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Full text of "Open-air schools"

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OPEN-AIR SCHOOLS 



By 
SIEGRIED MAIA HANSEN UPTON, A. M. 

Teacher in the Horace Mann School, Teachers College, 
Columbia University 



Published by 

Slrariipra (HoIUqp. CHolumbia MnirttrsiU^ 

NEW YORK CITY 

1914 



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PREFACE 

Little has been written on open-air schools during the past 
few years. By consulting the rather full bibliography in Chap- 
ter IX, which has been compiled to date, it will be found that 
most of the contributions on this subject appeared not later than 
1910, which in a large measure are summed up in Ayres' "Open- 
Air Schools." All these earlier books and articles devoted them- 
selves mainly to questions of equipment, the problem of keeping 
children warm out-of-doors, or to a few statistics relative to the 
physical and mental gain found in open-air classes. The articles 
of the last three years have dealt with details along these same 
lines. 

From the beginning of the experiment instruction in open-air 
schools has been conducted in general as in indoor schools, the 
main difference being in the arrangement of the program of 
study. The first few years showed remarkable results due in 
part, no doubt, to the enthusiasm, optimism, and energy which 
accompany any new movement, especially one so radical as the 
open-air school. During the past two years there has been a 
period of trying out and of seeking a normal pace with, as 
already suggested, few new contributions. 

The purpose of the present article is not to review the begin- 
ning years, so adequately treated in the book by Ayres, but 
rather to supplement this early fund of information by personal 
observation and study of the outdoor school movement as it is 
working out at present, and particularly to suggest ways of 
applying the measuring rod to the open-air school in order that 
we may know much more definitely than we do now how valu- 
able this new work is and how it compares with that usually 
found indoors. Such a study seems called for as the author 
finds that the present tendencies are to conduct a slightly modi- 
fied indoor school in the open air. A movement of such promise 
and importance to anemic, weak, and even normal children 
deserves more attention of a scientific kind than it has already 

iii 

333874 



iv Preface 

had. We must bring this outdoor movement into proper per- 
spective to learn better how great a contribution to educational 
progress it has been. We must discover also how better to 
adapt our methods of instruction to outdoor needs and, if we 
discover anything of value, to ask if its good is limited to out- 
door conditions or if it may also be helpful in improving the 
indoor school. The open-air school with its new environment 
and novelty offers special inducements for scientific experiment 
of this kind and should prove an inviting field for applying the 
methods of the educational psychologist. Only by such means 
will we know much more about this new kind of school than 
we did during the first few years of its existence. 

The historical survey in Chapter II has been given solely for 
purposes of comparison in the later chapters. 

SiEGRiED Maia Hansen Upton 

Horace Mann School 

Teachers College 

Columbia University 

New York City 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I. Introduction 1 

II. Historical Sketch 5 

General 5 

The Charlottenburg School 6 

Open-air schools in Italy 9 

The Horace Mann School 11 

III. Organization of typical open-air schools including 

observations based on personal visits 13 

IV. Open-window rooms 35 

Special points noted when visiting open-window 

classes 36 

V. Points in controversy concerning open-air schools 39 

VI. Suggested experiments for modification of indoor methods 

TO suit outdoor conditions 43 

VII. Some tests for determining the efficiency of the methods 

of open-air schools 47 

Physical tests 47 

Tests relative to conduct 49 

Mental tests afforded by school records 49 

Mental tests suggested by psychologists 50 

VIII. Special tests for third grade pupils 52 

Some third grade tests presented in detail 54 

IX. Bibliography 60 



TEACHERS COLLEGE RECORD 



Vol. XV MAY, 1914 No. 3 



OPEN-AIR SCHOOLS 



INTRODUCTION 

In the education of to-day the problem of fundamental im- 
portance is the physical welfare and efficiency of the child. 
The child who is in poor health is, as a rule, found to be back- 
ward in school studies, not because of defective intelligence but 
because of underfeeding, organic weakness, or incipient disease. 

Along with the present tendency to discover and correct physi- 
cal defects has arisen the movement for more outdoor life for 
the young child. How can the physically debilitated child get 
more outdoor life and still meet the requirements of compulsory 
education laws? Instruction in the open air is the answer to 
the problem. 

For this outdoor school work those children are selected who 
are physically unfit to remain in the ordinary indoor school 
room or to benefit by its instruction. 

It has been known for some time that delicate and tuberculous 
children and adults become stronger and in many cases get well 
out-of-doors while they become weaker and die indoors. The 
one fact open-air schools have established is that sickly children 
are made healthier and stronger in this new environment. 

It would be cheaper in the end, as well as more humane, for 
every city to provide free open-air classes with food, warm 
clothing, medical aid, and a teacher for every group of twenty 
children, thereby producing strong healthy bodies able to com- 
139] [1 



: 2 - 



2 Teachers College Record [140 

bat disease, and active minds finding interest and pleasure in 
useful occupations, than to go on with the present partially suc- 
cessful school system and in the end spend more money year 
by year on courts, judges, jails, free food, municipal lodging 
houses, hospitals, asylums, charity organizations, and the rest 
of the modern means of trying to deal with mental, moral, and 
physical incompetents. 

About three per cent of the entire school population need 
outdoor treatment. The Fourth International Congress of 
School Hygiene, held at Buffalo, New York, August 25-30, 1913, 
is responsible for the statement that " Nearly a million tuber- 
culous children or children strongly disposed to tuberculosis are 
attending our public schools and there is hardly accommodation 
for 1,500 to receive instruction in the open air." It thus be- 
comes a question not of whether a city can afford to establish 
open-air schools but rather one of whether it can afford not 
to establish them. Without open-air classes money must be paid 
by the school community for educating children who through 
early death must be counted as a complete loss to it in the 
end. It has been and always will be true that the competent 
persons of a community must carry every ounce of the burden 
of those who are incompetent. The growing percentage of in- 
competents in our large cities is appalling. 

At present we cannot say that open-air school life will cure 
tuberculosis as this disease is often apparently cured in child- 
hood to crop out again from the ages of twenty to thirty years. 
The following-up of the life histories of these cases can be 
the only means of proving the full value of the outdoor " cure." 

The whole open-air school movement got its chief impetus 
through the efforts of various societies interested in the preven- 
tion of tuberculosis which started and financed this work until 
results were assured and the public became interested. Wher- 
ever school instruction was needed in connection with these 
open-air classes the local school board usually furnished the 
teacher and paid her salary. In many cities these societies now 
feel that the school board should assume full charge and ex- 
pense of the open-air school so they can turn their attention to 
other much needed social services. 



141] Open-Air Schools 3 

The idea of the out-of-door movement is not modern. Cen- 
turies ago the need for more outdoor life for young children 
and the value of outdoor education were advocated and urged 
by the great educators of that time. The ideas of time-honored 
as well as present-day writers upon this subject are suggested 
by the following quotations : 

" Come with me, my son. Let us go into the open. There, 
through Nature, you shall see that which God has been doing 
since the beginning and that which He is continuing to do." 

Comenius 

" Why in place of dead books, should we not open the living 
book of Nature? To teach youth is not to inculcate a mass of 
words, phrases, sentences, and opinions gathered from authors ; 
it is, to open for him, by means of things, understanding and 
judgment." 

Comenius 

" The city becomes the charnel-house of the human species ; 
at the end of a few generations the human race perishes or 
degenerates. It becomes necessary to renew it and it is always 
the country that furnishes the new life. Send your children 
then where they may live in the midst of fields, in order, so to 
speak, that the life within them may be regenerated, in order 
that they may find again the vigor that was lost in the unhealthy 
air of a thickly populated place." 

/. /. Rousseau 

" It is especially during the first years of life that air and sun 
benefit the constitutions of children ; they penetrate the soft and 
deHcate skin by all the pores, they affect especially young bodies, 
leaving upon them traces which are ineffaceable." 

/. /. Rousseau 

" Up to twelve years the child should be out-of-doors in 
order to cultivate his senses." 

/. /. Rousseau 

" Learn from the school of life and experience. Traverse the 
fields and other grassy places, visit the trees and the plants, 
compare them with the books of ancient authors who have 
written concerning them, and take home with you whole hand- 
fuls of them. When the weather is unfavorable, instead of 
herborizing visit the apothecary, the chemist and the druggist, 
and carefully consider the fruits, the roots, the leaves, the seeds, 
and the gums." 

Rabelais 



4 Teachers College Record [142 

" Of all the flowers, the human flower is the one which has 
the greatest need of sunshine." 

Michelet 

" The artisans of ancient Greece always saw whichever object 
of art they were working upon out-of-doors; it was to fit into, 
to be surrounded by the universe, so to speak, Grecian art, 
philosophy, morals, and government were modelled in the open, 
and there they had their being and found their expression. 
Every phase of fortune of the state and of the family took place 
out-of-doors, — whether marriages or funerals, victories or de- 
feats, triumphs or losses." 

D'Annunzio 



II 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 

In Charlottenburg, a suburb of Berlin, there opened in 1904 
a new type of school to which the Germans gave the name of 
" Open-Air Recovery School." The object of this school was 
to give children who were physically debilitated an opportunity 
to be taught and to recover their health at the same time. 
These children could not keep up with the work of the regular 
school and yet they were not so mentally deficient that they 
were fit subjects for instruction of the kind given to subnormal 
children. The treatment consisted of an outdoor life, plenty 
of good food, strict cleanliness, warm and suitable clothing, and 
school work modified in kind and reduced in quantity to suit 
the new conditions. 

The first session of the Charlottenburg school was one of 
three months during which time the children had increased 
rapidly in weight and strength and many had been entirely 
cured of their ailments. Though these children had spent less 
than half as much time on their school subjects as the pupils 
in the regular school they had not fallen behind them in their 
progress; in some cases they even surpassed them. This of 
course was a more astonishing fact than the physical gain. These 
gratifying reports aroused throughout Germany and in neighbor- 
ing countries much enthusiasm and as a result many other open- 
air schools were established. 

In 1907 London opened its first open-air school where again 
the results were as remarkable as in Germany. Immediately 
other open-air schools were begun in various parts of England. 

In 1908 the first open-air school in the United States was 
started in Providence, Rhode Island. A little later in the same 
year, a " School of Outdoor Life " was established in one of 
the parks of Boston. In January of the same year New York 
143] 5 



6 Teachers College Record [144 

began an open-air school on an abandoned ferry boat. Chicago 
and other cities soon followed with outdoor schools. 

The following table shows how this movement has grown in 
the United States: 

Number of cities having 
School year open-air schools 

1907-1908 3 

1908-1909 7 

1909-1910 IS 

1910-1911 32 

1911-1912 44 

A few details of several typical schools will be of interest. 

The Charlottenburg School 

For several years careful medical inspection in Germany 
revealed the fact that among the many children who were back- 
ward in their studies some were in a debilitated state owing 
to anaemia, others from various ailments in incipient stages. 
Educators and school physicians then devised this new plan of 
an open-air recovery school. The school was modeled upon the 
idea of employing such methods and having such surroundings 
as would improve the mind and cure the body at the same time. 

A suitable place for the school was found in a large pine 
forest on the outskirts of the town. The sum of $8,000 was 
voted for erecting suitable wooden buildings. Five main build- 
ings were erected, three of them being plain sheds 81 feet long 
and 18 feet wide. One of these three was completely open on 
the south side and closed on the other sides and could accommo- 
date 200 children. The other two sheds contained five class- 
rooms and a teachers' room; these buildings being closed in on 
all sides, provided with heating arrangements, and only used for 
instruction in very cold or stormy, windy weather. In the class- 
rooms were simple tables and chairs of different sizes and 
heights. The last two of the five buildings were large sheds, 
open on all sides, fitted with tables and benches where the 
children could work and eat during rainy and bright sunny days. 

Before admitting to the school the children chosen for the 
experiment the teeth of each child were examined and put in 
order, as otherwise they would not have derived the proper 
benefit from their food. 



145] Open- Air Schools 7 

The children arrived at school a little before eight in the morn- 
ing and upon reaching school each child received a bowl of soup 
and a slice of bread and butter. The classes began at eight with 
an interval of five minutes after every half hour of teaching. 
The instruction was reduced to the most necessary subjects and 
was never given for more than two consecutive hours. At ten 
o'clock each child received one or two glasses of milk and a 
slice of bread and butter. After this the children could play, 
do manual work, or read. Meanwhile this same process in 
the reverse order was carried on with other children who had 
played, read, or done manual work during the first two hours. 

Dinner was served at half past twelve and consisted of meat, 
vegetables, and soup. After dinner the children rested for two 
hours ; absolute quiet being required. At three o'clock there 
was served a lunch of bread, milk and jam. The rest of the 
day was devoted to informal instruction and play such as: 

1. Excursions in geography, history, and nature study. 

2. Practical problems in arithmetic related to gardens, houses, 

and so forth. 

3. Gardening and digging. 

4. Drawing, measuring, building. 

5. Fashioning of tools and apparatus. 

6. Making of pottery, weaving. 

7. Making simple garments, hemming towels and sheets used 

in the school. 

8. Washing dishes and towels. 

9. Assisting in cooking and serving of meals. 
10. Care of human and animal life. 

At a quarter of six the last meal was given consisting of 
soup, bread and butter. After this the children returned home. 

The children were carefully watched by the school physician, 
attention being principally directed to the condition of the heart, 
blood, and lungs, color of the skin, and eyes, and muscular and 
flesh development. At the end of every two weeks the children 
were carefully weighed and measured and their condition com- 
pared with that noted upon entrance to the school. 

At the outset ninety-five children were chosen. The school 



8 Teachers College Record [146 

soon increased to one hundred twenty students, then to two hun- 
dred fifty. 

The school year at Charlottenburg begins in April and lasts 
until Christmas, the months of January, February, and March 
being given as vacation. Because the school week and school 
day are longer than in the ordinary schools the teachers are 
paid a bonus. 

The educational results were considered remarkable. All of 
the teachers agreed in noticing the mental alertness of the 
children during the hours of teaching. No less important were 
the improvements noted in the moral tone of the children. Their 
behavior in regard to cleanliness, order, self-help, punctuality, 
and good temper was due quite as much to the fact that during 
all of their waking hours they were kept from the influences 
of the street. 

