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Full text of "The Open court"

^be Open Gourt 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

2)crotc& to tbe Science of IReUoion, tbe IRellaion of Science, anb tbe 
Bitension ot tbe IRellGious parliament 1IC)ea 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. At.»rint , i ^ C. Hbgblbr. 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack. Jtssocxaies. ^ ^^^^ Carus. 

VOL. XIV. (no. 12) December, 1900. NO. 535 



CONTENTS : 

Frontispiece. Friedrich Max Mueller. 

On Greek Religion and Mythology. — Monsters. — Minor Deities. — Asklepios 
and His Apostle Apollonius of Tyana. — Tartaros. Profusely Illus- 
trated from the Monuments and Statuary of Classical Antiquity. 
Editor 705 

Cornelius Petrus Tiele. In Commemoration of His Seventieth Birthday. 
With Portrait of Professor Tiele, Hitherto Unpublished. By Morris 
Jastrow, Jr., Professor in the University of Pennsylvania . . , 728 

Friedrich Max Milller. (1823-igoo.) Biographical and Philosophical. 

Thomas J. McCormack 734 

The Rev. W. W. Seymour on the Prehistoric Cross. With Illustrations. 

Editor 745 

The Chinese Altar of Burnt Offering. With Illustration of the Temple of 

Heaven. Communicated 752 

The Paris Peace Congress and the Transvaal War. Yves Guyot .... 756 

The Child. A Poem. Alex. F. Chamberlain, Ph. D 757 

Dr. Carus' s History of the Devil 759 

Eros and Psyche. With Illustrations from Thorwaldsen and a Reproduc- 
tion of the Eros of Praxiteles 760 

Hume's Enquiry Concerning Hu?nan Understanding. With Reproduction of 

Portrait of Hume by Sir Joshua Reynolds 762 

Reincarnate. A. Poem. Lillian C. Barnes 763 

Book Reviews 764 

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Frontispiece to The Open Court. 



The Open Court 



A MONTMI.Y MAGAZINK 



Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 



VOL. XIV. (NO. 12. 



DECEMBER, 1900. 



NO. 535 



Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co., 1900. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY 



BY THE EDITOR. 



M 



MONSTERS. 

OST of the monsters with which the Greek heroes contend are 
the same as in the folklore of all nations, — dragons. In ad- 




GORGONEION. 

Ancient face of the Gorgon Medusa. 

dition, we have many-headed snakes, wild boars, the Minotaur or 
man-bull, the Chimera or goat-fiend (reminding us of the Ass)'rian 



7o6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



goat-demons), and above all the Gorgon Medusa, whose head is 
used as an amulet to drive away evil spirits according to the logic 
that devils must be driven out by Beelzebub, the chief of devils. 
The Assyrians placed statues of the disease-spreading South Wind 
at their south entrances, because they believed that if the South 
Wind devil saw his own picture he would be frightened away at 
the sight of its ugliness. 

Homer speaks of Medusa's head as a frightful monster in the 
Under World (A 634 and A 36). Other authors^ mention its evil eye 




Medusa Rondanini. 
A later and more beautiful representation. (Glyptothek, Munich.) 

and gnashing of teeth. It is stated that no one could look at its 
face without being horror-stricken. Its mere aspect was blood- 
curdling and petrified the beholder with fear. 

Gorgo,'^ the daughter of the two sea-monsters, Phorkys and 
Keto, lived on the island Sarpedon in the Western ocean, near the 
realm of the dead and not far from the beautiful garden of the im- 
mortals. She expected to become a mother by Poseidon, when she 



Hes. Scut., 235; see also Apollodorus II., 4, 27 
Vopyoj or Pop-yuJc, also Fopya and Topyofrj. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



707 



was killed, according to the Athenian version, by Athena (hence 
called the Gorgon-slayer, yopyo<f>6vos:), and, according to the Argivian 




Pegasos Led to Water ' 

Relief in the Palace Spada. (E. Braun, .-hil/'ke Basrclic/s, pi. I, 

B. D., p. 300,) 

version, by Perseus, the conqueror.'-^ From the wound Pegasus, 

the winged horse, and Chrysaor, the golden man, were born. On 

1 Pegasos originated from the blood of the Medusa (Gorge) and served several heroes of the 
solar type as a steed. He opened with a stroke of his hoof a spring on Mount Helicon called 
Hippocrena or Horse-spring (Paus., 9, 31, 3), which was afterwards r^ garded as the well of poetic 
inspiration. Pegasos, as the symbol of poetry, is a modern idea, not found in the classics. 

2 n£p<reu9, literally the " the destroyer," viz., of the monster, from nip^av. 



7o8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



some monuments the soul is represented escaping in the shape of a 
diminutive human figure. 

It will be noticed that the oldest representations of the Medusa 
are both frightful and ugly, but with the advance of Greek art the 




iiiHHaiiiiiiiiBilittiiiMli 



'I f-'itiitJiMi'^^gAi 



The Deliverance of Andromeda by Perseus. 

Archaic representation. Pegasos springs from the blood of the Medusa. 

(After Benndorf, Metopeti vo7i Sclinunt, pi. I.) 

terrible is transfigured by beauty and changed into a fascinatinj 
form of awe-inspiring grandeur. 



MINOR DEITIES. 

There are innumerable minor deities that deserve mention : 
Pan, the god of the shepherds ; Seilenos and Satyrs, the servants of 
Dionysos; river gods, Nymphs and Naiads, or water spirits; Dryads 
or oak-tree spirits; Oreads or mountain spirits; Iris, the rainbow, 




I iiiM.i-,K A ' <]■ Akezzo. 
The monster slain by Bellerophon. (Now at Florence. 




Hellekophgn Slaying the Chim.kra. 
(A terra-cotta statue of Melos, now in the British Museum.) 



7IO 



THE OPEN COURT. 



who serves as a messenger of the gods ; Ganymede, the Phrygian 
youth whom Zeus selected for his cup-bearer; Hymen, the god of 
marriage ; Eos, the goddess of the dawn ; the winds of the four 
quarters; Eris, the goddess of quarrel; the Harpies or death angels 
who snatch away children from their mothers; the Sirens^ or Greek 
Loreleis who tempt the seafarer to approach the cliff on which 
tliey are seated ; Momos, the god of comedies ; Komos, the god of 
jollity; Asklepios, the god of medicine and healing; Hygeia, the 
goddess of health ; Tyche or Fortune, the goddess of good luck ; 
Nike, the goddess of victory; Nemesis, the goddess of vengeance, 
retribution, and punishment ; Kairos, a personification of oppor- 





Iris, the Messenger of the Gods. 



Hymen. 



tunity; Thanatos and Hypnos, death and sleep; Morpheus and 
Oneiros, slumber and dreams ; the Centaurs, who were half-horse 
and half-man; and Castor and Pollux, the twins, called the Dios- 



The figure of Nike has become the artistic prototype of the 
Christian angels. The idea of a divine messenger or ayyeXos was 

1 The Sirens were originally the souls of the dead, as will appear further on. 

2 The Dioscuri were the sons of Leda and Zeus. The story goes that Zeus approached Leda 
as a swan and that she bore the twin gods in an egg. One of them, Castor, was mortal ; the other, 
Pollux, immortal. When the former died, the latter did not want to live without his twin-brother. 
So he requested their father to allow him to die for his brother and to let them share alternately 
in the boon of immortality. They represent morning and evening stars, being the same planet 
and making their appearance alternately. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



7" 



common to all the ancient nations and the appellation bo7ius angelus 
occurs in pagan inscriptions. The best protecting angel of emper- 
ors and kings \vas Nike, the goddess of Victor}', and we find her 
frequentl}' represented by their sides and on the hands. 

The Hebrew ^vord for angel *?;»?^ {inaldch') also means "mes- 
senger" and is used in its original sense in the old Testament 




Ganymede, the Phrygian Boy. 

Carried up to Olympos by the eagle of Zeus 
(Marble statue by Leochares, Vatican.) 



to denote men sent out on errands and ambassadors of kings. 
Malach Jahveh ("^n": "N'P'5), i. e., messenger of JH\'H means angel, 
as the word is now used. 

All these divinities found more or less representation in art 
according to the needs of practical life. 



712 



HE OPEN COURT, 



ASKLEPIOS AND HIS APOSTLE APOLLONIUS OF TYANA 
Asklepios^ was not a god in the days of Homer but only a 
skilful physician, the disciple of Chiron the wise Centaur. Being a 




'I'iHHMhiilnH 



The Nike of Paionios. (After Treu's Restoration.)- 
healer, however, he grew in importance and a number of contra- 
dictory legends sprang up concerning him, one told by the author 

1 Better known in English under his Latinised name ^sculapius. 

2 See Treu, Olympia, p. 182 ff., cf. Roscher, 39, p. 341. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



713 




Vase-picture in red. (After Elite cermn , I., 91.) 




^r^^^^isis^y 



Angels at the Bed of a Dying Man.' 
Relief on an Etruscan Cinerary of Volterra. {Arch. Zt,if., 1846, pi. 47.) 



IThe angel of death stands at the head of the bed, sword in hand, the bonus angelus grasps 
the hand of one of the survivors, either comforting him or pledging him to remain faithful to the 
memory of the deceased. It was customary in Rome for the oldest son and principal heir to inhale 
the last breath of the dying person and so to inspire, as it were, his soul, as Virgil says (Aen. IV., 
684I extrejnuni halitum ore legere. 



714 



THE OPEN COURT 



of the Homeric hymn XIV, another by Pindar, and a third one by 
Pausanias.^ One thing is clear, however, that many Asklepian 
priests were skilled physicians, and it would seem even that several 
of their temples were used as hospitals and sanitariums. 

The Asklepian priests, however, though there is reason to 
credit them with considerable knowledge of medical skill, were at 
the same time healers of the soul. They demanded continence, 
propriety, and faith in the saving grace of their tutelary god ; and 







Kairos. 

Personifying the moment of luck and success. - 
{Arch. Ztg., 1875, pi. I. B. D., II., 772.) 

an inscription over the entrance of the temple of Asklepios in Epi- 
dauros reads : "None but the pure shall enter here." 

An inscription discovered on the southern slope of the Acrop- 



iPausanias tells us the Epidaurian version, stating that Koronis, the daughter of King Phle- 
gias, visiting Epidauros on the northeastern coast of Argolis, bore a child to Apollo, and fearing 
her father's wrath, exposed it on the mountain slope where it was found by the goatherd Ares- 
thanas and educated by Chiron. Aresthanas at once knew the divinity of the baby, whom he 
called Asklepios. because when he lifted it up a light streamed from it as bright as a flash of 
lightning. 

2 Kairos walks on winged wheels and holds a pair of balances in one hand and a razor in the 
other, for, says the Greek proverb, the decision lies on "the edge of a razor" (eTri JvpoO ax/i^s, 
cf. Homer, K., 173). The relief shows a young man "taking fortune by the forelock." An old 
man standing behind Kairos extends his left arm, but too late ; he has missed his chance ; and 
repentance (fxeravoia) turns her head away weeping. 



ON GREEK RELIOION ANM) M\ 'IHOLOGV. 



715 




ASKLEPIOS, OR JiSCULAPIUS. 

(Now in Florence.) 



1 Judging from a coin of Pergamon (published in Baumeister's Z)^«-6>«;i/^^, p. 138;, archjeol- 
ogists believe that this statue represents the type of the statue made by Phyromachos for the 
^sculapius temple of Pergamon. Cf. B. D., 139. 



7l6 THE OPEN COURT. 

olis at Athens records a prayer of Diophantos addressed to Askie- 
pios, which reads as follows : ^ 

" Save me, and heal my grievous gout, O blessed and most mighty presence, 
I adjure thee by thy father, to whom I loudly pray. No one of mortals can give a 
surcease from such pangs. Thou alone, divinely blessed one, hast the power, for 
the supreme gods bestowed on thee, all-pitying one, a rich gift for mortals. Thou 
art their appointed deliverer from pain." 

Asklepios is not addressed as a god, though he is invoked as a 
divine presence, and his common designation is Son of God {filius 
lit'i) and saviour (o-wriys). A legend reports that once when Askle- 
pios had resuscitated a man and prevented his descent into the 
realm of death, Zeus slew him with his thunderbolt at the request 
of Hades, the grim god of the Under World. 

The greatest representative of Asklepios, however, ApoUonius 
of Tyana, was a man who for some time in the history of our re- 
ligious evolution appeared as a powerful rival of Jesus of Nazareth, 
aspiring to the honor of being worshipped as the Saviour of man- 
kind. 

It is perhaps not an accident that Tyana is a town of Cappa- 
docia, not far from Tarsus, the birth-place of the Apostle St. Paul. 
Asia Minor was the region in which the religious fermentation that 
permeated the classical world from the days of Alexander the Great 
was strongest ; and we have reason to believe that ApoUonius was 
as pure-minded and earnest as his countryman Paul. Philostratos, 
a courtier of the literary circle of the Empress Julia Domna, com- 
piled the life, of this pagan saint, his main sources being the ac- 
count of Maximus of ^Egae, for several years a fellow-philosopher 
of the Tyanian while both were pursuing the ascetic life of the 
Pythagorean brotherhood, and the wondrous tales of Daneis of 
Nineveh concerning the travels and adventures of ApoUonius. The 
similarity of many of these stories to the miracles of Jesus excited 
in the early days of Christianity the jealousy of the Christian monks, 
as a result of which all the works of this pagan saint were destroyed, 
and we know his personality only from the distorted reflexion of it 
in the book of Philostratos, from the caricatures of Lucian and 
Apuleius, and finally from the incidental remarks of ancient authors, 
and the strictures of the Church Fathers. 

Men of sober judgment, among them Dio Cassius the histor- 
rian, believed in some at least of the miracles of ApoUonius, and 
the Christians, among them Origen,^ do not as a rule deny them. 

1 See Prof. Augustus C. Merriam's interesting article " yEsculapia as Revealed by Inscrip- 
tions " in the May number of Gaillard's Medical Journal (Vol. XI., No. 5). 
1 Contra Celsum. VI., 41. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MVTHOI.OGV. 717 

Eusebius of Cassarea takes Hierocles to task for giving preference 
to Apollonius over Jesus, in respect of the former's having lived a 
more exemplary life as well as having performed more numerous 
and better attested miracles. The same author quotes approvingly 
a sentence from Apollonius embodj'ing his confession of faith. 
Eusebius says : 

"Even the well known Apollonius of Tyana, whose name is upon all men's 
lips for praise, is said to write much in the same strain in his work on sacrifice 
about the first and great God. 

" There is one Highest God above and apart from the lower gods. Beyond 
the reach of the contaminating world of sense as he is, nothing apprehensible by 
any organ of sense, neither burnt offerings nor bloodless sacrifices, can reach him, 
not even unuttered prayers. He is the substance of things seen, and in him, plants, 
animals, men. and the elements of which the world is made, have life and exist. 
He is the noblest of existences, and men must duly worship him with the only 
faculty in them to which no material organ is attached, their speculative reason.' 



TARTAROS. 

The realm of the dead was supposed to be underground. It 
was called Hades (the invisible) or Tartaros ; but both names, es- 
pecially the former one, are also used to denote the God of the 
Under World himself. The dead live there as mere shades or blood- 
less specters, watched by the terrible Kerberos, a dog with three 
heads. 

The idea that the living could commune with the dead was 
quite prevalent in Greece and led to necromancy and psychomancy, 
a branch of sorcery which had for its object the conjuring of the 
ghosts of the deceased for the purpose of making them proclaim 
oracles or prophecies. 

The souls of the dead were conceived sometimes as winged 
heads, sometimes as fleeting shadows or images of the personali- 
ties of the deceased, both conceptions being of Egyptian origin.^ 
The former can be traced to the notion of the Ba, the soul as con- 
sciousness pictured as a hawk with a human head, the latter to the 
Ka, i. e., the spirit of a man in a dream-like form of body at the 
time of his death. The so called tomb-sirens, found in great num- 
bers in Greek cemeteries, were originally intended as representa- 
tives of the souls of deceased persons. 

The god Hades is also called Pluto, and being the owner of 
all the uncounted underground treasures, is at the same time the 
god of wealth. The queen of the dead is Persephone, whose ab- 

1 Birds with human heads also figure in Assyrian mythology. 



7i8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



duction by Pluto is a favorite subject of decoration on Greek sar- 
cophagi. 

Access to the Land of the Shades was deemed possible in the 




Funeral Siren.' 
Found in Athens. (After a photograph, B. />., p. 1644.) 

west of Europe near the pillars of Heracles, the present Gibraltar. 
Odysseus visited the place and after him .^neas. Psyche descended 



1 This form of the sirens preserves most closely the Egyptian type of the ba, the hawk with a 
human head representing the soul of a deceased person. Their original significance, it appears, 
was soon lost and the sirens were believed to be supernatural beings of transcendent beauty 
lamenting the dead. DioHorus Siculus informs us that at Hephaistion's incineration wooden 
sirens contained the singers who sang the dirges (xvii, 115). Later on the sirens were represented 
standing as winged virgins with birds' feet, According to Homer's Odyssey, they are antique 
Loreleis whose enchanting voices signify peril and lead to death. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY, 



719 



through, a cavity in the wild mountain recesses of the Taygetos in 
Lacedaemon, called the breathing-hole of Tartaros. 

