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2>e\?oteo to tbe Science of Religion, tbe fRelfgion of Science, ano tbe 
Extension of tbe IReligious parliament Hoea 

Founded by Edward C. Hegeler 

VOL. XXXII (No. 5) MAY, 1918 NO. 744 



Frontispiece. A Sermon of Skarga's. 

The Secular Objection to Religion in the Public Schools. The Hon. Justin 

Henry Shaw 257 

Macaulay's Criticism of Democracy and Garfield's Reply. Charles H. Betts 273 

Jan Alojsius Matejko, 1838-1893, (Illustrated). Polonius 281 

Petrus Skarga Pazvenski S. J. A Prophet of Poland. A Friend of Free 

Poland 291 

Hebrew Education in School and Society. II. Woman and the Education of 

Girls. Fletcher H. Swift 312 

Morality by Regulation. In Answer to C. E. Sparks. Arthur J. Wester- 

MAYR 317 

Book Review 320 

TLhc ©pen Court publishing Company 


Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $1.00 (in the U.P.U., 5s. 6d.). 

Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26, 1897, at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., under Act of March 3, 1879 
Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 191S 

Xlbe ©pen Court 


2>ex?oteo to tbe Science of Iteifgion, tfce IReliGion of Science, ant) tbe 
Extension of the IReligious parliament ffoea 

Founded by Edward C. Hegeler 

VOL. XXXII (No. 5) MAY, 1918 NO. 744 


Frontispiece. A Sermon of Skarga's. 


The Secular Objection to Religion in the Public Schools. The Hon. Justin 

Henry Shaw 257 

Macaulay's Criticism of Democracy and Garfield's Reply. Charles H. Betts 273 

Jan Alojsius Matejko, 1838-1893, (Illustrated). Polonius 281 

Petrus Skarga Pazvenski S. J. A Prophet of Poland. A Friend of Free 

Poland 291 

Hebrew Education in School and Society. II. Woman and the Education of 

Girls. Fletcher H. Swift 312 

Morality by Regulation. In Answer to C. E. Sparks. Arthur J. Wester- 

mayr 317 

Book Review 320 

XTbe ©pen Court publishing Company 


Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $1.00 (in the U.P.U., 5s. 6d.). 

Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26, 1897, at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., under Act of March 3, 1879 
Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1918 




Pocket Edition. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.00; flexible leather, $1.50 

This edition is a photographic reproduction of the edition de luxe 
which was printed in Leipsic in 1913 and ready for shipment in time to 
be caught by the embargo Great Britain put on all articles exported 
from Germany. Luckily two copies of the above edition escaped, and 
these were used to make the photographic reproduction of this latest 
edition. While the Buddhist Bible could not in any way be consid- 
ered a contraband of war yet the publishers were forced to hold back 
many hundred orders for the book on account of orders in council of 
Great Britain. 

When the book was first published His Majesty, the King of Siam, 
sent the following communication through his private secretary : 

"Dear Sir: I am commanded by His Most Gracious Majesty, the King of Siam, 
to acknowledge, with many thanks, the receipt of your letter and the book, The 
Gospel of Buddha, which he esteems very much; and he expresses his sincerest 
thanks for the very hard and difficult task of compilation you have considerately 
undertaken in the interest of our religion. I avail myself of this favorable oppor- 
tunity to wish the book every success." 

His Royal Highness, Prince Chandradat Chudhadharn, official dele- 
gate of Siamese Buddhism to the Chicago Parliament of Religions, writes : 

"As regards the contents of the book, and as far as I could see, it is one of the 
best Buddhist Scriptures ever published. Those who wish to know the life of 
Buddha and the spirit of his Dharma may be recommended to read this work which 
ii so ably edited that it comprises almost all knowledge of Buddhism itself." 

The book has been introduced as a reader in private Buddhist schools 
of Ceylon. Mrs. Marie H. Higgins, Principal of the Musaeus School and 
Orphanage for Buddhist Girls, Cinnamon Gardens, Ceylon, writes as 
follows : 

"It is the best work I have read on Buddhism. This opinion is endorsed by all 
who read it here. I propose to make it a text-book of study for my girls." 



The Open Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

VOL. XXXII (No. 5) MAY, 1918 NO. 744 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1918 


Trial Justice, Municipal Criminal Court, Kittery, Maine. 

THE Open Court for February, 1918, finds some considerable 
space for two interesting articles which rather unexpectedly 
continue the historic attempt to meddle with the public schools by 
a union of the religious cults if it were possible that such a union 
might be accomplished. The first is under the quite familiar title of 
"Bible-Reading and Religious Instruction in the Public Schools ; 
from the Catholic Point of View," which is entirely an anonymous 
statement only of the Catholic position. The other, probably in- 
tended as a sort of concurrent contradiction and of immediate bal- 
ance, is a Protestant plan of momentum, and entitled, "Religious 
Education in the Public Schools," by Mr. C. E. Sparks. 

One cannot say that either of these articles is of intimate con- 
sequence on these questions. These religionists come to us even in 
the same number of this magazine, with the customary different 
meanings to their religions ; differences of authority, differences in 
what they please to call their text-book ; independent and separate 
interpretations ; and obviously with a religious quarrel among them- 
selves that cannot possibly be concealed. It is plainly admitted by 
the Catholic and emphasized by the Protestant. They necessarily 
present themselves under the motive of morality, because one must 
approve of morality, although neither seems to know just the mean- 
ing of the term ; but they appear together with a theological, sec- 
tarian disturbance which is not a new one, and ask to have a hand 
in the public schools. Of course they will not be more generally 
permitted to do so, and I shall perhaps hastily attempt to tell them 


why, and the reasons are substantial and convincing ones, I think — 
historical, legal and moral. They involve briefly the purpose of 
education, the purport of our national and many state constitutions, 
and some better ethical considerations. 

Therefore, in view of the more clearly recognized absolute 
separation of the Church and State in America, as intended by our 
National Constitution, and with some better knowledge of recent 
state constitutional provisions and of decisions in the courts there- 
under ; and particularly in the face of the unprecedented expulsion 
of religion from the affairs of the commonwealth in a leading state 
like Massachusetts in the adoption of its sweeping Forty-sixth 
Article of Amendment to the Constitution, which I append, 1 one 
must gladly feel that these religious articles are to be regarded as 
untimely, and to a great extent socially as almost impudent. 

The religious standpoint in these times can never be a very 
cheerful one. Everything is usually very nearly all wrong with the 
world. The religionist usually has the attitude of Dean Mansel, 
that "the adversity of the good, the prosperity of the wicked, the 
tardy appearance of moral and religious knowledge in the world, 
are facts which no doubt are reconcilable, we know not how, with 
the infinite goodness of God." 

"Irreligion and religious indifferences are gaining day by day 
an increasingly firmer hold upon society here in America," is the 

1 Article XLVI, Constitution of Massachusetts. 

(In place of article xviii of the articles of amendment of the constitution 
ratified and adopted April 9, 1821, the following article of amendment, sub- 
mitted by the constitutional convention, was ratified and adopted November 6, 
1917. Effective October 1, 1918.) 

Article xviii. Section 1. No law shall be passed prohibiting the free 
exercise of religion. 

Section 2. All moneys raised by taxation in the towns and cities for the 
support of public schools, and all moneys which may be appropriated by the 
commonwealth for the support of common schools shall be applied to, and 
expended in, no other schools than those which are conducted according to 
law, under the order and superintendence of the authorities of the town or city 
in which the money is expended ; and no grant, appropriation or use of public 
money or property or loan of public credit shall be made or authorized by the 
commonwealth or any political division thereof for the purpose of founding, 
maintaining or aiding any school or institution of learning, whether under 
public control or otherwise, wherein any denominational doctrine is inculcated, 
or any other school, or any college, infirmary, hospital, institution, or educa- 
tional, charitable or religious undertaking which is not publicly owned and 
under the exclusive control, order, and superintendence of public officers or 
public agents authorized by the commonwealth or federal authority or both, 
except that appropriations may be made for the maintenance and support of 
the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts and for free public libraries in any city 
or town, and to carry out legal obligations, if any, already entered into; and 
no such grant, appropriation or use of public money or property or loan of 
public credit shall be made or authorized for the purpose of founding, main- 
taining or aiding any church, religious denomination or society. 


lament of the Catholic author in The Open Court, and fear is ex- 
pressed "that we are reverting to the Greek type of paganism," 
and paganism is intentionally made a common name for evil, in 
self-defense. I shall hope to add a little to the religious disquietude, 
from Pagan motives. 

This must be a very strange condition, if true, with approxi- 
mately 175,000 Christian priests and ministers in the land ; probably 
200,000 untaxed churches and billions of dollars in church buildings 
and endowments and advantages ; with the influence and activities 
of 35,000,000 organized Christians in the country, with numberless 
Christian institutions, missions, parochial schools, parish settlements, 
Bible publishing houses and unlimited opportunities. Something 
would seem to be wrong with Christian "education," if the pessi- 
mistic complaint were well founded, and that it were important 
some other plan of teaching should be worked out. It would be a 
great satisfaction if we could feel that this religious depression 
were entirely justified. For religion to have thus fallen is indeed 
a great gain. But I suspect that religion were never more contemp- 
tible than it is at the present moment. 

One can only regard the Catholic article as showing how im- 
possible it is for the educated world at this time to seriously con- 
sider its theology or its theory of education. The Church would 
appear by its admission not only to have failed in its plan of sal- 
vation, but also in religious education and in promoting what it 
terms as morality. This is a serious admission to make for the 
purpose of asking the privilege to introduce religion in the public 
schools, so far as the Catholic is concerned, if he intends to do so. 

One must say that the Catholic article is apparently intended 
to be entirely frank and consistent, and of course religious. It is 
impossible to credit the Protestant writer with such consistency 
or with very much social integrity, as I shall show, because he 
intends that his terms shall be deceiving. The Catholic writer does 
not. He has nothing to say about the "ungodly American public 
schools," nor any intimation of their "immoral output." The article 
is fair and without unkindness. One may question, however, how 
far this Catholic is permitted to suggest any cooperation or agree- 
ment with any Protestant plan for religious instruction in the 
schools, as the article at least in a way implies, but this may be 
treated as a defect in any Catholic plan. It says nothing new about 
the Catholic standpoint, except perhaps in this one implied par- 
ticular, and it very honestly states apparently the Catholic position, 
but of course in a hopeless way to ever make this religion intelligible 


or sensible. It does not attempt to say that if Catholics were allowed 
to introduce religion in the public schools that Catholics would teach 
the Protestant religion. But Mr. Sparks plainly wishes to teach the 
Protestant religion in the schools and would call it "morality." 

The Catholic writer very properly recognizes and also honestly 
admits that "Our public schools have been made non-sectarian by 
legislative act. There can be no question," he says, "of promoting 
religious life in these schools at present." And then he obviously 
observes that "in certain quarters Bible-reading has been recom- 
mended to remedy this defect (and I will emphasize his comment) 
— Biblc-rcading as it is pracitised by certain Protestant denomina- 
tions." And so he raises the question now "whether Catholic pupils 
can take part in this reading without doing violence to their religious 
convictions." Of course it hardly ever occurs to the religionists 
that the intrusion of their religions where religions are not wanted 
and are not intended, might be a violence to the conscience or con- 
viction of the secular American rationalist. Happily The Open 
Court is such a publication where this may be freely discussed. 
But I have no interest in what is regarded by Dr. Carus in his 
philosophy as the "purification" of religions, although I must ac- 
knowledge with gratitude his tremendous service to liberalism in all 

I do not believe that these two religious articles should be con- 
sidered with any great concern by Americans. The efforts have 
been simultaneous suicides, and I think I might very well be in a 
better business just now in the more serious affairs of the country 
than in taking the time to attempt a reply to these religionists. I 
should suppose that if religion were good for peoples that Spain, 
Russia, Mexico and other religious and Christian communities ought 
to be most beautiful countries and that there could be no great ob- 
jections to the Christian religion in this country. But I would 
hopefully prefer to reach if possible those of The Open Court 
readers who perhaps may still have an undecided interest in the 
question, and I cannot think that there are many who would care 
to see the plan of these sectarians promoted in the least in our 
schools. I would prefer to win those who may be reached with 
what I am pleased to think are sufficient reasons for the opposition, 
if they may care to consider them. 

I doubt very much if regular readers of The Open Court are 
likely to become greatly befuddled by the medieval theology of these 
articles. Regular readers of this magazine or of general modern 
literature are likely to leave it wholly alone. For instance, what 


can one say to this religions recognition by the Catholic writer? 
(and I have copied it carefully, it being somewhat of an exertion 
even from the mechanical standpoint:) "Theology recognizes gladly 
and frankly that the concepts which express revealed, supernatural 
reality do not represent it in its own peculiar way but only by anal- 
ogy. The analogy between revealed supernatural reality and the 
concepts which express it is not an attributive analogy but an 
analog ia proportionalis, and in certain cases only proportionalitatis, 
as P. Sertillanges calls it ('Agnosticisme et anthropomorphisme.')" 

I should suppose good-naturedly that the theological case had 
never been more scholarly expressed than . in this ponderous quo- 
tation. But one must leave that to the use of the theologians. By 
this sort of analogy one could hardly be more successfully direct 
in teaching the law of gravitation than by employing the pigs-in- 
clover problem, and perhaps without the pigs, "Depositum custodi." 

"The Catholic Church," it is again authoritatively explained, 
"alone possesses the whole of the divine revelation and regards it 
as her most sacred duty to preserve it faithfully and without modi- 
fication." Consequently, "the Catholic Church is likewise opposed 
to every sort of pure and exclusive voluntarism, which deprives the 
theoretic truth of all its static element and degrades the truth to 
an exclusive instrument of action." The most positive injunction, 
from the Catholic standpoint of authority is that "there must be no 
Protestant Bible-reading (in the public schools) because, (a) Prot- 
estant Bible-reading is founded upon an entirely false idea of in- 
spiration which, a posteriori at least, has proved untrue; and (b) no 
Catholic layman may read any Bible whose text has not been ap- 
proved by the competent ecclesiastical authorities and accompanied 
with the required commentaries." Here is the positive asserted 
authority of the Catholic Church against the Protestant pretense, 
and its reasons. Obviously its authority must be true, or else it 
is not true. The religious dispute therefore begins here. If it 
affected them only, we would not be further concerned. 

Then we turn to the lubricated Protestant plan and "the dom- 
inating note in (his) religion is authority," says the Protestant 
Mr. Sparks, which is a strange suggestion for a Protestant to make. 
And again he makes the same sort of blunder for a Protestant to 
make in an article that appears concurrently with a Catholic article, 
in saying that "in moral training it is absolutely necessary to develop 
a reverent respect for authority." (A part of the italics are un- 
wisely his own.) "And the first point in this (Protestant) plan 
that is now presented is the introduction of (Protestant) Bible-study 


into the curriculum of the public school. And again he says, un- 
guardedly, or unblushingly as I regard it, that "The Bible is the 
text-book of ethics." This has been forever disposed of by better 
scholars and moralists than I. There remains the task of more 
general education. 

When the Catholic writer may be able to show conclusively to 
his Protestant friend that the Catholic Church still possesses the 
entire "divine revelation" and that Mr. Sparks has none of it ; or 
when the Protestant Mr. Sparks may submit properly to the "divine" 
authority conferred upon the institution of his Catholic friend, and 
feels that a parochial religious school is better than an American 
public school, then these gentlemen will be in a better position to 
argue together effectively in the same number of The Open Court 
about the benefits of religion in the schools, and the argument will be 
entirely Catholic. It is necessary to kindly remind our religious 
friends of this before they reach the schoolhouse doors with an un- 
ended quarrel of three hundred years. 

But a single comment should be made on one of Mr. Sparks's 
assertions. "The Bible is the textbook of ethics," he says. One 
must simply say and make it plain that the man either knows nothing 
of the Bible or does not know the meaning of the term ethics. He 
is not in any sense an educator. 

And I need go no further than the same February issue of 
The Open Court to remind our Protestant Mr. Sparks of the con- 
tention of the Catholic writer that "religious instruction is the par- 
ticular function of the ecclesiastical office (Matt, xxviii. 19) and 
may not be exercised by any person without the canonical permission 
of the bishop." 2 It would be better, as it seems to me, to acknowledge 
that the teaching of the only true revealed and divinely authorized 
religion should be left to those who have received the revelation 
and the authority. One can therefore have no discussion with our 
Catholic friend in his sincerity in this respect. And I would like 
to remind the Protestant Mr. Sparks of the suspicion of his Catholic 
friend that "the Bible is not a children's reader." 3 

2 It is plainly the intention of the Catholic writer to regard the Protestant 
Mr. Sparks as of no consequence as an authority on religion, inasmuch as the 
same gospel (Matt, xviii. 17) provides in case of a dispute between religious 
brothers : "If he neglects to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen 
man and a publican." 

3 The qualifications for teaching the Protestant religion are more amusingly 
and applicably discussed by Mr. Eugene Wood in one of his delightful essays, 
on "The Sabbath School," (McClure's Magazine), in which it is suggested 
that "for some eighteen centuries it was supposed that a regularly ordained 
ministry should have exclusive charge of this work. At rare intervals now- 


The Constitution of the United States is a superlatively moral 
and broad basis of government. "It is in no sense founded on the 
Christian religion," or any other religion. "It was the spirit of the 
eighteenth century, a century of philosophical inquiry which gave 
our revolutionary leaders their broader views. Had they been sus- 
ceptible to clerical influences, or had they consulted Moses and 
Paul, there would have been a king here, 'by the grace of God,' 
as there is in most Christian countries." For "there is not a single 
text either in the old or new Testament which may be fairly quoted 
in defense of popular or republican government." 4 

To live under this American Constitution and to accept its 
opportunities of religious freedom and religious liberty is the finest 
privilege that man has ever inherited and enjoyed from his govern- 
ment. It also imposes an obligation not to use any governmental or 
state means for the promotion of any religion whatsoever. The 
text of the Constitution in this respect has become so well known 
to scholars and lawyers that it is unnecessary to repeat it. No 
comment ought to be necessary to make the purport of this provision 
more manifest than the text of the provision itself. Only the lowest 
type of American religionist would attempt to modify it, or evade 
it. And this "proudest product of the pen and brain" of man was 
not the work of religionists. 

