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^be ©pen Goutt 


Bevote& to tbe Science ot IReUGfon, tbe IReliaion ot Science, an& tbe 
Bitension ot tbe IRelioious parliament HDca 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. . j E. C. Hegeler. 

Assistant Editor. T. J. McCormack. associate:, -j j^^^^ Carus. 

VOL. XiV. (no. 10) October, 1900. NO. 533 


Frontispiece. The Three Fates. After Michael Angelo. 

On Greek Religion and Mythology. The Daughters of Zeus. — Hera, the Wife 
of^Zeus, and Her Children. — Apollo and Artemis. — Dionysos. With 
Numerous Illustrations from the Monuments, the Sarcophagi, and 
the'^General Pictorial and Sculptural Art of Classical x'Vntiquity. 
Editor 577 

The Curbing of the Spirit of Inquiry. A Sketch of the History of the Con- 
flict Between Theology and Science. With Portraits of St. Augus- 
tine and Aristotle. Carus Sterne, Berlin 607 

Certain Aspects of the Eleusinian Problem. I. Primitive Rites of Purifica- 
tion. The Rev. Charles Jajmes Wood, York, Pa 618 

Tlie Penitent Thief. Exhibiting Buddha's Doctrine of the New Birth and 
the Forgiveness of Sins. Now First Translated from the Pali by 
Albert J. Edmunds 628 

Experinie7ital Mathematics : Hanus's Geometry in the Grammar School; 
Campbell's Observational Geometry ; and Speer's Advanced Arith- 
metic. With Illustrations 634 

Immortality. A Poem. Solomon Solis- Cohen 639 

Book Reviews 640 


®be ©pen Court IpublisbinG Company 

LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 
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Copyright, 1900, by The Open Court Publishing Co. Entered at the Chicago Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 





New Edition. From the French. Two Vols. loo Ilkistrations. 688 Pages. 

Cloth, $2.00 (los.). Handsomely Bound in Oriental Style. 

Popular Edition, i Vol., Cloth, $1.25 (5s.) net. 

A Truly Fascinating Work.— One of the Most Popular Books of All Times. 

Read the Folloiving Com7ne7idatory Notices: 

" The work made a profound sensation. Although China and the other countries of the Orient have 
been opened to foreigners in larger measure in recent years, few observers as keen and as well qualified to 
put their observations in finished form have appeared." — The Watchman . 

"The book is a classic, and has taken its place as such, and few classics are so interesting. It de- 
serves to be put on the same shelf as Lane's Modern Egyptians. These reprints ought to have a large sale. 
Few books will have more readers than the missionary adventures of Abbe line and his no less daring com- 
panion." — The Catholic News. 

" Fools, it is known, dash in where angels fear to tread, and there are also instances of missionaries 
dashing in where intrepid and experienced travellers fail. Such was the case with MM. Hue and Gabet, 
the two mild and modest French priests who, fifty years ago, without fuss, steadily made their untortured 
way from China across Thibet and entered L'hassa with the message of Christianity on their lips. It is 
true that they were not allowed to stay there as long as they had hoped ; but they were in the Forbidden 
Land and the Sacred City for a sufficient time to' gather enough facts to make an interesting and very valu- 
able book, which on its appearance in the forties (both in France and England) fascinated our fathers much 
in the way that the writings of Nansen and Stanley have fascinated us. To all readers of Mr. Landor's 
new book who wish to supplement the information concerning the Forbidden Land there given, we can 
recommend the work of M. Hue. Time cannot mar the interest of his and M. Gabet's daring and successful 
enterprise."— T^A^ Academy. 

"The descriptions of the perils and difficulties of travel, of the topography and of climatic phenom- 
ena, are remarkably simple and vivid. How wonderfully has the Catholic missionary penetrated the least 
known lands! Rarely well qualified to travel, frequently frail of body and simple of mind, he has, through 
sheer earnestness of purpose, made his way, where strength, experience, and cunning fail. The Open 
Court Co. has certainly done well in bringing out an English version of Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and 
China ... at this time."— Prof. Frederick Starr, in New Unity. 

" One of the most striking books that have ever been written on the East is the one, here reprinted, of 
the travels of the Jesuit missionaries Gabet and Hue in Tartary, China, and Thibet, over fifty years ago. 
The modesty as well as the fulness of the narrative strikes the reader with astonishment, in view of the in- 
credible difficulties of the camel journey, the ease with which they were overcome, the abundance and 
novelty of the information obtained, and the combined picturesqueness, impersonality, and humility of 
these two accomplished priests."— 7"//^ Critic. 

"The interest in the territory treated in this volume is just now immense, on account of the immi- 
nency of the partition of China by the governments of Europe."— Sunday School Library Bulletin. 

" Once one takes up the volumes, it is hard to shake oneself free from the gentle spell of his narra- 
tive, and when the last page is turned down and we leave the two kindly priests on their homeward journey, 
at the boundaries of China, we want to go with them every remaining step of the way, live in their tents, 
share their scanty handfuls of meal, and enjoy with them a whimsical smile at the dilemmas and adven- 
tures of each succeeding day." — Law List of United Commercial Lawyers. 


London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 


From a Painting by Michail Angelo in the Gallery of the 
Palazzo Pitti in Florence. 

front isficfe to The 0,'>cn Court. 

The Open Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

VOL. XIV. (NO. lo. 

OCTOBER, 1900. 

NO. 533 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co., 1900. 


r,V IHF. EDI roR. 

THE deeper philosophical significance of the Greek idea of God 
is only dimly foreshadowed in the mythology of Zeus, but is 
not as yet contained in it. Almost all the ideas that played a prom- 

Gem of Aspasios in Vienna. 
(Eckhel, Choix de picrrcs 
,!^rai'ccs, pi. XVHI.) 


Ancient Cameo. 

inent part in Greek religion, be they personifications of the powers 
of nature or the ideals of life, were represented as children of Zeus ; 
and thus there are many legends of the various marriage relations of 
the great son of Kronos. Wc are told that Zeus was first wedded 

lEuropa, according to Hesiod a daughcer of Okeanos and Tethys Theog. 357;, is a form of the 
earth-goddess, and Zeus abducted her in tlie sliape of a bull. Her children are Minos and Rha 
damanthys, the judges of Tartaros ; or, by another version. Minos and .Sarpedon. 



to Metis, i. e., wisdom, a daughter of Okeanos ; but Moira, the god- 
dess of fate,i warned him that the son of Metis would be mightier 
than his father, and so Zeus divorced himself from his first spouse, 
taking the infant which she was about to bear him, and hiding it in 
his own head until it had grown to maturity. When the time ar- 
rived, Pallas Athene, the goddess of science and art, full}^ dressed 
in armor, sprang forth from his forehead. 

Having divorced himself from Metis, Zeus married Themis, 

The statue of Pallas Athena as 
protectress. (After Jahn, De 

Pallas Athena- (Archaic). 

After Stackelberg, Griibcr dcr 

Hell., plate 57. 

a)>l. Min. 
3, 7-) 

iniuhtcris, tab. 

the goddess of justice, whose daughters are Astrcea, the goddess of 
tlie zodiac, and the Seasons or Hora' and the Fates. . 

1 Moira, i. e., allotment or destiny, is an important conception in Greek mythology, but it has 
never been personified into a concrete deity. The same idea is represented sometimes by Nem- 
esis (retribution), sometimes by Ker (doonv . Zeus determines the decision of fate, as to the lives 
of Hector and Achilles, by consulting the balance and weighing the chances of both heroes in 
its scales. Adrastos (1. e., the inevitable) is a male representation of Nemesis in the sense of 
destiny and death, who is also called Ne>e<7-is 'ASpacrTtia. 

2 The oldest statues of Pallas Athena show the goddess seated on a throne without armour 
and sometimes adorned with the /Egis (the Gorgon-head) on her breast. This type is frequently 
found in the ancient tombs at Athens. Cf. Roscher. Lexikon der n>iinschen und griechischen 
MrtltKlogie. I., pp. 6ti7-6S8. 



The number of the Seasons and their names vary. In Athens, 
two were worshipped under the names of Thallo (Budding Time) 

Pallas Athena Carrying a Nike in Her Hand. 
Discovered in 1880 near the Varvakeion Gymnasium at Athens. 


HephastosS Zeus Nike Athena The three Fates 

The Birth of Athena and the Three Fates. 
(.Vfter Schneider, A. A. O., pi. I., i.) 

and Karpo (Harvest). The}' are frequently represented as three 
in number, and philosophical speculation describes them as up- 

1 This statue is an imitation of the famous statue of Phidias, which was built of ivory and 
gold, the eyes being precious stones. See Die Athena Pa rthotos des Phidias by Th. Schreiber, 
Leipsic, 1883, and Charles Waldstein. Essays on the Art 0/ Phidias, Essay VIII. 

-'According to Apollod., I., 3, 6, Prometheus (not Hephitstos) acted as obstetrician to Zeus. 

Athena Writing. 

Vase picture. (From I'.lile 

i,'ra»i(>,i,''r., I , 77.) 

The Three Graces, 

(Torso preserved in the 

Academy of Siena.)' 



\ ^^L 






Athena Slaying a Giant. 
(From Elite ceramogr., I., 8.) 

] The oldest Graces are always dressed and dancing or walking in step. The name of the 
artist who was the first to represent them naked and standing in a circle is not known, but tlie 
great number of copies preserved proves how very popular this conception became. The torso 
preserved in Siena is commonly regarded as the most beautiful copy of this group. (See p. 5X2.) 


holders of the divine order under the names Eunomia (Good Law), 
Dike (Right), Eirene (Peace). 

The nine Muses, the representatives of the arts and sciences, 
are said to be the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne fi. e., Mem- 

Athena of Albani. 
(Colossal bust now in the Glyptothek at Munich. From a photograph.) 

oryj. They are KHo (History), Melpomene (Tragedy), Thalia 
(Comedy), Kalliope (Epic), Euterpe (Music), Polyhymnia (Song 
and Oratory I, Erato (Love Lays), and Terpsichore (Dancing). 



Grace and loveliness are represented in the three Graces, who 
are reputed to be daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, the goddess 

The Pallas Athena of Velletri. 

Colossal statue now in the Louvre. (Braun, I'orsck/tlc ^ur 
/\'/<>/s/>?/y//i(>/o,^'-/(\ pi. 60.) 

of universal law, a daughter of Okeanos. Their names are Aglaia, 
Euphrosyne, and Thalia. 



The fates are Klotho, Lachesis, and .Itropos. Klotho ( i. e., 
the Spinner) starts the thread of life; Lachesis (the Receiver) 

Birth of I'm, las A thena. 
(Gerhard, Aiisoi. I'asoibildo-, I., i.) 

Apollo Musagetes and the Nine Muses. 
Florentine Museum. (From Taylor, KlcMsii/iau coid Bacr/iic Mys/crics. p. lo.) 

measures its length, and Atropos ( the Inevitable i cuts it ofi. It 
may be interesting to note in this connexion that Hesiod (i. e.. the 








unknown author of the Theogony) forgets that, in the passage quoted 
in the last number of The Open Court he made the Fates daughters 

Thalia Melpomene. 

of the Night. In giving their present genealogy, he speaks highly 
of the Fates, saying that "counselling Zeus gives them most 
honor, ■' and that "they dispense good and evil to men." 



The chief wife of Zeus is his sister Hera ; she is worshipped 
as the queen of heaven, as the virgin goddess, as the protectress of 
marriage, as the wife in all her dignity and nobilit}^ 



The Three Seasons (Hor.*;). 
(After a bas-relief on the .Ira Bo)\i^>hrsr.) 

That Hera is at once virgin and mother is an idea which is 
iiite common in mythology; it can be traced back to older sources 

The Three Graces of Socrates. ^ 
Group at the entrance of the Acropoli 

Head of Hera. 
From a mural painting in Pompeii. (/>' /?. , I, 649.) 