The rivers of the Under World are the Styx (the heinous 
stream), the Acheron (the river of woe), the Kokytos (the waters of 
wailing), and the Pyriphlegethon (the floods of fire). Charon ferries 
the shades across the Styx, provided they have been properly buried 




Front View of the Divine Dove.' 

Ancient bronze figure found at Van, commonly called Semiramis, but apparently a 

form of the goddess Istar who was worshipped under the form of a dove. 

(After Lenormant, Vhistoirc dc V Or.. Vol. IV., p. 124 and 125.) 




Rear View of the Divine Do\ 



and on payment of a fee, the smallest coin being sufficient, which 
was placed in the mouth of the dead. The souls drink of the waters 
of Lethe or oblivion, and lead a most monotonous, dreary life, with 
the exception of ^ the great criminals who are tortured according to 

1 The artistic conception of a bird with a human head was not wanting in Western Asia, but 
the significance of these figures is not as yet definitely determined. 



720 



THE OPEN COURT. 



their deserts. Tantalos suffers hunger and thirst with water and 
fruits in sight; Ixion is forged on a fiery wheel; Sisyphos rolls up 
hill a big boulder which always slips down again ; Tityos, the giant 
who made an attempt to assault Leto, is lacerated by vultures : 
and the Danaides try to fill a leaking vessel. 

The descent of the souls of the slain suitors is dramatically 
described in the last book of the Odyssey: 

" But Cyllenian ' Hermes called out the souls of the suitors ; and he held in 
his hands a beautiful golden rod, with which he soothes the eyes of men when he 
wishes, and raises them up again from sleep. With this indeed he drove them, 
moving them on; and they whirring followed. As when bats in the recess of 
a divine cave flit about whirring, when one falls from its place off the rock, and 
they cling to one another : so they went together whirring, and gentle Hermes led 
them down the murky ways. And they came near the streams of the ocean and 







W¥M:-m' 






^^0 




Greek Skeleton Dance. Silver Cup Found at Boscoreale. 

the Leucadian rock,- and they went near the gates of the Sun, and the people of 
dreams: and they quickly came to the meadow of Asphodel, where dwell the 
souls, the images of the dead." 

Death is never represented by Greek artists as a skeleton, 
which is the customary conception of the Middle Ages. Skeletons 
appear on Greek monuments, for instance on the beautiful silver 
mug found in Boscoreale, where the skeletons of poets and sages 
admonish the toper to enjoy the fleeting moment, for soon his body 
will be laid in the grave Death is commonly conceived as the twin 
brother of sleep, a calm youth who might be mistaken for Eros, 
the god of love, were it not for the absence of the bow and arrows 
as well as for the inverted position of the torch of life in his hands. 



1 So called after the mountain Cyllene in Arcad 

2 The cliff of wliiteiiirg bones. 



/hich was sacred to Heitnes. 



ON GKKKK RKl.lGION AND MVTHOI.OCn 



721 



The idea of death is so closel}' connected with the deities of 
life that almost all of them are represented in some way by their 
relation to the world underground, in which capacity they are called 
chthonian.i Thus we have a chthonian Zeus, a chthonian Aphro- 
dite, a chthonian Dionysos, a chthonian Hermes, and even a chtho- 
nian Eros. 

The Etruscans regarded death as a terrible demon, an ugl}' 
monster, carrying a weapon of slaughter in his hands. But this 
belief was considerably modified under the influence of Greek civi- 
lisation, and later monuments change the Etruscan god of death 
into a Nike-like divinit}- with a sword, who is accompanied by the 
good angel, acting as a comforter of the bereaved family. 





The Goddess Istar. 

Bas-relief in the British Museur 

(Lenormant, V., p. 259.) 



Charon Ferrying Lovers 

Across the Styx. 

Greek Scarabseus. (After Wiese- 

ler, Denkm., II., 870. 

B. D., 379.) 



The eleventh book of the Odyssey is devoted to a description 
of Odysseus's visit to the realm of the dead. Circe, the bewitching 
nymph of the island in the sea, had advised Odysseus to consult the 
blind prophet Tiresias who had passed into the Land of the Shades, 
and to sacrifice a black ram and a black ewe to Pluto and Per- 
sephone. But before our hero sets sail, one of his companions, 
Elpenor, falls from a roof and dies. 

Odysseus describes his adventures in these words : 

" The ship reached the extreme boundaries of the deep-flowing ocean ; where 
are the people and city of the Cimmerians, covered with shadow and vapour, nor 
does the shining sun behold them with his beams, neither when he goes towards 
the starry heaven, nor when he turns back again from heaven to earth ; but perni- 
cious night is spread over hapless mortals. Having come there, we drew up our 



Xi?ovio?, belonging 



the earth, or being related to the Nether World. 



722 THE OPEN COURT. 

ship ; and we took out the two sheep ; and we ourselves went again to the stream 
of the ocean, until we came to the place which Circe mentioned. There Perimedes 
and Eurylochus made sacred offerings; but I, drawing my sharp sword from my 
thigh, dug a trench, the width of a cubit each way ; and around it we poured liba- 
tions to all the dead, first with mixed honey, then with sweet wine, again a third 
time with water; and I sprinkled white meal over it. And I much besought the 
unsubstantial heads of the dead, [promising, that] when I came to Ithaca, I would 
offer up in my palace a barren heifer, whichever is the best, and would fill a pyre 
with excellent things ; and that I would sacrifice separately to Tiresias alone a sheep 
all black, which excels amongst our sheep. 

" But when I had besought them, the nations of the dead, with vows and pray- 
ers, then taking the two sheep, I cut off their heads into the trench, and the black 
blood flowed : and the souls of the perished dead were assembled forth from Erebus, 
[betrothed girls and youths, and much-enduring old men, and tender virgins, hav- 
ing a newly grieved mind, and many war-renowned men wounded with brass-tipped 
spears, possessing gore-smeared arms, who, in great numbers, were wandering 
about the trench on different sides with a divine clamour ; and pale fear seized upon 
me.] Then at length exhorting my companions, I commanded them, having skinned 
the sheep which lay there, slain with the cruel brass, to burn them, and to invoke 
the gods, Pluto and dread Persephone. But I. having drawn my sharp sword 
from my thigh, sat down, nor did I suffer the powerless heads of the dead to draw 
nigh the blood, before I inquired of Tiresias. And first the soul of my companion 
Elpenor came ; for he was not yet buried beneath the wide-wayed earth; for we 
left his body in the palace of Circe unwept for and unburied,' since another toil 
[then] urged us. Beholding him, I wept, and pitied him in my mind, and address- 
ing him, spoke winged words : ' O Elpenor, how didst thou come under the dark 
west ? Thou hast come sooner, being on foot, than I with a black ship.' 

" Thus I spoke; but he groaning answered me in discourse, ' O Zeus-born son 
of Laertes, much contriving Odysseus, the evil destiny of the deity and the abundant 
wine hurt me. Lying down on the roof of the palace of Circe, I did not think of 
descending backwards. Having come to the long ladder, I fell down from the top ; 
and my neck was broken from the vertebrae and my soul descended to Hades. 
Now, I entreat thee by those who are [left] behind, and not present, by thy wife 
and father, who nurtured thee when little, and Telemachus, whom thou didst leave 
alone in thy palace ; for I know, that going hence from the house of Pluto, thou 
wilt moor thy well-wrought ship at the island of ^aea : there then, O king, I ex- 
hort thee to be mindful of me, nor, when thou departest, leave me behind, unwept 
for, unburied, going at a distance, lest I should become some cause to thee of the 
wrath of the gods : but burn me with whatever arms are mine, and build on the 
shore of the hoary sea a monument for me, a wretched man, to be heard of even 
by posterity ; perform these things for me, and fix upon the tomb the oar with 
which I rowed whilst alive, being with my companions.' 

"Thus he spoke; but I answering addressed him : 'O wretched one, I will 
perform and do these things for thee.' 

" Thus we sat answering one another with sad words ; I indeed holding my 
sword off over the blood, but the image of my companion on the other side spoke 
many things. And afterwards there came on the soul of my deceased mother, 

1 It is a well-known superstition, that the ghosts of the dead were supposed to wander as long 
as they remained unburied, and were not suffered to mingle with the other dead. Cf. Virg. Mn. 
vi. 325, sqq. Lucan. i. II. Eur. Hec. 30. Phocylid. IVu/i gf). Heliodor. ^th. ii. p. 67. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



723 



Anticlea, daughter of magnanimous Autolycus, whom I left alive, on going to sa- 
cred Ilium. I indeed wept beholding her, and pitied her in my mind ; but not even 
thus, although grieving very much, did I suffer her to go forward near to the blood, 
before I inquired of Tiresias. But at length the soul of Theban Tiresias came on 
holding a golden sceptre, but me he knew and addressed : 

" ' O Zeus-born son of Laertes, why, O wretched one, leaving the light of the 
sun, hast thou come, that thou mayest see the dead and this joyless region ? but go 
back from the trench, and hold off thy sharp sword, that I may drink the blood and 
tell thee what is unerring.' 

"Thus he spoke; but I retiring back, fixed my silver-hilted sword in the 




Siren Taken from a Tomb. 

Later conception. Now in the 

Louvre. Bouillon Musee, IIL, 

Bas-relief 6. B. D., 1645. 




Herakles Plucking the Apple of 

THE HeSPERIDES. 



sheath ; but when he had drunk the black blood, then at length the blameless 
prophet addressed me with words : 

" 'Thou seekest a pleasant return, O illustrious Odysseus; but the deity will 
render it difficult for thee; for I do not think that thou wilt escape the notice of 
Poseidon, who has set wrath in his mind against thee, enraged because thou hast 
blinded his dear son (Polyphaemon the Cyclops). But still, even so, . . . thou 
mayest return to Ithaca, although suffering ills . . . but thou wilt find troubles in 
thine house, overbearing men, who consume thy livelihood, wooing thy goddess- 
like wife, and offering themselves for her dowry gifts. But certainly when thou 



724 THE OPEN COURT. 

comest thou wilt revenge their violence . . . but death will come upon thee away 
from the sea, gentle, very much such a one, as will let thee die, taken with gentle 
old age; and the people around thee will be happy: these things I tell thee true.' 

" Thus he spoke : but I answering addressed him : ' O Tiresias, the gods them- 
selves have surely decreed these things. But come, tell me this, and relate it truly. 
I behold this the soul of my deceased mother, she sits near the blood in silence, nor 
does she dare to look openly at her son, nor to speak to him. Tell me, O king, how 
she can know me, being such a one.' 

"Thus I spake; but he immediately answering addressed me: 'I will tell 
thee an easy word, and will place it in thy mind ; whomsoever of the deceased dead 
thou sufferest to come near the blood, he will tell thee the truth ; but whomsoever 
thou grudgest it, he will go back again.' 

" Thus having spoke, the soul of king Tiresias went within the house of Pluto, 
when he had spoken the oracles : but I remained there firmly, until my mother 
came and drank of the blood ; but she immediately knew me, and lamenting ad- 
dressed to me winged words : 

" ' My son, how didst thou come under the shadowy darkness, being alive? but 
it is difficult for the living to behold these things ; [for in the midst there are mighty 
rivers and terrible streams, first indeed the ocean, which it is not possible to pass, 
being on foot, except any one have a well-built ship.] Dost thou now come here 
wandering from Troy, with thy ship and companions, after a long time? nor hast 
thou seen thy wife in thy palace ? ' 

" Thus she spoke ; but I answering addressed her, ' O my mother, necessity led 
me to Hades, to consult the soul of Theban Tiresias. For I have not yet come near 
Achaia, nor have I ever stept upon my own land, but I still wander about . . . tell 
me the counsel and mind of my wooed wife, whether does she remain with her son, 
and guard all things safe ? or now has one of the Grecians, whoever is the best, 
wedded her ? ' 

" Thus I spoke; but my venerable mother immediately answered me: 'She 
by all means remains with an enduring mind in thy palace : and her miserable 
nights and days are continually spent in tears ... I perished and drew on my fate. 
Nor did the well-aiming, shaft-delighting [goddess], coming upon me with her mild 
weapons, slay me in the palace.' Nor did any disease come upon me, which espe- 
cially takes away the mind from the limbs with hateful consumption. But regret 
for thee, and cares for thee, O illustrious Odysseus, and kindness for thee, deprived 
me of my sweet life.' 

"Thus she spoke; but I, meditating in my mind, wished to lay hold of the 
soul of my departed mother. Thrice indeed I essayed it, and my mind urged me 
to lay hold of it, but thrice it flew from my hands, like unto a shadow, or even to 
a dream : but sharp grief arose in my heart still more ; and addressing her, I spoke 
winged words : 

" ' Mother mine, why dost thou not remain for me, desirous to take hold of 
thee, that even in Hades, throwing around our dear hands, we may both be satiated 
with sad grief ? Has illustrious Persephone sent forth this an image for me, that I 
may lament still more, mourning ? ' 

" Thus I spoke ; my venerable mother immediately answered me : ' Alas ! my 
son, unhappy above all mortals, Persephone, the daughter of Zeus, by no means 
deceives thee, but this is the condition of mortals, when they are dead. For their 
nerves no longer have flesh and bones, but the strong force of burning fire subdues 

1 Artemis. 



ON GRKEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOCIV. 725 

them, when first the mind leaves the white bones, and the soul, like as a dream, 
flittering, flies away. But hasten as quick as possible to the light ; and know all 
these things, that even hereafter thou mayest tell them to thy wife.' 

"There then I beheld Minos, the illustrious son of Zeus, having a golden 
sceptre, giving laws to the dead, sitting down ; but the others around him, the king, 
pleaded their causes, sitting and standing through the wide-gated house of Pluto. 

' ' After him I beheld vast Orion, hunting beasts at the same time, in the meadow 
of asphodel, which he had himself killed in the desert mountains, having an all- 
brazen club in his hands, forever unbroken. 

■'And I beheld Tityus, the son of the very renowned earth, lying on the ground ; 
and he lay stretched over nine acres ; and two vultures sitting on each side of him 
were tearing his liver, diving into the caul : but he did not ward them off with 
his hands ; for he had dragged Leto, the celebrated wife of Zeus, as she was going 
to Pythos, through the delightful Panopeus. 

" And I beheld Tantalus suffering severe griefs, standing in a lake: and it 
approached his chin. But he stood thirsting, and he could not get any thing to 
drink ; for as often as the old man stooped, desiring to drink, so often the water 
being sucked up, was lost to him ; and the black earth appeared around his feet, 
and the deity dried it up. And lofty trees shed down fruit from the top, pear trees, 
and apples, and pomegranates producing glorious fruit, and sweet figs, and flourish- 
ing olives : of which, when the old man raised himself up to pluck some with his 
hands, the wind kept casting them away to the dark clouds. 

"And I beheld Sisyphus, having violent griefs, bearing an enormous stone 
with both [his hands] : he indeed leaning with his hands and feet kept thrusting 
the stone up to the top : but when it was about to pass over the summit, then 
strong force began to drive it back again, then the impudent stone rolled to the 
plain ; but he, striving, kept thrusting it back, and the sweat flowed down from his 
limbs, and a dirt arose from his head. 

"After him I perceived the might of Hercules, an image; for he himself 
amongst the immortal gods is delighted with banquets, and has the fair-footed 
Hebe [daughter of mighty Zeus and golden-sandaled Juno]. And around him 
there was a clang of the dead, as of birds, frighted on all sides ; but he, like unto 
dark night, having a naked bow, and an arrow at the string, looking about terribly, 
was always like unto one about to let fly a shaft. And there was a fearful belt 
around his breast, the thong was golden : on which wondrous forms were wrought 
bears, and wild boars, and terrible lions, and contests, and battles, and slaughters, 
and slayings of men ; he who devised that thong with his art, never having wrought 
such a one before, could he work any other such. But he immediately knew me 
when he saw me with his eyes, and pitying me, addressed winged words : 

" 'O Zeus-born son of Laertes, much-contriving Odysseus, ah! wretched one 
thou too art certainly pursuing some evil fate, which I also endured under the 
beams of the sun. I was indeed the son of Zeus, the son of Saturn, but I had in 
finite labor ; for I was subjected to a much inferior man, who enjoined upon me 
difficult contests : and once he sent me hither to bring the dog, for he did not think 
that there was any contest more difficult than this. I indeed brought it up and led 
it from Pluto's, but Hermes and blue-eyed Athene escorted me.' 

"Thus having spoken, he went again within the house of Hades. But I re- 
mained there firmly, if by chance any one of the heroes, who perished in former 
times, would still come ; and I should now still have seen former men, whom I 
wished, Theseus, and Pirithous, glorious children of the gods; but first myriads 



726 



THE OPEN COURT, 



of nations of the dead were assembled around me with a divine clamor; and pale 
fear seized me, lest to me illustrious Persephone should send a Gorgon head of a 
terrific monster from Orcus. Going then immediately to my ship, I ordered my 
companions to go on board themselves, and to loose the halsers. But they quickly 
embarked, and sat down on the benches. And the wave of the stream carried it 
through the ocean river, first the rowing and afterwards a fair wind."' 