England and Germany are considering the advisability of hav- 
ing a constant interchange of indoor and outdoor teachers so 
the open-air methods may be made known and become popular 
in ordinary schools. 

Other schools founded in Germany, England, and in Switzer- 
land followed in most particulars the features of the school 
at Charlottenburg. As time has gone on such modifications 
have been made in the Charlottenburg plan as would better suit 
the environment of the school, the climate of the country, and 
the physical conditions of the children. 

The German open-air schools are called Waldschulen from 
their location on forested land. Each German city that started 
such a school located it in the midst of woods and fields outside 
the city. The results of such a practice are bound to be better 
than in America where the majority of the open-air schools 
are located in the midst of the noisy city, on roofs of buildings, 
in courts, or down on the ground surrounded by un sodded play- 
ground areas which turn every wind that blows into a cloud 
of dust. England and Switzerland have followed Germany's 
lead in locating the schools in open woodland with adjacent 
sunny fields for playground space. These countries have con- 
sidered the important and subtle influence of forest and field 
upon the aesthetic and emotional nature of children. 



147] Open- Air Schools 9 

Open-Air Schools in Italy 

The pleasant climate of Italy has made possible the develop- 
ment of a different type of open-air school. It is essentially 
an outdoor excursion school rather than an outdoor school 
with a fixed home as the Waldschule in Charlottenburg. It is 
the indoor school brought outdoors by modifying instruction so 
that it can be carried on by many excursions to points of edu- 
cational value and interest in the vicinity. 

The development of this type of school work in Italy was 
favored by the poor housing of the schools with its attendant 
evils of poor ventilation and light. Many of the schools are 
located in ancient buildings not fitted for school purposes. This 
outdoor school movement grew out of the summer colony 
schools of Italy with their well-known satisfactory results and 
the remarkable success of the Charlottenburg experiment gave 
to it added encouragement. According to an Italian report 
summer colony schools were started in Florence, Italy, in 1853, 
Ziirich, Switzerland, in 1876, and in Frankfort-on-Main, Ger- 
many, in 1878. This points to Italy as the first country to value 
an outdoor school life, for part of the year at least. The most 
famous of the outdoor vacation schools started in Padua, Italy, 
and were known as " Ray-of-Sun Schools." The name attests 
to the value placed upon sunshine. The only building these 
schools made use of was a tent-like structure open on all sides. 

The distinct feature about the open-air school today in Rome 
is that at any time of the day and year an indoor class can 
turn itself into an outdoor class. The nature of the work 
and the kind of lesson determines whether the class shall leave 
its indoor room and adjourn to the sunny roof or to the school 
yard, or go on an excursion. After one class gets through with 
the roof another is free to go there, thus making it possible 
for each class to benefit a part of each day by outdoor instruction. 

In preparing lessons the teachers are cautioned to keep in 
mind the following points: 

" Knowledge of local geography should be gained intuitively. 
Regular assignments in the subject should be more objective, 
more direct, and more natural, developing the powers of ob- 



10 Teachers College Record [148 

servation and reproduction. In this way, by exciting the spirit 
of criticism, the mind will become more active. 

" Geometry too should become a practical study using all 
existing forms (barns, houses, towers, streets, avenues, and so 
forth) for observation, study and measurement. 

"Lessons in history should have as a starting point some 
monument or some relic of the past pertinent to the subject 
in hand. The educational value of such instruction is extraor- 
dinary." 

A folding-portable combined desk and chair has been the 
special feature of the Italian contribution to the successful hand- 
ling of the open-air school problem. This piece of furniture is 
light, compact, convenient, and easily handled. It consists of a 
combined seat and desk, held together by a framework, which is 
easily folded into a compact form about 4 inches thick, 18 inches 
wide, and 2}i feet long. The size depends upon the age of 
the pupil. It is fitted with straps to attach it to the child's 
back in the manner of a knapsack. On excursions each pupil 
carries his own portable desk and chair without any fatigue 
whatever. Drills are given to train the children to detach, unfold, 
set up, fold, and attach these desks in the shortest space of 
time. When not in use they are stacked in the corridors of the 
school building. 

Because of these folding-portable desks and chairs any indoor 
school can turn its classes into the open and there continue to 
give any sort of a lesson which calls for the use of desk and 
chair. Fitted with this portable school furniture the pupils in 
the high school, as well as those of the lower schools, can make 
good use of roofs, playgrounds, parks, and excursions. 

The problem of making a school or class excursion really bene- 
ficial to each member of the group has been solved by the 
invention of this folding-portable desk and chair. Formerly the 
children have not gotten as much from seeing things first hand 
as they should; in fact, much of the excursion work seemed of 
doubtful value. The details in handling an excursion which are 
helped by the folding-portable desk and chair are: 

1. How to keep the children from becoming fatigued. 

2. How to maintain discipline. 



149] Open- Air Schools U 

3. How to manage so all of the children give full attention to 

the point in hand. 

4. How to manage to teach the whole group at the same time. 

5. How to enable the pupils to take notes and write down obser- 

vations and impressions. 

6. How to maintain on an excursion the spirit of work and 

earnestness shown by the class when in the classroom. 

The Horace Mann School 

The Horace Mann School of Teachers College, Columbia 
University, New York City, represents another type of 
outdoor school, namely, that developed in the midst of a busy, 
noisy city and situated on the roof of the school building. This 
is a very successful school and is representative of what can 
be done in surroundings not so ideal and quiet as those of the 
forest schools of Germany. The Horace Mann School is also 
in the forefront in experimenting to see what can be done to 
make the outdoor problem a success and to overcome its dis- 
advantages. The open-air classes in the Horace Mann School 
are located on the roof. The children who make up the classes 
were chosen because they were nervous, or irritable, or anaemic, 
or undernourished. There are at present two open-air class- 
rooms, one having 8 second-grade and 16 third-grade pupils, 
the other being made up of 15 fourth-grade children. There 
is also an open-window room of fifth- and sixth-grade pupils. 
The open-air rooms are of concrete and steel structure, the 
walls being concrete. Each room is closed on three sides only, 
the south side being entirely open with a drop curtain to close 
that side in time of storm. There is a slanting roof which is 
higher on the south side. (See Figs, i and 4.) There are win- 
dows in the upper half of the north side of each room which may 
be opened or kept shut according to the weather ; there are 
also a few such windows in the east and west walls, besides sky- 
lights in the ceilings. The pleasant and cheerful appearance of 
these rooms is due quite as much to the admission of light 
through these large skylights as to that from the sides of the 
room. Figure i shows the room occupied by the second- 
and third-grade pupils, the third-grade pupils working at their 



12 Teachers College Record [150 

desks under the direction of their regular teacher while the 
second-grade children are at the right in the picture about to 
have a lesson from the assistant. Figure 4 shows the fourth- 
grade room. The floors are of wood. Indoor toilet rooms 
are provided and also an indoor room where children may go 
to get warm if necessary in exceptional cases. There are mov- 
able desks and chairs which make it possible easily to clear the 
floor space for games and exercise. There is also an open space 
on the roof for play and recreation. (See Figs. 2 and 3.) De- 
tails in reference to the organization of the Horace Mann open- 
air rooms will be given in later chapters. 



Ill 

ORGANIZATION OF TYPICAL OPEN-AIR SCHOOLS 

INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON 

PERSONAL VISITS 

The phrase " open-air school " appUes to all school rooms 
situated in the open air, and fully exposed to the air on one 
or more sides, providing merely shelter from wind and rain. 
There is no artificial heating, the temperature of the room always 
being that of the open air. An " open window " room is one 
which is usually heated artificially in winter and supplies fresh 
air and cold temperatures through open windows, there being 
no entire side of the room fully exposed to the air from floor 
to ceiling. 

It is not the purpose of this chapter to collect facts which 
are fully treated in the books mentioned in the bibliography but 
to add to the material already given in these books some 
observations based upon personal visits to a number of 
open-air schools. In connection with this chapter it will 
be well to read some of the standard books already published 
on this subject such as " Open-air Schools " by Ay res where 
the organization of the older open-air schools is fully explained. 
" Open-air Crusaders " by Kingsley will also be of service. 

Rooms 
In the Ethical Culture School of New York City the open-air 
classes are located on the southern half of the roof of the regular 
school building. This roof space is enclosed by walls on the 
north, east, and west, and roofed over. By means of doors and 
windows the east side can be made open. The south side is 
open. Two-thirds of the entire space is divided into four class- 
rooms, the partitions between the classrooms being made by 
means of canvas drops, movable blackboards and screens ; the 
rest of the space makes up passage ways and a play area. The 
151] 13 



14 Teachers College Record [152 

arrangement is such that the whole area can be cleared and used 
as play space or, when desired, made into one large classroom. 
The special feature of the Ethical Culture open-air school 
is a flexible grading plan. The method of handling the subjects 
of study, the grading of the pupils and the arrangement of 
the roof space all lend themselves to the carrying out of this idea. 

The arrangement of rooms in the Horace Mann School has 
already been described on pages 11-12. 

The open-air school of Montclair, New Jersey, is in a one- 
room army tent. The south side is left open, the other sides 
can be open or closed as desired. Being situated on the ground 
just north of an old school building the sun does not reach 
the tent for any length of time, making it seem cold and damp. 
The kitchen, bathroom, and eating and sleeping quarters are 
situated on the second floor of the old school building. More 
was done for the children in this tent and better care was taken 
of them than for any other open-air class of poor children I 
saw. 

The Carmine Street School of New York City is located on 
the roof of the public baths. The room is large, very light, 
bright, and cheerful. It has the most attractive situation of any 
open-air room in New York City. There are windows on each 
side, small ones to the east, while on the south, west, and north 
the whole sides are taken up by great windows reaching from 
the ceiling to the floor. Each window is divided into three 
sashes, which makes it possible to throw up the lower two. 
The amount of window space that is open depends upon the 
state of the wind and weather. There are heating coils on the 
west side. There is a small play space on the open roof, with 
toilet rooms, and kitchen close at hand. The desks face the 
west; through the windows before them the children can 
see an attractive stretch of sky broken by the tops of trees grow- 
ing in the adjacent park. 

There could hardly have been chosen a more unfortunate 
location for two open-air class rooms than is found in Public 
School 33 of New York City. The school building itself is one 
of the oldest ten in New York City. Since there were reasons 
why the roof could not be used, the Commissioner of Parks and 



153] Open- Air Schools 15 

Public Playgrounds permitted the school to hold two classes, 
from 9 in the morning to 3 in the afternoon, under the covered 
space belonging to the playground to the south of the school 
building itself. Canvas partitions enclose each room on three 
sides, making the rooms very drafty and cold, which is the 
result in every case where these substitutes for walls are used. 
The playground is a constant source of choking dust, as well 
as noise. On days when parochial schools have holidays 
and the public schools are in session the noise from the play- 
ground makes teaching impossible. At three o'clock the teach- 
ers and pupils must leave as their permit for the use of the 
space ends at that hour. Steamer chairs, books, and clothing 
are moved into the school building. As the desks are too heavy 
for the children to carry, and as the janitor says his contract 
does not read for the carrying back and forth of the furniture 
of these classes, they are left behind. 

The tuberculous children treated by Bellevue Hospital which 
overlooks the East River are housed on a ferry boat, called the 
" Southfield " which is moored to the pier adjoining the hos- 
pital grounds. A great deal has been said by various writers 
concerning the wonderful fact that for open-air schools almost 
any sort of a discarded building could be utilized, even an old 
disused ferry boat. There is much that is picturesque, it is 
true, about the Southfield. It is different, many windowed, 
circular walled, and informal. In winter, however, it is very 
cold and windy, and in stormy weather its decks cannot be 
used; neither is it conveniently arranged. As an informal struc- 
ture it serves its purpose very well. Its great advantage is its 
location on the waterfront with freedom from dust and noise, 
two elements which are so difficult to eliminate in an open-air 
school in a large city. 

The Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene, held 
at Buffalo in August, 1913, in a set of resolutions presented to 
the United States Government has petitioned the government 
" To place at the disposal of the various States of the Union 
as many of the discarded battleships and cruisers as possible, 
to be anchored according to their size in rivers or at the sea- 



16 Teachers College Record [154 

shore, and to be utilized by the respective communities for open- 
air schools, sanitorium schools, and hospital-sanitoria." 

In the Phebe Anna Thorne Open-Air Model School for Girls 
at Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, an open-air class of fifteen normal 
pupils is located in a detached one-story building, facing 
south, constructed of wood and glass after a Japanese model. 
The four sides are open whenever the weather permits, though 
on stormy days, one or all of the sides can be closed by means 
of glass screens. The class room opens upon a large uncovered 
platform eight feet by thirty-six feet which is used for gymnas- 
tics, etc. The dressing rooms, dining room, and kitchen are 
in an adjacent cottage. Each day the siesta is taken on the 
broad piazza of this cottage. The school is conducted by the 
Department of Education of Bryn Mawr College. Each year 
a new class will be started until there are seven classes in all, 
each class to have its separate building of the kind described 
above. 

Many other open-air classes were visited. A general criticism 
of the outdoor rooms seen must be that about half of them 
are gloomy, dirty, and non-aesthetic. Open-air rooms are not 
favorably located unless the sun can shine into them for the 
major part of the day. The sun is a great sterilizing agent and 
the children have gone out-of-doors to get more sunshine, and 
more cold fresh air. 

On the whole, tents are sunless, gloomy, and bare, and they 
will probably continue to be so, for in order to make them water 
tight a heavy outer covering of canvas must be stretched to 
extend well over the tent on all sides thus shutting out direct 
light rays. There is great need for solving the light problem in 
the open-air rooms. An extra high opening on the south will 
aid in doing this, also an arrangement of studio windows will 
help. In the regular indoor rooms the walls and ceiling are 
generally so colored as to reflect light to the best advantage. 
In the gloomiest of the open-air rooms seen the walls were 
either dark gray or brown. 

In a city the open-air rooms should be located as far away 
from street noises as possible. Flapping canvas partitions should 



155] Open- Air Schools 17 

be replaced with firm solid walls which would not only stop a 
noise nuisance but stop drafts as well. 

