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1 r 1 if 

■ <] 







Rev. A. J. MACLEANE, M.A. 












ST. john's SQUARB. 




' /^*d^a^. 






Ebtised bt GEORGE LONG, MA. 







This commentaiy is longer than I intendedi bnt it might havc 
been mnch longer than it is if I had filled the notes with qnotations 
as Bome editors have done^ or with exclamations as others. I 
have had bnt one object in vieWj that of helping students and 
general readers^ of whom no Latin writer has more than Horace^ 
to understand his poems in their letter and spirit^ so far as I 
understand them myself. The author is much mixed up with his 
poetiy^ to comprehend which therefore it is necessary to enter into 
the character of the man. It is this^ in factj that makes Horace so 
many admirers^ the continual presence^ or supposed presence of 
the author in every page. I have tried to show the limitations 
with which this opinion must be received by pointing out the purely 
artistic^ artificial character of much that he has written^ and in 
which his own feeling^ have by many been supposed to be drawn. 
I shall probably be thought deficient in warmth and taste by some 
whoj having only a general and dreamy acquaintance with Horace^ 
the refiection in many instances of slovenly teaching in boyhood^ 
have been accustomed to find beauties where I have seemed to find 
defectsj and have invested some of his poems with charms which a 
closer inspection dispels. I can only say that I have tried to look 
at every poem and every word dispassionately, and to realize as far 
as possible the author^s mind while he was writing it^ and I believe 
no editor discharges his duty who does not take that course. The 
lesult I have given^ in each case^ in the notes or introduction^ or 
both; and in order to help the reader to form his own judgment^ 
I have addedj in such cases as admitted of it, the substance of each 

e done my best to detennine the merits of ihe 
i, and to choose in eveiy dispated case the best^ ao 
idgment. I have given in a note the amount of ar 
disputed reading that I have adopted^ and there is 
the text which has not good MS. authority. " Le 
ictura profectas tanquam pestem a contextu pnx 
e dico^'^ To those who are accustomed to lool 
18 a benefactor to the text of Horace^ this statema 
!ceptable. I have in no single instance adopted i 
f Bentley^s or any body else^s *, nor have I proposc 
The antiquity^ genuineness^ and number of the Mi 
lat have been collated by scholars of great respecta 
the authority of the Scholiasts and quotations in 
U combine to supply materials for a moie perfect b 
an we can get of ahnost any other writer. Opinion 
Fer as to the choice of readings^ but to desert the ] 
. to conjecture in the case of this author I hold 
e. I have not seen the smallest excuse for it in 
ance, and with this opinion I can only look upoi 
conjectural readings of Bentley (nearly all of wh 
ed to in the notes) as so many instances of false 
t:ed ingenuity. Orelli, who was not wanting in n 
Tf BSLjs, "coniecturaft HnTwrv»* r»— 'x--- 


possnnt'/' Nor do I, think he is mnch more happy, in most in- 
stances (especially in the Odes)^ in his choice of readings than in 
his conjectures. He was always liable to be misled by want of ear 
and poetical taste, as well as by the excess of a prurient sagacity 
and an xmbounded egotism. The text in this edition will be found to 
difier less from Orelli^s than from any other. Where it does so the 
reason is, I think^ always g^ven in the notes. He collated some 
excellent MSS.^ especially three in the library at Beme^ of which 
the oldest he places at the end of the eighth century or the be- 
ginning of the ninth^ and the other two in the tenth. His other 
MSS. were one of St. Gallen nearly complete^ and another ot 
Zurich containing the Odes^ Epodes^ and Ars Poetica^ both ot 
which he says are of the tenth century. Other MSS. referred to 
in these notes are the Vatican and other Boman MSS. collated by 
Fea (1811) ; twenty-three MSS. in the Boyal Library at Paris 
collated by Pottier (1823)^ varying in age from the tenth to the 
thirteenth century; and sundry others quoted with or without 
name by Lambinus (1577*), Cruquius (1611*), Torrentius (1608*), 
and Bentley (1711). Of the last the most important are four 
coUated by Cruquius^ and known as the Blandinian MSS. belonging 
to the monks of a Benedictine monastery in Flanders^ and which 
were very soon afterwards destroyed with the monastery by fire. 
The oldest of these, which is appealed to as a grea,t authority^ but 
which was certainly more ofben wrong than right in the instances 
in which Cruquius quotes it^ was said to be earlier than the ninth 
century. On the margin of this MS. Cruquius found some old 
notes^ which^ as he saysj with infinite pains he deciphered^ and he 
has added them to his own commentary in a separate form. These 
scholia are referred to under the abbreviated title of Comm. Cruq. 
They are chiefiy made up of the commentaries of Acron and Por- 
phyrion^ with some additions apparently from other old authori- 
ties. The readings of these three Scholiasts help out the MSS.^ 

* Vol. u. p. 97. 

* "Vide qno pruvectus sit prorigine corrigendi " (Bentley on Dan. Heinsioe : not« 
opoD, S. ii. 4. 16). 

* These are not the earliest ediUons, but those that I have nsed. 

xiuiuuixiy ot Interpretation oocurred are thoee of 
with the scholia of Acron and Porphjrion^ 1 
3 (for his commentator)^ Torrentius^ Gesner^ Doei 
^r^ and Orelli. From these I have got real help^ • 
rrentius^ whose commentaiy is in general clear^ lea: 
I. I have ofben referred to the French editors Sam 
)ut their judgment is not to be trusted. The old e 
published at Florence in 1482^ and reprinted at \i 
r, is in my possession^ and will be found frequently 
•ious readings as *' Ven. 1483," or simply " Ven." 
any sensible notes, but I have found him most ui 
ns, of which he gives several. Jani and Mitscherli 
i Odes, but are so redundant in quotation and ac 
m, that their commentaries are disagreeable. The 
indebted to the leamiug and diligence of Heindorfj 
tes and judicious prefaces must be of use to any o 
lem, though his text I do not think is always well 
)n law-terms are valuable, but in such matters 
r indebted to the judgment of my friend and co 
whose advioe I have likewise followed in manj 

»t entered at any length upon the chronology of B 
!iave referrprfl f/* *^- 


Freface has laid down a sclieme determining the dates of ihe several 
books, withont stating the grounds on which he founds it. It 
will be seen that I prefer Franke^s opinion on this subject to 
Kirchner^Sy but that there are many instanoes in which his zeal 
appears to outstrip his judgment in determining the date of 
particukr poems. 

Of the other books that I have used I have been most indebted 
to Estre^s Prosopographeia Horatiana (Amsterdam^ 1846)^ a most 
favonrable specimen of industry and judgment. 

I have studied with much pleasure the fragments of the Greek 
Lijric poets^ with whose entire works Horace must have been 
familiar. The little that is lefb may make us moum for what is 
lost. So much beauty has perished as the world will never see 
again. There is more power of tenderness and passionate feeliDg 
in some of Sappho^s small fragments than in all that Horace ever 
wrote. Such passages of these poets as he appears to have imitated, 
intentionally or otherwise, I have given, so far as they can be 
gathercd from the frag^ents now remaining, the edition of which 
by Bergk (Leipzig, 1843) is that which I have used. Most of 
them had been quoted before. 

This leads me to say that I have not loaded the notes with nearly 
80 many quotations as most who have gone before me. I have 
tried to confine myself to such passages as throw light upon the 
text, or appear to have been imitated by or copied from Horace. 
\Vhen I have met with a quotation in any of the late commentators 
that appeared to have originated from himself, I have given his 
name. Where, on the other hand, as is the case very often, the 
quotation is only one of the common stock that has accumulated 
from the Scholiasts downwards, I have given credit for it to no one, 
but do not on that account wish to have the credit of it myself. 
If any have been suggested by my own memory or reading, I have 
not inquired whether others had thought of them before, and shall 
hope that I may not appear to havc dcfrauded any one. I have 

^- .^ w^%. VI.4AACXCUU puums* 'roat tbese were not 
Horaee himself is clear^ bnt they appear in tlie e 
Qd are supposed by some to have been invented b 
ions abnost contemporary with the author. They 
h in the different MSS.^ and as they are quite arb 
ditors have seen the propriety of abandoning them 
time^ as Kirchner says jostly enough (Qu. Hor. p 
their value as showing the opinion of very early ^ 
s to the scope of the different poems, and I have ac 
rred to them where they could be of any use in set 

ipposed before I began that much t}iat now appeai 
night be omitted by merely referring the reader t< 
3s of Antiquities and Biography edited by Dr. Sii 
>Ie as those works are^ I found that the artides were 
not be so drawn up as to save the necessity^ in zi 
of independent notes in such a commentary and 
ithor as this. I have often referred to themi ao 
have done so ofbener the omission has been u 

at first to g^ve an Index of the principal wordS| to i 
ice at the end of the Volume ; but I found thftrA m 



coins^ medals^ yases^ &c., to illimtrate various aUusions; but the 
Publishers are anxious to keep the price of the work as moderate as 
they caUj and the engravings have therefore been omitted. 



Mareh, 185S. 




lishers of this edition of Horace thought that the or 
'as large enough^ and aocordingly in revising it I 
t from the notes as much as I have added. If the « 
;ted his own work under the same restrictions^ he 
e the same. The additions in the notes are im 
They are more numerous in the notes on the S) 
les^ than in the notes on the Odes. 
xsleane had editions of Horace and also other books ¥ 
ossess. and I have therefore not been able to verify al 
But the nun.W which I have not verified is very . 
;^th the whole number of references; and with thc 
st mentioned I have verified all. Ferhaps I ought U 
aded to examine all; but as they are very numerous^ 
ideed it is certain^ that I have overlooked some. I 
are not many. I have corrected without remark 
h I observed in the notes^ but there are still some w 
looked. The time which was allowed for thfl rov 

PREFACE. xiii 

Ritter^s Commentary, and I have got good matter from it. Bitter 
8 a sharp critic and a leamed man^ who has done something for 
the explanation of Horace^ and I acknowledge my obligations to 
him. It is his business to excuse himself, if he can^ for writing 
some absord notes and proposing some interpretations which no 
sensible man will accept. 

I have also used for the Satires and Epistles Eruger^s school 
edition, with Grerman notes. It is a very useful book. The notes 
prove that the editor has good judgment^ and what we in this 
country call sound common sense^ in which many learned editors 
are very deficient. 

I have not touched Mr. Macleane's arguments and introductions^ 
cxcept in very few cases ; nor have I added any thing on the chro- 
nolc^y of the poems^ except a little here and there. Mr. Macleane 
has done this very well. He judiciously abstained from fixing 
dates where there is no evidence^ unlike many oritics who have 
eometimes fixed them without evidence and sometimes contrary to 
evidence. Indeed, most commentators have very imperfect concep- 
tions of the nature of proof ; and it would be a great improvement 
if they could be taught in some way not to confound hypotheses 
and guesses with probable conclusions and demonstration. 

I shall here put a question which some people may think unne- 
cessary; but I do not think so. When a man has been used to 
read a book at intervals for half a century, he may reasonably ask 
himself whether he has been wasting his time^ and whether other 
persons may not do the same. There are only few books worth 
reading often or much ; but Horace is one of them. He lived with 
some of the chief men of an age when the Roman polity was chang- 
ing into a form which has had a lasting influence on Europe^ and 
through Europe on the rest of the world ; and his writings havc 
made us &miliar with the man himself^ with the times in which he 
lived^ the character of his contemporaries^ and the manners of the 
day. Horace^s good sense makes his Satires and Epistles almost as 
intelligible and as instructive as if they were written now ; for the 
best part of them is independent of the allusions to things and per- 
sons, fmd many of the allusions are not more obscure than similar 

v^ O 

..^^^ ^^xxixLx/, H 8eL 01 lyncai compoi 
latter and form not unworthy copies or imitations • 
nd though such imitation is a confession of inferiorii 
s is feeble and trifling^ hc still shows that he could 
r of the Latin tongue into the measures of Sapph 
and present to us a variety of natural and ple 
language simple^ concise^ and expressive. A last ci 
f Horace^s lyric poems^ after a long acquaintance 
I made me estimate them higher than I did^ and 
3 less successful^ I feel more indulgence towards the 
so much and doing it so well. 
deane has made some judicious remarks on Horace ii 
^n ; and a recent writer in '^ Blackwood^s Magaz: 
lXX.), "On the Causes of Horace^s Popularity/' 
instructive and agreeable essay. 
do we know that we have what Horace wrote ? A v 
3ome down to us from a very remote time by succes 
•ns must contain many errors. Even books when 1 
)ften reprinted differ very much from the original. 
sent of the manuscripts of Horace is the only evid< 
wrote j and it is a wonder that the diversities in 
more than they are. But these diversities are suffic 
.t in many passages we cannot discover the true n 
3 never shall. It is the business of the critiV f/> " 



matter. I do not feel that I have any peeuliar aptitude for this 
kind of work^ and the same may be said of many who have under- 
taken it. I have^ however^ noticed nearly all the variations in 
Bitter^s text^ and I think that some of them are improvements. I 
bave noticed also some of Keller^s readings in the Odes^ bat I have 
fonnd very little in them that seems to me of any value. 

When the manuscripts agree^ and there is nothing unintelli- 
g^ble^ it is consistent with the evidence to let a passage stand as it 
13, and it is inconsistent to attempt to improve it. When there is 
diversiiy of readings in any case, we must determine which we will 
accept on a balanoe of probabilities. If no reading gives a sufficient 
sense^ we may endeavour to extract firom the supposed £alse readings 
something which does give a sense and may be what the copiers 
would have written if they had taken due care. Many excellent 
corrections have been made in this way^ and they commend them- 
selves to our judgment as true^ that is^ as possessing sufficient 
probability to be accepted as true. 

There is another method which we may use in deciding between 
conflicting readings^ and also in determining whether a passage^ 
where there is no variation in the readings^ may be considered 
genuine. In the case of Horace^ for example, if we study the 
general purpose of each poem, if we have made ourselves well ac- 
quainted with his manner of expression and his poetic colouring^ 
and if we fix our attention closely on all the words of a given pas- 
sage^ and the connexion of the whole passage with that which 
precedes and follows, we may often determine with great probability 
what he intended to write, where the evidence leaves it doubtful ; 
and we may also determine whether critics are justified in putting 
their own guesses in place of the documentary evidence, when there 
is no variation in it. The power of justly interpreting is therefore 
a necessary qualification for a critic who undertakes to settle a text 
whether ancient or modem ; as necessary as it is for the commen- 
tator who undertakes to explain his author. There are indeed in 
Horace many passages^ where the text may be quite right, and yet 
the interpretation is doubtful. I have found more of these passages 
than I expected, and some about which edilors will always ditfer. 

, .. w««« ouuteumw Bifiv 

reu manuscriptSi as he says in a note on C. iii. i 
n Y. 5 of this Ode^ he maintains that 'rampit/ f< 
videnee, is better than ^ rumpat/ for which there i 
(rhether more or less, I do not know. Aocordinj 
vidence is for ^ rumpat.' This is just an instancc 
[ian's power^ if he will venture to give reasons^ ant 
Jentley^s argument is opposed by the ' ratio et res 
ays that ' rumpat ' is quite contrary to that which j: 
x.)^ for it would be a lucky thing for the wicked t 
»umey which they had beguni a lucky thing to retu 
ley have discovered that they are setting out inausp 
nse of the whole passage then, as he thinks, is 
rtain evil omens accompany the wicked. A se 
»nt to interrupt a joumey which has been planned 
7 feeble addition to the iirst stanza ; and if we taki 
atley does^ it means that a serpent intermpts any ] 
', whether he is bad or good. But the subsequen 
timebo/ are addressed to Galatea^ and all that prec 
ly to the wicked ; and Horace prays that bad luck 
a^ when they do go^ and that a bad sign may break 
>h they have planned ; and this is the same as sayi 
)e able to go where they intend to go. There is 
here. It is not so easy to decide on the othnr t^o 

lai* nra enrkii 

U - 

PREFACE. xvii 

MS. for ' vetat/ but if this is so, the preponderance of the evidenee 
for ' vetet' ought not absolutely to decide in this passage. There 
are two objections to ' vetat -/ one is the form ' Teque/ by which 
this line is connected with the preceding, which contains ' vivas / 
and the other is the difficulty of being certain about the meaning of 
' laevus/ which, as some critics suppose^ signifies ^ infaustus/ a 
meaning which is consistent either with Wetet' or 'vetat/ If 
' laevus ' signifies ^ auspicious/ then we have with ' vetat ' this 
meaning^ 'And thee neither the auspicious woodpecker nor the 
wandering crow forbids to go,' which is plainly not sense. I am not 
sore about the meaning of ^ vaga^^ but I think it has an inauspicious 
meaning. The passage is curious, and it might be discussed before 
a jury of competent men under the guidance of a judge, who would 
prevent the advocates from quarrelling and abusing one another, as 
critics do sometimes. 

Mr. Macleane observes that he has not accepted a single con- 
jecture made by Bentley. These conjectures, it is said, amount to 
several hundreds. As far as I know, very few of Bentlej^s con- 
jectures are now accepted by any editor ; and this is a strong con- 
demnation of a man^s judgment whose great leaming is acknow- 
ledged. It seems as if Bentley made many of his conjectures first, 
and then tried to find out reasons for them. Those who know him 
only by his criticisms on Milton and his controversial writings, 
such as the Boyle Lecture and Phileleutherua Lipsiensis, may be 
curious to leam how he has handled a Latin poet in whom propriety 
of expression and good taste are conspicuous. If Bentley^s Latin 
notes were translated into English, men who are not scholars, but 
have plain good sense, would find something of the same kind that 
they might have seen before in his English writings. It is true 
that the notes on Horace did not allow him quite so good an oppor- 
tunity of venting his coarse wit and bad taste as his attack on the 
Discourse on Free-thinking by Antony Collins, the friend of John 
Locke ; but he has done enough in his Horace to show his great 
defects, and young men should be warned against being deluded by 
X profuse display of learaing, which is frequently used to support a 
psrverse ingenuity. Bentley^s powers of assertion were strong : his 

^^ «uc wie woret. We have a 

ihmanii and Haupt (Keller) to write ^ Thynus ' for • 
i. 13, 14. I do not know what objection these erit 
»enus :' Bentley has let it pass unmolested. ^ Thyi 
ly suggested by ^ Thyna merce ' (C. iii. 7. 3), and * ] 
»5. 7; Epp. i. 6. 33). Here the argument tums enl 
Dpriety of the expression ^navita Bosporum Poent 
te is for the common reading. Horace continual 
names to give life and complexion to his poetry, ai 
bances in which he uses them, as far as we can see 
*oper names would do as well if they had suited hii 
navita' must have some life put into him by a name, 
k of one better than Poenus, whether Horace used it 
r more limited sense ; nor if the poet wished to p 
on the road to some great and distant seat of com 
have chosen a more troublesome course for him thai 
le Bosporus against a strong current. What the ' 
would be doing there I cannot tell, as the Thyni we 

I an ezample of BenUey^s peirene argTimentation on Epod. zr. 15 

ng and defending 'offensi' instead of 'offensae,' at the end of his 

fensae' may stand, if a man will interpret it as he does. His int 

tainly be accepted. In S. i. 9. 1, he inserta ' ut ' after ' ibam,' bet 

the ezpression ' ibam ' alone, and he defends hia ' ut ' by qnoting 

» one from Terence» Phormio, iv, 8. 12 : 'Ut abii abs te, fit forte obvi 

lich is qnite a different thing. In the same satire, y. 36. h» r^n*-" * " 

in the DbicA nf * w*-*- » ' 


a naval people; and the Poeni were. The • Bosporus' served 
Horace on this occasion^ and is useful again when he speaks of soar- 
ing into the airinthe form of a bird (C. ii. 20. 14) and visiting the 
Toaring Bosporus. 

When we have long been accustomed to a reading, it is very dif- 
ficult to accept another, even if there is better evidence for it, and 
good reasons. Thus in C. ii. 20. 13, Keller has ^jam Daedaleo 
notior Icaro.' I hardly know whether ' ocior ^ or ^ notior ' is sup- 
ported by the better evidence. Perhaps 'notior' is; and if we 
accept it, we escape the ' Daedaleo ocior.^ Still partly from habit, 
and partly for other reasons, I am not yet reconciled to ' notior.' 

In C. iiL 4. 9, 'altricis extra Kmen Apuliae,' the question of 
' Apuliae' is hotly debated. The word ' Apuliae ' following 'Apulo ' 
is not the kind of repetition which seems to me to be an argument 
against 'Apuliae/ nor is the argument derived from the quan- 
tity of the first two syllables in ^ApuIiae' conclusive. It is a 
case in which critics may differ ; but ^ Apuliae ' is now generally 
condemned. There is a note on this passage. 

The boldest attempt at alteration that I know is in C. iii. 24. 4 : 
' Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum/ where Keller has ' ter- 
rennm omne tuis et mare publicum/ and Ritter has ^ Tyrrhenum 
omne tuis et mare Ponticum.^ Bentley has said nothing against 
the common reading. ^ Terrenum' is Lacbmann^s. It is quite plain 
that Horace, according to his fashion, would use a proper name here, 
and theMSS. have ^Tyrrhenum' or some equivalent form. Ithink 
it ifi equally plain that the verse would end with some other proper 
name, and ' Ponticum' is supplied by some manuscripts. Others 
have 'pulicum/ 'publicum/ 'apulicum/ 'punicum.^ Here is a 
case of real diflBcuIty, but it is a most perverse selection to choose 
' publicum/ when we plainly require the name of a sea contrasted 
with the 'Tyrrhenum.' Ifthe diflScuIty about ^ApuIicum^s in- 
superable, we must take ' Ponticum,' which being a proper name 
answers one demand of the text^ but does not satisfy in other 
respects^ for we want the name of a sea corresponding to ' Tyrrhe- 
nnxn' instead of being carried off to the Euxine. 

Habit accustoms us to things which at first seem strange. ' Mare 

a 2 

lie Index of Proper Names and tbe Index to the I^ 
een vcrified. The Index to the Notes contains als 
^rences to the additions made to the Notes. 


Ths materialB for Horace'8 life are derived almost entirely from his 
own works. A few additional facts are got from a short memoir 
attributed to Suetonius. 

He was bom on the 8th Decembery a.u.0. 689 (b.c. 66), at or near 
Teonsia' (Yenosa), in the Apennines, on the borders of Lucania and 
Apnlia. II is father was a freedman', having, as his name proves, been 
the slave of some person of the Horatia gens. As Horace implies that 
]ie himself was ingennus', his father must have obtained his freedom 
before his birth. He aiterwards followed the calling of a coactor^ a 
collector of money in some way or other, it is not known in what. He 
made in this capacity enough to pnrchase an estate, probably a smail 
one, near Yennsia. We hear nothing of his mother, except that Horace 
speaks of both his parents with affection *• His father, probably seeing 
aigns of talent in him as a child, was not content to have him educated 
at a provincial school, but took him (at what age he does not say, but 
probably about twelve) to Rome, where he became a pupil of Orbilius 
Pupiilus*, who had a school of much note, attended by boys of good 
family, and whom Horace remembered all his iife as an irritable teacher, 
given unnecessariiy to the use of the rod. With him he leamt grammar, 
the earlier Latin authors, and Homer. He attended other masters (of 
rhetoric, poetrj, and music, perhaps) as Roman bojs were wont, and 
had the advantage (to which he afterwards looked back with gratitude) 
of his father's care and moral training during this part of his education. 
It was usual for young men of birth and abilitj to be sent to Athens to 
finish their education by the study of Greek literature and philosophy 
under native teachers ; and Horace went there too, at what age is not 
known, but probably when he was about twenty. Whether his fathcr 
was alive at thut time or dead is uncertain. If he went to Athens at 

1 C. iiL 4. 9 ; C. iv. 9. 2; S. u. 1. 84. 
» 8. 1. 6. 8. 
• 8. i. 6. 96. 

3 S. i. 6. 6. 45, 46. 

• S. i. 6. 86. 

• £pp. u. 1. 71; ibid. 2. 41. 

~.M v/\AC7 

w irompeias Varus (ii. 7). 
lie camo to Italy, hayiiig obtained permiBsion to do so, 
who were willing to give np a desperate cause and seti 
le. His patrimony*, however, was forfeited, and he 
ad no mcans of subsistence, which induced him to emph 
ing vcrses, with the view perhaps of bringing himself in 
than for the purpose of making money by their sale. 
ible, however, that some of his earliest compositions w€ 
il satires and lampoons, written at the instigation of ti 
ble to pay him for them. That the book of Epodes ^ 
does not contain all that he wrote in Archilochus' vein 
Y certain ; and the same I believe may be said of the 
Probably his earliest efforts were more severe and li 
ose which his judgment allowed him aflerwards to 
some of these are bad enough. With Archilochus and 
im as models, and without the experience he afterwards 
est productions may without difiEicultj be supposed to ha 
in later life he would condemn. By some means he n 
place as scriba^ in the Quaestor'8 office, whether by p 
st docs not appear. In either case we must suppose ] 
K>n to make friends, though he could not do so by th< 
3d without also making many enemies. His Satires an 
to the enmity his verses had raised up for him on all 
ne acquainted, among other literarj persons, with Yii 
ho about three jears after his retum (A.n.a 715) int 
aecenas, who was careful of receiving into his circle 
nd one whose writings were of a kind that was new 
He accordingly saw nothing of Horace for nine mont 
ictionrS.5 fi «i^ "-^' 


more genniiie in Horace'8 writings than his expressions of affection for 
his father and for Maecenas. His gratitude to Maecenas never takes 
tbe form of servilitj, his afibction never savours of affectation, and his 
iamiliaritj never approaches to impertinence. He sees in Maecenas' 
gifts to himself only the generons disposition of the giver, of which he 
has no thought of taking undue advantage ; his patronage he neither 
exaggerates nor undervalues ; for his health he feels tenderly ; his 
danger he tries to share ; and his anxieties he does his best to soothe. 
It ia evident that Maecenas vaiued his society and understood his 

At his house, probably, Horace became intimate with Poilio and the 
manj persons of consideration whose friendship he appears to have 
enjojed. Through Maecenas also it is probable Horace was introduced 
to Augustus, but when that happened is uncertain. In A.u.c. 717 
Maecenas was deputed by Augustus to meet M. Antonius at Brundi- 
sium, and he took Horace with him on that joumey, of which an amusing 
account is given in the fifth Satire of the first book. Horace appears 
to have parted from the rest of the company at Brundisium, and per- 
haps retumed to Rome by Tarentum and Venusia. (See S. i. 5, Iiit.). 
Between this joumey and iLU.c. 722 Horace received from his friend 
the present of a small estate in the vaiiey of the Digentia (Licenza), 
situated about thirty-four miles from Rome, and fourtecn from Tibur, in 
the Sabine country. Of this property he gives a dcscription in his Epistle 
to Quintius (i. 16), and he appeai*s to have lived there a part of every year, 
and to have been fond of the place, which was veiy quiet and retired, being 
four miles from the nearest town, Varia (Vico Varo), the centre of the 
district, but of no great importance. During this interval he con- 
tinued to write Satires and Epodes, but also, it appears to me probable, 
some of the Odes, which some years later he published, and others which 
he did not publish. These compositions I have no doubt were seen by 
his firiends, and were pretty well known before any of them were collected 
for pubiication. It will appear from the separate Introductions to the 
several Satires of tbe first book that there is not one which might not 
have been written by the year a.u.C. 719, and in that year Franke 
eupposes the first book was published. It may have been so, but 
Franke'8 arguments are not conclusive. In A.U.C. 723 the battle of 
Actium was fought, and in the prospect of Maecenas having a command 
on that occasion, Horace wrote liim a touching poem, which stands first 
in the book of Epodes. The ninth Epode was written immediately 
after the victory, and there is no poem in the book of Epodes which 
need be placed iater. I agree therefore with Franke in thinking that 
book, of which one or two poems are among Horace*s earliest composi- 
tionSy may have been published in A.U.C. 724. In that yeur was writtcn, 

. .^oti v»>/jout oi ^ngiistas to efiect. (£ 

to C. il 16). His most striking Odes appear for the i 
bcen written afler the establishment of peace. Some i 
ritten before, and probably were. But for some reason 
lat he gave himself more to lyric poetry after his thirty-1 
) had done before. He had most likeiy studied the Gre 
le was at Athens, and some of his imitations maj hs 
early. If so, they were most probably improved and 
ne to time (for he must have had them by him, known 
a few friends, for many years) tili they became the { 
DS of artificial composition that they are. Horace conti 
himself in this kind of writing (on a variety of subjec 
cnatory, political, moral ; some original, many no doubt su, 
k poems) till a.u.c. 730, when I am inclined to think t. 
Dks of the Odes were published. I cannot here disc 
but I have considered and stated in the case of each ( 
3, if any, that it contains of its date, and I can find none 
be placed in that year or before it. Bentiey's theory, 
•race to one species of composition at a time, and supposc 
}t three books of Odcs to have been pubiished separately, 
D ; and he overlooks the fact that the twenty-fourth Ode 
was certainly written four years after that in which he 
ation of that book. Ciinton, who supports Bentley (Fasi 
'Au only do so by supposing that in the present copie 
iy have beeu transposed, which is begging the qt 
s arrived, as far as I can judge, at the right condusioi 
ct. During this period Horace appears to have pasE 
»me among the most distinguished men of the day, oi 
ihe conn trv »>«••« — 


coost of Italy. When this happened nobody knows. Afler the publlca- 
tion of the three books of Odes, Horace seems to have ceased from that 
style of writing, or nearly so ; and the only other compositions we know 
of his having produced in the next few years are metrical Epistles to 
different friends, of which he published a volume probably in a.u.C. 734 
or 735. He seems to have taken up the study of the Greek philoso- 
phical writers, and to have got a good deai intei^ested in them, and also 
to have become a little tired of the world and disgusted with the 
jealousies his reputation created. His health did not improve as he got 
older, and he put himself under the care of Antonius Musa, the em- 
pcror^s new physician*. By his advice he gave up, for a time at least, 
his favoiu-ite Baiae. But he found it necessary to be a good deal away 
from Rome, especially in the autumn and winter^ 

In A.u.c. 737 Augustus celebrated the Ludi Saeculares, and Horace 
was required to wi'ite an Ode for the occasion, which he did, and it has 
been preserved. This circumstance, and the credit it brought him, may 
haTC given his mind another leaning to Ode-writing, and have helped 
him to produce the fourth book, a few pieces in which may have been 
written at any time. It is said that Augustus particularly desircd 
Horace to publish another book of Odes, in order that those he wrote 
upon the victories of Drusus and Tiberius (4 and 14) might appear in 
it. The latter of these Odes was not written, I believe, tili A.u.c. 741, 
when Augustus retumed from Gaul. If so, the book was probably 
published in that year, when Horace was fifty-two. The Odes of the 
fourth book show no diminution of power, but the reverse. There are 
none in the first three books that surpass or perhaps equal the Odo 
in honour of Drusus, and few superior to that which is addressed to 
LoUius. The success of the first three books, and the honour of being 
chosen to compose the Ode at the Ludi Saeculares, seem to have given 
him encouragement. There are no incidents in his iife during the above 
period recorded or alluded to in his poems. He lived five years afler 
the publication of the fourth book of Odes, if the above date be correct, 
and during that time I think it probable he wrote the Episties to Au- 
gustus and Florus which form the socond book ; and having conceived 
tlie intention of writing a poem on the art aud progress of poetry, he 
wrote as much of it as appears in the Epistle to the Pisones which has 
been preserved among his works. The fragments of which that poem 
appears to be composed, and which some have vainly tried to reduce to 
» consistent whole, may have been written earlier than I have supposed ; 
but there is so much affinity betwcen the Ars Poetica and the Epistle 
to Augastus that I believe they were wiitten at no great interval of 

» Epp. L 16. * Epp. i. 7. 1—13. 

^i^x^D »ii;erwards to have been perfec 

)ntinued to applj himself to the study of moral philoe 
t which took place on the 27th November, A.n.c. 74 
I fifty-seventh year of his age, and within a few daye ol 
Macccnas died the same year, also towards the cl< 
dence that has led some to the notion that Horace h 
ieath that he might not have the pain of surviving 
'ding to Suetonius his death (which he places after his 
as the text erroneouslj stands) was so sudden that 
o execute his will, which is opposed to the notion of sui 
riends were buried near one another " in extremis Es 
rthest part of the Esquiliae, that is probably withou 
on the ground drained and laid out in gardens bj Maec 
plan adopted in this Edition, of commenting on each 
e Introduction, renders it unnecessary to say much in 
IoracG*8 style and character. The particular stjle in ' 
le strength laj will be aiways matter of opinion. My ow 
>where so great as in the Odes, and that of these his \ 
)wn in the Odes that relate to public affairs or men, whil 
mall occasional pieces, as the Ode to the Fountain of ] 
the death of Quintilius, and others, much grace an 
vn. I cannot at all agree with those who think that 
iting was Horace's sirong point With rare excep 
ions of this kind, however elcgant they may be, app< 
.onless, bearing the stamp of imitation, with unequivc 
id none of nature. The crowd of mistresses that h 
for him out of his poems is beyond belief ; and the 
; has tned to classify his amours, and t/> f-r^H'*"- -'*- 


Canldia some real intrigue aad jealousy no doubt are conaectcd, whateyer 
her name maj bave been. 

The same remark applies in some measure to other Odes addi«»sea 
nominally to friends, but which might as easily be addressed to one 
friend as to another. The difiference is that the names are in most 
instances known to be those of real persons, which has led many com- 
mentators into inferences respecting the characters and circumstances 
of those persons which I believe to be in most imaginary. 

I have expressed my opinion of Horace as a Satirical writer in yarious 
places. On this point the reader may refer to the remaiks in the 
Introduction to the ninth Satire of the first book. Of common sense 
and a perception of the ridiculous ; of that knowledge of mankind which 
is gathered by mixing with the world ; of dramatic skill ; of good 
nature and good breeding, Horace has shown sufficient proofs, both in 
the Satires aud the Epistles. As a critic he is certaiuly defective. 
Homer he does not appear to have understood. Plautus and Terenco 
he could not appreciate, and the merits of Lucilius (and he must havo 
had merits) would probably never have been acknowledged or discovered 
by Horace but for the feeling his criticism of that writer raised agaiust 
himself. He was of an indolent habit, of whicb the unfinished state of 
some of his poems is one of the efiects. '* Amphora coepit Institui ; 
currente rota cur urceus exit ?" is a question that might be applied, I 
think, to more than one of his Satires and Epistles. There is moro 
inequalitj in these than in the Odes ; more also that is common-place in 
thought and diction. The Odes will bear bettcr than the Satires and 
Epistles the close inspection that an editor is obliged to give them. Any 
one who undertakes that office for Horace will find that one of his prin- 
cipal difficulties consists in the examination, first separatcly, and then 
collectively, of so many small pictures as the Odes present. The tendency 
of commentators to far-fetched conjectures as to their scope, allusions, 
date, &c., is very great, and the above difficulty partly accounts for it. 
Their beauties and merits appear to me to be of a quiet kind, and 
the happy selection of words is one of them. Horace's selection of 
epithets is judicious and forcible. '^ Mirus ac paene divinus Horatius 
est in epithetis inveniendis *." The tcrseness and good sense of tho 
sayings which concem human life and character are as striking as 
the manner in which they are introduced, being always in their placo 
and never brought in clumsily, as such sentences with less art might 
easily appear. Herein, more than in any other respect, Horace suc- 
ceeded in his attempt to imitate the Greek Lyric poots. Their fire, 
passion, sublimity, his language was incapable of expressing, even if his 
mind could have conceived them. Theirmetres have lost their strength 

* Lambinus. 

,.^^ o imigioos opinions have been a good deal disc 
not appear at any time to have been veiy decided 
ras upwards of forty when he declared of himself tl 
p di'iven by a tempest, going this way or that, accord 
sned to set. He was now a rigid moralist, now a n: 
ic, now an Epicurean, now a Cyrenaic. To judge h 
ngs, he seems to have thought that the enjojrment < 
was the end of man's life. He nowhere puts forwf 
of another world as the compensation for the inequa 
loes he make any allusion to another state of exi 
t in the ordinary fabulous way. The certainty of c 
tainty of life are only ai'guments with him for makin, 
easm^es we possess, but all in the way of moderatio: 
m-place much dwelt upon by Horace, as also is the p 
riches. Once, if we are to take him at his word, he wa 
n, and induced from an idler to become serious ; th 
he doctrines of Epicurus, for what length of time we c 
systems he appears to have known little. He ridicu 

* Maecenas had given him his farm, he lived there 

troved it at much expense. He had a liking for t 

some beautiful descriptions of it. But when in thc 

t felt lonely, and missed the tables and society of his 

1 a good deal with rich people, but his own fare at 1 

>lest kind. He describes his daily life in the cit 

l to be disengaged, in the sixth Satire of the first 

^as indiffereut, as before observed. His eyes ii 

him. He speaks of himself as trra^ k^^ — 

._ ' • 


ipsius habui oetendi" (on S. i. 6. 41). Tbe same Scboliast refers more 
than once to books tbat bad been written on tbe pei*soD8 mentioned by 
Horace. A reference to Estre*8 work epoken of in tbe Preface will 
show tbat a catalogue of tbese persons embraces nearlj all tbe distin- 
guishcd men of tbe daj, witb most of wbom Horace was on friendlj 

The Metres adopted by Horace from tbe Greek^are tbirteen in 
nmoiher in tbe Odes, and siz in tbe Epodes. I porpose saying only a 
few words on eacb. 

C. i. 1. — Tbe metre of tbis Ode is one of tbree, called after 
Asclepiades, a Ijric poet of uncertain date. It consists of single lines 
divided thus : 

The caesura usually falls on tbe long syllable afker tbe end of the 
second foot. There are two exceptions onlj in Horace, ii. 12. 25, and 
iv. 8. 17. The Greeks did not follow tbis rule, and tbeir lines were 
less monotonous in consequence. Tbe division of tbis metre bj 
choriambi is against tbe obvious rbytbm. C. iii. 30, iv. 8, belong to 
tbe same. 

C. i. 2. — Tbis metre takes its name from Sappbo. It consists of 
stanzas of four verses eacb. Tbe first tbree are alike, and consist of 
four trocbees, witb a dactyl in tbe tbird place. Horace always sub- 
stitutes a spondee for tbe second trocbee, witb one uncertain exception, 
C. S. 70. The fourtb verse consists of a dactjl and spondee, and is 
named an Adonic. 

This is one of the commonest metres. It diffcrs in Horace's hands 
from tbe Greek usage by tbe less frequent introduction of tbe trochce 
in the second place, and from tbe caesura usually falling after tbe 
fifth syllable. Tbis an^ngcment takes away a good deal from tbo 
vigour of tbe metre, a defect wbich Horace seems to bave perceived 
when he wrote tbe Carmen Saeculare and the Sappbic Odes of tbe 
foorth book \ 

f I sabjoin some remarks from tbe ** Jonma] of Edacation," 1832 (vol. iv. p.' 356), 
cm Dr. Carey'8 " Latin Prosody made Kasy." Tho aathor obsenres : ** It greatly con- 
dnces to the harmony of the Sapphic verse to make the caeeara at the fifbh semifoot, as 
' Direy qaem prolea Niobea magnae ;' not as ' Haec Jovem sentire Deosqae canctos/ " 
— a vcry common opinion. To which the reviewer replies : ** To oar eurs the latter is at 
leest as melodioas as the former, consisting of a dactyl interposed between two accentual 
ditrocbeei^ w in the linea quoted by Dr. Carey from Catullus and Sappho t 

' woiKt\6$poi^ ikOdyttr* 'A^poS/ro.' 
' Paaca nuntiate mcae puellac ;' 

^. M.m A 

u. A^. dO; iii. 9. 16. 19. 2* 

4. — This metre bas its Dame from Arcliilochus of 1 
\ of altemate verses, of which the first is one of thosc 
irians call axrwafynp-oi. ', because they consist of difiei 
hich do not blend togethcr. The fii*st four feet are th> 
5ter verse, after which follow three trochees, the first p 
distinct fi*om the second. The second is a catalecti 
r, that is, it has one syllable wanting in the last foot. 
r Ode in this metre. 

5. — This is also reckoned with the Asclepiadean metres, 
two first lines baTe their name from Asclepiades, be 

C. 1. The third is called after Pherecrates, the comic 
It consists of a dactyl between two spondees, if my e 
ve me ; but it is usual to mark it with a spondee, chor 
sjllable. The fourth is the Glyconean verse, which oc 
) this metre belong C. i. 14, 21, 23 ; iii. 7, 13 ; iv. 13. 

s in the line of Horace : 

' Qaindecim DTana preces yirorum.* 

u generally avoided this form of the verse, the dislike seems to b 

aa his ear improved ; so thiit wbile tbere is bat one instance o 

le second book of the Carmina, and not one in the third, there ar 

two in the foarth, and iu the Carm. Saec. one on an avcrage in ever 

sach lines as ' Doctas et Phocbi choras et Dianae ' we prefer tt 

it at the commencement to that which Dr. Carey considers bo vk 

es * chorus * a trochee, and woald, we sappose, jrive thp vwrxA ^^ - 

Romnlae flrenti Hof« - — 


C. i. 6. — This metre consists of tliree Asclcpiadean vcrses, such as 
C. ], and a Gljconean, as in C. 3. In C. i. 15. 24 and 36 a trocbee 
occiirs in the first foot (see notc). The other Odes are i. 24, 33 ; ii. 12; 
iii. 10, 16; iv. 5, 12. 

C. i. 7. — This measure takcs its name from Alcman, the lyric poet 
of Sparta. It consists of two verses, of which tbe first is a complcte 
hexameter, and the second is made up of the four last feet of an 
bexameter. To this belong C. i. 28, and Epod. xii. 

C. i. 8. — ^Thei-e is no other Ode in this metre, which also consists of 
two verses. The first consists of a dactyl and two trochees, or a trocbee 
and spondee, ^ ^ ^y I — vy I — w* Tbis takcs its name from Aristo- 
phanes. The second is a vcrse, of which tbe first half consists of two 
trochees and a dactyl, with a long syllable added, and the second half 
VA the first reversed, thus : 

Horace always has a spondee in the second place. 

C. i. 9. — Tbis is the ordinary Alcaic metre, in wbich each stanza 
consists of four verses, The first two are divided tbus : 

— I — wl — vy| — wvyi — ^ 

though Horace usually substitutes a spondee for the second trocbeo, 
the only exception being iii. 5. 17. Tbe caesura usually falls after tbe 
fifVh syllable, to which rule exceptions will be found in C. i. 16. 21, 37 ; 
5, 14; ii. 17. 21 ; iv. 14. 17. This caesura tbe Greeks did notobservc. 
The first syllable of the verse is more commonly long tban sbort. It 
is usual to iook upon the first part of the verse as iambic, and to divide 
it thus : 

But I have no doubt it is trochaic. Tbe tbird verse is also trocbaic, 
consisting of a syllable (usually long) followed by four trocbees, a 
spondee being substituted by Horace for tbe second trochee. Tbo 
fourth verse consists of two dactyls and two trochees. 

C. i. 11. — This is an Asclepiadean metre, rather peculiar. Tbe 
division to which we are guided by tbe ear seems to separate each 
verse into three parts, as follows : 


ThiB classes it with the djowdfyrriToi. Tbose wbo resort to the division 
bj cboriambi destroy the natui^al rbythm. To tbis belong i. 18 ; 
iv. 10. 

«^ Avd 

>*, cttiiea xonlc Minor ( ^ ^^ ), of which the twc 

>in four each, and the third contains two. Respecting 
tentlej^s note. It would seem that Horace, imitating 
i Ode of Alcaeus (see Introduction), tried the metre 
k, as usual, has a much finer effect than the imitation. 

iv. 7. — This metre takes its name from ArchilochnSj 
of an hexameter verse, followed hj a verse which is the 
)entameter. There ai*e no other Odes in this measure. 

od. i. — X. — The first ten Epodes are in the same metre, 
3mate trimeter and dimeter iambic verses. They admii 
n the uneven places. An anapaest is once introduced in 

»d. zi. — This is one of the variations of the iambic u 
chilochus. The first verse is a trimeter iambic. The 
rrjTo^f consisting of the last half of a pentameter follo 
r iambic. This accounts for the short syllable in the i 
10, 26, and the hiatus in w. 14, 24. Bentley has a not 
nrhich maj be consulted. 

l. xiii. — This metre consists of an hexameter verse, ' 
p, as Epod. xi., of a dimeter iambic aud half a pentaoQ 
ce being that these parts are here reversed. 

. xiv., XV. — These are composed of an hexameter follo^ 

xvi. — ^This consists of an hexameter verse, followed l 





A.u.c. 730. 

Whzthxb this odo is an introdaction to one book or three is a qnestion that bas 
been discossed and mast bo matter of opinion. I think it probable that the three 
first books werc pablished together, with this as a preface; and if the chronological 
arrangement I have adopted (see Introdaction) be correct it was written A.u.c. 730; 
but there is no intcmal evidcnce to lead to that conclnsion. Bentley was of opinion 
that each book was prodaccd scparatcly. It is a graccfiil dedication to Maecenas of a 
work, the composition of which had occupied and amused the poet at intervals for some 
years. It was probably at his patron's instigation that he arranged his fugitive pieces 
and pnt thcm forth in this coUected form. There is a mixture of real aScction with 
the nsual dedicatory flattcry in this ode, the Wding idea of which, as in most cases, 
Horacc probably borrowed from the Greek. There is a fragment of Pindar (201 Bergk), 
pre«erved in Scxtus Empiricus, which with otbcrs Horace may have had iu mind, and 
it will account for tbe somewhat incongruous allusion to the Olympic games in the 
beginning of this ode. It is the only way of explaining the allusion to an almost obso- 
lete practioe, to bear in mind that this was thc chief theme of Pindar'8 poetry. The 
firBgment rons thus : — 

iLfX\ov69a0W fi4y tik* tvippaiyovffiv 1inro»y 

rlfiia Kol (rr4<paMor rohs 8* iy voKvxpvffois 0a\dfiois fiiord' 

rifnrtrai 8i Koi ris iv* o7S/&* &\ioy yat Oo^ 

ff&s Suurrtifiaty 

A fragment of Archilochus (33 Bergk), from Clemens Alexandrinus, runs : 

ixK' 6x\os AWtf KapZlriy lalyerai, 
Bat the sentiment is common enough, and with the exception of the first illustration 
Horace has pnt the subject in his own way and given it a Latin dress. It will be 
ohserved, that while the leading sentiment is the common-place " different men have 
different ta«tes," Horace selects only the pursuits of worldly or mecbanical minds to 
eoDtrajit (not without some contempt) with his own higher ambition. He had, no 
doubt, in his memory Virgil^s lines (Georg. ii. 503, sqq.): "Sollicitant alii remis freta 

eaeca," &c. 


my protector, my pride, in whom I delight, variousare the aims of men. Tho 
Gre^ aeeks glory firom the race; the lords of the world are supremely happy, one in 
tlhe hoi i ouni of tiie itate, the other in his weU-filled bams. The farmer will not 


UoUegisse juvat metaque fervidis 
Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis. 
Terrarum dominos evehit ad Deos^ 

. atavW] A noon sabstantive, sig- commentaton are divided < 

ing properly an ancestor in the fiflh I see no way of deciding tl 

■ee, thos : ' pater/ ' avos/ ' proavns,' since either senae will sait tl 

ivns/ ' atavns ;' componnded of ' ad ' both were in common use 

'avns,' andcorrespondingto^adnepos' Becanse the Olympic gamc 

e descending scale. Maecenas belonged ceased to be celebrated af 

e &mily of Cihiii, formerly Lacnmoues Orelli thinks Horace may b< 

rinces of Etrnria, who up to a late his own recollection, having 

d possessed influence in the Etrurian tator. Bnt he is more likel^ 

of Arretium, whence they were ex- above, to have had Pindai 

1 by their own citizens b.c. 300. See than his own recollection 

K. 8. Compare Piropert. iii. 9. 1 : horse-races. 
laecenas, eques Etrusco de aanguine 4. CoUegiste] Toung ven 

regum." sometimes misled in tbeir m 

al, xii. 4. 2 : "Maecenas atavis regibns fect for the present tense. 1 

eoues." See also C. iii. 29. 1. S. i. 6. 1, so used to express a complete 

virgil (G. ii. 40) addresses Maecenas action frequently repeated,not 

same affectionate terms : course of action ; according t 

jcus, o fiunae merito pars maxima the Greek aorist. The besi 

Qgtrae, ^^ what follows is in the Ilia* 

ccnas :" *9<]*)* ^liere Nestor thus inst 

ropertius,u.l.73, Antaochus: 

«nasnostrae^rsinvidiosajuventac, '" "^ZLJ^ ™ ^"^' ^ 

vitae et morti gloria justa meae." . XPJM9"*> 

knt quosl imv oOf, which Greek U^aBcu 

tction has been more closely foUowed ^vKkov votnroio' Kieov 8* Ax 

pertius, iii. 9. 17 : " Est quibus Eleae M^y, 

-it palma quadrigae." The indicative g^ ^ q^ j^ • j. g. n . 

with * sunt, or * est qm, when par- ,, „, , , , , , 

penoD. are aUuded to. as here the *=* «"«'f ^»» ^^ ""«^o ' 
m opposition to the Romans. So «t °*^**^; . . . 

2. 1827« Argentum-sunt qui non ^"""^ stnngam meUs mt 

;, ert qui non curat habere," where ^ ^-.^^«^ donUnos] I un 

itter isdistin<'*"lw »"''»'***"*'' *' ' 



Hunc si mobilium turba Quiritiom 
Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 
IUum si proprio condidit horreo 

and Bome hcrself (xii. 8. 1) : 

•• Tenranim dea gentiamqQe." 

Tbe pnnctuation and construction of 
tbis passage haTe been a subject of mncb 
discnsdon. After mnch consideration 
I have adopted the solution of the diffi- 
culty first su^ested, I believe, by Rut- 
gersiug. and have put a full stop after 
' nobilis.' Gracvius took the Bame view. 
For his strictures therefore upon this 
reading Bentley has an account to settle 
with his fiiend, wbose (^nion he probably 
did not know. for he does not mention 
him. His objections are that 'palma' 
cannot be separated from 'evehit' with- 
out violeiice to the construction, which is 
only begging the question ; and tbat "pal- 
maqiie nc^i^/' standing by itself, is " jeju- 
nam, et aridum. et omni venere spoliatum/' 
wbich is a matter of taste likely to be pre- 
judiced by the habit of joining the two 
verscs, with which the ear of most readers 
is fiimiliar. His tbird objection is that 
•evehit' cannot be used impersonally, which 
I deny ; it may be so used just as wcll as in 
our own UingURge wc niay say : " It exalts 
a man to tbe gods — oue if his ambition 
is gratified, anothcr if his avarice." Bent- 
ky'8 last objection is the worst of all : " How 
can a man be said to Iw exalted to Heaven 
by having his bams full f I was not aware 
tbe road was so easy." If Bentley had 
written his notes in English, the greater 
part of them would only have raised a 
smile. This ai^umeut is a fair specimen of 
his criticism. He settles the question by 
dianging * evehit ' into < evehere,' which he 
makes dependent on ' nobilis ;' wbereby he 
thinks to get rid of the difficulty of making 
*hunc' and * illum ' to depend on *juvat.* 
Bot even with this unauthorized correction 
(which Orelli describes sufficicntly when lie 
saya *• nemo recepit"), that construction is 
rerj harsh, as any body will see who tries 
to cocstnie the passnge npon thish^pothe- 
Rik. But it is the one generally received 
nov, thoiigh ' evehit ' is retained. Mr. Tate 
■troDgly urges the construction of * hunc * 
and * iUnm ' with 'dimoveas,' which he says 
ki as old at least as Glareanus (a contem- 
poiraiy of Fabricius and the Stepbens), 
bot which, in fiuit, was tbe construction 
adopted by Acron and Cruquius' Scho- 
fiait» wbo calls it "zeugpoaa ab inferiori." 
Bot ii ia a tvfficient answer to this, tliat 


there ccnld be no reeson why the man wbo 
had risen to the highest honours and wealth 
should be induced to seek his fortunes at 
sea. Thoee who suppose ' Terrarum domi- 
nos ' to be in apposition nrith • Deos,' quote 
Ovid, £p. ex Ponto i. 9. 35, sq. : 

"Nam tua non aliocoluit penetralia ritu 
Terrarum dominos quam colis ipse Deoe." 

Others apply these words tothe competitors, 
because they were usually kings or nobles : 
others render • exalts them to the gods as 
lords of the world,' i. e. * as if they were.' 
I believe I have stated all the opinions of 
any weight upon tbis passage. The reader 
will judge whether the reading I have fol- 
lowed does not give the simplest solution of 
the difficulty. Bentley is very ably refuted 
by Cunningham, Animadv. c. 15. 

8. iergeminis] This refers to the three 
curule magistracies, those of the curule 
aedile, praetor, and consul. Thougb the 
qnaestorship was the first step in the line 
of prorootion, it is not indnded, beeause it 
was not a cnrule office. Not seeing that 

• tergeminus ' here signifies no more than 

* triplex,' some have supposed the quaestor- 
ship, the tribuneship, and censorship to be 
included. But 'geminus' is used in this 
combination with cardinal numbers fre- 
quently. SoVirgil (Aen. vi.287) calls Bri- 
areus ' centumgeminus,' and CatuIIus (xi. 
7) the Nile * scptemgeminus,' and Lucret. 
fy. 28) speaks of *' tripectora tergemini vis 
Geryonai ;" but the most uneqnivocal in- 
stance of this use of the word occurs in 
Paulus (Dig. 50. 16. 137) : ''Ter enixa vi- 
detur etiam quae trigcminos pepererit," 
wbich passage bas been pointed out to me 
by Mr. Long. **TolIere honoribus" is not, 
as some take it, ** tollere ad honores :" * ho- 
noribus ' is the ablative case, as (C. i. 21) : 
'*Vos Tempe totidem tolUte laudibus." 
Sall. Jug. 49: **ut quemquc — pecunia aut 
honore extulerat." Tac. Ann. i. 8: **Clau- 
dium Marccllum pontificatu et curuli aedi- 
litate— M. Agrippam geminatis consula- 
tibus extulit." 

Certat — iollere] The poets, following 
the Greek idiom, use for convenience and 
conciseness this construction of the infini- 
tive with verbs which in prosewould require 
*ut* with the subjunctive, or a supine, or 
'ad' with a gerund, or some otber construc- 
tion. In the next ode we bave **egit visere;" 
in the 12th, **sumis celebrare ;" in the 26th, 
'•tradam portare," and so on. Dillenbr. 



uuai nira sui ; mox reficit rates 
Quassas indocilis pauperiem pati. 

given a list of the principal verbs io themselves, not f^om their 

I. Verbs of all kinds signifying desire conilict of MS8., not on 

the reverse are frequently used with every place where they occi 

iufinitive, as in this ode: "demere ble to derive it from the coo 

•nit," «refugit tendere;" C. 9. 13, meaning of *de,' *down i 

ge quaerere," &c. The studcnt can be inclined to say that ' do 

observe this nsage for bimself. properly used when the ph 

). de lAhjfcU verritur areit] See C. iii. the removal takes place is 

26. 81. S. ii. 3. 87 ; and Cic. in Verr. ' dimoveo ' when the sentei: 

iu 3. 14, Long^s note. The ' area ' as here. For instance, ' de 

a raised floor on which the com was gine to be the proper rea 

ihed ; and after the wind had winnowed 5. 14 : " Curvo nec faciem lit 

le floor was swept, and the com was where the MSS. have in n 

coUected. ' dimovet.' Other examples 

. flndere tarculo] There is some- by which the reader may jud) 

\ of contempt in these words, where The same remark applies to 

lould have expected ' ararc.' [There ' deripio.' (C. iii. 5. 21 n. 

contrast presented between a man'8 ' Myrtoum,' ' Icariis,' ' Airic 

Italian estate, and the great pro- particular names for general 

il wheat-growing farms J Fea refcrs carina' (C. i. 35. 7). This 

nleius'8 description of Samos, where have becn mcntioned, if rea 

itio omnis in sarcnlo et surculo— ager been discovered for the use o 

nto piger, aratro irritus " (Florid. which this common practice 

Scindere * is the proper word for the overlooked. Turaebus, for 

i; 'findere' for the hoe or lesser in- plains 'Cypria ' bv the fertili 

ents. — ' Attalicis conditionibus ' sig- which was so productive, that 

'themostextravagantterms.' There nish all the matcrials for a 

three kings of rcrgamum of this kccl to its top-gallant sail 

which was proverbial for wealth. epithcts for Afncus, which w: 

second it is recorded, that he gave wind, and corresponded to tl 

lums for paintings and other works arc ' praeceps/ ' pestilens,' ' p 

as much as 100 talents for a single iii. 23. 5). He uses the ph; 

(Plin. N. H. vii. 39). The tliird proceUae ' (C. iii. 29. 57) t 

I left his great wealth and his king- storms for which this wind w 

> the Romans (b.o. 134); and the — 'Luctari,' 'certare,' 'decc 

as passed into a proverb. SeeC.ii. tAnrlo^» ' 



Est qui nec veteris pocula Massiei 
Nec partem solido demere de die 20 

Spernit, nune viridi membra sub arbuto 
StratuSj nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae. 
Multos castra juvant et lituo tubae 
Fermixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 
Detestata. Manet sub Jove irigido 23 

Venator tenerae conjugis immemor, 
Seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 

ChTee : Locfln. L 419, " mra Nemetis," or Senec. Ep. 84^ " HodierniiB dies iolidus 

* Neinoni f SiL ItaL iv. 227» ** mra Ca- est : nemo ex illo qmcqnam mihi eripmt." 
nni;" tuL 433, «mra Nmnanae." Grono- Stat Silv. iv. 3. 36,— 

▼ioa approred of thi« conjecture, and hy it ,. . , v j — ^•^— i..^i^4. 

