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H)epoteD to tbe Science ot •ReUaion, tbe IReliaion of Science, anb tbe 
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The Saviour Birth in Ancient Hellas. 

(See "BzrtA Place of Jesus," page 70S.) 

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DECEMBER, 1909. 

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DcpotcD to tbe Science ot IReliaion, tbe IReliaion ot Science, anO tbc 
Bxtension ot tbe IReligioua parliament f Oea 

Editor: Dk. Paul Casus. 

A,soa.,a: {g^^SST 

The Saviour Birth in Ancient Hellas. 

(See "BzfiA Place of Jesus," page 70S.) 

XOjc ©pen Court pubUsbing Company 


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VOL. XXIII. (No. 12.) DECEMBER, 1909. NO. 643 


Frontispiece. Pilgrims Entering Bethlehem on Christmas Day. 

The Birthplace of Jesus (Illustrated). Editor 705 

Progress — An Illusion. W. Sonneberg 722 

Evolution the Characteristic of Nature. Editor \ . . . 732 

An Ether "Vision" (With Editorial Comment). Frederick Hall 734 

Joseph Dietzgen, the Philosopher of Social Democracy. Editor 741 

The Jewish Element in Galilee. In Comment on Prof. Paul Haupt's Article 

"The Aryan Ancestry of Jesus." William Benjamin Smith 748 

Lamentations of a Turkish Prophet (Poem). Tewfik Fikret Bey 763 

A Melbourne Medium Exposed. Arthur Talbot 766 

To the Martyr of New Spain (Poem). Charles J. Woodbury 766 

Comments on "Nazarenes and Sramanas." A. Kampmeier 766 

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VOL. XXIII. (No. 12.) DECEMBER, 1909. NO. 643. 

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FOLK notions are powerful factors in the formation of popular 
conviction, and this appears in all the domains of communal life, 
in politics, in social affairs, and most of all in religion. Accordingly 
we need not be surprised that the legends of the pre-Christian 
saviours affected the story of Christ, and that the traditions of the 
life of Jesus were retold and interpreted according to the prevalent 
conception of the ideal of mankind, of the God-man, the Christ. 
Thus the facts of actual occurrences are frequently embellished and 
overlaid by myths as vines cover the branches of a tree. 

Since tradition at a very early date, even during his lifetime, 
called Jesus the "son of David," it was assumed that he must have 
been born in Bethlehem, the native town of David, and this notion 
crept into the canonical books of the New Testament.^ 

The fixation of the day and month in the year is a matter of 
history, which can be traced in sermons of St. Ambrose, Pseudo- 
Chrysostom and other Church Fathers. That finally adopted was 
the same as the birth-festival of Mithras which was celebrated 
at the winter solstice, and Chrysostom- says about it : "On this day 
[the birthday of Mithras] the birthday of Christ was also lately 
fixed at Rome in order that whilst the heathen were busied with 
their profane ceremonies, the Christians might perform their holy 
rites undisturbed." 

In the same or a similar way, many other occurrences were 
attributed to Jesus, because he was worshiped as the Christ. If 

^ Cp. Matt. ii. 6 and Micah v. 2. See also Luke ii. 4. 

' Sermo de nativitate S. Joannis Bapt., II, 1113, ed. Paris, 1570. For other 
quotations see Open Court, 1899, XIII, 728-730. 



pre-Christian saviours had done or suffered one thing or another, 
it was but natural that the same should apply to Jesus, and these 
traits are most in evidence in his passion and in his nativity. 

Even before the time of Mithraism the pagans had celebrated 
festivals of the nativity of their gods, of Zeus, Dionysus, Heracles, and 
others. Sometimes the mother is on a journey or flies before her ene- 



The young faun, the tree, the birds and the goats indicate the rustic surround- 

mics. The birth of a divine babe always takes place in rural surround- 
ings, among herdsmen and in the secret recesses of caves. His needs 
are so little provided for that he is cradled in a winnowing fan or 
a trough or any vessel from which the cattle are fed. However, in 
spite of the lowly conditions under which the saviour-hero enters 


From a terra cotta relief in the British Museum. 

(From an early print.) 



into the world of men, he is greeted with great joy, and his birth 
is celebrated with much merry-making. The ihnstrations which 
represent snch scenes prove that both in customs and sentiment 

there existed among the pagans something analogous to our Christ- 


Although the Gospels say nothing definite about the place of 
Christ's birth except that he was laid in a manger because there was 



no room in the inn, tradition still clings to the old notion that the 
nativity of the Saviour must have taken place in a cave. 

The grotto of the Nativity was definitely localized in Beth- 
lehem at a very early date, certainly not later than the second cen- 
tury, for Justin Martyr mentions it as a rock-cut cave. There is 



no reason to doubt that he refers to the spot where Constantine 
erected a basilica dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which is still stand- 

ing, though nuich changed and several times rebuilt in parts. St. 
Jerome lived here 34 years of his life. His study, a rock-cut room, is 
still shown to the traveler. Here he translated the Bible into Latin, 



and here he died and was buried, A hallway connects the place of 
his literary labors with the vault which holds his tomb and those of 
his faithful admirers and disciples, a certain Eusebius (not the 
Church historian) and two Roman ladies, Paula and Eustochium. 

Two staircases lead down to the chapel of the Nativity, one 
in the south from the Greek chapel, the other in the north from the 
Armenian chapel. It is a cave 38 feet long and ii feet wide. A 
niche at the east end near the southern stairs has been marked in 
the pavement by a silver star as the very spot of Christ's nativity, 
and on a marble tablet we read the words, "Hie de Virgine Maria, 


Jesus Christus natus est." On the other side of the southern stairs 
in the western wall of the cave is another niche which has been 
selected to serve as the spot where the manger stood, but the original 
manger discovered here has been carried to Rome, where it is pre- 
served in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. Further north, we 
are told, is the place where the magi stood when offering their gifts 
and worshiping the new-born Saviour. 

At Christmas the nativity of Christ is celebrated by the popu- 
lation together with thousands of pilgrims who gather here from 



long distances. The patriarch leaves Jerusalem in the morning to 
visit Bethlehem for this purpose. He is received with great pomp 
and accompanied to the church of St. Catharine. The service lasts 
fully nine hours, from three in the afternoon until midnight. At 
twelve o'clock the candles are lit, and while the Gloria is intoned to 
the accompaniment of shepherds' pipes, the wax figure of an infant 
appears above the altar. A high mass follows, and after about two 
hours the patriarch carries the wax figure in a cradle to the church 
of the Virgin and places it on the silver star in the grotto of the 


Nativity. Here the figure is wrapped in swaddling clothes, and the 
cha])ter on the birth of Christ is read. This done, the procession 
returns to the church of St. Catharine where another mass is cele- 
brated which lasts until sunrise. 

The basilica built over the place of Christ's nativity belongs 
to the Latins, Greeks and Armenians, while the churches of St. 
Helena and St. George are the property of the Greek Church. 

Bethlehem, like Jerusalem, must have been an old settfement 
of prehistoric ages. The name probably means the "house of Lak- 
ham (or Lakhmu)," who was one of the ancient gods of Baby- 



Ionian mythology. Later on when Lakhmii was forgotten, the 
word was interpreted to mean "house of bread." The Arabs now 
call it Beit-Lahm, i. e., the "house of meat." 

There is a picturesque ancient tomb near the town of Bethlehem 
where Rachel, the ancestor of the tribe of Benjamin and a kind of 
patron saint of the inhabitants, is reported to lie buried. From here 


the visitor enjoys a good view of the town as it appears in the ad- 
joined illustration. 

This so-called Tomb of Rachel is a typical whitened sepulchre, 
such as is used for the Moslem saints called zveli. Formerly a 
stone pyramid covered the tomb, but the site was purchased in 1841 
by Sir Moses Montefiore who had it restored and decorated with 
a cupola and a vestibule. It is not known who lies buried here. 
The assumption that it ought to be Rachel is based on the passage 
Gen. XXXV. 19-20, where her death and burial are mentioned as 
follows : 

"And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Beth- 

"And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave : that is the pillar of Rachel's grave 
unto this day." 

The passage appears to be contradicted by another statement 
in I Sam. x. 2, according to which Rachel's tomb was situated at 
Zelzah on the frontier between Benjamin and Ephraim, which is to 
be located north of Jerusalem.^ 

Since we know that the New Testament genealogies are im- 
possible, that the edict of Emperor Augustus, according to which 
Joseph had to travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem, is unhistorical, 
and that the story of the magi together with the massacre of the 
innocents is a legend attributed to Jesus only because it had been 
told of Buddha and of Krishna, we must conclude that Jesus was 
not born in Bethlehem and we might be led to believe that he hailed 
from Nazareth, but here again we become entangled in difficulties. 

The village of Nazareth is a beautiful spot in Galilee, and was 
formerly called en-Natsira, but this identification of Nazareth with 
en-Natsira rests upon a weak foundation. We search in vain for a 
town or village of Nazareth in the time of Jesus. He was called 
the Nazarene because he was a member of the sect of the Nazarenes. 
His disciples too were called Nazarenes and St. Paul was a "ring- 
leader of the Nazarenes," yet none of them was born in Nazareth. 
This term "Nazarene" is sometimes replaced in the Greek text of 
the Gospels by the clause "he of Nazareth," which indicates that 
whoever translated the original Aramaic documents into Greek mis- 
took the designation "Nazarene" for an inhabitant of a city, and 
this city Nazareth was later identified in the third century, with 
en-Natsira in spite of the difference of the two sibillants. The 

* For arguments that the tomb of Rachel must be sought north of Jeru- 
salem, see Ebers, Paldstina, I, p. 493 note. Cf. Tobler, Topographie von Jeru- 
salem, II, p. 785 ff. 



Greek C of Na^^areth is soft as in English ds, while the ts in en- 
Na/^ira is a sharp ts like the German z. 

Nazareth, nowhere mentioned in the Old Testament and ab- 
solutely unknown to geographers and historians at the time of 

Christ, was an insignificant place even in the Christian era. Epi- 
phanius mentions it (Adv. Her. I, 136) as having been inhabited 
only by Jews until the reign of Constantine, The place grew 


slowly and Arkulf who wrote in the fifth century, speaks of a church 
built over the house of Joseph and Mary. In the sixth century a 
basilica is mentioned, and since then the place has received increas- 
ing- attention. We are scarcely mistaken when we attribute its 
present significance exclusively to the tradition that the old en- 
Natsira is the Nazareth of the Gospels. 

In the time of the crusades, the seat of the metropolitan of 
Palestina Secunda was transferred from Scythopolis to Nazareth, 
which naturally added considerably to the importance of the town. 

If neither Bethlehem nor Nazareth can be regarded as the 
birthplace of Jesus, where shall we seek the home of his parents 
and the scenes of his childhood? 

Prof. W. B. Smith regards the term "Nazarene" as the title of 
a guardian spirit or saviour, and he believes that "Jesus" means 
practically the same. He therefore uses "Jesus" with the article, 
speaking of "the Jesus," as Christians originally spoke of "the 
Christ," and there is much truth in his argument. We do not deny 
that the saviour idea antedated Jesus, and that many incidents of 
his life and many traits were attributed to him because he was wor- 
shiped as the fulfilment of this ideal. 

We cannot enter here into a discussion of the problem, but we 
will say that in spite of the truth in this conception we need not 
deny that Jesus, the Jesus of the Gospels, was a definite historical 
personality who was born at the time of Herod the Great and died 
on the cross as a martyr to his convictions under Pontius Pilate. 
We grant that the historical evidence is not quite conclusive and 
leaves a large margin for opinion. 

As to myself, I feel there is an historical basis at the bottom 
of the reports of the Synoptic Gospels, and I accept the view of 
those theologians who believe that they are based upon a prior source 
best preserved in Mark and commonly known as Proto-Mark. Tak- 
ing this stand I would say that a critical investigation of the Gospels 
can at least arrive at a pretty well established probability as to the 
character of Jesus and the main events of his life. 

Jesus was ])robably born and raised in Capernaum, for the 
Gospels contain indications that he lived there, and that there dwelt 
liis ])arents and his kin. 

That Jesus was a Galilean is generally conceded, and in Matt. 

ix. I, Capernaum is called "his city." Here he had his home which 

was known to the people (Mark ii. i) of whom many came when 

"it was noised that he was in the house. "^ We read in Mark vi. i, 

* ii> oiKu which might be translated "at home." 



and Matt. xiii. 54, that "when He (Jesus) was come into his ozvn 
country, he taught them in their synagogue," and the expression, 
"his own country," has been commonly interpreted to mean Naza- 
reth. But if Nazareth must indeed be identified with en-Natsira, 
it was a small and insignificant village at the time of Christ, yea, 

(After Ebers and Guthe, Palaestina.) 

less than a village, so it cannot have possessed a synagogue. It was 
a small settlement at a spring, then called the Spring of the Guard- 
house, now the Spring of the Virgin. (Compare also Luke iv. 16-30, 
where Nazareth is called "a city" in verse 29). Thus we are led to 
believe that the name Nazareth has been inserted where the original 





referred merely to the home of Jesus and that "his own country" 
means the same as "his city" which was Capernaum. This is the 
place of which he said "a prophet is not without honor save in his 
own country [and among his own kin] and in his own house." 

The words here quoted in brackets, "and among his own kin," 
occur in Mark, which is the older report, but have been omitted in 
Matthew, presumably because tradition gradually obliterated the 
differences that are recorded as having obtained between Jesus and 
the members of his family. (See Mark iii. 21, and Luke iv. 16, and 
also Matt. xii. 46 flf.) The mother of Jesus had become an object 


of veneration ; she was called the theotoktos, the mother of God, and 
in the growing Church took the place of the magna mater of pagan- 
ism, the Queen of Heaven. The existence of the brothers of Jesus 
was altogether denied as contrary to the doctrine of the Virgin birth. 
The visitor to Palestine finds churches built in commemoration 
of Jesus in Bethlehem and in Nazareth, but not in Capernaum. 
What a strange irony of fate ! While both places of legendary tra- 
ditions have been beautified and consecrated by Christians who have 
determined every spot where Jesus is supposed to have been, Caper- 
naum has been neglected and lies in ruins. Strange indeed ; but in 


the history of religion, myth triumphs over history ! And he who 
is familiar with the law of religious development knows why this 
is so. 

Religion cares little for facts ; devout souls are interested in 
truths only, and the religious truths of great popular movements 
are mostly expressed in parables, in allegories and in symbols. They 
are superhistorical ; they need not be actual occurrences, if only their 
import be true. A devotee is filled with sentiment and is apt to be 
wearied by science. He will respect historical investigations only 
if they bring grist to his mill. Otherwise he does not hesitate to 
reject or set aside even well-established truths of science as soon 
as they come in conflict with what he feels to be the truth. This 
truth, the religious truth of his faith, is sacred to him, and the sci- 
entific truth that would tear down his faith appears to him profane. 
Hence it is condemned as irreligious and evil. 

These considerations must be borne in mind if we wish to 
understand the nature of the history of religion and the spirit which 
dominates its development. Piety has a logic of its own ; for a 
devotee is convinced before he investigates, and the most irrelevant 
suggestion is easily accepted by an unquestioning faith as irrefutable 

We do not say that historical investigation should be stopped, 
nor that facts should be set aside for the sake of religious doctrines. 
We only wish to point out the psychology of faith and explain its 
pragmatic tendency. It is not necessary either to praise or to con- 
demn this feature of religious habits, but we must understand its 
mode of operation so as to appreciate its poetry and also its power 
over people's minds, without being blind to its weak points, espe- 
cially to the dangers that lurk in playing fast and loose with the 
conception of truth. 

Whatever conclusion may be reached by a critical investigation 
as to the historic Jesus, we must bear in mind that Jesus was not 
a man to the early Christians, he was the Christ, he was God in- 
carnate ; and therefore all the notions associated with the Christ idea 
were transferred upon Jesus. What it behooved a saviour to have 
been, or to have done, or to have suffered, must have happened to 
Jesus, and we understand why it was so. The people needed an ideal, 
and the story of the vicissitudes of a man would have been of no use 
to them. They needed a god. Jesus the man was of no account; 
Imt Jesus the God, the Christ, the Saviour, was of paramount sig- 
nificance, and necessarily so ; for in the evolution of mankind, the 


superhistorical truth of religious ideals is an irresistible power which 
does not brook the facts of actual occurrences. 

Christmas is celebrated by believers and unbelievers. Similar 
festivals have been celebrated in pre-Christian times among pagans, 
as yuletide or the weird sennight, when Wodan and his host pass 
by; as the nativity of Dionysus, the birth of Horus, etc., and it is 
probable that Christmas will continue to be celebrated as the festival 
of the child in the manger, whatever critics may have to say about 
the place or date of the birth of Christ. 



*''T^HE progress of humanity may be compared to the sea during 
i- a rising tide," declared Macaulay. "Each successive wave 
rushes forward, breaks, and rolls back ; but the flood is steadily 
coming in. A person who looked on the waters only for a moment 
might fancy they were retiring. A person who looked on them only 
five minutes might fancy they were rushing capriciously to and fro. 
But when he keeps his eye on them for a quarter of an hour and 
sees one sea-mark disappear after another, it is impossible for him 
to doubt the general direction in which the ocean is moved." Apt 
is this comparison in a double sense: apt within the closest meaning 
of appropriateness ; apt in that it demonstrates the common course 
of deductions as being inconclusive and framed from partial phe- 

Did our person watch the sea for six hours he would observe 
that it had lost its former advantages. Did he watch it for twelve 
hours he would have witnessed an example of the complete cycle 
in the history of human progress. Neither making a total backward 
or forward movement nor standing still, humanity is ever beating and 
tearing at the boundary of the beyond or falling back dismayed, 
bruised and bleeding. 

To demonstrate this cycle movement, in which all forms of 
animate life participate, we must make manifest the falsity of the 
basic idea of evolution. 