I None of the older representations of tlie Graces are naked. A group of the three Graces at 
the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens is said to have been sculptured by Socrates the philos- 



and has been perpetuated in Christianity to the present da}-, where 
it found definite expression in tlie dogma of the virgin mother of 

The Nursing Mother. ' '" 

Supposed to be a statue of Hera. (Vatican. />. D., I., 650 ) 

Christ, who in artistic representations is still depicted the same as 
Astarte, standing on a crescent with a crown of stars on her head. 

opher [Paus., I., 22, 8 ; IX., 35, 2 ; Schol. Ar. Nubb., 773;. Miiller (Arch., S 336, 7) does not believe 
that the philosopher ever became an expert sculptor. Fragments found on the place prove that 
the group here reproduced, discovered in Rome and preserved in the Museo Chiaramonti in the 
Vatican, is an exact copy of the so-called Athenian Graces of Socrates. 



Hera bore to Zeus, Hebe, the goddess of eternal youth ; Ares, 
the god -of war; and Hephaestos, the smith among the gods. 

Aphrodite was married to Hephwstos, but some legends make 
her the wife of Ares, the god of war, which again produced the 
story of the jealousy of Hephaestos, as told by Homer. 

Ares, according to Homer, fights on the side of the Trojans 
against the Greek and represents bellicosity and truculent courage 

Wedding of Zeus and Hera. 
Fresco of Pompeii. 

rather than the art of warfare, the latter belonging to the domain 
of Pallas Athena. 

Hephaestos, the god of the fiery forge, is described as lame, 
probably on account of the flickering of the flame which seems to 
ascend to the sky with a limping gait. Myth-lore, the gossip of 
the gods, offers another explanation. We are told that when the 
heavenly parents of Hephaestos were once quarrelling, the faithful 

IForme rly regarded as the wedding of Kronos with Rhea, but now since Helbig's study of 
the picture in his Wandgemlilde, N. 114) firmly established as the marriage of Zeus with Hera. 
Iris, the winged messenger of the gods, is leading the bride. 



Archaic Aktemis oI' Pompeii. 
Now in the Museum of Naples. 

(See page 589.) 


Heph.i:stos Assisted by the Cyclops. 

Sarcophagus relief. (From Af us. Ca/>U., 4, 25. Ci. Roscher, 
Zt'.v., I., pp. 2070 ff and II., p. 1O79.) 



son came to the aid of his mother, and falhur Zens seizing the boy 
b}- one of his feet tluew liim ont of a window of the divine ])alace 

on Mount 01\ mpos. Hephasstos, being a god, survived the fall 
but sprained his ankle and remained lame for the rest of his life. 

While the children of Hera are important deities, there are 
other children of Zeus some of whom are superior to thrm in rank 



Ares, Commonly Called Mars Ludovisl 

Supposed to be made either after an original by Scopas, or after the 

Apoxyomenos of Lysippos.' 

For archajologital details see Wieseler, AUe Dcnkm.. II., No. 250. 



or at least are of .greater sii^niticance. Their rise is mainly clue to 
the parallelism of several similar myths with different names and a 

Archaic Apollo. 
Vase-picture, {^^on. his/., III., -14) 

varying local coloring; but their relation to the great father of 
gods and men is throughout the same. 

As the life of Christ is the most essential part of Christianity. 



because it reveals the nature of the Christian God, so the legends 
of the sons of Zeus contain the most essential conceptions of the 
religion of classical Greece, and these sons are all, each one in his 
own way, prototypes of Christ. All of them are saviours ; they 
have come into life to reveal the truth, to bring liberty, to redeem 

Head of the Apollo Bel\i 
(After a photograph.) 

mankind from sin, to atone for sj,uilt, to ransom the weak from the 
powers of evil, to liberate those that are in the bondage of the body 
from the curse of materiality, to endow them with spiritual life, 
to rescue men from death and grant them immortality. 





Lcto ( that is. the hiddm one, the deity of the nij^ht) borc' to 
Zeus on the Island of Delos, the manly Apollo, the god of the sun 

The Apollo Belvidere 

and of poetr}', and Artemis, the goddess of the moon and of the 
chase. This legend is not an isolated one. Light is frequently 



Apollo Kitharcedes. 
Vatican. (After the type created by Scopas. )' 

lAugnstus placed a statue of Apollo, playing the cithara, by Scopas, in the temple "on the 
Palatinum. Nero imitated the costume of this statue in his own dress, and the Vatican statue, a 
copy of this Apollo Kitharu;des, allows us to judge of the beauty of the lost original. 


supposed to be a child of darkness. Thus we read in Goethe's 

Faust of : 

" Finsterniss die sich das Licht gebar, 
Das stolze Licht, das nun der Mutter Nacht, 
Den alten Rang, den Raum ihr streitig macht." 

The Vatican Artemis of EniE.-rs 
(After a photograph.) 

But though the legend of Leto and her children in the form in 
which it is preserved in Greece can scarcely be ancient, it contains 
features \Yhich point back to prehistoric mythological ages and re- 



mind one of the story preserved in the Revelation of St. John, 
chap. xii. Leto wanders from place to place, but finds no asylum 

The Tukch-Beakin(. Artemis. 

roni the pursuing dragon Python, because people are afraid of the 
mighty god whom she will bear, until she reaches the place of 



revelation (Deles), the rocky island in the sea, which formerly 
floated about upon the waters but now is made stationary. 

Apollo is the solar deity of Greece. As such he represents 
light in every form. He is the revealer and the dispenser of or- 
acles. His weapon is the bow, his instrument the lyre. As the god 
of poetry and music, he is Musagetes, the leader of the Muses. He 




. ■■'.■''■^ 

\ V 







Artemis, Discovered in Delos. 
(Collignon, Afy//i. dr la Grecc.) 

Artemis Ephesia. 

Alabaster statue now in the museum ai 

Naples. (Roscher, Lex., I., p. 588,) 

is called Phccbos, the Bright One, Pccon the Healer, Pythios the 
slayer of the dragon Python. His birthday was celebrated in I\Iay 
on the island of Delos, and his most famous temple stood in Delphi. 
There a tripod was placed over a chasm from which vapors arose, 
and whenever the oracle was consulted the Delphic priestess, called 



Pj'thia, was seated on the tripod. The vapors caused her to faU 
into a trance, and her utterances while she was in this condition 
were reduced to verses by the priests. 

The Delphic priests as a rule were well inforniL'd and gave 

ii- N'ek.saii.les.' 
Now in the Louvre. (Bouillon Musee, I., 20) 

their patrons good advice. The influence of the Delphic oracle 
over Greece was very great and undoubtedly beneficent. 

Apollo's twin sister is Artemis, the goddess of the moon. She 
loves to roam through the forests and is the protectress of the 



The winged deity holding do- 
minion over the animal world.' 

' ■■"■ 'f: 

IVN^ -■ ' '4:^ 

1 ""v^ 

v^'>^ y 


Found in the neighborhood of Rome, now in the Louvre 
Clarac Musee, pi. 113 115. 

1 FraKiiieiU of the Fian(,ois vase. ,.IA'«. /'isr. IV., jS.; This type of Artemis is pre-Hellenic 
and reminds us strongly of similar Assyrian monuments. 

2 In one scene Artemis is represented as taking a bath watched by Actason, in the other the 
punishment of tlie indignant goddess is represented, Action being torn to pieces by his dogs 
One side shows the preparations for the chase, the other tlie lamentations over the dead Actaeon 
The lid is decorated with sea-nymphs riding on hippocamps. 



chase. Her main temple stood in Ephesus, on the coast of Asia 
Minor, where under Eastern influence she was worshipped hke 
Astarte, as Mother Nature and the nurse of all beings. 

The picture of the properly Greek Artemis in Athens and 
other cities of European Greece is different. There the goddess of 
the chaste moon is conceived as a virgin, whom at her retpiest 
Zeus, her father, had granted tlu' privilege that she should be at 



liberty to remain forever unmarried. She punislies severely every 
trespass against decorum. She, as does also her brother Apollo- 

DioxYSOs Between Two Satyrs. 
Central scene in the Lj-sicrates monuments at Athens 

Apollo on the Tripod, Flying Over the Ocean. 

(Picture on a water-vessel in the Gregorian Museum of the Vatican. 

Ali/f, TI., pi. 6.) 

represents sudden death, especially if caused by heat in the days 
of the dog-star, the hot season of the year. There are contradic- 



tory legends as to how she slays the hunter Orion and changes Ac- 
taeon into a stag to be torn to pieces by his own hounds. 

The stories of Iphigenia, and Orestes and Pleiades prove that 
the custom of offering human sacrifices to Artemis was not forgot- 
ten in historical times. 


By Semele, a form of the moon different from Artemis, Zeus 
begot Dionysos or Bacchus. Semele, anxious to see her lover in 


s.^ ^ 


The Bacchic child in the winnowing basket. Terra-cotta relief.' 

all his divine glory, made Zeus promise on oath to fulfil her wish, 
but unable to bear the awful majesty of his presence, she died, 
leaving the care of her as yet unborn babe to his father. Zeus 
took the child (as he had taken Athene before) and, maturing it in 
liis thigh, bore it a second time and had it reared by nymphs at 
Nysa under the superintendence of Seilenos. 

Dionysos, the Liberator, the gay god of wine and salvation 
from the bondage of the bod}', stands next in dignity, but not less in 

1 After Combe, Tcrracottaa. 24. 44. A'. D., pi. XVIU. 



;mportance, to Apollo. Trances and ecstasies, as well as dreams, 
were accepted as evidences of the spirituality of man's nature, and 
as wine produces an artificial ecstasy, the god of wine was wor- 
shipped as the saviour who delivers the soul from the bondage of 

Ariadne Sleeping.' 
(Vatican. After a photograph.) 

The Wedding-Parade of Dionvsos and Ariadne. 
(Sarcophagus in the Glyptothek at Munich.) 

the body. It is noteworthy that the symbol of the vine is common 
to both Christianity and Greek paganism, and Christ, like Dionysos, 
makes his entry riding on an ass. 

1 Formerly regarded as a Cleopatra on account of the serpent which serves as a bracelet on 
her arm. Winckelmann proposed to regard the statue as a sleeping nymph, but by comparing 
the statue with a number of reliefs on sarcophagi Visconti succeeded in convincing archjeol- 
ogists that we have here an Ariadne in the moment before she is surprised by Dionysos. 



Dionysos dies and is resurrected. Under the name Zagreus 
he is torn to pieces and parts of his bod}' are devoured by his 
murderers, the frenzied ma'nads. 

The spouse of Dionysos is Ariadne, originall)' a goddess of 
spring, another form of Persephone. When througli the influence 
of the Athenian drama the legend of Ariadne's dehverancc through 
Theseus became firmly established, the ancient tradition was modi- 
fied and so interpreted that Theseus at the instant of divine inter- 
ference, commonly attributed to Athena, left Ariadne sleeping in 
Naxos where she awakens at the approach of Dion\sos. 

Dionysos Scuhdim. < )\ er the Sea.' 
(Gerhard, .h/s,/-/. rasnih., \ , 49.) 

The Dionysian Mysteries were celebrated by many, but few 
only were able to understand their significance. Plato said : 

"There are many partakers of the sacred rites who bear the Thyrsus (the 
sacred staff of the god), but few are true Bacchi,"- 

VllpiillhiKJjOjtOI llh> TTli/'/Ill^ f-luh \l)l (^.' 7T(U'l)i 


K'lal (S//, (j>ti,mv <ii ntp) rue rt. 
Pliaedo, 69. 

We have little positive knowledge about the Mysteries of Dio- 
nysos Bacchus, but we know that they implied a belief in the spiri- 
tuality of the soul and a resurrection to renewed life. 


1 The picture was broken in the middle, the rent crossing the sail and the face of Dionysos. 
^/Saicxo! in Greek means not only the God Dionysos, but also his followers, i. e., those who 
have been initiated into the Bacchic mysteries. 



