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The Open Court Publishing Co. 




Absolute, The. Hudor Genone 4320 

Achilles and the Tortoise. Paul R. Shipraan 4215 

Achilles and the Tortoise. R. N. Foster 4251 

Aphorisms. Hudor Genone 4221 

Apocrypha, Chapters from the New : The Spirit of Love — The Free Vine, 
3972; The Spirit Hid with Christ, 4033; The Sermon in the Valley, 
4098 ; Adultery — Sagacious Satan and the Silly Sinner, 4147; The Par- 
able of the Sisters, 4157; Caesar's Treasure, 4162 ; Paul's Epistle to 
the Damascenes, 4171 ; The Parable of the Golden Bowl, 4213; The 
Surprise Party, 4231 ; The Truth, 4338. Hudor Genone. 
Arena Problem, The. F. L. Oswald 4051 

"Bishop, The Soul of the." F. M. Holland 4097 

Bradweil, Myra. M. M. Trumbull 3999 

Buddhism in Japan. Nobuta Kishimoto 4183, 4197, 4202, 421 1 

Caprices, The Realm of the. Th. Ribot 4031 

Chicks and Ducklings, Instinct and Intelligenc 
Christianity, Professor Pfleiderer on the Genes 

Classics, On the Relative Educational Valu 

Sciences and the, in Colleges and High School 

n. C. Lloyd Morgan, 
of. John Sandison.... 
of the Mathematico-Physical 


Ernst Mach 

4295. 4308, 

irnst Mach 4283, 


Cobden, Alderman, of Manchester. Th 

Comparison. On the Principle of, in Phj 

Corti, The Fibres of. Ernst Mach 

Current Topics : A Buddhist Opinion of Christianity— Is Christianity 
Failure ?'-America a Missionary Ground— Millions for Charity— Not 
a Cent for Tramps, 3933 ; The Anti-Spoils League— The Report on the 
Tariff— Governor's Rhetoric— Hypnotism in the Pulpit— Plagiarism, 
3941 ; Hunger for Of&ce— The Colored People and the World's Fair— 
Etiquette at Washington — Something in a Name— John Tyndall, 3949; 
Against Oleomargarine— A Raid of Office-Hunters— Luxurious Reli- 
gion—Object Lessons in Congress— The Prayer-Gauge, 3957; Re- 
quested to Resign— Idleness More Dangerous than Work— Medicine 
Against Metaphysics— Rival Medical Schools— Counterfeit Relics- 
Protection for the Lawyers. 3964; IngersoU on Territorial Conquest — 
Freedom to Buy and to Sell— The Allegory of Cain and Abel— The Bat- 
tle at Rio Janeiro— Mr. Justice Brewer and the Cranks, 3973 ; Reducing 
the Tariff to Increase the Revenue— Pies Like Your Mother Made- 
Thinking, but Not Speaking— The Breaking of the Rope— Hail to the 
Kearsarge I 3980 ; Trade as a Policeman — The Two Houses of Lords — 
The Civic Federation— Canned Goods— The Trial of Satan, 3989; 
Giving Up a Pension— The Revolver Habit— " High-Grade " Milk— 
The Civic Federation- The Probate Court as a Detective— The Oys- 
ter War in Chesapeake Bay, 3996 ; The Perversity of Congress— In- 
sults and Apologies— The Retirement of Gladstone— Happier Homes 
in Heaven, 4005; Mr. Gladstone and the Peers— The President and 
His Courtiers— Christian Citizenship— The Tariff on Husbands- 
Stock- Jobbing in the Senate, 4012 ; Labouchere and the Lords — In- 
vestigation Bombs — Christians and the Primaries — Wat Tyler's 
March — Stop Him! He Wants to Earn His Living — Toryism Em- 
balmed, 4021; A Private Mint — Coining the " Seigniorage " — Poach- 
ers and Game Keepers — Moody and Sankey at Washington — A Spar- 
row's Theology. 4029 ; Tammany in England— Mr. Facing-both-ways 
—"You May Vote, but We Will Count "—Save Me and the Party, 
4035; A Quiet Election— Incendiary Speech— Governor Tillraann's 
Militia— Election Beer— Police Anarchy in Pennsylvania, 4045 ; Sen- 
tenced to Tramp— The Defence of Washington— Independence of 
the Judiciary— The Jenkins Injunction — The Tyranny of Moral Com- 
pulsion — Commuting Pensions — The Russian Thistle, 4052 ; American 
Saints— Paying Them to Move On— Senator Hill— Party Loyalty- 
Counting a Quorum — The Wedding of Coburg — American Princes, 
4061. M. M. Trumbull. 

Dictionary, A New. Thomas J. McCormack 4036 

Ducklings, Chicks and. Instinct and Intelligence in. C. Lloyd Morgan.. 4058 

Economical Character of Physical Research, The. Ernst Mach 4263, 4271 

Electrostatics, On the Fundamental Concepts of. Ernst Mach 4247, 4255 

Era, The New. Atherton Blight 4044 

Eyes? Why Has Man Two. Ernst Mach : 4175 

Folk-Dance, The meaning of the. L. J. Vance 

Froude, Anthony, The Pilgrimage of. Moncure D. Conway. 
Funk and Wagnall's New Dictionary. T. J. McCormack 



.4279. 4287, 4300 

Goethe and Schiller's Xenions. E. F. L. Gauss. 4004. P. Carus 

3939, 3948, 3955. 3965 

Goethe's Rhapsody on Nature 4135 

Government by Writs of Injunction. M. M. Trumbull 4071 

Government, The Failure of Local. E. D. Cope 4159 

Harmony, On the Causes of. Ernst Mach 4136 

Heredity, The Problem of Progressive. Ernst Haeckel 3975 

Holmes's Anti-Dogmas. Felix L. Oswald 4280 

Human Sacrifice. W. H. Gardner 3991, 4000 

Humanity's Tangled Strands. Irene A. Safford 4184 


Immortality. J. W. Powell 

Injunction, Government by Writs of. M. M. Trumbull 4071 

Instinct and Intelligence in Chicks and Ducklings. C. Lloyd Morgan 4058 

Islam, The Future of. M. Aziz-ud-din Ahmad 43^9 

Japan, Buddhism in. Nobuta Kishimoto 4183, 4197, 4202, 421 1 

Jesus Christ, The Gospel of. John Sandison 4019 

Kidd's " Social Evolution." Lewis G. Janes 4r72 

Kisses, A Story of. Hudor Genone 4327 

Kossuth. M. M. Trumbull 4023 

Kossuth and General Gorgei. Theodore Stanton and Theodore Tilton. . 4078 

Labor's Claims and Methods. Victor Yarros 4305 

Libera! Religious Affairs in the West. Celia Parker WooUey 4119 

Light, The Velocity of. Ernst Mach 4167 

Liquids, The Forms of. Ernst Mach 3935 

Local Government, The Failure of. E. D. Cope 4159 

Man. What is. Worth Living For? M. Ratnaswami Aiyer 4114 

Mathematico-Physical Sciences, On the Relative Educational Value of 
the Classics and the, in Colleges and High Schools. Ernst Mach — 

4295, 4308, 4311 

Matter and Energy, Suggestions touching. Paul R. Shipman 4063 

Miracle in Religion. Celia Parker WooUey 4024 

Moral Life ? Why Live a. A " Rationalist " Symposium. Amoi Waters. 4329 

Omar Khayyam : I. His Communion Cup, 4095 ; II. His Garden, 4105 ; 

III. His Roses. Moncure D. Conway 4115 

Open Letter to the Editor of The Open Court, An. C. H. Reeve 4223 

Paine, Adventures of, in London and Paris. Moncure D. Conway 4143 

Paine Club in Paris, The. Moncure D. Conway 4199 

Paine, Thomas, A Newly Discovered Work by. Moncure D. Conway . . . 3951 

Paine, Thomas, in England, 1787-1792. Moncure D. Conway 4091 

Paine, Thomas, in Paris, 1787-1788. Moncure D. Conway 4071 

Paine's Escape from the Guillotine, 1794, and His Escape from the Pious 

Pillory, 1S94. Moncure D. Conway 

Paris, Letter from. Moncure D. Conway 

Personality, The Barriers of. George M. McCrie 

Pessimism ; The Way Out. Amos Waters 

Pfleiderer, Professor, on the Genesis of Christianity. John Sandison 4007, 

Presbyter John. Moncure D. Conway 

Prison or Citadel— Which ? Francis C. Russell 

Prostration, The Origin of. E. P. Powell 



Religious Affairs in the West, Liberal. Celia Parker Woolley 4119 

Reporter, The Youthful. E. D. Cope 4113 

Representatives, No Voters Without. F. M. Holland 4191 

Revolution, The Authority of the State and the Right to 3961 

THE OPEN COURT.— Index to Volume VIII. 



Schopenhauer, the Man and the Philosopher. G. Koerner 3983 

Science, An Apostle of. Felix L. Oswald ,■,•■•■■•■ ^'^^ 

Science and Progress : The Age of Strikes— Vain Appeals— Fallen Stars 
—A Consistent Life-Colonial Bieots— Turkish Justice— Sanitary 
Despotism— Longevity Receipts— Alcohol and Anarchy— Transfigured 
Tramps, +108; Nameless Evils— Mental Class Privileges—A Progres- 
sive Mania— School Subventions— The American Inquisition— Weekly 
Trials — Refinements of Nomenclature, 4125; Panic Blunders— A 
Sanctuary of Freedom— Counter-Ruffians-Hctbeds of Disease— Sen- 
sitive Turks— Primitive Republics— Timber Fiends — French Clair- 
voyants-Signs of the Times, 4149; Regicide Remedies— The Nemesis 
of Reform— Sam Jones's Precursors— The American Scapegoat— An 
Ancient Institution— A Knout Manual, 4173; Definitions of Liberty- 
Mongol Manhunters— Moral Assassins— Precursors of Schopenhauer 
—The Koran Fetish— Our Daily Rice— Tests of Civilisation, 41S9; 
The Far-West Mirage— Noise Martyrdom— Anti-Mongol Precautions 
—A Lively Neighborhood — Vacation Privileges, 4205; Northland 
Visitors— A Consistent Life— Fire-Storms— Tell-Tale Photographs- 
Circus Echoes, 4245; A Desperate Expedient— Biological Curiosa— 
Oriental Realism— Congratulations in Disguise— Rosebery's Peace- 
OSfering— A Question of Candor— Tempting Fortune— Juvenilis Mundi 
Relics, 4317; Count Lesseps— Universal Language— Forests and Cli- 
mate— Sanitary Legislation— Another Frost-Cure- The Last Straw- 
Mob Verdicts, 4332. Felix L. Oswald. 

"Senate of the United States, The." H. P. Biddle .. 4035 

Senatorial Reform. Moncure D. Conway 4009 

"Senatorial Reform." E. P. Powell 4034 

Spencer, Herbert, The Metaphysics of. Thomas C. Laws 4039 


Spook Mice. Hudor Genone 4203 

Standard Dictionary. The 4036' 

Stanton, Theodore, on Kossuth and General Gorgei 4078 

Strikes, Local and Sympathetic. G. Koerner 4303 

Suffrage a Natural Right. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 3959 

Surprise Party, The. Hudor Genone 4231 

Symmetry. Ernst Mach 4015 

TrumbulI.Gen. M.M.: InMemoriam: The Farewell at the House. Editor, 
40-9.— Addresses at Unity Church, 4079, 4080, 4082, 40S3, 4084, 4085.— 
Fir Branches on the Open Grave. Editor, 40S5.— General Trumbull's 
Connexion with The Open Court. Thomas J. McCormack, 4086. 

Tyndall. Moncure D. Conway 3943 

Vision, Erect. [With Editorial Comment.] Gustav Glaser 4269 

" Why Live a Moral Life ? " A " Rationalist " Symposium. Amos Waters 4329 

Will, The. Th. Ribot 4055 

Will, The Diseases of the. The Realm of Caprices. Th. Ribot 4031 

Woman Emancipation, Will It Be a Success ? Marie E. Zakrzewska 4120 

Woman Suffrage in France. Theodore Stanton 4127 

Woman, The Emancipation of, from Woman. William Schuyler 4186 

Women, The Oppression of. E. D. Cope 4103 

" Women, The Oppression of." Errol Lincoln 4112 

Xenions, Goethe and Schiller's. E. F. L. Gauss, 4004 ; Paul Carus, 3939, 
3948, 3955, 3965. 


Berkeley's Positivism 4042 

Bible Criticism, President Harper's 3996 

Buddhism, The Introduction of, Into Japan.. 4321 
Buddhist Soul-Conception, Immortality and 

the 4259 

Chandra, the Pessimist 4107 

Circle Squarer, The 4121, 4130 

Congress of Religious Societies, American... 4101 

Disease, Latest Development of an Old 4163 

Ego-Entity, the Immortality in Its Negation.. 4226 

God of Atheism, The, and the Immortality 
That Obtains in the Negation of the Ego- 
Entity 4226 

Goethe and Schiller's Xenions.3g39, 3948, 3955, 3965 

Harper's, President, Bible Criticism 3996 

Henism, The Wrong Method of 4067 

Horses, The Strike of the 4275 

Humorist, The Philosophy of a 4266, 4291, 4298 

Immortality a Scientific Truth 4155 


Immortality and the Buddhist Soul-Concep- 
tion 4259 

Immortality, Pre existence and . . 4315 

Immortality, The God of Atheism and the. 
That Obtains in the Negation of the Ego- 
Entity 4226 

Japan, The Introduction of Buddhism Into... 4321 
Jubilate : A Sermon Delivered on Sunday, 

April 15, at Unity Church, Chicago 4047 

Karma. A Tale with a Moral 4217 

Labor Day 4207 

Lover of "rruth, A 04093 

Marriage Services Revised 4342 

Mene Tekel 3930 

Old Disease, The Latest Development of an . . 4163 
Oneiros and Harpax 4100 

Pechvogel, John 4193 

Philosophy of a Humorist, The 4266,4291, 4298 

Positivism, Berkeley's 4042 

Pre-existence and Immortality 4315 


Railroad Strike, Travelling During a 4140 

Reform, Treason and 3971 

Religion of the Ants 4076 

Religious Societies, The American Congress of 4101 
Revolution, The Modern State Based Upon.. 3970 

Revolution, The Right to 3961 

Romanes, Prof. George John. Obituary .. 4iri 

Schiller and Goethe's Xenions, 3939, 3948, 3955, 3965 

Science a Religious Revelation 4253 

"Self," The Meaning of 4240 

Soul-Conception, Immortality and the Bud- 
dhist 4259 

State, The, a Product of Natural Growth. 3944, 3952 
State, The Authority of the, and the Right to 

Revolution 3961 

State, The Modern, Based Upon Revolution.. 3970 

Strike of the Horses, The 4275 

Strike, Railroad, Travelling During a 4140 

Treason and Reform 3971 

Trumbull, Gen. M. M., In Memory of 4145 

Words and Their Meaning. A Reply to Mr. 

Ellis Thurtell 4234 

Xenions, Goethe and Schiller's 

3939, 3948, 3955. 3965 



"Christianity," The Meaning of. Alfred W. Martin 4270 

" Christians, We.' ' Ellis Thurtell 4326 

Japan, A Letter From. Nobuta Kishimoto 4277 

Karma, A Buddhist on the Law of. H. Dliarmapala 4261 

"Mother's Pies." tWith Remarks by Gen. M. M. Trumbull.] OttoWett- 
stein 4014 


Names of the Disciples of Truth. John Maddock. [With Editorial Re- 
marks.] 4230 

Non Sectarian Religion, Mr. Martin's Plea for. [With Editorial Re- 
marks.] 4165 

Religion, Universal. Alfred W. Martin. [With Editorial Remarks.] 4181 

Reply to Professor von Hoist. M. M. Trumbull 3934 



A Hymn of Hope. J. A. Clarke 3932 

Ahasuerus. Voltairine de Cleyre 4246 

Always One. By Goethe. (Translated by P. C.) 4277 
Aunt Hannah on the Religion of Her Child- 
hood. Minnie-Andrews Snell 4238 

Birth Song. G. L. Henderson 3998 

Consciousness. Charles Alva Lane 4070 

Death Shall Not Part Ye More. Voltairine de 

Cleyre 4026 

Faith in Action. Louis Albert Lamb 4118 

Happiness. Mattie Miner-McCaslin 4332 

Imago. Charles Alva Lane 4078 

Immortality. J.W.Powell 4335 

In Memoriam. To Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 

Voltairine de Cleyre 4158 

In Memory of M. M. Trumbull. Samuel B. 

Putnam 4261 

Kossuth on Gorgei's Capitulation. Theodore 

Tilton 4023 

Monism. Horace P. Biddle 4134 

Promptings. Charles Alva Lane 4102 

Sonnet. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea) 4190 

The Tryst. Charles Alva Lane 4254 

The Way Out. Hyland C. Kirk 4109 

To a Star. J. Arthur Edgerton 4222 

Valor, Viroe 4004 

THE OPEN COURT.— Index to Volume VIII. 



Altherr, Alfred. Theodor Parker in seinem Leben und Wirken 4262 

Alviella, Goblet d'. The Migration of Symbols 4333 

American Mathematical Monthly, The 4270 

American Secular Union, Congress of the 4262, 4270 

Atkinson, Edward. Suggestions Regarding the Cooking of Food 4230 

Badeuoch, L. N. Romance of the Insect World 3981 

Barrows, John Henry. The World's Parliament of Religions 4030 

Bible, The King James. Correction of Its Version of Luke 11. xiv 4254 

Biddle, Horace P. The Musical Scale and Prose Miscellany 4182 

Brady, Lake, Spiritualism at 4214 

Brussels Institute des Hautes Etudes 4278 

California Militia, The 4166 

Chatelain, Heli. Folk Tales of Angola 4"8 

Chicago, Board of Education at 4126 

Christianity and Universal Religion 4206 

Church. R. W. Village Sermons Preached at Whatley 4109 

Cohn, Gustav. A History of Political Economy 4334 

Commons, John R. The Distribution of Wealth 3981 

Constitutions of Prussia, Italy, Colombia, Mexico, translated 4334 

Conte, John le, Memoir of 4230 

Cosmopoiis Revista Universal 4278 

Crescenzo, Salvatore de. Saggio di una scala normale del pensiero as- 
tratto secondo la risultante di due fattori. Moduli secondo e terzo 

ossia di media e d'infirma grandezza 41 18 

Crooker, Joseph Henry. A New Bible and Its New Uses 4342 

Crow, D. G. Progressive Eclecticism 41 10 

Darwin and After Darwin, Romanes's 4198 

Debsomania 4174 

Dictionary, A New 4036 

Ethnologische Mitteilungen aus Ungarn 4278 

Fiske, John. Edward Livingston Youmans 4110 

Freedmen, Appeal to the Friends of the 4318 

Freethinker's Magazine, The 4158 

Gorham, Charles T. Is the Bible a Revelation from God ? 4078 

Grumbine, J. C. F., Resigns His Ministry 4150 

Halsted, George Bruce, . . . Prof. A. Vasiliev's Address on Nicolai Ivano- 

vich Lobachevsky 4334 

Harper, William R. Lectures on Genesis 4014 

Haeckel, Ernst. Monism, a Scientist's Confession of Faith 3950 

Haeckel, Ernst, Sixtieth Birthday of 3982 

Haeckel Professorship for Geology and Paleontology, The 4126 

Hastings, H. L. A Square Talk to Young Men About the Inspiration of 

the Bible 4078 

Hastings, H. L. The Higher Criticism 4078 

Helmholtz, Hermann L. F. von 4230 

Himmel und Erde 4222 

Hinton, Richard J. John Brown and His Men 4238 

Houghton, Walter R. Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions . . . 4030 
Howard, George Elliot. The American University and the American Man 4278 
Hume, J. G. Socialism 4118 

International Dictionary of Contemporaneous Folklorists 4278 

Jonesco, Dimitrie. Ueber die Ursachen der Blitzschlage in B3,ume 4278 

Kampfe, Bruno. Table of Integrals 3950 

Koch, K. R. Notiz uber eine einfache Methode um dielectrische Flussig- 

keiten auf ihr Leitungsvermogen zu untersuchen 4-277 

Koch, K. R. Ueber kunstliche Gletscher 4278 

Kossuth, Editor's Note on 4046 

Larrabee. William. The Railroad Question 4006 

Lethaby, W. R. Leadwork, Old and Ornamental 4102 

Lindsay, S. M., and L. S. Rowe. The Constitution of the Kingdom of 

Italy 4334 

Literary Index, The Annual 4270 

Locy, William A. The Derivation of the Pineal Eye 4118 

Mach, Ernst. Science of Mechanics 3942 

Mallock, W. H. Labor and the Popular Welfare 3965 

Mercer, L. P. Review of the World's Religious Congresses of the 

World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition... 4030 
Mercer, L. P. New Jerusalem in the World's Religious Congress of 1893 4334 

Morgan, C. Lloyd. An Introduction to Comparative Psychology 4333 

Miiller, Mas. Memorial Pamphlet 3974 

Naden, Miss. Philosophical Works 4150 

New England Tariff Reform League 4078 

Open Court, The, Reduction of Its Subscription Price 4318 

Pechvogel, John, General Trumbull's Story of 4198 

Pendleton, Louis. The Wedding Garment 4334 

Rangacharya, M. The Function of Religion in Social Evolution 4118 

Religion des Geistes, Die ; 4038 

Religion of Science Library, The 4158 

Ribot, Th. Diseases of the Will 4062 

Rice, A. E. Small Talk About Business 4246 

Rowe, L. S., and S. M. Lindsay. The Constitution of the Kingdom of 

Italy 4334 

Sadler, M. F. The Revelation of St. John the Divine 3950 

Salt, Henry S. Animal Rights Considered in Relation to Social Progress 4334 

Schmitt, Eugen Heinrich. Die Religion des Geistes 4038 

Schreiber, Emanuel. Reformed Judaism and Its Pioneers 4110 

Sloane, William M. Life of Napoleon Bonaparte 4294 

Smith. George H. A Critical History of Modern English Jurisprudence. 3966 

Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report of the 4134 

Spiritualism at Lake Brady 4214 

Stanton, Theodore. Lectures on the Third French Republic 4222 

Stetefeldt, C A. Can Organic Life Exist in the Planetary System Out- 
side of the Earth 4278 

Superpersonal, Not Supernatural. A Correction 4174 

Tabor College Benefit Enterprise 3966 

Tariff Reform League, New England 4078 

Tauchnitz's Gift to Cornell University 4022 

Tolstoi, Count Leo, Note from 3942 

Trumbull, Mrs., Pension for 4150 

Weeks, Caleb S. Human Nature Considered in the Light of Physical 

Science 4078 

Weismann's Theories 39S2 

Westcott, W. Wynn. The Pymander of Hermes 4078 

Westermann's Catalogue Raisonn^ of German Literature 4334 

Whitney, Henry C. Marriage and Divorce 4262 

Wixon. Susan H. Right Living 4078 

Wood, Henry. The Political Economy of Natural Law 4126 


The Open Court. 



No. 332, (Vol. VIII.— I.) 


( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



If the worship of Truth for her own sake can be 
called a form of religious enthusiasm, the nineteenth 
century may be said to have already solved the problem 
of reconciling religion and science. Humboldt, Goethe, 
Renan, and Darwin ventured and labored for the cause 
of knowledge as much as any missionary for the cause 
of faith, but it may be questioned if since the days of 
Voltaire any individual thinker devoted himself more 
successfully to the task of carrying the torch of truth 
into dark places than the self-made scholar and inde- 
pendent investigator John Tyndall. 

Like his countryman Bacon, Tyndall was an apostle 
of popular science. His love of truth made research 
its own reward in a sense that enabled him to ignore 
the opposition of envy and bigotry, and he possessed 
in an almost unparalleled degree the gift of interesting 
the masses in the results of his inquiries. It has often 
been said that Robert Ingersoll owes his popularity to 
his rhetorical gifts, rather than to the attractiveness of 
his doctrine ; but let an Ingersoll or a Moody announce 
a lecture on such topics as " Calorescence " ; "The 
Transmission of Heat through Gaseous Bodies " ; or 
on "Sounding and Sensitive Flames," and see if they 
can still keep a mixed audience spellbound for hours 

Tyndall has repeatedly wrought that miracle. At 
the Royal Institute and the School of Mines his lec- 
tures on the most abstruse subjects were attended by 
crowds of workingmen, and deserved to be studied by 
teachers and orators from a subjective point of view, 
since to an intelligent observer an hour's attendance 
revealed the secret of his success. With an unerring 
instinct he gained the attention of his audience by se- 
lecting the most generally-interesting points of his 
theme, and maintained that interest by a discursive 
chat in which wit, humor, and amusing anecdotes were 
strangely blended with philosophical revelations and 
sarcastic sallies against non-philosophical dogmas. He 
could play on an apparently one-sided topic like a vir- 
tuoso on a one-stringed harp, and in the lecture-hall 
his motto of "Low Fare and High Sentiments" was 
supplemented by the maxim of acute thought and blunt 
speech. He detested scholastic pedantry as he hated 

obscurantism in all its forms, and could make the lan- 
guage of the Swiss peasants express his theories on 
complex geological problems. 

Professor Dryasdust : "The metamorphic strata of 
this defile are specially fit to illustrate the erosive ac- 
tion of descending glaciers and sub-glacial waters, the 
transverse section being characteristic all along the 
southwestern boundaries of the chasm," — and so on, 
till even his educated hearers wish him at the bottom 
of that chasm, and themselves back to the tavern of 

Professor Tyndall ; "Hasn't this river washed out 
a wonderful kettle ! Wouldn't a railroader prefer to 
tackle a job of that kind by day's wages, rather than 
by contract — unless he could get hold of that conse- 
crated wheelbarrow at the Rigi Chapel your friend was 
telling us about." 

Farmer: "Yes, and with a receiver to control tlie 
paymaster of the Rigi tramway. For my part I shouldn't 
like the contract. Wonder how many years it took the 
river to finish the job? " 

Tyndall (feeling his way): "I would give some- 
thing to know. Anyhow it seems clear that the water 
did it, and nobody else ; or do you think it possible 
that every river in the country found a ready-made gap 
on its way to the sea? " 

That Socratic method of interrogation could in case 
of need give way to a quick-fire of irresistible argu- 
ments, or a rocket-swarm of humorous sallies that re- 
conciled the most unscientific hearer to the weightiness 
of the topic. 

But the consciousness of his conversational abilities 
did not prevent Tyndall from pursuing his philosoph- 
ical inquiries into the depths of solitude. During the 
two years following his return from Berlin he often 
passed weeks in his London laboratory, stinting him- 
self in meat to preserve his clearness of mind, and in 
favorite intellectual diversions that might interfere with 
the concentrations of his thoughts. On such occasions 
he locked his doors against gossiping idlers, and thus 
avoided the alternative recommended by Ernest Re- 
nan, who informs us that he had often to "make him- 
self tedious on purpose, " to shorten the visits of trouble- 
some friends. 

In the Alps, too, Tyndall frequently dispensed with 


THE OPEN Court. 

the society of his countrymen, in order to follow a 
train of geological speculations, with the echoes and 
the whispering winds for his only respondents, and on 
one memorable occasion he gave a personal friend and 
even his guides the slip and picked his way alone 
across the crevasses of the Corner Glacier to the slopes 
of the Matterhorn and back to the hostelry of Breuil, 
a twenty-mile trip over ground where the survival of 
the traveller constantly depended on the choice of the 
trail, but where the risk of the vast precipices seemed 
for once preferable to the deadly bother of small-talk. 
"There are moods," says the perpetrator of that es- 
capade, "when the mother is glad to get rid of her off- 
spring, the wife of her husband, the lover of his mis- 
tress, and when it is not well to keep them together. 
And so at certain intervals, it may be good for the soul 
to feel the full influence of that ' society where none 
intrudes ' ; the peaks wear a grander aspect, the sun 
shines with a more inspiring fire, the blue of heaven 
is more deep and awful and the hard heart of man is 
often made as tender as a child's." 

Tyndall's analytical talents were now and then ap- 
plied to the task of self-study, and he may have asked 
himself if his fondness for communion with Nature, 
had not an ultra-scientific significance, like the home- 
sickness of an exiled Highlander. " I have sometimes," 
he says, "tried to trace the genesis of my interest in 
fine scenery. It cannot be wholly due to my own early 
associations, for as a boy I loved nature, and hence, 
to account for that love, I must fall back upon some- 
thing earlier than my own birth. The forgotten asso- 
ciation of a far-gone ancestry are probably the most 
potent elements of the feeling. There was a time when 
the pleasurable activities of our race were among the 
mountains, woods, and waters, and I infer that the 
hereditary transmissions of that time must have come 
with considerable force to me." 

As a consequence, Tyndall had become so much at 
home in the Alps that, in the words of one of his Swiss 
friends, "he could have fallen back on the chance of 
being able to make a tolerable living in the role of an 
Alpine guide, if the British bigots should have con- 
trived to expatriate him for his sins of heresy." He 
ascended the Jungfrau twice, was the first foreigner to 
reach the pinnacle of the Weisshorn and all but fore- 
stalled Sir Charles Whymper in his triumphant attack 
on the cloud-castle of the Matterhorn. Johann Ben- 
nen, the explorer of the Lepontine Alps pronounced 
him the only Englishman able to climb a first-class 
peak to the very top and long after the rest of his 
countrymen are merely able to stagger (jvankeit) along," 
and Joseph Jenni, the veteran of the Pontresina guides, 
once went fifty English miles out of his way to com- 
pete for the honor of accompanying the famous Briton 
on a specially perilous glacier expedition. Their mu- 

tual friend, Bennen, had been killed by an avalanche 
a few months before, and Professor Tyndall came very 
near sharing the fate of his old companion, but in the 
very crisis of the terrible glisadc had sufficient com- 
mand of his mathematical faculties to calculate the 
chance of neutralising the momentum of his sliding 
travelling companions by a well-timed sideward pull, 
but to recognise the difficulty of checking the impetus 
of their descent, plus that of the sliding snow ! 

During a forced march across a gap of the Aegisch 
horn, he found time to stop and shake with laughing 
at his guide's anecdote of an honest Tyrolese who had 
been informed by his father-confessor that the hope of 
attaining the kingdom of heaven could not be recon- 
ciled with a passion for the fair sex. " Herr Pfarrer, 
es muss gehn," replied the Tyrolese. 

Tyndall did not class his memoirs of those diver- 
sions under the head of wasted time, but held that a 
clear brain and even a clean bill of morals, were pro- 
ducts of physical health as directly as health itself is a 
product of fresh air and exercise. " Take what hy- 
pothesis you will," he says, "consider matter as an 
instrument through which the insulated mind exercises 
its powers, or consider both as so inextricably mixed 
that they stand or fall together, from both points of 
view the care of the body is equally important. The 
morality of clean blood ought to be one of the first 
lessons taught us by our pastors and masters. The 
physical is the substratum of the spiritual, and this 
fact ought to give the food we eat and the air we breathe 
a transcendental significance. In recommending this 
proper care of our physical organism," he adds, "it 
will not be supposed that I mean the stuffing or pam- 
pering of the body. The shortening of the supplies or 
a good monkish fast at intervals is often the best dis- 
cipline for the body." 

That discipline enabled him to preserve his health 
under circumstances of peculiar difficulty : A man of 
naturally feeble lungs and sensitive digestive organs 
obliged to breathe the tainted atmosphere of crowded 
lecture-halls, and exposed to the dietetic abominations 
of South European taverns and English railway-restau- 

Lung microbes could not always be parried, but 
Tyndall had an instinctive dread of strong stimulants, 
and contrived to utilise even the leisure of the sick- 
room in a way that enabled him to turn his head into 
a cyclopaedia of secular science. He was an accom- 
plished naturalist, next to Davy perhaps the foremost 
chemist of his native land, an acknowledged authority 
in astronomy, biology, physiology, and general phys- 
ics, and in addition to his technical and geographical 
studies found time to master a number of foreign lan- 
guages. His family traced its origin to the Saxon im- 
migrants of Ireland, and there was an English free- 



thinker Tyndall (or Tindall) in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, still the versatile philosopher's temper now and 
then seemed to indicate an admixture of Celtic blood, 
and it is perhaps a suggestive fact that he spoke French 
with a much more facile accent than German, though 
he passed several years in Marburg and Berlin, and 
made the German-Swiss cantons his favorite summer 
head- quarters. When I first met him in Hermance near 
Geneva in the winter of 1869, he pronounced the word 
gutig alternately like geetik and gootik, and seemed to 
labor under the delusion that all foreign words of the 
German language have to be accentuated on the last 
syllable, while he betrayed a curious, natural talent 
for imitating the patois of the French-Swiss peasant 
children. But his lexicographical mastery of that mis- 
pronounced Hochdeuisch was almost incredible, even in 
consideration of his sojourn at the intellectual metrop- 
olis of Germany. He used synonyms with a subtle ap- 
preciation of their etymology, and had collected data 
on the propriety of new-coined words and such rare 
archaisms as Recke, a heavy-weight athlete, and unge- 
heuer, in the sense of uncanny. ^'Alle Eulen des Ge- 
dankens are roosting in his head," I heard him once 
say in one of his bilingual bon-mots for the benefit of a 
limited number of bystanders; and on a garden-bench 
of Hermance (where he was nursing his sprained foot) 
he once handed me a newspaper with a red query- 
mark opposite a quotation from another German poet : 

" Nun eilet aus des Lebens wildem Lauf 
Mein grosser Schatten zu des Grabes Frieden." 

— ''Schatten ? what does that spitlicker mean? — grosse 
Schattenseiten, I suppose," — the passage having been 
intended as an apotheosis of an individual whose crown 
had been his chief claim to distinction. The Untcr- 
ihanigkeit — constitutional servility of a certain class of 
German contemporaries was a subject of his constant 
banter, and he could chuckle for minutes together at 
the mere mention of a passage from a biograph}' of 
Frederick the Great, where the author describes an 
official chronicler recording certain court-ceremonies 
with "trembling exactness." The democratic irrev- 
erence of Yankee travellers amused him all the more 
since he had reasons to predict the decadence of that 
spirit of sturdy independence. "North America," he 
said, "is drifting into a sort of cosmopolitism that en- 
deavors to efface the most distinctive characteristics of 
the freedom-loving old pioneers, and I am afraid you 
will soon have to go pretty far West to find such cham- 
pions of self-help as Jackson and Boone." 

Withal, he often quizzed the unscrupulous land- 
greed of those primitive patriots. " What's the matter 
with your Spanish Americans," he once asked me in 
discussing the chronic revolutions of the Mexican Re- 
public, "are they really unable to hit a medium be- 
tween anarchy and despotism, or are they trying to 

turn their country into a desert to lessen the tempta" 
tion of their enterprising neighbors to cross the border 
again? " 

Aside from that penchant for banter, the practical 
sagacity of his remarks was often striking, and, I can- 
not help thinking, had something to do with the fact 
that, like Thomas Carlyle, he was a poor man's son 
and was schooled in the stern realism of life before he 
applied his mind to speculative problems. " Can the 
effect of prejudice be illustrated by a more glaring in- 
stance," he said, "than the fact that Heinrich Heine's 
works are not by this time found in every library of 
the civilised universe ! What an incomparable series 
of intellectual pyrotechnics — rocket after rocket blend- 
ing its sparks with the very stars and paling the bright- 
est sparkle of De Stael and Voltaire ! Leland's trans- 
lation is almost an equal marvel, and they can soar 
into sublime pathos, too, but, as Byron says, they are 
guilty of the never-pardoned offence of opposing tithes. 
As an orthodox court-poet of .... he would have 
achieved fortune and statues, but the trouble is that 
the Muses decline to answer an invocation on such 

" A locomotive," said he in a conversation with 
Mons. Boissonnet, "is really a highly complex piece 
of mechanism, so much so, as to account for the late 
date of its invention, but how is it that the simple idea 
of a horse-car railway did not occur to the practical 
Romans? And why did the shrewd First Consul not 
offer a premium that could hardly have failed to lead 
to the construction of iron-clads, a couple of years be- 
fore Trafalgar? Any floating tin wash-basin ought to 
have suggested the possibility of an armor-frigate, and 
the necessity of anti-commercial measures might have 
been obviated." 

"That Rhadamanthus of atheism, the editor of the 
* * has impeached Napoleon for his death-bed recan- 
tations, but he should not be so hard on a man in such 
circumstances," said he on another occasion. "His 
gr^adiers were gone, and he probably saw no other 
way to spite the British heretics." 

In proposing his famous prayer-test, Tyndall him- 
self possibly intended only a demonstration of that 
sort and greatly regretted the consequent controver- 
sies, partly from an aversion to that sort of notoriet}', 
partly from a constitutional preference for the prac- 
tical polemics of science. He was an agnostic, abso- 
lutely free from the dread of the unknown beyond, 
and with only a faint, though long lingering, faith in 
the possibility of a post imn-tem existence. When his 
friend Bennen perished on the Haut de Cry in the 
winter of 1864, Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, Prof. 
Vaughan Hawkins, and a few others, contributed to 
the monument-fund of the famous guide, and delegated 
the supervision of the work to a Vallais curate, who, 



as the chief promoter of the project informs us, made 
but a poor use of his trust. Still, a sort of memorial 
column was at last procured, and the supervisor for- 
warded his plan for a lengthy epitaph (in French, I 
think), concluding some biographical data with the 
information that the champion of so many mountain 
expeditions had departed to explore still grander 
heights. Tyndall rather liked the conceit, though not 
the manner of its expression, and contented himself 
with adding one touching line in the brave guide's 
own German : "Ich komme nicht wieder, Ihr Lieben." 
In the " interest of public morals " that supplement of 
the epitaph was, of course, suppressed, but Tyndall 
held with Arthur Schopenhauer, that philosophy 
should not be fettered down to an alliance with gnos- 
ticism, deism, nor even with the established system 
of ethics, but only with truth, and that if rightly under- 
stood, the uncompromising cultus of that truth, can 
never be unmoral. Though liberal to a fault, he was 
not fond of parading his philanthropy, and refuted the 
charge "agnostic egotism " in his own way, by donat- 
ing the entire proceeds of his American lecturing tour 
— some thirteen thousand dollars, I think — to the pro- 
motion of scientific studies in the United States. 

Tyndall's temperance and methods of outdoor 
exercise had endowed him with a reserve-fund of 
health that sustained him in the severe scientific la- 
bors of the last fifteen years, and there is no doubt 
that the fatal issue of his last illness was a direct re- 
sult of his nurse's blunder in administering an enorm- 
ous dose of chloral, instead of magnesia, and dismis- 
sing his medical friends upon the first symptom of 

It is, indeed, probable enough that those mistakes 
robbed him and the world of twenty years of his life, 
but according to Tyndall's own principle, a teacher 
may depart contented, if he has lived long enough to 
see the seed of his doctrine bear fruit. 


Winter is always hard on the poor, but this year it 
seems to be severer than usual. Thousands of penni- 
less tramps are overcrowding our great cities, and there 
are also many diligent laborers out of work, while 
charity institutions have been created to bring whole- 
sale relief to the most needy. Yet it will be observed 
that those who deserve our sympathy in the highest 
degree receive but a small benefit of all this, and for 
the most part are left to rely upon their own reduced 
resources. The improvident vagabond is fed while the 
fate of the thrifty father of a family, who has mortgaged 
his home dearly bought with the savings of his wages, 
is scarcely considered in the general commiseration of 
wretched existences. 

The reasons of our present calamity need not con- 

cern us now; to a great extent they are obvious enough. 
Fear of the depreciation of our money by substituting 
silver for gold caused a withdrawal of credit from 
banks and commercial enterprises and produced a sud- 
den contraction in the business-world which almost 
amounted to a panic. Many factories have been shut 
down and almost all the others reduced their product. 
Although less has been produced during the last months 
than at other times, the market is overstocked so that 
our protective tariff has ceased to benefit even the 
few and our want of export opportunities is more felt 
than ever. 

We have learned, or at least have had occasion to 
learn, a lesson ; we ought to know now that the laws of 
economics cannot be transgressed with impunity. We 
Americans have been spoiled by Mother Nature and 
are under the impression that we are her favorites, 
that we can do many things which other nations can- 
not, and that famines or other calamities will never 
befall us. Thus we have adopted the habits of prod- 
igals, which are often shocking to the frugal and eco- 
nomic European, and it \s rarely that we are prepared 
for hard times. 

The hard times prevailing now are not as yet so 
disastrous as the visitation under equal conditions in 
other countries might have proved ; yet they are severe 
enough to be a mene iekel to us. Hard times may come 
again, and they will come again ; some will come be- 
cause we ourselves conjure them up through our na- 
tional follies and political sins, others through compli- 
cations in the natural forces of the world, be it by 
droughts, cyclones, or epidemics, and in the face of 
such possibilities it is our duty to be prepared for 

We must first become aware of the fact that the 
typical American is extremely careless as to the possi- 
ble rise of future emergencies, and frivolously wasteful 
of food, money, and all the other little items that go 
to make up the conditions of human life. And this is, 
upon the whole, as true of the employer as of the la- 
borer, of the master as of the servant, of the rich as 
of the poor. 

This is no secret to those who know the habits of Eu- 
ropean countries, especially of Germany; but veryfew of 
us think that we are wrong ; on the contrary, there are 
many scoffers among us who ridicule foreigners on ac- 
count of their stinginess and miserly habits ; there are 
many who look with contempt upon the man who cuts 
down his expenses or denies himself luxuries in order 
to save a part of his wages for emergencies or times of 
need. We are a nation of spendthrifts and take pride 
in throwing away our money freely and indiscrimi- 
nately. Such being the ambition of the great major- 
ity, many families live pretentiously who cannot afford 
it, and would rather dispense with wholesome food 


393 1 

than with jewelry and costly clothing or an expensive 
residence in the most fashionable part of the city. 
Forced to economise somewhere, they cut down their 
expenses in the wrong place. 

Now it is true that America has been blessed with 
extraordinary prosperit}', a prosperity which greatly 
exceeds that of most European countries, but it is also 
true that, sooner or later, hard times will come to us 
also. Anxious to preserve our natural advantages, we 
have erected a Chinese wall of protective duties about 
our frontier which so far has tended to make bread dear 
and money cheap. Like the stag in the fable who 
praises his horns, we are very proud that American 
money so valuable abroad has but little purchasing- 
power at home. How often do our smart innocents 
abroad boast that a dollar has no more value in the 
United States than a shilling in England. 

We have artificially produced these conditions by 
fencing in a part of the world-market, and we imagine 
that our prosperity has been due to a sharp little trick 
of ours, while in fact it is due to the great resources of 
the country, which yield us their wealth in spite of 
these self-imposed fetters and burdens. 

So long as we are prosperous we shall be able to 
stand the pressure of our heavy import duties, but in 
times of great emergencies they will make themselves 
felt. Nothing short of a famine in England opened 
the eyes of the people to the errors of a protective 
policy, and, considering the impervious tenacity of 
otir protectionists, it is possible that we shall have to 
pass through the same ordeal, for our people refuse 
to learn from history and prefer the more impressive 
and more expensive way of learning by direct expe- 

Being prosperous, we can sin against the natural 
laws that regulate economics and society for a long 
time, but it is certain that we cannot do so forever. 
We now exclude, as much as possible, foreign com- 
petition, and thus weaken our ability to compete with 
other countries. What shall we do when the time ar- 
rives in which competition becomes inevitable? Even 
now we see the symptoms of it. There are toys made 
in Germany and France, ingeniously contrived and 
economically made, which sell here for exactly double 
their value, and when we see them we exclaim, "Oh, 
how cheap ! " With our conditions, and with cheap 
money our manufacturers cannot compete with Euro- 
peans. The benefit of protection is a two-edged sword. 
Its advantages turn out to be very disastrous. Our la- 
borers are better paid, but the higher figures of money- 
values are very misleading. They would be better situ 
ated with less money of a greater purchasing power. 
We might better expect to fence in a part of the ocean, 
artificially to raise or lower in that part its level than 
to create forever exceptional conditions in one part of 

the mercantile world. The value of goods will after all 
seek its natural level and will thus produce a disturb- 
ance, which may prove dangerous to the welfare of 
the community. The fear of a cataclysm actually and 
naturally keeps many free-traders within the camp of 
protectionists. That is the curse of all errors, wrong- 
doings, and sins — their chains are lingering. 

* * 

Whatever the future may have in store for us, one 
thing is certain, that our wastefulness will some day 
come into conflict with European economy. We en- 
joy great advantages, such as inventiveness and bold- 
ness of enterprise, but those Europeans who are well 
acquainted with our conditions imitate us and adopt 
our machinery. In the same way our industries must 
acquire the virtues of their competitors or succumb to 
their greater fitness in the struggle for existence. Un- 
economical employes will have to be discharged or the 
whole plants will by and by pass into other hands. 
There is no hope for those who are unable to adapt 
themselves to the conditions of life ; they must make 
way for others who can. 

If Jeremiah were to appear among us, he would 
raise again his voice of warning. Hard times will come 
and how many among us have in their short-sighted 
vanity made themselves unable to face them. It is 
not possible to establish economic habits among large 
classes of the people as quickly as the tide of destruc- 
tion ma}' rush upon us ; for visitations come sometimes 
like a whirlwind, and smite the proud more severely 
than the humble. 

A passage in Prof. Lloyd Morgan's book, "Animal 
Life and Intelligence," in which he discusses the in- 
fluence of good and hard and intermediate times on 
the production of varied forms of life, seems to me 
instructive. He shows that good times, in which by 
some favorable circumstance the area of life increases, 
will produce innumerable varieties ; they create many 
new species, giving them a chance to prove their fit- 
ness for life, while hard times, in which a contraction 
of life-sustaining forces takes place, do the pruning ; 
they cut down with ruthless cruelty those kinds which 
have not used their opportunities to their advantage. 
He says : 

" During the exhibitions at South Kensington there were good 
times for rats. But when the show was over, there followed times 
that were cruelly hard. The keenest competition for the scanty 
food arose, and the poor animals were forced to prey upon each 
other. ' Their cravings for food, ' we read in A^atin-e, ' culminated 
in a fierce onslaught on one another, which was evidenced by the 
piteous cries of those being devoured. The method of seizing 
their victims was to suddenly make a raid upon one weaker or 
smaller than themselves, and, after overpowering it by numbers, 
to tear it in pieces.' Elimination by competition, passing in this 
way into elimination by battle, would, during hard times, be in- 
creased. None but the best organised and best adapted could hope 
to escape." 



In order to illustrate his law in the animal world, 
Prof. Lloyd Morgan calls the attention of his readers 
to the correspondent events in the history of man. He 
says : 

"The alternation of good times and hard times may be illus- 
trated by an example taken from human life. The introduction 
of ostrich-farming in South Africa brought good times to farmers. 
Whereupon there followed divergence in two directions. Some 
devoted increased profits to improvements upon their farms, to 
irrigation works which could not before be afforded, and so forth. 
For others increased income meant increased expenditure and an 
easier, if not more luxurious, mode of life. Then came hard 
times. Others, in Africa and elsewhere, learnt the secret of 
ostrich-farming. Competition brought down profits, and elimina- 
tion set in — of which variety need hardly be stated," 

Prof. Lloyd Morgan continues : 

" I believe that the alternation of good times and hard times, 
during secular changes of climate and alternate expansions and con- 
tractions of lite-areas through geological upheavals and depression 
of the land, has been a factor of the very greatest importance in the 
evolution of varied and divergent forms of life, and in the elimina- 
tion of intermediate forms between adaptive variations." 

Speaking of the present era he says : 

"These are the good old-fashioned times of slow and steady 
conservative progress. They are, perhaps, well exemplified by 
the fauna of the Carboniferous period, and it is not at all im- 
probable that we are ourselves living in such a quiet, conservative 

Let us mind the lesson ere it be too late. The hard 
time of this winter is only a moderate admonition of 
worse possibilities. Bad laws made by demagogues, 
fools, or impostors, will bring misfortunes upon the 
people, and if the people do not learn to watch our 
legislators we shall have to pay dearly for it. But 
even if we cease to make blunders ourselves, the time 
of trials will come, for the balance of life is very un- 
stable and often hinges upon trifles. We cannot con- 
tinue for good in our wonted wastefulness, and it is 
una\ioidable that those who refuse to learn the lesson 
shall be doomed in their future generations to hopeless 
perdition. How many, incredibly many, of our people 
are unable to live through periods of hardships, and 
we must shudder to think how terrible the pruning 
will be, should the metal of our nation be assayed in 
the crucible of some great visitation. 

Those who have ears to hear, let them hear ; those 
who have eyes to see, let them see; and those who 
have voices to speak and sufficient understanding to 
see that there is danger ahead, let them raise the cry 
of alarm, so that the day of judgment may not be too 
severe on us. 

We proclaim no pessimism, for after all we are 
confident that this is the country in which a higher 
species of man is to be developed. Even the visita- 
tions, which, as we fear, will not be spared us, must 
contribute to mature the fruit of a nobler humanity. 

So must it be, and may we all be found worthy to 
contribute our mite to the realisation of the noble des- 
tiny of our nation. p. c. 



Spirit of life and love. 

Music and flowers ! 
Ruling the seas and streams. 
Filling the night with dreams, 
Smiling with sunny beams. 

Weeping soft showers ! 

Sweet is thy sovereign grace, 

Mighty thine art ! 
The soul-storm thou dost calm 
With a celestial psalm. 
And pour thy healing balm 

On the torn heart ! 

What though pain's arrows pierce. 

And health be slain ? 
Like the sunlight in the west 
We shall gently sink to rest 
On thy eternal breast 

And conquer pain ! 

It is not life, but death, 

When hope is gone ; 
Thou wilt mend all that mars 
Our joy ; for the bright stars 
That shine through prison bars 

Bid us hope on. 

Sweet joys must burn and die, 

Though the heart clings 
To its fond heart's desire. 
They shall rise from their dead fire. 
Like the phcenix from its pyre. 

With beating wings ! 

Spirit of boundless space 

And endless time ! 
Thy works thou dost unroll 
As from a magic scroll ; 
Like music to the soul 
■ Is their sweet chime ! 

Mid the whirl of myriad wheels 

Thy footsteps fall ; 
Treading the mystic loom 
That weaves the web of doom, 
And the flowers that bud and bloom 

With hope for all ! 

Onward the soul-stream glides. 

Sparkling with glee ; 
Foaming in many a lin 
Of pain and sorrow and sin, 
Until it flows within 

The sunlit sea. 

Spirit of raging wrath, 

And flashing fire ! 
It is thine eye that reads 
All our unholy deeds ; 
Whether it lags or speeds. 

Sure is thine ire ! 



Dark is the shadow of sin 

Over the soul ; 
Darkly it flits and flees 
Like the pirate o'er the seas ; 
Thou wilt heal the soul's disease, 

And make us whole ! 

Spirit of light and truth, 

Guide thou the way ! 
Fiercely the tempests blow ; 
Yet we must onward go, 
Onward through weal and woe. 

Onward for aye ! 


The echoes of the Parliament of All Religions are just return- 
ing to us from the lands across the sea, and they are not so flatter- 
ing to our own theologies as many zealous persons expected them 
to be. The echo from Japan comes in the shape of a report made 
at Yokohama by the Buddhist Bishops Bourin Yatsubuchi and 
Shaku Soyen, conspicuous delegates in the Parliament and emi- 
nent scholars in their own country. They are absolutely innocent 
of any intentional sarcasm ; they were serious, and even solemn, 
so that the humor of the report is all the more delightful, because 
entirely unpremeditated and spontaneous. Dr. Barrows and the 
other Christian clergymen who convoked the Council of Chicago 
will be surprised to hear from the Right Rev. Shaku Soyen that 
"the Parliament was called because the Western nations have 
come to realise the weakness and the folly of Christianity." This 
is not encouraging, for the object of the Parliament was to exhibit 
Christianity in its own dominions, and to show for the conversion 
of the heathens, its wisdom, its justice, and its divine character. 
This, by object lessons and visible examples of social and political 
justice, of moral and spiritual excellence, and of material great- 
ness too colossal for the missionaries to carry over in their ships. 
The purpose was defeated by the Parliament itself, when Christian 
bishops, presbyters, and priests confessed the failures of Christian- 
ity and justified the Japanese opinion that the Western nations 
had outgrown the Christian system, and were seeking for another, 
and a more beneficent, religion. 

From personal observation the Buddhist bishops came to the 
opinion that Christianity in America is more a fashion than a 
faith, a formalism destitute of soul. Not only did they suppose 
they saw that for themselves, but they heard it over and over again 
from Christian preachers on the platform at Columbus Hall. The 
Japanese critics proclaimed nothing at Yokohama that they had 
not heard at Chicago ; and they had good Christian warrant for it 
when they said, "Christianity is merely an adornment of society 
in America. It is deeply believed in by very few." The Christian 
speeches in the Parliament bore energetic testimony to that, but 
picturesque and ceremonial Christianity gets a nominal recognition 
and acceptance because it is really "in society," ai^ valuable as 
religious embroidery for what the Buddhist bishops call "the 
adornment of society." Like incense from a golden censer it gives 
an odor of sanctity to pleasure, and after we have indulged in self- 
worship for a life-time, it blesses us with absolution for our sins. 
Because in matters of religion we profess what we do not believe, 
we have grown false in other things, and we do business v th one 
another, each without any belief in his neighbor's faith . hon- 
esty. Happily, there are inside and outside the churches many 
exceptions to this rule of business ; enough of them to break in 
some degree the force of heathen censure and strengthen that so- 
cial confidence that gives character and dignity to life. I 'offer 
these mitigating circumstances for what they are worth, confess- 

ing at the same time that they are not a full defence to the heathen 

■x- ' * 

Because the Christian religion hangs loosely upon the Ameri- 
cans, many Buddhists and Mohammedans erroneously think that 
America is good missionary ground for them. With a religious 
enthusiasm like that of Loyola, or Wesley, Bishop Shaku Soyen 
points to the Western nations eager for the light of Asia as it is in 
Buddha, and, referring to the Parliament, he said : ' ' The meetings 
showed the great superiority of Buddhism over Christianity, and 
the mere fact of calling the meetings showed that the Americans 
and other Western peoples had lost their faith in Christianity and 
were ready to accept the teachings of our superior religion." So, 
likewise, the Mohammedans think that the decay of Christian faith 
makes an opportunity for them to propagate their " superior reli- 
gion " among the Western peoples, and Mohammedan missiona- 
ries are now at work in England and America. They make a mis- 
take in supposing that the Western peoples who have lost their 
faith in Christianity are anxious to believe in Buddha, Brahma, 
Mohammed, Baal, or some other deity or prophet, when the truth 
is they have lost faith in all religions that express themselves in 
forms of worship or claim supernatural inspiration. For centu- 
ries men have accepted sacred stories as a substitute for truth, 
and worship has usurped the place of duty. The rattle and the 
rumble of the printing-press are shaking the foundations of every 
superstition, of every error, and of every wrong. Men who have 
thought themselves out of the Christian faith will rarely think 
themselves into the faith of Buddha or Mohammed. There is no 
reason why a man who has been released from one prison should 
strive to enter another. 

The Central Relief Association held a meeting last night and 
adopted plans by which to raise a million dollars for charitable 
purposes in Chicago ; and we are informed that "A million dollars 
for charity, but not a penny for tramps, bummers, and impostors 
was the watchword of the Association." I fear this " watchword " 
will be a heavy handicap on the society, for it will require the 
critical ingenuity of expert metaphysical detectives to determine 
which of their hungry brothers is a " bummer " or a " tramp." 
According to the papers, Mr. Sterling, a very active member of 
the Association, a kindly man, of good intentions, but rather se- 
vere and rigid in his benevolence, said, "The class of loafers that 
had been sleeping in the City Hall had attracted entirely too much 
attention. What we need to do is to weed out the impostors, starve 
them out, and give assistance to those who deserve it." The lan- 
guage is rough, like the lot of the men described, and I do not be- 
lieve that Mr. Sterling used the word "loafers" at all, but it ex- 
presses a prevalent estimate of the idle men, and about ninety per 
cent, of it is unjust. I inspected that shivering surplus in the 
corridors nf the City Hail, perhaps not with strict impartiality, 
because of ancient fellowship, but as fairly as I could, and by the 
faces and the hands, and by the clothes, I knew that a large major- 
ity of it was made of men who are in the habit of earning their 
own living, but were just now out of work; and "out of luck " 

In the days of old, some years before the war, when a man's 
" nigger" was a bit of sacred property, it was my fortune to live 
in Virginia. I had drifted on a vagabond wave to the shores of 
that province, and as soon as I was cast upon the dry land, I found 
the white opinion to be unanimous that the "niggro," as they 
called him down there, was lazy and ungrateful. I searched with 
a mental telescope that multiplied by ten million diameters, to 
discover something that he ought to be grateful for, but I never 
found it ; and when my telescope showed me that the "niggro" 
did all the work in Virginia that was done, and that he got nothing 



for doing it, I wondered why he did not rest oftener, and — longer. 
Like the old Virginia planters, the Central Relief Association is 
very nearly unanimous in believing that the homeless wanderers 
who seek shelter on the stairs and in the passages of the City Hall, 
the gaunt effigies that besiege the soup-kitchens, are lazy and un- 
grateful. They had been tried by the street-cleaning test and 
found wanting. 

In spite of all my efforts to resist the magnetic fascination, I 
am driven by an uncontrollable spirit to bring Oliver Twist into 
this discussion. The pathetic soup-s;ory told by Mr. Sterling to 
the Central Relief Association made me dream all night about that 
historic meeting of the "Board" of charities, or whatever it was, 
and the gentleman in the white waistcoat who prophesied that 
Oliver would certainly be hung because he had shown inborn de- 
pravity enough to ask for more soup. "When our free soup- 
kitchens were opened," said Mr. Sterling, "we offered two good 
meals a day and free lodging to all who would work three hours a 
day on the streets." In my boyhood I knew a church, where the 
rear pews were ostentatiously placarded as ' ' Free Seats, " to which 
the poor could get admission by the payment of a penny. So, Mr. 
Sterling gives " free " soup to the poor who pay for it with work, 
at the rate of an hour's work for a meal. He is astonished that 
the terms are not gratefully accepted by the "unemployed," but 
are looked upon by them as a hard bargain, in which there is 
neither charity nor justice. They say that the two meals and the 
lodging do not cost the Association more than fifteen cents, while 
the work demanded for the charity is worth at least thirty cents 
if it is worth anything. 

For several months the country has been in a state of panic, 
and industry has oeen depressed. Business is dull, money scarce, 
and many mechanics, clerks and laborers out of work are depend- 
ent upon charity. We have been told that this unhapppy con- 
dition was due to a paralysis of enterprise resulting from a fear 
that the duties on imports would be lowered, and that uncertainty 
as to the fate of the tariff was the cause of the distress. The 
excuse is gone, for the uncertainty is now at an end. Even if the 
Wilson bill should pass, the "tariff reform" contained in it is so 
conservative and mild that the protected interests themselves 
must laugh at their own affectation of alarm. To be sure, the 
explosions of oratory directed against the " robber tariff " in the 
campaign of 1892 were very loud, but much of the cannonading 
was merely "sound and fury signifying nothing." Some of the 
cannoneers themselves were careful to assure the listening crowds 
that they were firing blank cartridges. They resembled the soda- 
water merchant at the Fair one thirsty day when the demand for 
his liquor was so great that the noise made by the liberated corks 
was like the firing of guns. "Don't be a frightened, ladies and 
gentlemen," said he, "its only effervescense." 

M. M. Trumbijll. 



lo llu- Editor of The Open Court: 

I am glad to learn that Professor von Hoist is not the auihor 
of the article in the /•'orinii for November, entitled "The Senate 
in the Light of History"; and I think that he is under some obli- 
gations to me for giving him an opportunity to deny the paternity 
of the nameless contribution. The magazine did not positively 
"assert" that Professor von Hoist was the author of it, but it led 
its readers to believe so. Not only does Professor von Hoist afiSrm 
that he is not the author, but he adds : " Nor does the Forum say 

that I am." It is true that a very close and microscopic examina- 
tion of the Forum supports that statement, but the Professor must 
admit that the place of the article in the l-'onun and the position 
of its title on the outside of the cover, right under the name of 
Professor von Hoist, and without any other name to indicate its 
authorship, justify the reader in supposing that it was written by 
Professor von Hoist. It follows in orderly sequence the article 
entitled, "Shall the Senate Rule the Republic, " and it seems to be 
a second chapter of the main article, ' ' The Decline of the Senate. " 
It appears as a continuation of Professor von Hoist's contribution, 
for the personal pronouns are in their proper places, and to the 
ordinary reader there is no other personality visible. 

The mischief was innocently done while the editor and the 
sub-editor were off duty, but the inevitable consequence of it was 
that Professor von Hoist appeared in a false position. The read- 
ers, too, are misled, for I have talked with many persons about 
the article, and not one of them has had any suspicion that Pro- 
fessor von Hoist was not the writer of it, 

Professor von Hoist says that the title to his article was 
"manufactured in the Forum office," in the absence of the editor 
and the sub editor ; and that the heading he had chosen for his 
essay was cancelled in that office for reasons unknown to him. I 
sympathise with him in his misfortune, but it only shows what a 
supernumerary can do when suddenly made stage-manager and 
let loose among the properties. Professor von Hoist is lucky to 
escape as well as he did, and he may be thankful that the tempo- 
rary stage-manager did not "cut the lines" and interpolate a few 
"gags" of his own. 

I cheerfully withdraw the remarks I made about " The Sen- 
ate in the Light of History " so far as those remarks apply to Pro- 
fessor von Hoist, but I must let them stand against the article itself, 
and its invisible author. It now devolves upon him to reveal him- 
.self and the "six men of most excellent judgment," who classified 
the Senate and ticketed the Senators. M. M. Trumbull. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 


AN APOSTLE OF SCIENCE Dr. Felix L. Oswald . . 3927 

MENE TEKEL. Editor 3930 


A Hymn of Hope. J. S. Clarke 3932 

CURRENT TOPICS : A Buddhist Opinion of Christianity. 

Is Christianity a Failure ? America a Missionary Ground. 

Millions for Charity. Not a Cent for Tramps. Gen. 

M. M. Trumbull 3933 


.General Trumbull's Reply to Professor von Hoist. M. 

M. Trumbull 5934 

NOTES 3934 


The Open Court. 



No. 333. (Vol. VIII.— 2. 


1 Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publishe 




Wh,\t think you, dear Euthyphron, that the holy 
is, and the just, and the good? Is the holy holy be- 
cause the gods love it, or are the gods holy because 
they love the holy? By such easy questions did the 
wise Socrates make the market-place of Athens unsafe 
and relieve presumptuous young statesmen of the bur- 
dens of imaginary knowledge, by showing them how 
confused, unclear, and self-contradictory their ideas 

You know the fate of the importunate questioner. 
So called good society avoided him on the promenade. 
Only the ignorant accompanied him. And finally he 
drank the cup of hemlock, which to-day even we often 
wish might be the lot of many a critic of his stamp. 

What we have learned from Socrates, however, — 
our inheritance from him, — is scientific criticism. 
Every one who busies himself with science recognises 
how unsettled and indefinite the notions are which he 
has brought with him from common life, and how, on 
a minute examination of things, old differences are 
effaced and new ones introduced. The history of sci- 
ence is full of examples of this constant change, de- 
velopment, and clarification of ideas. 

But we will not linger at this general consideration 
of the fluctuating character of ideas, which becomes a 
source of real uncomfortableness, wlien we reflect that 
it applies to almost every notion of life. Rather shall 
we observe by the study of a ph3'sical example how 
much a thing changes when it is closely examined, and 
how it assumes, when thus considered, increasing defi- 
niteness of form. 

The majority of you think, perhaps, you know 
quite well the distinction between a liquid and a solid. 
And precisely persons who have never busied them- 
selves with physics will consider this question one of 
the easiest that can be put. But the physicist knows 
that it is one of the most difficult. I shall mention 
here only the experiments of Tresca, which show that 
solids subjected to high pressures behave exactly as 

* Delivered before the German Casino of Prague, in the winter of 186S. 
Translated from the German by fiKpK. 

liquids do ; for example, may be made to flow out in 
the form of jets from orifices in the bottoms of vessels. 
The supposed difference of kind between liquids and 
solids is thus plainly exhibited as a simple difference 
of degree. 

The common inference that because the earth is 
oblate in form, it was originally fluid, is an error, in 
the light of these facts. A rotating sphere, a few inches 
in diameter, of course, will assume an oblate form only 
if it is very soft, for example, is composed of freshly 
kneaded clay or some viscous stuff. But the earth, 
even if it consisted of the rigidest stone, could not 
help being crushed by its tremendous weight, and must 
perforce behave as a fluid. Even our mountains could 
not extend beyond a certain height without crumbling. 
The earth may once have been fluid, but this by no 
means follows from its oblateness. 

The particles of a liquid are displaced on the ap- 
plication of the slightest pressure ; a liquid conforms 
exactly to the shapes of the vessels in which it is con- 
tained ; it possesses no form of its own, as you have 
all learned in the schools. Accommodating itself in 
the most trifling respects to the conditions of the vessel 
in which it is placed, and showing, even on its surface, 
where one would suppose it had the freest play, nothing 
but a polished, smiling, expressionless countenance, 
it is the courtier /rt,i- excellence of the natural bodies. 

Liquids have no form of their own ! No, not for the 
superficial observer. But persons who have observed 
that a raindrop is round and never angular, will not be 
disposed to accept this dogma so unconditionally. 

It is fair to suppose that every man, even the weak- 
est, would possess a character, if it were not too diffi- 
cult in this world to keep it. So, too, we must sup- 
pose that liquids would possess forms of their own, if 
the pressure of circumstances permitted it, — if they 
were not crushed by their own weights. 

An astronomer once calculated that human beings 
could not exist on the sun, apart from its great heat, 
because they would be crushed to pieces there by their 
own weight. The greater mass of this body would 
also make the weight of the human body there much 
greater. But on the moon, because there we should 
be' much lighter, we could jump as high as the church- 
steeples without any difficulty, with the same muscular 



power which we now possess.* Statues and "plaster " 
casts of syrup are undoubtedly things of fancy, even 
on the moon, but maple-syrup would flow so slowly 
there that we could easily build a maple-syrup man on 
the moon, for the fun of the thing, just as our children 
here build snow-men. 

Accordingly, if liquids have no form of their own 
with us on earth, they have, perhaps, a form of their 
own on the moon, or on some smaller and lighter heav- 
enly body. The problem simply is, then, to get rid of 
the effects of gravity; and, this done, we shall be able 
to find out what the peculiar forms of liquids are. 

The problem was solved by Plateau of Ghent, whose 
method was to immerse one liquid in another of the 
same specific gravity. He employed for his experi- 
ments oil and a mixture of alcohol and water. By 
Archimedes's well-known principle, the oil in this mix- 
ture loses its entire weight. It no longer sinks be- 
neath its own weight ; its formative forces, be they 
ever so weak, have now full play. 

As a fact, we now see, to our surprise, that the oil, 
instead of spreading out into a layer, or lying in a 
formless mass, assumes the shape of a beautiful and 
perfect sphere, freely suspended in the mixture, as 
the moon is in space. We can con- 
struct in this way a sphere of oil sev- 
eral inches in diameter. 

If, now, we affix a thin plate to a 
wire and insert the plate in the oil 
sphere, we can, by twisting the wire 
between our fingers, set the whole ball 
in rotation. Doing this, the ball as- 
sumes an oblate shape, and we can, if 
we are skilful enough, separate by such 
rotation a ring from the ball, like that 
which surrounds Saturn. This ring is 
finally rent asunder, and, breaking up 
into a number of smaller balls, exhibits 
to us a kind of model of the origin of 
the planetary system according to the 
hypothesis of Kant and Laplace. 

Still more curious are the phe 
nomena exhibited when the formative 
forces of the liquid are partly disturbed 
by putting in contact with the liquid's 
surface some rigid body. If we im- 
merse, for example, the wire framework of a cube in our 
mass of oil, the oil will everywhere stick to the wire 
framework. If the quantity of oil is exactly sufficient 
we shall obtain an oil cube with perfectly smooth walls. 
If there is too much or too little oil, the walls of the 
cube will bulge out or cave in. In this manner we 
can produce all kinds of geometrical figures of oil, for 

example, a three-sided pyramid, a cylinder (by bring- 
ing the oil between two wire rings), and so on. In- 
teresting is the change of form that occurs when we 
gradually suck out the oil by means of a glass tube 
from the cube or pyramid. The wire holds the oil , 
fast. The figure grows smaller and smaller, until it is 
at last quite thin. Ultimately it consists simply of a 

number of thin, smooth plates of oil, which extend 
from the edges of the cube to the centre, where they 
meet in a small drop. The same is true of the pyramid. 

The idea now suggests itself that liquid figures as 
thin as this, and possessing, therefore, so slight a 
weight, cannot be crushed or deformed by their weight ; 
just as a small, soft ball of clay is not affected in this 
respect by its weight. This being the case, we no 
longer need our mixture of alcohol and water for the 
production of figures, but can construct them in free 
space. And Plateau, in fact, found that these thin 
figures, or at least very similar ones, could be pro- 
duced in the air, by dipping the wire nets described 
in a solution of soap and water and quickly drawing 
them out again. The experiment is not difficult. The 
figure is formed of itself. The preceding drawing 
represents to the eye the forms obtained with cubical 
and pyramidal nets. In the cube, thin, shiooth films 
of soap-suds proceed from the edges to a small, quad- 
ratic film in the centre. In the pyramid, a film pro- 
ceeds from each edge to the centre. 

These figures are so beautiful that they hardly ad- 
mit of a description which does them justice. Their 
great regularity and geometrical exactness elicits sur- 
prise from all who see them for the first time. Un- 
fortunately, they are of only short duration. They 
burst, on the drying of the solution in the air, but only 
after exhibiting to us the most brilliant play of colors, 
such as is often seen in soap-bubbles. Partly their 
beauty of form and partly our desire to examine them 
more minutely induces us to conceive of methods of 
endowing them with permanent form. This is very 
simply done.* Instead of dipping the wire nets in so- 

* See, for some interesting developments of this fact, Prof; J. Delbceuf's 
article on physical and geometric space in The Monist for January, 1894. 

* Compare Mach, Ueber die Molecular 
of the Vienna Academy, 1863. 

rkun^ dcr Fltissigkeiten, Repor 



lutions of soap, we dip them in pure melted colopho- 
nium. When drawn out the figure at once forms and 
solidifies by contact with the air. 

It is to be remarked that also solid fluid-figures can 
be constructed in the open air, if their weight be light 
enough, or the wire nets of very small proportions. If 
we make, for example, of very fine wire a cubical net 
whose sides measure about one-eighth of an inch in 
length, we need simply to dip this net in water to ob- 
tain a small solid cube of water. With a piece of blot- 
ting paper the superfluous water can be easily removed 
and the sides of the cube made smooth. 

Yet another simple method may be devised for ob- 
serving these figures. A drop of water on a greased 
glass plate will not run if it is small enough, but will 
be flattened by its weight, which presses it against 
its support. The smaller the drop the less the flatten- 
ing. The smaller the drop the nearer it approaches' 
in form to a sphere. On the other hand, a drop sus- 
pended from a stick is elongated by its weight. The 
undermost parts of a drop of water on a support are 
pressed against the support, and the upper parts are 
pressed against the lower parts because the latter can- 
not yield. But when a drop falls freely downward 
all its parts move equally fast ; no part is impeded by 
another ; no part presses against another. A freely 
falling drop, accordingly, is not affected by its weight ; 
it acts as if it were weightless ; it assumes a spherical 

A moment's glance at the soap-film figures pro- 
duced by our various wire models, reveals to us a great 
multiplicity of form. But great as this multiplicity is, 
the common features of the figures also are easily dis- 

" All forms of Nature are allied, though none is the same as the other ; 
Thus, their common chorus points to a hidden law." 

This hidden law Plateau discovered. It may be 
expressed, somewhat prosily, as follows : 

i) If several plane liquid films meet in a figure 
they are always three in number, and, taken in pairs, 
form, each with another, nearly equal angles. 

2) If several liquid edges meet in a figure they are 
always four in number, and, taken in pairs, form, each 
with another, nearly equal angles. 

This is a strange law, and its reason is not evident. 
But we might apply this criticism to almost all laws. 
It is not always that the motives of a law-maker are 
discernible in the form of the law he constructs. But 

law admits of analysis into very simple elements 
or reasons. If we closely examine the paragraphs 
which state it, we shall find that their meaning is simply 
this, that the surface of the liquid assumes the shape 
of smallest area that under the circumstances it possi- 
bly can assume. 

If, therefore, some extraordinarily intelligent tailor, 
possessing a knowledge of all the artifices of the higher 
mathematics, should set himself the task of so cover- 
ing the wire frame of a cube with cloth that every piece 
of cloth should be connected with the wire and joined 
with the remaining cloth, and should seek to accom- 
plish this feat with the greatest saving of material, he 
would construct no other figure than that which is here 
formed on the wire frame in our solution of soap and 
water. Nature acts in the construction of liquid figures 
on the principle of a covetous tailor, and gives no 
thought in her work to the fashions. But, strange to 
say, in this work, the most beautiful fashions are 

The two paragraphs which state our law apply pri- 
marily only to soap-film figures, and are not applicable, 
of course, to solid oil-figures. But the principle that 
the superficial area of the liquid shall be the least 
possible under the circumstances, is applicable to all 
fluid figures. He who understands not only the letter 
but also the reason of the law will not be at a loss 
when confronted with cases to which the letter does 
not accurately apply. And this is the case with the 
principle of least superficial area. It is a sure guide 
for us even in cases in which the above-stated para- 
graphs are not applicable. 

Our first task will now be, to show by a palpable 
illustration the mode of formation of liquid figures by 
the principle of least superficial area. The oil on the 
wire pyramid in our mixture of alcohol and water, be- 
ing unable to leave the wire edges, clings to them, and 
the given mass of oil strives so to 
shape itself that its surface shall have 
the least possible area. Suppose we 
attempt to imitate this phenomenon. 
We take a wire pyramid, draw over 
it a stout film of rubber, and in place 
of the wire handle insert a small 
tube which leads into the interior of 
the space enclosed by the rubber. 
Through this tube we can blow in 
or suck out air. The quantity of 
air in the enclosure represents the 
quantity of oil. The stretched rubber film, which, 
clinging to the wire edges, does its utmost to con- 
tract, represents the surface of the oil endeavoring 
to decrease its area. By blowing in and drawmg out 
the air, now, we actually obtain all the oil pyramidal 
figures, from those bulged out to those hollowed in. 
Finally, when all the air is pumped or sucked out, the 
soap-film figure is exhibited. The rubber films strike 
together, assume the form of planes, and meet at four 
sharp edges in the centre of the pyramid. 

The tendency of soap-films to assume smaller forms 
may be directly demonstrated by a method of Van der 



Mensbrugghe. If we dip a square wire frame to which 
a handle is attached into a solution of soap and water, 
we shall obtain on the frame a beautiful, plane film of 
soap-suds. On this we lay a thread whose two ends 
have been tied together. If, now, we puncture the 
part enclosed by the thread, we shall obtain a soap film 
having a circular hole in it, whose circumference is 
the thread. The remainder of the film decreasing in 

area as much as it can, the hole assumes the largest 
area that it can. But the figure of largest area, with 
a given periphery, is the circle. 

Similarly, according to the principle of least super- 
ficial area, a freely suspended mass of oil assumes the 
shape of a sphere. The sphere is the form of least 
surface for a given content. This is evident. The 
more we put into a travelling-bag, the nearer its shape 
approaches the spherical form. 

The connexion of the two above-mentioned para- 
graphs with the principle of least superficial area may 

be shown by a yet simpler example. Picture to your- 
selves four fixed pulleys, a, b, c, d, and two movable 
rings y, g (Fig 5); about the pulleys and through the 
rings imagine a smooth cord passed, fastened at one 
extremity to a nail <?, and loaded at the other with a 
weight //. Now this weight always tends to sink, or, 
what is the same thing, always tends to make the por- 
tion of the string e li as long as possible, and conse- 
quently the remainder of the string, wound round the 
pulleys, as short as possible. The strings must remain 
connected with the pulleys, and on account of the rings 
also with each other. The conditions of the case, ac- 
cordingly, are similar to those of the liquid figures dis- 
cussed. The result also is a similar one. When, as 

in the right hand figure of the cut, four pairs of strings 
meet, a different configuration must be established. 
The consequence of the endeavor of the string to 
shorten itself is that the rings separate from each other, 
and that now at all points only three pairs of strings 
meet, every two at equal angles of one hundred and 
twenty degrees. As a fact, by this arrangement the 
greatest possible shortening of the string is attained ; 
as can be easily demonstrated by geometry. 

This will help us to some extent to understand the 
creation of beautiful and complicated figures by the 
simple tendency of liquids to assume surfaces of least 
superficial area. But the question arises, Wliy do 
liquids seek surfaces of least superficial area? 

The particles of a liquid cling together. Drops 
brought into contact coalesce. We can say, liquid 
particles attract each other. If so, they seek to come 
as close as they can to each other. The particles at 
the surface will endeavor to penetrate as far as they 
can into the interior. This process will not stop, can- 
not stop, until the surface has become as small as un- 
der the circumstances it possibly can become, until as 
few particles as possible remain at the surfacey until 
as many particles as possible have penetrated into the 
interior, imtil the forces of attraction have no more 
work to perform.* 

The root of the principle of least surface is to be 
sought, accordingly, in another and much simpler 
principle, which may be illustrated by some such an- 
alogy as this. We can conceive of the natural forces of 
attraction and repulsion as purposes or intentions of 
nature. As a matter of fact, that interior pressure 
which we feel before an act and which we call an in- 
tention or purpose, is not, in a final analysis, so essen- 
tially different from the pressure of a stone on its sup- 
port, or the pressure of a magnet on another, that it is 
necessarily unallowable to use for both the same term 
— at least for well-defined purposes, f It is the pur- 
pose of nature, accordingly, to bring the iron nearer 
the magnet, the stone nearer the centre of the earth, 
and so forth. If such a purpose can be realised, it is 
carried out. But where she cannot realise her pur- 
poses, nature does nothing. In this respect she acts 
exactly as a good man of business does. 

It is a constant purpose of nature to bring weights 
lower. We can raise a weight by causing another, 
larger weight to sink ; that is, by satisfying another, 
more powerful, purpose of nature. If we fancy we 
are making nature serve our purposes in this, it will 
be found, upon closer examination, that the contrary 
is true, and that nature has employed us to attain her 

* In almost all branches of physics that are well worked out sucli maximal 
and minimal problems play an important part. 

t Compare Mach, VortrSge iiber Psychofihysik, Vienna, 1863, page 41 ; also, 
Compendium der Physik /Hr Mediciner, Vienna, 1863, page 234. 



Equilibrium, rest, exists only, but then always, when 
nature is brought to a halt in her purposes, when the 
forces of nature are as fully satisfied as, under the 
circumstances, they can be. Thus, for example, heavy 
bodies are in equilibrium, when their so-called centre 
of gravity lies as low as it possibly can, or when as 
much weight as the circumstances admit of has sunk 
as low as it possibly can. 

The idea forcibly suggests itself that perhaps this 
principle may also find application outside the realm 
of so-called inanimate nature. Equilibrium exists also 
in the state when the purposes of the parties are as 
fully satisfied as for the time being they can be, or, as 
we may say, jestingly, in the language of physics, when 
the social potential is a maximum.* 

You see, our miserly mercantile principle is replete 
with consequences. The result of sober research, it 
has become as fruitful for physics as the dry questions 
of Socrates for science generally. If the principle 
seems to lack in ideality, the more ideal are the fruits 
which it bears. 

But why, tell me, should science be ashamed of 
such a principle? Is science f itself anything more 
than — a business? Is not its task to acquire with the 
least possible work, in the least possible time, with the 
least possible thought, the greatest possible part of 
eternal truth? 


The appearance of the Xenions in the " Musen- 
Almanach " of 1797 is a memorable event in the litera- 
ture of Germany and in that of the world. With the 
end of the eighteenth century a new era had com- 
menced. New ideals, philosophical, religious, and 
social, had dawned upon mankind. 

The two great apostles of this movement were 
Goethe and Schiller ; yet great as they were, they 
found not sufficient support among those who should 
have been their first followers and disciples. The men 
of literary callings, who should be the priests of the 
holiest interests of humanity, were too envious to fully 
recognise and acknowledge the merit of these two great 
poet-thinkers. Moreover, the men of letters were 
chiefly enamoured of their own traditional methods of 
literary production and could not appreciate the purity, 
the grandeur, and the holiness of the new taste. The}' 
misunderstood the progress-promising spirit of the 
time, and to their puny minds the rise of the new era 
appeared as a mere disturbance of their traditional 
habits. They looked upon the twin-giants of the world 
of thought as usurpers, who from personal vanity and 

» Like reflexions are found in Quetelet, Du systetne sociaU. 

t Science may be regarded as a maximum or minimum problem exactly 
as the business of the merchant. In fact, the intellectual activity of natural 
inquiry is not so greatly different from that exercised in ordinary life as is 
usually supposed. 

ambition tyrannised all others, and whose impositions 
had either to be resisted, or silenced by shrugs. The 
irritation of the literary dwarfs showed itself in malevo- 
lent reviews of Schiller's literary enterprise, "Die 

Schiller wrote to Goethe June 15, 1795 : 
' ' I have thought for some time that it would be well to open a 
critical arena in ' Die Horen.' Yet we should not give away our 
rights by formally inviting the public and the authors. The public 
would certainly be represented by the most miserable voices, and 
the authors, as we know from experience, would become very im- 
portunate. My proposition is that we make the attack ourselves. 
In case the authors wish to defend themselves in 'Die Horen,' 
they must submit to our conditions. And my advice is, not to be- 
gin with propositions, but to begin with deeds. There is no harm 
if we are denounced as ill-bred." 

Several letters were exchanged on this subject, and 
Goethe wrote in a letter of December 23, 1795, to 
Schiller : 

"We must cultivate the idea of making epigrams upon all 
journals ; one distich for each magazine, in the manner of Martial's 
Xenia ; and we must publish a collection of them in the ' Musen- 
Almanach' of next year. Enclosed are some Xenions as a speci- 

Schiller answered at once, December 23, 1795 : 
' ' The idea of the Xenions is splendid and must be executed. . . 
What a wealth of material is offered by the Stolbergs, by Racknitz, 
Ramdohr, the metaphysical world with its Mes and A'ot-Me' s, 
friend Nicolai, our sworn enemy, the Leipsic taste-mongers, Thiim- 
mel, Goschen as his horse-groom, and others." 

Goethe and Schiller agreed to publish all their 
Xenions together, and regard them as common prop- 

It happened now and then that the authors of the 
Xenions hit the wrong man ; but this, although we 
may be sorry for it, was more excusable than the dirt 
which their adversaries threw back. 

The Xenions, as was to be expected, raised a storm 
of indignation, and Anti-Xenions were written by many 
who had been attacked. But while the tenor of the 
Xenions, in spite of their personal character, is lofty, 
and while we feel the high aims of Goethe and Schiller 
in their attempts at a purification of literature, the 
Anti-Xenions are 7£///(?//)' personal. They are rude, ma- 
licious, and mean. They insinuate thatithe Xenions 
were prompted by vile motives ; that Goethe and Schil- 
ler wanted more praise and flattery ; that they were 
envious of the laurels of others, and wanted to be the 
sole usurpers of Mount Parnassus. Schiller was called 
Kant' s ape, and Goethe was reproached with his family 

The history of the Xenions is their justification. 
The Anti-Xenions are in themselves alone a wholesale 
condemnation of -the opposition made to Goethe and 

Goethe wrote to Schiller concerning the reception 
whjch the Xenions found, on December 5, 1796 : 



" It is real fun to observe what has been offensive to this kind of 
people, and also what, they think, has been offensive to us How 
trivial, empty, and mean they consider the life of others, and how 
they direct their arrows against the outside of a work. How little 
do they know that a man who takes matters seriously lives in an 
impregnable castle." 

Goethe and Schiller had wielded a vigorous and a 
two-edged weapon in the Xenions. They had severely 
chastised their antagonists for incompetency ; but now 
it devolved upon themselves to prove the right of their 
censorship. And they were conscious of this duty. 
Goethe wrote, November 15, 1796: 

"After the bold venture of the Xenions, we must confine our 
labors strictly to great and worthy works of art. We must shame 
our adversaries by changing our Protean nature henceforth into 
noble and good forms." 

Deeds proved that Goethe, as well as Schiller, were 
not only willing, but also able, to fulfil these intentions. 
Their antagonists have disappeared. Some of them 
would be entirely forgotten, if the two poets had not 
immortalised them in the Xenia. 

Many Xenions are of mere transitory importance, 
especially such as contain allusions and criticisms that 
are lost to those who are not thoroughly versed in the 
history of the times. Yet, many others are gems of 
permanent value ; they reflect in a few words flashes 
of the deepest wisdom. 

Only a few of the Xenions have been translated into 
English, and as they are little known, we have extracted 
and translated those which we deem worthy of being 
preserved for all time.* 



These brisk verses, revering the good, will annoy the Philistines, 
Ridicule bigots, and smite hypocrites, as they deserve. 


That you may roast me like Huss, is possible ; but it is certain, 
After me cometh the swan who will my mission complete. 
[It will be remembered that Huss, whose name means "goose," 
said when condemned to die at the stake, "After me will come a 
swan whom they will not roast."] 

Oh, how we struggle and hate ! Inclinations, opinions, divide us. 
Yet in the meantime your locks turn into silver like mine. 


Difficult 'tis to achieve; criticism is easy, O critics ! 

Shrink not, when finding a flaw, freely from praising the good. 

Wretches ! Speak evil of me, but oblige me by truthfully adding : 
Serious is he ! For the rest — wretches speak evil of me. 

* The schedule of the distich is as follows : 

Where there are parties, the people are siding with zeal on each 

Years must elapse before both join in a middle their bands. 

How I could live without thee. I know not. But horror o'ertakes 

Seeing these thousands and more who without thee can exist. 


In the hexameter rises the jet of a wonderful fountain. 
Which then graciously back in the pentameter falls. 



Common possessions are thoughts, and sentiment only is private. 
Shall He your property be, feel Him — the God whom you 

Wilt thou know thyself, observe how the others are acting. 
If thou the others wilt know, look in the heart of thyself. 


Have you something ? O give it to me, and I'll pay you its value. 
Are you something, my friend ? Let us exchange, then, our 

souls ! 
That is the very mysterious secret that openly lieth, 

Always surrounding your minds, but from your sight 'tis con- 
Do you desire the highest and greatest ? A plant can instruct you. 
What it unconsciously is, will it ! 'Tis all you can do. 

Millions of people are busy, the race of mankind propagating. 
But in the minds of a few, only, humanity grows. 

How has Nature in man united the high and the vulgar ? 
Vanity she has placed right in the middle of them. 


Has it been always as now ? How strange this to-day's generation ! 

Only the old ones are young, only the young ones are old. 

Thou hast divinity, son, not acquired by drinking my nectar ; 
But thy divinity t'was, which gained the nectar for thee. 


Time, unimpeded, is hastening on. It seeketh the Constant. 
He who is faithful will bind time with eternity's ties. 

'Tis not a mystery great, what God, what the world, and what 

man is ! 
But as none fancy the truth, always the secret remains. 

— wu-uw— II — wu — uw — 
For further reference we refer the reader to a previous article of 
published in No. iz of The Open Court (Goethe and Schiller' s Xenions) . 

Art thou afraid of death ? Thou wishest for life everlasting. 
Live as a part of the whole, when thou art gone it remains. 



Reason, what is it ? The voice of the whole ; thy heart is thy 

Happy thou art, if for aye reason will dwell in thy heart. 

When we are starting in life, an eternity opens before us. 
Yet will even the wise narrowly limited end. 

Ev'ry fanatic be nailed to the cross when he reaches the thirties, 
For if he knows but the world, surely the dupe will turn rogue. 

Out of life there are two roads for every one open : 

To the Ideal the one, th' other will lead unto death. 
Try to escape in freedom, as long as you live, on the former. 

Ere on the latter you are doomed to destruction and death. 

Live, thou Eternally-One, in the realm of immutable oneness. 
Color, in changes so rich, kindly descend upon earth ! 

Though you aspire and work, you will never escape isolation, 
Till with her might to the All Nature has knitted your soul. 
[to be continued.] 


Another " League" has been organised for work in the field 
of American politics, and in that field there is always work for 
everybody. Industry is forever active there, and business is never 
dull. This new disturber of ancient privileges is called " The Anti- 
Spoils League," and the President of it is Gen. Carl Schurz. It 
has a "platform," a purpose, and all the other machinery of a 
"league." It calls for "the complete abolition of the Spoils Sys- 
tem from the public service, "and, like every other league, it hopes 
for "a general uprising of the people " to enforce its demand, be- 
lieving the Spoils System to be "unjust, undemocratic, injurious 
to political parties, fruitful of corruption, a burden to legislative 
and executive officers, and in every way opposed to the principle 
of good government." The description is well enough as a bit of 
literary composition, but where does the League find authority for 
calling the Spoils System "undemocratic" ? We have a habit of 
putting our thoughts into a sort of ironical disguise, and with ad- 
mirable impudence we condemn certain customs peculiar to our 
own country as "un-American," and certain practices character- 
istic of democracies as "undemocratic," until those ill-used adjec- 
tives have become cant words, almost idiomatic in American 
speech. The Spoils System, if entitled to any political epithets 
at all, is " democratic " and "republican." It is extinct in Ger- 
many, England, and in the other "effete monarchies," but it is 
the obedient servant of both parties in the United States, It has 
flourished here for seventy years, and it is in a state of healthy 
preservation still. 

The debate on the proposed new tariff is just begun in Con- 
gress, and I hope the Republicans will be lenient in their censure, 
considering that the majority report of the Committee on Ways 
and Means is a rather courteous apology for "tinkering" the tariff 
at all. I notice that whenever a change is proposed in the direc- 
tion of lower taxes it is described as "tinkering," but if in the di- 
rection of higher taxes, it is called "amending" the tariff. A 
temperance lecturer detected in the act of drinking whiskey, ex- 
cused himself by saying that although he was in favor of prohibit- 
ing the liquor-traffic, he was not bigoted. This e.xcuse will avail 
the Committee on Ways and Means. Their eloquent "report" 

shows that although they condemn the protective tariff, they are 
not bigoted. "In dealing with the tariff question," says the re- 
port, " the legislator must always remember that in the beginning 
temperate reform is safest, having in itself the principle of growth. " 
The patient having a serious case of measles, the doctors propose 
a course of " temperate reform," and heroically devote themselves 
to the cure of six measles a year, hoping that in the course of a 
hundred years or so all the measles will be gone. The report of 
the committee ought to be satisfactory to both sides, for it blends 
together, in a very skilful way, free-trade ethics and protection 
politics. Free trade gets the sentiment, but protection gets the 

Conservative and tender of the tariff as it is, perhaps, the 
Wilson Bill goes as far on the free-trade road as any bill could go 
with any prospect of success ; and at all events it will test the wis- 
dom of a protective tariff. For instance, if the abolition of the 
tariff on wool gives the people more clothes, cheaper clothes, and 
better clothes, it will make more work for weavers and tailors, 
and temper the northern winters to the poor. In the torrid zone 
there can be no serious objection to a tariff on wool, but in the 
realms of ice and snow it lowers the temperature on an average 
ten degrees, and it raises the death rate more than twenty degrees. 
It is not very high moral statesmanship that forbids to any por- 
tion of the people the use of wool. Free wool is opposed, not so 
much on its own account, as from a fear that it will make other 
things free. It is dangerous because it may set a good example. 

Why should a man, because he happens to be governor, usurp 
the right of "spellbinding " his defenceless people by hysterical 
declamation whenever he gets them at his mercy ? This is becom- 
ing a burning question because "Governor's rhetoric," from the 
Rocky mountains to the Blue ridge, menaces the grammar and the 
grace of our venerable mother tongue. Mr. Charles O'Ferrall has 
just been sworn in as Governor of Virginia, and his "inaugural" 
was inflated with Governor's rhetoric to the size of the monster 
balloon. In a spasm of loyalty to Virginia, he said: "She has 
never swerved from the lighted way of the Constitution ; the song 
of the siren has never tempted her ; the tongue of the flatterer has 
never seduced her ; the voice of the hyena has never frightened 
her ; the menace of tyranny has never terrified her; the howlings 
of the wolf have never disturbed her ; the threats of malice have 
never alarmed her. Firm and immovable she has stood through 
all the years that have run their cycles," and so on, in Governor's 
rhetoric to the end. Serene she stands, defying the whole mytho- 
logical and zoological menagerie, sirens, hyenas, wolves, and all 
the rest. Considering that the old commonwealth is of the femi- 
nine gender, it was easy for her to resist "the song of the siren," 
but for that reason it is more to her credit that the " voice of the 
hyena " has never frightened her, nor the " howlings of the wolf" 
disturbed her. Bravely she has resisted those dangers and temp- 
tations, but greater trials are before her, and she must yet prove 
by greater heroism that she is able to endure for two years, and 
perhaps four, the oratorical gymnastics of the Governor. 
* * , 

The champion soporific sermon for 1893 was preached last 
Sunday evening by the Rev. C. E. Wilkinson of Evanston. Dur- 
ing its delivery, Frank Wilson, a member of the congregation, fell 
asleep, and in spite of the tin-horn salutation to New Year's day, 
and many other noises, he slept continuously for sixty hours. The 
case is exciting some psychological and physiological curiosity, but 
up to the present moment, the preacher has not been arrested, nor 
has any warrant been sworn out against him ; and this reminds n 
of Israel Jacobs of Marbletown, in 1855. A queer combination o 
names is Israel Jacobs, but I have to tell the story truthfully or 
not at all, and one hot' Sunday he fell asleep and snored, lulled 



into oblivion by a monotonous, drowsy sermon preached by the 
Rev. Thomas Thompson, D. D., affectionately remembered by the 
old settlers of Marbletown to this day, as "tittle Tommy Thomp- 
son." Under that provision of the Iowa code which punishes any 
person who disturbs a worshipping congregation, Mr. Jacobs was 
carried before old Squire Vinton, who fined him one dollar. Israel 
paid the money, exclaiming as he did so, "Wall, thar's the dollar, 
but ain't nothin' goin' to be done with Tommy Thompson ? " 

Although two men may have equal chances, only one of them 
can "get there first," and this bit of luck may depend upon an ac- 
cident. Commenting yesterday on the feat of Mr. Wilkinson, who 
preached a man into a sleep that lasted sixty hours, I was con- 
ceited enough to think I had succeeded very well, but looking at 
this morning's paper, I saw, to my consternation, an article there 
on the same topic, expressing my own thoughts in almost my own 
words. The editor of that paper had "got there first," and I was 
compelled to change the phraseology of my own essay, in order to 
escape the charge of plagiarism. That we should both have used 
the word "soporific" was natural enough, and it was not surpris- 
ing that we should have referred to Mr. Wilkinson as the champion 
in his line, but it is astonishing that from sheer poverty of ideas, 
we borrowed from our election-literature the tattered and worn 
out substitutes for wit, which appear under such phrases as the 
" latest returns," "with several counties yet to hear from," and 
other venerable ' ' chestnuts " of the same kind. Showing the paral- 
lels to a counselor and friend, I was told to be original hereafter, as 
if "to be original " was easily within the scope of every man's abil- 
ity. A few years ago, I saw in England, a rowing-match between 
two men, called Higgins and Elliott, and a north country man who 
stood near me, gave this advice to Elliott, who was a hundred 
yards behind, "Gang past him, lad, gang past him." It is well 
"to be original," and in a race with a competitor it is advisable to 
"gang past him," but neither feat is quite so easy as it seems to be. 

M. M. Trumbull. 


Count Leo Tolstoi writes to us, " Fosrcdnit has the intention 
of reviewing and publishing, under my supervision, some of the 
articles which have appeared in your periodical." 


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CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 




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CURRENT TOPICS : The Anti-Spoils League. The Re- 
port on the Tariff. Governor's Rhetoric. Hypnotism 
in the Pulpit. Plagiarism. Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 3941 

NOTES 3942 



The Open Court. 



No. 334. (Vol. VIII.— 3. 


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The younger generation in this South Place Society 
can hardly realise the brave and noble services ren- 
dered by John Tyndali in making intellectual liberty a 
religion. He sowed much of the harvest we are reaping. 
His widow, with whom in her calamity the hearts 
of all sympathise, who with her mother formerly at- 
tended South Place Chapel, has, I believe, dedicated 
her life, — as indeed it was always dedicated, — to her 
husband, and is gathering his letters. She will, no 
doubt, give to the world a faithful record of his life. 
Many a sufferer, wrestling with slow death, might envy 
him his release by a mistake of the hand of love while 
ministering to him. His own last thought was for his 
"poor darling," for whom his release must leave a 
tragical memory. But we will trust that, in the depths 
of a sorrow hardly imaginable by others, she will find 
the strength and inspiration to bring him, as it were, 
to life again, and by her loving portraiture, her thorough 
appreciation of his scientific genius, restore him to the 
world from which he had long been much withdrawn 
by invalidism. 

There was in Tyndali a large-heartedness, a poetic 
fineness of spirit, which only a loving and cultured 
wife can fully interpret. My own friendship with him 
began more than a quarter of a century ago. His 
courage opened to me the theatre of the Royal Insti- 
tution, where among other lectures those afterwards 
enlarged into my " Demonology " were given. He was 
an enthusiastic admirer of Emerson, my early master, 
whom he often quoted, and at whose death he invited 
me to give an address at the Royal Institution. What 
he especially loved in Emerson was his perfect faith 
in science, and his "fluidity," to remember Tyndall's 
own word, which, like a tide, followed the star of truth 
whatever confines of creed or theory might be over- 
passed or floated. I learn from Mrs. Tyndali that only 
a few weeks ago her husband was desired to choose 
from his writings, for an Anglo-American magazine, a 
motto for the new year. He selected from his "Frag- 
ments of Science" (p. 231) these words: "I choose 
the nobler part of Emerson, where, after various dis- 
enchantments, he exclaimed, ' I covet truth ! ' The 

* From a discourse given in London, December 24, 1893. 

gladness of true heroism visits the heart of him who is 
really competent to say this." 

At the same time, Tyndali was tenderly reverent 
towards the sentiment represented in the shrines of 
human faith. There were points at which superstition 
was harmful to mankind, and therein Tyndali calmly 
but crucially probed it. Such was what used to be 
called "Tyndall's Prayer-gauge." There was awide- 
spread notion, and even a sect, founded in the biblical 
prescription of prayer for disease ; and Tyndali pro- 
posed that there should be two hospitals, one under 
prayer cure, the other exclusively under medical sci- 
ence, so that the percentage of recoveries might decide 
which was the more effectual treatment. The chal- 
lenge was wrathfully declined by the pulpits, but had 
its effect. That superstition lingers, but has had to 
ally itself with medical agencies, and calls itself "Chris- 
tian Science." 

But Tyndali dealt very tenderly even with what he 
conceived superstition when he met with it in any 
form that involved human hope and aspiration. The 
Brahmo minister, Mozoomdar, desired me to arrange 
an interview with Tyndali, and in the conversation, at 
which I was present, the flindu poured out his soul 
with fervor, his faith being a devout theism, and hu- 
man immortality. Mozoomdar was evidently anxious 
to carry back to India some confession from Tyndali 
of a faith so simple. I shall never forget how mod- 
estly and almost affectionately, yet shrewdly, Tyndali 
said: "You must feel that one with my views, and 
in my position, could enter upon any statement re- 
lating to such vast subjects only with such precau- 
tions, reservations, and exact definitions, as, I fear, 
would render it of little interest to you." I made notes 
of the conversation, but have them not in this country, 
and must trust to the strong impression left on me of 
Tyndall's conscientiousness as well as his sympathy. 
He loved to select the good and true from any en- 
vironment of error, and did his best to preserve con- 
tinuity with the religious life of his country. He was 
an earnest pleader for a more rational Sunday, and did 
much to influence the London clergy in that cause. 
At a large public meeting for opening the Museums, 
at which Dean Stanley presided, a number of clergy- 
men being on the platform, Tyndali made an admira- 



ble speech ; one memorable also for an inadvertant 
remark, in which he said, " We only ask a part of the 
Sunday for intellectual improvement." This caused 
much amusement, especially among the preachers pres- 
ent, and Dean Stanley, I believe, thought it the best 
thing said. Tyndall had meant no satire, but, as it 
was taken good naturedly, made no apology except a 
smiling bow to the clergy. 

In the congress of liberal thinkers, which sat for 
several days in this Chapel, a good many years ago, 
Tyndall was much interested, and consented to act on 
a permanent Council which was proposed. That, 
however, was never completely constituted, it being 
found, after a number of meetings, that there was dan- 
ger of our being understood as establishing some kind 
of new sect. The discussions that went on in that 
Council were of great interest and made clear to us all 
the conviction that freedom of religious thought could 
not be really advanced by any general organisation. 
It must act as leaven, and could not be diffused if 
lumped in any way that might separate it from the 
"measures of meal " it should raise. And in this con- 
nexion I may say that I perhaps owe, at least in part, 
to Tyndall's influence a change in my feeling towards 
public teachers associated with creeds and traditions. 

I will recall one more incident. On the day of the 
burial of Sir Charles Lyell in Westminster Abbey, I 
could not help some rebellion, while listening to the 
service, that it should be read over that great man, 
who was in sympathy with South Place and often came 
here (though he more regularly listened to Martineau). 
I walked from the Abbey with Tyndall, and mentioned 
to him, I think, that not long before I had, with Sir 
Charles, listened to a characteristic discourse from 
Martineau, and he had expressed his wonder that peo- 
ple should crowd other churches whilst such sermons 
as that could be heard. I also said that there ap- 
peared to me something hollow in parts of the funeral 
service when read over such a man as Lyell. Tyndall 
stopped, turned, looked on the Abbey and its towers, 
and, after some moments of silence, said : "When I 
think of that Abbey, of the ages that built it, and all 
the faith, hopes, and aspirations that have gone into 
it, and even into the service, I can remember only 
what it all means, not what it says. The ancient 
faults and phrases are merged in a golden mist, and 
the Abbey is a true monument for my old friend." 

Tears started to his eyes. I had my lesson, which 
I have never forgotten. Or, I should say, my lessons ; 
for, although one of them tended to give me a more 
catholic feeling towards institutions that embody, how- 
ever imperfectly, the spiritual history of humanity, 
another lesson impressed on me a conviction that, 
were the church of to- day faithful to its own history, 
such men would not merely find in the Abbey their 

sepulchre, but their pulpit. When Dean Stanley re- 
monstrated with the Rev. Stopford Brooke against his 
leaving the English Church, Mr. Brooke, so he told 
me, asked him, "Could James Martineau ever be 
Archbishop of Canterbury?" "Never," said Stanley. 
"Then," said Mr. Brooke, "the church is no place 
for me." For myself, I do not feel certain that the 
Dean was right. That historic sentiment, united with 
free thought, the natural fruit of culture, though it 
now draws scholars out of the Church, may presently 
draw them into it, over lowered bars of creed and 
formula, and make it once more the organ of the re- 
ligious genius of England. And should that happy 
era come, those who enjoy it will owe more than they 
can ever know to the high standard of intellectual 
honor, the fidelity to truth, the absolute integrity of 
heart, and the reverential spirit, of our beloved John 


Wf, have answered the question " Does the State 
exist?" in the affirmative ;* for the social relations be- 
tween man and man are actual and important realities. 
How a number of citizens are interrelated, whether in 
the form of a patriarchical community, or of a mon- 
archy or of a republic, is by no means a matter of in- 
difference ; these interrelations are real ; and they are 
a vital factor in the concatenation of causes and effects. 
They may be compared to the groupings of atoms and 
molecules in chemical combinations. The very same 
atoms grouped in two different ways often exhibit 
radically different phenomena ; so that we naturally 
incline to believe that we are dealing in such cases 
with different chemical substances. In like manner, the 
same race of men will exhibit different national charac- 
teristics if combined under different systems of society 
and State-organisation. 