"This is a Freethought nation," says the scholarly Freethought 
author, Mr. John E. Remsburg, writing as President of the Ameri- 
can Secular Union and Freethought Federation. "Freethinkers have 
preserved it. The Fathers of our Republic — Washington and Frank- 
lin and Paine and Adams and Jefferson — were Freethinkers. The 
saviours of our Republic, Lincoln and Grant, were Freethinkers. 
The man who first proposed this nation was a Freethinker. The 
man who wrote the Declaration of Independence was a Freethinker. 
The man who led the armies of the Revolution to victory was a 
Freethinker. The man who presided over the Convention that 
framed our Constitution was a Freethinker. The man who drafted 

adays a clergyman may be found to maintain that because a man has been to 
college and to the theological seminary, and has made the study of the Scrip- 
tures his life work (moved to that decision after careful self-examination), 
that therefore he is better fitted to that ministry than Miss Susie Goldrick, 
who teaches a class in Sabbath-school very acceptably. Miss Goldrick is in 
the second year in the High School, and last Saturday afternoon read a com- 
position on English Literatoor, in which she spoke in terms of high praise of 
John Bunion, the well-known author of 'Progress and Poverty.' Miss Goldrick 
is very conscientious, and always keeps her thumb-nail against the questions 
printed on the lesson-leaf, so as to not ask twice, 'What did the disciples 
then do ?' " 

4 A New Catechism, (M. M. Mangasarian), pages 193-198. 


that instrument was a Freethinker. Its ablest exponents were Free- 
thinkers. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution 
of the United States are both Freethought documents, the one 
Deistic. the other Agnostic. 

"For a period of one hundred years from the accession of our 
first President, Washington, to the retirement of the twenty-second, 
Cleveland, not one Christian communicant occupied the Executive 
chair ; for Garfield, while he had not ceased to commune, had ceased 
to believe. Our greatest statesmen and orators, scientists and in- 
ventors, authors and poets, have been Freethinkers. Free thought, 
free speech, a free press, and free schools, the products of Free- 
thought, are the pillars upon which our national fabric rests." 5 

We are very much indebted to that great achievement of Amer- 
ican law work now in publication, our first available comprehensive 
summary of the substance of American Law, Corpus Juris, for a 
sufficient survey of the history and application of our Constitutional 
Law which covers this religious issue. The constitutional separa- 
tion of Church and State was intended to be absolute. The history 
of this important measure clearly shows this united purpose of the 
early American people to put an end to the existing religious evil 
in state affairs, and one may feel that the following citation fairly 
represents the accepted view of the American courts as a recital 
of the circumstances and influences of those times : 

"Before the adoption of the Constitution (in this citation used), 
attempts were made in some of the colonies and states to legislate 
not only in respect to the establishment of religion, but in respect 
to its doctrines and precepts as well .... The controversy upon this 
general subject was animated in many of the states, but seemed 
at last to culminate in Virginia. In 1784, the House of Delegates 
of that state having under consideration 'a bill establishing pro- 
vision for teachers of the Christian religion,' postponed it until the 
next session, and directed that the bill should be published and dis- 
tributed, and that the people be requested 'to signify their opinion 
respecting the adoption of such a bill at the next session of assem- 
bly.'. ... At the next session the proposed bill was not only defeated, 
but another, 'for establishing religious freedom,' drafted by Mr. 
Jefferson, was passed. (Jefferson's Works, II, 45 ; 2 Howison, 
History of Virginia, 298.) .... In a little more than a year after the 
passage of this statute the convention met which prepared the Con- 

5 The Chicago Bible, (a pamphlet against religion in the schools of that 
city 1896). See also Remsburg's Six Historic Americans, (The Truth Seeker 
Co., New York). 


stitution of the United States. Of this convention Mr. Jefferson 
was not a member, he being then absent as minister to France. As 
soon as he saw the draft of the Constitution, proposed for adoption, 
he, in a letter to a friend, expressed his disappointment at the ab- 
sence of an express declaration insuring the freedom of religion 
(Jefferson's Works, II, 355), but was willing to accept it as it was, 
trusting that the good sense and honest intentions of the people 
would bring about the necessary alterations (Jefferson's Works, I, 
79). Five of the states, while adopting the Constitution, proposed 
amendments. Three — New Hampshire, New York and Virginia — 
included in one form or another a declaration of religious freedom 
in the changes they desired to have made, as did also North Caro- 
lina, where the convention at first declined to ratify the Constitution 
until the proposed amendments were acted upon. Accordingly, at 
the first session of the first Congress the amendment now under 
consideration was proposed with others by Mr. Madison. It met 
the views of the advocates of religious freedom, and was adopted." 
Reynolds v. U. S., 98 U. S. 145, 162; 25 L. ed. 244. (See also 
Life of Madison, or biographical article in Nelson's Encyclopedia.) 

It is very helpful to have an impartial and a very full statement 
following .therein of all the American law upon this constitutional 
question, such as we have in Corpus Juris. In this accomplishment 
one gets the whole of the law exactly as it is, the object being neither 
for nor against religion. It is a strictly judicial recital, with every 
sentence of the text based carefully upon selected citations ; and the 
"reason for the rule" in support of each decision is appended. It 
is gratifying in this to be sure that "the weight of authority and 
of reason" is with the secularist ; that instruction from a sectarian 
book has been held to be sectarian instruction ; and that the only 
way to prevent sectarianism is to exclude it altogether. This is 
therefore the best constitutional law and common sense. 

Continuing the statement of the law relating to the Church and 
the State, we find, as a matter of exact facts, that: 

"There is considerable variety in the constitutional provisions 
of the various states affecting the right to hold religious exercises 
in the public schools, and equally great variety of opinion in the 
decisions of the courts in regard to the matter. 

"In some states the constitutional provisions forbidding com- 
pulsory attendance on religious worship and taxation for sectarian 
schools have been construed not to prohibit religious exercises in 
the public schools, such as reading the Bible, offering prayer and 
singing devotional songs. 


"The tendency of recent constitutions, however, and also of 
judicial decisions construing and applying them, has been in favor 
of extending the scope of constitutional guaranties to the exclusion 
of religious exercises from the public schools. 

"And the weight of recent authority and of reason zvould seem 
to be with those cases which hold that prayer and the singing of 
hymns as a part of the public exercises of the school are in violation 
of constitutional provisions against taxation for the support of 
religion, even though pupils may be excused from attending such 
exercises on application by themselves or their parents." 

The reason for the ride is: "Prayer is always worship. Reading 
the Bible and singing may be worship. . . .// these exercises of 
reading the Bible, joining in prayer and the singing of hymns were 
performed in a church there zvould be no doubt of their religious 
character and that character is not changed by the place OF THEIR 
PERFORMANCE. . . . The wrong arises, not out of the particular 
version. of the Bible or form of prayer used — whether that found 
in the Douay or the King James version, — or the particular songs 
sung, but out of the compulsion to join in any form of worship. 
The free enjoyment of religious worship includes freedom not to 
worship." Per Dunn, J., in People v. District 24, Board of Edu- 
cation, 245 111. 334, 339; 92 N. E. 251; 29 L.R.A.N.S. 442; 19 
Ann. Cases 220. (12 Corpus Juris 943, under Note 67.) 

(My comment on this is: It is shameful that any sort of exer- 
cise should be permitted in a public school where it might be con- 
sidered necessary or proper to excuse any pupil from participating 
in it, from a question of conscience. The reason for the rule in this 
case is therefore a destruction of the whole religious proposition.) 

"The mere reading from a particular version of the Bible, with- 
out comment, has been held not to constitute an infringement of 
the constitutional guaranty, and this has been conceded by some 
authorities that held otherwise as to prayer and devotional singing." 

The reason for the rule: "But the fact that the King James 
translation may be used to inculcate sectarian doctrines affords no 
presumption that it will be so used. The law does not forbid the 
use of the Bible in either version in the public schools ; it is not 
proscribed either by the constitution or the statutes, and the courts 
have no right to declare its use to be unlawful because it is possible 
or probable that those who are privileged to use it will misuse the 
privilege by attempting to propagate their own peculiar theological 
or ecclesiastical views and opinions. The point where the courts 
may rightfully intervene, and where they should intervene without 


hesitation, is where legitimate use has degenerated into abuse, — 
where a teacher employed to give secular instructions has violated 
the constitution by becoming a sectarian propagandist. That sec- 
tarian instruction may be given by the frequent reading, without 
note or comment, of judiciously selected passages, is of course ob- 
vious." Per Sullivan, C. J., in State v. Scheve, 65 Nebr. 853, 883 ; 
91 N.W. 846; 93 N.W. 169; 59 L.R.A. 927. (12 Corpus Juris 
943, under Note 70.) 

"But other authorities hold that the Bible is a sectarian book 
and that the reading in the public schools of any portion or any 
version of it for religious purposes is a violation of constitutional 

The reason for the' rule: "The only means of preventing sec- 
tarian instruction in the schools is to exclude altogether religious 
instruction, by means of the reading of the Bible or otherzvise. The 
Bible is not read in the public schools as mere literature or mere 
history. It cannot be separated from its character as an inspired 
book of religion. . . . If any parts are to be selected for use as being 
free from sectarian differences of opinion, who will select them?" 
Per Dunn, J., in People v. District 24, Board of Education, 245 111. 
334, 348; 92 N.E. 251; 29 L.R.A.N.S. 442; 19 Ann. Cases 220. 
(Cited in 12 Corpus Juris 943, under Note 71.) 

Earlier Illinois cases inconsistent with above were "practically 
overruled thereby." 

"It is unanimously agreed that a law or regulation which for- 
bids religious instruction or the reading of religious books, including 
the Bible, in the public schools is valid." 

The principle that no one may impose his religious beliefs or 
practices amounting to a religious nuisance to others has been well 
expressed in In-re: Frazee, (63 Mich. 396, 405; 30 N.W. 72; 6 
Am. S. R. 310) by Chief Justice Campbell: "We cannot accede to 
the suggestion that religious liberty includes the right to introduce 
and carry out every scheme or purpose which persons see fit to 
claim as a part of their religious system. There is no legal author- 
ity to constrain belief, but no one can lawfully stretch his own 
liberty of action so as to interfere with that of his neighbor, or 
violate peace or good order. The whole criminal law might be 
practically superseded if, under pretext of liberty or conscience, the 
commission of crime be made a religious dogma. It is a funda- 
mental condition of all liberty, and necessary to civil society, that 
all men must exercise their rights in harmony, and must yield to 
such restrictions as are necessary to promote that result." 


These cases make no mention of the disturbance that inevitably 
arises over the attempt to introduce religion of any particular kind 
in a public institution like the public schools, and these disturbances 
have been a Protestant disgrace in the schools. The American 
schools are for the children of all the people of every religion and 
of no religion. The rights of Catholics, Jews and infidels, agnostics 
and atheists are just as much to be regarded and respected as the 
rights of Protestant Christians, which latter are only a Christian 
sect, or who constitute many sects of as many different beliefs. 
Either is in duty bound to respect the Constitution which protects 
the rights of all. Freethinkers claim the right to teach Freethought, 
but do not ask that Freethought be introduced in the schools to dis- 
parage religion, at the expense of the State, or to the violence of 
the conscience of religious children or their parents. The schools 
are for the imparting of necessary information, according to what 
may be regarded as the best systems of education by real educators. 
Morality will come from knowledge, and from the better conditions 
resulting from knowledge obtained in the schools, and not from the 
teaching of any particular form of dogma or belief, or from any 
sectarian teaching of sectarian morality. Otherwise the schools 
and knowledge were of no use, and only religion were useful. 

Protestant clergymen may deliver nonsectarian prayers (if such 
a performance were possible!) at graduation exercises and the exer- 
cises may be held in churches in those communities where there 
may be no town hall or theater, and when permitted by the school 
board, without seriously violating the constitutional guaranty. This 
is only a form of Protestant ministerial impoliteness and an intru- 
sion. But Jewish children, or the children of agnostics, or Catholic 
scholars of the public schools are quite justified, from social reasons, 
in refusing diplomas when handed to them by a Protestant preacher 
officiating where he is not desired and where he ought not to 
appear as a religionist. Religion is not an affair of the state. 

It is natural to anticipate the religious chaos that would result 
if Protestantism were allowed to operate and develop without re- 
straint, or if it were permitted to extend the plan proposed by Mr. 
Sparks. The public schools are not to be made ultimate Protestant 
parish schools, as desired by him, with credit for Bible study or 
Bible work. "Pastor" Russell's Bible classes, an influence of this 
religion, or other kinds of Bible-classes have no place in state- 
supported schools, nor any connection with them. It is not the 
purpose of the schools to train children or inspire them for the 
ministry or for missionary fields. There should be no preparatory 


grades or primary lessons in any superstition, or any credit that 
tends to reverence or respect for the outrageous religion of Evan- 
gelist Sunday or the fanatical religion of the German Emperor. 
Parsons and preachers and book agents and peddlers should be ex- 
cluded from the schoolhouse. It is necessary to say this, because 
we have the afflictions. 

The Catholic writer proposes "an interdenominational school'' 
for religious instruction, and proposes "in this respect (that) Ger- 
many's schools might serve as a model." I think the present right- 
eous temper of the American people would have disposed of that 
suggestion had not the abomination of religion and state in Ger- 
many been specifically and sufficiently exposed in Mr. Heyn's timely 
and informative article in the March number of this magazine, 
which has fortunately come to hand before the preparation of this 
reply. 6 And I do not believe that we are yet ready to have "Ein 
feste Burg ist unser Gott" as the American national anthem. 

It is hardly worth while to go into the details of Mr. Sparks's 
proposed tentative religious plan. His whole proposition is funda- 
mentally and essentially and morally wrong, and it has been the 
intent of the Constitution to prevent this moral wrong. And "moral 
considerations are of more importance" to the moral Rationalist 
"than either the ecclesiastical or legal considerations." If it has 
appeared that I have been severe in criticism of the moral and in- 
tellectual integrity of this Protestant religious writer I wish to call 
attention to this statement of his : "Where Bible selections even are 
barred from the schools, arrangements could be made to have this 
material taught by representatives of the religious bodies outside 
the schools and after satisfactory examinations have been passed, 
credit given the pupils on their school work." There could hardly 
be a more deliberate and constructive scheme to violate the intent 
and practice of the law than this. I cannot think the man is so 
much interested in teaching "morality" as he is in introducing this 
"Bible material," from a religious incentive, and where it has been 
particularly barred, and this can only be treated as a piece of be- 
coming sectarianism. We can accept Mr. Sparks's confident exhibit 
that the Bible is the text-book of his morality without further com- 

Outside the narrow realm of Protestant religious thought the 
Bible is considered at its true value. It is no longer an authority 

G See The Open Court for March, 1918, and "The Centrum Party's In- 
fluence in German Affairs," (particularly page 188) for the failure of liheral 
government. By Hon. Edward T. Heyn, former American Vice-Consul. 


on any question of importance to mankind. And it is now an ob- 
stacle to Protestant education and consequently capable of great 
harm so long- as it may be treated otherwise in trying to explain our 
affairs or in helping in any of the problems of our American life 
and progress. It has been progressively and completely driven out 
of the halls of learning. "It is no longer an authority, for example 
on questions of science — geology, astronomy, chemistry, biology and 
all other branches of one of the principal pursuits of man," the 
pursuit of knowledge. Better books have replaced the Bible. "What 
is true of science is also true of history, politics, government, educa- 
tion, commerce ; in all these departments and activities of life better 
books have relegated the Bible into the background." 7 The framers 
of the American Constitution did not consult this religious book 
for their work. 

The American secularists also object to this book on strictly 
moral grounds. There is no book in existence that as a whole has 
so many objectionable features. And the wish to give these things 
the appearance of authority is especially pernicious and must be 
withstood so long as ignorance persists. 

"The claim that the Bible is the only moral guide," says Mr. 
Remsburg of the American Secular Union, "is a very foolish false- 
hood. The claim that it is the best moral guide is untrue; and the 
claim that it even is a good moral guide is untrue. The Bible con- 
tains some worthy precepts, but it also sanctions nearly every vice 
and crime." In proof of this he cites a solid magazine page of 
Bible references which are known to every scholar showing the ap- 
proval of lying, cheating, murder, slavery, witchcraft, cannibalism, 
human sacrifices, injustice to women, cruelty to children, intem- 
perance, religious persecution and obscenity." 8 It is a book filled 
with unnatural thoughts and perversions. The churches of course 
do not directly teach these vices. I should hope. What a monstrous 
book then to be made such a fetish of, and to have the unqualified 
approval of such an organization. 

The prison statistics of the country involving the religions of 
criminals would astonish even the thoughtful religionists. The worst 
recent criminals have been Christian ministers. There are 60,605 
Christians in the state penitentiaries of the country ; 5420 Jews ; 131 

7 Consult The Bible Unveiled (M. M. Mangasarian), The Independent 
Religious Society, Chicago, publishers, 1911. 

8 And if I am not mistaken an able writer in The Open Court, less than 
two years ago, has discussed this question along the same lines, and given 
similar references and if so, readers have access to this information. 


pagans ; 3 infidels and 4,887 giving no church affiliation, but a great 
many of undoubted religious training. "The assertion that the 
church is the mainstay of morals is proven to be an exploded fiction," 
says Mr. Franklin Steiner, in his compilation of these figures in 
Religion and Roguery (The Truth Seeker Co., New York). "Like 
every claim made by that institution it will not bear the light of 
day." The word "morality" does not appear in the Bible. It is 
an Asiatic cult book, and not an American text-book. The approval 
of the horrors and cruelty of the present war may be found in this 
collection of Hebraic-Christian literature, and one is forced to 
seriously wonder to what extent the book is directly responsible for 
the actions of those barbarians who have threatened our civilization. 
The authority of this Protestant book originated in the country 
with which this nation is at present engaged in a struggle for the 
life of democracy. One cannot overlook this important fact. 

The American question is not one of majorities. That is not 
the issue at all. If it were a matter between the Church and the 
unchurched the latter would be in a position to prevail overwhelm- 
ingly, probably two to one, and might succeed in reaching anti- 
religious determinations with natural injustice to religions. But 
it is the principle of the nation that must be considered. If it were 
a matter between Catholics and Protestants the latter would be 
able to dictate in religion and in dogma, if it could, so far as the 
public recognition of religion were concerned, as Protestants have 
done, with natural injustice to all other religions. But the Con- 
stitution has removed the possibility of this shifting of religious 
influence or interference consequent on numbers. Religion must 
not be an elementary part of the American state, and it is fortunate 
for the United States and for the world that it is not. The religious 
beliefs of any cult, or the teachings of any prophet, ancient or 
modern, or the teachings or practice of any ascetic or medicine-man, 
such as we experience, are not in any instance a subject for the 
minds of American children in the American schools. Religion is 
safe and protected under such a principle and the state should be 
maintained upon this splendid idea of independence and freedom. 
And there are better moral ideas than those preached or practised 
by religionists from religious motives. 