The Greeks clung to life and thus the shade of Achilles says to 
Odysseus (in the eleventh book of the Odyssey'): "I would prefer 
to be the serf of the poorest and most destitute man on earth than 
to rule in the Under World over the departed dead." But even in 
the days when the Homeric songs were collected and reduced to 




The Garden of the Hesperides.''^ 
Vase-picture. (Gerhard, Ges. AbJi., pi. II.) 

the shape in which they are now, a more optimistic view of death 
began to take hold of the minds of the people. 

The belief in the happy condition of the good and the deserving 
was introduced at an early date from Egypt. The Egyptian " Sech- 
nit Aahlu," the abode of bliss, was changed into "Elysium" or 
the Islands of the Blessed, which were supposed to be situated 

1 Trans, by Buckley, Bohn's Library. 

2 Atlas carries the stellar dome ; Phosphoros, the morning star, and Helios (perhaps Selene) 
sweep across the heavens. The Hesperides in various postures (here seven in number) surround 
the tree with the golden apples, which are watched by the dragon. Herakles descends with club 
in hand. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 727 

in the West, in the regions of the Old World where the sun sets. 
Minos, Rhadamanthys^ and ^Eakos are the judges who admit the 
worthy and condemn sinners to be confined in Tartaros.^ 

In the West, too, is situated the garden of the Hesperides, 
i. e., the Maids of Evening, who guard the tree of life with its im- 
mortality-giving apples. 

It is noteworthy that only the shade of Heracles is in Hades ; 
he himself lives in Olympus. Some elect men do not go down to 
Hades, but are transferred to the Elysian fields where they abide 
in a transfigured state without ever tasting death. Proteus proph- 
esies this enviable fate to Menelaos, the husband of Helen : 

"But for thee, O noble Menelaos, it is not decreed by the gods to die, and 
meet with thy fate in horse-pasturing Argos ; but the immortals will send you to the 
Elysian plain, and the boundaries of the earth, where is auburn-haired Rhadaman- 
thys ; there of a truth is the most easy life for men. There is nor snow, nor long 
winter, nor ever a shower, but ever thus the ocean sends forth the gently blowing 
breezes of the west wind, to refresh men ; [such will be thy fate] because thou pos- 
sessest Helen, and art the son-in-law of Zeus! " — Odyssey IV, 561 ff. 

All these n^yths have lost their significance for us, but to the 
Greek mind they were aglow with life and inspiration, and replete 
with noble thoughts. 

The idea of the death of the soul and the notions of its fate in 
the Land of the Shades exercised a powerful influence over the 
moral conceptions of the people. Says Plato : 

"When a man is confronted with the thought that he must die, fear and care 
overcome him concerning things which before he did not mind ; for the myths, so 
called, about Hades, how the wrong-doer will be punished there, so long ridiculed, 
then cause his soul to turn back." 

^'E—si6dv Tig f};rr ij rov olea^ai re'/.Evdyaeiv^ naepx^Tai avro 6(og 
Kal (PpovtIq TTEfH div £fiTrpocrdti' o'vk daijtf ol te yap 7.Ey6jiEVOL fivdoi TTEpl 
Tuv hv a6oi\ coQ Tov ivdai\E (KSiKi'/oavra 6eI ekeI 6i6uvai 6iKr/v, KarayEAuu 

EVOl TEUq, TOTE 6// aTpEfOVCLV aVTOV Tl/V lj>VX''/>'. 

—Plato, /)e rep., I, 33od. 
Greek religion had its serious aspects and was taken seriously 
by the Greeks. The moral teachings of the Greek sages show us 
the depth of their religious sentiments. 

iThe word Rhadamanthys also betrays Egyptian origin. As A-ahlu changed to Elysium, so 
the words Ra of Amenti, i. e., the god ruling in the Nether World, were Hellenised into Rhada- 
manthys. 

2 Homer speaks of Elysium and Rhadamanthys, while Hesiod following the Cretan version of 
the legend makes Kronos the ruler in the Islands of the Blessed. 



CORNELIUS PETRUS TIELE. 

IN COMMEMORATION OF HIS SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY. 

BY MORRIS JASTROW, JR. 

THERE are few institutions of learning which can boast of so 
large an array of famous scholars as the venerable Univer- 
sity of Leiden. It points with pride to Scaliger, Scholten, Boer- 
haave, Cobet, Dozy, Kuenen, and many others who were great men 
as well as great scholars — men who made a permanent impress 
upon the course of scholarship, without whom the world would be 
poorer in thought and less advanced in knowledge. Professor 
Tiele, who celebrates his seventieth birthday on the i6th of De- 
cember, igoo, belongs to this group. His presence in the Leiden 
faculty sheds lustre upon the institution, and he stands to-day a 
living witness to the fact that the University of Leiden continues 
the traditions of the past. Born in a village on the outskirts of 
Leiden in 1830, he came to Amsterdam in 1856 to pursue theolo- 
gical, linguistic, and historical studies. Upon graduating, he 
entered the active ministry and after serving in some smaller 
places, was called to the charge of a congregation in Rotterdam in 
1873. He remained there till 1877, when he was elected to a chair, 
first of Theology, and then of the History and Philosophy of Reli- 
gion at the University of Leiden. Since that time he has remained 
identified with that institution, becoming a most influential mem- 
ber in its council, honored with the rectorship, training a large 
number of pupils, and unfolding a remarkable literary and schol- 
arly activity. 

Such are the few and simple facts of a life which is full of 
notable achievements in the domain of science. The late Max 
Muller, Tiele, and Albert R^ville, — the latter his senior by a few 
years, — constitute a distmguished trio of exponents of a new 



CORNELIUS I'ETRUS TIELE. 



729 



branch of investigation — the historical study of religions. Strange 
as it may seem, it is only within this century that scientific meth- 




Professor Tiele in His Study. 
From his latest, unpublished, photograph. 

ods have been applied to the investigation of religious phenomena. 
The patient gathering of facts and the interpretation ofthese facts 



730 THE OPEN COURT. 

in the light of the actual course taken by a particular religion — the 
two chief axioms of the historical method — marked a new depar- 
ture in scholarly activity which will always be associated with these 
three men. Early in his career, Tiele foreshadowed his peculiar 
adaptability for researches within the domain of religious history. 
In 1864 his first larger publication appeared, dealing with Zoro- 
astrianism.^ This monograph established his reputation as a scien- 
tific worker of the first order. It reveals the thorough learning, 
the sympathetic spirit, the keen insight into the workings of the 
religious instinct, and the philosophical grasp which characterise 
all of Professor Tiele's writings. It also shows the fine literary 
touch and the graces of a polished style, which make the products 
of his pen, even through the medium of a translation, delightful 
reading, quite apart from their intrinsic value. This work was 
followed five years later by the first part of a more ambitious un- 
dertaking on the comparative history of the Egyptian and of the 
Semitic religions. ^ In 1872 this important achievement was com- 
pleted. Its recognition as the standard work on the subject was 
emphasised by the appearance of a French translation in 1882 in- 
troduced to the French public by a preface from the pen of Albert 
Reville, in which the importance of the work is well set forth. Suf- 
fice it to say that to-day, after twenty eight years of incessant re- 
searches and vastly enriched material, Tiele's history still retains 
its position as a profound and suggestive contribution, which in its 
main points represents the established data of scientific investiga- 
tion. 

Previous, however, to the appearance of this French trans- 
lation, Tiele's reputation had passed beyond the borders of his na- 
tive land. In 1876, he published a general manual of the History 
of Religions down to the domination of the universal religions 
which in 1877 appeared in an English garb,^ and in 1880 in a 
French translation,^ and a few years later in a German translation. 
These publications are far from exhausting Tiele's activity during 
this first part of his career. Numerous articles, dealing either with 
the method of the historical study of religion or with some special 
points in one or the other of the many religions which at different 
times engaged his attention, appeared in the scientific or literary 

1 Z>? Goiisdienst von Zarathusira (Haarlem, 1864). 

2 French translation by G. Collins under the title Histoire conipar^e des ancicnnes religions de 
I'Egypie et des feuples Seiiiiiigues (Paris, 18H2J. 

Z Outlines of the History 0/ Religion [Eng. translation, London, 1877]. 
4A second edition was published in 1885. 



CORNELIUS PKTRUS TIELE. 731 

periodicals of Holland — notably the Theologischc Tijdschrift and de 
Gids — France and Germany. He found time in the midst of his 
special studies to make a thorough study of the cuneiform sources 
for Babylonian and Assyrian history, and produced in 1885 ^ by far 
the best work on the subject and which to-day would merely re- 
quire some supplemental chapters, embodying the additions to our 
knowledge of the early history of Babylonia and some modifica- 
tions in the presentation of the later periods, to be as useful as it 
was fifteen years ago. It is to be hoped that the distinguished 
Professor will find the leisure to do this, for among younger schol- 
ars there is none who has shown himself to possess the faculty of 
writing history in the degree which Tiele manifests. Several vol- 
umes of sermons and addresses were also published by him between 
1870 and 1885, as well as a volume of poetry which passed into a 
second edition. When a new edition of the Encyclopcedia Britannica 
was called for, it was to the Leiden professor as the recognised 
most eminent authority on the subject that the English editors 
turned for the important article on "Religion" — forming quite a 
monograph by itself. 

It is characteristic of the unabated activity of the man that at 
a time when most scholars begin to look forward to some years of 
rest from arduous labors, Tiele undertook two tasks of vast dimen- 
sions, — the one the preparation of an extensive work on the His- 
tory of Religion in Ancient Times Down to the Days of Alexander the 
Great, the second the acceptance of the invitation of the Trustees 
of the Gifford Lecture Fund to come to Edmburgh and deliver 
two courses of lectures on the Elements of the Science of Religioti. 
The first volume of the large history of religion appeared in 1893,2 
the second a few years later. His first course of Gifford Lectures 
was delivered in 1896, the second in 1897. On both occasions he 
was greeted by large and enthusiastic audiences, and it is generally 
admitted that the two volumes embodying these lectures^ consti- 
tute one of the very best of the Giffford publications. In these two 
publications Professor Tiele sums up in a measure the results of 
his life's work, the history affording him an opportunity to supple- 
ment his earlier publications by embodying the results of recent 
researches, while in the Gifford lectures he enunciates and elab- 

'^ Babylonisch-Assyrischc Geschichte (Gotha, 18S5). 

2 A German translation by G. Gehrich under the title Geschichte der Religion im Alter thum 
bis auf Alexander den Grossen (Gotha, 1895). 

^Elements of the Science of Religion. Vol. I., Morphological. Vol. II., Ontological. (Edin- 
burgh, 1897-1899.) 



732 THE OPEN COURT. 

orates the general principles which are to serve as a guide in the 
study of religion, and likewise expresses his own mature views on 
some of the fundamental problems involved in the study.' These 
Gifford lectures thus have a permanent value, and whatever the 
results of further special researches may be, Tiele's latest publica- 
tion will retain its place as an introductory manual, indispensable 
to any student of the history of religion. 

When he began his career, the field of investigation which he 
chose had not yet found recognition in the University curriculum. 
As a result of his labors and those of the small band of co-workers, 
there are at least three countries in which provision has been made 
for the study, — at the four universities of Holland, in Paris, and in 
a number of American universities, — notably Chicago and Cornell, 
— while in England the establishing of the Hibbert and Gifford 
Lectures is an outcome of the enlarged interest in the historical 
study of religions, through the quiet but effective labors of such 
men as Cornelius Petrus Tiele. No wonder then that scholars in 
all parts of the world are uniting to do him homage on his ap- 
proaching seventieth birthday. His splendid career forms an in- 
spiration to younger men, and no less attractive than Tiele the 
scholar, is Tiele the man. A charming personality, made addition- 
ally attractive by innate modesty and extreme kindness of disposi- 
tion, he is the natural center of any circle which he enters. Be- 
loved by "town and gown," his beautiful house in Leiden, presided 
over by Madame Tiele — herself a rare hostess — is a gathering place 
for the best that the city holds. At the International Oriental Con- 
gresses, he is singled out by the choice of his colleagues for special 
honors. His students become his loving disciples who regard their 
master as their firmest friend. Occupying, besides his chair at the 
University, the superintendence of the preparation for the ministry 
of the young men belonging to the "Remonstrant" section of the 
Protestant Church — which corresponds in a measure to the ad- 
vanced Unitarian Church of England and America, — he has ex- 
erted a profound influence on the religious thought in his own 
country. Deeply interested in all that concerns Holland, his voice 
has often been uplifted to promote national ideals. His services 
to science and to education have been recognised by his sovereign, 
who on the occasion of her throne-ascension in i8gg capped the 
precious decorations bestowed upon him by granting him the rank 
of "Chevalier" of the Orange-Nassau order, — the highest honor in 
her gift for a scholar. 

1 See a review by the writer in The Neui Worhi (1899, PP- .VS-S^z)- 



CORNELIUS PETRUS TIKLK. 733 

A man of broad scholarship will generally be found to be a 
man of broad interests. Professor Tiele therefore counts among 
his friends, artists, litterateurs, statesmen, as well as the scholars in 
all professions, and not only in his own country, but in France, 
Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. He has received honorary de- 
grees from the Universities of Bologna, Dublin, and Edinburgh, 
and learned societies in all parts of the world have conferred hon- 
orary membership upon him. Full of honors, he stands at the 
threshold of three score and ten with unabated vigor of mind and 
body. He may be seen any fine morning riding through the streets 
of Leiden on horseback, and presenting the appearance of a man 
in the fifties. A year ago he contemplated accepting an invitation 
from the American Committee for Lectures on the History of Re- 
ligions to deliver courses of lectures in the prominent cities of the 
Ignited States, and he declined merely on the score that he could 
not afford to take leave of absence for three months from his teach- 
ing duties. Young at seventy, he is full of plans for the future 
which in the interest of science it is earnestly hoped that he will be 
enabled to carry out. 



FRIEDRICH MAX MULLER. 



BY T. J. MCCORMACK. 

WITH the death of Friedrich Max Miiller, on October 28th of 
this year, one of the most notable personages of the aca- 
demic world passed from the stage of history. We say "stage" 
advisedly, for Max Miiller's career was in more senses than one 
histrionic, in the best sense of that word, and there was hardly a 
moment of his life that he did not stand prominently and conspic- 
uously before the public notice. To the unlearned world at large, 
he was the personification of philological scholarship, — a scholar- 
ship which he knew how to render accessible to his public in inimit- 
ably simple and charming style. There was no domain of philoso- 
phy, mythology, or religion, that he left untouched or unmodified 
by his comprehensive researches, and the Science of Language, 
which is the greatest scholastic glory of the German nation, would 
appear, judging from his books alone, to have received in him its 
final incarnation and Messianic fulfilment. There was no national 
or international dispute of modern times, ever so remotely con- 
nected with philological questions, but his ready pen was seen 
swinging in the thick of the combat, and his Sanskrit roots made 
to bear the burden of a people's destiny. He was the recipient of 
more academic honors, orders, titles, royal and imperial favors, 
perhaps, than any other scholar since Humboldt, and he bore the 
greatness that was thrust upon him with the grace and dignit}' of 
a born aristocrat. Many were the pummellings he received from 
the hands of his less favored but more plodding colleagues ; yet 
their buffets of ink but served to throw his Titanic figure into 
greater relief, and to afford him an opportunity by his delicate, 
insidious irony to endear himself still more to his beloved public. 
Apart from his great and sound contributions to the cause of learn- 



1-RIEURICH MAX MUELLER. 735 

ing and thought, which none will deny, Max Miiller's indisputably 
greatest service was to have made knowledge agreeable, — nay, 
even fashionable, — and his proudest boast was that when deliver- 
ing his lectures on the Science of Language at the Royal Institu- 
tion, Albemarle street was thronged with the crested carriages of 
the great, and that not only "the keen dark eyes of Faraday," 
"the massive face of the Bishop of St. David's," but even the 
countenances of royalty, shone out upon him from his audiences. 

Friedrich Maximilian Miiller was born in Dessau, Germany, 
on December 6, 1823. He was the son of the well-known German 
poet Wilhelm Miiller, the great-grandson of Basedow, the reformer 
of national education in all Germany, and the grandson of a 
Prime Minister to the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau. His environment 
was thus, from the start, one of the highest culture, and he re- 
ceived through its advantages a thorough education, especially in 
music, in which he was very proficient. At Leipsic, where he at- 
tended the famous Nicolai School, and afterwards the University, 
he lived in the musical house of Professor Carus, father of Prof. 
V. Carus, the translator of Darwin, where he gained the friendship 
of Mendelssohn, Liszt, David, Kalliwoda, Hiller, and Clara Schu- 
mann. Here, and afterwards at Berlin, Paris, and London, he made 
the acquaintance of the great notabilities of the day, among whom 
were numbered Riickert, Humboldt, Burnouf, Froude, Ruskin, 
Carlyle, Faraday, Grote, Darwin, Emerson, Lowell, and Holmes. 

