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^be ©pen Court 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

2)e\)0te& to tbe Science of IRelf gf on, tbe IRelt^ion of Science, ant) tbc 
Bxtenslon of tbe IRellgious parliament H^ea 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. . . ( E. C. Hegblbr. 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack. <^ssoaates: -j ^^^^ Carus. 

VOL. XIV. (no. 9) September, 1900. NO. 532 

CONTENTS: 

Fro7itispiece. The Otricoli Zeus. 

On Greek Religion and Mythology. The Opportunities of Greece. — Greek 
Cosmogony. — Urano's and Kronos.^ — -Zeus and His Brothers. With 
Numerous Illustrations of Greek Temples, Divinities, and Mytho- 
logical Episodes Representing all Periods of Greek Art. Editor . 513 

The Propensity Toivard the Marvellous. Animism in Popular Thought and 
in Science. Dr. Ernst Mach, Professor of the History and Theory 
of Inductive Science in the University of Vienna 539 

The Associated Fists. The So-called Boxer Society, which Caused the 
Riots and Led to War in China. With Illustrations from Chinese 
Newspapers. The Rev. George T. Candlin, Christian Missionary 
in Northern China 551 

Madame Clemence Royer. With Two Portraits 562 

Iniwcation. A Poem. E. W. Dutcher 564 

The School a7id Society. With Illustrations 564 

The Mahdydna. Sketch of the Rise and Meaning of Northern Buddhism. 
English Translation of A9vaghosha's "Awakening of Faith." With 
Illustration 569 

Nirvana. A Poem. From the German of E. Eckstein. Hugo Andriessen. 569 

Book Notices 573 

Notes 576 



CHICAGO 

®be ©pen Court publisbinG Compani? 

LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 
Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $1.00 (In the U. P. U., 58. 6d,). 

Copyright, 1900, by The Open Court Publishing Co. Entered at the Chicago Post OflSce as Second-Class Matter 



^be ©pen Court 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

2)c\)0tc& to tbe Science of IReUgfon, tbe IReU^ton ot Science, an& tbe 
^Extension of tbe IReligious parliament ITbea 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus. . . , j E. C. Hegelbr. 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack. 'Associates: -j j^^^^^ Carus. 



VOL. XIV. (no. 9) September, 1900. NO. 532 

CONTENTS: 

Fro7iiispiece. The Otricoli Zeus. 

071 Greek Religion ajid Mythology. The Opportunities of Greece. — Greek 
. Cosmogony. — Uranos and Kronos. — Zeus and His Brothers. With 
Numerous Illustrations of Greek Temples, Divinities, and Mytho- 
logical Episodes Representing all Periods of Greek Art. Editor . 513 

The Propensity Toivard the Marvellous. Animism in Popular Thought and 
in Science. Dr. Ernst Mach, Professor of the History and Theory 
of Inductive Science in the University of Vienna 539 

The Associated Fists. The So-called Boxer Society, which Caused the 
Riots and Led to War in China. With Illustrations from Chinese 
Newspapers. The Rev. George T. Candlin, Christian Missionary 
in Northern China 551 

Madame Cldme^ice Royer. With Two Portraits 562 

Invocation. A Poem. E. W. Dutcher 564 

The School and Society. With Illustrations 564 

The Mahaydna. Sketch of the Rise and Meaning of Northern Buddhism. , 
English Translation of Acvaghosha's "Awakening of Faith." With 
Illustration 569 

Nirvana. A Poem. From the German of E. Eckstein. Hugo Andriessen. 569 

Book Notices 573 

Notes 576 

CHICAGO 

©be ©pen Court publiebinG Compani? 

LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 
Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $1.00 (in the U. P. U., 58. 6d,). 

Copyright, 1900, by The Open Court Publishing Co. Entered at the Chicago Post Ofi&ce as Second-Class Matter 



A CLASSICAL WORK ON CHINA 



THE TRAVELS IN TARTARY, THIBET AND CHINA 

Of MM. HUC and GABET 

New Edition. From the French. Two Vols. loo Illustrations. 688 Pages. 

Cloth, $2.00 (los.). Handsomely Bound in Oriental Style. 

Popular Edition, i Vol., Cloth, ^1.25 (5s.) net. 



A Truly Fascinating Work.— One of the Most Popular Books of All Times. 



Read the Following Commendatory Notices: 

"The work made a profound sensation. Although China and the other countries of the Orient have 
been opened to foreigners in larger measure in recent years, few observers as keen and as well qualified to 
put their observations in finished form have appeared." — The IVatchmati. 

"The book is a classic, and has taken its place as such, and few classics are so interesting. It de- 
serves to be put on the same shelf as Lane's Modern Egyptians. These reprints ought to have a large sale. 
Few books will have more readers than the missionary adventures of Abbe Hue and his no less daring com- 
panion." — The Catholic News. 

" Fools, it is known, dash in where angels fear to tread, and there are also instances of missionaries 
dashing in where intrepid and experienced travellers fail. Such was the case with MM. Hue and Gabet, 
the two mild and modest French priests who, fifty years ago, without fuss, steadily made their untortured 
way from China across Thibet and entered L'hassa with the message of Christianity on their lips. It is 
true that they were not allowed to stay there as long as they had hoped ; but they were in the Forbidden 
Land and the Sacred City for a sufiicient time to gather enough facts to make an interesting and very valu- 
able book, which on its appearance in the forties (both in France and England) fascinated our fathers much 
in the way that the writings of Nansen and Stanley have fascinated us. To all readers of Mr. Lander's 
new book who wish to supplement the information concerning the Forbidden Land there given, we can 
recommend the work of M. Hue. Time cannot mar the interest of his and M. Gabet's daring and successful 
enterprise." — The Academy. 

"The descriptions of the perils and difficulties of travel, of the topography and of climatic phenom- 
ena, are remarkably simple and vivid. How wonderfully has the Catholic missionary penetrated the least 
known lands I Rarely well qualified to travel, frequently frail of body and simple of mind, he has, through 
sheer earnestness of purpose, made his way, where strength, experience, and cunning fail. The Open 
Court Co. has certainly done well in bringing out an English version of Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and 
China ... at this time." — Prof. Frederick Starr, in New Unity. 

" One of the most striking books that have ever been written on the East is the one, here reprinted, of 
the travels of the Jesuit missionaries Gabet and Hue in Tartary, China, and Thibet, over fifty years ago. 
The modesty as well as the fulness of the narrative strikes the reader with astonishment, in view of the in- 
credible difficulties of the camel journey, the ease with which they were overcome, the abundance and 
novelty of the information obtained, and the combined picturesqueness, impersonality, and humility of 
these two accomplished priests." — The Critic. 

"The interest in the territory treated in this volume is just now immense, on account of the immi- 
nency of the partition of China by the governments of Europe." — Sunday School Library Bulletin. 

"Once one takes up the volumes, it is hard to shake oneself free from the gentle spell of his narra- 
tive, and when the last page is turned down and we leave the two kindly priests on their homeward journey, 
at the boundaries of China, we want to go with them every remaining step of the way, live in their tents, 
share their scanty handfuls of meal, and enjoy with them a whimsical smile at the dilemmas and adven- 
tures of each succeeding day." — Law List of United Commercial Lawyers. 



THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO., 3./D"ea*;C^„st. 

London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 



''■■-^■m^smm^ 




JWm 




^W "^u^ '%s 11 












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ZEUS. 



Colossal mask of Carrara marble, found in Otricoli, near Rome, in the 
eighteenth century. Now in the Vatican. Period: Fourth century, B. C, or 
later. From a copyrighted carbon photograph published by A. W. Elson & Co., 
Boston, Mass. 



The Open Court 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 



VOL. XIV. (NO. 9.) SEPTEMBER, 1900. NO. 532 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co., 1900. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

[This sketch of Greek mythology is not intended to be exhaustive. It is de- 
signed to serve as an introduction to the significance of Greek mythology solely, 
incidentally giving a bird's eye view of the religion of classical Greece and a char- 
acterisation of the several divinities according to rank and importance. The phil- 
osophical and the moral trend of Hellenic beliefs is duly emphasised, and the data 
necessary to comprehend the religious spirit of the ancients are detailed in suffi- 
cient completeness to allow any one unfamiliar with Greek mythology to gain a 
general knowledge of the subject.] 

INTRODUCTORY. 

LOVE of enemies is commonly regarded as an exclusively Chris- 
tian virtue, and Oriental scholars actually encounter difficulties 
in finding credence for their assertions that the same injunction is 
found in the teachings of ancient Asiatic sages, notably in the doc- 
trines of Lao-Tse and Buddha. Obviously the noble sentiment 
that pervades the Sermon on the Mount is much more universal 
than is generally assumed ; it seems to have developed spontane- 
ously everywhere, making its appearance at a certain stage of com- 
pletion, at the pleroma or fulfilment of ideals, at the time of moral 
maturity, as the natural result of the religious evolution of rational 
beings. Our Teutonic ancestors rigorously condemned all foul 
methods of taking advantage of enemies and frequently even granted 
chances to weaker foes. The Indians of North America are still 
in the habit of doing the same. But it is generally ignored and 
sometimes even denied that the ethics of pagan antiquity ever 
reached the high plane of Christian sentiments. Nevertheless, the 
sages of Greece, the typical representatives of paganism, are full 
of the noblest morality, evidences of which are even more numer- 
ous in their writings than in the New Testament. 



514 



THE OPEN COURT. 



In this sketch of Greek religion and mythology we shall take 
pains to quote selections of such passages and shall add to the 
translation the original words, so as to leave no doubt in sceptic 
minds as to the prevalence of Christian morality, so called, among 
pre-Christian pagans. 

The path on which Greek religion travelled to its goal was 
not the bold flight of prophets and preachers, as was the case with 
the Hebrews in Palestine ; it reached the higher plane by the meth- 
ods of art, the love of the beautiful, the reverence for scientific truth, 
and the earnestness of philosophical speculation. 




I5*Tf5^fia"rifif 




Temple of Pallas Athene at tEgina. 
(From Baumeister's Deiikmiiler des klassischen Alterthmtis,^ Vol. I., p. 261.) 

Nothing can be more characteristic of the Greek mind than 
the expression " Kalokagathia " ( KaAoKdya^ia) which means literally 
the virtue of beauty and goodness, but denotes actually the highest 
perfection of morality. The term "beautiful" was more significant 
to the ancient Greek than to other nations, for it always included 
moral loveliness. 

The Greek spirit, always aspiring and at the same time self- 
poised, always varied in expression and at the same time harmoni- 

1 Hereafter referred to by the abbreviation B. D. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



515 



ous, never given to exaggeration nor becoming monotonous, is 
shown forth in temples and public buildings as well as in magnifi- 
cent marble statues of the gods. The Greeks created a type in art 
which is the natural idealised, and thus the purely human appears 
as a revelation of the divinity of man. 

Religion transfigured the entire life. of ancient Greece. The 
gods were everywhere : in the temples, in the senate, in the market- 
place, in the theater, in the homes of the poorest citizens. The 
mural paintings of Pompeii and Herculaneum prove that even the 
pantry was not devoid of gods. 




Jemtle ov Zeus at Akrai.as, ( /> , /' , p jyj 1 

Owing to the significant part which beauty of form plays in 
the Greek religion, we cannot in sketching its evolution dispense 
with the artistic representations of the Greek deities, which, though 
sensuous, became transfigured by the artist's ideals and sanctified 
by the thinker's depth of comprehension. We accordingly propose 
to reproduce here the most famous statues and pictures of the sev- 
eral Greek deities and to exhibit thus their various characteristic 
conceptions, not only in the highest types of artistic perfection, 
but also in some of their archaic forms, so as to facilitate an insight 
into the historical development of Greek religion and indicate the 
struggle of Greek artists for the realisation of their ideals. 



5i6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



THE OPPORTUNITIES OF GREECE. 
Greek religion was originally mere nature-worship. The per- 
sonified powers of existence were invoked, propitiated, and adored, 



I? 

S i 

ft- "^ 

S o 




and every district had its own mythology, sufficiently differentiated 
by local coloring, but having the same trend wherever the Greek 
language was spoken. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



517 



At the dawn of history the Greek tribes were still savages ; for 
human sacrifices are mentioned as having taken place even as late 
as the Homeric age. But humaner conceptions spread rapidly and 
led to a nobler interpretation of religious traditions. 

Greek mythology, as understood by the masses, degenerated 
through literalism, but, as interpreted by philosophers, attained in 
the golden age of Greek history a rare purity and loftiness. It is 
customary to call attention to the crudities of the mythological 
dress and to condemn the Greek religion as pagan, but the noble 
applications which the Greek sages made of their traditions are 
scarcely ever mentioned and are little heeded. 




Temple of Athena at Priene. 
{B. D.. I., p. 276.) 



The legends of ancient Greece gradually led up to the mono- 
theism of a belief in the fatherhood of Zeus, as the one uncreated 
creator and ruler of the Universe. The gods who in the earlier 
phases of Greek mythology had been the equals of Zeus, became in 
the more advanced stage like angels or messengers standing before 
his throne, or were conceived as manifestations of his power, iden- 
tical with him in their essence ; and the accounts of the origin and 
adventures of Zeus were then treated as mere folklore, no longer 
deemed worthy of credence except in a symbolical sense. 



5i! 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Further, it is noteworthy that the idea of divine sonship was 
understood in almost a Christian sense. The son of God, whether 
Apollo, Dionysos, Hermes, or Heracles, served as a revealer of 



^ > 







truth, as a mediator between God and men, and as a savior. In 
addition, the Dionysos and Adonis myths very plainly indicate the 
Christian conception of a God who dies and is resurrected for the 
benefit of mankind, so that all may live in him. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



519 








>^.23. 



Group of Greek Divinities. 
(From Taylor, Eleusi?iia)i Mysteries, p. 168.) 










Hephaestos, Athene, and the Seasons Offering Wedding Presents to 
Young Couple. 
(Relief in the Villa Albani. After Zoega Bassiril, I., 52.) 










\ ::Mf 



The Divinities Presiding Over the Home. 
(Fresco in Pompeii. D -^^o«- /fist., III., 6a. B. D., II., p. 811.) 



520 



THE OPEN COURT. 



And how did Greece gain her prominence among the nations? 

The tribes of Hellas, who were still in a semi-savage state 
when Egypt and Chaldaea had attained to a high state of civilisa- 
tion, were visited by Phoenician ships, and thus Eastern culture 
was introduced among the inhabitants of the islands and coasts of 
the ^gean Archipelago. It quickly took root there and developed 
a new independent civilisation, favored above all by the liberty that 
prevailed in these parts of the world, almost inaccessible to the 
great conquerors that rose on the Nile and in the land between the 
two rivers. 

The geographical situation of Greece developed in its inhab- 
itants the seafaring instinct and brought them into contact with all 





Full statue. Bust of statue. 

Aristotle of the Palace Spada, at Rome. 

(Visconti, pi. 20, 2 and 3.) 

nations of the Mediterranean Sea. Fugitives from the East were 
welcome, and their superior knowledge was hailed as a revelation, 
taking root in the minds of the people and spreading rapidly over 
the whole country. 

Transplantation of ideas to a new soil, unhampered by the 
venerable power of ancient institutions, seems to be an essential 
condition for progress. Whenever the main principles of an old 
civilisation take a new start in the hearts of an unprejudiced people 
whose conceptions of life have not as yet become fixed and are still 
plastic enough to admit of ventures into new fields, human ideals 
appear to have a good chance of being better realised and of pro- 
ducing a higher type of culture than before. 

