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H)e\>ote& to tbe Science of IReligton, tbe IReltglon ot Science, an& tbe 
Extension ot tbe IReliaious parliament 11&ea 

(EC PIegeler. 
Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. Associates: < M^^y Carus. 

VOL. XXL (No. 12.) DECEMBER, 1907. NO. 619. 



Frontispiece. St. Catharine. Fra Angelico. 

What is God? Orlando J. Smith 705 

St. Catharine of Alexandria. Conclusion. (Illustrated.) Editor 727 

Goethe's Soul Conception. Editor 745 

Perchance. Amos B. Bishop 752 

Jacob Boehme. Belle P. Drury 757 

Oriental Sages. (Poem.) M. H. Simpson 762 

The Pagan Conception of Sin. The Rev. W. B. Evalt 763 

In Answer to Mr. Evalt. Edwin A. Rumball 764 

The Superpersonal God. In Comment on a Communication from Pere Hya- 

cinthe. Editor 765 

The Syllabus Again. Hyacinthe Loyson 766 

General PUster 7^7 

Book Reviews and Notes 768 


Xtbe ©pen Court publisbtitG Company 

LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 
Per copy, lo cents (sixpence). Yearly, $i.oo (In the U. P. U., 58. 6d.). 

Copyright, 1907, by The Open Court Publishing Co. Entered at the Chicago Post OflSce as Second Qass Matter. 

Zlbe ©pen Court 


H)ct>ote& to tbe Science ot IReliaton, tbe IReligion ot Science, anD tbe 
Bitension ot tbe IReligious parliament Hbea 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. Associates: \ j^^^gy olus^ 

VOL. XXL (No. 12.) DECEMBER, 1907. NO. 619. 



Frontispiece. St. Catharine. Fra Angelico. 

What is God? Orlando J. Smith 705 

St. Catharine of Alexandria. Conclusion. (Illustrated.) Editor 727 

Goethe's Soul Conception. Editor 745 

Perchance. Amos B. Bishop 752 

Jacob Boehme. Belle P. Drury 757 

Oriental Sages. (Poem.) M. H. Simpson 762 

The Pagan Conception of Sin. The Rev. W. B. Evalt 763 

In Answer to Mr. Evalt. Edwin A. Rumball 764 

The Superpersonal God. In Comment on a Communication from Pere Hya- 

cinthe. Editor 765 

The Syllabus Again. Hyacinthe Loyson 766 

General PUster 767 

Book Reviews and Notes 768 


^be ©pen Court publisbtng Companie 

LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 
Per copy, lo cents (sixpence). Yearly, $i.oo (In the U. P. U., 58. 6d.). 

Copyright, 1907, by The Open Court Publishing Co. Entered at the Chicago Post Office as Second Qass Matter. 





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Frontispiece to The Open Court. 

The Open Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

VOL. XXI. (No. 12.) DECEMBER, 1907. NO. 619 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1907. 



MEN, from the lowest to the highest, have been unable to recog- 
nize the universe as something without order, regulation or 
law. Those, even, who are called atheists do not deny the existence 
of a supreme power of regulation ; they deny certain conceptions 
of that power. The agnostics do not deny the existence of a supreme 
regulator ; they deny only that it can be known or comprehended. 

In different stages of human culture, men have held numerous 
varying conceptions of God. The dull conceptions of primitive men 
gave way to better conceptions, and these to still better conceptions, 
as men improved in knowledge. Our old conception of God, handed 
down from a remote period, supplies to us a view of the cosmic 
order which cannot be reconciled with the facts about nature as they 
are now known to us. It is as the sacred legends of other peoples, 
which are now outgrown. 

While the belief in the God of authority has declined, the con- 
viction that the universe is ruled by law, marvelous in its perfection, 
has grown precisely in proportion to the growth of modern knowl- 
edge. What is this law, this order, this power or principle of ad- 

We know something of a gardener by his garden, of an artist 
by his picture, of an orator by his speech, of a poet by his verses, of 
a commander by his victories or defeats. Shall we say that we, who 
are constantly in the presence of the regulations of nature, who have 
no experience, no existence apart from them, can form no impression 
of the regulator? Shall we say that we, who know that a certain 
seed planted under certain conditions will produce a certain result, 
and that another seed planted under the same conditions will produce 

* Copyright, 1907, by Orlando J. Smith. 


a (lifFercnt result ; that the consequences of some actions arc p;oo(l 
and of others harmful ; that some actions are essential to life and that 
others produce death — shall we say that we, with all this wisdom, 
know nothing^ of the law, of the eternal verities? 

We shall know God by reasoning from the consequences of the 
law, as known to us, back to the meaninc^ of the law ; by reasoninp; 
from the facts to God. rather than from God to the facts. We arc 
the ijoverned ; wc know something of the governor. We are ruled ; 
we know our ruler throus^h his ways of ruling. We need not go back 
two thousand or five tlnjusand years to find God. He did not speak 
once or twice and then grow <lunil). Wc must take nature as it is, 
life as it is. and find God in these facts. 

I believe that the facts of human experience ])oint straight back 
to a su])reme power of errorless adjustment which men have called 
God. I have dared, in what follows, to put my speculations and 
conclusions concerning God's ways and what God is. in the mouth 
of God, as if God spoke familiarly to us. adapting himself to our 
l)resent condition and state of knowledge. I adopt this form of ex- 
pression for the sake of directness and clearness. These conclusions 
are not the product of my fancy only ; they are not groundless or as 
dreams. They are built upon the facts of life as we know them ; 
upon the scientific kiK)wledge of the present time concerning the sys- 
tem of nature, and upon reasonable deductions from these facts and 


What am I ? What are man's relations to me and my relations 
to man? What is the nature of the government of the universe? 
Is it merciful or loving, just or unjust? Do I acquit myself of 
accountability for evil, nr do I assume the responsibility for all that 
is? These are the questions that I would answer. 

Your scientific minds now know that matter and force are in- 
destructible, and they know also that this fact is a half truth, the 
other half being that matter and force are uncreatable — the whole 
truth being that matter and force can neither be created nor de- 
stroyed. They know also, by rational inference, that what is true of 
the system of nature, so far as their observation extends, has been 
and will be true in all times and places. 

They comprehend also that what is true of matter and force is 
true also of all thinjTs — that all changes arc- transformations; that 


nothing can. in its essence, be created or destroyed. A building is 
not created: it consists of brick, stone, lime, wood, glass and metal, 
of labor and of mind, all of which existed before its construction. 
As nothing in it is created, so nothing in it can be destroyed. Its 
substances may Ije transformed b}' fire or decay, but the matter, 
energy and intelligence which entered into it will still exist. 

In these simple facts you shall find the key to the government 
of the universe. As my government is here and now, it has been 
and will be in all times and places, without change or exception, 
through eternity and infinite space. No atom is destroyed, no atom 
is created. Nothing is made out of nothing. Throughout the uni- 
verse there is ceaseless motion ; nothing stands at rest. Transforma- 
tions are ceaseless ; in variety and number they are infinite. The way 
of transformation is single. A seed is a transformation, not a be- 
ginning; decay is a transformation, not an ending. Birth is not a 
beginning ; death is not an ending. In the universe there is no crea- 
tion and no annihilation. 

Think you that I, who have created no atom, who have destroyed 
no atom, would create or destroy a human mind ? Think you that 
nature would give eternal life to a senseless speck of dust, and deny 
it to the consummate flower of all life — the mind of a man ? ( )pen 
your eyes to the whole truth, the simple truth, that the soul of the 
individual man, like matter and force, is not created, and will not be 

Observe the fatal inconsistencies in the assumption that the soul 
of the individual is created at his birth. Some souls are born strong. 
brave, wise, honest ; some have genius, some beauty, some fair- 
mindedness, some innocence, some honor. These, under the theory 
that I am the creator of souls, would have no merit ; they would be 
the beneficiaries of my favor. Other souls are born ignorant, cruel, 
corrupt, selfish, cowardly, base : some are malicious, some ugly, 
some foolish, some depraved. These, under the theory that I am the 
creator of souls, would have no demerit ; they would be the victims 
of my disfavor. The theory that I am the creator of souls would 
convict me of putting a blessing or a curse upon each soul in the 
very act of creating it. 

If I am the creator of souls, then I have placed in one soul the 
seed of hypocrisy, in another ingratitude, in another treachery, in 
another murder. Would these souls be responsible for these quali- 
ties with which, if I am their maker, I have endowed them? They 
would not be responsible ; they would be wholly innocent. I, if I 
have created them, am responsible, I am guilty ; I, if I have made 


them, am tlic livpocrite, tlic iiif^^rate. tlic traitor, the murderer, that 1 
have created. 

Tlie theory that I am the creator of souls would convict me of 
heing the maker and inventor of all liars, debauchees, thieves, im- 
postors, slanderers, tyrants and torturers ; it would convict me of 
being, through my creations, the author of all the ignorance, mean- 
ness, vice and cruelty in the world ; it would convict me of being the 
greatest criminal in the world, of being, in fact, the only criminal, 
since all criminals would be of my creation, under this theory, and 
really my victims, created vile, without will or choice of their own. 

Reasoning built upon a false postulate will carry to the end the 
errors of its foundation. Your theology, based upon the assumption 
that I am the creator of souls, presents me necessarily as a God of 
favor and of wrath. It declares that I loved Jacob and hated Esau ; 
that I have had a favored people ; that I am an arbitrary God, having 
mercy on whom I will have mercy and that whom I will I harden ; 
that I am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon 
the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate 
me ; that I condemn all men for the sin of Adam. Maintaining that 
I create without justice, it holds that I will save without justice; 
that salvation can be secured only through the grace of God ; that the 
favor of my salvation can be gained only by those who believe and 
accept certain revelations concerning me. and will be refused to all 
who doubt or deny these revelations. 

And what is the substance of these revelations? That I waited 
in silence and loneliness thrcnigh an eternity before I created any- 
thing: that I finally created a globe with the life thereon; that I 
became so dissatisfied with this work that I destroyed nearly all life 
with a flood, beginning anew ; that again I became incensed with my 
creatures, and became reconciled with mankind only through the 
sacrifice of my son, begotten of a woman ; that I then invented a 
new plan of salvation and a new sin — the new way of salvation 
being the belief in an atonement through the martyrdom of Jesus 
Christ, the new sin being the dfiubt or denial of this plan of sal- 

And what is this doubt or denial, which is represented as the 
worst of sins? It is the doubt or denial that 1 changed, nineteen 
hundred years ago, my plan of redemption, my way of salvation ; 
changed my relations to man and man's obligations to me. It is 
the doubt or denial that I then invented a new sin. a deadly sin — 
greater than treachery, ingratitude, cruelty, murder — where there 
had been no sin before. 


And what is this beHef, represented as so marvelously good that 
without it man cannot be saved? It is the beHef that I am a vacil- 
lating God ; that I have changed, and consequently may change 
again, my way of governing the universe ; that I have invented a 
new sin, and consequently may invent other new sins. 

Another conclusion, based upon the postulate that I am the cre- 
ator of souls, is this: that I am the God of good only, and that I am 
perpetually in conflict with another God, the God of evil ; that the 
world is rent and torn by an unceasing combat between the God of 
beneficence and the God of malevolence ; that I am responsible only 
for the good that exists, and that Satan is responsible for the evil. 

Know, you men, that I have no rival, no antagonist, in the gov- 
ernment of the universe ; that I am one, single and supreme ; that 
no soul has been or will be the beneficiary of my favor or the victim 
of my wrath ; that I have no partiality, no favors ; that I have not 
been angry, resentful or regretful ; that I have made no failures, have 
repented of no errors ; that I have invented no new terms of salva- 
tion, no new sin ; that no one shall be damned for an honest doubt ; 
that my ways are just and unalterable, requiring no repairs, no 

Know that there is only one way of salvation — eternal and 
changeless ; the same in the distant stars as here — "Whatsoever a 
man soweth, that shall he also rfeap." 


Each soul, like the atom, like the universe, is eternal ; its ante- 
cedents had no beginning, its consequences will have no end. The 
individual builds his own character ; he is sick because he has neg- 
lected the laws of health ; ignorant because he has failed to improve 
his opportunities ; fretful, despondent, lazy or cowardly because he 
has cultivated mean-spiritedness ; a drunkard, boaster, ingrate, thief, 
liar, hypocrite or murderer because he has dishonored himself. Each 
man reaps as he has sown ; he is what he has made himself in his 
previous existence ; he is forever working out his own damnation 
or his own salvation. From the complete responsibility for himself 
man cannot escape. Suicide cannot kill him; death cannot destroy 

Man's life is an endless battle in which the good and brave are 
victorious, and the mean and cowardly are defeated. The character 
of each being shows what its life has been ; its strength and goodness 
are medals of honor for its victories ; its weakness and vileness are 
the badges of defeat. Your soul is mean; it is the hovel of your 


own niakiiiL;'. ^ <>ur soul is nohk- : it is the ])alace of your <^>\vii hiiild- 

What, tluii, 'if t.vil ? I )<>nl)tins4 tlu' noccssity for evil, you slioukl 
first consider a world without evil — a world without ij^^norancc. diffi- 
culty. danj.jer. sufferinjj^ or selfishness — to know whether such a world 
would be to your liking. 

In a world without ij^norance no one could £jain or impart any 
intelligence, each one's cuj) of knowledge being full. There could 
l)e no discussion, no inquiry, no issue between right and wrong, no 
alternatives ; and consequently there could be no enlightenment 
through experience, no pleasure of discovery, no stimulation of 
thought ; indeed there would be no reasoning, since reasoning is an 
inquiry into the undetermined, an effort of the mind to overcome 
ignorance. In a world without ignorance there would be no exercise 
of the mind, no intellectual achievement. The mind would be dead 
in all respects in which it is inspiring or fruitful. 

.And so in a world without difificulty there would be no incentive 
to forethought, to energy, to patience, to self-control, to fortitude. 
The noblest virtues which test and make manhood would cease to 
exist. The virtue of courage does not exist without the evil of 
danger, the virtue of sympathy does not exist without the evil of 
suffering, and so no otlur virtue could exist without its correspond- 
ing evil. 

.\ man without eyes could see no evil, and without his other 
senses could hear, taste, smell, feel and know no evil. But, so 
emasculated, he would be a clod, not a man. A world without evil 
would be as toil without efTort. as achievement without opposition, 
as light without darkness, as a battle with no antagonist. It would 
be a world witlK)ut meaning. 

Whv should you not ha\e hap])iness without effort? Because 
\ou would not ha\e earned it. In this universe each soul gets pre- 
ciselv what it earns, no more and no less. 

"But we suffer often without sin. The friend whom I believed 
to be honest, ])roves to be treacherous. The beautiful llame which 
attracts the unknowing infant, deforms the child. That which we 
believed to be wholesome is injurious. A ])rescription carelessly 
prepared contains ])oison of which I have no knowledge. An action 
which was innocent, even noble, is followed by unhappy conse- 
quences. ( )ne goes down to hel]) the wretched, and acquires a loath- 
some or fatal disease." 


Aly law has no exceptions. Would you have it that fire should 
burn those only who know fire? that poison should kill those only 
who take it knowingly? Should I put a premium on ignorance by 
saying, "For that which you do ignorantly you shall not suffer?" 
Would you interrupt the vast uK^vcment of cause and effect — by 
which alone justice is accomplished — that men may be protected 
from the consequences of their own ignorance? And all this for 
what? That ignorance may be transformed into a thing so sacred 
that I may lay no penalty upon it? What sort of men, women and 
children would you produce if ignorance were an insurance against 
evil, the sole guarantee of happiness? Who would be wise, if each 
bit of knowledge brought a penalty from which ignorance is exempt? 
If T should thus reward ignorance and penalize knowledge, you men 
wnuld be infants forever. 

^Fy ways are stern ways. Fire burns, poison kills ; there is no 
preventive nor antidote for either in ignorance, in innocence or in 
good motive. The one protection from the ravages of either is 
knowledge. Many evils, such as pestilence and famine, which you 
formerly accepted as manifestations of the wrath of God, are now 
known by you to be the results of man's ignorance. The "black 
death" is now unknown ; tuberculosis is curable ; knowledge is over- 
coming, one after another, your worst diseases. A simple screen 
will protect infants from injury by fire. Prudence, foresight and co- 
operation will relieve the horrors of famine. The panacea for all 
evils is knowledge, not ignorance. 

Is evil, then, in a sense good? Danger is good as a trial of cour- 
age ; suffering is good as a penalty of indolence ; medicine, not good 
to taste or smell, is good as a corrective. Evil is good as a trial, 
penalty or corrective. Good comes out of evil, as life comes from 
decomposition ; as the perfume of the rose comes from the stench 
of the fertilizer ; as strength and health come from the knife of the 
surgeon ; as wisdom comes through the penalties of ignorance. 

What you call chance or luck, good fortune or ill fortune, upon 
which you base the assumption that you may suffer from unearned 
evil, is manifest in a superficial sense only ; in the deeper sense there 
is no such thing as hazard in the world. This is illustrated in the 
experience of your insurance corporations, which are built upon the 
sound assumption that fires, accidents, marine disasters, and even 
death itself, will always bear a definite ratio to time, numbers and 
other factors. 