It was the Orientalist Burnouf that encouraged him to pub- 
lish the first edition of the Rig-Veda, — a labor which brought him 
to England in 1846 and which he completed twenty five years 
afterwards, having laid in the meantime the foundation of his 
career and become a fellow of Oxford, an incumbent of two pro- 
fessorships, and curator of the Oriental Works of the Bodleian 
Library. His edition of the Rig Veda, his History of Ancient San- 
skrit Literature, and his Six Systems of Indian Philosophy are the 
works on which his technical reputation stands. Of that enormous 
and meritorious undertaking, the translation of the Sacred Books of 
the East (49 vols.), he was the editor, but personally translated only 
the Upanishads, the Vedic Hyrnns, the Dhammapada and some of the 
Mahayana texts. His numerous other writings, on the Science 0/ 
Language (2 volumes, 1861-1864), the Science of Thought (2 vol- 
umes, 1887), the Science of Religion (6 volumes, Hibbert and Gifford 
Lectures, 1870-1892), important as they are, were rather popular 
and expository in their nature and devoted to the presentation of 
his own personal philosophy, which to the very end of his life he 



736 THE OPEN COURT. 

propagated and defended with uncommon ardor and success. In 
all these works we read Max Muller the philosopher and theorist, 
not Max Muller the philologist. In fact, he expressly disclaimed 
being a philologist in the pure technical sense, and boldly hailed 
himself as the protagonist of a new science, — the Science of Lan- 
guage, which was to him but a means to an end, "a telescope to 
watch the heavenly movements of our thoughts, a microscope to 
discover the primary cells of our concepts." And whatever im- 
press he left upon the thought of his time, will have come from 
these works. In addition to this, he was the apostle and guide 
of the great public in the domain of linguistic science, and he ranks 
with Huxley and Tyndall as a shaper of popular scientific thought. 
Two of his little books. Three Introductory Lectures on the Science 
of Thought and Three Lectures on the Science of Language, together 
with the essay Persona, were published in the first numbers of The 
Open Coitrt and afterwards appeared in book form. These books 
sum up in elegant and terse manner his philosophy, and we shall 
devote a few words to them after we have dwelt more at length on 
his interesting personality. 

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES. 

Max Miiller's career as a scholar and philosopher was indis- 
solubly connected with his career as a man, and his thought and 
his controversies in the latter half of his life were all colored by 
his dominant ambitions. In his delightful reminiscences, entitled 
Auld Lang Syne-, published two years before his death (New York, 
Scribner's), Professor Muller has himself told many stories which 
are illustrative of the high estimation in which he was held by the 
world. One circles about the import of a witty letter of Darwin's, 
whom he had combated on the ground that language formed an 
inseparable barrier between brute and man. Romanes regarded 
the letter as an instance of Darwin's "extraordinary humility." 
Professor Muller saw in it more of humor than humility, and mod- 
estly deprecates the notion that he should ever have been thought 
guilty of considering it as a trophy. We think that neither Romanes 
nor Muller has read the letter aright. The following is the text: 

Down, I^eckenham, Kent, 15th Oct., 1875. 
My Dear Sir ; — 

I am greatly obliged to you for so kindly sending me your essay, which I am 
sure will interest me much. With respect to our differences, though some of your 
remarks have been rather stinging, they have all been made so gracefully, I declare 



FRIEDRICH MAX NrUELLER. 737 

that I am like the man in the story who boasted that he had been soundly horse- 
whipped by a Duke. 

Pray believe me, yours very sincerely, 

Charles Darwin. 

In his Recollections of Royalty, he tells of an amusing incident 
that nearly prevented his compliance with an invitation to dine 
with the King of Prussia at Potsdam, together with Humboldt. 

" But a curious intermezzo happened. While I was quietly sitting in my room 
with my mother, a young lieutenant of police entered, and began to ask a number 
of extremely silly questions — why I had come to Berlin, when I meant to return 
to England, what had kept me so long in Berlin, etc. After I had fully explained 
to him that I was collecting Sanskrit MSS. at the Royal Library, he became more 
peremptory, and informed me that the police authorities thought that a fortnight 
must be amply sufficient for that purpose (how I wished that it had been so!), and 
that they requested me to leave Berlin within twenty-four hours. I produced my 
passport, perfectly en regie ; I explained that I wanted but another week to finish 
my work. It was all of no avail, I was told that I must leave in twenty-four hours. 
I then collected my thoughts, and said very quietly to the young lieutenant, 'Please 
to tell the police authorities that I shall, of course, obey orders, and leave Berlin 
at once, but that I must request them to inform His Majesty the King that I shall 
not be able to dine with him to-night at Potsdam.' The poor young man thought 
I was laughing at him, but when he saw that I was in earnest he looked thunder- 
struck, bowed, and went away. ... It was not long, however, before another police 
official appeared, an elderly gentleman of pleasant manners, who explained to me 
how sorry he was that the young lieutenant of police should have made so foolish 
a mistake. He begged me entirely to forget what had happened, as it would seri- 
ously injure the young lieutenant's prospects if I lodged a complaint against him. 
I promised to forget, and, at all events, not to refer to what had happened in the 
Royal presence." 

The young professor returned from Sans Souci in the carriage 
with Humboldt : 

"I could not resist telling him [Humboldt] in strict confidence my little ad- 
venture with the police lieutenant, and he was highly amused. I hope he did not 
tell the King; anyhow, no names were mentioned." 

He was on intimate terms also with the Crown Prince Fred- 
erick. He writes of their meeting at Ems, in 1871 : 

" At Ems the Prince was the popular hero of the day, and wherever he showed 
himself he was enthusiastically greeted by the people. He sent me word that he 
wished to see me. When I arrived, the antechambers were crowded with High- 
nesses, Excellencies, Generals, all covered with stars and ribands. I gave my card 
to an A. D. C. as simple Max Miiller, and was told that I must wait, but I soon 
saw there was not the slightest chance of my having an audience that morning. I 
had no uniform, no order, no title. From time to time an officer called the name 
of Prince So-and-So, Count So-and-So, and people became very impatient. Sud- 
denly the Prince himself opened the door, and called out in a loud voice, 'Maxi- 
milian, Maximilian, kommen Sie herein ! ' There was consternation in the crowd 
as I walked through, but I had a most pleasant half-hour with the Prince." 



73^ THE OPEN COURT. 

In 1888, Max Miiller and the Crown Prince were again at 
Ems, but their meeting on this occasion was frustrated : 

" The Crown Prince had sent me word that he wished to see me once more ; but 
his surroundings evidently thought that I had been favoured quite enough, and our 
meeting again was cleverly prevented. No doubt princes must be protected against 
intruders, but should they be thwarted in their own wishes ?" 

Not to mention his having won sixpence from the Prince of 
Wales at whist, Professor Miiller was the recipient of many other 
distinguished favors from the English Royal family, notably from 
Prince Leopold, who during his stay at Oxford always reserved 
for the great philologist some of his ancient and rare Johannis- 
berger, from the famous crue of Prince Metternich. 

" Once more the Prince was most kind to me under most trying circumstances. 
I was to dine at Windsor, and when I arrived my portmanteau was lost. I tele- 
graphed and telegraphed, and at last the po tmanteau was found at Oxford station, 
but there was no train to arrive at Windsor I efore 8 30. Prince Leopold, who was 
staying at Windsor, and to whom I went in my distress, took the matter in a most 
serious spirit. I thought I might send an excuse to say that I had had an accident 
and could not appear at table; but he said : 'No, that is impossible. If the Queen 
asks you to dinner, you must be there.' He then sent round all the castle to fit me 
out. Everybody seemed to have contributed some article of clothing, — coat, waist- 
coat, tie, shorts, shoes and buckles. I looked a perfect guy, and I declared that I 
could not possibly appear before the Queen m that attire. I was actually penning 
a note when the 8 30 train arrived, and with it my luggage, which I tore open, 
dressed in a few minutes, and appeared at dinner as if nothing had happened. 

"Fortunately the Queen, who had been paying a visit, came in very late. 
Whether she had heard of my misfortunes, I do not know. But I was very much 
impressed when I saw how, with all the devotion that the Prince felt for his mother, 
there was this feeling of respect, nay, almost of awe, that made it seem impossible 
to tell his mother that I was prevented by an accident from obeying her command 
and appearing at dinner." 

PHILOSOPHICAL. 

To Max Miiller the problem of the origin of language was the 
problem of the origin of thought, and in the researches of the Sci- 
ence of Language were contained for him in nuce the solutions of 
the Science of Thought. Language, for him, was petrified reason, 
the geological record of human thought, as well as its living ve- 
hicle. He admires above all its simplicity: ^ 

"If we have, say, eight hundred material or predicative roots and a small 
number of demonstrative elements given us, then, roughly speaking, the riddle of 
language is solved. We know what language is, what it is made of, and we are 
thus enabled to admire, not so much its complexity as its translucent simplicity.' 

But whence these roots? Here is the delicate question. 

1 The following quotations are from Max Miiller's Three Introiluetory Lectures on the Science 
of Thought, piiblifhed by the Open Court Pub. Co. 



FRIEDRICH MAX MUELLER, 739 

"There are three things that have to be explained in roots, such as we find 
them : 

1. Their being intelligible^, not only to the speaker but to all who listen to him ; 

2. Their having a definite body of consonants and vowels ; 

3. Their expressing general concepts." 

In the explanation of these three characteristics, the solution 
of the problem lies. The sounds of nature, even those emitted by 
man as a part of nature, are in themselves unmeaning ; they are 
physical phenomena merely. And this is also true of the emotional 
interjections of rational human beings: they are mere puffs of 
wind, individual in their significance, and standing on the same 
level with the botv-ivo7i' of the dog. 

" It was Professor Noire who first pointed out that roots, in order to be intelli- 
gible to others, must have been from the very first social sounds. — sounds uttered 
by several people together. They must have been what he calls the clamor con- 
comitans, uttered almost involuntarily by a whole gang engaged in a common 
work. Such sounds are uttered even at present by sailors rowing together, by 
peasants digging together, by women spinning or sewing together. They are 
uttered and they are understood. And not only would this clamor concomiians be 
understood by all the members of a community, but on account of its frequent 
repetition it would soon assume a more definite form than belongs to the shouts of 
individuals, which constantly vary, according to circumstances and individual ten- 
dencies." 

But the most difficult problem still remains. How did those 
sounds become signs, not simply of emotions, but of concepts? 
For all roots are expressive of concepts ; our intellectual life is all 
conceptual. How was the first concept formed? 

" That is the question which the Science of Thought has to solve. At present 
we simply take a number of sensuous intuitions, and after descrying something 
which they share in common, we assign a name to it, and thus get a concept. For 
instance, seeing the same color in coal, ink, and in a negro, we form the concept 
of black ; or seeing white in milk, snow, and chalk, we form the concept of white. 
In some cases a concept is a mere shadow of a number of percepts, as when we 
speak of oaks, beeches, and firs, as trees. But suppose we had no such names as 
black, and white, and tree, where would our concept be ? 

"We are speaking, however, of a period in the growth of the human mind 
when there existed as yet neither names nor concepts, and the question which we 
have to answer is, how the roots which we have discovered as the elements of lan- 
guage came to have a conceptual meaning. Now the fact is, the majority of roots 
express acts, and mostly acts which men in a primitive state of society are called 
upon to perform ; I mean acts such as digging, plaiting, weaving, striking, throw- 
ing, binding, etc. All of these are acts of which those who perform them are ipso 
facto conscious ; and as most of these acts were continuous or constantly repeated, 
we see in the consciousness of these repeated acts the first glimmer of conceptual 
thought, the first attempt to comprehend many things as one. Without any effort 
of their own the earliest framers of language found the consciousness of their own 
repeated acts raised into conceptual consciousness, while the sounds by which 



740 THE OPEN COURT. 

these acts were accompanied became spontaneously what we now call conceptual 
roots in every language." 

These results quite agree with the psychological conclusions 
of Professor Mach (see The Open Court for June of this year, p. 
348, "The Concept"), who regards concepts as bundles of direc- 
tions for performing definite activities, and conceptual names and 
sounds as the keys that unlock the impulses to these activities : the 
whole resting on the conscious repetition of actions. 

Professor Noir^ emphasises another feature of the process. 
He thinks that "true conceptual consciousness begins only from 
the time when men became conscious of results, of facts, and not 
only of acts. The mere consciousness of the acts of digging, strik- 
ing, binding, does not satisfy him. Only when men perceive the 
results of their acts — for instance, in the hole dug, in the tree 
struck down, in the reeds tied together as a mat — did they, accord- 
ing to him, arrive at conceptual thought in language." 

Such, then, is the origin of the one hundred and twenty con- 
cepts to which the eight hundred roots of the Indo-European lan- 
guages are reducible. "These one hundred and twenty concepts 
are the rivers that feed the whole ocean of thought and speech. 
There is no thought that passes through our mind, or that has 
passed through the minds of the greatest poets and prophets of 
old, that cannot directly or indirectly be derived from one of these 
fundamental concepts." 

And these thoughts, "the whole of our intellect, all the tricks 
of the wizard in our brain, consist in nothing but addition and sub- 
traction," in nothing but combination and separation. But what 
is it that is combined and separated? 

We shall forego the metaphysical discussion of the possibility 
of sensation and experience which Max Miiller interpolates at this 
stage of the development of his theory, and shall jump immediately 
to the point at issue, — his enunciation of his celebrated doctrine of 
the identity of language and thought. He says : 

"How aethereal vibrations produce in us consciousness of something, how 
neurosis becomes ssthesis, we do not know and never shall know. But having the 
sensations of light or darkness within us, what do we know of any cause of dark- 
ness or any cause of light ? Nothing. We simply suffer darkness, or enjoy light, 
but what makes us suffer and what makes us rejoice, we do not know, — till zee can 
express it. 

"And how do we express it ? We may try what we like, we can express it in 
language only. We may feel dark, but till we have a name for dark and are able 
to distinguish darkness as what is not light, or light as what is not darkness, we 
are not in a state of knowledge, we are only in a state of passive stupor. 



FRIEDRICH MAX MUELLER. 74I 

"We often imagine that we can possess and retain, even without language, 
certain pictures or phantasmata ; that, for instance, when lightning has passed be- 
fore our eyes, the impression remains for some time actually visible, then vanishes 
more and more, when we shut our eyes, but can be called back by the memory, 
whenever we please. Yes, we can call it back, but not till we can call, that is, till 
we can name it. In all our mental acts, even in that of mere memory, we must be 
able to give an account to ourselves of what we do, and how can we do that except 
in language? Even in a dream we do not know what we see, except we name it, 
that is, make it knowable to ourselves. Everything else passes by and vanishes 
unheeded. We either are simply suffering, and in that case we require no language, 
or we act and react, and in that case we can react on what is given us, by language 
only. This is really a matter of fact and not of argument. Let any one try the 
experiment, and he will see that we can as little think without words as we can 
breathe without lungs." 

By words, however, Max Miiller means signs. "All I maintain 
is, that thought cannot exist without signs, and that our most im- 
portant signs are words." 

" How is it, I have been asked, that people go through the most complicated 
combinations while playing chess and all this without uttering a single word ? Does 
not that show that thought is possible without words, and, as it were, by mere in- 
tuition ? It may seem so, if we imagine that speech must always be audible, but 
we have only to watch ourselves while writing a letter, that is, while speaking to a 
friend, in order to see that a loud voice is not essential to speech. Besides, by long 
usage speech has become so abbreviated that, as with mathemathetical formulas, 
one sign or letter may comprehend long trains of reasoning. And how can we im- 
agine that we could play chess without language, however silent, however abbrevi- 
ated, however algebraic ? What are king, queen, bishops, knights, castles, and 
pawns, if not names ? What are the squares on the chessboard to us, unless they 
had been conceived and named as being square and neither round nor oblong ? 

" I do not say, however, that king and queen and bishops are mere f/a»ies. 

" There is no such a thing as a mere name. A name is nothing if it is not a 
nomen, that is, what is known, or that by which we know. Nometi was originally 
gnome^i, from giiosco to know, and was almost the same word as notio, a notion. 
A mere name is therefore self-contradictory. It means a name which is not a 
name; but something quite different, namely, a sound, a /lain s I'ocis. We do not 
call an empty egg-shell a mere egg, nor a corpse a mere man ; then why should 
we call a name without its true meaning, a mere name ? 

"But if there is no such thing as a mere name, neither is there such a thing 
as a mere thought or a mere concept. The two are one and inseparable. We may 
distinguish them as we distinguish the obverse from the reverse of a coin ; but to 
try to separate them would be like trying to separate the convex from the concave 
surface of a lens. We think in names and in names only." 

We are now in a position to grasp his view in its full import. 
The entire fabric of the mind is identical with the fabric of human 
speech, and the whole history of philosophy reveals itself but as 
the natural growth of language. 

"Reason ... is language, not simply as we now hear it and use it, but as 
has been slowly elaborated by man through all the ages of his existence on earth- 



742 THE OPEN COURT. 

Reason is the growth of centuries, it is the work of man, and at the same time an 
instrument brought to higher and higher perfection by the leading thinkers and 
speakers of the world. No reaso7i zuithoiit lajignage, no language zvitJioul 
reason. Try to reckon without numbers, whether spoken, written, or otherwise 
marked, and if you succeed in that, I shall admit that it is possible to reason or 
reckon without words, and that there is in us such a thing, or such a power or fac- 
ulty, as reason, apart from words." 