ON high authority we are told to day that there are a number of 
world-enigmas which the human mind has never solved and 
never will solve. If we also recognise these enigmas as apparently 
the most important and most worthy of solution, we are overcome 
for a moment by despondency, in which comes the suggestion : 
forsake the hopeless path of investigation; be content; believe in 
what the Church offers you as irrefutable and certain truth, and be 
happy in your ignorance. Nowhere is the inscription over the 
gates of Dante's Inferno, "All hope abandon ye who enter here," 
more appropriate than over the portal of the proud temple of phi- 

For such discouragement there is but one remedy: the study 
of the natural sciences in their historical development, a retrospect 
from their present attainments to their beginnings; not because 
"such splendid progress we have made," but because we can now 
for the first time fully appreciate how much we have been expected 
to accept on faith as irrefutable truth, and recognise under what 
enormous difficulties we have been compelled to labor in gaining 
the modest store of knowledge which constitutes the present glory 
of the race. It is as instructive as it is remarkable that those who 
were the first to propose giving up the Sis3'phean task of investi- 
gation, have always been the least inclined to act accordingly. 
Thus it was, for instance, with Socrates, who liked to boast of his 
own ignorance, and who according to Xenophon called all foolish 
who labored to investigate natural laws and celestial phenomena. 
And yet he himself was never weary of learning, to the great dis- 
pleasure of the populace, whose point of view is represented by 
Aristophanes who pictures Socrates seated in a basket high above 

1 Translated from the German by Prof. L. L. Jackson, State Norii:al Scliool, Brockpcrt. N. Y 


the heads of the people, discussing useless questions. Surely such 
occasional utterances will lead no one to include Socrates among 
those /'caux esprits of whom Propertius says : 

" None of these crave to know the inner truth of the cosmos, 
Nor how from her radiant brother Luna deriveth her light ; 
Whether beyond the Styx extendeth the span of existence, 
Nor whether the thunder-bolt with deliberate purpose is aimed." 

Such reflexions on the inadequacy of human understanding 
have arisen inevitably whenever reason and growing knowledge 
have conflicted with a system of religious views which had origi- 
nated in earlier times and been regarded as final. Even Cicero in 
his dissertation De deoriun natura has his academician, Balbus, 
condemn in a similar way the Danaean gifts of the human under- 
standing and the misleading speculations of philosophy, just as the 
Apostle Paul a hundred years later did from his point of view. 

"Everything," says Balbus, "goes to show that quite as much 
evil as good is accomplished through reason ; the good by few men 
and rarely, the evil by most men and often ; so that it were actually 
better had the gods denied men reason altogether, since they are 
constrained to combine with it so much evil. Wine is seldom ben- 
eficial to the sick, and generally injurious, so that it is safer not to 
give it at all than to risk life in the uncertain hope that it may be 
useful. Just so I am convinced that to have withheld from the 
human race altogether that activity, keenness, and precision of 
thought called reason would have been better than to give it in the 
abundant measure which is so destructive to most people and use- 
ful to very few." 

Now if Cicero, who was tolerably free from religious prejudices, 
expressed himself in this way, how can we blame the teachers of 
Christianity if they occasionally inveighed against the philosophi- 
cal productions of human reason which they could not harmonise 
with Scriptural accounts. "Beware lest any man spoil you through 
philosophy and vain deceit," wrote Paul to the Colossians when he 
saw that his arguments were no match for those of the philosophers 
at Athens and elsewhere. The Christian fathers accordingly felt 
forced to avoid strife, and to deny to unbelievers the right of re- 
search, asserting that they themselves possessed the truth. In this 
connexion there is nothing more instructive than the principles 
which TertuUian (died A. D. 220) advanced in his treatise De Prcp- 
scriptioiie Harcticorum, the heretics having appealed to the Scrip- 
ture, "Seek and ye shall find." Even "if the heretics," said he, 
"were not enemies of the truth and we were not warned before- 


hand to avoid them, how under any circumstances could we bring 
ourselves to dispute with men who themselves confess that they 
are still investigating? If they are still seeking for truth, it is 
surely because they have found nothing certain, and by their further 
investigation they merely show that they regard all previous con- 
clusions as doubtful. . . . For us Christ has made all inquiry un- 
necessary, and the Gospel has made all search for truth superflu- 
ous. . . . With faith all seeking and finding cease. . . . No one is 
wise but the believer." 

These utterances are more significant than the declarations of 
the same Church Father, spoken in wrath and half ironically, "I 
believe because it is absurd" {^credo quia absurduni), and, "It is 
true because it is impossible," for they indicate the attitude which 
later apparently justified the Church Fathers in their opposition to 
the demands of investigators for a hearing. I say apparently, for 
they would really have been justified only in case they themselves 
had also given up the investigation and disingenuous interpretation 
of the Bible and placed childlike faith in every word as it stands. 
Then only would they have been justified in concluding, as Tertul- 
lian does in the same dissertation, "Hence we establish first of all 
this principle : heretics are not to be permitted to take part in any 
disputation concerning the Scriptures." 

In sharp contrast to this Church Father's opinion that believ- 
ing Christians possess the truth and need not investigate, is the fact 
that the Church Fathers never wearied of searching the Scriptures 
and vexing their poor brains in the attempt to comprehend the in- 
comprehensible things contained therein, instead of simply believ- 
ing them. What infinite labor and fathomless ingenuity did the 
theologians waste on the first chapter of the Bible alone, instead 
of straightway recognising with Faust the uselessness of such 
efforts, and furthermore they subject themselves to the reproach 
of carelessness, in creating difficulties where none existed. Thus, 
for example, John Chrysostom from the mere order of the words 
of the first verse of the Bible, "In the beginning God created 
heaven and earth," drew the conclusion that the creator did not 
begin the universe with a foundation, as men begin their houses, 
but began with the roof ; or, as the Mansfeld priest, Simon Museeus, 
(died 1576), expressed it in his drastic way, "But God just reversed 
[man's method] and made first the sky for an arching roof, and 
left it swinging unsupported until on the third day he placed the 
earth beneath it." 

Endless discussions were called forth by the circumstance that 


in verses 3-5 the creation of light and of day and night occurs sev- 
eral days before the creation of the sun and the moon, of which it 
is said that they are to divide the day from the night and to num- 
ber the days and years. With the limited intelligence of a savage 
who believes that the heavenly luminaries are daily kindled and 
extinguished, Basil the Great in his commentary on the six days of 
creation conjectured that the first days of the world, before the 
appearance of the sun, were divided into day and night by the 
alternate expansion and contraction to the vanishing-point of the 
original light. Fortunately a converted Neo-Platonist of the early 
Middle Ages, whose writings appeared in the sixth century over 
the name of Dionysius, the Areopagite, helped his fellow-believers 
out of their difficulty. Using certain ideas of Gregory of Nyssa, he 
devised the idea of original and formless light out of which, on the 
fourth day of creation, the sun was fashioned, but which by revolv- 
ing about the earth had already produced day and night. It was a 
lucky thought which the mystics of the Middle Ages eagerly took 
up and expanded. With this interpretation there was no longer 
any difficulty in reading that the plants sprang out of the earth be- 
fore the sun had been created, and this dogma gave St. Basil espe- 
cial satisfaction, because it utterly confused the idolatrous sun- 
worshippers, who maintained that the sun should receive supreme 
worship, because all earthly life is developed by its rays. 

The unquenchable thirst for investigation carried the interpre- 
ters of the Bible to the farthest extreme, and they could not be 
content until they had determined the hour and season when the 
world was created. Since on the very first days of creation herbs 
and trees sprang up from the new earth, Damascenus, Theodoret, 
Ambrose, Gregory of Nazianzus, and the majority of the earlier 
Church Fathers heM that the world was doubtless created in the 
spring, the loveliest season of the year. And Petrus de Alliaco 
added in his Imago Mundi (A. D. 1410) the more precise time, claim- 
ing that the formless light, as well as the sun itself, was created 
when at zenith in the sign of Aries, that is on a March noon. Con- 
cerning the moon Ephraem Syrus had already expressed the opin- 
ion that it was created at full, as it appears on the fifteenth Nisan 
at the time of the vernal equinox. Scarcely a zealous theologian 
of later times who spoke or wrote concerning the creation ventured 
to pass over this weighty question without forming an opinion. 
Among the authoritative Catholic Churchmen Duns Scotus, Cajetan, 
Molina, and Cornelius a Lapide held the opinion that the world was 
created in the spring. Luther and Melanchthon besides most of 

THE CURIUNO of the sriRlT OF INQUIRY. 6ll 

their followers accepted this view, as also did the Calvinists, Isaac 
\'ossius and Scaliger. On the other hand there were distinguished 
Catholic scholars who advocated just as ardently the autumn ; 
among these were Arias Montanus, the editor of the Antwerp Poly- 
glot Bible, Pererius, and Pere Mersenne. Among the followers of 
Luther the view was held by Calvisius, the famous chronologist of 
Leipsic. Their reason was that the trees of Paradise instead of 
bursting into bud and blossom, immediately after their creation had 
borne fruit, and Hogel, rector of Gera, figured it out that God had 
begun the work of creation on the evening of October 26th. Ger- 
hard Mercator, the famous geographer, advanced a third view, 
that the creation took place in mid-summer, but he seems to have 
secured only a meagre following. 

From all of this we see that the theologians were not by any 
means so hostile to the investigation of nature as they are often 
represented to be, and as they must needs have been had they held 
Tertullian's views. While in the above-mentioned questions it 
mattered little which side one took, yet there were more serious 
subjects on which it was not safe to have a different opinion from 
that of the leaders and rulers of the day. We will pass by entirely 
in this connexion theological and even purely philosophical ques- 
tions, as, for example, whether the earth was created out of noth- 
ing, and confine ourselves altogether to purely physical things in 
order to show how quickly rational thought was suppressed on the 
authority of a document which reflects the far from imposing scien- 
tific knowledge of the Jewish scholars of the fifth century B. C. 
Furthermore, views which do not appear in the Bible at all, nay, 
are not even hinted at, were read into it and embodied in estab- 
lished articles of faith merely because it seemed to certain theolo- 
gians that certain passages admitted of one and only one definite 
interpretation. Not only the authors but also the expounders of 
the Bible came to be considered inspired. 

Such a notion could not fail to lead to strange conclusions. 
In the first verse of the Bible, the all-encompassing sky is men- 
tioned, and very naturally, before the earth, but the author cer- 
tainly did not dream of interpreters so childish as to compare the 
creation of the world with the building of a house and say that it 
was begun at the roof. Familiar and universal expressions, used 
only in a figurative sense, such as the four quarters of the earth, 
the four winds and the four corners of the earth, because they had 
by chance found their way into the Bible, were forced to serve as 
proof that the earth has four corners, and cannot therefore be a 

6l2 THE OI'F.N (OURT. 

sphere. Popular notions which reflect, the world over, the imme- 
diate perceptions of the senses, and consequently found expression 
also in the Bible, for instance that of the apparent motion of the 
sun about the earth, were thought by this fact to have become in- 
disputable evidence that the earth actually remains firm and im- 
movable in the center of the sun's plane. Doubtless the worst of 
it all was that the opinions, which the Church teachers with their 
limited understanding of natural science had expressed concerning 
the uncertain meaning of certain Scripture passages, were after- 
wards pronounced to be as unimpeachable as the Bible text itself; 
and that consequently it became the most dangerous heresy to be- 
lieve in the existence of the antipodes, in opposition to the opinion 
of St. Lactantius, to believe that death is the natural end of life, in 
the face of the opinion of St. Augustine, or to believe that the earth 
moves about the sun, in opposition to the conviction of the entire 
body of Church Fathers. 