«orTertS^verMofPaullnTi.. ' « At nnnc qo«e wMum d.em terebat. 

18. imlocUU-piUq Eiam^e. of thU H»»"™ "» &<:'» ^ duarum. 

Greek cQnstniction for * ad patiendnm * The ' solidns dies ' endod at the hour of 

are very nnmerons. Bentlej, as we have cUnner, which with indnstrions persons 

aeen, tries to apply it to t. 6, reading ' no- was the ninth in summer, and tenth in 

bilis evehere.' To go no fiirther than this winter. Tbc luxnrions dined earlier (as 

txMik, we havc *andax perpeti,' *b!an- "Exul aboctavaMarins bibit," Juv. i.49), 

dimi dncere,' *nobilem superare,' *impo- tbe busy ^pmetimes later. See Becker^s 

tens sperare,' 'callidnm condcre,' *doctus Grallus, Exc. i. sc. 9, on the meals of thc 

tendere,' * praesens toUere,' * ferre dolosi,' Romans. The commencement of the day 

* fbrtis tractare,' — *Pauperies,' 'paupertas,' varied with the habits of different people. 

* panper,' are never nsed by Horaoe to 22. capuf] This is used for the mouth, 
signify * privation,' or any thing beyond a as ^-ell as thc spring of a river. Virg. Georg. 
humble estate, as among many other in- iv. 319, ''Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput 
stances ** meo snm panper in aere " (Epp. astitit amnis." Caesar (B. G. iv. 10) says of 
ii. 2. 12). ** Probamque pauperiem sine the Rhine, ** multis capitibus in Oeeanum 
dote quaero" (C. iii.29. 56). Aristophanes infiuit." Here it is the spring. Shrines 
describes diortlv the diffcrence between were nsually built at the fountain-head 
*egens* (»t«#x"*) ^^ *pauper' (irciojs), of streams, dedicated to the nymphs that 
and hi8 description will generally explain protected them, which explains * sacrae.' 
Horaee^a meaning when he nses the latter 23. lituo tubae'] The *Iituus' was curved 
word : — in shape and sharp in tone, and used by the 
wrmxov mIk yitp fiios V <rh \4y€ts fir cavalry : « tuba,' as its name indicates, was 

iirrtp uiiZ^p txo^oL, straight, and of deep tone, and used by the 

Tot? Z\ wipnros Cnv ^iUiiwov fcol roXs infantry. ** Non tuba du-ecti. non aeris cor- 

ioyois vpoaex'*^^ "^* flexi" (Ov. Met. i. 98). Lipsius de Mil. 

vfpiylyrwBat 8* avr^ fiv^^y, fi^ fi4yroi Rom. saysthc 'lituus' wasinshapeamean 

/liS' iwtXeiirtiif.^Flnt, 552, sqq. bctween the * tuba ' and the ' comu ;' not 

_ ... . , , o^ , • ^i_ 1. 80 straight as the one, nor so twisted as the 

'PknpertM,' 'mopia,' 'egestas. is the chmax ^^^^^ \^^ q^^^^ ^j^^ ^^ i^ H) ^^tgs ^ 

given by Seneca (de Tranq. Ajimu, 8). distinction between the three, but does not 

2a sohdo denufreds du>] That is to j^j^ ^^at it is. See C. ii. 1. 17. 

to «gn^y the bnsiness hours, or 238). 'Modulatus' (C. L 32. 5), *me- 

^piedpartoftheday. Juvenal8ay8(xi. ^^^, ^^^ ^g ^gj^ ^^ likewise nsed 

****' " passively. 

** Jam nnnc in hahiea salva 25. tub Jove'] Epod. xiii. 2 : ** Nives- 

FrootelioetVBdai^qnamqnamsolidahora que dednennt Jovem." The Latin writers 

sopcrvt represented the atmosphere by Jupiter, the 

Xd •txtuiL'* Greeks by Hera (Serv. ad Aen. i. 51). 

_„.» w&iiAcre DarDiton. 
Quod si me lyricis vatibiis inserisi 
Sublimi feriam sidera vertiee. 

. tereU*] This word Festns describes plosam esse arbitror." It 

Ban ' loBK and ronnd as a pole/ whicli conjectured by Hare, and tl 

ition wiTl not always hclp U8 to tlie as tar as I know, who had at 

ling. It has always more or less Mr. Tate wrote, are Jones 

ly the meaning of roundness or Other critica have defendet 

thness, or both as here. It contains lamely : and more recently F 

laroe root as *tero/ 'tomus/ rc/f«, this reading, but on grounds 

ts oognate words, and its meaning is from his predecessors. " Tho 

^>m the notion of rubbing and polish- he says, " art evcr occupied 

Horace applies it to a woman^s anclcs, poets with the ivy, aud th 

oth-facedboy, the cordsof a net, and exalt theo to the gods in 1 

tless man (see Index). It is applicd The ivy, which was sacred 

id (Fast. ii. 318) to a girdle, and by made a fit and usual garlan 

(Aen. xi. 579) to the thong of a poet. " Doctarum frontium,' 

where, as here, it represents the Tate defends, as applied to '. 

twisting of a cord. ' Slender ' will the proper description of po 

>; for 'plagae' were nets of thick the Greeks were called tr^^i 

vith which the woods were sor- ffo^taral (Pind. Isth. ii. 36). 
d, to catch the larger beasts as 34. Lesbonm — barbiton] "i 

ere driven oat by dogs and beaters. Sappho and Alcaeus (C. i. 32. 1 
renders the words, *'circling toils;" 85. Quod si'] A reference t 

, ** spreading toils;" Dacier omits will show that 'quod si ' does i 

( ' altogether. [Ritter explains * te- Orelli says it doei, but rarely i 

correctly. ' Teretefl plagae ' are The MSS. vary between * insei 

le oords of which are made of a seres.' The present seems to 

umber of threads, fitted togethcr, keeping with wliat goes before. 

hioned into a round form. But had no occasion to exprcss a 

want one word, which shall ex- whether Maecenas rankcd him 

ith thick or strong and round.] poets. Although the pcrsonal p 

br Marsicus, as Colchos for Col- is emphatic in this sentence, h 

Medus for Medicus, and many it, as the poets oflen do, wher 

I the only form Horace uses. tion of persons is intended. 

f (hctarum kederae praemisfron- Dillcnbr. have quoted a iragn] 

Te ' has been proposed for ' me ;' pho (15 Bergk), from which i 

Fate has declared, that this " true pear that t.>»o i«-* »* 



A.U.C. 725. 

Thu ode was probably written on the retnrn of Caesar Octayianns [named Angnatns, 
BX. 27] to Rome, after the taking of Alexandria, when the civil warB were ended, and 
tbe temple of Janos was shat, ▲.TT.G. 725. Horace expressea the opinion which Tacitns 
(Ann. i. 9) ttates was held by reflecting men of all parties, '* non alind discordantis 
patriae remedium fuisse qnam nt ab nno regeretnr," that the only remedy left ibr the 
tronbles of the state was an absolute govemment in the hands of one person. He has 
been charged with dcserting his repablican principles, and even nrging the destrnction 
of those whose party he had once belonged to, and with whom he had fonght at Philippi. 
Bat Horaoe arges reform, not bloodshed; and he had lived long enongh to see that reform 
waa Dot to be expected at the hands of repnblican leaders, or from any bnt him whose 
genius was now in the ascendant. It is not therefore in any mean spirit that he nrges 
Octavianus to take apon himself the task of reducing to order the clements of the 
ftate, which so many years of civil war had thrown into confusion. — None of Horace'8 
odes are more justly celcbrated than this for the imagery it contains, for its genuine 
feding, and for the delicacy with which it flatters Octavianos, investing him with divine 
attribates, but inviting him to exercise them os a father correcting and defending his 
cfaildren, and thus to avenge in the noblest manner his great-ancle's marder. The 
way in which he introduces the name of Caesar unexpectedly at the end has always 
appeared to me an instance of consummate art. 

The prodigies described at the beginning of this ode are those which were said to have 
foUowed tlie death of C. Julius Caesar. They are related also by Virgil, Georg. i. 466 — 
489, which passage, and the verses that follow it to the end of the book, should beread in 
oonuexion with this ode. It will appear to any reader of both very probable that Horace 
had this description in his mtnd whcn he wrote. It has been thought that Horace could 
not have referred to prodigies which had occurred so long before (A.U.0. 710, fifteenyears 
befbre this ode was written), when he was at Athens, and therefore could not have 
witnessed them. Other prodigies therefore have been assumed as the subject of these 
opening stanzas. Bot the only other occasions, about this time, when the Tiber is 
recorded to have overflowed its banks, were a.u.c. 727 and 732, the earliest of which 
years would be too late for this ode, in which the allusions to the state of Bome and 
ihe tnumphs of Augustus (v. 49), and the proposal that he should assume supreme 
aatbority, would in that case have been out of date and unnecessary. One of the 
chief purpoees professed by Augustus was the avenging of his adoptive iather^s death ; 
see Soet. Octav. x. : *' Nihil convenientius ducens quam necem avanculi vindicare 
tueriqoe acta." Tacitus also speaks of him (Ann. i. 9) as " pietate erga parentem — 
ad arma civilia actum ;" which his enemies tumed against him, saying, '' Cassii et 
Brutomm exitus patemis inimicitiis datos, qtianquam fas sit privata odia in publicis 
ntilitatibos remittere." According to Dion Cassius (liii. 4) his declared purpose was 
Irrwr r^ rc irarpl SciycvT c^ay4mi ri/iotfp^cu Ktd r^v ir6ktv iK fifydKay Ktd ivaW^^AMy 
KOKmp i^thlaBat. Ovid (FaAt. v. 573, sqq.) introduces him as uttering this prayer 

to Mars: 

*' Si mihi bellandi pater est Vestaeqne saoerdos 

Auctor, et nlcisci numen utramque paro; 
Mors, ades et satia scelerato sang^ne fermm, 

Stetqne &vor causa pro meliore tuus. 
Templa feres et me victore vocaberis ultor." 

Thia beiiig the CMe, Horace oonld not judiciously have passed over thc deatli of C. Julius 


tits enongh hath Jove lent apon the earth, making it afraid lest 
e coming» as the Tiber rolled hack trom its month threatening dest 
', the onaathorized avenger of Uia ! 

jm shall hear that citizens have whetted for each other the iteel thi 
tten the enemy. 

god shall we invoke to help ns ? What prayers shall move Vesta 
)m shall Jove assign the task of wiping ont oor gnilt ? Ck>me thon, Ap 
ling Venns, with mirth and love thy oompanions ; or thou, Mars, 
> hast too long sported with war ; or do thoo, son of Maia, pnt on i 
i, and let ns call thee the avenger of Caesar ; nor let onr sins drive t 
y ; here take thy triumphs ; be thon onr father and onr prince, an 
Ifede to go nnponished whilat thon art onr chief, O Caeaar. 

Jam satis terris nivis atque dirae 
Orandinis misit Pater, et rubente 
Dextera sacras jaenlatus arces 

Terruit Urbem, 
Terruit g^ntes^ grave ne rediret 5 

Seculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae^ 
Omne cum Froteus pecus egit altos 

Visere montes, 

> «a<»r~] See Introdnction. the termination of the ablative 

It ia very common in Horace ' L* This is not tme in respc 

Qot peculiar to him) to find an words, which thongh they hav 

lichuattachedtothelatteroftwo of a^ectives, are in fiict parti( 

es, but belongs to both, as here, instance, " Ab insolenti tempe 

nmutat08qneDeo8"(C. i.5.6); titia" (C. ii. 3. 8). Bentley, 

s timidoque tergo" (C. iii. 2. 16), attribntes too much perhaps to 

other places which the stuilent rity of his crrftmw- ^ — 

efor bimself. Hor«'»« •"••*- *' * 



Fiscmm et somma g^nus haesit almo 
Nota quae sedes Aierat columbis^ 
Et superjecto pavidae natarunt 

Aeqnore damae. 
Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
Littore Etrusco violenter undis 
Ire dcjectum monumenta regis 

Templaque Vestae ; 
Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
Jactat ultorem^ vag^s et sinistra 
Labitur ripa Jove non probante u- 

xorius amnis. 




— ^bes;* and therefore some have proposed, 
contraiT to the MSS., to adopt ' palumbis ' 
here. Bat ' columbas ' ' -ba/ are the ge- 
neric terms for pigeons. — ' Damae ' is both 
ina»cnliiie and feminine. Georg. iii. 539 : 
** timidi damae cenriqae fhgaces." 

11. ntperjecto] *sibi et terris* adds 
Lambinns. But 'sibi' is not wanted. 
Virgil oses the word (Aen. xi. 625), " Sco- 
pnlosqne snpeijacit nndam." 

l^. fl<ifmm] Tbis common epithet of 
the Tiber arosc ont of the quantity of sand 
washed down the stream. Acn. vii. 31 : 
" Vorticibus rapidis ct mnlt& flavus aren^." 
It has been ai^ed trom ' vidimus ' that 
Horace wrote of what he had seen, and 
thenffore the prodigies could not be thoso 
at Caesar^B death. But he means tliat 
his generation had seen the prodigies hc 
refers to, as Virgil says of the eruptions 
of Aetna: 

••Qaotie» Cyclopum efferverc in agros 
Vidimns nndantem ruptis fomacibus 
Aetnam." — Georg. i. 471. 

13, 14. retortU Littore Etrusco riolenter 
mmdis] "its waters driven violently baek 
from its month at the shore of tho Etrus- 
can sea." So I am inclined to take it, with 
Orelli, Dillenbr., and others. Some takc 
* Littore Etrnsco' for the Etruscan or rigUt 
bank of the river, as op|X)sed to * sinistra 
npft ' (v. 18). * Littus * is used for * ripa ' 
(as Forcell. shows) by Virgil, as * ripa ' is 
Qsed for 'littus' by Horace (C. iiL 27. 24). 
Bat ' littos Etrascum ' mcans the shore of 
the Etroscan sea in Carm. Saec. 38, Epod. 
xvi. 40, and 'retortis' can only signify 
driven back, and that must be from the 
motatb. 11 oreover the notion of the rcflux 
of tbe river leems to have been common. 
Fea Temarks that the overflowings of the 
Tiber mn tUU bj the oommon people ac- 
«oiiiited finr bj the ¥1016006 of the sea 

driving back the stream. That this is an 
old opinion we leam from the ttatement 
of Sencca, qnoted by Mitsch., to the effcct 
that a rivcr suddenly overflows its banks, 
<* si crebrioribus ventis ostinm caeditnr et 
reverberatus fluctu amnis restitit; qui 
crescere videtur quia non effunditnr." 
(Nat. Quaest. iii. 26. 1.) 

15. monumenta regis\ This signifles the 
palace of Numa adjoining the temple of 
Vest«, hence called * atrium regium ' (Liv. 
xxvi. 27), as forming a kind of * atrium ' to 
the tcmple. Ovid (Fasti, vi. 263) thus 
alludes to this building : — 

"Hic locus cxiguus, qui sustinet atria 
Tunc crat intonsi rcgia magna Numae ;" 

which he varies a little elscwhere (Trist. 
iii. 1. 29, sq.) : 

" Hic locus est Vestae qui Pallada servat 
et igncm : 
Hic fuit antiqui regia parva Numae," 

Fea says that the church of Sta. Maria 
Liberatricc stands on this spot, and that 
it is proved by certain inscriptions of the 
Vestal Virgins found there in the b^inning 
of tbe fiftecnth ecntury. 

17. Iliae — ultorem'] Tiber is repre- 
scntod as taking upon himsclf without the 
sanction of Jove, and in conscquence of 
IIia's coniplaints, to avenge the death of 
C. Julius Caosar, the desccndant of lulus. 
Ilia or Roa Silvia (as Niebuhr says the 
name is to be written, and not Rhoa) 
was said by Ennius, according to the 
Scholiast Porphyrion, to have been thrown 
into tlie Tiber by command of Amulius, 
and for this reason she is represente<i as 
marriod to that river, though she had been 
prcvioufily betrothcd to tbe Anio, to whom 
Ovid marries hcr (Amor. iii. 6. 45, sqq., a 
beautiful passagc). Silius (xii. 543) makes 
llia Iiide herself in the bosom of her spouse 

LuuB Muuientem 
Cui (labit partes scelus expiandi 
• Juppiter ? Tandem venias precamur 
Nube eandentes humeros amictus 
Augur ApoUo; 

Sannibal approeches the Anio. That and that the Parthians wen 

e were two legends, therefore, in this making incursions into that ] 

1 most cases, must be admittcd. Cni- fact u refcrred to in the las 

18' commentator gets rid of the diffi- ode. Although the name 

f in true Scholiast fashion by saying assisted by thcir own dispv 

Ilia was buried by the bauks of the thing towards keeping th< 

>, which carried her remains away, they were held by the Romi 

washcd them into the Tiber ; and most formidable enemies, as 

e she was snid to have been marricd Horace will easily perceiv> 

le Tiber. Servius (on Aen. i. 277) meditated, but never carriec 

rks on Horace's version, which he the Pftrthians, and the Romi 

8 supported by other writers. Clau- the reign of Trsjan gained 

is one. Speaking of the Tiber he against them. Their empin 

up and succeeded by the 1 

a graves humeros velat quam ncverat ^om of the Sassanidae doring 

xor Alexander Severus, a.d. 226. 

percurrens vitreas snb gurgite telas." *"? o^ Lucan*8 first book may 

•ob.etOlyb. Cons.224.) Jove may ^ith this ode. . _ _. . 

posed to have disapproved the pre- ^ ICara juventtu] Lt U 

on ofthe river-god, becausehehad P«^ «^*^ ^*^« enactmeiit 

d the task of expiatiou for other marnage.laws to rest»re the 

ind happier means. [As to • uxorius,' 5^™«' "! u . J^? thinned 

Virgil, Aen. iv. 266. The same Wcx^dshed but by mdiflference 

i as in 'u-xorius' occurs in C. i. M»d laxity of morals. 
C ii 16 7 "1 ^* Q^^^ vocet divum] T 

ivet ac^Uaeferrum] ' inter se ' or ?PPf *^ P^ ^^« ^^«"^^ '\ ^®*f> 

letipsos' is readily understood. begmnmg v. 92: Tfj «pa ^^ 

rUch and others make • audiet ^T"f '^Tf * ^%T ? ^*?" 1 ^7 

a prophecy, ' shaU hear them S*'^ .,V*' V?*V*^Sf '"^ *" 

' whereas it should be rendered ^^^® (^^^' ^- *' *^' ^^' 

lear of their having BharoemHi * ««Dnr^of-:: 




Sive tu mavis^ Erycina ridens^ 
Quam Jocus eircum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 

Respicis^ auctor , 

Heu nimis longo satiate ludo^ 
Quem juvat clamor galeaeque leves 
Acer et Mauri peditis cruentum 

Voltus in hostem ; 



Morte jacent merila. 

Hoc opus, Laec pietas, haec prima elementa 
Caesaris ulcisci jasta per arma patrem." 
(Faat. iii. 699, sqq.) And when Augnstus 
was made Pontifex Maximus Ovid writee 
(iu. 421) : 

" Ignibos aetemis aetemi numina praesunt 


Ortn!» ab Aenea tangit cognata sacerdos 
Numina; cognatum Vesta tuere caput. 
Qooa sancta fovet ille manu, bene vivitis 

Vivite inexstincti flammaque duxque 

Aeneas was said to have preserved the fire 
of Vesta and brought her to Rome. * Car- 
mina ' is opposed to ' prece ' as a set for- 
mula to other prayers. ' Carmen ' has that 
meaning in respect to legal or any other 
Ibrmal documents. Liv. i. 26 : " Lex hor- 
rendi carminis." Epp. ii. 1. 138 : " Carmine 
Di superi phicantur, carmine Mancs." 

31. yuie candejUet humeros amicttu'} 
So Homer describes him, tlyihos &fjiouy 
rc^X^r (II. XV. 308). Virg. (Aen. viii. 
720): "candentis limine Phoebi." *Can- 
denti ' is the reading of the Scholiasts and 
€oe or two old editions. Fea adopts it, 
and supposes the ' nubes * to be a ' nimbus ' 
or ' glory ' round about his head. Qraevius' 
notion that "nube candentes humeros 
amictos" has reference to the eclipse 
reckoned among the prodigies at Caesar^s 
death is not worthy of him. But the fault 
is Bothe^s, who edited Graevius' notcs irom 
marginal readings in his copy of Cruquius' 
edition not intemled for publication. [The 
Bomans have no active participles oi the 
past tenise, and ao they use passive par- 
tidples in some cases, where the accusative 
reodves the action of the verbal notion 
contarned io the participle. Compare C. i. 
L 21, ' membra stratus ;' C. ii. 7. 7» ' co- 
roDaiai capiUos;' Sat. L 1. 5, 'fractus 

S3. ^&NT^ Seei.3.16n. 'Erycinaridens' 
to ^i\0fifui9fis 'A^po^lrri» 
'l/u^ aad "Epms were the two sons of 
Vona. [Vcsnia had a temple on the moon- 

tain Eryx, in the north-west part of Sicily. 
Cic, In Q. Caecil. c. 17 ; In Verr. Act. ii. 
2. 8.] ' Jocus ' is an invention of Horacc's. 
The reasons for appealing to ApoHo as the 
stedfast friend of Troy, and, according to 
his flatterers, the father of Augustus (not 
because he was *o7$os Ka0dp<rtos as 
Duentzer says), Vcnus as the mother of 
Aeneas and of the Julian family, and Mars 
as the fatlier of Romulus, are suffieiently 
obvious. Mercury is sclected as thc repre- 
sentative of Augustus, becauso ho is the 
messen^r of pcace (Ovid, Fast. v. 665) : 

" Pacis et armorum superis imisque dcorum 

36. SespicW] Cic. (de Leg. ii. 11) pro- 
poses tho title * Fortuna respiciens,' which 
he explnins by ' ad opem ferendam,' for a 
temple of Fortune. 

ludo'] Sce C. i. 28. 17 : " Dant alios 
Furiae torvo spectacula Marti." 

39. Mauri peditis'] As the Airican troops 
were chicfly cavalry, and according to some 
writers distinguished rather for cowardice 
than bravery, Marsi has been substitnted 
for Mauri by somo editors, on the coiijec- 
ture of Tana({uil Faber and against hU the 
MSS. But otlier writers speak more hi^hly 
of the Mauritaniaus ; and the force of * pe- 
ditis,' which would have uo force at all with 
Marsi, here appears to be that the rider hos 
had his horse killcd under him, or has dis- 
mounted to attack his enemy hand to haud, 
or in consequcnee of a wound. See S. ii. 1. 
13 : " Aut labentis eqno describit vulnera 
Parthi." On foot the Koman cavalry routed 
the Hemieans (Liv. vii. 8), and Statorius 
had no diflicolty in forming a very fine 
body of infuntry out of the Numidian 
soldiers of Syphax (Liv. xxiv. 48). It 
has been conjectured that Horacc took the 
idea from a paiuting. Bentlcy has caught 
up 'Marsi' as "certissiraa emendatio." 
Dacier, the inventor*8 son-in-Iaw, sup- 
ports the reading with the assertion that 
ne had seen it in some of the oldest edi- 
tions. Bentley wishes he had access to 
those very rare editions, and is afraid this 
is only a dream that has come to the 
Frenchman ' per portam ebomeam.' 

Ocior aura 
ToIIat : hic magnos potius triumphos 

JVeu «nas Medos equitare inultos 
Ae duce, Caesar. 

inc 8alt«m everso iav«n.™ . tnumphs on three aaccawi» 

pn.hibete." aT^^^> "* ,A<=«'"». «"i 

ch time he tSJ"^"" ^^J^W^C Jl" »<>» «^«med by An^ 
mbIic«madol"c^„,^„''!°;^''^'''''' (pt P^'t.'^<^ iZ\ 

(Phii. ii. 46) ft,; T *''r"'" '^- ^ • "• ^^') =- 

«, «ample^-in iWllrni^iThe "''"t ^**' P"""*^ «« pl. 
» adolescens * and * juvenis ' nomen ^ 

^^^^is euppo^ed b, Ritier to bc ""Zj^^l^^ <^-«- 

jw vocarf] A Graecism. « Patiar ^ tf men ante dedit Sero 
mconsuItu8haberi"rEDD i fi ik?" ^ t«l«ti ™ 

"« .» cori«„ redea,! OviH w.. «rmv^Id%!l.l'!.?_^'""« <? C 

CARMINUM I. 3. 13 


The date of this ode has been mnch discnssed. It is tho chronologists' stnmbling- 
block. If it was written on the occasion of that voyage to Athens from which Virgil 
only retnmed to die, the date must be A.T7.0. 735. How that interferes with the 
reckoning of Franke and others may be seen by referring to the introdnctory remarks 
to this edition. Franke however denies that this ode has reference to that voyage. 
He even thinks it donbtful whether it is addressed toVirgil the poet; and though he is 
in general very acnte and judicious, his zeal for the theory he advocates ran away with 
his judgment when it led him to think that Quintilius, whose death is lamcnted in C. 24 
of this book, is the person here addressed, and that perhaps he was drowned on the 
voyage, since it is clear, says he, from that ode that he met with an untimely and vio« 
lent death. Coming from most other people this thcory would not be worth mentioning. 
That it is the resort of an advocate in difficulty is clear on the face of it. He thinks these 
two odes are closely oonnected, though the link has been lost to us from the obscurity of 
the allosions, but he finds a trace of it in the words '^Navis quao tibi creditum Debes " 
(v. 6 of this odc) ; and C. 24. 11, ''Tu frustra pius heu! non ita creditum." There is no 
wetght in this a^gnment at all ; neverthelcss, there is no certainty that the ode was 
written on the occasion supposed. Virgil may have made or contemplated a voyage 
before his last, and there is so much difficulty attending tbe date A.TT.C. 735 that I am 
indined to think snch must have bcen the case. This leaves tbe date of the ode in 
oncertainty. Franke's best argument is, that if the publication of these odes took place 
after Virgirs death, it must have been immediately or very soon afler, even according 
to the chronology of Kirchner and others who are opposed to him ; and that it would 
have been in the worst taste and feeling to have inscrted this ode at sucli a time. Thcre 
can be little doubt, I think, but he would have suppressed it, or accompanied it with one 
expressing his own and the univcrsal soitow. I cannot imagine a grcater mockcry than 
the insertion of an ode addrcssed to Yirgil on the death of his friend, and an ode praying 
for his safe voyagc, at a timc when all Yirgirs frieuds must have been bewailing his 
death, to which no allusion is made in any part of Horace's writings. This last fact 
would be acconnted for if we supposed Virgil to have died during the time when Horace 
had almost if not entirely suspendcd this kind of writing. Franke's attempt to show 
that there was not that mutual afiection betwceu Virgil and Horace which would warrant 
the expressions in this ode is very weok. But others have affirmed the same because 
Virgil nowhere mentions Horace, and because he did not Icave him his literary executor, 
but chose Varius and Tucca rather than Horace. But Virgil lefb his ^neid not to be 
published but destroyed, and there is no reason why he should have chosen Horace for 
soch a pnrpose. A man may have more friends than executors, and does not always give 
that offioe to those he loves best. As for the other argument, if the nature of Virgil*8 
poems be considercd, it is not worth noticing. 

Compare with this ode Statius* * Propempticon ' to Metius Celcr, * a most noble and 
pleasant yonth,' whom as he could not accompany he sent upon his way with a beautifiil 
address, suggested partly it would secm by this of Horace (Silv. iii. 2). 


We commit to thee Virgil, O thon ship ; deliver him safe on the shores of Attica, 
and preserve him whom I love as my life ; and may tbe skies and winds prosper 
thee. Hard and rash was the man who first tempted the sea and defied the winds. 
In wbat shape should he fear the approach of dcath who unmoved could look on the 
mofiiteri of the deep ahd the swelling waves and dangerous rocksP In vain 
iad God lepante lands if man is to leap over the forbidden waters. So doth he ever 

Navis^ quae tibi creditum 

Debes Virgilium finibus Atticis 

8ie] ThU nse of ' sic ' is not easily trom ber sapposed origin i 

aineu. It is usnal to explfun it as ex- have power over the sea ; 

sing a wifth dependent ou the accom- calU her * marina ' (C. iii. 

imcnt of a condition. It would thus 15). She had the titles rv 

80 may the winds favour you as you had temples built for her ii 

liarge the debt you owe.' But in onler is represented on coins with 

the ship should discharge her debt the anddolphin. Ovid (Heroid 

Is must be favourable, and to wish her Paris say of her : — 

ourablewindandpleasantvoyageafler ««iiia dedit faciles somnoa 
lad delivered her freight, while with- cundos • 

:hat condition she could not deliver it i^ mare nimirum jus hal 

1, is nonsense. Horace seems to mean l /- o\ 

-' 1 pray thee, O ship, deliver up thy "^^ I-ucret. (i. 8) :— 

in safety, and to that end may the "Tlbi rident aequora po 

and winds prosper thee.' In Virgil Placatumque nitet diffuso lui 

U. 30) Lycidas urges Moeris to recite Castor and Pollux had amon 

ome verses, and he says :— that of iLporySyavTOi. Th. 

tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos ; *lucida sidcm' is conjectured 

cytiso pastae distendant ubera from certain meteoric app« 

accae." storms, which the ancients su 

.. , ^„^ „^ «„«««-4. „«j „«•.« dicate the presence of Castor 

sic expresses an eamest and alfeC' o> m « ^ ^.ii 

» nraver for the nerson addressed fol- ^imilar phpnomena are still 

» to no raore than * utinam ' in a '*' ««««'poJ Ufitroi 

•orm, as &s does in Greek ; the object »«*'" Tvi^^ipinai 

wish being a means by which a kafiwpwv &trrpwy &»• o€X> 

end may be accomplished. Tliere «^ "^*'^' ovparioi. 

T passages where * sic ' follows the .... 

)n which it depends, as C. i. 28. yaOrats €6o«rj &v//i»ir 

TCfiTOKTcr AidSfv wods. 

*Ne parce malifimus arenae — nar- ^®® ^^*® Plm. N. H. n. 87, an( 

lamfce: *'"''-' ' " 

Ine ■*- 




Reddas incolumem precor^ 
Et serves animae dimidium meoe. 

IUi robur et aes triplex 
Circa pectus erat qui fragilem truci 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum 

Decertantem Aquilonibus 
Nec tristes Hyadas^ nec rabiem Noti, 

Quo non arbiter Hadriae 
Major toUere seu ponere volt freta. 

Quem Mortis timuit gradum 
Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia. 



onderst«nd tbid to be tbe dative case go- 
verned by ' debes' and * reddas.' I am in- 
clinod to think it tbe case of tbe place 
wbere tbe debt was to be paid [* in terra 
Attica/ Kitter], or tbing entrusted to be 
delivered, and tbat ' debe«' and 'reddas' are 
both n«ed absolutely (see Argument). 'Red- 
dere' is tbe word for delivering a letter, and 
it may be so understood here. 

8. animae dimidium meaeJ] See C. ii. 
17. 5. Tbe Scboliasts baTC preserved a 
Groek proverb: ^i\la iirrl fila ^vxh ^^ 
hvour cfituun. Tlie definition of a friend 
IJuxfrv rr^s ^vx^is is attributed to Pytba- 

9. ItH rohur et aes iriplex] Tbis too is 
an imitation of the Oreek, as Acsch. Prom. 
242 : cihrip6^ptc¥r9 ir&K xfrpas upyaaixiwos. 
Tbere is no necessity for interpreting this 
witb Dillenbr. as a sbield of oak and breast- 
plate of brass: we are to understand a 
man wbose beart is bard as if cased in oak 
and a triple coat of brass, and that is 
enongh. A good metaphor is often spoilt 
by explanation. Tlbullus applies the same 
lan^niage with sonie plav on the words to 
tbe inventor of swords Ql, 10. 1) : 

** Quis fuit horrcndos primus qui protulit 
enses ? 
Qnam ferus et vere ferreus ille fuit !" 

Again, Ovid (Amor. iiL 6. 59), 

** Ule babet et silicM et vivnm in pectorc 
Qni tenero laerimfts lcntus in oro 

Propert 0- 17. 13) Mj% 

'^Ah! pereat qaicimqae rates et vela 
Primas et invito gorgite fecit iter !" 

15. orMtfr] Thuiaexplainedbytbenext 

line. Elsewbere * Notus* is called * dux tnr- 
bidus Hadriae' (C. iii. 3. 5). ' Ponere freta' ia 
Uke Virg. (Aen. i. 66), 'mulcere fluctus/ and 
Soph. Aj. 674: ZtivSov V Arifia ryfvfidreoif 
iKoifAta^t arivovra x6vrov. ' Sive' is omitted 
before * tollere/ as the Greeks frequently 
omitted tXrt in the flrst clause. 

17. gradum'] This is not * degree,' but 
'step.' See the argument. It is like 
" Nunc leti multa referta via," Tibull. i. 
3. 50. 

18. ncci» ocitlie'] ^npois &itXa($<rToit 
Sfifioffiv (Acsch. S. c. Thob. 696). Bentlcy 
nnauthorizcd (exccpt by Heinsius, wbodid 
it before him) substitutcs * rectis* for * sic- 
cis,* considering that fear is not a passion 
to drnw forth tcars. But tbe ancicnts wero 
less exnct in ascribing the propcr signs to 
craotion, or tbey wcpt less sparingly than 
men do now. Caesar dcscribing the etifect 
of fear on bis men says, *• Hi nequc vnltuiu 
fingerc neque interdum lacrimas tenere 
potuerunt" (B. G. i. 39). Bentley may have 
been led to the word * rectis' by Dryden'» 
translation, ** Who unconcerned with sted- 
fast eyes could view ? " But nothing is lesa 
probable tban tbat 'rectis* should have been 
cbanged by the copyists into * siccis' so in- 
variably that the former bas disappeared 
altogethcr. Cunningham suggests but does 
not adopt * flxis.' But fear is not tho only 
sensation with w^hich the sailor views dan- 
ger. Pi*opertius (iii. 7. 55.) makes Pojtus 
remember his mother as be was about to 
drown, and weep ; and Ovid (Mct. xi. 539) 
describing sailors in a storm says, 

'* Non tenet hic lacrimas : stupet bic : vocat 
ille beatos 
Fimera quos maneant." 

It was enough to make them weepto think 
tbat their bodies would not meet witb 


Qui vidJt marE tiir;^dum et 
Infames scopulos Aerocerauma? 

Ncquic<]Ham deuB abscidit 
Prudens Oueano dissociabili 

Terras si tamen impiae 
Nou tJin^enda rates transiliunt vada. 

Audax omnia perpeti 
Oens huniana ruit pur vetitum nefas. 

Atidas lapeti ]^nus 
Ignem 1'raude rnala gentibus intulit. 

Post igncm aotheria domo 
Subductum macics et nova febrium 

Tcrris incuhuit cohors, 
Semotique prius tarda necessitae 

ilcci ocqIS' nre fittJng acoomiwni- x^P'' '"piB"' 

B beurt ao hurd om tliis Teoturoas irfpvv Im' oJS^ 

r is said to iMva biui, Tbe MSS. 

/fen ' tnrgiiluin ' Hnd 'lurbidnm' A venB of Ariilophi 

Btntlcj nclDpta the Isttar, a> «X" •* TiuJifc foC' 

rtiuB cpithetoTi <|uinl niiijnreni tmt)- where rilirx" 1i>u 

iacutit." 'Turbidum' ma; Tepr««en(i tbe uivaoiug o( iroif 

mudilj nppeanmce iif the KO Bfler i iupport the «inio BW 

' B other «pcaka of it« iwvlling it probnblj' nniins i 

CARMINUM I. 4. 17 

Leti compuit gradam. 
Expertus vacQum Daedalus aera 

Pemiis non homini datis ; 35 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 

Nil mortalibus ardui est ; 
Caelum ipsum petimus stultitia neque 

Per nostrum patimur scelus 
Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 40 

oifiee 'sappression' and so *deceptioD' in its step/ So that 'prins' also affects 

every fonn. But it does not always con- ' tarda' i,rh Koufov, as the grammarians 

Tej a bad meaning. say. 

31. incuhuil'] Lncretins, vi. 1141 : — [85. Pennit'] Perhaps * pinnis' is the 
„ Morbns ^® ^°"" here?] 

I„cubnitt.ndempopnloP«ndianUomni.» Afl^^^j^^^tXVer^.^^l^^i.l 

In what fbllows *prins'belong8 to 'semoti/ virtus" (C. iii. 21. 11) : *' virtos Scipiadae 

and 'tarda necessitas leti' are one subject. et mitis sapientia Laeli" (S. iL 1.72) may 

It might be translated thns, * the power, be taken in the same way. 
oiice ^w^ of death remote befbre hastened 


Lncios Sestins served with Horace nnder Brntns, and thej were no doubt on terms of 
intimacy (see Dict. Biog. Sestius 6). But this ode has probably as little to do with 
L. Sestios as with any of Horace'8 other fricnds. The poet borrowed his uame to give 
point to an ode written at the beginning of spring and moralizing on the uncertainty of 
life and the duty of enjoying it. The same rcmark, with a chauge in the names, will 
apply to C. iv. 7. Traces of imitation from the Oreek are observed by some commen- 
tatorSy and some Sicilian poem coutaining refcrcnces to Mount Aetna is 6xcd upon as tho 
sonroe of this ode. Also it has been conjcctured, that it may have been written at 
Baiae or Velia in sight of the Liparaean volcanic islands, which may or may not have 
been the case. We do not want both explanations ; perhaps ncither. Beyoud the word 
' orit,' which seems to be a translation of ^Ac^ct, I am not aware that there are as 
many traces of the Greek as might be found in most of Horace*s odes. 

The time mnst be quite the commenceraent of thc spriug. The whole description, 
in which the present tense is used throughout, indicates the bcginning of those things 
that are described; and though Ovid, referring to the month of April (Fast. iv. 131), 
ipeaks of the laonching of the ships, — 

" Vere monet cnrvas matema per aequora puppes 
Ire, nec hibemas jam timuisse minas," — 
Horace'* words cleorly refer to an earlier month. Rutgersius contcnds very strongly 
that April ia the month to which thc descriptions of this ode belong, especially w. 11, 12, 
whirfa, he Ktys, refer to the Palilia, the festival of Rome*s birthday, which was tho 21st 
ApriL Bot that is moch too late. See note on v. 11. Rutgersius contradicts himself 
bj Myiog that the allosion in v. 9 refers to the practice of Roman matrons bathing with 
their hcsdi crowned with royrtle, which took place on tho calends of April. Ov. Fast. 
IT. 139. Flnt. Nomil, C 19 : rhif *ArplWtov ir^vvfioy Svra rrjs 'A^po^lrjjs 4y f B^vai r§ 


« a,Ac leaaing the dance» and tb 

Durning. Lct as bind the head with inyrtlc or the eartb*s first flo 
a lamb or kid to Pan. Doath calU on rich and poor alike. Life if 
and our hopes we niust contrnct. The grave awaits thee, and wh( 
Bhalt thou preside at fcast or sigh for the fair young Lycidas. 

SoLviTUR acris hiems grata vice veris et Pavoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas, 
Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igi 

Nec prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cytherea choros ducit Venus imminente Lun 

Junctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Altemo terram quatiunt pede, dum graves Cyclopi 

Volcanus ardens urit ofiicinas. 

. machinae'] The machincs mentioned quaintly observea, that wl 

called by Cacsar (B. C ii. 10) *pha- dancing Vulcan is swcating 

ae' (rollers). Vejyicls were drawn up 8. urit^ This seems to 

liorc from the Idcs of Novembcr to the tion «f j^Xc^fi, • li^bts u]>,* 

of March, durinf^which tiuie •'Defen- usnal sonse for • uro.* Kui 

pisces hicmat mare" (S. ii. 2. 17). fore pri.forrcd the rcading 

neque — aut —nec^ Tbe two first of otrurs in some MSS. of ii 

) form one bnnich of tbe st^ntcnce aud Hc (juotes Apollon. Rbod. ii 

last tbo otbcr. " Ncque (pecus aut ^y ^ ^^^ rHtpaiffros) ^U 

r) paudct ncc prata alliK^nt g^^^^^^ ^ ^,^^^,, 

Jam Ci/therea choros ducit J enuit-] ^^^^^^ ^XayKrTjs tbphy 

1. u. 3,3:*' Ipsa v enus laetos jam irdvra 

migravit in agros." • Iimnim.nte j^^^^^ x«Af *'5"»' h^ 

18 no more than witb tbe moon fAApoSiTTj) &pa uoiirn 

ead. But Heinsius renders it "at ^^^^ ^j ^^^^s^^ >^^ 

ew moon : larafjiivri trtXijyji. * Cy- $vpdwv 

t Venus* is fiira| k(y6fitvoy. But it * 

'ogou8to*oi/3os*Air<J\x«i'. Cunning. where there is certainly a i 

W8 •levis* for *Venus,' tbis passage of Horacc, bi 

jrares'] Tbis epitbet may havo a enoujrh tn moi''» s* • — '--*' 

r of Tnoaninrro «--' - ' 



Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto 

Aut flore terrae quem ferunt solutae. 10 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 

Seu poscat agnam sive malit haedum. 
Pallida Mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabemas 

Regumque turres. O beate Sesti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. 15 

Jam te premet nox fabulaeque Manes 


favoar of the latter. Why shonld the 
copjista haTe changed ' visit ' into ' nrit ?* 
The reverse wonld be intelUg^ible. That it 
ia said of Venns (C. iii. 28. 15), " Paphon 
jnnctis visit oloribns,'' is no argnment at 
all. Ovid (Fast. iv. 473) has "Antraque 
Cyclopum positis exnsta caminis/* which 
was pos.sibly imitated from this. 

9. nitidum^ sleek with oil. There is no 
necessity to snppose, with Rutgcrsius, that 
this rcfers to the practice of matrons bath- 
ing- with m^Ttle crowns on tho Ist of 

11. Fauno decet immolare] The Fauna- 
lia took place on the Ides of Deceniber. 
But a lesser festival was obsen'ed on the 
Ides of Febmarv, at the advent of Faunus 
(Pan. the two being, as is wcll known, 
identified by the later Romans). See C. 
iii. 18. Ovid, Fast. ii. 193 : "Idibusagrestis 
fumant altaria Fanni." At that time the 
flocks and herds went out to graze, and 
the god was invoked for their protcction. 
' Immolare * admits of two constructions : 
with an ablative, as (Livy xli. 18) "immo- 
lantibus Jovi singulis bubus," and with an 
accnaative, as (Virg. Aen. x. 519) " inferias 
quas immolet nmbris." Horace himself 
has the latter constmction ebewhcre (S. ii. 
3. 164): "Iromolet acquis hic porcum 
I^bu»." So Virgil (Ecl. iil 77), " fuciam 
vitula." Servins qnotes this passage as 
having the ablative case of the victim. 
But it appears (according to Orelli, who 
bcrwever has 'agna' and 'haedo') that in 
tbe tables of thc Fratres Arvales the accn- 
tative is nsed with 'immolare,' and the 
abbtive with 'facere;' and the reason is 
obvioas : the latter is an elliptical expres- 
lion in wliich ' sacmm ' is nnderstood, as 
Fea remarics. The MSS. vary. If the ac- 
OMtive be the tme reading, as I believe 
it ii, tbe ablative may have got into the 
1188. witlunit aHT remarkable oversight; 
'igiMttii' woold be written 'agna,' and 
liaedam' (for 'haednm ') wonld £b written 
*hMdd.' These suurkB were freqnently 
ooutted tbnragfa haste or carelessness. 
Teft. bM '•gnim' and 'aedoe/ wbere it 

C ! 

seems probable that the MS. followed by 
Landinns had the mark 'a' in the first 
word, bnt omitted it in the second, and that 
the editor added the 's* to 'haedo;' or 
tliat this had been done by the copyist of 
the MS. he followed. Most of the modera 
editors have adopted the reading with the 
ablative. Lambinus has tho accusative, 
which is approved by Rutgersius. 

13. pulsai'] Ovid, Hcroid. xxi. 46, 
" Persephone nostras pulsat acerba fores." 

14. Reges'] This word is commonly ap- 
plied to the rich by Horacc (S. i. 2. 86), 
and by Terence too, as Phormio (i. 2. 20) : 
" Oh ! regem me esse opertuit." Scstius 
was a favourite of Fortune, as a rcfercnce 
to his life will sbow. " Bentus dicitur qui 
multa habens sine malo aliiiuo de^t" is 
Cicero*3 dcfinition. [Horace here uses 
'bciitus' in the sense of ricli, as in S. ii. 
8. 1 ; C. ii. 4. 13; iii. 7. 3; iv. 9. 46, &c. 

16. premef~\ From tliis word, which be- 
longs niore properly to * nox,* we must 
understand appropriatc words for 'Manes' 
and 'domus.* Orelli supplies 'circum- 
volitabunt* and 'teget.' 

fabttl^eque Manes] Tliis is explained 
by Juv. S. ii. 149 : — 

Esse aliquos Manes 

Nec pueri credunt nisi qui nondum aere 

Horace may have had in mind the follow- 
ing epigram of Callimachus : — 

2) Xapi^Of ri rhi v4p$(; xo\.h <TK&ros' al 5* 

&vobot ri; 
^iv^os' 6 5i TlXo^uy ; fivBos* kireokSfjLfBa, 

Persius has imitated Horace, S. v. 152: 
" cinis ct Manes et fabula fies." * Fabulae ' 
thercfore signifies 'unreal.' Propert. on 
tbe contrary says (iv. 7. 1), " Sunt aliquid 
Manes ; letum non omnia finit." — * Exilis' 
is variously interpretcd, either as ' bare,* as 
it is in Epp. i. 6. 45 : " Exilis domus est 
qua non et multa supersnnt," or 'shadowy,' 
or * narrow,' meaning the grave, which is 
called ' Leti domus,' ' Ditis aeteraa domiis ' 

^ .»«,4» uu i/ue unx,; 15. to/if] 'Sach wii 

relli in either of tbe two first. I prefer interpretation which mi 

lefirst. ['*Domu8'exilis'appelhitnr,quod (mirifice plaoet) Baxter 

igaato spatio ingens maltitudo inanium man, say they, can have 

nbrarom stipata eat." Ritter.] For wine or poet^, who does 
her instaucei of ' simol ' for * simul ac ' 


Of this ode Scaliger pronounces that it is " pure nectar." Its beauty 
expresses any but a poetical jealousy on the part of Horace I do no 
rrha was a freedwoman of exquisite beauty but loose character, and 
*ly loves, is all imagination, and we have no clue to the origin of 
^resses a lover^s jenlousy under the pretence of being glad of escape 
inconstant mistress. Milton*s translation of the ode is well known. 


lat pretty boy art thou toying with now, Pyrrha ? He thinks, poor < 
b will always be thus with thee, and will timidly wonder when the 
pity tbose who have no experience of thee; for my part I have esc 
torm as the walls of the Sea-g^ show, whereon my dripping ga 
icture of my wreck are hung. 

Quis multa graciHs te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas comam 
Simplex munditiis ? Heu quoties fidem 
Mutatosque deos flebit et aspera 
Nigris aequora ventis 
Emirabitur insolens 

mulia — in rosa] ** Et «innf. ?« 

CARMINUM I. 6. 21 

Qui nunc te fniitur credulus aurea ; 
Qui semper vacuam^ semper amabilem 10 

Sperat nescius aurae 
Fallacis. Miseri quibus 
Intentata nites I Me tabula sacer 
Votiva paries indicat uvida 

Suspendisse potenti IS 

Vestimenta maris deo. 

in otlier good aathon. It b a stronger form escaped from shipwrcck hanging np in the 

of * miror,* which is a common effect of temple of Neptune or other sea-god a pic- 

'e'and 'de'incompo8ition, afiamongmany tare representing their wreck and the 

other instances, * decertantem' in the third clothes they escapetl in, is mentioned twice 

ode. * Demiror' is a word used by Cicero and again by Horace, S. ii. 1. 33 ; A. P. 20. Also 

others, and adopted here by some editors ; among many others by Virgil, Aen. xii. 768: 

bat thcre is nothiue toobjoct toin *emira- ,. o i.-' v l- ii j i i. x 

Ktar.' which is the readiii of all the MSS. Scrvat. ex nndi. ub. figere dona «.lebant 

Bentley conjcctnre. 'nt mirabitur;' but l^""nt'„d'vo. et votas susi^nderc vcs- 

he does not insert it in the toxt. ' Insolens' ^' 

is either osed absolutely or with a genitive. The temples of Isis wcre thus adomed 

9. aurea'] * AU gold * is Milton's trans- after the introduction of her worship into 
lation, and none other that I know of will Rome, which was not till the latter years 
do. The reader^s own tact must fill up the of the Republic. She was worshipped in 
idea, which is a complex one. It is not Orcecc as Ilf Aa^/o, aud the Romans placed 
merely ** illa meisoculisaureasempererit," tbemselves undcr her protection at sea. 
as Ovid saj-s, nor ouly •* auro contra cara Tibullus says to her (i. 3. 27) : — 

est/' as niotos. It i^plies perfection^ «Nunc, dea, nunc succurre mihi; nam 

as *aarea mediocntas signifies that per- posse mederi 

f«t sute which transgresses neither to the Pictadocct templis multa tabella tuis." 
right nor to the left. 

10. vacuam^ ** Elige dc vacuis quam And Juvenal asks (S. xii. 28) : " Pictores 
non sibi yindicet alter," Ov. Herod. xx. quis nescit ab Iside pasci ? " 

149. SecalsoC. i. 6.19: "Cantamus vacui Ib. potenti—mari3'\ Milton translatcs 

•ive quid urimar." — ' Amabilem ' Gesner " the stem god of sca," not observing tbat 

onderstands actively. It may be either^ or 'poteiis' governs *maris' as ** potens 

both. Sec C. i. 3. 22. (>rpri," C. i. 3. 1, and * lyrae potens/ C. i. 

12. iabula] This practice of persons 6. 10. 

car:men yi. 

A.u.c. 725. 

Kotwithstanding Agrippa*s closo conncxion with Augustos, it is very probable that 
between that stera man and Horace there was but little sympathy or intercourse, and 
without personal affection his musc did not rise to its highest flights in the way of per- 
•onal enlogy. And during the time that he was writing the odes which conipose the 
threc first books, judging by their character we may believe that he reidly felt unequal 
or indisposed for sing^ng the praises of a militarj' hero, and that he considered such sub- 
jecti nnsaited to him. Twice he checks himsolf wlien he gets upon heroic thcmes (C. 
iL 1. 37 ; iii. 3. 69), but not till he has shown how competent he was, had ho plenscd, to 
bave handled them, as he showed whcn he rcsumed this style of composition in later 
yeart, uid wrote that noblc ode in praisc of Drusus (iv. 4). 


arius shnll sing in Homeric strain of tby victories by sea and lond. 
(lares not sing of these, of the wratb of Achilles, or tbe wanderingi 
fate of PeIo[)8' house, nor will she disparagc thy glorics and Caesax 
sing of Mars mail-clad, of Mcriones black with the dust of Troy, o 
for gods ? I sing but of feasts aud of the battles of boys and girla 

ScRiBERis Vario. fortis et hostmm 

Victor Maeonii carminis alite, 

Quam rem cunque ferox navibus aut equis 

Miles te duce gesserit. j 

Nos, Agrippa, neque haec dicere nec gravem 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii 
Nec cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei 

Nec saevam Pelopis domum 

. carminin alite] *Alite' is in appo- Cliabot, whose ponderoos 

>n with Vario. Because in prose the have attcmptcd to mako 

tivc of the agent withont a preposition Agrippa's great success n 

ot admissiblc, 'alite/ which is the read- had been in the Perusian vt 

of all the MSS., has been sometimes had the principal commau( 

'cd to ' aliti.' But Horace has the same tns), in Gaul and Germau^f 

truction Epp. i. 1. 94 : " Curatus in- against Sex. Poinpey and 

ali tonsore.*'. S. ii. 1. 84 : " Laudatus sea. — ' Te duce* is used ac 

are." C. iii. 5. 24 : " Marte populata * auspicia' belonged only to 
•o." Orelli's note about the ablative 5. neque haec — nec grat 

ute would not explain one in ten of if hc had said : ' I shoul 

nstances in which this poctical con- singing of these victories a 

tiou occurs. It is most frequently should of the wrath of Ach 

l in Ovid. The SchoUasts Acron and C. iii. 5. 27- 30 : 
.. Cruq. finding « alite/ and uot con. „ _ „ ^^^^ ^, 

ig it with Vano/ rendered it as if it ^^^^ ^^^^^ „^.^, 

' under the auspices of Homeric vcrsc. ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^g ^„^ 

ley have found some followers. - 

CARMINUM I. 6. 23 

ConamuT tenues grandia^ dum pudor 
Imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 

Culpa deterere ingeni. 
Quis Martem tuniea tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit aut pulvere Troieo 
Nigrum Merionem aut ope Palladis 15 

Tydiden superis parem ? 
Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus vacui, sive quid urimur 

Non praeter solitum leves. 20 

Ulysses 18 vehemently described by Hecuba placed bcfore tbeir fatber as a meal the 

in Earipides' play of the Trojan Women childrcn of Thycstes, his brother, who had 

(v. 285) : — previously seduced the wife of Atreus. 

hs -rdvra Tos€i»€y ivBdS' Atreus was killed by Aegisthus, his nephew 

atrriirax: alOis ixf^fft Jiittuxv yXuffaa ^nd supposcd son, who nlso seduced the 

iplKa To irp6rtp* &<pi\a riBitiivo^ itdvrav, wilc of his cousin, A^raniemnon (the son of 

n *. c\' ir/T>u oni\ Atrcus), who was uiurdcred by the said 

Hector savs of himself (Rhcsus, 391): — •*• //i\ l i i u i 

^ ^, ' wire Llyteinnestra, aud she by her son 

^iXu» Ktyuv Orestes, who was pursued to madness by 

TiAT?0€5 oc) Koh hiifKovs ir4<t>vK* iviip. the Erinnvcsofhisniothcrtall whichevents 

Several MSS. have * dupUces,* which furnished themes for thc Grcck tragedians, 

tho*e editors who adopt it explain of tbe aud were by them varied in their features 

vovasrc to and from Troy ; but they do uot as suited their purpose, or according to the 

explaiu what there was in tbe first to niake dinerent lep^euds tliey followe<l. 

tbc subject of a poem. * Dupliccs' is a 11. ZaM</<?*] 'ITicScbobasts^onEpp.i.lS. 

mistake, though it appcars in tbe oldest 27) afhrni that Varius wrote a pancgyric 

BlamUnian MS., and is so quoted by Pris- on Au^stus (Porpbvrion caUs it 'notissi- 

cian. ap. Beutley, who prop<jses * reducis.* mum pauejryricunr), and it seems that 

8. taeram Peiopis donium] AUuding to Honice meaus iudircetly to refer to it here. 