There are millions of Roman Catholics in America who have 
Constitutional rights that Protestants are bound to respect. There 
are millions of Jews who have equal rights. There are hundreds 
of thousands of atheists, agnostics, infidels, Freethinkers, and un- 
doubtedly millions of no religious belief one way or another. Our 


American morality is undoubtedly the best the world has ever seen. 
It is free, healthy, intelligent and generous. Religionists have also 
intelligently contributed their share to this increasingly satisfactory 
condition of American life. 

But "ethics is the science of right human character and conduct. 
It is in no wise primarily dependent upon religion but has suffered 
immeasurably by having been associated with it through all the 
ages." 9 

To put an end to the confusions of religion in state affairs 
The American Secular Union (a national organization) was or- 
ganized July 4, 1876, and exists for the purpose of making effec- 
tive the first amendment of the Constitution, concerning which I 
have tried to make some of the provisions better understood. This 
American organization in perfectly clear language proposes a com- 
plete separation of religion and the state in every particular, and 
submits what it has called "nine demands" to bring about our 
American ideals under the Constitution. It is encouraged with more 
recent events, and expects that others favorable will follow education 
and enlightenment. The organization will live until this has been 
accomplished. Its methods are lawful, its purpose is unselfish, and 
its asks the consideration of the American people as a whole. I 
am pleased to attach the statement of this organization : 10 

The Nine Demands of Liberalism. 

1. We demand that churches and other ecclesiastical property 
shall be no longer exempt from taxation. 

2. We demand that the employment of chaplains in Congress, 
in the Legislatures, in the navy and militia, and in prisons, asylums 
and all other institutions supported by public money shall be dis- 

3. We demand that all public appropriations for educational 
and charitable institutions of a sectarian character shall cease. 

4. We demand that all religious services now sustained by the 
government shall be abolished ; and especially that the use of the 
Bible in the public schools, whether ostensibly as a text-book, or 
avowedly as a book of religious worship, shall be prohibited. 

5. We demand that the appointment by the President of the 
United States or by the governors of the various states, of all re- 
ligious festivals and feasts shall wholly cease. 

9 The Development of the Ethical Idea (S. S. Knight), R. F. Fenno & 
Co. New York. 

10 The Secretary of the American Secular Union is Mr. E. C. Reichwald, 
79 West South Water St., Chicago, 111., who may be addressed by all inter- 

macaulay's criticism of democracy and garfield's reply. 273 

6. We demand that the judicial oath in the courts and in all 
other departments of the government shall be abolished, and that 
simple affirmation under the pains and penalities of perjury shall be 
established in its stead. 

7. We demand that all laws directly or indirectly enforcing the 
observance of Sunday as the Sabbath shall be repealed. 

8. We demand that all laws looking to the enforcement of 
"Christian" morality shall be abrogated and that all laws shall be 
conformed to the requirements of natural morality, equal rights, 
and impartial liberty. 

9. We demand that not only in the Constitution of the United 
States and of the several states, but also in the practical adminis- 
tration of the same, no privileges or advantages shall be conceded 
to Christianity or any other special religion ; that our entire political 
system shall be founded and administered on a purely secular basis ; 
and that whatever changes shall prove necessary to this end shall 
be consistently, unflinchingly and promptly made. 



SOME time ago I called on the editor of The Open Court at 
his office and while we were discussing the world-wide con- 
flict in which this country is now engaged. Dr. Cams asked me if 
I had ever happened to see a letter written by Lord Macaulay 
criticising Jefferson and democracy. I replied that I had the 
Macaulay letter, one copy in my scrap book and another copy in one 
of General Garfield's speeches. 

I then related that on a recent visit with Dr. Andrew White 
at his home in Ithaca, while we were discussing the war, he asked 
me the same question asked by Dr. Carus relative to the Macaulay 
letter. I informed Dr. White that I had a copy of the letter where- 
upon he related how in a campaign when General Garfield was a 
candidate for president he spoke at Cornell University and in his 
speech quoted Macaulay's letter. Dr. White said he had always 
wanted to secure a copy of ;t and then described how General Gar- 
field after quoting the letter had answered the criticism of democ- 
racy therein contained and concluded his speech by appealing to the 
audience to see to it that Macaulay's prophecy relative to our demo- 


cratic form of government should not be fulfilled. Dr. White 
said that at the conclusion of his address General Garfield wanted 
to know how he liked his speech, whereupon he said to Garfield: 
"You have just made the greatest political speech I have ever heard." 
After I had related these facts to the editor of The Open Court 
he requested me to send him a copy of the Macaulay letter together 
with General Garfield's comments. I quote from General Garfield's 
speech as follows : 

"At the risk of offending our American pride, I shall quote 
what is probably the most formidable indictment of democratic 
principles ever penned. It was written by the late Lord Macaulay, 
a profound student of society and government, and a man who, on 
most subjects, entertained broad and liberal views. Millions of 
Americans have read and admired his History and Essays, but 
only a few thousands have read his brief but remarkable letter of 
1857, in which he discusses the future of our government. We 
are so confident of our position that we seldom care to debate it. 
The letter was addressed to the Hon. H. S. Randall, of New York, 
in acknowledgement of a copy of that gentleman's Life of Jefferson. 
I quote it almost entire. 

'Holly Lodge, Kensington, London, May 23, 1857. 

'Dear Sir You are surprised to learn that I have not a 

high opinion of Mr. Jefferson, and I am surprised at your surprise. 
I am certain that I never wrote a line, and that I never, in Parlia- 
ment, in conversation, or even on the hustings, — a place where it 
is the fashion to court the populace, — uttered a word indicating an 
opinion that the supreme authority in a state ought to be intrusted 
to the majority of citizens told by the head ; in other words, to the 
poorest and most ignorant part of society. I have long been con- 
vinced that institutions purely democratic must, sooner or later, 
destroy liberty or civilization, or both. In Europe, where the popu- 
lation is dense, the effect of such institutions would be almost in- 
stantaneous. What happened lately in France is an example. In 
1848, a pure democracy was established there. During a short time 
there was reason to expect a general spoliation, a national bank- 
ruptcy, a new partition of the soil, a maximum of prices, a ruinous 
load of taxation laid on the rich for the purpose of supporting the 
poor in idleness. Such a system would, in twenty years, have made 
France as poor and barbarous as the France of the Carlovingians. 
Happily, the danger was averted ; and now there is a despotism, a 
silent tribune, an enslaved press. Liberty is gone, but civilization 


has been saved. I have not the smallest doubt that, if we had a 
purely democratic government here, the effect would be the same. 
Either the poor would plunder the rich, and civilization would 
perish, or order and prosperity would be saved by a strong military 
government, and liberty would perish. You may think that your 
country enjoys an exemption from these evils. I will frankly own to 
you that I am of a very different opinion. Your fate I believe to be 
certain, though it is deferred by physical cause. As long as you have a 
boundless extent of fertile and unoccupied land, your laboring popu- 
lation will be far more at ease than the laboring population of the 
Old World ; and while that is the case, the Jefferson politics may 
continue to exist without causing any fatal calamity. But the time 
will come when New England will be as thickly peopled as Old 
England. Wages will be as low, and will fluctuate as much with 
you as with us. You will have your Manchesters and Birminghams. 
And in those Manchesters and Birminghams hundreds of thousands 
of artisans will assuredly be sometimes out of work. Then your 
institutions will be fairly brought to the test. Distress everywhere 
makes the laborer mutinous and discontented, and inclines him to 
listen with eagerness to agitators, who tell him that it is a monstrous 
iniquity that one man should have a million while another cannot 
get a full meal. In bad years there is plenty of grumbling here, and 
sometimes a little rioting. But it matters little, for here the sufferers 
are not the rulers. The supreme power is in the hands of a class, 
numerous indeed, but select, — of an educated class, — of a class 
which is, and knows itself to be, deeply interested in the security 
of property, and the maintenance of order. Accordingly, the mal- 
contents are firmly, yet gently, restrained. The bad time is got over 
without robbing the wealthy to relieve the indigent. The springs 
of national prosperity soon begin to flow again : work is plentiful, 
wages rise, and all is tranquillity and cheerfulness. I have seen 
England pass three or four times through such critical seasons as 
I have described. Through' such seasons the United States will 
have to pass in the course of the next century, if not of this. How 
will you pass through them ? I heartily wish you a good deliverance. 
But my reason and my wishes are at war, and I cannot help fore- 
boding the worst. It is quite plain that your government will never 
be able to restrain a distressed and discontented majority. For 
with you the majority is the government, and has the rich, who are 
always a minority, absolutely at its mercy. The day will come when, 
in the State of New York, a multitude of people, none of whom has 
had more than half a breakfast, or expects to have more than half 


a dinner, will choose a legislature. Is it possible to doubt what 
sort of a legislature will be chosen? On one side is a statesman 
preaching patience, respect for vested rights, strict observance of 
public faith ; on the other is a demagogue ranting about the tyranny 
of capitalists and usurers, and asking why anybody should be per- 
mitted to drink champagne, and to ride in a carriage, while thou- 
sands of honest folk are in want of necessaries. Which of the two 
candidates is likely to be preferred by a workingman who hears 
his children cry for more bread? I seriously apprehend that you 
will, in some such season of adversity as I have described, do things 
which will prevent prosperity from returning ; that you will act 
like people who should, in a year of scarcity, devour all the seed 
corn, and thus make the next a year, not of scarcity, but of abso- 
lute famine. There will be, I fear, spoliation. The distress will 
produce fresh spoliation. There is nothing to stop you. Your 
Constitution is all sail and no anchor. As I said before, when a 
society has entered on this downward progress, either civiliza- 
tion or liberty must perish. Either some Caesar or Napoleon will 
seize the reins of government with a strong hand, or your republic 
will be as fearfully plundered and laid waste by barbarians in the 
twentieth century, as the Roman empire was in the fifth, — with 
this difference, that the Huns and Vandals who ravaged the Roman 
empire came from without, and that your Huns and Vandals will 
have been engendered within your country by your own institu- 

'Thinking thus, of course I cannot reckon Jefferson among the 
benefactors of mankind.' 1 

"Certainly this letter contains food for serious thought : and 
it would be idle to deny that the writer has pointed out what may 
become serious dangers in our future. But the evils he complains 
of are by no means confined to democratic government, nor do 
they, in the main, grow out of popular suffrage. If they do. Eng- 
land herself has taken a dangerous step since Macaulay wrote. Ten 
years after the date of this letter she extended the suffrage to eight 
hundred thousand of her workingmen, a class hitherto ignored in 
politics. And still later we have extended it to an ignorant and 
lately enslaved population of more than four millions. Whether 
for weal or for woe, enlarged suffrage is the tendency of all modern 
nations. I venture the declaration, that this opinion of Macaulay's 
is vulnerable on several grounds. 

' The copy here followed is that found in the Appendix to Harper's edition 
of The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, by G. O. Trevelyan. 

macaulay's criticism of democracy and garfield's reply. 277 

"In the first place, it is based upon a belief from which few if 
any British writers have been able to emancipate themselves ; namely, 
the belief that mankind are born into permanent classes, and that 
in the main they must live, work, and die in the fixed class or con- 
dition in which they are born. It is hardly possible for a man 
reared in an aristocracy like that of England to eliminate this con- 
viction from his mind, for the British empire is built upon it. Their 
theory of national stability is, that there must be a permanent class 
who shall hold in their own hands so much of the wealth, the privi- 
lege, and the political power of the kingdom, that they can compel 
the admiration and obedience of all other classes. At several 
periods in English history there have been serious encroachments 
upon this doctrine. But, on the whole, British phlegm has held 
to it sturdily, and still maintains it. The great voiceless class of 
day-laborers have made but little headway against the doctrine. 
The editor of a leading British magazine told me, a few years ago. 
that in twenty-five years of observation he had never known a 
mere form-laborer in England to rise above his class. Some, he 
said, had done so in manufactures,. some in trade, but in mere farm 
labor not one. The government of a country where such is a fact, 
is possible, has much to answer for. 

"We deny the justice or the necessity of keeping ninety-nine 
of the population in perpetual poverty and obscurity, in order that 
the hundredth may be rich and powerful enough to hold the ninety- 
nine in subjection. Where such permanent classes exist, the con- 
flict of which Macaulay speaks is inevitable. And why? Xot that 
men are inclined to fight the class above them, but that they fight 
against any artificial barrier which makes it impossible for them to 
enter that higher class and become a part of it. We point to the fact, 
that in this country there are no classes in the British sense of that 
word, — no impassable barriers of caste. Now that slavery is abol- 
ished we can truly say that through our political society there run 
no fixed horizontal strata above which none can pass. Our society 
resembles rather the waves of the ocean, whose every drop may 
move freely among its fellows, and may rise toward the light until 
it flashes on the crest of the highest wave. 

"Again, in depicting the dangers of universal suffrage, Mac- 
aulay leaves wholly out of the account the great counterbalancing 
force of universal education. He contemplates a government de- 
livered over to a vast multitude of ignorant, vicious men, who have 
learned no self-control, who have never comprehended the national 
life, and who wield the ballot solely for personal and selfish ends. If 


this were indeed the necessary condition of democratic communities, 
it would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to escape the logic of 
Macaulay's letter. And here is a real peril, — the danger that we shall 
rely upon the mere extent of the suffrage as a national safeguard. 
We cannot safely, even for a moment, lose sight of the quality of 
the suffrage, which is more important than its quantity. 

"We are apt to be deluded into false security by political catch- 
words, deviced to flatter rather than instruct. We have happily 
escaped the dogma of the divine right of kings. Let us not fall into 
the equally pernicious error that mulititude is divine because it is a 
multitude. The words of our great publicist, the late Dr. Lieber, 
whose faith in republican liberty was undoubted, should never be 
forgotten. In discussing the doctrine Vox populi, vox Dei, he 
said, "Woe to the country in which political hypocrisy first calls 
the people almighty, then teaches that the voice of the people is 
divine, then pretends to take a mere clamor for the true voice of 
the people, and lastly gets up the desired clamor." This sentence 
ought to be read in every political caucus. It would make an 
interesting and significant preamble to most of our political plat- 
forms. It is only when the people speak truth and justice that their 
voice can be called "the voice of God." Our faith in the dsmocratic 
principle rests upon the belief that intelligent men will see that their 
highest political good is in liberty, regulated by just and equal laws; 
and that, in the distribution of political power, it is safe to follow 
the maxim, "Each for all, and all for each." We confront the 
dangers of suffrage by the blessings of universal education. We 
believe that the strength of the state is the aggregate strength of 
its individual citizens ; and that the suffrage is the link that binds, 
in a bond of mutual interest and responsibility, the fortunes of 
the citizen to the fortunes of the state. Hence, as popular suffrage 
is the broadest base, so, when coupled with intelligence and virtue, 
it becomes the strongest, the most enduring base on which to build 
the superstructure of government. "- 

The above reply of Garfield to Macaulay's letter merits all the 
praise bestowed upon it by Dr. White. It is a brilliant and scholarly 
defense of democracy. 

In regard to Macaulay's criticism of Jefferson it might be well 
to state that Jefferson did not believe in a pure democracy as most 
of his followers believe. On the contrary he declared that it was 
unworkable beyond the limits of a township. He was a firm be- 

2 Garfield's Works, Vol. II. 

macaulay's criticism of democracy and garfield's reply. 279 

liever in the American system of representative government. He 
knew that the engrafting of representation upon a pure democracy 
was a new invention in government unknown to the ancients. 

Upon this subject Jefferson said: 

"They knew no medium between a democracy (the only pure 
republic, but impractical beyond the limits of a township) and an 
abandonment of themselves to an aristocracy or a tyranny inde- 
pendent of the people. It seems not to have occurred that where 
the citizens cannot meet to transact their business in person, they 
alone have the right to choose agents who shall transact it, and that 
in this way a republican or popular government of the second grade 
of purity may be exercised over any extent of country. The full 
experiment of a government democratical, but representative, was 
and still is reserved for us." 

Thus it will be observed that Jefferson was a firm believer in 
the representative feature of our American system of government 
and appreciated that it was a new invention in government unknown 
to the ancients. On this subject Stimson in his History of Popular 
Law Making says: 

"All the authorities appear to agree that there is no prototype 
for what seems to us such a very simple thing as representation, 
representative government, among the Greeks or Romans, or any 
of the older civilizations of which we have knowledge." 

It appears to be clear that the ancients had never discovered 
a workable system of government between the extremes of a pure 
democracy which zvas a failure and an aristocracy or a monarchy, 
both of which curtailed individual liberty and deprived the great 
mass of the people of a controlling voice in the affairs of their gov- 

The founders of the republic having the wisdom and experience 
of all the ages to guide them, knew that a pure democracy had 
neither stability nor reliability, because it gave a free rein to the 
emotions and passions of men. They knew that an aristocracy and 
a monarchy had stability and reliability but evoluted into tyranny, 
and so they aimed to found a government which had all the good 
features of democracy, which left the final control of the government 
in the hands of the people, but which at the same time possessed 
some of the efficiency and stability of the monarchy, and so they 
planned to make the people themselves a monarch, with certain 
necessary checks, balances and limitations, the same to be fixed in a 
written constitution. 







THE great Polish historical painter, Matejko, was born in Cra- 
cow, Austrian Galicia, whether on the twenty-eighth of July, 
or the thirtieth of June, 1838, is apparently not quite clear. His 
father, a teacher of music, was from the Bohemian town Hradec, 
while his mother, Joanna Karolina, daughter of the merchant and 
citizen of Cracow Johan Peter Rossberg, seems to have added a 
German strain to the Czecho- Polish blood of the artist. The boy 
attended first the St. Barbara school and later St. Anna's gym- 
nasium, which he left at the age of fourteen, much against his 
father's wishes, in order to enter the School of Fine Arts in his 
native city. His instruction in the art of painting he received from 
Adalbert Stattler and Ladislaus Lunakiewicz. During the hours 
when he was free from his professional studies he devoted himself 
with great interest to the study of Polish history, from which he 
drew the subjects for the works of his apprentice years, such as 
Szujski before Zygmunt III, The Entry of Henri de J'alois into 
Cracow, Jagiello Praying before the Battle of Tannenberg, Karl 
Gastav and Staroivolski Before the Grave of Ladislaus Lokietck 
and Zygmunt V Confers Academic Privileges on the University of 

After these labors Matejko received in 1S58 a stipend to enable 
him to defray the cost of further studies which he pursued at 
Munich for ten months under the supervision of Anschutz, when 
an unfortunate illness compelled him to return to Cracow. But 
during this short period he had completed his Poisoning of Queen 
Bona, which represents the contemporary explanation for the mys- 
terious death in 1557 of this princess of the House of Sforza, wife 
of the Polish King Zygmunt I, and mother of King Zygmunt 
August and three princesses. For this work the Academy distin- 
guished its pupil with a bronze medal. On the completion of his 
recovery in 1860 Matejko next sought Vienna where he remained 
for two months as a pupil of the historical painter Christian Ruben, 
famous for his painting Columbus Discovering America. 

