground, with open 
mouths, and, as the heat was not anything extraordinary, I wondered 
at it. At the same time, I noticed a low, small, brown cloud spread 
across the northern horizon, and rapidly rise. Before it, came a 
mighty wind, which blew our farm men off the haystacks which they 
were building, and sent the barley flying. Next day, we heard that 
-the mail coach had been blown over on the high road, and that a 
French man-of-war's boat, with no sail set, was blown over, when 
rowing, in Hobart Harbour. Next week (for there were no electric- 
telegraphs then) we learnt that Victoria had been swept by a forest 
conflagration, 100 miles broad ; several scattered and separate fires 
had united in one, before a hurricane, from the north, which blew 
burnt leaves before it across Bass's Straits. 

To this fire-swept colony did I sail in the " Raven," brig, and, after 
a preliminary bumping on the sea beach at Georgetown Heads, owing 
to the tug not giving us enough of the " offing," we crossed the straits, 
and the bay of Port Phillip, and worked our way up the mal-odorous 
Yarra River, with its " boiling down " nuisances on the banks. 
How my heart sank as I viewed the scene. The river was full of 
dead calves, which, impelled by drought, had descended the steep 
banks higher uj>, had fallen in, and got drowned ; and this was all 
the water Melbourne had to drink, for, it had hardly rained since 
the middle of 1849, and tanks were empty, and there were no Yan- 
Yean water pipes then. I went ashore, to Tankard's Temperance 
Hotel. How I disliked Melbourne, after Tasmania. No mountains, 
no lakes, no scenery ; all flat plains, dust, and white bark, stunted 
gum trees, a dreary waste of " pig face " (/nesembryanthemum) all 
the way from Prince's Bridge to Liardet's boat shed, on the beach. 
Business was dull, money scarce ; no produce, but a little wool and 



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JOHN O'SHANASSY. 49 

tallow, to circulate coin on. A smell of new bricks and mortar in 
the air, like an outlying part of London, at Camberwell and 
Walworth. A swarm of children's funerals every day, from 
dysentery, and bad water. 

Strolling down the street one clay, March, 1851, with my friend, 
Guthrie, of the " Eudora," he pointed out to me, across the road, a 
big, strong, stout man, in a brown shooting jacket, and standing, 
looking out from the doorway of a small draper's shop. Guthrie 
said to me, " Do you know who that is ?" I said "No." "That," 
said he, " is a man called John O'Shanassy ; he has come forward a 
good deal lately, and will be heard of, more, by-and-by, I think." 
This was before the gold discovery, and the words were amply 
fulfilled after that, as the electors of Kilmore and Melbourne, and 
the annals of C. H. Ebden, J. T. Smith, Michie, Stawell, &c, could 
testify, and "J. O'S." went through many an "up," and many a 
" down " (politically), between that clay and the time when I next 
ran against him, which was, I think, at the corner of the Bank of 
New South Wales, in Brisbane, in June, 1860. O'Shanassy was 
universally popular at one time ; even a Chinaman (who had married 
an Irish woman) declared for " Ho-Shan-See." 

A bit of gold, like a musket ball, hung, in March, 1851, from a 
thread, in the window of a Melbourne jeweller, and was labelled 
"from Chines;" but all the " knowing " ones vowed it must have 
come from California, and no where else ; but they changed their 
minds in 1852. 

I took the night coach, across the Exe River, to Geelong, en route 
for Ware's Station, and met him at Mack's Hotel. Corio Bay was 
pretty, after the Yarra, but the drought was all pervading. In 
due time I arrived at Ware's sheep farm, near Captain Ormoncl's, on 
the Leigh River, and was duly initiated into the mysteries of 
driving the bullocks, which ploughed the home paddock, and was 
instructed if I found a scabby sheep dying out on the plains, to cut 
its throat, and not let the crows pick its eyes out, alive ; but, 
somehow, I failed in this. We had, every night, to cut down a she 
oak tree, or two, for the horses and bullocks to eat, for grass there 
was none. I looked contemptuously around me, on the level flats, 
so different from the mountain gulches of California, and Tasmania. 
I said to myself, " No gold Acre." I asked in May, 1851, which 
was the nearest mountain, and I was told "Buninyong, aear 
Ballarat," ami I felt half inclined to go over to it, and try for gold. 
But, two matters happened, which cut short my stay in the colony 
of Victoria. One w;is the non-arrival of my income remittances 

!■: 



50 STOLEN REMITTANCES. 

from England (vid Tasmania) ; the other was the discovery of gold, 
near Bathurst, in New South Wales. Never, during my whole stay 
in Victoria, did I get one letter. I wanted money for postage 
stamps, and the like ; I was too proud to borrow of Mr. Ware ; so, 
off I set to Geelong, and thence, by steamer, to Melbourne, where I 
sold my watch, the gift of my dear dead grandam, who had passed 
away while I was first at Honolulu, and did not live to get the 
heart-felt letter of gratitude I sent her from Tahiti. I had to sell 
my watch to pay my passage, in the schooner " Mariposa," to 
Launceston. They found the post office fellow, afterwards, who 
had stolen all my letters, and other people's, at Melbourne, and he 
got seven years for it ; but I never got my watch back. So I shook 
off the dust of Victoria, and landed, once more, in Launceston, then 
whitened (June, 1851) with snow, went over by the coach to 
Bagdad, found that my aunt had gone to Sydney, to winter there, 
and, after a kindly farewell to the Theodore Bartleys, Edwin Tooth, 
and the Crowthers, I sailed, in the " Blackfriar," for Port Jackson, 
having, previously, found out that my remittances had been 
regularly sent to me, and as regularly stolen, in the Melbourne Post 
Office. 

A stormy, wintry, passage, in a ship full of men, of all classes, 
bound for the new Bathurst gold fields, ended in a night entrance 
between Sydney Heads ; the brig, "Algerine," having been wrecked, 
the previous night, in attempting the same task, and we had a 
narrow escape ; yet, we had some old whaling skippers on board, 
who knew the way in well. The " Sow and Pigs" light blazed in 
front of us, as we anchored, and, next day, dear old Sydney (where 
I had a brother, and a cousin, and an aunt) received me. It was a 
nice mediaeval sort of place, after that bran new Melbourne ; some 
signs of moss and house leek on the walls ; a good, old-fashioned, 
London smell of gas pipes, and draught porter, in the streets ; and 
all that sort of thing, you know ; and, above all, the alluvial gold 
on the other side of those Blue Mountains, and no need to go to 
California, any more, after it. Arrangements were made, and in 
early August, 1851, I took the coach, from Sydney, to Penrith, with 
money in my pocket, and, sleeping by the Nepean, tackled Lapstone 
Hill, on foot, in the morning, and rested that night at the 
" Twenty-mile Hollow " (James's). Lovely wild flowers, epacrids, 
red, with white lips, lined the sides of the road, and blossomed far 
down the fathomless sandstone ravines of those mystic mountains. 
Next day I passed the " Weatherboard " and " Blue Mountain " 
inns, about 2,500 feet above the sea, and overtook two young 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS. 51 

gentlemen, Roderick Travers, and Henry Turner, armed with 
double-barrelled guns, shooting birds, and marching to the Turon 
gold mines, the same as myself. They made execrable puns on 
■everything they saw, and met with, and we put up that night at 
Joel Heard's hostelry, at " Pulpit Hill;" Jellore, and the Burragorang 
mountains being beautiful, and distant, away to the left. 

Bloodsworth's, at Blackheath (3,500 feet), and Haynes's, at 
Hartley, were the next resting places ; Martha, the landlord's 
daughter, at the latter pretty village, being a good looking girl. 
And, now, the i-oad forked, and only one more decent hotel on my 
road could be looked for — namely, Barnaby's, at the " Round 
Swamp," for I had to quit the old, beaten, Bathurst road, near 
'• Mylecharane's," at Bowenfels, and take the wilder one to Mudgee, 
through a country, desolate as the mountains of Edom, which, in its 
stone-topped, flat-headed, eminences, it somewhat resembles. I 
bought a loaf of bread at the last house on the road, and faced the 
Avilderness. Down the steep " Razorback " mountain (terror to 
teamsters) I descended, and found myself on the banks of the golden 
Turon. Here was a man washing out a dish of sand, at the bottom 
of which was half an egg-spoon full of glorious, pretty flakes of gold, 
the pure native article. It gave me, somehow, an " eerie," creepy 
feeling, to see, for the tirst time, drawn from its native lair, in 
Australia, the metal I had been used only to meet with at the Bank 
•of England, or in money, and jewellery, ready made up ; but there 
was no time for philosophising ; I had to find a lodging for the 
night. 

I crossed the Turon, and kept on down its far bank, till I came 
to a deserted shepherd's hut, and there camped, with another man. 
We had a small tire, but no food, no blankets, and the ice in a 
bucket formed pretty thick in the night. I had a macintosh, but 
it warmed me not ; money in my pocket, but there were no stores to 
buy at ; and, I may as well confess it, it was too cold for sleep, so T 
laid awake all night, and, next morning, chilled, empty, and 
downhearted, I faced onwards, further along the river, wondering 
how it would all end, when, suddenly, I heard my name called, and, 
turning round, I saw four of my shipmates in the " Blackfriar " — 
Worley, Espie, Spong, and Gerrand — all Tasmanians, and they asked 
me in to breakfast. They had a noble tent, floored with gum tree 
boughs, on which a tarpaulin, and opossum rugs, with the fur 
upwards, were spread. On these, again, more opossum rugs, with 
the fur downwards, were placed, and the skin of the black 'possum <»t 
Vim I)iemeii's Land in warm, I tell you. Then they had a noble 



52 GOLDEN GRAVEL. 

sack of biscuit, a ditto of smoked pig's cheek, flour, tea, and sugar,, 
all from Hobart, with them. They offered to let me buy a share of 
it all, and of their gold pit, and their labour, and the proceeds thereof. 
All this I joyfully agreed to. In their party, but in a separate tent, 
were four Cornish miners, from the " Burra Burra," who did all the 
tunnelling, and propping, and getting out of the gold gravel, while 
we " gentlemen's sons " (as the sarcastic term then went) pounded 
it fine, carried it to the river, and washed it in a cradle. Cruelly 
hard and back-breaking work it was, too, especially the carrying of 
the hundred-weight bags of earth, and the stooping, for half a hour 
at a time, in a tunnel, only four feet high, wielding a ten-pound, 
maul on the hard gravel lumps. I slept warm that night, unlike 
the fearful one which preceded it, and I soon had time to look about 
me. Travers and Turner were camped near me, so, also, was 
Marshall, a son of the chief cashier of the Bank of England, and 
his West Indian friend, Davson. Fearfully and wonderfully made 
was the "damper" compounded by Marshall and Davson ; wedges 
of putty were digestible in comparison therewith. 

Here, in a storekeeping " spec," were "Williams, the son of the 
Erromanga missionary martyr ; David Jones, a son of the rich. 
Sydney draper ; John West, a son of the reverend editor of the 
Sydney Morning Herald, &c. Thomas Winder Campbell, a brother 
of " Tertius " Campbell, had a palatial bark hut, and was buying 
gold, at £2 10s. an ounce, for the Bank of New South Wales, and. 
paying for it in blue bank notes. 

Our gold digging did not pay our party any too well, the best 
day's work, for nine of us, was £li. Williams, Jones, and West 
had a store, and resolved to start a baker's oven, import a yellow 
bread cart, with painted wheat sheaves on the panels, from Sydney, 
and teach the Turon diggers to exchange indigestible damper for 
fermented bread ; they got, also, ten tons of flour from Maitland ; 
and it was done. I, afterwards, had full charge of the store, and of 
this, the first bakery ever known on any Australian gold field. 

My brother, in Sydney, about this time, wanted me to join him. 
in a digging cruise, so I sold out of Worley and party, and started 
for Sydney, to meet my brother, and help him up with our 
impedimenta, whith were piled on a dray, just about to start from 
that city, loaded with our tent, tools, and a year's provisions. So, I 
set forth, on foot, accompanied by my faithful bull dog " Tiger " 
(rough hair, tan, with black muzzle), who grew footsore in following 
me in my flying trip, 300 miles, to Sydney, and back, in ten days. 
And here I must say a few words of descriptive on that wonderful 
city, and harbour, of the southern ocean. 



DARBY AND JOAV. 53 

" More English than England herself " is what Trollope says of 
lier ; and Trollope is quite right, only he was not the first to find it 
out. The old English types, which have died out in the mother 
country, are preserved exactly, and alive, in Sydney, in their sleepy, 
happy plenty, and comfort, and freedom from care and fretful 
Yankee worry. It would be difficult, elsewhere, to match the old 
" Darby and Joan " folk, homely specimens of married comfort, no 
scholars though, with good incomes from their orange orchards, and 
other sources, people such as you meet nowhere but in Sydney. 
These cosy, rich, shabby old couples, she in her faded velvet bonnet, 
umbrella, and warm check shawl, of 50 years ago ; he, in his 
velveteen vest, and glass buttons, and rough furred hat. As they 
step into the 'bus with you, you would never imagine they had 
hundreds a year, from oranges, up Parramatta way. They carry 
big bundles, and revel in tea, shrimps, and watercresses, and they 
know, and care, as much about the traditional bush " hardships," 
as they do about North Polar expeditions. They are true Port 
Jackson cockneys, as thoroughly cockney as the Londoner himself. 
They believe in comfort, and they get it, too, in well appointed 
Sydney, where cab, 'bus, and steamer await one's call at every turn, 
and save all trouble of walking, or even thinking, no matter in what 
direction you want to go, and where a well supplied public market 
renders " foraging " a merely nominal task. I am particular in 
thus describing these types of bygone English people, so scarce at 
home, but so well preserved at the antipodes, for they remind me of 
the dear old mother country, as she was, before modern " flashness," 
and the " music-hall " era's arrival, had extinguished for ever her 
simple and primitive style. These happy antediluvians, whom I 
have endeavoured to describe, are found abundantly in old Sydney, 
where (unlike in modern " Yankee " Melbourne) the moss has had 
time to grow, and cap the walls, and where a century of settlement 
has imparted a " well aired " flavour, and finished aspect, to the 
surroundings. And, in Sydney, too, it must be remembered, that 
our old " Darby and Joan " are not subject to, nor do their 
venerable air pipes suffer, the wheezy miseries of old Britain's clinic 
And they are the cynosure of attentive tradesmen, for their " money 
is good," and rattling 'busses take them to every place which 
steamers and train do not, and where the prawns and the muffins of 
civilised life and (Jiavesend are recalled, and where (as already 
Btated) actually living specimens of the extinct old men and women 
of England can still lie found. This is old Sydney, and I shall 
come to "young" Sydney by-and-bye. But our aged couple are only 



54 A HAWKESBURY " TYPE." 

one type of our Sydney. There is, in addition, the rough old tyke,, 
hailing from the healthy Hawkesbury, or Hunter Valley ; the- 
Yorkshireman of Australia, clad in drab tweed, or Kerseymere, 
strong and keen withal ; full, to the brim, of sheep, and sovereigns, 
and sense ; full of anything you like, except book learning and 
ideality ; a man, whom none could " get to windward " of, either in 
a billiard room, or on a racecourse, and who could see you, and all 
hands, "out," and be vital and fresh at the finish, either on a long 
bush coach journey, or a stormy trip by sea. His Yorkshire- 
cunning has not failed, nor forsaken, him here in Australia ; but,, 
happily, his Saxon coarseness does not descend to his pretty 
daughters, born in the picturesque Nepean Yale, as you may very 
plainly perceive, if you glance at the delicate faces, and slender 
figures, perched on " dad's " dog cart at the races ; and if you could 
take the shopman of George street into your confidence, you would 
be surprised at their " sizes " in gloves and shoes in this Spanish 
climate, even if your own eyes failed to impart the intelligence ; and,, 
but for their healthy look, there is little in common between these 
girls, and the tough, old, fifteen-stone " knot " of " stringy bark and 
green hide," who is their father ; but our Italian climate has a 
tendency to refine all damsels born in the land. 

But, the pretty girls of Sydney are not all country born, o? 
country bred. There have been officers in the army, and navy, and 
commissai-iat, and younger sons of good families, who have married,, 
and settled in New South Wales, and the blonde and brunette 
belles, whom you may see on any fine day in their stylish carriages, 
in George and Pitt streets, have an air of well disciplined breeding,, 
which has won, for many of them, a high caste Indian official (civil 
or military) for a husband. But these daintily stepping, artfully 
veiled, senoritas, are not all. Sydney is also the paradise of young 
"sparks," who fondly conceive that health, life, and money, are- 
matters that last for ever, and to whom tailors, and yachts, race 
horses, and billiards, form absolute necessaries of life. Many of 
these young fellows inherit their father's money, but not his 
astuteness, nor stamina, and, to use the aphorism of a 'cute Sydney 
bootmaker, who " made " for the haut ton, " some of them begin 
where their fathers left off (with a fortune), and leave off where their 
fathers began (with nothing). 

The principal streets of Sydney, which lie north and south, are- 
named after Royal Dukes — George, Clarence, Sussex, Kent, and 
Cumberland, to which may be added the ministers, of Pitt and 
Castlereagh ; while the cross, and other streets, which run east and 



SHIPPING GOLD IN '52. 55 

west, or nearly so, take their titles from the past Governors of the 
colony — King, Hunter, O'Connell, Phillip, and Bligh, with Bathurst, 
Liverpool, and Goulburn (amongst minor English politicians), to 
fill up. 

Darling Point is a pretty promontory, stretching north from the 
south shore of the harbour, and contains, amongst costly Italian 
style villas, a perfect little bijou of an Anglican Church, 
" St. Marks." Pardon this digression about old Sydney, of which 
I shall have more to say by-and-by. 

I walked 300 miles, there and back, to the Turon, in ten days, 
over mountains, 4,000 feet high, with a heavy kangaroo rug on my 
back, and thought nothing of it. Our gold digging was not very 
successful, and it was provoking to see the fellows on Monday 
Point, washing up in the evening, with a show of gold in each tin 
dish, equal, in volume and coarseness, to a pint, or more, of Indian 
corn, for the gold lay thick and heavy on that earthy river cape, 
round which the old Turon had swept for ages, leaving fresh deposits 
with every flood. My brother and I could only chance upon light, 
shaly deposit, with fine gold in it, of which it took a great deal to 
weigh an ounce, and so it fell out that we made but a bare living, 
and no fortune at all, which led to his sailing to England, once 
more, in the old " General Hewitt," while I accepted a tellership in 
the Bank of New South Wales, in Sydney, a somewhat arduous 
position, at a time when half the clerks had gone to the gold mines, 
while the half who remained behind, had to wrestle with the trebled 
allowance of work, which the gold discovery, and the heavy immigra- 
tion from abroad, and the enormous expansion in business, forced 
upon their shoulders. 

One of the most pleasing episodes of my banking experience was 
in the regular shipping of gold bars, from Sydney, for London. At 
this time there were no mail steamers, no gigantic " P. and O.," or 
"Orient," liners. All gold had, in 1852, to " go home " in small 
sailing ships, and take, at least, 100 days over the trip, and, as the 
freight on gold then was something handsome, the skippers of these 
ships made a good thing out of it, and, invariably, invited all the 
mercantile and banking clerks, who came on board in charge of the 
gold, to a champagne luncheon. I was the oflicial who shipped the 
precious metal, then, for the Bank of New South Wales, the largest 
buyer and exporter, and it was the only bit of outdoor work I got, 
and, of course, proportionately pleasant. At the appointed hour, I 
was at Circular Quay, in charge of 12, or II iron-clamped, heavily 
sealed, thick timbered boxes, each full of the yellow, weighty ban ; 



56 A CRANKY DIGGER. 

and there, I met the representatives of other gold buying banks and 
merchants, with the unsigned bills of lading in my pocket, and I, and 
the rest, stepped on board a little steamer, which took us out to the 
ship in the far anchorage ; for gold ships did not lie at the wharfs, 
for obvious reasons, and, once on board, and the gold stowed, and 
the bills of lading duly signed, corks were drawn, and sounds were 
heard, as of " Australasia, a glass of wine with you," responded to 
with " Most happy, Gilchrist and Co.," as the representatives of 
the Bank and the firm pledged each other in the " Epernay 
moussetix " of the period. I can only recall the names of Brindley 
and Luke, now, of all the different chums who used to figure on 
those occasions. 

I took a turn, a while, at the Bank ledgers, in 1852, and could 
weave you a three-volume Austi*alian romance, from the names 
alone, of the old colonists which figured at the heads of the pages. 
Trust accounts, and trustees' accounts, of men, long dead, even then. 
Why ! \V. C. Wentworth himself, used, at times, to come into my 
little sanctum, and pore over the array of orders and cheques that 
had rolled in from his numerous, and wide-spread, stations, and he 
was one, only, of the prominent colonists who came, at times, to do 
similar inspection of their accounts, when they had omitted to leave 
their pass books in time. 

I faced the counter, for the first time, on Monday, October 4th, 
1 852. Sydney was a small place then. We had been closed on the 
1st and 2nd for our half-yearly balance, the 3rd was Sunday, and 
the 4th was " bill " day, and, with the " pent up " business of the 
1st and 2nd, to face. I may here state that I took the banking 
berth because (as I said to myself) I should be sure of some penny- 
weights of gold in my dish, for my labour, every night, which I 
could never be sure of at the diggings, no matter how hard I worked. 
The doors opened, and the crush began. The people were three rows 
deep at the counter all clay long, queer customers, some of them. I 
well remember one rough fellow, who threw me a deposit slip for 
£200, which I, at once, threw back to him as " wrong," to which he 
replied, with some oaths, that he could count money as well as I 
could. Without disputing that fact, I told him that I was possessed 
of no information on that point, but that he would now have to wait 
till all the people, then at the counter, had been duly attended to. 
When his turn came again, I took up his deposit, and began, for his 
edification, to count it aloud before him, thus — " one, and ten, are 
eleven, and five, are sixteen ;" before I could get any further, his 
jaw dropped, and he poured forth apologies as profuse, and abject, 



OVERLANDIXG. 57 

•as his previous abuse had been violent. He was a lucky and 
illiterate digger, one of those who had no idea whether they were 
worth one thousand, or two thousand, pounds. He only knew that 
there were 200 actual bank notes in his deposit, but, being no 
scholar, he had reckoned them all as one pound notes, while, half 
of them being "tens" and " fives," there were £1,000, in place of 
£200, in his deposit. He departed, grateful and abashed, and he 
was but a type of a class, very numerous at that period. We had 
plenty of other queer " deposits " at that time. Bank notes, taken 
from the body of a man who had been dead six weeks in the water 
of the Turon (unpleasant money) ; also, a bundle of notes that had 
been " planted " in, or near, a lime kiln, and were incrusted, and 
stiff", to the last degree. 

My deposits that day were £150,000, and it was past nine at 
night before I " balanced," when I found myself £10,081 short ! 
By 10 p.m. I had found the £10,000, an error of addition, and the 
£1, a cheque, in the wrong column ; but the £80 was a "baffler," 
till, before 11 p.m., I remembered that the Colonial Treasurer had 
sent in his pass book on the Friday to be written up, and, with it, a 
cash box, with £80 in it, which box had been put away, and 
forgotten, on a top shelf, in the strong room, and which, while it 
was duly noted in my cash book, was not with the cash in my 
drawer; so, here was the missing link in the " balance," and, at 
11 p.m., I rushed into my fellow-teller's arms, and executed a pas 
de triom]jhe, and went home to bed. But this kind of high pressure 
life, when we were constantly kept in till 8 and 9 p.m., told on the 
health of many of the clerks. Dr. Lang's son, who was my 
" exchange " clerk, the sweet-tempered, gentle William Colley, died 
of it. My fellow-teller broke a blood vessel, and died of it, five 
years later ; and I sustained a fierce attack of influenza, which swept 
over Sydney in the winter of 1853, and which, in my earlier bank days, 
I should have scorned and laughed at. My medical man told me I 
must go to the bush, and open air, once more ; so, I arranged with 
my kind uncle, in Sydney, the introduction, which enabled me to 
travel, overland, with 10,000 sheep, from Dubbo, on the Macquarie 
River, to Paika, on the Murrumbidgee. 

I had two friends, companions with me, Felix Neeld Burne, and 
G. V. James, who, fired with a love of adventure, resolved to throw 
up their situations, and come with me. Tliis was a 1,200 mile trip, 
not a 150 mile one, so, I bought a horse, saddle, and bridle, and so 
did J. (who was the son of an Indian General), and B., whose 
father was a rector, near Bath, and who must have; brought up hifl 



58 A LOST FLOCK. 

family well ; for, one son was a P. and 0. captain ; another, a high; 
military officer in India; and another married the daughter of a 
distinguished political Viscount, and was well up in the " War 
Office." Never before did a poor parson " place " all his sons so well. 
My friend, B., was, afterwards, one of our largest sheep farmers, at 
Lansdowne, on the Barcoo, Queensland, and this trip with me was his- 
induction into squatting life, which he afterwards followed up, in 
partnership with the master of the Sydney Mint, and Captain 
Mayne. 

Behold us, then, " B.," "J.," and self, on our horses, facing west,. 
on the Parramatta road, out of Sydney, on the 1st June, 1853. 
Shall I tell you of our 270 miles journey to Dubbo, where we were 
to pick up the 10,000 sheep ? How we passed a cloven mountain of 
pure blue slate ; how the snow lay on the road, at the top of Mount 
Lambie, -4,000 feet above the sea ; how we refreshed at Heagren's 
inn, at the Diamond Swamp, near Solitary Creek ; and put up at 
Larry Durack's hotel, at " Meadow Flat " (500 feet above the 
modern Katoomba). We passed the " Green Swamp," and we 
joined Walter Black (who, with his mother and handsome sister, 
then kept the chief hotel at Bathurst) in some mulled claret. Next 
day, passed the " Rocks," and Wentworth's ironstone gold mine, at 
Frederick's Valley, and put up at Carr's, opposite the steam flour 
mills. Next day, lunched at Hanrahan's, rode through the bleak, 
high town of Orange, over Summerhill Creek ; the huge 
"Canobolas" mountain, nearly 4,500 feet high, in sight, to the 
left, for a day and a-half ; got on to the Bogan road, as far as Kerr's 
place, by mistake, and had to turn back, and got to the ' ; Three 
Rivers " at night fall. Next day, passed the " Black Rocks," at 
noon, through " Montefiores," to Wellington, in the evening, where 
were some noble looking aborigines, in old Hieronymus's inn yard, 
camped by a tire. We, also, on this journey, passed Smith's, at. 
Molong, near " Larras Lake " (often called " Larry's Lake "). 

We got to Dubbo at last, and there met our " super," and 
commander-in-chief, Mr. L., who was the son of a gentleman farmer 
in Devon, and who had married against his father's consent, and 
brought his wife to Australia, to seek their fortunes. He was a 
splendid rider (bar the buck jump), and could find his way through 
the bush from the very start of his career ; he had only just landed 
from England. We divided our 10,000 sheep into four flocks, and 
travelled them, each about half-a-mile apart. The first night out 
was dark, and wet, and one flock, and its shepherd, did not come 
into camp. Off* went L , a brave and conscientious man, at 9 p.m.,. 



THE BOCiAN COUNTRY. 59' 

in the darkness and rain, to seek the lost ones, and, about midnight, 
when I had the watch, I noted a movement in the 7,500 sheep, 
which slept under my guardianship, and found it arose from the 
arrival, and mingling with them, of the missing 2,500, which 
Mr. L. had found, and guided to our camp, a feat of the highest class 
of bushmanship, on a dark, wet night, and in a country where he- 
had never been before, and creditable, in the extreme, to a " new 
chum." We had a horse dray, and a bullock dray, to carry rations, 
for 11 people (for a trip of 70, or 80, days) ; and, also, the skins of 
such sheep as we killed for food purposes. Our party consisted of 
Mr. L., " B.," " J.," and myself, four shepherds, a black boy, to 
track, a horse driver, and a bullock driver, and we carried a case, 
containing 12 bottles of rum, for " medical comforts," for we had to 
ford rivers that were born of melted mountain snow. It was 
pleasant, at night, in one's watch, whether it was from six to ten, 
or from ten to two, or from two to daylight, to sit and read " Martin 
Chuzzlewit," " Uncle Tom's Cabin," and " The Cruise of the Midge "' 
(as I did), by the light of the log hre, in the intervals of " shying " 
lighted brands, boomerang fashion, at the head of any body of 
sheep that seemed disposed to stray out from the main camp, and, 
so, to make them " scurry " back to the rest of the fold. I never 
remember feeling such splendid health as I used to, when day would 
break, after I had been on watch, in the open air, under the 
Southern Cross, and Magelhan clouds, from 2 a.m. 

We had a tent, for B., J., L., and myself, and I, in addition, 
bought, at Dubbo, a canvas stretcher, to avoid sleeping on the 
ground ; and, here, a word as to the intense " home " feeling- 
connected with one's camping place for the night. What is it, but the 
sensation of a "home," that gives zest to a patch of ground, 12 feet 
square, that was bare grass yesterday, before you came, and will be 
bare, deserted grass, again, to-morrow, after you have gone 1 What 
is it that promotes it for the time, that puts it before any other spot 
of earth, unless it be that it is {pro tew) " Home, Sweet Home 1" 

We got the 10,000 sheep at Murrinbidgerie, and our first stage 
was to Duncan M'Killop's, at Wambanglang (he was a brother of 
Peter M'Killop, now of Victoria) ; he used us well, and lent us a 
set of spare bullocks, and his own black driver, to help us over ;i 
soft spot on his run ; and, so, we progressed past Tomingley, 
Immilgylie, and the " Captain's Creek," through the Bogan country, 
in sight of "Hervey's Range," traversing Bctts' place (Cananagey), 
and Korudgery, and so on to the Gunnimblan lagoons, Burrawong, 
and the Lachlan itself. 



€0 AN EMU'S NEST. 

I have spoken of "Norbury," the black boy, our tracker, a native 
of the Barwon and Namoi River, in New South "Wales. He and I 
used to go out on the dewy grass, at day dawn, to track, and bring 
in, the bullocks and horses which had strayed in the night. / could 
see a track in the soft ground, and so could any white fool ; but, 
when it came to the stony ground, it " was Norbury, you bet." 
'Often have I seen him (he had but one eye, and that was a 
"piercer ") jump suddenly on one side, where the scent and track 
grew dim, and " spot " a place on the hard sandstone rock, and, 
when I asked him to show me what he saw, he would point to one 
grain, a mere speck, of sand, dislodged, by a horny hoof, from the 
main mass of rock, and, presto ! we were full on the track again. 

Amongst the " disagreeables " of our trip, was, that we came to 
•some streams, 80 feet wide, and three, or four, deep, which we and 
the sheep had to cross, and which the sheep did not want to ctoss, 
and, so, had to be made to cross. It is neither a light, nor a 
pleasant, labour to have to seize a 70 lb. wether, and drag him 
across such a brook, more especially when he is muscular, and the 
water is the produce of melted snow ; and it is still more unpleasant, 
when, at the end of a hard day's work, you have put 100 of them 
across, you find the 100 swim back to the main body, in place of the 
dog-urged main body swimming over to their 100 mates ; but these 
ure amongst the amenities of " overlanding," and have to be taken 
in the day's work, in a country where there are no bridges over the 
rivers. 

A comical episode, in which eggs figured, occurred. One of the 
•"new chum " shepherds was seen, one afternoon, fiercely belabouring, 
■with a heavy cudgel, something under a bushy tree. On going up 
to him, he said, " Look at that big green boa constrictor." "For 
goodness sake, stop," said I, for he had mistaken the handsome dark 
green, pimpled emu eggs, as they lay in the nest, for the folds of a 
buge green snake. I saved two of them, and they formed a good 
substitute for milk in our bush tea that day, and the next. 

We passed the Bogan, and ran down the Lachlan River. Far 
•out, to our right, lay the track of a wide dray, said to be that of 
'Sir Thomas Mitchell's expedition. I washed for gold at " Hurd's 
Peak," discovered by Oxley, in 1817, but found none. Anon, we 
came to very boggy ground, which, dry on the surface, was, at six 
inches deep, soft as butter almost. Onward, for weeks, till, at 
length, our goal drew near, in the lake country of the Murrum- 
bidgee ; and Gunarwe, Tauri, Makormon, Makoombi, and the great 
Betarponga (18 miles across) formed the chief of the group of lakes. 



THE TYSON BROTHERS. 61 

Our journey clown the Lachlan River was by way of Burrawong - 
thence to Philip Street's station, on to Flanagan's, Kiokatoo; thence 
to Euarba, on to Willandra (Suttor's place), on to Burrangeramble 
(Dr. Ramsay's), Wheelbali (Bell's), Booligal (Thomas') ; the Lake 
(Waljeers), and Towpruck (held by Nicholas Chadwick). I have 
omitted minor stages, such as Jigelong, Hyandra, Yarrowbendra, 
and Marrin, and Alec. Long's place. At Towpruck, we heard of 
three brothers, named Tyson, who had sheep hard by, and who were 
remarkable for never smoking, nor drinking "grog," nor sleeping in 
a house, nor marrying, but living a pastoral, open air, life of 
temperance and celibacy. I was full of admiration at the idea, for 
I could see what a piled up store of brain pow r er a man could bring 
to bear upon business, if he only kept himself clear of the entangle- 
ments of matrimony and drugs, like alcohol and nicotine ; but, still, 
I should have been inclined to say to such a nearly perfect one, " One 
thing thou lackest ; give up tea and coffee, also ;" for, there can be 
no doubt that, with the use of these drugs, the nerves are not always 
on the exact balance, for the perfect " finance " of faultless business, 
as they would be if no unusual " ups and downs " of wisdom were 
introduced by their noxious agency. The most perfect complexion 
I ever saw in a woman was in the cheeks of an Australian blonde, 
who, not only eschewed stimulants, but, also, avoided tea, coffee, 
cocoa, ginger beer, lemonade, and all "made up" drinks, confining 
herself to the two natural beverages, of milk, or water. There was 
none of the " muddy " skin of indigestion on her face. 

At Lake Paika we delivered our sheep. Our dogs had not been of 
much use, except little " Bos'un," the only one of the four who 
would go all round a mob of 10,000 sheep ; but, so well had we 
watched them at night, that, counting the skins of the slaughtered 
ones in our cart, we found we had only lost two sheep on our long 
journey. At Paika I was inducted into the mysteries of sheep 
washing, and sheep shearing, and yard making, and made the 
acquaintance of the vast tribe of aborigines, who then (1853) still 
were to be found there. Marsh mallows lined the shores 
of the lake, and the nankeen bittern emitted his bull-like 
boom in the forest, while the largest eagles I ever saw flew about. 
One fellow, whom I met walking about in a glade of the gum trees, 
looked big enough to be formidable, even on foot. The river system 
here is peculiar. The banks are low, the water, from the melted 
snow at the mountain sources, overflows every summer tide, and, in 
retreating in the autumn, leaves behind it a fringe of rich gn 
which supports the sheep and cattle, when the outside plains are 



62 THE " MALLEE " SCRUB. 

burnt bare of all herbage by the summer sun, and only the salt 
bush, with its leaves covered with the glittering saline particles, 
would be left for food. There are, in various parts of Australia, 
dense jungles, and undergrowths, called " scrubs ;" some are of vine, 
some of gidya, some of "brigalow," some beautiful in their fern, and 
creeper, and orchid growth, and peopled with birds of rare, and 
startling, cries, like the " coach whip " bird ; the bell bird, which 
seems to tinkle a bell ; and one bird, which whistles a complete bar 
from the drinking song in " Der Freischutz," egfbcge, an 
octave between the e's ; while other scrubs are desolate enough for 
Dante's " Inferno." Of such last is the " Mallee," which covers the 
countiy for hundreds of miles, near Paika, where I now was. If 
the English reader wishes to know what " Mallee " is like, let him 
picture to himself a level country of poor, yellow soil, destitute, 
alike, of stones, water, or inequalities of any kind. This soil is 
covered (as thickly, nearly, as they will grow) with bare saplings, 
12 feet long, and two inches thick, of the Eucalyptus Dumosa, 
bearing a tuft of leaves, only, on the top, and springing, perhaps, a 
dozen of these dreary sticks, from a root, or boll, that rises just 
above the ground ; this only, and nothing more, whatever, of any 
kind ; no birds, no insects, no animals, for there is nothing for them 
to live upon, and only a rare snake. Woe to the traveller who gets 
lost in this terrible desolation ; he can see no distance ; he can climb 
no hill ; and if the " mallee " sticks ivould bear him on the top, he 
could only see Mallee, Mallee, Mallee, all round him. Right pleased 
was I when, some months later, I saw the last detached clump of it 
away south, in the colony of Victoria, near Mount Pyramid and 
Mount Hope. The main body of the awful " Mallee " is on the 
Murray River, in South Australia. 

Mr. John Lecky Phelps, of Canally, where I spent a few weeks, 
was a man much in advance of his time. While other people, for 
150 miles round, had no vegetables, he cultivated a half-acre, on the 
river bank, with potatoes, green peas, French beans, cabbages, and 
he kept it irrigated by a very simple process, for rain was very 
uncertain in that far inland spot. He had a Calif omian wooden 
pump, about six inches square, with its end fixed in the river, and 
about 150 feet of " Osnaburg " hose from it to the top of the garden, 
which was, perhaps, three feet higher than the lower end by the 
river, and, half-an-hour of hand pumping every morning, sent the 
water flowing zig zag, backwards, and forwards, and in, and out, 
through all the well-kept furrows, and beds, of the enclosure, and 
the vegetation was always fresh and green at Canally garden. The 



A FLOODED FOREST. 63 

Messrs. Chaftey Brothers have now (1892) some magnificent irriga- 
tion colonies in this same part of Australia, but the embryo idea 
■was in Phelps's garden, in 1853. 

To return, for a while, to Lake Paika. "We were short of flour, 
and I volunteered to cross the Murrumbidgee, then in flood, and ten 
miles across, and go to Tala, the head station, in a canoe of tree bark, 
and fetch a 200 lb. bag over. Two things were necessary for this — 
namely, a black pilot, and a bark canoe, cut from some tree with a 
hump on its back. " Jacob " was the name of my Palinurus, and 
be, sent on the errand, soon returned with a bark canoe, 12 feet 
long, a flaw at one end being neatly plugged with clay. This was 
duly launched on the flood waters of the river Murrumbidgee, which 
was here ten miles wide ; the forest on each bank being submerged 
to a depth of three feet, for a breadth of five miles ; the main river 
was 150 feet wide, and about 60 feet deep, and flowing clear and 
fast. So long do the flood waters remain out, that beautiful, spongy, 
and filamentary water weeds have time to grow, and gladden the 
eyesight as one glides over them in a canoe, which draws about 
three, or four, inches of water, as it threads its way under the 
stately, solemn, lofty gum trees. Ever, and anon, a bed of high, 
thick, green reeds, in some branch creek, is encountered, and here 
Jacob has to get out, put down his pole, and drag the canoe bodily 
through, as the beds are too long for us to go round. Right and 
left fall the elastic reeds, as we pass through, nearly recovering 
themselves after we have gone on. Strange noises, louder even 
than the boom of the nankeen crane, or bittern, are heard in the 
still, solemn, weird, watery solitude. The day is cloudy, and inclined 
to rain, but Jacob never falters. At length we reach the main 
river, and the punting pole has to act as a paddle, for " no soundings " 
are here. The flooded forest, and the reed beds, of the north side, 
by Paika, are exactly reproduced on the south bank, by Lake Tala, 
the head station, and, after a pretty trip, we land in sight of Tala 
House, where we are to get our bag of flour. During the trip, 
Jacob showed me two specimens of his woodcraft. With his little 
reed spear, he caught, and killed, a big water rat, and, hearing a 
flock of wild ducks, on the other side of one of the reed beds, he sent 
his reed spear unerringly up, so as to fall straight down, with the 
h<;ivy, pointed end, unseen, in the middle of the flock, and was 
rewarded with a transfixed duck, and a rat, for his supper. It is 
only fair of me to state that when he speared the rat, be did not 
know of the "ducks to follow." "We announced our business at the 
head station, and were made comfortable for the night, as we could 



64 A BLACK LAOCOON. 

not return home on the same clay. Here were some white females,, 
of which there were none at Paika, two married women, 800 miles- 
out west of Sydney. "Next day we got our 200 lb. bag of flour into 
the canoe, and returned to Paika with it. 

What a strong sense of locality the Australian aborigine must 
have. Jacob had no sun, and no track, to guide him ; all was water, 
reed beds, and submerged forest, yet he took me that ten miles, 
straight to Tala, and back, next day, to the very tree we had started 
from, the clay previous ; no broken twigs, no landmarks, here to> 
guide him ; nothing but pure, unadulterated, faultless instinct, such 
as no other race, white or black, on this earth possesses. A. 
prominent aboriginal, on Paika, was "Old Bill ;" his native name I 
do not know ; but, if the reader wishes to picture him, then imagine 
the Laocoon, with a black skin, and a white beard, and you have 
this terrible old warrior before you ; a man slayer, a mighty hunter 
in clays gone by, and, even when I saw him, there was much of the 
old fire and strength left in him. No humble follower of the white 
"boss" was Bill, as other blackfellows were; and, the first time I 
heard his voice was in altercation with the superintendent, when, 
at night, in the kitchen, he shouted the words " Wortey toonarpel,"' 
regarding some event of the day, meaning " It's not true, it's a lie," 
" wortey " being the emphatic Murrumbidgee word for " No." 
Differently inflected, it would be shrilly uttered by the smiling 
black girl, if accused of kissing her sweetheart, as " warr-ti," in the 
white girl's tone of "I never did." Old Bill had two pretty 
daughters, aged 14 and 12, called Bessie and Louey, their native 
names being Kuckeelbuckie, and Lymebennaroy ; and, for curly 
hair, brilliant black eyes, and pure white teeth, it were hard to beat 
them. It is the habit here to give each native an alias (not unlike our- 
old English Saxon fashion, of Fitz, Hurst, and Combe, tfcc, or the 
11 Mac " of Scotland, or the " O " of Ireland), by putting the affix 
" ipo " to the name of the place where they were born. Bessie 
was born at Bouripa, so was called Bouriparipo, and Louey, 
Lymebennaripo. I happened one evening, after tea, to say to the 
superintendent that they were pretty girls, and my expression must 
have been quoted to the sable Laocoon, for, soon after, I had a call 
from him, and an offer of the two of them for my wives ; but, a bird 
of passage, such as I was, could not close with the flattering over- 
ture, pretty and innocent as the gills then were. One girl, of 20, 
named Maria, and the wife of Martin, an eagle-eyed black, who was 
the " super's " aide de camp in the field, and who, some blacks 
averred, could see a bullet in its flight, wore the cotton dress of a 




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NATIVE NAMES. 65 

white woman, and stockings and shoes on her small feet, and rode 
"horses astraddle, as coloured women, alike in Australia and Poly- 
nesia, do. 

Some of the native names and phrases are very pretty. " Lycullin " 
signifies a camp, or resting place ; " tenarpogee " is a black swan ; 
" toombarngee " is a sheep ; " cullingharly " is a knife ; " minga 
kiene " means "fetch water ;" and " minna wenarpe " means " bring 
fire;" " koondarley " means "gammon, rubbish, stuif and nonsense," 
the same as " ean-ang-hela " means it on the Barwon, far away to 
the north- east, and is a favorite female reply to ardent, and jocular, 
professions of love. 

Snakes are very plentiful in this Murrumbidgee country, and 
come down from the dry, burning plains, to drink at the edge of the 
flooded ground. Often have I, armed with a " mallee " sapling, met, 
and killed, eight of them in a mile, either just coming to drink, or 
just returning. All sorts ; the dappled, fowl-swallowing, but not 
venomous "carpet" snake; the black, with the red belly; and 
others. The most deadly known snakes of Australia are the three- 
sided death adder ; the brown snake, with the stumpy, rounded 
tail, and yelloio belly ; and the black snake, with the yellow belly. 
A big retriever, or a similar dog, bitten by the brown and yellow 
gentleman, falls at once, and is dead in ten minutes. No cobra, or 
rattle snake, could operate more quickly than this. 

The bare, grassless, summer plains of New South Wales contrast 
strangely with the plains of Queensland, 700, to 900, miles further 
north. In Queensland, the verdant time for grass is midsummer, on 
those magnificent Downs, born of basaltic and volcanic soil, where 
the hardy grasses show six inches of herbage, succulent as green 
oats, and nutritive as wheat ; and, no wonder ; for, these six inches 
above ground are supplemented by six feet of root below ground, 
searching out all the moisture, and enabling the seen part of the 
plant to defy the sun, and the endless cropping, alike ; and these 
Queensland Downs, alone, would cover nearly all France. 

The time had now arrived when B. and J. and I were to be 
Bummoned back to civilization, all, however, on different errands. 
Let me, however, describe the first navigation of the Murray 
River, which took place while I was at Paika and Canally, in 
November, 1853. 

W. C. Went worth's great stations of Tula, Yangar, and Paika, 
were near the junction of the Murray and Murrumbidgee. Up to 
1851, all went well there. The supplies of Hour, and sugar, &C, 
were hauled overland 800 miles, or .'500 miles, from Sydney, or 

V 



66 THE MURRAY NAVIGATED. 

Melbourne side, as might be, by bullock drays ; and the wool' 
travelled back the same road. To provide for contingencies, 
Wentworth kept 20 tons of flour always in stock, and other supplies 
in proportion; but, when the "gold broke out," no Melbourne teams 
would go beyond Bendigo, nor Sydney teams beyond Bathurst. 
They could get more per ton for the short trip, with loading for the 
gold fields than any squatter could afford to pay them for the long- 
trip ; so, when I was at Paika, in 1853, no teams had been up, or 
down, for two years. There were two seasons' wool stored in the 
sheds ; the remainder flour was awfully musty ; boots, saddles, tin- 
ware, " slops," and the like, had, long since, " given out " in the 
store ; when, one fine day, as I rode out with John Lecky Phelps, of 
Canally, we spied the first steamer that had come up the Murray, 
with Governor Young, of South Australia, on board, and under the- 
command of Captain Cadell. We went on board, and had some 
" pawnee," for it was " wond'rous hot " that November day. Still, 
we did not "realize" matters till afterwards. The old sujrplies, in 
the days of the "forties," dragged wearily overland, from Maitland, 
or Melbourne, per dray, used to arrive in lots of a ton and a-half, or 
so, to each dray, and smothered in the dust, and caked mud, bags 
worn with the impact of the dray wheels, all dirt, and bad order, at 
best. But, mark the contrast of the steamer from Adelaide. Clean,, 
white, 50 lb. bags of flour ; clean, white, boxes of loaf sugar, and 
sperm candles ; cases of brandy, spick and span, from the bonded 
stores, at Adelaide ; everything clean and new ; and 100 tons of it,. 
too, all tumbled ashore (as if from the clouds), on the river bank. 
Not a miserable 30 cwt. of it (ex dray), and covered with dirt at 
that. It was an era in one's life, and in that of Australia's. The 
engorged wool sheds were quickly relieved of their contents, and the 
price of Pviverina station property went up 50 and 100 per cent, 
straight away. In order to give an idea of Riverina, and Northern 
Victoria, at this date, I will transcribe a few items from my diary. 

December 10th, 1853. — Steamer again came up the Murray. I 
found that she would not return to Goolwa till January ; heard of 
Buchanan's teams going from Yangar to Melbourne at once, and, 
so, resolved to go witli them, having sold my horse. 

December 11th. — Walked from Canally to Yangar; lunch with 
Frank Todhunter, of Sydney, and went on with Constable Lalor to 
W. P. Buchanan's teams. 

December 12th. — Awfully hot in the mallee ; carried water for 
bul locks ; got to Talbett's, on the Wakool River ; met Captain 
Cadell, of the steamer ; also, James Morris. 



FROM SWAN HILL TO MELBOURNE. G7 

December 13th. — Swam the bullocks across the Wakool ; got to 
" Poon Boon," on the Edwards, and met with great hospitality. 

December 14th. — Reached the Murray reed beds, and camped 
al fresco by them ; cold, and south wind, in the night. 

December 15th. — Bullocks strayed, and started late; crossed the 
Murray, at Swan Hill, by moonlight, and put up at Rutherford's 
Hotel; ale, 8s. per bottle ; new style of squatter, in plaid jumpers, 
visible here. 

December 16th.- — Steamer came up to Swan Hill, which we left, 
and passed through a bog before we got to camp. 

December 17th. — Passed the missionary station for the blacks ; 
travelled 20 miles, and camped by a swamp, and some pines. 

December 18th. — Passed Reedy Lake, and got to the inn at 
the Loddon; no meat there; a fearfully hot day on the shadeless plain. 

December 19th. — Rainy morning; started, at 3 a.m., to tackle 
the 20-mile plain ; got across by 10 o'clock ; and camped by the 
Serpentine River. 

December 20th. — Another terribly hot day ; arrived at the 
" Durham Ox," on the Serpentine. 

December 21st, 1853. — Heat worse than ever ; got to the 
" Serpentine " Inn ; got some dinner, and a bath ; very wet night. 

December 22nd, 1853. — Bailed up by rain; bullock driver got 
drunk. 

December 23rd. — Travelled 18 miles, to Bullock Creek ; saw men 
splitting slabs. 

December 24th. — Passed Campbell's ; camped at Bullock Creek ; 
washed some tailings ; and yarned with a miner. 

December 25th. — Walked to the " Porcupine " Inn ; traffic some- 
thing tremendous ; met 200 drays ; so strange, after all the months 
of solitude ; reached " Sawpit Gully " at 5 p.m. 

December 26th. — Picked up a real "live" coach, at Kyneton ; 
could not wait to see my friend, F. Arthur, an old ship mate ; 
arrived at the " Bush " Inn, at nightfall. 

December 27th. — Arrived at Melbourne, at half-past one ; tents, 
now, all the way from Prince's Bridge to Liardet's boat shed ; 
got hair and beard trimmed ; went on board the " Maitland," or 
" Diamond," at 3 30, and she put us on board the " Harbinger," 
screw steamer, by 6 p.m. ; played chess with the captain, and 
Mr. M'Donough. 

To go back for a moment to Paika. Burne and James left for 
Sydney, vid Wagga, with a black, called "Jimmy the Rover," for a 
guide in the first stages, and, for myself, the long spell of bush 



68 MELBOURNE IN 1853. 

solitude was finally broken at Bullock Creek, for I had hardly 
met one traveller between Dubbo and Bendigo, except some 
Americans, who had been to the M'lvor, and who had wonderful 
tales to tell of gold (1853) in some badly-watered, level country, 
away back from the Lachlan, which, I suppose, was the subse- 
quent "Lambing Flat," or some neighboring diggings, of the 
" sixties," where the Forbes, and Young, and Parkes townships 
now flourish. Passing Carlsruhe and Mount Alexander, I now 
came to a country which, so far from being lonely, much resembled 
Greenwich Fair, for the road side was lined with tents, and booths, 
where " refreshments " could be purchased ; and from that time 
forth, all the way to Melbourne, there was no solitude, for about 
80 miles. I passed places, small then, but afterwards much larger, 
known as Gisborne, &c, all seen in succession. Flemington, 
the now renowned scene of the great money-making, and money- 
losing, " Cup " race, was, then, a dusty, desolate level, with very 
unpicturesque, white-stem gum trees, giving no sign, or forecast, 
whatever, of the lovely lawns and flower gardens, and unequalled 
race course, of 30 years later ; and then came Melbourne itself, 
where, I am bound to say, there was some considerable life, and 
bustle, to be seen, compared with what was apparent when I had 
last been there, in May, 1851. There was not much extension of 
buildings, however, for "labour" was away at the gold mines, and 
was not available ; but, when one surveyed the scene from Prince's 
Bridge to the beach at Sandridge, where, two years before, all was 
grass, there was now a myriad of crowded tents, which covered the 
face of the earth just there. Here was the tract of ground, where 
wholesale and impudent robberies were perpetrated on newly landed 
people, in broad day light ; no one was safe. I was told that a band 
of 1 4 newly landed, and armed, young gentlemen, walking from the 
beach to Melbourne, from a " Black Ball " liner, were set upon by 
23 armed ruffians, and i"obbed, and one of their number killed. 

I embarked in the " Harbinger," one of the same line as the 
" Jason," " Croesus," and " Argo " (afterwards so famous in the 
Black Sea, at the Crimean war), on board of which was Mr. G. S. 
Caird, now of Sydney, as passenger from England. We went out 
of the Heads (guiltless, then, of all their present powerful forts), in 
company with the paddle steamer " London," of the Dundee and 
Perth line, which had been pressed into the colonial coastal service ; 
and the sea was like a mill pond, as we passed " Rodondo," and the 
other island " institutions " of the straits, and were, at one time, so 
close to the " London," that I could see a lady in her berth, through 



VICTORIAN HISTORY. 69 

the roomy stern ports of that luxurious packet. A mistaken 
impression prevails that the bill of fare was " rough " on board 
Australian steamers at that date. All I can say is, that on board 
the " Harbinger," 1,100 tons, in December, 1853, a written menu 
was placed by the plate of every saloon passenger at dinner time, an 
attention which I failed to observe when travelling by a P. and O. 
steamer, of 6,000 tons, from Melbourne to Sydney, in the year 1888 ; 
and, not only was the menu written out, but it was a menu well 
worth the writing out, also. 

With the exception of a few hours spent there, in passing through, 
in 1853, I never saw Melbourne from early 1851 to late 1888, when 
I, of course, approached by the railway, and Albury route, and not 
vid Swan Hill. Heavens ! what a metamorphosis was there I 
Thirty-eight years of gold-fostered development ! A royal city, 
then, in every sense of the word. But, then the other changes, 
which do not appear on the surface, but which all bore their part. 
The Governors, from Latrobe, and Hotham, to Loch and Hopetoun ; 
the Premiers, and Cabinets, from the days of Ebden, Ireland, 
O'Shanassy, Michie, Fellowes, Haines, Nicholson, through the era 
of Harker, Heales, M'Culloch, Francis, and Berry, down to the 
modern times of Gillies, and Munro. What a chapter, or, rather, 
what volumes, of Victorian history do they represent. The social 
growths ; the " ups and downs " of fate ; the constant onward 
progress since the good old days when Thomas Howard Fellowes, and 
his colleagues, of the Victorian bar, took part in those glorious, 
witty, social, circuit dinners and suppers of that bygone time — well 
on in this same nineteenth century, perhaps, but still far back in the 
growth of the young giant, known as the colony of Victoria. 

But I am on my way to Sydney, in the " Harbinger," just now. 
and we duly arrived in time for Christmas, of 1853, and then it was 
put to me, by one of my friends, in Sydney, as to whether I should 
rejoin the Bank, or take a free one-fourth interest, as manager, in a 
Darling Downs station, or, open mercantile agencies in Brisbane, 
Moreton Bay. Employment was not scarce in early 1854. The 
gold business had robbed the market of clerical, and manual, labour, 
alike ; so, I had a plentiful choice of openings. The Bank, with its 
indoor life, often till 10 p.m., was out of the question. Labour was 
scarce in pastoral pursuits, and hampered them much ; while the 
gold had given such expansion to mercantile business, that I hail no 
difficulty in selecting the outdoor life of a commercial traveller, and 
agent, in the new land of Moreton Bay, doing the rounds of 
the Darling Downs and Burnett districts every six weeks, or so. 



70 

Leaving New Holland for a time, we will — before turning to my 
Queensland reminiscences — follow the fortunes of Walter Delpard, 
in London. Long sea voyages have often been described, and by 
charming writers, such as the Hon. Emily Eden (Lady Auckland), 
in 1836, in her graphic, and womanly, letters between Calcutta and 
England, and no one can hope to improve on her style. Walter is 
on board the good ship " Parramatta," the last of the dear old 
wooden, Sydney-trading, " frigate built," family-carrying ships, with 
her ample quarter galleries, and roomy " chains," and gorgeous 
figure head ; short on the keel, by comparison with the P. and O. 
" liners," but with an equally long pro rata allowance of promenade 
deck. What a history, what a book, might be written on the 
families carried " home," first and last, by the " Vimeira," 
" La Hogue," and " Parramatta !" What an epitome of early 
Australian times it would be ! Sometimes, the dreary " Horn " 
and the icebergs would be " dodged," by taking the westerly route, 
vid the Cape of Good Hope, in February, and, certainly, it teas a 
great improvement. In 86 days from Sydney, the " Parramatta " 
was boarded by a fisherman's boat, off Brixham, in the Channel, and 
that most delicious of all fish, fried soles, with anchovy sauce, 
greeted the palates of the voyagers from the antipodes, in exchange 
for a bottle of Queensland rum, the older samples of which are, now, 
the best in the world, for, the early Queenslanders had not, at one 
time, learnt the West Indian art of distilling the maximum of rum 
from the minimum of sugar. Three days after this, the rainy flats 
of Gray's Thurrock were seen on the right hand, and soon Walter 
was ashore in the city of London, where, passing the wondrous 
docks, Cheapside, St. Paul's, and the rest of it, he found himself at 
(what we will call) the " Ashburnham " Club, at the western end of 
London, (a great "house of call" for Australians "at home,") 
preparatory to using his numerous letters of introduction. 

The first thing that struck Walter, in the city, was the comparative 
darkness, after Australia — the grey, cool, dim light, so grateful, in 
moderation, to the hepatic patients, burnt up with the sunny glare 
of India, but so strange to the healthy, young, country-bred 
Australian. Another matter, which struck him as strange, was the 
intense, the — to him — unaccustomed, and almost unwholesome, 
vivid and " rank " looking green of the fields, both meadow and 
crop bearing, a green which, in Australia, would, at once, suggest ideas 
of " blown " cattle, and bovine mortality, in that land of wholesome, 
but sober coloured grasses. And, here, a few words on the edibles 
of England and Australia. 



BREAD AND MEAT. 71 

First of all, wheat and bread. Here Australia reigns supreme. 
Spanish wheat is better than English ; Australian better than 
Spanish ; I speak not here of damp New Zealand ; but the dry 
climate of South Australia produces a glutinous, nutritious wheat, 
which makes a bread unapproachable for excellence. In meat, 
England, with its pastures fed over, and renewed, for 800 years, 
bears the palm for sweetness, though some of the untravelled beef 
and mutton of Australia, fed on the rich herbage of the basaltic 
uplands, and killed, and eaten where it was born, is a remarkably 
good second to England's first. Few people in Australia have ever 
tasted a really good mutton chop ; few people in England a first-class 
loaf of bread ; and, strange to say, that neither of them are aware 
of their loss, so, there is but little harm done. Wine, in Australia, 
will be a great " institution " by-and-by. Amongst a sea of rubbish, 
made by amateurs from unsuitable grapes, one comes, now and then, 
across some "fluke" of a vintage, that has lain, forgotten and 
unsuspected, in some fool's cellar for years, and which serves to show 
what the place is capable of. " Verdeilho," at £1 a dozen, by whose 
side the finest " Riidesheimer " of the Rhine, at 90s., must needs 
" take a back seat." Wine, that hugs the glass like oil, and before 
which the best still champagne, montepulciano, and the rest of them, 
must hide their diminished heads, not to mention that liqueur-like, 
and scented, " Brown Muscat," which, now and again, manages to 
escape from South Australia, and is, happily, drunk in other lands. 

But we have left Walter Delpard, alone in London, and must look 
him up again without more ado. The smoke-begrimed, but noble, 
old Italian pile of St. Paul's struck his soul deeply with a new born 
sense of awe and beauty ; the endless labyrinth of streets (an easy 
book to a born cockney) was to him as bewildering as the trackless 
forests of Walter's home would have been to the Londoner, lost in 
the bush. He called on his father's London agents, Messrs. 
Ransome and Son, and was asked to dinner, of course, and they had 
a long talk over Australian, pastoral, and other affairs. 

Mr. Edmund Ransome had a beautiful villa and grounds (old, and 
park like) in the vicinity of Epping Forest; and Walter Delpard 
liked visiting there, and soon grew to be a frequent guest. The old 
LT'iitleman was one of the few remaining types of the bygone school 
of London merchants, aquiline, and stern looking, scanty haired, 
and smooth shaven on the firm mouth and prominent chin, a 
disciplinarian in business and family matters, alike ; of irreproach- 
able honour in mercantile affairs, and a worthy successor, in form 
and style, of his father, and grandfather, whose portraits, in powder 



72 EPPING FOREST. 

and pigtails, looked down from their cabinet frames in the breakfast 
room of the old Essex house, situated where the south-western 
borders of the Forest merged into the venei-able hamlets of Ley- 
tonstone, Woodford, Chigwell, and the rest of them. The house 
had once belonged to the Van Voorsts, an old and noted political 
family, the last male scion of which had perished, with all others, 
on board the missing, and never again heaixl of, frigate " Aurora," 
on board of which he was proceeding to India on a delicate 
diplomatic mission, on behalf of the Crown, after the days of Clive, 
and before "Warren Hastings. The quaint old iron gates opened on 
to a pleasant green lane, bordered by a purling brook, and all 
buttercups and daisies ; the brook was full of oozy water plants, and 
small fish, and went to feed the waters of the Lea River, which, 
graced, then, with a high, old, ricketty, wooden bridge, flowed, some 
miles away, past cosy fishing inns, whose parlour walls were 
garnished with stuffed pike, the trophies of dead and gone anglers, 
and adorned with coloured wood engravings of the past century. 
Old hostelries, where the talk was all of fishing, and cockney punt 
exploits, and where the cordials were more drinkable than the 
" hard " ale was. 

Ransome's house had been built at that period of the seventeenth 
century, when contractors used to put in plenty of work and 
material, abundance of wood and brick, for the money. There were 
old trees in the ground, higher than the roof of the mansion itself, 
and, in the enclosure, was an old round tower of flint and mortar, 
hard as granite, of an antiquity past judging of, and with a deep 
brick well in the centre of it ; and we must now introduce the 
reader to the family. 

Edmund Ransome had five sons, and only one daughter, Jane, 
whom Walter Delpard found this evening alone, and standing before 
the drawing room fire, previous to dinner, occupied in warming a 
neat foot on the fender. There w r as not much variety of colour 
about Jane Ransome that evening. Her shoe sole was white, and 
the kid upper, black, and nearly nine inches long, and an open work 
black silk stocking showed a very white instep beneath (the 
Ransomes had dealt, for generations past, at one shoe shop in Soho 
Square, which bore the Royal Arms, and where " Georgius Rex " 
had dealt from 1730 to 1830), and the black and white were 
continued in her dress, collar, and cuffs. Her hair was a pretty 
gold yellow colour, and gloriously abundant ; her eyes, a dark, 
luminous brown. JSTot a beautiful face, in the style of Walter's 
sisters, but, to him, a very winning and attractive one, in the house 



JANE RANS0ME. 73 

near the old London road that wound thence, over hill and dale, to 
Epping (where they make those undeniable pork sausages), and so 
on to Newmarket (where they do some equally undeniable horse 
racing). 

Jane was the only being in the world who could coax that man 
of iron, her father, in his Leadenhall street office, or make him alter 
his mind, on any subject, before the Eastern Counties railway 
carriage had borne them past the sound of the pealing chimes, which 
echo from the lofty spire of St. Leonard's, in Shoreditch. 

Of the five sons, one was his father's partner ; another a leading 
auctioneer, in Moorgate street ; one was a Mincing Lane broker ; 
and one a wine merchant at Cadiz. 

W. and J. had a long talk before the rest of the family came into 
the room, and, as usual, nearly all of questions about Australia, 
which left Walter but little opening to air his impressions of 
London. He was, like his sister Laura, dark, with curly hair and 
beard, and with all that chest and shoulder development that comes 
of an active bush life ; for, your Achilles is as symmetrical in his way 
as your Venus. Jane often, afterwards, admired his free, firm seat 
in the saddle, so different from the riding-master style of many whom 
they met in their numerous excursions in the green lanes of Essex, 
for Jane was a white Diana, on horseback, on her dapple bay 
" Dragon," as well as in her bathing costume at Hastings. 

Said Jane to Walter, " I must say that I rather like the few 
Australian gentlemen I have seen. They appear to be more manly 
than the military, or mercantile, men I have met here." 

" No great wonder in that," said Walter, " for men in the colonies 
soon learn the lesson that what is known as ' comfort ' is not the 
be-all, and end-all, of life. They don't, by any means, object to 
comfort, if it happens to come in their road ; but, as a rule, they 
sacrifice nothing, in the shape of duty, for the sake of it. When 
comfort is thus made a very secondary consideration, it is surprising 
how soon it ceases to be a necessity. People, in England work in a 
groove, the foundation has all been laid for them, and their work, 
long ago, and there is little to evoke manliness, compared with what 
is found in raw Australia, where, in the bush, each man who wants 
to succeed must think, plan, fight, and originate for himself. Tt 
would," continued Walter, " be worth the while of any one, who felt 
himself to be defective in wholesome manly feeling, and who bad 
money and time to spare, to travel for a few months, or yens, in 
Australia, not in the big cities, which are as civilized and effeminate 
as London, and not in the usual tourists' route either, but into the 



74 ABOUT CATHEDRALS. 

interior, amongst the sheep and cattle stations, the mines, and the 
plantations ; he would learn lessons at every step, would have to 
shift for himself, and face, and bear, much ; he would meet men 
with iron grey beards, nt an age, ten years earlier than is usual in 
Europe, but men, none the less, well worth mixing with, and 
knowing ; men who had fought the battle of life, suffered, no doubt, 
but conquered all the same ; men who had pluckily adapted them- 
selves to evei'y contingency of the bush, that had turned up ; men, 
more useful and fit, for Heaven or earth, than the bulk of those bred 
in a city, with the civilization of 800 years ready piled up all around 
them." 

Jane's honest eyes sparkled with delight as she listened to 
Walter's peroration (her Walter, as she was beginning to think him) 
as he thus painted, in words, her own fond ideal of a man, and, what 
she might have said in reply will never be known, for, at this 
juncture, the rest of the family, and several of the guests, entered 
the room, and dinner was shortly afterwards announced. 

Now, a dinner in this part of suburban Essex, as it may be called, 
is not invariably a la Hitsse, or a Frenchified affair of plats and compotes. 
Here, at " The Priory," was a table service of porcelain, and silver, 
that had done duty long before Waterloo was fought. Roast turkey, 
Devonshire "junket," draught ale, and the like, are all most 
unfashionable ; and rhubarb pie must not be mentioned with 
Nesselrode, and ice pudding. 

" And so you admired St. Paul's, did you, Walter " (said Vincent 
Pansome, the second son). " I applaud your taste, for there is 
nothing in the world, in its own style, to equal it ; but, you should 
also see the spires of Antwerp and Strasburg, for their Gothic 
beauty." — -" Not forgetting," chimed in old Mr. R., " Salisbury, 
York, and Norwich, in this country. For my own part," continued 
the old gentleman, " give me Vienna steeple for a perfect Gothic 
■exterior, and Toledo altar for an interior." 

" Oh ! Papa," said Jane, " you must not forget Milan and 
Freiburg, and the dear old bits of carving we have seen at Chartres, 
■and in Flanders, and the Palais de Justice at Brussels." 

"Has no one a word to say for St. Peter's, at Rome? " chimed in 
Fred Batwing, the mining broker, of Copthall Court. 

" Well," said Mr. Ransome, "it is big, but not beautiful. Michael 
Angelo was a divine sculptor, but his buildings have not the gem 
like beauty and harmony of Wren's." 

"Yes," said Walter, with a glance at Jane, " I mean to 'do ' all 
these before I go back to Wyndomel." 



MAXILLA FIRE-FLIES. 75 

"You have a line climate there," said Jane. 

" Yes," said Walter, " it would do you good to see some of the 
poor invalid refugees who come to us, at times, with their lungs 
punished by the icy blasts of southern, and rainy, New Zealand, or 
the changeable Melbourne ; they open their chests, draw in our dry 
air, and all recover, if they only come in time. There was the Rev. 
Dr. Arnwood, carried ashore, apparently dying of consumption, and 
he lived 25 years afterwards, preached, kept a school, and had seven 
children, and died of a different complaint altogether. Men, who 
get ' hit ' in the liver with us, in Australia, have to get a thorough 
change in New Zealand, where there are neither snakes nor gum 
trees, as in Australia, and which differs from it in all respects — 
damp, rainy, breezy. Maori land will soon fetch a ' liver ' man 
round, if his lungs be all right." 

" Are your snakes dangerous in Australia V asked Fred Batwing. 

" Some, very much so," said Walter. " Snakes and crocodiles 
abound all through, from tropical Australia to the Malayan Islands, 
and the Philippines, where I once was," continued Walter ; but 
it is very delightful to swing, at sunset, in a grass hammock, at 
Manilla, and smoke a cigarette in the evening of a hot day, when the 
glass is below 80°, in the forest breeze, and to hear the senoritas play 
the guitar, and sing songs about 'mi corazon;' as nice, but in a 
different way, I suppose, as a summer picnic at a ruined abbey, or a 
moonlight boating with some of the pretty girls of old England." 

" Oh, indeed, Sir " (thought jealous Jane), " I wonder if you have 
a sweetheart at Manilla, and I'll find out too." 

Walter went on to say, " The fire-flies at night, the scented air, 
the balmy temperature, and the pretty girls, in their ' pina ' (pine- 
apple fibre) dresses, little, grass-plaited shoes, or bare feet, or wooden 
clogs (Japanese fashion) would make the place a lazy man's 
paradise ; but, when the ladies smoke, and, also, at times, spit, it 
rather spoils it." Jane felt relieved. 

There was a young American married lady at the dinner, a 
Mrs. Tripman, native of Louisiana ; her husband, of New York. 
She spoke French fluently, and English quaintly, as, for instance, 
when Jane admired her friend's natty shoe-bow, she replied, "Yes; 
that's rale cunning, isn't it 1 ?" and you might have guessed at her 
southern origin, by the way in which she preferred some (batata) 
sweet potatoes (which Mr. Ransome had somehow got from the 
Mediterranean) to the best of English ones. She was an exqui ite 
pianist, and the music and variations she could extract from Buch 
airs as "Jenny Jones," and "The girl I left behind me," stamped 



76 GYMPIE GOLD. 

her education in that line as perfect ; and, by-and-by, when Jane 
gave the gentlemen the gems of " Lucrezia " and " Pasquale," and, the 
two girls, the " Naples Quadrilles," as a duet, the company were all 
English enough in their tastes to like it as well as Schubert's 
" Au bord de la mer," for Donizetti was Jane's champion, all 
through, in music ; but we anticipate. 

Walter had paid a visit to the British Museum that day, and, like 
some educated Australians, went straight for the minerals, rather 
than to the Elgin Marbles. Fred Batwing asked him what he thought 
of the mineral show. 

" I was chiefly struck," said Walter, " with the way in which 
nature repeats herself in distant parts of the world in minerals. 
There is green stained, coppery quartz, flecked with gold, from the 
Ural Mountains, in Russia, which could hardly be distinguished 
from the same as found in Central Australia, and at Morinish, near 
Rockhampton, in Queensland. There is gold in black tourmaline 
(or schorl) from the west coast of Africa, and found no where else 
in the world, apparently, except at the Cloncurry River, in North 
Queensland." 

"I suppose your colony is very rich in gold, Mr. Delpard." 

" Well, speaking from memory, I can quote some instances. At a 
place called Gympie, they got 335 lb. weight of it in 365 lb. of 
quartz ; and, when the 700 lb. block was shattered by gun-powder, 
small ropes of flexible gold still held the disjointed fragments of 
quartz together, and you might as well have tried to crush lead, or 
Indian-rubber, with the steel stampers, as this rich quartz gold ; and, 
it was only by adding many tons of barren quartz to it, that it grew 
hard enough to lose its golden tenacity, and become tractable powder." 

" Wonderful," was the remark that went round the table. 

" I once saw a block of quartz, from the ' Aurelia ' mine, at the 
same place ; it was about four feet square, and eight inches thick, 
and, from corner to corner, ran, all through, a diagonal seam, of 
spotted gold, five inches wide, and visible on both surfaces. ' Hill 
End,' in New South Wales, used to yield rich patches, also, and a 
piece as big as a man, and, of course, much heavier, looked to be 
nearly all gold. I think it came from Holterman's claim." 

"But," interposed Batwing, "putting rich 'patches' on one side, 
what are your steady yields from Gympie 1 " 

" Well," said Walter, " what do you think of 60,000 ozs. from 
18,000 tons, out of one of the Monkland claims'? and 11,000 ozs. 
from 300 tons, at the ' Wilmot Extended,' both at Gympie 1 Not 
much ' patch ' about that quantity of stone." 



BLACK LABOUR. 77 

" I should like to ask you a few questions, Walter," said Mr. 
Ransome " about the South Sea Island labour, or traffic, or slavery, 
as some of the people here, call it " 

"Well," said "Walter, "it originally arose in this way: Times 
were bad for the settlers, wool was cheap, the skies were dry, and 
grain, and crops, scarce ; the banks were frowning, and accounts, 
too, much overdrawn ; so, some aspiring agents in North-eastern 
Australia, began to cast wistful eyes to the islands, about a couple 
of thousand of miles away, across the Great Barrier Reef, in hope 
of making a rise in a new quarter ; for, all was ' flat, stale, and 
unprofitable ' on the main land, and the only real ' El Dorado ' lay 
' beyant the seas,' in the New Hebrides, and Solomon Islands, where 
so many missionaries, and white men, had already left their bones 
behind. These islands swarmed with cannibal blacks, to whom a 
full square meal was a luxury, and exemption from being eaten, 
moreover, a high privilege. Hundreds of the men were easily 
persuaded to come to Queensland, for a three year, or ' forty moon,' 
term, for 10s. a month, and a guaranteed stomach-full, all the year 
round ; and, as the^ enterprising agents who chartered the schooners, 
could land men for about £3 a head (bounty and barter included), 
and, as they charged £12 a head bonus to the settlers who engaged 
them, and, as the schooners could make several trips a year, and 
carried over 100 ' niggers ' each time, you can imagine there was 
money in the business ; for a settler, or planter, could well afford to 
pay a bonus of £12, in order to get an islander secured for three 
years, at £6 a year, in place of having to give a white man £40 
a year, to do sugar cane cutting ; the food being the same, nearly, 
in both cases, as to cost, the black man's being more plentiful, but 
coarser, and cheaper. And, then, these islanders thus set a lot of 
white labour free to do other, and less menial, work than cane- 
tending ; besides, in the impetus they thus gave to the sugar 
industry, making work, and finding employment for thousands of 
white engine drivers, labourers, wood cutters, carters, horse and 
bullock drivers, and the like, which employment, but for the extra 
coloured labour to start it, would never have existed at all." 

" And what do the black labourers do when their three years have 
expired, and they get their wages?" asked Mr. Ransome. 

"They buy muskets, powder, and ball," said Walter, "so that, 

when they get home to their islands again, they may be able to 

ist the tyranny of their chiefs, who are apt to make slaves of 

them, if unarmed ; and it is strange (continued lie) to note the 

difference between them and our own Australian blacks. These 



78 KANAKA DANDIES. 

latter are squalid, and have no love of finery ; hut the South Sea 
Islanders, who, when they first land in Queensland, have big shock 
heads of hair, like pillows, their black wool all made yellow by the 
application of lime to it ; and with gaping holes in their ears, 
through which pieces of bone are passed ; mere savages and 
cannibals in every look, and glance, and movement ; staring with 
wonder at every well-dressed lady in the streets of Brisbane, or 
elsewhere, these men, when their time has expired, become like 
the old bygone dandy slaves of Baltimore, in Maryland ; and you 
would wonder where they had acquired new tastes so soon ; clad in 
double-breasted, silk-lined sacques of black broad-cloth, with heavy 
gilt watch chain, crossed in front, black silk hat, and pink silk tie ; 
blue silk umbrella overhead ; all these, with black pants and boots, 
and a red hibiscus flower stuck either in the ear, or the button-hole. 
Imagine all this, and you will see how instinctively the savage 
has picked up the ' points ' of the white man's ' best clothes ;' and 
they parade often, hand in hand, like simple children, as they really 
are, in brain and manner (but Herculean all the same, many of them, 
in bone, weight, and muscle) during the few days before they return, 
with their cherished ammunition, to their native islands." 

"Well," said Mr. Ransome, "there is nothing very terrible in all 
this ; but I have heard that they pine, and die of home sickness, like 
the Swiss do." 

" That is a mistaken idea," said Walter. "The fact is, that these 
savages eat inordinately when they come to Queensland ; some of 
them could eat a three-pound loaf and a shoulder of mutton at one 
meal, if procurable : and they thus get into a gross habit of body, 
and, if they happen to catch cold, which is very frequently the case 
in the change from an island, to a continental climate, it takes a 
very heavy hold on them ; and, though the Government provides 
splendid hospitals for them, and has strict regulations as to medical 
attendance, the islanders, unused to sickness and over-feeding at 
home, despair of life at once, and die in a ratio, far exceeding the 
white man's mortality ; for, as I said, they are mere children, and 
know nothing of sickness, or that it is curable. This is the 
secret of their rare recovery, if once really ill. It is from fright at 
an enemy, who, they feel sure, is invincible. They resemble the 
children, too, in their daintiness. Some of the kanakas, when their 
time is up, do not return to the islands at all, but clean boots, chop 
wood, sweep yards out, and so forth, for a living, being well 
rewarded by a shilling, or a good meal. One of the island 'boys,' 
at the home of a friend of mine, was, at first, glad of a lump of stale 



THE "SIESTA" AT BORNEO. 79 

bread, and a bowl of weak tea ; but he soon grew to turn up his 
nose at that, and then he progressed so far as to grow sick of treacle,, 
then of honey, then of jam ; and, after that, he ' boycotted ' stale 
bread, coffee, and cocoa, and would have nothing but new bread, 
fresh butter, eggs, and strong tea, so rapidly did he become 
' educated,' till, at last, his services were dispensed with ; so true is 
it that all inferior black races are mere children in brain." 

" Have you ever visited any other country, before you came to 
England ?" was the next question put to Walter. 

"Yes ; my father sent me, for a couple of years, to be 'broken in ' 
at a merchant's office, in Sydney, and I made a business voyage to 
the Mauritius, where I soon found that you could not face the noon- 
tide summer sun, as at Brisbane, without danger of sunstroke ; and 
I also went a trip to Borneo, and Singapore, and, at the latter place, 
went up country, and saw the gold mines of Malacca — a curious 
formation to an Australian eye — where a soft ' flaky ' slate, which 
you can split with a pen-knife, carries gold between the flakes ; 
nothing like it was ever seen in the Australian gold mines. Borneo 
is one of the most sensible places I ever visited. It is, of course, 
very hot, being under "the line," and the shop people advertise that 
they keep open from 7 to 12, and from 3 to 6, and do the siesta 
business in the middle of the day, when all shops are shut, and all 
trade suspended, an example which might, with benefit, be followed 
in tropical Australia, which will yet have to come to it as an 
institution of daily life." 

Here Mr. Ransome queried : " What of the climate of your North 
Queensland. I have heard of what they call ' Gulf fever ' there. 
What is its nature?" 

"Well," replied Walter, "if people in the same hot latitude as Hayti 
is, will persist in sleeping in the night dews, and let wet clothes dry 
on them, drink new rum, eat unwholesome food, and not enough of 
food at all, and never even see a vegetable, or fish, or fruit, for 
months, and years, together, can it be wondered at if they fall ill with 
malignant fever and ague % Why, under similar conditions of life, 
it would go hard with you, in London itself. I must confess, 
however," continued young Delpard, " that the Australian fever is 
' no gentleman,' in that he never properly ' declares his intentions.' 
The yellow fever, of Rio, is no such ' humbug,' and he lets you know 
at the end of five days, or less, whether you are going to live or die. 
Not so, with the Australian variety. You never know how long he 
will hist, or when you will have done with him, so wearisome and 
tedious are his reiterated relapses, and he is a nuisance indeed. 



80 STATISTICS OP BEAUTY. 

But Australia is a healthy place, compared with America. Look, 
for instance, at Memphis, Tennessee, in 34° north. What a splendid 
article they can raise there, in the way of 'yellow Jack !' And, then, 
take Sydney, in 34° south, and see how much ' vomito nigro ' you 
could raise there at any price, or even 1,000 miles nearer to the 
Equator, in Australia. People who live in weather-proof holdings, 
and eat wholesome food, don't get fever in tropical Australia, which 
is more than can be said of America, or Africa." 

When Walter Delpard's head pressed his pillow that night, his 
thoughts dwelt much on the wistful, earnest face, and the dazzling 
white skin of Jane Ransome, in her becoming attire of black and 
white, and he began to ask himself if he were falling in love. He 
had letters of introduction, from Clement Tyrrell, to friends, near 
Cambridge, which he had not yet presented, and which were sure to 
bring him the acquaintance of plenty more pretty girls ; but, still, 
he doubted if he should ever find another so to arrest his fancy as 
had the " little Essex girl," whom he had found warming her 
handsome foot on the fender, under the Sevres china mantel clock, 
that evening. We are strangely constituted mortals ! Statistics 
assure us that there are " on hand," at any moment, in the world, 
at least five millions of beautiful marriageable girls, between the 
ages of seventeen and four and twenty, and a corresponding number 
of " eligibles " also, of the sterner sex. Nay ! more ! It would take 
any young man 30 years of his life to pass in review before him — 
at a levee, at the rate of one per minute, and working eight hours a 
day at it — all the pretty girls " on hand," on any given day, in the 
world. Yet, each individual Damon and Chloe elects to go mad 
over some one " bright particular star " of the other sex, and he, or 
she, for the time being, totally ignores the claims to admiration of 
the remaining 4,999,999 candidates of the rest of the tribes. They 
shoot, drown, and poison themselves, and, sometimes, even extend 
these favours to others, and all for the sake of some solitary, cruel, 
fair one, who is indignant, perhaj^s (and with some show of reason), at 
their wishing so to restrict her choice amongst the millions of 
available duplicates. Ah ! well, it all comes to this : Love is one 
thing, and philosophy is another. 