The significant feature of the whole situation is that the Church 
was endeavoring to establish for its schools a fixed system of doc- 
trine which should fetter reason in matters of belief by trying to 
exempt definitively from all future criticism not only those doc- 
trines which might be regarded as derived from direct revelation, 
but also those resulting from human interpretation. When the 
Church had once spoken through a council or through the mouth 
of the Pope, no opposition based on reason, no hesitation or doubt 
based on better information as to the actual facts, was to be per- 
mitted; the "sacrifice of the intellect" was demanded without dis- 
tinction of every one. The knowledge of natural phenomena, 
still so limited, was not considered a science which was to grow, 
but as a store from which all succeeding generations were to draw. 
This is the explanation of the remarkable fact that under the sway 
of Christianity the natural sciences made no progress worthy of 
mention for nearly fifteen hundred years, that all research was con- 
fined to the comparison and working over of old texts. Belief based 
on authority, which expected truth only in what had already been 
thought and written, was carried to dangerous excess, for it was 
considered heresy to search for additional truth in nature or in 
one's own understanding. But inasmuch as doubts and varying 
views occfasionally arose and were fostered even among Christians, 
by the writings and expositions of heathen philosophers and inves- 
tigators, there developed among Christian teachers a hatred and 
contempt for all investigation not emanating from the Church, 
which appear the less justifiable since the system of Church doc- 


trine had been built up only by means of diligent investigation and 
ardent discussions of the most subtle questions. 

In this spirit Eusebius, the father of Church history, the 
learned but uncritical bishop of Caeserea (died 340), called the 
inquiry of heathen philosophy into the nature of the soul "a use- 
less, misleading, and vain waste of time," adding: Christians 
whose thoughts turn toward higher and better things, think lightly 
of such studies, not so much from ignorance as from contempt for 
useless labor. Basil the Great, several decades later, gave his 
opinion concerning the worthlessness of science even more un- 
equivocally: "Christians have something better to do than to in- 
vestigate the utterly trivial question whether the earth is spherical, 
flat, cylindrical, or cup-shaped." We have already seen how pro- 
foundly ignorant he was, and that he preferred the barbarian's 
theory of the heavenly luminaries to all others. 

The Christian fathers, most notorious for their lofty contempt 
of science are Lactantius (died 330"), who on account of his pol- 
ished language was called the Christian Cicero, and St. Augustine 
(died 430), both of whom were probably sometimes rebuked by 
their contemporaries on account of their blind zeal against the 
theory of the antipodes. The former relieved his mind in the trea- 
tise Concerning False Science, as follows: "To investigate the fun- 
damental causes of natural things, or to try to learn whether the 
sun is as large as it looks, or whether it is many times as large as 
the whole earth, or whether the moon is spherical or hollow, 
whether the stars are fixed in the firmament or move freely through 
the air, what are the dimensions of the heavens themselves, or out 
of what material they are made, whether they are fixed and mo- 
tionless or revolve with infinite velocity, how thick the earth is, 
and upon what foundation it is balanced or suspended, — to wish 
to settle all these things by disputation or speculation is like trying 
to give a complete description of a remote city, which one has 
never seen and knows only by name." 

This judgment contains the false assumption that the ancient 
mathematicians and astronomers arrived at their conclusions con- 
cerning the size and distances of the heavenly bodies by guess only 
and not by exact observation and measurement. We shall later 
have occasion to compare it with the assurance with which Lactan- 
tius decided questions concerning which he had not even presump- 
tive evidence. When St. Augustine in a similar strain speaks of 
the "horrible zeal of the surgeons, who are called anatomists" and 
thinks that they have discovered none of the mysteries of life, 



".although they have dissected the bodies of the dead, and have 
even inhumanly probed into the bodies of the dying with knife in 
hand," we are reminded of the opposition to the vivisection of ani- 
mals in our own day. 

St. Augustine. 


After a painting in the Uffizi Gallery. 

Of course a complete exclusion of the opinions of heathen phi- 
losophers was the more difficult, because the principles of many 
philosophical schools were most excellently adapted to form the 


foundation of the prospective ecclesiastical structure. Platonism 
particularly (introduced by Philo, the Jew, born 20 B. C.) was 
sponsor for certain New Testament dogmas; and Plato's notion 
of archetypes or "eternal ideas" (which were considered as real 
things present in the supernatural world of the Demiurge even be- 
fore their embodiment in plant, animal, and human form) appealed 
the more to Augustine and other Church Fathers, since by means of 
these they could evade Origen's somewhat bold idea that God had 
created everything at once in one creative day, "in a trice," as 
Luther expressed it, and could base upon it all sorts of cunning 
subterfuges of a mediate creation or gradual embodiment of the 
archetypf^s, as, for example, in the case of those animals supposed 
to have sprung from the blood or decaying bodies of other animals. 
Neo-Platonism, with its ideas of ecstatic exaltation, intermediate 
beings, and emanations from the Godhead, was also not without 
important influence upon the doctrines of the new Church, although 
its pantheistic elements were for the time being excluded. 

Somewhat later than Plato, and in a disconnected way, Aris- 
totle acquired an influence upon the Church tenets, first by his cos- 
mology, in the simplified form given it by Ptolemy, and afterwards 
through the other parts of his system for which Arabic and Jewish 
scholars served as interpreters and expounders. Despite the fact 
that the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle had been condemned 
by the Synod of Paris (1209), Albertus Magnus owed his extensive 
learning and his title. Doctor Universalis, chiefly to the study of 
Aristotle, and soon after his pupil, Thomas Aquinas, with open arms 
received the old heathen into the bosom of the one saving Church. 
Aristotle was soon considered the great light in the darkness, and 
even a very John, the forerunner of Christ on earth { pro' curs or 
Christi in rebus naturalibus^. If we consider that in the cosmology 
of Aristotle, everything was arranged in accordance with design 
(the earth and man at the center of all things, the ideas of Plato 
no longer flitting about but still living innate within substance, the 
soul preceding the body, the idea, the form, and back of all terres- 
trial motion God as the primal and only immovable source of mo- 
tion), then we can easily understand how Aristotle, soon after his re- 
discovery, inevitably became the favorite philosopher of the Church 
and the official philosopher of the Pope. We thus see how the pres- 
ent Pope, Leo XIII., could even dream for a moment of galvanis- 
ing this philosophical corpse into life and setting him up in oppo- 
sition to the wicked Darwin. Of course, the salty old pagan was 
thoroughly freshened and disinfected by Thomas Aquinas, but now 



his authority re-established orthodox scholasticism, although under 
the assault of new ideas it did not long enjoy undiminished su- 


(384 B. C.-322 B. C.) 

Bust of the statue of the Palace Spada in Rome.' 

The Church had unquestionably made a great stride forward 
in adopting the teachings of Aristotle, which after all were based 
upon the most careful observation and the keenest interpretation 

1 See the previous number of Tke Open Court. 


of nature. But with this the Church considered that it had given 
all due consideration to earthly things, for had not Aristotle inves- 
tigated all nature? Now he was to be cleaned from dust and put 
under a glass cover; no one was again to lay hand upon his re- 
organised system, which had been brought into the most beautiful 
harmony with the doctrines of the Church, for his works had been 
raised to a rank next to the Bible, as an almost equally authorita- 
tive source of knowledge. But the fresh breeze of the dawning 
Renaissance soon penetrated every crack and crevice of the system 
and hastened the gradual decay of the mummy. 

[to be concluded.] 



THE Mysteries of Eleusis are among the few secrets of this 
world that men have never blabbed. We know somewhat of 
the outer form of the cultus. The ruins of the great hall of initia- 
tion (reXeo-TT^ptov) have been inspected,^ and ancient writers recorded 
some notes of the ranks of membership, or degrees of progress in 
the occult learning. We know also how the society of Eleusis con- 
trolled the affairs, political and social, of all Greece. But the oc- 
cult teachings and ceremonies of Eleusis were never divulged. 

Greek dramas, the plays of ^schylos, Sophocles, Euripides, 
and Aristophanes, were written for the celebration at Athens of 
what was known as the Lesser Mysteries of Eleusis. The Lesser 
Mysteries were partly public, and the dramas presented six months 
later at the conclusion of the Greater Mysteries, echoed the Lesser 
Mysteries and concluded the rites. After initiation at Eleusis the 
Athenian returned home, and in concluding the ceremonies of his 
membership in the secret society he witnessed dramatic represen- 
tations. Into the Greek theatre were gathered the uninitiated as 
well as the enlightened. Therefore, while the dramatic author 
would aim to impress upon the minds of the initiates some of the 
lessons which they had just before secretly learned, he would do 
so in a guarded way that he might not be guilty of revealing to the 
profane any of the secret elements of the Greater Mysteries. The 
penalty of this was death. It is reasonable therefore to turn to the 
Greek plays for some hints of the nature of the secret doctrines 
and liturgy of the Greater Mysteries of Eleusis. 

1 A paper read before tlie Classical Club of the University of Pennsylvania in 1897. 

2 Dyer, The Gods in Greece, Cap. V. 


First of all let us define the function of the Eleusinian Mys- 
teries in Greek social and religious life. The Eleusinian Mysteries 
constituted the Church of Attica, if not of all Greece. Its claims 
were arrogant, no less than this: nulla salus extra ecclcsiam. This 
feeling is expressed in the Homeric Hymn to Dejneter: 

" Blest is he of mortal men who has beheld these ; for he who is uninitiated 
and he who partakes not in these rites, have by no means the same fortune 
although both be dead, beneath the murky darkness." ' 

Plutarch gives the later idea of the o/>//s operatiaii theory of the 

effect of the initiation at Eleusis : 

" \Vhen a man dies he goes through the same experiences as those who have 
their consciousness increased in the Mysteries. Thus in the terms rt/frrdv and 
Ti'/t'iathii, we have an exact correspondence, word to word and fact to fact. First 
of all there are wanderings and wearying journeyings and paths on which we look 
with suspicion, and that seem to have no end ; then, before the end, every kind of 
terror, shuddering, trembling, sweating, stupor ; but at last a marvellous light 
shines out to meet us, pure spots and fair fields welcome us, with song and dance 
and the solemnities of sacred sounds and holy sights. In which state he who has 
already perfected himself in all things and received initiation, reaches his full free- 
dom, and passing everywhere at his will, receives the crown and accomplishes his 
Mystery, in communion with the holy and pure, gazing down upon the unpurified 
multitude of the uninitiated who are still in life, wallowing in the deep mire and 
mist [of matter], and herded together, below him, abiding in misery from fear of 
death and want of faith in the blessedness of the soul-life. For you should know 
that the intercourse and conjunction of the soul with the body is contrary to na- 
ture." — Fra^i^'})i(')tt, V, g, Didot. 

The rabbins of the school of Hillel were not more pharisaic; no 
close-communion Christian sect could be more arrogant. Yet.such 
is the character of religious secret brotherhoods anywhere in the 
world. There is a pleasure in the possession of knowledge, or 
rank, or power not generally distributed. 

The association at Eleusis aimed to select the best men of 
Greece, and to teach them matters not suitable to the receptive- 
ness of the common herd, truths too solemn and holy to risk pro- 
fanation, ideas too spiritual for the books, doctrines too transcen- 
dental for clods to understand, and traditions which were at once 
incalculably ancient and belonged only to the descendants of heroes 
to learn. Later, foreigners and women were initiated, even slaves 
were admitted at public cost.'- The Homeric j^vw;;^ says of Deme- 
ter as founder of the Mysteries at Eleusis : 

"And she went to the law-administering kings, Triptolemus, and horse-goad- 
ing Diodes, and the might of Eumolpus, and Celeus, leader of the people, and 
showed them the performance of her sacred rites, and she appointed her hallowed 
orgies for all, for Triptolemus, and Polyxenius, and, moreover. Diodes, — orgies 
which it is in no wise lawful to inquire into, or mention ; for a mighty reverence 
of the gods restrains the voice." 

iThe outcome of this thought will appear in Epitaphs quoted later. 

2 Foucart, Le culte de Pluton dans la religion hellinique. Lenormant, Cont. Rev.. 1880. 

SCompiled about 600 B. C. of ancient materials. 


The purpose of the Mysteries was ethical, and the motives 
spiritual. The association was a sort of Gnosticism, a Freemasonry, 
a Nagualism, a secret society of the most conservative spirit, cling- 
ing tenaciously to customs, and rites, and beliefs which progress 
was then rendering obsolete in the ordinary or public life of Greece.^ 

The ideas and ceremonies which were thus being driven into 
the secret shades of Eleusis, there to be cherished as august and 
sacrosanct, were such religious observances as belonged to the 
psychic constitution of the people, — we might say of mankind at 
large, as I expect to show. Evolution had advanced the Greeks 
but had not entirely abolished the psychic basis of savage observ- 
ances. ^ Therefore in hidden places and recondite ways these 
strange and ancestral customs survived,— as I expect to demon- 
strate : and the sanctuary of their survival was at Eleusis. Con- 
sequently the Eleusinian Mysteries were, accurately speaking, su- 
perstition, lurid smoke in the clear sky of Hellenic reasonableness. 
They were, in fine, the survival of certain religious beliefs and 
ceremonies that a dominant race and a dominating culture were 
driving out of common life, and Eleusis was not sole shrine of 
Greek mysteries. 

