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Full text of "Open air grape culture : a practical treatise on the garden and vineyard culture of the vine, and the manufacture of domestic wine"

4 I 



OP THE 




0PM AIR GRAPE CULTURE: 



A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE 

(Sartow wtir JKwprfc (felto 0f % iine, 

AND THE 

MANUFACTURE OF DOMESTIC WINE, 

DESIGNED FOE THE USE OF AMATEURS AND OTHERS 

IN THE NORTHERN AND MIDDLE STATES. 

PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED WITH NEW ENGRAVINGS FROM CAREFULLY 
EXECUTED DESIGNS, VERIFIED BY DIRECT PRACTICE. 



BY JOHN 

AUTHOB OF "ESSAY ON OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE," TO WHICH WAS AWARDED 
THE FIRST PREMIUM OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED A SELECTION OF 



EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN VINEYARD PRACTICE, 



AND A CAREFULLY PREPARED DESCRIPTION OF THE CELEBRATED 



THOMERY SYSTEM OF GRAPE CULTURE. 



YORK: 

C. M. SAXTON, AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHER. 
1862. 



**IK I IMAM 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, bv 
S. J. DEWEY, 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Northern 
District of New York. 



W. II. TINSON, Stereotyper. 



PEEFACE. 



THE following work has been undertaken, not so much in the 
hope of adding anything new to what is already known of the 
culture of the vine, as with a view to collect the scattered infor 
mation which exists on the suhject in periodicals and kindred 
works as well as amongst practical men, and to throw it into 
such a shape as may prove useful to the amateur and the vine 
dresser. 

This being our object, we have endeavored to modify and adapt 
the practice and principles of others to our own climate and 
wants, and to simplify and explain the processes of the profes 
sional gardener so that he who reads may practice. To this end 
we have in general avoided theoretical discussions, and have 
depended chiefly upon the practice of ourselves and others for 
the directions here laid down. For although we know that 
well established principles are the only sure foundation of all 
right practice, this is not the place for discussing the theoretical 
grounds upon which these principles rest. A practical work 
should deal with facts and be a guide to action. 

As the garden culture of the vine, at least in the northern 
States, differs from that in the vineyard only in the more 
thorough preparation of the ground and the larger size of the 
plants, we have not formally divided the work into sections cor 
responding to these two classes, as the principles which govern 
both are precisely alike. 

Where, however, some peculiar details of management apply 
to either we have inserted them in the section to which they 
properly belong as under the subject of VINE BOEDEES and 



IV PREFACE. 

CARE OF OLD VINES. A full account of the Ohio vineyards is 
given in the Appendix, amongst other examples of American 
practice, and the peculiar principles which regulate the manage 
ment of grapes devoted to the production of wine will be found 
in their appropriate place, viz., in the second part of this work, 
which is specially devoted to that subject. 

The varieties of the vine have multiplied so rapidly of late, 
that it would be impossible to give a complete list even of those 
which have been brought out. Seeing then that at best our 
work must be incomplete in this respect, we have described 
those only which have been thoroughly proved and recom 
mended by some well known society or cultivator. Of the 
two or three hundred varieties of American grapes of which 
names are to be found, probably not more than one in ten have 
been tested in localities differing greatly from the place of their 
origin. 

In the execution of our work, we believe that where we have 
had occasion to make use of the labors of others, due credit has 
always been given ; and we have also added a list of those 
books which we have most freely consulted, so that those who 
desire to make the culture of the grape a specialty may be 
directed to original sources of information. 

That the culture of the grape will ere long attain a position 
of which its present condition affords little idea, we have no 
doubt. Not only is it one of the most delicious and easily 
raised fruits, but it also gives quick returns, so that he who plants 
a vine has not to wait for the better portion of his lifetime ere 
he eats the fruit of it; in three or four years it will yield an 
ample vintage. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOH 

PREFACE, iii 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE, List of Works on, or relating to the Vine, . ix 
CHAPTER I. NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE, . .17 

II. CHOICE OF SOIL, 30 

Situation, 36 

Aspect, 39 

Necessity for Protection from Wind and Storms, . 40 

III. PREPARATION OF THE SOIL, 50 

Draining, ... 50 

Trenching, 55 

Subsoil Ploughing, 55 

Manuring, 59 

Terracing, 60 

Construction of Vine Borders for Gardens, . . 65 

IV. PLANTING THE VINES, 76 

Time to Plant 77 

Choice of Plants Distance Apart, .... 79 

Marking off the Ground, 80 

Digging the Holes, 83 

Taking up the Plants, 84 

Setting them out, 86 

Staking, 90 

After-culture, 91 

T 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

CHAPTER V. CARE OF VINES DURING THE FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD 

YEARS, . . .92 

Mulching, 95 

Laterals, 96 

Winter Protection, 97 

Management during the Second Year, . . 98 

Management during the Third Season, . . . 100 

VI MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES, 104 

Winter Protection of the Fruiting Canes, . . .105 

Summer Pruning, 108 

Thinning the Berries, 118 

VII. SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VINE, . . .120 
VIII. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRUNING AND TRAINING AS 

APPLIED TO THE GRAPE VlNE, 127 

IX CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS, TRELLISES, ETC., . . 158 

Effect of Walls, 159 

X. PROPAGATION OF THE VINE, 175 

Layering, 175 

Cuttings, 180 

Eyes, 186 

Grafting, 187 

Budding, 194 

Seed Hybridization, 196 

XL MANURES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE VINE, . 202 

Sources of Manures, .203 

Effects on the Vine, 209 

Liquid Manure, Mode of Producing and Principles of 
its Application, 215 

XII. DISEASES AND INSECTS, 225 



CONTENTS. V 

PACK 

CHAPTER XIII. METHODS OF HASTENING THE MATURITY OF THE 

GRAPE, 231 

Hand Glasses, 231 

Wall Glasses, 232 

Reversing the Bunches, 234 

Ringing or Girdling, 234 

XIV. CARE OF OLD VINES, 241 

XV. To PRESERVE GRAPES, 247 

XVI. DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES, .... 250 

Bland, 250 

Canadian Chief, . 251 

Catawba, 251 

Clinton, 252 

Concord, 252 

Delaware, 253 

Diana, 253 

Elsinborough, ........ 254 

King, 255 

Hartford Prolific, .255 

Herbemont, 256 

Isabella, .257 

Logan, 259 

Early Northern Muscatine a Shaker Seedling, . . 260 

Rebecca, 262 

To Kalon, 264 

Union Village, 265 

New Varieties, 265 

TABULAR VIEW OF TUE SIZE, COLOR, SHAPE, ETC., ETC., of all the 
Varieties of American Grapes, of which any account can be 
found, . 269 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 



PAGB 

Extracts from Letters from Mr. Jefferson, late President of the 

United States, 281 

Manufacture of Wine in the South of England, 283 

Manufacture of Wine by Mr. Longworth and others, .... 285 

Currant Wine, 293 

Recipe for White Currant Wine, 295 

Another Recipe, 295 

Mr. Cornell s Recipe for making Red Currant Wine, .... 295 

Black Currant Wine, 296 

Elderberry Wine, 296 

Another Method, 297 

Blackberry Wine, 297 

Strawberry or Raspberry Wine, 297 

Orange Wine, 298 

Ginger Wine, 298 

Currant Wine, . 299 



APPENDIX I. 



EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN VINEYARD PRACTICE. 

The Ohio Vineyard System, % 30 j 

Dr. Underbill s Vineyard, 305 

Judge Conklin s Vineyard, .311 

McKay s Vineyard, t 31fi 



CONTENTS. IX 



APPENDIX II. 



THE THOMERY SYSTEM OP GRAPE CULTURE. 

(This is the famous system under which the splendid Chasselas de Fontaine- 
bleau Grapes are produced ; it is the method advocated by Dr. Grant. The ac 
count is literally translated from Du Breuil s Cours d Arborlculture, and is the 
only complete account which can be found at least so says the Frenchman, 
Rendu, in his " Ampelographie Francaise," and he ought to know.) 

PAGE 

Cultivation of the Vine upon Trellises, in Northern and Central 

France, according to the New Methods in use at Thomery, . 320 

Form to be given to the Trellises, 322 

Horizontal Cordon of Thomery, 324 

Horizontal Cordon of Charmeux, 328 

Vertical Cordon, 330 

Vertical Cordon with alternate Shoots, 331 

Cultivation of Trellised Vines arranged in the form of the Verti 
cal Cordon with opposite Shoots, 334 

Walls proper for the Trellis, 334 

Exposure of the Walls, 337 

Propagation of the Vine, 337 

Graft, 339 

Plantation and Process of Bedding or Laying the Trellised Vine 

First Year, 340 

Second Year of the Plantation, 344 

Third Year, 345 

Method of Pruning adopted for the Vertically Trellised Vine 

with opposite Shoots Construction of the Frame First Year, 348 

Second Year, 351 

Third Year, 353 

Fourth Year, 354 

Care necessary to the Lateral Branches First Year, . . . 355 

Disbudding the Lateral Branches or Coursons, .... 358 

Pinching the Shoots, 359 

Manner of fastening the Shoots in Summer, .... 360 



CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Renewal of the Coursons, 360 

Replacement of the Spurs (Coursons), 361 

Care of the Grapes, 361 

Suppression of the Superfluous Branches, 361 

Thinning the Branches, 361 

Gathering the Leaves, 362 

Protections, 363 

Annular Incision, 363 

Renewal of the Trellised Vine, 363 

Culture of Table Grapes in the Open Air, 366 

Culture of Table Grapes in Southern France, .... 367 
Diseases of the Vine Destructive Animals and Insects, . . 368 
Gathering and Preservation Fresh Grapes, .... 370 
Dried Grapes Raisins, 374 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE. 



THE subjoined list contains all the principal works which 
have been consulted in the preparation of the following treatise. 
Having made the study of the subject a specialty, we have been 
at considerable pains to collect all the works relating to vine 
culture of which we could find any account, and although there 
are several important omissions in the list given below, yet it is 
believed that their place is tolerably well supplied by those of 
which titles are given. As our attention has been chiefly 
directed to open air culture, we have intentionally omitted some 
excellent English works. The French, however, possess some 
valuable treatises which we regret having been unable to obtain 
and a still greater source of regret has been that we have been 
unable to use the many fine works possessed by the Germans. 

It was suggested that this list be prefaced with a short article 
on the bibliography of grape culture, or at least that the pecu 
liar features of the works mentioned be indicated. But we found 
ourselves incompetent to the former, and the latter would have 
occupied a space disproportionate to its importance in a prac 
tical treatise. It is hoped, however, that the list given will not 
prove useless to those who desire to extend their inquiries be 
yond the narrow limits of the present work, and from the assist 
ance which we ourselves have frequently derived from similar 
catalogues, we feel confident that this hope is not ill founded. 
It may be added, in conclusion, that many works have been con 
sulted and used of which no mention is made, simply from the 
remoteness of their general bearing upon the subject. Thus 
the figure of the oi dium is taken from Pouillet s "Traite de 



Xll BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE. 

Physique," and is, we believe, the only thing in all the three vo 
lumes of that work which at all relates to vine culture. 

Having no desire to preface our work with a mere catalogue 
of our private library (as we have seen done more than once), 
no work has been mentioned which it will not repay the reader 
to consult. On the general subject of the "Theory of Horti 
culture," Lindley s work has been our guide and our standard, 
and for our chemical facts and principles we have relied upon 
the work of Gmelin, published by the Cavendish Society of 
London, in twelve volumes, as we have always found it most 
full and reliable. 

But in selecting a course of reading with a view to advance 
his knowledge of grape culture, the student must bear in mind 
that so varied, complex and intimately connected are all the 
operations of nature, that the facts which have a bearing upon 
any portion of them, are to be found in books which professedly 
treat of the most diverse subjects. Chemistry and mechanics 
are alike important ; the principles which govern the relations 
of heat, light, and electricity, exert a more or less important 
influence on all vegetation, and he who would be fully master of 
the subject, must aim at an extent of knowledge only to be 
found in the widest range of scientific reading and experiment. 

Abercrombie, John, Practical Gardener. London. 

Adlum, John, Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine in America. Wash 
ington, 1828. 

Allen, J. P., Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Grape. New York, 
1858. 

the same, Boston, 1849. 

American Cyclopaedia. New York, 1858, continued. 

American Pomological Society, Transactions 1852, 1854, 1856, 1858. 

Barry, Sir Ed., Observations on Wines. 4to. London, 1775. 
Barry, P., Fruit Garden. New York, 1855. 
Bernay, A. J., Household Chemistry. London, 1854. 
Blodgett, Lorin, Climatology of the United States. Philadelphia, 1857. 
Bordeaux Wine and Liquor Dealer s Guide. New York, 1851. 
Boussingault, J. B., Rural Economy. London, 1855. 
Bradley, R., Survey of Ancient Husbandry and Gardening. London, 
1725. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE, Xlll 

Bridgeman, Thomas, Young Gardener s Assistant. New York, 1857. 
Brown, J. D., Sylva Americana. Boston, 1832. 

Trees of America. New York, 1851. 

Field Book of Manures. New York, 1855. 

Buchannan, R., Culture of the Grape and Wine Making. Cincinnati, 185-. 

Buist, R., Management of the Grape Vine. New York, 1856. 

Busby, James, Visit to Vineyards of France and Spain. New York, 1835. 

Carnell, P. P., Treatise on Family Wine Making. London, 1814. 
Carpenter, W. B., Use and Abuse of Alcoholic Liquors. Philadelphia, 

1855. 

Chaptal, C., Traite" sur la Vigne et 1 Art de faire Vin. 2 vols., Paris, 1801. 
The same, translated in Philosophical Magazine. 



Chemistry applied to Agriculture. Hartford, 1854. 



Chorlton, Wm., American Grape Grower s Guide. New York, 1856. 

The Cold Grapery. New York, 1853. 

Cole, S. W., American Fruit Book. Boston, 1849. 
Coleman, Henry, European Agriculture. Boston. 
Country Gentleman. Albany (published weekly). 

Dana, S. L., Muck Manual. New York, 1856. 

Davy, Sir H., Agricultural Chemistry. London, 1827. 

Davy, John, Ionian Islands. London, 1842. 

De Bow, J. B. D., Industrial Resources of South and West. New Or 
leans, 1852. 

. Review. New Orleans. 

Decandolle, N. P., Physiologic Vegetale. 3 vols. Paris, 1832. 

Dempsey, G. D., On the Drainage of Districts and Lands. London, 1854. 

Don, George. General System of Gardening and Botany. 4 vols., 4to., 
London, 1838. 

Donaldson, Treatise on Clay Lands and Loamy Soils. London, 1854. 

Donovan, Michael, Treatise on Domestic Economy and Wine Making. 
London, 1830. 

Downing, A. J., Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. New York, 1853. 

the same, revised by C. Downing. New York, 1857. 

Du Breuil. Cours ElSmentaire d Arboriculture. Paris, 1857. 

Elliot, F. R., Fruit Book. New York, 1854. 

Western Fruit Book. New York, 1859. 

Ellis, Robert, Chemistry of Creation. London, 1850. 
Encyclopaedia Americana. Philadelphia, 1834. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 8th edition, Edinburgh, 1852-60, 
English Cyclopaedia. London, 1854. 



XIV BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE. 

Fentwanger, Lewis. Fermented Liquors. New York, 1858. 

Fitch, Asa, Report on the Insects of the State of New York. 

Flint, C., Agriculture of Massachusetts. Boston, 1858. 

Floy, M., Guide to Orchard and Fruit Garden. New York, 1852. 

Forsyth, Wm., Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. London, 1802. 

French, Art of Distillation and Manufacture of Liquors. London, 1657. 

Gardener s Chronicle. 19 vols., London, 1841, continued, 

Gardener s Monthly. Philadelphia, 1859. continued. 

Gardener s Monthly Volume. London, 1849. 

Genesee Farmer. Rochester, N. Y. (published monthly.) 

Gmelin, Leopold, Handbook of Chemistry. 12 vols., London, 1848-58. 

Graham, Thomas, Elements of Chemistry. 2 vols., London, 1858. 

Gray, Asa, Manual of Botany. New York, 1858. 

Systematic and Structural Botany. New York, 1858. 

Guide to Importers and Purchasers of Wines, with a Topographical Ac 
count of all the known Vineyards in the World. London, 1828. 

Hannan, John, Economy of Waste Manures. London, 1844. 
Harris, Joseph, Rural Annual, 1857, 8, 9. Rochester, N Y. 
Harris, T. W., Report on the Insects o f Massachusetts injurious to Vege 
tation. Cambridge, 1841. 

Hoare, Clement. Treatise on the Grape Vine. New York, 1850. 
Homans, J. S., Cyclopaedia of Commerce. New York, 1858. 
Hooker, Journal of Botany. 4 vols., London. 
Horticulturist, 1846-1859. 
Movey, C. M., Magazine of Horticulture. 

Jacques, Geo., Practical Treatise on Fruit Trees. Worcester, 1849. 
Johnson, Geo. W., The Gardener. 3 vols., London, 1849. 

Dictionary of Modern Gardening, edited bv Landreth. 

Philadelphia, 1857. 

Principles of Practical Gardening. London, 1845. 



Johnston, James P. W., Lectures on the Applications of Chemistry and 
Geology to Agriculture. New York, 1858. 

Chemistry of Common Life. 2 vols., New York, 1855. 

Notes on America. 2 vols., Boston, 18 . 

Johnson, S. W., The Culture of the Tine. New Brunswick, N. J., 1806. 
Jullien, Topographic de tous les Vignobles connus. Paris, 1816. 

Kendrick, Wm., New American Orchardist. Boston, 1848. 
Kollar, "V,, Treatise on Insects injurious to Farmers and Gardeners. Lon 
don, 1840. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE, XV 

Lswlrey, M. C., Chimie applique"e a la Viticulture et & 1 CEnologie. Paris, 

1857. 
Liebig, J,, Complete Works. Philadelphia, 1856. 

Letters on Modern Agriculture. New York, 1859. 

Liebig and Kopp, Annual Report on the Progress of Chemistry and the 

allied Sciences. London, 1847-1850. 
Lindley, Theory and Practice of Horticulture. 2d edition, London, 1855. 

the same, edited by A. J. Downing. New York, 1852. 

Loudon J. C., Encyclopaedia of Gardening. London, 1850. 

Gardener s Magazine. 16 vols. 

Manures, Practical Treatise OB. Society for Diffusion of Useful Know 
ledge. London, 1830, 

McCulloch, Remarks on the Art of Making Wine. London, 1817. 
Mclntosh, Charles, Book of the Garden. 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1855. 
McMahon, Bernard, American Gardener s Calendar. Philadelphia, 1859. 

the same, Philadelphia, 1806, 

McMullen, Thomas, Hand-book of Wines. New York, 1853, 
Meteorological Observations made in the State of New York from 1826 

to 1850. Albany, 1855. 
Meteorological Register, State of New York. 
Miller, Philip, Gardener s Dictionary. Large folio, 1759. 

the same, 4 vols., folio, 1807. 

Morewood, Samuel, Essay on Meliorating Liquors. London, 1824. 
Mulder, C. J., Chemistry of Wine. London, 1857. 

Chemistry of Animal and Vegetable Physiology. Edin 
burgh, 1849. 

Muspratt, Sheridan, Chemistry applied to Arts and Manufactures. Glas 
gow, 1858. 

Natural History of the State of New York. 19 volumes, Albany. 
Neil, Patrick, Practical Fruit, Flower and Kitchen Gardener s Com 
panion. New York, 1856. 
N orthern Fruit Culturist. 

Odart, Comte, Ampelographie Universelle. Paris, 1854. 
Manuel de Vigneron. 

Patent Office Reports. Washington, D. C., 1837-1858. 
Pereira, Jonathan, Treatise on Food and Diet. London, 1844. 
Perzoz, Nouveau Systeme de Culture de la Vigne, Paris. 
Philosophical Magazine (Tilloch s). 97 vols, London, 1798, continued. 
Prince, W. R., Treatise on the Vine. New York, 1830. 

Treatise on Horticulture. New York, 1828. 

Pomological Manual, New York, 1832. 



XVi BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRAPE CULTURE. 

Quarterly Journal of Science and Art. 30 volumes, London, 1816-1830. 

Redding, Cyrus, History and Description of Modern Wines. London, 

1S51. 

Reemelin, C., Vine Dresser s Manual. New York, 1856. 
Register of Rural Affairs. Albany, L. Tucker, 1855-1859. 
Rendu, Ampelographie Franchise. Paris, 1857. 
Rural New Yorker (weekly). Rochester, N. Y. 

Schenck, P. A., Gardener s Text Book. Boston, 1852. 

Schow, J. F., Earth, Plants and Man. London, 1852. 

Silliman, B., American Journal of Science and Art. New Haven, Ct.. 
1819-1858. 

Smeed, Wine Merchant s Manual. London, 1828. 

Skinner, John S.. Journal of Agriculture. 3 volumes, New York, 1848. 

Speechly, William, Treatise on the Culture of the Vine, and the forma 
tion of Vineyards. 4to., London, 1790. 

the same, 8vo., 1821. 

Solly, Edward, Rural Chemistry. Philadelphia, 1852. 

Somerville, Mary, Physical Geography. Philadelphia, 1853. 

Stockhard, Julius C., Chemical Field Lectures. London, 1858. 

Spooner, Alden, The Cultivation of American Grape Vines. Brooklyn, 
1846. 

Thayer, Albert, Principles of Agriculture. London, 1845. 
Thomas, J. J., Fruit Culturist. Buffalo, N. Y., 1847. 

the same, New York, 1857. 

Transactions American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia, 1789. 
Transactions of Society for Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures. 

London, 1783-1850. 

Transactions of New York Agricultural Society. Albany, 1842-1858. 
transactions of New York Institute. Albany, 1841-1858. 
Transactions of Royal Horticultural Society of London. 8 vols. 1824- 

1840. 

Tucker, L., Register of Rural Affairs. Albany, 1855-1859. 
Tall. Jethro. Horse Hoeing Husbandry. London 1829. 

Ure, Andrew, Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines. New York, 
1857. 



Dictionary of Chemistry. Edinburgh, 1824. 



Watson, American Home Garden. New York, 1859. 

Webster, Encyclopaedia of Domestic Economy. New York, 1856. 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER I. 

NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE TINE. 

PROFANE history reaches not back to the time when 
man first planted a vineyard and made wine, and 
when we leave the sacred records, its first culture is 
shrouded in allegories, myths and fables. 

The native country of the vine cannot be well ascer 
tained. It occurs wild in Greece, Italy and even in* 
the south of France. In Hingrelia, Georgia and the 
regions between Caucasus and Ararat and Taurus, it. 
flourishes in extreme vigor and great abundance.. 
And that it is indigenous to America, also, there can 
be no doubt, the apocryphal stories about its intro 
duction by Sir W. Raleigh to the contrary notwith 
standing. 

Records of its culture are found in most of the 

poems and sculptures of antiquity. The shield of 

IT 



18 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

Achilles represented a vine-gathering, and Herodotus 
and Theophrastus speak of the culture of the vine in 
Egypt; and on the very oldest Greek tombs are 
found pictures representing the vine harvest. Pliny 
enters fully into the natural history of the vine, and 
describes a variety with berries shaped like the 
finger,* while the second book of Yirgil s Georgics 
forms no mean treatise on practical viticulture. 

The generic name of the vine (vitis) is derived, ac 
cording to some authors, from the Latin vincire to 
bind ; according to others it comes from were, to bend, 
alluding to the flexibility of its branches. Both these 

* Most of the authors who have noticed this variety, suppose it to 
have been lost, but we have received from John Kolber, Esq., of New 
York, slips of a vine imported by him from Hungary, the fruit of 
which is described as being an inch and a half long and half an inch 
in diameter a form which might easily be described by an imagina 
tive writer as resembling a finger. In fact the native name is KecJcse, 
csocs or Goats teats an idea similar to that of the old philosopher, 
though not quite so elegant. We find also in several catalogues 
grapes called finger-grapes synonyms of which are Cornichon Blanc, 
Cucumber Grape, Bee d Oiseau (Bird s beak), Teta de Vacca (Cow s 
teats), Doigts Donzelle, etc., etc. Mr. Kolber has made earnest and 
praiseworthy efforts to introduce the hardier varieties of the vine from 
the hills of Hungary, and we are happy to learn that thus far, the 
results are exceedingly promising. It will take several years, however, 
to decide whether or not any foreign variety can be grown with 
success in this country, as most imported plants do well for a few 
years. 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 19 

Latin words, however, are derived from a Greek word 
signifying to bind. Dr. Whittaker, in a work published 
in 1638, entitled, "The Tree of Human Life, or the 
Blood of the Grape," expresses his opinion that the 
name vinum is derived a m from its strength, or, per 
haps quasi divinum, because it is a species of the tree 
of life in Paradise. 

The species of the genus vitis are numerous, though 
botanists are not agreed as to the distinctive differ 
ences, especially as between the European and Ameri 
can sorts. In France, Chaptal, when Minister of the 
Interior, caused 1,400 different varieties of the vine to 
be collected in the garden of the Luxembourg, and 
under his direction M. Champagny described as dis 
tinct 550 different kinds. Four American species 
have been usually numbered (some authors describe 
eight), though the varieties, more or less distinctly 
marked, probably exceed 300. To the number of the; 
latter, however, there is no limit, as every seed mayi 
produce a new variety. 

The vine lives to a great age and attains a greafr 
size. Pliny mentions a vine which had lived for 600* 
years, and in Italy, vineyards have continued in? 
bearing for 300 years, while in some parts of that? 
country, a vineyard of 100 years i& still accounted 
young. 

Its size, whether we regard the European or Ame- 



20 OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

rican varieties, is often very great. Speechly describes 
and figures a vine trained against a row of houses in 
Northallerton, Yorkshire, which covered a space of 
one hundred and thirty seven square yards, and had 
a stem three feet eleven inches in circumference at a 
short distance from the ground. No work on the 
grape vine would be complete without a mention of 
the great Hampton Court vine, from which George 
the Third once directed his gardener to cut one hun 
dred dozen bunches of grapes, if so many were on the 
vine, and present them to the players of Drury-lane 
Theatre, who had greatly pleased him. The gardener 
not only cut off this number, but sent word to the 
king that he could cut off as many more without 
entirely stripping the vine. This vine was planted in 
1769 and has a stem fourteen inches in girth, one 
branch extending nearly 200 feet. 

In America, too, very large vines are to be found. 
The following is clipped from the " Alta California!! :" 

" At Monticito, four miles from Santa Barbara, 
there is a grape vine, probably the largest in the 
world. Its dimensions and yield would be incredible, 
were it not that my informant is a man of veracity, 
and he spoke from personal observation. It is a single 
vine, the main stock being ten feet in circumference. 
It is trained upon a trellis sixty feet in diameter. 
My informant with another person counted 7000 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 21 

bunches, and the estimated yield was 18,000 pounds 
of fruit. Can this be beaten ? The only thing 
that surprised me in the relation of my friend was 
that any person in Santa Barbara should have 
displayed the energy necessary to build the trellis 
for this noble vine." 

In the " Horticulturist " for October, 1858, a vine 
growing near Burlington, New Jersey, is described 
as follows ; " In May last it was measured with the 
following result : Two feet from the ground it mea 
sured 6 feet, 2-J- inches in girth ; four feet high it is 
about 6 inches less; it there divides into two branches, 
the largest of which is 3 feet, 3 inches in girth, and 
the smallest is 3 inches. The largest of the trees 
which the vine covers is 10 feet in circumference at 
two feet from the ground. The vine is very much 
decayed, but still puts forth leaves and young shoots. 
It has never borne a grape in the memory of a lady 
now 98 years old and who has lived her long life 
within sight, or nearly so, of this gigantic production, 
and to whom it was a wonder in her youth. The 
largest tree is a black oak, the others are black, or 
sour gum. On pacing the circumference covered by 
the branches, it was found to exceed 100 feet. 

" This vine grows near a springy soil, or upland, its 
roots, no doubt, penetrating to the water. May not 
this teach us a lesson, to give the rootlets, wherever 



22 



OPEN AIR GRAPK CULTURE. 



it is possible, access to a spring, or running water ? 
It. may be a question, too, whether we do not cut our 
vines too much. I have observed frequently in 
England that a whole house was devoted to a single 
vine, generally of the Black Hamburgh, and I think 
they uniformly bore the finest grapes. To carry a 
single vine over a large grapery would, of course, re 
quire years of judicious trimming and management." 

The bunches and berries also have been known to 
attain a very great size. In the south of France 
instances are known of bunches attaining a weight 
of eight or ten pounds ; travellers in Syria mention 
bunches weighing 17 Ibs. ; and we all remember the 
enormous clusters which the Jewish spies brought 
back from the promised land. Even at the present 
day the grapes of Damascus frequently weigh 25 
pounds to the bunch. 

"With all the vigor and fruitfulness evinced by 
such instances it is no wonder that the culture of the 
vine should prove profitable and certain. At the 
meeting of the Fruit Growers Society for western 
New York, held in the city of Rochester in 1859, 
S. H. Ainsworth made some statements as to the 
actual products of several vineyards, showing that 
from $1000 to $1500 had been realized from an acre 
of Isabella grapes. Mr. Hush, of East Bloomfield, 
had 100 vines on one-third of an acre, from which he 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 23 

picked 4000 Ibs., which he sold for $500, or at the rate 
of 12 cts. per pound. None reported a less profit 
than $500 per acre. 

From the very first settlement of America the 
vine attracted the attention of the colonists, and 
efforts were made both to introduce the finer Euro 
pean varieties and to cultivate the native sorts. Even 
as early as 1564:, wine was made from the native 
grape in Florida, though, of course, in small quantity. 

The earliest attempt to establish a vineyard in the 
British North American colonies was by the " Lon 
don Company " in Virginia prior to 1620. By the 
year 1630, the prospects were sufficiently favorable 
to warrant the importation of several French vigne- 
rons, who, it was alleged, ruined them by bad 
management. Wine was also made in Virginia in 
1647, and in 1651 premiums were offered for its pro 
duction. On the authority of Beverley, who wrote 
prior to 1722, there were vineyards in that colony 
which produced 750 gallons a year. 

In 1664:, Col. Richard Nicolls, the first English 
governor of New York, granted to Paul Richards of 
the city of New York the privilege of making and 
selling wine free of all duty or impost, Richards hav 
ing been the first to enter upon the culture of the 
vine on a large scale. It was also enacted that every 
person who should during the succeeding thirty 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

years set out a vineyard should pay to Richards five 
shillings for every acre of vines so set out. We have 
been unable, however, to find any account of his suc 
cess or failure, and the probability is, that after a 
short time the enterprise was abandoned. A gentle 
man in Hoboken, also, had a fine vineyard which 
after a little time fell into decay. 

Beauchamp Plantagenet, in his "Description of 
the Province of New Albion," published in London 
in 1648, states that the English settlers in Uvedale 
(now Delaware) had vines running on mulberry and 
sassafras trees, and that there were four kinds of 
grapes. "The first is the Tholouse Muscat, sweet 
scented ; the second, the great fox and thick grape, 
after five moneths reaped, being boyled, and salted, 
and well -fined is a strong red Xeres ; the third, a 
light claret ; the fourth, a white grape, creeps on the 
land maketh a pure, gold-colored wine. Tennis Pale, 
the Frenchmen, of these four made eight sorts of ex 
cellent wine ; and of the Muscat, acute boyled, that 
the second draught will fox (intoxicate) a reasonable 
pate four moneths old ; and here may be gathered 
and made two hundred tun in the vintage moneth, 
and replanted will mend." 

In 1683, William Penn attempted to establish a 
vineyard near Philadelphia, but without success. 
The same result attended the efforts of Andrew Dore 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 25 

in 1685, but after some years, Mr. Tasker, of Mary 
land, and Mr. An til, of Shrewsbury, N.J., seem to have 
succeeded to a certain extent. Mr. Antil wrote an 
excellent article on the culture of the grape and the 
manufacture of wine, which may be found in the first 
volume of the " Transactions of the American Philoso 
phical Society," published in 1771. In this article, 
Mr. Antil describes only foreign varieties, from 
which it is to be inferred that he cultivated them 
chiefly, if not solely. 

In 1769, the French settlers in Illinois made one 
hundred and ten hogsheads of strong wine from 
native grapes. 

In 1793, Peter Legaux, a French gentleman, ob 
tained of the legislature of Pennsylvania the incor 
poration of a company for cultivating the vine. They 
purchased a farm at Spring-mill, Montgomery county,, 
thirteen miles from Philadelphia, on the Schuylkill.. 
For one year only were prospects favorable ; divisions, 
and dissensions arose; the stockholders sold out in, 
disgust, and the vineyard went to ruin. 

At Harmony, near Pittsburg, a vineyard of ten; 
acres was planted and cultivated by Frederick Rapp 
and his associates from Germany. They afterward! 
removed to another Harmony in Indiana, on the east? 
bank of the Wabash, where they continued the culti* 
vation of wine and silk for many years. 
2 



26 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

A Swiss colony settled about 1Y90 in Jessamin 
county, Kentucky, and raised a fund of ten thousand 
dollars for the express purpose of forming a vineyard. 
Their first attempts failed, they having cultivated the 
foreign vine. In 1801, they removed to a spot which 
they called Yevay, in Switzerland County, Indiana, 
on the Ohio River, forty-five miles below Cincinnati. 
Here they planted native vines and met with some 
success. But, after forty years experience, they con 
sider our climate and soil inferior to those of Switzer 
land, as they claim that they can there make a gallon 
of wine from ten pounds of grapes while here twelve 
pounds are required. Their vineyards have now, we 
believe, nearly disappeared. 

But the great turning point of vine culture in 
America was when the Catawba grape was intro 
duced by Major Adlum, of Georgetown, D. C., who 
considered that in so doing he conferred a greater be 
nefit upon the American nation than he would have 
done by paying off the national debt. 

We could have wished to give an accurate view of 
the present state of the vine culture of this country, 
but the best works which we have been able to con 
sult are very imperfect in this respect, and we believe 
that we have examined all the more important ones. 
Want of time has prevented us from instituting a 
special correspondence on this subject. We can 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 27 

therefore only say that it never at any period pre 
sented a more flourishing aspect than it does at the 
present day. 

Of the future prospects of grape culture, of its 
extent, and of its influences, it would be difficult to 
speak. But we feel assured that, whether in the 
form of wine or of fruit, the produce of the vine can 
not fail to do much good in this country not the 
least of its benefits being that it will afford those with 
small capital an easy and pleasant mode of securing 
a competency. 

Another point in this aspect of grape culture, and 
one in which we have strong confidence and ardent 
hope, is the employment which it promises to afford 
to women. We are none of those who would desire 
to see woman rendered independent of man, for we 
well know to what a miserable condition man would 
come if rendered independent of woman, and it is a 
poor rule that will not work both ways. 

But we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that there 
are vast multitudes of women whose labor receives 
no adequate remuneration w r ho make shirts at the 
rate of five cents apiece, and then often get cheated 
out of their pay. Now, if some of our large-hearted, 
as well as large-worded, philanthropists would pro 
cure a few acres of land in some proper locality, and 
after having it well trenched or subsoil ploughed^ 



28 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

would let it out in half, or even quarter acre lots to 
industrious women with a view to their establishing 
vineyard plots, we think that after the first two years 
such an allotment of half an acre ought to yield 
its tenant from $250 to $400 per year, from which, 
after paying a good round rent, they might retain 
more than they can now make at any other employ 
ment within their reach. And let it not be said that 
the culture of the soil is unsuited to the sphere of 
woman. "VVe rather think that Eve was more of a 
gardener than shirt-maker before she "brought sin 
into the world and all our woe ;" and those who think 
gardening unsuited to woman are referred to Lou- 
don s remarks in the " Gardener s Magazine," where 
lie recommends it to his fair countrywomen instead 
of the ball-room and the dance. 

"We shall not stultify ourselves with referring to 
Indian and European savages, who make the women 
do all the hard work, even though women are there 
found equal to the roughest agricultural labor. But 
in vine culture, after the first great effort has been 
made to get the soil suitably prepared, there is really 
little hard work to be done. Even hoeing does not 
require more strength than washing and scrubbing ; 
and pruning, trimming, and gathering the fruit are 
not above the strength of our weakest females ; and we 
promise them that if they undertake it they will soon 



NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF THE VINE. 29 

acquire the necessary health and strength. All that 
we can say is that we hope ere long to see the experi 
ment tried, and nothing would afford us greater 
pleasure than to give a lecture on vine culture, with 
experimental illustrations, to such a society of women, 
and tell them all we know about raising good grapes ; 
and we think we can point to others who are not 
only competent but willing to assist in the good work 
thus rendering the objection that "women don t 
know how " of no avail. But even if no such experi 
ment should be tried, we feel confident that the 
thousands of acres which will be devoted to vine cul 
ture during the next few years will not be cultivated 
without affording abundant work for women, 



30 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER II. 

SOIL* SITUATION AND ASPECT. 

SOIL. The vine will grow in almost any situation, 
and reach a large size and exhibit luxurious vegeta 
tion under conditions apparently the most unfavor 
able ; but if healthy vines and fine fruit be desired, it 
is necessary to choose a soil where the roots can ram 
ble freely, find plenty of nutriment and be safe from 
stagnant water and its accompanying cold, sour sub 
soil. One of the largest vines in the country grows 
in a swamp in !New Jersey, and a vine has been known 
to grow vigorously from a cleft in an old wall twenty 
feet from the ground. But these are by no means 
examples to be imitated in practice where we have 
the power of selecting the site of our garden or vine 
yard, though they afford encouragement to the 
amateur who is compelled to make use of an inferior 
location. 

The opinion of good grape culturists is that any 
soil which will grow good Indian corn is suitable for 
grapes. Others describe a soil adapted to the cul 
ture of the vine as one which will grow good winter 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 31 

wheat without the plants being thrown out of the 
ground in winter. 

Downing recommends a " strong loamy or gra 
velly soil limestone soils being usually the best." 
And in another place he gives it as his opinion that 
" all that can be said of a soil for grape culture is 
that it be light, rich and dry." G. W. Johnson thinks 
a light, sandy loam the best. And Buchannan, who 
may be safely taken as the representative of the Cin 
cinnati vine growers, recommends a dry, calcareous 
loam with a porous subsoil. At the recent meeting 
of the Fruit Growers Society of western New York, 
Dr. Farley stated that his best grapes had been 
raised on a clay soil, and that in this matter his 
opinion in regard to the soil best adapted to the cul 
ture of grapes had undergone some change. 

It will thus be perceived that the opinions of our 
best horticulturists vary a little, but we believe that 
this variation is mere adaptation to the different modes 
of growth and training adopted by the various culti 
vators. The purpose for which the grapes are raised 
that is whether for wine or for the table ought 
also to have a material influence in directing our 
choice of a soil. 

When the object is to manufacture wine, the vines 
require to be kept within moderate bounds ; all rank- 
ness of vegetation must be carefully avoided, and con- 



,32 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

sequently the soil must be light, rich, porous and dry, 
and if calcareous so much the better. 

On the other hand, where high saccharine qualities 
are not so much desired as abundance of grapes of 
agreeable flavor, the vines will succeed better and pro 
duce more certain crops if allowed a greater extent 
of growth, and in this case they will bear a heavier 
and richer soil in some cases (as in growing Isabella 
and Diana grapes for the table) even preferring a 
clay soil well drained and cultivated and highly 
manured. 

That this view is correct may be easily proved by 
referring to well-known examples both in Europe 
and in this country. Thus in the Arriege in France 
a rich wine like Tokay, is obtained from mountain 
sides covered with large stones as if the cultivators 
had left all to nature. In Italy and Sicily the best 
wines are grown amongst the rubbish of volcanoes. 
"Good rich soils," says Redding, "never produce 
even tolerable wines." 

On the other hand the rich Chasselas de Fontaine- 
bleau table grapes are produced by vines planted in 
cold and heavy soil, well manured. And he who 
desires to find rich soil should examine the vine bor 
ders of the English hot-house grape-growers. Allen, 
one of our most successful grape-growers recommends 
a border of the richest kind. So does Chorlton, and 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 33 

such we believe to be the practice of all our success 
ful cultivators of the grape under glass. The cele 
brated vine at Hampton Court revels in the luxury 
of an old sewer, and instances have come under our 
own observation where the proximity of a vine to 
a cesspool caused the production of large quantities 
of most excellent grapes. In France, the application 
of night-soil and sewerage to the vineyards has in all 
cases injured the quality of the wine. That such 
would have been the case, however, if the French 
vignerons had acted upon correct principles in the 
application of these powerful stimulants, we are 
scarcely prepared to believe. And we have no doubt 
but that by judicious management and a careful 
observance of the laws of nature one of the greatest 
achievements in vine culture may yet be effected, viz., 
the union of vigorous vegetation and stimulating 
manures with the production of good wine. But so 
far as present experience extends the soil for a vine 
yard must be light and not too highly manured and 
in all cases whether the object of culture be wine or 
table grapes the subsoil must be w^arm and loose. 
Cold borders are very prejudicial to the roots of the 
vine, and are supposed to be an efficient cause of the 
shanking of the grapes. It would appear from an 
inspection of the subjoined tables that this desired 
warmth might be secured to the surface soil at least 
2* 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



by plentiful addition of lime and any black mold or 
charcoal. 

Jlfaximum Temperatures of the various Earths 
Exposed to the j$un. By Schublcr. 



KINDS OF EARTH. 


Maximum Temperature of the 
superior layer, the mean tem 
perature of the ambient air 
being 77 degrees F. 


Moist Earth. 


Dry Earth. 


Silicious sand, yellowish grey, .... 
Calcareous sand, whitish grey, .... 
Argillaceous earth, yellowish grey, 
Calcareous earth, white, ... ..... 
Mold, blackish grey, 


Degrees. 
99.05 

99.10 
99.28 
96.13 
103.55 
99.50 


Degrees. 
112.55 
112.10 
112.32 
109.40 
117.27 
113.45 


Garden earth blackish grey 





Table of Retention of Heat. By Becgiierel. 



.KIND OF EARTH. 


Capacity for heat, 
that of Calcareous 
sand being 100. 


Time required by 18 feet 
cube of earth to cool 
from 144.5 to 70.2, the 
temperature of the sur 
rounding air being 61 \2. 


Calcareous sand, 
Silicious sand, 


100 
95.6 


Hours. 
3.30 
3.27 


Argillaceous earth, .... 
Calcareous earth, 
Mold, 


68.4 
61.8 
49 


2.24 
2.10 
1.43 









From these tables it will be seen that black mold 
receives or absorbs heat most rapidly, but parts with 
it -in the shortest space of time also, and that for 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 35 

receiving and retaining heat, dark colored, calcareous 
earth is by far the most efficient. Good silicious sand 
comes next in order, and hence we conceive that a 
soil composed chiefly of calcareous and silicious sand, 
with a sufficient amount of charcoal or mold to give 
it a dark color, would prove one of the best for 
grapes. 

Such are the general points deserving of considera 
tion. Those desirous of studying more minutely the 
influence of the chemical constitution of the soil 
upon vines growing therein will find an interesting 
and valuable resume of the subject in M. Ladrey s 
"Chimie applique a la Viticulture," whose general 
remarks on this point ara so much in unison with OUT 
own experience and observation that we are tempted 
to translate them. 

" If now we examine the series of different soils 
devoted to the culture of the vine in France and in 
other countries, we shall find this plant cultivated in 
soils the most diverse, not only as regards their 
natures (nature evidently alluding to physical consti 
tution Trans.} but also their chemical composition. 
All soils appear suited to the culture of the vine, and 
there are none, unless those absolutely barren, in 
which this plant may not grow and develop itself. 
Thus the vine requires but little fertility in the soil, 
it covers a great space of land which would be 



36 OPEN ATE GRAPE CULTURE. 

unsuited to any other culture, and in order to give an 
idea of this, we may cite the ancient regulations of 
Provence which prohibited the planting of the vine 
until inquiry had been made as to the sterility of 
the soil, and the permission of the interidant of the 
province had been obtained. 

But if the vine can grow in all soils it behaves 
very differently in each of them. In strong, argilla 
ceous, rich soils, it will acquire a great vigor of vege 
tation, the wood is largely developed, the product is 
abundant ; on the contrary, in soils poor, light and dry? 
the vine is less robust, more delicate ; it requires a 
culture well contrived as to even the most minute 
details, and the product is much less in quantity. 

" In general, if in any locality the vegetation of the 
vine be more rich as the soil is more fertile, we 
^observe by the side of this result that the nature and 
<quality of the product is consequently in an inverse 
iratio. In heavy land the vine is well developed and 
furnishes abundant return ; in a light soil it gives less 
and the product is of higher quality." 

^SITUATION. THE situation of a vineyard should be 
elevated, but not too high, otherwise the vines will not 
only be exposed to high winds and their concomitant 
evils, but will also be subjected to a lower tempera 
ture. On this latter point, but little is known at 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 37 

lea&t not enough to enable us in all cases to reconcile 
the anomalies which occur. Enough is known, how 
ever, to cause us to avoid the tops of hills and the 
bottoms of valleys, and it may be worth our while to 
consider a few of the principles which regulate tem 
perature in these situations. During the night, the 
cold air, being heavy, settles down into the valleys 
and hollows, thus producing in such locations a 
temperature several degrees lower than is found on 
the sides of the adjacent hills. And no influence is 
then at work to disturb this state of things, for the 
earth itself is becoming rapidly cooled by radiation ; 
and if a small quantity of the air should become 
warmed by contact with it, it immediately ascends, 
and cool air takes its place. 

At daybreak, however, an agency is introduced 
which reverses this condition of things. Then the 
dense air in the valleys concentrates and absorbs the 
heat of the sun s rays and increases their effect upon 
the soil, which in turn imparts heat to the stratum of 
air lying next it. This lower stratum of air being 
warmed and consequently rendered much lighter than 
the colder portion above it, it ascends, but as it rises 
it also expands still more, which in some measure 
compensates for the heat which it received from the 
earth. The same process keeps going on until night 
comes, when the lower stratum of air being no longer 



38 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

warmed it no longer ascends, and the colder and 
heavier air again accumulates in the valleys. Thus 
it will be seen, that during the night the air in the 
valleys is colder than that in other places, while the 
reverse is the case during the day. The stillness of 
the air in valleys and sheltered situations also con 
tributes to this result in a remarkable degree. 

Now it is obvious, that if for any fruit tree, the air 
in the valleys should be sufficiently cold to kill the 
buds, no orchard could t succeed. And if, on the 
other hand, sufficient light and heat to ripen the fuit 
could not be found on the hill-tops, such situations 
also would be unavailable. 

JSlor is the mere existence of such extremes of 
temperature the worst evil. The destructive influ 
ence of a hot sun upon frozen vegetation is well known, 
and in low valleys, the circumstances are such as to 
give the greatest effect to this adverse influence. For 
not only are the plants chilled by the extra cold night- 
air, they are also completely protected from the rays 
of the sun, until it has attained a greater power than 
it usually exerts at its first appearance upon plants in 
more exposed situations. And then, owing to the 
dense atmosphere through which they pass, the rays 
strike suddenly with concentrated energy so as to 
thaw the buds with a rapidity completely destruc 
tive to their vitality. In such situations also, the soil 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 39 

is usually very deep and rich, producing a vigorous 
though succulent growth which is unable to with 
stand the influences above detailed. All experience 
bears out the practical value of these principles. 
Thus, in Italy, where the country is undulating and 
very much broken, all good wines are grown on the 
hill-sides. Hence Virgil tells us 

" denique apertos 

Bacchus amat colles,"* 

and modern experience bears out the ancient saw, 
though it does not follow, however, that plains will not 
produce good wine-making grapes, provided they be of 
sufficient extent to obviate the evils just described. 
The fine wines of the Gironde in France, and Chataux 
Margaux, Lafitte and Latour, are grown on the plains. 

ASPECT EXPOSURE. The aspect which is best 
adapted to the growth of grapes will, of course, depend 
upon influences, some of which at least, are liable to 
vary, as the keenest and most destructive winds may 
corne from different quarters in different places a 
very slight geographical change sometimes making 

* The force of this saying is lost by adopting Mr. Bedding s trans 
lation " Bacchus loves the hills." Davidson gives the whole, " Bacchus 
loves the open hills" which is better. But the true meaning 
" Bacchus loves the open little hills" coincides perfectly with expe 
rience and with the principles above set forth. 



40 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

an important difference in this respect, owing to pe 
culiar topographical features. Thus a range of hills 
or a belt of woods, may so deflect the prevailing 
winds, as to completely change the condition of two 
localities situated within even a very short distance 
of each other. 

In general, it will be found necessary to secure pro 
tection on the west, north and northeast. This may 
be afforded either by natural local features, as by a 
range of hills, or it may be derived from artificial 
sources, as woods or fences. ~No defence is better 
than a good belt of Norway spruce, and if they form 
a crescent in which the vineyard is embowered, but 
little danger need be apprehended from violent winds. 
Even high fences, which may be single, double or 
triple, afford aipr>le protection in ordinary cases, and 
as trees, even of the fastest growing kind, take a con 
siderable time before they give sufficient protection, 
many will prefer the fence. WQ are therefore tempted 
to extract from the " Horticulturist " for August, 
1817, Downing s description of the method by which 
Frederic Tudor, Esq., has converted the naked pro 
montory of JSTahant into a luxuriant garden. 

" To appreciate the difficulties with which this 
gentleman had to contend, or as we might more 
properly say, which stimulated all his efforts, we 
must recall to mind that, frequently, in high winds^ 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 4:1 

the salt spray drives over the whole of Nahant ; that 
until Mr. Tudor began his improvements, not even a 
bush grew naturally on the whole of its area ; and 
that the east winds which blew from the Atlantic in 
the spring are sufficient to render all gardening pos 
sibilities in the usual way nearly as chimerical as cul 
tivating the volcanoes of the moon. Mr. Tudor s 
residence there, now, is a curious and striking illustra 
tion of the triumph of art over nature. 

" Of course, even the idea of a place worthy of the 
name of a garden in this bald, sea girt cape, was out 
of the question, unless some mode of overcoming the 
violence of the gales and the bad effect of the salt 
spray could be devised. The plan Mr. Tudor has 
adopted is, we believe, original with him, and is at 
once extremely simple and perfectly effective. 
K-***-*-*** 

" It contests merely of two, or at most three parallel 
rows of high open fences, made of rough slats or 
palings, nailed in the common vertical manner, about 
three inches wide, and a space of a couple of inches 
left between them. These paling fences are about 
16 feet high, and usually form a double row (on the 
most exposed side, a triple row) round the whole 
garden. The distance between that on the outer 
boundary and the next interior one is about four feet. 
The garden is also intersected here and there by tall 



4:2 OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

trellis fences of the same kind, all of which help to 
increase the shelter, while some of those in the inte 
rior serve as frames for training trees upon. 

" The effect of this double or triple barrier of high 
paling is marvellous ; although like a common paling, 
apparently open and permitting the wind a free pas 
sage, yet in practice it is found entirely to rob the 
gales of their violence and their saltness. To use 
Mr. Tudor s words, * it completely sifts the air. After 
great storms, when the outer barrier will be found 
covered with a coating of salt, the foliage in the 
garden is entirely uninjured. It acts, in short, like a 
rustic veil, that admits just so much of the air, and in 
such a manner as most to promote the growth of the 
trees, while it breaks and wards off all the deleteri 
ous influences of a genuine ocean breeze, so pernicious 
to tender leaves and shoots. 

vf &&##&* 

"It is worthy of record, among the results of Mr. 
Tudor s culture, that two years after the principal 
plantation of his fruit trees was made, he carried off 
the second prize for pears at the annual exhibition of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, among dozens 
of zealous competitors, and with the fruit most care 
fully grown in that vicinity." 

Of the necessity for shelter under circumstances far 
less desperate than those at Nahant, no good horti- 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 43 

culturist lias any doubt. Even the oak-tree has 
been proved by a well directed series of experiments, 
to be benefited by shelter in the comparatively mild 
climate of England. For the rationale of the evil 
effects of wind on. plants in general, we must refer 
the reader to Lindley s " Theory and Practice of Hor 
ticulture." The following cases are detailed by Hoare : 

" Many instances might be circumstantially de 
tailed of the injurious effects of wind upon established 
vines during their summer s growth ; two, however, 
of recent occurrence will perhaps suffice. 

"On the eleventh of June, 1833, a strong wind 
sprang up early in the morning from the west, and 
increased in force till noon, when it blew quite a gale 
and continued to do so throughout the day. It slack 
ened a little during the night, and gradually de 
creased in violence the next day, dying entirely away 
in the evening. 

"The effects of this wind on a vine of the White 
Muscadine sort, trained on a wall having a western 
aspect, were carefully observed. It had on a full 
crop of fruit and a good supply of fine young bearing 
shoots, and was altogether in a most thriving condi 
tion. Such, however, were the injurious effects of 
the wind in dissipating all the accumulated secretions 
of the foliage, and then closing, almost hermetically, 
its pores, and thereby totally deranging the vital 



44 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

functions of the plant, that although in the height of 
the growing season, not the slightest appearance of 
renewed vegetation could be discerned in any part 
of its leaves, shoots or fruit, until the third day of 
July, or twenty-two days afterward. It never pro 
duced another inch of good bearing wood throughout 
the remainder of the season, but lingered in a very 
weak and sickly condition ; and the fruit which had 
been previously estimated at ninety pounds weight, 
did not exceed fifty-five pounds when gathered, and 
that of a very inferior description in point of flavor 
and size of berry. Its leaves, also, having been thus 
crippled, were shed prematurely a month before their 
natural time, and hence the deficiency in the flavor 
and size of the grapes. 

" The other instance, which happened shortly after 
ward, is still more decisive. On the 30th of August 
following, about eight o clock in the evening, a strong 
wind began to blow from the southwest, accompanied 
with heavy rain. At nine it blew violently, and con 
tinued to do so until noon the next day. It then 
slackened, and then veering to the northwest, died 
away some time during the following night. 