But, none of these speculations surged through the brain of 
Walter Delpard, as he lay in the roomy state bed in the old-fashioned 
bed-room in the Essex house. The carved mantel, the wide grate, 
the rich cornices in the ceiling were, even if old, deliciously new 
to our Australian. He dreamt of Jane ; dreamt he had a " tiff" 
with her, in which she showed some of the lion spirit of her father — 



" cm';. " 



ELIAS ENFIELD. 81 

a spirit she could not have shown to anyone whom she did not care 
for — and he woke, opened his window, and let in some of the fresh 
air of East Anglia, and gazed on a scene as un-Australian as could 
Avell be conceived. The old pollarded timber by the brook ; the low, 
thickset, spreading trees ; the bright green, cleared country, all 
mapped out, and divided by the hedge rows ; the church tower, and 
spires, that were, already, giving out warning that Sunday morning 
had dawned, and reminded Walter that they were all to walk to 
church, across the fields, before the 2 o'clock Sunday dinner ; for, 
the carriage never went out on Sundays, except in the case of actual 
need. 

" Tub," toilet, and all, were soon complete, and Walter found 
himself strolling amongst the well-furred, white moss roses, and 
also under the mulberry, chestnut, and walnut trees of the rich- 
soiled garden, adorned with fountain, shells, and the golden carp, 
from China, and he found Miss Jane, prettily costumed in mauve 
and white, wetting her dainty little bottines (made to measure, 
of course, at the family shop in Soho Square) in the morning dew. 

" How delightfully new everything in this country is to me, Miss 
Ransorue," said he ; "I do so enjoy everything indoors, and out." 

"Oh !" said she, "wait a little, till you have seen more of it; if 
you be so charmed in the present, how enraptured you will be 
by-and-by. I would give something to be an Australian, and enjoy 
all your new feelings. Mother and I intend to drive you in the 
pony phaeton, and shew you all the " lions " of this part of the 
world. You must see Tottenham Cross, and the ' Seven Sisters,' 
and the ' Bell ' at Edmonton and Entield, where ' Elia ' lived, and 
Epping Forest, and all the rest of what papa calls the ' classic ' 
sights. And, we must not forget the West End, and its picture 
galleries, and the opera, where the chorus and orchestra will, 
perhaps, surprise you, after Sydney ; and we must have Richmond, 
and Hampton Court, and Clieveden trips, all of them solely in 
honour of your noble self. You will see plenty of London life under 
our able tuition." 

Here the breakfast bell rang, and, after tasting fried trout, and 
assigning it, instanter, a high place in the gastronomic institutions of 
the mother country, breakfast being over, Walter, not joining in 
th<- early morning cigar, that two of Jane's brothers indulged in, 
was ready, in good time, for that pleasant walk across the fields 
of buttercups, and wooden stiles, which the church bells had hinted 
at. Dour Church bells ! whence arises your cosmopolitan charm, 
and potent spell, on human spirits 1 What matters it whether old 

G 



82 THE "ANGELUS." 

Cripplegate steeple, by the tomb of Milton, chimes the " Hanover " 

of the sublime Handel ; whether it be the merry peal of St. Leonard's, 

Shoreditch, looking down from its 212 feet of beauty and height on 

the spot where the squalor of North London merges slowly, through 

Hackney, into the healthier heights of Clapton, sacred to the abodes 

of rich old maids, with lucky nephews remembered in their wills 1 

or whether it be the picturesque square tower of St. Jude's, on 

Rand wick heights, by the South Pacific, and Port Jackson, and 

where 

" The proud forefathers of ' swell ' Sydney, sleep," 

sending forth its Sabbath evening bells' tones across the deep, fertile 
valley which separates it from the old South Head road ; what boots 
it which of those, or others, it may be 1 One is carried back to days 
gone by for ever, and dear ones gone with them, and, even the child 
of five years old, seems to recall some former state of existence, as 
it listens to the magic sounds of the vibrating metal, and Beethoven's 
music comes before us again in " Those Evening Bells," and we pass 
on, and the peal grows fainter, 

"Till their swelling, soothing clangour, 
Ever waning, lower, less, 
Dies in distance, like fond anger, 
Melting into tenderness." 
Yes, it is so, that 

" When the ' Angelas ' floats in the mellow air," 

and its companion, the " Ave Maria ;" then, if we have taken but 
one unaccustomed cup of that delicious, and much-to-be-avoided, 
poison called " tea," and lie down, it comes to pass that sweet 
shadows steal in upon us (as on Longfellow at eventide), and " little 
Nell " comes in, alive and well, and we picture her, married and 
happy, in Australia. And we picture sweet Dolly Varden, too. 
She was born (as we all know) in the year of the Lisbon earthquake, 
and we begin to speculate, and wonder, what age Joe Willet's grand- 
children could have been, when dear Dolly's nerves (that tea, again !) 
first began to fail her, with their noise, and whether she sleeps now 
in Clerkenwell, or Finsbury, or Bunhill fields. Give us but one 
cup of that same unaccustomed tea, and one " sough " of the bell 
chimes, and we are off, forthwith, to the realms of imagination, and 
in another, and an artificial world. 

But we must return to our party, which consisted of Jane, her 
father, and two non-smoking brothers. I am afraid that our 
Austi^alian friend heard but little of the service, and thought but 
little of the singing, which was not first-class, by any means ; but 



AUSTRAL PIONEERS. 83 

his eyes dwelt hungrily on the old brasses, and partly defaced 
monumental effigies around, which tilled him with a humiliating 
sense of the newness of all human things in Australia, venerably 
primeval as may be the Avorks of nature there, where the latter 
dame is older than she, anywhere in Europe, is ; and that (if I may 
so call it) archaeological chord, all ready to be vibrated, which 
underlies the nature of so many of us, was powerfully touched in 
Walter. He warmed to those old relics with a fervour which only 
an Australian, of old English blood, could feel ; and the humblest, 
and parti}* effaced, stories told on the broken stones, under the yew 
trees, and told in quaint and ill-spelt English, had an interest for 
him, which no marble and bronze mausoleum of the nineteenth 
century could have ever awakened. 

The Americans are reported to venerate all that savours of 
antiquity in Europe. How much more, then, must the white native 
of Australia, first settled only in 1788 — while the "Mayflower" 
Puritans sailed, as far back as 1621 — feel an awe of the mediaeval 
records, and relics, in Europe ? There is already a flavour of semi- 
antiquity about America ; but, as for Australia, a few still survive 
who were born before she was settled at all. Still, there are 
Australian families proud, indeed, of their military progenitors ; 
Avhose family portraits (in the old-fashioned " rig " of General George 
Washington) are preserved, and who landed, and began life in 
Sydney, nearly a dozen years before he died ; and others, again, who 
came out "free," and at their own expense, in the ships of 1801 ; 
and others, who were "settled" in Sydney in 1795, and 1798. 
These have an Australian pride, as deep-rooted and solid as that of 
the lineal descendants, and representatives, of the nobles of John of 
Gaunt's days, or the old families of Virginia. There has been a 
social metamorphosis in New Holland — as great, in 100 years, as in 
England in 700 of them — and the present " swells " of Australasia 
are more " in touch " with the memory of their recent founders than 
the " John of Gaunt " people are, and can shew you all their grand- 
fathers' letters, and uniforms, and books, and the like. 

It may well be imagined that Jane Ransome, the one sister of so 
many brothers, had a large circle of male, as well as of young lady, 
acquaintances. Educated at a ladies' Seminary, at Upper Clapton, 
and " finished " at a first-class continental pension, her powers of 
mind bad been well cultivated, Many a spruce young fellow, with 
money and position — -the men of Mincing, and eke of Mark Lane 
had worshipped already at the shrine of old Edmund's fair treasure. 
But tin- spirited little queen of East London, keen of wit, ready of 



84 LONDON BANKERS. 

repartee, kept them all at bay, and, in her heart's freedom, was- 
touched by none of them. The " knowing " fellows, the shrewd 
brokers in hemp, jute, wheat, tea, and coals, all " personable " young 
men, faultlessly attired by St. James's street tailors, were surprised at 
her coldness to one, and all, if they ventured to try the game called 
" love " on with Jenny. And Fred Batwing, the cleverest of them 
all, said, one day at the lunch rooms, at Cornhill, to a friend, apropos 
of "J. R., of the Priory" — " Mark my words, that when that little 
lady strikes her Hag, it will be to some ' soft head ' of a fellow, that 
none of us thought to be in the race at all." And, so it was, that 
Walter Delpard, without being (in the least sense of it) soft-headed, 
seemed to her so different, in his Australian freshness, and altogether 
new style of manhood, that he had already made sad havoc in the 
heart of our Essex Cinderella ; and himself was not quite scot-free 
in the encounter (for Providence is, generally, merciful all round, in 
those cases), while he dwelt with admiring eyes on her pale green 
kid glove (No. 6), as it reposed on the chocolate-coloured sleeve of 
her father's coat ; and the strongly perceptive little dame was alive 
to the fact that the delicious heart wounds were not all on her own. 
side. 

We have already denoted the Soho Square shop, where female 
royalty had dealt for 100 years, and it was a tailor, not 50 miles 
from Fenchurch street, who was responsible for those amazing velvet 
collars which always adorned Mr. R.'s unvarying brown coats. His 
bankers were Glyn and Co. ; his father's had been Barnett, Hoares, 
and Co., and this was nearly the only change which two genera- 
tions had worked to the firm. The " Mary Bannatyne " had brought 
him tea from China ; and the " Rambler," fustic to the London 
Docks ; tar, hemp, and flax, per " Agnes," from the Baltic ports, 
and Riga ; other hemps, from Calcutta, and Manilla ; and crystalline 
sugars, from steamy Demerara, were, also, " in his line." 

They got home, again, hungry and happy, to " The Priory,"' 
where "Walter had, for the time, taken up his abode, and they sat 
clown to hare, and saddle of mutton. The talk, at dinner, turned 
on the minerals of Queensland, and Walter explained, that the tropic 
end of the Great Cordillera of Australia had the richest gold, and 
tin, in the world, but that, for want of cheap labour, cheap capital, 
and skilled experts, in the way of managers, the results were not 
what they should be. "Our mineral lodes," said Walter, "differ 
from those in other parts of the world, even as our birds, trees, and 
animals do ; and our lodes, moreover, differ much from each other, 
and you need a skilled chemist, and patient metallurgist, to humbly 



A FOREST TAVERN. 85 

put the tests, and questions of science, to the strange new combina- 
tions of metals met with in Queensland. Your Mexican, or South 
African, mine manager is ' all out ' when he grapples the lodes of 
Australia, and must unlearn much, and learn afresh. If our ores 
could be transported, bodily, to Freiburg, or Swansea, they would 
startle the world ; but, situated where they are, exploited, too often, 
by unscrupulous brokers, weighed clown by costly 'labour,' they 
cannot compete, in the Home market, with inferior ones, which are 
nearer to Europe, and can command cheaper labour ; and the 
probability is, that until certain parties, in Queensland, get rid of 
their craze that God did not create the black man to labour in 
the tropics (or anywhere else, it would seem), which craze will 
probably come to an end after much suffering and ruin ; till then, 
the finest mineral treasures in the world must remain as sealed up, 
as if they were in the moon, or the planet Jupiter." 

After dinner, and cigars, came a stroll for Jane, her mother, and 
Walter, into the village, a mile away, where a noble sign-board, 
swinging high in the breeze, on a lofty pole, and representing a 
white stag, with a gold collar, abutted on the road ; the horse trough, 
just behind it, was shaded under a gigantic old elm tree, with seats 
round the base of it ; and the ancient inn itself was approached by 
a semi-circular road, which curved into, and out of, the main trunk 
line to the north-east counties, and which half circle enclosed a neat 
grass plot, environed by posts and chains, behind which the old 
hostelry itself displayed its two-storey brick beauties to view. 
Through its open windows, in the clay time of Sundays, the snowy- 
white table-cloth was exposed to sight, covered with substantial 
viands, which, once a week, hungry male and female cockneys 
would devour, 'mid a clatter of tongues, knives, and forks, and a 
popping of corks, which befittingly followed on a long walk, or drive, 
from the world's metropolis ; the Avell-furnished bar was redolent 
of lemons, and gold or ruby-coloured wines and cordials, in cut- 
glass bottles, of tempting aspect. " Oh ! " thought Walter, " if I 
could but transport that dear old ' public,' just as it stands, to 
Australia;" and, he would have thought so still more, if he had 
gone up-stairs, to the bed-rooms, and opened the linen presses, with 
the sprigs of lavender between each layer of snowy cotton and flax 
fabric, and the venerable coloured print pictures which adorned the 
walls, representing market carts, and market places, in the days 
of 1780. 

They strolled on, and came to a row of six ancient semi-detached 
h0U86B Cor " villas," as they are now called), with the traditional grass 



H6 WASPS AND GREEN GAGES. 

plot, white posts, and connecting chains (never seen in all Australia),. 
in front of them ; with green bell-pulls, and white wooden gates, 
with green iron gratings in them, all carefully locked, of course, and 
through which the neat-handed Phyllis of the. period was wont to 
reconnoitre the butcher and baker daily, as they disposed the needful 
commissariat supply. Fine old houses, with front gardens and back 
gardens, too, in -which the huge elm trees, in places, pushed the 
brick garden walls aside, with numerous cracks, by the mighty 
side-thrust of their sylvan growth of trunk and root ; where the- 
nests of birds, and the song of birds, graced the trees ; where 
the saccharine green gages, and yellow-downy apricots, ripened on 
the wall, that faced the south sun ; where cruel spielers, in geometric 
webs, daily bit to death tender, and unwary flies, with their curved, 
poison teeth ; the said green-gages, when brought indoors, with the 
sugar coating every crack in their rind, being an irresistible 
attraction to the summer wasp, whereupon the young ladies at the 
boarding school, at No. 5, would take off a slipper of prunella, or 
kid, as might be, and straightway slay Master Wasp on the window- 
pane, and learnt to do it well, too; for, a half-killed wasp had, on one 
occasion, paid Miss Sarah L. such a compliment in her tender flesh,, 
as left its memory long in that same seminary. 

Passing onward, they arrived, at length, at their destination — 
namely, the poorer cottages at the far end of the village, where some 
of Miss Ransome's pensioners lived. Amongst these, was an elfin- 
looking girl child, of some five years, but who was little larger than 
a baby ; whose big head, and shrivelled limbs, told a tale of diseased 
glands, past the art of the village doctor, but which made Walter 
take out his pocket book, and write in it a memo, about the magic 
dugong lard, of Queensland. A wondrous sea-cow is that " dugong," 
a warm-blooded, mammal fish, whose oil and lard cure consumption,, 
and bowel-wasting, and whose flesh is nicer than veal sweetbread, 
or turtle steak, as Brainerd Skinner, the meat preserver, and every- 
thing else preserver, of Brisbane, could readily prove to you. Jane's 
pocket money, a liberal sum, went, a good deal of it, amongst 
these cottages. 

Walking home by a different route, Walter saw, in the hands of 
some children, the, to him, new and curious animal they call a 
"mole." The "Priory" was reached, and some rare good tea 
discussed, and, again, the talk was of the ups and downs of 
Australian squatting life. Walter's father was one of the few, in 
his neighbourhood, who had never owed a bank a penny, for his 
wife's fortune had secured him against that , so, our hero knew 



SHOES AT SOHO. 87 

nothing, by sad experience, about the matter, but he was a perfect 
chronicle of the history of others. 

Jane Ransome, with her mother, next day took Walter for a drive 
right through London, from east to west, so as to let him see the 
streets ; from Tower Hill, through Lombard street, and Cheapside, 
past that colossal pile of harmonious symmetry that sits cooped up 
in St. Paul's Church yard, the finest Italian exterior in the world ; 
along Fleet street, and the Strand, to Charing Cross ; and then up 
to the right, and Regent street, and round to Soho Square, where 
Walter, at the family shoe shop, saw the assistant deftly wield the 
shoe-horn and sandals, as Jane made some " No. 2 " purchases ; and, 
by the way, there are few prettier objects on earth than a new 
sandalled kid slipper, of not more than nine inches in length, ere it 
has grown acquainted with the paths of mud and dust, as it, too 
often, is allowed to do. Light as a feather, shapely as a yacht, 
hygienic, astringent, and antiseptic in its pleasant tan-pit odour, 
it is, with, or without, a foot to correspond, a pleasant sight to dwell 
upon. A foot is as pretty, in its way, as a face, and possesses the 
advantage that it can bear to be stared at, without growing 
embarrassed, as the face does, at times ; and it, at all events, is 
quite unconscious of its beauty, which is more than the face always 
is ; playful, unintellectual, and charming in its restless, unaccount- 
able, floor-tapping ways, the female foot is, most appropriately, 
covered with the skin of that most erratic and playful of all animals, 
the kid ; and, in a thorough-bred woman, it is shapely, and un-aged, 
at 60, as at 16 ; but the same can never be said of the face, even 
of the most high born. 

But Jane did not take Walter to Soho Square to see her ankles, 
for she wanted him to go and have a good rummage at the dim, 
haunted, curiosity shops, in one of the gloomy side streets, where 
they sold old armour, halberds, helmets, weapons, cabinets, oak 
chests, mirrors, and mediaeval " nick nacks," of all kinds, fully sure 
that that would be something quite new to a native Australian ; 
and she also made her eldest brother take him to the fox hunt, not 
100 miles from a place called Branford. Dear old Essex ! Quaint 
in thy ruined halls, and haunted mansions ; pleasant, even, in thy 
swampy fens, where flat and rainy Gray's Thurrock looks out upon 
the departing Australian liners passing Gravesend, all laden with 
their cargo of hopes and fears ; pleasant to our memory, in thy hills 
of strength, and old Roman camps, where a pleasant champaign 
country lies, spread in buttercup and daisy hues, by winding streams, 
below us. Cherished, and never to be forgotten, are thine ancienl 



88 IIAUNTED ESSEX. 

blackberry and oak forests ; and thy merry girls, in muslin, kid 
skin, plaited straw, and all and sundry, the cunning devices of 
feminine charm. Neither the semi-tropical Devon, nor the salubrious 
Yorkshire, with its mountain streams glittering adown the glade, 
and its abbeys of ivy, can hold the heart as do thy level meads, 
redolent of the old German Ocean, of fog and rain. 

All of us must die ; but he who hunts as a man should hunt, will 
cheat grim death for the longest spell. 

" I have lived my life, I have nearly done, 
I have played its grand game, all round ; 
But I freely admit, of the best of my fun, 
That I owe it to horse and to hound." 

Here, in these lines, is the moral of the chase, as healthily set forth 
in that dear old county, where the pens of Dickens, and of Hood, 
the pencils of George Cattermole, Hablot Browne, and Samuel 
Read, have been, alike, exercised, to till us all, with the delicious 
terror of haunted, dilapidated, deep-mossy-moated, rusty gated, old 
Elizabethan mansions, where wicked, pretty women, of Charles the 
Second's day, must have done some curious things, that will not, 
now, let them sleep quietly under the lordly hatchment, in the 
venerable parish church, whose spire just peeps above the trees. 
Walter enjoyed his gallop, with a fox for a kangaroo, and the 
"eastern counties " for the Darling Downs, and he well appreciatad 
a certain " little woman," and her thoughtfulness, and he wished 
that she had been there, too. And, now, for New Holland, once 
more. 




THE SITE OF BRISBANE. 

Brisbane differs essentially from the capitals of the other 
Australian colonies, in scenery. In its infancy, it was simply the 
prettiest country township in New South Wales. It has not the 
Highland " loch " like, and lovely harbour of Sydney, nor the snow- 
clad mountain, of Hobart, to back it up; but it has a winding river, 
as wide as the Thames at London, and below it, and far deeper. It 
has — what Sydney, and Melbourne, and London have not — 
picturesque timbered hills, from 200 to 1,000 feet high, within a 
five-mile radius. It is only ten miles from the sea, in place of 50, 
as London is, and this forms a great element in the scenery. The 
country is quartz, slate, and granite, wholesomer than sandstone, 
and well drained ; and from its hills, of 250 feet, and upwards, 
there is a far reaching view to be obtained, such as neither London, 
or the other places named, can show, from 250 feet of height ; east- 
ward and northward, 50 miles; southward, 80 miles; westward, 
70 miles. You can see to the east the river, the sea, and the 
distant islands of Moreton and Stradbroke ; westward, 70 miles, to 
the giant warder mountains that enclose the Darling Downs ; south, 
to the peaks which border New South Wales ; north, to the ranges, 
which are neighbours unto those overlooking the head waters of the 
Mary, and the Burnett ; a stretch of country, that would blot out all 
Wales, or a great part of Ireland, or Tasmania, can be seen from 
the hill summits in Brisbane, and a combination of river and 
mountain, sea and city, farm and forest, garden and steeple, that 
would make up a notable landscape anywhere ; and, as one 
enthusiastic and clerical climber of the 1,000 feet hill said to me of 
it, " The finest view / have seen, outside of Switzerland." Inside 
the city boundary, the greatest elevation is 300 feet, at " Highgate 
Hill," and, nowhere within the municipal boundaries of London, 
Sydney, Melhourne, Adelaide, or Hobart, is there so high a one as 
this, which fact gives a fair idea of the hill and dale in the capital 
of Queensland. The beautiful estuary of the Derwent, at Hobart, 
is here wanting, and so are the rock capes, and miniature bays, of 
Port Jackson : but there is the 1,000 feet wide river, from 25 to 
100 feet deep, on which the 5,000-ton steamers — which loom so large 



90 BRISBANE, 1854. 

at the Circular Quay, Sydney, and which cannot go up to Melbourne,, 
or Adelaide, at all — appear dwarfed by the great natural features 
around them, as is, also, the case with tall public buildings, that 
would look large anywhere else, as in Sydney or Melbourne, or in. 
narrow streets. And, lastly, Brisbane is the only Australian 
metropolis with good reef gold, and alluvial of the same, within 
ten miles of its General Post Office. 

I sailed from Sydney in the first week of February, 1854, in the 
100-ton wooden steamer " City of Melbourne," once a schooner, 
built on the Yarra while I was there, in 1851, but converted into a 
steamer, with the screw shaft about level within the cabin floor. 
Captain O'Reilly commanded her, and my fellow-passengers were 
Mrs. Geo. Thorn, Mr. F. A. Forbes, and his little girl " Ellie," Mr. 
John Cooling, and Mr. Clai\ke, a Port Curtis squatter. We picked up 
Mrs. R. Little, and her young sister Martha, at Moreton Island, 
where they had been for change of air. 

When I first landed in Brisbane, February 7, 1854, the Sydney 
steamers always berthed at the south side, where Parbury's wharf 
now is. There was a wooden hotel near the wharf, kept by John 
M'Cabe, and then by his successor, John Campbell, and this was the 
house of call for Sydney visitors. Next to this was a genei^al store, 
kept by Daniel Peterson, the father of Seth L. Peterson (afterwards 
known in the Land Titles office). Next to this was a butcher's 
shop, kept by Mr. Orr, which concern has now merged into the 
great " Graziers' Butchering Company." A creek ran up from the 
l'iver here, clothed with a little fringe of scrub, in which the fire- 
flies, on summer nights, disported in brilliant swarms. Where is 
that scrub note 1 Mr. George Appel had an office close by, and, 
further on, was the wharf of Mr. Conolly, the father of the Colonial 
Architect ; and Mr. John Ocock, solicitor, lived on the river bank, 
also. Speaking of Mr. Appel, he was official inspector of stock at 
that time, and a lot of sheep, about 300 in number, were landed, 
with scab in them, and were ordered to be killed, and burnt, at 
once, which was done in an open allotment, in front of Orr's place, 
in sight of all, females and children, who passed by. Volunteers 
(to save time) were pressed into the service, and even the butcher's 
clerk, a college man, had to wield a knife, and, oh ! how he did 
perspire under the unwonted exertion, so different from ordinary 
quill driving. And the wood to burn such a heap of carcases was 
another heavy drain on the limited resources of " our village," in 
order to be up to time with it. Messrs. J. and G. Harris had a 
store on the south side then, pending the building of their wharf 



grenier's. 91 

and store in Short street, North Brisbane. The only other 
establishment of any note, near there, was Mr. Kent's chemist's 
shop, and Geo. Toppin's, the baker ; and I believe the Melbourne 
street railway extension now goes over this place, and erases from 
view, even the very site of Thomas Grenier's well-kept hostelry. 
It was pleasant then, in the old winter days of Moreton Bay, to 
arrive, at sunset, from a long bush journey, or ride, in the sharp, 
cold, clear air, loaded with the wattle scent, just as the sun was 
sinking in a gold red fringe, to come to any good hotel (such as 
Grenier's, for instance), and be sure of a good supper and fire, safe 
for a cheery welcome, and lively company. There was plenty of all 
of it then, and I fancy I can, even now, see Dr. Dorsey, on 
" Mameluke," at eventide, about to alight, but, first of all, enquiring 
from that stately little lady, Miss Eliza Grenier, on the verandah, 
whether the hotel was full, or not, a question which it was always 
needful to put in the days of the Crimean war, and of numerous 
travelling squatters. At that time, old Martin Feeney, a military 
sexagenarian, was the gaoler of Brisbane, and his wife was, in after 
years, lost in the burning of the " Fiery Star," ship, from Brisbane 
to London. Robert Cribb was, at this date, prominent in politics, 
in Brisbane, in the battle of the free people versus coolies and 
convicts; he was (so to speak) the "John Pascoe Fawkner" of 
Brisbane ; the same sterling democrat, and the same small thin, 
fearless, manly facer of stormy political meeting and opposition, 
that the old Melbourne pioneer was. 

The busy Woolloongabba, and the bustling " Five Ways," were 
then uninhabited, and known as the " One Mile Swamp," where 
Daniel Junkaway's cottage stood, at the turn off to Ipswich, and 
where his bullocks (for he was a " bull puncher ") grazed in the 
pellucid water and grass that no drought could dry up. A dense, 
sweet, wattle-scented grove extended the whole way round what is 
now called " River Terrace " to Kangaroo Point, and in it could be 
picked up, as late as 1857, the skulls of blackfellows, who had fallen 
in tribal fights, years before. Hockings's nursery was on the river 
bank, higher up, and Captain Taylor Winship (afterwards of Cleve- 
land) had a nice orange, and fruit, and flower garden, between 
Hockings's and the ferry, which was just below where Victoria 
Bridge now is, with those wonderful, penny fare, ferry boats, of 
Brisbane, with their roomy seats, and their absolute safety, for, not 
once, in 60 years, has one of them drowned a passenger, though 
many a volunteer oarsman has shown off", before the ladies, how /" 
could row. Greatly scandalised once, was Win. Uaxtcr, lessee of 



92 QUEEN STREET, 1854. 

the Brisbane ferry, when a captain of an immigrant ship pulled up 
from the bay, and, stopping at the ferry, asked Baxter noiv much 
further up it was to Brisbane 1 J. P. Wilkie, of Daandine, lived 
round at Hill End then, but all between was a forest wilderness. 
And now for a glance at North Brisbane, as it was when I first 
saw it. 

St. John's Church was building, and was not consecrated till 1855, 
about the time when Captain O'Reilly illuminated the " Boomerang " 
steamer, in the reach below, in honour of the fall of Sebastopol ; but 
St. John's Parsonage was a fact, all the same. Church service was 
conducted in the little building, which still survives, at the back 
of the " Longreach " Hotel, and I well remember one Sunday, when 
Captain Geary's (harbour master) bull-dog had impiously ensconced 
himself under one of the seats, he was sent out flying, and 
conscience-stricken, with his tail and ears down, by a terrific 
resonant sneeze from an elderly maiden lady, which sneeze, he 
concluded, was addressed solely to himself. Queen street ran up 
hill and clown dale at its own sweet will, then. On the left side 
was R. S. Warry's grocery and spirit store ; further on, came 
Markwell Brothers' tailoring place, and D. F. Roberts' (solicitor) 
office. Ambrose Eldridge's chemist shop (now Mrs. Beesley) had 
just passed to Dr. F. J. Barton, who, in 1850, took over the typhus 
fever patients in the ship " Emigrant," after its surgeon, and the 
•Government Health Officer had both died of it. Further on, 
Reuben Oliver had a place similar to Warry's. The " Australian " 
corner was occupied as a store by Mr. Charles Trundle, senr. ; 
further on W. Mason sold tobacco, and G. Adkin sold shoes, and 
Mat Stewart kept a public-house where Stewart and Hemmant now 
are. David Peattie came next, and R. A. Kingsford had a two- 
storey brick drapery store, also. 

There was nothing more of any great note on that side of the 
road, till you came to old Andrew Petrie's house — blind, but 
intelligent, Andrew. If my memory serves me, the first time I 
saw the inside of it, with P. L. C. Shepherd, of Sydney, was on one 
occasion when Miss Edmonstone, a bonny daughter of old George E., 
a " flesher," from the " north country," was there, and Miss Petrie 
{afterwards Mrs. Ferguson) showed to Shepherd's and my wondering 
•eyes, the variety of beautifully coloured jams and jellies that could 
be made from rosellas, and native fruits, in Brisbane. Across the 
street was the little den of a Custom-house of the period ; then 
came Richardson's wharf (now Bright's), where I first started 
business in Brisbane ; and Daniel Rowntree Somerset had the 



P. L. C. SHEPHERD. 93- 

upper floor, a kindly, honest, simple-hearted gentleman, all too easily 
imposed upon, as witness the following : Captain John Murphy, 
of the barque " Bella Vista," was a bluff, bold seaman, and never 
" stood on repairs " much, any more than did Brown, of the 
" Raven " schooner. One day Murphy brought the barque up the 
river, all sail set, with such a vigorous rush, that her flying jibboom 
went through the shingles on the roof of Somerset's wharf shed. 
Murphy hauled off clear, anchored, and was ashore in his boat 
instanter, and in the upper oflice. " Come out on the wharf for a 
moment, Mr. Somerset," said he, and Mr. S. did so. " Do you see 
those goats on the roof of the shed, and those loose shingles'?" said 
Murphy. "Indeed I do, Captain Murphy, and I had no idea, till now, 
they were such destructive animals ; I am much obliged to you for 
telling me of it, and I will see that it does not happen again." I do 
trust that Murphy repented, afterwards, of this unspoken taradiddle. 

Then, up the river, were Dr. Simpson's cottages, inhabited by 
Dr. Hobbs, and William B. Tooth, of Clifton ; and, then, Raff's 
wharf came next. But, I am getting out of Queen street, and must 
go back thither. 

I have described the left side of Queen street, as you come from 
South Brisbane. I will, now, sketch the right-hand side, as it was 
in February, 1854. First came the Bank of New South Wales, a 
cottage building — Craies, manager ; Knowles and Luke, accountants 
(the latter married Miss White, of Edenglassie, Hunter River). 
Then there was the hardware shop of James Sutherland (father of 
Mrs. J. G. Appel), afterwards W. and B. Brookes, the origin of 
Foster and Kelk's large business. After this came George 
Mac Adam's, the " Sovereign " Hotel (he and his wife came from 
Leslie's, Canning Downs), separated by a brick building, belonging 
to Powers, who died September, 1854 (the Union Bank of Australia), 
from Greenwood's (father of Alderman Greenwood, Sandgate), the 
Victoria Hotel, afterwards Cowell's and now the site of Spilsbury's. 
Mark Wallace, the saddler, and Thomas Clark, the fruiterer, helped 
to till the space till you came to Hockings's corner, after which 
Patrick Mayne's butcher's shop, Jerry Scanlan's public-house, and 
Ede, the watchmaker, and J. S. Beach, the table beer brewer, and 
one or two more brought us on to the corner of Edward street, 
where was a fine banana garden, with a brick house and shop, where 
Skyring, the elder, lived, and E. B. Southerden, later on. Queen 
Street, from this point onwards, was almost unbuilt, and chiefly 
Crown laud, iii L854, save for the gaol, lock-up and police station, 
where the Genera] Post Oflice now is. 



94 THE OLD WINDMILL. 

A creek came up from the river near the foot of Creek street, and 
considerably deranged the symmetry of the streets which it crossed, 
including Queen street, near Alfred Shaw's ; and there, also, came 
tumbling down from the schistose rocks, of the future Wickham 
Terrace, in wet weather, some pretty, tiny rills, and water falls, 
with clear, drinkable water, falling into a little pool just above where 
the girls' school, in Adelaide street, now is. Not a vestige of these 
ancient land marks now survives. 

Outside of Queen street were a few buildings. Mrs. Luke, the 
elder, lived in a two-story brick house, at the corner where Burrell 
and Durant lately were (Edward and Adelaide streets). There 
was a locksmith's shop, in Edward street, near Prentice's. In 
•George street, Captain Coley, Lloyd's agent, and director of the 
New South Wales Bank, Dr. Caiman, and D. F. Roberts lived, 
facing the sea breeze, and " Red " Smith had a cottage on the 
opposite side ; and, further on (opposite side) and where the survey 
office now is, was the Hospital, with Dr. Hugh Bell, as resident 
surgeon. There were two houses on the north-east side of Ann 
street, near George street, one of which was a ladies' school ; but a 
deep gulf crossed this street, and the present School of Arts part of 
it was cut off from the George street end, altogether. Mr. Robert 
Little's wooden cottage, and solicitor's office, in one, occupied the 
corner where the " Imperial " Hotel now is, and there I first met 
Mr. (now Sir Charles) Lilley. 

The old windmill, and its ruined sails, peeped out from above the 
thick forest of trees which covered the hill, afterwards pegged out 
as "Wickham Terrace," and " Leichhardt street," and sold in 
November, 1856, in lots of about an acre each. Ladders led to the 
first and second floor of the mill, and a fine view of wood and water, 
mountain and paddock, could be seen thence, with very few houses 
to break the primeval aspect of the scene. 

The School of Arts was in Creek street. With a small room on 
each side of the door, then an open hall, with forms, where public 
meetings, and philharmonic practice, under Duncan and Diggles, 
used to be held ; and, at the far end, a railed gallery, approached by 
a staircase, and ranged round with book shelves on the wall, formed 
the library, including a magnificent picture atlas of the counties of 
England, presented by Henry Stuart Russell. Here Miss Matilda 
Innes, the timid, pretty daughter of the secretary, sometimes gave 
out the books in his absence. 

i • I must say that I liked Brisbane at first sight. It was such a 
relief — after the flat Riverina country, where an intrusive river, in 



KANGAROO POINT. 95 

flood, had a habit of making no apology for suddenly becoming your 
bedfellow — to find oneself in a high, and dry, and flood-proof town. 
The old convict barracks, or court house, in Queen street — the key 
stone of the central archway of which was exactly opposite the 
boundary line, between the Cafe Royal and the Globe Hotel — was 
used for election meetings, for examinations, in insolvency, before 
the Government Resident, for the civil and criminal sittings, twice 
a year, before the Sydney Circuit Court, for Crown land sales, and 
so forth ; the police court being placed on the already described site 
of the lock-up and police stations, on the hill (now cut clown and 
levelled), where the General Post and Telegraph Offices now are. 

Kangaroo Point was, in 1854, a small place indeed There was a 
bone shed and a wharf there, and a big roofless brick building. 
Mr. James Warner, surveyer (late Sergeant-at-Arms) lived on the 
west river bank, and Mr. Ptobert Douglas (also once Sergeant-at- 
Arms) resided on the east side of the point, at the water's edge, 
both of them hospitable hosts in the early days. Impromptu 
regattas, on Saturday afternoons, were the rule at Douglas's. Lots 
were drawn for boats and pullers ; and how the ladies laughed, 
when a heavy and a light man with a boat all on one side, had to 
pull to the bitter end of the race ; and it was never shirked. Mr. 
Thornton was in England then, and his house was not built till 
after this. The only hotel on " the Point " was kept by Frank 
Dawson Mercer, a rather " fast " son of a Yorkshire rector (of 
Northallerton, I believe), a fine rider and boxer, and a man who 
was never so happy as when he had his " field safe " in the 
"straight," or when he was engaged in expounding to some stalwart 
" bull puncher " the creed, that science is, now and again, too much 
for brute strength. Mercer once kept the " Bush " Inn, at Fassifern, 
and he, one morning, showed me, on the plain there, how his black 
horse " Magic " could " sprint," and he was away, and almost out 
of sight, in no time. Phthisis claimed poor Mercer at last, and he 
sat up on his death-bed, with his face lighted up at the news that 
Veno (with Higgerson in the saddle) had beaten Alice Hawthorn in 
the champion £1,000 match between New South Wales and 
Victoria, for we were a part of New South Wales then, and it 
concerned us ; and F. D. Mercer died a few minutes later, a " sport " 
to the last. 

Another suburb of Brisbane was Fortitude Valley, then approached 
only by climbing over Duncan's Hill, where Win. Augustine 
Duncan (the Collector of Customs) lived, at " Darra," for there was 
no Wickham street then, but only a row of ponds, and brick yards, 



96 " MERCHANT " JONES. 

on the site. " Father Hanley," the Roman Catholic priest, lived in 
the stone cottage, shingle roofed, which still stands at the Petrie 
Bight end of Boundary street, which street then only existed on 
paper. But, to pursue our journey to the Valley. Charles Wind- 
rnell kept the hotel there, where Ruxton was, afterwards, and the 
" Federal Butchery " now is ; and (I think) W. J. Loudon had the 
" Royal George,", opposite. John Lloyd Bale had a store in that 
corner of Duncan street, next Hawgood's, and on the town side of 
it. The New Farm road branched off at WindmeH's, and is now- 
called Brunswick street. Much of the land hereabouts had been 
bought by Logan squatters, and a Tanirookum street, opposite to 
William Barker's estate, was a sign thereof. 

New Farm itself (native name " Pinkenbah ") was the residence 
of Mr. Richard Jones, erst chairman of the Bank of New South 
Wales (the Sydney member for Moreton Bay), and of Mr. George 
Raff, merchant, who married a daughter of Missionary Bourne, who, 
in 1822, was at the Tahiti group of islands. Often have I seen 
" Merchant Jones," when I was teller at the " New South," in 
Sydney ; and his cottage and garden in Hunter street, Sydney, 
between Pitt and George streets, were, in 1827, close by the (then 
pellucid) brook known as the " Tank Stream," now a mere sewer. Mr. 
and Mrs. Raff gave dances to old and young, and the children were 
not forgotten. I remember, at some game they had, where the children 
called for a lion, or an elephant, or other animal, and some imitation 
of it had to be produced in order to carry out the game properly, 
someone asked for a cameleopard, and old " G. R." himself came 
forward, duly " made up," and said, " You can't have a cameleopard, 
but here's a giraffe " (G. Raff). 

Another road led from Windmell's corner on to Breakfast Creek, 
past the modern " Bo wen Hills," and the mount where Messrs. 
Cowlishaw and Morehead now reside ; all Crown land then. The 
principal residents, in early 1854, were Captain Wickham, R.N., 
the Government resident of Moreton Bay, who lived at Newstead ;. 
and Mr. Thomas Childs, who had an orchard at " Beulah," on the 
river bank, near the present gas works. Captain Wickham had 
married into the Macarthur family, in New South Wales, as had 
also one of the Leslies, and I believe that " Newstead " was built on 
the lines of the original house at Canning Downs. Captain 
Wickham gave good dinners and balls, and his household menage 
was methodical, and a caution to vermin. All stores were kept in 
zinc lined bins — pease, flour, sugar, &c. — and no rat ever got a feed, 
or a footing, there, for one moment. Snakes were summarily dealt 



A PORTENT. 97 

with, by well-aimed jugs of scalding water — an infallible remedy — 
and snakes and rats were, once, far too plentiful at " Newstead." 
There was a ricketty wooden bridge at this spot, over Breakfast 
Creek, which fell into the water in 1856, and was replaced by a 
wretched little punt, till New South Wales took pity on us, and, in 
1858, built a new bridge, and, during the interim, horses and 
vehicles — for the punt only carried passengers — had (if they wanted 
to go to Eagle Farm) to work round by the ford at Kelvin Grove, 
or the " Three-mile Scrub " (as it was then called), for Breakfast 
Creek was not crossable (save by punt, or bridge) anywhere lower 
clown. 

The present site of " Toorak " was then known as " Gage's Hill," 
and a foot track led over it to the German Station, so as to avoid 
the longer route by the river side ; and the beautiful little spring, 
in the deep gorge, under where " Bartley's Tower " now stands, shed 
its clear water through all droughts. 

What is now called " Bowen Terrace," then had only one house 
on it, inhabited by Mr. Sylvester Doig, editor of the " Moreton Bay 
Free Press ;" but the site was then known only as "The Judge's 
View," from the intense admiration which Mr. Justice Dickenson, 
of Sydney, had for it, and the panorama which it commanded. He 
never forgot to come up thither, and sit and enjoy the scene, when- 
ever he came to Brisbane on circuit. About the year 1849, Conrad 
Martens, the artist, painted this view, and the picture is now in 
the Brisbane Museum. Fourteen' acres of the hill-top, where 
" Cintra," and " Montpellier " (Messrs. Morehead and Cowlishaw's 
residences) now are, used to belong to me, and I had a most 
mysterious adventure there, after I bought the land from the 
Crown. I had a habit of walking up that hill after church, and 
before dinner, every Sunday, and once, when I was half-way to the 
top, I suddenly heard a most awful noise in the road below, as of 
a horse galloping at a fearful rate, which meant almost certain death 
to the rider. It was such as to make me stop in a moment, and 
look round to see what it was, when, as soon as I turned and looked, 
the sound died away far more quickly than should have been the 
case, even with such speed as was indicated. It ceased almost in a 
moment. I could see nothing whatever in the road, which wound 
round the foot of the hill, which last commanded a full view of it, 
both ways, for some distance. I wondered much, and I turned to 
continue my climb, when, lo! within a foot of me, stood up on end, 
a huge black snake, with red belly, facing me, and on whom I must 
inevitably have trodden, as he lay asleep on the ground, but for this 

ii 



98 York's hollow. 

mysterious noise, for he was certainly not up on end before I heard! 
it, and I must have seen him if he had been so. He must have been 
half hidden under the dead leaves. However, he and I now faced 
each other with our eyes, and I had no stick; but he was the first 
to quail. He lowered his crest, and slid off sideways, and it was 
not for some minutes that I realised that that (surely supernatural) 
sound had saved my life, for no subsequent enquiry could elicit a 
word of any runaway horse, and it was no ordinary quick hoof beat 
that would make me stop and look round at any time. It is a 
mystery which I have never been able to solve, and I leave it to the 
reader. 

The ferries of Brisbane were, then, only two in number — one kept 
by William Baxter, which plied to the foot of Russell street 
parallel to Melbourne street ; and the other, carried on by Carter, 
from the Custom-house to Kangaroo Point. The latter was the- 
first to treat his passengers to an awning for the sun in the boat, 
Mr. John Stephen Ferriter, R.N., was the agent for immigration 
then, and lived in tiie cottage adjacent to the stone barracks, 
between George and William streets, which were afterwards the 
Queensland Colonial Treasurer's office. He was somewhat addicted 
to bad puns, but, otherwise, of a kind and genial disposition. 

Brisbane had only six constables then, dressed in the blue, and 
pewter buttons, of the London force. Sam Sneyd, the " Chief , 
A. S. Wright, the lock-up keeper ; and the latter still survives at 
New Farm, and he used to be a prominent member of the choir at 
St. John's. Such places as Ipswich, Drayton, and Warwick, and 
Gayndah only had one, or two, constables each. Brisbane was- 
grandly metropolitan with a whole half-dozen all to itself. 

The old commissariat stores of 1822, and Pettigrew's saw-mills v 
were the only places, besides Tom Dowse's, and a small public-house, 
on that part of the river bank in 1854 ; and the Botanic Gardens, 
barring the old bunya and lebeck trees, were in a very primitive 
state, till Walter Hill came along, in 1855, to put a new face on 
them. 

York's Hollow, below the present site of Gregory Terrace, was a 
pleasant glade, full of the clear water lagoons for which nearly every 
level hollow in the Moreton Bay country is famous ; but I had no 
leisure to scan the beauties of Brisbane, for I had my orders, from 
Sydney, to go direct to Joe Fleming's " boiling down " place, near 
Ipswich ; there to borrow a stock horse from William Tooth, called 
"Spanker," and to ride him " post haste " up to Gayndah, on the 
Burnett River. It was fortunate for me that my uncle, Dr. Lucas. 



MOGGILL AND WOOGAROO. 99 

(the principal medical officer of the Brigade of Imperial troops, then 
stationed in Australia) had but lately arrived in Sydney, from 
Cawnpore and Delhi ; for, he gave me his solar pith helmet (useless 
to him, in a cool climate) to help me to face this summer ride from 
Ipswich to Gayndah. My bridle hand was burnt black before I got 
back, and what I should have endured with an ordinary felt hat, or 
" black box," on that ride, is hard to guess at. But the pith helmet, 
a thing, till then, never seen in Moreton Bay, compelled me to run 
the gauntlet of much derisive laughter in some places ; and, on the 
other hand, quite frightened Mrs. Donald Mackenzie, at Colinton, 
as I suddenly passed the window where she sat, if I may judge by 
the cry she uttered. 

There were numerous punts, and two steamers, then trading 
between Brisbane and Ipswich, the two latter called the " Hawk " 
and the "Swallow," respectively. Thomas Boyland had the 
" Hawk," and (the present pilot) Bousfield, the " Swallow ;" paddle 
boats of some 15 to 30 tons burthen. I went up to Ipswich in the 
latter, and oh ! what a hot trip it was up the river, to my southern 
nerves. The " Swallow " puffed, and wheezed, and sighed, as if 
from the heat. We called at a place which some people then spelt 
" Moghill " (Moggill), and I thought what a strange name " Mog " 
was for a hill. The principal settlers there were Roper, Twine, 
Lumsden, and Ben Brookes. Mr. Daniel Young, of Woogaroo 
(another awful name), had lately been lost in the bush, and 
mutilated by native dogs. What a strange, wild place this 
" Moreton Bay " seemed, with the scrub creepers, all trailing in the 
river, as it swept, with the tide, round the then uncleared points 
and bends. 

I got to the boiling down place, and met Joe Fleming, a sun- 
burnt, tough, " pin wire " specimen of the men that the old Hunter 
River district used to "raise." I had my choice of going vid 
Griffin's, Durundur, and Kilcoy, from Brisbane, but preferred the 
Ipswich route. The last sight I saw there, when I went in to get 
" Spanker " shod for the journey, was an old woman holding, and 
shaking, her sides at the sight of my pith helmet. I rode down a 
forest slope, that bore no track, till I came to a river, wide, but not 
deep, and this was the fresh-water Brisbane. But there was no 
road out on the opposite side, so I rode up and down, to discover an 
opening in the scrub for an exit on the other side; and, well it was 
for mi- that the water was not deep. At last I found a narrow 
track, and, taking it, it soon widened, and, before night, I found 
myself at .John Smith's capital hotel at Wivenhoe. Good chops, 



100 ALPIN CAMEKON. 

good fish, good eggs, tea, bread, and butter of the same, and que 
voulez vous, more than this in the scented bush air of Queensland, 
where the trees give out an odour of fresh Havanah cigar boxes ; and, 
in the hunger which a ride in that air micst generate 1 I had a dip 
in the river, admired the lovely sylvan scenery, the sandy bottom, 
the white pebbles, the cliff banks, the clear water, here deep and 
still, there, babbling along, shallow and noisy. And I saw old 
Mr. North, at his garden gate, at " Ferny Lawn." 

Next day I rode on, as I thought, for " Mount Esk." I met, 
and exchanged greetings, with Mr. T. L. Murray-Prior, who smiled, 
and said " Good morning." I rode on, and wondered much at the 
dark, high hills which ever frowned by the road side, and I wondered 
still more at the marvellous heat, and to find, when the afternoon 
waned, that I came to no place at all, though on a good beaten road 
all the time. "When night was falling, I met some bullock teams, 
and asked where I was, and the drivers told me that I must have 
missed the Mount Esk " turn off," to my right hand, far back, and 
that I was, now, on the road to Ivory's (wherever that was) ; and, 
as I did not want to go to Ivory's, I camped for the night at a stock- 
yard, on the Cressbrook run, with the teams ; and, next day (Sunday) 
one of the men showed me to Cressbrook head station, where I met 
Alpin Cameron, and Freudenthal (afterwards of the native police), 
a warrior and musician, like most Germans, and not guiltless of the 
usual duel-born face scars of a student. The reason I missed the 
turn off is easily explained. People, in coming in from Mount Esk 
to the wide, plain road which I was on, used to diverge right and 
left when they saw it, according to whether they were bound up or 
down it ; hence, there w T as no proper grassless, concentrated track 
at the junction, but a widely divergent " fan " of tracks, which barely 
bent the grass ; so, no wonder that I missed it altogether. What a 
grand place for vegetation was this same Cressbrook ; such long, 
rich grass, such a country to grow maize and fruit if there were only 
a market ; and the banks of the river were rich in that species of 
melaleuca (ti-tree), which grows a gorgeous flower, like a huge red 
bottle brush. 

From Cressbrook I still ran up the Brisbane River, to Colinton 
(Balfour and Forbes). Here it is a wide stream, with a clearly- 
defined bed and banks. Mr. and Mrs. Balfour were in England. 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Mackenzie occupied the house. He was 
station manager, and afterwards a Government sheep inspector on the 
"Warrego ; a genial Scot, with a broad forehead and a kindly smile, 
whose life Dr. Frank Lucas afterwards saved. I hied me to the 



BLIGH O'CONNELL. 101 

bachelor's cottage, where G. E. Forbes was, and met there with 
F. Walker, the explorer, and organiser of native police in Australia, 
who was disporting his lengthy legs on a reclining chair. Forbes, 
who had lately come from India, scrutinized my helmet as something 
he had seen before ; and we had a game of chess, in which I was 
much beaten, and would have done better with draughts. 

Next day, I crossed a high range, and penetrated a thick scrub,. 

and arrived at Taromeo, where Simon Scott, a widower, with a 

governess, and a boy and girl of tender age, resided. Here I bathed 

in the upper waters, that feed the Brisbane River, and, at 1,400 feet 

of elevation, found the night cool ; and, next day, crossed the awful 

deep, steep, boulder-strewn Cooyar Creek, and a range that shed the 

waters of the Burnett River, and got to a place called " Goode's 

Inn," where now is the township of Nanango, which name then 

applied only to Bryce Barker's sheep station. At " Goode's Inn," 

I met an old lieutenant, or doctor, of one of Robert Towns's whale 

ships, who advised me to go on to Mondure, by way of Barambah, 

and so break the journey, for it was a terribly long ride from 

" Goode's Inn " to Mondure ; but I resolved to " chance " the direct 

mail " track," and was sorry for it. I had not gone far before my 

only saddle girth gave way, and I could not canter. I crossed a 

number of creeks, full of beautiful cornelians and agates, bloodstone 

and sardonyx. But night fell, and I made no station, for you can't 

walk a horse 50 miles between sunrise and sunset ; so, I camped by 

a lagoon, and flattered myself I should sleep, even if I did not sup ; 

but not so. I had no matches, for I did not smoke, and there was 

a breed of large-boned mosquitoes at that lagoon, who pierced my 

tweed suit everywhere, and I might as well have been naked as far 

as they were concerned. It was an awful night to pass, sleepless 

and stung, and I was off, at daybreak, from that same lake, and after 

about four miles of further travel, I heard a cock crow, and got to 

Mondure Station — Captain Win. Bligh O'Connell's, who married a 

daughter of " Merchant " Jones, of Sydney, and was father of the 

member for Bundaberg, and a son of Sir Maurice O'Connell, 

Governor of New South Wales. His brother, Carlo O'Connell, and 

;i Miss Baldock (from Parramatta, I think), and a young clergyman, 

named Tanner, were also there. My forlorn condition, after a 

sleepless night, was realized in a moment by my hospitable host, who 

knew that lagoon well, and I was made to stay over the clay a ml 

night, and my saddle girth fully renewed by the station saddler, 

while a draught of good brown sherry at lunch, and a read on the 

sofa at " Soapey Sponge's Sporting Tour," helped t<> set me up again. 



102 CHARLEY HAUGHTON 

Next day I passed a " bottle tree " on the road, like a real 
champagne bottle, 30 feet high, covered with the bark of a box tree, 
and with a gum tree growing out of the cork thereof, and, had I not 
been warned of it the day before, I should have been startled, as at 
something " uncanny," so unlike anything I had ever seen before 
was it. The above description pourtrays it exactly. That evening 
I came to "Wigton," Mr. Pigott's station, where his brother, 
Gerald, was manager, and bewailing his bush isolation. The same 
Mr. Pigott, I believe, whose marriage to Miss Lydia Clarke (with 
Mr. Leith Hay as best man), I had been a spectator of in St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Sydney, a few weeks before. 

From "Wigton" I rode, next day, to my destination, Gayndah, 
and spent a few days at the hotel of Harper, an old Sydney (North 
Shore) friend of the Joubert family. I climbed Mount Debateable, 
and saw a doctor's grave. I bathed in the Burnett, here a great 
wide river, running on a clean, pebbly bottom, full of the long-tailed 
tortoises, which dropped in from the trees, when I disturbed them ; 
full, also, of the wondrous ceratodus fish, of which more in another 
place. 

One day I took a turn, with Carlo O'Connell, down the river, to 
what was called the " Commissioner's Place," a noble reach of wide, 
deep water, on the Burnett, where a squadron might float and 
anchor. I noticed a pretty girl at the Court-house church service 
on Sunday, February, 19th; name " unbeknownst " to me ; but my 
stay at Gayndah was far too brief for any clanger to me from that 
source. I noticed the name of " Le Breton " on a house on the out- 
skirts of the town ; and, my task being ended, I set out on my 
return ride, and, at " Wigton," I met the gallant Charles Haughton, 
so disastrously killed afterwards. 

I had a letter of introduction to Mr. W. H. Walsh, of Degilbo, as 
it was " on the cards " that I might have to return to Sydney via 
Maryborough ; and a fine brig, the " Burnett," traded on the coast 
then ; but business ruled that I should go back by the way I came. 
I resolved not to be benighted again between Mondure and " Goode's 
Inn," so I started at 8"15 a.m. from Captain O'Connell's, and never 
drew bridle till I got to Goode's, at Nanango, at 2-30 p.m., 
" Spanker" and I well fagged ; so that some cold beef, and a bottle 
of beer, and a " lounge " on the sofa, was my form for the rest of that 
day. I never rode so far, in so short a time, before, nor since. 

Next day, to Taromeo, the place where gold, and copper, and 
plumbago, and mica, and bismuth were found later on ; but it was 
not talked of in 1854. Here I, again, met T. L. Murray-Prior; and 



AX ALBUERA VETERAN. 103 

the last I saw of Taromeo was, next morning, with Simon Scott, and 
John Swanson, sitting on the stockyard rails, and bidding me a 
cheery farewell, and saying that they were glad I was going to live 
in Brisbane, and would look me up there. Passing through Colinton, 
I came to Cressbrook once more, and Freudenthal rode with me 
in to Ipswich. Crossing the Brisbane, I got into a deep hole, and 
was surprised at the way my legs seemed to float, whether I liked it 
or not. I wonder how many times I had to cross the good old 
Brisbane stream in that early 1854 journey. It is a little bit better 
bridged now. At Wivenhoe I met Macquarie M'Donald. 

Behold me, then, returned to Ipswich, the horse delivered up to 
Joe Fleming, at the " boiling down " place, and myself free to have a 
look round at old Limestone, before I went back to Brisbane to 
organise the business I meant to start there. I found Ipswich not 
so much scattered as Brisbane ; the Bremer a mere ditch, for 
narrowness, after the Brisbane clown below ; but there was a grand 
and near mountain view, such as Brisbane town did not command. 
The leading wholesale stores belonged to Walter Gray, and John 
Panton ; the wholesale-cum-retail ones to Cribb and Foote, Richard 
Gill, George Thorn, William Hendren, F. A. Forbes, H. M. Reeve, 
John Pettigrew, and others ; Christopher Gorry was the saddler ; 
and "Yarraman Dick," the butcher; Kilner, the chemist; Dr. 
Challinor, and Dr. Dorsey, the " medicos ;" Arthur Macalister, and 
James Walsh, the solicitors. Colonel Charles Geo. Gray, the police 
magistrate, had been a veteran of Albuera and Waterloo, the same as 
Colonel Prior, of Brisbane. There were, of course, plenty of Waterloo 
men left, in the " Alma " year, now, far back in the century. 

A fine specimen of the tough old Ipswichians was known as 
" Terence Macgusalem," a bullock driver. He, one day in the 
month of May, late in the "forties," went to a doctor, and said he 
felt out of sorts, and did not know why. The surgeon examined 
him, and said "Terence, the fact is you're getting an old man now, 
and you must not go about in the winter time in a Scotch twill shirt 
and white moleskins, the same as if it were mid-summer ; it may do 
for the young fellows, but not for you. Go and buy a thick pilot 
jacket, and wear it, and you will soon feel all right again. You 
must begin to wrap up a little, now," thus the medico. " Oh ! 
that's it, is it?" said the old "bull puncher," it's come to that, lias 
it? I'm oidy a crawler, now, am 1 1 Well, I'll see it out, anyway, 
now/ and lir gallantly refused to "coddle" himself, and he kept on 
with his summer "rig" all through the winter, and died, like a hero, 
in two years more. 



104 II. M. KEIGHTLEY. 

I made the acquaintance of most of the Ipswich people, and' 
returned to Brisbane. I rented a large, cool, deep cellar on the- 
wharf at South Brisbane, from R. Towns and Co., and the lower 
story and wharf of Richardson and Co. (now Gibbs, Bright, and 
Co.'s), from Mr. D. R. Somerset, and so prepared myself for the 
heavy stock, of all classes of goods that could either be eaten or 
drunk, which I had arranged for. 

One of the first men I saw, on my return to Brisbane, attracted 
my notice by his really handsome face, with a heavy, long, brown, 
moustache, that seemed carved from mahogany, so compact and 
solid did it look ; and with eyes as blue, and richly blue, as any 
sapphires. I asked his name. It was Henry M'Crummin 
Keightley ; but this was years before he married that pretty 
Miss R., of Bathurst, or shot the bushranger, or was ransomed for 
£500 by his brave wife. He wore a long beaixl in later days, but 
had a shaven chin when I saw him, for beards only came in after 
the Crimean war was over. A speech he made in his bachelor 
days to a youthful friend, who did not dress quite up to the 
" H.M.K." standard, will give a clue to his tendency to playful 
chaff. '• My dear G.," said he, " I am your friend always, of course,, 
and would help you, or borrow your money, or your neck-ties, but 
don't, my dear fellow, don't, for goodness sake, ask me to walk down 
George street, Sydney, with you, like that." 

I put up at Campbell's Hotel, Stanley street, next the A.S.N. 
Company's wharf. Henry Buckley was the agent for them, and for 
the A.M.P Society, and the Fire Insurance Companies ; and 
C. J. Trundle was his factotum, and is, still, at the insurance 
business. H. B. could be seen in China buff crape coat, Panama 
hat, nankeen "continuations," and green silk umbrella, crossing in 
the ferry boat, nearly every day, to the north side ; that used to be 
the Moreton Bay dress, to suit the climate. He went over to sit 
on the bench with Captain Wickham, or John Stephen Ferriter, to 
" tell their fortunes " for the people in the dock, for justices of the 
peace were scarce, then, to the north of the Bellinger and Numbuccra 
rivers, in New South Wales, and they had to work when the 
honour was conferred on them. 

I was just speaking of H. M. Keightley, and his good looks, but 
he was not one whit more of a lady-killer, in that respect, than was 
young Joshua Bell, whom I saw at an auction room, in Brisbane, a 
few days latei\ Tall, and slim, as perfectly dressed, in London style, 
as the Prince Regent himself, and without his foppery. I asked 
W. B. Tooth who that was, and he replied, " Young Bell, of 



BRACKER AXD GOGGS. 10-") 

Jimbour " (aged 26), and no one, then, would have guessed that the 
tall stripling would have developed into the genial grand seigneur of 
1877. Another young, tall, well-made, slim "swell" of the period 
was John Douglas, of Talgai ; and, in his velvet coat, Bedford cords,, 
and boots, none might him surpass, either. Joshua Bell rarely 
dressed in bush costume. 

I, soon after, made the acquaintance of another sterling squatter, 
who was not a " swell " in his attire, nor an Adonis, either ; old 
" Fred." Bracker, of Warroo, beaming with rosy face smiles, and 
quaint comicality, who — when he carved the ham at Campbell's 
hotel, and asked everyone to have some " Zwine Vlash," and when, 
between the acts at the play, he rose in the pit, turned his back to 
the stage, and waved fat smiles of recognition and greetings to all 
friends who sat behind him — gave one but little idea of his real 
sheep-breeding skill, or of what a good shot he was, or how well up 
in wool, and its classification. I had heard of him (long before I 
saw Moreton Bay) from the shepherds on the Lachlan and Murrum- 
bidgee, who told some wondrous camp tire yarns of " Fred the 
German," the only man who could make the wool grow all over the 
ram's horns, alluding to some marvellous stud sheep, which he was 
the first to import from Germany. 

Then, too, amongst the visitors to Campbell's, were Blyth, who 
formed Blythdale, and owed money to Captain Towns ; and Living- 
stone, a cousin of Sir Thomas Mitchell ; also, Fulford, of the Native 
Police. George Harris and I often strolled up to Grenier's in the 
evening, for there was more " life " there than at any other hotel in 
the town. Here I soon met Matthew Goggs (also well heard of on 
the Murrumbidgee side), and was challenged by him to play 
draughts. "Take that man," said he to me ; " Now take that, and 
that," and I did so, making sure that my own annihilation was 
speedily to follow ; but, somehow, it did not come off, and, with 
three men to the bad, Matthew, of Chinchilla, lost the game. He 
did not even know my name then ; but afterwards, when he did, he 
used to open his mind to me, and, one day, said, " Bartley, what is 
the great problem of life 1 ?" I replied that I knew not. Goggs said, 
" The problem of life is, to find a sure and safe 10 per cent, investment 
for money, after one has made a fortune, and I don't think the whole 
world holds that investment, and I speak as a man who has made a 
fortune, lost it again, and made it again." I very much fear that 
Matthew Goggs was right in what he said, and, perhaps, it is best so 
(from a borrower's point of view, at all events). Amongst the, then, 
frequenters of Grenier's I must not omit Mr. Philip Pinnock, and 



106 CHESSBOROUGH M'DONALD. 

'his partner, Mr. Vaughan, both Logan men ; and, well as the hotel 
was kept, its architectural pretentions were such, that I much doubt 
whether Mr. Pinnock would, now, in his stipendiary capacity, grant 
it a license. 

Another regular guest at Campbell's hotel was handsome John 
Crowder, of Weranga. I remember seeing his tall, splendid figure 
plainly relieved against the sky at sunset, as he stood on the South 
Brisbane ferry steps, waiting for a boat, as I was crossing thither ; 
and he was the only man I ever saw, who, with all his tailor-made 
clothes on, still looked something like a Greek statue in outline. 
Poor fellow ! he confided to me that too much hard galloping after 
cattle, on the lower Condamine, had injured his heart and lungs, 
and he must go home for a change. He went " home," and died at 
Bordeaux, so I saw in the papers. 

This was about the time when Arthur Hodgson and Dr. Lang 
contended for the honour of representing Brisbane in the Sydney 
Parliament, when the election was a tie, and Colonel Prior gave his 
casting vote to Hodgson, and when the indefatigable Bob Cribb 
■(then in his prime) found a flaw in the proceedings, and got a new 
election, and ran Dr. Lang in, by one vote, in the next " heat." 
Ambrose Eldridge, the chemist, who built the " Milton " House 
{which named that suburb), and who ruined himself by cotton- 
growing experiments at Eagle Farm, was great at that election, on 
the Cribb and Lang side. Poor fellow ! I have still his letter to me, 
asking me to attend his meeting of creditors. 

What narratives I could write, with no other spur to memory 
than some of the old well-known wool bale brands ! What a tale of 
sheep, and shed, and shearers ; of dray, and road, and wharf ; of 
bank-parlours, and bills of lading, is conjured up by a sight of the 
old OHO, the well-known MFT, and other standard wool marks of 
fame. These brands were used by the Hon. Louis Hope, son of a 
former Earl of Hopetoun, and who came out in 1843, and held 
Kilcoy, while David M'Connel, of Cressbrook, was director of the 
Bank of New South Wales, in Brisbane, with Captain R. J. Coley ; 
and used by De Lacy Moffatt, a son of the Rector of Athlone, and 
nephew, I believe, of old Captain Pike, of Pikedale, at whose former 
station so many pioneer Moreton Bay squatters were " broken in," 
and learned their " colonial experience." Mr. Pringle, further 
south, was another schoolmaster of squatters, in the by-gone days : 
and I must not forget the genial- Chessborough M'Donald, of 
Cadargah, on the Burnett — a Highlander, a " laird," and gentleman 
to the back bone ; an army captain, and with a becoming contempt 



A BACHELORS BALL. 107 

for a newly enriched parvenu Lowlander. I shall ever remember 
his well-set, military figure, and the rich bass of his hearty, 
sympathetic voice, as he gave me (then a youngster, beginning life 
in the colony) the best advice, and friendly encouragement, at his 
-command. 

I have already spoken of how well I was helped at Mondure. I 
will now relate a case of how I had a chance to help someone, and 
got repaid, unexpectedly, a year later, for it. One day a pretty 
little schooner, the " Souvenir," arrived, and landed passengers and 
cargo, from Sydney, at my wharf. One of these was Sylvester 
Diggles, with his family. He looked very " tumbled " and wretched 
after the voyage, which had been stormy, and so I walked him into 
the store, drew out a spile, and handed him a big tumbler of 
Marrian's ale, a good reviver after sea sickness. I found he was an 
artist, a musician, and an expert in birds, reptiles, and insects. In 
the year of grace, 1856, we "bachelors" of Brisbane — Albrecht 
Feez, myself, Thos Jones, J. J. Galloway, John Little, and, I think, 
•J. C. Heussler — gave the usual ball, in return for all the hospitality 
we had received. But a " hitch " occurred. There was no band, 
harp, fiddle, or professional pianist in Brisbane in those days. Every 
lady guest would, of course, dance in the opening quadrille, and, 
query, who was to play it 1 ? So, I bethought me of Diggles, and 
he agreed to play it (for me only, as he told me) ; and so, that 
" hurdle " was surmounted. I raised the ill-will of one of my fellow 
bachelors as follows : Bachelors can be jealous, as well as spinsters, 
and when I state that I got my friend, T. S. Mort, of Sydney, to 
send me a case of fresh cut " Greenoakes " camellias, bv steamer, and 
had them placed in the ladies' dressing room, for hair decoration, my 
cup of iniquity became full. Camellias were not plentiful in 
Brisbane in '56. I was twitted with trying to set the fashion, and 
the name of " Bartley's camellias " was cruelly applied to some 
withered " expirees " from Cockatoo Island, whom a sharp Sydney 
labour agent consigned to me, in the same steamer with the flowers, 
as shepherds for a Darling Downs run (Jondaryan), for which I was 
then the agent. The Brisbane bachelors' ball of 1856 broke up at 
5 a.m., and I wonder now if Captain Feez remembers (as I do) how 
his faithful dog, " Alley," sat outside till that hour, waiting to go 
home with his master. 

In the early part of 1854, there arrived from Sydney, and put up 
al Campbell's hotel, Frederick John Cobb Wildash, whose father 
was a doctor in Kent, and with whom (he told me) Dr. Cannan, of 
Brisbane, Studied his profession. Wildash was, then, <>n (he look- 



108 SIR CHARLES FITZROY. 

out for new country, about Port Curtis, and equipped his expedition,, 
with Frank Bush, and another companion. Wildash told me once 
that he could " live and die " in Sydney, as he regarded it as the 
happy medium between the barbarism of the bush and the 
crowded civilization of London. Another expedition left Brisbane 
soon after — namely, A. C. Gregory's exploring one ; and his brother, 
Henry Churchman Gregory, was the life and soul of the organisa- 
tion thereof. How well I remember the leather helmets, pack 
horses, and multifarious hobbles of that same expedition, and 
Melville, of Toowong (who has charge of the cemetery now), was one 
of them. " Henry Churchman " put up at Tom Grenier's hotel, as a 
matter of course, for, did not his friend, Ernest White, and all the 
Logan River " contingent " do the same ? Henry Churchman 
differed, essentially, from the staid Augustus Charles in one respect 
— viz., that he was sadly addicted to practical jokes, whereof witness 
the following. One night, old Mr. Duncan, Collector of Customs, 
gave a ball at " Darra." It was too far for me to walk thither from 
South Brisbane, in full dress (no cabs, " no nothing," then), so I rode 
a pony, and put it in a paddock, where All Hallows Convent now is. 
Dr. Hobbs' young wife was the belle of the ball. At 2-30 a.m I left, 
and sought the little flea-bitten pony (that I gave George Raff £35 
for), but it was not in the paddock. I started to walk home — not 
so bad, you know, as walking to a ball — and, at Petrie's Bight, I 
found the animal tied to the river side fence, so mounted, and rode 
home. It was Ernest White and Gregory (not A. C.) who had done 
the deed ; both were at the ball, and left just before I did. Very 
wrong of them, was it not 1 

Campbell's hotel, about the time of my arrival, received two more 
guests from Sydney — namely, Charles Moore, the director of the 
Sydney Botanic Gardens, and P. L. C. Shepherd, now M.L.C.,. 
another botanist. They were, both of them, bound for Port Curtis 
on a professional and scientific tour. Another, and still more 
distinguished, new arrival, at that time, was Sir Charles Fitzroy,, 
the Governor of New South Wales, who sat in the little church 
(behind the present " Longreach Hotel) on the first Sunday after I 
got back from the Burnett, March 26th, 1854, and we banquetted 
His Excellency on the 7th April, in the big room in the stone 
barracks (afterwards the Queensland Treasury). I well remember 
the praiseworthy efforts of Henry Buckley, and the rest of the " wine 
committee," to realize and secure some genuine champagne in the 
remote village of Brisbane, but it was not to be. Wilkes, the 
" Courier " editor, was at the feast, and sang his famous original 



F. J. C. WILDASH. 109 

song of the " Merry Boys of Brisbane," to the air of " Loudon's." 
Burnett, the surveyor, who found that river, was there also. I saw 
the affair out till 3 a.m. I have spoken of the " champagne." One 
prominent citizen, who loyally honoured every toast in " bumpers, 
and no heeltaps," died three days afterwards ; and I was not up till 
2 p.m. next day, but, then, I did not drink the " sillery mousseux " 
of Epernay (?) not much. Still, I was often " seedy " in those days, 
and so was Wildash, for we had a habit of sitting up, at whist, till 
2 or 3 a.m., our friend, George Harris, with us, a habit totally 
incompatible with a feeling of comfort on the following day. 1 
consulted a doctor, who gave me digitalis, and bade me " keep 
quiet. 

Sir Charles Fitzroy was " put up " at Captain Wickham's, at 
Xewstead, and the inevitable black snake of Breakfast Creek was 
found between the sheets of his bed, one afternoon. 

The sheep killing (alluded to before) took place on Saturday, 
May 20, 1854, the very day that Robert Cribb started for Drayton 
in the interest of Dr. Lang, versus Arthur Hodgson, in the famous 
election of the period, and the sheep burning took place on the 21st. 
The whole town was in terror re the scab, and wool buyers, like 
T. B. Stephens, were about, and measures were prompt, I assure you, 
Beattie and Burke, whist partners of mine, and Jeghers, from 
Montehore, Graham and Co., and E. M. Tobias, were up in town, 
from Cleveland, where the barque, " Blackfriar," loaded wool for 
London. Cleveland was the rival " port " to Brisbane, and great 
woolwashing and packing took place there, and Ipswich was " in the 
swim." 

I must here relate a strange accident, which befell a young lady 
of " sweet seventeen," with now, grey-green, now, violet eyes, who, 
with myself, her married sister, and others, formed a bush riding 
party, in 1855. She was on my left hand, and, as we cantered 
through the forest, I saw her suddenly lifted clean out of the saddle, 
by some invisible agency, and her horse pass from under her. She fell 
on her face on the ground, and a dead tree, 12 feet long, fell on her, 
and the roots cut the crown out of her straw hat, but she was not 
hurt. It happened thus : There lay, by the side of our road, a dead 
she-oak tree, bare of bark ; its projecting roots lay behind, and its 
ln-ad in front. The skirt of her riding habit caught the roots, lifted, 
and "up-ended" the tree, which, when perpendicular, pulled her out 
of tin- saddle, and, when it sloped over, fell on her as she lay on 
tin' ground. -Memo. — Short skirts are best in the bush for riding 
habi 



110 R. J. SMITH. 

Fun there was, in plenty, in those days. Did not Gordon 
Sandeman always stop at Grenier's 1 Did not someone dress up an 
image of him, with his own spare hat, coat, spectacles, and all, with 
a bolster and pillow, and place it as if writing at a table in his bed- 
room 1 and did not G. S. guess in a moment that it was S. G. who- 
had done the deed 1 All innocent fun ; but there was real mischief 
at work when some unknown fiend packed all the spoons, knives,, 
and forks, from Mrs. Grenier's public breakfast table, into old 
Captain Collins's valise, already half full of clean shirts, just before 
that unconscious gentleman started home to the Logan. Mrs. 
Grenier thought the blacks had stolen them, and had their camp* 
searched in vain. The mystery was solved when, a fortnight later,. 
the captain came to town again, and threw the articles on to the 
verandah, with some of that figurative language, peculiar to elderly 
sea captains. The real culprit was never discovered, or nobody 
knows what might have happened. But, old Collins stayed there, 
the same as of yore, for it was all taken in good j^art in those days,, 
and there was a feeling of old friendship between landlord and guest, 
then, which is all out of date now. Captain Collins was the father 
of Carden, Arthur, and " Bob " Collins, the latter now a " ranchero " 
in California, I believe, and the former (who married a niece of Canon 
Glennie) was the best gentleman "jock " in Moreton Bay. We used 
to race at New Farm, on P. N. Russell's ground, then, near 
" Kingsholme," where Wm. Anthony Brown, the C.P.S., lived. He 
was the father of Villiers Brown, M.L.A., and of the first Mrs. 
Seymour. C. R. Haly's "Jeanette" was the best racer of those 
days here, and would have been a hard " nut to crack " even now. I 
must not here omit the legend of R. J. Smith and the sweetbreads,, 
as authentic a one as Stuart Russell's tradition of Arthur Hodgson,, 
and the marked eggs, at the Queen street hotel. 

One morning, at breakfast, were seated at the table R. J. Smith, 
and three athletic juvenile squatters, from the far interior, and on the 
table were some veal sweetbreads. R. J. Smith was, in 1852, returned 
as member, for some Moreton Bay constituency, to the Sydney 
Parliament, and I remember seeing him and Mrs. Smith, when they,, 
in Sydney, came round to return the calls of the Tooths, and Morts, 
and other visitors. But, to resume. " R. J." wanted the sweet- 
breads. Force was out of the question, so stratagem was resorted 
to. He rose suddenly from the table, and exclaimed, as he rushed 
to the window, " Hello ! who are the ladies 1 never saw three such 
pretty girls in my life." The three juvenile squatters (who sat with 
their backs to the window) rose also, and looked out {they had not 



PAT. LESLIE. Ill 

seen a white woman, hardly, for two years). They saw nothing 
through the glass, so made for the verandah ; saw nothing still, and 
rushed round the corner of the next street, and still perceived no 
ladies, young or old. When they returned, the sweetbreads had 
disappeared. There is a mystery here which has never been properly 
explained, in the simultaneous vanishing of the sweetbreads and the 
ladies. Was it an optical illusion 1 or have we here the earliest real 
ghost story of Queensland 1 

Burnett, the blonde moustache surveyor, who found the river that 
bears his name, and who was such a martyr to rheumatism that his 
arm broke when a lady leaned on it, was buried on the 21st July, 
1854. Amongst the guests at this time at Campbell's hotel, were 
the Rev. Mr. Sinclair, of Wornbo Forest, Condamine River (the 
father of Mrs. W. Yaldwyn, of Ipswich), and also young Blair, son 
of Sir David Hunter Blair, and who was (what his father was not) 
an " expert " at billiards, and he had many a match, for the local 
championship, with Willy Macalister, who, also, played much better 
than his father did. 

When at Ipswich, I generally stayed at Sullivan's hotel. He was 
an ex-jockey, who owned " War Eagle," famous for his matches 
with " Priam," the property of Stephen Mehan, of Drayton. Here 
I met my old chum, David Jones, of the Turon, son of the Sydney 
draper, and who now owned ' ; Boonara " sheep station, on the 
Burnett. The "Swallow " steamer was sunk by catching under the 
wharf; she tilted, and filled by the rising tide, and the steward, who 
rushed on board to get his money out, was drowned in the cabin ;. 
so I travelled up and down in the "Hawk," Captain Thomas 
Boy land ; a guileless hard worker was old " Dash it " (as his nick- 
name was). 

Patrick Leslie was with us at Campbell's about this time, and 
reported that Clark Irving (of the Sydney Sugar Company) " would 
give all the shoes in his shop " to get elected (for the Clarence, I 
think it was). A "game" thoroughbred " terrier " of a man was 
"Pat Leslie;" knew nothing of fear, any more than Lord Nelson 
did, and recked nothing of odds against him in numbers. He, once, 
when travelling with Mrs. Leslie, near his station, Goomburra, 
probably on las way to Canning Downs, stayed for the night at 
Jubb's hotel, high up in the verdant bosom of the Main Range, in a 
pleasant, healthy country. Mrs. Leslie was in delicate health, and 
the bar of this wooden hotel was crowded with noisy bullock drivers, 
drinking, and swearing, and away from their teams, camped hard 
by. The sound went through the house, and Mrs. Leslie could not 



112 WILLIAM JUBB. 

stand it. Her husband went down to the bar. One thin, wiry, 
man, amongst a dozen heavy, burly ruffians, each more than a 
match for him in size, in a lonely, even if beautiful, part of the 
country, far from police, or help. But mind rules matter. Men 
recognise a " thoroughbred " when they see him. Jubb himself, a 
pretty brawny bit of stuff, would not have dared it. But, a solitary 
magistrate's life, or a constable's life, was safer, then, in the presence 
of 1,000 yelling convicts, of the manly old type, disciplined by hard- 
ship, than it would be now, with a dozen of the modern shed- 
burning " shearers," especially if the victim's back, and not his face, 
were turned to them for a moment. 

Jubb had an adventure with the blacks. Mr. Jubb was " belting 
up " the steep sides of Mount Mitchell, about the same height as 
Ben Nevis, with his coat, and, it must be confessed, his trousers 
also, over his arm, for it was hot, and he needed full play for his 
muscles in such a climb as that was ; when lo ! he met, face to face, 
the real " myall " blacks, who knew not the coast language, and not 
much " pigeon English." He had no weapons, but had nothing to 
be robbed of. He was furious at such a slice of bad luck, but he 
made an effort, by signs, to let the savages know that the " wheel- 
barrow, carrying his flour and tobacco," was close at hand behind 
him, and off they set in pursuit of the drays, whose drivers were well 
armed ; and (as Jubb said) " Wasn't I glad to see the backs of those 
wretches, Mr. Bartley." 

The vessels which traded from Sydney, and elsewhere, in 1854, to 
Brisbane, were the " Volante," " Brothers," " Vision," " Souvenir,' 
"Bad Spec," "Raven," "Bella Vista," " William Miskin " (s.), 
" City of Melbourne " (s.), " Bonnie Doon," " Don Juan," &c. ; also, 
the "Palermo," Captain Henry Wyborn, afterwards of the Harbours 
Department. 

Brisbane is, I think, the only metropolis in the world which 
combines a Highgate Hill with a Kedron Brook. The latter, a 
crystal-clear, mountain-born stream, flowing from west to east, on 
the north side of the city, losing itself, ultimately, in swamps, below 
where the German missionaries, of 1838, had their settlement, 
Niquet, Zillman, Rode, and the rest of them. The " brook " was a 
fairy-like stream. Its banks lined with the narrow leaf wattle, 
which blooms so beautifully, and loads the air with its " nutty " 
gorse-like scent every August ; its banks lined, also, with the narrow- 
leaf ti-tree, a melaleuca neriifolia, which, in early November, breaks 
into bloom as gracefully as the wattle, with leaves, which, when 
crushed, exhale the perfume of thyme ; and flowers, with the exact 







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JUDGE LUTWYCHE. 113 

odour of " Grande Chartreux," and from which a rare liqueur could 
be prepared ; and there is, also, the Kennedya, covering the ground 
with violet blossoms, as it creeps along the surface, in swathes of 
20 feet in length, and the pretty little ground orchids, and so forth. 
There must have been fairies and kelpies there once, but slaughter- 
yards and fellmongers came along, and the fairies " cleared," which 
was more than the water did. 