But there are other problems connected with the 
idea of the reality of social relations. The questions 
arise : What is a State? What difference obtains be- 
tween society and State? And, granted that society 
has a right of existence, is not perhaps the State a ty- 
rannical institution which must be abolished ? 

State is obviously a narrower concept than society. 
The State is a special form of social relations. Society 
is the genus and State is a particular species. Social 
relations are first, and out of them States develop. 
States are more fixed than the primitive social condi- 
tions from which they come. 

As animals of definite kinds are more stable in their 
character than the amoeboid substance from which they 
have taken their common origin, so States are a further 
step forward in the evolution from primitive social rela- 
tions. This is the reason why the absence of State- 

* See 'I'hf Oten Court, No. 272. 



institutions is commonly regarded by anthropologists 
and historians as a symptom of extraordinary imma- 
turity in a people. And justly so, for no civilised na- 
tion exists whose citizens are not united by the social 
bonds of State-life, and only the lowest savages are 
without any form of State-institutions. 

The State has frequen^lj' been called an artificial 
institution while primitive society is supposed to be 
the natural condition of n^ankind. In this sense Rous- 
seau regarded all culture and civilisation as unnatural. 
This view is ridiculous and absurd. All progress on 
this supposition would have to be branded as an aber- 
ration from nature. We think that on the contrary 
every advance in evolution denotes a higher kind of 
nature ; man's progress is based upon a clearer com- 
prehension of nature and consists in his better adapta- 
tion to surrounding conditions. Thus these nature- 
philosophers in their efforts to be natural, reverse the 
course of nature and become unnatural in the highest 
degree. The State is as little artificial (i. e. unnatural) 
in comparison with the so-called natural condition of 
savage life, as the upright gait of man can be said to 
be artificial as contrasted with the walk of quadrupeds. 
The State is of natural growth not less than the other 
institutions of civilised society. We might as well de- 
cry (as actually has been done) the invention of writing 
and the use of the alphabet as unnatural. 

What is the nature of the State? 

The State briefly defined is "the organisation of 
the common will of a people." 

The common will of the people may be poorly, dis- 
proportionately, or even unjustly represented in the 
State-organisation. It is a frequent occurrence that 
large classes do not assert their will, either because 
they do not care to assert it or because they are too 
timid to do so, so that the State is little influenced by 
them. But that is another question. In defining the 
nature of the State, we do not say that all states are 
perfect, nor do we defend the evils of their inferiority. 

Every horde of wild animals possesses certain com- 
mon interests, for it is these very interests which make 
them a horde. A horde of talking animals, however, 
will soon become aware of their common interests. 
They will, in discussing the problems of their tribal 
life, more and more clearly understand the situation 
and regulate the means of attending to the common 
interests according to their best experience. Com- 
mon interests create a common will, and as soon as 
this common will becomes consciously organised by 
habits, traditions, and the ordinances of those who have 
the power to enforce them, by written or unwritten 
laws, by acts of legislatures, or similar means, the prim- 
itive social life enters a higher phase of its evolution : 
it changes into a State. 

The State-relations do not cover all the social rela- 

tions of a people, but only those which are created or 
animated by their common will. All the other rela- 
tions among the single citizens of a State, that is those 
which are of a private nature, stand only indirectly in 
connexion with the State-relations. 

The State is not constituted by laws and institu- 
tions alone ; the State is based upon a certain attitude 
of the minds of its members. The existence of a State 
presupposes in the souls of its citizens the presence of 
certain common ideas concerning that which is to be 
considered as right and proper. If these ideas were 
absent, the State could not exist. 

That our life and property in general is safe, that 
we buy and sell, marry and are given in marriage, that 
the laws are observed, and that in ordinary circum- 
stances we hold intercourse with one another mutually 
trusting in our honest intentions ; that, also, we strug- 
gle and compete with one another and try our best to 
maintain our places in the universal aspiration on- 
ward : — all this is only possible because we are parts 
of the same humanity and the children of the same 
epoch, possessing the same ideas of right and wrong, 
and bearing within ourselves in a certain sense the 
same souls. 

Could some evil spirit, over night, change our souls 
into those of savages and cannibals, or even into those 
of the robber-knights of the Middle Ages, all our sacred 
laws, all our constables, all the police-power of the 
State would be of no avail : we should inevitably sink 
back to the state of civilisation in which those people 
existed. But could a God ennoble our souls, so that 
the sense of right and wrong would become still more 
purified in every heart, then better conditions would re- 
sult spontaneously and much misery and error would 
vanish from the earth. And the God that can ac- 
complish that, lives indeed — not beyond the clouds, 
but here on earth, in the heart of every man and wo- 

It is the same power that has carried us to the state 
of things in which we now are ; it is the principle of 
evolution, it is the aspiration onward, the spirit of pro- 
gress and advancement. 

The State is based upon certain moral ideas of its 
members ; and State-institutions, such as schools, laws, 
and religious sentiments, exist mainly for the purpose 
of maintaining and strengthening the moral ideas of the 
present and future generations. 

We do not intend to discuss here the evolution of 
the State. Nor do we propose to estimate the moral 
worth of its present phase. The ideals of the various 
existing States are just emerging from a barbarous 
world-conception, and we are working out a nobler and 
better future. Should this better future be realised, 
let us hope that our posterity will still feel the need 
of future progress as much as we do now. We simply 



wish to elucidate the nature of the State so as to under- 
stand the purpose and the laws of its evolution. 

The objects upon which the common will of a peo- 
ple is directed are, (i) protection against enemies, 

(2) the administration of justice among its members, 

(3) the regulation of common internal affairs ; which 
last point, in higher developed States, consists of two 
distinct functions, (a) of establishing the maxims ac- 
cording to which the commonwealth is to be adminis- 
tered, and {l>) of executing these maxims and enforcing 

The need of protection against foreign enemies has 
created our armies and navies, which, in their present 
form, are quite a modern invention. That powerful 
State-communities were not satisfied with defending 
themselves, but frequently became aggressive, either 
for the sake of a more effective defence or from a pure 
desire of aggrandisement, is a fact which has nothing 
to do with our present subject. Warfare is the main, 
but not the sole, external function of the State. It has 
been supplemented in modern and more peaceful times 
by commercial treaties and other international adjust- 

The internal functions of the modern State are per- 
formed by the judiciary, by the legislative bodies, and 
by the executive government. All these organs of the 
State have become what they are in quite a natural 
course of evolutionary growth simply by performing 
their functions, like the organs of animal bodies. 

A certain want calls for a certain function, and the 
performance of this function develops the organ. 

The State has been compared to an organism, and 
this comparison is quite admissible, within certain 

True enough that the historical growth of our mod- 
ern States is within reach of our historical tradition, 
and we know very well that one most important factor 
of this growth has been the conscious aspiration of in- 
dividuals after their ideals — a factor which is either 
entirely absent from or only latent in the development 
of organs in animal organisms. The assumption that 
the cells of the muscles, the liver, or the kidneys, are 
conscious of the work they perform, that they have 
notions of duty and ideals, is fantastical. Moreover, 
there is no need of resorting to this explanation, since 
the theory that function develops organs, together with 
the principles of selection and of the survival of the 
fittest, sufficiently accounts, if not for all problems 
connected therewith, yet certainly for the problem of 
their existence in general. 

As a factor in the development of States the con- 
scious aspiration of individuals for their ideals even, 
in practical life, cannot be estimated high enough ; for 
this factor has grown in prominence with the progress 
of the race, and it is growing still. In the explanation 

of the origin of States, however, this very factor can 
most easily be overrated, and it has been overrated, in 
so far as some savants of the eighteenth century, the 
great age of individualism, have proposed the now ob- 
solete view that States are and can be produced only 
by a conscious agreement among individuals, which, 
however, they grant, may be tacitly made. And this 
theory found its classical representation in Rousseau's 
book, " Le contract social," in which the existence of 
the State is justified as a social contract. This is an 
error : States develop unconsciously and even in spite 
• of the opposition of individuals ; and it is a frequent 
occurrence that the aspirations of political or other 
leaders do not correspond with the wants of their 
times. Thus it so often happens that they build better 
than they know, because they are the instruments of 
nature. The growth of States is as little produced by 
conscious efforts as the growth of our bodies. Conscious 
efforts are a factor in the growth of States, but they 
do not create States. 

A- State grows solely because of the need for its ex- 
istence. Certain social functions must be attended to ; 
they are attended to, and thus the State is created as 
the organ of attending to them. 

Conscious aspirations, although they do not build 
States, are indispensable for properly directing the 
State-creating instincts of a social body. In like man- 
ner, an intelligent observation of hygienic rules is not 
the creative faculty that produces the growth of organs, 
but it is an indispensable condition keeping the organs 
in good health. The more clearly the common wants 
of a nation are recognised, the better will be the meth- 
ods devised to satisfy them. The more correctly the 
nature of society and of its aims is understood, the 
more continuous will be the advance of civilisation. 

The social instincts which have created the State, 
the love of country, and of the country's institutions and 
traditions, are so deeply ingrained in individuals that 
in times of need they come to the surface, (sometimes 
timely, sometimes untimely,) even in spite of contrary 
theories. Let the honor of a country be attacked and 
you will see that hundreds and thousands of the peo- 
ple, who from their individualistic point of view deny 
the very right of existence to our national institutions, 
will clamor for war. 

When, on the 14th of July, 1870, the King of Prus- 
sia was officially and ostentatiously affronted by the 
French ambassador, Benedetti, the most peaceful citi 
zens of Germany were ready to make the greatest sacri- 
rifices in resentment of Napoleon's insolence, and the 
democratic party dwindled away in the general excite- 
ment. The .effect in France was similar ; the King's 
refusal to reeeive the French plenipotentiary was so 
generally resented, that the Emperor's opposition, al- 



though very strong before, disappeared at once in the 
almost unanimous cry for vengeance. 

The social instincts, and among them the State- 
forming instincts, are much stronger and more deep- 
seated than most of us are aware of. They do not on 
every occasion rise into consciousness, but slumber 
in our hearts, and even in the hearts of our anarchists 
and individualists ; these instincts form part of our un- 
conscious selves and will assert their presence, if need 
be, even in spite of our theoretical selves, which are 
only superficially imposed upon our souls. 

* * 

It may be objected that sometimes States have been 
artificialfy established with conscious deliberation by 
mutual agreements which were fixed in laws. This is 
quite true : conscious efforts are made and have to be 
made to give a solid shape to a State. The Constitu- 
tions of the United States, of Belgiwm, and of the Ger- 
man Empire are instances of this. 

Conscious efforts indeed serve and should serve 
to regulate the growth of States ; they determine the 
direction of its advance, and bring conflicting princi- 
ples into agreement. Thus struggles are avoided, and 
questions' which otherwise would be decided by the 
sword, are settled in verbal quarrels, more peacefully, 
quicker, and without loss of life. 

When the fathers of our country came together to 
form a bond of union, they did not create the nation 
as a federal union, or, so to say, as a State of States, 
they simply regulated its growth and helped it into 
being by giving obstetrical assistance. The union 
agreed upon by the representatives, of the thirteen col- 
onies was not, however, the product of an arbitrary de- 
cision, but the net outcome of several co-operating fac- 
tors, among which two are predominant : (i) the ideas 
which then lived in the minds of the people as actual 
realities, and the practical wants which, in the common 
interest of the colonies, demanded a stronger unity 
and definite regulations as to the methods of this unity. 
The representatives themselves were not mentally clear 
concerning the plan of the building of which they 
laid the foundation. The political leaders of the time 
(perhaps with the sole exception of Hamilton, who, 
on the other hand, fell into the opposite mistake of 
believing that a State ought to be a monarchy) were 
anxious to make the union as loose as possible, for 
they were imbued with the individualistic spirit of the 
eighteenth century. So they introduced (and certainly 
not to the disadvantage of the union !) as many and as 
strong bulwarks as possible for the protection of the so- 
called inalienable rights and liberties of individuals. 
The United States developed, and developed necessa- 
rily, into a strong empire, although its founders were 
actually afraid of creating a really strong union. 

In those times it was thought that a State-admin- 

istration could be strong only through the weakness of 
its citizens. Weakness of government was regarded as 
the safest palladium of civic liberties. We now know 
that a powerful administration is quite reconcilable with 
civic liberty. In fact, experience shows that weak gov- 
ernments, more than strong governments, in the inter- 
ests of self-preservation, resort and cannot help resort- 
ing to interference with the personal rights of its citi- 

The Belgians, after having overthrown the Dutch 
government, shaped a new State exactly in agreement 
with the ideas they held. If they had not previously 
possessed social instincts and lived in State-relations, 
they would not have been able to form a new State so 

The idea of a united Germany developed very 
slowly ; it was matured in times of tribulation and 
gradually became quite a powerful factor in Germany's 
national life. The foundation of the Empire would re- 
main unexplained, were we only referred to the debates 
of the Reichstag and the resolutions finally adopted. 
The resolutions drawn up after a longer or shorter de- 
liberation form only the last link in a very long process 
of concatenations. Yet these last conscious efforts, 
although of paramount importance, presuppose already 
the conditions for the constitution of the Empire in its 
main features. 

The existence of Empires and States does not rest 
upon the final resolutions passed at the time of their 
foundation, but upon the common will of the people, 
which, such as it is, has been shaped in the history of 
national experiences. 

The United States developed in spite of the indi- 
vidualistic clauses of its founders ; and in the same way 
Luther, the prophet of religious individualism, advo- 
cated principles, the further evolution of which in such 
minds as Lessing and Kant, he from his narrow stand- 
point would never have consented to. He was the har- 
binger of a new epoch, but he was still the son of the 
old theories. Like Moses, Luther led the way to the 
promised land, but he never trod upon its ground. 
His actions, more than his ideas, were the reformatory 
agents of his life, and we may well say now that he 
himself little appreciated the principles that underlay 
his reformatory and historical actions. 

The philosophers of the eighteenth century, espe- 
cially Rousseau and Kant, recognise the State only in 
its negative rights. The State, according to their prin- 
ciples, is a presumption, and its existence is only 
defensible as protecting the liberties of its members. 
The rights of the State are supposed to be negative. 
The liberty of each member of a society is limited by 
the equal amount of liberty of all the other members, 
and the State's duty is to protect their liberties. If 
this principle were the true basis of the State's right 



to existence, the State would not be justified in levying 
taxes or in passing laws which enforce any such regu- 
lations as military or juror's service. Appropriations for 
the public weal would be illegal, and all executive of- 
ficers would have to be regarded as a band of usurpers. 
As a matter of fact, States have constantly exercised 
their positive rights, interfering greatly with the liber- 
ties of their citizens. They have taxed them, they 
have passed and enforced laws. And the State could 
not exist without having this authority. The State is 
actually a superindividual power and has to be such 
in order to exist at all. 





Well met ! I come here to question concerning the one that is 

That, philosophical friends, made me descend to this place. 


Question right out, my dear sir, for we read philosophical jour- 
Whatsoe'er happens on earth, we keep instructed on all. 

Gentlemen, listen ! I'll stay here until you propose me a statement 
Universally true, one that we all can accept. 

Coi;iio ergo sum : I am thinking and therefore existing. 
If but the former is true, there's of the latter no doubt. 

If I am thinking, I am. Very well ! But who constantly thinketh ? 
Often I was, I confess, when forsooth nothing I thought. 


Things do exist, sir, and therefore a thing of all things is existing. 

And in the thing of all things swim we just such as we are. 

True is the opposite, let me declare. Besides me there is nothing. 
Everything else, you must know is but a bubble in me. 

Two things are, I admit, the world and the soul, of which neither 
Knows of the other ; yet both indicate oneness at last. 

Naught do I know of the thing, and naught of the soul know I 

Both to me only appear ; but by no means are they sham. 

Do not speak to those folks, for Kant has thrown all in confusion. 
Me you must ask ; for I am, even in Hades, myself. 


/am /, and /posit myself; but in case I don't posit 

Me as myself — very well : then the not-me is produced. 


Surely conception exists. This proves the existence of concepts, 

And of conceivers, no doubt ; which altogether make three. 

Those propositions, my friends, are good for nothing I tell you ; 
Make me some statement that helps, and let it be to the point. 

In theoretical fields, no more can be found by inquirers. 

But the practical word holdeth, "Thou canst" for "Thoushalt." 

Well, I expected it so : For if they have nothing to answer. 
Then these people at once will to our conscience appeal. 



Since Metaphysics of late without heirs to her fathers is gathered 
Here at the auctioneer's are ' ' things of themselves " to be sold. 

One rich man gives a living to hosts of indigent people ; 

Kings that are building, provide teamsters with plenty of work- 

Worship, O man,.,the Creator ! who while creating the cork tree 
Kindly suggested the art, how we might bottle our wine. 

Years and years I'm employing my nose ; I employ it for smelling. 
Now our question is this: Have I a right to its use ? 

Well ! 'Tis a critical case ! But possession is strong in your favor. 
Since you're possessing your nose, use it in future, I say. 

Willingly serve I my friends ; but 'tis pity I do it with pleasure. 
And I am really vexed, that there's no virtue in me ! 

There is no other advice than that you must try to despise friends, 
Then what your duty demands, you will perform with disgust. 

[Kant declared that the man who performed his duty because 
it gave him pleasure, was less moral than he who attended to it 
against his own inclination.] 

Folks who seek pleasure in all, will munch and relish ideas ; 
Spoons and forks will they bring up to celestial repasts. 

On the securest of paths you have started, and no one denies it. 
But on the straightest of roads blindly you grope in the dark. 

You are obedient to rules, and, doubtless, your well-joined con- 
Would prove reliable, sure, were but your premises true. 

How disdainful you speak, how proud of the specialist's blindness ! 
But in emergency, he comes to the rescue alone. 


Enmity be between both, your alliance would not be in time yet. 
Though you may separate now, truth will be found by your 


Both have to travel their ways, and the one should not know of 

the other. 
Each one must wander on straight, yet in th? end they will meet. 



Splendidly did you construct your grand philosophical systems; 
Heaven ! how shall we eject errors that live in such style. 

Which will survive of the many philosophies ? Surely I know not ! 
Yet philosophy will truly, forever remain. 


Among the delinquent members of Congress now absent from 
their posts, are Messrs. Gear, Hepburn, Lacey, and Perkins, all of 
them encamped about the capitol of Iowa, and working in the 
time-honored manner for a seat in the United States Senate. As 
if this were a new sign of our political degeneration instead of a 
very old one. my democratic paper moralises on it in this highly 
virtuous way ; " The ravenous hunger for office which seems to be 
characteristic of Republicans everywhere, and particularly in the 
State of Iowa, was powerfully demonstrated by an incident in the 
congressional proceedings of Saturday." This "incident" was the 
absence of the said four members from roll call, ' ' ravenous hunger 
for office" having driven them to Des Moines, where the I,egisla- 
ture is now engaged in the business of electing a senator. The ra- 
venous hunger for office of Republicans in Iowa is not a miracu- 
lous phenomenon considering that Iowa is a Republican State, 
where the hunger of Democrats for office excites no sympathy in 
the Legislature. Should the General Assembly of Iowa elect a 
Democrat to anything the Supreme Court would promptly decide 
such action to be revolutionary and unconstitutional. Instead of 
reproaching the Republicans of Iowa as "ravenous" we ought to 
praise them for their moderation. Iowa has ten Republicans in 
the lower house of Congress, and only four of them are absent 
from duty, working for the senatorship and " sawing wood." It 
is a political mystery, and at the same time a sign of praiseworthy 
self-restraint that the whole ten of them are not at Des Moines in- 
stead of Washington. 

It is worthy of contemplation that there is no ravenous hunger 
for office among the Republicans of Chicago, but the Democrats 
have a very healthy appetite, for I find the following notice in my 
morning paper: "After to-day. Mayor Hopkins will receive no 
more applications for appointments. They came in Saturday fully 
as strong as the day after Mr. Hopkins took his seat. There are 
now three thousand applications on file." This is at the rate of 
about four hundred a day, all Democrats, and the new postmaster 
can show an equal number. Not only that, the victorious legions 
are advancing on the Court House and the City Hall by nationali- 
ties, " le rible'Ss an army with banners," and their motto is "of- 
fices or vengeance " as appears by the following proclamation, 
" The German-American Democrats are dissatisfied with their al- 
lotment of patronage by the city and county officers. Yesterday 
evening a meeting of the executive committee of the German- 
American Democratic Central Organisation was held at the Sher- 
man House, at which resolutions were adopted appointing a com- 
mittee of three which should ascertain the number of German- 
Americans employed in the various county offices, and the propor- 
tion they bear to the whole number of employees," Another 
committee was appointed to call upon Mayor Hopkins and demand 
the appointment of a German-American to a leading city office 
controlling the distribution of patronage." During a long study of 
American politics I have observed that a " ravenous hunger for 
office " always attacks the winners of the election, and that the 
losers are never affected by it. In fact, they show a lofty contempt 
for "office hunting " ; they denounce the Spoils system, and en- 
thusiastically advocate Civil Service reform. 

I have received a melancholy pamphlet entitled "The Reason 
why the Colored American was not in the World's Columbian Ex- 
position, " and the reason appears to be nothing worth mentioning ; 
nothing but the old race prejudice manifested in a persecution, of 
which slavery, lynching, chain gangs, and " Columbian " proscrip- 
tion are all consistent and harmonious parts. This pamphlet is 
"The Afro-American's contribution to Columbian Literature," 
and the sarcasm, though sorrowful, bites hard. There is an in- 
troduction by Frederick Douglass, eloquent, of course, and a plain- 
tive appeal to conscience where there is no conscience, nothing 
but a savage pride, a tyrant sense of superiority. Although the 
colored people paid their share of the public money given to the 
Exposition, they were denied a place in its management, and this 
wrong diminishes the glory of the Fair. Although his action made 
the nation look morally diminutive. President Harrison refused to 
place any colored men among the two hundred and four commis- 
sioners appointed by him and authorised by Congress ; and this 
magnanimous policy was imitated by all the other Columbian dig- 
nitaries from the commanding generals down to the subordinate 
captains of the Columbian guards. The spirit of caste excluded 
the colored people, and the only right allowed them was the privi- 
lege of paying fifty cents to see the show. 

While the rights of citizenship are withheld from the colored 
man, he is not relieved from any of its obligations. On the con- 
trary, more civic duties are demanded of him than are expected of 
the white tnan. Last week the colored people of Chicago held a 
festival to honor the abolition agitators who created a national 
conscience fifty years ago. Among the speakers was Mr. Stead of 
London, who patronised the company by tacking a few extra con- 
ditions upon their freedom. . Like a schoolmaster advising little 
boys, he said: "You who vote in Chicago and other northern 
cities should show that you know how to exercise the right of suf- 
frage with wisdom, and that you value the privilege." Mr. Stead, 
as a foreigner, did not know that this bit of good advice was bor- 
rowed from the apologetic jargon of slavery which assumed that 
the negro was unfit for either freedom or the ballot, and which 
threw the burden of proving the contrary upon him. Luckily for 
the white man, it is not required of him that he vote " with wis- 
dom," and why should such perfection be demanded of the colored 
man ? Forty-five years ago, I found prevailing in the South, an 
ommous fear that somehow or other the negro might get "wis- 
dom," and therefore the law made it a felony to teach him to read. 
In Chicago the colored man votes with as much " wisdom " as the 
white man, which is not saying much in his favor, but he will im- 
prove, as the white man improves, whenever he gets fair play. 
Considering that equal opportunities are denied them, it is amazing 
that the colored people show as much " wisdom " as they do ; and 
their patience is more amazing still. 

A painful bit of news from Washington tells about a breach 
of etiquette there that has given society a palpitation of the heart. 
The offence is more trying to the feelings than it might otherwise 
be, because two persons are implicated in it, and both delinquents 
are from the State of New York. Those who know anything about 
it are in such a state of nerves that a coherent story is not easy to 
be had, but the Evening Star of Washingtor>, which, we are as- 
sured, is " a very reliable and conservative paper, " announces with 
becoming grief that the President invited Senators Hill and Mur- 
jihy to dine with him at the White House on Thursday evening, 
and that they both declined the invitations. Senator Hill was 
depraved enough to spend the evening at the theatre, but, says the 
"reliable and conservative" Star, "Senator Murphy's where- 
abouts on that evening have not been ascertained." This lack of 
information shows that the Washington detectives have not been 
vigilant, or they certainly would have tracked Mr. Murphy to his 



"lair." Jenkins, the reporter who telegraphs all this from Wash- 
ington, further informs us that "hitherto invitations to the Presi- 
dent's dinner parties have been regarded as imperative, like the 
commands of the Queen, and etiquette has required all previous 
engagements to be cancelled in order to accept them." Here is a 
selfish rule, where etiquette violates good manners and compels a 
man to break an engagement and disappoint his friends to gratify 
the President. When the President becomes King, it will be time 
enough to regard his invitations as imperative, "like the com- 
mands of the Queen." 

* * 

Notwithstanding the authority of Shakespeare to the contrary, 
there appears to be something in a name. A gentleman by the 
name of Hornblower, having. been appointed a Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, the nomination was referred to 
the proper committee of the Senate, and that committee, by a 
majority of six to three, recommended that the appointment be 
not confirmed. A Senator, in answer to a question, explained the 
reason'for this, as follows : "It was all due to his name. I under- 
stand that the committee did not think the word 'Hornblower' 
would look well on the records of the court." Although this was 
very likely said in jest, there was a trifle of earnest in it after all. 
Had the appointment been to the office of chief stump orator for 
the party, the name would have been valuable as a recommenda- 
tion, but it was a disadvantage to a candidate for the dignified 
office of Justice of the Supreme Court. To be sure, the name is 
only an accident, but accidents are potent in the affairs of men. 
I have a friend, a very effective stump-speaker, who was at one 
time Governor of Iowa, and on the occasion of a big "rally" at 
Marbletown he was the " orator of the day." After some of the 
supernumeraries had made a few remarks, the chairman arose and 
said : " We will now have a tune from the band ; after which we 
will have a speech from the Governor, " whereupon the band imme- 
diately struck up "Listen to the mocking-bird." This tune is very 
pretty in its place, but it was inappropriate there, and the unin- 
tentional sarcasm of the band effectually baffled the argument and 
eloquence of the Governor. Names, as well as tunes, must fit the 
time and the occasion. However, in spite of his name, there is 
yet a chance that the nomination of Mr. Hornblower will be con- 
firmed ; but think how the name weighted him down. 

In the Nine/tfiitk Century for January is an article on Tyndall 
by Professor Huxley, the only man who knew him like a brother 
these forty years and more. The tribute is written in language 
graceful as poetry, and yet symmetrical and strong. The scien- 
tific side of Tyndall is very well known, but the full moral and 
spiritual strength of him was known only to his intimate friends, 
and Professor Huxley gives us that. Tyndall stood for truth, im- 
movable as Mont Blanc, whose glaciers, and rocks, and storms 
were his own familiar friends. To him the ' ' Revealed Word " was 
written in the sciences, and his translations and commentaries on 
that Scripture will not perish until "the great globe itself and all 
which it inherit shall dissolve," and there shall be no more use for 
commentaries. "I say once more," declares Huxley, with em- 
phatic repetition, "Tyndall was not merely theoretically but prac- 
tically in all things sincere." The value of a man of genius with 
qualities like that is great in any age, but how priceless was it fifty 
years ago, when, in the language of Professor Huxley, " the evan- 
gelical reaction, which, for a time, had braced English society was 
dying out, and a scum of rotten and hypocritical conventionalism 
clogged art, literature, science, and politics." So true was Tyn- 
dall to the lessons he learned from nature, that, and again I quote 
from Huxley, "he saw, in a manner, the atoms and molecules, 
and felt their pushes and pulls." To Tyndall, wherever he found 
it, a lie was a lie. It might be socially respectable, but no con- 
ventional etiquette could persuade him to give it any toleration ; 

nor was he ever imposed upon by the homeopathic principle that 
a lie might be sometimes useful as a cure for some other lie. With- 
out the advantages of high birth, patronage, or fortune, he fought 
his way upward against an army of errors, and the truth is clearer 
to us because of him. M M. Trumbull. 


We have received from the Messrs. George Bell & Sons, of 
London, through A. C. McClurg & Co., "The Revelation of St. 
John the Divine, with Notes Critical and Practical," by the Rev. 
M. F. Sadler. Rector of Honiton and prebendary of Wells. (Pp. 
298 Price, Si. 75.) This book constitutes the last volume of the 
"Church Commentary on the New Testament," by Mr. Sadler. 
The commentaries on the four Gospels, the Acts, and the Epistles 
have already appeared. The notes are practical enough, but can 
hardly be classed as "critical." 

Professor Haeckel writes us that his brochure, "Monism, A 
Scientist's Confession of Faith," which was discussed in No 282 
of The Open Court, is now polizeilich verfo/gt. The pamphlet has 
run through five editions in five months. 

We have received from Wilbelm Engelmann, of Leipsic, a 
four-paged table of the integral 



compiled by Bruno K'arapfe. It is from Meyer's IViilirscheinliili' 
keitsrechnung. (Price, 60 pf. ) 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Cour 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. • 


TYNDALL. Moncure D. Conway 3943 


Editor 3944 


Editor 3948 

CURRENT TOPICS : Hunger for Office. The Colored 
People and the World's Fair. Etiquette at Washing- 
ton. Something in a Name. John Tyndall. Gen. M. 
M. Trumbull. 3949 

NOTES 3950 

The Open Court. 



No. 335. (Vol. VIII.— 4. 


( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving fall credit to Author and Publisher. 



London, December 27, 1893. 

On this day, the hundredth anniversary of Paine's 
imprisonment in the Luxembourg, I am able to an- 
nounce, through The Open Court, my discovery of a 
very interesting production of his. It is without date, 
but clear internal evidence proves it to have been be- 
gun in April or May, 1791, and concluded in July of 
the same year. The first part of " Rights of Man" 
had appeared in London March 13, 1791, and Paine's 
friend Lauthenas's translation appeared in May. This 
new document shows that Paine (then in Paris) had 
already begun to write his Part II (which appeared 
February 17, 1792), for he alludes to a point dealt with 
in it, and adds, "it is being considered in a work of 
mine now in course of composition." Several points 
are made which were reproduced in Part II. This 
paper was evidently not written for publication. It 
was elicited by four questions put to Paine, proba- 
bly by Condorcet, though perhaps by Lafayette, as to 
(i) whether the basis of the Constitution was good ; 
(2) whether the legislative and executive powers were 
not unequally balanced in the Constitution submitted 
by the National Assembly ; (3) whether the single 
chamber of legislature was best ; (4) whether the sys- 
tem of administration was not so complicated as to 
tend to anarchy. The manuscript was kept by Con- 
dorcet until 1792, when he translated it, and it was 
printed in the Chroniqiie du Mois (May, June, July), 
where it has remained buried and forgotten ever since. 
The Rights of Man being Paine's religion, the evolu- 
tion of his Quakerism, he easily answers the first ques- 
tion. He says : 

" The basis of the Constitution being no other than the rights 
of man, it rests on truths so well demonstrated that they can no 
longer be a subject of discussion. I will merely quote and apply 
to those who dispute them the well-known saying, ' The fool hath 
said in his heart, there is no God.' " 

With regard to the question relating to a balance 
between the executive and legislative powers, he main- 
tains that there are really only two divisions of govern- 
mental powers : the making of laws, and their execu- 
tion or administration. If they both have their source 

in the nation, they naturally co-operate for the na- 
tional welfare. 

" If any mutual invasion of these two powers be possible, it is 
as possible on the part of the one as of the other ; and in this alter- 
native I should deem the nation safer where an elected legislative 
body should possess itself of the executive, than where a non- 
elected executive should assume the power of making laws. 

' ' Independently of these considerations, I own that I do not 
see how a government can, with any exactness, be compared to a 
pair of scales. What is there to balance ? A balance suggests the 
idea of opposition. This figure of speech is, I think, borrowed 
from England, where circumstances had, at first, given it some 
appropriateness. The English government being a tyranny founded 
on the Norman Conquest, the nation has constantly sought a coun- 
terpoise to what it could not remove. . . . But the metaphor of a 
pair of scales is inconceivable in a country where all the powers of 
government have a common origin." 

With reference to the question as to the executive 
being too weak, Paine affirms that the legislature is 
equally interested with the executive that the adminis- 
tration should be adequate to enforce the laws passed. 
The difficulty is, he thinks, that monarchical power is 
still attached to the idea of executive power. On the 
third question, — the relative advantages of the single 
and the bi-cameral legislature, — he offers his scheme, 
afterwards elaborated in "Rights of Man," Part II, for 
dividing the House of Representatives, by lot, into 
two, which are to discuss each measure separately, and 
vote together. One division will have the advantage 
of listening to the debate of the other, without being 
committed to either side. 

On the fourth question, whether so complex an ad- 
ministration may not lead to anarchy, Paine thinks 
that most of such defects may be amended by expe- 
rience, if provision be made for periodical (seven-year) 
revisions of the Constitution. He much prefers this 
definite necessity of revision to a vague and general 
permission of amendment. The science of govern- 
ment, he says, is only beginning to be studied, and ex- 
perience should be steadily brought to bear on it. 
Here is a characteristic passage : 

' ' I am very decided in the opinion that the sum of necessary 
government is much less than is generally thought, and that we 
are not yet rid of the habit of excessive government. If I ask any 
one to what extent he thinks himself in need of being governed, he 
gives me to understand that in his case ' a little would be enough ' ; 
and I receive the same answer from every one. But if, reversing 



the question, I ask the same man what amount of government he 
deems necessary for another, he then answers,—' a great deal.' As 
that other person decides the question in the same way for every- 
body else, the result of all these answers is excess of government. 
I conclude therefore that the amount really necessary is to be found 
between these two. It is, namely, a little more than each wants 
for himself, and a good deal less than he thinks necessary for oth- 
ers. Excess of government only tends to incite to and create crimes 
which else had not existed." 

This essay covers twenty-four folio pages, and I 
must consider the space of The Open Court. There is 
much sagacious criticism on the Constitution in ques- 
tion, but as that instrument soon expired, I omit that 
part, and quote the eloquent conclusion, which, in the 
perspective of a century, is a notable illustration of the 
rosy dawn of the Revolution that went down in blood. 
"It is not impossible — nay, it is even probable, — that the 
whole system of government in Europe will change, that the fero- 
cious use of war, — that truly barbarous cause of wretchedness, pov- 
erty, and taxation, — will yield to pacific means of putting an end to 
quarrels among nations. Government is now being revolutionised 
from West to East by a movement more rapid than the impulse it 
formerly received from East to West. I wish the National Assem- 
bly may be bold enough to propose a Convention elected by the 
different peoples of Europe for the general welfare of that portion 
of the world. Freedom for ourselves is merely happiness ; it be- 
comes virtue when we seek to enable others to enjoy it. 

"A journey has prevented my finishing sooner this letter, be- 
gun more than five weeks ago. Since that time circumstances have 
changed in France, owing to the flight and arrestation of Louis 
XVI. Every successive event incites man to reason. He proceeds 
from idea to idea, from thought to thought, without perceiving the 
immense progress he is making. Those who believe that France 
has reached the end of its political knowledge will soon find them- 
selves, not only mistaken but left behind, unless they themselves 
advance at the same rate. Every day brings forth something new. 
The mind, after having fought kings as individuals, must look upon 
them as part of a system of government ; and conclude that what 
IS called Monarchy is only a superstition, and a political fraud, un- 
worthy of an enlightened people. It is with monarchy as with all 
those things which depend on some slavish habit of mind. 

" Could we draw a circle round a man, and say to him ; you 
cannot get out of this, for beyond is an abyss ready to swallow you 
up — he will remain there as long as the terror of the impression 
endures. But if, by a happy chance, he sets one foot outside the 
magic circle, the others will not be slow to follow. " 

Such was the man whom Washington's Minister in 
France managed to get imprisoned, and under the im- 
pending guillotine for ten terrible months. 

Having thus given a brief account of the document, 
the whole of which will appear in the second volume 
of Paine's Works on which I am engaged, let me recall 
a few facts concerning his imprisonment, on the hun- 
dredth anniversary of which I am writing. Some weeks 
before Paine had been denounced in the Convention, 
of which he was a member, among other things be- 
cause he would not attend its bloodthirsty sessions. 
This meant death. His friends, the Girondins, had all 
been guillotined, his English friends fled, and" he was 
left alone in an ancient house in the Faubourg St. 
Denis. Knowing that he would soon be arrested, he 

devoted himself to the work of writing the "Age of 
Reason," which may thus be regarded as his dying be- 
quest to mankind. He wrote on it night and day, and 
finished it in the night of December 26, 1793. On the 
following day the order for his arrest was issued, and 
on December 28 he was taken to the Luxembourg 
prison. In the course of the following year he was in- 
cluded in the list of prisoners who were to be taken 
before the revolutionary tribunal, which was certain 
death. He was ill at the time, and when the agent 
went through the prison corridor to mark the doors of 
the doomed, some physicians were with him, and his 
door was wide open against the outer wall. So the chalk 
mark was made on the inside of the door. Whether 
this was by connivance of some friendly official, or by 
accident, Paine thus escaped. These facts will add 
interest to the following letter, written by Sampson 
Perry, who was in Paris at the time, and which I have 
also just discovered. It has escaped all of Paine's 

' ' Mr. Paine speaks gratefully of the kindness shown him by 
his fellow prisoners of the same chamber through his severe mal- 
ady, and especially of the skilful and voluntary assistance lent him 
by General O'Hara's surgeon. He relates an anecdote of himself. 
An arret of the committee of public welfare had given direction to 
the administrators of the palace to enter all the prisons with addi- 
tional guards, and dispossess every prisoner of his knives, forks, 
and every other sharp instrument ; as also to take their money from 
them. This happened a short time before Mr. Paine's illness ; and 
as this ceremony was represented to him as an atrocious plunder in 
the dregs of municipality, he determined to divert its effects so far 
as it concerned himself. He had an English bank-note of some 
value and gold coin in his pocket ; and as he conceived the visitors 
would rifle them, as well as his trunks, he took off the lock from 
his door, and hid the whole of what he had about him in its inside. 
He recovered his health, — he found his money, — but missed about 
three hundred of his associated prisoners, who had been sent in 
crowds to the murderous tribunal, while he had been insensible of 
their or his own danger." 




The State-ideal of classic antiquity (expressed in 
Plato's books "On the State" and "On Laws"; in 
Aristotle's "Politics," and in Cicero's fragmentary es- 
say "On the State") exhibits, alongside of a rev- 
erence for the State, a disregard for the weal of its 
citizens. The mediaeval conception, mainly repre- 
sented by Thomas Aquinas's work, " De Rebus Publi- 
cis et Principum Institutione," and also by Dante's 
" De Monarchia," founds the State upon the theolog- 
ical thesis that the government's authority is a divine 
institution : the last great representation of this vie-\v, 
in a modernised form, is Stahl's " Philosophy of Law." 
Against the oppressions which were sanctioned by a 
wrong enforcement of the absolute authority of the 
State arose another conception, which may be called 



the State-ideal of individualism. The individualistic 
conception represents the State as a social contract. 
Its most important advocates are Hobbes, Locke, Gro- 
tius, Puffendorf, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. 

It is more than doubtful whether it is possible to 
realise a truly individualistic State, for the most thor- 
oughgoing individualists deny all the essential rights 
of States and will inconsistently have to accept anar- 
chism. The individualistic principle, nevertheless, in- 
troduces a new element which constitutes the very 
nerve of the modern State-ideal. 

While recognising the authority of the State to 
make laws, (and no law is a law unless it is, when not 
willingly obeyed, enforced,) we do not advocate the 
old view of the State which splits the nation into two 
discrete parts, the government and its subjects, the 
rulers and the ruled. The modern State-ideal differs 
from the old conception. It knows no rulers, but 
only administrators of the common will. The mod- 
ern State-ideal knows i;io sovereign kings, emperors, 
or presidents; it knows only servants of, the State. 
And this ideal of the modern State was (strangely 
enough !) propounded and partly practised for the first 
time by a monarch on the continent of Europe at a time 
when monarchs were still recognised as possessing 
absolute power. This innovator is Frederick the 
Great, author of the famous book "Antimachiavelli, " 
who, although born to a throne, was conscious of the 
duties of the throne and scorned the arrogant preten- 
sions of the sovereigns of his time whose poor ethical 
maxim had been condensed by the French king, Louis 
XIV, into the famous sentence, L'etat, c'est mot ! 

Frederick wrote to the young King Charles Eugene 
of Wiirtemberg (1744) : 

" Do not think that the country of Wiirtemberg is made for 
your sake, but the reverse ; providence has made you in order to 
make your people happy. You must always prefer its welfare to 
your pleasure." 

In the " Memoir of Brandenburg," 1748, he wrote : 

" A prince is the first servant and the first magistrate of the 
State, and it is his duty to give account to the State for the use he 
makes of the public taxes." 

The same idea is inculcated in his last will (written 

' ' I recommend to all my kin to live in good concord, and if it 
need be to sacrifice their personal interests to the weal of the coun- 
try and to the advantage of the State." 

Frederick's idea does away with the personal sov- 
ereignty of rulers and makes the State itself sovereign ; 
it abolishes rulers as such and changes them into ad- 
ministrators of a nation's public interests and into com- 
missioned executors of the common will. 

If this is true of monarchies, it is still more true of 
republics. The President of the United States is not 
the temporary sovereign, but the first servant of the 

nation, commissioned to attend to certain more or less 
well-defined duties. 

The modern State-ideal has been matured by the 
individualistic tendencies of the eighteenth century. 
The reason is obvious : The modern State-ideal imposes 
the same obligations upon rulers as upon subjects, and 
elevates accordingly the dignity of the subject. It 
makes all alike subject to duty, thus recognising law 
simply as an expression of the superhuman world- 
order. Yet, although the modern State adopts the 
principle of individualism by recognising the inaliena- 
bility, as it has been styled, of certain rights of its citi- 
zens, we cannot say that individualistic philosophers 
have succeeded in establishing a tenable philosophy 
of law or in shaping the true State-ideal either of their 
own times or of the future. 

* * 

Rousseau, in his book " Le contract social," makes 
a very keen distinction between the will of all and the 
common will, saying that the former is dependent upon 
private interests, while the latter looks to the common 
weal. The former is only "the sum of the individual 
wills." If Rousseau had consistently applied this dis- 
tinction to his theories, his favorite error of the social 
contract would have been seriously endangered. 

The common will is the product of social life, it is 
the will of establishing the solid foundations of peace- 
able interrelations among the members of a commun- 
ity, and this will can originate even though all single 
individuals may attempt to escape from its enactments. 
There being the stern necessity of social bonds un- 
der penalty of destruction to the \Yhole community, 
the common will develops as a most powerful moral 
feature in every single member of the tribe as a kind of 
tribal conscience demanding universal obedience to 
certain general rules or laws. All the citizens of a com- 
munity may agree in this, that everybody regards him- 
self as exempt. Such a state of affairs would make a 
State very unruly without, however, necessarily anni- 
hilating the common will and therewith the State it- 
self. For, we repeat, the common will is different from 
the sum total of all wills ; and the enactments of the 
common will might on the contrary be, and usually are, 
in such anarchical conditions, only the more severely 
enforced. The more the execution of the common will 
is assured, the more leniency is possible ; the more pre- 
carious its existence, the more relentless, ruthless, and 
cruel have been its enactments. 

* * 

The individualistic philosophy always had trouble 
in accounting for such facts as States and other super- 
individual institutions. In explaining them they always 
fall back upon individuals, as if the individual mem- 
bers of human society had first existed singly as human 
beings and had created their language, laws, religions. 



or any other interrelations by mutual consent, by a 
tacit contract, Biffst not cpvasi, by designing artificial 
plans and not in the course of a natural growth. Thus 
Mr. Spencer, a chief representative of individualism, 
explains the evolutionary origin of institutions, cus- 
toms, religious dogmas, etc., as follows: 

• ' The will of the victorious chief, of the strongest, was the 
rule of all conduct. When he passed judgment on private quarrels 
his decisions were the origin of law. The mingled respect and ter- 
ror inspired by his person, and his peerless qualities, then deemed 
supernatural by the rude minds that had scarcely an idea of the 
powers and limits of human nature, were the origin of religion, and 
his opinions were the first dogmas. The signs of obedience, by 
which the vanquished whom he spared repaid his mercy, were the 
first examples of those marks of respect that are now called good 
manners and forms of courtesy. The care he took of his person, 
his vestments, his arms, became models for compulsory imitation ; 
such was the origin of fashion. From this fourfold source are de- 
rived all the institutions which have so long flourished among civil- 
ised races, and which prevail yet." * 

This shows a palpable misconception of the real 
problem. In some of these primitive States and tribal 
principalities a chief rules supreme and commands, 
in certain affairs, absolute obedience. We say "in 
some," not "in all" of these States, for the savage 
States are as different among themselves as are the 
States of civilised mankind. There are perhaps as 
many democracies in darkest Africa as absolute mon- 
archies. Mr. Spencer's view of the origin of religion, 
ceremonies, and fashions, is not correct. For although 
a chief may be omnipotent as a commander in war, he 
will be unable to bring about a change of the religious 
ideas of his subjects. A chief's power is not the creator 
of the common will in a tribe which makes institutions, 
religion, ceremonies, and fashions, but the reverse, his 
power as a chief is its product. The members of the 
tribe obey him, because the common will enacts obe- 
dience. Mr. Spencer, accordingly, puts the car before 
the horse. He is blind to the real problem. Instead 
of explaining the authority of the chief from the com- 
mon will organised in a primitive State-institution, he 
explains the existence of the State-institution by the 
authority of the chief. 

Individualism ought not to be made a theory of ex- 
planation, for it is utterly incorrect and explains noth- 
ing. But while it is a wrong theory it is nevertheless 
a correct principle ; it stands for the rights of all indi- 
viduals and demands the recognition of their dignity. 
As a principle it is a factor, and. indeed a most impor- 
tant one in social life. But it is not its sole principle, 
and we fall into confusion when we use it as an ex- 
planation of the intricate phenomena of the develop- 
ment of society and of the State. 

The modern State-ideal, viz., the individualistic 
State-conception preserves the truth of the ancient and 

• Quoted from **Outtine of the Evolution-Philosophy.'^ 

mediaeval conceptions, but together with them it em- 
bodies the principle of individualism. It limits the 
State authority by the moral purpose imposed upon 
State-administrations, but in doing so, it raises it upon 
a higher level and sanctifies its existence. 

* * 

There is a notion prevalent concerning republics, 
that they can replace the royal government of monar- 
chies only by a government of majorities. It is true 
that most republics, including our own country, are 
sometimes actually ruled by a majority. If, however, 
the State is to be the organisation of the common will, 
we see at once that a majority rule cannot as yet be the 
highest ideal of a State. Majorities can only be called 
upon to decide certain questions of expediency, they 
have no right, either to tamper with the inalienable 
rights of citizens, or to twist the moral maxims upon 
which the State institution has been raised, so as to suit 
their temporary convenience, or even to pass laws that 
stand in contradiction to them. Laws passed by the 
majority may be regarded as the legislative body's 
present interpretation of the moral laws that underlie, 
like a divine sanction, the existence of the State ; but 
upon him who is convinced that the laws are immoral, 
the duty devolves to use all legal means in his power 
to have them repealed. 

The most important legal means of abolishing im- 
moral or unjust laws is agitation, so that Xh& pro and 
C071 of a question can be openly discussed. Says Mil- 
ton : 

" Whoever knew Truth put to the worse in a free and open 
encounter ? " 

Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom 
of person are the corner-stones of free institutions. 
They are sacred rights which no majority government 
should dare to touch. The State has a right to levy 
taxes, provided they are justly proportioned and do 
not greatly exceed its necessary expenses. The State 
is also entitled to demand of its citizens the perfor- 
mance of a citizen's duties, which in times of need 
may grow into extraordinary sacrifices. For in cases 
of war we must be willing to offer even our lives for 
the welfare of the country. But the State has no right 
to pass laws in favor of certain classes, or to create 
monopolies, or to prescribe a peculiar kind of religious 

There are some questions in life, and also in the 
political life of nations, in which it is less important 
hoiv they are decided, than that they be decided. 
Whether a travelling party shall take the seven o'clock 
train or the eight o'clock train is perhaps quite imma- 
terial, the only requirement being that either the one 
or the other hour be decided upon, so that arrangements 
can be made that all may leave together. Such ques- 
tions as whether a public enterprise should be aided 



with one million dollars, or with two, or not at all ; 
whether, for coast-defence, ten or twelve men-of-war 
should be built, etc., etc., are best decided by majority 
votes. They become actually right by being the pleas- 
ure of the majority. Real moral questions, however, 
are of a different nature. They are right or wrong, 
independently of majorities. 

No majority vote, not even the consensus of all, 
can make a wrong law right. The majority can enforce 
bad laws, and put them into practice, but it can jus- 
tify them as little as a ukase of the Czar. Even the 
formal legality of immoral laws may be doubted ; for, 
even though it be the expression of the will of all, it 
may not be an expression of the common will, and we 
have learned that there is a difference between the 
two, and the authority of the State is founded upon 
the latter, not the former. 

We do not intend to discuss problems of casuistr}' 
with reference to the practical politics of to-day, but 
we indicate that here is a field for it. There may be 
immoral laws which it is our duty to resist, and there 
are other immoral laws which it is our duty to suffer. 
Unequivocal questions of right or wrong are right or 
wrong eo ipso, but under special circumstances it be- 
comes needful to have such questions endorsed by the 
legislative bodies, so that they shall bear upon them 
the stamp of legality and no wrong construction of 
them shall affect the order of the State. Doubtful 
questions of right or wrong, however, must be decided ; 
as long as they are doubtful, they can only be decided 
provisionally, and we have as yet in republics as in 
monarchies no other means of deciding them than by 
a majority vote of the legal authorities. A wrong deci- 
sion does not make wrong right, it only enforces it ; but 
so long as we have no better means of testing right and 
wrong we must employ the insufficient method we 
have ; we have to count votes, instead of weighing 

The system of deciding questions by a majority 
vote is a mere expediency, we grant ; but it is the only 
method of settling doubtful questions that must be 
settled, one way or another ; and in certain public 
affairs it is better that such questions be wrongly set- 
tled, than not settled at all. We grant still more ; we 
grant that this method does not prevent the passage of 
bad laws, and it may be very difficult to draw the line, 
where, for the sake of public peace, they should be 
obeyed, and where they should be met with resistance. 
This concession, however, is by no means an indictment 
of republican institutions and their methods ; for the 
same objection must be made against the laws of mon- 
archies; and in this respect monarchical State institu- 
tions have sinned in no less degree than republics. 
Monarchies have not only made the very same mis- 
takes that republican authorities have made, but many 

additional ones, which will remain, as we hope, a pe- 
culiar feature of monarchies. 



Born is the poet, 'tis said ; and we add, the philosopher also. 
For, it is certain that Truth has to be formed to be seen. 

Thus it was always, my friend, and it will be so forever, that weak- 
Claims in its favor the rule, yet it is strengh that succeeds. 

Good of the good, I declare, each sensible man can evolve it ; 

But a true genius, indeed, good of the bad can produce. 
Forms reproduced are a mere imitation ; but genius createth ; 

What is to others well formed, is but material to him. 

Science to one is the Goddess, majestic and lofty, — to th' other 
She is the cow that supplies butter to put on his bread. 

Both of us search for the truth ; you without, and I in the inner 

Heart of myself. And, thus, each one will find it at last. 
Is clearsighted your eye, it will meet out there the Creator. 

Is but healthy my heart, clearly it mirrors the world. 

Sail, O sailor courageous ! Ne'er mind that the wits will deride 

And that thy boatswain will drop tired of his work at the helm. 
Sail, O sail on for the West : There the land must rise from the 

As your vaticinal mind clearly perceiveth e'en now. 
Trust to the God that leads thee, and cross the mysterious ocean. 

If the land did not exist, now would it rise from the deep. 
Truly with genius, Nature has made an eternal alliance. 

What he has promised, forsooth, she, without fail, will fulfil. 

Myths have endowed her with lite, but the schools disanimate Na- 
Yet her creatory life rational insight restores. 

Our astronomers say, their science is truly subliraest; 
Aye; but sublimity, sirs, nowhere existeth in space. 

" What is the purpose of poetry ? Say ! " — By and by I shall tell 

First of the real, my friend, tell me the purpose and use. 

Truth will be mighty although an inferior hand should defend it. 
But in the empire of art form and its contents are one. 

Wit, if it foolishly misses the point, is greeted with laughter, 
But when a genius slips, furious, a madman, he raves. 

Beauty is always but one, though the beautiful changes and varies, 
And 'tis the change of the one, which thus the beautiful forms. 



Will you attain, my dear friend, to the highest summits of wisdom, 
Risk it and don't be afraid, should you by prudence be scoffed. 
Prudence shortsightedly sees of the shores but the one that re- 

But she can never discern that one for which you set sail. 


This our century, verily, has produced a great epoch, 

But the great moment, alas ! meets with a very small race. 

TO N. O. P. 

'Tis a great pity, dear sirs, to espouse the right cause you are 

But you are void of good sense : reason and judgment are gone. 

Truly you may for a time palm off your valueless counters. 

But in the end, my dear sirs, debts must be paid in good coin. 

When you reviled the Olympian gods, threw angry Apollo 
You from Parnassus. You now enter the heavenly realm. 
[The Stolberg brothers had been liberal, but suddenly turned 

Ancient vases and urns ! Oh how easily live I without them ! 
But a Majolica pot maketh me happy and rich. 

[The pious Stolberg, exaggerating the value of Christian art, 
while deprecating classic taste, said that he would give a whole 
collection of Greek urns for one Faience vase of Raphael.] 

Never thought I very highly of people who are sentimental. 
If an occasion arrives grossly their meanness appears. 

[The censure is true in its generality ; but the Xenion is aimed 
at a man (Johann Heinrich Jung, whose nom de plume was Heinrich 
Stilling) who did not deserve thiscastigation.] 

Do you desire applause of the worldly as well as the pious. 
Paint ye licentiousness, but — paint ye the Devil beside. 

[This satirises the sensuous novels of Timotheus Hermes.] 
Pity 'tis, when you were born, that Nature created but one man ! 
Stuff for a gentleman is, and for a scoundrel, in you. 
[A severe description of Johann Caspar Lavater. ] 

wolf's homer. 
Seven Greek cities have boasted of being the birthplace of Homer. 
Since he is torn by the Wolf, every one taketh its piece. 

[Professor Wolf was the first to prove that the Iliad and the 
Odyssey consisted of a number of epic poems by different poets, 
which were collected under the name of Homer.] 

A SOCIETY OF learned MEN. 
Every one of them, singly considered, is sensible, doubtless, 
But in a body the whole number of them is an ass. 

taste in a watering place. 

This is a singular country ; the springs here have taste and the 

rivers ; 
While it is not to be found in the inhabitants' minds. 
Nothing he likes that is great ; for that reason, O glorious Danube, 
Nickel traces thy course till thou art shallow and flat. 

[This and the following three distichs are directed against 
Nicolai, who was a great publisher, but at the same time a mediocre 
author, shallow and conceited.] 

the collector. 
War he wages against all forms ; he during his lifetime 
Only with trouble and pain gathered materials in heaps. 

Can you not touch it with hands, then, O blind one, you think it 

chimeric ! 
And 'tis a pity your hands sully whatever they touch. 
Truth I am preaching. 'Tis truth and nothing but truth — under- 
stand me. 
My truth, of course ! For I know none to exist but my own. 

Don't be disturbed by the barking ; remain in your seats, for the 

Eagerly wish for your place, there to be barked at themselves. 
[Goethe wrote this in criticism of Reichardt's praise of the 
French Revolution.] 

Vainly the ostrich endeavors to fly : he but awkwardly saileth 
When he is moving his feet over the issueless sand. 
[Also directed against Reichardt.] 

Did your poem succeed in a language worked out and accomplished 
Shaping your verses and thoughts, don't think its poet is you. 

Wanted, a servant who writeth a legible hand and who also 
Fairly can spell, but he must leave the belles lettres alone 

If you impart to us that which you know, we'll be grateful to have it. 
But if you give us yourself — please, my friend, leave us alone. 

Please do not try to teach facts, for we care not a straw for the 

All we do care for are facts as they are treated by you. 

[The first of these two distichs is addressed to Karl Philip 
Moritz, author of an interesting novel in the form of an autobiog- 
raphy, "Anton Reiser"; the second to F. H. Jacobi, who had 
written two philosophical novels, "Woldemar" and "AUwill." 
The difference of their natures is sufficiently characterised in the 

Don't be so dainty, dear sirs. Are you anxious to heap on each 

Honors and praise, you should rail one at the other with vim. 

One, we can hear, speaks after the other, but no one replieth. 
Several monologues are, certainly, not a debate. 

[Directed against Plainer, whose philosophy was a declama- 
tion of platitudes. The distich is true of almost all the debates 
that take place in literary clubs after the reading of a paper. ] 

Gentlemen, boldly dissect, for dissection is greatly instructive. 
Sad is the fate of the frog who has to offer his legs. 

Let but an error be hid in the stone of foundation. The builder 
Buildeth with confidence on. Never the error is found. 



[Very good as a general criticism. Goethe, however, was od 
a wrong track, when directing this distich against Newton's theory 
of color.] 

Pythia dubbed him a sage for proudly of ignorance bragging. 
Friend, how much wiser art thou ? What he pretended, thou art. 


Nature is holy and healthy ! Yet moralists pillory Nature. 
Reason's divinity is vilely by bigots debased. 

Had you the power, enthusiasts, to grasp your ideals completely, 

Certainly you would revere Nature, for that is her due. 
Had you the power, Philistines, to grasp the total of Nature, 

Surely your path would lead up to ideal domains. 

Reason may build above nature, but finds there emptiness only. 
Genius can nature increase; but it is nature it adds. 

While the philosopher stands upon earth, eyes heavenward raising. 
Bigots lie, eyes in the mud, stretching their legs to the skies. 

Always aspire to the whole, and can you alone independent 
Not be a whole of yourself, serve as a part of the whole. 

Dear is the friend, whom I love ; but the enemy, too, is of value. 
Friends have encouraged my skill, enemies taught me the ought. 

"God only seeth the heart!" — Since the heart can be seen by 

God only. 
Friend, let us also behold something that is not amiss. 

There's a nobility, too, in the empire of morals. For common 
Natures will pay with their deeds, noble ones by what they are. 


No one resemble the other, but each one resemble the Highest ! 
How is that possible ? Say ! Perfect must ev'ry one be. 

Only two virtues exist. O, would they were always united ! 
Goodness should always be great ; greatness should always be 


A VERY interesting convention composed of dairymen from 
different parts of the country, is now in session at Chicago, and its 
purpose is to organise a Dairymen's National Protective Union. 
It is intended to be a sanitary and patriotic society, not for the 
benefit of the members, but for the protection of the people against 
the appetite for oleomargarine. Adopting the ethics of all such 
' ' Unions, " the dairymen ' ' want a law passed " for the suppression 
of a rival industry, and for "the encouragement of high grade 
dairy products." Although, at the demand of the dairymen, oleo- 
margarine has been branded by the State Legislatures, and a tax 
put on its head by Congress, it still gets a good deal of patronage 
from the laboring classes, who are not able to buy "high grade 
dairy products." In spite of hostile taxes, the sale of oleomarga- 
rine has increased and is increasing, for the president of the Na- 
tional Dairymen complained of the "constantly increasing manu- 

facture and sale of bogus butter and oleomargarine"; and he urged 
action that would "put an end to the traffic." In a like benevolent 
spirit, the National Wool Growers' Association "wanted to have 
a law passed " that would "put an end to the traffic in shoddy." 
It does not yet appear to the National Dairymen that a man eats 
butterine because he cannot afford to buy butter ; nor to the Na- 
tional Wool Growers that he wears a shoddy coat because he can- 
not afford to wear clothing made of wool. The organisation of a 
Dairymen's Protective Union comes at an opportune time ; be- 
cause, in Chicago at least, the people are profoundly thinking of 
combining themselves into a Protective Union against the dairy- 


Last week I spoke of the ravenous raid made upon the new 
Mayor by the brigade of patriots who called upon him to demand 
the fulfilment of "election promises." Since then, the siege of 
the City Hall has been pressed with so much vigor that the Mayor 
has been compelled to evacuate it, and he has retreated to some 
secret citadel where he is hiding himself away. As the papers ex- 
press it this morning, " Mayor Hopkins has been driven from the 
City Hall. The pressure of the office-seekers has become so strong 
that the Mayor could not stand before it." His retreat is known 
only to himself and his private secretary, "who bobbed in and 
out of the City Hall all day. Each time he went to the Mayer's 
office he took some roundabout way which baffled the attempts of 
the enterprising and unrewarded politicians who hoped to search 
out the Mayor by following his private secretary." From a mili- 
tary point of view the strategy of the Mayor appears to be well 
planned, but it will avail him nothing, even though he should hide 
himself on Selkirk's Island. Had Robinson Crusoe been an Amer- 
ican civil officer of high rank, with "patronage" to give, he would 
not have enjoyed the solitary quietness of his island for twenty- 
eight years. The office-hunters would have discovered him in 
twenty-eight days ; and as for Mayor Hopkins, he will not be hid- 
den for twenty-eight hours. It is dollars to cents that he will be 
tracked to his hole in the ground as easily as the foxhounds find a 

* * 

To a man fond of luxurious religion, the following advertise- 
ment sent by a correspondent to the Sf. /anus's Gazette is as tempt- 
ing as venison was to the friar of orders gray. " Church Prefer- 
ment. — A valuable living for sale in the suburbs of London. Sale 
urgent. Prospect of early possession. Net income nine hundred 
pounds. Light work. The best society. Practically no poor. 
Beautiful modern church." Here is offered for sale a fine oppor- 
tunity to serve the Lord with comfort, and get for the service nine 
hundred pounds a year. I wonder what the Twelve Apostles would 
have thought of such a bit of "church preferment," even suppos- 
ing that any of them had money enough to buy it, which, except- 
ing Matthew, it is likely none of them bad. If life is worth living 
at all, this particular "living" is properly described as "valua- 
ble," and as the sale is "urgent" and the market rather dull, the 
"preferment" may no doubt be had at less than the usual rates 
for property of that kind. The religious hope that the present in- 
cumbent will soon die is gracefully thrown into the bargain as a 
"prospect of early possession," but this cheerful promise is not at 
all to be relied on, for longevity is very conspicuous in clergymen 
whose beneficies are coveted by men who have bought them in ex- 
pectancy. I knew a case of that kind — in the suburbs of London, 
too — where the incumbent whose early death had been stipulated 
for, obstinately refused to die. The patron of the living being re- 
proached by the purchaser of it for selling the "prospect of early 
possession," excused himself by saying, "Well, he had a bad 
cough and three doctors, and I was not expecting miracles." This 
old parson held on to his "living" for more than twenty years 
after that, and died at the age of ninety-three. 



It is related of a bishop of London who was dying, that he 
called his servants to bid them farewell, and one of them, thinking 
to comfort him, said ; ' ■ Your Lordship is going to a better place. ' 
" No, John," said the bishop, " there is no better place than old 
England." He was right ; there is no better place than old Eng- 
land—for a bishop, or for the incumbent of that " living" in the 
suburbs of London, advertised above. Think of it, nine hundred 
pounds a year and "light work "; hardly anything to do, because 
as the parishioners belong to " the best society," their souls are 
already cured. Then, the pleasure of preaching in a "beautiful 
modern church," not a cold stone temple of the Gothic-rheumatic 
order, but a warm and well-ventilated house of worship, whose 
plush and mahogany give to the eucharist itself a fashionable lone ! 
The spiritual delights of this coveted ' ' living " would be very much 
impaired should Lazarus happen to call at the parsonage and sit 
on the steps ; but, luckily for the parson, in that parish there are 
"practically no poor." I should like to know whereabouts in the 
suburbs of London that blessed paradise is. I have never found 
it, although those delectable suburbs are very familiar to me. A 
minister of the gospel who keeps the sacraments for the rich, may 
have a delightful time of it here below, but he will not wear a very 
dazzling halo up above, and I fear that when he tries to enter the 
celestial gates, he may be sent by St. Peter down to the lower do- 
minions, where there are "practically no poor." 

The tone and temper of the speeches made in Congress justify 
the opinion that the members would make excellent foot-ball 
players ; and a game between the Democrats on one side and the 
Republicans on the other would be very delightful— to the specta- 
tors ; that is, if the honorable members worked their hands and 
feet as viciously as they exercise their tongues. A day or two ago, 
a member of the House classically alluded to the President of the 
United States as "the stuffed prophet of Buzzard's Bay "; and 
another, at the end of an exciting and vociferous " touch-down," 
said, "I have done up the Tammany tiger, and I'd like to tackle 
the Kansas gopher." The tiger was Mr. Cochran, and the gopher 
was Mr. Simpson. Those complimentary arguments are very much 
in the style of the college debating-club, where the undeveloped 
youngsters learn statesmanship by the aid of object-lessons, as our 
members of Congress do. Last week Mr. Simpson, in order to 
show the difference between woolen goods and shoddy, found it 
necessary to display an old coat for the instruction of the mem- 
bers, and he tore it up in the presence of an awe-stricken assem- 
bly, in order to show how frail and feeble its texture was. Imi- 
tating the "gentleman from Kansas," Mr. Bowers, of California, 
pleading for a high tariff on raisins, actually distributed raisins 
among the members, as if their minds were too feeble to compre- 
hend the argument without help from the visible subject of it, 
raisins. The report of the debate informs us that ■; there was 
great scrambling among the members, especially on the Demo- 
cratic side, and soon half the House was complacently munching 
the fruit." Mr. Bowers thought that he might convince the ap- 
petite, if he could not enlighten the mind. 
* * * 

In his admirable essay on Tyndall, which appeared in The 
Open Court last week, Mr. Moncure D. Conway refers to the 
famous " prayer gauge " proposed by Tyndall several years ago, 
and rejected, curiously enough, by the very persons who not only 
believe in prayer, but who actually pray for health, wealth, rain, 
sunshine, good crops, good luck, and hundreds of other things. 
While I do not believe that prayer can have any effect on the laws 
of the material universe, I am not at all certain that as a subjective 
stimulant a prayer for virtue may not help to make a bad man 
good ; and, perhaps, by the same quality, it may help to make a 
sick man well. "The challenge," remarks Mr. Conway, " was 

wrathfuUy declined by the churches, but it had its effect," That 
the challenge was wrathfully declined by the churches is astonish- 
ing, because the prayer-test is frequently mentioned in the Bible, 
and, according to the Scriptures, many important theological dis- 
putes were decided by wager of prayer. Of this, the victory won 
by Elijah over the prophets of Baal at Mount Carmel is a mem- 
orable example. Besides, in England and America the "prayer 
gauge " is recognised and established in the laws appointing chap- 
lains, whose official duty it is to pray. In his Thanksgiving proc- 
lamation. Governor Waite of Colorado prayed for the free coinage 
of legal-tender silver at a ratio of i6 to i, and at this very moment 
the prayer-test is called upon to settle the differences in the Legis- 
lature of that State. Here is what appears in the dispatches of 
yesterday from Colorado : "In the Senate this afternoon Parson 
Tom Uzzel prayed that there may be a giving way ; and that the 
deadlock stopping legislation and causing a great deal of criticism 
may be lifted soon." All other agencies having failed, let us hope 
that the prayers of Parson Tom Uzzel may prevail. 

M. M. Trumbull. 


Monday next, the twenty-ninth of January, will be the one 
hundred and fifty-fourth birthday of Thomas Paine. Our readers 
will find Mr. Moncure D. Conway's article in the present number 
very appropriate reading on this occasion. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



PAINE. Moncure D. Conway 3951 


(Continued.) Editor 3952 


Editor 3955 

CURRENT TOPICS : Against Oleomargarine. A Raid 
of Office-hunters. Luxurious Religion. Object Lessons 
in Congress. The Prayer-gauge. Gen. M. M. Trum- 
bull 3957 

NOTES 3958 


The Open Court. 



No. 336. (Vol. VIII.— 5.) 


( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



The significance of suffrage and the power of the 
ballot have been idealised by statesman, poet, and 
artist alike, each in his own way. In the heated dis- 
cussions on the enfranchisement of the Southern Freed- 
men, Charles Sumner, on the floor of the Senate, said : 

" The ballot is the Columbiad of our political life, and every 
citizen who holds it is a full-armed monitor." 

In the early days of the anti-slavery and temper- 
ance struggles, in urging reformers to use their polit- 
ical power at the polls to accomplish their objects, the 
Rev. John Pierpont said of the ballot : 

" A weapon that comes down as still 
As snow-flakes fall upon the sod ; 
But executes a freeman's will 

As lightning does the Will of God." 

At the birth of the third French Republic, in one 
of the open squares in Paris a monument was raised to 
commemorate the advent of universal suffrage. The 
artist had carved various designs and mottoes on three 
sides of the shaft, and on the fourth stood a magnifi- 
cent lion, his paw on the ballot-box, with a sphinx-like 
questioning look as to the significance of this new de- 
parture in government. He seemed to say, the sacred 
rights of humanity represented here I shall faithfully 
guard against all encroachments while the Republic 

In our Republic to-day the social, civil, political 
and religious rights of sixty-five millions of people all 
centre in the ballot-box, not guarded by a royal lion, 
but by the grand declarations of American statesmen 
at the foundation of our Government. In their in- 
spired moments they sent their first notes of universal 
freedom echoing round the globe in these words : "All 
men are created equal." "All just governments de- 
rive their powers from the consent of the governed." 
"Taxation without representation is tyranny." 

These are not glittering generalities, high-sounding 
platitudes with no practical significance, but eternal 
truths, on the observance of which depend the free- 
dom of the citizen and the stability of the State. The 
right of suffrage is simply the right to govern one's 
self, to protect one's person and property by law. 
While individual rights, individual conscience and 

judgment are the basic principles of our republican 
government and Protestant religion, singularly enough 
some leading politicians talk of restricting the suffrage, 
and even suggest that we turn back the wheels of pro- 
gress by repealing the fourteenth and fifteenth amend- 
ments, that charter of new liberties, irrespective of 
race, color, and previous condition of servitude. It is 
well for such as these to consider the origin of rights. 

In the early history of the race, when every man 
exercised his natural right of self-protection with the 
free use of the sling and the bow and arrow, it would 
have been the height of tyranny to deprive him of the 
rude weapons so necessary for his defence. It is 
equally cruel in civilised government to deprive the 
citizen of the ballot, his only weapon of self-defence 
against unjust laws and self-constituted rulers. 

In the inauguration of government, when men 
made compacts for mutual protection and surrendered 
the rude weapons used when each one was a free 
lance, they did not surrender the natural right to pro- 
tect themselves and their property by laws of their 
own making, they simply substituted the ballot for the 
bow and arrow. 

Would any of these gentlemen who think universal 
suffrage a blunder be willing tcf surrender his right, 
and henceforth be subject to the popular will, without 
even the privilege of a protest ? 

Does any thoughtful man really believe that he has 
a natural right to deprive another of the means of self- 
protection, and that he has the wisdom to govern in- 
dividuals and classes better than they can govern 
themselves? England's experiment with Ireland, Rus- 
sia with Poland, the Southern States with Africans, the 
Northern States with women, all prove the impossi- 
bility of one class legislating with fairness for another. 

The bitter discontent and continued protests of all 
these subject classes, are so many emphatic denials of 
the right of one man to govern another without his 
consent. Forbidden by law to settle one's own quar- 
rels with the rude weapons of savage .life, and denied 
their substitute in civilisation, the position of the citi- 
zen is indeed helpless, with his rights of person and 
property wholly at the mercy of others. 

Such is the real position of all citizens who are de- 
nied the right of suffrage. They may have favor§ 



granted them, they may enjoy many privileges, but 
they cannot be said to have any sacred rights. 

But we are told that disfranchisement does not 
affect the position of women, because they are bound 
to the governing classes by all the ties of family, friend- 
ship, and love, by the affection, loyalty, and chivalry 
that every man owes his mother, sister, wife, and 
daughter. Her rights of person and property must be 
as safe in his hands as in her own. Does woman need 
protection from the men of her own family ? 

Let the calendars of our courts and the columns of 
our daily papers answer the question. The disfran- 
chisement of woman is a terrible impeachment of the 
loyalty and chivalry of every man in this nation. How 
few have ever penned one glowing period, or cast one 
vote for woman's emancipation. 

Speaking of class-legislation, George William Cur- 
tis said : 

"There is no class of citizens, and no single citizen, who can 
safely be intrusted with the permanent and exclusive possession 
of political power. It is as true of men as a class, as it is of an 
hereditary nobility, or of a class of property-holders. Men are 
not wise enough, nor generous enough, nor pure enough to legis- 
late fairly for women. The laws of the most civilised nations de- 
press and degrade women. The legislation is in favor of the legis- 
lating class." 

Buckle, in his "History of Civilisation," says : 

" There is no instance on record of any class possessing power 
without abusing it." 

And even if all men were wise, generous, and hon- 
orable, possessed of all the cardinal virtues, it would 
still be better for women to govern themselves, to ex- 
ercise their own capacities and powers in assuming 
the responsibilities of citizenship. 

Whenever and wherever the right of suffrage has 
not proved beneficial, it has not been because the citi- 
zen had too many rights, but because he did not know 
how to use them for his own advantage. 

We are continually pointed to the laboring masses 
and the Southern Freedmen to show the futility of suf- 
frage. If our campaign orators in all the elections 
would educate the masses in the principles of political 
economy, instead of confusing them with clap-trap 
party politics, they would better understand their true 
interests and vote accordingly. Instead of repealing 
the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, multiply 
schools, teachers, lecturers, preachers in the South 
and protect the freedman in the exercise of his rights. 
Our mistake in the South, when we had the power, 
was not in securing to the blacks their natural rights, 
but in not holding those States as Territories until the 
whites understood the principles of republican govern- 
ment and the blessings of individual freedom for others 
as well as themselves. 

George William Curtis says : 

"There is no audacity so insolent, no tyranny so wanton, as 
the spirit which says to any human being, or to any class of human 
beings, ' you shall be developed just as far as we choose, and as 
fast as we choose, and your mental and moral life shall be subject 
to our pleasure' ! " 

John Stuart Mill says : 

" There ought to be no pariahs in a full-grown and civilised 
nation ; no persons disqualified except through their own default. 
.... Every one is degraded, whether aware of it or not, when 
other people, without consulting him, take upon themselves un- 
limited power to regulate his destiny. No arrangement of the suf- 
frage, therefore, can be permanently satisfactory in which any 
person or class is peremptorily excluded ; in which the electoral 
privilege is not open to all persons of full age who desire it." 

The distinctions lexicographers make between the 
elective franchise and suffrage, mark the broad differ- 
ence between privileges and rights. While suffrage 
recognises the natural rights of the individual, the 
elective franchise recognises privileged classes. It is 
these contradictory definitions, of phrases some con- 
strue to mean the same thing, that has given rise to 
the theory that the suffrage is a political privilege. 

Gratz Brown eloquently said, on the floor of the 
Senate in that memorable discussion on the District 
Columbia Suffrage Bill. 

" Let this idea of suffrage as a political privilege that the few 
may extend or withhold at pleasure, crystallise in the minds of our 
people, and we have rung the death knell of American liberties." 

The philosophy of suffrage covers the whole field 
of individual and national government. For the former 
it means self-development, self-protection, self-sover- 
eignty. For the latter it means a rule of majorities : 
"the censensus of the competent," the protection of 
the people in all their public and private interests. I 
have always taken the ground that suffrage is a natural 
right, the status of the citizen in a republic is the same 
as a king on his throne ; the ballot is his sceptre of 
power, his crown of sovereignty. 

Whenever and wherever the few were endowed 
with the right to make laws and choose their rulers, 
the many can claim the same origin for their rights 
also. We argue the rights of persons from their ne- 
cessities. To breathe, sleep, walk, eat, and drink, 
are natural rights, necessary to physical development. 
So the right to think, express one's opinions, mould 
public sentiment, to choose one's conditions and en- 
vironments, are necessities for psychical development. 

By observation, we decide the wants of animals, 
what they can do, their degree of intelligence and treat 
them accordingly. So in the study of human beings, 
we see their wants and needs, their capacities and 
powers and from their manifestations, we argue their 
natural rights. Children early show a determination 
to have their own way, a natural desire to govern 
themselves. Whoever touches their playthings with- 
out their consent arouses their angry resistance, show- 



ing the natural desire to own property. From these 
manifestations in the human family, at all ages and in 
all latitudes, we infer that self-government, the pro- 
tection of person and property against all encroach- 
ments, are natural rights. 

Individual freedom comprises freedom in all de- 
partments of nature, the acknowledgment for every 
man of the full, free use of all his faculties. But it is 
the failure on the part of one individual to accord to 
others what he demands for himself, that causes the 
conflicts and disputes on all subjects. Each person 
strongly individualised maintains that his theories and 
line of action must be right, and those who differ from 
him necessarily wrong. Here comes in the great enemy 
of individual freedom : " the love of domination " ; the 
strong hereditary feature of our animal-descent, which 
prevents the harmonious development of the oppressor 
as well as the oppressed. 

The true use of this love of domination is in gov- 
erning ourselves. Every person given to introspec- 
tion is conscious of contending elements in himself, 
some urging him to the highest moral rectitude, under 
all circumstances, others tempting to a narrow selfish 
egoism to exalt one's self at the expense of his fellows. 
Here is the legitimate use of domination to control the 
evil in ourselves. As the chief business of life is char- 
acter-building, we must begin by self-discipline, as 
thus only can we secure individual freedom. It is more 
hopeless to be the slave of our own evil propensities, 
than to be subject to the will of another. 

This love of domination is the most hateful feature 
of human nature, antagonistic alike to the freedom of 
the individual and the stability of the State. Just as 
the love of domination retards the development of the 
individual, so it prevents the realisation of republican 
principles in government. Could this power find its 
legitimate exercise on the vices and crimes of society, 
on the fraud and corruption in high places, it would 
no longer be a dangerous element, but most beneficent 
in its influences and far reaching consequences on civil- 

Herbert Spencer speaking of the nature of a new 
social science, says : 

" It is manifest that so far as human beings, considered as so- 
cial units, have properties in common, the social aggregates they 
form will have properties in common ; so that whether we look at 
the matter in the abstract or the concrete, we reach the same con- 
clusion. And thus recognising both a priori and a posteriori, 
these relations between the phenomena of individual nature, and 
the phenomena of incorporated human nature, we cannot fail to 
see that the phenomena of incorporated human nature form the 
subject-matter of a science." 

In other words, the manifestations of the individ- 
ual and of organised society being the same the inter- 
ests of the individual and society lie in the same di- 
rection. We often hear of the necessity of sacrificing 

the individual to society, but no such necessity exists, 
as the rights of the individual and the citizen have the 
same origin and their public and private interests de- 
mand the same protection. 

Individual freedom and self-government, citizen- 
ship and suffrage are synonymous. In demanding 
their own enfranchisement, have women been pursuing 
a shadow the last half century? In seeking political 
power do they abdicate that social throne where their 
influence is said to be unbounded ? 

No, no, the right of suffrage is not a mere shadow, 
but a substantial entity, that the citizen can wield for 
his own protection and his country's welfare. An in- 
dividual opinion, counted on all questions of public 
interest is better than indirect influence, be it ever so 
far-reaching. Though influence, like the pure white 
light, is all-pervading, yet it is ofttimes obscured with 
passing clouds and nights of darkness ; — like the sun's 
rays it may be healthy, genial, inspiring, though some- 
times too direct for comfort, too oblique for warmth, 
too scattered for any given purpose. But as the prism 
by dividing the rays of light reveals to us the brilliant 
coloring of the atmosphere, and as the burning-glass 
by concentrating them in a focus intensifies their heat, 
so does the right of suffrage reveal the beauty and 
power of individual sovereignty in the great drama of 
national life, — while on a vital measure of public in- 
terest it unites the many voices of the people in a grand 
chorus of protest or applause. 


The existence of a common will in a tribe is a fact, 
and the existence of the State, as the consciously organ- 
ised common will of a certain society, is also a fact. 
The question, however, arises, Is this power a usurpa- 
tion? Is it not perhaps an unjustifiable and odious 
tyranny? And if it is to be recognised as a legitimate 
power, on what authority does it rest ? 

The old explanation of State authority is the Tory 
explanation, that royalty exists by the grace of God. 
The latest and perhaps (in Protestant countries, at 
least) the last defender of the Tory system was Fried- 
rich Julius Stahl (born in 1802 of Jewish parentage, bap- 
tised in 1819, called to the University of Berlin in 1843 
by the King of Prussia, Frederick William IV., be- 
came the leader of the ultra-conservative party 1848- 
1861, the year of his death ; his main work was " Die 
Philosophie des Rechts, " 3 vol.) 

Stahl's criticism of the old Jus fiaiura/e is poor ; his 
Jewish-Christian conceptions of a supernatural revela- 
tion prevented him from seeing the truth, which in 
spite of some errors was contained in that idea of clas- 



sic antiquity. His famous demand of "DieUmkehr 
der Wissenschaft," (viz., that science should return) is 
a sin against the Holy Ghost, who reveals himself in 
the progress of science. Rejecting the view of the 
ancients concerning the authority of the State, he 
founded it upon God's ordinance. The State, accord- 
ing to Stahl, is Gottes Weltordjiung ; it is a human in- 
stitution founded upon divine authority ; it is the estab- 
lishment of a moral empire. 

Stahl is a reactionary thinker ; State authority l^Ob- 
rigkeit or Staatsgewalt), according to his view, stands 
absolutely opposed to the idea of popular sovereignty ; 
the former represents the idea of legitimacy, the latter 
the principle of revolution. Stahl stood in conscious 
and outspoken opposition to the doctrine of Frederick 
the Great, in whose conception the sovereign had be- 
come a mere servant of the State. Stahl sees in the 
sovereign a representative of God ; the sovereign rules 
over his subjects, whose sole business it is to obey. 
These are antiquated ideas, to refute which is almost 
redundant in Anglo-Saxon countries, the institutions of 
which are established upon successful revolutions. 
Stahl was a genius of great acumen and profound 
philosophical insight, yet his face was turned back- 
wards, and so he had not the slightest inkling of the 
ideal State, which, it appears to us, it is the duty of the 
Anglo-Saxon races to realise. 

Stahl is right, however, in so far as he maintains 
that the State is actually the realisation of a moral em- 
pire. That is to say, the State is, as the Roman sages 
thought, based upon the jus natiirale ; it is a natural 
product of evolution, and as such it reveals the nature 
of that All-power, which religious language hails by 
the name of God. 

When we speak of God, we must be careful in de- 
fining what we mean, for it may either be an empty 
phrase or the cover under which oppressions mask 
their schemes for usurping the power of government. 

When we grant that the State is a divine institu- 
tion, we mean that its existence is based upon the un- 
alterable laws of nature. All facts are a revelation of 
God ; they are parts of God and reveal God's nature ; 
• but the human soul and that moral empire of human 
souls called the State are more dignified parts of God 
than the most wonderful phenomena of unorganised 

It is customary now to reject the idea of jus tiatu- 
rale as a fiction, to describe it as that which according 
to the pious wishes of some people ought to be law, so 
that it appears as a mere anticipation of our legal ideals 
appealing to the vague ethical notions of the people. 
Law, it is said, is nothing primitive or primordial, but 
a secondary product of our social evolution, and the 
intimation of 2^ jus tiaturale is a fairy-tale of metaphys- 
ics, which must be regarded as antiquated at the pres- 

ent stage of our scientific evolution. It is strange, 
however, that those who take this view fall back after 
all upon nature as the source of law ; they derive it 
from the nature of man, from the natural conditions 
of society, and thus reintroduce the same old doctrine 
under new names — only in less pregnant expressions. 
Most of these criticisms are quite appropriate, for there 
is no such thing as an abstract law behind the facts of 
nature ; no codified jus naturale, the paragraphs of 
which we have simply to look up like a code of posi- 
tive law. In the same way there are no laws of nature ; 
but we do not for that reason discard the idea and re- 
tain the expression. If we speak of the laws of nature, 
we mean certain universal features in the nature of 
things, which can be codified in formulas. Newton's 
formula of gravitation is not the power that makes the 
stones fall ; it only describes a universal quality of 
mass concisely and exhaustively. In the same way 
the idea of dijus naturale is an attempt to describe that 
which according to the nature of things has the fac- 
ulty of becoming law. The positive law is always 
created by those in power ; if their formulation of the 
law is such as would suit their private interests alone, 
if for that purpose they make it illogical or unfair to 
other parties, it will in the long run of events subvert 
the social relations of that State and deprive the ruling 
classes of their power; in one word, being in conflict 
with the nature of things it will not stand. If, how- 
ever, the codification of rights properly adjusts the 
spheres of the various interests that constitute society, 
if it is free of self-contradictions and irrational excep- 
tions, it will stand and enhance the general prosperity 
of society. The former is in conflict with the jus tia- 
turale, the latter in agreement with it. 

Thus we are quite justified in saying that the positive 
law obtains, while the natural law is that which ought 
to obtain ; the positive law has the power, the natural 
law the authority ; and all positive law is valid only in 
so far as it agrees with the natural law ; when it de- 
viates from that, it becomes an injustice and is doomed. * 
In a word, theyW tiaturale is the justice of the positive 
law and its- logic. That its formulation is not directly 
given in nature, and that it is difficult to comprehend 
it in exact terms, must not prevent us from seeing its 
sweeping importance. If there were no such constant 
features in the nature of society which are the leading 
motives of all the historical evolutions of the positive 
law, our conceptions of right and wrong would have to 
be regarded as mere phantoms, and our ideal of justice 
would be merely a dream. f 

* See Jodl's lecture Ueber das Wt-sen des Naturreclites, Wien,. 1893. 

t The problem is at bottom the same as the problem of reason, of logic, 
arithmetic, and all the formal sciences. There have been people who think 
that the world-reason is a personal being who permeates the world and inserts 
part of his being into rational creatures. In opposition to them, other philos- 
ophers deny the existence of a world-reason and declare that human reason is 



There are wrong conceptions of the jus naturalt, 
but there is also a right conception of it. In the same 
way there are pagan conceptions of Christianity and 
there is a purified conception of it. Stahl did not see 
that the true conception of the jus naturale is the same 
as the purified conception of Christianity. For the 
purified conception of Christianity is monistic ; it re- 
gards natural phenomena as the revelations of God, 
and the voice of reason as the afflatus of the Holy 

The State is a human institution, but as such it is 
as divine as man's soul ; the State should not consist 
of rulers and ruled subjects, but of free citizens. And 
yet we must recognise the truth that the State is a 
superindividual power, and that the laws of the State 
have an indisputable authority over all its members. 

* * 

When we say the State is divine, we do not mean 
to say that all the ordinances of government are, a for- 
tiori, to be regarded as right. By no means. We might 
as well infer that because man's soul is divine all men 
are saints, and their actions are eo ipso moral. Oh, no ! 
The State institution, as such, and the human soul, as 
such, are divine ; they are moral beings and more or 
less representative incarnations of God on earth. 

The State is truly, as Stahl says, a moral empire, 
or, rather, its purpose is the realisation of a moral 
empire on earth. The State is, religiously speaking, 
God's instrument to make man more human and hu- 
mane, to bring him more and more to perfect himself, 
and to actualise the highest ideals of which he is capa- 
ble. But the State of Stahl's conception can beget a 
bastard morality only ; it represents the ethics of the 
slave, which consists in obedience ; it does not repre- 
sent the ethics of the children of the free, which alone 
can develop true and pure morality. 

The State, in order to become a moral empire, must 
recognise the rights of the individual and keep his lib- 
erty inviolate. 

The principle of individualism arose out of a revolt 
against the principle of suppression. The individual- 
istic movement is a holy movement, beginning with 
Luther, represented by Kant, but breaking down in its 
one-sided application in the French Revolution. Indi- 
vidualism is the principle of the right to revolution, but 
the right to revolution is a religious right ; it is a duty 
wherever tyranny infringes upon the liberty of its sub- 

of a purely subjective origin, an artificial makeshift, a secondary product of 
very complex conditions. We regard both parties as partially right and par- 
tially wrong; we say : There are certain immutable features in the relations 
of things, which, in their various applications, can be formulated in logic, 
arithmetic, geometry, and all the other formal sciences. Thus, human reason 
is after all a revelation of the world-reason. The world-reason, it is true, is 
no personal being, yet does it exist none the less ; being a feature of facts, it 
possesses an objective reality. Its formulation is an abstract concept of the 
human mind, but, with all that, it is not a mere liction, a vain speculation, or 
an aberration from the truth. 

jects, wherever it interferes with the natural aspiration 
of citizens for higher ideals, and wherever it prevents 

The old governments were class-governments. We 
cannot investigate here the extent to which this state 
of things was a necessary phase in the evolution of the 
State ; but we maintain that the breakdown of these 
forms was an indispensable condition to a higher ad- 
vance. The old State consists in the organisation of 
governments with subjects to be governed, the new 
State is the organisation of free citizens to realise the 
ideal of a moral community. 

The old State is based upon the so-called divine 
right of kings, an organisation of a few rulers or of the 
ruling classes. The new State must be the organised 
common will of the people ; and its authority is the 
divinity of the moral purpose which this common will 
adopts. The government should not do any ruling or 
mastering, the government should simply be an ad- 
ministration of those affairs which the common will, 
for good reasons, regards as public. 

The ideal of the new State can be put into practice 
only where the common will is animated by a common 
conscience ; and this common conscience should not 
be a tribal conscience justifying every act that would 
be useful to, or enhance the power of, this special 
people as a whole : the common conscience must be 
the voice of justice ; it must recognise above the State- 
ideal the supernational ideal of humanity, and must 
never shrink from acting in strict accordance with 
truth and the fullest recognition of truth. 

If the State is to be based exclusively upon the 
principle of individualism, the State will break down, 
but if the State is recognised as an embodiment of the 
moral world-order, it will adopt the principle of indi- 
vidualism as a fundamental maxim, for without liberty 
no morality. The slave has no moral responsibilit)', 
the free man has. 

From these considerations we regard the principle 
of individualism as the most sacred inheritance of the 
revolutionary efforts of mankind, which, becoming vic- 
torious in Luther's time, still remain so. We do not 
reject the truths of former eras : on the contrary, we 
prove all things, and, discriminating between the evil 
and the good, we keep that which is true. In preserv- 
ing the ancient idea that the State is founded upon the 
immutable order of nature, and the Christian idea that 
the purpose of the State is the realisation of moral 
ideals, we avoid the one-sidedness and errors which 
naturally originate when a man in controversy, as a 
method of effectually resisting his adversary, denies 
that there is any truth at all in his opponent's views, 
and out of mere spite indiscriminately opposes all his 




The National Farmers' Alliance met in convention yesterday 
and passed the customary set of resolutions. The National Farm- 
ers, in the same patriotic spirit that animated the National Dairy- 
men and the National Woolgrowers, "wanted a law passed," but 
they wanted it for the protection of the people against the adul- 
teration of food and food products. The self-devotion shown in 
this demand is greatly to be praised, for if such a law should be 
rigidly enforced, it might go hard with some of the National Farm- 
ers. There must have been some humorous fellow on the Reso- 
lutions Committee, for after "demanding" about a dozen'impos- 
sible things, the platform "favors a course of reading for farmers 
on the Chatauqua plan." In that resolution there is irony enough 
to make a plough, but nevertheless, the resolution is a good one, 
and if the Chatauqua plan should for any reason fail, the National 
Farmers will find themselves benefited by a course of reading on 
any earthly plan whatever. After demanding miraculous money 
"with stability as well as flexibility, and with value as well as 
volume," the National Farmers called for a greater miracle still, 
the resignation of his office by Mr. Sterling Morton, the Secretary 
of Agriculture. Perhaps the most imbecile failure to be found in 
American politics is a resolution asking a man to resign such an 
exceedingly good thing as a seat in the Cabinet with a good salary 
for himself and unlimited garden-seeds to distribute among his 
friends. National Farmers who know so little about the genius of 
American politics as to expect that the lucky incumbent of such 
an office will resign it at their invitation, cannot apply themselves 
too soon to " a course of reading on the Chatauqua plan." 

All other means of relieving the garrison having failed, the 
" small-pox " alarm was turned in to frighten the legions of office- 
hunters and compel them to raise the siege of the City Hall. It 
availed nothing, and now the postmaster is trying another plan to 
scare away a similar host of besiegers from the post-office. He is 
trying to make it appear that men who accept a place in the post- 
office rush into mortal danger. He has had the atmosphere of the 
building analysed by expert chemists, and the report they make, 
though not so loud, is more alarming than guns in battle. They 
find "an excess of carbon dioxide in the air, and the amount of 
dust was marked." The experiments were made at the most favor- 
able time, when the air was unusually pure, but in spite of that, 
the report says, "In the basement the amount of dust was most 
marked, and Petri dishes four inches in diameter that were ex- 
posed here for three minutes showed 350 bacteria to have fallen 
upon them, while the amount of carbon dioxide estimated in parts - 
per 10,000 was 12-28." In some other parts of the building the 
bacteria were still more numerous, and the carbon dioxide thicker. 
Up to the present moment this poisonous report has made no im- 
pression on the applicants for office ; and one of them having been 
assured that there were 15,000 bacteria in every cubic inch of the 
post-office, replied with reckless hardihood, "Well, I can stand it 
if the bacteriers can. Work may be dangerous in the post-office 
or anywhere else, but it is not so dangerous as idleness." 

# * 

In the dialogue between the grave-diggers in Hamlet, one of 
them says to the other, "He that is not guilty of his own death 
shortens not his own life." Doubtful of this, the second grave- 
digger says, " But is this law ?" And to that his companion an- 
swers, "Ay, marry is't, crowner's quest law." This answer ap- 
pears to be logically sound, but the question is up again, not in 
Denmark this time, but in the State of New York, where the grand 
jury has just indicted the leaders of several Christian science so- 
cieties. "The occasion of the indictments," as we are informed 
by the newspapers, was " the death of a woman while under the 
care of Christian scientists. She had been without the services of 

a regular physician. The coroner's jury denounced the individ- 
uals whom she had engaged to treat her, and later the grand jury 
made out several indictments. " This new application of ' ' crowner's 
quest law" will now be tested in the courts, and we shall soon find 
out whether or not we can lawfully die without the assistance of a 
"regular physician." It is rather curious that when a man dies 
under metaphysical treatment the coroner is called in, but when 
he dies from "regular" physical medicine no surprise is mani- 
fested and no "crowner's quest" is held. It is a strange anomaly 
that the faith-healers have been indicted in the State of New York, 
for in that State the people are supposed to know the dangers of 
the "regular" practice. Some time ago. Dr. Charles C. Bom- 
baugh of Baltimore delivered a lecture before the New York Acad- 
emy of Medicine, in which he said: "Of the eleven thousand 
medicaments on the list, it would be quite safe to dispense with 
ten thousand. And as to the remaining one thousand, most of us 
would still find on the roll a sufficient surplusage of sawdust to 
' make the judicious grieve.' " This confession was frank enough, 
but not prudent ; because if those ten thousand pretended reme- 
dies are injurious and may safely be dispensed with, may not the 
doctors who prescribe them be dispensed with, too. 

* # 

Simultaneously comes news from Ottawa, Illinois, to the effect 
that "the allopathic physicians, who, having some months ago 
formed the Ottawa City Medical Society, have now decided that 
no homoeopathic physicians or others deemed ' irregular ' shall 
henceforth be recognised by the society or its members as physi- 
cians or surgeons." This action was deemed necessary because 
" not a few allopaths had fallen into the practice of inviting the 
homoeopaths to be present at operations, and had repeated calls to 
consult with them in doubtful cases." It was decided by a unani- 
mous vote that "where a homoeopath has been employed by a 
patient he must first be discharged before an allopath will consent 
to call." At the first sight of it, this action looks monopolistic and 
intolerant, but it is not, for there is no law to prevent the homoeo- 
paths from adopting a like resolution against the allopaths and 
proclaiming them " irregular." The homoeopaths have a right un- 
der the Constitution of the United States to resolve that "where 
an allopath has been employed by a patient he must first be dis- 
charged before a homoeopath will consent to call." It is only when 
one " pathy " calls upon the law to persecute the other that it be- 
comes tyrannical, when it " wants to have a law passed " for the 
suppression of rival "schools," or when it calls upon the coroner 
or the grand jury to punish any doctor who kills a patient except 
in the "regular" way, 

* " * 

Among the persons of eminence whom I respect and cordially 
dislike is the unromantic learned man who drives out of my hos- 
pitable beliefs the genii and the fairies I have cherished there so 
long ; the detective historian, for instance, who proves to me from 
the contemporaneous records and the authentic documents that 
there never was any Robinson Crusoe, nor William Tell, nor Jack 
the Giant Killer. If science goes on at the present rate there will 
soon be no poetry left. Worse than the historian is the learned 
antiquarian overgrown with ivy who shows me that my venerable 
examples, types, and symbols of a former age are false and coun- 
terfeit. Among the holy places where I like to wander as a pilgrim 
is the armory of the Tower of London, filled for the length of a 
street with mail-clad warriors of the olden time, wax-work effigies 
on wooden horses, lances in rest and visors down. With reveren- 
tial awe I love to listen to truthful James the guide, as he describes 
the different earls and kings, and sentimentally remarks as if he 
made the poetry himself, " their bones are dust, their swords are 
rust, their souls are with the saints I trust." Made eloquent by 
the prospect of a secret shilling which he thinks I am going to give 
him, he says, "This is Richard Coeur de Lion in the coat of mail 



which he wore when he overthrew Saladin the Saracen in single 
combat, as you may have read in history. This is Edward the 
Black Prince in the very same accoutrements that he wore at the 
battleof Cressy. Next to him on the right is King Henry the Fifth, 
and the next on the right of him you behold Sir Lionel de Mont- 
morency who commanded the Dragoons at the Battle of Hastings"; 
and so on through the catalogue. When I asked him if he could 
show me Sir Goliath de Gath, he said he could, and he did. Now 
comes the iconoclastic antiquarian and abolishes all that innocent 
enjoyment for evermore. Lord Dillon in the London Antiquarian 
shows that the ancient curiosities in the Tower are modern impos- 
tors,' and that the suits of armor are ignorant anachronisms, one 
piece belonging to the eleventh century and another piece of the 
same suit belonging to the fourteeth or fifteenth century, an expo- 
sure that makes the iron clad crusaders in the Tower of no more 
historic interest than the martial men in brass and iron who prance 
on fiery steeds in a circus parade. I am assured, however, that 
the collection in Lord Dillon's own castle is genuine, but how can 
I believe that, after I have been so basely deceived in the Tower ? 
If there is nothing new under the sun, is there anything old ? 

Following the fashion of every man for himself and against 
everybody else, the lawyers are now pleading for protection against 
the competition of brighter men. They, too. " want a law passed'' 
making it more difficult than ever for aspiring genius to obtain ad- 
mission to the bar. A magnanimous guild of lawyers in Chicago 
proposes to put six additional obstacles in the way of ambitious 
young men who seek to earn a living at the lawyer trade ; and the 
generous purpose of these new obstacles is to lessen competition, 
and make the lawyer business a more narrow and exclusive mo- 
nopoly than it is now. The members of the Bar Association got 
inside when the fence was low, and now they want to make it 
high. They want to raise the standard of education and increase the 
time of study for everybody but themselves. They would not be 
willing to stand the examination and probation they propose for 
others. When the lawyers of Iowa asked the Legislature to improve 
the quality of the bar by requiring applicants for admission to pass 
a more severe examination they strangled their own bill as soon 
as an amendment was proposed requiring all the lawyers to pass 
the new examination or be stricken from the rolls, "and the sub- 
sequent proceedings interested them no more." From the caste 
system of ancient England which made the professions the exclu- 
sive property of the rich we have borrowed the nonsense that 
hedges the bar in Illinois. Instead of putting new barriers up we 
should throw the old ones down. For every man or woman who 
wants to earn an honest living at anything, we ought to make the 
opportunities easier, and not harder. M. M. Trumbull. 





Truth is the same to us all ; yet to each her appearance will vary. 

When she remaineth the same, different conceptions are true. 

Truth that doth injure is dearer to me than available error, 
Truth will cure all pain which is inflicted by truth. 

Whether an error does harm ? Not always ! but certainly erring 
Always does harm, and how much, friends, you will see in the 


Truth will never do harm. Like a mother she sometimes will 

Lovingly rearing her child, but does no flattery brook. 

Error accompanies us, but constantly in us a yearning 
Gently is leading our mind nearer and nearer to truth. 

Do you take truth for an onion whose layers you singly can peel oS ? 

Never you'll draw out the truth save 'twas deposited there. 
[Schiller was a disciple and follower of Kant. In this distich 
and also in the next following "Human Knowledge," he charac- 
terises Kant's view of truth, who finds the conditions of knowledge 
in the thinking subject, not in the object that is thought. A think- 
ing being, according to Kant, does not acquire an insight into the 
laws of form by experience, but possesses them a priori. He thus 
produces truth out of his own being, and imports it into the objec- 
tive world. 

It is true that truth and the criterion of truth, viz., reason, 
develop together with mind ; for indeed reason is a feature of 
mind. Things are real, not true, and truth can dwell in mental rep- 
resentations only. In this sense Kant would be entitled to say, as 
he did, that things have to conform to cognition and not cognition 
to things. But considering the fact that mind develops from and 
by experience which implies a knowledge of things, and that rea- 
son is but the formal elements extracted from experience and sys- 
tematised, — a consideration which Kant did not make because he 
never proposed the problem of the origin of mind — we shall find 
that the nature of truth is not purely so subjective, as our distich 
on the Analytical Truthseekers indicates, but objective. 

For a critical exposition of the problem see the translator's ar- 
ticle "Are There Things in Themselves ? " in Tin- Monist, Vol. II, 
No. 2, pp. 225-265, "Primer of Philosophy," the chapters on the 
A Priori and the Formal ; The Origin of the A Priori, in " Fun- 
damental Problems," the chapter on the Origin of Mind in "The 
Soul of Man."] 

When thou readest in nature the writing which thou hast inscribed 


When its phenomena thou castest in groups for thine eye. 
When thou hast covered its infinite fields with measuring tape- 

Dost thou imagine, thy mind really graspeth the All ? 
Thus the astronomer paints on the skies his star-constellations 

Simply to find his way easily in their domain. 
Suns that revolve at a measureless distance, how closely together 

Have they been joined in the Swan and in the horns of the 

But can the heavens be thus understood in their mystical cycles. 

When their projections appear on planispherical charts ? 


Let me repeat it a hundred, a thousand times : " Error is error." 

Whether the greatest it says, whether the smallest of men. 

What religion have I ? There is none of all you may mention 
Which I embrace. — And the cause ? Truly, religion it is ! 