M. Poincare insists that the most important hypotheses are true 
only so long as known facts substantiate them, and that all hypoth- 
eses are condemned to scientific oblivion as soon as enough new facts 
arise to combat them. Which is merely another way of saying that 
man in his eagerness to coordinate the phenomena of the universe 
into one system explaining the whole, has invariably made his de- 


ductions from insufficient data, with the result that time has vindi- 
cated the error in each particular instance. 

Optimism and credulity are the undoing of the prophet. From 
the angle of inclination, manifest in certain modern tendencies, he 
continues upward in an undeviating line towards the clouds. A 
single section of the historic activity of the race serves him as a base 
from which to project into the unsuspecting future, a prophecy 
which ignores such petty laws of nature as gravity and cohesion. 

The eye of man commonly sees only the high and illuminated 
points of the historic horizon. The details of hill and valley, growth 
and decay are lost to him in the general perspective. Thereupon 
he is easily convinced when the word of the prophet coincides with 
his prejudice and his opinion. And strangely enough this narrow 
view of the phenomena of nature persists in an age ostensibly de- 
voted to liberality as opposed to the broader view obtaining through 
so many centuries with a people popularly condemned as bigoted. 

Through Greek and Roman literature, and Eastern thought, 
is to be found reference to the cycle in which all animate nature was 
believed to share impartially, in direct contrast to the modern con- 
ception of progress. This idea of the cycle, maintained so many 
years, has been succeeded by a theory which psychologically spells 
egotism. The rapid march of scientific investigation, the great 
stride in material matters, has carried us in imagination away off 
on a tangent from the old paths apathetically circled by ancient na- 

Man has assumed the burden originally borne by God, and buoys 
himself with the hope of outwitting nature by the vain assumption. 

Optimism associates itself with the belief in progress, and pes- 
simism with non-belief. If to be governed by egotism is optimism, 
and to be directed by nature is pessimism, the connection is con- 
firmed. That the optimism of the progressive program may defeat 
its own purpose is patent. An attitude of absolute faith in inevitable 
improvement tends to reduce the impetus towards perfection by a 
relaxation of those efforts which would otherwise be engaged to 
that end. 

Whatever consolation is to be derived from the philosophy of 
history is at best negative. Initiation into the design of nature lies 
not in the way of evolution. The perplexity of the older philos- 
ophers becomes more perplexed by the addition of elements which 
confuse the issue and isolate the observer sj^mpathetically. 

Contrary to the common expectation, scientific reasoning car- 
ries us further and further from the fountain head of truth in re- 


gard to the understanding of life. The mystery repels the repeated 
assaults of cold-blooded logic and reveals itself to the psychologically 
elect. Faith has here an advantage over skepticism. Human stan- 
dards are pitifully inadequate to the measuring of universal hap- 

As we diverge from the spiritual path into the material, we 
surrender former estimation of values ; we charge the future ill- 
equipped for the fray, and alienate those influences most favorable 
to an estimable intuition. 

Nature produces large flowers, radiant flowers and fragrant 
flowers ; but combines not the three qualities in one. Every attempt 
of man to subvert the order of nature in this respect has been un- 
successful. Between size, odor and beauty, he must choose. The 
National Food Magazine gives notice that "Efforts of the poultry- 
man to produce a chicken that will combine the best meat qualities 
with the best laying qualities have not been entirely successful, as, 
in chickens, like cattle, it seems that other qualities must be sacri- 
ficed for the sake of meat, and vice versa." 

The question we ask of our social organism is. How far has it 
sacrificed spiritual qualities for material qualities ? How have moral- 
ity and happiness fared in the direction of what can truly be called 

"It used to be said that he who made two ears of corn grow 
where only one ear had grown before was a benefactor to the race," 
remarks James Bryce. Then he asks, "Is it necessarily so? The 
number of men who can live off the soil is larger, but the men need 
not be better off. If there is more food then there are also more 
mouths." This proposition forces us to decide whether a growing 
population is an indication of progress or a mere survival of an old 
idea from those ages when the gathering of arms was the strength 
of the city. 

Evidences of improvement in general health or physique are 
exceedingly difficult to obtain, because the balance which nature 
maintains in each case of betterment is reckoned on a different scale 
than we ordinarily impose. 

Even those who have adopted the hypothesis of evolution with 
its survival of the fittest, etc., are obliged to relinquish it on the 
threshold of modern society. Here this grand and noble theory no 
longer holds good. Here the weak and ill-equipped are pampered 
and encouraged ; the strong are over-burdened. The factory sys- 
tem on one hand and social patronage on the other, insure at least 
a surcease of these rigid laws which are conceived to have originally 


preserved the strong man and eliminated the weak, nor is authority 
lacking in proof thereof, viz., Robt. Hunter, Jacob Riis, and Jack 
London. What significance attaches to the abandonment of man 
by nature just as he is about to enter the final lap in the race to 
perfection? Or has the evolutionary course imagined for man been 
merely a tribute to his egotism which must now be discountenanced? 
Those who make a fetish of the evolutionary hypothesis and pin their 
faith to the inflexibility and unvariableness of natural laws are con- 
victed of blind egotism out of their own logic. Biblical miracles 
are condemned because they involve an outrageous suspension of 
natural laws as man conceives these laws, yet this condemnation 
carries with it the doom of the hypothesis of evolution in its nar- 
rower conception. When man pits his finite conception of miracles 
against the infinite possibilities of nature, he is guilty of an an- 
achronism which would bring reproach upon a Hottentot. The un- 
taught child is nearer the heart of truth than the knowledge-laden 

The records of the past are comprehensive and unequivocal. 
The egotism of the age manufactures for present humanity a soul- 
invention not guessed at by humanity past. Egotism introduces a 
principle more elusive than the fourth dimension, more mythical 
than the Golden Age, more hypothetical than the Martians. 

Emanating from the atmosphere which is created by the hypoth- 
esis of evolution this principle fades with the ghostly retreat of the 
hypothesis. How exorcise so plausible an hypothesis? How secure 
a worthy substitute which will satisfy the scientific as well as the 
credulous mind? In default thereof we must discover a principle 
which coordinates all the known phenomena, and accounts for all 
those imperfections which the story of evolution glided over. Our 
principle must account for the bulk of the elephant and the swiftness 
of the rabbit ; the radiance of the sun-flower and the fragrance of 
the violet ; the strength of the shark and the agility of the eel ; it must 
likewise account for the magnitude and stupidity of pre-historic 
animals compared with the lightness and intelligence of the con- 
temporary, and explain the multitude of exceptions which modern 
research has found a stumbling block to the unquestionable estab- 
lishment of the theory of evolution. 

Emerson gave us the key to this principle in his study of com- 
pensation. "For every benefit which you receive a tax is levied. — 
Human labor, through all its forms, from the sharpening of a stake 
to the construction of a city or an epic, is one immense illustration 


of the perfect compensation of the universe. Everywhere and always 
this law is sublime/' 

The tax is inseparable from the gain. Disturb the balance of 
nature in one direction and it reasserts itself in another. Every- 
where and always this law is sublime ! 

Using this key to unlock the mystery of the universe, we find 
the mystery a mystery no longer. As we open the door and a flood 
of light is poured into the dark chamber, we see in the boundless 
crucible of life a succession of familiar molecules ever shifting, 
uniting and dividing; a chemical mass whose seething constituents 
are active in the interchange of the most commonplace substances; 
a fund of chemical commotion in which each atom gives to each new 
molecular combination some quality for which the combination must 
pay the price in flavor, texture, or durability. Always supreme the 
law of give and take! 

For the primary chemical elements, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, 
substitute the primary physical elements, strength, agility, courage. 
So. let loose upon the world are certain atoms, or agglomerations of 
electrons to put a fine point upon it, each with its peculiar prop- 
erties, which men inherit or appropriate through accident or design. 
Humanity has bequeathed it a definite fund of these atoms which it 
frames into molecules or individuals who possess characteristics ac- 
cording to their atomic construction. 

Both sugar and wood are composed of carbon, oxygen and hy- 
drogen ; their difference is quantitative rather than qualitative. From 
a determinate weight of sugar can be obtained a determinate weight 
of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen ; similarly with wood. The atom 
is unvarying, changeless ; the molecule is constantly altering its com- 

Mendelief said, "Chemistry recognizes how changes take place 
in combinations of the unchanging." It is the business of chemistry 
to trace the changes of properties which are brought about by com- 
bining unchanging atoms so as to form different kinds of molecules. 
It is the business of philosophy to trace the changes of the character 
of the individuals brought about by the combination of primary 

The molecular constitution in the physical organization is for 
the most part as strongly marked and as limited quantitatively as 
the chemical. It is governed by practically the same laws of affinity 
and distribution. And if the physical molecule or individual is not 
so inexorably restricted in the matter of the interchangeability of 
its parts, and the establishment of an invariable weight of constit- 


uents, there is always maintained a balance, — within liberal limits of 
course, which if disturbed in one direction reasserts itself in another. 
There is not space in one individual for a maximum of frivolity, 
wisdom, artistic impulse, and business sense, any more than there is 
space in a molecule for a maximum of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 
at one and the same time. That is why men specialize. They recog- 
nize that one attribute must be developed at the expense of others. 
The law of compensation holds firm. 

Take specialization in the orange. Eliminate the seed of the 
orange, and the pulp multiplies in answer to the law of compensa- 
tion. Increase the size of the fruit beyond reasonable limits and the 
assertion of balance causes the flavor to suffer. 

Consider the balance in human history. Suppose we look upon 
the known history of the race as a physical organization which has 
undergone certain transformations as a result of differing and 
various influences during different epochs. The prevailing char- 
acter of Egyptian supremacy was religious ; that of Greece, philo- 
sophic and artistic ; that of Rome, political ; that of the Modern, 
material. Each nation in its respective flourishing period, manifested 
an affinity in correspondence with the general receptivity of its 

Correlated with the Egyptian capacity for religious governance 
was the coarctation to other forms of mental activity. The same 
is true of the philosophical control of Greece, the political absorp- 
tion of Rome, and the material dominance of the modern era. Ca- 
pacity in one direction premises abridgement in others. 

To-day painters paint pictures, poets sing songs, philosophers 
philosophize, theologians argue, politicians plan ; but high above all 
the principal incentive to action, the pride of peoples, the absorbing 
ambition, hovers the spirit of materialism. Our up-to-date music 
is Strauss's reproduction of the sound of factory whistles blended 
with the whirr of wheels; our art presents the narrow chasms of 
New York city streets, bordered on either side by lighted cliffs of 
towering office buildings. While these are mere surface facts, they 
indicate the general flow of the intellectual stream — if indication be 
needed for a current so swift that it bears, if properly steered by 
capitalistic scandal, any craft to a one hundred thousand subscription 
list over night. Says the Philistinic De Casseres : "The soul of the 
New Yorker is a mere measuring utensil. It is a gauge for material 
things only. 'What does it cost?' 'What can I sell it for?' — are his 
first questions. All art is merchandise, all beauty is pressed into 
the service of advertising pills, porous plaster and beers. The man 


of literary skill is told to write advertisements ; the great musician 
is directed to a cafe ; the talented painter is set to work on magazine 

We have accustomed ourselves to think that our inventions, lux- 
uries and conveniences are the output of a brain power never before 
attained by the races of men. This is an assumption of intellectual 
superiority not substantiated by facts. There are probably more 
units than formerly subject to the mental stimulation of available 
knowledge, a more level and commonplace equality in the domain 
of intellect ; which is quite apart from the establishment of a unique 
creation in brain quality. 

Greek thought indisputably lies at the foundation of all modern 
speculation. The claim of Egypt and of China to some of our fun- 
damental inventions is urgent. Explicit evidence of the existence of 
a high order of intelligence among early peoples is not wanting. A 
capricious intelligence follows the paths of least resistance. Regu- 
lation of the path of least resistance is beyond human ken. When 
an irresistible intellect meets an immovable object, it detours grace- 

Intelligence is translated by dominant social forces into the 
species of activity dictated by environment and temperament. 
Whether the activity be philosophical, or political, or material, has 
no significance in terms of brain quality. The age is the slave of 
circumstance, and the individual is the subject of the age. Had the 
Church not been tyrannical, the sixteenth century would probably 
have witnessed some other form of reformation ; had Luther not 
been born, the sixteenth century could not have elapsed without a 
great schism in the Church. 

Through all the interplay of intellectual activity, the balance 
in compensation has been maintained. Optimism, born of the sci- 
entific advance of the century, fosters the belief that the balance can 
permanently be disturbed in favor of posterity. Much is hoped 
from environment. And in a sense environment has improved. But 
the improvement, when summarized, is discovered to be rather illu- 
sive and with a private balance of its own. "In millions of copies 
the vulgar newspaper pictures of crime reach the homes of the sug- 
gestible masses," declares Professor Miinsterberg, "and every im- 
pulse toward the forbidden is dangerously reinforced. Every bru- 
tality spreads outward and accentuates the lawless impulses in the 
surrounding world." 

Curiously illustrative of the paradoxical way of progress is the 
progress in matters sanitary. Increased density of population has 


necessitated additional sanitary precautions, and improved sanitary 
conditions encourage further congregation of the people. Being 
the spur to sanitary improvement, the crowded condition must al- 
ways be ahead of the remedy by a tantalizing few thousand souls or 
so. Since men commonly do not anticipate a remedy, the reciprocal 
relation between progress and its cause is not totally complimentary 
to those even in the van of the movement. Especially is this true in 
the case of philanthropy, where progressive economic conditions 
contribute a dole to those who have been deprived, by the conditions, 
of a rightful heritage. 

Nor are other signs more promising when weighed in the bal- 
ance. It is presumed to be a mark of advancement that the penalty 
for the courage to deliver the truth is now limited to social and 
commercial ostracism, whereas formerly it meant the gallows. Ostra- 
cism as against the gallows does not altogether commend itself for 
an advance in the humane art. 

The vagaries of the moral mode are an admirable gauge of the 
whole progressive movement. The compensation element working 
here is obvious to all but the utopian-minded. From Lecky we learn 
that every age and every nation has certain characteristic vices, 
which prevail almost universally. Succeeding generations change the 
pattern of their morals with the fashion of their clothes ; patronize 
small wiles and small waists instead of open brutality and bustles, 
without adding to either the sum total of the comfort of the soul or 
of the body. New forms of wickedness are invented to replace the 
old ones abhorred, and salvation for the race en bloc is still in the 

Every addition to the sum of pleasure, James Bryce assures 
us, may bring some pain with it, for the enjoyment of each pleasure 
creates a desire to have more of it. Where new conditions have en- 
abled men to acquire a taste for something, the want of it is felt as 
a privation which may become a hardship. 

Just as a horticulturist must sacrifice numbers to size, and each 
quality to the detriment of some other quality, so in the crucible of 
nature is a fixed amount of elementary material which can be 
worked over into various products never possessing at once all those 
qualities which are held to be desirable, but passing in turn through 
successive transformations suggested by the contemporary predom- 
inant environmental influence. 

Sir William Ramsay, who came to the study of the philosophy 
of history with the evolutionary theory firmly rooted in his mind, 
had to admit that he found so many facts which refused to fit the 


theory that he was compelled to abandon it, at least in its narrowest 
interpretation. The ease with which one can arrange religions or 
philosophies in a series from the lowest to the highest and assume 
that this series represents a historical development, should at once 
arouse one's suspicions. But where egotism is concerned, suspicion 
is somnambulant. Egotism betrays into fresh egotism. 

How simple it is to become the dupe of our own ingenuity we 
learn from the experience of Sir William. Beginning the study of 
Greek religion as a follower of Robertson Smith and Maclennan 
and accepting the Totemist theory as the key of truth, he was forced 
by the evidence to the view that degeneration is the outstanding 
fact in religious history, and that the modern theory often takes 
the last products of degeneracy as the facts of primitive religion. 

The abandoned theories of the past bear witness to the tran- 
sient value of hypotheses which embrace incomplete observations. 
Freed from prejudice and preconception, any view which M^e choose 
to take of the complete phenomena of nature reveals its essentially 
chemical character. 

Applied to animals, to men, or to things, the principle of the 
cycle and its compensatory adjunct provides a rule of action which 
the hypothesis of evolution, plausible as. it is, scarce dares hope to 
dispute. Although we cannot anticipate combinations, given the 
combination, the result can be computed as approximately as our 
familiarity with the molecular structure permits. The germination 
of a seed and the development of a nation are chemically associated. 

Chemical formula is the compendium of life manifestation 
everywhere. Atoms generally combine and recombine to form 
various materials ; never losing their identity and passing cease- 
lessly through a cycle of changes ordained by fate and regulated by 
a higher law than man is capable of comprehending. 

However displeasing the prospect may be to those who must 
squeeze a moral from every passing molecule, the phenomenon has 
its compensation. The incongruity is chargeable to imagination 
rather than to fact ; man's place in the universe not having been as yet 
established. Happiness is an internal-symbol dependent upon the 
molecular arrangement, so that the environment of the molecule 
is not of such great importance as its intrinsic constitution. 

There is nothing necessarily depressing in the concept that 
racial evolution is a myth. It is to the belief in inevitable progress, 
as exemplified in the hypothesis of evolution, that we owe much of 
the egotism and irrcligion of the day. Whereas belief, if it must 
be bolstered by an underlying thought of personal advantage, finds 


a more adequate realization in the cycle principle, which offers to 
the individual the opportunity to advance, irrespective of the circling 
mass, whose opposing efforts can never be organized into a collec- 
tive ascent of the hill approaching the "Celestial City." 

That portion of the cycle in the visible history of the individual, 
which pertains to known activity on this sphere, can best accomplish 
a desirable destiny for itself unembarrassed by the prescription of 
physicians who are to be satisfied with nothing less than the simul- 
taneous cure of all their patients. 

Character is largely the outcome of a single life. We may 
bequeath that to the rising generation which will help to make or mar 
their lives, but the final issue is a matter of individual specific grav- 
ity independent of the rise and fall of social systems. 