The ancient folklore of the Hellenic tribes crystallised into 
Mystery-cults in several localities, of which Eleusis is the most 
notable. For a long period the rites must have been local in their 
acceptance, though germane to the springtide and the vintage or 
harvest festivals at other places. Hesiod speaks of the cult of 
Demeter at Eleusis {Frag. 201, Didot Ed.), but says nothing of any 
Mysteries. As late as the Persian war it was necessary to explain 
to a Spartan the meaning of an Eleusinian procession. (Herod., 
VIH., 65.) 

But to return to our search after the secret of Eleusis. 

The sixth book of Virgil's yEneid and the Golden Ass of Apu- 
leius do not reveal the secret ceremonies at Eleusis. And it is of 
small import if the hierophants did actually cry Koftx om pax 
(which corresponds to ita niissa est) to the mystae who were thus 
dismissed after having passed through the ceremonies of initiation. 
Neither did the Christian fathers, St. Hippolytos for instance, re- 
veal any esoteric wisdom of Eleusis. What we are to know of the 

1 Mr. Dyer, whose opinion in his text is different, virtually concedes the truth of my position 
Gods in Greece, p. 194, note. 

2Foucart, Recherches sur I'origine et la nature des mysti'res d' Eleusis, mentions Arcadia 
and several Ionian islands as early homes of one or another feature of the cult of Eleusis, but 
M. Foucart thinks that Egypt was the ultimate source of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Cf. Gerhardt, 
Taf. I., Bilderkreis von Eleusis. 


character of these ceremonies we must acquire by inference and 
by analogy. 

The theory of the mode of the development of the Mysteries 
at Eleusis set forth by M. Lenormant has been generally accepted. 
Provisionally let us assume it for a w^orking plan. 

M. Lenormant says that the Eleusinian Mysteries passed 
through three stages of growth. Of these stages, the first corres- 
ponds to the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. For that poem was the 
earliest attempt known to us to formulate a myth to account for 
the Eleusinian rites. At the same time it follows that both the 
hymn and the rite at Eleusis prove that an age had arrived when 
the origin of these customs had been forgotten. 

To resume Lenormant's theory: At this first stage the chief 
point of the Mysteries was the celebration of the phenomena of 
vegetal life, under the myth of Persephone.^ The primitive form 
of this cult was simply the corn festival. In the sacred shrines of 
the Zuni Indians the holiest object, as Mr. Gushing told me, is an 
ear of corn. Demeter is the Corn-Mother. We find folklore full 
of her. The sacred corn-dances of our American aborigines are 
representative of the same idea. The Corn-Mother or Rye- Woman 
continues to be a personage of importance in Germany of the peas- 
ant. In the markets of York the country people expose for sale 
about Easter time small cakes baked in the form of a woman. The 
Harvest Queen in English folk-custom is another form of the Pro- 
serpina myth, a form not borrowed but autochthonous. 

The myth of Proserpina appears in a Christianised form in the 
Sicilian popular tale of Spadonia who baked bread every day and 
sent it to the souls in purgatory. The tale includes a description 
of the ghost land. A similar custom of eating the god, of baked 
bread, occurred in the ancient Mexican cults. Both Creuzer and 
Frazer will afford many other analogues.^ 

Associated with the Proserpina myths of vegetal life have al- 
ways been some primitive notions of purification by fire. The Old 
Testament writings refer many times to the custom. In the Eleu- 
sinian legend it seems that this was figured by the fire baptism 
of Demophoon. Several of the plays allude to this, often obscurely. 

1 St. Hyppolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, V., 115. tells us : " When the Athenians are cele- 
brating the Mysteries of Eleusis, as the grand and marvellous and altogether perfect spectacle 
to the spectators, in silence, they exhibited a harvested ear of wheat." 

2 Crane's Italian Popular Tales, p. 367. An interesting Teutonic analogue to the Proserpine 
myth may be found at page 295, Simrock, Deutsche Mythologie. The immemorial sowing and 
reaping rites of the Malay's maybe believed to throw some light upon the unrevealed ceremonies 
of Eleusis. Cf. Skeat, Malay Magic, pp. 227, 239 and elsewhere. 


The peasantry of Europe long preserved this notion by building 
fires about their fields and then jumping through the fires. In my 
part of the country children still observe the custom "for good 
luck ! " 

It seems probable that at this earlier state of the Eleusinian 
Mysteries the Dionysiac rites — which are symbolised by blood and 
fire — fire and the drink of the gods, constituted a small or no ele- 
ment at all, of the liturgy and theology of Eleusis. ^ As the Greek 
theatre was a consequence of the Dionysia, the Greek drama cor- 
responds to a later stage of development. The Proserpina element 
continued to play its part, that of a glorified farmers' festival, down 
to the end. 

The second stage of the evolution of the Mysteries at Eleusis 
is marked, as I have intimated, by an attraction and absorption of 
such folklore and special common customs of a religious character 
belonging to the vintage, as the intellectual and social advance of 
the people was rendering archaic and obsolescent. So the Mysteries 
of Eleusis became a Dead Sea of folkfaith and folklore, of prehistoric 
ceremonies and primitive religious notions. No doubt the hiero- 
phants and mystagogues of Eleusis did develop parallel with this 
folklore some abstruse, transcendental, and rationalised theology, — 
just as the Gnosticism of the early Church gathered up the occult- 
ism, theology, and magic of a dying age and mixed it with abstruse 
and metaphysical speculations, also as Freemasonry at the present 
day conserves obsolete symbols and forgotten ceremonies of extinct 
religions. In addition to this, the psychic development of the Greek 
tribes had left behind it much crude material not yet assimilated, 
and so most of what was intense and orgiastic, similar to the hys- 
teria of a religious revival and fierce nervousness of the Salvation 
Army, flowed down into Eleusis and was there conserved. 

With the third stage which began about the time of Alexander 
the Great, we shall not now concern ourselves. Merely let me ob- 
serve that Mr. Percy Gardner must surely be wrong in assigning 
the incorporation of the myth of Dionysos Zagreus to this third 
period. The topic of that myth is primitive and psychically abo- 

We now turn our attention to the first stage of the growth of 
Eleusinian Mysteries. Here we need be at no painful effort to in- 
fer their nature. In the myth of Demeter and Persephone we have 
the universal mythos of germination and fruitage. 

In the Homeric Flynin to Demeter, Rhea says to her daughter: 

1 Cf. A. Kiihn, Feur und die Gottertrhiken. 


"'Hither, child, loud-thundering, far-seeing Jove calls thee to come to the 
tribes of the gods. . . . And he has consented that thy daughter shall pass the third 
part of the rolling year beneath the murk darkness, but the other two with thee 
and the other immortals . . . but come, child, and obey. Nor be thou immoderately 
wrathful against the dark-clouded son of Saturn. But straightway increase the 
life-bearing fruit for men.' 

"Thus spoke she, nor did well-crowned Demeter disobey; but she straightway 
sent forth the fruit from the rich-soiled fields. And all the wide earth was weighted 
down with leaves and flowers." 

Back of this myth hes the folklore of a world. It is not neces- 
sary to suppose that this element of Eleusis was imported from 
Syria, or Egypt, or Babylon. Such theories are erudite but super- 
fluous. The sacred dances of negroes on the banks of the Congo, 
the whirling dervishes, the ceremonial circuit of the Mayan and of 
the Aztec tribes (if we rightly decipher their grotesque and compli- 
cated art), the spring festivals and harvest homes of India, China, 
and England, the old Hindu cults such as we find in the Rig Veda, 
— all these set forth in dramatic-lyric fashion the substantial iden- 
tity of the folkfaith of "all peoples who on earth do dwell," and 
that folkfaith is the substance of the Mysteries of Eleusis. 

The solar course which has its simplest form of dramatisation 
in the ceremonial circuit of the North American Indian, and in the 
Pradikshna of the Hindu, had their later and more highly developed 
form in the dorian, pyrric, gymnopaedic, and hyperchematic dances 
of the Greeks, and in the evolution of the chorus of a Greek play. 

Perhaps these various dances, answering to the modes of mu- 
sic, and later to the measures of poetry, were in the beginning but 
the primitive steps and figures of the war dance, the serpent dance, 
the torch dance, the corn dance, and so on, which in the secrecy 
of Eleusis continued to be performed with a half belief in their 
magic efficacy. From the secret rites they passed into the open 
drama. Besides, the ceremonial circuit had not only the virtue of 
propitiating the gods of the world quarters, and thus ensuring good 
harvests, good health, and good luck in games of chance, but, con- 
nected with these dances at the beginning, there was a general at- 
tempt to fix divisions of time and to establish a kalendar. 

Rome does not appear to have transferred her primitive and 
archaic ceremonies altogether to secret observance. The Salii 
and the Arval brothers were secret societies, but their ceremonies 
together with the Lupercalia, continued to be publicly performed. 

The sword dance early dropped out of Hebrew worship. In 
the fourth chapter of Genesis there is a relic of a "song of the 
sword" interpellated. The sacred dance among the Hebrews con- 
tinued probably throughout their history. The Feast of Purim was 


celebrated with an orgiastic torch dance. Miriam, the sister of 
Moses, is said to have taken a timbrel and with her attendant 
maidens to have celebrated the passage of the Red Sea by a sacred 
song and dance. David, removing his voluminous robes, clad him- 
self in an ephod and danced mightily before the ark in a public 
procession through the streets. Probably there was always in the 
Jewish temple what would answer to a ballet. These girls took 
regular part in the services of the sanctuary and in the sacred pro- 
cessions. Allusion is made to this ritual in one of the psalms: 

" It is well seen how thou, O Lord, goest [in the procession], the singers go 
before, the minstrels follow after, in the midst are the damsels playing on the tim- 
brels. " 

The play of Thesmaphoria has for a theme this women's dance. 

It is at this point that we may profitably begin to scrutinise 
the Greek plays for hints of doctrines and ritual of the Mysteries. 

Two pressing questions, which even primitive peoples en- 
deavor to answer, arise here. First, what are the rights of prop- 
erty, and how settle boundaries in time and space? Allusions to 
this as a most holy institution maybe found in Philocteies, 722; 
A/ax, 602 ; Antigone, 608 ; TrachiniiV, 648, and elsewhere. 

We read in Aga?ne?nnon, 507 : 

" Ye do well to reverence him [Agamemnon] who hath levelled Troy with the 
spade of equity — dispensing Zeus (ruv <hK)/(h6pov A/dr)— the spade with which the 
earth's bounds are measured off" (//««.'////, 7// hareip^aaTai -e66r). 

The second question is the same that occupied the writers of 
the Book of Job, namely, Does benevolence or malevolence rule 
the world? Are the gods kind or malicious? Is God stronger 
than the Devil? Does good or evil dominate in the constitution of 
things? Is the world an environment suitable and fit for man or 
no ? The one question in several forms. Important to material 
interests as was the first problem, the second absorbed most of the 
interest of men, and the tragedies of ^Eschylos, Sophocles, and 
Euripides are devoted to the solution of the great spiritual prob- 
lem, — the problem of evil. Turning to the scenic poetry, I note 
how the ChocphorcE, Agame/iino?i, Antigone, and Philoctetes make 
such allusions as appear in these citations : 

" Clytsemnestra : Fate, my son, had somewhat to do with these things. 
" Orestes : Nay, this very destiny hath Fate ordained " (t-6pav}'Fr). 

— Choc p}to)-(c, 890. 

d/\A', oj /xtyaXuL Moi/jat, \t60ev r/ySe TeXevrav, 
ij T() dLKiuoi' /xera/iatvet. 