Varius' tragedy Thycstcs, of which Quin- [15. opfi Paliadh] See Homcr, 11. v.] 

tiUan (x. 1 . 98) says, " Varii Tbyestes cui- 18. Stctis'] Bentley having proposed 

hk't Oraecorum comparari potest." It is withmuchconfidence*8trictis,'andadopted 

probable, however, the comparison would it in his tcxt, aftcrwards gave way to tbe 

not have been fatal to the Grecian muse. general opinion of scholars, aud withdrcw 

Aconspective view of the atrocities of tbis his emcndation. Sce Museum Criticum, 

unfortunate house, a» tbey are so ofteu 1814, i. p. 194. • Strictis' has abarbarous 

referred to, may not be out of place air. In *scctis' there is an agrecable irony. 

here, or without its moral. The founder, [Rittcr mistranslates it 'gcspitzt.'] 

Tantalus, serve*! up bis own son Pelops at 19. she (^uid urimnr^ For * quid* Lam- 

a feast of the gods. Pelops, restored to lifc, binus has • quod' on the authority of many 

murdcrcd Oenomaus, his fathcr-in-Iaw, and of his MSS., * quod ' signifying ' because.' 

his own 8on Chrysippus (Thucyd. i. 9). * Quid ' is more elegant. The omission of 

Atreus, the son of Pebps, mordered aud < sive' has been noticed before (C. i. 3. 15). 



.s PUnriia, wlia rollowed C. Juliot CDerar both io Oml Kai \a hii 
ey, ufter Ciie«ar'a death attached Liniiielf to tbe republinn puty, bat 
ards joined Aagnttiu ; then followed AutoDjCo tlie EBSt, nud A.u.c. 72: 
Lctiiiin. jointd Aagnstna ngitiD. It a >uppo«ed thnt sbout thia time, ; 
^.-'-.stioa of Au^stun, wlio vat mxiou* to tircme PluicuB aDd to keep 
llaly, Horace wrote him thiB ode while hia niiud wu perpleied u 
iiieiiitBting rctiremcnt from Rome to Greece. 

tk iill this ia ver; doubtf^l, nnd with Eatrf (p.308) I ciDiiot batthinl 
ether thia Flimctu ia intendDd Kt ull. It may have been hiitOD, who i 
nBtiui referreil lo in £pp. i. 3. 31, orsimeother Plaiicus. BuCevcnif 
nuD, I ciinDot see miy aurh Beriuua purpoae in the ode as Ihe Bbore I 
)r do 1 believe AagustDB Btlachtd nny snch valne to the renegado'i 
Bppcan to have becn B coutcniptible pcrson. Thnt the temple of Jani 
ihI at the time is tme (r. 20) ; bnt that doi'a not 6i the dite befare th< 
iuni, I thiiik the name of Plsncua is iigain uied more u > convenicnn 
!{; elao, tboui^h tliero ie perhaps h littie more individoolity giveD to this o 
^ Ibnrth. '■'he atory of Tencer hnB all the BppcnrBnce of H Ureek Drigin. 
., Munntim PlancQ», Bbovo referreil to, wm conaul in i.v.c. 712, 8c« C. 
" Hun ego hoo ferrom, cmlidus javent», 
CoDEnle Planco." 

|t nthcra «ing of the noble citics of CJrecce, aud dcdicate tlii-ir livca to the < 
ad all its glDrica, For mj- part I cure not for Laccdaeinon M 



Cannine perpetuo celebrare et 
Undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam. 

Plurimus in Junonis honorem 
Aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas. 

Me nec tam patiens Lacedaemon 
Nec tam Larissae percussit campus opimae^ 

Quam domus Albuneae resonantis 


ieU of cbaste Hinerva'8 dty in nnbroken 
■ong, and to gatber a brancb frotn every 
oli ve to entwine tbeir brow.' A * perpctnam 
cannen ' is a conUnaons poem (Ovid, Met. 
i. 4) ; and *a brauch frora every olive,* or 
more literally * an olivc-hranch from every 
quarter,' ciin only mean thnt the varioas 
tbemes connected witb the gU)ry of Athens 
are as olive-trees, from eacb of which a 
branch is plncked to bind the poet*8 brow. 
Tlie figure is appropriate to the locality 
(Herod. v. 82. Soph. Oed. Col. 694 sqq.). 
Frtllowing the conjectnre of Erasnms, 
Lambinns and many of the earlier editors, 
including Dacier, preferred readiug • undi- 
que decerptae frondi praeponere olivam,' 
*to prcfvr the olive to boughs gathered 
frora all other trecs.' But as Bentley 
sbows, tbere is no necessity for altering the 
reuding of all the MSS. which is that of the 
text. •Indeque' (omitting *et') would 
not be a bad emendation, if emendation 
were wanted. It is adopted by Mitsch. 
' Arces ' is tbe reading of some MSS. for 
' nrbem,' and B«*ntley adopts it on theusual 
gTonnd, that it . is the less likely word of 
tbe two to have been coined, but the best 
JdSS. bave * urbem.' 

8. ['Plurimus' is sometimes supposcd 
to \>e eqoivalent to ' plurimi ;' others take 
it in tbe sense of ' copious/ ' one who ex- 
pcnds mucb labour on bis subject.'] ' In 
boiiorem,' * to do bonour to.' Propertius 
(iv. 6. 13) sayg, ** Cacsaris in nomen du- 
cnntar carmma," wbich is an analogous 
cftse. See Hom. II. iv. 51 : 

^ Toi inol rpus fihif ToKu ipiKraral fiai 
"Afryos rc liwdprri rc koI tvpudyvia 

[Argos is nsed only in the nom. and 
accu!(. neuters of the singukr. Tho 
Latin plural is * Argi,' * -orum.'] * Dites 
Mycenaa' is later: MvK-fi^as r&f iroXu- 
Xfivvovt (Soph. Elect. 9). 'Opimae La- 
rissiae' is Homeric; Adpicrcra ipt$fi\a^ 
(IL ii. 841). *Patiens' is the Spartan'8 
bistoriad chuaeter, but alao that of Ho- 

race'8 age, and be may bave been at Lace- 
daemon and Larissa in bis campaigning. 
Cicero (Tusc. v. 27) says, " Pueri Spar- 
tiatae non ingemiscunt verberum dolore 
laniati. Adolesccntium gregcs Lacedae- 
mone vidimus ipsi iucredibili contentione 
certantcs pugnis, calcibns, unguibus, niorsn 
denique, ut exanimarentur prius quam se 
victos faterentur." * Percussit' is gene- 
rallv uscd witb the ablative of the instru- 
ment or cause. Standing alone in this way 
and in the aoristic perfcct it savours very 
mucb of ^itAt/^c, nnd the ode has traces of 
thc Greek in nearly every part. 

12. Albuneae reionantis'] One of the 
Sibyls worshipped at Tibur gave her name 
to a grove and fouutaiu. See Vii^. (Aen. 
vii. 81 sqq.) : 

" lucosque sub alta 

Fonte sonat." 

13. Tihurni lucus'] Tibumus (or -tus) 
Catillns and Coras were the mythical 
founders of Tibur. Aen. vii. 670 : 


Tum gemini fratres Tiburtia moenia 

Fratris Tiburti dictam cognomine gen- 


The brotbers had a * cultus * tbere and a 
grove. Tiburnus was the tutclar deity of 
Tibur, as Tiberinus was of the river Tiber, 
Anicnus of the Anio, &c. They are in 
fact adjectives. Tibur wns fumous for its 
orchards. See Prop. iv. 7. 81 : *' Pomosis 
Anio qua spumifer incubat nrvis ;" and 
Ovid, Am. iii. 6. 45 : "Tiburis Argei pomi- 
fera arva rigas" (if Bentley is right in 
reuding * ))oniifera ' for * spumifer '). 

1't. As curly as the Schol. Porphyrion 
there were those who divided the ode at 
this placc intotwo ; and in sonie MSS. this 
divisiou is found and a frcsh inscription tor 
the latter half. *' Hanc Oden quidum 
putant aliam esse, sed eadem est." Porpb. 

Castra tenent seu densa tenebit 
Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremqu 

Cum fugeret tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes afiatus amicos : 
Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque. 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro 

Certus enim promisit Apollo 
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

O fortes pejoraque passi 
Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas ; 

Cras ingens iterabimus aequor. 

15. Alhus Notui] Tliis is the \9vk6vo' not ancommon in Cicero, 

»f of tbe Oreeks. VVe have also ' condidi ita sit, nihil fingam tame 

AYonii* (C. iii. 7. 1) and *albuB lapyx' 2. 73, where Mr. Long 

(C. iii. 27. 19), wherc it represents a instances). Teucer selec 

eacherous wind. Horace prefers the his protector, and so woi 

rms in ' eo/ as * deterget,' * tergere ' (S. poplar. 

2. 2i), ' densentnr ' (C. i. 28. 19). 27. duce et a^ice] B 

19. fulgeniia signii] The standards in nical distinctions into Ten* 

tnt of the ' praetorium ' were decoratcd he could know nothing ; i 

bh gold or silver. is no nccessity for Bent 

[n ' teuebit ' the commentators find sup- ' auspice Phoebo.' [' ^ 

rt for thcir opinion that this ode was ApoUinem dicit. KeUei 

itton to induce Plancus to settle quietly ; equivalent to (to^s in 

f the future implied * whether you mean x^ ^'^^ ^ol^s cra^s (O 

1 hope you do) to take possesaion of 29. Ambiguam] Sali 

ir villa at Tibur.' might be confonnded wit 

II. Teucer—/Ugerei'\ [See Velleius, i. 1, SaUimis. 

l Strabo, p. 682. Teucer is said to have [32. Uerahimm*'] Comp 

oded Salamis in CvDru8.1 * C.ntn Ai«-»- — — ' • - 

CARMINUM I. 8. 27 


The pnnciple of identification has led to strange confusion and inventions respecting 
the nanie ai«umed in tbis odc. I find from Estre that one scholar has affirmed, that by 
Lydia Horaoe meant Julia, and by Sybaris Marcellus. The reader has only to compare 
tbe odes in which this name occurs, and he will forra his own opinion. Here therc is no 
sigTi of jealousy, but anxiety for the reputation of Sybaris; in C. i. 13 there is violent 
jealou!^ of Telephus ; in iii. 9 there is a lover's coquetting and reconciliation ; while in 
L 25 Lydia is a wom-out prostitute looking for lovcrs who will not come. If we had 
morc of Anacreon*s poetry to guide us, we should probably see such traces of the origin 
of all these odes as would put tlie matter in tho right light. Thc name of Sybaris is 
obvioasly intended to reprcseut thc character into which the youth has fallcn. 


Lydia, why art thou spoiling Sybaris thus, so that he shnns all manly exerclsefl ? He 
wbo was once so active, why doea he no longer ride, and swim, and wrestle» and 
throw the qnoit and javclin in the Campus Martius ? Why does ho hide himself with 
thee, like Achillcs, in woman's apparcl ? 

Lydia, dic, per omnes 
Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properas amando 

Perdere ; cur apricum 
Oderit campum patiens pulveris atque solis ? 

Cur neque militaris 5 

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis 

Teniporat ora frenis? 
Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangerc? Cur ollvum 

Sanfifuino vipcrino 
Cautius vitat, nequc jam livida gestat armis 10 

Brachia saej^e disco, 
Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito? 

Quid latet, ut marinae 
Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae 

Funera ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catorvas ? 

2. propercul The rcadiug of nearly all quius, and othcrs. They were stopped by 

the MS.S. is * properes ;' but the Scholiasts * tiraet,* or they would probably have 

bad'propeTas,'and Bentleyhas8aid,Ithiuk changed 'vitat' and *gestat' into the 

tmly, that the other reading probably arose subjunctive. 

ont of ' oderit.' But that word has an in> ^9. Sanffuine viperino'] See Epod. iii. 6.] 

dicative sense, aiid the direct form secms [14. aub — funera'] * Just before the 

bcttcT throughout. Most modern editors, laraentable slaughters.' In C. 9 'sub noc- 

inclnding l^tley, have •propercs,' and tem,' *just before night,' 'at night fall.' 

foiDe ffood MSS. have * eqnitet,' ' tempe- See Epod. ii. 44 n.] 
ict»' imch are adopted by LambinoB, Cm- 



Tliia Ss ■ drinkin^-Mng fbr thc v/inUir, imitAted from aa ode oT Alcaeu, of 
HuUuwiDg frBgiueat hii< bcen prcscrved in Atbcnaeiu (34 Bci^k) : 
Et. tiiv i Zibs, tK y ipari nfy<a 
X''f>a>fi '(Tiiyairir 3* AEiiTwr ^iiai 

KiQBa^' rir x*W'>' 'rl filr Tihli 
vl^p, <y B) irfjivoit oli-av i^tiSlms 
H'\iXP"', ^i^ip i>i?l icd/ifftt 

tidxeaKor i|tf iTiOij -yri!f EiA\iiv. 
TlioQgl] tlic olivlous fact that ttiis ode a a dose imltntioo of a Orcck iit! 
ffcll lencl UH to Udifve tliat it is a mero work of art, Boiae of tlia chronolDgiBta 1 
a Jflte,each accordingto hi« own viewa, DillenburgCT thinki itwnawritten 
le bittle of Philippi, wlimi Horaee'» frieudt went iipt todwcU on unpleaiumt t 
cquired to bnve their BpiiitB kept np. Jaiii EDppOBcs it Hss ivritten nt thi 
le TholinrchuB, not fiir (roin Monnt Soracte. Bottniiinn, too, tliin' 
iToper DBino (tbough of morde fictitioua), iu vrhich I ece uo reB«OD to agnic t 


:e Soracte rtond» out with mow, tbc ivooil!f are bcnding with their bnrth» 
Bhurp frost huth frozcu thc strcams. Hcnp logti on tlic fire, aud dniw 
e the !vst to thc gotle, at frhoBe hidding 
Aik not whflt ia 

CARMINUM I. 9. 29 

Permitte divis eetera^ qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deproeliantes nee cupressi 
Nec veteres agitantur omi. 
Quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere^ et 
Quem Fors dierum cunque dabit lucro 

Appone^ nec dulces amores 15 

Speme puer neque tu choreas^ 
Donec virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 

Composita repetantur hora ; 20 

taking down the jar Irom the 'apotheca ' or was a white wine, the second seems to have 

drawing the wine fi^m the 'diota' (which heen the least powerful, the third was most 

u the same as the ' amphora,' ' testa,' or highly valued. He speaks of Mareotic wine 

'cadns*) into the crater or bowl in which from the neighbonrhood of Alexandria (C. 

it was mixed with water. Here it means the i. 37. 14), the vine producing which Virgil 

latter. The name of the wine is applied to mentions (Oeorg. ii. 91). But it does not 

tbc Tessel containing it here, as in 'Graeca appear that it was drunk at Rome. Horace's 

test&* (i. 20. 2) ; ' Laestrygonia ampbora' classification does not agree altogether with 

(iii. 16. 34). Sabinc wine was not among the Pliny'8. 

best, nor was it of the worst sort. It was [9. qui nmur] Compare ' quorum simul/ 

a «weet wine, and probably after four years' C. i. 12. 27, and * simul atra,* ii. 16. 2.] 

keeping was in its prime. Horace calls it 14. Fors^ * Chnnce.' Cic. (De Leg. ii. 11) 

eUewhere (C, i. 20. 1) " vile Sabinum," distinguishes * Fors' from ' Fortuna* thus : 

bnt that was as compared with Maecenas' " Fortuna valet in omncs dics ; Fors in quo 

more expensive sorts. Of the other Italian incerti casus significautur mngis." ' Fors' 

wines that Horace mentions, the best was and ' Sors' differ ns cause and effect : 

from the Caecubus airer in the south of «. rk • /.. -mr . .« • 

Utium; thesecondi^wiutheFaler. **"^^ ^'***°^' °' '"""^ '1'""' "*" 

nian, of which there were several varicties. o *.' a :» 'l t» v «i.» 

An iiferior «rt came from Surrentum (alw ^° ^*'" '''^»"* '«° ^°" ^J*^"*' 

in Campania), which was improved by mix- (S. i. 1. 1). Nevertheless the Scholiasts 

ing widk Falemian dregs (S. ii. 4. 55). On Acron and Porph. appear to have read 

a par with Falemian he seems to place the ' Sors,' and several editors since. Bentlcy 

wine of the Alban hills (S. ii. 8. 16). The reads ' Fors.' [As to ' quem— cunquo, 

wine of the Massic range was apparcntly compare C. i. 6. 3 ; 7. 25.] 

of delicate flavour (S. ii. 5. 54). Among the lucro appone] Cic. Ad Div. 9. 17 : " de 

costly wines of the rich he mentions the lucro prope jara quadricnnium novimus," 

CaleniAn from Cales, now Calvi, in Cam- i. e. of good luck and contrary to cxpecta- 

peuua, and that of the Formian hills (C. i. tion. Liv.(']0, c. 8)has the same exprcssion : 

20. 9, 11). The worst wine he speaks of " De lucro vivere me scito." [Comp. 'illi . , 

(S. ii. 3. 143) was from the neighfaionrhood apponet annos' (C. ii. 5. 14) ; and Terence, 

of Yeii, a red wine (Mart. i. 104. 9, " Vei- ' postulare id gratiae apponi sibi ' (Andr. ii. 

entani bibitnr faex crassa rubelli "). There 1. 31).] 

wereotberwinesofdifferentqualitiesgpnwn 17. virenti] Epod. 13. 4: "dumquo 

in Italy, the best of which, and placed by virent genua." Iloi^y rc SeT &s y6vv x^<^- 

AQgTtstas above Caecuban, was the Sctine, p6y, Theoc. xiv. 70; nnd Wuestemanu's 

from Setia (Sezza) in the Volscian territory. examples. Propert. iv. 5. 57 : " Dum vernat 

Westpbal says a good wine is still grown sunguis, dum rugis integer annus." The 

there. The Romans also imported wines same expression is also applicd to old age. 

from th« A^ean and Asia Mmor, of which Tac. Agr. 29 : " cruda et viridis senectus." 

Horaee mentions those finom the islands of [Conington (Aen. i. 374) snggests that 

Cos» Letboi^ and Chios. Of these the iirst ' composita hora' may mean ' evening ;' bnt 


Nune et lateBtis proditor intimo 
Gratus pucllao risus ab nngQlo, 
Pignusque diTeptum lacertis 
Aut difjito mule pertinaci. 

} □aotem' exprBBsea thetimp. bdcI 'rora. Sll.) ' PoDrailiicqBe doins qut 

t»' a equivBlont to ' tonttituta.' Comp. ara primnm' (Hor. Epp. i. 10. 
. 8at. iii. 12.] 83. dereplmn] Tbore i» tlie i 

i. areae] Courtfl and open plRce» alKjat tirni in tlie MSS. liere, aome ri 

teiiiplM and in differeiit partii oT tbc reiitmn.' Sm C. i. 1. 18 n.; ■ 

n, uwd at proineTindes and for i^ui«i. [' Hale pertlnaci,' ' wliiidi p 

y place in a eity tiot built ujioii' i« tlie nsiat.'] 
.st'» definition af ' arcu.' [(Dig. 50. 16. 


eaid \iy tlic Scbiiliu-it Porphjrionto hc taben froni AlcaeH), ani 

leru trun^lntifiii, A>r be rummi-iiccs biii commentar]' by calling 

jrium ub Alcui'o Ivrito poela." Ife aay» tbe story of A|)dIIo 

wented by Alnnjun, aiiii liis in.-.crliipn i< conflnncd hy PausaniM (vii. 30. 

r fuUio-Ta 'AriKhaiya 'AAjcaiifi tc iHAaaiv ir tyn^ t^ <ii '£» 

b 'EfiuQt ^BVi iipiKtiTii raii'Airi/t.hairo<. Tbe flnt line oTh SuppluD odt 

beeu preaerved, nUidi fconi' lo Imve boi^n tlifttwhicb Horace imitntod: 

II 6 ^iSm, nl 7np fioi (3 iitTyk), '['ln! uttril>uti* uiid li^gcnda bcloutring 



Te boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Per dolum amotas puerum minaci 
Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 

Bisit ApoUo. 
Quin et Atridas duce te superbos 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto 
Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae 

Castra fefellit. 
Tu pias laetis animas reponis 
Sedibus virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Oratus et imis. 

13. QiUn ef} See C. ii. 18. 87. 





The swarmB of impostors from the East, that pretendcd to tell fortuncB and cast 
natiWties at Rome in the time of thc empire, hecame a public nuisance, and they were 
expelled and laws passed against them, but without the cffcct of putting thcm down. 
Tadtns (Hist. i. 22) describes them as ** Qcnus hominum potcntibus infidum, spcran- 
tiboa fidlaz, qaod in civitate nostra et vetabitur semper et retinebitur." They were 
nnmerotia in Cicero'8 time. He says (De Div. i. 19), ** Contemnamus ctiam Bubylonios 
et eos qoi e Caucaso caeli signa servantes numeris stellarum cursus et motus perse- 
qnnntor." As might be supposed, they were most successful in engagmg thc attention 
of women (Juv. vi. 569 sqq.), and Horace here addresses himself to one of that sex, 
whom he calls Leuconoe, whcther in compliment or othcrwise may be doubted. Pindar 
expresses folly by Acviral ^pivti (Pyth. iv. 109). 


I^k not into the book of fate, Lenconog, nor consult the astrologcrs. How much better 
to be satisfied, whether we have yet many wintcrs to sce or this be the last ! Be wisc, 
strain the wine, think of the shortness of lifc, and cut your cxpcctations short too. 
Even as we speak time flies — live to-day, trust not to-morrow. 

Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quem mihi, quom tibi 
Pinem di dederint, Leuconoe, nec Babylonios 
Tentaris numeros. Ut melius quidquid erit pati, 
Seu plures hiemes seu tribuit Juppiter ultimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 5 

Tyrrhenimi. Sapias^ vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
Aetas : earpe diem quam minimum credula postero. 

[3. Ulmeliua] (^cero, Be Lege Agraria, <ut juvat.'] 

ii. 16 : * at occalte latet, nt recondita est, [6. spatio hrevi'] * From the short span of 

ot fartini tota decemviris traditar.' In life.' * Vitae summa brevis,' C. i. 4. 15.] 
%od. u. 19, < Ut gandet,' &c., and y. 61, 



A.o.o. 725—729. 

I Marrelliu marriod Julia, thc dHii^hter oT Aagnstas, 729, ani i\ei 
1. 45 uf this odo mnkea it qnite certain t)wt it tvas «ritten b«fo: 
I Marcollas, ancl nfter he hnil Bttuinod an age iu Rhich be could give prai 
vnmg Ihcdutinctianaf hU name. The meuiiDg of that atania i> plainlii' 
le of the house of HHrivlliDi. takiDg iti hirth from tlie grcat ClaQilini t 
-acnie, ts growing up throagh euccnsive gpiienitions tibv tbe inJteiuible , 
I', and promiBB» to eome to iniitnrity in Oclaria's sou." Pronlie thinks 
ttcn bcfore Anj^iJlnt ivrnt a^Dst thv CnnUbrians in TS9, ind ahont 
marrin^, whcn he wiis unly in bii eifibtecnth jrar. Otbcrs pl 
«tum Irom Spaiu in A.iT.c. 730, and the clMiDg- of thc temple ( 
Franlie some Blluaion to thii evcnt ivouid Iiave heen mnde Imd t 
1. Torreutius lUiiilis it was one of thoso bjTnns whlch bj- order o 
«Drding- to Dion Ciuisiu^) wvre iLddrcniwd to An^nutos, as s god, sfler tl 
. At tbut time Man^ellui wns in his fonrteentb jear, but even the 
y foud of hiio und Imd grciit hop« of him. "ITie poem has ranch of 
an ode for music, but n hymn eompnacd on the wouion TorreDti 
d luirdly havefuilid toallude tothe auccessea itwus intendedt» celebmt 
inion to tbe othcra; bnt thcre ia no possihihtj in mj judgment i 
:e precieely. l..ti.c. 729 appcan to be the Iiitest jear to which it csd 
' led, nnd 725 the earliest. 

CARMINUM I. 12. 83 

QuEM virum aut heroa lyra vel acri 

Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio, 

Quem deum ? Cujus recinet jocosa 

Nomen imago 
Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris 5 

Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Haemo 
Uiide vooalem temere insecutae 

Orphea silvae 
Arte matema rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos^ 10 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 

Ducere quercus ? 
Quid prius dicam solitis parentis 
Laudibus, qui res hominum ac deorum, 
Qui mare ac terras variisque mundum 15 

Temperat horis ? 
Unde nil majus generatur ipso, 
Nec viget quidquam simile aut secundum : 
Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. 20 

Proeliis audax neque te silebo^ 
Liber, et saevis inimica virgo 

2. nmU eelehrare] See C. i. 1. 8 n. And Lncret. v. 1436 : — 
Horace iDrokes the Mases witbout much 

cUscrimination ; but Clio is not improperly " At vigiles mnndi magnum versatili' tem- 

inToked here a^ the muse of bistory, to plum 

which the names of the worthies rccounted Sol ct luna suo lustrantes lumine cir- 

belong. Calliope the Epic muse is invoked cum." 
C. iiL 4. 2; Melpomene the tragic is asked 

for a dii^ i. 24. 3; Euterpe and Polyhym- 17. xinde nil majui] ' Unde ' in Horace 

nia the proper lyric muBCs occur i. 1. 33. sometimes refers to persons (see Index). 

•Imago* b used absolutely for the echo See also Cicerode Scuect.c. 4: "foreunde 

(forwhichtheRomansbadnocorrespond- diacerem neminem." Terent. Eun. i. 2. 

ingterm) by Cicero, Tusc. iU. 2: " ea (Uius 35 . « e praedonibus unde emerat." 

bonornm) virtuti resonat tanquam imago." 19. Proximos^ This signifying the next 

Virgil gives the full exprcssion Goorg. iv. i^ order without reference todistance does 

60: " Vocisque olTensa resulUt imago." not contradict what goes before. *Secun- 

See C. i. 20. 8. dura ' means close proximity. This will 

15. [Q»» mare ac terrat'] Roman usage appear more pluinly from Cicero (Brutus, 

requirwitheplural *maria/forit meansall 47). "Duobus igitur summis Crasw et 

pMt« of the sea, as in Lucretius v. 592: Antonio L. Philippus proximus accedebat, 

"Qood maria ac terras omnes coelumque ged longo iutervaUo tamen pro;iimu8. Ita- 

riftando complcat."]— * variisque muncium.' que eum, etsi uemo intercedebat qui se illi 

*Mundmn'heresignifie8theheavens, as in anteferret, neque secuudum tamen neque 

Gecrg. i. 240 :— tertium dixerim." PaUas is said to hold 

"Mimdi» Qt ad Scythiam Rhipaeasque the next pkce to Jupiter, not absolutely, 

■rdana arces but among those * qui gencrantur ipso,' and 

litnr Libjae devexns in only tbese are mentioned. 


BeluiB nec te, metuende cert» 

Phoebe ea^tta. 
Dicam et Alciden pueroBqne Ledae, 
Hunc equis, illum euperare pngnis 
Nubilem ; quoram eimul alba nautis 

Stella refulsit 
Defluit saiis agitatus hnmor, 
Concidunt venti fugiuutque nubes, 
Et minax, quod sic voluere, ponto 

Unda recumbit. 
Romulnm poBt iioe priue an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem an superbos 
Tarquini fasces dubito, an Catonis 

Nobile lctum. 
R«gndura et Seauros animaeque magnae 
Prodigum Paulium superante Poeno 
GratuB insigni referam Camena 

Hunc et incomptis Curium eapillJB 
Utilem bello tiilit et Camillum 


Saeva paupertas et avitas apto 

Cmn lare fundus. 
Crescit oeculto velut arbor aevo 46 

Fama Marcelli ; micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus velut inter ig^es 

Luna minores. 
Gentis humanae pater atque custos 
Orte Satumo^ tibi cura magni 50 

Caesaris fatis data : tu secundo 

Caesare regnes. 
Hle^ seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit justo domitos triumpho 
Sive subjectos Orientis orae 55 

Seras et Lidos^ 
Te minor latum reget aequus orbem ; 
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittes 

Fulmina lucis. 60 

[43. Saeva paupertcui] Poverty is a forget tbat he never waa adopted into the 

serere dlscipline. — * Rure agcr cum aedifi- Jalian family. By it is meant Caesar him- 

do fnndiis dicitur/ Dig. 50. 16. 211.] 8clf, at whose death a comet is reportcd to 

45. CreMt occulto velui arbor aevo'] have api^eared, which was rapposed to be 

Horace may have remembcred thc words of his spirit translatcd to thc skies. (See Suct. 

Piudar (Nem. viii. 40) : a^trai V &pcT& Cacsar, c. 88 ; Ovid, Met. rv. 749.) Ad- 

XAAipcus i4paais &s ort ^ivhptov Ifcrfffi, dison (Dialogues on Medals, 2) mentions 

'Occolto aevo' means by an imperccptible a mcdal struck in honourof Augustus in 

growtb, as Ovid, Met. x, 519 : *' Labitur the reig^ of Tiberius, in which he is repre- 

occolte faUitqae volatilis aetas.'* As the sentcd with Caesar^s star resting on his 

naine of Marcellns (whom I undcrstand with head, according to that description of Y irgil 

Or«Ui to be the Marcellus who took Syra- (Aen. viii. 680) : 
eose) stands for all his family, and particu- 

larly tbe young Marccllus (see Introduc- " geminas cui tempora flammas 

tkm), lo tbe star of C. Julius Caesar and Laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertioe 

tlM ]emer ligbts of that family are meant sidus." 

bj wbat foliows. Thoae wbo suppose Mar- 

eeHfia to be tbe ' Julium Sidus,' relying 56. Seras ei Indot] See notet on C. iii. 

ipon Ovid (Tr. iL 167) calling Dmsos and 29. 27 ; iv. 15. 23. 

Qcnmdcos 'Sidos jovenilei,' and Fabins [67. latuni] Keller and Bitter bave 

■ Fabiae «doi gentis^ (ex F6nto, iii. 8. 2), * laetum.'] 

t) 8 


iThc utme reinirlc applies to thia adi> u to raaiij otlien, tbat tbon wbo I 
^TcrencB to leal penons, nnd tliE JGalonsy to b« tny thing bnt > poetii 
liatalicii tbecharaetcr cf Horacc'> writJngs. ll iKunld liedifficult to i 
bowrotethew veree» reiillYJeiiloua whileha waawritingthoni. ormuel 
1i tbiit pBuion. The uile 'atoo itigbt for u> tojndgc wbfthcr it wiu lal 
cck originBl ; but the eipression in v. 16 >bonit thut (Ireck iileaa were rui 
;!ad, wbich may bs aaid, I fecl siiliBfied, of almait eieiy one of 1 


lilc thon art praising Tclcphiu' ncck, Te]vpbu>' aniu. oh 1 my hcMl 
■ hnrrt. M_v raiuci UiewsaboQt, mj- colonr comcs and goei i and theteartti 
I mj cbcek tclla of thc >low Sre tbnt bunu witbin. It galli me when bi* r 
■t tby *houldcT«, or his teetb leaTO theic miu^k ou th; lipa : thiok not 
.9tant who conld hnrt that nectared month. How happy thcy whom 
I fut to the day of tbcir dcath ! 

Ct:M tu, Lydia, Telephi 
Cervieem rOBeam, cerea Tolephi 

Laudflfi brachifl, vae meum 
Fervens diflieili bilc tumet jccur. 

Tum nec mens mihi nec color s 

Certa setie manet, humor et in gcnas 

CARMINUM L 13, 14. 87 

Laedentem oscula, qnae Venus 15 

Quinta parte sui nectaxis imbuit. 

Felices ter et amplius 
Quos irrupta tenet copula, nec malis 

Divolsus querimoniis 
Suprema citius solvet amor die. 20 

not nncommonly, in prohibitive seDtences, rh fi4\i Kiyw tvarow ^lvcu /i4pos rfis iifi- 

instead of ' ne/ as "non — sileas," S. ii. 5. fipoffias Korii i^r ^Sok^v. AIl tbat we 

91 ; "non nlceret," Epp. i. 18. 72; *< non can gather from these qnotations, is that 

nt qni tollere cnret," A. P. 460. Bome of the Greek poets had notions about 

16. Qitimfapart€ 9ui nectarit imbuit^ The the relative sweetness of nectar and honey, 

8choL on Pind. Pyth. 8. 116 (81 Boeckh), wbich Horace bas here imitated. 
qnotcd by Jani» says, rh /itXi rijs &Bayaaias 18. irrupta^ Not fonnd elsewhere. 
ZtKorotr fi4pos ^$ricray tJycu : and Ibycus 20. Suprema citiusj This oonstmction 

(30 Bergk), according to Atbenaens (ii. p. for ' dtins qnam suprema' only occurs once 

89) : ^<rl riir i^fipoalaif rov fiiKiros Kar* again in Horace, in " plus vice simplici *' 

iwiraffuf itrpeankaffiay Ix^^ yKvK^Tira, (C iv. 14. 18). 


Before a.u.c. 724. 

iLffvrirrifit rStv kv4fJM» ffrdffiv 
rh fiXv yitp ivBtv KVfia KvKivZtrai 
rh 9* 4v$€V' Hfifits 5* hv rh fiiffffov 
vaX «pop^fOa ffhv fitKalv(ff 
Xci^wi^i fioxB4vres fify6Kjp ftdKa* 
wlp fi\v yhp tkvrKos lffroir49av fx*^ 
Aoil^os 8i wav (dSfiKov f|5i} 

fcol KaKlHes fi€yd\at Kor' ain6, 
X^Katfft 8* SyKvpat, 

TLIsfragment (18 Bcrgk) of one of Alcaeus' odes (the first vcne of which is manifestly 
impcrfcct) is thus introdnced by Heraclides, the Alezandrian grammarian : iv Uavots 84 
nd rhm MtrvAifmuby ftfKowothv e&p^ofAtv iKKriyopovvra, riis yhp rvpawtiAs i^ovffias 
Xft/upt^ wpoffttKd(u KaroffriifJMrt BaXdffffnis itffvv^rriv koI rSov kv4fj^v ffrdffiv. — ^T(t 
oim hv €b0ht iK r^s wporpexo^ffJis wtpi rhv w6vrov tlKaffias &v9p&v wKaii(ofi4vmv 
^akdrrtov etra* vofdffett p6fiov; itKK* olx* otircts ^X*'* MpfftKos yhp 6 9riKoifitv6s iffrt 
tti r v p m vr tg^ KoriL MirvKrivaimv iyttpofiivri ff^roffts. There can be no doubt that this 
ode of Alcaens was in Horace's mind when he wrote, and tbat it is an allegorical descrip- 
tloB of the poUtical tronbles of Mytilene ; it is therefore surprising to find Qraevius 
supporU ng Mnretas* opinion, that no political allegory is meant by Horaoe, but only 
an addreM to the ship which had brought him from Philippi, and was retuming with 
his fHcDds on board, whom he wished to persuade to remain at Rome. That Bentley 
aod Dader were of that opinion, I confess is less snrprising to me. Quintilian (Inst. 
Qnit. vin. 6. 44) illnstrates the term * allegory' by the figures employed in this ode, say- 
ing, " Nmv«m pro re pubKca, flnctuum tempcstates pro bellis civilibus, portum pro pace 
BtqiM eQnoor^ ^cit." It is not easy to determine what was the particnhir period when 
the Mptct of poUifi affidza drew forth tlus ode. The Scholiosts are at Yaxiance. Porphy- 


1, wbom LBmbinn» followa, anpposes Horucp is nddrcswng binuotf to 

itt», unit diiwiiaiiiiii; bim frum rcDeHinp tlie battle nt Pliilippi, aflcr I 

Ains— H strntigc timc tur «Titing versea efter tbe ni<inner of Alciietii,Bnil 

r for ■ militury tribune t« oB^er tWQntrl to biii eotnmuider-iii-chiof. Xa 

nce ta he ailnding to tbe designs of tho repablicui partj, nnder Seitti 

» opinion i» sapported nt some length by Butlmsun, Mjtbol. i. 313 sq., 

it the ehip does not signify the eoniiDODwealth. for tbat Honice epenka a 

^xrated frma tbe subjeet of tbc n]teg>i>r; : th>t to Bdrtse the cttiieus t« i 

ra (represcnted by tbe sea), becanAe tbej were in a crippted condition 

nply tlut they ttiigbt engage in them if tbej wci^oot in tbat coni^tioii ; bL 

Id be no proprietj in repreacnting: the itHte u a di*mutcd ahip in thc tiu 

Kc tbcrcfore coiisidcrs that all tbis refers to tbe elToMs of the brokon 

j ta which Uarac« bod been lilely attached torepair th^rfortanesnndn 

VSext. Pampdns. 'Nudnm rcmigio Utua,'be sajs. rcfcn ta the ntuuber of tl 

it olT at Bud «ince Pliillppi (he migbt tuive added tbe desertion of Menas). 

' Bpokcn of in v. 18, mcKoii tbe lingeriitg affcction Hnd aniiety Horac 

Lrly lie bud ilrut cubt in blo fbrtuneii witb, nud > toedium' the treiHtlon he 

witb Bmtus and all bis best officers at the slatC of the repnbUi 

Hhillppi. ■ Pontica pinui' he conaiden a very maitcrly allurian to Pompey t 

le conqucror of Mithridatea, whit-b Ls A(Toa's opinion. I ^re thla theory 

tbe aittbor, icbo lias fetr e{[nah in criticnl aagacitj, and who in tfae aa 

ac viewB are put forwnrdbBs dona good tervice to tbe inlerprelstion of H 

nclplea uf common woae. I should mentiuD honrGver tbat the theory ', 

lipporters, of wboin Quner ccrtainlj is one, and hii vaa no uienn jndgme 

I onotbcr, Fninke cnnnot snfficientlj ciproH his astonisliment Ht Bnttma 

luving niHdc up bis mind that none of the oiles in these tbree 

CARMINUM I. 14. 39 

A few of the inscriptions that appear in the MSS. will show the diversity of opinion that 
has alwajs existed as to the application of this ode. I give them exactly as I find them. 
Per allegoriam, i. e. inversionem M. Brutum alloqnitnr. 
Contra Navem. Allegoricos (i. e. aWrryopucSs). 
Ad rem pnblicam. 

Ad rem pnblicam bellum civile reparantem. 
In M. Bmtnm bellam dvile praeparantem. 

Ad Bnitnm amicnm. Ad Navim Bmto reparanti bellam (Brati reparantis). 
Ad Brati Navim. In S. Pompeium civile bellam renovantem. 

nMMi art drifHng to lea again, thoa ship ; oh ! haste and make for the barboar ; oars 
lost, mast iplit, jards crippled, and rigging gone, how canst thou weathcr the wide 
waves ? Thy saik are torn, thy gods are gone, and noble hull though thou be, there 
ii no straigth in Uiy beaaty. If thou be not fated to destruction avoid the rocLs, 
tboa wbo wert but Uite my grief and art now my aiizious care. 

O NAVis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluetus ! O quid agis ? Fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides ut 
Nudum remigio latus, 
Et malus celeri saucius Africo 5 

Antennaeque gemant ac sine funibus 
Vix durare carinae 
Possint imperiosius 
Aequor ? Non tibi sunt integ^a lintea, 
Non di, quos iterum pressa voces malo. lo 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 
Jactcs et genus et nomen inutile, 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis I5 

Debes ludibrium, cave. 

[4. remigio lcUui] Bitter properly pats the sbip four fcet before the mizen-mast, 

aeomma after *Uitat,'and does not connect hove tight by the capstan, and finaUy im- 

H with 'gemant.' As to ' remigium/ oom- movably fixed to six ring-bolts on the 

pare Epp. L 6. 63.1 quarter-deck. Tbe efiect was at once 

6. stMe/kmihugj I huve rendered this manifcsted by a great diminution in the 

'deprired of her rigging.' Some under- working of the parts already mentioncd, 

■taiid it to mean ' without girding ropes/ and in a less agreeable way by impeding 

K<erring to St. Luke*9 description of their her ratc of eailing." (See Smith'8 excel- 

«Ddecigirdiag the ship in which St. Paul leut Dissertation on the Voyage and Ship- 

WM sailing to Eome : fiSKis ia-xoaafitv wreck of St. Paul, p. 66.) I doubt whether 

npucpartis ytwMai r^s crxJi^Tts' %v Apatnts Horace racant any ailuHion to this practice. 

tk^ims ixp^^^ ^oiAwwrts rh Tr\o7o¥ 10. Non di'] " Accipit et pictos puppis 

(Aets xxvii. 16, 17). This process is not adunca deos" (Ov. Heroid. xvi. 112). "Ja- 

onkDown in modern times, and is callcd oet ipse in litore et una Ingentes dc puppe 

'frapping' a ship, by the French 'ceintrer dei" (Pers. vi. 29). There was usually a 

m TaiBaeaa.' Captain Back, iu tbe ac- nicbe in the stem of a ship where the 

eoanfc of hia Tetam irom the Arctic regions image of the tutelary god was kept. 

k 1887» thot defcribes the undergirding 11. Pontica pinms] The best ship tim- 

of kia shtp: ''A length of the stream ber was got from Pontus. See Introduction. 

* * •• ^M paat imder the bottom of VS.nin^DeheMludihrium] OrcUitakes 


Nuper BoIIicitum quae mihi taedimn, 
Nunc (lesiderium curaque non levia, 
Int*Tfusa nitenteB 

Vites aequora Cycladas. 30 

i delws ' B. if it «cre • oe debaui,' and found «WMthiiig of th;> «>rt i 
;je» liidiliriuin ■ for the Gtveii ofX.- ode. Hovf tbe worda are recoo 
K.i yiKana. I do not »ee hnw 'nisi BQttiiiuiD's threty will be «esn 
ia ' can ?tand for ■ ne dcbeas/ «nd agrte troduction. Tsking the ode aa 
lerwithDUlenbr. ['cavo' lueans Mske totU»tiito.wecMi onl.vunderstj 
1 of yoarself.'] to nieii,n. Ihat whiie h« wa« a 

'nre part of the ode. Jt wonld be very he had no other reeljnga tbaa 1 
lligibleii«8pokenhyAlcsCTi«,wholiBving own «afelj aod dingust witb t 
etbrouehtlielonKandBnrionaitrueKla the country. hut now under Ai 
rwn the democratinil party and tbe walclie. it« fkle wth the *ff< 
le». nnd sccn tba trinmph of the fonDflr. aniietj of ■ friend. 
thfl Bettlcment of a tjrann, which be 19. iii(ni(iw] Thil i» like ' 
oired in bis iiativa city, maj be sup- (C. iii. 28. H). shining in Ihe 
d to hBvo felt fur ber the aniiuus aUec- Cydndes abounded iu wbitc uuu 
i thesc worda imply. Honoe maj bave 


■hie is prohiibly an enrlj pomposition of HorBce. rande upof mntcriHls trom 

CARMINUM I. 15. 41 

Ino^rato celeres obruit otio 

Ventos ut caneret fera 
Nereus fata : Mala dueis avi domum 5 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias 

Et regnum Priami vetus. 
Heu heu quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! Jam galeam Fallas et aegida 

Cumisque et rabiem parat. 
Nequicquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
Pectes caesariem grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides; 15 

Nequicquam thalamo graves 
Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis strepitumque et celerem sequi 
Ajacem ; tamen heu serus adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. 20 

Non Laertiaden exitium tuae 
Gentis, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 

Teucer et Sthenelus sciens 
Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis 26 

Non auriga piger ; Merionen quoque 
Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 

Tydides meliof patre, 
Quem tu cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte* lupum graminis inmiemor 30 

Sublimi fugies moUis anhelitu^ 

Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

7. Conjuriiia—rumpere'] ThiB is a legri- 36, Horace has introduced a trochee in the 

tinuite pro6e comtruction. " Conjuravere first foot, contrary to his own custom, hut in 

Strvtm incendere " (iSal. Cat. 52. See uccordance with the practice of the Greeks. 

T. 22. 88). Here * que ' has been addcd to * Teucer/ 

13. VenerU praetidio] See Hom. II. iii. or *te' substituted for *et/ by way of 

hi, Ukd on T. 16 8ee II. iii. 380; vi. 321. sustaining the metre. [Ritterhas 'te' on 

Honoe*t description of Paris is drawn, not the authority of some MSS.] 'Scicns pug- 

from Homer, who makes him brave, but nac' is Homer'8 iroXiixov tZ ilhd>s, and 

from later writers who altered the Homeric ' Tydides melior patre ' is taken from 

diancters. See Heyne, £xc. i. Aen. ii. Sthenelus' vaunt, II. iv. 405 : rititis roi 

See alao Aen. iv. 215 sq. wartpwv fxty* difjLtiyovts tvx&t*-^^ tlvai, 

15. divideM] 'Dividere carmina' ispor- [31. SMimt] ** /jL^rfdptp irvf^fjiari, cum 

hapstonnff andpUyaltefnately. [Itsecms spiritus ex pectore ductus per os prorum- 

to metti ' ajgtnhnte,' that is to touch the pit," Ritter. But it is hard to find a 

«ftndstringf inacoordanoewiththenotes word for *Babliim.' Perhaps 'panting,' 

cftlMioiig. See C. i. 86. 6.] «heaving' may do. 'High pantixtg/ 

M» Xfnimr tf} In thia Tene, mnd in t. Conington. 


Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Phrygum claesis Achillei; 
Post certas hiemes uret Acliaicus 35 

Ignis lliacas domoa. 

I. diVni] For ' diem i>uprttnum.' In lEloaished at hii i»y u tboj 

'orm tlie eiprCBaion ulike tho Hebiww belure irere utoniiliMl " (Jo\i '. 
iwomcetwiChFreqDcnllyintheScrip. [36. Iliaeat~\ Olnreinui m 

: •• RtfjnemhCT Ihc chilitren of Eilom found ' PergaiiH!«i ' ja some H! 

p dsy of JpniMlcin " (Ps. nxTii. 7), hns ■ Pcrgsmea!.'] 
■d "theythat como aflcr him Blifill b« 


\e poct Stesichoraa, as tbe atory goea, lost bi« ejoaigbt u a pTinithment 
liiih br nppvnn to bare repeHtisl the onlinar; storica sgrttinst Helen, i 
•VT it till hc Imil written nnothcr pocm reCBDtiag bia oppnibrlDiu vene 
Li^^Sfo, wliich lA rctcrTCd to iu Epiid. ivii. 42, and which waa very fium 
8, Plato baa preaeneil tlie optuing vemea in tbe Phncdrus, p. 218, A. 

oIk fiTT' fTu^ai \iyai olrtr 
iilil' rsat it vTiuaiv flnrlKfiais, 
oii' Um nJpya^a Tpotoi. (39 Bergk.) 

1 uliiili t)>u iKle bGfrire lu Ims n 

CARMINUM I. 16. 48 

the duft. Be appeased. In the sweet fleason of yonth I was tempted by bot blood 
to write tbose rasb venes. I would now lay aside all unkindness, if tbon wilt bnt let 
me recall my libel and give me back tby beart. 

O MATRB pulchra filia pulchrior, 
Quem criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis^ sive flamma 
Sivc mari libet Hadriano. 
Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 5 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 
Non Liber aeque^ non acuta 
Sic geminant Corybantes aera 
Tristes ut irae, quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis nec mare naufragum 10 

Nec saevus ignis nec tremendo 
Juppiter ipse ruens tumultu. 
FerturTrometheus addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 

Desectam^ et insani leonis 15 

Yim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 
Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere^ et altis urbibus ultimae 
Stetere causae cur perirent 

Funditus imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem : me quoque peetoris 
Tentavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor et in celeres iambos 
Misit furentem ; nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis amica 

Opprobriis animumque reddas. 

8. Sie geminant'] So all tbe MSS. [ex- sponds to -KpSyrov &pxotf mi\6¥ in Sopb. 

«pt tbreel. Bentley conjectures 'si ge- Frajif. (432 Dind.), ica2 irpurov ipxovirr}\hw 

minant ' in tbe sense of * cum/ and be is bpyd^fiy x^poty- 

fbllowed by 11 itscb., Jabn, and Fea [and 18. vltimae Sietere causae^ Liv. vii. 

KeUer]. Bnt tbe received reading is iutel- 9 : <'£a ultima fuit cansa . . . cur bellum 

ligible. • Tiburti populo indiceretur." Tbe final or 

13. Feriur Prometheua] Tbi» story is proximate cause : tbat wbicb immediately 

Bot foimd elsewbere. Wbetber Horace got leads to a tbing. See Virg. Aen. vii. 563: 

tbe fonndation of it from tbe story told '' Stant cansae belli." 

by PkO», Protag. 30 aqq.; or wbetber be 24. celeree] A. P. 251 : "iambna pes 

ftMmd it in this form in Stesicboms' pa- citns." Tbe quality of the measnre is 

linode or some otber Greek poem, or in- mentioned as some palliation perbaps of 

fi^ad it to rait hii own pnrpose, cannot the severity of the verses. 
ht detanDiocd. 'Prindpi hmo' corre- 



It miiy entcrtaiD the reader to kno» thit k treatiM wna once written on t' 

raue'1 Tynduii, in which it wa» proied to the sntiafnctian of [he write 

fimdwomin of tihucmetiili'»!, king af Tliracc ; tlint clie ii tlie pcraon H< 

■peikksDfaBThrCBiiit Clilog, siniplj ChloS, uid V«nuB Marina; al») thi 

■£3*. It being lusumed that thu liut ode wai luldrcased to Tyndirit, ac< 

imnion inacriptioni, it ia snppoaed by muij that tbc loTera had miui 

■I, unil thut Uoracc licre proposea a meeting- ta 8«1 thnr roconciliation. 

ia pluin]_v uDrciisonahlci^hould lieput aside bj Anj wlxo wish tonnderttan 

re isiio cuDnexlon Iwtweentho two ode>, excvptthnt tbe title, which beloD 

been borrowcd for the uther, ind thcre ii no reanon to suppose that Horac 

is fiirni, had uny othcr than an imaginary Tynduij, with au ima^oary 


f, oflen doth Pnn lenve Lycaeus to Tiail Lacretilia, prot«ctJng m; II 

luu tiud wind; uiy gnnta go unhBTiu^ and fcar not en&ke or wolf wheu 

Kpe «ounds in tho thIb of UslJca. Tbe goda love me for my picty and i 

D Plentj awaits tbee ; bere sbalt thou retiro from the beot and sing of 

'cnclope Bnd Circc fnr Uljsscs. llere thou shiilt qunff [mld Lesbian in t 

)r sball strifc he minglcd with the cup, nor sbalt thon feac Ibe jnlcnu Cjr 

viulout haud upoti tliee. 

Velox amoeQum saepe Lucretileia 

Mutat Lvcauo Fauuus et ij 

CARMINUM I. 17. 45 

Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Ustieae cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 
Di me tuentur^ dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hic tibi copia 

Manabit ad plenum ))enigno 15 

Ruris honorum opulenta cornu. 
Hic in reducta valle Caniculae 
Vitabis aestus et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen ; 20 

Hic innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra, nec Semeleius 
Cum Marte confiindet Thyoneus 
Proelia, nec metues protervum 
Suspecta Cyrum^ ne male dispari 25 

dixere maritum.** Theoc. viii. 49,irpiy9 ii. 244 : — 

rar XtvKoy Aytp. Ov. Fast. i. 333 : « h^^ ager jHe ^alus dulcesque a fontibn» 
" Ita rex placare sacrorum undae 

KuminA lanigerae conjuge debet ovis." Ad plenum calcentur." 

9. Nec Martiales Htiedilias lupot'] The ' comu copiae,' so common in tncient 

* Haediliae' is the reading of nearly every works of art, was a symbol belonging to the 
M8., and in the margin of B, Orclli says, goddess Fortuna, to whom itis said tohave 
it written ' mons,' and so hc and Dillonbr. becn presented by Hercules.* It was sup- 
understand it — one of the Sabine hills. posed originally to have becn tho hom of 

* Haedilia/ the reading of somc MSS., and Amalthea, which Hercules won from Ache- 
most of the old editions, is only a cormp- lous. 

tion of the other. Bentley takes to him- [17. reducta'] *retired,* *solitary,* as in 

self the credit of suggesting *haeduleue,' EikxI. ii. 13, and Georg. iv. 420. *Remo- 

formed from •haedus,* as * equuleae,' •hin- tus ' has a like meaning in C. ii. 19. 1.] 
nuleae,' from ' equns ' and * hinuus.' But 18. Jide Teia] " Perliaps," says Torren- 

Auratus and Torrentius had anticipated tius, "Anacroon luid a song upon the sub- 

bis conjecture, though they thought only ject, for to talk of adiipting the Odyssey of 

of the masculinc * haedulei.' * Haeduleae' Homer to the lyre of Anacrcon is absurd." 

has bcen very generally adopted since Horace had somo rcason for choosing this 

Bentley. Gesner says this rcading * hae- subject, but who shall say wbat it was ? 

dnleae ' occurs *in bonis libris:' but he Why Circe is called *vitrca'hasbeenmuch 

does not mention which they are, and disputed. Smart and Francis translate the 

Bentli.'y had never seen them, or he would word *frail.' Dacier refers it to her com- 

bave nientioned that he had done so. *Hae- plexion, *'qui etalt uni comme une glace." 

diliae' I^mbinus and some others prefer, It probably mcaus, as Tumebus says, no 

as signifying * the folds,' but no such word more than *cacrula' in Epod. xiii. 16: 

ifl found elsewhcre, and there is no analogy ** nec matcr domum cacrula te revehet ;" 

to rapport it. If there were such a word, and * virides ' in Ov. Tr. i. 2. 59 : " Pro 

the antepennltimatesyllablewouldbelong, superi viridesque Dei qiiibus aequora 

m» in * ovile.' curae." 

14- Hic tihi copia'] The order of the 19. lahorantes in uno] See Argument. 
vords b 'hicoopia opulenta mrishonoram 22. Semeleius — Thi/onetts'] Bacchus is 

UMiDabit ad plennm tibi benigno comu.' here callcd by both the names of his mother 

* Here plenty, rich in the glories of tho Semele, who w»s also namcd lliyone, iArh 
oomitTy, ahail pour herself out for thee rov 6itiv. 

aboiMltiitly frmn her generous hom.' 'Ad 25. male dispari] *MaIe' is herc used 
plenom' ocean in tbe same Mose Georg. as in S. i. 3. 31, ** Malo laxus calceus ;" and 


Incontinentes injiciat manus 
Et scindat haerentem corooam 
Crinibus ImmeritBmque vestem. 

Inialf pimu." CTnu vu not fnrtn- " c^est ]e asimr dont il «t pdrlf 

' 1 imoun, if Ko «n! lo belicTe S3, et qo' llortiM iippcllo 'tiu 

o tpll!: Bf wllh u mnr}, vonH- xiWm." 
be Lnd Hritteu thc oda Luiuelf, 


is prescrredin AlLeiinfas. i. p. 430. a aingle line oT Alneix, af wluc 
|of tliid ode 19 almoit a Ittend tnnsUtioD. Thp metTS al» ii tbe Hune. 
s (U Ber^-k) : li^air SAAs «VTi^vgii npirtpor Sfripmr i^i-wiXti. 1 
inBllprobabililY. acloBeidiiptationDrthepoemorAlniens. I^wi 
D tbe right soent, ai I tliink we ire, bj the above frBgneDt, we «bou! 
'e hnd a friend VaniE. uho bid > TilU at Tibnr, and wbo waa mnkinf A 
~ wai tbe cogunmL-n of lils ind Virgil's fricnd Quintiliu, wboi 
. uiv. i>f thiii liouk. But whelhcr or no he is the pereou ber 
l(nhich appeais to Buttiuann, and 1 »gnt with him, the belter way of ] 
me is Qtcd for Iht purpoae of giving «pirit to the ode, it ia qoile im] 
Iterilem agrum fruatra rimeris." lu Fninlie jndieiously F«y« on anoth 
e qtieition. It hm hfva doahted ivhether Hornre w-rote 

CARMINUM I. 18. 47 

OTer their enps, wben the appetite confomids right and wrong. 1*11 not aronse thee 
nnbidden, beantiful Bassareus, nor drag thy mysteries from their secret pUices. 
SUence the hom and dmm» whoee followers are vain glory and broken faith. 

NuLLAM, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Cirea mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit^ nequ6 

Mordaces aliter diffugiunt soUicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat? 5 

Quis.non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus? 

At ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi 

Centaurea monet cum Lapitbis rixa super mero 

Debellata^ monet Sithoniis non levis Euius, 

Cum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 10 

Discemunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu, 

Livitum quatiam^ nec variis obsita frondibus 

Sub divum rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 

Comu tympana^ quae subsequitur caecus Amor sui 

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem, 15 

Arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 

[1. Nnllam—severU] Comp. C. i. 11, 1 sq., and ii. 19. 16. 
••Tn ne qnaesieris."] 10. Cum fas atque nefas] * When the 

2. T^urU et moenia Catilt] %v Zth greedy of wine distinguish l)etweeu right 

SvoZk. See C. i. 7. 13 n. Horace shortcns and wrong by the slender liue of their lusts/ 

tiie penaltimate syllable of Catillns' name, that is, thc slender distinction that lust 80 

and the same liberty is takcn with the inflamcd can draw. ' Avidus ' is used ab- 

mune of Ponenna, Epod. xvi. 4 n. sohitely for * aviduR pugnae,' C. iii. 4. 68. 

8. enper mero] It is disputed whcthcr 12. quatiam] This is explained by Aen. 

thi» meana * over their wine,' or * about iv. 301 : — 

their wine.' [•Snper' with an ablative „15^ commotis excita sacris 

eMemay mean 'above. as m C. ni. 1. Thyias nbi audito stimnlant trieterica 
17, or 'npon/ as m Virgil, Ecl. 1. 80; fiaccho 

bnt neither meaning wiU snit this pas- q j^ nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithae- 
age. oee the Arg^ment. Ritter ez- ^^ »» ^ 

jHSaDB it ' snper mero hnmi effuso,' ' 

and he oompares ' super fooo,' ' snper where Servius in his commentary quotes 

Findo;' bot the comparison is not appro- this passage of Horace. The whole pas- 

priate.1 At the marriage-feast of Peiri- snge is Greck in its character. The Libe- 

thoos, King of the Lapithae, the Centaurs, ralia bore littlc analogy to the Dionysia, to 

hdng gnests, attempted in their dmnken- which the thyrsus and the cista with its 

Beaito carry oft' the bride Hippodamia and sacred contcnts (whatever they may have 

the othfer women present, wnich led to a becn) aud its covering of vine and ivv be- 

eonteBt, and tho Centaurs were beaten. longed. The picture of vain glory holding 

'Com' (▼. 10)refer8to 'supermero,' which high its head, full only of the fumes of 

rapliet also to the Sithonians, a people of debanch. is very happy, whether original 

liiraee, on the borders of Macedonia. The or not. The othor characteristic of the 

qnarrd of Bacchns with the Thracians, on maudlin state is repeated once or twice. 

of Lycnrgus' treatment of his Seo Epod. xi. 14. S. i. 4. 89. 

the habitnal drnnkenness visited [15. pluenimio'] Ritter comparcs Plan- 
apoo tbenit are well known. See C. i. 27. tns, Mil. Qlor. ii. 6. 104, ' plus mnlto.'] 


lycm (rXuKipa) U one of HDnu«'i favourite names. 5be ia let down u 

'. iv. 13. 21 («■* n.), tut *ith wlmt .liow of r««cm, beyond thfir hBvin 
il„T Df BjllableB, it i> not caay to «e. We need not take Horece too r. 
i wheD liG aavi tbat hia da;a of love wore over. Hnny a young seutiui 
fmed thii »nd funnd himBclf mUtaken u the poel ■pjwar» to hdve dc 
. chooM to iDsist that Horacc h confesaing on hi. own uwount th«t -th 
Hood wa» tamcd." pot thi» odo ralher lato. a.c.c. 789 or 730. Olhm 
-iou to thc l^arthinn (v. 12) oecaaion lo fi. the dale h few j™™ later (7 

urUDt eiMoh i* cver hefore the minds of one section of thc chranolog 
.e<jjue qnidam veiuti Bpretris territi cogitasunt dc hi^is et captivis a. 73 
■nsto redditis," Baja Fninlte, whosc Bcnmcn, howevor, while it hiw Icd 
lu into H more consifllcnt and probable chronological toheme th«n K; 

aore disposed with him to Ba; Horace wrote this ode wliile the Arabiail 
;S1) WB» pendiof;, than with his ndvcrsiiries thnt ba wrote it five or eii 
m or undor whBt cLrcumstanca. or tc whom (If «ny body) ho wrote. . 
^nt to be ignor&nt. (See C. iv. 1, Introdurtion.) 


id put away for ever. I hurn for Qlvcera purer than marhle, nnd that i 
IX BO dangeroua t« look upan. With all hcr atrength hath Venn» com 
id hidi mo fling no moro of idlo tbeiuOB, the Scythian nnd the Parthian. 

CARMINUM I. 19, 20. 49 

Et versis animosum equis 
Parthum dicere nec quae nihil attinent. 

Hic vivum mihi caespitem, hic 
Verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque 

Bimi cum patera meri : 15 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 

9. iot^rmena] Thisislike Eur. Hipp. [12. quae nihil attinenf] Thati«'ad 

443 : K6wpis ykp oh ^fntrlw f^v iroW^ ^vf. me.'] Compare Anacreon (Pseudo) : — 

10 Sciflhas} Undcr this namo Horace, ^^ ^. ^^ roiTo<nu>p 

with the hi^tonans of this penod. undcr. ^^^ ^jj^ 4*Ao,Jvt«„. j 

stood all the nations on and beyond the /eo Beyj»]r \ 

Tanais, as well as those on and north of tho 'o v 

Danabe, a» the Geloni, Gctae, Daci, with All other things wcre nothing to a man in 

cme or more of whom the Komans wcre at love. 

this time perpetually at war. The allusion 11. vivum — caespitem] This rndesortof 

to the P^hians is explained by Justin*s altar was cnjoincd upon the Israelites in the 

description (xli. 2) : " Cominus in acie prae- wildcmess in preference to any other (Exod. 

Uari aut obsessas expugnare urbcs nesciimt. xx. 2-i). The word 'verbena' was used for 

I^ignant autem procurrentibus equis aut anyboughscmploycdforcrowningthealtar 

tergadantibus. Saepeetiarafugamsimulant or for sacrcd purposes. *Vcrbcnae sunt 

ntincautioresadvcrsum vulncniinsequentes omnes hcrbac frondescjno festae ad aras 

liabeant." See also Virg. Gcor. iii. 31 : coronandas, dictae (juasi hcrbenae.' Schol. 

•• Fidentemqne fuga Parthura versisque sa- Acron. on C. iv. 11. 7. He means, I sup- 

gittis ;" and C. ii. 13. 17 : " Milos sagittas posc, that * verb ' and ' herb ' are the same 

et celerem fogam ParthL" — Seo Plato, root, and he is probably right. 
fachca, p. 191, A. 


A.u.c. 730 (?). 

In thc thirt<?cnth ode of the second book Horace relatcs how ho was nearly killed by 
tlie falling of a tree. In the seventeenth ode of the same book he associates this acci- 
dent with the recovery of Maecenas from sickncss, and his reccption with applause in the 
tbeatre. The eighth of the third book was written on the first anniversary of his acci- 
dent, and therefore the year after Maecenas' rccovery. The dates therefore of both 
these events to which the odes that more expressly bclong to them give no clue, may be 
determined if we can determine that of C. iii. 8. It will be seen by referring to the 
introdaction to that ode that there is grcat difference of opinion upon the subject, and 
bnt small means of deciding it. But upon the date of Maecenas' recovery depends the 
date of this ode, in which hc is invited to drink sorae Sabine wine bottled on that occa- 
sion. Now wine of this sort was not in its prime under four years' keeping (C, i. 9. 7 n.), 
aiui was not likely to have been fit to drink under two ycars. Aftcr, therefore, the 
rcader has satisfied himself better than I can satisfy him of thc date of C. ii. 13 and 
17, he will pat this not less than two ycars later, and he wiU havc got an approximate 
date. Franke pats it in A.I7.0. 729 or 730. 


Toa shall haTe some poor Sabine, Maecenas, bottled at that time when the echoes of 
the Yatican rcioanded yonr praise. You drink Caecnban and Calenian, but the vines 
of FUenBniii and Foimiae are not for me. 



VlLE poialis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis Gracca (juoil cga ipse tcsta 
Conditnm luvi, datus iu tlieatro 

Cum tilji plansus, 
Care Maeceriiis equea, ut patemi 
Fluminis ripac simul et jocosa 
RediiereL liuideB tibi Vatit^ni 

Moiitis imagro. 
Caeculjiim et prelo domitam Caleno 
Tu Libes uvam : mea nee Falemne 
Temperant vites neque Formiani 

Pocula coUes. 

ilniii laodhii SahiiHm Can- Dutllio Fluractfrof thc od« ai 

lorijj lt"lta£l»..u«iiiibeforetliiitKBhmc i)reiwu,lmince of aullioritj ii 

■ ■ iBC of Itie «orst; biit it wa» IhuI me to prcfer the coiniii 

wr raiiijuirHl willi llii- lii'*t. to MarUBl wsa not thinting of 

iiiiHnnHU^inndtliiiipnilinlil}' MueconnB. hut of M> tHeuil Ai 

be IwneHt of fcL-cpiujr. Honite A verlial coincidence, bowpver i 

pininicuila it thpn.-rDrB hy relerring to the tlic passBg^a in«j' bc iu other 

« unilor which it vim hottLed. nlwayH eooitgh to furuieh Beu 

■rui.fiir thc jjnwcsa diffuailendi ai^uineut iu support of a fsToi 

Ir coB^iitdi for waiil nf n bctter,) If it Wneeeuaa was couteDt ivith Ih 

I liiit on'u liint^ whifh Mneec- rniik aiid Aould tolte uo higlici 

CARMINUM I. 81. 61 


The TMT •fter AngastDS Tetnmed to Kome fram the takiii^ of AUiandria, tliat is 
».V.O. 726,liededicated> temple toApnlloon tLc PuUtine liill (C. i.31),aiid institntvd 
qninqaeiuiiil gmnie» iD hoiKnir of ApoIIo aiicl, aod ciilled tbem Uie ' LudiActUci.' 
Por their firtt celebrSlJon FranLe snppOBes Horace to have written Hii» oc!?, and Cru- 
cjniua' Scholiast bears Mm out hj a remark wbich, tboiigb by some conrusiDn it baagot 
tranfferred to tbe saccular ode, beton^ pUinlj to tliia. The scholiasts and soine comuion- 
tatoT!! IblloiviDg them bclicved tliia ode to 1» sn introduction to tbe saecuUr. Sanedon, 
On wbom our traiiBliLtor Francis pinncd his raith, held that opinion, and placed tbem 
togelber, and so does the traiulator. Franke'» opinion is rendcred doubtrnl hy tho word 
■principe' (v. 14), for Aogiistiu did not get that titlc till the idea of Jaiiuarj,,0. 
727, and tLercfore Bfler tbe first cclehration oT the ActUa gamei. OtheTS refor this ode 
ta B later jear, 732, wben, as wc leam from Uion Cassius (liv. 1), Rome wos risited hy 
pcMilenee and &mine. It is more likely, as Orelli remarks, to have been au exerdse 
fivm fanc; Bnggeated bf BOmc Bneh feBtival ai that of 726. It hai not the dignity or 
preteiuion* of an ode wiitteo fbr Boch a Bpeciol occauon. 

Sing, je damiels, of DiDOa j sing, yeyoutbs, of ApoUo and Latana deorto Jove, of INana 
who njCHCC* in the BtreamB nnd wood» of Algidiu, or Erymanthus, or Cragus. Praise 
je no leas Tempe and Delos Apo11o'B birth-pUce, aod tlie Bhaulder that ia graced witb 
the qniTer uid the lyre — thnt in ansner to your prayer he may tum the griels of war, 
fiunine, aiid plagno ironi Rome and hcr Piince npon tbe bcada of ber enemies. 

DiANAU tenerae dicite virginea, 
iDtonBum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
LatoDamqae supremo 
Dilectam penituB Jovi. 
VoB laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, s 

QtiaecuQque aut giilido prominet Algido 
Nigris aut Erymauthi 
Silvis aut viridiB Cragi; 
Voa Tcmpe totidem toUite laudibus 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollims, lO 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fratemaque humerum lyra. 
Hic hellum lacrumoBum, hic miseram famem 
[t, 7a(osnMi] Homer^s iKipvtKi/ais, 


_. j Sercral HSS. bave 'comam,' Pytlio 

id among them all CrnquiQs' Blaudinian 12. Fraterna] Invented by Mercur; 

aSS., the oldett of which is held io great (C. i. 10. 6). 

fepnte. Alao theoldest beme,and soVen. 13. Ilic bellam iomiwomm] «'nr in 

1483. Bentley prefers that roading. general, oot civil war only aa Bentlej sup- 

e. Algido] At^dni wa> a mouotaia in poses, or thc wotb inteuded againnt the 

Latinm, ncred to Diana (C. S. 6<3). It is ArabB nnd Britons as Dlllcnhr. Bcntley, 

ehnbere oUtd 'nivaliB' (c. iii.B3.9), Cra- in orilcr to give Diana sumethlng to do, 

foi in I^cik and Erymanthns in Arcadia " ne nihil omnino bic agat," wishcs (o sub- 

■vre nainrtaiiis on which the goddeaa was stitute 'haec' for 'hic' But hc has no 

•nnioMd to hnnL aatbority. and Apollo wos especUlly kt-" 

i. iaUiU bwMw] Comp. i. 1. B. naxoi, particuLirly in rc " ■ 

Comp. i. 1. B. «Hoi, particuLirly in reepcct of AuguBtus, 


Pcst^mque a populo ct jirincipe Caesarc in 
Peraaa atque Britannos 
Vestra motus aget prece. 

Jani itn<l Sannilnn follaw 

\(UDri<rlIoiiifar,aDd 'lacra- 
of VirgU. 
k et prmnpf Caeiare'} Scaliger pro- 

d the Di 


fiilloBTwl hiiu.miilmtiindliiB Hi 
1 ' bMsu-w C«e»ar U prinee.' Taa con- 
ion is etntnl by KircLnin- (Nov. Qn. p. 
) ta bi^ wHDtiiiR in nn old editiou (1500) 

a Ihiteliman, l'ett'r Vnn Oa, which he 
■ieut authnrity. Itoflenhnp- 

1!^ llial "lion 

:o «bich othen hiTe not ■ 

(■ire it nudae wei^ht froiQ i 
Kin-hoer caouot t^ oa whBt 
editioUB tbe Dutcb editor dc[ 

beeu ■ sUp or conjeeture of hi» i 
coqjunction here is in accordiu 
practice varj comnioa with I 
couplinff a generat and > particu 
□f which Dillmlir. hni collected 
itaacm, on C. i. 3. 19 :— 
"niiire tnrgidnm et 
Inl^mes scopulos Acrocenu 

i.r.c. 729 (?). See note on v. 15. 

" pnene pemcUi, 
]ulcijuid Degiit Bltcr, ct altcr ; 
vctuli uoUque colombi " (Epp. i. 10). 

CARMINUM I. 22. 53 

Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas 5 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus 

Lambit Hydaspes. 
Namque me silva lupus in Sabina^ 
Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra lo 

Terminum curis vagor expeditis^ 

Pugit inermem, 
Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis^ 
Nec Jubae tellus generat leonum 15 

Arida nutrix. 

6. per Sifrle» Her aeHuosas] This can- w. 3. 9. 14. 17. 18. 22. [Comp. i. 8. 12, 

not meaD among seas that boii upon the ' expeclito.'] 

Svrtes; bnt along the burning coast of 14. aegcuieti*] £ira| Key^yavov. 'Dau- 

Africa that borders on the Syrtes. " Non nias' is thc rcading of the best MSS. 

aestnosae gprata Calabriae Armenta/' C. i. ' Dauuia in latis' is that of others, which 

31. 5. The dangers of a sea-voyage are not Lamb., Cruq., and Bentley adopt. But * in*- 

referred to here. [* Iter* meaus a land jour- is a mere interpolation of somc who fouud 

ney, but still Horace may havc givcn the thc rcading ' Daunia latis/ and wishcd to 

epithct 'aestuosas' to the seus along the save the mctro. 

coast of the gulfs. He says (C. ii. 6. 3) : 15. Jubae tellus] It has bcen doubted 

•* Barbaras Syrtes ubi Maura sempcr Acs- whcther Horace alludes to the cldcr or the 

tnat nnda."] 'Caucasus' has the sume youngcr Juba. Orelli has printed in an 

epithet applied to it again Epod. i. 12, and excursus an argumont by one of his coun- 

Ac«ch. (P. V. 20) calls it airdyOpcinroy vdyov, trymen in favour of theyounger. It Rcenis 

The epithet * fabulosus,* and the amouut of to nmuunt to this — that thc son reoeivcd at 

kiiowlcdjre tlie Romans had of Indi2i, are thc hands of Augustus, in pluce of his 

sufficicntly explained by riiny (N. H. vi. futher's kingdom oi'Numidia,the whole of 

17): ** Patefacta est non modo Alexandri Muuritania, and those purts of (iactnlia 

Magni armis regumque qui ci succcssere, which lic contiguous to tlie rangeof Atlas, 

circumvectis etiam in Hyrcanum mare et and that these were more productive of 

Co^pium Scleuco et Antiocho praefectoque wild beasts than Nnmidia (theclder Juba's 

cla^sis eonim Patrocle; verum et aliis kingdom), Gactuliau lionsbeingproverbial. 

aactoribus Graecis—non tamen deest dili- But the extcnt of the father*8 dominion 

gentiae locns, adeo diversa et iucrcdibilia Horacc was not likcly to dcfine more accu- 

traduntur." ratcly than Lucan, who says (iv. 670) it 

11. curis — expeditis'] This is the reading was the wrdest in thc world. Horace niight 

of most andthe bc*st MSS. Lambinusand vcry innoccntlv have callcd thc wholc ot 

fiome others, whom Bentley foUows, prefer Libya * Jubac tcllus,' cvcn if the clder hajl 

the reading of Comm. Cruq. and somc never had a son, or that son hud never 

MSS. 'expeditus.* Like *solvo,' 'cxpedio* risen in favour with AugustU!», and bccn 

aduiit» of two constructions. See CatuII. invested with tbe kin^doms of Mauritania 

31.7: *' O quid solutis est beatius curis ?'* and Gaetulia. But Horacc, who noticcs 

But there is also ** solvite corde metum, thc events of the day, may have used the 

Teucri," Acn. i. 562. Horace says (C. iii. phi'ase with refcrence to the honours newly 

24. 8): **non animum metu Non mortia grantcd to thc youuger Juba, whoreceivcd 

laqoeis expedies caput." I think Dillenbr. Mauritania A.V.C. 729. Tliis would help 

is rieht in defending 'expeditis,' not only to fix thc date of the ode. 
by the authority of the MSS., but for tho 16. Arida nutrix] Baxtcr cutertains his 

■iike of the 6ftoMT4\tvTov, which this me&- rcaders with the following note : *' Fcstive 

Bore aboiibds in. Besidcs this verso there posuit ' Arida nutrix,' quaedam enim sunt 

wiU be fiiaiid liz instances in this one ode, aridae nntrices — ' dry nurses.' " 


Pone me pigris ubi nulla campis 

Arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 

Quod Jatus mimdi nebulae malusque 

Juppiter urget; 20 
Pone sub eurni nimium propinqui 
Solis in terra domibua negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 

Dulce loqueotem. 

). Quod tatHi} Cqmpnro C. iii. 2*. Wlietlier Lnlnge is the isina ■ 
1ie']iiffricBinpi"Bn;thepkitiBrroi«o Cinara (C. iv. 1) aiid Glyceni 
cold. RitUT TOmpBres Lucratius T. nmv bo laft to the dedaion of 

n.'] tto. Potnrch hu imititsd Hon 

loriiirai _icd 7(Aiilcrat l/iiootr. Seo 

on C. ii. 12. 14. Cntullua ad Lcsbinm " Chi non «a eome dolce eU» i 
i) hus E coiue dolce parU e dolcu i 


in iippenrs to 1» imitntcd finm a poem of AuBCreon, of which a fnigmpQi 
rvHi in AtlienaeuB (ii. p, 396) :— 

CARMINUM I. 23, 24. 65 

Adventus foliis seu virides rubtim 
Dimovere lacertae, 

Et eorde et genibus tremit. 
Atqui non ^o te tigns ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo frang^re persequor : 10 

Tandem desine matrem 
Tempestiva sequi viro. 

stands appeara very poetical, and the inac- See liis note, and Canningham, Aniniadv. 

cnruciei», if they be so, very pardonable. p. 47. 

Burmann in his edition adopts the correc- 12. Tempestiva — viro] Aen. \\\. 53: 

tioD of Maretos, * vitis.* Bentle^s altera- " Jam matura viro, pleuis jam nubilis 

tion had been previoosly made m one or annis." 

two qaarters, but not with his knowledgo. 


A.u.c. 730. 

Jerome, in his edition of the Chronicles of Eusebius, places the death of Qaintilius 
Varas, the sabject of this ode, in the first year of the 189th Olympiad, that is A.U.O. 
730 (ClintoD, F. H.). This therefore fixes the date of thc ode. Quintilius was bom at 
Cremona, and was a neighbour and friend of Vii^il, through whom it is probable Horace 
made his acquuntance. He is refcrred to (according to the Scholiast who is probably 
right) in the Epistle to the Pisos, v. 438 sqq., as a disceming critic ; and the language 
thcre ased shows that he was dead when it was written. The Scholiast Acron says, that 
tome snpiKMed he was VirgiPs brother, which notion arose plainly from the language 
Horace oses in this ode. Servius also, on Virg. Ec. v. 20 (where he says somo 
sapposed Daphnis to be this Quintilius, whereas that ecloguc waa writtcn about sevcn- 
toen years before his death, and Dnphnis plainly is intended for Caesar), calls him 
* oognatum Vii^Iii.' Bnt for tbis there is no warrant. 

The opinions that identify him with C. 3. and 18 of this book and Epode v. are 
noticed in the introductions to thosc odes. 

What bonnds shall be set to our grief for one so dcar 1 Teach ns a moumful strain, 
Uelpomene. Can it bc that Quintilius, whose likc Modcsty, Justice, Fidelity, and 
Tmth shall not behold again, is gone to his everlasting rcst ? Many is thc good man 
that moums biiii, but none more truly than thou, Virgil. 'Twos not for this thou 
didst commit him to the care of Heuven. But in vaiu thou dost ask him back. llio 
lyre of Orpheus could not briug back the blood to tho shadowy form which Mercury 
bath gathered into hell. 'Tis hard to beur : but patiencc mukcs that lighter which 
no power can change. 

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tam cari eapitis? Praecipe lug-ubres 
Cantus^ Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

[2. eaT^W] Tbe Komans oflen nse *ca- Tliere is no other word for * person,' which 

pot * to ezpress person, and * capita * ' hu- would express what Horace means in this 

iDin bcings»' as Horace (8. ii. 1. 27), * Quot ode. Vir^ (Aen. iv. 354) has ' capitisque 

capitmn^Timt» totidem stadiorom millia.' injuria cari.'] 


Ergo QuiDtiliiim iierputuus sopor 
TJrgett cui Pudor et Justitiac soror 
Incorrupta Fides nudaqiie Veritaa 

Quando ullum inveniet parem? 
Multia ille bouis flebilia occidit, 
Kulli flebilior quam tibi, Virgili. 
Tu fruetra piu9 heu nan ita creditum 

Poscie Quintiliuni deos, 
Quodsi Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Kon Tanae redeat sanguis imtigiiii, 

Quam virga semcl horrida 
Non lenis precibus fata recludere 
Nigro computerit Mercnrius gregi. 
Durum : sed levius fit patientia 

Quidquid corrigere est nefas. 


3. MtlpoiKme'] See C. L 12. 2 n. bdiI inaat of tlie rditors Iiave udn 

6. Fudor el Jialilia» toror—Fidrf\ have no doubt it is right. Hor 

I Figntct of tbBW peTtonagn onmr on coins um^s '»iii,' wliicb Virgil iiwb na of 

iHith iHrioaB descriptiTu nFcampnDimcota. tbo 1111110 «rav «s Harsce bhb 

I Thpy Bre Basoi-iated ngnia C. S. 67. Ciceni [Kplltr Biid Riltir have " Qoid 1 

CARMINUM I. 25. 57 


Besides ihis there are two othf r odes (iii. 15. iv. 13), the subject of which is the wan- 
tonnees of faded beauties, a subject probably handled with still greater pungency by 
ArchOochus, for it was one his sarcasm wonld find scope in and would be likely to fasten 
upon. It is impossible to say whether Horace had any individual in his mind when he 
wrote any of these odes. If he had« we need not ^ farthcr and supposc that he wrote 
as a disappointed lover. For instance, Jani'8 indignation at the virulence with wbich 
Horace can find it in his heart to attack (C. iv. 13) thc woniau he was so fond of (C. iii. 9) 
si^ems to be nnncccssary. But it is a fair speciuien of tbat matter-of-flEict school of in- 
terpretation. I have before had occasion to remark, how thc same principle b appliod 
to Lydia and how many new lights she appears in (C. 13. Introduction). 


Thy windows are no longcr assailed and thy slumbers broken by sancy yonths ; thy 
door tnms no more on its hinges ; thc scrcnade is silent. Now 'tis thy tum, in some 
lone alley on a dark niglit, with the winter wind blowing and thy heart on fire with 
last, to cry for lovers, and complain that young blcx>d gocs after the tender plant and 
bids the old leaves go float upon the Hebrus. 

Parcius junctas quatiunt fenestras 
Ictibus crebris juvenes protervi, 
Nec tibi somnos adimunt, amatque 

Janua limen. 
Quae prius multum facilis movebat 5 

Cardines ; audis minus et minus jam : 
" Me tuo longas pereunte noctes, 

Lvdia. dormis?'^ 
Invicem moechos anus arrog^antes 
Flebis in solo levis angiportu, 10 

Thracio bacchante magis sub intcr- 

lunia vento 
Cum tibi flagrans amor et libido 
Quae solet matres furiare equorum 
Saeviet circa jecur ulcerosum, 15 

Non sine questu 

2. 1(iihu9\ The Blandinian MSS. and ccler/ S. ii. 3. 147. Such a screnade as 

«e three oldest Beme aud somc otlicrs that which follows is C. iii. 10. 

P^* 'jactibuB,' which reading is probably 7. Me iuo\ The possessive pronoun is 

■jrlotttoexplain thenature of the*ictu8,' nsod thus abruptly ouce before (C. i. 15. 

•hich meant, it would sceiu, thc thmwiug 32), " uon lioc pollicitus tuae;'* and Ov. 

^«t(in«. Lawbinus likes that word [aud llenicd. Ara. 492 : " Frigidior glucic fac 

Kdkr aad Ritter accept it]. Rutporsius vidcare tuac." 

^'^'Pwed * tactibns/ but it has met with uo [11. inierlunia\ • Est biduum quo luna 

"^ow. non visitur,' or the timc of the conjunction 

3. ama€\ So 'littus ama' (Aen v. 163), (coitus) of the sun and moon, as Pliny 

'cfctFe to.' «Mnltnm' (facilis) in this uamcs it.' Rittcr.] 

*Bse is common im Horace, as *mul- 14. yWWar^] This word we do not mect 

tttB dcoiimu homo,' S. i. 8. 57 ; ' Multum with bcforc Uoracc. 


Laeta (iuod pubes hedera virente 
Gaiideat pullii magis atque myrto, 
Aridaa frondes hiemis sodali 
DeJicet Hebro. 

t. pnl/a] Porphyrion int«rpret« 'pnlU' 
nulx-reonjHti.' u froni a coot 'pnl-,' 
n wliii-h 'pollulo' ii fonncd. Rntgcr- 
m given it the nme mraning in Kpod. 
fi. Bnt thcru i« do aiithorit; or rea- 
ir dejHirting rrom (bo ukubI niesning, 
1 ii ■ diirt.' [■ MflgiB atijne :' comp. 
. xy. 5.] 

I. Dfdicel fffiro] There ia not mnch 
1! liinti-ulty iu uowpting this eiprcHsion 
lu tbntwitb whii.'h tbc neit od? opcna : — 
TTnulam protiTvis in mnre Crotienm 

havc round it ■stambUng-hlock, 
j ' hu heeji «ubstitutod fiir 
lebro' hy Ikntloy nnil «omB otber odi- 
I, the tvBy haviug boen led h^ Aldm. 


Tbe ump inbatitution, againit 
rity u iii tliiB cue. hns hfen m 
i. 317, ' praevertitur Hebroi 
Heyns «nd Wiigner haVB de 
eomiuon rending voiy well. Bnt 
ynniig mcn *t Etome dedicate th 
or iny thing e\ie to tho Hebrui 
Tbniee? whj not to the Tib< 
hive we to do witb tbst ? If H 
■ Hebro.' a» «11 thc MSS. Mj b. 
i> no reason to Euppase hc wa 
Steiner in conipamioD aoggeata 
likely tlut he got tbe idea, and f 
from tbc Oreek. Tba disUnce 
and tbe cxtravagiuiee of the n 
to siiit the general »™pe of tl 
vury woll. And the coldne — ' 
haa probiibly fi — -'^'-- -- 


CARMINUM I. 26. 59 

Bomanos vellefc opoleiitaiii snmptnm prneberi jussit. Post haec ilnito Hispaniensi bello 
cnm in Sjrrium ad componendum Orientis statum venisset, metum Phraati incussit ne 
bellum Parthiae vellet inferre. Itaque tota Parthia captivi ex Crassiano sive Antonii 
exercitu recoUecti siguaque cum his militaria Aug^to remissa. Sed et filii nepotesque 
Phraatis ohsides Aug^to dati, pluaque Cacsar magnitudine nominis sui fecit quam 
armia aliui imperator facere potuisset" (Justin, Hist. xlii. 5). I have given all this 
passage, as it containa with sufficient accuracy most of the events of Parthian history 
whicli Horace alludes to. The assembling of the Scy thian force and the alarm of Tiri- 
dates are evidently referred to here, and the two scem to be associated. It is natural 
to infer, therefore, that it was just before Tiridates fled fromhis kingdom, in A.u.0. 
729, that the ode was composed. Some, however, have referred it to the period when 
Pbraatea' ambassadors were in treaty with Augustus, and when thc fate of Tiridates 
was undecided, which would put the date a year later. Others again have assumed 
that the whole of the transactions described by Justin arc to be referred to the year 
721^ and that Tiridates never fled to Augustus in Spain at all. This is the judgment 
of Lachmann (I^et. to Franke, p. 239), but it is rather an unwarrantablc judguient. 
JoBtin bad the history of Trogus, which he abridged, and must have known better 
than Lachmann what it contained. Hisreason, moreover, for wishing to place the date 
of the ode further back is nothing more than an objection to the rhy thm of the 7th and 
11 th verses, which ia a very fallacious argument. In favour of the earlier date b 
quoted, by Orelli, Yirg. Georg. ii. 495 :-> 

" nium non populi fasces non purpura regum 

Flcxit et infidos ag^tans discordia fratres ;" 

where thc brethrcn are Phraates and Tiridates. The Georgics having been written not 

later than 724, it is assumed that the events above refcrred to must have takon place 

before that year. But the earlier and unsuccessful designs of Tiridates are more pro- 

bably referred to by Virgil. Against the earlier date there is an argument of much 

weight in the age of Lamia. He died a.u.c. 786 (Tac. Ann. vi. 27), and the ycar before 

he had held the office of praefect of the eity. If hc was only twenty when this ode was 

written, he must have becn eighty-two when he died, and eighty-ono when hc held the 

tbove post, which was made one of considenible importance by Augustus,and continued 

to be so under his successor. He is describcd as being * vivida scncctutc' at the close 

of his life, and it is just possible he may have held the above post at that advanced age, 

Vat it ia not probable, and I think it a fair argumcnt, as far as it goes, for putting the 

date of the ode as late as we can. For further particulars respecting Lamia see iii. 17. 

The attempt to deduce from this ode any evideucc of his beiug of a melancholy tempe- 

ament is ridicnlous. 


Ai the frieDd of the Muses should, I toss care to the winds, and mind not as every one 
cbe doea the ahirms of Tiridates. Sweet Muse, weave a garland for my Lamia. All 
my honoars without thee arc nought ; him shouldst thou with thy sisters consecrate 
with the lyre. 

Musis amicus tristitiam et mctiis 
Tradam protervis in mare Cretieura 

1. Muna amieus] See C. iii. 4. 25 : — Sr* ^70» irita rhv ohov 

*• Veiiris amiciim fontibiis et choris." The iiiropirrTovrai fitpifivai 

foDowing image is common in tho Greck •KoKv^p6vrih(i t€ fiovXaX 

poets. It occnrs two or three times in the is oKiKrvjtovs ki^ras. (51). 

Aaacreontie poems : — in^y ^pfvStv fxkv aHpais 

rh V ix^* ir4^vy9 /biix^^ (pdpuv I8»ica Kvvas, 
kwi»»rp6^ 9v4\Kp. (39 Bergk.) 


Portare veotis, qiiis siib Arcto 
RcT gvlidac metuatur orae, 
Quid Tiridat^n terreat unice 5 

Securus. O, quae fontibus integriB 
Gsudes, apricos neete flores, 
Necte meo Lamiae coronam, 
Pimplea dulcis ! Nil sine tc mei 
Fi-osunt honorCB : hunc iidibus noris, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrarD plectro 
Teque tuasque decet eorores. 

L^ clHwhcre. See ilio Theocritas (ixii. for tbe occasion. See IntrodD 

It TaA\i, ii S' tli uyphy ix"" "juvnt iotegros acceden 

ite ofthe laat iirecediug odc. cedonui. Hicnd to the Muh 

I 3. gnii] ThLa is prohnWy fhe dativc HdopUtbecorJBctnreof N. Hei 

" refers to tlie tcrror iiLipired in plri," whlch Fea ha» ahw ndopl 

Hnd bii pHrty by tlic HpproBch of the MSS, iire \n faTonr of tlie 

iuns. Dilleubr. prelcrs taking it and Huiplo iii both tbe fonul 

iiitnative cuc nnd ic i» nut cuv Mase. Far ' proiUDt ' (oiiie 
'pooauDt, which LuiDbinuB 


licntlcj ndepta. 


CARMINUM I. 27. 61 

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
Pugnare Thracum est : toUite barbarum 
Morem, verecundumque Baechum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 
Vino et lucemis Medus acinaces 6 

Immane quantum discrepat : impium 
Lenite clamorem^ sodales^ 
Et cubito remanete presso. 
Voltis severi me quoque sumere 
Partem Falemi ? Dicat Opuntiae 10 

Frater Megillae quo beatus 
Volnere, qua pereat sagitta. 
Cessat voluntas ? Non alia bibam 
Mercede. Quae te cunque domat Venus 

Non embescendis adurit 15 

Ignibus ingenuoque semper 
Amore peccas. Quidquid habes age 
Depone tutis auribus. Ah miser, 
Quanta laborabas Charybdi^ 

Dig^e puer meliore flamma ! 20 

Quae saga^ quis te solvere Thessalis 
Magus venenis, quis poterit deus ? 
Vix illigatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimaera. 

8. verecttndum'] In Epod. xi. 13 lie tophanes, &c. The same expression occnrs 

M called ' inverecundum/ and Bcntley pro- in Tadtas and Sallnst, and ' mirum quan- 

poses that word here. But the cases are tum,' * nimium quantum/ are used by 

different, and the MSS. are unanimous. Ciccro, and Livy (ii. 1 fin.^. The oldest 

5. Vino et lncemu] In prose these Beme MS. has * discrepet, but the indi- 
datives would be expressed by the ablative cative mood is right, ' immane quantum ' 
with '&.' The same constructions in Horace being merely an expletive. 

are '^asidens plebi,' C. ii. 2. 18; "medio 10. Opuntiae^ The birthplace of Me- 

ne discrepet imum," A. P. 152. gilla (the liocrian Opus) is added, as Butt- 

aeiiMees'] This word, which signifies the mann remarks, only '* to give the poem a 

Persian sciuiitar or short sword, appears to fresher look of individuality." The same 

have been introduced into Greece aiter the remark will apply in other instances, as, for 

Persianwars. ItiscommonlyusedbyHero- instancc, "Xanthia Phoceu" (C. ii. 4. 2). 

dotns (vii. 54). Horace seems to have been 19. laborabae] Several MSS. have ' la- 

the first Latm writer that employed it. — boras Charybdi ' against the metre ; one or 

Horaoe says quarrelling is vastly unsuited two have inserted the preposition 'in' to 

to those joviaf meetings which are kept up make the verse straight ; but the oldest and 

to a late hour— 'vino et lucemis.' The best MSS. have the imperfect tense, of 

Komans sat down to table seldom later which Bentley can makc nothing. Orelli 

than three or four o*clock, and sometimes may be right in saying it refers to the time 

ccmtuaued there till past midnight. when thc question was put. But perhaps 

6. ImmoMe mianium] This form is imi- some fincr scnse of the imperfect tense 
tated fTom the Greek : obpdyiov Scroy, may be traced in this word, as in^ " Tem- 
itvfutarlt^ tcwt h^Mvroy 9ao», BaviMnrrk pus erat dapibus, sodales" (G. 1. ^'7. 4 
k^SKo, i|d^v«r tcov — phrases we meet note). 

with in Pkto^ Aristotle^ uemostbeDes, A n§- 



KTPnt rtonl hm heeo wrillm sbont thU ode, os to Ibe «pirit aiMl purpoi 

iou ul' ita oiiiiiponition, tha ps rwm» introdurod. uid tbe psrts they reapcc 

iiTin; littruJl^v yt liike ttif<Hlu nnil tlie leta we «earcli for liidilui iiimiings, 

tbc duti.' ur the cauw tliHt Ivil la thf train oF thout;1it, the more liliel 

'ivB, to arrivB at tlie truo Ijcaring of th« odii. Septimioa, ooe of Ho 

atu fritiids, luiil n vilhi at Tnreiitum (C. ii. 6), wliere it U Ullelj Hon 

ion. if iiot oftoti. pniJ hlin n n«it. It «ceuii to mii not imprDbahie that h 

u budy cQAt on r^hrw nX tliiit plnce where tiie ecGne flppmni t^ t>e luid' 1 

ii body luijjht nntur.ill; «iitirgitt Burh au ode aa tbie, in wbich tbc »pirii 

kfd miia is iLLlri«lun<d muniliiiiig' upon dnitliandaBkiDgfbrburial. Uii 

the fonu, iu the firit inatance, of bu Bddresa Ui Archytaa the philoioj 

? wnfl aswtintcd witli TKrentom . ind he join» with hiin other worthieii, 

aiid pmtnias litid uot «oved tiiem from the commoD lot of ■U. Theri 

it lei^nd tlmt Archjtat wns biirieil on thc ' litui Matinum,' geDerolly i 

a piirt uf thc mi^E of MonH Gargnuu» in Apuliu. PiHsihly a tomb Hai ■ 

uid to be hia. But it doi» not foUow tbat thc speoker wbs there. 

I Archytafl would be au^esled by bii ufidiociatioo with TarcntuTn. where 1 1 

2!l) the Rcooe ia hiid, nod the iifline of aueb a man ie natnrnllj coimecti 

iiiif uf this oik, cvcn indvpeudently of hi> connexion with the pl 

:i~ uiu ihipwreckcd OD H VDjagc down the UodriHtic (nhich ie I 

1 1 liii- beeu too hustily Bsenmcd irom tbis ode. If he wbs renlly hi 

.Miiiis Ijiirgaiia^, tlitro ore otlicr hiij» of nccoiinttiie for il. But 

CARMINUM I. 28. 63 

thoagh moet even of those who divide tho coUoqny at ▼. 6 have overlookcd this diffi- 
culty, and acceptcd 'te ' on the anthority of tbe MSS. Bat ' nanta' is not properly a 
common sailor, hnt ' navicnlarius/ a shipmastcr. " Nautam accipere debemus eum qui 
navem ezercet : qnamvis nautae appcUantur omnes qui navis navigandae causa in nave 
sunt. Sed de exercitore solummodo Praetor sentit" (Dig.4. 9. 1. § 2). The 'exercitor' 
18 the person who charters the ship. Tbcre does not seem to be any natural division at 
V. 16, and for Archytas to begin (at v. 21) with ' Me quoque devexi/ &c., uothing 
having gone before with which to connect those words, is also unnatural ; while, if we 
nnderstand him tobeginhis reply at 'Scd omnes una manet nox/ we have an opposltion 
betwcen the sarcasm of the first speaker (who says ironically of those that aspired to 
connexion with the gods and to the bighest ordcr of wisdom that thcy had not escaped 
death, not even Pythagoras, though he pretended to have done so ouee) and the grave 
tmtb, flolemnly propounded by the philosopher, that all must die« wise and nnwise, old 
and yonng, on land or at sea, and illustrated by his own case. This was once my 
opinion, and as many will still adhere to the theory of the dialogue and Archy tas' ship- 
wreck, I have pnt that theory in what appears to me the best form. The other expla- 
nation of the ode, however, I feel little doubt, is in the main the true one. Another, to 
which Orelli incUned (though he suspended his judgment on the whole question), sup- 
po9es a tuulor ooasting along the Apulian shore and seeing the tomb of Archy tas, where- 
npon he breaks out into the address ' Te maris,' &c., from v. 1 to 20. Then the ghost 
of a lately shipwrecked man comes forward and prays for a little sand. It would be 
difficnlt to imaginc any circumstances that conld have suggested such a scene, especiolly 
with so abrnpt a change of persons. The sudden apparition of a ghost echoing back to 
the mariner at sea his own words to my mind appears almost ludicrous. 

One difficnlty appcars to me to be fatal to the notion of a dialogue, and that is con- 
tained in the second and third verses, in which it appears to bc clearly iutimated that 
tbe body of Archytas has already received that which he is supposed so eamcstly to 
pray for : for though many, I am aware, get over this difficulty by supposing ' cohibent 
munera' to mean that the want qf the scanty gift of a little earth was keeping him 
hack from his rest, I do not see how the words will bear that sense ; nor can 1 translate 
'oohibent' with Dillenbr. and others, as if it was meant that his body occupied but a 
small space on the surfiice of the ground. The words can only mean that he was undcr 
tbe sand, whether partially or otherwise, and in either case he would not require dust 
to be cast three times on him. 

This consideration, as well as the unity and simplicity it gives to the ode, has induced 
me, with mnch confidence, to adopt the explanation 1 have givcn. The propriety of a 
Ma-&ring person being appealed to consbts in his being exposed to risk of the same 
&te with the peraon who appeala to him. 


Even thee, thon measnrer of earth and sea, thou counter of the sands, Archytas, how 
nnall a portion of earth contains thce now ! It profits tbee not tp have searched tho 
air and traversed the heavens since thou wert to die. So Tantalus, Tithonus, and 
Ifinoa have died, and Pythagoras too with all bis leaming hath gone down once more 
to the gprave. But so it is : all must die alike ; some to make sport for Mars, some 
twaUowed np in the deep : old and young go crowding to the grave : nonc cscape : 1 
too have perished in the waters. But gradge me not, thou mariner, a handfiil of 
> carth : so may the storm spend itsclf on the woods wbile thou art safe and thy mcr- 
ehandize increasea. Is it a small matter witb thee to bring min on tby children ? 
Tea,perfaaps retribntion awaits thyself : my curses will be hcard, and then no atone- 
neiit ihaH deUver thee. Tis hut the work of a moment — thrice cost earth upon me 
ind hasteB on. 


Te mariB et tflirac numeroque earentis arenao 

Mensorem cohibent, Archjta, 
Pulvcris esigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera, nec quidiiuam tibi prodest 
Aei-ias tentasse domos animoque rotundum 

Percurrisse polum moritoro. 
Occidit et Pclopis genitor, conviva deonim, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras 
Et Jovis arcanis Miuos adraisBus, habentque 

Tartara Panthniden iterum Orco 
Demissiim, qiiamvis clipeo Trojana refixo 

Tempora testatus nihil ultra 
Ner\-os itlqLic cuteni m^rti coucesserat atrao, 

Judiee tc non sordidus auctor 
Naturae vericjue. Sed omnes una manct nox 

Et calcanda semel via lcti : 
Dant alina Furiae torvo spectacula Marti ; 

Esitio est av-idum mare nautis; 

. 7V lerrat] 'Tl-' ia eiuphalii;. dfclared tlmt lie Iwd b«n Eu] 
h« nbruptnpsa of Ihe ojiiTiiig rccjiiirua. son of pHnlliouB who fell in 

CARxMINUM 1. 28. 


Mixta senum ac juvenum densentur funera, nullum 

Saeva caput Proserpina fiigit. 20 

Me quoque devexi rapidus eomes Orionis 

lUyrieis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arencie 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 
Particulam dare : sic quodcunque minabitur Eurus 25 

Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae te sospite, multaque merces 

Unde potest tibi defluat aequo 
Ab Jove Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 

Negligis immeritis nocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committere, fors et 

Debita jura vicesque superbae 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis, 

Teque piacula nuUa resolvent. 

Polybins * auctor non spemendas/ a man 
wbose eyiileuce and statements mny be re- 
Ked on." (Long on Cic. Verr. Act. ii. 5, 
c 22 note.) 

17. Fttriae] Tbis name represents tbe 
Qreek notion of tbe Erinnyes as Tloiyai, 
or 'ApaX^ the (UTinities wbicb executed ven- 
geance on tbe f^ilty, and in tbat cbaracter 
itirnfd up strife as bcre represented. So 
Virjril (Aen. iv. 473, 610) calU tbem ' Dirae 
oltrices ;' and again (Aen. Tii. 324) : — 

"Luctificam AUecto diramm ab sede so- 
Infemiaqne ciet tenebris; cnitristiabella 
Ineqne inaidiaeque et crimina noxia 

8ee ibo Aen. ziL 845— 852. 'Spectacnla' 
»nwpond» to C. L 2. 87. * Avaro mari/ C. 
iu.29. 61, in spite of wbicb, witb no MS. 
■«^ty, or that of but one MS. of a 
^^te, Lambinus, Cmquius, and others 
°^ Tead < avidis,' wbich is a oseless epi- 

19. ieugemiur] * Densere * occnrs in 
l-Jicpetifu, Virgil, and Tacitns. 
^ Proterpina fugit'] The perfect bas 
^ toriitic sense bere. Tbe allusion is 
•«Pl«ined by Vu^. Aen. iv. 698 :— 

"Xonaiim illi (Didoni) flavum Proserpina 
JMtice crinem 

^^''Blcnt Stygioqne caput damnaverat 

K^P* (Alc 74) Death says in respect 

itpb^ ykp olhos rStv Kark xBoi hi $€&y 

irov r6y ^7X®* xparhs ayviap rplxa. 
Tbe general practice rov KardpxforBcu rQp 
UpS»v was to cut ofT tbe forelock of tbe 
victim. [He says ' Proserpina avoids or 
sbuns no bead.' Tho common form would 
be * no bead escapes (fugit) Proscrpina/ j 

21. devexi — Orionis'] Orion sets about 
tbe beginiiing of November, a bad time 
for sailors. C. iii. 27. 18. Epod. xv. 7. 
Virg. Aen. vii. 719: "Saevus nbi Orion 
bibemis conditur undis." 

[22. lUifricie] Tbe waves of tbo Ha- 
driatic. Ritter infers from tbis word tbat 
tbe speaker wos wrccked on tbe Hlyrian 

23. At tut nauta] A sbipmaster (see 
Introduction) may be supposed to be pass- 
ing, and tbe sbade to appeal to bim. 

24. capiti inhumato] To avoid tbe 
biatus Peerlkamp and Axt propose to snb- 
stitute ' intumulato,' wbich Orelli tbinks 
is a word coincd by Ovid (Heroid. ii. 136) : 
"Occurramque oculis intumulata tuis." 
Other hiatuses occur C. ii. 20. 13, iii. 14. 
11. Epod. V. 100, xiii. 3. 

25. sic] Sec note on C. 3. 1. 

29. custode Tarenti] Taras, tbe founder 
of Tarentum, was a son of Ncptune, wbo is 
represented on Tarentine coins as tbe tute- 
lar deity of tbe place. [• Negligis — com- 
mittcre ' is an hypotbetical clause. See S. 
i. 3. 29 n.] 

31. Postmodo] This belongs to * noci- 
turam,' and ' te is dependent on ' natis.' 
'Modo' limits *po6t' to a short time. 
[*For8* is • misfortunc.'] 


Qiiamquam festinas non cst mora longa; licebit 
Injcoto ter pulvere eurras. 

^35. liivhit . . . nnT«] 'Ton may mn." " Eripo mo iiii invictc ranliii, 

r, tollaning hia iiotinn that tbe ititui trrraia 

s wrecked on tlic coast o[ lUjriiMitn, lujice DBmque potoB." 

1« th>t ' licpbit ■ is uwd liecan«e Horace Tlie wrvtcbmui opcakin^ of t: 

|iikB of wiiat tlie ' 

rnirlies tbe lll.vrian shore. «here ho 
l)]H;ee« tho inan'ii body to bo. Onc blun- 
T lifgets nnotbcr. A 
■ * Epod. lY. 13. 

' licebit — 


Thc numhcr 

Poljncices aavs. Afrr|[ I' ir 
£i tiri¥ ir4tii\Soph. Ant. Z&G' 
object in respect to tbe burinl 
vM tliat tlie fatv tbould tie * 
do l^. ii. 22). The word 
ng^ainst tho notion of the 'u 


ic Tcar of the city 730 nn nrniy wns sout into Ambia Felii by Aof 

Quiliu. wlio WBS ^avtTnor of E^vpt. Tbe forcc cbioflf consistcd o: 

iii tbttt province {Strabo. p. 819 ; ritAai ATXiot (i^pn tJi tt Al-yirr-) 

i 'ApaBlar iii^aKir : nnd p. 780) ; but tho prospoct of wealth the eipediti 

lin tbo indofinite knowledge thco posseBsed of tbe canntr]', attracted yi 

!and induccd, it would scem. Icciu^a num of»todious haliitB, to join 

CARMINUM 1. 29. 67 


What, Iccins, after all dost thou gradge the Arahs thdr wealth, and prepare ch^ns 
for the princes of Sahaea and the fierce Mede ? Which of the fair harharians doat 
thoa mean to hring home for thy bed, or what royal page for thy tahle P Sore, 
rivers shall flow hack to their monntains and the Tiber tnm again, if locins can 
desert his books to pnt on the breastplate. 

Icci^ beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gasds, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabaeae 
Begibos^ horribilique Medo 
Nectis catenas ? Quae tibi virginum 5 

Sponso necato barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 

Ad cyathum statuetur imctis^ 
Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu patemo ? Quis neget arduis 10 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 

Montibus et Tiberim reverti, 
Cum tu coemptos undique nobilis 

1. nune] This word expresses snrprise, 9. sagittai tendere] For 'arcnm ten- 

* what now ! to belie all expectations and dere.' Vlrgil also says (Aen. ix. 606), 

ahandon a]] your pnrsnits !' ' spicula tendere comu,' and (Aeu. ▼. 508) 

3. Sabaeae] The Romans had possession 'pariterque oculos telumque tetendit.' [See 

of parts of Arabia Petraea but not of C. i. 12. 56, iii. 29. 27, as to the namo 

Arabia Felix. Hence he says — Seres. The Seres produced the best iron, 

«Intactisopulentior ^^ ^1,^°^' ^' ^' ^^ «• ^^ <1^<>*^ ^^ 

Thesauris Arabum." ii 4 / i;- • t rm. 

11. Fronos relabi posse rtro*J The 

(C. iiL 24. 1.) The ' horrible Mede,' that phrase &ya iroraiiSov beoame a proverb 

ii the Parthian, is only introduced to from Euripides (Med. 410) : i,va rrorafiSov 

Wigfaten tJie colouring of the picture. Upwv x^P^^^^ irayaL Demosthenes usra 

h, Quae — virffinum — barbara'] A very the expression (De F. L., Reislce, 433. 25), 

iBCQiniiion constmction (like rh iLvZpi»¥ ;) &AA^ ^rira &vo» iroTafjMv iKtivtj rp rifi4p^ 

fcf •qnae virgo harbara' or 'quae virginum irdyrts. Cic. ad Att. xv. 4 : ** Si vero etiam 

Wbttimm. There is humour in the ques- Carfulenus : Ayd) irorafi&v" 
^tt if Iccins had only to choose for him- 13. nobilis Panaeti'] Horace might in- 

'^ionie rojal damsel whose betrothed he tend this epithet for ' libroe ' or ' Panaeti.' 

*>* to slay with his own hand, and an It will suit either, since the accusative 

*<terD page of great beauty brought from plural is written iu tbe MSS. * es,' * eis ' or 

"tt Bstive wilds to wait npon one of the ' is.' Bentley connects it with the Stoic : 

pi&Ms of this happy Uind. hut whcther he is right or wrong in his 

7« hm ex o*^<sJ These words are to be conclusion, his reason is bad : " ne ' libros ' 

^"^together. Boys whose office it was duplice epitheto accumulemus:" 'coemp- 

^povont the wine are called in inscrip- tos' is not an epithet, and there was no 

^•poeri a cyatbo' or 'ad cyathum,' or reason why Horace should not say 'nobiles 

'f^vgeDto potorio,' 'ad argentnm poto- libros co^mptos' in tbe sense 'quosco^'- 

'*»%''apotione,'and8oforth. Feaspeaks misti' if he had pleased. OrelU agrees 

^•v«y cl^iant pictore of a boy in the with Bentley. [Ritter has 'nobiles,' which 

*t<f pooring wine» which was dug up at is better.] 

^^017801 [Comp. Sneton. Caesar, c. 14. SocraHcam et domum] Socraiefl? 

^ 'ad igrathom ttotiiifl.*] School^ as Pkto, XenophoD, &c. Cicero 

F 2 


Liliros Panaeti Socraticam et domura 

Miitare loricis HiberiB 15 

Pollicitiis meliora tendis ? 

■ dF tbi! 'ftimilia reripaMininini ' Ciccro proTciraa to follow liim 

ii. t); and Uorocc lappoBei himwlf guiilc. He liveil in the wcti: 

lc «skeil 'quo mo doce, quo JjBretuter' B.cwB» intimiilc with tUe jou 

i. 1. 13). Puiaetiui af Rhodei Afriranns, uid bia leclurei hc: 

, De OB'. iii. S) [elt an unfiiiii.bed hy P. Bulilina KofliB. 
I 'de aSlciia' in three boolci, Knd 


l fnigment of one of Alcmnn'» pocm» (10 Bergli) rnn» Kuvpar I^ifpTA> 
. ir<j>I^^i/TO>>, and of S»pp}io'i (T Bergb}, If «« Kvxpot f) Hil^oi « Hi 
r fmgincnt of Ansrrcon (S Berg-k), contnining ui invociildoD to 
lulf of Clrabulus, ia usunll.v ijuotod in CDniiviinn wilh thia ode, bnt it is 
bat thc main iucidt^Ql of a laily aacriiicing or dedicating a litUc chnj 
n froro lifo. 

1 Vcnus. Icave thj- beloTiMl Cjprnfl uid come dwell ia G1yrora'E tc 
me with thi». and the Gnces, and Njmphe, and Toutb «bo 
tilhout thee, and Mercurj too. 

O VEsrs, regina Cnidi Paphiqne, 

CARMINUM I. 30, 31. 69 


In 726 (25th October), Augufltas dedicated a temple with a library attached, 
wluch he had bmlt in honour of Apollo, on the Palatine hill, to commemorate hia vic- 
tory at Actinm (Snet. Octar. 29, Dion Caas. liii. 1). After the ceremonies of the day of 
dedication were over, we may snppose Horace putting in his own chum to the god'8 
&Toar in this ode, in which he represents himself as offering a libation (whether in 
private or at the temple is uncertain), and asking for that which according to Juvenal 
(z. 356) should be the end of all prayer, ' mens sana in corpore sano ! ' 


Wbat asks the poet with his libation of Apollo ? not cups, or herds, or gold and ivory, 
or rich fields. Let those who may prune Calenian vines, and rich merchants drink 
rich wine out of cups of gold, fEivourites of heaven, wbo traverse the deep in safety. 
My food is the olive, the chicory, and mallow. Let me enjoy what I have, thou sou 
of Lato, sonnd in body and mind, and let my age pass with honour and the lyre. 

QuiD dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates ? quid orat de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimae 
Sardiniae segetes feraces^ 
Non aestuosae grata Calabriae 5 

Armenta^ non aurum aut ebur Indicum, 
Non rura quae Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua tacitumus amnis. 
Premant Calena falce quibus dedit 
Fortuna vitem, dives et aureis 10 

Mercator exsiccet culullis 
Vina Syra reparata merce, 

1* Mieaium'] This word is applied to " adunca dextera &lce 

^ god as well as his temple. So Cic de Qua modo luxuriem premit et spalaantia 

f ' D. ii. 23, says, "ut fldes ut Mens quas passim 

^Otpitolio deidicatas videmus proxime a Brachia compesdt." 