Greece in those days of remote antiquity was not unlike the 
New World. It was a land of liberty, of refuge, of courageous enter- 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



521 



prise, of progress. Hence its rapid development and the proud rise 
of republicanism, the ideals of which left indelible traces upon the 
soul of mankind and contributed not a little toward the building-up 
of the great republic on the western shores of the Atlantic.^ 

The prehistoric inhabitants of Greece seem to have worshipped 
the same gods as other pagans in the same stage of culture, the 
personified sky, the earth, the sea ; but as soon as a beneficial for- 
eign influence made itself felt, the vernacular traditions developed 
a deeper significance, sometimes bringing out new and loftier ideas, 
leading up to a philosophical world-conception which found its 
realisation in Socrates and its spokesman in Plato. 



f^^^ 





Two Busts of Homer. 
(Both in the Capitol at Rome. After Visconti, Iconogr. gr., pi. I., i and 4.) 

Greek religion is cosmopolitan. Vestiges of Phoenician, Egyp- 
tian, Thracian, Syrian, and even Assyrian and Indian legends can be 
traced in Greek mythology. But the lively intercourse among the 
various Hellenic tribes and cities assimilated the conflicting stories 
and produced upon the whole an agreement as to all those deities 
that played an important part in practical life, leaving contradic- 
tions only on questions which touched problems of an abstruse 
character, or were too indifferent to call for a definite settlement. 



1 While glancing through Turgot's works my eye lighted on a passage which contained a 
similar allusion. Speaking of the development of civilisation, he compares the Phoenician col- 
onies, Carthage, etc., to the colonies in America, saying " elles (les colonies Pheniciennes) firent 
ce que fit depuis Carthage, ce quefera unjour I'Am^riqw" [GZuvres, If, p. 602.) He meant prob. 
ably the French colonies, and we can scarcely assume that he foresaw all the changes which took 
place. His words are nevertheless a remarkable prophecy. 



522 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Many ideas reaching Greece from foreign countries were mis- 
understood, but even then the new conceptions that developed were 
happy and thoughtful. Thus, for instance, the Egyptian notion of 
the Sphinx^ {Jni in Egyptian), which was the emblem of Hor-em- 
akhu, i. e., Horus in the Horizon, changed into a symbol of mys- 
tery, denoting mainly the riddle of life, the problem of the human 
soul, which according to the legend was solved by CEdipus. 

To us later-born generations the transition from Phoenician 
and Egyptian beliefs to Greek modes of conceiving the divine ap- 
pears as a decided advance ; but we should bear in mind that con- 
sidering the matter from the point of view of the Asiatics, our judg- 




CEdipus and the Sphinx. 
Ancient vase-picture. (From Stoll, Sagen dcs Jdassischen AltertJunns, I., p. 270.) 

ment would be quite different. Assyrian priests would have felt 
chilled by the elegant and merely human beauty of the Greek gods ; 
they would have contended that all the power of religion, all its 
depth and grandeur, were gone. The divine had ceased to be 
superhuman and had been degraded into commonplace rational- 
ism ; the incomprehensible and awful mysteries had been debased 
into trivial, shallow truisms of personified natural forces and empty 
abstractions. Even to-day the Hindu can see no divinity in the 

l.The Greek word a^iy^ meant "the strangler," and the Sphinx was said to destroy every 
one who could not solve its question, " Who is it that walks first on four feet, then on two, and 
finally on three ? " — the answer being, " Man." 



ON GREEK RKI.IGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 523 

Statue of a Greek god and prefers his multifacial, many-handed 
idol as being more expressive, more indicative of the supernatural, 
and more properly religious. We will not enter deeply into this 
question, but only point out that progress necessarily appears 
as a degeneration from the standpoint of the old culture, and may 
in some respects actually suffer losses, which in a certain sense are 
to be regretted. But progress for all that remains an advance, and 
we need not fear its changes. Thus the old Anglo-Saxon and still 
more so the old Gothic languages were possessed of a wealth of 
forms almost as rich as the Greek, and the development of modern 
English, in spite of the unfoldment of a beautiful literature, ap- 
pears from a purely linguistic standpoint with respect to grammar 
and inflexions as nothing less than a degeneration. 

Progress is a building-up of new and higher or broader forms 
of life and is frequently accompanied by a decay of the old modes 
of thought. This law manifests itself in the origin of Greek mythol- 
ogy from pre-Hellenic religious notions as well also as in the period 
of its decadence when it was swallowed up in Christianity. The 
same law holds good still, marking every step in the evolution of 
human thought and endeavor. 

GREEK COSMOGONY. 

The name Homer means "collector," and no scholar now 
doubts the theory that he is a legendary person. Hesiod lived in 
the eighth century before Christ, but the Theogony which goes by 
his name is, like the Iliad and Odyssey, a compilation of various 
traditions. Happily for the historian and the student of the evolu- 
tion of religious thought, the Theogony did not receive the same 
careful final redaction as the great epics of Homer, and thus there 
are left in it a great number of significant crudities and contradic 
tions. 

Homer and Hesiod are the great unifiers of the ancient tradi- 
tions of Greece, for they gave final shape to the mythological views 
of their nation. In this sense the statement of Herodotus is true 
that these two poets have formed the characters of the Greek gods 
and determined their relationships. 

In the beginning, so Hesiod tells us in the Theogony, the world 
was a chaos and in it was formed the broad earth Gaea, and under 
neath it, Tartaros, the Nether World. All the while in the an 
archical fermentation of aboriginal Chaos, Eros, or Love, was stir 
ring, as the principle of attraction, the same fair god who moves 



524 



THE OPEN COURT. 



human hearts and makes them seek one another with tender devo- 
tion. 

Chaos is commonly, and perhaps rightly, regarded as being 
without form and void, but its essential feature consists in being 
potential reality. The word is derived from the verb ;^aiV£iv or 




)i«OYMtNH«PON0I lAIAlOHYUtlAOMflPOi MY130I 



The Apotheosis of Homer.' 

Relief made by Archelaos of Priene. (Overbeck, Gesch. d. gr. PL, p. 465. 

Roscher, II., p. 3266.) 

Xao-Kciv, "to yawn," and means the yawning abyss from which ex- 
istence develops. 

1 Below we see Homer receiving the homage of mortals. Above, Zeus is seated on Olympos 
surrounded by the nine Muses led by Apollo Musagetes. The tenth female figure, the one nearest 
o Zeus, is probably Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



525 



Hesiod proceeds to tell that Chaos begot Erebos (darkness) 
and Nyx (night), who in their turn brought forth ^ther (i. e., the 
pure air of a clear sky), and Hemera, or Day. 

Night, as might be expected, is the mother of all evil powers, 
including punishment and death. Hesiod says : 

"Night bare also hateful Destiny, and black Fate, and Death ; 
likewise, she bare the tribe of Dreams ; these did the god- 
dess, gloomy Night, bear after union with none. Next again 
Momos [envy] and Care, full of-woes, and the Hesperides 
[the children of evening] , whose care are the fair golden 
apples beyond the famous ocean, and trees yielding fruit ; 
and she produced the Destinies, and ruthlessly punishing 
Fates, Klotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, who assign to men at 
their births to have good and evil ; who also pursue trans- 
gressions both of men and gods, nor do the goddesses ever 
cease from dread wrath, before that, I wot, they have re- 
paid some vengeance to him, whosoever shall have sinned. 
Then bare pernicious Night Nemesis [vengeance] also, a 
woe to mortal men : and after her she brought forth Fraud, 
and Wanton-love, and mischievous Old Age, and stubborn- 
hearted Strife. But odious Strife gave birth to grievous 
Trouble, and Oblivion, and Famine, and tearful Woes, Contests and Slaughters 
Fights and Homicides, Contentions, Falsehoods, Words, Disputes, Lawlessness 
and Ruin, intimates one of the other, and the Oath, which most hurts men on the 
earth, whensrever one has svvorn voluntarily a perjured oath." 




The Goddess Night. 
(Taylor, p. 168.) 




(After Conze, Gutter und Ileroengestalten, II., pi. 56, fig. 2. Roscher, p. 15S3. 

Gaea, the earth, then gave birth to Pontes, the sea, and Uranos, 
the sky. Pontos begot Nereus,i the father of the Greek mermaids 



iThe word is connected with vaOs, ship, and means the Navigable. Nereus is a friendly ben 
eficent deity. 



526 THE OPEN COURT. 

called Nereids, 1 among whom Amphitrite, Thetis, Panope, and 
Galatea are best known. 




Ni 
Colossal Bust found in Naples ; now in the Vatican. (B. /). , II,, p. 913.) 

Amphitrite may be characterised as the soughing of the ocean, 
Thetis as its depth, Panope, the unlimited view to the horizon, and 

lAlso called Dorids, after their mother Doris, a daughter of Okeanos. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



527 




Triton Family. 
(Enlarged, after Wicar's Galerie de Florence.) 




Okeanos with Three Okeanids, Presumably Representing Asia, 

Europe, and Libya. 

(Bronze Relief in the British Museum. After ArcJi. Zeitg., 1S84, plate 2, 2.) 



528 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Galatea (i. e., milkwhite), the beauty of the breakers in the surf; 
hence the latter is represented as a coquettish girl who teases and 
flirts with Polyphemos, chief of the Cyclops, the one-eyed thunder- 
cloud hovering on the rocky 
shore. 

The Tritons, another 
personification of the bil- 
lows, frequently appear in 
the company of the mari- 
time divinities. 

Gaea now produces a 
series of beings begotten 
partly by Pontos and partly 
b}' Uranos, among whom 
the Titans, the hundred- 
handed monsters, and the 
Cyclops are the most prom- 
inent. 

There are twelve Ti- 
tans, six male and six fe- 
male. They are Koios, 
Krios, Hyperion, Japetos, 
Okeanos, and Kronos ; and 
their sisters are Theia, 
Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, 
Phoebe, and Tethys. 

The word "Titans," 
according to the opinion 
of Greek poets and gram- 
marians, is derived from 
Tcivetv, to stretch, to reach 
out for; and is commonly 
interpreted to mean "the 
aspiring or the daring 
ones." Although our clas- 
sical philologists now be- 
lieve that the traditional 
derivation of the word is 
wrong, it is even to-day 
used in the sense of Ueber>ncnsc]i, a man of unusual power, the 
"overman " of the first act of Goethe's "Faust," and the strong, 
bold intellectual man of the future, of Nietzsche. 




Aphrodite of Melos 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



529 



As children of Uranos the Titans are called Uranids.^ □ 
Okeanos, the all-surrounding ocean, is the ancestor of the 
Okeanids. His wife is Tethys^ and his daughter Amphitrite (the 
same who is also enumerated among the Nereids) is married to 
Poseidon and becomes the mother of the Tritons.^ 

URANOS AND KRONOS. 
The Titans are the forerunners of the gods, and the legend tells 
us that Uranos, the father of the Titans, offended his wife, Gaea, by 
not suffering her children to live, but 
throwing them back upon their mother. 
She requested her sons to take ven- 
geance upon their unnatural father, but 
no one dared to rebel against the mighty 
Uranos except Kronos, the cleverest of 
them, who was full of cunning. Kronos 
attacked his father, Uranos, from behind, 
while the latter was visiting his wife, 
Gaea, and wounded him mortally, de- 
priving him of his creative power. From 
the blood that dripped upon the earth 
originated a number of untoward de- 
mons, among them the Erinyes, or Fu- 
ries, the giants and the ash-spirits. The Erinyes represent the 
pangs of a bad conscience, and the ash-spirits are supposed to 




Archaic Aphrodite. 
Relief from the Villa Albana.* 




The Birth of Aphrodite Anadyomene near the Island of Cythera. 
(From Taylor, Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries, p. 229.) 

be the evil-mongers among the tree-fairies, because lances are made 
of ash. The legend of the mutilation of Uranos was apparently 

1 Aphrodite, the goddess of love, too, is sometimes called a daughter of Uranos and bears 
therefore the name Urania; but the commoner version of the origin of Aphrodite will be men 
tioned farther on. 

2Tethys, though similar in character, must not be confused with Thetis. 

3 According to Homer xiv, 246, Okeanos with his aboriginal floods is the father of all things 
and would take the place of Chaos. 

■• MUller-Wieseler, D. a. A'., plate 24., n. 257. Roschar, L, p. 399. 



530 



THE OPEN COURT. 



invented to account for the idea, commonly accepted as a fact, 
that after the world had been created, the creator discontinued 

creating new worlds, the cre- 
ative faculty being then 
transferred to sexual propa- 
gation. 

The creative faculty of 
the god was transferred to 
the billows of the sea, from 
whose froth rose Aphrodite, 
or Venus, the goddess of 
love. She is accompanied 
by her son, Eros, and the 
three graces, Himeros (i. e. , 
longing), Pothos (i. e., de- 
sire), and Peitho (i. e., per- 
suasion). 

It is perhaps noteworthy 
that the birth of Eros is not 
related, but when Aphrodite 
originates he makes his ap- 
pearance together with her 
a"s his mother. 

Eros is commonly rep- 
resented as the son of Aphro- 
dite, and is called the young 
est among the gods. This, 
however, does not alter the 
fact that he was the prin- 
ciple of creation as told 
above, and that he appeared 
first at the beginning as 
that principle by which 
Chaos, which according to 
ts etymology does not seem 
to signify disorder but po- 
tentiality, developed into an 
orderly universe. Sometimes 
the two concepts of Eros are 
distinguished, sometimes 
they are confounded. The older Eros, representing the attraction 
among the atoms as a universal principle of nature, has never be- 




\'ii.\u.s Genetkix. 

Aphrodite after Alexandrian prototypes 

(Louvre. Bouillon, A/us., I., n.) 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



531 



come an object of art, and has therefore not been developed into 
a concrete personality. The younger Eros, however, is regarded 
as his actualisation just as Jesus is conceived as the incarnation of 
the Logos that was in the beginning. Eros is frequently repre- 
sented together with Psyche, the representation of the human soul ; 
and the story of Eros and Psyche is perhaps the most beautiful in 
all Greek mythology. 

Uranos, being defeated by Kronos, ceases to play a significant 
part in the story of the gods. He loses his power and curses his 




Kronos and Rhea. 
From the Capitolinian altar. (After Overbeck's Ktinst-Myth. Atlas, 3, 



Roscher, Ley 



1563) 



son, prophesying that a similar fate will befall him. Thus Uranos 
lost the government of the world, and Kronos reigned in his stead. 

Uranos is not as yet a real mythological figure ; he was never 
worshipped in Greece and is merely a product of philosophical 
reflexion. 

Kronos, whose reign now begins, married his sister, Rhea, who 
bore to him three daughters, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, and three 
sons. Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. 

Kronos may fairly be supposed to be a foreign, presumably a 
Phoenician, deity; for the legend tells that he, like the Phoenician 



532 THE OPEN COURT. 

Moloch, demanded the sacrifice of children, and Hesiod, following 
the traditions of his home, the Island of Crete, relates that the old 
god was in the habit of eating his own offspring. The philosophers 
of Greece identified Kronos with Chronos, time, and explained his 
inhuman conduct in the sense that time swallows whatever it pro- 




Amaltheia Nursing the Zeus-Child. 
(Henndorf and Schone, Ant. Bilder d. Lat. Mus., p. 16. Roscher, I., 263.) 

duces, and this interpretation, however doubtful the etymology of 
the word Kronos,' has been accepted and is current even to-day. 

ZEUS AND HIS BROTHERS. 
Whether or not Kronos was an Oriental deity or personified 
time, the fact remains that while there are very few traces of Kro- 

1 The derivation of Kronos from xpaiVtii' in the sense of maturing is not much more probable 
than its connexion with xfi6vo<;, time. See Preller, R. M., p. 51. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



533 



nos-worship in Greece, and those that exist are neither ancient nor 
unquestionably indigenous, Zeus is always called Kronion, or 
Kronid, i. e., the son of Kronos ; and Cretan traditions preserved 





1^^^ 



ilT^fe 







5 ^ 



< c 



s z 



by Hesiod relate how Rhea, after having lost five children through 
the cannibalism of her husband, anxious to preserve the sixth child, 

ICn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who had charge of Bithynia under M. Antonius, 40 B. C, placed 
this piece of art in a temple at Rome, and it is therefore probable that Skopas made it for a Po 
seidon temple of Bithynia. 