For a city roof school the best room type I have seen is 
that of the Horace Mann School; for the country a building 
patterned after the Phebe Anna Thorne School at Bryn Mawr, 
Pennsylvania. 

Floors 

There is need for keeping the feet warm. Most open-air 
classes have either tile or cement floors which are very cold. 
There is need for wooden floors, especially where the equipment 
is meager and in weather not severe enough for sitting-out bags 
to be used. In a number of schools comfort and physical wel- 
fare are sacrificed for the major part of the day in order that 
the floor space may be used for occasional games and play. The 
tendency to use movable desks and chairs, light enough in weight 
for the child to handle so that the floor may easily be cleared, 
is a reason why individual wooden platforms are not more gen- 
erally provided. Individual wooden platforms, with sides 
boarded in, would protect the feet from drafts and assist in solv- 
ing the sitting-out bag problem in those schools having tile or 
cement floors. 

Equipment 

Desks. In most cases the desks used were the same as those 
for the indoor classes. In the public schools of New York City 
they are the oldest and worst of the discarded indoor kind of 
a previous period. Where space is limited they are usually mov- 
able so the room can be converted into resting or play room as 
required. In smaller towns where there is plenty of playground 
the open-air rooms have the same kind of fastened-down desk 
and chair found in indoor rooms. In the Ethical Culture School 
the desk is replaced by a swinging arm attached to the chair 
which can be pulled toward the pupil or pushed aside at will. 
In a small drawer fitted below the chair seat a few of the 
most needed books and papers can be kept. In all classes visited, 
where the desks were pushed aside to provide play space and 
replaced at the end of the period, the work was done quickly and 
efficiently. In some schools the teacher paid no attention to the 
question of the position of desks and chairs with regard to the 



18 Teachers College Record [156 

direction of light rays. Some classes had their backs to the 
light, others faced it. One teacher wanted to have the room 
look informal and in order to carry out this feeling she per- 
mitted the children to sit as they pleased. Some sat in the sun, 
facing west ; others sat in the sun, facing north ; and still others 
sat in the shade, staring into the bright southern sky. 

Chairs. Chairs should have solid backs to protect the chil- 
dren's backs. Most of the chairs seen had open slat backs. 
Severe, deep-seated colds may be due to unprotected backs. In 
the Phebe Anna Thorne School at Bryn Mawr the seats and 
backs of the chairs have twice the usual width. This gives the 
children greater freedom of movement and protection. 

Steamer chairs. In all classes visited a period of rest fol- 
lowed the noonday meal. In one school of normal children it 
took the form of silent reading. In most schools, where the 
children tried to sleep, the angle of the steamer chair was purely 
a personal matter with each child. A few preferred a nearly 
horizontal position, the majority tried to sleep and rest sitting 
up. Those children who were sitting up were very restless, felt 
cold about the shoulders, and on severe days constantly evinced 
a desire to cover up the head by creeping into the sitting-out 
bags. One school physician realized that real rest comes best 
when in a horizontal position and in his school the steamer 
chair was folded and laid on the floor, a blanket placed upon 
it, making a protected and comfortable bed. Wrapping himself 
in another blanket the child found no difficulty in falling asleep. 
In this class only one child was too nervous to rest quietly; he 
was given a space away from the others where he might move 
about undisturbed. Horizontal canvas cots are also sometimes 
used. (For further details see Ayres.) 

Clothing 
Boys' suits are heavier and warmer than girls' dresses and for 
this reason boys are better clothed to resist cold winds and low 
temperature than girls. Fifty per cent of the girls in open-air 
and open-window classes wear cotton and linen dresses all the 
year round. Depending upon the severity of the weather, the 
usual extra wrap worn by these girls is a sweater. Girls from 
poor homes wear woolen dresses and regular winter overcoats. 



157] Open- Air Schools 19 

Of the girls who wear cotton dresses and those who wear 
woolen ones, the former get chilled more quickly, appear colder, 
and have more colds than the latter. It is worthy of note 
that the ones wearing cotton dresses have warmer undercloth- 
ing than many of those wearing woolen dresses. It would 
seem that the wearing of cotton and linen dresses in cold weather 
should be prohibited in these schools. 

The sweaters furnished by the home are not nearly as warm 
as those especially designed for outdoor classes. These sweaters 
are grey in color, very rough and hairy on the outside making 
them thicker than the ordinary kind. At the same time they 
are light in weight and pliable. A whole suit consisting of 
toboggan cap, gloves, sweater, and jumper can be gotten all in 
the one color. (See Fig. 2.) The manufacturers are now 
making a model of a new sweater long enough to come well 
below the knee, thus doing away with the use of the jumper 
where sitting-out bags are used. ' 

The Parka. In the matter of garments especially suited to a 
cold and variable climate the Horace Mann School feels that 
it has found a solution in the " Parka." This is an outside gar- 
ment fashioned after the lines and principles of the outside 
upper garment of an Eskimo. (See Figs, i and 3.) It is 
made of very closely woven khaki. " For a garment that has 
no warmth in itself it is the warmest garment I have ever seen," 
is the general comment of those who have used it. The special 
advantages of the Parka are due to its being very light, to its 
not hindering the free and usual movements of the body because 
of its pliability, and to its keeping all of the body heat from 
escaping. If too much energy is expended in keeping the sur- 
face of the body warm most of the benefits of being out of 
doors are lost. Under the Parka can be worn one or two or no 
sweaters, enabling the wearer easily to accommodate the amount 
of his clothing to the mildness or severity of the weather. The 
Ethical Culture School has followed the Horace Mann School 
and adopted the Parka. The Parka is manufactured and sold 
by the Rogers Peet Company of New York City. 

Some schools feel that the clothing that the home provides 
to bring the child to school is sufficient for wear in the open-air 



20 Teachers College Record [158 

rooms with the frequent exercising given there. Breakfasting 
in a warm room, and then running or walking to school mean 
that by the time the children arrive at their open-air room they 
are very warm, resulting in the desire to take off their out- 
side wraps, even on very cold days, rather than to put on any- 
thing extra such as a sitting-out bag. Mittens and caps are 
taken off and sweaters and coats unbuttoned. By ten o'clock 
the reaction has set in and the teacher has to remember to give 
directions for getting on more clothing, using mittens and sitting- 
out bags. If in cold weather this was done at the end of fifteen 
minutes it would prove more beneficial than at the end of an 
hour. As a rule the average child would not take it upon him- 
self to put on more clothing, if not urged to do so. In some 
schools instruction is given in the necessity of keeping the body 
at an even temperature and of co-operating with the teacher on 
this important point. 

In one school visited the teachers went to another extreme. 
They had been told of the evil effects of sitting still with the 
body in a state of perspiration, so when the half hour play 
periods come orders are given to take off all outside wraps 
and leave them on the chairs. On a windy day, with the ther- 
mometer at 40 degrees Fahrenheit, twelve girls, ranging in ages 
from nine to thirteen years, stood still rubbing their cold hands 
and trying to shrink into themselves so there would be less of 
them to feel cold. Finally one of them got a ball and threw it 
to each of the others in turn while they stood in a row. When 
it comes to open-air treatment of this kind it is reduced to 
" the survival of the fittest " scheme of a former age. 

Gloves. For the same sum of money woolen gloves or woolen 
mittens can be bought. The fingers are much freer in the 
gloves. There is some difference of opinion as to which is 
the warmer, some contending that the fingers are just as warm 
separated as they are when together as in a mitten. Children 
seem to dislike wearing mittens more than wearing gloves. It 
appears to be easier to handle materials, write and pick up things 
when the glove is worn than when the hand is covered with 
a mitten. 



159] Open- Air Schools 21 

Footwear. The kinds of foot covering worn over the shoes 
are felt overshoes, felt lumberman's boots, lambskin overshoes, 
and arctics. The lambskin overshoes have the fur inside, making 
a shoe much too warm for any but very cold weather. In 
many places they are being discarded as they have a tendency 
to make the feet tender and over-sensitive to cold. The felt 
lumberman's boots are very satisfactory, protecting the leg to 
the knee, and having for use in wet weather an overshoe of 
rubber. In some classes each child had been furnished with 
arctics at $1.35 per pair which were not giving the warmth or 
the wear of felt overshoes at half the cost. 

Sitting-out bags. The kind used in most of the schools visited 
was made of a brown, pliable, hairy, felt-like cloth bound with 
tape and fitted with snap fasteners. It is slit to the knee 
in front in order to facilitate getting in and out of it. The 
foot end of the bag has an outside covering of khaki reaching 
half way to the knees. When adjusted the bag is pulled well 
up under the arms and fastened close around the waist and 
up the front. The small of the back needs the protection which 
the bags can give, yet in any class where the teacher is not 
vigilant one half of the bags will be on the floor even on the 
coldest days. 

The cost of the sitting-out bag described above depends upon 
the size of the child. The smallest bag costs $5.50, the largest 
$7.50. Home made bags cost much less. Dr. Thomas S. Car- 
rington in an article in the Survey, April 23, 1910, tells how to 
make an inexpensive sitting-out bag. 

Some teachers consider the sitting-out bag cumbersome and 
it is certain that most of these bags are very dusty. One father 
wrote the school principal that he wished his child to be trans- 
ferred to an indoor class because the dust from her sitting-out 
bag filled her lungs and kept her awake at night. That night 
the open-air teacher sent the bags home to be beaten by the 
parents. After this experience the father withdrew his appli- 
cation for removal. 

Food 

The value of nourishing and frequent meals in improving the 
condition of underfed and undernourished bodies has been re- 



22 Teachers College Record [160 

peatedly demonstrated by records and charts. Up to within a 
year it was thought impossible even to consider carrying on 
the open-air work without feeding, but experiments and com- 
parisons carried on in New York City for the past year tend 
to show that though the greatest gain in weight is gotten where 
the children are fed, a steady, small gain was made where no 
school feeding was carried on. As the winter of 1912-1913 
was not a severe one, and as an experiment covering one year 
only cannot be conclusive, more data should be collected on this 
point before the fact can be established. The winter of 1913- 
1914 was an unusually severe one and the records for that winter 
should prove interesting. 

In winter extra demands are made on the body by the fre- 
quent exercising necessary in keeping up the bodily temperature. 
This is a strain for underfed bodies. The majority of open-air 
classes are for anemic children and those disposed to be tuber- 
cular who come from homes where the food is not the best 
fitted for body upbuilding. Home conditions among the poor 
have proven one of the drawbacks in carrying on the work. 
The school nurses and the teachers of these children have learned 
the necessity of finding out the home conditions, resulting in 
visits which have revealed that the usual meal is bread and 
cofifee. Among the foreign born the coffee has either whiskey 
or brandy put into it. This abnormal diet is quickly detected 
as it results in a high temperature and an excessively high pulse. 
Teachers and the school physicians realize the importance to 
tubercular and anemic children of a wholesome diet. In the 
schools where the food problem has been satisfactorily solved it 
has been due to the willingness of a local charity organization 
to defray the expenses. In many cases after the society has 
borne the expenses for two or three years it refuses to continue 
its support. At this point, in some cities, the question of feeding 
during school hours has been dropped; in others, as in New 
York City, the home has been asked to furnish a lunch or to 
pay ten cents a week which will provide a daily lunch of crack- 
ers and milk (two crackers and a very small cup of milk). It 
has been left to the discretion of the teacher whether the milk 
be heated or not in cold weather. It does not seem very prob- 



161] Open- Air Schools 23 

able that the school will provide these children with free food 
however badly they may need it because such procedure would 
bring the demands for '' no favoritism " down upon the school 
board. 

The teachers of open-air and open-window classes have found 
it necessary to have mothers' meetings in regard to food, cloth- 
ing, and sleep. Demonstrations have been given to show how 
to prepare simple and nourishing meals, emphasis being placed 
on the lesser cost and the greater nutritive value of the meals 
prepared at school over those given in the home. In Italian, 
Irish, and Syrian communities it was found necessary to teach 
the mothers the food value of the various vegetables and to 
demonstrate the best methods of preparing them. Among these 
peoples the chief and constant article of diet was either 
spaghetti, potatoes, or white bread, according to nationality. The 
children from these homes were suffering from chronic consti- 
pation and at first had to be coaxed and taught to eat soup, 
turnips, carrots, squash, spinach, beets, and brown bread. Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, has done more toward solving the food prob- 
lem than any other town. It has an excellent cook who prepares 
the food according to the best known rules for variety, method, 
quantity, and nutritive and heat values. In this school the fol- 
lowing recipe for bread has proved its function of curing con- 
stipation. The recipe will make two loaves. It is better when 
it is old. 

2 cups bran (ordinary bran — loose — not in packages). 

2 cups white flour. 

2 cups graham flour. 

I level tablespoonful salt. 

I cup raisins or nuts. 

I tablespoonful lard or good drippings. 

I teaspoonful baking soda dissolved in i tablespoonful hot water. 

Equal portions sour milk and molasses. About i^ cups of each 

will be required. 
Batter should be thick, but not too thick to drop from spoon. 

Bake slowly i^ hours. Put a basin of water underneath bread 
when it is baking and the crust will not be hard. 

Cost 
Where the child is fed and provided with a warm clothing 
equipment the cost of educating and caring for him in open-air 



24 Teachers College Record [162 

schools is nearly three times as great as in the ordinary school. 
The tendency at present is to experiment on no feeding and no 
extra clothing; in such cases the cost is reduced somewhat. In 
many schools the children pay a small sum each day which 
covers the cost of the food eaten. 

The prices of various articles of clothing used in outdoor 
schools can be found by consulting Ayres' " Open-air Schools." 

Size of Classes 
In order that outdoor classes be successful it has been demon- 
strated that they must be small, not over twenty pupils to a 
teacher. The necessity of looking after the child's health as well 
as his studies necessitates this limitation. It is thus seen that 
outdoor classes are much smaller than indoor classes. In the 
same school system which provides a teacher for twenty anemic 
pupils, whose parents are willing to permit or even may have 
requested open-air instruction, the regular indoor teachers are 
struggling in a more or less poorly ventilated room with fifty 
children some of whom are as anemic and nervous as the twenty 
but whose parents are afraid of the cold air. In a class of from 
fifteen to twenty-five pupils each child is bound to get more 
individual instruction than in the larger indoor classes. The 
outdoor rooms of the public schools of New York City have 
from three to eight grades, a grade often being represented by 
one or two pupils. This means practically individual attention. 
Children who have been backward for years are brought up to 
grade by this means. 