■•Aemilio Scauro." Ov. Past. vi. 637 :— « Vitem' is govemed both by 'OTemant * 

•Teqruxiue magnifica, Concordia, dedicat f"^^ 'f^V ^I"^? P[^"P 'Calenam' 
^r— 1 D ^ -* ^, Calena.' But, though the omission of 

Uri., quam caro praestitit iUa viro." the mark which usually i^^resents the final 

^ '^ * m is so common that it proves nothing 

^ QaUihriae] C. ii. 6. 10; Epod. i. 27 n. in exceptional cases, yet there is no reason 

[S. t6«r Indicum'] * Indicum ' may be to suppose the copyists of all existing and 

^^^ • poetical omamcnt. The Koman known MSS. made the omission in this in- 

'[^ cune from AfHca, more probably stance. But none read < Calenam.' *FaIoe,' 

^from India ; but ivorv may have como moreover, is much less otiose (redundant) 

ooiB hidia also in Horace s time.] with the epithet than without; and, not- 

^. iVenas^] Viri^ uses this word in withstanding Bentley's dbtinction between 

^onieseDse (Georg. L 156): "et ruris fixtures and moveable instruments, the 

aldee premes nmbnu;" and Ovid expression *Calena fidce' is ti appropriakA 

idT.6»):— a8<praaIoCk2eiu>'aboyef$: d),or«tAea- 


Dis canis ipsis, quippe t«r et quater 
Anno reviseng awiuor Atlanticuni 

Impune. Me pascunt olivao, 15 
Me cichorea levesque malvac. 
Frui paratiB et valido mihi, 
Latoe, tloues, et preeor iutegra 

Degere nec cithara careutem. ao 

min nmphDrB.' ' Sabinik diata,' -0»«« forco of butarinB in thi» word. 
.■ whon, to the pr™ tliat mak« or ^opif.trBo.. (3« C. i. 37. 24 i 
(Msel which contaiiu the wiiic i» ap- cator' wm a dcnlcr in WBrat, whi 
thcnamcorthemneit^ir. eailcd or travelled with his , 
. JTm Ssta reparata ntr™] Wine foreign parta to dUpoee of tl 
1 in eichange for SjTiim goods, which mention of tho Atlantic ia ont o 
dfl &I1 the Hntly intrchandiie of the niediHl*'lj aftcr ' Sji« morcc '— b 
, elaewhere called 'Tyriae mcrces.' Homce Uo« not aim at strict 
scnpiirtti of Syria were entrepAtB for ' Aequur Atlanticam' saited 

leeUBCsiaanjwortlaconipoumlcdiiirith tobyUomc», S« C. i. 1. 16i 
without aiiy ,.erccptihle differencc of S. i. 1. 6, 1. 29. Epp. i. l. 45, 
ling from tlie simple worde, ne ' re- [18, eil The conjectnre of 1 
nrc,' -rcsccaro,- ■resolvere,' 'revin- bnt the MSS. authority ii in Eiv 

CARMINUM I. 32. 71 

field or on the deep still siing of Liber, the Muses, Veniis and hcr son, and Lyciis with 
dark eyes and hair. Thoa glory of Phoebus, welcome at the tables of the gods, thon 
confloler of my toils, help me whencver I shall mvoke thee. 

PosciMUR. Si quid vacui sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum quod et hunc in annum 
Vivat et plures, age dic Latinum, 

Barbite^ carmen^ 
Lesbio primum modulate civi, 5 

Qui ferox bello tamen inter arma, 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 

Litore navim, 
Liberum et Musas Veneremque et illi 
Semper haerentem puerum canebat lo 

Et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque 

Crine decorum. 
O decus Phoebi et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo Jovis, o laborum 
Dulce lenimen, mihi cumque salve 15 

Rite vocanti. 

1. Po*cimur2 See Introdnction. — 'um- C. ii. 13. 26.] 

bra' Bentley changes into 'antro.* He 10. haerentem'] This verb 'haerere* is 

doGS not quarrel with ' nmbra,' but finding used by Uorace with a dative as here, aud 

*antro' in one MS. he embraces it with S. i. 10. 49; or with an ablative with 'in/ 

both his arms : " Non possumus non am- as S. i. 3. 32 ; or without * in/ as C. i. 2. 9. 

babuB ulnis eam amplecti." Cunningham, S. ii. 3. 205. 

his foe, is here his only foUower I belicve, 15. cumque'] As 'quandoque * is put for 

tbough Bentlcy proves Batisfactorily by 'quandocumque' (sec Imlex), 'cumque' is 

twenty quotations that poets do sometimes put for ' cumcumque' or 'quumquumque/ 

eompode their verses in caves. which occurs in Lucret. ii. 113 : — 

2. gtiod et hune in annuml It bas been « ri ^i. ^ i x • i* i • 
dupoted «hether these wo4i belong to "Contemplator en,m. qnum «ol» lamina 

•lusimos' or to 'carmen.* Itakethemto t» ^ *.• 2 j * j» j 

Wong to the formep. Horace «iem. to Injerti fiindunt radu per opaca domo- 

metn that he feels impellcd to higher 

stnins than he had yet practised, and he 'Cumque' belongs to 'vocanti.' [Rit- 

etUs on his lyre to help him. 'Barbitos' ter explains 'cumque' thus: 'mihi, qui- 

ii lued as a fenunine noun by the early cumque sum/ that is, ' cujuscumque 

Qreek writers. The name of Lycus ap- pretii sum ;' and he says that ' cumque' as 

petn in a fragment of Alcacus (57 Bergk), an cnclitic cannot refer to what follows it. 

^QOted by the Scholiast on Pind. 01. x. 15 : All the other examples in Horace of ' cum- 

•»« h^ A6ko¥ iy Motaais kxiyo». Cicero que * are proceded by some form of * qui,' 

(de Ntt. Deor. i. 28) says, •* Naevus in or by ' quando,' itself a form of ' qui.' 

tttiealo pueri delectat Alcaeum. At est Lachmann (Lucrelius v. 311) made the 

c^vporigniacnlii naevus: illi tamcn lumen absurdconjecture'medicumque' for 'mihi 

'i^ehstQr." cumque.' I think Ritter*s explanation is 

right. The translation is, ' accept my 

before g^eting, such as I am, when I duly invoke 

Alcaeus, ' the Lesbian thee.' Comp. Virgil, Aen. xi. 97, ' Salve 

*>^ix&f' Me Herodotns ▼. 95, and Horace, aetemum mihi, maxime Palla.'] 

5. 9UidulaU^ See C. i. 1. 24 n. 
, P> ttve] * Sive' must be supplied 
'intcrarma.' As to Alcaeus. ' tlie L 



I ptlant el^ei praperl<r nttribat«d to Tibnllus mention onl; tvo mutra 

clie □uneB or Uelia nui! Nemesig, naA thete trv tlie only two tbat Ovid 

lipButiful elfg! hv vTOte aa tliat poet'» denth (Amor. iii. 9. 31. 65 aqq 

I lii' riilla Delin he waa enKinoared dnring tbe earlier port of lii> life j o 

: liis lutiT ycurg. He died bctween thirty rtndfort;, aboatthe mmetiine 

1iii> bi?i'n written U> prove tliat the Qlfccra of tbia ode «tsuda fbr Dciit 

■U Spolm de A. Tibulli vita et curTn. p. liO, 96, wha beheves that Dolia, 

m, Jieaera — a name ocenrring only in tha third book, which Tibullai, i1 

n, did aot writc. «'cre ull the lunie woman). Otiicrs bavB idi>nti<ied 01< 

lis, OD Brroont of Ihe nitniber ■□d quantit; of tbe Byllable* beiag the . 

■|iitliel«ribulln9applie?to her, 'avara,' 'rapai,' "Baeva,' 'duni,' which c 

niili».' Diasen i» oortBiu llwt Gljecra ia neitber DbUb aor Ne 

I otberwiiHi unlinown. Orelli isof the sanieopinion,bDtadda 

I thas attempt to Ecttle to B nicety tbe lovea of Roinan gfenttpmeu, uid [ 

e about theni tbao thoy have told ua, on!y ereate a amiie among I 

i livoil lonp in Franco or Ilaly — iinpljing- thnt hi> oountiyinen were bnd 

U of tlicir more guUant neighbonra. It i< not even certain tba 

« Ihe piCiful elegiea Harace apeBka of. Qlycera ia one of Horace'9 liiTonri 

it be taken for a reol nnme bera or flscwhere, It occura in PIai 

|. ii. 5. 26} und Mutinl (xir. 187). Whetbor tbepcraon hnd aay more rei 

i, I thiuk, dnubtful. That Itballns wrote el^ea, th 

urely croxed in love. and tbat hc whb on aomo uccnsiou in a dwpondiug 

B gDod-t«mpercd lit 

CARMINUM I. 33, 34. 73 

Cyri torret amor, Cyrus in asperam 
Declinat Pholoen ; sed prius Apulis 

Jungentur capreae lupis 
Quam turpi Pholoe peeeet adultero. 
Sic visum Yeneri, cui placet impares 10 

Formas atque animos sub juga aenea 

Saevo mittere cum joco. 
Ipsum me, melior cum peteret Venus, 
Grata detinuit compede Myrtale 
Libertina^ fretis acrior Hadriae 15 

Curvantis Calabros sinus. 

to hare been considered an attraction in such as Horace describcs. See C. ii. 5. 

men. £pp. i. 7. 26 : " reddes — nig^os an» 8. Jungentur caprecte lupis] This is a 

gnsta fronte capillos." Intellectual beanty, common hyperbole. £p. xvi. 30 : " No» 

as we view it, in men is better described by vaque monstra junxerit libidine Mirus 

FUny, Epiftt. iii. 6. 2 : *' rari et oedentes amor/' &c. Arist. Pax, 1076 : wpiv iccy 

capiUi ; lata frons." \{tKos oJif {tfi€¥aioi, 

7. Cyrus in euperam Declinat Pholoen"] 14. compede'] This word is uscd twice 

Heync, on Tibull. i. 8, has been at pains to again by Horace in the singular uumbcr : 

show that Horace's Pholod and tho heroine ** grata compede vinctum" (C. iv. 11. 24; ; 

ofthat elegy are identical; and Broukhu- "nivali compede viuctus" (Epp. i. 8. 3); 

aus identities Cyrus with her lovcr Mara- and once by Tibullus : " Spes etiam valida 

thus. Any one who reads Horace*s words solatur compcdc vinctum " (ii. 6. 25). 

with his eyes open will see that he is Bentley has quoted several inscriptions to 

making names for a case of common occur- show that Myrtale was a common namo 

rence ; and whoever reads TibuUus' elegy, among freedwomen. [' Currantis :' see C. 

will see that he is not plcading for a Cyrus iv. 5. 14.] 


If Horacc had any serious meair ng in this ode, as I think he had, it is to be supposed 

bewTote it under some impulse of conscience, which told him that hc had becn too carc- 

loi of that sovereign power which governs all things. The language, thongh impulsivc, 

>pparg genuine ; and whether it was through thc phcnomenon here mcntioned or any 

othercause that his mind was impressed, he seems to express more than merely poetical 

^ing; and the power acknowledged is not that conventional Fortune of the next ode, 

^i tbe Supreme Beiug who declares his existence by the voice of conscience, through 

'^iddai impressions and startling signs, such as under some form or other we may belicvo 

^ortce was stmck with. 

I believe Baxter was the first from the word ' apicem ' (v. 14) to suppose an alluHion 
^the Parthians and the transfer of the power from Phraates to Tiridates, or back from 
Tiridates to Phraates. This opinion is generally adoptcd now, and Buttmunn hos givcn 
itbbasnction. He says " apex is the peculiar namc for the head-drcss of the Peniian 
'^', and,just about the time when by the most probable calculation the odesof this 
Wmast have been written, a revolution took phice in the Parthian empire, the most 
P^vfvfbl itate in the world next to Rome, whereby Tiridates was dethroned and driven 
ootof the coontry, and Phraates was re-established in his stead." More weightltVuuVL 
" given to these words than they doserve. ChronologicaUy considerod they must \m 


9 be vor; InoBC. The tnttiiUtar of Battinitnn'> arUcIe in tli 
lulii^k^al MQscam f Mjiy, 1832j dcstrojB hii tlicorj completclj bj BHyinj 
Itllc doubt too tbut Horace wa« atto thinking of thn Dmca Qf Lucioi 
liiiinge uid the expreuioQS 

B-ly Blluclf to the eagle that cnrried op bis bonnet 'cnin mt^a clanffpns 
1 tlie jtory ; and, though Livy cnlls thebonoetn 'pileoa,* Cicero (DoLipu: 
rd ' npei.' " It is not proliublB thut Homce mennt to alliide to I 
irical Tacts together, but luoru likcly that he jnteitded neitber the one uur 
it the ' dilogin ' nupposed bag bccD tiao hnstily taken up &oin Baxtcr, 
le double meuiinga nt everj tum. 


Blrss cf Hcnven I bave t>Mn irandcriag in ttic dnilinovi of tn innne erec 
mj ii1«p§, nwabened bv thc sign cf Jove^B cbariot da^tiiiig throuj 
Duded sky.thnt cbnriot witb which he abakei tbi-evlh, tbewBterB. and lu 
.henorid. Qcd is itrongtobringdowu tbe mighty uid exalttbelc 
u froui uue aiid pliice it on tbe hcnd of Baother. 

Parcds deornm cultor et inirequeiia 
Iiitianientis (lum gapientiac 

Consiiltus orroj nunc retrorsum 



Quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina^ 
Quo Stjx et invisi horrida Taenari 
Sedes Atlanteusque finis 
Concutitur. Y alet ima summis 


lictos. 'Itenuv cnrsos relictos' signifies 
to retnrn to the paths be had left ; ' ite- 
rare ' being eqniTalent to ' repetere.' 

Diegpiierl Anlus Gellius (Noct. Att. ▼. 
12) says that this name was g^ven to Jove 
as ' diei et lucis pater/ and Macrobius gives 
the eame derivation. ' Dies ' is an old forra 
of the genitive (Key^s Gr. § 146). But 
probablj tbe two iirst sylLU)les are only a 
difierent form of ' Jup-' in ' Juppiter/ and 
from the same root as Zc^f. 

7. per purum tonantee] Tbe pbenome- 
non of thnnder heard in a clear sky is fre- 
qnently alluded to by tbe ancients, and was 
hcld especially ominous. The choms in 
Oed. Col. (v. 1466) suddenly exdaim ticrv' 
vcir ui$iip^& Zcv, whicb Oedipns takes np 
immediately as a sign of bis approaching 
end. See Virg. Georg. i. 487. Aen. vii. 
141, &c, Hom. Odyss. xx. 112 sqq. — 

Zf 5 vdr€p 

^ /icycU* 4fip6inrfitras &«^ obpavov iurrt' 


ovi€ v<^i yipos itrrl' ripas ¥^ rttp r6li€ 

Lambinns has coUected many more in- 
Btances. Lucretius denies the possibility 
of sach anomalous thuiulcr (vi. 247) — 

•* nam caelo nulla sereno 

Kec leviter densis mittuiitur nubibus 

And again (vL 400) : 

** Demqne cur nnnquam caelo jacit undi- 
que puro 
Jappiter in terms fulmen somtusque 

^etrly all the old editions put a stop after 
'^rideDs' andjoin 'plerumque' with wbat 
^ifiowB, wluch makes nonsense. The Scho- 
. ^ijsUdid not read the passage so, nor Lan- 
^Qs; otherwise I bave met with none till 
'^lbct who have not thus spoilt tbe passage. 
BeoUey bas a very long note to prove wbat 
^^^Vam no evideuce but tbat of common 
iBow, ind to claim the merit of tbe disco- 
y^> It is singalar that he had not seen 
^ in tbe edition of Baxter to whom he 
^iinettmes lefen with respect, and who 
^^Qiflami in a Uter edition of the ' great 
ttdmgemioiiB man^s' iiynstioe to bis coun- 
^TBtn. BntTalbot had preceded them 
WittdgotBoereditfWnneither; sobad 

Creech (note on Lucret. vi. 95). 

[9. bruta tellue^ * Tbe scnselcss eartb.' 
In C. iii. 4. 45 the earth is * iners.* Tbe 
promontory Taenarum in Laconica was one 
of Uie approacbes to tbe realms below.l 

11. Atlanteusque finii] Apparently mii- 
tated from Eurip. (Uipp. 3), r€pfji6yu¥ r* 
*Ar\aimKuy, [Tbe ' Atlanteus finis ' is tbe 
Atlas moiintains in Libya.] 

12. Valet ima summi*] We may com- 
pare this witb various familiar passages of 
tbe sacred Scriptures ; as, " He hath put 
down the migbty from their seat, and ex- 
alted them of low degree " (Luke i. 52). 
** Promotion cometh neither from the east, 
nor from the west, nor from the soutb. But 
God is tbe Judge; he putteth oown oue, aud 
setteth up anotber" (Psalm Ixxv. 6, 7). 
The sentiraent however is common. Tuci- 
tus seems to have bad Horace's words in 
bis mind when he wrote of tbo public fune- 
ral givcn to Flavius Sabinus and the ovcr- 
throw of Vitellius, that they were "mogna 
documenta instabilis fortunae summaque 
et ima miscentis " (Hist. iv. 47). Seneca 
has the samo words in bis Tbyestes (598) : 
" Ima pcmiutat levis hora summis ;" Auso- 
nius in his 143rd cpigram says of Fortune, 
** Et summa in imum vertit et versa erigit." 
Horace's words were no doubt iamiliar to 
these writers. Bentley would read 'in- 
signe ' for ' insignem/ to keep the oppbsi- 
tion uniform. Cunningham with more 
consistency would have 'insignia/ com- 
paring Virg. Aen. vi. 33 — 

" Bis patriae cecidere manus. Quin proti- 
nus omnia * 

Perlegerent oculis," 

and othcr like places. But 'insignem' 
(the reading of all tbe MSS.) bas more 
poetry in it than the neutcr, and is ilhre 
expressive of the vicissitudes of hunian 
life. Bentley supposes Horace to bave • 
had in mind Hesiod^s Works and Days 
(5 sqq.), 'Pca fi^y yiip fiptdti ^ea 8i fipid- 
oma xaA.^^'''*'» 'Pcta 8* kpl^tiXov fiiyvdtt 
ical (iifi\o¥ &c(*{, 'Pcta 8^ r* idvya ffKoXthv 
KoiX kytivopa Kdp<p€t Zcts i^t$p€fi4rris, and 
answers his own objection to 'insignem' 
by saying tbat ipi(ri\oy is masculine. 

On the allusions in the last stanza see 
Introduction. The language corresponds to 
the opening stanza of the next ode. * Apesi* 
ngDiBea properly the tnft (compoaed ot 


Mutare et insignem attenuat deuB 

Ob^ura promenB; hinc apiccm rapaz 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit, hic pofiuisse gaudet. 

il wrappod roimd a itwk) or thfl lop of Hornce applie» it to the royal cri 

I F1ameD'a ciip. It nppcari to stuid far 21. 20). 'Valerti' uHthan infiui 

It ('ovGring of tho hcad, for. u l>efor« ob- asedbvprote-writvnitillartertbi 

kimI, CiciTO aipi It to eipreu Lii-<t's Bge [bdt it is o!ten luml by Hoi 

■ "Ab nquila Tiirquiiiio apicem wnls of powe." See C. ii. S. 1, 
d putnnt" (I)e Le^. Ll); BHd 


eipedittun igiiiut the Britoni and ■ 
le care of Fortone the preiGrvar, u Pi 

«ivopnl flouAo^Jpo.. (Oljmp, tii.) 
Ii pHSsngv probably iiiimce hnd iii miDd. Tbe last eipedition B^Dit B 

CARMINUM I. 85. 77 

m repnte by the Romms. How far Horace may have drawn ihe attribntes and attend- 
anta be here asugnB to Fortnne fVom generally received notions, or whether the images 
are partly his own, we cannot determine. She was repreflented on Roman coins with 
a dooble ahip^s mdder in one hand and a comnoopiae in the other, which may fumitth a 
dne to the allnsions in the aecond stanza. There are passages which may have becn 
drawn from paintings in the temple at Antium. But there is no ode more justly cele- 
btated fi>r the oombination of varions images, and for its condensed poetry, than this. 


Qneen of Antiam, all-powerAil to exalt or to debase, the poor tenant cnltivator worships 
ihee, and the mariner on the deep. Thou art feared by the savage Dacian and nomad 
Scythian, by all cities and nations, yea, by proud Latium herself, by royal mothers 
trembling for their sons, and kings fearing for their crowns. Necessity with her stem 
emblems goes before thee. Hope and Fidelity go with thee when thou leavest the 
honse of prosperity, while false friends fall away. 

Pireserve Caesar as he goeth to conquer Britain ; preserve the fresh levies destined for the • 
East. It repenteth us of our civil strife and impious crimes. Let the sword be recast 
aad whetted for the Scythian and the Arab. 

O DiVA, gratum quae regis Antium^ 
Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphos^ 
Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 5 * 

Ruris colonus^ te dominam aequoris 
Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina. 
Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae 
Urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox 10 

Regumque matres barbarorum et 
Purpurei metuunt t)Tanni, 
Injurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam^ neu popuIuB frcquens 

Ad arma cessantes^ ad arma 15 « 

C!oncitet imperiumque frangat. 

1 Pra§i€mi] There is no other instance 6. colomui] See ii. 14. 12 ; S. ii. 2. 114. 

*f 'prMsens' with an infinitive. Forcell. [9. Dacus] M. Crassus, A.U.C. '^S, 

P^ wreral examples of 'praesens ' with carried on war against the Daci.] — pro- 

the lignificatioin of ' potens. In its appli- fiiffi Scythae] This is explained by the 

'^^to the gods it ezpresses their pre* wandering habits of the Scythians. Com- 

'^ u ihown by their power. In three pore ' campestres Scythae ' (C. iii. 24. 9), 

JtberpIaeesHoniceappliesittothem (see and Aeschylus (P. Y. 709\ "XMas 8* 

^B^); and Gcero (Tusc. Diip. i. 12. 28) i.<^ilu yofidSas oiirXeKrits aTtyas IlMpaioi 

•y> of Hercnles, "apud Graecos indeque yalova^ iir* tMicKois Sx°^^' 

P^i^iQs ad noe et usque ad Oceanum 11. SeffUfnquematreabarbarorumlOreWi 

tinha et tam praesens habetnr deus.*' quotes the description in the 5th cliapter 

[4. VeHere] This use is sunilar to that of Judges, ver. 28 : " Thc mother of Sisera 

^ 'ffiotare.' Comp. A. P. 226, ' vertere looked out at a window, and cried through 

^ hido. Bitter takes 'fnneribuB' to the lattice^ Why is his chariot so long in 

^ '^**^ hMtmmffliti.*] coming? why tarry the ^'liccl& oi \uu 


Te sempcr anteit Baeva NecesEitaa 
Clavos trabales ct cuneos manu 
Gestans aena, nec severus 

IJncns aljest liquidumque plumbum. 
Te Spes et albo rara FidoB eolit 
Velata panno nec comitem abncgat, 
Utcunque mutata potentee 
Vcstc domoB inimica linquis. 
At volgus infidum et meretrix retro 
Pcriura eodit, diffngiunt cadis 
Cum faece siecatis amici 
FeiTc jiigiim paritcr dolosi. 
Sltvcs iturum Caesarem iu ultimos 
Orbis Britannos et juveniun recens 

■ Tlipre nre four obJMta in re- Mulciber- 
ect of «Uch ForLune is lipre said to b 
vokcd— thc sciiBoiis, tlio wiiids. wv, bdi 
■ m. Si* iDtrodutftion. 
. Slantem colamnam-] The fignrcB o 
e, Secarity, HappincM, aud othem, ar 
IprcMrnted on ali) inonumcnta i 
■ tolunin, Adrtijon (Dia]. ii. o 
ip.]h1 " ■ ■ ~ 

" Hos illa cnneos falj 
Pemipit urtiu i qi 
TntnarerbBnau» c 

PiledalJ) i 

CARMINUM I. 86. 79 

Examen Eois timendum 
Paxtibus Oceanoque rabro. 
Eheu eicatricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratramque. Quid nos dura refugimus 

Aetas ? quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? unde manum juventus 
Metu deorum continuit ? quibus 
Pepercit aris ? O utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massagetas Arabasque ferrum I 40 

g&nt." [Ritter explains it 'nec comitem 39. d^ffingaa retusum] This most have 

te ftbnegat,' which is more consistent with been the reading of the Scholiasts, of whom 

' Te Spes,' &c.] Bentley, quite mistaking Acron savs, ''Dr/^nyot^confosum reforrocs, 

the character of this passage» proposes to nam et sicoifingere formare dicitur, sic ct 

read ' vertis' for 'linquis,' v. 24. (f /^n^«rtf est quassatum reformarc. Beiu- 

28. Ferre jugum pariter dolost] This sum, civilibus bellis hcbetatum;" and Por- 
appearstobe an imitationof Pindar(Nem. phyrion, *'ut ferrum quod retudimus in 
X. 78), oXxfrcu TtfiA ^i\toy rartatiivtf corporibus noetrorum bello civili diffin^s 
^«rri- Tavpoi V iv w6if^ irttrroi fipor&v (i. e. refabrices) adversus Barbaros." Tiiis 
Kofidrov fi€ra\atifidvftv, Theocritus has givesa very good meaning; but 'diffingiis* 
a rimilar exprefision (xii. 15), &\\^Xovs 8* occars only in Horace, who uscs it here 
4pl\ijffay ia^ (vyv» ^^ Plautus (Aulul. ii. and in C. iii. 29. 47. MS. authority on 
2. 52), words compounded with ' di ' and ' de ' is 

" nbi tecum conjunctus not to be trusted (C. i. 1. 13 n.). Sonio 

sim, good MSS. have ' defingas * and one ' recu- 

Ubi onus nequeam ferre pariter, jaceam sum.' Bentleyadopts 'defingas,'sayingthat 

ego asinus in luto;" notliing can be more alien from Horacc's 

the metaphor beine obviously taken from mcaning than ' diffingere,' which is to 

beasta unequally yoked. ' breuk up * or * unmake.' What sense he 

29. ultimo* Orbis Britanno*'] See In- gives to ' defingas ' he does not say. For 

trodnction. " Et penitus toto divisos orbe ' retusura ' he proposes ' recoctum ' out ot 

Britannoe *' (Virg. £cl. i. 67). (.'atulhis his own hcad, thereby losing one of the 

(Carm. xi.) has ** ultimosque Britannos." chicf points iu the sentence, the blunting 

Beotlej objects to 'ultimos orbis,' and ofthcswordon thebodiesof theirbrethrcu, 

propoees ' oro ' for ' orbis.* He thinks the as Cunningham observes (Animad. v. p. 

espreaaion barbarous, bnt admits that Vir- 346). ' Recusum incude ' is justly objected 

gil WTOte ' extremique hominum Morini ' to. The MSS. are in the proportion of 

(Aen. viii. 727), which is suffidently like four to one in favour of ' diffingas rctu- 

Horace^s pbrase. Cunningham proposes sum ;' and all the old cditions havc that 

'nltimi.' But the MSS. do not vary. readiug. 

"niey aU have ' ultimos orbis.' 


About A.u.c. 730. 

Wbo Knmida was we have no means of knowing. That his gentilician name was 
^lo^ 18 stated by Comm. Cruq., whilethe other Scholiasts, Acron and Porphyrion, call 
^ Pompomaa.* But Kumida appears to have been a cognomen of the Plotia or Plautia 
Ptt (Eito^ Pnaop. p. 480). That he was an intimate friend of Horace appears from 
^ ode. He wms ako a great friend of Lamia (see C. 26 of this book). Baxter sup- 
pomlihii to faaTe been one of Sextus Pompeius' party, and to have retumed to Rome 
teibDoving Sextnain Spun with Augustus' pardon, which he infers from tVxe \iii\&sxiaV 
joj Honee iiipiBMoii Bottmann Beenu to give, whether designedly or not 1 caniiot 


I soinc stipport to tir« notlon hj «Rjing of Biwsna, one of the fnBadi int 

|odc, Uiat " ifQuintasCBmlms Ba^ons, wliain ne read oTinCicero «ndot 

iiling pcTOin «niong the Pompeian psrtj, Lnd n Bon. he wonld be jnit n 

vsnt " to fili tliat part. It ia generally iwlicvMl, liowcvGr, tlut tha | 

la tlie principal «abjcet of tliii ndc Imd iatelj rctumed fram tlie •rmjr in Sj 

I AuguJjtus j.r.0. 730 "- ■ littlc wliile bcfore. 


I mtrificp to Ihp gUBTdinn gad» of SmDirU on lii» nafe retnrn froni Sp 
e to crahnns; his ilCHr frieiid*, bot nono more lieartilj thiin Liimia in m 
oeir enrly dajs. Uarli the fnir diij «■itb a wbite mark ; bring ont tUc 
■titit; ccHse not the dance; let Ijjieaus out-drlnk Diiniulis tbe drunk>.n 
. tlifl pnnlej, tbe lilj, fnr oar feast. Tliuugli uU ejea sliidl litnguLth fc 
n ill claive oidj U> Knraida. 

Et ture et fidilms juvat 

Placare et vituH sanguiDG dcbito 
Cufctodi?fi Niimidae deosj 

Qui nunc Ilenperia sospes ab u!tini:i 
Caris multa sodalibus, 5 

Nulli plura tameii dividit oscula 
Quam dulei Lomiae, memor 

Actae nou alio rege puertiae 
Aliitataeque simul t«^e. 

OARMINUM I. 86. 81 

Neu promptae modus amphorae^ 

Nea morem in Salium sit requies pedum^ 
Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threieia vincat amystide^ 
Neu desint epulis rosae^ 15 

Neu viyax apium^ neu breve lilium. 
Omnes in Damalin putres 

Deponent oeulos^ nec Damalis novo 
Divelletur adultero 

Lascivis hederis ambitiosior. 20 

(ii. 1 sqq.) writing to hb friend on his rightly interprets 'magnae pecuniAe' by 

birthday says : * pecaniosns/ It appears from inscrip- 

•* Hunc, Macrine, diem nnmera meliore ^ods that Damalis was a name common 

lapillo, among fireedwomen (£Istr^, p. 481). Aa to 

Qoi tibi labentes apponit candidns Bassns see Introduction. Martial mentions 

annoe ;" ^ Bassus, who according to his severe in- 

and Martial (xu. 84) writing to lus kina- ^.^^^ °^«^* ^^® ^^^^ ^^*°^ <^ 

man nays that of the thirty-four years of ?,Vt' . j i. x ^ -o 

their intercoune the greater number had ^°» "f>f, 1°«^ I~'** "'1°»'" *^,^»«^ 

been haDUV Catulle : 

. • * Miror quod Bassi filia potat aquam/' 

" Et 61 calculus omnis huc et lUuc ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ i^ ,01,^^1 fictitious ; but 

Diversus bicolorque digeratur, it may have been proverbial. That, how- 

Vmcet candida turba nignorem." ^^^^^ f^ ^^^ ^^^^ y^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

And CatuUua exclaims in joy at Lesbia^s Horace. there can be little doubt, how- 

retum to him : "OLucem candidiore nota!" ever, that Bassus was a real person and a 

(cvii. ad Lesbiam). Horace only uses friend of the soldier whose retum was to be 

• Cressa' (the adjective of * creta,' chalk, so celebrated. Damalis may be any body— a 

caUed as coming from Cimolus, a smaU woman like Lyde (C. ii. 11. 22), brought 

island near Crete), where CatnUus and the into the ode to make up a scene. 
others nse the equivalent • candida.' Grae- 14. Threicia vincat amyHide'^ * Amystis' 

vius adopted the notion of Harduin (on the was a deep draught taken without drawing 

above pascage of Pliny), who takes * Cressa breath or closing the lips (i, iiitiv), Aris- 

nota ' to mean the same as • nota Falemi ' tophanes uses the word (Acham. 1229) :— 

{C. ii. 3. a 8. L 10. 24), ' CreteJi wine.' ^^ ^^, y ^j^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^|f'A«4a, 

Bentlev was not aware that his friend had ,1, . ., ,^ / .,T v 

patronized this interpretation, which he *°^ Eunpides (Cyclops, 416 sq.) :- 

satis&ctorily disposes of by showing that ^ ^ itcirK^MS &y rrjs iyatffx^mou fiopas 

Crekan wine was nothing more than * pas- i^^^ar* Htnraaty r* ifivarty iXjc6tras. 

som/ a sweet Uqueur made of raisins. For Thretcia see C. i. 27. 2. 

12. Ifem morem t» Salium] ' Salium ' 17. putres Deponent oculoi] * WiU fix 

28 an a^eetive Hke 'SaUaris' in the next their languishing eyes.' Persius (S. v. 58) 

ode. OreUi hesitating between adjective uses the word 'putres' in the same way: — 

and snbstantive contradicts himself in his " hunc alea decoquit : Ule 

notes in this place and C. iv. 1. 28, where In Venerem est putris," 

it occoTS again. ['SaUum' may be for or, as some MSS. read, 'putret.' Tbe 

*SaUonnn.'3 SchoUast Acron interprets it "niraio potu 

IS. mmlU Damalu meri] Sach is the marcentes et libidine resolutos." Theocri- 

ezpretooo ' Mnlti Lydia nominis' (C. iu. tus expresses the word by r^Kc<r0ai (i. 90): 

9. 8). Ovid (Met. xiv. 252) has nearly the koX ru 8' irtl k" iffopps riis -wupeiyot oia 

lame words : " Enrylochumque simul, mul- ytKS>yri Tc(«ceai 5^0a\/Ac6s. 
tiqne ESpoioira vini." And (Jicero (ad Fam. 20. ambitiosior'] This is the only pas- 

iz. 2S» sab fin.) : " non mnlti dbi hospitem sage in which the word occurs in this sense, 

aeapMs; nnilti joci." In Verr. Act. ii. 5. the nearest to 'ambire' in its primitivo 

e. 7: '*SaiiMBiidae, nobiUB hominis et meaning. [Ritter compares Jnvenal vu. 

pecuUM^'* where Mr. Long 50, ' ambi tiosi mali.'] 



A.o.c. 721. 

e ixraaioa tbat gave ri«c to thJB odc, and tbe time tborvfbre or ila c 
nfHcieatl; dear. iDtcltip^cnre of thc death» of M. Antoniat anil Cl<» 
;Ut lo RomB by M. TnlliuB CiMro (M. F.) in thp sutmnn of i.U.C. 73 
,rB to havo Btnrtod nith an Ddc of Alcaeua (SO Bergk) oii thc death uf J 
iad. It begun, 

tvy xph /itiiirBiit Haf Tifn wphs Blar 

•IjTjr /irnJJ) miiflm^i Mi/fJOiAoi. 
ualorical facts rcferred to io tbia odu maf be gatbered from nutarcb'! 
litoniuB, ind frgm Dion Cmdufl (50. c. 31 Ax., 51. c. 5—16). 


ne to drinli, ta amite tbe cartb, and Bct oat a feast for the gods, i 
Jiigbt nol brini; down thc Caccubnn while tbat mad qaocD with hc 
lwa> thrcatcniDg' Romc with dcstraction. Bat her hrj is hnmblEd, t 
Iflamca. her drunkcn heart Bbool: witb feur wben CoHBr huDtcd ber ftvm ] 
irBuea tbe dova or tbe hnnter tbe hare, to cbaia the accurBed JDOt 
ot tbe Bword nor flcd to «ecret hidiug-placo, but wa» bold to »ee 
, und to driuk in her vcini the poison of iu>[«. bcr couragc ktnd 
Ireftolvcd to dJc ratbcr tlmn )ie dmggcd in triampb bj the conijnecor. 

Ndnc est bibendum, nanc pede libero 



Contaminatx) cum grege turpium 
Morbo viroram, quidlibet impotens 
Sperare fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit furorem 
Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus^ 
Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 
Redegit in veros timores 
Caesar^ ab Italia volantem 
Bemis adurgens^ accipiter velut 
MoIIes columbas aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 
Haemoniae^ daret ut catenis 
Fatale monstrum : quae generosius 
Perire quaerens nec muliebriter 
Expavit ensem nec latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras. 




ander gjonnd, in which the ' dolia ' were 
kept. That in which the 'amphorao' were 
stored was called 'apotheca,' and was in 
the upper part of the house : hence the 
terms, • depromere/ * deripere/ * descen- 
dere/ * Capitolio ' i« equivalent to * urbi.' 
8ee C. iii. 3. 42 ; iu. 30. 8. 

7. Regina dementes ruituu'] A similar 
enallage ia in Aen. ii. 576 : *' Ulcisci pa- 
triam et sceleratas sumere poenajs," where 
' acelerataa ' expresses the gmlt of Helen. 

9. Contaminato cwm grege turpium Mor' 

bo virorum'] * With her filthy herd of men 

(forsooth) roul with disease.' The corrupt 

la8t« of tbat class of persons who were most 

about an Eastem queen are properly called 

a diae&se. 'Virorum/ to which Bentley 

objecta, is uaed ironically as it would seem. 

He proposes ' opprobriorum ' for 'morbo 

▼ironun,' to oorrespond to Homer^s Kdn* 

iktyx^a; but, as he objects to nothing but 

'YiianuDy' his alteration would not be 

winted even if it were better than it is. 

In Epod. ix. 11 Horace complains : — 

" Ronumos — ehen ! posteri negabitis — 
Emancipfttus feminae 
Fert Talliim et arma miles, et spodouibus 
Senrire mgosis potest." 

10. impotens Sperare'] This is a com- 
HMn coQstniction, noticed at C. i. 1. 18. 
'hnpotens' corren>onds to iuepar-fis, and 
>>gni6ef want of s^>control; 'wild enough 
to opect any thing.' See Forcell. 

12. Ebria] Demosthenes (Fhil. i. 54. 9, 
Kcttb)applietthesamemetaplior toPbilip: 
h^ f «bftM /Ur, il Mp§s *A0iiweuot, fii 


rohs Btohs iicuvow /itSi^tP r^ ti§y49§t rStv 

13. Vix una soepe» navie] CIeopatra'8 
fleet escaped firom the battle of Actium, but 
M. Antonius saved no more than his own 
ship in which he fled to Egypt. No allu- 
sion is made to M. Antonius, ibr the same 
reason that led Augustus to require the 
Senate to proclaim war only against C!leo- 
patra, though M. Antonius was the chief 
object of it. 

14. Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico"] 
' Lymphatus' is equivafent to wfi^6\Tiirros, 
'lympha' and 'nvmpha' being the same 
word (see Forcell^. Mareotic wine was 
from the shores or the Lake Mareotis in 
the neighbourhood of Alexandria. 'In 
veros timores' is opposed to what the 
Greeks called r^ K€vh rov voK^fiov. Cleo- 
patra'8 flect fled from Actium before a 
blow was struck, under the influenoe of a 
panic, but Horace chooees to say it was a 
'verus timor.' Though it is said that 
Cleopatra meditated a descent upon Italy, 
in the event of M. Antonius and herself 
proving successful at Actium, she fled from 
that place to Egypt and never went near 
Italy, whither Augustusretumed after the 
battle ; and it was not till the next year, 
A.u c. 724, that he went to Alexandria, 
and the deaths of M. Antonius and Cleo- 
patra occuned. 

[21. Fatalel That which is fixed by 
fate, whether for a good or a bad purpose. 
Comp. Epp. ii. 1. 11, 'Notaque fatali por- 
tenta labore subegit.'] 

24. reparavii] Literally, 'took Vn e&- 


Ausa et jacentem visere regiam 
Voltu sereno, fortis et aspenui 
Traetare Berpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet veaenuia, 
Deliberata morte ferocior, 
Saovis Libumis scilicct invidens 
Privata deduci superbo 

Non humilis mulier triumpho. 

ir. 1*. 36: "T«easin paUfk 
Booaoee Clcopntni's paUce wb» 
down, he tliiolu 'jooeutem' ina 
BDil QnbiatorimL On Cleopati 
Sx. «e Plut. Ant. c. 84 

[29. Delibtrata^ 'Ee»1ute,* 
'' ~ B Ihnt which i» well clei 

I chanf^ for her own kingdoni shores out of 

I the tight of nien.' Itia iMLiiltliat ClMpatra 

I oonteinplateilqmttingEgypttopsciipcfroni 

I AnguBtiu, aud that she tmniported vpBHeli 

I aci™» thf dewrt lo liie Red Sea ; but they 

I were destrojed by the Arnbs, aad ahe obini- 

I doned lier debicn. Plnt. Ant. c, 69. On tiie 

I wurd 'reparuvit' bcoC. i. 34. 12 □. Bentlej fVced f roin doabt aBdinipedim 

I prapous 'peuetravit,' buC withont Blterina libcrare ' ia ■ Btron^r fbrtn of ' 

" the meBDing of the paBBagc, whicb ia Baf- 30, LibuniWI The Scbohast I 
Gcientlj eipriBsed by ' reparaTit,' tbe read- rolnte» OD the aulhority of Livj 
ing ot all tbe MSS. with tbe excvption of patra huritig the pnMpvut of Ixi 
oiie, whivb has ' repetivit.' Bos proposes to Ronie used to cidaiui su 

I by the addition oT ouc letter to uiake it o-afiai. ['Saevii Libnmis' ia I 

I ' ire poravit ' (Animad. p. 36). Orelli giva d^nding on ' invidnu,' thongh ' 

I Tarioufl othcr ooajccturea, aa 'rcpednvit,' niuBt be Qnderatood with 'ded 
' ' refusing to be led a 

■■ [SccKellpr 




Mitte seciari rosa qao locormn 

Sera moretur. 
Simplici myrto nihil allabores 
Sedulus curo : neque te ministrum 
Dedecet mjrtus neque me sub arta 

Vite bibentem. 

2. piifyra] The linden-tree wu so 
called by the Greeks ; and ite thin inner 
bark was naed fbr a lining on which flowera 
were sown to form the richer kind of chap- 
letscaUed^sotilea.' Ov.FaBt.v.8358qq.: 

''Tempora sntifibaa cingontnr pota ooronis, 
£t latet injecta splendida mensa rosa. 
Ebrins ineinctis phuyra oonviYa capiUis 
Sahat et xmpmdens atitor arte meri. 


See also Fliny, N. H. xvi. 14. xxi. 8. 

5. allabofis'] This is a coined word, and 
signifies to labour for something more. It 
therefore corresponds to vpocirovup rather 
than to hrvrovtoff to which some traoe it. 
*E«-i«-oyffiir signifies to persevere, or Uboor 
hard in qnest of an object. For *caro' 
one MS. reads 'carae.^ Bentley reads 
*cara,' the imperative mood, in plaoe of 

"-JLM-J A/ <-^-^'^:^^'' 


Infiiofne maestis prfiesidium reia 
Et TODsiiIfnti, Pollio, curiae, 
Cui laurua aeternos honores 
DelmatiTO peperit triumpho. 
Jam nunc minaci murmure eomiiiim 
Peretringis :iures, jam litui strepunt, 
Jam fulgor armorum fufjacea 
Terret equos equitumque voltus : 
Audire magnos jam videor duces 
Non iniloeoi-o pulvere sordidos, 
£t cimeta terrarum subacta 

Praet^r utrocem animum Catonis. 
Juno et deorum quisquis amicior 
Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure victorum nepotes 
RettuJit infia^ias Jugurtliae. 
Quis nnn Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris irapia prwlia 
Testatur aiiditumque Media 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae? 


Qni gOTges aat quae flomina lugabris 
Ignara belli ? quod mare Dauniae 

Non decoloravere caedes ? 35 

Quae caret ora eruore nostro ? 
Sed ne relictis^ Musa procax^ jocis 
Ceae retractes munera neniae : 
Mecum Dionaeo sub antro 

Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 ^ 

offered np as an atonement (rettnlit) the Teutones whom Marins slanghtered at 

grandgons of those victora on the g^ve Aqnae Sextiae (Aiz), near Maneille. 
of Jngnrtha,' [who died of hnnger in a 34. Dauniaej C. iii. 80. 11 ; iy. 6. 27. 
BomRn prison]. Ten thouBand of the Pom- 35. ' Decoloravere ' doea not ngnify to 

peian army alone fell at the hattle of change the colonr, asAcron Bay8,bnt 'to 

Thapsns. dye deeply.' [Compare ' decertantem,' C. 

20. pinguiar] i. 3. 13, and ' deproeliantes,' i. 9. 11.] 

« Nec fhit indignnm snperis his sangnine ^f ' S?*""?5*!^i ^*^ ^ /f * 
nostro ^ '^ o connne this word to the nsnal sense of * a 

Emathiam et Utos Haemi pingnescere ^^g? ' («^ Index), bnt it snito the poetry 

campoe " (Virg. Q. i. 491): ^J Simonides, a native of Ceoj which was 

^ ^' ^ of a severe and melancholy cast. 

"How that red rain hath made the harvest retractea] See note on C. i. 31. 12. 

grow !" is Childe Harold'8 sarcastic excla- 39. Dionaeo—antro] A cave dedicated 

mation on the fteld of Waterloo. I*lntarch to Venus, the daughter of Dione, aocording 

(Marius, c. 21) speaks of the fertilizing to one legend. 
effect of the blood of the thousands of 


Horace^ meaning to write an ode on the moderate desire and nse of wealth, dedicated 
it to C. Sallnstins Crispns, grand-nephew of the historian and inheritor of his property. 
He had previonsly alludcd to him in no terms of praise in Sat. i. 2. 48; but that Satire 
m» written many years before this ode, and at this time Sallustius was in high favour 
irith Angiis^ns and possessed of great riches, of which Horace implies that he made a 
good me. From the reference to Phraates' retum to his throne (v. 17), which took 
pboe 1.11.0. 724 (see C. i. 26, Introduction), thc ode must have been written after that 
«veni. Proculeius mentioned in v. 5 was brother or consin (it is not certain which) to 
LieiDina Mnrena, who ▲.xr.o. 732 was detected in a conspiracy with one Fannius Caepio 
to take away the life of Angnstus (see C. ii. 10, Introduction). I cannot infer so posi- 
tivdy fts Franke and othen do that Horace would have abstained from mentioning the 
geDavMhy of Proculdus, if his relation's crime had becn couimitted when he wrote ; but 
tfaat chroDologist takes this allusion as an argument that the ode was written between 
AAJJO. 729 and 732, and firom the tone of the allusion to Phraates he snpposes his resto- 
ration to have been reoent, and assigus the ode to the year 730, in which Orelli and 
DQleahr. agree with him. 

SOver hath no beanty while hid in the earth, Sallustins, who despisest the ore till it is 
polisiied by moderate nse. Plrocnleins for his generosity to his brethren will live for 
«rer* and the man who mles the spirit of avarice is a greater king than if from Car- 
tiMige to Qadet were all his own. The dropsy grows and grows till its canse is ex- 
pdled. Fhfiatfls reatored to his throne is not happy ; he only is a king and oonqnerar 
«1m> koki on moiuj irith indiiEBrenoe. 




i.ii.c. 721—725. 

10 rctiri^ froin pablic nflnin. !□ whicti he bwl tnbcn tn Ktive p*rt 

alttr the trimaph hu obtBiiieJ Tor his TicUiry orer the Parthiui. an HlfT 

-. 716 (v. 16). nDil beUiok him^cirto 1it«niturr', but ronfineil himKlf tt I 

ic wrtting-. It Hppcara froin Sni^tonins (dd lUuBt. Gnm. o. 10)thBt 

lertake his liintor; till nfter the dmtb of Sulinit, A.1T.C. 720 (bm Clinta 

~ir iC maa aflor thut vvent tluit Iic becBme aeqniunted with tbe gi 

lio fnmiahefl him with rulei fiir comjMBition. And if tbe hitto 


Jjetkve tbe tnigic Mose for a little while, and thoa shalt retarn to her when thon hast 
finiBhed tbe historian'8 task, O Pollio ! advocate, senator, oonqueror ! Even now I 
seem to hear the tmmpet and the darion, the flashing of arms, and the yoices of ehiefs, 
and the whole world snbdned but the stnbbom heart of Cato. The gods of Africa have 
ofiered his victors* grandsons on the tomb of Jngortha. What Umd, what waters are 
not stained with oor blood ? Bat stay, my Mase, approach not sach high themes. 

MoTUU ex Metello eonsule eivicum 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos 
Ludumque Fortunae gravesque 
Principum amicitias et arma 
Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus^ 5 

Periculosae plenum opus aleae^ 
Tractas et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 
Pa^Ium severae Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatris : mox ubi publicas lo 

Bes ordinaris grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothumo, 

1. Motum ex Metello contuUf] The xvii. 31, we have 

foandation of the civil wars is here laid in .. /-. . ^. j i*v <. rr i 

the a»lition of Caesar. Pompey. and "Q^iantmn neqne atro dehbatus Hercules 

Cnssas, which took place in the consul- ^^ dtnore, 

ahip of Q. CaeciUns Metellas Celer and where the Scholiast says 'delibntas' is 

L. Afiranius, A.xr.0. 694, B.c. 60. But the equivalent to ' unctus.' ' Cruoribus ' sa- 

ciril war did not break out till A.U.O. 704, vours of the Greek. So Aesch. Supp. 262 : 

B.C. 50; wfaen Caesar and Pompey came to iraXamv alfidTw fAida-fiaffo^, 

their final rupture. Cmquius supposes 6. Periculoaaeplenum opus aleae"] Pollio 

Q. Caedlias Metellus Numidicns to be tbe had been faithfxd to C. Julius Caesar, but 

coDsoI referred to. His consulship was in after his death had sided rather with M. 

the yemr 646, B. c. 109, the third year of Antonius than Augustus ; and therefore, 

tbe Ja^rthine war, which as leading to when Augustus had put an end to his rival, 

the civil war of Marius and Sulla he and had the entire powcr in his own hands, 

eonsiders the foundation of the miscbiefs it was a bold and difficult task that Pdlio 

referred to by Pollio. But such was not had undertaken. It does not appear, how- 

the subject of bis history, which was con- ever, that he involved himself in any dif- 

fined to those civil commotions of wbich he ficultv with Augustus, for he died in his 

himself had been witness, as the Scholiast eightieth year at his villa at Tusculum, 

Pbrphyrion says, "Intranslatione bellorum ▲.u.o. 758, A.D. 4. Cremutius Cordus, the 

ciTilinm Pollio historiam belli civilis a con- historian who was capitally condemned 

•olatu Lentnli et Mamerti coepti altius underTiberiusforhavingcalledBrutusand 

repetit, i.e. a Metello Cclere et a L. Afranio Cassius the last of tbe Romans, appealed iu 

Cois." ('Mamerti' isamistakefor <Mar- bis defence to the impunity with wbich 

edlL' Leatulus and Marcellus were oon- PoUio had expressed his seutiments (Tac. 

■ols the year afler the breach between Ann. iv. 34). Pollio's history may have 

Cioarand Pompey, A.U.C. 705). [' Modos,' been written with impnrtiality, and Augus- 

t proaiic word, perhaps means ' events.' tus was not jealous and oould afford to be 

'LQdnmque Fortunae,' see C. iii. 29. 50.] otberwise. [Ritter says that these words 

4. Priudpum amicUias'] The alliance refer to the events containcd in PoUio's 

of Oiaar and Pompeius. bistory, and he appeals to Tacitus, Hist. i. 

(• Ifoudum expiaHs uneia cruonbut] 2 : ' (^us adgredior opimum casibus,' kc.] 

8« (3. L 2, Introdaction, and v. 31 n. 7. incedis per ignee] ' Thou art treading 

^wUej coDJectares 'tancta' for 'uncta,' on ashes that oover a smouldcring fire,\\ke 

"vdtt aignttiui»*' M Jani says. In £p. the ashes at the moath of a volcano, cooV 


Knd foutb prrmit, nnd lirc ia onr ova 
fich aaii □oble. or poor uad hmnble, « 

Sooa thon mtut give ap «11 ti 
aiTut ali oomo to onc pl4ce in th 

iEQUi-M memento robus in arduis 
SiTvarc mentom, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Laetitiftj moriture Delli, 
Seu muestus omni tempore vixeriB, 
Sen te in remoto gramine per diea 
Festos recHnatum bearis 
Int^riore nota Falemi, 
Quo piniis ingens albaque populuB 
Umbram liospitalem coneociare amant 
Kamis? Quid obliquo laborat 
Lympha fu^ax trepidare rivo ? 
Huc vina et unjruenta et nimium breves 
Flores amoenae ferre jube rosae, 
Dum res et aefas et eororum 
Fila trium patiuntur atra. 
Cedes coemptis saltibus et domo 
Villaque flavua quam TiberiB lavit, 


Divesne prisco Datus ab Inaeho 
Nil interest an pauper et infima 
De gente sub divo moreris, 
Vietima nil miserantis Orci. 
Omnes eodem cogimur^ omnium 25 

Versatur uma serius ocius 

Sors exitura et nos in aeternum 
Exilium impositura cumbae. 

*as white, and cHyupot, wluch wa» dark. 25. eogimur] * We are driven Hke 

Virgil calU the white •bicolor.* * Amant,' sheep/ "Tityre coge pecns" (Ec. iii. 20). 

as in C. iii. 16. 10, ia nsed like the Greek 26. Veraaiur uma] Cotnpare C. iii. 1. 

^iXovci 'are wont,' though some would 16: "Omne capax movet nma nomen." 

eive it a stronger meaning, i. e. twine thcir The notion ia that of Fate standing with 

bninehes lUce lovers, as * lascivao hedcrae.' an um, in which every man'8 lot is cast. 

fiow little that notion suits with the epithct She shakes it, and he whose lot comes ont 

'hospitalis' mnst be obvious to any onc. must die. Ovid haa imitated thb passage 

Virgil has a like expression (Georg. iv. 24), (Met. x. 82) : — 

Eood L 27 1 unam. 

18.' latiii See C. ui. 4. 61 n. Tendimus huc omnes." 

23. morerUr\ This reminds ns of Ciccro 28. Exilium] This is put for the place 

(de Scnect. 23) : " Commorandi natura de- of exile, as (Ov. Fast. vi. 660) : " ExUium 

versorium nobis, non habitandi dedit." quodam tempore Tibur erat." The word 

On which Sir Tbomas Browne has im- is only another form of ' exsidium,' from 

provcd, saying, " he looks upon the world ' ex-sedeo.' The usual form in inscriptions 

not as an inn, but as an hospital, a place is * cumbae,' not ' cymbae,' as applied to 

Bot to live but to die in." (Relig. Med. the boat of Charon. The Scholiasts use 

^nb fin.) * cymbae.' 


A.u.c. 729. 

This amnsing ode represents a gentleman in love with his female slave (ancilhi) ; a 
cirniiiistanoe of snfficiently oommon occurrence to warrant the supposttion that 
Horace may have had one of his fViends in view. The name Xanthias must be fic- 
titioiis, and Phocens indxcates that the pcrson was also supposed to be a Phocian. It 
is nsoal to tnpposethat "Xanthias Fhoccus" rcprescnts two names,and "ad Xanthiam 
' is the cnmmon inscription, as if Phocens were a Latin name, which the 
line proves it ts not. Why Horace, assuniing a Qreck name for his real or 
ivppoaed friend, shonld also make him a Phocian, who can prctend to tell ? ** Say it 
was lus hmnoor," or there may have been a significance in it which has passed away, 
or never existed, except for the person addressed and perhaps a few intimate friends. 
XaDthias was a name given to shives, as in the '* Frogs " of Aristophanes. 

Honoe was hom ▲.u.o. 689, and he wrote this ode when he was just finishing his 
«glith Imtat» which wonld be in December, ▲.xr.o. 729. 

Be Dot tslMimed, Xanthias; hcroes have loved their nuidfl before thec : \c\i\\\e&\i\& 


Ajm Lii TrrineMa, uid A^oicmnoii )iU CBsraiidra, whea Troj ' 
.he Greciui conqmjror. Ituubtl.'»» your riiylli» » of rojnl blcx 
and loviog nad unselfish i* no cominua mnidon. Nay, be oot jeal 
mj eighth lufttre ia bmtcaing to iu closc. 

Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Plioceu ! Priufl insolentem 
Serva Brisets niveo colore 

Movit Achillem ; 
Movit Ajacem Tekmone natum s 

1'orma cnptivae dominum Tecmessae ; 
Arsit Atrides medio in triumpho 

Virgrine rapta, 
Eavharae postqiiam cecidere turmae 
'fhesBalo victore et ademptus Hector 10 

Tradidit fesBis leviora tolli 

Pergama Graia. 
Nescias an t« gencmm beati 
Piiyliidia flavae deeorent parentes: 
Itegium certo genus et penates i& 

Maeret iniqiios. 