" The full force of this wind fell on a remarkably 
fine black Hamburg vine, trained on a wall having a 
southwestern aspect, and its effects were therefore 
proportionately destructive. Many of the principal 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 45 

brandies were torn so completely from their fasten 
ings that their extremities swept the ground. The 
bunches of fruit were knocked about, and portions of 
them, as well as single berries, lay scattered on the 
ground in every direction. On the fruit, however, 
that survived the wreck, the effects of the wind were 
remarkable. It must be stated that the wall on 
which the vine is trained, is ten feet high, and is so 
situated that to the height of about three feet from 
the ground the wind had but little power over it, its 
force being broken by an outer wall standing at a 
little distance off in front of it. On the lower part of 
the wall so protected, the grapes not having been 
much injured, began to change their color and ripen 
about the twentieth of September, and on the twelfth 
of October every berry was perfectly matured, while 
all those that remained on the vine above three feet 
from the ground, were, on the first of November, as 
green and hard as on the thirtieth of August, when 
the high wind occurred. Shortly afterward these 
began to change their color, and ultimately ripened 
tolerably well by the first week in December. Thus, 
solely through the effects of a strong wind, there 
were to be seen at the same time, on the same 
branches of this vine, and within nine inches of each 
other, bunches of grapes, the lowermost of which 
were perfectly ripe, while the uppermost were quite 



46 OPEN AIR GRAPE GUI/TORE. 

green and hard, and not within seven weeks of reach 
ing the same state of maturity. 

" These facts, which might be multiplied indefinitely, 
sufficiently show the injurious effects of strong winds, 
and the necessity of protecting vines as much as pos 
sible from their destructive consequences." 

But although there can be no doubt as to the evil 
effects of wind storms, it must be borne in mind that 
ventilation, and even motion, are essential to the 
health and growth of the vine. Experiments made 
by Andrew Knight, show that young trees tied to 
stakes so as to prevent all motion, do not increase in 
size as much as those left to the free action 
of wind. Hence, perhaps, one reason why wire is to 
be preferred to wood for the cross slats of trellises. 
In the northern States, however, we in general have 
wind enough for all useful purposes. But in view of 
these facts, we would rest content with shelter out 
side of the vineyard, and unless in very exposed situ 
ations we would not deem it advisable to place either 
trees or fences amongst the vines. 

But while we can guard against wind and storms 
by belts of woods or high fences, there are other in 
fluences which we cannot thus alter. Chiefly among 
these is the exposure of the sun s rays. 

Exposure is, in general, derived from one or both 
of two causes. First, the inclination of the ground, 



SOIL, SITUATION" AND ASPECT. 47 

and, secondly, its openness and freedom from over 
shadowing influences. A wall is a good illustration 
of the latter the north side having a northern expo 
sure, and causing fruit planted against it to ripen at 
a much later period than that planted on the south 
side, which has a southern exposure. The little 
raised mounds or flower-beds, to be found in every 
garden, exhibit the influence exerted by the inclina 
tion of the earth the vegetation on the south side 
being usually some days earlier than that on the 
north. 

For vineyards, the best exposure is undoubtedly a 
southern one, slightly inclined toward the east, or at 
least fully protected from the west, and also from the 
early morning rays. " It has often been observed 
that woods or thick trees, buildings, high, broad 
fences, or steep hills, on the east side of peach 
orchards, protect the crop. Hence the erroneous 
opinion, that it is the east winds which do the dam 
age. It is the sunshine upon the frozen buds which 
destroys them ; hence a clouded sky, after a clear 
frosty night, by preventing sudden thawing, some 
times saves a crop. Covering trees of rare kinds 
with mats, to shade them from the morning sun, 
after an intensely frosty night, might sometimes be 
highly beneficial." (Thomas.) 

In this connection, it may be proper to consider 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

the best direction for the trellises on which the vines 
are trained. "We have often seen a north and south 
direction advised under the idea that the vines thus 
receive the sun s rajs for a longer time. But the 
evils attached to this plan are great and insurmount 
able. In the first place, the vines receive the full 
force of the early morning sun which, striking the 
young leaves while still cold, and it may be partially 
frozen, is productive of the most injurious effects. 
Then as the day progresses toward noon, the vines 
are so shaded as not to receive the amount of heat, 
which they would gladly enjoy at that time, while 
toward evening again their excitability is greatly 
increased and is kept up until the last moment, instead 
of the exciting influence being quietly withdrawn as 
it ought to be. 

But if we give our trellis a direction from east to 
west, instead of from north to south, the vines will 
expose but a small surface to the first rays of the sun 
which will thus warm them gradually, until it attains 
its meridian splendor, when it will exert its full power 
and then gradually decline until evening, when 
everything will gradually cool down. Sudden 
changes are thus avoided, and the full power of the 
sun is secured in the ripening of the grapes. 

Intimately connected with the foregoing subjects, 
are the laws which regulate the influence of tempe 



SOIL, SITUATION AND ASPECT. 4:9 

rature upon vegetation. These are stated by M. De 
Candolle, as follows : 

1. All other things being equal, the power of each 
plant and of each part of a plant, to resist extremes 
of temperature is in the inverse ratio of the quan 
tity of water they contain. 

2. The power of plants to resist extremes of tem 
perature is directly in proportion to the viscidity of 
their fluids. 

3. The power of plants to resist cold is in the 
inverse ratio of the rapidity with which their fluids 
circulate. 

4. The liability to freeze, of the fluids contained in 
plants, is greater in proportion to the size of the cells. 

5. The power of plants to resist extremes of tem 
perature is in a direct proportion to the quantity of 
confined air which the structure of their organs give 
them the means of retaining in the more delicate 
parts. 

6. The power of plants to resist extremes of tem 
perature is in direct proportion to the capability 
which the roots possess of absorbing sap less exposed 
to the external influence of the atmosphere and the 
sun. 

From this it will be obvious that all rank growth 
and succulent vegetation should be avoided where 
the desired object is to obtain hardy vines. 

3 



50 OPEN ATE GRAPE CULTURE. 



GIIAPTEE III. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL AND FORMATION OF VINE 
BORDERS. 

HAVING selected a proper site for a vineyard, the 
next step will be to prepare the soil for the reception 
of the young vines. It is rarely if ever that ground 
can be found in a condition fit to plant a vineyard 
without thorough and extensive improvements, and 
unless it be in proper order our hopes of success will 
end in failure and disappointment. 

In our remarks on soil it was stated that one abso 
lute necessity is a dry subsoil. ~No other good quali 
ties can compensate for the want of this, and in most 
cases it is only to be obtained by thorough draining. 

The first great evil obviated by thorough draining 
is the existence of stagnant water beneath the sur 
face. It is a saying amongst vine-dressers that " the 
vine cannot bear wet feet." And nothing can be 
more true. If the roots be exposed to stagnant water 
they will become diseased and die off, thus giving 
rise to weak and ill-ripened though sometimes succu 
lent growth,, and hence causing the vine to suffer from 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 51 

the attacks of disease and insects. The grapes, loo, 
will not ripen well, but will remain sour and ill-fla 
vored. 

M. Gasparin gives the following observations with 
regard to the influence which a dry or a moist soil 
exerts upon the grape : " Other things being equal, 
we obtain grapes which contain much sugar and lit 
tle acid from vines grown in a dry soil ; more free 
acid in a moist soil, and much acid, albumen and 
mucilage with little sugar in a soil which is absolu 
tely wet," 

Another advantage consists in the fact that well- 
drained land always possesses a higher temperature 
than that which is wet. This difference amounts to 
10 to 12 Fah. and is accounted for by the rapid 
absorption of heat by the water as it becomes con 
verted into vapor. Daring this process, too, it is pro 
bable that the nascent vapor robs the earth of a por 
tion of the ammonia and gases which it would have 
separated from the water and retained if it had acted j 
as a filter and the water had passed off by the drains. 
But however this may be, its effect on temperature* 
is such that Johnson regards thorough draining as 
equal to a change of climate. 

But not only does draining enable the soil to filter- 
all the water which descends upon it, retaining its- 
ammonia, gases and even salts- ; it is probable that by 



52 OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

these means the excrement! tious matters discharged 
by plants, as well as other noxious bodies are washed 
out of the subsoil or decomposed by contact with the 
air which penetrates along with the water. In the 
case of oxide of iron it is probable that a very 
beneficial effect results from its conversion from the 
protoxide to the peroxide by means of this influence. 

But a change in the chemical constitution and 
action of the soil is not the only effect of this opera 
tion ; a no less marked alteration is produced in its 
mechanical character heavy lands being rendered 
light, porous and permeable to the roots of tender 
plants. 

It is unnecessary here to give minute directions for 
performing such a well-known operation, so we shall 
merely refer our readers to some of the numerous 
treatises on that subject. An excellent article on the 
theory and practice of draining will be found in the 
" Rural Annual " for 1859 published at the office of the 
" Genesee Farmer," Rochester, N. Y. 

"We may state, however, that in laying drains for a 
vineyard, it should be borne in mind that after the 
vines are planted it will be almost impossible to get 
at the drains in case of accident, without serious 
detriment to the plants. It will, therefore, be well to 
construct them in the most substantial manner and 
also to arrange them so that they will not lie imme- 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 53 

diately under any of the rows of vines. If they are 
between the rows it will not be so difficult to get at 
them as if they lay directly beneath the plants. 

The next great requisite in a soil for the culture of 
the vine is depth. Ordinary soils of from eight to 
ten inches are by no means deep enough. Twenty 
inches is the least depth to be relied upon, and, if 
very favorable results are desired, it should be made 
three feet. The subsoil to this depth should be 
thoroughly loosened, and, unless its quality is very 
inferior, it may be well to mix it with the surface 
soil adding at the same time a good supply of 
manure or compost. We are aware that some horti 
culturists object to bringing up the subsoil, but we 
incline to the belief that if it is of such a character as 
to produce much injury, the site is unfit for a vine 
yard. When the subsoil is light (except it be pure 
sand) no harm can result. If it be pure sand, how 
ever, it had better remain where it is unless a suffi 
ciency of clay can be found to mix with it. If, on 
the other hand, it be so clayey as to hermetically seal 
up the vine borders, we should prefer to let it remain 
under. But, if possible, a site should be selected 
where a good depth of tolerable soil may be obtained 
either naturally or by proper effort. 

The advantages incident to depth in ordinary cases 
consist in the roots being placed alike beyond the 



54: OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

extreme heat of summer and the severe cold of win 
ter. Consequently they do not suifer from drought, 
and are able at once to enter upon their duties in the 
spring. 

For table grapes, we doubt whether the soil can 
be too deep or rich not meaning by the latter term, 
however, saturated with undecomposed organic mat 
ter. But observation leads us to doubt the propriety 
of carrying these features to an extreme in the case 
of closely-trimmed vines cultivated for wine. It is 
true that the Western authors (Remelin, Buchannan, 
etc. some of them Europeans) advocate this depth 
and richness. Bat, if our memory does not deceive 
us, some of Mr. Longworth s tenants who have not 
pursued the most thorough system of cultivation 
have occasionally escaped evils to which their more 
skillful and hard-working brethren have been ex 
posed. And perhaps a solution of this mystery may 
be found above, notwithstanding Mr. Longworth 
naively tells us that he cannot believe that nature 
ever favors the indolent. Our own experience in 
this particular department is not sufficient to warrant 
us in pronouncing a decided opinion on the subject; 
but the principles of physiology would lead us to be 
lieve that if the roots of vines are planted in a deep 
and rich soil the branches must be allowed corres 
ponding elbow room. If we desire to keep a vigorous 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL, 55 

plant down we must starve and curtail its roots as 
well as use the pruning-knife on its branches. 

There are two methods of deepening a soil, viz : by 
the subsoil plough and by trenching with the spade. 
Both these operations are too well known to require 
a minute description, though in regard to the latter 
there are so many and such contradictory directions 
given in books that we may be pardoned a few re 
marks in relation thereto. 

In order properly to trench a piece of ground the 
directions given by Loudon are as explicit and judi 
cious as possible. " Trenching is a mode of pulveriz 
ing and mixing the soil, or of pulverizing and chang 
ing its surface to a greater depth than can be done 
by the spade alone. For trenching with a view to 
pulverizing and changing the surface, a trench, is 
formed like the furrow in digging, but two or more 
times wider and deeper; the plot or piece to be 
trenched is next marked oif with the line into parallel 
strips of this width ; and beginning at one of these, 
the operator digs or picks the surface stratum, and 
throws it in the bottom of the trench. Having com 
pleted with the shovel the removal of the surface 
stratum, a second, third or fourth, according to the 
depth of the soil and other circumstances, is removed 
in the same way ; and thus, when the operation is 
completed, the position of the different strata is 



56 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

exactly the reverse of what they were before. In 
trenching with a view to mixture and pulverization, 
all that is necessary is to open, at one corner of the 
plot, a trench or excavation of the desired depth, 3 
or 4: feet broad, and 6 or 8 feet long. Then proceed 
to fill the excavation from one end by working out a 
similar one. In this way proceed across the piece to 
be trenched, and then return, and so on in parallel 
courses to the end of the plot, observing that the face 
or position of the moved soil in the trench must 
always be that of a slope, in order that whatever is 
thrown there may be mixed and not deposited in 
regular layers as in the other case. To effect this 
most completely, the operator should always stand in 
the bottom of the trench, and first picking down and 
mixing the materials, from the solid side, should 
next take them up with, the shovel, and throw them 
on the slope or face of the moved soil, keeping a dis 
tinct space of two or three feet between them. For 
want of attention to this, in trenching new soils for 
gardens and plantations, it may be truly said that 
half the benefit derivable from the operation is lost." 
A more expeditious method of mixing the soil, 
and one which varies but slightly from the ordinary 
system, consists in cutting down the bank in succes 
sive sections so as to produce theoretically a series of 
layers of soil and subsoil, but in reality a most inti- 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 57 

mate mixture of the two. This is best accomplished 
by opening a very wide trench say from four to 
six feet wide. Then throw the top spit off a bank of 
the same width into the bottom of the trench so as to 
insure the burial of all insects, seeds, and weeds ; cut a 
width of from six to fifteen inches of the remaining por 
tion of the bank completely down to the bottom, and 
spread the soil so obtained in a thin layer over the 
spit formerly thrown in. Then cut down another six 
to fifteen inches in the same manner, proceeding thus 
until the whole bank has been cut down and used to 
fill up the trench. It will now be found that, with 
the exception of the extreme top spit which is placed 
at the bottom for very good reasons, the whole soil is 
sufficiently mixed for all practical purposes. 

Another mode of trenching called bastard trench 
ing is thus described by a writer in the " Gardener s 
Chronicle :" " Open a trench two feet and a half, or 
a yard wide, one full spit and the shovelling deep, 
and wheel the soil from it to where it is intended to 
finish the piece ; then put in the dung and dig it in 
with the bottom spit in the trench ; then fill up this 
trench with the top spit, etc., of the second, treating 
it in like manner, and so on. The advantages of this 
plan of working the soil are, the good soil is retained 
at the top an important consideration where the 

soil is poor or bad ; the bottom soil is enriched and 

3* 



58 



OPEN AIK GK1PE CULTURE. 



loosened for the penetration and nourishment of Ibhe 
roots, and allowing them to descend deeper, they are 
not BO liable to suffer from drought in summer ; 
strong soil is rendered capable of absorbing more 
moisture, and yet remains drier at the surface by the 
water passing down more rapidly to the subsoil, and 
it insures a more thorough shifting of the soil." 

A method which we have sometimes adopted, and 
which we think a saving of labor under some circum 
stances, is as follows : 



Let fig. 1. represent the plot of ground to be 
trenched. Divide it into two equal parts by the line 
a 5, and instead of wheeling the soil out of A r to the 
rear of the plot, simply throw that from A out in front. 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 59 

There can, of course, be no more difficulty in find 
ing room for it there than there would be in obtain 
ing a place for it in the rear. Then dig down the 
bank B, and w T ith it fill the trench A. B is now a 
trench which may be filled from c ; c may be filled 
from D ; D from E ; E from F ; and the filling of F 
with the soil which was at first thrown out of A, will 
make all even. The wheeling of the soil, which is no 
inconsiderable item, is thus saved. It is evident, 
however, that this plan is adapted only to small, or 
at least narrow plots. 

All the foregoing operations prove most beneficial 
when performed in the fall. At that time the soil 
should not be finely pulverized, but left in as rough 
a state as possible so as to expose it thoroughly to the 
action of the winter s frost and snow. It should be 
also well mixed with a good dressing of well decom 
posed stable manure, and any of those matters men 
tioned in Chapter XI. 

By these means, the ground will be thoroughly 
enriched by spring, and will not consist of earth 
mixed with fermenting masses of manure, than which 
nothing can be more injurious to young plants. In 
the following spring the land should be raked or har 
rowed, so as to obtain a level surface of finely pulver 
ized soil, and if it should be lightly forked over it 
would be none the worse for it. 



60 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

TERRACES. From our directions for the selection 
of a vineyard site, it will be seen that we prefer a gen 
tle slope to the south or southeast. If this slope does 
not exceed an angle of eight degrees, or a rise of one 
foot in seven, it will be unnecessary to adopt any 
peculiar system of arrangement. For a rise of one in 
four it will be necessary merely to make very slight 
terraces, the borders being made eight feet wide 
and half the descent being taken up by the slope 
given to them, will leave but twelve inches of a ter 
race, which may be easily secured by a row of sods, 
boards or stones, or even the earth beaten hard and 
kept carefully dressed up. But when the inclination 
of the ground much exceeds this amount, it becomes 
necessary to form regular terraces which is best 
-done as follows : 

Find out the actual slope or inclination of the 
.ground, which is easily done by taking an eight-foot 




Fig. 2. 



board, and after laying one edge on the ground and 
levelling the board, find the length of the perpendi- 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 61 

cular which touches the surface beneath the other end. 
Thus a d, fig. 2, being the surface of the hill, 
and o the eight feet board with the level resting upon 
it, e dj will be the rise in eight feet and e d, less the 
slope given to the border will be the height of each 
step or terrace. Having found this, the next step is 
to cut a perpendicular face half the height of the pro 
posed terrace at the foot of the hill and against it to 
build a wall as high as may be required. This is best 
formed of dry stone, though the bank is sometimes 
left with a good deal of slope, and sodded, the sods 
being pinned to the face of the bank with stakes until 
the roots have penetrated sufficiently to hold. The 
sods for this purpose should not be cut square, but dia 
mond form, so that the face of the bank would pre 
sent the appearance shown in fig. 3. But sods are 



Fig. 8. 



objectionable from the fact that they not only keep 
the air moist in the vicinity of the vines, but also 
abstract a good deal of nutriment from the soil, and 
unless kept neatly mown present a very bad appear- 



OPEX AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



ance. In default of good stone we think that sun- 
dried brick would make a very good wall. The 
earth of which they are made should be mixed with 
straw, well worked and made into blocks. 

It is probable that in well-drained terraces such 
walls would last well if protected with a coping of 
boards or straw secured with good clay in the man- 
ner shown in fig. 4, so as to shed the rain. 





Figure 4, 

Having built this wall, the next step is to fill up 
behind it, and level off a border of suitable width 
say 6 or 8 feet. To do this it will be necessary to cut 
down a perpendicular face the same height as before, 
when another wall must be built, and the same pro 
cess repeated. 

A writer in the third volume of the " Gardener s 
Magazine" proposes to train the vines on trellises 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 63 

lying on the surface of the slopes as shown in figure 5. 
Trained in this manner, grapes are said to have 




Figure 6. 

ripened well in England. "We would prefer the 
vertical trellis, however, and give the illustration, 
more to show what has been proposed than as an 
example to be followed. So many times have we 
seen it proposed to incline trellises and train vines 
horizontally, that we cannot refrain from quoting 
Lindley s remarks upon this point. 

" That training a tree over the face of a wall will 
protect the blossoms from cold must be apparent, 
when we consider the severe effect of excessive eva 
poration upon the tender parts. A merely low 
temperature will produce but little comparative in 
jury in a still air, because the more essential parts 
of the flower are very much guarded by the bracts, 
calyx and petals, which overlie them, and, more 
over, because radiation will be intercepted by the 



64: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

branches themselves, placed one above the other, so 
that none but the uppermost branches which radiate 
into space will feel its full effects ; but when a cold 
wind is constantly passing through the branches and 
among the flowers, the perspiration against which 
no sufficient guard is provided by nature becomes 
so rapid as to increase the amount of cold consider 
ably, besides abstracting more aqueous matter than 
a plant can safely part with. To prevent this being 
one of the great objects of training trees, it is incon 
ceivable how any one should have recommended 
such devices as those mentioned in the Horticultural 
Transactions, II. Appendix, p. 8., of training trees 
upon a horizontal plane; the only effect of which 
would be to expose a tree as much as possible to the 
effect of that radiation which it is the very purpose 
of training to guard against." 

All terraces should be well drained, and the drains 
are best arranged by having a series of cross drains 
parallel to the terrace, as seen in section fig. 4 and 5, 
and emptying into a main drain which descends the 
hill. These drains should be placed as in the figures, 
taking care to leave the ground under the wall solid 
and undisturbed. In forming terraces for vine cul 
ture it is necessary to exercise care and j udgment, so 
as not to bury the good soil and leave the poor soil 
for the vines to grow in. 



FORMATION OF VINE BORDERS. 65 

YINE BORDERS. The formation of vine borders in 
gardens is a subject upon which the student will find 
no lack of information, almost every successful 
gardener attributing the superiority of his grapes to 
some peculiarity in the construction of his borders, 
and innumerable have been the paper conflicts waged 
between the advocates of carrion, asphalte, ventilated 
borders, etc., etc., and their opponents. The "car 
rion" controversy has probably caused the shedding 
of more ink than any of the others, the ultraists on 
both sides being probably in the wrong. But, 
after all, we regard the construction of proper vine 
borders as no very difficult affair, and shall first give 
our own views in the matter and afterward quote 
those of other authors. 

Of course in borders, as in other cases, it is neces 
sary that the bottom be as dry as possible. This 
being provided for, if the soil is a light mellow gar 
den mold, we would rest content with trenching it 
thoroughly, and adding liberal supplies of litter, well 
decomposed manure, woollen rags, and especially 
bones ; * and if in the bottom of each trench a good 

* In the ordinary course of agriculture, where " quick returns," if 
not " small profits " are an important element of success, bones when 
used as manure cannot be too thoroughly pulverized. Indeed, it is 
often profitable to reduce them to the most active form that of a solu 
tion b/ means of acids. But for reasons to be hereafter stated, one 



66 OPKN "AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

layer of brickbats, lime rubbish, and oyster shells be 
laid, it will prove an advantage. A border prepared 
in this simple manner will give good satisfaction 
under any circumstances. 

If the soil be heavy we would also make liberal 
additions of sandy loam or saw-dust. 

But if the location of the border is such that it can 
not be well drained, we would remove all the soil to 
the depth of 1 8 inches over the entire extent of the 
border and fill up at least 12 inches of the space with 
stones, brickbats, etc. Over this we would spread a 
thin layer of straw or brush, and after building a wall 
round the border 18 to 30 inches high, we would fill 
in with a rich soil resembling in composition, that 
described above. The earth on the outside might be 
banked up to the wall, and either sodded, or merely 
beaten solid. 

In all such cases, it is evident that from the narrow 
limits to which we are in general confined, the soil 
ought to be of the richest kind ; and as it is nearly 
impossible to renew it after the vines are once started, 
this richness should be derived from materials calcu- 

great advantage to be derived from the use of bones in vine borders 
is the length of time during which they continue to act, and, there 
fore, the largest and most solid should be selected and used without 
being crushed or broken. This is no argument, however, against iha 
additional use of bone dust. 



FORMATION OF TINE BORDERS. 67 

lated to give more than a mere temporary impetus 
to the plants. The nature and action of manures will 
form the subject of a future chapter, but we may here 
state that bones, hair, woollen rags, leather clippings 
and similar matters are by far the most suitable. For 
the purpose of giving porosity to the soil, as w r ell as 
furnishing nutriment to the plants, nothing will be 
found to equal chopped straw. Chaff, or sawdust 
comes next in order, and from experiments which we 
have made on the subject, we do not think the value 
of the latter is half appreciated. To dead animals, 
either whole or divided, we have never found any 
objection, provided they were not placed in direct con 
tact with the roots of the plant. No danger is to be 
apprehended of the vine seeking them to its own 
detriment. But this more properly pertains to the 
subject of manures. "We will now give the manner 
in which the most celebrated grape growers construct 
their borders. 

Miller (1759) recommends good mellow soil with 
out any addition. 

Speedily (1790) states in his work : "As the vines 
in the hot-house at "Welbeck have been remarkably 
fruitful and vigorous, I shall beg leave to recom 
mend the same kind of compost mold which I make 
use of there, viz. one-fourth part of garden mold, 
(a strong loam) ; one-fourth of the sward or turf from 



68 OPEN AIE GKAPE CULTURE. 

a pasture where the soil is a sandy loam ; one-fourth 
of the sweepings and scrapings of pavements and hard 
roads ; one-eighth of rotten cow and stable yard dung 
mixed ; and one-eighth of vegetable mold from re 
duced and decayed oak leaves. These are the several 
and respective proportions. The sward should be 
laid in a heap till the grass roots are in a state of 
decay, and then turned over and broken with a spade ; 
let it then be put to the other materials, and the 
whole worked together, till the separate parts become 
well and uniformly mixed and incorporated. 

As the vegetable mold from decayed leaves can 
not always be obtained, by reason that the leaves 
require two years before they become sufficiently 
putrid and reduced, it therefore may sometimes be 
necessary to substitute some other ingredient in lieu 
of this part of the compost ; wherefore it may not be 
inexpedient to point out the proper succedanea. 

Rotten wood reduced to a fine mold, such as is 
often found under fagot stacks ; the scraping of the 
ground in old woods, where the trees grow thick 
together; mold out of hollow trees, and sawdust 
reduced to a fine mold, provided it be not from wood 
of a resinous kind, are in part of a similar nature 
with vegetable mold from decayed leaves, but are 
neither so rich nor so powerful, because the vegetable 
mold receives a power by its fermentation. 



FORMATION OF VINE BORDERS, 69 

Abercrorabie directs the top slip of sand/ loam from 
an upland pasture, one-third part ; unexhausted brown 
loam from a garden, one-fourth part; scrapings of 
roads free from clay, one-sixth part ; vegetable mold 
or old tan, or rotten stable dung, one-eighth part; 
shell marl, or mild lime, one-twelfth part. His bor 
ders he recommends to be from three to five feet in 
depth, and where practicable, not less than four feet 
wide within the house, and not less than ten feet wide 
without. 

The vine borders at "Wishaw House, Lanarkshire, 
in a cold and wet locality, are thus formed : Breadth, 
12 feet, depth of soil 18 inches, under which is laid 
a foot of hard clinkers, by way of drainage. The soil 
used is that natural to the garden, which had for 
years been under pasture, and is a remarkably strong, 
rich brick-clayey loam, with no other preparation 
than the addition of a moderate supply of stable ma 
nure. In this soil the best grapes ever produced in 
Scotland have been grown for the last three years. 

A writer in the " Gardener s Chronicle" (1843, page 
825) prepares his borders thus : The soil most suita 
ble for a vine border is the surface spit from a field 
of an old fertile loam pasture ; this should be collected 
some time before it is required, mixed with a good 
proportion of cow dung, and the whole turned over 
at intervals, three or four times, and exposed to the 



TO OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

action of the -weather. In preparing the border, the 
old earth should be cleared away from the whole 
space, to the depth of about two and a half feet, and 
a main drain cut parallel with the length of the bor 
der, at its extreme outer edge. 

This should be at least two feet lower than the 
bottom of the border, whether laid with concrete, 
chalk or bricks, and the bottom of the border should 
have a gentle inclination from the back to the drain. 
To render this drainage more effectual, cut small 
drains, placing drain tiles at their bottoms, at con 
venient distances, to run in a slanting direction from 
the back of the border into the main drain, the latter 
being* six inches below them. A few turfs should 

O 

be laid over the tile drains with the grassy side down 5 
the fresh soil may then be filled in, taking care to 
keep the roughest part near the bottom. 

Three cubic yards of compost are enough for each 
vine ; this will admit of the border being ten feet 
wide, or with forty-eight cubic feet, you may form it 
only six feet wide in the first instance, and add six 
feet more as the vines extend. 

Roberts, the great advocate for carrion, gives the 
following description of his border : " The compost 
and manures I most recommend, and which I made 
use of, are two parts the parings of a piece of old 
pasture land, a strong loam laid up one year (or till 



FORMATION OF VINE BORDERS. 71 

the sward is half decomposed), in the form of a potato 
hod, close covered in with soil, and never turned ; one 
part, the turf with four inches of the soil, of a looser 
texture laid up for the same period, and not turned, 
as before ; an eighth part scrapings of the highways 
formed from limestone, or other hard material ; and 
the other eighth part, half decomposed horse or cow 
clung. I am not an advocate for turning over and 
mixing the materials promiscuously together, as, by 
often turning, the compost becomes too solid, losing a 
great portion of its fertilizing property by such re 
peated intermixture ; and unless it be of a very sandy, 
loose texture, the border will, in a few years, become 
impervious both to water and to atmospheric air, 
which are of incalculable benefit to the growth of the 
vine. I would recommend the autumn, if the weather 
be dry, to prepare to fill in your border. 

"A month previous to filling your border, provide a 
quantity of carrion, cattle dying by accident, disease, 
etc., which I am sorry to say, has, of late years, 
been too common an occurrence. If you have col 
lected it some time before hand, have it cut into small 
pieces and laid up in soil till the time of using. It 
em-its a very nauseous effluvia, but this must be borne, 
for this is the pabulum to produce the nectar of 
Bacchus, When all is ready, and the weather favor 
able, proceed at one end of your border, wheeling in 



72 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

and mixing the materials in proportion as they stand 
to each other in my previous directions, on no account 
breaking the materials in mixing, but turn them in as 
rough as possible, adding one good sized horse or cow 
carcass to every ten or twelve square yards, using 
caution, and not bringing it to the surface of the 
border within one foot as its assistance is not wanted 
the first year. What I have here recommended is 
my practice adopted at this place, the result of which, 
I dare presume to say, has surprised all, both gentle 
men and practical gardeners, who have witnessed it." 

Fiske Allen, one of the best American culturists 
of the vine under glass, constructs his borders thus : 

" If the soil is very poor, or unsuitable for the pur 
pose, so as to require to be removed entirely, then 
a compost prepared thus is recommended ; one-half 
to be the top soil of an old pasture, one-quarter to 
be bone, or some other strong manure ; one-eighth 
oyster shells, or lime and brick rubbish ; one-eighth 
rotten manure ; these articles thrown together in a 
heap, and so to remain until decomposed and amalga 
mated, when they should be placed in the border and 
thrown loosely together. My borders having the 
most slaughter-house manure, or whole bones of ani 
mals in their composition still continue, as they ever 
have done, to produce the best fruit and the largest 
crops. 



FORMATION OF VINE BORDERS. 73 

" It is unnecessary to attempt to give rules for every 
kind of soil. One must use his own judgment, and 
make his border to consist, as near as can be, of the 
above ingredients. He must bear in mind that, if 
his soil is a stiff clayey loam, he must add freely of 
such materials as will lighten and give permeability 
to it. If the soil is light, sandy or gravelly, with the 
manure should be added a proportion of clay or 
clayey loam. The rich alluvion soil, abounding in 
our western and southwestern States, will not require 
any of these strong manures. If anything is requi 
site to improve them, it must be shells, charcoal, 
leaves, small stones, or gravel such materials as 
will loosen the soil." 

But that the reader may not be discouraged by 
these extravagant demands we quote the following 
fj om Hoare : 

"But if vines could not be planted with any pros 
pect of success in any other situations than in bor 
ders set apart for that purpose, but a very small quan 
tity of grapes could be grown, compared with what 
the country is capable of producing. Innumerable- 
instances occur throughout the country, and espe 
cially in towns and their suburban districts, in which, 
walls, cottages, houses, and various descriptions of* 
brick and stone erections present very favorable 
aspects for the training of vines, but which neverther 

4 



74: OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

less are so situated locally, as to possess little or no 
soil at all on the surface adjoining their sites; the 
ground being either paved with bricks or stone, or per 
haps trodden- so hard, as to be apparently incapable 
of yielding sustenance to any vegetable production. 

" In all such cases, however, if the ground adjoining 
the site of the wall or building be opened to the 
extent of eighteen inches square, and as many deep, 
it will be sufficient to admit the roots of a young 
vine, which must be pruned to suit that space. If a 
wider and deeper space can be made, it will of course 
be better ; but if not, that will do. After the sides 
and bottom have been loosened as much as possible, 
the vine may be planted and the hole filled up with 
two-thirds of rich loamy earth, and one-third of road 
scrapings, previously mixed well together, and if 
necessary the surface covering, whether of stone, 
brick, or otherwise, may be restored again to its for 
mer state, provided a space about six inches square 
be left open for the stem to swell in during its future 
growth. Vines planted in such situations, will in gene 
ral do well, although their growth will not be so rapid 
as when planted under more favorable circumstances. 

" In all cases where vines are planted against any 
description of buildings, their roots push as soon as 
possible under the foundations, being attracted thi 
ther by the warm air which is there generated ; and 



FORMATION OF VINE BORDERS. 75 

such situations being also dry, from the excavations 
which have been made, offer to the roots the same 
protection from excessive moisture, as the substratum 
of a well-prepared border. The same may be 
observed of vines planted against walls, the founda 
tions of which possess similar advantages, although 
in a more limited degree. Hence the fact may be 
inferred that vines planted in such situations, without 
any previous preparation of the soil, will frequently 
grow as luxuriantly, and produce as fine grapes as 
those planted in rich and well-prepared borders. 

" Indeed, it is hardly possible to plant a vine in any 
situation in which it will not thrive, provided its roots 
can by any means push themselves into a dry place, 
and the aspect be such as to afford to its branches a 
sufficient portion of the sun s rays to elaborate the 
juices of the plant. 

" The truth is, that the roots of the vine possess ani 
extraordinary power of adapting themselves to any- 
situation in which they may be planted, provided it 
be a dry one. 

" They will ramble in every direction in search of 
food, and extract nourishment from sources apparently 
the most barren. In short, they are the best caterers- 
that can possibly be imagined, for they will grow,, 
and even thrive luxuriantly, where almost every 
cription of plant or tree would inevitably starve." 



76 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PLANTING. 

PROPER AGE OF YINES FOR PLANTING. Where 
young vines have been raised from cuttings, in the 
open ground, two years old probably is the best age 
to select for planting out. Plants one year from the 
cutting have rarely made sufficient roots to bear 
transplanting well, and at a greater age than two 
years the roots are so long that they generally receive 
much mutilation in taking up thus losing their 
most fibrous and valuable part, viz., that at the ex 
tremities. Of course older vines, carefully taken up 
and as carefully planted, will come into bearing in 
shorter time than younger plants, and thus give more 
satisfactory results where expense is no objection. 
But where a large number of vines are to be set out, 
two-year old plants, as above stated, or one-year old 
plants raised from eyes in the spring, and grown all 
summer in the open air, have decided advantages on 
the score both of economy and ease of planting. 
Indeed, we should prefer plain cuttings, planted two 
to each stake, to one-year old vines raised from cut- 



PLANTING. 77 

tings ill the open ground. Plants raised from eyes 
in pots, early in spring, and transferred in summer to 
their final location, do very well. 

PJROPER SEASON FOE PLANTING. The proper season 
for planting depends much upon local circumstances 
soil and climate being chiefly to be considered. In 
a few instances, were the soil is light and the climate 
mild, it may do to risk fall planting, but under all 
ordinary circumstances we should advise this opera 
tion to be deferred till pretty late in the spring, and 
this advice is founded upon the uniformly favorable 
results which have attended this plan in our own 
experience, as opposed to frequent want of success at 
other times. Plants set out even early in the fall 
rarely outstrip those planted in the following spring, 
and when autumn planting is delayed much beyond 
the fall of the leaf, the plants frequently fail if the 
winters are severe. 

The reason of this probably depends upon the fact 
that the roots of all plants when vegetation is active, 
are enabled to resist adverse influences which would 
prove fatal to them when dormant. Thus the vine 
when growing will revel in a degree of moisture 
which would destroy it, or at least prove very injuri 
ous during the winter months. ~Now the roots of all 
trees are more or less injured by transplanting, and 



78 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

incipient decay is apt to supervene unless the vitality 
of tlie plant is sufficient to withstand it. If this 
should occur when the plant is dormant, there is no 
influence at work to resist the evil. But if such 
injuries should be inflicted in spring, when vegeta 
tion is just commencing, they are quickly and readily 
repaired. 

"With care vines may be transplanted even when 
their leaves are well developed ; but under such cir 
cumstances the vine, from its great evaporative 
powers, makes a heavy draft upon the roots and is 
rather impatient of removal after vegetation has made 
some progress. We have had the best success, however, 
when the plant was set out so late in the spring that 
the buds were starting, but just before they were fully 
burst. About this time the soil is getting gradually 
warmer, and although it does not reach a sufficiently 
high temperature to induce the formation of roots in 
cuttings before June or July, still it is warm enough 
to allow of the healthy action of the roots in a grow 
ing plant. 

In the above cases the vines were set out immedi 
ately after being dug up. "Where it is necessary to 
transport them any distance, it would undoubtedly 
be better to take them up earlier, before the sap 
begins to move. They need not be planted for some 
time, but may be merely heeled in, as it is called, 



PLANTING. 79 

that is, placed in a shallow trench and well covered 
with dry soil. A covering of straw or leaves in addi 
tion will do no harm if the mice do not make it a 
harbor. 

DISTANCE APART. The distance apart at which 
vines should be planted will, of course, depend not 
only upon the variety, but upon the object for which 
they are set out. In Europe they are placed at all 
distances from 30 inches to 30 feet. In the Ohio 
vineyards, where they are usually fastened to stakes, 
the plants are placed about four or five feet apart ; but 
in the northern States, where vines are trained upon 
trellises, we should prefer to set them out in rows 6 
feet apart, and the vines standing 7 or 8 feet apart in 
the rows. This distance enables us to keep the vines 
close enough and short enough for all practical pur 
poses, while it does not require more time to cover 
the trellis than is absolutely necessary to bring the 
vine into proper order for bearing. The rows are 
also sufficiently far apart to allow of horse labor 
being used a considerable saving being thus 
effected. 

The number of vines required to plant an acre will 
be seen from the following table, which has often 
been published, but which it may be well to insert 
here. 



80 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



PLANTS TO THE 


ACRE. 








PLANTS TO THB 


ACRE. 


3 X 


3 


requires 


4 


,840 


8 


X 


7 


requires 


788 


4 X 


3 


u 


3 


,630 


8 


X 


8 


u 


680 


4 X 


4 


u 


2 


,722 


9 


X 


7 


u 


691 


5 X 


4 


a 


2 


,178 


9 


X 


8 


u 


605 


5 X 


5 


tt 


1 


,742 


9 


X 


9 


a 


537 


6 X 


5 


u 


1 


,452 


10 


X 


7 


tt 


622 


6 X 


6 


u 


1 


,210 


10 


X 


8 


u 


544 


7 x 


G 


u 


1 


,023 


10 


X 


9 


u 


484 


7x 


7 


u 




888 


10 


X 


10 





435 



MARKING OFF THE GROUND. Where vines are set 
out at from 4 to 6 feet apart and trained to stakes, 
the following directions, taken from the "American 
Philosophical Transactions," and frequently quoted 
(generally without credit), are as good as any : 

" Your squares being laid out, and having con 
cluded how far your vines shall stand every way 
from one another, in which every man is to please 
himself, you stretch a line of proper length, and 
stitch small pieces of red, blue, green, or any other 
colored cloth, at such distance from each other as you 
mean to plant the vines. I will suppose 8 feet, 
because upon the most mature deliberation, I think 
that the best distance for vines to stand in this coun 
try, as I shall afterward show more fully. The line 
being ready, stretch it along the head or upper part 



PLANTING. 81 

of your square, so that a rag appears at each corner, 
drive down a stake at every rag. This done, move 
your line down to the lower side of the square, which 
is opposite to the first, and stretch your line along 
that, having a rag at each corner, and drive down a 
stake at every rag. Then turn your line the other 
way up and down, and fasten your line to the upper 
and lower outside stakes, so that a rag be at each 
stake, and drive down a stake at every rag, and so on 
from stake to stake, till the whole be completed. If 
you have been careful not to disturb or move the 
line, when you drove down the stakes, and have 
driven them all on the same side of the line, your 
square will be uniform, and the stakes near the 
ground will range exactly every way." 

Where the vines are trained to trellises, it is not 
essential that they should be straight both ways as 
when tied to stakes, it being necessary that the trel 
lises be parallel and equi-distant only. 

To make them so, a very good plan is as follows : 
Prepare a rod, fig. 6, a few inches more than 
twenty feet long, and having a small hole (a) bored 
through one end, the bore a similar hole (c) twelve 
feet from the first ; one (5), 16 feet from the first ; and 
one (d) 20 feet from the first. Having decided upon 
the direction of the first row and divided it into 
spaces corresponding to the distance the plants are to 

4* 



82 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

stand from each other, drive in stakes A A at each 
end, and measuring off 16 feet, drive in other two, 
B B. The heads of these should be made level with 




Fig. 6. 

iflie surface of the ground, and headless nails should 
ifhen be driven into them the two nails (A and B) at 
(each end being exactly 16 feet apart. ISTow place the 
Tod on one of the outside stakes, so that the nail will 
pass through the first hole (a) and drive a peg into 
the hole in the rod 12 feet from the end. With this 
peg mark a curve (<?), and then placing the end (a) of 
fhe rod on the stake B, mark another curve ( d) cross 
ing the first by means of a pin passing through the 
hole (d). A line (A D), drawn from A through the cross 
ing of these curves will be perfectly square with the 



PLANTING. 83 

first row. Divide the lines (A D) into spaces equal to 
the width of the rows, and the lines joining the cor 
responding divisions will be the proper lines of the 
trellises. 

As many stakes or poles, 6 or 8 feet long, should be 
provided as there are vines., and these should be set 
at the points where the vines are to be placed before 
the holes are dug. These stakes will serve during 
the first two years and will save the tear and wear of 
trellises as well as the interest on the investment, 
besides relieving some of the hurry incident to the 
work of the first spring, which is always more press 
ing than that of any succeeding one. 

DIGGING THE HOLES. In digging the holes it will 
be well to take up the stakes one at a time, and after 
digging the hole to replace the stake, driving it 
slightly into the soil at the bottom. By so doing the 
centres of the holes, or at least the points where the 
steins of the vines should come, will be easily kept, 
whereas if all the stakes were removed before dig 
ging the holes, it would be troublesome to get them 
exactly right again. The insertion of the stake, 
before planting the vine, not only aids us in this, but 
prevents the possibility of injuring the roots by driv 
ing a sharp stake through them, a thing which is 
often done. The holes should be dug from 12 to 24 



84 OPEN" AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

inches deep and about 3 feet in diameter, or as wide 
as the distance to which the roots extend. 

TAKING UP THE PLANTS. When plants are pur 
chased, this operation is generally left to the nursery 
man who not unfrequently commits it to men who 
care very little how it is done so that they get the 
plants out of the ground. But when we reflect that 
a small amount of care in taking up a plant will 
often cause a difference of a year or more in its sub 
sequent growth, it will be evident that the labor, time 
and consequent interest on capital which will be ulti 
mately saved by devoting a little attention to this 
matter will more than pay for the few extra minutes 
required. 

In taking up a vine, or any plant, it is well to 
^remember that the most efficient portion of the roots 
is that which lies at the extreme ends those minute 
fibres or spongioles which have been aptly termed 
$he mouths of the plant. In old vines, where the 
j-oots extend to a great distance, these fibres are gene- 
Tally left in the soil, and the plant presents but a few 
smooth, fibreless, cord-like roots from which spongi 
oles must be emitted ere the plant can derive any 
nourishment from them. 

But in young plants the roots have not yet extend 
ed so far as to prevent their being easily taken up 



PLANTING. 85 

without any great loss, and here we have one reason 
why we prefer young plants to old ones. A con 
sideration of this fact will also lead us to follow out 
each root to its termination and so secure all the 
fibres possible. Where the plants have been started 
in sandy, friable soil this is not a laborious task, but 
where the soil is clayey and plastic, it is often a work 
of considerable difficulty. 

In any case, however, the purchaser should see 
that the roots are taken up as completely and entirely 
as possible, and it will also be well to prune all that 
are bruised, broken, or diseased taking such injured 
parts off with a clean cut. As these injuries can 
never be so well seen, or so well remedied as when 
the plant is newly taken up, this is the best time to 
attend to them ; and this forms another reason why 
the purchaser should, if possible, give this matter hi? 
personal supervision. They should then be dipped 
in puddle made of good garden soil, stirred up with 
water ; clay is frequently used for this purpose, and so 
is cow dung, but very injudiciously. The former is 
too tough and hard and prevents the formation of 
young roots, while the latter (as it is commonly used) 
is caustic and destructive to the tender fibres. We 
have tried all three substances and are confident that 
nothing will be found equal to good common soil. 

If the nursery in which the plants have been raised 



86 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

is on the same premises as the vineyard, the vines may 
be either rolled up in coarse sacking, or, a few being 
taken up at a time, they may be plunged in a pail or 
tub filled with puddle. But if they are to be sent to 
a distance, they should be packed in damp (not moist) 
moss (sphagnum) or good clean straw, and either 
made into light bundles or firmly packed in boxes. 

The vines having been carefully taken up and the 
holes properly prepared to receive them, the next 
step is to set them out, and in doing this the follow 
ing points require special attention : 

1. That the roots be disposed in their new location 
as nearly as possible in the same position that they 
occupied before their removal. 

2. That some fine, friable, mellow mold be placed 
in immediate contact with the roots. 

3. That no fresh manure or decomposing organic 
matter be allowed to come in direct contact with the 
plant under any circumstances whatever. 

4. That the soil be firmly packed about the roots, 
no air spaces being left. In doing this, however, do 
not tread down the plant with your whole weight, as 
you will thus be very apt to tear off some of the 
roots, but work the soil in with your hand or a 
pointed stick. 

In general it will be well to insert the plants a 
little deeper in the soil than they were previously, 



PLANTING. 



87 



as, owing to the mutilation winch of necessity takes 
place, a greater draught is made upon the roots for 
moisture than they can support when thus shortened, 
if they are placed near the surface. But this point 
requires the exercise of discretion, and a good sub 
stitute for deeper planting will be thorough mulch 
ing. 

As roots always spring from a bud or joint, and 
rarely from the internode or portion between the buds, 
the mode of propagation by which the plant has been 
produced will exert considerable influence upon the 
modus operandi of setting it out. 




rig. 7. 



In fig. Y is shown the proper disposition of the 
roots of a young plant raised from a seed or from a 
single eye. In this case the roots all proceed from 
within a short distance of each other and from the 
base of the stem. In setting out such a plant, the 
better plan is to throw a shovelful or two of fine 



88 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

mold on the bottom of the hole, so as to form 3. 
conical heap, the top of which should be just at a 
suitable height to support the base of the stem in its 
proper position. Then, having placed the plant on 
the top of this little mound, spread out all the roots 
equally and naturally over its side and fill in with 
pulverized soil, being careful to pack the soil firmly 
around the roots, yet still leaving it mellow and 
porous. 

The soil ought to be raised some inches above the 
surrounding ground, the amount depending upon the 
size and depth of the hole dug. All filling- in is apt 
to sink, and unless this is done, the plant may be 
found after a few weeks to be too low. Some, how 
ever, prefer to have the plant set in a hollow, claim 
ing that a basin is thus formed which catches and 
retains the rain. We would rather rely upon good 
mulching for obtaining the requisite amount of mois 
ture, but if this is dispensed with, and recourse had 
to the former plan, we should prefer to have the hol 
low or basin in the form of a ring around the edge of 
the hole, leaving the stem surrounded with a little 
mound which will shed the rain. The stem is thus 
kept dry, and the moisture is guided just where it is 
wanted, viz. : to the extremity of the roots. Figure 
8 gives a sectional view of the soil so arranged. 

"When vines have been raised from cuttings con- 



PLANTING. 



89 




Fig. 8. 



sisting of several eyes or joints, there will in general 
be several layers of roots the plants having the ap 
pearance shown in Fig. 9. 




Fig. 9. 



In this case it will be necessary to proceed as 
directed for plants from eyes in so far as the lower 
layer of roots is concerned the upper layers being 
held up while this is done. After the first layer has 
been properly covered, the next layer is laid on the 
surface of the soil which covers the lower layer, and 
after being properly disposed are covered in turn. 



00 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

which process is repeated until all the roots are im 
bedded in the soil. 

Plants raised from layers in general demand a 
treatment peculiar to themselves. If they have been 
produced as in Fig. 44, page 176, they will, of course, 
be set out in the main as shown in Fig. 7. But if 
they have been raised in the open ground, and the 
roots have been produced from several joints or buds, 
it will be found that while the roots are not disposed 
in regularly-ascending layers, yet that some are lower 
than others the whole, however, in general lying in 
one plane which is greatly inclined to the surface of 
the earth. For such plants it will in general be best 
to dig a trench or oblong hole, and instead of raising 
a heap in the centre to lay the soil in the bottom, so 
as to form a regularly inclined bed. The plant being 
placed on this bed of fine soil, the roots are all ar 
ranged over it at once and covered in without farther 
trouble. 

In all these cases it will, of course, be necessary 
that the stem of the plant be placed sufficiently near 
to the stake which has been inserted in the hole to 
allow of its being tied thereto without much bending 
or wrenching, and if the weather be dry it will be 
necessary to give the plants a good watering at the 
time they are set out. 

When plants are received in pots having been 



PLANTING. 91 

grown therein from eyes or grafts it is always best 
after taking them out to remove a considerable por 
tion of the soil, and spread out the roots. This is 
necessary from the fact that the roots of plants grown 
in pots form a series of spirals round the outside of 
the ball (between the earth and the pot), and if set 
out in the ground just as they are taken from the 
pot, it requires a long time before the roots change 
this habit and acquire a proper direction and healthy 
condition. The plants should be well watered before 
being taken from the pots, and they should be set in 
fine, loose soil, being exposed to the air as little as 
possible. After planting, it will, of course, be well 
to be liberal with water, and liquid manure used in a 
very diluted state will prove highly beneficial after 
the first week. 

Plants for setting out are usually obtained in pots 
in June, July, or the beginning of August, and as it 
frequently happens that at that time the earth and 
air are so dry as to endanger the life of a young vine, 
if treated as just directed, we have sometimes found 
it advisable after receiving them from the nursery to 
set out the pots (without removing the plants) in the 
open ground, plunging them about two inches below 
the surface of the soil, and leaving them there until 
a few rainy days occur, when the pots are taken up 
and the plants removed and properly set out. 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER V. 

CARE OF THE VINES DURING THE FIRST, SECOND AND 
THIRD YEARS. 

THE roots of tlie vine having been properly cared for, 
the branches may now be pruned. Unless where 
very large and well-rooted vines have been planted 
expressly for immediate bearing, all the secondary 
shoots should be cut away and the main stem 
shortened to an extent depending upon its cha 
racter. 

As usually received from the nursery, one or two 
year old plants, if raised from cuttings, consist of a 
short stem two to six inches long, one or two shoots 
and a large quantity of spray or small twigs, consist 
ing of the laterals of last year. If raised from eyes, 
there will in general be but one shoot, with perhaps 
a few laterals. Under any, circumstances the plants 
ought to be cut back at planting to two good eyes, and 
as soon as they have made a few leaves, cut off the 
upper one as close as possible to the one left, taking 
care, however, not to injure the base of the remaining 
shoot, which ought to be kept tied up to the stake 



CAKE OF THE VINES DUEING THE FIKST TEAK. 93 

as fast as it shows symptoms of leaning over.* The 




Fig. 10. 

base of the shoot which is retained (that is, the point 

* It is recommended by some respectable authorities, to allow the 
young plants to remain untied during the first year, urging as a 
reason that more vigorous stems will thus be obtained. But, although 
the experiments of Knight have proved the advantage of bending and 
motion to most young trees, yet the vine naturally seeks support 
from surrounding objects, and will in most cases, receive more injury 
from dirt, and abrasion by being blown about and rubbing upon the 
ground than will balance the good derived from the motion imparted. 

But as we may observe that the vine is adapted to cling, not to the 
thick and stout bodies of trees, but to slender branches, it is obvious 
that nature provides fully for sustaining the plant beyond the reach of 
injury, without interfering with the action of the wind in producing 
motion. Hence, in the construction of trellises and the choice of stakes, 
it will be well to select flexible material, always provided it is strong 
enough to avoid all danger of being blown down ; stout rods or poles 
are therefore to be preferred to sawed lumber, and we may add they are 
also cheaper. From the above facts we may also gather the reason why 
wires are to be preferred to wooden slats in the construction of trellises. 



94 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

at which it springs from the old wood) should be as low 
down as possible if even with the surface of the 
ground, so much the better. 

A plant such as we have described, is shown in Fig. 
10 as it is usually received from the nursery. The 
same plant properly pruned is shown in Fig. 11. 




Fig. 11. 

Many are afraid to cut back so severely, but it is the 
only true method. 

The object of leaving two eyes at first, is merely to 
guard against accidents. If we could be insured 
against them, the upper one would be better away. 
Little else can be done during the first year than to 
keep the ground mellow, loose about the plants and free 
from weeds. The vine must also be tied up during 
the season, and if a little liquid manure could be ap 
plied to them while growing, it would prove of great 
benefit. In applying this stimulant, it is necessary to 
use it in a very diluted state, and if possible, just 
before or during wet weather. "When applied during 
very dry weather remove the surface soil to a depth 



CAKE OF THE VINES BUKING THK FIRST YEAK. 95 

of three or four inches, and give at least a pailful 
to eacli plant, working the soil as little as possible, 
lest it be converted into puddle. Such an application 
will last for ten days during even very dry weather, 
and will do more good than frequent sprinkling. 