Labor and the Popular Welfare. By W. H. Mallock. Lon- 
don : Adam and Charles Black. Chicago : A. C. McClurg 
& Co. 1893. 
Mr. Mallock has already obtained some fame by writing " Is 
Life Worth Living ?" a conundrum which he answers in the af- 



firmative by living ; and if he lives as well as he writes, he lives 
well. In the hands of Mr. Mallock political economy is not a 
■• dismal science," but a very attractive part of a political educa- 
tion. In this book the subject is made philosophically simple, as 
it ought to be, and the puzzling jargon of scientific and technical 
definitions is avoided. The argument is lightened by picturesque 
examples and the charms of a literary style admirable for its read- 
ing qualities. The book, of course, contains the usual quantity of 
arithmetic, adding, subtracting, and multiplying all the men, wo- 
men, and children by the number of bushels of this or that, and 
afterwards dividing the whole wealth of the kingdom by the num- 
ber of the inhabitants, and showing the proportion of hogs and 
cattle to each person at various periods of time, but the author 
never carries us into the occult mysteries that lie beyond the rule 
of three. Algebra, diagrams, and logarithms are absent, a great 
merit in any work on economics. 

The trinitarian doctrine, that material wealth is the result of 
Land, Labor, and Capital, is expanded by Mr. Mallock into the 
quadrupedal theory that wealth is the result of Land, Labor, Cap- 
ital, and Ability, and on these four feet it stands. The quadru- 
pedal theory is not complete, for a fifth ingredient must be added, 
the element of good luck. The economists have not yet recog- 
nised this proposition, but it can be proved by the testimony of 
the farmer who tells at the end of the season how much more he 
would have made from his Land, Labor, Capital, and Ability had 
it not been for the cut-worm, and the potato-bug, and the hog- 
cholera, and the lumpy jaw, and the late frost in the Spring, and 
the early frost in the Fall. Mr, Mallock maintains, and with 
plausible reasons, too, that of these agents Ability contributes to 
the material wealth of a nation twice or thrice as much as Labor. 

The main purpose of Mr. Mallock in this book is the refuta- 
tion of certain socialistic theories which he thinks are erroneous 
altogether, or if partially correct are of little practical importance, 
because the amount involved is very small. For instance, he says 
that if all the rent exacted by the " titled and untitled aristocracy," 
was divided equally among all the families in England, it would 
give each man only two pence a day and each woman three half- 
pence. Very well, but this amounts to about a dinner a day, and 
Mr. Mallock ought to show that the " titled and untitled aristoc- 
racy" have a right to confiscate for their own use a dinner a day 
from every man and woman in the kingdom. So, referring to the 
cost of the monarchy, Mr. Mallock rather contemptuously says, 
" What does it come to a head ? It comes to something like six- 
pence half-penny a year." This apology is worthless, if the mon- 
archy is not worth sixpence half-penny; and if it is worth it, the 
excuse is not necessary. 

The most interesting part of the book relates to the superiority 
of Ability over Labor in the production of material wealth, and the 
injustice of demanding an equal distribution of it. There is much 
valuable information in this part of the book, and the argument 
woven out of the facts is very strong. m. m. t. 

A Critical History of Modern English Jurisprudence, A Study 
in Logic, Politics, and Morality, by George H. Smith (San Fran- 
cisco : Bacon Publishing Co. 1893) is a concisely written pam- 
phlet of eighty-three pages, which is deserving of the highest con- 
sideration of students of political questions. It is principally a 
refutation of Hobbes's and Austin's systems of theoretical juris- 
prudence, in connexion with which the author's own views are 
briefly presented. Aside from traditional legal doctrines, the science 
of jurisprudence scarcely exists in Anglo-Saxon countries ; for 
there is no digest of the Common Law as there is of the Roman, 
nor is there any well-developed body of philosophical opinion on 
the subject. The scientific jurisprudence of England has hitherto 
been the system of Austin, which is deeply rooted in the English 

philosophical mind. In this theory law is the arbitrary will of an 
absolute Sovereign Power. Mr. Smith justly remarks, "if this 
theory be true, jurisprudence, as a science of right, can have no 
existence." Jurisprudence, thus, is made a philosophical discipline 
and is defined as " the science of the necessary conditions of ra- 
tional social life." Mr. Smith's views are not new theories, but 
simply a logical analysis of jural facts, as this has been historically 
expressed in the idea of natural law. or Naturrecht. We cannot 
enter into a discussion of this subject here, which has a history 
strangely mixed with fallacies. We also forego the statement of 
diiTerences as to details. The idea of the State and Law as pro- 
ducts of natural growth might, we think, have been more distinctly 
stated. What Mr. Smith gives us is a metaphysics (in the Kantian 
sense) of right, such as it is given in latent law, or in the jural 
sense of mankind. Still, Mr. Smith is dealing with a problem of 
jurisprudence, and that English, and not specifically with a prob- 
lem of natural history. It is a strange anomaly that at this late day 
of inquiry such a work should be needed. But it is. And it is very 
probable that it will be long before its conclusions are recognised. 


We have just received from Tabor, Iowa, a descriptive circu- 
lar of a new " Benefit" enterprise, which those of our readers who 
are interested in such questions may wish to hear of. The idea is 
that of an amendment to the constitution of local churches by 
which all the members of the church, by paying monthly fifty 
cents into a benefit fund, shall be entitled to the free sanitary in- 
spection of their homes, free medical attendance and care during 
illness or disability from accident, a certain sum of money during 
such disability and also to the other usual benefits of such organi- 
sations. As we have not space for a full account of this new move- 
ment, it may be mentioned that full information on the subject 
can be obtained from Prof. T. Proctor Hall, Tabor College, Tabor, 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $t.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



Stanton 3959 


TO REVOLUTION. Editor 3961 

CURRENT TOPICS : Requested to Resign. Idleness More 
Dangerous than Work. Medicine Against Metaphysics. 
Rival Medical Schools. Counterfeit Relics. Protection 
for the Lawyers. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3964 


Editor 3955 


NOTES 3966 


The Open Court. 



No. 337. (Vol. V111.-6.) CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 8, 1894. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Paris, January 19, 1894. 

It has occurred to me that the readers of The Open 
Court might perhaps be interested in some careful ac- 
count of several matters, now going on in Paris, and 
of general importance, as viewed on the spot, even 
though the daily papers may have anticipated much 
that I write. I shall have to be somewhat rambling, 
for Paris is rambling, and perhaps a little gossipy; 
but the things that impress me here just now have 
their grave side, which the philosophical readers of 
The Open Court will not fail to appreciate, even if I 
do not say much in the way of interpretation. 

And first let me state, more seriously than the tele- 
graph will already have done, that the recent fire at 
Chicago, which burnt French articles sent to the Ex- 
position, has extended to Paris, where some of the 
newspapers are in wrathful flames about it. Informa- 
tion has been sent here from Chicago that on the Tues- 
day preceding the fire the French agents there pro- 
tested to the American officials against the withdrawal 
of nineteen out of the twenty fire-engines which had 
been protecting the property. Some of the journals' 
reveal a suspicion that the Americans were not un- 
willing to see the destruction of artistic objects so 
much superior to their own. The culpability of this 
negligence is extended to our whole nation. The 
Temps says that the United States was the most tardy 
nation in accepting the invitation of France to join in 
the Exposition of 1889. The Matin begins a column 
with the exclamation : "What blackguards {canailles) 
these Yankees are ! " It makes all manner of ridicule 
of the American productions exhibited, and declares 
that bad faith was manifested towards France in the 
distribution of medals as well as in the failure to pro- 
tect the porcelain and tapestries destroj'ed. It is 
probable that all this uproar will end in a reclamation 
against the United States government, from which 
came the request that France should send articles to 
the Exposition. It will be probably urged, and not 
without some force, that this invitation, which came 
from Washington, connoted some guarantee that the 
goods would be protected with due care and diligence. 
At any rate, the thing is causing an excitement which 

causes some anxiety at the United States Legation, 
whose Secretary, Henry Vignaud, has already written 
a letter to Le Temps, denying that his country was 
backward in the French Exposition of 1889. A hun- 
dred years ago France was wild with rage because 
John Jay formed with England a commercial treaty in 
virtual violation of our treaty with France, and now 
the anniversary is celebrated with accusations of bad 
faith almost as stormy. Chicago ought to know, also, 
that there is a general feeling in Europe, and that it 
is shared by Americans, of disgust that the Exposition 
should have terminated with such a disaster. I should 
add, however, that particulars have not been fully pub- 
lished here, up to this date, but a long telegram has 
appeared, dated "Chicago, January 17," in which it 
is stated that the Germans in Chicago were at the 
bottom of the obstructions which the French exhibi- 
tors met with from the first. It was only by the friend- 
liness of Guatemala, in giving them part of its space, 
that the French were enabled to exhibit as well as 
they did. The Chicago Germans managed to prevent 
the French scheme of arranging a boulevard scene, 
" Paris-Plaisir." It is added that the Commission of 
the Exposition has opposed an inquiry, proposed by 
the State of Illinois, into the fire, basing their opposi- 
tion on the supreme powers conferred on them by Con- 
gress within the circle of the Exposition. Consequently 
the mysterious affair will never be cleared up. It is 
regarded as a case of German incendiarism. Of course, 
I do not give any credence to these suspicions, but it 
is well that they should be known, and that there 
should be a complete inquiry, the results being pub- 
lished in Paris. 

The incident has occurred at a bad moment. There 
are reactionists enough in France who will be eager to 
score it as another point against republican institutions 
in general. At no previous time since the French Re- 
public was established has there been so much aliena- 
tion from it. It is a notable symptom that in Paris the 
Napoleonic legend commands the centenary of the 
Revolution. The chieftain who raised his military 
despotism on the ruins of a republic, is to-day the hero 
of the theatres, figuring in several plays amid popular 
applause. On the other hand, the present republican 
regime is represented on the stage in merciless carica- 



tures of Senator Berenger ("Pere Pudeur"), who last 
year made a state affair of a ball given by the art stu- 
dents to their models. Some of these models, who 
make their living by posing in studios and art schools, 
wore little clothing ; yet it was a private ball, no money 
being taken at the doors, and the public not admitted. 
The students regarded the hall they had engaged as, 
for that evening, their legal castle. They made a 
merry demonstration against "Father Modesty," be- 
fore his doors, and their dispersion led to riots, in the 
course of which one student was killed. The students 
desired to attend in a body the funeral of their com- 
rade, but the government resolved to prevent this. 
The government took possession of the dead body, 
and the students stood in the streets night and day be- 
fore the gates of the building. At length a mounted 
troop dashed out, the corpse carried among them, and 
galloped away to some place of burial, leaving the 
youths enraged behind. The legislature then passed 
a measure, forbidding masquerade dresses in halls and 
streets excepting during carnival time. The law is 
freely violated in all the theatres and music-halls, the 
only sufferers thus far being, I believe, two respectable 
ladies who were fined for bicycling in knickerbockers 
in the Bois de Boulogne. They were decently dressed, 
but had they waited for carnival time might have ap- 
peared on the boulevards in tights. Thus it is that 
the Napoleonic empire, which permitted entire free- 
dom in popular amusements, and the Republic, which 
has vainly tried to puritanise them, now appear on the 
stage, the former in dignity, the latter in caricature. 
By thus confusing its functions with those of the muni- 
cipality and the police, whose business it is to pre- 
serve public decency and order, the legislature and 
government, besides failing in their attempt, have 
.covered themselves with ridicule, — a perilous thing in 
France, — and have alienated the students and artists. 
Furthermore, they have given a dangerous instruction 
to the suffering classes by assuming the position of 
paternal government. If government can enter pri- 
vate rooms, and control the costumes of their inmates, 
why should it not be required to enter them for the 
purpose of giving clothing to those who have none, 
and food, and employment? The socialists, anarchists, 
and all the foes of the present social order, are making 
the most of every apparent instance of suffering. Dra- 
matic presentations are given of such events as, for 
example, the suicides of the Caubet family, January 
15, last. The father, mother, and daughter, after 
treating themselves to a fine champagne supper, suffo- 
cated themselves with fumes of charcoal. A govern- 
ment which occupies itself with dancers' skirts is nat- 
urally burdened with responsibility for all such things. 
The "bourgeois" Republic was really aimed at by the 
immortelles contributed by socialist societies to the 

ashes of the cremated Caubets. Yet it now turns out 
that they were not in real want, but were all in dejec- 
tion because M'lle Caubet's artistic efforts had been 
refused at the Salon, and the Opera had disappointed 
her theatrical aspirations. Of course, a national legis- 
lature which attends to theatrical costumes ought to 
have attended to Miss Caubet's projects ! There are . 
in this legislature some able, large-minded men, uni- 
versity men, and they do as much good work as they 
can, but they are overlaid by the noisy cliques and 
their partisans. Among these there is none around 
whom gathers any national enthusiasm. The late Sen- 
ator Victor Schoelcher was nearly the last of the race 
of republican statesmen, — such as Louis Blanc, Ledru 
Rollin, Victor Hugo. Between that political race and 
the present yawns a Panama gulf. France shows no 
decline in literature, science, art, dramatic genius, but 
in political and parliamentary ability there has cer- 
tainly been some decline. Under the recent adminis- 
trations the Republic has been losing friends, but still 
I do not believe in its immediate danger, for, in fact, 
none of the parties hostile to it, — papal, legitimist, or 
imperialist, — has any leader of sufficient ability or fame 
to strike the popular imagination. Not one seems 
capable even of the cock-sparrow role of Boulanger. 
And yet there are various elements, Catholic, commu- 
nist, anarchist, monarchical, which, however antago- 
nistic to each other, agree in a sullen dislike of the 
present regime. And the fund of popular ignorance 
and stupidity which may be drawn upon is illustrated 
by the fact that the irreconcilable Henri Rochefort 
publishes his suspicion that an unknown person, who 
sent the anarchist Vaillant one hundred francs, was an 
agent of the government, which needed a bomb thrown 
among the Deputies in order to consolidate a majority! 
Amid such political conditions the bomb of Vaillant 
has had effects beyond the physical injuries inflicted. 
He has been sentenced to death, but is not likely to 
be executed.* As no one was killed, the capital sen- 
tence is really meant, in large part, to punish the at- 
tack on the national sovereignty ; but this has not been 
mentioned. The prosecutor did not claim more sanctity 
for the legislature than for any other group of individ- 
uals, and he even alluded to Panama. Ravachol got 
off in Paris because no one was killed, but was con- 
demned to death at Saint-Etienne where a victim died. 
Vaillant's case presents some phenomena worthy the 
attention of those who study the mixed elements of 
modern "civilisation." The deputy whose voice is 
heard above all others in entreaty for the life of Vail- 
lant is the chief sufferer of the bomb. This sufferer, 
who has sent Vaillant his pardon, is also an Abbe, — 
the Abb6 Lemire. Yet it is the church of this Abb6 
which is responsible for the retention of capital pun- 

* Just as we go to press the cable announces Vaillant's execution, 



ishment in France. Popular feeling has long been 
against the death-penalty: the law remains because it 
is biblical, as indeed for the same reason it survives 
elsewhere. But while permitting Moses to remain the 
law-giver to society in this particular, the popular 
feeling is so much against it that all manner of devices 
and technicalities are used to save the murderer. After 
the criminal is condemned by a jury, he may appeal 
to a court of Cassation ; if this confirms his sentence, 
he can appeal to the Commission of Pardons ; and even 
if this refuses clemency, the President can personally 
overturn the entire series of decisions. But where 
there are any reasons of State for overruling a jury's 
sentence the court of Cassation rarely finds difficulty 
in so doing. Article 337 of the Code of Criminal In- 
struction provides that the question shall be put to the 
jury in these terms : " Is the accused guilty of having 
committed such murder, such robbery, or other crime, 
with all the circumstances contained in the indictment. " 
Indictments are very apt to be vague about some cir- 
cumstance. How exacting as to the letter the court of 
Cassation may be when it wishes, is illustrated by curi- 
ous examples. In 1856 it quashed the sentence of one 
Marjoras, who had unquestionably murdered two chil- 
dren, because the indictment had accused him of mur- 
dering " two children ' ' instead of mentioning the chil- 
dren separately. Since then several wholesale mur- 
derers have similarly escaped because each victim was 
not severally the subject of a count in the indictment. 
In some cases a mistake in orthography has caused a 
verdict to be set aside, the most absurd being when 
the foreman of the jury had written the verdict as that 
of the " magorit^ " instead of the "majorite." Under 
such precedents the court of Cassation will have little 
difficulty, as Vaillant's defenders are pointing out, in 
quashing his sentence should they so desire. The in- 
dictment was that he had "on November 9, deliber- 
ately attempted manslaughter on the persons gathered 
in the Palais-Bourbon, in the Chamber of Deputies, 
then in session," etc. Now, Vaillant himself was one 
of the persons then and there gathered : did he de- 
liberately attempt to murder himself ? The indictment 
proceeds to say that "the attempt was shown by a 
commencement of execution, which was interrupted 
and failed only through circumstances beyond his will." 
It is urged that according to law each of the charges 
and circumstances should have been submitted to the 
jury separately, whereas they were all lumped to- 
gether. Should this court quash the sentence, Vaillant 
will be tried over again. If the sentence is again death, 
it will go on the Commission of Pardons, and probably 
be commuted. Before this letter reaches you the cable 
will have announced the decision. My belief is that 
it will be so arranged that Vaillant will owe his life to 
executive clemency. The Commission of Pardons is 

entirely secret, even its members being unknown ; this 
would be an admirable institution were it not that its 
recommendations require the presidential signature, 
which may be withheld. But it will not be withheld 
by M. Carnot, who refuses even to read the petitions 
sent him for Vaillant, but transmits them to the Com- 
mission. Vaillant and the anarchists would no doubt 
prefer a breakdown of the prosecution rather than re- 
lease by craving pardon. 

But Vaillant, if he escapes, will owe his life to 
many considerations. First of all to his only child, his 
nine-years old Sidonie. She seems devoted to her 
father, and the tears from her blue eyes are counted 
by all the reporters. Then the piteous tale of Vaillant's 
sorrows and hardships is told and retold in romantic 
versions. In his favor weighs a large public senti- 
ment which, while detesting the man, is all the more 
opposed to giving him the halo of martyrdom. There 
is also a large opposition to capital punishment. Some 
have been moved by his unique defence. He declared 
that he had developed his ideas by reading Mirabeau, 
Darwin, Biichner, and Spencer (the two Englishmen 
have been defended by Figaro from such patronage). 
Vaillant has touched the spirit of young Paris by his 
courage. Not only did he show pluck in risking his 
own life along with others by his bomb, but still more 
in his defiant and scornful answers to the judge. The 
impression he made on those present in the court-room 
was better than the papers represent. A young man, 
not much over thirty, though almost aged by hard ex- 
periences, he is rather good-looking, and his manner 
free and impulsive. He asked wherein his bomb was 
more cruel than the bombs hurled by the government's 
orders among the innocent people of Tonquin, and 
elsewhere, and made many other retorts which will be 
certain to be quoted by the socialists. As to his mis- 
tress, he declared that her husband had already de- 
serted her. The passionate devotion between these 
two, and the affecting scene when he was visited in 
prison by her and his little daughter, Sidonia, — the 
woman hurling herself against the grating that sep- 
arated them, — have been described with every accent 
of pathos. Again, the government probably feels that 
it would be .unsafe to attempt to guillotine Vaillant in 
public. His mistress declares she will be there to pre- 
vent it, and a scene could not be avoided which per- 
haps might be attended with danger. A legislative 
committee has for some time had in preparation a bill 
for secret executions, and it has been proposed to hurr}' 
it through into law, in order that it may apply to Vail- 
lant. But it is pointed out that such a retrospective 
application of a new law would be illegal. Vaillant 
must be executed, if at all, under the laws existing at 
the time of his trial and sentence. Should the govern- 
ment execute Vaillant in secret a popular outbreak 



would be about as likely as if in public. Thus a mix- 
ture of apprehensions, sympathies, and sentimentali- 
ties, joined to a general aversion to capital punish- 
ment, will probably end in sending Vaillant into penal 
servitude for life, — that is for a year or so, when he 
will be again restored to the bosom of society, and 
perhaps become a more prosperous, as he already is a 
more famous, man, than if he had never wounded 
thirty gentlemen and ladies in the Palais-Bourbon. 
Already his mistress is a heroine, her every movement 
reported in the papers more minutely than those of any 
lady in France ; and a Duchess (d'Us6z) has recovered 
the lustre lost since her friend Boulanger's death, by 
offering to support little Sidonie Vaillant. Vaillant 
rather scandalised the anarchists by his willingness to 
have his daughter supported by a Duchess, reared as 
a " bourgeoise," and they demanded that she shall be 
the daughter of their regiment. A third competitor 
for the child is M. Heytz, a billiard-table maker, an 
old friend of Vaillant, but an opponent of the anar- 
chists. Vaillant agreed that Heytz should adopt her. 
But this, too, annoyed the anarchists, and so the child 
disappeared. However, she was found at the house 
of one Martin, an anarchist, who happened the same 
day to be arrested. And now Vaillant' s mistress has 
visited him again, and reports that he has given the 
child to her. The reason he did not do so first was 
that he supposed she could not support it, but she 
says she can, though where the income, whose absence 
he deplored on trial, is coming from is not reported. 
But thirty anarchists have united to supply one hun- 
dred and fifty francs per month for the child's support 
and "education." Thus many conceivable destinies 
have hovered over the child's head, and in so doing 
have saved her father's head. Little Sidonie' s tears 
have largely effaced all memory of the thirty gentle- 
men and ladies now prostrate with wounds inflicted by 
an act which the Prosecutor, with unconscious athe- 
ism, described as characterised "by an indiscrimina- 
tion resembling a catastrophe of nature." A round of 
applause has gone through Europe for the jury which, 
in the face of many menaces, condemned Vaillant to 
death. But the probabilities are that the victory will 
ultimately go to the anarchists, and that Vaillant will 
win by his bomb wealth for his mistress and his daugh- 
ter, whom he could not support, world-wide fame to 
satisfy his inordinate vanity, and freedom to propagate 
his reckless species. All of this will be due to the con- 
tinuance of a savage penalty, that of death. Had it 
not been a question of death, Vaillant would have 
passed with little notice to his prison-garb and his 
work ; and a little surgery would have prevented, ac- 
cording to his beloved Darwin's science, any further 
survival of the unfittest in his personal line, besides 
humiliating his heroic pretensions. 


Among the ancients the State was a religious institu- 
tion, and the State's authority was to Greek citizens not 
less ultimate than that of the Pope is to Roman Cath- 
olics. Socrates attended to his duty of voting against 
the unanimous fury of the Athenian mob when the ten 
generals after the victorious battle of Arginusae were 
unjustly condemned to death. But he did not venture 
to oppose an unjust law as soon as it had become law. 
He obeyed the law when it most outrageously con- 
demned him to death ; he might, with the connivance 
of the authorities, have easily made his escape, but he 
preferred to stay and to die. Very different from this 
attitude was the position of Sophocles. He was im- 
bued with the same spirit as our Protestant heroes, 
a Milton, a Luther : he preached disobedience to im- 
moral laws. Antigone says : 

" It was not Zeus who gave them forth, 
Nor Justice dwellinf; with the Gods below. 
Who traced these laws for all the sons of men ; 
Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough, 
That thou, a mortal man. shoulds't over-pass 
The unwritten laws of God that know no change. 

They are not of to-day nor yesterday, 

But live forever, nor can man assign 

When first they sprang to being. Not through fear 

Of any man's resolve was I prepared 

Before the gods to bear the penalty 

Of sinning against these." 

Sophocles ranks the unwritten laws of the morally 
right above the legality of State-laws. In a conflict 
between the two, the former is to be regarded as the 
superior authority, and justly so, for the State's author- 
ity rests upon the moral law, and it is the State's duty 
and its ultimate end of existence to realise the moral 
law in establishing a moral communit}'. 

The Saxon nations represent the revolutionary prin- 
ciple in history, and they are proud of it. Historians 
unanimously praise Hampden's resistance to the pay- 
ment of ship-money. Hampden became a mart3'r of 
the revolutionary principle, viz., the right to resist il- 
legal impositions of government, and such resistance 
was with him a religious duty. The free England of to- 
day gratefully remembers his services in the cause of 
freedom. The sinking of the three vessels of tea was 
in some respect a boisterous student's joke, but it was 
prompted by this same revolutionary spirit which makes 
it a duty to resist unjust laws ; and to fail in this duty 
is regarded as a sign of unmanliness. 

Resistance is right when the State-authorit}' comes 
into conflict with moral laws. But who shall illumine 
the minds of the people? Who shall decide whether 
their own views of right and wrong are correct or not? 
Even such a scoundrel as Guiteau while standing on 
the scaffold shouted "Glory, glory Hallelujah!" We 
can only say that every case must be considered by it- 
self, and every one who feels called upon to stand forth 
as a champion for his particular ideal of right and jus- 



tice, must take the consequences. Mr. Hampden lost 
his fortune and nobody ever replaced it, and yet we feel 
sure that if we could arouse him from his slumber in the 
grave and ask him whether he regretted it, he would 
most positively uphold his old conviction ; he would be 
proud of the subsequent course of events, which justi- 
fied his action, although it had ruined his life, and he 
would be glad to know that the same spirit that 
prompted him is still alive in the Saxon races. 

The revolutionary spirit of the Saxon races pos- 
sesses one peculiarity : it is based upon manliness and 
love of justice, i. e., upon the higher morality of the 
unwritten law ; it is pervaded by a moral seriousness 
and supported by a religious enthusiasm. And this is 
the secret why the English revolution and the Ameri- 
can revolution were successful. Thej' did not come 
to destroy, but to remove the obstacles to building 
better than before. 

With all this unreserved appreciation of the revo- 
lutionary principle, we are by no means inclined to say 
that it is our duty to resist any and every immoral law. 
On the contrary, we should consider it as a public ca- 
lamity if every one who has peculiar and dissenting 
views from our legislative bodies concerning the moral- 
ity of a certain law, should resort to open rebellion. 
The method of settling questions of right or wrong 
by the majority votes of legal representatives has, with 
all its faults, also its advantages. Problems as to the 
fairest methods of taxation, as to restrictions for tem- 
porary exigencies, as to peace or war on a given 
provocation, etc., have a deep moral significance and 
should be decided not according to private interests or 
party politics, but solely from the moral view of the 
subject. Should, however, a popular error concerning 
their right solution be so prevalent as to make it pos- 
sible to procure for it a majority vote, we may, on the 
one hand, deeply regret the lack of the people's in- 
sight, but must, on the other hand, grant that under 
the circumstances and in a certain way it is good that 
the State should act according to the erroneous notion 
popular at the time ; for the people, if not amenable to 
reason and the sense of right, should find out their 
mistake by experience, so that the public mind may be 

The justice of the revolutionary principle can be 
doubted only by those who regard morality as a blind 
obedience to authority. We demand a higher concep- 
tion of morality ; we require that the truth shall be 
openly investigated, and that truth itself, not a repre- 
sentative of truth, as a pope, or a church, or dogmatic 
formulas, shall be the ultimate authority of conduct 
in life. 

This is the spirit of the new dispensation, and this, 
too, is the basis upon which we build our national life. 
And we are conscious of the fact that we stand upon a 

higher moral ground than those who praise submis- 
siveness to this or that authority, which is regarded 
as a divine institution, and derives its power directly 
from the grace of God, according to sacred revelations 
which are said to be infallibly right and reliable, even 
where they are in conflict with facts and where they 
flatly contradict reason. 

The revolutionary principle has been doubted by 
some, not on account of its justice, but on account of 
its alleged impracticability. Its success, however, 
among the Saxon nations, with their consequent un- 
precedented and unrivalled advance in industry, trade, 
literature, art, and general prosperity, can no longer 
be doubted. Those nations alone possess the future 
who sanction this revolutionary spirit, based upon the 
higher morality of manliness and freedom. 

The modern State-ideal (which is not an embodi- 
ment of individualism, for that would make the State 
itself impossible, but which recognises nevertheless the 
principle of individualism) procures for its members 
a wider liberty and a fuller justice, thus removing all 
the shackles that prevent progress or hinder the free 
pursuit of righteous enterprises. 

The State which in opposition to the Church came 
to be regarded as a profane institution, is now again 
sanctified as a moral power, having moral aims, exist- 
ing for a holy purpose, and destined to realise and to 
help its citizens to a life according to the highest ideals 
of humanity. The State is a moral institution, and it 
is therefore our duty, according to the precedent of 
Christ, one of the first and greatest representatives of 
the revolutionary spirit on earth, to drive out of its 
halls those who barter there for private gains. The 
State does not exist to be a den of thieves, and it is 
but right to cast out the money-changers and those 
who sell and buy in this most sacred temple, built of 
the souls of men. 


The question now arises. Can there be in a State 
which recognises the justice of the revolutionary prin- 
ciple, any such thing as treason? We answer in the 

Treason, according to our definition, is anj' act 
which, as the result of conscious and deliberate pur- 
pose, tends to undermine the existence of the State ; 
and treason is not merely a punishable offence, it is 
one of the gravest crimes that can be committed. 

In giving this defiriition, however, it must be added 
that the name "traitor" has been flung at every revo- 
lutionist, at every advocate of the rights of the op- 
pressed, and at every reformer. Not every revolution 
is treason. Those revolutions which stand upon moral 
grounds, being, as it were, an appeal to the unwritten 
laws of our highest ideals, are aspirations for reform ; 



they are attempts to replace any traditional law, which, 
from the standpoint of a more humanitarian justice, 
is felt to be unjust. Treason is that kind of revolution 
which comes to destroy, which is not based upon moral 
motives and does not bring to the front a higher moral 

It is very difficult to draw any well-defined line be- 
tween treason and reform, especially when it is re- 
membered that every reform appears necessarily as 
treason to a conservative mind. As to would-be re- 
formers, who commit acts of treason in the vain hope 
of doing a good work of progress, we can only say that 
they take their chances. If a man is not positively sure 
that his resistance to the law is a true act of reform, 
or a better and juster arrangement of society, he had 
better leave the work to other men ; and even those 
men who feel quite sure that they are called upon to 
become reformers should carefully question their own 
sentiments, lest their vanity inveigle them to enter 
upon a thorny path, which to them appears as one of 
martyrdom, but in fact is only the error of an empty 
dream. Both will suffer equally, the reformer and the 
vainglorious prophet of error, but the former only will 
live as the martyr of a great cause ; the latter will 
perish without even being respected or even so much 
as pitied by following generations. 



When Jesus had finished these sayings he came 
down from the mount, and went into the city. 

And while he abode there, certain of them who had 
heard him on the mount came unto him. 

Asking of him an interpretation of the doctrines 
which he had preached unto them. 

Then said one of the multitude unto Jesus, How 
can a man love his enemy ? 

Jesus answered him, Verily I say unto thee, even 
as the sun shineth alike upon the evil and upon the 

And upon him that blasphemeth and him that bless- 

* These articles on the nature of the State which appeared in Nos. 
334. 335. 336, and 337 of The Open Court, originated in the following way : 
In October, 1892, the indictment of the Homestead rioters tor treason was 
the occasion of some remarks by Gen. M. M. Trumbull in Current Topics (No. 
269 of The Open Court) where treason was glorified on the ground of the fact 
that it has always been the fate of reformers to be branded as traitors. This 
remark elicited in turn an editorial comment on the nature of treason, which 
was defined as " that crime which directly attempts to undermine the State " 
(No. 269), and also an editorial article entitled " Does the State Exist? " (No. 
272). After the publication of this article we received several letters from in- 
dividualists and anarchists endeavoring to demonstrate the non-existence of 
the State, and in publishing several of them (Nos. 272, 275, 279) we promised 
to explain further the nature of the State in some subsequent articles, but 
were unable at the time to find space for them. We have now at last found 
room for these articles. They are as timely now as they would have been dur- 
ing the anarchist or Homestead trials, for the dynamite crimes in Barcelona 
and Paris demand a reconsideration of the nature of treason in the light of 
the modern Slate conception, which recognises the aspiration for reform as a 
right and even as a duty of all good citizens. 

Even SO do ye also unto them that be round about 

For as the sun warmeth them that be cold, so is it 
with the heart of him in whom dwelleth the love of the 

And even as the cold of the earth chilleth not the 
sun in the heavens. 

So is the heart of that man which is born of the 

For the righteous man hath not an enem)'. 

Thus spake another unto Jesus, — a certain citizen 
of Decapolis, versed in the law : 

Rabbi, thou didst say unto us, if one take our coat 
let him have our cloak also ; and if one compel us to 
go with him a mile, that we go twain. 

Shall I then give unto a robber the garments that 
I might give unto my children? 

Or shall I forsake them of mine own household to 
follow after a stranger? 

Jesus answered him. Hast thou not heard also that 
he that provideth not for his own hath denied the 

And yet again, Give not that which is holy unto 
the dogs. 

Verily, verily I say unto thee, love asketh not, 
neither questioneth, nor doubteth. 

For to him that believeth shall be given under- 

And he that loveth, knoweth. 


Then the disciples asked Jesus concerning that 
saying. The truth shall make you free. 

And Jesus saith unto them, Behold yonder vine. 

And the disciples say unto him, Master, we see no 
vine ; that which thou seest yonder is a tree. 

Jesus saith unto them. Look again. Can a tree 
bear grapes? 

And one of the disciples ran unto the tree and 
plucked the grapes ; 

And when he came again he saith. Truly it is a 
tree, and yet it is a vine also, for behold the grapes 
that I have plucked. 

And Jesus saith unto them. Learn a lesson of the 
vine ; 

For while it was yet young and tender the gardener 
planted with it a staff ; 

And, after many years, the staff, having no life in 
it, rotted away ; 

But behold, the vine stood upright, as it doth now. 

So is every one that is called of the spirit. And he 
shall be like a vine that the gardener planted, which 
bringeth forth fruit in due season. 

Wherefore should I say unto you : See that ye de- 
spise not the vine? 



Verily the vine requireth not that I should say unto 
you, Despise it not ; 

For behold freedom speaketh while it is yet dumb. 

Or wherefore should I say unto you, Despise not 
the fruit thereof? 

Verily the fruit that ye have tasted speaketh for me. 

But I say unto you : Despise not the staff which 
the gardener planted. 

And ye that are free, despise not the staff which 
thy brother requireth ; 

Neither say unto thy brother, cast aside thy staff. 

For behold he needeth it. 

But the time cometh, when from the rising of the 
sun unto the going down of the same ; 

In every kingdom, and nation, and language shall 
no staff be required any more forever. 

For every soul shall be free on the earth even as it 
is in my father's kingdom. 

And they were astonished more and more daily at 
the doctrine which Jesus taught unto them : 

For he spake as one having authority. 


Last night the Society of the Army of the Potomac enjoyed its 
annual dinner at the Grand Pacific Hotel in Chicago ; and among 
the battle-scarred veterans present was Col. Robert G. IngersoU, 
the most martial man in all that martial company, his voice rever- 
berant like the long roll of the spirit-stirring drum, stimulated the 
grizzled warriors and urged them on to new conquests and addi- 
tional glory. Colonel IngersoU wanted more territory, and in 
pursuit of his patriotic ambition he would "the multitudinous 
seas incarnadine." Waving his metaphorical sword, he said : "I 
want to gobble up the West Indies, and the Bermudas, and the 
Bahamas." He wanted Canada, too. " I don't want to steal it," 
he said, "but I want it." He wanted Mexico; for the curious 
reason that "there is only air enough between the Isthmus of 
Panama and the North Pole to float one flag "; meaning, of course, 
the flag of Colonel IngersoU. Even the Sandwich Islands were 
not beneath his patronage, and he wanted them " for a coaling 
station." As there was no more land in sight he put in a claim 
for the Pacific Ocean, and wanted to " gobble up" that. His youth 
was renewed by the recollections of the heroic olden time when he 
was a soldier charging on the foe, and in a glow of enthusiasm he 
oratorically mounted his war-horse once again, while his dry sword, 
thirsty with a peace of thirty years, rejoiced at the promise of 
battle. Colonel IngersoU was unanimously elected an honorary 
member of the Army of the Potomac, but he ought to have been 
appointed commander-in-chief. 

* * 

Like the gushing of a crystal stream was Colonel Ingersoll's 
praise of liberty. What he said on that theme looks like poetry, 
reads like poetry, and it is poetry. Without freedom as an in- 
spiration, a camp-fire of Union veterans would be nothing but 
ashes and dead coals, a feast without a sentiment. When liberty 
magnetised our bayonets, victory came to our cause, and the tri- 
umph of liberty justifies the war. Eloquent as an old prophet. 
Colonel IngersoU said • "I congratulate you that you lived in a 
period in which the North attained a higher moral altitude than 
was ever achieved by any other nation in the history of this world, 
and that you now live in a country that believes in absolute free- 
dom for all — freedom of hand, of brain. We believe that every 

man is entitled to what he earns with his hands and to reap the 
harvest of his brains." This just and magnanimous creed, this 
doctrine of "absolute freedom," was qualified a little farther on 
when Colonel IngersoU condemned the freedom to buy and to sell. 
Limited by that qualification, it appears that every man is entitled 
to what he earns with his hands if he will spend his earnings un- 
der the direction of Colonel IngersoU. This eloquent advocate of 
liberty is willing to allow his neighbors freedom to think and to 
write, freedom to work and to talk, but not freedom to trade. He 
draws the line there and says, "Take any liberty but that." He 
is willing to allow the people as much freedom as he thinks is good 
for them, but no more ; and herein he differs little in principle 
from the emperors, the bishops, and the kings. Colonel IngersoU 
thinks the public interest requires that the "absolute freedom " of 
a laborer to spend his wages wherever he can get the best bargains 
ought to be taken away from him ; and some other colonel thinks 
the public welfare demands that the " absolute freedom " of speech 
indulged in by Colonel IngersoU ought to be taken away from /lim. 
.\nd these two colonels differ only in degree, and as to the specific 
freedom that ought to be restrained. 

A very interesting controversy as to the character and mean- 
ing of the Scriptures is now going on between two Baptist Doctors 
of Divinity, the Rev, Dr. Harper, President of the University of 
Chicago, and the Rev. Dr. Henson, Pastor of the First Baptist 
Church. Dr. Harper is giving a course of lectures on "The Sto- 
ries of Genesis," and he shows by abundant learning that they are 
not history, nor science, nor fact, but are merely legends and fa- 
bles with a spiritual and prophetic meaning. To this degradation 
of the Bible Dr. Henson objects, and he thinks it rather incon- 
sistent for the president of a Baptist University to conjure fanciful 
meanings into the Scriptures when the language of the text is plain. 
The subject of Dr. Harper's lecture on the 2Sth of January was 
the story of Cain and Abel, which, he said, "was no more true 
than the myth of the capture of Troy by the wooden horse, or the 
founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus." In the opinion of 
Dr. Henson this comparison is not well made, and he thinks it not 
impossible that Troy was taken by means of the wooden horse, 
and that the story of Romulus and Remus is true. Dr. Harper 
said that the prophet "simply rewrote the stories and traditions 
which were in the mouths of men of his day to the purpose of 
teaching religious truths. " He said, " This is the principle — that 
of turning into gold the material at hand by infusing it with the 
spirit of good — that the ancient prophets went by. It was the 
method of God." Dr. Harper has made further explanation of his 
meaning, and that explanation is described by Dr. Henson as "in- 
volved, intricate, and incomprehensible"; and he says that "ana- 
lysing Genesis is child's play compared to discovering what Dr. 
Harper means." 

The allegorical story of Cain and Abel is imperfect, because 
it has been chipped and mutilated in moving about from place to 
place during four or five thousand years. It is like some of the 
resurrected statues of old Rome that were broken by the Goths 
and Vandals, and like those venerable relics it must be repaired. 
It is a chapter in the story of Evolution, and although it is writ- 
ten in fable, it explains a law, that merciless and unrelenting sta- 
tute which we call the "survival of the fittest." Properly, there 
are three brothers in the story, representing different epochs in 
the development of civilised man, Seth, a hunter, Abel, a shep- 
herd, and Cain, a tiller of the ground. When it was discovered 
that food could be obtained with less labor and more certainty by 
herding tame animals than by hunting wild ones, the doom of the 
hunter was decreed, and Abel killed Seth. When it was found out 
afterwards that there was more food in tillage than in pasture, the 
race of the shepherds was run, and Cain killed Abel, for Cain was 



a tiller of the ground. As we must all of us live off of the land, 
the men of a race that can raise the most food on a given territory 
will have the territory, and to get it they will kill the others. The 
drama of Cain and Abel and Seth is being repeated now here in 
America, the new Garden of Eden discovered by the white man 
four hundred years ago. The red hunter is nearly gone, and in 
due time the cowboy will surrender his grassy plains to the plough- 
boy, for such is the law, as it was written in the scriptures of Evo- 
lution long ago. 

It was not a great battle that was fought the other day in the 
harbor of Rio de Janeiro between Admiral Benham of the United 
States Navy and Admiral da Garaa of the insurgent fleet of Brazil ; 
in fact it was nothing but a soft glove contest for points, and the 
decision of the referee is that Admiral Benham won. The im- 
portance of a battle is not to be estimated by the number of killed 
and wounded, but by the value of the principle that was victorious 
in the fight. The principle maintained and asserted by Admiral 
Benham is, that while belligerent powers have certain rights in 
war, commerce also has rights that must be respected by the bel- 
ligerent guns. The ancient precedents may not sustain Admiral 
Benham's argument, but his cannon spoke the language of the 
more enlightened opinion of this modern world wherein so much 
of individual prosperity depends upon international trade. The 
barbarous blockade code must be revised. The action of Admiral 
Benham seems to be approved by all the other powers ; in fact the 
German Admiral at Rio threatened several days ago to sink the 
insurgent fleet should Admiral da Gama forcibly interfere with 
German ships lawfully loading or unloading in the bay. The law- 
yers will now brush the cobwebs from their books on maritime 
law and explain to us the ethics of blockade. We shall now learn 
from the decisions how foolish it is for a merchant ship to get in 
the way of an ironclad when the war ship is bombarding a town. 
We shall get an immense fund of information concerning the 
rights of neutral powers in belligerent ports, and at the end of all 
our abstract learning we shall have a practical suspicion that the 
biggest nations have the biggest rights. 


* * 

It is the misfortune of Mr. David Brewer, Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States that he takes his mouth along 
with him wherever he goes, and fires it off in a very reckless and 
scattering way. He needs it, of course, for eating purposes, but 
after dinner he uses it for talk, and his critical gossip involves him 
in a medley of absurdities that bring down upon him ridicule, cen- 
sure, and recrimination. In an after-dinner speech delivered by 
him recently before the Yale Alumni he took a fling at what he 
called " this age of cranks," and he classified among the cranks a 
number of men, women, and ideas prominent in law, labor, edu- 
cation, and politics, including within his ridicule no less than three 
governors of States, Tillman of South Carolina, Waite of Colorado, 
and Altgeld of Illinois. These, however, are living men, actually 
now in office, and therefore public property, but with judicial wit 
and terrapin pleasantry he referred contemptuously to a former 
President of the United States, now dead, as ' ' the husband of Mrs. 
Hayes." and this it is that hurts our western feelings, because his 
awkward conversation is excused as "western manners." This is 
hardly fair to the "rowdy West," for as Mr. Justice Brewer was the 
guest of the Yale Alumni, we have a right to assume that he is a 
product of that famous eastern college. As the .-Irizona Kieker 
has well said, ' ' We have our idioms, " out here in the West, but they 
are not those of Mr. Justice Brewer. 

It is a familiar old adage that those who live in glass houses 
should never throw stones, and this venerable warning may be ■ 
profitably studied by Mr. Justice Brewer. In his light and chirp- 
ing way, at the dinner of the Yale Alumni, he poured sarcasm upon 

Governor Waite as a crank who would solve the financial problem 
"by causing blood to flow bridle-rein deep," and upon Governor 
Altgeld for his " pardon of anarchist murderers as a means of jus- 
tice." Judge Brewer forgot that not more than six months ago he 
himself was denounced by the newspapers as an anarchist and a 
crank, because in the "calamity speech made by him on the 
Fourth of July he anticipated Governor Waite in his prophecy of 
blood. Speaking of the wage system and the conflict between 
capital and labor. Judge Brewer theatrically wanted to know "if 
a bloody struggle would be required to abolish this form of slavery 
as a bloody struggle had been required to abolish negro slavery." 
This Fourth of July oration was condemned by one of the great 
papers of Chicago as " a hysterical cry of alarm that might be ex- 
pected of a rattle-brained blatherskite at a meeting of the Trades 
and Labor Assembly." Judge Brewer ought to know, and very 
likely does know that the so-called "anarchist murderers" were 
condemned, not for what they did but for what they said, for mak- 
ing speeches like the orations of Mr. Justice Brewer. Had he been 
tried with the anarchists, that Fourth of July oration, if already 
delivered, would have convicted him, and in that case he himself 
would have been a subject for Governor Altgeld's pardon. 

M, M, Trumbull. 


Professor Max Muller sends us a prettily bound memorial 
pamphlet which he has compiled in honor of the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of his receiving the doctor's degree in the University of Leip- 
sic. The pamphlet contains pictures of the Professor in five stages 
of life, namely, three years of age, at school, student. in the Uni- 
versity of Leipsic, Professor at Oxford, and as he is now. The 
rest of the pamphlet is made up of a catalogue of his principal 
works and of a list of his degrees together with reduced copies of 
his new and old Leipsic diplomas. No doubt the Professor would 
gladly send a copy of this delicate little memorial production to 
any admirer of his who might request it. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 


LETTER FROM PARIS. Moncure D. Conway 3967 

TION. Editor 3970 



Spirit of Love. The Free Vine. Hudor Genone .... 3972 
CURRENT TOPICS: Ingersoll on Territorial Conquest. 
Freedom to Buy and to Sell. The Allegory of Cain and 
Abel. The Battle at Rio Janeiro. Mr. Justice Brewer 

and the Cranks. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3973 

NOTES 3974 


The Open Court. 


No. 338. (Vol. VIII.— 7: 


I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



When Jean Lamarck in 1809, in his profoundly 
thought out Philosophic zoologique, laid the foundations of 
the theory of descent which is now universally accepted, 
he explained, as we know, the gradual transformation 
of organic forms principally by their own natural 
activities. The practice and use of organs strength- 
ened them. Inactivity and disuse weakened them. 
Both the progressive transformation which in the first 
case the organ had experienced by growth, and the 
retrogressive alteration which in the second case it had 
experienced by diminution, could be transmitted by 
heredity to the animal's descendants. By the accumu- 
lation and settlement of these slight changes, in the 
course of generations, new "good," or distinct, species 
sprang from varieties. Of the many grand ideas in 
whose conception Lamarck stood far in advance of his 
times, the assumption of the hereditj' of acquired char- 
acters certainly belongs to the most significant. If he 
was not so fortunate in the empirical establishment of 
this idea and in the choice of good and appropriate 
examples, the fault for the most part lay in the defec- 
tive condition of the biology of his time. 

The greatest gap which Lamarck left in his theory 
of descent was filled fifty years later by Charles Dar- 
win in his theory of natural selection. In founding his 
doctrine of the struggle for life, this latter inquirer 
discovered the most important efficient cause of his- 
torical transformations which was wanting in the spec- 
ulations of his great French predecessor. Still, the 
theory of natural selection is not the only cause of the 
unparalleled success which the "Origin of Species" 
achieved. This success is also greatly due to the 
broad and ingenious use which the great English in- 
quirer made of the stupendous advances of modern 
biology. Concerning the limits of action of the new 
factor natural selection, its own founder had at differ- 
ent times very different opinions. It was quite natural 
and pardonable that he should at first make these lim- 
its very wide ; subsequently he greatly restricted them 
by placing more and more emphasis on the heredity of 

* This article, sent especially by Prof. Haeckel to The Open Court tor trans- 
lation, is embodied in his Introduction to Semon's Zoological Travels in Aus- 
tralia and the Malay Archipelago. 

acquired characters. In doing this, Darwin drew 
nearer and nearer the ideas of Lamarck, of which at 
first he did not have a very high opinion. 

Up to this time only empirical experts, such' as 
. stock-breeders, animal-fanciers, and gardeners, who 
were guided solely by practical interests, had occupied 
themselves with the investigation of the wonderful phe- 
nomena of heredity. Darwin first subjected them to 
theoretical scientific investigation and brought them 
within reach of the methods of physiology. The 
problem next presented itself of a systematic classifica- 
tion of the various phenomena of heredity and of adap- 
tation, a formulation of their "laws," and an under- 
standing of their complex mutual relations. The first 
attempt at this solution was made by me in 1866 in my 
"General Morphology." In the nineteenth chapter of 
this work, which analyses "The Theories of Descent 
and Selection," I attempted a general physiological 
explanation of heredity and adaptation by enunciating 
for the first the familiar facts of propagation, and for 
the second, the facts of nourishment (the change of 
material of tissues), as the physiological functions of the 
formation of species. I classified the multifarious phe- 
nomena of heredity under nine different laws, and ar- 
ranged these into two series : (i) Five laws of conserva- 
tive heredity, (the hereditary transmission to descend- 
ants of the characters received from parents and ances- 
tors generally,) and (2) four laws ol progressive heredity 
(the hereditary transmission to descendants of charac- 
ters acquired during the life of individuals).* In the 
richly diversified phenomena of variation and adapta- 
tion I distinguished eight separate laws and also ar- 
ranged these into two series : (i) Three laws of indi- 
rect variation or potential adaptation (nutritive change 
of the organism not expressed in its own formation 
but in that of its descendants), and (2) five laws of 
direct variation or actual adaptation (nutritive change 
of the organism which directl}^ appears in its own for- 
mation), f I have collected the gist of my discussions 
on heredity and adaptation as they stood in the " Gen- 
eral Morphology," and put the results in more popular 
form in my "Natural History of Creation." In eight 
different editions of this work I have striven to improve 

* Gen. Morphol., II, pp. 170-igo. 
t Gen. Morphol.^ II, pp. igi-223. 



these laws by constant correction of details, but my fun- 
damental views of this subject remain as they originally 
were.* From here my views passed into many other 
recent works. 

A substantial modification of the modern views of 
heredity was made in 1885 by August Weismann, the 
distinguished Freiburg zoologist, to whom the modern 
theory of evolution is indebted for much valuable im- 
provement. In a long series of essays which he con- 
densed in his book entitled "Germ-plasm, A Theory 
of Heredity," published in 1892, Weismann attempts 
to establish tlie conlimiity of the ger»t-plasm as the foun- 
dation of the theory of heredity. He assumes that in 
every organism there exist by the side of each other 
two wholly distinct kinds of plasm, the germ-plasm 
as generative material, and the body or somatic plasm 
as the substance out of which the tissues of the bod}' 
are developed. In the process of generation one part 
of the parent plasm is not employed in the building up 
of the infant organism, but remains behind unaltered. 
On this unbroken continuity of the constant germ- 
plasm is founded heredity, whilst variation or adapta- 
tion is produced by amphimixis, that is, by the mix- 
ture in sexual propagation of two different, individual 
generative materials. For this reason, in all histones 
or pluricellular organisms (metaphyta and metazoa), 
the heredity of acquired characters does not take place, 
whilst in unicellular protists (protophyta and proto- 
zoa) it is admittedly effected. The latter, Weismann 
regards as immortal, the former only as mortal. 

Weismann's doctrine of the continuity of the germ- 
plasm and his attempt to explain by it heredity, is at 
bottom a metaphysical molecular theory like Darwin's 
pangenesis or my perigenesis of plastidules or the 
micellar theory of Naegeli.f Its success has been a 
wonderful one, especially in England. Also in Ger- 
many the number of its adherents seems to grow, whilst 
in France and in Italy, but especially in North Amer- 
ica, it has met with the liveliest opposition. If we look 
over the lists of eminent disputants arrayed against 
each other in this significant strife, we shall see on 
both sides a large number of tried natural inquirers. 
Among those who have openly declared in Weismann's 
favor are Wallace, Ray-Lankester, Gallon, Poulton, 
Wiedersheim. Among the opponents are to be found 
Herbert Spencer, Huxley, Gegenbaur, Furbringer, 
Eimer, Claus, Cope, and Lester F. Ward. The new 
school which has sprung up on the basis of Weismann's 
theory, and has grown very rapidly, especially in Eng- 
land, is often called Neo-Darwinism. But this desig- 
nation is unjustified and misleading, for "heredity of 
acquired characters " is just as essential and indispens- 
able an element in the evolution theory of Charles Dar- 

* Compare the eighth edition of 1889, pp. 157-237. 

t Compare the tJafiirctl History of Creation^ eighth edition, p. 198, 

win as it was in that of his grandfather, Erasmus, and 
in the apparently still remoter theory of Lamarck. The 
difference in the conception of these two greatest ban- 
ner-bearers of the theory of descent is simplj' this, that 
Darwin did not impute to progressive heredity so prom- 
inent a part as Lamarck, but put in the foreground the 
idea of natural selection which was unknown to the 
latter. When Weismann denies the heredity of ac- 
quired characters in any form, he is, in point of prin- 
ciple, just as much opposed to Darwin as he is to La- 

So far as my own position is concerned, I have had 
no occasion, despite the great progress which the the- 
ory of heredity has made in the last twenty years, to 
alter in any essential point the principles of my con- 
ception of it which I formed in i865 and presented in 
my "General Morpholog)'." On the contrary, my un- 
interrupted employment with this fundamental prin- 
ciple of evolution in the course of the last thirty years 
has convinced me more and more of the correctness of 
that conception. I have, therefore, stoutly opposed 
Weismann's theory from the beginning, and recently 
emphasised our differences in the last editions of my 
"Natural History of Creation" (1889, p. 203,) and of 
my " Anthropogeny " (i8gi, pp. XXIII, 149, 836, etc.). 
Here is not the place to recapitulate all the objections 
which I made against Weismann's doctrines, and I 
shall restrict myself, therefore, to the following brief 
statement of them : 

i) The hypothetical "continuity of the germ-plasm" 
is neither empirically demonstrable nor theoretically 
admissible. The recent discoveries relative to the ex- 
acter morphological behaviour of the karyoplasm and 
cytoplasm in fertilisation and in the segmentation of 
the ovum prove nothing in its favor. 

2) The hypothetical division of the germ-plasm 
from the somato-plasm is neither empirically observ- 
able, nor theoretically tenable ; the profound physio- 
logical correlation of the two species of plasma, which 
is illustrated, for example, in the well-known effects of 
castration, also proves its material continuity. 

3) The separation of the pluricellular organisms 
(histones) from the unicellular organisms (protists) is 
no absolute separation, and with regard to the special 
point of heredity not an essential one ; in fact, among 
protists which are pre-eminently monogonic there may 
be found the beginnings of different forms of amphig- 
ony, whilst among histones, that for the most part re- 
produce sexually, monogony also exists to a great ex- 
tent ; in both groups the laws of heredity are different 
only in degree. 

4) The unicellular protists (protophyta and pro- 
tozoa) are no more immortal than the multicellular 
histones (metaphyta and metazoa) ; even in the sim- 
plest case the organic individual has only a limited 



duration of life ; when a cell is broken up b}' division 
into two filial cells, its individual existence is thereby 
destroyed. On the other hand, if we understand by 
immortality the continuity of the plasm in the chain 
of the generations, then all ancestral series, histones 
as well as protists, are in an equal degree "immor- 
tal " ; in that case the immortality of the plasm is simply 
a special case of the fundamental cosmological law of 
conscrimtion of substance. 

5) Progressive heredity, as one of the most im- 
portant foundations of phylogeny, is indirectly demon- 
strated by the whole empirical body of facts of com- 
parative anatomy and ontogeny ; we can explain the 
numberless phenomena of "adaptation" to the out- 
side world in its real sense only by the assumption of 
this foundation. 

6) Progressive heredity has long since been experi- 
mentally and directly proved by the experiences of 
artificial breeding ; all experienced and expert prac- 
tical breeders (stock-farmers, animal -fanciers, and 
gardeners) unanimously accept the heredity of acquired 
characters as an incontrovertible fact ; only on the 
basis of this fact and by the exact employment of it 
can they successfully pursue their business. 

We cannot enter here into a discussion of the ex- 
tensive literature which the so-called Neo-Darwinism, 
more correctly termed Weismann' s plasm-theory, has re- 
cently produced. A detailed refutation of this doctrine 
is given by the German, Theodore Eimer, in his work 
on "The Origin of Species" (i888) ; whilst an excel- 
lent general criticism of the theory has been made by the 
American philosopher and botanist, Lester F. Ward. 
There is space here only for special mention of one 
very important polemical writing against this theory, 
of recent date. Herbert Spencer, the acute and erudite 
thinker, who as a monistic philosopher has so greatly 
promoted the theory of evolution in the speculative 
field, has published within the last year in the Con- 
temporary Review (February, March, and May, 1893) 
several essays entitled : "The Inadequacy of Natural 
Selection, and Professor Weismann's Theories." The 
weighty objections which Spencer here raises against 
Weismann's theory I subscribe word for word ; they 
are in part the same which I advanced myself some 
time previously. 

I also fully agree with Spencer when he extends 
his opposition to other recent modifications of the the- 
ory of descent, especially the doctrine of Naegeli and 
generally against all theories which seek to explain 
phylogeny by unknown inner causes as opposed to the 
familiar and mechanical external causes which are given 
us in adaptation and in the interaction of the organism 
with the surrounding external world. Here belongs 
especially that group of teleological theories which 
have accepted the so-called innate "tendency towards 

ends" {Zielslrebigkeit) of Baer, the internal "tendency 
to perfection " of Naegeli, etc., etc., and which in vari- 
ous forms always lead to the assumption of a mystical 
" creative force" or "phyletic vital force." Spencer, 
as a monistic philosopher, is perfectly right in reject- 
ing, individually and collectively, these half-faced tele- 
ological theories, which are really out-and-out dualistic 
and mystical ; and in saying that in preference to such 
assumptions it were much better to go back to the old 
myth of the special creation of the single species ("The 
Inadequacy, etc.,"). 

The question here at stake is so significant, and deter- 
mines so completely our general view of the world that 
we must lay the greatest stress on a decision between 
the two following alternatives : either all phylogeny 
is a purely mechanical process and the development of 
organic forms takes place wholly without a tendency 
to ends, and is determined solely by the physiological 
activity of the organs themselves (heredity, adapta- 
tion) and their relations to the external world (the 
struggle for life, etc.) ; or, this is not the case and the 
genealogical history of organisms is one of a tendency 
towards ends, that is to say, a teleological process 
guided by a premeditated "plan of creation." In the 
latter case we shall have to return to the anthropomor- 
phic notion of a personal creator. And the simplest 
course then is to abide with Agassiz by the old crea- 
tion-myth of Moses. With Spencer I am of opinion 
that also the theories of evolution propounded by Weis- 
mann, Naegeli, Kolliker, Baer and the rest, will lead 
us back to this transcendent creation, and that we have 
simply to choose here between two alternatives : either 
mechanical evolution with heredity of acquired characters, 
or no natural evolution whatever. 

The apposite examples which Spencer cites for the 
establishment of his monistic views are in a great part 
taken from the comparative anatomy and physiology 
of vertebrates, especially from the phylogeny of their 
members. I also had pointed out, even before Spen- 
cer, that this very province of phenomena furnishes a 
host of obvious proofs for the action of natural selec- 
tion and for the heredity of acquired characters. These 
two great principles in no respect contradict each other, 
as has often been erroneously maintained, but act in 
concert; "natural selection" constantly employs in 
the "struggle for life," progressive as well as conserva- 
tive heredity. 

The phylogeny of the extremities of vertebrates is 
especially instructive as a proof of progressive heredity, 
for various reasons. On the one hand, the skeleton of 
the members, with their corresponding muscular ar- 
rangements, has been subjected, through their adapta- 
tion to different purposes, to the most various trans- 
formations ; while on the other, the typical composition 
and arrangements of the parts of the skeleton and of 



the muscles is more or less retained in this adaptation 
by tenacious heredity. Compare, for example, to take 
only a single class of mammals, the locomotor legs of 
most beasts of prey and hoofed animals, the leaping 
legs of the kangaroo and the jumping-mouse, the climb- 
ing feet of the pedimanous opossums and monkeys, 
the digging feet of moles and field-mice, the swimming 
feet of beavers and seals, the floating feet of sirens and 
cetaceans. We are astounded at the extraordinary 
multiplicity and perfection with which the members of 
all these mammals are adapted to their special func- 
tions ; while on the other hand, the constancy in the 
arrangement and composition of their typical skeleton- 
parts proves the common descent of all. With re- 
spect to the details of osteological transformation, (for 
example, in carpus and tarsus,) Carl Gegenbauer's 
classical " Researches in the Comparative Anatomy of 
Vertebrates " are, before all, of the highest value. The 
gradual transformations which have taken place in the 
great class of Birds have been very exhaustively treated 
by Max Fiirbringer in his careful "Researches in the 
Morphology and Classification of Birds." 

All these great morphological phenomena can be 
explained only by the assumption of functional adapta- 
tion and progressive heredity ; the special habits of 
life and the corresponding use or disuse of special 
organs have here produced by ' ' teleological mechanics " 
the most astounding transformations, and that coinci- 
dently in all the portions of the members which are in 
correlation ("correlative adaptation"). These "ac- 
quired characters " are then transmitted by heredity to 
the descendants, established in the succession of the 
generations, and thus made substantial characteristics 
of the species. In this process selection has operated 
by way of promotion and control in no little degree. 
But natural selection alone, in union with Weismann's 
amphimixis, would never have been able to produce 
these marvellously appropriate adaptations. Spencer 
has very prettily shown, in his example of the jumping 
of the cat, how incompetent Weismann's theory is to 
explain such adapted transformations. 



It seems difficult to account for many of our spon- 
taneities, and our customs, on any other ground than 
animal descent. A dog came to my place a few weeks 
since, evidently lost. When I saw him and approached, 
he faced me, and at once laid down in an attitude of 
submission. Not a muscle moved except his eyes. I 
went nearer and looked kindly. He half arose, and 
dragged himself half-way to me, and dropped again. 
I spoke in an easy tone, "Who are you." He moved 
his tail in a supplicatory, kindly way. His eyes were 
intensely interrogative. Would he have a welcome. 

or not? I said, "You look like a good dog; come 
here." He came with a bound to my feet ; prostrated 
himself, and laid his chin on my foot. His eyes looked 
up with a pledge of loyalty. " Please sir, give me a 
home and I will stand by you truly." I said, "you 
shall be my dog. I will keep you. This is your home." 
He understood my looks, words, and gestures per- 
fectly. He rose from his crouching attitude ; shook 
out the dust ; looked me in the eye for a moment, and 
then gambolled about me with intense delight. Our 
next ceremony was to share food. I took him to the 
house, and gave him his breakfast. Our friendship 
was sealed, and he became my faithful watchman. 

What is this but the very same prostration and ap- 
proach by degrees that we find among savages, and 
for that matter among civilised peoples — Aryans not 
always excepted ? The bold uprightness of a few peo- 
ples is an innovation on a custom almost universal 
among human beings. The Turanians, I believe, both 
the more barbarous as well as the Chinese, are accus- 
tomed to express fealty by absolute proneness in the 
dust ; while some of the Orientals place dust on their 
heads. The idea of the dog seems to be practically 
this complex one, " If you will accept my services, and 
allow me a home, I will be loyal to your person and 
property." In the case referred to, the dog, a fine 
fellow, immediately assumed the position of guards- 
man for my property, and myself. He quickly distin- 
guished the limits of my land ; and allowed no intru- 
sion. Here was a treaty of alliance and friendship, 
following an act of submission to a superior. In this 
treaty was involved the conception of individual rights 
of property. The dog clearly comprehended this, and 
fully believed in the right of property. 

So I get from my canine friend evidently a very 
complex set of ideas, and with it a happy method 
which has been inherited by us, and perpetuated in all 
human races. The submission of a cat is very simi- 
lar ; and I have a case in hand. Walking in my vine- 
yard one day, some years since, my attention was 
drawn to a very large and grand-looking feline, that 
at first I supposed to be a neighbor's cat. But he was 
determined to draw my attention. He did not come 
to me ; but, standing at a distance, apparently desired 
something. Then drawing slightly nearer, he laid 
down ; and by cautious approaches at last touched me. 
I spoke kindly to him, and lifted the huge fellow in my 
arms. Up to this moment he was every way a sup- 
pliant. But when assured of a welcome, a tremulous- 
ness showed at once that he was hungry. I carried 
him to my house, and fed him. He ate voraciously ; 
and had been evidently half-starved. When satisfied 
he began a quiet expression of the spirit of adoption : 
explored the place, and showed in all cat-ways his 
gratitude and satisfaction. " Colonel," as we called 



him, had a big brain, and succeeded admirably in giv- 
ing me an ilhistration of the same natural principle of 
alliance that I had seen in the dog. It was not only 
allegiance to the family, but a personal friendship that 
was declared and formed. To his death "Colonel" 
was my special comrade. He was not born into our 
family, but was adopted. The method of introduction 
was not unlike the primitive forms of adoption into 
patriarchal families : by prostration, pledge of fealty, 
and immediate assumption of duties in relation to the 
household and family. In our domesticated animals, 
then, I find the antecedent of all those forms by which 
men have been accustomed to form alliances. 

The last act in every case was a touch. The dog 
first laid his chin on my foot, then he touched my leg 
and my hand with his nose ; and when I sat down by 
him he kissed my face. The universal habit of greet- 
ing by a touch of some sort is here evidently of animal 
origin. With their own kind, noses are touched ; but 
with us they touch our hands or our faces. " Colonel " 
rubbed himself against my legs. Lower human races, 
as the Fiji-Islanders, touch or rub noses. African 
tribes touch noses and lips. Europeans nearly always 
kiss. English and Americans draw back slightly and 
are content to touch hands. The Chinese, for sanitary 
purposes perhaps, and still more to express unworthi- 
ness, shake their own hands. I have watched this 
animal propensity still farther. I have a dog that longs 
much to run with the carriage. When driven back 
she sneaks homeward ; and when overtaken lies down 
and offers a paw. This offering a paw is associated 
by her with forgiveness and good-will. As soon as it 
is accepted by us she evidently considers the conten- 
tion ended, but does not rise until told to do so. 

The analysis of touch in the cases above noted, 
shows two causes, (i) a tendency to embrace ; and 
embracing means no more nor less than a desire for 
amours. Under all love is physical attraction. Nature, 
that is always differentiating, is also always uniting 
and blending. Animals refuse to touch except they 
like. Other creatures are ignored, or bitten, or wholly 
devoured. To touch those we love has a hundred 
grades of pleasure. The animal illustrates this exactly 
as we do. I believe those are right who consider pro- 
miscuous kissing or even promiscuous hand-shaking 
as an abuse of an honest and decent animal heredity. 
It is a confusion of individualities. In the case of 
babes and children, it is monstrous to allow them to 
be fondled by all sorts of organisms. Our social com- 
munion might thereby easily drop into social confusion, 
or even debauchery. But (2) the animal touches also to 
gather a knowledge that, with all creatures, comes 
through the nose. The great sense-organ of man is the 
eye ; of the dog and cat and horse it is the nose. It is 
impossible for us to comprehend this directly and fully. 

Yet a thoughtful study of our emotions will show us that 
we have not entirely lost this animal basis of judgment ; 
that in fact we do tell ourselves very much of other peo- 
ple by the nose. Blind persons distinguish their friends 
by the smell of handkerchiefs or coats. We all do the 
same unconsciously. Our unconscious sensations and 
unconscious judgments form a splendid field for re- 
search, and a very rich one. We know far more by 
smell than we suppose. The vulgar classes that revel 
in a confusion of odors have apparently become de- 
graded in senses as in habits. Their basis of social 
judgment is below that of the animals. I observe that 
those who have fortunately had their senses keenly 
educated are accustomed to judge of persons by odors. 
It should not be a lost power. The eye does not pos- 
sess the power to cover the subtle relation of individ- 
ualities; neither does the ear. The finer sense is that 
of smell; dishonored, as it has been, and despised, 
as it should not be. In an article, published in 
No. 245 of The Open Court, I referred to the fact that 
Australian children possess the dog sense-power of 
trailing people by scent. I have experimented with 
some care and am confident that this power is to some 
degree in all of us. Strong attachments are not so 
rigidly ideal as we like to suppose. There is a physi- 
cal basis or sense basis to all our likes and dislikes. It 
is this which underlies the demand of refined people 
that their friends shall be cleanly. Our social ties 
have created the maxim that cleanliness is next to 

In reality, then, our physical habits are found to 
have an animal origin. Our hand-shaking is but little 
more than the friendly nose-touch given by animals 
that meet each other. And our kissing is of the same 
sort. The distance is now not great till we find the 
origin of dancing. It seems at first glance very curious 
that any one should be willing to spend hours in mak- 
ing motions, with no end beyond the motions. But 
there is nothing in nature more universal than the 
dance. At this moment a half-dozen flies are moving 
in most graceful curves under my chandelier. They 
circle about each other in most delightful lines, and 
occasionally touch with a quick dart. I have no doubt 
that this touch is slightly electrical and pleasurable. 
Three kittens are outside my balcony on the drive- 
way ; and I cannot suppress a conviction that they are 
enjoying motion as an end. They are delightfully 
graceful, moving in considerable rhythm at times, and 
on the whole, like the lambs over the fence, surpass 
the grace of the ruder classes of dancers. It is a crude 
•notion about the fire-fiies, that their exquisite flights 
are purely for sexual attraction. It needs but a few 
moments' observation to determine that these charm- 
ing birds of the insect world are enjoying rhythmic 
motion. The throb of light is the pulsation of their 



pleasure. They show their happiness. The natural 
dance is a pure case of animal inheritance. Its arti- 
ficialities and obscenities we can claim for ourselves, 
as the result of the more creative imagination of the 
human mind. 

Let me add, in a note supplementary, that it is not 
at all impossible that much that passes for mind-read- 
ing is really dependent on a keenly educated sense of 
smell. I am myself so conscious of the distinct odor 
of a few persons that I can trace their passage for sev- 
eral feet, or from room to room. That this power, 
belonging to savage ancestors in some cases, may be 
regained by reversion and education is certain. To 
what extent we may use this sense consciously we 
cannot yet determine. Unconsciously there is also 
room for much self-deception, by attributing to a 
purely psychical cause that which catches a directive 
suggestion from a physical organ. 


The Wilson Bill having passed the House is now before the 
Finance Committee of the Senate, and the "consensus" of Wash- 
ington gossip is that when it comes out again it will be so changed 
in all its features that Mr. Wilson will not know it. In addition 
to that, the suspicion is growing that no bill for the reduction of 
tariff duties can ever pass both houses of this Congress, because 
the " interests" are too strong. One senator is interested in iron, 
another in coal, another in wool, another in lumber, and almost 
every constituency is interested in some form of ' ' herrings " which 
it wants protected at the expense of all the others. To the man 
interested in "herrings" of any kind the tariff question is outside 
of reason, science, or argument ; and not until the Government 
finds itself in serious financial distress will any visible impression 
be made upon the protective system. Borrowing money in time of 
peace to carry on the Government is the next thing to soliciting 
outside relief. It is a sign of bankruptcy, not only in finances but 
in statesmanship. It can only be a temporary makeshift, for at 
last the revenues of the Government must be obtained from the re- 
sources of the nation in the form of taxes. As it was in England, 
so it will be here. When in 1841 the Government of that country 
found itself with an empty treasury, the ministers resolved that 
they must either borrow money or lower the tariff on impofts. 
They decided to lower the tariff, and thus by encouraging imports 

increase the revenue. 


As all forms of direct taxation are unpopular, because we 
would rather pay ten invisible dollars than two dollars that we can 
actually see, the Government is compelled to collect a large por- 
tion of its revenues from taxes levied on imported goods. As the 
income tax is unpopular because of its inquisitorial character and 
the unfair proportion of it that the honest man must pay ; and as 
the Internal Revenue taxes on whiskey, tobacco, and beer, are al- 
ready as large as these "interests" will permit, there is nothing 
but the reduction of the tariff as a revenue-raising policy. It ap- 
pears by this morning's paper that Senator Jones of Arkansas, a 
member of the Senate Committee on Finance, at yesterday's meet- 
ing proposed to increase the tax on beer, "and," says the repor- 
ter, " there is not the slightest doubt that his proposition would 
have been adopted by the Committee had not the attorneys of the 
National Brewers' Association given notice to Mr. Voorhees the 
Chairman of the Committee, as they did to Mr. Wilson, that such 
legislation would be considered offensive and antagonistic to the 

brewing and saloon-keeping interests throughout the country, and 
would call forth their hostility at the next congressional elections." 
With so many obstacles in the way of raising revenues by direct 
taxation, it must be raised by the indirect method of a tariff on 
imports ; and ordinary shop-keeping sense will require that in 
levying customs duties, the work must be done in such a way as to 
produce the most money. No matter what party is in power, the 
Government must have money, and it can only get what it needs 
by lowering the duties upon imports. 


* * 

Whenever I take a ride in the dismal hearse that goes by the 
name of a street car, I am tantalised and tormented by an adver- 
tisement that glares upon me from the panels just above the win- 
dows proclaiming with reckless audacity that at a certain pie fac- 
tory in Chicago they make " pies like your mother used to make "; 
the most impossible miracle that ever was attempted by any mortal 
woman, or mortal man. Make me a pie, O, piemaker, like my 
mother used to make, and then draw on me for fifty thousand dol- 
lars. A quarter section of such a pie as that would roll backward 
off my shoulders more years than I care to tell. It would seat me 
again at the little wooden table in the old home radiant in the 
glory that only a mother's presence can" give to any home ; and as 
the song says, it would " make me a child again just for to-night." 
It is not in the power of human genius to make a pie " like your 
mother used to make." Take all the cooks in Queen Victoria's 
kitchen, and give them the finest flour, and the freshest eggs, and 
the richest butter and milk, and rare fruits ripened in the sun- 
shine, and spices from Arabia, and every delicious ingredient of a 
royal pie ; then bribe them with a coronet apiece and a pension of 
two thousand pounds a year ; and after all, they will not be able 
to make "pies like your mother used to make." The feat is physi- 
ologically and psychologically impossible, because nobody but your 
own mother ever can or ever could give to the elements of a pie 
that ethereal flavor, and that spiritual potency, which makes it, 
for you at least, a memory of home for ever. Unless all their in- 
gredients are mixed with her love, touched by her own hands, and 
seasoned with her own spirit, there are no " pies like your mother 

used to make." 


Can a man be fairly held responsible for thinking what he 
never said ? This is a problem for the casuists, and the solution 
of it is of some importance to the Rev. Thomas E. Sherman, a 
priest who recently delivered a lecture in Chicago in defence of 
the Jesuits, as he had a perfect right to do. Mr. Sherman's father 
and grandfather were famous men, and this it is that gives to his 
lectures an interest they would not otherwise possess. Referring 
to the mob violence inflicted on some ex-priests who attempted to 
lecture under the auspices of a society called the A. P. A , Mr. 
Sherman is reported to have said : " For my own part, I have no 
apology to offer for the acts of Catholics in vigorous protests 
against those wholesale venders of infamy. The father who slays 
the corrupter of his child must be left to the Almighty; the man 
who shoots an anarchist on sight is a public benefactor. These 
ex-priests are anarchists of the worst stamp." This was printed 
in the Chicngo Jtr-rald from the manuscript copy of his address 
furnished by Mr. Sherman to that paper, and yet he never uttered 
the words at all. They were in the type-written sheets of another 
lecture, which he was preparing for some other occasion, but in 
handing his copy to the I/i-rn/ii he had mixed the lectures up, as 
Little Buttercup mixed up the babies in the plav. Evidently the 
Herald \% not responsible for publishing the words, for they were 
in the copy given to that paper; Mr. Sherman is not responsible, 
for he never uttered them, and there is no evidence that he ever 
would have spoken them at any time; and thinking at least, is 
free. Mr. Sherman having proved himself innocent of speaking 
the words, will he now disown the sentiment ? 



An intricate legal puzzle is now tying into double knots the 
brain convolutions of all the lawyers in the State of Mississippi. 
It appears that William Purvis, a negro, was tried for murder, 
convicted, and sentenced to be hanged. The sentence was af- 
firmed by the Supreme Court, and on the 7th of February, at 
Columbia, the sheriff proceeded to carry it into execution At 
12:27, '° 'he presence of a large company, the drop fell, and the 
culprit was " launched into eternity " — almost ; tor the rope broke, 
and Purvis fell to the ground, without having sustained any serious 
injury. The sheriff and his deputies were proceeding to hang the 
prisoner again, when a question arose as to whether or not Purvis 
could legally be hanged a second time. It was contended by some 
of the congregation that a man was entitled to be hanged right 
"even if he was a nigger"; and as the breaking of the rope "was 
not the nigger's fault," he ought not to be hanged again. It was 
"allowed" that if he had been responsible for the rope, the case 
would be different. It was conceded that Purvis had not fired the 
shot that killed Mr. Buckley, but he was merely one of the riotous 
party out of whose ranks the bullet came; and the Rev. Mr. Sib- 
ley, of the Columbia Methodist Church, much to his credit, plead- 
ing on the side of mercy, said, that as the ' ' nigger " was only half 
guilty, he ought to be only -half hanged. The end of it all was that 
the sheriff left the whole matter to "a vote of the spectators, " and 
they decided that the "nigger" ought not to be hanged again. 
Thereupon the sheriff ordered Purvis back to jail, and the next 
day he took him to Meridian, and from there he telegraphed the 
facts to Governor Stone. The question bristles with law points. 
For instance, the day appointed in the sentence having gone by, 
can a new sentence J^e passed, and if so, who is to pronounce it? 
If not, can Purvis be tried again, and thus be put in jeopardy a 
second time ? If not, can the sheriff be hanged in his place ? 
* ' * 

A cheer for the " Kearsarge " before she goes to pieces on the 
reef of Roncador ! Farewell, old comrade, beaten at last, not in 
fair battle, but by a treacherous enemy hidden in the sea. The 
wooden hulk may be broken and scattered by the waves, but the 
soul of the old " Kearsarge" is immortal, an inspiration to all our 
surviving ships and their sailors, the sons of the old sea kings. 
Aye, and to the soldiers, too, as it was in that summer-time of 
battles in 1S64, when around our camp fires in the night we spoke 
of the sea-fight over there by Cherbourg, while France was look- 
ing on from the hills along the shore. Every shot from the " Kear- 
sarge" which struck the enemy was another battle won, and when 
the "Alabama" sunk she carried slavery down with her to the 
bottom of the sea. The war history of the " Kearsarge " we know, 
but how much peace was in her guns is a secret we shall never 
know. There was warning in their voices, and that warning kept 
the peace, for the threatened interference by outside nations in 
our quarrel was indefinitely postponed. Had Winslow struck his 
flag that Sunday morning in that fight, we might have lost some 
other battles, and our cause ; for aspiring foreign powers might 
then have openly declared against us. The victory of the "Kear- 
sarge" was a moral reinforcement to Grant and Sherman and to 
the National forces everywhere, while the banner of the Union 
was lifted higher in the sky. In a few years at farthest the "Kear- 
sarge" must have been laid up in hospital like a decrepit sailor, or 
have been ingloriously broken up for junk; but as it is, she dies 
on duty and at sea, where the " Kearsarge " ought to die. 

hermit homes, social homes, and the defences of insects by color, 
of which subjects the work accordingly treats. These topics do 
indeed involve many strange and interesting features which may 
be justly termed ' ' romantic, " in a certain sense of that word. The 
book is written in a charming, facile, yet exact, style, and is ex- 
ceptionally well illustrated, so far as the accuracy of the drawings 
is concerned. In typographical execution the book is also excep- 
tionable, and may be recommended without reserve to readers 
who wish, not to plunge deeply into the natural history of the 
insect world, but only to spend a few occasional hours in pleasant 
companionship with it. A glossary of scientific terms is appended 
to the volume, which is also supplied with a good index. /(/.yi/c 


Romance of the Insect World. By L. N. Badenoch. With 

Illustrations by Margaret J. D. Badenoch and Others. New 

York and London ; Macmillan & Co. Chicago : A. C. 

McClurg & Co. 1893. Pp. 341. Price $1.25. 

In the author's view, the "romance" of the insect world is to 

be sought in the metamorphoses of insects, the food of insects, 

The Distribution of Wealth. By Jolin A'. Coinmens, Professor 
of Economics and Social Science, Indiana University. New 
■York and London : Macmillan & Co. Chicago : A. C. Mc- 
Clurg & Co. 1893. 258 pages. 

Those who have time to study the subject in a technical way, 
will find this book useful, and some parts of it are presented in an 
easy and popular style that anybody can understand. It is not 
more abstruse than other works of its kind, but it abounds, as most 
of them do, in subtle definitions and hard sums, not in mathemat- 
ics exactly, but in logic. By the dissolving power of applied meta- 
physics, a house, or a tree, or a beefsteak evaporates into an eco- 
nomic formula, which very often conceals and protects a fallacy. 
For instance, in this book we learn that "a dwelling-house is in 
no sense social capital. When used by its owner, it is not capital, 
but consumption goods ; but when leased by its owner it is private 
capital." Also, we are told that "a tree standing in a forest is 
land, but as soon as it is felled it becomes capital "; and a beef- 
steak appears to be "social capital" until it is cooked and ready 
to be eaten, because up to that time " utility is being added to it." 
Now, that sort of science is worth learning, undoubtedly, but is it 
worth enough to pay for the study ? 

It often happens that the analytical and learned explanation 
of a word is not so accurate as the meaning given to it by the 
common people, who know nothing about social or political econ- 
omy ; and for an example of that let us take the familiar word 
"rent," which everybody understands except the political econo- 
mists who write so much about it and who refine it into a verbal 
mist. According to this book, " the rent of land is a share of the 
social income which goes to a certain class, not on account of the 
share this class has had in producing that income, but on account 
of the mere ownership of the conditions for its production." 

The above definition of rent, besides being too much diluted, 
is not correct except in particular cases ; as a general proposition 
it is unsound. The tenant farmer without any knowledge of the 
books, gives the correct definition when he says, "Rent is what I 
have to pay the landlord for the use of the farm." When asked 
if the rent is not " a share of the social income " produced on the 
land, he says, "No, the landlord gets his rent whether I make a 
crop or not. If I farm the land 'on shares,' his rent will then de- 
pend upon the crop." 

Phrases of occult meaning used as axioms confuse the reader 
instead of instructing him ; and when he studies them by given ex- 
amples, he sometimes finds that the fact and the formula do not 
perfectly agree, and of this the following paragraph will serve as 
an illustration : " Nature supplies some needs. The most extensive 
in abundance, with material already prepared, as air and sun- 
light. These are free goods and their marginal utility is nothing. 
Other goods are scarce and can be obtained only when human 
labor controls and exploits nature. These are economic goods." 
The distinction is too fine for practical uses, and the evidence to 
support it fails. Air and sunlight are not more free than any other 
gifts of nature. Air and sunlight are free in public parks, but in 
private parks they belong to the owner of the land whereon they 



rest. In the country, air and sunshine are cheap enough, but in 
the city they are dear ; and for that reason the poor man must live 
in the slums. He cannot live in the country, for he must be near 
his work, and he cannot afford to pay the high rents charged for 
air and sunlight in the town. Even in the slums the rooms that 
receive the most air and sunshine yield the highest rent. The 
owner of the land owns everything above it and below it, from the 
centre of the earth to the sky, the air and the sunshine, too. 

The superficial defects above noted, if they are defects, are 
common to nearly all the text-books on political economy, but in 
spite of them this work by Professor Commons contains much 
valuable information drawn from those facts of human life on 
which is founded the science of political economy. His critical 
examination of certain accepted economic theories and maxims 
will compel some of them to be revised and perhaps abandoned 
altogether. m. m. t. 

In connexion with Professor Haeckel's article in this number 
of The Open Cotir/, and in view of the great interest which the 
theories of Weismann have awakened, especially in this country 
and in England, it will be interesting for readers to learn that 
Prof. George John Romanes has recently published a small work 
supplementary to his "Darwin and After Darwin," entitled ^i« 
Examination of Weismannism. Professor Romanes was prevented 
by a severe and protracted illness from completing Part II of his 
work "Darwin and After Darwin," which was to deal with post- 
Darwinian theories, including, of course, the theories of Weis- 
mann ; but as the portion dealing with Weismann was already 
written, and during the interval which thus elapsed Weismann's 
theories had been considerably extended and modified, as is seen 
in his recent works on AiiipJiiiiiixis and Gerin-plasm, Professor Ro- 
manes thought it best to embody his special criticisms of Weis- 
mann in a separate volume, to be published at once. Professor Ro- 
manes's examination is mainly restricted to the elaborate system 
of theories which Weismann has reared upon the fundamental 
postulate of the non-inheritance of acquired character, but does 
not treat especially of this postulate itself, reserving its examina- 
tion for his next volume. It is true that it is with this postulate 
that Weismann's name is mainly associated, but as Professor Ro- 
manes claims, his merit is that only of having called general at- 
tention to the subject and aroused a world-wide interest with refer- 
ence to it ; as to the postulate itself, it is one which has always 
been prominent in Darwinian considerations. Professor Romanes 
also claims to show that the question of the transmission of ac- 
quired characters was presented early in the seventies by Mr. 
Francis Gallon in his Theoi-y of Heredity, and answered by him al- 
most in the same manner as Weismann did about ten years later. 
We shall not enter into the details of the criticisms of this book, 
which, it is unnecessary to say, are presented in the same spirited 
and vigorous style which distinguishes all of Professor Romanes's 
works and renders them such splendid reading. A glossary of tech- 
nical terms is appended to the volume which will be of great help to 
the reader, since the terminology of this branch of natural science is 
multiplying so fast of late that for comfortable reading something 
of this kind is absolutely necessary. The book is well indexed, 
and contains also an excellent portrait of Weismann. (Pp. ix, 221. 
Price $1.00. Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Co ) 


Among recent noteworthy criticisms of Professor Weismann's 
theories our readers may be referred to that of Prof. Lloyd Morgan 
in The Monist, Vol. IV, No. i, entitled " Dr. Weismann on Hered- 
ity and Progress." In a letter to the Editor, Professor Weismann 
says that his position is not correctly represented in Professor Ro- 
manes's book (see its review in this number), but he expects that 
all such misunderstandings as those of Mr. Romanes and Mr. 

Spencer, the latter of whom he answered in The Contemporary Re- 
view of last year, will in time correct themselves. As to Prof. 
Lloyd Morgan's objections, he says these appear to him to demand 
a consideration, and he will in time reply to them. At present, be 
says, he is too much occupied with other work, but hopes he will 
soon be able to contribute an article on the subject for The Monist. 

To-morrow, February 16, will be the sixtieth birthday of 
Ernst Haeckel. His friends, associates, and disciples from all 
parts of the world, having long had in mind the propriety of a 
personal recognition of Haeckel's great services, have decided to 
take advantage of this occasion and to place as a permanent memo- 
rial of the distinguished inquirer a marble bust of him in the Zoo- 
logical Institute of Jena, the scene of his long and fruitful activity. 
The celebration will take place on the seventeenth. At noon the 
bust will be unveiled, and an address made by the Munich zoolo- 
gist Hertwig, Haeckel's oldest pupil. Dinner will be bad at the 
Bear, and in the evening a grand Commers will be held. It will be 
a day of universal festivity in the old University town, in which 
friends, students, and colleagues will all joyfully participate. We 
trust that the celebration will be worthy of the occasion and the 
motives which prompted it ; and sincerely hope that the great in- 
vestigator thus so justly honored will continue for many years 
the work which he has done for the advancement of science. We 
join the friends who have the good fortune to be with him in ten- 
dering our well-wishes and congratulations. 


1 of the Dar 

1 Theory and £ 
1 Questions. 



460 pp.; 125 Illustrations ; Cloth; Postpaid S2. 00. 





CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 


DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



Prof. Ernst Haeckel 3975 

CURRENT TOPICS : Reducing the Tariff to Increase the 
Revenue. Pies Like Your Mother Made. Thinking, 
But Not Speaking. The Breaking of the Rope. Hail, 

to the Kearsarge. Gen. M, M. Trumbull 3980 


NOTES 3982 


The Open Court. 



No. 339. (VoL.viii.-8.) CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 22, 1894. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court P 

litted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Several articles on Schopenhauer have been pub- 
lished in the Revue des deux Mondes, the last of which is 
of special interest and appeared in September, 1893. 
Considering the chauvinism which since Sedan has 
shown itself not only in the masses of the French peo- 
ple, but also in leading, otherwise respectable, journals, 
in books and speeches, the Revue des deux Mondes has 
manifested upon treating German affairs and particu- 
larly German literature an impartiality worthy of its 
high standing. For several years past it has devoted 
many pages to German philosophy, and Schopenhauer 
has been reviewed by some of its best contributors, 
such as Brunetiere and Bourdeau. 

The present paper in the Revue des deux Mondes, to 
a translation of which I desire to invite the attention 
of the readers of The Open Court, is, as the title con- 
fesses, not quite an original one, but is based in great 
part on the eighth volume of the " History of Modern 
Philosophy," by Kuno Fischer of Heidelberg, which 
volume goes by the title of " Arthur Schopenhauer. " 

Schopenhauer, the Revue states, was born on the 
22d of February, 1788, and after a short life of roving 
and travelling, he took up, in 1831, his permanent 
abode in the city of Frankfort where he ended his days. 
He was yet unknown, though he had in the month of 
December, 1818, published his system in a book which 
has made an epoch in the history of philosophy. That 
book, from which at a later day so many thinkers, 
writers, and artists have drawn instruction and inspira- 
tion, did not meet with the slightest success. Of the 
eight hundred copies printed, ten years afterwards one 
hundred and fifty remained on hand, and one hundred 
were cut up for waste-paper : the edition was never 

As no man felt more vividly what he was worth 
and was less master of his imaginings, Schopenhauer 
charged his misfortune to a vast learned conspiracy of 
the University professors of philosophy, who had come 
to an understanding to kill him off by their silence, and 
who forbade Germany to pronounce his name. He 
would have done better if he had said to himself that 
he had come too soon, that he had anticipated time. 
During the first half of this century optimistic ration- 

alism was in vogue in Germany. The universal reign of 
reason was proclaimed and it was found everywhere, in 
"things" as well as in living and reasoning beings, in 
human existence, even in politics, in nature itself, on 
earth as well as in heaven. It was said with Hegel 
" that everything that exists was rational, that history 
was a progressive evolution, the progress of conscious 

A philosopher who proclaimed that the world was 
created by the fatal mistake of a blind and unconscious 
Will, which is the origin of the All, would at that time 
have been considered as a sorry jester or a melancholic 
fool. In a passage in one of her books. Madam de 
Stael had declared, just as Schopenhauer has, "that 
the will which is the life, the life which is also the will, 
contains the whole secret of the universe and of our- 
selves," but she had not said that the will is the mis- 
fortune and the original sin ; she had not reproved the 
creative Demon, she had not, as Schopenhauer, when 
pointing out to the creator his works, shouted "How 
didst thou dare to disturb the sacred quietude of the 
nonentity {rieanf), to generate a world which is nothing 
but a vale of miseries, of tears, and of crimes? " 

I may be allowed to suggest very timidly (for I do 
not pretend to be at all versed in philosophical lore) 
that M. Volbert,* the author of the essaj', has done 
Hegel an injustice respecting the dictum, that all that 
is, is reasonable. It appears to me that Hegel did not 
mean to say that the present state of things could not 
be any better, but simply that it is the inevitable result 
of all events since historical times and must therefore 
be accepted as a necessity ; the very next sentence 
quoted by M. Volbert from Hegel : " that history is a 
progressive evolution," seems to sustain this view. It 
must be admitted, however, that Hegel, inasmuch as 
he advanced his system early in the century when an 
absolute or paternal despotism prevailed throughout 
the greater part of Europe, was generally considered 
by all liberal-minded people not only as an advocate of 
conservatism, but of despotism. Yet his doctrine was 
in truth a double-edged sword. To-day a king might 
rule absolutely and on the morrow a popular rising 
might dethrone him and send both him and his adher- 

* G. Volbert is. I believe, the t 

-of Victor Cherbulli. 



ents to the guillotine. That revolution would then ex- 
ist and be as rational as the overthrown despotism. It 
was not very long before the reactionary parties de- 
nounced Hegel's philosophy as revolutionary, while it 
was strongly advocated by the radicals. 

"Times changed," M. Volbert continues, "and 
doubts arose whether reason was the sole arbiter of 
human destinies. The nations had by patient efforts 
and in the sweat of their brows obtained a part of their 
liberties ; they had conquered claims, which, the mo- 
ment they had won them, they underrated, afterwards 
to wonder why they had wished for them, and to dis- 
cover that hope gives us more pleasure than fulfilment. 
Sciences had made marvellous progress ; they told the 
people that history resembled fairy-tales and promised 
to transform the world. But in spite of their admirable 
inventions, it was found that the sum of good and bad 
remained nearly the same, that neither railroads nor 
telegraphs, nor chemistry nor physical knowledge could 
cure heart-woes. Industry worked wonders, political 
economy was asked to do the same, but it declared it- 
self powerless. The old traditions, the old customs had 
been lost, and people became disgusted with the new 
ideas as well as the old ones ; they did not know how 
to replace them, but waited for something that did not 
come. It seemed that anything was possible, and it was 
as hard to be happy as before the invention of the 
steam-engine. There was much dreaming, and in con- 
sequence the nerves had become more irritable, the 
imagination more excited and disturbed. Satisfied de- 
sires created new ones, at no time was the world more 
given up to pleasure and more sensible to privations. 
The sages who were content with little did not dare to 
agree that they were content, and with a mixture of 
vanity took glory in expressing an inexorable ennui. A 
pessimistic philosophy was henceforth sure of winning 
the public favor. Schopenhauer dethroned Hegel, be- 
came the philosopher a la mode, and when he affirmed 
that everything was fiction, lie, idle show, the proposi- 
tion was easily admitted, and his dictum : 

'Bet rug ist A lies. Lug und Schein,' 
was repeated by his followers. 

"He had well calculated that his day would come, 
and his sudden reputation gave him more joy than 
astonishment. In a short time this man, so long ig- 
nored, at sixty years of age, had become a celebrated 
writer, admired and worshipped. People came from 
afar to see him, to solicit audiences, were proud to dine 
near him at the table of the Hotel d'Angleterre. The 
ladies, the military officers stationed at Frankfort stud- 
ied his works and became infatuated with this prophet, 
so long unknown. His birthday was celebrated. From 
everywhere flowers, presents, addresses in verse and 
prose were sent him. Some compared him to King 
Arthur of the Round Table, others proclaimed him 

'the emperor of German philosophy.' " So, Monsieur 

The writer of this paper, a native of Frankfort, lived 
for more than a year not far from Schopenhauer's resi- 
dence, after the latter had moved there in 1831, but 
was not made aware of the vast ovations to the philos- 
opher which the essayist of the Revue des deux Mondes 
so vividly describes. He probably refers to a later 
period, but it is hardly probable that the ladies became 
infatuated with his doctrines and smothered him with 
flowers and sent him presents and addresses, since he 
has in all his works treated the fair sex almost brutally, 
hardly allowing them to have souls. But M. Volbert, 
as far as style is concerned, is a typical Frenchman, 
and like all Frenchmen delights in exaggeration and 
high coloring. "The first time," continues the Re- 
view, "that one of his devotees thought it proper to 
kiss his hand he uttered an exclamation of surprise, 
but soon accustomed himself to this kind of ceremony, 
and when he heard that some rich man, who had suc- 
ceeded in getting the philosopher's portrait, proposed 
to erect a chapel as a shrine for the sacred picture he 
merely observed : ' This is the first which is consecrated 
to me; how many will there be in the year 2000?' " 

After his death his glory continued to increase, and 
spread over the world ; his works were translated into 
all languages. But the Germans are a highly critical 
people, and their infatuations are often followed by rude 
reversions. One is betrayed mostly by one's friends. 
Mr. Gwinner, the testamentary executor of the illus- 
trious dead, thought it proper to write a minute and 
indiscreet biography of his master which looks much 
like an indictment. What injured, however, Schopen- 
hauer still more, was the publication of his corre- 
spondence, wherein he paints himself as he was. The 
man appeared unpleasant, and it was asked whether 
his philosophy was to be taken in earnest. It was 
more closely examined and found incoherent and full 
of contradictions. It is easy to discover such incon- 
sistencies in so very complex a system, where the ideal- 
ism of Kant is amalgamated with the theories of Cab- 
anis and Helvetius, the metamorphosis of Lamarck 
with the Platonic doctrine of eternal ideas and perma- 
nent types, the most abstract and subtle aesthetics with 
a psychology, which teaches that our thoughts are the 
secretions of our brain, and what more should I say, 
the irony of Voltaire with the ecstasies, the remorse, 
and unspeakable tenderness of a Hindu Messiah ! Das 
Gebaude, it was said, ruht nicht Stein auf Stein. That 
is going too far. "You cannot get rid of a man," as 
M. Brunetiere has well written, "who has uttered 
words which will never be forgotten." Kuno Fischer 
also recognises that his system is very inconsistent, 
but he renders justice to the originality of the great 
thinker, to his ingenious and profound views, and his 



remarkable power of analysis. Jean Paul, who read 
him when nobody else did, compared his first book to 
those sombre lakes of Norway, enclosed on all sides by 
dark walls of rocks and on which the sun never shines, 
over the surface of which no bird ever flies, no waves 
tremble, but whose depths in clear nights reflect the 
starry heavens. He added : " I cannot but admire the 
book. Fortunately I do not accept the conclusions." 
That is nearly the judgment of Professor Fischer. 

But the contradictions which have been pointed out 
in his philosophy do him less injustice than his care- 
lessness in regulating his life according to his doctrines. 
Most of the philosophers have had their weaknesses, 
inconsistencies. No one would require them to be he- 
roes, grand characters, the incarnations of an idea, 
such as the Pascals, the Spinozas, the Fichtes. But 
Schopenhauer seems to have taken the mischievous 
pleasure of contradicting in many things his own max- 
ims and principles. Read his writings, his letters, and 
you will find that you have to do with two persons re- 
sembling one another in nothing. Leopardi, in de- 
scribing the miseries of this world, had felt them. It 
is from a lacerated heart martyrised by destiny, which 
starts that immortal plaint, never heard without deep 

The pessimism of Schopenhauer, according to the 
spirit iicl/c expression of Mr. Kuno Fischer, is " a pes- 
simism without pain ; he was born coiffc. " And although 
he saw the light of day on a Friday, of which he com- 
plained, he was in fact a Sunday-child («'« So?intags- 
kind), a favorite of the gods to whom had been vouch- 
safed the best things of the earth, all the gifts of intel- 
lect, a complete independence, all the leisure for culti- 
vating his faculties, a determined vocation, which he 
had not to seek, works that were to give him a name, 
and up to his last years an indestructible health, the 
sleep of a child, an old age warmed and illuminated 
by the sun of glory, and ending by a sudden and gentle 
death. And indeed he did not ignore the advantages 
with which he had been favored. How often has he 
boasted of his genius, of his robust health, of his inde- 
pendence, of his works, and even of his shapely form. 
And this fortunate man blamed the Supreme Being for 
not having made him still more happy by conferring on 
him some big benefice and his sweetheart. Miss Fiedler. 
"But after all," he said, "such as I am with six hun- 
dred and thirty shillings income, I am still obliged to 
Him." He had a great deal more than an income of 
six hundred and thirty shillings, he could easily do 
without a big benefice, and if he did not marry Miss 
Fiedler it was owing to his horror of marriage. 

Could it be said that he waited for glory too long, 
that by the injustice of his contemporaries and by his 
ill success with his works, his imagination had be- 
come darkened? When he was thirty-three years old, 

before he had written a single line and had no title to 
distinction, he had said to Wieland : "Life is a sorry 
thing {eine missliche Sache), and I will employ mine to 
meditate upon life." But, on the other hand, it can- 
not be believed that his pessimism was a mere sham, 
a hypocrisy, or a fixed literary prejudice. He had seen 
that valley of tears which he painted, but it was only in 
idea ; and it had appeared to him with such luminous 
clearness that he could not help finding it beautiful, 
and feeling that his lamentations were mixed with a 
secret voluptuousness. "The grand tragedy," Fischer 
tells us, "was played in the theatre, and he was in a 
very soft orchestra seat, his spectacles in hand serv- 
ing him as a microscope, and while a number of spec- 
tators, forgetting the play, went to the buffet, he fol- 
lowed with strained attention all its incidents. No one 
at that moment was more serious than he, no one had 
a more penetrating look, after which he went home, 
feeling at the same time a profound emotion of sad- 
ness and joy, and then he told what he had seen." 

It is a custom of philosophers at dinner, (especially 
towards the end of it,) to amuse themselves by dis- 
coursing upon all the horrors afflicting human kind from 
Australia to the Arctic Pole. This indulgence in abomi- 
nations is very amusing, it is a pleasure which sedentary 
burghers and parish priests, who only know their own 
church-steeples, have no idea of. But a still greater 
pleasure is it to have a warm and strong imagination 
and the gift to make others see what one has seen one- 
self or fancies to have seen. Schopenhauer was con- 
vinced "that the world was a place of penitence, a col- 
ony for convicts," and he took as much pleasure relat- 
ing the miseries of mankind as any English novelist in 
describing the prisons or the poor-house. The one who 
better than any one else has represented the gloomy 
silence of the Norwegian lakes has naturally a taste for 
dismal and desolated landscapes. Study the letters of 
Schopenhauer and you will be convinced that if he had 
been less of a pessimist, he would have been less happy. 
Who could on that account make a criminal charge 
against him ! This philosopher has the sincerity of an 
artist, and that is indeed something. 

Amongst the inconsistencies his enemies charge 
him with, there is one which does not at all shock me. 
"If he had killed himself," they say, "we should have 
believed in his good faith." That is indeed asking 
too much, and I have never understood that pessimists, 
in order to prove their doctrine, should be required to 
shoot off their heads. There was once, if I mistake 
not, an English translator of Lucretius who wrote at 
the margin of every page of his manuscript, ''Not a 
bene, after finishing this translation I am going to kill 
myself." He finished it and killed himself, proving 
thereby that he was a man of his word. But when 
Schopenhauer is blamed for not having acted that way. 



one forgets that on that point he was in accord with 
his doctrine, and that he had explicitly condemned 
suicide. Had he not declared that the sage must try 
to suppress his will to exist, that the unfortunate who 
kills himself, far from killing his will, ceases to live 
because he does not cease to will, but only attempts to 
put an end to his sufferings? " The suffering," he said, 
"is the supreme mortification which leads to resigna- 
tion and to release, and a man who commits suicide is 
like a sick man, not having the courage to submit to a 
painful but salutary operation, prefers to retain his 

Not only did he never have a thought of destroying 
himself, but he occupied himself all the time with pre- 
serving himself; few people have taken better care of 
their precious persons and have been more attentive 
to defend themselves against every accident. Fear of 
the small-pox drove him from Naples ; he fled from 
Venice because the snuff used there was poisoned ; he 
left Berlin to escape the cholera. For a long time he 
was in the habit of not going to sleep before having 
placed a loaded pistol under his pillow. He had his 
rooms on the ground floor in order to be quicker in 
the street if the house took fire. Only with his own 
razor was he to be shaved, and for fear of drinking out 
of an infected tumbler he always carried a leathern 
cup in his pocket. Mr. Bordeau was right in saying 
that Schopenhauer could have applied to himself the 
words of our old satirist, "I fear nothing but danger." 
But these are not characteristic traits ; they belong to 
physiology and heredity. He was a born maniac and 
not without cause. 

His grandmother on the father's side had been in- 
sane ; so were two of his uncles, and his father was 
eccentric. From the first months of his mother's be- 
ing in the family way, his father, Henry Floris Schopen- 
hauer, had asserted that she would bear him a son, 
that this son would be a great merchant, that his name 
should be Arthur, and as he was an Anglomaniac, he 
concluded that Arthur should be born in the skin of an 
Englishman. To accomplish this he took his wife to 
London, but hardly had he established himself there 
when he changed his mind, and, in a bad season, the 
sea running high, he took her back again to Danzig, 
where Arthur was born two months afterwards. If her 
confinement passed off favorably, she did not owe it to 
her husband. 