The next years of labor in his native Cracow saw the com- 


pletion in 1864 of the splendid Skarga's Sermon, in which the 
Polish Jeremiah foretells to the king and the Polish Court the im- 
pending ruin of his beloved country. This work when exhibited at 
the Paris Exposition of 1865 rewarded the artist with a gold medal 
and made him a European celebrity. In November of 1864 he 


L- . \.4& WtMRmBaEKumBHEm 


married Theodora Gielbutowska, whom he has immortalized in the 
strong, sweet Portrait of My Wife of the following year. The 
next years were years of study spent in Germany and France, 
whence he made a trip to Constantinople in 1872. In 1866 he com- 



pleted another of the powerful works on which his fame will rest, 
Rejtan at the Diet of i//3, which was exhibited at the Paris Ex- 
hibition of 1867, where it was bought for 50,000 crowns by the 
Emperor Franz Joseph, who also conferred the cross of the order 
of Franz Joseph on the artist. This picture represents an episode 
drawn from the darkest days of Polish history when the disgraceful 
Diet confirmed the dismemberment of its country on April 21, 1773, 
with the exception of one brave heart, Tadeus Rejtan, who tore 
apart the clothing from his breast, threw himself before the door 
of the building and cried: "Kill me first, for as long as I live I will 

(Hofgalerie at Vienna.) 

never consent to this deed." However, the greater part of the 
Polish deputies stepped over his body and left him lying there for 
thirty-eight hours. Rejtan became ill from grief at this disgrace, 
lost his reason and committed suicide on August 8, 1780. 

Among the great works of Matejko we mention ten. As a foil 
to the depressing Skarga and Rejtan pictures stands out the Union 
of Lublin, commemorating the union of Lithuania and Poland under 
Zygmunt August in 1569, one of the bright spots in Polish history. 
The defeat of Russia and the capture of Livonian Polotsk by King 
Stephen Bathori are commemorated in a canvas of the year 1871, 
which received a bronze medal at the Vienna Exposition of 1873. 



The four-hundredth anniversary of the astronomer of Thorn, who is 
claimed by both Poles and Germans, was illustrated by Kopcrnikus, 
1873. The Battle of Griinzvald (Tannenberg) received the gold 
medal of the first class at the Paris Exposition of 1878. This picture 


recalls the conquest of that portion of German territory which the 
Poles succeeded in holding from 1410 until 1772. Sobieski Before 
Vienna, in commemoration of the Polish king's great service to 
Christendom in the defeat of the Turks before Vienna in 1683, was 
presented by the artist, to His Holiness the Pope Leo XIII, who 



gave it an honored place in the Vatican and its author the order 
of Pius IX. The Maid of Orleans, 1886; Albrecht of Brandenburg 
Doing Homage to Zygmunt I in Cracow, 1881 ; Kosciuszko Before 
Raclazvice, 1888 ; The Constitution of the Third of May, 1891 ; and 
The Vow of Jan Kasimir, 1892, complete the list of his best works. 
In honor of his illustrious services to his country. Matejko re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, honoris causa, from the 
"Polish University of the Jagiellons" of his native city and he was 
also made a member of the French Legion of Honor for his picture 
The Union of Lublin. He was a member of the academies of fine 
arts at Paris, Vienna and Berlin. The Akademic dcr schbnen 
Kiinstc at Prague elected him in 1873 to be their director, but he 

(In the Vatican.) 

declined the honor and accepted later on in the year the emperor's 
nomination to a similar position at the head of the newly organized 
school of fine arts in Cracow. He died on the first of November 
in the same house in which he first saw the light of day and which 
is universally known to-day as the "Matejko House." It contains 
many memorials of the artist and a Matejko Museum and is situated 
in the Ulica Floryanska or Florian Street. He was buried on the 
eighth of November and his ashes rest in the Cracow cemetery. 

Magnificence of coloring and passionate movement are the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of this true representative of a passionate, 
proud and excitable people. His critic and biographer Stanislaus 
Witkiewicz says in his characterization of the artist that Matejko 



had by nature a soul filled with sadness. "This appeared not alone 
as a result of his pessimistic view of history, and in his first pictures 
he borrowed from history only what was saddest and most tragic, 
but he was in fact absolutely incapable of reproducing simply and 
sincerely the bright and happy sides of life." 

He is like his subjects who "are to a high degree passionate 

natures, filled to overflowing with deep feeling, gripped to the very 
depths of their souls by an abnormally strong psychic energy, which 
is keyed up to the highest pitch and leaves its stamp on the finely 
moulded features of faces distinguished by clearness and strength, 
even amid their wrinkles and seams ; faces on which seems to rest 
the burden of whole layers of culture, that has arisen under the 
highest possible pressure of the tragedy of life." Of all cities, 






Cracow, where all the monuments of a glorious Poland are, seems 
best chosen to realize this confusion and distraction in a Polish 
soul. This can be discerned even in Matejko's portrait of himself, 
painted at the age of fifty-four, as well as in the face of the striking 


painting of the court fool of Zygmunt I, Stanczyk, who was cele- 
brated for the biting truths which he occasionally told to the Polish 
magnates and even to the king himself. 

The representative painter of a nation so fervidly Roman 


Catholic as is the Polish could not leave the field of Christian art 
untouched and we conclude this sketch with the magnificent Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin, from the year 1875. 


Our frontispiece is an idealistic representation of Peter Skarga 
Pawenski preaching one of his famous sermons before the King 
of Poland and the Polish diet, as painted in 1864 by the great Polish 
painter of national subjects, Jan Matejko, just after the unsuccess- 
ful revolution of 1863, which apparently gave Polish liberty its 
death blow. We may suppose that Skarga is just predicting the sad 
fate of Poland as directly ascribable to the "sins" of his country- 
men, their strife, contentiousness, lack of union, and absolute disre- 
gard for national needs, although the picture professedly commemo- 
rates a scene from the year 1597. 

The Presbyterium of the Wawel, the cathedral of Cracow, 
forms the background of the picture, for it was long erroneously 
supposed that the diet met here for divine service on the Sundays 
and holidays from February 10 to March 24, 1597. Our Polish 
friend explains the position of Skarga (11) as near the coffin of 
St. Stanislaus, that bishop of Cracow who was murdered in 1079 
by King Boleslaus the Bold at the altar of St. Michael's Church 
before the gates of Cracow. Matejko did not then know that St. 
John's Cathedral in Warsaw was the real location, nor does this 
injure the picture. The subject of Skarga's sermon "seems to be 
the thought of Jeremiah xix : Then I shall utterly destroy you, 
saith the Lord God." 

It must be admitted that some of the figures of the painting 
were really dead in 1597, but their employment in the picture at 
least reproduced the spirit of Poland in the last half of the six- 
teenth century. The king (5) strikes one as absolutely apathetic 
and weak. Behind him stands his awe-struck son Ladislaus (4) 
who later succeeded him. 

Dowager Queen Ann, (6) of the house of Jagiellon, the wife 
of King Stephen Bathori, 1576-1586, is deep in prayer. Next to 
her is the famous Polish beauty, Plalszka Ostrogo (7) who married 
the slayer of her first husband and was then compelled by the king, 
Zygmunt August, to marry the Wojewod Lukas Gorka of Posen. 
She and her mother then took refuge in a convent in Lemberg, 
where she was married to Simeon Olelkowicz, who was introduced 
within the walls of the cloister as a beggar. In spite of this union, 
the royal starost captured her and turned her over to husband 


number three who threw her into prison when she persisted in 
her opposition to her unwelcome consort ; there she lost her reason 
and died. She has been made the heroine of many tales and dramas. 
Stanislaus Stadnicki, (10) called "the Devil of Lancut" by the 
people because of his robber-knight crimes for which he was not 
less famous than for his acts of chivalry. Prince Zanusz Radzi- 
will (8) and Nicolaus Zebrzydowski (9) rebelled against the king, 
nine years later, but were beaten, the last named being pardoned 
but excluded from participation in public affairs. The other dom- 
inant and foil to Skarga is the Chancellor and Fieldmarshall, John 
Zamojski, (1) to whom the king owed his throne, and Poland much, 
some say as much as Germany did to Bismarck. In front of him 
stands his predecessor in office, Peter Dunin Wolski, (3) Bishop of 
Plock, although he was dead in 1590. The Primate of Poland and 
Archbishop of Gnesen. Stanislaus Karnkowski, (2) is on the left 
and Cardinal Stanislaus Hozyusz, (12) Bishop of Ermeland, who 
died in 1579, is kneeling near Skarga. 

Quoting Marjan Sokolowski, professor of the history of art at 
the University of Cracow, Ferdinand Hoesik tells in an article of 
September 29, 1912, written for the Jednodniowka, the story of 
the origin of Matejko's conception of Skarga's head and especially 
of his face. The main facts are as follows : 

When Jan Matjko had almost finished his picture of Skarga 
he had trouble in working out the portrait of the hero of the scene, 
but one day while walking through the streets of Cracow he met 
a man who possessed a certain resemblance to the famous pulpit 
orator, and he took pains to gain a lasting impression of the stran- 
ger's features, but the man seemed displeased with the attention 
thus received from an ordinary passer-by, and he tried to escape 
from this unwelcome attention. The truth was that he was Bronis- 
laus Szwarce, a Polish fugitive from the fortress prison of Schliissel- 
burg, where Czaristic Russia' confined its political prisoners on a 
rocky isle of the Neva, near St. Petersburg, and he had barely 
escaped his pursuers. His features were strangely attractive to 
our artist, and showed that he had passed through great trials in 
his life. While the object of Matejko's attention tried to escape, 
the painter was bent on making his acquaintance for the sake of 
using his portrait for his picture. Thinking that he was discovered 
by a representative of the Russian secret service, even though 
he was on Austrian soil, the stranger tried to elude his pursuer 
and had scarcely escaped to his lodgings when a knock at the door 
frightened him to the utmost. He said to himself, "here come the 


police to arrest me and transport me to Siberia," but how relieved 
he was when the stranger came in, excused himself for the intrusion. 
"and explained that he was Jan Matejko, well known to every Pole 
as their great national artist. Szwarce gladly acceded to his request 
to sit for his portrait as a model for Skarga, the great Polish re- 
former, in fact he acknowledged it as an honor to be thought a fit 
subject for this noble purpose. 




NOTHING in this world is perfect, no thing nor person possesses 
that fulness of every good which really could and should be 
possessed. All creation is working unceasingly toward the realiza- 
tion of all its latent potentialities, toward the actualization of abetter 
and nobler reality. No rational being casts a doubt on this fact 
to-day, nor is he in any position to doubt it, since no creature gives 
such eloquent testimony to this fact as man himself. The recog- 
nition of a true, vital evolution in the cosmic universe is accepted 
to-day, and with full justice too, as the most important conquest of 
our science. Man himself assumes an odd position in the process 
of universal evolution, for we may truly call him the lord of crea- 
tion. Man it is who, to be sure, succumbs to the laws of nature 
and must reckon with them, but who in spite of this can command 
these laws and all the forces of evolution and exploit them for the 
realization of his wishes and ideals : the creation of a better reality 
lies within the power of man. It is the most sacred duty not alone 
of every individual but also of the whole of human society to create 
more and better being and living. 

This task is not at all easy and for that reason it is no wonder 
that the leaders of human society along with peoples and states 
generally put forth vigorous efforts for anything else than the reali- 
zation of that which we all accept as most sacred. Nor can we 
even blame these people for their choice of action, for : Do not tem- 
poral possessions, material treasures, position, power and physical 
force make man, and especially peoples, safe from all enemies? 
Are not economically strong peoples always victors ? Thus it seems 
in reality, but this is only a superficial impression, for history teaches 
us that those peoples which do not strive for the realization of the 


highest ideals have ruined themselves by their own behavior. The 
Greeks and the Romans, those peoples who so merit our admiration, 
afford perhaps the most striking illustration of our assertion. The 
ultimate reason for their ruin lay precisely in their not recognizing 
the folly of their policies, but persisting in their course. In such 
moments when a people forgets the fulfilment of its most sacred 
obligations, there come to the front in every people men who foresee 
with the insight of genius the true future of their fellow citizens 
and, spurred on by the spirit of love for people and country, warn 
their compatriots of threatening dangers. No country has lacked 
such geniuses and prophets, and yet their fellow citizens, like those 
of the patriarch Noah in the days of the Flood "were eating, drink- 
ing, marrying and giving away in marriage until. . . .the flood came, 
and carried them all away"! (Matthew xxiv, 37-39.) Generally 
speaking, all warnings of such men were in vain and the majority 
of them died in dishonor and disgrace, derided and jeered at by 
those to whom they extended a helping hand. 

So it was with the Polish nation. There was no lack of prophets 
nor of preachers admonishing to penitence and pure living for this 
people either, but yet all was in vain (they imitated the contem- 
poraries of Noah, made merry at the expense of the "seers" and 
remained in their evil ways and in sin until the "Flood," the fall 
of the Polish state, came. To-day we should like to introduce to 
our readers one of those great seers of the Polish people, a true 
prophet of this nation, and this man is Petrus Pawenski Skarga, 
humble monk and priest, a member of the Society of Jesus. How 
majestic the figure of Skarga was can be perceived from the 
circumstance that the Dominican Florian Birkowski, who delivered 
the funeral address, the most prominent pulpit orator of the day 
after Skarga, chose as the text of his sermon a paraphrase of the 
words of the apocryphal writer Ecclesiasticus, xlviii. 1 : Et surrexit 
Elias propheta, et verbum ejus quasi facula ardebat (and the prophet 
Elijah rose up and his word glowed like a torch). 

Petrus Pawenski was born in 1536 at Grojec, a little town in 
Masovia. His parents did not belong to the nobility but were of 
civilian origin and we now know for certain that it was his brother 
Francis who first received the diploma of nobility with the cognomen 
Pawenski, from King Zygmunt III. Petrus lost his parents in 
early youth. After the completion of his course at the Gymnasium, 
he studied for two years at the University of Cracow, where he 
received the degree of bachelor of arts in 1554. With this di- 
ploma he went to Warsaw where he was appointed rector of the 


parochial school belonging to the collegiate church of Saint John. 
During two years, 1555-1557, he conducted this school with honor, 
then we see him in Cracow as private teacher of the oldest son of 
the castellan and senator Tenczynski. In 1560 he accompanied his 
charge to Vienna, where he remained two entire years. In 1562 
he returned to Poland and, following the advice of Paulus Tarlo, 
archbishop of Lemberg, he resolved to enter the clergy. In 1563 
Tarlo ordained him sub-deacon, and in the following year deacon 
and priest, and appointed the young clergyman to the position of 
cathedral preacher and canon at the cathedral of Lemberg (Lwow). 
A little later he received the parish of Rohatyn, which he soon 
renounced, however, to devote himself entirely to his official duties 
in Lemberg, a number of whose noble families owe to Skarga their 
return to the mother church. 

In 1569 Skarga went to Rome, joined the Jesuit order and was 
appointed by Pius V Grand Penitentiary at St. Peters, especially 
for those of the Polish race. Two years later he returned to Poland 
and officiated as preacher, first in Pultusk, and from 1573 on in the 
Jesuit college at Wilna. When Stephen Bathori founded a new Jesuit 
college at Polock (Polotzk) in 1580, Skarga was the first rector of 
the institution. In 1584 he was transferred to Cracow as Superior 
of the Jesuit residence ad Sanctam Barbaram. Here he was tireless 
in his labors in the confessional and the pulpit and regained many 
dissidents for the Catholic Church. For the assistance of those 
too proud to beg when poor and ill, he founded in 1584 the Brother- 
hood of Mercy (Bractwo milosierdzia), and at the same time estab- 
lished the "pious bank" (Bank pobozny) which was to lend money 
without interest to the needy on the receipt of a pledge or pawn. 
Nor did he forget the daughters of respectable but impoverished 
families, for whom he founded the "Area Sancti Nicolai" ( Skrzynka 
Sw. Mikolaja), in order to furnish them with a suitable dowery. 
Thus the social reformer Skarga was a true philanthropist in the 
best sense of the word. In addition to this his services toward 
the accomplishment of the union of the Ruthenian Church with the 
Roman were incontestably of the greatest value. 

This extraordinarily active man was also very busy with his 
pen. The writings of Skarga, some forty in number, may be classed 
as dogmatic-polemical, historical, homiletic and ascetic. The most 
important are Pro Sacratissima Eucharistia contra hceres'un Zzving- 
lianam; Artes duodecim Sacramentariorum ; Upon the Unity of the 
Church (in Polish, this was burned by disunionists) : Contra Thrae- 
nos ct Lamentationes Theophili Orthologi, ad Ruthenos Grceci 


religionis cautela; Confusio Arianorum; Confusio secunda Aria- 
norum; and Messias novorum Arianorum. The last three works 
combated Socinianism which had found a refuge in Poland. During 
his life there were printed nine editions of his Lives of the Saints, 
written in popular style, and the book is still much read among the 
Polish masses. His Sermons for Sundays and Holidays continue 
to be regarded as models of pulpit eloquence. All of Skarga's 
writings are very valuable even to-day, for they have had a very 
great influence on the development of the Polish language, and they 
contain exceedingly important contributions to the contemporary 
political history of Poland. This so great Catholic and priest was 
at the same time a great patriot, full of genuine love for the whole 
Polish people, for all estates without distinction, for his beloved 

In January of 1588 King Zygmunt III made Skarga his court 
preacher in which office he remained active up to shortly before his 
death in 1612. His Sermons for the Diet, which occupy the first 
rank in point of oratorial style, reveal most clearly and well his 
genius and bear witness to his patriotism. We should like to 
acquaint our readers briefly with the contents of these Sermons for 
the Diet since they cast much light upon the political and religious 
conditions obtaining in Poland at that time. 