Throug:h the workinpf of this law of averages, the individual in 
his eternal life passes through all forms of experience possible to 
human beings. He has been born rich and poor, king and peasant, 
in barbarism and enlightenment ; he has been shipwrecked, seared 
by fire, mangled in battle, tortured by all kinds of disease, unjustly 
condemned ; he has died in infancy, in youth, in middle life, in old 
age : he has suffered from treachery and malice : he has lived under 
all forms of government, from the most liberal to the most despotic ; 
he has been blinded, injured by accidents, by lightning and the con- 
vulsions of nature ; he has been born deaf and dumb and otherwise 
defective; he has lived in tropical jungles and in lands of ice and 
snow ; he has been a naked savage, and has been the heir of ease and 
luxury, fawned upon by eager menials ; he has known all temptations, 
enjoyed all pleasures, suffered all pains ; he has been master and slave, 
victor and vanquished, slayer and slain ; he has been born into all 
superstitions, and has had access to all knowledge, wisdom and light ; 
he has benefited and suffered impartially with his fellow men from 
all possible experiences, favorable and imfavorable. 

What you call misfortune in the life of a man is merely an 
incident of his eternal life, in which adversity, as well as prosperity, 
has its uses and its compensations. What you call good fortune is 
not always good, nor is bad fortune always evil. Adverse fortune 
strengthens a man's unselfishness and fortitude, while good fortune 
may weaken his nobler qualities, as riches develop idleness and vanity, 
and as inherited privilege fosters self-love, arrogance and contempt 
for one's kind. The heir to a throne, subject to adulation and flattery, 
the beneficiary of unearned honors and dignities, is really more un- 
fortunate than he who is born to poverty and toil. 

I try you by all difficulties, troubles and dangers, by good and 
by evil fortune. I try you by discomfort and pain, by drought and 
flood, by heat and cold, by fullness and hunger, by good and bad 
harvests, by sickness and health, by blindness and deafness, by 
poverty and riches, by hardship and luxury, by rank and privilege, by 
flattery and servility, by truth and falsehood, by unjust accusations, 
by malice and slander, by the lash of your master, by wrongs to your 
manhood, by heartbreak and torture. J>y indignity and insult, by 
honors unearned, I try you. These experiences are tests of your 
manhood, trials of your worthiness without which your souls would 
shrivel for lack of exercise. I would make men of you. The post 
of hardshi]) and danger is the post of honor. 

"For as gold is tried by fire, 
So a heart must be tried by pain." 


1 try you by torture and by the lash of your master, that you 
may learn compassion for the wronged and the outraged, that you 
may learn to hate cruelty and slavery. You have heard that I am 
the God of love, and this is true ; I am also the God of hate. I say 
unto you hate injustice, hate cruelty and slavery, hate the lash of the 
master! Until you learn to hate these with all your heart and soul 
you shall be an unfinished man, something less than a man. 


"Must these trials, difficulties and terrors be endured forever? 
Is there nothing in store for us but a dreary round of experience 
in which we stand constantly in the presence of trouble and danger? 
Is there no haven of ease, no harbor of security, in which we may 
finally cast anchor, life's troubles being ended, the last enemy con- 
quered, to live in peace forevermore ?" 

There are two ways to end trouble — one way is to decline it ; 
the other way is to conquer it. By the one way you go downward, 
by the other upward. Examples of both ways of ending trouble are 
all about you. Every living thing is an immortal soul, beginningless 
and deathless, the same as man is. The brute, the bird, the fish, the 
insect, the tree, the plant, each is an immortal soul. Each is where it 
is of right. Your scientists know that there is no misplaced atom 
in the world, and I say unto you that there is no misplaced soul in 
the world. Each soul is in the place that it has earned. I am as just 
to the meanest insect as I am to the noblest man. 

In all life below you, trouble diminishes in exact proportion as 
intelligence and character grow feebler and weaker. The brute does 
not worry about right and wrong, about education, about religion, 
about government, about health, about schools of healing, about be- 
reavement, about good or ill fortune, about insult or indignity, about 
death. It is unconscious of sin, has no apprehension for the future, 
and is exempt from most of the diseases which afflict mankind. The 
life below -the brute suffers still less from trouble. The plant knows 
no such thing as anxiety, toil, sorrow or pain. It exists in a haven 
of ease and security, in a harbor of rest. You can secure that 
haven of ease, that harbor of rest, but you must descend to gain it. 
You must cease to strive, cease to resist, cease to assert yourself, 
cease to work, cease to think, cease to be a man, cease to be an in- 
telligence. This descent will take ages and ages; it cannot be ac- 
complished quickly, but it can be made. It has been made ; it is 
being made. There are human souls among you that are traveling 
downward at a rate which will lead in time to the lower levels of life. 

714 THK OI'KN COl'RT. 

llie (Icscendinp^ soul shall have many ()j)portunitics to turn 
hack ; it shall have numerous warninj^s. in the i^^rowing^ aversion of 
its fellows, in its own recognition of its increasing debasement, in 
all the associations and consequences of a life degenerating, going 
down to littleness or meanness. 

One soul, desiring only ease and comfort, without toil, care or 
anxiety, may ultimately gain its desire as a buHock. well fed and 
well housed for the market, or as a pet animal, cared for solicitously 
by loving hands; another, desiring only ease and comfort with ad- 
miration, may gain its desire as a bird of brilliant and showy plu- 
mage : another, a vicious groveler with a hateful character, may in 
time become a venomous and repulsive reptile : a soul purely indolent 
and idle, without aspiration or enthusiasm, may descend into the 
form of a harmless insect. The soul may even descend to a beautiful 
an<l glorified state of ease and rest, corresponding to some popular 
conceptions of heaven. Tt may become a tree, beautiful in form and 
foliage, a .shrub or plant, producing flowers e.\(|uisite in form, color 
and perfume. 

( )f the way of meeting trouble by concpiering it. you have ex- 
amples also all about you. There are those who do not fear death; 
the\' have con<|uered it. 'i'hey conijuer death by coni])relien(ling it. 
bv knowing that death is of small conse(|uence. that it is inevitable, 
that fear will not remf)ve it or delay it. and that the only evil in 
death is the foolish fear of it. There are those who con(|uer ])ain. 
either bv ascertaining how to avoid or i)revent it. or by the courage 
to bear it. knowing that it will come to an end. There are those 
who conc|uer fear, knowing that it is worse than tlie danger appre- 
hended, and that it presents itself continuously when there is no 
danger. There are those who conquer sorrow, knowing that time will 
heal it. and helping by cheerfulness this process of time. There 
are those who conquer bereavement, knowing that death cannot 
.separate those who love each other. There are those who concjuer 
ignorance by diligently making .some daily progress in knowledge 
or wisdom. Wherefore I think well of man. knowing that each one 
may be a hero and a conqueror if he so wills ; that he need not wait 
for some great opportunity, for .some dazzling height in the eyes 
of the world ; knowing that he can be a eon(|ueror this (la\ ami hour. 
in the silence within his own soul. 

My ways are stern and hard : they are also mild antl gentle. 
Each soul shall have its heart's desire. If it desires perfect ease, 
freedom from toil, pain and trouble, it shall descend t(-» that place ; 
the way is open ; it is an easy way. 


The soul thai would ascend shall have also its heart's desire. 
The way is not easy, hut its compensations are many and substantial. 
There is no limit in its ascent ; it may .G^row in wisdom forever with- 
out exhausting- all wisdom, grow in ])o\\er without exhausting all 
power, grow in beauty without exhausting all beauty, grow in good- 
ness without exhausting all goodness. But it must pay in effort, in 
toil, in thought, in sacrifice, for all that it gains. 

You will observe that there is no limit, in the meaner forms of 
life on your globe, to the possibilities of degradation for the de- 
scending soul. There is also no boundary in the eternal life before 
you to the progress of the determined ascending soul. All heights 
are accessible, all depths are open to the soul of the individual man 

The human form, however humble or even degraded, still con- 
fers a certain stamp of nobility. You are a man ; you have made 
progress ; you might have been a beast, a bird, a fish, a re])ti]e, or even 
something lower. However poor a man you may be, still you have 
the opportunities of all manhood before you. There is no good or 
glory beyond your reach. The universe exists for you. It is your 
heritage, your arena, your throne. It has no secrets which you 
cannot grasp, no barriers which you cannot surmount, no forces 
hostile to you which you cannot conquer. 

The greatest things in your world are not its rivers, lakes and 
mountains ; not its forests, plains and palaces. None of these can 
see, feel or love; none can think, aspire or dare. ]Man, who can 
conquer the forests and plains, who can build palaces, who can read 
the stars and suns, who can taste of both pain and joy, is the noblest 
object in your world. The raggedest child in London is greater 
than St. Paul's : the poorest peasant in France is nobler than the 
tallest peak of the Alps. 

The individual man need not grovel or abase himself. He is 
older than Rome, older than the Pyramids, older than the Koran 
and the Bible, older than any book ever written or printed, and he 
shall survive them all. He builds his own destiny ; he makes his 
own fate. He is the eternal master of himself, a king of a royal 
line older than any throne or dynasty. The noble man has a noble 
kingdom ; it extends as far and wide as his thought and love can 
reach. The base man has a mean kingdom ; but, if he so wills, he 
can broaden it, better it. He can lose it only through his own ab- 
dication, for in all the universe he has no real enemy but himself. 
' None can harm you but yourself. Your friend may rob you ; 


he robs only himself. Your master may beat you ; he degrades him- 
self. A tyrant may torture you; he injures his own soul, not you. 
You have nothing to fear but your own ignorance ; nothing can help 
you but your own wisdom. I do not mean the wisdom of your 
schools ; I mean the wisdom of life — the wisdom that conquers fear, 
knowing that the soul has nothing to fear but itself; the wisdom 
that conquers malice, treachery, dishonesty, knowing these as roads 
that lead down to hell. Know that no god or saviour shall fight your 
battles for you. Know that no church can save you : that Christ, 
Jehovah, Allah, Buddha or Brahma cannot save you ; know that 
one only can save you, and that that one is yourself. Your fortress 
is within yourself ; you have no outlying possessions to be protected, 
no detachments to be guarded. No external treason, stratagem or 
valor can injure you. Your battle is forever within yourself, your 
higher self against your lower self. 

The individual man is his own saviour and creator, and makes 
his own heaven and hell. Heaven and hell are real. They are always 
with you. and shall follow you through all experiences. Now, and 
every day of your lives, you must choose between them. You can 
accept either, scorn either. 

Hell is visible to you in the consequences of your indolence, 
your dishonesty, your degeneracy. Heaven is visible in the fruits 
of your industry, your self-respect, your increasing knowledge — in 
bodies sound, strong and clean ; in muscles that can stand a strain ; 
in organs that resist disease ; in eyes that drink beauty ; in ears 
attuned to music ; in minds that reason and understand, appreciative 
of noble thoughts and deeds, eager for wisdom, hospitable to truth, 
scornful of lies ; in moral natures set to the golden rule, kindly, 
cheerful, generous, loving and just ; in courage true, in honor bright. 


You would have an explanation of heredity, of the theory that 
the character of each soul is predetermined in the character of its 

To vicious parents a vicious child is born. If this birth were 
the beginning of the child's life, if it were created in the act of being 
born, then it would be true that the character of the child would be 
predetermined by its parentage, as the character of its parents would 
have been predetermined by their parentage, and so on back through 
all of their antecedents. And it would also follow that no soul 
would be justly responsible for what it is at birth, that this respon- 
sibility would rest wholly with the power or forces which created it. 


But the child is not created. It is a soul which has pre-existed 
through eternity. Coming to this earth, it is attracted by its own 
kind. Vicious itself, it necessarily becomes the offspring of vice. 
And so also the ignorant soul is born to dull lineage, the wise soul 
to wise ancestry, the good soul to good antecedents. 

You would know also whether all life is as you see life on this 
earth ; whether, upon your departure from your present body, you 
will enter into another body on this earth or elsewhere, or whether 
there is any truth in the theory that a soul can exist consciously apart 
from its body. 

You shall find the answer to these questions in analogies drawn 
from the life about you. Nothing exists in the universe of which 
some example, prototype or illustration may not be seen in your life 
here. One law rules all that is ; the consequences of the law are all 
of kin, near or remote. 

In your experiences here you are familiar with many changes 
from one state to an opposite state. Day turns into night, waking 
into sleep, summer into winter, life into death. And these changes 
are followed again by opposite changes — night into day, sleep into 
waking, winter into summer, death into life. 

Other alternations, from one state to its opposite, are observed 
in your experience here — from toil to rest, from pain to ease, from 
war to peace, from the world of reality to the world of your imagina- 
tion. You may observe also the alternation from one form of phys- 
ical body to an opposite form in the lives of your two hundred 
thousand species of insects, exemplified in the transformation of the 
caterpillar into the butterfly. The groveling and repulsive worm 
descends to its grave in the cocoon, from which it ascends a winged 
and brilliant butterfl}'. Here you may observe the alternation from 
creeping to flying, from ugliness to beauty. Here you have an ex- 
ample also of the pre-existence and after-existence of a soul. The 
worm has an after-existence in the butterfly ; the butterfly had a 
pre-existence in the worm. Under your observation, one soul oc- 
cupies two bodies. 

As you pass from night to day here, so you shall pass from your 
life here to an opposite life beyond the grave. Here you see darkly ; 
there you shall see clearly. Here lies may pass as truth, the counter- 
feit as genuine, hypocrisy as holiness, folly as wisdom, the noble may 
be obscured and the vulgar exalted ; there deceptions have no exist- 
ence, there vou can deceive no one, and no one can deceive vou. 


The opposite life beyond the <jravc is an nnniaskincr of souls: 
it is a place of happiness, peace and rest for the p^ood. the honest, 
the sincere ; it is a hell for impostors and hy[)ocritcs. for the malicious, 
the selfish, the unji^rateful. the treacherous, the dishonest. There each 
one's character is a book open for whomsoever would read ; there no 
meanness or vileness. no imselfishness f)r nobility, can be concealed. 
Mere you see physical deformity ; there you sec moral deformity. 
Here a mean soul may be concealed in a beautiful body; there the 
ujj^liness of the soul shall be revealed. Here a beautiful soul may be 
imprisoned in a body deformed by accident, toil or sacrifice ; there 
the glory of the soul shall be also revealed. Here one may hide the 
sins of the mind — its secret envy, treachery, malice, bestiality ; there 
these secrets are exposed. There all mysteries are unraveled ; the 
letters that are burned, the clues that are hidden, the evidence that 
has been withheld or falsified, shall come into the lit^ht ; the innocent 
shall be vindicated, and the guilty shall be known. It is the land of 
truth, in which no deception, mystification or lie can exist. 

The courageous ones in \(»ur ordinary life here — the men who 
carry cheerfully the burdens and .sorrows of others: the women who 
fight patiently through long years for shelter, warmth and food for 
their fatherless children : the lonely and forlorn souls who walk in the 
straight road of duty and honor; all the honest, brave, helpful and 
true-hearted — shall be recognized in the after-life as real heroes, and 
as the more heroic because there was little rest in their long, prosaic 
battle ; because they sought no plaudits, and hoped for no day when 
they w^ould receive the homage of mankind. 

In the after-life the\ who have acted nobly here, seeking no 
approbation or glory, shall be glorified : and they who have played 
;i coward's part shall be scorned. In your life beyond the grave, 
everv honest soul shall have recognition, and every pretender shall 
be found out. In that life you shall know that the only real nf)ble 
is the noble soul, that the only real king is the kingly soul. 

"Do we exist in the life beyond the grave as disembodied souls?" 
1 shall answer this question also through analogies observable in the 
life here. 

( )bserve a nut. say the walnut. As it hangs on the tree, you see 
its outer hull or hii^k. Is this its ])hysical body? li is an essential 
phvsical bodv at one stage of the life of the walinU. The walnut 
falls to the ground, and this hull decays. Is the walnut now dead, 
its bod\ beiuij- dead: \o ; tlu- walnut has an inner bodw its shell. 


finer and stronger than its outer husk. Cover the wahiut now with 
earth, give it moisture and heat, and its shell will crack open and 
decay. Is the walnut, having suffered from the decay of two bodies, 
finally dead ? Xo ; the soul of the walnut shall not stay in its grave ; 
it shall experience a resurrection ; it shall cover itself with a new body 
which shall reach out its leaves gladly for the blessing of the sun. 
The soul of the walnut shall enter upon a new life which is the 
opposite of its life in its hull and shell. It was the nut ; it is now- the 
tree. The matter in the nut — its outer hull, its inner shell, its meat 
or kernel — has gone through the process of decomposition which 
you call death, but the soul «»f the nut knows no death ; it lives in the 

The physical body of a man is as the outer husk of the walnut. 
1die death of man's body does not kill man's soul, which is enclosed 
in an inner body of infinitely finer substance than its outer husk. 
Your scientists have discovered your subconscious mind ; they shall 
later discover your subconscious body. You cannot with your present 
sight see this inner body with which the soul is clothed after the 
death of its outer body, and neither can you see a current of elec- 
tricity ; but this inner body is finer than the outer husk, even as elec- 
tricity is finer than muscular energy. 

The sensation of the soul emerging from its outer body is the 
sensation of emancipation, not of emasculation. The soul was the 
slave of its old bod}', compelled to feed it, clothe it, shelter it, keep 
it in repair ; to suft'er for its injuries, to be hampered by its limita- 
tions, to see only through its eyes, to hear only through its ears. 
The soul, in its finer and more perfect body, is set free. Conditions 
are now reversed ; the body is now the slave of the mind, the mind 
is no longer the slave of the body. 