The same man killed himself in an attack of high 
fever, throwing himself from an attic into one of the 
canals of Hamburg. He would not have been able to 
compose a book, entitled " The World as Will and as 
Representation" (the English use instead of "repre- 
sentation" the word "idea," neither word expressing 
accurately the German " Vorstellung"). He left it for 
his son to write, and Arthur deserves credit for hav- 

ing proved that one may be a maniac and a powerful 
reasoner at the same time. 

The pessimists have always affected to hate wo- 
men, and Schopenhauer always proclaimed himself a 
hardened misogyne. How many epigrams has he shot 
off "on the creatures with short ideas and long hair"! 
He would not even admit that woman was fair. The 
intelligence of man, he said, must have been darkened 
by love in order to admire the other sex. And yet the 
great woman-hater had always loved women. But we 
must pardon even philosophers the inconsistencies 
which women cause them to commit ; they have been 
created to make us love contradictions. To the pleas- 
ure of admiring them we add that of abusing them. Is 
there a happiness equal to that? 

To speak ill of women while loving them is not a 
mortal sin, but we are astonished that a philosopher 
who pronounced himself a great contemner of men 
{Menschenverachter), who at all times professed the ut- 
most scorn for the vulgar, for the bourgeois, for the 
philistines, the souvereign canaille, should be so anxious 
to know what they thought of him, and who attached a 
boundless estimate to the smoke called glory. No one 
was more concerned about his reputation, more greedy 
of laudations and flatteries. Whosoever criticised his 
works in an unfriendly spirit was either a nobody, or a 
scamp and a blockhead. Those who praised him were 
at once sure of his esteem. It will be seen from his 
correspondence that he was constantly asking his dis- 
ciples and particularly his famulus Frauenstaedt to visit 
the reading-rooms, to run over carefully all the books, 
journals, reviews, and to copy the passages where there 
was any mention of Schopenhauer and his genius. He 
was not always satisfied with their quests. " My great 
vexation is," he said, "that I have not read half of 
what has been written about me." He was, however, 
not so very ungrateful ; he confessed " that at the last 
he had tasted much enjoyment, that an old age, crowned 
with roses, even white roses, was a real blessing." 
The older he became the more his pessimism was 
softened. The tone of his letters changed ; his hot fits 
of passion were succeeded by sarcastic cheerfulness. 
He had formerly affirmed with Simonides that the 
greatest good was "not to exist." He had discovered 
that there was some good in life, he wished for noth- 
ing more than the prolongation of his life, and two 
years before his death, he wrote to one of his friends : 
"The sacred Upanishad declares in two places that the 
normal duration of human life is one hundred years, 
and Mr. Flourens in his treaty on Longevity says nearly 
the same thing. This is a consolation." M. G. Vol- 
bert here adds a sentiment which I cannot but highly 
approve, "Of all the vanities of this world the most 
vain is a despair which dreams of a centenary exist- 



Schopenhauer was not only the most eloquent of 
pessimists but was also a moralist as profound as he 
was rigid. But he did not practise morality, and his 
adversaries had in this respect the advantage over him. 
He taught that compassion was the foundation of mo- 
rality, but hastened to add, that real pity had nothing 
in common with the lukewarm philanthropy " which 
allows us to deplore the misfortunes of others while we 
feel easy in our own skin." The holy pity which he 
preaches is that which Buddha knew, that mysterious 
virtue which cannot be acquired unless the heart is pen- 
etrated with the idea of the Unity of all Beings. If we 
believe with Kant that time and space are only forms of 
our perceptions, the multiplicity and diversity of things 
are only a vain appearance and reveal themselves to 
us as identical with ourselves. The veil of the Maya 
is rent to pieces, the grand illusion vanishes. The 
egotist with blinded eyes makes a careful distinction 
between himself and all that is not himself, he sees 
in the universe a strange thing, which he uses for his 
own purposes, but in truth he believes only in his own 
existence. For the wise man there exists no ' ' ego " nor 
"non-ego." He discovers in the innermost depths of 
his existence the principles of the world, and he recog- 
nises himself in all that is. 

Schopenhauer, of all philosophers, is certainly the 
one who has most severely and most logically con- 
demned egoism, but in practice he had never been 
anything else than a pronounced egotist. One day on a 
railway platform, when a train was approaching he saw 
a stranger about to cross the track, he cried out to him 
and lectured him severely on his imprudence ; that was 
perhaps the most real mark of "holy pity" he has 
ever given to his fellow-men. He was a bachelor, a 
capitalist, and as much of an Anglomaniac as his father. 
He wanted to live like an Englishman residing on the 
Continent, who had left in England all the charges in- 
cumbent on him as a citizen, and given up his duties 
to his family. Having well regulated the hours of his 
employment he never sacrificed to any person the least 
of his habitudes. It would have taken a fire to pre- 
vent him from taking his siesta, of taking a walk, read- 
ing the Times at the regular hours, or of playing a little 
tune on the flute before he put on his coat, and tied his 
white "cravat" preparatory to going to dinner. He 
managed his fortune as well as his time, and in spite 
of some unlucky investments he had doubled his capi- 
tal and his revenues. That was all very well, but what 
would Buddha have said to it? 

There are amiable egotists, but such was not his 
case. To his adversaries he always showed himself 
implacable, particularly to the University professors of 
philosophy, and when in the reactionar)' period, which 
followed upon the dissolution of the Frankfort Parlia- 
ment (1849), some of those professors were removed 

from their positions by the Government, he felt the 
joy of a cannibal who eats his enemy. Whether it was 
Fichte or Schelling, Hegel or Herbart, he treated all his 
rivals as charlatans, prattlers, old women, idiots, hum- 
bugs ; but as he was a prudent man he took legal ad- 
vice to find out to what limit a philosopher might be 
abused without risking a prosecution for libel, and also 
from prudential motives he waited for the death of 
Fichte and Hegel before he loudly proclaimed what he 
thought of them. 

If he treated his enemies en canaille, he also often 
maltreated his friends. As he only knew friendship, 
when useful, those only of his disciples were admitted 
to his familiarity who busied themselves with spread- 
ing his glory. Even Frauenstaedt, who had devotedly 
done everything to get him readers and admirers, and 
whom he occasionally called his Theophrastus, fell 
under his displeasure when in some journal, as Scho- 
penhauer believed, he had not correctly interpreted 
him, or had spoken respectfully of philosophical pro- 
fessors. If he was hard to his disciples, to whom he 
was under great obligations, it is easy to believe that 
he was still more so to low people to whom he owed 
nothing. Having had at Berlin a violent quarrel with 
a washerwoman, he used her roughly, throwing her 
down ; for this he was condemned to pay her sixty 
thalers every year. When informed that she had died, 
he indorsed on the letter giving him the news : " Obit 
anus, obit onus.'" 

What was most singular and distressing in his his- 
tory was his quarrel with his mother, whom for the 
succeeding twenty years he never visited. Johanna 
Schopenhauer was more charming than beautiful. She 
loved the world and united taste with gracefulness. 
In 1806, shortly after her settling herself at Weimar, 
Goethe had married his mistress, Christine Vulpius, to 
the great scandal of the court and town. He presented 
her to Mrs. Schopenhauer, who welcomed her with 
great cordiality. " Since he has given her his name," 
she remarked, "we can well afford to give her a cup 
of tea." In this way she won at once the favor of the 
great man, and within a short time, as she informed her 
son, her salon had become a literary circle without its 
equal in Germany. 

She had rendered a great service to this ungrateful 
son, whom his father had condemned to a mercantile 
career. She revoked the sentence, encouraged him to 
pursue the course for which he felt himself born. But 
there was little harmony in their characters. Of a 
subtle and gay temper, she disapproved not only of 
his gloomy ideas, but also of his pride, of his Olym- 
pian and oracular conceitedness. "Although," she 
wrote him, "it is necessary to my happiness to know 
that you are happy ; I do not care to be a witness of 
your good fortune ; it would be difficult for me to live 



with you." On his part, he accused her of loving 
show too much, and of spending too much money. But 
whatever his grievances might have been, he would 
never have broken with her had she not written biogra- 
phies, travels, and novels, which sold well, while the 
prose of Arthur did not sell at all. This wound never 
healed. "My books will be read," he wrote her at one 
time, "when the last copy of yours will have been 
thrown away for rubbish. " A philosopher jealous of 
the literary success of his mother is a rare spectacle. 
After her death, Frauenstaedt found in the posthumous 
works of Feuerbach a harsh and very ill-favored por- 
trait of Johanna Schopenhauer. He lost no time in 
sending it to the master, who rephed : "The portrait 
is a very good likeness. God forgive me, but it made 
me laugh." And yet one of his doctrines was, that in- 
telligence compared with goodness of heart was the 
flickering light of a torch compared to the luminous 
clearness of the sun. "God forgive me, that makes 
me laugh." Another fling ; what would Buddha have 
said to this ? 

In justice to him be it remarked that he always 
painted himself as he was ; his correspondence proves 
it. He very much admired Ranc^, and, seeing his 
portrait, he felt an emotion and observed, "that is the 
effect of gracefulness. " He knew well that this quality 
was wanting in him. To those who reproached him 
with the difference of his doctrine and his conduct of 
life he would answer : "Look at what I say and not at 
what I do. It is enough for the sculptor to make a 
beautiful statue ; is he bound to be beautiful him- 

Unfortunately, he undertook to secure for himself a 
place amongst the founders of religion, and this pre- 
tension spoiled all. The founders of religion engage 
to practise what they teach ; they are judged by their 
work and their miracles ; and if Francis of Assisi, while 
preaching poverty, had been occupied in doubling his 
revenues, he would long since have been forgotten. 
Bacon was not a good man ; but what is that to 
us ? He did not pride himself on being a saviour of 
souls ; he was not an apostle of quietism, which is a 
renunciation of all desires ; which is the determined 
immolation of egotistical will. There was an absolute 
gulf between the character of Schopenhauer and the 
part he pretended to play, and in truth this grand con- 
tradiction is the only one which gives me a shock. 

As Kuno Fischer has justly remarked: "Judging 
Schopenhauer, it must not be forgotten that in his 
youth the adoration of genius was the religion of the 
whole literary world. This worship had its code and 
its ritual. It was taken for granted that a man of ge- 
nius was above all common rules that the Philistines 
were bound to observe. His existence was at the same 

time an honor and a fortunate thing for the human 
kind, which he instructed and delighted by his works. 
His only duty is to exist and to tell the universe what 
passes through his imagination. All that is asked of 
him is to have the sincerity of an artist. Schopen- 
hauer boasted of having received from nature such a 
gift of imagination and voluntary emotional feelings, 
as to enable him to bring tears to his eyes by reciting 
his own writings. He pretended that if he had not 
preferred to become a great philosopher, he could have 
made himself easily a great stage-actor. His genius 
he compared to Mont Blanc, or to the sun. He wor- 
shipped only himself. But why did he wish to create 
another worship for the use of the humble? Why did 
he fancy at one time that Europe needed a new reli- 
gion ; that his philosophy would supply it, and that 
he would be the Buddha of the Occident? He tried to 
persuade his disciples that they were his apostles ; he 
enjoined them to visit one another and wrote them : 
"At any place where two of you assemble in my name 
I will be in your midst." Indeed, in the conduct of 
his life this skilful flute-player was not afraid of dis- 
cordance and false notes. But did he really take the 
religious character of his doctrines in good earnest? 
It is hard for me to believe it. The Germans, when 
they are at it, are terrible mystifiers. In a military 
college in Austria, two cadets, who passed their nights 
in secretly meditating upon the works of the grand 
Arthur, had reached the conviction that if they were 
to kill their desire (will) to live, the world would be 
annihilated. They were perfectly willing to extinguish 
their will, but had they the right to suppress the world? 
Vexed by their scruples they addressed the master, 
and a few weeks before his death he answered them in 
a style of paternal indulgence that this was one of the 
transcendental questions which he did not charge him- 
self to solve. That is nearly what Mephistopheles an- 
swered to the good young men who submitted to him 
their cases of conscience. 

Examining one of his photographs, it pleased him 
to say, that he was struck with the astonishing resem- 
blance it bore to the features of Prince Talleyrand, 
and he wished that others also should be struck with 
the likeness. He liked to be taken for an impene- 
trable, mysterious, diabolical being, inspiring all who 
came near him with a sort of pious fear. Mr. Chal- 
lomel Lacour who had gone to Frankfort to see him and 
dined with him at the hotel, wrote : " His slow-spoken 
and monotonous words which reached me above the 
din of glasses and the flashes of gaiety of my neigh- 
bors gave me a kind of uneasiness, like that of a cold 
blast across the open gate of the ncaiif." In read- 
ing Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Malebranche, Spinoza, 
Kant, or Hegel, whatever one may think of their sys- 
tems, one does not doubt their good faith. They had 



all that metaphysical candor, the supreme virtue of 
great thinkers. When reading "The World as Will 
and Idea," or his " Parerga," one is less sure, one fears 
that one is being duped. The edifice appears fair, but 
while admiring it, we can almost fancy that we hear 
as from the depth of a cave the secret sneer of the 
grand magician, who has built it and who laughs at his 
work and at himself. 

Schopenhauer looked upon the bronze statuette of 
Buddha, cast at Thibet, purchased at Paris, as one of 
the most precious ornaments of his study. It was 
placed on a bracket and he held secret conversations 
with "the perfect being," with the sage of the sages, 
whose sweet smiles console and redeem the world. He 
might also have said to the bust : "Thy kindness was 
equal to thy holiness, thou hast discovered the princi- 
ple of true morality, but above all thou hast made it 
thy duty to practise it thyself." Schopenhauer might 
have taken for his motto the memorable sentence of 
Goethe, which he wrote in the album of a student : " It 
is our good God who has given us the nuts, but it is 
not He who cracks them for us." 

The essayist of the Revue des deux Mondes is not 
blind to the contradictions and incoherencies of Scho- 
penhauer. He has frequently dwelt upon them, but 
he has not pointed out the one which seems to me the 
greatest of all. Schopenhauer, in his attitude to nearly 
all philosophical systems, was an iconoclast, and no 
one was more maligned and denounced by him than 
his predecessor, J. G. Fichte, though I venture to say 
that there is the greatest similarity, not to say identity, 
between his and Fichte's philosophy. What is Scho- 
penhauer's "will" but the strong desire to exist, to 
live, which extreme striving for existence dwells un- 
consciously even in the inorganic world, is very strongly 
implanted in animated and most intensly in human 
beings. Everything outside the individual man is mere 
representation ^^idea). The world is mirrored in his 
head. Now Fichte's "ego" is the individual, equally 
bent on his existence. The outside world is a stranger 
to him, is the " non-ego." He observes only phenom- 
ena. Were it not for this most ardent desire to exist, 
impressed on mankind by the creative power, the world 
would soon come to an end. Were the desire to exist 
but feeble or entirely latent, many a man would put an 
end to his life with a bare bodkin, when afflicted with 
a violent toothache. According to both, when the in- 
dividual dies, the world dies. It is true, from the very 
same premise, Fichte, who loved mankind and strove 
to live for it, drew different conclusions, as Jean Paul 
and Madam de Stael also did, but that does not de- 
prive Fichte of the merit, if merit it be, of being the 
original source of Shopenhauer's system, nor did it 
justify the abuse which the latter so abundantly has 
heaped upon him. 


Probably the most efficient policeman in preserving peace 
among nations is International Trade. The new treaty of com- 
merce between Germany and Russia is already interpreted as not 
merely a commercial agreement, but also as a pledge of political 
friendship. The intention of the French Government to increase 
the tariff on wheat threatens to dissolve the Franco-Russian al- 
liance against the Dreibund, if such an alliance was in reality ever 
formed. The Russian Minister of Finance will regard the new 
tariff on grain, if adopted by the French Government, as a declara- 
tion of commercial war against Russia, and in that case he will 
apply retaliatory and repressive measures ; and while he is about 
it he will enforce those measures not only against France, but also 
against "several American imports." " Russia," says the Minis- 
ter, "is able to get along without imports from France or Amer- 
ica." This is doubtless true, and France and America are equally 
independent of Russia, and every other nation can say the same 
thing. There is probably not a nation in the world that could not 
"get along," after a fashion, without e.\ternal commerce, but it 
gets along better with it, and this is the benefit that commerce 
gives to nations. If the Russians need some things that the French 
have to spare, and the French need some things that the Russians 
have to spare, it is better for both nations that they exchange with 
one another. A war of tariffs is better than a war of guns, but 

peace is better than either. 


The House of Lords has been meddling in politics lately, and 
thereupon a cry for its reformation or its abolition comes up from 
the people outside. That the abolition of the House of Lords will 
be a plank in the coming "platform " of the Liberal party seems 
very likely now. Mr. Gladstone himself may act as a conserva- 
tive break on the movement, because a good deal of Tory senti- 
ment remains in him still, but the younger members of his cabinet, 
with hotter and more tumultuous blood in their veins, want to 
share in the enthusiasm created by the prospect of a revolution 
that will end the House of Lords. At the conference of the Lib- 
eral Federation held at Portsmouth on the 14th of February, Sir 
William Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Gladstone's first lieutenant in Par- 
liament, said: "Is it this nation's will to be controlled by the 
representatives of the people, or by a chamber representing noth- 
ing but a selfish class ? .... It is the business of the Liberals to 
convince the Lords that the people will no longer allow them to 
override the people's will." In answer to that the Lords can say, 
"Well, we had a good time of it while we lasted "; and when that 
gilded relic of antiquity, the House of Lords, is finally converted 
into a committee-room, or something of that sort, their lordships 
will probably laugh as heartily as anybody at the barbarian coro- 
nets and robes, and stars and garters, and collars and crosses, and 
all the rest of the tomfooleryment by which they have hypnotised 
the English people for seven or eight hundred years. 

The abolition of the British House of Lords will be a caution 
to its counterpart and imitation, the American Senate. Although 
the Senate is more firmly established in our Constitution than is 
the House of Lords in the Constitution of Great Britain, it will at 
last come under the same criticism and meet the same fate. Poli- 
tical causes work out the same consequences in all countries just 
like other laws, and the American Senate is becoming unpopular, 
partly because of its own actions, but principally because the peo- 
ple are just beginning to find out that it is an aristocracy and an 
elective House of Lords. It is criticised and even menaced for 
the same reasons that threaten the existence of its prototype and 
model. It is rather suggestive that while Sir William Harcourt 
was denouncing the House of Lords at Portsmouth, the editor of 
the A^ews was writing like this at Indianapolis : "The Senate is 
the greatest log-rolling body of law-makers in the world. And at 



this present time the Senate is engaged in a conspiracy against the 
people of the United States. It is more important that one of 
those fossil millionaires should be pleased than that the most 
righteous law should be passed over his protest. There is no call 
for any wild talk, but we would remind the Senators that the peo- 
ple are above the Constitution, and that they cannot shield them- 
selves behind that Constitution if the people are ever persuaded 
that the Senate is a nuisance that must be abated." This is very 
much like the talk of Sir William Harcourt, but the significance 
of it lies in the warning that " the people are above the Constitu- 
tion," an ancient principle that seems to have been forgotten by 
the politicians of this land. 

* ■ * 

The adjective "un-American" has been so grievously over- 
worked in rebuking some very American practices that we feel a 
genuine pleasure when we find it properly applied. Some of the 
most prominent citizens of Chicago have organised themselves 
into a " Civic Federation" for the purpose of improving the gov- 
ernment of the city. At a meeting of the Federation to adopt a 
Constitution and By-Laws, it was proposed that, "Any member of 
the central council who shall become a candidate for or accept a 
political office shall forfeit his membership in the Civic Federa- 
tion." The resolution was opposed by some of the members on the 
ground that it was putting a boycott on themselves, and that such 
a boycott was " unmanly and un-American." I fail to see any- 
thing "unmanly" in it, but it really does appear to be "un-Amer- 
ican." A body of citizens voluntarily renouncing all political am- 
bition and all aspirations for office, is a remarkably "un-Ameri- 
can " sacrifice. "What are we here for," said Mr. Flanagan, "ex- 
cept the offices ? " which reminds me of Judge Wilson of Marble- 
town, the day that Sumter was fired on. We had a meeting in the 
evening at which the Judge declared that the Union must be main- 
tained at any cost, "because if this Government is to be broken 
up, fellow citizens, what's to become of the offices ? " And some- 
thing like that was the argument of Mr. Seward at the famous 
Delmonico dinner, when he predicted that the trouble would be 
all over in ninety days, because as soon as our Southern friends 
discovered that in dissolving the Union they were losing the offices 
they would all come back. It is gratifying to record that in spite 
of all opposition, the Civic Federation stood firmly by its resolu- 
tion to keep the society free from the contamination of office-hunt- 
ing politics. 

* * 

The Packing Manufacturers and Canning Association, and 
the Western Canners Association held their annual convention last 
week in Chicago, and curiously enough, it was the only convention 
held here this winter that did not "want a law passed." In fact, 
as reported by the papers, "the question of the law pending be- 
fore the Ohio Legislature which proposes to oblige manufacturers 
of canned goods to label their packages with the date of canning, 
was brought up and briefly discussed. The members of the Asso- 
ciation are unanimously opposed to the measure, and yesterday's 
discussion resulted in the appointment of a committee to draft a 
set of resolutions denouncing the law." It is the business of those 
canners to pack meat, fish, fruit, and vegetables in cans, and sell 
their wares in the market at the most favorable time, but unfor- 
tunately their merchandise does not improve with age, like wine; 
in fact, after fermenting in the cans for a few years it is likely to 
become insipid, and perhaps, unwholesome, sometimes indeed, 
even poisonous, but this is usually attributed to the chemical ac- 
tion of the acids on the tin cans, and it is never the fault of the 
canners nor due to the antiquity of their goods. The people of 
Ohio, not being poison-proof, like some of us farther west, want 
their canned goods fresh instead of stale, and when they buy a can 
of peas or strawberries they want to know at what time in the cen- 
tury the peas and strawberries grew. Actuated by the same feel- 

ing, the Legislature of Ohio proposes to pass a law compelling the 
canners to stamp upon the cans the exact year when the canning 
was done. To this the Western canners, and the Eastern canners, 
and the Northern canners, and the Southern canners, and all the 
other canners are unanimously opposed, because they want the age 
of their goods to remain, like the age of a woman, a mystery. The 
proposed law being merely for the protection of the general pub- 
lic, and not in behalf of a special interest, it will probably never 
be passed. 

The personality of the Devil has been judicially determined 
in the affirmative by a judge and jury of the Salvation Army at a 
trial in which that well-known criminal, Satan, was defendant. 
The trial was held at the Head Quarters of the Salvation Army in 
the old skating rink on West Madison Street ; and so great was the 
public interest in the case t'nat the hall was crowded, although a 
general admission fee of ten cents a head was charged, and twenty- 
five cents for a reserved seat, the winner taking all the gate money 
and the loser nothing. As the prosecutors had the appointment of 
the judge, and the selection of the jury, they had a great advan- 
tage, and the objection made by the defendant's counsel to the 
unfair character of the tribunal was promptly overruled. Notice 
of appeal was given but it will do no good, because any ecclesias- 
tical court will decide that the rulings in the case, and the law, 
and the evidence were all strictly orthodox, according to the letter 
and spirit of the Bible and the precedents running back for nearly 
six thousand years. One witness testified that in California he had 
been persuaded by the Devil to commit a burglary, for which he, 
and not Satan, had suffered three months imprisonment. Gro- 
tesque as this appears to be, it was not only good theology but good 
law; and the witness probably remembered how it was charged in 
the indictment that, "being moved and instigated by the Devil,'' 
he committed the crime. This was the form for hundreds of years 
in England, and it prevails in some of the American States to this 
day. Other witnesses gave similar testimony, one saying that the 
Devil had given him lessons in theosophy, while another swore 
that Satan had taken him to hear Colonel Ingersoll. They de- 
scribed also the personal appearance of the Devil, his horns, tail, 
and the fire coming out of his mouth. The high-toned ministers 
of the Gospel sneer contemptuously at this burlesque performance, 
but the theology of it is in their own creeds ; and the judge who 
presided at the trial, in justification of his ruling, can say with 
Uncle Toby, " It is in the Scriptures Trim, and I will show it thee 
to-morrow." M. M. Trumbull. 


The date of publication of this number of The Open Court, 
February 22, is not only Washington's, but also Schopenhauer's 
birthday. Our readers will therefore peruse with pleasure ex- 
Governor Koerner's article on the Frankfort philosopher. 



E. C. HEGELER, Publishek. DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 


PHER. G. KoERNER 3983 

CURRENT TOPICS : Trade as a Policeman. The Two 
Houses of Lords. The Civic Federation. Canned Goods. 
The Trial of Satan. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3989 

NOTES 3990 


The Open Court. 



No. 340. (Vol. VIIL— 9.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH i, 1894. 

[ Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



The conclusions of the most authoritative scientists 
of the present day teach us to believe that : — 

When our earth, under fixed laws governing mat- 
ter and force, had attained the requisite conditions, 
living organisms — vegetable and animal — originated ; 
and that from some of these lower forms of animal life, 
the human race was evolved. 

That in his primitive condition man was endowed 
with powers and faculties but little above his brute 

That as time passed on his physical and mental 
powers increased by use and by the survival of the 
stronger and better-endowed individuals, and by the 
elimination of those not so well fitted to war with their 

From these rude beginnings, hidden away back in 
the mist of geologic asons, archaeology, monumental 
record and authentic history, all show us that he has 
progressed by slow and weary stages ; sometimes mak- 
ing but one advanced step, or noting but one valuable 
fact in centuries ; yet, as a race, always marking some 
increment of progress ; until now the /loiiw sapiens has 
reached so high a degree of knowledge and civilisa- 
tion, and placed so wide a gulf between his starting- 
place and his present standpoint, that only the rem- 
nants of the bridge can be discovered over which he 
has passed. 

In every stage of his progress there have been men- 
tal ecdyses in which some favored individuals or tribes, 
by the perception and appreciation of new ideas, in- 
volving some beneficent truth to the whole race, have 
sloughed off their worn-out skins of custom and preju- 
dice and started less trammelled toward the goal to be 

In no branch of mental activity have these mental 
ecdyses been more marked than in religious belief. 
Still each succeeding higher cult has appropriated from 
its waning predecessor so many trappings and figments 
of the old belief, and so interwoven them with the 
new, that only the comparative mythologist can now 
select from the present creeds of civilisation the rem- 
nants of those effete cults of which they are so largely 

The tendency of thought of the present day shows 
unmistakable evidence that another religious ecdysis 
is about to take place ; and though it is scarcely pos- 
sible that finite understanding will ever be able to 
grasp the highest religious ideas in their entirety, yet 
it cannot be doubted by any intelligent mind that 
nearer approximations can now be made to ultimate 
religious truths, and higher and nobler conceptions 
framed of the Deity and the scheme of the universe 
than ever before ; which must soon replace the puerile 
and degrading ideas formed in the infancy of the race, 
but which are still propagated and still hold sway over 
the great mass of mankind. 

To the infantile mind of primitive man, everything 
that was inexplicable by his limited observation and 
rudimentary reasoning powers, became objects of won- 
der, amazement, or terror. The bright sun that gave 
him light and heat, the moon and stars that guided 
him through the sombre forest, the summer rain-cloud 
that cooled the parched earth and vivified languishing 
nature, the rosy dawn that heralded the approach of 
the rising sun, were all objects of admiration. Whilst 
the black night encompassed with unknown evils, the 
rushing hurricane pregnant with the scathing thunder- 
bolt, the flaming mountain charged with fiery death, 
the ravening wild beast, and the deadly serpent, be- 
came objects of mortal terror. 

From these ideas was evolved the religious senti- 
ment. And every object that was beneficent and con- 
duced to man's happiness, or, on the contrary, was 
maleficent and feared, became deified. They made 
gods of the sun, moon, and stars, the earth and the 
dawn ; they placed Naiads in every stream and Dryads 
in every forest- grove ; the volcano was the home of a 
devil, and the storm-cloud the chariot of an evil de- 

And as primeval man could frame no higher con- 
ception of automatic power than that of his own will, 
or the chiefs who ruled over him, or the animals with 
which he was familiar, all of his gods necessarily took 
those forms — Zeus prosecuted his amours under the 
guise of a bull, a swan, or a golden cloud ; the genial 
sun was Baal, or Indra, or Apollo ; Aurora was a rosy- 
tressed maiden that opened tlie gates of the sky for 
the chariot of the sun-god ; Thor launched his fiery 



hammer from the bosom of the storm-cloud ; the lame 
Hepha;stus forged the thunderbolts of Jupiter in the 
fierce fires of ^tna; the blustering Boreas carried off 
the beautiful Oreithyra from the banks of the Ilissus ; 
the Devil masqueraded in the Garden of Eden as a 
talking serpent; the God of Israel made an anthropo- 
morphic demonstration to Moses on the top of Sinai ; 
and in the philosophical pantheon of Egypt almost 
every living thing was the personification of some 

And as his gods all partook of his own sensuous 
nature^ with like appetites and aversions, their favor 
and assistance could be purchased and their anger 
averted by prayers, entreaties, praises, and gifts. 

In that far-away past, as well as in the present, 
man was afflicted with many evils — poverty and cold, 
hunger and thirst, pain and disease, and death. From 
every other evil there was some "respite and ne- 
penthe," but from death there was none — the mighty 
and the lowly, the strong and the weak, the young and 
the old, were alike conquered by the grim king of 

The antithesis of the dark, silent charnel-house, or 
the foul, maggot-infested corpse, to buoyant life in 
the bright, genial sunshine, with sympathetic friends 
and gay feasts and dances, was terrible to contem- 
plate. What wonder then that man's hope and vanity 
led him to conceive the idea of a future life as the only 
means of wresting victory from the grave and robbing 
the sting of death of its venom. 

As families coalesced into tribes and nations, the 
experience of individuals was aggregated, and the 
ideas of every separate one became the property of all. 
Apparitions, ghosts, and visions of the dead, seen by 
a few in dreams and trances, were spoken of and dis- 
cussed around their nightly fires and at their triball 
gatherings, until soon the belief in an immaterial and 
imperishable alter ego, or spirit, became universal, 
and a continuance of life beyond the grave became an 
accepted fact. 

And now all forms of religion, from the rudest sav- 
age fetichism to the most exalted Christianity, hold as 
a common tenet that there is beyond the present life, 
another state of existence, in which those who have 
done what they believed to be the will of their gods 
on earth, will be rewarded in that future life by honor 
and happiness, whilst those who have neglected to 
praise and worship their gods, or who have disobeyed 
their commands will be degraded and punished with 
inconceivable torture. And though this conception is 
so nebulous and misty, and so opposed to human rea- 
son and experience, that few believers, even those with 
the most vivid imaginations, can frame a consistent 
idea, how an individual continuance of life is possible 
after death, with an unbroken consciousness of per- 

sonal identity, or in what the rewards and punishments 
of a future life could consist ; yet this belief in its ac- 
tuality is so potent, that whether Brahman, Buddhist, 
Parsee, Jew, Christian, Mohammedan, or Mormon, it 
regulates the lives of its believers and is their sustain- 
ing hope and dependence in the hour of death. 

From these anthropomorphic and zoomorphic 
conceptions of their gods, arose the idea of family de- 
scent from them, and their worship as deified ances- 
tors naturally followed. This belief was so widely 
spread among the nations of antiquity that every family 
or person of note took pride in tracing his lineage back 
to this ambiguous parentage between a god or a god- 
dess and some favored mortal. The ruder nations have 
left us but scant records of the genealogies of even 
their sovereigns, but among the Greeks and Romans, 
the amours of the gods and goddesses of Olympus and 
the families begotten by their illicit loves, are as widely 
known as the names of Homer and Ovid. It would 
seem also from the second verse of the sixth chapter 
of Genesis that this idea was not unknown to the writer 
of the Pentateuch. The worship of deified ancestors 
{Manes') continued among the Romans until the older 
cult was replaced by Christianity. 

Another belief common to all forms of religion is 
that the good-will and assistance of their gods can 
be obtained, and their malevolence averted by singing 
praises in their honor, praying to them and offering 
them gifts of such things as it is thought they take de- 
light in. Hence every form of religion prescribes spe- 
cific rules for daily conduct : catalogues the feast days 
and the fast days, enumerating the kinds of food that 
may be eaten or must be abstained from each day. 
And in the most of them elaborate rituals have been 
established, which specify the particular kinds and 
numbers of prayers, hymns, and invocations to be used 
on every occasion of life : the amount and kinds of 
penance to be undergone, and the kinds of sacrifice or 
gifts to be offered to the God as an atonement for sin, 
or for the purchase of his favor. 

How closely allied are these conceptions in all re- 
ligions, the following invocations, prayers, and hymns, 
quoted from widely different sources will abundantly 

The first is a hymn (or prayer) addressed by the 
worshipper to Varuna, and is taken from the "Rig 

1. " Let me not yet, O Varuna, enter into the hotise of clay : 
have mercy, Almighty, have mercy ! 

2. If I go along trembling, like a cloud driven by the wind ; 
have mercy. Almighty, have mercy ! 

3 Through want of strength, thou strong and bright God, 
have I gone to the wrong shore : have mercy, Almighty, have 
mercy ! 

1 As I have not the Rig Veda at hand, I quote this hymn from Freeman 
Clarke's Ten Great Religions," Vol, I, p. 03. 



4. Thirst came upon the worshippfer, though he stood in the 
midst of the waters ; have mercy, Almighty, have mercy ! 

5. Whenever we men, O Varuna, commit an offence before 
the heavenly host, whenever we break thy law through thought- 
lessness : have mercy, Almighty, have mercy ! " 

The second quotation is taken from a hymn to 
Amen-Ra. The translation of this papyrus is by C. 
W. Goodwin, M. A., from " Les Papyrus Egyptiens 
du Mus^e de Bbulaq, Fo., Paris, 1872." It is beheved 
to belong to the nineteenth dynasty or about the four- 
teenth century, B.C. There are twenty verses in this 
beautiful hymn, but the limits of this essay allow me 
to quote only the two following : 


" Gracious ruler crowned with the white crown, 
Lord of beams. Maker of light. 
To whom the gods give praises, 
Who stretches forth his arms at his pleasure, 
Consuming his enemies with flame. 
Whose eye subdues the wicked. 
Sending forth its dart to the roof of the firmament, 
Sending its (arrows) against Naka'i- to consume, him. 
Hail to thee Ra. Lord of truth, 
whose shrine is hidden. Lord of the gods, 
Chepra^ in his boat, 

At whose command the gods were made, 
Atum i maker of men. 
Supporting their works, giving them life. 
Distinguishing the color of one from another. 
Listening to the poor wlio is in distress ; 
Gentle of heart when one cries unto him," 

The third quotation is taken from Taylor's trans- 
lation of the " Hymns of Orpheus," London, 1787 : 


(The fumigation from Storax.) 
" O Jove much-honored, Jove supremely great ! 

To thee our holy rites we consecrate. 
Our prayers and expiations, king divine. 
For all things round thy head exalted shine. 

The earth is thine, and mountains swelling high. 

The sea profound, and all within the sky. 
Saturnian king, descending from above ; 
Magnanimous, commanding, sceptred Jove, 

All-parent, principle and end of all. 

Whose pow'r almighty, shakes this earthly ball ; 
Ev'n Nature trembles at thy mighty rod, 
Loud-sounding, arm'd with light'ning,. thund'ring God. 

Source of abundance, purifying king. 

O various formed from whom all nations spring ! 
Propitious hearjny prayer, give blameless health 
With peace divine, and necessary wealth." 

The fourth quotation I will make is from the author- 
ised version of the Sacred Chronicle : 


1. "Save me, O God, by thy name, and judge me by thy 

2. Hear my prayer, O God ; give ear to the words of my mouth. 

3. For strangers are risen up against me, and oppressors seek 
after my soul, they have not set God before them. Selah. 

4. Behold, God is mine helper ; the Lord is with them that 
uphold my soul. 

\Recordsoftht Past, Vol. H, p. 125. 
"^Naka, form of the Apophis. 
3 Chejna, the Creator. 
iAium, the god of the setting sun. 

5. He shall reward evil unto mine enemies ; cut them off in 
thy truth. 

6. I will freely sacrifice unto thee ; I will praise thy name, O 
Lord, for it is good. 

7. For he hath delivered me out of all trouble, and mine eye 
hath seen his desire upon mine enemies." 

I have given all of these hymns in the authorised 
English version, in order that they could be more 
readily compared. And upon careful comparison, it 
will be seen, that under whatever name, or whatever 
form the God was worshipped, the ideas in the mind 
of the worshipper were : 

First : That their gods had the ability to assist 
their worshippers. 

Second : That the will of their gods, like those of 
human beings, were changeable ; and 

Third : That their wills could be influenced by 
prayer, praise, and sacrifice. 

Belief in the efficacy of sacrifice was common to 
every form of religion. In its fundamental conception, 
a sacrifice is an offering or gift to the gods, a trade or 
a bargain in which the worshipper gives to the gods 
something it is believed they desire, in payment for 
their countenance and assistance. 

Homer taught the Greeks that the gods of Olym- 
pus could be influenced by gifts. In the sacred chron- 
icle the necessity of gifts to obtain the favor of the 
God of Israel is abundantly shown. In the dealings 
between Jehovah and Noah and the Abrahamidae, the 
covenant or bargain between the two parties was never 
completed without a sacrifice, and most usually of 
animal life in some form.^ The first covenant between 
Jehovah and Abraham, by which the Abrahamidae ob- 
tained their {quasi) title to the land of Canaan, and 
were recognised as the peculiar people of Jehovah, 
was not ratified except by circumcision ; Abraham 
himself having to undergo this cruel rite when he was 
ninety-nine years of age, when there surely could have 
been no hygienic or moral consideration requiring it.^ 

Among the Eastern nations even to this day no 

1 Vide Genesis iv, 3-4 ; 
21-29 ei at. 

2 Regarding the rite 1 
there are conflicting opini 
Ethiopians practised this 
and Syrians of Palestine ] 
testimony that other tribe 
affinities from the Semiti< 

Exodus : 

, 29-30 ; 

15. 29; 

and its significance as a sacrifice, 
s. Herodotus says the Egyptians, Colchians, and 
e/rom the earliest times, and that the Phcenicians 
rnt the custom from the Egyptians. There is also 
ind races totally different in ethnic or linguistic 
imily, practised the same rite. Bancroft says cir- 
cumcision was common among the civilised people of Central America, and that 
it is still kept up among the Teamos and Manoas and some of the tribes about 
the upper Amazon, and Eyre says the custom is still preserved by some of the 
Atistralian tribes. There is scarcely a probability that such a peculiar rite 
could have originated ab initio among the Abrahamidae and been carried to 

5 of the globe, either upon hyg: 

such distant 
cause that seems to me most con! 
history of human thought is that it i 
ous sacrifice—or sacrifice by substit 

political reasons. The 
vith what we know of the earliest 
nant of human sacrifice— a vicari- 
here a part is sacrificed or given 

to the gods to acknowledge their authority and purchase their favor, rather 
than the whole victim.— C3«/^ Herodotus, ii, 104 ; Clarke's Commentaries : Gene- 
sis, xvii, 11-12; Bancroft. Native Races, Vol. iii; Eyre, Australian Dwellings 
and Customs, and verb " Circumcision," in Encyclopedia Britannica, last edi- 
tion, by the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, Balliol College, Oxford. 



suppliant goes into the presence of his god or king 

To primeval man one of the most pressing and 
ever-recurring evils was hunger. Food was limited 
and precarious. Lands flowing with milk and honey 
were very rare. Sometimes for years in succession 
there were no rains in parts of Asia Minor, and the 
torrid sun parched up every green thing. Occasion- 
ally swarms of locusts were brought by the winds into 
Syria and Palestine, which destroyed alike the food of 
man and beast. Sometimes the Tigris and Euphrates 
overflowed the lowlands of Mesopotamia, rotted the 
seed in the ground, and drowned their flocks and herds, 
and occasionally the Nile shut up his fertihsing waters, 
and famine reigned even in the prolific land of Egypt. 

As food was one of the constant wants of primitive 
man, and, in primitive thought, one of the constant 
wants of their gods, some article of food, something 
that supported the life of man, was usually selected as 
a gift or sacrifice to their gods. The first offerings — 
certainly during the hunter and herder state of the 
race — undoubtedly always consisted of animal life in 
some form. Among the Greeks and Romans they 
sacrificed different animals to different gods; bulls, 
oxen, and rams were sacrificed to Jupiter; horses to 
Mars; goats to Bacchus; hogs to Ceres; and a preg- 
nant cow to Tellus. In the Iliad mention is made 
many times of the sacrifice of bulls, oxen, and heifers ; 
and at the obsequies of Patroclus, Achilles sacrificed 
horses, oxen, sheep, dogs, and human beings to the 
manes of the deceased ; but no mention is made of 
any produce of the soil, except honey, oil, and wine 
as accessories.' 

In the sacred chronicle it is stated that the God of 
the Hebrews had respect unto Abel and his offering 
of the firstlings of his flock, but unto Cain and his 
offering of the fruit of the ground he had not respect. - 

In the Vishnu Purana we read that horses and 
other animals were sacrificed to Siva.^ Herodotus 
tells us that the Egyptians sacrificed a red bull with- 
out spot or blemish, a sheep, or a goose.* That the 
Persians always sacrificed an animal, usually a white 
horse, though Xerxes sacrificed a thousand oxen to the 
Trojan Minerva;^ and the Lybian king, Croesus, pro- 
pitiated the Delphic god with three thousand of every 
kind of sacrificial beast. ^ 

Among the Babylonians there was one peculiar 
sacrifice required of the females to Mylitta, the Baby- 
lonian Venus, analogous to circumcision ; ' but out- 

1 1liad, Lib. XXIII, 205 et sec 

•i Genesis, IV, 3-4. 

3 risknu Purana, p. 275. 

^Herodotus, 11, 38, 39, 40, 46. 

'^IIitd.,Vn. 43. 

Il/i/rf., 1, 50. 

7 Ibid., I. 199. 

side of this every sacrifice consisted of animal life, 
especially bulls, sheep, goats, and deer. 

As the idea of sacrifice was that of a gift or offering 
to the gods, it necessarily followed that the higher and 
nobler the victim, the more acceptable was the offer- 
ing to the god ; and as human life, even in that sav- 
age age was the most precious gift that could be given, 
the sacrifice of human beings became an essential part 
of the religious worship of every tribe or nation at 
some period of its national existence. Among the 
more savage nomadic tribes it was at first most prob- 
ably the principal part of their worship and was per- 
haps always accompanied by eating some portion of 
the sacrificial victim ; whilst in those nations more ad- 
vanced in civilisation, where human life was held in 
higher esteem, it still existed as a survival of the more 
ancient custom. Among the Greeks of the Homeric 
period it was undoubtedly a usual means of appeasing 
the anger of an offended deity. We have already 
cited the immolation of the Trojan captives at the 
obsequies of Patroclus ; the same author also mentions 
the sacrifice of his son by Idomeneus, the King of 
Crete ; and the legendary story of the attempted sacri- 
fice of his daughter, Iphigenia, by her father, Aga- 
memnon, to appease the anger of the wrathful Arte- 
mis, is familiar to all. 

Ovid mentions in his "Metamorphosis," the sacri- 
fice of Polyxena the daughter of King Priam to ap- 
pease the wrathful shade of Achilles, ' and the sacrifice 
of the two daughters of Orion, King of Thebes, to avert 
the anger of their god and stop the ravages of a plague 
that was devastating his city.- Herodotus tells us that 
after Oeobazus the Persian had fled from Sestus into 
Thrace, to escape from the Athenians, the Apsinthian 
Thracians seized him and offered him as a sacrifice 
after their wonted fashion, to Pleistorus, one of the 
gods of their country.-^ 

Among the Romans this cruel rite existed from the 
earliest times until long after the Christian era. Livy 
says : That after the disastrous battle of Cumae (B.C. 
216) by authority of the sacred books, a Greek man 
and woman, and a man and woman of Gaul, were 
sacrificed in the market-place at Rome to appease the 
anger of the Gods.* 

Ovid says : "On the Ides of May the vestal virgin 
throws from the oak-built bridge images of old men 
plaited in rushes. "° He also tells us that Vesta and 
Tellus were the same deities, and for that reason a 
priestess of Vesta, who had been false to her vows of 
chastity, was sacrificed by being buried alive in the 

1 Metamorphosis, Lib. XIII, Verses 439 et seq. 

2 Metamorphosis, Lib. XII, Verses 487 et seq. 
■iHeroJolus, Lib. IX, Chap. 119. 

^Livy, Lib. XXIII, Chap. 51. 

1^ Fasti, Lib. V, Verses 6zi et seq. 



earth. 1 Pliny records that in the year of the city 657 
(B.C. 96) when Cneius Cornelius Lentulus and P. Li- 
cinus Crassus were consuls, a decree forbidding liu- 
nian sacrifice was passed by the Senate — from which 
time these horrid rites ceaseA in public and for some 
ti?ne altogether.- According to Macrobius human sacri- 
fices were offered at Rome down to the time of Brutus 
(44 B.C.) who abolished them upon the establishment 
of the republic. But long after this time the cruel 
custom was resorted to in exceptional cases to propi- 
tiate the gods ; for authentic history tells us that in 
the time of Augustus, one hundred knights were sacri- 
ficed by his orders at Perusia ; and as late as A.D. 270 
a similar immolation occurred in the time of the Em- 
peror Aurelian. 

Far away to the north, beyond the snow-clad moun- 
tains, hundreds of leagues from the Eternal City, the 
shaggy, blue-eyed barbarians of Germania worshipped 
their cruel gods with the same sanguinary rites ^ and 
poured out their libations from the skulls of their slain 
victims ; while further to the west, under the spread- 
ing forests of Gallia and Britannia the fierce Druid 
priests kept their stone altars reeking with the stream- 
ing blood of human beings.* 

To the north and east beyond the Mare Hadriati- 
cum, the rude Dacians, and along the shores of the 
Pontus Euxinus, the still ruder Scythians, not only 
worshipped their gods with human victims, but feasted 
upon their slain bodies ; so integrating one rite with 
the other that they became known as Anthropophagi.'^ 
Even Egypt, the ancient and venerable, the store- 
house of learning and wisdom, practised human sacri- 
fice. Plutarch, quoting from Manetho, says: "Men 
called 'Typhonian' were burnt alive in the town of 
Idithya, and their ashes scattered to the winds." ^'' 
Diodorus tells us in explanation, that what was meant 
by "Typhonian" was men of a red color, which was 
believed to be the color of Typhon, this color being 
rare among the Egyptians though common among for- 
eigners ; and that these Typhonian men were sacri- 
ficed by the ancient kings at the tomb of Osiris.' 

Other branches of the Semitic family practised the 
same rites. Heliodorus, in his "^thiopica," says that 
the Ethiopians sacrificed to the sun white chariot- 
horses, to the moon a yoke of oxen, and to the Ethi- 
opian Bacchus all manner of beasts. As I have not 
"Heliodorus" at hand, I will quote for the benefit of 
my readers, verbatim et literatim the account as given 
by "quaint old Purchas." 

^ Fasti, Lib. VI, Verse 455 et seq. 
-' riitty. Lib. XXX, Chap. 3. 

8 Tacitus, Manners of the Germans. Chaps. 9-39; also Mallett, Northern 
Antiquities, Chap. VL 

4 Tacitus, Annals, Lib. XIV, Chap. 31 ; Strabo, Chap. 4, Gaul. 

:>rliny. Lib. VII, Chap. 2. 

tJ Plutarch, tsis et Osiris, p. 380. 

■ Diod. Sic, Lib. I, Chap. 6. 

He says : 

"Three Altars were erected, two ioyntly to the Sunne and 
Moone, a third to Bacclnts by himfelfe, to him they offered all 
forts of Beasts ; to Sol, white chariot-horfes, to the Mooiie, a yoke 
of oxen. And when all things were ready, the people with fhouts 
demanded the Sacrifice, which vfually was accuftomed for the 
health of their Nation : That was fome of the ftrangers taken in 
the warres to be offered. First triall was made by spits of gold 
heated with fire, brought out of the Temple whither the captives 
had ever knowne carnall copulation, for treading on the fame with 
their bare feete fuch as were pure virgins received no harme, others 
were fcorched. These were offered in f acrifice to Bacchus \ the 
others, to thofe purer deities. These things have I here inferted, 
not as done, but as like to fuch things, which among the Meroites 
were vfed to be done, and agreeing with the general devotions of 
thofe Ethiopians. Pliilosltatiis reporteth like matters of their 
Gymnosopliists, and of the Grove where they kept their generall 
confultations ; otherwise, each of them by themfelves apart, ob- 
ferving their ftudies and holies."' 

Porphyry says, human sacrifice was also common 
among the Arabs. 

Of this practice among the Phoenicians and all of 
the lands colonised by them, evidence scarcely need 
be adduced. Porphjry tells us that : "The Phoenician 
history of Sanchoniathon is full of instances in which 
that people when suffering under great calamity from 
war or pestilence, or drought, chose by public vote 
one of those most dear to them and sacrificed him to 
Saturn. "2 It was a part of the established ritual of 
the Carthagenians and every year youthful victims 
were chosen by lot. Infants were burnt alive and 
their sacrifice had a special significance. Diodorus, in 
narrating the expedition of Agathocles against the 
Carthagenians, says : 

" They gave just cause likewise to their god Saturn to be their 
enemy ; for in former times they used to sacrifice to this god the 
sons of the most eminent persons, but of later times they secretly 
bought and bred up children for that purpose ; and, upon strict 
search being made, there were found amongst them that were to 
be sacrificed some children that had been changed and put in the 
place of others. Weighing these things in their minds, and now 
seeing that the enemy lay before their walls, they were seized with 
such a pang of superstition, as if they had utterly forsaken the re- 
ligion of their fathers. That they might therefore without delay 
reform what was amiss, they offered as a public sacrifice two hun- 
dred of the sons of the nobility, and no fewer than three hundred 
more (who were liable to censure) voluntarily offered themselves 
up ; for among the Carthagenians there was a brazen statue of 
Saturn, putting forth the palms of his hands, bending in such a 
manner towards the earth, as that the boy who was laid upon them 
in order to be sacrificed, should slip off and so fall down headlong 
into a deep, fiery furnace."" 

Suidas states that human sacrifices were offered to 
Saturn by the Phoenicians, Rhodians, Curetes, Car- 
thagenians, and the Sardi, their colony. "They (the 
Sardi)," he says, "offered the fairest of their captives 
to Saturn, and such as were about three-score and ten 
years old, who, to show their courage, laughed ; whence 

1 Purchas, His Pilgrimage, The seventh Book, Chap. II, 

2 Kenricks, Phtenicia, p. 3r5 et seq. 
'i Diodorus Sic, Lib. XX, Chap. i. 



grew the proverb, Sardonius risus." In the fable of 
the Cerast£E, Ovid says that Venus changed that peo- 
ple into bulls, because they had polluted the island of 
Cyprus, which was sacred to her, with human sacri- 
fices. > 

The Persians also, Photius says, practised human 
sacrifice and buried men, women, and children in the 
earth alive to appease the wrath of Mithra. Herodo- 
tus also gives his testimony to the same brutal cus- 
tom ; he says : 

"After propitiating the stream by these and many other magi- 
cal ceremonies, the Persians crossed the Strymon by bridges made 
before their arrival at a place called ' The Nine Ways,' which was 
in the territory of the Edonians. And when they learnt that the 
name of the place was 'The Nine Ways,' they took nine of the 
youths of the land and as many of their maidens and buried them 
alive on the spot. Burying alive is a Persian custom. I have 
heard that Amestris, the wife of Xerxes, in her old age buried 
alive seven pairs of Persian youths, sons of illustrious men, as a 
taank-offering to the god who is supposed to dwell underneath the 
earth. "'^ 


Pres. W. R. Harper has written for The Biblical 
World, of which he is the editor, an article on "The 
Origin of Man in His First State of Innocence." We 
have good reasons to assume that we have before us 
here in condensed form some of the President's lectures 
which were recently the subject of acrimonious discus- 
sion. The article is a concise and very lucid review 
of the present state of theological investigation, show- 
ing in the writer not only independent critical judgment 
and a full knowledge of the critical work of others, 
but also a reverence for the Scriptures, as was to be 
expected of a man in his position. 

Professor Harper has been denounced for heresy 
and infidelity, but if his critics were fully acquainted 
with the Bible, and the critical work done by some of 
the most learned and faithful of Christians in the in- 
vestigation of the Bible, they would have held their 
peace. Those people, who led by Dr. Hensen, zeal- 
ously attacked Professor Harper's position, only ex- 
posed their own ignorance and narrowness. 

When Professor Harper says of the Genesis, ' 'These 
are not scientific records, for science [viz., science in 
the strict sense of the term] is modern," he states a 
fact that cannot be denied ; and there is no doubt 
that on this point he is in accord with the most ortho- 
dox theological scholars of all denominations, and that 
in critically investigating the Bible with the light of 
science he only obeys Christ's injunction "Search the 
Scriptures" (St. John, 5, 39). Professor Harper says, 
concerning the old Mosaic accounts : " It is a sacrilege 
"to call them history. To apply to them the tests of 
"history — always cold, and stern, and severe — is pro- 

I Metamorphosis, Lib. X. Fable vi. 
'^Herodotus, Lib. VII, 114. 

" fanation. They are stories, grand, inspiring, uplift- 
" ing stories. Either of them has influenced human 
" life more than all the historical records ever penned. " 

This, indeed, is the grandeur of religion, that it 
anticipated the most salient moral truths long before 
they could be known to scientific investigators. But 
this service that religion has done to mankind does not 
imply that science has become redundant. The Bible 
must be used as a help, not as a hindrance, in the evo- 
lution of the human mind.^ 

Avowed infidel publications, such as The Truth 
Seeker of New York, frequently ridicule religion for 
holding positions which its representative thinkers 
never have held ; and we believe that it is unfair to 
identify such bigoted exceptions as are frequently found 
in our churches, with the traditions of true Christian- 
ity — of that Christianity which has been a living factor 
in our civilisation. On the one hand, our liberals should 
learn that the leading authorities in almost all our 
churches are much more free-thinking and radical than 
is generally known ; and on the other hand, we must 
know that those of our well-meaning but narrow- 
minded brethren who, ignorant of the divinity of sci- 
ence, scorn scientific investigation because it destroys 
some of their dearest prejudices, do not represent the 
real life of Christianity ; and it would be a great bless- 
ing for our religious development if they could be made 
to understand that their attitude is extremely presump- 
tive and irreligious. Who made them the mouthpiece 
of God that they arrogate to themselves the authority 
of representing him ? God is in light, and not in dark- 
ness ; he moves in the progress of mankind, not in re- 
trogressive movements ; he appears in the revelations 
of science, not in the blindness of those who deliber- 
ately reject reason. 

Bigots are no better than infidels. Infidels ridi- 
cule the caricatures of religion but bigots furnish the 
material which justifies, to a great extent, the irrev- 
erent attitude of infidels. Editor. 


Last Sunday a Chicago clergyman remarked with fine origin- 
ality, that " this is a wonderful age in which we live "; and he was 
right, for a new miracle is reported in the papers every day; and 
every day it becomes easier and easier for us to believe the story 
of Jonah and the whale. A pensioner, in a thrill of patriotic ex- 
altation, has volhntarily surrendered his pension to the Govern- 
ment and will draw it no more. I am not sure that this is the only 
act of the kind that was ever done but I think it is, and the man 
who did it has set a bright e.xample that will doubtless be followed 
by a hundred thousand more. Holding the great office of Secre- 
tary of State, he sets the fashion with greater authority than any 
unimportant person could, and men will imitate him who would 
not care a brass button for the example of you or me. 
* * 

Although it requires greater courage to give up a pension than 
to charge a battery, General Gresham's battle record has been 

1 We here remind the reader of Goethe's words: "The good Lord has 
given us the nuts, but he does not crack them for us." 



called in question, but not with great success. A former pension 
ag'snt in Indiana declares that General Gresham was never in a 
battle, although a host of comrades testify the other way, and this 
critic says that the General was wounded in the leg by a sharp- 
shooter, or a bushwhacker in a contemptible skirmish, and not by 
a genuine soldier in a fierce, tumultuous battle. Mathematically it 
makes no difference whether a man was wounded in a big battle 
or a little one, so that he was wounded, but sentimentally the dif- 
ference is very great, as every soldier knows. It is more glorious 
to have been wounded in a great historic baUle than in a skirmish 
unrenowned. Nor have all the different parts of the same battle 
an equal reputation, for some particular spots on the same field 
are more celebrated in history than others. For instance, I have 
never yet met with a soldier of either side who was wounded at 
the battle of Shiloh who did not assure me that he was wounded 
in the "Hornet's Nest." Not long ago a tramp accosted me on 
the street and said: "Comrade, gi' me a dime; I ain't able to 
work, because, you see that scar on my hand, I got that from a 
bullet at Shiloh when I was fighting in the "Hornet's Nest." 
" Well, comrade," I said, "It's much to your credit, and here's 
the ten cents, for at the time that battle was fought you could not 
have been much more than three months old." Yes, it is much 
better to be killed in a big battle than in a small one. 

* * 

Last Sunday morning a lady of Chicago said to her husband, 
" Edwin,, have you a revolver on ?" He answered, " Yes. " "Well,' 
she replied, "then let us be ofif to church." Persons at a distance, 
unacquainted with our "idioms," may regard this conversation as 
caricature, but as we have more pistol-practice here on Sundays 
than on other days, the precaution was well advised. In fact, a 
man can hardly be considered properly dressed in Sunday clothes 
unless he carries a revolver on his hip. Of course, many of our 
citizens fall victims to the revolver system, and as they are in most 
cases " fit to kill," we bear their loss with religious resignation ; 
but sometimes the bullets fly wild and hit some unoffending trav- 
eller, and of this we righteously complain. Last Sunday, as we 
are informed by Monday's paper, "crowds gathered quickly at 
Clark and Harrison Streets about 2 o'clock. Bullets flew in all 
directions, and passers-by narrowly escaped being struck. Thomas 
Gilmore and William Hooley shot at each other half a dozen 
times, but neither of the duellists was wounded." This was the 
melancholy part of it, because we could have borne the loss of 
both of them with patient equanimity. On the same day, in an- 
other part of the town, "Jacob Leaper, a gripman on the North 
Clark Street cable-line, was clanging his gong vigorously at 12:40 
o'clock near Ohio Street, when he felt something pass through his 
cap, leaving a burning pain in his scalp. An examination showed 
that the street-car man had a narrow escape from a stray bullet, 
•which came from an unknown place. A doctor dressed the wound 
when he reached the car-barns." A free people must necessarily 
be a controversial people ; they have so many things to talk about, 
and we find that nothing so effectually as a revolver gives empha- 
sis to argument. 

To the south of us they take better aim than we do, as ap- 
pears by the details of a misunderstanding that occurred last Sun- 
day in a church at Nashville. As the papers tell the story better 
than I can, I will let them tell it in their own way, thus : "There 
was serious trouble between the members of the Spruce Street 
Baptist Church to-day, resulting in Andrew Bishop being shot in 
the neck and seriously wounded. Several persons were struck 
with chairs and knocked down. The police soon made their ap- 
pearance, and fourteen persons, including the pastor and Elder 
Purdy, were arrested." It seems that there are two factions in 
the church, and somebody objecting to some of the proceedings, 
"hot words were succeeded by blows. Andrew Bishop was shot 

by one of the worshippers whose name has not yet been ascer- 
tained." Efforts are being made to identify him, and as soon as 
he is discovered, he will be severely reprimanded for shooting 
while meeting was going on, instead of waiting until after the ben- 

vr ■ -X- 

Even in the South, among the most expert marksmen, bullets 
will sometimes go astray and hit an innocent man, a mere specta- 
tor of the fray ; occasionally, indeed, a woman, which is a more 
serious matter, for judging by the numbers of the " unemployed,'' 
we have plenty of men to spare. Here is an account of an " un- 
pleasant affair " that came off last Monday at Houston. Some 
neighbors who were not on friendly terms happened to meet at the 
railway station just as the train was coming in, when "Jim 
Mitchell espied York and opened fire, which was as promptly re- 
turned, York falling after firing a second shot. Mitchell kept up 
his fusillade until he had fired six shots. In addition to York be- 
ing killed, Milton Sparks was shot to death, his brother was mortally 
wounded, and Dan Gleason, an omnibus-driver, was killed. Mrs. 
Sparks was badly wounded, as was also a child she carried. A 
Mrs. McDowell, an aged lady, received one of the bullets, and her 
chances of recovery are slim." All this barbarism is largely due 
to the false belief that a revolver makes a man brave, and that it 
is a chivalrous thing to have one always ready to protect our- 
selves and to maintain our dignity. There are laws against carry- 
ing concealed weapons, but they rather stimulate the practice 
than correct it, and it never will be abated until we establish 
firmly in public estimation the true doctrine that the unarmed 
man is a brave man, and that the man who carries a pistol about 
with him among people engaged in peaceful occupations or in so- 
cial enjoyments is a coward. It is much to the credit of the peo- 
ple of Houston that the shooting of the women and the baby is 

Four or five weeks ago, I referred in The Open Court to the 
convention then being held in Chicago by the Dairymen's National 
Protective Union. It will be remembered that those National 
Dairymen "wanted a law passed" for the suppression of butterine 
and " the encouragement of high-grade dairy products." I also 
mentioned at the time that the people of Chicago were so deeply 
interested in the latter purpose that they were seriously thinking 
of combining themselves into a Protective Union against the dairy- 
men. They have been anticipated by the people of Omaha, who 
have actually had a law passed for the encouragement of " high- 
grade dairy products"; and, what is most astonishing, the dairy- 
men do not approve it, and even threaten to rebel against it. They 
held a meeting on the evening of the 17th and bravely resolved : 
"That believing the city ordinance known as the milk ordi- 
nance is illegal and void, members of this association will pay no 
attention to any official acting by its authority, and we warn them 
one and all to keep away from our premises and belongings." We 
are further informed that if the city officials attempt to carry out 
the provisions of the ordinance, "they are sure to meet with re- 
sistance and a lively time." No doubt the people of Omaha, 
especially those who have children, are interested in "high-grade " 
milk, and perhaps in their anxiety to get it they have had a law 
passed that in the opinion of the dairymen is harsh and unconsti- 
tutional. Legislative interference in private business is nearly 
always mischievous, except in the case of dairymen. When we 
consider how many children of the poor in great cities are poi- 
soned by adulterated milk, we are willing to have almost any sort 
of a law passed that will compel dairymen to furnish a "high- 
grade" article. 

Some time ago, I saw a play in which the hero, "BobBrierly," 
an ex-convict, found it almost impossible to reform, because when- 



ever he got some honest employment somebody recognised him 
and pointed him out, thereby causing him to lose his place, and 
driving him to seek work in some other part of the country, where 
his former history was not known. No matter how hard he tried, 
society would not allow him to be an honest man. It is the same 
way here in Chicago now. Lately some "Civic" societies com- 
posed of the ' ' better classes " have been organised for the purpose 
of reforming the city government, purifying politics, and electing 
good men to office irrespective of party. Probably no more virtu- 
ous resolutions were ever penned than have been adopted by the 
"Civic" societies, and yet scarcely have they got themselves into 
effective working form when one of the morning papers talks at 
them like this ; "Amateur political reformers are generally used 
as cat's-paws to get office for chronic office seekers. The new civic 
federation has in its membership political hacks who have never 
been known to earn a dollar except in office." And another talks 
like this ; "The 'League of American Civics,' the 'Municipal 
Reform League,' the 'Civic Federation,' and all the other organi- 
sations of rich men for the reform of Chicago politics ought to 
adopt as a primary By-Law the rule that no man who has been 
guilty of evading his just and proper taxes should be eligible to 
membership. It is only necessary to scan the list of members of 
these high and lofty associations to discover that the rule is not 
now in force." Certainly not ; why should it be in force, when the 
object of the ' ' Civic Federations " is the civic reformation of these 
men ? 

When a chronic inebriate goes down to Dwight for a course 
of discipline under Doctor Keeley, he goes there, not for the pur- 
pose of indulging in his drinking habits but in order to be cured. 
So it is with those chronic office-seekers and those chronic tax- 
evaders who have had the habit of swearing to false assessments ; 
they all join the "Civic Federations" to be cured ; they desire to 
become good citizens and honest men. Must they be foiled in, 
their good intentions by the exposure of their former delinquencies 
as was the case with Bob Brierly in the play ? If there are in ihe 
Federations rich men who have heretofore cheated the city in the 
matter of their taxes they virtually promise by the very act of 
joining the Federations that they will do so no more. It is some- 
thing of a hardship to the rich man that even after death he must 
appear in the Probate Court, and he feels meaner than old Scrooge 
when his executor files an inventory showing that our departed 
brother had fifty times more property when he died than he re- 
ported to the assessor while he lived. Some day, if the Civic Fed- 
eration takes good hold of consciences we shall read this tribute 
on the monumental stones, " Here lies a rich man whose tax as- 
sessment corresponded with the inventory of his property filed in 
the Probate Court." It is easier to pay taxes than to work them 
out on the roads as I have sometimes done, but taxes like all other 
obligations must be paid, or worked out, and if we evade them 
here on earth, we must "work them out" elsewhere. 

That volcanic orator. Governor O'Ferrall, of old Virginia, has 
made another warlike appeal to the Legislature of that State. He 
wants two steam cruisers armed with long range guns for use 
against the Maryland pirates who invade Virginia waters and 
dredge for oysters there. With the old war-passion flinging elec- 
tric sparks from his eyes he wanted to know whether or not the 
sons of old Virginia would tamely submit to the Maryland buc- 
caneers who, not satisfied with Maryland oysters, were dredging 
for oysters in Virginia's portion of Chesapeake Bay. "Never! 
Never ! " was the answering cry of the excited members ; and soon 
we may expect a proclamation from Governor O'Ferrall declaring 
war against Maryland. This whole quarrel appears rather trivial 
to the commonplace mind, but heroic souls remember that great 
historic wars have sprung out of disputes concerning more con- 

temptible things than oysters. Instead of declaring war the Vir- 
ginia Legislature may save both money and men by simply sending 
Governor O'Ferrall to make a speech to the oyster pirates of 
Maryland. That will scatter them quicker than long-range guns. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



Hail, thou sweet little maiden ! 

My heart has been yearning for thee ; 
Thy breath with perfume laden 

Is sweeter than incense to me. 

Come ! Thy cradle is ready ! 

The cosiest corner 's for thee : 
Blithest wee little lady, 

Our darling thou ever shall be. 

Come ! Than gold thou art purer : 
I kneel at thy heart as a shrine ; 

No treasure can be surer. 
To love, and be loved, is divine ! 

Ocean gives vapor and cloud, 

Which rivers restore to the main ; 

The Race, by cradle and shroud. 
Gives life and resumes it again. 

Love out of love evokes thee : 

Serve Love, 'tis the life of thy soul ! 

When served. Love shall revoke thee 
As part of the soul of the whole. 

Come, child, up through the ages! 

This earth is our home in the sky : 
Within IIS live the sages : 

In the US we shall never die ! 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 




$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. BiiidiiiR Cases for single yearly volun 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 

of The Open Cour 


HUMAN SACRIFICE. Dk. W. H. Gardner 3991 

CURRENT TOPICS : Giving Up a Pension. The Re- 
volver Habit. "High-Grade" Milk. The Civic Fed- 
eration. The Probate Court as a Detective. The Oys- 
ter War in Chesapeake Bay. Gen. M. M. Trumbull . 3996 

Birth Song. G. L. Henderson , 3998 


The Open Court. 



No. 342. (Vol. VIII.— II.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 15, 1894. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Professor Pfleiderer of Berlin whose philosoph- 
ical works are well known and who has with great per- 
sistence endeavored to work out a Hegelian conception 
of the history of religion by applying it to all the early 
religions as well as to Christianity, but who it is but 
right to add, is opposed by a large and increasing 
number of theologians following in the footsteps of 
Ritschl — is, at present, engaged in delivering the Gif- 
ford Lectures in the University of Edinburgh. I was 
present at his address on Saturday the 2d of February, 
and thinking that it might be of interest to the readers 
of The Open Court, I noted the substance of his lec- 
ture which was on the "History of the Genesis and 
Development of Christianity." 

The learned Professor proceeded to point out that 
the scientific investigation of this history, was of 
■ recent date, being not more than one hundred years 
old. What made it impossible sooner was a double 
hindrance — (i) a false idea of the nature of the rev- 
elations upon which Christianity rested ; (2) a false 
idea of the character of the sources out of which we 
were able to obtain a knowledge of this genesis. 
To investigate a history meant to trace up the connex- 
ion of its causes and to make it intelligible to the un- 
derstanding. This presupposed that in what had once 
happened there existed such a connexion of causes 
and effects as was analogous to our general experience 
and what happened among men, and was therefore 
intelligible to our understanding. But according to 
the old tradition the origin of Christianity was said to 
have lain in events outside of the connexion of human 
causes and events, incomparable with all other expe- 
rience and inconceivable by any understanding — in 
other words, an absolute miracle, which again could 
only be known in a miraculous way, and could only be 
believed on authority. Christianity had arisen accord- 
ing to this account in a divine being. The Second 
Person of the Trinity had once on a time assumed a 
human nature by miraculous birth from a virgin, had 
made known His divine nature by many miracles, by 
His death had delivered men from the divine wrath, 
and had afterwards returned to His heavenly kingdom. 

Certainly beautiful conceptions, continued the Profes- 
sor, which from of old and even now came home to 
the fantasy and hearts of men ; and in them we should 
never cease to honor the venerable vestments of sub- 
lime truths. 

But was all this intelligibly conceivable history ? 
No. These representations did not contain such his- 
tory, nor could, nor ought they at all to contain it. 
The appearance of a Heavenly Being for an episodic 
stay upon earth broke the connexion of events in space 
and time upon which all our experience rested, and 
therefore it undid the conception of history. And noth- 
ing was altered in this position by showing how the ap- 
pearance of the Heavenly Being had been prepared on 
earth by the course of history; how the Roman gov- 
ernment of the world favored the spread of the Gospel ; 
how the state of things in the heathen and Jewish 
world had been so desperate that men were the more 
willing to receive the tidings of the Divine Redeemer 
and such like. Considerations such as these, which 
were always at home in the apologetics of the church, 
certainly contained much truth ; but they nevertheless 
remained attached to the surface of things and did not 
penetrate to the inner connexion of Christianity with 
the preceding history. It was overlooked that here 
too, as everywhere in the historical development of 
humanity, when the old was dying out, the new was 
prepared, not only negatively but positively, that men 
no longer found any satisfaction in the old forms of 
consciousness and life only, because the presentiment 
of the higher truth already lived in the depths of the 
soul and evoked their longing for elevation to a higher 
consciousness of themselves and of God. What broke 
the old forms to pieces was first the new spirit itself, 
which, therefore, already pre-existed in germ, under • 
the shell of the old, and which struggled for liberation 
from the hindering bonds and strove towards forma- 
tion in personal and social existence. It was first on 
this account then, that the appearing of this new spirit 
in a powerful prophetic personality could be recognised 
and greeted as the fulfilment of the hoping of all, be- 
cause they found in Him their own growing spirit, 
their better selves. This was the true, the positive 
and inner connexion of the new with the old in all hu- 
man history ; and so it was too in particular in the 


case of the rise of Christianity. Only thus could its 
genesis be really comprehended as history, while under 
the presupposition of an absolute miracle it remained 
to us forever inconceivable. If Christianity had ap- 
peared as an absolute miracle in the person of a God 
upon earth, the knowledge of this appearance and of 
its significance could also have been communicated 
only through a miracle to men. Hence supra-natural- 
ism logically assumed that the Bible, to which we 
owed this knowledge, was a work of the absolutely 
miraculous inspiration of the Holy Spirit, who had 
unveiled to the prophets the mystery of the future ap- 
pearing, and to the apostles that of the accomplished 
appearance of the God-man, and who had noted down 
the record of this revelation for the coming genera- 
tions even to its wording — nay, had specially dictated 
it to an amanuensis. As the Bible, according to this 
view, did not contain human history, but superhuman 
miracles, neither had it arisen in a historical way ; it 
was not a collection of divers human testimonies about 
human experiences out of different times, but it was 
from beginning to end the homogeneous work of one 
divine author who had only employed different men as 
secretaries, to whom He dictated the oracles of His 
supra-rational revelation. 

In approaching the Bible with this assumption men 
made quite impossible to themselves the understand- 
ing of its actual contents, which were as different as 
the times and the men from which they sprang. Nat- 
urally with this view, all interest in a higher, thorough 
study of the sacred Scriptures was lost ; men supposed 
they knew beforehand what was everywhere to be 
found in them — namely, just the mysteries of revela- 
tion, the sum of which was already possessed in the 
dogmatic system. Hence the Bible was only further 
used as a mine of proofs for the established dogmatic 
system. Thus it happened that just in the age of the 
dominating orthodoxy whose doctrine of inspiration 
deified the letter of the Bible, the true study of the 
Bible reached its lowest ebb, and an understanding of 
the actual development of religion in the Old and New 
Testaments was completely wanting. It was a merit 
of the rationalistic movement that it broke with the 
prejudice of the unhistorical dogma of inspiration and 
• recognised the Bible as a book written by men for men. 
The Professor further pointed out, however, that the 
rationalism of the period of enlightenment also still 
lacked the unbiassed historical sense and was still en- 
tangled in dogmatic assumptions, and he traced back 
the beginning of a historical understanding of the Bi- 
ble to Herder, the friend of all natural, original, and 
powerful feeling in poetry and religion. But in the 
words of Hayne, "Herder wanted still the critical 
mediate conception between poetry and faith — the 
conception of the myth." This defect was rectified 

by Strauss and Baur, the great critics of Tubingen. 
The merit of Strauss was that he answered clearly the 
question, If the primeval history of all other peoples 
and religions is full of myths and legends, why should 
not the biblical history be so, too? and that he then 
also applied the point of view logically to the whole 
Gospel history. The strength of his "Life of Jesus" 
lay, it was true, more in negations than in positive 
results, in the removing of the hindrances to positive 
results, more than in the building up of such knowl- 
edge. But in order to come to this Ijnowledge there 
was needed a more fundamental criticism of the sources 
of the Gospel history. This foundation of a positive 
history of primitive Christianity was still wanting in 
Strauss, and here was the point where the epoch- 
making achievement of his teacher Baur came in. 
The Professor then showed that Baur opposed to the 
old method of subjective criticism an objective criti- 
cism, which judged of the biblical writings not by the 
ecclesiastical traditions which arose accidentally, but 
by the contents of the several writings themselves. 

If the contents of a writing were such that it was 
not possible without contradictions to connect it with 
the relations of the time and the person to whom it 
was hitherto ascribed, then the origin of this writing 
must be transferred to another time, whose relation- 
ships it most naturally fitted into, and out of whose 
ecclesiastical as well as theological interests it was 
most easily to be explained. Emphasising the most 
important results of Baur's method as applied to the 
New Testament, the lecturer showed first that by 
thorough investigation of the Pauline Epistles and of 
the Acts of the Apostles, the critic came to the con- 
clusion that it was through Paul that Christianity had 
been first recognised as the universal world religion in 
distinction from the Jewish national religion, and that 
Paul had been able to carry through the original ap- 
prehension of Christianity only by hard conflict with 
the Jewish prepossessions of the primitive Church, 
and therefore that the real history of the apostolic time 
did not show the peaceful picture of ecclesiastical tra- 
dition, but a development from the beginning through 
strong opposition, out of which the one universal 
Catholic Church did not proceed till towards the end 
of the second century. Another equally important re- 
sult of Baur's criticism, the Professor went on to say, 
related to the Fourth Gospel, which he came to the 
conclusion contained a Christian Gnosis, clothed in 
the form of a life of Jesus. But that such a represen- 
tation, determined by ideal motives of a didactic kind, 
could lay no claim to historical value, had been estab- 
lished by a running critical comparison of this Gospel 
with the Synoptic Gospels. 

This criticism of Baur had been much attacked, 
yet it had not been refuted to the present day; whereas 


all further investigations had always only contributed 
anew to confirm it in the main. 

The Professor then referred to the Synoptic Gos- 
pels, in his criticism of which Baur had been less suc- 
cessful. His hypothesis respecting their relations to 
each other might be regarded as antiquated. We were 
still far from having reached a certain result on this 
question, and would assuredly never come to siJch a 
result unless some entirely new material source of in- 
formation were yet discovered. The Professor then 
pointed out that no one of the Synoptic Gospels dated 
from the time of the first apostolic generation, but 
somewhat later than the year 70 A. D. Up to that 
time oral tradition was still the only source of the com- 
munication of the Evangelic historj^ He further 
pointed out that in such oral tradition the connexion 
in which the individual sayings of Jesus had been 
originally spoken could not possibly be exactly re- 
tained, and that the free form of the oral tradition of 
the sayings of Jesus could not exclude transformations 
and additions. Even in the case of some of the para- 
bles there were cogent reasons for distinguishing be- 
tween an original simple kernel which pointed back to 
Jesus, and an artificial interpretation, explanation, and 
transformation which might well be a later addition. 
Again we saw already in every-day life how the recol- 
lection of a life which was dear to us was wont to be 
transfigured, idealised by the unconsciously working 
fantasy. Still more was this the case when the life in 
question was one which was of great significance to 
many. The ideal motives which worked determin- 
ingly upon the formation of the Evangelic tradition 
might, if he saw rightly, be referred to three sources, 
(i) the existing Messiah idea of Judaism, (2) the figu- 
rative modes of speech used in the Old Testament and 
by Jesus, (^3) the religious experiences of the com- 
munity of the disciples. 

Mark was the oldest of the Gospels which, in com- 
parison with the others, bore the stamp of greater 
op-iginality and definiteness ; especially striking was 
its dogmatic nai'veie, the want of Christological con- 
siderations and interests. Mark still knew nothing of 
the miraculous birthof Jesus,orof the miraculous power 
of Jesus, which according to his representation was as 
yet no absolutely supernatural power, but was condi- 
tioned partly by physical means and partly by the faith 
of the sufferers. 

The Professor then pointed out that the writer of 
Luke was a Hellenist Paulinist of the post-apostolic 
time ; that it is the richest of the Gospels, eminently 
poetical and artistic, and remarkable for setting forth 
the love and mercy of Jesus, and that the author 
adopted a conservative attitude towards the universal 
mission of Christianity. 

Matthew, on the other hand, the Professor stated, 


was the youngest of the Synoptic Gospels and was a 
faithful mirror of the dogmatic consciousness of the 
Catholic Church of the second century. 



It is a curious sign of our time that just as an able 
political writer was pointing out in The Open Court the 
anomaly of our Senate, an eminent English writer 
should propose to import it, partly, as a substitute for 
the House of Lords. Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, to 
whose article in the Contemporary Revie^o (January 
1894) I refer, calls himself an "extreme radical," and, 
if he be such, supplies another example of the mental 
confusion which has often led extreme radicalism to 
change king log for king stork. His scheme bears all 
the marks of having been rapped out on his table by 
the "spirits" with whom he is so familiar, but the 
spirits might have made a different revelation had they 
consulted the shades of Franklin, Randolph, Mason, 
Madison, and other constitutional fathers as to their 
impressions of the Senate after its hundred years. 
Though Dr. Wallace is credited with the discovery of 
the principle of natural selection, simultaneously with 
Darwin, his reputation is not enhanced by this ven- 
ture in political selection. The constitution of the 
United States Senate historically represents a concen- 
tration of "survivals" in America of the basest char- 
acteristics of the reactionary reign of George IH, which 
the American Revolution had resisted. The thirteen 
colonies claimed, as a result of the Revolution, a sev- 
eral sovereignty more despotic over their subjects than 
had been claimed by the royahsm they had unitedly 
overthrown. These thirteen sovereigns were so jeal- 
ous of their autocracy that it was only under the con- 
tinued menace of England, which still held six mili- 
tary posts in the North West, its ships commanding 
our coasts, that they could be induced to form any 
union at all. It was really a military union, the pres- 
ident being a half-civil, half-military chieftain (which 
accounts for the unrepublican majesty of that officer). 
The constitution of 1787 was really a treaty between 
thirteen sovereigns, the smaller empires refusing to 
unite unless their inherited supremacies were secured 
the power to overrule the voice of the nation. This 
was the real foundation of the Senate. But in the dis- 
cussions of the Convention (1787) that doctrine of 
sovereignty, discredited even in England, was veiled, 
though the veil was as discreditable as the motive con- 
cealed. The necessity being first of all to get the sec- 
ond Legislature established in the Constitution, it was 
done with an innocent air, and without discussion, on 
the mere statement that England had two Houses, 
and that two Houses had always proved favorable to 
Liberty. Both were untrue : England had only one 



House, so far as the powers given to the Senate were 
concerned ; and even her two unequal Houses were at 
that time unfavorable to Liberty. But worse remained. 
When the subject of disproportionate representation in 
the Senate came before the Convention, it was supported 
as a principle only on the ground that in the British 
Parliament small places with little population were 
represented equally with the largest constituencies. 
Thus, the infamous " rotten borough " system of Eng- 
land, long discarded, now a proverb of governmental 
absurdity, was avowedly imitated in our American 
Constitution. And to crown the dishonorable proceed- 
ing, the Convention, laying aside the fundamental 
principle of the Revolution, gave our peerage of States 
as much hereditary perpetuity as it could, by except- 
ing from the normal powers of constitutional amend- 
ment the right of each State to equal representation in 
the Senate. Should the population of Rhode Island 
be reduced to the one family that used to elect the 
two Commoners for Old Sarum, that State would still 
equal New York in Congress. 

It will therefore be seen, that in our Senate are his- 
torically embodied the most antiquated principle of 
State sovereignty (to which we owe the civil war, and 
State repudiations), the "rotten borough" principle, 
the peerage principle, and the base attempt to fetter 
posterity to these unrepublican and irrational princi- 
ples ; by all of which the United States is held far be- 
hind Western Europe in constitutional civilisation. It 
should be said that even Dr. Wallace does not propose 
to invade our monopoly of the "rotten borough " fea- 
ture of the Senate. 

The perpetuity which, as one of your correspondents 
has pointed out, the Convention of 17S7 gave to the rep- 
resentation of each State in the Senate, would not pre- 
vent the nation from abolishing the Senate altogether. 
The Convention did not venture to control the future 
so far as that, though no doubt many of the members 
would have been willing to do so. The law is that, so 
long as the Senate lasts, no State can be deprived of 
its equal representation in it, without that State's con- 
sent. The constitutional reformer, therefore, has first 
to consider whether the entire abolition of the State 
comes within the range of practical politics. I think 
not. The Senate has gradually taken deep root in 
American snobbery, it offers a number of lordly offices 
for eminent office- seekers, and it represents provincial 
pride. Furthermore, besides being "in the European 
fashion " (superficially, for in no other country is there 
a second chamber so constituted), it has been as a 
fashion repeated in all the States. Had the substance 
as well as the form of the national Senate been repro- 
duced in the several States the whole system must 
have long ago broken down, like the " rotten borough" 
anomaly in England. But as in the States there is no 

disproportionate representation in the second cham 
ber, nor any really different origin of the two Houses, 
the bicameral system is substantially the division of 
one representative body into two. The fairly smooth 
working of the double-legislatures of the States has 
been accepted by many people as a warrant for the 
soundness in principle of the national Senate, though 
ther« is no analog}' between the two. The normal 
State Senate represents the somewhat delocalised in- 
terests of each district, a larger community and a more 
constant popular sentiment, but the constituencies of 
both Houses being the same people, there is little 
danger of one body obstructing the other. The na- 
tional Senate represents local interests, antiquarian 
pride, sectional sentiment, traditional notions of sover- 
eignty as superior to justice, and the power of a mi- 
nority to weigh equally with a majority without being 
superior to it. Instead of its being the conservative, 
calm, mature wisdom of the nation, the Senate has 
been the centre of disintegrating elements. It may, I 
think, be proved that had there been no Senate there 
had been no civil war. Yet I remember a conversa- 
tion with Charles Sumner, after he had been felled in 
the Senate, in which, when I stated these objections 
to such an unrepublican body, he — even he, scarred 
monument as he was of its provincial violence — urged 
in reply the smooth working of the senatorial system 
in the States ! 

The raising of this question in The Open Court re- 
vives in me an old hope that there may be formed in 
America "Constitutional Associations," like those 
founded in England a hundred years ago, for the study 
of the science of government. And I do not know any 
place where such a society might better be founded 
than in the most American of our cities — Chicago. 
It is not onlj' the Senate that should be dealt with, but 
other institutions, more especially the presidency. Con- 
cerning this unrepublican office I shall have something 
to saj' in a future paper, but will now confine myself 
to some reflexions about the Senate. 

The argument which has recommended the bi- 
cameral system to political philosophers, is the liabil- 
ity of a single House to impulsive and precipitate ac- 
tion. This liability finds apparent illustrations in the 
history of the French Revolution. In the first consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, framed mainly b}' Franklin and 
Paine, there was but one legislative chamber ; but very 
early in the French Revolution Paine came to the con- 
clusion that, though there should be one representa- 
tion only, the elected representatives should be divided, 
by lot, into two chambers, — No. i and No. 2, or A and 
B. Measures should be introduced into one or the 
other chamber (alternately). While the measure was 
debated in No. 1, No. 2 should listen. Then when it 
passed to debate in No. 2, the representatives in the 


401 1 

latter would come to the subject without being com- 
mitted, and with the advantage of knowing most of 
what could be said for and against it. The joint vote 
of the two chambers would decide the matter. This 
plan it will be seen, is not inharmonious with that 
adopted in the majority of American States. 

But beyond this lies another question, one which 
the enfranchisement of vast masses of ignorant people 
renders of increasing importance. A legislature should 
be the collected wisdom and knowledge of a nation, 
not a mere reflexion of its prejudices and errors ; and 
how is this to be selected from masses of people who 
are not wise, nor learned in the principles of govern- 
ment ? It is notorious that in democratic countries the 
ablest and best men shrink from vulgar competition 
for the popular vote and do not generally enter public 
life. The enlargement of the franchise in England has 
been accompanied by a marked decline in the charac- 
ter of Parliament. It is not easy to see how high states- 
manship can be developed in any country where the 
representative is more and more expected to be a mere 
messenger to carry to the legislature the programme 
of his constituency, and may be cashiered for any in- 
dependence of thought. Nor can congressional elo- 
quence be developed when the orator is dealing with a 
foregone conclusion, formed at the polls. This kind 
of mere delegation might as well be intrusted to post- 
men or telegraph-boys. In England, the House of 
Lords is sometimes wrongl}' obstructive where its class 
interests are involved, but on general questions it ex- 
ercises an independence above that of the Commons, 
whom the next election holds in awe. Thus, it is 
known that a large majority of the Commons are in 
favor of opening the museums and galleries on Sun- 
day, yet they regularly defeat that measure, through 
fear of their remote Scotch and Welsh constituencies ; 
whereas the Lords have passed the measure which the 
Commons invariably reject. I have no doubt that the 
people generally would vote for the ablest man ; igno- 
rance does not love ignorance ; but the advantages of 
his ability should be secured from their prejudices, 
and he secured from his own timidity. 

This, I believe, could be secured by the introduc- 
tion of the (secret) ballot into Congress. The people 
would then have to choose the wisest and best man, 
with more care than at present, knowing that they 
could have no control over his vote. On the other 
hand, the representative would be unable to play the 
demagogue by parading his votes in favor of popular 
prejudices. The representative might thus also be 
withdrawn from the pressure of party leaders and 
"whips," as well as from liability to bribery. Men 
will not pay for votes they can never be certain of ob- 

Finally, there remains to be considered the peril 

of the tyranny of maj.orities. To this danger I have 
recently called the attention of your readers (in my 
treatise on " Liberty "),* and have little to add on the 
general subject. I am writing this in Paris, not far 
from where Condorcet, Brissot, Paine, and some oth- 
ers labored on a constitution which was to harmonise 
universal suffrage with individual liberty. They be- 
lieved that this could be done by a Declaration of 
Rights. Around the individual was to be drawn a 
sacred circle, including his personal, natural, inalien- 
able rights, which no majority could invade, and which 
could never be subjects of governmental control. This 
was Paine's Republic, as distinguished from a democ- 
racy. In America (1786), when the States were mak- 
ing preparations for a Constitutional Convention, he 
sounded his warning about majorities : 

"When a people agree lo form themselves into a republic 
(for the word republic means the public good, or the good of the 
whole, in contradistinction to the despotic form, which makes the 
good of the sovereign, or of one man, the only object of the gov- 
ernment), when, I say, they agree to do this, it is to be under- 
stood that they mutually resolve and pledge themselves to each 
other, rich and poor alike, to support and maintain the rule of 
equal justice among them. They therefore renounce not only the 
despotic form, but the despotic principle, as well of governing as 
of being governed by mere will and power, and substitute in its 
place a government of justice. By this mutual compact the citi- 
zens of a republic put it out of their power, that is, they renounce, 
as detestable, the power of exercising, at any future time, any 
species of despotism over each other, or doing a thing not right in 
itself, because a majority of them may have strength of numbers 
sufficient to accomplish it. In this pledge and compact lies the 
foundation of the republic : and the security to the rich and the 
consolation to the poor is. that what each man has is his own ; 
that no despotic sovereign can take it from him, and that the com- 
mon cementing principle which holds all the parts of a republic 
together, secures him likewise from the despotism of numbers ; 
for despotism may be more effectually acted by many over a few, 
than by one man over all." 

With this principle Paine indoctrinated the real 
statesmen of France ; and the Declaration of Rights 
prepared by him and Condorcet (translated in my 
"Life of Paine," II, p. 39) is by far the most perfect 
instrument of the kind ever written. Whether such a 
constitutional compact would have proved adequate 
cannot be known. The statesmen who endeavored 
to substitute it for the revolutionary despotism of 
Robespierre and his staff were guillotined, and a really 
republican constitution remains yet to be tried. But 
American experiences seem to show that popular pre- 
judices and passions cannot be effectually prevented 
from overriding constitutional guarantees of individual 
rights, by legislative and legal quibbles, unless re- 
strained by some such power as that represented by 
our executive veto, though sometimes in a mere parti- 
san way. 

Could not our Senate, since there is little prospect 

* The Open Court, Nos. 327, 329. 331. 



of abolishing it, be developed into such a restraining 
power? Might not its power as an equal legislature 
be taken away, its basis modified, and a function as- 
signed it of useful revision? One of the two Senators 
of each State might be chosen by the alumni of its 
colleges and learned societies, placing in the revising 
council a compact force representing a common in- 
terest, — the Republic of Letters. The other Senator 
might perhaps be left as now to selection by the Legis- 
lature. These men, though liable to impeachment, 
should be chosen for terms long enough to save them 
from the temptation to cater to popular prejudices. 
They should not be eligible for other offices, — certainly 
not for the Presidency or the Cabinet. Their function 
should be to discuss and revise measures passed by 
the House of Representatives, this function being alto- 
gether withdrawn from the President (so long as that 
dress-coat monarch shall continue). This Senate 
would have a suspending veto. It might return a 
measure to the Congress twice (say), after which, if 
passed a third time, the measure to become law with- 
out any further action on it by the Senate. Experience 
might at some time suggest the necessity of requiring 
a somewhat larger majority of representatives than 
that which originally passed the measure, to overcome 
the objections of the Senators. For this body, so re- 
moved from the aura papillaris and from corrupting 
ambitions, would thus represent the simple force of 
reason, of right, and argument. The mere cock-pit 
spirit which often arises between two equal houses, in 
a competition of mere force, could not be evoked when 
one side conceded in advance the superiority of the 
other in mere strength, and used no other weapon 
than argument. 

Postscript. Today (February g), when the proof 
of this article reached me, it is announced that on 
Tuesday next the French Chamber of Deputies will 
begin their discussion of proposed changes in the Con- 
stitution. The first alteration proposed is to make the 
senatorial veto suspensive instead of absolute. The 
French bicameral system was avowedly borrowed from 
America, but the Senate is afraid to assert its equal 
powers against the representatives of the people, and 
is becoming a nullity. Probably, if it shall be turned 
into a revising and restraining body, it may become 
one worthy of being imitated in the country from which 
it was,^as a bicameral feature, though not with our 
"rotten borough" basis, — imported. 


The dramatic ending of Mr. Gladstone's political career was 
not without some elements of comedy. At the very moment when 
he was threatening the peers, he was actually manufacturing two 
more of those Corinthian "pillars of the State." By very nearly 
the last official act of Mr. Gladstone, two commoners, Mr. Stuart 
Kendall and Sir Reginald Welby, who it is to be presumed have 

done the State some service, have been "raised to the peerage," 
and this little bit of sarcasm contains within it all the subtle ele- 
ments of refined humor. Declining a peerage, Mr. Gladstone 
creates peers. Refusing to be kicked up stairs himself, he does 
not scruple to kick up other men By this rather inconsistent 
action, Mr. Gladstone says to Mr. Stuart Rendell and Sir Reginald 
Welby, " a peerage raises you, but it would lower me. I «ill not 
allow them to reduce me to the rank of a lord, but I will elevate 
you to that grade." The compliment seems equivocal, but no 
doubt the recipients of it are grateful for the honor, and their 
wives and daughters will be proud, because a woman of title be- 
longs to the aristocracy by force of law, and social eminence is a 
luxury still in England. There are men in that country who re- 
gard a coronet as a barbarian trinket and yet accept it for the sake 
of their families and the social distinction it confers upon their 
wives and children. Sir Robert Peel, a great Prime Minister, not 
only would not be a lord himself, but he commanded in his will 
that no son of his should ever accept a peerage for any service 
done by their father to the State. One of his sons is now Speaker 
of the House of Commons, and for that reason will be made a 
peer, but he will be appointed for his own services, and not for 
those of his father. 

-X- * 

In the good old times whenever the king and his courtiers 
went a-hunting, it was a rule of etiquette that every man in the 
party should swear that the king killed all the game ; and if any 
of the courtiers made a claim for his own bow and arrow or spear, 
he was immediately handed over to the Lord High Executioner 
and beheaded. At the same time it was the duty of the Court 
chronicler to tell the story of the sport and multiply the number 
of the slain by seven so as to exaggerate the prowess of the king. 
The same etiquette and similar customs prevail in our own country 
at this day, as appears by the work of the court chroniclers who, 
after the manner of old Froissart, discourse of knightly chivalry 
and extol the warlike expedition conducted by the President of the 
United States in the year 1894 against the piratical ducks and 
drakes that vex the waters of North Carolina and the Lake of the 
Dismal Swamp. The chronicler who was on duty at Elizabeth 
City was probably new to the business, for on the 5th of March 
he telegraphed a mournful story to the effect that the President's 
party had killed only three swans and two geese. He was prob- 
ably beheaded at once, for the court historian at Norfolk tele- 
graphed the same evening as follows; " The President arrived 
here to-night. He said he had killed about thirty ducks and twenty 
geese and swans." Nothing so miraculous as that has appeared 
since Falstaff multiplied the men in buckram suits ; three swans 
and two geese expanded into thirty ducks and twenty geese and 
swans. And the courtiers and retainers all declared that the half 
had not been told. 

It was not until the President's triumphant hunting-party re- 
turned to Washington that we got any properly exaggerated return 
of the killed and wounded in that successful expedition. For ex- 
uberant and ornamental fiction we must go to the flattering scribes 
who, mentally dressed in the king's livery, hang about the gates of 
the royal palace and proclaim the exploits and the glories of the 
great. One of these in loyal adulation declares the net result of 
the expedition to be " thirty-one brant, thirteen swans, eight geese, 
six snipe, and two ducks "; and when the inhabitants of Snobdom, 
sixty-seven million of us, inquire who shot them, and how much 
glory is to be given to each gun, he pretends that information of 
that kind is a State secret that Court etiquette will not prrmit bim 
to reveal. Cautiously, as if his own head and the heids of all the 
party were in danger, he says, " Nobody will disclose the tally of 
the individual shooting." Whenever any of the party does "dis- 
close " anything, he is very careful to say that the President shot 



the birds, as was the style in the days of old. Another chronicler 
while confirming the story of the shooting, shows us by what fine 
discipline the ancient etiquette is preserved. Speaking with be- 
coming pride of the brant, and the ducks, and the snipe, and the 
swans, he says: " Secretary Gresham and Commander Evans in- 
sist that the President shot the most of them, even bringing down 
two swans at a single fire — one with each barrel." It is distressing 
to learn from this kitchen gossip that the President " looks as if 
he had been constantly in the sun and wind, and the skin has 
peeled off the end of his nose." Some persons think those tawdry 
personal details are not worth printing, but they are — to editors; 
and they will be printed so long as millions of people consider 
them worth reading. 

For three or four weeks to come Chicago will be in the " mael- 
strom " of a political campaign. Township officers and city alder- 
men are to be elected in April and as the perquisites promise to be 
large this year there is a good deal of political activity in the dif- 
ferent wards. The ' ■ Christian citizenship movement " is becoming 
rather troublesome to certain candidates, for its purpose is to sup- 
port only the best men for office, independent of party nominations, 
and the "Christian citizens" are very enthusiastic and aggressive 
too. Many of the ministers are interested in the movement, and 
their churches will ba thrown open every night for public meet- 
ings in behalf of municipal reform and honest men. A most en- 
couraging beginning was made on the 6th of March at the Warren 
Avenue Congregational Church, where a very large and enthusias- 
tic meeting was held. It was presided over by Mr. O. N. Carter, 
attorney for the drainage board, and the principal speaker was 
Mr. W. E. Mason, a veteran politician, formerly member of Con- 
gress, and one of the most effective campaign orators in the Re- 
publican party. His appearance was convincing evidence that 
the movement is entirely disinterested'and non-partisan, because 
if it had any taint of partyism in it, Mr. Mason would not give it 
any countenance at all. He exhorted the congregation to vote 
" upon every question from the election of a town officer or ward 
alderman to the office of president." He even "wanted a law 
passed" compelling every citizen to vote, and especially to vote 
Mr. Mason's ticket, and in this he reminded me of my old friend 
Swarington, who was Methodist minister at Marbletown. One 
night, at the Marbletown Mutual Improvement Association and 
Hesperian Debating Club, the question being on the duty of the 
citizen to vote. Brother Swarington arose and said : " Every man 
who votes right ought to vote, and every man who votes wrong 
ought to stay at home on election day ; and what I mean by voting 
right, is voting the Republican ticket." 

* * 

In the province of Kansas they carry the principle of a pro- 
tective tariff to its logical conclusion. At the town of Concordia, 
in that province, the young lady teachers in the public schools are 
in the reprehensible habit of getting married and quitting work, 
sometimes in the very middle of the term for which they have en- 
gaged themselves to teach, thus causing much inconvenience to 
everybody but themselves. To correct this practice the Board of 
Education has adopted a rule providing that hereafter "should 
any of the lady teachers of the Concordia schools commit matri- 
mony during the term for which they have been elected, they 
shall forfeit a sum of money equal to one half month's salary, pro- 
vided they take a home man, and a sum equal to one month's 
salary in case the groom is imported from some other county or 
State." By this law a discrimination amounting to fifty per cent. 
(;./ vnloii-vi is made in favor of the home article, and against the 
foreign product. At this moment three of the lady teachers are 
engaged to be married, and their prospective husbands are all 
" foreigners," within the meaning of the law. The girls will re- 
sist the tariff on matrimony and will test its constitutionality in the 

courts, for if contracts in restraint of marriage are not favored by 
the law, why should school board regulations in restraint of mar- 
riage be allowed. 

Last week my family paper, the Chicago Ih-rald, spoke of the 
American Senate as "a convocation of doddering idiots," a de- 
scription altogether inappropriate, as the Herald will doubtless 
now c6ncede. The senatorial manipulation of the Wilson Bill, 
instead of being idiotic, was a bit of crafty statesmanship worthy 
of the most thrifty patriots in any age. Every day for weeks the 
Senators with itching palms dexterously shuffled and cut the dif- 
ferent schedules as if the Wilson Bill were a pack of cards ; and 
every day they juggled the markets and bet money in Wall Street 
on their own game. Like monte men at the races, they allowed 
their confederates to show false cards to the fools, and when the 
victims bet, behold, another card was there. Pretending to hon- 
orable secrecy, they allowed false information to "leak out," and 
by changing it every morning and contradicting it every afternoon 
they kept the mercury running up and down in the stock market 
thermometer anywhere between 70 and 100, buying and selling 
according to the fluctuations they themselves had made. One day 
it " leaked out " that sugar was to be taxed one cent a pound, and 
this did very good service for a couple of days ; then that leak was 
plugged up and another one opened, revealing the important fact 
that the tax was to be only half a cent a pound, and then ft was to 
be only a quarter of a cent, and then an eighth ; next it made a 
jump to a cent and a quarter, and then back again ; then it "leaked 
out" that sugar was to be on the free list, and then the conjuring was 
all done over again and again ; the people wondering all the time 
why it was that the Finance Committee of the Senate made no re- 
port upon the Wilson Bill ; a conundrum that was correctly 
guessed out by some New York editors, who vehemently declared 
that the bill was delayed in order that certain Senators might 
cipher information to their brokers on the stock market with in- 
structions to buy or to sell. 

A general accusation to the effect that members of the Senate 
are using their legislative powers and their senatorial knowledge 
for stock-jobbing purposes may be borne with intrepid silence, but 
when it takes the form of a specific charge against individual Sen- 
ators, pointed out by name, their silence is almost a confession. A 
New York newspaper having asserted that Mr. McPherson, Mr. 
Vest, and some other Senators whose names were mentioned, had 
been speculating in sugar stocks and holding back the report on 
the Wilson Bill for their own profit, Mr. McPherson "arose" in 
the Senate, as bold as brass, and said that he, and he alone, was 
responsible for the delay in reporting the bill, and that he had 
caused the delay because he wanted some changes made in the 
direction of higher duties. Further, it was true that his broker 
had bought for him a thousand shares of sugar stock, but without 
his knowledge or consent, and on learning the fact he had ordered 
him to sell it again, and he had not purchased any sugar stock 
since. Mr. Vest followed Mr. McPhe,rson, and said that he had 
not bought any sugar stock, and that the man who said he had was 
a liar. The other suspected Senators answered not, and although, 
says the report, the galleries waited with some anxiety for the next 
senatorial confession or denial, it came not, "and the Senate soon 
settled down to its usually tranquil state." Unless the accused 
Senators, or those who are not accused, ask for a committee of 
investigation, suspicion will settle down upon the whole body of 
the Senate, and its tranquillity will be looked upon as that of a 
stagnant pool. Either way, as soon as the people find out that the 
men in the Senate who govern them are a sordid corporation, 
legislating for their own profit, and not for the public welfare, the 
days of the Senate will be numbered. Like the House of Lords, 
it must be "mended or ended." M M. Trumbull. 





To I /if Editor of The Open Court: 

General Trumbull is no doubt a great thinker, a keen ana- 
lyst and a puissant writer in the field of l<elles lettres, science, art, 
political economy, etc., and I intensely enjoy his weekly contribu- 
tions, but when it comes to philosophising upon that most pro- 
found of all mysteries and its esoteric ingredients — " Our Mother's 
Pie" — then, to use a military parlance, " he shoots way off of the 
mark "! Of course bis mother's pies, or mother Jones's pies, or any 
mother's pies were no better than the pies made by those who were 
not mothers, or by those who never will be mothers, or by those 
who never can be mothers — French male cooks, for instance. This 
he tacitly concedes— at any rate he does not contend to the con- 
trary, but insists: "Nobody but your own mother ever can or 
ever could give to the elements of a pie that ethereal flavor, and 
that spiritual potency, which makes it, for you at least, a memory 
of home forever. Unless all their ingredients are mi.xed with her 
love, touched by her hands, and seasoned with her own spirit, 
there are no pies like your mother used to make." 