When Skarga undertook the office of court preacher Poland 
was a world power, and this fact brought down much misery and 
misfortune upon this kingdom. We cannot regard the foreign policy 
of Zygmunt III, of the house of Wasa, as fortunate, it seems to 
us to-day an uninterrupted chain of endless political mistakes, 
which entangled Poland in useless wars with other peoples without 
the slightest advantage to the country. In addition to this the king 
was headstrong, arrogant, suspicious and amenable to no counsel. 
Conditions ruling in the interior of the country were no better, the 
Reformation and the religious strife resulting from it weakened to 
a very great degree the national life, the power of the state and of 
the king, national unity and love of country. Such conditions could 
not but destroy Poland, but unfortunately the majority of the people 
refused to recognize this wretched state of affairs and even asserted 
that the kingdom existed through disorder, " N ierzadem Rzecspos po- 
lita stoi." In order to rescue Poland from certain destruction, swift 
measures had to be taken to relieve existing conditions. The man 
who undertook this burden was Skarga. Without flattery but with 
apostolic freedom he declared to king and nobles the Christian 
truths and principles and pointed out to the Estates of the Realm 


the fruits which their actions would mature. This took place espe- 
cially at the sessions of the Diet and thus his Sermons for the Diet 
came into being. To them, possibly, he owes his cognomen, Skarga, 
a word which means "accusation," "complaint." 

There are eight of these sermons preserved in writing by Skarga 
and the question arises. When and where were these really deliv- 
ered? We learn from the Dominican Birkowski that Skarga 
preached at eighteen diets, and this assertion gave rise to the belief 
that the sermons which have come down to us were held at different 
times and at different diets. In course of time the view prevailed 
that Skarga delivered all at the "Sejm" of 1592 and it was reserved 
for later and critical historical investigations to bring scholars to the 
conviction that they had been held at Warsaw in 1597 in the pres- 
ence of the king and the assembled Estates. Warsaw was the 
capital of the Polish kings from 1596 on, and Skarga delivered 
the sermons in the cathedral church of St. John. For the view 
last expressed the sermons themselves are evidence. It is easy to 
refute the argument that he would not have had time enough to de- 
liver them at this diet which lasted from the tenth of February to the 
twenty-fourth of March. At the opening of the Sejm Skarga held 
his first sermon, the next ones on the following Sundays and on 
St. Matthias day, the last on the twenty-third of March. In any 
event the opinion that they were delivered in 1597 is to-day almost 
universally recognized as historically certain. 

Let us now hear what this humble priest and monk announced 
to these haughty, headstrong, uncontrollable men. Every one of 
us would think the preacher must have been a good flatterer if he 
desired to get a hearing from such people, but just the contrary was 
the fact, he demanded repentance and conversion from king and 
estates and publicly reproached them with sins committed against 
God and Fatherland, yes, he even threatened them with the destruc- 
tion and ruin of their country if they did not improve their conduct. 
That is the substance of the sermons for the diet. Charles Henry 
Wachtel, who is well known to the Poles as author and poet, has 
very cleverly excerpted and arranged their most beautiful and 
powerful passages. The reader who knows Polish can obtain these 
selections in the Jcdnodnioivka, published on the twenty-ninth of 
September, 1912. in memory of the three-hundredth anniversary 
of the day of Skarga's death, a very small number of which may be 
still procured from the Dsiennik Chicagowski, or "Polish Daily 
News." It would be a praiseworthy task for some one to translate 


this article of Mr. Wachtel into English. In lien of it onr readers 
will have a short resume of the Diet Sermons of Skarga. 

As has been stated, Skarga delivered the sermons in 1597 before 
the session of the Diet which was a complete failure. It was opened 
on Monday, February 10, with the mass in the cathedral church of 
St. John at Warsaw. From 1588 on, Skarga had been preaching 
regularly before each diet and was in this way compelled to be a 
witness of the ever more and more increasing anarchy in Poland. 
Voices were heard on various sides saying: "We are headed for 
ruin !" Even before Skarga there were people who foresaw the 
danger threatening Poland and directed the attention of the Polish 
government to this by pamphlets, sermons and speeches. This 
condition of affairs reached its culmination in 1597 and fixed 
Skarga's determination to deliver his sermons. Let us make a brief 
survey of the causes of this growing anarchy. 

In all candor we must acknowledge the introduction of the 
Reformation into Poland as the first cause of confusion. Incessant 
riots against those of the opposite faith, started by Catholics as 
well as Protestants, partisan religious writings diffusing mutual 
hatred, and other reasons made a unified national life simply im- 
possible. Zygmunt did not know how to win the confidence of the 
dissidents, nor was he esteemed or much of a favorite with the 
Catholics. The sslachta, or nobility, did not like him because of his 
devotion to alchemy, painting, goldsmithing and lath-turning and 
passionate fondness for ball playing. The masses disliked his mar- 
riage with the Austrian princess. The king's efforts toward absolute 
rulership deprived him of the sympathies of the party of the 
chancelor, Jan Zamojski, indubitably one of the greatest politicians 
and statesmen of Poland. The chancelor did not like the House of 
Habsburg, and the king based his policy on an alliance with the 
kaiser. The diets were another source of confusion. The diet was 
the ruling power. From 1572 on we notice that everything was 
consistently done to weaken the authority of the diet. The provin- 
cial diets, or Sejmiki, wished to assume all the powers of govern- 
ment, to have the last word in all affairs of state, and to seize the 
control of courts, financial administration and even of the army. 
In 1591 this hangman's work was completed and the death-blow 
given to the Diet, for after eight weeks the provincial diets were 
to be held, in the possession of powers, which gave the decrees of 
the royal diet entirely into the hands of this convention. 

It is in order to give a few facts to show how matters went in 
the royal diets. An electoral reform was proposed in the year 


1589, but the proposal was not accepted. In the year 1590 a poll 
tax' was adopted in order to raise money in case of war with the 
Turks. This law was declared null and void by the provincial 
diet in Kolo. But later on the worst was yet to come in this whole 
affair: the royal diet, opened in 1590, confirmed the statutes of the 
provincial diet at Kolo! Things were no better at the diet of 1592: 
here it came to open blows between the party of the king and that 
of the chancelor Jan Zamojski. The king abased himself even to 
such a degree that he lost all regard in the eyes of the whole 
Szlachta. The "chancelorists" were not even willing to kiss the 
king's hand! On November 25, 1592, the father of the Polish 
king died and Zygmunt was compelled to depart for Sweden in order 
to be crowned there as king of Sweden. The royal diet also 
had to give its consent to the trip of the king. The Sejm was 
opened on the fourth of May with a dispute as to who was really 
marshall (marssalek) of the diet. It took more than ten days before 
they hit upon the "corresponding" person in Danilowicz, a young 
man who had scarcely left school. Not until the last day was per- 
mission granted to the king to proceed on his journey to Sweden. 
The diet of 1595, where the question of joining the league against 
the Turks, formed by Emperor Rudolf and other princes, was at 
issue, also failed of results, for the matter of joining the league 
was referred to an extraordinary diet. Matters were still better at 
the diet of 1596, at which we find deputies chosen unlawfully or 
through violence. Propter bonum pads ("for the sake of peace") 
these gentlemen were allowed to take part in the sessions of the 
body which quarreled about trifles during its whole session and left 
the Sejm without results. 

For all these reasons Skarga regarded it as his sacred duty 
to save his dear country at any price and to warn his erring country- 
men of mistakes which were ruining them. Poland was threat- 
ened with war by Turks, Wallachians and particularly by the Tar- 
tars, the last named sending an embassy to the diet which demanded 
satisfaction for the injuries and rapine suffered by them at the hands 
of the Cossacks. Hence the situation of Poland at this time was 
not at all favorable. At the opening of the diet of 1597 we see 
Skarga in the pulpit, and the text of his first sermon were the 
words from the Epistle of St. James i. 5. "Ye have come together 
here in the name of the Lord," so the preacher declares it to be the 
purpose of the assembling of the deputies, "to prevent the danger 
threatening the crown, to support the tottering fabric of the state, 
to repair injuries, to heal wounds, to join anew what had fallen 


apart, and as chiefs of your people, as watchmen of the sleeping, 
as leaders of the ignorant and beacon of those sitting in the dark, 
as fathers of simple children, to take counsel for their welfare." 
In order to perform this office conscientiously, one needs an unusual 
dose of wisdom, at least in these so difficult times. A multitude of 
dangers threaten the dear country, there is no unity in the country, 
no reciprocal love, no trust, envy is everywhere rampant, people 
cheat each other, there is no lack of troublemakers and grumblers, 
decency and order are absolutely non-existent, selfishness is the 
moving spirit of the entire public life, the diets pass their time 
without results and in addition, the worst thing is the fact that 
the danger of war with the Tatars and Turks threatens the land. 
To this disunion of the political nature there has been added as 
a source of various disorders and distractions, religious discord, 
which is the source of the decay of kingdoms in accordance with the 
declaration of the Lord in Luke xi. 17. All these misdeeds are 
committed under the cloak of noble freedom, appealing to the privi- 
leges of the Sslachta (the nobility). As the preacher ironically 
exclaims, "Isn't that a beautiful liberty which is distinguished for 
obstinacy and immorality, thanks to which, the strong oppress the 
weaker, transgress and do violence to the laws of God and man, 
refuse to accept punishment from the king or any other office, and all 
are without decency and without leaders like the children of Belial ! ! 
You know I am speaking only of what all men see." He warns them 
that they need much wisdom in. order to devise the necessary means 
for the abolishment of these abuses. But there are two kinds of 
wisdom, one gained by experience and one the gift of God. He 
demands that those presents shall derive every advantage from 
homely good sense, and where this is not sufficient, that they shall 
implore God f o reveal his Divine Wisdom. 

The subject of the next discourse was love of country. As his 
text he chose John xv. 12 and xiv. 27, ''There is nothing permanent 
under the sun" ( Ecclesiastes ii. 11). "Not alone houses and families 
pass away, but also kingdoms and monarchies and one people suc- 
ceeds another. Every people which perishes owes this fate to its 
political ills, which it did not cure in time. Poland suffers from six 
such ills, of which disfavorableness to the country (niesycstiwosc) 
is the first. "External dangers such as war and spoliation by hostile 
neighbors can be easily withstood if the internal ills of the country 
are cured, for how shall a sick man defend himself if he cannot 
even stand on his own feet? Therefore before all else heal your 
sick mother, our dear country !" 


In lofty words the preacher declares to his hearers that it is 
God's will and law to love their country. We shall love our father- 
land because we owe to it the greatest blessings of this temporary 
world. Our country in the full sense of the word is our mother, 
it has given us all manner of blessings and presents ; to it we owe 
the Catholic faith, the beautiful golden liberty of not having as a 
people to serve tyrants, property and wealth, — yes all are well-to-do, 
only our mother alone of all is poor. "O dearest Mother, thy chil- 
dren are in a riot of gluttonous living, putting their property to bad 
use, it serves them only for sin, immorality, profligacy, vanity ! This 
mother, our country, gave us life in peace, martial glory and the 
respect of all peoples, our king is honored by embassies from the 
West and the East.... (in the year 1595 from the Empire, the 
Papacy, Hungary, Transylvania, Moldavia, and others). What 
more could our mother do for us? Why then should you love her 
with all your heart, protect her and be ready in case of need to lose 
everything in order to keep this dear mother sound and alive? By 
loving your country you love yourself, by abandoning it you com- 
mit treason to yourself. The saints loved their country, of which 
Moses, Samson, Nehemiah, Zerubbabel, Matathias, Judith and Es- 
ther are witnesses. Patriotism was foreign not even to the Gentiles. 
O, my lords, love your country, .... be not selfish and avaricious, 
seek not your private comfort as of first importance ! Is it not first 
and foremost avarice which renders all sane and wise counsel ac- 
tually impossible? And more too, one estate oppresses the other." 
Skarga concludes his second sermon with an appeal to his hearers 
to cure this malady and act virtuously. 

The subject of the third sermon is the second disease of Poland : 
domestic disunion, for which he drew his text from the words 
of the Apostle of the Gentiles in 1 Corinthians i. 10. "Unity 
and Unanimity is a thing willed by God. To this our Lord and 
Saviour first joined us through his sacred religion. The same faith, 
(he same sacraments, the offering of the same sacrifice, participation 
in the same communion of the body and of the blood of the Lord, 
these are the bonds by which the Lord binds us to a unity of faith. 
But there are also other bonds of a non-religious nature which bind 
us into the unity of the same country. The same land, one king, 
the same laws and diets, the same kingdom, all these are bonds 
which make a unity of us." Skarga regrets that these means to 
unanimity are either not used at all, or else perversely for the injury 
of national unity. This lack of national unity brings countless 
injuries to the people, makes the rescue of the country absolutely 


impossible ; the realm must lose its freedom in spite of all diets and 
all counsels. In prophetic mood Skarga cries out to his hearers: 
"An enemy neighbor will arise, clinging like a rapid growing vine 
to your disunion, and he will say, 'Your hearts have become divided, 
now they shall be destroyed.' He will exploit this moment, so 
fortunate for him, so unfortunate for you. Why, he who wishes 
you evil is but waiting for this : 'Aha, aha !' he will say, 'let us 
now destroy them, ye know their foot hath slipped and they can 
no longer escape us' (Psalm xxxv. 21 etc.). This strife of yours 
will bring you into captivity, your liberties here will be lost and 
become a subject of universal mockery, and it will be as the prophet 
describes in Isaiah xxiv. 2: 'For ye will all groan in the hands of 
your enemies with what ye possess, subject to those who hate you.' 
Lands and principalities which have been united to this realm and 
have become one body, will secede and must disintegrate, and this, 
thanks to your discord, and yet your hands might be powerful and 
strong, but terrible to the enemy.... Ye will be like a childless 
widow; ye rulers of other peoples will be an object of scorn and 
mockery to your enemies. Ye will lose your language. . . . and your 
nationality. . . . and like other peoples you will change into a for- 
eign people who hate yourselves. You will also be not only without 
a sovereign of your own blood and the right to elect such an one, 
but also without a country and kingdom in the true sense of the 
word: exiles, everywhere in poverty, despised, poor, vagabonds 
who will be kicked in those very places where you were formerly 
honored. How then will you acquire a second country, in which 
you may enjoy such glory, such wealth, treasures and prosperity? 
Will a second such mother be born to you? If you lose this mother, 
then you can think of no other. 

"You will serve your enemies in hunger, thirst, nakedness, 
and all possible privations, they will put a yoke of iron upon your 
necks, for you have not willingly served your Lord and God when 
you had everything in abundance as it is said in Deuteronomy 
xxviii. 48. . . . Your strife and contentiousness will bring you to 
such losses and curses. War and the robber attacks of your hostile 
neighbors would not ruin you so soon as your wretched dissensions." 

After these truly prophetic words which were fulfilled, point 
by point, the preacher discusses the causes which produced dis- 
union and contention in Poland. Heresies, contempt of royal power, 
avarice, arrogance and wealth, and in addition mutual jealousies, 
all united with hypocrisy and sins, conjured upon Poland her great- 
est misfortune, namely discord. If Poland is not to cease to exist 


as a free country, then all must become better, unity and charity 
must prevail, all must be in reality one body and one soul, in which 
the different estates conscientiously perform their patriotic duties. 
Skarga regards the Catholic religion as the best support for 
that unity which is so necessary to the Poles. He attempts to show 
this in his fourth and fifth sermons. When we read such assertions 
they seem to us educated in a modern age exaggerated, but when we 
read Poland's history, we must admit the absolute truth of Skarga's 
assertion that the Protestant Reformation was a real misfortune 
for Poland. We will omit the proof of this proposition, for it does 
not come within the scope of this article. 

As a text for the fourth sermon, which was probably held on 
the day of Saint Matthias, Skarga chooses the words of Exodus 
xix. 6, "Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation." 
He takes the Jewish people as an example. God freed them from 
the yoke of the Pharaohs, but he put them under the restraint of His 
own sacred law. On the first tablet were commandments referring 
to God, and then on the second those which are necessary for the 
political existence of a people. Consequently the priesthood is the 
foundation of kingdoms and the king must act in harmony with the 
priesthood if order and quiet are to rule in the land. Kings are duty 
bound to defend religion since they receive their power from God 
through the priest for Christ has installed a royal priesthood in the 
New Testament. Besides history shows that all kingdoms have been 
based and built up on religion. So it was in Poland for six hundred 
years, now, alas, heresies had come and these most threatened the ex- 
istence of Poland. Only the Catholic religion is capable of guard- 
ing realm and people from decay and destruction. 

The preacher elaborates this idea in his fifth sermon, citing 
1 Samuel xii. 20 and 21, "Serve the Lord with all your heart and 
run not after vanities which cannot help you." Unity and concord 
are a great blessing for any state, and it is the Catholic faith which 
keeps people best in unity and concord. Heretics are deprived of 
unity in faith and where there is no unity in faith there can be 
absolutely no question of its presence in political affairs, for in the 
case of strife between Catholics it is not difficult to restore peace, 
because they are accustomed to submit to an umpire in such mo- 
ments, but with non-Catholics there is not merely lack of unity in 
faith, but in addition no umpire. According to Skarga's conviction, 
lack of unity in faith makes true friendship impossible, awakens 
mutual distrust between citizens, and produces barren strife among 
children of the same people. To speak plainly, heresy causes a 


separation of minds and disunion in the realm and renders the rule 
of justice impossible. Skarga thinks heretics cannot possibly be 
sincere and virtuous, since false doctrine knows no true virtues, for 
only the Catholic religion is capable of making out of men good and 
honorable citizens who love virtue and their country. Catholics 
are accustomed to obedience. non-Catholics to the assertion of their 
obstinacy everywhere. Disobedience is something quite peculiar 
to them. In conclusion the preacher says that God blesses peoples 
which increase His honor, and the Almighty generally punishes 
apostasy by the sword of the heathen. 

Criticize this reasoning of Skarga as we may, value his argu- 
ments as you please, be even outraged by the fanaticism of the 
preacher, always remembering that the sixteenth century cannot 
be judged by our standards, one fact stands out clear: these argu- 
ments dictated to Skarga his love of God, of his neighbor, of his 
people and of his country. ''Not sophistry, not cunning argumen- 
tation, but deep conviction, dictated these words to Skarga," says 
Prof. Ignatius Chrzanowski of the University of Cracow, on page 
60 of the Preface to his edition of the Sermons for the Diet, War- 
saw, 1903, Gebethner and Wolff. 