Your seers, in glimpses of the life beyond the grave, have seen 
much of truth — that the soul moves through its own wdll, not through 
the expenditure of muscular energy ; that the will to be elsewhere, 
far distant, to pass through any physical obstacle, is accomplished 
instantaneously. Many of you men have had dreams in your child- 
hood in which you could propel yourselves by the exercise of your 
will only — dreams of floating above the earth slowly or rapidly, with- 
out effort : of turning to the right, to the left, or about, solel^• in 
response to desire ; and of a sense of lightness and buoyancy, dift'erent 
from anv thing known to you in your waking hours. A dream is 
based wholly on reality. Each fantastic shred goes back to something 
known, experienced or thought of before. These dreams of child- 
hood go back to the experience of the child in its life before its 


hirtli — the life from which tlie child came when it entered the flesh, 
the life to which it will return after the death of its body. 

The soul being free, in the life beyond the grave, from the 
dominion of the body, is done with the pleasures and pains of the 
body. The soul which finds its greatest enjoyment in physical 
pleasures here, shall suffer there from the absence of these pleasures ; 
and the soul which has suflfered here through a weak or defective 
body shall be relieved there of this burden. There all physical afflic- 
tions shall end. Sight shall follow blindness, the deaf shall hear, the 
lame shall walk, and ease shall come after pain. 

The better souls, those whose pleasures are of the mind or heart 
— the kindly, generous and courageous souls ; the souls with good 
will, open hearts and open minds — are at peace and rest in the other 
life. They have returned home, as it were, after a pilgrimage in 
alien lands. On the other hand, the lower souls — the gross, dull 
or vicious — do not find the other world a land to their liking. Stripped 
of the mask of the flesh, they can deceive no one, not even them- 
selves. Deprived of all means of sensual gratification, they long to 
return to the more congenial and pleasant life in the flesh, to get 
back into physical bodies which will cover their mental or moral 
nakedness. And, since each soul gets its desire, they do return 
without long delay to the land of their choice. The stay of the low- 
est is briefest, the stay of the good is longest, in the land of truth. 
Those who have concjuered the trials, difficulties and evils of the 
flesh may return no more. The life in the flesh is a school from which 
you shall not pass finally and forever until you shall have learned 
its lessons, 


In what sense do 1 regulate, govern or adjust the vniivcrse? 
Are my powers limited or unlimited? Am I a personality, an in- 
telligence, a law or a principle? 

Take the simplest ecjuation — one plus one equals two. Do you 
assume that that statement is true in itself, that it always was antl 
always must be true, that it is an unchangeable truth? or do von as- 
sume that it is true only because I have made it true, and that I 
could make it false if I chose to do so? If you assume that my power 
is unlimited, and that 1 could change the law so that the product of 
one plus one would be three, or eleven, or ninety, would you assume 
that I could also change the multiplication table at will, so that three 


times seven would be sixty, or that four times seven would be fifteen, 
or that five times seven would be nothing? 

Consider other questions. Do you believe that it would be pos- 
sible for me to turn right into wrong, or wrong into right ? Could I 
make a virtue of treachery, cruelty, malice or lying? Could I make 
a vice of sincerity, charity or truthfulness? Could I change the facts 
and the history of the past? Could I obliterate the fact that there 
had ever been an America? and, having done this, would it become 
true consequently that xA.merica never did exist? Could I abdicate 
my own omnipotence? Could I reduce myself and the universe to 
nothingness ? 

Apply your own mind to these questions. Forget or ignore for 
the time all that you have been taught concerning me and my ways. 
Put aside the theory that any subject is too sacred to be reasoned 
about. Do not wait to get the opinion of some one wiser than your- 
self. Use your own reason : you are dull indeed if these questions 
are beyond }'Our powers. Using your own reason, you shall have 
the satisfaction of solving, or of making some progress in solving, 
this mystery which is no mystery — the mystery of my ways and of 
what I am. 

Trusting your own reason, without misgiving and without fear, 
you shall necessarily reach the conclusion that it would be beyond 
the power of any force that you can conceive of to change the facts 
of the past, to obliterate the fact that there had ever been an America, 
and to make true an opposite fact, that America had never existed. 

That which you conceive to be true, after examining it with 
carefulness and sincerity, turning upon it all the light that you have, 
you must accept as the truth. You would be a man ; do not, then, 
belittle or distrust yourself. That which you accept as truth may be 
an error, but the intellectual courage which impels you to accept it 
as truth in the first place, will also impel you to reject it when its 
error becomes apparent to you. 

The truth that no power, human or divine, can change the facts 
of the past is self-evident ; you shall have no occasion to reject or 
revise it. Indeed this truth is literally the foundation of all truth — 
that truth is unalterable and deathless ; that the existence of the con- 
tinent of America being a truth, God himself cannot change or ob- 
literate it. 

Building on this fundamental truth, you will perceive that the 
equation, one plus one equals two, being true, will forever remain 
true ; and that, as it will be true in the future, time without end, 
so it has been true in the past, time without beginning. And you 


will perceive als<-) that all (nhor truth concerninL;; niathciiiatics. con- 
cerning: ri.q:ht and wronj^. C(Miccrnin.i2: the whole svsteni of nature, 
concerning the jjovernment <^f the universe, is also chant^eless. he.s^in- 
nins:less, endless, eternal. If tluse truths could have heen altered 
in the past, then they may be altered in the future. If they were 
made in the past, then they may he unmade in the future. If time 
was when they did not e.xist. tlu'U time may come when tlie\- will 
cease to exist. 

^^y ways are hiri^e ways. They w ere l)e.<,nnnin.i.,dess ; thev shall 
lie endless: they were nut set to WDrk in some dim. far-otT time, as 
an eui^ine starts the wheels of a factory. Cease to confuse your 
reasoning: about a be.^inninj:,'- or creation. There never was a time 
when the uni\erse \tas not the seat of truth and law. precisely as 
it is now, and as it will be forever. 

In your practical, everyday affairs you do not connect me in- 
timately with your conduct or misconduct. You do not sav that it 
was throrgh God's interference that you made an error in addition 
or subtraction ; throuiT^h me that you ate somethini^ that disag:reed 
with you. that you fori^ot an ajipointment or that you cheated in 
trade ; nor do you say that it is me that you are courteous 
and cheerful, that you do your day's work honestly or that you pav 
your debts. lie who would succeed in athletics does not take a 
course in prayer, or seek advice from his minister; he takes exercise 
and a course in training;. And so one who would be a farmer or a 
mechanic seeks in. ^t ruction and trainini^ in the vocation of his choice ; 
and those who would enji^age in intellectual pursuits seek knowledge 
and experience to aid them in their undertakings. You do not 
assume that I will plow your fields, meet your note in bank, patch 
your roof, mend your broken machinery or give you an education. 
You assume that you must do these things for yourselves. 

Your farmers know^ that an ear of corn can be grown only under 
definite and exact conditions — that a certain seed must be planted 
in a certain quality of soil in a certain climate at a certain time ; that 
the soil must have a certain preparation, and that the plant, after 
it develops from the seed, must have certain cultivation. 1 le would 
be foolish who would assume that a seed of corn would ])roduce an 
ear if planted in an ice field, or in a sand-bank, or in the climate of 
Labrador, or that an ear of corn could be produced from a seed of 
cotton. In all of your practical affairs you know but one law. the 


law of cause and effect — the law that consequences are true to their 
antecedents— in which you have discovered no variation. 

In these practical affairs you are in perfect harmony with me, 
and I am in harmony with you — for I am the law of cause and effect. 
From this law you expect no miracles and no favors. You do not 
look upon this law as a great personality to be propitiated by homage, 
worship or praise, or to be moved by supplication. You know that 
the greatest man in the world, or the wisest or the best — the com- 
mander, the philosopher, the hero, the martyr, the saviour — can 
grow a stalk of corn from no seed other than a seed of corn ; that 
the way of growing corn is the same for all, be they high or low, 
good or bad. 

So far you know me well. Would you know me completely? 
Know then that, as I am in the growth of corn and in its fruitage, 
I am in all other growth and fruitage, even in the growth and fruit- 
age of a man ; that, as an ear of corn can be produced only by pur- 
suing right ways and by avoiding wrong ways, so also can the 
fruitage of manhood be produced only by pursuing right ways and 
by avoiding wrong ways ; that, as the harvest of corn can be gained 
through the acceptance of no ceremony, creed or system of worship, 
so the salvation of souls can be gained through the acceptance of no 
ceremony, creed or system of worship. 

Know that I have but one process, and that it is generative — 
that each cause is a seed which begets its certain effect ; that every 
human action is a cause which begets its certain fruitage, even as 
a seed of corn begets its certain fruitage ; that your evil actions beget 
evil fruit, and that your good actions beget good fruit. Know that 
all my judgments, all salvation or condemnation, is included in this 
simple process. Know that I have only one commandment : As a 
man soweth, so shall he also reap. 

If I really have a favored church or creed, if I am impressed by 
rites and ceremonies, by prayer or worship, these facts would be 
demonstrable through your statistics. Your insurance corporations 
have ascertained with much accuracy the relative risks in their poli- 
cies. Have they determined that there is any real difference in the 
risk upon a Mohammedan mosque or a Christian church? that there 
is any difference in the risk upon the home of a Christian, a free- 
thinker or an atheist? that there is any difference in the life risk or 
accident risk of one who is assiduous in rites and ceremonies, or in 
prayer and worship, against one who neglects these completely? 

The teaching that my favor is extended to any creed, church 
or faith, that it can be gained through any rite or ceremony, through 


prayers or worship, is confirmed nowhere by your statistics. This 
teaching has no foundation in truth. The home of a believer is 
subject to fires, the lif^htnine^. earthquakes, storms, decay, precisely 
the same as the home of an unbeliever. The home of a j^^ood man is 
subject to injurious and destructive natural ap^encies to precisely the 
same deg^rec as the home of vice. The morally good are subject to 
disease, to injury by accident, to death in battle, upon precisely the 
same terms as the morally bad. Moral goodness is a protection 
against moral disease, not against physical ills ; physical goodness 
is a protection against physical evils, not against moral disease. 

I have only one law for believers and unbelievers : for those 
who worship me, for those who misrepresent me, for those who deny 
me ; for the good and the vicious, for the saint and the sinner ; for 
the noble and the mean — the law that you shall reap as you sow. 
The house with a sound roof shall be better protected from the rain 
than the house with an unsound roof, though the first shelters the 
guilty, and the second shelters the innocent. If a sinner builds a 
house of iron and dedicates it to the vilest purposes, it shall be better 
protected from fire than a house built of wood, though the house of 
wood be dedicated to religion or charity. The dishonest farmer who 
plants wisely and cultivates well shall have better crops than the 
honest farmer who plants unwisely and cultivates negligently. The 
sinner who takes good care of his ])hysical body, gives it proper 
exercise, rest and food, shall have a better body than the saint who 
neglects his body. The act d<Mie rightly, whether the doer be good 
or bad, wise or foolish, shall beget a reward ; the act done wrongly, 
whether the doer be good or bad, wise or foolish, shall beget a 

You recognize that the antecedent three inulti plied by three be- 
gets the consequence Jiitie, and can ])ro(luce no other result, and that, 
in all other examples of nnilliplicalion, the consequence must be 
true to its antecedent. You know consequently that the multiplica- 
tion table is true in itself, and that it requires no divine supervision 
back of it to keep it true. And so in all of your other experiences, 
from the simplest to the most complex, you should know that con- 
sequences are true to their antecedents, that eflFects are true to their 
causes, without divine supervision. Know, then, that the law that 
consequences are true to their antecedents is the fundamental fact 
of the universe ; that it is the regulator and governor of the universe ; 
that it is the one law to which man, air, water, earth, stars, suns, all 


things, are ceaselessly subject; that there is nothing back of it; that 
it requires no regulation or supervision, being perfect in itself ; that 
there is no deity apart from or superior to this supreme law of com- 

Know that there is only one law of your being, that there is only 
one law of nature. Your wisest men have discovered no fact that 
is not subject to the supreme law that consequences are true to their 
antecedents. You have no truth, no science, that is not grounded in 
this law. Cease to search for the key to the mystery of nature in 
riddles, subtleties and complexities. You shall find this key in the 
plain and simple fact, known to all men in exact proportion to their 
knowledge — for there is no knowledge disconnected from this one 
truth — that consequences are true to their antecedents. 

Know that the consequences of your every act and thought are 
registered instantly in your character. This day, this hour, this 
moment, is your time of judgment. He v.'ho deceives, betrays, kills — 
he who entertains malice, treachery or other vileness, secretly in his 
heart — takes the penalty instantly in the debasement of his char- 
acter. And so, also, for every good thought or act, be it open or 
secret, he shall receive an instant reward in the improvement of his 

Every night as you lie down to sleep you are a little better or 
a little worse, a little richer or a little poorer, than you were in the 
morning. You have nothing substantial, nothing that is truly your 
own, but your character. You shall lose your money and your prop- 
erty ; your home shall be your home no longer ; the scenes which 
know you now shall know you no more ; your flesh shall be food for 
worms ; the earth upon which you tread shall be cinders and cosmic 
dust. Your character alone shall stay with you, surviving- all wreck- 
age, decay and death ; your character is you ; it shall be you forever. 
Your character is the perfect register of your progress or of your 
degradation, of your victory or of your defeat ; it shall be your 
glory or your shame, your blessing or your curse, your heaven or 
your hell. 

I am omnipotent and omnipresent in the sense only that the su- 
preme law of compensation is omnipotent and omnipresent. I have 
no power of abdication ; I have no power to change the cosmic order. 
I am not a man ; I am not a higher or glorified man. I have no 
human motives, feelings or passions ; I have no pity, mercy, love or 
hate ; I bear no malice, receive no insults, give no favors. I give 


you one thing only, and that is compensation. I am the law, single, 
supreme, changeless and eternal. 

I have made no revelation to one man that is not open to all 
men ; I have revealed nothing in one time that is not revealed in all 
time. My revelation is an open book ; it is in every seed, every 
growth, every ripening, every decomi)osition- — in every cause, in 
every effect. Recognize the one law of all life — that consequences 
are true to their antecedents — and you shall comprehend the sim- 
plicity of the system of nature, its unity, its beauty, its majesty. 
You shall no longer fear gods or devils ; you shall be happier and 
better men and women through your acceptance of the truth that 
the law of perfect compensation rules the world ; you shall com- 
prehend the rightness of the cosmic order, and the means of its 
adjustment; you shall solve the mystery which you call God! 



The notion that Christ as the \*iceroy of God on earth had a 
bride constantly remained as much in the minds of the people as 
the idea of the anti-Christ. The world was regarded as divided 
into two camps, the kingdom of God governed by Christ, identified 
with the Church under the leadership of the Pope, and the empire 
of unbelief which composed the entire pagan world and also the 
heretics of Christianity. In the mystic literature these ideas turn 
up again and again, and during the Middle Ages the bride of Christ 
is usually thought to be the Church, while among Protestants it is 
generally the soul. As an instance we will quote a passage from 
Hildegard of Bingen, an abbess and a prophetess who saw visions 
quite similar to those of St. John the Divine in the Revelations. 
She herself was almost illiterate, but her adviser, presumably her 
father confessor, reduced her prophecies to an approximately correct 
Latin and had them published. 

Pope Eugene lY happened to visit in 1147-48 the Abbot of 
Treves. There he met Henry, Archbishop of Mentz who through 
Kuno, the Abbot of Disibodenberg had become deeply impressed 
with the spiritual profundity and genuineness of Hildegard's visions, 
and when a report of them was submitted to the Council of Treves, 
the Pope, urged by the Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux who happened 
to be present, readily acknowledged the divine origin of Hildegard's 
revelations and encouraged her in a personal letter to continue in 
her writings. f 

We quote a passage from one of the prophecies recorded in the 
book Schias ascribed to Hildegard. the substance of which is re- 

* This article was begun in the November number and was preceded by 
another on the same subject entitled "The Bride of Christ," which appeared in 

t For further details see Wilb.ehn Preger's Gcschichfc dcr dcutschcn 
Mystik, pp. 2,2) f- 

728 Till-: Ol'KX COURT. 

pcatedly expressed in similar words, and which makes reference to 
the Antichrist as well as the bride of Christ which here symbolizes 
the Church : 

■'! perceived a voice from heaven which s])()ke to me: Althoup;h 
everything; on earth tends toward the end. yet the bride of iny sun 
in spite of the fact that she is hard i)ressed in her children as well 
as she herself by the niessenj^ers of the Son of Perdition as well as 
by himself, shall by no means be annihilated however much she may 
be hard pressed. On the contrary she will rise at the end of time 
stronger and more vigorous, and more beautiful, and glorious, so 
that she will meet the embraces of her Loved One in a more graceful 
and lovely manner, and it is this that the vision which thou seest 
indicates in a mystical way." — (Quoted from Preger, loc. cit., p. 34.) 

The sensualism of Hildegard's prophecy is quite in keeping 
with the hyperspirituality in which hysterical minds of her type love 
10 indulge. 

The idea that the Church was the bride of Christ has continued 
down to modern times, and has been cultivated even among Prot- 
estants, who have been most reluctant to accept the legend of St. 
Catharine, because the very idea of attributing a personal bride to 
Christ seems to give them a shudder, as if it were blasjihemy, for it 
savors too much of mediaeval legends, saintworship, and paganism. 
Yet the belief in a symbolical bride is still retained as is evidenced 
by many chorals sung even to-day which celebrate the marriage of 
the Lamb, or the marriage of the King, the bride being mostly the 
soul, or the elect, represented by the wise virgins. We quote the 
follow'ing lines : 

"The Bridcgrooni is advancing 
Each lionr lie draws more nigh. 
Up! Watch and pray, nor slimil)er 
At midnight comes tlie cry. 