534 



THE OPEN COURT. 



i-fev^^iJ 




The Marriage of Poseidon with Amphitrite. 
(Continuation of the frieze on the preceding page.) 




Poseidon and Amymone. 
(Pompeian Fresco. Mus. Borbon., VI., i8. 



ON GREEK RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY. 



535 



the new-born babe that was none other than Zeus, handed to her 
unsuspecting lord a stone wrapped up in swaddling clothes. The 
indigestible food, however, turned the stomach of the god, who 
threw up the five elder children. Hades, Poseidon, Hestia, Deme- 
ter, and Hera, and thus restored them to life. In the meantime 
Zeus was secretly reared by nymphs, with the milk of the goat 




Am\m(ine, Poseidon's Wife 

(Considerably enlarged from a Florentine Gem. After Wicar, Galeric de 

Florence, I., pi. gi.) 

Amaltheia, bees providing him with honey; while the Kuretes, the 
servants of Rhea, drowned the cries of the infant with the incessant 
noise made by beating their swords upon their shields. As soon as 
Zeus had attained to manhood, he combated his barbarous father, 
and slew him, whereupon the universe was divided between himself 
and his two brothers. The Under World, the realm of the dead, fell 



536 



THE OPEN COURT. 



to the grim Hades, ^ the invisible, so called because he stalks about 
unseen and his empire cannot be detected by the eye of mortal man. 
The sea was allotted to the rough Poseidon, but the best part, the 
inhabited earth and the heavens, was reserved for Zeus. Zeus 
selected as his residence Mount Olympos whence he and the other 
celestial gods derived the name Olympians. Though Hades and 
Poseidon are independent in their domains, they always obey their 
younger brother whose superiority is never questioned. 




Mosaic found at Palermo. 



Poseidon. 
(After Overbeck, Atlas, XL, 8. 



B. D., 1391 



The older powers in the formation of the world, the blind 
forces of nature, soon became jealous of the ascendancy of the new 
and more cultured gods, and so Briareus, Kottos, and Gyes with a 
swarm of other earthborn giants attacked the Olympians in a fierce 
combat, but Zeus smote them with his thunderbolts, last of all the 
youngest-born and most terrible son of the earth, Typhoeus. 



'Ai8>;s from ihilv, to see, and a, privative. 



ON GRKEK RELIGION AND M Y'lHOI.OGY. 



537 




Zeus Conquering the Giants. 
(Athenion's gem. After Miiller-Wieseler, II., 3, 3417.) 




GiGANTOMACHY ; OR, THE GlANTS STORMING HeAVEN. 

From an ancient Greek frieze. 




Zeus Conquering Typhoeus. 
Picture on an antique water pitcher. (B. D., 2135.) 



538 



THE OPEN COURT. 



There is no need of mentioning all the love adventures in 
which, according to the poets, the great Zeus engaged. Most of 
them are local nature-myths telling the story of the fertilisation of 
the earth by the rain-spending heaven in various ways and using 
different names. 

Zeus was the chief deity of the Greek Pantheon, and remained 
so until Christianity degraded his majesty and repudiated belief in 





Archaic Zeus. 
Bronze figure found at Olympia.' 
(From Aus^rabun^en, V., 27.) 



Zeus Meilichios. 

Colossal head found on the 

island of Melos.'-' 



him as idolatry. Greek hymns praise him in terms which, in their 
way, are sometimes not inferior in theological conception to the 
psalms of the Hebrew, indicating how near the Greek mind had 
come to producing a pure monotheism and how worthily the Greek 
poets expressed the idea of the fatherhood of Zeus. 



1 This picture, probably a votive figure, represents the oldest type of Zeus, naked and throw 
ing the thunderbolt. 

2 See Overbeck, Kunstmythologic, 87. His interpretation, however, is doubted and M. More 
[Desc, HI., pi. 29) claims the head for /Esculapius. 



THE PROPENSITY TOWARD THE MAR- 
VELLOUS.' 



BY PROF. ERNST MACH. 



ALL incitation to inquiry is born of the novel, the uncommon, 
- and the imperfectly understood. Ordinary events, to which 
we are accustomed, take place almost unnoticed ; novel events 
alone catch the eye and solicit the attention. It happens thus that 
the propensity toward the marvellous, which is a universal attri- 
bute of mankind, is of immense import also for the development of 
science. It is the striking forms and colors of plants and animals, 
the startling chemical and physical phenomena, that arrest our no- 
tice in youth. Afterwards the craving for enlightenment is gradually 
aroused, as we compare these unwonted events with the events of 
familiar and daily occurrence. 

The beginnings of all physical science were intimately asso- 
ciated with magic. Hero of Alexandria makes use of his knowl- 
edge of the expansion of air by heat to perform conjuring tricks ; 
Porta describes his beautiful optical discoveries in a work entitled 
Natural Magic; Athanasius Kircher turns his physical knowledge 
to account in the construction of a magic lantern; and in the Alath- 
ematical Recreations of the day and in such works as Enslin's TJiau- 
maturgus, the sole purpose for which the more phenomenal facts of 
physics were employed was that of dazzling the uninitiated. With 
the fascination intrinsically exerted by phenomenal events was nat- 
urally associated in the case of the person first discovering them 
the temptation to acquire greater prestige by keeping them secret, to 
produce extraordinary effects by their assistance, to derive profit 
from their practice, to gain increased power, or at least the sem- 
blance of the same. Some slight successful venture of this kind 
may then have kindled the imagination and awakened hopes of at- 

1 Translated from the IViirmelehre by T. J. McCormack. 



540 THE OPEN COURT. 

taining some altogether extraordinary goal, resulting in the decep- 
tion not only of others but perhaps also of the person himself. In 
this manner, for example, from the observation of some astonish- 
ing and inexplicable transformation of matter, may have originated 
alchemy, with its desire to transmute metals into gold, to dis- 
cover a panacea, etc. The felicitous solution of some innocent 
geometrical problem is the probable foundation of the geomancy 
of the Arabian Nights, which divines futurity by means of num- 
bers, as it was probably also of astrology, etc. That Malefici and 
Mathematici were once mentioned in the same breath by a Roman 
law, is also intelligible on this theory.^ Even in the dark days of 
mediaeval demonology and witchcraft, natural inquiry was not ex- 
tinguished ; on the contrary, it appears to have been invested then 
with a distinct charm of mystery and wondrousness, and to have 
become imbued with new life. 

The mere happening of an extraordinary event is in itself not 
marvellous ; the marvel is to be sought, not in the event, but in 
the person observing the event. A phenomenon appears marvel- 
lous when one's entire mode of thought is disturbed by it and 
forced out of its customary and familiar channels. The astonished 
spectator does not believe for a moment that no connexion exists 
between the new event and other phenomena; but, not being 
■able to discern a connexion, and being invariably accustomed to 
such, he is led, in the nature of the case, to adopt extraordinary 
conjectures, which are usually fallacious. The character of these 
conjectures may be infinitely varied, but inasmuch as the psychical 
organisation of mankind, conformably to the universal conditions 
of life, is everywhere pretty much the same, and since young in- 
dividuals and races, whose psychical organisation is of the sim- 
plest type, are most frequently thrown into situations productive of 
surprise, almost the same psychological phenomena are repeated 
the world over. 

Auguste Comte^ first touched upon the phenomena here re- 
ferred to, and Tylor^ subsequently made a very thorough study of 
them, utilising the vast material which the ethnology of the savage 
races afforded. The most phenomenal constant occurrences in 
the natural environment of the savage, are those of which he him- 
self or his fellow-creatures are the authors. He is conscious of 



1 Hankel, Geschichte der Mathematik. Leipsic, 1874. Page 301. 

2Coiiite, Philosophie positive, Paris, 1852. 

3Tylor, Primitive Cultur, two volumes, London and New York. 



THE PROPENSITY TOWARD THE MARVELLOUS. 54I 

will power and muscular force in his own person, and is tempted 
thus to interpret every unusual phenomenon as the creation of the 
will of some creature like himself. His limited capacity to distin- 
guish sharply his thoughts, moods, and even his dreams, from his 
perceptions, leads him to regard the images of absent or deceased 
companions appearing in his dreams, or even those of lost or 
ruined objects, as real phantom entities, as souls. Out of the wor- 
ship of the dead which here took its being has sprung the worship 
of demons, of national deities, etc. The conception of sacrifice, 
which is utterly unintelligible in modern religion, finds its explana- 
tion here as the logical evolutionary outgrowth of the funeral sac- 
rifice. Savages are wont to bury with the dead the objects which 
their phantoms have most desired in their dreams, that the shades 
of the one may take pleasure in the company of the shades of the 
other. This disposition to consider all things as like ourselves, 
as animated and ensouled, is in the same manner transferred to 
useful or injurious objects generally and leads \.o fetishism. There 
is a strain of fetishism even in the theories of physics. So long as 
we consider heat, electricity, and magnetism as mysterious and 
impalpable entities residing in bodies and imparting to them their 
known wonderful properties, we still stand on the level of fetish- 
ism. True, we invest these entities with a more stable character 
and do not attribute to them the capricious behavior which we 
deem possible in the case of living beings ; but the point of view 
indicated is not entirely discarded until exact investigation by 
means of metrical concepts has taken the place of the fetishistic 
views. 

The failure to distinguish sharply between one's thoughts and 
feelings and the perceptions of sense, which is noticeable even in 
scientific theories to-day, plays a predominant role in the philos- 
ophy of youthful individuals and nations. Things that appear 
alike in the least respect are taken to be kindred in character and 
to be closely allied also in physical efficacy. Plants that exhibit the 
slightest similarity with any part of the human body are held to be 
remedies for corresponding local disorders. The heart of the lion 
is supposed to augment courage, the phallus of the ass to be a cure 
for impotence, etc. Ample corroboration of these facts is afforded 
by the old Egyptian medical papyruses, the prescriptions of which 
are found in Pliny and even as late as Paulinus. Things that are 
desirable but difficult to obtain are sought after by the most fan- 
tastic possible combinations of ingredients, as is amply demon- 
strated by the recipes of the alchemists. One need but recall one's 



542 THE OPEN COURT. 

childhood to appreciate from personal experience this manner of 
thinking. 

The intellectual deportment of the savage is similar through- 
out to that of the child. The one strikes the fetish that has deluded 
him, the other strikes the table that has hurt him ; both talk to 
trees as they would to persons; both believe it possible to climb 
to heaven by high trees. The phantom world of fairy tales and 
the world of reality are not sharply distinguished for them. We 
know this condition from childhood. If we will but reflect that the 
children of all ages are invariably disposed to harbor thoughts of 
this character, that a goodly portion even of highly civilised peo- 
ples possesses no genuine intellectual culture but only the outward 
semblance of the same, that furthermore there always exist men 
who derive profit from fostering the lingering relics of the views of 
primitive mankind, and that entire sciences of deception even have 
been created for their preservation, we shall clearly understand 
why these habits of thought have not yet died out. We may read, 
indeed, in Petronius's Symposium of Trimalchio and in Lucian's 
Liars' Friend the same blood-curdling stories that are told to-day; 
and the belief in witchcraft now prevalent in Central Africa is 
not a whit different from that which pestered our forefathers. The 
same ideas, slightly modified, are also found in modern spiritualism. 

From manifestations of life in every respect similar to those of 
which we ourselves are the authors, the stupendous, significant, 
and wonderfully adaptive inference of an alfer ego analogous to our 
own ego is drawn. But as is the case with all thoroughly adaptive 
habits, this inference is likewise drawn where the premises do not 
justify it. True, the phenomena of the inorganic world do in a 
measure run parallel with the phenomena of the organic world; 
yet, owing to their simpler conditions, they are subject to laws of 
a far more elementary character. Something similar to will is 
doubtless existent there also, but the train of reasoning which in- 
vests trees and stones with all the attributes of human personality 
appears at our stage of civilisation unfounded. Even the critically 
trained intellect infers the agency of an alter ego in spiritualistic 
stances, but it is the ego of the performing mountebank and not 
that of a spirit. 

Darwin^ has abundantly shown that habits which were origi- 
nally adaptive continue to exist even where they are useless and 
indifferent. And there can be no doubt that they also continue to 
exist where they are even injurious, provided they do not bring 

1 The Expression of the Emotions. 



THE PROPENSITY TOWARD THE MARVELLOUS. 543 

.about the extinction of the species. The habits of thought above 
discussed are all based, in their elements, upon adaptive psychical 
functions, however monstrous they may have become in their sub- 
sequent development. Yet no one would think of saying that the 
human species has been preserved or even bettered by the human 
sacrifices of Dahomey or by the rival persecutions of witches and 
heretics inaugurated by the Church. It has simply not perished 
through these maleficent practices. 

Should any one be prone to think that the foregoing discussions 
are supererogatory for a scientific public, he is mistaken; for sci- 
ence is never severed from the life of the everyday world. It is 
the blossom of the latter, and is permeated with its ideas. When 
a chemist who has achieved fame by his beautiful discoveries in 
his science espouses spiritualism ; when a noted physicist does the 
same; when a renowned inquirer in the domain of biology, after 
expounding to us in cogent manner the grandeur of the Darwin- 
ian theory, closes with the statement that the doctrines he has set 
forth are applicable only to the organic world but not to the spirit- 
ual; when this same inquirer openly professes spiritualism; when 
prominent psychiatrists show themselves disposed upon the slight- 
est pretext to attribute extraordinary nerve-power to every female 
mountebank ; — it is certain that the intellectual malady of which I 
have here been speaking is very deeply seated, and that not alone 
in the minds of the non scientific public. The malady appears in 
the majority of cases to spring from a biassed intellectual culture 
and from a lack of philosophical training. In this event it may be 
eradicated by a study of the works of Tylor, which exhibit the psy- 
chological origin of the views under consideration in a very lucid 
manner, and so render them susceptible of critical scrutiny. But 
the situation is not infrequently different. An inquirer elevates his 
view of the fitful play of the atoms, which serves good purposes in 
limited domains, to the rank of a world conception. Is it to be 
wondered at then that his conception seems to him so barren, in- 
sipid, and inadequate as to render it possible for spiritualism to 
satisfy his intellectual, or rather sentimental, cravings? 

A few personal observations, which are instructive enough to 
make public, will show how great the demand for marvels is with 
some scientists. 

I was once in the university town of X, when several distin- 
guished inquirers, whom we shall call A, B, and C, were seized 
with the spiritualistic craze. The event was to me a psychological 
problem solely, and I resolved to take a nearer look at the situa- 



544 I'HE OPEN COURT. 

tion. At the head of the group stood A, whom I had known for a 
long time. He received me kindly and showed me the wonderful 
results of his communion with the spirits, expatiating also enthu- 
siastically and picturesquely on the happenings in the stances. In 
reply to my question as to whether he had really examined closely 
into all the things described, he answered : "Well, the fact is that 
I did not myself look into everything so closely, but you must re- 
member that careful observers like C and D," etc. C in his turn 
said: "I should not have been so much convinced by what I saw 
myself, but you must remember that accurate observers like A and 
D were present, who subjected the performances to the most 
searching scrutiny," etc., etc. I believe we are justified in draw- 
ing no other inference from this vicious circle than that any kind of 
miracle could have counted upon a sympathetic reception from 
the members of this circle. 

The chief curiosity which A showed rne was an ivory ring 
which could be slipped upon the leg of a round center-table by a 
conjuring trick only; provided of course the top of the table were 
not removable. That the top of this table could be easily removed 
I surmised from its appearance, and imparted my suspicion to an- 
other acquaintance of mine in the same town, remarking that with 
his pronounced predilection for the marvellous A had undoubtedly 
never once thought of investigating whether such was really the 
case. Years later, after A's death, I met a friend of his; the sub- 
ject accidentally came up in our conversation, and I was informed 
that while the celebrated table was being removed after A's death 
the leg fell off and the top remained in the hands of the movers. 