But, pray, how about the cook's pie or the hired girl's ? Has 
any sound and healthy boy of ten or sixteen ever seriously dis- 
criminated between the " ethereal flavor" of the mother (!) or the 
seasoning of the cook ?(!) Or discerned in such pie the gentle 
love of mother or the (often) churlish disposition of the servant ? 
Have these psychological potencies, spirituelle cogencies or hyp- 
notic emanations really exerted an influence upon the boy? Or is 
the sole secret — why our mothers are alleged to have been better 
cooks than our wives or any body else — the simple fact that, as a 
man, we have a different constitution — nature's processes of growth 
are completed ; the necessity for food is not so urgent ; hence that 
terrible gnawing of the stomach, concomitant with a ferocious ap- 
petite has subsided. Let us give our wives due credit : Nothing 
else ever made mother's (or the hired girl's) pie — though often 
doughy and greasy — taste so much better than the most fragrant 
delicacies served at our own home or at the finest table d'hote. 

If you have a boy, try it : Let his mother bake a pie and give 
each one half. Then if the boy does not place himself around the 
pie in half the time that you do, I pay for a fine cigar for both you 
and the General. Otto Wettstein. 


I was afraid it would come to this ; I thought at the time it 
was printed that I ought to have labelled with big letters my com- 
ment on pies, in order that logical men might understand it. Neg- 
lecting to do so, I am at the mercy of Mr. Wettstein, because, 
looking at a pie as merely a lump of dough, his criticism is math- 
ematically sound. From an earthy point of view, Mr. Wettstein 
is undoubtedly right, because a pie being a genuine good-to-eat 
physical fact, practical "vittles," there in no ideality in it. 

Taking a materialistic view of it, Mr. Wettstein resolves the 
discussion into a mere matter of chemistry, for he is able to ana- 
lyse a pie and show that there is no sentiment in it, nothing but 
flour, and milk, and eggs, and fruit, and some other substantial 
elements. He can prove by his own taste and appetite that a pie 
has no ethereal flavor and no spiritual potency, whether it was 
made by his own mother, or by that inferior domestic whom he 
calls the " hired girl." Considering life as essentially pie and po- 
tatoes, and only these, Mr. Wettstein reast well, but if some- 
body else fancies that his mother's cookery ^.harmed the pies of 
his boyhood and gave them psychologic virtue, why not leave him 
the joys of his imagination ? I know a man who thinks that a cup 
of coffee handed him by his wife is better than the identically 

same article offered him by somebody else ; and it is better — to 

The pieman who advertises "pies like your mother used to 
make " may not be so learned in the mechanic arts as Mr. Wett- 
stein, nor so skilful in brushing fancy from fact, but he is a more 
profound philosopher. He knows nature better, and he sees what 
Mr. Wettstein does not see, the electric powers in the soul that 
influence human action. He knows how delicious is the recollec- 
tion of mother's pies, and he thinks that if he can touch the chord 
of memory that stretches back to childhood's home he will get a 
response in a call for pies. He boasteth not of his pie materials, 
their freshness and their other qualities, but he expresses every 
excellence in a single phrase, and promises that if you trade with 
him he will give you "pies like your mother used to make." 

The man who says that a mother's pies are no better than any 
other pies would say that a mother's hands are no better than the 
hands of Sairey Gamp in smoothing a boy's pillow and tucking 
him into bed at night. M. M. Trumbull. 


A propos of the discussion on the National Senate in this num- 
ber of The Open Court we take the opportunity again to remind 
our readers that Prof. H. von Hoist, our great constitutional au- 
thority, has promised us an article on the subject. Professor von 
Hoist's views, which are rather conservative, may be expected to 
differ from the suggestions made by the writers of this number of 
TJie Open Court. 

Having been asked where President Harper's "Lectures on 
Genesis" can be obtained, we will state that they are to appear in 
The Biblical IVor/d, (University Press of Chicago, Chicago, Illi- 
nois,) beginning with January, 1894. The lectures, it will be re- 
membered, are delivered Saturday evenings at the Memorial Uni- 
versity Extension Centre, Oakwood Boulevard and Cottage Grove 
Avenue, and before the Faculty and students of the University 
Sunday afternoons. They are the same which have created such 
a stir in the theological world. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 




$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



CHRISTIANITY. John Sandison 4007 

SENATORIAL REFORM. Moncure D. Conway 4009 

CURRENT TOPICS : Mr. Gladstone and the Peers. The 

President and His Courtiers. Christian Citizenship. 

The Tariff on Husbands. Stock-Jobbing in the Senate. 

Gen. M. M. Trumbull 4012 


" Mother's Pies." [With Remarks by General Trum- 
bull.] Otto Wettstein 4014 

NOTES 4014 


The Open Court. 


No. 341. (Vol. VIII.— 10.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 8, 1894. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher, 



The death of Mrs. Myra Bradwell, late editor of 
the Chicago Legal News, brings to memory again some 
ancient history wherein she appears heroic. I say an- 
cient history, because it really seems as if the legal 
statutes that made her "ineligible" to certain offices 
and occupations were of the old world and of the thir- 
teenth century. We can hardly believe that they pre- 
vailed in Illinois not more than thirty years ago. 

It was Mrs. Bradwell's fortune in early'life to marry 
a lawyer, and a part of her dowry was an opportunity to 
study law. She improved this advantage, and after a few 
years became herself a lawyer, but the statutes of Illi- 
nois being all of the masculine gender, she was forbid- 
den to exercise her profession, for the magnanimous 
reason that she was a woman ; and this was the ruling 
of the Supreme Court of Illinois. I use the word 
"law)'er" with due deliberation, because, after Mrs. 
Bradwell had passed with credit the examination pre- 
scribed as a qualification for the bar, she was to all 
intents and purposes a lawyer, whether admitted to 
the bar or not. Mrs. Bradwell was not forbidden to 
practise law because she was not a lawyer, but because 
she was a woman. 

Hopeful and brave, conscious that her cause was 
just, Mrs. Bradwell carried the case on a writ of error 
to the Supreme Court of the United States, and there 
also the decision was against her. Chief Justice Chase 
alone deciding in her favor. A comical anachronism 
in the nineteenth century was the spectacle of six or 
seven motherly old gentlemen in Washington, dressed 
in black frocks, poring over feudal precedents, and 
deciding that because of the 21. Edward the Third, 
or the 15. Henrj' the Eighth, a woman must not be 
permitted to practise law in Illinois. 

Afterwards, an application was made by sixty prom- 
inent lawyers of Chicago for the appointment of Mrs. 
Bradwell to the exalted and illustrious office of Notary 
Public, but the Governor gravely decided that a mar- 
ried woman was not eligible to such a high position, 
because, being absorbed into the Nirvana of wedlock, 
her identity was lost in her husband, and therefore she 
could not give a bond ; and the ludicrous part of it 
was that the Governor apologised for his action and 

threw the blame upon the law. "There is no one," 
he said, "whom I would more cheerfully appoint, if 
the matter were within the limits of my official dis- 

It is not so much by abstract reasoning as by visi- 
ble examples that reformations come, and Mrs. Brad- 
well offered herself as a living example of the injustice 
of the law. A woman of learning, genius, industry, 
and high character, editor of the first law journal in 
the West, forbidden by law to practise law, was too 
much for the public conscience, tough as that con- 
science is ; the Tory barriers that excluded Mrs. Brad- 
well were broken down, and now, because of her labors 
and sacrifices, women may practise law and engage in 
many other profitable employments to which they were 
not "eligible" then; and, what is a very important 
matter, they may, because of her exertions, own their 
earnings, too. 

Mrs. Bradwell chose as the motto for her paper 
the words "Lex Vincii," but these express merely the 
physical power of the law, and not its moral qualities. 
The law conquers by force, whether it be right or 
wrong, but Mrs. Bradwell's own victory over it gives 
us a comforting assurance that where the law is wrong 
it may itself be conquered. The laws of nature are 
indeed invincible, but the laws of men are not, and the 
glory of Mrs. Bradwell's political work is that she con- 
quered some bad laws and abolished them. 

There was nothing theatrical or spectacular in Mrs. 
Bradwell's work, but with the courage of a soldier and 
the strategy of a general she went about it and did it. 
For thirty years she was an active officer in various 
associations advocating and advancing social and po- 
litical reforms and especially those that interested wo- 
men. She was a member of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers of the World's Fair, and Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Law Reform in the Auxiliary Congress. She 
read a paper before the Congress last May, and that 
was her last appearance on the platform. 

Mrs. Bradwell's public labors gave an added lustre 
to her private virtues, and instead of contracting, they 
expanded the horizon of home. She proved that the 
sphere of woman was not only at home, but in ftie 
lawyer's office, or in the editor's office, or wherever 
she could do something to make home happier. Her 



domestic life was bright with duties done, and none of 
them the less well done because of other duties in an- 
other field. 


BY DR. W. H. GARDNEfft. 


At the time of the migration of the Israelites from 
Eygpt {circa 1320 B. C.) all of the tribes that occupied 
the land of Canaan, as well as the Amalekites, Mid- 
ianites, and Moabites, whose territories they traversed, 
were worshippers of the sun-god in some of his forms. 
And whether their tribal god was appealed to as Baal, 
Chemosh, Milcom, Ashtoreth, or Moloch, it was the 
same deity, only under a different aspect. Indeed, if 
it were possible to turn back in the history of the race 
to the earliest age of human thought, when man first 
was able to formulate an idea of a deity, we would 
doubtless find that the only idea he had of a god was 
the sun. To him, naked, unarmed, helpless, ignorant 
even of the art of producing fire at will, the sun was 
the source of light and warmth and life and all good ; 
what wonder that he should bow in reverence and kiss 
his hand when he beheld the face of his god in the 
morning, and silent and sorrowful seek his bed of 
leaves and rushes as the departing glories of his lord 
sunk into the western deeps or faded away over the 
glowing mountain-tops. 

But not always was the sun a beneficent, life-giving 
deity, whose genial beams fructified the receptive earth 
and nourished and sustained all animate nature. At 
times he became jealous and angry, and then he was 
a cruel and bloodthirsty monster, whose fierce heat 
withered the fruits and grain, drank up the water in 
the rivers and fountains, consumed the blood in the 
veins of man and beast, and spread famine and pesti- 
lence throughout the whole land. Then instead of 
being worshipped with offerings of fruits and flowers, 
and festive songs and dances, his altars were glutted 
with the blood of human victims poured out to appease 
his anger. 

In the sacred chronicle of the Hebrews, instances 
of human sacrifice among the Canaanites are so fre- 
quently mentioned, that it is scarcely necessary to call 
attention to them. We must, however, note especially 
one instance — that of Mesha, King of Moab, sacrific- 
ing by fire his eldest son, who should have reigned in 
his stead, after his disastrous defeat in the valley of 
Edom by the armies of the three kings. ^ 

Encompassed, as the Israelites were, by tribes and 
nations whose conceptions of a deity were so cruel and 
bloodthirsty, it cannot be wondered at that, despite 
the teaching of their prophets, the mass of the people 

1 II A7«^i, iii, 2; ; Cont. also Ibid., xxiii, 13; xiv, 3; Leviticus, xviii, 21; 
/^/(/., XX, 2-5 ; Deuteronomy, Tin, z^. Many other citations will occur to those 
familiar with the books of the Old Testament, 

and many of their kings, frequently forsook the purer 
worship of Jehovah, followed after other gods, and 
passed their children through the fire to Moloch. 
From many passages in the Old Testament, it is not 
at all improbable that the primitive idea of the Israel- 
ites ]»egarding Jehovah was not materially different 
from those of the nations about them regarding their 
gods. It is not the place here, however, to discuss 
the evolution of the monotheistic conception of the 
God of Israel, but, as the following passages occur to 
me, I cannot refrain from quoting them, since they 
seem to indicate that at least in the earliest thought of 
the Israelites, Jehovah was an apotheosis of the sun 
and manifested his presence by light and heat, or its 
earthly symbol-fire : First, "Jehovah spake to Moses 
out of a burning bush, and the bush burned with fire 
and was not consumed." ^ Next, he gave the Israel- 
ites, as their pilot through the mazes of the desert, "a 
pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by night. "- 
"And the sight of the glory of the Lord was like de- 
vouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the 
children of Israel. "" "The Lord thy God is a con- 
suming fire. " ^ " He made darkness pavilions round 
about him, dark waters and thick clouds of the skies. 
Through the brightness before him were coals of fire 
kindled. The Lord thundered from heaven, and the 
Most High uttered his voice."'' "At the brightness 
that was before him his thick clouds passed, hailstones 
and coals of fire. The Lord also thundered in the 
heavens, and the Highest gave his voice; hailstones 
and coals of fire."" Other passages will readily sug- 
gest themselves to those conversant with the books of 
the Old Testament. 

With these crude conceptions of their deity, differ- 
ing so little from the gods of the tribes about them, it 
is only natural that the God of the Israelites should 
have been worshipped by similar rites as were Baal, 
Moloch, Chemosh, or Ashtoreth, and that in his wor- 
ship human beings were not unfrequently sacrificed to 
him. The uonchalance with which Abraham obeyed 
what he thought to be the will of Jehovah in attempt- 
ing to offer up his only son Isaac,' indicates not only 
that the practice of human sacrifice was common in the 
land of "Ur of the Chaldees " from which he had mi- 
grated, and among the tribes by which he was sur- 
rounded, but it also shows that in the mind of Abra- 
ham and the recorder of the incident, that the sacrifice 
of an only son was a perfectly natural and legitimate 
demand for a God to make upon his worshipper. It 
would seem from the curse laid by Joshua, the war- 

1 E.vodus. iii, 2. 

llJem, xiii, 21-22. 

3 MvK, xxiv, 17. 

-1 Dettteronoiny, iv, 24. 

5U Samuel, xii. 12, 13, 14. 

Q Psalms, xviii. 12-13. 

7 Genesis, xxii, 2-10, 



like captain of the Israelites, upon any one who should 
rebuild the city of Jericho, after he had captured it and 
razed its walls to the ground, that it was the custom 
in that age to propitiate the deity by the immolation 
of human victims upon the founding of a city.^ We 
also read in II Samuel, that King David, to avert the 
distress caused by a famine in the land, delivered two 
sons and five grandsons of Saul to the Gibeonites, who 
sacrificed them all in the beginning of the barley har- 
vest.- And in Judges where Jephtha sacrificed his 
only daughter to his God in fulfilment of the rash vow 
he had made when he went out to attack the Ammon- 
ites.-* In so many other places in the sacred chronicle 
of the Israelites are allusions made to human sacrifice 
that the conviction is forced upon us that this cruel 
rite was practised as commonly among the Israelites 
as it was among the other tribes occupying Canaan.* 

One especial modification of human sacrifice could 
only be consummated b}' the king or ruler sacrificing 
his own son (or daughter) to turn away the wrath of 
the deity from his people. This was called the great 
or "mystic sacrifice." One case is cited in the " Pre- 
paratio Evangelica " of Eusebius from "Sanchonia- 
thon's History of Phcenicia " as follows : " And when 
a great plague and mortality happened, Kronos offered 
up his only son as a sacrifice to his father Ouranos, 
and circumcised himself and compelled his allies to do 
the same ; and not long afterward he consecrated, after 
his death, another son named Muth, whom he had by 
Rhea."^ It is quite possible that this is only another 
version of the similar legend regarding the attempted 
sacrifice by Abraham of his only son Isaac, but in later 
times the sacrifice of the two sons and five grandsons 
of Saul by King David, the sacrifice of his son by Ido- 
menius. King of Crete, and similar instances in the 
Phcenician and Carthagenian annals abundantly show 
that, among the peoples of those times, the sacrifice 
of the son or sons of a king was considered to have 
especial merit in the eyes of their gods and to be very 
potent in securing their favor. And I ask especial at- 
tention to these cases as I believe the idea involved in 
them had great influence on the religious conceptions 
of the early Christians. 

In reviewing the subject of human sacrifice we can- 
not fail to be impressed by the following curious facts : 

First : The widely-spread prevalence, and the per- 
sistence of this cruel rite. 

Second : The degraded and bloodthirsty concep- 

1 Joshua, vi, 26. It is also probable that the slaying of Remus by his brother 
Romulus had a similar significance. Lizy, I, 7. 

2 II Samuel, xxi, 610. 

3 Judges, sX, 34-39. 

^\ Samuel, xv, 32, 33; \\ Kin^s, xxi, 6; Ibid, xxiii, 10; Psalms, cvi, 3G- 
38 ; Jeremiah, vii, 31. Many citations showing a survival of this custom in 
recent times will be found in Tyler's Primitive Culture, Vol. I, pp. 104-108. 

5 See Corey^s Ancient Fragments, Sanchonialhon, pp. 16 et seq. 

tion all the nations of antiquity had formed of the 

Third : The similarity of their conceptions of a vi- 
carious sacrifice — shedding the blood of an innocent 
person in order that the guilty might escape. 

In the instances of human sacrifice here cited,' to 
which many more could be added if deemed necessary, 
it is not intended to assume that they are all incidents 
of veritable history, many of them are doubtless leg- 
ends or traditions handed down orally by sire to son 
from the earliest ages, but they are not on this account 
less useful for the purpose of generalisation, since they 
show as unmistakably the prevailing tone of thought 
at the (alleged) time of their occurrence, as if they 
were properly authenticated. So much of the actual 
history of the early nations of the earth has been lost 
to us by the ravages of time, or has come down to us 
through ambiguous sources, that many of their man- 
ners and customs are still but imperfectly known, for 
though the cuneiform characters of Assyria and the 
hieroglyphs of Egypt were in use two or three thou- 
sand years B.C., yet we have derived the greater part 
of our knowledge of these subjects from Greek or Ro- 
man sources, and we must recollect that the sacred 
gift of Cadmus has borne but scanty fruit upon the 
soil of Hellas up to the time of Solon (638 B.C.). The 
less civilised tribes were entirely ignorant of the art of 
writing or any other means of preserving their records 
save by oral teaching, and similar rude mementos to 
the pile of stones Joshua set up at Gilgal to commem- 
orate the crossing of the Jordan.' Hence much of the 
history of the past must ever remain to us a sealed 
book, though with all of these obstructions in our way, 
there is yet enough of authentic history left, to show 
us that, at the Christian era, the idea of human sacri- 
fice was not only a widely spread but deeply rooted 
idea in the ancient world ; and throughout the length 
and breadth of the Roman empire from the rugged 
fastnesses of Britannia Secunda (Wales) to the reedy 
banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, the altars of the 
gods were constantly crimsoned with the blood of hu- 
man victims. 

Nor was the persistence of this custom less remark- 
able than its widely spread prevalence. Davies in- 
forms us that in some parts of Caledonia and Wales, 
human sacrifice among the Druids was not finally sup- 
pressed until the close of the sixth century A.D.- In 
some parts of India the custom has survived almost to 
our own day. In the transactions of the Asiatic Society, 
for 1841, there is an account of the religion of the 
Khonds of Orissa, given by Lieut. MtPherson, in which 
he says : 

"Among the Khonds of Orissa, one of the ancient kingdoms 

1 Joshua, iv. 6. 7, 20. 

2 Davies, British Druids, pp. 4^2 466. 



of Hindustan, human sacrifice was constantly practised up to the 
year 1836, A. D., when the attention of the British government, 
having been directed to it by one of its agents, took the most 
strenuous means to break it up. The victims were of all ages and 
both sexes ; male adults, however, being held in the greatest es- 
teem, as being most acceptable to the goddess. In some cases the 
victims were purchased from families of their own tribe who had 
become impoverished. In other cases they were captured from 
the plains tribes. The victims were called ' Meriah,' and were 
sacrificed to propitiate the earth's goddess, 'Kali,' and obtain 
through her favor an abundant harvest." 

We scarcely need call attention to the sacrifice of 
Hindu widows upon the funeral pyres of their dead 
husbands. In 1823, A. D., there were 575 Hindu 
widows burned to death in Bengal Presidency alone \ 
and as late as 1877 several of the wives of Jung Baha- 
dur were sacrificed at his funeral obsequies.^ 

The rivers of human blood that were poured out 
before the shrine of the Aztec god Huitzilopoctli by 
his fierce priests would be incredible, were it not abun- 
dantly substantiated by eye-witnesses. Prescott says : 

" Human Sacrifices have been practised by many nations, not 
excepting the most polished nations of antiquity, but never by any 
on a scale to be compared with those in Anahuac. The amount 
of victims immolated on its accursed altars would stagger the faith 
of the least scrupulous believer. Scarcely any author pretends to 
estimate the yearly sacrifices throughout the empire at less than 
twenty thousand, and some carry the number as high as fifty."' 

Admiral Wilkes, in his exploring expedition around 
the world (1842 to 1845), found many of the South 
Sea Islanders at tliat time practising human sacrifice 
and cannibalism ; and even to this day, in some of 
those islands and among the ruder tribes of Africa, 
these savage customs still continue. 

When we look back to the dark and savage past 
and remember the cruel and bloody rites practised, 
and the oceans of human blood poured out by our an- 
cestors in the name of religion, we stand appalled and 
shrink with horror from the mental conceptions they 
had formed of the Deity. No idea we can now form 
of "The Prince of Devils" could he rc\ote s/ndiously 
and intentionally maleficent and ferocious than were 
their ideas of their gods ; and yet the concurring tes- 
timony of history teaches unmistakably that such were 
their conceptions, and that in their thought the blood 
of the lower animals and human beings was always 
necessary to purchase their favor and assistance. ^ The 
reason for this is not hard to discover. The mind of 
primitive man was in its infancy. It had not yet 
reached that stage of development when it could ap- 

1 Vide article " Suttee " in Chamber's Eiicyclopadia, last edition. 

2 Prescott's Coiiiiuest 0/ Mexico, Vol. I, Chap. 3. As I have neither Clavi- 
gers nor Torquemanda at hand to consult, I quote from Prescott. 

3 See an article by Mr. Foley in The yournul 0/ Philology, No. I, for June, 
18S8, entitled Chthonian Worship, in which the author shows that the propitia- 
tion of the malignant powers, rather than the adoration of the supreme good, 
seemed to have formed the basis of the early religions of the world ; and hence 
streams of human blood was the only effectual means of purchasing their 

preciate any greater or higher power than the prince 
or chief who ruled over him. His chief's subtle brain 
and strong arm protected his tribe and punished his 
enemies. To him they all owed allegiance ; and over 
them all he held absolute control — even to the power 
of life and death. When he died, his wives, slaves, 
horses, and dogs were buried in his tomb or were 
burned on his funeral pyre, to attend him in the other 
world. After his death he was deified, and then he 
became more powerful for good and evil than he was 
when alive, and his tomb became a shrine where sup- 
pliants came to offer sacrifices and pray for his pro- 
tection and assistance. 

Some of the later Hebrew prophets and heathen 
philosophers had a higher and nobler conception of 
the Deity ; but to the great mass of the people, their 
gods were the deified ancestors of the tribe — anthro- 
pomorphic, sensuous, and possessed of the same at- 
tributes and desires as their worshippers. In the con- 
ception of the compilers of the Pentateuch, Jehovah 
was as truly an anthropomorphic and tribal god, as 
Osiris, Baal, Moloch, or Huitzilopochtli. And though 
there is extant no legend beyond that given in the first 
chapter of Genesis to indicate that, in the thought of 
the Israelites, Jehovah was the actual progenitor and 
ancestor of their tribe, yet the covenants made be- 
tween him and Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their 
descendants, abundantly show that he was the especial 
and particular god of their tribe, and that even by 
their enemies the Israelites were regarded as his chil- 
dren. Passages in the Old Testament alluding to this 
fact are too numerous to require citation, but I ask 
the critical inquirer to reread i\i& book of Joshua, where 
the warlike captain of the Israelites recounts with the 
utmost naivete how he captured the cities of Jericho, 
Ai, Makkedah, Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Debir, and 
the other cities of the Canaanites, and massacred every 
man, woman, and child, and says that those wholesale 
butcheries were not only committed by the order of 
Jehovah, but with his connivance and assistance. Nor 
does the sacred chronicle indicate that these Canaan- 
ites had incurred the displeasure of Jehovah in any 
other way than in warring against the Israelites, who 
were trying to drive them out of their homes. 

There is no doubt but that the theological ideas of 
the Jews underwent some changes during their long 
captivity among the Babylonians and Persians, from 
contact with the disciples of Zoroaster. Their Devil 
became spiritualised and dignified as he was more as- 
similated to Ahriman, the Persian embodiment of 
darkness and evil ; and Jehovah became less anthropo- 
morphic, and more the apotheosis of power and life 
and light and good. Yet in Jewish thought Jehovah 
was never the indulgent "father that pitieth his chil- 
dren," but rather "a jealous God, who visited the 



sins of the fathers upon the children, even to the third 
and fourth generation." Every infraction of his law 
must be atoned by blood, and his altars were always 
reeking with the blood of animals sacrificed to obtain 
his favor. After the crucifixion of Christ and the rise 
of Christianity, the conception of Jehovah became still 
more ambiguous and contradictory, one class of his 
(alleged) attributes being perfect antitheses to the 

In his l>e?iigii aspect he teaches the doctrine of hu- 
mility, charity, and the forgiveness of offences, "even 
to seventy times seven." 

In his malignant aspect,' all mankind had sinned 
and done evil in his sight, the nursling at its mother's 
breast, as well as the gray-haired worker of iniquity. 
Through Adam they had all partaken of the forbidden 
fruit and their crime must be expiated, all the human 
race were doomed — Jehovah demanded their blood — 
to satisfy his jiisiice, Jehovah must borrow the idea of 
ignorant, cruel humanity, and sacrifice by an ignomini- 
ous and cruel death, his son begotten of a Jewish vir- 
gin by means of the Holy Ghost. 

It is very hard for the people of one age and race 
to understand the ideas of another race, differing widely 
from them in time, locality, institutions, laws, and 
modes of thought. And it is only possible for us at 
this epoch to appreciate the ideas the early Christians 
had conceived of the Deity, when we remember that 
not only among the Jews, but among all the nations at 
the commencement of the Christian era, the sacrifice 
of animal or human life was one of the essential ele- 
ments of worship. 

In the epistle to the Hebrews ascribed to Paul,^ 
where the writer says : "Almost all things are by the 
law purged with blood, and without shedding of blood 
is no remission." He enunciated no new doctrine to 
Jew, Gentile, or Christian, he merely epitomised the 
religious belief of the whole world at the date of his 
letter (perhaps about 50 A.D.). 

When, or by whom, the doctrine was first promul- 
gated, that Jesus, the son of the Jewish carpenter's 
wife, Mary, was the veritable son of Jehovah, and that 
by his torturing death as a malefactor Jehovah had 
consummated the mystic sacrifice, must remain un- 
known, all we now know is that as early as the first 
century after Christ, it had become the fundamental 
dogma of the Christian belief. What was the concep- 
tion Christ himself had of the Deity it is not possible 
to state with certainty, since he has left us no word 

1 We cannot fail to see in this conception of the dical n^t\iTe of the Deity, 
a mental reversion to the earliest conceptions of the Israelites, when their 
tribal god was the Sun in his benign or malignant aspect. See Kuenen, Reli- 
gion 0/ Israel. Vol. I, Chap. IV. 

2The author of this epistle is anonymous, thotl'gh it is almost certain that 
Paul never wrote it. I quote it here, however, because it seems to embody 
succinctly the Jewish idea of the law of Jehovah regarding sin and the neces- 
sity of its atonement by the sacrifice of animal life. 

written by his own hand, and his life, teaching, and sys- 
tem of ethics, are so obscured by the interpretations 
of his followers that there is scarcely one truth or pre- 
cept that he tried to inculcate, but what has been tor- 
tured into a meaning most probably, widely different 
from what he intended. 

It is interesting to note the unanimity with which 
all the nations of antiquity accepted the doctrine of 
vicarious atonement. And still more wonderful is it 
that such an idea of justice should have survived to 
our day and be still accepted by rational, intelligent 
human beings not only as logical reasoning, but as the 
reasoning of the divine mind of the Deity himself. 
Nor does it matter, so far as the principle of justice is 
involved, whether Jesus Christ was actually the incar- 
nated son of Jehovah or the natural son of Mary, the 
wife of the Jewish carpenter ; in either case his sacri- 
fice was not only unwarrantable, unjust, and cruel, but 
could not upon any principle of law or equity have 
atoned for the crimes of guilty man. 

There is no doubt that Christ was a veritable sacri- 
fice, though not a sacrifice to the bloodthirsty appe- 
tite of a ferocious Deity who claimed the blood of an 
innocent being for the sins of the guilty, but on the 
contrary, if the alleged accounts of his execution are 
worthy of acceptance, we must believe that he was a 
sacrifice to the jealousy and malignity of the Jewish 

The birth and early life of Jesus is so obscured by 
myth and legend that but little that is really authentic 
has come down to us, but it is certain that he was kind 
and humane and merciful, that he taught and practised 
the doctrine of humility, charity, and brotherly love. 
As Greg truly says : "We regard him not as the per- 
fection of the intellectual or philosophic mind, but as 
the perfection of the spiritual character — as surpassing 
all men of all times in the closeness and depth of his 
communion with the Father. In reading his sayings 
we feel that we are holding converse with the wisest, 
purest, noblest Being that ever clothed thought in 
the poor language of humanity. In studying his life, 
we feel that we are following the footsteps of the 
highest ideal yet presented to us upon earth." ' And 
it seems like the irony of fate that one so gentle and 
pure and merciful, and so permeated with the wisdom 
of the divine mind, should have been executed at the 
mandate of a malignant priesthood as a malefactor and 

Looking backward to the commencement of eccle- 
siastical history, and the ridiculous word-quibbling of 
the early Christians, and the vials of wrath and ink 
that were poured out upon each other by the " Homo- 
ousions " and the " Homoi-ousions," it is singular that 
no one of either sect has considered that the real ques- 

1 Greg, Creed 0/ Christendom, pp. 300-301. 



tion at issue should have been not whether Christ was 
of the same substance of the Deity, but whether he was 
of the substance of guilty man, in whose stead he was 
believed to have been sacrificed. And before closing, 
I must ask attention to this peculiar aspect of human 
sacrifice, the identification and unification of the vic- 
tim with the god to whom he was devoted. In some 
tribes his apotheosis commenced as soon as the victim 
was selected ; and though he was held as a prisoner 
with no hope of escape, except by death; yet his 
prison was the temple of the god ; he was apparelled 
in sacerdotal vestments, feasted with choicest food, 
attended by subservient priests, and provided with 
beautiful damsels to solace and comfort him in his 
captivity. When the sacrifice was consummated, some 
portion of the body of the victim — usually the heart — 
was eaten and his blood drunk by the ruler and priests. 
Among the ruder tribes, notably the Scythians and 
Aztecs, the sacrificial rite was closed by a cannibal 
feast upon the quivering body of the victim. Under 
the Levitical law,i the fat and blood of the victim 
were forbidden to be eaten by the Israelites, these 
portions being sacred to Jehovah, though the officiat- 
ing priest was instructed to place some of the blood of 
the victim upon the right ear, the right thumb, and 
the right great toe of the worshipper, to identify him 
with the victim. 

For more than fifteen centuries the Christian hier- 
archy has held human thought in leash in every land 
its priests have invaded. It has opposed every ad- 
vancement in civilisation and refinement, combated 
with fire and stake and prison-cell every induction of 
science, and so construed the history of the past that 
even such a fact as the brutal custom of animal and 
human sacrifice has been made to appear as not only 
pleasing to the Deity and the sure means of purchas- 
ing his favor, but as the foreshadowing and archetype 
of that mystic sacrifice of his own son which in priestly 
thought, he had ordained from the foundation of the 
world, as the only means of saving the human race 
from the fatal effects of Adam's fall. 

But despite the anathemas of priests and the bulls 
of popes, one after another the savage customs of our 
ignorant ancestors have been abolished, before the 
studious examination and critical thought of unpreju- 
diced minds ; and I hope the day is not far distant 
when reasoning beings will relegate to the limbo of 
the past the ideas so long held of the sacrifice of Christ 
and the debasing conception they have been taught of 
a Deity that could consent and connive at such a cruel 

"Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with 
ten thousands of rivers of oil ? Shall I give my firstborn for my 
transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? 

"He has showed thee, O man, what is good ; and what' doth 
the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and 
to walk humbly with thy God." ' 



They said. How brave he was ; 
He held for death such scorn. 
Leading the hope forlorn ; 
But 'twas not bravery ; 
He did not fear because 
To live was slavery. 

See, how he shrinks from strife ! 
Was e'er such craven born ? 
Yet in the van forlorn 
They marked his palor. 
Loving, he gave his life, — 
Ah, that was valor. 


But by the climax of life, by the fiower, all new life is kindled 
In the organical world and in the world of the soul. 
Blameless in all things to be is the lowest degree and the highest. 
For, besides impotence, leads greatness alone to this end. 
How they are cracking the whips ! May good heaven defend us ! 

such wagons 
Creaking with books of all kinds. Paper en masse, but no worth. 
Every one writes, aye the boy writes, the silver-haired man and 

the matron. 
Give us, ye gods, now a race which for the writers shall write. 
Truly our poets are light, but we could perhaps hide the misfor- 
Were not the critics themselves, oh ! so exceedingly smart. 
When they have scented the man and are hungrily howling around 

Wanderer, fire your gun ; quickly they'll take to their heels. 
Gathered in packs, like the wolves, you imagine that more you ac- 
complish ; 
Worse 'tis for you, for the more beggars, the fouler the air. 
Always for women and children ! for men should the authors be 

Leaving for women the care and for the children to men. 
Fable, ye say, is the fountain of youth ; oh believe me! unceasing 
Floweth its genuine flood. Where ? In the poet's domain. 
Fault I find not with the gardener when he the sparrows is chasing ; 
Yet but a gardener is he, nature the sparrows brought forth. 

\Micah, vi, 7-8, 

2 Prompted by the publication of the Xenia in Nos. 333, 334, 335, and 336 of 
The Open Coxirt, and by the idea of bringing forcibly home to the American 
mind the worth of Goethe and Schiller's philosophic thought, Mr. E, F. L. 
Gauss, of Chicago, sends us the above additional Xenia in his own translation. 




Truly the art is important and hard of one's proper comportment, 

Harder however it is from one's own nature to flee. 


Who so doth conquer his heart, he is great, I admire the brave 

But who Ihrougli his hearl conquers, of him I think more. 
" Why do you censure not every one publicly? " Friend do I call 

Like mine own heart, thus I silently censure my friend. 
Sense is too timid and wit is too bold ; it is genius only 
That in its soberness bold, pious in freedom can be. 

Out is the secret at last, why it is that thus Hamlet attracts us, 
Mark ye the reason — because quite to despair he leads us. 
Liberty, holy, sublime ! thou great longing of man for the better ! 
Truly thou couldst not have worse priests for thy heavenly cause. 


An angry colored woman on the South Side, vehemently scold- 
ing her disobedient boy for some delinquency, called a passing po- 
liceman to her assistance, and said, "I wish you'd take dat good- 
fur-nuffin Abrum Lincum an' lock him up in de calaboose, I can't 
do nuffin wif him." The Chicago Herald is in a similar frame of 
mind. Having labored for ten or a dozen years to overthrow the 
Republican party, and having succeeded at last in getting a Congress 
"Democratic in both Houses," it wishes all the members were in 
the calaboose, for it "can't do nuffin wif 'em." It flatters the 
Senate as " a convocation of doddering idiots," and the House as 
" a gang of brawling blatherskites." With delicate sarcasm the 
Ilvrald says that if the fathers of the republic ' ' can look down 
from Jerusalem the golden, they must be highly gratified at the re- 
sult of their labors. " If the fathers of the Republic are in Jerusalem 
the golden, as probably some of them are, and if they care any- 
thing about what goes on in Congress, as probably they do not. 
they will see that the sons of the republic are acting very much like 
the fathers ; a little better perhaps in the matter of manners, and 
they debate less with knuckles and pistols than the fathers did. 
They shoot with their mouths now, and they aim remarkably well. 
I have a valued friend who was a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives forty years ago, and it revives me like a camp-fire to hear 
him tell of the fistic battles they used to have in Congress when he 
was in his prime. The personalities now indulged in may be rather 
coarse, but they give useful information to the people, and they 
teach us what sort of statesmen our members of Congress are. 

« « 

When you assail a man " in the heat of debate," or out of it, 
whatever is true of your censure will stick to him, whatever is false 
in it will stick to you ; and this is a maxim that may well be heeded 
in Congress. Last Tuesday, Mr. Pence, a member from Colorado, 
fired skittle-balls of accusation at some of his fellow-members with 
as much unconcern as if they were wooden pins. He had great 
sport while they tumbled right and left, but the ne.\t morning he 
came into the House drooping and offered apologies to the crowd in 
that ' ' regardless of expense " manner in which a Colorado man or- 
ders drinks. He had an excellent opportunity to do so, because, 
fortunately for him, the newspapers had incorrectly reported him 
as charging that Mr. Hainer, the member from Nebraska, was 
" fuller of beer than comprehension," when in fact, said Mr. Pence, 
"what I said was, that he was "fuller of beard than of ideas." 

Why a man who is long of beard should be considered short of 
brains, I never could understand, but such is the opinion of many 
beardless men, especially "in the heat of debate." Of other mem- 
bers, Mr. Pence had said harsher things, but he threw all his accu- 
sations into a jack-pot in Colorado style and made a sweeping apol- 
ogy for them all. He was like Tim Clancy of Marbletown who 
went to confession and then wanted to avoid giving a detailed cata- 
logue of his sins. " Yer riverince," he said, " I've done evefything 
but murder ; now give me the absolution and make the penance 
light." Imitating Clancy, Mr. Pence pleaded thus : " In other ut- 
terances I have gone beyond the language that should be used in a 
parliamentary body. For such of them as might by any construc- 
tion be deemed unparliamentary I cheerfully and gladly apologise." 
And, more fortunate than Tim, Mr. Pence got his absolution. 

* * 

One of the most dramatic spectacles ever seen in the House of 
Commons was presented on the evening of March ist, when Mr. 
Gladstone made that revolutionary speech which many persons re- 
garded as a farewell to leadership in that House where he had sat 
as a member for more than sixty-one years. There, intellectually, 
and even physically strong, stood the Prime Minister of England, 
representing in his own person sixty-one years of English history, 
and sixty-one years of political evolution ; a picturesque panorama 
stretching from the Toryism that opposed the Reform Bill and the 
Abolition of slavery in the West Indies, down to the Democratic 
Declaration of war against the House of Lords. Such a bundle of 
nerves and intellectuality with such opportunities for action, such a 
personality, with such a career, is not possible except in England, 
and even there it is not likely that such a prodigy will ever be seen 
again. I may not approve of Mr. Gladstone's measures here or 
there, and I may fancy that in some of them I see statecraft instead 
of statesmanship, but yesterday he stood conspicuous in the sight 
of all the world, the type and model of a Briton, laying down the 
government of a great empire, not because he was eighty-four years 
old, not from indolence, or lack of courage, or intellectual decay, 
but because of an unfortunate affection of the eyes which might 
easily have come to a younger man. Again, let us all stop quarrel- 
ling with his politics for the present, and look at his example. A 
member of Parliament for sixty-one years and a cabinet minister 
most of the time, he has never yielded to mean temptations, cor- 
ruption has never tainted him ; personally his private life and his 
public life are alike without a stain. 

* * 

From patrician toryism to plebeian democracy is a long course, 
bift Mr. Gladstone went the distance. LikeWolsey, he was "fash- 
ioned to much honor from his cradle." Great as a boy at Eton, he 
was greater as a youth at Oxford, and greatest of all in the senate. 
He graduated as a "double first " at Oxford in his twenty-second 
year, first in classics and first in mathematics, a distinction rarely 
achieved at that university, or any other. When he was twenty- 
three years old, the Duke of Newcastle gave him a seat in Parlia- 
ment, for in those days dukes ow^ned constituencies and voted them 
as'they pleased. Early in his parliamentary career, Mr. Gladstone 
made a speech which Greville in his diary, written at the time, 
says was a promising performance and something of a sensation. 
It opened the gates of office to Gladstone, and the young politician 
saw in bright perspective the highest honors of the Government his 
own. The Tories at once perceived that his debating powers would 
be a great acquisition to their party, and Sir Robert Peel, himself 
an Oxford man, and a double first class too, put Gladstone in the 
line of political promotion by appointing him one of the lords of 
the treasury, a great position for a man of twenty-five. He went 
out of oflSce with his party in 1835, and staid out until Sir Robert 
Peel came back to power in 1841, when Gladstone was appointed 
Master of the Mint and Vice President of the Board of Trade. In 
all the stages of the Free-Trade revolution begun and carried on 



by Peel, Gladstone stood loyally by his chief ; and when Peel died, 
his mantle, if it fell upon anybody, fell upon Gladstone. Although 
Peel made many changes in the laws of England, he was by na- 
ture, education, and interest, a conservative, and it is not likely 
that he ever could have become a radical and a democrat. He 
yielded to the pressure of public opinion, and it is only fair to say, 
to new convictions, too ; and in that policy Gladstone has closely 
imitated Peel. 

* * 

I have read of a lawyer in Boston who died much lamented — 
by his friends, but not by his enemies ; and one of these being asked 
by another lawyer if he was going to the funeral, said, "No, but I 
■approve it," thus leaving his actual feelings in perplexing doubt. 
In like manner the current theology relating to a future life some- 
times leads toa discordant mingling of sorrow and congratulation 
at the departure of our neighbors from this world, as, for instance, 
when some society resolves that, ' ' Whereas it has pleased our 
Heavenly Father to remove our departed brother from this world 
of sorrow to the realms of eternal joy, therefore we offer our con- 
dolence to his wife and family in this their hour of sad bereave- 
ment." The expressions are kindly, although they appear to be 
irreconcilable, and they spring from a humane sentiment that 
seems easy to understand ; and yet see what may come of them 
when they are not understood, as occasionally happens in Kentucky, 
The editor of the Mount Sterling Tinus recently published an obit- 
uary notice of a departed citizen and remarked in a purely senti- 
mental way at the end of it, " he is gone to a happier home." The 
meaning of that appears to be plain enough, but the widow has be- 
gun a libel suit against the editor for insinuating that her husband 
had gone to a happier home in heaven than she made for him here 
on earth. The sympathy of the people down there is on the side 
of the widow, not only on grounds of chivalry but also because of 
State pride. There is a good deal of local feeling against the editor 
for suggesting that heaven is a more agreeable place to live in than 
Kentucky. M. M. Trumbull. 


The Railroad Question. A Historical and Practical Treatise 
on Railroads, and Remedies for Their Abuses. By ]Villi,iiii 
Larrahcc. Late Governor of Iowa. Chicago : The Schulte 
Publishing Company. 1S93. 450 pp. 

This is by far the best work on the Anti-Railroad side of the 
" Railroad Question " that we have seen as yet. The author was 
Governor of Iowa for four years, and for about sixteen years tie 
was a member of the State Senate, and in both capacities he had 
a great deal to do with the Railroad Question. Besides, as he in- 
forms us in the preface, "he has had experience as a shipper and 
as a railroad promoter, owner, and stockholder, and has even had 
thrust upon him for a short time the responsibility of a director, 
president, and manager of a railroad company." 

Governor Larrabee's personal experience with railroads, their 
management and their mismanagement, is very interesting and in- 
structive reading, but in addition to that he seems to have read all 
the railroad literature extant, and he has made excellent use of 
his materials. The conclusion he draws from his experience and 
his reading is that the abuses of the railroad system are almost in- 
curable under present conditions. He believes that the corporate 
power of railroads, especially where they are in combination, is 
too strong for the statesmanship or the virtue of such legislators as 
we are likely to get either in the State Legislatures or in Congress, 
and that the most effectual protection against railroad abuses is to 
be found in government control. 

Whatever may be the merits or the defects of Governor Lar- 
rabee's proposed remedy for the abuses practised by the railroads, 
he proves by startling facts that the abuses are very grave, and 

his condemnation of them is well justified. He shows that the 
power of discrimination possessed by the railroads amounts in 
many cases to a social tyranny; light and easy rates to favorite 
localities and firms, with extortionate rates for the oppression of 
their competitors ; " developing " the business of certain people or 
certain towns at the expense and for the oppression of others, and 
on this point Governor Larrabee rather tenderly says : "More- 
over, to tax one branch of commerce for the benefits bestowed 
upon another is a practice of extremely doubtful propriety, and 
the power to do so should never be conferred upon a private cor- 

Will Governor Larrabee give a moral glance for a moment at 
that last proposition and then say whether or not it is ethically and 
politically lawful for a public corporation to do that which it is 
unjust for a private corporation to do ? If the Government may 
tax one branch of industry for the benefit of another, why may not 
a railroad corporation do the same thing ? 

"Railroads in Politics" is one of the best chapters in the 
book, and it would make a most excellent magazine article. It is 
withering in its exposure of the insidious bribery, open and covert, 
direct and indirect, practised by the railroad corporations on the 
courts, legislatures, and the press. Under the scorching sarcasm 
of Governor Larrabee, the judge with a railroad-pass in his pocket 
loses much of his dignity, and his judicial integrity appears to be 
constantly under temptation. Those apologetic persons who see 
nothing sinister in a judge's pass ought to read what Governor 
Larrabee says about it. No doubt, a judge, when he accepts a pass, 
determines that it shall not influence his judgment on the bench, 
but as soon as he puts it into his pocket, he is under obligations to 
the railroad company, not as a private citizen, but as a judge. 

Governor Larrabee has arranged the facts of his case with 
evident care, and the argument he builds upon them is logical and 
strong. The chapters on "Railroad Literature" are very enter- 
taining, both in matter and in style, and they show with admirable 
clearness the literary methods of the railroad corporations. Gov- 
ernor Larrabee's book is an important contribution to the popular 
side of the " Transportation Question." in. m. t. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 



$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


MYRA BRADWELL. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3999 

HUMAN SACRIFICE; (Concluded.) Dk. W. H. Gardner 4000 

Valor. ViROE 4004 

CURRENT TOPICS ; The Perversity of Congress. In- 
sults and Apologies. The Retirement of Gladstone. 
Happier Homes in Heaven. Gen. M. M. Trumbull. . 4005 


The Open Court. 



No. 343. (Vol. VIII.— 12.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 22, 1894. 

I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 




An ancient philosopher once remarked that people 
who cudgelled their brains about the nature of the 
moon reminded him of men who discussed the laws 
and institutions of a distant city of which they had 
heard no more than the name. The true philosopher, 
he said, should turn his glance within, should study 
himself and his notions of right and wrong ; only thence 
could he derive real profit. 

This ancient receipt for happiness might be re- 
stated in the familiar words of the Psalm : 

"Dwell in the land, and verily thou shall be fed." 

To-day, if he could rise from the dead and walk 
about among us, this philosopher would marvel much 
at the different turn which matters have taken. 

The motions of the moon and the other heavenly 
bodies are accurately known. Our knowledge of the 
motions of our own body is by far not so complete. 
The mountains and natural divisions of the moon have 
been accurately outlined on maps, but physiologists 
are just beginning to find their way in the geography 
of the brain. The chemical constitution of many fixed 
stars has already been investigated. The chemical 
processes of the animal body are questions of much 
greater difficulty and complexity. We have our Mc- 
canique celeste. But a JMccaniqiic sociale or a Mccauiquc 
morale of equal trustworthiness yet remains to be writ- 

Our philosopher would indeed admit that we have 
made great progress. But we have not followed his 
advice. The patient has recovered, but he took for his 
recovery exactly the opposite of what the doctor pre- 

Humanity is now returned, much wiser, from its 
journey in celestial space, against which it was so 


* Delivered before the German Casino of Prague, in the 
Translated from the German by ukhk. 

A fuller treatment of the problems of this lectur 
trtige zur Analyse der Empftndungen (Jena, 18S6). 
tion du beau (Geneva. 1892), also regards repetition a 
His discussions of the t^sthetical side of the subjec 
than mine. But with respect to the psychological ; 

vinter of 1S71 

will be found in my Bci- 
P. Soret, Sur la percep- 
a principle of aesthetics, 
are much more detailed 
nd physiological founda- 

tion of the principle, I 
pfindungen go (Jeeper.- 

onvinced that the Beiiriige zur 
CH 11S94). 

Analyse der Ein- 

solemnly warned. Men, afterhavingbecome acquainted 
with the great and simple facts of the world without, 
are now beginning to examine critically the world 
within. It sounds absurd, but it is true, that only after 
we have thought about the moon are we able to take 
up ourselves. It was necessary that we should acquire 
simple and clear ideas in a less complicated domain, 
before we entered the more intricate one of psychol- 
ogy, and with these ideas astronomy principally fur- 
nished us. 

To attempt any description of that stupendous 
movement, which, originally springing out of the phys- 
ical sciences, went beyond the domain of physics and is 
now occupied with the problems of psychology, would 
be presumptuous in this place. I shall only attempt 
here, to illustrate to you by a few simple examples the 
methods by which the province of psychology can be 
reached from the facts of the physical world — especially 
the adjacent province of sense-perception. And I wish 
it to be remembered that my brief attempt is not to be 
taken as a measure of the present state of such scien- 
tific questions. 

* * 

It is a well-known fact that some objects please us, 
while others do not. Generally speaking, anything 
which is constructed according to fixed and logically 
followed rules, is a product of tolerable beauty. We see 
thus nature itself, which always acts according to fixed 
rules, constantly producing such pretty things. Every 
day the physicist is confronted in his workshop with 
the most beautiful vibration-figures, tone-figures, phe- 
nomena of polarisation, and forms of diffraction. 

A rule always presupposes a repetition. Repeti- 
tions, therefore, will probably be found to play some 
important part in the production of agreeable effects. 
Of course, the nature of agreeable effects is not ex- 
hausted by this. Furthermore, the repetition of a 
physical event becomes the source of agreeable effects 
only when it is connected with a repetition of sensa- 

An excellent example that repetition of sensations 
is a source of agreeable effects is furnished by the 
copy-book of every schoolboy, which is usually a treas- 
ure-house of such things, andonly in need of an Abbd 
Domenech to become celebrated. Any figure, no mat- 



ter how crude or poor, if several times repeated, with 
the repetitions placed in line, will produce a tolerable 

Also the pleasant effect of symmetry is due to a 
repetition of sensations. Let us devote ourselves a 
moment to this thought, yet not imagine when we have 
developed it, that we have fully exhausted the nature 
of the agreeable, much less of the beautiful. 

First, let us get a clear conception of what sym- 
metry is. And in preference to a definition let us take 
a living picture. You know that the reflexion of an 
object in a mirror has a great likeness to the object it- 
self. All its proportions and outlines are the same. 
Yet there is a difference between the object and its re- 
flexion in the mirror, which you will readily detect. 

Hold your right hand before a mirror, and you will 
see in the mirror a left hand. Your right glove will 
produce its mate in the glass. For you could never 
use the reflexion of your right glove, if it were present 
to you as a real thing, for covering your right hand, 
but only for covering your left. Similarly, your right 
ear will give as its reflexion a kft ear ; and you will at 
once perceive that the left half of your body could very 
easily be substituted for the reflexion of your right half. 
Now just as in the place of a missing right ear a left ear 
cannot be put, unless the lobule of the ear be turned up- 
wards, or the opening into the concha backwards, so, 
despite all similarity of form, the reflexion of an ob- 
ject can never take the place of the object itself.* 

The reason of this difference between the object 
and its reflexion is simple. The reflexion appears as 
far behind the mirror as the object is before it. The 
parts of the object, accordingly, which are nearest the 
mirror will also be nearest the mirror in the reflexion. 
Consequently, the succession of the parts in the re- 
flexion will be reversed, as may best be seen in the re- 
flexion of the face of a watch or of a manuscript. 

It will also be readily seen, that if a point of the ob- 
ject be joined with its reflexion in the image, the line 
of junction will cut the mirror at right angles and be 
bisected by it. This holds true of all corresponding 
points of object and image. 

If, now, we can divide an object by a plane into 
two halves so that each half, as seen in the reflecting 

» Kanl, in his Prolegomena zu Jcder kiliiftiscn Mela/'liys!/:, also refers to 
this fact, but for a different purpose. 

plane of division, is a reproduction of the other half, 
such an object is termed symmetrical, and the plane 
of division is called the plane of symmetry. 

If the plane of symmetry is vertical, we can say 
that the body is of vertical symmetry. An example of 
vertical symmetry is a Gothic cathedral. 

If the plane of symmetry is horizontal, we may say 
that the object is horizontally symmetrical. A land- 
scape on the shores of a lake with its reflexion in the 
waler, is a system of horizontal symmetry. 

Exactly here is a noticeable difference. The ver- 
tical symmetry of a Gothic cathedral strikes us at once, 
whereas we can travel up and down the whole length 
of the Rhine or the Hudson without becoming aware 
of the symmetry between objects and their reflexions 
in the water. Vertical symmetry pleases us, whilst 
horizontal symmetry is indifferent, and is noticed only 
by the experienced eye. 

Whence arises this difference ? I say from the fact 
that vertical symmetry produces a repetition of the 
same sensation, while horizontal symmetry does not. 
I shall now show that this is so. 

Let us look at the following letters : 

d b 
q P 

It is a fact known to all mothers and teachers, that 
children in their first attempts to read and write, con- 
stantly confound d and b, and q and p, but never d 
and q, or b and p. Now d and b and q and p are the 
two halves of a vcrfically symmetrical figure, while d 
and q, and b and p are two halves of a horizfintally sym- 
metrical figure. The first two are confounded ; but 
confusion is only possible of things that excite in us 
the same or similar sensations. 

Figures of two flower-girls are frequently seen on 
the decorations of gardens and of drawing-rooms, one 
of whom carries a flower-basket in her right hand and 
the other a flower-basket in her left. All know how 
apt we are, unless we are very careful, to confound these 
figures with one another. 

While turning a thing round from right to left is 
scarcely noticed, the eye is not indifferent at all to the 
turning of a thing upside down. A human face which 
has been turned upside down is scarcely recognisable 
as a face, and makes an impression which is altogether 
strange. The reason of this is not to be sought in the 
unwontedness of the sight, for it is just as difficult to 
recognise an arabesque that has been inverted, where 
there can be no question of a habit. This curious fact 
is the foundation of the familiar jokes played with the 
portraits of unpopular personages, which are so drawn 
that in the upright position of the page an exact pic- 
ture of the person is presented, but on being inverted 
some popular animal is shown. 



It is a fact, then, that the two halves of a vertically 
S3'mnietrical figure are easilj' confounded and that the}' 
therefore probably produce very nearly the same sen- 
sations. The question, accordingly, arises, why do the 
two halves of a vertically symmetrical figure produce 
the same or similar sensations? The answer is: Be- 
cause our apparatus of vision, which consists of our 
eyes and of the accompanying muscular apparatus is 
itself vertically symmetrical.* 

Whatever external resemblances one eye may have 
with another they are yet not alike. The right eye of 
a man cannot take the place of a left eye any more 
than a left ear or left hand can take the place of a 
right one. By artificial means, we can change the part 
which each of our eyes plays. (Wheatstone's pseudo- 
scope. ) But we then find ourselves in an entirely new 
and strange world. What is convex appears concave ; 
what is concave, convex. What is distant appears 
near, and what is near appears far. 

The left eye is the reflexion of the right. And the 
light-feeling retina of the left eye is a reflexion of the 
light-feeling retina of the right, in all its functions. 

The lense of the eye, like a magic lantern, casts 
images of objects on the retina. And you may picture 
to yourself the light-feeling retina of the eye, with its 
countless nerves, as a hand with innumerable fingers, 
adapted to feeling light. The ends of the visual nerves, 
like our fingers, are endowed with varying degrees of 
sensitiveness. The two retina; act like a right and a 
left hand ; the sensation of touch and the sensation of 
light in the two instances are similar. 

Examine the right-hand portion of this letter T : 
namely, f. Instead of the two retinae on which this 
image falls, imagine, feeling the object, my two hands. 
The r, grasped with the right hand, gives a different 
sensation from that which it gives when grasped with 
the left. But if we turn our character about from right 
to left, thus : 1, it will give the same sensation in the 
left hand that it gave before in the right. The sensa- 
tion is repeated. 

If we take a whole T, the right half will produce in 
the right hand the same sensation that the left half 
produces in the left, and vice versa. 

The symmetrical figure gives the same sensation 

If we turn the T over thus : H , or invert the half 
T thus : L, so long as we do not change the position 
of our hands we can make no use of the foregoing rea- 

The retinae, in fact, are exactly like our two hands. 
They, too, have their thumbs and index fingers, though 
they are thousands in number ; and we may say the 
thumbs are on the side of the eye near the nose, and 
the remaining fingers on the side away from the nose. 

* Compare Mach, Fichte' s Ziitscliri/l fiir Fhilosophie, 1S64, p. i. 

With this I hope to have made perfectly clear that 
the pleasing effect of symmetry is chiefly due to the 
repetition of sensations, and that the effect in ques- 
tion takes place in symmetrical figures, only where 
there is a repetition of sensation. The pleasing effect 
of regular figures, the preference which straight lines, 
especially vertical and horizontal straight lines, en- 
joy, is founded on a similar reason. A straight line, 
both in a horizontal and in a vertical position, can cast 
on the two retinae the same image, which falls more- 
over on symmetrically corresponding spots. This also, 
it would appear, is the reason of our psychological 
preference of straight to curved lines, and not their 
property of being the shortest distance between two 
points. The straight line is felt, to put the matter 
briefly, as symmetrical to itself, which is the case also 
with the plane. Curved lines are felt as deviations 
from straight lines, that is, as deviations from symme- 
try.* The presence of a sense for symmetry in people 
possessing only one eye from birth, is indeed a riddle. 
Of course, the sense of sj'mmetry, although primarily 
acquired by means of the eyes, cannot be wholly lim- 
ited to the visual organs. It must also be deeply 
rooted in other parts of the organism by ages of prac- 
tice and can thus not be eliminated forthwith by the 
loss of one eye. Also, when an eye is lost, the sym- 
metrical muscular apparatus is left, as is also the 
symmetrical apparatus of innervation. 

It appears, however, unquestionable that the phe- 
nomena mentioned have, in the main, their origin in 
the peculiar structure of our eyes. It will therefore 
be seen at once that our notions of what is beautiful 
and ugly would undergo a change if our eyes were dif- 
ferent. Also, if this view is correct, the theory of the 
so-called eternally beautiful is somewhat mistaken. It 
can scarcely be doubted that our culture, or form of 
civilisation, which stamps upon the human body its 
unmistakable traces, should not also modify our con- 
ceptions of the beautiful. Was not formerly the de- 
velopment of all musical beauty restricted to the nar- 
row limits of a five-toned scale ? 

The fact that a repetition of sensations is produc- 
tive of pleasant effects is not restricted to the realm of 
the visible. To-day, both the musician and the phys- 
icist know that the harrtlonic or the melodic addition 
of one tone to another affects us agreeably only when 
the added tone reproduces a part of the sensation 
which the first one excited. When I add an octave 
to a fundamental tone, I hear in the octave a part of 
what was heard in the fundamental tone. (Helm- 

* The fact that the first and second differential coefficients of a curve are 
directly seen, but the higher coefficients not, is very simply explained. Tlie 
tirst gives the position of the tangent, the declination of the straight line from 
the position of symmetry, the second the declination of the curve from the 
straight line. It is, perhaps, not unprofitable to remark here that tlie ordi- 
nary method of testing ru'ers and plane surfaces (by reversed applications) 
ascertains the deviation of the object from symmetry to itself. 



holtz.) But it is not my purpose to develop this idea 
fully here. We shall only ask to-day, whether there 
is anything similar to the symmetry of figures in the 
province of sounds. 

Look at the reflexion of your piano in the mirror. 

You will at once remark that you have never seen 
such a piano in the actual world, for it has its high 
keys to the left and its low ones to the right. Such 
pianos are not manufactured. 

If you could sit down at such a piano and play in 
your usual manner, plainly every step which you 
imagined you were performing in the upward scale 
would be executed as a corresponding step in the 
downward scale. The effect would be not a little sur- 

For the practised musician who is always accus- 
tomed to hearing certain sounds produced when cer- 
tain keys are struck, it is quite an anomalous spectacle 
to watch a player in the glass and to observe that he 
always does the opposite of what we hear. 

But still more remarkable would be the effect of 
attempting to strike a harmony on such a piano. For 
a melody it is not indifferent whether we execute a 
step in an upward or a downward scale. But for a 
harmony, so great a difference is not produced by re- 
versal. I always retain the same consonance whether 
I add to a fundamental note an upper or a lower third. 
Only the order of the intervals of the harmony is re- 
versed. In point of fact, when we execute a move- 
ment in a major key on our reflected piano, we hear a 
sound in a minor key, and vice versa. 

It now remains to execute the experiments indi- 
cated. Instead of playing upon the piano in the mir- 
ror, which is impossible, or of having a piano of this 
kind built, which would be somewhat expensive, we 
may perform our experiments in a simpler manner, as 
follows : 

i) We play on our own piano in our usual manner, 
look into the mirror, and then repeat on our real piano 
what we see in the mirror. In this way we transform 
all steps upwards into corresponding steps downwards. 
We play a movement, and then another movement, 
which, with respect to the key-board, is symmetrical 
to the first. 

2) We place a mirror beneath the music in which 
the notes are reflected as in a body of water, and play 
according to the notes in the mirror. In this way also, 
all steps upwards are changed into corresponding, 
equal steps downwards. 

3) We turn the music upside down and read the 
notes from right to left and from below upwards. In 
doing this, we must regard all sharps as flats and all 
flats as sharps, because they correspond to half lines 
and spaces. Besides, in this use of the music we can 

only employ the bass clef, as only in this clef are the 
notes not changed by symmetrical reversal. 

You can judge of the effect of these experiments 
from the examples which appear in the annexed musi- 
cal cut. The movement which appears in the upper 
lines is symmetrically reversed in the lower. 

The effect of the experiments may be briefly formu- 
lated. The melody is rendered unrecognisable. The 
harmony suffers a transposition from a major into a 
minor key and vice versa. The study of these pretty 




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effects, which have long been familiar to physicists 
and musiciqins, was revived some years ago by Von 

Now, although in all the preceding examples I have 
transposed steps upward into equal and similar steps 
downward, that is, as we may justly say, have played 
for every movement the movement which is symmetri- 
cal to it, yet the ear notices either little or nothing of 
symmetry. The transposition from a major to a minor 
key is the sole indication of symmetry remaining. The 
symmetry is there for the mind, but is wanting for 

* A. von Oettingeii: UarwoHiesystcin in tiuaUr Entwicklmtg. Leipsic and 
Dorpat, 1SO6. 



sensation. No symmetry exists for the ear, because a 
reversal of musical sounds conditions no repetition of 
sensations. If we had an ear for height and an ear 
for depth, just as we have an eye for the right and an 
eye for the left, we should also find that symmetrical 
sound-structures existed for our auditory organs. The 
contrast of major and minor for the ear corresponds to 
inversion for the eye, which is also only symmetry for 
the mind, but not for sensation. 

By way of supplement to what I have said, I will 
add a brief remark for my mathematical readers. 

Our musical notation is essentially a graphical rep- 
resentation of a piece of music in the form of curves, 
where the time is the abscissae, and the logarithms of 
the number of vibrations the ordinates. The devia- 
tions of musical notation from this principle are onlj' 
such as facilitate interpretation, or are due to histori- 
cal accidents. 

If, now, it be further observed that the sensation 
of pitch also is proportional to the logarithm of the 
number of vibrations, and that the intervals between 
the notes correspond to the differences of the loga- 
rithms of the numbers of vibrations, the justification 
will be found in these facts of calling the harmonies 
and melodies which appear in the mirror, symmetrical 
to the original ones. 

* * 

I simply wish to bring home to your minds by these 
fragmentary remarks that the progress of the physical 
sciences has been of great help to those branches of 
psychology that have not scorned to consider the re- 
sults of physical research. On the other hand, psy- 
chology is beginning to return, as it were, in a spirit 
of thankfulness, the powerful stimulus which it received 
from physics. 

The theories of physics which reduce all phenom- 
ena to the motion and equilibrium of smallest par- 
ticles, the so-called molecular theories, have been 
gravely threatened by the progress of the theory of the 
senses and of space, and we may say that their days 
are numbered. 

I have shown elsewhere * that the musical scale is 
simply a species of space — a space, however, of only 
one dimension, and that, a one-sided one. If, now, a 
person who could only hear, should attempt to develop 
a conception of the world in this, his linear space, he 
would become involved in many difficulties, as his space 
would be incompetent to comprehend the many sides 
of the relations of reality. But is it any more justifi- 
able for us, to attempt to force the whole world into the 
space of our eye, in aspects in which it is not accessi- 
ble to the eye ? Yet this is the dilemma of all mo- 
lecular theories. 

We possess, however, a sense, which, with respect 

* Compare Mach's /.ur T/ieoyie des G^hm-organs. Vienna Academy, 1SG3. 

to the scope of the relations which it can comprehend, 
is richer than any other. It is our reason. This stands 
above the senses. It alone is competent to found a 
permanent and sufficient view of the world. The 
mechanical conception of the world has performed 
wonders since Galileo's time. But it must now yield 
to a broader view of things. A further development of 
this idea is beyond the limits of my present purpose. 

One more point and I have done. The advice of 
our philosopher to restrict ourselves to what is near 
at hand and useful in our researches, which finds a 
kind of exemplification in the present cry of inquirers 
for limitation and division of labor, must not be too 
slavishly followed. In the seclusion of our closets, we 
often rack our brains in vain to fulfil a work, the 
means of accomplishing which lies before our very 
doors. If the inquirer must be perforce a shoemaker, 
tapping constantly at his last, it may perhaps be per- 
mitted him to be a shoemaker of the type of Hans 
Sachs, who did not deem it beneath him to take a 
look now and then at his neighbor's doings and make 
his comments on the latter's work. 

Let this be my apology, therefore, if I have for- 
saken for a moment to-day the last of my specialty. 



The Jewish religion was a religion of hope in a fu- 
ture time, in which God was to glorify Himself in His 
people and redeem them from evil. This hope was 
the ground of the preaching of John the Baptist and 
what he begun was continued in another way and with 
another result by Jesus of Nazareth. He had been 
one of those who, moved by John's announcement to 
repent for the kingdom of God was at hand, had hur- 
ried to John to be prepared for the kingdom by bap- 
tism, and there was nothing that would justify us in 
holding the view that Jesus had from the beginning 
already connected another sense with these words than 
the sense in which they were understood by the peo- 
ple. Rather was it extremely probable that Jesus un- 
derstood the conception of the kingdom of God exactly 
in the same sense as all others before Him — namely 
in the apocalyptic sense of redemption of the oppressed 
people and a revelation of all things on earth brought 
about by divine omnipotence. 

Yet were the manner and appearance of Jesus en- 
tirely different from those of the Baptist from the be- 
ginning. His preaching became glad tidings for the 
consolation and the raising up of the souls that were 
bowed down. The ground of this difference lay in the 
religious personality of Jesus himself, in His spirit of 
child-like trust in God and inward love of God. God 
was not to him a far-off, unapproachable power and a 

* Report of Professor Pfleiderer's " Gifford Lecture " No. 13, 



stern judge, but a Father with whom He knew Him- 
self to be connected in the most inward and confiden- 
tial way; and with this view was connected His love 
of men, which led Him to communicate His belief and 
hope for them to share in. Between this inward love 
of God and the abiding love of men there was in Jesus 
no discordance, but entire oneness. God who lovingly 
revealed Himself in the world, guided man and edu- 
cated him for the eternal life. The pious man did not 
serve God by turning away from the world, which was 
to be the sphere of the kingdom of God, nor could he 
be indifferent to men who were to be God's children. 
Thus inmost piety became not a motive for flying from 
the word, but heartfelt brotherly love, labor for the 
kingdom of God, and service for humanity. 

In the view of Jesus the love of God was not a 
thing existing for itself. It had the root of its power 
and purity in religious faith. Nor was His brotherly 
love mere visionary optimism. He saw that men were 
evil, but with all this sober knowledge He had a faith 
in the capability of the saving and redeeming of those 
who were sunk and lost in the sin and pleasures of the 
world. This view was possible, because He recognised 
in man the germ of the child of God, that spiritual im- 
pulse which sprang from the Father of Spirits and 
strove back to Him, and yearned for life, and light, and 

This message He wished to communicate to His 
unhappy brethren in order that they might be what 
they were capable of being — sons of the Heavenly 
Father. This task of Jesus had become a task quite 
other than it had been for the Baptist. However much 
He might think with the Baptist of the nearness of the 
kingdom of God it was not enough for Him to pro- 
claim the summons to repent. His task was rather 
beginning the work of saving and educating love in 
the individual, and the carrying of it out in constant 
patience and gentleness. In this consisted what was 
specifically new in the work of Jesus, that He did not 
merely tell of the coming of the kingdom of God as a 
future event, but that He made its realisation a task 
for human endeavor, which might be designated as the 
work of the religious and moral education of man. 
Therefore, had He become the founder and head not 
merely of a new religion, but of a new religious world 
whose abiding task was to educate the natural man to 
be the child of God. 

From our standpoint this work was the beginning 
of the actually existing kingdom of God and not merely 
of preparation for the future kingdom of God, but 
Christ's view of the kingdom of God was that of John 
the Baptist himself. "There be some here that shall 
not taste of death till they see the kingdom of God 
come with power." But while among the Jews the 
belief that God would come and take actively into His 

own hands the government of the world, took a po- 
litical significance, with Jesus this view passed com- 
pletely into the background the more His passionate 
soul was moved by the immediate distresses of the 
people and the more His attention was concentrated on 
the remedies for this distress, which had to begin in 
the individual. What we recognised as new in the 
work of Jesus was that He perceived His task began in 
saving work among the individuals. To Him the com- 
ing consisted in the overcoming of the universal do- 
minion of Satan by the coming of the kingdom of God. 
He did not seek it in a national catastrophe, but in the 
experience of individual souls. What was more nat- 
ural than that, in the daily multiplied results of His 
work, he should perceive the beginning of the realisa- 
tion of God's universal dominion in the world ? 

The idea of the development of the kingdom of 
God was set forth again and again in the parables and 
stood in contradiction to the apocalyptic idea of cat- 
astrophe ; but it was a fact of history that the old ideas 
were not set aside by the new at once, but continued 
to exist alongside of the new ideas, while they gradu- 
ally lost their significance, and so the idea of the king- 
dom of God, begun in the individual, did not do awa}' 
at once with the apocalyptic idea, and while the view 
of the future lost its apocalyptic eudsemonistic aspect, 
that of the religious and moral conquest of the world 
became prominent. As the preaching of the Baptist 
had awakened in Jesus the consciousness of His life 
task, so now He also again in His preaching made the 
nearness of the kingdom of God the motive of His 
moral demands, which were all summed up in one 
sentence — " Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His 
righteousness." This righteousness consisted in doing 
the will of God, and in His demand He opposed moral 
conduct to the ceremonial observances of the Phari- 
sees. Jesus in this demand did not destroy the law, 
but fulfilled it by carrying it back to the absolute ideal 
of God-like perfection. To become like God was to ful- 
fil our most proper designation — to be that which we 
were already in the groundwork of our being as chil- 
dren of God. 

With this view there was given an entirely new 
estimation of ritualistic action. It was no longer a 
service by which man could purchase merit with God, 
but it was the satisfaction of man's need to give ex- 
pression to his pious sentiments. The external per- 
formances of asceticism alone were worthless hypo- 
crisy. The consecration of one's self and means was 
true service to God. In the view of Jesus the denial 
of the world and self was not to lose the world, but 
was merely a means of gaining oneself and, a better 
world. The ascetic demand in Jesus did not rest on 
a radical dualism between the finite and the infinite. 
From the error of abstract pantheistic mysticism Jesus 



had been kept by His faith in the loving Father whose 
nature it was to communicate Himself to His children, 
and therefore to preserve and not annihilate their 
lives. What was to be denied was the false view of 
life that was at enmity with God. This dying and liv- 
ing again was the deep core in the ethics of Jesus be- 
yond which neither science nor culture would ever 


The defeat of the Government on Mr. Labouchere's motion to 
abolish the House of Lords is ominous of disaster to Lord Rose- 
bery and his administration. It is a beginning full of evil augu- 
ries, and Lord Rosebery is justified in showing vexation and even 
wrath. If he should resign and let the cabinet break up he would 
not be without excuse. It is true, the decision was reversed the 
next day, but it was reversed by the consent of the opposition, who 
did not care to triumph on such a radical issue, and Mr. Labou- 
chere himself declared that he did not intend by his motion to ex- 
press a "want of confidence" in the prime minister. This was 
well enough, but still, no subsequent proceedings could reverse the 
fact that the Government had suffered a defeat. Lord Rosebery 
could not help feeling that he had been ill used, and that had Mr. 
Gladstone been in office, or had he himself been in the House of 
Commons, the disaster would never have occurred. Of course it 
is a consolation that when the troops got ready they regained the 
field of battle, that such a vote was not expected, that the captains 
were at dinner, that the whips were asleep on post, and all the rest 
of It, but the disagreeable fact remains that Mr. Labouchere was 
not asleep, and that he outnumbered his enemy at the point of at- 
tack, which is good strategy in war. Mr. Labouchere has been 
consistent all the time. At the very beginning he protested as a 
member of the Liberal party that a peer ought not to be prime 
minister, and he has convinced Lord Rosebery that many mem- 
bers of Parliament, including, perhaps, a few cabinet ministers, 
are of opinion that the prime minister ought to be, and must be, a 
member of the House of Commons, where he can be got at. 
* * 

Speaking last week of senatorial stock-jobbing, I said that un- 
less the accused Senators, or some not accused, should ask for a 
committee of investigation, suspicion would settle down upon the 
whole body of the Senate. Jealous of his own personal honor, and 
in deference to public sentiment, Mr. Peffer, a Senator from Kan- 
sas, moved for the appointment of a committee to investigate the 
charges made by the newspapers. His resolution was defiantly 
laid upon the table, and the proposed investigation smothered by a 
vote of 33 to 27. Questions of this kind, involving personal char- 
acter and official opportunities, reveal the close affinity existing be- 
tween ' ' the two great parties " in the Senate. In the majority were 
twenty Democrats and thirteen Republicans ; in the minority were 
eleven Democrats and thirteen Republicans, white thirteen Demo- 
crats and twelve Republicans abstained from voting, or, in the 
rude language of the reporter, "dodged the vote." The Populist 
party voted unanimously for the investigation, but, unfortunately, 
only three of the Populist men said "Here!" to the muster-roll. 
However, like the widow mentioned in the Bible, they gave all 
they had, three mites, and they shall have more credit than the 
Democrats who gave eleven, or the Republicans who gave thirteen. 
It is not surprising that the investigation was refused, because an 
investigation, when it explodes, is apt to scatter like a dynamite 
bomb and hit somebody far beyond its probable range. A piece 
of it may shatter a secret panel and reveal some collateral corrup- 
tion that was never dreamed of by the mover of the resolution, nor 
suspected by the people. The Credit Mobilier investigation was 
an awful warning ; and some of the Senators remember that. 

The political enterprise known as the " Christian Citizenship" 
movement is in a state of activity still, but up to the hour of going 
to press the results of it are not encouraging. A Sunday or two 
ago, the Rev. Dr. Giflord, of the Immanuel Baptist Church, in an 
eloquent sermon on the administration of Joseph in Egypt, ex- 
horted Christian citizens to turn out and vote for men like Joseph, 
and he called upon them to rally, not only at the polls, but also at 
the primaries. "Go to the primaries," he said, "and see that 
good men are nominated. When a prayer-meeting and a primary 
come the same night, go to the primary." The advice appears to 
have had some effect, if we may judge by the Democratic prima- 
ries held yesterday, March 13, in the Twenty-fourth Ward, the 
account of which I find in the CAii-u^'n Record, a paper entirely 
non-partisan and independent. According to that, the two rival 
candidates for alderman were Fred Griesheimer and Watson Ruddy, 
and, as is usual in these cases, they and their several factions 
"were at swords' points all day." The convention was appointed 
for the North Side Turner Hall, but when the Democrats arrived 
there, they found the hall in possession of the Republicans, and in 
order to prevent a riot fifteen policemen were sent over from the 
neighboring station, whereupon the Democrats adjourned their 
convention to Brand's Hall, at the corner of Clark and Erie Streets ; 
but, unfortunately, they had to pass through a saloon to get there, 
a feat never accomplished by a Democratic convention. The aroma 
of whiskey, beer, and tobacco was too delicious ; and so, as the 
Record informs us, "the crowd stopped in the saloon below and 
soon became boisterous"; then they proceeded to nominate an 
alderman like Joseph, after a fashion probably not known to the 
uncivilised people in the land of Egypt. 

* * 

The moral influence of the Christian Citizenship Reform will 
appear from the account of the proceedings had at the convention 
in Brand's Hall and the beer-saloon below The delegates having 
reached the saloon, "trouble began to show itself, " and, as the 
Record goes on to say, ' ' while the two parties were talking, ' Broad ' 
McAbee and W. W. Wells jumped up on beer-tables and called 
for order." Instead of order they got chaos, which was probably 
what they wanted, for Wells nominated McAbee for chairman. 
At this there were " howls of disapproval from the Griesheimerites, 
but McAbee kept his position upon the beer-table. Cries for ' Mur- 
phy ' brought out Frank Murphy, who called the delegates lo come 
forward, and then 'Broad' McAbee made another speech." The 
police had hard work to keep the peace, but all the better for that, 
amid " howls of delig'ht from the Ruddy faction and groans from 
the Griesheimer men," a man named Cassidy moved that Ruddy 
be the nominee. This was declared carried by the man on the 
beer-table, and then Ruddy was " lifted " to a table and made a 
short speech. Meanwhile Griesheimer's men had gone up-stairs 
and begun a contradictory convention of their own. At the six 
polling places the Record says the contest all the afternoon was 
"hot," and hottest at the polling place 165 North Clark Street. 
There, just before the polls closed, a crowd collected in the alley 
and broke into the polling-place. A number of ballots were taken out 
of the box by some person and scattered all along the alley. The 
judges secured " what was left," and, after looking over the situa- 
tion, — not the ballots, but the "situation," — declared the Gries- 
heimer delegates elected. This interesting report concludes by 
saying : " The fight will probably be fought out this afternoon in 
the Democratic headquarters." And the puzzle of it all is that the 
members of both factions were Christian citizens. 

Five hundred years ago, Wat Tyler's hungry army marched 
on London, captured it, and very nearly made a revolution ; the 
reincarnation of it now threatens to march on Washington. The 
American Wat Tyler is a man of substance by the name of Coxey, 
and he proposes to review the nucleus of his army, two or three 



thousand men, on Easter Sunday at Masillon, Ohio, and begin his 
march from there, preceded by a brass band in the legitimate circus 
way. At Pittsburg he is to be reinforced by a corps numbering 
twenty thousand men, and marching through Pennsylvania, picking 
up recruits along the road as Tyler marched through Kent, Gen- 
eral Coxey expects to have an army of a hundred thousand men by 
the time he reaches Washington, w-hich curiously enough is the 
number Wat Tyler had behind him when he stood upon Black- 
heath and gazed upon the great city three or four miles away. Wat 
Tyler's insurrection was a tragedy for him and for his army, but it 
was a step forward in that invincible rebellion against wrong that 
in some form or other will never cease until justice is done. Hap- 
pily, we can look upon Coxey's imitation of Tyler, and anticipate 
nothing more serious than comedy. One of the easiest achieve- 
ments for any man in this country is to "raise a ridgraent." I have 
tried it, and I know. We are a marching people, and we like to be 
in the procession. Ask a man to walk a half a mile and he will re- 
spond like a log of wood, but invite him to " march " twenty miles 
or five hundred, and he is ready in an instant for the trip I re- 
member a thousand of my neighbors who would not walk with me 
ten rods, but when I invited them to "jnarch " they eagerly "fell 
in," and tramped with me all over the Southern States. So it will 
be with Mr. Coxey ; he will find a large number of recruits who 
would not walk the length of a street for wages, who will "march" 
with him any distance, and as to the trifling matter of subsistence, 
they will cheerfully put up with whatever the market affords. They 
will forage on the country, and there's where the trouble will be- 
gin, for the country will very likely refuse to be foraged upon, and 
the army will dissolve before it reaches Pittsburg. 
* * * 
In spite of all the precautions taken by the authorities to arrest 
him and prevent his landing, I have to record the humiliating fact 
that "one Charles Templeton," a determined and dangerous for- 
eigner, eliiding the vigilance of the officers and the detectives, de- 
fiantly walked into the overcrowded United States of America last 
Thursday night from the steamer Majestic, and he is now actually 
at large. It is charged against this man Templeton that he has 
come to this country with the desperate intention to earn an honest 
living as assistant secretary of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, and that he had already secured the situation before he left 
his native country to invade this land. This is the crime for which 
Mr. Templeton has been advertised as a fugitive malefactor in the 
following proclamation issued by an American potentate named 
Stump, a dignitary holding the imperialistic office of Superintendent 
of Immigration : "To Inspectors and Interpreters : — You will keep 
a careful lookout for one Charles Templeton of Liverpool, Eng- 
land, who is reported as coming to this country under contract, 
having been engaged as assistant secretary to the Young Men's 
Christian Association. Detain him, if found, and report to me im- 
mediately." To "detain" a passenger is to imprison him, and the 
reasons given by Mr. Stump in his order to ' ' detain " Mr. Temple- 
ton are insufficient, and contrary to all enlightened law. The 
American Government would not for a moment allow them to be 
good enough to "detain" an .American citizen at Liverpool, or 
Bremen, or St. Petersburg. Mr. Templeton came over in the sec- 
ond cabin of the Majestic and made no effort to conceal himself or 
his business ; and the reason why he was not arrested I assume to 
be that the "Inspectors and Interpreters" thought they were called 
upon to perform an ignominious duty, and so, instead of searching 
the second cabin where Mr. Templeton was, they looked in the first 
cabin and in the steerage, and in every part of the ship where Mr. 

Templeton was not. 


It seems that the true character and constitution of the Amer- 
ican Senate will be made plain through the columns of /'//<• ('/''" 
Coiirl, and Mr. Conway's contribution in the last number is of 

great historic interest. He shows what I have always contended 
for, that the United States Senate is the toryisra of George the 
Third's reign embalmed in the American Constitution. I presented 
a similar view of it in a contribution to the Nineteenth Cenliiiy, 
London, August, 1885, and in that article I maintained that the 
Senate with its aristocratic prerogatives was a close imitation of the 
House of Lords as the House of Lords was at the time our Consti- 
tution was adopted. In that instrument an additional protection 
was given to the Senate through a provision borrowed from the 
Medes and Persians by which the "rotten borough" system was 
made perpetual and the Senate itself preserved from reformation 
except by the impossible consent of all the States expressed in a 
unanimous vote. I also showed that although the House of Lords 
had been compelled to surrender some of its prerogatives to the 
democratic spirit of the time, the Senate had relatively gone back- 
ward, for in a progressive age like this, to stand still is to go back. 
I repeat what I have said before, that there was a conservative 
party strong enough to enforce its will in the convention that framed 
the Constitution of the United States; this faction determined that 
in one branch of Congress the minority should rule, and its plan 
was carried out in the constitution of the Senate. If we put eccen- 
trics in a machine we must not expect them to work in the way 
concentrics do ; the Senate is what it was intended to be. 

M. M. Trumbull. 


Baron Tauchnitz, the distinguished Leipsic publisher, whose 
large book exhibit in the German House at Jackson Park will be 
remembered by many visitors to the World's Fair, has sent to the 
Cornell University, at Ithaca, N. Y., some of the more solid works 
of that collection. Among the authors represented are such schol- 
ars as Baer, Delitzsch, Fuerst, Tischendorf, Gebhardt, Stahl, 
Haase, Lipsius, Schanz, Berner, etc. ; and among the works Da- 
vidson's edition of Fuerst's large " Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," 
Theile's " Biblia Hebraica," Salkowski's " Lehrbuch der Institu- 
tionen," and Friedberg's " Lehrbuch des Kirchenrechts." Baron 
Tauchnitz has received a letter from Mr. George W. Harris, Li- 
brarian of Cornell University, thanking him warmly for his very 
generous gift. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 




$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Op£n Cour 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each.' 


SYMMETRY. A Popular Scientific Lecture. Prof. Ernst 

Mach 4015 

THE GOSPEL OF JESUS CHRIST. John Sandison. . 4019 

CURRENT TOPICS : Labouchere and the Lords. Inves- 
tigation Bombs. Christians and the Primaries. Wat 
Tyler's March. Stop him ! He Wants to Earn His Liv- 
ing. Toryism embalmed. Gen. M. M. Trumbull .. . 4021 

NOTES 4022 


The Open Court. 



No. 344. (Vol. VIII.-13.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 29, 1894. 

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The going down of a great man into his grave re- 
sembles in solemnity the sinking of a ship ; and Louis 
Kossuth was a great man, cast in the old heroic mould. 
His mental and spiritual constitution was of the classic 
order like that of the ideal Greeks, and his eloquence 
was classic ; stately and splendid as the oratory of the 
ancients who gave him inspiration. He dies in exile 
at the age of ninety-two, and his work is almost for- 
gotten, for it was done forty-five years ago, but he 
moved the world forward a little ; it may have been 
but a few paces, but he moved it forward ; and the 
nations are nearer to liberty because of him. 

In Louis Kossuth nature had harmoniously blended 
many of the qualities that make excellence in man, 
and he was endowed with a capacity large enough to 
hold all the learning possible to be acquired from books 
or by experience. As a scholar, orator, statesman, 
journalist, popular leader, and parliamentary leader, 
Kossuth is entitled to high rank, while as Governor, 
and Dictator of Hungary he showed creative and ad- 
ministrative ability enough to conjure armies out of 
heterogeneous and untrained materials, to get revenues 
for an empty treasury, to reanimate the people of 
Hungary, and to organise an armed resistance to the 
.imperial power of Austria ; a resistance that was over- 
come at last, only by the desertion of General Gorgey 
and the intervention of Russia with an army. Then, 
defeated and betrayed, Kossuth sought refuge upon 
Turkish ground. 

As soon as the Hungarian refugees had found shel- 
ter on Turkish territory, the Austrian Government de- 
manded that Kossuth and his companions be given up 
as fugitive criminals who had offended against the laws 
of Austria, but the Sultan replied that hospitality 
to strangers was part of the Mohammedan religion, 
and that it would be contrary to the law and practice 
of Islam to surrender a guest unto his enemies. The 
demand for the extradition of Kossuth must therefore 
be refused. Russia supported the demand of Austria, 
but the United States and Great Britain endorsed the 
answer of the Sultan, and Kossuth was therefore safe. 
In a few months an American ship sent over by Con- 

gress for that purpose gave him shelter under the 
American flag, and carried him to England. 

Kossuth aroused in England sympathetic enthusi- 
asm as much by his oratory as because of his misfor- 
tunes and his cause. His command of the English 
language was equal to that of the great orators, and 
some of his speeches are among the English classics 
now. The marvellous part of his accomplishment was 
that he had acquired it in prison, with no teachers 
whatever except a dictionary, a grammar, and a copy 
of Shakespeare's plays. Faithful he must have been 
to his chief master, for some of his addresses march 
along in dignity and grace like the declamations that 
we find in Shakespeare. In the United States his 
brilliant gift brought him disappointment and sorrow, 
for it caused the promised national welcome to be 

In his address to the people of the United States, 
dated at Broussa, Asia Minor, March 27, 1850, Kos- 
suth among many other things declared it to have been 
among his revolutionary purposes : 

"That every inhabitant of Hungary without regarding lan- 
guage or religion should be free and equal before the law — all 
classes having the same privileges and protection from the law." 

That was the key-note of Kossuth's orations in 
England and in the United States ; liberty, the right 
of all men to be equal before the law, and this it was 
that gave offence to the dominant caste in America, 
for at the time when Kossuth visited this country, 
slavery was our master here, while the "two great 
parties " of that era cringed and wriggled in servile 
obedience to it ; and that is the reason why Kossuth's 
welcome was withdrawn. 

In the crisis of his career, and when he was a fugi- 
tive in Turkey the sympathy of the American people 
was heartily with Kossuth, and that sympathy was 
never taken from him although he may have thought 
it was, and very likely died in that belief. At that 
time the interest of the American people in Kossuth 
and his fortunes was manifested in the most generous 
and enthusiastic way, and animated by it Congress in- 
vited him to be the nation's guest, an invitation which 
he accepted with extreme gratitude and pleasure, but 
when he came to New York he found, not that the 
people had grown cold, but that the politicians had 



become alarmed, for slavery had given orders that the 
man who talked of liberty should not be the nation's 
guest ; and slavery had its way. 

The reception given to Kossuth by the citizens of 
New York was magnificent, but he felt sorely grieved 
because Congress had refused him a welcome as the 
nation's guest after having formally given him a na- 
tional invitation ; and speaking to a delegation from 
Philadelphia, he said : 

" I must confess that I have received here in New York such 
a manifesiation of the sympathy of the people as gives me hope 
and consolation ; still I regard myself invited to this country by 
an act of Congress initiated in the Senate. Now, had I known 
that, in the same place where I was invited, the same body would 
now decline to give me welcome, I would not have thought that I 
was a welcome guest ; so much the more as the President of the 
United States has formally invited the Congress in his message to 
consider what steps are to be taken to receive the man for whom 
he sent a frigate to Asia, complying with the will of the same body 
in which the resolution to give me welcome was withdrawn, on 
account of an expected opposition." 

Kossuth was presented to the Senate in a private 
capacity as a distinguished foreigner, or something of 
the kind, but on condition that he would not say any- 
thing when introduced and invited to take a seat, and 
a similar performance took place in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. Something of an apology was offered in 
the shape of a big banquet given to the exile and pre- 
sided over bj' the President of the Senate, with Daniel 
Webster at the table, but the slight put upon Kossuth 
by Congress wounded him, and his aspiring soul bore 
the scar of the wound even to the end of his life ; but 
slavery was inexorable in those days, and slavery was 

Kossuth lived long enough to see the great events 
in which he bore so conspicuous a part fade away al- 
most into ancient history ; crowded out of memory by 
more tremendous deeds, and among them the regen- 
eration of Italy, the defeat of Austria by France, and 
afterwards by Prussia ; and greatest of all, the aboli- 
tion of slavery in America. If he had comfort in re- 
venge these things may have given him consolation, 
for in his exile Austria was never generous to him, 
although in a critical hour he had been magnanimous 
to Austria, and to the imperial dynasty. Referring to 
the ingratitude of Austria, Kossuth speaks as follows 
in his letter to the people of the United States : 

"Two years ago, by God's providence, I, who would be only 
a humble citizen, held in ray hands the destiny of the reigning 
House of Austria. 

"Had I been ambitious, or had I believed that the treacher- 
ous family were so basely wicked as they afterwards proved them- 
selves to be, the tottering pillars of their throne would have fallen 
at my command, and buried the crowned traitors beneath their 
ruins, or would have scattered them like dust before the tempest, 
homeless exiles bearing nothing but the remembrance of their per- 
fidy, that royalty which they ought to have lost through their own 

The patriotism of Kossuth overflowed the bound- 
aries of Hungary, and covered all the world. His was 
not an insular or a provincial spirit. He wanted 
nothing for the men of Hungary that he was not will- 
ing all other men should have. He desired freedom, 
justice, and prosperity for his own country, but he was 
willing to share those blessings with all the other na- 
tions of the earth ; and this is patriotism. 



The intelligent mind is no longer concerned with 
questions of the validity or reasonableness of miracles, 
and the tone of discourse on the part of those profess- 
ing belief therein grows daily more feeble and apolo- 
getic ; but it is still worth while to examine this side 
of the religious life for the light it throws on the in- 
tellectual development of the race. We should try to 
study this subject in large and unbiassed fashion, not 
in a spirit of narrow criticism or vain self-glorification 
over the past, whose efforts at truth-seeking were as 
honest as our own. The grossest superstition, care- 
fully examined, will be found to be the logical, per- 
haps the only possible outcome of the current knowl- 
edge and experience which gave it birth. In his be- 
liefs about God and the universe, as in the tools he 
has fashioned in aid and support of his physical exis- 
tence, man has done the best he could. 

We must travel back of Christian tradition here, 
back of all written records to pre-historic times. Not 
theology but anthropology must be our guide. Most 
of the scientific writers on this subject declare that 
religion is born of fear; but this has never seemed to 
me more than a half statement of the truth. Religious 
belief undoubtedly has its origin largely or mainly in 
feelings of dread of the unknown and desire to pro- 
pitiate the same ; but along with this element of fear 
may be traced another as old and more vital. The 
sense of mystery at the bottom of the religious life is 
not expressed as dread alone, but also as admiration 
or adoration of the beautiful and good ; this sense of 
beauty is awakened as soon as the sense of power, and 
the religion of love begins with that of fear, though 
held in abeyance to it. 

It is this element of love that saves religion from 
sinking into complete superstition even in its lowest 
forms ; it is the element of growth. The miraculous 
element in religion belongs to the fear side. Belief in 
miracle is the direct outgrowth of belief in a supreme 
and arbitrary power, responsible neither to himself nor 
anything outside himself. Under such a scheme man 
is but the victim and puppet of the Almight)', whose 
salvation is dependent on the whim or caprice of his 
Creator. Salvation itself is the prime miracle. 

This miraculous element in religion dies hard even 



in many liberal minds, who associate it with that 
wealth of traditionary fable and lore which belief has 
evolved in the past and which modern criticism threat- 
ens to destroy. As they are afraid that imagination 
will die out in literature if there are not ghosts and 
fairies, Cinderella's slippers, and Jack's beanstalk for 
it to twine upon, so they distrust that religious faith 
which does not include a little miracle. Or if they 
have rejected all superstitious belief for themselves, 
they still think a little superstition is good for the 
masses, to inspire respect for authority and keep them 
in order. 

The miracles of the New Testament arose from the 
wonder- loving mind of man working backwards, try- 
ing not onlj' to rescue an exalted name and tradition 
from oblivion, but to elevate it to a new godhead. The 
idea of incarnation had long before taken firm hold 
of the human mind, growing naturally out of belief 
in the multiple intermediary agencies between God 
and man, supplied in the various ancient mythologies ; 
an idea which the larger part of Christendom finds it 
painful to dispense with to-day. Early Christian his- 
tory, following the line of the New Testament narra- 
tive, shows two sets of miracles. Later historians do 
not pretend to defend the post-apostolic miracles, but 
some of them employ very curious reasoning on this 
subject. Philip Schaff tells us that miracles ceased 
with the apostolic age because the Church was then 
established and no longer needed the support of such 
testimony. The subject, he adds, is surrounded with 
difficulties, "in the absence of inspired testimony or 
of ordinary immediate witnesses "; but he does not ex- 
plain where he finds the immediate witnesses for the 
healing of the blind Bartimseus or the raising of Laza- 
rus from the dead. He asks no further proof of Paul's 
conversion, and the heavenly vision and warning that 
led to it,- than the record supplies, but finds four rea- 
sons why we should reject the story of similar import 
in the history of Constantine. Here the occurrence 
may have been "an actual miracle," a "pious fraud," 
a "psychological illusion," or an " event explainable 
upon some natural phenomenon." But the latter-day 
student will find as many hypotheses on which to ac- 
count for the Gospel miracles. Another division in the 
Christian miracles is that which separates those in the 
accepted canon from the rejected Apocrypha. For a 
long time Biblical criticism and revision consisted of 
this winnowing process, separating the supposed wheat 
from the chaff. But, again, the student of a later day 
is at a loss to understand what just principle of selec- 
tion operated in tasks of this kind. We shall have no 
more attempts at revision on this line, for we have 
reached a more rational view of the entire subject and 
are no longer concerned to distinguish between the 
so-called divine and human attributes of a book we 

now know we honor most to accept in its human char- 
acter alone. We are learning how much more valu- 
able the Bible is, looked upon as history, literature, 
life, rather than as miracle and dogma. 

The subject of miracles has a literature of its own. 
The first most notable essay of modern times was 
Hume's, who undertook to show the manifest improba- 
bility of miracles, a method which Professor Huxley, 
in his "Life of Hume," shows to be a mistaken one, 
employing much the same argument that Lecky does 
in his chapter on Witchcraft. " Scientific good faith " 
prevents us from believing in the probability of these 
marvellous occurrences, but can do no more. Another 
important piece of writing on this subject in its day 
was Gibbon's famous fifteenth chapter in the " Decline 
and Fall of Rome." Prof. J. H. Allen has summed 
up the merit and usefulness of Gibbon's method of 
reasoning, who, after praising his general work in high 
terms, adds that it is nevertheless in some ways "a 
masterly and very perfect model of what our study of 
history ought not to be." He is without "historic 
sympathy." He tells the undoubted truth about the 
mixture of pagan idolatry with the new faith, speaking 
in a tone of harsh and sneering scepticism that could 
not but arouse the fear and indignation of the reli- 
gious world of his day, but which is cheap and shallow 
wisdom for the present age. 

Protestantism, with its appeal to individual judg- 
ment and its condemnation of religious tyranny and 
fraud, did much to abolish grosser forms of supersti- 
tion, but there was never a more pronounced super- 
naturalist than Luther, who burnt witches and threw 
his inkstand at the Devil. Protestantism, gave every 
man a copy of the Bible, with implied permission to 
judge its contents for himself. The human mind was 
free at last and would work its way; but belief in a 
dual order of things, in God and Satan still stood in 
the way of rapid progress. Not until our own era was 
the doctrine of miracles disputed on moral and scien- 
tific grounds. The last contribution to this discussion 
is found in the life and work of Theodore Parker. The 
distinction which he insisted upon between the "tran- 
sient and permanent in Christianity " marked the next 
step in the evolution of the religion of reason and char- 
acter. As the ripest scholar of his day Theodore Parker 
knew what he was talking about when he pointed out 
the spurious nature of the supernatural claims of the 
Bible, while as a man of the largest and most humane 
instincts he felt the affront put upon God and his own 
manhood in a religion founded on miracle. Thanks to 
his strong outspoken words, more than to any other 
single source perhaps, but more to the spread of gen- 
eral knowledge, belief in miracles is no longer made 
the test of religious character. "A weak and adulter- 
ous nation asketh after a sign," but our age is one 



which will be remembered as that in which man began 
to forego his trust in signs for greater trust in himself. 
Faith grows more open-eyed every day. 

But while the age of miracle and the need of mir- 
acle are passing away, there remains a wide range of 
phenomena in our own day which seems of analogous 
nature. The peculiar phenomena that accompanies 
certain modern beliefs and theories, spiritualism. Chris- 
tian science, theosophy, hypnotism, etc., are of that 
exceptional order which demands special explanation. 
The majority of us have but second-hand testimony of 
these things, as the believers in miracles have. All 
that we have yet learned of these peculiar experiences 
is that they are peculiar, i. e., outside the ordinary 
rule and understanding. It is due, however, to those 
professing these new forms of faith to bear in mind 
that they themselves set up no claim to supernatural- 
ism. It is higher, less familiar law that governs here, 
we are told, but law still. The spiritual nature of man, 
and that other pressing question, of man's existence 
after death, are, according to these new beliefs, no 
longer matters of mere hope and trust, but have be- 
come subjects of demonstrable knowledge. In so far 
as modern spiritualism and its allied faiths are aiming 
to establish the spiritual existence of man upon a sci- 
entific basis, we should honor them and hold our minds 
open to receive all the light and information they have 
to offer. All of these theories are tentative, but sug- 
gestive, being signs of the world's advancing progress 
on the psychical side. More and more we are living 
in the world of thought, of moral ideas, of spiritual 
striving and reward. We may live in this upper world 
of mind and spirit in ways that uplift all that lies be- 
low on the plane of man's practical activity or in ways 
that neglect and dishonor these practical needs. Un- 
less, like the monk in the Legend Beautiful, we have 
strength to tear ourselves away from the vision to carry 
on the work of our daily lives, it will desert us. It is 
the choicest souls that willingly accept their share in 
the drudgery of life, and for whom the vision waits. It 
will not desert them until they have deserted some- 
thing better than it. 

It is this thought of the moral import of belief in 
miracle that should weigh most seriously with us. 
There is a weakened will and moral inertia that grow 
directly out of the love of the marvellous. Add to this 
that thought of a misdirected and irresponsible power 
which goes along with belief in miracle. This irre- 
sponsible power can no more justly be attached to our 
conceptions of divinity than to a human ruler. God 
and man are both best honored in the faith of reason 
and law. The miraculous is fading out of religion and 
of life. There is a wider basis for faith in the reign of 
cause and effect than in all the miracles that were ever 
recorded. Man is born for the light, he is saved through 

knowledge, not through grace; he must earn whatever 
good he is to obtain, here or hereafter, not purchase it 
with money or the sacrifice of the innocent. His own 
experience will prove his best guide and inspiration. 



"He that loseth his life shall find it." 
Master, my friend is dead. Around the world 

I seek, and find no other heart like his ; 
And all my life-dreams are as dead leaves whirled, 

And all my life-work as the bare sand is. 
I would go down into the grave, and kiss 

The dust of him who held me in his heart 
Living, and dead has left me passionless. 

Bloodless, from wounds that still have power to smart. 
But which no hand heals, since Death tore apart 
His life and mine. Master, I fain would rest ! 
I am unloved, un-understood ! All scarred 

With bitter stripes of Hate ! The Grave is best, — 
The Grave, and the dark mould upon his breast. 

Thou seek'st thy friend ? Unhappy, thou hast sought 

With eyes turned inward ! And thy search is vain, — 
Vain all the purchase that thy tears have bought, — 

Thy tears, and all the weary winds of pain 
That blow upon thy mouth the bitter rain, 

And cast upon thine eyes the stinging sleet ; 
Aye, vain thy purchase, and all dross thy gain ! 

Yet I command thee, turn once more thy feet 
Into the ways ; and seek once more to meet 

The undying Heart of Love, that understands, 
And soothes, and turns the bitter into sweet. 

And fashions life to kindness with kind hands. 
Only this key I give : wouldst find thy friend, 

Seek not in Man to l>e known, but to know ; 
Not to be pitied, but to pity ; blend 

Self in All-Self,— and Ihou shall find him. Go! 
Yet, take these flowers; from thy friend's grave they blov 

Master. I bring from many wanderings, 

The gathered garner of my years to thee ; 
One precious fruit of many rain-blown springs 

And sun-shod summers, ripened over-sea. 
Years, years ago Thou gav'st the seed to me, 

Wrapped in the bloom of Roses of the Dead ; 
Behold the shining Heart of Love! and be 

Assured the grave-bloom was not vainly shed. 
And partly are thy sweet words merited. 

Yea, I went hence with wonder in my soul, 
With bitter wonder that thy great lips said 

My pain was worthless, and my longed-for goal 
Was but blind seeking of myself, that stole 

The face of Love and wore it as a mask ! 
Yet knew I Truth. I folded up the scroll. 

The useless record of the useless task. 
And set my Heart before my Soul to ask : 

"What was thy friend ?" — And slow the answer came 
" Love that thought not of self ; Pity so vast 

It felt all tears, nor measured It, by name, 



Those whom it pitied, — felt not any blame 

Toward those who injured It; Peace, so profound 
That no shock might uncentre, and no shame 

Shake from Its sympathy, — no unsightly wound 
However cankered, no discordant sound 

However rasping, turn aside its face. 
Tills uHis Ihy frietul. Thou, Self-torn, hast not found. 

Because thou hast not sought ! The phantom chase 
Of Self has driven thee from place to place, 

'With eyes turned inward' — so the Master spoke, — 
An idle, weary, marsh-set, rock-wrecked race, 

A goalless way, with epitaphs of hope. 
Turn now and seek Ihy friend; long mayst thou grope. 