MULCHING. But if abundance of grassy weeds, 
litter, stable manure, or similar matters can be ob 
tained, the best plan is to mulch the plants deeply 
for at least three feet every way from the stem. Of 
this process, A. J. Downing says : " Covering the soil 
in summer is, in this country, one of the most valu 
able aids to good cultivation ever put in practice. The 
best mode of doing this is, by what is technically 
called mulching. This consists in spreading over the 
surface of the ground, so far as the roots of the tree 
or plant extend beneath it, a layer of tan bark, saw 
dust, barn yard litter, straw, salt hay, sea weed, or the 
like, of sufficient thickness to maintain, as nearly as 
possible, a uniform, state of temperature and moisture 
for the roots. From an experience of some years, we 
do not hesitate to say that mulching the surface of the 
ground over newly-planted trees, is not only far bet 
ter than any after-watering, but that, if the layer is 
thick enough to keep the surface cool, it renders 
water wholly unnecessary. In the case of bearing 
fruit-trees, especially the more delicate kinds, as dwarf 
pears, apricots, etc., mulching not only precludes the 



ytJ OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

necessity of stirring the soil, by preventing weeds from 
growing, but it conduces so much more to the health 
of the tree, and the size and excellence of the fruit 
than any other practice in horticulture, that the more 
intelligent growers in the United States now consider 
it indispensable in this climate." 

In addition to these lucid directions, we would only 
say that before applying mulch of any kind to a 
young vine it will always be advisable to raise the 
soil around the stem to the depth to which it is in 
tended to lay the mulch, so as to prevent any of the 
latter from coming in contact with the plant, as in this 
case it might be productive of evil. 

The annexed figure, 12, where the mulch is seen on 
the surface of the soil, will illustrate our meaning. 




Fig. 12. 

LATERALS* are small shoots which spring from the 
axils of the leaves (the point which they join the 

* To these the French have given the name stipulaires, and it seems 
to us that stipularics would be quite as good a term as laterals, and 
more correct. 



CAKE OF THE VINES DURING THE FIRST YEAR. 97 

shoot). As these laterals absorb much of the nutri 
ment which would otherwise go to the increase of the 
stem, they should be carefully pinched out after they 
have made one or two leaves. If removed before they 
have made some growth, the bud at their base is very 
apt to push, as it is called (that is, to grow), which 
should be avoided, if possible. 

Fig. 13 shows a young shoot of the current year 
with a lateral (B) springing from the base of the leaf 
L. This lateral should be pinched off at the cross line. 




Fig. 18. 

If removed entirely or too soon the bud (c) will be apt: 
to push, and destroy our prospects for next season. 

WINTER PROTECTION OF YOUNG VINES. At the close 
of the season, the vines may either be bent down 
and covered with earth in the manner usually 
adopted for covering raspberries, or they may be left- 
upright, and tied to the stakes, a. mound, of earth; 



98 OPEN AIE GEAPE CULTURE. 

being raised up around eacli such mound, being at 
least 18 inches high. The soil of which it is made 
should be taken from the centre of the rows, as, if we 
take it from about the plants, we only cover the stem 
to expose the roots. 

Where the vines are left tied to the stakes, we pre 
fer to leaving them unpruned. True, most of the 
wood gets killed, but this is of little moment since it 
is to be nearly all cut away at the spring pruning. 

MANAGEMENT DUEING THE SECOND YEAE. As soon 
as the severe frosts of winter and early spring have 
passed away, uncover the young vines, and if not 
already pruned, cut them to a good bud within 9 to 
14 inches of the ground. They should be shaded for 
a few days from the sun and cold, which may be very 
well done by sticking a shingle before each, though 
two shingles placed so as to form an angle in which 
the vine may stand, will be better. "We have now 
arrived at a point where it will be necessary to 
decide upon the peculiar system to be adopted in the 
training of our vines. Instead, however, of describ 
ing all the different modes of pruning and training 
in this place, we shall give only that which we consi 
der best adapted to the native American varieties and 
leave the consideration of the others to the chapter 
on general pruning and training. 



CARE OF THE VINFS DUEING THE SECOND TEAK. 99 

If the plants have made but a weakly, stunted 
growth, it will be necessary to allow them another 
year before proceeding to grow shoots for permanent 
arms or branches. In this case but one shoot should 
be trained up, which may be treated precisely as 
directed for the first year. But if a cane of from 6 
to 12 feet has been produced, we may safely proceed 
to train up two canes which will serve for the future 
aims of our vine. To do this, after cutting down the 
first year s shoot as directed, remove all the buds 
except the three uppermost, and as soon as these are 
beyond danger of accident, rub off one if three 




Fig. 14. 



should still remain. The two shoots which are left 
must be carefully trained up, the laterals being- 



100 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

pinched out and any fruit blossoms which may 
appear being removed. 

The operations of the second year will be readily 
understood from the inspection of Fig. 14, which 
shows the young vine as it should appear at the close 
of the first season. Here a is the wood of the old 
cutting, with 5, the shoot which was cut back and 
from which the young cane c d grew. As this 
old wood is hard and cross-grained and cannot be 
renewed, it will be well to add top dressing, suf 
ficient to cover it up to the line a b. The buds, c <?, 
are those which produce next year s shoots ; and the 
buds at d d must be carefully removed. 

The ground should be kept clean and mellow 
during the season, and by the first or middle of 
September the further growth of the canes should 
be stopped by pinching off the ends the wood 
being much more thoroughly ripened when this is 
done. 

It will be necessary, or at least advisable, to lay the 
vines down this season also and protect, not only the 
old stem, but at least four feet of the young shoots. 
The stakes may be removed, and during the fall or 
early spring the trellises may be erected, for which 
full directions are given in Chapter IX. 

MANAGEMENT DURING THE THIKD SEASON. The tre- 



CARE OF THE VINES DURING THE THIRD YEAR. 101 

lises having been constructed in such a manner, that 
the lowest slat or wire may be just below the base of 
the second year s shoots, that is from 9 to 14 inches 
above the surface of the ground, these two shoots 
should be firmly, though not tightly, tied, in a hori 
zontal position as shown in Fig. 15, and all buds 




Fig. 15. 

should be rubbed out except three on each arm (or 
shoot) thus leaving six on each vine. Each of these 
buds should produce a shoot which, if the ground has 
been in good condition and the plants healthy and 
properly set out, would reach from 12 to 25 feet 
unless stopped, and as it is upon every se cond one of 
these that we depend for our next year s supply of 
fruit, they deserve and will require great care and 



102 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

attention in order that they may finally be of equal 
strength and well ripened. Every second shoot 
should be stopped when it has made a growth of 
about two feet, and if any of the others should so far 
outstrip their compeers as to reach the top of the 
trellis much before them, they should be stopped 
also, though except in the case of excessive growth 
all the shoots had best be allowed to grow on until 
the first of September, when they may all be stopped 
at once, unless it be deemed best to allow the weak 
est a few days longer growth, in which case it is sur 
prising how soon they will overtake their companions. 

Stopping, or pinching, consists in breaking off the 
end of a shoot, and its immediate effect is to arrest 
the further growth of the cane, or at least its further 
lineal development, for the time being. But although 
no more leaves are immediately formed, those already 
in existence perform their usual functions and the 
whole energies of the plant are directed to the ripen 
ing of the wood already produced. After a time, 
one of the buds near the extremity of the shoot will 
probably break and become the leader, when it 
should be stopped in turn, this process being repeated 
as often as any symptoms of vigorous growth are 
exhibited. The result of all this checking is to lessen 
the ultimate amount of w r ood produced and to 
improve its quality both as to ripeness and density. 

Stopping furnishes us with an effectual means of 



CARE OF THE VINES DURING THE THIRD TEAR. 103 

equalizing the growth of our young canes a most 
important point, not only as regards the neatness of 
their appearance, but the regularity with which the 
fruit buds will break next season and the strength 
with which they will shoot. But as the latter points 
depends not only upon the size of the canes, but 
their maturity, it is necessary that an equal growth 
be kept up during the whole season. This is easily 
accomplished as the stopping may fortunately be per 
formed at any time. 

The same directions as to the removal of laterals 
and the clearing of the ground should be observed 
during this as during former years. Greater care is, 
however, required in the treatment of laterals when 
raising fruit-bearing canes, as if by too close pinch 
ing we should cause the buds which are found at the 
base of the leaves and upon which we depend for 
our next year s fruit to push, our prospects would be 
materially injured. A good rule will be, never to pinch 
out the laterals, and stop the main cane at the same 
time ; and if the vines show a very vigorous growth 
of wood, to allow the laterals to make two leaves 
before stopping them. If the vines are weakly, we 
may stop the laterals as soon as they appear, as in 
this case, the main shoot makes sufficient draft upon 
the roots, to keep all other growth in abeyance. 



104: 



OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES. 

AT the close of the third season we ought to have 
a vine such as is shown in Fig. 16, consisting of a 
stout, strait, clean stem, 9 to 14 inches high, from the 




Fig. 16. 



top, or head of which springs two horizontal arms, 
each bearing two well ripened canes, 8 to 10 feet long. 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING- VINES. 105 

and two smaller shoots of from two to five feet. 
The two canes ought next season to produce 3 to 5 
Ibs. of fruit each, and their proper care during the 
winter is worthy of our best efforts. 

WINTER PROTECTION OF THE FRUITING CANES. As 
the vines have now assumed their permanent form 
and size (unless it should be deemed advisable after 
the lapse of a few years to remove each alternate 
vine and so double the extent of trellis allotted to 
the remainder), it becomes important to settle upon 
a systematic course of procedure in order to facilitate 
our operations, and this remark applies to their pro 
tection during winter as well as to every other pro 
cess connected with them. Of the advantage, we 
had almost said necessity, for winter protection there 
can be no doubt. Some extensive cultivators, at a 
late meeting of the Western ~N. Y. Fruit Growers 
Society stated, that they would have made $100 per 
day for the time spent in covering their vines if they 
had done so in the fall of 1858. 

One gentleman asserted that he had lost thousands 
of dollars by neglecting it and there is probably no 
point in the whole range of grape growing upon 
which cultivators are so thoroughly agreed as this. 
The mere laying down the vines on the ground, cover 
ing them with snow, laying boards or brush upon or 

5* 



106 OPEN ATR GRAPE CULTURE. 

against them have all been found materially to 
increase the next year s product and to improve its 
quality. But these are clumsy expedients, incapable 
of systematic application and unfit for adoption on a 
large scale. 

Where vines are trained to trellises in the manner 
which we have just described, it has been asserted by 
many that it is impossible to lay down the horizontal 
arms so as to cover them, owing to the rigidity of the 
old wood, and in order to avoid this it has been pro 
posed to leave the head of the vine so low down that 
the arms shall lie on the surface and be always co 
vered with earth. To this method there are many 
objections. The berries are soiled with every rain, 
clean culture is rendered more difficult, and the sur 
face roots thrown out by the arms cause a succulent 
.growth during moist weather, which suffers during 
the succeeding drought. But if the vines are bent 
down every year, little difficulty need be appre 
hended on this score, and if the following plan be 
adopted, vines may be bent sufficiently, even when 
they have become old and rigid. 

The method which we have proposed, is to place 
the trellis 8 to 12 inches in advance of the vine, the 
stem being brought forward beneath the first slat or 
rail, and tied up as usual. The accompanying figure 
(17) explains this better than words can express it, and 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES. 



107 




Fig. 17. 



it will be readily seen that very little bending is 
required, and even that is so distributed over the 




Fig. 18. 



108 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

whole stem that no injury can result. E"o practical 
objections that we are aware of exist to this method. 
Before bending down the stem, the vine should be 
pruned. This consists in cutting off the long shoots 
to a length of four feet (the first season), and the 
alternate short ones to the lowest good bud. The vine 
so pruned is shown in Fig. 18. Then the stem, 
having been bent down, it will be easy to fold the 
flexible young canes so as to lie compactly to 
gether, as shown in Fig. 19, when they may be 



n 



II n 




Fig. 19. 

covered with earth. The soil for this purpose must 
Ibe light and sandy, and should be so disposed that 
"water will not penetrate to the vines. If light soil 
cannot be had, the vines may be pegged down and 
^covered with the branches of evergreens, though it 
iis improbable that these could be obtained in suffi 
cient quantity to protect a large vineyard. Leaves 
or straw would answer, though they might harbor 
mice, which would soon destroy the vines. 

The vines should be left covered as long as possible, 
but must be exposed before the buds begin to push 
in the spring. No particular day of the month can 



MANAGEMENT OF FKUITING VINES. 109 

be given, the date varying with the locality and the 
season. The best mode of determining the point is to 
uncover some of the vines as soon as the cold weather 
has passed away. If they are swollen and ready to 
push, it is time to tie the vine to the trellis. If they 
seem still dormant, leave them a little longer. The 
later the vines can be made to push the better, as they 
not only escape late frosts, but their excitability seems 
to be so accumulated and intensified by such retarda 
tion that their after growth is much more vigorous 
than it would otherwise have been. 

After the vines have been properly tied to the 
trellis, and the ground raked, or hoed level (all work 
on it being avoided when it is wet, however), nothing 
should be done until the buds have burst so as at least 
to show their vitality and strength. Then go over 
the vines and rub off all buds which show themselves 
on the upright stem and horizontal arms and disbud 
jthe canes so as to leave six good buds, and no more, 
on each. By doing this at this early period, the 
strength of the vine is thrown into the buds which 
remain, and they consequently push with increased 
vigor. The lowest good bud on the short spurs must 
also be left, all the others being removed. 

As soon,, aft the Blossoms skow themselves, and 
before they have i expanded, it will be necessary again 
to go over the vines and stop or pinch all the shoots 



110 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

which show fruit, at the same time removing all the 
blossoms except two or three clusters on each shoot. 
This will not only serve to keep the vine within 
bounds, but it will cause the fruit to set much better 
than it would do if this course were not pursued. In 
a former section, we alluded to stopping with a view 
to the ripening of the wood and the training of the 
vine, and the directions there given apply equally to 
our action as regards the shoots from the short spurs 
they being designed to furnish the bearing canes 
for next year, to replace those which are now fruiting^ 
and which will be entirely cut away at the next winter 
pruning. But other reasons also induce us to stop the 
fruit-bearing shoots, and as the whole subject of stop 
ping, and its detrimental substitute, summer prun 
ing, is one of vital importance to the grape vine, we 
cannot do better than preface our remarks by quoting 
the physiological laws upon which it is based, from 
Lindley s " Theory and Practice of Horticulture." 

"Nature has given plants leaves, not merely to 
decorate them or to shade us, but as a part of a won 
drous system of life quite as perfect as that of the ani 
mal kingdom. It would be of no use for a plant to 
suck food out of the earth by its roots, unless there 
was some place provided in which such -00-% consist 
ing principally of water and mucilage;; could bo 
digested and so converted into the matter which 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING TINES. Ill 

maintains the health of the individual. The stem can 
not do this: firstly, because it is a mere channel 
through which fluids pass; and, secondly, because 
many plants have no visible stem, as in the instance of 
the primrose ; and yet in all such cases the plant feeds 
and must digest its food. It is to the leaves that this 
important office is assigned, and to enable them to 
execute it God has formed them with wisdom no less 
infinite than has been displayed in the creation of man. 
The leaves have veins through which their fluids pass 
and cells in which they are held while digesting, 
myriads of little caverns through whose sides respira 
tion is maintained, a skin to guard them from the air, 
and pores for carrying off perspiration. A leaf is, in 
fact, both stomach and lungs ; and to destroy it is to 
do the same injury to a plant as would be effected in 
an animal by the destruction of the parts to which 
those names are given. Of this WG may be certain, 
that neither taste, perfume, color, size, nor any other 
property, can be given to a plant except through the 
assistance of the leaves ; and that the more numerous 
these are, the larger and the more luxuriant, so, within 
certain limits, will be all that a plant is capable of 
forming. Strip the leaves off a tree, and no more 
wood will appear until the leaves are restored ; feed 
its roots in the hope of thus compensating for the loss 
of its leaves, and the stem will be filled indeed with 



112 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

watery matter ; but the latter will collect in the inte 
rior until it forces its way through the bark, and runs 
down in putrid streams, as happens to the rnulberry- 
tree when it is incessantly stripped for silkworms, 
and as occurs to trees whose leaves are continually 
destroyed by a noxious atmosphere. Strip the ripen 
ing grapes of their green garments, and no color or 
sweetness will be collected in their berries. Rob the 
potato of its foliage and you will seek in vain for 
nourishment in its tubers ; and so of all things else. 
On the other hand, leave the mulberry, the vine and 
the potato uninjured, to the genial influence of the 
sun and the air, and the dews of heaven, and wood is 
formed in the one case, sugar and color in the other 
and flour, the staff of life, in the last, and these pro 
ducts will all be in exact proportion to the health and 

abundance of the foliage 4 -, 

" But although the general rule is to allow as many 
leaves to remain on a tree as can be kept in health, 
yet there are circumstances which justify their re 
moval, and, indeed, render it necessary. For example, 
when a tender tree is trained to a wall, a great object 
with the gardener is to secure ripe wood ; for unless 
he does this, the frost of the succeeding winter may 
destroy the branches, or the buds may be so imper 
fectly formed as to produce feeble shoots the ensuing 
season. To attain this object, those leaves must be 



MANAGEMENT OF FKTJITING VINES. 113 

removed which prevent the sun from striking upon 
the branches to be ripened, the effect of this being to 
stop the rapid growth of the branches and to consoli 
date their tissue, in consequence, partly, of the exces 
sive perspiration, and partly of the rapid digestion of 
the sap, which is thus induced \for the rate of digestion 
and perspiration in a healthy plant, is in proportion 
to the quantity of light and heat to which it is ex 
posed. Hence the removal of those shoots which in 
summer overshadow that wood of the peach-tree 
which is intended to be preserved another year, is 
useful ; there can be 110 doubt, however, that as few 
shoots as possible should be thus removed. Another 
case in which the removal of the leaves is justifiable 
occurs in the vine. In this plant the fruit is borne 
near the base of the lateral shoots, which w r ill, if un 
checked, go on lengthening and producing leaves to a 
considerable distance. Now all the food of such a 
lateral shoot is obtained from the main branch, which, 
however, is only capable of furnishing a certain 
quantity. If the lateral shoot is allowed to grow un 
checked, it will consume its portion of food in the 
production of many leaves and some grapes ; and the 
more there is of the former, the less will be the 
weight of the latter. But if the shoot is stopped after 
having formed two leaves, all that quantity of food 
which would have been consumed in the production 



114: OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

of other leaves is applied to the increase of size in the 
grapes, and the two leaves that are left ; while on the 
other hand, the general crop of leaves on the vine will 
be amply sufficient to prepare those secretions which 
are to give flavor, color and sweetness to the grapes. 
This will, perhaps, be better explained by the annexed 
diagram. 

" Let the line a g represent a lateral vine g 

branch, bearing fruit at B, and leaves at c d ef. /. 

Suppose six ounces of sap are destined to sup 
port this lateral a g^ during the summer ; it 
is evident that, if equally distributed, each d 
leaf and branch will receive one ounce of sap 
as its proportion. But if e f g are removed, 
it is obvious that the three which remain will 
have two ounces each, or double the supply. a 

" Why, then, it may be asked, not remove c and d 
also ? because, in that case, B, the bunch of fruit, 
would have the whole six ounces of sap to itself. The 
reason why this should not be done is this : if all the 
leaves 011 the lateral are removed, there will be no 
force left upon it wherewith to attract from the main 
branch the food that belongs to it; for the power 
which the parts of the plants possess of attracting 
fluid is in proportion to the amount of their perspira 
tion. Now leaves perspire copiously, but the grapes 
themselves scarcely at all ; whence their gradual con 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES. 115 

version from a substance of the texture oi a leaf into 
a mass of pulp. In the instance of vine pruning, 
the great object is to leave on the laterals just as 
much force as may be required to secure for the 
bunches the food that is intended for them, and at 
the same time to deprive the laterals of the means of 
expending that food uselessly in the production of 
leaves instead of fruit." 

In applying the above to the culture of the grape 
in this country, however, we are inclined to believe 
that the direct access of the sun to the w^ood or fruit 
is not necessary to their perfect ripening. And our 
readers must also observe that, although in the illus 
tration at the close of the paragraph, Dr. Lindley 
alludes to the " removal " of the leaves, yet from the 
remarks immediately preceding it, w r e gather that he 
is no advocate for " summer pruning," but for u stop 
ping." By summer pruning we mean the removal 
of large quantities of leaves and shoots a practice 
which is quite common throughout the country. 
Often arid often have w r e seen loads of such matter 
cut away under the pretence of " letting in the sun 
and air to the grapes." Now if these summer prim 
ers would only observe that all the finest bunches 
grow and ripen under the shade of the leaves, they 
would cease their senseless efforts and rest content 
with merely breaking off the ends of the shoots. 



116 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

That grapes will not ripen well, and that vines will 
not be healthy under a dense mass of matted foliage, 
we freely admit. But this is not an evil to be reme 
died by the knife. In this case, most emphatically, 
prevention is better that cure. 

When we reflect that the amount of organizable 
matter which can be furnished by any vine is limited, 
and also that all rank and succulent growth is prejudi 
cial to the production of fruit, we can readily appre 
ciate the advantage of directing the sap to the pro 
duction of fruit, rather than wood and leaves. But 
we must also remember that every ounce of organiz 
able matter which is embodied in leaves or stem, is 
so much capital invested, and is no more to be thrown 
away than the stock of the moneyed capitalist, which 
only brings in two per cent., even though his neigh 
bor, on a different investment, receives ten. 

The leaves are the laboratories in which the sap is 
prepared for the nourishment, not only of the fruit, 
but of the wood, and the more of them we have the 
better, provided we do not invest too large an 
amount of our available capital in their production, 
just as some of our farmers invest all their capital in 
land, and leave themselves nothing with which to 
work it. 

Another evil attendant upon summer pruning, is 
the sudden and violent check which it gives to the 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES. 117 

plants. The roots being excited into vigorous action 
by the enormous draft made upon them, find them 
selves suddenly without a channel through which 
their unelaborated product can find vent ; the balance 
of product and supply is upset and the fruit is filled 
with crude, ill-digested sap, thus causing it to be 
unripe and ill-flavored. But by early stopping the 
shoots, and thus preventing the further production of 
leaves and wood, we render summer pruning, that is, 
the removal of superabundant leaves and wood, unne 
cessary ; no sudden check is given to the vines, the sap 
is fully elaborated as fast as it is supplied, and the 
fruit receiving an extra supply of properly prepared 
sap (which would otherwise have gone to the produc 
tion of wood and leaves) is enlarged in size and 
improved in flavor. 

That the leaves are the great agents in the elabora 
tion of sap, was fully proved by the experiments of 
Hales, who forced orange flower-water into the vessels 
of a vine, with a view to impart its flavor to the fruit. 
The experiment was unsuccessful as to its ostensi 
ble object, but not as to its concomitant results ; for he 
traced the flavor through the stem and branches to 
the leaves, but no further ; there it was decomposed, 
and doubtless returned to the wood and fruit in the 
form of sap. 

In a few weeks, or perhaps days, after being 



118 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

stopped, the last bud on all these shoots, will, no 
doubt, burst and form a leader, which will grow nearly 
as vigorously as if the terminal bud had not been 
removed. It will, therefore, be necessary to go over 
all these vines again as soon as the fruit is set, and 
repeat the same operation. At this time, also, the 
fruit should be thinned, which, for vineyard culture, 
consists in the removal of all weak, ill-formed 
bunches, some even recommending the removal of 
the lower part of all the bunches. 

When, however, extra fine bunches are desired, 
we prefer the plan usually adopted in hot-house 
culture, which consists in removing at least one 
half the berries from every bunch the largest and 
finest being, of course, left. This operation is best 
performed when the grapes are the size of peas, but 
by many it will be deemed too minute and laborious 
an operation for vineyard practice.. 

While doing this, it will also be proper to remove 
or extirpate all shoots which either have not fruit, 
or are not wanted for next year s canes.. 

During the growing season it will be necessary to 
look over the vines, at intervals of two or three 
weeks, stopping the fruiting shoots, removing suck 
ers, and pinching out laterals at the second eye. The 
ground should also be kept loose and mellow, and all 
the operations of the vineyard be carried on, with as 



MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING VINES. 119 

little trampling on the borders as possible. Indeed, 
if the expense be not an objection, we would lay 
down boards or planks, supported by suitable stakes 
or posts, and forming a walk along the front of each 
trellis, so as to allow all the work of the vineyard 
being performed without a foot being set upon the 
soil. 



120 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER VH 

SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VINES. 

THE future management of the vines will consist in 
training up, each year, a shoot from the intermediate 
spurs, and cutting out entirely the cane which has borne 
the fruit. The cane which was trained up last year, will 
this year produce a crop, while, from the spur left in 
cutting out the former cane, is trained up a shoot for 
the following year, and so on ad in/finitum. 

As the peculiar pruning necessary is a subject of 
vital importance to success in grape culture, we will 
give a consecutive condensed description of it, illus 
trated by proper figures. 




Fig. 20. 



Fig. 20 shows a section of the horizontal arms, at 
the end of the third season. A is the cane which has 



SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VINES. 121 

been trained to the top of the trellis. B the shoot 
which was stopped when two to four feet long. Just 
before laying down the vine for winter protection, A 
is cut to about a length of 4 feet, and B is cut away 
at the cross-line, or just above the first good bud. 

As the force with which the buds push, depends a 
good deal upon their number relatively to the size of 
the vine, it is absolutely necessary to cut off A to 4 
feet or less, and rub out several of the buds which 
appear on it. If, in addition to this, all other buds 
except one from each of the spurs, B, be removed, we 
could scarcely fail to train up a good cane from B, 
even though none but latent buds were left. 




Fig. 21. 

Next season the figure is reversed. Here B is the- 
young shoot of last year, while A, which carries the 
six shoots upon which the fruit grew, is cut off at the 
cross-line. B is shortened this year to 5 or 6 feet, 
and disbudded as before one or two more buds; 
being left on, as the vine is growing stronger. 

6 



122 



OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTUKE. 



At the base of A, below the cross-line, will appear 
intermediate little buds some of them quite promi 
nent. The best of them must be taken, and no fear 
need be entertained of getting a good cane from it, 
if all the unnecessary buds are promptly extirpated. 

If, however, we allow shoots to grow all over the 
vine we will probably fail to get any cane at all. 

The following season, the shoot proceeding from A 

Li 




Fig. 22. 



is fruited, and B is cut off at the cross-line. This 
stage of its progress is shown in Fig. 22. 




23. 



SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VINES. 123 

In Fig. 23 is shown the vine at the end of the sixth 
season. By this time, the spurs will have become 
hard, and if allowed to remain much longer, it will 
be necessary to renew the whole vine, as is done in 
the Thomery system (see Appendix). It will, there 
fore, be well to allow a bud to push from the base 
of B, if one should show itself, as there most likely 




Fig. 24. 

will. In this case, Fig. 24 will represent B as it will 
appear at the close of the season, when the entire- 
spur must be cut off with a fine saw, at the cross line,, 
and the wound carefully pared smooth and coated, 
with a solution of shellac in alcohol.* 

* " Take a quart of alcohol and dissolve it in as much gum shellac as 
will make a liquid of the consistence of paint. Apply this to the 
wound with a common painter s brush ; always paring the wound 
smoothly first with a knife. The liquid becomes perfectly hard; 
adheres closely, excludes the air perfectly, and is affected by no 
changes of weather; while at the same time its thinness offers 0.0 



124 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

The shoot a is cut off at the line, as shown, or just 
above the lowest good bud. ]SText season, B will 
appear as shown in Fig. 20, and the same routine as 
that first described much be again gone over. 

If we should be unable to obtain the shoot a at the 
time it is wanted (which, however, will not happen 
once in twenty times), we must leave the old spur 
and obtain a shoot from the base of last year s fruit 
ing cane. 

After a number of years (say six to ten), it may be 
found advisable to extend the vines. This may be 
done either by removing every second one, or by 
raising the trellis. 

In the latter case it will be best, in order to secure 
an equal distribution of the sap, to lay down two 
courses of horizontal arms and allow the vertical, or 
bearing canes, to extend only half-way up the trellis. 

The proper arrangement for this, is shown in Fig. 
25, where it will be seen that the horizontal arms of 
every second vine are extended both ways, so as to 
cover double their usual space. The stem of the 
centre vine is carried up to the middle of the trellis 
and arms from it laid down, of the same length as the 

resistance to the lip of the new bark that gradually closes over the 
wound. If the composition is kept in a well-corked bottle, suffi 
ciently wide mouthed to admit the brush, it will always be ready for 
use and suited to the want of the moment." Downing. 



SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VINES. 125 

lower ones. The fruiting canes are produced and 
treated in the manner just described. 




Fig. 25. 

In order to effect the change, the lower arms may 
be extended by laying down the outer fruit canes of 
last year and pruning their junction with the old wood 
so as to leave a continuous rod. To produce the 
upper arms, however, it will, we think, be found best 
to cut the vines down to the ground and train up new 
stems, arms and verticals. The loss of time incurred 
will be more than repaid by the increased vigor 
and health of the vine. 

That the general system of culture here laid down 



126 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

is the best for all ordinary purposes, we are firmly 
convinced. The extent allowed to the vine during 
its first few years, is amply sufficient for the produc 
tion of an abundant crop, while at the same time the 
vine is so far kept within bounds, that every bud is 
pushed with vigor. And this will be found to be one 
of the most important points connected with the 
proper training of the vine. For when the balance 
between the vital forces of the plant and the extent to 
which it is allowed to extend, is greatly disturbed, as 
exemplified in the opposite extremes of stake train 
ing and total neglect, nothing but debility on the 
one hand, and the inordinate production of wood to 
the exclusion of fruit on the other, can result. 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 127 



CHAPTER Yin. 

GENERAL THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRUNING AS AP 
PLIED tO THE GRAPE VINE. 

IN the preceding chapters we have given minute 
directions for that particular system of pruning and 
training, which we believe to be best adapted to our 
native grapes. It is now our purpose to detail those 
general principles which apply to all modes of prun 
ing and training, and to describe a few of those pecu 
liar systems which have been founded upon them. 

I. The first principle upon which all correct prun 
ing, whether of the vine or any other tree, must be 
based, is that the sap always tends to the extremities 
of the branches. 

From this, it follows that unless the balance be 
tween the roots and branches of the vine be care 
fully and accurately adjusted, all the lower portion 
of the old wood will become devoid of spurs or bear 
ing shoots, and unless the portion of the wall or trel 
lis over which it is trained is otherwise occupied, the 
space will be left practically vacant. 

Experience has also shown that there is no practi 



128 OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

cal limit to this law that is, that the distance to 
which the sap may be propelled exceeds any limits to 
which it is ever necessary to carry it. 

" If the shoots of the vine are trained along a con 
siderable extent of wall, the branches spread out much 
wider, and the berries attain a larger size. This 
property of the vine, although known to experienced 
gardeners, is not taken advantage of as it ought to be. 
A vine might be trained horizontally under the cop 
ing of a wall to a great distance, and by inverting the 
bearing shoots, the spaces between the other fruit- 
trees and the top of the wall could readily be filled 
up, and if different vines were inarched to the hori 
zontal branch, the south wall of a large garden might 
be furnished with a variety of sorts from the stem 
and root of a single plant, the roots of which would 
not encumber the border in which the other fruit- 
trees are growing. I have an experiment of this kind 
now in progress in my garden. "Within a few years 
past, I have gradually trained bearing branches of a 
small black cluster grape, to the distance of near 
fifty feet from the root, and I find the bunches every 
year grow larger, and ripen earlier as the shoots con 
tinue to advance. 

" According to Mr. Knight s theory of the circula- 
lation of the sap, the ascending sap must necessarily 
become enriched by the nutritious particles it meets 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 129 

with in its progress through the vessels of the albur 
num ; the wood at the top of the tall trees, therefore, 
becomes short-jointed and full of blossom buds, and 
the fruit there situated attains its greatest perfection. 
Hence, we find pine and fir-trees loaded with the 
finest cones on the top boughs, the largest acorns 
grow on the terminal branches of the oak, and the 
finest mast on the high boughs of the beech and 
chestnut; so, likewise, apples, pears, cherries, etc., 
are always best flavored from the top of the tree 
But I suppose there are certain limits, beyond which 
the sap would be so loaded with nutriment, that it 
could not freely circulate." 

The sap being determined so powerfully to the 
extremities of the branches, the most unremitting 
attention is required upon the part of the vine 
dresser, so that the bearing shoots may be equally 
distributed along the entire plant and an equal 
amount of nutriment directed to each. 

But if through negligent management the bearing 
shoots or spurs are allowed to die out on the lower 
part of the vine, it will be difficult, if not impossible, 
to replace them. 

By judicious pruning, the entire head of the vine 
may be so reduced that there will be abundant nutri 
ment for all the buds, and by promptly and carefully 
stopping the more vigorous shoots, the sap may foe 
*6 



130 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

so directed to the weaker ones that no difficulty of 
this kind need occur. 

II. In tins connection, we may consider a rule 
which is laid down as a principle, however, by most 
arboricultural authorities the buds are developed 
with greater vigor upon a branch which is cut short, 
than upon one which is left long. 

This is true, but must be accepted with limitations. 
If there be two shoots springing from the same stem, 
one being pruned short and the other long, the buds 
on the long branch will be developed witl; the great 
est vigor. If, however, the shoots be upon different 
stems, the buds upon that which is pruned most 
closely will push most strongly. 

This we might anticipate, from the fact that there 
is more root power (if we may use the expression) to 
.a given number of buds. But experiment would ]ead 
TUS to believe that if the lower buds are removed so 
rthat the same number of eyes are left on both, the 
longest would have the advantage at least at first. 

But as sap moves with greater difficulty through 
old than through young wood, the shortest shoot soon 
overtakes its companion and outstrips it. This prin 
ciple is well exemplified in the rampant growth of 
those suckers which spring from old vines near the 
ground. They will frequently grow twenty or thirty 
feet in a season, while the strongest shoots at the 



PRUNING GKAPE VINES. 131 

extremities of the old branches do not exceed from 
five to eight. 

Upon these principles is founded the rule which 
directs us to cut back plants which have made a 
weak growth, or have become old, gnarled and hard, 
so that they may throw up strong, vigorous shoots. 

III. The sap supplied by the roots must be elabo 
rated by the leaves, before it is fitted for the forma 
tion of wood or fruit, and the development of the 
roots is in direct proportion to the increase of leaves. 

From this, it follows : 1st. That it is injurious to 
remove the leaves from the plant, with a view to 
ripen the fruit by the admission of sun and air (this 
point has been fully discussed, page 110, et seq). 

2. That during the first two years growth of the 
plants, the production of leaves should be encouraged 
as much as possible, so as to aid in the development 
of roots. Hence the plants should be carefully tied 
up, so as to preserve the leaves clean, active and unin 
jured, and abundant light and air should be furnished, 
BO that they may be able to perform their part with 
efficiency. This being the case, it may be asked why 
we advise the stopping of the laterals which certainly 
form leaves, and hence must increase the growth of 
the roots. Two reasons may be given for the practice 
either of which are ample. The first is that it is not 
the leaves, per se> which do good, but their action on 



132 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

the sap, to effect which, they must be supplied with 
air and light. Now, if the leaves on the laterals are 
allowed to grow, they crowd the foliage at the base 
of the plant, so that many of the leaves are partially 
shaded, while if these laterals are prevented from 
growing, the sap which would be absorbed by them 
goes to the elongation and enlargement of the main 
stem, by which the leaves are disposed over a greater 
surface and consequently maintain a more vigorous 
action. And, as during the first two years at least, 
the production of canes well ripened in their whole 
length, is no object, seeing that they are all to be cut 
away at the winter pruning, the vines should not be 
stopped, but should be allowed to grow to the end of 
the season. For as the roots require a certain degree 
of warmth to enable them to grow, and as the earth 
as in the best condition as regards temperature, just 
:at the close of the growing season, it is best to main- 
itain a vigorous action in the roots at that time a 
.time when they can make the most of it. 

The second reason is, that the sap, as before stated, 
flows most vigorously through stout, free-growing 
shoots. Now, by removing the laterals, we increase 
the vigor of the main stem as well as its size, and 
hence not only obtain an enlarged, but a more 
suitable channel for the sap to flow in. The conse 
quence is, that a well trained shoot will far exceed the 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 133 

aggregate of the same shoot and its laterals, if it be 
neglected during its growth. 

IY. The more the sap is impeded in its course, the 
less vigorous will be the shoots produced, but the 
greater the tendency to bear fruit. This is exempli 
fied in the pear-tree, where the branches are bent in 
order to produce fruit buds, and also in the common 
practice of bending the canes of the vine into bows 
and spirals, so that the buds may burst equally and 
produce fruit. 

Y. Whatever tends to diminish the vigor of the 
shoots and to force the sap into the fruit, enlarges 
the size and improves the flavor of the latter. 

Upon this law depends the practice of summer 
pruning, which has been fully discussed in a previous 
chapter. And as it is necessary not only to diminish 
the vigor of the shoots, but to force the sap thereby 
saved into the fruit, the object of destroying all fruit 
less shoots (in bearing vines) is obvious, as well as 
the necessity of attending to the health of the roots. 

Such are the general principles which should regu 
late the proper pruning of all trees; though they 
have been expressed chiefly with reference to the 
vine. In pruning with a view to the production of 
fruit, however, it is necessary to know the peculiar 
fruit-bearing habit of the plant under consideration. 
Thus upon the peach, fruit is always borne upon tho 



134 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

last year s shoots ; the pear bears its fruit upon spurs 
which have been formed during the previous year, 
upon old wood, and the fruit of the vine is always 
borne upon shoots of the current year, these shoots 
proceeding from either last year s shoots, or wood, 
which is much older. The last assertion is one which 
conflicts with the statements of most of our pomolo- 
gists, and therefore it is incumbent upon us to give 
some evidence of its truth. Thus, Barry says: 

" It must be observed, that the grape vine pro 
duces its fruit on shoots of the current year produced 
from eyes on the previous year s wood." 

Du Ereuil is more positive, and states that shoots 
which accidentally spring from old wood never pro 
duce grapes. His words are : " Dans la vigne, les 
grappes sont attachees sur des bourgeons naissant sur 
les sarments formes pendant 1 ete precedent. Les 
bourgeons de"veloppe"s accidentellement sur le vieux 
bois ne portent jamais des grappes." 

We were rather surprised at this assertion, as it 
appeared to contradict our own observation. But 
lest it might be that the shoots which we had in view, 
had been produced by the remains of last year s 
rubbed out buds, we carefully watched a piece of old 
wood during one season, so as to assure ourselves 
that no buds had sprung from it between certain 
marked points. Next season the head of this old 



PRUNING GKAPE VINES. 135 

. 

vine was pruned so severely as to cause several 
shoots to issue from the previously barren wood. 
Two of these bore fruit. 

In performing this experiment, we kept carefully 
in view the difficulties attendant upon bringing it to 
a successful result, and although we succeeded in 
getting fruit from only two out of nine shoots, still, 
this was sufficient to establish the point. In perform 
ing it, care will be necessary to prune with sufficient 
severity to force the buds out of the barren wood, 
and yet to leave sufficient head to draw up the sap 
and prevent the too vigorous growth of the shoots 
after they are formed ; otherwise the blossoms may 
change to tendrils. This experiment does not sug 
gest any newer or better mode of pruning the vine, 
but it throws new light upon the laws which govern 
the formation of fruit buds, and exemplifies the fact 
that they are formed where the vital forces of the vine 
are so balanced that there is sufficient vigor and 
material to form fruit, and yet not so much rampant 
growth as to rob the blossoms of their necessary 
nutriment and convert them into tendrils. 

That they are so convertible, every cultivator is 
aware, for it often happens that the hopes of the 
unskillful vine-dresser are disappointed his fine 
show of blossom buds, turning out nothing but ten 
drils. 



136 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

"We believe the converse of this was first shown by 
Knight, from whose papers we make the following 
extract: "Every bunch of grapes commences its 
formation as a tendril, and it is always within the 
power of every cultivator to occasion it to remain a 
tendril. The blossoms are all additions, the forma 
tion of which is always dependent upon other agents ; 
and if any considerable part of the leaves be taken 
off the branch prematurely, or if the vine be not sub 
jected to the influence of the requisite degree of heat 
and light, the tendrils will permanently retain their 
primary form and office ; and it is very frequently 
observable, when much of the foliage of fruit-trees 
has been destroyed, by insects, or when the previous 
season has been cold and wet, that blossoms are 
not formed at all, or are feeble and imperfect, and 
consequently abortive. * 

" The tendrils of the vine, in its internal organiza 
tion, is apparently similar to the young succulent 
shoot and leaf stalk of the same plant, it is abun 
dantly provided with vessels, or passages for the sap, 
and it is alike capable of feeding a succulent shoot or 
a leaf when grafted upon it. It appears, therefore, 
not improbable, that a considerable quantity of the 
moving fluid of the plant passes through its tendrils ; 
and that there is a close connection between its vas 
cular structure and its motions." 



PKUNHSTG GRAPE VINES. 137 

The various systems of vine pruning which have 
been founded upon these general principles, may be 
classified according to the part of the vine from which 
the fruit buds are produced. Thus, if we suppose A 




Fig. 26. 

to be a shoot of last year ; B a spur two years old, and 
o a branch three years old, then we may by judicious 
pruning obtain fruit, first from the plump buds a a 
on the young cane A ; secondly from the buds 5 c 
near its base ; thirdly from the buds e which will be 
found at its junction with the spur B ; and fourthly 
from buds situated at /", that is at the junction of the 
spur B with the branch c. In the latter case, how 
ever, if the spur B is old and has borne several shoots 
like A it will req aire some skill and very favorable 



138 OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

circumstances to procure fruit from the buds at f. 
But if B be always kept short, and no shoots be al 
lowed except from its base, no difficulty of this 
kind will arise. Following this arrangement, then, we 
have: 

I. The long-rod renewal system. 

II. The long-spur system. 

IU. The short, or secondary -spur system. 

IY. The close-cut, or primary spur system. 
This system of classification we believe to be the 
only true one, although w r e are not aware that it has 
been adopted by any preceding author. Each of 
these four systems is not only distinct, but it may be 
adapted to almost any system of training, while none 
of them can be well combined in the same vine, un 
less the power of the roots is greatly in excess over 
the extent of the branches. Suppose, for example, 
on a vine with a well balanced head, a few long rods 
are left. No buds will start from the base of the 
spurs. But if all parts are treated alike, the eyes will 
break equally and in general will be all fruitful. The 
facility with which this principle may be explained 
and enforced is greatly increased by a clear and sys 
tematic classification, such as we have given above, 
and most authors have been aware of the importance 
of such a classification ; but if the reader will com 
pare the attempts of Loudon, who depends in his 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 139 

classification, not only upon the system of pruning, 
but of training; of Mclntosh, whose three systems are 
" the spur," " the long-rod," and " the irregular " 
forms; of McPhail, who has the " fruit-tree method ;" 
"the spurring-in system" and " the long-rod sytem ;" of 
Yon Babo, who has " head pruning," " limb prun 
ing," "frame pruning," and several sub-varieties 
named after the localities in which they have been 
adopted ; and most of our American authors, who have 
simply the renewal and spur methods, with that given 
above, we think he cannot but give his preference to 
the latter. And as all systems of pruning with which 
we have ever met may be easily referred to one or 
the other of our four classes, we will describe them in 
detail and give a few illustrations of each, as derived 
from the practice of our best growers. 

I. The long-rod or renewal system is generally 
attributed to Clement Hoare, who adopted it in his 
" Practical treatise on the Cultivation of the Yine," and 
as he has not seen fit to give the credit of it to prior 
authors, most of his readers have awarded it to 
him. But it is substantially the " new method " of 
Switzer; the alternate system of Speechly, and the 
" new and experimentally proved superior method" 
of Keclit. It is certainly very old, though it is still 
commonly called the " new method." 

The system which we have adopted as the best for 



140 OPEN AIR GEAPE -CULTURE. 

vineyards and gardens in the northern States where 
our native vines are cultivated is substantially the 
system explained by Hoare. The system pursued in 
Ohio and in many European vineyards, is also a 
modification of the long-rod system, but as we pro 
pose to give a full account of Ohio vine culture 
amongst our examples of American vineyard prac 
tice, we need not dwell upon it here. 

The following are a few of the most elegible modi 
fications which have been proposed : 

Mr. John M earns, in the Horticultural Transactions, 
(vol. iv.) describes a system which is not only well 
adapted to the hot-house culture of the vine, but is 
one of the best with which we are acquainted where 
it is desired to fruit quickly, a great variety of grape 
vines in a small place. This method is as follows : 

" My method of managing vines is in some respects 
different from any other with which I am acquainted ; 
by it I have never failed, for the last eleven years, to 
obtain invariably the same luxuriant crops, although 
I have never allowed above one-third of the bunches 
which showed themselves to remain on the vine ; and 
each succeeding crop has been as uniform as if the 
branches had been placed, artificially, over the whole 
roof. I have no doubt but, under the same treat, 
ment, the vines will continue to be equally produc 
tive for any length of time. The shoots are so vigor- 



PKUNESTG GKAPE VINES. 141 

ous that their girth is, generally, at the end of the 
season, from an inch and a half to an inch and three 
quarters. The branches, in their most luxuriant 
growth, never appear in any confusion, even to those 
who are but little skilled in the cultivation of grapes, 
and the method is so simple, that it may be described 
with the assistance of figures, so as to be perfectly com 
prehended by any person in the least acquainted with 
the nature of the vine. I have never deviated from 
it since I planted the vines in the spring of 1806. 

" My vines were planted two feet and a half apart, 
and being watered to settle the earth round their 
balls, I headed them down to within a foot of the soil, 
as here represented. 




Fig. 27. 

"I only allowed one shoot to proceed from each 
plant the first year ; rubbing off all the others before 
they had completely burst into leaf, the uppermost be 
ing the one I retained. In the course of the summer I 
watered them with soft pond water, as I found they 
wanted it, and frequently with drainings from the 
farm-yard, and with soap suds, when I could procure 
any. 

" During the first summer, the vines made quite as 



142 OPEN AIK GEAPE CULTUEE. 

much progress as I could have expected, and their 
different degrees of vigor were nearly in proportion 
to the state of the roots when planted. When the 
leaves had fallen in the end of the year, I cut them 
down to the second or third eye, when they had this 
appearance. (Fig. 28.) 




Fig. 23. 

u In the beginning of the succeeding February, I ex 
cited them gradually into action by a little fire heat, 
and when the buds were ready to burst I rubbed all 
off but the two finest on each plant ; the strongest of 
these I intended to furnish bearing wood for the 
lower half of the roof for the following year. The 
most feeble of the two was cut down to the second or 
third eye, at the end of the season, and at the same 
time the strongest shoot was reduced to eight 
feet, being the length of the lower half of the rafter. 

Whilst they were growing during the second sum 
mer, I kept the shoots regularly trained upward, di 
vesting them of tendrils and laterals. I only allowed 
the strongest of the two leading shoots to run about 
three, four or five joints beyond the middle of the 






PEUNING GEAPE VINES. 



roof (where I intended to cut them at their winter 
pruning), according to the vigor of the different 
shoots ; and then I pinched off their tops, in order to 
strengthen the eyes for the ensuing season. The 
weaker shoots I only suffered to run about three four, 
or five feet, according to their strength, and I then 
pinched off their tops, never allowing them to push 
above two or three eyes from the same place, during 
the remainder of the season, without pinching them 
back ; and then retaining only a single eye, unless I 
found it necessary, in consequence of the vigor of the 



Fig. 29. 



vine. I kept the laterals stopped back also to the first 
leaf, At the fall of the leaf, I cut the leading shoots 



14:4: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

at the middle of the rafter, and the lower one at the 
the eye, as is here represented. (Fig. 28.) 

"The preceding sketch represents four separate 
vine-plants, at the end of the second season after 
they had been planted, when the strongest shoot had 
been headed down to the middle of the rafter D, and 
the weakest shoot to c. 

In the third season, I carefully preserved the upper 
most shoot from the end of my bearing branch at D, 
as a leader to furnish the upper part of the rafter 
with bearing wood for the next year; and I also 
trained upward the leading shoot from the bottom 
spur c, which I intended should become the bearing 
branch for the lower half of the roof in the follow 
ing season. I was careful that none of the tops of 
these leaders should meet with accident, till they had 
reached their destination for the season that was 
about three or four joints beyond where they were 
intended to be cut down, to the winter pruning. All 
the buds on the bottom spur c, were rubbed off, 
except the leading one. As I bore in mind the neces 
sity of a bottom spur to produce a succession shoot 
from the bottom in the following year, which was 
necessary to the regularity of the system I contem 
plated, I selected one of the most convenient buds 
for iny purpose, from the bottom of the old stems, all 
of which were now putting out several buds ; but I 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 145 

suffered none except the selected one, to remain long 
after it had made its appearance. The management 
of the young shoots of the year was, in this and the 
following seasons, the same as I have before detailed. 
" In the autumn of this, the third season, the lower 
half of the house was furnished with a crop of ripe 
grapes upon the wood of the preceding year, and 
parallel to it on each vine grew a young shoot, 
intended to bear the lower crop the next year ; 
whilst the upper half of the house had single shoots 
trained from the end of the bearing wood, which 
shoots were also to bear a crop the next year ; and 
besides these, a third shoot on each vine had been 
trained from the bottom bud, which I had not 
removed, and which were about four feet in length, 
having been treated as the weaker shoots in the 
second year s management, which I have described,, 
and to which they were similar. When this half 
crop was gathered and the leaves had dropped, I cut 
off the top leaders level w r ith the uppermost wire of 
the house to which they were tied, and the lower 
leaders level with the middle of the roof (the top, 
and bottom leaders, or bearing wood for the next sea 
son, being each eight feet long), and the bottom or 
weak shoot, above described, w r as cut down to the 
second or third eye, as the lower shoot had been cut 
in the preceding winter. All the spurs of the lowe> 



146 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 




Fig. 30. 



PRUNING GKAPE VINES. 14:7 

part of the shoot, which had now reached the top of 
the house and had borne the crop of grapes, were 
cut clean out. The following was the appearance of 
the same four vines, after they had been pruned in 
the third winter, when they were in a state to pro 
duce their full crop in the following season. (Fig. 30.) 

In the fourth summer a full crop was produced 
both in the upper and lower half of the house ; the 
longer shoot D bore its bunches on the upper half of 
its length, and it was not suffered to extend itself by 
a leading shoot ; the shorter shoot c bore its bunches 
on its whole length, and extended itself by a leading 
shoot to the top of the house ; the spur E w T as suffered 
to become a shoot, extending a few joints beyond half 
the length of the rafter, and from the bottom of the 
old wood a weaker shoot, as before, was trained, to 
become the foundation of the lower shoot of the 
next season. In the pruning season, D, which had 
become the longest branch in tlie previous winter,, 
was entirely cut away from the bottom ; the shorter 
branch c, which had now become the longest, was, 
stripped of its spurs on its lower half of the old wood, 
and its upper half was left for bearing ; the extended 
spur E, became the lower bearing branch, and the 
weak shoot F (Fig. 31.) at the bottom,, was reduced to. 
a spur, to furnish the lower wood for the next year. 

The following figure represents the plants after. 



148 



OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 




Fig. 81. 



PRUNING GKAPE VINES. 149 

being pruned the fourth season, the sides being 
reversed. 

TTith this alternation of pruning, the system has 
been continued to the present time, and may con 
tinue as long as it shall be desirable to have the house 
in bearing. 

During the last four years, I have stopped the 
bearing branches at the bunch, instead of the next 
joint above it, which is the usual practice ; for I 
found that the fruit did equally well and it divested 
the branch of an incumbrance, while it allowed a 
much larger portion of light to come into the house, 
together with a more free circulation of air among 
the fruit and young wood. 

1 blind all the eyes on each fruit spur as soon as 
they push, except the uppermost, which I retain to 
draw up the sap to nourish the fruit. I never suffer 
them to push above a joint or two, before I pinch 
them back, always cautiously retaining an eye. By 
constant stopping, the eyes soon increase to a large 
cluster, when I frequently find it expedient to pinch 
out a great part of them with my finger nails, unless 
I see danger of its exciting my next year s fruiting 
eyes to burst prematurely. I am particularly cau 
tious that nothing shall happen to injure the leaf that 
accompanies the bunch, for if that is lost, the fruit, of 
course, will come to nothing. 



150 



OPKN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



During the summer I inspect the vines regularly 
every morning ; seeing that the ends of my leaders 




Fig. 82. 



are in their proper places, and not obstructed ; pick 
ing off tendrils and stopping the laterals above the 




Fig. 83. 



first leaf, on my next year s bearing wood, tying 
down fruit spurs carefully, and stopping any shoot 
that may have sprung from the ends of them; as 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 



151 



well as other shoots that may come out from the pre 
viously stopped laterals. 

Fig. 32 shows a simple method of training wines 
to a trellis formed of light stakes or a couple of 




Fig. 81 

wires. If trained on the plan shown in Fig. 33 
neither stakes nor trellises will be required. 

II. The long-spur system is that upon which old 
vines are trained, and consists in cutting the young 



152 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

wood the previous year, back to three or four eyes, 
all weak shoots and dead wood being removed. 

Sir J. Paxton, in the " Gardener s Chronicle " for 
1842, gives the following directions for pruning 
vines on the spur system. The cut there given (Fig. 
34) has been often reproduced, but in general it has 
been so reduced that the character of the shoots is not 
clearly seen : 

" It represents a portion of the vine when pruned 
in autumn, on the spur system, with short rods of 
five or six eyes each, left at convenient intervals on 
the oldest branches throughout the vine. The per 
pendicular main shoots should not be less than two 
feet apart, and when pruning them no useless eyes 
should be left, that is, no eye should be allowed to 
remain but where a shoot is desired in the following 
season. By attending to this, the vine will not have 
to develop (as is usually the case), an immense quan 
tity of superfluous branches ; and although the ope 
ration may appear a tedious one at the time of prun 
ing, an immense saving of labor and time may be 
effected at a busier period in the spring, and the 
quantity of fruit may be easier regulated in propor 
tion to the strength of the vine. If this is attended 
to, nothing will be required in the summer but 
securing the young fruit-bearing shoots to the wall, 
and shortening them to one joint above the bunch 



PRUNING GKAPE VINES. 153 

as soon as the fruit is set, excepting the leading 
shoots, which should not be stopped until the lower 
part is ripened ; otherwise the main eyes for the next 
season may be induced to grow prematurely. In 
autumn the young wood from the spurs is shortened 
back to one, or at most, to two eyes, and the terminal 
shoots in proportion to their strength ; but for the 
strongest wood, from eight to twelve eyes will be found 
as many as will break well. 

u When commencing to train a young vine in this 
manner, the side branches should not be brought to 
the horizontal position at first, but lowered gradually 
as the number of suitable branches for upright stems 
are obtained ; by this means they acquire strength 
faster than if trained horizontally at first." 