Let the circle K of the annexed figure be pictured as perform- 
ing a revolution in space about the axis GG, situated in the same 
plane with it, and conceive the ring thus described to be composed 
of vulcanised rubber. Then imagine a knife, MM, thrust through 
the ring, and conceive a point ;// of the blade to be carried in a 
circle round GG as axis, whilst at the same time the blade performs 
a complete rotation about vi, say in the direction of the arrow. In 
this way, the ring will be cut into two component rings, locked 
within each other. Simony ^ describes this beautiful geometric and 
substantially topologic fact along with numerous others of kindred 
character. I once showed it to an acquaintance of mine, a profes- 
sor of mechanics, who perceived at once that the two rings could 
not be separated without tearing them asunder. Now, I am a me- 

1 Simony, In ein ringfdrmiges, geschlossenes Band einen Knoten zu machen, Vienna, Ceroid 
third edition, 1881. 



THE PROPENSITV TOWARD THE MARVELLOUS. 



545 



dium, I said, and concealing the two rings for a moment behind 
my back, I placed them separate and intact upon the table. I shall 
never forget my friend's amazement. All I had done was boldly 
arid undisguisedly to exchange the locked rings for a pair of de- 
tached rings which I had in my pocket. The latter are readily ob- 
tained from the operation indicated above by first turning the blade 
of the knife one-half a revolution about m in one direction and then 
one-half a revolution in the opposite direction. The two pairs of 
rings are sufficiently alike to be easily confounded. 

I wanted to show my friend how easy it was to be deceived, 
but his penchant for mysticism was not to be eradicated by my 




efforts. As a devotee of homeopathy he found a corroboration of 
his views in the discovery that the merest vestiges of sulphuric 
acid were sufficient for effecting the electrolysis of water, whereas 
pure water did not permit of electrolysis. He claimed to have 
been cured once of a serious affection of the lungs by natrium tnii- 
riaticufn (table salt) in minute doses, diluted in the ratio of i to 
100,000. The remark that the accidental variations in the saline 
constituents of the food which he ate must have been many thou- 
sand times greater than the doses of his physician, could not shake 
his opinion, which he doubtless carried with him to the grave. 

There was once on exhibition in a certain city a girl who had 
been struck by lightning, and who in consequence of the stroke 



546 THE OPEN COURT. 

ever afterwards gave forth electric sparks. She was not con- 
fined to one spot, but was free to move about at will. An old 
gentleman, Mr. S., an able professional man, was disposed to take 
the matter seriously, to the undisguised gratification of the pro- 
prietor of the show, who must have chuckled gleefully to himself, 
and inwardly repeated the adage, difficile est satyram non scribere. 
Mr. S. persuaded me to go and see the curiosity. I recognised 
the sparks as those of a small Ruhmkorff coil, but was unable to 
discover the connexions, despite the fact that I had brought along 
with me a cane covered with a strip of tinfoil. My machinist, how- 
ever, who was a versatile conjurer, lighted upon the secret of the 
device after a brief autopsy, and an hour later exhibited to the old 
gentleman his own son similarly affected. The old gentleman was 
delighted, but when shown the simple contrivance by which the 
trick had been effected, he cried out: "No, that was not the way 
it was done ! " and disappeared. 

Of the common run of spiritualistic stances I will say nothing 
here. They afford abundant opportunity for observing the ingenu- 
ousness of the so-called "educated" public with its insatiable 
thirst for miracles, as well as the artfulness, sagacity, and knowl- 
edge of human nature displayed by the mountebanks. I, for my 
part, have always felt on such occasions as if I had been trans- 
ported among savages, in the very heart of Europe. 

The tricks of the spiritualists have been repeatedly imitated by 
prestidigitateurs and sceptics; and the methods have been revealed 
by which they can be performed. Many mediums have been ex- 
posed and have been found guilty of resorting to the tricks of the 
prestidigitateur. The psychological principles by which the pres- 
tidigitateur proceeds^ are very simple. The psychological habit of 
regarding things which are at all alike as identical is turned to fre- 
quent account here, as in the rapid interchange of similar objects, 
or where the conjurer assuming an expression of deepest sincerity, 
appears to perform movements which he does not perform, but 
which are believed to have been performed. A second method is 
that of concentrating the attention upon a time or place where ap- 
parently the event of greatest importance is taking place, whilst in 
reality that event is being enacted at a different time and a differ- 
ent place. An excellent example of the effectiveness of this method 
is afforded by the well-known question : "Which is correct, 7 and 
9 are 15, or 7 and 9 is 15?" The person addressed, haviiig his at- 

1 See Max Dessoir, The Psycliology o/ Legerdemain, in The Open Court, Nos. 291-295, 1893. 



THE PROPENSITY TOWARD THE MARVELLOUS. 547 

tention diverted to the grammatical form of the sentence, seldom 
notices the arithmetical error, at first impulse. 

But explanations of this character have no weight with devo- 
tees. The tricks which conjurers perform by natural methods are 
performed for them by spirits, by supernatural methods. Newton's 
rules of admitting only true causes for the explanation of phenom- 
ena, of not assuming more causes than are necessary for explana- 
tion, of explaining like phenomena everywhere by like causes, 
appear to be unknown to these people. On the other hand, 
many persons to whom spiritualism is instinctively repulsive or 
who stand in tear of its practical consequences, do not always as- 
sume the correct attitude. They frequently characterise spiritual- 
ism as a "superstitious belief "and recommend as a preventive 
against it "the true belief." But who is to decide which belief 
really is true? If such a decision were possible, it would be wrong 
to speak of belief; we should then rather have to speak of knowl- 
edge. History arouses our apprehensions here. For as compared 
with the atrocities with which the extravagant outbreaks of the 
various "true beliefs" have in times past beatified us, the conse- 
quences of spiritualism are, by virtue of their private character, the 
merest pleasantries. It would be inadvisable accordingly to drive 
out the Devil by the hand of Beelzebub. The preferable course 
would seem to be to regard that alone as true and acceptable from 
a scientific point of view which admits of demonstrative proof, and 
to entertain in practical life and in science only such suppositions 
as may lay claim to a high degree of probability from the point of 
view of sound and sober criticism. 

The fallacy of that wide-spread movement of modern thought 
which fosters spiritualism along with many other intellectual aber- 
rations does not consist of the undue attention which it devotes to 
extraordinary phenomena per se, for these the natural inquirer, even 
more than any other, may not neglect. Indeed, it is almost invari- 
ably extraordinary phenomena like the attraction of light particles 
by rubbed amber, the adherence of iron filings to certain ores, that 
lead in their subsequent development to results of greatest sig- 
nificance. The fallacy is also not to be looked for in the belief 
that our knowledge of nature is not exhaustive and definitive. No 
natural inquirer will imagine for a moment that new discoveries of 
great import are impossible, that new and undreamed-of relations 
between the facts of nature may not still be revealed. The error 
of these people lies rather in their reckless and uncritical pursuit of 
miracles as such, and in the childish and unthinking delight which 



458 THE OPEN COURT. 

they take in contemplating them and which is productive invari- 
ably of chronic insensibility to what is genuinely marvellous and 
worthy of investigation. 

Do not far greater marvels encompass us in reality than the 
pseudo-miracles that the spiritualists offer ? They can lift them- 
selves upon a chair in the dark, but we are able, in broad day- 
light, before the eyes of all, and by means known to all, to raise 
ourselves thousands of yards into the air. We can speak with a 
friend many miles distant the same as we can with a person at our 
side, and this by the aid of a spirit who does not capriciously con- 
ceal himself or act the miser with his powers, but who has freely 
revealed to us those powers and placed them at our disposal. A 
three-cornered piece of glass enables us to determine the composi- 
tion of objects millions of miles away. By means of a few magic 
formulae, which are concealed from no man, our engineers discover 
how a waterfall can be compelled to illuminate our town, by what 
means steam can be made to draw our burdens, how mountains 
can be tunneled and valleys bridged. A talisman of heavy metal 
in my pocket, which every man can acquire by labor, gains for me, 
by a phenomenal understanding on the part of spirits, everywhere 
in the world a kindly reception. Even when alone in my own 
study, I am still not alone. Spirits still stand ready at my beck. 
A problem perplexes me ; I reach out now for this and now for 
that volume, and suddenly I observe that I have taken counsel of 
the dead. Galileo, Newton, and Euler have aided me. I too can 
call up the spirits of the dead. And when 1 rouse to life again in 
my own person some great thought of Newton, or develop that 
thought to remoter consequences, then I have called up the spirits 
of the dead in a far different fashion from the spiritualists, who 
can extract from their ghosts the expression of nonsensical com- 
monplaces only. 

Are not these far more stupendous miracles — miracles which 
have actually transformed the world? But they have their draw- 
backs. Their working is fraught with far more toil than is the 
making of one's hair stand on end in a darkened room ; and it is 
certainly far less alluring, since, by the common belief, anyone has 
a chance of becoming a medium. 

But the mere taking note of what is extraordinary is not the 
sole factor by which our knowledge of nature is advanced. There 
is requisite, in addition, the resolution of the extraordinary into 
the ordinary, the elimination of the miraculous. The two opera- 
tions, however, need not be combined in any one person or in any 



THE PROPENSITY TOWARD THE MARVELLOUS. 549 

one period. The alchemists, while proceeding altogether uncriti- 
cally, made some remarkable observations, which subsequently 
were put to good use. And the possibility is also not excluded that 
the modern inquirers into miracle-working may unearth some val- 
uable results. Attention has again been called by this movement of 
thought to the almost forgotten arts of hypnosis and suggestion ; 
why should not something more of that character and perhaps of 
greater moment be brought to light? 

Of real observations and results there can of course be no 
question, so long as this domain, which requires the nicest critical 
discernment for its exploration, remains the rendezvous of credulous 
and uncritical minds. One is confronted everyday with the results 
that are forthcoming when people are determined to see only what 
is remarkable, and care naught for criticism. I once visited while 
a student Baron von Reichenbach, the famous investigator of od. 
According to his frank confession he himself saw absolutely noth- 
ing of the wonderful phenomena which he so minutely described, 
but obtained his information altogether from the persons upon 
whom he was experimenting. One of these persons, Frau Ruf, 
confessed to Fechner after Reichenbach's death that the statements 
of her experiences had been wheedled from her by cross-examina- 
tion. I gained an ineradicable impression of Reichenbach's method 
from the following experiment : Passing a ray of light through a 
piece of Iceland spar, he split it into two parts, each of which 
was directed into a glass of water ; the water of one of these glasses 
became in this manner od-positive and that of the other od-nega- 
tive; but it seems never to have occurred to him that the od-posi- 
tive water would have been changed into od-negative by simple 
rotation through go"". 

We will not be disposed to condemn the "method" of the 
spiritualists too severely, if we compare it with the method em- 
ployed by many psycho-pathologists and neuro-pathologists. When 
we are told by a physician that a person has been made by sugges- 
tion to see an elephant upon a piece of blank paper, we believe it ; 
but when we are told that the same person picked out the same 
piece of paper from a packet of similar empty sheets, and saw the 
elephant upon this sheet only, and saw it inverted when the sheet 
was accidentally inverted, saw it magnified through an opera glass, 
and reduced in size when the opera glass was inverted, — then this 
scientific statement taxes rather too severely our credulity. Why 
not rather say everything is possible, and give up all further inves- 
tigation as unnecessary? 



550 THE OPEN COURT. 

Constant appeals to our ignorance and to the incompleteness 
of our knowledge, which is denied by no genuine inquirer, are in- 
deed characteristic of the methods of the professional miracle- 
seekers or occultists. But the conjectures which may be built upon 
our ignorance are infinitely numerous, while those which are built 
upon our knowledge are as a rule but few. The latter are accord- 
ingly alone qualified to serve as starting-points for further investi- 
gation. Whereas the miracle-seekers see in the incompleteness of 
our knowledge the possibility and necessity of an extraordinary 
and phenomenal extension of the same, the obscurantists both 
within and without science base upon this incompleteness their 
claims for casting doubt upon the actual results which have been 
already obtained. How often have we been obliged to hear that 
the Darwinian theory is still nothing more than a hypothesis, to 
the demonstration of which much is still lacking, and this from 
people who would fill up the gaps of science with the relics of 
mysticism which they have carried with them from their childhood 
days and which for them it would seem is no hypothesis. The 
result of this procedure is in both cases the same, the substitution 
of chimerical illusions for sound, productive knowledge. 

The observation of singularities in nature does not alone con- 
stitute science; the elimination of them is also a factor in its com- 
position. So long as a person sees a miracle in the saving of power 
accomplished by the lever, so long as he regards it as an exception, 
and deceiving both himself and others sets to work to construct a 
perpetual-motion machine on its principles, — that person still 
stands upon the level of the alchemist. Not until he has perceived 
with Stevinus that the "marvel is no marvel" has he made a real 
scientific advance. In the place of intellectual intoxication now 
comes the delight which springs from logical order and from the 
intellectual resolution of what is apparently heterogeneous and 
manifold. The propensity to mysticism appears frequently with 
unmistakable distinctness even in the exact sciences. Many a 
bizarre theory owes its origin to this propensity. Even the prin- 
ciple of energy is not without a mystical coloring in some of its 
conceptions. And, to take a commoner instance, with what satis- 
faction are not people often heard to remark upon the marvels 
which we can accomplish with electricity, without ever knowing 
what electricity really is? What else, pray, can electricity be than 
the totality of the facts in question, all of which we know and of 
which, as Popper^ has aptly said, we hope to know still more? This 
state of affairs may afford some apology for our having placed the 
propensity to mysticism in so drastic a light here. 

1 Die Grundsdtze der elektrischen Kraftubertragung. Vienna, Hartleben. 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 

THE SOCIETY WHICH CAUSED THE RIOTS, AND LED TO 
WAR IN CHINA. 

BY THE REV. GEORGE T. CANDLIN. 

THIS Society has been wrongly named the "Boxer Society.' 
Though pugiHsm and wrestling are to some extent practised, 
"boxing" is entirely unknown in China. It is therefore inadmis- 
sible to call them "Boxers." The word employed by themselves, 
cJi'iien, means literally "the fist," and the phrase ta ch^iien Vou 
means to practise pugilism. But the exercises they engage in, 
now notorious to residents in China, and which have been named 
"Boxer Drill," bear little or no resemblance either to pugilism or 
to boxing. They consist of the repetition of words supposed to 
act as charms, violent contortions of the body, which appear to in- 
duce a state of trance, during which the subject is supposed to de- 
liver to the by-standers occult messages respecting the movement. 
On resuming his normal state he is said to be quite unconscious of 
anything he has said during his peculiar ecstacy. 

The Association has named itself, in the numerous placards it 
has issued, by two slightly varying names which are used by it 
with about equal freedom, the I Ho Chiien or the I Ho T'uan. In 
each of these names the two first of the ideographs are the same, and 
there is no doubt about their meaning; /in this connexion means 
"volunteer," and ho means "combined," "associated," ch'uen 
means "the fist," or as its etymology implies the hand rolled up ; 
fuan means a guard or train-band. Volunteer Associated Fists or 
Volunteer Associated Train-bands may sound a little clumsy in 
Western languages, but they are at any rate correct translations of 
the names these remarkable rebels have chosen for themselves. 