David Longland's big hill stood out high on the north side, and 
Bartley's " Eildon Hill " on the south of the brook, and Tom Hayes, 
and Tim Corbett, and old Mott, owned land on the upper part, and 
thereby hangeth a tale. One morning, in early 1859, I espied Judge 
Lutwyche, spectacles on nose. Government map in hand, taking 
stock of some Crown allotments near the Green Hills, and I thus 
addressed his Honour : " You are looking at some lots, not very 
eligible, and which will not be sold for some time to come. There 
are some Crown ones, better than these, and which will be sold very 
shortly, and which I would recommend you to see first, and, if you 
like to come with me to-morrow, I will show them to you, as I mean 
to buy some myself." He replied, " I will come with you." We 
went, and Thorrold (I think) came with us. I showed them the 
nakedness of the land. I resolved on " Eildon Hill," the judge, on 
what he called the pretty " ha ha " lawns, where " Kedron Park " 
now is ; and Thorrold selected at the " Thorroldtown " of modern 
days. We camped, and lunched, by the brook, spent a delightful 
day, and the Judge particularly fancied some " Presburger 
Zwieback " biscuits I had brought with me, and asked me for a 
tin-full of them, which I gave him. 

But, to revert to 1854. Grenier's was not sacred to the " bloated 
squatter " alone. The 'orny 'anded frequented the hotel also, notably 
old Coombes, of near Hill End, a relative of some famous Devon 
wrestler, and a performer himself ; also, old Elijah Stubbins a 
Cooper's Plains' farmer ; and, amongst the guests at Campbell's, I 
must not omit to mention Cecil Hodgson, a brother of Sir Arthur's; 
and old Mr. Gillespie, a squatter at Canal Creek, Darling Downs ; 
and Henry Hayter Nicol, of Ballandean, near the modern Stan- 
thorpe, a proud Scotch gentleman, and, like Bell, Sandeman, 
W hitting, and others, aye ready for a duel, on provocation. At 
this time, the guest list, at Campbell's, included the captain, chief, 
and doctor, of the immigrant ship " Genghis Khan," which made a 
sensational run, of 7G days, from the " Tuskar " light to Brisbane. 

Wildash and I often went to William Butler Tooth's, of whom 
Wildash (who knew early New South Wales times) spoke to me in 

I 



114 OLD DRAYTON. 

high terms, and told me how, up in the Tumut Mountains country, 
by the Murrumbidgee district, W. B. T. had built a house for his 
aged mother, with his own hands. But Tooth had made money at 
Widgee and Glastonbury since then (oh ! why did he not " pre-empt " 
Gympie ?), and had "gone in" for "Clifton," on the Downs, with 
10,000 cattle, at £3 per head, from Gammie Brothers; but he took a 
big contract when he replaced them with a dozen times that number 
of sheep. However, I have been long enough digressing ; so, to my 
first journey to the Darling Downs. 

After visiting J. P. Nahar's, Clune's, and the other Ipswich 
hotels, I got to " Sally Owen's Flat," to an inn, kept by M'Keon, 
on the 7th July, 1854, and, next day, on to Martin Byrne's, at 
Gatton, passing Franklyn Vale head station, with its pretty water- 
colours of the lovely Dominica and Guadaloupe, West Indies, where 
Mr. James Laidley, senior, was, in the olden days, before he was 
commissary in Sydney, in 1829. Over Laidley Creek, and Little 
Liverpool Range ; past W. P. Douyere's, the Frenchman, who kept 
the inn at "Bigge's Camp," now called "Grandchester." The Lockyer 
was a steep-banked, deep-cleft, ravine of a creek, like the Cooyar, 
but not full of granite boulders like the other one. Next day, I 
passed some pretty creeks, with splendid cedar trees, at a camping 
place ; passed a conical hill, with the top cut off flat, on my left ; 
rode past a hill foot, strewn with boughs of trees, which had been 
used as drags by descending drays ; rode up a sideling cutting, 
chipped out of the very wall of the Main Range, and of a geological 
formation of the " cannon-ball " type, for the wall of rock seemed 
riddled with imbedded round pieces of ironstone, many of which lay 
fallen and strewn on the road itself, round, rusty, heavy, and solid. 
Topping this, I came to the green and oozy " Drayton Swamp " (now 
Toowoomba), past a tiny cemetery, and got to old Drayton, and 
put up at the hotel of William Horton (Stuart Russell's companion 
in travel), the " Royal Bull's Head," with a parlour, and a style 
much above those of the wayside inns from Ipswich. 

Here Captain Vignolles, Wm. Beit, of Westbrook, Gibson, of 
Chinchilla, <kc, were to be seen. Opposite was Wm. Handcock's 
store ; he was a brother of Mrs. Geo. Thorn, of Ipswich. Further 
on, was Edward Lord, father of Mrs. G. B. Molle ; also, Stephen 
Mehan, whose "Priam" beat "War Eagle" two months later. 
William Henry Wiseman (afterwards of Rockhampton) had just 
succeeded Christopher Rolleston, as Commissioner of Crown Lands ; 
and there was a curious little church, where Canon Glennie preached ; 
he was not a "Canon," then, you know. 



JOE KING. 115 

On, next day, to Cambooya, where, three years later, Arthur 
Wilcox Manning, and his family, entertained me as hospitably as 
did Captain O'Connell, of Mondure. It was in the garden, at 
Cambooya, that this Mr. Manning (once P.M. at Twofold Bay, and 
a brother of Sir William's) trod one night, as he walked up and 
down, on something which, he thought, felt " uncanny " under the 
foot, and, with an impatient exclamation of " I wish people would 
not leave cabbage stalks about," he kicked it far away. A light 
was brought, and it was only — a death adder ! after all. On, to 
Clifton at night ; admired the French lights, and eke the rare corned 
beef. E. W. Jackson, and Atticus Tooth, were there, in charge, 
and the stockyard, which would work 10,000 cattle, was a marvel 
of post and rail symmetry. Jackson and I rode past a huge brown 
snake on the plain. 

Kext day, I crossed King's Creek, called after jolly Joe King. I 
knew him well. He was related, by marriage, to the Alfords, the 
Boultons, and the Taylors, of Cecil Plains. I can recall his cheery 
voice, now, as I heard it at Grenier's in the olden days, as, with 
good-humoured contempt, he surveyed, in the next room to mine, 
and remarked on the dress suit and linen of George Panton Betts, 
all laid out on the bed in readiness, for there was to be a ball in 
Brisbane that night. Rare Joe King ! exploring was much more in 
.his line than " swallow tails." I wonder where now are George 
Goggs, "Baldy" Smith and "Tasty" Brown, whose pungent vernacular 
of the "forties" is seldom heard in these more refined days. 

From Clifton onward, past the house where Doctor Miles used to 

live (father of Mr. C. S. Miles, of the Treasury), and near which, I 

remember a confounded magpie, which used regularly, year after 

year, at a certain season, whenever I rode past, to try and knock my 

hat off. Was it the egg-hatching season 1 Then on, across the 

boggy Condamine — more boggy than King's Creek, and that was 

bad enough — to Talgai head station, belonging to Hood and Douglas, 

then, and now to Clark, from Tasmania ; over some quartz ridges, 

giving promises, duly fulfilled, of future golden wealth; on, to 

Toolburra (Coutts's), the whole sweep of country from Clifton, 

including Ellangowan, up to this, being, at one time, the property 

of the Gammies ; on, to Warwick, the same night. Such a clean, 

• elly, level town, after that broken gully of a Drayton, with its 

black mud, which used to ball just like snow. Two hotels here ; 

one by ColUns, one, Mark McCarthy; the stores, kept by John Bowen, 

George Walker, and Marcus Berkman. I did good business here, 

as at Drayton j and, next day, rode out past a scrubby mountain, 



116 "harlequin." 

and Maryvale Creek (a place for huge carpet snakes), to Jubb's,. 
whom I had met before, at South Brisbane, and so needed no intro- 
duction. It will be noted that, as a commercial traveller, 30 miles- 
a day were about "my figure;" but, the noble squatter despised' 
such trips. I have been wakened at midnight, at M'Keon's, 18 
miles from Ipswich, by the thunder of hoofs galloping past in the 
darkness. It was Joshua Bell and E. M. Royds, (of Juandah, on the 
Dawson), who had left Limestone long after night-fall, pounding 
along, and they meant to " make " Gatton before they went to bed 
(en route for Jimbour). I trust they had sure-footed cattle. I 
should not care myself for that pace by that light. Strange that 
" Joe " Bell rode hard, and so did George Raff, but the former did 
not break his every bone in detail, as did the latter ; and, yet, Raff 
never rode a bad or inferior horse. It was luck, I suppose ; and I 
remember one night at Clifton, William and Atticus Tooth came in, 
at midnight, many hours after I had arrived from Drayton. They 
had only come from Douyere's that day, over 70 miles. 

The tln'ee horses which I chiefly used during my Burnett and 
Darling Downs commercial trips were " Flash Charley," bought from 
Henry Mort ; " Cock Robin," from Geo. Raff ; and " Harlequin," 
from John de V. Lamb ; the latter horse won the Hack Hurdle 
Race at Tenterfield, in 1857, and took Mr. Lamb's fancy. He and 
W. R. Campbell, of Fort street, Sydney, paid a visit, as youths, to- 
the Clarence River, returning to Sydney, vid New England, 
"Warwick, and Brisbane. I met them at Warwick, in pouring 
rain, October, 1857. I bought a blue blanket, cut a hole in the 
middle, and we travelled together to Jubb's, and Brisbane, I took 
a fancy to " Harlequin," heard who he was, and what he had done, 
and got the offer of him at cost price, as soon as he had carried his 
rider to Brisbane. Fred. Daveney, C.P.S., of Ipswich, wanted 
badly to buy " Harlequin " from me, to run him for the " Hurdles," 
at Ipswich. 

" What's the use," said he to me, with true anti-Brisbane feeling 
and contempt, " what's the use of a horse like that, in Brisbane, to 
you ? Any sort of a ' Sunday afternoon ' animal is good enough for 
that place ; there are no horses there," 

Daveney might have been right enough, but I wanted " Harlequin " 
for work, while I was, also, still young, and conceited enough, to wish 
to be seen on a good horse at Brisbane and Ipswich i-aces. 

I used to leave a horse each trip to " spell " in the Clifton paddock, 
and pick him up six weeks later, and leave another. The " speller "' 
often bucked, especially " Flash Charlie," but he stopped when 



spickr's peak scrub. 117 

roared at loudly enough. The exception was the gentle, flea-bitten 
Arab, "Cock Robin," of Raft's, which a child could ride, and which 
I often had to lend to lady novices. But he was very fast. My 
cousin, Frank Lucas, M.D., challenged me to race his hack, with 
" Cockie," once round Ipswich course, catch weights. Captain Feez 
rode Lucas's, and young Robt. J. Gray rode my horse : both fair 
weights, even then, and " Cock Robin " led from start to finish. It 
was a custom, then, for squatters and sporting men to match horse 
against horse, not for a stake, but the winner to take both animals, 
and these events helped to make the races of 1856-1861, at 
Ipswich, " hum." I remember a horse called " Bucking Bob," alias 
" Chieftain," the first name being a corruption of Robert Buchan, 
who was raced on these lines. It was a " boil over," and the man 
who came to lead the "other fellow's" horse home, saw his own one 
■marched off. But, I am forgetting that I am still at Jubb's, in July, 
1854, before all these things happened. 

Jubb's was a very healthy place, so near to the Killarney and 
Dalveen country. It is the only part of Queensland where I ever 
felt inclined to jump over agate, from a feeling of high elastic health. 
The next day I had to tackle the scrub on the " Spicer's Peak " Gap. 
This road, cut through a dense vine scrub, had been at one time 
paved with thick pine logs — a " corduroy " road, in fact — and, while 
it lasted, all was well. But, the place was naturally almost a 
bottomless morass, full of springs ; the logs had rotted in the middle, 
and the sound ends tilted up in all directions ; a lovely chevaitx de 
Jrise. It was an awful place for horse, bullock, or vehicle of any 
kind, to face, the tilted logs adding to the pitfalls of the boggy 
ground. A dense wall of scrub on each hand prevented escape, or 
-evasion of the ordeal. A man, on foot, could, by treading on the 
roots of the trees, get along, but a saddle horse, or a bullock team, 
could not do this 

After crossing a pretty, little, clear, mountain stream, made 
fordable by thick logs placed close together at the bottom, I drew 
near this redoubtable scrub of " Spicer's Peak ;" the smell of the 
peculiar trees and shrubs, which grew here, filling the air with an 
odour, tropical and medicated, that seemed to tell of poison herbs, 
snakes, stinging nettle trees, and "eerie" reptiles of all kinds ; the 
sharp, incisive, staccato " swipp " of the coach-whip bird seeming to 
make it the " boss " spirit of the weird and gloomy " Der Freischutz " 
scene ; nothing but huge, tall, dark-foliaged trees, stag-horn ferns, 
tangled creepers, and soft, black, bottomless morass, in the road, 
was to be seen. In I went, leading my horse, and dodged from log 



118 AN AIR BORNE PULPIT. 

to log, and tree root to tree root, my horse sinking to his knees at 
every step ; at last, when I trusted, for a moment, to the earth, in I 
went up to the hips. I prized myself out by clasping a log with 
each hand, and resumed my road more carefully. I had a great 
" clean up " at Fassifern after it. There is a legend of a man's 
head and hat sticking up out of the mud at this spot, and he said to 
a rescuer who came along, " When you have picked me out, 
remember my horse is down below." It was bad enough, in all 
conscience, without these exaggerations. But I was rewarded for it 
all when I got clear of the scrub. 

Glorious was the view to the south, over the peaked mountains 
which mark the heads of the Clarence and Richmond Rivers, from 
this 1900 feet of elevation ; while, another 1900 feet above me, or 
3800 feet in all, there aj^pearecl, sitting high, as it were, on a silvery 
bank of fog cloud, a solitary stone pulpit in the sky, being the narrow, 
rocky, eastern "horn" of "Mount Mitchell," that looks over to the 
sea and the savannahs of West Moreton, all the rest of the mountain, 
between me and it, being robed in the cloud over which peeped this 
apparently air-borne, spectral, stone pulpit ; it might have been a 
balloon a mile in the air, so little seemed the connection between it 
and the earth below, and it was a sight of unearthly beauty rarely 
seen. 

Strange insect battles take place in these scrubs at times: — I once 
saw a couple, rolling over, and biting each other, so furiously, that you 
could not tell which was which, so electrically rapid were their move- 
ments ; when it was over I beheld a good sized spider, shorn of all 
its eight legs, which lay on the ground beside it. It was alive and 
unhurt, otherwise, but, incapable of movement, of course, and by it, 
the other insect was, jet black, like a hard-shelled, thin, muscular fly, 
or winged ant, with two, amber coloured, feathery antenna? on its 
head, and a pair of nipping forceps; it was a great spider killer, and 
showed no signs of injury, but, appeared to be ready, and eager, for 
more of it. It carried off the spider carcase, double its own bulk. 

At the " Bush " Inn, Fassifern, I next arrived. It was kept by 
R. E. Dix, and his wife, the mate and stewardess of the " Sovereign," 
steamer, which was lost in the South Passage, March 1847, they 
being amongst the saved, and married afterwards. She had pretty 
red brown eyes, and hair of the same; was a good pianist, and above 
the style of most innkeeper's wives, of that period, in old Moreton 
Bay. Here I met Arthur Hannibal MacArthur (who then managed 
Goomburra for Patrick Leslie), also John Deuchar, of Glengallan, 
and "Walter Davidson, of Canning Downs. Soon after, I met, at 



122° IN THE SHADE. 119 

McDonald's Hotel dinner, in Ipswich, a large company, of which, 
Pollet Cardew, Wm. Mactaggart Dorsey, John Brewster (of Rosevale), 
and "Win. Turner, of Helidon, formed part, and here again the 
irrepressible Jubb comes up before me ; he never spoke of Mr. 
Cardew except as " Kadoo," with a sort of Parisian accent in it ; I 
wish I could convey to the reader an idea of Mr. Jubb's brawny 
appearance, contrasted with the delicate, genteel inflections of his 
voice, when, he proposed to " let the ventilations of the heavens " 
in on the "Spicer's Peak" bog, as the only cure for it. Mr. "Chucks, 
the boatswain," in Captain Marry at's story, is the best ideal of him ; 
and now I will refer to another trip, which I made, in December, of 
1854, to the Darling Downs, in company with Mr. Robert Meston, 
editor of a Brisbane paper, and uncle of Mr. Archibald Meston ; we 
went up by way of Fassifern and Jubb's, for a change, in place of 
coming back by that route ; great was the change from July, there 
had been no rain since. That same scrub road on Spicer's Peak was 
dry as a bone, all but a solitary, bubbling spring in one spot; but the 
coach whip bird, and the bird with its seven spiughtly notes, from 
Carl Maria Von Weber's opera, were still in full force. And, oh 1 
that drought, how it told on the weather ! it was 108° in the shade, 
at Warwick, December 13th, 1854; the same at Clifton, the next 
day, grass all burnt and yellow; 110° at Drayton, the following day, 
and here I resolved to stop till the hot wind was over. I may 
mention, that during these three days, it was 117°, 119°, and 122° 
in the shade, at Chinchilla, and 112° at Franklyn Vale, below the 
Main Range. Lloyd came up from Helidon to Horton's, and Captain 
Vignolles and other squatters were there, grimly expressing a sar- 
castic wish that Dr. Lang and his immigrants were all up there, just 
then, and engaged in their pet "agricultural" pursuits, so hateful 
to the squatters, who wanted their runs intact, and who swore that 
"Darling Downs would not grow a cabbage," and certainly, at that 
particular rainless period, the squatter had all the best of the argu- 
ment. 

December 17th, 1854, was a Sunday, the 108° business and 
north-west wind still kept up. I went to the little church, but could 
not keep my coat on, to Mr. Glennie's horror. Stephen Mohan who 
had just brought home his second wife, and whose pretty sister, Emma, 
and younger brother, lived with him, asked a large party of us to 
tea, that evening, Jackson of Clifton, Maurice of Grafton, <fcc. 
Jaded with the heat, none of us could "feed"; so, Stephen went 
into the store, opened half a dozen tins of lobsters, set them out in 
a big dish, and we all "went for it," as a relish. I went home to 



120 POISONED BY FISH. 

Horton's, at 9 p.m., and was just going to bed, when I felt an 
abominably " fishy " taste in my mouth, which I could not get rid 
of, and I began to vomit freely, but nothing would allay that 
abominable, intolerable taste, of intense " fish." I drank the whole 
contents of a big wash hand jug, full of water, and threw it all up, 
and must have washed my stomach out, pretty freely, for I began to 
feel a little better; it was worse than sea sickness, and I knew, then, 
that I was poisoned by fish of some sort. When I grew better, I 
was visited by Jackson, of Clifton, about 11 p.m., to whom I 
mentioned that the lobster had poisoned me, to which he replied, 
" what nonsense ! Bartley ! you are so fanciful, you have been sick, 
no doubt, but it is the weather, not the lobster." The words had 
hardly left his lips when, he added, in a distressed voice, "By Jove! 
I don't know, whether it is from looking at you, but, I begin to feel 
queer myself," and out he rushed ; I heard a sound of vomiting, but 
was too weak to follow him. I afterwards heard that he fell insen- 
sible, and lay there till next morning, outside. Meantime, I went 
out, on to the verandah, for some air, and saw lights and lanterns 
flashing, about the town ; I asked the waiter (who had not gone to 
bed), what was the matter (we had candles and snuffers, an it please 
you, at all Darling Downs hotels, in those days). He said, " have 
you not heard the news, Sir? All the people at Stephen Mehan's tea 
have been poisoned. Mrs. Mehan has vomited till she broke a blood 
vessel, and Dr. Armstrong is going round, with a lantern, to see them 
all." (This was the brother of the Dr. Armstrong who married Miss 
Beit, and practised at Toowoomba afterwards). I was the first to 
feel the poison, and the first to get over it without medical help ; the 
Doctor saw me, and said, I was the only one of the lot whose voice 
was not weakened by the shock. Poor fellow ! He had phthisis, 
or, as he said "my cats' meat (lights) is out of order"; he died in 
Sydney, in 1855, and went thither in the same steamer with me, and 
the captain kindly inducted a wind sail into his state room, from the 
glass companion on deck, to give him all the air possible in that close 
atmosphere, and to lighten his suffering; like most phthisical doctors, 
he was exceptionally skilful. For years after that I trembled at the 
smell of any fish, and could not stop near it. 

Robert Meston and I met once more, on the Downs, and this time 
we resolved to go back to the coast, vid Allan Cunningham's gap, 
itself, and not by Spicer's Peak. Meston said he knew the way, and 
would pilot me, and I much wanted to see what it was like. He 
kept me from taking a wrong, right hand, track, and we soon came 
to the top of the awful slide. Imagine a slope of some 45°, for a 



ROBERT MESTON. 121 

•stretch of about 2500 feet, and you have " Cunningham's " Gap, " at 
home," though, it looks pretty enough at a distance. Meston re- 
marked " it is not customary to ride down this Gap," so lie dis- 
mounted, and I held on to the bridle of my faithful steed, who 
planted his forelegs alternately, and stiffly, in front of him, and so 
kept me from going down-hill, " by the run," as I must have done, 
if alone. The " Razor Back " hill, which leads from the Mudgee 
Road (where the mountains are so like old Lillenstein, on the Elbe, 
in Germany), to the bed of the Turon River, in New South Wales, is 
pretty steep for 1500 feet, but Cunningham's Gap "takes the cake" 
from it. You can " dodge" the descent a bit, to the Golden River, 
•but you have to " face the music," when you go down the pass of 
Blount Mitchell. 

When that trouble was over, Meston went off to the left, to see 
the beautiful waterfall of Tarome, 370 feet, as it forms the head of 
Fletcher's Creek (I think) ; he did not stayid on the brink, but laid 
flat, and, looked over at the still deeper abyss below ; this cascade is 
a little higher, I believe, than the one at Yabba, on the Upper 
Brisbane waters, which Ernest White, of Beaudesert, and Walter 
.Scott, of Taromeo, once explored to the very bottom. Meston and 
I were slightly " bushed," at the foot of the Gap, but after a while 
struck the " wheelbarrow track," and made Fassifern, all right. I 
think lie called it " Fossiphairn." 

What huge spiders one meets in the bush of Queensland ! great, 
.hard, long-legged, tortoise shell coloured fellows, who spin web that 
yow. find it hard to break through, and who catch hornets, and even 
centipedes, in their web and kill them. Imagine a spider, who can 
kill such a professional spider-slayer as a Queensland hornet. There 
is no reason, however, why he should not, if he pegs away at the 
head, and keeps clear of that tail with its fearful sting, which, a 
spider, in its own web, can do, but not elsewhere ; the spider seizes 
the head of its victim, and taking a strong pull on it, it stretches 
the entangled legs and wings, as if extended on a rack, motionless, 
and helpless, while the poison teeth do their deadly work on the 
head nerves of the doomed insect. Speaking of hornets, as all people 
have not read Mr. Brunton Stephen's poems, I will quote an incident 
which he described. There was, in Queensland, a land surveyor, who 
was " serious," and wore spectacles, and employed two men, who 
were not serious, and whom he would not allow to swear nor use pro- 
fane language ; it fell out one day that work was over, and one of 
the men, bringing home a tomahawk, which had been used for marking 
trees, struck it lightly, and carelessly, into an old, decayed, tree- 



122 A HORNET STORY. 

stump, intending to leave it there till next clay's work ; out came a 
swarm of indignant hornets, outraged by the runaway knock at 
their door; the wielder of the hatchet felt the terrible stings and found 
there was no parrying the " all over " thrusts which he got. He 
used forcible and angry language, in the very dialect forbidden by 
his employer, and made a " bee line" for the nearest waterhole, into 
which he plunged, and squatted, and so baffled the hornet colony ; it 
came to pass, not long after, that his mate, not knowing what had 
been done, came home by the same path, saw the tomahawk, thought 
it was not tight enough in the stump, so pulled it out and struck it 
in a little deeper. Result — more hornets, more profanity, a second 
wild rush, and a second inmate in the water hole, ranged alongside 
the first one, and comparing sorrowful notes. After that, again, 
came along the serious "boss," himself, in the spectacles, and, seeing 
the tomahawk left out to the clews of the night, to rust, he thought 
how careless his men were, and he forcibly wrenched out the toma- 
hawk, from the stump, to take it home to his tent; when lo! he also 
was waited on by a winged, and stinged, deputation, the same as his 
two men had been, and the latter were greatly surprised to find the 
"boss," spectacles and all, by their side in the water hole. He asked 
no questions, and took in the whole situation at a glance, but, the 
strangest part of the story is still to be told. The men both affirm, 
positively, that before the master hove in sight, and before he saio 
them, and they him, the air was quite sulphurous, with a class of. 
language, which, they were loth to believe, could ever have come from 
his lips, and yet — Ah ! Well ! " Deliver us from temptation " is- 
a good prayer, and neither St. Anthony nor the patriarch Job, we 
know, ever felt the Queensland hornet, when, "on business bent." 

About the time of my trip, with Mr. Robert Meston, Mr. John 
Christian Heussler and his partner, Altwicker, started business as- 
merchants, in Brisbane ; the latter was an accomplished man and a 
musician, but died, in November, 1855, of phthisis, a heavy loss to social 
circles in our small town. Almost the very same day died Captain 
Barney, the postmaster of early Brisbane, and a brother of the well- 
known Colonel Barney, of Sydney official fame. 

Speaking of Germans and music, I had a treat in Sydney, in 
March, 1857, at the house of Mr. Hamburger, at Kirribilli Point, 
North Shore; he was a friend of Adolph Feez (Rabone, Feez &, Co.), 
and he, Foell, Feez and Heussler, rendered some quartette glees, in a 
style, which was a treat after Brisbane of that period. I staid at 
Petty's hotel then, where, the previous July, I had been with Joshua 
Bell. This time, March 1857, the guests there included Leonard 



THOMAS WHISTLER SMITH. 123 

Lester, and Dugald Graham, of the Logan, Yaldwyn, now P.M. of 
Ipswich, and every night Lester played ecarte with a Mr. Francis, 
who was father of the handsomest boy (ten years old) ever seen. 

I shall not forget the pain I got, at Petty's, from eating peaches 
after sea-sickness ; awake all night, I went for Dr. George Bennett, 
the veteran scientist, in the morning, and his carminative prescrip- 
tion, made up at Nome's, vanquished the colic quickly. Captain 
Wickham was also at Petty's, and he did wonder at any one tackling 
peaches after a voyage, and told me that, at Malta, they were called 
" kill-johns," from the way in which the men-of-war sailors died 
through eating them ; I bade a long farewell to peaches there and 
then. 

In the July of 1856, I was present, at a nice ball, at Mr. and Mrs. 
Croft's, " Mount Adelaide," Darling Point, and his partner, Thos. 
Whistler Smith and his sisters were there ; and how beautifully Miss- 
Fanny Smith danced and played, dove-like and gentle, as were, alike, her 
dress, and her style of beauty; and there were Mr. and Mrs. T. W. S.,. 
and the Tooths, and the Lambs, and the Parburys, and the Rusdens, 
and the Morts, and Woodhouse (my old bank chum at the " New 
South "), and Buchanan (who married Miss Harriet Manning), and 
the Bundocks, and the Mannings, and more. Here I met Frank 
Lucas, my cousin, the M.D., just out from Aberdeen, and it was a 
moot point whether he should practise in Melbourne, or Ipswich, 
and the latter place carried the day, for people expected great things 
from Moreton Bay then. G. V. Brooke was playing in Sydney,, 
about this era, and " Othello," and " His Last Legs," came equally 
easy to this splendid actor, and Australia had a rare treat in the 
two great southern cities. Henry Buckley, our member in Sydney 
then, used to take me to hear the debates, and I was much impressed 
with Sir Daniel Cooper's lace cravat, as speaker, and his dignified 
return bow to all the members. I have spoken of G. V. Brooke, 
and let me here say, that, though I never heard, in Australia, any 
singers of the calibre of Alboni, Jenny Lind, Grisi, Mario, Lablache, 
or Tamburini, yet, as i-egards actors, there was no difference. The 
best singers and dancers will not cross the equator, but G. V. Brooke, 
in "Othello," was quite equal to Macready, in "King Lear," and, 
when we recall the marvellous elocution in the latter part, that i& 
saying a great deal. And, again, all the Wrights, Buckstones, and 
Kccli-vs, that ever trod the Haymarket, Adelphi, and Lyceum 
boards, were not one step in advance of poor Fred Marshall, in 
"Friends" "Blow for Blow," or the "Wedding March," and one 
had the peal article in Australia in comedy and tragedy ; hut, in the- 



124 ALBONI BEFORE THE QUEEN. 

case of high opera and ballet it was simply "pardonnez moi." Taglioni, 
Elssler, Cerito, Pauline Duvernay, Adele Dumilatre, &c., seemed 
as incapable of Austral acclimatization as Ursa Major himself. You 
cannot reproduce at the antipodes what I saw and heard, on June 
20th, 1848, at Covent Garden Opera House, at a time when Europe 
teemed with revolution ; it was not so much that the Queen, then a 
youthful nine and twenty, went in state to hear the "Huguenots"; 
it was not that she had six boxes, in two tiers, made into one, with a 
"Beefeater" at each angle, and it was not even that the Life Guards 
in red plumes, blue uniform, cuirass, and helmet of steel, in cloaks, 
and on black horses, kept watch and ward outside, the while ; it was 
not that the decorations were simply pure white and gold, the house 
and stage nearly the largest in the world, with a chandelier, of beauty 
and size, that would have about filled up any Australian theatre 
then ; it was not even that the white-gloved peeresses applauded in 
a dove-cot fluttering style, that did not recall the screech of the 
gallery gods elsewhere ; it was not that the orchestra contained one 
hundred of the best soloists in Europe, on all instruments, and that 
they moved as one machine under (Sir) Michael Costa's baton ; it was 
not that the chorus, behind the scenes, was matchless and faultless ; 
it was not that Malibran's own sister, Viardot Garcia, helped to sing 
the " National Anthem " before the curtain rose ; but it was, when 
Marietta Alboni, in the divinest contralto voice this world ever pro- 
duced, poured forth twelve words of thrilling prayer, 

" Oh ! Lord ! our God ! arise ! 
Scatter Her enemies ! 
Aud make them fall ! " 

and when the chorus, behind the scenes, took up the glorious refrain, 
it was then that I felt that life was almost too delicious to live. 
Flesh crept and nerves quivered; and how I longed that such a voice, 
pure and clear as silver bells played on by falling dewdrops, should 
never be wasted on obscure operatic recitative, but reserved solely 
for gems like our National hymn. I heard Jenny Lind about the 
same time, in the " Daughter of the Regiment," and she could 
actually play with high passages that would have (in Australian 
parlance) "camped" many an aspiring soprano, and I liked her voice 
better than Grisi's ; but — after Alboni — well ! perhaps I'm prejudiced. 
I had an argument once with a Teutonic gentleman, who wanted to 
persuade me that the National air of " Schleswig Holstein " was 
higher class music than " God Save the Queen," but, I could never 
be brought to see that either it, or the Russian, or the Austrian 



H. STUART RUSSELL. 125- 

anthems, carried the grand traditions of our old inspiring battle cry, 
and I will add that they have no more improved in this, the end of" 
the century, on Lind and Alboni, as singers, than they have on 
Morphy and Anderssen, the chess players, in the early half of the 
same. 

My earliest experience of Henry Stuart Russell was in 1855, or 
early '56, when he sold off his furniture at " Shafston," where Mr. 
C. M. Foster now lives. I bought his Norfolk Island dripstone at 
that sale, had it fixed on a high stand with Venetian shutters on 
four sides, and a large pure white (Tridacna) clam shell, from Torres 
Straits, to catch the filtered water in. The cats and dogs could not 
get at it, and the legs in basins of water kept the ants out, and here- 
was a clear drink of water, the finest in North Brisbane, and I often 
got requisitions from St. John's parsonage, and elsewhere, for a jug 
full of it. 

Two years later, I went in the " Yarra " to Sydney ; Russell was 
a passenger, also W. B. Tooth, and James Walsh, solicitor, of Ipswich. 
The latter was on his way to assist at the wedding of his brother, 
W. H. Walsh (of Degilbo, Wide Bay district), at the Hunter River. 
Jubb was a passenger also. I took particular notice of Russell (who^ 
was "seen off" by James Taylor), I observed his luminous brown 
eye, his biceps, born of University rowing exercise, his exceptionally 
good French accent, and his preference, for tonic perfumes, like 
myrtle and ambergris, over the sickly, sweet, vulgar sort. We left 
Brisbane, February 10th, 1857, at 9 a.m., saw the ship " Parsee " in 
the bay, old Bell had the "Yarra" and "Carrie" was stewardess. 
A fair wind and not sick, for a wonder ; one could never feel dull 
with Stuart Russell (or Arthur Hodgson), on board ship, in those 
days, and he regaled us with endless yarns about old George Thorn, 
in the 1840 time, about the lady at the cafe, and Miska Hauser, the 
violinist; he condemmed Tom Jones's yacht, the " Wyvern," as, having 
nearly drowned a former owner, and he hurried on board the 
" Governor General," for Melbourne, when we got to Sydney, and, 
I expect, was off' to England there and then. 

And, now, some one may ask what was doing in these years, 1854-7, 
in the way of Australian history ? Well ! There were the Ballarat 
riots, Sir Charles Hotham's great unpopularity and death ; the 
crowning of Wentworth's work, in 1853, by Stuart Donaldson and 
his colleagues, forming the first constitutional, responsible Ministry 
of Australia, in 1856. J. T. Smith was Mayor of Melbourne, and 
wasn't Kerr the Town Clerk 1 and Childers, Haines, Nicholson, 
O'Shaiia.-vsy, Stawell, and Ebden, were they not very much in. 



126 DARLING POINT FOLKS. 

evidence then, in Victorian politics? not to mention John Pascoe 
Fawkner, Evans, Chapman, and Michie; and old General Macarthur 
was interim Governor, after Hotham's death, and held levees and 
all that, and Lola Montez danced, so as to please the Ballarat people, 
and the star of Gavan Duffy began to rise, and they used to throw 
nuggets on to the stage, in place of bouquets, for Victoria had 
prospered much, since the days when a board nailed to a tree stump, 
by the river, marked the site of Flinders Lane, or of the first Crown 
Land Sale in Melbourne ; and Madame Anna Bishop made people's 
eyes moist with " Home, Sweet Home." And we, too, in Brisbane, 
were helping to " make history" at that same time; for, we held 
public meetings in favor of Separation from New South "Wales, at 
which Mr. R. A. Kingsford, myself, and others, moved and seconded 
resolutions, and where I discoursed, in my speech, of the iniquity of 
unfair land boundaries as a cause of war and bloodshed in past times, 
and of the injustice to posterity (as a bad inheritance) of such mis- 
taken frontier lines. This, you know, was all because New South 
Wales wouldn't let us have the Clarence River in our new colony. 

Yes, in 1856 and 1857, I spent many a pleasant day, and not the 
least so of them, with poor Whistler Smith ; I use the adjective not 
of his wealth, for he had abundance of that, but in connection with 
his too early death, for he was one of the earliest of the true 
Australian aristocracy, to realise, that this island continent had a 
noble destiny to fulfil, and that its sons and daughters (native born) 
should try to be worthy of the same ; he loved and admired his 
sisters, not merely because they were pretty, ladylike, and accom- 
plished, but, because (as he said) they were "worthy of their country," 
and that meant much from his patriotic point of view. 

There was a snug coterie, of society at Darling and Potts's Point, 
and the South Head road then, which had something in it more than 
the ordinary, loose, cold-hearted ties of friendship, which commonly 
binds, what is called " society " together. Merchants, whose words 
were as good as their bonds, men of high honour, who were all close 
personal friends, in business and out of it, whose wives and families 
helped to make the union stronger; and old Captain Henry Neatby 
in the " Vimeira" (the forerunner of the "LaHogue"), and Captain 
Hight in the "Alnwick Castle," used to take whole batches of happy 
families home to London, from Sydney, in those days. I do not 
know modern Sydney so well, but I hope they are all as happy now, 
as then, on the villa crowned shores of Port Jackson. 

It was about this time, that it began to be discovered, that 
the exodus of Australian farmers, and their labourers, to the gold- 



FLOUR FROM CHILI. 127 

fields, had put almost a stop to the local production of flour, and it 
had to be imported from Chili, a place where a system, akin to slavery, 
exists between the rich Dons and land owners, and the poor natives, 
and where flour and copper can always be produced cheaply. The 
"Caspar," barque, Captain Eldred, with 500 tons of flour from 
Valparaiso, arrived in Moreton Bay towards the close of 1855. I 
was appointed agent for the company which consigned her, and 
further vessels, to this port. Flour was flour then, and old George 
Thorn, of Ipswich, gave his cheque for £1000 for 20 tons of it, and 
Mr. P. O'Sullivan, (M.L.A.), who was then in business, in Ipswich, 
used to sell it at £7 per 200 lb. Australian bag, or, £70 per ton. 
There was no "poor man's loaf" in those clays, and no " poor man" 
either, for that matter, when it did not "pay" Australians to grow 
their own flour at £50 a ton, but to import it from Chili, where it 
cost only £11 per ton to raise ; Chili flour poured in after this. I 
got up from Sydney 2500 bags of it in the " Boomerang," steamer, 
which discharged at my wharf in place of the A.S.N. Co's, that trip ; 
and the " Kate Kearney," Captain Punch, the only vessel which 
ever did, or ever will, load under the mill shoots up the river in 
Chili, and discharge her cargo at the Brisbane wharf, without lifting 
hatches, or lightering, came consigned to me; the "Manuel Montt " 
brought a heavy cargo from Chili, which was divided between 
Sydney and Brisbane. 

One morning, soon after the Chilian flour in the " quintal " bags, 
from Taona, began to pour in on me, I received a visit from three 
squatters — Joshua Bell, De Lacy Moffatt (who married Bell's sister), 
and Colin Mackenzie (Sir Evan's brother). They had, at their hotel, 
debated, after breakfast, " What to do," and " Let's go and worry 
Bartley about flour " was the verdict ; for, as Colin M. told me after, 
they all three " meant " flour in earnest that time. They challenged 
me to contract with them for a three-year supply, at from £36 to 
£40 a ton, for all their stations ; but, it was not safe for me to do 
it, as matters loomed then, and it did not come off. 

A subsequent visit to Darling Downs included Dalby in my 
programme. A new, and larger, flat-bottomed steamer, the 
" Bremer," had been built, and I went in her to Ipswich, having as 
my fellow-passengers, Captain Geary, the Rev. Mr. Yeatman (of St. 
John's), .Miss Sarah Grenier, Derwent Foster, and William Jubb. 
W. I!. Tooth was in Ipswich, having ridden from Drayton, over 
70 miles, that day. This was October 20, 185G. Tom Jones, of 
Barambab, G D'Arcy, and J. F. M'Dougall, were at the hotel, and 
J started up country, with the two latter, next day, E. B. Culleo 



128 RACING A FLOOD. 

lending nie a horse ; and, at Drayton, I met Ralph Gore, and old 1 
Mr. Thomas Bell, of Jimbour, and A. J. Wood, afterwards surveyer 
at Rockhampton. 

Next day, on to Gowrie and Jondaryan, where Brookes Forster 
(Robert Cran, overseer), was manager. Next day, on to Myall 
Creek, or Dalby, over a wet and boggy road of black soil. I 
admired the peaks of the lofty Bunya Mountains, away to the east, 
and, also, the smiling patience of John Ferrett, whom I met, piloting 
his wool teams through a sea of mud that would have tried the 
temper of St. Anthony. Joe Whalin kept the hotel at Dalby, and 
F. Roche the chief store ; and here I met old Beck, a squatter from 
the Moonie, who patronized Grenier's when down at " the Bay."" 
A nasty pattering rain all night boded a bad time of it next day on 
the black soil plain, but I got all right to Jondaryan, and found 
Dr. Armstrong (secundus) there (his brother died the year before), and 
he, Vidal, and I had a sharp gallop into Drayton next day. 

Emile de St. Jean, and Allport, were at Gowrie, and, at Drayton,. 
I found Dr. Tyrrell, the Bishop of Newcastle, who held a confirma- 
tion, and Annie Glissan, and all the other pretty girls of Drayton, 
were in white muslin. The Bishop and Mr. Glennie were ahead of 
me next day, in a most slippery ride down the Range. The Lockyer 
was beginning to rise, and I heard that Laidley Creek was already^ 
up, so I started from Gatton early, and got over it ; but, at the- 
Seven-mile Creek from Ipswich, I had to turn back, and retreated 
to M'Keon's, to wait the lowering of the Bremer, for I heard it was- 
16 feet deep at the One-mile Creek. After a day's spell, I essayed 
the Seven-mile again, and a friendly bullock-driver piloted me over 
by a sharp turn to the left, in mid stream in place of going right 
across. The Bishop of Newcastle, in whose diocese we were, had to 
creep over, on all-fours, on a log. My horse was lent me by E. Lord, 
and was no swimmer, and, in fact, was drowned, soon after, in trying 
to swim out of a paddock, with no one on his back. The bridge was not 
submerged at the Three-mile Creek, though the rain had never 
ceased. But the "One Mile" was a " stinger," indeed ! No bridge 
there, any more than at the Seven-mile. Here were some teams, from 
Ipswich, on their way up country, camped, and unable to cross ; 
but, a man in charge of one of them, seeing me hesitate, came to-- 
the bank, and, by signals, showed me how to steer. He knew of a 
narrow place, not deep by comparison with the rest of it, and I got 
over, and into Ipswich, where, at M'Donald's hotel, I was, first of 
all, greeted with incredulity, and, afterwards, slightly lionized, when. 
I said I had came from Drayton ; for, all the guests there — viz.,. 



GEOFFREY EAGAR. 129 

Dr. Dorsey (of Grantham), Bell (of Jimbour), Turner (of Helidon), 
De Lacy Moffatt, Dr. Labatt (of Warwick), and A. W. Manning, 
were all weather-bound, and unwilling to face the dread " One 
]\Iile ;" and, unless you hit on the said narrow bank that I was 
shown, it was a case of being swept away. These places Avere all 
bridged afterwards. 

There was a wedding at Brisbane on the 4th, the day I arrived 
from Ipswich. Mr. Henry Gilbert Smith, of Sydney (uncle of 
"Whistler Smith) married Miss Margaret Thomas, sister of Mrs. 
Rowland, of Ipswich, Miss Frances Jones, of New Farm, being a 
bridesmaid, and I saw her carrying home a parcel of wedding cake, 
duly tied up with white satin ribbon. 

I learnt a bush lesson this trip — namely, that no matter how 
straight a road you travel, and how fast your horse may be, and how 
much a flooded creek may wind, you cannot, in wet weather, race 
with it, or anticipate the coming flood. 

At this period Fred. Daveney was Clerk of Petty Sessions, at 
Ipswich ; Herbert Evans, at Warwick ; and Moncrieff (a brother, I 
believe, of Lady Mordaunt), at Drayton. I don't know whether it 
was because I was an ingenui vultus inter in the early days, but 
people had a habit, then, of confiding their history to me. For 
instance, Geoffrey Eagar came up to Brisbane, in 1855, on business 
for the Bank of New South Wales, and he had an introduction to 
me (an old officer of the same). He confided to me that he, though 
40 years old, had never before in his life been so far away from 
Sydney and from his wife and child, and, as I regarded his placid, 
suave, subdued manner, I recognized a new type of man — a gentle, 
refined, Sydney " cockney," far removed from the typical, rough 
Australian, and, yet, with nothing of London about him, either. 

Again, old Thomas Grenier — who carried on that well-kept, and 
highly patronized hotel, over the site of which, and all its memories, 
the Melbourne street railway of 1892 now runs — confided to me 
how he, ruined, and burnt out, by a raid of the Maoris, at Korara- 
rika, in New Zealand, escaped with life, and came to Moreton 
Bay, in the early days, with three helpless girl babies, to begin the 
world again. He worked, and prospered, here, and died, well off, at 
the " three score and ten." 

Good old days those, when Jimmy Orel used to be clerk of the 
course at Ipswich (no one was ever " Mister " then), and " Donald " 
and "Light-foot" raced; and "Old Joe," who was then the 
champion "pick-up" of New England, till the chestnut pony, " Ben 
Bolt" took him down; and when "Lizard " and "Mincemeat" ran, 



130 SEA SICKNESS. 

and Kent, of Fassifern (and Jondaryan) was never without a bit of 
blood on the course (" Cannonball," or something else) to throw 
down a glove, which few local men cared to lift, and only the Taits, 
and the Singles, from the south, could deal with. 

In those days, as I travelled up country, or met those who came 
to town, I constantly encountered squatters new to me. Amongst 
those who came to M'Adams, the " Sovereign " Hotel, in Queen 
street, Brisbane, were Joshua J. Whitting, of Pilton, Darling 
Downs ; Clapperton, of Tarong, on the Burnett (a great acrobat, 
though he did not look it) ; Borthwick, and Swan son. 

The older hotels of Australia, town and country alike, kept, and 
submitted, from a very limited repertoire, better food, and better 
liquor, than the modern ones do, from the endless resources now at 
command ; and an abundant supply of plate glass, and French 
polish, and mahogany and electric bells, is no set off against rancid 
bacon and butter, sour bread, beer, and milk, in some modern 
" palaces." 

I remember one sturdy scion of the Yorkshire Lumleys, who, with 
his ancestors, I suppose, had known neither dyspepsia, nor starvation, 
for 800 years, and whose stomach was of cast iron strength ; I 
remember him in a frightful gale, where even the seasoned captain 
and stewards were all sick ; he came up smiling, and alone, at each 
meal ; but everyone is not so gifted as this. 

I was heartily amused, once, on board steamer, with John Tait,. 
and his race horses, to see a worthy old member of Parliament, from 
the Maneroo district, very sea sick, and saying to his wife, " My 
dear, I can't think what ails me, for all I had for breakfast was a 
plate of tinned lobster, and a black pudding." I wonder how he 
could have proposed to improve upon this ! And, then, 'mid the 
giant waves that roll off " Flat Top " Island, on the Queensland 
coast, was a steamer, which carried an objectionable fellow, the 
manager of a "variety troupe." He was noisy, and voluble, and' 
bragged that he was never sea-sick in his life, as the mail boat 
anchored off the island ; and, to prove it, he ate an enormous break- 
fast of raw onions, and similar horrors. But old " Flat Top " has a 
habit of " fetching 'em," when at anchor there, which the boaster had 
never bargained for, and, I am proud to say, that it asserted itself 
on this occasion, and the onions, &c, went to the fishes in due 
course, for the first time on record, no doubt, in his case. 

My fellow-passengers on one trip were, Mr. Robert Cribb, then 
one of our members in the Sydney Parliament ; he used to sit on 
the paddle-box, and enjoy his basin of bread and milk ; and 



THE WROXG PRAYER. 131 

Judge B. (the " genial ") was also on board, and my cabin mate. 
He it was who used to go circuit out west, and, at one township, far 
out in the " Never Never " country, where there was no church, 
chapel, or parson, but only a court house, public houses, stores, &c, 
the Judge was asked, by a deputation, to read the Anglican prayers 
at the court house on the following Sunday, and, on no account, to 
omit the prayer for rain, as there had been a 12 months' drought 
out there. The Judge promised compliance, and duly officiated on 
the Sunday, but, somehow, in place of reading the prayer for rain, 
he turned over the wrong leaf, and substituted the " thanksgiving 
for rain." The subject was mentioned to him after church, and his 
mistake pointed out, when he instantly rejoined, " Look here, boys ; 
it's never a good plan to open a fresh account before you've squared 
off" the old debt ; I'll be bound, now, ye never thanked Providence 
for the last batch of rain ye got, and ye owed for it still, and, now, 
I've squared that bill for ye, and ye can ask for more with a clear 
conscience." The deputation withdrew, satisfied that if the Judge 
had made a mistake, he knew how to get out of it, cleverly. 
Good-bye to the steamers for the present, and let me resume 
my recollections of people and places in the olden days (say) in 
October, 1857. 

Robert Tooth, of Jondaryan and Sydney, was up on a visit, and 
I got a terrible business fright by one of my largest Darling Downs 
customers being arrested for the murder of his wife, whom, when 
quarrelling, he had shut up in the cellar, and put a 56 lb. weight on 
the flap of it, and she forced her head out, but could get no further, 
and the weight on the flap prevented her drawing back, and she was 
strangled, with no one near to help her. Captain Feez and Miss 
Milford were married this month, and spent a few days in Ipswich, 
and her In-other, Herman, was up there at the same time. Here I 
also met Miss Octavia Laidley, and the Rev. Robert Moffatt 
(brother of De Lacy of that ilk). They also got married afterwards. 
We took the Brisbane band up with us in the steamer to Ipswich, 
on the 14th October, and it played, as usual, on the green in front of 
the Club, that afternoon. 

We went in the " Brisbane " steamer, and collided heavily with 
the " Breadalbane," which met us near Joe Fleming's place, both 
boats recoiling reeling, and their funnels described segments of a 
circle against the sky, of which circle they were the radii. 

The band played every afternoon, with plenty of pretty girls, there. 
Miss Cramp, the Rankens, Dr. Rowland, Miss Thomas, and Mrs. 
Parkinson were present, and a mad cow came surging through the 



132 THE HAUNTED GROUND. 

audience, and quite spoilt it all, for a time. The repertoire comprised 
Robert toi que j'aime, the " Karl's Lust," and " Pauline " polkas, 
and Messrs. Seal and Cramer were in the band. 

On Friday, the 16th, I was off, with Joe King, F. Roche, of 
Dalby, Edward Lord, of Drayton, at 8 a.m. ; we lunched at Moran's, 
and got to Cook's, at Gatton. at sunset. Lord and I had a delicious 
" bogey " in the Lockyer. What ancient reminiscences Joe King 
and Roche did discuss all through the merry gallop of that day, and 
I wonder who will ever write the book thereof. King and Lord 
(aristocratic conjunction of names, was it not 1) stopped, next day, 
at Turner's place, at Heh'don. Roche and I went on to " Drayton 
Swamp " (now, " Toowoomba "). William Witham had now replaced 
Bill Horton, at the "Royal Bull's Head," and some fine strawberries 
graced the table. Mark Roberts, of Clifton, and Whitchurch, of 
Felton, were at Witham 's. 

Next day, I went to Cowrie and Jondaryan ; saw lots of calves 
branded, Robert Cran superintending ; and, again, saw Marcia 
Forster, a beautiful child of the "super's.;" and, next day, back, 
with Watson, of Halliford, to Gowrie, and on to Drayton, where I 
met Mr. A. W. Manning, and his family (of Cambooya). He had 
just bought the Helidon clip of wool for 2s. a lb. 

Next day, Sunday, October 25th, I went to hear Mr. Glennie in 
the morning, and the Rev. Mr. Fidler in the evening ; the latter a 
specimen of the hard-riding parson, and a very pretty little horse- 
man, indeed. Such a cold, frosty night it was, at 2,000 feet above 
the sea. 

Next day, on to Cambooya, where the Manning children welcomed 
me, each with her little bunch of flowers. I stayed till 4 p.m. ; took 
a turn on the Felton road, and back to Drayton. Next day, on to 
Clifton, and lost my watch in what was known as the " haunted 
ground," a patch of forest about three miles through. Here was a 
goodly, and hospitable, party to welcome a visitor. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cobham, A. P. Gossett, Dardier (afterwards of Sydney), Mark 
Roberts, and Challacembe. 

King's Creek, at Ryford, and the Dairy mple, were, neither of 
them, next day, pleasant to cross ; plenty of water, and an awfully 
boggy bottom. The road over the Condamine had been diverted, and 
the bridge was missed, and grass had grown over the road to Tool- 
burra, and there was water to cross on a new and temporary track, 
and I was glad to reach Warwick at night. Here I met Arthur 
Macarthur, Dalrymple, and M'Evoy, the chief constable. Willy 
Campbell and Jack Lamb, of Sydney, arrived next morning to 



EARLY REGATTAS. 133 

breakfast, from New England, and I travelled to Ipswich with them ; 
these were the days when Stone and Holle, and, likewise, Broughton, 
made the clothes ; while Lobb and Fletcher purveyed the boots of 
juvenile Sydney swells ; and when Flegg and O'Donnell provided the 
" Wellingtons," at Hobart Town). Our conversation, as we rode 
eastward in the rain, was of the folly of mere money-grubbing, and 
Campbell sung us the " Stockman's Grave," a plaintive bush ditty. 
We were all bachelors, with small waists then. On, through the 
scrub, which was fairly dry, and to Balbi's Inn, at Fassifern, after 
a night's sleep, and a great drying of clothes, at Jubb's. 

Lamb and Campbell were met by Tom Jones (of Barambah) at 
Ipswich, and went on with him to Brisbane, where, when I also 
arrived, I met Patrick Leslie, walking with R. R. Mackenzie, and 
something political was " up," no doubt. 

We, of course, have had public regattas, as long as I can remem- 
ber, in Brisbane. They used to be on the 26th January, up till 
1859, and, after that, on 10th December, on which day, in 1860, 
there was a gig race — I was in Sydney, and so only heard of it — in 
which R. G. W. Herbert, John Bramston, F. R. C. Master, and 
A. Orpen Herbert, beat Shepherd Smith, W. T. Blakeney, A. E. 
Dodwell, and another, owing (it was said) to one of the married men 
not training, and being too fat. Next year, 1861, I saw the regatta. 
It was in front of Harris's store, and Geo. Harris gave a grand 
lunch on the wharf. E. B. Forrest's yacht capsized, but was righted, 
and went on with the race, and, I believe, won it, after all. He was 
trained in the Sydney boating school, where yachts have been known 
to gallantly stop in a race, and pick up a capsized crew, and then 
go on, and win, after all. We had regattas, of course, in the early 
days, before separation, when " Fassifern " Kent, and Dr. Hugh 
Bell, and Fred Isaac used to row in the gig and pair-oar races, when 
old Captain Geary, R.N. (the harbour master), was the inevitable 
judge and umpire, even as the Hon. E. B. Forrest now is, and many 
a time the old captain used to ask me up, on the flag ship bridge, to 
lend him the loan of my eyes (50 years newer than his, then) re the 
position of the boats. George Harris used to issue white satin 
programmes for the ladies ; and I, with a stern sense of duty, used 
to begrime myself in the loading and firing of the time gun — while 
others of the committee flirted with the ladies — an act of self- 
abnegation, which caused my health to be cordially drunk, down in 
the cabin. 

We used to have some very tidy skiffs then, built by Messenger, 
of London, and Dick Green, of Sydney, at Brisbane regattas. But 



134 E. G. MASSIE. 

our "yachts " were made more for comfort and ease, than for speed ; 
the more ladies, and the more hampers, they could accommodate, the 
better we thought of them. 

The veteran colonist, James Canning Pearce, was buried the 
day after the regatta of 1861 ; and his widow, with brave spirit, 
declined, publicly, a subscription, holding that her late husband 
should have been honoured in his life time ; much in the same way 
that Dr. Lang's widow refused the tardy £1,000 of the Queensland 
Parliament. 

One one occasion, about this time, I met R. G. Massie, a Downs 
squatter — and father of the famous cricketer — disconsolate in Bris- 
bane, alike, from the terrific heat, and the fact that there would be 
no Sydney steamer for some days. I asked him to come to my place, 
where the " Belle Vue " Hotel now is, and partake of cool salmon 
and cucumber, and the beer of Bass, and he asked my opinion as to 
whether bonded stores in Mary street, opposite the A.S.N. Company's 
wharf, would "pay," and I said "Yes;" and he built those where 
Mort, Holland, and Burns, Philp, and Co., are now. 

About the beginning of 1855, homoeopathy began to take a firm 
hold in Sydney. Thomas Mort was an early convert to it, and made 
all the proselytes he could ; and Bell and Huntly were its chemists, 
and it grew to be the rage and fashion, much to the benefit of the 
pale aristocratic children, who rode in carriages, and lived to the 
east of the Darlinghurst road, and who were thus emancipated from 
the horrors of jalap and antimony, and relegated to the gentler 
offices, and more tender mercies, of Bryonia and Pulsatilla globules ; 
and the adults, too, were benefited, for it was a canon of the new 
doctrine that tea and coffee were to be abjured while under treat- 
ment ; and that, alone, put a lot of people right in their nerves and 
"insides." Homoeopathy is a noble science, but I often wonder how 
many, in the whole world, there are of really able exponents, and 
competent high priests, of its wide ramifications and mysteries. 

From homoeopathy to gold is a sudden transition ! and, though 
not in order of date, I should like here to mention a matter of good 
luck in mining, which was not valued and utilized as it should have 
been. There was, at one of the Australian diggings, a handicraft 
tradesman, who worked at his business, and put his savings, and 
more, into gold shafts. I say " more," for he had persuaded the 
manager of the local bank to lend him £3,000 on security of his 
interests in the shafts, in which gold might be, but was not yet, 
struck. The head office of the bank " had no faith in the business," 
and ordered the local manager to call the money in, and he put the 



m'nab of kiaxga. 135 

job in tlie hands of his solicitor. But, at this juncture, the debtor 
was in the hospital with fever. Had he been up and well, his gold 
shafts would have been sold for what they would fetch, i.e., not half 
what he owed to the bank, who would have bought them all in ; but, 
the solicitor was a humane man, and, fearing that the shock might 
kill the sick man, he resolved to keep quiet till the patient was 
out of bed ; but, before that happened, the gold quartz was struck, 
and £700 a week were rolling in for the bed-ridden man. The bank 
was paid off quickly, and, before the ever-increasing golden tide had 
ceased to flow, our hero was £290,000 to the good ; and how I wish 
I could end this (true) story here. He became besotted with so 
much money ; he was not, of course, an aristocrat, and it upset his 
mental balance. He knew not how to get rid of it fast enough, and 
so he chartered ships with horses, and ships with wheat, to all sorts 
of distant markets ; and dissipated his substance in every way, breed- 
ing race-horses, and so forth, till, at last, he was actually in debt to 
a bank once more, and this time the "good luck " fairy did not come 
to his help (he had been too ungrateful for that), and he went 
out to prospect for gold again, and died worn out, and was 
buried by the road side, a melancholy instance of money in the 
wrong place. 

To return to the doings of 1855 once more. I went to Sydney 
that year, on a visit, and, as mentioned elsewhere, one of the hrst 
sights I saw, after landing, was the funeral of Sir Thomas Mitchell, 
the great Australian explorer. My father-in-law, who landed in the 
same place in 1827, saw the funeral of Mr. Oxley, a previous 
explorer, soon after he landed there. 

About 1854, 1 hrst met, in Brisbane, with Mr, and Mrs. A. 
M'Nab, afterwards of Kianga. It was not so much what I saw, as 
what I afterwards heard, especially about her, that impressed me. 
She seemed to have been such a benefactress to people of her own 
sex, new arrivals, whom she had instructed in the ways of the bush, 
and taught how to ride a horse, &c, from her own wide experience 
in the early pioneer days. 

People often have to meet an emergency in the bush. I remem- 
ber that yellow-haired Hercules, William Turner, of Helidon, 
telling me how, at a place where he was, the servant girl's 
dress caught fire ; how he seized her with his powerful hands, threw 
her down, rolled her over and over, till the fire was out, and then, 
quietly, went down to the bottom of the garden to have a good 
private " swear " (out of everyone's hearing) at the agony of liis 
blistered hands, and how the poor girl died of the burns, after all. 



136 KISSING POINT. 

More fortunate was another one, the adopted daughter of a Conda- 
mine squatter. She was just as badly burnt, but he rushed to the 
store, cut open a 200 lb. bag of flour, and covered her whole body 
from the air with it, an inch thick above and below. She recovered, 
and is now a grandmother. There was no doctor, of course, within 
100 miles. 

I missed seeing the first Brisbane anniversary regatta, in 1860, 
where Herbei't and Bramston pulled in the gig race, but I witnessed 
an equally good match, in Sydney, at the same time, where Dick 
Green, as springy as a panther, and as tawny, pulled away from a 
good English sculler, named White, on the Parramatta River, 
December 20, of that year. The " Washington " followed the race. 
Green's skiff (this was before the " outrigger " clays) was black- 
leaded, and cleft the water like a knife. Herman Milford, and the 
Crofts, <fcc, were in the steamer. I thought Kissing Point looked 
rather like Brisbane, from the water. Green was beaten by 
Chambers, afterwards, in England ; but the time when Austoalia was- 
to assert herself, and her prowess, in racing, cricket, and boxing, was, 
even then, incubating, and I think the premier place should be 
assigned to the champion sculler, for nothing else requires so much 
" heart " and heroism. The footballer and cricketer have their 
mates around them, and get frequent spells of rest. Even the 
boxer, or wrestler, is allowed his interval for breathing time ; and 
so with the jumper, the pole vaulter, &c. ; but the man in the 
" outrigger " is " in for it," and alone ; no ministering angel with 
sponges, or lemons, may tend him, during those 1,200 strictly con- 
secutive seconds of supreme and relentless struggle, nearly every one 
of which brings out a tremendous spring and effort, of arm and 
thigh, of back and loin ; 800 strokes per man in each race, and each 
stroke calling hard on every muscle in the body. Australia has good 
reason to be pi*oud of her scullers. 

I have spoken elsewhere of the neighbourly feeling that existed 
amongst the old residents about Darling Point, &c, near Sydney. 
One proof of this was seen, then, every Sunday, after service, at 
St. Mark's church. Mr. T. S. Mort, had his garden and grounds to 
the east of this church, and Mr. Thomas Ware Smart, to the west 
of it, and each of them threw open his place, as a thoroughfare, and 
short cut, to all those attending the service, so as to enable them to 
reach home without a long and roundabout walk by the public road. 
Mr. Smart was a wealthy miller, and one, of whom Mr. Mort said 
to me, " It was nice to have him on a board of directors with you, as 
he always took such common-sense short cuts through any difficulty 
that arose." 



st. mark's. 137 

The congregation, at that date, included the Rotherys, the S. H. 
Smyths, the Skinners, the M'Carthys, of " Deepdene ;" Whistler 
Smiths, of "Glenrock ;" Robert Tooth, of " Brooksby," or " Eccles- 
bourne;" Croft, of "Mount Adelaide;" Edye and William 
Manning ; Edwin Tooth, of " Waratah," etc. " Cranbrook " 
(inhabited by Captain Towns, and the Hon. Jas. White, in after 
years) was not then built ; nor were the mansions of Dalley and 
Holdsworth, in their beautful positions, near the light-house. 

But Potts's Point was well " settled." There was " Tusculum," 
where Mr. Long, the wine merchant, lived ; the fine mansion of old 
Thomas Barker, the miller. The Macleays were, perhaps, the oldest 
residents on the Point ; and there were John Gilchrist (Gilchrist, 
Watt, and Co.), Challis (of the firm of Flower, Salting, and Co). 
Neither M'Quade's house, on the shores of Wooloomooloo Bay, nor 
J. D. M'Lean's " Quiraing," on the Edgeclift'e road, were then built ;. 
but Mr. Henry Prince (of Prince, Bray, and Ogg) occupied a splendid 
house, that looked down on " Waratah," E. Tooth's, who with old 
Captain Geo. Harrison, R.N. (a surveying shipmate of Captain 
Wickham's, and afterwards of Castlemaine and Melbourne), and 
myself, resolved, one Sunday, to walk to the light-house, and back, 
before dinner, for an appetite. The captain being 50, and self 20, he 
said he felt proud of the ten-mile spin with me, before dinner, at 
his age. 

Talking of dinner and Sundays, in Sydney — one Sunday, January 
16th, 1853, at Edwin Tooth's, there were present his brothers, 
Robert, and Frederick, and Charles — for Robert was to sail, per 
" Vimeira," for London, on the 1st February — -when there came the 
startling message that the Kent Brewery was on fire. Off we all 
went, post haste ; found Donald Larnach, and plenty of people,, 
there at rescue work. Malt and hops burn freely ; and the 
re-building of the stone work, originally put up in 1834, was costly 
in 1853, with masons' wages verging on £1 a day, " all along of "' 
the gold time. Such sympathy and assistance were shown by the 
neighbours, that it became imperative to publicly advertise the firm's 
thanks therefor ; and herein I made a proposal— namely, that each 
of the brothers, and myself, should write out a notice — expressive of 
gratitude — for publication ; also, that the form should he duly sub- 
mitted to a committee of ladies — namely, their three wives ; and 
the most aptly worded one of the four should be selected for publica- 
tion. The ladies unanimously pronounced for mine, and it duly 
appeared ; but, it must be remembered that / had nothing at stake, 
and wrote much more deliberately than they could in their flurry. 



138 GOLD IN COPPER. 

Business was brisk then, and I remember that Robert Tooth, 
finding that the scarcity of copper change, in Sydney, seriously 
affected the consumption of their ale, in the expansion of trade that 
took place between '51 and '53, offered £10,000 for £5,000 worth of 
copper coin, if landed in Sydney by a certain early date, which 
serves to remind me of another matter of £5,000 worth of copper 
coin. The Czar once offered for sale, by tender, £5,000 worth 
(nominal) of worn out Russian pence. Most firms tendered — as 
nearly as they could guess — its weight as old copper, and only one 
firm, more astute than the rest, knew that the copper had been got 
from a certain part of the Ural Mountains, and must, therefore, 
contain some gold ; so they tendered the full nominal value of 
£5,000 for it, and were rewarded for their enterprise, as they got 
but little less than £5,000 worth of pure copper, and, also, got 
£5,000 worth of pure gold, out of it ; for, as any one can see, a 
sovereign is easily hidden away amongst 240 pennies, and yet it is 
fully of the same value as they ; and how still more completely 
hidden, too, if all melted together. This should be kept in view if 
Australia ever coins copper. 

Coming down the Main Range, from Warwick, on the 20th 
September, 1855, I had a long talk to Yates, the overseer of roads, 
and saw his new marked line, cleared to ease the terrible scrub track, 
and, at the foot of the Range, I killed, on that day, the most 
remarkable snake I ever met. 

I had left a horse, " Flash Charley," at Clifton, to recruit. He 
bucked till he broke the crupper the last day I rode him, and only 
stopped when I roared at him, and I got a roan mare there (which 
I had bought from Dick Warry, in Brisbane), fat from the Clifton 
grass. 

When I saw the snake, which was all black and dark grey, and 
aio red, or yellow, belly, I made light of it, got off the mare, led her 
with one hand, and struck carelessly at the snake with the whip in 
the other one, as he wriggled along a deeply-cut wheel track. I soon 
found that this would not do. I was almost as much "at sea " as the 
Rev. Robert Moffatt was, when he, once, tackled a nine-foot long 
brown snake, on the plains, with a stirrup and leather only ; good 
■weapons for a kangaroo at bay, perhaps, but not for a lithe snake. 
My snake flattened his neck till it spread out wide and thin as paper 
almost, sprung back, and bit viciously at the whip every time I hit 
at him, " skedaddling " all he could between the slaps, which only 
fell on his tail. I " concluded " to tie up the mare, as, while holding 
her, I could not get away so well if he attacked me ; so, I hung the 



A RARE SNAKE. 139 

bridle rein on a branch, and followed him up, raining heavy, dry 
clods on him, as he followed up his wheel rut. This was " too 
warm " for him, so he made off to the left, into the thick bush, 
where I had no intention of following him, so I picked up a stick, 
and threw it, quite cax-elessly, at him, end over end, in blackfellow 
fashion with the " nulla nulla." Strange to say, one end hit him 
lightly, just at the back of the neck, and he straightened out in 
temporary paralysis, which I rendered permanent, by a blow from 
the brass end of the whip on his head, and hung him on a tree, to 
dry, I made subsequent enquiries, and found that he belonged to a 
very rare, and very dangerous, species, one of which, in the early 
days of Port Jackson, bit a convict, who was at work on the North 
Shore, and the man died in 15 minutes. 

Clark Irving was at Brisbane, on a visit, at this time. But, 
apropos of long, wearisome trips to Sydney, I relate the following : 
On the 4th October, 1855, I embarked in the " Shamrock," for 
Sydney. Spring well advanced, and southerly current on the coast, 
and we got to the pilot station at night, and anchored. Dr. Arm- 
strong, of Drayton, who was dying, was on board. We got the 
length of Moreton and Stradbroke Islands, down the coast, on the 
next day. On the third morning we actually passed the Richmond 
River bar ; on the 6th, after breakfast the " Boomerang " passed up, 
and signalled us that Lord Raglan was dead, before Sebastopol ; and 
we cleared the " Solitaries " in the evening. Next day, we passed 
Port Macquarie, Port Stephens, and the mouth of the Hunter ; saw 
South Head light ahead at midnight, and got to the wharf at 3 a.m. 
on the 8th, and all this was with the current. At the cafe I saw 
old Dr. Douglas. Sir Thomas Mitchell was buried on the 9th ; and 
the purple lilac was in bloom ; flower show was on the 18th ; and I 
saw Miss Talbot, P. L. C. Shepherd, and Miss Perry there ; 
" Shalimar " came in with English mail on the 19th ; and, on the 
20th, I called on Geoffrey Eagar, walked to Bondi, and I saw a tine 
game of billiards at the cafe, between young Riddell, the Treasurer's 
son, and his friend Johnson, the solicitor ; called at Lnidley's, Croft's, 
Mort's, and A. Morris's ; dined at Geoffrey Eagar's place, out at the 
Glebe, with G. V. James ; and left for Brisbane again on the 23rd, 
coaling at Newcastle on the 24th ; and the first event of note, after 
my return, was the half-yearly circuit court, from Sydney, arriving, 
with Mr. W. A. Purefoy as acting judge, my old friend, Thomas 
Cathrew Fisher, as associate, and the Bar represented by Messrs. 
A. T. Holroyd, and Peter Faucet; and we heard that a new 
barrister, a cousin of John Ocock, named Fring, just out from home, 
was with the Bar also. 



140 CIRCUIT COURT. 

Mr. and Mrs. Balfour, of Colinton, were at St. John's Church on 
the Sunday, 18th November ; and, on Advent Sunday, Mrs. J. Leith 
Hay's and Mrs. Pitt's babies were christened at St. John's Church, 
North Brisbane. 

The court opened on November 19th. Three constables (for 
letting a prisoner escape), and two Chinamen were tried ; and 
Moncrieff, the C.P.S. of Drayton, and a host of up country people 
were down for the assizes, and a bevy of good-looking ladies, as 
usual, were spectators on the Bench, amongst them Miss Clemence 
Fattorini. This was the time, I think, when the sugar brig, 
" Venus " was wrecked in the Bay, and helped to name the " Venus 
bank." 

The members of the court, of course, paid a visit to Ipswich, and,, 
one evening we spent at Dr. Dorsey's (Fisher and I), and there were, 
also, Mr. Bros, and Mr. Hickey there. 

It was on the 14th December, this year, that J. P. Bell, Moffatt, 
and Colin Mackenzie visited me, after a contract for flour, as else- 
where stated. 

The 28th December, 1855, was remarkable, as, perhaps, being the 
only day of the century, in Brisbane, when people had fires in 
Christmas week, so cold and wet was it. St. George Gore told me of 
port wine negus, hot, over a fire, at Warwick, on Christmas Day ;. 
but that was nothing to having it at Brisbane. 

I have spoken of dancing. There was always plenty of it when 
the court came on circuit, a " hop," somewhere, every night. I had 
been brought up, in England, to regard dancing as frivolous, and' 
English dance music, outside of the hornpipes, is not exciting ; but 
when I came to Moreton Bay, and became acquainted with German 
and Scotch people, and realized the "ding dong," tireless fire that 
runs through a good Bohemian or Hungarian polka, or Scotch reel, 
and the undulating and poetic motion of a graceful mazurka, then 
the "Tarentella " bit me a little, and I ceased to wonder when I saw 
people dance as if the floor were made of indian-rubber. There were 
some graceful " slow " waltzers in Brisbane in early days, Captain 
Wickham oue of them. Some dancers are intensely amusing, with- 
out, in the least, intending to be so. Who, for example, can help 
shaking his sides when he sees a girl, a good waltzer, figuring with a 
" bullock " of a partner, who cannot dance one bit ? The incessant 
chase which his " number elevens " keep up after her " number twos," 
her foot, at each step, only escaping utter annihilation by the fact 
that it always flits — by the decimal of a second — from the exact 
spot where his pile-drivers are about to be deposited, is comic, in the 



PLEASURE AND BUSINESS. 141 

last degree, to a watcher ; it is so very like the hand that always 
just misses the fly, or the mosquito. 

The month of June, 1858, eighteen months before separation, was 
a pretty lively one in Brisbane. The new gaol, at the " Green 
Hills," was being pushed on by the New South Wales Government, 
and £30,000 were circulated amongst the working men of little 
Brisbane. Mr. Jeays (the father of Lady Lilley) did part of the 
work, and the rest was by Andrew Petrie and Son. Good times 
were, then. A rich, consumptive invalid, from Victoria, paid a 
Brisbane doctor, for himself and wife, for medicine, attendance, and 
board, £40 a month. 

On the 7th, the steamer for Ipswich took up Mrs. Dunsmure, of 
Sydney, Miss Bourne, Blyth, of Blythdale, and Captain Feez, for 
the races began next day. Many of the 1857 faces were missing 
there, but new ones took their place, such as the Hardies, and 
the Hanmers, &,c. " Lightfoot " was the " crack " of this year. 
■" La Bosiere's " circus and the bachelors' ball enlivened the town 
that night. I was at the latter, and shivered even in the ball-room, 
but stayed till 3 "30. " Hop " at Laidley's at night ; and the next 
night was the race ball, warmer, and more comfortable, than the 
bachelors' ditto, and 3*30, as usual, was the time to go home. " Hop 
No. 2," at Laidley's, on the 14th, not over till 4 a.m. On June 16th, 
races, and dissipation, were over. Business resumed, and bullock 
drays, loading up at John Pettigrew's stores, for Toowoomba, and, 
for Cressbrook, at Wheeler's store, old George Salt Tucker looking 
on ; early to bed, as steamer went to Brisbane at 7 a.m., on 17th 
June, sunrise, and a muddy ploughing match it was to get to the 
wharf. I shot a wild duck on my way down. 

I heard of several deaths on my arrival, at half-past 11 ; John 
Swanson, of the Burnett ; Simon Lake, of the Kent Brewery ; 
P. Terry, of the A.S.N. Co. (who married Miss Holroyd), &c. 

June 19th. — Took a walk with Jimmy Gibbon, to look at our 
hills, past Fortitude Valley, near Childs's ; he calls his "Teneriffe;" 
mine is not yet named. 

June 20. — Dr. Fullerton at church; "Waratah" came in from 
Sydney, with R. M. Robey, James Paterson, and Mr. and Mrs. 
F. Bigge on board ; the two first came up to see about the building 
of new wharf and sheds, on the north side, for the A.S.N. Co. 

June 22nd. — Called at Dr. Hobbs's with a Sydney letter for my 
wife, who was stopping there, and found a distinguished visitor in 
the house, in the Rev. Thomas Binney, of the " Weigh House 
Chapel," London, just where the Monument, and Tower Hill, and the 



142 REVD. THOMAS BINNEY. 

fruit warehouses all meet. He was not alone. The Rev. Mr. 
Waraker, and Geo. Wight, and others, were there to do him honour.. 
Mrs. Hobbs was very hospitable ; the night was very cold, and 
there was a playful discussion as to whether a little hot, sweet gin 
and water was allowable over the fire on a chilly evening. Mr. 
Binney thought it was ; Mr. Waraker thought it wasn't ; but we 
were all unanimous on one point, and that was, that we, and the rest 
of Brisbane, went to hear Mr. Binney lecture that same night (I 
think) at the School of Arts. The Congregational party were 
numerous in the audience, and sightless Andrew Petrie was one of 
them. 

June 23. — Brisbane races at New Farm ; Mr. G. P. Serocold, 
R.N., a squatting partner of Pv. R. Mackenzie, was there ; " Bob "' 
Collins, Mrs. Compigne's brother, rode some of the winners, such as. 
' Leeway," and " Model." 

Next day, more races at the same place ; the Gibbons, at " Kings- 
holme," asked a lot of us to lunch — Wm. Pickering, Arthur Harvey 
(Heussler's partner), myself, and others. 

Next night, George Raff gave us a ball at his store, in Eagle 
street. John Musson was there ; and Mrs. F. Bigge, of Mount 
Brisbane, was the belle, with a face like one of John Leech's pictures,, 
all English, and not Australian. Poor Leech ! he had still six years, 
to live then. The merry Mrs. Compigne, and Mrs. Pollet Cardew 
were there ; it was over at 3-15 ; and "Billy" Bowman drove us- 
home. 

At church on Sunday, 27th, were Mrs. A. W. Manning, and Mrs. 
R. Cobham, from the Downs, and Miss Helena White (afterwards. 
Mrs. Graham Mylne) with Mrs. Little. 

June 28th. — " Cobbawn Tom," the old blackfellow, died, and I 
was glad that I gave him 4d. a few days before, and sorry it was not 
a loaf of bread, which might have done him more good. 

June 30. — James Warner, the surveyor, came to borrow my dingy, 
to take soundings for the company's new North Brisbane wharf. 

A Mr. Crossland, scion of a rich Yorkshire family, lived at 
Ipswich in these early days ; his lungs were delicate ; Moreton Bay 
suited them ; he could not be idle, so he opened a humble draper's 
shop in Ipswich, much to the surprise of visitors who knew York- 
shire, and the Crossland family, too. 

I must not omit from my reminiscences the humours of Holt's 
Brisbane election, in early 1856. I am afraid that I was the sole 
instigator, and " getter-up," of that historical event. I noticed, in 
the southern papers, that one Daniel Cooper had defeated one 



holt's election, 1856. 143- 

Thomas Holt for the "Sydney Hamlets," and, it occurred to me 
that, perhaps, the latter gentleman would like to get in for some 
other "New South Wales electorate. The monthly boat, for Sydney, 
was just leaving, so I resolved that the forthcoming contest for the 
" Stanley Boroughs " (as Brisbane and Ipswich were called) should 
not be fought out in Ipswich alone, for want of a little " divarshun ;' T 
so I took a sheet of note-paper, wrote out a hurried requisition to Mr. 
Holt to stand for the "Boroughs," got live people — -namely, James 
Leith Hay, Captain R. J. Coley, Rev. Robert Creyke, Robert 
Davidson, myself, and another, to sign it (only six of us, in all, and 
no time to get any more), and oft* it went by post, in the steamer, to 
Sydney. This was just before poor young Onimaney, the midshipman 
nephew of Dr. Stephen Simpson, of Woogaroo Creek, was killed by 
a fall from his horse. The finest hill on the river bank is named 
after him. 

On 17th March, I got a letter from Mrs. Leith Hay, asking me to 
call, as there was news from Sydney that " Barkis (or, at least, 
Holt) was willing." By the same post came a letter to offer me the 
office managership at the Kent Brewery, Sydney, with a prospective 
partnership, which I was fool enough to decline, for the sake of 
less profitably following the fortunes of the Queensland that was yet 
to come. I found, at Leith Hay's, that Holt (his partner) had 
consented to stand, and that D. F. Roberts was appointed solicitor 
to the election ; that we had carte blanche as to expenses. Mr. Hay 
started to canvass Brisbane at once. 

Macalister, the Ipswich candidate, had a meeting of electors, in 
Brisbane, on 18th March, and refused to coalesce with Holt, and Dr. 
Challinor made a somewhat prosy speech at it. Henry Richards, 
of Rundle, Dangar <k Co., also started to canvas for Holt, and 
W. R. Thornton, of the Customs, an old friend of the candidate, 
joined eagerly in the crusade. March 19th was spent in company 
with Hay, seeing Father Hanly, dining at Hay's place, and 
organising " Holt's committee," with him and D. F. Roberts, 
up till 11 p.m. ; and, as a fruit of our deliberations, Charles 
Leith Hay, and myself, went up in the " Breadalbane " to Ipswich, 
next morning, for a canvas ; called at Colonel Gray's, and found 
the town hostile (in a political sense). We got placards and 
circulars printed at Bays's office. Gordon Sandeman was at the 
hotel, and he and "C. L. H." soon got heavily into "yarns" on army 
matters. H. M. Cockburn dropped in, and we asked him to take 
the chair at Holt's local meeting. 

We spent Saturday in circularizing Ipswich. Simon Scott, of 



144 OPEN VOTING. 

Taromeo, Gideon Scott, and Stephens, of Charrapool (always called 
" Uncle John," by Edward Lord, of Drayton) came to the hotel, and 
we dined at Colonel Gray's, on Sunday 23rd, and heard his talk of 
Albuera and Waterloo. On Easter Monday we returned to Brisbane ; 
on 31st Mr. Holt landed, from Sydney, and was received with a 
perfect furore of applause ; on April 2nd, our party went up, by the 
" Bremer," to the Moggill coal pits, thence on to Ipswich, by the 
"Ballarat"; we had iron staples and ropes to keep the crowd from 
the table, on the hotel verandah, at the meeting, but they broke the 
ropes ; the meeting was stormy, and the hotel noisy all night. Dan 
Collins, of Ipswich, and Captain Allison, of the " Gazehound," 
nearly came to blows on politics. But, thank goodness ! the ballot 
has now knocked 90 per cent of all that on the head. Next day 
back to Brisbane, firing the steamer's cannon, all the way, in honour 
of the event ; F. A. Forbes, Macalister, and Holt, also Dr. Simpson, 
all on board. 