'■ Hut, mijjhty fates, do ye accomplish this according to Zeus, in whatsoever 

way is ]n^\.." — C'Jinrp/ior(C, 297. 


Tpd/uo? /A v<f>epTreL Kkvovaav evyfxanov 

TO jJ-Opai/XOl' jXiVCL TTCtXat. 

€i';)(OjU.€vots 8' av iXOoL- 

"Trembling comes upon me when I hear boastings. That which is fated 
abideth of old ; but to those who pray may it come. — Cliocpliorcc, 450. 

"I call upon the gods, who preside over strivings («;Mr/oi'r O^'oir), and espe- 
cially upon Hermes, my Redeemer,' the Beloved Herald, the Holy One of Her- 
alds." — Agamc77i}ion, 495. 

" Zeus, the Mighty, sent the sons of Atreus against Paris, — Zeus, the avenger 
of outraged hospitality" (Ztrc' i.h'i<K). — Agamemnon, 61. 

" For a basis of justice is set up, and on it Fate forges the swords she makes 
(for the punishment of transgressors), and offspring upon offspring of former mur- 
ders (wherewith they are defiled) doth she introduce into houses ; the Fury, whose 
deep counsels become known in time, aims and executes the (heaven-sent) curse.' 
— Clwcplionc, 629. 

Compare Isaiah xxx. 33 : 

" For Tophet is ordained of old. ... He hath made it deep and large, the pile 
thereof is fire and wood ; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth 
kindle it." 

Says the PJuloctetes of Sophocles (446-452) on hearing that 

Thersites was still alive : 

"Be it so, — since naught of evil perisheth, so well do the divine ones fence it 
round ; yea, how gleefully they do turn back from Hades, the cunning and the 
crafty, and send below the just and the good! How shall I dispose of such facts 
as these, how offer praise, while even in my prayers to the gods I find the gods to 
be evil ? " 

These cardinal doctrines of Eleusis teach that this is the best 

possible world, which is the same as to say, "Justice rules," God 

is King. Of the many lines of Greek plays that might be cited to 

this point, I quote but one passage, typical if difficult. It runs 

from line 51 to line 57 of the Choephorce and says : 

" Prosperity among men is god and more than god. But if the swift sweep of 
Justice watches over some in broad daylight, yet others punishment awaits wearing 
away the time, delaying in the middle way of darkness, these impracticable night 
holds fast." 

These words remind me of i Tim. v. 24: 

"Some men's sins are open beforehand going before to judgment, and some 
men they follow after. Likewise also the good works of some are manifest before- 
hand, and they that are otherwise cannot be hid." 

There emerge here and there through the language of the 
Greek plays certain and clear allusions to ideas which are involved 
in the chief element of all dramatic Mysteries, i. e., the sacred 
dances, of every primitive tribe from Alaska to Lake Van, from 
Greece to Guatemala. I mean such elements as: (i) Reverence 
for the gods of the world quarters (which from the beginning has 
made the cross a holy symbol); (2) Conjectures touching the origin 
of the world; (3) Beliefs about the origin of the tribe or of man- 
kind; and (4) Guesses about what will happen to man after death. 

ITt^aopoi' 'Epiu.rji'. See Hebrew Goel. Job. xix. 25, Ruth. Judges, pass. 


For instance, the Choi'phorie, 314-316, 343 350, 503, insists 
upon human consciousness after death : 

"You, the ferocious maw of the fire devours not the consciousness of the dead ', 
but back of it shines the meadow." — CJioeplionc, 314. (Cf. Plutarch, cited above- 

"With thine own dead there in peace thou, as an august prince, art preem\- 

pent in the under world, hierarch of the greatest earth-lords there, for king thou 

nert whilst thou lived, over those who in their lands administered what fate ap- 

winted them, even the scepter which claims the submission of mortals." — CJioc- 

Phoorcc, 343-350. 

Certain knowledge of immortality was sought in the mysteries. 
Verbal instruction alone was not adequate. Orgiastic or frenzied 
dances took place, because they induced trance and vision. Allu- 
sions are common to these exciting dances which resemble the dance 
by which the Mongolian shaman seeks ecstasy and clairvoyance. 
Akin to this was the dancing mania of the Middle Ages, the holy 
dance of Eisenach, the convulsionaries of St. Medard and the early 
phenomena of the spiritual life of the Shakers and Quakers. In 
primitive sacred mysteries another common method of gaining a 
vision into the unseen world and of having revelations, is by means 
of some narcotic or spirituous drink. The very words spirit, spiritu- 
ous, embalm the primitive idea. Intoxication is regarded by prim- 
itive people as inspiration or divine possession. The tribes of the 
Gold Coast, the American Indians, the Tibetans, and South Sea 
Islanders initiate by the use of maddening drinks. The fast, the 
mystic drink and meat, and the consequent visions are esoteric to 
some extent among all savages. The American Indian takes his 
name (appellation) at this time. Some such a custom belonged to 
Eleusis. The Negro also becomes a citizen of his tribe through 
this initiation. It belongs to this experience to see visions of gods 
or devils, and by them faith in God, immortality, and future retribu- 
tion are confirmed. There as at St. Patrick's Purgatory is the hal- 
lucination of descent into the lower world. Whether all this was 
shown the initiates, mystae, or the beholders, epoptae, is unde- 
termined. At all event there were visions both direct and in a 
mirror.-^ The curious reader may further consult Plato, Pluedros, 

Ire/cfoi', <j>p6i'r]na ToO flai-oi'TOS ov Sandi^ti 
TTvpb? /xaAepoL yvdOo<;, 
i/jaiVei S' va-Tepov opyas' 

— C/i<:r/>/i"'^f.iU- 
2(/jiAos </iiAoiffi Toi? ixal KaAiu? 0ai'ou(jir 

Kara, x^oi'h^, €fxnpknojv 

(TfixvoTiiiO^ avaxTuip, 

TTpoTToAos Te Ttui' fxeyiaTuji' 

Xfloi'iwi' ixel Tupao'wr- 

^ao'tAeu? yap r}<T&\ o<^p' c^tj?, 

fxopifxoi' Aa^\09 77t7rAai'Twi' 

Xfpolf -ntiai^poTov re jSanTpoc k. t. A. 

— Chor-photic, 343-350. 
■fCf. I Cor. xiii. 12; 2 Cor. iii. 18. 



for the "beatific visions," 'euSat/xova c/!)do-/xuTa, Plutarch {Frag. VI., 
I), for "holy phantasms," "sacred representations," ayia cfiavrda- 
fxara, lepa Sa/cvv/xava, and Aristides {Orat., XIX) for the unutterable 
apparitions, appi]Ta (j^aaixaTa, and Dio Chrysostomos for the "mystic 

sights," ^.LVfTTn'jKrj Otdf-iaTu. 

Clement of Alexandria quotes from the Eleusinian liturgy a 
passage, possibly pronounced near the close of the ceremonies, 
which is interesting in this connexion: 

" 'I have fasted, I have drunk of the cup; I have received from the box; 
having done, I put it into the basket, and out of the basket into the chest.' 

"And what are these mystic chests? " — Clement goes on — " for I must expose 
their sacred things and divulge things not fit for speech. Are they not sesame 
cakes, and pyramidal cakes, and globular and flat cakes, embossed all over, and 
lumps of salt, etc. ? " 

Upon the stage of the Attic theatre appeared strange masks 
and customs; goat skins and leopard skins were worn. Dionysos 
appeared as a bull. Birds, frogs, and serpents came singing. In 
these and their like I suspect we have vestiges of an original totem- 


A visit to any ethnological museum, such as that at Berlin and 
our National Museum at Washington, will bring all these masks of 
the sacred dance dramas of tribes in various stages of culture be- 
fore you. It will suggest the genesis of Greek comedy, the origins 
of Aristophanes and Plautus, of the Mediaeval Miracle-Plays and 
Mystery- Plays, of Hroswitha, and of the Dance of Death. In an- 
other direction the line of development will reach to the Javanese 
puppet and shadow plays, the Chinese opera, and the Persian 
Mystery-play of Hassan and Hussein. Here was no borrowing or 
loaning, but various developments from the one psychic basis of 

The most comprehensive, typical mystery-play of a primitive 
folk which is accessible is the creation-myth as it is dramatised by 
the Zuiii Indians. Taking Mr. Frank Cushing's account^ of that 
cycle of sacred dances, we detect therein most of the ethical ele- 
ments of the Greek drama. CEdipous and Medea are there, Ores- 
tes and Demeter are characters of the Zuni cycle of creation-plays. 
The same may be truly said of the characters in Mr. Jeremiah 
Curtins's Creation Myths of the New World. 


Hfyths of the New World, p. 269. 
'■Thirteenth Annual Report U. S. Bur. Ethnology, p. 325. 



Now first translated from the Pali by Albert J. Edmunds.' 

Middling Collection, Dialogue No. 86. 

Luke xxiii. 39-43. — And one of the malefactors which 
were hanged railed on him, saying, Art not thou the Christ? 
save thyself and us. But the other answered, and rebuking 
him said. Dost thou not even fear God, seeing thou art in 
the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we re- 
ceive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done 
nothing amiss. And he said, Jesus, remember me when 
thou comest in thy kingdom. And he said unto him, Verily 
I say unto thee. To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise. 

John iii. 5. — Jesus answered, \'erily, verily, I say unto 
thee. Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he can- 
not enter into the kingdom of God. 

Mark ii. 5. — And Jesus seeing their faith saith unto the 
sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins are forgiven. 

Cf. also Eusebius H. E. iii. 23 (the story of the Apostle 
John pursuing and converting the robber). 

Thus have I heard. At one season the Blessed One was stay- 
ing at Savatthi, in the Conqueror's Grove, the cloister-garden of 
the Feeder of the Poor. And at that season there was a robber 
named Finger-garland (Angulimalo) in the realm of Pasenadi, the 

1 There is a corrupt version of this story in Spence Hardy, translated from mediaeval Ceylon 
sources, but the present is its first translation from the Pali. Its antiquity is attested by the 
Pali Great Chronicle, which tells us that it was sculptured, together with other leading stories 
from Buddha's life, upon the great Tope at the capital of Ceylon, in the second century B. C. 
The sculptures of similar scenes at Bharhut and Sanci forbid our rejecting the Chronicle's list 
of Ceylon sculptures as fiction. [Owing to lack of time, the proofs of the present article have not 
been read by the author. — Ed.\ 


King of Kosala; and he was barbarous, red-handed, devoted to 
killing and slaughter, unmerciful to all who live. By him towns, 
villages, and districts were made as though they had never been. 
He slew men all the time, and wore a garland of their fingers. 

Now the Blessed One, having dressed betimes, took his bowl 
in his robe, and went to Savatthi for alms. When he had gone 
round it, and had returned from the quest of alms in the afternoon, 
he rolled up his mat, took his bowl in his robe, and entered upon 
the high road where Finger-garland the robber was. Then the 
herdsmen, cattle-tenders, and farmers, who were working, saw the 
Blessed One going thither, and called to him: "O philosopher! 
Go not upon that road; for a robber named Finger-garland is 
thereon, who is barbarous, red-handed, devoted to killing and 
slaughter, unmerciful to all who live. By him towns, villages, and 
districts are made as though they had never been. He slays men 
all the time and wears a garland of their fingers. O philosopher, 
men go upon this road only in companies of ten, twenty, thirt}', or 
forty; and they go armed for fear of Finger-garland the robber." 

When they had said this, the Blessed One went on his way in 
silence. And a second and a third time they said so, but still the 
Blessed One went on his way in silence. 