MR. Walter Sonneberg calls attention in his article to an im- 
portant truth which is frequently overlooked. It is this, that 
evolution is not a continuous progress, but only one phase in the 
circuit of life. It is true that life moves in circles, or rather in spirals, 
which are advancing circles. But for that reason we can not say 
that "progress is an illusion." Progress and evolution are true 
enough, even though they are only one phase of life, and even 
though they are followed by dissolution and decay. 

Some evolutionists have accepted the idea that progress will 
lead mankind to a state of complete adaptation and will finally end 
in a sort of millennium when there will be perfect bliss and happi- 
ness. This is an error, for happiness is a relative factor. We may 
express happiness by a fraction, the denominator of which repre- 
sents our needs while the numerator enumerates the satisfactions 
attained. Progress increases both factors simultaneously. As the 
satisfaction that contributes to our happiness increases so does the 
denominator of our growing wants. New needs arise with every 
invention, and we are but too quick in becoming accustomed to 
them. The fact is that life is a function and our happiness a corre- 
lated exponent of its motion. Pain and misfortune are caused by 
disturbances which clamor for a readjustment. Life may grow more 
and more complicated, but a life from which trouble, anxiety, ob- 
struction, struggle, misfortunes, accidents, pain and other disturb- 
ances were absolutely eliminated, is a mere dream ; closely considered 
it is unthinkable and we may count it as an impossibility. 

At the same time we do not doubt that all evolutionists of a 
scientific turn of mind are, and always have been, convinced of the 
truth that all things that have originated will finally pass away. 
Solar systems rise into existence and break to pieces. Nothing 


endures, and of late we have found evidence that even the chem- 
ical atoms will be dissolved again. 

We must assume that in the course of eons our whole solar sys- 
tem, the universe in which we live, will be destroyed. On the other 
hand we know that new universes originate even before the old 
ones pass away. The heavens are studded with nebulas which 
astronomy has found out to be worlds in the making. Life is in 
constant motion. It blooms and withers, it originates and passes 
away ; but while the several forms of life come and go life itself is 
ever new, and the eternal laws which sway the whole remain for- 
ever world without end. 

We know that all that lives must die ; but we know also that 
life is always triumphant. 

Though all the worlds must break to pieces, growth, evolution, 
progress, life ever advancing, or whatever we may call it, will re- 
main the characteristic feature of existence. The world runs in one 
definite direction. It is in a state of perpetual motion, and this 
motion exhibits the tendency of building up. Portions of it break 
down again but every breakdown only prepares a new start. 

We conclude with a quotation from De Rerum Natura (which 
is here reproduced with some corrections) : 

"But as the morning wakes the eyes 
Whose weariness the evening sealed with sleep ; 
As new-born spring the doom of winter thwarts 
And genial resurgence foils the tomb 
With life rejuvenized in serial birth; 
As night and day, in alternating layers, 
From time unfold : so too the world respires. 
The cosmic tides in rhythmic surges rise 
Ever to ebb in restless billows back 
Where call the soundless Deeps ; then upward heave 
With gathered stress of nobler aspiration. 
Thus ever from the grave is life redeemed. 
And ruins wake to spheres regenerate, 
Gemming the circle of eternity 
With threaded universes evermore." 



THIS is an account, set down as accurately as possible, of the 
one strange mental experience in my life of thirty-six years. 

It occurred on the fourteenth of last April, while under the in- 
fluence of an anesthetic preceding a surgical operation, and I find it 
especially strange in that it happened to me, who had always regarded 
myself as psychologically entirely average and commonplace. I have 
never been accused or suspected of possessing mediumistic powers, 
have never been hypnotized, have never had a "premonition," am not 
"nervous," never saw a ghost and, to quote the author of The Purple 
Cow, "I never hope to see one." My occupation (I am a country 
store keeper) has, so far as I am aware, never been regarded as pre- 
disposing a man to see visions and dream dreams. Moreover my 
knowledge of either philosophy or psychology is such as has been 
gathered only from general reading and casual conversations. 

The operation in question was performed by a surgeon whom 
I met for the first time in the operating room, assisted by Dr. K., a 
relative, and Dr. H., a personal friend. My recollections of events 
have been corroborated by the physicians ; my sensations were as 
I shall describe them except that I am not positive as to their exact 

I had never before taken ether, but the odor was not to me dis- 
agreeable. I began breathing deeply and regularly, as directed ; I 
felt the pressure of the nurse's fingers on my pulse and then Dr. H., 
with whom I had often discussed the mysteries of life and death, 

"This change coming over you is like another which you and 
I will some time experience." 

And he laughed softly as I answered : 

"We'll talk about it some day." 

A few moments later he asked : 

"Getting sleepy?" 


"A little," I answered and, later, as I felt the drowsiness creep- 
ing over me, I added : 

"I'm asleep now from the waist down." 

I realized that the drug was having its effect, that I must soon 
pass entirely under its influence, but the sensation was far from 
unpleasant. It was as if I were drifting with a great resistless tide, 
out into a rest which in its vastness might be eternal, a sort of Bud- 
dhistic Nirvana, in entering which I felt no sorrow, no regret. 

Then (and of the nature of the transition I have no memory) 
I was all at once awake and fully conscious in a different world, 
perhaps (one of the physicians later suggested) that of the sub- 
jective mind — whatever that may be. At any rate, it gave no sen- 
sory impressions, neither touch, smell or sight, yet in it I felt myself 
perfectly at home and immediately recognized it as being far more 
real than the other world out of which I had just come. Entering 
it was, by comparison, like coming out of the murky shadows of a 
cave into the clear light of day ; like passing at a step from the din 
and clangor of a crowded city street into the quiet of a country road- 
side on a summer afternoon. 

The physicians believed me entirely unconscious and I had lost 
all control of my members, as well as all concern for them, when 
suddenly, as if from a far distance, though I knew that he stood 
just at my body's head, I heard the voice of Dr. H. saying: 

"Keep breathing, Fred. Breathe deep." 

Response was instantaneous and seemingly almost automatic. 
I drew two breaths so deep that my back quite lifted, they tell me, 
from the operating table and of these breaths I was conscious. 

Then I heard Dr. K. laugh softly and say : 

"He still knows how to mind well." 

At that they say I chuckled. I do not remember it, but I do 
know that I was at that moment supremely amused, for I realized 
that these, my friends, believed they saw real things and causes, the 
cause, for example of my breathing, of their talking, and the like. 
But they didn't ; and I did. Not in the sense of being wiser than 
they or exercising keener insight. Only, I was where the causes 
zvere and to see them required no more mental effort or ability than 
to recognize a color as blue or an odor as ammonia. 

It is this phase of my experience which I find hardest to describe. 
It was as real as anything I ever experienced in physical life. It 
has still for me a very definite and positive value: since my waking 
there have risen a score of subtle mental problems which I have felt 
(still feel indeed) would simply vanish could they be looked at in 


the light of that world, yet when I seek to picture it, it escapes like 
water from every form of words I fashion and in telling of it I 
realize not simply that I fail to enlighten my individual hearer but 
that the words themselves are such as could not be expected to carry 
any clear impression to any one who had not undergone a similar 

This much however by way of one more trial : 

I was, in the phrase of one of Jack London's heroes, "all there." 
I had no dread of pain ; so far as I was concerned the surgeons might 
have begun their work that moment; yet, although I did not see or 
feel it in the physical sense, I knew just where my body lay, knew 
I had been placed under the influence of ether and was to undergo an 
operation. I was as conscious as at any time I ever was of my per- 
sonal affection for Drs. K. and H., and in my amusement there was 
no feeling of contempt or of superiority. I knew they saw all any 
one in their position could see, and, standing where I did, would 
see all I saw. But the knowledge of how little they actually did 
see, coupled with their evident feeling that they saw all there was, 
this was funny to the last degree ; as funny as the remark of the 
Irishman who, shown for the first time a barometer, exclaimed: 
"An' who'd iver think a little machine loike thot could make it rain 
an' snow !" 

In no wise either was my amusement due to a feeling that Dr. 
H. supposed that he was making me do something which actually I 
did of my own volition. In one sense he did make me breathe : not, 
as it seems to me, that he had any real control over me, but rather 
that my own control over my own body was so relaxed that I could 
not prevent his taking charge of the machine: though, for that mat- 
ter, I had of course no wish to do so. 

As to the causes operating in my world, they seemed not such 
as to at all supersede individual agency. Physical speech, physical 
breathing, and all the rest, were true, so far as they went, but my 
feeling was of their comparative unimportance and superficiality. 
It was as if the physical phenomena were but the echoes, or better 
perhaps, the broken and distorted shadows of the real things passing 
on my side of the veil. There one saw them as through a glass 
darkly, but here face to face. 

'Tis a crude figure but I felt that those of the physical world 
knew as little of real causes as does the child who, viewing a passing 
train and noting its revolving wheels, supposes that they, turning 
of themselves, give to coaches and locomotive their momentum. Or 
(another figure) imagine a man seated in a boat, surrounded by 


dense fog and out of the fog seeing a flat stone leap from the crest of 
one wave to another. // he had ahvays sat thus, his explanations 
must be very crude as compared with those of a man whose eyes 
could pierce fog and who saw upon the shore the boy skipping 

In some such way the remarks of the two physicians seemed to 
me like the last two "skips" of a stone thrown from my side and they 
enlightened me not at all except as to the manner in which the 
cause, if I may so phrase it, worked itself out. All that was essential 
in the remark I knew before it was made. 

Yet thus to discover, convincingly and for myself, that the things 
which are unseen are those of real importance, this was sufficiently 
stimulating and it will show how fully I was myself when I say 
that at the moment the last remark was made there flashed through 
my mind a conversation with a friend in which he, speaking of God 
as the great immanent spirit, in whom we live and move and have 
our being, suggested that God could perfectly control all phenomena, 
yet leave us infallibly convinced that what we saw resulted from 
natural law and natural law only. Not that this explanation quite 
fitted the case, not that I had any feeling of God, in the theological 
sense, but the very atmosphere of this world spoke to me of the one- 
ness and rightness of all things. 

"And," thought I, "I must remember all this and, when I re- 
turn, must tell him how shrewd a guess he made." For, alas! the 
thought that I would not be able to tell clearly all that was then so 
plainly evident, this was to me inconceivable. 

Afterward a drowsiness stole back upon me. I remembered 
having once read that the ears were the last part of a man to fall 
asleep, and I made a mental note as to the correctness of the state- 
ment. "For," said I, "I can still hear the running water in the 
other room." 

The thought of my wife and children came last, and then I was 
quite gone, into realms which have left upon the plates of memory 
no record. 

I have a notion, though it is only a guess, that most of the 
other sensations might also have escaped me had it not been for the 
two remarks of the physicians, serving as links, as it were, to join 
for me the two worlds and give me a momentary insight into each. 

Oddly enough, I woke with no recollection of this to me unique 
experience. Not until some twenty hours later did it come to me, 
and then it came with the force of an obsession, clamorouslv demand- 
ing, as it still demands, to be clothed with adequate words. 


One haunting enigma is the question of getting back. I was 
there once and were it Mombassa, Bagdad, Mandalay or "farthest 
north," any obscure or hidden corner of our planet, I would at least 
know how to start to reach it. But how set forth in quest of this 
realm which has for men an interest so much greater? 

The doctors gave me little hope that ether would take me there 
again,* though I would willingly undergo all that was disagreeable 
in the waking could I only come back with communicable impres- 
sions. To return simply to he there, as an opium eater might long 
to enter again his paradise, for this I have no desire. 

The besetting task was not well suited to the mind of a con- 
valescent and all that day, as I tried to frame the story of what had 
been to me so real and vivid, there grew upon me, more and more, 
the feeling that I, like the Lazarus of Browning's "Epistle," had in- 
deed entered "the spiritual life, around the earthly life," yet must 
also sympathize with him in that I could not give my "neighbor the 
real ground" of my conviction. 

Now was it simply an hallucination, such stuff as dreams are 
made of? 

It may have been. That, of course, I must admit ; but that it 
was, mere argument or logic would never convince me. 

All of us feel, sometimes, I imagine, that there ought to be 
a world different from and better than this one ; some "home of the 
soul," where the scales always weigh true, where life's injustices 
and inequalities are squared, where the oppressor's wrongs, the proud 
man's contumely and all the rest are quite impossible, where we are 
quit, once and for all, of this world's "measureless grossness and the 

My feeling is that for a moment I stood on the borderland of 
such a world, was there, in a sense as real as that I now am here. 
I did not tarry, it is true ; some spiritual current swept me forth 
again. But, if that world should prove to be all that my Pisgah 
glimpse seemed to promise, and if at death I were to return thither, 
to become a citizen of that country, I would ask for myself or for 
my loved ones no better realization of the Christians' Heaven. 

On reading the proofs of what I have written, it has occurred 
to me to mention two further items in connection with my ex- 

* Prof. William James writes me however : "You would doubtless get 
something similar if you tried ether again." 


In a recent newspaper account of a communication received 
through a medium by Professor Hyslop, from the spirit of his 
father, the "spirit" in explaining certain things which it understood 
better than he did said: "We see the working mind." In a sense 
this phrase seems to describe what I saw. 

Also, this illustration has suggested to me the difficulty which 
I have in making clear to others what I underwent. Suppose that 
from the beginning the race of men had never seen in the physical 
sense but had somehow gotten on by the aid of the other four 
senses, increased and multiplied and won a certain measure of do- 
minion over the earth, and then suppose that on some afternoon one 
of them had, for a brief space, seen in the sense in which we see, 
would it not be almost impossible for him to make clear to his fellow 
men what he had experienced? Would he have any words in which 
to tell it? 

This is somewhat my feeling of helplessness. 


This interesting report of the ether vision experienced by Mr. 
Frederick Hall, of Dundee, Illinois, describes a dream in which the 
dreamer remains to some extent conscious of his surroundings. 

There are other cases which throw light on the experience of 
Mr. Hall, and are especially interesting because, as a rule, the 
dreams are taken by the dreamers to be real, and so they are in- 
clined to call it "dreaming true." This seems to be corroborated 
because some features of the dream are due to actual sense-impres- 
sions and correspond to facts. For all that the experience remains 
a dream and the assumed actuality is an illusion quite natural in a 

One instance of this kind, communicated to me by a man of 
good education, was a case in which the dreamer dreamed that his 
soul passed out of his body, hovered above it and saw his own body 
lying on the bed quietly breathing. It saw doctors and nurses 
passing in and out and actually believed that he, his own soul with- 
out corporeal shape, an indefinite being consisting merely of self- 
consciousness, was perched in a definite place near the ceiling in the 

Phenomena of this kind are not uncommon, and we may state 
that Professor Goltz, the famous physiologist of Strassburg, ex- 
perienced conditions of this kind. 

The present statement of Mr. Hall is the more interesting in 


that he gives the account in the full belief that his dream was a 
reality, and he makes his statements from this standpoint in which he 
interprets his experiences in the dream itself. The physiological 
phenomena of his cerebration are those of a dream, but the psy- 
chical sensation of dreams is the same in kind as sense-perception 
in a waking state. Under normal conditions, dreams are weaker, 
but sometimes the dream consciousness, especially if it is caused 
by narcotics, proves to be as strong as, or even stronger and brighter, 
than the normal waking consciousness, rising up to a pitch of 
ecstacy, to a state of psychic intoxication when the soul revels in 
raptures of jubilant joy. 

The subjective states of perception are realities of life, and as 
sensations are as real as in our waking consciousness. They are not 
real, however, and we call them hallucinations, in the sense that no 
outside or objective things correspond to the visions of the dream 
that are caused subjectively by internal causes, while the perceptions 
of the waking consciousness are caused by external or objective 
conditions which are independent of our subjectivity and exhibit 
a persistence which becomes absurd in dreams. 

The interpretation of visions as objective realities is a psychical 
fact which must not be overlooked or forgotten, for it explains much 
in the psychical development of mankind and sets forth the reason 
why visions play such an important part in the history of religion. 



A MONG the philosophers of modern times Joseph Dietzgen is little 
l\. known partly because he was not a professional philosopher 
but, scientifically considered, a self-taught man, partly because his 
interest lay in the practical issues of life, for he was with all his soul 
a devoted adherent of the labor party. Hence he. has been called 
the philosopher of socialists or of social democracy. 

Joseph Dietzgen* was born December 9, 1828, at Blankenberg, 
a little town on the Sieg, a small river flowing into the Rhine a few 
miles above Cologne. The place is possessed of romantic traditions 
and a natural beauty. The ruins of an old castle are still standing, 
and the mountainous landscape is covered by woods and vineyards. 
His father was the owner of a tannery and in 1835 he moved to 
Uckerath, a small village in the neighborhood. In Uckerath Joseph 
attended the public school, and for a short time was sent to a Latin 
school in Oberpleis. He learned tanning in the tannery of his father, 
but he always had an open book with him while at work, for he was 
greatly interested in literature, political economy and philosophy. 
In 1848 he for the first time became conscious of his radical tenden- 
cies, and forthwith considered himself an outspoken socialist. In 
his philosophical ideas he was strongly under the influence of Feuer- 
bach, and in his socialist convictions he followed closely Marx and 
Engels. Carl Marx visited him at his home on the Rhine and became 
his friend. At the socialist Congress at the Hague in 1872, which 
Dietzgen attended as a delegate, Marx introduced him with the 
words: "Here is our philosopher." 

In 1849 Dietzgen came to the United States and made himself 

* The data of Dietzgen's life are taken from a short biography written by 
his son as an introduction to the German edition of Das Wesen der mensch- 
lichen Kopfarheit. 


thoroughly familiar with the country. He partly tramped through 
the States, partly traveled on canal boats, from the East to the 
Mississippi, and from Wisconsin down to the Gulf of Mexico. He 
returned to Uckerath in 1851 and married a deeply religious Roman 
Catholic orphan of Westphalia. Their married life was extremely 
happy in spite of the difference in their convictions. He educated 
his children well, but he never succeeded in establishing the financial 
conditions of his home on a solid foundation. In Winterscheid he 
opened a grocery, combined with a bakery, which he conducted for 
some time with success. 