"The watchers on the mountain 
Proclaim the bridegroom near. 
Go, meet him as he cometh 
With hallehijahs clear." 

In another choral we read: 

"Jerusalem tlie holy 
To purity restored ; 
Meek bride, all fair antl lowly. 
Go forth tu meet tliv Lord. 


"With love and wonder smitten 
And bowed in guileless shame. 
Upon thy heart be written 
The new mysterious name." 

And a third clmrchsong of the same character begins with tliis 
stanza : 

"The marriage feast is ready, 
The marriage of the lamb. 
He calls the faithful children 
Of faithful Abraham. 

"Now from the golden portals 
The sounds of triumph ring; 
The triumph of the Victor, 
The marriage of the King." 

The church hymns here quoted are by no means all the songs 
of this character. There are many more that belong to the same 
class, for instance: "Behold the Bride-groom Cometh," beginning 
"Our lamps are triinmed and burning" ; and "The Lord is coining by 
and by," with the refrain, "Will you be ready when the Bridegroom 
comes?" We mention further, "Wake, awake, the night is flying," 
and there are several others more. 

Protestantism has most assuredly gone to the extreme in re- 
jecting romantic similes and fantastic notions, yet the underlying 
idea is the same as in pre-Christian festivals and, if we discovered in 
an ancient cuneiform inscription the two lines : 

"The triumph of the Victor, 
The marriage of the King!" 

our Assyriologists would not hesitate to say that the words have 
reference to Bel IMarduk, who after his victory over the dragon 
Tiamat enters in triumphal parade to celebrate his marriage with 
Istar Tsarpanitu.* 

The legend which makes Catharine the bride of Christ has been 
much neglected since the rise of Protestantism, which had more 
influence upon the Roman Catholic Church than is commonly con- 
ceded. There are innumerable pictures of the fifteenth and the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century representing the mystic marriage, 
but the Reformation seems to have acted as a blight on the romanti- 
cism of the legend. Even Roman Catholic artists had become too 
sober, we might say, too prosaic, and perhaps too timid, to revert 
to this formerly so very popular subject. 

* Schrader, Keilinscliriften und das Altc Testament, pp. 371 and 394. 



The London National Gallery contains at least six St. Catha- 
rines, one aniono^ them (No. 168) is the famous St. Catharine of 
-Alexandria by Raphael. .Another (No. 249) is by Lorenzo da San 

SI. L.MilAKl.M::. 

By Raphael, 1483-1520. In the National Gallery at London. 

Severino, a mystic marriaj^^e of St. Catharine of Siena, to whom 
Cas we have seen in our previous article on "Tin- Piride of Christ"*) 
* The Open Court, Aug., 1907, p. 461. 



on account of the sameness of the name the same mystic relation 
is attributed. The "Two Catharines" by Ambrogio Borgognonef 
is also one of the National Gallery collection (No. 298). 

St. Catharine of Siena was a most striking- figure in the Middle 
Ages and did not fail to impress the people with her extraordinary 
powers as a saint. She lived 1347- 1380, at the time when the idea 
of the mystic marriage had already taken deep root in the hearts of 
the faithful. Being the daughter of a poor dyer she rose from the 
humblest surroundings. As early as in her thirteenth year she 
joined the Dominican order in which solely because of her sanctity 

By Pinturicchio, 1454-1513. 
National Gallery, London. 

and in spite of her lack of culture she took a leading position and 
played a prominent part even in the historical events of the age. 
Popular belief naturally fastened upon her all the honors of her 
namesake of Alexandria, and her mystic marriage has been pictured 
in her home, the Dominican convent at Siena, and by Umbrian 

The Pall Mall Magazine in a series of articles entitled "Half 
Holidays at the National Gallery." in an attempt to make the subject 

t Ibid., p. 462. 



inlclli{,:^ible to the inudcni I'injtcstant spirit, makes tlic following 
comment upon San Severino's picture: 

"The mystic marriage wliich forms the subject of this picture, 
where the infant Christ is placing the ring on her finger, suggests 
the secret of her power. Once when she was fasting and praying, 
Christ himself api)eare(l to her. she said, and gave her his heart. 
For love was the keynote of her religon. and the mainspring of her 
life. In no merely figurative sense did she regard herself as the 
spouse of Christ, but dwelt upon the bliss, beyond all mortal happi- 
ness, which she enjoyed in communion with her Lord. Tiie world 
has not lost its ladies of the race of St. Catharine, beautiful and 

By Carlo Crivelli,* 1430-1493. 
In the National Gallery, London. 

By an unknown artist of the 
Uniijrian School. National Gal- 
lery, London. 

pure and holy, who live lives of saintly mercy in the power of human 
.'111(1 heavenly love." 

It stands to reason that the rivalry of the two Catharines led 
to acrimonious disputes which in those days were taken more 
seriously than the later horn generation of a scientific age can ap- 
preciate. St. Catharine of Alexandria being the older one had a 
prior and a better claim and could no longer be ousted from her 

* A copy of this picture in the church of St. Giobbe at Venice bears the 
name Previtali, which, considering the fact that tl\ey are apparently made by 
the same hand, is strong evidence that the artist worked under two names. 



eminent position, so a compromise was made in which the two 
Catharines were regarded as being both genuine brides of Christ, 
yet at the same time it was understood that ecclesiastical authority 
would henceforth tolerate no other saints to aspire for the same 

A painting by Pinturicchio (also in the National Gallery) shows 
the donor kneeling with folded hands before our saint who listens 
to his prayer with a truly royal grace. 

Two more pictures of St. Catharine in the National Gallery of 



London are the one by Carlo Crivello, the other by an unknown 
master of the Umbrian school. 

Detail from the above. 
Considering the fact that in Northern Germany and in the 
Netherlands the Reformation spread with great rapidity in the first 



half of the sixteenth century, and that with it every trace of a 
behef in a mystic marriage was thoroughly wiped out together 
with all saint-veneration or reverence for legendary lore, we arc 
astonished to find a great number of Catharine pictures in these very 


Artist known as "Master of the Life of Mary." 

We call special attention to a picture painted by an artist called 
Meister der heiligen Sippc (i. e., the master of the holy family) who 
represents the mystic marriage like a German family scene in which 
the bride is a typical German noblewoman of the time, well educated, 



with ail expression of simple-hearted devotion, and dressed with 
painstaking elegance. 

Another artist, known as the Master of the Life of Mary, 
places the scene of the mystic marriage into a gracefully blossoming 
arbor, the foliage of which is so ideally sparse as to indicate very 
early springtime. Here too the features of all the saints are gen- 
uinely Teutonic, exhibiting the self-satisfied complacency of wealthy 
patricians, while the modt-st <lonors with tlu-ir austere faces are 
crowded into the corners. 

V ;(f^',\ 


*\ \ 

- - 

^ i 

y--^-" .■ i 

■ *.' ■■ ■ /.^ 


v^- » 

j. ^_^_. _ 



1 '»••* 


.* /" 

*■ . ^f^- 




^ s. 1 ^ih^ 



9P^ Itfi 

' » 1 -f- 




«^^; » 


T i 

1 'vBi 

_ 4 ~.i 

^'— ^*> 



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r-^ " 


Artist unknown. In tliL- hospital at Cues. 

In a painting called "'\'W- ( llorification of the X'irgin" an tui- 
known master of the (Jerman scliO()r])resents us with a general view 
of the Christian world-conception of his age. In the heavens appears 
the Trinity. In the center God the Son is represented as the Christ- 
child in the arms of his mother, while on her right is God the Father 
and on her left the Holy Ghost. Below on earth the male saints 
are headed by John the Baptist, while St. Catharine takes the leader- 
ship of the female saints. 



In further evidence of the extraordinary popularity of St. Cath- 
arine in Germany we reproduce two pictures of Master Wilhelm, 
who may have used the same model for both, showing here once 
in profile and then full face. Yet we shall find that all his saints 
possess a great family likeness in that they possess extremely small 

By "Master Wilhelm." In the Berlin Museum. 

hands and unusually large foreheads. Of a similar type, though 
not quite so pronounced, are the St. Catharines by Stephen Lochner 
and by the Master of the Life of Mary, while an unknown artist of 
the Westphalian school endows his St. Catharine with hands of 
normal size. 


Till-: Ol'liN COUKT, 

The life of the saint has bcccn made the subject of careful 
study especially in Eno^land. where Mrs. Jameson* and Dr. Einenkel 
liave treated the subject uith q^reat ability. Both have come to the 
conclusion to look u])on jlypatia as the prototype of St. Catharine's 




By ', ^ 


^ ■ 


Ik ' 


wK^^Er^ V^H^^H- 

VvWf<^.^ 1 vim 


By "Master Williclm." Detail 
from the Madonna of the Bean 

By Jan Van Eyck, 1386- 1440. 
Kgl. Gemaldegalcrie, Dresden. 

martyrdom. The latter deems the similarities of the life of the 
saint and her pagan parallel exceedingly striking. He says (pp. 
xi-xii) : 

* Sacred atid Legendary Art, II, 87-88. 



"Time, place and background exactly agree. Both ladies are 
of high and noble origin ; both deepl>', and from their childhood, im- 
bued in the sciences of paganism ; both reasoning with philosophers, 


By an artist of the "Westphalian 
School." In the Wallraf-Richartz 

Museum at Cologne. 

Artist known as "Master of the Life 
of Mar}-." In the Wallraf - Richartz 
Museum at Cologne. 

and, indeed, philosophers themselves ; both suffering and dying for 
their belief. Here, too, in the religious story as in Egyptian his- 
tory, we have a representative of the worldly power playing an 



By Stephen Lochner in the Munich Gallery. 



important part in the tragedy, he being in reality the only slayer 
of the virgin. If we come to speak of the alterations which the 
plain historical facts have undergone, there is indeed not one of 
them which might not easily be accounted for, either by the change 
of religion or by the changes of times." 

In the oldest report of the legends, the Menologium Basilianum, 
we read that "seeing the slaughter of animals, she was so greatly 
moved that she went to King Maximus." This is a trace left of a 
religious movement against bloody sacrifices. Though the Chris- 
tians had adopted the argument and used it against the pagan mode 



of worship, tliev did not make it as i)roniinciit as it a|)pears here. 
For the God of the Christians was also the God of the Jews, and as 
such he liad demanded bl<i(i<l\ sacrifices as nnuh as anv of thi' 


By Bernardino Luini, 1470-1535. St. Catharine may be recog- 
nized by tlie wheel whicli slie wears as an ornament while the 
emblem of St. Barbara is the tower with three windows. 

pagan gods. In fact, if we can trust historical reports, the temple 
of Jerusalem must have reeked with the blood of slaughtered bul- 



locks and other cattle which the pious Jews in their zealous devotion 
offered in uncounted numbers. 

There were Oriental philosophers in Alexandria who had been 
under Jaina and Buddhist influences and denied the rig-hteousness 
of the ceremonial shedding of blood. Rut we need not even go so 
far as distant India to explain the feeling that revolted against 
bloody sacrifice. The Neoplatonists had given frequent utterance 
to the same sentiment, and the great religious leader, Apollonius of 
Tyana* left no opportunity unimproved to preach against the impiety 
of bloody sacrifice. 


Sienese of late fifteenth century. The Virgin is attended by saints 
among whom is St. Catharine. 

We cannot doubt that whatever be the historical source of the 
St. Catharine legend we have here tradition which is ultimately based 
upon a myth of a solar bride. It is certainly not a mere accident 
that the emblem of St. Catharine is the wheel which from time 
immemorial has been the symbol of the sun, and we must remember 
that the ancient punishment of an execution on the wheel was origi- 
nally meant as a sacrifice to the sun-god. 

* See "Apollonius of Tyana," by T. Whittaker, Monist, XIII, i6i. 


Does Fra Ang^elico perhaps follow an ancient tradition when he 
represents St. Catharine clothed in a garment covered with the stars 
of the heavens? The story of the bride of Christ certainly testifies 
to the tenacity of religious ideas, and perhaps also to the truth that 
even in different religions, pagan as well as Christian, the same ideas 
and the same allegories turn up again and again, as if they were the 
permanent element in all historical changes. 



THE present number of The Open Court contains an article 
"What is God?" by Orlando J. Smith, and I heartily recommend 
to our readers a careful consideration of the ideas there presented. 
I do not hesitate to say that Mr. Smith's God-conception is the same 
as my own. In fact he uses quite similar arguments, in one case 
the very same in almost the same language as I do myself ; — I refer 
to the one based upon the eternality of such truth as is represented 
by the multiplication table. 

Our differences begin when he discusses the nature and im- 
mortality of the soul. To him the soul is a monad, a unit, a certain 
something which migrates from one personality to another and is 
reincarnated again and again. This view is untenable from my 
conception of things spiritual, because spiritual things are not enti- 
ties. They are not substantial, and they can never assume the forms 
of monads. If the soul is not a substantial entity that originates ; 
if it is form and not matter or energy, its continuance can not depend 
upon the identity of a substance of any kind bvit must be a preser- 
vation of form. This in fact is the real state of things, for a pres- 
ervation of form actually takes place in our bodily constitution. 
There is a preservation of our bodily appearance under constant slow 
modifications ; we retain the structure of our sense organs, and espe- 
cially of our memory. The continuity of our life is simply due to the 
preservation of form in the constant flux of the vital functions which 
constitute life. The changes, growth, and all the various fluctua- 
tions of our body account most easily for those of our consciousness. 

The fundamental problem of psychology has found its classical 
formulation in the contrast that obtains between Brahmanism and 
Buddhism, the former set forth in the philosophy of both the 
Vedanta and the Upanishads, and the latter in the Questions of King 
Milinda and other Buddhist books. Brahmanism asserts. Buddhism 


denies the separate existence of a soul entity, called atman, i. e.. 
"self," — an immutable eternal self. And if the Vedanta view i- 
taken seriously, there is no middle g^round. Either the soul is or 
is not a concrete substantial thin.c:. Tcrtiion iioii dotitr. There is 
but the one alternative of yea or nay. and we must accept either 
horn of the dilemma. The only way to reconcile the two views 
would be by takins^^ the \'e(lanta view as a poetical allej^^orv invented 
for the purpose of drivin.q- home to the ])eople the truth of the 
actuality and importance of the soul.' 

The assumption of a soul-entity not only conflicts with facts 
that are well established by science but also leads into innumerable 
complications. For these reasons we reject the Vedanta view of 
an atman, and side with the Buddhist doctrine of the anatman, the 
non-existence of a special self. Nevertheless the soul remains as 
real as ever, and the rules of morality g-ain rather than lose in sig- 
nificance ; for we must insist that the actions of man are even more 
important if they mould the soul, than if we assume it to be an im- 
mutable entity. 

Having repeatedly discussed the problem of the soul, both in 
articles and books, (for instance The Soul of Man and Whence and 
Whither), we will not enter here into the subject again, but we w^ill 
say that Mr. Orlando J. Smith's view of the soul is of great interest 
to us, on account of the similarity which it bears to Goethe's view. 

Goethe had a dislike for abstract considerations. He was too 
much of a poet and liked to think even spiritual truths in such a way 
as to let them assume a definite and concrete shape. He was too 
human not to prefer the scnse-j^erceptible image which is palpable, 
to the formula which is general and devoid of all tangible elements, 
and so if certain views became too abstract for him he clothed them 
in poetical allegories. 

As to his view of the nature of the soul Goethe was careful not 
to commit himself definitely in his writings, but in conversation he 
now and then uttered ideas which indicate that his views of re- 
incarnation resembled strongly the Vedanta view and also the theory 
here presented by Mr. Orlando Smith. 

The main tenets of immortality, and even of reincarnation, are 
repeatedly expressed in Goethe's own writings and in his letters. 
We have collected the pertinent evidences in an article on the subject 

'The subject has been treated in an article "Brahmanisni and Buddhism, 
or the Religion of Postulates and the Religion of Facts" in The Open Court, 
Vol. X, p. 4851 ff. 


which has appeared in The Open Court (Vol. XX, p. 367 ff.) under 
the title "Goethe's \''iew of Immortality." 

In his writings Goethe abstained from committing himself to 
the belief in a soul-entity, and his views are stated in such general 
terms that they might suit either the Buddhists or the Vedantists, 
but in his conversations he went further, taking decidedly the 
Brahman view, and we will here present those additional expressions 
of his thought which he mentions privately to Eckermann and Falk. 

Goethe said to Eckermann on September i, 1829: 

"I do not doubt our continuance, for nature can not do without 
continuity ; but we are not all immortal in the same way, and in 
order to manifest himself as a great entelechy, a man must first be 

Here Goethe falls back upon a technical term of Aristotle which 
denotes that something which makes things actual. The word 
"entelechy" means the cjuality of having become complete, of being 
perfected, or having attained its purpose.- and is used in contrast 
to "dynamis,"^ i. e., potential existence, which is the idea of a thing, 
its possibility, its mere potentiality. Accordingly, entelechy denotes 
that principle or factor which renders things actual. 

The idea of an entelechy as a separate being is decidedly meta- 
physical and, if taken seriously, would lead to dualism. There is 
not reality and a principle that makes reality real. There is not 
motion, and an agent of motion, a being that makes motion move. 
There is not actuality and a thing that makes actuality act. The 
actuality of things and also of living beings is their existence itself 
and living beings (i. e., organisms) originate in a slow process of 
evolution by a combination of their parts, or as we had better call 
it by organization. We may regard them as actualizations of eternal 
types, but in that case we can only mean their potential existence, 
which is the possibility of their special combinations, in the same 
sense as mathematical truths are eternal and exist even before any 
mathematician has discovered and actualized them. 