Such, in epitome, is Max Miiller's famous doctrine of the Iden- 
tity of Language and Thought, — a docrine in which he is supported 
by a long line of illustrious predecessors.^ It is not our purpose 
in this place to offer any criticism of its general tenability. This 
has been done, in part, by the editor of this magazine in two essays 
in The Motiist, to which readers desirous of more details are re- 
ferred. ^ It merely remains for us to remark that Max Miiller's 
theory, which it is sometimes difficult to grasp precisely in its 
critical points, is now held, even by those who admit the intrinsic 
truth of his assertions, only with great modification. His definition 
of thought is upon the whole arbitrary and made pro domo. The 
barrier between man and animal is not so impassable as he liked 
to imagine, and the tendency of recent thought in comparative 
psychology has swerved from his position. But the beauty of style, 
the wealth and breadth of learning, the controversial skill with which 
he advocated his doctrine are undeniable, and the controversies to 
which his zealous championing of his cause led have advanced the 
cause of truth immeasurably. And this, he avers in an impersonal 
moment, is his whole concern : 

" You say I shall never live to see it admitted that man cannot reason without 
words. This does not discourage me. Through the whole of my life I have cared 
for truth, not for success. And truth is not our own. We may seek truth, serve 
truth, love truth ; but truth takes care of herself, and she inspires her true lovers 
with the same feeling of perfect trust. Those who cannot believe in themselves, 
unless they are believed in by others, have never known what truth is. Those who 
have found truth, know best how little it is their work, and how small the merit 
which they can claim for themselves. They were blind before, and now they can 
see That is all." 

And again :^ 

"Scholars come and go and are forgotten, but the road which they have 
opened remains, other scholars follow in their footsteps, and though some of them 
retrace their steps, on the whole there is progress. This conviction is our best re- 
svard, and gives us that real joy in our work which merely personal motives can 
never supply." 

1 See the article " My Predecessors " in his Three Lectures on the Science of Language. Chi- 
cago : The Open Court Publishing Co. 

2 " The Continuity of Evohition," The Monist, Vol, II., p. 70 ; " Prof. F. Max Miiller's Theory 
of the Self," The Monist. Vol. VIII., p. 123. 

'■'Contributions to the Science of Mythology, Vol. I., p. viii. 



IKIEIJKICH MAX MUELLER. 743 

The cause of true religion also is under great obligation to the 
labors of Prof. Max Miiller. The very spirit of his motives in pub- 
lishing translations of ihe gxedit Sacred Books of i he East can have 
been productive only of good. 

"I had a secret hope that by such a publication of the Sacred Books of all 
religions that were in possession of books of canonical authority, some very old 
prejudices might be removed, and the truth of St. Augustine's words might be con- 
firmed, that there is no religion without some truth in it, nay, that the ancients, 
too, were in possession of some Christian truths. . . . We may well hope that a 
study of the Sacred Books of the East may produce a kindlier feeling on the part 
of many people, and more particularly of missionaries, towards those who are 
called heathen, or even children of Satan, though they have long, though ignor- 
antly, worshipped the God who is to be declared unto them ; and that a study of 
other religions, if based on really trustworthy documents, shall enable many people 
to understand and appreciate their own religion more truly and more fairly. Just 
as a comparative study of languages has thrown an entirely new light on the nature 
and historical growth of our own language, a comparative study of religions also, I 
hoped, would enable us to gain a truer insight into the peculiar character of Chris- 
tianity, by seeing both what it shares in common with other religions, and what 
distinguishes it from all its peers." 

And he lived to see his hopes realised by the marvellous trans- 
formations of the religious attitude wrought by the Parliament of 
Religions of our World's Fair. 

As to his personal belief, which is not easy to grasp in its pre- 
cise details in his works, ^ we may say generally that Professor Max 
Miiller was a Vedantist. He was a believer in the Brahman doc- 
trine of the atman, or soul-in-itself, the monad soul; he believed 
in a "thinker of thoughts," a "doer of deeds," a Self within the 
person, which was the carrier of his personality, and a Self with- 
out, which was the carrier of the world, "God, the highest Self"; 
and these two Selves are ultimately the same Self : Tat tvatn asi, 
That art thou, as the Brahman said. 

These views of his have received full discussion in the article 
of Dr. Carus before referred to.^ How deeply they entered his be- 
ing and with what little modification they might have been trans- 
formed into the opposing theory of modern psychology, is appar- 
ent from the following beautiful passage quoted from Persona (see 
Vol. I. of The Open Court, pp. 505 and 543 ) : 

"We are told that what distinguishes us from all other living beings is that 
we are personal beings. We are persons, responsible persons, and our very being, 
our life and immortality, are represented as depending on our personality. But if 

1 Compare, for example, the remark of the Pferdebiirla, in the delightful essay of that name 
in the D-utsche Rundschau for 1897: " Max, du bist vielleicht auch noch ein Gottesfabler. . . . 
Max. ein ganz Freier bist du immer noch nicht." 

2 The Monist, Vol. VIIL. p. 123. 



744 THE OPEN COURT. 

we ask what this personality means, and why we are called persoiice, the answers 
are very ambiguous. Does our personality consist in our being English or German, 
in our being young or old, male or female, wise or foolish ? And if not, what re- 
mains when all these distinctions vanish ? Is there a higher Ego of which our hu- 
man ego is but the shadow ? From most philosophers we get but uncertain and 
evasive answers to these questions, and perhaps even here, in the darkest passages 
of psychological and metaphysical inquiry, a true knowledge of language may 
prove our best guide. 

' ' Let us remember that fci-soiia had two meanings, that it meant originally a 
mask, but that it soon came to be used as the name of the wearer of the mask. 
Knowing how many ambiguities of thought arose from this, we have a right to ask: 
Does our personality consist in the persona we are wearing, in our body, our 
senses, our language and our reason, our thoughts, or does our true personality lie 
somewhere else? It may be that at times we so forget ourselves, our true Self, as 
to imagine that we are Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, or Prince Hamlet. Nor can 
we doubt that we are responsible each for his own dratnatis persona, that we are 
hissed or applauded, punished or rewarded, according as we act the part allotted 
to us in this earthly drama, badly or well. But the time comes when we awake, 
when we feel that not only our flesh and our blood, but all that we have been able 
to feel, to think and to say, was outside our true self; that we were witnesses, not 
actors; and that before we can go home, we must take off our masks, standing like 
strangers on a strange stage, and wondering how for so long a time we did not per- 
ceive even within ourselves the simple distinction between pcrso>/a and pcrso?ia 
between the mask and the wearer. 

"There is a Sanskrit verse which an Indian friend of mine, a famous Minister 
of State, sent me when retiring from the world to spend his last years in contem- 
plation of the highest problems: 

' I am not this body, not the senses, nor this perishable, fickle mind, not 
even the understanding ; I am not indeed this breath ; how should I be this 
entirely dull matter? I do not desire, no, not a wife, far less houses, sons, 
friends, land, and wealth. I am the witness only, the perceiving inner self, 
the support of the whole world, and blessed.' " 

* * 

And now the great philologist himself has passed away; his 
Self also has been merged in the All-Self, creature in creator. The 
fulness and purport of his life are such as have been granted to 
few; his mission has been fulfilled to the utmost; and it was with 
this consciousness that he departed. As Tacitus said of Agricola, 
"Let us dwell upon and make our own the history and the pic- 
ture, not of his person, but of his mind. . . . For all of him that 
we follow with wonder and love remains and will remain forever 
in the minds of men, through the endless flow of ages, as a portion 
of the past." 



REV. W. W. SEYMOUR ON THE PRE- 
HISTORIC CROSS. 



BY THE EDITOR. 



THE late Rev. William Wood Seymour has devoted a stately 
volume^ to an exposition of the significance of the cross in 
tradition, history, and art, reviewed by us some time ago in The 
Open Court, ^ and we believe it will be of interest to reproduce here 
some of its passages on the pre-Christian cross, with the accom- 
panying illustrations. 

"At Castione, near the station of Borgo San Donino, between 




Earthen \'essels Found at Castione. 
(From De Mortillet's Le Signe de hi Cro/'x.) 

Parma and Piacenza, there is a mound upon which is a convent. 
Originally that mound was the bed of a lake which was filled with 
relics of this ancient people; among them are earthen vessels, and 
upon the bottoms of some were rudely engraved crosses, as repre- 
sented in the accompanying engravings. 

"At Villanova, near Bologna, one of their burial-places has 
been discovered. More than one hundred and thirty tombs have 
been examined. They are carefully and symmetrically constructed 
of boulders, over which the earth has accumulated. Within each 

1 ne Cross in Tradition, History, and Art. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
2Vol XIII., No. I. 



746 



THE OPEN COURT. 



sepulchre was a cinerary urn containing calcined human remains, 
and sometimes half-melted ornaments. The urns were shaped like 
two inverted cones joined together, the mouth being closed with a 
little saucer. Near the remains of the dead were found solid double 
cones with rounded ends on which crosses were elaborately en- 




Cylinder. Heads of Cylinders. 

Cylinders found at Villanova. (From De Mortillet's Le Signe dc la Croix.) 

graved. In the vases of double cones around their partition was a 
line of circles containing crosses. 

"There is another cemetery at Golasecca near the extremity 
of Lago Maggiore. A number of tombs have been opened; they 
belong to the same age as those of Villanova, that of the lacustrine 
habitations. 




Accessory Vase Found at Golasecca. 
(From De Mortillet's Lc Signe de la Croix.) 

" 'That which characterises the sepulchres of Golasecca, and 
gives them their highest interest,' says M. de Mortillet, who inves- 
tigated them, 'is this, — first, the entire absence of all organic rep- 
resentation; we found only three, and they were exceptional, in 
tombs not belonging to the plateau; — secondly, the almost invari- 



RKV. \V. W. SKVMOUR ON THE PRE-HISTORIC CROSS. 



747 



able presence of the cross under the vases in the tombs. When 
one reversed the ossuaries, the saucer lids, or the accessor}' vases, 
one saw almost always, if in good preservation, a cross traced 
thereon. . . . The examination of the tombs of Golasecca proves in 
a most convincing, positive, and precise manner, that which the 
terramares of Emilia had only indicated, but which had been con- 
firmed by the cemeter}' of Villanova, — that above a thousand years 








-3^ 





OSSUARY Found at Golasecca. 
(From De Mortillet's Lc Signc dc la Croix.) 

before Christ, the cross was already a religious emblem of frequent 
employment.' "^ 

"The most ancient coins of the Gauls were circular, with a 
cross in the middle. That these were not representations of wheels, 
as has been supposed, is evident from there being but four spokes, 




Ancient Gaulish Coins. 
(From Gould's Citrt'ous Myths.) 

placed at right angles ; and this symbol continued when coins of 
the Greek type took their place. The coins of the Volcae Tecto- 
sages, who inhabited the region now known as Languedoc, were 
stamped with crosses, the angles of which were filled with pellets. 
The Leuci, who lived in the country of modern Toul, used similar 
devices. A coin figured in the Rivtie des Numisfnatiques, 1835, bears 

1 De Mortillet, Le iigne de la Croix avant le Christianisnie, Paris, 1866. Chap. III., pp. 98-127. 
Gould, Afyths, Vol. II., pp. 103-105. 



748 



THE OPEN COURT. 



a circle containing a cross, whose angles are occupied by chevrons. 
Some of the crosses are surrounded by a ring of bezants, or pearls. 
Near Paris, at Choisy-le-Roy, was found a Gaulish coin, the ob- 
verse bearing a head, the reverse a serpent coiled around the cir- 
cumference, enclosing two birds; between them is a cross with 
pellets at the end of each limb, and pellets occupying the angles. 
Similar coins have been discovered in Loiret and elsewhere. About 
two hundred coins were discovered, in 1835, at Cremiat-sur-Yen, 
near Quimper, in an earthen urn with ashes, in a tomb, showing 
that the cross was used in Armorica, in the age of cremation. 

"In 1850, S. Baring Gould exhumed at Pont d'Oli, near Pau, 
the ruins of an extensive palace, paved with mosaic. The prin- 
cipal ornamentations were crosses of dif- 
ferent varieties. The pavement of the 
principal room was bordered by an ex- 
quisite running pattern of vines with 
grapes springing from drinking vessels in 
the centre of the sides. Within were cir- 
cles composed of conventional roses, in 
the middle a vast cross, measuring nine- 
teen feet eight inches by thirteen feet. 
The ground work of white was filled with 
shell and other fish, and in the centre 
was a bust of Neptune with his trident. 
The laborers exclaimed, 'C'est le bon Dieu, 
c'est Jhus.^ It may have been of post- 
Christian times, but, from the examples 
already given, Mr. Gould believes the 
cross to have been a sign well known to 
the ancient Gauls, and that this was their 
work."^ 
"According to enthusiastic Irish antiquarians, their cave, or 
rather subterranean mound, temples are more ancient than any 
other ecclesiastical remains in Great Britain. One of the best 
known is that of New Grange, near Drogheda, in the county of 
Meath. It is formed of vast stones covered with earth. The ground 
plan is cruciform, about eighty feet in length by twenty-one in the 
transverse. The height of the gallery, at the entrance about two 
feet, gradually increases until it becomes nine. The temple ap- 




Cross, with Bust of Nep 

TUNE. Found Near Paris. 

(From Gould's Curious 

Myths. ) 



1 Gould, Myths, Vol. II., pp. 76-86. An able writer in the Edinburgh Review thinks that Gould 
has been misled by the tresul, or trident, and that the figure is that of Proteus, not Neptune. 
Vol. CXXXI.,p. 335. 



REV. W. W. SEYMOUR ON THE PRE-HISTORIC CROSS. 



749 



pears to have been dedicated to Thor, Odin, and Friga.^ Valiancy 
considered the inscriptions, in Ogham and symbolic characters, 
the most ancient in Ireland. He translated that on the right of the 
long arm of the cross, 'The Supreme Being,' or 'Active Principle.' 
On the same side, thrice repeated, are characters of a somewhat 
like import, signifying 'The Great Eternal Spirit.' On the 'cover- 
ing stone' of the east transept is, 'To the great Mother Ops,' or 
'Nature.' In front of the head of the cross is 'Chance, Fate, or 
Providence.' On the north stone of the west transept is, 'The 




ntmi 



r^ 







Sepulchral Monument at New Grange, near Drogheda. 
(From Higgins's Celtic Druids.) 

sepulchre of the Hero,' on a stone on the left of the gallery are 
'men, oxen, and swine, probably signifying the several species of 
victims sacrificed at this, temple in honor of universal Nature, 
Providence, and the names of the hero interred within.' Valiancy 
supposes that this tumulus was erected towards the close of the 
second century.^ If not pre-Christian, it is at least the work of 
men who knew nothing of Christianity. "^ 

1 Wright, Louthiana, p. 15. 

2 Valiancy, "Col. Rel. Hib.," Vol. II., p. 221, quoted in Higgins, Celtic Druids, p. xliii. 

3For full description see Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments. 



750 



THE OPEN COURT. 



It is very strange that our author, the Rev. W. W. Seymour, 
believes that the discovery of Christ's cross on Calvary is histor- 
ical. He reproduces four pictures from Veldener's Legendary His- 




S. Helena in Jerusalem 
(From Veldener's llic Le^n^ndary Histo)-y of the Cross.) 



%^^^^\ 




[^ 


Mj/ 




v^rff 


J^ 


11^ V^^^C 




^^)sr^*.i 




K^ 


WT^ 


^^J' 


i^^ 


1^ ^ 


\> 


CJ 



Discovery of the Crosses. 
(From Veldener's 'J'lic Lc\ifC)idary History of llic Cross.) 



tory of the Cross which in themselves are interesting, and maintains 
that the story itself as told in the legend is probable. There is no 



REV. \V. W. SEVMOLiR ON THE PRE- HISTORIC CROSS. 



751 



need of refuting the legend or its various miracles ; be it sufficient 
to say that contemporary authors of the Empress Helena know ab- 
solutely nothing of the discovery, and that the cross supposed to 




Test of the True Cross. 
(From Veldener's The Legendary ///s/ory ot' llie Cross.) 




S. Helena Deposits a Portion of the Cross in Jerusalem. 
(From Veldener's The Legendary History of I lie Cross.) 



have been discovered in the place and attested by miracles was 
source of rich income to Cyril, a bishop of Jerusalem. 



THE CHINESE ALTAR OF BURNT OFFERING/ 

Communicated. 

ON the southeast of the Altar of Heaven in Peking, at the dis- 
tance of an arrow's flight, stands the Altar for Burnt Sacrifices. 
It is in the form of a large furnace faced with green porcelain, and 
it is nine feet high. It is ascended on three sides — east, south and 
west — by a green porcelain stair-case. Ever since the Chinese re- 
ceived the knowledge of the art of glazing in the fifth century they 
have been able greatly to improve the appearance of buildings by 
the use of colored tiles and colored bricks. 