It is obvious that this system is nearly the same as 
the long rod, or renewal system the difference being 
that instead of taking several of the upper buds on 
each young cane, we use only one and have a great 
many canes or spurs. 

The only real advantage to be derived from it (so 
far as we are able to judge), and that upon which its 
distinctive features is founded, is that the buds from 
which the next year s crop is to be obtained are 
always well ripened. "We would, therefore, prefer it 
to the first system, where the vines are tender, or the 
climate unfavorable, and deem it of sufficient impor- 

7* 



154 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



tance to give in detail a method of treating the spurs 
during a series of years. 




Fig. 85. 

Fig. 35 (A) shews a portion of a young cane which 
may either form part of the vertical branches on a 
trellis, or the single stem of a young vine. The first 
season of fruiting, the tendrils should be cut oif and 
the buds thinned to from six to ten inches apart, 
depending upon the vigor of the variety ; and so that 
they will be alternately on different sides of the cane, 
thus leaving the buds on each side from 12 to. 20 




Fig. 36. 



inches apart. Not more than four or five buds should 
be left on a cane during the first season. 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 



155 



At the close of the first season, after the leaves 
have fallen, the cane will present the appearance 
shown in Fig. 36. Here A is the main cane; BIS the 
Bhoot produced by the buds on Fig. 35 ; and o is a bud 
at the base of this shoot. Prune the shoot B to one 
plump bud, as shown in the figure and allow the bud 
c to push and form a shoot ; stopping it, however, as 
soon as it has made a few leaves. 




Fig. 87. 

Next season we will have the shoot D, (Fig. 37) with 
several nice, plump buds, and the old spur B, with its 
shoot which bore fruit last year. Cut D back to one 
or two eyes, and cut B away entirely. The buds on D 
will push and bear fruit, and a bud will, no doubt, 
push from the base to form the spur for next year. 

Fig. 38 shows the next winter pruning. From 
this description, it is obvious that we must, each 
year, have eyes to produce, not only fruit, but a 



156 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



young cane, which will form the spur for next year. 
If we depend for this spur upon last year s fruiting 




Fig. 88. 

shoots, our spur will soon become so long, and our 
vine so encumbered with old wood as to be quite 
unmanageable, unless we adopt the system to be next 
described : 

III. Here we depend for our fruit upon buds pro 
ceeding from the base of last year s fruiting shoot, 
this fruiting shoot being borne upon a spur attached 
to the main branch. This is the system of pruning 
;adopted at Thomery, and as no good description of 
it is be found in any American publication with 
which we are acquainted, we give the very full and 
lucid account by H. Dubreuil a translation of which 
may be found at the close of the volume. 

IY. In the short-spur, or Thomery system, the 
fruit-bearing shoot proceeds from a spur on the main 



PRUNING GRAPE VINES. 157 

branch, which although short, is still a spur. Theory, 
however, would lead us to suppose that it might just 
as well proceed from the juuction of last year s 
fruit-bearing shoot with the main branch. 



158 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

WALLS AND TRELLISES THEIR INFLUENCE AND CON 
STRUCTION. 

ALTHOUGH the influence of the various forms of 
walls, trellises and stakes upon the growth and matu 
rity of the vine depends somewhat upon the system of 
pruning and training pursued in connection with 
them, still, it cannot be doubted but that their forms 
and the materials of which they are made also exert 
an influence which is by no means to be disregarded. 

In this country, walls devoted to the culture of the 
vine have not been used to a sufficient extent, to 
afford reliable data as to the benefit to be derived from 
them. Many single vines, however, are trained on 
the ends of houses and along board fences, and from 
a careful examination of several such examples, we 
are inclined to believe that in exposed situations the 
erection of cheap walls would pay well, even in vine 
yards. 

"When vines are judiciously trained in front of 
brick walls and at a few inches distance from them, 
the grapes uniformly ripen sooner than those on 



WALLS ATSTD TRELLISES. 159 

exposed trellises. The wood also is more perfectly 
matured, and this, during a succession of years, exerts 
a considerable and favorable influence on the vine. 

The effect of walls doubtless depends upon two 
causes, one being the higher temperature produced 
by the radiation from the surface of the solid wall, 
and the other being the protection from wind and 
storms which such a structure affords. 

That the latter point is one of material importance, 
we are well satisfied, for however essential ventilation 
may be to the healthy growth of the vine, all violent 
winds and cold blasts are to be studiously avoided. 

A striking instance of this is to be seen in the gar 
den of a gentleman of this city. Several vines are 
there trained along the east side of a high board fence, 
and although the same judicious and systematic care 
is given to all parts of the vines, yet the finest fruit is 
uniformly found a foot or two below the top of the 
fence. Now when we remember that on all open 
trellises the finest grapes are found at the top, since 
all trees produce the best fruit at the extremities of 
the branches, we must attribute no mean effect to the 
protection afforded by the fence, since the boards of 
which it is composed can scarcely be supposed to 
retain and radiate much heat, and its height (about 
eight feet) is not sufficient to include the limit to 
which vines may be judiciously carried. 



160 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

" The actual temperature to which a tree trained 
upon a wall facing the sun is exposed is much higher 
than that of the surrounding air, not only because it 
receives a larger amount of the direct solar rays, but 
because of the heat received by the surrounding 
earth, reflected from it and absorbed by the wall 
itself. Under such circumstances the secretions of 
the plant are more fully elaborated than in a more 
shady and colder situation, and by aid of the greater 
heat and dryness in front of a south wall, the period 
of maturity is much advanced. In this way we suc 
ceed in procuring a Mediterranean or Persian sum 
mer in these northern latitudes. 

" When the excellence of fruit depends upon its 
sweetness, the quality is exceedingly improved by 
such an exposure to the sun ; for it is found that the 
quantity of sugar elaborated in a fruit is obtained by 
an alteration of the gummy, mucilaginous, and gela 
tinous matters previously formed in it, and the quan 
tity of those matters will be in proportion to the 
amount of light to which the tree, if healthy, has 
been exposed. Hence the greater sweetness of plums, 
pears, etc., raised on walls from those grown on 
standards. It has been already stated that an 
increase of heat has been sought for on walls by 
blackening them, and we are assured in the i Horti 
cultural Transactions (III. 330) that, in the cultiva- 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 161 

tion of the grape, this has been attended with the 
best effects. But, unless when trees are young, the 
wall ought to be covered with foliage during the sum 
mer, and the blackened surface would scarcely act, 
and in the spring the expansion of the flowers would 
be hastened by it, which is no advantage in cold, late 
springs, because of the greater liability of early 
flowers to perish from cold. That a blackened surface 
does produce a beneficial effect upon trees trained 
over it is, however, probable, although not by 
hastening the maturation of the fruit ; it is by raising 
the temperature of the wall in autumn, when the 
leaves are falling, and the darkened surface becomes 
uncovered, that the advantages are perceived by a 
better completion of the process of growth, the result 
of which is the ripening the wood. This is indeed 
the view taken of it by Mr. Harrison, who found the 
practice necessary, in order to obtain crops of pears 
in late seasons at Wortley, in Yorkshire (see Hort. 
Trans. III. 330 and YI. 453.) It hardly need be 
added that the effect of blackening will be in propor 
tion to the thinness of the training and vice versa." 
Lindley. 

The articles referred to by Lindley, being short 
und practical, it may be well to transcribe them. 
Henry Dawes writes thus to Sir Joseph Banks : "I 
take the liberty of communicating to you my remarks 



162 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTUKE. 

on a garden wall, on which I have been making 
experiments at Slough. It faces the south, and 
against it, about the middle, a young grape vine is 
trained. Two years ago I covered a portion of the 
wall with thick black paint. The vine was divided 
into two equal parts, one half was trained on the 
painted, and the other on the plain wall. The sea 
son was so unfavorable last year, that scarcely any 
out-door grapes came to perfection ; but those in the 
blackened part of the wall were much finer than those 
on the plain part. This year the success of my expe 
riment has been complete. The weight of fine 
grapes gathered from the blackened part of the wall 
was 20 Ibs. 10 oz., while the plain part yielded only 
7 Ibs. 1 oz., being little more than one-third of the 
other. The fruit on the blackened part of the wall 
w r as also much finer, the bunches were larger and 
ripened better than on the other half ; the wood of 
the vine w r as likewise stronger and more covered with 
leaves on the blackened part. 

" It is a generally known fact, that a black, unpo 
lished surface absorbs more rapidly than other colors 
the sun s rays, and thereby becomes sooner heated. 
It is equally well known that surfaces which absorb 
heat more quickly, part with it more easily when the 
source of heat is withdrawn, and cool quicker. In 
the summer time, when the days are long, the wall 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 163 

will be more intensely heated under the blackened 
surface, and the night (or time of cooling) being short, 
it may not have returned to the temperature of the 
air, before it is again subjected to an increase of heat. 
If the time of cooling were long enough, that part of 
the wall under the blackened surface, might become 
actually cooler than the part not blackened, and thus 
the extremes of heat and, cold be greater than when 
the wall was left with its usual surface. In the sum 
mer time, however, the wall is not only more in 
tensely heated, but probably retains a great portion 
of the heat during the night. 

" Horticulturists will decide which of these two 
causes is efficient in producing the effect I have 
stated, or whether both may not cooperate ; it is not 
for me to presume to do so, though I should be 
inclined to think, that in this climate, the intensity 
had more influence than the uniformity." 

Chas. Harrison, gardener at Wortley Hall, York 
shire, gives the following directions for blackening 
walls : 

" When the leaves have fallen in the autumn, I take 
the earliest opportunity to loosen the tree from the 
wall and to prune them ; the wall is then colored 
with coal-tar, mixing with every gallon of the tar one 
pint of linseed oil, in order to prevent it having a 
shining surface when dry. It is more necessary to 



16i OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

make this addition in the hotter parts of the kingdom 
than it is here, but even here it is essential in hot 
summers, for when the sun shines strongly on the 
wall with a shining black surface it has appeared to" 
me to scorch those shoots which touch the wall ; but 
this does not happen when the color is rendered 
opaque by the mixture of the oil as recommended. 
If the wall has not been previously colored, I give it 
a second coat as soon as the first is dry. In laying 
on the color care is taken that the liquid is not 
sprinkled upon the trees, for it would close up the 
pores of the wood and consequently do injury. 

"After the wall is colored I allow the trees to 
remain loose from the wall until the coal tar has set 
(unless strong winds prevail, in which case I secure 
the main limbs and branches to the wall), in order 
that the shoots may not be damaged by coming in 
contact with it before it is dry. When the wall has 
become moderately dry, I nail the trees to it. A 
wall of sound bricks will not require recoloring 
more than once in ten years. Coal tar being very 
cheap, a wall of considerable extent may be colored 
for a trifling sum. Any dark-colored paint will 
answer the same purpose, but it is far more expen 
sive, and requires renewal more frequently. 

" The dark color, absorbing the rays of the sun, the 
wall acquires at least ten degrees of heat more than 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 165 

the walls not colored, as directed ; thus affording 
great assistance in maturing the buds upon fruit-bear 
ing shoots, so that the trees may be productive. In 
cold and wet seasons, without such aid, I should not 
have been able to obtain ripe buds upon fruit-trees 
under my care. This I have had ample proof of by 
the unfruitfulness of those trees which are against 
walls not colored, at the same time that trees against 
colored walls were abundantly fruitful. The wall 
being colored is also a preventive of insects harboring 
in it and also tends to keep it dry. 

" The growth of young trees is much promoted by 
the coloring and they are sooner brought to a supply 
of fruitful buds." 

In all cases in which vines are trained in front of 
walls or fences, it is important that a space of from 
six to twelve inches be left between the wall and the 
trellis to which they are fastened. If trained directly 
to the wall, the vine will not only be subject to mil 
dew, but ventilation will be materially interrupted. 
The bunches also, are liable to injury when lying 
against the surface of the wall. 

Walls may, of course, be constructed of any mate 
rial, brick, stone or concrete. Brick is probably the 
most suitable material, though, as plain walls can be 
rapidly and cheaply built of concrete, it is probable 
that it might pay to erect them on an extensive scale 



166 OPEN ATE GRAPE CULTURE. 

in some parts of the country. In the celebrated 
Thomery vineyards, the walls are built of clay with 
a cap of thatch. It is probable that walls built of 
well made sun-burnt bricks would last a long time 
and answer a good purpose if properly protected by a 
cap or eave of board or straw. 

But, for all practical purposes, our reliance for vine 
yard training, in the present state of our experience, 
must be upon properly arranged trellises. We will, 
therefore, give what we consider the best mode of con 
structing them. 

If the vines have been planted two years previously 
at distances of eight feet in the rows and the rows six 
feet apart, the first step to the erection of the trellises 
is to set up a post between each vine and slightly in 
advance of the rows, so as to facilitate bending the 
vines for winter protection.* These posts may be of 
such size and material as the vine dresser may pro 
cure. Cedar, chestnut, locust or oak make the best, 
and a good size is four inches deep (across the rows) 
and three inches thick. They should stand from seven 
to nine feet out of the ground and be sunk not less 
than two and -si half feet if three feet, all the better. 
The two posts at the ends of the rows must be placed 
so that they cannot be drawn inward. Yarious de 
vices for effecting this are shown in Figs. 39 and 40. 
* See page 107. 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 



107 



One consisting simply of a piece of plank nailed 
across the post so as to afford a broad surface to lie 
against the earth. The other is secured by a brace, 




Fig. 89. 



Fig. 40. 



which rests against a large stone sunk below the sur 
face. 

The posts having been set in a straight line and 
reduced to a proper height, the next step will be to 
nail two strips of wood, one along the top and the 
other at from 9 to 14 inches from the ground, or just 
at such a height that the head of the vine-stems 



168 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 

(from which the horizontal arms spring) may reach 
its upper edge when laid against it. If the trellis is 
over seven and a half feet high, it will be well to nail 
a third slat, equidistant between the two, though it 
is not absolutely necessary. The next step is to 
divide the spaces between the slats into equal parts 
of about 15 inches each. Thus if the trellis be seven 
and a half feet high, and two slats (the lower one ten 
inches from the ground) we would divide into five 
spaces of 16 inches each. If nine feet high with three 
slats (the lower one twelve inches from the ground) 
we would divide each of the two spaces into three 
divisions of 16 inches each. Then take No. 12-16 
annealed iron wire, twist a good loop on the end, and 
having slipped it over a stout nail driven into the end 
post, draw the wire along the posts, attaching it to 
each with a small staple w r ell driven in until the last 
is reached, when the wire may be twisted round a 
nail or pin and the loose end secured by a staple. 

Yarious devices have been proposed for drawing 
the wire tight and adjusting it for contraction and 
elongation according to the temperature, as is done in 
the construction of fences. But we are satisfied that 
there is no necessity for this, as the wire can be 
drawn over a stretch of eight feet tight enough for all 
practical purposes, while it will always be loose 
enough to allow of any contraction that can take 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 



169 



place. The truth is, that the wires do not require to 
be so very tight ; even if they do have a little motion 
from the wind, it is not productive of any injury. 

Our method of putting up the wire is as follows : 
We first provide a pair of strong wooden pincers 
such as those shown in Fig. 41, the handles of which 
are at least 30 inches long, and having a piece of stout 
sole leather tacked over the jaws. 




Fig. 41. 

Then having secured one end of the vine to the first 
post and uncoiled the roll, laying it on the ground,. 

8 



170 OPEN AIE GKAPE CULTURE. 

in front of the posts to which it is to be fastened we 
grasp it between the leather jaws of the pincers and 
step slowly back, straining it as much as possible un 
til we are past the second post, when an assistant 
fastens it firmly with a small staple and we are again 
ready to step back to the next. By means of this 
contrivance, the wire can be laid on as tightly and 
smoothly as possible, for all the kinks are taken out 
by passing it through the leather jaws of the pin 
cers, which should be well greased. It is necessary 
to go into the field provided with several sets of 
leathers, as they soon wear out, but are easily re 
newed. They should be at least three inches broad, 
so as to straighten out the wire thoroughly. 

That wire is better than wooden slats there can be 
no doubt. It is less in the way, the vines cling to it 
more readily and the appearance is vastly superior. 
A pound of No. 12 wire will stretch across three 
posts (24 ft.) so that a trellis 8 feet high with two 
wooden slats and five wires, each 14 inches apart, will 
require 1-flbs., which, at eight cents per lb., will cost 
about 13 or 14 cents. As the cost of the wire is con 
siderable, some cultivators do with less. Dr. Under 
bill s trellises are seven feet high with only three wires, 
and we believe no slats. But we prefer the arrange 
ment just described, as we can thus tie in each shoot 
conveniently and regularly,, and the wires at 14 inches 



WALLS AND TRELLISES. 



171 



are none too close to have a bearing shoot on each. 
When wire cannot be conveniently had, the follow 
ing is a good mode of putting np a rough trellis. 

Set the posts as usual, and provide a number of 
slender split poles (hoop poles) and also a sufficient 
number of wire staples made of strong wire (No. 6 
or 8 hard). Then secure the poles or slats to the 
posts by means of the staples, the ends of the poles 
being made to lap over each other so that two may 
be fastened by one staple. The accompanying figure 
(42) will explain this better than words can describe. 




Jig. 42. 

If the staples are a little less than the poles, thelatte 1 " 
will be held very firmly. Nails will not answer, an, 
they are apt to split the poles, and we are inclined <* 
think that, for ordinary slats, staples would be bette>- 
than nails on this very account. If made square and 
light, they need not be unsightly, and the cost is not 
very great. 

No directions- need be given for the construction of 



172 



OPEN A1K GKAPE CULTURE. 



arbors, or those ornamental trellises usually erected 
in gardens, as their form and arrangement will vary 
with the taste of the possessor. 

A very neat, simple and efficient support for a single 
vine trained on the spur system is shown in Fig. 43. 




Fig. 48. 



It might be constructed so as to be removable when 
the vine is laid down for the winter. It has even 
been proposed to have a hinge at the foot of the trel- 



WALLS AND TKELLISES. 173 

lis arid lay down trellis and all. But this would be 
very injudicious. 

Stakes are frequently used in vineyards, and also 
in gardens, but do not present any feature which is 
not more immediately connected with the subject of 
training, than with that of the present chapter. 

The materials of which trellises, etc., should be 
made, will as often be governed by local circum 
stances as by any other consideration. As before stated, 
cedar, chestnut, locust and oak, are to be preferred 
for posts, and any tough, light and straight-grained 
wood for slats. The posts may be charred, where 
they enter the earth, though we should prefer to soak 
them for an hour or so in boiling coal tar. This may 
be readily done in a large pot, or caldron, set up in 
the field over a temporary furnace. It will of course 
be wise to give the whole structure a couple of good 
coats of paint, especially the wire. 

The height to which trellises may be carried, 
depends upon two circumstances the extent of their 
shadow and the influence of high training upon the 
vines. The latter point has been sufficiently dis 
cussed, under the head of pruning and training, and 
we find that at a distance of six feet no ordinary trellis 
will, in latitudes suited to the culture of the grape, 
shade its neighbor during the growing season. At 
other times, shade is not at all inj urious. We had 



174: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

prepared extensive tables, giving the distance to 
which shadows will be thrown by trellises of various 
heights, at different seasons of the year, and in dif 
ferent latitudes ; but oinit them for the above rea 
sons. 

The only limit which we would set to the height of 
a trellis, w r ould be our ability to prune the vines and 
gather the fruit, with the aid of a light stool. Lad 
ders are too unwieldy and involve too much labor, 
except for a few vines. 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 175 



CHAPTER X. 

PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 

YOUNG vine plants may be raised from seeds, eyes, 
or cuttings, or by layering or grafting, all which 
modes are in common practice, though some are only 
adapted to peculiar circumstances and objects. "We 
shall give a few practical directions for each. 

LAYERING. This is the mode in which large, thrifty 
vines may be most rapidly obtained ; but it is by no 
means adapted to general use, where large quantities 
are required. 

To procure a young vine by layering, we take a 
cane of the preceding year, having a well advanced 
shoot ; and about the middle of June, or first of 
July, cut it half through, as shown in Fig. 45. It is 
then bent down and pegged into a hole, about three 
or four inches deep. It should be well watered, and 
the application of a little mulch, consisting of long 
litter, new-mown grass, weeds, or any similar matter, 
will prove of much service. Roots will soon push, 
and at the proper time for transplanting, it will have 
formed a -fine healthy plant. Larger and stronger 



176 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



vines, which, will in some cases bear the succeeding 
season, maybe obtained by layering older and stronger 
shoots ; but the most healthy and, we believe, the 
most vigorous, plants will be produced by follow 
ing the directions just given. 

Instead of one plant, several may be obtained from 




Fig. 44 

the same layer, if it be simply buried its w r hole length, 
as in Fig. 44. Roots will start from each joint, and 
consequently each joint will form a plant. But where a 
single plant is wanted, the method shown in Fig. 45 
will give the finest results. 

If very fine plants are wanted, in a short time, the 
best method is to sink a six-inch (or larger) pot in 
the ground and layer the shoot in it. This is best 
done by first making a hole in the ground, sufficiently 
large to receive the pot ; then by running the loop 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 



177 



end of a doubled cord through the hole in the bot 
tom of the pot, and passing a stick through the loop 




Fig. 45. 

or double, it will be easy to tie the shoot in any 
desired position. The whole process will be readily 
understood from an inspection of Fig. 46 ; and we 
much prefer this plan to pegging down the shoot, 
or laying on bricks or weights, as pegs are rather 
uncertain when used in pots, and bricks take up too 

much room to the prejudice of the roots. 

8* 



178 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



The young plant should be detached from the 
parent vine in about five or six weeks after layering, 
and may then be set out in its proper location. As 
this will be about the latter part of July, or the first 
of September, the vine will have plenty of time to 
become well established, and make good roots before 
winter sets in ; and it will form a strong plant, capa 
ble of throwing up two permanent canes or producing 
a specimen bunch of fruit, during the succeeding sea 
son provided, of course, that the variety propagated 
is of a vigorous and prolific character. An Isabella 
vine, layered in this manner in an eight-inch pot, 
threw up, next season, two canes, one twelve and the 
other sixteen feet. Another, treated in the same 
way, bore sixteen bunches of fine fruit. 

In several instances, we have used common four-inch 
^semi-tubular tile, instead of flowerpots, and with excel 
lent results. They have the advantage of cheapness ; 
but, in other respects, the flower-pot is to be preferred. 
In some cases, the shoot is drawn through the hole in 
the bottom of the pot ; but although we have tried 
this in one or two instances, we have not found it 
either convenient or satisfactory. 

A bearing shoot, layered in a good sized pot, or in 
a common water-pail, may be made to produce a 
well- rooted plant, which will perfectly ripen several 
bunches of fruit .the same season, even after being 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 



179 



removed from the parent plant. This forms a very 
elegant and ornamental object ; but, except as a matter 
of curiosity, such a process is worthless. In rare 
instances, perhaps, specimen bunches might be grown 




Fig. 48. 



out of doors, and perfected in the house, thus avoid 
ing numerous evils to which the finer varieties of the 
vine are subject in this climate. In all cases, it is 
essential that the layer be kept moist and warm. As 



180 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

the earth does not seem to be warm enough to induce 
the formation of roots, before June, it has occurred to 
us that very early and strong plants might be pro 
duced by inserting the pot (Fig. 46) in a slight hot 
bed. A few barrow loads of manure would answer 
every purpose ; and by producing roots thus early, 
strong specimen plants might be procured more 
easily than by any other method. 

It may be well here to state that wood of any age 
from the oldest gnarled stems to the succulent growth 
of the current year will root if properly treated. 
We have always found, however, that the best and 
healthiest roots always spring from the junction of 
the old wood with the current year s growth. 

It is recommended upon good authority (with 
which we in general coincide) to separate the plants 
from the old vine at least by the end of September, 
mnless previously removed. In the case of some 
^varieties, however (Diana, e. g.) this will not always 
.-answer, as roots are produced with such difficulty that 
^wo years are often required to make good plants. 

CUTTINGS. Where large quantities of young plants 
-of the common varieties are required, this is one of 
the cheapest and easiest methods of procuring them. 
Where wood is plenty, each cutting may consist of 
several buds or joints, as in Fig. 47. In ordinary cases, 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 181 

however, a length of three buds is sufficient, and we 
have grown very good plants from cuttings of only 
one joint in length that is, having two buds. Indeed, 
the latter make by far the nicest and cleanest plants, 
and though not quite so strong at first as those from 
a greater number of eyes, yet we question if in the 
long run they would not prove quite their equals. 




Fig. 47. Fig. 43. 

Cuttings to be good should be of thrifty, well 
ripened, close jointed wood long reedy canes and 
spindling twigs being alike to be avoided. The best 
cuttings are those which have the base of the shoot 
attached, and this may be either as in Fig. 47, where 
the cutting has been cut away close to the old wood ; 
or it may be a mallet cutting, as it is called, where a 
small section of the two-year-old wood is left, as in 
Fig. 48. 

The proper time for procuring cuttings is at the 



182 OPEN AIR GRAPE CDLTCRE. 

regular fall or spring pruning. The cuttings may then 
be preserved in a cool cellar, either buried in mode 
rately dry sand or simply laid on the floor and covered 
with straw or leaves. Excessive dryness or damp 
ness are equally to be avoided, and the temperature 
should be low though never sufficient to freeze the 
fluids in the cutting. In this state they should be kept 
until the middle or end of April, as nothing is gained 
by setting them out at an earlier period. Indeed, 
we have found those which had been well preserved 
during the winter and set out in May do quite as 
well if not better than any others. In some experi 
ments we used the previous year s wood, cut from the 
vines when the young shoots had grown two inches, 
and yet in this case they grew finely and made strong 
plants. But of course this is not an example to be 
imitated except where it is desired to procure scions 
of some particular variety, and the opportunity for so 
doing occurs only at the period indicated. Such cut 
tings should be set out as soon after being cut off as 
possible, and if the weather be dry and warm, shad 
ing, watching and watering will all be necessary. 

In planting cuttings it is best to choose a plot of 
rather sandy soil (heavy soil will not do) ; trench it 
deeply, mixing it with manure thoroughly rotten and 
converted into a Hack mold. (Any decomposition 
going on in the soil will ruin the cuttings.) Then 



PEOPAGATIOX OF THE VINE. 183 

plant the cuttings in rows twelve to eighteen inches 
apart and six to eight inches apart in the rows. They 
may be planted either in holes made by a dibble or 
laid in trenches made by the spade the earth from 
the next trench being used to fill up the trench in 
which the cuttings are placed. Some authors direct 
us to place them perpendicularly, but we have always 
obtained the best results when they were placed as 
shown in Fig 49. In placing them, always be careful 




Fig. 49. 

to have the end bud which is out of the soil upper 
most, and be careful that the end be cut with a slant, 
the same as that in the figure, so that it will not throw 
the rain on to the bud as in that case it may cause it 
to rot. In long cuttings the upper bud should be 
left about three inches above the surface of the soil, 
so that it may not be covered by the coat of mulch, 
which it is well to apply. Short cuttings must be 
inserted more deeply, but in all cases the bud should 
be uncovered unless in very late planting. We aro 
aware that many advise the bud to be covered, but 
our own experience has been uniformly against it. 



184: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

Neither should several buds be left above the sur 
face, as they can do no good and require constant 
watching, as it is important for reasons to be here 
after detailed that only one shoot should be allowed 
to grow. With cuttings of four or more buds, a very 
good rule is to place the second bud even with the 
surface of the ground. In this case the cutting should 
be turned one-fourth round from its position in 
Fig. 49 so that the two upper buds may lie one on 
each side. 

Another mode of planting cuttings is to make a 
hole with a dibble, and after inserting the cutting 
about two-thirds its length, bend it over and peg it 
down, as shown in Fig. 50. 




Fig. 50. Fig. 51. 

Fig 51 shows a method of inserting cuttings which 
we have practised with success. As it is well known 
that a cutting will grow, no matter which end is stuck 
in the ground, a scion is taken containing at least 
three buds, and after bending it into a semicircular 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 185 

form, both ends are inserted in the ground, leaving 
the middle bud above the surface. As soon as this 
bud begins to grow, it will be supplied with nutri 
ment from botli ends and will make rapid progress. 
The plants produced by this method are very strong 
and if designed to remain where they are first set 
out they give very certain and satisfactory results. 
But they do not transplant well. 

The following plan described in Miller s " Gar 
dener s Dictionary" is one which we have tried with 
success : " Having an Iron bar of an Inch or more 
in Diameter, a little pointed at the End, they there 
with make a Hole directly down about three Feet 
and a Half deep ; then, being provided with an Instru 
ment they call a Crucciala, having a Handle of 
Wood like that of a large Auger and the Body of 
Iron four Feet long and more than half an Inch in 
Diameter, at the End of which there is a Nich some 
thing like a half moon, they after twisting the End 
of the Cutting, put it therein, and force it down the 
Bottom of the Hole, where they then leave it, and 
afterward fill up the Vacancy with fine sifted Earth 
or Sand ; observing to tread the Earth close to the 
Plants, which otherwise (unless it be stiff Land) is 
often inclinable to be Loose and Dry, especially if 
Eain does not soon follow their Planting ; and it is 
incredible how many Yines three Persons can in 



186 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

this Manner plant in one Day, viz., upward of two 
thousand." 

In our own practice we simply make a deep hole, 
insert the cutting, fill up with dry sand and give a 
liberal supply of water. By inserting the cutting as 
deeply as here advised it is placed beyond reach of 
drought, though the lower portion rarely throws out 
roots unless the soil be very favorable. 

EYES. Where the aid of a hot bed or propagating 
house can be obtained, eyes afford an easy and rapid 
mode of multiplying vines. They are usually cut 
about two inches long, containing only one bud, and 
are started in February or March in pots or boxes 
filled with a mixture of sand, leaf-mold, and soil. 
The buds are either buried half an inch deep or 
placed even with the surface of the earth, according 




Fig. 52. Fig. 58. 

to the ideas of the operator, and generally form strong 
plants, which may be set out in the open ground in 
June or July. Figs. 52 and 53 illustrate the position 



PBOPAGATION OF THE VINE. 187 

of the cutting in relation to the soil. This method 
of propagating requires skill and great care and is 
seldom employed except by professional men. 

GRAFTING is seldom employed in the case of those 
common varieties which are easily raised from cut 
tings or eyes. Diana and Delaware are, however, 
sometimes raised by this method, and to the amateur 
it is one of the most important processes, as by this 
means a new and rare variety can be fruited some 
years before a young plant would come into bearing. 
Loudon gives the following directions for performing 
the operation : 

" Cleft grafting the vine is shown in Fig. 54, in 
which a is a bud on the scion, and 5, on the stock, 




Fig. 64. 

both in the most favorable position for success. The 
graft is tied and clayed in the usual manner, except 
ing that only a small hole is left in the clay opposite 



188 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

the eye of the scion, for its development. In graft 
ing the vine in this manner when the bud (5) on 
the stock is developed, it is allowed to grow for ten 
or fourteen days, after which it is cut off, leaving 
only one bud and one leaf near its base to draw up 
sap to the scion till it be fairly united to the stock. 
The time of grafting is when the stock is about to 
break into leaf, or when it has made shoots with four 
or five leaves. By this time the sap has begun to flow 
freely, so that there is no danger of the stock suffer 
ing from bleeding; though, if vines are in good 
health and the wood thoroughly ripened, all the 
bleeding that takes place does little injury." 

Hoot-grafting the vine is also frequently practised. 
For this purpose, saddle-grafting is most suitable, the 
scion being properly secured to the stock with waxed 
cloth or paper. 

Lindley, in the " Gardener s Chronicle," states that 
the great secret of success in grafting the vine is to 
keep the scion dormant until the stock has so far 
developed its leaves and shoots as to be beyond the 
reach of danger from bleeding. His directions are 
as follows : 

" Shorten the branch or shoot at the winter prun 
ing, to the most eligible place for inserting the graft. 
The graft should be kept in sufficiently moist soil till 
the time of performing the operation, and for a week 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 189 

previous in the same temperature as that in which 
the vines to be operated upon are growing. When 
such portions of the latter as are shortened for receiv 
ing the grafts have made a bit of shoot, graft as you 
would other fruit-trees, taking care, however, to pre 
serve the shoot at the top in claying, and till the buds 
on the scions have pushed, then shorten it back. 
Inarching may be performed at any time after the 
vines have started, so far as not to bleed." 

Speechly, however, names the middle of March as 
the best time for grafting the vine in the open air ; 
and his directions are so lucid that we offer no apo 
logy for quoting them : 

" In general, vines should be grafted about three 
weeks before they begin to break into bud. 

"Upon small stocks, not more than one inch in 
diameter, cleft grafting will be found the most pro 
per ; but upon larger stocks, whip grafting is to be 
preferred. 

" In both methods, much care should be taken in 
fitting the scion and stock together, and the operation 
should be performed with great exactness. 

"When the stock and scion are well fitted 
the graft should be fastened with the strands of bass 
matting, and should then be covered with clay in the 
usual way. 

" Yines do not harmonize with so much freedom as 



190 OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTCJKE. 

commoner fruit ; for though the scion will sometimes 
begin to push in a few weeks, yet it will frequently 
remain in a dormant state for two or three months ; 
and during this period it will be necessary to strip the 
stock of all the shoots it may produce, as soon as 
they appear ; and, in order to preserve the scion in a 
vegetative state, it will be necessary to keep the clay 
moderately moist, which may easily be effected by 
wrapping it round with moistened moss, and keeping 
the moss constantly sprinkled with water. 

" When the scion has made shoots five or six inches 
long, the clay and bandage should be carefully taken 
off; and the clay may be removed without injuring 
the graft, when it is in a moist state. 

" Yines will frequently prove successful by both the 
above-mentioned methods, but still the most eligible 
way of all, seems to me, to be that of grafting by 
approach. Indeed, I have seldom known any plants 
miscarry, that have been grafted in this way. "Now 
in this case, it is necessary to have the plant, intended 
to be propagated, growing in a pot. Strong plants 
that have been two or three years in pots are to be 
preferred, but plants from the nursery may be potted 
and grafted in the same season, if brought into a hot 
house or vinery ; for the great warmth of either will 
generally cause plants, brought out of the open air, 
to push with vigor, and to form new roots, which will 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 191 

support the plant, and greatly facilitate its forming a 
union with the stock. 

" I have constantly had fine grapes, and the grafts 
have made good wood, the first season, by every 
method of grafting, but particularly by the last. In 
which it is obvious that the graft has a double sup 
port, viz. : from the stock, as well as from the plant in 
the pot. 

" In this method it will be necessary to let the clay 
and bandage remain two or three months after the 
graft has formed a union ; for if taken off at an 
earlier period, the grafted part of the plant will be 
very liable to spring from the stock. 

" The pot should be plentifully supplied with water 
till the month of August, when the graft should be 
separated from the plant in the pot. Two or three 
inches of wood below the bottom of the graft may be 
left, but should be taken clean off at the next winter s 
pruning." 

Grafting is a common practice in the vineyards of 
France. Chaptal s directions are as follows : 

" Having selected a healthy stock, it is, just when 
the sap is beginning to flow, taken off with a clean 
cut an inch or two below the surface of the ground. 
The upper portion of the stock, which must be per 
fectly free from knots, is split evenly down the centre 
and pared quite smooth within, of a sufficient size for 



192 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



the reception of the scion. The latter is pruned to three 
eyes in length, having the lower part cut in the form 
of a wedge, commencing about an inch beneath 
the lowest eye, and gradually tapering to the bottom. 
It is then inserted as far as the lowest bud into the 
cleft of the stock : the second bud is level with the 
surface of the ground, which is drawn close around 
it, and the uppermost is quite above the soil. Great 



Fig. 55. 



care is necessary in adjusting the scion, that its bark 
may touch that of the stock in every possible point. 
" The whole is then bound round with a pliable osier 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 193 

which retains the scion in its proper place. The 
best season for grafting the vine is just when the 
warmth of spring sets the sap in motion, and it should 
be performed when the sky is cloudy, with the wind 
blowing from the southeast or southwest. "Whenever 
a northerly wind or great drought prevails, it is 
better to delay the operation ; a burning sun or cold 
wind would arrest the course of the sap by drying up 
the vessels at the point of union. Neither is it 
advisable to graft in rainy weather, because the 
water will trickle down into the incision, and pre 
vent the union between the scion and stock. The 
best time for taking off the grafts is in a dry day 
toward the end of autumn, when the sap is still. 
They should be cut off with a portion of the old wood 
adhering, which will assist in preserving them until 
wanted for use. They should be plunged two or 
three inches deep in damp sand, and kept in a cool 
cellar, where neither heat nor frost can penetrate.. 
Twenty-four hours previously to being used, they 
should be taken up, and that part which had before; 
been in the sand should be laid in water." 

He, moreover, states that " the vine is thus grafted 
with so much facility, and the union between scion, 
and stock is so perfect, that no plant appears more- 
adapted for this mode of propagation." 

We have never met with an example of budding. 
9 



194 OPEN AIR GBAPE CULTURE. 

as practised on the grapevine. The following process, 
which is described as budding in the " Gardener s 
Chronicle " for 1844, is in reality a species of grafting : 
" Bud about the first week in March, or as soon as 
the sap begins to rise. Cut an eye about three inches 
in length, having attached as much wood as you can 
get with, it ; at each end of the eye cut off about a 
quarter of an inch of the upper bark, making the 
ends quite thin. Next measure off the exact length 
of the bud on the bark of the vine intended to be 
budded, and make a niche slanting upward at the 
upper part ; and another slanting downward at the 
bottom. Then take the piece neatly out, so that the 
bud may fit nicely in, and by making the niche, as 
stated above, each end of the bud is covered by the 
bark of the shoot. Bind the bud firmly round with 
matting, and clay it, taking care, however, that the 
clay does not cover the eye of the bud. Then tie it 
round with moss, and keep it constantly damp, and 
as the sap rises in the vine the bud begins to swell. 
When the vine commences to push out young shoots, 
take the top ones off, in order to throw a little more 
sap into the bud, and as you perceive it getting 
stronger take off more young shoots, and so continue 
until you have taken off all the young shoots. Bud 
ding can only be performed where the long-rod system 
is practised, as in that case you have the power of con- 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 195 

fining the sap to the bud, which will grow vigorously. 
As soon as you perceive this, cut the vine down to 
the bud. Budding has the advantage over graft 
ing of not leaving an unsightly appearance where the 
bud was inserted. A bud likewise grows more luxu 
riantly. Allow the matting to remain until about 
the month of September." 

Mr. Knight was accustomed on some occasions to 
employ two distinct ligatures to hold the bud of his 
peach-trees in its place. One was placed above 
the bud inserted, and upon the transverse section 
through the bark ; the other, which had no further 
office than that of securing the bud, was employed 
in the usual way. As soon as the bud had attached 
itself, the ligature last applied was taken off; but the 
other was suffered to remain. The passage of the* 
sap upward was in consequence much obstructed,, 
and buds inserted in June began to vegetate strongly 
in July : when these had afforded shoots about four- 
inches long the remaining ligature was taken off to* 
permit the excess of sap to pass on ; and the young- 
shoots were nailed to the wall. Being there properly* 
exposed to light, their wood ripened well, and afford 
ed blossoms in the succeeding spring. 

Might not the principles here indicated be applied 
with advantage to the foregoing method of budding; 
(grafting?) the vine? 



196 



OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 



A method which partakes partly of grafting and 
partly of inarching is shown in the annexed figure. 
Fig 56. Here the graft is covered with soil which 




Fig. 56. 

supports it in the same manner as a cutting, while at 
the same time it receives nutriment from the stock. 

SEED HYBRIDIZATION. Young vines are never raised 
from seed, except for the production of new varieties ; 
but, as this subject is deservedly attracting very 
general attention at present, a few practical hints 
thereon may prove acceptable. 

Ever since Bacon observed that Ct The compound 
ing and mixture of plants is not found out, which, 
nevertheless, if it be possible, is more at command 
than that of living creatures, wherefore it were one 



PROPAGATION OF THE TINE. 197 

of the most noble experiments touching plants to 
find this out ; for so you may have a great variety of 
plants and flowers yet unknown. Grafting doth it 
not ; that mendeth the fruit, or doubleth the flower, 
but it hath not the power to make a new kind," it 
has been the constant endeavor of good gardeners to 
improve the qualities of domestic plants by judicious 
mixtures of varieties. 

Bradley, we believe, was the first who undertook 
to produce hybrid plants ; but since his day, it has 
been attempted by almost every celebrated horticul 
turist. 

The limits of hybridization amongst plants have 
never been thoroughly ascertained, although it is a 
subject of deep importance. For in the animal king 
dom we know that while cross breeding (or intermix 
ture of varieties) has been productive of the best 
results, hybridization, or muling has been successful 
in but very few instances, at least so far as practical 
good is concerned. ISTow whether the different spe 
cies of the vine, as mils vinifem, vitis labrusca, vitis 
cordifolia, etc. are so far removed from each other 
as to produce mules by their intermixture, or whe 
ther they are varieties and will freely cross-breed, has 
not yet been fully determined. 

To examine this subject, however, with sufficient 
fullness to be useful would far exceed our limits. 



198 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

Neither can we enter upon a discussion of the 
claims of the rival theory of Van Mons. We shall 
therefore rest content with a few practical directions. 

Speedily, who was probably the first to attempt 
the improvement of vines by cross-breeding, directs 
us to bring the flowering branches of the two kinds 
of vines into close proximity they being, of course, 
in the same stage of maturity. 

]STo very superior varieties followed his attempts, 
however ; and this is not to be wondered at, as it is 
probable that branches might be entwined a thou 
sand times without effecting the result aimed at; 
for no means are taken to bring the pollen of the dif 
ferent ilowers into contact with the stigma of the 
others, and although we have no reasons to doubt the 
possibility of super-fcetation, (seeing it is well-known 
to occur in the higher animals) yet no means are 
here taken to produce even this. 

J. Fiske Allen, one of our most successful grape 
growers and the originator of some new and excel 
lent varieties, gives the following directions upon this 
point. 

" The applying the pollen, or farina of one variety 
to the pistil, or stigma of another, is the surer method 
of proceeding to obtain new sorts in the shortest 
time ; and this is called hybridizing. 

To do this properly, the bunch should be thinned 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 199 

of three-quarters of the buds ; the lower part should 
be cut away entirely (immediately before inflores 
cence), the strongest buds always being left. 

Observe them closely, and as soon as the flowers 
open, with sharp scissors clip the anthers, being care 
ful not to injure the pistil; with a soft brush, apply 
the pollen from the kind to be used in impregnation ; 
or the whole bunch which is to furnish the pollen may 
be cut from the vine and gently rubbed or applied to 
the bunch, by frequently striking them together on 
every side. This should be repeated several days, 
until it is evident that the fruit is all impregnated ; 
a fresh bunch with the pollen in a suitable condition, 
must be had at each operation. 

" The pollen must be dry and in a falling condition, 
to be fit for the purpose. If your vines are so 
situated that a branch to be acted upon can be 
brought into contact with the branch of another kind, 
and the bunches interlaced, this will be a good 
method of proceeding cutting away the males part 
of the blossom from the kind that is to ripen the seed 
for the new kinds." 





Fig. 57. Fig. 58. Fig. 59. 

" Fig. 57 is a magnified representation of the bud 



200 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

of the grape. Figs. 58 and 59 show the blossom. 
The change from the bud to the blossom is usually 
rapid, and takes place about thirty to forty days after 
the shoot appears in the spring which bears the fruit. 
This bud, which forms the blossom, consists of a 
covering, or cap, and the embryo berry with five 
anthers, which, when the time for inflorescence has 
come, is raised, or lifted, by the anthers, and the 
wind blows this cap free. 

" The third is the blossom or embryo grape, with 
the anthers clipped and deprived of their farina ; on 
the top of the embryo is the pistil ; upon this is to be 
placed the farina, or pollen of the male plant ; when 
this is done, impregnation takes place, and the em 
bryo rapidly swells off. If the operation has not 
been effectual, the berry will remain as it is. When 
the grape has attained one-third or one-half its size, 
it remains stationary two or three weeks, and at this, 
time it is perfecting the seed. "When this is done, 
the fruit begins growing again ; thus it appears the 
seed will vegetate, even if the fruit does not ripen 
sufficiently to be eatable." 

London s directions for saving and sowing seed are 
as follows : " Grapes for seed should be permitted to 
remain on the plant till the fruit is perfectly mature, 
and the seeds are of a very dark brown color. They 
should be separated from the pulp, and preserved till 



PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. 201 

February or the beginning of March. They should 
then be sown in pots filled with light fresh mold, and 
plunged in a moderately warm hot-bed ; they will 
come up in from four to six weeks, and when the 
plants are about six inches high, they should be 
transplanted singly, into forty-eights, and afterward 
into pots of a larger size. Water gently, as circum 
stances require, allow abundance of light and air, 
and carefully avoid injuring any of the leaves. Cut 
down the plants every autumn to two good buds, and 
suffer only one of these to extend itself in the fol 
lowing spring. Shift into larger pots as occasion 
requires, till they have produced fruit. This, under 
good management, will take place in the fourth or 
fifth year, when the approved sorts should ,be 
selected, and the rest destroyed, or used tis stocks on 
which to graft or inarch good sorts." 



202 OPEN AIK GKAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XL 

MANURE. 

Manure* may be defined to be anything added to 
the soil to increase its fertility, whether by mechani 
cal or chemical action. Substances serving the first 
purpose have been alluded to under the head of soils. 
The latter will now occupy our attention. 

In a former chapter sufficient practical directions 
were given for the preparatory enrichment of the soil 
and for the annual top-dressing of the borders ; it will 
now be our object to consider in detail the character 
of the nutriment required by the vine ; the sources 
whence it may be derived ; the various modes of its 
application ; and its effects upon the plant. 

It is a well-established fact, that unless the soil in 
which any plant is placed contains all the elements 
necessary to the formation of such plant, no healthy 
growth can ensue. Hence our first step must be to 
inquire into the chemical constitution of the grape- 
Tine, or at least of its ashes, those elements which 

* QUERY. To what extent was Jethro Tull s idea of horse-hoeing, 
as a substitute for manure, anticipated by those who first used the 
word manure (manwuvrer to work with the hand), before it was em 
ployed to express the addition of matter to the soil, with a view to 
inci -ase its fertility"? One old English author speaks of the Com 
monwealth of England as being " gouerned, administered, and 
manured by three sorts of persons," tc. 



MANURE. 



203 



are dissipated during combustion being abundantly 
supplied from the atmosphere. 

The following are a few of the most reliable analy 
ses which have been published : 

Dr. Emmons found the wood of Vitis Ldbrusca 
(Isabella ?) to contain : Water, 40.26 ; dry matter, 
59.74; ash, .98. 

Full-sized leaves of Catawba, picked June 2d : 
Water, 72.388; dry matter, 27.612; ash, 2.138. 
Per centage of ash calculated on dry matter, 7.746. 

Leaves of Catawba grape picked June 2d. An 
alysis of ash : 



Carbonic acid 3.050 

Silicic acid 29.650 

Sulphuric acid 2.062 

Phosphates 32.950 

Lime 4.391 

Magnesia 1.740 



Potassa 13.394 

Soda 9.698 

Chlorine 0.741 

Organic acid 2.250 



5.926 



An analysis of wood and bark of wild vine gave 





Wood. 


Bark. 


Potassa 


20 84 


] 77 


Soda 


2.06 


9 27 


Chlorine . . .. 


02 


40 




0.23 


trace 


Phosphate of lime 


15 40 


5 04 




1.20 


5 04 




54.83 


32.22 




17 33 


39.32 


Magnesia . 


4 40 


80 


Silex 


2 80 


14.00 




0.00 


30.00 




2.20 


1.70 










100.21 


100.86 



The following tabulated analyses by Crasso <&? 
Walz explain themselves : 



204 



OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 





Drollingen Vines, with 
leaves. 


SSSS :KS : 8 ;5S8S 

T-< co r-i as o i-i eo i-I oi o T-! 10 

i ( CO C^ 


S 

o 


! 


Reisling Vines, with 
leaves. 


T-I CO rf O CO T-l -T-ICOCOCOaO 
CO T-I O t- T-I CO * O CO <O t- O 

O t- M 1 "* O r-l CO O (N O r-I I 


S 

1 ^ 




Cleven Vines, with 
leaves. 


* O <M r-l COt- * . OT-lb-t-O 
OCSIt-CO O CM 16 r-l!?4rH<yilO 

t-Ot-HtO Or-( CO r-< C-J -r-i T-H -^" 
Ol rH CO 


s 

1 




Small Burgundy Vines 


lOJO^t-Tfi-ICS) -1CO11O 
T l -^ O t- iQ rH OO COCS1O 


O (M 

<= s 




Ash of Wood. 




eo 




Green Grapes Ash of 


O -t-CSiOiO-H iCt->O 

Tfl O iQ 5C Tf O COGS1O 


c^ 




Seed. 


3 I^ooooc, O^JH . . . . . 


oi 












Blue Grapes Ash of 
Seed. 


S :SS^!S^ : : : : : 

^ jgcdc dcsi od^ | | | j j 


S 

1 * 




Green Grapes Ash of 


O S3 CO >O t- T-H CO r-lt-O 

GO O 1 Tj< CS 1O 00 t-lOO 


o 55 




Skin. 


o T-I -i-i * r-i o eo o ff o 

^ C?^ T-* 


3 








1-1 


1 


Blue Grapes Ash of 


lOCO-r^fMT-ICDOO OitOt- 
T-H CO T-I t- TP -*Tj<0 


g 




o 


Skin. 


* CM T-I 


o co 




Ripe Green Grapes 


^SO-r- lOOOOV OGO 1 ^ 
^. r-l CS -* CO 00 t-rHO 


8| 




Ash of Juice. 


g CS) CO T* OCNt-j 


1 ^ 




Ripe Blue Grapes 
Ash of Juice. 


SgSSS ^SS : : : : 
TH T-! co co d d co ^T-*^ ; ; ; : 


S 

* 






-*CSIb--^C01OMI COOO5 







Ripe Blue Grapes- 
Ash of Juice. 


>o o co tjl o o 10 TH <M o 

CD TH * 


1 




Unripe Blue Grapes 


COCOOh-COffl O5 O C5 CO 
COCO<M<Ml-00 -T^l-OiCO 


8 S 




Ash of Juice. 


O O O CO O O -OOr-iiO 


d 








2 




I) 









1 


> o- 

: : : ; : ; ; ; :* i 

; . : s s " 


ja" 




H 

I 



1 


g* : ; : :-- v co 
o :-1 : L : l|ll? 

*- -2^ : : G^^^ s g 

It^l i s : 2l?!?^ 

- lllil^lllljl 

fillflll|ffftll 

o o 5 ^ = -c ~ -c j= J3 
BkaB^SMemnKSEpHOiPkPiOO 


Total 
Percentage of A 



MANURE. 205 

Such being the normal constituents of the vine 
and of its fruit, and the latter being, in almost all 
cases, removed from the soil in which it was pro 
duced, it is obvious that a process of exhaustion must 
be constantly carried on, which, if not counteracted, 
must, in a short time, perceptibly reduce the crop. 

The means by which the matter thus removed 
from the soil is restored, are of three kinds : First, 
the action of the plants themselves, or of man upon 
the subsoil ; secondly, rain ; and thirdly, by the direct 
addition of the requisite elements, through the agency 
of man and animals. 

Although the soil has, to a certain extent, the 
power of separating salts and gases from the water 
which passes through it, the drainage water still re 
tains a certain proportion of valuable matter,* and 
consequently the subsoil also becomes saturated to a 
greater or less extent with these same elements. 
Hence one of the effects of trenching is not only to 
bring up unexhausted soil to the surface, but to return 
those matters which had previously been washed out 
of the upper soil by the rains. The plants themselves 
occasionally bring up some of this matter, sending 

* A series of valuable analyses and experiments upon this point ap 
peared lately in the transactions of the Highland (Scottish) Agricul 
tural Society, which the reader who desires to pursue this subject 
would do well to consult. 



206 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

down roots deep into the subsoil if it is open and 
porous. 

Rain is another important source not only of am 
monia and gases, but of mineral matter. We quote the 
following from Lindley s "Theory of Horticulture:" 

" The researches of chemists have shown that all rain 
water contains ammonia, a compound of hydrogen 
and nitrogen, and thus the source of the nitrogen 
absorbed by plants was explained. But it lias also 
been shown, especially by M. Barral, that other sub 
stances upon which plants feed are contained in rain 
water to a much greater amount than was suspected. 
This observer was led, during six months of 1851, to 
examine minutely the water collected in the rain 
gauges of the Observatory of Paris. His mode of 
investigation is declared by Messrs. Dumas, Bous- 
singault, Gasparin, Regnault, and Arago, names fore 
most in French science, to be free from all objection, 
and to bear the most counter trials to which they 
could expose it. M. Barral states, that although the 
quantities of the following substances varied in dif 
ferent months, yet the monthly average from July to 
December, inclusive, was as follows : 

"SUBSTANCES IN A CUBIC METRE OF RAIN WATER. 

GRAMMES. GRAINS. 

Nitrogen, ..^ *s ****;f y>i *^ . 8.36 = 129. 
Nitric Acid, 19.09 = 294. 



MANURE. 207 

GRAMMES. GRAINS. 

Ammonia, .... i "* 1 ! 3.61 55.7 

Chlorine, 2.27 = 35. 

Lime,. .,- . $K$ &&*&&& . 9.48 = 100. 

Magnesia, . .^J^.- , * > , .. 2.12= 32.7 

" He did not ascertain whether all these substances 
are contained in rain water collected at a distance 
from towns. But Dr. Bence Jones found at least 
nitric acid in rain water collected in London, at 
Kingston in Surrey, at Melbury in Dorsetshire, and 
far from any town at Clonakelty, in Ireland. If we 
assume that M. Barral s averages represent what 
occurs on an English acre, the quantity of such sub 
stances deposited on that extent of ground may be 
safely estimated as follows : 

" The average depth of rain which falls in the neigh 
borhood of London is well ascertained to be about 
twenty-four inches per annum. This is at the rate of 
87,120 cubic feet, or 2,466 cubic metres of rain water 
per acre ; and this, according to the proportions per 
cubic metre in the preceding table, would afford anu- 
ally of 

Nitrogen, . . . ^, , . *- v ,>- 45^ Ibs. 