In order to improve his condition he returned to the United 
States in 1859, where he founded a similar business in Montgomery, 
Alabama, but the war of secession ruined the enterprise, and when 
some of his friends had been hanged for their sympathy with the 
North he left Alabama in 1861 and returned to Winterscheid where 
he resumed his former business. 

In 1864 he saw an announcement in a paper which called for 
an expert tanner to conduct the imperial tannery at St. Petersburg. 
He applied for the place and was accepted. Though the position 
was good and the Russian government was greatly pleased with his 
work , he disliked Russian conditions to such an extent that he left 
St. Petersburg and returned to Germany. He settled in Siegburg 
and conducted the tannery of his father which he had inherited, 
but he was not successful in business. The growing industry con- 
centrated the tanneries into a few hands and made it more and more 
impossible for the small tanners to compete. 

At the same time Dietzgen continued his propaganda for the 
social democratic party, and in 1878 when Hodel and Nobiling had 
made their unsuccessful attempt to kill the emperor he was indicted 
for treason and held for a long time without bail. This ruined his 
business and in June, 1884, he left again for the United states where 
his oldest son had preceded him in 1880. 

"- In New York he took part as the coeditor of Der Socialist, a 
German socialistic paper, and in 1886 he made his home with his 
son, who in the meantime had settled in Chicago. This was the 
year of the labor troubles in Chicago which culminated in the Hay- 
market riot. The arrest of the leading anarchists followed and their 
organ, the Chicagoer Arbeit erzeitimg, was left without an editor. 
Dietzgen stepped in and offered his services without remuneration. 
He had been attacked by the Chicago anarchists because he did not 
agree with them on some labor questions, but he was not the man 
to bear a grudge against others and his helpful assistance was now 


fully appreciated. He died suddenly of heart failure at the home of 
his son, April 15, 1888. A few moments before his death he had 
taken an active part in a conversation on the socialist problem. 

A champion for the labor party, he was convinced that a final 
settlement would be impossible without a revolution, but in spite 
of the militant character of his convictions he was personally an 
amiable and lovable man. This appears for instance in a letter to 
one of his sons in which he gives him the following advice : "In your 
judgment against others and your surroundings be never harsh, but 
always humane. In order to act in an amiable way. one must think 
amiably. Virtues and faults always cling together; even the villain 
is a good fellow, and the just man sins seven times every day." 

Dietzgen had only the common education of a tradesman ; never- 
theless he had read a good deal and besides his native German was 
familiar with French and English. He wrote his first book, "The 
Nature of Human Brain Work," in St. Petersburg, and he expressed 
his conviction that in order to succeed in its demands the labor party 
must not only have a definite, particular platform, but must also be 
based upon a sound philosophy. In Siegburg he developed a great 
literary activity by contributing a series of articles on economical 
and political questions to the Organ of the German socialists, Vor- 
wdrts. He also contributed at various times to the Volksstaat, 
Sozialdemokrat, Neue Gescllschaft, Neue Zeit, and the New Yorker 

In 1880 he wrote "Letters on Logic" and the "Acquisition of 
Philosophy," meaning by the latter the matured fruits which philos- 
ophy has produced for mankind, and which he recommends social 
democrats to utilize. His books have been published in Stuttgart 
by J. H. W. Dietz's successor, and an English translation of them 
has appeared in Chicago from the publishing house of Charles H, 
Kerr & Company. 

In order to characterize Dietzgen we present an extract from a 
summary of his philosophy by Anton Pannekoek, who has written 
an introduction to his work. The Positive Outcome of Philosophy, 
the English version of Das Acquisit der Philosophie. Pannekoek 

"In times of primitive communism, the conditions of production 
were clear and easily understood. Things were produced jointly for 
use and consumed in common. Man was master of his mode of pro- 
duction and thus master of his own fate as far as the superior forces 
of nature admitted it. Under such conditions, social ideas could not 
help being simple and clear. There being no clash between personal 


and social interests, men had no conception of a deep chasm between 
good and bad. Only the uncontrolled forces of nature stood like un- 
intelligible and mysterious powers, that appeared to them either as 
well meaning or as evil spirits, above these primitive little societies. 
"But with the advent of the production of commodities the pic- 
ture changes. Civilized humanity begins to feel itself somewhat 
relieved from the hard and ungovernable pressure of fickle natural 
forces. But now new demons arise out of social conditions. 'No 
sooner did the producers give their products away in exchange in- 
stead of consuming them as heretofore, than they lost control of 
them. They no longer knew what became of their products, and 
there was a possibility that these products might some day be used 
for the exploitation and oppression of the producers — The products 
rule the producers.' (Engels). In the production of commodities, 
it is not the purpose of the individual producer which is accomplished, 
but rather that which the productive forces back of him are aiming 
at. Man proposes, but a social power, stronger than himself, dis- 
poses ; he is no longer master of his fate. The inter-relations of 
production become complicated and difficult to grasp. While it is 
true that the individual is the producing unit, yet his individual labor 
is only a subordinate part of the whole process of social production, 
of which he remains a tool. The fruits of the labor of many are en- 
joyed by a few individuals. The social cooperation is concealed be- 
hind a violent competitive struggle of the producers against one 
another. The interests of the individuals are at war with those of 

"Such were the impressions out of which thinking men were 
obliged to fashion their world-philosophy, while, at the same time, 
they were members of the possessing classes and had thus an oppor- 
tunity to employ their leisure for a certain self-study, without, how- 
ever, being in touch with the source of their impressions, viz., the 
process of social labor which alone could have enabled them to see 
through the social origin of their ideas. Men of this class, therefore, 
were led to the assumption that their ideas emanated from some 
supernatural and spiritual power 

"These successive changes of their theories are embodied in 
Grecian philosophy, in the various phases of the Christian religion, 
and in the modern systems of philosophy. 

"But we must not regard these systems and religions for what 
they generally pass, that is to say, we must not think them to be 
only repeated unsuccessful attempts to formulate absolute truth. 
They are merely the incarnations of progressive stages of better 


knowledge acquired by the human mind about itself and about the 
universe. It was the aim of philosophical thought to find satisfaction 
in understanding. And as long as understanding could not wholly 
be gotten by natural means, there remained always a field for the 
supernatural and incomprehensible. But by the painstaking mental 
work of the deepest thinkers, the material of science was cease- 
lessly increased, and the field of the supernatural and incomprehen- 
sible was ever more narrowed. And this is especially the case since 
the progress of capitalist production has promoted the persistent 
study of nature. For through this study the human mind was en- 
abled to test its powers by simple, quiet, persistent and fruitful labor 
in the search for successive parts of truth, and thus to rid itself from 
the overirritation of hopeless quest after absolute truth. The desire 
to ascertain the value of these new truths gave rise to the problems 
of the theory of understanding. The attempts to solve these prob- 
lems form a permanent part of modern systems of philosophy, which 
represent a graduated evolution of the theory of understanding. 
But the supernatural element in these systems prevented their per- 

"Under the impulse of the technical requirements of capitalism, 
the evolution of natural sciences became a triumphal march of the 
human mind. Nature was subjugated first through the discovery 
of its laws by the human mind, and then by the material subordina- 
tion of the known forces of nature to the human will in the service 
of our main object, the production of the necessaries of life with 
a minimum expenditure of energy. But this bright shining light 
rendered, by contrast, the gloom which surrounded the phenomena 
of human society only the darker, and capitalism in its development 
still accentuates this contrast, as it accentuates and thus renders 
more easily visible and intelligible all contrasts 

"Capitalism is now approaching its decline. Socialism is near. 
And the vital importance of this transition in human history cannot 
be stated more strongly than in the words of Marx and Engels : 
'This concludes the primary history of man. He thereby passes 
definitely out of the animal kingdom.' The social regulation of pro- 
duction makes man fully the master of his own fate. No longer 
does any mysterious social power thwart his plans or jeopardise his 
success. Nor does any mysterious natural force control him hence- 
forth. He has investigated its effects, understands them, and presses 
them into his service. For the first time in his history he will then 
be the ruler of the earth. 

"We now see that the many centuries that filled the history of 


civilization were a necessary preparation for socialism, a slow 
struggle to' escape from nature's slavery, a gradual increase of the 
productivity of labor, up to the point where the necessaries of life 
for all may be obtained almost without exertion. This is the prime 
merit of capitalism and its justification, that after so many cen- 
turies of hardly perceptible progress it taught man to conquer 
nature by a rapid assault. At the same time it set free the forces 
of production and finally transformed and bared the springs of the 
productive process to such a degree that they easily could be per- 
ceived and grasped by the human mind ; this was the indispensible 
condition for the control of this process 

"A new system of production sheds its light into the minds of 
men already before it has fully materialized. The same science 
which teaches us to understand and thereby to control the social 
forces, also unfetters the mind from the bewitching elTects of those 
forces. It enables him even now already to emancipate himself from 
traditional superstitions and ideas which were formerly the expres- 
sion of things unknown. We may anticipate with our mind the 
coming time. And thus the ideas which will then dominate are 
already even now growing within us in a rudimentary form cor- 
responding to the present actual economic development. By this 
means we are even now enabled to overcome the capitalist philos- 
ophy in thought and to soberly and clearly grasp the nature of our 
spirit as being dependent on matter." 

Dietzgen's philosophy is naturally onesided, his sympathies be- 
ing strongly engaged in favor of his class. He looks upon the world 
as if its whole purpose was to produce the social democratic party. 
He suffers from two illusions, both of which are quite common in 
reformers. First, he looks upon the primitive condition of mankind 
as a paradise, and further upon the final state to be attained as a 
millennium. We believe that if he had lived in the times of that 
primitive communism which he extols as a kind of paradise, he 
would have found that then life was as hard as, if not harder than, 
it is in the present age of the much denounced bourgeoisie, and 
even if we could abolish private possession of capital and have all 
capital confiscated by the community we would always have leaders, 
presidents, bosses, and those who are led, who have to do the 
bidding of others, the multitudes of the people, the captains of in- 
dustry, and the laborers ; and so long as the world stands the different 
interests of society will lead now and again to struggles more or less 
bitter according to conditions. 

It stands to reason that with the advance of civilization and the 


progress of social prosperity the contrasts between the classes and 
the conflicts between clashing interests will be less furious and more 
considerate. Nevertheless they will remain, and it is not to be ex- 
pected that we shall ever have a condition in which the masses as 
such will have the supreme command of social conditions, especially 
the distribution of wealth. 

Since the beginning of history there have been differences of 
opinion. We have anarchists, who seek the solution of the social 
problem by the abolition of all law and order, who clamor first of 
all for freedom ; and we have socialists who as a principle of reform 
proclaim the maxim that the individual ought to submit to the behests 
of society, who for the sake of order would sacrifice liberty. Be- 
tween these extremes society has developed in obedience to both, 
and the history of the world has realized a constant increase of lib- 
erty, together with a constantly greater assurance of order. In this 
sense both parties, socialists and anarchists, have constantly ap- 
proached more and more nearly to their ideal, but the time will never 
come when either anarchy or socialism will be completely actualized. 
Society is always a compromise between the two. Private control 
of capital has so far been the most successful method of social 
arrangements. All social enterprises have failed because they have 
absolutely lacked the greatest possible incentive for economy and 
prudence, which is the reward earned by the results of one's industry 
and thrift. 

It is probable that in the course of the future development of 
society poverty will more and more disappear, and even unskilled 
labor will be able to gain a comfortable living. The result will be 
that the laborers themselves will take part more and more in the 
possession of the general wealth of society. They will develop into 
small capitalists, and thus their own interests will be engaged to pre- 
serve the accumulation of wealth. Nevertheless we believe that as 
struggle is necessarily a feature of life so the conflicting interests 
of society will continue to adjust themselves by occasional struggles. 

We look upon Dietzgen's philosophy as a noteworthy attempt 
to reconstruct philosophical knowledge from the standpoint of the 
laborer, and especially the socialist, but nevertheless we believe that 
this partisan philosophy is not of an enduring nature, and if further 
developed will only serve to prove that philosophy is a world-con- 
ception which must take account of all classes, of all parties, of all 
races, and of all the different interests of human society. 




IN the April number of The Open Court, pp. 193-204, Prof. Paul 
Haupt discusses the question of the Aryan, that is, Indo-Iranian, 
not Indo-European, ancestry of Jesus, pouring upon the subject 
a most copious flood of mingled historic and linguistic learning. 
The Jewish descent of the Jesus he would seem to deny positively or 
at least to hold it to be "extremely improbable that Jesus was a son 
of David ; it is at least as probable (Footnote — I do not say it is prob- 
able) that he was a scion of Deioces or even a descendant of Spitam, 
the ancestor of Zoroaster" — a conclusion that might placate the 
manes of Nietzsche and almost persuade him to become a Christian. 

Professor Haupt is careful to refer to Emile Burnouf, Rudolf 
von Jhering, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain (elsewhere also 
to A. Wirth, in the Ncue Revue) as forerunners in his present 
theory. With regard to the first he would seem to be almost over- 
generous. Elsewhere he tells us he had not read Burnouf's article 
and knew of it only through a subsequent informant. 

The great French philologist's idea differs widely enough from 
Professor Haupt's. He did not indeed expressly ascribe Aryan an- 
cestry to the Jesus, but maintained that from the first there had 
been an intellectually and spiritually superior minority of Aryan 
Jews : "observation shows us the Jewish people composed of two 
distinct races .... mutually hostile since the most remote times. The 
bulk of the people of Israel was Semite and devoted to the adoration 
of the Elohim personified in Abel. The rest who always formed 
the minority were so to speak strangers come from Asia and prac- 
ticed the cult of Jehovah. These were probably Aryans {Revue 
des deux niondes, LXXVI, p. 886). To these Aryans Burnouf, 
greatly depreciating the Semite, ascribes everything excellent in 
Hebrew literature and religion. How they kept their blood pure 
so many centuries, he does not tell. 


Professor Hatipt rejects the view of Chamberlain, "that the 
Aryan element in Galilee was due to Greek immigration in the last 
century B. C," and dates it much farther back in the days of the 
enterprising Tiglath-Pileser IV and Sargon II, who permuted the 
peoples about 738 B. C, sending Galileans to Assyria and Assy- 
rians (afterwards called Itureans) to Galilee, which appears in the 
wedge-writing as the Land of Hamath (better Hammath or Ham- 
moth, Assyrian Hammati). Hither, testifies Sargon II, he sent 
the Median Chief De jokes with his kin, Indo-Iranians. The ma- 
jority of those transferred by Tiglath-Pileser IV to Galilee hailed 
from Ullub and Kirkh in North Assyria, at the foot of the Ar- 
menian Taurus, a region not Semitic. These daring and lucky gam- 
blers in men seem to have thought that in order to get good hands 
one must shuffle the cards well and then cut deep — a theory and 
practice which the Asia of to-day may thank for a good share of its 
misery and impotence. By such deportation, and not by much later 
Greek immigration, would Professor Haupt account for the pres- 
ence of the Aryan element in Galilee. 

However it came about, it must be conceded that the nations, 
tribes, tongues, and races poured together like many waters into the 
mountain basin round the Great Harp Chinnoroth (Gennesareth). 
But not only were the Aryans present ; the Jews, thinks Professor 
Haupt, and this argumentatively is of far greater importance, were 
absent. "There were no Jews in Galilee after the year 164 B. C," 
when "those that were in Galilee, that is, in Arbatta [corruption 
for Sabrana = Sepphoris, capital of Galilee] with their wives and 
their children and all that they had, took he [Simon, brother of 
Judas Maccabseus] away and brought them into Judea with great 
joy" (i. Mace. v. 14-23). Professor Haupt does not seem to deny 
that there were Semites in Galilee along with Aryans, but he will 
not admit the presence of any true-blooded Jews, though the popu- 
lace was Judaic in religion, having been converted by the forcible 
persuasion of Aristobulus, first King of the Jews, for whom the 
Coronation Psalm (ii) was written. Such in brief is the ethno- 
logical situation as it lies in the mind of Professor Haupt. 

Now Jesus, we are assured, was born in Nazareth, identical 
with the ancient Hittalon or Hannathon (for Hinnathon), the 
arrowhead Hinnatuni of the El-Amarna tablets (1400 B. C), all 
these words meaning "protection," while Ezekiel's form Hethlon 
(xlvii. 15) means "swathing," the hamlet being protected or swathed 
by engirdling hills. This fact, thinks Professor Haupt apparently, 
had impressed itself on the minds of the "Angels" who told the 


shepherds, "Ye will find a babe wrapped in swaddling-clothes, ly- 
ing in a manger," "just as Nazareth is szvathed in a basin with 
a girdle of hills" (Italics are Professor Haupt's), We are as- 
sured that the Jesus and his first disciples were Galileans, that 
the census of Luke ii did not take place till A. D. 7, eleven years 
after the Nativity, that the Lucan historical framework ( so valiantly 
championed by Ramsay) hangs together like so much sand, that 
the tradition of Davidic descent and Beth-Lehem birth is not original, 
since "others said. This is the Christ, but others said Nay ! for 
comes the Christ from Galilee?" and that "Our Saviour Himself 
referred to the belief that the Messiah was to be a son of David 
as an unwarranted opinion of the Scribes" (Mk. xii. 35-37) ; and 
even Prof. Percy Gardner is quoted as having "well said" that 
"according to all historic probability, Jesus of Nazareth was born 
at Nazareth." 

The case then stands thus in Professor Haupt's thought : Jesus 
himself was called the Galilean, the Nazarean ; he was most prob- 
ably born in Nazareth ; in Galilee, ergo in Nazareth, "were no 
Jews" (true-bloods), but only Judaized non-Jews; among these 
latter had been for nearly eight centuries many Aryans imported 
by Sargon H and Tiglath-Pileser IV ; hence the ancestors of Jesus 
were probably found among these Aryans. 

No one will question the ingenuity and seductive charm of 
these combinations ; it remains to test more closely their logical 
worth, their argumentative conviction-carrying quality. 