The bullock is placed inside the furnace altar upon a substan- 
tial iron grating, underneath which the fire is kindled. Through a 
door for the ashes on the north side, if I remember rightly, the 
grate may be seen, and I remember noticing the charred bones of 
the bullock over and under the grating. But they are better seen 
by the observer from the top by ascending one of the stair cases. 
The three stair cases are probably all used by those who carry the 
bullock, a male of two years old, the best of its kind and without 
blemish. The furnace is called in Chinese liau-lu, "furnace of 
the fire-sacrifice." 

At 4.45 A. M. the emperor on the occasion of the sacrifice puts 
on his sacrificial robes and goes to the south gate of the outer wall 
which encircles the south altar. He dismounts from his «/<?«, as 
the imperial sedan is called, and walks to the yellow tent on the 
second terrace of the altar. He has mounted the altar on the south 
side, first ascending nine marble steps and then walking across the 
first terrace. He mounts nine more marble steps to the yellow 
tent. Leaving the yellow tent there are nine more steps to the 
upper terrace. He advances to the north and kneels on the cen- 
tral round stone. Just at this moment the fire of the burnt sacrifice 

1 By J. E. in the China Review. 



THE CHINESE ALTAR OF BURNT OFFERING. 



753 



is kindled "to meet the spirit of Shang-ti (God)" as the language 
is. The emperor then proceeds to burn incense to Shang-ti and 




to each of his ancestors, whose tablets are arranged in wooden 
huts on the northeast and northwest portions of the altar. 

The altar on this upper terrace where the offerings are arranged 



754 I'HE OPEN COURT. 

before the tablets is ninety feet wide. He kneels before Shang-ti 
and burns incense to his ancestors, and while he kneels three times 
and makes nine prostrations, bundles of silk, jade cups, and other 
gifts are presented, and the musicians play the ancient melody 
called King-ping-chi chang. 

When the Jewish hii^h priest entered the holy place he bore 
the names of the children of Israel on the breast-plate on his heart. 
The breast-plate is the pu-kwa of the Chinese, a square embroidered 
cloth worn over the heart with emblematic figures upon it. The 
archaeological connexion of X\\& pu- kwa vQxXh. the breast-plate can- 
not be questioned by any reasonable critic. But the Chinese idea 
of the high priest unites royalty with priesthood, and belongs to 
the patriarchal age rather than to the specially Mosaic institutions. 

The brazen altar was in the wilderness placed in the court in 
front of the tabernacle. It is also called in Scripture the altar of 
burnt offering. Dr. E. P. Barrows in his Biblical Geography and 
Antiquities, p. 507, London edition, says it was "a hollow frame 
of acacia wood, five cubits square and three cubits high, with horns 
at the four altars." The Chinese altar of burnt offering is, I be- 
lieve, a cube in shape and nine feet each way. It is therefore much 
larger than the Hebrew altar. It is built of hewn stones, is faced 
with green bricks and is ascended by steps. Thus disagreeing from 
the Mosaic requirements ii^ belongs altogether to the prae Mosaic 
religion of the world. The account in Exodus xxvii. 4, 5, says, 
"Thou shalt make for it a grating of net-work of brass, and upon 
the net shalt thou make four brazen rings in the four corners 
thereof, and thou shalt put it under the ledge round the altar be- 
neath, that the net may reach half way up the altar." Dr. Barrows 
continues: "Some have supposed that this grate of net- work was 
placed within the altar as a receptacle for the wood of the sacrifice. 
But in this case it could not well have been sunk half way down, 
and besides it contained the rings for the staves by which the altar 
was borne, a decisive proof that it was without the altar. Of those 
who adopt this latter view some, as Jonathan in his Targum, make 
the grate horizontal." 

No rings are needed for a fixed altar, because it is not intended 
to be carried. The servants whose duty it is to carry the slain 
bullock from the slaughter-house on the east side of the altar at 
some distance, convey it by means of shoulder poles. Judging by 
the size of the Chinese altar the bearers and their fellow-servants 
would mount the altar by the east, west, and south steps at the 

I Ex., XX. 25. 



THE CHINESE ALTAR OF BURNT OFFERING. 755 

same time, and lay the animal down on the iron grate in the man- 
ner seen at a funeral when, in perfect order and decorous silence, 
the bearers let down the coffin into a newly-opened tomb. The 
officers having charge of this duty wait for the emperor. When 
he kneels they can see him do so on the northwest in the center 
of the high altar. They give the signal, and the fire is kindled by 
the door on the north side just below the grating. There seems 
no reason then why we should not explain the grate mentioned in 
Exodus as corresponding to the Chinese grate in the Altar of 
Heaven. 

The Mosaic net-work was probably inside and outside of the 
altar. In Peking it is only inside. This suits the meaning of the 
biblical word "beneath." The brass or copper used was produced 
in Arabia Petraea. In China iron is much more abundant than 
copper, and consequently iron has always been employed. Iron 
is mentioned in that part of the Book of History which belongs to 
the Hia dynasty, B. C. 2000. The sole use of the grate is to hold 
the victim in the burnt sacrifice and afford free passage for heat 
and draught. The grating of Exodus was not only so used but was 
also employed outside for ornament and possibly as a support for 
the feet and hands of the Levites ministering at the altar. The 
place of the grate was half way up the altar, both within and with- 
out. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



THE PARIS PEACE CONGRESS AND THE TRANSVAAL WAR. 

In one respect, at least, the International Peace Congress is superior to the 
Inter-Parliamentary Conference. The rule of the latter is to avoid questions of 
current interest, and to keep more to the vague, abstract, and theoretical side of 
things. The International Peace Congress, on the contrary, has a section whose 
business it is to study questions of the day ; and the Permanent International 
Peace Committee, whose headquarters are at Berne, draws up an annual report on 
the events of each year, which is signed by the Committee's honorary secretary. 
Monsieur Elie Ducomman. 

This year, for instance, three questions were submitted to the Congress : the 
Transvaal, China, and Finland. 

It was to be expected that the Transvaal question would call forth the greatest 
show of feeling. Egged on by their English friends, Mr. Philip Stanhope and Dr. 
Clark, etc., almost all the friends of peace on the continent allowed themselves to 
be carried away over the question of the Transvaal. These English gentlemen are 
naturally the declared enemies of Chamberlain and the present Conservative Cabi- 
net, and what they did was to involve their international friends on the Continent 
in a sort of anti-ministerial manifestation which in reality was out of place any- 
where else than in England. 

The resolution they proposed in the Congress was conceived in such violent 
language that, even with a reporting committee composed entirely of Boerophiles, 
and an assembly of delegates, myself excepted, probably all Boerophiles too, it 
was judged expedient to tone down the wording considerably. 

What I did in the reporting committee was to go through the facts and discuss 
their bearing in detail. I showed how, in his dispatch of the 29th of November, 
1889, Lord Derby told the Boers that if they desired to discuss the suzerainty 
question they must not dream of modifying the Convention of 1881. Indeed, Ar- 
ticle 4 of the Convention of 1884 clearly proves the maintenance of England's 
suzerainty; while Article 14 assigns to her the responsibility for the liberty and 
security of all foreigners residing in the Transvaal. 

I showed by the murder of Edgar what interpretation the Boers gave to the 
principles of justice; but the retort of all the members of the Congress was: 

IThe present little article by M. Yves Guyot, ex-deputy and ex-minister of France, and editor 
of the Steele, is published as a piece of interesting evidence of the difficulties under which even 
a Peace Congress may laboi- in its efforts to attain a just and unbiassed settlement of interna- 
tional difficulties. It may be noted, also, that M. Guyot was the only distinguished publicist on the 
side of England in the Transvaal war. — Ed. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 757 

" Kruger asked for arbitration, and Chamberlain refused it." From original docu- 
mentary evidence I proved that for Kruger the arbitration proposal was only put 
forward in order to secure the annulment of the Conventions of 1881 and 1884, and 
consequently could not be accepted by the English government; finally, I read 
Kruger's proposal made on the ninth day of the Bloemfontein Conference (June, 
1899). 

" President Kruger said in conclusion : 

" ' Give me Swaziland, the indemnity due for the Jameson raid, and arbi- 
tration in return for the franchise. Otherwise I should get nothing.' 
"These points cannot be separated. 

" On the gth of June, Dr. Reitz drew up proposals relative to the arbitra- 
tion, but reserved to each country the right to withhold and exclude the points 
that seemed too important to be submitted to arbitration, 

"What was the meaning of these reservations? And, moreover, in the 
constitution of the Committee, the third arbitrator, acting as umpire, was to 
be a stranger ; he it was who would decide." 

I hate war. So, when I realised the seriousness of the situation, I proposed 
what would have been a modus vh-endi, liberal in its provisions and honorable to 
both sides: viz., "Autonomy for the mining districts." Mr. Chamberlain then in- 
formed me by a letter that this had already been proposed by the English govern- 
ment in 1896 and again at Bloemfontein in 1899. On each occasion the Boers 
refused to entertain the proposal. 

The only conception of liberty possessed by Mr. Kruger and his partisans was 
that which permitted the Uitlanders to be oppressed and spoiled ; and I foresaw 
that if the President of the Transvaal continued his shuffling policy, England 
would ultimately be forced to go to war. A bull-dog may for a time disdain the 
snarlings and snappings of a mongrel, but sooner or later he becomes exasperated, 
turns on the mongrel and breaks its back. 

This I said in my protest yesterday before the Congress, and I added : " You 
speak of arbitration ; what arbitration ? on what point ? Ought it, for instance, to 
have recognised the right arrogated by the Boers to continually violate the Con- 
ventions of 1881 and 1884 ? " 

I did not expect ray words would have sufficient power to displace the major- 
ity. I may hope, however, that they contributed to the milder modification of the 
original resolution. What is more significant is the rejection to-day of a vote rela- 
tive to maintaining the independence of the Boer Republics. The chairman. 
Monsieur Richet, took care to insist upon the statement that there were no Anglo- 
phobes present at the Congress, which was perhaps saying rather too much. At 
any rate, the discussion was a great success, and I could speak without being inter- 
rupted. 

Paris, October, 1900. Yves Guyot. 



THE CHILD. 

Thou, little Child, art Beast and God, 

Past and Futurity ; 
Thou tread'st the paths our Fathers trod, 

The paths our Sons shall see. 



758 THE OPEN COURT. 

Thine is the Dross of that long Climb, 
The still-remembered Past ; 

The Golden Age thou know'st sometime 
Throughout all Life shall last. 

The Savage sees but with thy Light, 

The Sage no wiser is ; 
Thou hold'st the Phantoms of the night. 

The day's Realities. 

Thou art the Father of the Man, 
The Brother of the Race ; 

Thou mirror'st the Barbarian, 
Thou hint'st the Angel's grace. 

The Genius is the Eternal Child, 
Fleck'd with the Race's sin ; 

The Poet sings his "wood-notes wild, ' 
Born of thy childish din. 

By Avon's stream thy Fancy knew 
Through all men's Souls to move ; 

And with thy Heart, "the blessed Jew " 
Turns all the world to Love. 

The Prophet still must tell thy Dreams, 

The Teacher pupil be ; 
And all our deepest Knowledge seems 

But Wisdom caught from thee. 

.The Hero, in thy Faith, still strives 
To reach the Blessed Isles ; 

At Heaven's gate our human lives 
Repeat their Baby smiles. 

O helpless Child, thy coming wrought 

The miracle of Man ; 
Through thee were Love and Pity taught 

The Beast put under ban. 

And Woman ! Nature cast her form 
Upon the self-same mould, 

That thou, amid life's Stress and Storm, 
Should'st linger to grow Old. 

Man, treading in the steps of them, 
Shall Gentler, Sweeter be. 

Till every Home is Bethlehem 
Without its Calvary. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



759 



O mighty Child, 'tis Science names 

Thy Kingdom upon Earth, 
And, with the Son of Man, proclaims 

The Greatness of thy Birth. 

Now Priest and Man of Science bow 

Before thy face ; the Clod 
Touches Divinity, and thou 

Instinct with All, forshadow'st God. 

Alex. F. Chamberlain, Ph. D. 
Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 



THE HISTORY OF THE DEVIL. 

Under fthe title of The I/istory of the Devil a)id the Idea of Evil from the 
Earliest Times to the Present Day} Dr. Paul Carus has recently collected in 
systematic and unified form the numerous papers and essays which for several 
years past he has either published in The Open Court and The Motiist or delivered 
as independent lectures before .various audiences on the history and folklore of 
demonology and the philosophy of good and evil. From the point of view of con- 
tents and illustrations, this book is probably the most exhaustive popular presenta- 
tion of the subject that exists. The enumeration of the illustrations alone would 
take up several pages of The Ofen Court, and they have been drawn from every 
period of history, from the monuments and archaeologic remains of antiquity as 
well as from the pictorial and sculptural records of mediaeval and modern times. 
Not a phase of the figured conceptions of the ideas of good and evil in their devel- 
opment among any of the thinking nations of humanity has been omitted, and the 
panoramic survey of demonologic forms which is here marshalled before our bodily 
vision is, in the vividness and enduring qualities of its impression, far beyond any- 
thing that portrayal by words could hope to equal. 

And the breadth of pictorial representation is only surpassed by the plenitude 
of the sources from which the text has been drawn, — the scientific and historical 
literature of several millenniums. Starting with a brief philosophical discussion 
of the ideas of good and evil, we are introduced to the subject of devil-worship and 
human sacrifices among savage tribes (with their survivals among the modern na- 
tions), and from thence to the demonolatry and related religious conceptions of the 
ancient Egyptians, Accadians, and Semites (Assyrians and Babylonians). The 
dualism of the Persians is next considered, following which the important Israelitic 
period is treated. Brahmanism, Hinduism, and Buddhism are all rich in demon- 
ologic lore, and some sixty odd pages are devoted to their exuberant conceptions. 
Then under the caption of "The Dawn of a New Era," that period of abnormal 
religious unrest and fermentation which is marked by the Gnostic, Apocryphal, 
and Apocalyptic literature of the Alexandrian and Western Asiatic empires is por- 
trayed, — an influence which extended to the time of Jacob Boehme. To early 
Christianity, the demonologic notions of Jesus and his Apostles, the eschatology of 
the Jews, and the Hell of the early Church, forty pages are consecrated. 

Reverting in a lengthy chapter to "The Idea of Salvation in Greece and 

1 Chicago: The Open Court Pub. Co.; London: Kegan PauL Trench, Triibner & Co. igoo. 
Large Svo, 500 pages, 311 illustrations. Cloth, S6.00 (30s.). 



- 760 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Italy," which was so influential in forming present Christianity, the author pro- 
ceeds to the interesting demonology of Northern Europe, and thence through the 
miracles and magic of savages to the period of the " Devil's Prime," the wonderfu 
and incredible history of witchcraft, the Inquisition, and the no less shocking 
witch-persecutions of the age of the Reformation. Lastly, Dr. Carus has portrayed 
at length the part which the Devil has played in verse and fable, concluding with a 
philosophical dissertation on the nature of good and evil, the role of science in 
clarifying our religious conceptions, the standard of ethics, and the idea of God. 

The nature of his views on these questions is sufficiently familiar to the read- 
ers of The Open Court to dispense us from entering into a detailed exposition, and 
it only remains for us to add a word as to the letter-press and handsome exterior 
dress of the work. The publishers have spared neither pains nor expense in this 
regard, and the broad margins, large type, fine paper, tinted illustrations at the 
beginnings and ends of chapters, and the black and red binding illuminated with a 
cover-stamp from Dore, all combine to make the work a veritable Mition de luxe. 

EROS AND PSYCHE. 

The readers of The Open Court will doubtless recall with pleasure Dr. Carus's 
modernised version of the Greek fairy-tale of Eros and Psyche, which appeared in 




The Shepherdess of Loves. 
(Frieze by Thorwaldsen.) 

The Open Court for February and March of this year, together with Thumann's 
deservedly-famed and genuinely classical illustrations. This story has now been 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



761 



published in book form, in a sumptuous style, quite befitting its inward beauty of 
thought and sentiment. Mr. E. Biedermann, a German-American artist, has made 
for it a cover-design of classical conception ; the text has been printed from large 
Pica type on specially-manufactured Strathmore deckle-edge paper; while the 
largest of the illustrations have been reproduced 
on separate sheets with ornamental borders. By 
its elegant appearance and its mythologically reli- 
gious character the work will be peculiarly appro- 
priate as a Holiday gift-book.' 

Dr. Carus, in the philosophical preface which 
he has written for the book, has not failed to take 
advantage of the opportunity to introduce addi- 
tional illustrations from classical sources, includ- 
ing the Eros of Praxiteles, which we here repro- 
duce, and the Sale of Cupids of Thorwaldsen. 
His preface deals with the ethical and mytholo- 
gical significance of the tale, in which he sees the 
religious life of antiquity reflected more strongly 
than in any other work, not excepting the poems 
of Homer and the Tlicogony of Hesiod. He con- 
trasts the story of Eros and Psyche with the folk- 
lore tales of the Teutonic races, which also depict 
the popular attitude toward the problems of life, 
especially toward that problem of problems, — the 
mystery of death and the fate of the soul in the 
unknown beyond. Wholly apart, therefore, from 
its intrinsic romantic interest, the book possesses 
a deep moral import, being the solution that the popular spirit of the greatest in 
tellectual nation of antiquity gave of the interrelation of love, birth, and death 




The Eros of Praxiteles. 