Nitric acid, ^ "; ^ -4|. ^5,;?-- 103 " 

Ammonia, 19J " 

Chlorine, , T * " - " R^J^SJ ? 12 J " 

Lime,. . "; ; . - - . - *i l f i: * s &\i*. 35 " 

Magnesia. .. ... 11 " 

Amount total per acre, 227 " 



208 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

" Of these substances, the three first are of the 
utmost importance, on account of their entering so 
largely into the indispensable constituents of the food 
by which vegetable life is sustained. The quantity 
of ammonia thus ascertained to exist, is about what is 
expected in two hundred weight of Peruvian guano ; 
and bountiful nature gives us, moreover, nearly one 
hundred and fifty pounds of nitrogenous matter 
equally suited to the nutrition of our crops." 

But although nature is thus liberal in supplying the 
necessary wants of her children, man desires returns 
rather more extensive than is merely necessary for 
the good of the plant. He therefore adds directly to 
the soil those matters which contain proper nutriment 
for the vine. In doing this, however, it is not neces 
sary to follow very accurately any recipe founded upon 
the analysis of the vine, provided we obtain sufficient 
of those elements which are most w r anted. If we only 
spread a liberal table, the vine will select its own 
food. 

Of all applications to the soil, none deserve more 
confidence than well rotted barnyard manure ; from 
time immemorial it has been the staple reliance of 
the gardener and farmer and few are the instances in 
which its judicious application has been known to 
fail. 

That it may do good and not harm, however, when 



MANURE. 209 

mixed with the soil in which plants are growing, it is 
necessary it be thoroughly rotten. However much 
may have been written about the waste incurred by 
allowing manure to decompose, it is a well know fact 
that thoroughly decomposed manure is beneficial to 
most plants, while decomposing or fermenting ma 
nure is frequently prejudicial. This probably arises 
from the fact that all bodies while undergoing decom 
position exert a catalytic action on any organized 
matter in contact with them. Thus decomposing 
manure directly tends to produce rot in the roots or 
other parts of plants with which it comes in contact. 

The proper time for the application of manure to 
a vine border has been a subject of much discussion. 
Our plan is to apply it as a top-dressing in the fall 
and fork it in in the spring. It thus serves to keep the 
border warm and the soluble portions are washed 
down amongst the roots of the vine by the winter 
snow and rain, thus reaching it in a most effectual 
manner. To assist this process, the border should be 
loosened with a fork before the manure is laid on. 

Of all the substances entering into the composi 
tion of a manure heap none have a better influence 
upon vines than bones. In the formation of a border 
they are of essential utility, affording for a long period 
a constant source of nutriment. The avidity with 
which the roots of the vine seek such a depot of food 



210 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

may be easily seen by placing a large porous bone 
amongst the roots of a vine. In a few months it will 
be literally covered with rootlets which have sought 
it out and find their nutriment in its recesses. 

Leather, hair, horns, hoofs, woollen rags and other 
animal offal possess a similar action to bones. They 
all possess the valuable property of lying undecom- 
posed in the soil for long periods, yet yield readily to 
the disintegrating action of plant roots. Hence, 
while they afford abundant and valuable nourish, 
ment to the vine, it is not surfeited by them as this 
nutriment must be wanted and sought before it will 
be given up. 

Ashes of wood, whether fresh or leached are a 
powerful manure for the vine, and probably contain 
all that it requires. Leached ashes may be applied 
as a top dressing in almost any quantity with excel 
lent effect, but a more cautious use must be made of 
fresh wood ashes, they being much more powerful 
and caustic. Coal ashes have hitherto been deemed 
utterly worthless, and are usually thrown into the 
street. To some soils, however, particularly those 
which are too heavy, they are a very useful addition, 
and as they are a powerful absorbent, there is no 
doubt that if mixed with night soil, or some similar 
matter, they would prove an excellent article more 
lasting, and consequently better than night soil by 



MANURE. 211 

itself. They should never be thrown away, however, 
as they contain lime, iron and minute, though appre 
ciable quantities of alkalies, soda usually predomi 
nating. It is also quite possible that they contain 
minute traces of phosphates, though in no analysis 
with which I have met is it mentioned. Where the 
coal has been burned at a high temperature the 
alkali is in general reduced, and the metal volatilized. 

The dung and urine of animals forms a powerful 
manure. The solid excrements of all these are best 
mixed with some absorbent, as plaster, charcoal, 
burnt clay, etc. ; or thoroughly decomposed in con 
tact with vegetable matter, as straw, leaves, etc. 
The liquid and soluble portion may be used as liquid 
manure, or may be poured over the fermenting dung 
heap. 

The dung of birds, as hens, pigeons, etc., and also 
guano, form a very convenient and most excellent top 
dressing for vine borders, but are better when applied 
as liquid manure during the growing season. 

An excellent manure may be made as follows: 
Sink a hole in any convenient part of the premises 
and fill up with saw-dust. On this pour all the 
urine that can be obtained from time to time, and 
keep closely covered with a broad cover. 

When sufficient has been added, or when the smell 
becomes offensive, remove the cover and place a pile 



212 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

of charcoal, burnt clay, coal ashes, or other absor 
bent on top of it, and allow it to lie for a few weeks. 
At the end of that time, a mass of matter will have 
been produced almost equal to guano. 

Road scrapings form a good top dressing for most 
soils. Hoare considers them unrivalled for the grape 
vine, and such was the opinion of Speedily, who tells 
us: "The dust, or dirt, from roads, consists princi 
pally of the following particulars: first, the soil of 
the vicinity ; secondly, the dung and urine of horses 
and other animals ; and thirdly, the materials of the 
road itself when pulverized. Yarious other matters 
may be brought by winds, and by other means, but 
the foregoing may be deemed the principal. The 
first of the above articles is brought to roads by the 
wheels of carriages, and the legs of horses and other 
animals ; the last is the worst part of the materials, 
as the dust and scrapings of roads, made and mended 
with soft stone that grinds fast away, is much infe 
rior in its vegetating quality to that which is collected 
from hard roads. On the whole, however, this in 
gredient of compost from the roads is unquestionably 
in general of a fertile nature, which may be attri 
buted in part to the dung, urine, and other rich ma 
terials, of which it is composed, and in part to a kind 
of magnetic power, impressed upon it by friction and 
its perpetual pulverization. 



MANTJEE. 213 

"The nature of this road earth ought to be duly 
considered, when used in the vine compost, and its 
proportion adjusted according to its quality. In a 
sandy country it will naturally abound with particles 
of sand, and long and continued rains will, of course, 
wash away its best parts. High winds, too, in dry 
weather, will as certainly deprive it of its lightest 
and finest parts, especially when roads lie on emi 
nences, or enjoy an open exposure. Those materials 
from roads are therefore preferable, which are pro 
duced from an inclosed track in a low situation 
Pavements, however, and hard roads, produce the 
best sulture of all. The compost is much better 
when collected in a moderate dry state, than when it 
is either very wet or dusty. If scraped off the road 
in a wet and soft state, when it is become dry it will 
be hard and cloddy, and will require time to bring it 
to a proper condition. 

" When, thus circumstanced, the best way of recover 
ing it is to give it frequent turnings in hard, frosty 
weather." 

Dead animals may be used in a vine border if 
placed sufficiently far from the roots to allow of their 
being decomposed, before the roots reach them, as 
previously remarked. 

Any decaying matter IB a border is very detri 
mental. 



2M OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

Charcoal is one of the best additions to any soil. 
It should be well burnt, however, and free from all 
smell of creosote, as this substance is rather prejudi 
cial to the roots of the grape vine, although it seems 
to agree with some plants; (chiefly alliaceous, for 
which soot is a specific). On this account, when 
used for drainage in pots, it should be reburnt. 

I am informed by one successful grape culturist 
that unless this precaution of reburning is taken with 
most charcoal, it is rather prejudicial to the roots of 
young vines in pots than otherwise. I have found, 
however, that if well sprinkled (it need not be satu 
rated) with putrid urine and allowed to lie for some 
time, it loses its injurious qualities and retains abund 
ant nourishment, which is gradually given off to the 
roots of the plants as they require it. "When used as 
a compost for enriching a vine border it had always 
better be saturated with night soil or urine. Even 
brick rubbish, if so treated, becomes of great value. 

Most of these solid matters are best added to the 
soil in the original formation of the border. This is 
especially the case with the primings of the vine, 
than which nothing can be more valuable. If added 
when the border is first formed, it will not only fur 
nish nutriment for the vine, but will tend to keep the 
soil open and porous. For our established vines, there 
fore, it will be best to depend upon liquid manure 



MANURE. 215 

and autumn top dressing of stable manure, and all 
solid matters may go to the formation of new vine 
yards, "of which we suppose there will in general be 
an annual addition. But where no new borders are 
being formed, it would be well to open trenches 
between the rows of vines, in which such matters 
might be buried. If this were done immediately 
after the vintage, the roots would recover the same 
season from any wounds they might receive, and the 
ultimate gain would greatly overbalance any tempo 
rary injury. In doing this, it will of course be best 
to enrich but a small extent of border each year and 
do it thoroughly, so that it may afford a supply 
during many succeeding seasons. 

LIQUID MANURE. Of all the forms in which manure 
can be applied, the liquid manure is the most conve 
nient and the most effective. ~No garden or vineyard 
should be without a tank of this article, as its judi 
cious application will often enable us to mature a 
fine crop under very unfavorable circumstances, its 
great advantage consisting in the immediate results 
obtained ; though this very quality, renders it a 
dangerous article in the hands of those who do not 
thoroughly understand its proper application. To 
prepare and preserve liquid manure, two tanks with 
good covers should be made in some convenient spot. 
Iii small garden s> barrels, such as are used for 



216 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

hydraulic cement, will answer larger establishments, 
of course, requiring something more capacious. They 
should be filled with chamber and kitchen slops and 
soap suds, the latter being generally added warm. 
On the large scale, when horse, cow, and other ma 
nure can be obtained, it may be mixed with water and 
added to the contents of the barrels. Hen manure 
is one of the most valuable additions. Two barrels 
should be used, so as constantly to have some of the 
manure thoroughly decomposed. 

After standing for a week or ten days, it will be fit 
for use, and may either be applied to the surface of 
the border, or what is far better, introduced by means 
of subterranean drains or channels. These may con 
sist simply of long wooden boxes, bored full of small 
holes and sunk about twelve inches beneath the 
surface, or of common horse shoe tiles placed in a 
similar position. Under any circumstances, it must 
have a tube at one end rising up to the surface, 
through which the liquid may be poured and which 
may be closed on the approach of winter so as to 
exclude frost. In very small gardens, it may prove 
sufficient to sink one or two flower pots in the border. 
These, being filled with the liquid manure, it will 
soak down amongst the roots without the possibility 
of loss by evaporation from the surface of the ground. 
The pots should, of course, ordinarily be kept covered. 



MANURE. 217 

Liquid manure is such a powerful agent, that there 
is only one season of the year at which it can be ap 
plied ; that is from the time the first leaves are well 
developed until the fruit is fully formed. During 
this period a very weak solution may be applied in 
large quantities once or twice a week. The culturist, 
however, must remember that the solution must be 
weak say one pailful of the contents of the barrels 
to six or ten pails of water, according to the strength 
of the original liquid. 

To prepare extemporaneous liquid manure ready 
for application to the borders or drains, dissolve two 
or three ounces of guano in a gallon of rain water, 
and allow to stand some time, stirring occasionally. 

The principles which govern the application of this 
useful and powerful agent, are so clearly set forth by 
Dr. Lindley, in the last edition of his " Theory of 
Horticulture," that we cannot do better than quote 
from him. 

"In order that the full effects of liquid manure 
should be felt without injury, it is indispensable : 1, 
that it should be weak, and frequently applied ; 2, 
that it should be perfectly clear ; 3, that it should be 
administered when plants are in full growth. If 
strong, it is apt to produce great injury, because of 
the facility with which it is absorbed, beyond the 
decomposing and assimilating power of plants. If 
10 



218 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

turbid, it carries with, it in suspension a large quan 
tity of fine sedimentary matter, which fills up the 
interstices of the soil, or, deposited upon the roots 
themselves, greatly impedes their power of absorp 
tion. If applied when plants are torpid, it either 
acts as in the case of being over strong, or it actually 
corrodes the tissues. 

" Let the manure be extremely weak ; it owes its 
value to matter that may be applied with consider 
able latitude ; for they are not absolute poisons, like 
arsenic and corrosive sublimate, but only become 
dangerous when in a state of concentration. Gas 
water illustrates this ; pour it over the plant in the 
caustic state in which it comes from the gas-works, 
and it takes off every leaf, if nothing worse ensues. 
Mix it with half water still it burns; double the 
quantity once more it may still burn, or discolor 
foliage somewhat. But add a tumbler of gas water 
to a bucketful of pure water, no injury whatever 
ensues ; add two tumblers full, and still the effect is 
salubrious, not injurious. Hence it appears to be 
immaterial whether the proportion is the hundredth 
or two hundredth of the fertilizing material. 

" Manuring is, in fact, a rude operation in which 
considerable latitude is allowable. The clanger of 
error lies on the side of strength, not of weak 
ness. 



MANURE. 219 

"To use liquid manure very weak and very often is, 
in fact, to imitate nature, than whom we cannot take a 
safer guide. This is shown by the carbonate of am 
monia, carried to plants in rain, which is not under 
stood to contain, under ordinary circumstances, more 
than one grain of ammonia in 1 Ib. of water ; so that 
in order to form a liquid manure of the strength of 
rain water, 1 Ib. carbonate of ammonia would have to 
be diluted with about 7,000 Ibs. weight of water, or more 
than three tons. Complaints which have been made 
of guano water and the like are unquestionably refer 
able to their having been used too strong. 

"It must be borne in mind: 1, That liquid manure 
is an agent ready for immediate use, its main value 
depending upon that quality ; 2, that its effect is to 
produce exuberant growth ; and 3, that it will con 
tinue to do so as long as the temperature and light 
required for its action are sufficient. 

" These three propositions, rightly understood, point 
to the true principles of applying it ; and if they are^ 
kept in view, no mistakes can well be made. 

"With fruit, the period of application should be 
when the fruit, not the flowers, is beginning to swell. 
Nothing is gained by influencing the size or color of 
the flower of a fruit tree; what we want is to increase 
the size or the abundance of the fruit. If liquid 
manure is applied to a plant when the flowers aro 



220 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

growing, the vigor which it communicates to them 
must also be communicated to the leaves ; but when 
leaves are growing unusually fast, there is sometimes 
a danger that they may rob the branches of the sap 
required for the nutrition of I lie fruit; and if that 
happens, the latter falls off. There, then, is a source 
of danger which must not be lost sight of. No doubt 
the proper time for using liquid manure is when the 
fruit is beginning to swell, and has acquired, by its 
own green surface, a power of suction capable of 
opposing that of the leaves. 

"At that time liquid manure may be applied freely, 
and continued from time to time as long as the fruit 

O 

is growing. But at the first sign of ripening, or even 
earlier, it should be wholly withheld." 

The action of manure is even now very far from 
being thoroughly understood. When modern chem 
istry was first applied to agriculture, it was supposed 
that the great object of manure was merely to afford 
food for plants. But it was afterward found that 
other conditions were of equal importance, and that 
the advantage of many manures arose from their me 
chanical influence upon the soil. At Lois Weedon 
in England, excellent crops of wheat have been raised 
by thorough cultivation, without the application of 
manure, and the same principle was advocated by 
Jethro Tull in 1731, whose famous system of horse 



MANURE. 221 

hoeing husbandry consisted simply in deep ploughing 
and thorough pulverization of the soil. 

But while the mechanical condition of the soil 
exerts a most important influence on the growth of 
plants, there can be no doubt that unless all those 
elements of which a plant is composed, exist in the 
soil, or are derivable from other sources, healthy 
vegetation is impossible. Tull s farm finally failed to 
yield fair crops, notwithstanding large expenditures, 
on the mechanical part of the process, and the same 
result is said, to have attended the rigorous applica 
tion of his principles elsewhere. 

If the action of manures in general, is but imper 
fectly understood, still less does its influence upon 
the vine and its products, seem to have been reduced 
to known laws. In France the use of manure has 
been productive of evils so great as to induce the 
company of wine merchants, and vineyard proprie 
tors, to condemn the use of azotized manures entirely. 

On the other hand, the vine-dressers of Thomery, 
who produce the beautiful Chasselas de Fontainebleau 
grapes, use rich manures in liberal quantities. In 
general, it will be found in this, as in other cases, 
that a middle course is best. If the border has been 
purposely prepared in the first place, a vigorous 
growth will have been secured, while it \vas necessary 
that the vine should produce abundant wood, and 



222 OPEN ATK GKAPE CULTURE. 

when, after four or five years, the fruit is applied to 
the manufacture of wine, all rankness of growth will 
have disappeared. If, in after years, the vine should 
show symptoms of debility, it will be easy to supply 
it with nourishment, by means of liquid manure ; and 
if ample means are provided for keeping the roots 
very dry during the ripening process, so that we can 
regulate the period over which the effects of such 
application shall extend, we are inclined to believe 
that no evil results will follow. 

M. Ladrey suggests that -but one portion of the 
\ineyard be manured at one time, and that the wine 
from the part so treated be kept separate from the 
rest, until the evil influence of the manure has disap 
peared. It is obvious, however, that if we could 
avoid entirely any loss, of even a part of the vineyard, 
it would be desirable. 

In this, however, as in all other matters, we must 
keep steadily in view the fact, that all rank vegeta 
tion exerts an injurious influence, not only upon the 
fruit product of the current year, but on the wood 
upon which our next year s crop depends. 

In his " Nouveau systeme de la culture de la vigne," 
Persoz attempts to avoid the evils incident to the 
ordinary mode of the application of manure, by add 
ing to the soil those matters which tend to produce 
wood, and those which favor the production of fruit, 



MANURE. 223 

each at the appropriate time. His formulae are as 
follows. 

Six pounds bone dust; three pounds leather clip 
pings and other animal refuse ; (blood, horns, hoofs, 
etc.) and one pound gypsum, making in all ten pounds 
to be added to each square yard of border. This is 
done in the spring before the buds have pushed. 

As soon as the young shoots are well advanced, he 
manures each square yard with eight pounds silicate 
of potassa, and two pounds of the double phosphate of 
potassa and lime. Silicate of potassa he procures by 
fusing fifteen parts of quartz sand with ten of potassa 
and two of charcoal. 

The double phosphate of potassa and lime is pre 
pared, by adding 18 Ibs. of sulphuric acid to 24 Ibs. 
of calcined and pulverized bones. This, after being 
well stirred, is diluted with water, allowed to stand 
for three days, treated with hot water and filtered. 
Carbonate of potassa is then added, until the liquid 
is slightly alkaline, and it is then evaporated in a cast 
iron vessel, roasted at a red heat, mixed with the sili 
cate, and the whole reduced to powder. 

A vine manured by Persoz with 0.5 kilogr. of sili 
cate of potassa, 1.5 of phosphate of lime and potassa, 
and an equal weight of dried blood and goose dung, 
put forth in one year a shoot 11 metres in length, and 
yielded on nine shoots twenty-five bunches of grapes, 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



while a similar vine, which was not manured, produced 
a shoot only 4.6 metres long, with only four or six 
blossoms, which faded away before their full devel 
opment. LIEBIG AND KOPP : Annual Report. 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 225 



CHAPTER XII. 

DISEASES AND INSECTS. 

WE confess we have had very little experience in 
the matter of diseases and insects affecting the grape 
vine. Our native varieties are so vigorous and hardy 
that disease rarely affects them, and during the grow 
ing season they push with such rapidity, that the loss 
of a few leaves destroyed by insects is scarcely felt. 

But we are aware that it is not always so, and we 
shall therefore give as full an account as we can 
obtain of the formidable pests to which the grape 
grower is exposed. 

When growing in the open air in a suitable soil, 
and with a good exposure, the only two diseases to 
which the grape vine is liable, are mildew and 
the rot. The former appears in whitish spots on the 
surface of the leaves and wood, and when examined 
with a simple lens of 25 inch focu s, shows a net-work 
of fungus with its sporules. 

For this, as well as for the red spider, no remedy 
has been found equal to sulphur, the use of which for 
this purpose has been known from time immemorial. 

10* 



226 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

To apply it, use may be made either of a common 
dredger fixed to the end of a pole, or of a pair of 
bellows with a contrivance for admitting a small 
quantity of sulphur into the stream of air. Or it 
may be mixed with water and the foliage syringed 
therewith. But the most efficient method is that 
proposed by Dr. Price, who was the first to suggest 
pentasulphide of calcium for this purpose. 

This compound is prepared by boiling 30 parts by 
weight of caustic lime with 80 parts by weight of 
flowers of sulphur, suspended in a sufficient quantity 
of water ; heat is applied until the solution has ac 
quired a dark red color and the excess of sulphur 
ceases to dissolve. The clear solution is drawn off, 
and after being diluted with 20 times its bulk of 
water, may be applied to the vines by means of a 
rsporige, brush or syringe. 

Where flowers of sulphur is used, it should have a 
tfew drops of ammonia added before it is applied to 
rth-G foliage, as the sulphurous acid with which it is 
saturated (derived from its combustion during dis 
tillation) is always iujuiious to leaves and young 
shoots. 

The rot has rarely troubled our northern vineyards, 
though it is the great bane of vine culture in Ohio. 
We are inclined to believe that if vines are planted 
in soil,, dry or well drained and not too rich, and bo 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 227 

allowed to extend themselves moderately, but little 
need be apprehended from the rot. 

Dr. Asa Fitch has found upward of thirty different 
insects which prey upon the grape vine, but with the 
exception of the red spider, and occasionally the rose- 
bug, they do not injure the vine materially. 

The red spider (acarus tellarius) of which we give 
a cut (Fig. 60), we have found, not only under glass, 




Fig. 60. 

but on vines in the open air. It is a small, reddish- 
colored insect which it requires a sharp eye to detect. 
For this, as for mildew, sulphur is a specific, and we 
are always safe in giving our vines a good dusting of 
this substance, so as to prevent any injury which 
might arise from either source. 

The rose-bug has never troubled us much. It 
nearly destroyed Dr. Underbill s vineyards at one 
time, however, and we therefore give his account of 
the matter in his own words. 

" Several years since, when my vineyards were 



228 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

smaller than at present, I found the rose-bug a 
formidable enemy. They appeared on the vines 
when they were in blossom, or just as the blossoms 
were falling off and the young grapes forming, and 
devoured them w T ith the greatest avidity. This feast 
continued from eight to twelve days, or, until the 
cherries on the trees in the vicinity began to ripen, 
when they with one accord flew to them, for a 
change of diet, I presume, or from some other cause. 
I was quite familiar with the habits of the caterpil 
lar, and had been in the practice of clearing them 
from my orchards in the spring, before they had 
destroyed scarcely a leaf. This I did not consider a 
great or difficult matter, for they were enveloped in a 
web early in the morning, and one man in a few 
days was able to clear many hundred trees, by twist 
ing them off, web and all, with a basket, and care 
fully placing them under his foot. The rose-bug, 
however, did not, like the caterpillar, make its 
appearance in clusters or webs, but in small numbers 
,at first, and scattered through the vineyards, increas 
ing rapidly every day. Though taken from the vines 
on the trellis every morning, they continued to mul 
tiply till the eighth or twelfth day, when they 
suddenly left for the cherry-trees, as before stated. 
I was at a loss at first to know where they came 
from, till .at length I discovered the ground perfo- 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 229 

rated with numerous holes, through which they made 
their way to the surface. 

" I observed, when they first appeared on the 
vines, they were so feeble as to be unable to fly 
even for a few yards. Having surmounted all other 
difficulties, I was determined not to be defeated in 
the vineyard cultivation of the grape by this insect, 
and consequently resorted to the following means for 
their destruction. I directed my men to take each a 
cup, with a little water in it, and go through the 
vineyards every morning, removing every bug from 
the vines ; and this was done quite rapidly by 
passing the cup under the leaf, and merely touching 
it, when the bugs instantly dropped, and were re 
ceived in the cup containing the water. "When the 
cup was full, they were soon destroyed by pressing 
the foot upon them on a hard surface. After all of 
them had been taken off, on the following morning 
there were ten on the vines where we had found but 
one ; and the succeeding morning, after having been 
removed as before, there were one hundred where 
there were but ten, and so on. I was not discouraged, 
however, and directed my men to persevere in the 
work of destruction, and we should thus perhaps 
prevent the formation of another progeny for the 
next season, for it is very easily shown that they do 
not migrate to any great distance; and by thus 



230 OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

destroying the present race, I am convinced that we 
insure ourselves from their further depredations to 
any injurious extent. When a person of some energy 
has cleared them from his vineyard or garden, he is 
pretty certain to enjoy the benefit of his labor an 
other season as well as the present, though he may 
have a few from his less resolute neighbor. Pursu 
ing the course I have mentioned, I very soon lessened 
the rose-bugs so much that they gave me very little 
trouble. 

" I also tried ploughing my vineyards just before 
winter set in, so as to expose to the weather the 
insect in the larva state, which will certainly destroy 
all the young tribe that have not descended below 
the reach of the plough. For two years past the 
number has been so small, that I have omitted this 
process for their destruction." 



HASTENING THE MATURITY OF TIIE GRAPE. 231 



CHAPTER 

METHOD OF HASTENING THE MATURITY OF THE GRAPE. 

SEVERAL methods have been proposed for causing 
grapes to ripen at an earlier period of the season than 
usual, or in localities where they would not other 
wise ripen at all. The most successful, and, on the 
large scale, economical, mode of effecting this is un 
doubtedly by means of glass houses, either with or 
without fire heat. A description of these is beyond 
the limits assigned to this work, though we may, per 
haps, be allowed briefly to describe two devices of 
this nature, by which a few bunches may be matured 
at small expense and with very little trouble. 

" More than twenty years ago, a market gardener 
at Bath published a plan of ripening grapes under 
common hand-glasses. He planted the vines in a 
soil composed in great part of lime rubbish ; placed a 
glass over each plant, taking out half a pane in its 
summit through which the leading shoot of the vine 
protruded itself, and grew in the open air. The 
bunch or bunches of grapes remained within the 
hand-glass, and -enjoyed the advantages of protection 



232 



OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



from cold winds, dews, and rains during the night, 
and of a high degree of confined solar heat during 
the day." LOUDON. 

Mr. Maund, editor of the " Botanic Garden," em 
ploys the following method of obtaining a few 
bunches : " Although my experiment is not yet com 
pleted, I cannot omit mentioning to you its success. 
Grapes grown on open walls in the midland counties 
are rarely well-ripened ; therefore, I provided a small 
glazed frame a sort of narrow hand-glass of the 
shape shown in the annexed outline, to fix against 
the wall, and inclosed in it one branch of 
the vine with its fruit and foliage. The 
open part, which rests against the wall, is 
13 inches wide, and may be of any length 
required to take in the fruit. The sides 
are formed of single panes of glass, seven 
inches wide, and meet on a bar which 
may represent the ridge of a roof, the ends 
inclosed by triangular boards, and having 
Fi - 61 - a notch to admit the branch. This was 
fixed on the branch a month before the vine came 
into flower. The consequence was, the protected 
branches flowered a week earlier than the exposed. 
The frame was not fitted closely to the wall, but in 
some places may have been a quarter of an inch from 
it. The lateral branches being shortened before it 




HASTENING THE MATURITY OF THE GRAPE. 233 

was fixed, it did not require removal, even for prun 
ing, because I adopt the long-rod mode of training, 
which is peculiarly adapted to my partial protection 
system. 

"The temperature within the frame is always 
higher than that without, sometimes at mid-day even 
from 20 to 30 degrees. By this simple protection, I 
find grapes may be ripened from three weeks to a 
month earlier than when wholly exposed, and this 
saving of time will, I believe, not only secure their 
ripening well every year in the midland counties, 
but, also, that such advantage will be available in 
the north of England, where grapes never ripen on 
the open walls. I should have told you that the 
cold nights of spring have caused almost all the 
young fruit to fall off during the flowering season, 
excepting where it was protected. 

" To hasten the maturity of grapes grown in the 
open air, means may be taken to throw them early 
into a state of rest. On the 20th of September prune 
the vine as you would in the month of December, 
taking off all the leaves and grapes, ripe or unripe, 
and shortening all the branches to one, two or three 
eyes at most. The following spring it will push its 
buds a few days before any of the neighboring vines 
pruned in winter. Train it as carefully all the sum 
mer as though you were certain it would ripen its 



234: OPEN AIK GRAPE CULTURE. 

crop of fruit. Pursue the same system annually, 
pruning the tree always between the 20th and 30th 
of September, and in the course of seven years you 
will be rewarded for your patience and expense with 
half a ripe crop in most summers, and a whole ripe 
crop in warm summers." LOUDON. 

The following method of hastening the maturity of 
grapes on open walls, was communicated to the Horti 
cultural Society of London, by Mr. Thos. Fleetwood : 
"Before the vines are out of flower, he brings each 
bunch into a perpendicular position by a thread at 
tached to its extremity, and fastened to a nail in the 
wall, carefully confining the young branch with the 
bunch thereon, as close to the wall as possible. The 
period of blossoming is preferred for this operation, 
because the bunch at that time takes a proper posi 
tion, without injury. 

By this practice the bunches are kept so steady 
that the berries are not bruised by the action of the 
wind, and being fixed close to the wall, they receive 
such additional heat, that they ripen a month earlier 
than when left to hang in the usual way." 

But of all the plans which have been proposed, 
perhaps the simplest and most efficient is ringing, 
girdling or breaking. It has been employed for 
many years in France, although it is there conceded, 
that it injures the quality of the wine produced. For 



HASTENING THE MATURITY OF TIIE GKAPE. 235 

table purposes, however, the grapes seem to be im 
proved both in size and appearance. 




The French method is shown in Fig. 62. Here 
the annular incision is made just below the fruit 
bunch at the time of flowering. A pair of pincers 
with a double pair of semicircular jaws, makes both 
the upper and lower incision at once, when the bark is 
easily removed by the finger nail. 

The following are the details of an English practi 
tioner : 



"The vines are generally cultivated upon the 
Hoare system, or, as it is called, the long rod system 
but they are not so cultivated in every case, for. 
sometimes an old bearer is spurred back to one or 
two buds, to carry its crop another year. My vines 
are very strong, and the rods or branches stand at 



236 OPKN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

least three feet, or even three feet six inches, distant 
from each other, when winter pruned. This allows 
just sufficient room for the fruit-bearing laterals and 
a young rod to come up between every two bearers. 
This young rod, of course, to be the bearer of laterals 
the following year : 

"Thus no vines cultivated on any other system are 
so capable of being rung, without the disadvantage 
of killing or losing the future useful part of the tree, 
because on Hoare s long-rod system, the whole of 
the previous years, bearers will have to be cut entirely 
away. 

"The very right time to perform the ringing is 
just after the berries are all set, or have attained the 
the size of No. 2 shot, or small peas. In ringing, cut, 
with a sharp knife, clean round the branch between 
two joints. Or, if you are going to ring the laterals 
carrying the fruit, leave either two or three buds and 
leaves beyond the main stem, and make the ring just 
in the middle, between the third and fourth leaves, 
or joints. As I said before, make two cuts clean 
through the bark, quite down into the wood, one inch 
apart, and remove the bark clean away, all round 
the branch or lateral. By this means, if you are in 
the habit of spur pruning, the hinder buds are left all 
right, to spur back the following year. If you prune 
upon the long-rod system, you may ring the rod just 



HASTENING THE MATURITY OF THE GRAPE. 237 

wherever you please the whole branch, if you like 
as the rung part will have to be cut away entirely 
after the fruit is gathered. 

"The ringing is performed just the same on an old 
whole branch as in that of the young lateral carrying 
one or two bunches. I have repeatedly rung old 
branches, that have been carrying from twenty to 
thirty bunches of grapes, with the same good effect ; 
only it has been such branches that I have intended 
to cut away entirely the following autumn : of 
course, thinning out the berries of the bunches, and 
the bunches too, if excellence be aimed at, is of 
the utmost importance. The process of thinning this 
cannot be too early attended to. I always begin as soon 
as the fruit is fairly set, and continue to remove all 
inferior berries, and, with a good pair of scissors and 
clean fingers, using my eyes to see what I am about, 
so as not to injure the berries by handling and maul 
ing them. 

"By thus practising ringing, I have produced for 
the last twelve or fourteen years, grapes, out of doors, 
that have puzzled many a tyro and others too. 

" Our indefatigable editors have both watched my 
progress in vine culture for years. My grapes have 
many a time puzzled the late Mr. Elphinstone, when 
he was gardener to the late speaker of the House of 
Commons, now Lord Eversley, although I used to 



238 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

compete against him, with both indoor and outdoor 
grapes, at our Hampshire horticultural show in No 
vember. 

" As a matter of course, I had read of ringing fruit 
trees, etc., but it never struck me to put the same 
into practice until about fourteen years ago, when my 
attention was called to it in an amateur friend s gar 
den, Mr. Frampton, glass and paint merchant of this 
city. I happened to walk in and look at some vines 
to which he was paying great attention at that time. 
This was in the month of September, and here I first 
saw the ringing process of the vine. Seeing a few 
bunches of the Blade Hamburg so large in the berry, 
and all ripe, I began to inquire into the particulars, 
when Mr. Frampton kindly showed me where the 
branches were rung, and that the ringing was the 
cause of their being so very large and so early. I 
then wanted to know whence Mr. Frampton obtained 
his information, when he showed it to me in the 
< Penny Cyclopaedia, from the pen of Professor 
Henslow/ Thos. Weaver, Gardener to the Warden 
of Winchester College. 

[It is quite true that we have watched for some 
years, with great interest, the experiment upon ringing 
vines carried on by Mr. Weaver, and we can authen 
ticate his statement of the mode of ringing and its 



HASTENING THE MATURITY OF THE GRAPE. 



230 



results. It must not be done in. that petty timid 
manner hinted at by a contemporary. There must be 
a ring of bark perfectly removed ; the cuts being 
made boldly down to the very young wood, or albur 
num, and every particle of bark, inner and outer, 
must be removed between the cuts. (See Fig. 63.) 



m 



Fig. 63. 

This drawing represents, faithfully, the rung part 
of a rod at the close of autumn, and shows how the 
removal of the band of bark checked the return of the 
sap, and how, in consequence, the rod above the 



MO OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

removed band increased in size beyond that portion 
of the rod below the band. 

The effect upon the berries was, in every instance, 
to advance their early ripening a fortnight, and to 
about double the size and weight of the berries, when 
compared with those grown on mining branches of 
the same vine. !N"or was the color and bloom of the 
berries diminished ; indeed, so excellent were they, 
that we have seen them exhibited deservedly by the 
side of grapes grown under glass, and they were sold 
in November, at Winchester, for half-a-crown a 
pound. 

Hinging the branches of fruit-trees, to render them 
fruitful, was practised in France, and recommended 
there in print, about a century and a half since. 
There are various letters upon the subject in the 
early volumes of the " Horticultural Society s Trans 
actions," and in one of them (vol. 1, page 107), 
published in 1808, Mr. Williams, of Pitmaston, gives 
full directions for ringing the grape vine. He tells 
the result, in these words : " I invariably found that 
the fruit not only ripened earlier, but that the ber 
ries were considerably larger than usual, and more 
highly flavored." Editor of the Cottage Gardener. ] 



CAKE OF OLD VINES. 241 



CHAPTER XIY. 

CARE OF OLD VINES. 

THERE are scattered through the country numerous 
old vines of large growth and great age, which have 
been trained upon trellises, through trees, against the 
sides of houses and on arbors, without much skill or 
attention. These well deserve good culture, and the 
owners would gladly bestow it if they knew how. 
For their benefit, a few hints in this direction may 
not be out of place. 

Such vines have in general either been left entirely 
to themselves, or trained wholly on the long-spur 
system, no new wood except these spurs being kept 
from last year s growth to supply the wants of next 
year, and the strength has thus been thrown to the 
ends of the stems, leaving them barren for a great 
distance from their base. 

Yines in this condition, if of good origin, may, by 
judicious management, be speedily made to bear 
large crops of excellent fruit, as their roots are large 
and powerful, and fully competent to supply nutri 
ment to a large crop of grapes. 

11 



242 OPEN AIR GKAPE CULTURE. 

If the stems are tolerably well supplied with bearing 
spurs, it may be advisable to take good care of such 
of these as we can find, and where there is a barren 
spot, to train a young shoot over it from the nearest 
bearing spur. Upon this young shoot spurs may soon 
be made, which will bear admirably. 

But, in almost all cases, the better plan will be to 
gradually renew the whole vine, as strong, vigorous 
shoots, when once laid in for main branches and well 
supplied with bearing spurs or canes, will last for a 
long time and give satisfactory results with far less 
labor than is required by an old and straggling vine. 

This change had better be effected gradually, a 
portion of the old wood being retained until the 
young shoots come into bearing, so that we need not 
be entirely deprived of fruit during its progress. 

Commence, then, at the spring or winter pruning, 
and remove all the wood that can be well spared, 
keeping only a few of the best main branches, and 
cutting the spurs on these very close, leaving not 
more than one eye to each. 

This severe pruning will cause the vine to throw 
up numerous strong shoots, or suckers, from near the 
roots. Two or three of the "best of these must be 
selected and trained to stakes, away from the trellis 
or arbor, so as to give them all the light and air pos 
sible; the laterals which start from these must be 



CAKE OF OLD YINES. 



243 



pinclied at the third leaf, and they should be stopped 
about the middle or end of September. All other 
shoots from the base of the vine, as well as all useless 
or barren shoots on other parts, must be carefully re 
moved as fast as they appear, so as to throw as much 
as possible into the canes we had selected. 

Next season, these canes must be disbudded and 
laid in as follows : Having removed all laterals and 
tendrils and tied them firmly to the trellis, as shown 
in Fig. 64, commence at the first good bud from the 




Fig. 64. 

base, which leave, and then remove all the buds for a 
space of from 14 to 20 inches. Between 14 and 20 
inches we will certainly find a good bud on the 



244: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

upper side of the cane (as it is tied to the trellis), 
which must be kept, and all the buds on the next 
equal space, removed in the same manner. So pro 
ceed until you have laid in ten or a dozen buds on 
each cane, when it should be cut off. We will now 
have two or more horizontal arms, each of which will 
throw up from 5 to 6 vertical canes of a strength 
sufficient to bear fruit next year, and the same num 
ber of short shoots which will form spurs for next 
year s bearing canes. But in order to make sure of 
this, we must prune the old vine very severely, in 
deed, and if we could make up our minds to do with 
out fruit for one year and cut it all away, we would 
be gainers by it in the end. But in any case, all 
fruit must be removed from our new wood, as the 
stems will have enough to do to cover the trellis 
without bearing a crop of grapes. 

Next year, the canes Z>, &, J, &, , will bear a full 
crop of fruit, and shoots must be trained up from the 
spurs, a, a, &, a, a, a, to take their place at the winter 
pruning. The whole management will now be the 
same as that previously described for vineyards. 

If it be preferred to train up the vine on the spur 
system, the buds at a, a, a, a, a, a, should be removed 
when the cane is disbudded the first season, and after 
having borne once on the long-rod system, the canes 
Z>, &, &, 5, , will be well provided with shoots by cutting 



CAKE OF OLD VINES. 245 

back on which good spurs may be formed. These spurs 
should be distributed along the canes at a distance 
of 14: to 20 inches on each side, and may be managed 
individually, as described in Chap. YII. 

The height to which spur-bearing canes may be 
carried is, perhaps, without limit, if they are properly 
treated and the vines have sufficient root power. 
But in practice, we do not think that it will be \vell 
to have them longer than 6 to 8 feet. They are thus 
kept within bounds, and any one which may become 
barren is more easily renewed than if they are of 
greater length. 

Where the vines are managed on the long-rod sys 
tem, we would never have the canes over 6 feet long, 
and if only 4J- to 5 feet, so much the better. 

Thus, if we desired to cover a wall or trellis fifteen 
feet high, we would have two tiers of arms carrying 
spur-bearing canes each 7 feet long, or three tiers 
carrying long-rod or renewal canes. 

Before proceeding to renew an old vine, it may be 
well to manure it thoroughly, either by a good top 
dressing in the fall, liquid manure during the grow 
ing season, or by digging a trench about six feet from 
the roots and filling it with good compost, bones, etc. 

An excellent plan for feeding an old vine is to 
make a basin about six inches deep round its roots, 
with boards, against the outside of which sufficient 



246 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTLKK. 

heavy soil lias been placed to make it water-tight. 
Then, during the growing season, let this basin be 
filled with soap-suds every washing day mixing 
them with chamber slops, etc. During the winter, it 
should be filled with leaves and prunings, over which 
a little earth may be thrown to keep the wind from 
blowing them about, and preventing an unsightly 
appearance. If the roots of the vine are so near 
the house as to be unsightly when treated in this 
manner, the basin might easily be provided with a 
light board cover neatly painted. It might be 
requisite to form it in two parts, having notches 
through which the stem of the vine can pass. 

That a good manuring will often cause a vine 
which has been previously unfruitful to bear abun 
dant crops, is well known. We have now in mind 
an instance of a vine which after remaining barren 
for many years suddenly became quite fruitful from 
chickens making a roost of the trellis on which it 
grew. 



TO PRESERVE GRAPES. 24:7 



CHAPTER XV. 

TO PRESERVE GRAPES. 

ALTHOUGH He who " has made everything beauti 
ful in his season," no doubt designed grapes to be 
used while fresh, yet, though we cannot preserve the 
exquisite flavor of newly -gathered grapes, we may, 
nevertheless, prolong their season, if not in its full 
excellence yet with sufficient attraction to make it 
worth while. 

"With proper care, grapes may be kept until 
Christmas, and at that time will command a price 
which would not be paid for fresh fruit during the 
height of the grape season. 

As yet, the preserving of the fruit seems to be but 
little understood, and although we have kept grapes 
until January in a very palatable state, and we have 
tasted others which have been tolerably preserved 
until March, we must acknowledge that none of these 
attempts quite came up to our desires, however much 
others might have praised the result. The truth is, 
that grapes in March will never be very severely 
criticised under any circumstances. They are too 
much of a rarity for that. 



248 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

Although the foreign grapes which are imported, 
packed in sawdust, are said to be gathered before 
they are fully ripe, we believe that this plan is not 
suited to our native varieties. They should always 
be fully ripe before they are gathered, and this should 
be done on a clear, dry day before they have been 
touched with frost. The bunches should be carefully 
examined, none but the first-rate ones selected, and 
they must be scrupulously freed from all dirt, such as 
leaves, spiders webs, insects, etc. All decayed or 
unripe berries must be removed with a pair of sharp 
scissors (merely pulling them off will not do) ; and 
they should be exposed to the air (but not the sun) 
for a few hours before being packed away. In one 
case where, after the grapes were gathered, the 
weather became damp before they were put up, we 
know them to have been placed in a moderately 
warm oven for rather more than five minutes, and 
the result was very good. 

The following are a few of the methods which have 
been recommended : 

1st. Procure some fine, dry sawdust (avoiding that 
from resinous or scented wood), and pack the grapes 
in a box or barrel, in layers, being careful to have 
sufficient between the bunches to prevent their 
touching. Bran is sometimes substituted for saw 
dust. 



TO PRESERVE GRAPES. 249 

2d. Wrap each bunch in fine, clean dry paper, 
and put away in layers in boxes. 

3d. Take a good box and place a layer of cotton 
batting on the bottom; on this place a layer of 
grapes, then a layer of batting and so on, until the 
box is full, wrapping each cluster in thin paper. 
Some omit the paper. 

4th. Seal up the ends of the stems with wax, and 
suspend them in a cool, dry and dark room, looking 
them over occasionally and removing unsound berries 
and bunches. 

The French suspend their bunches by the lower 
ends to a little hook (gee Appendix). Some cultiva 
tors, however, cut away the fruit-bearing branches 
and preserve the grapes attached to them. 

It has been advised to immerse the stems of the 
bunches in wine, before the fruit is used ; but as they 
are always dried up and incapable of transmitting 
fluid, we have found it better to immerse the whole 
bunch in cold water for half an hour or so. This 
restores the plumpness of the berries and removes 
some of the foxy flavor which is apt to tinge our 
native grapes when long kept. 



Jl* 



250 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 



CHAPTEE XYI. 

DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 
BLAND. 

Synonyms Bland} s Madeira, Bland 1 s Pale Red, 
Blanks Fox, Blanks Virginia, Carolina Powel, 
Red Bland, Red Souppernong. Where this grape 
will ripen well it is valuable on account of its fine 
flavor. It is, however, confined to the most southern 
and favorable localities, of which we take cognizance 
in this work, rarely ripening north of the Hudson, al 
though Elliot states that, in 1820, it was well grown 
,asid ripened in Kew Haven, Connecticut, in sandy 
soil. 

-Said to have originated in Virginia, discovered by 
Col. Bland, who presented cuttings to TV". Bartrem, 
the botanist, and also to Samuel Powel, Esq., after 
whom it was in some cases named. 

Bunches shouldered, long, loose. Berries round or 
slightly oblate, medium size, pale red when ripe, 
juicy, sweet sprightly flavor, very little pulp. Foliage 
pale green, smooth and delicate. 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GKAPES. 251 

CANADIAN CHIEF. 

This grape is claimed to be a native of New Jersey ; 
but our best pomologists are of opinion, that if a 
native, it is at best but a seedling, from some foreign 
variety. 

The bunches are large, berries medium, green or 
faint amber, and the flesh tender. 

In Canada it is said to be perfectly hardy and to 
ripen well in the open air. Grape-growers in the 
United States have sometimes found that it is apt to 
be winter-killed, and that it mildews badly. 

CATAWBA. 

This is the great wine grape of the South. It was 
first introduced by Major Adlum, of Georgetown, 
D. C., and has been subsequently patronized by N. 
Longworth, Esq., the father of American wine culture. 

Bunches medium size, loose, shouldered. Berries 
large and round or very slightly oval. Skin rather 
thick, pale red in the shade, deeper red in the sun, 
and covered with a lilac bloom. Juicy, sweet, 
musky. Should be allowed to hang till fully ripe. 
Downing states, that unless fully ripe it is more 
musky than the Isabella. Prince, on the other hand, 
says, that when fully ripe it is quite musky. Our 
own experience leads us to think that it is more 
musky when ripe than when unripe. 



252 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

CLINTON. 

It is generally believed that this grape originated 
in western New York. It is extremely hardy and 
productive, but as a table fruit we regard it as 
scarcely worthy of cultivation. It is said to ripen 
several days before the Isabella, but until well 
touched with frost it is uneatable. As a wine grape, 
however, it is said to be unequalled, amongst those 
grapes which ripen, where the Catawba fails to come 
to maturity. 

Bunches medium or rather small, shouldered, com 
pact. Berries small, round, black, thick bloom, 
juicy, acid and astringent. 

CONCORD. 

Though by no means a fine grape, the Concord is 
valuable from its quality of ripening ten days or so 
ibefore the Isabella, and consequently maturing in a 
large range of country where that grape fails. It is 
very vigorous, hardy, and productive. C. Downing 
describes it as follows : 

" Bunch rather compact, large, shouldered. Berries 
large, globular, almost black, thickly covered with 
bloom. Skin rather thick, with more of the native 
pungency and aroma than the Isabella, which it re 
sembles, but does not quite equal in quality. Flesh 
moderately juicy, rather buttery, very sweet, with 
considerable toughness and acidity in its pulp." 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 253 

The Concord grape becomes more foxy the longer 
it is kept, hence two persons, one of whom ate the 
fruit fresh from the vine, and the other obtained it 
only after it had been gathered some time, might 
form very different ideas as to its quality. 

* DELAWARE. 

This fine grape, which promises to stand in the 
front rank of our hardy native grapes, is said to have 
originated in New Jersey, whence it was carried to 
Ohio, and falling into the hands of A. Thompson, 
has been thence distributed pretty widely amongst 
fruit-growers. Some German vine-dressers have sup 
posed it to be the Traminer, while others have thought 
it the Resling, but we believe our best pomologists 
are agreed that it is a native. The following descrip 
tion is by C. Downing : 

" Bunch small, very compact, and generally shoul 
dered. Berries smallish, round when not compressed. 
Skin thin, of a beautiful bright red or flesh color, 
very translucent, passing to wine color by long keep 
ing. It is without hardness or acidity in its pulp, ex 
ceedingly sweet but sprightly, vinous, and aromatic, 
and is well characterized by Mr. Prince, as our high 
est flavored and most delicious hardy grape." 

DIANA. 

A seedling of the Gatawba raised by Mrs. Diana 



254: OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

Crehore, of Boston, and named after her by the Mas 
sachusetts Horticultural Society. Next to the Isabella 
and Catawba, the merits of this vine are perhaps the 
best established of any we have. It is a vigorous 
grower, a productive bearer, and extremely hardy. 
The bunches are large, the berries but slightly less 
than the Catawba, and of about the same color, per 
haps a shade darker when ripe. The flavor is very 
superior, and even before being fully ripe is still quite 
good, and is esteemed by some, as even then supe 
rior to the Isabella. Another excellent quality con 
sists in the ease with which the fruit may be kept 
for winter use. 

t- " ^ - ,; 

ELSINBOROUGH. 

A fine though small table grape, found near Elsin- 
borough, Salem Co., New Jersey, and first introduced 
by Dr. Hillings. It is hardy and productive, and 
worthy of more general cultivation than it has re 
ceived. Bunches medium, loose, shouldered. Berries 
small, round, black and covered with a blue bloom. 
They have generally but two seeds and are free from 
pulp or musky taste. 

Different authors have different modes of spelling 
the name of this grape. Thus it is called Elsinburg, 
Elsinburgh, etc. We prefer to spell it in the same 
manner as the village from which it takes its name 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 255 

KING. 

This is a new grape which sprung up accidentally 
in a garden in the northeastern part of this city, and 
is supposed to be a seedling of the Clinton, which it 
resembles very much both in habit and foliage ; the 
fruit, however, being of a green or yellowish hue in 
stead of black. We first saw it in bearing, in the fall 
of 1857 and thought so much of it as to procure cut 
tings. The fruit was brought before the Fruit-growers 
Society in 1858, and named by them in honor of Win. 
King, by whom it was introduced. It appears to be 
as hardy as the Clinton, and as the flavor is much 
superior it cannot fail to prove a valuable acquisition. 

HARTFORD PROLIFIC. 

A hardy, vigorous and productive variety which 
originated in Connecticut, and matures in latitudes 
where the Isabella and Catawba fail to ripen. 
Bunch large, shouldered, compact. Berry large, 
round, with thick black skin covered with bloom. 
Sweet, juicy and acid, but with a good deal of the 
native perfume. Ripens ten days before the Isabella. 
The berries have sometimes been found to fall from 
the bunch as soon as ripe, leaving a number of unripe 
berries. Lately, however, this difficulty has been 
lessened by superior cultivation. 






256 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

HERBEMONT. 

This is one of the grapes recommended by the 
American Pomological Society, as promising well. 
There is so much discrepancy in the descriptions by 
various authors, that we confess some doubt as to the 
identity of the varieties described. We quote the fol 
lowing from C. Downing : " This is the most rampant 
grower of all our hardy grapes, and under favorable 
circumstances yields a fruit of surpassing excellence, 
with which the nicest detector of foxiness, thickness 
of skin, toughness or acidity of pulp, can find no 
fault ; north of Philadelphia, it needs a warm expo 
sure or favorable season for the full development of 
its excellences. In our village, under the care of a 
lady, it has not failed for many years to give a most 
abundant crop of perfectly ripened fruit, and without 
protection has not suffered at all from winter-killing. 
A very old vine in Baltimore, which had never 
before failed to produce abundantly since its first 
bearing, had, last winter, when the mercury fell to 
19 below zero, all its young wood killed; but ordi 
narily in that latitude and further south, it is an 
unfailing bearer and particularly fitted for those 
6i ii them latitudes that are liable to injury from late 
frosts in spring and early frosts in autumn, as it flow 
ers very late and ripens its fruit early. Its leaves in 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 257 

autumn are the last to yield to frost, remaining per 
fectly green and vigorous after all others have 
withered and fallen ; consequently, it has often an 
amount of unripened wood, which should be cut off 
before winter. 

" Bunch very large and exceedingly compact, 
shouldered. Berries below medium, round, dark 
blue, or violet, covered with a thick, light bloom. 
Skin thin, which is filled with a sweet, rich, vinous 
aromatic juice, of so little consistence that it cannot 
be called flesh. 

"LKNOIR, LONG-, DEVEREAUX, AND THURMOND. 
Under the above names, grapes much resembling in 
character the Herbemont, are grown in the southern 
States, and we have hitherto considered them synony 
mous of it ; but our southern friends claim that Lenoir 
is a distinct variety, and much earlier than any of the 
others, and also that at least some of the others are 
distinct. The matter is now under investigation, and 
we must wait the result before deciding." 

I SAB ELLA . 

The popular account of the origin of this vine, is 
that it was a native of South Carolina, which being 
brought to the North and introduced to the notice of 
cultivators by Mrs. Isabella Gibbs, the wife of George 
Gibbs, Esq., was named in honor of that lady. It has, 



258 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

however, been attempted to throw some doubt upon 
this history not, perhaps, as to the facts themselves, 
but as to their accounting for the origin of the Isa 
bella grape some pomologists claiming that it is a 
widely distributed and well-known native species, 
while others assert that it is a well-known European 
variety. 

But be this as it may, it is certainly one of our 
most prolific and vigorous varieties, and is thus far 
more widely cultivated at the North than any other 
with which we are acquainted. Nor is this preference 
misplaced, as it excels all others which have been 
fully tested, both in the amount and in the certainty 
of the crops produced. When quite ripe, the flavor 
also is excellent, and the pulp almost disappears. 
Few realize this condition, however, as the fruit is 
generally gathered long before it is ripe. The follow 
ing description is by A. J. Downing : 

" Bunches of good size, live to seven inches long, 
rather loose, shouldered. Berries oval, pretty large. 
Skin thick, dark purple, becoming at last nearly 
black, covered with a blue bloom. Flesh tender, 
with some pulp, which nearly dissolves when fully 
mature ; juicy, sweet, and rich, with slight musky 
aroma." 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 259 

LOGAN . 