The Society aims at nothing less than the expulsion of all 



552 



THE OPEN COURT. 



foreigners and all things foreign from China and the restoration of 
the Empire to its former position of exclusion and self-sufficiency. 
Its animus is peculiarly strong against foreign religions, not only 
because the missionary pervades the whole interior of the country, 
nor yet because his converts are now, for the first time, becoming 
a body respectable by its numbers and thoroughly imbued with 
sentiments earnestly desirous of foreign intercourse and innovation, 
but also because its leaders, by a true instinct, divine that religion 
is the great transforming force which, once permitted to permeate 



•^^ -ite,? SS;. i-i K W ?S!: <r> \X. 
fSt?^ t f*' W; i: i^-; ^i ^' 




Chinese Imperial Troops Pursuing and Slaying Boxers. 
From the Tung-Wcn-Hn-Pao, a Chinese newspaper of Tien-tsin. 



the very springs and secret spiritual forces of the nation's life, will 
" make all things new." This animus again reaches its most ex- 
treme point of intensity in its opposition to the Roman Catholic 
missions, these being the longest established and the most numer 
ous, and having, so far as we can learn, done more to protect and 
assist their converts in cases of litigation than the Protestant mis- 
sions. 

But these distinctions are trivial. In the significant phrase 
often employed in their literature everything foreign is to be driven 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 



553 



off, — merchant hongs, machine shops, railways, telegraphs, guns, 
rifles: they propose to "make a clean sweep." The Society has 
been spoken of as patriotic, and it is for this reason, so it is said, 
that it is protected by the Empress Dowager. This, however, does 
not hinder it from assailing the government as it stands, and the 
Emperor himself with all the highest officials in the Empire is 
fiercely assailed in its publications. We are therefore justified in 
regarding it as a rebellion. Its manifesto seems rather against in- 
dividual rulers than against the dynasty itself. Its aim differs from 




Boxers Sacking and Firing a Christian Mission. 
From the Ttmg- Wen-Hu-Pao, a Chinese newspaper of Tien-tsin. 



that of former rebellions and all other secret societies known to us, 
inasmuch as it is not a crusade of Ming against Ching. It is favored 
by the Manchu, and a prince of the blood is said to be a member 
of its secret conclave. The Ta Tao Hut, Great Sword Society, has 
been supposed to be only another name for the same association. 
It is much more likely that the Great Sword Society was altogether 
of a subordinate character, but, with many other secret societies, 
has been caught in the swirl of the vast organisation which has so 
suddenly and mysteriously sprung into activity. The / Flo Ch'iien 



554 



THE OPEN COURT. 



itself is not exactly of recent date, and the latest Imperial Proc- 
lamation refers to it by name as existing during the reign of Chia 
Ch'ing. 

Altogether the most singular feature of the strange movement 
is the peculiar relation to it of young children. In every district 
and in every town it has visited it has commenced its work among 
young people ranging between the ages of ten and twenty. The 
"drill" is always commenced by them. We have ourselves seen 
them practising it, and have received scores of reports of its exer- 
cise in town and village, but always when the question has been put 
what kind of people are they, the reply has been hsiao hat tzii, small 
children. Until actual rioting commenced we had never heard 
of grown men appearing in the movement. This has been the 
principal reason why it has been treated lightly by foreign observ- 
ers, and perhaps has had something to do with the inactivity of the 
Chinese officials in dealing with it. Mandarins would not arrest 
and foreigners could not take seriously the doings of very young 
boys and even girls, until the sudden outburst of murderous and 
incendiary attacks proved that after all it was no mere child's play. 

Of course when the rebels actually appear in arms it is men 
and not children who do the destructive work, but until that stage 
is reached, it appears for the most part an affair of children. It 
is not simply the case that children are aping in public the secret 
doings of their elders. They are an essential factor in the growth 
of the Society, in every place where it makes its appearance. It 
is they who most readily induce the strange trance characteristic 
of the "drill." To them the mystic messages of the impending 
advent of their leaders are given. They are its plastic and docile 
mediums. 

We have never been able to quite clear up this point, but their 
supposed possession of supernatural power seems to be somehow 
connected with the marriage ceremony. In the placards are mys- 
terious allusions to the "light of the Red Lamp," and the rebels, 
in addition to wearing red turbans and red girdles, are said to carry 
red lamps. There is, however, a deeper meaning than this at- 
tached to the phrase /mng tcng chao. The hung tcng is an invariable 
adjunct of the bridal chamber. Oar^ means "to light," "to illu- 
minate," or "to reveal." Early marriage is practised in China, and 
it is a curious fact that the marriage age exactly tallies with that of 
the youths engaged in these singular exercises. It is certain that 
in addition to much other mythology the movement involves the 
idea of a revelation, and there is ground for supposing that the 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 555 

revelation is somehow or other connected with the institution of 
marriage and that hung tcng chao maybe translated "the enlight- 
ening of the bridal chamber." 

The Society's method of procedure as it appears to the out- 
side observer is as follows : In any particular place which has been 
so far undisturbed by their operations, the rumors become more 
persistent and wonderful as to their doings in other districts, pla- 
cards of the character which we print below begin to appear, some- 
times mysteriously posted on the walls of buildings by night, some- 
times handed to individuals on a crowded market. A general 
state of mingled excitement, fear, and expectation is created, and 
especially the idea of the advent of invincible swordsmen, armed 
with supernatural power, and teachers and leaders, is instilled 
into the mind of a populace superstitious in the extreme, and a 
large portion of whom are ripe for any mischief and supremely 
covetous of loot. Then children, varying in age from ten to 
twenty, are seen in vacant spaces and on the corners of the streets 
"drilling." In addition to the revelations considered to be con- 
nected with these strange exercises, they are supposed to render 
those who engage in them invulnerable, alike to sword thrusts and 
rifle bullets. Gradually their numbers increase, older people take 
part, and then for the first time definite organisation is proposed. 
Leaders are appointed, adherents are formed into what are called 
lu, "hearths." These "hearths" are equivalent to camps. They 
number five hundred each, and every member is sworn in to obey 
the leaders, to sleep and take food together, and to have the grain 
and meal necessary for their support sent from home. The next 
step is to commence work by setting fire to some foreign house, 
railway station, mission chapel, or other obnoxious building, put- 
ting to the sword all native Christians they can find, and any hap- 
less "foreign devil" who may fall into their hands. In the per- 
formance of this part of the programme it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish the rebels from the populace. Swarming in thousands, 
they murder, destroy, and loot till there is little left behind. 

In this way, though on a comparatively small scale, the work 
of the Society was commenced more than a year ago, and large 
numbers of Chinese Christians in the interior of Shantung were 
harried out of house and home, taking refuge in the foreign quar- 
ters of their mission. The murder of the Rev. Sydney Brooke, a 
member of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, near 
Ping-yin, was an incident in their campaign of ravage. 

The movement has grown to enormous proportions during the 



556 THE OPEN COURT. 

year. It is much to be feared the court itself and the higher offi- 
cials have connived at its destructive work ; at any rate every Chi- 
nese official, civil and military, has been paralysed before it. Within 
hardly more than a month, starting with the massacre of some hun- 
dreds of Roman Catholic Christians in the villages round Pao- 
tingfu, it has swept down the Lu Han railway line, driving the 
Belgian Engineers before it, and though they made a brave stand 
again and again, killing four of them, — the rest of the party arriv- 
ing wounded and almost naked in Tientsin, — it has burnt and 
looted every station on the line, wrecked the railway, demolished 
the shops at Fengtai, invested Pekin, poured down on the port of 
Tientsin, it has shut up all the foreign ministers in Pekin, the Jap 
anese Secretary of Legation has been murdered, the advance of 
the British Admiral with a mixed body of three thousand foreign 
troops has been driven back on Tientsin, the Settlement there has 
been sacked, and at the moment of writing we do not know how 
many of the foreign residents of Pekin or Tientsin are alive, or 
what is the fate of the railway from Taku to Tangshan, and of the 
large railway works and mines there, which foreigners have been 
compelled to abandon. 

Though very little information of a conclusive character is to 
be had, and there is, therefore, no absolute proof of its existence, 
everything points to the existence of a very powerful inner council 
or conclave, which, working in profound secret, matures the plans 
by which the Society works. It has been hatched in Buddhist 
monasteries and the purlieus of the yamens. Priests of the Bud 
dhist faith are among the leaders. Governor Yii of Shantung and 
one of the princes of the blood, Tung Fu Hsiang, a much trusted 
Chinese general, and even the Empress Dowager herself, have been 
boldly mentioned as members of it. This council concocts the 
mysterious placards, sends forerunners who work up the bands in 
various districts, and has men in it of sufficient influence to bring 
over to its side the gentry of each district and above all to silenc 
the officials. 

The four placards of which we append translations may be 
taken as representatives of the mysterious literature of the Society. 
They have well marked features in common although put out in 
places many miles apart, and more especially what for want of a 
better term we may call the mythology of the movement is the 
same. Succinctly stated, it is as follows : 

The present is a peculiar era in the history of the Empire 
when the interference of power from heaven is to rescue it from 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 557 

the clutches of all foreigners and from the defilements of all foreign 
innovations. This is done by sending down from heaven uncount- 
able legions of spiritual soldiers, generally spoken of as svi^ords- 
men. These spiritual warriors, being invisible, and, apart from 
human agency, impotent, it is necessary that they should "pos- 
sess" ordinary men in order to effect their purpose. The so-called 
drill has for its object to induce "possession," and individuals so 
possessed become invulnerable and invincible in fight. 

It may seem strange that any considerable number of people 
can be found capable of crediting so wild a notion. Precisely here 
is the difficulty which the Occidental mind finds in really under- 
standing the Orient. Extravagant as it may sound, there is no 
Chinaman high or low, friend or foe to the Society, from the Em- 
press Dowager downward, who does not believe in the reality and 
power of this so-called possession. 

We will now introduce the Placards. The first is a somewhat 
long one and in the original is in verse. This detracts nothing 
from its serious character. In China even official proclamations 
are issued in versified form. It is dated the third day of the third 
month, which in the Western calendar is April 2d. This date was 
some time before the beginning of the Paotingfu massacre. The 
translation of this and the following placards has been purposely 
made more literal than really good translation would allow, in order 
to keep up the peculiar idioms of the original, and it will strike the 
reader as being somewhat Biblical in its expressions. It is merely 
the natural utterance of Eastern ideas. It was issued in the dis- 
trict of Paotingfu. 

BOXER PLACARD NO. i. 

The Chinese Empire has been celebrated for its sacred teaching. It explained 
the decrees of heaven and taught human duties, and its civilising influence spread 
like an ornament over river and hill. 

But all this has been changed in an unaccountable manner. For the past five 
or six generations bad officials have been in trust, bureaus have been opened for 
the sale of offices, and only those who had money to pay for it have been allowed 
to hold positions in the government The graduation of scholars has become use- 
less, and members of the college of literature and scholars of the third degree are 
in obscurity at home. An official position can only be obtained at the price of 
silver. The Emperor covets the riches of his ministers, these again extort from 
the lower ranks of the mandarinate, and the lower mandarins in turn (by the neces- 
sity of their position) must extort from the people. The whole populace is sunk in 
wretchedness, and all the officials are spoilers of their goods. The condition of the 
yamens is unspeakable. In every market and in every guild nothing can be done 
except money be spent. The officials must be bribed, all sorts of exactions are 
made. The people, ignorant and helpless, are the only ones who cannot practise 



558 THE OPEN COURT. 

extortion. These officials are full of schemes, none of which are in accordance 
with the three principles. Having forfeited their heaven-derived disposition, they 
are unreasonable and unregulated. They are all alike, ill-gotten wealth is their 
one object. Right has disappeared from the world. There is nothing but squab- 
bling and extortion on all hands, and law-suits are unnumbered. In the yamens 
it is useless to have a clear case ; unless you bribe you will lose the day. There is 
none to whom the aggrieved may appeal. The simple multitudes are killed with 
oppression, and their cry goes up to heaven itself and is heard of God. Though 
spiritual beings and sages had been sent down to teach right principles, to issue 
good books, and instruct the multitude ; few alas heeded. Who is there that under- 
stands ? The evil go on their course rejoicing, while the spiritual powers are con- 
scious that their teaching has been vain. 

Now, in anger, the heavenly powers are sending down multitudes of spirits to 
earth to make inquiry of all, both high and low. The Emperor himself, the chief 
offender, has had his succession cut off and is childless. The whole court, both 
civil and military, is in an unspeakable condition. The widows cry in vain, they 
blindly sport, repenting of nothing and learning nothing good. 

Greater calamities still have overtaken the nation. Foreign devils have come 
with their teaching, and converts to Christianity, Roman Catholic and Protestant 
have become numerous. These (Churches) are without human relations, but most 
cunning, have attracted all the greedy and covetous as converts, and to an unlim- 
ited degree they have practised oppression, until every good official has been cor- 
rupted, and covetous of foreign wealth has become their servant. So telegraphs 
and railways have been established, foreign rifles and guns have been manufac- 
tured, and machine shops have been their evil delight. Locomotives, balloons 
electric lamps the foreign devils think excellent. Though they ride in sedans un- 
befitting their rank, China yet regards them as barbarians of whom God dis- 
approves and is sending down spirits and genii for their destruction. The first of 
these powers which has already descended is the light of the Red Lamp, and the 
Volunteer Associated Fists who will have a row with the devils. They will burn 
down the foreign houses and restore the temples. Foreign goods of every kind 
they will destroy. They will extirpate the evil demons and establish right teach 
ing — the honor of the spirits and the sages — they will cause to flourish their sacred 
teaching. The purpose of heaven is fixed and a clean sweep is to be made. Within 
three years all will be accomplished. The bad will not escape the net and the 
goodness of God will be seen. The secrets of heaven are not to be lightly dis- 
closed. Tha day of peace to come is yet unknown, but at least the Yin Mao Years 
(1902-1903) must come before the time of long life. Our little song ends here in a 
promise of happiness to men, the joy of escape from being cut oft". This last word 
summary of all. 

Scholars and gentlemen must by no means esteem this a light and idle curse, 
and so disregard its warning. 

There are two significant features about this production. It 
unsparingly arraigns the whole body of Chinese rulers, including 
the Emperor himself, and it links together by ties of cause and 
effect the introduction of foreign religions, foreign customs, and 
foreign goods, with official corruption. Every foreign resident in 
China will thoroughly agree with the former portion but will be 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 559 

amazed at the latter. We do not look to be blamed for the cor- 
rupt doings of the Mandarins which we are never tired of condemn- 
ing. Yet to a Chinaman who does not understand that our position 
is due simply to the exercise of force, it is quite natural, and in- 
deed inevitable, to assume that it is bribery that brought in the 
foreigner and all his ways. 

Our next specimen is also from the district of Paotingfu, and 
was issued about the same time as the last one. It is much more 
minatory in character and might be called the "Ten Plagues." 
Its style seems peculiarly calculated to fascinate and excite the 
public mind. The first clause is in the nature of an invocation. 
The phrase, "in the presence of," is in the original lin fan, liter- 
ally "descends to the altar." The idea of the writer is that the 
present is a time peculiar for her appearance. We attach a few 
notes to elucidate obscure points. This placard, judging by its 
style, is probably a Buddhist production. 

BOXER PLACARD NO. II. 

In the presence of the revered Mother, the Goddess of Mercy. 

This year being one of rapine and swordsmen being peculiarly evil, {a) the 
myriad-fold holy one {b) has descended to earth, and the good and the evil are to 
receive speedy retribution. Since the multitude have ceased to believe in Buddha 
and are unfilial towards their parents, {c) high heaven is despatching in its anger a 
million spiritual soldiers to reward the good and punish the evil. By burning in- 
cense night and day, and practising filial piety, an entire family may escape the 
bitterness of the sword. But whatever family may set their hearts to revile the 
gods and to neglect filial behavior toward father and mother, that family will be 
cut off and will fall into perdition. Should the people continue in unbelief there 
will follow hereafter ten unescapable sorrows (,d). 

First Sorrow. — Incense burning will cease throughout the Empire. 