Goethe apparently takes the word in the sense of an entity. On 
March 2, 1830, we find the term "entelechy" mentioned again in 
another slightly different connection. There he is reported as hav- 
ing said: 

''' irrc/.txiia is derived from tm'/j'/c. "perfect", and tjfn', " to have". The ad- 
jective iiTt/w means also "powerful, mighty, commanding"; and the verb trrfA- 
/-tir, from which it is derived, "to enjoin, to command". The root of the latter - 
the same as that of the noun ri'/.oc. "end", "purpose". 

^ iK'vauic. potentiality. 


"The persistence of the individual and the fact that man rejects 
what does not agree with him, are proofs to me that such a thing as an 
entelechy exists. Leibnitz cherished similar ideas concerning such 
independent entities, only that what we call 'entelechy' he called 
'monads.' " 

Almost seventeen years prior to these conversations with Ecker- 
mann Goethe used the term "monad" in a talk with Falk who accom- 
panied him on his return from the funeral of Wieland. With ref- 
erence to the impossibility that Wieland's soul could have been an- 
nihilated, Goethe said : 

"There can be no thought of an annihilation in nature of such 
high psychic powers, nor under any conditions, for she is not waste- 
ful of her capital. Wieland's soul is by nature a treasure, a real 
gem. Moreover, during the whole of his long life he did not use 
up these spiritual and beautiful talents, but increased them 

"A personal continuance of our soul after death by no means 
conflicts with the observations which I have made for many years 
concerning the constitution of our own beings and all those in 
nature. On the contrary, it seems to be an outcome of them and 
finds in them new confirmation. 

"How much or how little of a personality deserves to be pre- 
served, is another question, and an affair which we must leave to 
God. At present I will only say this: I assume different classes 
and degrees of ultimate aboriginal elements of all beings which are, 
as it were, the initial points of all phenomena in nature. I might 
call them souls because from them the animation of the whole pro- 
ceeds. Perhaps I had better call them monads. Let me retain this 
term of Leibnitz, because it expresses the simplicity of these simplest 
beings and there might be no better name. Some of these monads 
or initial points, experience teaches, are so small and so insignificant 
that they are fit only for a subordinate service and existence. Others 
however are quite strong and powerful 

"All monads are by nature so indestructible that they can not 
stop or lose their activity at the moment of dissolution, but must 
continue it in the very same moment. Thus they only part from 
their old relations in order to enter at once into new ones. In this 
change all depends on the power of intention which resides in this 
or that monad. 

"Each monad proceeds to whithersoever it belongs, into the 
.water, into the air, into the earth, into the fire, into the stars, yea 
the secret tendency which conducts it thither, contains at the same 


time the secret of its future destiny. Any thought of annihilation 
is quite exchided 

"Should we venture on suppositions, I really do not understand 
what could prevent the monad to which we owe the appearance of 
Wieland on our planet to enter in its new state of existence into the 
highest combination of this universe. By its diligence, its zeal, its 
genius, through which it has incorporated into its own existence so 
many historical states, it is entitled to anything. I should not be 
astonished at all should I, after millenniums, meet Wieland again 
as a star of the first magnitude. Then I should see him and bear 
witness how he with his dear light would gladden and quicken 
everything that would come near him. 

"To bring light and clearness into the nebular existence of some 
comet should be deemed a joyous task for a monad such as the one 
of our Wieland ! Considering the eternity of this universe of ours, 
no other duty, generally speaking, can be assumed for monads than 
that they in their turn should partake of the joys of the gods as 
blessed creative powers. They are conversant with the becoming 
of creation. Whether called or uncalled, they come by themselves 
from all sides, on all paths, from the mountains, from the oceans, 
from the stars. Who can prevent them? 

'T am sure that I, such as you see me here, have lived a thou- 
sand times, and hope to come again another thousand times." 

There is a great lack of lucidity in these sentences. On the 
one hand the monads are the simplest realities, a kind of atoms, 
which belong to fire, water, earth, and other elementary existences ; 
on the other hand, they are psychic agencies, and are introduced to 
personify the law that sways the formation of a nebula into a 
planetary system ; and again they are assumed to be psychic entities. 
Perhaps some monads are thought to be chemical atoms and others 
psychic powers ; and the latter, after the fashion of the Greek deities, 
are expected to do the work of the natural laws. Such thoughts 
are poetry, not science ; fiction, not psychological facts ; mythology, 
not philosophy. 

If we knew Goethe from this passage alone we would say that 
he was a mystic. We grant that he had a mystic vein whenever 
he happened to speak or refer to the soul, but even here he disliked 
the excrescences of mysticism. He avoided having anything to do 
with clairvoyance and other pathological or semi-pathological phe- 
nomena. He not only disliked to delve into inquisitions of mysterious 
events, but also to analyze psychological problems in abstract specu- 
lations. Thus his views remained hazy and indistinct. He accepted 


imniortality as a fact, not because it could be ])rovC(l. — iti fact be 
thoug^bt it could not be proved. — but because be could not dispense 
witb an infinite outlook into tbc past as well as tbc future. 

( iotbe's conversation witb Falk is perba])s tbe most important 
passage to be quoted on tbc mooted topic, and it may be well to 
bear in mind tbat it was I'alk and not Goetbe wbo wrote tbese sen- 
tences, and tbat tbey tberefore must be used witb discretion. Never- 
theless we can not doubt tbat Cioetbc held similar views, an<l tbat 
be believed in the existence of monads or entelecbies. Yea tbe ex- 
I)ression was so dear to him tbat in his first conception of tbe con- 
clusion of Faust he used the word entelechy when sayin<j that 
Faust's soul was carried uj) to heaven by an^^els. In tbe printed 
editions he replaced it by the term "Faust's Immortal." 

Eckermann has recorded several of Goethe's remarks which 
corroborate, at least in c^eneral, that he held these notions. For in- 
stance under March ii, 1828. we find the following^ comment of 
Goethe's : 

"Each entelechy is a piece of eternity, and those few years 
during which it is joined to its terrestrial body do not make it old." 

In a conversation witb his friends. Chancellor von Mueller 
and Herrn von Riemer, October 19. 1823. Goethe declared that it 
would be quite impossible for a thinking being to entertain the idea 
of its own non-existence or tbc discontinuance of its thought and 
life. Accordingly every one carried a proof of his own immortality 
quite immediately in himself, but as soon as he tried to commit him- 
self to objective statements, as soon as he would venture to come out 
with it, as soon as be wanted to prove dogmatically or comprehend a 
personal continuance, as soon as he would bolster up this inner ob- 
servation in a commonplace way, he woidd lose himself in contra- 

In his "Prose Sayings" Goethe says: 

"The highest we have received from God and Nature is life, 
viz., tbe rotating motion of tbe monad arouild itself, which knows 
no rest nor ceasing. The tendency to preserve and cherish life is 
naturally and indelibly inborn in every one, but its nature remains 
a mystery to us as well as to others. The second favor which comes 
from the Supreme Being is what we call experience in life, our be- 
coming aware of things, and the influences which the living and 
moving monad exerts upon the surroundings of tbe outer world. 
Thereby the monad feels itself as infinite within and limited with- 
out." — Spri'iche in Prosa, 1028- 1029. 


In a conversation with Chancellor von Miiller. February, 25, 
1824, Goethe expressed his dislike to investig-ate the question of life 
after death. 

"To be engrossed with the ideas of immortalit}- is only for the 
leisure classes, and especially for women who have nothing to do. 
An able man who needs to make himself useful here, and who ac- 
cordingly has to exert himself daily, to struggle and to work, leaves 
the future world alone and is active and useful in this one." 

Considering all these quotations it is certain that Goethe as- 
sumed the existence of a soul-entity, an entelechy or monad, which 
in his opinion was necessary for comprehending the nature of the 
soul and its immortality, and the latter was not the traditional Chris- 
tian, but an Oriental belief, i. e., a reincarnation or metempsychosis 
of some kind. He speaks repeatedly of his former existences ; so 
for instance in a poem addressed to Frau von Stein, he declares 
that in the sympathy which binds their souls, he feels that in "by- 
gone ages she must have been either his sister or his wife."'* 

When he traveled in Italy Goethe declared that he must have 
lived there, and he went so far as to state that it must have been in the 
days of the Emperor Hadrian. Pie wrote on October 12, 1786 from 
\"enice : 

"Indeed I feel even now as if I were not seeing things here for 
the first time, but as if I saw them again." 

With all due respect for his greatness, we believe that Goethe 
has not elaborated his views of the soul nor matured them into clear 
and scientifically tenable propositions. He was too much of a poet 
and too little of a philosopher, — in spite of his several scientific 
labors. He actually disliked explanations in abstract terms. It is. 
however, interesting to find that ]\Ir. Orlando J. Smith in his con- 
ception of immortality is backed by such a great man as Goethe. 

* "Ach, du warst in abgelebten Zeiten 
Meine Schwester oder meine Frau." 



SEDUCED by solitude and a far horizon I am tempted to emulate 
the courage at least of Montaigne — he who dared to be on occa- 
sion irrelevant and casual and short — and rove in the company of 
some ideas which, however old in essence, are fascinatingly new to 
me. Isolation can invite great guests to the mind, and it has been 
one of my surprises in a virgin land to find it preoccupying me with 
the gods. 

The reason for it begins with the perception of the change in 
scale here between man and nature. Country long familiar with 
human presence is, as well as the city, man's handiwork. Nature is 
benedictory, or now and again obtrudes a cataclysm. But on the 
whole it has the efifcct of acknowledging a master. In the wilds 
this is reversed. Storm-distorted trees, creeping shadows ; even 
the marching clouds, are instinct with a drama quite their own. 
Countless miles of forest utter a voice deep and steady as that of the 
sea. It is nature's realm. Her presence becomes almost visible. 
It threatens in the storm winds, it smiles in the afterglow that sets 
the earliest stars ; and in the still white nights. The most sophisti- 
cated man, in the rctireincnt of virgin woods and lonely waters, 
does not escape the realization of a great presence abroad. Primi- 
tive, childlike men did more. They feared it, again they loved it. 
They deified it : and the gods were born. 

The future fortunes of the gods are particularly engaging at 
a moment like the present when religion has the effect of being in 
one of its periods of abeyance. Each race and every age has seen 
the gods withdraw as sophistication took the stage, to return when 
feeling surged up again to command. Religion, however, returns 
with a difference; just as the sophistication that exiles it assumes 
never twice the same guise. It is even very long since the gods 
became a euphemistic phrase. Religion to moderns means a God: 


although it is easy, by personifying attributes, to fill a pantheon; 
and certain creeds of the moment analyze to the secularist into poly- 
theism. However, it is monotheism alone that is acknowledged 
to-day. To the gayety, the variety, the irresponsibility of the gods 
succeeds a God ; single, grave, responsible, and perfect. With him 
religion stands or falls. 

What can make him fall? What is now religion's chief foe, 
sophistication's latest avatar? 

It is the fashion to instance science : and in the name of truth 
science has smiled austerely at the title. Science does analyze cosmos 
into mechanism ; and permeates thinking with an exactitude that 
eliminates much of the material on which religious cults thrive. 
But science rather passes by on the other side than charges into 
religion. It finds religion not germane to its inquiry. It leaves room 
behind the mechanical frame for a cause which shall be intelligent, 
responsible, or anything else. "Atoms, space, and law" do not of 
necessity tell the whole story. Science inherently declines to speak 
about more than these. It is for ethics to ask. Is there a God? For 
ethics approaches cosmos with a dififering analysis. Its concern is 
to discover the nature of the order of the world: if it is moral, if 
evil and suffering "bear the high mission of the flail and fan," if 
cause and effect regard quality. Obviously it is a moral order alone 
that can rationalize a God. If the order of the world discovers 
itself not to be moral, not to regard quality, a single cause, — in- 
telligent and responsible — does not fill the measure of a God. Sev- 
eral causes dividing responsibility in the old fashion of Olympus 
can retain divine virtue by their loss of divine power. One or several 
causes frankly disclaiming divinity, acknowledging imperfection, 
make conceivable primal agents. In more definite phrase, if the 
order of the world is not moral, monotheism disappears from pos- 
sible concepts, polytheism and pluralism are ethically tenable. But 
Olympus is no more, and pluralism is not religious. Monotheism 
holds the scene. 

Is then the order of the world moral? The test is to bring 
together descriptions of a moral order and of the actual scheme. 

A moral order is one where cause and effect are qualitative. 
The most highly organized is the most precious. Wealth of con- 
sciousness conserves. Suffering brings ultimate benefit. Imperfec- 
tion and struggle justify themselves. Quality is the selective prin- 
ciple on which creation moves. 

Is this a description of the actual scene ? ' A different situation 
stares from history and from every day. The child injured before 

754 ■""■ Ol'I'N COURT. 

hirlh or honi to be dwartod. niaiuK-d, brutalized throup^h no fault 
of its own and to its own permanent loss : the power of accident to 
cut oflf the most costly and potent life: "the distracted industry of 
nature" in a reproduction unequal to providinj^j for its own : are 
facts apparently eternal and facts irreducible to j^ood. They cHsclose 
an element of brute injustice in the scheme that no amount of anal- 
ysis removes, .\nalysis discovers its source in the a.scendancy of 
the mechanical categ^ories. < )nc physical reaction perforce starts 
another without regard to the conscious ])henomena invcjlved. A 
fjreat machine j^rinds on. indifferent to the phenomena of conscious- 
ness. Consciousness can elude ii. can nianaj^e it now and a^ain : 
but fitfnlly ; not fundamentally. Jt is physical reaction that is in 
command, consciousness that protests with less or greater success. 
The child can be ruined because it lacks the mechanical reaction 
to resist the mechanical attack. Reactions of the sexual origans 
create the immense human ])otential as carelessly as they create the 
brute. Satisfaction of physical nee<ls is competent to start down the 
ages a stream of human woe : while an instant's mistake in a drug. 
in a calculation, can destroy a genius. 1liis amazing incommen- 
surateness l)etween cause and effect displays the difference in the 
plans on which consciousness and the machine work. X'alue to the 
one is not value to the other : and the machine is able to make its 
standard of value, success in i)h\sical reaction, prevail. "It is doubt- 
less more ])olite to deny God's existence than to accuse him of this." 
because oi it the jilace at the beginning of things that science leaves 
\acant. ethics leaves vacant too. .Science declines to posit a cause, 
ethical i)erce])tion irrationalizes a ( iod. The scheme of things 
affirms itself innocent of intention. If it is not moral, neither is it 
immoral. It is simply unmoral. 

.\s ethics discovers this, religion of to-day finds its chief foe 
to be of its own household. l<'thics arises from its pc)sition of 
servitude, and assumes to be the critic of its patron: with a measure 
of success that casts religion back on jjurely emotional su])ports. 
thus bringing into view a further agent for analyzing cosmos. 

Science and ethics are concerned wholly with the same material. 
the world yielded 1)y observation and subject to ratiocinative proof. 
Neither of them transcends demonstration. I'oth are limited to the 
theatre of reasou. W itli emotion it is a diffi-rent story. ICmotion's 
subject matter is needs and their fulfilment. Prove to emotion that 
humanity needs a (Iod. and it will lay every mental resource luuler 
tribute to the utmost, to provide that (Iod. And nothing is more 
easv than t" prove such a need. The possession of a God assures 


to the hard-pressed human soul an infinite background of help, of 
knowledge, of tenderness, that makes it strong to go forward and 
to endure. Before a God the spirit of man sinks humbly down into 
the blessedness of self-surrender; and gains a trust transcending ac- 
cident. As a methodological device for securing hai)pincss religion 
has no peer. 

But through this ver\- need for a God emotion realizes that the 
world does not rationalize a God. It therefore makes bold to supply 
beyond the grave a world which shall correct the scheme of this. 
Heaven posits compensation for the ignoring of quality on earth. 
It erects appreciation over against the power of physical reaction. 
In so doing it bestows divinity on a first cause, who after all, has 
done things well. Mewed at this its summit, religion has traveled 
a long w^ay from its origin. A mere cry to the void at length attains 
a fulness of content which presents from the emotional point of 
departure a logical comi)leteness fairly magnificent. This complete- 
ness amounts, indeed, to a reproach. For while the believer finds 
it too magnificent not to be true, the observer accustomed to dis- 
illusionment in the character of truth finds it too magnificent to be 
true. There is a great gulf fixed. Emotion's analysis of cosmos 
does not move on the plane used b}- science and ethics. Its supple- 
mentary world transcends their demonstration and eludes their 
proof. In the absence of an oracle to deny that both planes are real 
an intellectual cleavage on the subject is likely to persist. The 
seeker after symmetry in the universe will find religion by assuming 
the supplementary world ; and the observer intent on exact thinking 
lose religion by eschewing that assumption. 

Something of the same sort happens in relation to the quality 
of ultimate truth. There is apparently no evidence, for truth refuses 
to be run down. Facts of to-day are probably hypotheses of to- 
morrow. Surds stare from analyses on every hand. Always not 
quite is truth's irrefragable motto. 