Program of Studies 

Although outdoor pupils spend less time on school subjects 
than normal school children they have not fallen below them 
in their school records. To meet outdoor conditions, as well as 
the physical and nervous state of the pupils, it is necessary to 
have a reduced time schedule. The German plan of reducing 
formal instruction to two hours a day has not been carried 
out in most American schools. 

School programs will be found in Ayres " Open-Air Schools," 
and in the Reports issued by superintendents of the various 
cities where open-air schools have been established. 



163] Open- Air Schools 25 

Methods of Teaching 

It is generally conceded that those methods of teaching which 
make foa- constant changing from work to play and from 
rest to recreation are best suited to open-air instruction. When- 
ever possible those features of a lesson are sought which can 
be turned into a game or which can be carried out in an activity 
of some sort. 

As the Horace Mann open-air classes are located on the roof 
at some distance from the regular indoor classrooms, they have 
felt the necessity of making themselves known to the rest of 
the school. One of the most interesting plans adopted was to 
post now and then, on the bulletin board in the main hall of 
the school, an illustrated notice of the weather conditions on 
the roof. 

Writing with gloves on has been found beneficial to the 
subject of penmanship. The thickness of the gloves caused 
the child to find it difficult to grip pencil or pen in a firm 
enough grasp to cramp the muscles ; the results have been a 
free arm movement, — this was quite contrary to the general 
expectation. (See Fig. 4.) 

In the open-air classes the motivation in English, arithmetic, 
history, geography, and nature-study seems more natural, more 
related to the social life of the child than in the indoor classes 
having the same subject matter; there seem to be more prob- 
lems that force themselves upon the child for his solution than 
occur in an indoor life. This point in itself would appear the 
most significant one in the value of open-air over indoor in- 
struction. 

New ideas and methods of teaching will come in time from 
the accumulated experiences of open-air instructors who are 
experimenting with their material. At present many teachers 
are simply holding indoor classes in the open air as far as 
method of teaching is concerned. In Chapter VI this topic will 
be considered at greater length. 

Recreation 
The amount of time given to play and to directed exercise in 
different schools varies greatly, not only in time but in kind. 
Some schools have a five-minute supervised dance or gymnastic 



26 Teachers College Record [164 

period at the close of each twenty-five-minute recitation, with the 
usual fifteen-minute recess in the middle of the morning when 
something to eat is taken. Other schools have each day a ten- 
minute recess for free play, two ten-minute breathing exercise 
periods, and one forty-five minute sleeping period. 

The greatest amount of daily recreation noted in any of the 
schools visited consisted of two thirty-minute periods for prac- 
ticing and playing co-operative games, such as baseball, basket- 
ball, and football ; one half-hour rest period ; and one forty- 
minute period the first half of which was devoted to lunch, the 
rest to listening, in a warm room, to a story read by one of 
the teachers. 

Social Phases 
The open-air school especially lends itself to developing social 
co-operation and helpfulness. During the lunch period a few 
children each day may take their turn in waiting upon and in 
looking after the needs of the others. Motivation here is of a 
direct and imperative kind. A few serve the majority because 
by so doing all do not have to expose feet and legs to the colder 
air of the room by getting out of their sitting-out bags. During 
luncheon a child will tell a story. Here the motive for drill in 
oral English appears plainly to each child. 

Health Precautions 
As the experiences in open-air procedure accumulate certain 
special facts in hygiene are being noted. When a child becomes 
a little chilly and needs external heat to warm him it has 
been found that unless he takes off all extra outdoor clothing 
while in the house it results in bronchitis. The use of various 
kinds of foot-warmers and of soapstones has been found to be 
detrimental in the majority of cases. If because of poor cir- 
culation or an anemic condition the pupil needs extra stimulus 
to keep up his circulation it has been proven that a few special 
short gymnastic exercises are more beneficial than application 
of external heat by means of soapstones or footwarmers. The 
best methods of quickly warming the fingers, toes, legs, arms, 
and chest by physical exercise have developed some new and 
interesting gymnastic movements. Certain games have been 







1-' ■S 

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o s 



165] Open- Air Schools 27 

found to be especially eflfective in developing lung capacity, 
straightening the back, and giving muscular coordination and 
poise. 

The following are some good corrective games and exercises 
now in use : 

(a) For lung development 

1. Blow up an imaginary paper bag. In bursting the 

blown-up bag, arm and back muscles are brought 
into play. 

2. Blow off all the seeds on an imaginary dandelion. 

3. Smell of an imaginary rose, first closing one nostril, 

then the other. 

4. After the floor has been washed and dried have the 

children lie on the floor flat on their stomachs, the 
class being divided into two groups facing each other. 
A pingpong ball is placed in the middle of the space 
between the two groups. The game is carried on by 
blowing the ball. Any one who has to touch the 
ball forfeits for his side. This game is splendid for 
the back and neck muscles as well as for developing 
lungs and expanding chest. This is a good exercise 
for spring and fall months. The others are especially 
fitted for winter. 

(b) For muscles of the arm, leg, back, and so forth 

1. Pick up imaginary snow. Round it into hard snow- 

balls. Throw them. 

2. Stand on tiptoes, reaching up as far as possible in 

order to lift the body and place the chin on an imag- 
inary bar. This exercise is called " lifting your own 
weight." After each trial it releases the blood and 
sends it rushing through the body. It is an excellent 
exercise for warming the body and correcting the 
harm done by a cramped sitting position. 

3. One of the best exercises known for warming the 

fingers is to tap sharply into the palm of one hand 
with the fingers of the other. In this exercise the 
finger tips should be held together firmly or the blood 
will not be forced into the ends of the fingers. 



28 Teachers College Record [166 

4. Put the hands on the hips. Balance on one foot. Point 

forward and downward with the toes of the other 
foot. Bend the knee pulHng the leg up as high as 
possible without losing balance. Then kick forward 
vigorously. This exercise will send the blood into 
the toes. It is better in its results and more lasting 
than the use of soapstone and footwarmers. 
(The last three exercises are especially designed for 
keeping the body warm in cold weather.) 

5. The rhythm of the multiplication tables can be utilized 

in the arm and leg exercises of the usual gymnastic 
drill. 

6. In the free play time the pupils love to hang from 

the swinging rings and walk on the balance bars 
and on chalk lines, unconsciously gaining poise and 
grace. 

Those children who have had at home coffee, brandy, whiskey, 
and beer show the effects of these stimulants by an alarming 
pulse rate, fever, sleeplessness, and restlessness. As these con- 
ditions were especially found among the children who were suf- 
fering from tuberculosis it was sometime before the school physi- 
cians and nurses learned that the home and not the disease 
was largely to blame for these symptoms. Even after the 
parents have promised to mend matters, lapses occur. Plenty 
of wholesome food furnished at school, instruction to mothers, 
and co-operation on the part of the child are all essential to 
the success of this work. 

When the children in open-window and open-air classes get 
colds they are very deep-seated, prolonged and stubborn ones, 
A record of these colds reveal 

(a) That girls get more colds than boys. 

(b) That girls who wear cotton or linen dresses get more colds 

than girls who wear woolen ones. 

(c) That some of the mothers let their children go out of doors 

in winter after taking a hot bath, 

(d) That children who by nature have hot skins cannot stand 

drafts or sudden cold weather without getting severe 



167] Open- Air Schools 29 

colds. They are not, on the whole, fit pupils for out-of- 
door classes. 

(e) That the children of the very poor sleep either in rooms 

which have no windows or in rooms the windows of 
which are kept closed, thus making these children more 
susceptible to colds. 

(f) That the children of the very poor need baths and a thor- 

ough rubbing of the skin in order to get the skin in con- 
dition to react properly to the fresh cold air. 

(g) That children who suffer from constipation get colds more 

readily than those who do not. 

Health Results of Open-Air Treatment 
In tabulating the results achieved in the various open-air 
schools certain of them are constant and others appear variable. 
Formerly, one of the first rules laid down for the guidance of 
those about to start such a school was that warm clothing, much 
sleep, frequent exercise, frequent and nourishing meals, and 
shelter from winds and storms were absolutely necessary to carry 
out the outdoor scheme. It still remains true that the more 
carefully these points are followed the more successful the 
results become, but it has been demonstrated that gain has been 
made even in those classes where no extra feeding, little exercise, 
a limited clothing equipment, and heavy drafts are found. Con- 
stant factors in open-air school life are the gain in weight, 
strength, chest expansion, hemoglobin, and physical activity. An- 
other point that has shown the advantage of the outdoor over 
the indoor class is the matter of fatigue. It does not seem to 
make any difference whether arithmetic is taught at nine o'clock 
or at twelve, the children appearing to do equally good work 
at any time of day. In those cases where an afternoon nap 
was formerly indispensable, at the end of six months in the 
open-air class these children not only no longer needed naps 
but they gradually got to the point where they could not sleep 
in the afternoon. They were not fatigued enough. We are told 
by teachers and advocates of open-air instruction that there is 
no doubt that these pupils have healthier appetites, sleep much 
better, and are more alert and vigorous mentally than when they 
began in the open-air class. Since these teachers hold mothers' 



30 Teachers College Record [168 

meetings in which they urge open windows in the bedrooms, 
and a change in diet, laying stress on the injurious effects of 
coffee and alcoholic stimulants and begging for their discontinu- 
ance, there should be taken into consideration the fact that if 
the same crusade had been started when these same pupils were 
in indoor classes there would at that time have been an improve- 
ment in sleep and appetite. 

The New York City public schools have chosen certain indoor 
classes of normal children for purposes of comparison with the 
corresponding outdoor grades. These indoor classes are called 
" control " classes. The conditions in these control rooms are 
as nearly as possible the same as in the outdoor classes with 
the exception of the outdoor feature. Each child who is ad- 
mitted to an open-air class has a card allotted him on which a 
record is made of his age, sex, color, nationality, height, weight, 
per cent below weight for height, haemoglobin, chest measure- 
ments, physical defects (tonsils, enlarged glands, adenoids, poor 
posture, etc.), condition of teeth, chest, grade, and scholarship. 
From time to time subsequent examinations are made and the 
results recorded on his card, and at the end of the year a final 
examination is made. On the back of the card a weekly record 
is kept of his weight. Each child who enters a control class 
has a card which is exactly similar and on which his record for 
the year is kept. Some interesting facts have been brought 
out. The easiest record to make and to plot on a chart 
is that of gain or loss in weight. For each pupil week by week 
and month by month such records have been kept. In the out- 
door classes these records have been a valuable asset for they 
have been used as the great argument in favor of open-air work. 
Each pupil in these classes has gained steadily, some more, some 
less, from the beginning of school in September until the begin- 
ning of spring. The average gain is one-half pound per child 
per week. When the child was at school he gained in weight, 
when at home for more than three days he lost. During each 
vacation there was a decided loss in weight which made the line 
on the chart give a sharp downward angle. From the middle 
of March on to the end of school in June the loss of weight 
begins and the charts generally, without exception, show a down- 
ward curve. These charts have been most carefully kept in 



169] Open-Air Schools 31 

classes of very poor, underfed children. Just how much of 
the gain in weight is due to an extra meal and how much to 
fresh air is not known. In considering the gain in weight the 
normal gain for any age due to growth has been allowed for. 
The loss of weight during the spring months is never enough 
by June to put the child at the same weight that he had in Sep- 
tember when he entered school. How much of this difference 
is the natural one due to a change to lighter clothing has not 
been determined. 

Hemoglobin tests have also been made. Those records which 
tell the history of the child's home condition, health, habits, 
school progress, and personality are the most valuable ones kept 
so far. To get even these facts is difficult. Even in those 
schools where the clientele is such that it is possible to send out 
questionnaires only a small percentage of them are answered and 
returned. In some schools the information can be gotten only 
by the visits to the homes by the teacher, the school nurse, and 
the social worker. Beginning with the Twelfth Annual Report 
of the New York City Public Schools (1910) scientific charts 
and tables have been printed each year showing the results of 
the open-air school work. In few other school systems are the 
results of their open-air school work tabulated so systematically 
for general distribution. The New York City charts showing 
the relation between the control and the outdoor classes with 
regard to increase and decrease in hemoglobin; gain in weight 
of the control, outdoor feeding, and outdoor non-feeding classes ; 
and the relation of anemia to poverty are all very interesting. 
Final conclusions should not be drawn until experiments have 
been carried on for a period of five years at least. It is only 
by careful experiments that real knowledge of the results of 
outdoor instruction can be gotten. 

In the Horace Mann School tests such as the following have 
been reported •} " Two third-grade classes, as similar as it was 
possible to have them, were compared for a period of six months. 
One class was an outdoor class, the other a regular indoor class. 
The two classes were compared in respect both to physical im- 
provement and mental improvement, with the following results : 

'For further details see "Effect of Outdoor and Indoor School Life on the Physical and 
Mental Condition of Children" by Harold Brown Keyes, M. D. Report, Fourth Inter- 
national Congress on School Hygiene, Buffalo, Augtist, 1913. 



32 



Teachers College Record 



[170 



Physical Improvement, 1912-13 



Average age at beginning of tests 

Duration of tests 

Average gain in — 

Weight 

Height 

Girth of chest 

Girth of chest expanded 

Breadth of chest 

Depth of chest 

Lung capacity 

Strength, right arm 

Strength, left arm 

Strength, upper back 

Strength, chest 



Indoor 



Outdoor 



8 yrs. 6 mos. 
6 mos 



1.6 kg. 
2.6 cm. 

1.3 cm. 
1.5 cm. 
0.9 cm. 
0.0... . 
8.0 cu. 

1.4 kg. 
1.4 kg. 
2.0 kg. 
2.8 kg. 



or 3.5 lbs. 
or 1.0 in. 
or 0.5 in. 
or 0.6 in. 
or 0.37 in. 



m 

or 3.0 lbs. 
or 3.1 lbs. 
or 4.4 lbs. 
or 6.2 lbs. 