Second Sorrow. — Blood will flow and fill the streams of all the hills. 

Third Sorrow. — Grain and meal will become refuse {e). 

Fourth Sorrow.— All the living will be involved in iniquity. 

Fifth Sorrow. — The roads will be without passengers. 

Sixth Sorrow. — Orphans and widows will speak of their dwelling-place ( /'). 

Seventh Sorrow. — There will be none to protect from rapine. 

Eighth Sorrow. — All the living will enter the Yellow Springs {g). 

Ninth Sorrow. — Disease and distress will afflict the people. 

Tenth Sorrow. — There will be no peaceful years. 

Issued under the light of the Red Lamp at Such'iao [Ji). If those who see 
this paper circulate it immediately they will escape the suffering of the sword. 

(a) "Swordsmen being peculiarly qvW," tao ping ta hsuiig . This phrase is 
somewhat obscure. Compare the Bible phrase "When I bring the sword upon a 
land." 

(b) "The myriad-fold holy one." zuan shhig. A title of laudation bestowed 
on the goddess of mercy by her worshippers. 



560 THE OPEN COURT. 

(c) Mark the close association of idol-worship with filial piety. 

(d) " Unescapable sorrows," ?iafi mieyi Izil ts'ou, literally "most difficult to 
escape." It is perhaps not necessary to translate by the stronger term " unescap- 
able," but the idiom is in use and is probably the sense intended. 

{e) " Grain and meal will become refuse," Av/ /'//, literally "dung and earth,' 
i. e., thrown about and trodden under foot. 

{J'} " Orphans and widows etc." This is the most pathetic of all the "ten 
sorrows." The first question asked in China is your name, and the second, where 
you come from. The idea is that they will be scattered far from home and to the 
familiar inquiry will give sad reply. 

(^) "The Yellow Springs," a poetic and mythological expression for Hades 
the place of the dead. 

(/i) Such'iao, a town near Paotingfu. Not Suchow near Shanghai. 

Our third specimen is a handbill which was being distributed 
on market-day at a town some twenty miles north-west of Yang- 
shan, the great mining and railway center in North China. It was 
handed to us by a Chinese friend into whose hand it was thrust. 
Li Po was a famous poet of the T'ang dynasty. We do not know 
what his name is doing here. This placard contains internal evi- 
dence of being written by a Buddhist priest. Two of its ideographs 
are written in an ancient style peculiar to temple literature. Singu- 
larly enough terms used for foreigners are not abusive. 

BOXER PLACARD NO. III. 
The bestower of happiness, the God of Wealth. 

A CIRCULAR FROM LI PO. 

Inasmuch as the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches have deceived the 
spirits and destroyed the (teachings of) the sages, and are not obedient to the law 
of Buddha, eighty thousand spiritual soldiers will come in the clouds to sweep out 
the foreigners from abroad. Express divination has been made that, before long, 
swordsmen will come rolling down, and calamity will be on the army and the peo- 
ple. The Buddhist Volunteer Associated Train-bands are able to pacify the people 
and defend the empire. Upon sight of this, such persons as distribute three copies 
will avert calamity from one family, while those who distribute ten copies will 
avert calamity from a whole village. Those who, having met with, refuse to dis 
tribute, will be liable to the punishment of decapitation. 

Unless the foreigners are subjugated there will be no rain. 

If any persons have taken poison from foreigners the following recipe is a 
specific against it : 

I. Dried Plums 7 mace. 
II. Euonymus Bark 5 mace. 
III. Liquorice Root 5 mace. 

The last placard needs no special note. It was posted in 
Yangshan itself, where the writer was resident about June 15th. 
It ascribes the want of rain to the disturbing influence of foreign- 



THE ASSOCIATED FISTS. 561 

ers,. There had been a terribly dry spring, with unceasing wind, 
and famine was in prospect for the district. 

BOXER PLACARD NO. IV. 

For the information of dear friends in each village. 

It is not generally known that the reason why there is no rain this year is that 
on the fourth day of the fifth month, between the hours of three and five in the 
afternoon, the Volunteer Associated Train-bands will entreat the god of fire to de- 
scend and burn the Protestant Christian Church. The Volunteer Associated Train- 
bands will have swordsmen rolling in. If any one doubts this let him observe the 
dust-storms now blowing. 

Buddha, the Illuminated, is manifesting his sacred character to Governor Yii 
of Shantung, and in a dream has given the sacred word that on the fourth day of 
the fifth month no fire is to be kindled. Those who are accustomed to be in close 
proximity to fire must remain still for the first five days and will thus escape dis- 
aster from fire. The Volunteer Associated Train-bands on this account publish 
the present circular. Those who distribute many copies will save many lives, 
while those who distribute few will save a few. 

The following is a translation in prose of the Rhyme and Motto 
said to be uttered in "Drill" when the neophyte first stands on a 
cross marked on the ground. 

RHYME AND MOTTO OF THE BOXER DRILL. 

Heavenward strike and heaven's gate will open, 
Earthward strike and earth's gate will open. 

You must learn the i ho cJiiien, 

But the teachers have yet to arrive. 

With composed mind and sincere heart practice the i ho ch'iieu. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



MADAME CLEMENCE ROYER. 



The appearance of a new voluminous work on cosmogony, the Constitution 
du monde : Dynamiqiie dcs atomes: Noui'eaiix f^-incifes de fhilosophie tiatn- 
relle} by Madame Clemence Royer, marks the crowning and definitive event of a 



ife of single and unceasing devotion to science. 




Madame Clemence Koyer in 1865. 



It is a monumental production 
in whatever way one may look 
at it. It shows vast learning, a 
profound acquaintance with the 
mathematical and physical sci- 
ences, and a powerful command 
of philosophical literature. It 
is unofficial and unoracular in 
its utterances, unaffiliated with 
any school or set of doctrines; 
it is at direct variance with many 
of our most cherished intellec- 
tual and scientific prejudices; 
it may be said to contain, from 
the point of view of received 
and accredited scientific opin- 
ion, many vagaries and unten- 
able theories. It has the fan- 
tastic and hypothetical coloring 
of all speculative cosmogonies, 
the unfailing drawbacks of a 
luxuriant scientific imagination, 
metaphysically applied. Yet it 
stands as a unique performance 
even in a country which has 
produced a Sophie Germain, 
and merits attention from the 



mere character, courage, and altitude of its effort, if not from its positive and 
enduring contents. 

Madame Clemence Royer, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, political econ- 
omist, physical scientist, and philosopher, came of ancient Breton stock, the source 
1 Paris: Schleiclier Frores, 15 Rue des Saints-Pures. 1900. Pages, xxii, 799. Price, 15 francs. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



563 



of some of the sturdiest intellects of France, and was born at Nantes, April 21, 
1830. The years of her early womanhood were spent in Switzerland, where she 
devoted herself assiduously to scientific study and research. She lectured profes 
sibnally at Lausanne, Neuchatel, Chaux-de-Fonds, and Geneva. She wrote there 
also, at the instance of the government, an economic treatise, which shared the 
prize with the celebrated socialist, Proudhon. Lamarck and the theory of evolu- 
tion were early subjects of her studies, and she was the first to translate the 
Origin of Sfecies into French : she was the god-mother of Darwinism in France 
These labors were supplemented by numerous memoirs in the encyclopedias, dic- 
tionaries, and technical reviews on evolutionary topics, and subsequently by a 
large number of independent works on the origin of society, and on a great variety 
of geological, archaeological, astronomical, physical, politico-economical, and phil- 
osophical subjects. 

But great as Madame Royer's activity was, it was not productive and it was 
officially not recognised. Little 
came from her pen, — for science 
is a profession of love, not a 
profession of bread. From her 
earliest days she had been com- 
pelled to make her livelihood 
chiefly by lecturing ; and the de- 
clining years of her life, intel- 
lectually strong but physically 
blighted, have been spent in 
Neuilly amid the protecting 
walls of the maison de retraite 
founded by the celebrated Ga- 
lignani brothers as an asylum 
of refuge for authors, printers, 
and booksellers. The one bright 
spot in this sombre sojourn was 
the brilliant fete tendered her 
in 1897 in the halls of the Grand 
Hotel by the intellectual elite of 
Paris and of France, — a tardy 
justice, splendidly satisfactory 
from a spiritual point of view, 
but f)artaking, materially, some- 
what of the nature of a post- 
humous consolation. 

With regard to Madame Royer's new volume, published through the generos- 
ity of a friend, Madame Valentine Barrier, we may be brief. It is a work of eru- 
dition, concerned with such questions as the historical evolution of the idea of mat- 
ter, the mathematical, logical, and metaphysical laws of being, phenomena of 
vibration (heat, light, sound, etc.), the physical and chemical constitution of solid, 
liquid, and gaseous bodies, the nature of life, gravitation, the theory of the tides 
and the evolution of worlds. It is filled with numerous finely executed diagrams 
and brilliantly colored plates, illustrative of the text, and its pages bristle with for- 
mulae. To study the work critically, considerable knowledge of the exact sciences 
is requisite, but the introductory parts and the chapters on the evolution of the 




Madame Clemence Royer in 1899. 



564 THE OPEN COURT. 

worlds, which form the most interesting matter of the volume, are within the reach 
of any reader of philosophical and scientific taste, who will be repaid by the review 
of the facts here presented, whether they engage his assent or incur his condemna- 
tion. Personally, our sympathies are not enlisted by atomistic speculations; but 
Madame Royer's atomism is not the orthodox atomism of Epicurus, attacked by 
Stallo and Mach, to the former of whom she frequently refers in her animadver- 
sions ; it is Madame Royer's own theory of a fluid atom, expansive and repulsive, 
dispensing with empty space, and held capable of effecting by its vibrations all the 
sensible phenomena of light, heat, and sound. It forms the basis of an hypothesis 
which binds together all the known laws of physics, chemistry, and biology, and 
enables us to reach deductively the theory of their specific phenomena ; embraces 
even, in its mechanistic net, the phenomena of biology, by sketching the probable 
mode of constitution of the cell and the probable course of the transformation of 
matter and ether into living substance ; and supplants finally the impossible mech- 
anism of gravitational attraction, referring the movements of the stars to thermal 
causes. 

It will be seen that Madame Royer's book is a A^atiir philosophic of the purest 
water. It is nevertheless aglow with faith in science and a firm belief in the solu- 
bility of its problems; it is the pronounced antagonist of scientific agnosticism in 
any form ; and as such it must command our unqualified admiration, be our critical 
opinion of its tenets what it will. T. J. McC. 



INVOCATION. 

Eternal Good ! Or if by other name 
We know Thee best, — source of power and light, — 
We reach in quest of that beyond our sight ; — 

Perfection's gift from other never came. 

We do not ask for any selfish thing ; 
To change great Nature's plans if we should try. 
Our works and wishes all would quickly die ; — 

We would not dictate to so wise a King ! 

Within our hearts we only crave the best 

Which will arouse a great and good desire 

For high, eternal truth, e'en writ in fire; — 

We humbly take whate'er is Thy behest ! 

Edward William Dutcher. 
Stillwater, Minn. 



THE SCHOOL AND SOCIETY. 



A more ideal and fascinating scheme of elementary education than that pro- 
jected by Prof. John Dewey, of the University of Chicago, in his School and Soci- 
ety, a little book of which the second edition was issued last year by the Chicago 
University Press, can scarcely be imagined. It embodies the ideas of the acutest 
modern educational critics, it is the incorporation of what has suggested itself as 



MISCELLANEOUS. 565 

possible to thousands and thousands of thinking persons, and it has the advantage 
of having been submitted to a practical working test for three years and of still 
being in actual operation. Whether the school is anything more than a sweet 
academic vision, attractive and commendable on paper only, whether it is realisable 
in all its details, and in the long run will be productive of the results theoretically 
predicted for it, the future alone can determine. We shall outline briefly the ideas 
underlying it. 

Our social life, says Prof. Dewey in substance, has undergone a thorough and 
radical change in the last two generations. If our education is to have any meaning 
for life, it must pass through an equally complete transformation. This transfor- 
mation is already in progress, as shown by the modifications that are rapidly taking 
place everywhere in our educational methods and curricula, — the introduction of 
active occupations, nature study, elementary science, art and history, the substitu- 
tion of the concrete for the abstract, the change in the moral school atmosphere, 
in the relation of pupils and teachers, the introduction of more active, expressive 
and self-directing factors. The movement having begun, all that remains is "to 
orgaiiise these factors, to appreciate them in their fullness of meaning, and to put 
the ideas a?id ideals involc'cd in co77iflete, uncompromisiyig possession of our 
school system. To do this means to make each one of our schools an embryonic 
community life, active with types of occupation that reflect the life of the larger 
society, and permeated throughout with the spirit of art, history, and science." 

Such virtually was the old scheme of practical education which we have now 
outlived and which centered about the household and neighborhood system, as the 
centers in which were carried on all the typical forms of industrial occupation. 
Here the whole process of lighting our homes, for example, stood revealed in all its 
toilsome length, from the killing of the animal and the trying of the fat to the mak- 
ing of wicks and the dipping of candles. Not only was the clothing made in the 
house, but the members of the household were familiar with the shearing of the 
sheep, the carding and spinning of the wool, and the plying of the loom. So it 
was with every other industrial project, flour, foods generally, lumber, building 
materials, household furniture, metal ware and hardware of all descriptions. The 
centers of production were in the immediate neighborhood, and the processes stood 
revealed to the community in their entirety. Here was a solidarity of interest and 
of occupation which is entirely lacking in the modern community, where the indus- 
trial processes leading to the creation of the aforementioned products are almost 
absolutely withdrawn from individual observation. In those days everything was 
a matter of immediate personal concern, everything a matter of actual participation. 
The results were a "continual training of observation, of ingenuity, of constructive 
imagination, of logical thought, and of the sense of reality acquired through first- 
hand contact with actualities. The educative forces of the domestic spinning and 
weaving, of the saw-mill, the grist-mill, the cooper shop, and the blacksmith forge, 
were continuously operative." 

But by modern concentration of industry and division of labor these household 
and neighborhood occupations have been practically eliminated, at least for educa- 
tional purposes. The conditions have changed radically, and an equally radical 
change in education is demanded. There are rich compensations, it is true, in the 
new domains of human experience opened and in the corresponding natural train- 
ing which the new experiences also have brought with them; but the physical real- 
ities of life, the occupations which exact personal responsibilities, still remain in 
need of emphasis. To fill this gap in the modern educational life manual training 



566 THE OPEN COURT. 

has entered, shop work and the household arts, sewing and cooking ; but it has 
been done in a half-hearted, confused, and unrelated way; the point of view has 
been too narrow ; work in wood and metal, sewing, weaving, and cooking, still re- 
main to be conceived as ynctliods of life, not as distinct studies, to be conceived in 
their social significance as types of the processes by which society keeps itself 
going, as ways in which the primal needs have been met by the growing insight and 
ngenuity of man; as instrumentalities through which the school itself shall be made 
a genuine form of active community life, instead of a place set apart in which to 
learn lessons. Such a school one enters as one does a busy workshop, where a 
certain disorder almost is apparent ; there is no silence, there is none of the dis- 
cipline of the conventional school ; the children or workers are not engaged in 
maintaining certain fixed physical postures ; their arms are not folded ; they are 
not holding their books in predetermined positions; there is the confusion, the 
bustle, that comes from activity. Yet, out of it all, out of this occupation, this 
doing of things to produce results, and the doing of them in a social and coopera- 
tive way, there is born a more distinctive and genuine discipline, superior to and 
far more effective than the discipline of the traditional type. 