In the first place, it is vital to the scheme that "there were 
no Jews in Galilee after 164 B. C." This Professor Haupt would 
prove from the Maccabean narrative of the deportation of the 
Jews thence by Simon (i Mace. v. 23). Can such proof be made 
out? In the first place, no mention is made of deportation from 
Galilee in general, but only from the capital Arbatta ; such is the 
explicative force that Professor Haupt gives to the word "and."^ 
rendering it "that is" ; there is no reason to suppose that many did 
not remain behind outside and even inside the capital. 

Accepting the Maccabean account at its face value, we still 
have no warrant to declare that "the Jews who lived in Galilee at 
the time of Judas Maccabaeus were all rescued and transferred to 
Jerusalem in 164 B. C." 

This word all is not used in the Maccabean text. Antecedently 
such a complete transfer seems highly improbable. 

-> Still more, it is notorious that the First Book of the Maccabees 


is a glorification of the Maccabean heroes, particularly of Judas, 
and must be taken with quite as many grains of salt as such glori- 
fications in general. Had Simon Maccabseus rescued and deported 
only a few dozen Galilean Jews, these would have multiplied them- 
selves, in the imagination of his glorifier, far faster than the Three 
Black Crows. Least of all men does Professor Haupt need to be 
warned of the imperious need of heavily discounting the statement 
of Jewish and Asiatic historiographers and hero-worshipers. We 
must then dismiss this notion of the deportation of all Jews from 
Galilee in 164 B. C. as quite insufficiently grounded. 

But even supposing that Simon had made a clean sweep, what 
of it? Nothing that we can see. For is it impossible or improbable 
that they returned, in equal may be or even in greater numbers? 
Does not the cat sometimes come back? Galilee was a flourishing 
and inviting region, almost an earthly paradise, if we may credit 
Josephus. At the beginning of our era the Jew was well-nigh 
ubiquitous. The papyri show him everywhere in Egypt. In the 
isles of the sea, in Delian Rheneia, on monumental marble he carved 
his prayers for revenge and lifted imploring hands to heaven. Why 
should he avoid his old home, where dwelt his co-religionists in 
numbers? Evidently Matthew regarded the transmigration of Jews 
to Galilee as a simple enough matter, for he transfers a Bethlehemite 
to Nazareth by a stroke of the pen. Look at it as you will, then, 
the absence of Jews from Galilee at B. C. 4 is unproved, unprovable, 
and highly improbable. Non liquet must be the mildest verdict. 

Now if there were any Jews, even a few, in Galilee, then the 
whole argument against the Jewish extraction of Jesus collapses. 
We must take heed in applying the calculus of probabilities. If the 
Jews in Galilee formed only one-tenth of the total population, then 
if any one were chosen blindly, utterly at random, the chance would 
be only one in ten that he would be a Jew. But to apply this prin- 
ciple with confidence, one must be sure in the first place that the 
choice is utterly at random. Now in the case of any particular man, 
if there be aught to specialize him, as if there be any witness about 
him, any history or tradition, the choice is not at all at random, 
and we cannot apply the doctrine of chance. In a given city of X 
or on a given planet, as the earth, there are (say) only i per cent 
of Jews. In perfectly random choices only once in a hundred times 
on the average would one get a Jew. But if a raconteur should be- 
gin to tell a tale about a Jew born in the city of X, would any one 
interrupt him, saying, "My dear Sir, why do you try to deceive us? 
There are 99 Gentiles to every Jew in that city. Don't you see that 


the chances are 99 to i that you are lying, that your hero was not 
a Jew at all?" Such an interrupter would be suppressed instanter. 
The raconteur was not speaking of any purely chance selection. 
Neither are the Evangelists speaking of a Galilean picked up at 
random, but of the most specially chosen imaginable. If the sup- 
posed testimony is to be accepted at all, there is no reason for re- 
jecting or impeaching this detail on the ground that there were 
more non-Jews than Jews in Galilee. Now they (at least Matthew 
and Luke) represent Jesus as of pure Jewish blood. There may be 
reasons for rejecting this testimony in toto, but these reasons cannot 
be found in the insufficient presence of Jewish blood in Galilee. 

At this point it seems proper to institute a more penetrating 
inquiry into the nature of the evidence, touching the supposed 
Simonian deportation of Jews from Galilee to Judea, an inquiry 
that must start the more general question of the trustworthiness of 
the First Book of Maccabees. It must be frankly stated in the first 
place that the repute of the book has hitherto stood very high. 
Professor Torrey in the Encyclopedia Biblica can hardly find words 
too strong to please him. "We. thus have here for the first time a 
Jewish history with a satisfactory chronolog}\" Both in general 
and "in its narrative of details, it bears the unmistakable stamp of 
truth." "On the whole, the book must be pronounced a work of the 
highest value, comparing favorably in point of trustworthiness, with 
the best Greek and Roman histories." But when we come to look 
at the details, it seems hard to repress a smile. "Besides being the 
only detailed account which we have of the events of the greater 
part of this most important period, the book has proved itself 
worthy to hold the highest rank as trustworthy history." Strange 
how it could thus "prove itself" trustworthy, when we have abso- 
lutely no check on its statements, no way to tell whether they be 
trustworthy or not! 

Professor Torrey would indeed seem to be using words in a 
Pickwickian sense, for he proceeds now to limit his general judg- 
ment rather narrowly. He speaks of the "author's own inaccuracy" 
about the inscription in honor of Simon. The letter of Demetrius, 
X. 25-45, he admits, "cannot be regarded as genuine," though "put 
in its present place by the careful and conscientious author of 
I Mace." "His statements cannot always be believed, it is true" ; 
"in relation to foreign affairs" he exhibits "naive ignorance." His 
"numerical estimates are often exaggerated." His "incorporated 
documents are not to be taken too seriously." So too the speeches! 

In Hastings's Bible Dictionary. Fairweather is less enthusiastic 


and more succinct, but maintains the same general position. He 
is at pains to assign the reasons for his faith: "The writer's habit 
of dating the chief events according to a fixed era (the Seleucid 
era, B. C. 312), the general agreement of his chronology with that 
of the Greek and Roman authors and with the data furnished by 
extant coins of the period, the frankness and self-restraint shown 
by him in chronicling victory or defeat (!) on the part of the Jews 
and in speaking of their adversaries, the absence from his pages 
of tawdry ornamentation and weak supernaturalism, — all combine 
to give to his work the stamp of authentic history." "The writer is 
a plain and honest chronicler." 

Kautzsch {Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alien 
Testaments, 1899) is more discreet. He admits that "from the 
current almost wholly favorable judgment some deductions must 
be made." His opinion of the letters is in the main adverse, he in- 
clines to accept for some at least the shrewd suggestion of Willrich 
that they are the insertions of the translator from an Aramaic 

But enough of expert testimony. To the book itself. 
First, we observe that the admitted discrepancies are great 
wherever we can compare with some profane author. Thus, Livy, 
(XXXVn, 39) is exact and reduces our author's 120 elephants 
(viii. 6) to 54. Secondly, from the fact that the writer assigns 
dates correctly, where all motive to incorrectness is absent, we can 
infer nothing as to his statements where such motives are plainly 
present. Indeed, Torrey seems to exercise excess of generosity 
in saying , "No one will blame him for passing over in silence the 
shameful conduct of the high priests Jason and Menelaus, or for 
making only brief mention of the defeats suffered by the Jews." 
No one? Some think that to suppress the true suggests the false. 
It seems then that where no motive for inaccuracy is present, and 
where it is impossible to test the author's statements, we are unable 
to say that these statements are incorrect ! But where motive is 
present he at least suppresses very important matters, and where 
we can test his estimates we find them grossly exaggerated, besides 
finding his "incorporated documents" untrustworthy and himself 
repeatedly contradicted by profane history when he comes into 
contact with this latter. So much, by the admission of his admirers. 
A queer piece of most "trustworthy history"! Now, however, add 
the fact that the author is admittedly glorifying the Hasmonean 
dynasty, that he "was a warm adherent of the Hasmonean house, 
and probably a personal friend of its leaders" (Torrey), and what 


right have we to say that "his history is not written in a partisan 
spirit" (Torrey) ? What right have we to put faith in any state- 
ment that magnifies his party, patrons, and friends? To credit the 
Sadducee who admittedly tells all the good and none of the bad 
about the priesthood? These indeed are only very general con- 
siderations, yet sufficient to show how baseless is the universally 
favorable judgment of critics. 

Let us now come to closer quarters. We have not space for 
a minute study of these sixteen chapters, but a few specimens will 
show that we are not dealing with pure history but with such a 
manifest panegyric, particularly of Judas, as reads much rather 
like a fairy tale. 

Let it be noted then that the career of the Maccabees is one 
uninterrupted series of the most complete and brilliant triumphs 
over forces incomparably superior in numbers and equipment, of 
victories such as were never won by Eumenes, nor Sertorius, nor 
Hannibal, nor Alexander, nor Caesar, nor Napoleon. Not once is 
a Maccabean worsted ; only once does Judas prudently withdraw 
after inflicting heavy loss on the enemy. The account of this latter 
ailfair is most peculiar and throws a strange light on this highly 
"trustworthy history." Antiochus Eupator marches through Idumea 
with 100,000 foot, 20,000 horse, 32 trained elephants, and lays siege 
to Bethsura, fights a long time, and erects engines of war. But the 
besieged "sallied out, burnt the engines with fire and warred man- 
fully." Doubtless — but with what result? In this place nothing- 
more is said. The king marches ofif towards Bethsacharia with a 
tremendous array, each elephant accompanied by 1000 foot and 500 
horse, and mounted by 32 men besides an Indian driver, though 
elsewhere in history 3 or 4 men suffice for each elephant ! Against 
this formidable host Judas marches out from the citadel of Jeru- 
salem, "and Judas drew nigh and his camp in counter array, and 
there fell of the camp of the King 600 men." It is neither said 
nor hinted that any Jew was slain. Then Eleasar Awaran, brother 
of Judas, fancying he recognized the royal elephant by its trappings, 
made an heroic rush upon the beast, fought his way single-handed 
through the 1500 guards, dealing death right and left, cleft a passage 
to the beast, ran imdcr it, transpierced it from beneath, so that it fell 
dead upon him and killed him, who thus ofifered himself up to save 
his people and win for himself a name everlasting. Then follows 
the onlv verse that hints a defeat of Judas. "And beholding the 


Strength of the King and the onrush of his troops they turned 
aside- from them," (vi. 47). 

Most likely the forces of Judas were routed and dispersed, 
but the "plain honest chronicler" holds his peace. 

The king marched on into Judea, against Mt. Zion. "With 
those of Bethsura he made peace." "They came out" — such is the 
euphemism for surrender — because it was the sabbatic year and 
provisions were scarce, not because the king could fairly take the 
place. Similarly in the case of the siege of Jerusalem. The Jews 
defend themselves successfully against the Syrians, but provisions 
fail because it was the seventh year, and the Jews rescued from the 
heathen consumed the supplies, so that the garrison was in a measure 
dispersed. Still no thought of capitulation! Finally Lysias, the 
king's lieutenant, tells him and the leaders of the host, "we grow 
daily weaker, we have little provisions, and the place we besiege 
is strong, and the care of the kingdom is on us. Let us therefore 
give these men the right hand and make peace with them, and with 
all their folk, and let them walk in their customs as heretofore, for 
because of these customs which we abrogated have they become 
enraged and done all this. This counsel pleased the king and his 
leaders and he sent to them to make peace and they received them ; 
and the king and the leaders swore to them ; and [trusting] these 
oaths they went out from the citadel ; and the king entered the 
city of Zion and beheld the citadel of the place and set at naught 
the oath that he swore and bade level down the wall all round." 

We note that here even in the direst distress the Jews are not 
beaten by their enemy ; this latter acknowledges defeat by proposing 
a compromise, which is accepted by the Jews since it yields them 
everything in dispute, and it is no fault of theirs if the royal word 
is broken. 

Now let the reader consider this account of the victorious 
march of Antiochus Eupator, how artfully the disasters of the 
Jews are transformed into splendid onsets, and prudent withdrawal, 
and heroic self-immolation, and successful defense, and honorable 
compromise yielding them all their claims, and then say whether 
he is reading history "fully as trustworthy" as Thucydides. Kautzsch 
indeed perceives that Judas must have been defeated, and says that 
Antiochus "schldgt ihn," but "the careful and conscientious" his- 
torian says nothing of the kind. So everywhere in this model his- 
tory. Jonathan and Simon are both captured and murdered, (xii. 
46-48; xiii. 23; xvi. 16), but only through treachery, which brought 

* e^€K\ivav, 


only shame and no advantage to the traitors. Judas indeed was too 
wise to be betrayed. He fought victoriously to the last. In the 
final struggle with only 800 men against the host of Bacchides 
(20,000 foot, 2000 horse), there is great slaughter on both sides. 
Judas falls, the rest flee, but his brothers Jonathan and Simon re- 
main apparently in possession of the field, at least they bear away 
Judas to burial in the paternal sepulchre in Modein. 

Josephus modestly amends the account by saying that his broth- 
ers received Judas from the enemy "under truce." 

If some one still thinks all this might have taken place just 
as narrated, let him consider the operations of Judas east of the 
Jordan (164 B. C.) where with 8000 men he campaigns for weeks 
and seemingly even months, fighting bloody battle after battle against 
immense odds, storming half a dozen fenced cities exceeding strong 
(one for a whole day and night, v. 50), slaughtering the enemy by 
thousands on thousands (8000 in one single instance, v. 34), filling 
up the streets with corpses so that his men marched through the 
city over the bodies of the slain (v. 51) — and all of this terrific 
hand-to-hand warfare without the loss of one single man: "there 
fell of them not one until their return in peace" (v. 54) ! This is 
far more miraculous than the miracles "and weak supernaturalism" 
that so discredit the Second Book of Maccabees in the minds of 
admirers of this excellent historian. 

This is not the worst, however. Nikanor, a most trusted com- 
mander, takes Jerusalem ; not finding Judas there he marches five 
hours northwest to Bethhoron ; there he is joined by another Syrian 
host. Judas with 3000 men is encamped 90 minutes to the northeast, 
at Adasa, and prays that Nicanor's host be annihilated like Sen- 
nacherib's. Battle is joined, Nicanor falls, his army is routed, the 
villagers stream out, and all the Syrians are massacred or massacre 
one another, not one escapes, "there was not left of them not even 

Notice that the statement is perfectly sharp and definite and 
made with all deliberation. If this be not incredible, consider the 
following: Jonathan sends 3000 valiant men to Antioch as body- 
guard to Demetrius fallen into disfavor with his army. The An- 
tiochians gather against Demetrius to the number of 120,000 and 
intend to kill him. He flees to his palace, which they proceed to 
storm. He calls the 3000 Jews to his help ; they come ; they charge 
out into the city and slaughter 100,000 in one day; then they set 
fire to the city, plunder it, and save the king. Whereupon the 

* ov KaTe\€l<pOi} i^ aiiTwv oiSk eh. 


Antiochians throw down their arms, sue for peace and salvation 
from the fury of the Jews, who were magnified before the king 
and all his subjects and returned to Jerusalem laden with booty 
(xi. 41-51). 

By the side of this achievement the exploits of the Swiss guard 
sink into insignificance, Thorwaldsen's lion droops its tail and forgets 
to roar, and even Buck Fanshaw is far outdone. He indeed sup- 
pressed a riot before it could break out, by leaping in and sending 
home 14 men on a shutter, but these 3000 Jews slew 33^ men apiece 
in the suppression of this more formidable uprising. 

This is not all by any means. As legate of the young An- 
tiochus, Jonathan marches in triumph all through the region west 
of the Euphrates, all the Syrian troops rally to his standard, he 
captures Askalon and Gaza, proceeds to Damascus, and thence 
against a great army of Demetrius at Kedesh in Naphthali, while 
his brother Simon invests Bethsura and forces it to capitulation. 
Jonathan encamps by Lake Gennesar, and on entering the plain of 
Chazor early in the morning is surprised to meet a heathen army, 
which had also laid a trap for him by insidiously planting forces in 
the surrounding hill country. These now burst upon the Jews who, 
thus attacked, all betook themselves to flight ; not one remained with 
Jonathan but Mattathias Ben-Absalom and Judas Ben Chalpheis, 
honored names! What does Jonathan, thus abandoned to the foe 
encompassing him on all sides with fierce and numerous attack? 
He rends his garments, strews dust upon his head, and prays. Hav- 
ing accomplished so much he turns upon the enemy, defeats the 
whole army and puts it to rout! When the Jews that had fled 
perceived his victory, they turned round and joined with him in pur- 
suit of the enemy as far as the latter's camp in Kedesh, slaying 3000. 

Here then we find the feat of Horatius at the Bridge writ large, 
in fact, in six-foot capitals. It sounds strange, however, that after 
such a marvelous victory, when Demetrius's army thus routed by 
one man and decimated might easily have been annihilated, to read 
in the very next verse, "And Jonathan turned back to Jerusalem" 
(xi. 60-74). One would like to read the Demetrian version of this 
sanguinary engagement. Queer, too, that the next chapter should 
open with Jonathan's overtures to the Romans and to the Spartans, 
"because he saw the season cooperates with him"; what need had 
such a hero for allies? 

Wellhausen perceives the absurdity here and would relieve it 
by arbitrarily rejecting verse 74 quoted above, along with the inci- 
dent of the embassy. 


There follows the adventurous campaign of Jonathan, in which 
he goes 200 miles north of Jerusalem to the land of Hamath (on the 
Orontes) to war against the mightier host of Demetrius, which flees 
before him across the Eleutheros river. Thereupon he turns against 
the Arabs, chastises them, breaks camp and marches upon Damas- 
cus, and thence to Jerusalem, Simon meanwhile carrying all before 
him, even to Askalon, and establishing a garrison in Joppa. 