In such case philosophic opinion decides itself largely by tem- 
perament. Some observers see the finer sides of consciousness in 
such high relief that the truth l)ack of a world merely illumined by 
them seems perforce ver\- good. Others are attracted to the ascend- 
ancy of the mechanical categories, the unmoral working of the 
machine ; and they gain the obsession that the root of things is a 
blankly gazing sphinx before which man and all his works fall to 
pieces like the angel in Thompson's magnificent picture. 

There is a very practical bearing to the dissonance of view, and 
the lack of support of either position by evidence. If any hypoth- 


esis as to the quality of ultimate truth is as tenable as any other: 
if. were the mists to dissolve before its face, truth is as likely to ap- 
pear u,c:ly or indifferent, as good ; it is only the child who craves 
truth in its nakedness. Adjurations in high places to seek ultimate 
truth, to accept truth and truth only, might as well say. What chil- 
dren are here. For maturity should know enough to lay its em- 
phasis on stabilities that prove themselves good. Love, for instance. 
Not the physical affair that serves to people the world. But 
love that cherishes another spirit beyond its own ; love that com- 
forts and companions in a world potentially hard and lonely. Fur- 
ther, there is honor ; which gives the high pleasure of straightening 
the soul erect to a losing duty : and sacrifice, through which lies the 
wav of freedom. These things, lovely and sure beyond dispute, 
deserve the attention of the average man more than the search for 
a truth which is possibly like the Prophet of Khorassan, too repellent 
to raise its veil. Strong daring makes the desirable equipment for 
explorers in philosophic seas. By which token, most minds are 
better at home. 



JACOB BOEH^IE was born in or near Gorlitz in upper Lusatia 
in 1575. He was a grave and thoughtful child with the gift of 
immediate vision regarding the wonders of fairy tradition, as, later, 
he had of the mysteries of religion. After having learned to read 
at school he was apprenticed to a shoemaker. Alone at his work in 
the shop one day a stranger appeared and said: "Jacob, thou art little 
but shalt be great and become another man such an one as at whom 
the world will wonder. Therefore be pious, fear God and reverence 
his word. Read diligently the Holy Scripture wherein thou hast 
comfort and instruction ; For thou must endure much misery and 
poverty and suffer persecution, but be courageous and persevere, 
for God loves and is gracious to thee." 

This incident made a deep impression on his mind and he made 
such rapid progress in his Christian life that he became a reproach 
to his master who set him at liberty, telling him to seek his living 
as he liked best. For a time he became a traveling apprentice, 
wandering about with little in hand, and possessed of a tender con- 
science and melancholy soul. He was distressed that the very prin- 
ciple of Protestantism was being forsaken when ecclesiastics began 
to prove their positions not by Scriptures but by articles of faith. 

Boehme married young and settled in Gorlitz, working hard at 
his homely trade. When Stilling visited this town he said Gorlitz 
was interesting to him because Jacob Boehme was a master shoe- 
maker and citizen of the place, and that it was extremely affecting 
to him to find his memory still so much cherished and its influence 
so beneficial although it was now two hundred years since he lived 
and was so undeservedly and basely treated by the clerg}'. Boehme 
inculcated nothing in his doctrines or writings which was contrary 
to the Augsburg confession. He went constantly to church and 
frequentlv received the sacrament. In his manner of life he was 

75^ '"I- ol'KX COURT. 

blameless, a faithful subject, an exenijjlary father, a kind neighbor, 
yet the priesthood treated him as a heretic, and would not suffer 
his body to be buried in the churchyard. I'.ut the case was referred 
to the Court at Dresden which ordered that I%)ehme"s corpse sliouM 
be interred with all the honors (hw a fjood Christian and the whole 
of the clergy should atteutl his funeral! 

r.oehme is staled the "Teutonic Philosopher" because he wrote 
of ( lod, nature and man in the Teutonic or common Ciernian tongue, 
llis language is often obscure and inadetiuate. his ideas transcendent 
and even fantastic, lie also uses strange hierogly|)hical figures, and 
gives to everything an air of mystery, yet Cousin in his history of 
speculative ])hilosoiili\- ])ronounces Bochme the most ])rofoun(l ami 
unaffected of the mystics of the sixteenth century. 

Coleridge regarded him with veneration and acknowledged his 
personal obligations to the ■"ilhnninaled cohbU-r." 

His abstractions are i)ictured in actual forms. He is as gro- 
tesque as Dante, as pithy and picturesque in speech as T<>hn Bunyan. 

Boehme was illiterate and claimed no wisdom of his own. no 
ability to think, speak or write of himself, llis works claim to be 
an opening of the spirit of God working in him and out of the 
common path of man's reasoning wisdom. They show the first rise 
of nature and creature, how all things come from a working will 
of the Holv Triune Incomprehensible ( iod manifesting himself as 
Father, Son and Holy Spirit through an outward j^erceptiblc work- 
ing Triune Power of Fire. Light and Spirit — both in the eternal 
heaven and in this tem])oral transitory state of material nature: bow- 
man is the real offspring of ( lod. born ])artaker of the divine nature, 
He shows, at length, how some angels and man are fallen from God. 
what they arc in their fallen state and the difference between the 
fall of angels and that of nun. lie labors to show what is meant 
bv the curse. h()w and why sin. misery, wrath and death shall reign 
but for a time till the Love. Wisdom and Power of God shall in a 
supernatural way trium])h o\er sin, misery and death, make fallen 
man rise to the glory of angels and this material .system shake off its 
curse and enter into everlasting union with heaven from whence it 

To stud\- the writings of lloehme is to attain to .something of 
the wisdom of the luist which .Solomon had. it is to attain the mys- 
teries of nature and also Divine Wisdom and Theosophy or the wis- 
dom of faith, for this is the wisdom by which Moses wrought his 
wf)nders which were abr)ve nature an<l all the ])ropliets from the 


first to Christ. It is that which Jesus himself taught his disciples 
and which the Comforter continually teaches the holy servants of 
(^od. ?)ut Bochme's hiographer adds : "They who come to mankind 
with a plain uncouth message for them tt) strive with earnestness or 
else their expected heaven will turn to hell are odious messengers 
especially to those who in their several forms of religion have been 
promised eternal happiness at a far cheaper rate!" 

Boehme's originality is thought to consist in the way he applies 
the principles of the theosophists to the interpretation of Scripture. 
He claims, indeed, divine illumination but admits that the light was 
communicated to him by degrees, at intervals, and not without ob- 
scurity. He does not. like Swedenborg, profess to hold intercourse 
with spirits in other states of being but aided by divine grace he 
lived along the whole line of his nature with a completeness attained 
by few. He says he did nothing of himself, only sought earnestly 
the Holy Spirit and thus seeking, the Gate was opened so he saw 
more in one quarter of an hour than if he had been many years at 
a university. He saw and knew the Being of all Beings, he knew 
and saw in himself all the three worlds, the divine, the paradisical, 
the dark world. He saw things as in chaos which it took him years 
to bring forth into external writings. 

He was persecuted and exiled, although the doctors of divinity 
who examined him admired his meekness of spirit, depth of knowl- 
edge and fulness of matter with which he answered all inquiries 
One Doctor who examined him at W'ittenberg said : "Who knows 
but God has designed him for some extraordinary w^ork, and how 
can we with justice pass judgment against that which we understand 
not? For surely he seems to be a man of wonderful high gifts of 
the spirit though we can not at present from any ground of cer- 
tainty approve or disapprove of many things he holds." 

The superstitious of the time thought Boehme possessed of 
magical powers, and one man went so far as to try to conjure the 
familiar spirit away from him ! 

After the publication of "Aurora or the Morning Light" chem- 
ists and other learned men sought out the author. From them he 
learned some Latin and Greek words he afterward used in expressing 
his ideas or rather his illustrations. His writings began to be quite 
generally read in many countries, even in Rome. Infidels catching 
at the bait of his mysterious philosophy were draw^n to the true faith, 
and he influenced ministers to be less controversial. 

He wTote the following in a friend's album : 


"To whom time and eternity 
Harmoniously as one agree; 
His soul is safe, his life's amended, 
His battle's o'er, his strife is ended." 

Bochnie's mysticism is not sciitinK-iital or effeminate. A few 
points in his theory are as follows: 

As regards the Trinity he supposes that in the abyss of the 
Divine Nature there exists Desire — a going forth which is called 
the "Father." The object and realization of such tendency is the 
"Son." The bond and result of this reciprocal Love is the "Holy 

As there is an Eternal Spirit so also there is an Eternal Nature. 
God is not mere Being, lie is also "Will" — the Will manifests itself 
m external nature. Eternal Nature has in it seven forms of life, — 
Active Principles or Fountain Spirits typified in the seven golden 
candlesticks of Revelation. These forms or qualities reciprocally 
generate and are generated by each other and their center is the Son 
of God. 

The simultaneous action of these qualities becomes concrete in 
the visible universe, on our planet their operation has been corrupted 
b\- moral evil. The names of the seven Fountain Spirits are: The 
Astringent Quality, the Sweet Quality, the Bitter, the Quality of 
Fire, of Love, of Sound, of Corporeity or Essential Substance. The 
Father is the dark fiery principle, the Son the ])rinciple of Light and 
Grace, the Holy Ghost the creative preserving principle. The Light 
or Son had not been but for the Darkness — the Father — and from 
the two arises the Holy Spirit, the archetypal form of the universe. 
Evil is necessary to manifest good. What were virtue without 
temptation? In life's warfare lies its greatness. Our author be- 
lieved in the doctrine of a future state determined by the deeds done 
in this. He does not believe that God is a mere vital force, nor yet 
does he relegate Deity beyond the skies. God is the life of all crea- 
tures, He dwelleth in me, I am in his heaven if I love him wherever 
I go. The universe is born of him and lives in him. 

God created three kingdoms of spirits to correspond with the 
three persons in the Trinity. To each a monarch and seven princes 
were assigned, corresponding to the Fountain Spirits. One of these 
sovereigns, Lucifer, fell through pride. The seventh quality of 
Lucifer's realm collided in space with our world, and the earth, once 
a heavenly world, was broken up in chaos. Before man was created 
nature had fallen and out of this chaos God made earth. 

Adam was made to be the restoring angel of this world, but 


when he began to love the external world it was thought better for 
him to lose the feminine in his own nature, so Eve was made, but 
this did not serve to arrest his downfall : he ate of the tree and his 
angelic life ceased. No divine wrath was visited on him : disease 
and death ensued solely because he chose an animal instead of an 
angelic life. 

God inflicts no punishment on lost souls, their own sins and 
passions are their flames and chains. Redemption is our deliverance 
from the restless isolation of self or "ownhood," and our return to 
union with God. 

He sometimes breaks away from the authority of Scriptural 
text and says, "It is evident that the dear man Moses did not write 
this as it is contrary to — etc. 

Boehme's style is often very difficult to master, but again it is 
simple and clear as in such passages as this : 

"Therefore, O noble man, there is nothing nearer to you than 
heaven is ; all the principles with eternity are in you and the holy 
paradise is again generated in you, wherein God dwells. When 
will you seek for God? Seek Him in your soul only that is pro- 
ceeded out of the eternal nature wherein the divine birth stands. 




Six scliolarly tliinkers considered one day 
The grouping in every possible way 

Of Ego, Xon-Ego, and Non ; 
Debating which word should be first of the three. 
.\n(l what the most obvious meaning might be 

Of I*-go. Non-Ego ami N()n. 

'Tis "Not Not-Self, but Self alone." 

Said Number One sedately. 
'Tis "Not- Self is. and Self is Not." 

The second answered straightly. 
'Tis, "Neither Self nor Not-Self is." 

Submitted Number Three; 
But "Self to Not-Self is as Naught." 

Cried Number Four, "for me." 
Yet "Not-Self is to Self as Naught," 

Cried Five, "is just as good." 
"The Self is Not-Self, yet 'tis not," 

The sixth had iinderslood. 

.\nd then a seventh joined tiie group. 

Who solemnly ;iverrcd 
The separate form, "Self, Not-Self, Not," 

Was much to be preferred ; 
For they, he said, the factors were 

Of every combination. 
And naturally moved around 

In ceaseless permutation. 

And every thinker nnich admired 

The thoughts of all the rest, 
While each within his secret soul 

Flsteemed his own the best. 



'/'(' i]ic Editor of The Open Court: 

Tn the last issue of llic Ofcii Court tlic Christian missionary is cunipared 
unfavorahly witli tlie native wlioni lie has set himself to eonvert froni the 
error of his ways. 

T am sure the writer did not mean to he unfair or to eloud the facts of the 
case hut he has exposed himself nevertheless to the sus])icion of lack of the 
chivalrous spirit. 

He seems to rejoice somewhat in the fact that the Ilindu has no word 
for sin. or at least has "no systematized statement on this matter," and he 
seems to think that this alisence of a definite terminology is a distinct evidence 
of superiority hoth in their ethical standards and in their national character. 
Now the fact that such a .systematized statement is absent from their Upan- 
i.shads might to some minds suggest that the Hindu mind was weak in its 
ability to draw clear distinctions and mark out clearly defined lines between 
sin and holiness. Some people might feel justified in drawing such a conclu- 

lint in the Xew Testament there is no one word for sin ! There are some 
eight words, each with its own angle of observation and definition of the 
notion — sin. 

For instance TrapciTrrw/xa, "trespass," Matt. \ i. 14, Rom. v. 15; ayvor^fia, 
"error," Hebr. i.x. 7; VTrrj/jLa, "defect," Rom. xi. 12: 6(f>ei\rina, "debt"; dpofiia, 
"iniquity," Rom. vi. 19, and xi. 12; dfiapria, (sin) "missing the mark," Rom. 
vii. 13; Trapd^acrts, "transgression," Rom. iv. 15; napaKovw, "disobedience," Rom. 
V. 19. .\11 of these words, yet n.o one separate word, taking up the idea into 
itself with full power of complete expression. It might l)e inferred that a 
people who could so parcel out the idea and mark out its diversities and rela- 
tivities and associations, and show how it touched life at so many points, 
were a people with a highly organized ethical system and a highly organized 
moral standard, and therefore among them might be found many men and 
women of well developed moral characters, and that among such people we 
might reasonably expect many subjects of actual spiritual regeneration. 

I have lived in southern East India, in Cannanore and in Aladras, but in 
three years observation of the Hindu character and from a standpoint preju- 
diced in their favor, I always felt the difference in the atmosphere of the 
Hindu and the Christian, (I speak of the ideal life in both European and 
Hindu). I liked the Hindu, and I have never seen cause to change my opinion 
or shift my regard, but there was always something lacking in the Hindu 
which I felt, and sometimes saw, that the Christian only could supply. 

Now. I do not think it quite fair to take tlie "revivalist" as a fair sample 
of Christian intelligence, indeed I never met the species in India, although 
I met many earnest catechists and pastors of all sorts. 

Before the calm of the Hindu mind the revivalist is more likely to excite 
amused comment than interested remark, and no missionary society selects 
men because of their renown as revivalists. They select their men for far 
other qualities. 

As to the gibe about the widow's mite, perhaps ]\Ir. Rumball thinks Pro- 
fessor Deussen's remark final. "The widow's mite is never anything more 
than a mite." If either Professor Deussen or 'Sir. Rumball had kept the 


good company of standard exegetes they would have heard of the hfe behind 
the mite, and have learned even in my humble Sunday-school that the "mite" 
was an expression of a subjective life, and an evidence of subjective worth of 
character; surely these gentlemen must recall the comment on the widow's 
action made at the time, "she hatli cast in more than they all." Did the mite 
remain always the mite? Nay brethren, but from the first it was not so. 

I value your paper. I take it. read it, pay for it, keep it, bind it, lend it, 
when I move all back numbers move with mc, 1 furnish lists of likely sub- 
scribers, etc., and I do this because it instructs and informs me and helps to 
keep me out of certain ruts of thought ; but give us a square deal in The 
Open Court before the ever enlarging tribunal of your select readers. 

Rev. W. B. Evalt. 

Grace Episcopal Church, Brookfield, Mo. 

P. S. On page 612 it is stated that the word tKidvfila is often found in the 
New Testament, — never, the word is iiridvula. 


To the Editor of The Open Court: 

I thank you for the opportunity of placing beside the criticism of Mr. 
Evalt, my reply, which I trust will to some e.xtent make clearer the points 
which he raises. 

In so far as my critic has given a side of the subject which I did not 
propose to myself to touch, all must feel grateful. The great difference be- 
tween us seems chiefly to be one of emphasis. One important part, however, 
has either not been clearly expressed on my part or misunderstood by him. 
He says of me that I seem to think the "absence of a definite terminology 
is a distinct evidence of the superiority both in their ethical standards and 
national character" of the Hindu compared to the Christian. My words were 
really as follows : "Christian critics who narrowly desire to make all non- 
Christian nations conform to their own moral standard must here be reminded 
that the ethical standard of the Upanishads if not the same is by no means 
inferior to their ozcn." This is not quite the same as saying that it is "supe- 

My mention of the Christian revivalist who covers sea and land to bring 
about "cases " of conviction of sin, was not intended as only having reference 
to his peculiar type of religion. Rather, do I receive him as an extreme and 
therefore clearly defined example of a rather large class of Christian teachers, 
who make much ado about the "sins" of an age, that is already — thanks to a 
more natural view of this strange thing we call life — modifying its views about 
sin and inquiring with Burns "why they do it." I yet think that it is significant 
of much between the Christian religion and the religion of the Upanishads 
that this latter draws our attention far more to the individual determinism 
and potentiality for godliness than does the religion that yet speaks of us as 
"miserable sinners." 