A vigorous government is the fourth foundation stone of the 
state. In Skarga's eyes the best of all forms of government is the 
monarchv. the absolution dominium. To prove this is the purpose 
of his sixth sermon. "Constitue nobis regem, ut judicet nos, sicut 
et universae habent nationes," 1 Samuel viii. 5, are the words chosen 
by Skarga for the text of this sermon. "In every body," as he says, 
"there are two very important members which give life and strength 
to it, that is to say, heart and head. So it is also in the state where 
the hierarchy constitutes the heart of the state, while the king is 
the head. The weal of the state depends on the soundness of these 
members. But the natural state of the body shows us that in every 
body only one head rules." From this Skarga deduces the necessity 
of there being the same order in the state and for that reason a 
monarchy is the best form of government. We find this form of 
government among the ancient Jews, for God who is also a mon- 
arch in the fullest sense of the word has himself so ordained. 
Even Christ established the monarchical form of government in his 
Church. History shows us that monarchies have maintained them- 
selves longest in a political sense, as long as they remained mon- 
archies in a strict sense. In Poland, too, the kings were true 
monarchs in the beginning, it was the priests who interpreted the 
law of God to the monarchs and in this way guarded rulers from 


abuse of their power. Later the limits of royal power were bounded 
by statutes and laws in order to render it impossible for the monarch 
to become a tyrant, and to provide sufficient protection for personal 
safety. But certain persons have nevertheless abused the liberty 
belonging to them. 

Skarga finds three kinds of liberty good and praiseworthy, 
first, not to serve the devil; second, to be free from the yoke of 
heathen rulers ; and third, to serve no king who is a tyrant. How- 
ever there is a fourth liberty which is a product of hell, something 
absolutely devilish, and this consists in acknowledging no authority 
at all, in not yielding obedience to a legitimate king, and in wanting 
to weaken the royal power as far as possible. Many abuses con- 
tribute in a high degree to the weakening of the royal power, 
especially disobedience to king and law, the dishonest administration 
of royal and national estates. The deputies to the diet do not 
perform their duties and make it simply impossible for king and 
senate to realize the best plans, those of advantage to the state. 
"Just see," the preacher reproaches his listeners, "to what turmoil 
you have come, thanks to your indecent behavior and almost child- 
ish, actually ridiculous conduct, into which you allow yourselves to 
be plunged at the diets." 

Next, Skarga assails the choice of deputies : during the times of 
election the rich and those possessing sufficient boldness do as they 
please ; certain lords even elect themselves ; others manage so they are 
deputies for life; but many manage to have only their own candidates 
elected. Matters are not better in the assembly of deputies, where 
quarrels, contention, screaming, tumult and even recourse to arms 
obtain to such an extent that one must blush for shame if one 
should tell it to anybody. "Then too, the election of the various 
officers of the house of deputies is a regular disgrace. The election 
of marshall of the diet, (marsaalek Scjmu), lasts for several days, 
and as I remember, you once quarreled about it for two weeks and 
a half." Skarga here alludes to the marshall-election of 1593. in 
which eighteen days of quarreling were spent. (This was the first 
diet in which Szczensny Herburt of Dobromil introduced the mo- 
tion that only those resolutions should be legal for which there 
was the unanimous vote of all members.) At last they elected 
Danilowicz, a young man who had but just come from school! 
The whole tendency of these lords was "to manage everything 
so that the king should have nothing at all to say, and should only 
be a spectator of how the estate of nobles (szlachta) rule through 
their deputies." "My lords," admonished Skarga. "make no German 


free city of the kingdom of Poland! Make no painted holder of 
an empty honor, as has been done in Venice, for you have not the 
sense of the Venetians at all, nor do you remain continuously in 
one and the same city. ... In states, where all want to share the 
government, every good counsel is vain, even diets miss their goal. 
As an illustration of my assertion, let the last few diets serve, 
which made it absolutely impossible to help this kingdom in its so 
great and urgent distress ! ! What shall be the end of this if the 
diets waste their time without results? Have you any better means 
to save our country than through the agency of the diet? If not, 
then tell me why you use this sole means for your own ruin and 
make of it an object of ridicule and scorn among all foreign peoples. 
What is the purpose of meeting if you only accomplish discord, 
strife and tumult? You are down, lost, if God does not have mercy 
on you, if he shall not incline your hearts to repentance and so 
change them that you bear in mind not a riotous and false liberty, 
but your real welfare, the preservation of your health, and the 
possession of your houses and estates." — "Yes, but Poland was 
strong! Curtain lecture! Good for old women, Jesuitical balder- 
dash, that is of a narrow-minded, fanatical 'heretic-eater' ! Crazy 
talk !" Such were the thoughts of probably the most of his listeners, 
and they probably made sport of the figure of the humble preacher 
of penitence, since Poland of course can not possibly fall because 
"it is so strong!" But history justified the words of the preacher. 
Just laws are the best foundation of every state. But Vae, to 
those, as the prophet Isaiah says, x. 1 and 2, "qui condunt leges 
iniquas: et scribentes, injustitiam scripserunt: Ut opprimerent in 
judicio pauperes, et vim f acerent causae humilium populi rnei." This 
was the text chosen to bring home to the consciousness of the diet 
the injustice of the laws prevalent in Poland. After introductory 
remarks on the various kinds of laws, such as natural, positive, 
divinely ordained, and canonical, Skarga attempts to show that the 
best status in the world is where the monarch promulgates the laws 
for citizens and realm. Without these written statutes no state can 
exist. But the executive power requires officials and judges. The 
laws do absolutely no violence to personal liberty, and they must 
not, otherwise they would cease to be laws. They indicate the way 
of justice. A true law must be just, advantageous to all, make up- 
right persons and good citizens of subjects, spread the fear of the 
Lord and defend and advance the honor of God, the welfare of the 
state and the people. However, laws need persons whose duty it 
is to see to their proper observance, for without a proper executive 


even the best of laws become a dead letter. The transgressors of 
the law must be punished. 

The fifth malady of Poland results from the injustice of a 
number of laws and the fact that just laws lack executive officials. 
These are the reasons for the evil condition of Poland : many and 
terrible sins are committed purely and simply for the reason that 
such things can be done in Poland with impunity. The preacher 
takes under his especial protection the country folk who were bound 
in serfdom to the lords. "I should now like to touch upon the unjust 
law which makes veritable slaves of poor farmers and free men, 
Poles, believing Christians and poor subjects, as if these unfor- 
tunate people were prisoners of war or purchased mancipia. Their 
masters do what they please with them and with their property and 
life, and no forum troubles itself about the injustice done these 
people." Skarga cites the first Christians who restored real slaves 
to freedom. "We should be ashamed of such a law in sight of the 
whole Christian world. How shall we be able to appear in the pres- 
ence of God with our souls stained by such tyrannical injustice? 
How can we help fearing that the heathen will treat us similarly 
in punishment for our sins?" Wonderful words from the lips of 
one living in the sixteenth century, worthy of a Skarga! Professor 
Chrzanowski is entirely right in adjudging this one of the most 
beautiful and wisest passages (p. 69 of the preface of his edition 
of the Diet Sermons). 

It would take us too far to describe all that was done in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century with those who were bound 
to the land, and how these honest and industrious people were ex- 
ploited. Skarga was mistaken in asserting that such things could 
only take place in Poland, for it is a well-known fact that the 
matter of "manorial bondage" in neighboring Germany was in no 
wise better. Without fear he urges his hearers, "the headstrong, 
earthly 'Gods,' " to proceed to an immediate reform of the law. 
"so that instead of bringing advantage the laws may not cause great 
damage." God himself has changed his laws when it was necessary, 
as can be proven by the Old Testament. Besides there is no tyrant 
as cruel as a bad law and amelioration is the most sacred duty of 
every intelligent being, since only the fool voluntarily remains in 
filth and perishes of his own fault. 

The eighth and last sermon, delivered on the twenty-third of 
March, is the most wonderful and was especially distinguished for 
its prophetic character. It is a recapitulation of the sins treated in 
the previous discourses, followed by a prophecy of the future fate 


of Poland with a demand for repentance. There is not the slightest 
doubt that other prominent men foresaw the downfall of Poland. 
Krzycki. Modrzewski, Kromer, Stanislaus Gorski. Solikowski, Rej 
and a host of others repeated in other words and in other form the 
words of Orzechowski : "If you were to cut my heart to pieces, you 
would find in it only the words : we are ruined, we perish." The 
greatest Catholic and Protestant preachers of that century, men like 
Clement Ramult, Malcher of Moscisk, Luke of Lemberg, Gregory 
of Tarnoviec and also the poet John Kochanowski ; two of the 
most famous preachers of Poland, Sokolowski and Powodowski, 
preached along these lines before Skarga, but neither of these latter, 
if I may express my personal conviction, knew how to bring home 
to his hearers that love of God and love of country belong together 
and constitute two essential components of the law of God as given' 
to us. Professor Chrzanowski's statement on page 107 rightly cites 
with approval the assertion of Mickiewicz that Skarga was the 
creator of political pulpit eloquence, of which the sermons of Soko- 
lowski and Powodowski were the forerunners. 

It is certainly no exaggeration, nor overestimate, to regard the 
eighth sermon as unique of its kind. We feel tempted to translate 
the whole of it so that the reader may gain a clear conception of 
the powerful, exalted, patriotic and prophetic figure of the man 
Skarga, who was absolute devotion to God's will. Citing the apoc- 
ryphal Ecclesiasticus x. 8: "The kingly power is transferred from 
people to people on account of unjust doings, injuries, insults and 
various deceits," he treats the sixth malady of Poland, namely 
public sins, "which cry aloud to God for vengeance," which so stain 
the earth that it wants to devour the malefactors as the Prophet 
Isaiah says: "The earth is infected from its inhabitants, because 
they have broken the laws, upset right, cast to the winds the eternal 
covenant; on account of this a curse will devour the earth...." 
(Isaiah v. 5, 6). Continuing with the quotation of verses 8-10 of 
chapter xxiv, Skarga thunders, "The bad part of the whole business 
is that such sins are allowed to go unpunished in Poland, therefore, 
I, your unworthy and humble prophet, will to-day express my senti- 
ments to you roundly on the wrongs, deceits, calumnies and treason 
in which this kingdom and its citizens have involved themselves, 
unwilling to abandon them for a better life : sins for which the 
earth will throw you out and God will people it with different 
people. . . . Pie will give it to your enemies, but he will destroy you 
and your sons, /'/ you do not become better, exactly as he did with 
the seven Canaanitish tribes in the Holy Land" (Deuteronomy ix). 


After this brief introduction the preacher assumes the role of 
the public conscience of the Polish people and enumerates all the 
crimes committed in the land with impunity and which call to God 
for vengeance. Among these he denounces the blasphemies of the 
New Arians and Anti-Trinitarians ; the plundering of churches and 
church property ; the entire paralysis of the ecclesiastical execution 
of the sentences of ecclesiastical courts; the postponement of judg- 
ment in cases at law which are subject to the jurisdiction of the 
Diet, where the oppressed poor, who appealed to the Diet, had to 
wait years for a verdict and most often lost all their property ; un- 
punished murder and manslaughter ; the incessant sufferings of 
hounded subjects, who are often robbed of all their property by 
furious landlords who kill their miserable tenants at will and go 
scot-free in absolute tranquility ; conscienceless usury ; avarice ; 
luxury and abuse of wealth ; the absolute disappearance of mercy 
and charity, involving the lavish use of money for everything else, 
but none for national expenses ; the unpunished theft of state prop- 
erty and even of doweries and inheritances from orphans, by guar- 
dians ; and even then Skarga is not through with his catalog. 

After this so scathing indictment Skarga laments : "What shall 
I do with you, wretched kingdom?" But he was too keen a student 
of men, not to know that the accuser cannot be the judge at the 
same time, so he sums up the various counts of his indictment in 
the single sentence, "Who of those observing you. . . .could dream of 
the sacrileges and sins rampant in this land?" and leaves the verdict 
to the prophet. Full of grief he cries: "Oh, if I were Isaiah. I 
would go about barefoot and half naked (Isaiah xx. 2) and call 
to you rakes and lascivious women, to you transgressors of the 
law of God, 'Thus they will plunder you and you will display your 
naked calves. ... (Isaiah xx. 4), when God, the Lord, shall lead 
enemies down upon your heads and hand you over to this great 
disgrace' (Isaiah xx. 2-4). Therefore shall this iniquity be to 
you as a breach that falleth and is found wanting in a high wall. 
For the destruction thereof shall come of a sudden, when it is not 
looked for, and it 'shall be broken small, as the potter's vessel is 
broken all to pieces with mighty breakings : and then there shall 
not a sherd be found of the pieces thereof, wherein a little tire may 
be carried, or a little water be drawn out of the pit' ( Isaiah xxx. 
13, 14). The breaches in the wall of our country are continuously 
increasing and you answer, 'Xonsense. never mind ; Poland exists 
just on account of anarchy.' And just at the moment when you do 
not suspect it, she will fall and crush you all." 


"Oh. were I Jeremiah, I should bind my feet with bonds and 
put chains about my neck and proclaim to you sinners, as he pro- 
claimed: Thus they will bind your masters and drive them before 
them like rams to foreign climes (Jeremiah xxvii, Lamentations 1). 
I should like to show you a tattered and filthy garment, then I 
would shake it and when it had become dust I would say to you: 
so shall your glory depart, dissolve into nothing but dust and with 
it all your property and riches (Jeremiah xiii). And I would take 
a 'potter's earthen bottle' (Jeremiah xix. 1) and after I had called 
you all together I would hurl the bottle against the wall (xix. 10) 
and say : 'Even so will I break you, thus saith the Lord of hosts ; 
as the potter's vessel is broken which cannot be made whole again' 
xix. 11) 

"Oh, were I Ezekiel, I would shear hair and beard and then 
divide my hair in three. One part I would burn, the second chop 
fine, but I would scatter the third to the winds (Ezekiel v. 1 and 2), 
and then declare to you : 'a third part of you shall be consumed with 
famine, and a third part of you shall fall by the sword; and a third 
part of you will I scatter into every region of the world' (Ezekiel 
v. 12). 'And I shall go out of my house neither by the door, nor by 
the windows, but I will dig through the wall (xii. 5) and really flee- 
ing, I would call to you: so shall it be with you, no castles nor fort- 
resses will have power to protect you, all your enemies will crush 
you and destroy you." 

"O were I Jonah, 1 would go about all the streets and cry out to 
you : 'Yet forty days, and Nineveh that is your kingdom shall be de- 
stroyed' Jonah iii. 4). Have a fear of these warnings! I have, to 
be sure, not received a divine revelation foretelling your destruction, 
but I am sent with an errand from God to lay bare to you your miss- 
deeds and to proclaim to you the penalty awaiting you in case you 
do not repent. Before their fall all kingdoms have had such divine 
envoys and preachers, who publicly reproached them with their sins 
and warned them of approaching destruction. So with the Jews 
before the Babylonian captivity, of which the Holy Scriptures tell 
us, 'and the Lord, the God of the fathers sent to them, by the hand 
of his messengers, rising early, and daily admonishing them ; because 
he spared his people and his dwelling place. 'But they mocked the 
messengers of God [saying, you have been threatening us for so 
long a time and up to now, thank God, nothing has been fulfilled!] 
and despised his words, until the wrath of the Lord arose against 
his people, and there was no remedy." (2 Chronicles xxxvi. 15 
and 16.) 



Skarga distinguishes three kinds of divine warnings. The first 
is attended by no consequences if people do penance for their sins. 
The second have serious consequences only for the posterity of 
those sinning. The third cannot be evaded and are soon carried 
out because although God foresees the deeds of men bring them 
certain destruction, He will not change the course of events since 
He is unwilling to violate human freedom. Thus Jeremiah revealed 
to his people God's decree for Israel's certain destruction (Jeremiah 
xviii. 11). "I do not know, my Lords, with what sort of threats 
God has sent me to you, but this much I do know, that the threat- 
ened consequences of one of the three kinds of warnings will cer- 
tainly strike you. My dear brethren, I wish the first for my people 
and for my dear country, so that the God of warning may also give 
you the grace of conversion .... so that we may not perish, but that 
terrified by these warnings we may strive in all our actions and 
thoughts to be reconciled to God." 

The preacher now summons his hearers to penance since God 
will certainly omit the threatened punishment if we repent. "There- 
fore let us do penance and return to our Lord and God, and He 
will heal us. He will wound our hearts with genuine repentance 
for our sins and heal our wounds as the prophet says: 'He will 
revive us after two days, on the third day he will raise us up' (Hosea 
vi. 2). Let the first day be devoted to repentance and confession, 
the second be a day of improvement and reparation which are es- 
sential components of every true penitence, but the third shall be our 
justification. Who is a God like Thee who takest away iniquity 
and passest by the sin of the remnant of Thy Christian peoples in 
the North and of Thy inheritance? Thou wilt send Thy fury in 
no more because Thou delightest in mercy. Thou wilt turn again 
and hast mercy on us. Thou wilt put away our iniquities and 
Thou wilt cast all our sins into the bottom of the sea. Thou wilt 
perform the truth to us for the sake of Thy beloved Son, Jesus 
Christ, and His innocently shed blood and His death, who rules 
with Thee and with Thy Holy Spirit, one God for ever and ever, 

And what was the result, what were the fruits of all this so 
wondrously beautiful, true and extraordinary eloquence, which 
gripped hearts by powerful words, of these sermons so distinguished 
for lofty thought and enthusiasm? On Monday, the twenty-fourth 
of March, the day immediately following the eighth sermon, the 
Diet had to be dissolved without results. For fifteen years Skarga 
continued to warn the estates. In the year 1610 he repeatedly urged 


everybody to do penance by his tract, composed in Polish, Summons 
of the Inhabitants of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 
to Repentance. In 1611 he retired to the Jesuit Monastery at 
Cracow where he died in the odor of sanctity on September 27, 
1612, and his body was consigned to rest in the church of St. Peter. 
His voice died away as of one calling in the wilderness. His voice 
was heard, but to no avail, people did not repent, which must have 
caused acute pain to the heart of one who loved God, his country 
and his people with all his heart. To view deeds which are certain 
to dig a sure grave for the fatherland cannot but be a never failing 
source of inexhaustible sorrow for such a soul. 