The Zurich MS. (of the tenth centary) has an uucription Ad Gabikittv; and Estr^ 
(p. 503) and Walckenaer (Hiatoire de U Vie et des Po^ies d'Horace) accept Gabinius 
as the person to whom thia ode is addressed. If such a peraon existed among Horace'8 
frienda, he maj have been, Orelli suggests, son or grandson of A. Qabinius, the factious 
contemporary of Cicero. The Scholiasts give us no hclp ; and the above inscription 
stauds alone. Acron had no knowledge of it, for he says, " Incertum est quem allo- 
quatur hac ode." There may be sometbing, however, in it ; but the discovery of the 
name, were we certain of it, wonld be of no value beyond leading to the inference that 
the ode had perhaps some foundation in fact. Of the names introducod between the 
fi fteenth and twentieth verses, Cruquius' Scholiast has justly observed, " haec nomina 
pro exempUs posuit." This remark is very sensible, and might have saved some scholars 
a great deal of trouble. Heyne, for instance, on Tibullus (i. 8 ; see C. i. 33. 7 n.), makes 
Fboloe and Chloris identical with the daughter and mother mentioned C. iii. 15. 7. 


Huit girl is too young for a yokefellow ; an unbroken heifer is she that cares only for 
the pasture, and her gambols, and the cool stream ; an unripe g^pe that autumn soon 
will ripen. She will soon come of her own accord when ttme shall have taken a few 
ycars from thy youth and added them to hers : then will she wax wanton and seek a 
mate, and thou wilt love her above coy Pholoe, or Chloris as fair as the moon, or Gyges» 
whom the cleverest guest at thy table could not distinguish from a girL 

NoNDUM subacta ferre jugum valet 
Cervice, nondum munia comparis 
Aequare nec tauri ruentis 
In venerem tolerare pondus. 
Circa virentes est animus tuae 6 

Campos juvencae, nunc fluviis gravem 
Solantis aestum^ nunc in udo 
Ludere cum vitulis salicto 
Praegestientis. Tolle cupidinem 
Immitis uvae : jam tibi lividos 10 

Distinguet Auctumnus racemos 
Purpureo varius colore. 

[2. eomparis] * Compar ' is one who is conjectures ' varios ' for ' varius,' quoting 

a matcfa for another, a companion, a hus- Ov. (Met. iii. 484) : 

band or a wifc : * she is not yet able to dis- „ * i * ^ • 

fAmrge (aaqnare) the office of a wife.'] — "* ^*"" ^^^* nva racemis 

^cSS} Thii is the Greek «pl,is in I>"eere,pmi»oremn nondum matura colo. 

Aristoph. Kinit. 87 : i8o6 y ixparotrirtpl ^™' 

v«T«v yavr itrri aot. But ' varius ' is poetical. Propertins has 

7. SoUmiis] This is the poetical word a similar verse (iv. 2. 18) : " Prima mihi 

for tatisfying bunger or thirst, as Virgil variat liventibus uva racomis." Horace's 

(Gcorg. L 159) : " Concnisaque fiunem in lines may be translated, ' £re long autumn 

■Itis idaben querco." with its varied huea wiU dye Uie green 

12. J\ irp m r 0O wmm» oolore] Bentley grape with porple.' 


Jam te sequetur : currit enim ferox 
Aetaa et illi quos fibi dempecrit 

Apponet annos; jam proterva 15 

Fronte petet Lalage maritum, 
Dileeta quantum non Pholoe fugas, 
Non Chloris albo eic humero aitens 
Ut pum nocturno renidet 

Luna mari, Cnidiusve Gyges, 20 

Queni si pueUanim insereres choro, 
Mire sagaces falleret hospites 
Discrlmen obscunim solutia 
CrinibuB ambiguoque vultu. 

U.ferox Aeta$'] Tliii(. i» comparod to tur" (Acron). The »ny of s 

'Id bone, u in Ovid (Fnet. \i. 764) : liks Uist nf Dvinuiru wli<.ii, eom 

, fiigiuut frBDO non riinonnte ilieB." own nge itnd attractioiia witb tb 

Q ' feroi netn» ' i» tbe wison of jonth. rival, nbe uys i— 
ip. CScero de Scn. c 10, 'ferodtu.'] 
igiiius would uioke 'ferox' snd 
■>\\ ' ibange placei. Bentlc; «injcc- 

- ' i|iiih1 tibi deuipBerit apponet Biinu*,' It is a.\>o eip)aini>d by tbosi 

II-.'. he nujB, the idea of tinie takiag Epistle to thc Pisoiies : - 

Multa fiTuiit aiini vouiei 

<.» fnr fiw 



The date of this ode hu been mnch discassed. Estre places it very soon after Horace'8 
first arrival at Rome, wben he was fresh from the fatigues of war, which the exprossion 
' Sit modnslasso maris et viaram Militiaeqoe' seems tofavoar. But a yoang man just 
Tetaming home to b^in life does not b^n by writing about a retrcat for his declining 
jean. There is a character about the ode which belongs to a later pcriod. Ho must 
htkve been familiar with Tibar and Tarentum and other localities which he alludes to. The 
■Uusion to the Cantabri in v. 2 is supposed by others to fix the date much latcr, namely, 
in ▲.u.o. 729, when Augustus was engaged in reducing a rebellion in Spain. At any time 
belbre A.r.c. 725, when the Cantabri were first reduced, t^ey could have been called by 
Horaoe ' indoctos jnga ferre nostra,' even though no attempt had been made to impose 
tluit yoke. In 725 they were reduced to subjection ; in 728 they broke out again, and in 
the foUowingyear they were finally subdued, though an unimportant disturbance had to 
be pat down by Agrippa some years afterwards (see C. iii. 8. 21 ; iv. 14. 41. £pp. i. 12. 
26). If therefbre the ode was written after 725, it must have been in the beginning of 
729 or thereabouts, and I am inclined to think that was the date, though I admit the 
difficalty of understanding why Horace should speak of himself even poctictilly as tired 
of Mrarfare and the sca, so many years after he had ceased to have any thing to do with 
ather. That he does not speak of his Sabine farm, but gives the preference to Tibur 
or Tarentnm, proves nothing. Long after he had poesession of his farm, he expressea 
his prcference for those places (Epp. i. 7. 44) : — 

** mihi jam non reg^ Roma, 

Scd vacuum Tibur placet aut imbelle Tarentum." 

(See ahio C. iii. 4. 21 sqq.) That he frequented Tibnr is well known. Some say he 
owned, some he rented, a small property there. It may, Iiowcver, bedoubted after all, 
perhape, whether Horace must be takcn as speuking strictly of himsclf. He may only 
mean, in effect, that the weary necd seek no happier restiug-placc thnn Tibur or Taren- 
tom, thoogh he puts the matter in the form of a wish for himself. It was probably on 
or afler a visit to Septimius that Horace composed the twenty-eightb ode of the first 
book ; and, probably \nth the attractions of Tarentum fresh in his mind, he wrote this 
ode. Bat be may have paid his friend many visits. 


Septimius, who art rcady to go with me to tho ends of the carth, I wonld that I might 
end my days at Tibur, or, if that be forbidden me, at Tarentum. Above all others I 
k>ve that fipot, with its honey, its olivcs, its long spring, and mild winter, and graj^es 
on Monnt Aulon. On that spot we ought to live togethcr ; and there thou shouldst 
kj my bonea and weep over them. 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoetum juga ferre nostra et 

1. SepHmi, Gadet aditure mecum] Ho- Propcrtius likewise has the samo idea in 
neehas apparently imitated CatuIIus in his his elegy to Tullus (i. 6. 1) : — 
ode to Fnrin» and AureUus :-- „ j^^n ^^ nunc Adriae vereor mare noscere 

-FarietAuTelicomitesCatulU m «*^"™' a ^ i i 

Sive in extremos penetrabit Indoe ^ Tulle, nttjue Aegaeo ducem vela salo. 

litoi ut longe re^ante Eoa . ^°™ quo Rhipaeos possmi conscendere 

Tanditur unda. , ™°?**^ , a i^ 

Sive in Hyrcanos Arabasque molles, Ultermsquc domos vadere Memno- 

Sen Saeas ■agitttferoeque Parthos, ^^' 

8iTe qoM, aeptemgeminus colorat With thcse examples before him it is sur- 

Aeqoora NUus," &c. prisiiig that Graevius should agree w\t\i 



Barbaras Syrt^s ubi Matira semper 

Aestuat unda, 
Tibur Argco poBitiim colono 
Sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
Sit motlus lasso marie et vianim 

Militiaoque ! 
Unde si Pareae prohibent iniqnae, 
Duk-e pcllitiB ovibus Galaesi 
Flumtin ct regn.ita petom Laconi 

Rum Phalautho. 
Ille tcrranim mihi praeter omneB 
Angulus ridet ubi non Hymetto 
Mulla clecedunt viridique certat 

Baea Venafro ; 
Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
Juppiter brumas, ot amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 

luvidet uvis. 
Hle te moeum locus et beatae 

CARMINUM 11. 7. 99 

Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amici. 

Anlon or other hilU near Tkrentum. ' Arx/ valley ; and, from the fad that it 'gave cx> 

wbicb is derived by Forcellini from &Kpos, cellent pasturage for sheep, we might infer 

u ntber akin to «pKos, and signifies prima- tbat it was not only a lull. See Martial 

rilya fortified place; and fortified places (xiii. 126): — 

Wng commonly on hcighU, • arx,' in « de- .. ^^^. ^ ^ ^ ,. ^y^^ ^^ 

n^ed leiwe, came to mean a hill generally. r^. ^♦•«^„ i.'v: -.«ii«— «:«« ^;i»: »» 

Vim) therefore. whom Forcellini correct.. ^* P™'"°«' **' '«"«^ '^ ""^'- 

» more near the truth in deriving the word Cramer (Italy, ii. 328) speaks of " the fer- 

'ab arcendo,' for tpK-os contains the root tile ridge and valley of Aulon," now Terra 

'uc'of 'arc-8,' and 'arc-eo.' The name di Melone, ason tbe Qalaesus. He refers 

Aokm woold lead ua to suppose it waa a to Bomanelli (}, 295). 


A.U.C. 724. 

"Ad Pompilium yamm scribit gaudena ob ejus in patriam reditum quem commilito- 

n^ in castris Bruti et Cassii fuisse commemorat ; et belli civilis evasisse pericula 

Angusto victore.*' Tbese are the words of Acron, and many of tbe MSS. bave * ad 

PoMPitirM * or ' PoMPEiUM Vaeum,' tbe latter being correct. But Sanadon, fol- 

'^ed by nearly all commentators till tbe last few years, bas confounded tbe person bero 

iddressed with Pompeius Grospbus (C. ii. 16), who is also mentioned in £pp. i. 12. 22. 

8ot the proscribed follower of Brutus cannot be identified with tbe wealtby Grosphus, 

M &tr^ has observed; and, as Vandcrburg bas remarked, tbe ncwly made citizcn would 

oot have bcen addressed in tbe language here used : " Quis te redonavit QuirUem Dis 

ptriis Italoque caelo." Masson (Vie d'Horace, p. 88 sq.) fixes the date in ▲.u.C. 716, 

u vhich year those of the republican party who bad followed Sextus Pompeius were 

illoired to rctum, peace being made bctween Sextns nnd the triumvirs, and an amnesty 

Keing granted to his followers. Kircbner (Q. H. p. 5) s^rongly supports this opinion. 

I^cier asks wby then Horace sbould bave used the words " Quis te redonavit,'' &c. P 

lod tboi^h the words must not be taken too literally as a question, and are more an 

opresuon of joyful surprise, yet there is sometbing in tbe rcmark ; and moreover it is 

pretty eertain that Horace when he wrote was in possession of bis country-bouse, and 

had been in it some time (w. 19, 20). But he did not get tbis bouse till after the first 

book of Satires was finished, that is not till ▲.u.c. 720, and it may bave been a year or 

tvo kter. Tfae long service of Pompeius (mentioned in v. 18) is inconsisteut witb tbe 

abore early date ; and something may be said in respect to tbe style of tbe odo, wbicb 

is one of Horace^s best. Also it is doubtful, as it appears to me, wbetber even in jest 

Horace wonld have alluded to Philippi in tbe way be bere does, if be were >vriting soon 

■fter that memorable disaster. On tbe wbole, it is most probuble tbat Pompeius did 

Dot retom to Rome, as Acron intimates, till aftcr tbe civil war was over, baving mcan- 

while fiollowed the fortunes first of bis namesake Sextus, and then of M. Antonius, and 

that the ode waa written a.u.0. 724^ or tbereabouts. 


O Pompeioa, my earHest friend and best, witb wbom I have served and indulged full 
many a day, wbo bath sent tbee back to us a true citizen of Rome ? We fougbt and 
fled together at Philippi;-but, while I was carried oft' by Mercury, tbc wave drew tbee 
back into the atormy ocean again. Come tben pay thy vowa unto Jove, and lay thy 

H 2 


eBrj- limbg nnder my laurpl. Brins wine iind ointment mH gBiliuidi 
iust«r of tha feut, for I will rcTd lilia aaj ThraciBH for joy that my 


9AEPE mecum tempuB in oltimum 
Deducte Bruto militiae duce, 
Quis te rtdonavit Quirit^m 
Dis patriis Italoque caelo, 
Pompei meorum prime sodalium, B 
Cum quo moraatem eoepe diem mero 
Fregi coronatue nitentes 
Malobathro Syrio capillos ? 
Tecum Philippos et celerem ftigjim 
Sensi rtilieta non bene parmula, lO 
Cum iracta virtus et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 
Sed me per hostes Mercurius ceter 

. iemput iniillimiim^i Diiring the two this Iw irn Iniluin pLmt, -S)- 
ra bttween hi» leavinp Koim.- and the nscd in tho «ame eiltodcd ap 
Lle of Philippi, Uriitnit wcat throueh which Orid iisei 'Areyrium' ( 
ij bnrd-foajrht b»ttlc8 «ith the native *0) ! "Maeonis Aajrium foe 
ea in MBcedoniii and in AEiH Minor, ES ebur." SmC. ii. 11. 16. [Plin 

CARMINUM 11. 8. 101 

Denso paventem sastolit aere ; 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 15 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 
Ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea nec 

Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciboria exple ; funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 

Deproperare apio coronas * 

Cujatve myrto ? quem Venus arbitrum 25 

Dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 

dirKUy to tlie Mases in C. iii. 4. 26. He < ne ' are added to a word otber than that 

W in mind no doabt Paris^s rescne by which is to be conpled witb the precedinff 

yenu(n.iu.881),andAenea8'8byPhoeba8 word. There are two examplea in C. u. 

ioatfaick doad (II. y. 344; Aen. x. 81). 19. 28. 32. Dtllenbr. says thia conBtmc- 

15. retorbens Unda] Like the wave, tton is adopted advisedly to give force to 

tlttt» jnst as the shipwrecked man is strag- tbe particalar word to which the enclitic 

gling^ to shore, lifU him off bis feet and in added, and to strengthen the connexion. 

tfarowB him back again. Catallas, writing The trath of this is more apparent in some 

to Manlius, has a l^e expression : other cases tban in this ; bat it is trne and 

■ — -Untoteabsorbcnsvorticeamoris worth observing. .- v.^ ^^ 

Ae«tns in abmptum detulerat bara- ,.^T^^ T^» 7"f ^V^^^^,**15 

thrum." * ^ canis was the lowest. Pro- 

pertins mentions both (iv. 8. 45) : — 

l%.lAmga^mmia^ If the assumed „ ^^ ^l^ Venerem quaerente 

dite be nght, Pompeios had no rest for secnndos 

more than thirteen years, Winning mth g^„ ^^„„^1 Bubrilnere canes." 

thr wars of Brutna, A.xr.c. 710, and endmg '^ 

with the battle of Actiam. See Tacit. Ann. xiii. 15. Also above C. L 4. 

22. Ciboria] A drinking-cnp, like the 18, and SmitVs Dict. Ant. v. Talus. 

pod of an £gyptianbean,of which this was *I>icet' is used in tbe same sense as by 

tbe name. For <exple' some MSS. have Virgil (Oeorg. iii. 125) : "Qnem legere da- 

yoor head.' 'Udo' is perhaps like the 28. yWr«r«] 

Greek ^yp^, 'supple.' Theocritas (vii. 68) juvat;" botb being imitated from Pbeudo- 

caUs it w\{rf9afi*ro9 viKiwov, Anacreon (31 Bergk), 0(A.« BiKu iiavnvau 

25. Curatve myrto] Dillenbr. has given The Edoni were Thradans (C. i. 27. 2). 
iostanees in which the enditics 'que,' 've,' 


Hie MSS. vary in the name of the woman addressed in this ode. The best give her 
the naine of Jnlia with Barine or Varine. Bentley objectB to Barine as neither Qreek 
Dor Latin, bfot has no other name to suggest. It did not occur to him that it might 
be bttriMrka. Peerlkamp wonld substitute Barsine, wbich bappens to be the name of 
cne of AU>«iA> the Oreaf a wives. The matter is of no great importanoe. The ode 
ki pvobaUty a ina» imitAtaoiii of the Greek or a fancy of the poefs. 



10. \{ I «mld •ef fbeo pnnUhed for thi fklw TO<r>. I niiKht beUere i 
t the moment iiffcr thoQ hMt fcir.WDra thjwlf tliou «rt Inwlipr mid i 
inover. PcTJur)- tl.en i» profitablc, Venui and hw tfMi. laughnt it. i 

™-.mamL-d brid«i firo Bfraid of theB. 

Ui.LA 51 juris tilji pejerati 
Poena, Barine, nocuisset unquam, 
Dente si nigro fieres ve! uno 
^ Turpior ungiii, 

Crederem. Scd tn Bimul ohligaEti S 
Perfidum votis eaput enittfscis * 
Pulchrior multd, juvenumque^prqdja 

Publiea cura. 
Expedit matris cinerea opertos 
Fallere et toto taciturna noctiB 10 
Signa eum caelo g^lidaque divoB 

Mofte carentes. 
Ridct hoc iuquam Vcuus ipsa, ridcnt 
Simpliees Nymphae, CeruB et Cu]>ido 

CARMINUM n. 9. 103 

Impiac tectnm dominae Felinquunt 

Saepe minati. 20 

Te suis matres metuunt juvencis^ 

Te senes parci miseraeque nuper 

Virgines nuptae, tua ne retardet 
Aura maritos. 

23. rtr^jietl Liko 'pueUae' (C. iil. 14. wbich Servias comperes this of Horaee. 

10) this word does not belong ezcliuiTely Forccll. says, " interdam anra significat 

to maids. tenue quiddam et variam ex acre et lamine 

Bcntloj thinks Horace probably wrote ant colore lesaltans.'' Acron says^ " amra, 

'cnra' not 'aura' in the last linc; but aut facilitas qua in amorem trahuntur, 

bc \» alive to the objection to the repeti- ant unguentorum odor;" and Porphyrion, 

tion of thc same word from v. 8. Orelli « amoris aura quae ad te eos fert." The 

gives all the interpretations that have been Scholiasts were as little prcpared with an 

propoAcd fbr ' aura,' and quotes, as illus- ezpLuiation as modem cntics. The inter- 

Irating his own opinion, Virgil — pretation of Manoellinus is, " amra, id est 

"Xoane vida ut tota tremor pertentet fP|*°^'"; «* "'*?'•" '^«'^P". ^^^T^ 
eaaamin mterpretation of Fbrphynon is best, * tua 

n ^ • 1. j. A. j i.i. 1'j. aura,' *the breeze that sets them towards 

Corpora si tantum notas odor attuht 7u # ,t> i . rVri ••• o o/vT • 

auras?" (Geonr iii 250^ tbee.' *Populans aura' (C. m. 2.20) is 

\ ^' ' r the shifting breeze of popular opinioa or 

Forcellini quotes Aen. (vi. 204), ** Discolor fitvour. 
nnde auri per ramos aura refulsit," with 


A.u.c. 729 (?). 

C. Talgius Rufiis was a poct of much merit, and appears to have been sad fbr the 
lofli of a young slave (not his son, as Sanaaon and Dacicr suppose, arguing fVom the 
examples brought forword in mitigation of Valgius' gricf). At a time of public re- 
jmcing (probably at the closing of the temple of Junus, A.n.o. 729, after the Cantabri 
had been put down by Augustus, C. ii. 6. Introduction) Valgius is called upon (as 
Tibullus was in C. i. 33) to cease from writing mournful verses on his losa, and to tum 
tbonghts to thc praises of Augustus. 


Tbe nun does not always fall, nor the storms roge, nor tho frost continue for ever, 
Talgius. But thou moumest for Mystes fh)m moming till night. Nestor ^d not 
always weep for Antilochus, nor his parents and sisters for Troilus. Cease thy wail- 
ingBy and let us sing of the triumphs of Augustus. 

NoN semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros aut mare Caspium 
Vexant inaequales procellae 
Usque, nec Armeniis in oris, 

3. inaeqmdleM] This epithet is equivalent Pcrpetuos, sic tu— " 

to • informes' (C. IL 10. 15). See C. L 7. xhe table-lands of Arm^nia are intensely 

15: — cold in winter, and covered with inow. 

** Albm nt obscoro deterget nubihi caelo The sauuDers are hot and dry. 
8ttqie Holiis neqoe piurtarit imbres 


Amioe Valgi, stat glnoiea ineTS 
MenseB per omneB aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant 
Et foliis viduantur orni ; 
Tu semper iirges fiebiUbus modis 
Mysten aJemptura, nec tibi Vespero 
Surgvnte decedunt amorea 
Nec rapidum fugiente Solcm. 
At noii ter aevo fuuctus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 
Annos, nec impubem parentes 
Tniilon aut Phrygiae sorores 
Flovere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandcm qucrelarum, et potius nora 
CantemuB Augusti tropaea 
Caesaris et rigidum Niphaten, 

7. Qnereela} Tho oldert MSS. hnye 

imiTquttii.' Tbf Apulinn rango Oargnnin 

Montn Gargano) teminatcd in the bold 

I piJtory of the aauiB name, now cnlled 

u di Vierti. [The ■ Oni^nnm neniui' 

Di^ntioned nguin Kpp. ii. 1. S02. The 


liOTnop, 't«mpnB deaistcre piigni 
nstus laboria' (C. U. 14. 19); 
TnWum' (C. ii. 13. 88); 'dcet 
(S. ii. 6. &i), are other eoiutnK 
tbc gcnitivc harrDWcd from the 

CARMINUM II. 10. 105 

Medumquc flumen gentibus additum 
Victis minores volvere vertices, 
Intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 

he did not know or care whether it was a last note. There waa a river Medns which 

OMnntain or a river. However this may he, flowed into ihe Araxes, near Pereepolis, but 

therecanbenodonbtNiphateewasamonn- it was a small stream, and probably un- 

tain-range sonth of the range named Abus, known to Horace. He cannot allnde to 

in which the Euphrates and the Araxes rise this, aa some suppoee. ' Mednm flumen ' 

(Strabo, p. 527). In another passage (p. b like ' Metaumm flumen ' (C. iv. 4. 38), 

529) Strabo iajs that the TignB rises in and < flumen Rhenum ' (A. P. 18). 
the range of Niphatee. This iact may 22. vertices] Heinsius, on Aen. i. 117, 

aocount for the confusion between moun- states that the Medicean MS. always has 

tain and river. The victories of Augustus the reading 'vertex,' not 'vortez.' The 

in Armcnia were in A.u.0. 734, and the MSS. and^itions varyinthi8pas8age,and 

geographical qnestion therefore is chiefly Forcellini says that ' vertez ' and < vortez ' 

of interMt here in a chronological point of are written indiscriminately in the MSS. of 

riew; but even that interest vanishes, if alltheLatinauthors. Feaadopts 'vertices,' 

we suppose Horace to be speaking of con- but with it Charisius' absnrd etymology, 

qoests to come, as he does in C. i. 12. 53 ** vertez a vertendo dicitur : vortez a vo- 

iqq. We may then admit that Horace rando." The passage from Quintilian, 

wrote of the conqneste of Armenia even quoted by ForcelL, shows how 'vertez' 

five years before any sucoeBs was gained passed into its derived meanings. 
there. 23. Oelono»] This was one of the tribes 

21. Medumquejlumen] The Enphrates, on the north bank of the Danube. See note 

u Virg^ (Aen. viii. 726) — C. i. 19. 10. About the same time, it 

"Hic Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque " supposed, with Augustus^s exredition 

Gelonoa ^ -o -» against the Cantabn, Lentulus drove the 

Rnxerat. Euphrates ibat jam molUor Transdanubian tribes across the river (C. 

fmA\u •" *"• °* Introduction). But whether this is 

' alluded to here must be matter of doubt. 
oritmaybe Horace meant the Tigris. See 


lidnina Murena, or A. Terentius Yarro Murena, as he was called after his adoption 
bj A. Terentina Tarro, was apparenUy a man of restless and ambitious character, and 
as we hav« seeo, paid the penalty of his rashness with his life (C. ii. 2, Introdnction). It ia 
voy prdbaUe that Hofaoe wrote this ode to his fnend to wam him of the tendcncies of 
Usdisporitioii. All ehe that we leam from Horace's poems respecting Murena is that he 
was of the coUege of angnrs (C. iii. 19), and that he had a honse at Formiae, where he 
nceiTed Maeoenas and his party on their way to Bmndusium (S. i. 5. 37 sq.). As 
Vorena waa pnt to death 732 or 731, this odc must havo been written before 

AHhoQgh it may be inferred trom the tone of this ode that Murena was not incapable 
of the oonduct imputed to him and on the charge of which hc died, his gfuilt does not 
tppear to have been proved. Dion (54. 1. 3) says that " in the year when M. Marcellns 
tnd L. Armntins were consnls, Fannius Caepio hcaded a conspiracy, which was joined by 
othm; and Mnrena was said to have entered into it with them, either truly or slan' 
ierwuUf. The conspirators did not appear to take their trial, and were condemned in 
tbeir abtence» hat were taken and put to dcath shortly afterwards. Proculeius, his 
Vrother, and Maeoenas, who had married his sister, were unable to obtain Mnrena'8 
psrdoo.*' Tbe same historian charges him with ungovernable and indiscriminate rashnes» 
of i p e ech : imfJfr^ ueik Ktertucopei vap^ii<rl^ irphs vdmas dfiolws ixp^^^ (^ ^)« [C^on^p* 
yMm, iL 91; SaetoD. Tib. c. 8.] 




Tlie wny to live, Irtcinlini, ii neithor nuhlj to tempt nor cownrdly to fea 
The guldtiu mctui securea a miiu at uum from tho pincliiiig of poverty i 
□r irealth. The lofl.iest objfcte fiill MMDCiit nud moet heaiilj. la aive 
apcritv thG wih mnn luokji fi>r chntige. Stormi come and go. Udd ti 
alwajB he hmi. Apollo liandlt* the lyre a» well a» the Ixjw. lu odvtrsitj 
Ijrarc, in proijieritj tolie in soiL 

Recthjs vives, Lioini, neque altum 
Seni]>er urgendo neque, dum iirooellas 
Cautus horrescis, aimium premcndo 

Litus iniquum. 
Auream quisquis mediocritatem 5 

Dilifjit tutus caret obeoleti 
Sordilius tecti, caret invidcnda 

So])rius aula. 
Siiepiiis ventis agitatur ingena 
Pinus et celsae graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres feriuntque Bummos 

Fulgura montcs. 

iotliBt thcticjJ prindplcs far enougli 



Sperat infestis^ metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
Pectus. Informes hiemes reducit 

Juppiter, idem 
Summovet. Non si male nunc et olim 
Sic erit : quog^m cithara tacentem 
Suscitat musam, neque semper arcum 

Tendit ApoUo. 
Bebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare ; sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 

Turgida vela. 



And JnYenal (S. z. 105), 


nnmeroea parabat 

Excelsae tnrris tabulata nnde altior esset 
Ctsus et impabuie praeceps immane 

Id the passages above qnoted ' fnlmina ' is 
Qsed. Bat bere, tbougb ' fnlgnra ' is pro- 
perly only a flasb of ligbtning, tbe bcst 
MSS. are" in favour of * fulgara/ and tbe 
word is nsed in tbe sense of * fulmina,' as 
by Virgil (Georg. i. 488)» "Non alias caelo 
oecidemnt pinra sereno Fulgura." Lambi- 
niu and Torrentins have ' flolmina,' tbough 
tbe former prefers 'falgura.' Landiuus 
(1483), Ascensins (1513), Craqnius, bave 
'ftilgnra/ and so most modem editions 
(ezoept Fea^s) since Bentley, wbo success- 
fhlly defended tbe common rcading. [Rit- 
ter and Keller have * fulgura.*] Vcry fcw 
MSS. have 'inlmina.' Steptiens reads 
'fofanina,' and qnotes the proverb " procul 
a Jove procnl a fulmine." 

[11. gummM montM^ Tbe tops of tbe 
moontains. ' Snmmas Alpes,' Caesar B. G. 

15. Informet k\emef\ Tbis epitbet is 
Eke ' inaeqnales ' in the last ode. Com- 
pare C.iiL 29. 43 :~ 


cras vel atra 

Kobe polnm Pater occupato 
Td aole pnro.' 


Ih boUi cases Horace perhaps remembered 
Theocritns' lines (iv. 41), Bapiriiv xp^» ^'^« 
Bdrrf rdx* aXipiov f«r<rcT* tiiLuvov. — Xcl> 
Zc^f CAAojca ft^r itiXti aXSptos, iWoKa 8' 

ffei. [' Snmmovet :' aee C. ii. 16. 10.] 

17. 9lim Sie erit: quondam eUhara] 
' Olim ' being derived from the demonstra- 
tive pronoun 'illo/ of wbich tbe older 
form is *olo ' (Key'8 Latin G. 298). wbich 
only indicates tbe rcmoter object, signifies 
some tirae more or less distant, eitber in 
tbe past or future. ' Quondam,' wbicb ia 
akin to ' qunm,' an adverb relating to all 
parts of time, signifies also any time not 
present. * One of tbose days ' is an ex- 
pression our Irish neigbbours use for some 
future day. The reading * citbarae,' which 
Bentley adopts on tbe autbority of some 
MSS., but agninst tbe best, appears to me 
weak. 'Musam citharae* for 'citbara* 
is not uscd, and tbe nearcst ezpression to 
it tbat Bentley can produce is * Musa Tra- 
goediae' (C. ii. 1. 9), wbicb is not analo- 
gous. 'Musam' is equivalent to 'mele' 
in Lucret. (ii. 412) : 

"Ac Musaea mele per cbordas organici 
Mobilibus digitis expergefacta fignrant," 

where * expergefacta ' corresponds to 'sus- 
citat' in the text. ['Si male:* 'tibi' is 
understood. 'If it sball go bard with 
you now, it will not be so always.' Comp. 
S. i. 2. 37, ' proccdere recte Qui moecbis 
non vultis.' Comp. C. iii. 16. 42.] 

Respecting Apollo as tbe destroyer of 
men and tbe god of music, see Homer, II. 
i., and comp. C. S. 33, ' condito mitis placi- 
dusque telo.' 

22. appare'] Tbis word has particular 
forcc (see Argnment). 



le itte of tbit ode hiia been mucli diaciuwd. If taxj u^mcnt conld 

n thc flrHt liar, it wuulil iiiktunUly be iur«iTed tbat tlie Cantibn imd V. 

('a viTO \a RraiB nt thc time it woa written [and tbo dato uiight be Itil 

■]. Lctitulua' i>i|)i'ditioa Bgninit the tribo of tho Daunbe, wha hud 

ivinecs, is euppospd, nii I havo eiud befom (C. 9. 23 □.), to havo 

aslas wna iu Spain. Supposin;; tliia to be alluded to, the datt 

initlLTed acttled within > yenr, that ia. it moat h«T8 been writt«i i 

i nnd Horaco apeak» of hia grej hoir» (v. 15), which i» coniistent «iti 

la thcn forty. But the dote of the eipei^tiaa of Leutulns ia nnce 

rr antborit; on thc itubjcct ia FloriK (if. 12), who doea boc mentlon tbe i 

' ic to it {>co C. iii. 8, Introd.)- Bnt kfler lUl it ii not nn-Mmy to t 

• mennt nny tbing vorj- duGnito by tltna coupling two diitaat uid 1 

« tcigothcr. The niiuio Scjtliiun wns applied lo miiny peoplcs, som 

mitiiiuuUy giving trouble to the Romnna; and aa Estti snja (p. 11 4) 

" Qoid bellicoaui PuihuB ot Aethiopa." 

"Qiiid bLllicoana Mcdua et Allobrox 
Hirplnc Quinti co^Iet Alpibua 

CARMINUM 11. 11. 109 

QuiD bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes^ 
Hirpine Quinti^ cogitet Hadria 
DivisTis objecto remittas 

Quaerere^ nec trepides in usum 
Poscentis aevi pauca. Fugit retro 5 

Levis juventas et decor, arida 
Pellente lascivos amores 

Canitie facilemque somnum. 
Non semper idem floribus est honor 
Vemis neque uno Luna rubens nitet 10 

Voltu : quid aetemis minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas ? 
Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
Pinu jacentes sic temere et rosa 
Canos odorati capiUos^ 16 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 

2. Sirpine QuinW] The names are in- (xx. 7) : " Mihi rubens nriRta sole fervido ;" 

▼erted, ag in C. ii. 2. 3, " Cri«pe Sallusti." and Claudian (in Uufin. i. 102) for the 

8- remittas'} For examples of *remitto/ golden waters of Pactolus : "stagna ruben- 

w the teme of deferring (as C. iv. 4. 21, tis Aurea Paetoli." Aulus Gellius has a 

*<Jo«flTredi«tuli') or altogether omitting, chapter on colours (Noct. Att. ii. 26), in 

^ Forcell. [* Remittas' means ' cease/ as which Favorinus the Sophist discusses the 

«itter correctly says.] subject with the orator Fronto, and attri- 

4. trepidesl Thia word, the root or stem butes to the poverty of the Latin Innguage, 

<^ which is * trep* {Tphrai), signifies to hurry as compared with the Greek, i ts description 

hither and thither. So " pars castra hoe- of various bright colours by one word, 

tJQin, pars terga trepidantiura invaderet " * nibor :* " qunm aliter rubeat ignis, aliter 

(LiTy, xxvii. 1) ; that is, while they were sanguis, aliter ostrum, aliter crocum, has 

harrjing about in confasion. Hence to be singulas rufi variet«tcs Latina oratio — sig- 

ttger or anxious, aa here. Some commen- nificat una fuboris appellatione.'' Virgil 

teton interpret the words thus : " ne tre- even applies it to the fields in spriug 

pidei aevi (cansa sc.) panca poscentis in (Georg. iv. 306) : " Ante novis rubeant 

oram,'' thinking that ' trepidare in usum quani prata coloribus." 

wri' ifiiot translatable. But 'trepidare 11. minorem^ This, like ^<r(r«i', sig^ifies 

•eri' ig not Latin, nor a Graecism that Hhe victim of ' or 'a slave to,' as we 

Honee woold adopt. 'Inusum' Graevius should say. [The meaning is probably: 

ciplaiof ' in siimptam vitae^' qnoting Cic. ' VVhy do you weary your mind too weak 

td Att. (xi. 11) : *' Id quoqne velim cnm iUa for etemal counsels or designs,' that is, for 

vidctsat8itqmutamnr,"i.e. "nndesump- desigus which extend far into the fotnre. 

hn fostineamas :" and St. Paul to the Compure C. i. 4. 5, ' spem inchoare longam,' 

PbiBppians, iv. 16 : icol &ira^ «cal 9Is cit and C. i. 11. 7.] 

iV xp*^^ /*•* MfAr^art, which the Vul- 14. sic temere'] *Sic' has a force of its 

gtte tranalates " semel et bis in usum mihi own, signifyiug 'carelessly,' 'as it may be,' 

minstit." as, among othcr places, Terence, Phorm. 

9. ioaorl The MSS. vary between (i. 2. 94) : '* Quid paedagogus ille ? quid 
'hoDos' and 'honor.' The latter is pre- reigerit? Gb. Sic tennitor." olfrws has 
fenble for eophony, and Bentley says he the same force. St. John describes our 
vho ftnt cfaanged it to ' honoa ' had no ears. Lord sitting at Jacob's well in these words : 

10. rnbene} So Propertins (t 10. 8) : b olv *lii<rovs KtKowioKits iK rrjs Sioiiropitu 
"Et mediis caek> Lnna mbent eqois." iKa94(tro o8r»s M r-^ irnyp (iy» G), 

TUt «ord is nonrhere ehe nied to express 16. Assi/rittque nardo] It was not only 
the brilliancy of tbe moon. Catnllus uses the poets that confounded Syria and Assy- 
it fbr the nnglit ydk>w of the ripe com ria. Cicero (in Yerr. iL 3. 38) speaks of 


Potainiis uncti ? Dissipat Enins 
Curas edatee. Quis puer ocius 
Restiiignet ardentxB Falerai 
Pf>cula iimctereante lympha? 
Quis devium ^<^>rtuiii elieiet domo 
Lj-ilen ? Eburna dic age cum \yn 
Maturet in comptum Lacaenae 
More comas religata,nodum. 

PKrsamin ac Svrf.roin," fiir ihe 

■r RT»iB BndAwTTi». Seeal<o Pliny 

V. 12). HarBWuH» 'Sjrio' for xa 

c>Tnlni.i!itj (aboi e, C. 7. 8), " Ms- 

m Syrioi" ind 'Awjrrii' for tlie 

. of Syris (C. iii. 4. 33), Bnd ' Abbv- 

br imy KnMtfTu pnoD (A. R 118). 

LimDAMyriui." [ACTonrFBil»'A«j- 

' liut Uie old R<:mi; US. hsi 'Aibj- 

'uliich Rittcr Jvllowi; and herEfers 

lliny. H. N. lii. 26 (12). »bo dewrib» 


■S. QuU puer] '-Wlut in ipso jam 

IviviovoluitviiUri" (Acronl. 

dei^ium] Oof 

» (Ov. Hctij- ■ 

tbe becomei ' d^tioni ' bKatu 
tam OQt of thc waj to go thcn 
> Bifiied hiterpretation.] 

23. <*•> eomftitm} ThU u tlx 
the beiit MSS., fbr tboK vhich 
«HDptam ' u ooe word inast i 
fmm ui oT«night oftlie traoK 
MS. ■{ipesni to has-e ' in compt 
lirDtley idopt» ■. 


^t^ 'c 


i. 118) " 

MSS. Hi> mUo 

Jo ■ for ' nodam.' to corren 

1*. 22: "MuiTbemn not 

£m." ' Id comptnm nodun 

if the into ■ plain koot wiibout ornan 

ecinit pnu;]»ulio appo«it» cst non i 

■ '■" turct,' ' 

CARMINUM II. 12. 111 

tbat hebad not then receiyed his new name; bnt that is no argnment, for he is so 

called in kter odca (iii. 14. 3 ; iv. 2. 48). The brother (by adoption) of Torentia was 

(C. ii. 10) Licinins Mnrena. The Scholiast», as mentioncd above, call Licy mnia ' Licinia.' 

Whether we may infer ftom Murcna'8 name that Tercntia was also called Licinia, as 

Dftcier ms, is doubtful, and yet it corresponds bo nearly to the name Horace has chosen 

tbat it s€cm8 vcry likely she was. The hmguagc may appcar to modcm taste rather too 

fcmiliar in speaking of his patron and his patron*8 wife. On the orthography of Licyra- 

lUA) see Wagncr on Yirg. Aen. ix. &46 : " Maeonio regi quem serva Licymuia furtim." 


Do Dot ask me with my soft lyre to sing of bloody wars, of centanrs, and of giants : as 
for tbe triQniphs of Cae!»r, Maecenas» thou couldst tell them better in prose than I 
in rerse. My task is to sing of the beauty and faithfulncss of Licymnia, who graccs 
the dancc and sports with the damsels on Diana*s holiday. Wouldst thou for all the 
wealth of Pcrsia, Phryg^a, and Arabia give a lock of Licymnia's hair or the kiss she 
rcfiues bat loves thee to snatch, and will sometimes snatch before thee ? 

NoLis longa ferae bella Numantiae 

Nee dirum Hannibalem nee Siculum mare 

Poeno purpureum sanguine moUibus 

Aptari eitharae modis ; 
Nec saevos Lapithas et nimium mero 5 

Hylaeum domitosque Hereulea manu 
Telluris juvenes, unde perioulum 

Fulgens contremuit domus 
Satumi veteris; tuque pedestribus 

[1. KMmaniia] This Spanish town was negativc sentcnces, has a qnalified adversa- 
taken b.c. 133 by Scipio Africanus Minor tive sense, as in C. ii. 20. 3 : — 
«ftff • long siege and a desperate resist- „ ^^^^^ i^ tcrris morabor 

2.*i.w-. 7r...;%^7^i n„;«f;i;o« /^-5; Longius, invidiaque major 

2. Ars» Hannihalem:] Quintilian (vin. ^rbes relinquam." 

z. 9.) oommends, among other mstances of ' 

P*tiiiiety in language, Horace*s epithcts, So re often follows o(;rf , the fact being that 

*«»Hn* fbr *tibiam,' and *dirum' for cveryncgntive proixwition may be resolved 

'HanQibalem;* and as the same epithet into an Hihrmativo with a negation. Here 

^^fem twice agun in the same connezion the conuexion is betwct^u ' nolis * and * di- 

(C. ilL 6. 86 ; ir. 4. 42), I prefer it to ces.* Orelli nrgues strougly that * tu ' is 

'doniiD/ Bentley supports *durum' as to be tukon gcncrally for any body, not as 

oppoied to < moUibus.' But such antitheses referring to Maeccnns or nny intcntion of 

w mt in Horace*8 style. [Keller and his to write an nccouut of Augustus* wnrs, 

Bitterhave 'dumm.'] which it is gcncrally assumed he eithcr 

Sieutmm mare] He alludes to the naval exccuted or coutcuiplated. But thure is 

JKtorie» of Duihns and Lntatius Catulus uo more nccc8sity for that assumption than 

B the first Panic ^tLV (C. iii. 6. 34). to snpposc that Vnrius wrotc nn epic (m 

S. •iwumm mero] This use of *nimium' Agrippn, Horace snys (C. i. 6. 1) 

■ eomnoninTacitas, whoalsouses it with **Scrihcri8 Vnrio fortis," &c. Mncccnns 

igenitiTe, as (Hist. iii. 76): *<nimins ser- wns nn nuthor, though probnbly an indif- 

■woit eriL" [' Unde :' comp. C. i. 12. 17.] fercnt one ; and Horace may hnve put oflf 

9. (m^ p^iegirUms] The conjunction his request that he should write a poetical 

cionilet thta p§rt ot the ode with the pre- account of Augustus' achievements by sug- 

tn^ not with wbat foUawt. ' Qoe»' after gesting that he should writc one in prot^e. 


Dices historiis proclia Caesaris, U 

Ma«;iinas, melius duttaque per vias 

Rogum colla minaeium. 
Mo (liilceB dciminae Muea Licymniac 
Cantufi, me voluit dicere lucidum ■■•'-■•~f 

Fiilfircntes ochIob et bene mutuie 15 

Fidum pectus amoribus; 
Quam nee ferre jiedem dedecuit chorie, 
Ncc ecrtare joco nec dare brachia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibua biumo 

Dianae celebris die. sc 

it rollowthatMacccnaseverwrote " Nec doiniaae lacriiDi» in ii 

lorace cvcr icrioufilj inWnded to tibns ora 

ia HTitin^. ' IWMtiibn" ' ia nn Accedent nniniHa teiiipom p 
iD of the Greeli i-ffli Aryoi for 

. or 'aoluU onitio,' «■liipli lntlM' So 'lunsni;* "vnna «pe In«! 

« tlie nsa&l exprcssiDn for prHe in (Aen. i. 352). Uintle; ei 

'e timc. Mv uscs the «ord ' poilcs- liut ([uotes the line with 'di 

' uguin twice to eipress a plain stylo of he preferred thereFore ii pla. 

ct'h, hut not for prone aa opposcd to Uki'lj that ths Innicriben 

-j (S. ii. 6. 17) i "4viid priui illustrera 'dulds' mennt it fbr 'dulwi 

is mnHique pcdestri ■'" and (A. P. 95) sntive cue. ' Cantn)' «auti 

■ ■ ■ ■ 11. UcidMt» FalgtiUe»] V, 
adjcttive a nwd a 

CARMINUM II. 13. 113 

Num tu quae tenuit dives Aehaemencs, 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes 
Permutare velis crine Licymniae, 

Plenas aut Arabum domos, 
Dum flagrantia detorquet ad oscula 25 

Cervicem aut facili saevitia negat 
Quae poscente magis gaudeat eripi, 

Interdum rapere occupet? 

dances. Dancing was not unusual in private had been poisoned with Maecenas* garlic. 

aociety at this time eren among ladies. [Keller and Ritter have <cum flagrantia.' 

Therefore it was not degroding even to Hitter follows Porphyrion in supposing that 

Terentia. Other words used with *brachia' she *turns away her neck to avoid the 

toexpreasdancingare 'jactare/ 'deducere/ kisses.' She turns her neck to meet the 

•ducere,' 'mittere,* *movere.* The grace- kias, as *aut' shpwg.] 

fdl motion of the arms seems to have been 27.] ' poscente ' gpoes with ' magis,' not 

one of the chief attractions in dancing, aa with ' eripi,' as some suppose. ' More than 

it is gtill wherever it is practiaed aa an art. you who ask,' not as Rutgersius says, 'morc 

«Si vox eat, canU : si moUia brachia, salta." ^if^a^^ ^^® woman who asks,' The Scholiast 
„„ , . ,^ .. . ^. „ Acron read 'occupat m v. 28, which 

«BrachuisalUnti»,vocemmirarecanentis," ^^^^ ^j^g ^^^ t^^k to 'dum' (v. 25). 

lays Ovid (A. A. i. 595 ; ii. 305). instead of connectiug it with ' gaudeat.' 

TTie expression * ferre pedem' h» used by Bentley reads * occupat ;' all the editions 

Virgil (Georg. i. 11) : " Ferte simul Fau- before him that 1 have seen have 'occupet,' 

niqTie pedem Dryadesque puellae;" and andtheolderMSS. 'Occupare' hastheforce 

'Ittdere* likewise (Ec. vi. 27) : " Tura vero of ^Bivuv, [* Quae . . . gaudeat ' means 

in numerum Faunosque ferasque vidercs ' though she would be more pleased than 

Uidere." * D^anae celebris die' is the day her husband if the kiss were snatchcd.' 

QD which Diana was worshipped, the people If we read 'occupat,' as Ritter does, a fact 

flocking to her temple for that purpose. On is affirmed : ' sometimes she snatches a 

tlutsense of ' celebris,' see Mr. Long'8 note kiss herself ;' and some persons may prcfer 

oi Cic in Terr. Act. ii. 2. c. 66, and the this meaning. But when Ritter argucs 

coonexion of ' celebris ' and ' creber.' thus against 'occupet :' "oscula quaemulicr 

25. Dumflafframtia] LambinuBhas'^- saevitia quamvis fkcili negat, eadem rap- 

gnmUa,' tlie author of which reading must tim et sponte auferre nequit," he saya 

IttTe bad in mind Horace'8 amusing denun- nothing.] 

oitioii in Epod. iiL Itf aqq. after he himaelf 


A.TJ.C. 728 (?). 

Tbe dite of this ode is Axed with some conMence by Franke A.T7.0. 723, by Dillenbr. 
^i becante it was written the year before C. iii. 8. (See introduction to that ode, and 
^ 39.) The invitation to Maecenas was writtcn evidently for the first annivcrsary of 
tbeaoddent referred to in this ode. Lachmann (Ep. to Franke, p. 240) considers it to 
b* ooe of Horaoe'! earlieat, in consequence of the metre of v. 27, ** Alcaee, plectro 
^onnavif ;" and for similar reasons he puts C. iii. 8 at an carly date. But such con« 
dnaoDs have been already notioed. There is nothing in them, as I believe, whatever. 
Ae htter part of the ode is a remarkable instance of Horace* s way of digressing into 
Kmotely comiected with his principal theme. 



joever plaat«d tbae. tbon tre«, did «o on m evil day; uid witb impiODshu 
,hM to tbo dMtnietion of lii> cbildren «nd the diigrace of tbe vilkge. 
^iHt-oiur^er,— tbvro is no crime he wonld not cominit. No one is i 

;liL- Partbian ; tbe Parthiiin nothine bnt tbe might of Romo ; but deotb 
lunly on r11. Huw neorl; wiu I wnt to tbe rogion« belon', «bere all 
Tondcr, Cerlionis listons, the i"uricB are chiinned, and tbe dumned m 
abou». wliUo Soppbo compbiins of hcr fnithloM countryo-omen. Utd A 
if Ibe dangPTs of tbe deep ard of tb« bBttle-Eeld. 

Ille et Dffasto te pOBnit die, 
Quicunijue [irinium, et sacrilega manu 

Produxit, arboB, in nepotum 

Peraieiem opprobriumque pagi ; 
Illum ct parentis crediderim sui S 
Pregisse eervicem et penetralia 

Sparsisse nocturno cruore 

HospitiB ; ille venena Colchica 
Et quidquid usqiiam concipitur nefaa 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Tc, tviste lignum, fe caducum 

CARMINUM II. 13. 115 

Chiid quisque vitet nunquam homini satis 
Cautum est in horas : navita Bosporum 

Poenus perhorrescit neque ultra 15 

Caeca timet aliunde fata ; 
Miles sagittas et eelerem fugam 
Parthi^ catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur ; sed improvisa leti 
Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 20 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae 
£t judieantem vidimus Aeaeum 
Sedesque discretas piorum et 
Aeoliis fidibus querentem 

li Batpamm'] Tbe form of the Qreek to secnre any priiioner he might take. To 

Bth ripos reqnires that tbe name should this Horace probably rcfera in ' catenas,' 

^ vritten thus, and not Bosphomm, as it and below in C. iii. 8. 22. 

^ i* even in tbe be»t MSS. ['in horas,' 21. furvae regna Proserpinae] ' Fnr- 

•from honr to bour.' Comp. C. i. 32. 2.] vns' is an old word signifying *dark,* and 

17. eelerem fugam'] C. i. 19. 11 n. is not diflTerent from * fulvus/ except in 

Bentley is angry with the old MSS. for usage. It is much used in connexion with 

"•"Dg, without exception, the word * ccle- the infernal deitics and their rites. The 

'*ni,' and thinks Horace certainly wa» not first syllable in Proserpina is long in other 

winking what he was abont if he wrote it. writers, exccpt in one passage of Scneca 

He thinkg * reducem ' is a much better (Her. Fur. 551) : " Vidisti Siculae regna 

jord. In a long note fiill of quotations, Proserpinae." 

I^tley does not notice Ovid (A. A. iii. 23. Sedesque dUcretas piorum'] Elysium 

^) : " Ut celer aversis utere Parthus was scparate firom Tartams, and tbese were 

•IQU-" If Horace stumblcd, therefore, he the two divisions of Orcus according to the 

'«•notwithout a partner in his fall. *Re- latcr notions. In the Homeric times Ely- 

^Qtto' is very clumsy and without niean- sinm was upon earth in the iiaxipav v^o-oi. 

^* Plntarch (Crassns, c. 24), dcscribing (Odyss. iv. 563, and the Schol. thercon.) 

^ attacks of tbe mounted Parthian For 'discretas,' Lambinns and Ouquius 

^t^m on tbe army of M. Crassus on the read * descriptas.' The oldest Beme MS. 

P^ofMe8opotamia,8ay8 ^ir^^cvvoi^^dp has *discriptas,' which b the right form 

kn fHkkomts oi ndptfoi, Kol towto «cp^- here, if any compound of 'scribo' b so. 

▼wta voioStf-i lurk Sic^ai. Seven of Lambinus' and two of Cmquius' 

18. lialum ro^iir] Interpretera differ MSS. had 'discriptas;' and Lambinus savs 

** to the meaning of this word ' robur.' that many have it in Lucret. (v. 1441) : 

Sooe, among whom is Dillenbnrger, take " Et divisa colebatur discriptaque teUns," 

it ia itt phun meaning — the power of Italy. where the common reading is 'discreta,' as 

^^^m, and Orelli among ttiem, intcrpret here. ' Discriptas,' as Lambinus says, is 

i^tbe prisons of Italy, 'robur' being the equivalent to SiaTcray/icVaf, a force which 

**ne given to the inner oeil or cells where ' descriptas' nevcr could have. In many 

^ «ont nmlelacton were kept. [Orelli places where that meaning, or some mean- 

«■ptres Livy 38, c. 59, 'ut in carcere ingofthat sort, isevidently wanted,editore 

• • . et in robore et tenebris expiret.'] Ac- pcrsist in putting * describo' for * discribo,* 

«wJing to Festus, " Uobur in carccre (A. P. 86 n.). In weighing the MS. autho- 

didtQr is locus quo praecipitatur mnle- rity for 'discriptas' with that for 'discre- 

^corDm genns ; quod ante arcis robustcis tas,' we must put those codiccs which have 

indodriiatur." The Scholiasts take no 'dcscriptas' in the scale with 'discriptas,' 

■otieB of the word. They probably thcre- and then the balance is abont even. AII 

^look themeaningthe other way. Lip- the Scholiasts had 'discretas' and most 

■V ijDotei a pMsnge from Josephus, from modera editions have that reading, wbich 

*kidi it npem that among other thing^ I have adopted, without feeling certain 

vJHeh the Bobmui loldier carried to battle that ' discriptas' may not be right. ^Kel- 

«iUihiiD (aa aie, a mw, &c) was a chain ler haa < discriptas.' J In Epod. (zvi. 6S) 

I 2 

CARMINUM II. 14. 117 

Qain ct Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborum decipitur sono ; 
Nec curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 

[37. Quiu ef\ 'Quin et' mav be trans- [and Eeller] prefer the accusative, which 

lated * nay more»' * moreover/ * ftirther/ would be equivalent to vSifoy KXeirrtrcu, 

a meaning which may be derived from the which might stand; but theusual construc* 

original eense of * why not ?' See iii. 11. tion would be vSvwy iiri\ii0t<r0ai ; and as 

21 n.j * oblivisci,' to which * decipi * is equivalent, 

38. lahorum decipitur\ See ii. 9. 17 n. govems the genitive case, I thinik Horace 

The MSS. are divided between ' biborem ' wrote ' laborum.' 

and * laborum.' But, aocording to Jani'8 40. lyncai] Elsewhere this word is only 

oollection of various readings, the majority, used in the feminine gender. The heroes 

«nd some of the best ^aU tne Blandinian), are represented as foUowing their old pur- 

have the genitive ; and this was the read* suits in Elysium by Homer (Odyss. xi. 571 

ing of the Scholiasts. Lambinus, Graevius, sqq.) and Virgil (Aen. vL 661 sqq.). 
Heinsias, Beniley« Sanadon, Cunningham 


If Pottamns be in this instance a real name, Horace's friend may have been the per- 

«on to whom Propertius wrote a beautiful elegy (iii. 12) on the occasion of his going, as 

Kninoel supposes, with the unfortunate expedition of Aelius Gallus against the Arabians, 

though there is no resembUmce betwecn the odo and the elegy, unless it may be traced 

in Horace's * pkcens uzor ' (v. 21). Propertius roproaches Postumus for leaving his 

affectionate wife Galla, whose fldelity he compares with that of Penelope. Estr^ sup* 

poaes it likely that this Postumus is he who a.d. 6 was consul suffectus, and a.d. 10 

iferinmphed for his victories over the Dahnatians. This was Postumus Vibius. But it is 

aU very nnoertain. The ode is clearly onc of those to which any other name might have 

been prefized, since it only deals with Horaoe's ordinary commonplace, the certainty of 

death for aU men. The tone is rather more melancholy than usual. Jani chooses to 

sapposp that Postumus was rich, but covetous and self-indulgent, afraid of death, and 

too carefnl of his health. Dacier supposes Postumus to be no other than Julius Florus, 

to whom the tlurd epistle of the first book and second of the second book are ad- 

drened. The Julian famUy, he says, frequently bore this surname, and the qualities 

whidi Horace aasigns to the one he assigns also to the other, those qualitics being am- 

bitioo« fear (^death, and a host of others. (See Epp. i. 8. 25, and ii. 2. 205 sqq.) But 

a Horaoe does not in reality charge these vices upon either of his friends, as will be 

reidily aeen by aa attentive readcr, they cannot be identified by this comparison. The 

date of this ode is as nncertain as the person, though Jani, from its sombre tone, sup* 

ymk it mnst bave been written late. 