The nomination was on the 4th of April ; Holt was ill, but spoke 
well, and introduced one Boerhaave (of whom Brisbane electors had 
not heard) into his speech. Dr. Hobbs proposed him, and Jimmy 
Spence (foreman stonemason at Petrie's yard) seconded him, with a 
remark, that, if the Sydney legislature would but send their hats 
to Brisbane, we could find heads and brains to fill them, a speech 
which " brought down the house." The polling was on 7th April. 
John Balsillie, the blacksmith, was, in the absence of cabs, carried 
on a litter, on the shoulders of six men, from the hospital (where the 
" Survey office " now is) to the Court House (opposite the present 
Cafe Royal) to record his vote for Holt and Richardson (the latter 
married P. N. Russell's sister, of Sydney). The Revd. Mr. 
Piddington, the respected "VVesleyan minister, came to give his vote, 
when " Professor " Brown roared out to the returning officer, who 
presided (I fancy it was Colonel Prior), " administer the Bribery 
oath to that man," a piece of insulting bravado which the then law en- 
forced compliance with ; there was no ballot voting then. Both 
before, and after, the polling, the excitement was terrific. I spent 
the day at South Brisbane to fetch up stragglers there, to Grenier's, 
where a scene occured between Patrick Mayne and George Dickins, 
who always acted as Court Crier, when the Sydney Judges came 
down to Brisbane. The former publicly questioned the latter, and 
the energy with which he replied, " I ham," to one query, quite 
knocked me over. 

At the close of the poll the numbers were T. Holt, 320 ; J. 
Richardson, 317; A. Macalister, 190; F. A. Forbes, 170. Brisbane 



MY POUND OF FLESH. 145 

had " bunched," Ipswich had " plumped," and fought it out. Holt 
became Colonial Treasurer, in the first Sydney responsible Cabinet, 
and gave us our £30,000 gaol. I (as the chief conspirator in the 
election) was asked by some one if I would like to be a J. P., and as 
there were then only a few of them, north of the Tweed River, it 
was an honour ; but, I said I would take out my pound of flesh 
later on, and little did I dream, then, how it would be paid to me. 
A man, in my employ on the wharf, killed his wife, by a sudden 
blow, under circumstances of great and long continued provocation, 
in the way of her drunkeness, and neglect of him and the children. 
The Sydney Judge passed sentence of death. I did not like any 
one, who had been in my employ, to be hanged, and I asked for his 
sentence to be commuted. Mr. Buckley being one of our members, 
and Mr. Holt in the cabinet, 15 years at "Cockatoo Island" were 
substituted for death. My action was much criticized (pro and con) 
in Brisbane, but I was satisfied, with this wind up of Holt's election, 
in addition to other matters, such as the rope across Queen street, 
the tw r o hogsheads of ale, in the roadway, and the bonfire to see to 
drink them by, and the burning, in Brisbane, of our opposition 
candidate, in effigy, which closed up the day of polling. 

The months of April and May, 1856, were of historical import in 
Brisbane, in the way of elections and shipwreck. The colony of 
New South Wales (of which we formed a village) was in the throes of 
the most important general election ever held, to send in members 
to the first parliament under a constitutional and responsible cabinet 
of ministers. On 11th April, a flash of lightning shivered a fine 
gum tree, in the street, opposite the present " Belle Vue " Hotel. 
Dr. Dorsey and Henry Buckley contested the county of Stanley ; I 
got much chafl'ed, in Brisbane, for signing a requisition for the 
former; the latter was elected and declared on 12th April; party 
at J. Leith Hay's on 14th, in honour of Holt's election ; Charles 
in full Highland costume. 

April lGth. — "Sable Chief " at the wharf, Captain T. A. Lake (now, 
or lately, of the "Wodonga,") " father" of our modern steam flotilla. 

April 20th. — Miss Gore and Miss Coutts, of Darling Downs, at 
church; found a blackfellow's skull that afternoon, in the forest, 
when walking round to Kangaroo Point with Mrs. Robert Douglas. 

April 22nd. — News from Markus Berkman, at Warwick, of gold 
found near the Canning Downs station, at " Lucky Valley." 

April 20th. — Had a spurt on the river with Geo. Hill (now of 
Sydney, then here with T. B. Stephens) and raced Mowbray's 
boat, with Collins, Gore, and Barney in it. 

K 



146 dr. dorsey's parable. 

April 28th. — Rode up to Ipswich with Bushnan, of Fassifern, 
called at Colonel Gray's, Miss Deering (afterwards Mrs. Wickham), 
and Mrs. Hay there. Much amused, later on, at Dr. Dorsey's dry 
humour to my friend Burne (brother of F. N. Burne, afterwards of 
Lansdowne, Barcoo) as follows : — " My dear boy, when you begin 
life here, as a squatter, you will find the stock and station agents 
very attentive to you, they will ask you to tea, and their wives and 
daughters will play the piano to you, and you will be expected, in 
return, to buy your flour, woolpacks, sheepshears, and stockmen's boots 
from them, and should you omit to get your flour, &c, at their 
place, you will not be asked to tea any more ; in fact, my dear boy, 
life, in this part of the world, is made up of, and is, very much, an 
affair, of — "stockmen's boots"!! The moral of the parable was 
obvious. 

April 30th.— Started for Drayton, at 9 p.m., met nearly a dozen 
Chinamen galloping towards Ipswich ; new building up at Laidley 
Creek ; met whole droves of cattle and sheep ; Wilson, of Wombo, 
and a youthful gentleman, in charge of Gore's cattle, from 
Tummavil. 

May 1st. — Paid 2d. toll, at the new turn-pike gate, on the top of 
the Main Range ; the whole town of Drayton placarded with 
posters, for people to " Vote for Clark Irving (of Sydney), for the 
" Clarence and Darling Downs " electorate ; a new C.P.S. (Allan 
Ravenscroft) had succeeded Moncrieft". 

May 2nd. — Clark Irving declared elected ; I rode to Clifton ; De 
Lacy Moffatt, Atticus Tooth, Wm. Beit, and Thos. Coutts, at the 
" Bull's Head " ; listened to ghost stories, at Clifton, till I felt 
" creepy," especially at that about the murdered blackfellow sitting 
under the tree. 

May 3rd. — The Condamine running high, at Talgai, and I thought 
of the fate of Duvall and Jefferies. 

May 4th. — Staid at Dix's, at Warwick ; old Mr. Kingsford 
preached on the text, " Quench not the spirit " ; I walked out to 
Spreadborough's ; ate gum off the wattle trees. 

May 5th. — Bought some Canning Downs gold; on to Jubb's; the 
old man talked of ghosts in a dairy at Goulburn, of J. S. Ferriter, 
Alphin, and Dr. Gwynne, " all bygones." 

May 6th. — Scrub, simply awful, up to knees, all along, never ex- 
pected to get through ; only got to Balbi's by dark ; scrub turkey 
for dinner. 

May 7th. — Searched for, but could not find, the sapling, that up- 
set the dray, and killed poor Mrs. Jubb. 



" PHCEBE DUNBAR " WRECKED. 147 

May 8th. — Met J. Laidley and R. J. Smith, in Ipswich ; latter 
asked me to Town Marie where Miss Deering, and Mrs. Hay were ; 
rode to Woogaroo, met Royds, Alford, Wallace, Petrie, and Bridges, 
of tlie Bank of New South Wales, on the road. 

May 10th. — The steamer " Breadalbane " came up, from the South 
Passage, with goods and immigrants from the wrecked ship " Phcebe 
Dunbar " (which I mention, also, elsewhere in this book). 

May 11th. — R. R. Mackenzie, at church, in mourning for his 
brother ; tea at Thornton's ; Mrs. Balfour, of Colinton, there. 

May 12th. — T. C. Breillat, the Sydney miller, up here; called on 
him ; escorted Mrs. Greenwood (Miss Deering's sister) to Kent's 
party, and spent the evening, myself, at Mrs. G. D. Webb's. 

May 14th. — Old George Thorn gave me a large order, and paid 
cash in advance. 

May 16th. — "Don Juan" arrived at the wharf; George Hill 
rowed away from a new chum, in a race, in Blocksidge's ferry boat. 

May 17th. — The "Boomerang" arrived; the Judge, Herman 
Milford, James Sheen Dowling, *kc, on board ; a letter came from 
Thomas Holt, telling me Robert Tooth was in the " Upper House." 

May 18th. — Captain Tucker, of the " Phcebe Dunbar," in church. 

May 19th. — Heaps of people down to the assizes; Brewster, 
Dorsey, Lord, &c., all at Jimmy Collins's hotel (late Geo. McAdam), 
where Holt's head committee had sat. 

May 20th. — Made up my mind to go to the Bay, and see the 
wreck of the " Phcebe Dunbar " ; we left, in the " Breadalbane," 
■with Captain Coley (Lloyd's agent), Captains Taylor Winship, 
Tucker, and "Tinker" Campbell, on board. (I may here state that 
John Campbell, of Redbank, is reputed to be the original of Judge 
Haliburton's " Sam Slick " ; the Judge said he took the character 
from a man named Campbell, who emigrated, from Nova Scotia to 
New South Wales, and who was a tinsmith by trade). 

We lost the boat that towed astern, when we got over the bar, 
as it was rough, and we anchored for the night, and, next morn- 
ing, we got early to Stradbroke Island, and found the " Phcebe 
Dunbar " with her stern high on the sand, at Amity Point, and 
after much hawsering and dodging round we pulled her on*', and 
then ran Imp up higher again, at the top of the tide, with her nose 
in tlie water ; the pumping was incessant, and I went down below 
and looked at the leak, and we anchored for tlie night again. The 
blacks (who saved the "Sovereign" people, in 1847), came on board, 
and speared lots of mullet for us ; the latter were as thick as the water 
itself, in one creek close by, and it was fairly " shtiff wid 'em," and 



148 THE NEW A.J.S. BANK. 

the darkies told us some amusing yarns about "Mitter Bobby Towns,"' 
who was a business connection of Campbell's. 

Next morning, 22nd May, took a tank on board ; left the ship at 
7.30 a.m.; saw the "Apprentice," "Pearl," and "Triton," in the Bay,, 
and ran the 60 miles, to the wharf, in four hours. Met T. C. 
Breillat, and Edward Wrench, on the wharf, and was introduced by 
W. R. Thornton ; Wrench and Breillat had been sent up, by Holt, 
to arrange to open a branch of the Joint Stock Bank (a " wrench " 
to take off the " screw " of the other banks), which duly commenced 
life on 1st July, 1856, where Trouton's shop now is, and thereby 
hangs a tale. When the allotments, where the Joint Stock Bank 
and its three shops (132 feet) now are, were first put up, they were 
sold two, or three, times over, by the Crown, at £20 each, £2 paid 
and forfeited, on account of the creek near. At last F. A. Forbes,, 
of Ipswich, got them, and sold them to D. F. Roberts, for £600. 
Wrench and Breillat asked him the price, and he said £1,000, for 132. 
feet ; they thought it too much, and tried up and down Queen street 
for something cheaper ; but, not finding it, they came back to' 
Roberts, and said they would take his two lots at £1,000. " No, 
you won't," said "Dan," "You will give me £1,500 now." And they 
did. 

The Bank of Australasia had the chance of Finney's corner for 
£1000, but, for some reason preferred the site at Wharf street. 

It was about this time that immigrant ships, like the " Parsee," 
" Conrad," and " Phoebe Dunbar," brought hundreds of useful, 
colonists to Brisbane ; men who have since made their mark here, 
even as, seven years or more previously, the "Fortitude," "Chaseley," 
" Artemisia," &c, had landed the Cribbs, Trundles, Dr. Hobbs, and 
others. It was at this time that I bought the seven acres of land, 
on Wickham Terrace, and Carseldine, of the Bald Hills, fenced it in 
for me, even as did George Wride, for me, with the land where 
Messrs. Morehead and Cowlishaw now reside. 




OTHER REMINISCENCES OF QUEENSLAND. 



When Mexico is on the tapis, by an American writer, we hear of 
" the land of Anahuac," and the talk is of alfalfa, and of frijoles, 
and sombreros, and vionte, and so forth, and when South Africa is on 
the boards the changes are rung on the Linipojio River, the Lurilo- 
pepe, the zebra, giraffe, and hippopotamus. What, then, shall our 
watch word and rallying point be when Queensland is the subject % 
Shall we name the " Bunyip," which (myth, or no myth) is, far and 
away, the most weird and wondrous, in its conception, of all human 
romances in natural history, and Australia alone can claim it. A 
tradition, no doubt, of some vast monster, some Iguanodon, or, 
Plesiosaurus, that lingered in old Australia to the last (when the 
rest of the world had quite forgotten it) even as the ceratodus lingers 
still. Here, in Australia, is hoary antiquity (if you like) and its proud 
•exemption from the terrestrial changes, which have engulfed the 
bygone seats of learning and civilization in the (so-called) " old 
world." 

There is a deliciously watery sound, now, about that same African 
word " Limpopo " ; does it not conjure up visions of deep pools, 
aquatic reeds, and the utter impossibility of anything like thirst 
•existing near it? But, arid Australia has also, its wells, at " Oola- 
wambiloa," and if that be not just as suggestive, also, of reeds and 
tushes, and cool liquid depths, as the South African name is, then I 
•am no judge of euphony, or of appropriate titles. 

Queensland is not unlike the United States, in shape, with the 
Cape York Peninsula corresponding to that of Florida. The Gulfs 
of Mexico and Carpentaria helping out the resemblance ; but, 
Queensland, which, is about three times the size of the giant state 
of Texas (which, again, is bigger than France), lies a good deal 
more "in the sun" than "Uncle Sam's" territory does, albeit 
•ring about the same stretch of the latitudes; a wonderful 
country, too, of which little was known, thirty years ago, and which 
New South Wales handed over without a sigh, and gave cheerful 
delivery of, fully persuaded that there was "nothing much in it"; 
no Charters Towers, no Mount Morgan, no opal, silver, or tin mines, 
no Mitchell grass, no BUgar land— Oh ! dear, no; of course not! 



150 DAMPIER OF COLEMAN STREET. 

an opinion which must have become somewhat modified since lS59 r 
for, the largest gold producer, the largest cattle raiser, in Australia,, 
was then sliced oft' from New South Wales, and she never knew 
what she had lost till years afterwards. 

We will not go into the rusty records of Old Dampier, of Coleman 
street, London, who called up north when William the III. was 
King, nor will we quote Captain Cook. The associations of Northern 
Queensland are, all, either too remote, or too modern to "come home" 
to us, yet, but, there is a " tale to tell " further south. It is not 
long, since Tom Brooks, the last of the 1822 batch of Crown 
prisoners, passed away, aged 86, in Brisbane. I was always told, 
by a smoker, to give him tobacco, and I did so. But Queensland 
first sprung into free life, soon after 1840, when pastoral pioneers, 
from the south west, pierced their way through, vid New England,, 
and the Leslies and others found the new grazing paradise, called 
" Darling Downs," where scientific government explorers like Sir 
Thomas Mitchell, alone, had been before. And, soon afterwards, 
brigs and schooners, from Sydney, brought people and merchandise 
into Brisbane, and a free town population sprung up, both there and 
in Ipswich, and their political views and interests clashed somewhat 
with those of the pastoral graziers across the main range. The 
latter were not opposed to transportation, or coolie labour, but the 
townsfolk (in whom the Nonconformist element was strong) would 
have none of either, and so the two antagonistic classes grew 
together, side by side, for awhile ; and then old England, thanks to^ 
Dr. Lang, Mrs. Chisholm, and others, began to pour free immigration 
direct to Moreton Bay, still further strengthening the hands of the 
townsfolk against the squatters. 

There were life and fun in old Brisbane, and, still more, in old 
Ipswich, in those days, with more of energy and vitality in the people,, 
and quality, too, in the cattle, as you receded, further and further 
away, from the enervating, and relaxing sea air, and its attendant 
sour grasses. 

There is a funny story told of a little foreign storekeeper, who 
came up from Sydney, in a 100-ton schooner, to Brisbane, laden 
with all things needful to open a store, and who mounted the 
old windmill (now the signal station), and whence the dense forest, 
at that time, came down nearly into Queen street, and he took in 
the view, and he began to count. " Five public-houses ; dat ish all 
right ; but vot is dish 1 Zeven chapels ; it vill not do : dese 
beeples vill know too mosh for me ;" and so he auctioned his cargo, 
and returned to Sydney. Had he but gone on to " Limestone," 



FIGHTING MAGISTRATES. 151 

where the hotels outnumbered the chapels, the district might not 
have lost him, after all. 

The effervescent high spirits which find vent in what is called 
"having a spree," and which are rife in most newly-settled places, were 
abundant in Brisbane and Ipswich, in Drayton and Warwick, from 
1845 to 1855. The same conditions obtained, afterwards, in 
Gympie, Rockhampton, and Townsville, but at dates, of course, 
later than the years named, and after the older townships had settled 
down into the decorous and staid life which befits mature age. 

There is a tine "breezy" legend of early Ipswich, as to how a 
dozen stalwart gentlemen squatters, dining at M'Donald's hotel one 
evening, were challenged, to come forth and fight, by 12 muscular 
" bull punchers," camped at the " One-mile," and who had already 
"dined." The challenge was accepted nem. con. (the "J. P. "-ships 
being laid aside, and piled in a heap, pro tern, along with the coats), 
and it is said that the wielders of the whip, and dispensers of 
raucous blasphemy at the " boggy pinches," got no end of a 
thrashing. 

There were some heavy men who used to dine at that same 
Ipswich hotel in those days, and when I mention Dr. Dorsey, of 
Grantham ; Wm. Turner, of Helidon ; John Deuchar, of Glengallan ; 
to say nothing of Sandy M 'Donald (who mowed down the great 
" Black Perry " in a rough and tumble), and others of the "ten to a 
ton " sort — though, of course, I do not, for a moment, affirm that 
any of these were at the dinner in question — it will be seen that any 
crowd who tackled a batch of the early Moreton Bay squatters, had 
their work cut out for them. Bush-hardened muscle, from the dry 
uplands, when allied to "blood," was bound to tell. 

Married men were quite as " vital " as bachelors in the midnight 

pranks of the period, and the ballad history of one of them sets forth 

that 

" Three Benedicts, of furious mien, were foremost in the fray, 
Four bachelors, of aspect mild, by them were led astray." 

Jt was considered very rude, in those days, in exclusively male 
society, for anyone to go to bed before the rest of the company did, 
and anyone, so offending, was liable to be brought in, in his blankets, 
placed on the table, and made to sing a song, or give a recitation ; 
and I well remember one bitter cold night, before the Ipswich races, 
in June, 185— some 20 of us, married and single, " camped " at a 
married man's house, three miles out, whence all the ladies had tied, 
and gone into Ipswich, to make due preparations, at friends' houses 
in town, for the following night's ball ; so we men were alone. The 



152 AN ALL NIGHT SITTING. 

first to retire, at 10 p.m., was a worthy Scotch benedict, from Bris- 
bane, Robert Douglas to wit. I soon followed him. Meantime, he 
had been missed, and brought back by a Vigilance Committee, 
carried in, and deposited on the table, and compelled to sing ; and 
then he vowed a big vow, that, as he had not been allowed to sleep, 
not a soul else in that house should retire to rest before daylight. I 
was the next victim, and I heard, with horror — so far as regarded 
my chance of enjoying myself the next night at the ball — the tramp- 
ing, solemn procession of those familiars of the inquisition, and 
monks of the brotherhood of the corkscrew, as they approached my 
place of refuge, and, as I realized that I had to go back with them, 
and contribute to " the harmony of the evening." The married 
men, as usual were the ringleaders, but the biggest fire-eaters of 
them all were sadly afraid lest their wives should hear of it, and 
swore us bachelors all to secrecy ; so, we saw the sun rise at 7 o'clock, 
and had to dance all the next night at Ipswich. Alack ! the pro- 
gramme would hardly suit me, nowadays. 

I have narrated, elsewhere, how the " Phoebe Dunbar," ship, 
bumped, and thundered, and blundered in over the sand banks at 
the south entrance of Moreton Bay. I have been in and out 
through that passage frequently ; out, in 1872, with John Tait, and 
the horses "Quack," and "Pearl;" and in, often. It is a fearful 
place to look at from the outside, the breakers charging furiously, 
like a wall, at the sands, straight across, to all appearance, from 
Stradbroke, on the left, to Moreton Island, on the right. Yet, in 
goes the steamer, as it were, to her doom, and, after a bit, we 
discover that a spit runs out from the left, and does not extend quite 
across, so we dodge, in deep water, round the end of it ; and, further 
on, there juts out another spit from the right, the huge rollers 
marking the site of it ; we dodge round to the left of it, in ample 
water, and so on. Those spits overlap, as seen from the outside, 
and hence the wild tumult of continuous breakers, right across 
which the sea aspect presents to view ; and, when those sand banks 
"junction" after a gale, then it is that "Sovereigns" and " Phoebe 
Dunbars " got lost. There is a most delicious " oystery," sea weed, 
ozone odour amongst those shallow sandy breakers, such as I never 
inhaled elsewhere, on sea, or on shore. 

I took a trip to the Downs in July, of 1859. Went up as far as 
Ipswich on the 6th, in company with John Petrie, and Harry 
Younger, and spent the evening with Donald M'Kenzie, John 
Hardie, and A. K. Cullen ; dined on pigeons that had laurel berries 
in their crops. 



ETON VALE. 153 

Next clay, to Moraivs, and met K. S. Tosswill ; found Walter 
Gray, and Faircloth, at Gatton ; I think they were electioneering, 
for " Billy " Handcock was " up " for Parliament ; I did not stop, 
but pushed on, past Grantham, Helidon, and pulled up at the neir 
town of Toowoomba ; such a lot of old bare gullies were bridged 
over since I was here last, in 1857 ; new bridge at Laidley Creek ; 
"Whitchurch, of Felton, " big " Gilmour, and Wilson, of Wombo, 
-were at the hotel. 

July 9th. — Strolled round the new town, and found Martin 
Boulton, butchering ; found John Dare (M'Adam's old waiter) had 
a good hotel here ; rode into Drayton ; goblets of champagne, at 
Horton's. to Handcock's success ; James Taylor bad with the 
Avhooping cough ; saw Baker, the new police-magistrate, Boland, 
Houston, ifcc. 

July 10th. — Dined at Edward Lord's, on a kid ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Frank North at church ; saw Miss Emma Mehan, and Mrs. and Miss 
Farren, at Stephen Mehan's in the evening ; Lieutenant Nicoll, a 
visitor there. 

July 11th. — Rode to Eton Vale; lunched with John Watts and 
Mrs. Watts ; Snell, and Miss Young there ; nice comfortable 
" home " of a place ; was asked to stop the night, but pushed on, 
■with old Boland for a companion, to Pilton ; the country round 
Emu Creek was very pretty ; Boland had had his jaw broken by a 
•dentist in Toowoomba ; got to Pilton at sunset ; an icy-cold place, 
and must lie very high ; the Hirst boys, and Atkinson, were there. 

July 13. — Track very indistinct for three or four miles ; saw 
Clifton station far off, to my right, across the plains ; got on to a 
good road at last ; crossed the Dalrymple, and found Mr. and Mrs. 
Marshall, at Glengallan, Aery hospitable ; Mrs. Cowper was there, 
and, after lunch, I met Mr. Cowper, on the Warwick road. I had 
never been this way before, but old " Harlecmin " knew the track to 
town, and carried me, vid the bridge, into the much altered town of 
Warwick, which I found in all the " agonies " of the races, quite 
full, and not a bed to be got ; I put up at Hudson's, where were 
Carden, and Bob Collins, J. D. M'Lean, of Acacia Creek and West- 
brook ; also, Beevor, and Lethbridge ; I had to " camp " on the 
sofa, against the window, in the parlor, while all the jockeys and 
servant girls in Warwick danced merrily, the night through, on the 
verandah ; sleep trifling. 

July 14th. — Out to the Warwick races; the Canning Downs 
"stable" beat the New England horses hollow ; " Punch and Judy " 
-how there ; the (iores, Cobhams, Hardies, Andrew and Mrs. Ross, 



154 CANNING DOWNS RACE BALL. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jephson, present ; another extempore ball at Hudson's, 
that night, and in the parlor, too ; the bachelors invited the servant 
girls, tfcc. ; a sort of servants' ball, in fact, as they have, at times, in 
England ; Gillespie, Westley, &c, were there, and C. M. Winniett 
(who had been brought up in Germany) danced a " Varsoviana "" 
with Mrs. Simon Mayer ; I " tied," at midnight, to Berkman's, and 
slept there, to make up for last night, and for the to-morrow that 
was to come. 

July 15th.- — Walked out to the races, for the only time in my life, 
as " Harlequin " was not to be found, and I suspect some " wretch ' r 
had " borrowed " him ; Andrew Ross beat Dick Cobham, a private 
match, over hurdles, despite some accident with the girth, or stirrup. 
Bennett Clay (see map of Brisbane, " Paddington " Estate) had a 
show on the course, barrel organ, dogs, and monkeys, I borrowed 
a black coat from W. H. Brown (afterwards of the S. D. Court, 
Brisbane), and went to the Canning Downs ball, having been invited 
on the course ; it was a splendid function ; Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. 
Cowper. Mrs. Jephson, Mrs. Hardie, Mrs. Carden Collins, Mrs. 
Beevor Daveney, Miss Anna West, the Misses Gore, Messrs. 
A. F. Matveieff, C. Wheeler, etc. ; the supper was splendid in 
poultry, jellies, wines, and fruits, and worthy of the old " Leslie " 
name and fame in every way, though the station belonged, I think, 
to Gilbert Davidson, then ; we walked back into Warwick, in the 
fog, at 7 a.m. 

July 1 6th. — Woke, at mid-day, very seedy, for I had sat down but 
little at the ball, where I had for partners — but no ! that is no part 
of history ; G. L. Pratten, and Donald Cameron, of Tarampa, had 
arrived at the hotel ; and, after some very strong coffee, I felt a 
little less like a dead man, and took a £5 chance in the raffle for the 
race horse " Donald," where I threw 42, and Charley Graham, of 
the Logan, was " mean enough " to throw 47, and deprive me of my 
prize,, so I bought " Rush," the winner of the " Stockman's Purse," 
instead. 

July 17th. — To church ; saw George Huntley there. 

July 18th. — Started at 7, cold and foggy ; passed Glengallan by a 
new short cut, a good road, too ; passed Wienholt's (Maryvale) at a 
quarter to 11; Jubb's at noon ; found the old man engaged in 
pulling down the ancient hotel, where so many of the olden scenes 
had passed, and bygone yarns had been spun ; and just as well, too, 
for old " Moreton Bay " was about to die, and young Queensland to 
be born ; got to the scrub, it bad only in one place ; top of the Range 
at 2 p.m. ; glorious view, to the south-east, of the peaked mountains,. 



OUR NEW COLONY. 155 

" Lindsay," "Barney," Arc. ; got to Balbi's at 5-30 p.m., 10 J- hours; 
in the saddle, without a pull of the reins. 

July 19th. — Got into Ipswich by a new road since I was last this 
way ; called at the Club ; saw Colonel Gray, and he told me that 
separation was granted at last, and that the colony was to be called 
" Queen's Land," and that a new diocese was to be cut oft' from 
Newcastle, and that a Dr. Tuffnell was to be the bishop of it. There 
was some acrimony in Ipswich at this time, because Brisbane, beaten 
at cricket, the month before, proposed a four-oared boat race. The 
" Breadalbane " was to start at 4 a.m., three hours be/ore daylight, for 
Brisbane, so I put " Harlequin " on board, and, as the steamer had 
no sleeping accommodation, I " camped," cold and miserable, on the 
cabin floor, to sleep as best I could. 

July 20th. — Got to Brisbane by S a.m., just in time to post a 
(vain) letter to Sir Wm, Denison, in Sydney, about commuting the 
sentences of " Chamery " and "Dick," two young Burnett blacks, 
who had assaulted an old German woman. 

Wm. Wilkes, who was the editor of the "Courier" newspaper 
before this period, in Brisbane, had a dry and caustic humour of his 
own. On several occasions, it had been complained to him that the 
tides, and times of high and low water, were incorrectly given in his 
journal. The " worm turned " at last, and, addressing the latest 
deputation on the subject, said, " Look here ! if the tides don't know 
the proper time to come up, its their look out, not mine. All / know 
is, that the correct hour is always printed in the " Courier" and, if 
the tides can't manage to arrive then, so much the worse for the tides,, 
that's all." And the deputation withdrew. 

I have spoken of Mr. G. L. Pratten. He was the son of Mr. Job 
Pratten, of Cooper's Plains, which reminds me of the number of 
scriptural names amongst the early settlers in, and around, Bris- 
bane — Elijah Stubbins, of Cooper's Plains ; Moses and Aaron 
Walmsley ; Moses and Aaron Adsett ; David Bunton ; while, the 
Abrahams, Isaacs, and Jacobs, and other Old Testament names, are 
too numerous to mention. 

A standing jury in civil cases (I never was on a criminal case) in 
Brisbane, from 1855 to 18G0, or so, was made made up of (alphabeti- 
cally) N. Bartley, Charles Coxen, Sylvester Diggles, and Robert 
Douglas. Such confidence had our fellow-citizens in our freedom 
from bias, that we were never challenged by anyone, and we found 
ourselves so constantly together in the box, when the Judge and 
Bar arrived, once in six months, from Sydney, that we used to say, 
quietly, " Here we are again." Douglas was not able to go home, 



156 



FOR LEICHHARDT. 



at lunch time, to Kangaroo Point, so lie used to come to my place, 
in George street, where, over cold meat and "Bass," we used to 
bewail the flattering, but extremely irksome, confidence, which the 
people, alike, of Sydney, the bush, and Brisbane, had in us four, the 
•quite inevitable jurymen of the period. 

In the early days of Moreton Bay, no one escaped practical jokes. 
Even poor Leichhardt, before he left on his last fatal trip, experienced 
■something like one. "Ludwig" was geologising near the " Glass- 
houses," those queer-shaped hills, north of Brisbane, and, having got 
together a goodly collection of the rocks and crystals of that curious 
region, he gave them, in a bag, to a blackfellow, to carry down to 
Brisbane, while he, himself, went oft' the road, to the Pine River, to 
geologise there, also. Meantime, "Cobbawn," the blackfellow, on 
first shouldering Leichhardt's sack of specimens, was struck with its 
•extreme weight, and it, at once, occurred to him, that it would be 
•an act of extreme folly to carry such a lot of stones all the way to 
Brisbane, while plenty of the same (from his point of view) could be 
picked up by the road side, just outside the town ; so "Cobbawn" 
shot Leichhardt's treasures down by the road side, before he had 
carried them halfa-mile, and then gaily trotted to Brisbane with the 
■empty sack, which he, again, filled up with " road metal," just out- 
side the " settlement." Leichhardt, of course, arrived, in clue time, 
from the Pine River with his own lot of rocks, and, meeting 
" Cobbawn " (who was waiting to be paid in tobacco), spoke 
thim thus, " You got him sack all right, ' Cobbawn 1 " " Yowai, 
anassa." L. L. looked at the contents, and, in horror, exclaimed, 
•" Baal that same fellow, ' Cobbawn ; ' " to which the latter replied, 
" Baal gammon, massa, all same that fellow, no fear," brazening 
it out, and quite unconscious how one stone could possibly differ 
from another. Poor Leichhardt heaved a sigh over his lost 
•curiosities, but there was no time to replace them. 

It was in this year, in March, 1847, that the steamer "Sovereign" 
was lost, with the number of 50 lives, in the south entrance to 
Moreton Bay, by the captain, foolishly, anchoring in the breakers as 
lie went out, The sea, breaking over the sandbanks, swept the 
paddle-boxes from the steamer, and left the latter a wreck. The 
-captain was saved, but only to be drowned, afterwards, near Two- 
fold Bay. 

The constables of those days had a method of bringing black 
murderers into town to be tried, which was much more effectual, 
against escape, than the handcuffs of modern days. When on the 
march, they had a rope, 20 feet long, round the neck, and held in 



A BLACK MONSTER. 157 

front, and another, of the same, round the neck, and held from 
behind. It was impossible to slip these off, like mere handcuffs. 
The " darkey " was treated exactly like an unbroken colt, and was. 
often nearly as strong ; but the rope tamed him, no matter whether 
he tried to hang back, or to run forward. Indeed ! it is stated, that 
some obnoxious black murderers, like the brute who killed Grant and 
Glynn, at Bribie Island, in 1855, were sometimes, extrajudicially 
strangled, en route, in this fashion, by men who misgave the slower 
routine of the law. I well remember one dangerous black, who, 
though he never committed actual murder, was the terror of white 
females, in lonely places, for another reason. He was of enormous- 
strength and ferocity, as well as cunning, and, for a long time, he 
baffled all pursuit in the lonely creeks, mountains, and gullies, where 
he doubled like a hare, walking in the beds of streams for miles, and,, 
when out of the water, he strapped a pair of bootsoles on to his feet, 
with the heels in front, so the following of his tracks was rather a 
toilsome delusion, and a snare, a reductio ad absurdiim. He was a 
brutal bully to his own tribe, who resolved to earn the white man's 
reward for him, if possible ; but they dreaded his violence and 
strength, till, one night, in camp, as he lay on the ground, six of 
them suddenly held his head and shoulders down, while two more, 
with a tomahawk, so maimed one of his feet and ankles, that he 
could neither run, stand, nor hurt anyone. He was taken, and I, 
visiting the hospital, by chance, soon after, saw two wardsmen on 
the stairs, carrying what I took for a huge, black, intensely curly 
dog, of which only the enormous back head, and neck were visible, 
all hairy curls. This was the wounded aboriginal, and my error was 
a natural one. I forget, at the moment, whether he was hanged, or 
died of his wound, but, I believe, his body was given to a foreign 
savant, and is now in a museum in Northern Europe. 

I have spoken, elsewhere, of the three Sydney judges, Sir Alfred 
Stephen, Judges Dickenson, and Therry, who used, in turn, to come 
up, and deliver the Brisbane gaol every six months, and I was much 
impressed with the urbane, painstaking courtesy, and conscientious 
regard to fair play always evinced by John Nodes Dickenson, and 
his anxiety that every prisoner, or suitor, however poor, humble, or 
even alien, should not suffer for want of due and full consideration, 
by the Bench, and all who were under its control. It put me in mind 
of the three leading duties of a judge, the three hurdles (so to speak) 
which he has to get over. Firstly, to J eel quite free from bias, .mil 
impartial ; secondly, to give practical and skilful effect to his unpreju- 
diced feelings; and, thirdly, to do it in such an intelligent, open 



158 TAWELL THE QUAKER. 

manner, that his fairness is apparent to all men, and respect for his 
office increased. 

Speaking of judges and crimes, I must not forget one reminiscence. 
Everyone has heard of Tawell, the Quaker, who was once in Sydney, 
(having been sent thither, for forgery, early in the century, his 
business being that of a chemist, and it being sold, afterwards, to 
Ambrose Foss, who died about 1853. Tawell, as we all know, was 
hanged for the murder of a servant girl, by poison, near Windsor, 
Berks, about 1841, after he had returned to England. Before 
he went home, Tawell wanted to convert all his property and 
securities into cash, and, amongst these, were about £7,700 of good 
bills, some, " extra " good, such as Jones and Walker's, &c. Tawell 
could not wait till they fell due, nor could he discount them all, as 
he was known to be " winding up," and leaving the colony ; so he 
called on Mr. Win. Barton, the sharebroker, then, of Macquarie 
Place, Sydney (father of the Hon. E. Barton), and left the bills 
with him, and asked him to try and get some offers to buy the whole 
lot, outright, for cash. Mr. Barton set to work, and the highest 
-cash offer he got for the whole £7,700 worth, as they stood, and 
■" without recourse," was £5,000, which Tawell would not accept, as 
they were certainly worth more than such a heavy discount, as 
£2,700, would imply ; so, the bills were handed back to Tawell, and 
Mr. Barton thought no more of it, till he was surprised, one day, by 
a visit from the Quaker, who addressed him as follows : " Friend, I 
have been thinking that it was not thy fault that I would not accept 
the highest price that thou could'st, by thy labour, get offered for my 
bills; thou did'st thy best, so here is 1 per cent, for thee on the highest 
offer that thou did'st elicit," and Tawell left £50 on the desk, and 
walked out. And, yet, this man, who committed forgery before, 
and murder after, this same affair, did, thus, what the most straight- 
laced business man would consider quixotic, and ultra-conscientious 
— namely, to pay for an uncompleted and useless service. Tawell, 
the Quaker murderer, must have been a strange mixture of good and 
bad qualities, or, have varied greatly from day to day. 

Win. Wilkes, edited the " Courier " newspaper, in Brisbane, 
before and after the Crimean war. He was a racy humorist, and a 
bit of a democrat as well. The following song, called "The Merry 
Boys of Brisbane," to the fine old "romping" air of "Loudon's 
Bonny Woods and Braes," was often sung by him on festive 
occasions, and, it is needless to state, that he was, also, the writer 
of it :— 



THE " MERRY BOYS OF BRISBANE." 159 

Cares we have, many, 

But we care not for any 

While our pockets bear a penny, 

We're the merry boys of Brisbane. 
Who, of all this happy party, 
Looks, with coldness, on our joy, 
Let him rise and hence depart, he 
Will not do for Brisbane. 
Chorus: Hence melancholy, 

Let us drink and be jolly, 

Dull care were a folly 

In us, merry boys of Brisbane. 

Whate'er our ranks, or ages, 
Be we juveniles, or sages, 
Independent, or on wages, 

We are, all, the boys of Brisbane. 
Lawyer, merchant, overseer, 
Squatter, clerk, or auctioneer, 
Must all be one, or not appear 

Amongst the boys of Brisbane. 

Chorus: Hence melancholy, &c. 

If your heart be filled with ruth 
For loss of cash, or woman's truth, 
You're a very silly youth, 

Merry boy of Brisbane. 
If, by cruel maid forsaken, 
You've escaped the nuptial tie, 
Bless the luck that saved your bacon, 

Merry boy of Brisbane. 

Chorus : Hence melancholy. &c. 

Some from us sever, 
Fearing brimstone for ever, 
They may be mighty clever, 

But they're not the sort for Brisbane. 
Some shake at us a pious head, 
Go home, and solemn tears they shed, 
And then, perhaps, get drunk in bed, 

Oh ! tell it not, in Brisbane. 

Chorus : Hence melancholy, &c. 

We drink wine, and who denies it, but, 'tis socially, we prize it, 
If you keep from greed and lies, it's all we ask from you in Brisbane ; 
And mi we pass the night away, and strive to keep " the blues " at bay, 
For folks who work, must also play, both elsewhere, and in Brisbane. 
Thus, scorning double-faced deceit, long may we all in friendship meet, 
And heartily each other greet ! dear, mciTy, boys of Brisbane. 

Final Ckorut (all standing up, and joining hands): 

Hence melancholy, &c 



160 OLDEN SQUATTAGES. 

At the latter end of 1853, great changes took place in the owner- 
ships of Darling Downs runs. Prices still ruled low, and stocking 
was not heavy, as the drain of labour to the goldfields hampered 
management much. The magnificent run of " "Westbrook," with only 
16,000 sheep, was sold at 15s. per head, all given in, by Hughes (of 
Hughes and Isaac), to " Jock " M'Lean, of Acacia Creek. George 
Gammie sold his splendid united properties, of Clifton, Talgai, Tool- 
burra, and Ellangowan, separately. Clifton fell to William Butler 
Tooth, with 10,000 cattle, at £3 per head, and it soon had over 100,000 
sheep on it. Talgai was purchased by Hood and E. O Douglas (Hon. 
John Douglas, of Thursday Island) ; Toolburra, by Coutts. Goom- 
burra belonged to Pat Leslie, and Robert Tooth bought it from him,, 
and, also, Jondaryan, from its then owner. Alfred Sandeman had 
Felton ; Daandine belonged to J. P. Wilkie ; Chinchilla, to Matthew 
Goggs ; Weranga, to Crowder ; R. P. and S. Y. Marshall had Goondi- 
windi ; and Hayes was at the Weir River ; St. George Gore, at 
Bodumba ; Blyth, at Blythdale, and so on. Values soon rose, and 
heavy improvements justified it. Robert Tooth bought Jondaryan 
for £30,000, and sold it to Kent and Wienholt for £108,000. 

There was plenty of (what I may term) " civilization " even in the 
early days of the Darling Downs. I remember finding, at Clifton, 
in 1854, a volume of a novel that had formerly belonged to the 
library at Jondaryan. It was marked inside the cover, with a pasted 
label, engraved in fine steel and old English, with the name of the 
owner, and the word "Jondaryan" beneath it, which had been sold at a 
sale there, some time before. Here was evidence of organization and 
settlement, beyond all doubt, and at a pretty early date, too, a date 
when most stations in Victoria and New South Wales were rough 
and primitive, and when you had to go to Tasmania for postilions, 
in velvet caps, and marble pillars in the entrance halls of mansions ; 
for beagles in the yards, and hunters in the stables. The Downs 
were pretty, then. You could ride from Dal by to Warwick, and 
hardly see a fence to break the flower carpet of the plains into 
sections. Clifton stockyard was one of the " prides of the Downs ; ,T 
a model of solid symmetry, the rails as square and parallel as the 
lines in a piece of music. 

Captain Wickham was the Government resident of Moreton Bay, 
when Charles James Latrobe was superintendent of Port Phillip, 
and J. E. Bicheno, the Colonial Secretary of Van Diemen's Land, 
and E. Deas Thomson, of New South Wales. Captain Wickham's 
marine survey work, in North Australia and Magelhan Straits, is 
well known, I can vividly recall a scene with him, once. He liked 



BREAKERS ALL AROUND. 161 

deep water, and sea room when moving. I remember his vexed soul, 
when he and I once, as passengers, paced the deck of the " Shamrock," 
steamer, Paterson, master, from Sydney to Brisbane, a.d. 1856, 
when the A.S.N, skipper took the eight feet draught " skimming 
dish " (built for bar hax-bours, such as Brisbane then was) close in 
shore. Before, behind, and on each side of us, spurted up the little 
jets of water, where the sea broke on pointed, solitary, spikes of 
rock, just below the surface. We kept inshore to " dodge " the great 
southerly current, of course, John Clements Wickham, R.N., was 
as " exercised " as Lord Nelson, when he strolled up and down, and 
wagged the stump of his arm, that time (at Copenhagen, was it not *?) 
" They'll pick up the ground somewhere, Bartley, they'll pick it up, 
as sure as fate," said he, as he frowned, and turned and looked 
round in his walk, every now and again. 

One case of commercial ability, if not of commercial morality, 
happened in the early days of Brisbane. A local publican became 
bankrupt ; the liabilities were large, and the assets nil ; in fact, the 
debts, divided by the estate, represented that figure which mathema- 
ticians delight to term by the name of "infinity." The creditors 
were furious, and resolved to prosecute him criminally, and their 
wishes were deferred to, for a dapper lawyer's clerk went round to each 
and all of them, and said, " We are instructed to prosecute Swindle- 
hurst for fraudulent insolvency, and, as there are no assets to 
provide a fund from, the creditors are all being asked to subscribe to 
help to put him in gaol ; you need not pay the money, now, but 
only put your name down ; " and, so, " all hands " cheerfully became 
responsible in writing, for £3 3s., up to £5 5s., each, as might be. 
When the day came for the insolvent to appear for his final examina- 
tion, and he asked for his certificate, the judge enquired if any one 
appeared to oppose him, but no one responded, so he got his certifi- 
cate, there being nothing before the court, per contra. He emigrated 
the next day, and the creclitoi*s found out that they had been duped 
by a dressed up confederate of the absent one, but as he had, 
carefully, taken no money from anyone, it was useless to call in the 
police. 

There is a legend of what befell a smart young American, named 
Fisher, who " cruised " about Moreton Bay in the early days. He 
was a travelling merchant, and had had a week in Ipswich, and was 
on the return route to Sydney. Some roystering folk, of Limestone 
("the social villagers" they called themselves), had taken "all sorts 
of care " that Fisher should miss the river steamer to Brisbane, 
which alone, would enable him to catch the monthly boat to Sydney ; 

L 



162 A WEARY NIGHT WALK. 

but " young Massachusetts " was not to be done in that way, for, 
eluding the persecutions of his too hospitable hosts, at night-fall, he 
started to walk to Brisbane at 7 p.m., and arrived at the 
" Woogaroo " Hotel, the half-way house, at midnight, where, having 
" refreshed " he resumed his pedestrian tour, and, at dawn of day, 
he breasted a hill, rubbed his eyes, thought how very like, Brisbane, 
when approached from the south-west, was to Ipswich, when seen 
from the north-east, and, in a moment more, the full horror of his 
position dawned upon him. Ruin was complete ; he had taken the 
wrong outlet at Woogaroo, and had spent the rest of the night in — 
walking back to Ipswich again. Let me draw a veil over his suffer- 
ings. He was dead beat with fatigue. The raillery of the pitiless 
" villagers " was an ordeal to which death was preferable. He had 
lost the Sydney steamer for a month. All he could do was to "lie 
low" the while, in Brisbane, which he termed "the last place ever 
made." He lost money here ; his Yankee ideas were far ahead of 
our old " stringy bark and green hide " fashions, and he was here 
just about 30 years too soon. Poor Fisher ! he made a fortune, 
after this, by contracts in the " Secesh " war, in his own land, and 
died in the " seventies." 

The "villagers" of Ipswich were an "airy" set then. One of 
them, Charles Wheeler (the forwarding agent, not the midshipman), 
was told that New South Wales would not grant us "separation," 
as she was in debt, and would not cut up, or divide, the security. 
" Look here," said Charley, " don't talk that nonsense to me. See 
now ! New South Wales is a good account to take up " (as if it were 
some small sheep or dairy property) ; " give its her assets, and we'll 
take over her liabilities, and there need be nothing to stop ' separa- 
tion.' ' There was a vigour and a grasp about the ideas of those 
men of the " fifties " that has died out now. 

There was a financial crisis, once, in Queensland (I decline to 
name the year), and a certain Judge refused to travel circuit, unless 
his expenses were guaranteed, as Government cheques were not 
quite like bank notes at that unhappy period. The Chief Secretary 
and the Colonial Treasurer exchanged anxious telegrams with each 
other, and correspondence with the obdurate judge, which were 
(more or less correctly) reported in the papers, and somewhat as 
follows : — 

" Tintinnabulum (Colonial Treasurer), from Ipswich, to M'Scotty 
(Colonial Secretary), Brisbane. 

" For goodness sake send up some money. The old boy (meaning the revered 
judge) won't budge a step, from this to Toowoomba, till he gets his hotel 
expenses in advance. I am going to gain time by taking him up to Wivenhoe, 



A JUDGE ON FLEAS. 163 

to see an unheard of, imported Dorking cock that roosts up that way ; hut this 
dodge won't last us more than 48 hours (in other words, that cock won't fight 
any longer) ; so you must be ready with the • dibs ' in two days' time, or the 
gaol, up above, will not be delivered." 

This evoked a letter from M'Scotty, to the Judge. 

"My Ukar Judge, 

" At a time of depression, like the present, it behoves 

• every man to be patriotic, and to spare his impoverished country all he can. 
May I point out to you, therefore, that, in addition to the first-class hotels at 
which your Honour usually stops, there are some second-class, but perfectly 
respectable, inns, at which reasonable refreshment may be procured at 
moderate rates, and to recommend them to your notice, as a means of 

• economy, during the present financial crisis ? 

" Believe me, my dear Judge, 

" Yours, faithfully, 

"A. M'Scotty." 
To which the Judge replied — 

" My Dear Mr. M'Scotty, 

"I have received your letter, and was, 
previous to its receipt, fully aware of the fact that there are wayside inns, of 
a certain class, between Ipswich and Toowoomba ; but, alas ! they contain 
living entomological specimens of a genus, which, however vigorous, pleasant, 
.and even healthful a stimulus, their midnight attentions might convey to 
your own hardy, northern epidermis, yet, in the case of my own more 
effeminate southern organisation, they would he productive of results inimical, 
alike, to that repose of body, and serenity of mind, so needful for a judge, 
when on circuit duty. Therefore, though I thank you for the hint, I must 
confess myself, with deep regret, unable to avail myself of it. 

" Yours, very truly, 

"James Wychwood." 

The reader of my reminiscences in Moreton Bay will have observed 
that, in the early days, even as now, there was a good deal of 
"Human Nature" about. Mr. William Shakespeare (of Stratford-on- 
Avon) is generally supposed to have ably illustrated this particular 
subject ; but, after all, he could never condense nearly so well as 
did the other " W. S.," whom I am about to quote ; and that which 
Shakespeare, Carlyle, Darwin, Tennyson, and a host of poets and 
philosophers spent their lives in trying to teach us, was all crystal- 
lized into five pregnant words, by Wackford Squeers, of Dotheboy's 
Hall, near the exquisite vale of the Greta (far before the Avon) — when 
he uttered his deathless aphorism, " She's a rum 'un, is Nater." 
Yes ! 'tis ever so ; and, when even William, of Stratford, himself, 
becomes powerless to give expression to our ideas, we can still fall 
back on the terse, inimitable, and only "Wackford," who is, some- 
how, never at fault. 



FORTY YEARS AGO. 



Yes ! Those were the clays when " Bob " Nichol, the astute 
lawyer, afterwards a member of the first Australian Cabinet, in 
1856 — he who put a stop, by his famous "Act," to the carrying of 
dangerous weapons in the streets ; those were the days when G. R. 
Nichol used to practice in the police court of Sydney, before 
stipendiary magistrate James Dowling, and with a Mr. Cory, 
usually, in opposition ; and prior to the time when Henry Connell 
took office as C.P.S. It was not unusual, then, for solicitors to wear 
dress coats of faded lustre in the police courts. Bob Nichol was, 
in Australian parlance, a " warm one to bump against " in any 
legal encounter ; but he was weak in the throat, and did not live to 
be very old. 

Those were the times, also, when the staunch race horses of early 
Australia used to run their mile and a-half, and two-mile, heats y 
and the " sprinting " business was held in utter contempt ; when 
Noah Beal was the " boss " trainer, and Jimmy Ashworth, a feather- 
weight in the saddle ; when " Jorrocks " and " Euroka," " Cossack " 
and " Sportsman," were " about ;" when John Eales, of the Hunter 
River, imported English thoroughbreds, and Thomas Icely, of 
Coombing Park, bred race horses ; and, who now shall tell of Toby 
Ryan, of Penrith, and of Bungarribbee " Camel," and Dr. Dobie's 
"Satellite'"? Those were the days, too, when the "Queen's 
Guineas " were seldom forgotten in any race programme of note. 
Shall we catalogue the names of " Plover," " Bessie Bedlam," 
" Cooramin," and " Samson," and breathe a wish that finer steamers 
had, then, been running on the coast, as we should, then, have learnt, 
what never will now be known, and that is, whether the four-legged 
" cracks " of New South Wales were, or were not, the equals of 
" Swordsman," and " Shadow," the equine king and queen of Van 
Diemen's Land racers. Great trouble was taken, in those clays, 
with a race horse, even to the extent, in some cases, of carrying 
with him, the water which he had been used to drink in his Hawkes- 
bury home. 

Those were the days when I used to see, in the main street of 
Sofala, on the Turon River, Dr. Revel Johnson riding old 
" Jorrocks," the race horse, as a hack, and a pretty hack he made, 



W. B. DALLKY. 165 

too. That was tlie time when Mr. Pickering, the father of " Nemo," 
of the "Sydney Mail" lived, also, at Sofala. That was the time 
when the regimental band, " by the kind permission of Colonel 
Bloomfield," used to play in the afternoon by the Bourke statue, in 
the Sydney Domain ; and W. B. Dalley, then a jacketed boy of 
about 14, on a pony, used to come with his father, and listen to the 
music, and the Colonel, himself, smiled, and bowed, and chatted to 
all the ladies present whom he knew. 

Those were the days when old John Croft, the merchant, and 
partner of Thomas Whistler Smith, used to give me sound advice, 
when the ladies had withdrawn, and the wine circulated after dinner. 
" Bartley," he would say, " you are a young man beginning life in 
Australia, let me advise you never to attempt to ' develop colonial 
resources ' (as it is called) ; they are the only things I ever lost 
money over. I was a pioneer shareholder in the Australian Steam 
Navigation Company. We pioneers all lost money over it, and our 
successors reaped the harvest. Don't you ever meddle with ' colonial 
resources,' Bartley, if you be wise." To this I replied that I 
supposed such pioneers were like the coral insects who lay the 
foundation of the glorious, pretty reefs that appear near the surface, 
to be admired and praised, but who, themselves, while supporting 
the beautiful, and seen, fabric, perish unseen, and unrecked of, like 
the homely, useful, strong, but unseen, foundations of some faultless 
Gothic spire that ravishes the sight in the upper air. 

Mr. Whistler Smith, and his handsome wife, were prominent 
figures in Sydney society in 1851 and afterwards, at " Glenrock," 
Darling Point, and her brother, Philip Street, was the only non- 
resident bachelor squatter that I ever met with, who, on his station, 
on the Upper Lachlan, put (per his manager) real silver spoons 
before all calling guests, above the labouring class, in rank ; for the 
Lachlan was a rough place in those days. 

This was the time when Sydney was stirred up by the visit of the 
two " live lords," as the witty pretty girls of the period named them, 
to wit, Lord Kerr, and Lord Scott, scions of the ducal Buccleugh, 
and another family, whose title I cannot, at the moment, remember. 
They saw " Greenoakes," where Tom Mort presided, and did not 
forget to travel up to Moreton Bay and Darling Downs, and see the 
" lions " there, as well as those at Darling Point. They called at 
.Jubb's hostelry (pulled down in 1859), high up on the pleasant 
ranges round " Mary vale," and Cunningham's Gap, where the green 
wattle, and the clear creeks, and the mountain air, combine to make 
it a paradise, and they nicknamed Mount Mitchell "Jubb's bald 



166 SIR DANIEL COOPER. 

peak ; " he knew it well, for, " belting " up that mountain, with his 
" breeks " over his arm, and separated from the drays, in the " early 
forties," he met the " myall " blacks, as elsewhere described, all 
spears and boomerangs, and, to his horror, found them unable to 
understand English, so he made signs that flour and sugar were on 
the drays, and off they went after them, and good old Jubb " shook 
hands with himself " over his escape. He was " a character ; " 
illiterate, rough, and aggressive in appearance, he had a most oily,, 
emollient, voice of the " haw haw " type, and loved to tackle and 
wrestle with words of five syllables in his talk, with (it must be 
admitted) but indifferent success. " Margaret, my dear," he would 
say, as he sat back in a rocking chair, to his wife (fat and broad as 
himself), " stand behind me, and pass your fingers gently through 
my hair ; it is as good as a shampoo." How Kerr and Scott must 
have enjoyed Jubb ! Poor " Margaret " died tragically, for Jubb 
accidentally upset the dray over a sapling, when driving, and it turned 
right over, and with her under it. It was Jubb to whom Ernest 
Elphinstone Dalrymple — whose tablet is in St. John's Anglican 
Church, Brisbane — complained that Providence had, in his case,, 
omitted the one great blessing of all — namely, health. 

Those were the days when Sir Daniel Cooper used, wisely, to 
shake up his liver by a daily morning trot in Sydney, in the summer 
season, which, in that city of the sea, is somewhat " rough " on that 
most important organ of the body, and causeth it to stagnate, unless 
duly stirred up by horse exercise. 

And yet, another episode of those days do I recall. Thomas- 
Whistler Smith had an uncle, Henry Gilbert Smith, an elderly 
gentleman of high standing in Sydney, bank director, and of great 
wealth, who owned much of the North Shore, of Sydney. Late in 
life, Mr. Gilbert Smith married, his bride being a lady who resided 
with Sir Robert M'Kenzie's family, at Brisbane, and Gilbert Smith 
travelled to Brisbane for the wedding. In those remote days, how- 
ever, there was, in the future capital of Queensland, a scarcity of 
hotels and boarding houses where a gentleman could suitably spend 
a honeymoon ; so Sir Robert (who was Mr. Mackenzie then, not 
having yet succeeded to the baronetcy) took rooms, beforehand, for his 
friend, at a respectable suburban hotel, in Fortitude Valley, a two- 
storey brick building, kept by a landlord of somewhat obtuse 
intellect, who, in his younger days, had voyaged with horses, and 
had been kicked by one of them on the head, a matter which 
effectually scattered all the very few wits he originally had been 
blessed with. When Sir Robert engaged the rooms, the landlord 



THE OLD SYDNEY MARKET. 167 

beckoned him mysteriously on one side, and thus delivered himself, 
" Look here, Mr. Mackenzie, I don't quite understand a party coming 
here, giving the name of Smith (it's a very common name), and 
saying that a certain lady is his wife ; I hope it's all right, but I 
don't like it ; and, mind, it's only to oblige yon that I am doing it, 
because I know you're a gentleman, Mr. Mackenzie." Sir Robert's 
reply was forcible, and included an adjective, and the words " you old 
fool," amongst other phrases. Anyone who knew the punctilious, 
old-school, Sir Charles Grandison, "form" of Henry Gilbert Smith 
could best appreciate the intense comicality of the demented land- 
lord's scruples ; for the latter would have objected to the late 
Hon. W. H. Smith (the first Lord of the Treasury) equally as much, 
and solely, too, on account of his name. Such are the blunders of a 
thick skull. Fortunately, the parties most concerned never heard 
of it at the time, so no feelings were hurt, and, afterwards, they 
could well afford to laugh at the farce. 

Those were the days when old rosy face John Black, manager of 
the Bank of New South Wales, when it used to be on the other side 
of George street, might be seen, on Saturday afternoons, in the 
black dress suit and white cravat, which he always wore, buying 
his Sunday fruit in the old Sydney market, a custom which was 
observed by most of the old Sydney gentry and "identities" in those 
days, for this market was the only successful reproduction, at that 
date, and in the southern hemisphere, of the London Covent Garden 
one, and there was a dash of old Leadenhall Market about it, also. 
From the stalls of Baptist and of Stanley, too, there arose the 
grateful " reek " of thyme, marjoram, mint, and sage, striving with 
the odour of peaches and strawberries, rock-melons and pineapples, 
from the next stalls, and here the wondrous vegetables from those 
unpromising looking, but highly fertile, sandy soil gardens on the 
" Surrey Hills " of Sydney, might be seen, in the shape of kidney 
potatoes, asparagus, tomatoes, and watercress ; and the oranges and 
lemons, raspberries, black, red, and white currants, grapes, bananas, 
walnuts, filberts, pears, and so forth, were all of full Covent Garden 
status, and, perhaps, in some cases, even a little more so ; and the 
stalls, too, where they sold poultry, huge turkeys, from Menangle, 
and the south country ; bacon, from Moruya ; and the other stalls, 
where red-eyed ferrets, and white mice, starlings, thrushes, and 
blackbirds, from old England, toy terriers, and the like, all helped 
to impart a Leadenhall flavour to the scene ; and, on Satur- 
days (only), lovely red and yellow "bulls eyes," and other choice 
"lollies," were set forth, at one particular stall, to rake in (lie pence 



168 R. M. LINDSAY. 

of the school children, and the " legion " of adults who cater for 
such. And what shall I say of the flower stalls, and the bouquets 
of red and white rnoss roses, violets, cape jasmine, gardenia, stepha- 
notis, melastoma, agapanthus, epacris 1 No ! I will not be lured 
into writing a catalogue. Enough, that they all helped to swell 
that pleasant pot pourri market odour, and to grace a scene, which 
was English to the backbone in its character and surroundings, such 
as no Rio Janeiro, or foreign, market, however redolent of fruit, 
flowers, and coloured folks, can recall. That old Sydney market is, 
now, no more, I hear ; but may its memory, and that of the people, 
who, in the by-gone, used to frequent it, be kept ever green ! 

Those were the days, too, when we used to practice, in the old 
Sydney " Philharmonic," with Johnson, the organist, for a leader, 
and Aldis (erst famous for his good cigars) used to sing, in his 
melodious voice, some of the solos in Handel's and Haydn's 
oratorios, the " Creation," " Messiah," and so forth. 

Those were the days when the " Chusan," first of the P. and O. 
mail boats, to visit Australia, steamed up Port Jackson waters, and, 
as she, with her 600 tons of capacity, passed the giant " Great 
Britain" at anchor, off "Pinchgut," I could see the latter, of 3500 
tons, project 75 feet before and 75 feet behind the little " Chusan." 
But, that did not prevent us from giving a grand ball, at the " Ex- 
change," or somewhere, in honour of the first "P. and O." visit to 
Australia, at which ball the pretty girls of New South "Wales, in 
the black head ribbons, and other fashions, immortalized by John 
Leech, in " Punch," of the period (1852), were in full force. 

Those were the days when Thomas Sutclifle Mort (partner of 
Ewen Cameron) used to mount the rostrum, and wield the hammer, 
and dear old R. M. Lindsay, the purveyor of rare books and other 
" notions," in Castlereagh street, was to be seen at every sale in his 
line. It would be a scarce volume, indeed, that you could not 
rummage out in R. M. L's. repository, even back to the works of 
Dampier, the bold buccaneer ; Lindsay, on one side of the rostrum, 
and Donald Larnach, on the other, were greatly in contrast, and 
they evidently did not employ the same tailor. And, after a day in 
the rostrum, the same Tom Mort would be the life and soul, the 
amateur wizard and conjurer, of a children's party, at his pretty 
mansion of " Greenoakes," where grew some prize winners at the 
flower shows of Sydney. Ever energetic, whether in dock-building, 
meat freezing, or making the children happy, I can see him, now, 
before me, as, with his hands thrust into a pair of patent Wellington 
boots, on a table, and with a skilfully arranged curtain and a dis- 



EDWARD SALOMONS. 169 

guised face, he posed as a dwarf, dancing a hornpipe, before the 
•delighted youngsters. He deserved that statue in Macquarie Place, 
did good-hearted " T. S. M." 

Those were the times when Edward Salomons, also, wielded the 
hammer, at high-class furniture sales, on Potts's and Darling Points, 
and it would be a "hard old Sydney sort" indeed! who could 
"weather" successfully on that quiet, white waistcoated, gentleman 
in the war of " chaff." I strolled into John Gilchrist's house, when 
Salomons was auctioning the furniture — "let's have that piano tried, 
before you put it up, " said a bullying broker. " No occasion," 
said E. S., "you were 'tried' yourself once, and I never heard you 
were any the better for it." 

Those were the times when old Sam Blackwell, of the sylvan 
hostelry, in " Green Ponds," near Constitution Hill, in Tasmania, 
where the sweet briar grew by the road side, into a thick tree, 
used to train the black mare " Deception," and the bay mare 
"Modesty," to measure their strides with the cracks of the "Cocked 
Hat," and other stables, on the north side of the island. I remember 
once when " Bloomsbury," the erst champion, finished behind 
"Shadow," on the racecourse of Launceston, and old " Slathery whack" 
(such was his soubriquet, and, I forget his real name) yelled out, 
"Yah! look at the 'Cocked Hat' bullock now!" It is sad to 
confess, but is nevertheless true, that uneducated, and plebeian, 
horse trainers are, at times, deficient, in that knightly chivalry, to 
a fallen foe, or rival, which characterizes the refined christian 
gentleman. 

Those were the times when old Gamaliel Butler, the solicitor 
(splendid name for a lawyer), practised, in Hobart Town, and left 
sons and daughters behind him, worthy of the ancient stock. 

Those were the times when Arthur Sydney Lyon started the first 
newspaper, the " Courier" in Brisbane, and had his nickname (like 
everyone else then), and was known as "Tag Rag," and I was intro- 
duced to him at the time when the " Moreton Bay Free Press" had 
usurped the old site, at the corner of Albert and Queen streets, when 
Allcock did the printing, and Robert Meston, and Doig, the editing 
thereof. 

Those were the days when Samuel Deane Gordon (nicknamed by 
Patrick Leslie) carried on his business at Bridge street, Sydney, and 
Charley Bath drew an unexceptionable glass of English ale, at the 
•George street corner of that same classic thoroughfare ; and when 
Arthur Gravely sold good ironmongery, in Sydney, in the days of 
the Iredales. 



170 W. L. CROWTIIER. 

Those were the times when Dr. William Lodewyk Crowther, of 
Hobart, was in his prime, and used to walk from the latter place to- 
Oatlands (52 miles) in a day, shooting as he went, and we all know 
how many extra miles that includes ; but, the summer day is long- 
in Van Diemen's Land. His two pointers, "Sancho," and "Rascal," 
are visible (to my mind's eye) at this moment. All this was before 
he went to Paris to complete his medical studies, and contracted the 
awful typhus of that city, in the hospitals, a matter Avhich weakened 
him ever afterwards, or, he had not died at 68, as the pedestal to 
his statue in the Hobart Town Gardens, tells us; for 68 is young for a. 
Tasmanian to die at. It was on that trip home that he took his fine 
zoological collection, which the Earl of Derby, at Knowsley (the 
" Homer " Earl) purchased from him, including 50 guineas for a 
pair of Tasmanian "devils." What grand cherries the doctor used to 
grow ("Giblin's seedlings") in his back garden, in the pretty metropolis, 
on the Derwent estuary, which runs up amongst the mountains, 
till the very scenery of Thirlmere and Helvellyn is reproduced before 
us, and under a much clearer sky than that of Cumberland. I once 
had the honour to assist him, by holding her hands, while the doctor 
operated on the eyes of a pretty girl, for a squint, the sole blot on 
her beauty ; her affianced lover sitting in the outer room, to await 
the result, the while. The whole affair was over in five minutes, the 
girl cured, and, as the worthy kind doctor called it, a splendid case 
of "strabismus"; and, it was a full reward to see the delighted face 
of the lover when the girl rejoined him. Dr. Crowther married 
Victoire Marie Louise, daughter of Colonel Muller, of the Ceylon 
Rifles. 

Those were the days when Edwin Tooth, of Bagdad (V. D. Land), 
and other country gentlemen, belonging to the old Abyssinian hunt, 
took care, each, of a pair of beagles, in the farm yard, and kept high- 
class hunters in the stable. Sir William Denison, the Governor, being 
amongst the boldest riders, but always carrying, so it was said, a small 
Bible in his coat pocket. Tooth went over a famous leap there, in the 
steep down-hill incline, a " nasty one " to negotiate, and His 
Excellency, not to be outdone, followed, saying " Ah ! Tooth ! You 
led me into temptation that time." 

Those were the days when Cleburne's flag waved on the wharf at 
Hobart, and when Webb, the local confectioner, made the best pastry 
and Bath bmis south of the line (ere Cripps arose later, in Sydney, 
to rival him ;) when Richard Lewis was the leading draper, of the 
city, and his eldest daughter the belle of the " Havannah " ball. 
By the way, what has become of that type of copper coloured, taut,. 



"GIPSY POLL." 171 

trim, saucy looking, sailing frigates, of the 1845-1855 era? we never 
see them now. 

Those were the days when high play went on, sometimes, at tlie 
"Ship" Inn, at Hobart, with 160 golden sovereigns in the pool, at 
loo, in the days when euchre, and poker, and nap, " were not " yet. 
When T. Y. Lowes held periodical sales of wethers; when "Woolly" 
Smith (so called to distinguish him from the endless other Smiths) 
dealt in the golden fleece ; when " Gipsy Poll " kept the lively, 
maritime, Hobart public house; but, woe to the bold man who called 
the landlady "Gipsy Poll" in her presence — "My name is Mary 

Anne " was the mildest reminder he got — to the effect that he 

had "put his foot in it." Some of these lion hearted seamen did, at 
times, get a terrorizing from the female element of humanity ; there 
was Jack Doyle now, the primest pugilist (six feet two) of all the 
sailor tribe thereabouts, and, who never knew fear till the following 
episode occured : He was an A.B. on board a female convict ship,, 
from London to Hobart, and he took a fancy, on the voyage out, to 
find his way through a bulkhead into the 'tween decks, in search of 
night adventures, and, as he crept along, someone, who did not see 
him, laid her hand, by accident, on his whiskers, and at once screamed, 
when, as many of the "Jenny Linds " as co%dd get at him, did so. 
The noise brought assistance and he was rescued, terribly marked 
and battered, and that was the first and last time in his life that 
Jack trembled. 

Those were the days when Moses Joseph, the wealthy, sent forth- 
his ships, the "Rosetta Joseph," and others, to the new and lucrative 
Californian trade, he being universally known as "Mo Jo" for 
shortness, in all his vessels, by his irreverent mates and sailors. 

Those were the times when Captain Robert Towns, of Sydney, 
began to import tea, coffee, and sugar, from the east, much to the 
•surprise of conservative old John Thacker, of Sydney and Calcutta, 
who thought that he and Severin Kanute Salting, of Sydney, had the- 
monopoly of that branch of commerce. This was the time when a 
very sarcastic lady (a baronet's wife), who believed in no "captains" 
but army and navy ones, blithely enquired what regiment "Captain" 
Towns belonged to? not perceiving that Wentworth's brother-in-law, 
and a large shipowner and merchant, to boot, was quite equal to 
some army captains. If Sir Francis Burdett had only been sent to 
Australia, in place of to the Tower, he would, probably, have en- 
countered some colour sergeant's daughter, turning up her nose at 
him, had they met in a quadrille in the convict days. 

This was the era when James Paterson, of the A.S.N. Co., Sydney,. 



172 THEODORE BARTLEY. 

and Captain Tilmouth F. Dye, of the Hunter River New Steam Co., 
used to smile at each other in the street, and (metaphorically) " cut 
each other's throats" with their opposition and reduced fares and 
freights. 

This was the time when the Howsons, and Carandinis, and Miss 
Hart, delighted the gallery gods at the old "Vic" theatre, in Sydney, 
and when Torning danced his hornpipes and sang his " patter " 
songs. 

This was the era, also, when Mr. William Barton, the sharebroker, 
of Sydney — and father of the subsequent Speaker and Attorney 
General — did a flourishing business. Arriving in Sydney, in 1827, 
as secretary to the Australian Agricultural Company, at Port 
Stephens, he left their employ in 1830, and became the first " bull " 
and "bear" south of the equator. He helped to float many of the early 
Sydney banks and insurance companies, now towers of wealth, and 
not of the 1892 fungoid, mushroom, and liquidation type. He was 
on the London Stock Exchange, in 1810, and served his time to old 
Mr. Barwise, there, a venerable relic of the bygone, who, born in 
1740, still wore, in 1810, the hair powder, pigtail, black knee 
breeches, and silver buckles of the George the II. days. 

Those were the days, when my cousin, Theodore Bartley, of 
Launceston, in Tasmania, first stall-fed cattle, in Australia, on his 
own farm turnips, and realised lOd. per lb. for their beef, in Laun- 
ceston ; and it was then that he, preferring principle to pelf, started 
the anti-transportation crusade, and the battle cry went across Bass's 
Straits to Melbourne, where Heape and Grice, Octavius Browne and 
Co., Dalgety, Gore and Co., Westgarth, Ross and Co., and a score, 
or two, more of them, in that city, each put down their hundred 
guineas to help to fight the cause, and keep the fair land of 
Australia from any more of the old taint. This was the " anti- 
transportation league," and it carried its point against all local and 
English opposition. Theodore Bartley lived at Kerry Lodge, near 
Launceston, and from his verandah you could see, far to the right, 
the mighty "Ben Lomond," and to the left, just as distant, " Mount 
Arthur (after Colonel Arthur), and full in front was " Ben Nevis " ; 
all worthy of their titles, and no mere mean imitations of their Scotch 
namesakes, for Ben Lomond " topped " 5000 feet in height, and they 
eould, all three, look down on most Scotch mountains. 

Those were times when young Landale, and his sister, used often 
to ride, together, on the road between Perth and Launceston. The 
name has, I believe, since been heard of in the "Riverina" of New 
South "Wales, and in the University boat races in England ; and 



TASMANIA?* FAMILIES. 175 

Edward Lawrence, too, and his brother Vernon, and his sister, also, 
were equestrian, and Edward, like many another gallant youth, in 
that all-too-quiet island, before 1851 and the gold revelation, would 
gallop 100 yards at tine " charge " and wish himself a cavalry officer, 
on service. I think his mother married Dr. Milliken. 

Then it was that Tabart's place at " Fonthill," near the " Eastern 
Marshes," was one of the outliers of civilization to the east of the 
great coach highway, ere you came to the drear, lonely, night haunted 
forest of Van "Demon's" land — a pleasant oasis in that spot; while 
to the west of that same grand macadamized artery of traffic, were 
the more populated Westbury and Deloraine ; and the Archers 
were at " Woolmers," and the Bisdees at Jei"icho, the Drys near 
the "Western Tier, and " Anstey Barton," was a great sheep estate, 
and any one who had 10,000 or 15,000 sheep then, on his own free- 
hold, was a " swell," for they had not, then, even dreamt of the 
quarter million and half million shearings of modern days on the 
giant island mainland, whose murky " loom " I first saw from the 
deck of the old " Raven," brig, in Bass's Straits, and Anstey was a 
partner of the Urquhart, who always, so badly, wanted to impeach 
Lord Palmerston at that period. It was then, as now, that Mount 
Olympus, cloud capped, looked down on the lovely glassy solitudes, 
near Lake Echo and Lake St. Clair, and the Table Mountain frowned 
from his 4,000 feet of level summit, on Bothwell below him. 

One could not help being impressed, in Tasmania, with the total 
and happy absence of those hideous names, so common in Australia, 
such as "Dead Horse Gully," and "Murderer's Flat," and so forth. 
I often wondered as to whose good taste it was all owing ; was it to 
some refined female scion of the Sorell or Gellibrand, families in 
the early days ? or to a Sharland, of New Norfolk 1 or whom ? 

Speaking of murderers, there used to be a hut between Ipswich 
and Mount Flinders, in Queensland, deserted, and called the " Mur- 
dering Hut," but I never heard its history. I remeinber, well, 
passing it one evening, homeward bound, from Fassifern to Ipswich, 
while Gordon Sandeman passed me, outward bound, thence, and on 
one of those "clever" cobs he used to ride — "spick and span," as 
tin- elder Mr. Chester, himself, at the "Maypole" at Chigwell — and 
disappeared in the darkening, twilight forest, as we met, saluted, and 
passed on. 

I had a great surprise, once, in Brisbane ; J. and G. Harris, occu- 
pied only the upper floor of their Short street store, and I had the 
lower floor and wharf in 1855. One day I went up to Ipswich, and, 
on my return, the whole wharf had disappeared into the river, by 



174 "dominie" cape. 

one of the periodic land slips, common in the " made ground " of 
that bank of the river, and not the wharf only, but the whole bank 
fell in and left the store, crammed with sugar and goods, standing 
within 10 inches of a precipice, 10 feet perpendicular, into the water, 
an ugly sight, and one that upset business, for a time, completely ; 
for, duplicate wharfs did not " grow on trees," then. 

Those were the times when schoolmaster Cape, at Sydney, taught 
and reared the boys who are now amongst the patriarchs of Austra- 
lia ; and, when jolly looking William Long, the wine merchant, used 
to stand at the door of his warehouse, in George street, resplendent 
in a matchless white waistcoat ; and, when George Hill, senior, peered 
through his kindly, half-closed eyes, at you, a veritable type of old 
Australia. 

Those were the days when Major Walch kept the book shop, in 
Hobart Town, and " Peggy leg " Wilmot (the police magistrate, and 
Governor's son) used to muster the passengers of outgoing ships to 
see if any "bolters," from the convict ranks, were on board; when 
the hunting tower of " Kermode's folly " crowned the hill near the 
high coach road, and the family lived at Mona Vale, and Simeon 
Lord at Avoca. 




THE DELPARDS. 



A line, or two, now, anent the rest of the Delpard family, introduced 
at the beginning of this volume, and whom, of course, I grew to 
know after I came to Queensland. Mr. Delpard, in one of his 
business visits to the coast, had brought up Alice Rowland, his 
banker's daughter, for a taste of mountain air, and to stay with 
Lucy and Laura for a time. Alice Rowland was a clever girl, 
educated at a Sydney boarding school, demure in manner, but full of 
fun ; her hair and eyes were, alike, of that clear, tawny, amber hue, 
a rare shade of reddish brown, giving to her handsome face an 
aspect of dignity, and indeed, but that it appears to be the bounden 
•destiny of every woman, however noble, to find an ideal in the 
person of some man, or other, and often inferior to herself, Alice 
ought to have been quite unapproachable, to most of them ; she 
kindly helped Mr. Delpard in his selections, at Messrs. Foulard and 
Winsey's, for the girls at Wyndomel; she amused him all the 
evening, with her superb piano playing, at the bank, and he and she 
started for Wyndomel, next clay, in his roomy buggy, and on arrival 
learnt that the paddock slip rails had been left down, and that Laura's 
horse, " Tartar," was nowhere to be found, and Clement Tyrrell's 
travels in search of him were numerous. 

The station profits that year were £15,000, and the girls, 
after Alice had been a month with them, coaxed, and bullied, their 
father and mother to take them and Alice to Sydney, for six weeks, 
where an old friend of theirs, Mr. Cotton, a merchant, of George 
street, residing at Darling Point, had been long expecting the fulfil- 
ment of their promise to "look him up," and make his place their 
home, for a time. It is needless, here, to speak of their voyage, past 
the green " huminocky " capes, and lofty mountains, which are 
purple, blue, pale green, or brown, according as the distance varies, 
or the sun, or the clouds, have the mastery overhead ; or to whether 
the " warm wet " tints (seen only after heavy rain) predominate ; 
or, the hazy shimmer of drought obscures and spoils all. 

Alice Rowland was a bad sailor, but the Delpard girls, like their 
father, knew not what sea-sickness was. Direly did poor Alice 
suffer the martyrdom of the sea scourge, that earthly, or watery, 



176 A SYDNEY VILLA. 

purgatory, wherein every wholesome meal digested, in the past,, 
appears to rise, in judgment, like some deadly, unforgiven sin ; but, 
the " Albicore " got to Sydney at last, and steamed with signals flying 
past the beautiful " North Shore," where only nine per thousand 
used to die annually ; past Kirribilli Point, past the trim steam 
frigates with topgallant yards down, and long booms out, and longer 
pennons, that speak such volumes about the grim reality of the 
" articles of war " and discipline : on, past flashing little boats, gaily 
painted, whose sharp keels cut swiftly the salt water, clear as that 
at the Nore light, and the wavelets were as a mimic of the great 
outside sea ; only, the Australian boats were gayer in colour, and 
under a brighter sky of intense light. 

Mr. Cotton's great family carriage — dark green, picked out with 
claret, with the blue, up-standing roans, in silver-decked harness — 
was at the wharf, to convey our folk to " Knutleigh," his waterside 
mansion of nut-brown Pyrmont stone, and our girls, who had not 
seen Sydney for some years, were delighted as they whirled past the 
glittering shops ; so different from the dingy stores at home, for this 
was some years ago, you must know. 

Ensconced in their comfortable rooms at " Knutleigh," the seat of 
Charles Cotton, Esq., with its billiard room, and young Cotton's 
15-ton yacht, the " Mozambique," anchored in the little bay at the 
foot of the garden, the girls looked forward to the next few weeks 
as something delicious to come. 

But the grand ball at " Knutleigh " was the event of the Delpards' 
visit to Sydney. Like all well-appointed villas, it had its own ball 
room proper ; no vulgar dismantling of the drawing room took 
place. The grand pianoforte, by Pleyel ; the fine water colours of 
Australian scenery, by Prout and Gill ; the photographs from 
Venice, Sicily, and Malta ; the old carved cabinets, from the Eai'l 
of Tewkesbury's sale ; the artistic bronzes, the vases of Sevres and 
Dresden ware ; the choice glass cases of " blue John," fluor spar,. 
Australian malachite, minerals, stuffed birds, and shells, were all 
matters not to be lightly disturbed for the sake of a mere dance ; so 
they ; ' perpetrated the hop " in the ball room, a 70 by 40 feet apart- 
ment, next to the picture-gallery, and, who w T ere the guests 1 Why r 
all the world of Sydney, of course. There was pretty Eflie Burns, 
who married the wealthy Mr. Nelson, squatter, on the Richmond 
River ; and there was the Juno-like Miss Romyn, the great Crown 
lawyer's daughter, who broke so many hearts, and retired to a 
convent, after all ; there was Eveline Sprott, the wine merchant's 
daughter, from Cook's River, with her tantalizing little Moresque 



BALL AT DARLING POINT. 177 

profile, with its retrousse nose, its delicately feminine ears, chin, and 
throat, its dark eyes and brows, and " aggravating " toute ensemble, 
which provoked more partners and proposals than many a more perfect 
Grecian profile did ; and there was young Hampden, the son of 
a dissenting-chapel-building millionaire, who objected, on principle, to 
balls and parties, but relaxed the rule on this special occasion ; he 
was in faultless " get up," and danced with a keen zest for the 
forbidden pleasure. There were the captain and officers of the 
-" Neilgherry," P. and O. steamer (then in port), all looking more 
severely nautical than did the commodore and lieutenants of H.M.S. 
" Sumatra," who were, of course, present ; and the officers of the 
French man-of-war " Renaissance," Justin from New Caledonia, lent 
variety to the scene. With them, was the great naturalist, 
Kadchoffski, who, with his closely-cropped head, and dark " goggles," 
was a conspicuous object in the ball room ; he brought some marvel- 
lous specimens of gold, in " spongy" stone, from Noumea, with him. 
There was the plump, soft, creamy, blonde German beauty, Madame 
Sturmenstein, the young and accomplished musician, wife of the 
Sydney Consul for Hesse Detmold. Some of the aldermen and 
Cabinet Ministers, were not there. Last, and not least, were the 
three lovely daughters of Dr. Emery, the eldest and handsomest of 
whom had married rich John Galvin, of Batavia, and fell a victim 
to its deadly climate ; and, yet, her next sister was about to join her 
fate to that of Harry Browning, who held a high civil post in India, 
and who was in Sydney, on leave. Dr. Emery (so people said) 
ou'dit, as a medical man, to have known better than to risk another 
of them in this way, but he allowed his motherless girls to do as they 
liked. And, it would be unpardonable to omit all mention of 
Serena Mountjoy, known amongst the young " bloods " of Sydney as 
the " White Witch ; " fair of skin, with chiselled, delicate features, 
and hair of the lightest colour ; large, grey, opalescent eyes ; brows 
and lashes much darker than the hair ; with an erect and stag-like 
mien, and a thoroughbred air (Australienne and bizarre) ; it was 
strange she was still single, while her elder and younger sisters were 
both married ; but Serena had not yet encountered the Eugene 
Aram of her ideal. Her father was dead, and it was hard to deter- 
mine whether his horned cattle, which fed over limitless plains, or 
his sea-borne cargoes, had enriched him most. Her mother was 
dead, the sister of one of England's most advanced thinkers and 
politicians, and of a name famous in story. The family was a clever 
and a wild cue, her two brothers beingsad scapegraces, yet noble, in 
their way, with it j it was (lie wild blood that springs from trans- 
it 



178 A COSTLY NECKLACE. 

planting an old race to a new clime, the transition ferment before 
the good wine was matured. They lived chiefly at their father's- 
squatting stations, and seldom saw Sydney. Serena's elder sister, a. 
quiet blonde, with blue eyes and plentiful yellow hair, was married 
to the rich owner of 50,000 freehold acres, and her younger sister to> 
the junior partner in her deceased father's business. She was not 
more beautiful than our Wyndomel girls, but of a far rarer type of 
beauty. 