This is a new grape which is recommended by the 
American Pomological Society as promising well. It 
ripens about the first of September; is black, sweet 
and good. Bunches and berries large. 

A. Thomson, Esq., of Delaware, Ohio, describes it 
as follows : " It is a black grape, ripening before the 
Catawba, and preferred to the Isabella, and is believed 
to be a wilding of Ohio ; hardy, vigorous ; wood 
short-jointed and compact ; distinct in wood and foli 
age, productive, and probably the earliest hardy 
grape of fair quality in cultivation, and will ripen its 
fruit several degrees further north than the Isabella 
and Catawba." 

EARLY NORTHERN MUSCADINE. 

With regard to this grape, the most contradictory 
accounts have been published. Some pomologists 
speak of it in high terms, and by others it has been 
as fiercely condemned. A gentleman, in whom we 
have every confidence, assures us that wherever he 
has introduced it it has given satisfaction, and we 
believe that he has no peculiar interest in this par 
ticular variety. Our own experience is not sufficient 
to warrant us in giving a decision, and we therefore 
append a statement by Messrs Lewis and Brainard, 



260 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

agents for the Shaker Society. We have, however, 
tasted wine made from this grape, which gave pro 
mise of much excellence. We have under cultiva- 
vation a vine procured direct from New Lebanon, 
and expect ere long to satisfy ourselves in regard to 
its merits. 

" THE EARLY NORTHERN MUSCADINE, 

"A Shaker /Seedling, 

Of which the accompanying plate is a fac-simile of 
the cluster, ripens 15th of September ; light amber 
color, medium size; delicious flavor, many say 
unsurpassed. 

"This excellent grape, the subscribers affirm, 
ripens nearly a month earlier than the Isabella in the 
same latitude ; is perfectly hardy for the northern 
climate ; a sure and constant bearer ; if properly and 
judiciously pruned, bears enormously ; not subject 
to mildew, slightly fibrous in pulp, and has often 
been pronounced, by competent judges, superior in 
its season, to the Isabella or Catawba in their season, 
either as a table or wine grape. Its characteristic is 
peculiarly that of a summer fruit ; and wine made 
from it, simply with the addition of sugar, has been 
often pronounced by hundreds superior to the best 
Sicilian light t wines, which it somewhat resembles ; 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 261 

and very high prices have frequently been offered 

and refused for it, by those who were acquainted with 

its merits from actual use. 

"Prof. J. P. Kirtland, M.D., of Cleveland Medical 

College, a correspondent of the Ohio Farmer/ of 

Cleveland, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1857, made the following 
remarks r During the last three weeks, we have 

amused ourselves in treating, perhaps, a hundred indi 
viduals to specimens of the Northern Muscadine, 

Catawba, Diana, Clinton, Isabella and Winslow seed 
ling. Four in five (or four-fifths) of these persons 
have decided the Northern Muscadine to be the best 
in that list. 

"The subscribers affirm that twenty-five years 
trial of this grape, in connection with about forty 
other kinds of our best modern, foreign and domestic 
grapes, give the Muscadine a large superior margin 
of profit. In short, its merits only need to be known 
to be appreciated, however much it may have been 
demerited by pomologists entirely unacquainted with 
its quality. It has taken premiums in several fairs in 
the United States, and has never, in our knowledge, 
been condemned by those who have raised it and 
tasted it fresh from the vines, or w r hen properly kept, 
though it is not a long-keeping variety ; but in this 
respect, is like all our choicest summer fruits. 

" The best recommendation for this grape is, that 



262 OPEN AIR GEAPE CULTURE. 

all who have ever raised the genuine Northern Mus 
cadine, speak well of it, while it is constantly 
sought after where best known, in preference to all 
other varieties, notwithstanding some pomologists, 
unacquainted with it, have decided against it for 
reasons best known to others than to the suscribers. 

" Multitudes of spurious varieties have been sold 
for this grape. 

"JESSE LEWIS, & ) A , 
"D. C. BRAINARD. f A S t&< 

REBECCA. 

Described by the Committee on Native Fruits, of 
the American Pomological Society, as follows : 

" Tlie Rebecca originated in the garden of Mr. 
E. M. Peake, Hudson, !N. Y., about eight years ago. 
Mr. Peake s garden is in one of the thickly settled 
streets of the city, and nearly the usual size of a lot, 
perhaps one hundred by one hundred and fifty feet 
deep. Between the house and the street there is a 
small flower garden. It was here that the original 
vine grew. Mrs. Peake was about making some 
alterations in her flower-beds, and this vine being in 
the way, her garde-ner advised her to dig it up, as it 
was only an old wild grape. But disliking to 
destroy it, she removed it with her own hands, and 
planted it very carelessly in the garden, back of the 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 203 

house, in a very poor and cold clay soil. Here the 
vine made slow progress, but continued to increase 
in size until the third or fourth year, when it produced 
a few clusters of small white grapes. These appeared 
to possess so much merit, and were so much better 
than had been expected, that pains were then taken 
to feed and nourish it, and prune it into shape, and it 
soon well repaid all the labor bestowed upon it. It 
grew vigorously, making shoots ten or fifteen feet 
long, and bore abundant crops of the most delicious 
grapes, until at the present time it has reached the 
top of the house, and covers a trellis ten feet wide 
and twenty-five feet high, loaded with fruit. 

"Bunches medium size, about six inches long, very 
compact, without shoulders ; berries medium size, 
obovate ; about three quarters of an inch in diame 
ter; skin thin, greenish white, becoming of a pale 
amber color at full maturity, covered with a thin white 
bloom ; flesh very juicy, soft and melting, and free 
from pulp ; flavor rich, sugary, vinous, and brisk, 
with a peculiarly musky and luscious aroma, distinct 
from any other grape ; seeds small, two to four in 
each berry ; leaves scarcely of a medium size, about 
seven inches long and seven in width, very deeply 
lobed and coarsely and sharply serrated ; upper sur 
face light green, slightly rough; under surface 
covered with a thin, whitish down ; nerves promi- 



264 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

nent ; petioles rather slender." (See report of Sixth 
Session of Am. Pom. Soc.) 

TO KALON. 

Some pomologists have characterized this variety 
as a very poor bearer, while by others it is highly 
recommended. At the sixth session of the Pomologi- 
cal Society it elicited considerable discussion. 

C. Downing speaks of it as follows : " This fine 
grape has been but little disseminated in consequence 
of the general supposition, that is was very much 
like, if not identical with the Catawba, from which 
it is entirely distinct in wood, foliage and every 
characteristic of the fruit. It is a vigorous grower, 
foliage very large, abundant, and much less rough 
than Catawba, or Isabella, and the alse of the leaves 
overlap each other differently from any other with 
which we are acquainted. 

" Bunches large and shouldered. Berries varying in 
form from oval to oblate, very dark in color and pro 
fusely covered with bloom. Its fruit when ripe is 
sweet, buttery and luscious, without foxiness in its 
aroma, or any toughness or acidity in its pulp. It is 
perfectly hardy, and with good treatment in deep, 
rich, pervious soil, it is an early and abundant bearer ; 
with indifferent treatment it is a poor bearer. It 
ripens a little earlier than the Isabella." 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GKAPES. 265 

It is one of the seven varieties recommended by 
G. Downing for general cultivation, but it is not 
recommended as even promising well by the Pomo- 
logical Society. 

UNION VILLAGE. 

A fine black grape, said to resemble the black 
Hamburgh very much. It is a vigorous grower, 
hardy and productive. A little earlier than the Ca- 
tawba or Isabella. Recommended as promising well 
by the Pomological Society. 

NEW VARIETIES. 

New varieties of grapes may be raised by the me 
thods formerly described. Most of those so produced 
will of course prove worthless, being seldom equal to 
the parents. But occasionally a fine variety will 
reward our efforts and afford ample compensation for 
a thousand failures. Amongst those who devote 
their attention to the raising of new kinds may be 
mentioned, J. Eiske Allen, Esq., of Salem, Massachu 
setts, and Dr. Talk, of Flushing, Long Island. O. T. 
Hobbs, Esq., of Randolph, Pa., also informs us that 
he intends to devote his entire nursery to the produc 
tion of new kinds of fruits and flowers, making the 
hardy native grape a specialty. He has already 
produced two new varieties which are said to be of 

12 



266 OPEN AIR GRAPE CULTURE. 

considerable excellence, viz. the Kitchen grape and 
the North America, both seedlings from the Franklin 
grape, which is also a variety first brought forward 
by Mr. Hobbs. 

LISTS OF SELECT GRAPES. 

BY THE AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. For 
general cultivation. Catawba, Concord, Delaware, 
Diana, Isabella. Grapes ivhich promise well. Herbe- 
mont, Logaii, Hebecca, Union Tillage. 

LIST BY C. DOWNING. Catawba, Isabella, Diana, 
Delaware, Kebecca, To Kalon, Concord. 

Our own views are that the Isabella is the most re 
liable grape for general cultivation at the ISTorth. 
By proper culture, both the Isabella and Catawba may 
be grown much further north than they are usually 
found, and it is possible that amongst our new varie 
ties some may be found to excel there. The Diana is 
now pretty well established, and is a most excellent 
variety, and we would by all means encourage a trial 
of the Delaware, which gives great promise. For a 
garden, we should choose Isabella, Diana, and Dela 
ware with the Catawba when it will ripen. It would 
also be well to plant a Clinton where the exposure 
is not sufficiently good to warrant the planting of 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NATIVE GRAPES. 267 

a better variety. The Clinton is a hardy grape which 
\vill mature where other kinds will not, and although 
the fruit is not eatable in our estimation, yet it makes 
good wine. The King grape, however, seems to be 
quite as hardy as the Clinton and the quality pro 
mises to be equal to many of the more celebrated 
kinds. 

Where the vines we have named will not succeed, 
we would plant Concord, Northern Muscadine and 
Hartford Prolific in preference to any other kinds, 
and under any circumstances we confess to a pen 
chant for variety, as it is often found that the good and 
bad qualities of any particular grape, are confined to 
certain localities, so that by extending our selection 
we may gain an experience which will enable us to 
avoid the evil and to obtain the good. 



TABULAR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



NATIVE GRAPES. 



The following catalogue makes no pretensions to originality, the descriptions 
given being in general those published by the originators of the variety, where such 
descriptions were procurable. The numerous blanks occurring in the tables will 
show at a glance the extreme imperfection of the descriptions usnally published. 
Instead of giving such an account as would enable us to recognize the variety or to 
appreciate its real qualities, most so-called descriptions consist merely of a string 
of eulogies. The reader will observe that sometimes (for want of more definite in 
formation), we have described the flavor as "good," "pleasant," etc., although 
such a description is no description at all, not only because tastes differ so much as 
to what is good, but because there probably never was a grape which was not thought 
by its originators to excel everything else. We give their statements merely for 
what they are worth. 

In many cases we have been able to give the name and nothing more. If by so 
doing, however, we can lessen in a slight degree the further increase of synonyms, 
the space thus occupied will not be wasted. There are certain names which seem 
to occur to every one who has or thinks he has a new variety and the bantling 
straightway receives a name which has probably served half a dozen before it. 



270 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 







3 




Od 




o ^i 




3 


T3 


3 *l 






3 


1 




w 
M 


.1 


Iff || 




aJ 


C3 *? 

a " 
.5 


12 | 


1 I 


a 


ft s 


2-d o 


*s g 


rt 


S "s 


,50 ^ 


1 1 


ej 




1. ! 

^ O ^ 


. >> 

o b" &* 

2 . ^ . . 

>*"-;? S S "t ^ 


1 L 


3 


1 f 


t <2 ^ fi 

Hi i 


f I 1 






S <* i-- 




* S 


gg o 


g Js-w ug.s 


d o -g s 


O 








O 


& .0 


^r^-2 3 jo ii "3 

_o ^ = 


J2^2 -^ ^ 






~ = t3 




ri 


c : 


i i i ^ 1^.^. 


TS ^ -^ 


fa 
^ 


"3 ; ^ 

"bb ; 


yj ^ i^ 


ij 11 


H 

a 


. s s 


s a . . a . a 




a 

a 


.3 .2 

tTT3 -0 




|| || 




~ I a 


s a- - a~ a 


, 


ri 


|: i 


S * * " S c3 


tC 3J jj 


. >5 


"3 r g 


P I I " fc" G 


c "3 ^ 





O o 


S : : : |8 


11 5 


p 


d 


. . a . & . 


a a 


M a 

OT 


^5 jj 


8-rll -^ 
~|^ b* 


1 1 


^ 

|2 


: : -if jf .::::= = f : I 


l : --^_j 


i i III 


;:::-- : -g 


fc o .esc 
s tc ce ^ ?; 

sc :S5S 


02 


: :-<i5 


-% " 06 


Oi S 




. . r^ 


. . .J= 3) 






o 


; ipli; !* ! 




ri 








s 

53 


ill! ii 






<<<<< <} <<<< < -<j -s^ p p5 P3 p^ p^ p; pq p^ p; p5 p^ pq. jq P5 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIYE GRAPES. 271 



Ill 



3. 



^- Y 


""" * b 
s 

< 


i t 




tttt ^ 
cl^^| S o? 






t. 






v. t, a,< ^ ^ 






T: 






a T3 c 






2 






co ol?g 2 2 






E 











^ 1 








12 2 2 >l 




o .F 














1 x 








v xmt? : - *" ^ 


fc 


>>? "S 

1 


< 




^ 


" |||^ 1 |.SS 


12 


"** on 












. . . i 






I 






II " 1 


ii 
|j 




c 


Iss S ifllS ! 




5 * 3 J 

-- 


p^ 




f 

i 


3^=^=3 3^2^*- S 




i ^ 


! ^ 







.2 "O " S j "d d" ai *d "d" "c 


d 








c 


-a cc-^c c-^aa c 


a 




5 






C 331*3 3=^33 C 


3 


i 2 


: g 




* 


g 22o22o. 2 a I 


2 


) 60 tO 


i 







1 


1 333! I d 1 & j 


6 


cS 






E 


V SSSoj SScUcd 4 


S 










a mMsgc g^ g 


- 


: " 8 


*i 






C . T3 




;tfi 


i 






^ oj etf t- 


* 


S3 


a 






C^* ^ r^ . p^ 1^3 





: a a 
: g g 


1 






1 -^ 1 : 1 1 




: * 


. 






. . 




: g, 


| = 


- 




a a a E 

3 33 = 


d 


! * 


|s 






a : : a a E 


1 





c c 




c c 


oTS 5 : r : 






O 

c c 




Q 


m <: oJ G * * 

* S - 




: 








IK! :3 : : 


: 




3 3 




3 3 1 


J^^o :o : :^ 






Cf2 CQ 




CC t 


. . ^ . 












._,- -^_- ?- ^t ^ 




. 








*? ^ 3 qj (D-d ... 


. . 


: t 

j O ^ 


: > 






| : : ^5^1 ; S:s ! : 





J-2 b 


ei 






fce aj S S 3 ^ * ^ ! o I 


: ^i 


= > -5 
<"^ o> C 

;s i 

> | 


i2 
: 

:- c 
3335 


e 
e 
1 

. 


I? -s 

ss 


c3 cSo3 cs3SSi333 rt rt S cSl 


ll| 
lit 



272 DESCSIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GKAPES. 



REMARKS. 


!! 

G . 1 

S >> . 

g 111 

n *"< 


Vigorous and hardy 
Hardv. 


*! || 

M ?W 


oi 

1 


"ft 

02 M . 


end of Sept. 
14 d. b. I. 


: 3 1 3 

r-( p r^ 


1 


d il -d 


S >* 

3 a" 1 t 


3 
O O 

-a -^ * -a -2 -S 

O q^ ^ O ^ ^ 


I 
s 


"& 

g g. -g -o 

i |l 1 1 

O 


g* g 

3 ^ 


_ _ _t3 

.2 S ^ 3 "3 S -3 

^ ft ^ 




: : 








tD 
g ^ 


~ 13 . & 

i 2 i 2 


... a 

i i i| 


r- "O T3 -O T3 >O 

cs c c c a a 

> 3 3 3 3 3 

22 2 2 2 


H- 


_ s a . 

1 If i 

* a a - " 


-- 1 

Illl 1 
a g^^cs t 


_. _. _J J _J . 

11 1 1 ll 


W 

E 

a i 
o 


if 1 ! 1 


o lS : ^ 

eS rf a3 
ft ft O 

a a :"3 
8 s il 


i i I, i i, &! 


s- 

B 


: a : a - 

> : -| : | 


il il 


a : a j a a. a 

2 : 3=4 2 22 
-r ^ I I "^ "S 

a ; a M a a a 


L 


i : ;,. i -g3j ; 




: : : : : 


oo 

l fe 


i ^ i ||o 








ce |P . v- ^^* 


. . *= . . 


t. . 






- 


. . 


ri 


^ : : . 


: :| : : 


: d : 


K 


Illllll 1 1 1 

CJOOdOOO O O C 


i-l l-l 
llllll 


6o5o fi fi a 3 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 273 









. . . gzj 

i-st gal 


5 *o -2 to 

||1 1 


-g 8 
1 tt 

1 la 


t 
j 

T 
1 


I 


2 
3 

Q 



fff 


j j 


i 


J i 


<i^y 

i 


xi 

o" 
oo 


<2 2 <2 
t 


III 


iili 


* "7 




sweet, rich. 


|s| 


M . & *- 
1 & 

ig *- 3,^ 
ft| 


* i! ?i 

^t^- 


^ I 
? 

V l X 

3 Bi E 





1 


HI 
222 


d -d 

2 2 


i 2 
. f^ 

2 2 


-c-o 
c c 
s s 

22 




1 


lit! 


a> ^ oJ o a 
to -^ tjo be 5 


o "515 SDM 


a* a j 

11 

a a 




1 






S 




: < 

1 




I 




t i 


a w . ^ 


:| S 
: a 


I 


f 


! 




si 1 ; : 


f f I i j i 


li I" 

. . , 00 1+ 




i 




1| 5 : : 


.2.2 


: : % ft 




& 




^^ w : : 


33 1 ] 


: : o 




s 


. . . . 


* 




-^c 


I 




** 
g&< * 

S^Pn cu = 


Wi Hi 




: : % 1 


| 
t 


1 




il-si i 

;?= ^ 

>!>>!*>*>> > 

C-Ct: T 

i3 




. ti> tao 

IHlJjl 


II 1^1 

3d t. 

ww ^ > 


J 

r 

i 


Garver s Se 
Garrigues 



12* 



274: DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 






9 

1 


lJM 1 

^llll f 
flfels 1 

cs g 3 ca 5 

&a|sa g 


= 8 .H-E: 

51 ais 

S S S 2 ^ 






4 
1 


j 


|f } ^{F 




| 


<u 5. >r> ^ 

E-* .1 * I i| 


1 II g" .- -H! 




3 


fit jf 1 |;l 

3 > . fe 


If t - fl 








f|| 1 1 ||! 


H ^--2 s ^ ^^ 

" ct ^ " rt rt -S 

Sjs g, 3 33 










* 


E 

H 


c c c c c a . s 

333 3 3 3 > 

222 2 22: 


c c c c c c 

33 3 333 

22 2 222 





g 

B 


s . e s e s 

^.2=3 ^ .2 .2.2 

m I * I Iss 


_. . _._. 
i i ^ & "*"* 


a 




| 


t3 T^ O T-3 ? 
"3 "3 "3 "3 r 

o o o o e 

*S "S "S *S t 


. T3 *" 

|| J si 
;| !f 

to ^ 


p 

pq 


H 
55 


E S . 6 
22? 2 
S -S E? "S 

es- I 


i 
^ 1 

" 6 


5 






: : ~ a 


> 
y 

c 

2 
C 
a 




i 

i 
t 


^ .2 


"s . : fe "5 ^ 






? 








is J3 * : 


H a "o 




g 
PS 


fli -*J C O OJ 

P--S S g- 
23 ^ ! S 

.-S oS o n "3 "rt cs"rtr 

r K rh , h rK rh "T" W W rrt >T 


Si ^ rt 

^Uljiillj i 

iwMWwSmMrt iri ww m 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 275 



s 


. 




n 


rT 


T 


* 


w " 




I 


" 5 
I " 


_^ 


1 


| 


i 

5 

a 

s 


lj 


3| 




a 

88 

al 


b I 
I 1 


3 
CT 1 

73 

2 


to 

.S 

1 


z 
? 


s 

3 

i 


^J 


ill 


I 


jg 


O PH 




02 






cb 


ft 




T 


& 





t 1 


- r 


"^ 


-U* > ^ 


"^-^Y 


Hi 




2 


O> 


oa to 




i 


^s : 




x! 







.1 


ja 




| 


2 S ; 




73 




^ 


a 


6 S 




r- 


v ! 




T-< 


. 




: m 


? 












1^ 


: ^3- 


i| 


c3 






- : " - 






ill 


: s 


il 


f i 






i:I I 






~A~ 




; c 


k 










: 














<u 




<0 














. . & 




u 4 


** i2 "o 


rt 





| 1 






g-go g, 




p t 


fl 


^2 


73 


3 ^ 3 






333 | 




3 


. 13 




"3 


i 






L- 




> 
o 

73 


o 




O 


o 






2 : 




g 


"c8 . 




.F 


a 






. 0" . a 










v : 










1 




OQ tO Cd 






I i 






c^ ^ ^ ^: 


i 




| 3 " 




** 








l a J 


r 


: 


73 
03 S 




c 





1 






|1 




1 


8 3 







3 










& 


S 1 


c 




o 






o fl 




8 


a a 


a 


a 


S 






; g 




g- 


3 3 


3 


3 


p 






p "^ 




^ 


73 73 

a a 


73 

a 


1 


t3 

a 






^ "* 




a 


So 






^d 






. . 












cS 






cs rt : : 






> 


.2 : 




PQ 






= : : ; 




.2 


c 
.2 


o : 




:-g 






"11 : : : 







a 


: 




. 3 






: M0 : : : 






tt 


: : ^ 








^,^ 




1 


6 


Si 


iJfS 




t 


1 




ts c 


j 

C 


\ 1 


i! 5 

51 d; 


r J O i q , 


|j^| 


^1 : 


| 

-S 

J . 


1 


Illlil^ 


.5 

, 




3 o 

s fe s 



5; - -sis Sl1iS i a i ) l 2 III 

1 ^^ ^ ,3 



6= 3 

to bo.22 

a c a 



276 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 





i d S.I- s 


02 


* ! - 1 SJ 5 S -s 


i 


8 *$ 8 * 5 S 


m 

M 


lie 1 I S 3 !- s "1 "^1 




^O 03 Wjp> "^^ J2*^^ JrtP* 




C4 M m S f* 


02 


*^r 


w v-^. 


-*- S*-Y 


~ r~ -v 




g 












PS 












o 








| 




d 




1 




1 g 
o ^ 


I 


EH 








g 




rf 




o 












O 
h-5 




| w & 




o o "o 








S 




l* ft 




23 S 








g 




C73 




erf -c 








S ^ 




p p 




2 








g 




S . 












I 


j 

i 


3=3 0> 

i a g w 




II 1 








g 




1 








tl 












2 g 






i 


" 








p 

B 


j 






1 












S3 cS r3 






1 


o "3 








02 


ill 






; jt 


1 








S 


I 




? 




^ 


g, 






a as 


cS 




1 




P-( 






o 


00 






a 

c3 




| 


9 
q 




a 


& 


E 




S 






jS 




* 


02 


J 




^ : : 


S 














J : : 


: : : 












J * : : 


I > ! ! 




i 


rf 


9s ^ (^ 


O 


,^3 ^ 3 






s 


"o "3 fc" 


c ., . : 


o b "in -2 


s 


85 


33 v--.? 3 ^^ ^ .22:32 

cfe --3 oJ^flfl-SflddceS ":-< 

11 III IJ1*1 1111 ill 11 !.i 

^ ^ 53a sss ssssss^ssssss 


1 

a 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 277 












*^ 


M 




&M 


: -3 









* 


3 




S S * 






r^ 








S o 


O 73 


: ^ 












B ^ 


"1 


^ i 




3 
J[ 


. 


^ 




- g & 


Sit -:S 






Us 




c 








l\i 




rt 



1 


a 
1 




-S J 2 - 


If ;J 1 i 






i 


& 


i 




m 


11 : l 






1 


^ 


1 


-r 

Vi 


,11 
303 


l^^n ^ 


rt cS 




c 


rf 


. 


h 


3 * ft 


J _s~ l _3 ^ 


S 2 




In 


10 


I 


| 


Hi 


a ^ 


73 T: 

a c 

3 3 




o 


7; 






73 73 73 

C G C 
333 


:-d ITS 73 73 

. G . C C G 
3 -333 


S 2 




g 


g 


o 




222 


: g : g g g 


ill 




V 

eS 


_ 

3 





E S 
7/1 


| a 


1 


g 










5 


a 


1:0 " a s a a 


"S ""S 












73 


: : : :^ "S 


111 
Ml 










J 


!!} 


8 "* : -8 


S *~ 




| 






d.. 


- a 


aj a? a aj a a5 


_5 




3 






| 


"TJ s 


t to . 3 jj bo 3 bo 












"3 


a "3 




a 




I 







1 


g 


i a""" a 















C*- " fcH 


***** A? 














3 > 
fl J 


::::::: ^ 














t i 


::::::: . 














M 


yjjjjj i 


U-. 












: . , = to 


::::::::: : : : 






S 






4 


5 S -r ^ 


^ ; . . 


"S 


> 


> J? 










: :^ ; : ^ : - i 


d S 


a 
S 
c 


ff 
to 

>H T: 


i 


J K 
V 


?i 


r ^ a ^^ 
Si . -n "n a 


> F;PK&: oEu "2-S sd">,fl 



s 



Jiflill 

rtcoooo ^oo 



taj2jCj3j3!3si05i< 

000000000 



278 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 



*E1 . 



2 _ c ^ a 

111 I 
? .-- 5 S 



ill 



^. 



lii - i 







2 2 



S S 



1 f 

2 8 



I 1 

GQ 



1.S8 

111 



. 

lie 



^ -I 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF NATIVE GRAPES. 279 



I 



f* & 


^ Y 


~ M , 




^ 


< rt t 









_j 


1 1 i? s 




-da 


i 





^l <=> c ?> 




o 




r-) 












s >? fr s 




S 


^ 


s -d 


33.3* S -J ^ 










asj s_ 5l J 


1 


fl 

a> 


\ 


U) 


185 d" S 







z 




-d S 






4 

7 


; J 


"".- bo 




al 






** 1 - - 3 1 




ja 


i 

4! 


S I 


-d-d-d -d -d -d ^ 




r 




d -d 


s a B o 8 B 






r 


B C 


3 3 3 O 3 3 J2 

222 2 2 2 : ^ 




&S 


C 


3 3 

2 2 


: . 








to 


to So So "3 "3 bo 




cy a 

? 


4 


* S 


J2.5J3 1 g J 








&* 


>a >o 
. 1 "5 




T3 

E 




11 


II 1 j j I 




2 




a 


11 i s I i -r 




i 




& 

B 


to g g g 








4> 


& . . ...."- : JP 




t>" : 










o 




, 


J? v^ I < ^:s < S I o : "g-S 
rt c 3s? 5 i ^S g ; rt-g 
.2 g|g |||f* ^ : g 




Ii 




1 


: & ^o w ^o : 3 




w : 










^ ; ; 






Iljg U 1 . ; il. &si;l: 1 


1 


W : :^ 




i=r 


J 1 1| 1 fe* fl ^a)- 2 ^^^^^-^ " 

lUtHHllHtllP -| sl 11.^1 

j OQ oa ; CQ a; S t/i 02 OQ CQ K 02 &S 1 ^ cc OQ GQ H H &H H 


1 s 


ill! 

^HH 


1 
d 
C 

c- 


ill i 

HfcH P J> 



280 DESCRIPTIVE CAT A LOO UK OF NATIVE GRAPES. 




j 

ee 



sw 
aci 



d 






an 

P 3 

22 



m 
m 



5 -S 



YNONYM 
FOR. 






x c la j | S a g - 
2 a DdM^2 ^ 5 






THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 



IT is still a disputed question whether or not it is 
possible for good wine to be manufactured in the 
United States. Daniel Webster, whose high intel 
lectuality did not detract from his fondness for the 
pleasures of the table, declared that we could never 
hope to make good wine on this continent, and that 
it \vould always pay us better to raise corn, cotton, 
etc., for export, and buy our wines and silks. On the 
other hand, the following letters from President 
Jefferson to Mr. Adlum would seem to establish the 
fact that, even at an early day, wine had been made 
in this country of more than ordinary quality : 

EXTRACTS OF LETTERS FROM MR. JEFFERSON, LATE PRESIDENT OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 

Dated October 1th, 1809. 

u While I lived in Washington, a member of Congress from\ 
your State (I do not recollect which) presented me with two< 
bottles of wine made by you, one of which, of Madeira color,-, 
he said was entirely factitious ; the other, a dark red wine, 
made from a wild or native grape, called in Maryland a Fox 
grape, but very different from what is called by that name iiii 
Virginia. This was a very fine wine, and so exactly resembling 
the red Burgundy of Chamberlin (one of the lest crops) that on, 
a fair comparison with that, of which I had very good on the- 

281. 



282 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

same table, imported ly myself from the place lohere made, the 
company could not distinguish the one from the other. I think 
it would be well to push the culture of that grape, without 
losing our time and efforts in search of foreign vines, which it 
will take centuries to adapt to our soil and climate. * 

Dated April 20th, 1819. 

" The quality of the bottle you sent me before satisfies me 
that we have at length found one native grape inured to all 
the accidents of our climate, which will give us a wine worthy 
the best vineyards of France. When you did me the favor of 
sending me the former bottle, I placed it on the table with some 
of the beet Burgundy of Chamberlin, which I had imported 
myself from the maker of it, and desiring the company to point 
out which was the American bottle, it was acknowledged they 
could perceive no difference." 

Dated April 11, 1823. 

" I received successively two bottles of wine you were so 
kind as to send me; the first, called Tokay, is truly a fine wine, 
of high flavor, and as you assure me there was not a drop of 
brandy or other spirit added to it r I may say it is a wine of a 
good body of its own. The second bottle, a red wine, I tried 
when I had good judges at the table ; we agreed it was a wine 
one might always drink with satisfaction, but of no peculiar 
excellence. Speaking of brandy being added to the wine, he 
says it is never done but by the exporting merchants, and then 
only for the English and American markets, where, by a viti 
ated taste, the intoxicating quality of wine, more than its flavor, 
is required by the palate." 

Now Mr. Jefferson and his friends were no doubt 
accustomed to drink good wines, and we think their 
opinions valuable, although at the same time it must 
be confessed that they were not very extraordinary 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 283 

judges, or they would have detected a difference 
between the French and American wines. The 
question of superiority may sometimes be disputed 
even by good judges, that of identity never. 

Good wine has also been made in the south of 
England, as the following extract from Barry s work 
on wines will show, and as it contains some practical 
notes on wine-making, we give it entire : 

"The vineyard of Painshill is situated on the south side of a 
gentle hill ; the soil a gravelly sand ; it is planted entirely with 
the two sorts of Burgundy grapes : the Auvernat, which is the 
most delicate, but the tenderest ; and the Miller grape, com 
monly called the black cluster, which is more hardy. The first 
year T attempted to make red wine in the usual way, by tread 
ing the grapes, then letting them ferment in a vat till the hulls 
and impurities formed a thick crust at the top, the boiling 
ceased, and the clear wine was drawn off from the bottom. 

" This essay did not answer; the wine was so very harsh and 
austere, that I despaired of ever making red wine fit to drink. 
But through that hardness I perceived a flavor something like- 
some small French white wines, which made me hope I shouM! 
succeed better with white wine. That experiment succeeded 
far beyond my most sanguine expectations ; for the very first- 
year I made white wine^ it nearly resembled the flavor of cham 
pagne, and in two or three years more, as the vines grew 
stronger, to my great amazement, my wme had a better flavor 
than the best champagne T ever tasted. The first running was 
as clear as spirits, the second running was ffiil de perdrix, and 
both of them sparkled and creamed in the glass like champagne. 
It would be endless to mention how many good judges of wine 
were deceived by my wine, and thought it superior to any 
champagne they ever drank ; even the Duke de Mirepoix pre 
ferred it to any other wine. But such is the prejudice of most 
people against anything of English growth, I generally found it 
most prudent not to declare where it grew till after they 



284 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

passed their verdict on it. The surest proof I can give of its 
excellence is that I have sold it to wine merchants for fifty 
guineas a hogshead ; and one wine merchant, to whom I sold 
five hundred pounds worth at one time, assured me he sold 
some of the best of it from 7s. 6d. to 10s. 6d. per bottle. 

" After many years experience, the best method I found of 
making and managing it was this : I let the grapes hang till 
they got all the maturity the season would give them. Then 
they were carefully cut oif with scissors and brought home to the 
vine barn in small quantities, to prevent their heating or pressing 
one another ; then they were all picked off the stalks, and all the 
moldy or green ones were discarded before they were put upon 
the press, where they were all pressed in a few hours after they 
were gathered ; much would run from them before the press 
squeezed them, from their own weight one upon another. This 
running was as clear as water and sweet as syrup, and all this 
of the first pressing, and part of the second, continued white. The 
other pressings grew reddish, and were not mixed with the best. 
As fast as the wine ran from the press into a large receiver, it 
was put into hogsheads and closely bunged up. In a few hours 
one could hear the fermentation commence, which would soon 
burst the casks if not guarded against by hooping them strongly 
with iron and securing them in strong wooden frames and the 
heads with wedges. In the height of the fermentation I have 
frequently seen the wine oozing through the pores of the 
staves. 

" These hogsheads were left all the depth of winter in the 
cool barn to reap the benefits of the frosts. When the fermen 
tation was over, which was easily discovered by the cessation 
of noise and oozing but, to be more certain, by pegging the 
cas k w hen it would be quite clear, then it was racked off into 
clean hogsheads and carried to the vaults, before any warmth 
of weather could raise a second fermentation. In March the 
hogsheads were examined. If they were not quite fine, they 
were fined down with common fish glue, in the usual manner ; 
those that were fine of themselves were not fined down, and all 
were bottled about the end of March, and in about six weeks 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE, 285 

more would be in perfect order for drinking, and would be in 
their prime for above one year; but the second year the flavor 
and sweetness would abate and would gradually decline, till at 
last it lost all flavor and sweetness, and some .that I kept sixteen 
years became so like old hock that it might pass for such to one 
who was not a perfect connoisseur. The only art I ever used 
to it was putting three pounds of white sugar-candy to some of 
the hogsheads, when the wine was first tunned from the press, 
in order to conform to a rage that prevailed to drink none but 
very sweet champagne. 

" I am convinced that much good wine might be made in 
many parts of the south of England. Many parts are south of 
Painshill, many soils may be yet fitter for it, and many situa 
tions must be so, for mine was much exposed to southwest winds 
(the worst of all for vines) and the declivity was rather too 
steep. Yet with these disadvantages it succeeded many years. 
Indeed, the uncertainty of our climate is against it, and many 
fine crops have been spoiled by May frosts and wet summers. 
But one good year balances many disappointments. 

" Captain St. Pierre, who has established a great colony of 
vignerons in South Carolina, and carried there three years ago 
above three hundred vignerons from different parts of Europe, 
was with me several days before his departure, was charmed 
with my vineyard, and he had cultivated vineyards many years 
in France. He was very happy at my giving him all the cut 
tings of my vineyard, as he found it Tery difficult getting the 
right sort, and though his plantations are about the latitude of 
33, he has not the least doubt of having excellent wine there, 
which, if he has, must be of infinite service to this country." 

Still more recently Mr. Longworth lias succeeded 
in the manufacture of fine champagne wines, which 
we believe are valued as high as any, except the very 
finest brands of foreign wines. 

Wine is the fermented juice of the grape, and pure 
wine should contain nothing else. When sugar and 



286 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

spices are added, and exist in the fluid as such, the 
product is no longer wine, but liqueur or cordial. 
Some have, however, extended this principle so far 
as to assert that any addition to the juice of the 
grape, either before or after its fermentation, robs it 
of its claim to the name of wine ; but to this we 
cannot subscribe. If we by any process could pro 
duce a fluid identical in its chemical and physical 
properties with the juice of the grape, we could no 
doubt make good and real wine therefrom. And if 
so, then surely the addition of any ingredient which 
may be required to bring the juice up to the quality 
and composition of a good wine-making must, cannot 
have any but a good effect, and must produce a real 
wine. 

Now the juice of the grape varies in composition 
from several causes. The variety of grape, the cli 
mate in which it is produced, the character of the 
soil in which it grows, the nature of the manure with 
which it has been nourished, the mode in which it 
has been pruned, its exposure to sun and air, and 
many other influences, all modify the character of the 
must, and consequently of the wine produced there 
from. In almost every locality we are confined to a 
few varieties of grapes, and as the climatic condi 
tions are also in a great measure beyond our control, 
we must depend upon judicious pruning, manuring 
and cultivation for the production of the best grapes 
for the manufacture of wine. In former chapters we 
have detailed the peculiarities of vine-dressing as 
adapted to the producing of wine-making grapes; 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 287 

but we may "be excused for briefly recapitulating 
them. 

Must for wine requires to be highly saccharine, 
and although the wines manufactured from Ame 
rican grapes have not yet shown much inorganic 
matter (potash salts) in their composition, yet the 
best wines in Europe are made from grapes contain 
ing an extra quantity of these matters. In order, 
therefore, to the production of a good wine, it will 
be requisite to produce grapes not only thoroughly 
ripened by A HOT SUN ACTING ON THE LEAVES, but they 
should also contain the juices and inorganic salts in 
large amount. 

With a view to this, it will be necessary in the 
fall, and shortly after the vintage, to lightly fork in a 
dressing of bone-dust, guano or hen manure ; and on 
the fall of the leaf, and before any frosts set in, the 
border should be covered with the fallen leaves 
raked together and mixed with stable litter or clean 
ings. This will protect the roots from the severity 
of our winteis, and. enable them to sustain the draft 
made in spring by the branches at an earlier date 
than they otherwise would. 

In the spring, after the w r eather has become settled, 
the border should be very lightly forked over and 
the long litter removed ; the rest may be mixed with 
the surface soil. 

The vine having been properly pruned, must be 
allowed to break its ~buds, as it is termed, and push 
out the young stems until those which promise best 
can be clearly distinguished. 



288 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

As soon as the leaves are formed, liquid manure 
may be applied if the number of vines cultivated will 
permit of it, and this application of liquid manure 
may be continued until after the middle of July. It 
should then cease for the season. Meanwhile, as 
soon as the young shoots are well formed, all the 
weakly ones should be rubbed off, carrying the pru 
ning recommended in former pages to even a greater 
degree of severity than there noted. 

By these means the grapes will be obtained ripe 
much earlier and of a higher (not stronger) flavor. 
The importance of having the grapes ripe early will 
be appreciated when we consider that, other things 
being equal, the heat and dryness of the season in 
which they ripen will be the measure of the per 
fection of the grapes, at least in this latitude. JSTow, 
in 1858, the mean temperature of August was 69 
Fahrenheit, while the mean temperature of Septem 
ber was only 61, and as the amount of rain which 
fell in each month was equal, the grapes which were 
ripe by the beginning and middle of September were 
much richer in saccharine and other wine-making 
elements than those which were produced in the cool 
and damp atmosphere of September and October. 

From the foregoing observations it will be evident 
that in preparing must for wine we must pay par 
ticular attention to the quality of the grapes and the 
circumstances under which they were raised. Thus, 
in Cincinnati, no sugar is added to the juice of the 
Catawba ; it is fermented just as it comes from the 
press. But in more northern climes, not only does 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 289 

the juice of the Isabella and Clinton require sugar, 
but that of the Catawba stands in need of it, in order 
to make, not a sweet but a full-bodied wine, which 
will bear keeping. 

In the manufacture of wine from the grape, the 
first process is to carefully pick over all the grapes, 
rejecting those which are unripe, rotten, mildewed, 
or imperfect in any other way. The rejection of the 
stems will depend upon the character of the wine 
desired. If retained, they impart a roughness to the 
wine, which some admire ; and it is claimed by some, 
that the tannin of the stems helps to preserve the 
.wine. The grapes are then to be mashed, which is 
easily done with the hands if in small quantity. In 
the large way it is performed by passing the grapes 
between rollers armed with pins. On a smaller scale, 
a beetle or stamper, armed with pins, may be used ; 
and where but a few are prepared (as for domestic 
purposes) the hands alone can perform the work. A 
gentleman of this city has devised a very useful and 
efficient machine, in which, by passing the grapes 
between rollers covered with india-rubber, the juice 
is expressed and separated from the husks without 
bruising the stems or seeds. 

If prepared in the ordinary way, the must may be 
allowed to ferment either before or after the juice has 
been separated from the seeds and husks. Ferment 
ing the husks and seeds gives a roughness and harsh 
ness to the wine as well as a higher color. For the 
finest wines the juice only is fermented. 

This is effected by simply allowing the juice to 
13 



290 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

stand in casks filled three-fourths full. Fermentation 
speedily sets in; the saccharine matter becomes con 
verted into carbonic acid, which escapes, and alcohol, 
which remains in combination with the fluid, and 
gives it the character of wine. At first the fermen 
tation is very violent, but after a time it moderates, 
when the casks should be filled up, lightly bunged, 
and kept during winter in a temperately cool apart 
ment. In spring it should be carefully drawn off, 
either by means of a syphon or through a hole bored 
into the cask some distance above the bottom, so as 
to avoid disturbing the lees. After this, fermentation 
should be avoided as much as possible, which is best 
effected by a low temperature and the exclusion of 
oxygen. It is generally considered best, we believe, 
to leave the wine at least one season in the cask into 
which it has been drawn off. In some cases it is kept 
for years in the " wood," as it is termed. 

Wine can of course be made of any kind of grape, 
though in and around Cincinnati the Catawba is 
altogether preferred. Tolerable wine has been made 
of the Isabella, and in the hands of Dr. Underbill it 
has proved of superior excellence for this purpose. 
But for all northern localities we think the Clinton 
promises to be the w r ine grape. When carefully 
pruned and thinned, so as to get fair bunches instead 
of the load of little sour trash usually seen, the 
Clinton grape is peculiarly rich in saccharine and 
saline matter. Of its wine-making qualities Nicho 
las Longworth speaks as follows in a letter to " The 
Horticulturist :" 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 291 

" I believe I advised you that the must and wine of the 
Clinton grape differed from any I have ever seen. The must 
weighs very heavy, indicating a large quantity of saccharine 
matter ; the wine, fully fermented, acid and weighing but little, 
and indicating but little spirit. Of the grapes you sent last 
spring I made two kinds of wine. One part I pressed as soon 
as worked, and put at the rate of seventeen ounces of sugar to 
the gallon of must ; the other I worked and left to ferment in 
the skins before pressing, arid put no sugar. The first is a beau 
tiful dark red, which I have never seen equalled, arid very clear. 
It has no sweetness and is rather dry, but of fine flavor. The 
other is clear, very dark red, and more acid, but of fine flavor. 
I deem that in our warmer latitude the must will have more 
sugar, and will make a valuable red wine, an article we have 
not at present. 

" I am very desirous of giving the grape a further trial, and 
shall esteem it a favor if you will engage and send me from two 
to five bushels of grapes, and let them be as ripe as possible. 
I shall also be pleased to get from two to five thousand cut 
tings. I will next spring graft a dozen roots with this grape, 
and the next season guarantee to have grapes enough to test 
how they will suit our climate, as 1 have had grafts grow the 
first season from ten to thirty feet, and often bear some fruit the 
same season." 

The following letter, received from a lady whose 
wine we can testify to be of very superior excellence, 
contains directions slightly different from those in 
ordinary use, and in some respects perhaps superior. 
We give it in her own words, which it may be but 
justice to say, were not originally intended for pub 
lication : 

" After the grapes are gathered, pick carefully from the clus 
ters all the good ones. Wash these, being careful not to mash 
the seeds (we had a little machine for this purpose that turned 



292 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE, 



with a crank), Have ready a perfectly sweet cask, that has a 
hole, about an inch in diameter, bored in one side near the bot 
tom ; fit into this hole a stick from six to eight inches long, with 
a hole bored from end to end of sufficient size to let the juice 
flow freely through it. Stop this hole tightly with a plug ; as 
the grapes are mashed, pour the juice, skins, pulp and all, into 
the cask. When all are in, cover closely with four or five 
thicknesses of woollen blankets ; let it remain in this condition 
until fermentation has advanced sufficiently to cause the grapes 
or must (as I believe wine-makers call it) to rise to the top and 
begin to crack open, the cracks being filled with little yeasty- 
like bubbles, which will be probably in from four to eight or 
ten days, according to the temperature of the weather. Now 
have ready a perfectly clean barrel, purified with sulphur; put 
into a pail ten or twelve pounds of sugar, take out the little 
plug, and let the juice on the sugar. As you fill the pail, stir 
the sugar occasionally from the bottom, so as to dissolve enough 
of it to make the juice sufficiently sweet. If the sugar should 
all dissolve before the juice is all drawn out, of course put in 
more. When the barrel is full, put the bung in lightly, so as to 
give it a chance to ferment. The little cups you ^speak of were 
used more as an experiment than a necessity ; when those were 
used, the bung was fitted in tight and a small hole made in the 
bung, and a tin tube inserted in it, rising from the bung, the 
long end being in the bung, and the short end in a little tin cup 
filled, and kept full of water, care being taken to keep the bar 
rel always full ; but, as I said before, this was not necessary. 
After the juice had been barrelled, as above described, let it 
stand till some clear, cold day in February. Then draw off the 
juice and put it in another barrel, care .being taken to have it 
perfectly clean and well fumigated as the first was; save a pail 
ful, and when all has been drawn off, stir into this pailful the 
whites of ten or twelve eggs, beaten to a froth, as you would 
for cake. When well stirred, pour this in the barrel with the 
rest. After being well incorporated with that in the barrel, 
bung it up tightly, and for two years touch not, taste not, 
handle not, and as much longer as you can resist the tempta- 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

tion, as it improves from 25 to 50 per ee-nt. in qnality every year 
it is suffered to stand. The barrels should be kept in a dark 
cellar. 

"The above contains all the most important particulars of the 
doctor s process of making wine, to the best of my recollection. 
Jt will answer very well where one only desires to make a 
little for his own use ; but would hardly answer on a large 
sci.le. 

"Fumigating the barrels with a sulphur match destroys any 
musty or unpleasant smell which the barrel may have, and is 
done by melting flowers of sulphur or roll brimstone in an iron 
vessel on the stove ; making a swab by rolling a rag around the 
end of an iron rod, saturate the rag with the melted sulphur 
as you roll it around ; stick the other end of the rod into a 
good sized potatoe, and set fire to the rag or swab ; hang it in 
the barrel at the bung-hole, the potatoe will prevent it dropping 
down in the barrel." 

The following recipes for currant wine are perhaps 
more useful than appropriate. They have been col 
lected from various reliable sources, and it is probable 
that few will regret their insertion 

CURRANT WINE.* 

Three varieties of currants are employed in making wine 
white, red and black ; but the two first are most common. The 
wines from the white and red sorts differ a little from each 
other in color, also in flavor. With proper management they 
are capable of producing a wine analogous to the lighter wines 
of the grape, according to Dr. MacColloch, " not easy to be 
distinguished from the Colares of Portugal, which although not 
in the first class, is certainly superior to most of our domestic 
wines." A principal defect in currant wine, as commonly made, 

* Copied from Webster s " Encyclopaedia of Domestic Economy. " 



294: THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

arises from too small a quantity of the fruit being used, and of 
course too much sugar and water. On this account, and from 
the imperfect fermentation, these wines are usually too sweet ; 
and from a natural bad flavor in the husks, which are often kept 
in the must, a mawkish taste is introduced. By increasing the 
quantity of the fruit, which is generally used only in the same 
proportion as in gooseberry wine, and avoiding the use of the 
husks, the flavor and quality of the wine are materially im 
proved. 

At present only sweet wines are generally made from cur 
rants ; but dry wines may also be fabricated from this fruit by 
the method already pointed out ; for these the fruit should be 
ripe. 

Brisk wine may also be made, and then a proportion of unripe 
fruit should be introduced. The use of tartar, likewise, Dr. 
MacColloch is of opinion, would be advantageous, and would 
correct a defect not uncommon, that of having an ammoniacal 
taste. Another improvement has been put in practice with 
success, not only in making currant wine, but in all those wines 
produced from fruits of which the flavor is either bad or which 
have little or no flavor ; this is by boiling the fruit juice pre 
viously to fermentation. From this treatment many tasteless 
fruits acquire a flavor, and many bad flavors are converted into 
agreeable ones. This is particularly remarkable in the case of 
the black currant, which, though harsh in its natural state, 
acquires by boiling a powerful and to most persons an agreeable 
flavor. Wine made from this fruit in a raw state has no par 
ticular property, whereas that of the boiled may be, by careful 
management, brought to resemble some of the best of the sweet 
Cape wines. The boiling must not be too long continued, as 
this degree of heat tends to coagulate and precipitate the fer 
ment, and thus render it ineffective. Some artificial ferment is 
generally necessary with boiled juice. Great care must be taken 
in separating the stalks, and if the skins and solid matter are 
fermented in the vat, they must not, at all events,, be introduced 
into the casks. Many persons put the pure juice into the casks 
at once, strained, without any previous fermentation in the vat. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 295 



RECIPE FOR WHITE CTORANT WINE. 

Bruise forty pounds of the fruit in a tub of the capacity of 
fifteen or twenty gallons, and add to it four gallons of water. 
Stir the whole well, and squeeze till the pulp is thoroughly sepa 
rated from the skins; leave these materials at rest for about 
t \velve hours, and then strain them through a canvas bag or 
fine hair sieve, and pass one gallon of fresh water through the 
marc. Dissolve thirty or twenty -five pounds of white sugar in 
the juice thus obtained, and make up the whole quantity by an 
addition of ten gallons and a half of water. The proportion of 
sugar here given is for a brisk wine ; if a sweet wine is required, 
there must be forty pounds of sugar. "White sugar is recom 
mended as much the best. If moist sugar be used, somewhat 
more will be necessary. The must being now prepared, the 
fermentation and subsequent treatment must be exactly the 
same as for gooseberry wine, and the reader may therefore refer 
to that recipe. 

If brandy is to be added, it should be added toward the end 
of the fermentation in the cask. For the above quantity some 
will put in a quart of brandy alone ; others mix it with honey. 

Whether the wine should be racked off from the lees at the 
end of six months, put into a cask for six months longer before 
it is bottled, or be suifered to remain the whole time in the lees, 
must depend upon the state of the wine according to the prin 
ciples explained above. The bottling should be carefully 
attended to. 

ANOTHER RE0IPE. 

White currants, nine gallons ; white gooseberries, one gallon ; 
white sugar, twenty-five pounds; white tartar, an ounce; bitter 
almonds, two ounces; water, nine gallons; brandy, one gallon. 

MR. CORNELI/S RECIPE FOB MAKING RED CURRANT WINE. 

Bruise eight gallons of red currants with one quart of rasp 
berries. Press out the juice, and to the residuum, after pres- 



296 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 

sure, add eleven gallons of cold water. Add two pounds of 
beet-root, sliced as thin as possible, to give color, and let them 
infuse, with frequent mixture, for twelve hours ; then press out 
the liquor as before, and add it to the juice. Next dissolve 
twenty pounds of raw sugar in the mixed liquor, and three 
ounces of red tartar in fine powder. In some hours the fer 
mentation will commence, which is to be managed according to 
the details for gooseberry wine and the principles we have 
stated previously. "When the fermentation is completely over, 
add one gallon of brandy ; let the wine stand for a week, then 
rack off, and let stand for two months. It may now be finally 
racked off, bunged up in a cask, and set by in a cool cellar for 
as many years as may be required to ameliorate it. 

BLACK CURRANT WINE 

May be made in the same manner, using six gallons of black 
currants, three gallons of strawberries, twenty -five pounds of 
raw sugar, four ounces of red tartar, ten gallons of cold water, 
and three quarts of brandy. 

ELDERBERRY WINE. 

The elderberry is well adapted to the production of wine. Its 
juice contains a considerable portion of the principle necessary 
for a vigorous fermentation, and its beautiful color communi 
cates a rich tint to the wine made from it. It is, however, 
deficient in sweetness, and therefore demands an addition of 
sugar. There are several methods of making this wine; the 
following are some of the most approved recipes: 

Take one gallon of ripe elderberries and one quart of damsons 
or sloes, for two gallons of wine to be made ; boil the fruit in 
about half the quantity of water till they burst, breaking them 
frequently with a stick. Strain the liquor and return it to the 
copper. To produce eighteen gallons of wine, twenty gallons 
of this liquor are necessary, ancl for whatever quantity the 
liquor falls short of this, water must be added to make up. Boil 
this, together with fifty-six pounds of coarse moist sugar, for 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 297 

half an hour, and it is to be fermented in the usual manner 
when sufficiently cool, and then is to be tunned or put into the 
cask. Put now into a muslin bag a pound and a half of ginger, 
bruised, a pound of allspice, two ounces of cinnamon, and four 
or six ounces of hops; suspend the bag with the spice in the 
cask by a string, not long enough to let it touch the bottom ; let 
the liquor work in the cask for a fortnight, and fill up in the 
usual manner. The wine will be fit to tap in two months, and 
is not improved by keeping like many other wines. Elderber 
ries alone may be used. 

ANOTHER METHOD. 

Elderberries, ten gallons; water, ten gallons; white sugar, 
forty-five pounds ; red tartar, eight ounces ; fermented with 
yeast in the usual manner. When in the cask, ginger root, 
sliced, or allspice, four ounces; bitter almonds, three ounces; 
suspended in a bag, may be allowed to infuse in the liquor when 
it is fermenting ; they are then to be removed. Brandy may 
be added or not. When the wine is clear, which will be in 
about three months, it may be drawn off from the lees and bot 
tled. The spices may be varied according to taste. 

BLACKBERRY WINE. 

To one quart of juice two quarts of water and three pounds 
of sugar. The berries to be mashed cold, and the juice ex 
pressed and strained. The sugar dissolved in the water and 
strained. The whole then mixed in kegs and placed in a cool 
cellar. The bung-hole to be left open until fermentation has 
nearly ceased, then closed tight and left standing until the en 
suing April, when it should be carefully drawn and bottled. 