Torso found in Centocelle ; now 
in the Vatican. 




The Sale of the Cupids. 
Frieze by Thorwaldsen. 

Says Dr. Carus: "The redactor of Eros and Psyche, as here retold, has brought 
' ' out the religious and philosophical Leihnotiv with more emphasis than it pos- 
" sesses in the tale of Apuleius. By obliterating the flippant tone in which their 
" satirical author frequently indulges, and by adding a few touches where the real 
" significance of the narrative lies, he believes that he has remained faithful to the 



\ Eros and Psyche. A Fairy-Tale of Ancient Greece. Retold After Apuleius. By Paul Carus. 
Illustrations by Thumann. Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Co.; London: Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co. 1900. Pp., xv, 99. Price, Si. 50 (6s.). 



762 



HE OPEN COURT. 



• spirit of the ancient Marchcn, and thereby succeeded in setting in relief the seri- 
' ous nature of the story and the religious comfort that underlies this most ex- 
' quisite production of human fiction." /'. 



HUME'S ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING.' 

Following Descartes's Discourse on Method, The Open Court Pub. Co. has 
issued, as the second philosophical classic of their Religion of Science Library, 




4 5:V 




David Hume. 

(1711-1776.; 

Scottish Philosopher. (After the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds.) 

David Hume's Enquiry Concernin,ir Human L/nders/andin,if. Other philosophi- 
cal classics, like Kant's Prolegomena, are to follow, and it is hoped that the series 

\An Enquiry Concerning Human Unde, standing. By David Hume. Reprinted from the 
edition of 1777. With Hume's Autobiosraphy and a letter from Adam Smith. Chicago: The 
Open Court Pub. Co. 1900. Pages, 180. Piice, 25 cents (is. 6d.;. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 763 

will thus eventually form a consecutive and comprehensive course of philosophical 
reading in the great original works of philosophy, which are far less bulky in size 
and more attractive as to matter than is generally supposed. 

The present volume, which upon the whole is easy and entertaining reading, 
is an unannotated reprint, merely, of the Enquiry Concerning Human Under- 
standing, made from the posthumous edition of 1777, together with Hume's 
charming autobiography and the eulogistic letter of Adam Smith, usually prefixed 
to the History of England, but deserving of wider circulation. These additions, 
with the portrait by Ramsay, which forms the frontispiece to the volume, render 
the picture of Hume's life very complete. The volume has also an inde.x. 

With the great public, Hume's fame has always rested upon his History of 
England, — a work now antiquated as history and remarkable only for the signal 
elegance and symmetry of its style. This once prevalent opinion, however, our 
age has reversed, and, as has been well remarked,' "Hume, the spiritual father of 
Kant, now takes precedence over Hume, the rival of Robertson and Gibbon." It 
is precisely here, in fact, that Hume's significance for the history of thought lies. 
With him modern philosophy entered upon its Kantian phase, became critical and 
positivistic, became a theory of knowledge. For the old "false and adulterate" 
metaphysics he sought to substitute a "true" metaphysics, based on the firm foun- 
dations of reason and experience. His scepticism— and of scepticism he has since 
been made the standard-bearer — was directed against the old ontology only, and 
not against science proper (inclusive of philosophy). "Had Hume been an abso- 
lute sceptic, he could never have produced an Immanuel Kant. . . . The spirit of 
the theoretical philosophy of Hume and Kant, the fundamental conception of their 
investigations, and the goal at which they aim, are perfectly identical. Theirs is 
the critical spirit, and positive knowledge the goal at which they aim. To claim 
for Kant the sole honor of having founded criticism is an error which a closer 
study of British philosophy tends to refute." - 

Of Hume's purely philosophical pieces the present book and the Enquiry Con- 
cerning the Principles of Morals are, in their precise, lucid, and engaging style, 
the most representative and the most elegant. The Enquiry Concer>ting the Prin- 
ciples of Morals will be published in a succeeding number of the Religion of Sci- 
ence Library (having the portrait here reproduced for its frontispiece), and together 
these two pieces will afford an exact and comprehensive knowledge of Hume's 
philosophy. /«. 



REINCARNATE. 

From sky to sky a silent land, 

Through which an idle river flows, 

Upon its banks, on either hand. 
The purple iris blows. 

The sunlight faints in languorous stream. 
The sunlight fades in empty air — 



1 Alfred Weber, History of Philosophy , New York, 1896. 

2 Weber, loc. cit., pp. 419-420. 



764 THE OPEN COURT. 

A long, slant, timeless, yellow gleam, 
On all, and everywhere. 

A long, slant, timeless, yellow ray, 
On which I look, in which I sow — 

What seed, O Soul, that fills to-day 
With ghosts of Long Ago ? 

With ghosts of old Egyptian sand 
Where Nilus oozes home to sea, 

With half-built pyramids, that stand 
And frown through time on me ? 

For was I slave, or was I king, 
I only, wondering, startled, know 

(Let long, slant suns be quivering) 
Such lights were long ago, — 

Were long ago, and crept and twined 
About my soul, and coiled and curled. 

When in some dead Deed out of mind 
I won or lost a world. 



L. C. Barnes. 



Pasadena, Cal. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Whence and Whither : An Inquiry Into the Nature of the Soul, Its Origin, and 
Its Destiny. By Dr. Paid Cams. Chicago: The Open Court Pub. Co. 
1900. Pages, viii, 188. Price, cloth, 75 cents (3s. 6d.). 

The present booklet is the latest utterance of the editor of The Open Court 
upon the crucial problems evoked by the conflict of science with the conceptions of 
the traditional religions. His attitude is reconciliatory. While an energetic sup- 
porter of the monistic psychology, which has been termed by some of its advocates 
as a psychology without a soul, while thoroughly aware of the gravity of the 
charges that have been made against the old-fashioned dualistic conception of the 
soul as a metaphysical thing-in-itself, and conscious that modern science demands 
a thorough-going revision of our religious views, he still insists that the facts of 
man's soul-life remain the same as before, and that the new psychology is not a 
psychology without a soul, but a psychology zuith a neiu interpretation of tJic 
soul. He says : "The soul, it is true, can no longer be regarded as a mystical be- 
' ing, as an entity, or an essence, — a something in itself, possessed of certain qual- 
' ities, and endowed with faculties : the soul is not that which feels and thinks and 
•acts, but is the feeling itself, the thinking itself, and the acting itself; and the 
' faculties, so called, are simply various categories under which the several sets of 
' psychical functions may be subsumed. 

"There is as little need for the psychologist to assume a separate soul-being, 
' performing the several soul-functions, as there is for the meteorologist to assume 



MISCELLANEOUS. 765 

"a wind-entity, which, by blowing, produces a commotion in the air. According 
" to the positive school, the commotion in the air itself is the wind. But though 
" we deny the existence of a metaphysical wind-entity, winds blow as vigorously as 
" they ever did ; and why should the soul of the new psychology be less real than 
" the soul of the old psychology ? " 

The personality of man, according to Dr. Carus, does not lose its significance 
because modern science has been so successful in analysing its composition ; and 
the unity of this personality, which is commonly denominated the soul, does not 
disappear because it has been discovered that man's psychical life is not a compact 
unit, an atom, or a monad. The soul is a composite existence; yet being an or- 
ganism, it is possessed of unity. As an organism it is subject to change, but it is 
not for this reason incapable of growth, of expansion, of advancement, and eleva- 
tion. 

" The main fact of man's psychical activity is the continuity of his soul, for 
" this is the ultimate basis for the identity of a man's personality through all the 
■' changes of his development. The continuity and identity of each soul are condi- 
" tions which beget the feeling of responsibility, and thus force upon man the ne- 
" cessity of moral conduct." 

The first questions of psychology, therefore, are the IVhoice and the IV/iither 
of the human soul. And upon the solution of these questions rest the answers to 
the main problems of life : " What shall we do ? " " How shall we act ? " "What 
aims shall we pursue ? " 

These answers Dr. Carus has inductively formulated in five chapters entitled 
(i) The Nature of the Soul; (2) The Mould; (3) Whence? (4) Whither? and (5) Is 
Life Worth Living ? The reader will find here the latest results of biological and 
psychological research employed for the clarification of the great problems of life. 

1^- 



Sketches of Tokyo Life. By Jftkichi Inouye. Price, 75 cents. Chicago : The 
Open Court Pub. Co. 

The book, as the title indicates, briefly treats of those aspects of Japanese life at 
Tokyo that seem to be most attractive to foreign visitors, such as the story-teller, the 
actor and the stage, the wrestler {sumo), \.\ie geisha (singing and dancing girl), the 
fortune-teller, the firemen, and the jinrikisha-men. Though written in English, 
the book is a genuine Japanese production ; the printing, the binding, the doubly- 
folded paper, the cover-page design, the illustrations from blocks (of which there 
are a good many), and lastly the author himself — being all Japanese. Its English 
reads exceedingly well, and there is no doubt that the book will prove very enter- 
taining to English readers as it presents many of the quaint aspects of Oriental 
life. It will form an appropriate Holiday present. T. S. 



Shadowings. By Lafcadio Heaj-n. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. igoo. Pp., 
268. 

Mr. Lafcadio Hearn has recently given us another collection of short writings 
dealing mainly with things Japanese, but also containing some of his meditations 
on more or less "ghostly" topics, for which he has a decided fe7icha)it. The 
book may be considered to a certain extent as a continuation of In Ghostly Japan, 
and hence its title Shadoijuiiigs. 



766 THE OPEN COURT. 

The " Stories from Strange Books" which constitute the first part of the work 
are retold after old Japanese authors whose writings are deeply imbued with the 
popular superstitions and modes of thought of their time. The second part com- 
prises three articles on "Semi" (cicada) accompanied with five illustrations, on 
"Japanese Female Names," and on "Old Songs," shedding some light on the emo- 
tional, literary, and esthetic side of Japanese life. The third and last section is 
devoted to the author's own "Fantasies" about certain dreamy, umbrageous, and 
horror-inspiring subjects, — very proper material for the exercise of mystic and 
poetical imaginations. 

Among other subjects, " Readings from a Dream-book" beautifully brings out 
the author's philosophy, in which we can trace some Buddhistic thoughts. The 
book as a whole is very interesting reading, not only to those who love things 
Oriental, but to those who reflect and philosophise on human life generally. T. S. 



Dr. John Martin Vincent, Associate Professor in Johns Hopkins University, 
thinks that the attractions of the wonderful natural scenery of Switzerland are 
rivalled almost by its peculiar political institutions, and he avers that to the roman- 
tic interest in the dramatic portions of its history "there has succeeded a deeper 
curiosity regarding the political experience of the mountain republic." To the 
American reader especially this subject is replete with comparisons. The Swiss 
federation is similar to our own federal union ; the cantons resemble our states. 
The experiments of the Swiss, therefore, in direct popular legislation, in the nation- 
alisation of railways and industries, and in all the other great social and economic 
questions of the day, are calculated to afford instructive lessons to Americans ; and 
Professor Vincent's book. Government in Sivitzerland, published in the Citizens' 
Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology, deserves wide reading. (New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 1900. Pages, 370. Price, $1.25.) 



We have to note another number of the Citizen's Library of Economics, Poli- 
tics, and Sociology. The new book treats of Political Pa)-ties in the United States 
I'rom 1S46 to 1861, and is one of those works which will contribute greatly to the 
clarification of popular party prejudices, if it is so fortunate as ever to be read by 
persons who share the mechanical party-beliefs. The position taken by its author, 
Mr. Jesse Macy, Professor of Political Science in Iowa College, is "that in each 
State where Democracy is far enough advanced to give rise to political parties the 
form of organisation is determined by the political institutions," and that in the case 
of America the peculiarities of the American party system have been determined by 
the peculiarities of American institutions. He attributes the decline of the old 
Federal party to the fact that it was un-American in the form of its organisation, 
and then traces the development of the party system as differentiated into Whig 
and Democrat. Lack of adjustment between party machinery and public opinion 
led to the disruption of these two parties and to the Civil War. Since that war, 
there have been two distinct periods of party history, the first beginning with the 
withdrawal of the troops from the Confederate States in 1877, which, according to 
Mr. Macy, is emphatically the abnormal period of our party history, armies being 
substituted for party organisations, and supporting these organisations. It was at 
this juncture that the spoils system reached its perfection, and the control of the 
party organisations passed into the hands of professional managers devoted to "spe- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 767 

cial interests in more or less conscious conspiracy against the people." (New York: 
The Macmillan Co. igoo. Pp., viii, 333. Price, $1.25. ) 



Full reports of the papers and proceedings of the fourth International Congress 
of Psychology, held in Paris this year, may be obtained from M. Felix Mean, 108 
Boulevard Saint Germain, Paris. 

The issues of 'Jlic Ribclot (a reprint of poetry and prose for book lovers, 
chosen in part from scarce editions and sources not generally known) for September 
and October are: (i) Svc7id and His Brethren, a tale by William Morris, and (2) 
a critical study of Ernest Dozuson, by Arthur Symons. (Thomas B. Mosher. 
Portland, Me. 5 cents each.) 



The September number of the A'evne de inctaphysiqite el dc morale is de- 
voted entirely to the Paris Congress of Philosophy, and the reader will find in its 
two hundred odd pages full reports of the proceedings and abstracts of the papers 
of the Congress. The Re-riw de metaphysique et de 7norcde is one of the most 
progressive of technical philosophical periodicals and deserves encouragement for 
its furtherance of liberal philosophical studies. 



The Jewish Publication Society of America, which issued the translation of 
Graetz's excellent History of tJie Jezcs, has secured the American rights to Dr. 
M. Lazarus's well-known book on the Ethics of Judaisiyi, which now makes its 
appearance in English translation from the pen of Henrietta Szold. Dr. Lazarus, 
w^ho is now in his seventy-sixth year and was for a long time professor in the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, is highly esteemed for his labors in the broad field of Jewish eru- 
dition, and his work may be regarded as the fairest and most purely objective state- 
ment of Judaism that exists. (Pages, 309.) 



The Reformed Evangelical Church of Florence, founded in 1S26 under the 
protection of the Prussian government and the oldest of the Protestant institutions 
of the renowned Italian city, has found its historian in its French pastor, M. Tony 
Andre. The main services of this center of evangelism in Florence are held in 
French, but auxiliary services are also held in German and Italian. The book con- 
tains thirty-three illustrations, and will doubtless find readers among former and 
future members of the Florence congregation. (Florence : Imprimerie et Librairie 
Claudienne, 51 Via dei Serragli. Price, 4 francs.) 



The Librairie L. Cerf, 12 Rue Sainte-Anne, Paris, has announced the publi- 
cation of a new review of the philosophy of history, entitled Revue de syyithisc 
historique, the purpose of which is to affiliate and unify the various provinces of 
historical research and to exhibit the joint product of the investigations of these 
domains in the light of the history of philosophy and of science. The chief sub- 
jects which will be discussed are the theory of history, its principles and methods, 
the determination of the function of sociological research, historiography, instruc- 



768 THE OPEN COURT. 

tion in history, the psychological interpretation of history, the psychology of na- 
tions, etc. There will also be departments for reviews of all books in any way 
connected with historical subjects, departments of notes, discussions, and bibliog- 
raphies. The editor is Dr. Henri Berr, the author of a thoughtful work entitled 
L'aveuir de la fhilosophic, reviewed in The Ofen Co//r/ for January, igoo. The 
list of contributors comprises many of the most distinguished names of France, not 
to speak of representatives from Great Britain, Germany, and America. (Bi- 
monthly, 17 francs per annum.) 



The Grand Duchy of Finland in the struggle it is now waging for the preser- 
vation of its autonomy against the Russian government has found an able and im- 
passioned advocate in the person of W. van der Vlugt, Professor in the University 
of Leyden, who has written in French a brochure of two hundred and eight pages 
entitled The Fintiish Conflict from a Legal Point of Vieiu. The little book is 
one of a series called Editions de Vhninanite 7iouvelle (Schleicher, Paris). L 'hiima- 
nite noui'elle, after which the series is named, is one of the most liberal and pro- 
gressive monthly reviews of France ; it is international in its character and devoted 
to the sciences, literature, and the arts. The scientific editor is M. A. Hamon 
and the literary editor, M. V. Emile-Michelet. This review is recommended to 
persons desirous of keeping in touch with international thought from a French 
and continental point of view. 



THE OPEN COURT 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



VOLUME XIV 



CHICAGO 
THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 

LONDON AGENTS: 

Kegan Paul. Trench, Trubnkr & Co., Ltd. 

1900 



Copyright by 

The Open Court Publishing Co. 

1900 



INDEX OF VOLUME XIV. 



MAIN CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Andriessen, Hugo. Nirvana. A Poem. From the German of E. Eckstein. . 569 
Angels and Demons, Evolution of, in Christian Theology. R. Bruce Boswell 4S3 
Arreat, L. Congress of the History of Religions and the Congress of Bourges 700 

Barnes, L. C. Reincarnate. A Poem 763 

Bonney, Florence Peoria. An Ancient Sarcophagus. A Poem 375 

Bonney, Hon. C. C, Inaugurator of the Parliament of Religions. Paul Cams 4 
Bonney, the Hon. C. C. The Principles of Tlie Opoi Court, i. — The New 
Year. A Poem, 54. 