It should here be mentioned that there was a valuable heirloom in 
the rich Mrs. Delpard's family, and now with her. It was a neck- 
lace of rubies and pearls, which an ancestor of hers, 150 years ago,, 
the captain of a well-armed East Indiaman, had captured on board 
a pirate lorcha, which attacked him and got the worst of it. As to 
where the pirate got it, will never be known ; from some rich, and 
badly-armed, Manilla galleon, no doubt. The rubies were all 
oblong, and the pearls of a long, oval shape ; all the stones- 
exquisitely matched in colour, brilliancy, and appearance ; the 
rubies were from Burmah, the pearls from Torres Straits. No- 
place but Burmah ever did produce such coloured rubies, and only 
Burmah itself, 150 years ago, when the mines were on a different 
vein from the present one. You cannot get them now, at any price, 
anywhere, and the necklace was of very high value and beauty, and 
everyone thought it could not be improved upon, till they saw, set 
in the centre of it, the flame and spark-emitting opal, like a ball of 
Are, and the size of half a walnut, which Clement Tyrrell found on 
his trip with the cattle to Cape York Peninsula ; but we must not 
anticipate. Lucy, with her mother's permission, wore this necklace 
at the " Knutleigh " ball, and there was nothing, in the jewellery 
line there, from Sydney, Melbourne, or London workshops, that could 
vie with it. 

There were some pretty dresses in the room One of ruby silk,, 
covered with black lace; one of Indian, green and gold, beetle wings, 
with gold lace ; another of amber and scarlet ; one of lavender and 
cerise ; but the most remarkable of all came from Worth's, in Paris,, 
and wa^ made up entirely of pansies, in some velvety material, and 
from the size of half-an-inch long to nearly a foot. 

A woi'd here for the champagne. It had no label, no gold top,, 
only a dab of white paint on the shoulder of the bottle, but it really 
came from the Due de M.'s vineyard, and it ivas wine. 

A pleasant variation to the delights of the ball room was found in 
a promenade on the broad stone terrace outside, lined with huge 
vases, containing rare plants, some for beauty, some for odour ; and 



A MOONLIT HARBOUR. 179 

down the handsome balustraded stone steps, which led into the 
garden, and so on to the beach and bay, which bordered the grounds. 
It was the night of the full moon, and, from the terrace and upper 
steps, the eye ranged across the vast harbour, where a long streak of 
silver on the restless waves pointed the watery track to the now dim 
and shadowy recesses of Fairlight, Manly, and the North Harbour, 
and to where the sleeping Quarantine Ground lay, bathed in Luna's 
bright midnight rays ; the teak-built ship " Beejapore," 1,676 tons, 
outward bound, rode at anchor near the Heads, while the 
tinkling bells, and red and green lights, of the ever passing steamers 
to, and from Melbourne, Moreton Bay, or Hobart, served to remind 
the busy revellers that life was going on, as usual, outside their 
circle ; and the great merchant ships at anchor, inside of Bradley's 
Head, struck, on their bells, the passing half-hours of the night, 
which, as usual, flow, alas ! all too swiftly in the voluptuous 
surroundings of a first-class Sydney private ball, and it came to an 
end at 4 a.m., and everyone, under the age of 30, felt sorry, though 
I cannot answer for the elder ones. 

Next day, Mr. Delpard had to go to the steamer wharf, in the 
afternoon, to see to the shipment of some horses for the station, and 
to send a box of clothes for Tyrrell, which had come from England, 
vid Sydney. There was a great rush to the new diggings at Cape 
York Peninsula, and the wharf presented a bustling scene. Pack 
horses and pack saddles were being shipped for the rough country, 
where no road for teams yet was, and the nags could be seen, slung 
aloft, and dropped below, till the room there was filled, and, then, 
the rest of them on deck. It put Delpard in mind of old Crimean 
days. A motley crowd was on the wharf ; some workers, but many 
idlers. Bags of fine Adelaide flour, boxes of Lambeth sperm candles, 
tins of American kerosine oil, miners' tools of all kinds, Mauritius 
sugar, China tea, Java rice, pickles from Soho Square, tarpaulins, 
&c, rose rapidly in the air to the " whirr" of the donkey engine and 
steam winch, and vanished down the hatchway with prestissimo 
movement, for the steamer must sail that night, on her 1,200 mile 
trip, to where Captain Cook beached his ship, in 1770, in the 
"Endeavour" River, the nearest port to the Pactolus drifts and 
sands of the Palmer. Keen were the espionage and glances of the 
detectives as they essayed to " spot " any illegal departure from head 
quarters. Sharp was the scrutiny of the steam company's officials 
that no one went on board without his ticket got, and fare paid. 
Bitter were the tears, and fervent wen; the kisses, of those who 
were to part, some, perhaps, never to meet more, for cannibal 



180 THE PARTING STEAMER. 

blacks, crocodiles, fever and ague, tropical heat, starvation, and 
drowning were amongst the perils that lay in wait for those who 
manfully dared all, for the sake of the bright and easily packed gold 
which so nicely distends the chamois bags of the lucky ones, and 
which puts all the (then doubly relished) luxuries of life at their 
command, when they return to civilization, not the least of which 
luxuries may be reckoned the power of giving new dresses to the 
poor old mother, and the shabby sister, or sweetheart, who have so 
patiently borne the ills of poverty and suspense that wear out the 
heart, while the beloved bread-winner is away, and while the turn 
of luck, and the safety of life, were, as yet, amongst the undecided 
issues of fate. 

But, all pitiless, and like a parting knell, the steamer bell clangs 
out at last, and, with a cruel wrench, the agony of which is felt long 
afterwards, the final severance comes. The steam ceases to roar in 
the escape pipe ; a painful moment, or two, of dead calm ensues ; 
the bronzed skipper is on the bridge, speaks a few words, touches an 
electric bell, and, anon, the water is in a froth under the stern, 
hawsers are cast off, handkerchiefs are waved, hands are kissed, 
tears are wiped away, only to flow again, and the great iron monster 
churns her way past Dawes' Battery, the Martello tower of Fort 
Denison, and " the Bradley " — a week after, to awaken with the 
echoes of her steam pipe, the shores of a river, which it is a pity 
that James Cook cannot revisit, and see the change that has come 
over it. 




WITH CATTLE TO CAPE YORK PENINSULA. 



Wyndomel Station had originally been formed (and the power- 
ful tribe of the black aborigines thereon broken up and dispersed, in 
the year 1814) by two brothers, named Tindal, young men — younger 
sons — of a good family, who, with their trusty servant, Jim Carrick 
(fairly educated, and the son of the game-keeper), left England in 
1843, with some £3,500, to seek their fortune in Australia. They 
worked the station with varying success till 1849, when Charles, 
the younger brother, bitten with the Californian gold fever, sailed 
thither, taking with him Jim Carrick, and leaving Henry to carry 
on the business of grazier, at Wyndomel, on joint account. Charles 
was drowned in a boating trip up the Sacramento River, after his 
return, unsuccessful, from the mines ; and his brother Henry, who 
got the sad news from the returned Jim Carrick — hating the 
solitude — sold the station, and returned to England, and the 
property had passed through several hands before Hugh Delpard 
bought it. Jim Carrick, however, had remained a fixture as sheep 
overseer, under all the different masters it had seen, and he was 
now looked upon as the father of the run, and the oracle of all the 
hands employed. 

One of the " institutions " of Wyndomel was old Donald 
Macalpine, chief of the shepherds. He was the best draughts 
player in the district. In vain, did " stx-ong amateurs," and even 
travelling "Dick, the card sharper" — who knew everything— essay 
their hands on him; the old man's knowledge of the "Dyke," "Laird 
and Lady," " Bristol," and so forth, was too thorough; and he was 
so good and gentle with it all. There was none of the lust of 
victory, the gaudia certaminis, in his draughts play. He would 
often turn the board round when he had you beaten, and shew you 
how he could, still, save and " draw " it. What he wanted was, 
not conquest, but for the dear old " dambrod " to be properly set 
forth in all its beauty. His attitude at the board was perfect, and 
was a study in itself. There was none of that slovenly placing a 
man half on this square, half on that; no "fiddling," and half 



182 THE OLD "DAMBROD." 

drawing back, in a move ; he sat upright, with his chin in his hand ; 
and, when he played, his hand darted out, placed the piece at once, 
in the middle of the square indicated, and back went his hand to the 
chin again. Lucy or Laura Delpard could talk to you all day of 
" dear old Donald," and his mignonne orphan daughter, and would 
tell you, that if there were a gentleman, or an angel, upon earth, it 
was this old shepherd ; and, as even Mr. Delpard himself used to 
say, " It was a sight to see the old man's kindly face, and his self- 
respect and gentlemanly manner," as he explained to a novice the 
mysteries of that scientific game, pointing out to him, how, early 
errors in the game of draughts, as in the game of life, lead to trouble 
later on ; that every step, and its consequences, should be well 
weighed before taking it ; and that he who moves with the most 
circumspection and slowness, early in the game of draughts and of 
life, will be able to move with the greatest freedom, rapidity, and 
ease, in the later stages of both, and that the rash beginner is, 
generally, the sad and painful ender. In short, that every move is a 
seed that bears fruit, later on, both in life, and in the game of 
"draughts." 

There was a school for the children of the station hands, and a small 
chapel at the head station, where service was held every Sunday, 
either by the master, or by some travelling minister. 

On the very same evening that the Delpards were at Cotton's 
ball (Tyrrell being again away after the lost horse), a strange 
gentleman rode up to the head station, and, accosting Jim Carrick, 
asked for the road to Kronamite, the next station past Wyndomel. 
He was attired in a suit of shepherd's plaid, with a golden sealskin 
vest, with a 30-dollar Panama, or Guayaquil hat, of faultless shape, 
on his head ; he had neat riding boots, and a 100-guinea brilliant 
solitaire stud ; he wore no rings, but a ribbon to his watch, and one 
round his hat ; and Jim Carrick at once detected something of the 
American, grafted on to the Australian, " swell " in him, and his 
interest was aroused. The stranger agreed to take the rest and 
refreshment which Jim offered him, and, the horse being stabled, 
and the visitor's card left at the big house, after a good luncheon 
had been negotiated, the traveller lit a cigar, and strolled to Jim's 
cottage for a yarn, before resuming his journey. 

" Good lambing this year 1 " asked he. 

" Pretty fair, sir " (replied Jim), " 95 per cent." 

" And how many breeding ewes have you % " 

" Just 55,000. Fine thing to be a squatter, sir, and have 50,000 
half-sovereigns, in the shape of lambs, dropped into your pocket, as 



AN AMERICAN VISITOR. 183 

it were, before breakfast, on a few fine mornings of the year ; don't 
you think so, sir 1 " 

The stranger acquiesced heartily. 

" Are you from America, sir 1 " queried Jim. 

" Yes ; I have just came from California and the West Coast, and 
I am making the tour of Australia now." 

And then Jim and the other one fell to comparing notes, as to the 
California of 1849 and 187-. 

The stranger, whose name was Everett, said, " I am an English- 
man, but I must confess that California is a mighty producing 
country, and its farms would surprise you Australians ; but, still, I 
should prefer Australia as a home, from what I have seen of it ; 
and, if in good hands, it could produce even more abundantly than 
California does, for you seem to have a greater range of products 
than any country I have seen — wool, tallow, meat, sugar, cotton, 
gold, tin, copper, rum, wine, silver, mercury, wheat, and so forth." 

Frank Everett stayed so long, listening to Jim's yarns about olden 
California, that it grew too late for him to go on, and Tyrrell had 
returned from his tracking expedition with the black boy, much 
struck with the latter's almost inspired skill in the task. He him- 
self could track on the plain earth, but on the ground which was 
till rock, then the "darkey " shone. A displaced speck of sandstone, 
which a white man could hardly see with a pocket lens, held close 
to it, was plain to " David," the black boy, from the Maranoa River, 
while such things as bi'oken twigs, bent grass, disturbed earth, &c, 
were " big print." in capital letters, compared with some of the bush 
type, which an Australian aboriginal can read freely ; as, when he 
examines the bitten end of a blade of grass, and tells you whether 
the sheep, or horse, that bit it, did so two days, or two hours, ago, 
from the signs of "bleeding," healing, or growth, on the end of the 
cut. 

Tyrrell and Everett soon fraternized, and the former stated that 
he had received a letter from Mr. Delpard, in Sydney, to take up a 
draft of fat cattle from Wyndomel to the new goldfield near the 
Cape York Peninsula, where men were digging up gold, in the 
sandy river bed, in handsful, over a stretch of 40 miles, at a place 
200 miles from any good depot, and were living on horse flesh ; and 
men were not only going thither through all dangers, but some actual ly 
lying down, and dying there, of starvation, by the side of their bags 
of gold. It was different from any place found in Australia yet, 
and a man would start from the coast, carrying all the flour he 
could, and very little else, and, if he were wise, he would return, 



184 THE PALMER GOLD FIELD. 

while he had enough left to carry him back, with such gold as he 
had been able to get ; but, many lingered, fascinated by the ease 
with which it was got (for two millions worth of alluvial gold lay 
buried in that basin), and died, starved, ere seeing the coast again. 
The man who could carry most flour was supposed to be the best ofl ; 
and one German giant, with 90 lb. of it strapped on his back, 
chuckled, as he started from the coast, at the thought of the haul he 
would make, and, on the first day, he outwalked everyone ; the 
second day he did not do so ; the third day he was sick ; and the 
fourth day he was dead, without reaching the golden sands at all. 
This was a part of what Tyrrell related to Everett, whose imagina- 
tion was much appealed to by the news. 

" To-morrow," said Tyrrell, " we begin mustering, and, with tent 
and rations in a bullock dray, and some stockmen, and plenty of 
spare horses, it wil be ' hey ! for the new Eldorado ' with me." 

" By Jove ! " said Everett, " I should like to go with you ; I'm 
not bound to time, or place, in any other direction." 

" Glad of your company," said Tyrrell ; " we shall take plenty of 
spare horses, so you will not be short in the way of remounts." 

The following day saw Tyrrell and the stockmen all in the saddle 
at sunrise, and off to the cattle camps, at the base of the mountains ; 
then came the " cutting out and drafting " on the camp, with its 
dangerous collisions, its daring riding, its deafening whip cracks, the 
well trained prop and wheel on the metaphorical " cabbage leaf," in 
order to follow the cunning movements of some of the " Rooshians " 
among the bullocks. The "fats" required were, in due time, cut 
out, yarded, and " tailed," alias shepherded, on horseback, till the 
whole party were prepared to start. Before leaving, Tyrrell received 
Sydney letters from Mr. Delpard, and Lucy, the former on business 
matters, and the latter telling him how they were enjoying them- 
selves, and passing their life like a summer dream in happy Sydney. 
She had been to the theatre, and heard Locke's glorious music in 
" Macbeth," which some London " star " was then playing. She 
wished him a safe return from his northern journey, was sorry he 
was losing all the fun in Sydney, and was his " very sincerely." 
But, as we have before stated, Tyrrell's mistress was "Madame 
Labour " just then, and love was allowed no room, or, at least, no 
voice, in his heart for the present ; so, putting the letters in his- 
pocket, he turned, with a half-sigh, to consult the sturdy little 
bullock-driver, who was to convey the rations for the overland party. 
Jack Worley was an old " prisoner of the Crown," and had been 
broken into colonial life on the banks of the Mokai River. He 



MOUNT MORGAN. 185 

could drive bullocks to perfection, and turn his hand to shearing,, 
fencing, or any kind of bush craft. His cheery voice could be heard 
raised, with unflagging spirit, as he urged his bullocks along in 
summer heat, or winter's cold, equally at home, and undismayed, in 
the stifling heat of the awful !C mallee " in December, or when 
crossing a flooded river at the base of a snowy mountain, in August. 
He knew how to get water from the roots of the " mallee," as the 
blacks did, and could decipher a blackfellow's epistle cut in notches 
and lines on a little bit of wood, such as was once thrown over the 
wall of Brisbane gaol, to a condemned aboriginal there, from a 
countryman of his, up on the Burnett River. 

The country through which Tyrrell and Everett had to take the 
cattle, from "Wyndomel to the diggings, near the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
comprised the greater part of the colony of Queensland, passing 
through the "Wide Bay and Burnett districts ; past the golden 
calcspar of Gympie, and the rosy " copper bloom " of Mount Perry ; 
on, past Cania, and the Boyne River, back of Port Curtis, to the 
Tropic of Capricorn, where Nature, all round, begins to show out on a 
vaster scale as you go north, larger rivers, larger plains, and larger 
animals, including the 25 foot (so called) " alligator ; " and huge, 
tropical shade trees, not of the eucalypt tribe ; the two great rivers, 
Fitzroy and Burdekin, with their far reaching affluents, drain a 
country more than half the size of France ; tropical palms begin to 
appear, and the supply of gold still increases, for, just here, and 
away to the right, is the world-famous mine of Mount Morgan, 
which, in a little over four years, turned out 907,000 ounces of pure 
gold from 383,000 tons of stone, giving (in dividends) the sum of 
.£2,750,000 to a mere handful of lucky shareholders, and making a 
record which the world (of gold mines) will find it hard to surpass. 
Gorgeous and dense " scrubs," or localities of rich vegetable soil, 
full of noble trees, united by thick undergrowth and creepei-s, into a 
verdant tangle, forming moist, cool, green aisles of shade, and where 
the giant fig tree (fictis macrophyllaj, with its tremendous buttresses 
(where a battalion could hide), and its banyan nature, towers, like a 
cathedral cupola, above its fellows. Still going north, the rich sugar 
lands of the Mackay district are passed, and a bed, which forms part 
of the great 1,000 mile stretch of coal land, which is one of Queens- 
land's numerous heritages from Dame Nature, and, again, the gold 
asserts itself in abundance, as to quality, but most of it locked up 
in trust for future generations, and guarded from present spoliation 
by being mixed inextricably with sulphur, iron, copper, antimony, 
and Other obstructions, and unavailable, unless the aid of high-class 



186 THE "MITCHELL" GRASS. 

chemistry and metallurgical skill be invoked ; and, as that lies 
chiefly at distant Freiburg, and Swansea, this gold has to " wait." 

West of all this lie the proud pastoral plains of Queensland, where 
"the rich, succulent herbage, showing less than a foot above ground, 
is fed by roots six feet deep in the soil, moisture-gathering, and 
drought-defying, to an extent unknown in the shallow-rooted surface 
grasses of more southern Australia, which wither, and blow away, 
when the sun of summer scorches them, and where it is only green 
in the winter season ; the reverse of Queensland, where summer is the 
"time for verdure. 

The " potentiality of becoming rich beyond the dreams of avarice " 
(I have read that expression somewhere, I think — Dr. Johnson and 
Thrale's brewery, to wit) is suggested by the unlimited beef and 
wool that these kingdom-like, blue grass prairies can raise ; beeves 
of " a thousand " weight, such as delight the heart of the Melbourne 
butchers, and enable the squatter to drive " four in hand," and 
carry a plethoric bank book. All this sort of thing is kept up to 
concert pitch by the " Mitchell grass," and whether, hereafter, they 
freeze the meat, salt it, tin it, or inject that potent liquid into the 
newly emptied arteries, which, at one operation, salts, spices, and 
preserves the meat, matters not ; it all means money for Queens- 
land. 

These were near the routes by which Everett and Tyrrell must 
travel; while, in coming home again, they will have to sail past some of 
the most beautiful islets in the world. This north-east coast of Queens- 
land is distinguished by many picturesque beauties of reef, island, 
mountain, and river, and the sunset of the tropics sheds its glory on 
many a tranquil scene by the shore, where a new Robinson Crusoe 
might meet with romantic adventures, to eclipse even those in 
Defoe's original and charming, tale, inside the shelter of the premier 
coral bank of the woi'ld, 1,200 miles long, and known as the "Great 
Barrier " Reef. To resume. 

Everett took a geological hammer with him, for he knew that the 
route lay, more or less, near the great Australian Cordillera, which 
teemed with mineral wealth. The first few days of travel led them 
through a country where the bauhinia tree was plentiful ; it bears a 
scented flower, like pencil cedar, heart-shape leaves, and is heavier than 
ironbark, and, when polished, looks a mixture of maple and mahogany. 
This was the home of the lovely little "ground parrot," with its 
scarlet thighs and belly, its throat and breast a pure aqua marine, 
like shallow sea water ; its back as brown as a nightingale's, and 
•with two bright crimson bars on its wings ; pale green at the back 



CINNABAR. 187 

•of the neck, red at the root of the beak, with a beautiful long tail, 
though its body is no bigger than a blackbird's. 

Geologically, Everett found the following : The sulphuret of 
mercury (cinnabar), like frozen red currant jelly (he had met with it 
in California), mixed with calcspai", and resembling costly rubies and 
pearls all pounded together in a mortar. In places, the quartz 
held pure native quicksilver, in lively pellets, in the crevices thereof, 
and with blue and green copper stains in the stone. In other places, 
the copper ores were mixed with visible gold, but then the mercury 
was absent, and visible mercury, or cinnabar either, was never to be 
;seen with visible gold, though manganese was, in plenty. 

Further on, by some days, the country changed, as regards its 
vegetation. Zamias and cycads appeared, and lagoons, full of the 
great blue and pink waterlilies of Queensland, and, when Everett 
brought his geological hammer into play, he found the gold much 
mixed with the arsenates and sulphurets of lead and iron, and 
copper very scarce, except in the shape of a little native copper in 
the creeks. Castellated peaks of rock rose above the foliage in the 
mountains. Deadly, brown snakes, with the yellow belly and 
stumpy tail, now and again caused a split and a bolt in the herd of 
cattle, and, in some cases a bullock died before morning. 

Everett and Tyrrell were musical, and either of them could sing a 
good "second," and the camp at night was often enlivened by the 
strains of a small banjo, which the former had, and a " Wheatstone " 
concertina of the latter's. The wild refrain of the " Huntsman's 
Chorus " would echo amongst the old gum trees, as the lurid light of 
the camp fire shone on their venerable trunks, and Everett could 
sing, by the score, those dear old " nigger songs " (as it is the fashion 
to call them in England), words and melody, alike, racy of old 
Tennessee, from the land of buckwheat cakes, and " fish chowder," 
songs that are too good to export, and never find their way to 
London, but which you may often hear in New York, or 'Frisco. 

This region being traversed, they came to one of open downs, 
bestrewn with carnelian and chalcedony, strange petrifactions and 
fossils, of a remote age, a strip of country often traversed by the 
cyclone, which tears its awful way, unresisted, from Cape Capricorn 
to where the gold and malachite intermingle, out west. 

At a township, in this district, a little bit of horsemanship 
occurred. There was a nag, called " Earl Grey," in the mob of 
horses, a fearful buck-jumper, whom not one of the stockmen dared 
ride, for, when mounted on him, you found yourself, in a moment, 
four yards in the air, with nothing in front of you, his head and 



188 A BUCK-JUMPING MATCH. 

neck being tucked in between his forelegs, while his powerful hind- 
quarters seemed able to propel you into the next week. None of the 
men could sit him five minutes, and Tyrrell was sick of being shot, 
saddle and all, over his head. There was one Tommy Endell, a. 
lanky, six feet six, white native of New South Wales, who here 
undertook to tame him. Many a " match " had Tommy won. He- 
was twenty-two, and had been used to a horse since he was three 
years old. The conditions of a " buck-jumping " match are, that 
each competitor picks out the worst horse he can for his opponent, 
both mount at the same time, and the first man "off" loses the money. 
Tyrrell was anxious to have the horse made tractable, for he was. 
a most serviceable style of animal. He was quite easy to mount, 
and Tommy fixed the saddle on, in a way of his own, that prevented 
any getting rid of that, and, for the rest, he " chanced it." The 
Earl " went to market " straight away, and the sight of two lanky 
legs on a curled up, bounding grey ball, was all that met the eye at 
first. Tommy was found to be immovable, so the " Earl " played 
his next card. This was, to bolt furiously for 100 yards, "prop," 
"buck," turn round in the air, and come down with his head in the 
direction that his tail was when he went up; a great ordeal, no 
doubt, for a Hampstead Heath rider, but Tommy had " been there "' 
before, and that was all lost on him. " Earl Grey " now wanted to 
conclude a treaty of peace (as he was getting tired), and to go on 
quietly, finding that Tommy was not to be " negotiated." But now, 
Mr. Endell thought he would " wade in," and take a hand ; so he 
began to pull the hairs out of the grey's tail, and set him, at this 
insult, off again, with no effect whatever on the imperturbable 
Tommy ; and, as often as the horse relaxed his efforts, his tail 
was again appealed to, with no result, beyond making him almost 
kill himself with exhaustion, and, at length, with head and tail, 
alike, drooping, he ceased to respond any more to his rider's endear- 
ments ; so Tommy jumped off, and said, " There, believe me, he'll 
never buck again ; " and he never did, either ; but he was quite 
unfit to ride for many days afterwards, full of grass and "bounce" 
as he had been at the start ; he looked as if he had just come off a 
500 mile journey, on poor grass, "tucked up " and jaded. Endell was a 
master of his business, and had only been " sucked in " once, when 
he got on the back of an aged horse, that had never even been 
handled before ; it bucked, of course, but that was nothing ; it 
bolted for a lagoon, meaning to drown Tommy therein, but he pulled 
its head round, and held it so ; it, then, savagely seized hold of its. 
rider's left foot with its teeth, and held on like a bull dog ; this was 



A KINDLY NAG. 189 

so opposed to all the canons of fair fight, and so out of Tommy's 
" line " altogether, that he roared for assistance, and the spectators 
prized and hammered the animal's jaws apart ; and Endell got 
down. He was lame for weeks afterwards ; but he got level with 
his equine friend, by chaining him to a five ton ironbark log, which 
he might either bolt with, or not, as he liked, and, by applying 
-stock-whip and bullock-whip to his hide, till he sobered him down to 
a quiet draught horse, but he was never saddled any more. Tommy 
Endell, bold on horseback, was rash, also, even to temerity, in his 
spelling. I was privileged to see a letter of his once, in which he 

expressed his opinion that Mr. (a horse dealer), the " oxshnear" 

(auctioneer) was a great " scroundle " (scoundrel). It was a plucky 
try at spelling, was it not 1 

A horse, greatly in contrast to " Earl Grey," was known as the 
" Old Chesnut," with one white foot, and a white "blaze" down the 
face. This kindly old animal had no other name, and he belonged to 
Worley, the bullock-driver, and was a treasure in his way. Quiet 
as a sheep, he could take you home to Wyndomel head station, from 
any outlying part of the country, and you would never get lost in 
the bush while on his back, if you only let him have his head. He 
would, carefully and instinctively, balance a drunken man on his 
back, and not let him roll off, if possible, and would bring him home 
safely, and any station " hand," when "on the spree," always took the 
gentle old " Yarraman " with him, so as to be sure of being taken 
home all right. It was a sight to see the good old fellow, when his 
drunken rider got off for a moment, to pick up hat, whip, or other 
dropped article — it was edifying to behold the patient, sober horse, 
look round reproachfully at the other's imbecile efforts to remount, 
as much as to say, " Whatever is the matter with you 1 You know 
/ can't be of any use to you, till you do get on my back." 

The geological formation, now, was of quartz, and what gold 
Everett could see was of a " wiry " formation, as if the quartz had 
been soft, and the gold squeezed out of it in little threads. 

The weather grew perceptibly warmer as they got further north, 
and both Everett and Tyrrell appeared daily in shirt, thin breeches, 
and boots, and the usual water pouch of canvas slung at the saddle 
side, and kept from contact with the horse's skin by small battens 
sewn upon it. A waterless stage being now before them, the 
li'"_'-|ii-:uls on the dray were filled with water, ami a small drink 
given to the horses and working bullocks, but the cattle passed a 
restless night, and died to break out of camp, for drink, in a style 
greatly in contrast with their behaviour when full of grass and 



190 THE QUEENSLAND CROCODILE. 

water ; a tiring, anxious job for all hands on horseback at night, but 
they got to Bullarenda Station, and water, after this, and were very 
hospitably received by George Man ton and his bride, who {nee 
Caroline Rose) brought him £15,000 on her wedding day. Her 
father, old John Rose, was an Englishman, of no great ability, but 
he had married an Irish woman, with the brain, and almost the 
figure, of Dr. Johnson, and they kept a corner public-house in a coast 
town. Old Molly Rose took care of the money, and put nearly 
every sovereign she got, through a hole in the floor of the bar, and 
every spare bank note into the bung-hole of an empty sherry cask, 
in the darksome cellar, amongst cobwebs and luminous fungi. There- 
were no banks near in those days, and when, after long years, one 
did start business, Molly banked her notes and gold (£7,000 in all), 
sold the business, and lent money on mortgage, and bought land, and 
John, in time, found himself worth £100,000; he, who would never 
have saved, or made, money, but for his wife. 

Bullarenda was left behind, and the crocodile country was now 
approached, as soon became evident, when a river had to be crossed. 
The Queensland crocodile has a mouth very full of long teeth, and 
two of the longest lower ones fit prettily through a couple of convenient 
holes in the upper jaw, making a grip surpassing that of any buU 
dog's mouth — forming a " lockstitch " not likely to rip — and as secure 
as, even if less multifold than, the hold of the python, or octopus, 
and, when the brute is 25 feet long, and weighs as much as five or six 
large bullocks, he is a nuisance amongst cattle and horses. Crocodiles 
are hatched from a pretty china shell sort of egg, broad at one end ; 
they grow very slowly, so the large ones must be very old. One of 
these brutes took down poor " Lassie," one of the best cattle clogs 
with the party, as she was swimming over after the "mob." The- 
crocodile was in comparatively shallow water, and Everett, mad 
with rage at the pitiful sight and cries of poor " Lassie," aimed a 
very heavy rifled carbine bullet at the monster, which took effect on 
the upper part of the left side, bearing downwards. The saurian 
" sloped," and was clearly " in trouble." Our party had no time to- 
stay and see more of him, but some of them heard, by letter, of his- 
fate from the people at the station. The dog-eater had been struck 
fatally, the heavy, conical bullet cleaving its way between the edges. 
of two of the joints of the back bone, causing "old scaly " to feel 
" kinder paralysed," and, as if this were not bad enough, the- 
messenger of retribution had cut open a large blood vessel in the 
liver, causing, from internal haemorrhage, a feeling of faintnes, quite 
new to our ancient man-eater ; but his brave old constitution, which 



DEATH OF A MAN-EATER. 191 

had seen generations of men pass away, kept him alive for three days 
and nights after he had " got his gruel." When he had become a thing 
of the past, the station hands proceeded to dissect him, found the 
wound as described, and his stomach full of agates and petrified 
wood lumps, of great hardness, some bones and teeth, and those of 
poor " Lassie " as well. These amphibious brutes evidently swallow 
stones for digestive purposes, even as the domestic fowl does, and, 
like the fowls, they select the hardest, and most durable, they can. 
find. This crocodile measured 23 feet 9 inches. When a crocodile 
seizes a South Sea Islander by the leg, on a Queensland sugar 
plantation, the poor kanaka is carried oft* (like a mouse by a cat) into 
the water, drowned, and eaten. Not so, however, if the New 
Hebrides man happens to have a sharp steel tomahawk in his hand, 
or, even if someone would come up and hand him one, for those 
savages are perfect maitres d'armes with the hatchet, as many an 
island massacre can testify, and, before " Crockey " well knows what 
is the matter with him, his eyes, and the bony sockets which 
surround them, have become a mass of pulp and chips under the 
lightning blows of the little steel axe. He wonders where the 
darkness and the horrible pain, all so suddenly, come from ; he 
realizes that there is something desperately " uncanny " about this 
new position of affairs, and, guided by the smell, he makes for the 
water (minus his man), just to think it over, and there to die of 
starvation, or mortification, it matters not which ; for his eyes 
will never grow again, nor lead him on to any more luxurious "feeds." 
Next day, a towering mountain appeared in sight, ahead, and one 
of the great thunderstorms of Queensland impended, of which we 
will give a general description here. 

" First, a gleam of lurid splendour sweeps athwart the mountain's spire," 
Then a midnight storm comes hurtling down on zigzag paths of fire." 

It had been one of those days that fully presage a real thunder- 
storm ; the north-east sea breeze blew to the inland, broad and 
strong, battering the Pacific slopes of Australia in a uniform wide 
sweep, measuring 900 miles from wing to wing, and, but for tin- 
odour of the eucalyptus, you could have smelt the mangroves and 
sea weed far inland on that sultry day. Neuralgic people felt their 
usual thunderstorm headache coming on ; but, still, the sea breeze 
mitigated the awful heat, unless you turned your back to it, and 
then — then you quickly realised that the summer of Queensland 
is a strong man indeed, and dies hard, and only that, when the- 
tremendous autumn rains have well drowned him. 



192 A SEMI-TROPICAL THUNDERSTORM. 

The sun shines cloudless till about 2 p.m., and then a little fleecy 
film rises against the wind in the south west horizon ; it rises slowly 
upwards and spreads sideways, and grows a little darker, and is 
•evidently travelling — but, the question is — can it ever face that 
-dense, potent, sea breeze, and turn it back 1 We shall see anon. 
Presently the westering sun, still high in the heavens, is overlapped 
by the edge of the storm cloud, and a grateful shade is instantly 
felt, and soon a black arch of cloud rises to some 20° under the 
fleecy white one, and pushes it upwards, with the black and white in 
startling ominous contrast, and covering one third of the circular 
horizon to the south west ; and it begins to look less like a cloud 
than a black wave, in that the whiter feathery top appears to cur] 
over like sea foam as it approaches you, and there is a suspicious 
green tint, here and there, that heralds the coming bombardment of 
hail stones. Run for shelter, good people all, and pity the cattle 
and the fruit trees that can find no cover, for we are "in for it, now"; 
the blue lightning darts, straight, angry, and dangerous, to the earth, 
in that black cloud, and a growl, as of a distant lion, is heard afar 
off. But, still, the blue sky and the bold unconquered sea breeze 
reign supreme to the north east, and with us too, but, can it last 1 ? No, 
the north easter falters, he — the sea-born — is daunted, at last, by 
that gruesome invader from the inland; a dead calm, of five minutes 
duration, now ensues, followed by couple of minutes puff of intensely 
hot air (from the south, of all quarters), it is the last remnant of 
the morning's heat, caught, compressed, and intensified between the 
two opposing wind armies. Ragged edged, black, cyclone clouds, on 
a paler back ground, scud across the heavens, and now a dry 
hurricane from the south west, sends its advance guard in the shape 
of blinding dust, dead leaves, and small tree branches ; it is seen 
^ifar off, and, in a twinkling, all have passed away to the north east, 
and are laid to rest with big, scattered, rain drops, which make a 
mark like a half-crown on the earth ; and now there is no longer any 
doubt as to which is the victor between the north easter, from the 
sea, or the south wester, from the land, who returns with interest, 
and fully condensed into water and ice, the humid vapour which 
the former giant has been storing up on his wings, from the ocean, all 
the torrid forenoon that is past. And, now the full grandeur and 
danger of " L'Orage " is upon us ; incessant, blinding, lightning, 
striking the earth and sending up a puff of dust wherever it pierces 
deepest, deafening thunder, instant on the flash; a roaring, sweeping, 
tree-bending, roof-tearing, cyclone of wind ; and, rain that gives 
two or three inches to the hour, of its fall, and quickly fills the 



193 

creeks and drowns the unwary, and then rattles the hail king, who 
never breaks the promise, or, rather, threat, of his forewarning 
green clouds. Your life is not safe in the open, for, the stones fall 
from a terrific height, and are of the size and shape of small flattened 
oranges, or glass salt cellars, and covered with little knobs, and they 
riddle your roof where it is of iron or slates. When the storm has 
passed over a town, little children run out and gather the stones, 
and they freeze the butter, for, in coldness, it beats any artificial ice ; 
and the next day, like eggs, can still be seen, piled up against a 
north east wall, the unmelted stones which fell the day before. 

It is worthy of note that there can be no full fledged thunder 
storm in Queensland, without a previous sea breeze to supply the 
necessary vapour for condensation. It may be hot enough to roast 
you, but, if it only blew from the north, or west, and not from the 
sea, a storm may gather, it is true, but it will pass off abortive 
around the horizon, and not come, straight as a cavalry charge, from 
south west, as a true storm does, for, it lacks the needful material 
for rain, and with one solitary, dry flash, and rumble, it is all over. 
Our real storm declines at sunset, and mutters gently far into the 
night, with pretty toy-like, darting, harmless flashes, across the sky, 
and by 2 a.m. all is over till the next event. 

The country now passed through was of a coal formation where 
the lepidodendron, the fossil grass tree, and the handsome corals of 
the carboniferous era, and the fossil ferns, whose names all end in 
" pteris," were plentiful. Here, at night, they were hospitably 
entertained at the camp of Hector Livingstone, lieutenant, in charge of 
an outpost of native police, a man who looked born to wear the bonnet 
of Scotland and the eagle plume; a man who carried his nationality in 
his face so strongly, that you could hardly look at him, without 
recalling the rhythm of Walter Scott's heroic poetry. Scotch music, 
"Castles in the air," appeared to float around, and the impertinent, rapid 
little "lilt" of "Jock o' Hazledean," seemed to act as a foil to the 
slow, nobler, plaintive " Blue Bells of Scotland," and the inspiriting 
" Gathering of the Macgregors." Tall, swarthy, aquiline, handsome, 
his knightly mien revealed the best blood of " Auld Scotland," and 
with his high narrow head, his black beard and moustache, he looked, 
every inch, a Highland chief. He had drifted from India to 
Australia, never rising and never falling in life; his strong, bony, 
fleshless hand seemed born to grip a claymore or pistol, and he 
looked just the man to sell his life at a fearful price to cannibal 
blacks, or white foes, either, and the former would have found him 
very tough eating after paying a dozen lives for his one. Not the 

N 



194 THE MORNING WATCH. 

Pretender himself, with his bright locks and his Royal Stuart tartan, 
nor even Lord Marmion looked one whit more a patrician and lady 
killer. Brave, chivalrous, generous; had he but possessed the one 
virtue of fidelity in his dealings with the other sex, he would have 
been almost perfect; few women, married or single, but what quailed 
a little before his falcon glance. He was, too often, loved, and he was 
too manly, or not manly enough — which is it ? — to omit returning 
the compliment. Poor, comparatively, as he was, he might have 
married money, birth, and loveliness, all combined, but he was too 
honourable (in his own strange way) to swear fealty to any woman, 
knowing, as he did, how his love of conquest would be fired at the 
first glance of admiration he received from another one, and so it 
fell out that he elected to bury himself in the wilderness, and, by 
wrestling with the grim realities of life there, to renew that spirit 
of old Hannibal, which is apt to degenerate into effeteness, in the 
Capua n air of a city. 

An amusing companion, full of dry humour, he made our friends 
jolly over some " Exshaw " cognac, which his camp afforded ; they 
responding with music. The " camp fire," what a magic there 
is in the words ! What memories they recall of the days when, as 
yet, dyspepsia was unborn within us. What a sensation of " home " 
there is in the sight of its cheerful, ruddy, night glare, in the pure 
open air. What a contrast is its little bit of civilization and wel- 
come, to the dreary lonesome bush, around it for miles, every way ! 
Who could feel nervous, or depressed, with that fire in front of him ? 
its smoke mingling with that of the pipes as the "yarn" goes round. 
I never felt so well in my life as when I used to have the morning- 
watch, with the travelling sheep, from 2 a.m. to 6 a.m., in the open 
air, so different from that of a tapestried bedroom during the same 
hours. There is a feeling of vitality in morning air, which goes far to 
explain the reason why Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, would have 
formed such splendid customers for a modern life assurance company. 

The day before they got to Livingstone's camp, a bullock, of 
erratic nature, broke away, from the herd, and Clement Tyrrell set 
sail after it, as it would be worth about 9d. a lb. at the " mines." 
The country was a brown, trachytic rock, and a good deal of 
" hyalite " or " volcanic glass " about. The bullock laid his hoofs 
hard to the ground, and, as Tyrrell neared him, something seemed 
to flash in the sun, under his hoof, as if it were of t iron and had 
struck flint. He was headed and turned with a cut of the resonant 
stock whip a moment or two later, and, as they retraced their steps 
in the direction of the mob, Tyrrell saw something glitter on the 



AN OPAL OF PRICE. 195 

ground, and he got down and picked it up, and found it to be a 
piece of opal, shaped like the roof of a house, about two inches Ion", 
one and a-lialf wide, and the same deep, and which had projected 
from the brown rock, and had been broken off, and rolled over, by 
the blow of the bullock's hoof. An examination of the rock surface 
shewed other and similar, but all much smaller, projections, which 
•a passing blow would not so easily dislodge. The piece in Tyrrell's 
hand was brown and " weathered," on the roof surfaces, but at the 
base where the new fracture had taken place, it glowed with the 
blended fire of the ruby, topaz, emerald, and sapphire, in patches and 
in sparks as well ; while, within and below the weather worn and 
•dimmer, rougher surface, there burnt the same deep seated flames of 
colour as gleam irrepressible through the milky veil of the noble 
Hungarian opal. It was a gem of price and a fortune in itself, and 
he resolved that the said bullock should be broken in as " Opal," 
with the "workers" in future, and not left to the knife of a butcher, 
after this little stroke of luck. 

Two days after the opal find, the great mountain, before spoken of, 
was close at hand; a pretty little creek, the "Glenburndale," flowed 
at the foot of it, and from its sands a man could wash out gold to 
the tune of, perhaps, half-a-crown per day ; but, this not being the 
Australian idea of wealth, its delicious water remained unpolluted. 
Above it, rose the tropical mountain, clothed in places with the wild 
bamboo, dense thickets of which just seiwed to hide the edge of ugly 
precipices, 500 feet deep and more, from view. Tracks of a very 
large cat animal were to be seen, and the black, hairy faced, 
kangaroo, a most hideous, unearthly looking animal, was to be found 
there. The mountain was covered to its lofty summit with stalwart 
trees, which, on the top, looked dwindled to the size of moss from 
the plain below. It was a wild, hoary, loveable, solitary old 
mountain, much pleasanter to look at, and to weave fanciful theories 
about, and to imagine wondrous sights in the hidden recesses thereof; 
much pleasanter to do all this from the plains below, than to climb 
to its 4000 feet summit. Yet, Tyrrell and the black boy took a 
turn, up its yet unvisited sides, and found, on a base of slaty and 
dioritic rock, on one of the steepest " pinches," an outcropping reef 
four to five feet wide, peeping up, white in some places, weathered 
and brown in others ; clothed with lichens of yellow and green 
colour, and with hues of the same, which were not caused by lichens, 
hut by j/old iiurl malachite, which lay in small patches Oil the surface 
of the reef. No other white man's foot had ever trodden the place 
before, or, would be likely to find it again in the dense "Bcrub" 



196 GOLD IN MALACHITE. 

which lay all around it, and Tyrrell and the black boy had only 
penetrated it in order to see the view it afforded of the Glenburndale 
rivulet below. The place was marked on the Government map as. 
"high scrubby ranges," and was remote from all gold miners' haunts* 
or aught but the tracks of travelling sheep and cattle. 

Other peculiarities were to be seen in the outcrop ; it was pitted 
with rusty, cubical hollows, the "casts" of long decayed iron pyrites,, 
each cast lined with a residuum of the undecaying gold which no 
oxygen, sun, or rain, could corrupt ; and, there were other hollows 
less exposed, and lined with the " needles" of pure "cerussite"; and, 
in case anyone has not seen the latter, it may be explained that it 
is the carbonate of lead, and it forms in thick " needles " of what 
look like white, waxen, shining alabaster, bound together in little 
sheaves, the " sheaves " lying across each other, and adhering 
together — at all kinds of angles — forming a mass, beautiful, beyond 
description, to the eye, but heavy to lift as no alabaster, or wax, 
ever was. It is in tropical Queensland, alone, that this beautiful 
ore is found mixed with little seeds of gold at the junction of the 
" sheaves," forming cabinet specimens, which no " needles " of 
malachite similarly graced with gold can surpass in beauty. You 
can meet with " cerussite " elsewhere in Australia, but not mixed 
with gold, as it is in this richly endowed north part of Queensland ; 
and there was a rare good point about this reef, which Tyrrell was- 
too much of a " new chum " to realize at the time ; carbonates are 
less intractable than sulphides, and there would be but little waste 
of gold above the " water level " in this reef ; still, we must not 
anticipate. 

Speaking of tracks they were now approaching a peculiar part of 
Australia, where the watersheds are unique. The beds of water 
courses in all other parts of the world are plain enough to shew you 
when you are fairly in one of them ; not so, here. Some of them 
are very wide, and in the middle course of them the depression will 
not be more than 15 feet from the level of the far off and unseen 
sides of the channel. You may be travelling in (what you take to> 
be) an open, level plain, but there is a shallow depression, impercep- 
tible to you, on account of its vast width, and which forms a channel 
for the storm water; a channel, so wide as compared with its depth,, 
and having to carry off the tremendous rainfall of the monsoon, 
that a whole caravan of drays and cattle may be surrounded 
and swept away before "a bore" half-a-mile wide, with no hope of 
escape, and with no warning noise — from what, just before, seemed 
to be a billiard table of grassy plain ; but the rainy season of autumn 



"ALLAH BISMILLAII." 197 

Mas not yet, and our party were quite safe. In a few days more, 
the face of the country again underwent a change, and the ruo^ed 
slate rocks, and giant ranges of hills, betokened near approach to 
the backbone of the mighty peninsula, which points to New Guinea, 
and where lay the golden sands to which our party was bound. 

The talk at the camp fire that night turned upon the atheist 
lectures and public discussions, so common in America, and elsewhere, 
as to the existence, or non-existence, of a Deity, or Supreme Bein t «\ 
Everett had travelled much in his time, and was some ten years 
older than Tyrrell, and spoke very warmly on the subject. 

" Such people," said he, " have never seen the Moslems at their 
prayers in the desert, or on board ship ; or, even, the Buddhists. 
Let one of these doubters go to a high-caste Jew, and get him, if he 
can, to lightly breathe, or even to speak at all, the Hebrew name of 
his God. To them, as to the true disciple of Mahomet, God is the 
one pure, awful, reality, the one only clear, terrible, truth of the 
universe, whatever else may be doubtful, or shadowy, or — having 
two, or more, aspects — may be open to controversy. To the Moslem, 
God is the one indomitable and unchangeable certainty of the 
universe, the one subject in which there is no play for fancy, or risk 
of the imagination being led astray by appearances. It is only 
" Christian " countries that can get up a music-hall debate — 2s. 
front seats, Is. in the gallery — on the dread subject ; and this is 
presumptuously done, too, by beings whose own sphere of existence 
is so very limited that they cannot live at all if the temperature 
keeps long below 20°, or above 120° ; who have to be renewed three 
times a day with food, and 18 times a minute with air, of which 
DO per cent, is waste ; creatures, whose best ground lenses and 
telescopes can only penetrate a brief space outside of the little planet 
which holds them ■ who are unable to determine, of their own know- 
ledge, that a grain of sand is not a microcosm, or that our universe 
is not a mere atom on some larger system. It is these people, 
forsooth ! who take on themselves to decide who and what God is, 
or is not. Ah ! well ! the poor Mussulman, or the strict Jew, 
shames them well, and knows far more than they do." 

Tyrrell gathered from this peroration what travel had done for 
Everett, and he liked him all the better for it. 

" The relations between the sexes, too, form another deep and 
wonderful subject," said Tyrrell. 

"True," said Kverett, "each of them is quite ignorant of trim! 
it is that attracts them in the other. All that they know is, that 
tliey a/re attracted; and they are, after all, mere puppets in the 



198 "EL ORO." 

hands of a Great Magician, who directs the whole plan for His own 
purposes, and never miscalculates." 

" And I could never understand," replied Tyrrell, " how, after 
marriage, divorce came to be so countenanced in the world." 

"Aye," replied Everett, "it seems a terrible proceeding to tamper 
with so mystic a bond, when once formed; and, surely, if the Creator 
of the world could say, ' Go, and sin no more,' then a husband might 
well say, ' Come, and sin no more.' " 

In a few days more their destination was reached, and they were 
beset. Other drafts of fat cattle, from depots nearer at hand than 
Wyndomel, had arrived, but were as a "drop in the bucket," as- 
were also the stores of flour, &c, which had arrived coastwise, and 
escaped the attentions of the murderous blacks on the road up from 
the Endeavour River, and who were sucli utter barbarians that 
when, in the mixed fight, a carbine bullet had stilled the heart of 
any one of their mates, they could not understand why he fell, with 
nothing near, or visible, to strike him, like a spear or club, and they 
used to prop him up again, deeming him to be only under some 
temporary spell hatched by the white man. 

Our friends were thronged by a host of yellow-faced, bony-limbed, 
wolfish-eyed, diggers, each with his heavy bag of gold, and his 
little bottle of quinine, but few who had had a proper, " square," 
meal for some time. The spur and stimulus of daily gold-finding, 
from two to ten ounces per man, kept them on in a temperature 
ranging from 85°, at midnight, to 110° in the shade, at times, in the 
noontide heat. Excitement and starvation combined do pull a man 
down, and old diggers, who have run the gauntlet of the west coast 
of New Zealand, and graduated in tropical Australia, acquire a 
toughness of fibre rarely met with. 

The bullocks were rapidly converted into meat, at 9d. and Is. 
per lb ; the hides, of course, for want of salt, and want of labour, 
were all wasted, except to make buckets of. Tyrrell had been 
offered, by Mr. Delpard, one-third of all that the mob fetched over 
Wyndomel price and droving expenses, and Clement fancied he saw 
his way to pay, at all events, a deposit on machinery, to be placed near 
the Glenburndale Brook under that reef, when once the place had 
been duly gazetted and proclaimed. Tyrrell was paid in gold, 
reckoned at £3 10s. per ounce, while it was really £i 2s. 6d. fineness 
of assay. And, now, for a journey to the coast, as far as Tyrrell 
and Everett were concerned, while the men, horses, and dray, went 
back by the road they came. 

Tyrrell and Everett returned home southwards, by steamer, along 



FAIRY ISLANDS. 199 

the very picturesque coast of tropical Queensland, which is dotted 
with clusters of lovely islands, each and all of the full beauty of 
Norfolk Island — that single, solitary, speck of sylvan life set in the 
wide ocean. About the most northerly of them was great " Whit- 
sunday " Island itself, 1-4 miles long, 10 wide, and rising from 1,500 
to 2,000 feet, dotted with pine trees on side and summit. There 
are over 20 islands in this group, stretching over 25 miles of sea 
inside the Great Barrier Reef, tit abode for a Robinson Crusoe, any 
one of them. Numerous little channels and sandy bays abound, 
and some islands looked lovely enough to have been dropped, ready 
made, from the sky by one of Aladdin's obedient magicians, when 
he rubbed his lamp. Turtles were on the beach, cockatoos and 
pigeons in the forest, shady gullies, turfed with green, contrasted 
with the darker verdure of the foliage. One little island was only 
200 feet wide, level enough, and turfed enough, for cricket, if the 
few scattered pine trees had been away. The islands grew smaller, 
but not less beautiful, as they voyaged south, and they were now 
passing through the Northumberland group, several of which are 
about four miles by three, or three and a-half, wide ; their height is 
1,000 feet; grass and pines, as usual. 

Before coming to them, the magnificent " Whitsunday Passage " 
had to be steamed through. It was about three miles wide, the 
high bluff mainland of New Holland, on the right hand, looking 
almost barren by contrast with the green gems of islands lying on 
the left. Nothing in Japanese, or other travel, could merit a more 
glowing description than this scene of loveliness. Sydney Harbour 
is beautiful, so is Hobart, so is Rio, but here we have " linked 
sweetness long drawn out," islands of beauty, stretching on, and on 
through degree after degree of latitude ; and when the steamer 
anchored, one moonlit night, 200 yards from one of them, in 100 feet 
of water, the run ashore for a few of the passengers was a treat 
indeed. Oh ! could Percy Bysshe Shelley but have only seen these 
islands ! How white the sandy bays in the moon rays ! How dim 
the forest ! where the " sough " of the wind could hardly be dis- 
severed in the ear from the low murmur of the sad sea waves on 
the rocky beach. What a place for fairies and gnomes of the 
dancing species ! This island was about 500 feet high — indeed, as 
the steamer made to the south, the islands gradually grew smaller 
in size, and less in height, but the beauty never waned, till, at last, 
in the Percy group, near the limit of the southern tropic, growing 
less and less, they died out altogether. 

It was here that poor Strange, the naturalist — who came up in the 



200 A FAIR " ARMIDA." 

ketcli " Enterprise," from Sydney, with Walter Hill (of the Govern- 
ment gardens, Brisbane) — was murdered by the natives in 1S55, 
a score of years before Tyrrell and Everett passed down the coast. 
It was here, also, and about this same time, that Norman Leith 
Hay fell in like manner. And, speaking of the blacks, the steamer 
with our friends had, of course, called at the various ports on the 
coast, and, at one of them, had taken on board a handsome, noble- 
looking, young, blonde, married lady, very plainly dressed, and vith 
two children, one in arms, and a black aboriginal female nurse. She 
had been a Miss Friell, but was now the wife of a northern squatter, 
named Bremner. Everett watched her descend the cabin stairs, one 
child in her arms, the other holding her skirt, for she would not 
trust "Yerlina," who had never been to sea, and was not used to 
staircases. Everett was struck with her brave, self-contained face, 
unlike what he had ever seen before in young women, and her small 
hands and feet, which last her ill-fitting, baggy, prunella boots could 
not quite conceal the symmetry of. He learned, from the skipper, 
her history. When she was a baby, her father and mother had been 
"bailed up," alone, in their wilderness home, by the wild blacks, and, 
both loading and both firing through loopholes, had rendered such a 
good account of the assailants that they retreated, with several 
dead, and more wounded, and took the broad hint thus received. 
They took care never to be left alone again in this way ; and 
Madeline Friell grew up with her mother's brave, fighting blood in 
her, and would be a quick, dangerous, customer, still, for the black, 
or white, ruffian who molested her, or her " bairns." Everett could 
see she teas a lady, despite the plain and unpretending style of her 
homely costume ; for she had been reared, and had lived, far from 
cities. She was all useful, and not ornamental, except in the figure 
and face which Nature had bestowed upon her, and she owed nothing 
whatever to dress for her striking ajDpearance. 



SINBADS VALLEY. 



And how shall I describe this Sinbad's Valley, where the agates 
are, the only real actual treasury of this kind on the face of the 
•earth 1 It lies at the head of the Gilbert River, in tropical Queens- 
land — the Gilbert, which runs into the Gulf of Carpentaria, and is 
named after Leichhardt's companion in travel. You pass a chaotic, 
rocky, mountain country, formed of the " Desert Sandstone," with 
huge outlying " sentinels " of rock pillars, such as may be seen in the 
Yellowstone Park, of North America, and on its western prairies ; 
and anon you come to a change of formation, for the " Amygda- 
loidal " basalt is at hand, and you approach the agate country. 
Imagine, if you can, the Khyber Pass, and the north-western narrow 
gorges that guard the approach to Hindostan from Central Asia. 
Picture to yourself these, lined with the basalts of Cape Pillar or 
the Giant's Causeway, and of Staffa, upright and unscaleable. 
Fancy only one entrance to this lonesome cleft, which, when once 
you are in, branches out, right and left, into lofty, narrow, 
labyrinthine basaltic citls de sac, to bewilder and lose the adven- 
turous wight who wants to find his way out again, and who cannot 
select, except by the water flow, the real avenue of escape from the 
blind alleys of entrapment. 

But here we have the central valley itself, walled with cliffs, and 
grass-grown in places, and, in the centre, rilled with agates of every 
size, shape, and colour, with more and more of them if you only 
choose to dig under the grass and soil at the sides, and unearth the 
buried treasures ; while in the middle of the dry channel, where water 
runs in wet seasons, you may wade in tons of agates, sardonyx, 
onyx, and carnelian ; and such ones, too ! The sardonyx, to vie 
with those in the Roman Emperor's tomb, at Halicarnassus, or the 
priceless ones at the Vatican ; and the agates, from the size of a 
ham, or a horse's head, down to a hazel nut calibre ; and the colours, 
well ! I can only describe some of them, the variety is too bewilder- 
ing. Here we have wide, concentric and numerous rings of transparent 
red, white, and blue, alternately, in a large specimen. Then we have 
a marvellous imitation of prettily mottled, and parti-coloured Castile 
soap, and spotted all over with lovely " eyes." Anon, we pick up a 
splendid piece of transparent lavender, with equally transparent 
cerise in the pod-shaped centre of it, the whole formed like a huge 
mussel shell. And, now, we have tin' same lavender and cerise 
again, but opaque fin's time, and beautifully blended in layers and 

cushions, with (lie suggestive hues of a red sun, rising or setting, in, 



202 THE " ORIENTAL BLOODSTONE." 

and through, a warm-tinted, gray cloud lining. Now, again, we 
have a clear, tawny amber, in whose liquid depths the eye can 
follow, from the surface, the pure white bands, or lines — some wide, 
others almost microscopic in size, but all of symmetry and regularity 
— which light it up. Here is another, with its opaque red, white, 
and blue, arranged almost like the " Union Jack ; " and another, 
where the purple, red, blue, lavender, and white, are delicately laid 
on, as if a dainty-hued flower were painted in a lady's album by a 
deft hand. And I must not forget the priceless sardonyx, with its. 
clear meat-coloured red, and its pure dead white, in broad alternate 
bars ; and another gem, also. You have, no doubt, in childhood, 
bought, at a " lolly " shop, a stick, or pipe, of white, encircled with 
spirals of brilliant yellow, red, and blue colours, all sugar, and in 
startling contrast. Well ! all this is reproduced on hard, pure, 
white agate at the Gilbert River, and is lovely and imperishable, 
which the " lollipop " is not. 

Here is another, clear as water, and full of bands and drops of 
unmistakeable opaque red sealing wax ; here are square pink and 
white concentric lines, alternately, in a square agate ; here is a clear, 
golden, yellow " sard," full of circular, opaque, white " eyes ;" deep 
red, pure carnelians ; all these polish gloriously. But, perhaps, the 
most charming of all is to get a section of the green basalt itself, 
stuck full of tiny pink, or crystal, agates, like plums in a pudding, 
and to cut it across, and polish each face, where the half-sections of 
each agate and crystal gleam out (like stars in the sky) from its 
back ground of dark green basalt matrix. There is an agate found 
(but not common) at Mondure, in the Burnett district — the rare 
" Oriental bloodstone." 

Everyone knows the " moss agate" of America, with flocculent 
masses of green, swimming, as it were, in a clear sea of aqueous 
silica ; and everyone, also, knows the " bloodstone," a soft jasper, 
which polishes well, and has pretty red spots on a green ground. 
Well ! from Mondure I obtained a specimen, big as a turkey's egg, 
of the finest moss agate, of intense hardness ; and the thick green 
patches which were set in the hard transparent sea, were beautifully 
spotted with red. It was the only specimen of the very rare 
" Oriental bloodstone " I ever saw, or handled, and it was as 
beautiful as it was scarce. 

Visitors to Uruguay and South Africa are under the delusion that 
their agates and sardonyxes beat the world. It is needless to say 
that they could never have visited the basaltic passes of the Upper 
Gilbert, or their ideas would undergo a change. Diamonds in 



THE SARDONYX. 203 

plenty occur in South Africa, and have been dug up since the clays 
of Van Riebeck, in the year 1657, near Bloemhof, down to the 
present era, and the beautiful agate and sardonyx are always 
associated with them in the Orange and the Vaal rivers, so like to 
our own Brisbane and Burnett streams, in their wide, half-dry, sandy, 
beds, save in flood time, and so unlike European rivers ; but no 
South African, or South American, stone, of the carnelian tribe, 
can surpass our Queensland beauties — even of the valueless, but 
exquisite, clear, red, giant " walnut shell," lined, in the hollow, with 
big crystal points of glittering, transparent, quartz, found at Mondure. 

Shall I go on describing agates and sards ? I could give you a 
new combination of colour, design, and beauty, for every day in the 
year if I did. These stones are all harder than steel, and take a 
high polish, and imagination revels in the priceless double-handled 
cups, vases, and designs, which the old Greek artists (could they 
only have got hold of such material) would have fashioned out of it. 
Talk not to me of the "Manx pebbles" with their sober black, grey, 
and white, or the agates of Uruguay and Hindostan ; they have 
neither the colour, the size, the variety, nor the hardness of these 
children of the basalt of the north, and were not the spot so remote, 
even for Australia, so desolate, wild and forbidding, its agates 
would, long since, have taken the world by surprise. But, it is, like 
the mythic Sinbad's, all but inaccessible, and no vehicle could easily 
get thither, and " load up " with its merchandise. 

A dire tragedy was enacted at midwinter, some twenty years ago, 
near this basaltic " valley of Sinbad," where these lovely agates and 
crystals abound, in the country which Richard Daintree explored 
and photographed before he went to London's big show in 1871. 
The exact spot where it happened was at "Cave Creek," in the 
wondrous "Upper Gilbert" land. There was a storekeeper and 
goldbuyer named John Corbett, a stirring active fellow and pushing 
business man, in that hot, new, savage country. He had made 
money in a digger's public house, and used to supply the miners, at 
the Cloncurry " rush," from his store on the Norman. The tropical 
climate of the latter place, however, took his wife from him with 
fever, and left him with her three little children to rear as best he 
could ; but, his energy never flagged, despite the further misfortune 
of the foundering of the " Black Dog," schooner, with plenty of 
Corbett's goods on board, on her way up from Townsville. A 
teamster named Martell, on the Western Creek line, saw bhicks, 
between Cave Creek and the " Conglomerate " country. He had a 
loaded double gun, and they did not molest him ; there were about 



204 



A MURDERED GOLD-BUYER. 



70 of them. He told some travelling Chinamen to " look out for 
squalls," but they believed him not. A little further on, Martell 
met Corbett riding and leading pack horses, one with a bell on its 
neck (the latter intended to take his three little motherless bairns 
home to the old country, to leave with his relatives in Ireland), he 
asked Martell how much further it was to the top crossing place of 
the Robertson River, a tributary of the Gilbert, and Martell told 
him " sixteen miles." Corbett asked if there were water there, and 
Martell told him "yes, at the mouth of the river," and asked Corbett 
to camp for the night with him, as it was now 3.30 p.m., but 
Corbett said he must push on, and this was the last time a white 
man saw him alive. Next day, Martell was overtaken by a China- 
man, who asked him whether he had lost any of his horses, as he, 
the Chinaman, had seen some on the road, and one with a bell, and 
no one with them — two bay horses and a black one. This answered 
the description of Corbett's three, so, Martell reloaded his gun and 
retraced his route, and he had only travelled three miles, when he 
found the dead body of poor Corbett, lying on its back, on the left 
hand side of the track. His revolver was in the middle of the road, 
at his feet, two barrels still loaded, a saddle lying at his head, and his 
hat in the middle of the road. The horses were a mile away, one, 
with a very heavy pack on, and Martell took the lot to the police 
camp, at Western Creek, and fetched Doctor Bourke and Trooper 
Kinsale out with him to where the body lay. Some of the grass 
had been burnt, and the body a little moved, also the hat and saddle, 
since Martell was last there; the body was overrun with ants. The 
constable searched for the chattels, on the body, and found keys, 
penknife, papers, three rings on the fingers ; the right hand pocket 
•of the trowsers hung out as if rifled. 360 ounces of gold dust were 
strapped, in a belt, round the body, untotiched. Bengal tigers could 
not have spurned the gold more thoroughly than did these Gilbert 
blacks ; and, this was what the trooper found. The doctor found 
a wound through the heart, travelling upwards in a slanting 
direction, not a bullet wound, or anything like it, but like a spear 
thrust, as from a person on foot, at one above him on horseback. 
The three little children were fatherless, now, as well as motherless 
(though not poor), and the black barbarians, who had killed their 
father, were too utterly savage to know what gold was, even in that 
land of gold, malachite and sardonyxes. They stole nothing beyond 
life, unless it might have been the dead man's tobacco from that 
reversed pocket. But, it is satisfactory to know that the native police 
and their carbines "accounted for them " soon afterwards. 



FOLK LORE OF AUSTRALIA. 



The veil that conceals, from the rest of the world, the accumulated 
bush craft experiences, which the observant and highly perceptive 
aboriginal races of Australia have been learning and piling up since 
creation, will never, now, be lifted. The race is dying, too fast, and 
at a time, too, when, with the whites, all is hurry and bustle, and 
no leisure for cultured pursuits, or patient enquiry seems available. 
One little corner of the curtain, however, I should like, here, to raise, 
and it reveals just enough to make one long for more, and to wish 
that the subject could be enlarged upon. 

The vast shoals of mullet tish which swarm, northerly, up the east 
coast of Australia, in the autumn and winter, as if in search of 
warmer waters, and which pour into every bay and river as well, are 
well known. Strange to say the blacks found out, centuries ago, 
that, many weeks before a real good mullet season, in June, the 
" blue mountain " parrot, in March, is also unusually plentiful. 
This parrot has about as much apparent connection with the 
mullet fish, as Tenterden steeple has with the Goodwin sands. 
Yet, the omen never fails, for scanty parrots are followed, inevitably, 
by scarce fish ; similarly the black magpie, crow-shrike, or butcher 
bird, is the sign for the blackfish ; if no " churwung," then no 
"dimgala," if plentiful the one, then plentiful the other. If the 
tailor fish is to be in full supply, then, the wattle tree must be in 
extra full bloom beforehand ; if the blossoms be scanty, this fish will 
be conspicuous by its absence for that season. The crow-shrike in 
May heralds the bream in July. These rules are rigid, hard, and 
fast, and for seven years at a stretch, sometimes, the absence of the 
one fully guarantees the absence of the other. And, hey ! presto 1 
the next season gives us a return of both, in plenty, but always con- 
current, and never divorced. And the wild hop plant (of all 
created things) is, when it flowers, the sure token that the oyster 
is, simultaneously, in the pink of condition for eating ; so, this 
plant is called the " Kilyingan gilyural." Now, what can be the 
occult conditions of sea, air, earth, or sky, which affect at the same 
time, or season, the parrot and the mullet'? and link inseparably 
the destinies of the mimosa tree and the tailor fish (not to continue 
the couplings) \ No one, probably, ever will know. All that the 
aborigines, themselves, have learnt since the days of Adam is, that 
it in so. All one can do is to feel that the little corner of the veil 
thus lifted from the mysteries of nature only feeds, in place of 
satisfying, the appetite for information on the subject. 



ALADDIN'S OPALS. 



The opal and the agate are the two special stones in which 
■Queensland challenges the world. The latter occurs free, and quite 
naturally so, only in the bed of a stream. The opal is generally 
found, best in quality, in the most desolate country, far from water 
and, at times, even from grass, in the sites of extinct geysers and 
other volcanic aqueous outlets. In one place you find sandstone 
blocks, pierced from side to side with " pipes " of it, thick as a 
pencil, or, a small ruler, of the most perfect opal, rich in every 
colour of the rainbow, or humming bird, provided you cut the stone, 
across the grain, with the edge or end to the front, or as rashers are 
cut, crossways, from a side of bacon. And, in no other way can the 
true effect of the gem be drawn out, or its matchless colours 
preserved in full force. The good oj^al country extends from about 
Winton, in Central Queensland, south west, to Cooper's Creek, on 
the borders of South Australia, and each locality appears to produce 
a different kind of opal. Thus, in the Paroo and Bulloo country 
there is a blue opal of indescribable loveliness, to which no sapphire 
can approach. And, at Keroongooloo, near the South Australian 
border, you can dig into a hill and get out what look like flattened 
<:ocoanuts, or, enlarged brown crab shells. Split those open and you 
And the shell as thick, and as brown as a cocoanut shell, only 
mineral in place of vegetable, in its origin and contents ; inside this 
shell, is a softer, paler, but still solid, yellow cement, traversing 
which, in every direction, are thick and thin flat veins of opal, fit 
for Aladdin's basket. Some, thick enough to yield (and with the 
■edge to the front) perfect lovely opals of the size of large Barcelona 
nuts, flaming with every tint, down to veins of only the guage of 
hemp seeds. On the upper Barcoo the veins are thin, and of no 
jewel value. On the lower Barcoo, they are got much thicker; some, 
full of minute sparks of colour, which come, and go, and change ; 
the red to green, the green to red, that which was blue is now 
yellow, and the yellow is, anon, blue. Ever flashing and changing 
till one can almost fancy that these gems enshrine the living souls 
of dead and gone Parsees and fire worshippers, detained in limbo till 
the day of the archangel, ever on the move and sparkling with the 
fire which they so adored and appreciated, when in the grosser flesh. 



THE OPAL OF DESTINY. 207 

Away to the north east, on the Diainantina, there is found the 
true flame coloured opal, in thick veins and solid lumps, free from 
the brown matrix, all blazing and gleaming with yellow glowing 
tire, such as were found in rare gems in Hungary after the siege of 
Troy. This is the rarest, and should be the most valuable variety ; 
but, the Paroo blue is the most unique to European eyes. Here we 
have a piece of brown matrix, like a tig of Turkey tobacco, and 
from crevices in it, here and there, flash out sparks of flame (sparks 
and no more) that light up the dull brown like the embers uf a fire 
stirred with the breeze. Here is another : It looks green, like a 
humming bird : Yes ! But move it and where is now the green ? 
It has become a deep metallic brilliant red, flecked with small 
streaks of more than sapphire blue. Here is another whose face is 
divided into little patchwork devices of flame, blue, and green 
colours, all of full metallic lustre. Another wears a dainty 
creaminess all over it, beneath which burn the red fires that ever 
glint and glow through its delicate skin, but never consume it. 
Some, with the aid of no colour, beyond an intense vivid green, in 
places set off by paler, darker, or duller phases of the same hue, rise 
to the rank of a high-class gem. Here is a dull piece of plain 
ehalcedonic flint, of a weak milk and water hue ; but, it carries in 
its heart, seen deep down, when you move it, a slice like a dew drop, 
and cut, apparently, out of a prism, or rainbow. Here, is another, 
all blues and greens, but, such blues and greens ; a gem, in itself, 
without the aid of any red or yellow. So much for some of them 
only, for I cannot describe them all, as they crop out of the trachytic 
conglomerates of Western Queensland. A gorgeous, and in some 
specimens, almost priceless gem in its varied hues and shades of 
purple, green, ruby, amber, blue, orange, and other florescent fires. 
A stone, very like the rubellite, or red tourmaline, occurs near 
Nanango, in South Queensland ; gems from which, when cut en 
cabochon look deep red lengthways, and yellowish red sideways, and 
flash, brilliant as a live coal, in the rays of a westering sun. 

Strange and wondrous superstitions pertain to the opal, that stone 
of glorious beauty, where the hues of heaven lie dee}) (and changeful 
as the kaleidoscope) in the heart of the hydrous flint. It is said 
that an opal — surely not of this world but of some other planet, or 
system — of mammoth size, rules the stars in their courses, presides 
over the destiny of the gold in the mine, guides tin- love of woman, 
and dictates the shedding of human blood. Beauty, to (lie super- 
stitious mind, is naturally associated with power; but why, thus, 
with cruelty ? 



WHAT THE WILD WAVES WERE SAYING. 



In the year 1872, when, for the first time since 1858 and 1861, I 
stayed there, Sandgate (Q.) had grown, and in the winter I had a bad 
cold, caught at the time of the maddening tin fever of the period, 
when the amber and black crystals of cassiterite, of 70 per cent, 
purity, from the 3,000 feet Highlands of Stanthorpe, drove Greville's- 
Rooms and Sydney Exchange brokers into a frenzy of delight 
(rivalling that of the simultaneous Hill End gold, and Peak Downs 
copper, mania) and hand rubbing, at the prospective fortunes 
in store for them, and all skilful operators, who could " bull '* 
and " bear," each in their allotted season. So, to cure this cold, 
I hied me to the hospitable home of jolly Frank Raymond, of 
the " Sandgate Hotel," and, over a steaming glass of " Burnett's 
Old Tom," with lemon and sugar, and by a cheerful fire, necessitated 
by the " shrewd " winds " of the period," I listened then — as I often 
do now- — through the closed door and windows, to " what the wild 
waves were saying ; " and how they did discourse and babble to us, 
in their own universal language, about the former travels of some 
friends ; about the old woman who used to sell the polished pebbles. 
at Scarborough j of the consumptive curate, with his splendidly 
handsome and healthy sister and nurse (in one) at Biarritz ; of the 
lovely oysters and the pretty milliners at Dieppe ; of the heiress at 
old Bournemouth, who was so quiet and demure, and proved to be 
no heh'ess, after all ; of the natty fishwives of Calais ; of the 
"cavalry officer," who was always so lucky at loo, at Brighton ; of 
the plentiful mackerel on the beach at Boulogne, shot from the hold 
of the fishing smacks. 

Memories upon memories do these same wild waves conjure up, 
and no wonder, for who shall say where this particular cubic yard 
of salt water which has just splashed over us, who shall say where it 
was, or what it was doing, six months, or six years, ago. Ask 
Maury and Fitzroy, encuare of the sealed bottles, with paper inside 



■•''.-' . •*• ' - '. — " 



■ ■ »» «« ■»■ w 1 » 







TASMAN'S ARCH, A ROl K BRIDGE BY THE Ska, NKAR EAGLE HAWK NECK, 

ON the Tasmaman Coast; 200 FEET High and Wide. 

(By Pirmlitilon of Mr. Beaitle, Hobart). 



SIHON AND OG. 209 

of them, which perform these eccentric and solitary voyages from 
decks of beech to beaches of sand. This very identical cubic yard 
of water was, perchance, a year ago, helping to buoy up some amber- 
haired sea nymph, some Musidora divested of chignon, " improver," 
and E.S. M.H. kid boots, as she disported herself on the green wave 
of cockney Ramsgate ; the sea water goes everywhere in turn, and, 
unlike the land, is ever on the move, and perpetually on the visit — 
and, therefore, we have every respect for the wild wave, and its 
extensive experience, and varied travel, and so we always listen 
deferentially to what it is saying, and try all we can to gather its 
murmured meaning. Hark ! now. 

" My skiff is by the shore, and my barque is on the sea, and I'll 
be true to you, if you'll be true to me," and so forth. Rare old 
•songs of bygone days ! ye send a tidal wave of sadness o'er my 
spirits, and Sandgate is all too modern for my theme to-day. 
Beautiful sea shells, that never grow old, the same on the shore 
now as ye were in the gilded galley days of Antony and Cleopatra 
by the Mediterranean ; even the sight of you moistens my eyes also, 
and I must needs discourse of old memories only this time. Shall I 
prate of the pretty shells and shores of Rose Bay, Port Jackson, in 
the days when Vaucluse was inhabited, and when Billy Wentworth, 
and Bobby Towns, and Ben Boyd were in their prime 1 ? When the 
old Bank of New South Wales stood on the opposite side of George 
street, Sydney, and when whale oil and whalebone, in place of gold, 
were exported from Australia in the olden days, before the golden 
ones? and when the hardy muscle of the "cornstalk" lads was expended 
on steer oars, harpoons, and lines, instead of on gads and picks, in 
the deep shaft and dark tunnel of the mine ? and when alternate 
relays of lucky whalers and lucky " bullockers " in the old Port 
Phillip cattle shipping trade, used to gladden the heart of Gipsy 
Poll in her noisy little hostelry, redolent of rum and lemons, hot 
water and sugar, cutty pipes and Barrett's twist, with its cosy fires 
and warm back parlors in the venerable little Hobart Town street 
•of blessed memory 1 And are the modern days so very much better 
than these old ones — Quien sabe 1 

No ! T will not prate even of old Sydney, but hie me further still 
from Sandgate, further south, away past New South Wales, with its 
wide pastoral domains, like unto Aroer that is by the river Anion, 
even until thou comest to Shur. Past the lordly stations of Sihon, 
the King of the Amontcs, who dwells at Heshbon, and sits in the 
nominee Upper Souse, in Macquarie street, Sydney; ami past the 
ep-dotted principality of Og, the King of Bashan, whose white 



210 TASMAN AND THE " HEEMSKIRK." 

waistcoat may be seen in the window of the Australian Club, in 
Bent street, and who is lord, also, of all the springs of Pisgah. Yes, 
I will fly on the wings of the spirit past all the dark Idumean 
mountains, and Judean plains of New South Wales, the modern 
Palestine, with her cattle on a thousand hills ; past the emerald 
rollers and sea-green waves of Cape Howe, till I sight the Swan 
Island Lighthouse, and rest my wings, and brood at last, over that 
sunny isle, in the sweet southern sea, which Abel Jansen Tasman, 
hailing from Rotterdam, or thereaway, and pluckily sailing along in 
the stout ship " Heemskirk," far from his dear native home, on a 
soft midsummer day, November 27, in the good old Puritan year of 
grace 1642, did suddenly "spot," right in front of his bluff Dutch 
bows. How he must have " donner and blitzen "-ed ! and taken 
his beloved pipe from his mouth ; what time the sniffling breeze 
flapped out his baggy breeches, and what a tale he'd have to tell to 
his friend Vanderdecken when he got home again, for it was a 
greater discovery even than Hendrick Hudson had made 35 years 
before. Well, the honest good Dutchman thought first of his 
beloved sweetheart, his master's plump and pretty daughter, Frau 
Maria Van Diemen, and he christened the new island after her. 
By the way, he married her afterwards, and I have often wondered 
whether she henpecked him. I daresay she did ; if I were a betting 
man, now, I should say it was about 7 to 5 that she did. Ah, well L 
however, it comes to much the same thing now, as they are both but 
dust ; for these things happened in the days when they burnt 
witches in England, and Paul's Cross stood in the City, and men 
wore peaked hats and short cloaks, and the great fire had not yet 
removed old, narrow-laned, picturesque, dirty London from view ;. 
and doubtless the fair Maria sat shivering with winter's cold, and 
clasping her knees before the Dutch stove and tiles, praying for her 
handsome, absent, gentlemanly Abel, whom she might, haply, never 
see again ; this, too, at the very time when he, under the summer 
sun of the antipodes, was finding an island to bear her name and his 
for ever. 