STRAWBERRY OR RASPBERRY WINE. 

Bruise and press out the juice of either fruits ; pour on the 
marc seven gallons of water ; infuse for twelve hours and press 
out the liquor. Add this liquor to the juice, and mix them with 

13* 



298 THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE, 



six gallons of cider. Dissolve in the mixture sixteen pounds of 
raw sugar and three ounces of powdered red tartar, and then 
set it to ferment in the usual manner. Pare the rinds of two 
lemons and of two oranges, and together with the juice throw 
them into the fermenting tub, and take out the rinds when the 
fermentation is over. Three gallons of brandy may be added. 
In making raspberry wine, a gallon of white and red currant 
juice should be added, and an equal quantity of water left out. 

ORANGE WINE. 

Seville oranges are used for this purpose ; they are best in 
March. For eighteen gallons of wine half a chest of oranges are 
required. Pare the rinds from about a dozen, or two dozen, as 
more or less of the bitter will be agreeable. Pour over this a quart 
or two of boiling water, and after letting this stand for twelve 
hours, strain off the water, which extracted much of the essen 
tial of the oranges. Take the peel off entirely from the 
remainder of the oranges, squeeze the juice through a bag or 
sieve, and put it into a cask with about forty-five pounds of 
white sugar or fifty -five of the best moist sugar. Soak the pulp 
in water for twenty-four hours, and after straining this, add it 
to the cask. Repeat this several times till the cask is full. Stir 
the whole well with a stick till the sugar is dissolved, then set 
it to ferment. The fermentation is slower than with currant 
wine, but may be heard hissing for several weeks. When this 
subsides, close the bung-hole, and proceed as in the case with 
gooseberry wine. Some add brandy. The wine requires to be 
kept in the cask a year before it is bottled. 

GINGER WINE. 

Dissolve eighteen or twenty pounds of sugar in nine and a 
half gallons of boiling water, and add to it ten or twelve ounces 
of bruised ginger root. Boil the mixture for about a quarter 
of an hour, and when nearly cold add to it half a pint of yeast, 
and pour it into a cask to ferment, taking care to fill the cask 
from time to time with the surplus of the liquor made for that 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINE. 299 

purpose. When the fermentation ceases, rack off the wine, and 
bottle it when transparent. It is a common practice to boil the 
outer rind of a few lemons together with the ginger destined 
for the wine, to impart to the wine the flavor of lemon peel. 

CURRANT WINE. 

Gather the currants when fully ripe ; press and measure the 
juice ; add two-thirds water, and to each gallon of that mixture 
put three pounds of Muscovado sugar (the cleaner and drier the 
better; very coarse sugar, first clarified, will do equally well); 
stir it well until the sugar is quite dissolved, and then tun it up. 
Do not let the juice stand over night before mixing; or at least 
not so long as to ferment. 

Make rather more than to fill the casks, so as to fill them up 
after drawing off the wine. 

Lay the bung lightly on the hole, to prevent flies, etc., from 
creeping in. In three weeks or a month after making, the bung- 
hole may be stopped up, leaving only the vent-hole open, until 
the wine has done working, which will be about the latter end 
of October. It may then be racked off into other clean casks ; 
but some persons prefer letting it stand on the lees until spring, 
as it thus acquires a stronger body and is in a great measure 
divested of that sweet, luscious taste peculiar to made-wine. 
It may without damage stand two years on the lees. 

When it is to be drawn off, bore a hole at least an inch above 
the tap-hole, a little to the side of it, that it may run clear off 
the lees. 



APPENDIX I. 

EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN VINEYARD PRACTICE. 



THE OHIO SYSTEM OF VINEYARD CULTURE. 

THIS is merely a modification of the French and German 
methods, having been generally introduced by vine-dressers 
from those countries. It is, we believe, now generally giving 
place to the trellis system of culture, which seems to be better 
adapted to the habit of our native vines. Vines and even vine 
yards may be found around Cincinnati, which are trained dif 
ferently from the method here described, but nevertheless, the 
following is what is known as the Ohio system. 

The ground having been properly prepared, the vineyard is 
set out either with cuttings or rooted plants, generally the 
former. In setting out cuttings, holes about two feet deep are 
made with a stilt or dibble, shod with iron, and after inserting 
two cuttings in each, the holes are filled in with sand which is 
washed into immediate contact with the cuttings by means of 
water. During the first season, the vines are allowed to grow 
at random, the ground, however, being kept clean and mellow. 

In the spring of the second season the vines are pruned, which 
is done by removing all the wood made by the young cutting, 
and also all the roots which spring from the cutting, within 
several inches of the surface. Fig. 1 shows the young plant. 
The soil being removed, the roots e, e, e are cut oft close to the 

301 



302 



APPENDIX I. 




Fig. 65. 



stem, the shoots a 5 are cut clean out, and c is cut down to one 
eye, which should be as near the old wood as possible, and if on 
iit, so much the better. During the second year the vines are 
ttreated nearly the same as the cuttings were during the first 
;yaar, and the spring pruning is also the same. 

During the third summer, three or four shoots are trained up 
and carefully tied to stakes; laterals are pinched out and the 
shoots stopped in .September. 

During the fourth year, the vines are allowed to bear on the 
spurs produced by cutting back the shoots of the previous 
season to six or eight inches. These spurs of course throw up 
fruit-bearing canes, which during the fifth season are tied to 
stakes in bows, so as produce a crop of grapes, and at the winter 
pruning the bows are cut away, their place being filled next 
season by a fresh cane trained up for the purpose during the pre 
ceding summer. 



APPENDIX I. 



303 



The following figures will illustrate this fully : Fig. 66 shows 
the vine in the fall of the fourth year ; H is the head of the 




Fig. 66. 



vine, B the arms or thighs, as they are sometimes called ; and 
a, 6, c, d are the canes which bore fruit last year; 5 and c are 
cut off to one good bud, and a and d, after being shortened, are 
formed into bows and tied to stakes, so that the vine in the spring 
of the fifth year presents the appearance shown in Fig. 67. 
The bow will now yield a liberal crop of grapes, and a few 
bunches will be obtained from the shoots springing from the 
spurs 5 and c, though they must not be allowed to bear much, 
as it is desired that they should grow strong and vigorous so as 
to form the bows for next year. If the vines are strong, they 
may be allowed to bear more, and other spurs are sometimes 
allowed to grow from the arms where the vines will bear it. 



304 



APPENDIX I. 




Fig. 6T. 

The arms themselves are renewed every few years, so as to get- 
rid of all the old gnarled spurs, by training new shoots from the 
spurs e e. 



APPENDIX I. 305 



DR. UNDERBILL S VINEYARDS AT CROTON POINT. 

The following account of Dr. Underbill s Vineyards is taken 
from the k Country Gentleman " of September 25th, 1856. 
Since that account was published, Dr. Underbill has greatly 
extended his vineyards, and is thus enabled to devote more of 
his grapes to the production of wine without lessening the 
quantity of fruit sent to New York market. 

" The readers of our papers have long been familiar with the name of 
Dr. Underbill as a grower of Isabella and Catawba vines, and lovers of 
well ripened and carefully marketed grapes in New York city, as the 
most extensive producer of this fruit in its vicinity. He began to plant 
the varieties named, or at least the former of them, about twenty-five 
years ago, having previously made some unsuccessful attempts at grow 
ing foreign sorts without shelter ; and he has been untiring in his subse 
quent efforts to attain the best mode of cultivation in every particular, 
from the first setting of the slip, to the productive maturity of the plant in 
the vineyard. He is now in possession of nearly a hundred acres of land, 
of which upward of forty are in grapes, or, with the addition of adjoin 
ing vineyards belonging to his brother, there are more than fifty acres in 
all, to the sale of plants and the marketing of fruit from which Dr. Under 
bill gives his undivided attention. 

" Croton, or Teller s Point, as it was formerly called, juts into the 
river fully half its width, dividing Haverstraw bay above from the Tappaiii 
Zee below. The stream from which it has received the name it now 
generally goes by, falls into the Hudson on the south what is left of it: 
after being dammed and drained off for the benefit of New York city. 
The extreme point of the little peninsula turns downward, commanding iu, 
this direction one of the finest river views among the many beautiful ones^ 
for which the Hudson is justly famous. Here, once in Revolutionaryr 
times, was fired a humble cannon at the Vulture in the bay below scar 
ing her from her anchorage, and leaving Andre without means of safe> 
escape from the plot he was projecting with the traitorous Arnold. The 
soil is nearly a pure gravelly sand, underlaid at a depth of twenty or 
thirty feet with clay, and bordered here and there at the river s edge- 



306 APPENDIX I. 

with alluvial deposits- Occasionally the upland is slightly loamy, but for 
the most part entirely sand, as above described. 

" Dr. Underbill plants his vineyards either in spring or fall as may be 
convenient, setting the vines seven feet apart, in rows six and a half feet 
from each other. This will take about one thousand to the acre. In his 
position as to climate and weather, he thinks the question of the inclina 
tion of the land immaterial, though further north he would prefer an 
eastern or southern exposure, or one varying near these points. He has 
found it best to place the rows so that the prevailing summer winds may 
have free course through them contrary to the European practice, in 
which circulation of the atmosphere is avoided, chiefly on account of the 
frequency of cold storms. He has found that here it is beneficial, pre 
venting mildew and promoting the healthiness of plant and fruit. 

" In the number of plants to the acre his practice is also widely diver 
gent from that in Germany and about Cincinnati where twenty-five 
hundred is an ordinary thing. By placing" them at greater distances he 
is enabled to secure a crop the first year, as he remarked if not of 
grapes, of something else between the rows, and as the vines do not bear 
until the third summer this is a matter of some importance. They are 
also taken care of much more easily, as horses can be employed to culti 
vate the ground, where only men could otherwise be admitted, and, 
finally, he thinks the yield quite as good and great, as can be produced 
from more plants on the same space. In fact, in ten years, if the vines 
crowd at all, or the land is too rich, he sometimes finds it expedient to re 
move every other vine in the rows, thus leaving only five hundred to the 
acre. One man, according to his mode, cares for six acres at least four 
times as much as he could do on the German plan. Dr. Underbill is op 
posed on the most stringent principles to allowing any of his land to lie 
waste and idle, and by obtaining two crops from it before the grape 
becomes large enough to produce, compels the vineyard to pay while it 
is being made, though after the vines begin to yield he entirely excludes 
every other species of vegetation. 

" To adapt the ground as nearly as possible to the exact wants of the 
grape, has been the subject of many and long experiments with Dr. 
Underbill. During his first trials he expended a great deal on artificial 
fertilizers, but further experience has taught him to increase the produc 
tiveness of his soil from the resources of his own farm. This he fully 
coincides with us in believing to be the true principle for every farmer to 
act upon. It would be a lesson worth the studying for most farmers to 
see the economy he displays in preserving all farm manures of whatever 
kind. He has no fences on his farm his horses, cows and oxen being 
stabled the year round. The leaves upon the woodland are raked up in 
autumn to serve as bedding, and it is found that they pack of their own 
Teight so as to occupy far less room than would be supposed,, while they 



APPENDIX I. 307 

answer the purpose admirably, as well as form a valuable constituent in 
the resultant manure. An apartment of moderate size serves to contain 
a sufficient quantity to last nearly or quite the whole twelve months. 
Every drop of liquid manure, from stables and styes, and brought bj 
drains from the house and out-houses, is collected in cisterns. In it, pre 
viously to being pumped out for use, Dr. Underlain dissolves potash, in 
the proportion perhaps of one hundred weight to thirty hogsheads 
which is thought to have the effect of making the manure more active, as 
well as being cheaper than ashes, in supplying the necessary ingredients 
abstracted by the crops from the soil. A cheap and coarse kind is 
bought at three and a half or four cents a pound. 

We should here devote a few words to the compost heaps we have 
passed here and there, in our walk over the place. These Dr. Underhill 
begins, say with a stratum of the alluvial deposits from the river side, 
followed by one of horse or cow manure or both, then one of the soda 
from along the roads, paths, etc., then the alluvia again, and so on. After 
thev reach some height and when the manure cisterns chance to be full, 
a man perforates them here and there with a crowbar, and the liquid is 
brought in a cart and put on, hogshead after hogshead, till the whole is 
saturated. They are made amply broad enough for a cart track, ex 
tended to any length, and as they slowly settle down carried higher- and 
higher by additional layers till six or eight feet above the ground. The 
same pile accumulates the manures of nine months or so. and receives four 
or five thorough wettings. The value of a compost heap thus prepared, in 
comparison with its cost, as would be readily conjectured, is very great 

" In the preparation of the ground for his vineyards, Dr. Underhill thinks 
that thorough ploughings answer every purpose. In one case, he had had) 
the earth trenched with spades, to the depth, we think, of three spits, butt, 
the effect produced was of too little increased benefit to pay for the ex 
pense, which was, if we recollect, in the neighborhood of four hundred 
and fifty dollars per acre. He adds a dressing of clay to render the soil; 
more firm, and prevent its feeling so quickly the changes in the tempe 
rature of the atmosphere, and absorbing the rains so rapidly as to drench 1 ) 
and chill the roots. A less quantity will answer every purpose than^ 
might be apprehended in pretty thorough trials he had found three or 
four hundred loads sufficient on an acre of his rather coarse, gravelly 
sands. In one experiment he had spread a vineyard of about six acres 
with 5,000 loads of alluvia and 3,000 of clay ; but it proved too rich and 
heavy. 

" The vines are permitted to bear the first crop on a temporary trellis- 
of stakes driven into the ground and connected by a single wire. The 
permanent trellis is then erected by putting in firm chestnut posts about 
seven feet high, and running along them a couple of wires for the second 1 
crop, and a third one near the top the subsequent season. The wire used 



308 APPENDIX I. 

is from number 10 to 12. We have not the space nor the necessary ac 
quaintance with the subject to describe at length Dr. Underbill s method 
of pruning. It is progressive, that is, different for each of a succession 
of years as a vine grows older, until it finally reaches maturity. The 
chief object kept in view, of course modified to meet particular circum 
stances, is to depend on this year s growth of wood for next year s growth 
of fruit. The ground is thoroughly ploughed once in the spring, and the 
spaces dug between the vines ; after this the harrow and cultivator are 
depended on to keep the soil loose and free from weeds, until the fruit 
begins to change its color when no one is permitted to go between the 
rows until the picking begins. By thus employing horses and imple 
ments, the expense is very much less than on the German plan of merely 
spading and hoeing. 

" When the fruit is formed in June, as much as three-fourths to four- 
fifths of it are cut away only the small remaining fraction being suf- 
ered to ripen. Thus, and by a careful system of pruning, the strength 
of the plant is economized, and wholly devoted to the end of com 
pletely maturing the juices which form both the vine and the fruit, 
and adding particularly to the size and sweetness of the latter. Every 
effort has been made to subject the main vitality of the plant to the one 
purpose of producing the best fruit rather than the most wood ; and by 
these efforts, by careful pruning, and proportioning the quantity of fruit 
ripened to the capabilities of the vine, Dr. Underbill estimates that he has 
succeeded in adding much to the strength of the plants themselves, to the 
excellence of the fruit they bear, and in making the period of its maturity 
earlier from season to season, so that there is an average difference of at 
least twelve days between the time of the ripening of the grapes now and 
that when he commenced his efforts 25 years ago. This appears to be no 
inconsiderable advantage in favor of vines from his grounds ; inasmuch as 
we see no reason why the same causes which operate to produce this 
earlier period of ripening in his vineyards, should not also have a similar 
effect on cuttings grown from them with the same care to the age of set 
ting out. He has plants for sale at the age of two, three, and we think 
also four years old, as purchasers may prefer. About one third of tlio 
vineyards are Catawbas, the remainder Isabellas the latter of which has 
been found the surest for a crop, though it is very seldom that either falls 
short, and we understood that for many years past, Dr. Underbill had not 
experienced a single entire failure. The present season has been, on the 
whole, a cooler one than the average according to his expectations, 
based as he told us, upon the fact that every tenth year regularly proves a 
cold one at least he knew such to have been the case for certainly sixty 
years back, and had no doubt it would continu3 so. The crop is very 
good, however, the berries and bunches being especially large. We saw 
some Isabellas that entirely exceeded in these respects anything we have 



APPKNDIX I, 309 

seen before here ani there a cluster that must have been very nearly a 
pound in weight and, although none were ripe enough to taste, we could 
easily credit Dr. UoddrhUTs a.-Huraac3s that they would soon prove as 
luscious as they then looked. 

"The doctor is rightly very particular that none shall go to market 
until they are fully ripe. He sa vs it requires a good deal of experience 
and judgment to determine when they are ready for market. He expected 
to begin picking about the 15th, and he generally continues the marketing 
season for about two months. During this period he engages a store in 
New York, Avhere his grapes are all disposed of, with the exception of 
those retailed at confectionery and other stores through the city, and 
consumed at the hotels. His lowest wholesale price is fifteen cents per 
Ib. ; by the basket to families, sixteen ; and when less than a basket is 
sold, twenty. One point which we should not omit to note, inasmuch as 
it is one in which fruit-growers are far too generally negligent and regard 
less of their own interest, is the care and nicety with which Dr. Underhill 
prepares his fruit for market. We have seen his particularity in respect 
to the entire ripeness of all that are picked ; and every bunch of the vast 
number he sells is looked over, and the defective berries cut out by hand, 
so that not one may be left which a child two years old might not eat 
with impunity. Then, put up in new and neat baskets, they present an 
attractive appearance, which goes a great way in winning the heart or, 
perhaps, we should rather say, inciting the appetite of the purchaser. 

" When Dr. Underhill commenced, a good many years ago, he was the 
first and only one in the business, and could only command about five 
cents a pound for his fruit. He has not endeavored to retain this mono 
poly, but is always happy to explain everything he knows to any inquirer, 
and justly thinks that the more good fruit he can induce others to grow, 
the more public attention will be brought to the luxury, or indeed the 
necessity of the article, and the greater will be the consequent request 
for it. How just were these calculations, is shown in the ample demand 
that now exists for all he can grow at three times the price at which he 
started. We trust that he will not give up his present purpose of some 
time presenting to the world the system which his long and careful, and, 
we may add, profitable, experience has matured. 

" There are several other points which we had it in mind to speak of 
at some length, connected with Dr. Underhill s agricultural and horti 
cultural practice. The extent of the present paper will compel us to be 
very brief. 

" Several lessons may be derived by every farmer from what has been 
already written. He has seen how our friend economizes all his manures, 
and how he has discovered the secret not only of constantly increasing 
the fertility of his lands, but of adapting the crop grown to the wants of his 
nearest market, and thereby obtaining very much greater profits than the 

13 



310 APPENDIX I. 

old farm routine could in any way be made to yield. How he has proved 
the vineyard rules received from European authorities far from being best 
adapted for his situation and circumstances, and thought out, and woi^ked 
out by experiment, a system for himself. How he has created a new de 
mand with the public, while he was himself supplying it, and how 
scrupulous he always is that every product he sells shall be superior of 
its kind and put up in the best style. It is self-evident, we think, that not 
one of these particulars is immaterial to the farmer who would succeed 
well in his business. 

"Another which we wish to bring forward, is the way in which Dr. Under 
bill contrives, in almost every process, if we may quote a homely proverb, 
to "kill two birds with one stone." Where he has dug the deposits of 
vegetable and alluvial matter by the water s edge, for manure, a very 
little extra labor has transformed the ugly excavation into a fish pond; a 
water gate admits the fish from the river but will not let them out, and 
through the same channel the rising and falling tide prevents the lakelet 
from lying stagnant. The pond not only supplies fish, but plums the 
trees being planted over it at an angle of perhaps forty-five degrees to pre 
vent the ravages of the curculio, while it is also bordered with pears and 
quinces, and thus the land dug out and removed is not only made to yield 
a crop of fruit where it is put as manure, but another over the hole it left 
behind. The forests are cleared out and seeded with orchard-grass, and 
the leaves falling in autumn are taken away for use, as we have seen, as 
well as that they may not smother the turf where they fell. Sods are 
required for the manure heap, and paths and roads tastefully, and here 
and there quite picturesquely threading the woods and climbing the river 
banks, are laid out and kept in order to yield them, as well as to furnish 
delightful drives and walks. It may abate somewhat from the romance 
of the beautiful, thus to find the useful ever lurking under its mantle, but it 
certainly brings it within the reach of many who now fancy it something 
beyond or above them, as well as places it in a new light to not a few, 
who are in the habit of considering themselves far too practicality seek it 
Utile dulci is Pr. Underbill s motto/ 



APPENDIX I. 311 



JUDGE CONKLIN S VINEYARD ON LONG ISLAND. 
From the Country Gentleman. 

" The facts in the following description were derived from a memoran 
dum prepared by Judge Conklin at our request, which, together with a 
personal examination of the vineyard, will enable us to show the actual 
results of his mode of cultivation. 

" The first experiments were made with the foreign varieties ; they grew 
vigorously and fruited uniformly well, especially the chasselas or sweet 
water, producing full crops of fine grapes for several years. After experi 
menting with them four or five years, they began to fail in maturing their 
fruit, which was supposed to be owing to the severity of the climate on 
this island. A subsequent trial of three or four years more proved this 
to be the case, after which the open field culture of all the foreign varie 
ties was given up as useless. 

"In the meantime a few cuttings of the Isabella which were planted 
began to produce some fruit, which appeared to be a pretty good substi 
tute for the more delicately flavored foreign varieties, and from the date 
of this discovery the vineyard was commenced. 

"SITUATION AND SOIL. The grounds are located at Cold Spring Bay, 
around which the hills are steep and abrupt, leaving but a narrow slope 
of arable land between their wooded declivities and the shore ; beyond 
these wooded hills, which rise from a quarter to half a mile, are fine culti 
vated table lands. Below the woods, on a western slope, lies the oldest 
part of the vineyard, and beyond the woods on the table land, lies the 
more recently planted portion. The soil, like most in this part of the is 
land, is light and porous, composed of sandy mold and a large proportion 
of gravel, containing small stones from the size of a pea to three inches 
in diameter, mostly of polished quartz. Some spots are quite alluvial to 
a considerable depth, formed by the action of the rain descending from 
the hills; other portions approach the quality of soil called light loam, 
which is esteemed best for all general purposes ; the under stratum is ex 
tremely porous, full of coarse gravel and small stones, with layers of sand 
but no clay. On account of the steepness of the declivity, some of the 
ground required to be terraced, the descent being so great as to wash 
both soil and seed into the harbor during the prevalence of heavy rains. 
The most abrupt portion was so barren that after it was terraced it ap- 



312 APPENDIX I. 

peared like mere banks of gravel and dead earth. In this place it required 
a long time to establish the vines; the rays of the sun beat down in the 
afternoon almost vertically during the long and severe droughts with 
which we were visited for several years; but after continued watering 
and mulching, they were at length established, and are now loaded to 
their utmost capacity with fruit. 

u The foregoing remarks upon the soil are applicable only to that por 
tion of the vineyard upon the side-hill; the soil of the part situated upon 
the table lands is of good quality for farming purposes. The table lands 
about this vicinity are full of gentle swells or eminences, which are more 
or less gravelly or porous in the substratum; such places as these have 
generally been selected by the judge for his vineyards, not that they were 
supposed to be more suited to the vine than the lower or more level parts, 
but because they were less capable of sustaining other vegetation. 

" The first planting of much extent was made in 1830, from vines of one 
year s growth, purchased of Col. Alden Spooner, of Brooklyn, who fur 
nished a thousand at six cents apiece; these were planted upon the best 
portion of terraced ground, which was prepared by ploughing in such a 
manner as to throw the furrows down hill, and then finished by hand 
labor. A part of the terraces were made ten feet wide, but as the opera 
tion was found laborious, the remaining ones were made only eight feet ; 
no particular pains were taken in forming banks. 

" The original surface being a sward, the sods were placed on the out 
side of the terraces to sustain the banks. They soon covered them with 
gra s, which has since needed no further attention excepting to mow it 
once or twice a year. The vines were planted six feet apart, with a locust 
post between each, and then four lines of No. 12 wire were strained and 
fastened firmly upon the posts, beginning two feet from the ground and 
setting the wires one foot apart ; the posts, therefore, require to be six 
feet high, which is the usual height throughout the vineyard. 

" The vines have not been subjected to the rigid system of pruning 
practised by many; they were trained somewhat fan-shaped upon the 
trellis and rather sloventy pruned for many years. The plough was freely 
used, seldom allowing the ground to get hard and weedy. This vineyard 
bore uniformly for many years, yielding great crops of grapes, which 
commanded a fair price in market. 

"In a few instances of late, it has been prostrated for a year or two 
from the effects of enormous bearing. This was the case last year, but it 
is now loaded with fruit. The vines which were placed upon the widest 
terraces have been much the most productive, showing that it would have 
paid better if they had all been of one width. 

"A few of the vines purchased of Col. Spooner were planted on the 
more level part of the ground ; these also succeeded well, but not so uni 
formly as those placed on the terraces. About the same time, one hun- 



APPENDIX I. 313 

dred three year old vines were purchased at the Parraentier garden in 
Brooklyn at 37J cents per vine; these were also puf upon the lower 
grounds, and were six feet apart each way, planted very deep and the 
earth gradually filled in around them. The subsoil was almost entirely 
composed of small stones and gravel without a particle of clay, or even 
loam, to be seen. They grew rather slow at first, but soon got established, 
and are yet bearing full crops, failing however oftener than most of the 
vines planted at a greater distance apart. The next portion were planted 
near these rows running north and south, eight feet apart and six feet apart 
in the rows ; these were set out at an ordinary depth in the ground, and 
treated in the same manner as the foregoing, and the vines have yielded 
good fruit more uniformly than any of the preceding ones. Another piece 
was planted in the midst of winter, during a season of mild weather, while 
the frost was out of the ground ; hardly a vine failed, and they have borne 
largely with few exceptions. 

u The last piece, comprising about three acres, was planted on a good 
strong soil, not heavy, but snfficicnlly loamy for most purposes; which 
was previously occupied by locust timber grown from seed that had been 
BO much injured by the grub that it was deemed good policy to substitute 
a vineyard. 

" The vines promised much, and have borne pretty well, but have fallen 
short of anticipations, owing perhaps to peculiarities of the season, which 
have been marked for the last few years. They were set in rows running 
north and south ten feet apart, and the vines eight feet apart in the rows. 

" No difficulty was found in subduing the locusts ; a contract was made 
with a laborer to dig each tree out, removing the soil and extracting the 
entire root from a circle of the diameter of a cart wheel. This work was 
performed in the winter at a shilling a tree ; the ground was then ploughed 
and planted with corn; the following year a line was designated for each 
row of grape vines ; the ground was then ploughed to the width of four or 
five feet along these rows, throwing the furrows out until a considerable 
trench was found, while workmen followed with suitable tools and cut. 
away all interfering roots. This operation gave space for the row of grape 
vines on clear ground, with but little necessity for removing much earth 
by hand for their reception ; the remaining roots in the middle of the rows 
were soon got rid of by the subsequent ploughing after planting the vines. 

" Failures have occurred occasionally, owing to several causes, some of 
which might have been avoided ; among these may be mentioned the rose 
bugs; these came in such quantities, after several years, as to entirely de 
stroy the crops for one year, before their existence was hardly suspected. 
After this they were caught by carrying small pans of water along the 
rows, and shaking them into it ; a gentle agitation being sufficient. For 
two or three years they were very troublesome, and required constant 
looking out for ; they were got under, however,- and little trouble has , 



314 APPENDIX I. 

since arisen from that quarter; a few yet linger around and make their 
appearance each year, but a sharp lookout is kept, and they usually do 
little damage. 

"Excessive bearing is a common cause of failure, perhaps the most gene 
ral; it is one of the peculiarities of the vine to set enormously with fruit 
when strong and vigorous ; the tax upon its maturing such a load often 
produces complete prostration ; sometimes it will show its effects the first 
year indeed this is often observable in the sour, shrivelled" mass of unri- 
pened fruit. 

;t It will frequently happen that the vines will go on and mature the pre 
sent crop, but they are sometimes so completely prostrated that they re 
quire two years to get restored. Pruning thoroughly in the winter, rub 
bing off all superabundant shoots, and cutting off a large portion of the 
clusters of fruit in the summer, are the proper remedies. 

" Excessive rains during the months of May and June have been more 
destructive than any other cause, especially when accompanied with 
unusually cold weather about the time of blossoming and setting. Two 
years nearly the whole vineyard failed from this cause ; all over the most 
retentive and best portions of ground, the young shoots that were about 
putting forth blossoms, turned black and sour within a few days after one 
of these heavy rains, and the crop, which until that time promised to be 
a fair one, was ruined, leaving a small yield upon the highest knolls. 

"Another cause of partial failure is, perhaps, not so obvious, yet not 
less sure in its effects ; we allude to certain peculiarities in the atmos 
phere during some seasons, which seem to be very uncongenial to the 
growth and maturing of our best fruits ; probably these effects are felt 
more or less all along the Atlantic coast. They have forced us to 
abandon the culture of the old Virgalieu Pear, and the White Chasselas, 
and other hardy foreign grapes, while all began to feel its influence here 
at the same time, and it has nearly vetoed the Newtown Pippin, and many 
other apple-trees are exhibiting like effects in a less degree. The indica 
tions are the same upon both pears and apples; they exhibit a rusty 
coat, cracked open, and are hard and bitter where these black spots 
exist. On the Newtown Pippin they are more obvious on the northeast 
side of the tree, the fruit often being quite fair on the southwest side, 
while on the opposite side it is nearly worthless. 

"The judge states that whenever a Newtown Pippin bears a crop of 
good fruit which it does occasionally his vineyard yields a large crop, 
such being the case this year. The trees are growing in various places 
among the vines, and are full of fine-looking apples everything in the 
shape of an apple seems to be fully developing, and so of the vines. And 
vice versa, whenever the fruit fails of wholly maturing on these trees, there 
is a very marked, tardy and imperfect development of the clusters of 
prupes; la,tterly these coincidences have been very deeided. The judge 



APPENDIX I. 315 

has resorted to training on arbors, which, he thinks, if properly managed, 
is by far the most certain mode of obtaining fine fruit, as there is much 
protection effected from the cold winds by the overshadowing leaves, for 
the fruit always hangs underneath. 

" He thinks eight feet not sufficiently far apart for the vines, and has 
removed several hundred, leaving a space of sixteen feet between the 
vines, with a design to train horizontally along the trellis. This mode 
fully answers his expectations ; it gives fine fruit, and it will fully equal 
the others in quantity after one year. 

There is scarcely any limit to the capabilities of a vine, the roots 
always keeping pace with the top. When they are dwarfed by constant 
pruning, the roots are circumscribed in proportion, and consequently 
draw their supplies from comparatively small space ; in severe drought 
such vines feel its effects very sensibly. The judge says this idea was 
very much impressed upon him in observing the roots of the vines re 
moved in his vineyard, while at the same time some large bearing vines 
of the same age, growing on trees where full scope was allowed, had 
roots of twice the size and length. 

"The stock of young vines for planting for the last 20 years has been 
raised from cuttings taken from the vineyard. 

"No. 12 Pennsylvania wire is used; and we noticed that instead 01 
being fastened on to the posts with staples or naDs in the usual manner, a 
cut is made with a small saw, and a turn taken around the post with the 
wire, drawing it up as snugly as possible into the cut ; the wire requires 
forcing in a little with the hammer. 

" The first part of the vineyard has had no new wire yet, except when, 
from accident the old was broken and required repairing. It looks as- 
though it might last ten years longer. Smaller wires have been used,/ 
but they do not answer as well. If any change was made, it should be 
for the size larger. 

"The judge uses the common manures collected about the farm-yard, 
applying them in moderate quantities as best suits his convenience chips 
from the wood-pile, and even shingle shavings,, have been applied in large 
quantities during the prevalence of severe drought, with beneficial results, 
which have extended to subsequent seasons. 

"He ft now cultivating the Catawba, but not very extensively, and 
does not consider it quite so- certain in maturing, and finds it more diffi 
cult to propagate. 

" Eight or ten more native varieties are now under trial." 



;16 APPENDIX i. 



VINEYARD OF 0. McKAY, NEAR CANAXDAIGUA, K Y. 

From the Horticulturist. 

" Some time ago, you may remember, you invited me to communicate to 
you such facts for publication as I might have met with in grape culture 
that would be likely to be of interest to the public. 

" I had then recently planted one acre of Isabella grape vines, pretty 
nearly after the manner you had advised in the columns of the Genesee 
Farmer. 

" The piece of ground planted is twenty rods in length by eight in 
width, and was planted five years ago last spring, in the following man 
ner : About the first of May I gave the land, which i? gravelly loam, a very 
deep ploughing as deep as possible without the aid of a subsoil plough. 
I then measured it off into eight strips, or lands running lengthwise, their 
direction being from north to south, 15 degrees east, and ploughjd these 
lands separately leaving the dead furrow in the centre of each, desig 
nating the places for the rows breaking up the yellow subsoil by 
repeated ploughing, through the centre of each to the depth of nearly 
two feet. I then went into these trenches with a stout team and scraper 
and excavated holes a rod apart still deeper than I had ploughed, about 
six feet wide and eight in length, leaving the subsoil taken from them in 
the intervening spaces. 

" All this time I had my eye upon a drove of cattle (some eighty 
head), which had died in this town the previous March and April, while 
performing a pilgrimage from the far West to the New York market. 
These I procured of the proprietor, and had them cut into pieces of con 
venient size, and hauled to the field and placed in the holes prepared for 
their reception. There being one hundred and sixty holes, a jialf of a 
carcass was placed in each. This being done, the holes were filled about 
half full of good surface soil ; upon this I distributed as equally as pos 
sible among all the holes, sixteen heavy loads of decayed leather sha 
vings, from a currier s shop, the accumulation, as I was informed, of about 
twenty years. A, sufficient quantity of surface soil was thrown upon 
these, and thoroughly incorporated with them, to fill the holes rather 
more than level with the surface of the ground. Now about a bushel of 
well rotted stable manure, taken from under a stable, well mixed with 



APPENDIX I. 31 7 

about the same quantity of charcoal dust, from an old coal pit, -was 
spaded into each place designated for the reception of a vine. 

" I then procured of Eiwanger and Barry, good strong two year old 
vines, with which I planted one half of this ground ; and the other half I 
planted with layers of the previous year s growth, without a particle of 
top to any of them each consisting simply of a short section of a vine 
of the previous year s growth, with one bud and a few small roots 
attached to it. 

These vines have had no other manuring since they were thus planted, 
excepting about two bushels of leached ashes forked in around each vine 
last season, and about one quart of plaster applied to each the season 
before. They are trained on trellises running from north to south, eight 
feet high, made of chestnut posts (for want of cedar), five inches square 
at the bottom, and two and a half by five inches at the top, set eight and 
a quarter feet apart, with strips of one and a half inch stuff, two and a 
half inches wide, nailed from post to post, eighteen inches above the 
ground, and at the top of the posts. Between these, three tiers of No. 
14 iron wire are drawn, dividing the space equally between the wooden 
strips, and secured to each post. 

" These trellises are now completely filled with good, strong, bearing 
wood ready for use next season, much of which is over three quarters of 
an inch in diameter, and large portions of it are now apparently ripe. I 
allowed these vines to bear only about seven pounds each, last season ; 
though they were set for full three times that quantity. I rubbed off 
every alternate bud on all the vines last season ; and after they were 
set for fruit, I took off half of it. My fruit was mainly sold to dealers in 
Elinira, and retailed by them at fourteen cents per pound, by the side of 
Isabella grapes, cultivated near Penn Yan, at twelve and a half cents. 
One dealer, Mr. H. H. Richards, afterward informed me that he sold 
fifty-three pounds of my grapes in one evening at fourteen cents, and 
but three pounds of the shilling grapes. Do you suppose those dead car 
casses had anything to do with this ? I do. 

" Last spring, before these vines commenced their growth, I measured 
some twenty-five or thirty of them, taking them as they run, and I 
found but very few of them to measure only ten inches in circumference. 
Nearly all measured over a foot around the body, several of them fifteen 
inches, and one seventeen inches. But why did not those dead cattle and 
leather shavings kill them ? Surely it is a marvel that they did not ; for I 
have repeatedly dug down to the bones within the past two years, and 
have always found them completely surrounded with a net-work of living 
fibrous grape roots not dead ones ! I am allowing these vines to bear 
this season just half of what they set for, after a severe autumnal prun 
ing ; and I estimate the present crop at 3,200 pounds, or 20 pounds to the 

13* 



olo APPENDIX I. 

vine, notwithstanding the hail storm on the 4th of July destroyed at least 
1.000 pounds. 

" My grapes last season commenced making their first turn on the 1st 
day of September, and the entire crop was ripe before the 30th. This 
season they commenced turning red on the 20th of August, and at this 
time (September 7th) more than 1,000 pounds are making the second 
turn. In fact, I have seen Isabella grapes offered for sale in Rochester, in 
the month of October, not as ripe as these are. 

" I will not say positively that my fruit is equal in flavor to that pro 
duced by more seemly fertilizing materials, for that would hardly seem 
possible ; but I will send you a sample of it as soon as I consider it ripe, 
that you may have an opportunity to judge for yourself. One thing I 
have remarked in regard to these vines ; no insects of any sort have dis 
turbed them, except that three or four of the vines, the year they were 
planted, were dug out by dogs in their nocturnal attempts at a premature 
resurrection of those dead carcasses ! Mildew has never affected them, 
although, from their remarkable luxuriance of growth, I have expected to 
encounter much trouble from this most patience-trying scourge of the 
vineyard. 

41 1 have adopted the plan this season of mulching my vines with spent 
tan. I applied it early in July, having kept the vines thoroughly culti 
vated previously ; I shall cover the entire vineyard with it next season 
about one inch deep. I have always ploughed between the rows to the 
depth of five or six inches, to within a foot of the vines. To enable me 
to do this without disturbing the roots, I have practised pruning off all the 
lateral surface roots, to the depth of five or six inches, thus throwing the 
vines, to use a familiar phrase, upon their taps. To this practice, I 
believe, ought to be attributed any exemption from mildew, far more 
than to any or all things else. I observed this same practice prevailed 
in Dr. Underbill s vineyards at Croton Point, though I am not aware that 
the doctor has ever given the fact to the public. If he has not, of course 
it is because he forgot to do so ; or he may have thought it would not be 
of much interest to the other cultivators of the grape. One fact is wor 
thy of note : Dr. Underbill has experienced no difficulty from mildew for 
quite a number of years past, and his vines are very old ; whereas when 
his vines were young, he says he was much troubled with its presence. 
Now, all who know anything about grape culture, well know that old 
vines, with ordinary culture, are far more subject to this difficulty than 
young ones. To my mind, this proves that the doctor is older than he 
once was, as well as his vines, and that he has not grown old to no pur 
pose. 

" In conclusion of this already too long article let me say : if you do 
not like the samples of grapes sent, suppress this account of their origin 



APPENDIX I. 319 

and culture, for they are the argument I must rely upon in defence of my 
mode of grape culture. If this argument fails to produce conviction, I 
will yield the point; but if you like them you may give me a hearing in 
the columns of the Horticulturist, if you choose to do so, that others 
may learn by what strange means good fruit may be produced, in spite 
of the abuse so profusely heaped upon dead carcasses by those who 
never take the trouble to give them a patient trial." 



APPENDIX II. 



CULTIVATION OF THE VINE UPON TRELLISES (EN 
TREILLE) IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FRANCE, 
ACCORDING TO THE NEW METHODS IN USE AT 
THOMERY.* 

THE table grape cultivated in the open air acquires often in 
Central, and with greater reason in Northern France, only an 
imperfect maturity and mediocre quality, for want of proper 
and sufficiently prolonged heat during the summer. The vine 
starts with vigor, but its growth is too much prolonged, and 
the ripening is not completed by the first cold weather of the 
autumn ; for it is only when the sap channels cease to feed the 
clusters that the grape begins to ripen. This prolonged vegeta 
tion is also the reason why the shoots are but imperfectly 
formed, or matured by the August heat, and why the vintage 
of the next year is less abundant. To avoid this cause of fail 
ure, the vine is disposed in the form of a trellis, upon walls 
placed so as to enjoy the best exposure, and soils are chosen of 
a light or medium nature, which are easily drained arid 
warmed ; lastly a series of operations is applied to the vine, 
the result of which is to maintain it in a state of moderate 
vigor, and above all to diminish the period of its yearly vege 
tation. The trellis of the Chateau of Fontainebleau was the 
first which, in its culture, taken as a whole, best fulfilled the 



* The first trellises at Thomery were established about 120 years ago by a culti 
vator named Charmeux, grandfather of the present M. Baptiste Rose Charmeux. 
He built the first wall for the purpose, leaving in the centre, according to a condi 
tion imposed upon him, a gate for the passage of the chase. 



APPENDIX II.- 



321 



conditions which we have just indicated, and it has been 
chosen for a model by all the authors who have written 
upon the cultivation of the vine en espalier. This trel 
lis, 1,500 yards in length, was put up nearly a century ago, 
and was restored about the year 1809 under the direction of 
Monsieur Lclieur. But long before the last named period, the 
inhabitants of Thomery, a village five miles distant from Fon- 
taineblean, were adopting entirely this method of culture. They 
found in it so much advantage that they finished by covering 
with walls intended for the vine the greatest part of the terri 
tory of the Commune. 

This culture at the present time extends over more than 
3,200 acres, and produces on an average a million kilogrammes 
of grapes. It is the delicious produce of these trellises which 
are sold at Paris under the name of Chasselas de Fotitainebleau 
Fig. 68. Encouraged by their success, these intelligent husband- 




322 



APPENDIX II. 



men have continued to perfect their processes, and the greater 
part of their trellises are at the- present time arranged and main 
tained much better than those of Fontainebleau. The reader, 
however, would be in error should he believe that the success 
of this method at Thomery is due to the soil, to the climate, or 
to the exposure of this locality being particularly suitable to 
the vine. The soil through most of the commune is of a clayey 
nature, and retains a slight dampness unfavorable to the quality 
of the grape. The ground is generally inclined to the north 
east, and, lastly, the neighborhood of the forest, by which the 
commune is surrounded on one side, and that of the Saine, by 
which it is bounded on the other, maintain a humid atmosphere 
very injurious to the vine. 

It is chiefly to the skill of the cultivators that we must 
attribute such happy results. We shall, therefore, describe the 
mode of culture practised by them, and recommend it for the 
climate of the centre and the north of France. 

FOKM TO BE GIVEX TO THE TiiKLLiSEs. The form the most 
commonly adopted until quite lately has been that of a simple 



liliMlttiili 




Fig. 69. 

horizontal branch (en -cordon horizontal simple), Fig. 69. It is 
the best form for allowing the action of the sap to spread 



APPENDIX II. 323 

equally toward all points of the plant, and at the same timo 
it occupies without loss of space all the surface of the wall. 
But these cordons, or arms, must be subjected to certain con 
ditions. 

First. The two arms should present exactly the same length, 
or else it will be seen that the longer arm will absorb the 
greater part of the sap and soon destroy the shorter. More 
over, the shoots which these arms bear should spring only 
from the upper surface and at regular intervals of from seven 
to eight inches. 

Second. The entire length of the arms developed by the same 
stock should not pass certain limits, for if they are permitted, 
as is often the case, to attain a length of from 32 to 48 feet, 
the sap tends principally toward the extremities, the shoots 
growing upon these points are too vigorous, while those nearer 
the origin of the arms become feeble and finally wither. It is 
much more profitable to increase the number of stocks against 
the walls, and to concentrate the action of the sap in a less extent 
of branches. In light soils and to varieties of ordinary strength, 
an average length of 52 inches is given to each one of the arms 
(or cordons) of the same stock. This, in very fertile soils, may 
be increased to 66 inches. With respect to very hardy varie 
ties, as the Frankenthal, a length of from 78 to 97 inches is 
allowed. That adopted at Thomery is commonly 93 inches. 

Third. The same stock should not bear many cordons one 
above the other, for the sap tending principally to the upper 
cordons, those beneath will remain weak. 

Fourth. In many gardens may yet be seen vines fixed to the 
upper part of walls against which are trained different sorts of 
fruit trees. This is a very bad arrangement. If the cordon is 
placed in the most favorable condition for ripening the grape, 
that is 19 inches lower than the coping of the wall, the foliage 
of the vine shadows the trees trained below and condemns from 
11 to 15 inches of their tops to complete sterility. Moreover, 
they deprive these trees of the influence of the rains and dews 
of summer. If, in order to avoid these inconveniences, the 
cordon is placed above the coping of the wall, it is only with 



324: APPENDIX II. 

great difficulty that the clusters, no longer protected, arrive at 
maturity. It is better, then, entirely to abandon this arrange 
ment, to demote a certain space of wall to the vine, and to pro 
ceed in such a manner that this shall be entirely covered. This 
is what has been done for the trellis of Fontainebleau, and those 
of Thomery, by means of the following forms. 

HOBIZOXTAI, COEDOX OF TnoMEEY. Fig. *TO. Each vine- 
stock taken by itself presents exactly the arrangement of 
the simple horizontal cordon. That which constitutes the 
Thomery system is the position of the cordons with regard 
to each other. The wall is covered from summit to base with 
cordons of the same length placed one over the other, and sup 
plied by vine stocks planted at regular distances. 

To construct this trellis we first determine the distance to be 
preserved between each cordon. As the space is to be filled by 
shoots which spring from the upper surface of the cordons, it 
should be such that the shoots may reach a development suffi 
cient to maintain the requisite degree of .strength in the vine, 
without, however, passing the upper cordon, for it would, in 
that case, be shaded too much. Experience has shown that a 
distance of from 17 to 20 inches is, in the greater number of 
.cases, sufficient, and that to this height the shoots may be 
deprived of their buds without diminishing the strength of the 
wine. This distance, may, however, be augmented for very 
.hardy varieties in very fertile soils by from 4 to 6 inches. 
Monsieur Felix Malot has established at Montreuil a trellis, the 
cordons of which being placed at a distance of only 15 inches 
from each other, render it necessary to stop the shoots as soon 
as they have attained that length. The sap from the roots 
being concentrated in a smaller space, he obtains, in general, 
larger bunches ; but this detracts from the strength of the vine 
and the duration of the trellis, and the growth of the grapes 
occupying a longer period, they do not ripen so well. The cul 
tivators of Thomery prefer smaller bunches more equally ripened. 
It will next be proper to decide the height of the wall, that we 
may know the number of cordons to be erected. Supposing 
that, like almost all those of Thomery, this wall is 8^ feet in 



APPENDIX II. 
Fig. 70. 



325 




326 APPENDIX II. 

height,* by dividing this number by 17 inches (the distance of 
the cordons from each other), we obtain just six inches. The 
first cordon being established at 15 inches from the ground, 
we shall then be able to place upon oar wall five cordons. 

As to the distance to be preserved between the stocks, that 
is necessarily determined first, by the length to which the 
two arms are to be allowed to grow ; and secondly, by the 
number of cordons one above the other. Let us suppose this 
number to be five, and the total length of the two arms to be 
8 ft. 10 in. To know the distance sought, divide the total length 
by the number of cordons : we obtain 20.12 inches, which we 
have adopted for our figure. At Thomery, where the cordons 
have only a length of 88.8 inches ; the stocks are planted at 
internals of seventeen inches. It might happen that the wall 
for the trellis might be less than 8| feet in height, and that the 
number of cordons being reduced from five to three, the dis 
tance between the stocks will then be 33.99 inches. But an 
interval so great exposes the trellis to a degree of growth 
prejudicial to the ripening of the grape ; in that case it 
would be better to diminish the length of the cordons from 8 1 
to 5.87 feet, and the distance between the stocks will then be 
19.76 inches. It may also be that the wall will be more than 
8,7 feet in height, and in order to increase the number of cor 
dons it becomes necessary to place the stock at less than 20.12 
inches; for example, to 9.88 inches if the wall affords space 
for ten cordons. Should this distance be too small to allow the 
roots to draw from the earth the sustenance necessary for the 
support of ten cordons, in order to remedy this inconvenience 
the length of the cordons is slightly increased for a trellis of 
ten cordons to from 103.08 inches to 62 inches, the stocks 
remaining at the distance of 15 inches from each other. How 
ever, as this increased length of the cordons has an unfavorable 

* M. Du 13reuil has had his drawings made to an accurate scale, but although 
our figures are exact transfers from his cuts, the relations of the French and 
English measures is such as to preclude our giving a useful scale in English feet. 
The same reason has obliged us to introduce numerous fractions a feature whicb 
we did not feel at liberty to avoid by violating the accuracy of the translation. 



APPENDIX IT. 



327 



influence over the vigor of the branches and the quality of their 
products, we recommend in preference that the following pro 
cess be employed. 

It consists in planting on the side of the wall which is to 




Fig. 71. 

receive the trellis only the number of stocks sufficient to form 
five cordons, at the most. As to the other five cordons, 
if the height of the wall requires ten, they should be established 
by means of stocks planted on the other side of the wall, and 
which may pass to the front through holes pierced in the wall 
at each point where a cordon is desired (Fig. 71). When the vines 
have grown through the wall, the opening should be closed with 
clay in order to avoid injurious currents of air. The cordons 
fovmed. in this manner are preferred by the cultivators of Tho- 
mery for the lower cordons of the trellis. They have remarked 
that the vines planted on the shady side of the wall present a 
stronger growth than the others, doubtless because the soil is 
less dried by the heat of the sun, and that the greater part of 
their stems escapes the action of the solar rays. Should these 
vines form the upper cordons, the size and abundance of their 
leaves would injure those below. In placing them, on the con 
trary, on the lower part of the trellis, their too great growth 
is diminished, and their clusters nearer the ground are subject 
to a more elevated temperature, by which their ripening i? 
hastened. 

This ingenious method may also be used for trellises composed 
of five cordons, but which are placed in a soil so dry and 



328 APPENDIX II. 

scorched that the distance of 20 inches between the stocks is 
not sufficient to allow the roots to gather from the earth the 
nourishment required. This distance must then be increased, 
without however augmenting the length of the cordons. 

When the position to be given to the cordons is properly de 
termined, the plan of their arrangement is traced upon the wall. 
Begin by indicating at the foot of the wall from A to j (Fig. 70) 
the point from which each shoot should spring, and from that 
point draw a vertical line. 

At the point A, this vertical line ceases at the height of the 
first cordon at 15 inches from the soil ; at the point B, 83.08 
inches ; at the point c, at 50 inches, and as far as the point E, 
where the line of the first cordon ceases at 86 inches from the 
soil. From thence a second series of lines is commenced simi 
lar to the first, and we proceed in this manner to the end of the 
wall. It then only remains to trace, touching the top of each 
vertical line, the course to be taken by the cordons from 
right to left, and to indicate where each of them is to cease 
that is to say 4 at 52 inches from each side of the main stalk. 
After the conclusion of this operation, the vines are planted in 
the manner which we intend to describe. 

HORIZONTAL COKDOX or OHARMEUX (Fig. 72). The arrange 
ment which we have just explained is that which was at first 
generally adopted for the Thomery vines, and is that which is 
still employed for the trellis of Fontainebleau. But it was not 
long before the cultivators of Thomery remarked that this 
method presented an important inconvenience. During the 
formation of the cordons, an entire arm of each stock is shaded 
by the upper cordon, while the greater part of the opposite arm 
escapes this unfavorable influence. The result is an inequality 
of growth between these two arms, and it becomes necessary to 
employ certain processes, often unavailing, to maintain a pro 
per equilibrium of growth between the two arms from the 
main stalk. To obviate this difficulty, in 1828, M. Charmeux, 
senior, invented a new description of horizontal cordon, which 
has been adopted by akiiost all the cultivators of Thomery for the 
trellises which they have since erected. The plan is as loilows: 



APPENDIX II. 



329 




330 APPENDIX n 

The distance between the superposed cordons, the length 
of the latter, and the distance between the stocks, is the 
same as in that of the horizontal cordon of Thomery. The 
Charmeux cordon differs only in the order in which the 
stalks successively put forth the cordons forming the trel 
lis. Thus, in the Thomery cordon, the first stalk (A, Fig. 70), 
produces the first lower cordon; the second stalk (B) the 
second cordon, and thus to the highest cordon of all, in such 
a fashion that the whole number of stalks form, from one 
extremity of the trellis to the other, a succession of distinct 
btcps. On the contrary, in the cordon of Charmeux, (Fig. 72), 
the first stalk (A) furnishes the first cordon, the second (B) the 
fourth, the third (o) the second, the j//i (E) the third, to com 
mence again by the (irst cordon, and continue in the same man 
ner to the end of the trellis. 

The design of this trellis upon the wall is made as easily as 
for the preceding arrangement. 

The desired purpose of this contrivance is completely attained. 
Not only the cordons are not unequally shaded, during the first 
years of their growth, but they completely escape this influence 
until the age of about five years. If then they are subjected to 
this shade, it is equal for both arms, and is brought first to bear 
upon the ends of each cordon in such a manner as to moderate 
their growth to the advantage of the bearing shoots nearest to 
the main stalk. 

VERTICAL COKDON. This disposition, to which, absurdly 
enough, the name of " palmette" has been given*, has been applied 
to the trellises of Fontainebleau to a small extent for about forty 
years, and ten years later to some trellises at Thomery. The fol 
lowing is the principle. The vines, planted 39.37 inches apart, 
are allowed to develop a, single stalk, which rises vertically to 
the top of the wall. This stalk presents on each side a series 
of branches irregularly disposed. The shoots annually developed 
from these are trained obliquely in the space by which each 
main stalk is separated. 

This system of is susceptible many improvements. It is 
evident, for example, that the interval of one metre (39^ inches) 



APPENDIX II. 



which separates each main stalk, is too great when the shoots 
are trained obliquely and not perpendicularly from the main 
stalk upon which they grow, as is the case in the trellis of 
which we have spoken. Moreover, the irregularity with which 




Fig. T3. 

the branches are distributed upon the stalk causes an unequal 
distribution of sap, and its determination to certain points, whe 
ther of superabundance or scarcity, resulting in the destruction 
of the shoots less favorably situated. 