Time 11 iUpping away, Postumus, and piety will not retard the approach of age or 
dcath. No sacrifices will propitiate Pluto, who keeps even the giants Geryon and 
Tityoa beyond that stream which all must cross, even though we expose not ourselves 
to tbe dangen of war, the sea, and climate. Thou must leave home, wife, and all 
Uioa bast behind, and thine heir will squander what thou hast hoarded. 

Eheu fugaces,. Postume, Postume, 
Labontur aimi^ nec pietas moram 
Bugis et instanti senectae 
Afferet indomitaeque morti^ 

CARMINUM II. 16. 119 

Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
Uxor^ neque barum quas colis arborum 
Te praeter invisas cupressos 

UUa brevem dominum sequetur. 
Absumet beres Caecuba dignior 25 

Servata centum clavibus, et mero 
Tinget pavimentum superbo 
Pontificum potiore coenis. 

vov, as obaeired C. ii. 9. 17 n. Dillenbr. comp. Epod. v. 18J 

«ays tbe genitive is admissible becaasc 24. brevein] * Brevis ' is nowbere else 

' damnare baud procnl abest ab aesti- nsed in tbis scnse. It corresponds to 6\i' 

mando,' and tbat tbe genitive expresses tbe yoxp6yios and fiiyvvOddios, Compare C. ii. 

price. That migbt be tnie of Qreck 3. 17 sqq. 

osage, but tbe Latins expressed tbe price, 25. dignior] Tbis is ironical : tbe bcir 

eiccpt in tbe case of certain words, by tbe at least would know tbat wealtb was made 

tbUtive. to spend, and so would be a wortbier pos* 

21. et plaeent vxor] Tbis may be imi- sessor tban tbe man wbo had boarded it. 

ttted from Lucretius (iii. 907) : — 27. superbo'] Tbis reading is supported 

«Nam jam non domus accipiet te by better MSS tban 'superbum/ '-bus/ 

laeta, neque uxor ""*'• *"® P""® °* ^"® ^*'" "* tra^isferred 

Optuma." ^ ^^® wine. Cicero (Pbil. ii. 41) sjiys, 

'* natabant pavimeuta vino, madebant pa- 

['Tellos ' is perbape * tbe eartb,' not tbe rietes." On tbe pontifical feastingd sce C. 

num'i «estate/ or 'land.' 'Cupressos:' i. 37. 2 n. 


About A.u.c. 726. 

Wben Angnstas bad broogbt tbe civil wars to an end, a.u.o. 725, be applied bimself 
(o the refonnation of manners, and Horace probably wrote tbis and otber odes (ii. 18. 
^ 1--6) to promote tbe reforms of Augustus ; perbaps by bis desire or tbat of Maece- 
Bu» They were all jirobably written between ▲.u.c. 725 and 728, and tbey sbould be 
^ togetber, and witb C. i. 2. From tbe reference to tbe temples in tbe last stanza, 
ikonybe assamed perbapa tbat tbis ode and iii. 6 were written about tbe same time, 
te ii in 726, wben AngustuB set bimself particularly to restore tbe public buildings. 
^ aathoritiea on tbe subject are Suetonius (Octav. 80), Dion (53. 1, 2), and Velleias 
(2. 89), and the Monomentum Ancyranum. 

Aagagtos pMsed several sumptuary laws to keep down tbe expensive babits of tbe 
rieb dtixens, and to r^gubite tbe cost of festivals and banquets. But tbey soon fell 
iato disose and contempt, as Hberius, writing to tbe senate fifty years afterwards, 
dsdsred : " Tot a migoribas repertae leges, tot quas divus Augustus tulit, iUae oblivione, 
W, qood flagitioslas est, contemptu abolitae securiorem luxum fecere " (Tac Ann. iii. 
M). For an accoont of the ' Sumptuariae leges ' see Aul. QelL iL 24. 


Tbs ridi sam^B pdaces and flower-gardens and ponds are occapying all our once fertile 
kikL Thia was not tbe way of our ancestors, wbo bad bnt little, wbile tbe state was 
lidi; who dwcAt in no spacioas boases; wbom tbe law bade content tbemselves witb 
ft tpsf-foofrd oottagc^ and beautify the towns and temples with marble. 


Jam panca aratm jngora regiae 

Extenta vistntur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu, platanusqiie caelebs 
Evincet ulmos; tum violaria et 5 
MyrtuB et omnis copia narium 
Spargent olivetia odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori, 
Tum spissa ramis laurea ftrvidos 
Exdudet ictus. Nou ita RomuU 10 
Pracscriptima et intonBi Catonis 
Auspiciis veterumque norma. 

Tam pauca ara/ro'] Tibcrina com- ant gnves tracta viUs erunt ? 
■d to llie Benal« tliot Rome was do- plttauiim ton»a«juc mjTto* qua 
nt OQ tlie pnJvinceBtbr her coni, and ulmam Bt uberB» oluis pnieu 
l tliB mtrty of Ihe wiod» and waveB, Haliiaiut illa diritc» licnt j cioii 
might Bt au^VtimccutoirtheBuppljr iiiliil aliud habereQt ?" (luft. 
tdufo tho cftiicui to livo ou Ihelr iu Hhieb ■myrtu»' «-ears of 
luutal woods sud coautry houtes. declcusioD, *ud 'niaritani ulinui 
[>. SiiU. Cnt. 13.) 'phitaQUB eaeleba.' [TLe plu< 

ia.^r!.l.«>i!tbpsi.>vorii».jiiiiiiiig'lBtius' vine. SeeEpp. i. 7. 81. and 16. 

CARMINUM 11. 16. 121 

Privatos illis census erat brevis^ 
Cominune magnum : nuUa decempcdis 

Metata privatis opacam 15 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton, 
Nec fortuitum spernere caespitem 
Leges sinebant^ oppida publico 
Sumptu jubentes et deorum 
Templa novo decorare saxo. 20 

Cato, ig « antiqni/ as may be seen by com- sayB, quoting TibulloB (ii. 5. 99). 

Jt.T"" l^u"^ 'Privatis' agrees Caespltibu» mensaa caespitibu^uc to- 

witii * aecempedis. Horace complains that ^ »* r -^ 

the private houses of his day had verandahs 

80 Urge as to be measured by a ten-foot Here the whole passage has reference to 

nile. Here they dined in the hot weather, buildings. * Fortuitum ' is equivalent to 

•nd caoght the oool breezes of the north. rhy tvx^yra. It is sometimes uscd as a 

Tlui practice was called * caenatio ad Bo- trisyllable. Cicero, in his defcnce of L. 

RtiD.' «Opacam excipiebat Arcton' is FUccus (c. 12), has a passage very like 

Hke Viigirg « Frigus captabis opacum ' this, " Haec enira ratio ac mngruitudo aui- 

^Eci.53),where'theshadycoolnes8' means morum in majoribus nostris fuit ut cum iu 

'Um coolness causcd by the shade :' and privatis rebus suisque sumptibus minimo 

'(^Mcam Arcton ' combines the notious of contenti tenuissimo cultu viverent, in im- 

uM Dorth wind and the coohiess of the perio atque in publica dignitate omnia ad 

f^yornorth sideof thehouse. *Metata' gloriam splendoremque revocarent. Quae- 

^ *gun Tued passively in S. ii. 2. 114. ritur enim iu re domestica continentiae 

n./orfvtV«fn] 'Fortuitum — caespiteni' laus; in publica dignitatis." Horace al- 

^*^^ oottages roofed with turf, as Virgil ludes to the ruined state of the temples iu 

«y» (Ec L 69), "tuguri congestum cul- Sat. ii. 2. 104. 

^ cieBpes," not • couches,' as Dillenbr. 


After A.U.C. 720. 

^^ aie no means of fixing the date of this ode. It was written, however, after 

Honee had oome into poesession of his farm, to which he refers (v. 37). The person 

'^"BBpeiQs Grosphas, to whom the ode is addressed, was, according to Porphyrion, of the 

*9°cstrian order. He poesesfled large property in Sicily, of which island he was pro- 

^J t natiTe. On his retnm Horace gave Um a letter of introduction to his friend 

^ns (Epp. L 12), in which he speaks highly of his worth. Cicero mentions a Sicilian 

Babolidas, who bore the sumame of Qrosphus, a man of high character and birth, and 

gmt wealth (in Verr. ii. 3. 23). Estr^ supposes (p. 473) that this Qrosphus was made 

s Bomin dtizen by Cn. Pompeius, and took his name, which descended to Horace'8 

^Jeod, his son or grandaon. He is not to be confounded (as Jani and others confound 

luBi) with tbe Pompeias of C. ii. 7 (Introduction). He appears, from the latter part of 

the ode^ to have been in Sicily when it was written. Perhaps he had written Horace a 

letter which caHed op the particular train of thought that runs through the ode, or had 

qualitiai wluch made it applicable to him. 

The iailor ind the MYage warrior aliko pray for rest, but wealth cannot buy it. Biches 


iDd panrer camiot remove cnro frani tlie ilwolling. The humlile Btanc ar 
lo ive aira al sd muoli hiip[.incM in this short life, and ruQ «wny &om 
^imaot 63 froui ourwlvce nnd eare. We >liaiitd be chGerfuI for the prcf 

.pportunitie» of happincs* which sre denied to thee ; «nd jct thon hist 1 
.iom.aud I but a bumble farm,abrestli of tht Qreciaii iDaM>«td» oW 

!U\gaT. ^ 

Otiiim divos rof^at in pafonte 
Prfnsus Acgaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit lunam neque certa fulgent 

Sider:i naiitis ; 
Otium ballo furiosa Tlirace, 5 
Otium Mcdi pliaretra decori, 
Grospho, non geramis neqoe purpura ve- 

n.k neque .uro. 
Non enim gazae nt'que oonsularis 
Summovet lietor miseroa tumultus 10 
Mcntis et ciiras laqueata circum 

Tecta volantes. 
Vivitur parvo bene cui paternum 
Splendet in niensa tenui salinum. 



Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cara nec turmas equitum relinquit, 
Ocior cervis et agente nimbos 

Ocior Euro. 
Laetus in praesens animus quod ultra est 
Oderit curare et amara lento 
Temperet risu ; nihi] est ab omni 

Parte beatum. 
Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem^ 
Longa Titbonum minuit senectus^ 
Et mihi forsan tibi quod negarit 

Porriget hora. 
Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccae, tibi toUit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa^ te bis Afro 

Murice tinctae 
Vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 




s ^vyds, Ovid uses the same con- 
•tniction (Met. ix. 409) : « Exsul mentis- 
?oe domoaqae." A passage in Lucretios 
fjS. 1057 sqq.) may be compared with 

" plcmmqae videmus 
w Bbi qoiaqae Yelit nescire et quaerere 

GoDUDatare locom, quasi onoa deponere 

TiUoia' may, aa Orelli says, be rendered 

'oiorbid,' ariaing from a diseased state of 

B>ind. With * tarmas equitum ' is usoally 

^pired ' port eqaitem sedet atra cura ' 

(C-iii. 1. 40); but the sense there is a little 

^ufoent. nere he speaks of care following 

aiDaa to the field of battle; there he refcrs 

to Uie rich man ambling on his horse. The 

aotioii b not Horace's, I think. The idea 

Iniiomething of a proverbial aspect. Like 

mtiiiienta are foand in S. iL 7. 111—115. 

%ip. L 11. 25 iqq. 14. 12 sq. 

26. Oderif\ This is a strong way of ex- 
imBog 'nout,' ^refnse.' [*Lento risu/ 
'a tnnqail, qoiet smile.'] 

27. mkU eH db omn%\ This looks like 
aii imhation of Eoripides : 

(Alesander» Fr. 8. Dind.) : 

or of Baocbyfidea (1 Bergk) :— 
bifiaos, frun Mt luSpdif rc koXwv 

(riy r* iiri(d\tp r^X^ iupvtihy fiiorhv 

oit ydp rts iirtx^oylup irdyra y* thJiaipMv 

35. equa} Virg. Georg. i. 59: "Eliadum 
palmas Epiros equarum." 

— bis Afro Murice tinctae'] These gar- 
ments were called Bifia^a ; compare Epod. 
xii. 21 : " Muricibus Tyriis iteratae vellera 
lanae." The purplc dyes most prized were 
the Tyrian, the Sidonian (Epp. i. 10. 26^, 
the lAconian, and African (Epp. ii. 2. 181). 
The garment dyed with this colour was 
the lacema, an outer cloak worn over the 
toga, of which Martial mentions that they 
were sometimes sold as high as 10,000 

" Emit lacemas miUibas deoem Bassas 
l^rias ooloris optimi. Lucrifecit. 
Adeo bene emit ? inqois. Immo non 

What these garments gained in appearance 
by their dye they lost in savour; for Mar- 
tial reckons among the worst smelling ob> 
jects "bis murice vellus inquinatum.'* 
"Olidaeque vestes mnrice," he speaks of 
elsewhere (i. 50. 82). And again :— - 

« 'Hnctis murice vestibasqaod omni 
£t nocte utitur et die Phiiaenis, 
Non est ambidosa nec superba ; 
Delectatnr odore non oolore" (iz. 68). 
88. Spiriiwm Graiae tenuem Camemae'] 

Porphyrion explaina <tenaem' by '0ab- 


Parea non mendax dedit et malig^um 

Spernere volgTis. iO 

1.' FrnnkomnkMit«)iiionjmtm»with mnaae.' (Com. Cniq.) 
lle«'(C.ii.l2.3). L;raeTius,"in.bBll™, 39. Porca IH» ■Kmdo*] El 
iijjtnm bpnium factia el rebu» gestis addreisds the PBrcao «s ' ^enee 
in.lin." I do not tUinli bo mean» to que »erac«B reciniBie Pmciie" 
ribt tlie KeDius of Ihe Orwk miue, but und Pursius (v. 18) apcjiks o( " 1 
]e«t1}')tLennjuuutuf iuhpimtion Rivcn vcri." It mny themfare be tak< 
liiinwlf. 'Honiilo ingeuium OrBiaa Tentio.mi epithot. 


A.u.c. 728 (?). 
hc two Isirt. lines of this ode, ghowing th»t Horace hid not jet pa!d the 
vowod to Fnuiim for lii» pro»crvBtion froin death, make it moat proVji 

1 somo hesitalion lo J.c.c. 72S. In the atiDie veur Maecenaa appean to 
c] from B bad attuck of fcvor to which he wai liablc. aml waa i«ccivc<l wi 
1« thoatre on hia first appeBrance after hi. iUno» (C. i. 20. 3). Bot h 
\9 to Imve been only pnrtial ; and it would appenr tbat Horace had to 1 


CARMINUM 11. 17. 125 

Ducet ruinam. Non eg^ perfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus^ ibimus 10 

Utcunque praecedes^ supremum 
Carpere iter comites parati. 
Me nec Cbimaerae spiritus igneae 
Nec, si resurgat, centimanus Gyas 

Divellet unquam : sic potenti 15 

Justitiae placitumque Parcis. 
Seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit 
Formidolosus pars violentior 
Natalis horae^ seu iyrannus 

Hesperiae Capricomus undae^ 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 

to (B. G. iii. 23) of Aquitania. ' Carns' follow the Scholiasts, thongh the fonner, 

'^ipires ' ipri ' to be sopplied, as (Epp. i. quoting Hesiod in his Commentary, gives 

8. 29), **S\ patriae volumiis, si nobis vivere ' Qyas ' as the name of Briareus' brother. 

*ri." *I shall love myself less, and only Stephens has * Gyas,' Cruquius * Gigas,' in 

P^ of me will eurvive.' Horace and deference to all his MSS. (including the 

^linenas died the same year, and it has Blandinian ; so that all the oldest MSS. 

j^ Qnreasonably surmised from this co- known to have been collatcd concur in that 

^dence and the language here used, that reading). Of the editors I have compared 

Honce hastened his own death in order besides the above, Burmann reads 'Gigas.' 

}o accompany hia friend. (Comp. Epod. Baxter, Jani, Gesner, Mitsch., Fea, * Gy- 

^ ^' ges.' Cunningham, Dacier, Sanadon, Dil- 

[11. UUunque] Comp. C. i. 17. 10. — lenbr., Duentzer, Jahn, 'Gyas.' [Ritter 

'(^fpere iter :'8ee S. i. 6. 94, *longum has * Gigas,' the true reading.] 

^jp^tes iter ;' C. iv. 2. 29, * carpentes 16. Justitiae'] AUri and the Mo7pat were 

tbjma,*' C. i. 11. 8, 'carpediem.' From daughtcrs of Zeus and Thcmis, and the 

t^ and other examples, perhaps the forraer is here introduced as associated 

'<>der may find oot what is the meaning with her sisters : ** quibuscum aptissime 

^'cwpereiter.'] conjungitur tanquam irdptZpos, says 

K Oyat] Acron and Porphyrion read Orelli ; he does not say why. 

'Q*»gM,'aadinterpret * Briareus.' Bentley 17. Seu IAbra\ What Horace thought 

■7> all his MSS. have that reading, which of astrology may be collected from C. i. 11. 

« probably ari<!en out of *Gygas,' the He introduces a little of it here to enter- 

^to fonn of * Gyges,' which occurs in tain his friend, showing, at the same tinie, 

Wne MSS. Buttmann (Lex. p.2, Fishlake) but little care or knowledge of the subject, 

^b r^T, not r^yqs, is the true form in and rather a contempt for it. 

Henod (Theog. 714) : K6tros rt Bpidptvs 20. Capricomus'] So Propertiua (iv. 1. 

^ Wj»» t* iaros voKSftoto. He considers 87) : — 

tljtt Tjiyrit is a corruption arising out of « q^j^j moveant Fisces animosaque signa 

»e Lydian name, which Horace haa Leonis 

•toed (C. ii. 5. 20 ; iii. 7. 6), the first ^aetus et Hesperia quid Capricomus 

tjmuB of which is long, and that is an aqua." 
ugUDeDt against this form. On Butt- 

ai|]in'i autl^ty I have adopted * Gyas,' ' Laetus ' being Euinoers reading instead 

trhidi OreUi also prefers (though his oldest of * lotus,' in a sense corresiwnding to * ty- 

1C88. bave 'Gigas'), both here and at C. iii. rannus ' here, and to Virg. (Aen. ii. 417) : 

46a Bentleyread;'Gyges,'but rather «Confligunt Zephyrusque Notusque et 

«RiMf agminrt it. Lambinus had ongi- j^^^g -^^ 

mutj adopied that reading, but his opinion Eurus equis." 

vw dmf^ by the above objection about 

tk* qa m t i ^ , which Bentley notices as if 21. Utrumque nottrum'] Persius (v. 46. 

a «m Ida aini« Landinos and Asoensios 51) has repeated and expanded Horace'8 


Consentit astnim, Te Jovis impio 
Tutcla Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit volucrisque Pati 
Tardavit alas, eum populus frequenfl 
Laetiim thentnB tcr crepuit sonum : 
Me trunciis illapgiifi cerebro 
SustukTut, iiisi Faunus ictum 
Dostra levasset, Mercurialium 
Custos virorum. Reddere victimaa 
AeJemrjue votivam memeiito : 
Nos liumilem feriemus a^jnam. 

i ci|uidcm hoc dubiUs amboram foc- 
BmieDtireiHcgi el ab uno aii]ercdaci,"&c. 

also WugDer'i aote oii Aoa- i' 
" Si noD pcrtaesum tbalai: 

Huif ani forun potai 



n oppoiition, ao 
iis innueiicM. Tiiusit ii 
^tful vhetlicr ' SHluma ' bo govcmed ing, fbr whjch the Oreekt usod t 
rcfulgcnn,' or 'eripuit.' Compare fect. In C. iii. 16. 3, thore nn 
ua V. 50, ' SatamumtjaB (travem nint ' and 'non riBiueut.' i^rol 
o Jqtc franpiinn) nnn.' Bentlcj (L. Q, 1318} Hiyithat tbenppiir 
, ,. . . . 'iroQlilbe tioii" to thc rulV Ihiit in sucb ca 




After A.U.C. 720. 

ThU ode, which deals with Horace'8 favoiirite subjects, the leyelliiig power of death, 

and the vanity of wealth, and the schemes of the wealthy, is dedicated to no particular 

friend, and ia another proof of the littlo valoe or character that odes of this clags dcrive 

from a name ; thongh it was the poefs pleasure at times to attaeh namcs to them. 

What I mean is, that the name we find in conjunction with such odes must usually be 

looked upon aa non-essential, and that to draw inferences ftom the ode, in respect to 

the individual nominally addressed, is a mistAke. C. iii. 24 bears a strong resemblance 

to this ode, which must have been written after Horace became possessed of his &rm 

(satis beatus unicis Sabinis), and that is all that can be said of the date. 

In writing the first few verses Horace may have had in mind some lines of Bacchy' 
lides, inviUng the Dioscuri to feast with him, preserved in Athenaeus (28 Bergk), 
•V /3o«r T^€<m tr^fiar* otfrc xp^^^^ ^^* vop^&ptot rdviiTts, aWh. Biiios tiffittf^s 
Novo^dt Tff yXvKua, 




Ko gold in my roof, no marble in my hall, no palace have I, nor female clients to serve 
ine> but I have honesty and understanding, and though I be poor I am courted by 
tlierich: what more should I ask of the gods or my friend, contcnt with my singlo 
Stbine estate ? Days are passing on, and, though ready to drop into thy gravc, thou 
iit boildiDg and stretching thy borders, and tearing up the landmarks of thy clicnt, 
vA driving lum trom lus home. But to what purpose is this ? To Hades thou must 
go Inthe end : the earth opens to rich and poor ; Promethcus thc erafty, and Tantalus 
^ proud, they cannot escape ; and the poor man finds in dcath a relcase from his 
^ whether he seek it or not. 

NoN ebur neque aureum 

Mea renidet in domo laeunar ; 

Non trabes Hymettiae 

Premunt columnas ultima recisas 

[1 Uamar] See C. ii. 16. 11. ' Ebur ' 
*« OMd to omament tables and oouches. 
• 8ee8.iL6.103J 

t tnhet] [The Greek <£pistylium' is 

'tnlisianunisoolumnisimposita. Nostra- 

tttaithitravem vocant.' Harduin ad Plin. 

K. H. 86, c 14^] ' Hymettias ' and < re- 

cine ' are oonjectural rcadings, supported 

hvt Dot adopted by Bentley and Cuuning- 

^am, to thiM^ ' trabes ' should be beams of 

«Dod fbr the sopport of the roof, as C. iv. 

L 20^ «"siib trabe dtrea." The foreign 

urlles HMd by the Romans were from 

Hymetti» in AtUca (which was white), 

aad PcotdiciiSy pait of the same range, 

ftin Nun^dia (whidi was y dlow and heie 

referred to), from the coast of Africa, from 
Taenarus in Laconia (which was grecn and 
highly valued), from Pnros, from Carystus 
in Euboea, fh)m Sycne in the Thebaid, 
which, according to Pliny, was pyropoe- 
cilon, white with rcd spots. (** Trabes ex 
eo fecere reges quodam certamine obeliscos 
vocantes/' N. H. 36. 8. All the large 
obelisks are of granite: but Pliny's de- 
scription seems not to apply to that stone 
but to marble.) From Synnada in Phrygia 
was procured a still more famous mnrble, 
also white with red spots. See Stat. Silv. 
i. 5. 36—41. Martial (ix. 76) says that 
one Tucca built his baths, — 


Africa; tieiiie Attali 5 

Ignutus hLTes re^am occnpavi; 
Xcc Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt lioncstaG porpQras clientae : 
At fidcs et iD^ni 

Bcnipna vena est, paupercmquc divcs 10 
Mopetit; nihil supra 

Dfoa lacesso, nec potentem amicQm 
Largiora flugito, 

Satis bealQB unicis Sabinis. 
Tmdltur dies die, 15 

Novac([uc pergunt interire lunae. 
Tu secanda marmora 

Loi;a8 sub ipsum funus, et sepulcri 
Immfmor stniis domos 

MariH(]ue Baiis obetrepentis urges 30 

IK' mikniioreauiiii iiuodCarystoa iari^nit, cntas ropperi al^ne UDbas fo 

;juud Plirygia i!juniL>, Afm quotl Xoniu atque actntulo." It ia not ca 

Diittit. cnter into the itnte of souiuty, 

Kt (]U0d virtnti Funtc Uvit Eurotai." iireaeut«l by tbo wonls ■bone 

CARMINUM II. 18. 121) 

Snmmovere littora^ 

Parum locuples eontinente ripa. 
Quid^ quod nsque proximos 

Bevellis ag^ terminos et ultra 
Limites clientium 25 

Salisavarus? Pellitur patemos 
In sinu ferens deos 

Et uxor et vir sordidosque natos ; 
Nulla certior tamen 

Rapacis Orci fine destinata 30 

Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa tellus 

*^l>tation of ^lvtiv, by wliich the Greek except from ColameHa, thongh he quotes 

^iprwficd the Utter days of the month. examples of * littua * for * ripa,' which is 

^ 17. Tu iecanda marmora loecu'] You — more common. Orelli says the poets so 

I.C any laxurions old man — 'You enter use the word, but does not say where. 

^ contracts for the hewing of marble/ f' Contineus ripa ' is the shore of the niain- 

to onument your houses, in the way of land. ' Continens ' alone is used for the 

pUan, wall-coating, and floors: unless mainland of Europe, as opposcd to the 

'iecare' be limited to sbibs for lining tbe island Britannia by Caesar (B. G. iv. 31).] 

^•Us, u Orelli says. * Locare ' may be said 23. Quid, quod vsque'] * Quid ' is com- 

^er of one who receives or of one who monly used to introduce a fresh infitancc or 

P^Ji money : * locare rem faciendam ' or illustration of what has been said bcfore. 

'atndam/ to let out work to be done, or It has been usual to insert a note of inter- 

^ l^ a thing (as a house, &c.) to be used. rogation after it in these cases, which only 

^ the fonner case the ' locator ' pays, in makes an intcUisiblc formula unintelligi- 

tke Utter he receives payment. Here the ble. See M r. Long'8 note on Cic. in 

winer is platnly meant. When * locarc ' Verr. ii. 2. 7, * Quid haec hereditas,' and 

■ipufies as here the giving out of work to S. i. 1. 7 n. 

!*<Ione, tbe person who contracts to do it 24. Sevellis agri terminos] Compare 

» «ther ' conductor ' or * redemptor * Sallust. Bell. Jug. c. 41. Solomon thus 

(CiiLl. 85 D.), and, when the'locator' exhorts the rich (Prov. xxiii. 10, 11): 

'Cti for a price, the hirer is said ' con- " Removc not the old hind-mark, and 

^^Boere,' so that ** ' conductio ' and < lo- enter not into the fields of the fatherless, 

c>tio' tre the oorrelatives whieh express for thcir Kedeemer is mighty, hc shall 

the coDtract by which a sum of money plead with thee." 

(Bwroes) is agreed to be paid for the use of 29. Nulla ceriior iamen] The sentence 

* tUng, or to be received for the doing of is not easily rendered. The ncarest transla- 

loaething " (Long^s note on Cic. in Verr. tion appears to be this : * There is no dwell- 

Act i. c. 6). See C. iii. 1. 35 n. ing marked out (or defined) which more cer- 

[18. tub ipmmfunut] * Up to the vcry tainly awaits the wealthy landlord than the 

time of your death.' See Epod. ii. 44 n.J bounds of greedy Orcus.' Horace means t-o 

20. urge» mmmovere liiiora] Compare say, ' though you think you may push the 

C liL 1. 33, " Contracta pisces aequora boundary of your estate farther and far- 

■entimit." ' Sammovere ' means to push ther, you must go to a home marked out 

oot tbe shore, and so increase your build- for you, and which you can neither expand 

ing groand. [See C. ii. 16. 10.] 'Zydx^tv, nor eseapc from.' In * destinata ' (agreeing 

Mx*tv, are osed by the Greek writers with ' auln/ not with ' fine/ as Lambinus 

like ' nrgere ' in this place : as in He- and othurs say) and in ' finis * is contained 

rodotos (i. 153, sob fin.), iv ots iinlx^t the notion of prescribed and fixed limits, in 

^parfiKar4tiv ain^s. which the force of the passage lics. ' Finis' 

22. ripat] ForceUini does not notice is oncc used by Horace in the feminine 

tbe we of' ripa ' fbr ' littos ' in this place, gender (Epod. xviL 36). It is not usually 

does lie prodaoe any other instancea of that gender» and when it is, it genendly 



Paiiperi rccluditur 

RJegumque piieris, nec satellcB Orci 
Callidum Prumtthca 3S 

Revexit auro c-.iptus. Ilic superbum 
Tantalum atquc Tautali 

Genus coercet ; hic levare functuin 
Pauperem laboribus 

Vocatus atque non vocatus audit. 40 

«iim. ivforonoB tfl death. Witli reipect 36. Callidmm Promtliea'] T 
' «ula ' Orelli quotes Eorip. (Alcert. Prometheo» trjiiig to bribe Cli 
) ; fonnil elttwliore. 

.^.. „ r... ..X «.- ...'.. '. ..s^,Si.;;'i'S- ""■ 

"'■'^- 40. n,«(« «/,« .»• rocc 
lontlcj conjecture» Tapoci»* for Tn- It ii nnul to quot« hore Tlii 
i*,' B vor)- flftt Buliatltalion. Hb sLki 118), otrli »*i| (v\Ali+«fffloi • 

ling ■se.te' rBthcr than ' fine." Tor- jg boldcr, conpling 'Builit' 

,c ediloK Wu ndopted it, bat thcru i» npp™™ tn dcpend on ' «udil 
f lillleMS. autiioritvfOTit thlnkg tliat it rtepeiida on 
32. Af^nia Uilut} • TliB earlli alike Perhnp» it dcpeuds on both or . 
u» for idl.-] 

CARMINUM II. 19. 131 

Honce was a man of the world, witk good sense nnd good breeding ; he had " fides et 
ingeni benigna vcna," intogrity, and fine wit, and corrcet toste and jadgment; but be 
was not a dithjrambic poet, and if he had becn, the hmgnage he wrote in would have 
cbecked his gemna, and brought down his ideas to the more practical level above which 
the Roman mind rarely soared. 

The artide Dionyaus in Smith'8 Dict. MythoL may be consnlted, and will explain 
most of tbe aUasiona in this ode. 


Among the tar hilla I mw Bacchns — O wonderful ! — reciling, and theNymphs leaming, 
and the Satyrs all attention. 

Awe is freab in my heart ; the god is within me, and I am tronbled with joy. O spare 
me ! dread Liber. It is past, and I am f^ to sing of the Bacchantes ; of fountains of 
wine and milk and honey ; of Ariadne ; of Pcntbeus and Lycurgus ; how thou tamedst 
the waters of the £ast, and dost sport with the Thracian nymphs; how thon hurledst 
the giant £rom Heaven, and how Cerberus did crouch to thee, and )ick thy feet. 

Bacchum in remotis carmiiia rupibus 
Vidi docentem — credite posteri — 
Nymphasque discentes et aures 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 
Euoe^ recenti mens trepidat metu 5 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Laetatur. Euoe, parce Liber, 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso I 
Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadas 
Vinique fontem lactis et uberes 10 

Cantare rivos^ atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterare mella; 

^•Bwciifm] Tbelegendsandattributes rh. Zra, but only describes Pan as having 

^'^BioehTiscontuned inthisode are entirely the lower extremities like a goat, rh. Kdru 

^Oreek origin. The Romans had no in- alyl ioiK^s, It is vain thereforo trying to 

^kpeadeut notions of tbis divinity, whose trace any consistency in the poets' con- 

tti&e hdtxos, the shouter, is propcrly no ceptions of these uncouth divinities. 

BMR than an adjnnct of AiSywros, 9. Faa pervicacet etf] ' Fas est ' is equi- 

^ ioceuiem — diecentee] These cor- valcnt to 9vyar6y itrri. The power as well 

^^fOid. to the Greek terms Bt9daK€iv and as the pcrmission of the god is given : 

Iw9i9tv, aa applied to the choragus and " Fas nunc non significat licet sed potH' 

cbami, hile" (Porph.). [* Pervicaces :' Comp. C. 

4 Capripedum Satyromm'] The Satyrs iii. 3. 70. Epoid. xvii. 14.] 

aie nsiially confoonded with the Fauns, 10. lactis — mella] The same attribute 

Faonos again being confounded with Pan, that made Dionysus the god of wine, also 

vbo was repreaented with goafs feet like gave him milk and honey as his types. He 

tiie Sahns. Propertius (iii. 17. 34), speak- represcnted the exuberanoe of nature, and 

iiigoftneattendant8ofBacchas,caIlsthem wos therein closely connected with De- 

Ivii : " Capripedea calamo Planes hiante meter. Euripides (Bacchae, 704 sqq.) may 

enoiV Ovid (Met. i. 193) sneaks of the bo consulted, aod Plato (lon, p. 53^ A) : 

Faniia and Satyrs, and again (vL 392 sq.) al BcIkxcu i.pororrai ix ruv vorafi&y fitkt 

mak» tha FMina and Satyrs brothers; Kal yd\a Kartx^h^ff^ t/x^poifts 6^ olcat 

w b f i g M Fkmiiia waa ooly a Latin deity. oH. Any travdler in the £a8t can tell 

dwcribM ths Sntyn aa beLng ^cii of honeycombs on the trees as corionaly 

K 2 


F;ia et IwatjK? oonjtigis additnm 
Stcllis lionorcm tcctaiiue Penthoi 
Dipjecta noii leni ruina, 

Thracia et eiitium Lyeiirgi. 
Tu fiectis .nmnes, tu mare barbnrum, 
Tu Bejiiiratis uvidus Jn jugis 
Noiio coerees viperino 

Bistonidnm sine frande crines : 
Tu, cum (larentis refi;na por arduiim 
Cohors Gigantum seanderet impia, 
Rhoefum retorsisti leonis 
Ungiiibus horribiliqne mola; 
Quam(|uam choreia aptior et jocifl 
Ludoque dictua non sat idoneus 
Pufrnae fcrcbaris : sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusqne belli. 

k^ight na Oiose In ^ nTiJcn-him. Vir^ thiB deicription of Baochnt elul 
" . iv. 30): " Et dume qni-roua lionDnil BghtiiiKwithUho(^lu>i,< 
roscidH uu'ilH.' ia RhoccUB in tLe «litions of Ln 

CARMINUM ri. 20. ia;3 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Comu deeorum^ leniter atterens 30 

Caudam^ et reeedentis trilinq^i 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 

^orace, who rarely sinks below himaelf. ' three moathB,' aa iicarotiir69w fJrifnitSwv 

I think he was more likely to do so in signifiea the handred Nerdds (Soph. Oed. 

ftttcmpting a dithyrambic flight than at Col. y. 717. [Three tongnes in one month, 

^A j other time. as Naeke thinks, quoted by Ritter, for 

SO. leniter aiterent eandam] * Qentlv Horace allows only ohe head to Cerbems, 

«>r-i]shing hia tail against — ' what? aak C. iii. 11. 17, and C. ii. 13. 34.] Dionysns 

^K« critics, puzzled by the preposition. was called by tho Greeks XP^^'^*?^^» <uid 

Or«lli sayg against his own belly ! [' On this symbol of power, common to the 

^lie gronnd/ says Ritter, who still seeks a Greeks as well as to ull ihe nations ot the 

■olation of the great problem.] There is East (see the Hebrew Scriptures nassim), 

^ notion of tamencss and pleasure in the was adopted probably from this diymity by 

^ctioQ. * As you came he gently wagged Alexander the Great and his successors, on 

^tA tail, as you departed he licKed your whose coins it is represented. Compare 

^«et' * Ter-' is to tnm or wag, and ' ad- C. iii. 21. 18 : " Viresque et addis comua 

ter-' is to wag at or towards. pauperi." [See Epod. xi. 13 n., and Ritter^s 

3L] * Trilingoi ore' means no more than note on ' anreo comu.'] 


Tbis ode has none of the appearance to my mind of having been written, like thc last 
of the third book, for the purpose of closing and commending a complcted work, as those 
■ffirm wbo believe the first two books were published scparatcly. lliere does not nppcar 
tobe any method in the arrangement of the odes between the introductory one of the 
^ book and the last of the third (with the exception of the first six of that book 
^idi ire evidently connected with oue another) ; and the position of this is probably 
M Mddental as that of others. This ode appears to have been written impromptu, and 
I think the style is mock-heroic, or but half serious, tbough Horace had at least as mnch 
i^tu oUien to commend his poetry and to be conscious of his own powera. Varioua 
IKeimens of telf •commendation, on the part of the poets, are quoted by Dillenbr., 
licgiiiaing with Ennius' fnmous verses, — 

** Nemo me lacmmis decoret nec fiinera flctu 
Faxit. Cur ? Volito vivu' per ora virftm." 
Ithink *qaem Yocas' refers to somc particular invitation of Maecenas, and that the ode 
^ the resolt of that invitation, which opinion I had expressed before I met with Dil- 
knbr.^s oomments on this ode in his Qu. Hor. (1811, Bonn). He there treata it as an 
^MitbQrifc of ycnthful spiritson the occasionof Maecenas' first invitation (Sat. i. 6). The 
^ithet ' dilecte/ implying long familiarity, is opposed to this view, and Dillenbr. says 
Bothiag abont it in his edition of Horace, though he there treats the ode as a juvenile 
pradiictioa. I do not see any reason to agree with him as to that particular point. 


Oa a freah strong wing shall I soar to heavcn far above envy and the world. Whom 
tlKXi, dear Maecenas, delightest to honour, Styx hath no power to detain. Evcn now 
Bj pfaiDMge is qninging, and I am ready to fly away and sing in distant places, and 
to toifdi faarbaroiis nationt. No wailings for me : away with the cmpty hononrs of 
A feonili» 


Nofj usitata nec tenui ferar 
Penna biformiB per liquidum aethera 
Vates, neque in terris morabor 
Longius, invidiaque major 
Urbe-s relinquam, Non ego, pauperum S 
Sang:uts parentum, non ego quem vocas, 
Dilecte Maccenas, obibo 
Nec Stygia cohibebor unda. 
Jam jam residunt cniribus asperae 
Pelles, et album mutor in alitem 10 
Superne, nascunturque levea 

Pcr diyitos humerosque p]uma«. 
Jam Daedaleo ocior Icaro 
ViBam ^mentia Htora Bospori 

SjTtesquu Gaetulas canorua 15 
Ales Hyjwrboreosque campoa. 

inosiaa say (Av. 1373) :— to the prMTding worda, 'pBup 
o^ m XfHt UA.,*.«,*7«<ri iii,ijti„opatreiiatQm"(8at. i.e 
""'■ therc i» no untbority or raisoi 

CARMINUM n. 20. 


Me Colchus et qui dissimulat metum 
Marsae cohortis Dacus et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni, me peritus 
Discet Hiber Rhodanique potor. 
Absint inani funere neniae 
Luctusque turpes et querimoniae ; 
Compesce clamorem ac sepulcri 
Mitte supervacuos honores. 


•• MalU Dirctenm lerat aara eyenam." 

(C. IV. 2. 25.) 

The bird therefore that Horace means can- 
not be miataken. Virgil (Ec. ix. 27) has^ 

" Vare tnam nomen — 
Cantantes sablimeferentadsideracycni." 

Plato (Rep. X.) speaks of the spirit of Or- 

pbeas taking tbe shape of a swan : I9t7v 

fiiw yap t^ ^xht^ ^i^ »OTf "Op^tvs 

y^wiiirnv m^npmv filop alpovfi4rriw. On the 

Hjpvrboreans, see Muller (Doriana ii. 4, § 

6). Pindar calls them *Aw6\\ce¥os dtpd' 

»»rT€f (Ol. iii. 16), to whom they sacrificed 

aaes (Pvth. x. 34). There was a mystery 

attached to the distant regions of the 

corth, to which Kndar says no man ever 

foaad the way by Umd or sea : 

9tanrl 8* oCrt wt^hs li^r &r tffpois 

i$ *Twtpfiop4a§r irymya Bavfiurky 6Z6p, 

Apd, thongh Perseos went there, it was 
vHh the divine help, with which the poet 
pOQsly obsenres any thing may be done. 
^^ did not however neglect the Moses: — 

MoTtfa 8* ohx kwoZt^AU 
vp^oif iw\ &'^oT4poun, wturra Zk X^^ 

^v rc fioal Kayaxai r* aitKAy Zov4oyrai, 

^ were a happy race, kpZpmy iiaxdptoy 
''uXos; a sacred family, UpiL ytytd, irce fVx)m 
^ aige, ^sease, aod war. Compare Pliny 
P. H. iv. 26). 

19. periitu'] Here the meaning is ' in- 
'^'Qctcd,' as 'jaris peritas' is one instracted 
j^ tkilled in the law. Horace means that 
^vbiioas natioDs will become versed in his 

writing^: 'mei peritns me discet' is pcr- 
haps the full sentence. But why hc should 
class those who drank of the waters of the 
Rhone (of which manv Romans uiiglit 
drink also) with the barbarians mentioned 
is not easy to understand. As fiir as I can 
see, the adaptation of the name to tlie 
metre is the onlv way of accounting for it. 
By Hiber is prooably meant the Cauca»ian 
people named Iberi. [But he may niean 
the Iberi of Spaiu, who were Ronianized 
like the natives on the Rhone in the Roman 
Provincia.] The mode of expression for 
tbe inhabitants of a country, as those who 
drink of tbeir national river, ia repeated 
twioe (C. iii. 10. 1) : 



Extremam Tanain si biberes, Lyce;^ 

and (C. iv. 16. 21), 

" Non qai profundum Danubium bibunt. 

It may be observed here, as well as any 
w^here else, how frequently Horaee ends the 
third verse of the Alcaic stanza with a word 
that belougs immediately to the last word 
of the stauza. The remark ia Dillenbr.^s, 
and it is worth attending to. The Daci 
were not finally subdued till the reign of 
Trajan. But see C. ii. 9. 23 n. 

24. supenxicuo»'} The prose-writers be- 
fore Pliny used the form 'supervacaneus.' 
Forcellini quotes one passage from Cicero 
(de Nat. Deor. i. 33), in which he says some 
editions have ' supervacuus.' All modem 
editions have the other form. [As to ab- 
sence of lamentation ovcr a deuth which 
lefb no body for intermcnt, compare the 
▼erses of Enmas (Introduction).] 




About A.u.c. 72S. 

im\ thc Hvp fallonln)^ ode> arc genemlly admiltBd to be KiDong tlie d 
iif ir"ruce'fniiinmT. nnrtit nppcnni to me llmt iu (liU ilidsctio rtvli 
of hifl (iwn rliHnicter aml genin». It is, aa far na we kno*, cnlinJ 
1» no opinion from «hich I morc entirelj didsont tlmn tlii» of Pral 
ii poe^ii lyrien et ei ipiius tententin diciet habcri potest ■inaloHa" (E 
iultmnunS scnttncr, uliicii govt into tbe other eitrvme, RjipoLTS ta 
lie truth, UT>leu be limiU it, u 1 helieve lie renllf meant fai do, to th' 
e thiuliB his rtroQBest. ■■ Xon-realitj," be «aj>, " U an eswntial fe«tnre. 
Thp fact appenni tn l.e. thnt rralitj wa. w murh a part »f Hon™'. 


Regnm timendorum in proprios greges, 5 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis 
Clari Giganteo triumpho^ 
Concta supercilio moventis. 
Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbustajsulcis^ hic generosior 10 

Descendat in Campum petitor^ 
Moribus hic meliorque fama 
Contendat^ illi turba clientium 
Sit major : aequa lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignes et imos ; 15 

Omne capax movet uma nomen. 
Districtus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet non Siculae dapes 

1.0<2t/>ro/aiMiiN««(^]Thefir8t8taDza 11, Descendat in Campum] The oomi- 

iiinimitationof thelangnageQsed bythe tia centariata at whicb the election of 

priests at the mysteries. There is a parody mag^strates took place waa held in the 

00 the same in the Frogs of Aristopbanes Campns Martius, from wbence, Tacitus 

(353 sqq.) : — says (Ann. L 15 ), the Comitia were removed 

fhmh voh KiH<mur6 ro^s iiutrfootat ^^ Tiberius to the senate, meaning that 

^^lff^ oi « 17/* p ^g^ senate cbose the magistrates, under his 

^iTsi-i s "8 x6^uv fi 'wi&unv uh <^ctation. But in the time of Augustus the 

totfoM^ ^* »7 ^? 7 /*'i M'1 fofjj^ of comitia continued in the Campus 

« T^' «^u. Uovai, M«T' .18« mV ^*?^'"^ (Saeton Augnrt c. 66.) 

Li ^ 13. ConiencUU] 1 nis verb is used some- 

'^ "' times as a transitive verb for * petere,* aa 

'Fwere lingnis,' like €d4njM«<>, in its first in Cic. in Verr. (ii. 2. 63), " Hic magistra- 

ineiQing seema to signify the speaking tns a populo summa ambitione contendi- 

^oHsc^good omen. But it came as com- tur." 

JwnJy to signify total silence. [* Linguis' 16. Omne capax] Compare C. ii. 3. 26, 

>* tbe abhitive. The Bomans sometimes and likewise i. 4. 13 ; ii. 18. 32. 

•*d *lmgua,' or *ore favere.'] Horace 17. Districlus ensis] Some MSS have 

i^u as if he despaired of impressing his ' dcstrictus/ which most editors adopt. 

pVBcepti on any but tbe young, and bids Cruquius inserts ' districtus ' in his text, 

tbe ittt gtand aside as incapable of being and Heindorf supports it on S. ii. 1. 41, 

'''itiated in the true wisdom of life. where it occurs again. The Scholiasts, ac- 

^ Uttarmm taeerdot] Ovid calls him- cording to the text in Ascensius, have the 

'^the nme (Amor. iii. 8. 23) : — same word, which is probably the right one, 

■IDeego Muaaram pums Phoebique saccr- as signifying the separation of two thingg 

d^ » which have been jomed. But tbe pomt is 

doubtfiil. [Ritter and Kellcr have *de- 

[& in pn>prio9 greget] Caesar has tbis strictus.'] 

J^of*imperiam in greges,' 'power over,' 18. Siculae dapet] Plato (de Bep. iii. 

^ B. G. Yi. 19, ' in nxores potestatem.'] p. 404, § 13, Becker) speaks of XvpoKoa-laif 

7. irkimpko, euncta] There is some Tpchre^ov /cal SticcAtKV "roiKiXiav C^ov, 

"^ptness in thia, which Cnnningham re- wbere Ast says " pervulgatae sunt luxurio- 

^es by inserting ' et.' sae mensae 'ZiKf\iKal, XvfiapiriKal, 'IraKiKal 

9. Ett ut] This is equivalent to 4ar\y et Xiai." Plautus, in the prologue to the 

^h *it may be.' Bentley prefers * esto ut,' Rudens (v. 53), says — 
ttd Crnquias' Scholiast says in his note, as 

*thaveit, 'est pro tit.' He appears to " Infit lenoni suadere ut secum simnl 

Weread 'etto.' *£«to' withont 'ut' oc- £at in Siciliam, ibi esse hominea volup- 

em io Sat. i. 6. 19. [* Arbosta' are the tuarios 

viaei in the idiMyard.] Didt." 


Duleem elaboroljunt Baporem, 

Non aviuni citharaeque cunfuB ao 
Somnum reduceot. Somnus aj^restium 
Lcnis virorTim non humiles domoB 
Fastidit umljrosamque ripam, 
Non Zqihj-ris a^itata Tempe. 
Pesidirantem fiuod aatis est neque 15 
Tumultuosum sollicitat mare, 
Ncc saevus jVrcturi eailentia 

Impetus aut orientis Haedi, '*' 
Non verlieriitae g^randine vineae 
Fuiidusijue mendax, arbore nunc aquas 30 
Culpaote uunc torrentia agros 
Sidera nuuc hiemee iniquas. 
Contructa piscea aequora Ecntiunt 
Jacti;* in altum molibus; huc freqiicns 

Cacmcnta demittit redemptor 35 
Cum famulis dominusque terrae 

iiraniiil.' ns ri-fiTrii^g to DiiinuclM. 29. verberatai gra«din> ciwat] 


Eastidiosus. Sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem quo dominus^ neque 
Decedit aerata triremi^ et 

Post equitem sedet atra Cura. 40 

Quodsi dolentem nec Phiygius lapis 
Nec purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus nec Falema 

Vitis Achaemeniumque costum^ 
Cur invidendis postibus et novo 45 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores ? 

** Caementis licet occnpes ting the ' et ' for the sake of hiB ears, and 

TjTThcnam omne tnU et mare Apnli- sobstitutcs 'postque/ Tbe 'aerata trire- 

cam." mis' was the rich man'8 private yacht [or 

the war-galley ratherl. 

The wallB were faced on each ride with 41. Phrygiut lapuix See C. ii. 18. 3 n. 

itoDe, and loose [or broken] stones (cae- 43. deUnW] The MSS. and editoni vary 

ineQta) were thrown in betwecn. ' Fre- between this forra aud ' delinit.' Tbe ex- 

qnens ' goes with ' cnm famalis/ according pression ' parpurarum asns sidere ckrior ' 

to DueriDg, and means ' cum frequenti is uncommon. The first two words, which 

^nlorum tarba.' Others say it means beloug properly to * purpurarum/ are 

'frequentcr.' I think it means this, or transferred to 'usus' — *the enjoyment or 

'toa&yaredemptor.' 'Redimere' wassaid possesoion of purple (purple vestments) 

tf ooe who andertook to perform certain brightertbanastar:' which,thoagh 'sidua' 

l^vk fbr a stipuUited price. The only case should be taken for the sun, as it may be, 

m «bich the person who paid was called is rather a singular comparison. 

'Rdonptor' was that of the public revenue, 44. Achaemeniumque costum] See C. ii. 

^&rmers of which were said 'redimere 12. 21. 'Que' is the rcadingof the MSS., 

^KUgilia ' or ' emere' (Cic. in Verr. ii. 3. and therc bcing no opposition it is the right 

li). See C. ii. 18. 17 n. reading, though Ikntley will have 've.' 

39. irirewU^ ef] Bentley prefers omit- 47. permuiem'] See C. i. 17. 2. 


About A.u.c. 728. 

hi addition to the general argument noticed before, Franke discovers in verses 19, 20, 
n indieation of the date of thls ode, supposing Horace to nllude to Augustus' expressed 
iBteDtioD of laying down his power in A.I7.C. 726. I do not see any necessary connexion. 

Tbe pnrpoiie of this ode is to commend public and social virtne, and the opening 
^bom that it is a oontinaation of the preceding ode. 


CoDtentment is to be kamed in arms and danger. To die for onr coantry is glorions, 
aad death parsuea the coward. Virtue is superior to popular favour or rejection, and 
opena the way to the skiea, and rises above the dull atmosphere of this world. Qood 
ftiA too has ita reward, and I wonld not be the companion of the man who neglects 
i^ kst I ibwe l^ mre reward. 


AxousTiM amice pauperiem pati 

llubustUH ocri militia pucr 
Condiscat, et Parthos fcroces 
Vexet equeg metuendus haeta, 
Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat 
In rcbus. llhim nx mocmbus hosticiB 
Matrona hellantis tyraiini 
Prospicicns et adulta virgo 
Suspiret, eheu, ne nidis agminum 
Sponsus laccssat regiue aspenim 
Tiictu lconem, quem cruetita 
Per medias rapit ira caedea. 
Diilce ct dccorum cst pro patria mori : 
Mors et fugaccm persequitur virum, 
Nec parcit imhcllisjuventae 
Pophtihus timidoque tergo. 



to « 

md the 



Dther. To them 

.»t tbe 

ng. ' 

int h«rdlj to ol 

U title 



ng Dot wLth her d 



Virtus repulsae nescia sordidae 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus^ 
Nec sumit aut ponit secures 
Arbitrio popularis aurae. 
Virtus recludens immeritis mori 
Caelum negata tentat iter via, 
Coetusque volgares et udam 
Spemit humum fugiente penna. 
Est et fideli tuta silentio 
Merces : vetabo qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcanae sub isdem 
Sit trabibus fragilemve mccum 



Btntle/s reason is odd, — that there was 
Do necd for death to strike in more than 
ooe i)laoe : one woold be enough. " Quod 
Muie argutioB !" says Jani. ' Tergo ' is not 
oppottid to * poplitibns,' bat conpled with 
it,aDd Uimido' applies to both (C. i. 2. 1 
n.). [But thc • ve' denotes either of two 
^ji of being wounded.] 

17. Firtu* repuUae netcia Mordidae'] 
'Keacia' seems to mean ' uneonscioas of/ 
Jtcaiue • indifferent to ' the disgraco of re- 
JtctioD, wluch, if diRgracefiil to any, is not 
•ototbe virtaoas, but to thoso who rcject 
t^ Dillenbr. interprets otherwise, that 
tbe Tirtuoas do not seek honours, and 
tlierefore do not know the discredit of de- 
^t; bat tbat is contrary to fuct, aud 
tJ>erefore not likely to be Horace's mcan- 

18. IfUamiMtie] Tbis word has not been 

^tMuidebewhere. Like*contaminatas/'atta- 

iiiiitttos,'it is derived from theobsolete word 

'tunino^^andcontainstheroot 'tag' of 'tan- 

Eo'u *integer' does. ' In-contaminatis' 

u the reading of a few MSS. H. St<?phen8 

(Kit iL 1) says, "Ex qaam phirimis 

■Mnnicriptis exemplaribus afferri videmus 

'mcontaminatis,' " which is perhaps not 

^. Craquias adopts it in his icxt (Orelli 

ttw "e Codd,," but I think he is mistaken, 

for Cmqaias notices none in his comiuen- 

tfliTf wliere he has 'intaminatis'), and his 

SeholiMt had the same readhig. /The other 

Scboliaits had * intaminatis,' which is the 

ivading of all the editions I have seon, ex- 

cppt tbose of Canningham and Sanadon. 

Lamhioos and Bentley edit this, but prc- 

fer the other; but the latter sufficiently 

tnswers bis own and the only argunient 

agaiost the reoeived reading, by asking, 

"Are tbere luA other words in Horace, 

neera^ and otiun, which, through the loss 

otmnaaj writan^ we ftnd nowhere else?" 

20. Arhitrio popularis aurae"] This 
means that the popular judgment is like a 
shifling breeze, setting now this way, now 
that, as in Virgil (Aen. vi. 817) : — 

"Nimium gaudens popularibas auris," 
and in Lucan (i. 132) : — 

" Totus popularibns auris 
Impclli plausuque sui gnudere theatri." 

Comparc for tlje sentiments C. iv. 9. 39 sqq. 
25. Sat etfideli tuta ailentio'] Simonidcs, 
in the same jwem (Bergk says, p. 767) from 
which the former quotation comes (v. 14 
n.), says — 

4<Tr\ KtCL triyas hKiyZvrov ytpas, 

which words Augustus was acqnainted with 
and approved. When Athcnodorus was 
about to leave his nunp hc enibraced the 
empcror and said, "O Caesur, whenever 
thou art wroth, say nothiug, do nothing, 
till thou bai»t gonc over in tiiy mind the 
twenty-four letters of thc alpbabet," 
WTiercupon the em|)eror took him by the 
hand and said, " 1 huve nei'd of thee still ;" 
and he detained hini u whole year, saying, 
" Silence too hath its g»fe reward." (Plut. 
Apophthegm. Reg. ct Iniper. Caesar. Aug. 
7.) Socrecy is a sigii of good fuith, and 
not an easy one to ]>rncti8c. nora(rc*s in- 
dignation is levelled against the breaking 
of fuith generally, and the divulging of the 
socrets of Ceres (whose rites, however, it 
appcars were only attcnded by womcn) is 
only mentioned by way of illustration. 
Doering suggcsts, by way of accouutiug for 
the introduction of this particulur virtue, 
that sorae notorious act of trcuclHjry is 
referred to indirectly. But the introduc- 
tion of that virtue does not rw|uire an 
apology. There are few moral quulities 
that ean be said to take preccdence of it. 


Solvat phiiselon; saope Diespiter 
Noj^^lectus inoesto iuldidit integmm. 3o 

Ruro antfcedentcm sceltstum 
Deseruit piHle Poena claudo. 