Now Finger-garland the robber saw the Blessed One coming 
from afar, and seeing him he thought to himself: "This is wonder- 
ful, this is marvellous: men go upon this road only in companies 
of ten, twenty, thirty, or forty, and they go armed for fear of me; 
but this philosopher, it seems, is alone, without any one, open to 
attack. What if I now take the life of this philosopher?" Then 
Finger-garland the robber took his sword and shield, got bow and 
quiver ready, and walked behind the Blessed One. But the Blessed 
One put forth such an effort of psychical power that Finger-garland 
the robber, going with all his might, could not overtake the Blessed 
One going by his inner force {pakaii). So the robber thought to 
himself: "This is wonderful, this is marvellous: hitherto I have 
chased and caught an elephant running, a horse, a chariot, or a 
deer; but now, going with all my might, I cannot overtake this 
philosopher going by his inner force." He stood and said to the 
Blessed One : " Philosopher, stand ! Philosopher, stand ! " 

"I am standing, O Finger-garland; stand thou also!" 

Then Finger-garland the robber thought to himself : "These 
Sakya philosophers tell the truth and keep their promises. And 
yet this philosopher, even while he is going, says, 'I am standing, 
O Finger-garland ; stand thou also 1 ' What if I now ask him [what 


he means]?" Then the robber addressed the Blessed One with a 
stanza : 

"Philosopher, thou sayest, 'lam standing,' while thou art 
going, and thou callest me standing when thou art not so; 

''I ask thee, philosopher, this question : How art thou stand- 
ing when I am not standing?" 

"I am standing, O Finger-garland, always among all beings, 
having laid aside the staff; 

"But thou art unrestrained among living things: therefore I 
am standing, and thou art not." 

"Long has the great Seer (fsi),'^ this philosopher debating in 
the great Wood, been revered by me; 

"I myself will renounce evil for long, having heard thy stanza 
that is linked with religion. 

"Even thus does a robber resemble^ a sword or a weapon at 
the pit and precipice of hell." 

The robber bowed at the feet of the Auspicious One, and 
begged of him ordination on the spot. 

Then Buddha, the compassionate Seer, he who is master of 
the world with its angels, 

Said to him: "Come, Omonk;" and this was all there was 
to make him a monk. 

Now the Blessed One, with Finger-garland for an attendant 
philosopher, went on his journey towards Savatthi and in due time 
arrived there; and there the Blessed One stayed at Savatthi, in 
the Conqueror's Grove, the cloister garden of the Feeder of the 
Poor. Now at that season a great crowd collected at the palace- 
gate of Pasenadi, the King of Kosala, and there went up a hue and 
cry : "Your Majesty, there is a robber in your realm named Finger- 
garland, who is barbarous, red-handed, devoted to killing and 
slaughter, unmerciful to all who live. By him towns, villages, and 
districts are made as though they had never been. He slays men 
all the time, and wears a garland of their fingers. Let your Majesty 
arrest him." 

Now Pasenadi, the King of Kosala, departed that day from Sa- 
vatthi with some five hundred horses and proceeded to the cloister- 
garden. He went by chariot as far as the ground was passable for 
chariots, and then alighted, and went on foot to where the Blessed 
One was. Going up to the Blessed One, he saluted him and sat 


respectfully on one side. While he so sat, the Blessed One said 
to him: "O great King, is Seniyo Bimbisaro, the King of Maga- 
dha, provoked at you, or the Licchavi [clan] of X'esali, or other 
rival Kings?" 

"Nay, Lord : none of these Kings are provoked at me. But, 
Lord, there is in my realm a robber named Finger-garland, who is 
barbarous, red-handed, devoted to killing and slaughter, unmerci- 
ful to all who live. By him towns, villages, and districts are made 
as though they had never been. He slays men all the time and 
wears a garland of their fingers. Lord, I fear I shall not arrest 

"But, great King, if you saw Finger-garland with his hair 
and beard cut off, having put on the yellow robes and gone forth 
from domestic life into the homeless one; abstaining from taking 
life, from theft, and from lying ; eating one meal a day, chaste, 
moral, with a glorious religion, — what would you do to him?" 

"Lord, we should salute him respectfully, or rise in his pres- 
ence, or offer him a seat, or present him with robe and alms-bowl, 
a lodging-place, the requisites for sickness, medicine and conveni- 
ences; and we should appoint for him the protection, toleration, 
and defence that are due to religion.^ But, Lord, how could there 
be such moral restraint in an immoral, wicked man like him?" 

Now at that time the venerable Finger-garland was sitting not 
far from the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One, stretching out 
his right arm, said to Pasenadi, the King of Kosala : "This, great 
King, is Finger-garland !" 

Then the King was seized with fear, consternation, and horror, 
and the Blessed One, seeing him afraid and agitated with horror, 
said to him : "Fear not, great King, fear not; there is nothing for 
you to fear any more." So the King, who had been terrified, be- 
came calm again, and went up to Finger garland, saying to him : 
"Surely your Reverence is not Finger-garland?" 

"Yes, great King." 

"What is the clan of your Reverence's father, and what is the 
clan of your mother?" 

"Great King, my father is a Gaggo, and my mother a Man- 

"May it please your Reverence Gaggo-Mantani-son, I shall 
supply you with robe and alms-bowl, with a mat to sit and sleep 

1 Rhys Davids translates the same phrase in the Lotig Collection thus ; " watch and ward and 
guard, according to the law." The " or " in our present translation of this paragraph arises from 
a diSerence in the text. 


on, and with the requisites for sickness, medicine and conveni- 

But at that season the venerable Finger-garland was a forest- 
dweller, with an alms-bowl, and wearing three robes taken from 
dust-heaps. So he said to the King: "Enough, great King: three 
robes are my full outfit." 

Then Pasenadi, the King of Kosala, approached the Blessed 
One, saluted him respectfully, and sat on one side. And so sit- 
ting, the King said to the Blessed One: "Wonderful, O Lord! 
Marvellous, O Lord ! is it even until now, O Lord Blessed One : 
men are tamed among the untamed, pacified among the unpacified, 
and among those who have not attained, they are brought to Nir 
vana (literally, extinguished among the non-extinct). He, Lord, 
whom we could not tame by staff or sword, is tamed by the Blessed 
One without staff and without sword. But now. Lord, we must 
go : we have much to do, much business on hand." 

"Just as you think fit, great King." 

So Pasenadi, the King of Kosala, rose from his seat, saluted the 
Blessed One respectfully, and keeping him on his right hand, de- 

Then the venerable Finger-garland, having dressed betimes, 
took bowl in robe and went into Savatthi for alms. And going 
through Savatthi from house to house for alms, he saw a woman 
in the agonies of travail, and thereupon thought to himself : "Alas, 
how beings suffer; alas, how beings suffer ! " 

Now the venerable Finger-garland, having gone to Savatthi 
for alms and returned in the afternoon, approached the Blessed 
One, saluted him, and sat as usual, and said : "Lord, to-day on my 
begging rounds in Savatthi, while I went from house to house, I 
saw a woman in the agonies of travail; whereupon I thought to 
myself: 'Alas, how beings suffer; alas, how beings suffer!' " 

"Well now, Finger-garland, go to Savatthi, go up to that 
woman and say this: 'Since I was born, sister, I do not remember 
that I ever purposely took the life of anything that breathes. By 
this truth be there safety to thee and safety to thy womb.' " 

"But, Lord, that would surely be for me a deliberate lie: by 
me. Lord, have many breathing things been reft of life." 

"W^ell, then. Finger-garland, go to Savatthi, approach that 
woman and say: 'Sister, since I was born of the noiu.e birth I 
do not remember that I ever purposely took the life of aught that 
breathes. By this truth be there safety to thee and safety to thy 


"Even so, Lord," said the venerable Finger-garland, in assent 
unto the Blessed One ; and going into Sdvatthi, he approached 
that woman and said : 'Sister, since I was born of the nohle birth 
I do not remember that I ever purposely took the life of aught that 
breathes. By this truth be there safety unto thee and safety to thy 

Whereupon there was safety unto that woman, and safety to 
her womb. And forthwith the venerable Finger-garland, dwelling 
alone, retired, earnest, ardent, and strenuous, for a little time, re- 
alised by his own supernal Knowledge, and even in this world, that 
incomparable goal of the religious life, for the sake whereof do 
veritable gentlemen go forth from the domestic life into the home- 
less one : he perceived that birth was destroyed, the religious life 
was lived, and duty done, and for this existence there was naught 
beyond. And so the venerable Finger-garland became one of the 

Now the venerable Finger-garland, having dressed betimes, 
took bowl in robe, and went to Savatthi for alms; and on one oc- 
casion a clod of earth was thrown and hit his person ; upon another 
occasion a stick, and yet again a stone. Then the venerable Fin- 
ger-garland, with his head broken and the blood flowing, his bowl 
broken and his robe rent, approached the Blessed One. And the 
Blessed One saw him coming from afar, and said to him: "Bear 
up, O Brahman, bear up ! You are feeling in this world the effect of 
some deed for which you zuould have been torniented in hell for many 
years, for niatiy hu?idreds and thousands of years.'' 

Then the venerable Finger-garland, when secluded and soli- 
tary, felt the bliss of deliverance, and on that occasion gave vei.t 
to the following Udana : 

[The Dialogue ends with a page of verse. The words itali- 
cised are important. This is the doctrine of the forgiveness of 
sins. To the Arahat all the past is wiped away, and he only suf- 
fers such physical effects of evil as those described; but no retri 
bution can follow him beyond the grave.] 



While the best mathematical minds have always gathered their knowledge as 
well as their power from observational and experiential contact with the forms of 
reality, the empirical method has not until recently been applied so systematically 
to instruction in mathematics as it has been to instruction in the natural sciences. 
Advancement is always more rapid by the lecture method, or by that of continuous 
exposition from a text-book. The truth is here presented ready made, the pupil 
absorbs it easily and is not put to the trouble of seeking it anew. Hence, these 
methods have always been preferred by educational machinists, and students have, 
as a rule, been left to their own resources in acquiring solid and enduring knowl- 

But we know from history that geometry was originally a body of empirical 
knowledge; that it began, in the case of the Egyptians and the Greeks, with the 
observation of the forms of real things and of individual relations ; that the empiri- 
cal knowledge, thus observationally discovered, was systematised and classified ; 
and that by induction the empirical facts were subsequently organised into a 

The induction in the case of geometrical discovery is, it is true, of an entirely 
different character from what it is in the case of discoveries in the classificatory 
natural sciences. The induction, the guess, the divination, in geometry, usually 
proceeds from a s??2all body of suggestive hints gathered from a narroiv and tlior- 
oughly determined field of experience. But, so far as the development of the sci- 
ence is concerned, it is induction nevertheless, and it would seem that a sound 
method of instruction should require that the development of this knowledge in the 
individual should proceed pretty much along the same lines as the development in 
the race. Not that the pupil should retrace all the tortuous steps through which 
the science has been gradually and laboriously brought to its present stage of per- 
fection ; as a matter of fact, the instructional development will have to depart in 
many respects widely from the actual development ; but it will always receive its 
natural support, its guidance, and its general trend from that development. Short- 
cuts, abridgements, and all the devices which economy of mental effort may suggest 
are permissible, and all will lead in the end, not to a method of re-discovery, but to 
a method of genetic and logical reconstruction. Results will always be preceded 
by investigation, always be provoked by actual inquiry. 

To quote the words of Dr. Paul H. Hanus, Assistant Professor of Teaching in 
Harvard University, and the author of the little pamphlet entitled Geometry in 
the Grammar School, which we are now considering, "To present the 'net pro- 


duct of an inquiry without the inquiry which led to it,' is to cultivate a reliance 
upon the verbal memory to the neglect of the power of overcoming difficulties and 
of assimilating experiences; moreover, the accumulation of such unrelated mental 
stores is merely transitory, — they are soon forgotten; there is no permanent gain 
of either knowledge or power. A method of continuous exposition is productive 
only with minds already developed, not with those to be developed . By its exclu- 
sive use with minds at all degrees of maturity the best results can never follow. 
Self-activity, interest, self-reliance, the power to be useful, these will never follow 
a method of instruction by which mental stores are imparted as so many free gifts. 
Fortunately such gifts are really impossible ; there is no inheritance of knowledge 
and power. Only capabilities are inherited. There is but one universal inherit- 
ance, — ig-}ioi-aucc ; one universal means provided by nature of rising above this 
inheritance, — sclf-cxcrtion. Who does not employ the means Nature has provided 
remains unlearned and helpless, though he may for a time simulate attainment and 
intellectual strength."' 