Is it possible to see in these rapid campaigns from one end of 
the land to the other anything more than marauding incursions of 
flying squadrons, dignified into military expeditions of disciplined 
armies? Tryphon however determines to end this guerilla strife by 
capturing Jonathan. He marches to Bethsan (Skythopolis) just 
south of Gennesareth. Jonathan goes to meet him and with a large 
army of 40,000 picked men. Tryphon receives him with the most 
distinguished honor, enriches him with gifts, bids all treat him as 
they treat Tryphon himself, persuades Jonathan that he has no need 
of such an army, that he send them all home but a few trusties. 
Jonathan sends all away but 3000 ; of these he sends 2000 to Galilee. 
(Why? Is this another version of Simon's expedition?) The 
other thousand he retains as body guard. They depart to Ptolemais. 
Why? Such a voluntary act on Jonathan's part would be one of 
incredible folly. The arts of Tryphon were perfectly well known ; 
who can believe that Jonathan would of his own accord disband his 
formidable army of 40,000 and go with an ambitious rival into the 
rival's country and fortress? Once in Ptolemais, of course his 
companions are slain and he himself cast into prison. Thereupon 
his 2000 in Galilee are attacked but make good their escape to 
Judea. (Is this a variant of Simon's deportation from Galilee?) 
All the heathen rejoice that the leader of the Jews is taken and hope 
now to blot out their memory from among men. 

It seems plain that the story as told in i Mace. xii. 39-53 is 
quite beyond belief. Tryphon doubtless captured Jonathan, but in 
no such manner as there detailed. And what more shall we say? 
For time would fail to discuss the shield of gold of 1000 minae 
(950 pounds) in weight, of various unhistorical data, as that An- 
tiochus was taken alive by the Romans at Magnesia (B. C. 190) ! 
that he ceded India to them ! and others that indicate the writer is 
thinking of the overthrow of the Achaian League 15 years after the 
death of Judas! Nor can we morethan mention the 12 or 13 letters 
(86 verses) all important but none authentic, l)cing plainly fictitious 
in form or matter or both. 

We have already noticed the total suppression of the renegade 


priests Menelaus and Jason, most important figures during many 
years covered by this history, but never once mentioned*. We have 
already seen that no defeat is allowed to befall any Maccabean hero ; 
their careers are victorious till they pay the tribute of mortality. 
It is commonly stated by the admirers of this book (as Fairweather) 
that it records Jewish disasters. In fact only one such disaster is 
recorded, and this example is particularly instructive. We are told 
that while Judas with Jonathan was pursuing his career of triumph 
in Gilead, and Simon in Galilee, the two leaders Azaria and Joseph 
hearing of the great exploits of Judas and Simon, said, "We too 
will win honor for ourselves and go to war against the surrounding 
nations." And so they did, in spite of the express injunction of 
Judas to join no battle in his absence; the result was that Gorgias 
routed them, inflicting a loss of 2000 slain. "And great disaster 
befell the people of Israel because they heeded not Judas and his 
brothers, thinking to play the valiant man. But they were not of the 
seed of those men to whom was given salvation for Israel through 
their hand. And the man Judas and his brothers were glorified 
exceedingly before all Israel and all the nations, etc." (v. 61-63). 
This is the only defeat scored against the Jews during the 40 years 
(175-135 B. C.) covered by i Maccabees; for v. 67, "in that day 
fell priests in the war, wishing to play the valiant in going out to 
war unadvisedly" (i. e., against the orders of Judas), is apparently 
only an expansion or a doublet (v. 61), and in any case enforces 
the same lesson, that victory was certain with the Maccabean seed 
of salvation and impossible without them. Herewith then the 
spirit of the book is clearly and unmistakably characterized. It is 
an open panegyric of the Asmoneans, it is written to show their 
divine prerogative as the temporal saviours of Israel. This fact 
is indeed stamped plainly on every chapter. As such a work of 
Tendenz it can lay no great claim to general credibility and no claim 
at all to credibility in detail ; and in view of the fact that we have 
already found it literally swarming with inaccuracies and impossi- 
bilities, it becomes evident that the book, though historical and 
exceedingly valuable as indicating the main trend of events at a 
time and place otherwise almost unlighted by any independent 
record, is nevertheless not properly a history, — it is adulatory biog- 
raphy and special pleading. 

The question now arises. What good reason have we to believe 
that the expeditions of Judas to Gilead and of Simon to Galilee 
ever took place at all? The allusion (vi. 53) to "those redeemed 
into Judea from the nations" seems hardly sufficient, but there are 


two other testimonies more decisive. The Second Book of Macca- 
bees stands as low as the First stands high in the esteem of critics. 
Nevertheless they concede that its attestation is worth something, — 
even though it be (as Geiger thinks) a Pharisaic counterblast to the 
Sadducean First Book, — since it seems at various points to repro- 
duce the testimony of an eye-witness. 

Now in 2 Mace. xii. 1-31 we find detailed a series of campaigns 
undertaken by Judas against Timotheus (already slain x. 37!), 
Apollonius and others, east of the Jordan, which seem to cover 
about the same ground as i Mace. v. 24-54), though the two ac- 
counts are widely discrepant at countless points. In both books 
Judas finally recrosses the Jordan at Bethsan (Skythopolis) en 
route for Jerusalem. 

In 2 Mace, this visitation of Skythopolis is meant to be puni- 
tive, but the resident Jews bore witness to the great favor shown 
them by the citizens and so averted destruction from the city. This 
incident seems to be historic, at least we perceive no motive for its 
invention. But it appears inconsistent with the expedition of Simon 
to Galilee, for he would naturally have taken in Skythopolis on his 
way thither, or at least on return, so that the march of Judas thither 
would appear unmotivated. Hereby doubt is thrown upon Simon's 
exploit, which is unmentioned in 2 Mace, a doubt deepened by 
the silence of another and far more credible witness. 

That most mysterious Psalm, the 68th, according to the con- 
current judgments of such masters as Wetzstein, Wellhausen, and 
Haupt (who in the American Journal of Semitic languages and 
literature, XXIII, 220-240, has surpassed all others in thoroughness 
of treatment), relates specifically to this victorious trans- Jordanic 
expedition of Judas. In particular, the famous verse 18, "Thou 
hast led captivity captive, hast received gifts in men," seems to 
refer vividly to the deliverance of the Jews at the hands of Macca- 
bseus. So too verse 22, "spake the Lord, from Bashan I will bring 
back, I will bring back from the whirlpools of the sea." At the 
same time this witness contradicts the "all" of Mace. v. 45 ("And 
Judas took with him all Israel those in Galaaditis from small to 
great, and their wives and their children" etc.), for it is repeated 
(verses 6, 18) "Only the rebellious dwell in a parched land (not with 
Jah, God)." This implies that some remained behind, even if co- 
ercion were applied, as Professor Haupt contends. 

But the most important point is that while the Psalmist speaks 
clearly of the return from Bashan, while indeed his mind is fixed 
on the envy of Bashan's high hills toward Zion (verses 15, 16), 


he says nothing of any return from Galilee, not even in verse 27, 
which mentions the princes of Zebulon and Naphtali ; the rebellious 
stay behind not in the fertile region around Gennesareth but only in 
the "parched land." 

Now Galilee was far more important every way than Gilead, 
and its relations with Jerusalem were closer. The poet is eager to 
weave in as many geographical and historical allusions as possible; 
had he known of any such glorious and saving expedition as Simon's, 
he would most probably have mentioned it somewhere in his elab- 
orate lyric. That he omits to name it, seems to show that it had no 
place in his consciousness. Still further, we note that the mes- 
sengers of distress from Galilee (v. 14, 15) arrive in Jerusalem pre- 
cisely during the reading of the letters of distress from Gilead, — 
a most remarkable coincidence that cannot fail to remind one of the 
horrors on horror's head accumulate of Job i. 16, 17, 18, of which 
the writer appears to be thinking. Finally, consider the utter vague- 
ness of the account in contrast with the minuteness of the following 
narrative concerning Judas, and it would seem hard to give any 
credence at all to the tale about Simon, which appears to have been 
intended merely to get him away from Jerusalem, that room might 
be left for the folly of Joseph and Azarias. 

Nay more ! We find in 2 Mace. x. 14-23 an account that bears 
internal marks of authenticity (along with certain obvious numer- 
ical exaggerations), in which, during a war with Gorgias, Simon 
is left behind by Judas along with Joseph and Zacchaeus (apparently 
= Azarias), to watch two strongholds of the Idumseans. But the 
avaricious associates of Simon accepted a bribe of 70,000 drachmas 
to let some of the besieged escape, for which on return of Judas 
they suffered death. This incident, so discreditable to the Jews, 
could hardly have been invented. Since it occurs in the war against 
Gorgias, in the absence of Judas (who in the immediate connection 
is in a struggle with Timotheus, apparently the same as that de- 
scribed in I Mace. v. 30 f.), under the command of Simon along 
with Joseph and Zacchaeus (=Azarias?), and as this arrangement 
seems every way more credible than the other, — for it would have 
been most highly injudicious in Judas to leave his base of opera- 
tions in charge of such incompetents as Joseph and Azarias, while 
both he and Simon went far away on long expeditions, — and since 
there is no other place for this incident anywhere in i Maccabees, 
it seems we have no choice but to accept this parallel account as sub- 
stantially correct. Accordingly it appears from all the indicia that 
Simon's expedition to Galilee is only a pious imagination intended 


to free him from any possible complicity in a rather shady trans- 
action, wherein his good name had suffered from apparent con- 
nection with admitted bribery. It would seem then that there is no 
occasion to worry any further over Simon's alleged deportation of 
Jews from Galilee. That story served its purpose well for nearly 
2000 years, but would now appear to have outlived its usefulness. 

Hereby of course it is not meant that Simon never made an 
incursion into Galilee, never brought back with him any Jews. Most 
likely he made many such incursions and brought back Jews as camp 
followers on several ■ occasions, but the evidence is against the 
actuality of this particular expedition, and common sense is un- 
alterably opposed to any such wholesale deportation as critics and 
historians — Grimm, Keil, Graetz, Michaelis, Ewald, Renan, Schue- 
rer, Wellhausen, Holtzmann and the rest— unanimously assume. 
It would in fact have been very ambiguous beneficence to his blood 
kinsmen for Simon to deport them from blooming Galilee to barren 
Judea. Many of them must have had permanent homes, houses and 
lands, in that garden spot of Palestine. To huddle them together 
suddenly, deprive them of all their fixed possessions, transport them 
to a rugged region where for a time at least they would be home- 
less pensioners on the bounty of strangers, would seem to be an 
act of wanton cruelty as well as incredible folly. It would be treat- 
ing them as enemies and not as friends. 

Josephus seems to have felt the absurdity of the situation, for in 
his Antiquities (XII, 8, 3), while following 1 Mace, closely, he modi- 
fies the verse in question (v. 23), saying only that Simon "having 
pursued" the enemy "to the gates of Ptolemais," "took the Jews 
that had been made captive by them" "and turned back home." He 
says nothing about bringing the Jews from Galilee to Judea, but 
leaves us to infer that the "captives" were restored to their Galilean 
homes. Josephus is not an independent witness, but the fact that 
he takes such liberty with his Maccabean source shows clearly that 
he saw it was mibelievable and must be recalled to reason. 

Finally, it must not be supposed that in discrediting the First 
Book of Maccabees we would in any wise tarnish the luster of the 
names of the Maccabean heroes. We grant them all honor and 
glory according to the measure of men. In fact their fame remains 
no less but even more splendid when we perceive that the record of 
their deeds cannot be accepted at its face value, and that the pro- 
digious butcheries that ensanguine its pages were in large measure 
the visions of a ])erfervid imagination. 

[to be followed by another article.] 




[The reform party of Turkey, known to-day as the "Young Turks," con- 
sider this the greatest poem of their greatest modern poet. Tewfik Fikret Bey, 
this Turkish Jeremiah, wrote it in 1900 in despair at the sad condition of his 
country. For years he Hved in seclusion in constant danger of exile or death. 
He could not publish the poem, but he lent a copy to one friend, who passed it 
to another, until all Young Turkey knew by heart this sad and scathing con- 
demnation of the Old Regime. When the revolution came, turning the poet's 
despair to brightest hope, Fikret Bey was at once called to edit a new Young 
Turk paper in Constantinople, and in the first number he published this poem 
together with a retraction in verse. The translator has followed the versi- 
fication very closely, using the rhymed couplet, and a meter as close as pos- 
sible to the Turkish meter.] 

A cloud holds thy horizon in clinging embrace ; 

An obscurity white slowly grows o'er thy face, 

Blotting out and absorbing, the mist's heavy net 

Veils the scene, as with dust, to a faint silhouette — 

A majestic dust veil, what lies 'neath this robe — 

By its folds is concealed — our regard cannot probe. 

But thee, oh how fitly do sad veils conceal, 

Arena of horrors, fit nought should reveal. 

Arena of horrors, yea, majesty's stage; 

O glorious setting for tragedy's rage! 

Thou of -greatness and pomp at once cradle and grave. 

Queen eternally luring, the Orient thy slave ; 

What bloody amours with no shuddered protest 

Have been held to thy generous harlot breast. 

Oh within the deep Marmora's azure embrace, 

As one dead sleepest thou, whilst her waves thee enlace. 

Old Byzance ! still thou keepest, immune to all harm. 

After husbands a thousand, thy fresh virgin charm. 

Thy beauty the magic of youth still retains. 

The trembling of eyes seeing thee yet remains. 

To the eye of the stranger how lookest thou tame. 

With thy languorous sapphire-blue eyes, oh how tame ! 

But the tameness is that of the woman of shame. 

Without dole for the tears shed o'er thee, o'er thy fame. 

* Translated from the Turkish by Hester D. Jenkins. 


As though sapping thy very foundations in gloom, 

A traitor hand added the poison of doom. 

O'er each particle spreadeth hypocrisy's stain; 

No one spot of purity there doth remain ; 

All stain: of hypocrisy, jealousy, greed, 

Naught else, and no hopes of aught else hence proceed. 

Of the millions of foreheads protected by thee, 

How few shining clearly and pure, may one see? 

Thou Debauched of the Ages, sleep on till mists fail. 

Veil thyself, O thou Tragedy, O city, veil ! 

O country most fertile, to Nature's heart near. 

Though gifted, thou'rt hungry and barren and sear. 

Each favor, each bounty, each step in advance. 

Fatalistic, thou begg'st with hypocrisy's glance. 

O glories, magnif'cence, processions and splendor ! 

O bloody towers, forts of turreted grandeur! 

Thou sealed tomb of memories, temple so vast ; 

Ye proud-rearing columns, the city's great past. 

Thou recountest and readst to the future her part. 

Giant keeper of records each pillar thou art. 

Thou toothlessly grinning procession of walls; 

Ye cupolas ; glorious mosques where prayer calls ; 

Minarets, that remind of the voices of truth ! 

O medressehs,* and tiny courts low like a booth. 

Ye tombstones that cry, '"Tis the Dead that are Blest !" 

Are like beggars, a patient host finding your rest 

'Neath the cypress' deep shade on Eternal Earth's breast. 

O turbehs,t what memories our senses thrill 

Of our ancestors, now lying silent and still. 

Old streets, struggling stream of dust and mud waves ; 

Ye ruins, whose each hole of a dead event raves ; 

O place of eternal deep sleep for the bad ; 

O roofs, raven black, o'er a tumbling house sad; 

Thou'rt a dumb, standing sorrow, thy comrade in grief 

Is the tall mourning chimney, where storks hold their fief. 

Thou chimney, what bitterness sags in thy jowl; 

Hast forgotten to smoke, for long years dost but scowl. 

O ravening mouths who have swallowed all shames, 

On the clamorous belly's poisonous claims. 

O dog's howl ! Thou being high-honored by reason. 

This voice of ingratitude blames thee in season. 

O tyranny brutal ! O head, pressing foot ! 

O stupid fanatic, who lickest the boot! 

O visions, assaulting the high vault of Heaven ! 

O bad omen, star of ill augury given ! 

O tears vainly shed, and smiles pregnant with fate, 

Those expressions of impotence — dark looks of hate I 

O Fear, armed Fear, to whose swift downfall go 
* Medresseh, mosque school of theology, 
t Turbehs, the tombs of kings or great men in little kiosks. 


From the widow and orphan each loud plaint of woe ! 

Remembrance of honor, now sunk to a scoff, 

Servility's path points to Fortune far off. 

O laws but tradition ! O tyranny, 'neath 

Whose oppression no safety nor right but to breathe ! 

O justice, the courts have expelled thee for aye, 

Unredeemed is thy promise, thy lies only stay. 

People losing all power of emotion from fear, 

To you is aye stretched out suspicion's long ear. 

O mouths dumbly locked by the fear of the spy. 

Popularity wide brings but hate in full cry. 

To be Policy's slave, Sword and Pen, is your lot, 

O great Moral Law, e'en thy visage forgot. 

O crouching with fear, lowly hiding thy face, 

Ye nobles, ye people — a once honored race ! 

O bent hoary head, thy companion thee shuns ; 

Thou maid, and the youth that after thee runs; ' 

Thou mother abandoned, alas ! broken heart ; 

Ye children, lone, homeless, most sad is your part. 

Thou debauched of the Ages, sleep on 'till mists fail. 

Veil thyself, O thou Tragedy, O city, veil ! 