The introduction of active occupations, further, gives the school a chance to 
affiliate itself with life, to become the child's habitat, a miniature community, an em- 
bryonic society. This is the fundamental fact from which it is possible to create 
continuous and orderly sources of instruction. The unity of the sciences for edu- 
cational procedure, as thus conceived, is found in geography, which presents the 
earth as the enduring home of the occupations of man, as the source of the materi- 
als upon which he has imprinted the stamps of his industry and achievement, as 
the source of the great energies which he has curbed and diverted to his own uses 
as the determining cause of his historical and political progress. In connexion 
with the occupations of weaving, carpentering, etc., the historical development of 
man admits of being recapitulated, and a thorough insight is gained into the nature 
of the materials used and the mechanical principles. The primitive inventions are 
remade by the teacher and children, the experiences of entire phases of industrial 
and social development repeated in epitome ; one can in this way, as the author 
says, concentrate the history of all mankind into the study of the evolution of the 
flax, cotton, and wool fibers into clothing. 

Such is the aspect of the school viewed from the point of view of the larger life 
of the community ; but we may also consider it in relation to the life and develop 
ment of the children. Here its work is based on the ideal home, where the child 
learns from the social converse and constitution of the family ; where he partici- 
pates in the household occupations, thus gaining knowledge ; where he acquires 
habits of industry, order, and regard for the rights of others; where he is permitted 
to work out his constructive instincts naturally, and where in many cases he has his 
own miniature workshop and laboratory in which he can pursue his inquiries of his 
own free accord, and even extend those inquiries into the surrounding fields and 
forests. Organised and generalised, this ideal home is the ideal school. "It is 
simply a question of doing systematically and in a large, intelligent, and competent 
way, what for various reasons can be done in most households only in a compara- 
tively meager and haphazard manner." 

The object of this ideal school is not learning, but first living, and then learn- 
ing through and in relation to this living. The question of education is simply the 
question of taking hold of the child's activities, of giving them direction. The 
activities are already there; they are furnished by the child's life and environment. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



567 



Through direction, through organised use, these activities and impulses may be 
made to tend toward valuable results, instead of scattering or being left to merely 
spasmodic expression. The instinct of children to use pencil and paper is taken as 
an example. If they desire to express themselves through the medium of form and 
color and this desire is simply indulged in at random, there is nothing but acciden- 
tal growth; but if the child is first allowed to express his impulses, and then through 
crititism, question, and suggestion /.s brought to the consciousness of zvhat he has 
do?ie and of zuhat he needs to do, the result is quite different. The first of the 
accompanying illustrations is a child's drawing of a forest, the best of the work 
done by seven-year-old children. To Prof. Dewey it seems to possess even " poetic 
feeling." It was the culminating product of a series of drawings expressing the 
child's ideas about the primitive conditions of social life. The first drawings were 
of the impossible sort, the trees the conventional telegraph poles of childhood, etc. 




Seven-Year Old Child's Drawing of a Forest. 



But the child was not allowed to indulge his instinct ; he was called upon to exer- 
cise it. His attention was called to actual trees, and from his observation he was 
led to modify his original artistic expression. In the same manner the language 
instinct is controlled and directed. Then comes the instinct of making, or the con- 
structing impulse. Out of the communicating and constructive instincts grows the 
art instinct. Of this an instance is given in connexion with the study of prim- 
itive spinning and carding, during which one of the children, eleven years of age, 
made the appended illustration of two hands engaged in drawing out wool for 
spinning (see p. 568). 

The four instincts or interests mentioned, the interest in conversation, or com- 
munication, in inquiry, in making things, and in artistic expression, are called the 
"natural resources, the uninvested capital, upon the exercise of which depends 



568 THE OPEN COURT. 

the active growth of the child." One example : Children are interested in the 
world of things mainly in its connexion with people ; their interests are to a large 
extent identical with those of primitive life. The child's mind naturally recurs to 
the typical activities of primitive peoples. The boy builds caves and huts, hunts 
with bows and arrows and spears. Some of the work planned in the school for 
seven-year-old children, utilises this interest so as to make it a means of seeing the 
progress of the human race. Out of the connected study of primitive weapons 
grew some concrete lessons in mineralogy ; out of the study of the iron age grew 
experimental lessons in metallurgy, etc. The result has justified completely to 
Prof. Dewey's mind " the conviction that children, in a year of such work (of five 
hours a week altogether), get indefinitely more acquainted with facts of science, 
geography, and anthropology than they get where information is the professed end 



14 













Eleven-Year-Old Child's Dfawinc; ok Hands Spinning. 

and object, where they are simply set to learning facts in fixed lessens." Similar 
results have been obtained in connexion with the language work. 

Such are the leading conceptions of the University Elementary School as it is 
called, affiliated with the University of Chicago. The school has been in existence 
four years, and the reader will find appended to the book above mentioned a sup- 
plement giving the details of the organisation of the institution. The school may 
be seen in its actual working, and persons skeptical as to the possibility of its reali- 
sing in practice theories which ring with such resonant quality on paper, may per- 
sonally convince themselves of the success or failure of the project. Here the key 
to the whole situation lies. The ideas which underlie the plan are neither unique nor 
novel, and their realisation as an educational system has been hitherto prevented 
partly by fear of their impracticability on a large scale, partly by the lack of quali- 
fied and sympathetic teachers, but perhaps most of all by the lack of endowment. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 569 

The plan is an expensive one. Human beings, too, are sluggish, logged with social 
inertia. Intelligence, constantly administered and applied on the gigantic scale 
required by rational schemes of instruction for entire nations, seems humanly im- 
possible. From sheer exhaustion, reason drops into routine : it is a biological law. 
The new methods, whatever their value, grow old, stiff, and rheumatic, even as our 
invaluable Kindergarten-system in some of its phases has now grown. And thus it 
seems that the offenlUche VcrdiimniungsayistaUen, or "institutions for the stupidi- 
fication of the public," as they have been classically termed, will always remain 
with us as a sort of divine necessity, and harmonising with the popular demand 
more than some enlightened educators seem to be aware of. It is in this mountain- 
ous mass of dough that the school of Prof. Dewey will be a leaven, and we hope 
in the interests of advancing civilisation, that the expectations entertained of it will 
be there or elsewhere fully realised. 

T. J. McCORMACK. 



NIRVANA. 

From the German of E. Eckstein, by Hugo Andriessen. 

This is the silent, slumbering lake. 
The source of life and its treasures. 

Of life with its tear-bedewed ache. 
And its fleeting joys and pleasures. 

All dream-born bliss and mundane pain 

A phantom existence created. 
Into nothingness return again 

What from nothingness emanated. 

The trembling, quivering rays of light 

In icy embrace are lying ; 
The eternal gods sink into night. 

The solar globes are dying. 

All perish, — even this episode, — 

Sere will be what now looks vernal :— 

Through infinite space resounds the ode. 
The Song of Death Eternal ! 



THE MAHAYANA AND ITS FIRST EXPOUNDER A5VAGHOSHA. 

Buddhism is divided into two great churches — the Mahayana and the Hinayana 
i. e., the large vehicle of salvation and the small vehicle. The Mahayana prevails 
over the entire North — Nepaul, Thibet, China, and Japan, and the Hinayana is 
established in the South — Ceylon, Siam, and Burmah. Western scholars generally 
consider the Hinayana as the original and pure Buddhism, and look upon the Ma- 
hayana as a later development in which Buddhism has been adulterated and is mixed 
with foreign elements. But this view cannot be upheld, and is naturally objected 
to by Buddhists themselves, especially those who belong to the Mahiyana church. 



570 THE OPEN COURT. 

While the name Mahayana, in contradistinction to Hinayana, seems to have 
come into vogue at the time of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva, it was used in quite a 
different sense before that time; and, besides, we have certain evidence that its 
principles date back to the days of Buddha. At the time of Agvaghosha and even 
long before him, this term was adopted by progressive Buddhists to designate the 
highest being or perfect knowledge, of which all sentient beings are uniformly pos- 
sessed, and on which they can safely cross over the tempestuous ocean of birth 
and death. 

Agvaghosha, the great Buddhist philosopher, lived presumably during the first 
part of the first century of the Christian era. Though coming several centuries 
after Buddha, he was the St. John and St. Paul of Buddhism, combined. He sys- 
tematised Buddhist doctrines, and wrote not only a Buddhist gospel, the Buddha- 
caritd, but also philosophical treatises, discourses, and hymns. Among them, one 
of paramount importance to the scholars of the Mahayana is The Aivakeiitng- 
of Faith or the Mahayana- (raddhotpada-fastra. 

This religio-philosophical treatise is in a word a condensation of the volumin- 
ous Sutras that existed in Agvaghosha's time, such as the Vajracchedika, Snkha- 
vati-Tyi)ha, Crinuild, Lankai'atara, Saddliarmapundarika, etc.; and almost 
all the Mahayanistic thoughts that developed later in their full significance are 
traceable in this writing of A(;vaghosha. The latter, it is true, is a new departure, 
and betrays in some places the author's attempt to absorb and assimilate all the 
religio-philosophical doctrines then existing in the body of Buddhism ; but it is 
after all a natural development from Buddha's conception of life and the world. 

It is a great pity that we can now study this significant work only in its Chi- 
nese version, for its original Sanskrit has long been lost to the world. Samuel 
Beal, an authority on Chinese and Mahayana Buddhism, has endeavored in his 
Buddhism in CJiina to give some account of A9vaghosha's doctrines, but he has 
erred in doing so, because of his insufficient acquaintance with his author's writ- 
ings. Even Wassiljew, owing to his incomplete knowledge of A^vaghosha, has not 
escaped making blunders in his accounts of Mahayanism. 

But fortunately we have now an English translation of this most important 
Mahayana book.' The translator, T. Suzuki, a Buddhist from Japan, in perform- 
ing his task, has carefully compared the two Chinese versions made in the sixth and 
the eighth centuries of the Christian era, and taken pains in every way to render the 
meaning of the original intelligible to the Western reader. An introduction on the 
life of Agvaghosha and his place in the history of thought, a glossary, and many 
explanatory notes have been added. The work is adorned with a frontispiece illus- 
trating the philosophical conception of the Mahayana prevalent in Northern Asia, 
— the same illustration that accompanies this note. All in all, it is confidently ex- 
pected that it will serve Buddhist scholars as a trustworthy guide through the laby- 
rinthine maze of Mahayanistic speculations. 

And now to a characterisation of the Mahayana doctrine in general. It must 
be borne in mind that the names Mahayana and Hinayana were invented by sup- 
porters of the Mahayana, for the Buddhists of the Southern church never called 
their religion the Hinayana, or small vehicle. Nor is the difference so rigorously 
marked as it seems to be, according to the usual Western representations of Bud- 

lAcvaghosha's Discourse on the A-makening of Faith in the Mahayana. Translated for the 
first time from the Chinese version by Teitaro Suzuki. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing 
Co.; London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 1890. Pp., xiv, 160. Price, cloth, $1.25 
net. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 571 

dhism. The main difference is this: That the ascetic elements are more emphasised 
among Southern Buddhists than among Northern Buddhists. Northern Buddhism 
endeavors to actualise the ideal of a world-religion that will help not only single 
thinkers, but great masses. Buddhist missionaries always availed themselves of 
every opportunity to point out the way of salvation. Being very broad, they ad- 
mitted mythological elements, and have to a great extent assimilated the religious 
views of the Thibetans, the Chinese, and the Japanese. By adapting their religion 
to the conditions of the various countries, they succeeded in spreading Buddhism 
all over Asia, and changed the wild hordes of Mongolian robbers into peace-abiding 
and charity-loving nations. 

There existed in Buddha's day various tendencies among his followers ; some 
were severe, some more liberal, while still others were inclined to mysticism, and 
cherished the hope of working miracles by faith or prayer and incantation or other 
religious means. Buddha's position, it appears, was that of a peace-maker. He 
taught his own doctrines without resorting to persecution or oppression. While he 
preached that a layman who had freed his heart from clinging could attain Nirvana, 
he did not directly prevent the ascetic from self-mortification. He only interfered 
when they overstepped the limit and became inhumanly cruel to themselves. He 
expressly allowed his followers to accept garments and to dress themselves in yellow 
robes given to them by the wealthy members of the laity ; but he allowed those who 
continued the old usage of clothing themselves in cast-off rags collected from refuse 
and cemeteries, to continue their habits according to the narrowness of their con- 
ceptions, until this narrowness had given way to broader views. 

The same holds good of Buddhist ethics in general. Buddha himself ate meat, 
and did not forbid his followers from doing the same, pointing out that not what 
enters the mouth makes a man unclean, but what comes out of it, — words tha* 
strongly remind one of the parallel passage in the New Testament 

Centuries passed, and, as was natural, the narrow conception of Buddhism was 
deemed the more holy one among the masses of the people, and thus the monkish 
method of attaining salvation gained the ascendancy. Representatives of this 
conviction held their councils and proclaimed themselves the only true followers of 
Buddha. Documents of this kind induced European scholars actually to regard 
them as such, and to look upon representatives of the Mahayana as an aberration 
from the original teachings of Buddha. The Mahayana school, however, retaliated. 
They proclaimed their doctrines as the only true Buddhism, calling their church the 
Mahayana, or the large vehicle of salvation, and characterising their more ascetic 
brethren, who limited all their efforts to saving their own selves, as the Hinayana, 
or the small vehicle of salvation. They enumerated seven great characteristics of 
the Mahayana, and insisted upon them as reasons why it was greater than the 
Hinayana. 1 

The central idea of the Mahayana philosophy is a belief in the Dharmakaya 
by which is meant that all the suchness in the world (bhutatathata), all that consti 
tutes the determining factors in the chains of cause and effect (commonly called 
natural laws by Western scientists) form one great system which is the personality 
of the Tathagata, that is, the prototype of Buddha. But, of course, we must bear 
in mind that in the body of these natural laws the spiritual and moral laws are not 
only included, but are even deemed to be its paramount and significant features ; 
and they are not a dead letter, but a living and all-effective presence. Sometimes 

1 Enumerated in the Yogacarabhami-Sastia, Abhi'dharmasamgrftha-Sastra, and the Prakara- 
naryavacS-Sastra. 



572 



THE OPEN COURT. 



expressions are used to make us believe that this body of the good law is regarded 
as conscious, and it is called at the same time Samyaksambodhi, that is, the most 
perfect wisdom. 

The material world, commonly regarded as the world of sin by adherents of 
the Hinayana, is no longer rejected as bad in itself ; it is bad only in so far as it 
does not yet bear the stamp of the Tathagata's wisdom. 




Buddha 

Bodhisattva Sainanta Bliadra, 

Representing the principle 

of particularity or 

love. 

Ananda. 



Bodhisattva Maiijufri, 

Representing the principle 

of universality or 

wisdom. 



MahakSfyapa. 
A TYPICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE IMAHAYANA FAITH. 



There is a contrast between the particular and the universal ; the particular 
is to be an exemplification of the universal, and if it is so, the former is as dignified 
as the latter. As soon as the particular attains to the universal and exemplifies the 
wisdom of universal law, it has attained to perfection, and a man of such disposi- 
tion of heart is said to live in Nirvana. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 573 

The philosophical conception of the Mahayana is illustrated in the accompany- 
ing picture which is found in Buddhist temples all over Northern Asia : We see 
Buddha enthroned as the Buddha of the good law ; at his right side universality is 
enthroned on the lion, and is revered under the name Manju^ri ; on the left side, 
particularity, called Samantabhadra, is seated on the elephant. The former repre- 
sents wisdom and strength, the latter love and charity. Farther down, we see two 
historical figures — the two chief disciples of the Tathagata ; Ananda stands under 
Samantabhadra, or particularity, representing the loving-kindness of Buddhism, 
and Kapyapa, sometimes called Mahakagyapa, the formulator of doctrines and the 
intellectual leader among Buddha's disciples, stands under Mafijugri, or univer- 
sality. 