8 yrs. 4 mos. 
6 mos. 

1.7 kg. or 3.7 lbs. 

2.8 cm. or 1.1 in. 

1.8 cm. or 0.74 in, 
1.7 cm. or 0.7 in. 
0.2 cm. or 0.07 in. 
—0.4 cm. or —0.13 in. 

5.9 cu. in. 

0.8 kg. or 1.7 lbs. 

2.1 kg. or 4.5 lbs. 
2.0 kg. or 4.4 lbs. 

3.2 kg. or 7.0 lbs. 



" Indoor class improved more in four of these measurements. 
Outdoor class gained more in six of these measurements. Classes 
gained the same in strength of back. Outdoor class gained more 
in height, weight, and girth of chest." 

" We had wondered if the eyesight of the outdoor children 
would suffer any from added exposure to sun and the necessity 
of looking at blackboards and books on which sun might shine. 
In no case did we find any defect coming on during the term 
such as would be shown with Snellen test type. 

" A record of contagious diseases was kept during the year. 
In the three outdoor classes there were five cases of contagious 
diseases; in the indoor classes there were fourteen cases of con- 
tagious disease. Again in this case it is only fair to keep in 
mind that there were more children in the indoor classes and 
therefore more opportunities for contagious disease. If these 
cases are reduced to percentages the record of outdoor children 
shows that 12.5% had contagious disease while 17.9% of indoor 
children had contagious disease. Another very significant point 
is that no contagious diseases ' went through ' an outdoor room 
as happened in one of the indoor rooms. This seems to me to 
be in itself a powerful argument in favor of outdoor schools." 

Mental tests indicating progress in the usual school subjects 
were also given. From the outline below it will be seen that 
" in formal English the third grade outdoor class not only had 
higher averages than the indoor class but improved 20% whereas 



171] 



Open- Air Schools 



33 



the indoor class improved only 13% during the year." In arith- 
metic the outdoor class improved 26% against 6% for the 
indoor class. 

Mental Improvement, 1912-13 



Number of 
pupils 



Average 



Dec. 



May 



Improve- 
ment 



In formal English: 
Open air 

Indoor 

In arithmetic: 
Open air 

Indoor 



18 in Dec. 
12 in May. 
^22 in Dec. 
,27 in May. 

fl4 in Dec. 
^22 in May. 
r28inDec. 
[24 in May. 



Per cent 
> 37 

. 35 



48 
69 



Per cent 
57 

48 



68 
75 



Per cent 
20 

13 



20 
6 



It is the ambition and practically the pledge of the teacher 
of open-air classes to be able to put a child at any time into 
the indoor class of his grade and have him go on there as 
well as if no change of class had been made. The majority of 
the pupils of an open-air class are put indoors at the end of 
one year, but in those cases where the child's condition has 
not shown enough improvement a second and even a third year 
is allowed in the outdoor class. The gain in the second year 
is greater from the start, not only in weight but in mental 
attitude and interests. Some very satisfactory cases have been 
followed up in the indoor classes which have shown the value 
of two or three years out-of-doors. These children were formerly 
way below age, staying two years in a grade, indifferent to 
school, and having no interest in continuing any kind of school 
work. After the outdoor period these same pupils ranked well 
toward the top of the indoor class, which fact gave them such 
pleasure and confidence that by earnest work they were soon 
beyond their normal grade. 

Many schools have begun with one open-air class and have 
then added a new one each year until the eighth grade has been 
reached. The problem of getting started and equipped has often 
occupied the attention of the teachers to the exclusion of any 



34 Teachers College Record [172 

real mental testing to show what really has been accomplished 
from month to month and year to year. If the class could 
keep up with the corresponding indoor grade, have more play, 
and no homework the experiment was considered successful and 
worth the extra cost. 

Teachers 

The teachers of open-air classes should be keen, resourceful, 
sympathetic, careful of all the little things, and quick to notice 
the symptoms of children. More depends upon the right teacher 
than upon the other advantages of the school, such as feeding, 
extra clothing, and weather. 

The services of a physician, trained nurse, and dentist are 
necessary for at least part of the time. 

Such remarks as the following testify to what teaching in 
the open air has done for the teacher : " No teacher who has 
taught in the open air will ever want to go back to indoor work." 
"At night I am not tired and * dragged out ' as I used to be, yet 
when I go to bed I fall right away into a sound, refreshing 
sleep." The results for the pupils are bound to be better when 
the teacher has lost that nervous irritability which comes from 
confinement for long hours in a badly ventilated, overcrowded 
room. The outdoor teacher has more energy and strength to 
prepare lessons and material for her class. At a recent meeting 
of the open-air teachers of New York City public schools the 
supervisor said that the teachers of a city system should be 
looked after as well as the pupils. The appalling percentage of 
tubercular cases is about as true of teachers as of any other 
class of workers. It looks as if in the future the teachers who 
need outdoor treatment will be instructors chosen for the open- 
air classes. 



IV 

OPEN-WINDOW ROOMS 

" Open-window room," " fresh air room," " low temperature 
room," and " cold air room " are all different names for the 
same kind of room, namely, one where the windows are kept 
open and where artificial heating is used only in severe weather. 
In some of these rooms the whole south wall is given over to 
window space from ceiling to floor, the windows being so 
hinged and fitted with cords and pulleys as to enable them to 
be raised flat against the ceiling. These windows have not 
proven to be an entire success, however, as in stormy weather 
they have to be wholly closed. Rooms having windows on one 
side only have fewer drafts than corner rooms. On the other 
hand corner rooms have some desirable features that the others 
do not have; they permit of a more even flow of air through 
them and all parts of the room can be kept at a more uniform 
temperature. If winds and storms make it necessary to close 
the one side, the other can be kept open. Windows that swing 
from side to side on a pivot, and that can be so adjusted as 
to let in air and at the same time throw off the wind seem to 
be the best solution to the draft problem reached as yet. 

John H. Van Pelt, an architect of New York City who is 
much interested in open-air school architecture, believes that 
the best window for such a school is one which is divided into 
three sashes. Each of these sashes he would hang by pivots in 
the middle of both sides ; in time of driving rain the middle sash 
of each window at least could be open at a slant, the top of 
the sash to swing inward and the bottom of it outward and 
down. He also suggests that a glass marquise hung over the 
windows would admit light and yet in time of storm keep out 
rain and snow. 

Professor Frederic S. Lee in an article on " Fresh Air " in 
the Popular Science Monthly of April, 1914, makes the follow- 

173] 35 



36 Teachers College Record [174 

ing interesting statement in reference to drafts : " Keep room 
air in motion. . . . Air in motion promotes efficiency. Ac- 
custom yourselves to drafts, and especially to big drafts. A 
small blast of cold air directed against a small area of warm 
skin may do harm, but the larger the current the more the 
harm gives way to benefit. Air of constantly uniform tempera- 
ture is monotonous and debilitating. An occasional and con- 
siderable cooling, a flushing of the room by a sudden large 
inrush of outside air is, like a cool bath, stimulating." 

In large cities open-window rooms will probably be more 
popular than open-air rooms because of the small expense to 
install them and the ease with which such rooms can avoid 
extremes of temperature, provided the disadvantages of the 
open-window room can be remedied by careful experiment. It 
is easier for the open-window room to fail than for the open-air 
room because of the difficulty in regulating drafts and in keep- 
ing the same temperature in all parts of the room. In general 
open-window rooms must have drafts in order to regulate the 
temperature, but unfortunately these drafts are usually small 
blasts of air rather than the large currents which Professor 
Lee believes to be so helpful. All this can be avoided in open-air 
rooms where the small drafts are absent and where the large 
currents of air can sweep the entire room. The biggest problem 
of the open-window room is this question of drafts. 

When one makes a change, to go from one extreme to another 
has its value. Indoor rooms may be considered as being at 
one extreme and open-air classes at the other. The disadvan- 
tages of indoor rooms are more likely to be remedied by chang- 
ing to open-air rather than to open-window rooms. Open- 
window rooms seem more to favor the tendency to get back 
into the ruts of indoor classroom practice than do open-air rooms. 
In open-air rooms one must radically change certain methods 
of procedure while in open-window rooms one can exist with 
indoor methods. 

Special Points Noted When Visiting Open-Window Classes 

One morning when the outside thermometer registered 38 
degrees F. two open-window rooms in a small city were visited. 



175] Open- Air Schools 37 

The sun shone brightly and the air was cold and dry. The 
warmth in these rooms was noticeable at once, and, on looking 
at the thermometers, one read 67 degrees, the other 68 degrees ; 
the windows were nearly closed and yet most of the children 
were bundled up in sweaters. The teachers had no notions 
as to which were the best temperatures for open-window rooms. 
One said that she felt sure that the windows of her room were 
not opened early enough in the morning. On questioning the 
janitor it was learned that the windows were only raised ten 
minutes before the teacher was expected to reach school in the 
morning. 

In the Horace Mann School the school physician feels that the 
temperature in the open-window room should not go below 50 
degrees F. When that temperature is reached the heat is 
turned on automatically. Down to that point the room tempera- 
ture is that of out-of-doors, — varying from it not over two 
degrees at most. 

One school that wanted to start an open-window room found 
that before it could get children for the room it had to promise 
the parents that the children would not have to sit in drafts. 
The principal solved the difficulty by having window screens 
measurmg eighteen inches in height covered with cheesecloth. 
The windows were usually kept open to the height of the screens. 
At times the whole ventilating system of the building was thrown 
out of order by these open screened windows as evidenced by 
the necessity of covering with cheesecloth the outlet register 
in order to break the strong drafts that blew down it. It 
thus appears that satisfactory devices for avoiding drafts in 
open-window rooms are difficult to find. 

The question of clothing for use in open-window rooms has 
not been satisfactorily solved. Some rooms are allowed to get 
as cold as the lowest outdoor temperature, others can hardly be 
called cold air or low temperature rooms. The lower the tem- 
perature the more clothing must be provided. Chicago found, 
even with the thermometer at zero, " that whatever clothing 
would safely bring the children to school was more than enough 
for protection in the open-air classrooms where games were fre- 
quent." Some teachers are trying this winter whether army 



38 Teachers College Record [176 

blankets folded about the legs will serve as ample covering. 
The children in the open-window room of the Horace Mann 
School have had two and three winters in the open-air room on 
the roof and thus have brought sitting-out bags along with them 
which are being used. The only complaint that their teacher 
has made in regard to the sitting-out bags is that they are 
cumbersome and she cannot get over the feeling that much 
time is wasted in getting in and out of them. 

Some open-window classes are given a lunch at recess of 
hot soup or cocoa and a sandwich. The children chosen for 
these rooms are mostly nervous, anemic, and undernourished. 
The rooms visited have not been in existence long enough to 
show what method is good and wha^t should not be done, or 
to demonstrate any special gain by the pupils. However, in 
comparison with the regular indoor classes there is a difference 
that is noticeable. The pupils of the open-window classes are 
quieter, have a more restful attitude, and give a quicker brain 
response. The indoor classes in the same school give the feel- 
ing at once of nervous tension not only in the lessons but in 
keeping order. The teacher of the Horace Mann open-window 
room says that her pupils are more sane and wholesome in their 
attitude than any class she has taught. Their memories are 
so good and their interest is so keen that they do not need the 
drill usually given indoor classes nor will they accept a slow 
rate of progress in their studies. They seem to have an in- 
satiable mental appetite. 



V 

POINTS IN CONTROVERSY CONCERNING OPEN-AIR 

SCHOOLS 

Many questions have been raised in connection with open-air 
and open-window rooms. Among important questions to be 
answered definitely, inchiding those in controversy, are the fol- 
lowing : 

1. Are the physical benefits derived from open-air experi- 
ments lasting? Are the sick children cured permanently or are 
their ills merely temporarily arrested? 

2. Are the mental benefits lasting? Are they progressively 
continuous, or are they the result of over-stimulated interests 
and excitement due to the novelty of the new conditions and 
surroundings ? 

3. Is a city justified in spending in open-air school experi- 
ments three times as much money per child as is necessary 
indoors in order to educate a few sickly children and in neglect- 
ing the majority of normal children? 

4. Is it fair to compare the results of open-air schools with 
the regular schools when we recall that the children in the 
open-air schools are taught in small classes of about twenty and 
are well-fed, well-poised, well-rested, well-aired, and little 
fatigued, while the children in the regular schools must work 
in classes of fifty, or even seventy, to one teacher, in poorly 
ventilated rooms, with less satisfactory conditions in reference 
to food, clothing and rest? Indoor school conditions are not 
at all as favorable as those in the open-air schools, 

5. Are we using the best and most economical methods of 
presenting school material in our regular school classes if it 
is true that in the open-air schools pupils seem to be especially 
benefited by changes in the ordinary methods of instruction and 
by short periods of instruction? Does a shorter day with 
intensive work as found in indoor schools accomplish as much 
177] 39 



40 Teachers College Record [178 

or more than the outdoor ten-hour day found in Germany 
with frequent periods of recreation interspersed between short 
recitation periods? 

6. Does the open-window school accomplish as much as the 
open-air school? Could the ordinary school be easily trans- 
formed into an open-window school and get better results than 
now? 

7. To what extent does low temperature, and the stimulation 
due to it, explain the success of the open-air school? 

8. Is moral deficiency a condition that would be benefited by 
open-air school treatment? 

9. Can we have open-air upper grade and high school classes, 
or are we limited principally to the primary grades? Can the 
more advanced school subjects be adapted to treatment in open- 
air schools? 

ID. Is open-air school work proportionately more beneficial 
in the elementary grades than in the later years? 

11. Is it worth while in America to have a ten-hour day for 
the open-air school as in Germany? 

12. Will children who have spent years in an open-air school, 
and who appear to be advanced enough and well enough physi- 
cally to return to ordinary school conditions, be able to return 
to the regular school room, or will their earlier open-air training 
tend to unfit them from going on successfully with their work 
in the indoor school? Will the methods of the ordinary school 
room, which are so intensive, put such a child at a great dis- 
advantage ? 