To the Editor of The Open Court: 

In the May number of Tlie Open Court appeared a communication from 
your pen under the heading of "The Ghost of a Living Person." A Mel- 
bourne medium, Charles Bailey, claimed to be controlled by the late Rev. W. 
H. Withrow while that gentleman was actually living in Toronto. During 
the last two months Charles Bailey has visited New Zealand giving seance 
meetings and inspirational addresses. Bailey claims to be controlled by four 
spirits, two of whom are Hindus who make use of him while in a trance to 
produce "apports" from India, Java and Australia. Live birds of diminutive 
size and eggs are said to be brought in a few seconds from those countries 
to New Zealand. Mats and silk shawls are also produced. The conditions 
under which Bailey produces these wonderful phenomena are a cabinet, dark- 
ness and a limited number of spiritualists and investigators, — generally no 
more than forty persons present, most of whom have paid five or ten shillings 
for admittance. Bailey's procedure is first to allow himself to be stripped and 
examined and then to enter a small cabinet where he goes into a trance and 
is controlled by a spirit who gives a short address and even answers questions 
through the medium. All this performance takes place in total darkness 
introduced by the usual singing of hymns. At the end of the address Bailey 
calls for the light to be turned on when he announces that he has apports to 
show — objects that evoke cries of wonderment from believers and skeptical 
remarks from the unconvinced. Since Bailey has been in New Zealand he 
has met with very severe criticism in the newspapers. Several of his seances 
did not come up to expectations owing in all probability to his fear of ex- 
posure. A very clever conjurer, Mr. Thomas W. Driver of Wellington, New 
Zealand, challenged Bailey to produce apports under rigid test conditions, 
Driver depositing f 100 which he was prepared to forfeit if Bailey could pro- 


dnce objects under the conditions specified in the challenge. Needless to 
say Bailey did not accept the conditions laid down. Mr. Driver offered to 
modify the conditions, but without inducing Bailey to agree. Since then Mr. 
Driver has given public exhibitions of producing apports under much more 
rigid conditions than Bailey was __subjected to, one noticeable feature being 
that he dispensed entirely with putting the lights out. 

I sent your account of Mr. With row's "ghost" to several papers in the 
Dominion and I challenged Charles Bailey to answer it, but he did not respond. 
Bailey has not yet finished his tour through New Zealand and while he still 
finds people to believe in the genuineness of his apports, the general opinion 
is that he is not trustworthy. 

Arthur Talbot. 

Wanganui, New Zealand. 



So speaketli Law : "With rule and plan 

I hold you safe. You shall not stray." 
Lo, from the ranks an outlaw man ! 

His feet transgress the beaten way. 
His speech is new and strange and far 

And where he journeys is no road, — 
Yet soon we travel by his star, 

His words become our future's code. 



I would call the attention of Dr. Deinard to the following : The rendering 
of ^ in the Septuagint wavers between Z and S. I can at least refer to two 
passages, perhaps there are more, where iJ is rendered by Z. In Gen. xxii. 21, 
we read Ouf for y'iV; Jer. xxxi. 34 in the Septuagint, corresponding to the 
Hebrew text of Jer. xlviii. 34, reads Zoyop for "^VS. riliJi is also given in the 
New Testament by Nofap^r. Further the form Nasarenos (NafapTjj/os) in 
Mark i. 24; xiv. 67; xvi. 6; Luke iv. 34, is very probably formed from Nacara 
(a reading occurring in some important manuscripts for Nacareth in Matt. 
iv. 13 and Luke iv. 16. i. e, Cod. N'. B, S and early Church-fathers) like Mag- 
dalene (Mayda\r}vri) from Magdala. Further the dominant form for desig- 
nating Jesus and his followers in the New Testament is Na::omios or Naca- 
raios in some manuscripts. These forms, especially if we consider the con- 
fusion between the vowels a and in Syriac, might also go back to the form 
Nazara, which some claim to be the original form, for instance Keim, in his 
Geschichte Jesu von Nasara. Further in the Talmud the Jewish-Christian 
sect is called Nozrim (C'Tili), thus Sanh. 430, 1076; Sot. 470; Taan. 27&; and 
not Nasirim (C""**;). Here again the of the first syllable may only be a 
dimming of the sound a. With all this the enigmatic form Nazoraios may not 
yet be solved. I have other conjectures for its origin but do not consider 
them well enough founded to mention here. Still if Nasara was another form 
for Nazareth the form Nazoraios or Nazaraios, could, as far as I can see, be 
derived from it. From all this I do not see any necessity of bringing Naza- 


renes in connection with Nasirim and further with the Essenes, though they 
surely had points in common. Besides this the ascetic institution of Nasirites 
is an ancient Hebrew one and not necessarily of Buddhistic origin. Almost 
every ancient religion has had such ascetics. Perhaps finally, if Dr. Deinard 
has read my article on "Mohammedan Parallels to Christian Miracles," he 
may conclude that Jesus, though we know positively very little of him, may 
after all be a real personality and not absolutely a myth. 


An Indian Study of Love and Death. By Sister Nivcdita. London : Long- 
mans, 1908. Pp. 75. Price, 75c. 
In this book Sister Nivedita (Margaret E. Noble), the author of Cradle 
Tales of Hinduism, sets forth most sympathetically what she regards as the 
Hindu conception of death, and the subjective reunion of the living with the 
dead. It opens with an "Office for the Dead" which is mostly beautiful and 
poetic. The portion in this devoted to "The Salutation of the Dead" includes 
this exquisite litany: 

"For all wounds and loneliness, 
For all angry and impatient thought. 
For all wherein we failed in love. 
Or loving, failed to say to thee, we loved, 
Forgive ! 

"For all thy need in life 
For all thy need in death. 
For labor that left thee weary, 
And for love that failed to comfort thee, 
Forgive !" 

In the "Prayer" preceding the "Rest in Peace" we are surprised to find 
an invocation to 

"Krishna, Thou loving Shepherd of the people, 
Buddha, Lord of infinite compassion, 
Jesus, Thou lover and Saviour of the Soul," 

but we must remember that the author comes from Western traditions even 
while adopting the forms of Oriental devotion. 

The rest of the book is devoted to "Meditations" on love, the soul, peace, 
etc., followed by "The Communion of the Soul with the Beloved," "A Litany 
of Love," and "Some Hindu Rites for the Honored Dead." 

The Mystery of Existence in the Light of an Optimistic Philosophy. 

By Charles Wickstecd Armstrong. London: Longmans, 1909. Pp. 131, 

Price, 2s. 6d. net. 
This book is a brave attempt of a busy headmaster in a Brazil academy, 
to cull from the accumulated results of a world's progress in science and 
philosophy what he considers the comprehensive view of a thinker not lim- 
ited by engrossing interest in any one branch of research, and to present the 
result in a popular exposition. The author mentions Plato, Marcus Aurelius, 


Hegel, Haeckel, Darwin, Metchnikoff and F. H. Myers as those who have 
seemed to him to have carried us farthest along the road to the solution of 
the great world-mysteries, even though the teachings of these men have been 
immensely divergent and often apparently contradictory. This is certainly 
an unusual combination of thinkers, and we cannot but regret that the lack 
of real scientific study, which the author deplores, has led him to give marked 
emphasis to Frederic H. Myers and his theory of the subliminal self, the 
discovery of which Mr. Armstrong considers "as even more epoch-rnaking 
than Darwin's discovery of the laws of natural selection," and from which 
he derives functions that he considers more far-reaching than Myers himself 
ever suggested. The book is sincere in tone and the spirit of the author 
modest and unassuming. 

On the Doctrine of Personal Identity. By C. Comyns Tucker. London: 
Longmans, 1909. Pp. 70. Price, is. 6d. 
This little treatise is simply the result of the reflections of a thoughtful 
and intelligent man, on the occasion of a great bereavement in his life. He 
has been able to justify his desire for a belief in the continuation of personal 
identity after death and the mutual recognition of personalities in the great 
hereafter. He believes that his conclusion is in harmony with known anal- 
ogies of nature, and in strict conformity with the working of the human mind 
and its necessary forms of thought. In the first part of the book two con- 
tentions are advanced : "One, that the consciousness in man of a sense of per- 
sonal identity raised a presumption of a continued and individual existence 
after death ; the other, that the form in which that continued existence will 
manifest itself may reasonably be assumed to be an idealized reproduction of 
the form in which it manifested itself here." The second part is devoted 
to a discussion of inferences as to the character of the future life arising from 
a consideration of the human conscience. 

Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century in 

England. By the late Arnold Toynbee. London: Longmans, Green, 

1908. Pp. 282. 

This cheap edition of the Industrial Revolution has been called for by the 

increasing use of the book as an authority on the eighteenth century and by 

the appreciation of the whole of its contents on the part of educated working 

men. The original edition was an expensive octavo volume and a small cheap 

edition will be greatly in demand. The one in hand contains a reminiscence 

of the author by Mr. Toynbee's closest friend, Lord Milner, in place of the 

memoir by Dr. Jowett in the earlier edition. 

In the preliminary remarks to his essay "Our Own Religion in Ancient 
Persia," Professor Mills speaks of the fact that the article had been translated 
into Gujarati — "whether by Mr. Palanji Madan or not, the writer is not now 
certain." Professor Mills's memory misled him with regard to this point, 
and we have heard from the man who made the translation, so that we can 
authentically inform our readers that the Parsi scholar who deserves credit 
for the task is Mr. Dhunjeebhoy Naorosji Coorlawalla of Bombay, India. 
Very probably Mr. Madan was interested in some other article of Professor 









Copyright by 

The Open Court Publishing Co. 




Armada, The Invincible. Paul Carus 305 

Aryan Ancestry of Jesus. Paul Haupt 193 

Aryan Originality, A Word for. A. Kampmeier 302 

Astrology and Magic. Franz Cumont 641 

Babylonian Civilization, Israel and. Edouard Montet 619 

Bartlett, George C. An Episode in the Life of a Medium (With Editorial 

Comment) 79 

Bible in Schools, How to Teach the. Paul Carus 484 

Bible in the Sunday-School. Joseph S. Kornfeld 476 

Brewer, Willis. Judas the "Hired," 489; Names of Deity, 119. 

Broadening ( Poem) . Charles J. Woodbury 254 

Browne, C. A. Mars Dux and Mar(u)duk 444 

Buddha of Kamakura, The. Paul Carus 307 

Burlingame, H. J. Reminiscences of a Famous Magician (Dr. Lynn) . . 96 

Calaveras National Forest, The 253 

Carus, Paul. 

Ancient Symbol of the Double Eagle 57 

Birthplace of Jesus 705 

Buddha of Kamakura 307 

Christianity as the Pleroma 177, 219, 263, 405, 469 

City of David 610 

Classical and Romantic Literature: Comments on Goethe's Poem 

"Nature and Art" 363 

Darwin and Lincoln Centennial, The 124 

Dietzgen, the Philosopher of Social Democracy 741 

Evolution the Characteristic of Nature 732 

Exploits of Mr. Frits V. Holm 58 

Foundations Laid in Human Sacrifice 494 

Ghost of a Living Person (W. H. Withrow) 231 

Goethe and Religion 550 

Goethe on America 502 

Goethe's Views on Telepathy 174 

Hazing and Fagging- 430 

Healing by Conjuration in Ancient Babylon 65 

How to Teach the Bible in Schools 484 

Image of Yahveh, An 189 



Carus, Paul (Con.) 

Invincible Armada 305 

Japan's Seven Jolly Gods 49 

Lao-tze, the Philosopher Adrift 447 

Memorial Addresses in Japan 383 

Mosque of Omar 572 

Nestorius and the Nestorians 171 

Original Text of the Nestorian Tablet 29 

Our Nation's Preparation for Emergencies : 638 

Peacemakers in Trouble 445 

Peacemakers, Some Fallacies of the 321 

Religion of the Mendelssohns 663 

Sacramental Cannibalism 564 

Some Epigrams of Goethe 438 

Venus of Milo 257 

Was Jesus an Aryan ? 504 

China and Accadian Civilization. C. R. Condor 636 

Christian Canon, The. Wm. P. Whery 635 

Christian Miracles, Mohammedan Parallels to. A. Kampmeier 698 

Christianity as the Pleroma. Paul Carus 177, 219, 263, 405, 469 

Classical and Romantic Literature. Paul Carus 363 

Cockerill, R. C. Poetry Dictated by Voices (With Editorial Comment) . 107 

Communion Ceremony, The. James B. Smiley 513 

Condor, C. R. China and Accadian Civilization 636 

Conjuration in Ancient Babylon, Healing by. Paul Carus 65 

Cumont, Franz. Astrology and Magic 641 

Darwin and Lincoln Centennial, The 124 

Darwin's Contribution to Evolution. C. Stuart Gager 577 

David, The City of. Paul Carus 610 

Deinard, S. N. Nazarenes and Sramanas 702 

Deities and Their Names. Sigmund Frey 314 

Deity, Names of. Willis Brewer 119 

De Medici, Statement Concerning. A. L. Leubuscher 126 

Dietzgen, Joseph, the Philosopher of Social Democracy. Paul Carus .... 741 

Double Eagle, The Ancient Symbol of the. Paul Carus 57 

Ether "Vision," An (With Editorial Comment). Frederick Hall 734 

Evans, H. R. The Necromancy of Nunil)ers and Letters 85 

Evolution, Darwin's Contribution to. C. Stuart Gager 577 

Evolution the Characteristic of Nature. Paul Carus 732 

Fikret Bey, Tewfik. Lamentations of a Turkish Prophet 763 

Foster, C. H. ; an Epi.sode in the Life of a Medium. G. C. Bartlctt 79 

Foster, C. H. An Evening With. By a Skeptic 234 

Foundations Laid in Human Sacrifice. Paul Carus 494 

Frey, Sigmund. Deities and Their Names 314 

Fuji. Ascending to the Gods. H. L. Latham i6t 

Gager, C. Stuart. Darwin's Contrilnition to Evolution 577 

Gandhara, The Modern. Thomas P. Hughes " 75 

General Property Tax as a State Tax. Howard T. Lewis 210 

Gliost of a Living Person, The 231 

Gods, Ascending to the. IT. L. Latham i6r 



Goethe and Religion. Paul Carus 550 

Goethe on America. Paul Carus 502 

Goethe, Some Epigrams of. Paul Carus 438 

Goethe's "Nature and Art." Paul Carus 363 

Goethe's Views on Telepathy. Paul Carus 174 

Government, Our Dual System of. Charles Nagel 205 

Hall, Frederick. An Ether "Vision." 734 

Haupt, Paul ; In Comment on his "Aryan Ancestry of Jesus." W. B. 

Smith 748 

Haupt, Paul. The Aryan Ancestry of Jesus 193 

Hazing and Fagging. Paul Carus 430 

Healing by Conjuration in Ancient Babylon. Paul Carus 65 

Holm, Frits V. The Holm-Nestorian Expedition to Sian, 1907 18 

Holm, The Exploits of Mr. Frits V 58 

House, R. T. The Preface to "Les Miserables" 6 

Hughes, Thomas P. The Modern Gandhara (Peshawur) 75 

Human Sacrifice, Foundations Laid in. Paul Carus 494 

Israel and Babylonian Civilization. Edouard Montet 619 

Japan, Memorial Addresses in 383 

Japan's Seven Jolly Gods. Paul Carus 49 

Jenkins, Hester D. (Tr.) Lamentations of a Turkish Prophet 763 

Jerusalem, the City of David. Paul Carus 610 

Jesus an Aryan, Was ? 504 

Jesus, Birthplace of. Paul Carus 705 

Jesus, The Aryan Ancestry of. Paul Haupt 193 

Jewish Element in Galilee. W. B. Smith 748 

Johnston, Charles. The Wooing of the Moon-Maiden 129 

Judas and the Kingdom. Dudley Wright 374 

Judas the "Hired." Willis Brewer 489 

Kampmeier, A. Mohammedan Parallels to Christian Miracles 698 

Comments on "Nazarenes and Sramanas." 766 

Number of the Beast, The 250 

Word for Aryan Originality, A 302 

Kornfeld, Joseph S. The Bible in the Sunday-School 476 

Lamentations of a Turkish Prophet. Tewfik Fikret Bey 763 

Lao-tze, the Philosopher Adrift. Paul Carus 447 

Latham, H. L. Ascending to the Gods 161 

"'Les Miserables," The Preface to. R. T. House 6 

Leubuscher's Statement Concerning De Medici 126 

Lewis, Howard T. The General Property Tax as a State Tax ; The Neg- 
ative View 210 

Lynn, Dr. ; Reminiscences of a Famous Magician. H. J. Burlingame .... 96 

Mclvor, Sanders (pseud.) Subconscious Verse 317 

Magic, Astrology and. Franz Cumont 641 

Magician, Reminiscences of a Famous. H. J. Burlingame 96 

Mars Dux and Mar(u)duk. C. A. Browne 444 

Martyr of New Spain, To the (Poem). C. J. Woodbury 766 

Medium, An Episode in the Life of a (With Editorial Comment). G. 