The illustration is typical, and an outline-drawing of this conception is also 
printed as the frontispiece to the great edition of the Mahayana text in Chinese, 
which enthusiastic Japanese believers in Buddhism undertook in 1881-1884. It 
was painted by Some Yuki, a Japanese artist, who executed the picture according 
to the traditional style, after patterns which visitors to Buddhist temples may re- 
member having frequently seen in Buddhist sanctuaries. f. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Dr. Ferris Greenslet, Fellow in English in Columbia University, has recently 
published in attractive form a study of Joseph Glativi'll, a prominent divine and 
publicist of the seventeenth century. Dr. Greenslet's book is the thesis which he 
presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Columbia University, and 
offers a readable, critical review of the development of English thought and let- 
ters in Glanvill's time. (New York : The Macmillan Co. igoo. Pages, xi, 235. 
Price, $1.50.) 

The latest issue of the Citizen's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociol- 
ogy, edited by Prof. Richard T. Ely, is a discussion of Economic Crises by Prof. 
Edward D. Jones, of the University of Wisconsin. Professor Jones's definition of 
a crisis is that of a disturbance of the equilibrium between demand and supply, 
and he believes that a helpful view of the causes of crises may be obtained by ar- 
ranging them according as they arise from the side of demand and supply. He 
studies the effect which the increased use of capital has upon crises, the relation 
of legislation to crises, the effects of crises upon the wage system, the periodicity 
of crises, and the psychology of crises. (New York and London : The Macmillan 
Co. 1900. Pages, 251. Price, $1.25.) 



Dr. John Bates Clark, Professor of Political Economy in Columbia University, 
is the author of a portly volume bearing the title Tiie Disiribution of iVea/t/i, A 
Theory of IFa^res, Interest and Profits, the purpose of which is to show that the 
"distribution of the income of society is controlled by a natural law, and that this 
law, if it worked without friction, would give to every agent of production the 
amount of wealth which that agent creates." He claims to have discovered "a 
method by which the product of labor everywhere may be disentangled from the 
product of cooperating agents and separately identified." This is something for 
which both laborer and capitalist, each of whom deems himself unfairly rewarded 



574 I'HE OPEN COURT. 

for his contributions to society, have been craving for millenniums. (New York 
and London: The Macmillan Co. 1899. Pages, xxviii, 445. Price, $3.00.) 



The Doubleday and McClure Co., of New York, are the publishers of Mr. 
Henry George's posthumous work, The Science of Political Economy. In 1891, 
after a lecturing tour through Australia and a trip around the world, Henry George 
set to work upon a primer of political economy which " was to set forth in direct, 
didactic form the main principles of what he conceived to be an exact and indis- 
putable science, leaving controversy for a later and larger work." As he proceeded, 
he realised, however, the difficulty of making a simple statement of principles be- 
fore having thoroughly canvassed the entire field, and he consequently changed his 
plan and presented the larger work first. In the words of his son, who has edited 
the posthumous volume now before us, it was the design of this work to "recast 
political economy and examine and explicate terminology as well as principles; 
and which, beginning at the beginning, should trace the rise and partial develop- 
ment of the science in the hands of its founders a century ago, and then show its 
gradual emasculation and at last abandonment by its professed teachers — accom- 
panying this with an account of the extension of the science outside and indepen- 
dently of the schools, in the philosophy of the natural order now spreading over 
the world under the name of the single tax." Mr. Henry George died October 29 
1897, during the mayoralty campaign in New York, in which he was a candidate 
and left his great work technically unfinished, though in its main essentials com- 
pleted. We have not space here to enter upon an analysis of its contents. It is 
sufficient to say that the doctrines of his famous book, Progress and Poverty, are 
here presented in more systematic form and that this last work of the great eco- 
nomical thinker will find many close students and many enthusiastic admirers. 
The book contains a fine portrait of Mr. Henry George as a frontispiece. (Pages, 
xxxix, 545.) 

A fair review of the history of the nineteenth century is given in Mr. Edmund 
Hamilton Sears's Outline of Political Groit'th in the Nineteejith Century. (New 
York and London : The Macmillan Co. 1900. Pages, xiii, 616. Price, $3.00.) It 
is a little wooden and mechanical, both in style and conception, and savors more 
of a chronicle than of a history ; but it offers just that panoramic survey of 
the main events of the nineteenth century which will serve the purposes of many 
people. The modern history of France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Austria, 
Russia, the Balkan states, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden, Nor- 
way, Switzerland, of Great Britain and her colonies, of the United States, of Span- 
ish and Portuguese America, and even of such minor or outlying nations as San 
Marino, Andorra, Liberia, Haiti, Santo Domingo, Japan, India, and Siam, is here 
presented in epitome ; brief statements of political and commercial statistics have 
not been omitted, and in every case the narrative has been brought down to the 
present year. A good bibliography of works recommended for further reading and 
study has been added. 

The second volume of Dr. Elisha Gray's delightful Talks on Science has been 
issued. It treats of the sciences of energy and vibration, embracing sound, heat, 
light, and explosives. Dr. Gray's talks are quite simple in character, and not with- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



575 



out the zest of humor and personal charm. The title of the little book is A^atiire's 
Miracles. Both by its contents and its style, the volume is well calculated to dis- 
pel the popular belief in supernatural wonders. (New York : Fords, Howard & 
Hulbert. Pages, vi, 243. Price, 60 cents.) 



An excellent book on the care and education of children has been recently 
written by Dr. Nathan Oppenheim, of New York, and published by the Macmillan 
Co. (Pages, 308.) Dr. Oppenheim is favorably known as the author of a work on 
the Development of the Child, which has been pronounced by competent critics to 
be an exceedingly helpful book. His present work begins with pre-natal culture, 
devotes several chapters to the baby's outfit and nursery, to its feeding, bathing 
sleep, exercise, and clothing, to the habits of children, to the relations of parents 
to children, to the education of children, and to the treatment of defective children 
and of common diseases. The book is not technical in character, but rather on the 
order of plain and common-sense talks. At the same time, it is a product of the 
modern point of view, and as such is destined to exercise a very wholesome influ- 
ence. 

Readers of The O^en Court will be pleased to learn that Dr. Moncure D 
Conway's Life of Paine has been translated into French and published by Plon- 
Nourrit & Co., 8 Rue Garanciere, Paris, Some of Dr, Conway's articles on Paine 
appeared in The Ofeti Court. 

The latest number of the Illustrated Catechisms published in Germany by 
J. J. Weber, of Leipsic, is the second edition of the Catechism of Psychology, by 
Friedrich Kirchner. The author has taken an intermediary point of view with 
respect to the problems of psychology. He is neither the advocate of psychology 
without a soul nor the champion of the opposing theory. The results of anthro- 
pology and physiology have been employed to a considerable extent. The book is 
not properly speaking a catechism, but an attempt at popular exposition only. 
(Price, 3 marks,) 

The World's Parliament of Religions was undoubtedly one of the most signal 
events of the century. Failure was prophesied for it, but success, brilliant in the 
extreme, was its issue. The secret of the marvellous unanimity displayed there 
and of the methods by which the representatives of all the World's Religions were 
induced to give to it their concurrence and aid, is best learned from the Addresses 
of Welcome delivered by the President, Mr. C. C. Bonney, to the Religious De- 
nominational Congresses and now published in book form in the Religion of Sci- 
ence Library as a memorial of the wonderful events of the Columbian Year 
World's Congress Addresses. Chicago: The Open Court Pub. Co.; London: 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. 1900. Pages, 88, Price, paper, 15 
cents (gd.). 

Under the title Introduction a la vie de V esprit, Dr. Leon Brunschvicg, Pro- 
fessor of Philosophy in the Lyceum of Rouen, has endeavored to render philosophy 
accessible to the public at large, at least so far as it is essential to life. All histori- 
cal references and technical discussions have been avoided. The author believes 
that man carries within him an ideal of spiritual perfection which enables him to 



576 THE OPEN COURT. 

construct independently within his own soul the true religion, which is the nega- 
tion of all materialistic or practical faiths and is itself nothing less than the liberty 
or purity of the mind. (Paris: Felix Alcan, io8 Boulevard Saint-Germain. 1900. 
Pages, 175. Price, 2 fr. 50.) 



NOTES. 

The article on the "Boxers" in the present number of The Of en Court is 
doubtless the most authoritative statement of the origin of the Chinese troubles 
that has yet been published. Dr. Candlin is a Christian missionary of wide Orien- 
tal experience, an authority on the Chinese language and literature, the author of 
the little book on Chinese Fictio7i published in our Religion of Science Library 
and has resided for many years in the remotest parts of the Flowery Kingdom. He 
has been latterly at Tong-shan, in the far north of China, which for some years 
past has been the seat of violent Boxer disturbances. He is therefore eminently 
qualified to speak upon this subject. His communication was sent to us from Na- 
gasaki, the nearest Japanese seaport to China, and temporarily the American naval 
base in Chinese waters, to which he seems to have opportunely and safely with- 
drawn on the eve of the present outbreak. 



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Professor of Mathematics in the University AND Principal of tlie State Normal School at 

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IVith biographical notes and full index. 
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Of all the recent compendia of the history of mathematics, this work 
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The author systematically traces the development of the science of 
mathematics from the earliest period to the present ; he considers the de- 
velopment of algebra from the /m«/-reckoning of the Egyptians to the the- 
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INAUGURAL ADDRESS. John Henry Barrozvs 

A STUDY IN THE LIFE OF JESUS, Edivard Increase Boszvorth 

THE PRESENT STATUS OF OLD TESTAMENT BIBLICAL THEOLOGY. 

George Stockton Burroughs 
THE ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION OF THE FALL OF MAN. 

Thomas Nixoji Cai'ver 
BOSSUET; OR, THE MAKING OF A PREACHER. Albert Henry Currier 

RELIGION AS A PERSONAL RELATION. Henry Chzirchill King 

THE CATHOLIC ANTI-REFORMATION IN BOHEMIA. Louis Francis Miskovshy 
PRESIDENT FINNEY AND AN OBERLIN THEOLOGY. Albert Temple Siving 

THE LESSON OF THE NEW HYMNALS. F.divard Dickinson 

Two Articles by Oberlin Alumni 

OBERLIN'S CONTRIBUTION TO ETHICS. 

Professor ir. E. C. Wright, Olivet, Mich. 
LIMITING SALOON TERRITORY. THE MINNEAPOLIS PLAN. 

Captain Judson A'. Cross, Minneapolis, Minn. 

FOR OCTOBER, 1900 
Five articles by Croger Seminary Professors 

COMPETENCE OF IMAGINATION TO SERVE THE TRUTH. E. H. Johnson 

THE CHURCH AT ANTIOCH. J, M. Stijler 

FIFTY YEARS OF BAPTIST HISTORY. Henry Clay Vedder 

THE TITLE "THE SON OF MAN." Milton G. Evans 

THE RESURRECTION OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST THE CENTRAL 

FACT IN CHRISTIANITY. Hettry G. Weston 

Other Articles 

THE APPEAL TO REASON. Rev. Joseph Evans Sagebeer, Philadelphia, Pa. 

THEOLOGY IN TERMS OF PERSONAL RELATION. 

Prof. Henry Churchill King, Oberlin, O. 
This is a continuation of the important article in the July number. 

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THE 

HISTORY OF THE DEVIL 

AND 

THE IDEA OF EVIL 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIME TO THE PRESENT DAY 

BY 

DR. PAUL CARUS 

With numerous illustrations from ancient and modern demonology, as recorded on mon- 
uments and in literature. 

Offering a complete comparative history and analysis of the idea of evil, with philosoph- 
ical, ethical, and religious comments. 

The author reviews the broad field of the conceptions of evil among the various nations 
of the earth. Beginning with prehistoric Devil-worship and the adoration of demon gods 
and monster divinities, he surveys the beliefs of the Summero-Accadians, the Persians, the 
Jews, the Brahmans, the Buddhists, the early Christians, and the Teutonic nations. He 
then passes to the demonology of the Middle Ages, the Reformation, and modern times, dis- 
cussing the Inquisition, witchcraft, and the history of the Devil in verse and fable. The 
philosophical treatment of the subject is comparatively brief, but the salient points are 
clearly indicated in every connexion. The pictures are numerous, and will aid considerably 
the reader's comprehension. 

No expense has been spared to make the book exemplary in every respect. 



Printed in two colors from large type on fine paper. 

Bound in cloth, illuminated with cover stamp from Dore. Five hundred Svo pages, with 311 
illustrations in black and tint. Price, when published. $6.00 (30s.). READY IN AUGUST. 



SPECIAL ADVANCE OFFER 

All orders received from readers in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, before 
September 13 will be filled at the special price of $4.00 per copy, C. O. D., or cash zuith 
order. 

Foreign orders accompanied by remittayice and mailed before date of going to press 
though arriving after, zuill be accepted at the special rate. 



CHICAGO 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 

324 Dearborn Street 

LONDON 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. (Ltd.), Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road 



Chinese Philosophy, Fiction, and Religion 



CHINESE PHILOSOPHY: Being an Exposition of the Main Characteristic 
Features of Chinese Thought. By Dr. Paul Cams. Pp., 62. Numer- 
ous diagrams and native characters and illustrations. Price, paper, 
25 cents (is. 6d.). 

"Valuable and of unquestioned reliability. The delineation of the philosophy that 
underlies the Chinese civilisation is so ably done in these pages that the reader cannot 
fail to appreciate the causes which produce Chinese conservatism." — Toledo Blade. 

CHINESE FICTION. By the Rev. George T. Candlin. With illustrations 

from original Chinese works, specimen facsimile reproductions of texts, 

and translations of representative passages. Giving a clear and vivid 

r^sum^ of Chinese romantic literature. Pp., 51. Paper, 15 cents (gd.). 

"A list of 'fourteen of the most famous Chinese novels' is given. Many long quo- 
tations from plays, poems, and stories are given, and the pamphlet is a source of great 
pleasure. The pictures, too, are charming." — The Chicago Times Herald. 

LAO=TZE'S TAO=TEH=KINQ ^^^Ji^^S Chinese-English. With Introduc- 
tion, Transliteration, and Notes. By Dr. Paul Carus. With a photo- 
gravure frontispiece of the traditional picture of Lao-Tze, specially 
drawn for the work by an eminent Japanese artist. Appropriately 
bound in 5^ellow and blue, with gilt top. Pp., 345. Price, $3.00 (15s.). 

Contains: (i) A philosophical, biographical, and historical introduction discussing 
Lao-Tze's system of metaphysics, its evolution, its relation to the philosophy of the 
world, Lao-Tze's life, and the literary history of his work ; (2) Lao-Tze's Tao- Teh-Kiyig 
in the original Chinese ; (3) an English translation; (4) the transliteration of the text, 
where every Chinese word with its English equivalent is given, with references in each 
case to a Chinese dictionary ; (5) Notes and Comments ; (6) Index. 

"Extraordinarily interesting. Of great moment." — The Outlook. 

"A truly remarkable achievement." — The North-CJiina Herald. 

"While of great importance to the serious student, it is usable and interesting to 
any one who cares at all for the thought and religions of the Orient." — The A'Czv Unity. 

"Much labor has been put into this book. It will be a great addition to the knowl- 
edge which English readers have of one of the greatest of religious books and religious 
leaders." — The Church Union. 

"It is a convenient volume through which to make such acquaintance with the 
Chinese language and Chinese thought as an American scholar must consider desirable 
in view of the present increased intercourse with the Oriental world." — Keforyned 
Church Revieiu. 

' ' All that one could do to make the immortal ' Canon on Reason and Virtue ' alluring 
to American readers has certainly been done by the author. The translation is faith- 
ful, preserving especially the characteristic terseness and ruggedness of style of the 
original, the type work is superb, the comments judicious, and the binding a bright 
yellow with blue and gilt and red trimmings." — The Cumberland Presbyterian. 



THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO., ^.^^'^^^^sx. 

London: Kegan Paul, Trench Triibner & Co., Ltd.