13. Will children who have been brought up in an open-air 
school tend in after life to follow out-of-door occupations ? Will 
they be handicapped if they undertake indoor pursuits? 

14. Should the period of rest and sleep provided in many 
open-air school programs come before or after luncheon? 

15. Should we have an open-air class where children may go 
who have whooping cough? 

Mr. Frank J. Bruner, of Chicago, in an article in the Pro- 
ceedings of the National Education Association for 191 1, brings 
up a number of interesting points which show that there are 
still other important questions to be answered in connection 
with the cause of the success of open-air schools. He states 



179] Open-Air Schools 41 

that repeated experiments prove that weak, anemic, and tuber- 
cular children and adults are benefited by living out-of-doors 
but are made worse and even sicken and die by being confined 
in heated school rooms, bedrooms, and living rooms. 

While the above fact has been demonstrated, the reason why 
this is so is difficult to find. It is not alone because the open-air 
is purer than the air indoors. This is shown by the following 
experiments which are here very briefly stated : 

(a) Carbon dioxide. Careful experiments have proven that 
only under extraordinary conditions is the amount of carbon 
dioxide in a classroom, lecture room, or living room sufficient 
to affect in any detectable manner the physiological processes or 
the mental work of an individual. 

(b) Oxygen and ozone. Pure air does not mean that the 
air shall be rich in oxygen and ozone. More oxygen does not 
necessarily mean more vitality. Even a slight percentage over 
the normal of oxygen or ozone is injurious to lung, throat, 
and nose. 

(c) Anthropotoxins. By experiments on animals it has been 
proven that organic matters thrown oflf by respiration are not 
responsible for the devitalization of the air. 

(d) Humidity. The result upon the body of varying per- 
centages of humidity has not been worked out long enough to 
prove any definite theory. Concerning the physiological eflFects 
of high and low humidity on temperatures ranging from sixty 
to seventy-two degrees Fahrenheit we know little or nothing 
definitely; the only result known to be true at present is that 
the higher the percentage of humidity the lower the tempera- 
ture should be for comfort. 

In summing up the results of experiments on the effects of 
stale, confined air. Professor Frederic S. Lee, in an article in 
the Popular Science Monthly for April, 1914, reaches this con- 
clusion : " That the evil effects exerted upon human beings 
by air that has become vitiated by human beings result not from 
a lack of oxygen, not from an increase of carbon dioxide, not 
from the presence of an organic poison, not from any chemical 
features of such air acting through the lungs on the tissues, not 
in any manner from the rebreathing of such air, but solely from 
the physical features of excessive heat and excessive humidity 



42 Teachers College Record [180 

interfering with the proper action of the skin in regulating 
bodily temperature. The problem of bad air has thus ceased 
to be chemical and pulmonary, and has become physical and 
cutaneous." 

In view of these experiments, Mr. Bruner concludes that the 
success of the open-air school is not due to pure air alone. 
He has sought, therefore, those other factors which must be 
prominent in explaining the success of this type of school. 
He finds them to be as follows: 

(a) General freedom 

(b) l^ack of restraint 

(c) Feeding 

(d) Rest and sleep. 

Mr. Bruner's interesting observations suggest to us a large 
field for investigation. Since the pure air alone is not so 
important as we had thought, we are led to experiment to 
verify Mr. Bruner's conclusions and to see if there are still 
other factors that explain the success of the open-air schools. 
We must ask also if the indoor schools would be far more suc- 
cessful if we introduced there greater freedom, lack of restraint, 
feeding, and periods of rest and sleep. If so, then the open-air 
movement will have made a great contribution to our methods 
of carrying on indoor instruction. To test this it will be worth 
while to try indoors the full open-air program, with its short 
instruction periods interspersed with rest and recreation; like- 
wise to try an intensive indoor program out-of-doors. This 
will soon show us whether the open-air or something else is 
the vital factor in the outdoor movement. 

Mr. Bruner also found that the chief air-polluting agents 
in cities are: 

(a) Dust 

(b) Soot 

(c) Gases from factories and chimneys 

(d) Bacteria, as well as noxious gases, arising from waste 
products such as ashes, garbage, and sewage. 

With urban conditions such as these the necessity of experi- 
ment is urged to see if the open-air schools situated in the 
country, preferably in the woods, are more successful than those 
in the city. 



VI 



MODIFICATION IN INDOOR METHODS OF INSTRUC- 
TION TO SUIT OPEN-AIR CONDITIONS 

In order that the open-air school work may be carried on 
most effectively, it seems desirable to suggest certain modifica- 
tions in our indoor methods of instruction in order that there 
may be no handicap to the student of the open-air school. These 
modifications will be most necessary in cold weather when the 
problem of keeping the child warm and free from exposure 
is the most important one. The location of the open-air school 
may likewise cause a modification in certain methods. If the 
open-air room is situated on a noisy street certain changes in 
methods are necessary which need not be considered for an 
open-air room in a quieter location. 

In general, during the winter months, all recitations and class 
exercises must be of much shorter duration than those given 
in the indoor school. This is brought about by the necessity 
of giving the pupil frequent periods for relaxation and for 
keeping up an adequate circulation of the blood. 

The following suggestions are made: 

I. In the cold months of the year the open-air pupil is 
handicapped in all written work on account of the heavy cloth- 
ing and outside wraps which he must wear. Written exercises 
of all kinds including his computations in arithmetic may thus 
sufiFer somewhat. During the winter, it seems advisable, there- 
fore, to replace careful writing with the pen or pencil by some 
form of writing that will exercise the larger muscles of the 
body and be less affected by the restricting clothing. A device 
that suggests itself as serviceable would be to have the children 
make much more use of a blackboard, either standing at the 
regular blackboards or having an individual blackboard at the 
disposal of each pupil. The top of the closed desk could easily 

181] 43 



44 Teachers College Record [182 

be fitted with a blackboard on its lower side which could be 
brought into service by merely raising the top of the desk. 
In a large free hand the pupil could thus do a certain amount 
of writing and calculating. Such a blackboard, two feet long 
and one and half feet wide, would be very serviceable. In 
using it the pupil would have the advantage of not being obliged 
to lean over the desk as in the case of writing with a pen or 
pencil. 

I do not hesitate to suggest also the novelty of introducing 
the typewriter, the operation of which would permit the student 
to sit upright and have opportunity to exercise a number of 
muscles that would be unused in the ordinary writing with a 
pen. The activity required in typewriting would be especially 
favorable in the cold weather. Investigations have already been 
carried on by teachers of English which show that young chil- 
dren can make more progress in English and in spelling by 
the use of the typewriter than by the ordinary means of writing 
by hand. The undeveloped muscles of young children always 
cause handwriting to be a slow tedious process. The type- 
writer has the advantage of emphasizing legibility and accuracy. 
Mistakes stand out very prominently. As classes progress it is 
one of the most important ways to emphasize the value of good 
form in writing. In no other way does proper paragraphing 
and punctuation stand out so boldly. The typewriter would 
also serve nicely in spelling tests from dictation, and as a means 
of taking notes of any kind which might be given by the teacher. 
The combination of the typewriter with the blackboard above 
mentioned would no doubt do away with some of the present 
disadvantages of the open-air methods. The typewriter should 
be especially useful if the open-air scheme is extended to the 
higher classes, including the high school, where written work 
plays so prominent a part. It is here the intention, however, 
to recommend it for the elementary classes as well. If the above 
blackboard and typewriter plan is not feasible it will be well 
as a general principle during the winter months to modify meth- 
ods of instruction, so as to avoid as far as possible the necessity 
of long detailed exercises involving much writing. 

In the fall and in the spring, when the weather is warm, the 



183] Open-Air Schools 45 

children could have ample exercise in the usual handwriting. 
It is not meant by the above suggestion to do away with hand- 
writing, but only to make it possible to do in cold weather work 
that otherwise might be slighted. 

2. In general, in the open-air school, methods of exercising 
pupils orally should be increased and emphasized. This can be 
applied in practically all subjects including arithmetic, spelling, 
geography, and English. 

Such exercises as singing and gymnastics can be considerably 
increased in an open-air curriculum, and can best be given by 
frequent repetitions between the regular classes rather than 
by single assignments per day, as is the usual practice in the 
indoor school. 

3. In a subject like English, oral exercises, including oral 
reading and dramatic representation, can well be increased. In 
geography, map drawing at the blackboard and modeling can be 
given more prominent parts. The geography work may be aided 
also by excursions to points of geographical interest in the 
vicinity of the school. The same excursions are also helpful 
in connection with the work in history. The excursion idea 
should be much more developed in American open-air schools 
than it has been up to the present. In Italy the excursion is 
the chief feature of the open-air school. This is much more 
possible in Italy, however, than in America due to the milder 
climate. Lessons in civics, in fine arts, in current events, and 
in industries are thus possible, through visits to public places, 
galleries, court rooms, public institutions, factories, public works, 
and so forth. The boys in the Italian schools are provided with 
the combination portable chair and desk which may easily be 
carried on the back and set up in any convenient place out-of- 
doors. In this way the Italian teacher can establish his school- 
room temporarily in a public park or before some noted public 
monument. So far as American conditions are concerned, such 
excursions would have to be confined principally to the fall 
and spring months, except in the south and southwest. 

4. Especially in the open-air school, the use of the stereopticon 
and the moving picture as a means of instruction will be valu- 
able. Such devices will be especially serviceable for open-air 
schools in noisy districts. 



46 Teachers College Record [184 

5. A subject like nature study should be carried on only in 
the fall and spring months when the work can be done out-of- 
doors. Gardening is a subject which may well be emphasized 
for the open-air pupil. 

6. In arranging the curriculum it is very important to make 
such an adjustment that the cold months of the year will be 
used most effectively for those subjects which can best be taught 
during that time. The out-of-door scheme will probably result 
in favoring, even for a private school, a forty-week school year. 
If children remain in excellent health through the out-of-door 
experiment there is less reason for the long vacation. A forty- 
week or a forty-five week school year should be no hardship 
if the open-air school proves to be what we have a right to 
expect. 

The open-air curriculum especially favors the introduction of 
modern foreign languages by the direct method of instruction. 



VII 

SOME TESTS FOR DETERMINING THE EFFICIENCY 
OF THE METHODS OF OPEN-AIR SCHOOLS 

It is very desirable to test the efficiency of the open-air school 
especially in comparison with the regular indoor school. It is 
especially valuable to know in what particulars the pupils of 
the open-air schools are in advance of the regular pupils. To 
determine these matters physical and mental tests should be 
given frequently to classes of the same age and grade in both 
indoor and outdoor schools. To be of greatest value the tests 
should be given to children of the same average state of health 
in both schools. It will not be especially helpful to test invalids 
in an open-air school and to compare these results with normal 
children in the indoor school. So far as possible it is necessary 
that the groups of children to be compared start at about the 
same place with respect to age, grade, development, and health. 
These tests to be of value should be applied to large numbers 
of pupils. 

Physical Tests 

1. Gain in weight. Is it more for the outdoor pupil than that 
normally expected in a growing child? Gain in weight may 
be taken as an index of one's nutrition. Comparison of indoor 
with outdoor pupils should be of much value in this test. 

2. Lung capacity. As this is a test of vital capacity it will 
be especially important for pupils who have been more than a 
year in an outdoor school. 

3. Examination of the blood to show gain in hemoglobin. 
Especially favorable results should be found here in the case of 
open-air pupils. Outdoor pupils who are fed in school should 
be compared carefully with those outdoor pupils who are not fed. 

4. State of the organs of digestion. The frequent periods for 
light nourishment in many of the open-air schools make this an 
interesting test. Also keep a record of appetite. 

1851 47 



48 Teachers College Record [186 

5. Tests of hearing, of sight, and of the other special senses. 
The test of hearing will be important for all pupils in outdoor 
schools situated on noisy streets. The test of sight will be 
especially needed for outdoor pupils whose work has been done 
to a large extent with the sun shining on their desks and books. 

6. Tests for physical fatigue. An especially interesting test 
in view of the numerous periods for rest afforded the open-air 
pupils. Tests and continued observations for nervousness, irrita- 
bility, ill-temper, and so forth. 

7. Tests of posture. 

8. Tests of movements, including quickness or rate, accuracy 
or precision. Steadiness of motor control. 

9. Tests of endurance. 

ID. Tests of muscular strength, grip, and so forth. 

11. Careful observation to indicate freedom from minor com- 
plaints such as colds. Also a record of freedom from usual 
children's diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, headaches, 
indigestion, and adenoids. It is interesting to know whether or 
not the increased health of open-air pupils gives them through 
their greater resisting powers any immunity from these diseases. 
Records should also be kept to show the relation between the 
spread of contagious diseases in open-air and indoor classes. 

12. Medical tests to see if outdoor children have any special 
tendency toward troubles caused by exposure such as colds, rheu- 
matism, sore throats, and tonsilitis. 

13. Careful observations of bodily temperature, especially in 
cold weather, would also be of value. Symptoms of chilliness 
such as shivering, cold hands, chattering of teeth, and blue lips 
should be carefully watched and noted. From observations in 
various outdoor classes I believe that these matters are often 
neglected or ignored by the teachers. I saw a number of chil- 
dren who were so cold that they could not get any profit out 
of their school work. Often children do not know when they 
are too cold. 

14. Record of sleep. 

All of the above tests are rather simply carried out. The 
book on " Mental and Physical Tests " by Whipple will be sug- 
gestive in reference to accurate methods for conducting such 



187] Open-Air Schools 49 

tests. Pyle's " Examination of School Children " will also be 
helpful in this connection. 

Tests Relative to Conduct 
It is important to know whether or not the wholesome life 
in the open air has any marked influence on the conduct of 
pupils. This amounts to asking whether or not physical condi- 
tions in the ordinary schoolroom tend to favor misconduct. The 
following tests seem to be worth attention : 

1. A careful record in reference to obedience to the demands 
of the teacher or to the demands of fellow students. A record 
of each student's ability to get along in school with his fellow 
pupils. The presence of disputes, quarrels, and so forth should 
be carefully noted. 