Not only that, but he had to hear that it was not fitting for a 
priest to interfere in politics. "Yes," Skarga would answer, "he 
not only interferes, but it is even his duty to interfere, not in finan- 
cial matters but in such a way that their sins do not ruin the people 
and that their souls may not perish. Do we not hear the words of 
God speaking to Jeremiah: 'Lo, I have set thee this day over the 
nations and over kingdoms, to root up and to waste and to destroy 
and to pull down [sins and wickedness] and to build up and to 
plant' reverence, sacred virtues, good works and repentance, so 
that our kingdom may escape the wrath of God and our politics 
may not destroy us" (Invitatio ad poenitentiam, page 14 and Jere- 
miah i. 10). 

The preface to the first volume of his sermons bears the com- 
pletest witness to how and what Skarga suffered from those criti- 
cisms. He wrote this preface on the first of August 1595, on the 
festival of "Saint Peter in Chains," addressing Him whose servant 
he was : "O Lord and Redeemer, I have proclaimed thy message 
to the Royal Council, the Senate. . . .to the nobility. . . . and to the 
royal and provincial diets. I have adjured them to yield a com- 
mon tender and faithful love to their two mothers, the Church of 
God and their country, lest they perish from their very liberties 
and conjure down upon their heads the yoke of foreign rulers. 
Lord, I have urged them to make better laws and to procure a 
speedier dispensation of justice against horrible sins.... I have 
threatened them with thy anger, O Lord, just as thou hast com- 
manded, with ruin and destruction at the hands of the enemy, with 
the desolation and surrender of this land to their enemies. I have 
shown to them the sword of the heathen hanging over their heads 
... .so that they may remember their sins which will surely not be 
passed by unpunished, and rise above them. What more could I 
do for them, O Lord? Thou knowest I only desired their conver- 


sion and salvation. I would gladly sacrifice everything if their wel- 
fare and that v of the country needed it.... I know not how it is 
that thy message and my implorations are of no avail ; rarely does 
any one repent: heavy labor has already tired the ox, and his labor 
has not even left a trace in a good harvest. The clever fishes escape 
thy nets and are not caught.... Who then is to blame? for thy 
judgments, O Lord, are terrible. I perhaps? Am I destroying thy 
harvest by my fear, despondency, negligence and lack of wisdom? 
.... But, O Lord, receive my excuses, the explanations of thy mes- 
senger. . . .Pardon me and do not punish, O Lord, I did admonish 
them and make all manner of daily sacrifices for them ; my prayers 
and implorations in their behalf never ceased. Therefore, O Lord, 
I beg thee, do not sit in judgment upon me and upon them who 
hear me .... bring it to pass that we walk in thy law and never 
cease to be thy people that thou remainest our GOD for ever." 

History relates how all these prophecies were fulfilled. It 
was truly not Skarga's fault that his voice was not heard. But he 
has even to-day a message for all peoples, and to the governments 
of the present he conveys the lesson that every people or every power 
that from blind confidence in its strength believes itself given per- 
mission to do what it pleases, is headed for ruin as certainly as the 
former glorious Polish kingdom. As a penalty for decadence Greece 
fell ; for Want of self-control and order, Poland ; and ancient Rome 
fell as the result of a policy of ruthless aggression, as Hermann 
Schell aptly puts it on page 114 of Christus, Mainz 1916, "she fell 
from sheer failure of her powers. It could not be otherwise because 
all force directed against the outer world produces the ultimate 
fruit of the despotism of an overman and debases the masses to 
spiritual slavery. The energy of a ruthless culture of personality 
destroys its subject, of that, Rome, once mistress of the world, 
is an example. . . . The cult of selfishness," he says a few lines 
before, "is the cult of death, the nursing of decay. ... It is true 
the civilization of the world flatters the strong and the arrogant, 
but it calls into being only to destroy from within as well as from 
without." The wages of sin are always death. Charity, justice, 
morality and their observance are still to-day the source and the 
development of an eternal life, of the kingdom of God here on 

While Skarga foretold the fall of Poland, he also foresaw the 
political regeneration of this so glorious realm. The people of 
Poland really suffered much and terribly after its fall, but it also 
became thereby morally and religiously, as well as politically and 


nationally, strengthened. Therefore let us hope that the prophet 
Hosea's third day is about to dawn for a new Poland. May 
Skarga's prophecy be fulfilled and a future Poland become a jewel 
of West-European culture and civilization. May this future Poland 
recognize most completely its debt to its Savonarola and, by every- 
where forming strong personalities and true spiritual values, pro- 
duce and increase true life. If this takes place, then Skarga has 
not lived in vain, and his lofty spirit will be in future the warning 
voice, the teacher and guardian of his people, which he loved so 
dearly and for which he would have been so willing a sacrifice. 
A figure like that of Skarga, Father Peter Semenenko C. R. (1813 
to 1886), one of the greatest Polish minds and thinkers, calls to his 
countrymen, "O Polish People, you have a message from God, God 
tells you it himself! Do not fear, you do live!. ... Be but true to 
God and you shall live. Do not believe your own fears when it 
shall appear that you are dying, — no, you are living, you shall live, 
yes, you must live! You are immortal since you have a message 
from God. Just be true, and the truer you are the more quickly 
will that come to pass which has been told to you." (Page 99 of 
his Polish work on God's Ideal in Polish History, Cracow, 1892.) 
To which we shall add in conclusion his words from page 32: 
"For the Lord hath graced Poland with a wreath and aureole of 
sacrifice and martyrdom — and thus consecrated and chosen her as 
his servant." 




"House and riches are an inheritance from fathers : 
But a prudent wife is from Jehovah." — Proverbs xix, 14. 

"A worthy woman who can find? 
For her price is far above rubies." — Proverbs xxxi. 10. 

THAT woman held a relatively higher status in earlier than in later 
times seems evident from the custom, then in vogue, of tracing 
the descent through the mother 85 and from the part played in public 
affairs by such women as Deborah, 86 , Jael, 87 by the "wise woman" 

85 The descent of Esau's children is traced through their mothers, Gen. 
xxxvi. Abraham married Sarah the daughter of his father, but not of his 

88 Judges iv and v. 87 Judges iv. 18-24. 


of Tekoa 88 and by the wise woman of Abel. 89 But even in the period 
of nomadism woman was distinctly a chattel and a servant, first of 
her father and then of her busband who bought her from her 
father. Progress in civilization which brought an ever enlarging 
intellectual sphere to man confined woman more and more to narrow 
fields of religious and domestic duties, and in each of these fields 
placed upon her restrictions which stamped her as man's religious, 
intellectual and social inferior. 

It is impossible to say when these restrictions began. Some 
of them probably date back to tribal days and customs. Among 
the most conspicuous restrictions of later times were those debarring 
women from wearing the phylacteries, from reciting the shema, 
from entering the main space of the synagogue. 90 Any consideration 
of the religious restrictions and privileges of women must take into 
account the principle which finds later development in the Talmud 
that women are excused from fulfilling all positive commandments 
the fulfilment of which depends on a fixed time or season. The 
reason for the exemption is obvious. Woman, on account of domes- 
tic and physical conditions, would at certain times, be incapacitated 
for performing rites the observance of which is dependent upon a 
particular time. 

Peritz maintains that these restrictions were distinctly a later 
development. He writes: "The Hebrews. ... in the earlier periods 
of their history, exhibit no tendency to discriminate between man 
and woman so far as regards participation in religious practices, 
but woman participates in all the essentials of the cult, both as 
worshiper and official ; only in later time, with the progress in the 
development of the cult itself, a tendency appears, not so much, 
however, to exclude woman from the cult, as rather to make man 
prominent in it." 91 

Even if Peritz's view be accepted, the fact remains that in the 
home as well as in the synagogue the position of woman was a 
subordinate one. The father was given the chief place in religious 
services and rites. The training and instruction of the sons from 
their earliest years were in his hands. The mother might assist in 
the education of the sons but only as a subordinate ; her primary 

88 2 Samuel xiv. 1-23. 

89 2 Samuel xx. 16-22. 

00 Carl H. Cornill, The Culture of Ancient Israel, p. 99. 

91 1. J. Peritz, "Woman in the Ancient Hebrew Cult," Journal of Biblical 
Literature, XVII, 114d. Peritz opposes the commonly accepted views of Stade, 
Benziger, Nowack and others. It is doubtful whether the evidence he presents 
will be considered convincing at all points. 


duties were the education of the members of the inferior sex, her 
daughters, and the care of her household. 

Daughters were less esteemed and less welcome than sons : 
"In the Talmud we find three times the saying: 'Well to him whose 
children are boys, woe to him whose children are girls.' In the Old 
Testament there is nothing like this directly expressed, but without 
doubt this is what the Israelite of old thought." 92 

It must not be supposed, however, that love and respect were 
lacking. Many passages reveal the love and tenderness in which 
wife and mother were held. A loving wife is declared to be a gift 
from Yahweh, 93 and a worthy woman is more precious than rubies. 94 
To express the highest degree of sadness the poet writes, "I bowed 
down mourning, as one that bewaileth his mother." 95 

The following extract from Proverbs xxxi contains the most 
complete formulation of the ancient Hebrew ideal of womanhood. 96 

"A worthy woman who can find? 
For her price is far above rubies. 

"The heart of her husband trusteth in her, 
And he shall have no lack of gain. 

"She doeth him good and not evil 
All the days of her life. 

"She seeketh wool and flax 
And worketh willingly with her hands. 

"She is like the merchant-ships ; 
She bringeth her food from afar. 

"She riseth also while it is yet night. 
And giveth food to her household, 
And their task to her maidens. 

"She considered! a field, and buyeth it : 
With the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. 

"She girdeth her loins with strength, 
And maketh strong her arms. 

"She perceiveth that her merchandise is profitable; 
Her lamp goeth not out by night. 

"She layeth her hands to the distaff, 
And her hands hold the spindle. 

»« C. IT. Cornill, The Culture of Ancient Israel, p. 97a. 

0:5 Proverbs xix. 14. 94 Ibid., xxxi. 10. 

98 Psalms xxxv. 14; C. H. Cornill, The Culture of Ancient Israel, p. 93. 

90 Proverbs xxxi. 10-31. 


"She spreadeth out her hand to the poor ; 
Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. 

"She is not afraid of the snow for her household; 
For all her household are clothed with scarlet. 

"She maketh for herself carpets of tapestry; 
Her clothing is fine linen and purple. 

"Her hushand is known in the gates, 
When he sitteth among the elders of the land. 

"She maketh linen garments and selleth them ;* 
And delivereth girdles unto the merchant. 

"Strength and dignity are her clothing; 
And she laugheth at the time to come. 

"She openeth her mouth with wisdom; 
And the law of kindness is on her tongue. 

"She looketh well to the ways of her household. 
And eateth not the bread of idleness. 

"Her children rise up, and call her blessed ; 
Her husband also, and he praiseth her, saying: 

"Many daughters have done worthily. 
But thou excellest them all. 

"Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain : 
But a woman that feareth Jehovah, she shall be praised. 

"Give her of the fruit of her hands ; 
And let her works praise her in the gates." 

In the above passage, the home is represented as woman's 
highest sphere. There is not the slightest hint of the recognition 
of any need for higher intellectual development. This is all the 
more significant as the passage belongs to the Greek period. The 
most extolled virtues of the woman here described are piety, mercy., 
industry, foresight, thrift, sound practical judgment and devotion 
to her husband's interests. She spins and weaves wool, linen, silk 
and tapestry. She carries on commercial enterprises such as buying 
a field and selling linen garments. She superintends her household 
and is devout in the performance of her religious duties. 

The home was par excellence the institution where girls received 
their education. The schools, elementary and higher, were open to 
boys and men only. In some instances girls may have received 
advanced instruction through private lessons given in the home, but 
if such cases occurred at all they were undoubtedly rare. Festivals, 


the temple and the synagogue were the chief institutions which 
exerted an educative influence upon girls and women outside the 
home. Although women were not counted as members of the 
synagogue and were not permitted to lead in any of its services, 
nevertheless they were zealous attendants at its services. Many 
recorded incidents bear witness to the familiarity of the Jewish 
women with the Scriptures. The term mater synagogue appear as 
a title of honor beside the term pater synagogae among inscriptions 
found in southern Italy. 97 

Woman's .chief functions were to honor God, care for her 
home, train her children, serve and please her husband. The aim 
of girls' education was to produce efficient and industrious home- 
makers, obedient, virtuous, godfearing wives and daughters. The 
details of girls' education varied from generation to generation with 
changes in habitat, modes of living, social and religious institutions 
and laws, but the principles determining its scope and limits were 
to a large extent unchanging. From earliest times it included 
domestic duties, music, dancing, industrial occupations, religion, 
manners, and morals. The importance of many of these activities 
and the nature and method of the instruction and training has been 
sufficiently set forth in preceding paragraphs to make any further 
presentation here unnecessary. The sex division of labor and the 
exclusion of women from many religious duties and responsibilities 
resulted in many differences in the education of boys and girls. 
The domestic and industrial occupations of girls and women in- 
cluded cooking, spinning, weaving, dyeing, caring for flocks, guard- 
ing vineyards, gathering harvests, grinding grain, caring for chil- 
dren and managing slaves. 

Later times added in some cases at least reading, writing and 
enough knowledge of reckoning, weights, measures and money to 
enable the prospective wife to carry on the business of her house- 
hold. It is impossible to state how early and to what extent a 
knowledge of the three R's became prevalent. The fact that Queen 
Jezebel is stated to have written letters in Ahab's name to the elders 
of Naboth/s village 98 might seem an argument for a knowledge of 
these arts by the women of the monarchical period. But as has 
already been pointed out, Jezebel may have employed a scribe, and 
the facts that she was a queen and that she was a foreigner, a 
Phoenician, forbid any general inferences. 

1)7 W. Racher, "Synagogue," Hasting's Bible Dictionary, IV, 640b. 
ns 1 Kings xxi. 8. 





One of the characteristics of fanaticism is exaggeration. Without know- 
ing it I should not hesitate to say that the author of the article "Religious 
Education in the Public Schools," is also an enthusiastic Prohibitionist. In 
his article he displays many of the peculiar earmarks of that amiable body. 
For instance, the Prohibitionists say a person who drinks is of the scum of the 
earth. Yet all the great men in American history from Washington to the present 
were drinking men excepting, of course, such very great men as Rutherford 
B. Hayes and the distinguished ex-secretary of state from Nebraska. 

In line with the Prohibitionists' attitude let me quote from his article as 
follows : "Some have thought it possible to teach morals apart from religion. 
Such attempts have proven failures. Now it is almost universally recognized 
that there is such a vital relation between morals and religion that the two 
cannot be separated." 

Here is a typical exaggeration born of a fanatical turn of mind. Could 
Mr. Sparks furnish any proof of the failures? Have we any reason to be 
ashamed of the morality of the American people? Do we not measure up to 
the highest national standard? Yet we have never taught religious morality 
in our schools. Such a crass and sweeping condemnation is the heighth of 
arrogance and a gratuitous insult to American civilization. 

This is like the Prohibitionists' claim that we are a besotted nation and 
although we have developed the highest civilization the world has ever known, 
and in a little over a hundred years, the United States has become the richest, 
the most powerful, the most influential and best Christianized nation in the 
world. Can a besotted, rum-drinking, beer-guzzling, whiskey-boozing nation 
do what we have done and are doing right now in this war? But the voice 
of history means no more to the Prohibitionist than it does to Mr. Sparks. 

His religious morality is the panacea for all national ills, just as prohi- 
bition is the cure-all for every national disorder from prisons to alms-houses. 

Another characteristic of the fanatic is the a priori assumption of all facts 
necessary to prove the subject under consideration. Thus Mr. Sparks, to prove 
his theory, at least four times in his interesting article reiterates the assertion 
in variant forms that "the people are demanding in no uncertain terms that it 
(the public school) perform the work (religious teaching) that has been en- 
trusted to it." The author assumes, because he is of that mind himself, that 
all other persons whose opinions amount to anything, agree with him that 
religious training should be a part of public school teaching. He takes for 
granted since he is himself cock sure right, that the rest of the people are of 
the same mind. As he thinks so the world thinks, as the world should think 
in order to fall in with him and his ideas, so it is promptly assumed it does 
think. As a matter of fact the number of persons who want religious training 
in public schools is still a safe minority, and the proof of this is that religious 


training in public schools is not yet an accomplished fact. The clamor of this 
minority is not heard, and if heard it is borne with as a nuisance but no heed 
is given to it. 

The Prohibitionist is going to bring on the millennium ahead of God's 
purpose. By Mr. Sparks's methods all men and women will live "lives of 
spotless purity, being honest and truthful in all their relations with their 
fellow-men. and being clean and honorable in thought as well as in word and 
deed." One cannot say much more about the Son of God, and few men not 
of the Sparks's order of the genus homo ever expect to attain such absolute 

The author speaks of the Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount as all 
sufficient for the purpose of religious teaching in public schools. The content 
of the Decalogue is incorporated in every one of the seven world religions 
extant to-day, and the Sermon on the Mount would not be acceptable either 
to the Jew or the free thinking Gentile. Moreover, I must take issue with the 
assumption that the Bible is the fountain head of all moral law and that, 
therefore, Bible morality should be taught in public schools. There are stories 
in the Bible which are not fit for young minds to read, and which it must em- 
barras the male teacher to teach a mixed class of young men and young 
women. There are aspects of the moral law in the Bible which if applied and 
followed to-day would make of us a nation of liars, murderers, thieves, polyg- 
amists and adulterers. 

As a tax-payer 1 should strenuously object to have any of my money 
spent on Bible-made morality. Of course, this is only a personal view point 
and need not be heeded, for it will not influence Mr. Sparks or those who 
think as he does. 

He speaks truly when he says "the jealousy of the religious bodies toward 
each other has a tendency to arouse suspicion toward any proposal emanating 
from one of them." This is a sad arraignment of the morality to be gleaned 
from religious bodies who, drawing their own morality from the same Bible, 
look upon each other's special brand with suspicion. It is just this jealousy 
that kept God out of the Constitution of the United States. 

If these religious bodies grow jealous of each other as soon as their con- 
flicting moralities come in contact with each other what kind of religious moral- 
ity shall we get in the public schools? If these religious bodies cannot agree 
as to the real simon-pure morality how will the authorities arrive at a satis- 
factory selection ? The author opposes sectarian morality but approves re- 
ligious morality. What is the difference between the two? Is not religious 
morality ipso facto sectarian? If he means by morality that general line of 
conduct which when followed will produce the greatest good to the greatest 
number, and called by the nineteenth century moralists the utilitarian, than I 
have no objection to its introduction into our schools. That kind of morality 
is known as ethics and may well be taught in schools or homes with profit to 
both teacher and pupil. 