As for the question of the "widow's mite," I fail to see how my critic 
could have so misunderstood me. Whatever acquaintance Professor Deussen 
and myself have had with "standard exegetes," it is certain that neither of us 
is ignorant of the subjective value of an action. The confusion may have 
arisen in consequence of my not distinguishing more clearly between what 


I call "organized Christianity" and real Christianity. I am sure that Mr. 
Evalt laments as every good man does, that the Christianity of the Churches 
does give such importance to the objective value of an action. It is not we 
who say that "the widow's mite is never anything more than a mite," it is 
"organized Christianity," that is saying so, by its conduct, that is, by its def- 
erence to the rich and its indifference to the poor. It is the $10,000.00 gift 
that is praised by the "religious" weeklies, the mite is forgotten. I therefore 
support the words of Professor Deussen. The correction iKiOvfiia to e-mevn.ia 
is, of course, due to a misprint. In closing I would like to say that I am glad 
the matter has been brought up, for the emphasis thus given to it may create 
a greater interest in these things of the soul. Every one who can come into 
the open court of courteous discussion on religion is a great gain, especially 
if he is more concerned about what is right than who is right. 

Edwin A. Rumball. 



Father Hyacinthe Loyson, in a letter of September, 1907, writes with 
reference to conversations we had at Paris on various philosophical subjects 
and especially on the problem of God, as follows : 

"My God is superpersonal like yours, like the En-Sof of the Cabbala 
which I have been studying a little lately; but this God is at the same time 
the Heavenly Father of the Gospel, the inmost ear which hears the inarticulate 
language of the soul, the inmost mouth which speaks to it in an inarticulate 
language, — inarticulate also but the more profound and the more efficacious 
because it is inarticulate." 

In comment on Father Hyacinthe's remark I would say that I gladly 
grant that his further description of God does not contradict my conception 
of Him, and I have insisted at various times that God is not only the world- 
order such as we formulate it in great outlines as natural laws, but also and 
mainly what in Biblical language we would call "The Still Small Voice." It 
is He that speaks to us in the most intimate sentiments of religious feelings, 
inarticulate though these feelings may be. I still hold the idea that God can 
be understood from the standpoint of a scientific investigation, but I also 
grant that to the unscientific man a scientific formula is unmeaning, and he 
would naturally be more satisfied with the hazy picture of his inarticulate 
sentiment because that to him is the realiy, and the scientific formula, as it 
has been boiled down in the alembic of a logical analysis, is to him a foreign 
and meaningless jumble of words. I would at the same time insist that the 
still small voice is powerful not only in the heart of a devotee ; it is not purely 
a subjective sentiment, but there is something real corresponding to it in the 
objective universe. There is a feature in the destiny of the evolution of life 
that tenderly preserves the finer and nobler aspirations, which naturally gives 
the impression that a fatherly care guides and protects mankind. 

The scientific way of looking at things is after all one method only of 
treating our experiences. We claim that there is nothing that cannot be 
subjected to it, and it is the only way of reaching the standpoint of a higher 
conception which will enable us to rise above the standpoint of sentimentality. 
Culture based upon science affords a foundation for a man that will enable 


liiin to rise above a mere seiitimeiUal ni<>ralit\ or unodiK-^^, a^ liigli a-- primi- 
tive mankind rises above the brute creation. Yet for all that, in spite of the 
unparalleled importance of science, the sentimental method of contemplating 
the world which utilizes the short cut of mystic imagery is also quite justi- 
I'lable, and will be a very good surrogate of a real philosophical insight into 
the nature of the divinity of the cosmos. It will enable the man who is in- 
capable of scientific thou).fht to enter at least with his sentiments into the 
inmost heart of the nature of bcinn which thereby he will understand ac- 
cording to the measure not merely of his own intellect, but also of the culture 
of his heart. What the philosopher thinks in clear definitions, which appear 
cold and dry to an outsider, the myotic theologian tries to comprehend in 
sentiments by the assistance of allegories, symljols and parables, sometimes 
in poetic visions and ecstatic yearnings. v. c 


l'"athcr llyacinthe Luyson, ha\ ing been asked l)y many Chri>tians what 
to do in the present crisis, published a letter in I.c Sicclc of Paris, France, in 
which he says. 

"What shall Christianity do? If Christianity possessed to-day the spirit 
which animated it in former years it would again convene an ecumenical 
council, i. e., a universal council, in order to act upon the deposition of Pope 
Pius X, and to provide for the vacancy of the Holy See. For why should 
there not be at Rome, at Constantinople, at Jerusalem, at Paris, or at some 
other place among the multiplicity and diversity of churches, a supreme bishop 
recognized freely by all, (>riiiius inter funics as lluy used to say, and serving 
as a bond to unite all Christianity." 

We doubt very much if it would be possible to convene an ecumenical 
council. The interpretations of Christianity are too different to let all Chris- 
tians unite in one truly Catholic organization. Father Hyacinthe is very pes- 
simistic as to the probability of a reform of Rome, but he is rather optimistic 
with regard to the i)rogress of religion cm tlu' l)asis of greater freedom. He 
-ays : 

"The reform of tiie Catholic Cluircli ha- been the dream of my whole life; 
I loved that Church too passionately for it to be otherwise. Rut still more 
do I love truth. Now the truth is, as history testifies, that new wine is not 
put into old bottles; ;md it is etjually true, as the converters of souls bear 
witness, that hardened sinners are not converted. The forms of the Roman 
Church are the old bottles, and the poi)es, even the most sincere and the most 
])ious (perhaps we should say. cs/^cciuHy the most sincere and the most pious). 
/;/ so far as tlu-y arr /"o/t.s-. are the liar(li'ne<l dinners, hardened in their in- 

"Then let us cease trying to reform a ehuroli u inch is decidedly incapable 
(jf reform, at least unless (jod by a miraculous intervention should put his 
own hand upon it, which he will never do. Let us join, if we fee! ourselves 
called upon to do so, one of the churches independent of Rome in the Orient 
or Occident, where we may be i)ermitte<l to think freely as men and to live 
devoutly as Christians according to the si>iril and the Cospel. Uhi Chnslus. 
ibi licclcsia. 

"But if we prefer to live apart (we are not alone when we are with God), 


let us take from all chinches at our pleasure the elcnienls necessary to nourish 
our faith ; let us purify them from all alloy of error ; let us enlighten them and 
interpret them if neces>ary; let us join them into one harmonious and living 

"A union will re>ult nauirally or supernaturally according to the needs 
of public worship, between the liberal and conservative believers, and with the 
religion of the future we will then have the Church of the future." 

The Pope has Ijeen nnich criticized for his S\llal)us, but we sliould bear 
in mind that he has .stanch supporters. Here is a letter written to one of our 
contributors from Air. Henr\- V. Radford, a Roman Catholic convert who, as 
such, is perhaps more ardent in his convictions than those born in the Church. 

■'Of course, being a solemn definition of my holy Church, the contents of the 
Syllabus would have my unquestioning acceptance, as an adherent, even before 
I read the document ; but having read it. I am prepared to say that every line ap- 
pears to me conformable to reason and most natural. There is nothing new or 
startling in any article of the Syllabus (there never is in any definition of the 'An- 
cient Faith' ) : I was taught to condemn every one of the propositions years ago, 
while attending Catholic schools and a Catholic college. Every part of the Syl- 
labus is in complete harmony with the teachings of the Church that have been 
familiar to intelligent Catholics from time immemorial, and which are daily 
being everywhere promulgated by the Church — from the pulpit, in books, in 
periodicals, and through every other channel available to her. It is. indeed, 
a dignified and necessary document, but there is nothing in it that will cause 
any strife — and hardly any discussion — among her own followers. They have 
held opinions identical with those of the Svllabus from time out of mind. 

"As to the effect of thi.^ document upon those outside of the Roman 
Church, I should saj- that it would be considerable. This calm reiteration of 
Catholic faith, in the face of so-called 'scientific progress' and twentieth 
centur}' scepticism, coming from the real (though perhaps unrecognized) 
heart-center of modern Christianity, from the Great White Shepherd of 
Christendom, seated on the indestructible Throne of Peter, should act as a 
bracer to all the old-line Protestant denominations, who are not yet ready 
to make a full surrender to the relentless forces of 'liberalism' (i. e.. infidelity ) 
by which they are beset, l)oth from within and from without. And, to open 
infidelity itself, this document will act as another check, saying to those who 
would seduce the faithful : "Thus far thou shalt go, and no farther.' " 


We are deeply grie\ed to read in a press cablegram an announcement of 
the death of General Albert von Pfister, Ph.D., who was not only a soldier but 
also a scholar and an author. He was well known in America through his 
writings on the histor\' of the United States, and also because he was sent to 
Chicago to represent his sovereign, the King of Wiirttemberg, at the Schiller 
Festival in 1905. During his sojourn in the L'nitcd States he was honored 
wherever he went, in Xew Vorlc. Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington and 
Chicago, and through his genial waj^s and amiable personality gained the love 
and sympathy of all with whom he came in contact. He died suddenly in his 
eightv-sixth vear at his summer home in Trossingen. 



The Essence of Buddhism. By P. Laksluni i\'arasu. Madras: Srinivasa 
Varadachari & Co., 1907. Pp. xix, 212. 

This book is an attempt by a Hindu man of science at a rationabstic inter- 
pretation of Buddhism rather than a traditional and conservative exposition 
of it. Though the author calls himself an humble disciple of the Master, he 
shows a great deal of independent judgment. He rejects in Buddhism what 
does not quite appeal to his scientific training, and upholds only those points 
which can be consistently maintained; and lie riglitly considers this attitude 
to be in perfect accord with the true spirit of the Buddha. For every Buddiiist 
scholar of consequence has .shown such a great regard for the general validity 
of ideas as to "not infrequently set aside the sutras, which are commonly 
regarded as the basis" of the Buddha's teachings. Thus Mr. Narasu may be 
said to have modernized his religion according to his own judgment. 

The book is composed, the author says, of several essays on Buddhist 
subjects originally contributed to certain southern Indian magazines, and they 
are here organically arranged so as to make a serial reading. The subjects 
treated are: The Historic Buddha, The Rationality of Buddhism, The Moral- 
ity of Buddhism, Buddhism and Caste, Vv'^oman in Buddhism, The Four Great 
Truths, Buddhism and Asceticism. Buddhism and Pessimism, The Noble 
Eightfold Path, The Riddle of the World, Personality, Death and After, and 
The Sumnuim Bonum. The book as a whole is very readable. 

The author thinks that "the marrow of civilized society is ethical and not 
metaphysical," and, in accordance with this view, he seems to be shy of deeply 
entering into the theological phase of Buddhism, which was developed by 
.•\gvaghosha, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Asanga, Vasubandhu, and others. He 
finds the essence of Buddhism in the so-called three "seals of Dharma," i. e., 
anitya, anaturata, and nirvana : that the universe is a perpetual flux of be- 
coming, that there is no such thing as an ego-substratum, and that Nirvana 
is the attainment of perfect love and righteousness while negatively it is 
the extinction of lust, hatred, and ignorance. 

Mr. Narasu's Buddhism is broad and liberal enough to include the con- 
ceptions of Dharmakaya, Amitabha, and even of Sukhavati. Evidently, he 
must have read some of those books on the Mahayana Buddhism, which have 
been written mostly by Japanese scholars. 

This book has a short introduction by Mr. Dharmapala who apparently 
does not subscribe to all of the author's statements concerning Buddhism 
as the latter views it from his "purely rationalistic" standpoint. But the 
reader with a fair, impartial mind will find it interesting to notice how many 
different shades of belief are included under Buddhism, — from a fantastic 
occultism of some theosophist to a rationalistic, positivistic interpretation of 
the non-atman theory of men of science. 

The value of the book would have been increased if the author had traced 
every quotation to its source, and taken pains to supply a good index, d. t. s. 









Copyright by 

Th« Open Court Publishing Co. 





Abbott, David P. Comments upon Dr. O. O. Burgess's "A Puzzling 
Case," 43; Half Hours with Mediums, 92, 129; In Reply to C. W. 
Bennett's "Spirit Portraiture," 306. 

Algebraic Fallacies. Wm. F. White, 365 

Alice in the Wonderland of Mathematics. William F. White 11 

Allen, Joseph C. The Use of Pseudonyms in the Bible. In Comment on 
Kampmeier's "Pious Fraud," 182; Was Judas a Traitor? 688. 

Ancient Mysticism and Recent Science. Charles Kassel 385 

Anglican Catholic Communion, The. Wm. Thornton Parker 636 

Arreat, Lucien. Some Superstitions of Southern France 118 

Aspirations ( Poem) . Edwin Emerson 572 

Autographs of Mathematicians. Wm. F. White 428 

Avesta is Veda; The Inscriptional Deva is Not Demon. Lawrence H. 

Mills 376 

Axioms, Do They Apply to Equations'. Wm. F. White 176 

Axioms in Elementary Algebra. Wm. F. White 176 

Barck, Carl. The History of Spectacles 206 

Barton, Wm. E. Introduction to "The Messianic Hope of the Samari- 
tans," 272 ; The Samaritan Messiah. Further Comments of the Sa- 
maritan High Priest, 528. 

Bell, Hermon F. A Criticism of Modern Theology 678 

Bennett, C. W. Spirit Portraiture 306 

Berkowitz, J. H. Spinoza (Poem) 51 1 

Bethlehem Prophecy, The. Franklin N. Jewett 238 

Bigelow, Poultney. A Japanese Panmalaya Suggested by Lafcadio Hearn 

and Formosa 624 

Biggs, S. R. H. A Spiritualist's View 318 

Bishop, Amos B. Perchance 752 

Blaise, T. T. Science Superior to Mysticism 568 

Boehme, Jacob. Belle P. Drury 757 

Boston of Feudal Japan, The. Ernest W. Clement 485 

Brewster, E. T. The "Emmanuel Classes." 557 

Briand. M. The Position of France on the Separation Law 85 

Bride of Christ, The. Paul Carus. 449 

Bridges and Isles, Figure Tracing, LTnicursal Signatures, Labyrinths. Wm. 

F. White 429 

Buddhist Conception of Death, The. Soyen Shaku 202 



Burgess, Dr. O. O. A Puzzling Case. (With Comments by David P. 

Abbott.) 43, 318 

Carruth, W. IT. (Tr.) Lutlier on Translation 465 

Cams, Paul. The Bride of Christ, 440; The Charity Ball, 122; Tlie Doll's 
Festival, 188; Elisabet Ney : Obituary Note, 637; Eros on the Ship 
of Life, 245; The Fourth Gospel. With Special Reference to Dr. 
Moxom's Article, 26Q; Goethe and Criticism, 301 ; Goethe's Confession 
of Faith, 472; Goethe's Nature Philosophy, 227; Goethe's Polytheism 
and Christianity, 435; Goethe's Soul Conception, 745; Ilamlct the 
Hindu, 359; How To Govern the Philippines, 629; In Comment on 
Kampmeier's "Pious Fraud," 185 ; Justice, Its Nature and Actualiza- 
tion, 351; Lawrence ITcyworth Mills. 189; Man a Creator, 378; Mod- 
ern Theology: An Explanation and Justification, 684; A New System 
of Notation for Violin Music, 584; Old Symbols in a New Sense, 
573; A Pagan Nun, 320; Recent Photographs of Simians, 169; The 
Resurrection and Immortality, 198; A Retrospect and a Prospect, i; 
Schiller, the Dramatist, 330, 407 ; St. Catharine of Alexandria, 664, 
727; Mr. Sewallon the Personality of God, 506; Socrates a Fore- 
runner of Christianity, 523; Soyen Shaku at Kamakura, 123; The 
Superpersonal God, 765. 

Catch Questions, A Few. Wm. F. White 298 

Catharine, St., of Alexandria. Paul Cams 664, 727 

Charity Ball, The 122 

Checking the Solution of an Equation. Wm. F. White 364 

Christianity, The Hon. P. Ramanathan on 381 

Christianity, Socrates a Forerunner of. Paul Cams 523 

Clement, Ernest W. The Boston of Feudal Japan 485 

Climate, The Evolution of. Lawrence H. Daingerficld 641 

Conquest of River and Sea. Edgar Larkin 22 

Creation Narrative of Genesis i. i-ii. Franklin N. Jewett 481 

Daingerfield, Lawrence H. The Evolution of Climate 641 

De Morgan, Miss Mary. (Obituary.) 702 

Devil, The. F. W. Fitzpatrick 69 

Dodge, Robert M. Did Jesus Predict His Resurrection? 193 

Doll's Festival, The 188 

Drury, Belle P. Jacob Boehme 757 

Emerson, Edwin. Aspiration (Poem) 572 

"Emmanuel Classes," The. E. T. Brewster 557 

Eros on the Ship of Life. Paul Cams 245 

Escott, E. B. Geometric Puzzles 502 

Eshleman, Cyrus H. Ethical Instruction. (With Editorial Comment.) .. 249 
Ethical Instruction. (With Editorial Comment.) Cyrus H. Eshleman... 249 

Evalt, Rev. W. B. The Pagan Conception of Sin 763 

Evalt, W. B. In Answer to. Edwin .\. Rumball 764 

Fitzpatrick, F. W. The Devil 69 

Fourth Dimension by Analogy, A Question of. Wm. F. White 297 

Fourth Gospel, The. With Reference to Dr. Moxom's Article. Paul 

Cams 269 

France on the Separation Law. The Position of. M. Briand 85 

France, Some Superstitions of Southern. Lucien Arreat 118 



Freethinker on the Religion of Science, A. (With Editorial Comment.) 