2. General good spirit toward work and willingness to do 
things. Loyalty to teacher and school. 

3. General attitude toward life and the world as exhibited in 
cheerfulness, optimism, or their lack. 

4. Record of cases of marked misconduct, such as stealing, 
lying, willful destruction of property. 

5. Record of improvement in morals. This will include items 
not mentioned in paragraph 4, such as swearing, sexual dis- 
turbances. 

6. Tests of initiative, so far as this is testable. 

7. Tests of alertness, wide-awakeness, and so forth. 

Mental Tests Suggested by the Usual School Record 
Children of approximately equal health, grade, and age in 
both indoor and open-air schools should have their actual 
progress tested as shown by the usual school marks in subjects 
such as arithmetic, reading, spelling, geography, history, and 
science. In a subject like arithmetic it will also be valuable 
to test the work of both indoor and outdoor pupils in some 
such special way as the Courtis test, or the Stone test. In Eng- 
lish composition it would be valuable to supplement the tests 
given by the ordinary school grades by some careful measuring 
such as that possible by the scale developed by Professor Hille- 
gas. Handwriting could likewise be measured in accordance 
with the method of Professor Thorndike. 



50 Teachers College Record [188 

In addition to the tests in the ordinary school subjects above 
mentioned, care should be taken to obtain adequate tests of 
manual work, such as sewing, cooking, manual training, or 
drawing. The results should be of interest as these subjects are 
usually not taught out-of-doors under conditions as favorable 
as those indoors. The tests in physical training will also be of 
value as they will probably favor the outdoor pupil. 

Mental Tests Suggested by Psychologists 

A. Tests of Attention and Perception 

1. Range of visual attention 

2. Cancellation 

3. Counting dots 

4. Reading complicated prose 

5. Simultaneous reading, and writing and so forth 

B. Tests of Description and Report 

1. Description of an object 

2. Fidelity to report 

C. Tests of Association, Learning, and Memory 

1. Uncontrolled association 

a. Part-wholes 

b. Genus-species 

c. Opposites 

d. Computation 

2. Mirror-drawing 

3. Substitution 

4. Rote memory 

5. Logical memory 

D. Tests of Suggestibility 

1. Size-weight illusion 

2. Progressive lines 

3. Progressive weights 

4. Illusion of warmth 

E. Tests of Invention and Imagination 

1. Ink blots 

2. Linguistic invention 

3. Word building 

4. Interpretation of fables 



189] Open-Air Schools 51 

F. Tests of Intellectual Equipment 

1. Size of vocabulary 

2. Range of information 

G. Tests for reasoning not included in above lists 

H. Tests to show ability to understand the printed page. 

Note. — For descriptions of these tests and directions for giving 
them consult Whipple's " Manual of Mental and Physical Measure- 
ments." For names, descriptions, and so forth, of instruments that 
can be used for making these measurements see " Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Instruments," C. H. Stoelting, North Green Street, Chicago. 



VIII 
TESTS FOR THIRD GRADE 

I. Schoolwork tests 

1. Arithmetic 

2. Composition 

3. Reading 

II. Physical tests 

1. Height 

2. Weight 

3. Test of strength 

a. Of grip 

b. Of back 

c. Of legs 

4. Tests of motor control 

a. Tapping 

b. Aiming 

c. Tracing 

5. Test of eyesight 

a. For improvement 

b. For strain c«i eyes from sunshine 

III. Mental tests 

1. Tests for accuracy and quality of apperceptive mass 

a. From the reading book in use choose objects 
and situations and have them described and 
explained 

2. Tests for attention and perception 

a. Cancellation 

b. Counting dots 

c. Simultaneous adding 

d. Column adding 

e. Binet- Simon geometrical figures 

52 [190 



191] Open- Air Schools 53 

3. Tests for association 

a. Associated words such as page-book 

b. Opposites 

c. Memory 

4. Tests of powers of discrimination 

a. Size 

b. Length 

c. Weight 

d. Warmth 

e. Softness 

f. Fineness of fibre 

5. Tests for invention 

a. Development of sentences 

b. Completion of sentences 

c. Word building 

6. Tests for reasoning ability 

a. Interpretation of fables 

b. Jumbled up sentences (words to be rearranged 

so they will not make sense) 

c. Reprint, so each child can have a copy, a second 

grade story read the year before leaving out 
adjectives and an occasional verb and noun. 

Tests like the above should be given at the beginning and 
end of the school year, and midway between. Indoor classes 
of the same grade should be given the tests at the same time in 
order to make comparisons. 

Among some of the standard tests especially suitable for third 
grade pupils are the following. Others may be had from such 
a book as Whipple's " Manual of Mental and Physical Measure- 
ments." 



54 Teachers College Record [192 

Some Third Grade Tests Presented in Detail 

Muscular Control Test 

Maze. Draw with pencil a line between the walls of this 
maze. Do not let the pencil touch either of the black printed 
lines. Try to keep in the middle and draw as far as you can 
until stop is said. Time i minute and 30 seconds. 




193] Open-Air Schools 55 

Cancellation 
Striking out "A" tests 

1. Draw a line through each A. Do not skip one. Time i 

minute. 

GWBTBVKIKSCSAUEBCIWVABZSMDUBKLWHKHYCGYGK 

NANNCBVBSAKOIUPEKCXVGSTVRIWYBYGKHAZLPBYO 

XAPYEXXHUFSBVDYDIAZLRSATZAZVFCOFSAIPTDOK 

BBISKAKHXDYIUZRHVRZYSCIGECPOFKBICBMGFSDC 

YHSRMVBLYICKZBMXFVBBIKUCBZLOGLVKGFMOATUN 

SHOFHXIMKUXLDZKMRYRLVUWWKYEUVECSOUWBADEX 

ALUAKRMSFTGXWLVGAOWBTPODXBNSFSFSWSDRSMPO 

KBRIGAXZBZACKFBBEVWCGSWBMFEMXXOKRDIWGGBL 

BTPNSKBACVTCSSRKUBURUDMZEWIZFESTMZEBWAFI 

BKSGYHSLSFABTLTIUDXGAKROZYKOBHEAALPMLLKC 

GVCWKKPTUYUGSTSSDWNKSIEICSNBTVADKANTKKPB 

2. At the end of an hour after doing No. i, do the following 

in the same manner as in No. i. Use this one to show 
fatigue. Time i minute. 

GAAQYEMPAZNTIBXGAIMRUSAWZAZWXAMXBDXAJZ 

ECNABAHGDVSVFTCLAYKUKCWAFRWHTQYAFAAAOH 

UOLJCCAKSZAUAFERFAWAFZAWXBAAAVHAMBATAD 

KVSTVNAPLILAOXYSJUOVYIVPAAPSDNLKRQAAOJLE 

AKNAAPLPAAAHYOAEKLNVFARJAEHNPWIBAYAQRK 

UPDSHAAQGGHTAMZAQGMTPNURQNXIJEOWYCREJD 

TXWAMQEAKHAOPXZWCAIRBRZNSOQAQLMDGUSGB 

FUOFAAKYFGTMBLYZIJAAVAUAAACXDTVDACJSIUFMO 

SNZMWAAAWHACAXHXQAXTDPUTYGSKGRKVLGKIM 

JACINEVBGAOFHARPVEJCTQZAPJLEIQWNAHRBUIAS 

YRQAQEAXJUDFOIMWZSAUCGVAOABMAYDYAAZJDAL 

OYKFIUDBHTAGDAACDIXAMRPAGQZTAACVAOWLYX 

WABBTHJJANEEFAAMEAACBSVSKALLPHANRNPKAZF 



56 



Teachers College Record 



[194 



Computation Tests 

Counting dots. Draw a line through each dot counted. When 
time is up put down your count in figures, i.e., 46. Time 30 
seconds for each group. 



D 



Simultaneous adding. The teacher reads 3, 27, 35. The pupil 
is to add i to each of the numbers and write results. Then he 
must think of the numbers the teacher said and subtract 2 from 
each one and then write the result. Then he must think of the 
numbers the teacher gave and add 3 to each one and write the 
result. Time 30 seconds for each operation. 



1951 



Open- Air Schools 



57 



Opposites 

At the side of each word given below have the children write 
the word that stands for the opposite. Each child should be 
provided with a printed list of these words. Explain carefully 
what is required before passing papers and do not use the same 
words as are given on the lists when making explanation. One 
half hour after column A has been done do column B. Tell 
children to do all they can. If they cannot think of one to go 
on to the next. Time 2 minutes for each column. 



low 

up 

good 

outside 

quick 

tall 

big 

loud 

white 

light 

above 

many 

happy 

false 

like 

rich 

sick 

glad 

thin 

empty 



B 

high 

down 

bad 

inside 

slow 

short 

little 

soft 

black 

dark 

below 

sad 

true 

dislike 

poor 

well 

sorry 

thick 

full 

peace 



Associated Words 
(Part- wholes) 
Write opposite the list of words given the names of the bigger 
thing of which each word in the list is a part, as finger-hand. 
Time i minute. 



A 

door (house, anything having a door) 

pillow (bed, couch, and so forth) 

letter (word, envelope) 

leaf 

button 

nose 

page 

glass 



58 



Teachers College Record 



[196 



Ten minutes after giving list A, give list B. Time i minute. 

B 

book (page, cover, letter, and so forth) 

tree (leaf, branch, and so forth) 

room 
toy- 
name 
boat 
plant 
fish 



Tests of Discrimination 

Montessori material can be used for this. 

The Binet-Simon 1908 series of tests would also serve here. 

Discrimination of Form 

Give each pupil a sheet of forms like those below. Let him 
study these figures for one minute. Collect the sheets and have 
each child reproduce as many as he can remember. Let three 
minutes be given for this reproduction, cautioning the pupils 
to draw them as well as they can. 



□ 0#C>HOOV#B 



^AOnOO^OOo 



<I>AO'&OA'S'[£]0 



OASK^A^a ®^A 



197] Open-Air Schools 59 

Memory 
For rote memory. 

I. Words. — The teacher reads list A once slowly. As soon as 
the teacher has finished the reading the pupil writes down as 
many of the words as he can remember. Slip A is then collected 
and the next list read. Time for each list, 3 minutes. 



A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


book 


she 


long 


true 


school 


read 


desk 


green 


break 


teacher 


one 


black 


arm 


friend 


book 


bat 


good 


rich 


knife 


desk 


doll 


stone 


rose 


out 


pen 


play 


ring 






read 


if 


dress 






add 


sup 


run 






spell 


bell 


dish 






word 



2. Sentences. — The teacher reads each sentence separately 
after which the pupils write down as much as they can remember. 
Time allowed for each sentence, 3 minutes. 

a. I have one head, I have two hands, I have ten fingers. 

b. One and two are three, three and four are seven, five and 

six make more than ten. 

c. I sit in a seat, I read from a book, I write with a pencil. 

d. I get up in the morning, I go to school, after school I 

play, after play I go to bed. 

Memory for ideas. 

Read once to the class some story suitable to the third grade 
but unfamiliar to the pupils. Have them reproduce as much 
as they can remember of it. Divide the story read into as many 
parts as it has words standing for ideas. Count the number of 
ideas the children are able to reproduce and grade accordingly. 
By dividing into ideas, the following is what is meant: 

I 2 3 4 5 

An Indian | once | chased | a squirrel [ into cloudland. 



IX 

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199] Open-Air Schools 61 

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Centralblatt f. allg. Gesundheitspflege, 1906, 25. Jahr. Heft 7, 

pp. 311-315- 

. Waldschule der Stadt Gladbach. Verlag Marrtin Hager, Bonn. 

ScHOEN, Henri. Les Nouvelles ficoles sous Bois en Allemagne, en 

Angleterre et en Suisse. Education. Paris, pp. 389-420, 1909. 
ScHWARZ, Karl W. Waldschulen. Die Gesundheitwarte der Schule, 3, 

Jahr, August, 1905, pp. 200-202. 
Slocum, Maude M. America's Fresh-air School in Providence. Good 

Health, July, 1908, pp. 383-385- Battle Creek, Michigan. 
Spencer, Mrs. Anna Garlin. Open-air Schools. International Con- 
gress of Tuberculosis, Vol. 2, pp. 612-618, 1908. 
Stoll, Dr. Henry F. The Hartford Preventorium: An outdoor school 

for delicate children. Journal of Outdoor Life, March, 1910. 

New York City. 
Talbot, Winthrop F. The Physical Basis of Attention. Address and 

Proceedings of National Education Association, pp. 932-936, 

1908. 



203] Open- Air Schools 65 

Taylor^ D. M. Bermerside Open-air School, 1910. School Hygiene, 

2:507-13, 1911- 
Thiel, Peter J. Die Waldschule in der freien Natur, eine padagogische 

Notwendigkeit und Moglichkeit. Internat. Kongress f. Schul- 

hygiene, Nuremburg, Vol. 2, pp. 346-352, April, 1904. 
Thorndike, Edward Lee. Notes on Child Study. Teachers College, 

New York. 
Todd, John B., M. D. Fresh Air School Rooms and a New Method of 

Testing Air for Dust. The Journal of the New York State 

Teachers' Association, pp. 48-53, March, 1914. 
Van P*elt, John V. The Architecture of Open-air Schools. Fourth 

International Congress on School Hygiene. Transactions, Vol. 

II, pp. 96-101. Buffalo, 1913. 
ViDAL, A. and C. Robertson. (Delegates from Argentina.) El Aire 

Libre de la Pedagogia Cientifica la Tuberculosis-Profilaxis 

Escolar. Fourth International Congress on School Hygiene. 

Transactions, Vol. II, pp. 154-165. Buffalo, 1913. 
Watt, William E. Fresh Air for Average School Children. The Sur- 
vey, pp. 866-869, March 5, 1910. New York City. 
Whipple, Guy M. Manual of Mental and Physical Measurements. 

Warwick and York, Baltimore. 
Williams, Ralph P. Sheffield Open-air School. British Journal of 

Tuberculosis, pp. 101-106, April, 1910. G. E. Stechert and 

Company, New York City. 
' — . Sheffield Open-air Recovery School. School Hygiene, Vol. I, 

No. 3, pp. 136-143, March, 1910. School Hygiene Publishing 

Company, 2 Charlotte Street. London, W. 
WiNG^ Frank E. Report of Chicago's First Outdoor School and Its 

Results. The Chicago Tuberculosis Institute, 158 Adams 

Street. Chicago, November, 1909. 
Wood, F. T. H. Darlington Open-air School. School Hygiene, 2:282-86, 

1911. 
Woodruff, I. Ogden. Fresh Air Schools in New York City. Fourth 

International Congress on School Hygiene. Transactions, Vol. 