What the author and his co-religionists want and dare not openly demand 
is an hour a day devoted to Bible study and to catechism just as is done in 
the public schools of Germany. Nothing labelled "made in Germany" is likely 
to be very popular to-day, however unjust such a sweeping condemnation may 
be in fact. 

One of the principles which helped to make this nation great is the sepa- 
ration of Church and State. In this European nations have slowly but surely 


joined in the procession, and whenever the change was made liberty thrived 
and civilization advanced. Let us not be lured into a fool's paradise. Re- 
ligious training in public schools is not any more the great panacea for all 
shortcomings than prohibition is the solution of all our problems in criminology. 

Let those who cannot behave properly without the sanction of the Bible 
law stick to the Bible and become and stay good by the fear of hell and the 
lure of heaven; and let those who can be and remain law-abiding citizens by 
any other means have their choice of moral compulsion. 

The following is of a kind with the rest of the author's extraordinary 
reasoning: "Knowledge of the laws of God and a reverent respect for His 
authority makes it necessary for the rights of others to be enforced through 
the agency of the policeman's club." There never was a religion known, not 
even that of Mohammed, in the promulgation of which so much gray matter 
was exhausted, so large an amount of good paper was used, and such vast 
stores of money were spent as there were in the one which, according to the 
author's tacit suggestion, represents better than any other religion the laws of 
God. And yet has there ever been a moment since the world tragedy on 
Calvary when we were able to dispense with the policeman's club?. And does 
the author really think religious training in public schools will make of that 
useful weapon a mere ornament, and the policeman's job a jolly sinecure? 
In this we see again the twist peculiar to all forms of fanaticism. The Pro- 
hibitionist proclaims loudly that drink is the great curse of the world, that it 
disintegrates the human brain, degrades moral fibre and destroys the human 
soul. And yet what great nation from Babylon to our own did ever a prohi- 
bitionist nation create? Was there ever a nation without strong drink? It 
is this same sort of mind that arrogates to religious training in public schools 
the power to exterminate the law breaker and abolish the useful policeman's 

If I were suggesting an improvement for our public school system I should 
advocate a special course in will culture. The will is as much a function of 
the brain as is memory, perception, etc. We develop all these by scientifically 
selected studies but not a thing is done to develop and strengthen the human 
will. My idea of a well-regulated mental machine is this : When reason says 
a thing should be done the will must instantly respond by doing it. If a temp- 
tation is to be overcome because reason says it should be, the trained will 
immediately enters upon whatever action is necessary or stops a tendency to 
do in inaction. Will training is no more part of religious training than base- 
ball is of Euclid. One does not need Bible texts to develop memory if one 
prefers some other instrumentality, nor does one need the Decalogue to teach 
the will that it is unwise and therefore wrong to steal a neighbor's property. 
We neglect will training entirely and substitute religion and prayer to help us 
overcome temptation. We are taught to pray "lead us not into temptation." 
thereby confessing our weak wills to resist. If our wills were in good working 
order and reason were functioning properly, we should not need to look for 
external help to keep us out of mischief. It is a confession of mental weakness 
to look for a God to keep us out of jail. Reason plus will are a safer com- 
bination than faith and prayer. Our religious friends want us to continue 
children even though we are old and gray, and as such we must continue to 
move about in this world and at the end of leading strings. Religious training 
may have been necessary before man discovered that he had the faculties of 


will and reason under his hair. But now that he knows he possesses these 
two mighty powers for good it is only necessary to teach him how to use them 
and religious training will cease to be necessary. 

In the last analysis a strong, well-regulated will that can master passion 
at command is a safer reliance than faith in prayer, for external help may not 
arrive until the mischief is done, and more prayer and a lot of repentance are 
necessary to restore the mental equilibrium. And is not a sense of forgiveness 
a sort of auto-hypnotism due to the anguish consequent on a wrong done? 
We say after shedding penitential tears and getting our hearts full of the right 
kind of contrition that God has forgiven us. What actually happens is that we 
have forgiven ourselves and by saying, "we will go forth and sin no more," 
get back the lost mental poise. 

That may or may not be so but this much I know, I congratulate the 
American people that Mr. Sparks has worked out "A Tentative Plan" in such 
hopeless unworkableness that there is no danger of it ever being adopted by 
anybody with any sense of proportion left in his head. 

And therein lies the great joy in Mr. Sparks's article. 

Arthur J. Westermavr. 


Platonism. By Paul Elmer More. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 
1917. Pp. 307. Price $1.75 net. 

Paul Elmer More has written a book on Platonism, in which he concen- 
trates himself on the ethical significance which dominates all of Plato's dis- 
cussions and may be regarded as the mainspring of his philosophy. Though 
our author thinks that "for the present at least, the dogmas of religion have 
lost their hold, while the current philosophy of the schools has become in 
large measure a quibbling of specialists on technical points of minor impor- 
tance, or, where serious, too commonly has surrendered to that flattery of 
the instinctive elements of human nature which is the very negation of mental 
and moral discipline," he presents his views on Plato because he trusts that 
"only through the centralizing force of religious faith or through its equivalent 
in philosophy can the intellectual life regain its meaning and authority for 
earnest men. 

He bears in mind that Plato formed the origins and the early environment 
of Christianity, and in this spirit he offers to the reading public his book. 

He treats this subject as follows: The Three Socratic Theses; The So- 
cratic Quest ; The Platonic Quest ; The Socratic Paradox ; The Dualism of 
Plato; Psychology; The Doctrine of Ideas; Science and Cosmogony; Meta- 
physics; Conclusion, etc. His "aim is not so much to produce a work of his- 
tory — as to write what a Greek Platonist would have called a Protrepticus, 
an invitation, that is, to the practice of philosophy," for he knows "that the 
current of thought runs against" him "and not with" him to-day. He would 
especially "touch the minds of a few of our generous college youth who drift 
through supposedly utilitarian courses and enter the world with no better 
preparation against its distractions than a vague and soon spent yearning for 
social service and the benumbing trust in mechanical progress." In this he 
has our hearty commendation. K 




78 pages Cloth, $1.50 

Chicago's late librarian has left some valuable ideas to the 
library world. Bound and printed in excellent taste, his book 
will be in great demand by all lovers of books. 

The book will not only be an important addition to the 
works which deal with organizing and extending libraries — 
treating of such subjects as library extension, library work 
with children, traveling libraries and the administration of 
funds — but it will undoubtedly be read with interest by very 
many people who have known its author, been helped by him, 
and inspired by his ideals. 

The reader who is actually interested in any branch of 
library work will find suggestion after suggestion in these 


"One of the most valuable works on the subject yet published." — 
Los Angeles Tribune. 

"A valuable service to library work and extension has been per- 
formed in this publication of the papers on library administration by 
Henry E. Legler. They represent the ideals and the working plans of 
a man who united enthusiasm and practical sense and energy in an 
unusual degree." — The Chicago Evening Post. 




Lectures on the Philosophy 
of Mathematics 

Cloth, 193 pages By JAMES BYRNIE SHAW Price, $1.50 

Mr. Shaw's book does not limit its readers to those few who have 
dared to explore far into the boundless realms of numbers. It is an 
inspiration to any man who enjoys the pure pleasure of exercising 
the imagination. 

The following is an extraction from the Los Angeles World : 
"The Philosophy of Mathematics" consists of a series of lectures de- 
livered by James Byrnie Shaw before a club of graduate students of 
the University of Illinois. The more difficult questions of mathe- 
matical philosophy had to be omitted to conform to the advancement 
of the student. This broadens the popular value of the book, however, 
for it leaves it accessible to a much wider group of readers — all 
students of fair mathematical knowledge. 

The author "cherishes the hope that the professional philosopher, 
too, may find some interest in these lectures. . . If the student of 
philosophy finds enough mathematics here to characterize the field and 
give him a broad view over its hills and valleys, he may see it from 
the mathematician's point of view." 

The object of the lectures is to consider the whole field of 
mathematics in a general way, so as to arrive at a clear understanding 
of exactly what mathematics undertakes to do and how far it accom- 
plishes its purpose ; to ascertain upon what presuppositions, if any, 
which are extra-mathematical, the mathematician depends. Refer- 
ences are given at the ends of chapters to enable the students who 
desire to go into the topics treated further than the discussion of the 
text permits, to make at least a start in such reading. They are de- 
signed as suggestive rather than exhaustive. Material for the lecture 
was gathered from a wide range. A two-page synoptical chart is 
given to show the central principles of mathematics. Here we see at 
a glance — provided it is a thoroughly efficient and studious glance — 
Dr. Shaw's conception of the structure of mathematics. 


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Folk-Stories of the Sea with Notes upon Their Origin 


125 pages Cloth, $1.50 


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so spectral that one tries to lift the tissue paper interleaf, only to find that 
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five tales of sea lore that come to us under the heading Wanderships. ," — 
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"Behind the Scenes with Mediums" 


For centuries the superstitious public has secretly visited the mysterious 
parlors of renowned occultists, mediums, and clairvoyants. Some "pay their 
dollar" for curiosity ; some go to converse with deceased relatives ; and some 
seek advice about their futures; but all leave the "spooky" seances greatly 
impressed with the phenomena which they have beheld and heard. 

And do we sensible American people actually allow ourselves to believe 
that these spiritualists possess psychic powers which enable them to converse 
with the "world beyond," and foretell the future? Their performances 
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usual things while the medium is in a trance. 

"Behind the Scenes with Mediums" completely exposes the mysteries 
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in the seances of the medium are herein explained by David P. Abbott, who 
has spent twenty years in studying the methods used by spiritualists to 
deceive their audiences. 

338 pages; Cloth, $1.00; Paper, SOc 



Contributions to the Founding of the 
Theory of Transfinite Numbers 


Translated, and provided with an Introduction and Notes, by PHILIP E. B. JOURDAIN, R A. 
Cloth. Pages x, 212. $1.25 net 

This volume contains a translation of the two very important memoirs of 
Georg Cantor on transfinite numbers which appeared in 1895 and 1897. These 
memoirs are the final and logically purified statement of many of the most important 
results of the long series of memoirs begun by Cantor in 1870. A very full historical 
account of this work and the work of others which led up to it is given in the intro- 
duction and the notes at the end contain indications of the progress made in the 
theory of transfinite numbers since 1897. This book is a companion volume to 
Dedekind's Essays. 


Chicago and London 


Origin and Philosophy of Language 

By Ludwig Noire 

Cloth, $1.00 

"All future philosophy will be a philosophy of language." — Max Muller. 

''Whoever wishes to explain humanity must 
understand what is human ; he must know the points 
upon which everything else turns, and from which 
everything else must be derived. Language con- 
tains the key to the problem, and whoever seeks it 
elsewhere will seek in vain." 

" Here," continues the author, after showing by 
a number of well chosen instances to what curious 
self-deceptions reason is exposed through her own 
creations, "a large field is open to the student of 
language. It is his office to trace the original mean- 
ing of each word, to follow up its history, its changes 
of form and meaning in the schools of philosophy, or 
in the market-place and the senate. He ought to 
know how frequently the same idea is expressed by 
different terms. A history of such terms as to know 
and to believe, Finite and Infinite, Real and Neces- 
sary, would do more than anything else to clear the 
philosophical atmosphere of our days." 

Note. — This edition of Noire's valuable treatise on lan- 
guage is a reprint of the edition published by Longmans, Green 
& Co. in London in 1879 to which are added two additional 
chapters published in Chicago in 1889 by The Open Court 
Publishing Company. 



Problems of Science 

Translated by Katharine Royce with an introduction by Josiah Royce 

Pp. 392, Cloth, Price $2.50 

A scientific methodology with numerous references to contemporary 
interests and controversies. 

Press Notices 

"Prof. Royce thinks that the book will be read with particular interest on 
account of the opposition that it offers to current 'anti-intellectual' types of 
philosophizing, though the book was first published in Italian before the contro- 
versies about 'pragmatism,' 'intuitionism,' etc., arose. At the same time, 
Enriques, whose disposition is that of the mathematician and logician, has, 
through independent thinking, come to support the same theses as the prag- 
matists regarding the 'instrumental' or the 'functional' character of thought."— 
Springfield Republican. 

"The book is written in a very attractive style, and presents some of the 
most difficult problems in a way that the unprofessional reader can understand. 
It is worthy of being translated into English, and worthy of this excellent 
translation." — Boston Transcript. 

"Enriques, as Prof. Royce shows, views the thinking process as an 'adjust- 
ment' to 'situations,' but he also lays great stress 'upon the tendency of science 
to seek unity upon the synthetic aspect of scientific theory, upon what he calls 
the "association" of concepts and scientific "representations."' Enriques treats 
all these questions with originality as well as great depth of thought and the 
appearance of his book in English makes an important addition to the body of 
metaphysical literature in our language." — Chicago News. 

"The Work before us is perhaps the most considerable since Mill." — The 

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An Essay on the Problem of Evil 

With a portrait of the author and an introduction by Archdeacon Lilley. 92 pp. Cloth, 75c. 



"A Modern Job" is a work which cannot fail to interest the clergy and Bible 
students, and, no doubt, is destined to attract attention in such quarters." — Los 
Angeles Examiner. 

"A powerful essay by Etienne Giran which presents clearly and cogently in 
impressive language the problem of evil." — Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin. 

"Perhaps this work is inferior to the original Book of Job, but, though we do 
not claim to be experts, we like this Dutch Job better than his ancient prototype." 
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"A cleverly conceived essay on the problem of evil." — London Spectator. 

"The volume is worthy of careful reading, for it presents various tendencies 
found in our world today. It is clear and inspiring." — International Journal of 

122 S. Michigan Avenue CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

The Contingency of the Laws of Nature 

By Emile Boutroux of the French Academy. Translated by Fred Roth- 
well. With a portrait of the author. Pages, x, 195. Cloth, $1.50. 


"There are some startling statements in the book, and various incidental dis- 
cussions of great value. — The Oxford Magazine. 

"M. Boutroux wrote this book in 1874 as a thesis for a doctor's degree and 
expresses surprise at the attention it receives after this interval. The explanation 
seems to be that the central idea of the thesis, deemed paradoxical at the time of its 
first presentation, is receiving careful consideration of today's philosophers." — The 
New York World. 

"Prof. Emile Boutroux's "Contingency of the Lazvs of Nature," reveals the 
action of the keen modern intellect on the ancient problem of freedom versus 
necessity." — Boston Herald. 

"An accurate and fluent translation of the philosophical views of nearly a half a 
century ago." — New York Tribune. 

"A valuable contribution to the literature of philosophy." — London Review. 

"He closes his essay with words which can be counted upon not only to 
astound the determinist, but to make even the average scientist feel uncomfortable." 
— Boston Transcript. 

"Thoughtful analysis of natural law." — New York Times. 


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University of Chicago Publications in 
Religious Education 

Edited by 



The Constructive Studies — A series of graded textbooks representing 
biblical and ethical subjects, arranged to cover all grades from the 
kindergarten to adult years. Thirty volumes, well bound, clearly 
printed, handsomely illustrated, are now ready; several others in 

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books presenting the results of practical experiments by trained spe- 
cialists in specific fields of religious education. Ten or more volumes 
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Sunday School, by William Norman Hutchins ; The City Institute 
for Religious Teachers, by Walther S. Athearn ; Handwork in 
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by Elizabeth E. Miller. 

Handbooks of Ethics and Religion — A series of text and reference 
books suitable for use in college classes and for general reading. Now 
ready: The Psychology of Religion, by George A. Coe; The Origin 
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the World, by George A. Barton. 

Outline Bible-Study Courses — A continually increasing series of in- 
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For information concerning the above and one hundred other re- 
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CHICAGO 5832 Ellis Avenue ILLINOIS 

Dawn of a New Religious Era 


Second Revised and Enlarged Edition. Cloth, $1.00 


"The entire conduct of Dr. Carus's life has h.een animated by the spirit evidenced 
in these papers — that of a scientific search for truth." — Review of Reviews. 

"The useful work which Dr. Carus has carried on for so many years in The 
Open Court organization and its publications causes him to deserve well of the 
reading public." — The Baltimore Evening Sun. 

"Here is the whole religious problem in a nutshell." — Pittsburgh Post. 

"Because the author understands that which is p'assing away, we feel confidence 
in his leadership into the untrodden ways which open before the constructive 
thinker." — New York CalL 

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— Bookseller, Newsdealer and Stationer. 

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Court Publishing House." — Fresno Republican. 

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Early Philosophical Works 


Translated and edited by Margaret Jourdain 

2U pages PRESS COMMENT Price, $135 net 

"Diderot's range is extraordinary and is worthy to be studied by all readers of 
literary tastes." — Book Review Digest. 

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lyn Eagle. 

"Miss Jourdain has done a most useful piece of work in presenting a good 
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Pp. it 2. Price $1.00 

In a letter to the publishers the author says: 

"It is my hope that this little book may in a small measure diminish the prejudice 
against my people. It is not written for scholars but for those honest and simple minded 
folk who have never read their Bible nor thought much on the subject of religious history, 
accepting their religion like their politics, as a sort of parental heritage. 

' 'It is this ignorance that has created a wall of antagonism between Jew and Christian. 
If I could break down this barrier between two great religions and help to reconcile their 
differences, I would consider my humble efforts a great reward for many thoughtful hours 
I have spent in seeking out the true history of "Three Men of Judea" who have had most 
to do with the founding of the Christian religion." 



Geometrical Lectures of Isaac Barrow 

Translated and annotated, with proofs 
Cloth, $1.25 By J. M. CHILD Pp. 215 

'Isaac Barrow was the first inventor of the Infinitesimal Calculus; Newton got 
the main idea of it from Barrow by personal communication ; and Leibniz also was 
in some measure indebted to Barrow's work, obtaining confirmation of his own 
ideas, and suggestions for their further development, from the copy of Barrow's 
book he bought in 1673." 

This is the conclusion that forms the premise from which Mr. Child works in 
the consideration of Barrow and his predecessors, and his advance over their work, 
which accompanies the translation. Besides the work of Barrow's predecessors, 
is considered the life of Barrow, his connection with Newton and their mutual in- 
fluence, his works, his genius, the sources of his ideas, the original from which the 
translation is made, and how Barrow made his construction. It is a careful and 
thorough working over of the material. 

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