But light will break." — Master, the dawn is broke. < 

Now hast thou found thy friend ! — Depart in peace. 

Thy prayer is heard ; thou shalt go down and rest : 
Death shall not part ye more, nor shall ye cease 
To dwell together in the world ye blessed. 

So — sleep ! with these dry flowers upon your breast. 



I HAVE just had a glance at two belated gifts to Cornell Uni- 
versity and Williams College presented a propos of the recent cel- 
ebration at those two institutions. I refer to copies of a curious 
work entitled "Alderman Cobden of Manchester," by Sir E. W. 
Watkin, Bart., M. P., the English railway magnate and indefatig- 
able promoter of the Channel tunnel, who, like his father,' was a 
warm friend and ardent supporter — "old followers," Sir Edward 
expresses it — of Cobden throughout the corn-law struggle and his 
subsequent labors, though Sir Edward was then quite a young 
man. The inscription on the fly-leaves of the two volumes — edi- 
tion dc /ii.\c\ with heavy paper, broad margins, each volume num- 
bered, and only four hundred copies in all — read as fellows : " To 
Cornell University on the celebration of the 25th anniversary of 
its prosperous existence "; and " To Williams College on the cele- 
bration of its first centennial, as a token of respect for Professor 
Perry and his good works." 

The gift to Williams College is particularly appropriate, for 
it is one of the three or four institutions to the students of which 
the Cobden Club awards an annual medal for work in political 
economy; and the reference to the venerable Professor Perry, who 
has done so much to advance the cause of free trade in University 
life, is most appropriate. 

The ruisoii d'clre of this volume, the prefatory notice informs 
us, was the publication of a series of Cobden's letters addressed to 
the author and his father, which were not used by John Morley in 
his biography of Cobden and which are here published for the 
first time. " I may add," continues Sir Edward, "that an addi- 
tional object has been to endeavor to place before Manchester the 
great services of Mr Cobden, well nigh forgotten, in the founda- 
tion of the Manchester Athenaeum, and as the man above all men 
dead or living, to whom is due the credit of the establishment of 
popular local self-government in our city. . . . After long heroic 
labor for a couple of years in giving Manchester its local self-gov- 
ernment, and in seeing it through the early trials of a new exist- 
ence, it was to those higher and wider flights of politics with which 
he had begun, that Alderman Cobden immediately returned. . . . 

1 " My father was associated with the League from its birth to its triumph, 
and spoke, wrote, and worked admirably in the cause. He was, however, a 
man who, prompted by his convictions, did his work and never cared for credit 
or applause. His work was his reward." Absalom Walkin was born in 1787 
and died in i86t. This volume contains a photograph of William Bradley's 
painting of him, and represents a man with a tine, intelligent, gentle face and 
a head very high above the eyes. 

Mr. Cobden had been in the United States, and he had seen the 
big crop of ' Institutions ' there. In Manchester he found nothing 
but the ' Mechanics' Institute ' — nothing for the ' middling classes,' 
including our clerks and helpers in warehouses and stores," Mr. 
Morley devotes only a few paragraphs to Cobden as a local re- 
former, so that Sir Edward's work fills a lacune in Cobden biogra- 

Of course the most interesting part of this book to the general 
reader, especially if he be not an Englishman, is the series of Cob- 
den letters, which, though many of them are of slight importance, 
afford many delightful and characteristic glimpses of Richard 

Cobden's breadth of religious view is seen in this post scrip- 
turn to a letter addressed by him to the author's father and written 
— the date should be noted — in 1838. It ran as follows • "I heard 
a hint that you were going to oppose the opening of the Zoological 
Gardens on Sundays. Before you bring your judgment to a verdict 
upon this subject (one of the most important that can be discussed) 
I should like to give you a few facts connected with the observ- 
ance of Sunday abroad. I don't mean to refer to Catholic States, 
but to Prussia. Saxony, Switzerland, etc. May we not be possibly 
wrong and they right ? At least let us judge of the fruits." 

Cobden was not only radical in his religion but in his politics, 
too. Perhaps he might be called the Jefferson of England. How- 
ever that may be. these letters show him to have taken a very ad- 
vanced, democratic stand. As far back as 1841 he came out 
squarely for universal suffrage, as is shown by this extract from a 
letter written in that year to the author: "I have sometimes 
thought it would be a good step to start another universal suffrage 
newspaper, either in London or Manchester, advocating democratic 
principles. ... I am in general very mistrustful of newspaper un- 
dertakings, and would not like to advise any such step ; therefore 
take my suggestion merely for consideration. . . . You alluded to 
me in a former letter as a leader of the masses, but I know my 
own qualifications, and they are not such as are required. I have 
not the physical force and the tone of my mind is opposed to such 
an undertaking. I know exactly my own field of usefulness — it lies 
in the advocacy of practical questions, apart from mere questions 
of theoretical reforms. My exertions are calculated to bring out 
the middle classes, and that will lead the way for a junction with 
the masses, if they can be brought to act under a rational and 
honest leader." 

In another letter, written in the same year, occurs this pas- 
sage : 

" If we ask the legislator (who admits the right of the people 
to the franchise, but denies it on the ground of expediency until 
the people be educated) -idu'ii he will undertake that the people 
shall be educated, he tells you he does not know. And if you ask 
a chartist ndieii he will obtain the suffrage, he does not know. So 
that the expediency of the one and the other amounts to an in- 
definite withholding of justice — an admirable plea for despots and 
knaves, but one which honest politicians will never, unless they 
be fools, listen to for a moment. Would not the substance of 
this letter make a good short letter for Condy's paper [the Man- 
chester .-Idz'ertisc-r] on Saturday ? If you think so, pray write it 
and send it." 

In 1862 he wrote : "How and when the electoral system in 
this country is to be altered, so as to give to the masses at least a 
chance of doing something better for themselves, is a question 
which I cannot pretend to answer." 

Household suffrage in boroughs was established five years 
later ; ballot ten years later ; household suffrage in counties not 
till twenty-two years later, and a farther extension among agri- 
culturists is believed to be near at hand. 

The following, though written in 184S, is timely to-day: 

" I am not surprised to see that even your father has caught 



the contagion of the day, and is for having a special fight with the 
malcontent Irish. Never were my peace-doctrines so much at a 
discount as at the present moment in England. Wait till we count 
the cost of all this marching, arming, and drilling, and then John 
Bull will be more open to pacific overtures. Depend on it, there 
are faults on both sides when a government and its population are 
so often brought into attitudes of defiance. To have to resort 
habitually to physical force to sustain political institutions will, in 
the end, place them in the wrong in the eyes of the whole civilised 
world, and then, when their moral support is gone, they will fall 
some fine morning about our ears, as they have done in so many 
other countries ; that is to say, unless we contrive in the mean- 
time by moral means to bring the vast majority of the population 
on the side of the said institutions." 

We get glimpses and explanations of Cobden's "eloquence 
unadorned" in the volume. "You know," he said, at the end of 
one of his speeches, " I never perorate." "Disregard of mere 
form was characteristic of him, " says Sir Edward. "No one could 
speak with less of gesture in his more animated moods ; yet his 
manner and movements had none of the restraint or deliberation 
that belong, by nature or art, to men of different build or temper. 
Long after the League had triumphed, and his widest fame been 
won, Cobden, at forty-five to fifty, was still to be seen half skip- 
ping along a pavement, or a railway platform, with the lightness 
of a slim and almost dapper figure, and a mind full bent on its ob- 
ject. . . . Cobden was a speaker never unmindful of the circum. 
stances in which he spoke, or the kind of audience he had before 
him. . . . He was always careful to speak down to the ears of an 
audience, not to soar in the space overhead," a very important 
thing in the public meeting-room of the Manchester Town Hall of 
those days where ' ' the voices of most speakers got lost in the 
glazed dome of the roof." 

The first time Cobden addressed a large assembly was Octo- 
ber 28, 1S35, in Manchester in connexion with the foundation of 
the Athenffium. "He was the 'new light,'" says Sir Edward ; 
' ' he was to most people then an unknown man. He spoke rapidly, 
but epigrammatically, and ' took ' with the audience all through. 
His was the speech of the evening." 

Nearly ten years later, referring to this meeting, he said that 
when he rose to speak he could see no one ; that he felt he was 
speaking his prepared speech very rapidly; that as he proceeded, 
and the audience cheered him, first one head ajid then another 
popped up into sight, till finally what was at first an aggregated 
and indivisible mass, appeared in individual and distinct shape 
before him. Though in later years, practised as a speaker before 
all sorts of audiences, and under all sorts of conditions, he usually 
felt, as Wendell Philipps was accustomed to say he also felt, some 
nervousness at starting. In a speech in 1846 Cobden said on this 
point: " Many people will think that we have our reward in the 
applause and eclat of public meetings, but I declare that it is not 
so with me, for the inherent reluctance I have to address public 
meetings is so great that I do not even get up to present a petition 
to the House of Commons without reluctance." 

Cobden, it will be remembered, visited the United States two 
or three times. So it is natural to find references to us in these 
letters. The earliest one is in a letter dated January, 1852, men- 
tioning Sir Edward's recent sojourn in America and requesting a 
copy of the book giving an account of his travels. Cobden then 
goes on to say: " I feel very anxious to know what you think of 
the United States. I have long had my notions about what was 
coming from the West, and recorded ray prophecy on my return 
from America in 1835. People in England are determined to shut 
their eyes as long as they can, but they will be startled out of their 
wilful blindness some day by some gigantic facts proving the un- 
disputable superiority of that country in all that constitutes the 
power, wealth, and real greatness of a people." 

After reading Sir Edward's volume, Cobden says in another 
letter : 

"You could not have done a wiser and more patriotic service 
than to make the people of this country better acquainted with 
what is going on in the United States. It is from that quarter, and 
not from barbarian Russia, or fickle France, that we have to ex- 
pect a formidable rivalry, and yet that country is less studied and 
understood in England than is the history of ancient Egypt or 
Greece. I should like to go once more to America, if only to see 
Niagara again. But I am a bad sailor, and should dread the tur- 
moil of public meetings when I arrived there." 

A few days later he writes again : 

"You talk of my going to America, and then coming back to 
tell the people here what is going on beyond the Atlantic. I have 
never missed an opportunity of trying to awaken the emulation 
and even the fears of my countrymen, by quoting the example of 
the United States. But the only result is that I am pretty freely 
charged with seeking to establish a republican government here. 
To shut our eyes to what is going on there is almost as sage a pro- 
ceeding as that of the ostrich when he puts his head under a sand 
heap. However, whether we will or no, we shall hear of the doings 
of the Americans." 

The following extract was written on December 10, 1862, in 
the period of the cotton famine in England in consequence of our 
civil war, which is referred to in these words : 

"I am very glad to see some public meetings being held in 
London to show to the world that the Times and other aristocratic 
and club organs do not, in their sympathy for the slave-owners, 
represent the feelings of the English people. I look on such dem- 
onstrations as very desirable in order to counteract the efforts of 
those who will try to induce Parliament to offer some opinion in 
favor of recognition or mediation. I think it very desirable that 
more should be done to elicit the sympathies of the masses for the 
North. It will be necessary to have some such counterpoiee to 
the pressure which the blockade will put on public opinion in a 
direction hostile to the Federal Government. It is also probable 
that there may be some isolated acts of violence by slaves on their 
owners in the spring after the proclamation of freedom comes into 
force, though I hope such will be rare. They will be laid hold of 
to excite the indignation of the country. This will at least make 
it desirable that the true state of slavery in the South should be 
kept as much as possible before the public eye. If the American 
civil war goes on for a year or two the consequence to Lancashire, 
and indirectly to all this kingdom, will be more serious than is 
dreamt of by people generally." 

Another interesting feature of the book are its illustrations. 
It contains several portraits of Cobden. There is a photograph 
and a crayon likeness made by Lowes Dickinson representing 
Cobden at the age of fifty-seven. He has a gentle, benevolent 
looking face. There is also a photograph of him at twenty, taken 
from a miniature likeness. Another represents him sitting on the 
sward, among the croquet wickets, before Dunford House, the 
place of his birth and residence, when he had rebuilt it. Then 
there is a reproduction of the historic painting of J. R. Herbert, 
R. A., representing Cobden addressing the Corn League Council. 
It includes portraits of John Bright, Lord Kinnaird, P. A.Taylor, 
Sir Thomas Potter, etc. There are portraits of Cobden's father 
and mother, taken just before their marriage, both having strik- 
ingly refined faces, that of the father being handsome even. Cob- 
den's only son, who died when a boy, is seen in two portraits 
taken at the age of five and fifteen. There is a strong family like- 
ness running through all three pictures. A photograph is also given 
of Cobden's big plain house in Quay street, in Manchester, where, 
afterwards Owens College first met and which is now the County 
Court House. Fac-similes of letters of Cobden, Carlyle, Dickens, 
Disraeli, etc , and a pretty full index, complete this valuable work. 




In the early settlement of Marbletown, old Washington Griggs 
and his three sons cultivated a farm and a blacksmith's shop to- 
gether in the edge of the timber near the village, and whenever 
any of the neighbors met him and said, "How? are you Uncle 
Wash ?" he candidly replied, "Well, I ain't a complainin', me and 
the boys is makin' money"; and this was literally true, but it was 
counterfeit money they were making, for old Wash had a private 
mint in the garret, as the officers discovered when they came to 
search the place. I suspect that Uncle Wash and his boys when 
they came out of the penitentiary moved over to Nebraska, for I 
see by the papers that a private mint has been started there, and 
that the anonymous firm that owns it in some undiscovered place 
has coined about half a million silver dollars, and put them into 
circulation "to relieve the tightness of the money market " Whether 
the Nebraska mint is owned by the firm of Griggs and Sons or not, 
the partners in the business are " makin' money " after the plan 
of Griggs, excepting that they use a different material. The Ne- 
braska coiners make genuine silver dollars, like those the Govern- 
ment coiners make, and exactly the same in weight, quality, and 
personal appearance. They can afford to be as honest in this mat- 
ter as the Governmenf itself, and coin fifty cents worth of silver 
into a dollar, taking the other fifty cents for " seigniorage, " and 
making a fair profit. The Government is hunting for the Nebraska 
coiners to punish them for infringing on its exclusive right to make 
dishonest money, and this illogical proceeding is borrowed from 
the ancient practice. For centuries the kings of England were in 
the habit of adulterating the coin, and pocketing the " seigniorage " 
as their own. When a private citizen did the same thing he was 
hanged, but the king never was. 

Some time ago a correspondent wanted me to tell him what 
the "seigniorage" was that the Government intended to coin into 
silver dollars, and I answered that in my opinion it was moon- 
beams, but since then a better definition has been found, and Mr. 
Hewitt of New York describes ii as a " vacuum." To coin a vacuum 
into silver dollars worth fifty cents apiece, and then redeem them 
in gold dollars worth a hundred cents apiece is a financial feat 
never equalled since Aladdin's lamp was lost. It is the logical 
folly of the " legal tender " system. Once allow Government the 
power to declare gold, silver, or anything else a legal tender in 
payment of debts, and the way is opened for wild-cat finance 
unlimited All a man has to do now when he loses in a trade is 
to add his loss to what he expected to gain, and coin them both 
into dollars, for such is the plan of Congress. We bought in round 
numbers 140 000,000 ounces of silver, for which we paid 126,000,- 
000 dollars, and according to the piesent price of silver we lost 
36.000.000 dollars by the trade ; but if we had coined the silver 
into dollars of the present weight it would have made 180,000,000 
dollars, and so the difference between the 126 millions that we paid 
for the siher, and the 180 millions that we might have coined it 
into, makes a vacuum of about 54 millions. This vacuum we now 
propose to coin into imaginary money, issue it as legal tender, and 
in this way get back the 36 millions that we lost and something 
more besides. If the dishonest legal tender principle were abol- 
ished altogether, Congress could not perform fantastic tricks with 
money; the finances of the country would soon be on a natural 
and scientific foundation, and coinage would be free. 

to punish him, whereupon Looker drew his revolver and killed 
them both. A coroner's inquest was held the next day, and the 
jury rendered a verdict of "justifiable manslaughter." The Tol- 
leston Gun Club owns a very large tract of land, and this land is 
devoted exclusively to the pleasures of the gun. By a hunter's 
fiction, all the game that roams or flies over Illinois and Indiana 
belongs to the ToUeston Gun Club, and if any hungry hunter, not 
a member of the club, wanders on to the sacred wastes and shoots 
a duck or a deer, he himself is very liable to be shot by the game- 
keepers, or pounded into insensibility with a stick. According to 
the papers there was ' ' near the centre of the marsh a stand which 
the game-keepers would mount with a fieId-gla^■s, and if any un- 
fortunate hunter was near they would open upon him with shotgun 
or with Winchester ; and they claimed they were obeying instruc- 
tions given by the club." As to this latter statement, it is only 
fair to say that it is contradicted by Mr. F. A. Howe of Chicago, 
the President of the Club, who went out yesterday to the scene of 
the tragedy, and said : " Conroy and his companion were hired to 
watch the grounds and allow no outsiders to trespass or do any 
shooting upon them, and that was as far as their authority went." 
Mr. Howe's version must be believed until it is fairly contradicted ; 
but at the best, it is melancholy enough that thousands of acres of 
land within walking distance of Chicago are used exclusively as 
hunting-grounds for a few men who kill animals for "sport," 

For a number of years, Messrs, Moody and Sankey, the cele- 
brated evangelists, have had wonderful success in converting sin- 
ners, and so this winter they appointed a revival at Washington 
to try the effect of their sermons and their songs upon Congress ; 
but the result was a failure, as might have been expected consider- 
ing the hardness of the material, for although the ' ' Houses " have 
chaplains of their own, paid by the nation to pray for them every 
day, the members remain impenitent and hard ; in fact, they are 
like some regiments of soldiers I knew in the army, of whom the 
chaplain said : "The more they are prayed for the harder they 
get." According to the latest information, which, however, is open 
to correction later on, not a member of the House of Representa- 
tives was converted, and only one member of the Senate, Mr. 
Blackburn ol Kentucky ; and there are some doubts about him, 
for it is the general opinion that his conversion could be depended 
on with more certainty if he came from almost any other State 
than Kentucky; they have so many temptations there. For all 
that, Mr. Blackburn appears tc be a promising convert, and there 
are well-founded hopes that he will stand firm upon the ice, for 
he is doing a little missionary work among his fellow-members of 
the Senate, distributing tracts and other light reading judiciously 
adapted to the size and strength of the senatorial mind. One of 
the tracts is entitled " The Song of the Sparrow," and the moral 
of it is that God cires for the most insignificant of his creatures, 
and thdt even a Senator is not outside the plan of salvation. I 
have room only for the first verse of the poem, but it is all equally 
good. Considering that the sparrow is not much of a singer, his 
poetry is entitled to more credit than it would be if he were a com- 
petent person like the mocking-bird. He says : 

" I am only a little sparrow, 
A bird of low deg-ee. 
My life is of little value, 
But the dear Lord cares for me." 

The killing of two " game-keepers " by a " poacher " within a 
few miles of Chicago, reminds me of the feudal game laws that 
linger still in England. It appears that Albert Looker had been 
shooting game "on or near " the hunting grounds of the Tolleston 
Gun Club, a corporation of rich men living in Chicago ; and it 
also appears that last Wednesday evening Conroy and Cleary the 
game-keepers found the poacher in a Tolleston saloon and began 

Even a sparrow, when he gets religion, can mix pride and 
humility together in his poetry, after the manner of self-righteous 
men in more pretentious hymns. Waiving that for the present, 
the sentiment of the song is a plea of the weak for more merciful 
treatment by the strong ; and it is an appeal, not only for spar- 
rows, but for men and women and children. The ethics of it is 
generous and humane, but the theology of it is open to some doub', 



for the sparrow is an outlaw in this very Christian land. In the State 
of Illinois there is a price upon his head, and the reward for slay- 
ing him is two cents. This looks like a vote of censure on the 
"dear Lord," for taking care of the sparrows, but it shows how 
feeble are the efforts of human legislation when directed against 
the divine government, for in spite of the destructive ingenuity of 
men and boys, excited by a bribe of two cents, to exterminate the 
sparrow by sticks, and stones, and bows and arrows, and guns, 
and traps, and catapults, and poison, the chirping nuisance in- 
creases and multiplies, and grows more mischievous day by day. 
With impudent sarcasm he says to his persecutors as emphatically 
as a sparrow can say anything, "Your laws are vain, for the dear 
Lord cares for me." And, if the argument from design is worth 
anything, he dees. Although the sparrow sometimes appears in 
a false character as a " reed-bird," or as a "quail on toast," in the 
restaurant, he is really not good eating, and this is evidence of 
providential care. In addition to that, the "dear Lord" has en- 
dowed him with superior abilities for taking care of himself ; he 
has given him besides a good appetite and a hardy constitution, a 
fighting talent that keeps other birds far away from the sparrow's 
hunting grounds. And then, he is not particular as to his diet, 
animal or vegt table, worms or wheat, it's all the same to him. 

M. M. Trumbull. 


The World's Pablument of Religions. An Illustrated and 
Popular Story of the World's First Parliament of Religions, 
Held in Chicago in Connexion with the Columbian Exposi 
tion of 1893, Edited by the A\v. John Henry Barrows, 
D. D., Chairman of the General Committee on Religious 
Congresses of the World's Congress Auxiliary. Two vol- 
umes. Chicago : The Parliament Publishing Company. 
1893. Pages, 1600. Price, $5.00. 

Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions and Reli- 
gious Congresses at the World's Columbian Exposition. 
Compiled from Original Manuscripts and Stenographic Re- 
ports. Edited by a Corps of Able Writers. Prof. ]\'alter 
K. Honghlon, Editor-in-Chief. Two volumes in one. Fully 
illustrated. Chicago : F. T. Neely. 1893. Pages, looi. 

Review of the World's Religious Congresses of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion. By Kev. L. P. Mercer, Member of the General Com- 
mittee. Chicago and New York : Rand, McNally, & Com- 
pany. 1893. Pages, 334. 

A Chorus of Faith as Heard in the Parliament of Religions 
Held in Chicago, September 10-27, 1893. With an Intro- 
duction by Jenkin Lloyd Jones. The Unity Publishing Com- 
pany, 1893. Pp , 333 Price, paper, 50 cents ; cloth, $1 50. 

The four books above listed are the chief works relative to 
World's Parliament of Religions which have yet appeared. The 
last, that of the Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, is a short collection of 
extracts, chiefly taken from the reports of the Chicago I/era/J. Its 
virtue is its conciseness (three hundred and twenty-eight pages). 
The passages chosen bear almost exclusively upon the common 
ethical features of the different religions and on such general ideas 
as the brotherhood of man, the universal belief in God, etc., etc. 
The book is not a record of the Parliament's proceedings. But it is 
legibly printed on good paper, is inexpensive, and, bearing in mind 
its scope, may be recommended. 

Rand & McNally's "Review" is the production of the Rev. 
L P. Mercer. It is an account of the Parliament, but a very im- 
perfect one. It contains a few portraits. The type is large. 

The second volume listed above, that of Neely, is known to 
the public chiefly in connexion with an advertising venture of The 

Chicago Tribune. It contains about one thousand pages and some 
portraits ; the print is small, the binding poor and tasteless. It is 
furnished with an introduction full of platitudes and cant. One 
merit of the book is, — and it is a great one, — that aside from its 
thirty-one pages of Introduction and Preface, it contains only con- 
cise notes of the proceedings, without superfluous comment. The 
full addresses are not always given, but what is given, it seems, is 
given as nearly verbatim as the circumstances permitted. Where 
condensation was necessary, non-evangelical and liberal speakers 
chiefly sufifered. 

Dr. Barrow's work, the Chairman of the General Committee 
on Religious Congresses, is called "an illustrated and popular 
slory of the World's First Parliament of Religions." It is a com- 
plete and detailed record of the Parliament. Its two volumes take 
up together sixteen hundred pages. It contains all the addresses 
delivered at the Parliament, those of the first volume, nearly -'er- 
haliiii, those of the second, owing to lack of space, condensed ; 
photographs of the speakers, and photographic illustrations of 
the different churches, mosques, pagodas, and towers of the vari- 
ous religions, together with views of their principal monuments 
and ceremonies. It is, of course, the best and most complete 
book of reference yet published on the Parliament. The manu- 
facture of the work was a task of great magnitude and one that 
demanded much critical knowledge and skill. Considering the 
difficulties and the haste with which it was prepared, the perfor- 
mance is a creditable one ; but it can hardly be said that it is a 
really scientific piece of work. Its cost is five dollars, which, con- 
sidering the general excellence of its form, is not very expensive. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publishe 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 

terms throughout the postal UNION: 

$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Cour 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


KOSSUTH. M. M. Trumbull 4023 

MIRACLE IN RELIGION. Celia Parker Woollev. . . 4024 

Death Shall Not Part Ye More. Voltairine de Clevre 4026 

Stanton 4027 

CURRENT TOPICS : A Private Mint. Coining the 

"Seigniorage." Poachers and Game- Keepers. Moody 

and Sankey at Washington. A Sparrow's Theology. 

Gen. M. M. Trumbull 4029 



The Open Court. 



No. 345. (Vol. VIII.-14.) 


I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 




To WILL is to choose in order to act ; such is for us 
the formula of the normal will. The anomalies studied 
in my book^ reduce themselves to two great groups : 
either the impulse is lacking, and no tendency to action 
is produced (abulia) ; or a too rapid or too intense im- 
pulse prevents a choice. Before examining the cases 
of obliteration of the will, that is to say, those in which 
there is neither choice nor acts, we will study a type of 
character in which the will does not constitute itself at 
all or does so only in a wavering, unsteady and ineffica- 
cious form. The best example of it that can be given 
is the hj'sterical character. Properly speaking we en- 
counter here not so much a disorder as a constitutional 
state. The simple irresistible impulse is like an acute 
disease ; the permanent and invincible impulses resem- 
ble a chronic disease ; the hysterical character is a dia- 
thesis. It is a state in which the conditions of the ex- 
istence of the will are nearly always lacking. 

I borrow from the picture of the character of hys- 
terics that Dr. Huchard has recently drawn, the fea- 
tures which relate to our subject : "A primary trait of 
their character is mobility. From day to day, from 
hour to hour, from minute to minute, they pass with 
an incredible rapidit}' from joy to sadness, from laugh- 
ter to tears ; versatile, fantastic or capricious, they 
speak at certain moments with an astonishing loqua- 
city, while at others they become gloomy and taciturn, 
keep a complete silence, or remain plunged in a state 
of reverie or of mental depression ; they are then 
seized with a vague and indefinable feeling of sadness, 
with a sensation of pressure in the throat, of a rising 
ball, or of epigastric oppression ; they burst into sobs, 
or they go to hide their tears in solitude, which they 
crave and seek ; at other times, on the contrary, they 
begin to laugh in an immoderate manner without se- 
rious motives. 'They behave,' saj's Ch. Richet, 'like 
children that one sets to laughing with noises when 
they still have on their cheeks the tears that thej' have 
iust shed.' 

1 The Diseases 0/ the Will, fn 
authorised translation to appear in 
lishing Company. 

i (orlniglil. Cliicago 

"Their character changes like the figures of a ka- 
leidoscope, which has led Sydenham to say with rea- 
son that the most constant thing about them is their 
inconstancy. Yesterday they were lively, amiable and 
gracious ; to-day they are ill-humored, susceptible and 
irascible, vexed at everything and at nothing, capri- 
ciously disagreeable and sulky, discontented with their 
lot ; nothing interests them, they are wearied with every- 
thing. They experience a very great antipathy toward 
a person whom yesterday they loved and esteemed, or, 
on the contrary, show an incomprehensible sympathy 
for some one else ; so they follow certain persons with 
their hatred with as much bitterness as they had for- 
merly had persistence in surrounding them with affec- 
tion. . . . 

"Sometimes their sensibility is exalted by the most 
trivial motives when it is hardly touched by the great- 
est emotions; they remain almost indifferent, impas- 
sible even, at the announcement of a real misfortune, 
and they shed tears abundantly and abandon them- 
selves to the profoundest despair on account of a sim- 
ple word falsely interpreted, and transform into an of- 
fence the lightest pleasantry. This sort of moral ataxia 
is observed even in regard to their dearest interests : 
one has the most complete indifference towards the 
misconduct of her husband ; another remains cold be- 
fore danger which menaces her fortune. In turn gen- 
tle and passionate, says Moreau (of Tours), kind and 
cruel, impressionable to excess, rarely mistresses of 
their first movements, incapable of offering resistance 
to impulses of the most opposite nature, presenting a 
lack of equilibrium between the superior moral facul- 
ties, will and conscience, and the inferior faculties, the 
instincts, passions, and desires. 

"This extreme mobility in their state of mind and 
their affective dispositions, this instability of character, 
this lack of fixity, this absence of stability in their ideas 
and their volitions, explain the incapacity which they 
experience of giving their attention very long to read- 
ing, study, or any kind of work. 

"All these changes follow each other with the 
greatest rapidity. In this class of patients the im- 
pulses are not, as in the case of epileptics, absolutel}' 
uncontrolled b}' the intellect, but the}' are rapidl}' fol- 
lowed by action. This is the explanation of those 



sudden movements of anger and indignation, those 
headlong enthusiasms, those fits of despair, those ex- 
plosions of mad gaiety, those great bursts of affection, 
those quick accessions of tenderness, or those sudden 
transports during which, acting Hke spoiled children, 
they stamp with their feet, break furniture, feel an irre- 
sistible need of striking something. . . . 

"Hysterical patients act as they are led by their 
passions. Almost all the various inconstancies of their 
character, of their mental state, can be summed up in 
these words : they do not know how to use their will, 
they cannot and will not do it. It is, indeed, because 
their will is always unsteady and faltering, because it 
is unceasingly in a state of unstable equilibrium, be- 
cause it turns at the least wind like the weather-vane 
on our roofs ; it is for all these reasons that hysterical 
patients have such mobility, such inconstancy, and 
such changeableness in their desires, their ideas, and 
their affections." ^ 

This portrait is so complete that we need not pro- 
long our comments. It has put before the readers' 
eyes that state of incoordination, of broken equili- 
brium, of anarchy, of "moral ataxia "; but we have yet 
to justify the statement that we made at the outset : 
that there is here a constitutional impotence of the 
will ; that it cannot arise because the conditions of its 
existence are lacking. For the sake of clearness I will 
anticipate what is to be established with more details 
and proofs at the close of this work. 

If we take an adult person, endowed with an ave- 
rage will, we shall observe that his activity (that is to 
say, his power of producing acts) forms in general three 
planes : on the lowest are the automatic acts, simple 
or composite reflexes, habits ; above are acts produced 
by the feelings, emotions, and passions ; higher still 
are rational acts. This last stage presupposes the 
other two, rests on them, and consequently depends 
upon them, although it gives them co-ordination and 
unity. The capricious characters of which the hys- 
teric is the type have only the two lower forms ; the 
third is, as it were, atrophied. By nature, save in rare 
exceptions, the rational activity is always the least 
strong. It obtains the mastery only on the condition 
that the ideas awaken certain feelings which are much 
more apt than they to express themselves in acts. We 
have seen that the more abstract ideas are, the weaker 
their motory tendencies. In hysterical patients the 
regulative ideas do not arise or remain sterile. It is 
because certain notions of the rational order (utility, 
propriety, duty, etc.) remain in the state of mere con- 
ceptions, because they are not felt \ty the individual, 
because they produce in him no affective response, do 
not enter into his substance, but remain like something 

I AxenfehJ and Hiichard. Traiti dt\ 

ond edition, 1883), pp. 

brought in from outside ; it is on these accounts that 
they are without action and for all practical purposes as 
if they did not exist. The power of individual action is 
maimed and incomplete. The tendency of the feelings 
and passions to show themselves in acts is doubly 
strong, both in itself and because there is nothing 
above it which checks and counterbalances it ; and as 
it is a characteristic of the feelings to go straight to 
the goal, after the manner of reflexes, to have an 
adaptation in one single direction, unilateral (just the 
contrary to rational adaptation, which is multilateral), 
the desires, born quickly and immediately satisfied, 
leave free room for others, analogous or opposed, ac- 
cording to the perpetual variations of the individual. 
There exist only caprices, at most desires, a rough out- 
line of volition.! 

This fact, that desire goes in a single direction and 
tends to expend itself without delay, does not, how- 
ever, explain the instability of the hysteric, nor his ab- 
sence of will. If a desire always satisfied springs up 
again continually, there is stability. The predomi- 
nance of the affective life does not necessarily exclude 
the will : an intense, stable, permitted passion is the 
very basis of all energetic wills. It is found in the 
great men of ambition, in the martyr unshaken in his 
faith, in the red-skin bidding defiance to his enemies 
in the midst of torments. It is necessary, then, to seek 
more deeply the cause of this instability in the hysteric, 
and this cause can be nothing else than a state of the 
individuality, that is to say, in the final reckoning, of 
the organism. We call that will strong whose end, 
whatever be its nature, is fixed. When circumstances 
change, means are changed ; there take place succes- 
sive adaptations to the new environment, but the cen- 
tre towards which all converges does not change. Its 
stability expresses the permanency of character in the 
individual. If the same end continues to be chosen, 
approved, it is because that at bottom the individual 
remains the same. Let us suppose, on the contrary, 
an organism with unstable functions, whose unity — 
which is only a consensus — is continually dissolved 
and reconstituted on a new plan, according to the sud- 
den variation of the functions that make it up ; it is 
clear that in such a case choice can hardly arise, can- 
not last, and there remain only whims and caprices. 
This is what takes place in the hysteric, j The in- 
stability is a fact. Its very probable cause is in func- 
tional disorders. Anesthesia of special senses or of 
the general sensibilit}', hyperaesthesia in its various 
forms, motor disorders, contractures, convulsions, pa- 
ral)'ses, derangements of the organic functions, vaso- 
motor, secretory, etc., occurring successivelj' or siniul- 

1 Let us note in passing how necessary it is in psychology to take account 
of the ascending gradation of phenomena. Volition is not a clear and well- 
defined state which either exists or does not exist ; there are sketches and 



taneously, keep the organism in a perpetual state of 
unstable equilibrium/ and the character, which is only 
the psychic expression of the organism, correspond- 
ingly varies. A stable character upon such an unsteady 
foundation would be a miracle. We find, therefore, 
the true cause of impotence of will to be here, and this 
impotence is, as we have said, constitutional. 

Some facts contradictory in appearance really con- 
firm this thesis. Hysterical patients are sometimes 
possessed by a fixed idea, which cannot be conquered. 
One refuses to eat, another to speak, another to see, 
because the labor of digestion, or the exercise of the 
voice or the sight would bring about, as they suppose, 
some suffering. One meets more frequently with that 
kind of paralysis which has been called "psychic" or 
"ideal." The hysteric stays in bed for weeks, months, 
and even years, believing herself unable to stand up 
or to walk. A moral shock, or the niere influence of 
some one who gains her confidence or acts with author- 
ity effects a cure. One begins to walk at the announce- 
ment of a fire, another gets up and goes to meet a 
long-absent brother, another decides to eat out of fear 
of the physician. Briquet, in his " Traitd de I'hys- 
t^rie," reports several cases of women whom he healed 
by inspiring them with faith in their recovery. There 
might also be mentioned a good number of those cures 
called miraculous which have attracted the public curi- 
osity from the time of the deacon Paris to our own day. 

The physiological causes of these paralyses are 
much in dispute. In the psychological order we ob- 
serve the existence of a fixed idea the result of which 
is an inhibition. As an idea does not exist by itself 
and without certain cerebral conditions, as it is only a 
part of a psycho-physiological whole — the conscious 
part — it must be admitted that it corresponds to an 
abnormal state of the organism, perhaps of the motor 
centres, and that it draws thence its origin. However 
that may be, it is not, as certain medical men have per- 
sistently maintained, an "exaltation" of the will ; it is, 
on the contrary, its absence. We are recurring to a 
morbid type already studied, which differs from irresis- 
tible impulses only in form ; it is inhibitory. But there 
is no direct reaction against the fixed idea on the indi- 
vidual's own part. It is an influence from without 
which imposes itself and produces a contrary state of 
consciousness, with the concomitant feelings and phys- 
iological states. There results from this a powerful 
impulse to action, which suppresses and replaces the 
inhibitory state ; but it is hardly a volition ; at best it 
is a volition with another's aid. 

This group of facts brings us, then, to the same 
conclusion : an impotence of the will to form itself. '■' 

1 For the details of the facts see the work cited, pp. 987-1043. 

2 For the facts see Briquet, Traiti de I'hysiirie, chap, x; Axenfeld and 
Huchard, op. cit.. pp. 967-1012; Cruveilhier, Anatomie pathologique, book 
xxsv, p. 4 ; Macario, Annates medico-psychologiquesy vol. iii, p. 62 ; Ch. Richet, 



Now, IT was in the winter, while Jesus journeyed 
in the hill country beyond the Jordan with one of his 

And certain elders of the church came and joined 
themselves unto him. 

And one of these was a Pharisee, and another a 

And as they journeyed, they disputed among them- 
selves concerning the commandments of the law of 
Moses, and concerning the mystery of the Kingdom of 

For he that was a Pharisee said, that the body 
should rise again at the last day ; 

But the Saducee denied with an oath, saying. What 
saith the Preacher? — The body shall return to the 
earth as it was. As the prophet Sadoc saith, there is 
no resurrection. 

And Jesus heard them, and sorrowed in his heart, 
and saith unto them, Why is it ye have no understand- 

And he stooped down and took a clod of earth 
from the wayside, and he showed it unto the Pharisee. 

And saith unto him, Verily, I say unto you, thy 
body is even as this clod. 

But as the brickmaker cometh and taketh the clay 
and fashioneth it, and burneth it in the furnace to 
make bricks ; 

And the builder buildeth of the bricks an habitation. 

Even so out of the clods of the earth in his own 
way man fashioneth himself and buildeth an habita- 
tion, even a temple for the spirit. 

For which is more excellent, the temple, or the 
altar for which the temple was builded ? 

Or which is the holier, the altar, or the burnt offer- 
ing that is offered upon the altar? 

Or which is the greater, the burnt offering, or the 
priest that offereth the burnt offering ? 

Then Jesus saith unto the Saducee, Verily, the 
Preacher saith, the body shall return to the earth as 
it was, but the spirit shall return to God, who gave it. 

Now, both the Pharisee and the Saducee were 
amazed at his doctrine, and with one accord they say 
unto him. Master, what is spirit? 

And Jesus answered and saith unto them, This 
thing God hath hid from the wise and prudent, but 
hath revealed it unto babes. 

It is heat out of cold ; it is light out of darkness; 
it is wisdom out of folly. 

But they said, Lo ! now thou speakest in parables. 

\n Revue des Deux Mondes, Jan. 15, 1880; P. Richer. Etudes clinigties sur t'/iys- 
t£ro-ipitepsie,eXz.^ part third, chap, ii, and the historic notes. 



And yet thou sayest, we have no understanding. Make 
thy meaning plain. 

And Jesus saith unto them, I will. All power is 
given unto me of the Father lo discern the hidden 
things ; behold yonder black stone. 

And they looked and beheld the black stone. 

And Jesus saith again, Behold this morsel of ice. 

And as he spake, he stooped down and took the 
morsel of ice in his hand. And he moulded it, and 
fashioned it, till it was like in shape unto an eye. 

And he looked up to Heaven, and cried aloud, say- 
ing, Thou hast given unto me, O Father, to discern 
the hidden things that are hid in the earth, even the 
things that thou didst hide in the days of old. 

Bring forth now thy power and manifest thy glory, 
— the glory that was hid before the mountains were 
brought forth. 

And Jesus held up the morsel of ice betwixt his 
fingers. And God caused his sun to shine, and the 
might thereof shone down and touched the morsel of 
ice. And the sun was changed by the morsel of ice. 

In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, behold 
the changed sunlight fell upon the black stone, and it 
became red with fervent heat. 

And the Pharisee and the Saducee ran and touched 
their fingers unto the stone, and the stone burned 

And they fell down at the feet of Jesus for to wor- 
ship him, saying. Truly thou, even thou art the Son of 
God. Thou, even thou, art worthy of glory and honor. 

For thou hast indeed made our folly to be wisdom. 

But Jesus saith unto them. Call no man worthy. 
There is none that is worthy save God, and the spirit 
that is hid in me with God. 



It seems to me an anomaly in literature that as able a thinker 
as Mr. Conway should have written the assault on the American 
Senate contained in Tlie Open Court for March 15. In the first 
place it is pure assumption to assert that the leaders in forming 
the American Constitution : Jefferson, Madison, Adams, Frank- 
lin, Mason, Randolph, were the victims of an immature system of 
petty despotisms. The words of the Constitutional convention 
are supported by the private correspondence of all those men 
showing that no feature of the Constitution seemed to them more 
happily devised than that creating a Senate of the States, But 
the curious part of Mr. Conway's argument appears when he goes 
on to show the steady lapse of direct popular representation, "It 
is notorious that in democratic countries the ablest and best men 
shrink from vulgar competition — the enlargement of the franchise 
in England has been accompanied by a marked decline in the char- 
acter of the Parliament." Here then the House of Representatives 
is swept away virtually as well as the Senate : the first as repre- 
senting ' ' Rotten boroughs " on petty jealousies constituting States; 
and the latter as a democracy that in its nature is degenerative. 
We are prepared for cyclic periods of destructiveness ; but for one 
I was not prepared to see Mr. Conway heading the movement in 
America. There is certainly no pretence lo argument in the sup- 

position that [he Constitution-makers' ghosts would now inform 
Mr. Wallace that they have changed their minds — would he only 
consult them. Mr, Wallace is certainly entitled to entire courtesy 
both as a spiritualist and a scientist. 

Having shown the utter worthlessness of the existing form or 
forms of democracy, Mr. Conway furnishes us with a panacea ; 
and this is the most curious part of his paper. It is the introduc- 
tion of " secret ballot " into Congress, "The people would then 
have to choose the wisest and best man, knowing that they could 
have no control over his vote." On the contrary, would they not, 
if desirous of corrupt legislation, select men whose principles they 
would not fear. Imagine a corrupt gang of voters, such as Mr. 
Conway suggests as now sending their tools to Congress, sitting 
down to the desperate necessity of picking out saints, because they 
could not be sure how the fellows would vote. The logic would 
be something of this sort, " We can't tell what our representatives 
will do, because they will vote in secret : therefore let us send 
those whom we are siiri: will not do what we wish and who do not 
in any sense represent such a ocnstituency as we compose." The 
value of the secret ballot as opposed to the open ballot would be a 
theme by itself; but as a panacea against the fact that democracy 
lends to grade downwards its governing bodies, it is impossible 
and absurd. 

The panacea for the Senate is a different affair altogether. 
Despairing of quite abolishing the Senate, Mr. Conway would 
take away its power as an equal legislature. Then follows this 
Parisian concoction; "One of the two senators of each Stale 
might be chosen by the alumni of its colleges and learned socie- 
ties " (turning them from top to bottom into political bodies ; and 
making our college presidents very quickly of different material) 
" placing in the revising council the Republic of Letters" The 
other senator he thinks might be left as now to selection by the 
Legislature. Probably when the Senate is thus recast there will 
be at least one million American citizens and English neighbors to 
suggest each an independent plan. We have never yet in the 
world's history got rid of human nature ; nor in any form of gov- 
ernment are we liable now or hereafter to secure rulers much un- 
like ourselves. A popular governing body will stand for the people 
about as they are ; and the system of checks and counter-checks 
devised by Jefferson, Madison, and Washington 1.=; about as much 
as is needed, and probably quite as efficient as that which is by 
Mr. Conway suggested. I will add, however, that if we are to 
have one senator selected by academic associations and college 
boys, the other might as well be passed over to the churches. 
These two bodies at present probably contain as much of the sur- 
vival of mediaeval spirit as any that can be suggested. If our very 
rottenest boroughs with secret ballot in vogue, will turn to the se- 
lection of the most eminently virtuous men for representatives, the 
Church can perhaps be trusted as well as the colleges to match 
these with senators of the same sort. I have as much faith in this 
plan as I have in reforming our nation by the plan of Mr. Morse, 
that is by placing the words God and Christ in the Constitution, 

But the real gist and heart of this subject is not touched. 
Waiving the evils of that democracy, which was by no means a 
new idea devised by our fathers ; let us see that the one great 
stride ahead in the way of government and society devised by them 
was "Federal Union"; the alliance and federative co-operation 
of distinct and independent States. This idea was never before 
broached or conceived by Aryan diplomats and nation makers. I 
have no room here to show its historic relation to other political 
ideas ; and how it is a legitimate evolution of popular government 
from the primitive township. I wish only to dwell on it long 
enough to show that in it lay the possibility of covering a conti- 
nent with a single nation, instead of a jealous group of States like 
those of Europe. It has taken America into the bond ; and added 
over thirty new States to the original thirteen. It has reached the 



Pacific. It is fraternising to North and to South. It has begun 
the recreation of the opposite shore of Asia. The fraternity of na- 
tions is before us ; as also the fellowship of religions. Canada and 
Mexico are not the only ones that anticipate Union. Never before 
was there an idea that permitted of the abolition of standing ar- 
mies ; and the mutual good will of peoples three thousand miles 
apart. And this is iicl democracy merely ; it is the federal union 
of States ; States that Mr. Conway denounces as " survivals of the 
basest characteristics of the reactionary reign of George III." 
These States exist in our Senate ; abolish that and you have struck 
out the very life of our Constitution ; you have undone all that 
our fathers devised. The one institution of America to be jealously 
guarded is the Senate. We might even dispense with an executive 
chief ; but when the Senate is gone you have only a democracy. 
Never in the world's history could a democracy cover a large ter- 
ritory: the smaller the safer. But the federal union of independ- 
ent States is safer the larger it grows. Abolish the Senate and you 
abolish the States. Even Hamilton late in life became a convert 
to the integral necessity of States. Instead of throwing a half of 
the Senate to the colleges ; let us at once complete the sublime 
scheme of education planned by Jefferson : common schools every- 
where, centering in State universities ; and State universities gradu- 
ating into a great national university at Washington. In this way 
we have, what we ever should have in popular government, two 
coextensive collateral forces, the educative and the legislative. 



I have read the several articles published in Tlu- Open Court, 
attacking the Senate of the United States. It seems to me that 
they do not correctly represent the organisation and the purpose 
of the Senate. 

The Constitution of the United States was formed by the 
people of all the States, not as one mass representing a single in- 
terest, but by each State representing the people and the autonomy 
of the State, in the interest of a common union of the States, as 
sovereign equals, and the equal rights of all the people In Con- 
gress the House represents the people of the United States by 
States ; the Senate represents the sovereignty of the States with- 
out reference to the number of people in the separate States. The 
President represents the people of the United States equally, and 
the equal sovereignty of all the States. If the Senators and Rep- 
resentatives sat in the same chamber and voted equally as one 
body, then the objections taken to the Senate would lie, but as it 
is, they do not. The House cannot invade the sovereignty of the 
States, the Senate cannot invade the rights of the people. It is 
immaterial whether each State has two or twenty Senators, or 
whether its people are many or few, the representation is the 
same — that is, equal between the States which the Senate repre- 
sents. Shall a small State not have the same rights as a large 
State ? Shall a weak State not have the same rights as a strong 
State ? Shall a State with but few people not have the same rights 
as a State with many people ? To further illustrate the principle, 
shall a small, weak man not have the same civil rights as a large, 
strong man ? 

It is impossible for the Congress to pass a law, constitution- 
ally, that does not represent all the people of the United States 
equally ; and the sovereignty of all the States equally, without a 
possible invasion of the rights of the people or the States ; and 
should the Congress pass a law, unconstitutionally, that invades 
the rights of the people, or of the States, yet, beyond the legisla- 
tive and executive power stands the judiciary to correct the error, 
and preserve the Constitution intact. Can any government be 
more fair, more just, more equal, or more secure ? 

Abolish the Senate and take away the equal representation of 
the States in their autonomy, and there would be nothing left to 

prevent Congress, by the power of the larger States, from oppress 
ing the smaller States, and consolidating them all into one mas- 
sive empire, as one State ruled by a single power. History reads 
us many lessons as to what, then, would be the fate of human 


That excellent English paper, TJu- A'coeastlc Wickly Chron- 
/./(-, fears the importation of American political methods into Eng- 
land, and it starts with justifiable alarm at the prospect of a Tam- 
many Hall in London. In the Chronicle of March 17 I find these 
words of warning : "It has already been pointed out that the for- 
mation of a society of political agents is bringing us nearer and 
nearer to that system of machine politics which has produced so 
much corruption in the United Slates. As matters look at pres- 
ent, it will probably not be long before we shall have a Tammany 
Hall in England — an institution which will make the ballot a fraud 
and popular government a scandal." The diagnosis is correct, but 
in the language of a famous chief of Tammany, " What are you 
going to do about it ? " Tammany is a product, as a toadstool is ; 
and if ever a population like that of New York shall get control of 
London through the ballot-box, Tammany will spring up in Eng- 
land as naturally as a weed springs out of the ground. Newcastle 
will have one, and Leeds, and Birmingham, and every other town 
where the conditions that make Tammanies happen to be. It will 
not be known by the name of Tammany, for that would awaken 
suspicion and arouse hostility; but the machinery will be set up, 
the engineers will go to work, and the looting of the cities will be 
done in the manner and style of Tammany. 

* * 

From a careful reading of the A'ewemtie Chronicle I am of 
opinion that the scouts of Tammany have already invaded Eng- 
land under the name of "Election agents," and that they are 
smuggling American election machines into that country in a small 
way, and showing the natives of that benighted island how to use 
them so as to cheat, and bamboozle, and bribe. The Chronicle is 
properly shocked, because "one of the questions which the elec- 
tion agents are asked to answer is this : — ' What form of words 
would you advise for the use of a candidate anxious to pledge him- 
self to the Temperance party without losing the support of the 
liquor interest ? ' " This may look like a hard problem to an Eng- 
lishman, but an American politician worthy to be a coal-heaver 
for the engineer who runs the machine could give the correct so- 
lution in two minutes. In our political arithmetic such a problem 
as that is merely a sum in simple addition. I know hundreds of 
men of all official grades, from senators to constables, who have 
triumphantly answered it. What does the Chronicle think of the 
following " form of words" as an answer by a candidate, say for 
mayor of a city, where there are laws requiring liquor shops to be 
closed on Sundays, on election days, and at certain hours of the 
night ? The candidate wants to please the Temperance party with- 
out offending the liquor interest, and he says : 

■'That while all ordinances shonld be enforced, with the view to the sup- 
pression of vice, the executive department should construe the laws in the 
spirit of tolerance, with due regard to the cosmopolitan character of the popu- 
lation, so that the customs and habits of the various peoples be not interfered 
with, nor their personal liberty and individual rights impaired." 

What does the Chronicle think of that as a duplex machine- 
made contradiction ? That specimen is official ; it is not the pro- 
duct of a reckless imagination, but it is exactly the "form of 
words " employed by a last year's candidate for the mayoralty of 
Chicago. I have no copyright on it, and I am perfectly willing to 
have it used in England. This formula, however, is too easy to 
be thought worthy of a place in the political algebra that our skil- 
ful statesmen use when they advocate a tariff for revenue only, 
levied in such a way as to protect American industry; and when 



they declare for gold, silver, and paper legal-tender dollars of un- 
equal value and equal purchasing power according to the single 
standard of the markets of the world, regulated with a bi-metallic 
balance-wheel, so constructed as to prevent the money-kings of 
Great Britain from dictating the financial policy of America ; a 
firm and stable gold medium of exchange made flexible and elastic 
by the free coinage of silver at a ratio of sixteen to one. If there 
is any question of English policy disputed by two contradictory 
parties, the English politicians need no longer be baffled by con- 
sistency. Let them send their orders over here, and we will agree 
to furnish a "form of words" that will enable them to pledge 
themselves to one party without losing the support of the other. 
* * 

Speaking of elections and the practices of Tammany, reminds 
us that Chicago is in "the throes and convulsions" of an election 
contest now. Next week we elect aldermen, assessors, and some 
other officers to domineer over us and misgovern the city. The 
tournament is animated, for the prizes and the perquisites are 
large ; unlawful, if you please, and even criminal, but the con- 
testants care nothing for that ; the plunder is close at hand, while 
the prison is far away. Passionate appeals are made, and the 
good citizens are called upon to turn out and vote for the best 
men ; but our masters laugh at the exhortations, and, shaking 
their brass knuckles in the faces of the people, say to them, "You 
may vote, but we will count ; see ! " Here is a description which 
I find in the Chicago Herald ol some of the " judges" appointed to 
superintend the polling, and to receive and count the ballots. In- 
troducing one of the candidates to its readers, the Herald says, 
"Among the men he has selected to act as judges and clerks of 
election in the Sixth Ward — his stronghold — are one pickpocket, 
one indicted ballot-box stuffer, one dive-keeper, one professional 
thug, one horse-thief, one burglar, one highway robber, and one 
man charged with arson. The returns are not all in yet, but it 
will doubtless be found that the full list will comprise men who 
are guilty of every crime on the statute books and several that 
have not been classified." These are the potentates who appoint 
legislative officers and administrative agents for one of the great 
cities of the world. This is the dark side of it, but there is a 
brighter side. There are many judges of election in Chicago who 
are absolutely honest and incorruptible ; and there are candi- 
dates, too, whose fingers never were and never will be "contami- 
nated with base bribes," and one of them is an independent can- 
didate for alderman in my own ward. I shall enjoy the luxury of 
giving him a vote, although I really do not know whether he is a 
Republican or a Democrat ; but whether my vote will be counted 
for him or not is one of the occult mysteries of the ballot-box. 
After I have dropped it into the box it will be no longer in my 
care ; it will then be at the mercy of the " judges." 

I do not know whether the story is true or not, but it is in the 
newspaper correspondence from Washington that, ' ' The President 
lost his temper yesterday while a party of Western and Southern 
congressmen were trying to persuade him to sign the Silver Bill, 
and he gave them rather a stiff talking to." It was not the Bill 
they cared about, in fact they had rather a contemptuous opinion 
of it, but as many of their constituents were silver plated, those 
honorable members were fearful of the political consequences that 
might follow should the President veto the Bill. They cared noth- 
ing for the country, but they did care for themselves. The country 
was reasonably safe, but they were not ; in fact some of them said 
that if the Silver Bill failed they could not possibly be re-elected, 
and that would be a tragedy for the Democratic party. Instead of 
rushing to the rescue of the party, the President gave to his visi- 
tors a very improving lecture on political morality, holding up to 
scorn ' ' those members of Congress who pandered to the delusions 
of the people and voted for all sorts of legislation in order to keep 

themselves in office." The President also said that he had "a de- 
cided contempt for any one who would ask him to aid in such 
legislation for such a reason." Leaving out of the question the 
merits or the deficiencies of the Silver Bill, the lecture was a good 
one, and will apply to all the time-serving policies of all the dem- 
agogues who " pander to popular delusions in order to keep them- 
selves in office." 

* ' * 
I forgot to mention in the preceding paragraph that the dis- 
appointed congressmen after leaving the White House explained 
that the warmth of the reception given them by the President was 
due to some bodily pain that made him irritable and cross. They 
said that the reprimand he gave them was due to "an attack of 
the gout in the President's left foot, and that the agony of it made 
him ill-natured." If this is true the gout is a useful moralist and 
the source of some good political doctrine. I hope it will become 
prevalent in all the high places in this land ; and I trust that it 
will become epidemic in Congress. I am told that the gout is a 
very painful disease, but I can bear it patiently in the left foot of 
the President, for the sake of the public welfare, and therefore I 
pray that he may not get rid of it until after the adjournment of the 
present Congress. M. M. Trumbull. 


Within four years from the date of its inception the Messrs. 
Funk & Wagnalls have presented to the English-speaking public 
the first of the two volumes of their new Standard Dictionary, 
which in simplicity and economy of design, and in scope and 
magnitude of purpose stands almost unrivalled even in this pro- 
lific age of great lexicographical works. The commendable celer- 
ity with which this great task has been brought to completion is 
characteristic of American methods, which have marked the work 
with more than one of our national peculiarities. We cannot feel 
too much indebted to the zeal and enterprise of the gentlemen 
who projected and achieved in so short a time this great task ; for it 
is rarely that a generation who sees a great dictionary begun, sees 
it finished. 

The great German work by Grimm, begun in 1838, had in 
1886 not yet completed the letter G. Renan, the story goes, once 
calculated that the new monster dictionary of the French language 
would be completed somewhere about the close of the twenty- 
second century. "Sweet Monsieur Renan ! " replied one of his 
friends, "he tells us this simply to keep up our spirits ! " The 
project of the New English Dictionary, on historical principles, 
was formed by Archbishop Trench in 1857, and just lately its edi- 
tor. Dr. Murray, gives the part which almost completes the Dic- 
tionary to the letter F. We need not mention Dr. Strong's famous 
Dictionary of Greek Roots, which "on the Doctor's plan and at 
the Doctor's rate of going" was to take "one thousand six hun- 
dred and forty-nine years, counting from the Doctor's last or sixty- 
second birthday." But if we reflect that the great "botanical' 
work of Dr. Strong was a one-man dictionary, while our modern 
lexicons are the joint work usually of hundreds of minds, we shall 
recognise that the calculation of David Copperfield's friend was 

1 A Standard Dictionary of the English Language Upon Oiiginal Plans, 
Designed to Give, in Complete and Accurate Statement, in the Light of the 
Most Recent Advances in Knowledge, and in the Readiest Form for Popular 
Use, the Meaning, Orthography, Pronunciation, and Etymology of All the 
Words and the Idiomatic Phrases in the Speech and Literature of the English- 
speaking Peoples. Prepared by more than two hundred specialists and other 
scholars, under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk, D. D., Editor-in-Chief; 
Francis A. March, LL. D., L. H. D., Consulting Editor; Daniel S. Gregory, 
D. D., Managing Editor. Sold only by subscription. Prices : Single volume 
edition— Half Russia, S12.00 ; Full Russia, 814,00 ; Full Morocco, $18.00. Two- 
volume edition-Half Russia, per volume, S7.50; Full Russia, per volume. 
88.50; Full Morocco, per volume, 811.00. AH forms have Denison's Patent 
Reference Index. New York, London, and Toronto : Funk & Wagnalls Com- 
pany. 1893. 



not far from right.' Only three great dictionaries, the Imperial, 
the Century, and the Slundard have been completed within a rea- 
sonable time after their commencement, although this merit per- 
haps belongs more especially to the Century than any other. 

In criticising the Standard Dictionary, its purpose must be 
carefully borne in mind. It is not intended, as the Century, to be 
an 'emyclopccdic dictionary of the English language, nor as the new 
English Dictionary of Dr. Murray, to be a self-verifying history 
of the English tongue, but, as its title states, it is "designed to 
give, in complete and accurate statement, in the light of the most 
recent advances in knowledge, and in the readiest form iox popular 
use, the meaning, orthography, pronunciation, and etymology of 
all the words and the idiomatic phrases in the speech and litera- 
ture of the English speaking peoples." At the same time it claims 
that its vocabulary is extraordinarily rich and full, and that by the 
economy and simplicity of its plan of arrangement it has been able 
with all due exclusiveness to comprehend some 280,000 words in a 
compass of two volumes of not much more than one thousand 
pages each. Its merits will best be seen by an enumeration of its 
distinctive features. 

It is pre-eminently a work for the people ; but a work by 
scholars for the people. In conformity with its plan of being a use- 
ful handbook for the people, that definition which gives the most 
common meaning of the words of the language is placed first — a 
feature in which this dictionary differs from all others, where the 
historical order is followed — and the etymology is placed at the 
end. Etymologies are given in the simplest form possible. The 
usefulness of the book is not impaired by exuberant philological 
jungles, which hide from the reader the matter he really seeks. 
In giving the pronunciation of words, the scientific alphabet, pre- 
pared and recommended by The American Philological Associa- 
tion, and also supposed to be in harmony with the principles ac- 
cepted by the Philological Society of England, is used. This is 
an excellent feature of the Dictionary, and even if the new or- 
thography proposed by the Association is never adopted, the use 
of it for the indication of pronunciation will greatly help to bring 
order into the chaos which now exists in our schools. All the im- 
proved spellings recommended by the Philological Association, or 
suggested by their plan, are put in their regular alphabetical place 
in the Dictionary, seemingly without a great increase of the size of 
the work. In spelling, the effort has been towards simplification. 
Weight has been accorded to the canon "write as you speak." 
But it is a pleasure to note that contrary to the usage of our old 
lexicographers, in the Standard all va.x\am forms are given. 

The idea which has controlled the inclusion or exclusion of 
words is as follows. A dictionary must tell us what words and 
phrases mean as used by representative writers and speakers of 
the language. The question is not, should the word be in the Eng- 
lish language, but is it. Helpfulness should be the ideal of a dic- 
tionary. Obsolete, foreign, dialectic, and slang words are given 
places only if likely to be sought for in a general English diction- 
ary. A living dictionary should not be a museum of dead words ; 
therefore, only such obsolete words as are found in old authors 
still extensively read, such as Chaucer, Spenser, Milton, Shake 
speare, and so forth, are incorporated in the Standard's vocabu- 
lary. Self-explanatory phrases and compounds are omitted. New 
literary terms were subjected to a committee on new words, con- 
sisting of some of our most competent judges. Unimporlant tech- 
nical terms are omitted ; not all that have been invented but only 
such as are accepted have found a place. Provincialisms of cn- 

1 But that great Arabian scholar, It/n Mnnziir (A. D. 1311), wrote, single- 
handed, a dictionary larger than the largest of our many-men dictionaries, the 
G-w/wry (over seven thousand large folio pages); and %o dM Sayyid Murtadct 
(1790). Both these lexicons are in the Muller Semitic Library, recently pur- 
chased for the Hartford Theological Seminary. 

tensive local usage, of course, are registered, as are also handicraft 

With respect to definitions the Standard Dictionary claims 
exceptional excellence. The aim here has been economy and pre- 
cision. Illustrative quotations are very sparingly employed. The 
quotations used to verify or illustrate the meanings of words are 
supplied not only with the name of the author, but also with the 
page and edition from which the quotation has been taken. 
" Stock " dictionary quotations, those which are seen in nearly all 
dictionaries, have been avoided and new ones sought — a work ac- 
complished by nearly a thousand readers from the great living 
books of English literature, but chiefly from recent authors. The 
definitions have been constructed by specialists or by members of 
the trade to which the term belongs, they being supposed to know 
more about such terms than persons unconnected with the branches. 
This also has been done with respect to the forms of words. 

The principle, of course, is the proper one, although it must not 
be carried too far, as one could hardly say that a farmer was the 
best fitted person to define the meanings of agricultural terms, or 
to decide their forms or proper pronunciations. An instance of this 
is the decision of the Dictionary with regard to the form of the 
word aluminium. Here the form al"w/«um is preferred, as we see 
from the quotations, because manufacturers and dealers in chem- 
icals use al"OT/«um. This was the form first given by its discov- 
erer, Sir Humphrey Davy, but it was at once changed by scien- 
tific writers to aluminium to make it agree with the general form 
of the elements, sodium, lithium, etc. Now the same tendency 
which induced the Dictionary to be "aggressively positive" along 
lines of reform agreed upon by eminent philologists and to adopt 
forms of words conforming to analogy, whether originally accepted 
in the literature of the language or not, should have determined 
them in the present case to give the preference to the scientific 
form, instead of accepting the dictum of some commercial firm in 
Pittsburg who write that " the way of pronouncing and spelling the 
name in this country is entirely aluminum!" 

To revert to orthography and orthoepy again, in the spelling 
of chemical terms the rules of the Chemical Section of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science have been pie- 
ferred, according to which chloride, sulphide, bromine, morphine, 
are spelled chlorid, sulphid, bromin, and morphin. This changes 
the pronunciation of common chemical words, which is unneces- 
sary, and which if any usage exists on the matter will scarcely be 
adopted ; while with respect to the pronunciation of iieio scientific 
words, no uniformity of usage ever will obtain, because the inven- 
tors of the terms themselves rarely have any idea of how they 
ought to be pronounced, and individual scientists usually pro- 
nounce them according to their own ideas. Dr. Murray says he 
was once present at the meeting of a learned Society in London 
where the word f,'a.te,>i/s was systematically pronounced in six dif- 
ferent ways by as many eminent physicists, and adds, that if it is 
possible that a word which though comparatively new was even 
then sufficiently popular to have attained some standard pronun- 
ciation, how much more is it so with the words that have no pop- 
ular currency, and which were made not to be spoken but to be 
used in books. 

The editors of the Dictionary recognise that it is the chief 
function of a dictionary to record usage, not, except in a limited 
degree, to seek to create it ; and in general we may say that on all 
moot points their professed attitude, which is that of unprejudiced 
statement and not advocacy, has been steadily preserved. They 
claim they have been very careful in their preferences, where cus- 
tom or usage varies, to give their sanction to the hest form or ten- 
dencies. But in all cases, all forms are given. Their decision 
was simply which should have the preference. 

But just here is an illimitable field for discussion, and even 
difficulties may arise. We shall make but one remark, relative to 



the diphthongs .r, a-, etc. , and the digraphs ///, etc. , in words where 
these are transliterations of Greek diphthongs and digraphs. Where 
such words are firmly established no objection is to be made to 
the simplification, as in enigma and /inuy for example ; but where 
recent or scientific words are used, the letters of the original should 
be as strictly adhered to as possible, because usually the scientist 
has no means of knowing the meaning of a new word except by 
his knowledge of the roots, which if the transliteration is tampered 
with, may conflict. For example: if the Greek koinos, common, 
and kaiiws, new, are both transliterated, in English compounds, by 
cciio, and not by cano and ctcno, then, not only are new derivatives 
from kciios, empty, likely to be confounded with them, but both 
are apt to be confounded with each other. And such is actually 
the case. Suppose a student of science, meeting in the works of 
F. Miiller the word cenogenesis, should look that word up in some 
of our dictionaries ; he would find that it meant both what cceno- 
genesis means and what csenogensis means, which conceivably 
might have dilfercnt meanings. ' 

In the etymologies, foreign words, such as Greek, are trans- 
literated, which helps immeasurably people ignorant of foreign 
tongues. It also seems that that definition of radical words which 
is the most common is given in preference to the root meanings 
first ; for example, in the definition of the word aboulia, where the 
word is derived from a, privitive, and lnnilc, advice. Now, although 
the common meaning of hotile is advice, its root-meaning is will, 
from Itoitloiiiai, to will. And this is exactly the meaning which ex- 
plains the present scientific significance of the word, namely, ab- 
sence of will-power. 

Some idea of the extent to which the terminologies of the spe- 
cial sciences have increased the bulk of our dictionaries may be 
gained from the fact that in the Slandard there are about four 
thousand terms that refer to electricity or its various applications. 
Probably the number in the biological sciences is much greater. 

Strongly commendable features of the Dictionary are the 
omission of the diaeresis, its system of compounding words, and 
its system of syllabication, subjects of extraordinary confusion in 
literary and lexicographical usage. But an enumeration of all its 
mechanical advantages is out of the question. In economy of form 
and in the logical and systematic execution of its fundamental ideas, 
it is superior to any of its rivals. The treatment of synonyms and 
antonyms is unique. The pictorial illustrations are appropriate 
and well made ; in fact, almost gorgeous. For example, the illus- 
trations of coins, gems, flags, etc. An important feature is the 
exact definition of the six primary colors of the spectrum with an 
analysis of all known shades and tints. The plates for this de- 
partment were made by Messrs. Prang & Co., Boston. 

T-here were engaged in the production of this dictionary two 
hundred and forty-seven office editors and specialists together with 
nearly five hundred special readers for quotations. Hundreds of 
other men and women rendered service in various ways in the de- 
fining of words or classes of words. The specialists engaged in 
the work were the most eminent men of their departments in the 
English-speaking world. It was only by the help of such a num- 

IThe first users of cenogenesis in English, sensible, perhaps, of the con- 
fusion likely to arise from the presence of an already established word of the 
same form, transliterated the Greek word with a >c making it kenogencsis. In 
this form it appears in the new dictionaries, contrary to their usual rule of 
making a Greek *, c. We also notice that the Standard gives Itahios, new, as 
the root of this word, which, if it would make any difference, seems to be cor- 
rect, although in the German works in which the word first occurs, it is writ- 
ten with an <■ and is always associated with such words as Ver/tihrhung, Fal- 
si hung, meaning vitiation, all of which epilhets, perhaps, prompted the usual 
derivation of the word from kenos. But the meaning of the word being estab- 
lished, its derivation is wholly inditferent, and this discussion may seem some- 
what pedantic. But it involves a point which as this example well shows is 
not originally unimportant ; because if the principles suggested were adhered 
to, and when adhered to noticed, we should never have witnessed the sad spec- 
tacle of an etymology being lost with the man who invented it. 

bar of men that so great a labor could be completed. It is, thus, 
in the fullest sense of the expression, says the Editor-in-Chief, an 
intellectual collaboration ; and is accordingly called the "Stan- 
dard" in just recognition of the expert knowledge and authorita- 
tive scholarship of the editors of the various departments. 

Thomas J. McCormack. 


We are in receipt of the first number of a new periodical. Die 
Religion des Geistes, edited by Dr. Eugen Heinrich Schmitt. It 
represents a new religious movement, which, in a postscript on 
page 32, it declares to be the same as the Religion of Science, repre- 
sented in The Open Court and The Monist. The present number 
of the new periodical contains the following articles : (i) " What 
the Religion of Spirit Proposes?"; (2) "Our Programme"; (3) 
' ' Why Is a Religious Movement a Necessity ? A Word Addressed 
to the Societies for Ethical Culture"; (4) "To the Freemasons "; 
(5) " The Religious Movement of the Present Time." The sec- 
ond article, "Our Programme," begins as follows: " We repre- 
sent the freest, the most radical, and at the same time the most 
positive and deeply religious thought. Our programme is inde- 
pendence of all authoritative creed, and at the same time a spiri- 
tualisation of the holy symbols of all religions. We have come 
not to destroy but to fulfil." The editor rejects the proposition to 
teach ethical culture without a religious basis, declaring that man 
is a unity and cannot be split in twain ; that our world-concep- 
tion is too intimately connected with our moral ideals ; that a 
separation of religion and ethics would tend to veil the errors of 
our time, which ought to be exposed. The style of the various 
articles is rhetorical, rather than explanatory, and we cannot find 
a calm statement of the aims of the Religion of Spirit. Several 
names of the promoters and allies of the movement (e. g. Hiibbe- 
Schleiden, Editor of the Sphinx) seem to indicate a spiritualistic 
tendency, but the first number of the new periodical contains no 
traces of it. The periodical is published at Leipsic, Johannisgasse 
4, by Alfred Janssen. Dr. Schmitt's address is I Festung, Herren- 
gasse 58, Budapest, Hungary. 



OHIGAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

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prices. Th, Ribot 4031 


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CURRENT TOPICS : Tamnuny in England. Mr. Facing- 
both-ways. "You May Vote, But We Will Count." 
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A NEW DICTIONARY. Thomas J. McCormack 403O 



The Open Court. 



No. 346. (Vol. VIII.-15. 


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The school of thought which regarded philosophy 
as implying merely the a priori study of mental phe- 
nomena is now practically dead, and in its place has 
arisen one which treats metaphysics but as a side 
issue in speculative psychology, and psychical phe- 
nomena as but a portion of those with which it is the 
duty of philosophy to concern itself. It is to the in- 
creasing progress of experimental science that this 
change in philosophy is due, and to the new school 
belongs one of the greatest masters in modern thought, 
Mr. Herbert Spencer. 

The matters placed under the head of metaphysics 
are capable of classifications as numerous as the writ- 
ers upon the subject. This is, indeed, inevitable in 
so debatable a question. From first datum to final 
conclusion we are in a world of controversy. How- 
ever, for the sake of this essay, we may distinguish 
three discussions — mind, externality, and a theory of 
the universe. 

The first question, then, which we ask ourselves is, 
"What is Mind ? " Mr. Spencer's answer is clear and 
definite. Attacking the sceptical theory of Hume, he 
asks, "how can that thinker, who has decomposed 
his consciousness into impressions and ideas, explain 
the fact that he considers them as his impressions and 
ideas? Or, once more, if, as he must, he admits that 
he has an impression of his personal existence, what 
warrant can he show for rejecting this impression as 
unreal, and accepting his other impressions as real ? 
Unless he can give satisfactory answers. to these que- 
ries, which he cannot, he must abandon his conclu- 
sions, and must admit the reality of the individual 
mind."i Elsewhere, he speaks of mind as "the un- 
derlying something " of which distinguishable portions 
or mental phenomena are formed, or of which they 
are modifications.- To this it may be replied that, as 
Mr. Spencer himself admits, of this ultimate mind we 
have no knowledge whatever. We are acquainted 
with mental phenomena, we can study them, analyse 
them, recombine them, but throughout all these pro- 
cesses we come across no evidence of an underlying 

1 First Principles, g 20. 

2 Principles 0/ Psychology, § 58. 

something. Here is a society — a public company, 
say, or a nation. Corporations, as Sir Edward Coke 
said, have no souls to save. Take away all the units 
forming that society, and what is left ? Is there an 
"underlying something"? And yet every individual 
is conscious that the society of which he is part exists ; 
every society is capable of acting as one and united. 
The English nation has a tangible existence, and will 
have, so long as Englishmen exist, but if we scatter 
all Englishmen to the winds, no English nation will 
remain. So with mind : an individual mind exists so 
long as there exist those "impressions and ideas" (to ■ 
use Hume's phraseology), which constitute it. But, 
it may be argued, these impressions and ideas are con- 
stantly changed. The same is true of the particles 
which form the substance of the body, yet we regard it, 
from the cradle to the tomb, as one individual body. 
The English nation has existed as such since the days 
of Egfrid and Ini, or at least since the final union of 
the Saxon peoples was made by Egbert in the ninth 
century. During those centuries, however, every unit 
has changed innumerable times, and the composition 
and condition of the nation undergone a complete 
transformation. So the individual mind remains in- 
tact, notwithstanding the manifold changes which take 
place in its component "impressions and ideas." How, 
Mr. Spencer asks, do we recognise these impressions 
as ours ? What warrant have we for regarding them 
as real, while we set aside an " underlying something " 
as unreal? How do we recognise the consciousness, 
continuity, or personality, which constitutes a mental 
being ? 

During the course of evolution, ancestral, prenatal, 
and personal, there has been evolved a sense of dis- 
crimination between subjective and objective exist- 
ence, whereb)' we have come to regard all impressions 
affecting our physical organisation as ours. Tlie ques- 
tion of personality is bound up with that of the rela- 
tion between consciousness and body. No writer has 
done more than Mr. Spencer to prove to us that con- 
sciousness is as much a function of the body as respi- 
ration or digestion, or any physical process whatso- 
ever. Not only is greater complexity of mentality 
associated with greater complexity of cerebral and 
nervous stucture and organisation, but during the pro- 



cess of ideation, chemical and physical action goes on 
in the substance of the brain. Vigorous mental action 
leaves the body as fatigued as vigorous physical exer- 
tion ; during its process certain alkaline phosphates 
are largely produced and afterwards eliminated from 
the system ; a greater rush of blood takes place to the 
brain, resulting, when the pressure has been consider- 
able or prolonged, in those disorders frequent in men 
and women of extraordinary mental powers and activ- 
ity, such as vertigo and partial congestion of the cere- 
bral blood-vessels. Accidents to the body often impair 
consciousness, sometimes only temporarily, but fre- 
quently inflicting permanent injury to the thinking 
faculties. Similarly, we have the connexion between 
delirium and bodily fevers set up by local irritations 
or loss of blood ; insensibility, caused by a blow ; loss 
of speech (aphasia), due to disease of a nerve in the 
head ; loss of memory, illusions, insanity, and other 
morbid conditions of the mind, caused by disease and 
physical injuries. We may note, too, mental and 
moral diseases arising from congenital causes — mur- 
der, kleptomania, dipsomania, and epilepsy — and opin- 
ions caused and modified by climate, temper, health, 
and social surroundings. Finally, we may remark the 
gradual development of mind as the child grows, its 
maturity in middle age, and in general its decline as 
physical energies decline, sometimes merging into 
dotage and senile imbecility, until dissolution of the 
body brings the mental functions to a close. But un- 
derlying all these special facts is the general one that 
the ultimate source of ideas is experience, and that we 
can have no experience save through the organs of 
sense and their adjuncts, the nerves. From which 
two conclusions are irresistible. First, that psychology 
is not in itself a general concrete science, but merely 
a special branch of one, — biology, the science of life 
in all its forms. The second and more important con- 
clusion is that no "underlying something," no inde- 
pendent mind, exists, but that the sensoriiim (to use an 
expression of George Henry Lewes's), of which con- 
sciousness is a function, is coextensive with the entire 
body, from cerebrum to the tiniest and most distant 
nerve-filament. Hence it is that we regard "impres- 
sions and ideas" experienced by us as ours, because 
they are part and parcel of our physical organisation, 
just as are digestion and the circulation of the blood. 
No man suffering from dyspepsia, even though he be 
the most extreme idealist, ever doubts that it is Ins 
stomach which is deranged. Equally, no man ex- 
periencing a certain sensation, receiving a certain im- 
pression, cognising a certain idea, doubts for one 
moment that the sensation, impression, and idea are 

It is here that the modern critical psychology parts 
company entirely with that of Hume, and with its 

physical basis runs little or no risk of merging into 
idealism, as did his. 

The theory here advanced is, nevertheless, simply 
an extension of that of Berkeley, who disputed the 
existence of any "material substratum" or "matter" 
behind the phenomena which are observable, declar- 
ing of these phenomena that "their esse \% percipi, nor 
is it possible that they should have any existence out 
of the minds or thinking things which perceive them,"' 
stripped of what is unphilosophical therein and brought 
up to the discoveries of modern psychology. 

What is the bearing of this theory upon the ques- 
tion of externality? "I do not argue," says Berkeley, 
"against the existence of any one thing that we can 
apprehend, either by sense or reflexion. That the 
things I see with mine eyes and touch with my hands 
do exist, really exist, I make not the least question. 
The only thing whose existence we deny, is that which 
philosophers call matter or corporeal substance. And 
in doing this no harm is done to the rest of mankind, 
who, I dare say, will never miss it ... . while philos- 
ophers may possibly find that they have lost a great 
handle for trifling and disputation. "^ And elsewhere 
he remarks with truth, that "if we thoroughly exam- 
ine this tenet" of a material substratum, we shall find 
it "at bottom to depend on the doctrine of abstract 
ideas. "3 Abstraction is one of the most complex of 
logical processes, consisting in the creation out of 
particular facts of general or abstract ideas, which 
shall include all those characters wherein these facts 
agree, while neglecting all those wherein they differ. 
Man is an abstract idea ; so, too, are color, the press, 
and religion. For there exists in nature no abstract 
man : we are acquainted only with concrete, individual 
men. We know colors, such as red and green, but 
create color in the abstract ; we acquaint ourselves 
with newspapers and their staffs ; there exists a variety 
of religions, of religious doctrines and ceremonials, 
and of religious men and women, but no religion apart 
from these. The same is true of the sciences, so that 
the so-called controversy between science and religion 
is meaningless, except as an expression of conflict be- 
tween certain scientific facts and certain theological 
dogmas, or between the opinions of scientific obser- 
vers and those of theologians. In the same manner, 
the idea of externality is an abstraction : we are con- 
versant with a multitude of phenomena in so far as 
they impress themselves upon our senses, wherefrom 
we infer an existence external to ourselves. We may 
justify realism by many arguments, the setting forth 
of which occupies a considerable portion of Mr. Spen- 
cer's " Principles of Psychology." Let it here suffice 

1 Berkeley, rrhlciplcs 0/ Human K>iowle,/ge. §3. 


■1 /I' id , § 5. 



to remark that even the idealist philosopher himself 
habitually thinks, feels, speaks, and acts as though an 
external world exists ; that our organisation, indeed, 
is such that we cannot but imply its existence in ever}' 
act of life ; and that the minutest examination proves 
only what a cursory one makes us aware of, that there 
exist facts over which we have some sort of control, and 
which are evidently ours, and that there exist others over 
which we have no control whatever, and which are evi- 
dently of an origin beyond our consciousness. ' But an 
idea, as Berkeley says, "can be like nothing but an 
idea";^ a suggestion which Mr. Spencer has worked up 
into his theory of Transfigured Realism. ^ There exist 
an internal world and an external world acting constantly 
upon one another, and, although the impressions con- 
veyed to our minds of the external world of fact, 
through the internal world of sense, cannot be proved 
to be identical with the facts of that external world, 
yet they have acquired, through the evolution of sen- 
sibility, a relation to those facts which is constant and 
reliable. We may call it conventionality or habit, if 
we will, still the relation cannot be denied. It is here 
that Mr. Spencer's philosophy is immeasurably supe- 
rior to that of Berkeley, who appears to drift from a 
critical statement of psychological fact into a visionary 
idealism which denies the existence of everything out- 
side the perceiving mind, and which, as Hume said of 
it later, admitted of no answer, but produced no con- 

But, if Mr. Spencer be thus scientifically right in 
his theory of externality, he is, perhaps, unscientifi- 
cally wrong in that of the unknowable. Nor is he al- 
ways consistent in his use of that term. In the first 
part of " First Principles," the unknowable would ap 
pear to be simply that which could never come within 
human ken. But later he narrows his use of the term, 
until finally we are told by a writer who speaks of the 
idea of a first cause as unthinkable, to regard this un- 
knowable in terms of the persistence of force as an 
"absolute force of which we are indefinitely conscious," 
a "cause which transcends our knowledge and con- 
ception," and an "unconditioned reality, without be- 
ginning or end."-* 

Mr. Spencer's argument may be briefly put. Locke 
urged, in his celebrated Essay, the existence of im- 
passable barriers against human knowledge, trusting 
that when we had learned "how far the understand- 
ing can extend its view, how far it has faculties to at- 
tain certainty, and in what cases it can only judge and 

1 This last was admitted by Berkeley, who distinguished between the 
ideas of sense and those of hiui^itation, declaring the former to have a " stead- 
iness, order, and coherence," which is wanting in the latter, and to be ideas 
"excited by the will of another and more powerful spirit." [See Priticifles, 

and., §8. 

y Spencer, Principles 0/ Psychology, gS 471-474. 
i First Principles, § 62. 

guess," such knowledge would be "of use to prevail 
with the busy mind of man to be more cautious in 
meddling with things exceeding its comprehension ; to 
stop when it is at the utmost extent of its tether ; and 
to sit down in quiet ignorance of those things, which, 
upon examination, are found to be beyond the reach 
of our capacities," for "men may find matter sufficient 
to busy their hands with variety, delight, and satis- 
faction, if they will not boldly quarrel with their own 
constitution, and throw away the blessings their hands 
are filled with, because they are not big enough to 
grasp everything." i Criticising the various theories 
which have been put forward regarding the origin and 
constitution of the universe, Mr. Spencer finds one and 
all to be inconsistent, and contradictory, and incapable 
of standing the strain of criticism, and concludes that 
in our researches into them we are but buffeted be- 
tween opposite absurdities. He finds that ultimately 
matter and force, space and time are in themselves 
alike inscrutable, and that we can only know their 
phenomena. Had he stopped there and maintained 
that these phenomena alone have an objective exist- 
ence, and that matter, force, space, and time are ab- 
stract ideas, having no existence outside the human 
mind, we should not here have found it necessary to 
criticise him. But, instead, he maintains their objec- 
tive reality, and asserts that they are modes of mani- 
festation of an unknowable existence. The fallacy of 
the theory lies in its assumption of the objectivity of 
knowledge. Knowledge is a sum-total of experiences, 
received through the senses, and, as such, can have 
only subjective existence. In other words, there may 
be external facts, but knowledge of them can only be 
within the thinking mind. Hence knowable and un- 
knowable are no more entities than are those human 
creations, the "laws of nature." There are, so far as 
we are aware, no laws in nature — there exist phenom- 
ena, whose observed order and sequence is, for con- 
venience sake, framed into an abstract or general 
law, by which new facts are observed, tested, or ex- 
plained. To the savage, the researches of our labora- 
tories and our observatories are unknowable : his mind 
is so constituted that he could not comprehend them, 
if explained to him. Looking at the universe in its 
relation to human consciousness, we may distinguish 
the known from the unknown, seeking ever to widen 
the domain of the former at the expense of the latter. 
As we have already said, what Kant calls the "pure 
forms of sensibility, elements of knowledge a priori," -' 
and what Mr. Spencer speaks of as "ultimate scien- 
tific ideas," have no existence outside the human mind. 
We distinguish facts into material or dynamic, tem- 
poral or spatial, according to their prevailing charac- 

1 Locke, Essay on the Hutnan Understanding, g§ 4, 

2 Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernun/t, (Leipsic, Reclam,) p. 50. 



ters. But matter in itself, inert and apart from its 
phenomena, is a logical impossibility. It must exist 
in time and space ; if in motion, must be impelled by 
one force ; if immobile, must be kept rigidly in posi- 
tion by another. Space and time, without something 
to exist therein, and force, without something to act 
upon, are alike contradictions in terms. In nature 
there exists no pure matter, no pure force, no abstract 
time and space ; these are general notions framed by 
man to synthesise his conception of the universe in 
which he lives. And so long as he bears in mind that 
they are but ideas of his and uses them as such for 
observation and research, all will be well. The evil 
arises, when, mistaking his words for realities, he dog- 
matises upon them, builds up systems of speculation 
upon them, and raises aloft metaphysical and theologi- 
cal structures, which, when the winds of criticism do 
howl and the billows of logic do break themselves 
thereupon, shall fall with mighty crash, for they were 
builded upon the sands of obscurantism and ambiguity. 
"Words," let us say with Hobbes, "are wise men's 
counters, they do but reckon by them ; but they are 
the money of fools, that value them by the authority 
of an Aristotle, a Cicero, or a Thomas, or any other 
doctor whatever, if but a man."i The fundamental 
necessity to all philosophic discussion is definition. If 
we desire to be of those who speak " with many words 
making nothing understood," we shall throw definition 
to the dogs and exactity to the winds, using our words 
with little respect to meaning. But he who desires to 
make others profit by that which he tells, must first 
learn so to train his language that it represents all his 
thoughts without doubt or ambiguity, nor leaves ready 
room for sophistry. Knowledge is power, but unless 
in the exercise of that power one learns adequately to 
define one's words, to maintain those definitions when 
made, and to swerve therefrom neither to the right 
hand nor to the left, one shall find one's knowledge a 
power not for good but for evil. 


Bishop Berkeley is frequently misunderstood not 
only by the unphilosophical public, but also by phi- 
losophers, and among the latter must be reckoned his 
own disciples and followers, not less than his adversa- 
ries. This great Irish philosopher was much more 
radical than could be expected of a bishop, and he is 
much more in accord with positivism than would be 
generally conceded to a thorough idealist who denies 
the existence of any material substratum called matter. 
Indeed we should say that apart from a difference of 
terminology and of our methods of attacking the vari- 
ous problems — our own view of monistic positivism is 
in close agreement with Berkeley's idealism. We do 

1 Hobbes, Leviathan, c. iv. 

not intend here to expound Berkeley's philosophy or 
enter into a critical examination of it, but shall confine 
ourselves to one point only, concerning which Mr. 
Thomas C. Laws, in his article on "The Metaphysics 
of Herbert Spencer, says : 

"It is here that Mr. Spencer's philosophy is immeasurably 
superior to that of Berkeley, who appears to drift from a critical 
statement of psychological fact into a visionary idealism which 
denied the existence of everything outside the perceiving mind." 

There are quite a number of prominent authors 
like the French materialist Baron D'Holbach and the 
English poet Lord Byron, who publicly confessed that 
they could not refute Berkeley, however unthinkable 
his idealism appeared to them. There must be some 
powerful truth in a statement which cannot be refuted. 
Is Berkeley's system perhaps a consistent description 
of the world in terms commonly used in a different 
sense ? This may be one reason, but there is another 
and weightier one which makes his views unacceptable 
even to those who cannot answer his arguments ; it is 
the fact that he skilfully trips the unconscious meta- 
physicism of materialism as well as spiritualism ; and 
materialism is a lingering chain, which among many 
professed, dualists and monists is still the most deeply 
seated preconception of our time. 

Concerning the passage quoted from Mr. Laws, we 
believe that Berkeley's view is not correctly repre- 
sented. Berkeley denies the existence of a hypostati- 
sation like matter, but he does not deny the existence 
of everything outside the perceiving mind. Does not 
Berkeley speak of God as that something (Berkeley 
awkwardly calls it "spirit") which excites our sense- 
impressions? What Berkeley calls God, we call real- 
ity, and in so far as in reality the All of facts in their 
oneness are the ultimate authority of moral conduct, we 
should make no objection to the Bishop's terminology. 
Berkeley does not deny the reality of things. Here he 
differs from many of his misguided disciples and fol- 
lowers, who imagine they become deep philosophers 
by denying the reality of things. Berkeley is as much 
a realist as any unsophisticated farm-laborer can be, 
who, working with a shovel, trusts that the soil he 
digs is an actuality and no mere illusion. Berkeley 
(as quoted by Mr. Laws) says: "That the things 
I see with my eyes and touch with my hands do 
exist, really exist, I make not the least question." 
What, then, does Berkeley deny, to deserve the name 
idealist? Berkeley denies the existence of a meta- 
physical substratum called matter ; he denies what . 
Professor Huxley and other modern physiologists call 
the physical basis of mind ; he denies that matter 
alone is real, and that mind is only a property of mat- 
ter ; in other words, he denies the metaphysical ex- 
istence of matter and regards matter as a mere ab- 
stract term. 



Mr. Laws regards psychology as a special branch 
of biology and says of " modern critical psychology " 
that it 

"'^ith its physical basis runs little or no risk of merging into 

The mere term "physical basis of mind " implies a 
metaphysical assumption ; it implies the theory, of 
late so lucidly set forth by Mr. Lester F. Ward in the 
January number of The Monist, that matter is real, 
while mind is merely a property of matter, a view 
which we reject as a pseudo-monism, because it uni- 
fies the universe by means of a one-sided system ; it 
is a single-concept theory, not a truly unitary system ; 
It is henism, not monism.' 

If we compare the formal categories of our mind 
to a system of drawers or pigeon-holes in which all 
our experiences are classified and stored away in good 
order, so as to be handy when wanted, the henist feel- 
ing the necessity of bringing unity into his thought- 
material, is like a man who puts all into one great box. 
The spiritualist subsumes everything under spirit, as 
either spirit itself, or a property of spirit ; the materi- 
alist subsumes everything under matter, as either 
matter itself, or a property of matter ; the dynamist 
or mechanicalist subsumes everything under energy 
as a mode of motion or the effect of a motion. True 
monism must always remain conscious of the method 
by which we have constructed our abstract notions ; 
it must not forget that they are thought-symbols to 
which some features of reality correspond, but that 
neither matter, nor spirit, nor energy represent inde- 
pendent entities or things in themselves which can be 
assumed to be the substratum of reality and the meta- 
physical basis of our experience. 

We do not deny that it is sometimes convenient in 
special branches of science to regard matter as thing, 
and color as a quality of matter. But in doing so, we 
must remain conscious of the poetical licence which 
we indulge in. This method of viewing things serves 
a temporary purpose and must be dropped with the 
special occasion. If we retain the fiction of matter 
being the true reality and not merely an abstract repre- 
senting a quality or a number of qualities abstracted 
from our experiences, we shall soon become puzzled 
with the children of our own thought, and, like Mr. 
Spencer, become victims of agnosticism, standing 
overawed with wonder before the simplest generalisa- 
tions, as if they contained the mysteries of being in a 
concentrated form. We need not repeat here how 
Spencer, in his "First Principles," obscures all issues 
so as to render the ideas matter, motion, and mind 

1 See The Monist, Vol. IV, No. 2, "A Monistic Theory of Mind," by Lester 
F. Ward, and the editorial, " Monism and Henism." Compare also Prof. C. 
Lloyd Morgan's article in the present number of Ths Monist (Vol. IV, No. 3), 
pp. 321-332, " Three Aspects of Monism." 

self-contradictory and incomprehensible, thus produc- 
ing mysteries where there are none.' Suffice it to 
say that any one who either unconsciously or con- 
sciously hypostatises his abstract notions will sooner or 
later arrive at mj'sticism or agnosticism, that is to say, 
he will sooner or later be so bewildered with the con- 
fusion of his own thought as to declare: "Philosophy 
is too much for me, I do not understand its problems, 
and as I cannot solve them, no one can." 

Mr. Laws, we are glad to notice, not only rejects 
Mr. Spencer's notion of the unknowable, but also ac- 
cepts the theory of abstraction. He says : 

"Abstraction is one of the most complex of logical processes, 
consisting in the creation out of particular facts of general or ab- 
stract ideas, which shall include all those characters wherein these 
facts agree, while neglecting all those wherein they differ. Man 
is an abstract idea; so, too, are color, the press, and religion." 

But accepting this theory of abstraction, is it not 
inconsistent to speak of consciousness as a function of 
the body, and mind as a product of the brain ; to re- 
gard impressions and ideas as part and parcel of our 
physical (!) organisation? We do not deny, as we said 
above, that occasions may arise in which it might be 
convenient to speak of matter and its properties, or 
even to represent the atoms of the brain as the true 
reality and our thoughts as mere functions of the brain. 
But this view is unphilosophical. Such a licence is 
temporarily allowable when we compare two qualities 
of which the one is relatively stable the other relatively 
transient. For instance, weight and color. In the 
case of mind and brain, however, this mode of speech 
is not admissible, except when we take a purely physi- 
ological aspect and inquire into the brain mechanism 
of thought, excluding feelings, ideas, and the mean- 
ings of ideas. By mind, however, we understand the 
interaction of ideas and the meaning of ideas. When 
speaking of ideas, we should not forget that thinking 
is a mental process, which, if it were visible in a trans- 
parent brain, would appear to an outside observer as 
a brain- motion. But the relatively constant factor in 
thinking is the idea thought and not the material atoms 
of the brain which vibrate while we think. The idea 
remains the same, while the brain-substance is con- 
stantly renewed ; our conceptions remain constant in 
the flux of physiological changes of matter. Thus, as 
soon as we discuss psychological problems we should 
rather be justified in regarding mind as the realitj' and 
brain action as one of its qualities, than the reverse. 
We do not say that psychologists must present men- 
tal problems in this form, but they can provisionally 
assume this view as much as a physicist may speak of 
bodies and their properties. 

In case psychologists adopt the henism of regard- 
ing matter as the real thing and mind as a property 

1 See The Open Court, No. 212. 



only of the brain-cells, they commit themselves to the 
absurdity of regarding the secretions of the nervous 
substance which after having done the thinking are 
thrown out in the natural way, as man's true self. In 
thus identifying ourselves with the material that passes 
through our body, we become blind to the spiritual 
nature of our being and we shall look upon death as a 
finality. When an idea has been thought, the particles 
that did the thinking will soon be replaced by other 
substance, and after a brief time be wiped out of the 
brain, yet the idea will remain in our mind. In the 
same way, when we die our remains will be buried, but 
not we, not our souls, not our true selves, which are 
of a spiritual nature. Our souls can be preserved. Our 
ideas can be thought again, and our aspirations can 
continue. The temple in which they are enshrined 
will be broken, but the temple will be built up again, 
and our spiritual being will be resurrected to new life. 
True monism rejects all hypostatisation, material- 
istic, spiritualistic, or mechanistic. By bearing in 
mind that abstract notions are part-representations of 
reality, describing sections, features or qualities of 
existence, we do not fall a prey to self-mystification, 
and see our way clearly before us. We may differ as 
to the propriety of terms and their definitions, such 
as Reason, God, Religion, and others, but we have 
definite issues and practical problems. The road of 
scientific and philosophical investigation is no longer 
blocked by insolvable mysteries, unknowables or other 
metaphysical hobgoblins. We begin with the facts 
given in experience and are no longer in need of as- 
sumptions, axioms, or hypothetical principles as build- 
ing material for our world-conception. Thus philoso- 
phy has become a science, the statements of which are 
no longer a matter of partisan position or dependent 
upon postulates; they can be decided by investigation 
and subjected to the test of being in agreement or dis- 
agreement with facts. p. C. 



A BOOK of unusual interest and importance in the line of re- 
ligious thought has appeared recently. I refer to Prof. Edward 
Caird's Gifford lectures, " The Evolution of Religion." The dis- 
tinguished author and thinker has only recently succeeded the 
great Greek scholar, the late Professor Jowett, as Master of Bal- 
liol. How well I remember hailing with delight the publication 
of " Essays and Reviews," in i860, and how those of us interested 
in such subjects were encouraged by the now famous dictum of 
Jowett, " Interpret the Bible as you would any other book." And 
now, after a generation of men have left the stage and we are 
nearing the close of the nineteenth century, the new Master of 
Balliol declares that what Christ conceived by a divine intuition, 
what his followers and the Church partly developed, partly mis- 
understood, this is now the proper object of a religious philosophy. 

In an interesting notice of this valuable work in the Ni-w York 
F.vening Post, the author says ; ' ' The result of Professor Caird's 
thought is thus a revised Christianity, from which the traditional 

sort of supernaturalism has indeed been banished. The highly 
unconventional character of the theology thus outlined is obvious. 
The Gospel history is in consequence interpreted without recourse 
to miracle. The greater part of traditional Church dogma appears 
as non-essential opinion having only historical interest. Human 
immortality is apparently, in Professor Caird's mind, at present a 
problem whose philosophical answer is decidedly incomplete, if 
not altogether problematic." 

The point, then, which I wish to make clear is that Professor 
Caird, like Dr. Momerie and other profound thinkers, have, with 
'file Open Coiirl, utterly abandoned the supernaturalism of the 
churches. Even the Bishop of London in a recent address on 
" Faith " said that our faith could not rest entirely on externals, 
including miracles, but we must largely rely upon the faith of the 
soul in the eternal supremacy of holiness, justice, and goodness. 
He said, and they are very remarkable words proceeding from 
such a source, " that the recognition of God is in reality the recog- 
nition of the moral law in action." Is not this the very essence of 
the teaching of TJie Open Court ? 

I would like to call your attention to another book, not so 
weighty and philosophical as the two volumes of Professor Caird, 
but nevertheless a very interesting and suggestive little work, and 
one which should be read carefully by every one interested in the 
great cause Tlie Open Court has at heart. I have reference to 
"The Religion of a Literary Man," by Richard Le Gallienne. 
Allow me to give you two quotations, which fairly give the key- 
note of the little book : "The most vital point at which religious 
controversy formerly ever arrived was the inspiration of the Bible. 
But that difficulty has passed ; we now either accept or reject the 
inspiration of a hundred Bibles, and the question is no longer of 
the inspiration of one book, but of the inspiration of the human 
soul, which has dictated all books." 

This is my second quotation : " To speak of natural religious 
senses will seem redundant to any one familiarised with the ob- 
vious idea that everything that exists, religion included, is ' nat- 
ural,' that 

" ' Nature is made better by no mean, 

But Nature makes that mean : over that art 
Which you say adds to Nature, is an art 
That Nature makes.' 

" But one has been so brought up to regard religion as some- 
thing superimposed upon our human nature, rather than as some- 
thing blossoming out of it, that the habit clings." 

Professor Dowden in his "Studies in Literature," published, 
I think, in the seventies, assumes that such views as M. Le Gal- 
lienne's prevail generally among educated people ; and Mr. Sted- 
man in his charming books, the ' ' Victorian Poets " and " Poets of 
America," seems to take very much the same position. But in 
Mr. Stedman's important work on " The Nature and Elements of 
Poetry " he says in a very just and beautiful eulogy of the " Book 
of Common Prayer ": " The sincere agnostic must be content with 
his not inglorious isolation ; he must barter the rapture and beauty 
and hope of such a liturgy for his faith in something different, 
something compensatory, perchance a future and still more world- 
wide brotherhood of men." 

Did Mr. Stedman never read Mr. Frederick Harrison's "Apol- 
ogy for His Faith " in the Fortnightly Review ? Therein that most 
interesting essayist shows that the advanced thinker always keeps 
touch with the past. The greater includes the less. We have not 
bartered the rapture and beauty and hope of the liturgy. What- 
ever is divine in it, or, in Goethe's phrase, ministers to our highest 
development, we retain as a possession forever. The scholar with 
Emerson "sails with God the seas, " and you cannot bring him 
too good news from any quarter. To return again to Professor 
Caird "the idea of development teaches us to distinguish the one 
spiritual principle which is continually working in man's life, from 



the changing forms through which it passes in the course of its 
history; .... to do justice to the past without enslaving the pres. 
ent, and to give freedom to the thought of the present without for- 
getting that it in its turn must be criticised and transcended by 
the widening consciousness of the future." 

By far the most trenchant criticism of the kind we have been 
considering is that of Mr. Leslie Stephen in his "Agnostic's Apol- 
ogy and Other Essays." In the course of one of his chapters he 
remarks that we cannot change our opinions as we would take 
jewels out of a box and replace them with others. Change o'- 
view— of belief is 2u growth, s. process of the mind. Edmund Scherer 
the distinguished French essayist, said it took him fifteen years of 
study and reflexion before he became completely emancipated 
from the old clerical method of assuming a supernatural and then 
proceeding to build an elaborate theology. We must have a reason 
for the faith that is in us. It is easy now, as Renan says, to pro- 
claim with the gamin in the street that Christ never rose from the 
dead ; but to show the steps of reasoning whereby one arrives at 
that conclusion is a very different thing. We see now very clearly 
that the Bible is a purely liuman production and being written aj 
the time it was, in a perfectly uncritical age and in an oriental 
country, it must perforce of circumstances have contained all kinds 
of marvellous stories, the bodily resurrection of Jesus among the 
rest. Goethe said there is nothing worth thinking but it has been 
thought before ; 'oe must only try to think it again. ' ' What Goethe 
means, " says Mr. Bailey Saunders in his interesting ' ' Maxims and 
Reflexions of Goethe, " "is that we shall do best to find out the 
truth of all things for ourselves, for on one side truth is individ- 
ual ; and that we shall be happy if our icdividual truth is also 
universal, or accords with the wisest thought of the past." 

" The spring of a new era is in the air — an era of faith," ex- 
claims M. Le Gallienne, a great deal of the old faith of the "ages 
of faith, "at least in the formulas, symbols, and expressions now 
long outworn, is, as Renan shows, impossible to the modern crit- 
ical, emancipated mind. M. Le Gallienne and many others are 
almost daily giving us valuable bints for the faith of the future. 
•■ Oh! bells of San Bias, in vain 
Ye call back the past again. 
The past is deaf to your prayer- 
Out of the shadows of night 
The world rolls into light, 
'Tis daybreak everywhere." 