VERTICAL CORDOX WITH ALTERNATE SHOOTS (Fig. 78). M. 
Rose Charmeux has brought this new arrangement to perfec 
tion in the following manner. He plants the stocks at a dis 
tance of 28 inches one from the other ; then he regularly distri 
butes the shoots on each side of the stem, making them spring 
alternately every 10 inches in such a manner that they may be 
separated by an interval of 20 inches on the same side of the 
stem. We shall find, in discussing the method of pruning, how 
perfect regularity in this recpect may be obtained. 



332 APPENDIX II. 

The trellis thus arranged presents the following advantages. 
In scorched and dry soils, the stocks and the horizontal branches 
arranged in the manner previously described suffer much from the 
heat of the sun, from which they are very imperfectly shaded by 
their leaves. In the trellis with alternate shoots the main stalks 
are completely covered. These cordons may therefore be usefully 
employed in dry soils. Besides, these cordons are suitable for 
the most confined space, since they require only 28 inches. 

But this vertical cordon cannot be conveniently applied 
against a high wall, for as the sap tends toward the top of the 
plant, the shoots toward its base become feeble and languishing. 
We have remarked this fact at Fontainebleau, where the wall 
which supports these cordons is 13 feet high. It is our opinion 
that the main stem should not be allowed to exceed 80 inches. If 
the wall is higher, the following modification (Fig. 74) may be 
used, equally due to M. Rose Charmeux. For a wall 13 feet high 
the stocks are planted only every 14 inches ; then the stalk of 
each is allowed to rise alternately to 66.4 inches and to 13 feet ; 
but the latter commence to bear shoots only directly above the 
point where the first cease that is to say at 66.4. In this 
manner the wall is completely covered and the cultivator has 
not to dread the destruction of the lower shoots. 

The trellis with vertical cordons which we have just de 
scribed is simpler and more easily formed than those with 
horizontal cordons ; but experience has shown that its produce 
is less abundant, since for an equal surface it offers a smaller 
number of branches. 

M. Rose Charmeux, struck by the advantages offered by the 
simplicity of this arrangement, has attempted to render it as 
fruitful as the horizontal cordons. He completely resolved the 
problem in 1828 by means of the following modification, which 
gives for the same surface of wall a greater number of shoots, 
and consequently a greater number of clusters. As this new 
arrangement is at once more simple, and more easily obtained 
than the others, and as it may be accommodated to walls of all 
heights, we recommend it to the exclusion of other plans, and 




Pig. 74. 

we shall choose it to study in detail the method of cultivation 
and pruning suitable to trellised vines. 



334 APPENDIX II. 



CULTIVATION OF TRELLISED VINES, ARRANGED 
WITH VERTICAL STEMS (CORDONS) BEARING OP 
POSITE SHOOTS. 



IN this new arrangement (Fig. 75) the vines are planted 
at the foot of the wall every 14 inches. The wall, whatever be 
its height, is horizontally divided into two equal parts. The 
first vine stops at half the height of the wall. The second is 
allowed to reach its summit, and thus continue in this manner 
alternately to the extremity of the wall. The reader will observe 
that the shorter vines bear shoots from about 12 inches above 
the soil to their tops, and the taller begin to bear shoots only on 
leaving the lower half of the wall. t These pairs of shoots are 10 
inches distant from each other. This arrangement offers all the 
advantages presented by the form shown in Fig. 74 ; that is to 
say, that in consequence of the length of the main stem fur 
nished with shoots, these last are maintained in equal growth. 
Moreover, the new form grows more shoots for the same sur 
face than is shown in Fig. 74, and more even than the horizontal 
cordons. If, however, the wall is only 39 inches high, all the 
vines may be made to rise regularly to its summit. But in that 
case they should be placed at intervals of 28 inches and should 
be furnished with branches from 12 inches above the soil to the 
top of the wall. 

Let us now turn to the labor necessary to the establishment 
of such a trellis as the one described above. 

WALLS PROPER FOR THE TRELLIS. The vine arranged in ver 
tical cordons accommodate themselves to walls of all heights. 
At Th ornery the gardens are subdivided by bearing walls 
parallel to each other and separated by a space of from 40 to 
46.^ feet. They may, however, be placed nearer to each other, 
but in that case the earth between will be too much shaded, 
and cannot be turned to account These bearing walls are only 
85 inches high, and were built many years after those of inclo- 
sure ; that is to say, when the young vines which it is intended 
they shall support, have been carried thence by many successive 



APPENDIX II. 



335 




Fig. 75. 



336 



APPENDIX IT. 



layerings (coucfiages). Thus the interest of the capital employed 
in these constructions is economized. Some of the cultivators 
of Thomery have also constructed a sort of counter espalier 
that is to say, a lesser wall opposite the principal bearing wall, 
in masonry 45 inches high and 6 to 8 inches thick. Only one 
of these little walls is placed 100 inches in front of the principal 
walls the most favorably situated. In this manner they derive 
every possible advantage from their best exposures. 

This subdivision of the inclosures not only enables the culti 
vator to obtain a larger harvest, but it likewise offers the 
advantage of diminishing the currents of air, concentrating the 
heat by the radiation, and thus hastening the ripening of the 
grape. 

It has sometimes been attempted to use for trellises the walls 
by which terraces are supported. The superfluous moisture of 
the soil draws to the bottom of the wall and injures the vine stalks. 
For almost every other kind of fruit-tree very projecting copings 
oifer more inconveniences than advantages, but for the vine the 
case is different. On the one hand, these copings take place with 
those movable fruit-houses which we have recommended for cov 
ering espalier trees in order to preserve them from the chills of the 
spring ; and on the other, they shelter the vine from the mois 
ture of the rains and dews, which results in a more active vege 
tation and a more prolonged development, injurious to the 
ripening of the grape. Finally, these projections preserve the 
clusters from the first cold weather of the autumn, and thus 
delay the time of gathering and facilitate their preservation. 
All the walls of Thomery are finished by tile copings. Their 
projection is greater in proportion to the height of the walls, 
being 14 inches for walls of 156 inches, 12 inches for those of 
117 inches, 10 inches for those of 100 inches, 8 inches for th ose 
of 80 inches, and 5| inches for the little walls of the counter 
espalier. In the last case they are inclined only from one side. 

The walls thus built are white, being covered with lime. This 
color at Thomery has given the most satisfactory results. 

When the method of construction allows, smooth finished walls 
(palissage a la loque\ should be used; we may then dispense 



APPENDIX II. 337 

with the trellis. But the great quantity of plaster required 
by this arrangement renders it too expensive to be used 
beyond a certain distance from Paris. We must have 
recourse to frames, and for the form of trellis of which we are 
speaking, they should be erected in the following manner : 

A series of galvanized iron wires (No. 14) are extended along 
the wall. Upon these wires laths are fastened every 12 inches, 
and to these laths the main stem of each vine is trained alter 
nately to half the height and to the summit of the wall. 

EXPOSUKE OF THE WALLS. The trelHsecl vine demands an 
exposure at once as dry and as warm as possible. In the north 
and the centre of France this double condition is best fulfilled 
by a southeast exposure. A southern exposure is doubtless the 
warmest, but the trellises with such an aspect also receive too 
directly the damp winds and rains of the southwest. The culti 
vators of Thomery use the side of their walls exposed to the 
west and to the southwest, but gather from thence grapes of the 
second or third quality only. 

PROPAGATION OF THE VINE. On the different modes of pro 
pagation to be chosen for a trellised vine, we would offer the 
following observations. Slips or cuttings propagated from 
layers are often used in forming trellises. When intended for a 
permanency, they are planted in the manner which we will 
proceed to describe. They begin to bear fruit only in the 
fourth year. They should be used only in the absence of 
the layers themselves, for whose first fruit we are not 
obliged so long to wait. The layers, or as they are called at. 
Thomery, the clievelees, are generally to be preferred, for when- 
they are transplanted with care, and their roots are not dried by 
exposure to the air, their vegetation during the first years is 
more vigorous, and thus time is gained. Two sorts of layers 
are used uncovered layers and layers in baskets. The unco 
vered layers (Fig. 76) are freed from all the earth which 
surrounds them, when they are planted for a trellis. When 
planted with care, they will begin to bear at the end of. three 
years. The basket layers (Fig. 77) are prepared in the follow 
ing manner. In the spring is made an osier basket (D) of an. 

15 



338 



APPENDIX H. 




Fig. 76. 

oval form and 12 inches long by 10 inches broad, and having a 
depth of 10 inches. These baskets should be made of green 
osier, that they may remain intact during a year. When the 
proper time for making the layer has arrived, the shoots to be 
operated upon being before chosen, a hole is pierced in the bot 
tom of the basket at the point A, by which the shoot enters; 
each basket is then placed at a depth of 6 inches in the soil, 
and they are then filled with earth of good quality, to which 
has been added a portion of vegetable mold. Lastly, the top 
of the shoot is then cut in such a manner that only two buds or 
germs are left above the soil, and the whole is sustained by a 
prop. The operation is terminated by taking off all the buda 
on that part of the stem situated between the mother branch 
and the basket. This suppression is necessary to prevent these 
buds from absorbing the sap in their development at the expense 
of the layer. During the summer the two buds on the layer 



APPENDIX II. 



339 




freely develop themselves, and put forth abundant roots, so that? 
at the end of the year the layer is ready for use. The whole is- 
then taken up and the layer hardly suffers at all from the sepa 
ration from the parent stalk. This undoubtedly is the best, 
method of propagation, and is that which is preferred at Tho- 
mery. Unhappily, on account of the expense attending the 
transportation of the basket layers, the cultivator is often com 
pelled to use the unprotected layers, or chevelees. 

GKAFT. As to the graft, this mode of propagation, or multi 
plication, is employed for trellised vines only as an exception,, 
and in circumstances analogous to those which render this 
operation necessary in ordinary vineyards. We have in the 
preceding part of this volume described the graft " en fente, 



340 



APPENDIX II. 



Couture 1 as one of the best for the vine. If. however, a 
cTievelee may be used, it is to be preferred to any other for the 
purpose. It is planted near the vine, and the operation is con 
ducted in the same manner as for the graft. 

The great advantage of the cJiwelee is that it bears fruit the 
following summer. 

An essential precaution, and one which is equally applicable 
to the three methods of propagation above mentioned, is the 
proper choice of the shoot intended to furnish the graft, the 
cutting or the layer. The shoot should have borne fruit during 
the year, and should be strong and in a healthy condition. The 
clusters should have been such as to exhibit in the highest 
degree the distinguishing qualities of the variety which it is 
desired to cultivate. Before the grapes are gathered, the shoots 
which appear the best suited for this purpose should be marked. 

PLANTATION AND PBOCESS OF BEDDING OE LAYING THE 
TEELLISED VINE. First Year. The superabundant moisture 
with which the soil is always impregnated during the winter is 
especially injurious to the roots of the newly-planted vine; it 
causes them to decay. The end of the winter, when the earth 
is drained sufficiently, is the time which should almost always be 
chosen for planting. There is no exception to this rule, but 
for dry and scorched soil like that of central and southern 
France. In such ground it is better to plant at the beginning 
of winter. The following is the process employed for layers in 
boskets : 

If the land to be used is new, or if it has not lately been tho 
roughly cultivated, it should be dug during the winter to a 
depth of 32 or even so deep as 39 inches, if the soil is pebbly. 
The soil thus spaded up should extend to within 53.2 inches of 
the base of the wall. In the preceding chapters we have 
already spoken of the necessity that the soil should be such as 
to conduce to the health of the plants which it is intended to 
support. Such a soil is particularly essential to the vine. It 
may even be advisable, after the first spading mentioned, to 
carry it to a depth of 48 inches, and to widen it to an extent 
of 89 inches. The permeability of the soil should also be 



APPENDIX II. 34:1 

increased by the mixtures of earth already described, and the 
earth in all cases should be richly manured. 

When the land is thus prepared, in the spring, a trench is 
opened 17 inches deep in dry, 20 inches deep in wet soils. 
The outer edge of this trench is 28 inches from the wall. The 
earth taken from it is deposited on each side. Vegetable mold, 
or compost, mixed with earth, is then spread over the bottom. 
In this trench the baskets containing the layers are placed. 
Should the soil be very dry the trench may be opened at 
39 inches from the foot of the wall, instead of 28. A greater 
length of the stem is then bedded before it reaches the wall, and 
the roots, spread over a greater space, will more easily find the 
portion of moisture which they require. The space to be left 
between these layers is of course determined by that which it is 
intended shall be left between the vertical cordons upon the 
wall. If the cordons are intended to be 14 inches distant one 
from the other, the layers are separated by an interval of 28 
inches, as after they have been laid, each layer should furnish 
two branches at the foot of the wall. A number of layers 
might be planted equal to the number of sterns supporting the 
cordons, which are intended for the wall ; but in that case they 
would be separated by a less interval, and would, as it were, 
starve each other. Moreover, the number of layers being 
greater, the expense would be increased. 

It will, then, be more advisable to proceed in the manner just 
described ; at all events, in those cases where the wall being 
only 39 inches in height, all the stems are to extend to the 
top. 

When the stalks from the layers are separated at the base of 
the wall by an interval of 28 inches, the number of basket layers 
planted is equal to that of these stalks. If the first process is 
adopted, the layers are planted at the point A (Fig. 78), in the 
centre of the space by which the stalks against the wall are 
divided one from the other. In the second case, the layers are 
placed at the point A, in front of each of the points indicated 
by B. 

The layers are planted in the following manner : From each 



342 



APPENDIX II. 




Fig. 78. 

layer composed of two shoots, the least vigorous one is sepa 
rated. The roots which issue from the basket are left un 
touched, provided that they are not broken, or dried by exposure 
to the air. This being done, at the bottom of the trench, and 
on that side which is farthest from the wall, a hole is made 6 
inches deep and a little larger than the basket which it is 
intended to receive. In each of these holes a basket is placed 
in such a manner that the end of the shoot which it contains is 
turned toward the wall. That and the basket should be 10 inches 
below the level of the soil. A little notch is then made in the 



APPENDIX n. 343 

upper edge of the basket on that side nearest the wall, so that 
the shoot may be easily turned in the required direction. Then 
on that side of the trench nearest the wall, and in front of each 
basket, is made a smaller trench, as is shown in the figure at D, 
3 inches deep and 10 inches long. In this the shoot is carefully 
laid, and it is filled with earth mixed with vegetable mold up to 
the level of the soil. The first trench is partly filled with the 
earth which was taken from it, mixed with vegetable mold. 
This operation is performed in such a manner that the trench is 
left empty to the depth of 8 inches, that the layer is buried to 
the depth of 10 inches, and that the top of the basket is covered 
by a bed of earth 2 inches in thickness. The operation is con 
cluded by cutting off the shoot, as it leaves the earth just above 
the bud E, or that which is nearest the ground. The sap being 
thus concentrated upon a single bud, it attains a more vigorous 
development, and that part of the shoot which is buried, puts 
forth more roots, which pierce the bark with greater ease, in 
proportion as the leaf-buds from which they spring are nearer 
to the light. The end of the shoot above the earth is fixed 
upon a stave or prop 39 inches in length, and the remainder of 
the earth taken out of the trench is piled up on each side in the 
form of a shelving bank. The result of this last arrangement is 
to retain a greater degree of moisture in the neighborhood of 
the newly-planted shoot during the summer. 

When the cultivator has no layers in baskets at his disposal, 
and is obliged to content himself with uncovered layers or even 
with cuttings, they should be planted in the same manner as 
the basket layers, only care must be taken to place the earth 
firmly around the cheveUes and especially around the cuttings, 
and all that part which is under ground should be surrounded 
with earth which has been considerably enriched. 

We will now proceed to describe the attentions demanded by 
this plantation during the next summer. When the bud E is 
developed, it is fixed upon the prop. As soon as it has attained 
a length of 20 inches the top is cut off; next the premature 
twigs which are thus developed are removed when they are 
4: inches in length. The result this operation is to increase 



APPENDIX II. 

the size of the stem by limiting the evolution of the antici 
patory shoots, and to accumulate in a small space all the nutri 
tive juices taken up by the roots. It also promotes the increase 
of the roots along the newly interred layer. No bunch of 
grapes is allowed to remain on this shoot for fear of weakening 
it. The whole plantation should also receive two or three dress 
ings in the course of the year. They should be applied, if possi 
ble, after rather a smart shower of rain, and when the earth has 
slightly drained. If the soil is light and dryness is to be appre 
hended, the trench and the little ditch should be covered with 
a bed of manure 6 inches in thickness, besides that which has 
already been applied, and finally, the trench is filled with the 
earth banked up on each side. After this operation, the whole 
appears like Fig. 78. 

SECOND YEAR OF THE PLANTATION. Toward the end of 
February, the shoot developed during the preceding year is cut 
at A (Fig. 79), above the three buds nearest to the base, then it 




is attached to a prop 53 inches long which replacas the first. 
"When the shoots have attained a length of 6 inches the 
laterals are pinched out, so as to preserve only the shoots 
from the three buds just described. These shoots are fixed 
upon a prop in proportion as they grow longer. They are 
not allowed to exceed the prop by which they are supported, 
and the process of nipping oif the buds is continued. Should 



AJM KNDIX IT. 



345 



the shoots on the props be very vigorous, two clusters, at the 
most, should be left upon each, and should be treated in the 
manner which we will explain in the proper order. The same 
attentions are bestowed as in the preceding summer, and then 
a light dressing in November. The result then obtained is 
shown in Fig. 80. 




Fig. 80. 

THIRD YEAR. Relaying. In good weather in the first of 
March, or, if in the South, in the a ltumn, the layers must be 
examined in order to know if they have put forth shoots suffi 
ciently large and vigorous to be relaid. If uncovered layers, 
and still more, if cuttings have been plante-d, the cultivator will 
be obliged to wait till the following year and even to the year 
after to repeat the process of bedding or laying. The roots on 
the previously bedded shoot will not be sufficiently numerous, 
they would injure in their development the new layer which it 
is intended to put down, and the future health of the stalk des 
tined to be placed against the wall would suffer. In that case 
only the two finest shoots of the young stalk should be pre 
served. These are cut to a length of only 6 inches, and upon 
these only a single shoot is preserved during the summer. 
Should they not be strong enough for relaying in the following 
year, the same operation is repeated. The stalks obtained from 
layers in baskets may almost always be rebedded from the third 
year. In that case the following method is employed. A 

15* 



346 



APPENDIX II. 



trench 24 to 30 inches deep, according as the soil is more or 
less exposed to dampness, is opened at the foot of the wall, and 
is made wide enough to reach the young vines (Fig. 81). The 




Fig. 81. 

earth round the young vines is loosened with care until they 
iturn naturally of themselves into the trench, in the hottom of 
-which they are then placed in the manner shown by Figs. 81 
rand 82, that is to say, if each principal vine stalk is intended to 
.produce two stalks to be trained on the wall (Fig. 82), the two 




APPENDIX II. 



347 



most vigorous shoots should be preserved, and they should he 
earned obliquely toward the wall, and from two stalks at the 
points B. If, on the contrary, it is intended that each principal 
stalk shall furnish but one stalk for the wall (Fig. 83), only 




Fig. 88. 

the finest shoot is preserved, which is buried in the trench and 
directed toward the wall at the point B, where it is intended to 
be trained. In both cases the shoots are covered as far as the 
foot of the wall by a bed of mixed soil and vegetable mold 
about 4 inches in thickness (Fig. 83). The trench is then filled 
with part of the earth which was taken from it, and the re 
mainder is heaped up in a shelving bank at a distance of 40 
inches from the wall, in order to preserve the moisture in the 
neighborhood of the newly laid vines, and thus facilitate a 
plentiful development of roots. 

The upper extremities of the buried shoots are fixed at the 
base -of the uprights of the trellis. These shoots are cut so as 
to preserve only the three buds nearest the base. This opera 
tion being concluded, the trellis presents the form shown in 
Fig. 81. 

If the plantation of layers or cuttings has been in a trench at 
a distance of 40 inches from the wall instead of 28 inches, they 
must he brought to the foot of the wall only after a third lay 
ing, otherwise we should be obliged each time to cover too 
large a part of the shoot, which, as we shall see further on, will 



348 APPENDIX II. 

prevent them from properly taking root, and so injure the 
strength of the vine. 

If this method of planting for the trellised vine is compared 
with that used in the majority of gardens, it will be seen that 
it is very different. In fact, the vines are almost always planted 
directly at the foot of the wall, and the only pa. t buried is that 
which was originally below the soil ; so that the vine, the roots 
of which ramify with great difficulty, cannot, when thus, 
planted, develop new radical organs upon the stems below the 
soil. It puts forth roots with great difficulty, it is long in 
recovering from its transplantation, and its vegetation is never 
vigorous. 

On the contrary, by adopting the mode of cultivation used at 
Thomery, which we have just described, the vine is placed 
under much better circumstances. The first year there is 
buried, besides the stem first covered with roots, 10 inches of 
the shoot, which during the two or three years preceding the 
relaying, covers itself with vigorous roots. Two or three years 
after this, 14 inches of the shoot are again laid, which in a little 
while is completely covered with roots. Each stalk intended 
for the wall is then provided with an underground stem 44 
inches in length, bearing through all its length numerous and 
wigorous roots, which give to the vine more strength and hardi- 
mess than is possible when the method of which we spoke first 
>is used. When uncovered chevdees, or those in baskets are 
used, the cultivator may be tempted to lay at once a length of 
-ehoot sufficient to bring the upper end directly to the foot of the 
wall, a length, for instance of 24 inches. This is a very bad 
plan, for the stems do not properly take root only upon the 12 
to 14 inches nearest to the upper ends, because the woody 
and cortical fibres which run down from the buds to produce 
roots are not sufficiently numerous to put forth roots enough, 
and they pierce the bark at the same time that they meet the 
soil. It is desirable to lay only 14 inches at the most, if it is 
intended that the underground stalk shall be fully provided with 
roots throughout its whole extent. 

OF PRUNING ADOPTED JFOR THE VERTICALLY TEEL- 



APPEN 7 DIX II. 



340 



USED VINE WITH OPPOSITE SHOOTS. CONSTRUCTION OF THE 
FRAME. First Tear. The shoots having been laid and brought 
to the foot of the wall, the buds are watched in their first deve 
lopment to see that they are not harmed by caterpillars, snails, 
or other destructive insects. When the three shoots have 
attained a length of about 6 inches, the stipulary shoots 




Fig. 84. 

(A, Fig. 84), which often grow by the side of the shoots properly 
so called, are taken away. Then, when they are about 12 inches 
long, we begin to break the tendrils which uselessly absorb the 
sap. This breaking of the tendrils is continued through the 
period during which the length of the shoot increases, and 
should be put in force while the tendrils are yet so soft that 
they may be easily broken. That is also the time which should 
be chosen to begin the formation of the stalk intended to be 
trained upon the wall. The following is the method then 
employed : 

Let us suppose that one of these young stalks is represented 
by Fig. 84. From the three stalks which have been preserved, 
one is chosen having a leaf 12 inches above the ground. Let us 
suppose in our figure that this is the second shoot on leaving 



350 



APPENDIX II. 



the ground, and that the leaf aforesaid is situated opposite the 
second cluster. This cluster is taken off and the shoot is cut 
immediately above this leaf, as in B, Fig. 85. The top of the two 




Fig. 85. 

other shoots is then removed in order to hinder them from too 
great a growth to the detriment of the shoot upon which it is 
intended to operate. We may then proceed to train it upon the 
frame. The shoot under treatment is placed in a vertical posi 
tion, and the two others are attached at an angle of forty-five 
degrees. A premature stipulary shoot will be seen immediately 
to spring from the axil of the leaf of the cut shoot (A, Fig. 85). 
This shoot should be broken when only an inch or two in 
length, so that the bud B at the base of this shoot is forced to 
develop itself. Before lonjj this bud gives birth to a shoot 




Fig. 86. 



APPENDIX II. 



351 



(A, Fig. 86), which is allowed to grow, and which is trained 
vertically. These young main stalks require no other care dur 
ing the summer, so far as the frame is concerned, than the 
complete suppression of all the premature stipulary shoots 




Fig. 87. 

(A, Fig. 87), or of premature shoots commonly so called, as also 
of the tendrils. Upon each shoot should be left only the clus 
ters o and D and the primitive leaves. These attentions should 
be given each year to all the shoots preserved. 

Second Year. The stems operated upon in the manner just 
described present the appearance of Fig. 88. They are then 
subjected to the second pruning. The two shoots (B) are com 
pletely taken off by cutting the first at A. Then the premature 
shoot c is cut at D immediately above the bud situated near the 



352 



APPENDIX H. 







Fig. 88. 

base. During the following summer this bud develops itself as 
well as the germs immediately below it upon the secondary shoot, 




Fig. 89. 



APPENDIX II. 



353 



indicated by the letters EE, which is called the spur (talon). 
The number of buds on the spur may be three or four. But 
two buds on the spur, one on each side and one at the top of 
the shoot, are preserved. The produce of the buds E E is entirely 
removed. This last operation is performed as soon as the shoots 
from the spur have attained a length of 4 inches. When the 
remaining shoots are fastened to the frame, the young vine 
presents the appearance of Fig. 86. When the centre shoot (B) 
puts forth, as it increases in length, a leaf above that point 
where the first pair of lateral shoots is attached, it is cut above 
this leaf at the point A, as in the preceding summer, in order to 
obtain from the axil of this leaf a new shoot for the formation 
of a second pair, which must be treated in the same manner. 
The two lateral shoots are subjected to the same operation. 
Third Year. In the following spring each stem on the walls 




Fig. 89. 

presents the appearance of Fig. 89. The shoot A is cut at the 
point B, in order to obtain the same result as in the preceding 
year. As to the branches o, they are cut near their base in 
order to form the two first coursons or double branches shown 



354 



APPENDIX H. 




Fig. 90. 

in Fig. 90. The same development takes place during the sum 
mer below the point B, as well as the same operation upon the 
new terminal shoot. The product of the buds D is removed. 

Fourth Year. Fig. 90 shows the result of the operations 
performed during the preceding years. The same method of 
pruning is practised one year after another until the trellised 
vine has covered the space for which it was intended, when it 
presents the appearance shown in Fig. 74. 

All that we have just said applies to those stems which rise 
to half the height of the wall. Those which extend to its top 
grow more rapidly during the first years. During the summer, 
after the layering by which they have been brought to the wall, 
two shoots are left upon each of the three first shoots. The 



APPENDIX II. 



355 



following year, at the winter priming, the strongest of the three 
shoots resulting from thence is chosen ; the two others are 
taken away and the remaining one is cut at 20 inches above the 
point where it is attached to the frame. In summer it is allowed 
to retain but three buds, which give place to three new shoots. 
The best of these is again chosen and extended also to 20 inches. 
The same process is repeated till the vertical stalk reaches the 
point where it is intended to support lateral branches. Then 
the same series of operations is employed as in the first case. 

This method of forming the main stalks has this advantage, 
that each pair of lateral branches being separated by a regular 
interval of 10 inches and by a knotty place at the point of 
attachment of the successive extensions, the course of the 
sap is arrested below every one of these knots and thus obliged 
to act with the same intensity on all the lateral branches of the 
same stalk. Such is not the use in the vertical cordons which 
are more rapidly formed, as they are more extended at each 
pruning. 

CAKE NECESSARY TO THE LATERAL BRANCHES. First Year. 
The essential principles of pruning the lateral branches are the 
following : In the case of the vine, the clusters are attached to 




V 1 Fig. 91. 

shoots proceeding from the branches of the preceding summer 
(Fig. 91). The shoots accidentally developed on the old wood 
never bear grapes (Fig. 92). 

The further the buds are removed from the base of the 
branch, the more fruitful are the shoots to which they give rise. 



356 



APPENDIX II. 




Hence it appears that the shoots should be left entire, or be 
left very long. But in that case we immediately encounter the 
following inconveniences. Thus, if the shoot ia the Fig. 93 is 
cut in B, the buds o and B are the only ones which will be 




Fig. 93. 



Fig. 94. 



developed, and we shall have in the following year the result 
shown in Fig. 94. If, then, we trim the shoot at the points 
A and B (Fig. 94), we shall have two new shoots produced at the 
top of the shoot B. Continuing to trim in this manner the lateral 
branch or immediate support of the young shoot increases in 
length each year from 4 to 6 inches, and thence results great 
confusion through the whole extent of the trained vine, and 
moreover, a progressive enfeeblement, or, as it were, starvation, 
of the new shoots, and, consequently, an immediate diminution 
of fruitfulness. 

On the other hand, if the shoot in Fig. 93 is cut so as to 



APPENDIX II. 357 

preserve only the bud A, this bud is so near the old wood that 
the shoot produced from it will bear no grapes. 

It will be best, then, to cut this shoot (Fig. 93) as short as 
possible, to hinder the lateral shoot from increasing in length, 
but in such a manner, however, as to preserve a bud far enough 
from the old wood to produce grapes. Experience has shown 
that in order to attain this double end, the shoots from varieties 
of only a slight or average degree of strength should be cut 
above the two buds the nearest to the base, one of these two 
being that bud which, hardly visible, is on the base of the 
shoot itself that is, just where it springs from the stalk (Fig. 
93). Two new buds are developed, and in consequence, two 
new shoots. The branch will then present the appearance 
shown in Fig. 95. 




The shoot A has borne clusters during the summer. The 
shoot B is too near the old wood to have produced anything. 
It is called the shoot of replacement that is to say, it is that 
intended to undergo the next pruning. For that, almost all 
the old wood is cut from the top of the spur. Then the 
shoot B is cut above the two buds nearest its base. During the 
summer two new shoots are thus produced, and each year the 
same method of pruning is repeated, so as to allow the old 
wood to increase as little as possible in length, and keep the 
fruitful shoots as near as possible to the direct channel of the 
sap. Such is the method of pruning applied to the branches 
intended to bear grapes for the table. 

There are, nevertheless, varieties so hardy that, should they 
be subjected to this process, no fruit, or very little, would be 



358 



APPENDIX II. 



obtained. The different varieties of muscats, the Frankenthal, 
and others which we have noted in our list, are of this descrip 
tion. For these, the shoots should be left a little longer. They 
are cut off below the third bud. This difference does not result 
in increasing the length of the lateral branches. In fact, such 
is the strength of these vines that three shoots are obtained 
from each lateral branch. That from the top, which generally 
bears the clusters, is the one preserved, then that at the base, 
intended to undergo the next year s pruning. The intermediate 
one is suppressed. The same-operation is each year repeated. 

DISBUDDING THE LATEEAL BRANCHES OK OOUESONS. When the 
coursons are cut so as to preserve but two or three buds, it will 
often happen, nevertheless, that a larger number will be deve 
loped. Only two, at the most, should be left at each point. 
The shoot A (Fig. 96), nearest the old wood, is preserved as a 
shoot of replacement, together with that farthest from the same 




Fig. 96. 



APPENDIX II. 359 

point B. The latter generally bears the clusters. There are, 
however, two cases in which but a single shoot should be left 
on the courson. First, when none of the shoots of the courson 
bear clusters ; then a single shoot, that from the base, is useful 
as a shoot of replacement. By the others being suppressed, the 
remaining one becomes stronger and will yield finer fruit in the 
following year. 

Second. When the two shoots of the courson both bear clus 
ters, which occasionally occurs in very fertile years. As it is 
advisable to leave only two small clusters or one large one to 
be supported by each courson, as we will presently explain, a 
retrenchment will be necessary. In this case, the shoot from 
the base only is preserved, and it will become at the same time 
a fruit-bearing shoot and a shoot of replacement. In conse 
quence of this retrenchment the shoot in question will acquire 
more strength, it will bear better grapes, and the new shoot 
will afford the finest products of the following year. 

The proper time for putting in practice these different trim 
mings, is, as soon as the young clusters make their appearance 
upon the shoots, that is to say, when they are about 10 inches 
long. We must repeat what we have said concerning the cut 
ting of the shoots that there should be left upon each one of 
the shoots preserved only the clusters and the primitive leaves. 
Then all the supplementary shoots and: the tendrils should be 
removed as soon as they appear. 

PINCHING THE SHOOTS. The buds on the shoots of the vine, 
as on those of other trees, should often be pinched back. The 
end of this operation is to prevent the shoots from confused 
growth, to diminish the growth of some of the shoots to the 
profit of feebler ones, and finally to favor the development of 
the grapes by enabling them to profit by the sap, which would 
otherwise pass to the shoots which would spring from the buds 
destroyed. 

In order to obtain these different results the buds on the 
shoots should be pinched off as they develop themselves to the 
length of from 16 to 20 inches, and their extremities only 
should then be cut. 



360 APPENDIX II. 

MANNER OF FASTENING THE SHOOTS IN SUMMER. The shoots 
of the vine are fastened in order to prevent their being broken 
by the wind, and in general this fastening should be twice prac 
tised upon the same shoot. The first fastening is made when 
the shoots have attained a length of about 12 inches. Then the 
shoots are but slightly compressed in the rush which serves as 
a ligature. Otherwise, in growing, they would break them 
selves. 

Fifteen days after this first fastening, we proceed to the 
second, or recollage, as it is called by the cultivators of Tho- 
mery. At this time the shoots are tied as close as is necessary 
to arrange them conveniently. This process of fastening should 
be successively made for the different shoots of the same vertical 
main stalk, and by beginning with the most vigorous we may 
equalize their strength. The shoots of the vertical cordons 
should be inclined at an angle of forty-five degrees. 

EEXEWAL OF THE COURSOXS. We have seen that in spite of 
the care which has been taken to keep down the spurs by an 
annual trimming, to the shoot nearest the base, they will always 
increase a little in length, and the shoot which they bear will 
diminish in vigor in proportion as they are removed from the 
point where the spur or lateral branch is attached to the 
cordon or vertical main stalk. In order to remedy this incon 
venience, the shoots which sometimes grow at the base of the 
spurs are carefully preserved, whatever may be the age of 




Fig. 97. 



APPENDIX II. 361 

the spurs from which they spring. Then, of the two upper 
shoots, that which bore the worst cluster is suppressed. The 
following year the spur is cut at A, Fig. 97, and the shoot B 
is cut ahove the two lowest germs or eyes in order to form a 
new courson or spur. 

REPLACEMENT OF THE SPUES (COUESONS). Sometimes also cer 
tain spurs disappear entirely or are not developed where they are 
expected, and in either case spaces are left which it becomes 
necessary to fill. This accident may be remedied by the graft. 

CAEE OF THE GRAPES. It is in particular the intelligent 
labor bestowed upon the grapes from their first appearance to 
their maturity to which the cultivators of Thomery are 
indebted for their success. The following are the processes 
adopted : 

SUPPEESSION OF THE SuPEEFLUOUS BUNCHES. Too large B, 

quantity of grapes upon the vine produces the same result as a 
superabundance of fruit upon other trees. A great quantity of 
grapes are gathered, but the clusters and the berries are small, 
and the vines are enfeebled for the following year. If the neces 
sary retrenchments are made, the same result in weight is 
obtained, and the grapes are larger, better flavored, and com 
mand a higher price. 

TmiraiNG THE BUNCHES. "When the berries have attained the 
first stages of development, it will be proper to thin them.. 




362 APPENDIX II. 

"With" a straight, pointed pair of scissors we cut from each 
bunch first, all the abortive berries; and secondly, those in 
the middle of the bunch, together with some of those which, 
although on the outside, are too much crowded. If the 
bunches are very long, as is often the case with young and 
vigorous vines, the point of the bunch (A, Fig. 98) must also 
be removed, since the berries which it bears would be slow 
in ripening. The result of this thinning is, that, other things 
being equal, the grapes are ripe fifteen days earlier, the berries 
are a third larger, and those intended to be kept through the 
winter will keep better. 

The thinning practised at Thomery is performed by women, 
and is applied to at least half the harvest that is to say, 500,000 
kilogrammes of chasselas. 

GATHEKIXO THE LEAVES. At the time when the thinning 
takes place should also be applied the first epamprement, or 
picking off the leaves. At first only the leaves turned toward 
the wall and those more or less broken or distorted are removed. 
"When the berries begin to look transparent, a second epampre 
ment takes place. A few leaves on the front of the vine are 
then removed in situations where the foliage is thick ; but the 
leaves which shelter the branches, the parasol^ are preserved 
with care. Finally, when the berries are entirely cleared, and 
begin to turn yellow, the leaves which shadow them are 
removed. If they are exposed earlier the berries will harden 
and cease to increase in size. The bunches thus uncovered are 
exposed alternately to the dew and the sun, by the action of 
which they acquire that beautiful pale yellowish brown which 
distinguishes the chasselas of Thomery. 

Black grapes require particular care in this respect. The first 
removal of the leaves should not take place till the grapes are 
completely colored. 

These successive strippings of the leaves from the vine result 
in progressively arresting the annual growth of the vine, a long 
time before it would otherwise cease. The fruit, therefore, 
sooner begins to mature, and will be completely ripe by the first 
cold weather. 



APPENDIX II. 363 

PKOTECTIONS. The very projecting copings which we have 
recommended for trellised vines are insufficient, if the wall is 
more than 80 inches high, to protect the grapes from the damp 
ness of the atmosphere. It will then be advisable to place a 
movable pent-house at about half the height of the wall after 
the last gathering of the leaves in the middle of September. 
This pent-house should project about 20 inches. 

ANNULAR INCISION. Kefer to page 234 for the description of 
this operation, intended to hasten fifteen days the ripening of the 
grape, and which will increase also fully a third the size of the 
berry. 

RENEWAL OF THE TKELLISKD VINE. The trellised vine, 
attended in the manner we have described, will bear fruit for 
more than fifty years. But there comes a time when the suc 
cessive renewal of the spurs produces upon them so many 
knots that tile circulation of the sap is interrupted. The vege 
tation becomes languishing, many of the coursons wither, and 
the vertical stems themselves finally perish. "When this state 
of decrepitude first manifests itself, the cultivator proceeds to 
the renewal of the vine. All the vertical stalks are cut at about 
8 inches above the soil (Fig. 99). This trimming concentres the 
action of the sap upon this point, and so develops a certain 
number of shoots. During the summer the most vigorous are 
chosen and the others removed. The following year the 
reserved shoot is cut above the third bud, and the same care 
before described is applied to the three resulting shoots. Then 
the process is continued as for the establishment of a young 
vine. To assure its success, it is well to remove, from the time 
when the shoots are suppressed, as much earth as possible from 
the foot of the trellis without injuring the roots of the vine, and 
we should apply abundance of manure, which should be covered 
with a bed of new earth nearly equal in thickness to that 
removed. When the trellis to be renewed is in a state of 
advanced decrepitude, and when a certain number of vertical 
stalks are completely withered, and the regularity of the whole 
is lost, we proceed in a different manner. Each vertical stem 
is cut off, as we have said, above, and those which are dead 



364 



APPENDIX II. 




Pig. 99. 

removed. During the summer the two most vigorous shoots on 
each vertical stalk are preserved, and they are allowed to grow 
to the top of the wall. The following year there is taken away 
from the foot of the trellis as much earth as possible, ahout 
16 inches, taking care not to harm the old roots. The earth is 
hollowed out, completely as it were isolating the base of each 
vertical stalk. Then they are laid at the base of the trellis pre 
viously arranged for their reception. As each one leaves two 



APPENDIX II. 365 

shoots, and as this number is more than sufficient to furnish the 
required number of vertical stalks, we preserve only the proper 
number, choosing the most vigorous for our purpose. These 
stalks and shoots are finally extended on the ground by means 
of wooden hooks, in such a manner that the new shoot directed 
toward the wall leaves the ground at exactly that point where 
the new vertical stalk should rise. A bed of manure, 3 inches 
in thickness, is then spread, and the rest of the hollow is filled 
with new earth. All these vertical stalks will develop with 
exceeding vigor during the year, and will then be managed like 
those of a new plantation. "We saw thus renewed, in 1848, a 
trellis more than eighty years old, belonging to M. Eose Char- 
meux. The operation was attended with no difficulty, and its 
success was complete. 

It will readily be perceived that by the aid of this renewing 
process the duration of the trellised vines is almost indefinite, 
and it will seldom be necessary to replant. The cultivators of 
Thomery have a proverb, " He who plants an espalier is not 
there to take it away." This mode of a renewal may be applied 
to an old trellis more or less regularly disposed in horizontal 
cordons, which it may be desirable to replace by vertical ones. 
The process in such a case is as follows : 

In the spring each cordon is cut immediately above the spur 
(eourson) nearest the base (Fig. 100). During the summer two 




Fig. 100. 

shoots are preserved upon each spur and allowed to grow freely. 
The following year the ground at the foot of the trellis is dug 



366 APPENDIX II. 

out as we have explained. Then the foot of each vertical stem 
is deeply laid bare and laid down horizontally so that the 
extremities of the shoots are connected to the foot of the wall 
at each of those parts were it is intended they shall form new 
vertical stems. The rest of the process is conducted in the 
manner already described. 



CULTURE OF TABLE GRAPES IN THE OPEN AIR 

VENT). 



The table grape is also cultivated in the open air,* but the 
climate of Paris is the extreme limit of this culture. The 
vines are arranged upon espalier and then managed as before 
described. They are even sometimes trained upon poles or 
stumps, and the method pursued is then the same as for the 
ordinary vineyard. 

At Thomery the interval which separates each inclosure is 
used in the following manner: Espaliers are established 
parallel to the walls. The first is at 80 inches distance, and 
the others are separated by an interval of 8 ft. 6 in. These 
espaliers are sustained by a trellis similar to that on the 
wall. They are supported on wooden posts, or, as is better, on 
those of schistose stone, analogous to slate. These posts are 
placed at a distance of 5 ft. 4 in. one from the other. Some 
times for these posts are substituted iron uprights fixed in 
prisms of sandstone placed in the ground. In this case the 
wooden cross-pieces may be replaced by lines of iron wire 
which pass across the uprights. The main stems of the vine 
form upon this frame a series of little vertical cordons like 
those just described. These espaliers are, moreover, planted 
with the same care as the trellised vines, and are treated in the 
same manner. 

The interval of 8 ft. 6 in. which separates each espalier 
is occupied by a row of vines on poles, propped up as in the 

* " Open air " is here used not in contradistinction to vines protected by glass, 
but those simply protected by walls and copings as just described. 



APPENDIX II. 36T 

ordinary vineyard, and subjected to the same method of cultiva 
tion. These poles, separated by an interval of 53 inches, rise to 
a height of 13 inches above the soil, so that the rain may not 
cover the grapes with mud. 

In the same climate, the same variety of grape supported on 
a pole is always inferior to that cultivated upon a wall. The 
grapes from the pole vines are always worse than those from 
the centre espalier. 

The earliest varieties only should be cultivated in this man 
ner, since the temperature of the centre espaliers is always 
lower than that of the espaliers. 

CULTUEE OF TABLE GRAPES IN SOUTHERN FRANCE. 

In the south of France the greater warmth and dryness of the 
climate hastens to a great extent the annual vegetation of the 
vine, and the ripening of the fruit is accomplished without its 
being necessary to increase the warmth of the atmosphere arti 
ficially, or to moderate and even to arrest the growth of the 
vines. Hence the vine grows most vigorously and the choice 
varieties of table grapes which are native to these regions have 
a much greater development than those which belong to the 
centre and north of France. Finally, these varieties require 
less pruning in order to produce grapes. These different con 
siderations give rise to the following modifications in processes 
of grape culture for those regions. 

First. The vine should be placed on espaliers, single or 
double, the supports of which should be like those already 
described. In all cases the walls of the garden which have the 
warmest exposure should be devoted to the vine, and for these 
walls should be selected the latest varieties. 

Second. The vines should be planted before winter, as if 
planted later they suffer much from tho dryness of the spring. 

Third. As the vine grows with much more strength in the 
south than in the north of France, whether on account of the 
climate, or the nature of the varieties peculiar to that region, it 
is necessary that they should be planted at a greater distance 



868 APPENDIX II. 

one from the other. For the vertical cordons, with opposite 
lateral shoots, it will be proper to leave an interval of 24 inches 
between each cordon instead of 14. 

Fourth. The coursons of those varieties analogous to the chas- 
selas, on account of their strength are cut so as to leave two 
buds as we have explained, but all those which grow with more 
strength are cut so as to leave three buds. 

Fifth. The operation of thinning the clusters is as efficacious 
in the south as in the north, but removing the leaves would be 
much more injurious than beneficial. Only the leaves which 
cover the clusters are to be taken off, and those only at the time 
when the grapes are perfectly transparent. 

Sixth. The vine in the south being stronger than in the north, 
a third more clusters than the amount previously specified are 
allowed to remain upon the vine. 

DISEASES OF THE VINE DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS AND IXSECTS. 
The diseases of the vine have been already referred to, and 
we will confine ourselves at present to the consideration of the 
destructive animals and insects, which especially attack the 
trollised vino. 

Birds, and particularly sparrows, thrushes, grossbeaks and 
black-birds are the great enemies of the trellised vine. "Wfien 
these birds do not n*y in large flocks and descend in great numbers 
upon one place, they occasion little mischief, and the cultivators 
of Thomery adopt no precaution against them. Nets undoubt 
edly would be a good defence, but their price prevents their 
being employed over a large surface. 

M. Orbelin, of St. Maur, near Paris, has contrived, as a 
defence against birds, little mirrors with a double face, of a very 
moderate price, and the result, up to the present time, has been 
very satisfactory. In the spring the first young shoots are 
often devoured by snails or slugs. Their size, their slow pro 
gress, and their habit of taking refuge in the chinks of the wall 
or behind the trellis, and of coming out in the morning or 
during the rain renders their destruction easy. 

The Icermes, known also under the name of gall insect, be 
longs to the genus coccus, and particularly attacks the peach 



APPENDIX II. 



369 



and the vine. When it has acquired complete development 
toward the end of May, it presents the following appearance : 
The male (A, Fig. 101) appears in the form of a little multipede 





Pig. 101. 

or woodlouse covered with white dust. The female appears 
like a little brown shell, B, adhering very firmly to the branches 
of the trees. About this time the males impregnate the females 
and die. The females lay their eggs directly, and the eggs 

16* 



370 



APPENDIX IT. 



remain surrounded with a little mass of white down, and cov 
ered with the dried body of the female, who expires as soon as 
they are deposited. These eggs hatch rapidly, and the insects 
issue from the shell which covers them, toward the end of June, 
to the number of more than a thousand. Hardly visible to the 
naked eye, they spread themselves over the surface of the 
leaves and young shoots, and destroy them by piercing their 
epidermis and absorbing their fluids. 

Toward the month of November, when the leaves fall, the 
kerrnes abandon them and fix themselves on the branches, 
choosing in preference, where the trees are en espalier, the side 
next the wall, where they remain torpid through the winter, 
appearing like little brown stains. In the mouth of April they 
change their skins, rapidly increase in size, and give birth to a 
new generation. 

The measure-worm is the larva of a moth, which in the 
spring greatly injures the vine by devouring the young shoots 
as they are put forth. It is difficult to find it, as it has the 
form and color of a little dried stick. It carries on its ravages 
during the night, and it is then that the cultivators of Thomery, 
armed with lanterns, seek it out and destroy it. 

GATHERING AND PRESERVATION FRESH GRAPES. The grapes 
should be gathered only when perfectly ripe. The longer the 




.Fig. 102. 



APPENDIX II. 37 1 

vintage is delayed in the centre and north of France, the higher 
is the flavor of the grape. The first frosts of autumn, to which 
it is very sensitive, should however be anticipated. The gather 
ing should take place in a dry time. Each cluster should be 
taken by the stem, and detached by means of the pruning 
shears. 

As the grapes are gathered they are deposited in little bas 
kets lined with vine leaves and fern. These baskets arc 
arranged on what is called a crotchet, or sort of hod, shown in 
Fig. 102, which can be carried by one man to the storehouse, or 
to the place where the grapes are packed for market. 

The following is the manner employed each year in the pre 
servation of a great quantity of grapes by the cultivators of 
Thomery : 

First, a certain portion is retained on the trellis to the latest 
possible moment. They choose the clusters from the two upper 
cordons of the walls having a southern exposure. These grapes 
are the least watery, and consequently the least susceptible to 
cold. They guard them by sheltering them with leaves of 
fern, and even with straw matting, and thus preserve them 
until Christmas. The grapes which they wish to preserve still 
later they treat in the following manner: Those which they 
wish to retain till May are chosen from the poles, or the coun 
ter espaliers. The bunches are taken which have been subjected 
to the thinning process and which are formed of the largest and 
least crowded berries. They are cut a little before they are 
completely ripe that is to say, from the 25th of September to 
the 15th of October. The grapes intended to be kept only till 
March, may be taken from the espaliers, and are gathered from 
the 1st to the 15th of November. 

The place where the grapes are kept is generally some room 
or building connected with the house, and especially devoted to 
this use. Shelves about 30 inches wide, placed one over the. 
other, cover the walls from floor to ceiling. In the middle of 
the room, and 30 inches distant from the lateral shelves, ano 
ther series of shelves rises to the ceiling. These shelves are 
composed of a frame of wood filled up with a grating of iron 



372 APPENDIX II. 

wire. It is upon this grating, which is covered by a slight 
layer of very dry straw, that the grapes are spread. They 
should often be inspected, and the berries which begin to decay 
should be removed by the scissors. 

A storehouse on this plan presents the following inconve 
niences. Heat must often be introduced in order to defend it 
from the winter s cold, and the result is an injurious change of 
temperature. On the other side, the accumulation of moisture 
makes it necessary that it should be aired from time to time, 
and produces the same result in an inverse mode. Finally, if 
the currents of air produced by this ventilation are too great, 
the grape dries, shrivels, and loses, if not its quality, at least 
its commercial value. We think, then, that it is better to use 
the storehouse a description of which the reader will find at 
page 685 of the second part of this work. It will be necessary 
but to change the arrangement of the shelves, and also to use 
chloride of calcium with precaution, for fear of shrivelling the 
grapes.* 

When it is necessary to preserve only a small quantity of 
grapes, the same storehouse will serve at once for grapes and 



* The reference here is to the * Cours Elementaire d Aboriculture," from which 
tthe present account of the Thomery system is translated. M. Du Breuil there gives a 
ivery full and accurate description of a room or house for preserving fruit of all 
;kinds ; the principal features of which are the provision of means whereby the 
ifra.it is kept at an equable temperature, free from all pressure produced by the 
^fruits pressing upon each other, and free from dampness. The latter point is 
att.-uned by keeping a vessel of chloride of calcium in the house a substance 
which must not be confounded with cftloride of lime, which would quickly destroy 
the fruit. This caution is not unnecessary, as it is only a few years since a writer 
in the " Horticulturist " recommended chloride of lirne for the purpose ; having, no 
doubt, used this term under the impression that it was simpler than the word cal 
cium. Chloride of calcium may be purchased cheaply, or it may be made by dis 
solving chalk or lime in hydrochloric acid. It must be evaporated to dryness, and 
calcined at a red heat ; after it has become moist by exposure to the air in the 
fruit room, it loses its power of absorbing moisture, and must be again dried and 
calcined, but after lundergoing this process it is as good as new. Most cellars in 
American dwellings maintain a very equable temperature during winter, and it 
has occurred to us, that a small wooden press, made air tight, shelved and kept 
dry by means of chloride of calcium, would form no bad substitute for Du Ikeuil s 
u Fruiterie." We hope to try it next season. 



APPENDIX II. 



373 



other fruits. The grapes should then be spread on shelves by 
themselves, or can be arranged in the following manner, which 
has the advantage of economy of space. Each bunch should 
be suspended by the point on a little hook of iron wire in the 




Fig. 1Q8. 

form of an S (Fig. 103). Thus attached, they will be less liable 
to decay, because the berries will have a tendency to fall apart 




Pig. 104. 



374 APPENDIX II. 

from each other. The bunches are then suspended by the upper 
hook of the S, around hoops hung one over the other (Fig. 104), 
and themselves suspended from the ceiling of the room, and 
moved up and down by little pulleys. If we should wish to pre 
serve a larger quantity of grapes, we may, for the sake of 
economizing space, substitute for the hoops wooden frames in 




the form of sashes, as shown in Fig. 105. These sashes are 
furnished with rods, separated from each other by an interval 
of 4 inches, and having on one side little points intended to 
receive the hooks by which the clusters are suspended. These 
sashes are hung from the ceiling in such a manner as to fill the 
entire space, and like the hoops, move up and down. However, 
the grapes thus preserved wither and lose more of their quality 
than those preserved upon shelves. 

DRIED GRAPES RA.ISIXS. The large proportion of saccharine 
principle which the grapes of the south generally contain, ren 
ders it easy to dry and preserve them. They have thus become 
the object of special attention and considerable commerce for 
some countries in the south of Europe where are cultivated the 
varieties best adapted to this purpose. We have noted the most 
desirable of these varieties in our list. Malaga, Calabria, Egypt, 



APPENDIX II. 375 

and Roquevaire in Provence are the principal places devoted to 
this culture. Zante in particular is distinguished for the Corinth 
grape, or currant. 

The process most commonly employed for the preparation of 
raisins is the following : 

When the fruit approaches maturity, the stem of the bunch is 
twisted, and the leaves are removed in part from the branch in 
order to expose the grapes to the influence of the sun s rays, in 
order to favor the action of the essential principles and diminish 
the superfluous moisture. The grapes are gathered at the 
proper time, and the spoiled berries are carefully removed. 

After which the clusters are left upon hurdles exposed to the 
sun for one day. The next day a boiling ley is prepared from 
the ashes of the burnt vine cuttings, to which are added some 
handfuls of lavender, rosemary or other aromatic herbs. A 
bunch is plunged three times in succession into this ley. If the 
berries are slightly cracked, the ley is strong enough, but if 
they are much cracked, it is too strong. When it is properly 
prepared it is allowed to cool and settle ; it is then strained 
through a linen cloth and a second time placed over the fire. 
When it boils, each bunch is dipped into it three times in suc 
cession. They are then spread on the hurdles, which are 
exposed to the sun during the day and taken into the house at 
night. The raisins are commonly completely dried at the end 
of two or three days. 

The Zante grapes undergo a different treatment. They are 
cat some days after they have attained their complete matu 
rity. They are deposited on hurdles very close together, or on 
cloths placed in the full sun. When the berries preserving the 
pedicle begin to be detached from the main stalk, they are 
lightly beaten with little sticks, in order to hasten this result. 
They are then passed through a sieve in order to separate them 
from the stems, and lastly subjected to the action of a fan or 
winnowing machine, in order to remove the dust and rubbish. 



1004; 



SI : 1 



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