Well, I like, nay — love that same island ; and, in days to come, 
when other bards within these dells shall sound the praise of even- 
ing bells, there will surely arise some son of song — some Washington 
Irving of the future — who shall give to the sweet hills of the 
Derwent — so like to Thirlmere and Helvellyn — their full due of 
ghostly fame, even as did he who created Rip Van Winkle on the 
deathless Ivaatskills ; for, are there no elfin gnomes, no spirits of the 
deep mine, no fairy-haunted nooks, no wood demons in the country 



RISDON AND ROSNY. 211 

between the Derwent and Marion Bay 1 Dost think that the con- 
victs frightened them all away ] Don't you believe it, my boy. 
I'm no judge of spirit-haunted country, if that's the case. The 
dryads, the fauns, the satyrs, the naiads, the kelpies, and the wood- 
nymphs know a favourable spot too well to pass this over. Look 
at that limpid " Coal river," coming from the dun-brown ranges of 
Sorell and Pittwater — deep, narrow, and rapid, and full of fish. 
Look at the Huon, below the Gum Tree Hills. Look at that 
thousand-foot cliff which overhangs the winding Derwent, near 
Risdon and Rosny ; and see where the dark " Dromedary " (sacred to 
the eaglehawks' nests) stares the mountain of Glenorchy full in the 
face across the valleys of Brighton and Bridgewater — oh, for the 
tongue of Ossian to sing of these ! Lots of fairies there, my boy. 
And oh ! dear, how hungry I am with my long flight through the 
fresh air ! and how thirsty after the long dry yarn I've been 
spinning. Let us make for yonder farm-house, with the pretty hay- 
stacks nestling under the dark green trees, stretching upward and 
backward to the snow line, which comes down the gullies just like 
Honiton lace on green velvet. Let's bail them up for a feed right 
away. Did you ever see such a hawthorn hedge ; such red and 
white moss roses ; such gigantic sweetbriars, and such a barn full of 
rosy fragrant apples 1 What a splendid horn of ale is this from 
Degraves' Brewery ; and the home-made bread, with crust and 
crumb, alike, rich with the gluten fresh from a soil, virgin for a 
thousand years, with all its wealth of silica and loam, unplundered 
and unpampered alike. There is no bread like that, save in Spain. 
And the bacon, that ate the barley and drank the milk, in life, and 
is now streaky and divine, and pyroligneous, in death ; and the 
butter, all mottled and hard, and a nosegay for the gods. Oh, 
Queensland ! what are thy rum and molasses, thy pineapples and 
bananas, to these 1 This, this is the land to rear men and women 
and beeves in. And now, after a nip of that nutty sherry (which 
our gentleman-farmer host waited and watched many a year for, till 
the death of Viscount Pell Mell, down in the fair Sussex weald, set 
it free from that connoisseur nobleman's world-famed cellars, and 
sent it to auction) we will stroll forth and knock over a rabbit or 
two, and then come back to see the Arab hunter Hadji Baba in the 
stable, and have a " crack," too, about the good old days when 
Green Ponds and " Corra Linn " were the most " dangerous stables " 
in Australia, and when Swordsman and Shadow were the blue blood of 
the turf, in the Southern Hemisphere, in the times when Kli-mington 
and Randwick had not even been dreamt of, and when \ an 



212 MADAGASCAR VERSUS BRAZIL. 

Diemen's Land could run Port Phillip out of sight in horse racing. 
And then, some music in the evening — harp and piano — by the 
two fresh, young, muslin-clothed, white-handed, bronze-slippered 
daughters of the house ; and eke a game of chess with our host, 
using those curious Chinese carved men, which came over, years ago, 
in Askin Morrison's (or, was it Lavington Roope) tea-ship, from Hong- 
kong to Hobart Town ; and then, supper of cold capon and rare 
ham, and more of that scented sherry (none like it in all New 
Holland), and a fine beetroot, of marvellous odour ; and then to bed, 
in the best spare room, panelled with fragrant cedar and rich Huon 
pine ; and so (as Sam Pepys would say) to sleep, and to quaint old 
dreams ; and to wake up, alas ! — in Brisbane, or Sandgate. But 
such must ever be the fate of those who dream. 



THE BRISBANE BOTANIC GARDENS. 



When a thoughtful and appreciative visitor enters a garden like 
the Brisbane Botanical one, the lines that would, naturally, rise to 
his lips, at the sight of some of the trees, would be, 

" These be Thy glorious works, Parent of Good, 
Thyself how wondrous then ! " 

And what else could be expected ? when he finds himself at an 
arboreal gathering, where Mexico strives with Java, and Madagascar 
competes with Brazil — all giant candidates — as to who shall bear off 
the palm for beauty and supremacy 1 for there is no wilderness, or 
jungle, in any one of those places, or the wide world itself, that can 
show the united results seen in a garden like this of Brisbane, in its 
" kindly " climate, where the gorse and the cinnamon flourish like 
brothers, side by side, on a bed. Pleasant is this competition of the 
flowers, pleasant to the connoisseur, as when, in music, 40 years ago, 
Grisi and Alboni would blend their dulcet voices in some thrilling 
duet, where each strove to surpass her mellifluous rival, and failed, 
but failed most deliciously, as far as the enrapt hearers were 
concerned. 

And so it is, when the Poinciana regia, of Madagascar, defies, as 
'twere, the Jacaranda of Brazil to " take the flure," and compete for 
a challenge prize ; or the Plumeria of Java throws down the gaunt- 
let (metaphorically) to the Tecomas and orchids of glorious Mexico. 



THE POINCIANA RECxIA. 213 

What mortal shall presume to decide between the delicious green 
and fern-like foliage, combined with red, white, and yellow flecked 
flowers, like a giant geranium — of the Poinciana regia on the one 
hand, and the almost equally mimosa-like (not to say lycopodium- 
like) leafage, with its exquisite pendant bunches, of scolloped lilac 
bells — of the great rival Jacaranda, from Brazil 1 a mountain of 
blue, even as the Madagascar tree is a mountain of scarlet, when 
seen in the distance. 

One feels hushed in reverential awe when this Madagascar Titan 
of the flower world stands before us, arrayed in summer glory. In 
order to realize it you must take an English oak, of full growth, but, 
let the leaves be replaced by others, of the most tender tints and 
feathery form, of the club moss. Then, make the top in the shape 
of a low dome, like a 50 foot wide umbrella, of shade and spreading 
verdure, and, bursting through all this verdancy, imagine numerous 
sprays, 12 feet in length, and three feet in width, of the most 
magnificent scarlet flowers, flecked on one petal only, with yellow 
and white, the other petals all scarlet; all minor hues being merged, 
at a short distance, in the universal scarlet and green, both of which 
are monarch tints in their respective class. Taken altogether, in its 
gigantic spread, its graceful form, and matchless hues, I think that 
the Poinciana regia, when in full bloom, in the second week of the 
torrid December of the southern tropic, takes the prize and verdict 
from all vegetable nature, no matter what, when, or where ; and, 
even if it bore no flower at all, it would still be one of the most 
beautiful trees in the world. The exquisite green, and the feathery 
grace of its foliage, the contrast between its branching arms and the 
rounded shady canopy of its contour, would, alone, stamp it as 
unsurpassable. But, when to this is added the superb scarlet and 
dapple of its flower petals, throwing up, and thrown up by, the 
emerald hue, then the enchantment is complete, and it is a tree fit 
to worship, when it greets the sun (who gives it life) in all the 
colours and beauty of the most delicate pot plant, but, with the 
latter's dwarfish physique expanded into the personnel of a giant 
forest tree. This, and other beauties, from Guadaloupe, Ceylon, 
and elsewhere, fraternizing in the Brisbane Gardens with the humble 
tansy and furze from the commons, or breezy "downs," and green 
lanes of old England's shires, all tend to bespeak a kindly neutral 
climate, where beneficent Dame Nature assembles in her hospitable 
drawing room, floral visitors from all parts of the globe ; and, what 
is more, manages to make them all feel "at home" too! Nor docs the 
list of her social triumphs end here, for Sierra Lconr and Lima, 



214 THE ANTHURIUM. 

Owhyhee and Nepaul, Caffraria and North Carolina, China and 
Honduras, Rio and the Azores, are all " hobnobbing " together, in 
a place, where the elephant and tiger, the anaconda and humming 
bird, could each meet with their favorite coverts and feel quite 
domesticated as far as the botany was concerned. 

A friendly battle goes on unceasingly between the flowers of the 
tropical and temperate zones, as to which shall most fill the air 
with fragrance, the allamandas, francisceas, martynias, galphimias, 
and plumerias, strive to drown the odours of the sweetbriar, 
mignonette, heliotrope, lavender, rose, gorse, pansy and violet; but, 
after all, only succeed in " mixing it," while the chionanthus, of 
Japan, the viburnum, the rhynchospermum of China, and the Indian 
hawthorn, add their mite to the general stock ; each blooming on, 
careless of spectators, but fulfilling its allotted task in the world. 

One advantage of a climate like that of Brisbane is that, though 
not in the tropics, the cottage of the poorest mechanic can be 
adorned with flowers and creepers of a class which no duke in 
England can have, outside of his hot-house. Look at such beauties 
as the epiphyllum (I think that is the name ; it is that ribbon-like, 
drooping, cactus which I mean), and the anthicrium, and the 
cyrtodeira fulgida. And, as it would be a shame to quote these 
horrid unmeaning names, without, at the same time, describing the 
flowers, I proceed to do the latter. First, for the epiphyllum : 
This, if grafted on the cereus give us a pile, a tower, of light red 
blossoms, lovelier than all the azaleas and rhododendrons that ever 
grew on the mountains, lovelier than such geraniums even as the 
"Rob Roy," "Nimrod," "Cicely," and " Cynthia," are. Then, for 
the anthurium : One kind has, a big leaf of striped pale green and 
dark green velvet, from which projects a delicate, bright red, coral 
stem, like a snake, on which is an oval pad of the same colour (only 
in plush), and ending in a little spiral taper worm of the same 
colour. This gentleman hails, from Brazil, I believe, as does also 
the Cattleya Gaskelliana, an orchid, in magenta and yellow, with all 
the odour, and more than all the beauty of the " blue flag " (iris) of 
the English gardens. And, the cyrtodeira can be imagined, by 
picturing a red geranium, whose leaves are velvet, of brown and 
green hues, and its flowers of plush. You can have all those, and 
more like them, in Brisbane, for — what these delicate creatures ask 
for, is, not so much the heat, as for the absence of (to them) detestable 
cold. 

And shall we talk of the divine orchids of Santa Fe and New 
Mexico 1 of the saccolabiura and its mates of other lands 1 or shall 



WATER-LILIES. 215 

we plunder the jungles of Malacca, and its islands, for more of their 
princely peers of the same genus 1 ? There is no time for it. Pass we 
on to the Queensland water-lilies. The Nelumbium and Ifymphcea., 
before whose beauty the lotus of the Nile, and the Victoria Rcyici 
of the Orinoco, must, alike, bow their heads (even though bigger 
ones). Ah ! Why did Watteau not live long enough, on earth, to 
paint, with his shepherdesses, the Xijiuplufa gigantea of Queensland 1 ? 
What a finish its indescribable tint — which is neither blue, lilac, 
mauve, nor violet, but a "something more exquisite still " —would 
have given to his pictures ! And neither he, nor any one, could 
hope to describe, in words, its ambrosial odour, compounded of the 
very essence of the refreshing water brooks, and all that is pure in 
aquatic life. This flower was well and ably figured in a jubilee 
offering, from the ladies of Queensland, to Her Majesty, of England, 
with its eight-inch, yellow-centre, flowers, its floating air-cell leaves, 
in the sun-heated tepid lagoons, where it best loves to dwell. And, 
for the pink nelumbium, what shall we say 1 It has not the calm 
floating leaves, nor the innate beauty, of its already described sister, 
for they stand up out of the water, and its aniseed odour would not 
be so pleasant to some, as that of the champion waterlily of the 
world, the so-called " blue " Queenslander. But what, after all, do 
I say 1 Que voulez votes 1 Watch the nelumbium, during a shower 
of rain (the flower that bears the name of Leichhardt, I mean), see 
the cup-like leaves catch the crystal drops, which roll, like pellets of 
silver, glittering to the central reservoir, till the increasing weight 
bends the delicate stem, which, when it can bear its burden no 
longer, pours the offering with a bowed and graceful, not to say 
grateful, movement, into the lagoon, and rises at once, to receive a 
fresh supply from the clouds, to be disposed of as before. The 
ceaseless plash, during a summer shower, the continuous bowing — as 
if they worshipped the Giver of the rain — of these leaves, the 
perpetual movement, in all directions, of the cup-like leaves with 
their liquid burdens, the vivid and contrasted green, silver, and pink, 
that so well set each other off, alike proclaim the Designer of their 
beauties. 

But we have " our failures," also, in the gardens ; the British oak 
is not a success, being what " brother Jonathan " would call " kinder 
dwarfish"; while, in Sydney, it grows into a noble tree. But we 
have our little revenge in the bamboo, which, a stunted starveling, 
as developed in Sydney, becomes a lofty, drooping, feather topped, 
graceful thicket in congenial Brisbane, 500 miles nearer (he equator. 
And, in these gardens its soothing, rustling, BUBurrus, Oil a warm, 



216 A GUADALOUPE CREEPER. 

breezy, afternoon, would send the most confirmed drinker of green 
tea into sweet slumber under its giant shade, 90 feet high. 

The Lagerstrcemias, of Hindostan, form a many-tinted group 
amongst the larger flowering trees, and are of a beauty indescribable, 
ringing and ranging the whole gamut of the peach-bloom variations 
in colour. The huge Acacia Lebecki throws out arms from stems, 
that rival and surpass the historic beeches of Knockholt and 
Burnham. And, for the smaller " side shows " — do you want colour T 
then try the leaf and flower of the Petrcea volubilis, a Guadaloupe 
creeper (a charming pale blue) for hat, or Parisian bonnet adornment ; 
or, is scent your object 1 then " go for " the Martynia fragrans, 
the Murraya exotica, the Carissa of the Cape, or the Acacia odorala,. 
the Galphimia glauca of Mexico, or the frangipanni, the sacred 
tomb-flower of Java, in which lurks the snow white spider who does 
the sucking honey-bee to death; or the Natal plum and the Acacia 
Horrida of the Cape, which each carry a perfume not to be despised. 

The Barkleya seringifolia, a Queensland native tree, has its dark 
green foliage set off by a copious bearing yellow flower, which 
droops in wavy cascades, like the falling golden serpents seen in a 
first-class pyrotechnic display, and it has a scent which is tonic and 
not sickly, and is as sweet as the wattle or ti-tree bloom, in its way. 
Out upon your magnolias and gardenias (say I) when the white moss 
rose and purple lilac, when the cowslip, wall Mower and the bean 
bloom, are "about." And, speaking of this, it is surprising how the 
perfume of some English flowers is exactly reproduced by tropical 
ones. The wall flower scent is imitated, "to the fraction of a sniff"," 
by a South African acacia, and the Franciscea of Brazil, a lovely 
shrub of blue, white, and purple flowers, combines the odour of the- 
orange bloom with that of a distant bean field in full flower. I 
will not dwell on the beautiful palms, Seaforthia, and Cocos plumosa, 
and others, such as the wine palm of Africa, which grace these 
gardens, for my heart is not with them. I am European, and prefer 
the lavender of Mitcham, and the thyme of Picardy, to the most 
stately of them all. Still, one must bow to the beauty of the tropic 
plants which I have enumerated, and, while we admire the grandeur 
of the trees, we learn a lesson from their humility, in that they live, 
and flourish, in obedience to " THAT " which the Red Sea saw 
when it " fled ; " and the Jordan, when it was " driven back ; " for,. 
as old Amos, the herdman of Tekoa, says, c. iv., v. 13 : — 

" Who is He that lifts the mountains? 
Man's immortal soul creates ? 
Earth's deep fires and ceaseless fountains ? 
Subtlest thought anticipates ? 



THE GENIUS OF AUSTRALIA. 217 

Who Aurora's lustre graces ? 
Gives black night alternate claim ? 
Binds the Sun-Stars in their places? 
' JAH JEHOVAH ' is His Name." 



THE GENIUS OF AUSTRALIA. 



And where doth the haunting spirit and ruling genius of weird 
Australia abide, and have her resting place 1 for it must needs be 
that she have such a one. Is not England the home and haunt of 
the beech glade and fox covert 1 and America the land of the maple 
wood and waterfall] So where, and with whom, doth the Australian 
guardian fairy dwell, in that strange land, where the fiat of the 
Creator ordained that all animals, from the pre-aclamite lion to the 
rat, should wear the pouched livery of the marsupial clan % There 
is " Warrigal Joe," now, the stockman, who searches in these " eerie " 
ravines of the Warrabungle Mountains, by the Castlereagh River. 
One would think that he might have revelations. Not so ; the 
wretch has never an idea beyond new rum and " clean skins," alias 
unbranded calves. Then there is the manager of the Ali Baba 
Bank, who " streaks " down the street in an acre, more or less, of 
black broadcloth. He will tell you that he knows all about Aus- 
tralia, and her " account." Believe him not ; she does not know 
him ; he is but an excrescence on Her in his one-sided views of the 
fresh world of New Holland. Perhaps the little child, who went 
up the hill in that touching scene in " Geoffrey Hamlyn," with the 
baby bear in his arms, and never came down alive, may have seen 
Her ; or She may reveal Herself, to the maid who milks the early 
cow on the slopes of the Upper Macedon, but we cannot be certain. 
We only know of one who has seen Her, and that is the native 
Australian girl of the better and more disciplined class — the purest 
patriot on this earth. You have only to take her from her sunny 
native land, and set her down in cold England, and the Spirit of 
Australia is at once revealed to her, for she realizes what she lias 
lost. Talk not to her of good King Alfred, or piquante Nell Gwynne. 
She would give all that England ever held, or ever will hold, in 
stately Windsor, or hoary Westminster, for two short hours, once 
more, under the Southern Cross and .Magelhan clouds. Tell her not 
of the wise men, and beautiful women, in that cold north laud, with 
its moles and smock-frocks ; she would only wearily shiver, and long 



218 LIFE FROM DEATH. 

for the clime where the pineapple ripens with no cover but the sky ; 
and, if you keep her too long away from it, she, and her pretty little 
■Gulf-finches, would die, as surely as the South Carolina girl, and her 
mocking bird, did, in dark, chill, Blooomsbury, long ago. 

It is amongst these girls that we must look for the Spirit of 
Australia. It, certainly, rested, once, with a good man, who died, 
and left it in his will that there should be no black, or sadness, at 
his funeral, but that he should be followed to the tomb by young 
and engaged couples, bearing fresh flowers, and to whom he left a 
legacy each ; for he recognised the Life that ever springs from death, 
and he knew that the unselfish grain of wheat — that dies, and is 
•content to die, in the earth — is the one that brings forth much fruit, 
and renewed life. Australia's Genius was with him, no doubt. 



AUSTRALIAN SHELLS, BUTTERFLIES, kc. 



The collecting of sea shells is a pursuit which, happily, does not 
lead one into pestiferous swamps, or dangerous jungles, as the quest 
•of bird, flower, and insect, will sometimes do. It is a healthy 
pastime, and can be carried on amid pleasant surroundings. Viewed 
with an artist's eye, there is nothing more beautiful, and classically 
pure, in form and colour, than some varieties of the sea shell ; and, 
conspicuous amongst Australian marine shells, appear the great and 
beautiful family of the "cones," so called from their shape, which 
tapers, as a universal rule, but at a variety of angles, from base to 
■apex, the colours and markings being very beautiful. 

The bivalve tridacna, or clam family, with its serrated edges, 
ranges from a tiny double shell up to the mammoths of the coral 
reefs — four of them to the ton. The snail, or helix, of Australia 
differs much from the snail of England. It is not round in form, 
but resembles a long tapering trumpet, coiled up flat, with the 
small end in the middle ; but it is never so beautiful as the helix 
superba, of Ceylon, which possesses all the vivid colour, and trans- 
lucent effect, of a well-polished oriental agate stone. 

The cytherea irnpar, of Western Australia, is a handsome shell, 
and the vemis is an eccentric and beautiful bivalve, as is, also, the 
Tellina, pink inside and white outside. The Ilaliotis, or "ear-shell," 
pierced with round holes near the edge, pearl inside and pink out- 
side, varies in size from the tiny Tasmanian, to the great West Aus- 



THE "HELIX SUPERBA." 219 

tralian ; plenty of these and the Cyproea are "walked off" from 
the beaches of East Australia to deck the mantelpieces at lordly 
sheep stations, hidden away inland amongst the dark mountains of 
the Main Range, where they serve to recall bygone holidays at the 
sea shore. The Ilaliotis assinum, from Port Denison, in Queens- 
land, is so exceptionally pretty that it is a pity it is not exceptionally 
rare, also. The elenchus is a family of shells, with lovely iridescence 
in the inside, and it is used for earrings. It occurs in Western Port, 
Victoria, and in Tasmania, the latter variety being smaller, and a 
beautiful form of it is found in Botany Bay. The delphinula is what 
a novice would call a spiral, curled-up shell, and it possesses all the 
external elaboration of beauty in form which is found in a white 
coral branch. The cerithium telescopium is a very curious, spike- 
shaped, conical shell ; and the turritella is, also, very graceful. 

The great cyproea, or " Cowry " family, runs the whole length of 
vast Australia, the prettiest, perhaps, being the cyprcea argus, or 
peacock cowry, from Port Denison, and the cyproea arabica, which 
is common to Moreton Bay, Port Denison, and Cape York. 

To assign the prize to the best representative of the conus tribe, 
before alluded to, is a task indeed ; but supremacy, perhaps, lies 
between four of them — namely, the tesselated conus from Port 
Denison ; the striated one, from the same waters ; the other two 
champions being the C. textili, and the C. marmoreus. The terebra 
macidata, from Moreton Island, is an elegant, and almost needle- 
like, cone-shaped shell. The valuta tribe form a handsome genus, 
almost rivalling the cones, and with zebra-like, and other markings, 
of great beauty. The ianthina is a purple shell, of delicate colour, 
and fragile form, looking imperial and conspicuous amongst its 
humbler associates on the sea beach. 

The Australian land shells are a homely looking lot, in point of 
colouring, by the side of the scions of foreign countries, such as the 
helix ivallacei, from the Aru Islands, with its glowing canary yellow ; 
the helix aphrodite, of a splendid transparent pale amber, with dead 
white raised edges ; and the helix picla, or "painted snail," from the 
island of Cuba (which last is adorned with purple, golden, and white 
stripes). These are all far ahead of the Australians, in beauty, as 
is, also, the already named Cingalese //. Siiperba. 

For comparison with the Australian cones, the conns episcopus 
has most exquisite chocolate and dead white markings, and the 
terebra, from the Solomon Islands, is gloriously beautiful. The 
■mitra is a handsome family of shells, akin to the voluta in appear 
ance, and the genus oliva is a rival to the. cones in elaborate beauty 



220 



NEW GUINEA BUTTERFLIES. 



of pattern .and form. The helix, of Australia, has the merit of 
rarity, if not of beauty, and, amongst its varieties, are the H. 
Bellendenkeri, Morosa, Coxence, &c. 

Passing from shells to butterflies, the ornithoptera, with golden 
bodies and gorgeous metallic green and black wings, are the same in 
Brisbane as in the Sunda Islands, as regards lovely colour, but have 
not the huge size. The papilio tribe, whose habitat is from Cardwell 
to New Guinea, show a broad patch of deep aquamarine tint, blue, 
shading into green, with a well-defined black border, and a singular 
black tail to each wing. More eccentric still, in appearance, but 
less beautiful, is the P. Leosthenes, from the same latitudes. The 
Lycoenidce, of Northern Queensland, show a perfectly opaline lustre, 
in intense blue and green, most beautiful to see, either in sunbeam 
or shade ; and there is a smaller one of the same, with a delicate, 
silvery sheen on its wings. The sphinges, or " hawk moths," are 
plentiful in North Queensland. The Agarista, one of the Uranidce. 
family exhibits (like Joseph) a gorgeous coat of many colours ; they 
are natives of Brisbane. The Bombycidoz, large, and handsome 
brown moths, are Queenslanders, and have a most extraordinary 
transparent pane, like glass, in the middle of their wings, and are 
sometimes called the " window moth," in consequence ; they come 
from Cape York, and often measure ten inches across. The beauti- 
fully marked orange and black moths (the ophideres) suck the 
oranges, after that a vermin bug has duly perforated the fruit ; they 
are found in Brisbane, as is, also, a lovely little moth, of a " chintz 
pattern " in plush or velvet, a Geometrida. An American papilio, 
smaller than the Queensland ones, has a black velvet wing, dotted, 
or dusted, all over with brilliant emerald green, and on each wing 
is a well-defined opal spot, green, or blue, as the angle of the light 
may be. North Queensland possesses a butterfly, also, which is best 
described by stating that it blends the finest iridescent purple, 
black, and green metallic tints, which shade and pass into each 
other in a way that combines the hues of the rainbow with the 
glories of the humming bird and opal, not forgetting a strong like- 
ness to the tail of the peacock of Ava, and they need to be seen to 
be believed in. 



-♦- 



SUN CHIPS. 



During the greater part of my life in Australia, the collection of 
one particular form of mineral specimens has been a favourite 
pursuit of mine, and had a fascination for me. I allude to specimens 



THE SOCIABLE GOLD. 221 

which show free, visible, and tangible gold, in rocks and ores, which 
are not usually supposed to carry any of it. Since the time when 
the spectrum analysis has revealed the fact that iron, sodium, and 
other metals and minerals exist in the sun, in a state of fusion and 
vapour, the search for these Australian and Queensland specimens 
has acquired more interest. This earth is, evidently, a partially cooled 
and hardened fragment from the great incandescent and vapourous 
sun, where metals boil and burn, till their steam, so to speak, rises ; 
and the very same metals in some respects, too, as we have here, 
ready to hand, cool, hard, useful, and tangible, in Australia and else- 
where. And perhaps, also, ours are the best specimens extant, in our 
system, of cooled fragments of the great Sun. What Mars, Venus, and 
Mercury may hold, we know not, either in the ways of rocks, metals, 
or people to use them. All we know is that, in our planet called 
" the Earth," its people have, inter alia, decided that the metal called 
gold shall, because it is the heaviest and least destructible, be a 
standard of value. And so it has come to be the cause of much 
evil and of much good, according as covetousness and greed, or 
benevolent good will, have actuated the strivers after, and the 
possessors of it. A dead and inorganic metal has thus swayed the 
lives of reasoning and living people to an extent incalculable since 
the world began. Minerals (which carry gold in Eastern Australia) 
are known to exist in the sun, so that, gold, in or out of the form of 
vapour, must, in some proportion, be present there also. It is said 
that the stars influence our destinies. Here is a proof of it, and not 
merely supernaturally influencing, but actually and materially doing 
so. Here, in the great sun-star, is a fused, or vapourous, metal, 
harmless there, and harmless here, also, to fish, birds, and animals, 
who know it not, but potent beyond description, for good and for 
evil, in ancient and modern human institutions. And Australia 
appears to be the least changed, from its original state, of all the 
surface-cooled chips, or fragments, which have been hurled out of 
the sun to form this earth. And, if not so, how comes Australia 
alone to contain, alive and well, such forms of, long since elsewhere, 
bygone life as the ceratodus and platypus ? And all this being so is 
the reason why these cooled " sun chips," which are found in 
Eastern Australia, have such a fascination for me. I never look at. 
one of these wonderful blendings of iron, sulphur, gold, copper, had, 
carbon, «fcc, where the gold nestles in and peeps out from the 
malachite, azurite, cerussite, clnysocolla, lia'inatiti', chalcopyrite, 
mispickel, antimony, schorl, galena, mimetene, bismuthite, Erom 
granite, lava, basalt, Limestone, spar, porphyry, silurian shale, born 



222 GEYSER GOLD. 

blende, slate, nay even in the hardened debris thrown up by the hot 
water springs of New Zealand — none of these ever come in front of 
my eye and the lens — without my feeling that I am privileged to- 
see a bit of handiwork, in smelting and welding, that was made — 
that I am privileged to read a book that was written — privileged 
to learn a lesson that was prepared — in the far unfathomable 
Past, before this world began to revolve, and, so I am apt to 
forget all else when I gaze at one of these fragments of wonder- 
land, in a universe where the tape measure and steelyard are 
not the only standards, and where the spirit alone can grasp the- 
immensity. The hot water springs of New Zealand not only throw 
up the sulphuret of mercury (cinnabar), but also, curious gold con- 
cretions ; one, which I had, was divided outside into " septs " or 
cells, as a pineapple surface is into little eminences. These cells 
were all lined with crystal quartz, and some of them contained only 
lava, and some of them were filled with tiny leaves and fibres of 
gold, much alloyed with silver, and worth, perhaps, 45s. per ounce, 
the back of the specimen being simple sandstone. 



AUSTRALIAN GUMS, OILS, TIMBERS, &c. 



A list of the trees of Australia would show forth the " makings ,T 
of some noble spars, suitable for ship keels, railway bridges, pillars, 
and other purposes. Experiments have been tried with some of the 
hardwoods as to their stiffness under weight, both when applied end- 
ways, and across the line of the stem. In pieces of scantling, 
seven feet long and two inches square, it took from 700 lb. to 1,400 
lb. hung in the centre, while the stick was supported at both ends, 
to break it ; while weights varying from 300 lb. to 800 lb., similarly 
hung, caused deflection to the extent of from 1125 inches up to 
2 - 625 inches only, in the same pieces, which were elastic enough to 
recover their exact original shape on removal of the weights in 
question. The elasticity only suffered, when the suspended weight 
exceeded the amount named. These crucial tests will give a very 
fair idea of the stiffness and elasticity of our hardwoods, in 
Australia ; and, with respect to fibrous adhesion, " interlocking," or 
tensile strength, it was found, by squaring several various pieces of 
hardwood, turning them in the middle, and then squaring the centre 
again, down to quarter-inch each way, that it required, in various 



EUCALYPT OILS. 223 

pieces (according to their previous seasoning, or exposure, and their 
vicinity to the sapwood of the tree) weights to be suspended, ranging 
from 5h tons, up to 46 tons, to the square inch, to tear apart, end- 
ways, the interlocked fibres of these splendid hardwoods. 

And this, too, not in selected pieces of timber, purposely seasoned 
for the object in view, but, in odds and ends. In old pieces of ships' 
keels, house rafters, of 20 years standing, posts, &c, which were 
operated upon, not because of their extra strength, or soundness, 
but, because their origin, age, nature of exposure, &c, could be more 
easily ascertained and vouched for, correctly, in connection with the 
experiments, than in the case of any finer looking, but unrecorded 
pieces. It would be interesting to compare the result of these 
experiments with those in Indian and European timbers, as set forth 
in the Ena/clopredia Britannica. 

The specific gravity of the ironbarks and boxwoods, varies from 
1-021 up to 1*124 in perfectly dried and seasoned specimens; while, 
the stringy bark, blue, and red gums, black butts, mahoganies, &c, 
range from 0698 up to 0*990 ; the myall goes up to 1 - 124 in specific 
gravity ; the bauhinia, we believe, would far exceed these in weight 
and density. And now, for the leaves, as well as the timber. The 
leaves yield essential oils, while gums and resin are derived from the 
wood. The oil is useful in the arts, in medicine and in perfumery ; 
it burns well in lamps, and acts as a solvent upon resins and gums 
for varnish. Some species of eucalyptus will yield three pints of 
essential oil from 100 lb. of fresh leaves. It is, usually, the trees 
whose timber is of the least value, that give the most powerful 
essential oil from the leaves. The oil distilled from the leaves of 
the ironbark tree has a specific gravity of - 923 ; its boils at 310°. 
It is a thin, limpid, pale yellow fluid, burning well, and with a white 
luminous flame in the lamp. One of the white gums yields an oil 
superior, in the intense white brilliancy of its flame, to any kerosine. 
The most powerfully solvent oils of the encalypt will take up 23 
ozs. (omitting decimals) of camphor to the imperial pint, 20 ozs. 
of resin, 17 ozs. of mastic, 11 ozs. of gum sandarac (Australian), 
seven ozs. of sandarac (foreign), 43 oz. of "dragon's blood," 2*8 oz. 
of benzoin, 1*94 oz. of copal, 1 '74 oz. of amber, 146 oz. of shellac, 
073 oz. of caoutchouc, and the same of bees' wax. J Jut, it is 
quite inoperative on gutta percha. Eight ozs. of Kauri gum from 
New Zealand dammara trees, or 6*5 oz. of asphalt, or 6'8 of grass- 
tree gum, can be taken up by a pint of the essential oil of blue gum 
leaves. Some of these oils have the odour and flavour of the cajeput, 
some of the lemon, and, some even of tin; attar of roses, but are 



224 GIANT GUM TREES. 

•acrid in the mouth, though useful for rheumatism. The oil of the 
red gum boils at the low temperature of 280°. 

The solvent powers of the Melaleuca (or, ti-tree) oil differ but 
little from those of the gum tree oils. An imperial pint can take 
up 19 oz. of camphor, 158 of mastic, 102 of Kauri gum, 8*7 of 
foreign sandarac, 0"5 of xanthorrhcea (grass-tree) gum, 095 of shellac, 
0-82 of copal, and, as usual, will not touch gutta percha. The oil of 
the sassafras (atherosjyerma moschata) is useful, like digitalis, in 
heart disease. 

As regards the timber and spars procurable in Australia, when 
one mentions trees 200 feet on the lower stem and 64 in girth, it 
•can be imagined what a class and range of utility in wood is to be 
met with. The small beech {monotoca albeus) is a useful wood for 
mallets, chisel handles, fcc. The great white beech (the vitea Leicli- 
hardtii) is a noble tree, yielding a useful timber which never shrinks 
with drying, and is very suitable for ships decks, verandah floors, as 
•close, and almost as white as marble. The ironbark (eucalyptus 
sideroxylon) in the broad leaf, narrow leaf, and all varieties, is 
straight, tall, tough, dense, and "inlocked," giving spars of 120 feet 
by four feet thick, at times. It resists damp, and is not so quickly 
inflammable as pine. The boxwood (eucalyptus leucoxylon) is softer 
and more workable. It rises 180 feet with a diameter of six feet at 
times ; it is neither so hard, nor so durable, as iron bark. The blue 
gum grows to 120 feet by four feet, midway between the box and 
ironbark in hardness and durability. The "flooded gum " is useful 
for shipbuilding. The " blackbutt " rises to 150 feet, and has been 
found 14 feet in diameter at the base. Of medium density, it comes 
in for all kinds of work. The stringy bark (E. fabrorum) is an 
immense and widely useful eucalypt. The ti-tree is imperishable in 
wet positions for piles or fences, The " silky oak " (a stenocarpus) 
makes the best of coopers' staves for tallow casks. The great scrub 
acacia, or wattle, is an excellent, light, tough, wood, for axe handles, 
bullock yokes, &c. The acacia pendula is the scented myall or 
•" violet wood," and the acacia decurrens yields the tanning bark. 










THE CASCADE OF THE BARRON RIVER, Tropical Queensland; 
900 Feet Wide, 700 Feet Deep. As Seen in Dry Weather. 

(By Permission of Mr. J. J. Hogg, Briabane). 



THE CASCADE OF THE BARRON RIVER— TROPICAL 

QUEENSLAND. 



Our planet contains some splendid waterfalls, amongst which the 
premier place has been generally assigned to Niagara, with its wide 
river, and its separate and magnificent cataracts, of some 1,800 feet, 
and 900 feet in width, and 150 feet deep, and which do not, after 
all, represent the whole width of the great river bed. A grand 
sight of natural force and beauty, which no earthly power can, for 
one moment, dam up or arrest, save the wizard spell of the ice 
king, who, in winter, seals it all up into a form of frosted loveliness, 
surpassing, in its stately calm, and charm of rest, the noisier beauty 
motion of its summer existence. Deeper, but narrow, cascades in 
California and New Zealand, Norway and Labrador, Tahiti and 
Nukuheva have charmed the lovers of scenexy, and nearly all sing us 
the same song (in the words of a well known poet), 

" Falling, falling, sleeping, leaping, 
I am the child of the sun ami the snow, 
Seething, falling, ocean is calling, 
Rolling along to its bosom I go." 

Every stone, fern, and shrub, every bed of moss, is baptised, 
glittering, weeping, and watery, near the borders of these aqueous 
examples of the eternal law of gravity. But the lofty falls, like 
the " Sutherland," in New Zealand, and the "Yosemite," in Cali- 
fornia, are all too narrow for their tremendous 1,900 feet of height, 
even as Niagara seems to take but a shallow leap, when we regard, 
by contrast, its spreading width. The Zambesi Falls, in Africa, are, 
alike, wide and deep, but they disappear into a ravine, which hides 
much of their effect ; and it is to North Queensland, after all, that 
we must look for a full combination of well displayed width and 
depth in a waterfall, and for a due proportion between its two 
dimensions. No " child of the snow" is our Barron stream, for it never 
freezes there ; but the fall, an you please, is 900 feet wide, and 
700 feet deep, and lies, moreover, within the domain of the Tropic 
Rain-God, where the weather charts of science mark, at times, 
200 inches of rain in the year, and not evenly distributed either, 
but compressed, chiefly, into the early autumn months j and now, 
Que voulez vans i There is no such rainfall as this al the beads of 

P 



226 A GREATER NIAGARA. 

Niagara, or any other huge cascade in the world, for the Demerara 
and Surinam Falls are mere toys to our mighty cataract, and even 
Dame Barron herself only shows out occasionally in this full gala 
dress, for, in ordinary weather, you have but a partly tilled rocky 
river bed, 900 feet wide, from forest to forest, and the water 
tumbling, like threads of white molten lead, over rocks of dark 
oxidized silver — like threads, that is, if compared with their flood 
volume and weight, with its dynamic force mathematically growing 
in power and speed, as it falls, and, at last, the sustained and awful 
impact, and tremor of the stricken rocks. Imagine, if you can, the 
Thames, at the Tower of London, or the Brisbane, at Victoria 
Bridge, either of them in a high flood 40 feet deep, suddenly shoot- 
ing over a precipice of rock 700 feet high, and even then you will 
not have it, for tliey flow in a fairly level bed, while the Barron 
gradient is much steeper, giving 20 miles an hour velocity after 
rain, and the fall is not clear and vertical, but is broken by pro- 
jecting buttresses of rock, half way down, which show out clear and 
dry enough in the winter and spring, and with only what looks like 
a little lace-work of falling water to adorn their 700 feet of dark, 
bare altitude. In flood time, however, all these projections are 
hidden behind a thick, descending, watery curtain, on which they, 
in turn, revenge themselves for the eclipse, by projecting and break- 
ing it, upwards and outwards, in terrible recoil and roar, and in 
spray shot up 1,000 feet high, and nothing that is nigh escapes the 
baptism thereof, and Nature's cooling air blast, which we feel around 
Niagara's water rush, works powerfully, too, at the Barron, shaking 
the trees ; and tiny rills meander by their knotted roots, to re-join the 
mighty main army of aggregated rain drops, where 

" Barron, rolling rapidly," 

leaps, like another Curtius, into a gulf, which does not close over it ; 
and a sudden bend in the river's rocky bed, just before the madly 
racing waters take their fated leap, adds its share to the aqueous 
whirl and chaos of this indescribable scene, and the strangling 
whirlpool below Niagara is reproduced here with augmented power, 
and, long before the approaching traveller sees the cause of it all, a 
deafening roar in his ears, as he is coming through the forest, pro- 
claims that some great show place of Nature must be nigh at hand, 
and, verily, he is not disappointed therewithal. The spring of a swift, 
deep river, over a gulf, double the height, and Jour times the width, 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, is a matter beyond all painting, by pen or 
by pencil, and we can but turn to the second verse of the sublime 



FIRE V. WATER. 227 

Te Deum laudamus, and put all impotent and impertinent adjectives 
aside, and so read onwards to the culmination of the sixth verse, 
where this cry seems forced from universal Nature : " Heaven and 
Earth are FULL of — overflowed with, all powerless to comprehend, 
or contain — the Majesty of Thy glory." The inspired ones, who were 
present when " the morning stars sang together," could best describe 
t/iis scene. 

It may, perhaps, be considered that too much stress has been laid 
upon what is, after all, only the finest cataract in the world, not 
worthy to be compared, for sublimity, with a full dress rehearsal 
amongst the volcanoes of the Straits of Sunda, or the giant fire 
craters of the Sandwich Islands, miles in diameter ; but we should 
remember that the grandeur and interest of the one is partly 
vitiated by its destructive effects, while the Barron cascade, in all 
its beauty, hurts nothing beyond a few uprooted flowers and 
■drowned insects. 

THE BARRON IN FLOOD. 

On Barron, when his title runs low, 
The cataract drips, white as snow, 
Ami in divergent channels flow 

His streamlets, murm'ring sleepily. 

But Barron sees another sight ; 
The Monsoon riseth in his might, 
And hurls him headlong from the height 
To rocky ahyss, seizing him. 

Then quakes the air, as thunder-riven, 
Then soars the spray, in rainhows driven, 
And, like ten thousand bolts from Heaven, 
Resounds a watery revelry. 

The torrent deepens, wave on wave, 
Loud echoes roaring from each cave, 
Fit tribute to the Ood who gave 

His lain in season, lih'rally. 

White robed, as pure and saintly nun, 
The dew mists wait the rising sun, 
While swift the mighty waters run 
Beneath their starry canopy. 

Their whirlpools part not where they meet, 
Below that glorious " drop scene " sheet, 
And no presumptuous living feel 

May press the spot that bosoms them. 



ABOUT CLUBS. 



Clubs are ancient institutions. The oldest on record was 320 B.c. r 
at Athens, and was limited to three score members ; in fact, it was 
called the " Sixty " Club. The literary and artistic clubs of the last 
century, in London, were too numerous and whimsical, both in titles 
and aims, here to describe in full. To come to Australia. I was one of 
the original, or foundation, members, in 1857, of the Union Club, in 
Sydney, first located in Wynyard Square, where, I well remember 
Colonel Robbins, who was down from India at the time, on the look 
out for remount horses for the " mutiny " business. It was, after- 
wards, removed to Mrs. Campbell's house, in Bligh street, a pretty 
town mansion and garden, a veritable rus in urbe. " Old Mrs. 
Campbell," as she was then called. Ah ! the day was when she was 
young and beautiful, but it was before 1857, of course. Byron, as. 
is known, wrote some magnificent lines on " Waterloo," and on the 
belles (the babes of 1790), who, at the Brussels ball, the night before 
the battle, 

" Blushed at the praise of their own loveliness," 

and the Mrs. Campbell, of 1857, was, in 1815, as young and 
beautiful as the best of them ; but I digress. 

The great success of the North Australian Club, in Ipswich, stirred 
up the Brisbane folks, at the end of 1859, to have a club of their 
own. Meetings were held, at the office of the Hon. D. F. Roberts, 
in early December, and Mr. Robert Douglas and myself were told 
off to look out for eligible premises ; and, we chose the old place in 
Mary street. It was resolved to name the club after the new colony, 
and to ask the Governor to become its patron, and to send out 
circulars to invite leading people in the country to become original 
members. Shepherd Smith (of the Bank of New South Wales), 
Edward Stanley Ebsworth (of the Joint Stock Bank), and myself, 
were elected the first House Committee, and we drafted the rules, 
bought the furniture, and engaged the first staff of servants, and 
selected the first batch of wines, &c. A fire, at one room of the 
club, destroyed the records of the original members ; but, my diary 
supplies the names of most of them. Mr. R. G. W. Herbert, 
and Mr. John Bramston, afterwards joined the House Committee, 
and the original members were the following (the first ballot meeting 
being held on 1st March, 1860, after which there were, of course, no 
more ''foundation" members). Mr. Robert Little, Mr. John Little, 
Mr. R. G. W. Herbert, Mr. John Bramston ; Messrs. W. D. White, 



THE QUEENSLAND CLUB. 229 

Shepherd Smith, E. S. Ebsworth, J. AY. Jackson (of some bank), 
N. Bartley, J. F. McDougall, J. J. Galloway, A. A. May, Dr. Cannan, 
D. F. Roberts, Robert Douglas, Win. Pickering, Wm. Rawlins, and 
a few others. 

The North Australian Club, in Ipswich, was greatly supervised, by 
George Faircloth (of the Bank of Australasia), and William Henry 
Yaldwyn, of Taroom ; Wienholt, Joshua Bell, John Ferrett, Wattle 
Gray, Arthur Macalister, Jemmy Laidley, Gore Jones, Judge 
Lutwyche, Frank Lucas (the " medico "), Wm. Turner, of Helidon, 
John Deuel lar, Wm. Kent, Charlie Fattorini, Beevor Daveney, Win, 
Graham, and De Lacy Moffatt, were some of the men you met there, 
and a more " vital " company it would have been difficult to rind, 
with David Perrier as secretary. John Crowder, Ralph Gore, and 
John Gammie were all dead before this. Who, that wields a pen 
could do full justice to the life and wit of those all too brief years 1 
which had become over-clouded with pastoral and general " finance" 
before 1865 was well over. The time of the after dinner pool in the 
billiard room at Brisbane, or Ipswich Club, was, perhaps, of all, the 
most genial hour of the day. Shepherd Smith with his long "church- 
warden " pipe, " Jock " McLean, Sandeman, George Elphinstone 
Dalrymple, Graham Mylne, and the rest of us, would play. Yaldwyn, 
with his insouciant face and manner ; Plump Judge Hirst, with his 
incessant chaff anent the "Fenians," would look on from the sofa at 
the end of the room ; Jock McLean, with great gusto, would shoot 
his man into a pocket, take the shilling, and Jolly Dalrymple would 
chaff him in Scotch with " Thot's reecht, Jock, kill the dom'd 
sas'nachs"; Kent would execute a joyous pas seul whenever he made 
a " ten " shot (fluke, of course). Yaldwyn would compare the game 
of billiards and pool to the game of life, and express his sage opinion 
that the successful one in this world was the man who "potted" and 
the man who " fluked." People who rose to after eminence in life 
could be seen, at times, in our little billiard room. Sir George 
Nares, General E. VV. Ward (of the Mint), and others. 

Ipswich was very much "alive" from 1857 to 18G5. The annual 
race ball and the annual bachelors' ball, in Ipswich, were matters to 
I>e remembered. The light-footed bush-bred girls in their superb 
health, who quadrilled it to the " Como " or "Palermo," polkaed to 
the "Karlslust" and " Pesth," waltzed to the "Reigning Beauty" or 
" Joan of Arc," mazourkaed to the " Spring Flower," or galoped to 
the " 77th," or the " Matrimonal," as tin; French horn sent forth its 
soft, measured, cadences from the orchestra, could, some of them, 
take a leap on a bare-backed horse, or ride on a man's saddle with 



230 " NOCTES " AT " LIMESTONE. 

one stirrup thrown over; while, the men were of that heroic centaur 
breed, who could win a hurdle race despite a broken stirrup leather, 
or, at a pinch, come in a good first with the girth astray. Don't you 
think, now, that such boys and girls as these must have enjoyed the 
dance, the lights, the music, the sights and sounds, and the supper 1 ? 
And, can you wonder that in such a climate with its pure aired 
mountain health, the " Old Adam " overrode wiser considerations at 
times, and that "pa" and "ma" had, in the cold next morning, to 
forbid some highly imprudent matrimonial engagements made in the 
glamour of these warm over-night scenes of bliss 1 Things have 
steadied down since then. 

Old George Thorn was the father of Ipswich, or " Limestone " as 
it used to be called ; older even than the Petries as a free settler. 
Pleasant, genial, "larkey," old George ! The exploring associate of 
rollicking Arthur Hodgson, in many a midnight camp, when the 
Prince of Wales was a baby, and when the disciples of Bright and 
Cobden had begun to multiply in the land ; and there, under the 
name of " Limestone " sprung up a town which could, indeed, a tale 
unfold, if its old iron bark slabs, plates, and sills, could but speak ;. 
a tale of nights of wit, when Gore Jones, Frank Lucas, and more of 
them, bandied flashes of fun, which recalled the Noctes of old Black- 
wood's " Maga," for there was backbone and life in the limestone 
waters of this town, and men had to eat and drink of the best, for, 
nought else was there. Larkey old George ! How he, when unable 
to sleep himself, used to delight in knocking us other people up at 
4 a.m. at the hotel, in Brisbane, and asking if we wanted to be 
called to catch the steamer, and shaking his sides at the fierce nega- 
tives that always followed, and, as the race horses of Ipswich were 
gallant, so also the women who came to see them compete were fair 
to view, and many a Queensland love match was cemented in old 
Ipswich, where the hard water never would make good tea. 

We don't seem to have such sunsets and sunrises, nowadays, as 
used to be witnessed from that old Limestone Ridge, looking out on 
the hoary battlements of the Main Range, the portal of Darling 
Downs, between 1855 and 18G0 ; and the early winter cup of 
cofiee, in the old race course, at training time, has not the flavour, 
now, which it had in the year of " Lizard " and "Mincemeat's" nose 
and-nose-all-the-way match ; for things and people grow quickly and 
fade quickly, in 27° south latitude, and the babies of yesterday are 
the brides of to-day, and the bridegroom of that hour, has, perchance,, 
his will proved by a proctor in this one. 



THE BIRTH OF QUEENSLAND. 



On 10th December, 1S59, Sir George Bovven landed in the 
Brisbane Gardens, having arrived from Sydney in a man-of-war 
called the " Cordelia," whose marines formed the sole guard of 
honour when he landed. It was a hot, moist December " sort " of 
day, 88° in the shade. He and Lady Bowen looked jaded from sea- 
sickness in so small a vessel as the " Cordelia," and it was arranged 
and agreed to, nem. con., as the next day was a Sunday, that the 
heavy business of reading all the numerous addresses should be put 
off till Monday, and that the day of rest should intervene. So, a 
procession was formed, along George street and Queen street, to 
Dr. Hobbs's house, in Adelaide street, which had been rented for 
the Governor for three years, at £350 per year, by New South 
Wales till the new Government House could be built. The first 
house to lower a saluting flag was the brick one which is now a 
portion of the "Belle Vue Hotel," where a splendid ensign — a combina- 
tion of the English and Greek ones (in compliment to Lady Bowen) 
— surmounted a tall mast. Dry and dust-raising was the procession, 
and, by the time the whole of it had arrived at the temporary 
Government House, black coats looked brown. No time was lost, 
however. Sir George Bowen appeared on the upper verandah of 
Hobbs's, and the " Order in Council," authorising the creation of 
the new colony of Queensland, was read to the public below, and he 
was sworn in by Judge Lutwyche, robed, and in an awful wig, and 
so Queensland was born and inaugurated, and the parents of the 
first local baby, that was born thereafter, proudly advertised their 
child as the " first Queenslander." 

The presentation of addresses on the Monday, in the great 
marquee in the Gardens, is a matter more social than historical. 

Sir Geo. Bowen went to St. John's Church on the Sunday, with 
the aide-de-camp, private secretary, and our new Colonial Secretary, 
Mr. R. G. W. Herbert. There was no carriage, and the Governor 
walked across the. then unbuilt, grass flat, to and from the church 
and Dr. Hobbs's house. 

The inauguration of a new colony is a more momentous affair, 
and involves more organization and matters of detail, than even the 
formation, ab initio (in the Australian wilderness), of a great sheep 
station. No one, witli us, had the needful skill, and Mr. Herbert, 
fresh from England, had no local knowledge ; so, we sent to Sydney 
for an "expert " in that line, a Mr. Moriarty, who became a sort of 
Under-Secretary of State, by virtue of the, all-powerful Gazette^ and 



232 ORGANIZING DEPARTMENTS. 

he proceeded at once (as it were) to cut out the patterns of the 
things that should be, and fashion them into shape, and a Treasurer's 
and other departments, ttc, arose under his skilful hands. He was 
materially assisted by the arrival, from Sydney, and Melbourne, of 
skilled officials, who were glad to do the same work here, as there, 
but in a higher grade, and for better pay ; for new colonies don't 
grow every day. So, the officers of Parliament, «fcc, were gazetted ; 
but Moriarty's work was limited, after all. No Auditor-General 
was appointed, but Shepherd Smith, of the Bank of New South 
Wales, audited, by request and permission, the modest early figures 
of Queensland's accounts. The Sydney Government had, already, 
in 1857, fitted us out with a complete Supreme Court " plant " — 
Judge, Sheriff, Crown Prosecutor, &c. — the same as we have done 
with North Queensland, so did they, in 1857, with Northern New 
South Wales ; so Moriarty, the stage manager, pro. tern., was spared 
this contract, or, no doubt, he would have cheerfully tackled it. 

Long after this, the "Lands and Works" Department of this 
mighty territory, was represented by the Minister and a sort of 
upper office boy, both with nothing to do but draw salaries, for the 
work was chiefly done in the Colonial Secretary's office at first ; 
only, you see, the patterns of the future garments had to be cut out, 
metaphorically speaking, by an " expert " wielder of the chalk and 
scissors ; and so, in time, the great Civil Service of Queensland grew 
into its present form. 

R. G. W. Herbei't, and John Bramston, kept bachelor house 
together, and bought a beautiful piece of ground on the bank of 
Enoggera Creek, and built a house on it, with a fine garden, on a 
sloping hill ; and, in order to settle any questions as to the name it 
should bear, half of Herbert's and half of Bramston's names were 
utilised, and the place is called " Herston " to this day, and now 
belongs to Sir James Garrick, the Agent-General for Queensland. 



THE QUEENSLAND CHAMPION RACE OF 1861. 



The delicious and yearly increasing excitement of the June races 
in Ipswich, from 1855 to 1860, served only to whet the sporting 
appetite for some still more highly spiced dish to supplement the 
annual carnival ; for the races at that place, and at that time, 
whatever they might have been from a "time record " point of view, 
were, socially, the most delightful, perhaps, in Australia. Similar 



THE FATAL " THIRTEEN." 233 

aristocrats, and " squattocrats," you might have met, of course, at 
Randwick, Flemington (where the Melbourne Cup was born this 
same year), or even elsewhere ; but at no place where " everybody 
knew everybody," as we did at Ipswich, then. There was 
" Squire " Yaldwyn, of Taroom, now ; you could not "ditto " him in 
all Australia; and he, an arrival of 1856 in Queensland (though a 
Melbournite of the " thirties "), found himself in such a congenial 
atmosphere, in old " Limestone," with such able coadjutors and 
fellow spirits to back him up, that he blossomed out as he never in 
his life had done before ; a short, stout, rubicund likeness of the 
Duke of York ; a man who had travelled South America, and 
•everywhere ; insoiiciant and gentlemanly, equally easy and at home 
when complimenting a fine lady, or chaffing a bullock-driver, or 
horse-trainer ; his scarlet coat and gold spurs were the centre and 
rallying point of the sporting and social spirits of the place ; a 
Sussex man, and used to dropping the black cock with right and left 
hand barrel ; there was nothing in the least " Australian " in his 
appearance, yet it is such as he that have helped to " make " Aus- 
tralia ; so it came to pass, that the local club resolved to otter a 
Champion Stakes of £1,000, three miles, weight for age, to be run 
for; and so, on the 27th May, 1861, the river steamer "Ipswich" 
left Brisbane for the "head of navigation," loaded with people, and 
"the Governor's carriage. Amongst the passengers were T. S. Hall 
(afterwards of Mount Morgan), G. L. Lukin (aftewards P.M. at 
Rockhampton, in the same neighbourhood), Mrs. R. J. Smith, «fec. 
We left at 11, and arrived at 3. Ipswich was rilling, even then, 
with visitors. There were 13 at the Club lunch next clay, and one 
did die before a year jmssed. The 13 were : John Hardie, Arnold 
Wienholt, Walter Gray, "Chinchilla" Gibson, Owen (of Yandilla), 
Kent (of Jondaryan), " Gig lamps " Hamilton, Beevor Daveney, 
Leonard Lester, Arthur Macalister, Ernile de St. Jean, George 
Faircloth, and myself (Wattie Gray died in 1862). 

Next day, the volunteers, and people of Brisbane, came up in a 
body to Ipswich ; and, for days before this, we had the excitement 
kept up in visits to the various stables, and wondering if Rock- 
hampton Forsyth's big colt "Fisherman" had "a show" (not the 
English Queen's Plater, you know), but the field for the Champion 
Race, on the 29th May, did not include him, being limited to Tait's 
"Zoe," Single'* "Ben Bolt," and our old nuggety "Von Tromp," of 
Ipswich, and "Eclipse," the lengthy iron grey of Canning Downs, 
who, in the ordinary race meetings at Ipswich, had a habit of 
"fetching 'em," when mounting tin; hill for the third time round, in 



234 "zoe" and "ben bolt." 

a long race, but he did not do it on this occasion. The struggle is. 
easily described. Tait's " Zoe " was never headed, and never 
whipped, or she might have sulked ; Single's " Ben Bolt," a chesnut 
pony, a resolute galloper, charged and surged gallantly, with his 
nose never an inch behind her throat strap the whole three miles, 
and he never gained one inch on that, and no one knows what 
" Zoe " may have had in reserve, while, as for the two Queens- 
landers, "Eclipse" used generally to beat "Van Trornp " when they 
met, but this time " Van Tromp " chased the leaders with most 
effect, and finished third, but neither of them were " in it," time 
(5*57), not fast, but some people say that the Ipswich course is a long 
mile. John Tait foretold that both of them " got enough cruel " 
that day to spoil their future racing and " heart " for a time, for he- 
held the belief that no horse, not quite thoroughbred on both sides, 
could take a bad beating and " come again." 

C. Chessborough M'Donald was at the Club that night, looking: 
stout and quite young again. Young Towns, of Sydney, in a 
regular London hat, was at the race ; " Villages " was his title 
amongst the "gilded youth" of Ipswich. John Ferrett, A. "VV 
Compigne, W. D. White (who used to "yarn" to me, then, of 
" Tertius " Campbell, and early squatting days), Carden Collins, 
with his brothers Arthur and " Bob," and Watkins, of Mount 
Flinders, helped to make up the attendance at the race, and the regular 
meeting began on the 4th June ; and, at the Club dinner in the 
evening, Single got excited, and challenged Tait to run him again, 
but old John bade the other not to " taunt " him ; and then Single 
offered to run " Ben Bolt," mile by mile, against any three Queens- 
land horses, over a champion course, each one to pick him up fresh 
in the straight. Up rose Carden Collins and John Hardie, but there 
was no third man. " Ben Bolt" raced on the third day ; a galloper 
of a determination I had not seen since the days of Launceston 
"Shadow," in 1851, ten years before, and of the phenomenal 
"Newbold," of Mickey Ford, in 1857. And, speaking of 1857, the 
Ipswich races that year were very good. Donald Mackenzie, of 
Colinton, was judge. A gallant little nag, called " Blue Bonnet," 
won a race after five heats had been run, and was double-distanced 
by the great " Newbold " after it, in another race, and all for a bet 
that he could do it. He was sold for £550, a long price then, and 
was found to be quite equal to " Zoe " and " Zingari," and the 
Sydney " cracks " of Tait's and Redwood's stables. 

I was, at 1857 races, introduced to Miss Milford (afterwards Mrs. 
Feez), and we found there were some people known to us both, at 



IX BRISBANE. 235 

Launceston, Tasmania. This lady was the daughter of our new 
Moreton Bay judge, the former " Master in Equity," in Sydney,. 
Mr. S. F. Milford. 

Mrs. F. E. Roberts gave a nice ball at this same time, at " Long- 
pocket,"' where Mr. and Mrs. Boucicault and Captain Feez sang" 
beautifully. I may mention that, the same as at Captain "Wick ham's 
this very year, we all went to and from the ball in a steamer. I 
went home to Shafston after the i - ace week was over, and " Russell," 
the big tabby torn cat, left behind there by H. Stuart Russell, in 
1855, and who knew me well, rubbed himself against my legs, in 
loving recognition, having missed me for seven whole days. 



THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH IN 1868. 



Royal visits to Queensland, or, for that matter, to Australia 
either, have been few. The Prince de Condc died, and was- 
embalmed, at a Sydney hotel. The Duke of Edinburgh was the first 
of English royal blood to sen Australia. I saw him when he landed 
in Brisbane, in February, 1868, and was struck with his German 
appearance. There was a mercantile man from that country then m 
Queensland who would have passed almost for the Duke's double,, 
pale blue eyes, and all. We had a splendid triumphal arch in 
Queen-street, on which the aboriginal blacks stood statuesque and 
motionless as bronze figures, and with more weapons than clothing ;. 
but all this added to the effect, and was " to order." We gave the 
Duke a subscription ball, remarkable more for the subsequent 
comical dispute and litigation with the caterer, than for aught else. 
It was a novelty to see the Order of the Garter worn in a Brisbane 
ball room, and to hear a royal Duke propose the toast of the 
" Ladies," as he did at this ball, and he was here on the 29th 
February, 1868 ; so the Queensland girls had a chance, denied to the 
rest of Australia ; but it was not availed of that ever I heard. We 
got up a day's racing for him at Eagle Farm, and this seemed about 
the only matter that amused him much here, and W. H. Kent, the 
secretary, kept him from feeling dull. The two handicaps were won 
by the Hon. R. Pring's " North Australian," a horse of the Mel- 
bourne and Touchstone breed, who had finished in front of such 
cattle as " Nimblefoot," " Glencoe," " Poetess," " Cowra," "Emerald," 
" Premier," " Warwick," and "Sir John," in two-mile and three- 



236 THE " PRE-ADAMITE " COCKROACH. 

mile races clown south ; and E. E. Jones, the bookmaker, made his 
debut in Brisbane on that occasion. 

They got up a corrobboree, and kangaroo hunt, or something of the 
kind, on Darling Downs, for the Duke's amusement, but Sir Robert 
Mackenzie (our then Premier), was not the man to "fash his thumb," 
even for a Royal Prince, and it would have been a failure, but for 
the fact, I believe, that Sir Arthur Hodgson happened to be there, 
and put some life into it. It was reported that the Duke's piper 
was found, at midnight, not sleeping, but disconsolately pacing the 
corridors of the two-storey Ipswich hotel, where the party put up, 
and, when his master asked him what was the matter, lie replied, 
" Bettles, your Royal Highness, Bettles." The theory has been 
ventilated, and is most probably true, that Donald (or whatever his 
name was) had, for the first time in his life, encountered some of the 
pre- Adamite cockroaches for which that hostelry was famous, and 
which neither Braemar, nor Deeside, experiences, could prepare a 
man for. I like having royal personages (English ones, of course) 
in Australia. It makes me feel, while they stay, as if one were in 
London again, without the trouble of going thither. It must be 
London, somehow, where they are. 

Dr. Quinn, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Brisbane, was con- 
spicuous, in full purple canonicals, amongst the welcomers of the 
Duke, when he landed, after the " Kate," with the Royal Standard 
flying, had steamed up the river from the " Challenger," a craft much 
of the build of the old " Orinoco," W.I. mail boat. 

Queen street was as bright as a ball room, at night, with illumina- 
tions, and you could see to dance anywhere in it, at midnight ; 
speaking of which, the Duke was very active for a heavily-built man, 
a fast dancer, and a good steersman in a waltz ; and his agility was 
not confined to the ball room, for, the neat way in which he "fielded " 
his hat, when it threatened to blow away, on the side ladder of the 
tl Challenger," proved the same. 



YULETIDE IN SYDNEY. 



It was approaching Christmas time ; the thermometer was 97° in 
Brisbane ; and so, by way of preventing myself from melting out- 
right, I resolved to exchange it for the 70° which, I heard, was to 
be encountered in Sydney ; so I embarked in the densely-packed 
steamer, and she speedily put the degrees of latitude behind us, and, 



A " SCHNAPPER " PARTY. 237 

after a tight wrestle with "ocean, the mighty monster," on the part 
of our splendid engines — masterpieces of North British skill — we 
entered the well-remembered harbour of Port Jackson at 2 in the 
afternoon, and began to sniff the clover paddocks of old Sydney, and 
the bustle and unrest of Yuletide were in full swing in that hundred- 
year-old city of the south. "We felt like country cousins, dwarfed in 
the presence of old habitues, for we (London bred as we were) could 
not keep our eyes off the shop windows. 

Next, we embark for a trip to the Heads ; admire the huge bulk 
of the "P. and O." mail steamer, as we pass; and admire, still 
more, the delicious breeze, broad expanse, heavenly coolness and 
picturesque rocks, foliage, and villas, that lined, at a respectful dis- 
tance, our course, on each side, as we steamed east, past " The 
Bradley," and then headed north for Manly Cove. What a splendid 
"blow " for a cooped-up Queenslander ! and see ! here comes a small 
screw boat, of 20 tons, which has just brought a party of successful 
"schnapper " fishers in from " the ground," about ten miles north of 
the Heads, and we realise that we shall surely have it (fried and 
boiled) for tea; and, by the way, how those poor "new chums," in 
that big immigrant ship, just anchored, must have relished the 
couple of hundred of freshly caught fish which the benevolent 
Christmas holiday makers threw on board of them as they steamed 
round her ; and we wondered if the cockneys on the ship drew com- 
parisons between the mackerel of Billingsgate, and the schnapper of 
the Pacific; we " plump " for the latter. But tea is not yet ready, 
so we walk on to the outer beach, and look at the sea tumbling, 
jumping, fighting, and leaping high, in irregular masses, as it plays 
on the rocky capes, and their outlying boulders. We proceed to 
climb the rocks which lead to the " Fairy Bower," a pretty, romantic 
spot. The waters of the sea we have already spoken of, and here 
we have the waters of the land, descending, in a woodland stream, 
down a steep, rocky hill, and over a green, open glade, to mingle 
with the blue and green waves of the Pacific. Now, it gurgles 
along a sloping shelf of sandstone, worn into steps ; and, anon, it 
drops, straight and clear, over a projecting slab of the same carboni- 
ferous rock, into a translucent pool, and there is a coating of jet 
black, but all sandy, loam, on each side of the rill, with wild violets 
(which have a scent all their own), maidenhair and tree ferns, 
mosses, and lichens, an intensely blue flower, of unknown name ; 
gnarled old ti-trees, of giant bulk, but curved and stooping form, 
with projecting bolls and buttresses about their roots and stems : 
vine creepers, like ropes of banyan fig trees ; and a dwarf eucalypt, 



238 CHRISTMAS EVE IN SYDNEY MARKET. 

puny in stem, scentless in leaf, but gorgeous in full white blossoms, 
with a potent aroma of fragrant vanilla in every flower, add their 
mite to the dense forest scene. 

This sylvan spot was once vulgarised by the presence of a wooden 
" hotel," of the modern colonial type, but the fairies would not stand 
it, and it appears no more ; and a semi-ruinous stone hut, probably 
a fisherman's home, is far more in keeping with the traditions of this 
elfin nook. 

Once more to the steamer, and back to Sydney, after seeing the 
wind veer round the compass, with a curious range of temperature, 
as each quarter of the horizon enjoyed its brief half-hour of reign ; 
■and the great Austral city of Sydney, so English in its sleepy and 
happy plenty, comfort, and freedom from care, and from fretful 
Yankee worry, was celebrating and preparing its Christmas Eve. 
Smoked Bodalla bacon, red holly berries and prickly leaves, 
squirrels, ferrets, turkeys, and geese, had a most English, and 
un- Australian, look to one's eyes. Bluff, rosy-faced " bagmen," 
fresh from the mountain air of Goulburn and of Braidwood, made 
one envy their robust " beefiness," as they trotted about the market, 
and supplied the " missus and kids " with all they wanted, for it was 
clearly a " stand treat " day. The "waits" sang at night, and the bells 
chimed, and the ships of war, and huge merchantmen, at Circular 
Quay, dressed themselves out in green boughs from the forest, and 
the calm semi-Sabbath of a Sydney Christmas, full of hallowed 
memories of bygone events, both in the early " gold " days, and "in 
the old time before them " — was gently ushered in upon us. Dear 
old Christinas institution ! foreshadowed, weeks before (alike, in 
cold England and hot Australia), in the Old Testament chapters 
that form the Advent lessons, up to the culminating extract, sublime 
.and soul-stirring, on the day itself, "Nevertheless the Dimness," and 
its sister verses, from the ninth chapter, set to such glorious music, 
as they were, by Handel, inspired, in his way, even as Isaiah was ; 
the " Venite Adoremus " bringing with it, as it peals up the aisle, 
the memories and the essence of every Christmas Day since the year 
1400 ; and the mistletoe decorations embodying the invisible spirit of 
the old mysterious festival. Moslem, Jew, and Buddhist may aver 
that the Christian religion is founded on a myth, but, even if so, 
when else did the brain realm of human ideality soar so high, as 
when it made the God become the Man, that He might feel like, feel 
with, suffer with, and save him 1 

But, if Christmas Day was calm, Boxing Day was not so. Once 
more the scene shifts to Manly Beach. We are on the verandah of 



" BOXING DAY " AT MANLY BEACH. 239 

"the " Pier Hotel," and the paddle steamboats, and the barrel 
organs, and the German band, and the holiday folks are coming in. 
•Steamer after steamer, " one down, t'other come on," come looming 
round the Middle Head, disgorge contents, and are off again for more, 
in a merry " follow-niy-leader " style, Baskets of huge form, fishing 
tackle, and babies, form the chief impedimenta of the camp followers, 
and a nervous "Northerner," accustomed to the quietude of Cleve- 
land, or Bowen (Q.), would be startled out of seven years' growth by 
the noise, and bustling scene ; and, as "prog" is suggestive of " grog," 
let me here sound the praise of the Albury sweet " Verdeilho," as fine 
a " still champagne " as ever was vintaged in France. 

It was a hot day at Manly Beach, and no two opinions about that. 
It was of no use for you to climb the hill that overlooks the quaran- 
tine ground, or to mount the rocky eminence which towers above the 
North Harbour, or to gaze, longingly, from either " coign of vantage," 
in the direction of Botany Bay and Kiama, for a welcome southerly 
breeze, as the breeze in question wasn't there at the time. Nor was 
it on the outer beach either, as a weary, scorching, sandy tramp, 
thither, merely served to reveal the fact, that a wet strand only 
acts as a cool evaporator when swept by a strong wind, and the 
waves may roar and beat as they like, but can produce no refrigera- 
tion in the air. No 70° in Sydney to-day, but 98° "all out." The 
sun is paramount, and there is not a breath of air anywhere. In 
vain, do we wearily, languidly, lift the morning's newspaper, and try 
to extract comfort from its columns. Yes ! it may be 120° at 
Wallgett and Bourke, as compared with our 98° here, but, cui bono, 
it does not cool us one bit to l'ead about it. The Brisbane telegrams 
only tell us that the " Victoria " has arrived, and the " Derwent " 
has sailed ; not very exciting items ; but, perhaps, it is (indeed, more 
than likely, it is) too hot in Brisbane to send telegrams ; and it 
would be a work of superfluity to telegraph the Christmas tempera- 
ture of the northern metropolis. Hurrah ! a little diversion ! a tine 
boat load of fish arrives at the pier — fish, with names of mythical 
sound to English, and even to Queensland, ears. There is a (so- 
called) salmon, and a " straggler," and a beautiful red, gold, big- 
mouthed monstrosity, called a "namagee," said to be sweeter, and 
more delicious, than even the " schnapper." There is a bream, too, 
spotted like a trout, and eke a juicy sole ; but who can eat fish, or 
eat anything, this weather 1 

We begin to feel savage and misanthropical, and will relieve our 
feelings by ;il<using Sydney Harbour, and saying that its rocky 
Capes are too barren, and would be better replaced by smooth 



240 THE " SIROCCO " IX SYDNEY. 

swards. We will derive a gloomy joy from the fact that they micst 
be " catching it " to-day in Sydney. How the stone pavements, and 
the stone banks (some call them " stony-hearted " as well), must be 
reflecting and multiplying the sun's heat ! How the Waverley 
buggy horses must be perspiring up that hill ! How Blufnns, the- 
broker (on another day like this) arriving at the cafe for lunch, 
having, first of all, playfully poked Snorker, the " soft goods " man, 
in the ribs with his umbrella, hangs up his hat, " mops " his. 
(slightly bald) moral and intellectual organs, and calls for iced claret 
with his lunch. " Claret sangaree " is, clearly, the idea for to-day, 
for what wind there is now, is a Sydney north-west hot wind, and 
we all know what that means. Burwood and Petersham, Kissing 
Point and Hunter's Hill, Watson's Bay and Manly Beach, alike, 
acknowledge its potency. Blessed be goodness ! however, it never 
lasts loner here. 

Just stroll down to the pier once more, and look (like Elijah's 
servant) over to Vaucluse, where Wentworth sleeps. Just note that 
little ripple on the water, as it follows the small cloud of dust which 
sweeps seaward along the " Corso " (as they call it), all hurled in 
front of old " Auster," who has just arrived, in all his glory, from 
Wollongong. Manly Cove is white with curly waves, and heigh, 
presto ! with a whish ! whish ! and a banging to of open doors, and 
a general wake up of sleeping babies, wisely taking their siesta in the 
torrid forenoon, the hot wind, and the suffocating calm (associated 
offenders !) are, alike, blown away to the north. Umbrellas are 
furled on Brickfield Hill, eyes are outraged by red dust, but energy 
and appetite return. 

But, poor Wallgett, Coonamble, and Narrabri ! not to mention 
Bourke, Thargomindah, and Clermont ! No " southerly busters "' 
for them. We can only drop a tear of sympathy, and hope that, 
like the eels with the skinning, they have got used to it by this, 
time. 

But, even southerly winds can be overdone, and this one is getting 
worse and worse. The Queensland boat goes out before it, with all 
sail set, but, before to-morrow, she will have more than enough of 
it. We were thinking, only this morning, as we watched the sea. 
playing its pretty revels on the beach, and regarded the shrubby 
capes, lit up by the sun, how fortunate it is for the lovers of scenery 
that Nature never gets drunk (like people do at holiday time), but 
goes through her work daily, and unerringly, to charm our senses ;. 
but, really now, a glance at the bending, swaying trees, and the 
storm-lashed sea, and the drifting rain, makes one fancy that 



new year's chimes. '_M1 

Nature, too must have her " spree " after a long, hot, calm, and the 
sea capes, which face the south, are " catching it " heavily. There 
is, generally, a triple tier of rock, in steps, at these points. The 
:sea bravely rushes on to the first one, and covers it ; mounts the 
second with less of water, and more of spray, than it first began 
business with ; and, impelled from behind, it essays the third one ; 
"but, its " supports failing " (as the war correspondents say), it finds 
-the resistance more stubborn, feels that it must retire, and so, with 
a grand final defiance, it rises in the air, like a geyser, and falls 
back beaten, but not disgraced, and straightway renews the 
conflict. 

Turn we, now, from Nature to "art," and artfulness. There are 
to be races on New Year's Day, in Sydney, and we will hie to 
TattersaH's rooms, and see how the betting goes, the night before. 
Let us scan the physiognomy of those knowing " gorgers," who made 
■the Melbourne layers of the odds weep that last " Cup " day, in 
November, when they " hauled the plunder " over the border to 
Sydney. What lucky fellows they were, you will, perhaps, think. 
Not a bit of it. Nothing but good sharp " touting," and highly 
subsidised spies. These big " coups " are always well paid for before 
they come off". 

But, breaking in on the sounds of the betting room, come the 
classic voices of the dying year, and we quit the scene at once ; 
chimes of bells, some far, some near, were all but drowned in the 
[hideous discordance of drunkards and larrikins yelling their egotis- 
tical and unmusical utterances on the outraged ears of those whose 
thoughts are of a solemn nature at this period of the year. One 
peal of bells, louder and sweeter than the rest, rang out its clear, 
mellifluous " hurly burly," during a pause in the riot, and with a 
(rich resonant effect in the ear, on this pregnant midnight. Its 
brilliant, melodious clangour, was emphasized by the delicious 
discord of one dulcet-tongued bell, which ran, like a golden thread, 
through the warp and weft of the others, " pealing the bells of 
memory," and dearer than all the rest, like to some wild, erring, 
wayward, but best loved, child. 

The Southern Cross sailed high in the heavens, at midnight, in 
Sydney, but dark clouds soon veiled it, and heavy rain fell before 
daylight, and the polar gale raged in full fury. Sydney is a difficult 
place to "dress up to"; at 10 a.m., it is, at times, like Calcutta, 
witli Chinese grass cloth, or silk, the "only wear" endurable; while, 
by 3 p.m., the visitor might fancy himself at Dunedin, in New 
Zealand, in the great change from a north west to a south wind 



242 tattersall's club cup. 

But the old stagers thrive on it, and some of them don't look a clay 
older than they did 25 years ago, as they drive their buggies up 
George street. 

We have to " do " Randwick on New Year's Day, and are soon 
whirling past Moore Park in a cab, and feel at once reminded of 
what England lost by quarrelling with America, by the sight of the 
British and Australian flags, waving lovingly, side by side, on the 
hill, and we hoped that they, at least, would never part. The view 
from the race course is beautiful; villa clad hills embosomed in trees, 
tower all round it; Waverley on the left; St. Jude's, Randwick, in 
the front, in whose churchyard 

" The dead forefathers of our ' haul ton ' sleep," 

and, old Botany Bay away to the right. We meet a host of Brisbane 
faces on the grand stand, sages, who had wisely slid out of that city 
for the summer. We stroll to the saddling paddock, and admire the 
racy-looking, but friendless, Laertes, and, take 12J to 1 about him ; 
and we got consumedly chaffed, about that same, by a very knowing 
" syndicate " of three, who had the " straight " tip about one 
" Wrangler " and who had " raked in " all the forties to five that 
they could accumulate, but, the result proved me to be wiser than 
they. For, after a vexatious lot of false starts, a merry cluster of 
fourteen nags settled into stride along the course ; one " spilt " his 
rider, and went to the front like a " Flying Buck," and kept the 
lead to the end, completely shattering the old theory that a mounted 
horse can always overtake a riderless one. We sat on the grand 
stand, for a little over three minutes and a-half, in a somewhat 
chaotic frame of mind, wondering where our friend " Laertes " was, 
and not hearing his name mentioned, by any of the excited throng, 
till near the finish, when, as he shot to the front we thought the 
sixty dollars were landed, when that abominable " Woolstone " came 
out and blighted us. Still we had the satisfaction of knowing that 
we were nearer to it than the " Wrangler " division ; for, as our 
rough-coated friends in the bawling betting ring, below us, said, in 
their expressive vernacular, "there never wasn't no hundreds to eight 
about any horse as comes in a good second, out of fourteen." 

But I must away from Randwick races and see the Botanic 
Gardens, and how they look, before I go home for the clay. No 
" swells," and no " rowdies " either, are here to-day ; the company is 
chiefly recruited from what may be called the " religious poor " of 
Sydney. The Norfolk Island pine is a fine tree seven feet thick at 



"SIR HERCULES." 243 

the base; but, having seen the originals at Norfolk Island, more than 
double the height of this transplanted stripling, I don't stare at it 
as some do. The harbour view from these gardens is superb, and 
quite outshadows the outlook from Brisbane, but the latter bears 
the palm for vivid flower colouring. 

A stroll now on to the Museum in Hyde Park. What glorious 
caverns of crystalline needles of malachite from Peak Downs ! And 
here are the anchor of the " Bounty " from " Pitcairn " Island, and 
plenty more " classic " relics of the " Southern Cross " regions. 
Skeletons of the race horse " Sir Hercules," of the camel, lion, tiger, 
ox, but none of them carry their depth of rib " aft," like the camel 
and horse do, and witli the endurance which it bestows. And from 
the Museum to the Public Library reading room, at a bay window 
that overlooks the harbour. How strange to take up a volume of 
the Annual Register for (say) 1790, when Sydney was two years 
old, and read how a man fell out of bed, at the " Elephant and 
Castle," and was suffocated face downwards, and of the loss of the 
Jamaica fleet, and the wreck of a transport off the Agulhas bank, 
and 330 drowned and four only saved. There is a fine "old crusted" 
glamour about Sydney after all, as one sits and reads such books and 
glances over Domain, Gardens, and harbour, between the paragraphs. 
And then, how strange, to take a pull in a boat down the harbour, 
and note the contrast between the sea-side cottages of some old 
resident with a fine expanse of land, a Crown grant of 1815, perhaps, 
and of enormous value, round it. The contrast between this and a 
£30,000 stone-cut chateau perched on Darling or on Potts' Point, 
in a tiny garden that perhaps cost £10,000 more to scoop the sand 
and stones out of it and replace with good soil and trees is great, 
but the matchless sites are worth it all, to those who can afford it. 



LORD HARRIS IN SYDNEY, 1879. 



The spectators at a first-class Sydney cricket match differ, in some 
respects, and not at all, in others, from those to be seen at the 
Randwick races. There are the same faultless equipages, the same 
grand carriage horses, to be seen at both, the ladies dresses are 
equally costly, but far more " quiet," and there is an " evangelical " 
sort of element in the crowd to be seen on the grand .stand, which 
is wanting at the horse races ; while, the rough crowd is very much 
alike at both functions. A lady, in silver grey, thick corded, silk, 



244 LORD HARRIS AND ULYETT. 

lit up with " sultan " colour, and with a broad six ounce gold 
collarette of intricate and tasteful workmanship, would not be out 
of place at the cricket, but, she would probably be prima donna, 
there, as regards costume. Such were my reflections as I saw Lord 
Harris's team, in January, 1879, play against New South Wales. 
It was a " big contract " in those days for one colony to tackle a 
strong English eleven ; the more so, as Spofforth had been disabled 
by a cab accident the night before and was unable to play, and that 
moreover, Penn, of Kent, would be with the Britons. The numis- 
matic oracle was consulted and decreed that England should bat 
first, on the beautifully shaven sward. "Spoff " lounged up and down 
in the costume of an English gentleman of the period, and looked 
as if to say " how will they get on without me 1 Lucas and Ulyett 
went in, at 12.55, to Tindall and Evans's bowling, and play was 
poor, for, Lucas, Webbe, and Hornby, only made seven apiece; but, 
when Lord Harris and Ulyett, both men of fine physique, got 
together, matters became different, and when the Yorkshireman was, 
at last, got rid of, 4 — 51 — 85 appeared on the board. The fair skins 
of these two players seemed to grow browner and browner, under 
the fiery sun, as each successive "ten" went up. Tindall and Garrett 
went straight for the middle stump each time, but Lord Harris and 
Penn blocked the " hot " ones, and sent the medium ones — off which 
a run was doubtful — back to the bowlers in a "just-to-save-time-you- 
know " style, and the loose ones, went, sans merci, to the fence, and 
not every ball, that could have been, toas, fielded ; but, the majority 
were arrested half-way and sent in sans ceremonie. Lord Harris 
batted in the same fine, free, swinging, admirably-timed way, 
peculiar, once, to Charley Bannerman, and Penn's cuts were a treat 
to see ; and, as both men warmed to their work, Lord H. sent some 
fine full volleys off the bat. The two Kentish representatives raised 
the score from 81 to 151. The batting was brilliant, the fielding 
was Al ; and, now, all hands to the pavilion, for a "modest quencher" 
after Evans, the dogged, had bowled his Lordship for 50. And here 
a burly party, in a blue cap, strolled out solus and viewed the crease 
with a critical air, one Emmett (of Yorkshire), who proved to be as 
clever, with his left hand, at the ball, as the peer was with the bat. 
The terrible Penn was not yet done with, but the gallant Evans 
bowled better and better the more they knocked him about. Penn 
kept on slipping balls and judging runs, till he made 56, when he 
was caught by Garrett off Coates : and Absolon followed, a big, 
strong, dark man, with a nervous vigour of style and an incessant 
"twiddling" of the bat, bespeaking impatience. He made 16 runs 



MURDOCH AND NAT THOMPSON. 245 

very quickly, and he was, evidently, one who could do nothing 
slowly, and he proved a rare " field " later on. The end soon came 
now, and, with 248 for England, and, with A. Bannerman and 
Garrett sent in for New South Wales, the sun set on the first day's 
play. 