The Chicago election is over, and it is gratifying to read in 
the morning papers that it ' ' passed off quietly. " There were only 
about a hundred fights, all told, with a proper proportion of broken 
heads to each. A goodly number of shots were fired, but as the 
gunners were full of beer the bullets went wild. Only two or 
three men were shot, and even these are "expected to recover." 
In the First Ward it was bullets against ballots, and the bullets 
won. Much patriotic feeling was exhibited in this ward among 
the partisans of Mr. Coughlin and Mr. Skakel, the opposing can- 
didates for the cffice of alderman, and they turned the election 
into a Donnybrook Fair. When the polls closed it was found that 
Mr. Coughlin was elected, and that Mr. Skakel's men were most 
of them in the hospital, or at their various places of residence un- 
der the doctor's care. A large number of colored men live in the 
First Ward, and they showed as much aptitude for American citi- 
zenship as the white men. Two of them, " Slicky Sam " Phillips 
and "Toots" Marshal! fought a duel m the crowded thoroughfare 
at the corner of Taylor and State Streets, but, unfortunately, al- 
though they "emptied their revolvers," only one of them was 
wounded, and this was explained as due more to accident than 
aim, because his feet were "unusually large, " and one of them 
stopped a bullet. One of Mr. Skakel's band-wagons was filled 
with hireling musicians, playing "Marching through Georgia, " 

and they had the temerity to blow their bugles in front of "Hinky 
Dink's" saloon, the headquarters of the Coughlin party. As might 
have been expected, they were welcomed with a volley from the 
revolvers of the Coughlin men. The musicians ' ' ducked, " and the 
bullets passing o\er them went into McCoy's Hotel, but merely 
breaking the windows and the plaster on the inside walls. No 
blame attaches to the Coughlin men for this, because it is con- 
ceded by public sentiment that the quality of the music justified 
the shooting. This election was merely for aldermen and town- 
ship officers ; it did not include within its fortunes the glory and 
emoluments of national, state, or county candidates, and that's 
the reason it "passed off quietly." 

Anxious to see how the civil war in South Carolina was get- 
ting along, I glanced over the dispatches from Columbia dated 
April 3, and I found at the beginning of them these rather startling 
headlines: "Tillman makes an incendiary speech at Columbia." 
Knowing that the person spoken of as "Tillman" was the Gov- 
ernor of South Carolina, I wondered how a magistrate of such 
high rank and royalty could make an incendiary speech, for I had 
supposed that only swarthy laborers, rude rebellious men of low 
degree, or " pale-browed enthusiasts," impatient of social wrongs, 
could commit such a crime as that. Surely the order and arrange- 
ment of affairs in this conservative world must be turning upside 
down when governors compete with labor agitators in the business 
of setting politics on fire by means of incendiary speeches. Sedi- 
tion may become fashionable yet, although there is none of it in 
the oratory of Governor Tillman, so far as I can see. Incendiary 
speeches are usually directed against the law, but those of Gov- 
ernor Tillman are passionate appeals in favor of the law, and they 
express a determination to suppress the revolutionary factions and 
the mutinous militia that seek to overthrow the law. The revolt 
of the militia is ominous, because it throws another element of 
uncertainty into the social problem, for if the militia is not to be 
relied on, what is the use of our armories and our Gatling guns ' 
* * * 

Whatever we may think about the laws of South Carolina, or 
the policy of Governor Tillman, we must admit that he is neither 
a time-server nor a coward. There is manly stuff in this governor, 
and a good supply of that civic nerve that all magistrates ought to 
have. "I have sworn to enforce the laws," he said ; "the dis- 
pensary law is on the statute books, and I will exert all the powers 
of my office to see that the law is obeyed." We have so many in- 
vertebrate politicians in power now, supple statesmen who, undu- 
lating gracefully as worms, can wriggle up and down through all 
the rounds of a ladder, that a chief magistrate, who in the midst 
of mutiny and civil turmoil, with assassination promised him, can 
stand erect on his feet without breaking, looks like one of the old 
heroic statues of the Greeks. The very sight of these in their 
majestic strength and symmetry makes all of us a little stronger 
than we might otherwise be. Goiernor Tillman makes no pre- 
tensions to orate ry or scholarship, and perhaps the critics may be 
able to show some rhetorical mistakes in the poise and balance of 
his words, but there are parts of the speech he made at Columbia 
on Monday that remind us of the oration of Cicero when he told 
the Senate of the plot that had been formed for his assassination 
Referring to a similar plot against himself. Governor Tillman 
said : "One man told Mr. Yelldell here that he came from Edge- 
field, my own county, with a shotgun to kill me Friday night. My 
life is not worth much to me, but it is worth as much to me as the 
life of any other man is to him, but rather than desert my pos', 
where you have placed me, I would have stood there until I fdl 
dead. The men who are threatening to fire this powder magazine 
are the bar-room element, and those who are urging them on are 
the rulers of the old oligarchy. This riot is a political frenzy; I 
shall not swerve an inch from the stand that I have taken as the 



people's governor. You may imagine from this that I am going 
to aggravate the trouble, but I am simply going to uphold the 
law." This rebuke to the antediluvian aristocracy, this defiance 
o£ the conspirators, this elevation of duty above life itself, all in- 
tensified by a renewal of his oath to enforce the law, give to the 
speech of Governor Tillman a spirit and dignity not surpassed in 
the famous oration against Catiline. 

A very fine distinction, one of the finest in the moral code, 
was drawn the other day by the striking workmen who had been 
employed at Crane's factory in Chicago. They were holding a 
meeting at Bricklayers' Hall, when a donation amounting to twenty 
dollars was received from Mr- Jacob Horn, the candidate for West 
town assessor, and a discussion immediately arose as to the pro- 
priety of accepting money from a candidate. According to the re- 
port in the paper, as to the truth of which, however, I am rather 
sceptical, it was decided to return the money. At the same meet- 
ing, a letter was read from A. F. Hoffman, the Democratic candi- 
date for West Town collector, in which he " donated" twenty kegs 
of beer to be used at the ball which the strikers will give at the 
Second Regiment Armory. The beer was accepted with entbusi- 
asiic cheers. The moral difference between a gift of money and 
a gift of beer as a bid for votes is finer than a spider's thread, and 
yet there are consciences that can walk securely on that flimsy 
string. Old Stillman Strong of Marbletown used to say when 
tempted at election time, " A soul I have above lucre, money can- 
not buy me, but whiskey can." There are many men who have 
moral constitutions just like that of Stillman Strong. When Gen. 
Albert Sidney Johnstone was about starting in command of the 
Utah expedition, an officer came to him and asked permission to 
take a box of books, but the General answered, "No, there are 
not wagons enough to carry the baggage absolutely necessary for 
the expedition." Then the officer asked if he might carry a barrel 
of whiskey afong, and the General replied, "Certainly! Certainly! 
Anything in reason !" 

Two or three weeks ago, I predicted that the army of General 
Coxey would straggle out of existence without ever coming within 
sight of Pittsburg. I was wrong ; and hereafter I shall prophesy 
after the fact, for in spite of some desertions, the army increased 
a little every day, and it marched into Pittsburg nearly three hun- 
dred strong. Not only that, but it was at Pittsburg and Alleghany 
that the army became of any serious interest or importance, and 
this through the illegal and arbitrary measures adopted by the 
police. Before the police powers interfered with Coxey 's men in 
a harsh despotic way, the army was merely amusing, a grotesque 
imitation of the tatterdemallion company recruited by Sir John 
Falstaff ; but after that interference, it represented liberty, and it 
commanded sympathy. The imprisonment of the army in the 
corral at Alleghany with a police deadline drawn around it, was 
an assault upon the freedom of American citizens to travel from 
one part of the country to another either on foot or on the excur- 
sion train. The arrest, imprisonment, and punishment by fine of 
citizens guilty of no crime was an unwarranted act of persecution 
done by the magistrates and police in anarchistic defiance of the 
Constitution of the United States and of the Constitution of Penn- 
sylvania. It was drawing another deadline between the classes 
and the masses, between the rich and the poor ; and it was gather- 
ing up wraih for the day of wrath. It was altogether gratuitous 
and unnecessary, a wanton exercise of bludgeon power, adding 
another contribution to that threatening mass of discontent which 
is already too large for the peace and safety of the republic. It 
gave dramatic dignity to a spectacle which previously was nothing 
but burlesque. 

M. M. Trumbull. 


Dr. Jenkin Lloyd Jones takes issue with Dr. Harper for mak- 
ing a distinction between the office of the preacher and the teacher. 
Dr. Harper, who has given offence to his Baptist brethren for 
presenting in his lectures some of the results of modern Bible 
criticism says : " If I were a preacher and were preaching about 
these stories I would minimise the human element and magnify 
the divine element, but as a teacher I must present both sides. I 
am presenting facts." Dr. Jones understands Dr. Harper to say 
that "the preacher's vocation is less than that of a truth teller," 
and that it is his business (in the words of Jeremiah) to "bend his 
tongue as if it were a bow for falsehood. " He takes the proposition 
of "minimising" and "magnifying" in the sense of disfiguring 
or misrepresenting. And truly Dr. Jones is right in holding that 
any falsehood is to be denounced, be it in the preacher or in the 
teacher. All that Dr. Jones says in condemnation of equivocalness 
is true, and we agree with him that the preacher's first allegiance 
not less than the teacher's is to truth, and all other considerations of 
tact, propriety, regard for the sentiments of others and so forth, are 
to be subordinated to this supreme law of moral conduct. But we 
must add. Is it fair to understand Professor Harper to mean that 
he expects the preacher to hide the truth ? Is it charitable to put 
this interpretation upon his utterance ? We have not seen the 
quoted sentence in its context, but are confident that Dr. Harper 
uses the word " magnify " in the sense of " emphasise." It is not 
the office of the clergyman to preach on Biblical criticism ; the 
office of the clergyman is to preach morality. By God we under- 
stand the authority of moral conduct, and " divine " is according to 
common usage all that is elevating and sanctifying. In this sense 
President Harper is right when he says that the preacher must 
make great the divine, while a teacher has simply to lay down 
facts. The preacher's duty is higher ; he has to teach the truth 
and utilise it for practical life. The facts which he presents must 
serve a purpose and to present facts which have no bearing upon 
practical morality is out of place in the pulpit. We expect that 
President Harper is still attached to the old dogmatism of his 
church and has probably other conceptions than we of what God 
and Divine are ; but that need not concern us here. The main 
thing is that it is not probable, nay, impossible, that he meant what 
he is criticised for. 

A note of correction seems necessary concerning General 
Trumbull's statement in No. 344 of Tlic Open C<'«;V (article "Kos- 
suth") of General Gorgei's "desertion." The word "desertion" 
does not imply treachery, but suggests it. Gorgei surrendered to 
the Russians because further resistance was absolutely hopeless, 
and in the honest belief that better terms would be thus obtained, 
not from a treacherous desertion of the Hungarian cause. 




DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



C. Laws 4039 


THE NEW ERA. Atherton Blight 4044 

CURRENT TOPICS : A Quiet Election. Incendiary 
Speech. Governor Tillman's Militia. Election Beer. Po- 
lice Anarchy in Pennsylvania. Gen. M, M. Trumbull 4045 
NOTES 4046 


The Open Court. 



No. 347. (Vol. VIII.— 16.) 

CHICAGO, APRIL 19, 1894. 

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The name of this Sunday is Jubilate, which means 
"Rejoice." We celebrate to-day no great event Hke 
that of the Nativity, the Resurrection, or Pentecost, 
but in the lesson ^ selected for this day we find the 
little circle of disciples who gathered about Jesus 
stricken with grief and apprehension. Jesus speaks 
of his departure which will be in a little while, and 
anxiety fills their hearts. Nevertheless the key-note 
of the words of Jesus is "Rejoice and fear not, for I 
have conquered the world." 

This world in which we live is full of sorrow. We 
are surrounded by dangers, and the worst of all dan- 
gers, temptations. Sin is in the world, and as every 
sin has its evil consequences, there are the curses of 
sin in all their ugly forms. Finally, there is death, 
that gaunt spectre most dreaded of all evils, yet in- 
evitably awaiting us all. Who of us has not stood 
at the open grave of some one of his dearest kindred, 
parent, brother, sister, or a beloved child. In such a 
world we need support in tribulations, comfort in af- 
flictions, and guidance through the vicissitudes of life. 

The greatest religions of the world have found a 
solution of the problem of life, in an entire surrender 
of self, with all its vanity and petulancy. This indi- 
vidual existence of ours is hopelessly doomed, so let 
it go. Cease to worry about it, and attend to the 
nobler purpose of fulfilling the duties which in your 
station and position devolve upon you. A thinking 
man, when considering the conditions of life, will nat- 
urally come to the knowledge that it is a mistake to 
regard ourselves as wholes. We are parts only, and 
we must seek the purpose of our being in something 
greater than we are. 

The old philosopher Lao-tsze, who lived in China 
six hundred years before Christ, before Cyrus had 
founded the Persian Empire and when our ancestors 
were still savages, says in his wonderful little book, 
the "Tao-Teh-King ": 

' ' He that regards himself as a part shall be preserved en tire. - 

1 St. John svi, 16-23. 

2 John Chalmers translates the passage ; " He that humbles Lhimself] shall 
be preserved entire." James Legge translates: "The partial becomes com- 

He that bends himself shall be straightened. 

He that makes himself empty shall be filled. 

He that wears himself out shall be renewed. 

He that is diminished shall succeed. 

He that is boastful shall fail. 

Therefore, the sage embraces the one thing that is needed, 
and becomes a pattern for all the world. 

He is not self-dispiaying, and, therefore, he shines. 

He is not self-approving, and, therefore, he is distinguished. 

He is not self-praising, and, therefore, he has merit. 

He is not self-e.\alting, and, therefore, he stands high, and 
inasmuch as he strives not for recognition, no one in the world 
strives with him." 

Lao-tsze adds these words, which indicate that 
others before him had thought as he had : 

"That ancient saying, 'He that regards himself as apart 
shall be preserved entire,' is no vain utterance. Verily he shall 
be returned home entire." 

It is a natural mistake to look upon our self as an 
entirety, as a whole. Our life appears to us as the 
world itself ; everybody is inclined to look upon his 
own existence as a universe which has its own pur- 
pose in itself. It is a natural mistake into which liv- 
ing beings will fall unless they are on their guard, but 
it is a mistake nevertheless ; it is a serious mistake ; 
indeed, the fundamental error from which flow all 
other errors, sins, and crimes. To avoid this error of 
selfishness must be the essence of all the instruction 
we impart to our children ; it must be the essence of 
all the religion to which we cling. The world is not 
a part of us, but we are a part of the world. If we 
adjust our life as if the world were a part of our self, 
we shall inevitably suffer shipwreck, while if we un- 
derstand the proper conditions of our existence we 
shall act virtuously and find consolation for the ills of 

The purpose we set ourselves is the essence of our 
life ; our body is only the instrument of this purpose. 
Find out what a man aspires to, what ambition he has, 
what aims he pursues, and you have the key to his 
character. His purpose is the nature of his being ; 
it is his soul. Now, he whose purpose is self, will in- 
volve himself in difficulties, and when the hour of 
death comes he will die like a beast of the field ; his 
soul is lost; the purpose of his life was in vain. He 
may have enjoyed life in empty pleasures, but they 



are gone as if they had never been. And his history 
is writ in water. 

It lies deeply rooted in the constitution of being 
that selfishness is a fatal error, for our self is transient, 
it is doomed to die, but if the purpose of our being is 
such as will endure beyond the grave, our soul will 
not die when our life is ended. Death will not touch 
us, and we shall be preserved entire, our soul will 

There have been, and are still, philosophers who 
teach that the purpose of life is to get out of it as much 
pleasure as possible. How shallow, how empty is this 
view of life, and how insufficiently will such a maxim 
serve us as a rule of conduct ! The great religious 
teachers of mankind, men like Lao-tsze, Buddha, and 
Christ have seen deeper. Jesus says: "Take my 
yoke upon you and learn of me, for I am meek and 
lowly in heart, and you shall find rest unto your souls 
for my yoke is easy and my burden is light." 

Self- surrender appears to the selfish as the greatest 
sacrifice possible ; but it is only the first step that 
costs. The practice of every virtue is easy to him who 
has freed himself from the vanity of the conceit of self. 
He who has taken his cross upon his shoulders will 
soon experience the truth of Christ's word : " My yoke 
is easy and my burden is light." 

The great moral teachers who have seen the depth 
and breadth of life agree in this, that there is but one 
escape from the evils of existence : it is the surrender 
of self, and to live in a higher whole. Says Schiller in 
his Xenions : 

"Art thou afraid of death ? Thou wishest for life everlasting. 
Live as a part of the whole, when thou art gone it remains." 

In the same spirit the German poet sets forth his 
doctrine of salvation : 

" Out of life ever lie two roads for every one open : 
To the Ideal the one leadeth, the other to death, 
Try to escape in freedom, as long as you live, on the former. 
Ere on the latter you are doomed to destruction and death." 

This, then, is the essence of all true religion : to sur- 
render selfishness and lead the nobler life of a higher 
purpose. He who takes this view lifts himself above 
the limited range of the individual and enters a higher 
sphere of existence. He partakes of that peace of 
mind which is the sole source of happiness, for thus 
the tribulations of life touch him no longer. He has 
overcome death and breathes the air of immortality. 
His purpose continues after death and grows with the 
advance of human thought. His soul marches on in 
the progress of mankind, and his life will be a build- 
ing-stone in the temple of humanity. 

This essence of all true religion has been covered 
by the overgrowth of superstitions. It has been ossi- 
fied in dogmas, it has been neglected and forgotten, 
yet again and again men rose to rediscover it and tg 

teach its truth. Let us hold fast to it, let us have it 
preached in our pulpits, and let us hand it down to 
our children and our children's children as their most 
precious inheritance. 

Religion is a great power in this world, and it af- 
fects people in various ways, according to their char- 
acters. Let our religion be broad and kind-hearted, 
so as to embrace in its sympathy all the world and ex- 
clude nothing. Let it be the religion of the serious 
thinker, and above all of the energetic and active man. 
Thus we find three things which should characterise 
religion : (i) Religion must have sentiment without 
being sentimental ; (2) Religion must be rational but 
not rationalistic ; and (3) Religion must be practical 
but not ostentatious. 

Religion must comprise the whole man. It must 
penetrate his heart, his head, and his will. May our 
religion be lacking in none of its essential elements! 
May it be in the heart, so as to cheer us in hours of 
affliction, and warm our emotions with noble and 
holy aspirations for righteousness ; may it be of the 
head, so as to keep our minds sound and sober, and 
lest we sink into superstitions ; may it be of the will, 
so as to make of our faculties a power for good and 
our life a source of blessing, not only to our present 
surroundings but also to later generations, a well of 
the living waters of spiritual influence which will never 
run dry. 

We say first, religion must have sentiment without 
being sentimental. By sentimentality we understand 
that disposition of mind in which sentiments rule. A 
sentimental man allows himself to be carried away by 
his feelings. He is like an engine in which the gover- 
nor does not perform its function. He is not well- 
balanced, and lacks the regulation of rational self- 
critique. Those who are sentimental, are as a rule good- 
natured, and in many respects admirable people. Their 
intentions are pure, but following the impulse of the 
moment they are rash and frequently commit them- 
selves to acts, the consequences of which they have not 
considered. They are apt to venture into enterprises 
which are too much for them, and their judgment is 
influenced by the moment. Sentiment should not be 
lacking in any man or woman, for sentiment is the 
substance of which the world of spirit is made. Never- 
theless, sentiment must not be the master ; sentiment 
must not be the supreme ruler and king in the domain 
of the soul. Sentiment must accompany all thoughts 
and actions ; it must be the warm breath of life that 
casts over them the glow of sympathy and love. Sen- 
timent must give color to our life but must not 
shape it. Without sentiment life would be bleak and 
indifferent, as the astronomers tell us that the land- 
scape on the moon must be, where in the absence of 
an atmosphere all the sky presents itself only in the 



sharp contrasts of glaring light or absolutel}' black 
darkness. There is no gentle transition from night to 
day or day to night, no dawn, no evening red, and thus 
the world appears to be dreary, cold, and dead. Pre- 
serve the fervor of sentiment, for without it man would 
become mechanical like a calculating machine ; above 
all preserve the enthusiasm for your religious convic- 
tions ; but beware of sentimentality as a dominating 
power ; beware of suppressing the functions of crit- 
ical investigation. Always let the ultimate decision 
in }'Our believing, and still more so in the activity of 
practical life, lie with cool deliberation, which impar- 
tially weighs every reason why. Have your sentiments 
under control. That will make you self-possessed, 
calm, and strong. 

Sentiment in religion is a valuable quality. It fre- 
quently happens that the youthful enthusiasm of a 
man declines with advancing years while his rational 
insight increases. But this is neither desirable nor 
necessary. Let not your zeal for truth and right be 
chilled because you have learned to winnow the wheat 
from the chaff. On the contrary, the purer, the truer, 
and the more clear-headed your religion is, the more 
you ought to cherish it and love it, the more you 
should be ready to make sacrifices for its dissemina- 
tion, the more fervid you should be in your efforts to 
spread it over the world. 

It has been said that the vitality of a religion can 
be measured by the exertions made in its missionary 
propaganda, and this is not without truth ; therefore, 
let it be your duty to work for the propagation of a 
purer religion undefiled by superstition, and do not 
fall behind others in your zeal for its holy cause. 

As the second requisite of a sound religion we de- 
mand that it be rational without being rationalistic. 
There have been great religious teachers, such as St. 
Augustine, and Luther, who unqualifiedly declare that 
religion must from its very nature appear irrational 
to us. They claim that reason has no place in reli- 
gion, and must not be allowed to have anything to do 
with it. The ultimate basis of a religious conviction, 
they urge, is not knowledge but belief, a view which in 
its utmost extreme is tersely expressed in the famous 
sentence, Credo quia absurdiim — I believe because it is 
absurd. In opposition to this one-sided conception of 
the nature of religion, rationalists arose who attempted 
to cleanse religion of all irrational elements, and their 
endeavors have been crowned with great results. We 
owe to their efforts the higher development of religion, 
and must acknowledge that they were among the he- 
roes who liberated us from the bondage of supersti- 
tion. Nevertheless, the rationalistic movement, that 
movement in history which goes by the name of ration- 
alism, is as one-sided as its adversary. Without any soul 
for poetry its apostles removed from the holy legends 

the miraculous as well as the supernatural, and were 
scarcely aware of how prosaic, flat, and insipid religion 
became under this treatment. On the one hand they 
received the accounts of the Bible in sober earnest- 
ness like historical documents ; on the other hand they 
did not recognise that the main ideas presented in re- 
ligious writings were of such a nature as to need the 
dress of myth. We know now that the worth and 
value of our religious books does not depend upon their 
historical accuracy, but upon the moral truths which 
they convey. We do not banish fairy-tales from the 
nursery because we have ceased to believe in fairies 
and ogres. These stories are in their literal sense 
absurd and impossible, yet many of them contain gems 
of deep thought ; many of them contain truths of 
great importance. The rationalistic movement started 
from wrong premises, and pursued its investigations 
on erroneous principles. Our rationalists tried to cor- 
rect the letter and expected thus to purify the spirit. 
But they soon found it beyond their power to restore 
the historical truth, and in the meantime lost sight of 
the spirit. They were like the dissector who searches 
for the secret of life by cutting a living organism into 
pieces ; or like a chemist, who, with the purpose of 
investigating the nature of a clock, analyses the chem- 
ical elements of its wheels in his alembic. The mean- 
ing of religious truth cannot be found by rationalising 
the holy legends of our religious traditions. 

Rationalism is a natural phase of the evolution of 
religious thought, but it yields no final solution of the 
problem. In a similar way our classical historians 
attempted in a certain phase of the development of 
criticism to analyse Homer and the classical legends. 
They rationalised them by removing the irrational 
elements, and naively accepted the rest as history. 
The historian of to-day has given up this method and 
simply presents the classical legends in the shape in 
which they were current in old Greece. Legends may 
be unhistorical, what they tell may never have hap- 
pened, yet they are powerful realities in the develop- 
ment of a nation. They may be even more powerful 
than historical events, for they depict ideals, and ideals 
possess a formative faculty. They arouse the enthu- 
siasm of youth and shape man's actions, and must 
therefore be regarded as among the most potent fac- 
tors in practical life. 

We regard the rationalistic treatment of Bible sto- 
ries as a mistake, yet for that reason we do not accept 
the opposite view of the intrinsic irrationality of reli- 
gion. We do not renounce reason ; we do not banish 
rational thought from the domain of religion. Al- 
though we regard any attempt at rationalising reli- 
gious legends as a grave blunder, we are nevertheless 
far from considering reason as anti-religious. On the 
contrary, we look upon reason as the spark of divinity 



in man. Reason is that faculty by virtue of which 
we can say that man has been created in the image of 
God. Without reason man would be no higher than 
a beast of the field. Without rational criticism reli- 
gion would be superstition pure and simple, and we 
demand that religion must never come in conflict with 
reason. Religion must be in perfect accord with 
science ; it must never come into collision with ra- 
tional thought. Reason after all remains the guiding- 
star of our life. Without reason our existence would 
be shrouded in darkness. 

It is not enough, however, to let religion fill our 
soul with holy sentiments and penetrate our intellec- 
tualit)'. Religion must dominate our entire being and 
find expression in practical life. Our religion must be 
the ultimate motive of all our actions : thus alone can 
we consecrate our lives and transfigure our existence ; 
thus alone can we conquer the vanity of worldliness 
and overcome the evils of life ; thus alone learn to re- 
joice in the midst of affliction ; and thus alone can we 
calmly and firmly confront death. Our rest in the 
grave will be sweet if our souls can look back upon life 
without regret or remorse, if they have the conscious- 
ness that with all our faults and shortcomings we were 
always animated with the right purpose ; that under 
the circumstances we always did our best, and that we 
remained faithful to the highest purpose of our most 
sacred ideals. 

Religion is needed not so much in our churches as 
in the homes and streets of our cities. Religion does 
not consist in joining a church, and making people 
know that we profess religious principles. Joining a 
church is a means to an end. Worst of all would it 
be to use religion for the purpose of establishing our 
credit among financiers. Let our religion appear in 
our life and let our actions demonstrate our convic- 
tions. Religion is needed not on Sundays only, but 
on workdays also, not for worshipping but in the in- 
tercourse with our fellows, in the relation between 
husband and wife, parents and children, master and 
servant, employers and laborers, buyers and sellers, 
in the offices of office-holders ; in a word, in all the 
duties of life. Religion must become practical ; it must 
be realised in deeds ; and the blessing of a religious 
man will not only go out into the world and contribute 
its share in the general progress of mankind, but it 
will also return to himself some time, perhaps when 
he least expects it. 

Religion, if it be a real power applied in prac- 
tical life, has a wonderful faculty of preservatiejn. 
Even the lower forms of religious belief which are still 
mingled with superstitious elements, afford to young 
men and young women an extraordinary strength; they 
give character and stability to their whole mental 
frame, which otherwise they might lack. Do not, there- 

fore, neglect the religious side of education, but arouse 
the interest of the growing generation in the deepest 
problems of life. Religion, if taken seriously, is the 
centre of our spiritual existence ; as the religion of a 
man is, so will be his inclinations and his purposes; 
and again, as his inclinations and purposes are, so will 
be his destiny. The fate of a man, the development 
of his life, depends in the first instance upon his reli- 
gion. The absence of religion, therefore, is a great 
lack, but if religion be a mere theory or an empty cer- 
emonial, it is wholly inefficient, even as if it had no 

The ultimate test of religion after all does not lie 
in the satisfaction and comfort we derive from it, nor 
can it be found in the purely theoretical criticism of 
its arguments, but must be sought in its practical ap- 
plication. That religion is the true religion which 
bears fruit and brings about the desired results. Our 
sentiments must maintain the right attitude, and our 
comprehension must correctly understand the nature 
of life ; yet our religion profiteth nothing, but is as 
sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal unless it be the 
mainspring of our actions and find a realisation in our 

We, as children of the nineteenth century believe 
in evolution. Now, let our belief in evolution not be 
a mere scientific theory. Let it be a truly religious 
faith in the possibility of moral progress. Let us not 
only reject the special-creation doctrine, but let us 
trust in the grand potentialities of the future. Above 
all, let us consider that religion too is still able to de- 
velop into a higher and purer faith. In this sense, 
we repeat the poet's^ lines on the progress of religion : 

" Upon religion's sacred page 

The gathered beams of ages shine ; 
And, as it hastens, every age 
But makes its brightness more divine. 

On mightier wing, in loftier flight, 
From year to year does knowledge soar ; 

And, as it soars, religious light 
Adds to its influence more and more. 

More glorious still as centuries roll 
New regions blest, new powers unfurled. 

Expanding with the expanding soul, 
Its waters shall o'erflow the world : 

Flow to restore, but not destroy ; 

As when the cloudless lamp of day 
Pours out its flood of light and joy. 

And sweeps each lingering mist away." 

May the Spirit of Truth descend upon our souls, 
and when we find that the duties of life demand self- 
surrender, let us strengthen our will so that we may 
shrink not from what appears to us as the greatest of 

1 This hymn on " The Progress of Gospel Truth " is by Sir John Bowring. 
It was apparently intended to convey another idea than it here acquires in the 
connexion in which it is quoted. We have changed the words '* the Gospel's 
sacred page " and " the Gospel light " into " religion's sacred page " and " re- 
ligious light," so as to indicate that we believe, not so much in the spreading 
of the letter of the Gospel, as in its progress, viz,, in the extensive and also 
intensive growth of the religious spirit of the Gospel. 



sacrifices but press on to attain that religious attitude 
of mind which fills our hearts with hallowed joy and 
imparts to us bliss everlasting. p. c. 



The historian of moral philosophy can derive many 
instructive, and often amusing, commentaries from 
the records of a time when our ancestors had not yet 
mastered the art of using speech as a mask for the 
concealment of their thoughts. 

When Joshua, the son of Nun, decided to make 
war upon the kingdom of Ai, he did not prate about 
natural boundaries and the necessity of establishing a 
balance of power, but frankly stated that he had been 
inspired to possess himself of the king's cattle ; and 
with a similar candor Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, 
specified his reason for suppressing the palestras, or 
athletic training-schools, of his island. He did not 
deny the importance of physical exercise, and proba- 
bly permitted his subjects to train in private gymna- 
siums, but stated that he considered competitive gym- 
nastics incompatible with that meekness of character 
which disposed the islanders to submit to his rule. 

In other words, the ingenuous pirate-king reasoned 
that the worship of physical prowess tends to counter- 
act submissive effeminacy, and should therefore not 
be encouraged by a despotism founded upon the sub- 
missiveness of its victims. 

That syllogism furnishes the main key to the 
enigma of the thousand years' war which the spirit 
of asceticism has waged against the culture of the 
manly powers. Experience and the instinct of self- 
preservation convinced them that the duty of intel- 
lectual self-abasement could not easily be enforced 
against that pride of self-reliance and independence 
engendered by the enjoyment of physical triumphs and 
constantly reacting from physical upon mental ten- 
dencies. While the worn-out nations of Southern 
Europe had accepted the gospel of renunciation with 
the eagerness of men fleeing from a forfeited earthly 
paradise to the promise of a better hereafter, the Sax- 
ons and Norsemen had to be converted with battle-axe 
arguments and often preferred death to submission, 
or, like the heroic Visigoths, metamorphosed the creed 
of St. Augustine into Arianism. The mediaeval knights, 
in their mountain strongholds, too, defied the power of 
the priests almost as openly as the Sumatra Highland- 
chiefs defy the summons of the European missiona- 
ries, and it is no accident that the outbreak of the 
Protestant revolt was confined to the manful nations 
of Northern Europe and a few communities of hunters 
and herders in the upper Alps. There was a time 
when the orthodoxy of almost every country of the 
Christian world could be measured by the physical de- 

generation of its inhabitants, — the extremes being 
marked by the saint-worship of the effeminate Byzan- 
tines and the semi-pagan scepticism of the iron-fisted 
Northmen; and the priests soon learned to appreciate 
the value of enervation as a means of grace. They 
lost no opportunity for depreciating the value of physi- 
cal exercise. They dissuaded their converts from visit- 
ing the palestras, and struck a death-blow at the 
lingering spirit of nature-worship when they persuaded 
the despot Theodosius to suppress the celebration of 
the Olympic Festivals. 

But the apostles of anti-naturalism had another 
reason for dreading the influence of physical education. 
The culture of physical prowess not only lessened the 
chance of subduing the revolts against the gospel of 
renunciation, but directly antagonised the propaganda 
of one of its root-dogmas : the supposed necessity of 
sacrificing the joys of earth to the hope of heaven. 

The doctrine of that dualism that contrasts the in- 
terests of the earthly body and the heaven- destined 
soul explains the self-tortures of the early Christian 
devotees, but found its most characteristic assertion 
in the rules of several monastic orders of the Middle 
Ages — rules unmistakably intended to undermine the 
moral and physical manhood of the wretched convent- 
slaves. They were weakened by vigils and fasts ; they 
were required to perform preposterous acts of self- 
abasement ; they were scourged like galley-slaves. For 
centuries novices had to pass through an ordeal of ill- 
treatment that broke down the health of all but the 
hardiest, while ever}' revival of vigor was checked by a 
system of periodical bleedings. The name of antimony 
is said to have been derived from the custom of admin- 
istering the virulent drug to monks whose constitutions 
had resisted milder prescriptions, and many mediaeval 
abbots of the austere orders mixed the scant fare of 
their subordinates with wormwood, to obviate the risk 
of the dinner-hour being welcomed as an intermission 
in the series of physical afflictions. 

Few tyrants of pagan antiquity would have dreamed 
of aggravating the odium of their despotism by such 
refinements of inhumanity, but the mediaeval hierarchs, 
besides coveting the kingdom of the earth, considered it 
their duty to qualify their converts for the kingdom of 
heaven by making their bodies the scapegoats of their 

Under the stimulus of that two-edged motive, the 
Church has often persecuted the promoters of arena- 
sports with a rancor rarely shown in their opposition 
to war or the most inhuman forms of slavery and des- 
potism. The same priesthood that instigated the man- 
hunts of the Crusades, denounced tourneys, and a re- 
markable paragraph of the Canonical Statutes warns 
confessors against absolving hunters without imposing 
special penalties, and adds : "Esau was a huntsman 



because he was a sinner" (Esau venator, quonium 
pecator erat, et qui venatoribus donant non homini 
donant, sed arti nequissimas !) 

The same Puritans who howled up the murderous 
wars of the Cromwell era, howled down May- day 
sports ; and numerous moralists who connived at sla- 
very, fiercely denounced boxing-matches and cock- 

The suppression of athletic sports has for thousands 
of our fellow-citizens made city-life a synonym of physi- 
cal degeneration. The lack of better pastimes, rather 
than innate depravity, has driven millions to the rum- 
shops, and explains such moral portents as the White 
Cap epidemics and the organisation of burglar syndi- 
cates among the schoolboys of our f««///-ridden Amer- 
ican country towns. 

And there is no doubt that the same cause tends to 
defeat the efforts of our metropolitan home-missiona- 
ries. " Every one, " says Lecky, "who considers the 
world as it really exists, must have convinced himself 
that in great cities, where multitudes of men of all 
classes and all characters are massed together, and 
where there are innumerable strangers, separated from 
all domestic ties and occupations, public amusements 
of an exciting order are absolutely necessary, and that 
to suppress them is simply to plunge an immense por- 
tion of the population into the lowest depths of vice." 

In other ways, too, the attempt to prevent the 
manifestations of natural instincts is apt to defeat its 
own purpose, and only a few days ago a shrewd ob- 
server of the contest between the friends and oppo- 
nents of a southern sporting-club remarked that "the 
manner of conducting such crusades only tends to 
make the cause of their leaders odious, by teaching 
thousands to associate the name of the Law and Order 
League with the ideas of hypocrisy and Puritanical 
intolerance. Imagine the private comments of old 
sport-loving soldiers who are called upon to 'fortify 
the State frontiers' and ' enforce the peace,' against 
two individuals, whose trial of strength, skill, and en- 
durance implies no possible injury to third parties, 
and who are perfectly willing to abide the consequences 
of all personal risks." 

There is even something pathetic in the enthusiasm 
which gathers about such pitiful caricatures of the 
Grecian palestra, and, as it were, draws inspiration 
from a faint echo of the Olympic Festivals — suggest- 
ing the regenerative potency of a more plenary revival. 

It would, indeed, be a mistake to suppose that the 
arena problem could be settled by debating- club duels 
between an orthodox Sunday-school teacher and an 
orator of the London Prize Ring. In North America, 
as well as in England, the settlement of the question 
involves a tripartite controversy between the exponents 
of aggressive asceticism, jovial secularism, and philan- 

thropic reform. The representative of the Neo-Puri- 
tans will dread a revival of physical hero-worship, and 
consider an international prize-fight an unmixed evil. 
The graduate of the Madison Garden Academy will 
consider it an unqualified blessing and pity the monk- 
ish infatuation of those who cannot enjoy it with all 
its adjuncts of brandy-fumes and tobacco-smoke. The 
advocate of physical regeneration will honor the re- 
vived spirit of athletic enthusiasm even in its perverted 
form, and without justifying the extravaganzas of its 
participants, consider the transaction as, on the whole, 
a lesser evil. 

Boxing ranked third among the five chief exercises, 
\.\-\& pentathlon of Olympia, and owes its present pres- 
tige of popularity partly to its combination with wres- 
tling (which makes it, indeed, a decisive, though rough, 
test of strength and agilitj') but chiefly to the fact that 
it can be carried on in a barn or on a raft, as well as 
on the village green, and can thus defy interference 
more easily than May-pole climbing and foot-racing, 
which fell likewise under the veto of the Puritan bigots. 

The competitive gymnastics of the future will turn 
hundreds of boy-topers into young athletes. They will 
sweeten the dry bread of drudgery with an enthusiasm 
which for countless thousands will make life worth 
living, and their promoters will have earned the right 
to lecture the masses on the expedience of purging 
their arena from the element of rowdyism. 

In the meantime, however, it would be a fair com- 
promise to tolerate the patronage of the boxing- ring — 
not as an irrepressible relic of barbarism, but as a 
preliminary step in the direction of that comprehen- 
sive reform that shall recognise the interdependence 
of moral and physical vigor. 


For a long time we have looked upon Dogberry and Shallow 
as caricatures drawn by Shakespeare when he was in a reckless, 
rollicking mood ; and yet we behold their living repetitions in our 
court-rooms every day. A very good imitation of Dogberry is Mr. 
Justice Kimball of Washington, who lately ordered the watch to 
"comprehend all vagrom men," and when the vagabonds were 
brought before him, talked at them in the authentic Dogberry 
style. The " vagrom men " were Capt. G. W. Primrose and forty 
invaders, who, under the name of Coxey's "advance guard," 
threatened the capital, but fortunately were taken prisoners just 
outside the picket lines of Washington through the valor of Kim- 
ball's men. After the "vagrom men" had been illegally impris- 
oned from Saturday until Tuesday, they were brought before 
Judge Kimball and discharged, because they had been arrested 
beyond the city boundaries and outside the jurisdiction of the city 
magistrates. They were brought into the city by the police, and 
then imprisoned for being in the city, which was very much ac- 
cording to Dogberry law. In his decree, the Judge decided that 
Captain Primrose and his men were tramps, that they were guilty 
of tramping, and he then rather inconsistently sentenced them to 
tramp. He released them only on condition that they should at 
once seek employment, and failing to find it within a reasonable 



time, "leave the city." When a magistrate sentences a destitute 
man to "leave the city," he sentences him to tramp, and as soon 
as the prisoner begins to work out his sentence by tramping he is 
liable to be arrested for that, and punished by imprisonment, or 
by the chain-gang torture, or in some other civilised and enlight- 
ened way. Wherever the wanderer halts for a moment's rest, he 
finds the magisterial Dogberry, and hears the ceaseless monotone, 
" Move on." 

From the Capitoline hill comes the "all quiet on the Poto- 
mac" message that we heard in (he days of old. Coxey's army is 
many miles away, and before it crosses the Maryland line Wash- 
ington will be safe, especially as the invading army has no guns. 
Unterrified by the martial renown of General Coxey and his rag- 
ged legions, now scaling the Alleghany Mountains as Hannibal 
scaled the Alps, the defenders of Washington are already in the 
field, and eager for the fray. According to the dispatches dated 
April 9, I find that besides Dogberry and the watch, " the district 
militia is making preparations to meet Coxey and his army. The 
militia has been undergoing special drill at intervals for the past 
two weeks, and several of the companies have been suddenly called 
out by their officers just as they might be summoned to put down 
a riot or repel an invasion." I suppose this drill is the beating of 
a counterfeit "long roll," a very exciting call to arms, but not 
quite so stimulating as the genuine article that used to make our 
pulses tingle thirty years ago. The nation is not afraid of Eng- 
land, Russia, France, or Coxey now, for the district militia at 
Washington is ready to "repel an invasion"; although it seems 
they will not be relied on altogether, for we are further told that, 
"if the district militia is insufficient, there are four troops of cav- 
alry at Fort Myer, a large force of marines at the barracks near 
the navy-yard, and a battery of artillery at the arsenal." Besides, 
there are the members of Congress, who could be drafted into the 
service, and a few speeches from them would scatter Coxey's array 
quicker than cavalry, artillery, militia, or marines. Those vast 
military preparations to "break a fly upon the wheel" will very 
likely frighten General Coxey, and I shall not be surprised to learn 
that he has ordered a retreat, and fallen back upon the moun- 

Among the musical and stately phrases that captivate our 
senses and subdue us to humility, one of the most awe-creating in 
its majesty is, " The independence of the judiciary." Whatever 
liberties the judges take with liberty must be sustained, because 
the "independence of the judiciary" must be preserved. No 
matter what fantastic tyranny may be enacted in judgments, or- 
ders, injunctions, or decrees, criticism is to be stricken dumb lest 
the "independence of the judiciary" suffer. Although the pri- 
vate citizen may be judicially tormented by decisions erroneous 
and unjust, censure must be suppressed in order that "the inde- 
pendence of the judiciary " may stand above the law. To sustain 
the independence of the judges, is it necessary that the indepen- 
dence of the people be destroyed ? Must the citizens be servile 
and silent that the judges may be free? A few years ago a sus- 
pected official in the postoffice, when requested by a government 
examiner to show his books, indignantly refused, because he 
thought that such examinations were an assault upon the inde- 
pendence of the Postoffice Department; and this is very nearly the 
answer given by Mr. Spooner before the committee of Congress 
appointed to investigate the official conduct of Judge Jenkins in 
issuing an injunction against the workmen of the North Pacific 
Railroad. ' ' I believe, " said Mr. Spooner, ' ' that these investigations 
will destroy the independence of the judiciary." This plea for ju- 
dicial immunity and infallibility is bad, because the independence 
of the judiciary is limited bylaw ; and Mr. Spooner might as well 

say that the Constitution of the United States destroys the indepen- 
dence of the judiciary because it provides for the impeachment and 
trial of judges accused of crimes and misdemeanors. The power of 
impeachment is in the House of Representatives, and when charges 
are made against one of the judges by a member of that house, it 
is eminently proper that a committee of investigation should re- 
port whether or not the facts in the case warrant an impeachment. 
The Constitution is a check, not upon the independence, but upon 
the imperialism of the courts, and it is a perpetual warning to the 
judges that they are not above the law. 

It is not surprising that the action of Judge Jenkins in firing 
those combustible injuncticns at the railroad laborers, has aroused 
a sentiment of revenge in the minds of other workingmen ; and 
they may issue some injunctions now as reprehensible as those that 
have given Judge Jenkins uncomfortable fame. In fact, there 
seems to be little moral difference between an injunction that or- 
ders men to stay at work and one that orders them to quit. One 
niay be issued by a lawyer judge and the other by a labor judge, 
but the moral character of both injunctions is the same ; they 
strike at liberty. The Jenkins law was drawn from the code of 
serfdom; and the "labor vote" in its anger may demand the im- 
peachment of the judge, but errors of law or judgment will not 
justify impeachment ; and there was no evidence of corruption or 
wilful wrong. Five hundred years ago in England, there existed 
a perpetual injunction forbidding laborers to strike, or to leave 
their masters, and serfdom was its political result. In our own 
day, and in our own country, a similar injunction was in force 
against the black laborers of the South, and slavery was the sign 
of that. Disobedience of an" injunction, is the offence known as 
"contempt of court," punished by imprisonment and fine, but as 
workingmen have no money to pay fines, they must if they dis- 
obey an injunction, be sentenced to a term in prison. This plan, 
if attempted, will cause a great deal of social confusion, because 
there are not policemen enough to arrest the offenders nor prisons 
enough to hold them. The rulings of Judge Jenkins make the 
"labor problem " harder than it was ; and it was hard enough be- 

* -X- 

When we are driven by legal compulsion to perform a duty 
that we desire to evade, we feel the pressure as a tyranny, and we 
resist it if we can ; but when we are driven by moral compulsion 
to do something that we ought to do, we find that the despotism of 
conscience is irresistible, and we submit to its writs of injunction 
without any feeling of rebellion in our souls. At the present mo- 
ment the United States Government is confident that it is under 
no legal obligation to pay the French exhibitors for the loss of 
their goods destroyed by fire in the manufactures building after 
the closing of the World's Fair ; and yet it is mevitable that the 
United States will be driven by moral compulsion to pay that bill. 
The fact of the loss by fire seems to be admitted, and there is no 
dispute concerning the value of the property destroyed, about 
ninety thousand dollars, but the officers of the Fair say they are 
not responsible for the loss because it was expressly "nominated 
in the bond " that exhibitors insure their own goods. To this the 
Frenchmen answer that the stipulation applied only to the time 
when the Fair was in existence, and that after the Fair closed they 
were prevented by the negligence of the directors from promptly 
removing their goods, and as it was during this delay that the fire 
occurred the Exposition is liable for the loss, and the United States 
Government is liable for the Exposition. The links in this chain 
of reasoning appear to be sound, as it was the American Govern- 
ment that invited the Frenchmen to bring their goods to Chicago. 
It is true that Mr. Sayres, the chairman of the committee on ap- 
propriations, and Mr. Holman, " the watch dog of the treasury," 



with several other members of Congress, have declared against the 
claim because the United States is not liable for these damages, 
and if this were a matter of legal compulsion their position would 
be stronger than Gibraltar, but moral compulsion is a more tyran- 
nical master, and driven by that the United States will pay the 
Frenchmen's bill. 

* * 

A financial statesman in Indiana who desires to relieve the 
tension in the money market and make the volume of currency 
equal to the wants of trade proposes that the Government shall 
do it by issuing six hundred million dollars in legal tender notes, 
or twice as much if necessary, and rely upon the old pensioners to 
' ' get it into circulation " so as to start the wheels of business, move 
the crops, lift the mortgage, settle balances, abolish interest, re- 
store confidence, and make money so plentiful and cheap that when 
anybody wants to borrow fifty or a hundred dollars from a neigh- 
bor he can get it as easily as he can get the loan of a sack. In or- 
der that the money may be scattered impartially throughout the 
several States, instead of being hoarded by the banks, every pen- 
sioner is to get a thousand dollars of it, and in consideration of 
that lump sum he is to release the Government by quit claim deed 
from all further obligations to him for putting down the rebellion. 
This is one of the most practical financial schemes that has been 
born of late, for there is no doubt that the old soldiers will cheer- 
fully accept the money; and it is equally certain that they will put 
it into circulation if they can buy anything with it, and as to this 
part of the plan a suspicion is growing in the military mind, be- 
cause although those paper dollars will be legal tender in payment 
of debts they will not be legal tender in the purchase of goods, for 
this is a prerogative beyond the fiat power of governments to be- 
stow upon anything. "We may ridicule the financial superstitions 
of this reformer but they are not more fantastic or impossible than 
many of the remedies prescribed by doctors of money in the cab- 
inet, in the Senate, and in the House of Representatives. 

As an additional punishment for our national sins a new pest 
called the Russian thistle is ravaging the fields of the great North- 
west. Its capacity for mischief appears to be unlimited, and Mr. 
Hansbrough, a member of Congress from the afflicted region, 
' ' wants to have a law passed " for the e.xtermination of the thistle. 
To that end he has introduced a bill appropriating a million dol- 
lars for the purpose of weeding out the nuisance that has been im- 
ported free of duty from the Russian plains. As soon as the bill 
was introduced, patriots willing and strong as the thistle itself 
sprung up to claim a share of the money under the pretence of 
"weeding out" the thistle. One of these, a citizen of Iowa, has 
made application to Mr. Sterling Morton the Secretary of Agricul-. 
ture for the office of Chief Exterminator of the Russian thistle for 
the State of Iowa, and the Secretary in reply gave the applicant a 
very good lesson in ethical and political economy. With sarcasm 
sharper than the sting of a thistle Mr. Morton said, ' ' I must thank 
you for the patriotic frankness with which you remark, referring 
to thistles: 'They are spreading fast but we dp not want to kill 
them out before the Government is ready to pay us for the work, 
or to send some one to do it for us.' Nothing could better demon- 
strate your peculiar fitness and adaptation for the position of Chief 
Russian Thistle Exterminator for the Northwest." Such are the 
benefits of a motherly Government. It pampers its children until 
they lose the spirit of self-reliance, and they never get old enough 
to wean. They would rather let the thistle grow than weed it out 
without pay from the national treasury. In fact they are already 
threatening to let the thistle spread, and then throw the blame for 
it upon the Government ; as the little boy frightened his mother 
into obedience by threatening that if she did not give him candy 
he would go and get the measles, falsely pretending at the same 
time that he knew a boy who had measles enough to supply all 

the other boys in town. Spirited citizens like that applicant from 
Iowa, say to their mother, the Government, " Give us a million 
dollars.ior else we will go and get the Russian thistle and plant it 
on our farms." 

M. M. Trumbull. 

The Monist 


EdU,^.- DR. PAUL CARUS. AsscciaUs: \ ^S^^CARUs""^"''^'' 



Three Aspects of Monism. 

PROF. C. LLOYD MORGAN, Bristol, England. - - 331 

The Parliament of Religions. 

GEN. M. M. TRUMBULL, Chicago. - . - . 333 

Modern Physiology. 

PROF. MAX VERWORN, Jena, Germany. - - - 355 

Kant's Doctrine of the Schemata. 

H. H. WILLIAMS, University of North Carolina. - 375 

The E.xemption of Women From Labor. 

LESTER F. WARD, Washington, D. C. - - - - 385 

Notion and Definition of Number. 

PROF. HERMANN SCHUBERT, Hamburg, Germany. - 396 

Ethics and the Cosmic Order. 

EDITOR. --------- 403 

Karma AND Nirvana. 

EDITOR. - 417 

Literary Correspondence. France. 

LUCIEN ARREAT. -.----- 439 

Criticisms and Discussions. 

Logic as Relation Lore. Rejoinder to M. Mouret. F. C. Russell. 447 
Book Reviews. 
Epitome of Contents of Philosophical Periodicals. 

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JUBILATE: A Sermon Delivered on Sunday, April 15, at 

Unity Church, Chicago. Editor 4047 

THE ARENA PROBLEM. Dr. F. L. Oswald 4051 

CURRENT TOPICS ; Sentenced to Tramp. The Defence 
of Washington. Independence of the Judiciary. The 
Jenkins Injunction. The Tyranny of Moral Compul- 
sion. Commuting Pensions. The Russian Thistle. 
Gen. M. M. Trumbull 4052 

The Open Court. 



No. 348. (Vol. VIII.— 17.) 

CHICAGO, APRIL 26, 1894. 

i Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



After having followed step by step the dissolution 
of the will, the fundamental result which has appeared 
to us to spring from it is that it is in a co-ordination 
variable in complexity and degree ; that this co-ordi- 
nation is the condition of the existence of all volition, 
and that, according as it is totally or partially de- 
stroyed, volition is annihilated or impaired. It is upon 
this result that we would now like to insist, confining 
ourselves to brief indications on certain points, as it 
is not our aim to write a monograph of the will. 

i) Let us examine in the first place the material 
conditions of this co-ordination. The will, which in 
some privileged persons attains a power so extraordi- 
nary and does such great things, has a very humble 
origin. This is found in that biological property in- 
herent in all living matter and known as irritability, 
that is to say, reaction against external forces. Irrita- 
bility — the physiological form of the law of inertia — 
is in somewise a state of primordial indifferentiation 
whence shall spring, by an ulterior differentiation, sen- 
sibility properly so called and motility, those two great 
bases of psychic life. 

Let us remember that motility (which alone con- 
cerns us here) manifests itself, even in the vegetable 
kingdom, under divers forms : by the movements of 
certain spores, of the sensitive plant, of the Dionaa, 
and of many other plants to which Darwin has devoted 
a well-known work. — The protoplasmic mass, homo- 
geneous in appearance, of whichi .certain rudimentary 
beings are exclusively composed, is endowed with mo- 
tility. The amceba and the white corpuscle of the 
blood move ahead little by little by the aid of the pro- 
cesses which they emit. These facts, which may be 
found described in abundance in special works, show 
us that motility appears long before the muscles and 
the nervous system, even in their most rudimentary 

We need not follow the evolution of these two in- 
struments of improvement through the animal series. 
Let us merelj' note that the researches on the localisa- 
tion of the motor centres, so important in the mecha- 

nism of the will, have led some savants to study the 
state of these centres in the newly born. "This in- 
vestigation, very carefully made by Soltmann, in 1875, 
has furnished the following results. In rabbits and 
dogs there exists immediately after birth no point in 
the cerebral cortex the electric irritation of which is 
capable of producing movement. It is only on the 
tenth day that the centres for the anterior members 
develop. On the thirteenth day the centres for the 
posterior members appear. On the sixteenth, these 
centres are already quite distinct from each other 
and from those of the face. One conclusion to be 
drawn from these results is, that the absence of volun- 
tary motor direction coincides with the absence of the 
appropriate organs, and that, in measure as the ani- 
mal becomes more master of its movements, the cere- 
bral centres in which the elaboration of will takes 
place acquire a more manifest independence. 1 

Flechsig and Parrot have studied the development 
of the encephalon in the fcetus and the infant. From 
the researches of the latter ^ it appears that, if one fol- 
lows the development of the white matter of an entire 
hemisphere, it can be seen to rise successively from the 
peduncle to the optic thalami, then to the internal cap- 
sule, to the hemispheric centre, and finally to the cere- 
bral mantle. So those parts whose development is the 
slowest have the highest functional destiny. 

The formative period passed, the mechanism of 
volitional action appears to be constituted in the fol- 
lowing manner : the incitation starts from the regions 
of the cortical layer called motor (parieto-frontal re- 
gion), and follows the pyramidal fasciculus, called vol- 
untary by some authors. This fasciculus, which consists 
in the grouping of all the fibres arising in the motor 
convolutions, descends across the oval centre, forms a 
small part of the internal capsule, which, as we know, 
penetrates into the corpus striatum, "like a wedge 
into a piece of wood." This fasciculus follows the 
cerebral peduncle and the medulla, where it undergoes 
a more or less complete decussation, and passes down 
the opposite side of the spinal cord, thus constituting 
a great commissure between the motor convolutions 

■cdicales, Fran^ois-Franck, ar- 

\ Second extract from our ne 
Ki o/the Will, just published. 

uthorised translation of M. Ribot's/?/- 

1 Diciionnaire encyclopcdique 1 
tide "Nerveux," p. 585. 

2 Archives de pkysiolo^e, 1879, pp. 505-520. 



and the grey matter of the cord from which the motor 
nerves are given out.^ This rough sketch gives some 
idea of the complexity of the elements requisite for 
volitional action and the intimate solidarity which 
unites them. 

There are, unfortunately, some differences of inter- 
pretation regarding the real nature of the cerebral cen- 
tres whence the incitation starts. To Ferrier and many 
others they are motor centres, in the strict sense ; that 
is to say, that in them and by them the movement 
commences. Schiff, Hitzig and Nothnagel, Charlton 
Bastian, and Munk have given other interpretations 
which are neither equally probable nor equally clear. 
In general, however, they amount to a regarding of 
these centres as rather of " a sensory nature," the mo- 
tor function proper being relegated to the striated 
bodies. " The nervous fibres that descend from the 
cerebral cortex, in higher animals and in man, down 
to the corpora striata, are in their nature strictly com- 
parable with the fibres connecting the ' sensory ' and 
the 'motor' cells in an ordinary nervous mechanism 
for reflex action."^ In other words, there are sup- 
posed to exist in the cerebral cortex "circumscribed 
regions the experimental excitation of which produces 
in the opposite side of the body determinate localised 
movements. These points seem as if they should 
much rather be considered as centres of volutitary asso- 
ciation than as motor centres, properly so called. They 
would in this view be the seat of incitements to volun- 
tary movements and not the true points of departure 
of the motion. They ought rather to be assimilated to 
the peripheral organs of sense than to the motor appa- 
ratus of the anterior cornua of the medulla. . . . These 
centres would then be psycho-motor, because by their 
purely psychic action they command veritable motor 
apparatus. . . . We believe that the different points 
indicated as motor centres for the members, the face, 
etc., correspond to the apparatus which receive and 
transform into voluntary incitation the sensations of 
peripheral origin. They would thus be volitional cen- 
tres and not true motor ones. "^ 

Notwithstanding this pending question, the solu- 
tion of which concerns psychology at least as much as 
physiology, and in spite of disagreements in detail that 
we have neglected, especially the uncertainties regard- 
ing the function of the cerebellum, we may say with 
Charlton Bastian that, "if since Hume's time we have 
not learned in any full sense of the term 'the means by 
which the motion of our bodies follows upon the com- 
mand of our will,' we have at least learned something as 

IHuguenin, Anaiontie des centres nerveux, (translated from the German 
by Keller). Brissaud, De la contracture permancnte des hemiplegigues, 1880, p. 
9, et seq. 

2 Charlton Bastian, Brain as an Organ of the Mind, chapter xxvi. 

3Fran5ois-Franck, loo. cit., pp. 577, 578. 

to the parts chiefly concerned, and thus as to the paths 
traversed by volitional stimuli. "^ 

2) In examining the question on its psychological 
side, volitional co-ordination assumes so many forms 
and is susceptible of so many gradations that only its 
principal stages can be noticed. It would be natural 
to begin with the lowest ; but I think it useful, for the 
sake of clearness, to follow the inverse order. 

The most perfect co-ordination is that of the high- 
est wills, of the great men of action, whatever be the 
order of their activity: Caesar, or Michael Angelo, or 
St. Vincent de Paul. It may be summed up in a few 
words : unity, stability, power. The exterior unity of 
their life is in the unity of their aim, always pursued, 
creating according to circumstances new co-ordina- 
tions and adaptations. But this outer unity is itself 
only the expression of an interior unity, that of their 
character. It is because they remain the same that 
their end remains the same. Their fundamental ele- 
ment is a mighty, inextinguishable passion which en- 
lists their ideas in its service. This passion is them- 
selves ; it is the psychic expression of their constitu- 
tion as nature has made it. So all that lies outside of 
this co-ordination, how it remains in the shade, ineffica- 
cious, sterile, forgotten, like a parasitic vegetation ! 
They present the type of a life always in harmony with 
itself, because in them everything conspires together, 
converges, and consents. Even in ordinary life these 
characters are met with, without making themselves 
spoken of, because the elevation of aim, the circum- 
stances, and especially the strength of the passion, have 
been lacking to them ; they have preserved only its 
stability. — In another way, the great historic stoics, 
Epictetus, Thraseas, (I do not speak of their Sage, who 
is only an abstract ideal,) have realised this superior 
type of will under its negative form, — inhibition, — con- 
formably to the maxim of the school : Endure and re- 

Below this perfect co-ordination, there are lives tra- 
versed by intermission, whose centre of gravity, ordi- 
narily stable, nevertheless oscillates from time to time. 
One group of tendencies makes a temporary secession 
with limited action, expressing, so far as they do exist 
and act, one side of the character. Neither for them- 
selves nor for others have these individuals the unity 
of the great wills, and the more frequent and complex 
in nature are these infractions of perfect co-ordination, 
the more the volitional power diminishes. In reality, 
all these degrees are met with. 

Descending still lower, we reach those lives by 
double entry, in which two contrary or merely different 
tendencies dominate in turn. There are in the indi- 
vidual two alternate centres of gravity, two points of 
convergence for successively preponderating but onl)' 

1 Log. cit. 



partial co-ordinations. Taking everything together, that 
is perhaps the most common type, if one looks around 
one, and if one consults the poets and moralists of all 
times, who vie with each other in repeating that there 
are two men in us. The number of these successive 
coordinations may be still larger ; but it would be 
idle to pursue this analysis further. 

One step more, and we enter into pathology. Let 
us recall the sudden irresistible impulses which at 
every moment hold the will in check ; it is a hypertro- 
phied tendency which continually breaks the equilib- 
rium, and the intensity of which is too great to permit 
it any longer to be co-ordinated with the others ; it 
goes out of the ranks, it commands instead of being 
subordinated. Then when these impulses have come 
to be no longer an accident but a habit, no longer one 
side of the character but the character itself, there are 
henceforth only intermittent co-ordinations ; it is the 
will that becomes the exception. 

Lower still, it becomes a mere accident. In the 
indefinite succession of impulses varying from one 
minute to the other a precarious volition finds with 
difficulty at long intervals its conditions of existence. 
Only caprices then exist. The hysteric character has 
furnished the type of this perfect inLcwrdinaticn. Here 
we reach the other extreme. 

Beneath this there are no more diseases of the will, 
but an arrest of development which prevents it from 
ever arising. Such is the state of idiots and imbeciles. 
We will say a few words regarding them here in order 
to complete our pathological study. 

"In profound idiocy," says Griesinger, "efforts 
and determinations are always instinctive ; they are 
chiefly provoked by the need of nourishment ; most 
frequently they have the character of reflexes of which 
the individual is hardly conscious. Certain simple 
ideas may still provoke efforts and movements, for ex- 
ample, to play with little pieces of paper. . . . Without 
speaking of those who are plunged in the profoundest 
idiocy, we ask ourselves : Is there in them anything 
that represents the will ? What is there in them that 
can will? In many idiots of this last class the onlj' thing 
that seems to arouse their minds a little is the desire 
to eat. The lowest idiots manifest this desire only by 
agitation and groans. Those in whom the degeneracy 
is less profound move their lips and hands a little, or 
else weep : it is thus that they express a desire to 
eat. ... In slight idiocy the foundation of the character 
is inconstancy and obtuseness of feeling, and weakness 
of will. The disposition of these individuals depends 
upon their surroundings and the treatment they receive : 
it is docile and obedient when they are taken care of, ill- 
natured and malicious when they are badly treated. "^ 

1 Griesinger, Traite des Tnaladies ntentales (traDslatedufrom the German), 
pp. 433i 43-1. For a complete study of the question consult the recent work by 

Before bringing this subject to an end, we will 
again remark that if the will is a co-ordination, that is 
to say a sum of relations, it may be predicted a priori 
that it will be produced much more rarely than the 
simpler forms of activity, because a complex state 
has much fewer chances of originating and enduring 
than a simple state. And such are the real facts in the 
case. If in each human life we count up what should 
be credited to the account of automatism, of habit, of 
the passions, and above all of imitation, we shall see 
that the number of acts that are purely voluntary, in 
the strict sense of the word, is very small. For the 
majority of men, imitation suffices ; they are contented 
with what has been will in others, and, as they think 
with the ideas of the world at large, they act with its 
will. Between the habits which render it useless and 
the maladies that mutilate or destroy it, the will, as 
we have said above, must be taken as a happy acci- 

Is it necessary, finally, to remark how close a re- 
semblance there is between this increasingly complex 
co-ordination of tendencies which forms the different 
stages of the will, and the increasingly complex co- 
ordination of perceptions and images which constitutes 
the various degrees of the intellect, one having for its 
basis and fundamental condition the character, and the 
other the "forms of thought"; both being a more or 
less complete adaptation of the being to its environ- 
ment, in the order of action or in the order of knowl- 

* * 

We are now prepared for the general conclusion of 
this work, already indicated several times in passing. 
It will illuminate, I trust, with a retrospective light 
the road which we have traversed. 

Volition is a final state of consciousness which re- 
sults from the more or less complex co-ordination of a 
group of states, conscious, subconscious, or uncon- 
scious (purely physiological), which all united express 
themselves by an action or an inhibition. The princi- 
pal factor in the co-ordination is the character, w^ich 
is only the psychic expression of an individual organ- 
ism. It is the character which gives to the co-ordina- 
tion its unity, — not the abstract unity of a mathemat- 
ical point, but the concrete unity of a consensus. The 
act by which this co-ordination is made and affirmed 
is choice, founded on an affinity of nature. 

The volition that subjective psychologists have so 
often observed, analysed, and commented upon is then 

Father Sollier : Psychohgie de I'idiot et de I'imbeciU. It will be seen that in 
them the will cannot be formed because the conditions of its existence are lack, 
ing. The atrophy of the intellectual and affective faculties renders the appari- 
tion of voluntary activity impossible : which proves once more that it is not a 
primordial "faculty," but an acquired and complex state resulting from an 
evolution. These weak-minded persons cannot go beyond the period of reflexes, 
affective and intellectual ; the world of will is a promised land into which 
they will never enter. 



for us only a simple state of consciousness. It is merely 
an effect of that psycho-physiological activit}', so often 
described, only a part of which enters into conscious- 
ness under the form of a deliberation. Furthermore, 
it is not the cause of anything. The acts and movements 
which follow it result directly from the tendencies, feel- 
ings, images, and ideas which have become co-ordinated 
in the form of a choice. It is from this group that all 
the efficacy comes. In other terms, — and to leave no 
ambiguity, — the psycho-physiological labor of delib- 
eration results on the one hand in a state of conscious- 
ness, the volition, and on the other in a set of move- 
ments or inhibitions. The "/ will" testifies to a con- 
dition, but does not produce it. I should compare it 
to the verdict of a jury, which may be the result of a 
very long criminal examination, and of very passionate 
pleadings, and which will be followed by grave conse- 
quences extending over a long future, but zvhich is an 
effect without being a cause, being in law only a simple 

If one insists on making of the will a faculty, an 
entity, all becomes obscurity, perplexity, contradiction. 
One is caught in the snare of a badly stated question. 
If, on the contrary, we accept the facts as they are, we 
disembarrass ourselves at least of factitious difficul- 
ties. One does not have to ask oneself, like Hume 
and so many others, how an "I will" can make my 
members move. This is a mystery which need not be 
cleared up, since it does not exist, as volition is in no 
degree a cause. It is in the natural tendency of feel- 
ings and images to express themselves in movements 
that the secret of acts produced should be sought. We 
have here only an extremely complicated case of the 
law of reflexes, in which, between the period called 
that of excitation and the motor period there appears 
a most important psychic fact — volition — showing that 
the first period is ending and the second beginning. 

Let it be remarked also how easily that strange 
malady called abulia can now be explained, and with 
it the analogous forms considered above, ^ and even 
that mere weakness of will, scarcely morbid, so fre- 
quent among persons who say that they will and yet do 
not act. It is because the individual organism, the 
source from which all springs, had two effects to pro- 
duce and produces only one of them : the state of con- 
sciousness, choice, affirmation; while the motor ten- 
dencies are too weak to express themselves in acts. 
There is sufficient co-ordination, but insufficient im- 
pulse. In irresistible acts, on the contrary, it is the 
impulse which is exaggerated, and the co-ordination 
which grows weak or disappears. 

We owe, therefore, to pathology two principal re- 
sults : one, that the " I will " is in itself wholly without 

1 In the first chapter of The Diseases of the WiU, from which this article 
is extracted. 

efficacy in causing action ; the other, that the will m 
the rational man is an extremely complex and unstable 
co-ordination, fragile by its very superiority, because 
it is "the highest force which nature has yet devel- 
oped — the last consummate blossom of all her marvel- 
lous works. "1 




In my "Animal Life and Intelligence" I quoted some o£ Spal- 
ding's statements as to the intelligence of young birds. I then re- 
ceived a letter from my friend, Mr. T. Mann Jones, informing me 
of observations of his own which did not accord with those which 
I quoted, and expressing some scepticism as to the existence of 
what he termed " the philosopher's chick." I therefore determined 
to observe for myself, and the following paper contains some ac- 
count of my observations, which should be compared with those of 
Douglas Spalding inMacmillan's A/agazinelor February, 1873, and 
those of Professor Eimer in his "Organic Evolution" (English 
Translation, p. 245). I desire to express my acknowledgements to 
Mr. Mann Jones for his suggestions and criticisms. 

The eggs were incubated under the hen until about the third 
day before hatching, when they were transferred to an incubator. 
After hatching, the young birds were left in the drawer of the in- 
cubator for from twelve to twenty hours. They were then kept 
under observation in a small pen surrounded with wire netting in 
my study. There was thus no influence of adult birds. I was 
their only foster-mother. I shall describe the observations under 
the head of the day of chick or duck life — first day, second day, 
and so on — dating from their removal from the incubator drawer. 

First Day. — Chicks. — On opening the drawer of the incubator 
the newly-hatched birds are often seen to huddle together and to 
try and burrow under each other. Experiments on the co-ordina- 
tion for pecking show that any small, conspicuous object is struck 
at. The aim was seldom quite correct, the tendency being appar- 
ently to strike somewhat short. Moving the object a little with a 
long steel pin caused it more readily to catch their eye. It was 
generally seized at the third or fourth stroke, but a little awkwardly, 
and was not always successfully swallowed. Flies, from which a 
portion of their wings had been removed, were followed as they 
ran, and were seized at from about the seventh to the twelfth 
stroke. The chicks pecked persistently at their own and each 
other's toes and at the bright bead-like eyes of their yellow neigh- 
bors, also at excrement, shaking their heads and wiping their bills. 

Ducklings. — The pecking co-ordination was imperfect. When 
a piece of white of egg was seized it was mumbled rapidly and 
shaken out of the bill unswallowed. Towards the close of the day 
they began to swallow what they seized, but the pecking co-ordina- 
tion was not quite perfect. They were at first very unsteady on 
their legs (more so than the chicks) and tilted over backwards on 
to their tails. One scratched its head, but toppled over, the double 
co-ordination of standing on one leg and scratching its head was 
more than it could manage. They walked several times through 
the water placed in a shallow tin, but took no notice of it. I 
dipped the beak of one of them in the water ; it then drank re- 
peatedly, shovelling up the water with characteristic acti(»n. Pres- 
ently the others imitated the action and drank freely. I dropped, 

1 Maudsley, The Physiology of Mind, p. 456. 

2 This article, sent to us by the author, was published in Vol. IV, No. 25, 
of Natural Science, of London. It is so instructive and of such great interest 
that we deem a republication of it justified, that it may reach as large a circle 
of readers as possible. 



at different times, two ducks in a tepid bath. They kicked vigor- 
ously and excitedly, dropping their excrement, but in a minute 
swam about with easy motion, pecking at marks on the sides of the 

Second Day. — CJiicis. — Several ran repeatedly through the 
water in a shallow tin, but took no notice of it. Then, after about 
an hour, one of them standing in the water pecked at its toes. It 
lifted its head and drank freely with characteristic action. Another 
subsequently pecked at a bubble near the brira and then drank. 
The stimulus of water in the bill at once led to the characteristic 
responsive action. Others came up and pecked at the troubled 
water ; they, too, then drank. Later on one was running and tod- 
dled into the tin ; it stopped at once and drank. Wet feet seemed 
to suggest drinking by association. I placed two winged flies be- 
fore them. One chick seized a fly at the first stroke. Another 
followed the second fly and made three pecks at it, but the other 
chick rushed in and caught it at the first stroke. A large winged fly 
thrown among other chicks was approached by one bird which 
gave the danger note (a very characteristic sound). Subsequently 
the same chick followed it and caught it after several bad shots. 
They pecked about equally at four kinds of grain, millet, canary, 
groats, and pari ; but swallowed more of the millet. They also 
pecked at and swallowed sand grains. I took one of the chicks 
and put it down near a young cat. The bird showed no signs of 

Ducklings. — Both ducks made at once for water in shallow tin, 
drank, and squatted down in it. They ate keenly of white of egg, 
swallowing large morsels, the pecking co-ordination being nearly 
accurate. Both scratched their heads occasionally and toppled 
over. They preened the down, especially of the breast, in charac- 
teristic fashion ; they also applied the bill to the base of the tail 
and rubbed the sides of their heads along the back in quite ap- 
proved duck fashion. They stood up, stretching out their necks 
and flapping their wings, sitting down on their tails from imperfect 
co-ordination. They showed much less accuracy of aim than the 
chicks in catching running flies. The abortive attempts were 
numerous. They ate their own and chicks' excrement freely and 
showed little sign of disgust. (In South Africa young ostriches are 
often supplied with the droppings of the old birds, for medicinal 
purposes. So I was informed. ) 

Third Day. — Chicks. — The chicks pecked excitedly at flies 
placed in an inverted tumbler, but failed to catch them on the wing 
when the insects were allowed to escape. They still peck at any 
small objects, especially bright ones, but show more discrimina- 
tion in swallowing. They run to one's hand when one pecks on 
the ground with one's finger or a pencil, simulating the action of a 
hen. One can thus induce them to seize objects which they would 
otherwise leave untouched. They will always run to nestle in 
one's hands, poking their heads out between one's fingers prettily. 
To some chicks (Group A) I threw cinnabar caterpillars. They 
were seized but at once dropped, with some wiping of the bill. 
The caterpillars were uninjured, and were seldom touched again. 
They were removed and thrown in again towards the close of the 
day. Some chicks tried them once, but they were soon left. I 
could induce birds to pick them up by " pecking " with a pencil, 
but they were at once dropped. 

Ducklings. — There was nothing special to note. 
Fourth Day'. — Chicks. — I threw to the chicks of group A some 
looper caterpillars and some green caterpillars from gooseberry 
bushes. They were approached with some suspicion. Presently 
one chick seized one and ran off, giving rise to a stern chase. An- 
other stole it from the first and ate it. In a few minutes all the 
caterpillars were cleared off. Later in the day I gave them more 
of these edible caterpillars, which were eaten freely. Then some 
cinnabars. One chick ran, but checked itself, and without touch- 
ing the cinnabar wiped its bill (association). Another seized one 

and dropped it at once. A third subsequently approached a cin- 
nabar as it walked along, gave the danger note, and ran off. Then 
I threw in more edible caterpillars, which again were eaten freely 
The chicks thus discriminate by sight between the nice and the 
nasty caterpillars. To a second group (B) I threw cinnabars and 
small worms. Both were seized at. first with equal appetence, but 
discrimination was soon established. The chicks began to scratch 
the ground (perhaps also the day before, but not markedly). Sev- 
eral of them pecked at the burning end of a cigarette two or three 
times, but some were stopped by a whiff of the smoke, and then 
shook their heads and wiped their bills. Subsequently, when the 
cigarette was out and cold, they came and looked at it ; and one, 
after eyeing it, wiped its bill on the ground. A large Carabus 
beetle, sprawling on its back, was an object of fear ; one chick at 
last pecked at it, uttering the danger note, and threw it on one side. 
After this none went near it. 

Ducklings. — Experiments with cinnabar caterpillars, loopers, 
and worms gave similar results to those obtained with the chicks. 

Fifth Day. — Chicks. — One of the birds, bolder than the rest, 
would eat large flies with relish. I threw in a bee. Most of the 
chicks were afraid, as they were of large flies. The bolder chick, 
however, snapped it up and ran off with it. Then he dropped it 
and shook his head, wiping his bill. Probably he tasted the poison 
and was not stung ; in any case, he was quite lively and uncon- 
cerned in a few minutes ; but he did not touch the bee again. The 
chicks preened their down early on this day. If they had done so 
before, I failed to note the fact. Later in the day I put beneath a 
tumbler a large fly and a small humble-bee with a sting. Two of 
the chicks ran round the tumbler pecking at the insects. I let the 
bee escape. The bolder chick seized it, dashed it against the 
ground, and swallowed it without a wink. With another group of 
chicks I first gave bees, which were seized but soon let alone, and 
then Eristalis. They were left untouched. Their resemblance to 
the bees was protective. Later I gave Eristalis again, and induced 
one of the chicks to seize it by pecking at it with my pencil. He 
ran off with it, chased by others. It was taken from him and 
swallowed. The other Eristalis insects were left untouched, but 
one was subsequently eaten. 

Ducklings. — I placed some frog tadpoles in their water. They 
were soon spied and eaten greedily. The vulgarity of the duck- 
ling as a feeder is painful to witness. 

Sixth Day. — Chicks. — I gave them their tin without water. 
They stood in it and pecked, one lifting its head. They scratched 
at the bottom vigorously, and pecked again and again. On this 
day they frequently stood up, stretching out their necks and flut- 
tering their wings. They may, however, have begun to do this 
earlier. Several of them pecked at a sleepy wasp, but soon let it 
alone. I made a number of experiments on this and the previous 
day with regard to their ability to catch flies on the wing, placing 
the insects under a tumbler. The birds pecked at them as seen 
through the glass. I then let them, one by one, escape. The chicks 
made a dash at them, but never succeeded in catching one, though 
they caught one or two as they crawled out before they had taken 
flight. I tried also with tumblers covered with cards. I may add 
that up to thirteen days I have never yet once seen a fly captured 
on the wing by either a chick or duckling, though I have often seen 
them struck at. 

Ducklings. — Each morning, at nine o'clock, I had placed in 
their pen a large black tray, and on it a flat tin containing water. 
To this they eagerly ran, drinking and washing in it. On the sixth 
morning I gave them the tray and tin in the usual way, but with- 
out any water. They ran to it, scooped at the bottom, and made 
all the motions of the beak as if drinking. They squatted in it, 
dipping their heads and waggling their tails as usual. For some 
ten minutes they continued to wash in non-existent water (associa- 
tion). I then gave them water. I threw them a bee : one of them 



seized it and swallowed it. Possibly he was stung. He kept on 
scratching his beak — first on one side, then on the other, and seemed 
uneasy. He was all right again, however, in half an hour, but did 
not seem keen after a bee I offered him ; nor would he take any 
notice of an Erislalis. 

Seventh Day. — Chicks (Group A). — I threw in a number of 
bits of red-brown worsted, one to two inches long. They were 
seized with eagerness and eaten with avidity. I could not satisfy 
them with worsted worms, and desisted in the attempt lest the diet 
should produce unpleasant effects on their little gizzards. I left, 
however, one four-inch worsted worm, of which the chicks seemed 
afraid. Presently the bolder one seized it, ran off with it chased 
by the others, escaped from the pen, reached a secluded corner of 
my study, and with great efforts swallowed it to the last half-inch. 
The same chick pecked repeatedly at something near the corner of 
the turned-up newspaper which then formed the wall of my pen (I 
now use wire netting). This I found to be the number of the page. 
He then transferred his attention to the corner of the paper, which 
he could just reach. Seizing this he pulled at it. bending it down 
and thus forming a breach in the wall of my experimental poultry- 
yard, through which he escaped. I caught him and put him back 
near the same spot. He went at once to the corner, pulled it down, 
and escaped. I caught him and put him back on the other side of 
the pen. .Presently he sauntered round to the corner, began peck- 
ing again, and escaped. I then pulled it up out of his reach. He 
pecked at it, but soon desisted. This is a" good, simple example of 
the intelligent utilisation of a chance experience. Group A, in- 
cluding this chick, were near the close of their seventh day returned 
to the yard from which the eggs were obtained through the kind- 
ness of my friend, Mr. John Budgett. They were adopted by a 
broody hen, and were reported to seem afraid of her. 

Very noticeable at this stage is the effect of any sudden noise — 
a sneeze, clapping one's hands, a sharp chord on the violin ; or of 
suddenly pitching among the chicks a piece of screwed-up paper. 
They scatter and crouch, or sometimes simply crouch down where 
they are. The constant piping cheep-cheep ceases, and for a mo- 
ment there is dead stillness, each bird silent and motionless. In a 
minute or so, up they get and resume their cheeping notes. 

Ducklings. — I repeated the experiment with the dry tin. Again 
they ran to it, shovelling along the bottom with their beaks and 
squatting down in it. But they sooner gave up the attempt to find 
satisfaction in a dry bath. 

Eighth Day. — Chicks. — On this day I noticed for the first 
time the chicks crouching down and making all the movements of 
sand-washing or dusting themselves in the way many birds affect. 
There was only a little sand strewn over the newspaper and not 
much good came of the operation. I tried these too (Group B)with 
worsted worms. They seemed to give complete satisfaction, and 
there was many a stern chase after the fortunate possessor of an 
inch of worsted. I tried them again with cinnabar caterpillars, of 
which they took scarcely any notice. None were seized. I threw 
in a lump of sugar. The chicks stood round it, uttering the danger 
note. Then some ran at it, pecking rapidly and withdrawing in 
haste. They deal thus with moderate-sized suspicious-looking ob- 

Ducklings. — On repeating again the experiment with the empty 
tin they soon left it, and did not squat down in it at all. But when 
I poured in water they ran to it at once. 

Tenth Day. — Chicks.— I took two of the chicks to the yard 
from which the eggs were obtained, and opened the basket, in 
which I had carried them, about two yards from a hen which was 
clucking to her brood. They took no notice whatever of the sound. 
They were not in a frightened condition, for they jumped on my 
hand and ate grain off it, scratching at my fingers. I put them with 
a hen in a small fowl-house. They did not seem frightened, or, if 
at all, but little. To those that remained I took back a large hum- 

ble-bee. One darted at it, giving it a sharp peck, and throwing it 
disabled to one side. 

Ducklings. — One of the ducklings seized the disabled bee, and, 
after mumbling it for some time in the water, swallowed it. 

Thirteenth Day. — I took the remaining chicks to the yard. 
A hen in a fowl-house was clucking eagerly to her young brood. 
The chicks were put down outside, out of sight of her. They took 
no notice whatever of the clucking sounds she made, but scratched 
about around me. They were then placed among her brood. She 
seemed inclined at first to drive them away, but afterwards looked 
more kindly on them. But they did not keep close to her like her 
own brood. I went over to see them next day. One was at some 
little distance from the hen. I leant down and held out my hand. 
The little thing ran to me and nestled in my palm. 

The sounds emitted by the chicks are decidedly instinctive, 
and some of them are fairly differentiated. At least six may be 
distinguished. First the gentle piping, expressive of contentment. 
It is heard when one takes the little bird in one's hand. A further 
low note, a sort of double sound, seems to be associated with ex- 
treme pleasure, as when one strokes the chick's back and cuddles 
it. 'Very characteristic and distinct is the danger note — a sound 
difficult to describe, — perhaps somewhat as if a miniature police- 
man's rattle were sprung inside the chick's head. This is heard on 
the second or third day. If a large humble-bee or a black-beetle 
or a big worm or lump of sugar, or in fact anything largish and 
strange be thrown to the chicks, the danger note is at once heard. 
Then there is the cheeping, piping sound, expressive, apparently, 
of wanting something. It generally ceases when one goes to them 
and throws some grain or even stands near them. My chicks were 
accustomed to ray presence in the room, and generally were rest- 
less when I left them and made this sound. Then there is the 
sharp squeak when one seizes them against their inclination. 
Lastly, there is the shrill cry of distress when, for example, one of 
them is separated from the rest. I have very little doubt that all 
of these sounds have, or soon acquire, a suggestive value of emo- 
tional import for the other chicks. Certainly the danger note at 
once places others on the alert. But the suggestive value seems to 
be the result of association and the product of experience. 

The foregoing observations I have presented much in the form, 
though with many omissions, in which they were noted down at the 
time ; hence much crudity of expression. They appear to me to 
suggest — 

i) That there are many truly inherited activities performed 
with considerable but not perfect exactitude in virtue of an innate 
automatism of structure. 

2) That associations are formed rapidly and have a consider- 
able amount of permanence. 

3) That intelligent utilisation of experience is founded on the 
associations so formed ; such associations being a matter of indi- 
vidual acquisition, and not of inheritance. 

4) That there is no evidence of instinctive knowledge, even in 
a loose acceptation of this word. This follows from the non-in- 
heritance of associations of impressions and ideas. Co-oniination 
of activities is thus apparently inherited, but not correlation of im- 
pressions and ideas. 

5) That even the inherited co-ordinations are perfected and 
rendered more effective by intelligent guidance. 

6) That imitation is an important factor in the early stages of 
mental development. 

7) That the inherited activities on their first performance are 
not guided by consciousness, though they are probably accom- 
panied by consciousness. The role of consciousness is that of con- 
trol and guidance. Only on the first performance of an inherited 
activity is the chick a conscious automaton. In so far as the activ- 
ity is subsequently modified and perfected by intelligence the agent 
exercises conscious control. If we then term it an automaton, we 



must admit that the automaton has a power of control over its ac- 
tions in accordance with the conscious concomitants o£ certain cere- 
bral changes. Into the physiological mechanism of control, as I 
conceive it, I cannot enter here. 


The doctrine of protection to American industry has invaded 
the domain of theological economy, and threatens the canonisation 
monopoly that for a long time has been enjoyed by Italy. Not 
long ago, a South Carolina gentleman by the name of Collins pre- 
sented a new church to the colored Episcopalians of his town, and 
according to Episcopalian custom they proceeded to give it the 
name of a saint, but after considering the claims of all the saints 
in the calendar the congregation finally rejected them all. With 
pious gratitude they dedicated their house of worship to their 
American benefactor and called it Saint CoUins's Church, a name 
by which it will be known henceforth and forever. The patriotic 
sentiment that goes by the name of "America for the Americans" 
applies to saints as well as to other foreigners, and the colored 
men of South Carolina have given it actual form. Heretofore we 
have imported all our saints from foreign countries, instead of en- 
couraging the development of native saints among ourselves, but 
hereafter we shall have our own muster-roll of the beatified, and 
we shall fill it with American examples. In making a saint of Mr. 
Collins, the recipients of his bounty have not canonised a myth 
nor an abstract ideality, but an actual breathing man whose claims 
to saintship are based on living deeds, that visible and practical 
test by which all saints must ultimately stand or fall. They have 
a saint in England by the name of Lubbock, a member of Parlia- 
ment, who made one day in every summer-time a holiday which 
in the calendar of labor is called Saint Lubbock's day. The new 
religion will have new saints, like Saint Lubbock and Saint Col- 
lins, and the present sainthood will pass into the shades of anti- 
quity with Saint Hercules, Saint Ceres, and Saint Mercury. 

In one of the early numbers of Punch I have seen a picture of 
an organ-grinder who stands in front of a London mansion un- 
winding torment from his dismal box wherein the discords play. 
A servant comes down the steps and says : " My good man, here's 
a sixpence for you ; there's a sick lady in the house, and master 
says, will you be kind enough to move on." To this the wander- 
ing minstrel answers: "When there's sickness in the house I 
never move on for less than a shilling." This beautiful principle 
appears to animate the different ' ' armies " that are marching from 
various parts of the country to reinforce Coxey in his raid on 
Washington. They never move on for less than plenty to eat and 
their travelling expenses. These they readily obtain because every 
community is happy to welcome them to the next town, and will 
cheerfully bribe them to go. This liberal and philanthropic spirit 
is finely developed in San Francisco, as will appear from the fol- 
lowing dispatches from that city, dated April i6 : "The authori- 
ties are arranging to send five hundred unemployed to Chicago via 
Mojave, for $2,000. Three hundred members from the second 
regiment of the industrial army of California marched to the City 
Hall this morning and applied for assistance. Mayor Eilert and 
Chief of Police Crowley called upon the Southern Pacific officials, 
and the railroad company is expected to take the men as far as 
Mojave, where they can be turned over to the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific." Such disinterested magnanimity will be appreciated by 
the citizens of Chicago. This town is trying to outnumber the 
population of New York before the time for taking the next cen- 
sus, and this contribution from San Francisco will be gratefully 
received. If the people of that remote village have any more 
"industrial regiments" that they are anxious to get rid of at six 
dollars and sixty-six cents a head, Chicago will gladly take them 
at that price. 

Like a stiletto drawn suddenly from under a cloak, the speech 
of Senator Hill flashed upon the eyes of the Democratic party, 
and the stroke that followed made a painful wound ; so sore, in- 
deed, as to leave a suspicion that the barb was poisoned. From 
the organs of his party, acrimonious retorts fell in showers upon 
Hill, and broke like putty-balls fired at an iron-clad. The stock 
flatteries, the ' ' Judas Iscariot " and the ' ' Benedict Arnold " com- 
parisons were soon exhausted, and then the angry editors fell back 
upon their own resources and invented such original compliments 
as they could : "Out upon him," says the melodramatic IVor/d- 
//drn/c/ ot Omaha, " Out upon him. He is not a Democrat "; and 
it says that as confidently as if there were any people in Omaha 
or in any other country who know what a Democrat is. With 
dignified contempt the Jacksonville Citizen describes the oration of 
Senator Hill as "vaporing rant," and in a tone of high tragedy the 
St. Louis Posl'Dispn/c/: proclaims that Senator Hill is "bloodless 
as a turnip and heartless as a clam." Having sacrificed the prin- 
ciple of the Wilson Bill for the vote of Senator Hill, the Louis- 
ville Courier-Journal complains that the Democratic party has 
been cheated in the trade ; and that oratorical organ sorrowfully 
says, ' ' Was not the fundamental principle of free collars and cuffs 
ruthlessly sacrificed in order to placate the New York Senator ? 
And so we lose collars and cuffs and honor all alike." This is a 
humiliating punishment, but it ought to fall upon any party so 
abandoned as to ruthlessly sacrifice "the fundamental principle of 
free collars and cuffs." The Toledo Bee sharpens its nimble sting 
and hums in the ear of Senator Hill after the style of Elijah Po- 
gram, thus : " Hill is a creature of the money-bags of the East. 
His is the Democracy of the East, the Democracy that knows no 
nation but New York ; the Democracy that cannot understand the 
greatness, the incomparable beauty and grandeur of a country 
lapped by the Atlantic and Pacific, the great lakes and the gulf." 
And while the Atlantic and Pacific and the great lakes and the 
gulf are lapping the country, Senator Hill, admiring his mischief, 
smiles his own sardonic smile. 

Last Wednesday, the national debating society at Washing- 
ton spent a pleasant afternoon in proving to the satisfaction of the 
country that the " two great parties," although differing here and 
there in theoretical politics, practise the art of statesmanship in 
precisely the same way. The managers of the two rival corpora- 
tions exhibited the inside wheels and pulleys of the two "ma- 
chines" by which their party-work is done ; also, they showed in 
a very interesting way that both of them are built on the same 
pattern, and that the only way to tell them apart is by the label 
or trademark tacked on each machine. Mr. Quigg, a Republican 
member from New York, moralising like a preacher, exposed the 
political wickedness of appointing Mr. Van Alen ambassador to 
Italy in return for $50,000 contributed by Mr. Van Alen to the 
Democratic election fund ; whereupon Mr. Meredith, a Demo- 
cratic member from Virginia, promptly "saw" Mr. Quigg, and 
"raised" him $350,000, by referring to the story that Mr. Wana- 
maker had contributed $400,000 to the Republican election fund 
in 1888, for which benevolence he had been appointed Postmaster 
General. The comedy of it lies in the impudent affectation by 
either party of moral superiority over the other, when it is notori- 
ous that both of them have raised corruption funds by selling the 
offices of the government ; and the practice will continue so long as 
party loyalty excuses what public morality condemns. Should a 
vote of reprobation be called for, we know without counting the 
ballots what the division would be ; the Democrats would censure 
Wanamaker, and the Republicans would condemn Van Alen, hke 
the partisan man-worshippers who declared that Mr. Beecher was 
innocent, although they thought the testimony against Mrs. Tilton 
was very strong. 




The schoolboy nonsense known as "filibustering" has met 
with a check in Congress by the adoption of the tyrannical plan of 
counting a member as actually present in spite of his own declara- 
tion that by a psychological fiction he is absent in the East Indies, 
in Kamschatka, in China, or perhaps in Kalamazoo. The sport 
called "breaking a quorum" consists in this, that if you area 
member, you have besides your pay the fun of being present and 
absent at the same time. Your body may be in your usual seat 
visible to the Speaker and "palpable to feeling as to sight," while 
your Mahatma, or the voting spirit is out on the raging sea. The 
rule of stultification declared that the only way to learn whether a 
member was present or absent was by asking him, and if he said 
yes by answering at roll-call, he was to be considered present, and 
it was the duty of the Speaker, like the captain of a ship, to ' 'make 
it so" ; but if the member made no answer, and stood mute, his 
very silence was conclusive proof that his Mahatma had fled from 
the Capitol, and he was reported absent. It was rather stupid 
and expensive too, but that's the way they " broke a quorum " and 
the heart of the majority. When Mr. Reed was in the speaker's 
chair four years ago, he actually counted as present all the mem- 
bers he saw present in the body whether their Mahatmas were 
there or not, and his very sensible plan was called arbitrary, ty- 
rannical, despotic, un-American, even " Rooshan," and Mr. Reed 
was called the " Czar." He was put in the national pillory, and 
every stump-orator of the opposite party pelted him from the be- 
ginning to the end of the campaigns. Grim triumph made the face 
of Mr. Reed shine like a full moon the other day when he saw his 
critics with funeral solemnity adopting the methods of the "Czar," 
and actually claiming a Democratic patent on the scheme. It was 
wonderful to see the nerve of Mr. Wise, who had the daring to 
show from the records that Mr. Reed was not entitled to credit for 
counting members to make a quorum, that the " Czar" principle 
was first advocated in 1880 by Mr. J. Randolph Tucker, a Demo- 
crat from Virginia, and that it was then vigorously opposed by 
Mr. Reed. Mr. Wise was historically correct, but in 1880 Mr. 
Reed was in the minority, and it was then his business to denounce 
the majority for its encroachments upon the liberty of members 
to be in two places at once, or present and absent at the same 

The wedding at Coburg was a brilliant spectacle, and merely 
to read the dazzling account of it in the papers makes the eyes 
blink as they do when we try to stare out of countenance the 
noonday sun. Imperial diadems and royal robes, epaulettes, 
and plumes, diamonds, and pearls, poems in embroidery and lace, 
gave majesty and splendor to the ceremonial, while the rulers of 
half the world were there to sanction the festival and emblazon it 
with royalty. The German Emperor was there, with his mother 
the Empress, and his grandmother the Queen of England. The 
heir to the Russian throne was there, and princes and dukes more 
numerous than they are in a fairy tale. I have seen the valley of 
diamonds at the play, and I think the chapel at Coburg must have 
been something like that, A ticket to the Coburg wedding would 
have been almost a title of nobility in itself, but such luxuries are 
not for me. Many a time I have wondered how it feels to be a 
king, or a prince, or a grand duke, and the next time I meet one 
of those glittering demigods I will ask him. We have hundreds of 
them in Chicago so that I shall have no trouble in getting correct 
information, but I imagine that the feeling of superiority and exal- 
tation must be delightful as the dreams that opium gives. There 
are more princes at Chicago now than at Coburg ; and among them 
are three or four whom I have the happiness to number among 
my personal friends 

* " * 

It will appear as a strange historical coincidence that at the 
very time those imperial and royal potentates were gathered at the 

marriage feast in Coburg, a company of equal style and dignity 
was assembled in Chicago ; not at a wedding, indeed, but at the 
Masonic Temple, giving royalty and splendor to the ' ' Thirty-ninth 
Annual Reunion of the Ancient Scottish Rite." The stately titles 
of the visitors who attended the respective celebrations were singu- 
larly alike both in sense and sound, but whatever pre-eminence 
was visible in this respect, Chicago had it. According to the pa- 
pers it appears that while the wedding was going on at Coburg, 
"Chicago Council of the Princes of Jerusalem was in session at 
the temple ; not at the temple in Jerusalem but at the temple 
in Chicago, under the direction and command of Chester T. Deake, 
sovereign prince of Jerusalem, and James F. Church, High Priest, 
and thrice potent G. M." I do not understand the cabalistic signs, 
but I think G. M. are the proper heiroglyphics that stand for Grand 
Mogul. All the Chicago princes are not of equal rank, for they 
are classified into three grades, sovereign, illustrious, and sublime. 
With reverential awe we read that " Gourgas Chapter assembled 
at five o'clock, with Illustrious Prince John A. May presiding, 
while Illustrious Prince James B. McFatrick occupied the throne 
of the Grand Pontiff," wearing, I suppose, the triple crown upon 
his head. George W. Warville, "Sublime Prince of the royal 
secret," wearing the shining jewel of his rank, bestowed some high 
degrees upon aspiring princelings ; and after conferring upon the 
sublime, illustrious, and sovereign brethren the knighthood of the 
white and black eagle the conference adjourned. An old army 
comrade of mine is a hatter in Chicago ; a knight of the black 
eagle, and a sovereign prince of Jerusalem ; but yet, when you go 
into his place to buy a hat, he is as affable and condescending as 
any common man. M. M. Trumbull. 


The Open Court Publishing Co. is now publishing a new, 
authorised translation by Merwin-Marie Snell of the eighth edi- 
tion of M. Ribot's famous monograph on "The Diseases of the 
Will," the conclusions of which are contained in M. Ribot's article 
on "The Will " in this number. The Open Court Publishing Co. 
has also published " The Diseases of Personality" and " The Psy- 
chology of Attention." No belter introductions to the science of 
psychology can be found than these little books of the great French 
psychologist, all of which are to the point, and not overladen 
with special discussions. In Mr. Snell's elegant and graceful 
translation of "The Diseases of the Will" the reader will have a 
perfect equivalent of the original, enhanced by the fact that all 
the citations and authorities of the original, many of which were 
faulty, have been recompared and verified. 



E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 


THE WILL. Prof. Th. Ribot 4055 


DUCKLINGS. Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan 4058 

CURRENT TOPICS : American Saints. Paying Them to 
Move On. Senator Hill. Party Loyalty. Counting a 
Quorum. The Wedding at Coburg. American Princes. 
Gen. M. M. Trumbull 4061 

NOTES 4062 


The Open Court. 



No. 349. (Vol. VIII.— 18 

CHICAGO, MAY 3, 1894. 

I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publishe 



We speak of matter and energy or force (I use 
these two latter words interchangeably for the pur- 
poses of this article) as if they were essentially differ- 
ent, when, in fact, it should seem, they are essentially 
the same, differing in mode only. 

Speaking roundly, as well as figuratively, we may 
call matter funded energy — energy current matter; or 
matter we may distinguish, roundly, as visible energy 
— energy as invisible matter. Take, for example, the 
clod at your feet. It is matter, you say; yet analyse 
it, pushing the analysis as far as you may, and you 
get nothing but modes of energy, with a residuum 
that offers nothing different. Nevertheless, these parts 
together make the clod. Whither does this unques- 
tioned fact point, if not to the conclusion that matter 
and energy are in essence the same? Nothing but en- 
ergy can be got out of matter, because matter is noth- 
ing but energy more or less compounded, as energy is 
nothing but matter more or less resolved. Matter, 
one may say, bears the relation to energy, always 
speaking roundly, that a stocking bears to the thread 
of which it is knit: ravel matter, and you have energy 
— knit up the ravelling, and you have matter again. 
Energy is the simpler state of the common substance 
— the raw material, as it were, of which matter is the 
elaboration in greater or less degree. 

But if matter and energy are essentially the same, 
it may be asked, what becomes of the vehicle of en- 
ergy? The metaphor is superseded. If energy is a 
form of matter, it is its own vehicle. The notion that 
matter is the vehicle of energy is possibly a good 
enough working-notion for physicists, in the present 
state of physics, but has as little philosophical value 
as the notion that ice is a vehicle of water, or water 
a vehicle of vapor. It is secondary, not to say illusive. 
It relates to states of matter, without approaching its 
essential form ; it sticks in the outer bark of things. 
Matter might be described as fixed energy, and energy 
as free matter ; but this distinction, like every other 
of which the case admits, is accidental only. No en- 
ergy can be absolutely free ; no matter can be abso- 
lutely fixed — not even that which Professor Dewar, if 

one may credit the exultanffoes of matter, is about 
to lock in the cold embrace of molecular death. 

If matter and energy are one, the questioner may 
persist. How is it that, in a given material system, the 
energy disappears, while the matter remains ? The 
energy does not disappear, nor does the matter re- 
main — if the definite article is used to signify the whole 
of either in the system ; the energy that disappears 
carries with it a corresponding part of the matter, in 
the action whereof it consists, the matter, under stress 
of position, no more remaining intact than musk re- 
mains intact while diffusing its odor through a room, 
though the nicest balance may fail to detect the slight- 
est loss of weight in either. In fact, the energy and 
the matter equally disappear — equally remain. 

Energy is something moving — not the effect of 
something moving, but the fact. The degree of en- 
ergy depends on the mass of what is moving, and the 
velocity with which it moves; but the energy itself 
consists in the moving or resisting something that is 
another name for existence — matter in its elementary 
state. Matter is not moved ; it moves — is essentially 
active, not passive. Motion is neither an accident 
nor an attribute of matter ; it does not belong to mat- 
ter, for without it matter would have no existence, and 
a thing cannot, speaking accurately, possess itself or 
a constituent of itself — cannot be at the same time 
both possessor and possession. Indeed, the prevalent 
conception of subject and attribute, in general, not 
only has no objective reality, but involves this contra- 
diction. Motion is an essential part of matter, as 
energy is the essential mode. 

What cannot resist does not exist. Matter, it is 
true, exists in states wherein it is so fine and impon- 
derable as not to offer sensible resistance, but it must 
be convertible into states in which it does offer sensi- 
ble resistance, or cease to exist. The principle holds 
good everywhere and always. The unseen is real, pro- 
vided it is convertible, theoretically or practically, into 
the sensible ; but not otherwise. The idea that the 
unseen is the only real, or pre-eminently the real, is 
philosophico-romantic bosh. The divisibility of mat- 
ter soon carries us indeed beyond the reach not only 
of the senses, but of the subtlest instruments by which 
the senses can be implemented; yet, however far it 



may go, it can never carry us beyond a point at which 
the parts are reconvertible into the sensible whole 
from which they were resolved. Not the absolute 
unseen, but the sensible, actual or possible, is the 
only real. The insensible is conceivable only in terms 
of the sensible, into which, if real, it is transformable. 
Cognition of the insensible supposes cognition of the 
sensible, conception being possible only within the 
limits of possible perception. Let this truth be firmly 
grasped. The intellectual currency that is not re- 
deemable in the standard coin of the realm of sense is 
worthless. What cannot be translated into resistance 
has no existence, no reality, no meaning, is nothing. 
Whatever resists exists, and, conversely, whatever 
exists resists. Resistance and existence are inter- 
changeable terms ; but resistance is synonymous with 
energy or force, which is the stuff of sensible matter — 
that of which sensible matter is the more or less com- 
plex form. For existence, be it observed, though fun- 
damentally one, is divisible superficially into ponder- 
able matter, or matter so named, and imponderable 
matter, or energy, whereof each is transmutable into 
the other, the two mutually blending to form the sum- 
total of reahty. 

There is thus no escape from the inference that the 
consumption of energy is the consumption of matter. 
Every act, for instance, of what we call consciousness, 
but which is really nothing more than a special form 
of interaction or responsiveness, infallibly wastes the 
matter of the brain, determinably or indeterminably, 
as exhalation wastes a grain of musk, which, notwith- 
standing, experiment has shown, weighs a full grain 
at the end of a generation. No atom moves without 
loss of substance ; for, whatever view one may take of 
the relation of energy to matter, it is admitted on all 
hands that they uniformly vary in mutual correspon- 
dence, every change of either synchronising with a 
corresponding change of the other. The vibration of 
an atom, therefore, is attended by the expenditure of 
both, on any hypothesis. The table on which my eyes 
now open is not, in rigorous exactness, the table on 
which they shut an instant ago, for, even in the twin- 
kling, it has felt that hand of change, inevitable, irre- 
sistible, irremovable, which, sooner or later, come what 
may, will destroy its formal identity, reducing it to its 
elements, and dispersing these. The distinction be- 
tween reality and appearance that once cut a figure in 
metaphysics resolves itself into a simple distinction be- 
tween the more or less permanent and the transient, 
which, though not always equally tangible, are equally 
real, and in due time equally pass away. It is ever 
thus; metaphysics propounds riddles, and physics 
reads them. Some day, thanks to physics, only one 
riddle will remain ; and thai the world, if guided by a 
sound philosophy, will give up. 