Boswell, R. B. Evolution of Angels and Demons in Christian Theology 4S3 

Brown, Roscoe C. E. The Constitution and "The Open Door" 95 

Buckley, G. W. A Study of Jesus from the View-Point of Wit and Humor. . 158 

Buddhism, The Breadth of. Teitaro Suzuki 51 

Buddhist Convert to Christianity, A 303 

Buddhist Missionaries to America, Shall We Welcome ? With Editorial Re- 
ply. M. L. Gordon 301 

Candlin, The Rev. George T. The Associated Fists 551 

Carus, Dr. Paul. The Hon. C. C. Bonney, the Inaugurator of the Parliament 
of Religions. 4. — The 0.\ and the Ass in Illustrations of the Nativity. 46. 
— Eros and Psyche. Retold after Apuleius. With Illustrations by Paul 
Thumann. 65. — Expansion, but not Imperialism. 87. — China and the 
Philippines. 108. — Comment on Eros and Psyche. 119. — Popular ]\Iu- 
sic. 122. — Religion in Fairy Tales. 184. — The Seal of Christ. With 
Illustrations from the Religious History of Antiquity, Mediaeval and Mod- 
ern Times, and with Supplementary Matter on the History of the Cross. 
229. — Signets, Badges, and Medals. Illustrated. 284. — The Friar. A 
Soog. Music by O. H. P. Smith. 305. — The Old and the New Magic. 
Illustrated. 333, 422. — Mind-Reading in the Nursery. With Diagrams. 
502. — The Principle of "Like Cures Like" in Greek Legend. With Illus- 
tration. 509. — On Greek Religion and Mythology. 513, 577, 641, 705 — 
Cross, Rev. W. W. Seymour on the Prehistoric. 745. 

Chamberlain, A. F. The Child. A Poem 737 

Child, The. A Poem. Alex. F. Chamberlain 737 

China, Correspondence on. A Chinaman 365 

Chinese Altar of Burnt Offering. From the China Rcviezc 752 

Chinese Education. Communicated 694 



IV THE OPEN COURT. 

PAGE 

Christian jMissions and European Politics in China. G. M. Fiaraingo 689 

Comte, A New Work on. Thomas J. McCormack 364 

Concept, The. Ernst Mach 348 

Congress of the History of Religions an^ Congress of Bourges. L. Arreat. . . . 700 

Constitution and " The Open Door," The. Roscoe C. E. Brown 95 

Continuum, Notion of a. An Essay in the Theory of Science. E. Mach. . . . 409 

Converse, Dr. C Crozat. American War Songs in 

Conway, Dr. Moncure D. The Idol and the Ideal of the French Republic. 9. 
— James Martineau, With Portrait. 257. — The International Arbitration 
Alliance. An Address Read Before the Peace Congress, Paris, 1900. 683. 
Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. With Five Portraits, Diagrams of 
Astronomical Systems, and Facsimile Reproductions of Early Astronomi- 
cal Instruments. Ernst Krause (Carus Sterne) ... 385 

Cross in " Japanese Heraldry," The. N. W. J. Hayden 124 

Cross, Rev. W. W. Seymour on the Prehistoric. Paul Carus 745 

Cui Bono ? A Poem. Ellis Thurtell 509 

Democratic Christians and the Vatican, The. G. M. Flamingo 475 

Dutcher, E. W. Invocation. A Poem 564 

Earth, The Struggle Regarding the Position of the. With Several Portraits of 
Galileo, and Reproductions of Tito Lessi's Painting of Milton's Visit to 
Galileo and of a Photograph of Galileo's Tomb in Firenze. Ernst Krause 449 
Edmunds, Albert J. Gospel Parallels from Pali Texts. 114, 246, 358. — The 

Penitent Thief. 628. 
Eleusinian Problem, Certain Aspects of the. Charles James Wood. 618, 672. 
Eros and Psyche. Retold after Apuleius. With Illustrations by Paul Thu- 
mann. Paul Carus. 65, 129. 

Et-os and Psyche, Comment on. Paul Carus 119 

Expansion, but not Imperialism. Paul Carus 87 

Flamingo, Prof. G. M. The Democratic Christians and the Vatican. 475. — 
Christian Missions and European Politics in China. 689. 

Fists, The Associated. George T. Candlin 551 

Freeth, Pierce C. , The Home of God. A Poem 370 

French Republic, The Idol and the Ideal of. Moncure D. Conway 9 

Friar, The. A Song. Words by Paul Carus. Music by O. H. P. Smith. . . . 305 

Gauss, E. F. L. The So-called Mystery Plays. Illustrated 415 

Gordon, M. L. Shall We Welcome Buddhist Missionaries to America ? With 

Editorial Reply 301 

Gospel Parallels from Pali Texts. Translated from the Originals. Albert J. 

Edmunds. 114, 246, 358. 
Greek Religion and Mythology. Paul Carus. 513, 577, 641, 705. 
Hall, The Re/. J. Cleveland. Life After Death. A Comment on Hoffmann's 

Story of Tante Fritzchen 123 

Hayden, N. W. J. The Cross in " Japanese Heraldry " 124 

Home of God, The. A Poem. Pierce C. Freeth 370 

Homo Alalus. A Poem. L. L. Rice 512 

Immortality. A Poem. J. Leonard Levy 253 

Immortality. A Poem. Solomon Solis-Cohen 639 

Immortality, The Curve of. Mathematical Analogy to Death and the Resur- 
rection. A Septuagenarian. Appendix 320 

Immortality, The Curve of. T. J. McCormack 314 



% 

INDEX. V 

I'AGE 

Inquiry, The Unshackling of the Spirit of. A Sketch of the Hi<5tory of the 

Conflict Between Theology and Science. Ernst Krause (Cams Sterne) 607, 659 
International Arbitration Alliance, The. An Address Read Before the Peace 

Congress, Paris, 1900. Moncure D. Conway 683 

International Congresses at the World's Exhibition at Paris, in igoo, 'J"he. . . . 120 

Invocation. A Poem. E. W. Dutcher 564 

Jackson, Prof. A. V. Williams. Zarathushtra. Illustrated 366 

Jastrow, Morris, Jr. C. P. Tiele. His Seventieth Birthday 728 

Jesuits and the Mohammedans, The. From the Frank/itr/ci- Zciluui^r 179 

Jesus from the View-Point of Wit and Humor, A Study of, G. W. Buckley. . 158 

Kant a>id Spencer. A Criticism. Robert Stout 437 

Koran, Rhyme and Rhythm in the. Daniel C. Rankin 355 

Krause, Dr. Ernst (Cams Sterne), Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. 
With Five Portraits, Diagrams of Astronomical Systems, and Facsimile 
Reproductions of Early Astronomical Instruments. 385. — The Struggle 
Regarding the Position of the Earth. With Several Portraits of Galileo, 
and Reproductions of Tito Lessi's Painting of Milton's Visit to Galileo and 
of a Photograph of Galileo's Tomb at Firenze. 449. — The Unshackling 
of the Spirit of Inquiry. A Sketch of the History of the Conflict Between 
Theology and Science. 607, 659. 

Language. Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Ernst Mach 171 

Laughlin, Prof. J. Laurence. Criticism of Tolstoi's Moitey 221 

Leuba, Prof. James H, The Psychology of Religion 251 

Levy, Rabbi J. Leonard. Immortality. A Poem 253 

Life After Death. A Comment on Hoffmann's Story of Tante Fritzchen. 

J. Cleveland Hall 123 

'■ Like Cures Like," the Principle of, in Greek Legend. Paul Cams 509 

Maas, Dr. Ernst. The Tomb of Vibia. Illustrated 321 

Mach, Prof. Ernst. Names and Numbers. 37. — Language. Its Origin, De- 
velopment, and Significance for the Development of Thought. 171. — The 
Concept. 348. — The Notion of a Continuum. An Essay in the Theory 
of Science. 409. — The Propensity Toward the Marvellous. 539. 

Magic, The Old and the New. Illustrated. Paul Cams 333, 422 

Mahayana, The. With Illustration. Teitaro Suzuki 569 

Martineau, James. With Portrait. Moncure D. Conway 257 

Marvellous, The Propensity Toward the. Ernst Mach 539 

McCormack, Thomas J. The Year Zero. A Brief Study in Chronology. 32. — 
John Bernard Stallo. American Citizen, Jurist, and Philosopher. 276. — 
The Curve of Immortality, 314. — Madame Clemence Royer. With two 
portraits. 562. — Friedrich Max Miiller (1823-1900). Biographical and 
philosophical. 734. 

M'Creery, J. L. The Monk. A Poem 317 

Mind-Reading in the Nursery. With Diagrams. Paul Cams 502 

Money. Leo N. Tolstoi. Translated from the Russian by Paul Borger 193 

Monk, The. A Poem. J. L. M'Creery 317 

Muller, Friedrich Max. (1823-1900.) T. J. McCormack 734 

Miiller, Prof. Max, Hindu Prayers for. Quoted from L/lcrcdKre 251 

Music, Popular. Paul Cams 122 

Mystery Plays, The So-called. Illustrated. E. F. L. Gauss 415 

Mythology and Religion, Greek. Paul Carus 513, 577, 641, 705 



VI THE OPEN COURT. 

PAGE 

Names and Numbers. Ernst Mach 37 

Nativity, The Ox and the Ass in Illustrations of the. Paul Carus 46 

New Year in China, The. Arthur H. Smith 43 

New Year, The. A Poem. Charles Carroll Bonney 54 

Nirvana. A Poem. From the German of E. Eckstein. Hugo Andriessen . . 569 

Open Court and Lcar'cs of Grass, 7'Jic. W. H. Trimble 439 

Peace Congress and the Transvaal War, The Paris. Yves Guyot 736 

Philosophical Association, The Western 304 

Rankin, Daniel C. , Rhyme and Rhythm in the Koran 355 

Reincarnate. A Poem. L. C. Barnes .... 763 

Religion in Fairy Tales. Paul Carus 184 

Religions, The International Congress of the History of. Jean Reville 271 

Religion, The Psychology of. James H. Leuba 253 

Reville, Albert and Jean. With Portraits 313 

Reville, Prof. Jean. The International Congress of the History of Religions 271 

Rice, L. L. Homo Alalus. A Poem 512 

Royer, Madame Clemence. With two portraits. Thomas J. McCormack. . . . 562 

Sarcophagus, An Ancient. A Poem. Florence Peoria Bonney 375 

Seal of Christ, The. With Illustrations from the Religious History of An- 
tiquity, Mediaeval and Modern Times, and with Supplementary Matter on 

the History of the Cross. Paul Carus 229 

Septuagenarian, A. The Curve of Immortality. Mathematical Analogy to 

Death and the Resurrection. Appendix 320 

Signets, Badges, and Medals. Illustrated. Paul Carus 284 

Smith, Dr. Arthur H. The New Year in China 43 

Solis-Cohen, Solomon. Immortality. A Poem 639 

Stallo, John Bernard. Citizen, Jurist, and Philosopher. T. J. McCormack. . 276 
Sterne, Carus (See Krause). 

Stout, Sir Robert. Kant and Spencer. A Criticism 437 

Suzuki, Teitaro. The Breadth of Buddhism. 51 — The Mahayana. 569. 

Tante Fritzchen's Last Hour. A Sketch by Hans Hoffmann 22 

The Open Court, The Principles of. C. C. Bonney i 

Thief, The Penitent. Albert J. Edmunds 628 

Thurtell, Ellis. Cui Bono ? A Poem ■ 509 

Tiele, C. P. His Seventieth Birthday. Morris Jastrow, Jr 728 

Tolstoi, Count Leo N. Money. Translated from the Russian by Paul Borger 193 

Tolstoi's Money, Criticism of. J. Laurence Laughlin 221 

Tomb of Vibia, The. Illustrated. Ernest Maas 321 

Trimble, W. H. ^lie Open Court and Lea2<es of Grctss 439 

War Songs, American. C. Crozat Converse 1 1 1 

Wood, Rev. Charles James. Certain Aspects of the Eleusinian Problem, 618, 672 

Year Zero, The. A Brief Study in Chronology. Thomas J. McCormack. ... 32 

Zarathushtra. Illustrated. A. V. Williams Jackson 366 



BOOK REVIEWS, NOTES, CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. 

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood. World Unity in Religion and Religious Organi- 
sation 192 

Allen, John G. Topical Studies in American History , . 186 



Altgeld, The Hon. John P. Live Questions 255 

Andre, M. Tony. The Reformed Evangelical Church of I'lorence 767 

Annual Report for 1897, Board of Regents Smithsonian Institution 384 

Annual Report Gen'l. Mgr. Buddhist Schools in Ceylon, for iSgg 384 

Bergson, Henri. Lc Rirc: Essai snr la s/\>>iiJicalio?i (hi coniiqiic 378 

Berr, Henri. L'a-.'oiir dc la philosop/iic 61 

Bibelot Series 190, 320, 767 

Biological Lectures, Marine Laboratory of Wood's Holl, Mas.s 383 

Blondel, Georges. D)-a7ne de la Passion 448 

Bonney, The Hon. C. C. World's Congress Addresses 575 

Boutroux, M. Emile, He Vidcc dc loi naturcUe dans la scioicc cl la philo- 
sophic co7itemporaincs 63 

Bradford, Gamaliel The Lesson of Popular Government 126 

Brainerd, Eveline Warner. Quaint Nuggets. Sixth vol. of Nugget Series. . . 511 

Brunschvicg, Dr. Leon. Introduction a la I'ie de r esprit 575 

Campbell, William T , A. M. Observational Geometry 636 

Candlin, Dr. George T. His article on the "Boxers" 576 

Carus, Dr. Paul. Kant and Spencer. 186. — History of the Devil. 759. — 

Eros and Psyche 760. — Whence and Whither. 764. 
Carus, Dr. Paul, official delegate to the Religious and Philosophical Congresses 

of the Paris Exposition, 1900 448 

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Vlll THE OPEN COURT. 

PAGE 

Folkmar, Dr. Daniel. Lefous d'Anthropologic pJulosophique : ses af plica- 
tions a la morale positii'c 379 

Gage, Matilda Joslyn. Woman, Church, and State ; A Historical Account of 
the Status of Woman Through the Christian Ages ; With Reminiscences 

of the Matriarchate 191 

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Giddings, Prof. Franklin Henry. Democracy and Empire 443 

Gilman, Nicholas Paine. A Dividend to Labor . . '. 443 

Goerwitz, Emanuel F. Kant's Di-cams of a Spirit- Seer 448 

Goodnow, Prof. Frank J. Politics and Administration 444 

Gould, Allen Walton. The Child's World in Picture and Story 127 

Gould, F. J. Tales from the Bible 446 

Grasserie, Raoul de la. De la psycJiologie des 7'eligions. 64.— The Preposi- 
tional Verb. 448. 

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Hebbelynck, A. Mysteries of the Greek Letters 448 

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Hoffmann, Hans. Tante Fritzchen 56 

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Homes of English Authors. 704. 

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hidiayi Keviezu, The 448 

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International Congress for Commercial Instruction, Report of 255 

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Objections to the Doctrine. 702. 

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Lazarus, Dr. M. Ethics of Judaism 767 

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Louis Gustav. Giordano Bruno's philosophy and ethics 384 



PAGE 

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Macy, Prof. Jesse. Political Parties in the United States from 1S46 to 1861 . . 766 
Marvin, The Rev. Dr. Frederic. Last Words of Distinguished Men and 

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Museoii, Le 448 

Nath, Rai Bahadur Lala Baij. Hinduism Ancient and Modern as Taught in 

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National Pure Food and Drug Congress 128 

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Philosophical Society of Detroit, Mich 512 

Plehn, Dr. Carl C. Introduction to Public Finance 441 

Primer- Cyclopcedia, An Internatiotial 376 

Psychology, Fourth International Congress of 767 

Publishers' Weekly, Annual Literary Index for 1899 447 

Puritanism, The NeTii. A Collection of Addresses Delivered at the Semi- 
centennial Jubilee of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn 127 

Ragozin, Zenaide A. A History of the World 189 

Randall, John Witt. Poems of Nature and Life 192 

Realf, Richard. Collected Poems. With Bibliography by Mr. Richard J. 

Hinton 191 

Reichmann, M. Zeitfragen des christlichen Volkslebcns 448 

Reissner, Carl. Men of the Day 448 

Renard, M. Georges. La methode scientijique de I'histoire litleraire 702 

Report of United States Commissioner of Education. 1897-98 255 

Revue de metaphysique et de morale 767 

Revue de synthase historique 767 

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X THE OPEN COURT. 

PAGE 

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Salter, William Mackintire. Walt Whitman 59 

Schopenhauer. The Will in Nature 255 

Schubert, Dr. Hermann. Au/]ifabf)i aiis dcr Aril]imeUk luid A/^i^cbra /fir 

Real- u)id Biir^'^o-sc/iu/en. 12.J. — Salta-game. 192. 

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Stallo, Hon. John B. Obituary 276 

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Swedenborg's On Ti-emulation. Translated by C. Th. Odhner 384 

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