L. L 492 

Fnkuzawa, Yukichi. The Moral Cofle of. Joseph Lale 321 

Fuller, Donald. Wonderland ( Poem ) 702 

Geometric Puzzles. E. B. Escott 502 

Geometric Puzzles. Wni. F. White 241 

Gile, F. H. Ode to Hypocrisy ( Poem) 635 

God and His Immortals. Lawrence Heyworth Mills ^^ 

God and His Immortals : Their Counterparts. Lawrence Heyworth Mills. 164 

God Hypothetically Conceived as More than Personal. Lawrence H. Mills. 547 

God, Mr. Sewall on the Personality of. Paul Cams 506 

God, The Superpersonal. Paul Cams 765 

God, What is ? Orlando J. Smith 705 

Goethe and Criticism. Paul Cams 301 

Goethe's Confession of Faith. Paul Cams 472 

Goethe's Nature Philosophy. Paul Cams 227 

Goethe's Polytheism and Christianity. Paul Cams 435 

Goethe's Soul Conception. Paul Cams 745 

Haeckel, A Visit With Professor. Paul Cams 615 

Half Hours With Mediums. David P. Abbott 92, 129 

Hamlet, the Hindu. Paul Cams 359 

Hearn, Lafcadio, Japanese Panmalaya Suggested by. Poultncy P>igelow. . 624 

Immortality, The Resurrection and. Paul Cams 198 

Jacob, Son of Aaron. The Messianic Hope of the Samaritans. With In- 
troduction by Wm. E. Barton 272 

Japan, The Boston of Feudal. Ernest W. Clement 485 

Japanese Panmalaya Suggested by Lafcadio Hearn and Formosa. Poult- 

ney Bigelow 624 

Jesus : A Symbol. Edwin A. Rumball 372 

Jesus Predict His Resurrection ? Did. Robert M. Dodge 193 

Jesus's View of Himself in the Fourth Gospel. Philip Stafford Moxom. . . 257 
Jewett, Franklin N. Questions from the Pew : The Bethlehem Prophecy, 
238; The Last Judgment, 370; Paul's Doctrine of Faith from the Old 
Testament, 420; The Creation Narrative of Genesis i. i-ii, 481; The 
Place for Sacrificing, 564. 

Judas, Was He a Traitor ? Joseph C. Allen 688 

Justice, Its Nature and Actualization. Paul Cams 351 

Justice, Law and. C. A. F. Lindorme 345 

Kampmeier, A. "Pious Fraud." S3 

Kampmeier, A. Remarks on "Luther on Translation." 574 

Kassel, Charles. Ancient Mysticism and Recent Science 385 

Lale, Joseph. The Moral Code of Yukichi Fukuzawa 321 

Larkin, Edgar L. Conquest of River and Sea 22 

Last Judgment, The. Franklin N. Jewett 370 

Law and Justice. C. A. F. Lindorme 345 

Law of Commutation. Wm. F. White 297 

Lewis, Benson M. How Joseph Smith Succeeded 498 

Lindorme, C. A. F. Law and Justice 345 

Loyson, Hyacinthe. "A Retrospect and a Prospect." 188; The Syllabus 
of Pope Pius X, 699, 766. 



Luther on Translation. Tr. by W. H. Carruth 465 

"Luther on Translation," Remarks on. A. Kampmeier 574 

Man a Creator. Paul Carus 378 

Marquis, Don. The Nobler Lesson (Poem) 249; Prophets, 320. 

^Mathematical Reasoning. The Nature of. William F. White 65 

Mathematics, Alice in the Wonderland of. William F. White 11 

Mathematics, In the Mazes of: A Series of Perplexing Questions. Wm. 

F. White, 176, 241, 297, 298, 364, 365, 428, 429. 

Mediums, Half Hours with. David P. Abbott 92. 129 

Messianic Hope of the Samaritans, The. Jacob, Son of Aaron, Higli 

Priest of the Samaritans. With Introduction by Wm. E Barton 272 

Mills, Lawrence Heyworth 189 

Mills, Lawrence H. Avesta is Veda ; The Inscriptional Deva is Not 

Demon, 376; God and His Immortals, S3', God and His Immortals: 

Their Counterparts, 164; God Hypothetically Conceived as More 

than Personal, 547. 

Moral Code of Yukichi Fukuzawa, The. Joseph Lale 321 

Moxom, Philip Stafford. Jcsus's View of Himself in the Fourth Gospel.. 257 

Mysticism, Science Superior to. T. T. Blaise 568 

Nature of Mathematical Reasoning. William F. White 65 

Ne}', Elisabet : Obituary Note 637 

Ney, Elisabet, Sculptor. Bride Neill Taylor 592 

Nobler Lesson, The. (Poem.) Don Marquis 249 

Ode to Hypocrisy ( Poem) . F. H. Gile 635 

Old Symbols in a New Sense. Paul Carus^^ 573 

Oriental Sages ( Poem) . M. H. Simpson 762 

Pagan Nun, A 320 

Parker, Wm. Thornton. Tlic Anglican Catliolic Communion, 636; The 

Swastika: A Prophetic Symbol, 539. 
Paul's Doctrine of Faith from the Old Testament. Franklin N. Jewett... 420 

Perchance. Amos B. Bishop 752 

Philippines, How to Govern the. Paul Carus 629 

Philosophy of Socrates, On the. James Bissett Pratt 5^3 

"Pious Fraud." A. Kampmeier 53 

Pious Fraud, In Extenuation of. C. B. Wilmer, Joseph C. Allen, and 

Paul Carus I79. 182, 185 

Pius X, The Syllabus of 577 

Pius X, The Syllabus of. 1 lyacinthe Loyson 699, 766 

Pratt, James Bissett. On the Philosophy of Socrates 513 

Problems of Antiquity, The Three. Wm. F. White 298 

Prophets. Don Marquis 320 

"Puzzling Case, A." O. O. Burgess 318 

Puzzling Case, A. O. O. Burgess, Commented upon l)y David. P. Abbott. 43 

Questions from the Pew. Franklin N. Jewett 238, 370, 420, 481, 564 

Ramanathan, P., on Christianity 381 

Religion of Science, A Freethinker on. (With Editorial Comment.).... 492 

Resurrection and Immortality, The. Paul Carus 198 

Resurrection, Did Jesus Predict His? Robert M. Dodge. .". I93 

Retrospect and a Prospect. Paul Cams i 

"Retrospect and a Prospect." Hyacinthe Loyson 188 



Rumbal], Edwin A. Jesus: A Symbol, 372; In Answer to Mr. Evalt, 764; 
Sin in the Upanishads, 609. 

Sacrificing, The Place for. Franklin N. Jewett 564 

St. Catharine of Alexandria. Paul Cams 664, 727 

Samaritan Messiah, The. Further Comments of the Samaritan High 

Priest. William E. Barton 528 

Schiller, the Dramatist. Paul Cams 330, 407 

Science Superior to Mysticism. T. T. Blaise 568 

Separation Law, The Position of France on the. M. Briand 85 

Seven Gods of Bliss. Teitaro Suzuki . 397 

Sewall on the Personality of God. Paul Carus 506 

Shaku, Soyen. The Buddhist Conception of Death 202 

Simians, Recent Photographs of. Paul Carus i6g 

Simpson, M. H. Oriental Sages ( Poem) 762 

Sin in the Upanishads. Edwin A. Rumball 609 

Sin, The Pagan Conception of. W. B. Evalt 763 

Smith, Joseph, How he Succeeded. Benson M. Lewis 498 

Smith, Orlando J. What is God ? 70S 

Socrates a Forerunner of Christianity. Paul Carus 523 

Socrates, On the Philosophy of. James Bissett Pratt 513 

Soyen Shaku at Kamakura 123 

Spectacles, The History of. Carl Barck 206 

Spinoza (Poem). J. H. Berkowitz 511 

Spirit Portraiture. C. W. Bennett (with Reply by David P. Abbott).... 306 

Spiritualist's View, A. S. R. H. Biggs 318 

Superstitions of Southern France, Some. Lucien Arreat 118 

Suzuki, Teitaro. The Seven Gods of Bliss 397 

Swastika, The : A Prophetic Symbol. William Thornton Parker 539 

Taylor, Bride Neill. Elisabet Ney, Sculptor 592 

Theology, A Criticism of Modern. Hermon F. Bell 678 

Theology, Modern : An Explanation and Justification. Paul Carus 684 

Upanishads, Sin in the. Edwin A. Rumball 609 

Violin Music, A New System of Notation for. Paul Carus 584 

Visit With Professor Haeckel, A 615 

White, Wm. F. Alice in Wonderland, 11; Nature of Mathematical Rea- 
soning, 65 ; In the Mazes of Mathematics ; A Series of Perplexing 
Questions: Axioms in Elementary Algebra, 176; Do Axioms Apply 
to Equations? 176; Geometric Puzzles, 241; A Question of Fourth 
Dimension by Analogy, 297 ; Law of Commutation, 297 ; A Few 
Catch Questions, 298; The Three Famous Problems of Antiquity, 298; 
Checking the Solution of an Equation, 364; Algebraic Fallacies, 365; 
Autographs of INIathematicians, 428; Bridges and Isles, Figure Tra- 
cing, Unicursal Signatures, Labyrinths, 429. 
Wilmer, C. B. A Protest. Comments on Kampmeier's "Pious Fraud,". . 179 
Wonderland ( Poem) . Donald Fuller 702 




Alston, Leonard. Stoic and Christian in tlie Second Century 128 

Alviclla, Comte Goblet d'. A travers le Far-West 446 

Ashley, W. J. Tlie Progress of the German Working Classes in the Last 

Quarter of a Century 511 

Honucci, Alessandro. La derogahilita del diritto naturale nella scolastica. 62 
Brown, Hiram Chellis. The Historical Bases of Religions, Primitive, 

Babylonian and Jewish 192 

Chamberlain. Leander. The True Doctrine of Prayer 63 

Clement, Ernest W. Hildrcth's Japan as It Was and Is 447 

Cocnohium 703 

Conway. Moncurc I). My Pilgrimage to the Wise Men of the East 447 

Errara, L. Una legon elementaire sur le darwinisme 62 

Foster, George Burman. The Finality of the Christian Religion 60 

Freimark, Hans. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky 575 

Garman, Charles Edward, Former Students of. .Studies in Philosophy 

and Psychology 638 

Gasc-Desfosses, Ed. Magnetismc vital 512 

Gaultier. Paul. Lc sens de I'art 255 

Gould. F. J. The Children's Book of Moral Lessons 512 

Gulick, John T. Evolution : Racial and Habitudinal 61 

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The Bankside Shakespeare 

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Comments on the Experiments of 



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Some Strange and Unusual Tests with an Explana- 


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Relation of Mediumship to Palmistry, Astrology 
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Tests in Connection with the Reproduction of the 
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Questions Written and Retained by the Spectators 
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Reading Billets for an Assembled Company. 

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Mediumistic Seances. 
A Puzzling Case. 
Spirit Portraiture. 

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A Manual for Beginners, by SIR WALTER HILLIER, K. C. M. G., C. B. 

ANEW Chinese grammar has appeared which, as we 
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Space and Geometry In 
the Ligtit of Ptiysiolog- 
ical, Psycliologieal and 
Pliyslcal Inquiry. By 

Dr. Ernst Mach, Emeritus Pro- 
fessor in the University of Vienna. 
From the German by Thomas J. 
McCormack, Principal of the 
LaSalle-Peru Township High 
School. 1906. Cloth, gilt top. 
Pp.143. $1.00 net. ( 

In these essays Professor Mach dis- 
cusses the questions of the nature.origin.and 
development of our concepts of space from 
tlie three points of view of the physiology 
and psychology of the senses, history, and 

f)hysics, in all which departments his pro- 
uund researches have gained for him an 
authoritative and commanding position. 
While in most works on the foundations of 
geometry one point of view only is empha- 
sized — be it that of logic, epistemology, psy- 
chology, history, or the formal technology 
of the science — here light is shed upon the subject from all points of view combined, 
and the diflferent sources from which the many divergent forms that the science of 
space has historically assumed, are thus shown forth with a distinctness and precision 
that in suggestiveness at least leave little to be desired. 

Any reader who possesses a slight knowledge of mathematics may derive from 
these essays a very adequate idea of the abstruse yet important researches of meta- 

Tlie Vocation of Man. By Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Translated 
by William Smith, LL. D. Reprint Edition. With biographical intro- 
duction by E. Ritchie, Ph. D. 1906. Pp. 185. Cloth, 75c net. Paper, 25c; 
mailed, 31c. (Is. 6d.) 

Everyone familiar with the history of German Philosophy recognizes the im- 
portance of Fichte's position in its development. His idealism was the best exposition 
of the logical outcome of Kant's system in one of its principal aspects, while it was 
also the natural precurs r of Hegel's philosophy. But the intrinsic value of Fichte's 
writings have too often been overlooked. His lofty ethical tone, the keenness of his men- 
tal vision and the purity of his style render his works a stimulus and a source of satisfac- 
tion to every intelligent reader. Of all his many books, that best adapted to excite an 
interest in his philosophic thought is the Vocation of Man, which contains many of his 
most fruitful ideas and is an excellent example of the spirit and method of his teaching. 

Tlie Rise of Man. a sketch of the Origin of the Human Race. 
By Paul Cams. Illustrated. 1906. Pp.100. Boards, cloth back, 75c net. 
(3s. 6d. net.) 

Paul Cams, the author of The Rise of Man, a new book along anthropological 
lines, upholds the divinity of man from the standpoint of evolution. He discusses the 
anthropoid apes, the relics of primitive man, especially the Neanderthal man and the 
ape-man of DuBois, and concludes with a protest against Huxley, claiming that man has 
risen to a higher level not by cunning and ferocity, but on the contrary by virtue of his 
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Weltall und Menschheit ^;rii'r n t' ^"^7"f" 

ung der JNatur und der 
Verwertung der Naturkraefte im Dienste der Volker. Herausgegeben von 
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This is one of 
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illustrations in the text, there are a large number of colored plates of every description, 
reproduced from valuable paintings and artistically executed. 

The first volume contains essays on the crust of the earth by Karl Sapper, and on terrestrial 
physics by Adolf Marcuse. 

The second volume contains a treatmentof the several anthropological problems by Hermann 
Klaatsch, the development of the flora by H. Potonie, and of the fauna by Louis Beushausen. 
In the third volume we find an article on astronomy by W. Foerster; and the first part of 
one on geography by K. Weule. The latter is continued in the fourth volume, which also 
contains an essay on the ocean by William Marshall; and a treatise on the shape, magnitude 
and density of the earth by A. Marcuse. The fifth and last volume discusses the use which 
man makes of his knowledge of nature, the subject being divided into an essay on the begin- 
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vate residences. 

Three shorter articles on the difficulties of scientific observation, on the influence of civil- 
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We will add that this great work is attractive not only because its contents are instructive, 
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Schiller's Gedichte und Dramen 
Volksausgabe zur Jahrhundert= 

feier, 1905 

Mit einer biographischen Einleitung. 
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Zarathushtra, Philo, the 
Achaemenids, and Israel 

Being a Treatise upon the Antiquity and Influence of the Avesta^ for 
the most part delivered as University Lectures. 

By Dr. Lawrence H. Mills, Professor of Zend Philology in the 
University of Oxford, Translator of the Thirty-first Volume of the 
Sacred Books of the East, Author of the Five Zarathushtrian Gathas, 
etc. Part i. — Zarathushtra and the Greeks. Part II. — Zar- 
quest of the Trustees of the Sir J. Jejeebhoy Translation Fund of 
Bombay. 8vo. Pp. xiii, 208; xiv, 252, two parts in one volume, 
cloth, gilt top, $4.00 net. 

Shortly before the death of Professor James Darmesteter, of Paris, the great 
authority on the "Zend-Avesta," he surprised the general public by changing his 
views concerning the antiquity of the Zoroastrian literature, maintaining that the 
"Gathas" were largely influenced by the writings of Philo, and were written about 
the beginning of the Christian era. This change of view on his part led the Parsees 
of India to engage Dr. Mills to write a book upon the great antiquity of the " A vesta. " 
After several years of continuous devotion to the subject, the present volume is put 
forth as the result, and it amply meets all expectations. The antiquity of the Zoro- 
astrian literature is successfully maintained, and in such a manner that ordinary readers 
can appreciate the argument. 

**The Avesta in no sense depends upon the Jewish Greeks. On the con- 
trary, it was Philo who was in debt to it. He drank in his Iranian lore from the 
pages of his exilic Bible, or from the Bible-books which were then as yet detached, 
and which not only recorded Iranian edicts by Persian Kings, but were themselves 
half made up of Jewish- Persian history. Surely it is singular that so many of us who 
' search the scriptures' should be unwilling to see the first facts which stare at us from 
its lines. The religion of those Persians, which saved our own from an absorption 
(in the Babylonian), is portrayed in full and brilliant colors in the Books of the Avesta, 
because the Avesta is only the expansion of the Religion of the sculptured edicts as 
modified. The very by-words, as we shall later see, are strikingly the same, and these 
inscriptions are those of the very men who wrote the Bible passages. This religion ot 
the Restorers was beyond all question historically the first consistent form in which our 
own Eschatology appeared" (pt. i. pp. 206-207). 

The conclusions come with great force in support of the genuineness and 
authenticity of the biblical references to Cyrus in the Old Testament. Students of the 
literature of the Captivity will find the volume invaluable. The facts now brought to 
light are such as the literary critics cannot afford to neglect. 

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