But, says the physicist of to-day, atoms are con- 
stant, undergoing no change. No doubt atoms (by 
which I mean the organised constituents of molecules) 
are relatively constant, as they are relatively simple ; 
but everything in ceaseless action undergoes ceaseless 
waste, and, accordingly, is on the highway to dissolu- 
tion, from which nothing organised is absolutely free. 
The catastrophe may be remote, and, in the case of 
atoms, so far as I can see, it would not be rash to ad- 
mit that it may come only with the general catastrophe 
of things under the sun, of which, in this event, it 
would probably mark the crisis, the elements of our 
system melting with fervent heat, but the atoms last 
of all — that atoms, in a word, are formed in some stage 
of the catastrophe which gives birth to a S3'stem, and 
dissolved in the catastrophe which ends it. 

All this, however, is consistent with their incessant 
loss of substance throughout the stupendous interval. 
An atom, to be sure, is a very small thing, and this 
interval is indeed stupendous, yet we can fairly assign 
such a ratio between the momentary waste of the atom 
and its weight that it might endure without appreciable 
loss of substance for the lifetime of a planetary system, 
as well as a grain of musk endures in like manner for 
the average lifetime of man. A finite ratio, if low 
enough, would answer the purpose. 

Besides, an atom realises, what Webster on a 
memorable occasion told Hayne, Benton, & Co., that 
there are "blows to take as well as blows to give," 
causing substantial gains no less than substantial 
losses, and reducing the net loss of substance, it may 
be, to the lowest quantity possible under the law of 
the dissipation of energy; which would bring the as- 
signment of a proper ratio in the case still more clearly 
within the limits of theoretical possibility. 

For the rest, we may easily make too much of 
atoms, as members of the cosmos, I apprehend, since 
the range of existence from the infinite to the infini- 
tesimal leaves us no choice but to admit an infinite 
range of magnitudes beyond atoms, with some of 
which, and presumably with the least conceivable of 
the series, nature gets in her fine work, if not, in a 
broad sense, her whole work. Compared to these, 
atoms are worlds. Anyhow, in the analysis of things 
atoms are not the last word. 

One other objection may be anticipated. If matter 
is resolvable into energy, and, when pressed by anal- 
ysis, yields nothing else, how can we perceive some- 
thing resisting, without at the same time perceiving 
the resistance as resistance ? The former is concrete 
resistance, which we perceive immediately, while the 
latter is abstract resistance, the product of analysis. 
Agreeably to a familiar law of mind, not questioned in 
our time, I believe, we perceive the whole of the ob- 
ject in perception, before we perceive its parts — per- 



ceive it generally, first, and specially afterwards. The 
resisting something that affords our primordial con- 
sciousness, presenting itself as external and conse- 
quently as extended, is the object thus perceived in 
its wholeness or generally, before analysis has spe- 
cialised it, bringing into consciousness the resistance 
as such. Resistance as such is disembodied motion ; 
but the mind must apprehend motion embodied be- 
fore it can disembody it. And embodied motion is 
energy, — living matter, — matter to whose essence mo- 
tion pertains, and which, accordingly, like Milton's 

"... .vital in every part, 
Cannot but by annihilating die." 

Force has been called the primary attribute of 
body. But in what sense is this true? In a psycho- 
logical sense purely, according to my judgment. It 
defines a subjective appearance in terms that have no 
objective validity. The force which at any given mo- 
ment a body puts forth, or is fancied to put forth, is a 
partial resolution of the compounded force composing 
the body; for though the body and the force it puts 
forth are of corresponding form and the same ultimate 
nature, they are not of the same quantity or duration, 
the greater mass and permanence of the former giving 
rise to the distinction of subject and attribute — matter 
and force. The relation of matter and force is indeed 
the relation of subject and attribute in its most general 
form, and, what most concerns us here, is non-essen- 
tial throughout, disappearing in the fundamental unity 
of things. The difference between a body and the 
force it is said to exert is at bottom, therefore, purely 
quantitative ; the force is an integrant part of the 

The plain fact is that energy, as essentially distin- 
guished from matter, is a creature of the imagination, 
formed by transferring to objective changes the effi- 
ciency or causal nexus which that power reads into 
subjective ones — unreal in both : no reality answers to 
it in either. There is matter or existence or resistance, 
with its changes — nothing else. This is the bare fact ; 
although men, not appreciating the simplicity of na- 
ture, have clothed it with the fig-leaf of energy or 
force. Philosophy need not tear off this covering. 
But it is bound to look beneath it. There it will find, 
if it looks deep enough, not matter and energy, but 
simply matter in its various modes, whereof the mode 
that men use the word energy to explain is the primary 
one, though no more distinguishable from the other 
modes or from matter than the sea is distinguishable 
from the billows it heaves or from the water that forms 
it. The primary mode of a thing, like the primary 
attribute, is really the equivalent of the thing ; its pri- 
mary mode, as comprehending its other modes, being 
the sum of all its modes, and consequently the thing 

itself. The primary mode of a thing is the thing in 
its elements. 

In fine, matter and energy are two names for two 
aspects or two states of the same thing — of that re- 
sisting something to which the former of these names 
is usually given, and may be given fitly enough by 
synecdoche or comprehension, but for which I think a 
better name is existence, or, better still, resistance, each 
of which, properly considered, has the same extension 
and intension as matter in its figurative sense. Matter 
in this sense, it will be noted, is indistinguishable from 
energy, of which matter in its common acceptation is 
a mode or state, energy itself being the primary state 
of the fundamental thing. In one of these states or 
in certain degrees of it, the thing is so massed and 
complex as to overwhelm imagination ; in certain de- 
grees of the other it is so diffused and simple as not 
only to elude imagination, but to dupe reason, for, 
while in the former state we all agree to call the thing 
matter, in the latter some of us, misled by its tran- 
scendent subtilty, are weak enough to assume that it 
has become nothing, naming it consequently /wOT^y/^r/a/ 
substance, incorporeal agent, hyperphysical being, spirit, 
and the like, words that signify nothing — that keep 
the pledge of meaning to our ear, and break it to our 

Mr. Herbert Spencer, in his "Principles of Psy- 
chology," has a chapter on " The Substance of Mind," 
wherein he undertakes to demonstrate, first, that mind 
cannot be conscious of its substance, and, secondly, 
that mind is conscious that its substance is immaterial, 
or, what comes to the same thing, that mind is imma- 
terial because it cannot be conscious that it is material 
— about as sleek a bull, to my mind, as ever pastured 
in the green fields of philosophy. The chapter might 
put one in mind of the lawyer's famous answer to the 
complaint that his client had returned a borrowed 
kettle broken. "In the first place," said he, "the 
kettle was cracked when my client borrowed it ; sec- 
ondly, it was whole when he returned it ; and, thirdly, 
he never had it." Even Mr. Spencer's conception of 
the substance of mind is open to question, I think. He 
holds the substance of mind to be "that which per- 
sists in spite of all changes, and maintains the unity 
of the aggregate in defiance of all attempts to divide 
it." But "that which persists in spite of all changes" 
must be either the sum of the changes or the subject 
of them. If the sum of the changes, it consists of 
them, and cannot persist in spite of them. If the sub- 
ject of the changes, it is a whole, whereof they are the 
parts, independently of which it has no existence, and 
of course no persistence, in spite of them or other- 
wise. The subject of the changes and the sum of the 
changes are in reality one and the same. A thing apart 
from its modes is nothing. As there is thus no such 



thing it cannot be the substance of mind or of anything 
else, much less that which " maintains the unity of 
the aggregate in defiance of all attempts to divide it." 
The latter service, happily, in place of resting with 
this nonentity, is discharged by the unity of the or- 
ganism, whereof "the unity of the aggregate" is the 
expression. The unity of the aggregate, moreover, 
belongs to mind as mind, and the substance of mind, 
it hardly need be said, is not mind, as the substance 
of a watch is not the watch. It is not the substance 
but the form of mind that gives it unity. The sub- 
stance of mind, according to my view, I have already 
said, is ethereal stress,^ or matter enormously subtile, 
vibrating with enormous velocity, and of which we are 
conscious as energy, mind being the specific form of 
stress determined by the nervous system. 

If this be so, the mind, though unconscious of it- 
self, not only is conscious of its substance (of that 
whereof its substance is a direct portion), but is not 
conscious of anything else ; for visible matter we per- 
ceive only through the intermediation of the invisible 
matter that we call energy. The unseen is not more 
or less real than the seen, yet it is only the unseen (the 
unseen not the insensible) that we perceive immediately 
— of which we are conscious in the strict meaning of 
the word. Strictly, I am not conscious of the pen in 
my hand, but only of the wave lengths that it propa- 
gates to my sensorium, and which, by a train of rea- 
soning, I trace back to it, synthesising them into the 
symbol of it. Of these vibrations, forming the imme- 
diate object of perception, I am momently"^ conscious 
through the sense of resistance — the sense that, in my 
opinion, comprehends all the other senses, and is in 
reality the fundamental mode of consciousness, every 
possible object of which, by the bye, in all its modes, 
is external, the idea that a state of consciousness is or 
may become an object of consciousness being a sover- 
eign absurdity. But I am here anticipating a discus- 
sion whereon I do not now propose to enter. 

Having been betrayed into saying thus much, 
though, I maybe allowed to add certain precautionary 

1 Here obviously is an opening for the telepathist, who may suggest tliat 
ethereal stress bears the same relation to mind as the physicists say it bears 
to electricity— that, although it cannot think or conduct thought, it may con- 
duct the peculiar stress set up by the thought of one mind, and capable of re- 
producing it in another, no matter how distant. The suggestion, it seems to 
me, 1 confess, conflicts with no known fact or principle, but rather accords 
fundamentally with all the known modes of communication from mind to 
mind. The difference, so far as principle is concerned, between communicat- 
ing an idea through the air, by actual articulation, and through the ether, by 
ideal articulation {we think in words), is not apparent. Why may not the 
subtler determination, in exceptional circumstances, pass by the subtler me- 
dium, as well as the coarser determination, ordinarily, by the coarser medium? 
Be this as it may, the marvels of the so-called spiritual world, it is my un- 
doubting faith, are solely due to what we call matter, whose properties will be 
found sooner or later to account for all of them that are real. 

2 In developed mind, psychologists agree, the immediate object of con- 
sciousness, as a fleeting step in the process of acquired perception, excites no 
a'tention, and immediately lapses out of consciousness, presenting a case un- 
der the familiar law o obli' 

remarks, (i) Touch, I hold, may be analysed into re- 
sistance, as certainly as the remaining senses may be 
analysed into touch ; resistance is the essence of all 
the senses — is for that matter the essence of mind. 
(2) The part commonly assigned to muscular tension 
and volition in the perception of resistance seems to 
me unwarranted ; they are needed to measure resist- 
ance, but not to perceive it. (3) What Kant called 
the vital sense, including the sense of temperature, 
the sense of health, the sense of hunger and thirst, and 
so on, is no more than a consciousness of the several 
organic states which these names connote, and which 
do not require a separate sense, any more than hunger 
requires one sense, and thirst another. The same is 
true of muscular movement and muscular tension, 
which call for a muscular sense as little as love calls 
for an erotic sense (the elder Scaliger thought it did), 
or hate for a demonic one. 

Consciousness in truth is its own sense, and (sub- 
jectively speaking) there is no other, what are called 
the senses being simply modified parts of the bodily 
surface, facilitating the communication of external ob- 
jects with the brain centres, but ending where con- 
sciousness begins— gateways to consciousness, which, 
however, may be entered without trouble over the fence, 
through the fence, and under the fence, as well as by 
these "portals of the soul." Things open avenues to 
consciousness, or lines of least resistance, which they 
ordinarily travel ; but, when greatly excited, they some- 
times cut across lots, making nothing of barriers — 
strong feeling is apt to revive old habits. Yet so long 
as a thing gets there, and brings out from the brain 
that reaction or response wherein consciousness essen- 
tially consists, it matters little whether it goes by the 
highway of the senses or through the fields of general 
sensibility; the point is that consciousness is acces- 
sible both ways, and, when accosted by an object ap- 
proaching either way, is (like Hamlet adjured by his 
father's ghost) "bound to hear." The refinings of 
science are very well, but so is the simplicity of phi- 
losophy, to which, one should never forget, they may 
all be reduced ; fundamental truth is the pole-star of 
the thinker, and he who would not lose himself on the 
trackless sea of knowledge must habitually recur to it, 
as the mariner to his compass. 

In closing this article, I may venture to recall 
" a remark or two of Mr. Spencer's, bearing espe- 
cially on the subject of it. Our experiences of mat- 
ter, he observes, are "resolvable into experiences of 
force," adding, in another connexion, that "resistance 
is the primary attribute of body." If hy force Mr. 
Spencer means only matter in a finer mode than that 
to which we ordinarily give the name, (force in the 
sense in which I have sought to present it,) his posi- 



tion is merely a paradox — false in appearance, but 
true in fact ; but if he means by force something im- 
material, the position, I hope I may be pardoned for 
saying, is not a paradox, but an absurdity. For, 
granting that a thing may be the attribute of that 
which is resolvable into it, nothing can be resolvable 
into it without community of nature with it, such as 
does not exist between the material and the immaterial. 
If force is immaterial, and matter is resolvable into it, 
matter not only is destructible, but is destroyed whole- 
sale every instant — nay, it does not exist at all, for, in 
this case, matter is immaterial. The mutual converti- 
bility of all things existing is a corollary from the 
principle of which the conservation of energy and the 
indestructibility of matter are phases ; so that if but 
an atom were immaterialised the whole world would 
run out of existence through the aperture — a single 
point of absolute nothing would empty the universe. 
This topping contradiction of immaterial matter I 
see only one way to avoid, which is a recognition of 
the fact that matter and energy are interconvertible 
states of the one fundamental existence. Assuredly, 
if force is immaterial, neither of Mr. Spencer's re- 
marks can be true. Matter, in that case, is not re- 
solvable into force, as I have pointed out ; nor can 
force be the attribute of matter, for a substance is 
equal to the sum of all its attributes, as a whole is 
equal to its parts, and a material whole cannot be 
made up of immaterial parts. Assume that energy is 
an immaterial effluence of matter or in harmony with 
matter, and you at once sink out of sight into a bot- 
tomless quicksand. Grant that it is a material agency, 
and, in my conviction, you stand on solid ground, with 
the key to a consistent and complete explanation of 
world phenomena. And there seems to me to be no 
third position. Existence is an inscrutable fact — in- 
scrutable because infinite, the properties of infinite 
existence requiring for their manifestation infinite time 
and space, which no finite being may compass ; it is 
the one mystery, if we may with propriety call that a 
mystery which is the principle of explanation — that 
into which we resolve things to explain them. To this 
one mystery immaterialism or unresistantism adds two 
other mysteries, which, however, may be reduced to 
one — namely, the action of a thing where it is not, by 
something else that is not. To say the least, this is 
unphilosophical. It falls under Occam's razor, not to 
mention the bludgeon of common sense. It is an ob- 
vious form of the doctrine that in our day has become, 
justly, the especial opprobrium of philosophy — dualism. 
On the other hand, resistantism, by whatever name 
distinguished, leaves the one mystery in its awful sin- 
gleness. It is monism — monism pure and unquali- 
fied — monism in the full length and breadth and depth 
of the term. 


We publish Mr. Paul R. Shipman's article, not be- 
cause we agree, but because we disagree, with him. 
The line of thought which he follows is exceedingly 
suggestive, but we regard his methods, not less than 
his results, as faulty. He aims to construct a mo- 
nistic system, "monism pure and unqualified," as he 
calls it ; but his philosophy is what in previous articles 
we have characterised as Henism,i or a single-concept 
theory, which in utter disregard of the nature of ab- 
straction selects some one general term and subsumes 
under it all other ideas, whether or not they belong to 
its category. 

A few paragraphs quoted from the "Primer of 
Philosophy " will suffice to explain the nature of ab- 
straction : 

" The importance of understanding the process and scope of 
abstraction is very great, for abstraction is the very essence and 
nature of man's method of thought. . . . Abstraction is a very sim- 
ple process, and yet some of the greatest philosophers have mis- 
understood it. . . . The greatest difficulty for a child when he learns 
to walk is, not to stumble over his own feet. Similarly, the great- 
est difficulty with philosophers is, not to stumble over their own 
ideas. . . . The very existence of many problems proves how little 
the nature of abstract ideas is understood. There is, for instance, 
the question which has again and again been raised, whether the 
soul can be explained from matter or energy. The question itself 
is wrong, and proves that the questioner stumbles over his own 
ideas. We might just as well ask whether matter can be ex- 
plained from energy, or energy from matter. Matter and energy 
are two different kinds of abstraction, and feelings, or states of 
consciousness, are again another kind. We cannot explain an idea 
by confounding it with other heterogeneous ideas. What should 
we say, for instance, of a man who spoke of blue or green ideas, 
or who attempted an explanation of mathematical problems from 
the law of gravitation ? What should we say of a philosopher who 
sought to determine whether ideas could be explained from the ink 
in which they are written ? 

" Our abstracts are stored away, as it were, in different draw- 
ers and boxes. Any one who expects to solve problems that con- 
found two sets of abstractions, has either stored his ideas im- 
properly, or searches for them in the wrong box." 

Henists are philosophers, who, in their efforts to 
be monists, store away all their notions in one box, be 
it the category of matter, or of energy, or of spirit, or 
of whatever else, instead of distributing them in the 
places where they belong. 

For our present purpose it is indifferent what defi- 
nition of matter we adopt. We may define it with 
Kant as that which affects or can affect the senses, 
or we may, with the phj'sicists, say it is that which 
can be acted upon by or can exert force. It is true 
that all our experiences are possible only because we 
exert force and meet resistance ; reality consists of 
action and reaction, it is, as the Germans so appro- 
priately call it, Wirklichkeit. But for that reason we 
cannot say that everything is resistance. We must 

1 See ThcMonist, vol, iv. No, 2. " Monism and Henisni," 



not forget the nature of our abstract terms. To say 
" matter is resistance " is at once a mistake. We ought 
to say " matter is that which resists "; for it is not the 
act of resistance, but that enduring something which 
resists. Professor Mach in his definition of matter, 
" zu dessen Wahrnehmung «//;■ die Wirksamkeit der 
Sinne erforderlich scheint," very guardedly adds and 
itahcises nur ; for forms and motions are also perceiv- 
able by the senses ; yet neither forms nor motions are 
matter, for indeed they are not perceivable by the 
senses a/on c ; an element of memory and mental ob- 
servation enters into the ideas of form and change of 
place ; they are not products of mere sensation. 

When we make the abstraction "matter," we se- 
lect certain features of our experiences, and drop all 
others. When speaking of the matter of which a man 
is composed, we advisedly omit his feelings, his in- 
telligence, his character, his plans, and purposes, and 
so forth. When speaking of motion, we mean change 
of place, and not mass, not matter, not spirit, nor any- 
thing else ; when speaking of force, we refer to that 
which can produce motion and overcome resistance. 

This seems clear enough, and yet how much is 
this elementary rule of thinking sinned against! There 
are plenty of henistic philosophers who are satisfied 
they are monists as soon as they have stored all their 
ideas into the one box of their favorite generalisation. 
Whenever they try to think their ideas to an end they 
become entangled in contradictions, and seeing no 
way out of it, they naturally turn agnostics. 

Mr. Shipman's method is henistic, and we may 
characterise him as a materialistic agnostic. In former 
articles he propounded the theory that there is but one 
reality, viz., matter, and that is unknowable and mys- 
terious. To-day he presents us with a number of conun- 
drums which grow out of the henistic principle of his 
method. We are told that "matter and energy are in 
essence the same." "Force is material," yet at the 
same time " matter is immaterial." This being so, the 
old refrain follows : ' ' Existence is an inscrutable fact. " 

That any one could regard "change of place " as a 
material thing seems impossible, but such is the con- 
sistent sequence of Mr. Shipman's materialistic he- 

There are a number of minor points in Mr. Ship- 
man's article ; e. g. " energy is something moving," 
while it is the actual or potential moving of some- 
thing ; matter and energy are "transmutable each 
into the other," which is a new law that if true would 
produce changes more wonderful than Aladdin's lamp; 
" energy is a form of matter, and is its own vehicle "; 
which sounds like, "a blow is the fist which deals the 
blow, and a blow is its own striker"; "no atom moves 
without loss of substance," an observation which, for 
all we know, might prove true, but where is the veri- 

fication of this startling proposition? Shall we believe 
that the ether profits thereby and is thus constantly in- 
creasing, or is this loss of substance an absolute loss 
so that in the long run the world would dwindle away ? 
" What cannot be translated into resistance has no ex- 
istence. " Can we translate the theorem of Pythagoras 
into resistance, or the ideas of truth, beauty, and right- 
eousness? And as we cannot, have they, therefore, no 

It would take more space than editorial considera- 
tions will permit to unravel the stocking so ingeniously 
knit from the yarn of a thin philosophical abstraction. 
Nevertheless, who will not find much food for thought 
in Mr. Shipman's article, which deals with problems 
which prove so difficult for many profound naturalists 
as well as philosophers ! p. c. 



Folk-dancing is not an overdone subject. The 
truth is, not one person in a thousand knows what 
folk- dances are, what they really mean, or how they 
reach artistic development. 

To-day, when people think or speak of dancing, 
they have in mind the social dances of the parlor, of 
ball-room, or of the theatre. But these dances have 
little or nothing in common with folk- dances, or with 
the classic dances of the ancients. 

The characteristic of folk-dancing is the faithful- 
ness with which it reflects human nature. In this 
respect it differs from modern social dancing, which is 
highly artificial in every way. If we look at cultivated 
people, we see that they take real aesthetic pleasure in 
complicated steps, in involved figures, and in unusual 
movement ; or, they enjoy the springs, pirouettes, 
contortions, and high kickings of the ballet-dancer. 
But, if we look at a savage or a peasant, we see that 
they derive no great aesthetic enjoyment from these 
features of the modern dance. We might almost con- 
clude, at first blush, that they have no idea of dancing 
whatever. And yet, when we examine folk- dances 
more closely, we find in them a certain aesthetic mean- 
ing and significance. 

There is much to learn concerning the nature of 
dancing and of the aesthetic feelings which have al- 
ways accompanied the dance. As yet little has been 
done ; but enough to show that dancing is of gradual 
growth, and as an art is subject to a general law of 
mental evolution. ^ 

In this paper I shall attempt to point out some of 
the aesthetic elements of the dance, and we cannot be- 
gin better than by looking at their appearance in the 
lower animals. The feeling for form, rhythm, meas- 

1 See a paper on " The Evolution of Dancing," by the writer in T/tt; Popu 
lar Science Monthly^ October, 1892. 



ured sound and motion is found very low in the scale 
of nature ; how low, we do not undertake to say. The 
Eesthetic sense is very pronounced among the birds. 
Mr. Darwin refers to the rock-thrush of Guiana, birds 
of paradise, and some others that congregate during 
the mating season, and then the males show off their 
plumage and perform dances before the females, which, 
standing by as spectators, at last choose the most at- 
tractive partner. From the taste for bright colors, for 
musical sounds, and for rhythmical movements we get 
by sexual selection such highly evolved aesthetic pro- 
ducts as the waving plumage of the bird of paradise, 
the song of the mocking-bird, and the remarkable per- 
formances of the spur-winged lapwing. The lapwing 
display, called by the natives its " dance, " requires 
three birds for its performance. When a visitor comes 
to a pair, the latter advance to meet it, and place 
themselves behind it ; then all three begin a quick 
march and keep step to drumming notes. 

If the lower animals show a marked festhetic en- 
joyment of singing and dancing performances, there 
is no good reason for doubting that primitive man 
must have possessed these elements of aesthetic feel- 
ing. He must have been endowed with a sense of 
form and rhythm. He must have been pleased, as 
Mr. Darwin argues, by musical sounds and combina- 
tions, though chiefly in the form of human song and 
rhythm alone. And he must have been moved to in- 
dulge in dancing performances. The spirit that moves 
men to shuffle their feet, kick up their heels, and leap 
in the air, comes from different feelings, — now from 
animal or exuberant emotions and vivacity of every 
kind, and now from joy and triumph and rage. 

The savage's love of the dance is derived from that 
instinctive delight in form, rhythm, measured sound 
and motion, which is faintly foreshadowed in the lower 
animals. So the earliest evidences of derivative aes- 
thetic feeling which we possess are those of rude songs 
and dances and ornaments. The most naked savage 
is exceedingly fond of dancing. People so low in cul- 
ture as to have developed no musical instruments 
dance with passionate enjoyment to the clapping of 
hands and the beating of sticks together. I notice in 
many books of travel and reports that the lowest races 
of men spend half their time in dancing. Thus, we 
read that the chief occupation of the Indians of south- 
ern California used to be dancing, when the men were 
-not engaged in procuring food.^ 

The part played by dancing in the drama of court- 
ship in most savage communities is not important or 
decisive. That is on account of the social position of 
woman. She is won, not by choice, but by force and 
strength. The men do most of the dancing, but they 
seldom dance in their love-making. Among many of 

1 United States Geological Survey Under Lieutenant Wheeler, vol. vii, p. 29. 

the lowest races the only love-dances in vogue are 
those performed by the women, not by the men. Such 
are the dances of the Polynesians, some of the Indian 
tribes, and the natives of Tahiti. The semi-civilised 
peoples of Asia, and to a greater extent the peasants 
of Europe, have dances of love in which the drama of 
courtship is set forth — the shy advances, the meeting 
of the lovers, the maiden modesty and retreat, the 
proposal, the rejection, and at last the open-armed 
acceptance. Such, for example, is the Csardos, the 
well-known folk-dance of Hungary. 

There is no question that, from the beginning, dan- 
cing has been especially the expression of love and of 
love-making. The love- notions possessed by folk are 
pretty uniform in different parts of the world. How- 
ever much they differ in details, all folk agree in mak- 
ing dancing a necessary part of the drama of courtship. 
The Greeks regarded Cupid, the god of love, as an 
expert dancer ; and the early painters, in all their 
pictures of love, figure Cupid ever smiling and look- 
ing upon dancers. Burton, in his quaint chapter on 
"Symptoms of Love," makes dancing the most promi- 
nent symptom. 1 It is a sure sign. Dancing still is, 
says he, a necessary appendix to love matters, and 
"young lasses are never better pleased than when 
they may meet their sweethearts and dance about a 
May-pole or in a town-green under a shady elm." 

The folk-dances of love-making have served to 
quicken the sense of personal beauty. By the common 
consent of poets, painters, and sculptors, the standard 
of beauty for mankind is to be found in the form of a 
lovely woman. So, when dancing falls into the hands 
of women, it becomes more and more beautiful, more 
and more artistic. 

In different ways has dancing been the means of 
developing man's aesthetic feelings. This is shown, 
at first, in the use of ornaments and decorations for 
the person. Clay and ochre are used for painting or 
staining the body ; perforated shells and animals' 
bones for necklaces, and so on. Feathers are made 
into head-dresses by the North American Indians, and 
into magnificent cloaks by the Hawaiians. Flowers 
are favorite objects of decoration with the South Sea 
Islanders and the Polynesians. When the savages 
dance they always array themselves in fantastic style; 
they color their naked bodies ; they wear wampum 
beads around the neck, ornaments about the knees or 
ankles and the waist; they often have large and un- 
wieldy coiffures ; they carry carved sticks or wands, 
rattles, whistles, and weapons in their hands. The 
habit of wearing painted or carved masks, and the 
employment of odd, grotesque, or fantastic costumes 
in the dance is found the world over. 

The more elaborate the decoration and the para- 

'^ Anaiotny 0/ Melancholy , part iii, sect. 2. 



phernalia, the more important is the dance. The 
"medicine dances" of the lower races are character- 
ised by a display of color, ornament, and costume. 
Then, at a higher level of culture, we have the dances 
with which people celebrate their religious festivals. 
These are often elaborate and spectacular affairs. Such, 
for example, is "The Mountain Chant" of the Navajo 
Indians.' This ceremonial, lasting nine days, pre- 
sents in a dance or series of dances a myth of the Na- 
vajos and shows a great advance in dramatic develop- 
ment. In the use of mechanical devices, in the scenic 
effects, in the skilful jugglery, in the employment of 
the Shaman, or priest, as stage- manager — in all these 
we see the germs of the popular drama. 

The mystical ceremonies of the ancient Greeks 
were dances, or series of dances, setting forth the story 
of some god or some person. Thus, the Eleusinian 
Mystery was a spectacular miracle-play, representing 
the sorrows and consolations of Demeter, "She of the 
harvest-home." At the Bacchic festivals the ancient 
Greeks were no better than a mob of Navajo Indians. 
The dancers covered their bodies with the skins of 
beasts, smeared themselves with wine-lees, put on 
masks, and assumed the parts of fauns and nymphs 
and satyrs. And yet, as every schoolboy knows, out 
of the dances with which the people of Hellas cele- 
brated their religious festivals was evolved the marvel- 
lous structure of the Greek drama. 

In ancient times, the connexion between dancing 
and religion was very close. The medicine-men or 
chiefs of the tribe are the leaders of the dance. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Beckwith, "the high priest in the reli- 
gious ceremonies of the Dakotas is invariably a chief, 
who, through these dances, retains his influence in the 
tribe." In India the priests led the dances around the 
sacred altars. India's heaven was the scene of dancing, 
and every temple kept its band of dancing girls. The 
kings of Israel were all distinguished dancers, none 
more so than David, who danced before the Ark. The 
Greeks, who were the greatest dancers the world has 
ever seen, brought dancing to its highest pitch. They 
made dancing part and parcel of their religion. Plato, 
in his "Commonwealth," advocated the establishment 
of dancing-schools in the ideal state. The Romans 
had dances in honor of the pastoral gods, vine-dances 
and harvest-measures. "You cannot find a single 
ancient mystery," says Lucian, "in which there is not 

The connexion between dancing and religion con- 
tinued even in Christian times. The early Fathers had 
no serious objection to dancing ; in fact, Gregory 
Thaumaturgus introduced dancing into the ritual. 
Later on, the Church endeavored to suppress pagan 
dances, which had become coarse and immodest. On 

1 Described in Fi/lh Ethnological Report, pp. 384-468. 

the other hand, she fostered miracle-plays in which 
moral stories and Bible stories were told to the folk, 
to the unlettered public. These plays were simply 
choral songs and dances, and, in some cases, mere 
spectacular shows. Finally, as a survival of the autos 
sacrameniales, or miracle-plays, we have the Corpus 
Christi dances, which are performed to this day during 
carnival season in the Seville cathedral. Every even- 
ing at five o'clock the little choir-boys dance before 
the Host. 

Such, then, is the meaning of folk-dance — passing 
from the region of history and religion into the region 
of poetry and frivolity, and thus following a general 
law of mental evolution, namely, that practices which 
occupy an important place in the minds and daily do- 
ings of people in a savage stage of culture,' survive 
only as matters of amusement, or of aesthetic feeling 
in a period of civilisation. 



Sleep said : From thine own soul I loosen thee, 
And lo ! a sense thou art that sense knows not 
To trace the metamorphoses of thought 

Within thy spaceless spirit's mystery : 

As though a God, with potent alchemy, 
Were crystallising Being from the naught, 
Behold the phantom-miracles enwraught 

Within thy vast of living vacancy : 

From dewdrop, pinioned on star-hilted ray, 
The thought in mountains 'rose athwart the day ; 

Then slipt to tone, as touched with alkahest 
Through all the mass. It grew a flower straightway. 
Or will or pain, but never came to rest. 
And on through myriad modes of Being pressed. 

ery : 

1 Dancing 
:ient Mexicans did 

ous affair to the savage. Among the KwakiutI In- 
, the dancer who makes a mistake is killed. The 
lind putting an awkward dancer out of the way. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



Paul R. Shipman 4063 




Consciousness. Charles Alva Lane 4070 


The Open Court. 



No. 350. (Vol. VIII.— 19 ) 

CHICAGO, MAY 10, 1894. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents.', 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publishe 



The old self-reliant spirit of the independence days 
appears to be dying out of our people. From citizens 
we have turned ourselves into subjects, humbly crav- 
ing the protection and the correction of government. 
Our will-power and our work-power are growing fee- 
ble, and we pray to be coaxed or driven. Our ancient 
freedom bows in obedience to the writ of injunction, 
and when we are not ourselves "enjoined" we are 
"enjoining" somebody else. 

The writ of injunction was formerly a private rem- 
edy but it is rapidly becoming a social domination and 
a political power. Its imperious veto may reach across 
a continent and subjugate a whole community, as well 
as a corporation. The injunction issued by Judge 
Jenkins forbidding the laborers on the Pacific Railroad 
te leave their work, was the resurrection of the serf- 
dom that was buried long ago, and it gives judicial 
sanction to the writs of injunction issued by the walk- 
ing delegates elected by the Knights of Labor. Those 
comfortable persons who sustain Judge Jenkins have 
no right to complain when his law is adopted and his 
methods imitated by laboring men. 

The quality of a writ of injunction must be deter- 
mined, not by its legality but by its morality, whether 
the source of it be a judge appointed by the President 
of the United States or a judge appointed by the Pres- 
ident of the Confederation of Labor. It is time to ar- 
rest writs of injunction and confine them within their 
ancient boundaries. 

Referring again to the writ of injunction issued by 
Judge Jenkins of the United States court, I wish to 
place alongside of it the following writ of injunction 
issued by Judge McBride of the United Mine Workers, 
and dated Columbus, Ohio, April 18. " Coal must not 
be loaded for any purpose or for any price (after the 
strike is inaugurated), but where companies want en- 
gines run, water handled, timber or other repair work 
done, it will be permitted provided the wages are in 
accordance with the scale demanded by the conven- 
tion." Now, this is a comprehensive injunction, and 
a lawyer could not have drawn it better, although Mr. 
McBride is neither a lawyer nor a judge. He is merely 
President of the United Mine Workers ; and yet, any 

man who exercises judicial functions, who can issue 
writs of injunction, and have them obeyed, may very 
properly be called a judge, and so I leave the title 
with Mr. McBride. 

The day after the McBride injunction was pro- 
claimed, a similar injunction was issued at Minneapo- 
lis, not by Judge McBride, but by the judge of another 
circuit, who forbade any work to be done within his 
jurisdiction after April the 19th, and the record further 
says, "A delegation has gone to St. Paul to induce 
Debs to declare a strike on at St. Paul also. What is 
that but another way of saying that a delegation has 
gone to St. Paul to ask Debs to issue a writ of injunc- 
tion there. I do not know who " Debs " is but I think 
I shall be safe in calling him Judge, although he may 
not have any commission or authority from the State. 

Another and more practical injunction was issued 
April the 23d at Chicago by the brickmakers of Blue 
Island against the brickmakers of the Harland and 
Alsip yards, and three hundred of the Blue Islanders 
went over to serve the writ, but in this case there 
seems to have been a conflict of jurisdiction somewhere 
for "thirty-five deputy sheriffs each with a rifle firing 
sixteen shots a minute " were on hand, and they pre- 
vented the service. Perhaps the deputy sheriffs had 
their own writs in their pockets for the protection of 
the Harland and Alsip yards. And thus it is, that the 
American republic i3 gradually becoming in some of 
its political and social characteristics a government by 
writs of injunction, one set of judges declaring that 
the people shall not work, and the others that they 



I HAVE recently made some investigations, histori- 
cal and topographical, concerning Thomas Paine in 
Paris, and have some facts and letters, not hitherto 
published, which will interest American readers. 

Paine left New York for France in April, 1787, in 
a French packet, and passed a happy summer in Paris. 
He was welcomed by the savants of the Academy of 
Sciences, who were deeply interested in the iron bridge 
he had invented, also by his old fellow-soldier Lafa- 
yette, and by Jefferson, the United States Minister, 



He probably lodged at White's Hotel, as he did when 
he took his seat in the Convention. Jefferson was re- 
siding at Challiot, a suburb now absorbed by the city, 
not far from the Arc de Triomphe. The main avenue 
of the Champs d'Elysees had been laid out some years 
before, and the fountains were playing. Paine one 
day sent Jefferson the following quaint little essay 
(unpublished), with neat drawings on it, which is 
characteristic of his 'fondness for fancies about na- 

" I enclose you a problem, not about bridges but 
trees. And to explain my meaning I begin with a 
fountain. The idea seems far-fetched, but fountains 
and trees are in my walk to Challiot. 

"Suppose Figure i a fountain. It is evident that 
no more water can pass through the branching tubes 
than passes through the trunk. Secondly, that, admit- 
ting all the water to pass with equal freedom, the sum 
of the squares of the diameters of the two first branches 
rnust be equal to the diameter of the trunk. Also the 
sum of the squares of the four branches must be equal 
to the two; and the sum of the squares of the eight 
branches must be equal to the four. And, therefore, 
8, 4, 2, and the trunk, being reciprocally equal, the 
solid content of the whole will be equal to the cylinder 
(Figure 2) of the same diameter as the trunk and 
height of the fountain. 

"Carry the idea of a fountain to a tree growing. 
Consider the sap ascending in capillary tubes like the 
water in the fountain; and no more sap will pass 
through the branches than passes through the trunk. 
Secondly, consider the branches as so many divisions 
and subdivisions of the trunk, as they are in the foun- 
tain, and that their contents are to be found by some 
rule, — with the difference only of a pyramidal figure 
instead of a cylindrical one. Therefore, to find the 
quantity of timber (or rather loads) in the tree (Fig. 3) 
draw a pyramid equal to the height of the tree (as in 
Fig. 4), taking for the inclination of the pyramid the 
diameter at the bottom, and at any discretionary height 
above it (which in this is as 3 and 2). 

"As sensible men should never guess, and as it is 
impossible to judge without some point to begin at, 
this appears to me that point, and one by which a 
person may ascertain near enough the quantity of 
timber and loads of wood in any quantity of land ; and 
he may distinguish them into timber, wood, and fag- 
gots. Yours, T. P." 

A note of Paine to Jefferson February 19, 1788, 
shows Paine again in Paris, and in consultation with 
Lafayette concerning his proposed erection of an iron 
bridge over the Seine, and this must have been near 
the date of another little essay sent to Jefferson. It 
relates to a conversation at Challiot, on attraction and 
cohesion, and has never been printed. 

" Dear Sir : Your saying last evening that Sir Isaac 
Newton's principle of gravitation would not explain, 
or could not apply as a rule to find, the quantity of 
'the attraction of cohesion,' and my replying that I 
never could comprehend any meaning in the term 
'attraction of cohesion,' the result must be that either 
I have a dull comprehension, or the term does not ad- 
mit of comprehension. It appears to me an Athana- 
sian jumble of words, each of which admits of a clear 
and distinct idea, but of no idea at all when com- 

"The immense difference there is between the at- 
tracting power of two bodies, at the least possible dis- 
tance the mind is capable of conceiving, and the great 
power that takes place to resist separation when the 
two bodies are incorporated, prove, to me, that there 
is something else to be considered in the case than 
can be comprehended by attraction or gravitation. 
Yet this matter appears sufficiently luminous to me, 
according to my own line of ideas. 

"Attraction is to matter what desire is to the mind ; 
but cohesion is an entirely different thing, produced 
by an entirely different cause, — it is the effect of the 
figure of matter. 

"Take two iron hooks, — the one strongly magneti- 
cal, — and bring them to touch each other, and a very 
little force will separate them, for they are held to- 
gether only by attraction. But their figure renders 
them capable of holding each other with infinitely more 
power to resist separation than attraction can ; by 
hooking them. 

"Now if we suppose the particles of matter to 
have figures capable of interlocking and embracing 
each other, we shall have a clear, distinct idea be- 
tween cohesion and attraction, and that they are things 
totally distinct from each other, and arise from as dif- 
ferent causes. 

" The welding of two pieces of iron appears to me 
no other than entangling the particles in much the 
same manner as turning a key within the wards of a 
lock, — and if our eyes were good enough we should 
see how it was done. 

" I recollect a scene at one of the theatres that very 
well explains the difference between attraction and co- 
hesion. A condemned lady wishes to see her child, 
and the child its mother, — this I call attraction. They 
were admitted to meet, but when ordered to part they 
threw their arms round each other and fastened their 
persons together. This is what I mean by cohesion, — 
which is a mechanical contact of the figures of their 
persons, as I believe all cohesion to be. 

"Though the term 'attraction of cohesion' has 
always appeared to me like the Athanasian Creed, yet 
I think I can help the philosophers to a better explana- 
tion of it than what they give themselves; which is, 



to suppose the attraction to continue in such a direc- 
tion as to produce the mechanical interlocking of the 
figure of the particles of the bodies attracted. 

"Thus, suppose a male and a female screw lying 
on a table, and attracting each other with a force 
capable of drawing them together. The direction of 
the attracting power to be a right line till the screws 
begin to touch each other, and th'en, if the direction of 
the attracting power be circular, the screws will be 
screwed together. But even in this explanation the 
cohesion is mechanical, and the attraction serves only 
to produce the contact. 

"While I consider attraction as a quality of matter 
capable of acting at a distance from the visible pres- 
ence of matter, I have as clear an idea of it as I can 
have of insensible things. And while I consider co- 
hesion as the mechanical interlocking of the particles 
of matter, I can conceive the possibility of it much 
easier than I can attraction ; because I can, by crook- 
ing my fingers, see figures that will interlock. There- 
fore, to endeavor to explain the less difficulty by the 
greater, appears to me unphilosophical. The cohesion 
which others attribute to attraction, and which they 
cannot explain, I attribute to figure, which I can ex- 

"A number of fishhooks attracting and moving 
towards each other will show me there is such a thing 
as attraction, but I see not how- it is performed. But 
their figurative hooking together shows cohesion visi- 
bly. A handful of fish-hooks thrown together in a 
heap explains cohesion better than all the Newtonian 
philosophy. It is with gravitation as it is with all new 
discoveries, — it is applied to explain too many things. 

"It is a rainy morning, and I am waiting for Mr. 
Parker, and in the meantime, having nothing else to 
do, I have amused myself with writing this. T. Paine." 

The use in the above of the phrase "Athanasian 
jumble of words," more than five years before Paine 
had expressed any theological heresies, suggests that 
the conversations between him and Jefferson at Chal- 
liot had not been confined to science or politics. 



" I am no optimist whose faith must hang 
On hard pretence lliat pain is beautiful 
And agony explained for men at ease 
By virtue's exercise in pitying it. 
But this I hold : that he who takes one gift 
Made for him by the hopeful work of man. 

Who clothes his body and his sentient soul 
With skill and thoughts of men, and yet denies 
A human good worth toiling for, is cursed 
With worse negation than the poet feigned 
In Mephistopheles." — George Eliot. 

\ Horace Greeley was once asked how he decided 

j the success of his lectures? He replied, " I think I 
1 have succeeded when more people stay in than go 

out." That test of excellence — more staying in than 
going out — fliouts the average pessimist. Is life worth 
living? — it all depends on the liver. If the liver keep 
his liver in fair condition, he is fairly certain to keep 
his place till the natural end when the peroration of 
life descends into unbroken silence. It is precisely 
this crisis of change called death, which the other- 
worldlings decline to accept without revolt. They hold 
as valueless the precious labor of the work-days of our 
existence, if there be no eternity of exaggerated Sab- 
baths beyond the grave. If the black pall is to blind 
their eyes to all successions of sunlight and starlight 
they will refuse to be comforted by the future of hu- 
manity. Not for them, to share the promise of human 
correspondence, when the song of hope from the soul 
of man is translated in the realisations of the poet's 
Golden Year. The pessimism of prophetic profitless- 
ness in the matter of post-mortem scrip is unpic- 

Less prosaic and sordid is the pessimism of cul- 
tured speculation — the concentration of fine sympa- 
thies into lament at the barrenness of progress, the in- 
evitableness of evil, and the vast, dramatic sorrow of 
the world-enigma. The end of the whole matter seems 
then to be that man is but the fallen god of sublime 
despair. The voices of the dead ever grow more numer- 
ous, and the memories of music fled and the tender 
graces of days that are no more accumulate till all 
passion seems lost in annihilation. These are as shad- 
ows of fate on the human soul, but the faltering of 
them is confused with pessimism as a reasoned theory 
of life. 

The pessimist pure and simple is popularly imaged 
as a malevolent — possibly talented — dyspeptic, with 
ill-starred designs on the comfortable sanity of the 
prosperous Philistine. The latter adores laisscz fairc 
in luxurious privacy. He wishes to be "let alone" — 
not to have his digestion impaired by the recital of a 
catalogue of mortal diseases. The Philistine spirit 
cleaves to light and pleasant fiction — especially in the 
enthusiasm of excellent dining. In the tranquil season 
succeeding a dinner decorously conducted, the Philis- 
tine distrusts the philosopher more than ever, and re- 
gards the philosophic bias as tending to distinct im- 
propriety — stealing the spoons perhaps, or eloping with 
the lady of the house, whichever the average Philis- 
tine might deem the greater calamity. 

Pessimism initially is not a distemper of revolt, but 
a natural incidence of intellectual and emotive in- 
fluences. Individually, it may be an undesirable mood 
or manner — not necessarily so. A despairing sense of 
the dreariness and emptiness of life is the legacy of 
physical suffering — equally of theological misbeliefs to 
which pertain deliriums, destructive of the homely 
senses of joy and sanity on earth. Unworthily the 



good of this life is outweighed by the adumbrated in- 
toxications of the celestial city. 

The seizure of malign vicissitude is upon our mod- 
ern life, and the Hindu-Germanic philosophy exactly 
diagnoses the symptoms of evil, and reduces the pres- 
sure of weariness in whatever measure the meaning of 
pain is properly apprehended. Salvation is under- 
standing. Blind leaders of the blind are the optimistic 
orgiasts of the Hebraistic afterglow. These have not 
understanding, wherefore instead of redeeming the 
soul of man they mildew the soul of man. The wave 
of intellectual sympathy which struck the sensitive 
brain of the Dantzig misanthrope from remote Oriental 
meditation, is straining for speculative renewal. The 
spiritual democracy of Jesus is a destitute alien force. 
We have loved and wholly lost that supreme, withal 
so simple soul, that glowed in Nazareth nineteen cen- 
turies backward with inexhaustible mysticism and il- 
limitable dreams. The sorrowful fervor of these will 
influence the soul-organism of the Latin races, in cen- 
turies and civilisations yet to come. Yet while the 
suffering visionary is shorn of his royal sanctions and 
therefore is but as a fabled remembrance — the lurid 
perception of evolution has temporarily created an- 
other sorrow, another shadow of the spirit. We lament 
what lies in a receding sepulchre — our eyes are not ac- 
customed to the new illumination. Immortal man is 
at the parting of the ways — between Christ and science, 
and reconciled to neither. Therefore in the world- 
sorrow of the Goethean aroma. More priggish per- 
fumes are abundant — with these pause is unnecessary. 

Evolution shall grow more sacred as time lends it 
consecrated contemplations, but that time is unready. 
Evolution is not an entity to dethrone paternal provi- 
dence — it is but yet a lonely enthusiasm, which a de- 
vout minority cherished and defended through years 
of upbraiding. But this enthusiasm may fulfil the fine 
promise of the first impulse, and develop a devotion 
to the ideal of progress as far redeemed from our faint 
endorsement, as complex structures are redeemed from 
the beginnings of life on primordial shores. The story 
of the crucifixion was an incomparable drama, but the 
heart of faith that once responded to it is warming with 
emotive preparation toward the new ideal, and what 
seemed incomparable maybe wondrously transcended. 

Meanwhile, for a space the spirit of man wanders 
forlorn and bereaved between two worlds — dead faith 
and hope but instantly born. Between these dim 
worlds the imperishable instinct of construction hovers 
like a star. All the emphasis possible to educated 
sincerity pronounces that Great Christ is dead to dogma. 
The Syrian stars are oblivious, and look down with 
shining eyes on an indiscoverable grave. The angels 
rolled not away the stone from his sepulchre. Eccle- 
siasticism maintains the idol it purloined and set high 

in the temple — and the image remains an adamantine 
sphynx, the symbol of eternal apathy. Whatever there 
was of genuine beauty, of gentle appeal, of winning 
tenderness, of suffering devotion, in that storied life of 
mystical import, is now suspended like an unanswer- 
ing icicle above the altar of endowed convention. The 
altar is of stone and the music of its inspiration is the 
ringing charm of the almighty dollar. The Rock of 
Ages is a rock of solid gold and around it tempestu- 
ously sweeps a flood of ferocity and sick travail. The 
ministers of hereafter appropriate present advantage — 
they live on the cross their idol died on. 

Evolution, was remarked, is not an entity. Neither 
is pessimism, or discontent more nebulous. Evolution 
subdues revolution and recreates pessimism, equally 
enlarging either in the service of the future. Manifestly 
the race endures and prospers by the persistence of a 
Force which is not ourselves — and if it be true that 
evolution is another name for this persistence of a 
reality behind phenomena, the meanest imagination 
will discern the guidance of an ideal at once sovereign 
and appealing — at once massive and impersonal. Even 
as coral-insects, so all of human life on this planet 
maybe subject to immemorial pressure, blindly build- 
ing for a strange and mighty purpose. Look we back- 
ward or futureward, all narrow ambition insensibl)' 
blends with larger growth. Only the conspicuous in- 
telligence of service is definite. The nomad chief of 
ancient Israel who died full of years, and sustained 
only by the consolation that in his children all the na- 
tions of the earth should be blessed, represented this 
truth. The excellence of unselfishness is a religion 
in itself. "Lay up treasures for yourselves where 
neither moths nor rust destroy," is a sensual injunc- 
tion, the negation of ethical grace. Other-worldliness 
is the evillest, the most voluptuous and languorous 
worldliness. It is the lust for a good not deserved by 
righteous labor. Plato in the seventh book of the Re- 
public, pronounces that he who is not able by the ex- 
ercise of his wisdom to define the idea of tlic good, and 
separate it from all other objects is sunk in sleep and 
will descend to Hades. Life is not merely to be profit- 
ably lived, but as Aristotle defined it, to be nobly lived, 
and if evolution have any accessible guarantee of heroic 
continuity it must be in the contemplation of good 
without heed to personal advantage — heedful only of 
membership in the grand historic life of humanity. 
Simple it is to review the organic communion, as it 
picturesquely recedes and distantly vanishes beyond 
the birth of history. But it needs an educative disci- 
pline to transcend the strenuous glamours of our imme- 
diate outlook, and realise our incalculable littleness 
along with our immortal greatness, in the policy of 
impersonal and unremunerating law. Still more diffi- 
cult is this, when assailed by the morbid despairs that 



overtake the wisest and the best — when we asself the 
gaunt vacuousness of the world, the inscrutable illu- 
sions of existence, and the iridescent inutility of our 
purpose. How difficult then, to emerge into the en- 
thusiasm of understanding and rejoice in the conspira- 
cies trending outside ourselves, toward that "far-off 
divine event to which the whole creation moves." 

It is precisely here that evolution needs a super- 
structure of vital philosophy. Monistic agnosticism is 
scientific humility before God, and assures the humility 
of man — his incalculable littleness. Historic evolution 
is the visible signal of man's immortal greatness. The 
individual man stands at night-tide by the sea. The 
hollow vault above him is stupendously scattered with 
the starry genius of God — worlds on worlds everlast- 
ingly rolling. Carlyle, on a memorable occasion, cov- 
ered his face as he looked up into the immensities. 
Heine and Hegel stood together one night at an open 
window, and the latter sneered, "H'm, the stars are 
only a brilliant eruption ! " Carlyle knew the impossi- 
bility of the old faith, he knew not the new faith of 
science — his vision was smitten. Hegel retreated in 
a withering cynicism. Carlyle unconsciously fell back 
on an ignorabimiis — Hegel in mocking negation. Such 
sights humble the souls of all but the impervious. 
But pass into the multitudinous murmurs of the day, 
the labors and signals of labor, love and the burdens 
of love, imagination and statecraft all mixed and con- 
tending in the complex life of man — here we forget (or 
act out) abstractions in strong service. Contempla- 
tion is submerged in action. We have acknowledged 
our littleness — we are humble no longer, but assertive, 
masculine, and potent. The most hypersensitive pass 
from desolate moods into new accessions of sanity and 
wisdom. As of the individual, so of the race — pessi- 
mism is accidental and transient. The reverence of 
science and the enthusiasm of evolution, if sturdil}' 
apprehended, will uphold the Western races through 
the tribulations of the intellectual exodus. 

Pessimism, therefore, is a mood and not a leprosy — 
the crown of surrendering love, and not necessarily 
the penalty of transgression. As a reasoned theory it 
is one of Truth's innumerable cobwebs, dim with subtle 
interlaceries. But the stars shine through and brightly 
contradict phantasmal futilities ; and summer blooms 
with radiant refutations. The traditions of heroic 
martyrs, and the living breed of noble hearts, sur- 
charge the great organic agencies of the earth with 
assurance that goodness and gladness are possibilities 
of life secured by love and labor. Mere happiness is 
not to be striven for. The "highest happiness" is 
not attained by seeking, or recognised if attained — it 
is often akin to sorrow, in that tears and laughter deli- 
cately blend. "Those only love who love without 
hope," said Mazzini, and his thought is true of all 

provinces in the empire of emotive experience. The 
wanderer tempted of despair in the wilderness may 
take heart of endurance if he dwell in his exile on the 
darkest chapters in the lives of illustrious protagonists. 
From rifted hearts and doom-distraught souls, with no 
mirages of immortality to sustain them, rays of ecstasy 
and joyous melodies have wandered like marvellous 
ghosts from the old Greek temples, with a message to 
the repining to be strong and fear not. The world is 
weary of Hebraism — Hellenism is ready for new im- 
pulses. The beautiful old Greek gods have a blessing 
for penitents. We shall love the mountains and the 
seas anew, and poets will sing merrily again of youth 
and godhead, and birds will build their nests on carven 
Christs when the nails and spectres of Calvary afflict 
us no more. Heine on his mattress-grave, gaunt and 
ravaged, yet beautiful, evolved from his luminous 
brain images of life and love that buzzed forth like 
golden bees, as Th^ophile Gautier conceived. If this 
was possible, pessimism loses the significance of its 
logical menace. For if singers, in exquisite suffering, 
have dowered their age with eloquent allegiance to the 
passion of life, the beauty of love, and the mysterious 
pity of death, surely science may subdue the tyranny 
of suffering into service of the social order. Pain is 
inevitable, but is not the supreme factor in our mortal 
pilgrimage. And the intellectual or spiritual grandeur 
which so illy accords with the meanness of opportunity, 
increases the sum of pain in our tangled circumstances. 
Pessimism and optimism are equally untenable as the- 
ories of life. A workable compromise may be discov- 
ered in a coherent social faith which accepts suffering 
as an incidence to bind man more indissolubly to man. 
And where the strain is acutest, the strength of this 
social faith must strengthen the believer against the 
querulous spirit of isolation which justifies the recreant 
in suicide. In the age, the country, the family, and 
in sublime resistance to whatever would make for the 
dissolution of duty, must be wrested the necessity of 
the sentinel accepting the troublous hour as regal, 
quite heedless of personal requital. Inveterate cul- 
prits will flourish through the ages, but contemporary 
discouragement does not disprove the great thoughts 
of the faithful. For the proudest spirit submerged in 
disaster and prone to claim in defiance not to be 
judged by the rules of the multitude, there is infinite 
meaning in the indignant query of George Eliot's 
" Walpurga" : 

" Where is the rebel's right for you alone ? 
Noble rebellion lifts a common load ; 
But what is he who flings his own load oft" 
And leaves his fellows toiling ? Rebel's right ? 
Say rather the deserter's." 

Such compromise and social conviction may be re- 
solved by monists, or agnostics, from the theory of 
existence labelled meliorism. Optimism, which affirms 



that pleasurable consciousness overwhelms the dis- 
pleasurable throughout the universe, so far as we have 
explored it — and at every accident of time — is impos- 
sible for the educated observer of human life. Pessi- 
mism, which per contra affirms the greatest sum of 
misery consistent with the conditions of the universe, 
as we know them — has been reviewed in its various 
aspects and protean moods, or shadows of aspects and 
echoes of moods. Bonism, which implies increasing 
happiness, and malism, which implies increasing pain, 
are distinct theories without pronounced differences 
beyond the element of locomotion. Pejorism is too 
nearly akin to pessimism and malism to need pausing 

Meliorism — a term invented by George Eliot — af- 
firms that the relative proportions of pleasurable and 
painful consciousness are ever tending toward read- 
justment for the good; that it is possible for human 
effort to diminish the million miseries of life one by 
one, and above all that science is extending its empire 
in a plastic world and vitally expanding the hopes and 
faiths of devoted men. This is intellectually reason- 
able, and appeals to the best instincts of mankind. 
To monists, meliorism may be commended as the 
scientific approach to a saving faith. 


Since the holding of the Parliament of Religions 
at Chicago, the interest in comparative religion has 
greatly increased. Ancient and modern creeds are 
now the objects of close investigation, and it is hoped 
that in time they will all be exhibited in a museum to 
be erected on the shores of Lake Michigan. It is to 
be feared, however, that one branch will be neglected 
— the religion of animals, especially of ants and bees. 

An old German professor, Atbert Weller by name, 
one of the liberals of '48, after having retired from 
public life, sought refuge in the backwoods of North 
America and devoted the remainder of his life to the 
study of the various animal civilisations. He must 
have known many of their languages, for — at least so 
it is said — he had begun to write a grammar of Com- 
parative Ant-Speech. He observed that ants of one 
species, if educated from pupahood in the hill of an- 
other hostile species, would speak the language of 
their adopted country and as little understand the 
speech of their parents and brothers as an Englishman 
reared by Chinese nurses in the interior of China would 
understand English. In case of war between the two 
ant tribes, the transferred ants, although different in 
size, shape, and color, fight on the side of those whose 
language they speak, against their own kin whom they 
resemble so much that no human being could tell them 
apart. This is only one argument among many which 
proves how important language is in the life of ants. 

It seems that ants have no printing presses, but 
according to Professor Weller it is safe to maintain 
that they must possess something equivalent, for there 
are not only old traditions as faithfully preserved as if 
they were written down in books, but they have also 
daily news promulgated in some such form as that of 
human newspapers. Professqr Weller has studied what 
he calls their literature, and we have no doubt that he 
knows what he is speaking of. 

Professor Weller had intended to visit the World's 
Parliament of Religions in Ciiicago to read a paper on 
ant-religion, but he fell sick before he could announce 
his intention to the committee, and died. This is la- 
mentable, especially as a few months after his death 
all his manuscripts were accidently destroyed by fire, 
and we know only some of the most important state- 
ments which he intended to make before the Parlia- 
ment ; and as no system of comparative religion can 
be perfect which does not at least consider one branch 
of animal religion, we here reproduce briefly from 
memory what we know. 

The ants have as many and as various religions as 
human beings, some very primitive, others highly de- 
veloped. There are also freethinkers among the ants, 
but Professor Weller's references to them were few. 

Our black garden ants were the main subject of 
his inquiries and experiments. And he found that 
their sacred scriptures contain a highly creditable re- 
ligious system. He made a translation of several books 
of which we recapitulate a few passages. The first 
chapter of a book called "The Origin of the World" 
begins as follows : 

"In the beginning there was the Arch- Ant, and 
there was nothing beside Her, neither heaven, nor 
earth, nor an ant-hill in which ants could sing the 
praise of the Arch-Ant. And the Arch- Ant begot heaven 
and earth and upon the earth She made a great and 
glorious ant-hill, but there was no one who lived in 
the anthill. Then She thought to herself, ' I shall 
create beings that are like unto Myself,' and She took 
some grains of sand and formed out of them pupas 
which She left exposed upon the hill to the rays of the 
sun. After a few days ants came out of the pupas, 
some female, some neuter, some male, and peopled 
the whole hill ; and they were blackish in color and 
like in shape unto the Arch-Ant ; and the female black 
garden ants are the only ones whom She created in 
Her own image, unto the image of the Arch-Ant. All 
the other ants, be they red or yellow, are inferior in 
intelligence and in anthood. 

"And the ants enjoyed life and forgot in their pros- 
perity to worship the Arch-Ant. When the Arch-Ant 
saw that Her creatures cared little for Her, but other- 
wise everything was well. She retired from the world 
She had begotten to the Celestial Hill where there is 



joy everlasting. From that moment evil originated 
and all kinds of injurious animals sprang into existence, 
among which the most formidable ones are the ant- 
bears with their long tongues and the two-legged giants 
called men. Among all the enemies of anthood they 
are the most fiendish and threaten to exterminate all 
the ants upon the earth. 

" Since the origin of men ants began to pray to the 
Arch-Ant, and the Arch-Ant took pity on the ants and 
roused prophets in the hill and revealed Herself to the 
ants. And the prophets of the Arch- Ant said to the 
ants : ' The evil that afflicts you has been created by 
your negligence and the Arch-Ant will not undo it. 
You must suffer the consequences of your sin. But She 
will have mercy on you and such as believe in Her ; 
She will resurrect them and receive them in the Eternal 
Hill where they shall have sweet food forever, milch- 
kine and slaves in abundance.' " 

Theological discussions arose and created schisms 
in the church. Professor Weller mentioned some of 

There is the sect of the male ants. A male ant be- 
gan to preach and declared that the Arch-Ant could 
not be a female, but was most probably a male. He 
explained that all the misfortunes in the hill originated 
from the preponderance of the females. He demanded 
with good logical reasons, equality of the three sexes 
in politics, economics, and in religion. "Education," 
he said, "is monopolised by the female and the neu- 
ters; and the neuters are only sterile females. No 
wonder that our race degenerates and succumbs to 
men and other creatures of evil influence." The sect 
of the male ants has acquired little recognition. "The 
idea that the Arch-Ant should be a male individual," 
says one prominent ant-philosopher, "is so absurd as 
to be unworthy the trouble of refutation. Not only are 
the males naturally inferior in everything, but how 
could they have begotten the world? " 

There is another sect called the sceptics. They 
say, "We cannot know whether or not the Arch-Ant 
exists, whether or not there is an Eternal Hill above 
the clouds, whether or not ants will be resurrected 
after death." Thus, they conclude, "We should wor- 
ship the Arch-Ant, so as to be on the safe side. But 
we must not be over-confident in our expectations. " 
The sceptics are suspected of being infidels. Under 
the guise of a modest suspension of judgment they 
promulgate indifference in religion. 

A third sect maintains that the Arch Ant is neither 
female nor male, nor neuter. Nor is the Arch-Ant, as 
the bees maintain, a bee queen. The Arch-Ant, they 
say, is indescribable, and indeed superior to all crea- 
tures, being the creator of all. The adherents of this 
sect do not deny that the Arch-Ant has begotten the 
world to serve as a great hill for ants ; "the world," 

they maintain, "exists for the sake of ants," but they 
doubt the utter uselessness and badness of men, while 
they insist on the devilish nature of ant-bears. 

Some liberal-minded prophets love to speak of the 
"sisterhood of ants and the motherhood of the Arch- 
Ant," but they find little support among the fashion- 
able churches, for the race prejudice of the black ants 
against all other ants is very strong. 

Lastly we may mention a very small sect of inno- 
vators who are generally considered as what men call 
atheists. They find an esoteric sense in the traditional 
religion. Although they deny the existence of a per- 
sonal Arch- Ant, they have faith in antideals and thus 
propose to worship the general idea of anthood. 

There are many more issues in the religious life of 
ant-religion, but it is too difficult for us to understand 
them and Professor Weller who was thoroughly familiar 
with them has passed away. 

Human beings have their peculiar notions about 
the world, its origin, and the future fate of beings after 
death. It seems advisable for us to let some ant-phi- 
losopher explain his notions on these different subjects 
and compare notes with our conceptions. It is diffi- 
cult to say how we shall get at the facts to make a 
comparison possible ; but we ought to do it. The 
mere consideration that there are other beings in ex- 
istence and that they also are God's creatures yearning 
to be "delivered from the bondage of corruption into 
the glorious liberty of a divine childhood," will help us 
to purify our own religious views. "We know that 
the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain to- 
gether until now. And not only they, but ourselves, 
also, who [so at least we trust] have the first fruits of 
the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, 
waiting for the adoption." 

We must conclude from Professor Weller's remarks 
that the ants are very exclusive and dogmatic. They 
would scorn to confer with bees whom they regard as 
very inferior beings, and will, most likely, refuse to 
send delegates to a religious parliament in which they 
are likely to meet on an equal footing either with men 
or ant-bears or other lower creatures, none of which 
pay reverence to the Arch-Ant in the Eternal Hill of 

Some ant- philosophers regard mankind as quite 
rational and concede to them a high rank, not in mo- 
rality, yet in intelligence and cunning. It is true that 
the fanciful notions on the intelligence of men have 
been given up again among the ants, since a great 
ant-naturalist has proved that what appears to be in- 
telligence is mere instinct developed by the survival of 
the fittest. Instinct, he claims, is sufficient to account 
for the facts, thus it is quite redundant according to 
the principle of economy in explanations to assume the 
existence of any conscious or purposive intelligence. 



We cannot here investigate how far the good opinion 
of ants concerning men is justified, but we hope that 
there is some fact back of it. 

We regret that, owing to the exclusiveness of ants, 
there is little hope of meeting in conference with them. 
All the more ought we to consider the statements made 
by Professor Weller. We repeat, that without a proper 
appreciation of the religious problems from a radically 
different standpoint, such as that of the ants, compara- 
tive religion cannot attain completion. p. c. 



O fools and blind, to whom the life is meat ! 
Across whose multitude of business fall 
No dreams; whose deaf ears will not hear the call 

That starry silence and blue days repeat 

In Gabriel tones, proclaiming Life is sweet 
Unswathed of its aurelia, wherewithal 
The sense doth seal the soul, till Thought is thrall 

To appetence, and gyved of wing and feet ! 

Unseal thine eyes, O Soul ! for all the hills 

With flaming chariots burn of thronging Truth, 

And Beauty of her speech the world fulfils, 

Whose words the flowers are and dreams of youth. 

Delight and song and longings rich and rare 

As gathered fruits of Love's first visions are. 


Mr. Theodore Stanton writes us as follows from Paris : 
" I notice in TJic Open Court some little discussion concerning 
Kossuth and Gorgei, which makes « propos a poem by Theodore 
Tilton, given in his new volume, 'The Chameleon's Dish,' pub- 
lished at the Oxford University Press, a very pretty piece of typo- 
graphy, by the way. Here is this spirited bit of verse : 
A. D. 1849. 
I could have better borne the blow 
And throbbed with less of fever 
Had he, the Traitor, been my toe 
And not my Captain,— whom I know 

As my deceiver. 
Is ancient fealty at an end ? 
Is shining honor rusted ? 
Alas, the blow to which I bend 
Was from " mine own familiar friend 

In whom I trusted." 
To such a blow what balm can be ? 

O God, it healeth never \ 
For even if the land be free, 
My heart, a wounded aloe-tree, 
Musi bleed for ever ! ' 
" The note, which the author appends to this poem, is in ac- 
cord with your own, in your issue of April 12. Here it is ; 

" 'Gorgei, the Hungarian General of 1848, and the friend and 
comrade of Kossuth, unexpectedly surrendered the Hungarian 
army ; but it is fair to add, in Gorgei's behalf, that his surrender 
has been vindicated on the ground of military necessity, and as a 
humane measure to prevent the needless slaughter of his troops.' " 


Is the Bible a Revelation from Cod? Dialogues Betivecn a Sceptic 
and a Christian, by Charles T. Gorham (London; Watts & Co.)— 
103 pages— impugns the notion of revelation; the arguments o£ 
the author are chiefly rationalistic.— 77;^ Pymander of Hermes, 

With a preface by the editor, (Collectanea Hermetica) — pp. 117 — 
edited by W. Wynn Westcott, M. B. Lond., D. P. H., Supreme 
Magus of the Rosicrucian Society, Master of the Quatuor Coro- 
nati Lodge (Theosophical Publishing Society, London, 1894), is a 
reprint of the English translation by Dr. Everard, 1650, of one of 
the seventeen tracts attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ; the book 
is neatly got up. — -•/ Square Talk to Young Men About the Inspira- 
tion of the Bible, by H. L. Hastings (Scriptural Tract Repository, 
1893, pp. 94, price, 75 cents), was originally a lecture delivered at 
Massachusetts before the Young Men's Christian Association ; 
and after revision and enlargement was issued as the first number 
of the Anti-Infidel Library; it claims to be in its third million, 
twelve tons of it having been printed in London at one time ; the 
book is within the comprehension of any reader. We have also 
received tracts by the same Library and with the same tendency, 
entitled "The Higher Criticism." — Right Living, by Susan H. 
Wixon (Chicago, Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1894, pp. 292), is a col- 
lection of pleasant talks upon the chief practical problems of life ; 
we cannot enter into a discussion of the foundations of the author's 
views. — Human Nature Cotisidered in the Light of Physical Science, 
Including Phrenology, with a New Discovery, by Mr. Caleb S. 
Weeks of New York (Fowler & Wells Co., 1893; pp. 240; 117 
illustrations; cloth, $1.00; paper, 50 cents) is written in a sober, 
self-contained style, which, considering the subject, does the 
author much credit ; it is free from most of the vagaries which 
usually characterise such works. 

It is interesting to note that Mr. Louis Prang, the well known 
art-publisher of Boston, who from the character of his business 
might be expected to hold just the opposite views upon this sub- 
ject, has delivered an address at the dinner of the New England 
Tariff Reform League,^ March 9, 1894, in favor of free trade. Mr. 
Prang declares he is perfectly ready to compete with the European 
market, even in the formidable domain of lithography. Other 
speeches were delivered by Hon. Peleg McFarlin, Treasurer Ellis 
Foundry Co., Mr. Henry C. Thacher, wool merchant, and Mr. 
W. O. Blaney, flour and grain merchant. (Boston : New England 
Tariff Reform League, 1894.) 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 



M, M. Trumbull 4071 

THOMAS PAINE IN PARIS 1787-1788. Moncure D. 

Conway 4071 

PESSIMISM; THE WAY OUT. Amos Waters 4073 



Imago. Charles Alva Lane 407S 





The Open Court. 



No. 351. (Vol. VIII.— 20.) 


I Two Dollars per Yfear. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 




We are assembled here to pay our last tribute to 
thee, my dear friend ; but we take leave from thy body 
only, not from thy soul. We bid farewell to the 
sympathetic features of thy face, but not to thy love, 
thy spiritual being, to thine own self and innermost 
nature. Thou thyself, thy transfigured self, wilt re- 
main with us to live in our hearts in an inseparable 
communion with our souls as a living presence to en- 
hance, elevate, and sanctify our lives. 



What is more momentous, more soul-stirring, more 
mysterious than Death ? 

Death is constantly hovering over us : like the sword 
of Damocles, suspended by a hair, at any moment it 
threatens to come down upon us and destroy us. 

None so great, none so powerful, none so strong 
and healthy but are doomed at last to die and pass 
away from the joyous light of the sun and the loving 
circle of family and friends. 

What is Death ? Is it the doom that seals the van- 
ity of life ? Is it nature's verdict that we are not en- 
titled to an eternal individual existence ? Is it the 
bringer of peace which after a life full of struggles bids 
us rest from our labors? 

Verily, Death is all this and more ! Death is the 
great teacher of man, and the lesson which he teaches 
cannot be learned to the end : it is always new when- 
ever we are again confronted with the loss of one of 
our beloved ones. 

Like the hierophant in the ancient mysteries of 
Eleusis, Death reveals to us the secrets of a higher 
life, teaching the thoughtless to reflect and the frivol- 
ous to become sober. Leaving no hope to him who 
lives for himself alone, Death advises the selfish to sur- 
render their selfishness. The imminence of death re- 
minds us to seek for that which will abide. Death 
opens our eyes to spiritual truths pointing out to us 

the way of salvation. Thus Death rouses us to noble 
aims and imparts to us the bliss of a superindividual 
life which is attainable only through love and by ideal 

Death has stepped into our midst and has led away 
a hero from the ranks of brave fighters, a leader in 
battle, not only in the battles of war for the union of 
our country and the emancipation of the slave, but 
even more so in the spiritual battles for liberty, jus- 
tice, and progress. 

Gen. Matthew Mark Trumbull was born in London, 
England, 1826, and came to America in his youth 
where he began his career as a day-laborer working 
with pickaxe, shovel, and wheelbarrow. He then taught 
school and studied law. He served as a soldier in the 
Mexican and in the civil war, and rising in rank was 
finally made brigadier- general for bravery on the bat- 
tle-field. Under General Grant he held the office of 
Collector of Internal Revenue in Iowa and devoted 
the rest of his life to literary work. He died in the 
sixty-ninth year of his active life after a wearisome and 
in the end most painful illness, which he bore with re- 
markable endurance and patience. His death is a 
sacrifice upon the altar of patriotism, for the cause of 
his troubles was a severe wound received in the battle 
of Shiloh. 

General Trumbull was strong in his convictions, 
but he was not a fanatic partisan. His allegiance was 
always to the broad cause of humanity. He was an 
enthusiastic Republican, because the Republican party 
freed the slave. Nevertheless he was a free-trader be- 
cause he regarded the protective tariff as a restriction 
and a self-imposed shackel that prevented our people 
from displaying their full energy in the competition 
with other nations. He was a friend of the laborer 
because the laborer is a toiler, and he knew from ex- 
perience what toil means. He was always willing to 
extend his helpful services whenever needed, even at 
a sacrifice of his strength and health ; and every one 
in trouble was his friend. 



General Trumbull has often been misunderstood 
and misrepresented, but nothing could alter the dis- 
position of his heart or make him swerve from his 
course to defend what he regarded as the cause of jus- 
tice. Because he worked for the improvement of the 
conditions of the laboring classes, he was branded as 
a demagogue and a sower of discontent. How little 
this is true those know who have read his writings. 
The spirit of his books is well characterised by the fol- 
lowing remark in his "Wheelbarrow": 

"Coming out of the labor struggles of my childhood, youth, 
and early manhood, covered all over \A'ith bruises and scars, and 
with some wounds that will never be healed either in this world 
or in the world to come, I may have written some words in bitter- 
ness, but I do not wish to antagonise classes, nor to excite ani- 
mosity and revenge, I desire to harmonise all the orders of so- 
ciety on the broad platform of mutual charity and justice. I have 
had no other object in writing these essays." 

Because General Trumbull objected to creeds and 
dogrnas, he has been called an infidel and an atheist. 
Certainly he was ready to take the odium of these 
names upon him, and it is true that he did not believe 
in a God who would be pleased with the flattery of 
his worshippers or alter the order of nature as a spe- 
cial favor to supplicants ; but he did believe in the 
God of righteousness, charity, and love. General 
Trumbull rejected the creeds of sectarianism because 
to his mind they contained no religious truth, but he was 
confident that mankind would gradually adopt a broad 
cosmic religion which could stand the criticism of the 
infidel. His religious denomination was a faith in the 
religion of the future. He saw in the Parliament of 
Religions "the dawn of a new religious era, contain- 
ing less myth and more truth, less creed and more 
deed, less dogma and more proof," and sums up his 
opinion concerning it in these words : 

"The Parliament provided a sort of intellectual crucible in 
which all the creeds will be tested and purified as by fire. That 
sectarians of a hundred theologies have brought them to the fur- 
nace is a sign of social progress, and a promise of larger tolera- 
tion. He who fears the fire has no faith, for whatsoever is true 
in his religion will come out of the furnace as pure metal, leaving 
the dross to be thrown away." 

It can truly be said of General Trumbull that he 
remained a youth as long as he lived, youthful in his 
enthusiasm for the ideals of humanity, youthful in his 
combative disposition, and j'outhful in the spirit with 
which he wielded his pen, always sprightly, always 
buoyant, always brisk and quick in his thrusts and re- 
partees. He did not shrink from sarcastic expressions, 
and his strictures were the more telling as he made them 
with good grace and often jokingly, for he always saw 
at once the comical side of his adversary's weakness. 
But back of the sarcasm of his caustic pen there was 
always the good heart of a sympathetic nature and 
an unshaken confidence in the final victory of truth 
and justice. 

The loss of our departed friend is irreparable to 
his family, to his now widowed wife who was the faith- 
ful companion and indispensable helpmate of his life ; 
to his daughters, his sons, and his grandchildren. His 
loss is irreparable to his friends who loved him for the 
kindness of his heart and the brilliancy of his genius. 
His loss is irreparable also to me. I shall miss him 
and not find his like again. He was my most valuable 
and intimate coworker, always ready to aid me with 
his pen, or his advice whenever I needed it. The rea- 
ders of The Open Court will no longer have the benefit 
of enjoying the flashes of his inexhaustible wit with 
which he good-humoredly pilloried the follies of our 

The worth of the man shows the greatness of our 
loss, and we stand here as mourners complaining of 
the curtailment of his usefulness to mankind and be- 
wailing our bereavement. 

The personality of the dead, of our beloved hus- 
band, father, and friend seems to have vanished as an 
air-bubble that breaks up, because we observe the de- 
cay of the body and bury the remains ; we write upon 
the tombstone his name as if he himself rested there 
and visit the grave as if we visited him. Let us open 
our eyes to spiritual facts and remember the signifi- 
cant words spoken at the grave of him whose name 
has become the religious symbol of resurrection: "Why 
seek ye the living among the dead ? " Let us not for- 
get in our grief that Death is not a dissolution into 
nothingness ; the discontinuance of life is all that we 
have a right to murmur against, for the soul abideth 
and cannot be annihilated. 

Man's real being is his soul and not the dust of 
which his body consists. We bury the body and not 
the soul ; and the soul of our beloved, departed friend 
is wherever his thoughts and sentiments have taken 
root. The soul remains with the living in life ; it is 
preserved in its entire individuality with all its beau- 
ties and preferences. 

As a stone that is built into a building loses noth- 
ing of its own being, so the souls of our ancestors are 
preserved in the living temple of humanity forming 
the foundation of a nobler future. When our life is 
ended, we find a home in that great empire of soul- 
life in which have been gathered all our fathers and 
the fathers of our fathers since the beginning of life 
upon earth. 

[I/erc a psalm was sung by lite Lotus Quar telle, undey the direc- 
tion of Mr. McGaffey.'\ 



What can I, feeble man, say that is a fitting tribute 
to the worth and character of our departed comrade 
whose life was an intense struggle from the cradle to 



the grave. From early life to manhood, against pov- 
erty with all the disadvantages it entails ; from early 
manhood until he closed his eyes in death, against so- 
cial wrong and for the higher recognition of the equal- 
ity of rights for all men. Born amidst the lowly peo- 
ple of England, "where," he says, "pictures of human 
life are seen in strongest light and shade, where oppo- 
site extremes menace each other forever, and where 
Dives and Lazarus exhibit the most glaring antithesis 
in this world "; he was driven by necessity to seek 
work at a tender age, so that he could aid in the sup- 
port of the family. Whatever may have been the 
pangs of physical hunger from which he suffered in 
his youth, that which pained him most was the hunger 
of the mind ; the desire for education and knowledge. 
When, therefore, the Chartist movement of England, 
with its gospel of social and industrial equality devel- 
oped, with its promise for a higher intellectual life to 
all those who live by toil, it was not strange that our 
friend should become entangled in its magic circle and 
be one of its most enthusiastic votaries. Coming to 
this country with such ideas ag the Chartist movement 
inculcated, we need not be surprised to learn that his 
conscience was tortured beyond expression, when he 
came face to face with the institution of chattel slav- 
ery. In my whole life I never knew a man in whose 
character the lion and the lamb were so thoroughly 
blended. He was as meek and gentle as a child. He 
loved peace and the arts of peace. His tongue and 
pen was ever busy advocating the principle of com- 
mercial freedom, which, aside from its industrial ad- 
vantages and equities, he believed would tend to cul- 
tivate a fraternal feeling among all the nations of the 
earth, and thereby lessen and ultimately destroy the 
warlike spirit of mankind. He disliked wars with 
their brutalising effects, their devastations, their blood 
and carnage, yet, when entrenched wrong, intoxicated 
and arrogant, refused to recede, and grew even ag- 
gressive, he was ever ready to buckle on the armor 
and with his life in his hands fight for what he believed 
to be right. When therefore in i860 our Southern 
slave-holders sought to perpetuate their peculiar insti- 
tution by dismembering the Union, he was one of the 
first to come forward and sign the roll in defense of 
his country. Some may have joined the army in those 
days simply to preserve the union of States — not so 
General Trumbull. He joined the army and partici- 
pated in that great conflict for the purpose of free- 
ing the negro. No matter how Ipud the cannons 
boomed, or how fast and thick the shot and shell flew 
on the field of battle ; it was all sweet music to him, 
because he felt that the end of the war would simul- 
taneously be the end of slavery. Sitting by his fire- 
side in latter years, conversing with friends, repeating 
his reminiscences of the war, he frequently expressed 

the joy he felt in his old days because of the fact that 
no negro ever came to his camp and left it a slave. 

One cold morning, while stationed at St. Louis in 
the early part of the war, he boarded a street-car in 
which there was seated a colored woman, poorly clad. 
As the car glided along it soon filled up with passen- 
gers, the space becoming limited ; the conductor 
"hustled" the colored woman out of the car on to the 
front platform. General Trumbull discerning the 
meaning of this was overcome with indignation. Go- 
ing out after the woman, he brought her back into the 
car and commanded her to take her seat. To this the 
conductor remonstrated, saying that it was against 
the rules of the company for any colored person to 
ride on the inside of the car. General Trumbull ex- 
claimed : "I don't care about your rules; if you at- 
tempt to eject this woman again, you will have to 
fight." To this the conductor replied : "Well, what 
am I to do ? If I do not enforce the rules I will be dis- 
charged." "Well," said General Trumbull, "who is 
the president of your road?" To this the conductor 
replied: "It is B. Gratz Brown." Then said he: 
"Tell B. Gratz Brown that you were interfered with 
in the discharge of your duty in enforcing this rule by 
Captain Trumbull of the United States Army." This 
act on the part of our dead hero ended this discrimi- 
nation which prevented colored people from riding on 
the inside of cars. 

One day, from headquarters, he spied an excite- 
ment in his camp. Hurrying to the scene, he learned 
that a slave-holder wished to reclaim his slave — a ne- 
gro girl, dressed in men's clothes, engaged in the 
camp cooking for a mess of the Union soldiers. The 
General, discovering the cause of the trouble, ordered 
the slave-holder to leave the camp, refusing to surren- 
der the colored girl. The next day the slave-holder 
returned with an order from General Sherman asking 
General Trumbull to surrender the slave. After read- 
ing the order he tore it into strips, exclaiming: "I 
don't care about the orders of General Sherman ; get 
out of this camp — git, git, git." And he got. 

He loved to tell of a character connected with his 
regiment who considered it his special duty to free all 
the negroes along the line of march. He would take 
the negroes by the ear, spin them around the circle 
three times, and repeat the following ceremony : 

"By the authority of the Constitution and the 
power in me vested by the President of the United 
States, I declare that you are as free as the water that 
runs, the birds that sing, and the wind that blows." 

Whether pleading for the liberty of the slave on 
the stump, or striking at the shackles that bound his 
limbs on the field of battle, or whether in the quiet 
recesses of his home with pen in hand, sending forth 
the message of his conscience to mankind ; in any and 



all of these stations he was always the soldier of lib- 
erty, hurling thunderbolts of defiance at the tyrants of 
the earth. No man feared death less than he, yet no 
man desired life more. The great social and indus- 
trial questions of our day, which cause many to look 
into the future with doubt, and which tax the minds 
of the wisest of our men and women, excited his high- 
est interest. He saw new issues developing, and he 
wished to remain with us, so that in their proper 
settlement his pen and tongue might be a helpful aid 
to the world. 

If he did not leave his family full in pocket, he 
left them the wealth and legacy of a rich and honor- 
able life. Would that all wives and all children could 
feel that ineffable blessing, while standing at the bier 
of their departed husband or father, that his wife and 
children can feel to-day. I am sure we can all join 
with the poet and say : 

' 'An honest man has gone to rest, 
To rise or sleep on nature's breast, 
The friend of man, the friend of truth. 
The staff of age and guide of youth ; 
Your head with knowledge well informed, 
Your heart with tenderness was warmed ; 
If there's another world, you live in bliss. 
If there is none, you made the best of this." 

And now, is this final farewell on earth an eternal 
good night? Shall we never meet again? I think we 
shall. I cherish the hope that when my own soul cros- 
ses the river Styx the General will be on the opposite 
bank extending a welcome hand with a "Good morn- 
ing " on his lips. 



It is a solemn privilege to speak a few last words 
above this friend I knew and loved so well. He was 
a gentle, brave, and noble man, and had a heart so 
large and mind so broad that no family, state, or na- 
tion could claim him for its own, but he belonged to 
all the world. 

One man in the great mass of human life is like a 
drop of water in the sea, but when this light went out 
we lost a true and faithful friend to whom we never 
needed to explain, but who viewed our every act as if 
born of the high motives which always moved his soul. 

He was a soldier in our civil war, and bravely faced 
the shot and shell to liberate the poor and weak, but 
the battle-fields of our great rebellion vifere not the 
only ones on which our brave friend fought. He was 
not "mustered in," in sixty-one, or "mustered out," 
in sixty-five, but when his great, young heart first 
learned to beat for all the poor and weak, he became 
a soldier in humanity's great cause, and with undaunted 
courage and a heart that never quailed he served that 
cause until the last message came which bade our 
weary soldier leave his post for an eternal rest. 

How often have I heard him say that moral cour- 
age is far rarer and finer than physical bravery, and 
were he to speak to us to-day, he would say with me 
that his greatest victories were not won with sabre and 
with gun, but in those dark moments which here and 
there are scattered through our lives where a few brave 
and loyal souls are gathered close together, to feel the 
beating of each other's hearts, gain courage from each 
other's lives, and bravely stand within the citadel of 
truth to resist the angry, surging sea of wrong which 
comes to overwhelm and to destroy. Whatever the 
occasion, however few the comrades, however desper- 
ate the struggle, however threatening^ the tide and re- 
sistless the onslaught this dead hero was ever firm and 
ready, ever brave and powerful to defend the right. 
Let no one think that because we hear no cannons 
roar and see no sabres flash that these are days of 
peace, for the old, old strife between the right and 
wrong, the oppressor and oppressed, is raging fierce 
and desperate now, and we who loved the dead and 
what he loved, feel that we leave upon the field of 
battle a comrade brave. and true, whom we will surely 
miss and sadly need in the great conflicts that are sure 
to come ; but when the battle rages fierce and strong 
we will not fail to hear his old heroic words ringing 
bravely to inspire our souls. 

The dead believed in no narrow dogmas or creeds ; 
he was often called an infidel and an atheist, and while 
he took no exception to these terms, those who knew 
him best were well aware that they did not define his 
religious views. I think I know what he believed and 
can say that he was not an atheist. He looked on na- 
ture in all her countless forms of life ; he could not 
understand the power that makes a blade of grass to 
grow, that holds the planets in their place, and that 
forms a human brain ; he did not know and would not 
guess. He listened to the creeds and dogmas of the 
world which assume to speak for the great heart of 
the universe itself, and he believed that it was little 
less than blasphemy for a finite mind to seek to limit, 
define, and understand the great source of life that 
pervades the smallest portion of the mighty whole. 

It seems to ine that could he know my thoughts he 
would wish that I should say of him as I would hope 
that he would speak of me, were.I beneath his coffin- 
lid and he standing by my side. That as to the great 
questions of a deity and immortal life he meekly and 
reverently bowed his head in the presence of this in- 
finite mystery and admitted that the wisdom of the 
sages was no more than the foolishness of babes ; to 
these old questions he could answer neither yes nor 
no, but confessing his ignorance of the great problem 
of the ages he refused to guess where he could not 

But religion is not made of creeds and dogmas, but 



of thoughts and deeds, and his great mind and heart 
knew and understood full well that the highest wor- 
ship is to lay the richest treasures of the soul upon the 
altar built in humanity's great cause ; and all the 
strength of his frame and the treasures of his mind 
from his earliest youth until his last hour on earth, 
were lavishly given to this noble cause. 

His was a soul so great and true that no ignoble 
motives ever influenced his conduct or shaped his acts; 
he needed no hell to threaten, no heaven to coax, but 
seeing where his duty lay he never dreamed that there 
was any other path his feet could tread. 

And now good-bye, my dear, dead friend, good-bye, 
we leave you at the open grave where all the living 
part from all the dead. 'Tis hard to say farewell, to 
feel that those lips which never spoke to defend the 
wrong or strong, must be silent ever more, to know 
that your brave hand, that was ever quick to write 
and fight for the oppressed and poor, is now withering 
into dust ; to know that for us you can live only in the 
memories that your grand life has made a portion of 
our own. 

We give you back to the elements which lent the 
life and clay which you used so wisely and so well ; it 
may be that in nature's wondrous laboratory this dust 
may go to make another human form, but no miracle 
or chance will ever mould this clay again into another 
man like this we sadly cover over with earth and 



We are assembled to-day to do homage, to pay a 
last tribute of respect to all that is mortal of our late 
President-elect of the Saint George's Benevolent 
Association of Chicago, Gen. Matthew M. Trumbull. 
He belonged to a race that has girdled the earth with 
its sons, and in whatever longitude that race governs, 
whether they be native born or the descendants of 
Britons there is true liberty. The sons of the old 
land, the land so dearly loved by our departed Gen- 
eral and President, meet here to-day with the soldiers 
and sons of England's greatest daughter, Columbia, to 
say a last and sad farewell to him whose daily life and 
gentle nature were an example to us all. Brave as the 
lion, the emblem of Britain, his native land, he fought 
like a true soldier for the land of his adoption. He 
fought to burst asunder the shackles of the slave, and 
that this great country, the land of his and our adop- 
tion, might be and remain a nation. 

There are times and occurrences, doubts and fears, 
in the life of every man that we cannot fathom ; our 
lights are dim, and we seek for a greater knowledge, 
a greater light ; but who is there of his fellow country- 
men present on this solemn occasion who knew in- 
timately our departed friend and does not believe that 

he practised during his daily walks through life the 
great teachings and precepts of the lowly Nazarene, 
" Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain 
mercy." Are there not men with us to-day who can 
tell us that this departed philanthropist believed in 
the doctrine, and shall not the family of our late friend 
have the consolation of another promise, "Blessed 
are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake, 
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven " ? Yes, thrice 
yes ! A great man has gone from our midst, but his 
works shall be remembered by us forever : 

" The sun is but a spark of fire, 
A transient meteor in the sky ; 
The soul immortal as its sire, 
Shall never die." 

And now, in the presence of this great congrega- 
tion and his sorrowing family, I proclaim with rev- 
erence and with love on behalf of my fellow-country- 
men, whose representative I am this day, the final 
words of tribute to our departed associate. He was a 
devoted husband and father, a true and steadfast 
friend, a brave and loyal soldier, a child of God. 
Farewell ! and may we who are left on this earthly 
pilgrimage emulate thy virtues and thy example, and 
may thy love of right, thy love of justice to every man, 
remain with us to guide our daily lives and actions as 
God in his wisdom may give us the light. 


In the name of Gen. M. M. Trumbull's admirers 
we place upon his coffin a copy of "Wheelbarrow," 
the matured fruit of his literary work ; and this is the 
envoy written on the fly leaf : 

" The body of our dear, beloved friend has become 
a prey of death ; the dust is given back to the dust. 
But his never-dying soul is not buried with the body. 
Let us not seek the living among the dead. His soul 
still lives with us as an immortal presence, and even 
those who have never seen his face, will find him in 
his works. The most valuable bequest of Gen. M. M. 
Trumbull to mankind is his book 'Wheelbarrow.' 
Every page of it is aglow with his youthful zeal for 
liberty, justice, and progress." 


(Horace, 1, 22.) Adapted Version Sung by the Lotus Quartette. 
He who is upright, kind, and free from error 

Needs not the aid of arms or men to guard him ; 
Safely he moves, a child to guilty terror. 

Strong in his virtues. 

What though he journey o'er the burning desert. 
What though alone on raging billows tossing. 

All aid, all succor of his kind shall fail him, 
God will attend him. 

So when cometh the evening of his days. 

Fearless and glad shall he pass the dark portal. 

Sure as he treadeth the valley of the shadow — 
God will attend him. 




Commander, taking his position at the head o£ the coffin : 
"Assembled to pay our last tribute of respect to this dead soldier 
of our Republic, let us unite in prayer. The Chaplain will invoke 
the Divine blessing." 

Chaplain, standing at the foot of the coffin : ' ' God of battles ! 
Father of all ! amid these monuments of the dead we seek Thee, 
with Whom there is no death. Open every eye to behold Him who 
changed the night of death into morning. In the depths of our 
hearts we would hear the celestial word, ' I am the Resurrection 
and the Life ; he that believeth in Me, though he were dead, yet 
shall he live.' As comrade after comrade departs, and we march 
on with ranks broken, help us to be faithful unto Thee and to each 
other. We beseech Thee, look in mercy on the widows and chil- 
dren of deceased comrades, and with Thine own tenderness con- 
sole and comfort those bereaved by this event which calls us here. 
Give them 'the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for 
the spirit of heaviness.' Heavenly Father! bless and save our 
country with the freedom and peace of righteousness, and, through 
Thy great mercy, a Saviour's grace and Thy Holy Spirit's favor, 
may we all meet at last in joy before Thy throne in heaven. And 
to Thy great name shall be praise for ever and ever." 

All Comrades, standing in the rear of thechaplain ; "Amen!" 

Commander : " One by one, as the years roll on, we are called 
together to fulfil these last sad duties of respect to our comrades 
of the war. The present, full of the cares and pleasures of civil 
life, fades away, and we look back to the time when, shoulder to 
shoulder on bloody battle-fields, or around the guns of our men- 
of war, we fought for our dear old flag. We may indulge the hope 
that the spirit with which, on land and sea, hardship, privation, 
dangers were encountered by our dead heroes — a spirit uncom- 
plaining, nobly, manfully obedient to the behest of duty, whereby 
to-day our homes are secure, and our loved ones rest in peace un- 
der the aegis of the flag, will prove a glorious incentive to the youth 
who, in the ages to come, may be called to uphold the destinies of 
our country. As the years roll on, we, too, shall have fought our 
battles through, and be laid to rest, our souls following the long 
column to the realms above, as grim death, hour by hour, shall 
mark its victim. Let us so live that when that time shall come 
those we leave behind may say above our graves, ' Here lies the 
body of a true-hearted, brave, and earnest defender of the Re- 
public' " 

First Comrade {/ayiii^ a li-ucath of cvcygreen upon tltd coffiii) : 
"In behalf of the Post, I give this tribute, a symbol of an undying 
love for comrades of the war." 

Second Comrade \layiiig a wJiilc rose upon Ihc coffin) : " Sym- 
bol of purity, we offer at this lowly grave a rose. May future gen- 
erations emulate the unselfish devotion of even the lowliest of our 

Third Comrade (hiving a laur,-l Uaf upon tlu coffin) : " Last 
token of affection from comrades in arms, we crown these remains 
with a symbol of victory." 

Mrs. Nettie E Gunlock (placing a flog iipo?i Ihc' breast of 
the deceased) : "In grateful remembrance of the time when he of- 
fered his life, if need be, that this flag should wave forever, we, 
the mothers and wives of his comrades, now lovingly and reve- 
rently place it on his breast." 

A tribute to the old soldier. 


M. M. Trumbull is dead. Our genial, light- 
hearted, buoyant, and companionable friend is gone. 
He was honest, capable, and faithful, possessing an 
attractive personality, making innumerable steadfast 
friends. The taste he acquired in the army for mili- 

tary drill and discipline remained with and grew upon 
him until the end of his life ; for he was always deeply 
interested in military affairs. 

Another name has been added to our roll of honor ; 
and Post 28 not only numbers one less in membership, 
but also sustains the loss of one of its most earnest 
and devoted comrades. 

Gen. Matthew M. Trumbull, was one of those men 
whose work and influence will scarcely be appreciated 
until after his death. He was a strong, original thinker, 
a constant advocate of what he believed to be right 
and an enemy of wrong, in any shape or form, either 
social or political. An abolitionist in the days when 
abolition principles were not only unpopular, but posi- 
tively dangerous to the men who advocated them, he 
lived to see the evil and folly of slavery admitted by 
every one. He was equally sincere in his opposition 
to wrong and the inequalities of our economic system, 
and his voice and pen were never idle in his endeavors 
to remedy these evils. 

He was a patriot without being a politician, a re- 
former for reform's sake only. He served the country 
of his adoption in two wars enlisting originally as a 
private soldier, and by intelligence, faithfulness, cour- 
age, and earnest endeavor wherever duty called, he 
rose step by step, until he won the star of a brigadier 
general, which he proudly wore, discharging all the 
responsibilities thereof to the satisfaction of himself 
and his superiors. His death is a distinct loss to the 

Comrades, he was our friend, loyal and true, and 
we loved him dearly, and all his old soldier associates 
honored and respected him. 

We shall cherish the memories of our comrades 
dead, we will be loyal to our comrades living. We 
cannot forget our dead, they will live in our hearts 
forever ; we will not desert our living. We shall, in- 
deed, never'again feel the warm hand-grasp of our 
noble friend, nor be glad in his sunny smile, nor drink 
in the deep delights of his discourse ; but sweet mem- 
ories of his generous nature, of his chivalrous bearing, 
of his devotion to principle, of his boundless love for 
his country, of his fidelity to his home, will survive. 
He was his own biographer, his own sculptor, for he 
made his life a part of the undying history of his coun- 
try and engraved his image on the hearts of his coun- 

From an intimate acquaintance and association 
with him I learned to know of his kindly disposition 
and his earnest sympathy for his fellow-men, and a 
sincere desire to inculcate loving kindness in all. His 
creed was in sentiment about as follows ; and he de- 
lighted in saying : ^' Do not keep the alabaster boxes 
of your love and tenderness sealed up until your friends 
are dead, but fill their lives with sweetness. Now — 



speak approving and cheering words while their ears 
can hear them, and while their hearts can be thrilled 
and made happier by them. The kind things you will 
say after they are gone, say before (hey go. The flower 
you mean to send for their coffins destow now, and so 
brighten and sweeten their earthly homes before they 
leave them. If my friends have alabaster boxes laid 
away, full of fragrant perfumes of sympathy and affec- 
tion, which they intend to break over my dead body, 
I would rather they would bring them out in my wea- 
ried and troubled hours, and open them, that I may be 
refreshed and cheered by them while I need them. I 
would rather have a plain coffin without a flower, and 
a funeral without an eulogy, than a life without the 
sweetness of love and sympathy. Comrades, let us 
learn to anoint our friends beforehand for their burial ; 
post-mortem kindness does not cheer the hardened 
spirit. Flowers upon the coffin shed no fragrance 
backward over the weary way by which loved ones 
have travelled." 

And now, at the grave of this, our comrade and 

friend, let us highly resolve, through evil and good 

report, to touch elbows with the deserving veterans, 

though old, worn, broken, and in rags, and with them 

■ again drink from the same canteen. 

When the spirit of this grand, good man and once 
intrepid warrior wings its flight to the land beyond the 
river, ready and willing to give an account of his 
stewardship, I can imagine that I can see St. Peter 
standing at the Golden Gate, watching and waiting 
for the mighty concourse of his elect, and when he be- 
iholds the image of our dear friend, he will repeat the 
srders as were given in Hardee's old tactics : 

" Turn out the Guard ! 
Parade the Colors ! 
Beat the Drums ! 
Another Comrade Comes ! " 


Silent comrade, gently sleeping, 

We meet here to honor you. 
As our retrospection takes us 

Where the scenes of strife we view ; 
Then you faced the cannon's belching, 

Elbows touched with comrades there 
While the earth was sadly quaking, 

Still our flag waved proud and fair. 

In the hour of greatest danger, 

When your ranks were thinning fast. 
How your comrades closed around you 

For the final charge at last. 
We will ne'er forget your valor 

Shown upon the battle-field, 
Though opposed by fiercest traitors. 

Never, comrade, would you yield. 

On and on, through years of battle, 

Weary march in scorching sun, 
Sleet, and snow, 'mid musket's rattle. 

Still you pressed, and victory won. 
Thus you tarried, under orders. 

Many long and dreadful years. 
Victory perched upon your banner. 

Thankful hearts give honored cheers. 

By our comrade's zeal our nation 

Is cemented to the core ; 
Country, flag, and Constitution 

Stands revered as ne'er before : 
Rest, then, comrade, in your glory, 

As a grateful nation's praise 
Ever weaves, in song and story, 

Victors' chaplets for her braves. 

Glad hearts bow in admiration, 

Loyal souls exult with pride, 
You with others saved this nation 

From a vortex dark and wide. 
Rest, proud hero, ever living 

In the hearts of patriots true. 
And your mem'ry ever bringing 

Glad thoughts of the boys in blue. 

Farewell, comrade, gently sleeping 
'Till the angel trumpet strain 

Wakes again the loyal millions 
Evermore to live again. ■ 


Sung by the Lotus Quartette. 
"We're tenting to-night on the old camp-ground; 
Give us a song to cheer 
Our weary hearts, a song of home. 
And friends we love so dear. 
Chorus : Many are the hearts that are weary to-night. 
Wishing for the war to cease ; 
Many are the hearts looking for the right, 
To see the dawn of peace. 

We've been tenting to-night on the old camp ground, 

Thinking of days gone by, 
Of the lov'd ones at home that gave us the hand, 

And the tear that said ' Good- by ! ' 
Chorus : Many are the hearts that are weary to-night, 

Wishing for the war to cease ; 
Many are the hearts looking for the right. 

To see the dawn of peace. 

We've been fighting to-day on the old camp-ground, 

Many are lying near ; 
Some are dead, and some are dying. 
Many are in tears. 
Chorus : Dying to-night. 
Dying to-night. 
Dying on the old camp-ground." 

[ 77/1? interment took place at Rosehill Cemetery. ] 


■• Howl, fir tree, for the cedar is fallen."— 
Zech., ii, 2. 

The fir is the prophet among the trees, for it re- 
mains green in winter and serves us during the time 
of the longest nights in the year as a light-bearer, a 



bringer of joy, and as a symbol of life. Remembering 
the meaning of the fir, we understand the message of 
its prophecy and in this sense cover the open grave 
with its branches. We are surrounded by darkness 
but the night will give way to a brighter morn, we are 
visited with grief, but our affliction will only serve to 
chasten the cheer of our joy ; we stand before the 
portal of Death, but out of the seeds which we bury 
in the ground a new spring will burst forth promising 
a rich harvest. 

We have accompanied the slumbering body of the 
departed to its final resting-place, and now bid it a 
last farewell. 

Peace be with these ashes ! May their rest be sweet 
and undisturbed like a dreamless sleep. We part 
from them as from the bed of a beloved child whom 
we have lulled to sleep. 

The body slumbers, but as there is no sunset to the 
sun, so there is no death to the soul. The day is 
gone when the evening sinks down, but the light con- 
tinues to illumine the world. 

While dust returns to dust, the soul finds its sphere 
of being among souls. There it is cherished and kept 
as a sacred memory; there it lives and breathes the air 
of immortality. 

' THE 


General Trumbull's connexion with The Open 
Court dates from the first year of the existence of this 
magazine, when the well-known series of articles on 
the Labor Question, with the discussions to which 
they gave rise, began. Our early readers will all re- 
member the powerful controversial abilities which 
General Trumbull there displayed, and the delightful 
humor and merriment which pervaded all his thrusts 
and parries. These articles, together with three splen- 
did essays of the highest literary character on the Poets 
of Liberty and Labor, Gerald Massey, Robert Burns, 
and Thomas Hood, were afterwards pubHshed in book- 
form under the title of " Wheelbarrow." To this book 
he added his Autobiography, which in its frank, beau- 
tiful simplicity will justly bear comparison with the 
famous masterpiece of David Hume, which he so much 

His best known work, perhaps, is " The Free Trade 
Struggle in England," the second edition of which was 
also published by The Open Court Publishing Co. 
This book was dedicated to John Bright, who prefaces 
the work with an interesting and highly commendatory 

General Tru