When the match was resumed next morning, it soon became 
evident that the " warm " style in which it had been begun by 
England was going to be fully maintained by New South Wales. 
For, when the Bannerman family and Garrett had retired the scor-e 
stood 3 — 28 — 100. Two " teazers " in the shape of Murdoch and 
Evans, now faced the English bowlers. Keen was the judging, sharp 
was the stealing, of runs, spite of point and long field's efforts, and 
the ball got no rest, for a moment, anywhere. Evans had a grand 
sweep of the bat, and one that kept near to the ground, at that 
critical moment, when " Yorkers " and " shooters " are about ; he 
made 21 before l.b.w. became his fate, and he was applauded, only, 
on the members' stand ; for, the general public expected a larger 
subscription from him, a 50, at least. Murdoch was now joined by 
the thick-shouldered veteran Nat Thompson, and they proved to be 
a pair of thorns in the Englishmen's sides. Murdoch had a fine 
straddle at the wicket, and could keep one foot in the crease and reach 
out with the other, in a style which no novice should attempt. He 
was careful with Emmett's bowling, and seemed to have " met the 
gentleman before " (in England, perhaps) ; the batting was not as 
brilliant an exposition of cricket as that by Lord Harris and Penn, 
the day before, but the defence was even more patient, and, when, at 
last, the batsman did " open his shoulders " it was " four " after 
"four," in grand fence drives. Webbe and Royle fielded them ably, 
ran in, took the ball, breast high, and in like a cannon shot ; but, 
for all Nat Thompson's big hits, there was not the ghost of a lift in 
any one of them, and they each ricochetted along the grass, safe 
and inevitable additions to the score. So well did Murdoch and 
Thompson get set, that it looked at one time, as if five wickets 
would earn 200 runs, for Emmett was beginning to get demoralised 
and to bowl " wides," notably, two in succession. Absolon stood 
hatless in the sun all day, and fielded like a steam engine. Murdoch 
was a younger and swifter runner than Nat Thompson, and quite 
overlapped him at times, and, but for a "fumble," or two, at the 
wicket, these " boys " would not have made 70 and 50 respectively. 
Murdoch, at last, lifted one of Ulyett's high to "leg," where a party 
named Webbe happened to be stationed, and there was no need to 
trouble the umpire, 5 — 70 — 188. Allen and Scale had been foolishly 



246 MASSIE AND C. BANNERMAN. 

selected to play in place of Powell and Gregory, two better men, and, 
with Spofforth disabled, it was a wonder that New South "Wales did 
so well ; but, there were no silly efforts to steal runs, and many a 
grand hit was allowed to go for a single, so as not to risk a 
catastrophe. Murdoch was now "dead," but Thompson was not, 
by any means, and in order to show the public that drives were not 
the only kind of goods he dealt in, he treated them to some glorious, 
clean, arass-hu^innc: cuts. Allan retired for a " duck," and now 
came Massie (a prime combination of " slogging " and defence) to 
bat, and he soon hit the only five of the day, clean into the pavilion, 
and when Nat Thompson was, at last, bowled by Emmett, the score 
stood 7 — 50 — 204. Seale came, and went just as quickly, and 
Tindall defended the wicket ; and, now, many an embryo " fourer ' 
of Massie's was chopped down to three by the superhuman efforts of 
the two gallant " long fields," Lord Harris and Penn, who certainly 
did cover an immensity of ground. Massie appeared likely to 
emulate the score of Nat Thompson, and to do it in less time, when 
he slipped between the wickets in a style which shewed that " prop 
and wheel " was not his forte, and he was run out, mercilessly, 
9 — 30 — 235. Coates, who followed, must needs " step out " before 
he got " warm," and the innings closed for 240. 

The second innings of the Englishmen was chiefly remarkable for 
the steady double figuring of the first nine men, averaging 21 apiece, 
and varying from Lucas at 15 to Royle at 29, a most exceptional 
score, and one in which the usual cricket " certainty " that the three 
top scorers make more than the other eight do — did not come off. 
This was a matter which an astute Sydney sharebroker used to lay 
five to one about, and coin money from his eager silly victims ; the 
real odds being about five to ten times that. The bill for "sundries" 
was also exceptional, being 29 as against four in the first innings ; 
no credit to the " colonials." 

It was expected that the regatta would spoil the attendance on 
the third day, the 26th January, but, it was not so, the numbers 
being 4,000, 10,000, and 15,000, respectively. I came late on the 
third day, and found Massie and Charley Bannerman batting, and 
5 — 1- — 120 up, the five, meaning Evans, Murdoch, Thompson, Allen, 
and Alec. Bannerman. Massie and " Chawles " had evidently made 
up their minds that the other four men should not be called upon if 
possible ; so, the former hit viciously at every chance, and the brave 
Charley Bannerman, with his right hand split up, while fielding the 
day before, faced it out like a hero, though one could see, every now 
and then, by the way in which he threw out his bat held in his left 



WRECK. 247 

band only — the jar of the handle being too great for his wounded 
right hand to bear — that it was a great tax on him, and it was down- 
right heroism on his part to keep on, and if all the balls he hit had 
"gone" in place of being — 75 per cent, of them — grabbed by a squad 
of able fielders who worked together, like a man-of-war's crew, 
xlisciplined and tireless, it was not 60 but 200, he might have scored. 
It is " cricket " of course, to stop a ball, but it vexed me all the 
same — in this exceptional instance — to see good hits — made with so 
much pain — go for little, or nothing. "When the score had run up 
from 120 to 200 a caucus meeting of the Englishmen was held, and a 
new and fiercer style of bowling was adopted, but it " travelled " all 
the same as the other sort. Charley B. made the winning hit, and a 
small but enthusiastic Sydney boy convulsed the crowd by an 
abortive attempt to carry Massie — twice his size and weight — off 
the field. Bannerman well deserved the £38 they collected for him, 
and all the players were called " before the curtain " and well 
cheered for such a well fought game. 



THE GARDEN PALACE OF 1880. 



The International " Garden Palace " Exhibition, of 1879-80, had, 
■of course, to be visited by me. So, there I was on the steamer, 
after the usual 500 miles of tossing, and found, at midnight, that 
the " shipmen deemed we were drawing nigh to some country ; " 
for, though the engine throb kept on, the motion was less, and deck 
•cries of " Sted-dee " alternated with " Port " and " Starboard," and 
the ceaseless rattle of the tiller chains, coaxed me on deck, only to 
be blinded with the glare of the " Sow and Pigs " light-ship, on the 
reef, and visions of a fish breakfast in Sydney, " a hair" (so to speak) 
" of the dog that bit you " (with sea-sickness) arose gratefully before 
me. 

Morning disclosed the dome and towers at the Garden Palace, 
950 feet long, 450 feet wide, and from the eastern tower of which you 
•could discern the outer sea, over the gap, at the South Head, where, 
on that awful night in August, 1857, the ship "Dunbar," with some 
200 people — whose Sydney relatives had almost the fires lit, and 
the repast ready, to welcome them just at their gates — were 
shattered, in one moment, on the pitiless outside sea cliffs, where, 
in the darkness, a suppositious entrance to the harbour deceived the 
captain, who hurled the ship at it, to escape the howling hurricane, 



248 

and found death. No one can imagine that brief scene, more' 
terrible than when, in the " Dandenong " gale, steamers foundered 
with broken shafts, and when, in another steamer, which did not 
founder, and ought to have put back, the primest gallant race- 
horses in New South Wales, fresh from their honours at Randwick,. 
and in search of more laurels at Flemington, got loose, down below,, 
and kicked each other to death and pulp in a huddled prostrate mass- 
to leeward, 'mid a Jeu d'en/er of teeth and hoofs, to the sorrow of 
ail sportsmen. But this is 1880, and not 1857, or 1876, and the- 
Garden Palace will be the theme, when once I have mentioned that 
I well remember that " Dunbar " night, and how the wide-spread 
storm raged, even up as far as Moreton Bay, 500 miles from the 
fatal " Gap ; " for, it is, when the wind travels over the ocean at 
70 miles an hour, and the " isobars " are out of order, and the 
differential gradients of barometric pressure are " steep," it is then 
that the cyclone stalks abroad in his fury, and broods upon the face 
of the waters — then that the harbour bar moans, and that the 
minute gun is heard at sea, followed, too sadly and surely, by the 
" Dead March " on the shore. 

I was in Ipswich that day, at the North Australian Club, and I 
went over, in the afternoon, to take tea at M 'Donald's hotel, with 
Lieutenant Nicol, of the Native Police, for he was good company, 
and he could play and improvise at the piano as well as Theodore 
Hook himself ; and, when darkness came, I concluded not to cross 
that night a deep (and sure to be flooded) ravine, that intervened 
between the Club and the hotel ; for there was no municipal council 
in those days, and sober people who travelled in very wet nights,. 
and essayed these gullies, in Brisbane, or Ipswich either, were (as. 
on 19th March, 1854) found, swept into the main river and dead, 
next day. There were no electric telegraphs then, but we heard 
how the " Yarra," steamer, from Brisbane, forced her way through a 
mass of unknown wreckage, near Sydney Heads, and gradually the 
whole horror became known. 

The cessation of the Crimean war had, in 1857, set free numerous 
steamers in Europe, some of which came to Australia, and the 
" Dunbar " had been seen down the coast, and her arrival was 
looked for. The bereavement was long felt in Sydney. "We, in this 
world, fancy, that we recover after we have lost those dear to us, and 
it is certain that we do eat, and drink, and sleep, and retain fair 
health after a time, and we are apt to imagine that we have 
recovered, but we are never the same afterwards. We are healthy 
and happy, perhaps, but it is as a new and a different being that we- 



THE " LEICHHARDT BEAN." 249' 

are so ; for, were we the same as before, the bereavement would kill 
us ; and it is in mercy that the change comes over us. But, to 
1880, and the Garden Palace. 

This exhibition, open to all the world for competition, and not to 
Australia only, was a "new departure " in the colony of New South 
Wales. The scene and grounds did, in some degree, recall the 
Zoological Gardens in London, where you go down this flight of 
steps, and up that other one, lined by turfy banks, and brilliant 
chromatic flower beds — to the Elephant House, the Lion House, and 
so forth ; for, the same rich " holiday " feeling and aspect quite 
permeated me, and made me feel as when a boy, at Regent's Park, 
or the " Surrey Zoo," I gazed on the zebra and rhinoceros. 

Let us go inside. Hem ! British Court — Staffordshire : Here is 
a cut-glass jug, which, with no gold or silver about it, has been sold 
to a Sydney resident, for 50 guineas. Trust it not to the hands of 
" Bridget, of Cork," or " Mary Hann, of London," oh ! denizen of 
the Sunny South and buyer of the precious crystal, unless thy bank 
account be pretty replete with sovereigns ! 

Italy — Florence : Here be inlaid tables, which, in agate, lapis 
lazuli, malachite and moonstone, ably reproduce birds, flowers, 
fruits, animals, jewellery, &c, and they are priced up to £400 each y 
but, I think, they would accept less. And here is a £2,000 marble 
statue of " Ariadne," but I'd rather have the money, myself. A 
carved coral suite, from Naples, is marked at £187 10s., and a 
turquoise one, at £58. On, now, to the South Australian Court, 
expecting, of course, to find copper ore and wheat ; but, lo ! in place 
of this — well ! we never knew what Australian jewellers could do, 
till we saw these marvellous emu eggs, sawn in two, silver lined, 
and shutting and opening with a spring, and disclosing, inside, the 
giant Leichharclt bean, of Queensland, similarly sawn and mounted, 
and filled with scent, the whole jewel being one such as any lady 
might be proud to see on her dressing table ; and here, also, but,, 
surely, out of its proper place, was a marvellous Grand piano, by 
Franz Goetze, of Dresden ; the gloomy thunder of its bass notes, tht 
sharp, tremulous sweetness of its higher keys, and the rich, mellow 
fulness of its middle register, held me spell-bound, as a fond amateur, 
who seemed ever to linger near, extracted from it the ./iibi/afi; and 
various operatic gems. A magnificent, locally found, yellow diamond 
completes the list of whal I noticed in the Adelaide Court. Then- 
was some dry curacoa in the Dutch Court, which I will not attempt 
to describe. 

In the New Zealand Court, in place of war canoes and the 



■250 PORCELAIN TIGERS. 

dinornis, was a grand oil picture of Glencoe, in the isle of Arran, 
which, for softness, tone, depth, and finish, equalled anything in the 
great art gallery outside. The costly gilt and painted china, at £80 per 
■dish, and the Bohemian glass, in the Austrian Court, were novel to 
Brisbane eyes ; and a group of porcelain tigers, life size, from 
■Staffordshire (said to have taken the gold medal at Paris) were 
here. 

A pair of terra cotta busts took my fancy in the French Court ; 
two renderings of a girl's head — one frowning demurely at some (to 
us) invisible " Mr. Wrong," and the other smiling sweetly at an 
equally imaginary " Mr. Right " — would be works of art, anywhere. 

And, now, for the Art Gallery itself. I liked the pale girl selling 
oranges at Cairo ; she was pretty enough, and white enough, to 
marry. I liked the quiet couple, just going to start for the ball ; 
she, in full costume, well dressed, with yellow hair, and small ears 
{aged 19), and wisely warming her white satin slippers and their 
contents before the fire, while the carriage is being fetched round ; 
he, some distance away (aged 23) with the dark dreamy eyes, and 
exquisite black moustache, seizes and utilizes the precious five 
minutes of delay, and quietly " pops the question " from his chair, 
without any knee business or attitudes. Modern youth is somewhat 
prosaic ; and, apropos of " Dan Cupid." 

Crooked alas ! runs at times the course of love, though not always 
so. The scion of a high family will marry a piquante barmaid, and 
nine times out of ten, lives to regret the mesalliance. Another 
marries, wisely, a girl in his own class, but often finds her insipid, 
and lacking in variety, for he is apt to forget that you cannot find 
all the qualities in one woman, any more than a gem can be diamond, 
ruby, and emerald, all at once. But, amid this world-wide comedy, 
or, rather, tragedy of errors, thank Heaven for the numberless 
bright cases, where a " brick " of a true woman, loyal to her children 
by night and by day, in sickness and in health, and whole-hearted 
in her husband's interest, makes him love her all her life, and 
cherish her memory with sweet, fond, bitterness when she has left 
him for ever. 

The "Raising of the widow's son" is remarkable for the manner in 
which she is clutching her tangled and neglected grey hair, with 
enraptured surprise. The half-incredulous, yet all joyous, glare in 
her red, swollen, and glassy eyes, telling of vain and weary vigils in 
the past, as she bends over to meet her half-rising boy ; and the 
masterly pourtrayal of joy bursting through the cloud of grief, marked 
this picture as an artist's work. But my pick of the gallery was a 



ROYALTY IN BRISBANE. 251 

-sea piece, showing a ship and steamer howling along, with a heani 
wind, and sunset clouds lighting up the ocean ; the indigo depths of 
the waves, the creamy froth of the crests, the liquid and translucent 
green of the billow curl — both where the vessels cleave them, and 
where the breeze, alone, topples them over — caused me to break the 
10th commandment, and wish that I might present the picture as 
a nucleus for a National gallery in Brisbane, so well was the sea- 
water in motion set out on it. 

The little white slave children in the Roman market, 1800 years 
ago, " Non Angli, seel Angeli," evoked a feeling of pity. So naked, 
so sick, so half-starved, so bound up with rags on their sores, so 
friendless and desolate in their babyhood and exile — one of them 
lying, stark naked, on the cold stone pavement, and not looking 
three years old — that this picture was even more painful to gaze 
upon than the shapely Venus form of the cast out Jezebel, whose 
dead, or dying, hand convulsively pushes away one of the many 
dogs' mouths, as she falls, head downwards, with glazed eyes, on the 
fatal court yard flagstones. 



THE PRINCES' VISIT, 1881. 



"Two rosy, sea-blown boys, and that's all." Such was my 
brief verdict when I saw the Prince of "Wales's tAvo sons pass the 
General Post Office, in Brisbane, in the August of 1881 ; and yet, 
a moment later, I had altered my mind, The sea-blown boys were 
there, truly enough, but that was not all, and very far, too, from 
being " all." Visions and memories rose before me ; tradition and 
history ; Plantagenets and Tudors : the Tower of London and 
" Traitor's Gate ; " names that were famous in story ; gold crowns, 
steel armour, and heraldic devices thereon ; Lady Jane Grey and Sir 
Walter Raleigh; the Duchy of Cornwall and that ancient and highly 
respectable metal known as " tin," which is always mixed up, some- 
how, and inseparably, with the British Constitution, the Bank of 
England, the Mint, with John Bull, in his blue coat and top boots, and 
all else that is orthodox, solvent, and " i^roper," you know ; even the 
Black Prince's tomb and canopy, in Canterbury Minster, came before 
me ; and here were the boys themselves, and, happily, with no 
Uncle Richard the Third lying in wait to work them evil. They never 
looked so well, before or since, as when in Brisbane ; for (hey were 
at that happy medium age, when boys look their best ; and a Brisbane 



252 LOUIS OF BATTENBERG. 

August is just the time to make any visitor feel braced up and jolly. 
They, at 17 and 15 years of age, respectively, had a wider circle of 
the maternal sort of sympathisers, than their Uncle Alfred had, in 
Brisbane, at maturer 23, thirteen years earlier ; and the ball, in 
their honour, was given by the Mayor, Mr. John Sinclair, and was 
not a mere subscription affair. It was the largest ever seen in 
Brisbane, with 1,500 guests. Fancy costumes and naval uniforms 
lighted up the scene ; and there were guests there, too, who were 
loyal, but had never been to a ball before ; middle-aged and Non- 
conformist ladies — in high black silk dresses, with heavy bank 
balances, whose wills it was good to be remembered in, and who 
never saw a waltz before, or since — went to look at Queen Victoria's 
grandsons ; and the handsome Louis of Battenberg flirted immensely 
when he had a chance ; and the ball passed with an eclat that was 
long remembered in Brisbane. 

One sad event occurred while the princes were here. On the 

1 

18th August, 1881, the day they landed (the fateful 18/8/1881, seven 
figures from only two figures, and which read the same both ways), 
the chief Roman Catholic dignitary in Queensland, Bishop Quinn, 
died ; and it was a cruel puzzle to many a good citizen that day as 
to whether the flags should be half-mast high, or not. The chief 
Roman Catholic in England, Cardinal Manning, died on the same 
day, I believe, as Albert Victor. Bishop Quinn was a foremost 
welcomer of the Duke of Edinburgh when he landed in Brisbane, in 
February, 1868. 



INTERNATIONAL CRICKET, JANUARY, 26th, 1883, 

AT SYDNEY. 



IVO BLIGH'S ELEVEN V. AUSTRALIA. 

It is not every day that the cricket "dons," of Oxford and Cambridge 
combined with the wily professionals of Notts and York, pay a visit 
to Australia, so I was bound to be there, when they met the flower 
of New Holland at Moore Park, Sydney. On arrival, I found every 
pavilion crowded to the roof, though play had only just begun, and 
not a wicket had fallen ; 18,000 people were present, and this, too, 
despite the regatta, races, and picnics, elsewhere ; in fact, it was the 
largest " gallery " ever seen in Australia, and raised grave doubts in 
the minds of all hands as to how the " multitude were to be fed in 
the wilderness." 



STUDD AND SPOFFORTH. 253 

England won the toss, and went in. The day was gloriously fine, 
but humid, and caused misgivings of thunderstorms, with that 
powerful south-easter in full blast. C. T. Studd and the professional 
Barlow, faced the bowling, and the soldierly bearing and skilled 
fencer style, of the former, were apparent at a glance. Barlow 
looked " slouching " by comparison, and many of the balls, from 
Giffen, Palmer, and Spofforth, seemed to puzzle him ; but none of 
them troubled the free and graceful play of Studd for one moment. 
Plenty of facile " placing " and run-stealing followed. Swift, our 
Queensland visitor (and opjoonent) of 1875, was umpire for Aus- 
tralia. Spotforth did not " come off," and was replaced by Garrett. 
A cannon-ball hit of Studd's was dropped by Murdoch at point, so a 
long life was at once predicted for him ; but he was run out, and the 
Oxford and Rugby hero, the quiet, but dangerous-looking, Leslie, fol- 
lowed, 1 — 31 — 40. Barlow, despite his untaking style, proved a 
regular bowling-killer, in his dogged, but never daring, defence. No 
sound broke the stillness and monotony, save the shrill, sharp " no," 
or " run," heard after the " click " of bat and ball, and one of those 
sudden lulls that creep, at times, over the most lively game, was 
broken by Spoftbrth sending Leslie's timbers flying, ere he had 
scored ; 50 runs, at least, thus snipped off the English score, as by 
the scissors of Fate. Steel took his place, and Spofforth continued 
to waste much energy on the impenetrable Barlow, who was only 
dismissed by a catch, just as lunch was announced. That meal over 
— and it was a " Duke Humphrey " repast for many, and eatables 
were all gone at 2 p.m., and "drinks" at 3 - 30 — Barnes, a patient- 
looking professional, came on. Steel tried to face the terrific sun, 
hatless, but had to "give it best." Barnes did not do much, and, 
when he retired, Read, a far more formidable bat, came to the 
rescue, Steel fell a victim to the dextrous Blackham of the dark 
gloves (size unknown), who was ubiquitous behind the wicket; while, 
as for Alec Bannerman, no nurse ever watched and picked up an 
errant baby, as he did every ball that moved near him ; 68 runs 
were all the dividend paid by four wickets, but that low average 
was not to last, for Read and Tvlecote were sworn to avenge the 
fate of Leslie. Five wickets were down for 70, and this was the 
turning point of the Englishmen's luck. Tylecote and his mate 
batted freely, "slewed" the ball behind them, to the fence, for 
"fours," and did it again, and again, till 105 went up. The Aus- 
tralian fielding was perfect, but the batting and the placing of every 
ball were so free and faultless, that the score could not he kept down. 
Tylecote continued to deal out graceful slips and " draws " in plenty, 



254 READ AND TYLECOTE. 

while Read did the big "leg" hits at Spofforth's expense. Murdoch 
seemed lazy at "point," and there were some overthrows, too ; 133 
up. A " leg " hit of Read's was prettily sent back by the little 
drummer boy, Alec. Bannerman, whom one could hardly see till 
after he had "operated," so small and unobtrusive did he look 
when out in the field. The magnificent batting continued, and the 
consummate ease, and slight deflection of body and wrist, with 
which each ball was sent on its allotted journey, were the chief 
features of the play. Read was now 37, and Tylecote41 — 185 up — 
and both men immovably " set," Palmer's bowling notwithstanding ;. 
he and Spofforth were " collared," and Australia collapsed, as at 
Cambridge and Twickenham, and from much the same cause. The 
sky was now cool and cloudy, with an impending storm, and the 
light just " made to order " for the Englishmen. An adjournment 
for " lemonade " followed, and then Bannerman and M'Donnell were- 
put on to bowl, for a change, and this broke up the spell ; for Read 
called a run, and then backed out of it, and before Tylecote could 
get back, the ball had arrived, and a wicket that was past all hope, 
or fear, of being bowled, fell to a " run out." Perhaps, Tylecote 
was not angry; but, nabocklisli ! Anyhow, Leslie's fate had been 
avenged, and the board shewed 6 — 61 — 191, and things looked 
hopeful once more for Australia, on whose behalf I would, cheer- 
fully, a minute before, have " underwritten " the innings of the 
visitors at 300 " notches," and have thought I was saving 50 runs 
by the bargain. Bates took Tylecote's place, and the latter (as were 
the Englishmen all through), was applauded to the echo by the 
strictly impartial spectators, who were carried away by the undeni- 
able merits of the English batting, amid ejaculations of "They're too- 
good for us," and "We can't touch them," in the member's pavilion - T 
200 up, and Murdoch woke up, and began to field much better at 
"point." Read made his exit through a splendid " run in " catch 
by Massie, off Bannerman, 7 for 223. G. B. Studd took the bat,. 
and Bates, caught by M'Donnell, off Spofforth, gave way to the- 
captain, Ivo Bligh, a tall, fine man, who was reported to " no savee " 
Spofforth's bowling, but who managed to negotiate it all the same. 
The big storm had now passed out to sea, and the sun blazed out 
again, and Bligh was bowled by Spofforth, just as a slight shower 
fell. Morley went in as last man ; a dark-skinned likeness of 
Charles Bannerman. He seemed to be as bad a batter as he was a 
good bowler, and had a left-handed, scythe-mowing style, with the- 
willow, a whole century behind C. T. Studd's, which was even more 
elegant that Caffyn's wrist play, of 20 years previous, in Sydney- 



MORLEY AND GIFFEN. 255 

G. B. Stuck! was soon bowled by Palmer, and 247 was the total. 
The ground was pressed by a horse-roller, and at 25 to 6 p.m., out 
came A. Bannerman and Giffen, and, after a confab as to the strike,. 
Bates opened to Giffen. Morley was the other bowler, with a swift, 
high, left-hand delivery, a regular " take no denial " sort of ball,. 
straight and true as a stone from David's sling. But Giffen and 
Bannerman took no liberties, and 17 were up, and no wicket clown, 
when the stumps were drawn ; and I went home, fully convinced 
that Bligh's team were the most easy and effective batters, so far, 
seen in Australia, and ahead of Lord Harris's Grace's, and Shaw's 
Elevens. That night the inevitable " southerly buster " and rain, 
which follow intense heat in Sydney, arrived at 1 a.m., and I 
seriously thought that I would not trouble to go and see the rest of the 
match, for, with Bates and Morley on a sodden wicket, it would be 
a one innings affair, and hollow even at that ; so I did not travel to 
Moore Park till play had been on for an hour, and before I could 
get inside the gate, I heard two thunder-claps of applause, and 
found the two " not outs " of the night before — A. Bannerman and 
Oiffen — still at it, with 28 apiece to their credit, and " blocking " 
carefully. Morley had been taken off, and Stuck! was " pitching 
them short" to Bannerman; 72 were up by lunch time, of which 
total Giffen claimed 40. Rain came on, and, when the fateful 7G 
was reached — the same as with - the Englishmen the day before — 
Giffen stepped out to a " coaxer," and had his bails whipped off by 
Tylecote. Murdoch took his place, and, impelled by fate and a wet 
wicket, began to step out to all and sundry, sending them flying, 
any one of which, however, would have been a " settler " if missed ; 
but Murdoch was " not built that way." And, now, the southerly 
vapour clouds — which had been piling up before the hard, sea-borne 
north-easter — loomed dark and heavy over Moore Park and Rand- 
wick, and, when they distilled, the rain fell a deluge, and a 
forest of umbrellas, from 13,000 spectators, went up. Play was- 
suspended just as the board marked one out for 100. The ground 
soon looked to he beyond all the surgery of sawdust to cure ; but the 
two captains went out and held an inquest on the "pitch" with the 
result that a verdict of " go on " was recorded, and Alec. Banner- 
man continued to play back each dangerous ball in his quiet- 
" Thanks, not this time " style. The rain was provoking, for never 
before did such an absorbed crowd go to watch cricket in Australia. 
Rain fell all the Saturday, and a great part of the Sunday. There 
were several level £500 bets on the match, reported as made in 
Melbourne before it began, and it was stated (but not verified) that 



~256 CASTOR AND POLLUX. 

half a million of money, in bets, hung on the issue of this game. 

When Monday arrived, Australia was hopeful over her one wicket 
for 100 ; but the game of cricket is not very amenable to the pro- 
visions of the "Rule of Three," and you can't "pan it out" on that 
basis. In fact, the wicket, thanks to the I'ain, was one on which 
a score of 250 runs per diem, was a sheer impossibility. 

I arrived at 1 p.m., and found that some runs had been piled on, 
but at a great cost in wickets. Horan and Blackham were batting, 
the latter very well, and pluckily. Some rash running was made, 
and the umpire was just a " leetle " merciful; 63 runs had been 
added, at a cost of five players, all caught, a proof of the treacherous 
nature of the ground, and that the wicket was one of those things 
which " are not what they seem." Garrett and Palmer were both 
bowled, and Blackham could only hit the bowling by running out to 
it, but, que voulez votes, after 26 hours of steady rain, and Australia 
batting 1 Spofibrth carried out his bat without so much as even a 
strike. " Hard lines for him," said one. " No, not a line, but an 
oval," said another, re the " duck egg." They are so witty, you 
know, in the pavilion, sometimes. 

The following transpired in my hearing at a match in Brisbane : 
Fielder Pollock threw in a ball, 100 yards, to the wicket. " Splendid 
shy that," said spectator No. 1. "Yes, Pollux a good Castor," 
replied No. 2. " Oh ! Gemini! what a pun ! " rejoined No. 1 ; and 
retired, to " irrigate." 

Lunch and the horse-roller both fulfilled their missions, and the 
English boys did some bowling to each other, sending balls that 
came in with an innocent-looking, easy sling, and which, as soon as 
they touched the ground, appeared to suddenly alter both their 
minds and direction in a most insidious manner. 

At 240 p.m. the Australian lads took the field again. Spofforth's 
countenance beamed with the prospect of fun to come on that 
wicket, and he and Garrett bowled to Leslie and C. T. Stud. Leslie 
vanished, after making 8 ; Palmer replaced Garrett, and got at 
Studd's wicket ; 2 for 45. Steel came on, made 6, and Murdoch 
caught the ball as it glanced from the leg before the wicket, just as 
he was begining to send Spoflbrth to " leg " in a very ominous style 
(3 for 55) ; and now the dangerous Read came on. Barlow ambled 
out for a run, after hitting one of Spofforth's, and " No, I won't, 
Barlow," shrieked Read, with a wholesome respect for his wicket ; 
87 were now on the board, spite of Spoflbrth being so " unplayable, 
you know, on a wet wicket ; " and, once more, it looked (as far as 
the poor old Rule of Three went) like 300 for England, when — 



TOMMY HORAN BOWLS. 257 

happy thought ! Tommy Horau, of all people, was put on to bowl, a 
low rise being now the medicine prescribed for John Bull, by Aus- 
tralia. " Tommy " placed his field with a solemn deliberation and 
aplomb which fairly convulsed some of the spectators. " What a 
farce," said the knowing ones. But " T. H." knocked Read's 
wicket down first ball, and he ought to have stopped at this grand 
•record of " one ball, no runs, one wicket." Barnes, a much more 
dashing professional bat than Barlow, followed, and his unbowlable 
mate was ejected by means of a catch, and Tylecote filled the vacancy. 
Barnes got his leg in front of his wicket, or, at all events, between 
it and the ball, and was recommended to retire. Bates joined 
Tvlecote, and the former average, of 3 for 87, was now much diluted, 
and reduced below proof strength. Horan continned to bowl, on a 
wicket that suited him well. Tylecote sent one of Spofforth's up 
high, and Bonnor ran in some fraction of a mile to keep his appoint- 
ment with the ball, and arrived in time to welcome it, before it 
touched the "round. The last four wickets had not earned ten 
runs. Ivo Bligh, looking stern as Napoleon at the close of Waterloo, 
took the bat. Murdoch caught Bates at " point," like a spring trap; 
8 for 98. G. B. Stuck! came and went ; 9 for 105. Morley, the last 
man, made no stand, and Ivo Bligh carried out his bat; 103 was 
the score, and it left Australia 153 to get to win, making it a " very 
open " game, witli a wet wicket, and John Bull " on the job." And, 
sure enough, the next day, Australia collapsed, and lost the match ; 
but they won the return one, on February 17th, 1883, in grand 
style. 



KRAKATOA, 1883. 



The cataclysm which befell in the Straits of Sunda, just south of 
Sumatra, about the 26th August, in the above year, was one to be 
long remembered in Australia. Tt was the most terrible, violent, 
and earth changing explosion on record, and left the sea flowing 
where the giant mountains and islands had once been. It was well 
heralded, days beforehand, and a British India steamer, passing 
with immigrants for Queensland, reported a fearful bellowing, loud 
and continuous, day and night, like the steam sirens of 10,000 iron- 
clads, all performing at once ; a clear warning of what was to follow. 
The laws of gravity were set at nought, to the extent, it is said, of 
burling burning matter 30 miles into the air, shot towards the sky 

K 



258 EARTH TREMOR IN AUSTRALIA. 

with a force inconceivable. That the noise was heard 500 miles,, 
and more, away across the sea is not wonderful, when we remember 
that the tremor quivered through all the mighty, non-volcanic, solid 
continent of New Holland, for 3,000 miles, to far east Brisbane ; 
for the day after that night, a quiet little married woman, in that 
city, vowed that the earth had trembled in the night, and was so 
angry when laughed at. Her baby waking her at 2 a.m., she felt the 
bed quiver from side to side, as if struck at sea, and turned sick with 
the motion. No one had, as yet, heard of any shock at the spot 
" where the slumbering earthquake laid pillowed on fire ; " and a 
gentleman also, who lived in the suburbs of Brisbane, at the opposite 
end to the little woman, got up in the night, firmly convinced (as he 
described it) that something like an elephant, in list slippers, was 
walking about his verandah, so palpable was the awful tremor, and 
yet so utterly soundless. And the man at the ferry, by the river 
bank, as he dozed in his punt, felt, in his sleep, what he thought was 
another punt, adrift, and striking the one he was in. He got up, 
and saw nothing ; but, there was the river all in a dance, one mass 
of little pointed waves, rippling up and down, from no apparent 
reason, for not a breath of air stirred, and no shoal of fish was about. 
These are only some cases of what was felt, and it was all reported 
at once, and before the eruption was known of in Brisbane, and was- 
told, too, as something extraordinary. 

This outbreak was, of course, caused by the sun, which, at the- 
same time, started a new atmospheric condition for us, which 
resulted in a three-year drought for Australia. I hold the sun to 
be the primary cause of all earthquakes, eruptions, floods, droughts, 
cyclones, and epidemics. This drought extended through 1884 and 
1885, the magenta "afterglow," or " sun-halo," after sunset, never 
failing. About the middle of 1886, I hazarded a prediction that the 
drought would never break up, till some other one of the great safety 
valves of the Southern Hemisphere (probably in New Zealand) 
had had such another thorough good " clear out " as Krakatoa gave 
us, and so put a new " set " on the weather. I named this in a 
letter, which was published on the 24th May, and, on the 10th of 
June, came the Tarawera convulsion, which destroyed the pink and 
white Terraces in New Zealand ; and, a few nights after this, it began 
to rain in Brisbane, quietly and unobtrusively, in the middle of the 
night, with no storm, or previous demonstration, whatever, only 
that the clouds which now formed, also distilled, which latter part 
of the programme was always omitted by them while the drought 
" stop " was on in Dame Nature's weather organ. 



FLOODS AND DROUGHTS. 259 

Australian weather differs essentially from European. In the 
Australias, the extremes are of flood and drought ; in Europe, the 
extremes are in heat and cold. The rainfall in England averages 
much the same through a century, but there will be a difference of, 
perhaps, 8 D between the average of the hottest and the coldest year. 
Not so in Australia. The hottest year of the century Avill only top 
the coolest by, perhaps, 2° ; while, as for the difference in rainfall, 
between the wettest and the driest year of a century, the figures 
would be absolutely startling. The cause of all this lies in the pre- 
ponderance of land in the Northern, and of water in the Southern, 
Hemisphere. 

The weather has been noted in South-east Australia since 1782, 
which was a year of drought ; for Captain Flinders, from that time 
till 1792, found traces of drought and bush fires wherever he landed ; 
and it is a matter of history, also, that the early settlers of Port 
Jackson, from 1788 onwards, were, owing to drought, on the verge 
of starvation, and were saved by supplies of rice from Batavia, and 
wheat, tfcc, from England; 1797 saw a severe drought at Western 
Port, near the present Melbourne; but, from 1799 to 1806, floods 
were prevalent, and destroyed the crops equally with drought. The 
Hawkesbury River rose 101 feet at the town of Windsor, and 
another " rise " was, in wheat, to 80s. a bushel. Floods kept on till 
1810, when rain ceased abruptly ; and, in 1811, water sold for 6d. 
a bucketful in Sydney ; but this was a brief drought ; and the floods 
had an innings up till 1826, one, in 1820, raising the Hunter River 
37 feet. 

From 1826 to 1829 (as might have been expected after fifteen 
years of over-abundant rain) came the " champion " long drought of 
the century, and water was J^d. a gallon in Sydney ! Which, even 
"Broken Hill" has not, yet, rivalled. But, still, it did less harm 
than the drought of ten years later, when flocks and herds had 
greatly multiplied. 1830 brought the first great flood, for eleven 
years, and Windsor was an island again. The years that followed 
were more dry than wet, but still bearable. But, in 1838 and 1839 
came the most disastrous, if not the longest, drought, up to that date; 
it almost exterminated the sheep and cattle ; it dried up the great 
river Murrumbidgee, and the fish putrefied in the bed of it. 1841 
was a heavy flood year; the new settlement of Moreton Bay saw its 
great river Brisbane, wide as the Thames, rise twelve feet above 
" King tides," a rise not seen, again, till 1890. There was a heavy 
drought in 1849, 1*50, and early 1851, wound up by the "boxing" of 
the bush tires which swept Victoria on "Black Thursday," February 



260 BORDER AMENITIES. 

6th, 1851, into a blaze which measured 100 miles, from east to west, 
and travelling southerly before an equatorial hurricane. The 
weather, since then, has been well in the memory of most people, 
and need not, here, be recorded. A graphic summary of some 
vagaries of Australian weather may be condensed, when we remem- 
ber, that, in a given place, the rainfall of a whole year will be 
equalled by the downpour of 24 hours only; and the quota of a wet 
24 hours, will, sometimes, have to be put up with, "spread out thin," 
over a whole year ! 18 inches in a day ; 18 inches in a year. 



MELBOURNE IN 1888. 



Albury Railway Station, New South "Wales, at daybreak, on a 
bitterly cold summer morning, at the beginning of November, is 
not exactly the place where a Queenslander of 40 years residence, 
and en route to the Melbourne Cup, would care to suddenly wake up to 
the stern realities of life, which include — at that time and place — - 
only a few minutes for breakfast, and those few cruelly impinged 
upon by the Custom House officers on the Russian — I beg pardon — 
on the Victorian — frontier, who insist on all your keys and seeing all 
that is in your boxes ; the inquisition being of no consequence if it 
were not for the time hiched from the too brief space allowed for 
changing trains, transferring luggage, and feeding. Shade of 
Australian Federation ! When will this "Douanier" border business 
come to an end 1 It is all so distasteful to a poor Queenslander 
accustomed to the warm, tropical, leisurely siesta style of life — to 
find himself, at only 522 feet above the sea, nearly freezing in 
November, and_bustled and hustled, moreover, as if life were limited 
to three score and ten months, in place of so many years. This 
happened to me, and, further on, I came to a place called Glenrowan, 
where. I was informed, the battle of Ned Kelly — his Waterloo in 
fact — was fought ; fine pastoral country, no doubt, like most of 
Victoria, and the bullets flew thickly enough to satisfy the most 
sensation-craving, mortal. But it was common-place, in point of 
scenery, and not one-tenth part so romantic looking as the precipices 
of "Hassan's "Walls." Bowenfels, near Hartley, in the Blue 
Mountains, where another bushranger, the best part of 100 years 
earlier, had fought his battles. On I sped per rail across the great 
colony of Victoria, last crossed by me in 1853, past places marked 



MEXZIES' HOTEL. 261 

with the names of Euroa, Benalla, Wangaratta, Seymour, &c. ; 
here, perhaps, an agricultural show going on, and a crowd at the 
stations, and there, again, nothing at all but the bare platform, as 
might be. 40 miles an hour we travelled, no doubt, but still it was 
wearisome to me, who hate to be locked up, even in a moving 
prison, so cramped as compared with the larger and floating prison 
of a six thousand ton steamer: till, at last, thank goodness! across 
some very level, quite too level, country, the tall chimney pillars of 
manufacturing Melbourne heave in sight, and also the dome of its 
Exhibition building, and even though more bitterly, damply, cold — ■ 
with its 58° at the brick built "Menzies' Hotel" in November — than 
was the drier Albury, still there was precious liberty and a bath, and 
a leisurely meal, outside of that tyrannical, nigger-driving, wait-for- 
no-one, lock-you-up railway train. Faugh ! How it (and all other 
trains the world over) did not suit a Queenslander ! used only to a 
horse's back as a means of locomotion, cum leisure, cum liberty, and 
with no smoke "smuts" always in your eye, as in a railway carriage. 
And, now, for a look round at old Melbourne, or young Melbourne, 
which shall I call it? I have not slept there since early 1851, and 
how it must have altered by this November of 1888. Why ! they 
have dug up three thousand tons of gold in this Victoria since T slept 
here last, and what a mark, in politics and business, in pasture and 
agriculture, in building and reclaiming, that same gold must have 
left behind it ! " Extensive improvements " you know, and all that 
sort of thing. So, I emerge from Menzies', take out my compass, in 
Bourke street, and find it runs east and west ; so, I keep on the 
south side to get all the sun I can. Pish ! what a freezing blast 
from the Bay comes rushing up Queen street, and every other cross 
street that I go past ! And what a relief it is to get under the lee 
and shelter of " the block " again, and what a lot of Brisbane and 
Sydney people I do meet, to be sui-e. I hate walking, but I must do 
it here to keep warm, despite the thick-lined Irish frieze suit I am 
wearing; nothing short of fur, or leather, would keep that southerly 
" blizzard " out. And so, I stroll on to where they are playing the 
centennial draughts matches, and there is the " Herd Laddie," and 
the " dons " of New Zealand and Sydney, and eke the little 14 
year old boy champion, of Australia, young Abraham from Brisbane. 
Half-an-hour there and then back to " Menzies'," where I begin to 
wonder where that church is, which, in 1851, T used to see and 
attend, and which then stood across a sort of green grass common 
when viewed from near Caution's " Bull and Mouth " hotel; and, 
after a long hunt I find it, stowed away behind a lot of blue stone 



262 THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 

warehouses, and no open green near it, though there are a few nice 
wall flowers in the parsonage garden. Back again to " Menzies'," 
where, at the dinner tables, there are represented Broken Hill and 
Brisbane, the Upper Hunter and the Darling, Sydney in its 
millionaires and its yachtsmen, male and female, a gathering in that 
fine dining room, such as you will meet in no other hotel in 
Australia, and in the evening, when the younger and stronger ones 
have gone to the theatre, or, Government House, it was pleasant to 
retire to the carpeted, gas lit, drawing room, up stairs, where it tvas 
a little bit warm, but would have been better for a fire, only that, 
of course, Melbourne people don't have fires in the — summer, 
you know, and then some one volunteered on the piano, and another, 
very sweetly, on the " zither," with the Hungarian Gavotte, on its 
native instrument : and how the musical, sleepy, tinkle of those 
dear tramcar bells coining past, ever and anon, did sooth a poor fish- 
out-of-the-water of a Queenslander as nothing else in strange Mel- 
bourne did, for — "not to put too fine a point on it," the transition, 
from Brisbane in the last week of October with the glass at 85° "fair 
and aisy," to Melbourne, in the first week of November, with the 
thermometer at 58° — is a state of matters, to a man with a " liver," 
that can only be summed up in the brief words " particular fits." 
Still, there was much to see; the Supreme Court, a fine pile 350 feet 
square, with a cupola that recalled the " Four Courts " at Dublin, 
and with an appropriate silent " hush " inside, suited to legal require- 
ments, and greatly in contrast with the noisy traffic roar, near some 
Supreme Court Buildings, in Australia ; and, of course, I had to go 
to the Exhibition, a vast and handsome building, in a nice garden, 
but unblessed with the lovely outlook of the " Garden Palace " in 
Sydney; still, you "can't have everything " you know. I saw an 
old gentlemen inside in a bath chair, and I appreciated his sense, 
when I viewed the " magnificent distances," which an exploration of 
the building and the " Avenue of Nations " involved. I should 
have liked to " take a cab " myself, round it. I admired the marble 
bull and his leader ; the silver trophy of New South Wales, the 
group of Captain Cook and Co. landing at Port Jackson (or Botany 
Bay, was it) 1 the photographs of Victorian scenery, and the gold 
specimens from New South Wales. How is it, by the way, that they 
export so little gold from that colony, and yet show such "scrump- 
tious " nuggets 1 

A visit, now, to the butter factory, and the "lolly" ditto, but not to 
the " grotto " — too damp and cold for me, thanks ; and then, hey ! 
for the " pearl of the flock," the picture gallery. Frith's telling 



CHIRNSIDE AND MANIFOLD. 263 

series of the career of the mining swindler, like Hogarth's " Rake's 
Pi-ogress ; " that splendid picture of the glowing red fires in the dark 
Hawaiian crater ; then that other one, of the sick and dying King 
Edward the Sixth ; the waves and sea gulls under a lofty Scotch 
cliff; that life-like scene, where " Cantuar " and the Marquis kneel 
before the wet-eyed new girl queen, in the early morn, when William 
the Fourth died ; the rising sun, catching the ear and hair of the 
nobleman, as if life itself, and not mere oil and canvas, were before 
you. I noticed that all the best cheap pictures had been sold to the 
Adelaide National Gallery. Must be a wide-awake lot down in 
South Australia, and no wonder, when they can grow rich on wheat, 
at six bushels to the acre. " Circe," turning her admirers into pigs, 
was a comic picture, and I liked that little etching of " Stoke 
Pogis," Church, and I recalled the exquisite poem that ends, or 
should end, with 

" No longer seek his merits to disclose ; 
Nor draw his frailties from that dread abode 
Where both, alike, in trembling hope, repose ; 
The bosom of his Father and his God." 

I admired the elm trees in the streets, the rhododendrons and the 
geraniums, such as we cannot grow in Brisbane. I did not goto the 
Melbourne Cup, for I detest crowds, but my people went, and I 
trust they liked the sight of 50,000 black hats, and 50,000 pink 
parasols (to use a figure of speech) better than I should have done. 
Mi/ amusement out of the Melbourne Cup was to watch, in Collins 
street, on the Cup morning, the tide of walking and family humanity, 
as it set, strongly, towards Spencer street and the railway, the 
numerous middle class of Melbourne being here represented ; girls 
in plum coloured merino, and so forth. I watched them and their 
hamper baskets, and I wove theories as to who and what they all 
were, and it seemed to interest me more than did some magnificent 
equipages, of which I was told that they belonged to the Chirnsides, 
and other prominent Victorian people, names which had sounded in 
my ears in '51, even as in '88, and had included the Manifolds, and 
the Wares, and more. And the return tide of humanity, before tea, 
on the Cup day, was just as good a study, for the summer days are 
long, and the sunset late, in 37° south. 

I must not forget a stroll J took up King street, northerly, from 
Bourke street, with the sight of a distant Town J tall (Hotham '.') at 
the end of it. I know of no street, out of London itself, that so 
resembles a London suburban thoroughfare, especially on the South- 



2G4 COCKNEY MELBOURNE. 

wark side, as does this part of King street, Melbourne. " Lolly " 
and fruit shops, butchers' shops, newspaper and " penny dreadful " 
shops, curiosity and second-hand shops, public-houses, all of a style 
different from the rest of Melbourne, with a je ne sais quoi, a some- 
thing, which I cannot define, about them, but which was all of 
London, and not of Australia. Sydney streets, some of them, are 
like " bits " of London, but Sydney resembles the Warwickshire 
Leamington also, in places. The cherries and fruit for sale, the- 
class of penny literature, and of lollies, in King street, were — 
" London all over." 

Another scene which interested me was the Sunday crowd, who- 
thronged the " Edina," and " Courier," for Geelong and the Bay. 
There were, advertised, names of places in the latter waters, new to- 
me, and I wondered if " Shorthand's Bluff," and the " Station Peak," 
had been re-named. I was struck with the smartness of the men at 
the gangway, who took 1,200 tickets in "no time." Of the Public 
Library, the garden-decked suburbs, the capital tram service of 
Melbourne, other scribes have written plentifully, It was new and 
London-like, to a Brisbane man, to see the high figures into which 
the policemen's numbers, and the cab ditto, ran. But the holiday 
drew to an end, and I had resolved not to travel in the " Bourke 
and Dubbo " style of antediluvian sleeping car, to which, in the rush 
for the Cup, we had been condemned ; so I booked myself and 
people in the P. and O. steamer " Victoria," for Sydney ; and here I 
became forcibly and painfully reminded of the difference between: 
the task of wheeling yourself and your luggage comfortably on 
board the 5,000 ton steamer, at the ivharf, in Brisbane, or Sydney, 
and the shipping of the same articles in Melbourne. Your " traps " 
have to be handed to an agent ; no " fella " (not a professional) 
could follow them through all the ramifications of Flinders street 
station, the rail to "Port Melbourne," and the Bay (where is 
" Liardet's " now 1) ; then along the pier, and so on, out to the big 
steamer, anchored two miles off in the sea. What a picnic ! I 
read in the paper, and was also told, that a steamer called the 
" Albatross " would wait on us at the pier, and do all the needful as 
to getting on board the " Victoria ; " so we, confiding ones, set out 
in cab No. 308, and train of the same number, through the some- 
what insipid scenery, and stereotyped style of cottage, which mark 
the route from Flinders street station to the pier, and on our 
arrival at the latter, we commenced a weary tramp along it, and 
between the big ships that lined each side (Ah ! why was not the 
"Victoria" one of them), but no "Albatross" could we see. A 



ADVENTURES IX HOBSON's BAY. 265> 

P. and O. flag, at a side landing steps, attracted us, and we called 
a halt, wondering what the next act in the play would be. 
After a while, a little steam launch, called the " Surprise," not the 
" Albatross," came alongside, and we were told she was to be our 
conveyance to the mail boat ; so we went on board, and then more 
people came down, most of them through passengers from London, 
who had been on shore to stretch their legs, and there was soon 
hardly standing room in our little cock-boat, which bobbed up and 
down — especially " down " — like a deeply-laden cork on the waves, 
and then we steamed out to the towering 6,000 ton "Victoria," and, 
by great feats of agility, managed to jump on to the ladder when our 
— very disagreeable — " Surprise " happened to be on the top of a 
wave (for it was out of the question when she was down) ; and, when 
safe on board, arose the question of " where 1 and oh ! where is all our 
luggage gone 1 ?" for it was not on the "Victoria," at all events. 
Council of war held, but no satisfactory conclusion arrived at ; no' 
one on board who could tell us anything ; too late to swim back to 
Melbourne, and enquire about it, as the steamer started in 45" 
minutes more ; when — " a sail in sight appears ; " the steamer 
" Rescue," once more a most appropriate name, even as the miserable 
little " Surprise " was, for she was a decent boat, with paddle-boxes 
and a bridge, from which you could step to the deck, and needed not 
to jump on to a ladder, or, into the sea ; and, yes ! no ! yes ! there, 
positively, was the trusty " luggage agent " whom we had interviewed 
and subsidised at " Menzies' " — in at the death, red-faced, and 
perspiring, it is true, but triumphant, over all difficulties, at last, 
and with every package, right to the very smallest band-box. He 
had clearly "been there before." / could never have "put it 
through." And, then, it occurred to me that he and the crowd who 
came on board in the " Rescue " had been " in the know," and were, 
probably, seasoned old Victorians, and not " new chum " Queens- 
landers, or raw London passengers to Sydney, for whom the "Surprise" 
was provided ; else, how did they (the knowing ones) find out (as we 
did not) that the " Rescue " was substituted for the "Albatross 1 ?" 

And, now, out in the Bay, I had a chance to see, from the upper 
deck of the " Victoria," the tine panorama of domes and spires which 
Melbourne presents from the sea side ; so different from what I saw 
just 35 years before, when the little steamer " Diamond," or "Mail 
land," took me out to the " Harbinger." The weather was somewhat 
hazy, so I could not see how any of the old land-marks in Port Phillip 
had changed ; but I was deeply struck with the waspish, vicious, 
dangerous little fort, almost level with the water, near the Heads. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS. 

Chiefly Australian. 



THE RABBIT COUNTRY FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



I presume I am right in considering the country about Tintanal- 
logy, and from thence to Balranald (lately visited by the Earl of 
Jersey), as part of " King Bunny's " dominions, in New South 
Wales. There were no rabbits there 50 years ago, but the largest 
flocks of emus I ever saw, in Australia, could be seen on the plains 
near Balranald, which consisted, in 1853, of Lowcock's " hotel," and a 
shanty of a court house, where Edwards was the C.P.S. of the 
period, after Renn Hampden (once of Brisbane, and brother of the 
Bishop of Hereford) was at Paika ; and when John Lecky Phelps, 
John Christie, and E. Morey (now of Clermont, Q.), &c, were the 
•" beaks " who presided in court. 

The first " move " in the direction of this part of Australia was 
when Frank Hobler (accompanied by Samuel Macgregor, now of 
Brisbane, and who was on his way to Portland, overland) " took up " 
(about 1842) Nap Nap, Yangar, and Paika. Mr. John Scott (now 
of Brisbane) took up Canally, and sold out, to J. L. Phelps and 
Nicholas Chadwick, afterwards. At the junction of the Murray 
and Murrumbidgee, the Jackson brothers took up a cattle run, 
which was, in 1853, an out-station of Canally, and part of the 
property. Following clown the great rivers (alike, of Time and of 
the Murray), William Ross took up the next station, and Mr. E. 
Morey, before-named, took up what is now " Euston " (then 
oalled Booni Yarrikool) in the month of May, 1846. They were 
then the outside stations down the Murray River, and all was desert 
beyond, to the South Australian border, till, early in 1847, that 
splendid man, John M'Kinley (six feet four, and stout in propor- 
tion), settled below Mr. Morey ; and then Kilcool was taken up by 
Charles Hotson Ebden ; and Mildura (where the Chaffeys now are) 
by Hugh Jamieson and his brother. The Fletchers then occupied the 
country at the junction of the Darling and the Murray rivers, and 



THE DARLIXG IX 1849. 2G7 

some clever Scotch people gradually worked up the lower Darling 
with stock. In 1850, Messrs. E. Morey, John M'Kinley, and Alec. 
M'Callum, explored the country above the existing settlement on 
the Darling, and, eventually, stocked it — •M'Callum, at Menindie, 
with sheep ; John M'Kinley, at Pooncarrie and Pamamaroo, with 
cattle ; and E. Morey, at Tintanallogy (lately sacred to rabbit 
experiments before Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane), with cattle, and at 
Lake Terawanea also. But the Darling, above this, remained a 
wilderness for several years after. 

In these early days, botli Mr. E Morey and Mr. Samuel Macgregor 
advocated the navigation of the Murray, but two obstacles barred 
the way. Melbourne was jealous of trade going to Adelaide, and 
would find no money for any such experiment. The first steamer 
that ever actually did go up the Murray was a rough-decked boat, 
into which some improvised engines were fitted, for the special 
occasion, by an enterprising miller from the Adelaide side ; but, she 
could only stem the current to the tune of some three, or four miles 
an hour, even without barges in tow, and it took her a month to 
" make " Swan Hill. Sturt, the explorer, rowed dou-n the Murray 
on his last journey, and he introduced Mr. E. Morey to Sir Henry 
Young, Governor of South Australia, who asked Morey to furnish 
an estimate of the probable trade, which he did. After this, Captain 
Cadell pulled clown the Murray, from Swan Hill to Lake Alexan- 
dria. He, afterwards, brought up the " Lady Young " steamer, with 
Sir Henry Young on board (as related at page 66 of this book), 
after which, the trade grew, and steamers, and their satellite barges, 
were multiplied, and the Murrumbidgee and the Darling, and their 
minor branches, suffered their labyrinthine fresh water shallows to 
be invaded, conquered, and explored by a flotilla of mercantile 
business-feeders, of the flat-bottom type. 

The Tyson brothers were, in 1846, occupying the country at the 
extreme lower end of the Lachlan, where its muddy waters unite 
with the pellucid Murrumbidgee. They were keen business men, 
living in bark huts, of their own building, and always open to a 
" deal " in the way of cattle. The Lake Paika station was, after- 
wards, purchased by one of them, with Il',000 cattle, at £8 per 
head, the time and the proximity to a market being, alike, favour- 
able to such a high price ruling. When the " Lady Young " first came 
up, and was tied to a tree below Euston, a drunken bushman came 
on board, and, pushing his head into the cabin where His Excellency 
was shaving, shouted "give us a passage up the river, Governor." 
Captain Cadell put him ashore vi et arm/is, when the fellow turned 



268 A WATERLESS DESERT. 

round and said to him, " Well ! you are a hugly man." The crew- 
laughed, but the bushman did not, for Cadell was a two-handed' 
bruiser, and soon left the bushman nothing to complain of on the 
score of beauty, when once he had stepped on shore to him. The- 
Murray explorer was brave to foolhardiness, whereof witnesseth the 
following : — Captain Cadell drove up the Darling River, in a buggy, 
for 200 miles, with a view to learn its eligibility for navigation, and 
having done so, he, in place of coming back the same route, con- 
ceived the strange idea of cutting straight across country to the 
Murrumbidgee, overland, and away from the river. Now, anyone 
who knows the " Old Man " plain, near Hay, the dread of bush- 
men, can appreciate what a task it is to face a waterless prairie 
between two comparatively approximate rivers ; and, still more, 
what it must be like to attempt to negotiate the third side of a' 
triangle in waterless country, when the other two sides consist of two 
such widely divergent and lengthy streams as the Murrumbidgee and 
Darling are. Cadells black boy tried, in vain, to dissuade him from 
the attempt, which was made, with the result that the two of them* 
nearly perished from thirst and hunger. But what was so akin to a 
tragedy, had an element of comedy imported into it by the freely 
circulated, if not truthful, report, that, but for the abundant supply 
of hair pomade which the gallant explorer always carried with him,, 
he and the black boy would have been unable to soften, and eat, 
the leather leggings, straps, valise, <fcc, which, it is coolly stated', 
alone saved them from starvation. How much " bush chaff," and' 
what residuum of fact, there may be in this, I am unable to tell 
with certainty. 

I may conclude by saying that for such of the above dates and 
names as were not within the ken of my own memory, I am indebted' 
to Mr. E. Morey, now of Clermont, and Mr. Samuel Macgregor, o£ 
Brisbane. 



A CHAPTER ON SENTIMENT. 



It would seem difficult, at the tirst glance, to extract any senti- 
ment out of galvanized iron, or photographer's proofs, or a merchant: 
ship discharging sperm candles and rock salt ; but, if one looks 
beneath the surface, there is a good yield of it, and a regard for 
the goddess Hygeia and for the babes of Australia and Queensland 
makes me thus speak out. 



TIN ROOFS. 269 

Look, now, here are six new wooden cottages, all in a row, and each 
with a galvanized iron roof. It don't seem much to write about in 
a place like Brisbane, does it? But it is the six more, on top of the 
600, or 6,000, that are already there, that make the trouble ; and I 
speak of it for the sake of the " wee " children. 

These tin roofs, even with ceilings, which they don't always have, 
mean 105° Fahrenheit, indoors, at midsummer, and 35° of the same, 
at midnight, at midwinter. "Awfully jolly," as you must perceive, 
for typhoid fever in January, or pneumonia in July (as the case may 
be), and tends to rapid recovery, of course. But oh ! for the children! 
the little Georges and the small Claras, born, and yet to be born, 
who, too, will have to inhabit, and to die in those same tin roof 
houses. Poor little pets ! They will do their small and level best, 
you know, to embellish these death traps ; they will collect 
fragments of looking-glass, bits of old, coloured china, scraps of gay 
ribbon, and sea shells, to " make a play " with ; and, like the "bower 
bird " of Australia (their native land), they will do their utmost to 
draw, in their innocent baby play, and infant imagination, all the 
fair)- fun that can be got out of a tin roof hut, on a swampy plot of 
20 perches. 

No fault of the babes, that their parents are poor, and short- 
sighted, and unscientific. Little Jim, and smaller Lizzie, will go on 
] (laying and imagining, and quite happy, till, one sad day, they will 
find that their tiny bits of china, glass, and ribbon, and other toys of 
the children of the poor, have, somehow, ceased to amuse, as of yore ; 
for the little ones have a headache, and feel giddy, sick, cold, and 
thirsty, and the unwritten fairy story, woven by their baby fancy 
from the bits of china and ribbon, is about to come to a close, 
and the whole brief tale of their little love and play on earth 
will be comprised within a space of some four to seven years, from 
birth to burial ; for, as baby fancy, and baby imagery, cannot tight 
against, nor set aside, Lame Nature's stern laws, so the tin roof 
house, with its 70° of variation, on the swamp land, is bound to 
sweep the unconscious little ones into the lap of old King Death. 
Poor little things ; What a graceful, but what an uneven, light 
they do make of it! They never lived, and never even knew what 
it was like to live, under a thatch, or honest shingle roof; so, 
happily, they don't know, and never will know, how horribly they 
were handicapped from their very birth. They do their innocent 
best to make tin- world (of tin roofs and swamps) as beautiful to 
themselves, as the sight of their innocence is to those who have the 
gift to see a child in its true Lighl ; but, thank Heaven, they never 



270 one taken; one left. 

know (as some of us know for them) of the awful odds they have to 
fight against in order to keep a hold on health and life. 

I have no wish whatever to injure the galvanized iron business ; 
but, in the name of humanity, let the " favourite brands " of it be 
reserved to make water tanks, and to cover flour and susrar from 
the rain, not babes from the sun, and let us have fewer stones in the 
cemetery to tell us that those who were born in 188-i died in 1888 ; 
and that those who Jirst saw the light in 1878, saw it no more here 
after 1885. 

I once met a gentleman on Sunday, all in black, and coming from 
the cemetery. He was there every Sabbath regularly, for two out 
of bis five little children sleep there. Strange to say, he was telling 
me of the great range of heat and cold in his iron-roofed house. He 
spoke of it as of something to be proud of. Poor fellow ! I looked 
at him, and at his black clothes and black banded hat, and I thought 
oh ! such an awful lot, and I said, oli ! such a very little, in fact, 
nothing at all (just then) of what I thought, to him, for what, at that 
moment, would have been the use of it 1 The undertaker's bill had 
been settled some months before, and he, at all events, saw no con- 
nection between it and the corrugated iron roofs ! But, still, though 
I personally eschew such roofs, I have, otherwise, my sad and 
perplexed moments. 

Here, now, is that Pyroxiline, the photographer. He has just 
sent home to me the " proofs " of my dear little girl Olive's likeness, 
for me to choose which one of the five 1 will have finally printed and 
enamelled. Pyroxiline has marked two of them as his choice, and 
I am expected, I suppose, to reject the others. Ay de mi ! I don't 
like the idea one bit. Why should even one of my little pet's varied 
photographic smiles be wasted, and rubbed out for good and all 1 It 
may be that ere another week has dawned on us, she may be laid to 
sleep in God's acre, and will have ceased to smile here for ever, and 
then, then, what of the erased, stifled, rejected, little dimpled 
mouth, that we cast aside so carelessly from its one only chance of 
being recorded. 

The question is a deep one, and seems to widen and widen as we 
ponder over it. Why is it, all the world over, from the creation till now, 
that one is taken and another left? Why does one child perish prema- 
turely, still-born, and it's own brother, or sister, born of the same 
parents, be destined to live for 80 years, and more, and, perchance, 
become the most famous man, or the most beautiful and worshipped 
woman, of the century 1 Why does one bud go on to flower, and fruit, 
and seed again, and the other wither on the branch, untimely 1 What 



MOONLIT CORAL. 271 

becomes of these rejected, unrecorded, lost-for-ever, photographic,. 
and other smiles of the babes 1 Prithee, tell me what happeth to 
all the still-born beauties of this world 1 "Whither do speed the 
kindly wishes that are felt, the loving messages sent, but never 
delivered 1 or, as when a woman sees a man, or a man a woman, a 
dream-face, in a street crowd, or at a window, visible for a moment,, 
with its swift, unerring, electric glance of kindly interest, and then 
gone, and unseen again for ever, when the seer blesses the unknown 
one with kindred and magnetic sympathy, with all the love and 
goodwill, born, like fire, in a moment, and destined to burn for 
ever, though fed by memory, and by memory only 1 ? The Great 
Architect of the universe, alone, can make up the loss to the losers ; 
He, who tights the battle, and solves the problem of our poor lives, 
for us in His own Divine, gentle, and merciful way ; who managed 
our birth for us, and will manage our death for us, if we will but 
only let Him. 

And, now, for the other subject, of the ship. We stand on the 
wharf, and see, riding at anchor in the Brisbane River, the good 
ship " Hydaspes," bound for China, via the outer passage of the 
" Barrier Reef." She has done her work here ; landed her " new 
chums "; and her rock salt, and her " three star " brandy, cum multis 
aliis, have duly come under the ken of the gilt-buttoned men of the 
Customs, and have been bestowed away in well-packed warehouses. 
The captain has gone out, in the agent's buggy, to the latter's 
suburban villa, and eaten his farewell dinner there, and has listened 
to the ladies' music in the drawing room, and taken to sea a great 
posy of flowers from the semi-tropical garden. The " Jack Tars " 
have drunk their last glass of ale in the " public " next the wharf, 
and have chanted their melodious chorus as they raise the mighty 
" mud-hook " from the bed of the Brisbane. The latest tiles of the 
papers have been placed on board, and — pro tern — civilization, and 
buggies, and flower gardens are clone with. And, then, perhaps, the 
next scene rises, not amidst the teeming millions of the yellow skins 
in the " Flowery Land," for the " Hydaspes " " borrowed" (it may 
be) too much on the " Barrier Reef," and the latter has claimed its 
own, and, there, sits up the good ship, fast for evermore, perched 
higher and drier than when she loomed "flying light" in the Bris- 
bane River. The rats and the slanting moonlight have, now, got 
all the ample, gilded cabin to themselves. The sun rises, and fche 
turtles disport, and the reef grows hot, and the coral glistens white 
above, and pale green below tin; translucent sea water-, where the 
parrot fish and the sea leopard play. The sun sets, and lovely tints 



272 THE DUST OP AGES. 

irradiate the land of Austral Ind looming out there to the west. 
The moon and the tide rise, and the roar of the surf is soothing, but 
the ship moves not, and there are none on board for the surf to 
soothe, for men cannot live without fresh water, and the boats are 
gone, and the men in them, but — whither 1 We shall know all about 
that, perhaps, when Israhl calls them, but meantime, nothing, and 
all this sort of thing has happened before our day, and will happen, 
often again, between this and 1992, we'll warrant you. 

Were our pretty housemaid to die to-morrow, there would be sad 
hearts in Toowoomba and Geelong, whence she gets those constant 
letters with the two-penny stamps on ; but in a century hence, she 
and friends will have left no trace behind, and, as with her, so will 
pass away the records of the powerful firm who owned the lost 
•" Hydaspes," and a dozen other ships like her — Messrs. Allcash and 
Rhino. You would search as vainly in 1992 for any trace of this 
great firm, as for the poor housemaid, save, j)erhaps, that some 
butter-vendor of that day may use its sacred ledgers of 1892, to 
wrap his " pats " in. The firm must die, for Allcash and his 
amiable old spouse are childless, and Rhino's two pretty daughters, 
whose diaphanous muslins set off their stately carriage and pair so 
well, will have merged the family name in those of Major Smyth and 
Adjutant Brown long before 1992 has arrived. 

The people, the small talk, the ledgers, the day-books, and the 
belle of the old city of York, and her soldier lover, in the year 1748, 
.as they spooned at dusk under the shadow of the Minster, are 
not one whit more clean passed away, and forgotten now, than our 
memory, too, will be, a century hence. The ever, ever, falling dust 
of ages buries all, in time, out of sight, be their preserit active 
.strength and vitality what they may. 



ABOUT BULLOCK DRIVERS. 



Gentle reader, did'st ever " foregather " with a real live bullock 
driver of the old school 1 one of those bull clogs, or rather " bull- 
punchers " of true British breed, who possesses so remarkable a 
tenacity of life, that, when their damper, tea, and junk have run 
out, they can still sustain exhausted nature on such incongruous 
trifles as the sardines a Vhuile, the beer of Bass, the rum of Lemon 
Hart, and the potted lobster from Boston, Mass., U.S.A., all of 
which, and more, an only too confiding storekeeper at the township 



" DOUBLE BANKING " WITH 30 OXEN. 273 

of "NYambangalang, some two hundred miles further up the countiy, 
has been fondly expecting the arrival of, for a good fortnight before. 

Did'st ever camp out with a good mendacious bullock driver, and, 
over fire and pipe, listen to the playful "whoppers/' the astonishing 
yarns, he can spin you, of the cheques he has "knocked down," and 
the property he has run through in his early days] Did'st ever note 
his twelve bullocks, or take stock of his tattered " Brab " hat, 
through which his elf-locks wildly stray, and mark how well it 
harmonized with his striped jersey, his totally unfashionable pants, 
and his marvellously dirty boots and leggings 1 Take a look, also, 
at those two poor, aged, working bullocks covered with whip cuts 
and brands, for all the world like the side of a blacksmith's shed, 
and just observe their patient intelligent eyes, which almost seem to 
speak to you, and to tell of all the cranky young "steers" they 
have helped to break in during their own long sad life-time of woe. 
But, a truce to sentiment ; our theme is with stern reality, and our 
muse is of the practical. 

Did'st ever travel with him, gentle reader, and listen to those 
bland and soothing terms of gentle and seductive endearment which 
he addresses to " Spot " and " Mouse," to " Brindle " and " Nobby," 
by turns, as they near that steep sideling which looms ahead like an 
impassable barrier 1 If so, we advise you quietly to " stand by " and 
hold your bated breath, for our friend and his mates are going to 
" double bank " and " tackle it " before dinner ; and then, indeed, will 
be developed the tug of war and din of strife, and it's — oh! for the 
pen of Homer or of Ossian to fitly chant the roar of battle — for over 
that hill they must go, this day, by jingo ! or 

Now heave the grizzled throats and hirsute chests of our banded 
bull-punchers, what time the thunderous diapason of their hoarse 
blasphemy volleys in sublime chorus with the deep-toned sullen 
" thuds " of their resounding whips ; and, you behold them, now 
cursing, now encouraging, now entreating, but ever urging on to 
madness, a chaos of hurtling horns and staring eyeballs, of slavering 
mouths and low bent necks of brawn; a chaos, whose sinuous length 
heralds the groaning, creaking dray, in its almost sentient writhings, 
as its bright-as-steel tires alternately are embedded in, and emerge 
with a wrench from, the plastic clay of that terrible hill-side. Talk 
of the " Alma heights," indeed ! Pooh ! Deeper and ruddier 
"rows the conflict. Blood and demoniac oaths flow on all sides. 
Something surely is bound to "bust," you know, if this sort of thing 
goes on, when (thank the Fates!), with one grand concerto Jmale, 
one fortissimo crash of seemingly countless and hopelessly commingled 

8 



274 HOW TO STEAL RUM. 

whips, bullocks, yokes, and chains; with one long, deep, ominous, rolling 
explosion; one deadly roar of culminating and murderous profanity — 
the crest is gained, and Badajos is won ! A ringing British cheer 
now! Hip ! — Stay, stay; enthusiastic and sympathetic reader, stay ! 
" Badajos be adjective well blanked, mate ; why, no one never heard 
tell of such a place about these 'ere parts. Why, man, you must be 
dreaming — this is only the top of ' Jerry's Pinch,' and Mr. Somer- 
ville's teams have just crossed the watershed of the Dividing Ranee 
or their way to the seaport ; and, look ! there is Bob, the bullock 
driver, sitting calmly by the road side, pipe in teeth, bowl down- 
wards, and cutting up and daintily picking the threads of a % of 
' backer,' as phlegmatic and unconcerned as if nothing unusual had 
occurred during the last terrible quart d'lieure. "Nothing unusual?" 
" Then, what the dickens was the meaning of that awful, unmistake- 
able row we heard just now 1 ?" " That, my dear — oh, that was simply 
the 'bullock-driver at home:' Bob 'just a coaxing, like,' of his 
bullocks, you know ; that's all." 

We once had a bullock driver who had lived in Caffraria as well 
as here, and was an " old hand " in all senses of the word. It was 
a fine sight to see Bob's Herculean form stripped " to the buff," taking 
his team over a flooded ravine, chest deep in water, from the Snowy 
Mountains. We once found a case of brandy on the dray had been 
tampered with, when we were overlanding with sheep. We taxed 
Bob with the theft Bob was indignant, not at being thought a 
thief, but at being suspected by us of so very " unworkmanlike a 
job." He took the empty bottle in one hand, slapped it with the 
other, and said " Sir, d'ye see that 'ere bottle ; 'taint got no cork in 
it and 'taint no ways broken neither; now, when /shakes a bottle 
and drinks the contents, I puts back the cork in tight and I knocks 
a little hole in the shoulder of the bottle and I puts it back in the 
case, and then, when you find it, you naterally says, "IIllow! why the 
jolting of the dray has broke this ear bottle, dear, dear! what a pity! 
Whereas, look at that bottle, sir (says Bob) the cork never took 
itself out, and no workman ever did that job; one of your (adjective) 
new chum shepherds (and here Bob spat with unmitigated disgust) 
must ha' clone that business, and I wonder a gent like you can't see 
as much yerself." We were dumbfoundered. We admitted the force 
of Bob's reasoning. Egad ! he was the most honest, straight-forward, 
candid, polished, roaring old South African and Australian thief we 
ever came across — a pattern bullock driver indeed ! 



SOME STATISTICS. 



When lovely woman stoops to folly, and finds too late how men 
deceive, it seldom happens that she's jolly, in fact she's more inclined 
to grieve ; and though it may appear to be somewhat of a non 
seqttitur, we would here remark that there are different ways of 
doing the same thing ; for instance, the Turk "whips off" his boots 
when he enters his church, while the Briton doffs his hat ; the 
meaning is, however, the same in both cases. Again, the wealthy 
male Turk buys him, for a wife, and in open market, a Georgian 
nymph, penniless in pocket, but perfect in physique. Compare this 
with Miss Adelaide, the only daughter and heiress of the millionaire 
pork butcher and army contractor, the H-dropping Crumbie. She 
bestows her white hand, flaxen locks, and dainty self upon the 
moneyless Hon. Wolfe Gauntribb, second son of the Right Hon. 
Plantagenet, twenty-fifth Viscount Scantacre, G.C.B., "the oldest 
blood, begad, Sir, in all England ; " and will anyone deny that 
Adelaide Crumbie buys her husband, the same as the Turk does his 
wife 1 ? Is not money, pure and simple, the motive and operative 
agent in each case 1 Different ways, again, you see, of doing the 
same thing ; and well it is, for the woman, when matters are so ; 
her lover is sure to be faithful to the gold and the settlements, if 
not to her ; and she will have no need to " die " in order to "wring 
his bosom ; " in proof of which we will tell you a little story (done 
into verse) of what happened somewhere about the year 1497, and 
on the then newly-discovered western shores of the Great Atlanta, 
where a beautiful Carib maiden loved a white Spanish man, and 
'twas thus they discoursed : — 

SHE. 

Oh ! go not yet, my lord — my love — lie down by Zenia's side ; 

And think not. for thy white-man friends, to leave thine Indian l>ride. 

For she will steer thy light canoe across Ozuma's Lake, 

To where the fragrant citron groves perfume the banyan brake ; 

And would'st thou chase the nimble deer, or dark-eyed antelope, 

She'll lead thee to their woody haunts, behind the mountain slope ; 

And when thy hunter task is done, and spent thy Bph it's force, 

She'll weave for thee a plantain bower, beside a Btreamlet's course, 

Where the sweet music of the leaves shall lull thee to repose, 

Safe in Zenia's watchful love, from harmful beast or foes. 

And when the spirit of tin- storm, iii wild tornades rides by, 

She'll hide thee in a cave, beneath a rocky panoply. 



276 ZENIA AND DIEZ. 

HE. 

Look, Zenia, look ! the fleecy clouds move on the western gales ! 
And see, the white man's floating home unfurls its swelling sails ! 
So farewell India's spicy groves— farewell its burning clime, 
And farewell, Zenia ; but to love, no farewell can be mine, 
Not for the brightest Spanish maid, shall Diez now be given ; 
So, if we meet no more on earth, I will be thine in Heaven ! 

SHE. 

Oh ! go not yet, my godlike love, stay but a moment more ; 

And Zenia's step shall lead thee on, to Haina's golden shore ! 

No white man's foot has ever trod the vale that slumbers there, 

Or scared the gold-bird from its nest, or gazul from his lair ; 

But, cradled round by giant hills, lies many a golden mine, 

And all the treasures they possess, my Diez, shall be thine, 

And all my tribe shall be thy friends, our warrior chiefs thy guard ; 

With Zenia's heart thy faithful shield ; thy love her sweet reward. 

SEQUEL. 

The valley's won, the chiefs are true, re-scaled the golden tide, 
And Diez, for Hispania's shore, quits not his Carib bride. 

There's a pretty story now. Diez, you see — though he was not 
" much on " the tropical scenery " racket " and the love-in-a-bower 
"business," "tumbled like bricks " to the rich wash-dirt idea, and 
went in " hot " for it. He was just the sort of man, we should 
say, who would have got on well in the colonies in the present day. 
Let us hope that he was faithful to poor Zenia while the gold claim 
held out, and that, for her sake, it took a whole lifetime to work out 
his " prospecting area." 

The foregoing lines are not original, but their application is very 
much so ; and, as a proof that they are founded on fact, and not on 
fiction, I submit the following list of all the largest gold " nuggets " 
that have been found in the world during the last 500 years ; the 
word " nugget " implying that the lump is all gold, with no rock of 
any kind admixed : — 

a.d. Oz. dwt. gr. 

1502. Found by native woman in alluvial deposit of River 

Haina, St. Domingo, Hayti, West Indies 

1502. Found at Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland 

1730. Found at La Paz, 12,170 feet on the eastern slope of the 

Andes, Bolivia, Upper Peru 
1756. Found at Creed, Cornwall, England 
1771. Found at Jecorata, Mexico ; now in the Royal Cabinet, 

Madrid 
1793. Found by a negro at Choco, New Granada, South 

America, and now in the King of Spain's cabinet 
1797. Found at Croghan Kinchela, county Wicklow, Ireland ... 
1821. Found in Reed's mine, Cabarras county, North Carolina, 

United States 414 16 



532 


10 





27 








665 











15 





122 


10 


5 


364 


11 





22 









GOLD NUGGETS. 
A.D. 

1826. Found at Miask, Ural Mountains, Russia ... 

1829. Found in Anson county, North Carolina, United States 
1832. Found at Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the property of an 

English Company ... 
1832. Found at Cabarras county, North Carolina, United .States 
1812. Found at Miask, Ural Mountains, Russia ; now in the 

Museum of Mining Engineers, St. Petersburg .... 

1850. Found at Carson's Creek, Stanislaus River, California ... 
1856. Found at " Bakery Hill," Ballarat, Victoria — the 

" "Welcome " nugget 2,217 16 

1851. Found at Meroo, Louisa Creek, Turon River, New 

South Wales 1,272 

1858. Found at Burrendong, New South Wales 1,286 8 

There was, also, found, in 1870, at Moliagul, in Victoria, a nugget of some 
224 lb. in weight, and, of course, larger than any of the foregoing ; and a 
nugget, of some 801b. in weight, at Gympie (Q.), in 1867. 







277 


Oz. 


dwt 


■ gr. 


325 


5 


8 


145 


16 





242 








233 


6 





158 


2 





219 









HOME SICKNESS. 



A gentleman, once resident in Australia, named Richard Rowe, 

a poet, and on a visit to London, found himself one afternoon in the 

Regent's Park Zoological Gardens, where a sight of the kangaroo 

and emu, not to mention other New Holland birds and animals, 

brought on a fit of (Australian) home-sickness, a very severe form of 

the complaint, for the South Land, somehow, never is forgotten by 

those who know it ; and he went home to his hotel, and indited the 

following graphic bit of descriptive to (I think) the "Sydney 

Morning Herald." 

SEPULTUS IN UMBRIS. 

Flowers float upon the creek like virgin snow, — 
The limpid brook that creeps in noiseless course, 
Save by the spiry arrow-grass unstemmed, 
Around the gully's foot, where sleeps the dead. 
Her sombre tresses on the farther bank 
The swamp-oak droops ; from blossom golden bright 
The wattle sighs sweet odour ; and, unheard, 
The gumtree showers its glitt'ring manna down. 
With crimson fruit and alabaster blooms 
Wild raspb'rries clothe the bank ; serried in front 
A phalanx firm of green and tawny reeds 
Uplift their pennoned spears. 

Throughout the day 
An eerie hush hangs o'er that sunny stream, 
For months roll on and no man passeth by. 

It sings no song, but to a churns low 

Of insect-murmurs glides upon its way. 



278 A WORD PICTURE. 

Perchance a little string of silver beads 
Comes up and bursts ; there is a gleam of fins — 
A sprinkling flash — then all again is still. 
Or, now and then, three little liquid notes 
Are thrice repeated and the songster stops ; 
Or, the harsh cackle of the " bushman's clock,' 1 
Or scream of burnished parrots flying o'er, 
Startles the silence — but again it sleeps ; 
And through it, ghost-like, the king-fisher darts 
Hither and thither, beautiful and curst. 