II, pp. 80-91. Buffalo, 1913. 
An Open-air School for Consumptives. The Barnsley experiment. 

School Government Chronicle, 85:194-95; 216-17, I9ii. 
Boston Outdoor School. Outlook, 95:603-604, 1910. 
Boston Schools to have Open-air Rooms. The Survey, 23:244-248, 1909. 
Ferryboats as Schools. The Survey, 22:798-799, 1909. 
Open-air Schools in England. Progress, 3:278-279, 1908. 
Open-air Schools. In United States Bureau of Education, Report, 1911. 

Vol. I, pp. 142-143. 
Open-air School Raises Attendance. The Survey, 27:1259-1260, 1911. 
Open-air Treatment for Children. Outlook, 94:232-233, 1910. 



66 Teachers College Record [204 

Projet de Reglement des £coIes de Plein Air. Hygiene Scolaire, pp. 

114-119, April, 1910. 
The London County Council Open-air Schools. I*rogress, 2 :2i6, igo8. 

Reports 

Atnencan 

Outdoor Schools. Issued by the Boston Association for the Relief and 
Control of Tuberculosis. August, 1909. (A pamphlet of thirty 
pages, containing accounts of the Providence and Boston 
schools, the report of the Boston School Committee mentioned 
above, and a bibliography.) 

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. The Phoebe Anna Thorne Open-air Model 
School. October, 1913. 

Chicago, Illinois. Chicago's First Outdoor School for Tuberculous Chil- 
dren. Issued by the Chicago Tuberculosis Institute. Novem- 
ber, 1909. 

Montclair, New Jersey. Report of the Board of Education, 1912-1913. 

New York City. Twelfth Annual Report of the City Superintendent of 
Schools to the Board of Education, pp. 104-107, 19 10. 

. Thirteenth Annual Report of the City Superintendent of 

Schools to the Board of Education, 191 1. 

. Fourteenth Annual Report of the City Superintendent of Schools 

to the Board of Education, 1912. 

. Fifteenth Annual Report of the City Superintendent of Schools 

to the Board of Education, 1913. 

Providence, Rhode Island. Report of School Committee, pp. 51-56, 1907- 
1908. 

. Report of School Committee, pp. 54-55, 1908-1909. 

. Report of School Committee, pp. 24-26, 1910-1911. 

'. Report of School Committee, pp. 20-21, 1911-1912. 

Rochester, New York. Board of Education, Fifty-fifth Report, for the 
years 1908- 1909- 19 10, pp. 9-22-24. 

English 

Bradford. Thackley Open-air School. Report of the Medical Inspector. 
Bradford Education Committee, 1908. 

Great Britain. Board of Education. Annual report for 1908 of Chief 
Medical Officer. Special schools for defective children, pp. 
107-19. Open-air schools, p. 121. London, Eyre and Spottis- 
woode, Ltd., 1910. 

. Annual Report for 1910 of Chief Medical Officer. Qosure 

and exclusion from school, pp. 20-22. Special schools for blind, 
deaf, physically defective, and eoileptic children, pp. 187-203. 
Education of feeble-minded children, pp. 206-19. Open-air edu- 
cation, pp. 221-31. London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, Ltd., 191 1. 



205] Open- Air Schools 67 

Halifax, County Borough of. Report on Bermerside Open-air Schools, 
May 15 to October 14, 1909; April 25 to October 14, 1910. 

London. County Council. Report of Medical Officer for 1909. Open- 
air schools, p. 15. Exclusion of children, pp. 54-55 (tables, 
diagrams). Special schools, pp. 69-93. London, printed by 
Southwood, Smith and Company, Ltd., 1910. 

. Education Committee. Open-air school, Bostall Wood 

(Plumstead). Report of the Education Committee of the 
Council submitting ... a report by the educational adviser 
on experiments conducted in Germany in connection with open- 
air schools, and ... a joint report of the medical officer and 
the executive officer on the open-air school carried on in Bos- 
tall Wood between 22d July and 19th October, 1907. London 
printed for the London County Council by J. Truscott and 
Son, Ltd., 1908, 27 pp., plates, diagrams. 

Report of the Education Committee of the Council, sub- 



mitting a Joint Report of the Education Officer and the Medical 
Officer (Education) on the open-air schools, held at Birley 
House, Dulwich, Montpelier House, Upper Holloway, and 
Shrewsbury House, Woolwich, between the loth June and 31st 
October, 1908. (London, 1909.) 

Manchester. The Manchester County School for Town Children. 
Fourth Annual Report, pp. 1-12, 1907. 

Fifth Annual Report of Education Committee, pp. 50-54; 220-223, 1906- 
1907. 

Sheffield. Report of the School Medical Officer on the Open-air Recov- 
ery School at Whitley Wood, December, 1909. 

German 
Elberfeld. Waldschule in Bergischen Lande. Verein fur Gemeinwohl, 
Elberfeld. 

Italian 
Grilli, Gaetano. La Scliola AH' Aperto. Tipografia ditta Ludovico Cec- 
chini, 191 1, Rome. 




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Suggestions for the Interpretation 
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By D. L Phillips, Head of the Department of Psychology and 
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to Evolution, Problems of Heredity and Environment, Social Psychology, 
and Psychology in Literature and Art are a few of the chapters that touch 
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A Bibliography on Educational Hygiene and Physical Education. Thomas Denisom 
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History of Education as a Professional Subject. W. H. Burnham and Henry 
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Bibliography of Children's Reading. Franklin T. Baker. 129 pages. Paper 
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Mental and Social Measurements. Professor Edward L. Thorndike. Revised 
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Value of Science. H. Poincare, Member of Institute of France. Authorized 
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Teachers College Record 



The journal is issued bi-monthly except July, thus having five numbers during 
the year, January, March, May, September, and November. The numbers vary in 
length, from eighty to one hundred and thirty pages, being on an average about 
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CONTENTS OF VOLUME I— ipoo 

No. I ' The History and Function of Teachers College — Papers by 
January" Dean Russell and Ex-President Hervey. (Out of print). 

No. 2, March Nature Study — Miss Carse and Professor Lloyd. 

No. 3, May English. (Out of print). 

No. 4 Syllabi of Education Courses — President Butler, Dean Rus- 
September sell and Professors Monroe and Dutton. 

No. 5, NoTcmber Hand Work. (Out of print). 



No. I 

January 

No 3 

March 

No. 3 

May 

No. 4 

September 

No. 5, November 

No. I 
January 

No. 3 

March 

N08. 3 and 4 

May, September 

No. 5 
November 



No. I 

January 

No. 3 

March 

No. 3 

May 

No. 4 1 September 

No. 5 

November 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II— 1901 

Biology in the Horace Mann High School — Professors Lloyd 

and Bigelow. 
Geography in the Horace Mann School — Professor Dodge and 

Miss KiRCHWEY. 

Child Study — Sources of Material and Syllabi of College Courses 

— Professor Thorndikb. 
Syllabi of Courses in Elementary aiui Applied Psychology — 

Professor Thorndikb. 
Manual Training. (Out of print). 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III— 1902 

Horace Mann School; Dedication Number — Papers by Presi- 
dent Oilman, Professor Dutton and others, on Present- 
Day Problems in Education. (Out of print). 

Chemistry and Physics in the Horace Mann High School — Pro- 
fessor WooDHULL. (Out of print). 

Helps for the Teaching of Caesar — Professor Lodgb and Messrs. 
HuBBELL and Little. (Out of print). 

The Speyer School. Part I — Its History and Purpose — Dean 
Russell, Professor McMurry and Mr. Burks. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV— 1903 

The Speyer School. Part II — Its Curriculum and its Relation to 
Teachers College — Professor McMurry and Mr. Burks. 

McUhematics in the Elementary School — Professors Smith and 
McMurry. (Out of print). 

New Methods of Teaching Modern Languages — Doctor Leo- 
pold Bahlsen. 

University Extension — Professor Sykes. 

The Philosophy and Psychology of the Kindergarten — Dean 
Russell and Professors Thorndikb and MacVannel. 
(Continued on next page) 



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Teachers College Record 

{Cottiinued) 



Wo. X, January 

No. 2 

March 

No. 3 

May 

No. 4 

September 

No. 5 

November 



No. I, January 

No. 2 

March 

No. 3 

Hay 

No. 4 

September 

No. 5 
November 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V— 1Q04 
Music in the Schools — Professor Farnsworth and Miss Hoper. 
The Curriculum of the Elementary School — Professors Duttom, 

Pearson, Richards, Wood and Woodhull. 
Experimental Work in Elementary Schools — Professor Mc- 

MuRRY and others. 
Syllabi of Education and English Courses — Professors Mac- 

Vannel, Abbott, Baker and Sykes. (Out of print). 
Kindergarten Education — Professor Runyan, Miss O'Grady 

and Miss Mills. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI— 1905 

Educational Psychology — Professors Ellis and Thorndikb. 

School Hygiene — Professors Wood and Kinne, and Doctori 
Jacobi, Weeks and Kerley. 

City School Expenditures — Dr. Strayer. (Out of print). Re- 
issued as No. 5 Teachers College Contributions to Educa- 
tion, price $i.co, cloth bound. 

The Educational Theories of Herbart and Froebel — Professor 
MacVannel. (Out of print). Reissued as No. 4 Teachers 
College Contributions to Education, price $1.00, cloth bound. 

Some Fiscal Aspects of Public Education in American Cities — 
Professor Elliott. (Out of print). Reissued as No. 6 
Teachers College Contributions to Education, price $x.oo, 
cloth bound. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII— 1906 
No. I, January Elementary School Curriculum. First Grad^. (Out of print). 
No. 2 Secondary School Curriculum. Part One. Language, History, 

March Matliematics. 

No. 3, May Secondary School Curriculum. Part Two. Science and Art, 

No. 4, September Elementary School Curriculum. Second and Third Grades. (Out 

of print). 
No. 5, November Studies in the Teaching of English Grammar. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME VIII— 1907 
No. I, January Elementary School Curriculum. Fourth and Fifth Grades. 
No. 2, March Experimental Studies in Education. 

No. 3, May Elementary School Curriculum. Sixth Grade. 

No. 4, September Elementary School Curriculum. Seventh Grade. (Out of print). 
No. 5, November The Industrial Improvement Schools of Wurttemberg. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX— 1908 
No. I, January A Bibliography of Children's Reading. Professor Baker. 
No. 2, March A Bibliography of Children's Reading (Continued). 

No. I and No. 2 on Children's Reading have been reissued as one pamphlet, 
125 pages, price 60c. The original separate No. i is out of print. 
No. 3, May The Theory and Practice of Teaching Art — Professor Dow. 

An enlarged and revised reprint of this, bound in boards, has been issued. 
Price $1.50. 
No. 4, September Educational Museums — B. R. Andrews. 
No. 5, November Teaching of History — Professor Johnson. (Out of print). 

{Continued on next page) 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Teachers College Record 

{Continued) 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME X— 1909 
No. I, January The Teaching of Arithmetic — Professor Smith. (Reprinted) 
No. 3, March Studies in Secondary Education. 

No. 3, May Domestic Science Equipment. Professor Kinne. (Out of print 

in Record form) 
No. 4, September The Making of a Girls' Trade School. Professor Woolman. 

(Out of print in Record form) 
No. 5, November Articles on Kindergarten Education. Professor MacVannel 

and Miss Patty Smith Hill. (Reprinted) 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XI— 19 10 

No. X The Teaching of Physical Science. Professor John F. Wood- 

January hull. 

No. 2, March Handwriting. Professor E. L. Thorndike. (Reprinted) 

No. 3, May Nurses Education. Edited by Professor Nutting. 

No. 4 Stenographic Reports of High School Lessons. Edited by Miss 

September Romiett Stevens. (Reprinted) 

No. 5 Studies in Educational Administration. Edited by Professor 

November Strayer. (Out of print.) 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII— 191 1 
No. 1 Studies in Elementary School Practice. Edited by Professor 

January Bonser. (Out of print.) 

No. 2 The Teaching of Primary Arithmetic. Professor Henry Suz- 

March zallo. (Out of print in Record form.) 

No. 3, May Higher Girls' School of Prussia. Dr. C. William Pretttman. 

No. 4, September Industrial Education. Professor Sykes and Professor Bonser. 

(Out of print.) 
No. 5, November The Teaching of Spelling. Professor Suzzallo. (Out of 

print in Record form.) 



No. I 
January 
No. 2 
March 

No. 3 
May 
No. 4 
September 
No. 5 
November 



No. I 
January 
No. 2 
March 
No. 3 
May 

*No. 
No. 4 
September 
No. 5 
November 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIII— 191 2 

Comparative Experimental Teaching in Spelling. Professor 

Suzzallo and Mr. Pearson. 
Present Teaching of Mathematics in Germany. Professor 

Smith with co-operation of graduate students. 
Health Instruction in the Elementary School. Professor Wood 

and Miss Rbesor. 
A Scale for the Measurement of Quality in English Composition 

of Young People. Professor Hillegas. 
Number Games and Number Rhymes. Professor Smith, and 
certain students of Teachers College. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIV— 1913 

Educational Surveys and Vocational Guidance. Leonard 
Righter and Robert J. Leonard. 

Curriculum of Horace Mann Elementary School, Arithmetic, 
Geography, History, and Music* 

Curriculum of Horace Mann Elementary School, English, 
Nature-Study, Industrial, Household and Fine Arts, Phys- 
ical Education.* 
and No. 3 reprinted in one volume. Separate numbers out of print. 

Formal English Grammar as a Discipline. Thomas H. 
Briggs, Ph.D. 

Scale for Measuring Achievement in Drawing. Professor 
Edward L. Thorndike. 



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The English Journal 

Official Organ of the National Council of Teachers of English 
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