Professor Hanus is merely repeating what hundreds of thinkers and educators 
have time and again insisted upon, when he says that principles of conduct and 
rules of procedure, whether in life or in science, do not become real possessions 
until experience has verified them and shown their efficacy; that it is a well-known 
mental law that intelligence always proceeds from thing to name and symbol, from 
facts to principles and rules, and that in conformity with this law the facts of 
geometry must enter the learner's mind through experiejicc. The learner must 
see and feel material bodies, their surfaces, their bounding lines, their corners; he 
must see that two vertical angles or two triangles under certain conditions are 
equal, by actually superposing them; must see by placing them side by side with 
their vertices coinciding that the three angles of any triangle together form two 
right angles, etc., etc. The generalisations will then follow. Above all, it is essen- 
tial to develop the questioning attitude, and then to satisfy the inquiring mind by 
furnishing it with the opfoi't unity of reaching the truth. " The attitude of a boy 
who has measured heiglits and distances by using the propositions concerning the 
equality of triangles, toward those propositions themselves, is very different from 
the attitude of the boy whose first experience with those propositions is drawn 
from a text-book or from a formal presentation by the teacher. The formal state- 
ment of the propositions and their logical proofs are to be introduced gradually 
and after the facts have been presented empirically." 

Affirming the psychological truth that "clear mental perception can only fol- 
low clear physical perception." Professor Hanus then proceeds to indicate in large 
outlines the course and methods of instruction which are to be followed in the 
teaching of elementary geometry in the grammar school, and he has appended to 
his little pamphlet a synopsis of the simple experimental work which might be 
done in geometry in the last three years of the grammar school course. The na- 
ture and subject of the work only are indicated ; the development is left almost 
entirely to the teacher. The method is altogether object teaching. Records of ob- 
servations are kept by the pupil, who is led to express himself by drawing, by con- 
struction, and in words, and to convince himself of geometrical truths primarily 
through measurement, drawing, cutting, superposition, and construction. Every 

1 Geometry in the Grammar School. An Essay together with illustrative class exercises, and 
an outline of the work for the last three years of the grammar school. By Paul H. Hanus. Assist 
ant Professor of the History and .\rt of Teaching. Harvard University. i8g8. Boston: D, C. 
Heath & Co., Publishers. Pages, ix, 52. 



opportunity is to be taken of making the pupil's geometrical knowledge bear directly 
upon life. The use of the foot-rule, tape or chain, with some form of the goniom- 
eter, is recommended for obtaining data and for imparting to theoretical results 
body and significance. "Nothing can exemplify the value of class-room instruction 
like a practical application to construction in the shop, or measurement in the field. 
For freo7netry as for geography 'field luork' is ivell-nigh 2nd/s/e>/sab/e." 

* * 

The methods which have been roughly indicated in the preceding paragraphs 
have been carried out, so far as the elementary features of the subject are con- 
cerned, with almost superfluous detail, in an attractive and profusely illustrated 
book entitled Obseri'ational Geometry} by William T. Campbell, A. M., instruc- 
tor in mathematics in the Boston Latin School, — a work which forms part of the 
Phillips-Loomis Mathematical Series. The elementary "laboratory work" and 
" field-work of geometry," noted above, are here developed to the utmost extent, 
and even carried out in cases where with average pupils it would seem almost un- 

Card-Bo.aru Model of a Twin-Crystal of Calcite. 
(From Campbell's Observational Gcornetry.) 

necessary. Aiming to give to the hand dexterity and skill in making drawings and 
models of geometrical figures, it devotes 125 pages to the consideration of elemen- 
tary forms and the construction of models. The uses of the main geometrical and 
mechanical instruments are taught, and directions given for the construction from 
thin cardboard of all the principal geometrical solids. In the annexed cut will be 
found a representation of a model of a twin crystal of calcite consisting of two in- 
terpenetrating cubes, made from a single piece of cardboard so outlined, cut, and 
folded as to take the shape seen in the figure. The second part of the book is de- 
voted to plane geometrical construction (lines, angles, polygons, and circles), the 
measurement of areas, similar figures, and surveying. 

Dr. A. W. Phillips, the editor of the series in which this book appears, re- 
marks that the revolt against the old arithmetic problems, which resulted in the 
substitution of nature studies for arithmetic drill, was due to a want of careful and 

Published by The American Book Co., New York. Pages, ix, 240. 



systematic development of the subject as a means of cultivating the faculties of 
observation. Now this want, he contends, is supplied by observational geometry, 
which "combines the training of the nature studies, so far as these educate the 
eye to keen and intelligent perception, with the training which the more valuable 
problems of the old arithmetics furnish, and so gives a mental discipline at once 
rigorous and entirely free from that one-sidedness which either of these systems 
fosters when taken alone." The truth of this maybe readily gathered from the 
exercises and problems of the second part of Mr. Campbell's book. The measure- 
ments are all actually carried out here in connexion with real objects, and the 
instruction thus takes on the character of a serious and intrinsically interesting in- 
vestigation, as contrasted with that of a purely theoretical study. The second 
illustration, showing the method of determining the height of a tree by means of 
surveying instruments and the theory of similar triangles, has been taken from 
Mr. Campbell's book, and is typical of the character of the work there outlined. 
It is one only of a large number of similar illustrations. 

In his Advanced Arithmetic} Mr. William W. Speer, District Superintendent 
of Schools, Chicago, has extended to the general theory of fractions, proportions 

Measuring the llEu.ur of a Tkee. 
(From Campbell's Obsci I'alional Geometry.) 

and elementary mensuration the same principles which guided him in the prepara- 
tion of his Primary and Elementary AritJunetic. We noticed Mr. Speer's books 
at length in No. 504 of The Open Court (May, 1898), and little remains to be said 
here upon his latest work. In his system the great body of arithmetical truths is 
not differentiated and split up into arbitrary chapters and divisions, as it is in the 
common run of arithmetics, but is developed genetically as a connected organic 
whole. Sense-training is throughout made the basis of the development of arith- 
metic thought, and concrete relations of magnitude are made the foundation of all 
mathematical inferences. Every possible variety of quantitative relation in nature, 
industry, science, and art, is employed for this purpose. Sets of blocks, bundles 
of fagots, and sets of geometrical solids accompany Mr. Speer's books, and are 
indispensable for the concrete instruction which they require. Coins, clock dials, 
liquid and dry measures, and metric forms of every conceivable kind, are also em- 

\ Advanced Arithmetic. By William W. Speer. 1899. Boston : Ginn & Co. Pages, xx, 261. 



ployed or recommended. The comparison of volumes is made by the actual meas- 
urement of contents, as shown in the appended illustrations of prisms, cylin- 
ders, pyramids, and cones taken from Mr. Speer's book. Paper-cutting and 
modelling are also extensively used in the present book. The two illustrations 
which we have reproduced on page 639 are instances of the determination of rela- 


tive volumes and surfaces by experimental measurements. In each case the cyl- 
inder is the circumscribing cylinder of the sphere represented in the figure. The 
lateral surface of the cylinder is shown to be equal to the surface of the sphere by 
comparing the length of the cord which covers the curved surface of the hemisphere 
with that which covers one half of the lateral surface of the cylinder. In the other 



figure, the volumes of the sphere and the circumscribing cylinder may be compared 
by filling them with water, and the volume of the sphere shown to be two thirds 
of the volume of the cylinder. 

Mr. Speer's system is being used with great and merited success in the schools 
of Chicago and elsewhere. There is but one serious criticism which suggests itself 
in connexion with it, and that is that the introductions and the directions to teachers 
which are psychologically sound in the main, are put in too abstract and discon- 
nected a form for readers of general training, and that for this reason many teach- 
ers who have not had the advantage of personal initiation into the method might 

Experimental Comparison of the Surface of a Sphere and the 

Lateral Surface of the Circumscribing Cylinder. 

(From Speer's Advanced A ritJnnctic.) 

Experimental Comparison of the Volumes of a Sphere and Its 

Circumscribed Cylinder by Measuring with Water. 

(From Speer's Advanced Arithmetic ) 

find the books difficult to use and perhaps fail therefore to appreciate the power of 
the system to its full extent. If the exposition of the subject were as concrete and 
continuous as the system itself aims to be, we believe that nothing could stand in 
the way of its widespread introduction. T. J. McC. 



I dreamed my spirit broke the bars of sense 
That hold the gates of consciousness shut fast. 
Threw off the prison garb of self, and passed 
Into the wonder of Omniscience. 

As mists that rise from ocean and condense 
In clouds, in million rain-drops melt, at last 


Through brooks and rivers join again the vast 
Primeval sea, — so do I read the Whence 
And Whither of the soul. 

When stream meets sea, 

Is the swift river- wave forever gone? 

When souls rejoin All- Soul, cease they to be ? 

There where the All is Thought, and Thought is One 

Within the Infinite All, eternally 

The thought once bound in one, lives boundless on. 


The Old Faith and the New Philosophy. Lectures delivered before the Cana- 
dian Summer School for the Clergy, in Port Hope, Ont., July, 1899. By 
G. J. Lo-w, D.D., Canon of Christ Church Cathedral, Ottawa, and Rector 
of Trinity Church, Billings' Bridge. With an Introduction by Principal 
Grant, of Queen's University. Toronto : William Briggs. igoo. 

Our readers may remember the genial and pleasant discourses which Canon 
Low published in The Open Court some three years ago entitled "In Nubibus ; 
or The Cogitations of a Smoking Philosopher." This thoughtful clergyman has 
now attempted something more systematic in the way of reconciling the teachings 
of his Church with the conclusions of science, and has given to the world the re- 
sults of his lucubrations in the work before us. He accepts in full the established 
truths of modern scientific and critical thought, which in its grand total he calls 
the " New Philosophy," while he abates not one jot or tittle of his faith in Chris- 
tianity. He says : "We shall not argue that this or that is only an hypothesis at 
present, and therefore to be ignored, or that this or that link is missing. We will, 
for the sake of argument, assume or concede the whole system, and then strive to 
show that the great doctrines of the Christian faith are consonant with the evolu- 
tion which pervades the works of God— that the ' Natural Law has been projected 
into the spiritual world,' to adopt Drummond's happy phrase ; or, in the language 
of that grand master of metaphysical theology. Bishop Butler, we shall endeavor 
to establish ' the analogy of revealed religion to the constitution and course of na- 
ture,' as interpreted by the New Philosophy." 

In this spirit and by this method Canon Low has treated such topics as "The 
Trinity," "The Holy Ghost," "The Person and Work of Christ," "The World's 
Great Sacrifice," and " The Holy Catholic Church." Certainly, as Principal Grant 
affirms in his Introduction to his friend's work, he has combined boldness with 
reverence and godliness with brotherly kindness and mutual trust ; and we cannot 
but believe that his book will be productive of much intellectual good among the 
brethren of the Church. . /'• 








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redity; the dissolution of the body and the preservation of the soul ; the nature of 
human immortality; mankind's ideals; the rational basis of ethics, etc., all from 
the standpoint of modern psychology and biology. 

The Gospel According to Darwin. By Dr. Woods Hutchinson. Pages, 
xii, 241. Price, paper, 50 cents (2s. 6d.). Cloth, ^1.50 (6s.). 

"Is one of the most thoughtful and stimulating of recent publications. ... In 
these pages are discussed, in frank, manly, straightforward manner, many of the 
themes that are most vital to the race. . . . We may not agree with all Dr. Hutchin- 
son says, but we cannot deny the freshness and vigor of all his argument, nor the 
force of his facts, and we shall all find in his pages very much food for profitable 
meditation." — TJtc Chicago Chronicle. 

World's Congress Addresses. Delivered by the President, the Hon. 
Charles Carroll Bonney, LL. D., to the World's Parliament of 
Religions and the Religious Denominational Congresses of 1893, 
with the Closing Address at the Final Session of the World's Con- 
gress Auxiliary. Printed as a Memorial of the Significant Events 
of the Columbian Year. Pages, vi, 88. Price, paper, 15c (gd.). 


LONDON: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.