And eerie is the wak'ning of the stream. 

At dusk, the shy, weird platypus* comes forth 

For uncouth gambols 'neath the bright'ning moon ; 

And through the long night hours, or bright or black, 

Tall, spectral cranes croak hoarsely to their mates ; 

The bittern booms ; and with despairing wail, 

Doleful as spirits lost for evermore, 

The dingo curds the blood ; whilst down the gloom 

Of that dark gully comes a sobbing moan, 

The night-wind crooning its mysterious woe. 

The filtered gold that specks the twilight shade 
Which fills that gully on the brightest day, 
A crystal shade, 'olent of damp and death, 
Ages of vegetation passed away — 
Hath rarely fallen on the face of man ; 
And, when the Southern Cross's solemn light 
Streams from the sky, no human foot, methinks, 
Was ever planted in that darksome cleft, 
Choked with bush verdure. 

At it's streaming mouth 
Ti-trees shoot i-ankly from a swamp, and snakes, 
The wicked big brown snakes coil round the poles, 
And guard the entrance with their flattened heads, 
Lissome and hateful. The deaf adder, eke, 
Stupid and stunted, but as dire as dull, 
Lies loglike on the moist and mouldering soil, 
With festering fangs whose touch is certain death. 
The bulla-bulla haunts that lonely shade, 
And perched on tree-stump, spreads its glossy tail, 
As lyre for breeze to play on, but no breeze 
Stirs the curved plumes, and weary of the hush, 
The pheasant tempts a song from songsters mute 
By artful call, then mocks them dumb again, 
And a drear silence once more reigns around. 
The iguana, with its old, old eye, 
Which one might swear had seen ere man was born, 
The iguana, seemingly bowed down 

* Duck-billed watermole. 



A BUSH GRAVE. 279 

By burden of long life without an end, 

The wasted iguana haunts the shade, 

And makes it weirder with his weary gaze. 

The sassafras breathes perfume from its bark, 

The blackwood soars to catch the distant light, 

The beech that fadeth not spreads wide its boughs, 

And, o'er a dewy carpet richly green 

Luxuriant fern-trees bend their feathery fronds, 

The living batten on the trampled dead. 

A waste of weeds has almost blotted out 

The fenced-in spot where lies the human dead. 

Creepers and scrub have surged up round the rails, 

The rough grey rails, that mark the sepulchre. 

Who lies there buried ? " B. Y., '99." 

I read th' inscription on a crumbling slab, 

Lichened and mossed, and stained, and faintly gilt, 

With a chance sprinkle of the filtered gold, 

From which a lizard glided as I read. 

But, what the story of the epitaph ? 

I know not. We must wait for Israfil. 

His trump shall ring within that gully's gloom, 

But, till the dead arise to meet their God, 

" B. Y." stands blotted from the rolls of men. 

In the hushed gully by the silent stream 

He sleeps obscure. Ere many years have passed 

His tomb will be entombed* — and if it be ? 

The little fame that gives some score of years 

Of posthumous existence to a man — 

Is that worth much ? And e'en the brightest fame 

Must one day fade — as well, then, soon as late ! 

And for the common herd, — icho reads the stones 

With which they strive to dam out Lethe's Hood ? 

Deep in the southern bush, or in the sea 

That, in a moment, sunders man from men, 

Sleep is as sweet as 'neath cathedral flags. 

And, lest anyone should feel sad after reading this, I must (like 
Tom Ingoldsby) say 

" Come ! Come ! Mistress Muse ! we must not part this way, 
Or you'll leave us as dull as ditch water all day." 

So, I will follow up with two lively sketches by our Queensland 
"Tom Hood" and "Bret Harte " (in one), Mr. .J. Brunton 
Stephens. 

A PICCANINNY. 

Lo ! by the " humpy " floor, as modeless Venus ! 
Unblushing bronze, she shrinks not, having seen us, 
Though there is nought but short couch-grass between us ! 



* Data sunt ipgis quoque fata ■ pukhris. -Jovbmai X. '•. MQ. 



280 SABLE VENUS. 

She hath no polonaise, no " Dolly Varden " ; 
Yet turns she not away, nor asketh pardon ; 
Fact is, she doesn't care a copper " farden." 

Ah ! yet, her age her reputation spareth ; 
At three years old, pert Venus little careth, 
She puts her hand upon her hip and stareth ; 

All unabashed, unhaberdashed, unheeding, 

No Medicean, charmingly receding, 

But quite unconscious of improper breeding. 

'Tis well ; it smacks of Eden ere came sin in, 

Or any rag of consciousness or linen, 

Or anything that one could stick a pin in. 

Could boundaries be neater ? posture meeter ? 
Could bronze antique or terra cotta beat her ? 
Saw ever artist anything completer ? 

A shade protuberant, beyond contesting, 
Where this day's 'possum is just now digesting, 
But otherwise, all over interesting ; 

Trim without trimming, furbelow, or bow on ; 
Was ever sable skin with such a glow on ? 
So darkly soft, so softly sleek, and— so on ? 

Did ever fingers scratch a head so woolly ? 
Took ever child the outward world so coolly, 
Though Fahrenheit's at ninety-seven fully ? 

Was ever known so dark, so bright an iris, 
Where sleep of light, but ne\er play of fire is — 
Where not a soupgon of a wild desire is ? 

Oh swarthy statuette ! hast thou no notion 
That life is fire and war and wild commotion ? 
A burning bush, a chafed and raging ocean ? 

Hast thou no questioning of what's before thee ? 

Of who shall envy thee, or who adore thee ? 

Or whose the jealous weapon that shall floor thee ? 

Hast thou no faint prevision of disaster — 

Of dark abduction from thy lord and master — 

Of aliens fleeing, kindred following faster ? 

No faint forehearing of the waddies banging, 
Of club and " heelaman "+ together clanging, 
War shouts, and universal boomeranging ? 

And thou the bone of all the fierce contention — 
The direful spring of broken-nosed dissension — 
A Helen in the nigger apprehension ? 

I A wooden shield. 



METEMPSYCHOSIS. 281 

Nay, my black tulip, I congratulate thee, 

Thou canst not guess the troubles that await thee, 

Nor carest who shall love or who shall hate thee : 

Recking as little of the human passions 

As of the very latest Paris fashions, 

And soaring not beyond thy daily rations ! 

Die young, for mercy's sake ! If thou grow older, 
Thou shalt grow lean at calf, and sharp at shoulder, 
And daily greedier and daily bolder. 

A pipe between thy savage grinders thrusting, 
For rum and everlasting 'baccy lusting, 
And altogether filthy and disgusting. 

Just such another as the dam that bore thee — 
That haggard Sycorax now bending o'er thee ! 
Die young, my sable pippin, I implore thee ! 

Why shouldst thou live to know deterioration ? 

To walk, a spectre of emaciation ? 

To grow, like that, all over corrugation ? 

A trifle " miscellaneous," like her, too 

An object not " de luxe " and not " de vertu " — 

A being odious even to refer to ? 

Her childhood, too, like thine, was soft and tender ; 
Her womanhood hath nought to recommend her ; 
At thirty she is not of any gender. 

Oh dusky fondling, let the warning teach thee ! 
Through muddiest brain -pulp may the lesson reach thee ! 
Oh, die of something fatal, I beseech thee ! 

While yet thou wear'st the crown of morning graces, 
While yet the touch of dawn upon thy face is — 
Back, little nigger, to the night's embraces 



i 



Hope nought : each year some new defect discloses, 
As sure as o'er thy mouth thy little nose is. 
Thy only hope lies in metempsychosis. 

Who knows but after some few short gradations, 

After a brace, or so, of generations, 

We two may have exchanged our hues and stations '.' 

Mcthinks I see thee suddenly grow bigger, 
White in the face, and stately in the figure, 
Ami I, a miserable little nigger ! 

Should this be thus — oh come nut moralising ! 
Approach not thou my " humpy "+ poetising? 
Span- thine Iambics and apostrophising! 

\ A tint. 



282 



"ATTIC WIT. 

Let subtle nature, if it suit her, black me, 
Let vesture lack me, bigger niggers whack me, 
Let hunger rack me, let disaster track me. 
And anguish hoist me to her highest acme — 

Let me bear all thine incidental curses, 

Nor share the smallest of thy scanty mercies, 

But put me not — oh, put me not in verses ! 

She grins. She heedeth not advice, or warning, 

Alike philosophy and triplets scorning. 

Adieu, then. Fare thee well. Ta-ta. Good morning. 



A BRISBANE REVERIE. 
March, 1873. 

As I sit beside my little study window, looking down, 

From the heights of contemplation (attic front) upon the town — 

(Attic front, per week — with board, of course — a sovereign and a crown) ;- 

As I sit--(these sad digressions, though, are much to be deplored) — 

In my lonely little attic — (it is all I can afford : 

And, I should have mentioned, washing not included in the board) ; — 

As I sit — (these wild parentheses my very soul abhors) — 
High above the ills of life, its petty rumours, paltry wars — 
(The attic, back, is cheaper, but it lacks a chest of drawers) ;— 

In the purpling light of half-past six, before the stars are met, 
While the stricken sun clings fondly to his royal mantle yet, 
Dying glorious on the hill-tops in reluctant violet, — 

Just the time that favours vision, blissful moments that unbar 

The inner sight (assisted by a very mild cigar), 

To behold the things that are not, side by side with those that are, — 

Just the very light and very time that suit the bard's complaint, 

When through present, past, and future, roams his soul without restraint- 

When no clearer seem the things that are, than are the things that ain't ;- 

With dual apperception, metaphysical, profound, 

Past and present running parallel, I scan the scene around — 

(Were there two of us, the attic front would only be a pound). — 

Beneath mine eyes the buried past arises from the tomb, 
Not cadaverous or ghostly, but in all its living bloom— 
(I would rather pay the odds than have a partner in my room). 

How the complex now contrasteth with the elemental then ! 
Tide of change outflowing flow of ink, outstripping stride of pen ! 
(Unless it were but, no they only take in single men). 

Where trackless wilderness lay wide, a hundred ages through — 
I can see a man with papers, from my attic point of view, 
Who for gath'ring house-assessments gets a very decent screw. 



THEN AND NOW. 283 

Where forest contiguity assuaged the summer heats, 

It is now an argued question, when the City Council meets, 

If we mightn't buy a tree or two, to shade the glaring streets. 

Where no sound announced the flight of time, not even crow of cock, 
I can see the gun that stuns the town with monitory shock, 
And a son of that same weapon hired to shoot at 1 o'clock. 

Where the kangaroos gave hops, the " old men " fleetest of the fleet, 

Mrs. Pursy gives a " hop" tonight to all the town's elite, 

But her " old man " cannot hop, because of bunions on his feet, 

Where the emu, " at its own sweet will," went wandering all the day, 

And left its bill-prints on whate'er came handy in its way, 

There are printed bills, announcing " steamer ' Emu ' " for the Bay. 

Where of old with awful mysteries and diabolic din, 
They " kippered " adolescents in the presence of their kin, 
There's a grocer selling herrings kippered, half-a-crown per tin. 

"Where the savage only used his club to supplement his fist, 
The white man uses his for friendly intercourse and whist, 
Not to mention sherry, port, Bordeaux, et cetera — see List. 

Where dress was at a discount, or, at most, a modest " fall," 
Rise " Criterion," " Cosmopolitan," and " City Clothing Hall," 
And neither men nor women count for much — the dress is all. 

Where a bride's trousseau consisted of an extra coat of grease, 
And Nature gave the pair a suit of glossy black apiece, 
Now the matrimonial outfit is a perfect golden fleece. 

Where lorn widows wore the knee-joints of the late lamented dead, 
We have dashing wives who wear their living husbands' joints instead — 
Yea, their vitals, for embellishment of bosom, neck, and head. 

Where the blacks, ignoring livers, lived according to their wills, 

Nor knew that flesh is heir to quite a lexicon of ills. 

Five white chemists in one street grow rich through antibilious pills. 

Where the only bell was bell-bird's note, now many mingling bells 
" Make Catholic the trembling air," as famed Ceorge Eliot tells 
Of another- town somewhere between more northern parallels. 

(But for fear the name of Catholic offend protesting ear, 

Let " Wesleyan " or " baptist " be interpolated here, 

Or that bells make " Presbyterian " the trembling atmosphere). 

Where the savage learned no love from earth, nor from the " shining frame," 

And merely feared the devil, under .some outlandish name, 

There are heaps of Britishers whose creed is— very much the same. 

Where the "gin " was black (methinbs 'tis time this bard were shutting up : 

The bell is ringing for the non-inebriating cup, 

And even attic bards must have their little " bite and sup "). 



MARK TAPLEY IN QUEENSLAND. 



We often debate, but can never decide, the question " Which is 
the hottest place in Queensland 1 " We started down Queen 
street the other day, in company with our friend Tirkbarth (from 
Cardwell, Rockingham Bay, in 18° south). We asked him if it was 
not warmish up there at times'? "Oh! clear no," said he; "quite 
cool — every bit as pleasant as this ; couldn't tell the difference ; in 
fact, I rather think this place is a little the warmer of the two. 
But," he asked, " if you want real heat, you should just try Rock- 
hampton. Beastly close hole that ; never felt anything like it in all 
my life." Acting on his information, w r e bailed up our friend 
Gasblow, who keeps a store in the famed city of the Fitzroy, and we 
asked him to tell us all about it. " Warm in Rockhampton ! " he 
ejaculated ; " not a bit of it, Sir. You see, the river with us is 
much wider than yours here, and we have the south-east trades all 
day long. Now, if you wish for a genuine scorching you ought to 
go to Townsville." We, as usual, are indefatigable, and were not 
long in " interviewing " a live settler from Cleveland Bay, yclept 
Jim Coffeyskin, who keeps a "grocery" there, and we felt his 
pulse about the local caloric in that quarter. " Bless you," he 
said, "finest place ever you lived in ; I never feel hot there. Why 
the sea breeze would blow you out of your hammock ; and there you 
are, with your cigar, B. and soda, shirt and trousers, and wouldn't 
call the King your grandfather." We were so dazzled by this airy 
sketch, that we quite forgot to ask Jim how it would feel hauling 
copper ore and wool bales about on the wharf, on a tine sunshiny 
day in January. We next enquired of our fat legal friend, Twenty- 
stun, of Maryborough, if it ever felt hot there? "Hot!" he said, 
and he seemed to scorn the very idea, " why the country between us 
and the sea is all a dead level, and we have no mountains, like you 
have in Brisbane, to shut out the sea breeze." He evidently pitied 
our ignorance. Despairing, at last, of finding out a really and con- 
fessedly hot place in the colony, we appealed to Tom Chowcheat, 
general storekeeper and commission agent at Cooktown, as to how 
the thermometer ranged up in those parts. " Well," he said, tapping 
his chin quite doubtfully, " its a little warmish in the summer, 
perhaps, but nothing to what you might expect ; it's very like what 
Brisbane is at Christmas time." Our friend Purldive, who has an 
island somewhere in Torres Straits, drew such a fairy picture of 
cool springs, coral grottos, shady groves, and porous water-jars, as. 



VOICES OF THE GRAND STAND. 2S5 

quite disgusted us with Brisbane. We give it up. Either Queens- 
land is a very " cool " place, in more senses than one, or else, every 
town on the coast is inhabited by a transplanted race of Mark 
Tapleys, who are resolved to feel ; ' jolly," no matter what these dull 
prosaic wretches, Fahrenheit and Reaumur, may have to say about 
the matter. 

«♦" 

THE BRISBANE CUP. 



There are unwonted sounds in the air disturbing the noontide 
calm; a noise is heard as of "svvsh-sh-sh," and a kicking of hoofs, too, 
strikes on the air, accompanied with a squeaking whinny now and 
again, and a muttered " Ah ! would you now 1 " and a smell of fresh, 
fragrant hay " bedding," too, is perceptible — in short, the favourite 
for the Brisbane Cup is in training, and is undergoing his toilet 
inside yonder darksome stable. We are not much " on the sport " 
ourselves. We generally sit in the front row of the Grand Stand, 
and it might be observed, if anyone took the trouble to look at us, 
during that absorbing three minutes and forty seconds, or so, which 
old Father Time spins off his reel while the Brisbane Cup is being 
battled for by the iron sinews and roomy lungs of our thoroughbreds, 
we might be observed during that time seated in the front row, with 
our head folded inside our arms, very like a schoolboy asleep in 
church. We don't want to look at the race — our eyes are shut, but, 
our ears are open ; and this is a sample of what we generally hear 
during the eventful 3-35 of "the Cup": — "Now they're off. No! it's 
a false start again. I tell you the flag's doicn. Two to one, bar 
one, I'll la/y, Lend me your glass half a second. Take you in lives, 
Jack. My word ! it's a wholesome cracker. Field beats any two 
for a pony. Plats off there. Yellow's leading. Green's bolted. 
' Yanko ' beats anything past the post for fifty. 'Little Dick ' beats 
him. Done with you. Blue's ahead now. Hang that fellow ! he's 
just cutting his own throat. Will they ever catch him 1 No fear, 
he'll come back to 'em. Look at 'Mayflower' creeping up outside. 
Hullo, my nag is out of it already. Here they come. I can lay 
agin this 'ere 'certainty.' Splendid race. Take a pull, old boy, or 
vou'll never ' land it.' No one names it now for a tinner. There 

at 

they go at the half-mile! 'Krect card of the races ! Favourite 
wins in a walk, I tell you ! Elixa, let me introduce Captain Smiley 
to you. All over but the shouting. Only two of 'em in it now. 
D you, why don't you let him have his head '.' Field beats any 



286 A BIG "loo" party. 

one now for money. Done with you for thirty. This 'Wanderer' 
I want to lay* Now he's sat down on him ! Mind, pink kid, sewn 
with black, 6 k Easy with your hands, you fool, and let him have 
the steel. The mare's beat. Not a bit of it. Shake him up Yellow, 
you'll do it yet. Splendid finish. Hoo-roar-oar-oar-oar-oar-oar !.' 
In a walk, in a walk. Canters in, s'help me. Who'd 'a thought it 1 
Pot boiled over, after all. By Jove, I'm in a hole. Hurrah, pulled 
it off, at last. Three cheers for — . Lift me down, Charlie, and 
don't be staring at my shoes so. Was there ever such infernal luck 1 
Never mind your arm, Jack, I'll jump. Just hand over that money 
now. Wait till the numbers go up. Anybody seen Smuggins 
about 1 ? He's got our £10 sweep money. Oh! he went home in a 
cab just now." — And so the Brisbane Cup is all over, and we hope 
there will be no fruitless enquiries after "absent friends" this time, 
at any rate. 

.». 

WHITE WAISTCOATS. 



Another grand mercantile " loo party ! " Jark worthy and Co., sus- 
pended this time. Liabilities, £135,072 16s. 4d. ; assets, £27,163 
2s. 8d. The Ethereal Bank " looed " for £40,000, or so, on trade 
bills and overdraft, besides many another minor party who ventured 
to "cut in" at this nice little round game of commerce and speculation. 
We can't make it out at all. We went to school with Jarkworthy — 
" Jark " we used to call him then. He was always at the bottom of 
the class, and we at the top, and he was sweeping out an office when 
we were dux of the college. Catch the directors of the " Ethereal,"' 
for all that, letting us overdraw half-a-sov. ! Directors, indeed ! 
Why, whenever our butcher and baker have a matter of thirty 
shillings down on the slate against us, it infallibly occurs, by the- 
strangest possible coincidence, that those worthy lieges have a 
" little account to make up," and ask us to help them over it, which, 
of course, we always do. We used to wonder how Jarkworthy did 
it — how he managed, without brains or education, to inspire astute 
boards of directors with such implicit confidence. To be sure, his 
book-keepers were Greek and German, and marvels of debtor and 
creditor precision ; but that alone would never have done the trick. 
One day, however, we paid a visit to Jark's town place, and we took 
it all in at a glance. It was his white icaistcoats that did the business !' 
No human board of directors could ever resist them. Such expansive 
triumphs of enamelled snow, such marvels of resplendent clear- 



ROUGH ON MOSQUITOS. 2ST 

starching, were surely never seen ; and, coupled with a little, 
delicate, unobtrusive bit of filigree gold watch chain, with hands and 
filbert nails a miracle of conservancy ; a ten guinea " Sir Robert 
Peel " blue frock coat, grey pants, and costly black hat, et voila tout. 
" Jark " was a genius in his way, and made his mark in the world 
by the sole aid of these externals. Who could doubt a man with 
such waistcoats 1 They would inspire confidence, and pass, where 
the Bank of England itself would be scrutinised. He has nine sons, 
and he intends to bring them all up to be " Jarkworthys," and teach 
them to wear white waistcoats and costly blue frock coats, and make 
their way in the world, like our Napoleonic schoolfellow did, to 
position and fortune. Remember always, dear reader, to look np 
your white waistcoats, whatever you do. 



MOSQUITO-BAITING. 



The story we are going to tell you has reference to the sportive 
mosquito, a cheerful insect, which generally takes a great rise out 
of the human species, but which we have managed, so we fancy, to 
turn the tables on ; and by the time you have finished our narrative, 
we feel convinced that all your sympathies will be transferred to the 
unhappy mosquito. We may premise that we are a tough old 
bachelor, with well developed beard and moustache, and we begin 
the mosquito bait (far better and safer fun than a bull bait) at 
ten p.m. nightly. We procure a sofa squab and pillow, and put 
them on the floor ; we spread a blanket thereon, with the edge pro- 
jecting two feet on each side and at the foot, and we put another 
blanket over this one, and get between them. W T e have a soft, 
thick cotton bath towel ready at hand ; we put out the candle, and, 
straightway, the fun begins. The mosquitos are carefully and art- 
fully attracted by our exposed face and hands, and we wait till they 
are all well on the scent, to the number of a couple of hundred, or 
so, of them, and then, presto I we pop on the towel over our face and 
nose, leaving only our nostrils exposed, well rubbed with oil of 
lavender, and we draw our hands under the blanket, and just listen. 
Our moustache and beard are, of course, bomb proof; our rushing 
breath forbids any attack on our nostrils, and so our friend with the 
proboscis " wires in " at the towel, as presenting the besi opening for 
attack. Mosquito No. 1 may be heard to settle down with n self 
satisfied and hopeful buzz ; he takes soundings with his trunk into 



288 A MEAN ADVANTAGE. 

the depths of the towel, and, for a space of about 15 seconds or so, 
all is hushed in expectancy. Presently the deluded insect draws up 
his feeler, with " no effects " plainly and sadly endorsed on it. If, 
however, you have ever noticed the head of the mosquito, you will 
not fail to have observed that the bump of "hope " is largely developed, 
so he soon settles down in a fresh place, but for a shorter length of 
time, perhaps, at the second effort. We, in the meantime, are 
divided between laughter and a comfortable tendency to drop off to 
sleep. Again does our thirsty friend rise with a disappointed buzz, 
and "no effects" legibly written on his draft ; the sofa squab is, of 
course, shaken with convulsive throes all the time. At last, after 
repeated efforts, each one growing shorter, and more angry than the 
last, our friend may be heard sailing upwards, buzzing and supper- 
less to the ceiling — regularly taken in and done for. And as with 
mosquito No. 1, so with all the others; it is one sad chorus of dis- 
appointment, and despair, at such a palpable " plant and sell," and 
by the time we waken from our first, sound, " beauty sleep " (generally 
about 2 a.m.) not a buzz is to be heard. But, of course, we can't 
afford to spoil sport in this way, so we again uncover our face and 
hands, and down come our confiding friends from the ceiling again, 
and so soon as they are well excited, we again draw towel and 
blanket over the scene, and go to sleep, and the fun begins da capo, 
.and it is repeated as often as we happen to wake in the night. 
When the clay finally dawns, a row of very empty mosquitoes may 
be observed on the ceiling ; and, in addition to their famished and 
woe-begone appearance, they do not appear, somehow, to have slept 
half so well as we, ourselves, have done ; and they have evidently, 
too, taken a great deal more unrequited exercise in the course of the 
night, with legs, wings, and suckers, than was good for them on an 
empty stomach. We have practised this game for a dozen years or 
.so, and, if there were any shame at all in our composition, we know 
we should never be able to look a mosquito in the face. But we are 
never cruel to any other creature, so we hope to be forgiven our one 
foible. It amuses us; and mosquitoes " ain't got no friends." But 
we have always been a mean dog in our treatment of the midge 
family ! We are fully aware that they only live a few hours, or days, 
at most, and that they are always hungry, and hollow, and empty ; 
and that they wait in our bed-room all day till we come to bed at 
night, patiently and affectionately looking forward to the happy 
meeting and greeting between us ; and when the critical moment 
arrives, all we do in the way of reciprocity is selfishly to draw those 
unsociable barriers, called net curtains, sharply along, and leave our 



AUSTRALIAN SCULLERS. 289 

little winged admirers to spend the weary, wakeful, thirsty, night 
outside them ; while we, inside, selfishly forget their very existence 
in deep sleep. We are mean, and we freely confess it. 



TRICKETT, LAYCOCK, BEACH, AND SEARLE. 



And so the " pot " boiled over, and Orlando threw the Duke's 
-wrestler, just like David killed Goliath, after all. "Well ! well ! 
Yes! and if we take the countries they represented into consideration, 
New South Wales looks a very small Orlando indeed by the side, or in 
front, of the great champion England. Yet, for all that. Miss 
Rosalind Sydney, who, each time (figuratively) had her tiny hands 
clasped in anxious suspense for months, anent the fate of her envoys 
(and paladins) had all her doubts and fears happily set at rest. And 
what do the knowing ones of England say about it? — the people of 
that country whose House of Commons used so regularly, at one 
time, to make a sauve qui peut of it into the refreshment room when- 
ever the subject of obscure Australia — that ineffable bore— was 
brought up. We repeat the question, what do the Britishers think 
and say about it? John Lobb, the Sydney bootmaker, took the 
prize for boots from them all in London ; so it is not the first time 
they have, by the fair Thames River, tasted the quality of the Port 
Jackson lads. And, apropos of this, we should very much like to 
have seen the four best men of the old London Rowing Club, Messrs. 
Close, Stout, and Co., just try conclusions with, Fitzhardinge, Clai-ke, 
Deloitte, and Co., of bygone Sydney, from the Circular Quay, twice 
round the " Pinchgut " and back again, with a westerly wind and a 
flood tide, and the water as prettily lumpy as Stoke Pogis church- 
yard — 

" Where heaves the turf in many a billowy heap." 

We fancy we'd venture to back the "Southern Cross" fellows, under 
such circumstances. And our boys, Trickett, Laycock, Beach, and 
Searle, too, what electric currents of thought must have flashed 
across their brains, as — with the elbows drawn correctly into the sides 
with every pull of the flexors, and toes over-reached by hands, 
selon les regies, at every stretch of the extensors; their shoulders 
tin own back, the chest forward, and the "stretcher " quivering again 
at every impulse of the thighs — as they realised at last that they 
were near the winning-post, and could never now be overhauled; 
that the gun would presently fire, and hail them winner, amid the 
mingled thunderous cheers, alike, of the astonished Englishmen and 

T 



290 A " FOSSIL " SQUATTER. 

delighted Australians ! What was the nature of their cogitations at 
that supreme moment 1 We fancy we can " boil them down " for 
you much as follows : — 

" What will they say in Sydney ? " 
and small blame to them, either. 



THE GOOD OLD TIMES. 



(I am aware that a letter, similar to the following, is reported to 

have gone home from Melbourne ; but that is no reason why this 

one should be suppressed). 

Australian Club, Brisbane, 

June 10, 18—. 

Dear Jack, — You will remember that when we parted in London 
I promised to write and let you know how this part of the world has 
progressed since we left it so many long years ago. Well, it's a sad 
task, for you never saw a place so changed for the worse, and gone 
to the bad — at least / think so. It's no place for a gentleman now 
to live in, and there is not a trace of the good old times left about 
it. You remember Macadam's old shop, where we had such a 
glorious spree after that unexpected heavy return from the boiling- 
down at " R. J.'s " pots ; well, it's all pulled down now, and a lot of 
new gin-palaces flourish, with nothing but shilling ordinaries and 
sherry cobblers inside, and flimsy, gaudy, stucco outside ; and what 
with ice here, and water hydrants there, and a lot of new policemen 
rigged out like cricketers in blue flannel suits, the whole place is gone 
to the bad altogether. And you remember poor old "Easy-go," at the 
Survey Office, who never limited anyone's run ; well, they've shunted 
him out of that altogether, and put a sharp, young, new-fangled 
hand in his place, and the way they've been playing up lately with 
some of the holders of " unimproved selections " is a caution to 
snakes. The Department would make no bones of quibbling out of 
the Thirty-nine Articles, or the Ten Commandments, if it suited their 
book to do so. It's a beastly shame, in my opinion. 

But this is nothing ; this is only Brisbane. You should just go 
Up country and see the manoeuvres there ! They've got railways, 
now, forsooth ! And you remember our poor old stockman Duvall's 

«rave, at the Lagoon, just down by where the ■ blacks speared 

him in 1843 ; well, there's a township and flour mill there now, and 
the blessed place actually sends a member to Parliament. Just 
fancy that ! And it's worse still, up on those barren ironstone 



GAMMIE AND LESLIE. 291 

ranges which used to spoil that new outside run of ours on the 
Burdekin ; I mean the one that we took up after you went home, 
you know. It's what they call a " gold-field " now ; but it looks, 
for all the world, as if Donnybrook Fair had suddenly run short of 
water for its whisky, and all hands had taken to well-sinking to look 
for some of it. All tents, rowdyism, and burrow-holes. Yes ! just 
fancy a railway for these new hands, when the old " wheelbarrow- 
tracks " were considered quite good enough for a gentleman's 
dog-cart in the happy days when you and I grew wool. Ah well ! 
Gammie and Leslie were quite right in what they said, and when 
once wool ceases to be the staple product, the country is no longer 
fit for a gentleman to live in. By the way, you remember that half- 
allotment of land I bought one day at auction for £90, in Mealie 
Mowth's insolvent estate, long ago. I was on the spree at the time, 
and tried hard, I remember, for years afterwards, to sell it, but no 
go. Well, it seems my luck was " in " after all, for I'm now offered 
£3,750 for it, and there's a range of three-story warehouses and 
bonded stores on each side of it now. I think I'll let it go ; there's 
bound to be a " smash " here, some day, and I'll never get another 
chance like it, mayhap. I forgot to say that when the diggers 
rushed our Burdekin station, our super, cleared out all the cattle 
to them for beef — 7,000, at £8 a head average. But what consola- 
tion is that to a man for having his run cut up and spoilt by a lot 
of "mineralogists'?" 

You never see an " old hand " now, knocking about ; one of the 
real ironbark sort at £15 a year, and plenty of them at that ; men 
who could split, saw, shear, drive bullocks, and do anything. It's 
all new chums now, and £40 a year — no less ; and you have to 
teach them everything. It's enough to make a fellow weep to think 
of the good old days, when there were never any infernal land sales 
at all, or newspapers, or champions of the people, or modern 
abominations of the kind. 

The old Logan country, where Lawless and the rest of us used to 
have such jolly times of it, is all over-run now with a lot of hard-up 
sugar-planters, growing rum and molasses, with niggers, if it please 
you; and swarms of selectors there, too. You'd never recognise one 
of the old runs if you rode over them now. Of course, we all know 
that it never was a paying sheep country, but, hang it, they might, 
for all that, have kept it on with cattle, in place of tearing it to rags 
this way ; but it's all of a piece with the rest of the colony ; the 
" whole raft " of it has " gone to the bow-wows " headlong. 

Yours sincerely, 

John Oldboy, Esq., Megatherium Club, London. Felix Oldboy. 



ON USURY. 



Usury, in its broad, bitter sense, was forbidden by the Mosaic law; 
yet the word, when analysed, appears to have no very harmful 
meaning attached to it. It would appear to signify mere rent paid 
for the use (hence usury) or temporary possession, or borrowing, of 
something belonging to another. Such as, for instance, when Smith 
rents a house and land from Brown, and pays him £100 a year for 
the loan, or use, of it; and no one ventures to call that "usury," and 
yet it is that. But then, you see, there is this vast difference between 
" improved real estate " and the " spondoolicks," that Smith can't 
very well get up in the middle of the night and walk off bodily with 
Brown's house and land, leaving him lamenting ; while witli the 
"pewter," the "bunts," as various classical authorities denominate the 
thing we call money, the process of conveyance or conversion — in 
accordance with, or contravention of, all and sundry the civil and 
criminal enactments of Parliament in that case made and provided — 
is, alas! for the trustful and confiding lender! only too easy a process. 
Hence the necessity arising for some tangible security, something 
more like a " material guarantee " (as the late Emperor Nicholas of 
Russia used to call it) than "just a little wee bit promissory," as 
Jock P., of Ipswich, used to say. Hence it ariseth that when Profusus 
of the Australian Civil Service is in want of money (a chronic 
complaint, by-the-way, with him), he hieth, and straightway payeth 
a visit to Uncle Alphonso, at whose gaberdine belt, and just below 
his venerable beard, there always hangs a well-filled bag of ducats 
and sequins, ready to be lent out at a moment's notice (like horses 
and buggies) at so much a day, or per week, for the use of them ; 
the same to be safely returned in the same good order, condition, and 
amount, as when entrusted to the borrower by their owner, or the 
borrower, by jingo ! you know, must " stand the racket " thereof. 
This, then, is the rock that Profusus always (to use a figure of 
speech) manages to split upon. He don't, he won't, he never does, 
return the money at the stipulated time, and then " his uncle '' 
assesses the heinousness of his nephew's crime at his own avuncular 
price, and fines him heavily for his moral laches. No doubt the good 
old man's sense of the fitness of things is soniewhat outraged, but 
when he finds at the year's end that he has made 120 per cent, on 
his money, with good security running all the while, why, then — he 
wipes his tears away with the cuff of his coarse gaberdine, and is 
comforted. Some people call him a usurer, but he beareth it meekly, 
for he has only been paid, after all, for the rent of his property, 
which happens (by mere accident, of course) to consist of money. 



THE MELBOURNE CUP. 



That most untiring racehorse of the whole lot — old Father Time — is 
ever on the move, and in due course he will have brought us once more 
face to face with the stern realities of the Melbourne Cup, the annual 
race par excellence of Australia, and it is there, and it is then, that 
the master turf spirits of Victoria and New South Wales meet in 
their keenest rivalry. Talk about your intercolonial chess and 
cricket, forsooth ! what are they to the great chess tourney of the 
turf 1 where Greek meets Greek indeed — -where the craf ty Mosaic 
intellect of the Victorian bookmaker, with his subtle Semitic cast of 
face, is pitted against the Yorkshire cunning, the Irish mother-wit, 
and the cornstalk " leariness " of the rough and tough racing men 
of the older colony; and when this happens, you may rely on it that 
matters are well worth watching, and the interest is bound to be 
piled somewhat high. Who can forget the time when the Hebrew 
contingent brought over their little pocket "flyer," Fugleman, to do 
the trick, and to empty the Welshmen's purses, in the gold Cup of 
1874, when it was discovered that the little pea, after all, was under 
a thimble, labelled " speculation," and so the unsophisticated 
Mosheims went back all shorn 1 Or who can fail to remember the 
period when the hard shelled old Cornstalks sailed over the sea, with 
Dagworth and Horatio on board, and fancied the Melbourne Cup of 
1873 to be already in their pockets ; when lo! the Hebraic "youths" 
popped up, and gave them checkmate with the little dark knight 
Don Juan, all so neatly 1 Are not these things written in the book 
of the chronicles of the "Turf Register "% And then just look at 
the beautifully carved pieces which they play the great game with. 
Decide, if you can, between the respective merits of the New South 
Wales strains, such as Yattendon, Kingston, Kelpie, and Gemma di 
Vergy, and all the glorious old Sir Hercules' pedigree, on the one 
hand ; and, on the other hand, of such flyers and stayers as the 
Marquis, Maribyrnong, King Alfred, and the rest of them, that 
Victoria can produce. What visions of early rising, healthy morning 
air, young blood, active life, rural simplicity (in two senses), old 
English days of the heath, the linsey woolsey, the corn-bin, the 
sparkling eye of beauty, and the flutter of muslin on the grand 
stand and on the dog cart; what pleasant visions of all these, and a 
score of other delightful accompaniments to the healthful and noble 
sport, are conjured up in a moment when one thinks and writes of 
the thoroughbred horse ! Talk about "discovered check," and 



•T> 



294 A STORMY SUNDOWN. 

" shooters," and " bailers," and "break-backs," and the like ! They 
all pale before the consummate tactics of the turf. In the Melbourne 
Cup now, we should not be sorry to see some sporting man, who 
runs for the pure love of the heath, the linsey woolsey, and the 
morning air — some man who never bets, nor thinks of the money 
part of the business at all ; we should not be sorry, we say, to see 
some such one carry off the prize, albeit the bookmakers would reap 
the harvest in such a case. We like to see a sportsman win. 



THE "GOTHENBURG" WRECK. 



A low sad wail comes to us, ocean-borne, and it finds a mournful 
echo on shore, in the desolate hearts of the bereaved ones in Adelaide 
and Brisbane. The vessels were English, like us : 

" Rule Britannia " sang the crew 
When the stout old hooker sailed, 
And her ensign, as it blew, 
Flung that warrior cross to view 
Which in battle to subdue 

Never failed. 

Schooner, barque, and steamer went forth, and doubtless the sunset 
of Australia had never looked serener. Their brother shipmen 
watched them sail out of sight, and had wished them good night and 
God speed, and so they went on, and the eye of man knew them no 
more, till the time came when the diver saw the dead woman kneel- 
ing and the dead children sleeping amid the living, swimming sharks. 
Yes, doubtless, the night before showed a glorious sunset, with the 
distant storm clouds spread like a fan from the solar centre, and a 
kind of trickling golden fire environed the invisible orb himself ; 
and this in turn melted outward and upward into a lurid border, 
which, in its turn, became merged in a dark and slaty cloud as the 
fan spread wider; and in this cloud the white lightning darted hither 
and thither, quenched and invisible enough whenever its puny flash 
dared approach the central rays of the expiring, but still gorgeous 
luminary, which was scarce yet below the horizon. Nor was there 
lacking a strip of turquoise sky close by, and flecked here and there 
with sunny, bright, and amber-shaded patches of cloud to beautify 
the scene by way of contrast. And then the world revolved for a 
few minutes more, and so the horizon lifted and gradually blotted 
out the fixed orb of day, and then the golden fire became mere 



SHARKS IX THE SALOON. 295 

common burnished copper, and the storm cloud was all lurid from 
•edge to centre, and the slanting rain was seen across it — all far 
away, of course — and a faint thunder was heard from the distanee ; 
and so, ever changing and ever dying, the scene of heavenly enchant- 
ment and ravishing color faded slowly into the sombre twilight, and 
the god of day was, for a time, no more. Yes, 'twas thus the sun 
set that evening, and they were all merry on board ; and the next 
night when the sun went down, the good ship went down along with 

it, and the Tush, my brother, is this all ? Hast no money 

in thy purse 1 Is the Bailie Provost asleep 1 Then stir him up 
with a long pole and bid him receive thy pound and my pound, and 
make the best of a bad job amongst the widows and orphans. 
'Vast heaving there with your sentiment, and stow your gab, mate, 

till you've done your work. read this ! 

The "Dawn," schooner, has returned to port from the Barrier Reef, 
the scene of the wreck of the " Gothenburg," (s.,) to which she was 
•despatched on a salvage cruise a few days after the receipt at this 
port of the intelligence of the wreck. The " Dawn " left Brisbane 
on March 6th. and on March 14th made fast to the mast of the 
" Gothenburg " and sent a diver down to search for the box of gold, 
not knowing that it had been previously recovered by Mr. Putwain. 
The diver found the after part of the ship from the mizen rigging 
two feet under the deck, all gone. The screw and shaft had broken 
away. He found Judge Wearing's valise in the cabin, containing 
cards, handkerchiefs, &c, but no letters. He also found the ship's 
log, partially destroyed. It contained no account of the return 
trip. He saw the body of a woman in a berth, kneeling ; also two 
children who had apparently died while asleep. In another berth 
he found several other bodies. Numbers of sharks were around the 
vessel, and multitudes of smaller fish were swimming in and out of 
the berths, the doors of which were all open. When the sun was 
shining and the water smooth it was quite light, and the water was 
so clear that the diver could be seen walking about the deck. The 
wreck lies wedged in under a shelving bank of coral. 



ON "LOVE." 



There was immense verity after all in I iishop Berkeley's world- 
famous idea that external objects exist only by courtesy of our 
senses. Mortals mistake strong delusions for reality every day of 
their lives. Edwin and Angelina fancy they love one another, and 



296 THE IDEAL WOMAN. 

" spoon a hurricane " on the strength of it ; and so long as the- 
waiter — at the seaside hotel (the Great Panjandrum Hotel Company, 
Liuiited) where they are spending the honeymoon — places breakfast, 
dinner, tea, and supper with such praiseworthy punctuality and 
recherche profusion on the table in the bridal parlor, so long will E. 
and A. continue to " spoon," and to fancy it's all real love and so 
on. Bless you ! children, sentiment is nothing after all, but the 
comfortable rumination of a well-digested and digesting meal, or to 
"boil it clown," sentiment is simply "grub" in another shape. You 
don't believe it ? Then just try the other thing. Go short of 
" rations " for a week and note carefully, if you can, whereabouts 
the "sentiment" business, in such case, comes in; and if it don't be 
found to teetotally disolve in thin air, you can write us down an 
ass. Dost remember the horrid story of the sly old Roman, disciple 
of Pythagoras, who locked up together, without food, a Paul and 
Virginia from amongst his Christian slaves, till, after some days,, 
they were fain almost to eat, in place of loving, each other 1 And, 
as with sentiment, so with love. Love (so called) in nothing but 
curiosity, mere inquisitiveness, in nine cases out of ten. Look at 
ourselves, for instance. Everyone knows us, we may be seen in Queen 
street any fine afternoon at half-past four p.m. You may know us 
by our eye-glass and buff kid gloves; by our well-cut check suit, 
which is all of one loudish pattern (just to show that we don't wear 
slop-made clothing, you know), "warranted to kill" (a lady) at forty 
paces distance. Well, to " return to de subjec'," we were speaking 
of the imaginary feeling of love, and saying it was in many cases 
only one of curiosity. Imagine us, then, taking our afternoon stroll 
in Queen street ; we "spot" a being of beauty. The hair of Titian's 
pictures; the eyes of Cleopatra; the kid-swathed foot of Cinderella; 
the tournure of Mother Eve herself. We are smitten. Who is she? 
say we. The infallible Jenkins, who knows everybody, is, of course, 
arm-in-arm with us, and perhaps he says, " Oh ! that is Dora Smith, 
the pork butcher's daughter," or " That is the Duchess of Grafton- 
ville." In either case, a good round 75 per cent, of our " love " 
evaporates on the spot. We know at once where and when to put 
our finger (so to speak) on the lady, in case we want to hear of her 
and see her again. But, should Jenkins, the omniscient, say "She's 
a stranger to me," what agonies do we not straightway endure? We 
gaze on the lovely unknown one, we realise the horrid fact that we 
may, possibly, never see her again. We cannot well rush up and 
ask her who she is, and so she remains a beautiful and beloved ideal 
on our memory for evermore; the "lost Lenore" of the poet, a Smith, 



"humbug" (in liquidation). 29? 

Brown, or Jones though she may be, and who will dare to say, after 
this, that love does not consist, in part, of combined curiosity and 
wonder, which, sometimes, nothing less than a dozen years of prosaic 
married life will serve to gratify and dispel % 



ON EDUCATION. 



Gentle reader, friend of our soul, dost ever bethink thyself, reflect 
on, or realise, what would be the awful consequence if " education " 
became univeral 1 ? We have an august " Minister " of that ilk, who 
replaces a majestic and defunct " Board " of the same ; and the staff 
and army, the rank and file, the certificated masters, the pupil 
teachers, the Parliamentary votes, libei-al money grants, and all the 
rest of the gorgeous array and stupendous powder battery and train, 
that are being brought to bear on the grinding down of ignorance in 
our land, must, in the end, have their results. It is a great and 
awful question, none the less, whether we ought to pray for the- 
universal spread of education ; why, when once that is effected, what 
a terrific job it will have become to govern the country. Men, 
ignorant now, will then no longer be tickled with clap-trap, or kept 
in political good humor with political nursery rhymes as at present. 
The hapless Frankenstein will have to face his master, when that day 
comes, you may depend. People will then cease to put up with 
having law, learning, justice, and religion meted out to them like 
butter is, at so much per lb. avoirdupois. Such matters ought to be 
free, or nearly so, to all, even as the sun, rain, and air now are ; and, 
when the day we speak of, comes, these matters will have to be free 
to all. The vast and cumulative spirit of Supreme Humbug that 
has existed, carried on business, and flourished so exceedingly in all 
countries and in all ages since creation, would, in an educated world, 
have to shut up shop, alike in Ashantee, Brisbane, Rarotonga, 
Washington and elsewhere. Imagine, if you can, the terrific final 
crash and collapse of insolvent Humbug ! of Humbug, bankrupt, at 
last ! He, the one only party, who never met a reverse, or failed to 
"come up to time " since the world began ! And oh ! what a host 
of minor institutions will be involved in his fall. Yea! by the rod 
of Aaron ! that despised one of proud Egypt — one, by-the-way, of 
Humbug's earliest workshops — the governors of the people would 
then have to brush up and look smart, and be dons and senior 
wranglers and all that sort of thing, in place of duffers and uoodles. 
Which is better, gentle reader, and what shall we do, we men of the 



298 A BUDDING CRICHTON. 

world, for whom Mumbo Jumbo of every sort lias no terrors 1 Say, 
prithee, say ; shall we try back, and find anchor in those ignorant, 
trustful, and confiding times of a.d. 1500, and Charles the Fifth 1 ? or 
shall we bank up the fires, sit on the safety valve, and steam ahead 
in the fog and dark, chancing all the rocks and shoals, in search of 
Dr. Cumming's and the Latter-day Saints' millennium 1 Or is there 
not some quiet middle course set forth in the lives of such men as 
Bunyan, Baxter, Penn and others *? a course that will do duty, 
survive all the shocks, and solve, in time, all the problems of life 1 



OUR BOYS. 



" What to do with our sons 1" is the great question of the day. 
The intelligent young Queenslanders who are growing up around us 
must be provided for, of course, at the Bar, in the Army, the Church, 
and the learned professions. As a dernier ressort, perhaps, the Civil 
Service and the channels of trade offer some prospective advantages. 
In our own case, we had decided to offer the Civil Service the benefit 
■of the labors of our eldest " hopeful." We found, however, to our 
horror, that in the present degenerate times there is some odious 
•competitive examination to be faced, a barrier which did not exist 
in the glorious old clays of 1860, or else perhaps — but let that pass. 
To resume. We put a preliminary question to our son and heir, by 
way of leading him on to the terrible specimen sheet of the OS. 
examination, which lay before us, bristling, as it did, with shattering- 
posers for unwary youth. We knew of the boy's insatiable appetite 
for " plum duff"," and we propounded the luscious and simple query : 
" If a man can eat half-a-pudding in one day, how long will it take 
him to eat the whole of it?'' Our first-born, with true John Bull 
phlegm, took twenty minutes to consider this knotty point, and then 
l-eplied, in a burst of confidence, "Half-a-clay of course." This was 
•discouraging, it must be admitted, and showed a weakness of 
inductive reasoning power. We mildly argued the matter with this 
embryo senior wrangler, and he got out of it by saying that he 

" thought " we meant something that we didn't say, or mean 

either, of course. If we were to ask him the name of the Sultan of 
Turkey, and he replied wrongly, he would be sure to say that he 
" thought " we meant the Emperor of Russia all the time. We 
consulted our friend Jewdishus (who sometimes "cuts mutton" with 
-us on Sundays) on the subject. He said, " Study the bent of the 
boy's inclination ; see what he is prone to, and put him at it. 



BRASS, OF BEVIS MARKS. 299 

Remember Sir David "Wilkie and Sir Edwin Landseer." This was 
very good as far as it went, but trie only predilections our eldest son 
has hitherto evinced seem to lie in the direction of penny cigars and 
sixpenny novels, a basis palpably insufficient to point out data for 
future development. The summer is coming on ; there is a man in 
the next street who wants a boy to tie up ginger beer corks. We 
think we will send our youthful Scaliger to him. There really do 
seem to be very few openings for the youth of Queensland, and it is 
much to be regretted, is it not 1 



GOOD AND EVIL. 



There is a soul of good in all things evil 
Would men observingly distil it out. 

So says some poet or other ; and 'pon honour, you know, he's not 
so very far wrong either. No one would, perhaps, at a cursory 
inspection, perceive any points in common between, say, the poet 
Addison and Sampson Brass for instance ; but a closer examination 
reveals the fact that they both firmly believed in the immortality of 
the soul. Addison, in his " Cato," gives us the magnificent soliloquy 



commencing 



"It must be so ; Plato, thou reasonest well," 



etcetera, etcetera, for which overhaul the play, and " when found 
make a note on." While, in the 49th chapter of " Humphrey's 
Clock," we read that Mr. Brass holds a steaming glass of the (sup- 
posed to be) deceased Mr. Quilp's hot rum punch before his nose, 
and amongst other pleasant speculations on the subject, expresses a 
firm belief that the spirit of the departed Quilp is at that moment 
regarding him and the rum from " somewheres or another ; " for, by 
the way, it will be noted by anyone who has read the " Old Curiosity 
Shop," that Brass's zoology, astronomy, and theology are, like the 
punch, rather "mixed." 

And, apropos of good and evil, we must admit that practice 
certainly does make perfect. One soon learns, after a few attempts, 
how to save labour in doing anything, and to make the head do half 
the work of the hands; and what a pity it is that we are not as 
clever in matters of religion, which none of us practice sufficiently, 
or often enough, or long enough, to make us perfect in it, or we 
should certainly (being human and clever) improve and lie perfect 
in that as in other and worldly matters. But vice is more attractive 



300 A FEMALE BARGAIN HUNTRESS. 

to us. Vice is, in fact, very like an onion ; a whole one, either raw 
or boiled, will nauseate a delicate palate, and can only be tolerated 
by a very coarse appetite indeed ; but la ! bless us ! how exquisitely 
delicious is just a little soupcon of it, you know, just enough to 
swear by ; and if you cleverly rub the bone or the dish with some of 
the juice of it, eh 1 deary me 1 but how it really does freshen up and 
add a zest to the somewhat insipid salads and entrees whose other 
ingredients are compounded from our various — ahem ! — virtues, eh ?' 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ; OR FLOOD AND 

DROUGHT. 



'Tis an edifying sight to note a bargain-loving, self-satisfied matron 
who has, by keen diplomacy, obtained the entree to the sacred 
precincts of the wholesale drapery or grocery department in some great 
warehouse, and to watch her in the act of picking up goods at prices 
that, to her fancy, would break the hearts of "those horrid retailers 
with their absurd profits, you know, my dear," if they only could see 
how she was getting the best of them. Deluded Mrs. Grundy ! 
Little doth she " twig " how that smiling, handsome, well-spoken 
salesman in the faultless broadcloth suit, and gorgeous watch-chain,, 
is piling up the agony on her, and charging her just ten per cent, 
more for every article than she could get it for at the retailers, 
cruelly fobbing her ready cash, too, far his " bargains," in place of 
the six months' credit she could obtain with her legitimate trades- 
people. Retailing is not a fashionable line of business in Queens- 
land, any more than elsewhere, and perhaps the most rigidly 
conservative individual in the whole crowd is the provei'bial " Clerk 
of the weather " in our colony. Let us take an instance. Pater- 
familias finishes his breakfast, subducts his coat-tails to the warm 
fire, dreamily contemplates Adolphus John, his eldest born (set. 8), 
in the act of polishing the marmalade from off his plate, and suddenly 
the "old man" becomes conscious of a cloud of dust outside the 
parlour window, smothering his geraniums and azaleas, through the 
agency of a passing omnibus, and he utters the rash words, " I wish 
we had a shower or two, just to lay the dust. Hapless man ! he is 
in for it, like the lay brother Peter, in Ingoldsby's legend, who 
wished for a skinful of beer, and got a whole cellarful sent in at 
once, evoking the terrible incantation, 

Vade retro. 
Strong beerum ! clececle a lay fratre Petro ! 



IDYLLS OF THEOCRITUS. 301 

— The clerk of our Queensland weather keeps no retail lots of rain, 
or fine weather either, on hand. His rain is mostly clone up in three 
weeks' parcels, and his droughts in three months' ditto. You 
generally get what you ask for, but you always get more than you 
want of it. "We really must make up a deputation — deputations 
seem to be the sovereign remedy for all evils now-a-days — and be<>" 
of this clerk of the weather to be less conservative, and condescend 
to break bulk of his wares a little more frequently. 



FEMININE PROSE. 

Oh ! the grand supply of prose — -not poetry — that is locked up in 
the average female bosom ! Behold, now, the young husband, on 
Sunday evening, after tea, sitting on the sofa, with his young wife 
by his side ; the baby has gone to bed ; the fumes of the fragrant 
tea leaf ascend to his brain and fire his imagination. He has had a 
•classical education, and recalls the sweet idyll of Theocritus, about 
the shepherd hoy on the Sicilian shore, 

" Who loved the wood nymph, when he budded first 
About the lips and curling temples ; often times, at eve, 
The shepherds watched him prostrate by the sea, 
And sunrise, there, would find him, pining still." 

No doubt callow youths do abandon themselves to love with a heart 
and a-half ; and a " wood nymph," must have been different from a 
modern girl, to be cold to a budding moustache, and Hyperion curls 
on the temples. To resume. Our young husband puts his arm 
round her waist, and recalls all the mythological loves of the Gods — 
Jupiter and Europa, and the rest of them — for " the wife " is as 
shapely a little puss as any feminine myth of them all in the entire 
"classical dictionary." She sees an opportunity, and says: " Darling, 
will you do something to please me 1 ?" He responds with a joyful 
"Yes ; " and she misuses the English language to utter this phrase; 
"Then, in the morning, dear, do let me have a cheque for Dowlas and 
Bobbin's account." Bathos ! "at one fell swoop," away go Jupiter, 
Hebe, Theocritus, Sicily, and the rest of them, helter-skelter, and the 
dream— is over. 



CLINCH OF THE " SWORDFISH." 

" Died in harness." Well and truly might this be said of Captain 
Clinch on the bridge of the "Southern Cross," steamer. The name 
was the oldest on the roll of Australian coasting skippers, and goes 



302 DIED IN HARNESS. 

back to the days of Sir John Franklin. Who does not remember 
the stout old "Swordfish," schooner, at 'Frisco, in the "forties;"' 
and by the Prince's Bridge, Melbourne, and Hobart Town in the 
" fifties 1 " Australian steamer skippers have a hard nerve-wearing 
life of it, and it is a wonder they last as long as they do, knocking 
about in all weathers ; and still they must have ever a cheerful word, 
and ready small talk, for all the fresh batches of passengers, trip 
after trip. A Cabinet Minister, even, goes out of office sometimes, 
and gets a rest from the bores who assail him ; but the poor skipper is 
ever at his post, and must perforce take his civil, social, share in the 
general "jaw," voyage after voyage, day and night, with never a real 
spell at all. An amusing "eppysode," which the name of Clinch recalls, 
was in that great gold smuggling case, when a certain firm, in Mel- 
bourne, dodged the duty, and " planted " 1,800 ounces of fine gold at 
the bottom of a case of shirts, which was, in its turn, secreted under 
the false deck, which supported the hoofs of 600 sheep, in the hold of 
Clinch's shallop, bound from Melbourne to Tasmania. The chief 
mate was " in the swim " with the exporters, and he did his best to- 
baffle the detective who boarded the vessel, and swore he couldn't 
have the sheep disturbed, and all that, but the " hofficer " replied in 
the words, immortalised by " Pleaseman X." : — ■ 

None o' yer gammon, mate, with me, 

I shall not stir vun hinch 
From this 'ear deck, till I have spoak 

To galliant Capting Clinch. 

And so the £7,000 worth of gold was duly hauled out from its snug 
nest, and divided between the Crown and the informer. Stout old 
Clinch ! His name will be green, in the memory of all who knew 
him, for many a day. 

-♦ 

MILTON IN 1875. 



It was beyond Milton, and on this side of Toowong, that a. 
rambler found himself, about an hour before sunset, lonsr ago, on a 
pleasant gray afternoon, with a damp southerly breeze, which drew 
out the scent of the gum blossoms well. It was really a great relief 
to be there, and well away from Queen street, with its offensive 
stable odour, its ledgers and its larrikins, its cabbies and its banks,, 
its business and its bores ; and away, too, from the ever-present 
nightmare of that hideous, Damoclean " fourth " of the month, with 
its " duly protested," not protected, bills, and all their attendant 



THE " WARRIGAL " MAX. 303 

horrors ; and it was pleasant to sit there on the little wooden cause- 
way, under which, and touching which, the forest stream, suggestive 
of watercress, gurgled along, clear and shallow. His faithful steed 
nibbled at the grass, now so plentiful after that copious 30 inches 
more or less, of rain, so blest in the memory of all grateful drapers ; 
and he yielded himself to the soothing contemplation of that forest 
glade, its bosky nooks and fresh green dells, where the unstinted 
water 

Trickled from the roots. 
Pleasant to gaze on, but death to thin boots. 

And there was a profusion of moss and fern about, and lots of rich 
black soil and cool damp air, and big fragrant old trees, smelling 
just like a newly-emptied Havana cigar box. And so, somehow, a 
kind of dream-spell came over him, and he gave himself up to the 
worship of this little green oasis, this happy half-hour of life, and it 
was with quite a start that he heard a noise to the south, and lo ! a 
horrid new railway just visible and audible in its course of con- 
struction appeared through the vista of the forest. And here he 
thus beheld the Genius of the Future. And, again, there was 
another sound ; this time, however, to the north, and lo ! seven dusky 
figures, with tattered blanket, spear, and boomerang, sped swiftly 
along the brow of a low hill to their night camp, and here he saw the 
Genius of the Past. 'Twas just thus, may be, that their savage fore- 
fathers passed along that hill in the moment when the antipodean 
Charles I. walked out on that cold January morning to the scaffold 
at Whitehall ; and it was even thus that their forefathers in turn 
went to hunt the kangaroo and the platypus in the days of Crecy 
and Agincourt, and long before that era, too. But their time has 
come now, and they shall soon cease for ever, and he who in this 
pretty dell doth watch them is indeed much privileged, for he is even 
like unto those who, in ages remote, might, perchance, have seen the 
ichthyosaurus at play, and who, living with him, died also with him. 
And the "warrigal" man shall pass away also, and we who behold him. 
shall be one day as much a petrifaction and a wonder as he will then 
be ; and this modern, and highly improved, and patented present 
time shall then have glided into the fossilised past ; and so on in 
turn until Time itself shall be no more. For, is it not written! ''that 
which is, is only that which hath been, and there is nothing Q6MI 
under the sun." 



PETRIE'S BIGHT, 1876. 



It needs no Christmas pantomime to give us a grand transforma- 
tion scene in our progressive city of Brisbane. The old landmarks 
are rapidly disappearing, and even those people who never leave the 
metropolis have to rub their eyes at times and ask if they be not 
dreaming when they see all that a short month, or even a week, will, 
at times, bring forth in the way of metamorphosis. There's our old 
fishing ground at Petrie's Bight, for instance, where, in 1841, in the 
eddy, Cassim performed his famous landing after a 50-mile run and 
swim to warn Brisbane that Limestone was starving for want of 
rations — on the top of a flood ; a feat that quite eclipsed Captain Webb's 
trifle of an excursion across the English Channel. Dear old "Petrie's 
Bight," where so often, with hook and line, we have imposed on the 
credulity of the artless mullet, and beguiled from his native element 
the bony and succulent bream! thy days are numbered, and Arcadia 
is no more. The fiat has gone forth, and the screech of the boat- 
swain's pipe, and the vicious rattle of the steam-winch, will now be 
heard where Izaak Walton's disciples used to sit; and the cry of the 
seagull will anon give place to " Ten and Tally " in the presence of 
those exceedingly unromantic bipeds who bear " H.M. Customs " on 
their gilt buttons. And if no one else, dear Bight, will chant thy 
requiem and lament thy banished fauna, why, we will do it, at any 
rate, and thus place on record our inconsolable grief. But a truce 
to melancholy ! This is Christmas time. All is not lost. There is 
corn in Egypt yet. The lovers of the bygone can still take heart and 
revel in the antique ; for is not the old Brisbane Pound yet left to 
us 1 ? Its simple, unpretending "plan and elevation" still gladden the 
critical eye of the archaeologist of Queensland's metropolis, and an 
affable, even if not erudite, Hingston — himself a relic of a Brisbane 
of the past — ably does the honours of the venerable institute. So 
loner, then, as thev leave us our Pound we don't care. The old 
Reservoir and the old Cemetery are gone ; the old Police Office will 
soon follow; everything in Brisbane is new and fresh, except — alas! 
the atmosphere, which the Municipal Board of Health appear to 
have got a permanent lease of — more's the pity ! 



EIGHTEEN-SEVENTY-FIVE. 



We don't know how it is, but somehow each successive winter and 
session irresistibly remind us of the very first Parliament we had here, 
just 15 years ago, and which appears now more like 115 years, in the 



EARLY RIVER STEAMERS. 305 

dim past. It was sharp, cold, bracing winter weather then, too, 
and the girls' faces were rosy in Queen street, and everyone was so 
hungry, and honest John Watts, one of the few squatters who ever 
remembered there was such a thing as a people, was yet a resident ; 
and so was the genial Sussex squire, Yaldwyn, of the red coat, 
golden spurs, and jolly royal Duke of York visage — presiding spirit 
of the glorious " saturnalia," as he called it, of Ipswich races— for 
Ipswich teas Ipswich those days. Herbert, too, had just begun 
his political strategy here, and De Lacy Moffatt, most plodding of 
treasurers (if we except Robei't Ramsay Mackenzie), was with us, 
too. Ehu fugaces .' there, verily, are gaps in the ranks now 1 ? But 
the matchless winters still go on, and alternate in their clue course, 
even as they did in the days when no one dreamt of railways to 
Toowong, and of ever going that way, of all ways, to Ipswich. Who, 
even now, can reconcile himself to such new fangled ideas 1 when he 
recalls Tommy Boyland, Jack Mm-phy, George Patullo, and their 
hospitable, even if rather slow, steamers to Ipswich ; with that early 
particular cup of extra hot strong coffee, intended to neutralise the 
dense fog in the river bends, lasting generally all the way to the 
mouth of Canoe (now Oxley) Creek ; and eke the savoury, whole- 
some, and plentiful, if not very recherche breakfasts they were wont 
to spread before you. The river bends were, then, all indigenous 
beautiful drooping creepers and wild tangled scrub, in place of 
cleared farms and black stumps ; and dinner, too, was often dis- 
cussed ere " Limestone " was attained to ; and never, oh ! never, 
have we seen elsewhere such cold pickled pork as used — we verily 
believe — to grow on board the river boats in those days. Wherever 
did they get it? Nothing like it, surely, was ever tasted anywhere 
on shore ; so daintily streaky, digestible as rice, delicate as white- 
bait ; and George Patullo, too, had a young Chinese cook on the 
" Brisbane," whose pea soup — with celei'y seeds, and flinty pellets of 
toast, and the disembodied spirit of a savoury ham bone, which, 
somehow, permeated the whole lot — fairly challenged the whole 
world. Good old days ! when Joe Fleming, M.L.A., used to flatter 
himself that wheat would pay to grow on the Bremer banks, and 
George Thorn, too, the elder, enjoyed pleasant lotos-eating visions of 
74-gun ships riding in the Ipswich " basin," and Dr. Lang used to 
spout on the wondrous future of Queensland, in the cotton-growing 
line. Alas! Bubbles! Bubbles! Bubbles! Ipswich has lost the 
bullock-drivers', the shepherds', the boiling-down nun's cheques; and 
were it not for the splendid bower anchor of her coal pits, which are 
ever increasing in value and use, she would miss them more. And 

u 



30f> OVER THE HURDLES. 

Brisbane, too, proud Brisbane, metropolitan Brisbane, who, but she 
herself ! What of her % What has site done in 15 years, except give 
herself over, bound hand and foot, to the Corporation, the " Sanitary ' 
Board of Health, and the old A.S.N. Co. ? who all do as they 
(adjective) please with everybody, and about everything. But long, 
very long indeed, must be the lane than hath no turning in it, eh % 
What sayest thou 1 oh ! brother of mine. 



" FUIMUS." 



After the Jumping, 1883. 

Brown, partly dappled, and one white heel, 

On your forehead a small white star, 
How often I've watched you eating a meal, 

My friend you undoubtedly are. 

A trusty, true, and cheery old friend, 
Tho' you've bucked me over your head, 

Before you found out that your manners must mend. 
And I think you were over-much fed. 

Xo matter, old chap, we've jogged along 

In calm and in stirring scenes, 
And now we must both be counted among 

The list of the old " has beens." 

My pulse beats fast as I think once more 

Of the smash you came on the rails, 
At your first big jump in days of yore, 

When I kept you behind their tails. 

And tho' all but over, you did not quite fall, 

And I yelled a lusty halloo 
As yen; learned your lesson, once and for all, 

That timber can not be got through. 

By a head, by a length, or a full half-mile, 

You always were certain to win it ; 
Though others were laying long odds all the while 

That you couldn't be, possibly, in it. 

All gone, old fellow, all bygone thoughts, 

And one of us two will go next. 
See, he wakes from his dream, and suddenly snorts I 

Come, steady, and do not be vext. 

We've been simply beaten, and no excuse 

Shall ever be worth our while — 
Or, perhaps (I should rather say), worth mine — 

For you, it is not your style. 



a horse's heart. :>07 

For why? Poor dumb, old, faithful friend, 

You have known no will but mine ; 
Could you speak, you would say, " Time brings an end 

To my strength, but I don't repine." 

Well, well ! let us hope as we both grow old 

That our hearts may still be green, 
And wish that both hearts were as good as gold, 

As I know at least yours has been. 

Shall we mourn for the past with deep regret ? 

Shall we wish we were young once more, 
And long for the last sweet sleep, and yet, 

Must we feel there is nothing in store ? 

All, all is vanity, men have said, 

And repeated for ages past. 
I suppose it is so, but there's nothing to dread, 

In the fact that our lives cannot last. 

You never feared aught in your time, old horse ; 

You needn't be frightened of Death ; 
'Tis I, if you go, that will mourn your loss ; 

You stand to lose nothing but breath. 

And if I go first, will your welcome form 

For ever be lost to my sight ? 
Hush ! I hear the roll of the coming storm ; 

No time for surmise. Good night. 



R. W. Stuart. 



Exhibition Ground, Brisbane, 15th August. 



A SOUTH SEA MURDER, 



Commodore Goodenough murdered at Santa Cruz ! A good man, 
and with a benevolent wife, now widowed ! We wonder if lie was 
ever "personated?" The reader, too, will, perhaps, wonder what 
we are bilking about. Did the reader ever tell of one Bishop 
Patteson, of Melanesia, son of the English Judge of yore? Well, it 
fell out one day that a schooner called at one of these islands, and 
the friendly natives were invited on board to see "the Bishop," and 
bhey Socked in crowds, and beheld an imposing gentleman in the cabin, 
arranged in full canonicals, or pontificals, or whatever is generally 
the thing. Strange to say, some of "the Bishop's " acolytes clumsily 
dropped a few sacred censers, in the shape of pig iron, through the 
canoe bottoms; but it did not matter, for "the Bishop" was so 
glad to see liis sable friends, that, rather than put them to the 



308 A PIRATE "BISHOP." 

inconvenience of swimming ashore, he sailed away with them alto- 
gether from the island, and also quite forgot to bring them back 
again into the bargain. " The Bishop " paid them a second visit 
after this, and all the rest of the people on the island, who knew of 
him at all, partook likewise of his enforced hospitality, and " lost 
the run " of their canoes and their liberty in the same unaccountable 
manner as before. The result was, that the other blacks who were still 
left on the island were like the new King Pharoah, and they " knew 
not Joseph " by sight, but only by report ; and when the real living- 
Bishop of Melanesia, about the space of some weeks afterwards, 
" not knowing what had been done, came in " to port with his 
schooner, the strangers, who knew him not, save by report, said 
amongst themselves : " This is that kidnapping wicked Bishop, come 
let us kill him, and the inheritance (of freedom) shall be ours." So 
they slew him, but r-everently covered up his body, without any 
vindictive mutilation, for all that. Poor gentleman, little did he 
know when he entered the lion's den, of that other fiend " Bishop " 
who had been there twice before him, a worthy scion, no doubt, of 
the sus. per coll. and defunct firm of Hare, Bishop, and Williams, 
who killed the Italian boy by sticking plaster on his mouth and 
nose, just to sell his white teeth for a trifle to the dentist of 10 years 
before. We trust that this sham Bishop and real pirate may die 
in the odour of sanctity, and that when he turns his face to the wall 
for the last time in that shrinking agony which can no longer face 
thought, sound, or sight, he may still find more mercy than he dealt ! 
Yes, we repeat the query, could anyone have personated the 
" Commodore 1 " There must be some reason for his untimely death. 
There is never smoke without fire, so they say at least. Goodenough 
he was, and too good for so graceless a fate. 



BRISBANE IN 1822. 



One of the best preserved " bits " of old Brisbane, and almost the 
sole one which has so far escaped all Corporation Goths and Muni- 
cipal Vandals, is the sloping roadway which leads from the bridge 
foot to the Queen's Wharf. There stands the old retaining wall ; 
there grows the cactus in a redundancy of vegetation and prickles ; 
and the venerable " G. R.," with crown and " 1822 " on the front of 
the ancient Commissariat Store, is still on view. We regard this 
spot with some of the awe which, in London, we should feel at 
unearthing an old crypt in Southwark or Ludgate. "A.D. 1822," 



"TULIP" WRIGHT. 30!) 

indeed, what of it? Why, John Tinibs had just started the 
"Mirror" then the tirst cheap illustrated periodical, and Thistlewood 
had just essayed to kill the Ministry; and " Gentleman George " 
was fully 60, and (sad to relate) had grown very fat. The down had 
scarce disappeared from the chins of the juvenile heroes of Waterloo, 
and ladies strolled under the Hyde Park " Achilles " bisected at their 
waists by belts with giant buckles, their thin arms tightly cased in 
silk or muslin. A gentleman's coat was all collar, his hat all crown 
and no brim in those days, and both sexes made "guys" of them- 
selves ; the ladies wore bonnets and hats piled up with fruit and 
flowers like a market gardener's cart, and they promenaded the mud 
in plain, thin shoes, guiltless, alike, of heels, buckles, rosettes, or 
sandals — and where are they all now? "1822" indeed! Why, 
Byron was alive still, and George the Third scarce cold in his grave, 
and David Garrick's widow was yet in the flesh. Brisbane is verily 
an old place for Australia. IS"or Melbourne, nor Adelaide, nor 
Auckland can vie with it for antiquity. The old sloping path 
looked just the same in the days of " Tulip Wright" (of Melhourne- 
cum-Hobart) as it does in 1892, and a cruel piece of fun was poked 
at " our village " in the " fifties," and poked, too, with all naive 
unconscious seriousness. The skipper of an English ship pulled u]> 
in his gig from the Bay, and, stopping at Baxter's ferry — Baxter 
himself was there — he quietly asked, " How much further up the 
river it was to Brisbane ? " You can safely wager, gentle reader, 
that the horny-handed sons of Ipswich laughed galore, crowed lusty 
chanticleer, when they heard the story already related earlier 
in this book. For 70 tremendous years in Australia's history 
— such a 70 years as she may never again see in the way of 
growth and wonders — for three score and ten years has this old spot 
remained unchanged midst all the vicissitudes, joys, sorrows, births, 
loves, and deaths, crimes and godlike deeds of good, which have made 
up Australia's complex tale from 1822 to 1892; and, before the place 
gets " improved," we should advise those who have not seen it just 
to go and take a last peep at it, and " photographers please copy." 



BRIDGET. 
We really must devote an article to Bridget, for she devotes a 
great deal of Iter time to our articles ; the labour is divided thus : 
We write them overnight, and Bridget lights the fire with them in 
the morning. Bridget's idiosyncrasy is peculiar; she has a mania 
for " tidying " matters. This same "tidying," however, must not, 



310 BRIGIDA. 

on any account, be confounded with " cleaning," you know. The 
latter is not one of Bridget's weaknesses, by any means. If Bridget 
can manage to remove all the papers lying on the sideboard to the 
chiffonier, and all the papers lying on the chiffonier to the side- 
board, every morning before we get up, then Bridget is happy 
indeed. The whole thing is quite perfect, the whole work crowned, 
provided we can never manage to find any single thing in the same 
place where we laid it overnight. If we stifle our natural irritability, 
and try to be reconciled to the change established under Bridget's 
new regime, then Bridget, the indefatigable, is at us again, and 
•everything, by the next day, is once more " tidied " into some new 
position, and our weary hunt commences afresh. We regret that we 
have no phrenological cast of Bridget's head ; it must surely have 
curious and rare developments somewhere on it. Bridget does not 
particularly object to dust : she never disturbs it ; we can, and do, 
write our name, frequently, with our fingers on the mirrors and 
windows; but Bridget is quite impervious to all such feeble hints. 
Our lady friends inform us that the only antidote to " Bridgetism," 
is to get married ourselves. We pen these lines in fear and 
trembling, lest they should meet the basilisk eye of Bridget. We 
believe she can read a little, and if she sees them, will say, " Och ! 
the craythur ! fwhat 'id he be dhriving at wid his badtherashin and 
nansince about his scraps av paypurs 1 Sure it's mesilf intoirely 
that kapes his bit av a place clane for him a tarl, a tarl." We 
shudder to contemplate what new form of torture a vindictive 
Bridget might invent for us ! seeing how terribly we suffer already 
under Bridget's good intentions alone. 



And, now, I am reminded that the space, which I set out for 
myself when I commenced this book, has been quite, and more than, 
filled ; and, yet, the volume is not one whit more remarkable for 
what I have been able to record therein, than it is for that which — 
through want of room — I have been compelled to omit. The reminis- 
cences, for 40 years, of that new and vivid life which came to 
Australia with the gold discovery, are matters not easily compressed 
into a few pages. However, the remedy will be easy hereafter, if 
the subject, so far, proves to be one of any interest ; and, if not so, 
then this book is, already, long enough. 



TABLE OF AVERAGE TEMPERATURES. 



The following list gives the average temperature of a single year in the places specified. 
The exact " annual mean," of course, requires observations to be extended over a period of 
greater length than has been possible at some of them ; but the table will be useful to show, 
generally, the position which Australia occupies with respect to the rest of the world in point 
of heat and cold. And I have given the approximate latitude of some of the places, in order 
to illustrate that temperature is not always governed by proximity to, or distance from, the 
equator. The thermometer is not a sentimental instrument, and its records form a sarcastic 
comment on the theory that a black man must not labour at Port Darwin, though he may at 
Havannah, or Batavia, especially, too, when we remember that Nature herself, for thousands 
of years past, acclimatized black and brown people in cool Tasmania, and still colder New 
Zealand, while, no white race ever originated in the tropics : — 



i> 


V 

- > 
- o 






0) 


<U 


5 3 






ri Z- *J 


!« 


£!- 






° 53.fi 


1 <D 


2-i . 






■s S'8 

° Zj= 




ai — « 

J O 33 


Name of place. 




its « 
rf — t- 




<u S *> 

■4- -- ^ 


Name of place. 








x a> 






>: 9> 5h 


A" 


w a> 






i. K ^ 


< 


3" 

O 






ci - 


< 


o 
















_ . 










it .= 










ii — 










~ X 








•D ■— s_ 


"w f 








'O ~ S 


12 2S 




Port Darwin, N. Australia 




S4 30 


43 7 




Toulon, France 




62 06 


11 55 




Pondicherry, India .. 




S3 75 






Imerell, N. S. Wales 


V 

J 




11 5 




Port Essington, N. Austral 


ia 


82 80 






Lisbon, Portugal 


62 


1(1 1C 


Far 


Daly Waters, C. Australia 




82 00 




1,921 feet 


Toowoomba, Queensland 






inland 












Naples, Italy 




61 


Id 27 




Cumana, S. America 




81 86 






Nagasaki, Japan 




60 80 






Goode Island, Torres Straits 


81 50 






Rome, Italy 




(ill 4(1 


17 18 




Derby, W. Australia 




81 






Nice, France 




60 


6 40 




Colombo, Ceylon 




80 70 


43 36 




Montpelier, France . . 




59 36 










79 70 


33 24 


2,200 feet 


Bathurst, N. S. Wales 




59 20 


1 20 




Singapore 




79 


37 




Auckland, New Zealand 




59 10 






Jamaica, W. Indies . . 




78 90 


43 17 




Marseilles, France . . 




59 


22 23 




Calcutta 




78 50 


37 50 




Melbourne, Australia 




58 50 


in 




Batavia 




78 30 


30 32 


3,278 feet 


Armidale, N. S. Wales 




58 30 


21 10 




Havannah, W. Indies 




78 OS 


36 22 


1,800 feet 


Beecbworth, Victoria 




58 






Normanton, Queensland 


1 




35 2 




Albany, W. Australia 


} 


58 


20 40 




Cossack, W. Australia 


78 


28 37 


2,600 feet 


Stanthorpe, Queensland 






Levuka, Fiji Islands 


1 


41 26 




Launceston, Tasmania 




57 in 






Travancore, S. India 




4t 50 




Bordeaux, France . . 




56 4S 


19 11 




Vera Cruz, Mexico . . 




77 92 


36 12 


2,037 feet 


Cooma, N. S. Wales 




56 20 


15 28 




Cooktown, Queensland 




77 60 


45 28 




Milan, Italy 




55 76 


14 30 




Manilla.. 




77 45 


42 53 




Hobart, Tasmania . . 


} 


55 10 






Seringapatam, India 




77 


33 36 


3,490 feet 


Mt. Victoria, N. S. W. 






Barbadoes, W. Indies 




76 50 


40 




Pekin, China 




55 


19 15 




Townsville, Queensland 
Mauritius 




74 60 
74 10 


41 15 




Wellington, New Zealand 
New York 




54 70 
53 80 


23 




Rio Janeiro 


} 


74 


39 56 




Philadelphia, United States 


53 42 


21 43 




Onslow, W. Australia 






Bath, England 




53 






Boulia, Queensland . . 


) 


73 


50 50 




Brussels, Belgium . . 




51 Ml 






Winton, Queensland 


f 


52 22 




Amsterdam, Holland 




51 62 


30 2 




Cairo, Egypt 




72 50 


42 IS 


1,337 feet 


Oatlands, Tasmania.. 




51 50 


29 43 




Grafton, N. S. Wales 
Mackay, Queensland 




72 50 
72 


48 50 




Paris 

Geneva, Switzerland 




51 OS 
50 54 


23 2t 




Rockhampton, Queenslanc 


I 


72 


4S 12 




Vienna, Austria 


} 


50 86 


30 :; 




Bourke, N. S. Wales 




71 50 


51 30 




London 






(1U4 deg. Jan., 41 deg. Julj 


) 




46 




Dunedin, New Zealand 




50 30 




Far 


Thargomindah, Q'land 


1 




37 22 


3,000 feet 


Mount Macedon, Victoria 




49 5(1 




inland 




711 (t 


53 21 




Dublin 




49 10 


3G ii 




Algiers, N. Africa . . 




52 14 




Warsaw, Poland 




IS ..1, 






Clermont, Queensland 




69 


55 57 




Edinburgh, Scotland 




IT 84 






Wallgett, \. S. Wales 




68 60 


35 52 


4,640 feet 


Kiandra, N. 8. Wales 




IT 80 


,'i 'i 




Tort Natal, S. Africa 


i 


67 90 


55 41 








15 68 


32 




Madeira, < 'unary Islands 


... IS 


Far 


Moscow 




43 50 


27 50 




Brisbane, Queensland 




07 7n 




inland 












Charles ille, Queensland 




67 


.VI M\ 




Stockholm 




12 -.;<; 






i i -in.., n. s. \\ ales . . 




66 50 






Toronto, < 'anada 




42 211 






.Malta 




65 (Ill 


40 47 




Quebec, 1 lanado 




H Tl 






Went worth, X. s. Wales 




(15 111 






b redericton. New Brunsn icU 


39 III 




800 nrilea 


Roma, Queensland . . 


1 








Victoria, British • lolumbi 


i 


::T on 




inland 




i., ii 


59 56 




st. Petersburg, Russia 




35 66 


.;i n 




< !ape T.r.\ n, s. An ii ,. 




7(1 n 




N < hi h i lape 




32 II 






New Orleans, U.S. .. 




64 7i. 






Winnipeg, Canada . . 




29 Til 






Porl Ifacqu u ie, \ s. W. . 




64 in 


58 




N.iin, Labrador . . ■ 




26 :.u 


::.; .,1 




Sydnej 




03 (ill 






Godha\ en 




22 II 


16 B0 




Cadiz . 




03 .ii 


73 (1 




i 'penm\ Ik, ( ■ reenland 




12 211 


32 47 




Maitland, \. s. Wales 




63 ii 






\l.h iiie Island, Arctic oin 


tie 


1 25 


;l 56 




Adelaide, 8. Ausl ralia 




., ■ i. 










' 




>)) GORDON and GOTCH, Typ 
Queen St., Brisbane. 




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