C. Bartlett 79 

Medium Exposed, A Melbourne (Charles Bailey). Arthur Talbot 766 



Medium, Revelations of an Ex-. Communicated by the Editor . .iii, 280, 340 

Mendelssohns, The ReHgion of the. Paul Carus 663 

Mills, Lawrence H. Our Own Religion in Ancient Persia 385, 675 

Mills and the Parsi Community, Professor 446 

Mohammedan Parallels to Christian Miracles. A. Kampmeier 698 

Montet, Edouard. Israel and Babylonian Civilization 619 

Moon-Maiden, The Wooing of the. Charles Johnston 129 

Mosque of Omar, The. Paul Carus 572 

Miiller, W. Max. The Semitic God of Tahpanhes i 

Nagel, Charles. Our Dual System of Government 205 

Names of Deity. Willis Brewer 119 

Nation's Preparations for Emergencies, Our 638 

"Nazarenes and Sramanas," Comments on. A. Kampmeier 766 

Nazarenes and Sramanas. S. N. Deinard 702 

Necromancy of Numbers and Letters, The. H. R. Evans 85 

Nestorian Expedition to Sian, 1907, The. Frits V. Holm 18 

Nestorian Monument, Inscription of the. Tr. by. A. Wylie 35 

Nestorian Tablet, The Original Text of the 29 

Nestorians in China, The. S. Wells Williams 45 

Nestorius and the Nestorians. Paul Carus 171 

Nine, The Mystic Number. William B. Smith 380 

Novalis. Bernhard Pick 690 

Number Nine, The Mystic. W. B. Smith 380 

Number of the Beast, The. A. Kampmeier 250 

Numbers and Letters, The Necromancy of. H. R. Evans 85 

Osgood, Phillips Endecott. The Temple of Solomon 449, 526, 588 

Peacemakers in Trouble. Paul Carus 445 

Peacemakers, Some Fallacies of the. Paul Carus 321 

Persia, Our Own Religion in Ancient. Lawrence H. Mills 385, 675 

Peshawur, the Modern Gandhara. T. P, Hughes 75 

Pick, Bernhard. Novalis 690 

Pleroma, Christianity as the. Paul Carus 177, 219, 263. 405, 469 

Poetry Dictated by Voices (With Editorial Comment). R. C. Cockerill. 107 

Poetry of Sleep, The. A Skeptic 568 

Progress — An Illusion. W. Sonneberg 722 

Randle, E. H. Truth (With Editorial Comment) 632 

Religion, Goethe and. Paul Carus 550 

Religion in Ancient Persia, Our Own. Lawrence H. Mills 385, 675 

Religion of the Mendelssohns, The. Paul Carus 663 

Revelations of an Ex-Medium. Communicated by the Editor ..iii, 280, 340 

Sacramental Cannibalism. Paul Carus 564 

Sayce, A. H. The Semites 238 

Semites, The. A. IT. Sayce 238 

Semitic God of Tahpanhes, The. W. Max Miiller i 

Skeptic, A. (pseud.) An Evening With C. C. Foster 234 

Sleep, The Poetry of 568 

Smiley, James B. The Communion Ceremony 513 

Smith, William Benjamin. The Mystic Number Nine 380 

The Jewish Element in Galilee 748 

Song of Academic Liberty (Poem). Ida Ahlborn Weeks 504 



Sonneberg, W. Progress — An Illusion 722 

Subconscious Verse. Sanders Mclvor 317 

Tahpanhes, The Semitic God of. W. Max Muller, i 

Talbot, Arthur. A Melbourne Medium Exposed .• 766 

Temple of Solomon, The. Phillips Endecott Osgood 449, 526, 588 

Truth (With Editorial Comment). E. H. Randle 632 

Venus of Milo, The. Paul Carus 257 

Weeks, Ida Ahlborn. Song of Academic Liberty (Poem) 504 

Whery, Wm. P. The Christian Canon 635 

Williams, S. Wells. The Nestorians in China 45 

Withrow, W. H. ; The Ghost of a Living Person. Paul Carus 231 

Woodbury, Charles J. Broadening (Poem) 254 

To the Martyr of New Spain ( Poem) 766 

Wright, Dudley. Judas and the Kingdom 374 

Wylie, A. Translation of the Inscription of the Nestorian Monument ... 35 

Yahveh, An Ancient Relief of. W. Max Muller ^ . . . i 

Yahveh, An Image of. Paul Carus 189 


Armstrong, C. W. Mystery of Existence in the Light of Philosophy . . . 767 

Assagioli, Roberto G. Scritti e frammenti del mago del nord 384 

Albers, A Christina. Stray Thoughts in Rhyme 512 

Ball, W. W. Rouse. Histoire des mathematiques 64 

Benn, Alfred W. Revaluations : Historical and Ideal 704 

Bruce, H. Addington. The Riddle of Personality 62 

The Buddhist Reviezv ' 512 

Buddhist Society of Great Britain, Publications of 640 

Carruth, William Herbert. Each in His Own Tongue and Other Poems . 191 

Catalogue of Pedagogical Library of Philadelphia 511 

Common-Sense Bible Teacher, The 508 

Dharmapala, Anagarika H. What Did the Lord Buddha Teach? 703 

Dole, Charles F. The Ethics of Progress 640 

Du Bose, William Porcher. The Gospel in the Gospels 509 

Edmunds, Albert J. Buddhist and Christian Gospels 510 

Evans, Henry Ridgely. A List of the Writings of William Torrey Harris 383 

Frank, Henry. Modern Light on Immortality 639 

Gaultier, Paul. Reflets d'histoire 510 

Gibson, William. Poems of Goethe 512 

Hall, H. Fielding. The Inward Light 60 

Harrison, Frederic. The Philosophy of Common Sense 61 

How to Talk with God 319 

Jones, Rufus M. Studies in Mystical Religion 507 

Lanman, Charles R. "Pali Book Titles" (in Proceedings A. A. A. S.) . . 512 

Le Spectateur 640 

McCabe, Joseph. The Bible in Europe 64 

Mackenzie, J. S. Lectures on Humanism 64 

Mann, Charles E. Greek Myths and Their Art 127 

Marie, Dr. A. La Pelagra 128 

Marvin, Frederic Rowland. Poems and Translations 63 

Mitchell, Henry Bedinger. Talks on Religion 62 



Moisant, Xavier. Psychologie de rincro\'aiit 192 

Nitobe, Inazo. Bushido, the Soul of Japan 509 

Noble, M. E. (Sister Nivedita). An Indian Study of Love and Death .. 767 

Palmer, William Scott. An Agnostic's Progress 704 

Parsi Translator of Professor Mills's work, A 768 

Raymond, George Lansing. The Psychology of Inspiration 64 

Reid, G. Archdall and Others. Sociological Papers 63 

Riley, I. Woodbridge. American Philosophy 59 

Robinson, Lydia G. Spinoza's Short Treatise on God. Man and Human 

Welfare 505 

Royce, Josiali. Race Questions and Other American Problems 640 

Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia 255 

Serol, Maurice. Le Besoin et le devoir religieux 192 

Standard Bible Dictionary 190 

Shamasastry, R. Chanakya's Arthasastra, or Science of Politics, 320 ; 

Gavam Ayana, the Vedic Era, 320. 
Stettheimer, Ettie. The Will to Believe as a Basis for the Defense of 

Religious Faith 256 

Torge, Paul. Aschera und Astarte 254 

Toynbee, A. Lectures on the Industrial Revolution 768 

Tucker, C. Comyns. On the Doctrine of Personal Identity 768 

Webster, Hutton. Primitive Secret Societies 191 

Wenley, R. M. Modern Thought and the Crisis in Belief 576 

Yates, Katherine M. At the Door 319 

Angelus Silesius 

A Collection of Quaint Rhymes, translated in the 
Original Meter by 

Dr. Paul Carus 

Johannes Scheffler, a 17th Century German Mystic, better 
known as Angelus Silesius, deserves to be better known to English 
readers, as some of his verses though crudely written, possess 
beautiful sentiments, deeply religious and deeply philosophical. 
In the present edition, the German text accompanies the English 

Printed on Strathmore \^eTlum. 
170 §ages. Blue and Gold Edition, $1.00 net. (4 s. 6 d.) 

Angelus Silesius anticipates Kantian 
idealism. Not only the center of the 
world and all its wealth lies within our- 
selves, but even time and space are de- 
clared to be functions of the soul. They 
are part of our "Weltbegriff," i. e., our 
conception of the world. 

The coincidence of the views of Angelus 
Silesius with those of Kant seems strange 
but both are apparently based on older 
traditions. Valentin Weigel propounded 
the same views before Angelus Silesius, 
and Swendenborg after him, yet before 
Kant. How far any one of these men 
has influenced his successors is a ques- 
tion that has caused much discussion. 

It is interesting to note two passages 
in which Leibnitz speaks of Angelus 
Silesius, comparing his philosophical 
views to Spinoza's system, and this is 
perhaps natural, for we cannot doubt 
that a mystic poet would devote much 
thought to speculative philosophy. 

" I h ave read A ngelus Silesius wi th deligh t 
in, and admiration, alike for the matter 
and the cleverness of the translation. In 
the rendering. Dr. Carus has demon- 
strated, beyond the possibility of future 
denial, that, in addition to being a philos- 
opher, he is a poet. But, after all, I have 
always thought of a philosopher as a 
composite— scientist -|- poet." 

C.J. Keyser, Department of T^atkematics, 
Columbia Univ., iMew York City. 

"Some of the world's choicest wisdom 
is hidden away in the sayings of forgotten 
seers and mystics. There is a strange 
leap of insight in some of these stanzas, 
and Dr. Carus has translated them into 
homely Anglo-Saxon that condenses the 
thought as the kernel is packed into a 

nutshell." New Yori American. 

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Consciousness, the Sense Organs, and the Nervous System, 

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May a Realist Be a Pragmatist .'' W. P. Montague 

Education and Philosophy... Arthur Ernest Davies 

The Cosmic Character Frank C. Doan 

Common Sense and Attitudes Donald Fisher 

The Problem of the Infinite in Space and Time, Harold Chapman Brown 

Conation and Mental Activity W. H. Winch 

Experience and Its Inner Duplicity Evander B. McGilvary 

The True, the Good, and the Beautiful from a Pragmatic Standpoint, 

W. P. Montague 
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The Mind Within and The Mind Without Ralph Barton Perry 

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According to the London Academy, Mr. Michael Monahan 
is himself the Papyrus 

Westminster (London) Gazette : — 

Mr. Michael Monahan has the courage of his opinions ; he can write exceedingly well 
when he chooses to do so; in some respects his style resembles that of Mr. Bernard Shaw. 
Edwin Markham (in New York American) : — 

Mr. Monahan has the gift that kings cannot give nor colleges grant — the gift of a beauti- 
ful style. For style comes with the man ; it is the gesture of the soul. So when Mr. Mona- 
han draws a man or a book into the circle of this thought, the object, like a star in water 
takes a new beauty from his mind. 
Boston Transcript: — 

Mr. Monahan's philosophy of life is hopeful ; his style is strongly individual and per- 
sonal, his morality is the morality of sympathy, tire themes he presents deal with human souls, 
not mere externals. 
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There are not many who dare, with Michasl Monahan, to express a real Ego, its opin- 
ions and its moods. Whether he is writing of Lafcadio Hearn, of Colonel Ingersoll, of the 
woman-moods of Wagner, fif Mark Twain or of Poe, you may be sure that you will find him 
expressing nothing because it is conventional, or nothing that is not forcibly put. 
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There is no periodical quite like the little personal Papyrus, which Mr. Michael Mona- 
han sends out each montii from lOast Orange, N. J. Its appeal is the appeal of a personality 
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is in the least possible to share. 



The Fragments of Empedocles 

Translated into English verse ly Wm. Ellery Leonard, Ph. D. 
Author of "Sonnets and Poems and "'Syronism in America" 

THE lover of genuine verse will rejoice in a work of thig kind. The 
pleasure and surprise of an old idea, freshly and vigorously put, 
provides intellectual delight. 

Mr. Leonard has rendered a fine translation which is scholarly, 
musical and poetic. It is not alone these qualities that commend the 
book to an appreciative reader ; it is also the strong pulse of truth 
made clear in every thought of the old Mediterranean contemporary 
of the great Athenians about Pericles. 

'Printed on feather weight paper, large tyfie, gilt top. 100 pp. 
Price $1.00 {4 s. 6 d. net) 


...."This admirable version oi the Frag- 
ments of Em^edocJes combines to an unusual 
degree, adequate scholarship with poetic 
feeling: and insight. No translator nor 
interpreter of Empedocles in any lan- 
guage seems to have more fully under- 
stood the imaginative temper in which 
the main outlines of the apocalyptic 
vision of the world-cycle was conceived." 
Classical Philology. 

"This translation. ...deserves credit for 
the extent to which it preserves the exact 
meaning, together with the beauty and 
power of the original. ...The general fidel- 
ity to the original is closer than would be 
foreseen as possible under the conditions 
of metrical form....By producing a strong 
and dignified rendering of the fragments 
in English verse Dr. Leonard has per- 
forned a more significant service for the 
study of Empedocles than the translator 
usually achieves. ...The translator is pri- 
marily a literary workman attracted to 
Empedocles as poet. Yet a careful study 
of Empedocles as philosopher is made 
the basis of the work, and in a general 
introduction and explanatory notes.... the 
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Edward's Dream, Translated from the German of Wilhelm Busch By Dr. Paul Cams 

Pages 75. The delightfulness of nonsense appeals even to the philosopher. Dr. 

Red and gold, Carus has shown a fine appreciation of the humorous possibilities of a 

land where mathematics and geometry and even philosophy, are embodied in personalities. 
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stimulating to deep thought. Cloth, $1.00 

The Old and The New Magic By Henry Ridgely Evans 

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in continuous treatment upon the plan initiated in the FIVE ZARATHUSHTRIAN 
GATHAS, by L. H. Mills, Professor of Zend (Avesta) Philology in the University of 
Oxford, A STUDY OF YASNA I., with the Avesta, Pahlavi, Sanskrit, and Persian 
Texts. The Pahlavi is given in the original character and in transliteration, the Pahlavi 
and Sanskrit being translated into English here, the Avesta in S.B.E., XXXI, 1887 ; 
the Persian is itself an interlinear translation of the Pahlavi. The Avesta Text is re- 
constructional with copious notes. The Pahlavi is re-edited from the Journal of the 
German Oriental Society with all the MSS. collated, Bd. LVII., Heft IV., 1903; the 
English translation is re-edited from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for Oc- 
tober, 1904; Neryosangh's Sanskrit is re-edited from Spiegel with the additional colla- 
tion of five MSS., and for the first time translated. The Persian is from the Munich 
MSS. already partly edited in the Gathas. An Appendix contains the accented Sanskrit 
Equivalents of the Avesta Text by the Author, issued upon the plan adopted by him 
with Yasna XXVIII in Roth's Fcstgrtiss, 1894, and with Yasna XLIV in the Acts of 
the Eleventh Congress of Orientalists held in Paris, 1897. Four photographic plates of 
MSS., with other illustrative matter are added, pp. 163, to be had of F. A. Brockhaus, 
in Leipsic, 12s. 6d., and of the Open Court Publishing Co., of Chicago ; Yasna I. is espe- 
cially valuable as it deals with the chief important questions of all the non-gathic Yasna. 
Also a Dictionary of the Gathic Language of the Zend Avesta, being Vol. III. of the 
Gathas, pp. 623-821, Leipsic, 1903, price 12s. 6d., with 120 additional pages soon ready, 
pp.622-f-320, 994+xlvii, 1909. £1. For .sale by Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, $6.00. 

RAEL, pp. 4604-xxx, (Chicago: Open Court Pub. Co., 1906, price $4.00 net), are still 
to be had of Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. and of the leading booksellers in Ox- 
ford at I2S. 6d. "He treats his subject thoroughly and exhaustively. . . .deep and patient 
studies." J.J. Modi, Head Priest of the Parsi Colaba, Bombay, in the Parsi of Bombay, 1900. 
— "A wealth of learning and thought." Nation, N. Y., Aug. 30, 1906. 

TIONS, by L. H. Mills, (published by the Open Court Pub. Co., 1908, 50 cents net). 
RELIGIONE DELL' AVESTA, dal Prof. Lorenzo Mills. Being sections of lectures 
delivered in the University of Oxford, translated into Italian by an accomplished Italian 
man of letters upon his own initiative. Torino, 1909. To be had of G. Sacerdote, Turin, 
Ital}'. Pp. 75. Price, 2S. 

The 31st volume of the Sacred Books of the East.the YASNA, VISPARAD, AFRIN A- 
GAN AND GAH, pp. 400-f xlvii, 1887 (same .Author) is still to be had at 12s. 6d. ; as is 
the ANCIENT MANUSCRIPT OF THE YASNA, collotyped in an unsurpassed man- 
ner in the actual size and color of the original, 770 photographs with Introductory Note 
by L. H. Mills, Ten guineas. This is the main document of the above-mentioned. works, 
—for the presence of the original of it in the Bodleian, Mr. Mills is responsible, 18S9. 

"Professor Mills's name stands foremost in the ranks of those who have explored the 
field of Avestic literature." The Rast Goftar, Bombay, April 18, 1909.— "Beyond question 
our leading authority now living, on the Gathas." The Nation, N. Y., Aug. 30, 1906. — 
(Mills (Earlier) of the Gathas) Das Ergebniss einer erstaunlichen Arbeit sehr mannig- 
faltiger Art — unser Verstandniss der Gathas miichtig gefordert. Gott. Gclehr. Anz. 
May 13, 1893. "Insbesondere von Mills, der diese schwierigen Gedichte in griindlichster 
Weise behandelt hat." Prcussisches Jahrbtich, 1897, Prof. Justi (Lexicographer). "Tons 
ceux qui s'occupent de I'interpretation des Gathas rendront hommage a I'immense jabeur 
scientifique de M. Mills... son livre reste un instrument indispensable pour I'etude." 
Prof. James Darmcsteter, Revue Critique, September 18, 1S93. 

"Alles was fiir die Erklarung der Gathas nothwendig ist." (So also Dr. West in 
J.R.A.S.) — "Immer wird es die Grundlage bilden, auf der sich jede weitere Forschung 
aufbauen muss...einen hervorragenden Dienst." Zcitschrift der dcutschen M. G., 1896 
(the late) R. Pischel (first Sanskritist of Germany). — A new edition has been inquired 
for, and a renewed Government subvention is expected from an antiquated engagement. 

A few copies are still to be had upon exceptional request, and for libraries, at £3, of 
Brockhaus at Leipsic. 

The Philosophical Review 




Vol. XVlll, No. 5 (September, 1909) Contains: 

I. ORIGINAL articles: 

The Obsolescence of the Eternal, - Professor A. O. Lovejoy 
Idealism and Realism, - Professor C. M. Bakewell 

German Idealism in 1908 - Professor Oscar Ewald 

II. REVIEWS OF books: 

W. James, A Pluralistic Universe : by Professor James Seth. 
W. Wundt, Volkerpsychologie : by Professor H. N. Gardiner. 
J. Clark Murray, A Handbook of Christian Ethics : by Professor 
Frank Thilly. G. S. Brett, The Philosophy of Gassendi : by 
Professor G. N. Dolson. 

III. notices OF NEW BOOKS : 

Raoul Richter, Der Skeptizismus in der Philosophie und seine 
Uberwindung — /. ►S. Mackeyizie, Lectures on Humanism — Jean 
Delvolve, Religion, critique et philosophie positive chez Pierre 
Bayle — F. C. Sharp, A Study of the Influence of Custom on Mor- 
al Judgment — /. Boiirdeau, Pragmatisme et modernisme — Ettie 
Stettheimer, The Will to Believe as a Defense for Religious Faith. 




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