I ihe tiD.i» c>r friEnilsliip, m Ctccro ny§, Mnflmiktioii of It. Hitterirlii 

itliout it socipty cnimot eilst. (Com- plemqne' ray» tUnt 'mb iiwli 

'^. i. 4. 84 n.) It ia poBsiblD that meuu 'in raiiem iiave cive fli 

e had lieard Aagniitua ivpeat hi* flmia,' and tlint tlii> idea of < 

'ite a\iL)in. Mltsch. quutcs Calli- creased bj the nords 'tVBgil 

19 (lljiiin. ml Cer. 118); selon,' for tho 'phaselaa' a 

ein f™ r Horace meant all thie, he wii 

h ^Ar..^.,. ''ifl"- «"S ""l P°*l "^"' ^ 

I' ^ ^ * not live noder the ume roof 

mjMvs {EW-i. !3S 1) has : mRH. and lii^ would not «lil wit 

-. , u ., - II, D.i / •<> it ii indiffemit wlitther lie 

. ' or or, thoug^b accnrdmg to 1 
dence he said ' and.' ■ Fragilei 

yay of spcnkiinf sccms to bare been a pootical represeutation of tl 

rbml. tompnre Ai-scli. S. c. T. 602 narigation.] lnnwpectto'D 

Tliorp ivcri. uo mjsUTioi amone the C. i. 34. S n. 
n»ri'TTi'-|":.-t.uii.-Kli'u.-iniiiiior 32. Dfienit pfd« ^atM ela 

■f lli.- ■■■!.. I ''■...'. >1: '-irj.iu, Uut Agam. 67: 

T»»i( 1 


Ang^astiis» and the speech is not destitute of snch oratorical powor as the case admitted 
of. It alao ooDtains indirect exhortations to abstinence and oontentment, and so bears 
cm tbe general scope of these odes. Suetonins, in his life of C. Julins Caesar (c. 79), 
sajB it was generallj reported he meant to transfer the seat of empire to Alexandria 
Qn Troas probably, not the Egyptian city) or to Ilinm. Lucan ascribes to him the 
•ame intention, and makes him say (ix. 997)» 

" Bestituam popnlos : grata vioe moenia reddent 
Ansonidae Fhrygibus, Romanaque Pergama surgent." 

Whether snch was really the case or not» it appcars that at the time such a transfer was 

not considered too absurd to be spoken of. We know that the abandonment of the 

mother city for Veii had its advocates, who were not influcnced solely by the superior 

attractions of the city, but by dislike to the institutions of Rome and to laws which could 

only be got rid of by such a change. We can easily bclieve that in Horace'8 time among 

the lemedies proposed for the evils of the state some may have freely spoken of trans- 

ferring the seat of govemment to another spot, and that tbe site of Troy, the eity of 

their snpposed ancestors and the fountain of their race, may have becn fixed upon for 

kfaat parpose. To meet the spirit of avarice in some, and restlessness in «dl that would 

be mixed np with snch a notion, seems to have been Horace's purpose. One of Orelli's 

BemeMSS. has this inscription, "Ad Musas de Augusto qni in proposito videtur 

peneverare," as if Augfustus had entertained a desire and intention like the above, and 

Mxne oommentators have taken up that notion. If it had been the case, therc is no 

Gkelihood that Horace wonld have taken this occasion and means of dissnading him. 

I beUeve, as I said before, he wrote these odes, if not by the emperor^s desire, to second 

hiB effortSy and with his approval. 

Jostin describee the meeting of the Boman soldiers with the people of the Troad, 

vben Scipio landed in Asia in his expedition against Antiochus : ** Cum igitur ab 

«trisque bellum pararetnr ingressique Asiam Romani Ilium venissent, mntua gratulatio 

Oieiifium ac Romanomm fuit; Iliensibus Aeneam ceterosque cum eo duces a se 

(roCMtos, Romanis se ab his procreatos referentibus ; tantaque laetitia omnium fuit 

qnnta esie pott longum tempns inter parentes et liberos solet. Jnvabat Ilicnses 

scpotes mos Occidente et Africa domita Asiam ut avitum regnum vindicare, optabilem 

Trqjie ruinam fuisse dicentes, ut tam fcliciter renasceretur : contra Romanos avitos 

Urs ut incnnabnla majoram, templaque ac deomm simulacra inexplebile desiderium 



^Qpright man andflrm no terrors can drive from his purpose. Through this virtne 

^ox, ELercnles, Aug^stus, Bacchus, have been translated to the skies. Romulus 

^Sktmm, at the instance of Juno, who thus addressed the assembled gods : " Ilium 

Mi paid the penalty of the founder's criuc. That impious umpire and his foreign 

itmoipet have overthrown it. But his beauty is gone; Priam*s perjured bouse hath 

^iXka; the war our quarrels protracted is at an end. My wrath then I remit. Let 

^Un have my bated grandson, let him come among ns: only let seas roll between Ilium 

nd Boma^ and let the exiles reign where they will ; let their Capitol stand, and the 

lUde own their sway ; bnt let the tomb of Priam and of Paris be the lair of bcasts. 

^nm Gadee to the Nile let her be feared, but let her leam to despise the gold that 

liei boried in the ground. Let her stretch her arms to the limits of the earth, to the 

itarmy soith and the fiery east, but let her not dare to repair the walls of Troy. 

On an evil day wonld she rise again : thrice let her rise, thrice should she fall by 

fte pomr of Jove's lister and spouse." 

Bit hol^ nj Mmt, nor bring down snch themes to the sportive lyre. 


Jrsrrsr et tenacem propositi virum 

Non eivium ardor prava julientiiira, 

Non voltus instontis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque Aoster 
Dux inqiiieti turbidus Hadriae, s 
Nec fulminantis magna manus Jovis; 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum fcrient ruinae. 
Hac arte PoIIus et vagus Hercules 
EuisHB arccs attiyit i^neas, lo 
Quns inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 
Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
Vexcre tigres indooili jugum 

Collo trabentes; hac Quirinus 15 
Martis equis Aeheronta fugit, 
Gratum eloeuta eonsiiiantibus 
Junonedivis: IHon, Ilion 
Fatalis inccstusque judex 

Et mulier peregrina vertit 20 


In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castaeque damn^^m Minervae 
Cum populo et duee fraudulento. 
Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae 25 

Famosus hospes nec Priami domus 
Perjura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit, 
Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves 30 

Iras et invisum nepotem 

Troica quem peperit sacerdos 
Marti redonabo ; illum ego lucidas 
Inire sedes^ dncere nectaris 

Succos^ et adscribi quietis 35 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 
Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus qualibet exsules ' 
In parte regnanto beati ; 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

[19. ineesiui] Literally, 'uncbaste.' 84. ducere nectaris^ Many MSS. have 

PiiTis was an adulterer. C. i. 15. 19.] * discere/ and Porphyrion explains it, "aa- 

21. er quo'] The fall of Troy was de- suescere saporibu» nectaris." But * suc- 

tennined from the timc of Laomcdon^s cus ' means juice, not ilavour, and to that 

crimc. aense * ducere ' is well suited. Tlje same 

23. danmatum] Bentley conjectures mistake appcurs in some of thc M8S. in 

«damnatam,' lest there should bc any Ovid (A. Am. iii. 353) :— 

4«ibt whether Horace meant to say * llion „ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ j^,.t„g 

«mmatom, or • pulverem damnatum. I ^^ ggj^^^ i» ^* 

do Dot think there can be any doubt. The 

ftminine form • Ilios ' occurs in £pod. xiv. Dillenbr., among otlicrs, has 'discerc ' [and 

14. [Bitter follows Bentley.] Keller.] I do not like it at all, in thc faco 

25. adulierae] It ia doubtful whether especially of the very common use of * du- 

tlni is the d%tiye or genitive cate. Doe- cere,' in this scnsc of quafiing. So the 

lisg thinka the former ; Orelli the hitter. Greeks uscd cAxciy and oirav, both of which 

ffi. rwMMgif] * Repek.' occur in one verse ofJCurinides (Cyd. 417), 

■f 'prodiioere and 'protrahere/ aro 

■ign wdl known. ['Besedit,' from 35. quietiM ordinihue — deorum] This 

'nridlre,' meusi ' haa settled down,' * sub- savours of the Epicureanism Horaco had 

■M,' as ia Virgily 0. ii. 480; Aen. vi. leamt in early life; ** deos didici secnrum 

«y agcre ao^um.^' (S.i.6.101.) [«Adscribi:' 

tf Troica] There is no authority for the usual word for expressing addition to a 

'ThMt/ hnt Bentley adopts it here and in list or roll, as ' adscribere in civitatem or 

CiL6.14;alioJaniandFea, the wayhaving civitati,' to enroU a man as a citizcn.] 

WmkdbT HdDnoB. lliere is much scom 40. Priami — buHo] Priara had no tomb 

iBJaiio'g jangiiageyasin theworda^mulier according to Virgil (Aen. ii. 557), but wo 

pcngriiM,''^nnoicancerdosi»' 'fatalisincea- need not quarrel with Iloracc for that. 

toiqw judezy' 'ezfnles.' The whole plaiu of Troy, says Dillcnbr., 

9L redonaho'] Thia word occurs only was in a souse his tom)). EWctra rcprc- 

hat and in C. ii. ?• 3. sents Aegisthus as IcHpiug on her l'athcr*s 



Insultet armentum et catuloe ferae 
Celcnt inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulffens, triumphutisque poBsit 
Roma ferox dare jura Medis. 
Uoireiida late nomen in ultimas 
Esttndat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secfrnit Europeii ab Afro, 
Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus,. 
Aurum irrepertum et sic melius eitumy 
Cum torra celat, spernere fortior 
Quam cop?rG humanos \n usus 
Omne eacrum rapiente dextra, 
Quicunque mundo tenninuB obstitit 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens 
Qua parte debacohentur ignc$i, 
Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 
Scd bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii 
Rcbusquo fidentes avitae 
Tecta velint reparare Troiae. 


Ter si resargat murus aeneus G5 

Auetore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis, ter uxor 

Capta virum puerosque ploret. 
Non hoc jocosae conveniet lyrae : 
Quo, Musa^ tendis ? Desine pervicax 70 

Referre sermones deorum et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 

from Homer (II. r?i. 482) : — saying, " necessaria est lane haec emenda- 

-Hp,K 5i »po<r^««r. Matnyy^rryi'' &Kox6y tio : nusquam enim aeneus tmyllabon apud 

^f^ # » /v veteres poetas invenias (nisi forte ubi prave 

ediderunt pro ' aereus '), sed ubique est aut 

66. mnrtui a«««M«] Horace b partial to «aSneus' aut *aenus."' 

tbia epitbet. See Epp. i. 1. 60: 'Hic 66. Auctore Phoeho] Bentley would 

mams aeneos esto;' and C. iii. 9. 18; and like to cbange 'auctore' into 'structore.' 

16. 1. It means no more than strength but would not objcct to 'ductore,' bccause 

and stability. QelliuB (ii. 3) says it was Horace says elsewhere, 

written 'ahenus,' the aspirate being „ DOtiore ductoe 

introdnced in this as in other words ^. muros •" 

which he mentions for no other reason ' 

" nisi ut firmitas et vigor vocis quasi qui- and Virgil says (Aen. i. 423), ' pars ducere 

bosdam nervis additis intenderetur." 6ut muros.' Horace might as propcrly say 

as he applies the same remark to * onera,* * auctore Phoebo,' as Virgil * Troiae Cyn- 

'onustum,' «lacruraa' (which he writes thius auctor ' (Q. iii. 36). 

'lachryma'), we must suppose that the 69. Non hoc jocotae convenief] The 

MSS. he followed were none of the best. MSS. vary greatly in these words: «haec 

Bnt his remark confirms Bentley^s on S. ii. conveniunt' is the reading of most editions, 

3. 183, where he deserts the received read- * hoc conveniet ' of most MSS., including 

ing ' aat aenens,' and adopts * et aeneus,' the Beme and Blandinian. 


About A.u.c. 728. 

Panniing his parpoBe, Horace here commends the powcr of wisdom and leaming in 
■abdoing brote force and violent passions. If a.u.c. 728 be the year in which Horao^ 
net with his accident (C. ii. 13), this ode could not have been writtcn before that ycar, 
fiar tbe cireamstanee is referred to in v. 27. The expcdition intcnded for Britain, but 
torned againat Spain, took place that year, and secms to Franke to be alluded to in the 
lODth ftanzA. A Parthian expedition was in contemplation at the same time. The 
iBmions to violent mcn unrestrained by the Muscs appear to the same writer to have 
icfereDoe to Coraelius Qallus aud M. Egnatius Rufus, both disaffected men, the fonner 
of wbom deatroyed himself, and the lattcr conspircd against Augustus' lifc, both in tho 
•bove yetr (Dion. Cass. liii. 23, 24). This may or may not be true, but it is consistcnt 
vith tbe notioD, which some chronologies are not, that all thcse six odes were written 
iboot the Mme time. That Horace was still a frequenter of Baiae appears from v. 24. 
'btk wiwa he wxoCe Epp. L 15, which was probably composed a.u.c. 731, he had been 
Middoi bj tlie doctor to go there, which Franke aUo notices as limiting the date of 




Comc [lown, CalUopr, nnil *!ng > lofly «train. b it n dream, ot un I mod 
Hnece' grovi:'i' I h*u h child, >[id tiroil vith pia; I Uy doiva to ilecpoii 
hillB. ThiTG davee inade me a covering of leaves, anii I ilcpC aafe, and 
w«ll wondpr how the god» were prcicnt with tno. YourB hid I, ye Mi 
Sabine hill», at Tihor, at PrBBnoate, or at Uaiae. BeHinse I lovo jonr fo 
joar chair I ptriitliu] not wLcn the battle wiu tnmed. nor by the accnn 
in tbe Sicilinn HutcrB. Bv ye with lue and I wiU vitiit tbc mad Bneporu 
of the Eniit, tbe savage Briton, the Conon, tbe Geloni, und tbe Tjuaii 
Ve rctVesh Aufpistu* wben ho bring» hack his wenrj tnxtp» from tbe wai 
your counHclis and ia pcace U youi delight. We knuw honr that bolil 
etmck teiTor into the heart of Joie j but wliut waa their Mreagth agiiii 
of PallB» ? Twaa that wbich drovo them bact, thongh Yulain too. ani 
Apollo wilb his biiw, were thm. Bruie force falla aelf-distniyed : the 
violcncc, but temjieml ■trcngth they promDte: let Oyas be niy wilneai 
snlucLT. Eurth mouruing for ber soob, Aetua with ever-barnlug aod n 
llumc, thc vultore of Tityus, nud the clialiu of Pciritiioos. 

DEsrKXDE faelo et dic aj^e tibia 
Ref,nTia long^m CalHope melos, 
Seu voce nunc niaviB acuta, 
Seu fidiljus citharaque Phoebi. 
Auditis, an me ludit amubilis 5 


Texere, mirum quod foret omnibus^ 
Quieunque celsae nidum Acherontiae 

Saltusque Bantinos et arvum 15 

Pingue tenent humilis Porenti, 
Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis " 
Dormirem et ums^ ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 

Non sinc dis animosus infans. 20 

Vester, Camenae^ vester in arduos 
Tollor Sabinos^ seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste seu Tibur supinum 
Seu liquidac placuere Baiac. 
Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 25 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non exstinxit arbos, 
Nec Sicula Palinurus unda. 
Utcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem navita Bosponim 30 

Tentabo et urentes arenas 
Litoris Assyrii viator; 

remains the difficulty about the ftrst syl- vii. 779) : — 

lable. As tothe passaee in Juvenal, S. iv. .<>n, n. j.* v i.* • • i. • 

27, • Apulia vendit.' sel Macleane, 2nd ed. " Colhs apex medn subjectiB imminetarvis: 

" Quid mnlta ?" «ays Ritter, " pro ' Apu- ^^"°'' ^' 

liae* Mnnbendnm est 'Daaniae'='Apnlae,' 'Sen' is nnderstood aft«r 'vestcr.' The 

tnadentibus Duntzero et Paldamo." Keller epithet ' liqnidae,' applied to Baiae, ez- 

has ' nntpris ■ . . Uinina * PulliagJ Horace's prcases the cleamess of the atmosphere. 

Borse, I snppoee. His notc shows the varions (Epp. i. 1. 83.) 

attcmpts to mend the verse; some of [23. Praeneste] 'Gclida Prneneste,' 

them as absnrd as they can be. See C. iii. Jnv. S. iii. 190, because it was sitnated 

21 4 n.] The diflference in the quantity high, Aen. vii. 682. * Tibur ' is ' pronum,' 

of the first sylluble of ' Apulo * and ' Apu- Juv. S. iii. 192.] 

fiie' is not singular. The word Sicanus 27. Devota—arhos'] SceC. ii. 13. And 

k Qsed as three differcnt feet. Italns has as to Philippi, C. ii. 7. 9. ' Devota,' 'cursed/ 

tbe fint syUable long.or short. Newman. Comp. Epod. xvi. 9.] 

11. Lmdo fatigatumque tomno'] Some 28. Nec Sicula Palinwrut unda"] Ho- 

oQier word like ' oppressum ' mnst be un- race's escapc from shipwreck off Cape Pa- 

dattood fbr ' somno/ It is a translation linurus is nowhere else rclated ; and his 

fif «^tiry iZ^K^rts ^i icaX Zrv^ (II. z. biographers have bcen mnch perplexed as 

K). Adierontia, Bantia, aud Forentum to the pcriod of his life to which it ought 

«m neighboaring towns, and still retain to bc refcrred. A snggestion which has 

tlieir names under the forms Acerenza, been pretty conftdently put forth (Class. 

Binzi. Forenza. Stories such as Horacc Mus. li. 205), thnt Horace was with the 

kis bere invented for himself are told of expedition against Sex. Pompeius, 

Steridionu» Findar, Aeschylus. Plato. 718, in which many vessels were lost off 

That wbich Pansanias fix. 23) tells of Capo Palinurns, is incousistent with the 

Fbdar is rerj like this. silence which Horace always maintains on 

riS.jnkMl/ore#] 'Tobe a wonder.'] the subject, and it is most improbablc. 

17. l^^-itonMrMi] This is connected Acron's comment b of no value : •' Rede- 

«ith 'Biiram;' 'how I slept.' nntem se Horatdns de Macedonia pericli- 

tL Ibfiorj Orid Qsee the word (Met. tatum didt.'' ' Sicnla nnda' for the Tus- 


Visam BritaDnos hospitibus feros 
£t litetuin eqitino sanguine Concanum, 
Visam pharetratoB Gelonos 

Kt Soythicum inviolatue amnem. 
VoB Caesarem altum, niilitia simul 
Fessas cohort«B addidit oppidiB, 
Finire quaerent«m labores 
Pierio recreatis antro. 

iD Dnusaal liiDlCation. It must 
)t'r>uiiiki] nitli MaTc Siculuni. 
I I^kliuurui 011 tlic wpatcrii cDiut of Lucania 
i> Cupu di l^BtiDuro. 

31. urfnlrt^ llitre U a reading • aren- 

ta.' Arron mul ' ureiites,' a» it uppesn. 

J Fi)DrofUnJli'itli««t M)^S., withtbe L«idcu 

I of thc tentli centDr^, Lave tlie aame. He 

it Hs lcsi uliusr, uid bectiuN' sll 

w drj, but all do not lium u the 

I Syrinu Uitoh doei. Thcre is nnt niacli in 

■ ' aT^ment. ITie pjirticiplc of n tran- 

re vcrb ia not coniinunlj uud aa an 

I ejiithet hy Huracci unil if 'arcntcs' is 

""" '^. ia not ]i*s idle tban 'arcntea,' 

cntlcj, LainbinuB, and Croquii; 

nais, Don.] 

38. addidit'] Tbe MSS. api 
ftluKWt eigukUj diTided betwceu 
ing and tico oUiors, ' abdidit ' > 
dit i' Bod Bentloy, witb Fea uh 
prefcra the Uit. In A.i:.C. 
the oonqaeat of the Sahtssi (1 
135 aad Dion CaseinB liii. 31 
tua *MigDcd tbeir terrilory to w 
pmctinian troopi, and lliere 
Auguata I^nctoria {Aosta), and 


ir of ' 

loniao Cuptia atqne Nuceria ai 



Vos lene consilium et datis et dato 
Gaudetis aljpae.*" Seimus^ ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmine sustulerit caduco, 
Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat 
Ventosum, et urbes regnaque tristia 
Divosque mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 
Magnum illa^ terrorem intulerat Jovi 
Fidens juventus horrida brachiis, 
Fratresque ten^entes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 
Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 
Quid Rhoetus evolsisque truncis 
Enceladus jaculator audax 




(with Zeus), are all rnixed up topether \u 
tbe deflcription which follows. virgil has 
given a description (Oeorg. i. 279 sqq.) 
where the Titans (Coeos and lapctus), 
Typhon and the Aloldae, are brought toge- 
thor with little distinction. But neithcr 
Horace nor Virgil was writing a mytholo- 
gical history, and in this description of 
Horace there is great power. Aeschylus 
(P. V. 358) : 

a\A' ^\$€¥ abr^ Ziiphs iypviryov $4\os 
KttTai0denis K9pavyhs iicwyiuv ^xiya, 

wbere «orou^Tiii expUuns 'caduoo.' (See 
C. iL 18. 11.) 

[45. ineriem] Ck)mp. * bmta tellus/ C. 

46. wrbeM] For thia Bentley nnautho- 
med •nbatttntes ' nmbras.' A (Ustinction 
iidrawn by aome between 'temperat ' and 
' Kgit,' as if one only applied to inanimate 
objeetiy the other to gods and men. But 
taere la no sneh distinction in C. i. 12. 15, 
vhere ' temperat ' govema * res hominum 
le Deorom/ as wdl as 'mare ac terras 

50. Fiden» juventus horrida] Orelli 
piefin taking 'horrida' with 'brachiis.' 
I tlunk it sbonld be taken as an epithet of 
'jnventas,' leaving *fidens' to govem 
'nachus' as a participle. It appears to 
be an imitatioii of Homer^s x^h^^'^^'^ t<to<- 
«^cs (n. xiL 185}. [< Hla,' < those hor- 
rible joatbi»' the giants, as Ritter remarks, 
of whoai Honoe ia now going to speak.] 
'FidoM»' nBUk adiective, is UMd in a good 
"^^ in a bad, according to 

Cicero*8 definition (Tusc. iii. 7), " Qui fortis 
est idem est fidens, quoniam confidens, 
mala loquendi consuetudino, in vitio poni- 
tur." So Horace describcs Persius as a 
man " confidens tumidusque " (S. i. 7. 7). 
Silius has (Pun. ii. 154), " Sed fisus latis 
humeris et mole juventae." The brothers 
Horace speaks of were Otus and Ephialtes, 
the sons of Alo^us, whose ezploit of piliug 
Pelion on Ossa in their attack upon Olym- 
pus (of which legend some have not failed 
to see the origin in the building of Babel, 
— see the uotcs of Myrcillus and Farneri 
on Ovid, Met. i. 151. 155, Burmann*s 
quarto edition) is first mentioned by Homer 
(Odyss. xi. 314) :— 

"Otraay iw* O&X^/xiri)» ftdfiaffay 0ifi€y, au- 

rAp ^ir* "Offff^ 
UliKioy iifyoeri<pvWoy, ti^ oifpayhs &fi$a- 

rhs ttri. 

Virg. (Georg. L280):- 

" £t coi\jurato6 caelum rescindere fratres, 
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam 
Scilicet, atque Ossae frondosnm imponere 

where *frondosum' explains Horace's 
' onacO.' Ovid (Fasti, iii. 441) inverts the 
oraer, and puts Pelion uppermost, as Ho- 
race does : — 

" Ignibus Ossa novis et Pelion altior Ossa 
Arsit, et in solida fixus Olympus 

In the fifth book of tho Fasti (v. 35 sqq.), 
he attributes to the hundrod-handed giants 
Briareus, &c.> the exploit which the oldest 


Contra iionant£iii Palladis a^da 
1'o^scnt nientes? Hioc avidus stetit 
Voloanus, hinc matrona Juno et 

Nunqiiam humeris positurus arcum, 60 

Qui ron: puro Costalioe lavit 
Crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta nntalemque BilTam, 
DfliuB et Pntareus ApoUo. 
Vis conBili expers raole ruit Bua : 65 

\ im tcmperatam di quoque provehunt. 
In miijus ; idem '>dere vires 
Oranc ncfas onimo moventee. 
Tcstis mearum centimunus Gyae 
Sententiarum, notus et integrae 70 

Tentator Oriou Diauae 
Virgiuea domitus sa^itta. 

i|>ii< to thf Aloldne. Thme Yiri- ietX^aait ravra tif TiSi/itw. 

(.nlj- « (.rtli DotiL-mg as they help . Ljriae dninrta ' Bre the wood» 

,!mt tlie ItoinaDs srt httlc v»luo tai», n town in Li-i-ia, n-hare Ap<«. «n,! (mly iwhI tliwu M ,i. monthB nf tlic ji«T m ba ] 

"■'■■'■' "•■■" *■■■■* -■•■- ■ t Del(B (ii(?mrdinf! to 1 


Injecta monstris Terra dolet suis 
Maeretque partus fulmine luridum 

Missos ad Oreum ; nec peredit 76 

Impositam eeler ignis Aetnen^ 
Incontinentis nec Titp jecur 
Beliquit ales^ nequitiae additus 
Custos; amatorem trecentae 

Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 80 

74. Imridum] For the meanings of this lns make Typhon or TypboSas thc ofiender 
wonl, which is perhaps a contraction of on whom Aetna was kid. CallimachuB as- 
* livoridtts,' and akin to ' lividus/ see For- signs this punishment to Enceladus, and 
cell. and C. iv. 13. 10. also to Briareus. Which version Horaco 

75. nec peredif] AeschyluB, in the place adopted does not appear. 

q^Qoted ahove, speaks of — 78. nequitiae additut] * Nequitiae ' may 

Tcrro^i wvpbs idwropr.s &yptats ypdBois m^n 'propter nequitiam* by a Greek oon 
rqf KaXXucdpirov 2(KcXlas Kwpovs yvas, 

Pbdir (OL iv. 7. Vjfh. i. 19) and Aeflchy 

Tii, KoXJwcdpwov 2iK,\ias X^vpohsyi^s. «^ction, or it may be put for ' nequam,' 

'^ tne cnme for the cnminaL 


A.u.c. 728. 

Tbere wonld seem to haye been generally prevalent a feeling of soreness and im- 
pitieQce mider the disg^ce, so long nnredeemed, of the reverses sustained in Asia by 
theSoman arms under M. Crassus and M. Antonius; and this feeling it appears to be 
otne«^§ purpose in this ode to allay, and to discourage any hope or desire for the retum 
tf tbe Ftfthian prisoners. This desire Horace seems to impute to a degenerate spirit, 
od tbe itoiy of Regulus is introduced apparently to call back men's minds to the 
ttudard of a fbrmer generation. An honourable death, he tells them, is better than a 

&boiioiinible slavery, and a virtuous fame is more to be cared for than personal safety. 
Hie nstul inscriptions, " In hiudem Caesaris Augusti/' " Ad divum Augustum," &c., 

io not xepreeent the purport of the ode, though it is introduced with a flattering 

pnphecy of the emperor^s success in the expedition he had probably just entered upon, 

vhidi WM that notioed in the last ode. 


lofe is in heaTeii ; Angustas shall be a god upon earth whcn he hath subdued the Briton 
ind the Fenuan. What ! can a Roman forget his glorious home and live a slave with 
the Mflde ? 'Twas not thus Regulus acted, when he saw the ruin a coward's example 
woold bring on those who should come after him ; and he cried, " I have seen our 
standards hnng on Punic walls ; our freemcn bound ; their gates unbarred ; their fields 
aU tilled. WiU the ransomed soldier come back more ready for the fight ? Ye do but 
add rnin to shame : the dyed wool recovers not its fair colour ; and so virtue once lost 
evea not to be lestored. When the freed hind fights the captor, the prisoner released 
ihaU eope agarn with his foe» he who has cried for mercy and made peace for himself 
on the battle-ildd: O shame ! O Carthage, exalted on the fall of Rome !" Then ho 
pnt away Int wift and his children ; and fixed his eyes upon the ground ; strongthened 


wnTmii(j minds of thp ffith(!r«; and ilcpnrtfd among weeping frlen 
e. Aiiii Il."ii-li lickntwtlif lonnenw tlmtBHiiitcdliim.liepularideli 
iiilt us ('ulmly uB ir hc vcn ^iiig dovrn to liia home uC VeniLfrum or Ti 

Caelo Tonantem credidimus Jovem 
Refrnare : pracsens diviis habebitur 
Ati-^ustits mljectis BritanniB 
Impcria fjravibusque Persia. 
Milesne CrasBi conjug* borbara 5 
Tiirpis raaritus vixit et hoBtium, 
Pro curia inversiqiie"mores ! 
Conseniiit socerorum in armis 
Siib re^e Mcdo Marsus et Apulus, 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 
Oblitus aetemaeque Vestae, 
Incolumi Jove et urbt! Roma? 

f-rennare'witli'Ci.elo,-maltiDg'To- coujni " (Aen. yiiL 688). Tbu d 
rm furceof tha Borial. [Ritt«r ai- onljhiidnot 'conEubinni' wilh 
rea C. 1. Si.] ■ P™e*cnB.' whi.-l. dei>end on • torpi»-' _It i» dilE. 

CARMTNUM TIl. 5. 155 

IIoc cavcrat mens provida Reguli 
Dissentientis conditionibus 

Foedis et exemplo trahentis 16 

Perniciem veniens in aevum, 
Si non periret immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. Signa ego Punicis 
Adfixa delubris et arma 

Militibus sine caede^ dixit, 20 

Derepta vidi ; vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo brachia libero 
Portasque non clausas et an^a 
Marte eoli populata nostro. 
Auro rcp^sus scilicet acrior 25 

Miles redibit. Flagitio additis 

■ «fc where Jore'8 temple Btood. (Sclio- 17. Si non perirei'] There \b no autho- 

*■*•) rity for the rcadiug * perimit/ which has 

15. exemplo trahentit] Horace means becn proposed. The fuct U, tlmt the two 

to »7, that RegoluB had foreseen the dan- first linos of the Alcuic stanza are com]K)!K>d 

8wtopo«terity of a precedcnt which should of two sepamte meaHures, the trochnic «nd 

f*||ctkm the parchase of life upon dis- dactylic ; and though Horace usually cm- 

"JDoorable terms. ' This the far-seeing ploys a spondeo instead of the second tro- 

Bnd of Regulus guarded against when he chee, he does not do so hcre, nor did the 

^foieA to agroe to diBbonourablc concU- Grecks invariably : M^e AIcaoiiK (Fr. 19 

tiOBfl, and drew from such a precedeut a Rergk), rh 817 Srf icvfia rwy ir poTtpup ifw 

pnGageof min upon generations to come.' SWx'** ^^ (^r. 85) ov xp^ KaKoltri Ovfioy 

'Sumplo trahenti' was the reading Cru- 4xirp4irriv, UpoK6ilfoft€v ydip ohHiy iLffdfifyot, 

fiivs' ocholiaat followed ("adferentiinfu- 21. Derepta vidi] Lambiuus first cor- 

temm pemiciem rd pnblicao "), though no rectcd 'direpta' against all the MSS. he 

HS. follated in modem times has showu was acquainted with ; for which Cruquius 

tkitretdiDg. Lambuius and Bentley adopt quarrels with him, and thinks 'dircpta' 

it, tiioogfa tbe latter preferB ' exempli tra- will do very well. The remark made on 

^ti%'tliegemtiveof quality. [Kellerhas 'dimoveo' in the note on C. i. 1. 13 (sce 

'trthaiti/] I tbink the reading I have also note on C. 1. 17 of this book) applies 

fQlIowiedy with Orelli and all the old edi- equalIyto'diripio.' llie differcnce is clearly 

tioiis^ and moat of the modem, is correct. marked in Tacitus (Ann. i. 20) : " Dircp- 

'R BOD periret' ii the bypothetical exam- tisque proximis vicis ipsoque Nauporto 

de from wbich the apprehenBion is drawn. quod municipii instar erut, retinentes ccn- 

DiQeiibr.andotherBmake 'trabentis' equi- turiones irrisu et contumeliis postrcmo 

valent to 'qni traberet,' 'Bceing thut be verberibus insectantur, praccipua in Aufi- 

«onld hw his example bring.' But the two dienum praefectum castromm ira, qucm 

partieiplei oonplea by 'et' cannot havc dercptumvchiculosarcinisgravant.*' Again 

tbe ■amfieation one of the indicative and (c. 23), " Tribunos tamcn ac praefectum 

theotheroftbepotentialmood. TbeOreek castrurum extrusere; sarcinae fiigicutium 

example qnoted by Dillenbr. from Plato^s dircptac." ' Deripere' is to pull down or 

Critoa (pu 48) has no force here, inasmucb off, 'diripcre' (C. i. 9. 23) is to pull in 

aB the Qreeki were able by means of ftv to pieccs. The MSS., which are perhaps unuui- 

ihovthepoteiitialor hvpothetical bearing mous in favour of 'cUrepta' hcrc, fuvour 

ofapwtin]ileuidaToidconfuBioi». Plato'8 'dcripere' in other placcs (sco Index). 

VQroi are^ vmw ^iets kT0Kri¥r6yrw koX [llittcr has ' dircpta.'] 

ht fi tt M nniUpe» '/hwfl oTol re ^cgy, where 2d. Fortaeque non clausas] Compare 

tiie fint pertidple ia eqniYBlent to ot &«-o- A. P. 199 : " £t apcrtis otia portis." ' Marte ' 

wi w fayi, flnd the aeoond to hy^fikAvKoyro belongs to 'populata.' See C. i. 6. 2 n. 

hr, bvt withoat ^ it conld only signify ot 26. Fl<igitio additie damnum] Franke 

k Buggests that it may havc been proposed 


Damrmm: neque amifisoB colores 
Liina rtift^rt mediuuta fuco, 
Ncc vera virtus cum eemel excidit 
Curat rcponi deterioribus. 
Si pugnat extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis 
Qui perfidis se crcdidit bostibus, 
Et Martc Poenos protenst altero 
Qui liira rcstrictis lacertis 

Scnsit iiiers timuitqiic mortem. 
IIlc inide vitam sumeret inscius 
1'accm duello miscuit, O pudorl 
O masiia Karthago, probrosis 
Altior Itaiiae ruinisl 
Fcrtur pudieae conjiigiB osciilum 
Parvosque natos ut capitis minor 

■lurcbase the libertj Df the priaonerv- »e*e dedere' maj o 

' «Drda iiro ■ jeareadding TnUchicf sgainat all the MS8.. 

-e;' anil from whut lollowi it «coWace dcrived from 

m that tht' mimiliitif vroald nrixe nnd tbe pasaige 1 bm 

the epitli 


Ab 86 removisse et virilem 
*■ Torvus homi posuisse voltum : 
Donec labantes consilio patres 45 

Firmaret auetor nunquam alias dato^ 
Interque maerentes amieos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 
Atqui sciebat quae sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen ' 50 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos 
Et populum reditus morantcm, 
Quam si clientum longa negotia 
Bijudicata I^ relinqueret, 
Tendens Venafranos in agros 55 

Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum. 

equvilent to 'capite minutus,' one who indulgcnce for prisonerB of war, they were 

ui Qodergone a ' capitia diminntio,' or deterred bv the magnitade of the ransom 

*damnatio,' which is a change in a man's asked for Hannibal'8 prisouers from listen. 

anfition as a dtizen. The ' maxima capi- ing to their envoys. The vacillation of the 

tiidaiunQtio' implied a loas of liberty, seuate on that occasion resemblcs their 

tlie TBdaction of a citizen to a servile oon- behaviour as Uorace representa it in the 

^itioo. Other ezamples of ' capitb minor ' case of Regulus. 

vc not qooted, nor ia it easy to explain Theautheuticity of thestoryof R^^lus, 

^ ooosbnction of 'minor' with a geni- as far as ooncems his interview with the 

ttre. The only thing like it is * miuores seuate and his retum, is not duubted. llie 

vigintiqain(]Qe annomm ' (Papinian. Dig. horrors of his death have been questioned. 

^•2.6. Pand.Flor.). Wefind'nimius'used [Horace foUowed the commou Roman 

ib^' nimius sermoniB,' ' ezcessive in talk ' story .] 

(^ S. 12. 6 n.), and so ' miuor capitis ' 52. reditus'] Dillenbr. ezplaius the plural 

>ajr inean 'defective in respect of hcad, to siguify his frequent attempts to shake 

w ii^ dvil station.'] Livy says the Ro- oflf his friends and retum. It is rather 

■ni alwayt wanted compassion for their used to avoid the recurrence of a final 'm.' 

Miioldiert taken xn war (zui. 61), " prae- 63. Quam si, ^0.2 Than if he had been 

tercumplom civitatis minime in captivos settling a disputc, as patroni were wout to 

jun iade antiqaitxu indulgentis, pecnniae do between their clieuts, and was going to 

(^ioqiie samma hominea movit :" i. e. be- his country-scat at Venafrum or Tarentum. 

uia the nsual habit of the citizens, who (Compare C. ii. 6. 11.) 
^nm the eailieat times showed very little 


About A.u.c. 728. 

i^theformer odes are addresscd more to qualities of young men, this refers more 
cqtedaUy to the Ticee of young women, and so Horace discharges the promise with 
*ludi thii leriei of odes begins. The state of female morals at the time Horace wrote 
«•t probaUy not ao bad as it became shortly afterwards, though his picture is dark 

Ib T. 18 tliere ta an aUumon to the battle of Actiura, which makes it evidcnt that 
tUt ode WM written after that event. There is no clue to the datc but this, and we 
Wuj finly ■■wiiiiii that it was written about the same time as thc others of thia aet. 



Un jDn will he viaital jonr fatliers' pnllt, O Romnns, nnlcH ye «hnU n»(an 
iind Bcknon'lt:d^ thc mrercigii power of the godt. Alr«ud; huve thej 
lund; twicc thc Purtliian liBth chwkpd onr anui, Lhe harUiriin h>t 
doHtroyed n* in the midat of onr strifo, the age ii bo full of shamelM» i 
ImciviooNieM. Notfronnnch parenti were horn the contiDeror» of Pyrrhui 
nnd HanniliHl, tho maolj oBiprlug af •oldiera who had handled the 
riirrieil th? fs^t. Sa dotfa time spoil bII Ihin^. Onr bthpn were 
futhen, noT we ■« they ; and our childrcn ituill lie irone thui onraelrea. 

Det.icta miijorum immerituB lues, 
Romane, doiiec templa refeceris 
Aeilesque labeotes deorum et 
Focda nigro simulacra fumo. 
Di= te miuorem quod geris imperas : 6 

Hinc omre prinftpium, huc refer exitum. 
Ifi mulUi iiegleeti dederunt 
HeEporiae mala luctuosa^. 
Jara bis MonaescB et Pacori manuB 
"Son auspicatos contudit impettis 10 

Nnstrori et adjecisse praedam 
"s renidet. 



Paene occupatam seditionilfts 
Delevit Urbem Dacus et Aethiops^ 

Hic<;lasse formidatus. ille 
MissilibHs melior sagittis. 
Fecunda eulpae secula nuptias 
Primum'inquinavere et genus et domos; 

Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque fluxit. 
Motus doceri gaudet lonicos 
Matura virgo et fingitur artibus ; 

Jam nun» et incestos amores 
• De tenero meditatur ungui : 



of that name recorded in history was a 
Parthian noble who fled from Phraates to 
M. Anton^os, and, thongh he retarned to 
the>king, we do not hear that he fought 
against the Romans. It is therefore con- 
jectnred Aat Monaefles here means Surenas, 
which is not impossible. Monaeses bcing 

* a cominon Parthian name, Sorenas may 
hare 8een so called, for Surenas was a t^tle, 
•s Ztxsimns says. Estr^ (p. 269 sqq.) dis- 

«CQ9ses what he considers the historicsLl dif- 

fiiulties of the passage, and concludes by 

baxiishing the stanza altogether : " Stropha 

Jaiec quae niminm diu interpretes decepit 

exolabit me judice ex carmine Horatiano." 

Peerlluunp hi^ passed the same sentcnce 

OQ it before. Horace plainly alludes, per- 

baps withtet strict accnracy, to the defeat, 

fint of Cr^sns, and then of M. Antonius, 

i^ WBS twice defeated, first through his 

legate Becidins Saza in 714, by Pacorus, 

■ad fbor ytihrs later when he cpmmanded 

.n pcnoD^ at wbich time however Paconis 

vas dead. All the Scholiasts say that the 

Mats allnded to were those of Crassns 

• ind Saxa, whot^ name appears, as we now 

^ kre their text, nnder the disguise of De- 

eiiis*8extQflv except in Cmquius' Scholiast, 

«lio giT|fi the q^e correctly, all but one 

^Uable, Didios for Decidius. ' Kon auspi- 

cifcos' is the nsual way of accounting for 

• defeat, by laying it to the neglect of the 
tospioei. Bentley, not liking ' nostros non 
iospicstos impetus,' prefers, from one MS. 
of Prisdan'B, < nostris/ the dative, but sug- 
gots as a variebf < nostrorum/ 

12. TtwkdefX Forcellini explains this word 
^ 'gandere, 'laetari.' The word is some- 
tuMs nsed for smiling, and as it scems to 
be anotiier ibrm of < niteo,' the lighting up 
flf the &oe through plearore, is Uie origin 
pctlttpa of tluf diuriYed sense. 

14i Dmw «< AtMiof9\ Aethiops is 

Egyptian. See Introd. [The 'seditioni- 
bus ' are the quarrel between M. Antonius 
and Octavianus Caesar, in which the Ko- 
mans and thc provincials sided with one 
or the other. Ritter supposes that 'Dacus' 
rcfers to thc campaigus of M. Crassus 
against thc Daci A.U.O. 724 and 725.] 

20. In patriam populumque'^ Bcntley, 
in one of tho longest of his notes, proposes 
'inquc patres' for <in patriam.' But the 
words 'in patriam,' &c., are a common 

21. Motus doceri gaudet lonicoi] The 
lonian was a voluptuous dance which 
thc Sicilinns in particular used at the fcs- 
tivals of Diana. th Zl *\oi¥iKhv *Apr4ftt9t 
wpxovpro 'S.iKiXiwToi fiAKiara (Pollux, 
quoted by Tumebus Adv. iv. 21). The 
MSS. vary bctweeu 'fingitur artibus,' 'fin- 
gitur artubuB,' and 'frangitur artubus' 
[but thero is little authority for * frangi- 
tur.'] The first reading is (among othcrs 
quoted by Lambiuus and Cruquius and 
Bentley) that of OreIli's oldcst Bcme and 
Ziirich MSS. It is that of the Venetinn 
copy of Landinus (1483), (except that 
'fingitur* is by a misprint 'figitur,') and 
Lambinus, Bentlcy, and most modem edi- 
tors bave adopted it. ' Artibus ' mnst bo 
a very old reading, for Porphyrion, who 
with the othcr Scholiasts preferred ' artu- 
bus,' givcs a note to caution readers against 
'artibus.' •* Ariubus legendum ; quiu non 
venit tt nominativo artes sed artus." Never- 
theless it has becn pointcd out by Lam- 
binus, that * fingitur artubus ' for ' fingitur 
artus ' is a very nnusual and hardly admis- 
sible construction. ' Frangitur artubus' is 
opcn to the same objcction. The true 
rcading, I believe, lics betwecn 'fingitur 
artibus' and 'frangitur artibus.' The lat- 
ter has no anthority, and I am not there- 
fore disposed to adopt it on my own ; but 

'•*r- . CARklNUM III. 7. J6I 

• • • • 

' . Sed mtsticoram mascuta miltum 
Froies, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
• Versare glebas et severae 
• *• Matria b^ arbi^um recisos 40 

Portare fustes, sol-ubi montium 
* MutaretHimbras et juga demeret 
Bqbus fatigatisj amieum 

Tejnj^us agens abeunte curru. 
Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? 45 

Aetas parentum pejor avis tulit 
Nos nequiores^ mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem. 

tfithu naTis cnxa mandsta eet " (Dig. 14. yiii. 2. 9, quoted on C. ii. 12. 8.1 

\.1.§1). > Institor' was a shopman or [85. inffentem] * Ingentem opibns et ex- 

UKuigei"^qai tabemae locove ad emen- ercitibos/ Bays Ritter. It may be so. In 

dmDTeDdendamvepraeponitnr.quiquesine C. iv. 9. 19 ' Idomeneus' is 'ingena.'] 

Vwo ad eandem actam praeponitnr " (Dig. [41. Portare ftutet] ' The yonng Cala- 

14. 3. lS).*The ' institor' therefore was an brian peaaant, after hoeing the gronnd all 

igent and he might be a sli^ve. [Ulpian day with no better fare than bread and 

*iyi» "Institor appeUataa est ab eo quod water, seasoned with a clove of garlic, 

B^goUo ' gerendo inst^t."] The ' ma- an onion, or a few dried olives, does not 

fPiiter' might be a degpree higher, but presume to present himself before his 

^ was osually a person who received mother without a faggot of lentiBcus or 

*^ thoagh the ' magister' might also othcr wood» which he throws down at the 

^owner; or the owner might allow him door ere he oflTers to pass the threshold.' 

pvt of the tonnage to trade on his own Swinbume*s " Two Sicilies," i. 836.] 

, wcQQnt, as is common now, and he might — eol uhi^ There are not many poets 

l^riehywhich the 'institor' could not, ex- who could incidcntally have ezpressed in 

, ttpt |r]r robbing his employer. Thero seems so fcw words, and so graphically, the hour 

^ be opposition between 'iustitor' and of evcning, for I am inclined to understand 

'■igister.' and the indiscriminate prosti- that time to be meant, and not noou, as 

^Btion of these women to any coarse fellow, some suppose. Conip. Epp. (i. 16. 7) : 

' !^^r !!?^ ^*" ***^^' ^™* ^ ^® ^°" " JLaevum discedens curru fugiente va- 
ttBOM. The ' magister' of a Spamsh trad- poret ;" 

9f 'VeMel, even if be were rich, must have ^ «r. '/n i •• ^m 

«.^««lly.towwrtofpeilwii. Comp. and V'rg- (Ed- "• 67) : 

%od. zvii. 20. " ^^ ^^ crescentes decedens dupucat imi" 

31 ImfieU oeqHor'] See C. ii. 12. 3 n.; bras." 

nd QQ <dinim/ which Bentley admits The last stanza is a very solemn and com- 

Wr, lee the verae before that. ' Cecidit' prehensive conclusion to these siz stirring 

> ued with tome latitude. [Ritter refers and instructive odea. 
to tUs paange the remark of Quintilian» 


l^ idea of thia graeeful ode is that of a young girl lamenting the absenoe of her lover, 
«l» if goae on a trading voyage to the Euzine. The names, as usual in these compo- 
•tioiis, are fbreign. Gyges is Lydian. The time is winter. The lover is supposed to be 
M hia voyagr bome and detained on tbe coast of Epirus, whither hehad been driven by 
tbe aootheriy winds which prevailed at that scason. He is waiting for the spring to retum 
There is great timplicity and beauty in this ode. Orelli reckons it among Horaoe^s 
Wbether H ia original or a free copy from the Greek we cannot determine. 




W-ep not, Aiteric ; Ojp*. i.^ftithful nnd wUl retnm with the ipring ■ ri. 
hostew, » trjing lo Kilnc* him. uid friglit.m hin. «ith MArin or ngec 
gnlknt ndgLbaar. Shnt tbj dooTs nnd Usten DOt to hii iong.. 

Qm» flea, Asterie, quem tibi cftndidi 
Primo restituent vere Favonii 
Thyna merce Wum, 
Constjmtie juvenem fide, 
Gyg^n ? Ille Notia actus ad Orioum s 
Post insana Caprae Bidera frigidflB 
Nocti-s non sine multiB 
Insomnis lacrimis agit. 
Atqui sollicitae nuntiuE hospitae, 
Suspirare Chloen et miseram tuis 10 
Dicens ignibuB nri, 

Tentat mille vafer modiB. 
Ut Proetum muljer perfida credulum 
Falsis impulerit criminibus nimia 



Narrat paene datum Pelea Tartaro^ 
Magnessam Hippoljten dum fugit abstinens ; 
Et peccare doqentes 

Eallax historias movet. • 20 

Frustra : nam scopulis surdior Icari 
Voces audit adhuc integer. At tibi 
Ne vicinus Enipeus 
Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 25 

Aeque conspicitur gramine Martio^ 
Nec quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo. 
Prima nocte domum claude neque in vias 
Sub cantu querulae despice tibiae, 30 

Et te saepe vocanti 
Duram difficilis mane. 

20. FaUax Mstoria» movet'] MostMSS. 

bave * monet' [and Keller]. 'Mentionem 

movere' occnrs in Livy ; • cantus movere* 

in Virgil ; * carmen movere' in Ovid [and 

'jocam movere' in Sallust, Cat. c. 25]. 

'Historiaa movere* is therefore a legitimate 

expresaon, and more forcible than ' mo> 

nere/ In Ovid (A. A. iii. 651) tbe com- 

moQ reading is " Qoid jnvat ambages prae- 

eeptaaoe panra movere?" wbere Bnr- 

mami has adopted 'movere/ after thc cditio 

pnneapa, tbe Aldine, and nine MSS., ob- 

■erring tbat tbe words are often confased. 

'Monet' and 'monet' are easilj con- 

fiNmded. BenUey propoees 'pellax' for 

'fidkz' withoat anthority. The word oc- 

CQiB only ODce, ' pellacis Ulixei ' (Aen. ii. 

90). wbere many MSS. have ' fallacis.' The 

rauing ' peOacia/ qnoted by Bentley from 

Omg. iT. 443, 18 satiafactorily shown by 

Wagner to be wrong. The word is ad- 

■itted mto tbetextof Lncretins (v. 1004) 

by Tiarbmann and other editors : — 

"Nae poterat qnemqnam pUundi pellacia 

Sabdola pellicere in frandem ridentibns 

Bnt, if thst reacBng be correct, tbe word 
■Mas to bare been irregnlarly coined from 
'pdfido' §at tbe oocaaion. It therefore 
of tbe feoae of sttraction, which in the 
of Yirgil bas no place. The 

proper form of the adjective from ' pelli- 
cere' u 'pellex,' the crude form being 
' pellic-'. It is doubtfhl whether * pcllacia' 
any more than ' pellax' is a gcnuinc Latin 
word. [See Conington's note on Virg. 
Aen. ii. 90.] 

21. Frusira'] A complete and very com- 
prebensive sentence. It occurs below (C. 
13. 6). Sonie pcrsons join the word on 
with the last line, which weakens its force. 
[' Icari :' the small rocky island Icarus or 

25. fleetere equum] To wheel the borse 
round in a small circle (Ovid. Her. iv. 

" Sive ferocis equi luctantia colla recurvas, 
Exiguo flexos miror in orbe pedes." 

Tadtus (Germ. vi.) says the German horses 
were not taught like the Boman ' variare 


28. denataf] This word is used nowhere 

else. See C. i. 8. 3 ; iii. 12. 7. 

29. neque in mat] This use of ' neque' 
for ' neve,' in conncxion with the impera- 
tive mood, is not usually noticcd in the 
grammars. It is confined to the poets. 

[30. cantu] There is a reading cantu, 
that is, ' cantum/ which may be right, for 
the meaning perhaps is ' when the music 
begins/ S. i. 1. 10. *Sub cantn' means 
' during the music.'] 

H 2 



Hic dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice dimovebit 
Amphorae fumum bibere institutae 
Consule Tullo. 


the benefit of his lon Marcns, " ot par rit 
m atriiuqaeonitioniB facnltate/' by whicb 
be means not onlj tbe Greek and Latin 
hingnagea, bnt the knowledge of tbings as 
Tiewed throogb both a Greek and Roman 
medinm. Martial, commending bis friend 
Maevios, wboee only fanlt was being a poet 
(a Tery great one he admits), com^imenta 

** Jocandns, probos, innocens, amicna, 
Ldngna doctns ntraqne." (x. 76). 

Hie words therefore ezpreas a man weH 
md in the literatnre of Greece and Rome. 
Soeh an one, §aY the comroentators, would 
be more likely than another to notice the 
leeming anomaly of Horace, the bachelor, 
CBgaged in retigioas exercises on thc day of 
the Matronalia. Elsewhere he addresses 
bis patron aa * Maecenas docte' (Kpp. i. 19. 


Bentl^y finding * sermonis' in most of 

tfae MSS. and we old editions, and in 

Acron*s commentary, and objecting to tbe 

two gvnitiTes 'sermonis' and 'lingnae,' 

noposes to read 'Cihii ' for the latter word. 

Bat ' sermonis' may be supposed to stand 

fbr the accusative. Bentley thinks the 

pencm addressed ought to be named before 

the thirteentb verse ; therefore he prefcrs, 

thoogh he does not adopt, ' Cilni.' 

7. Liberv eaprum propefuneratu*'] Tbis 

last word is not found in any other writer 

eariier than Fliny. He and others ose 

* fanero' for ' to bory.' Horaoe here at- 

tribatca to Liber tbe deliverance he had 

attribnted to Mercary, Fannus, and the 

Mqms saccesftivelv (0. ii. 17. 28 n.). 

10. dimmbiQ SeeC.i.l.ldn. Hiema- 
jorityoftheMSS. here have *di.' If ithad 
beni otherwise, it wonld bave made no dif- 
ference, fbr the MSS. are nnsafe guides in 
teipect to theae compounds. 

11. Ampkoraefumum'} The 'amphorae' 
were kept in the apotheca in tbe upper 
part of the bouse, to whicli the smoke from 
the bath had access, as this was thought 
to faasten tfae ripening of the wine and to 
improve its flavonr, iast as Madeira wine is 
improred by being kept in a warm tempe- 
mtoie. TheanqdKinbeinglinedwithpitcb 
or pbstcr» the maoke oonld not penetrate 
io aa io afleci the flavonr of the wine by 

ii ■Mkj* Horaoe does not mean 

that ; and though Tibullns speaks of smoky 
Falemian (iL 1. 27), be only meana tbe 
amphora : — 

" Nunc mibi fumosos veteris proferte 
Consulis, et Chio vincula solve cado." 

Ovid appliea it to tbe ampbora (Fast. v. 

" Quaeqne paer quondam primis di£fhderat 
Promit fhmoso oondita vina cado." 

But if tbe amphora was badly corkcd or 
lined, tbe smoke would penetrate and spoil 
the wine: whpnce Martial abuses the fuma- 
ria of Marseille, and of Munna, a wine-mer- 
chant there, in particular (x. 36) : — 

" Improba Massiliae quicquid fumaria co- 


Aceipit aetatem quisquis ab igne cadus, 

A te, Munna, venit: miseris tu mittis 


Per freta, per longas toxica saeva vias : 

Nec facili pretio. sed quo oontenta Falerui 

Testa sit aut cellis Setia cara suis. 
Non venias quare tam longo tempore 
Haec, puto, cansa tibi est» ne tua vina 

Colnmelk (R. B. i. 6) says, " Apothecae 
recte superponentur his locis unde plerum- 
que fumus exoritur, quoniam vina oelerius 
vetustescunt quae fumi quodam tenore 
prRecocem roaturitatera trahunt." 

12. Coneule Tullol L. Volcatius Tullus 
was consul A.U.C. 688, the year before 
Horace was bora. The wine therefore bad 
probably been iu tbe ' amphora' upwards of 
forty years. Sulla treated the Romans with 
wine upwards of forty years old (Plut. 
SuU. c. 35), and this is not an extreme age 
for some modera wines. An arophora m 
the British Museum has this inscrip- 

L. OABfllO 

It had tberefore been filled during the 
Jugurthine War, in the year A.u.o. 647, 
wben L. Cassins Longinus and C. Marius 
were oonsola. This amphora was found on 


Sume, Moecenas, cyathoB amici 
Sfspitis centum et vigilee lucemas 
Perfer in lucem ; procul omnifl eato 

Clamor et ira. 
Mitte eiviles super urbe curas: 
Occidit Daci CotiBonia agmen, 
Metjus iiifestus sibi luctuosis 

Dissidct armis, 
Servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae 
Cantabcr ECni domitus catena ; 
Jam Scythae laxo meditantur arca 

Cedere campis. 

of the ancient Leptii in AMoi. But in thii' pLue ther» eonld b 

'□■1[S. V. 34) ■peakaofwii 
-cuju» patriam titulmnqueBtnceh 
i.'vit miiltii vetorib fulijjiiie t«stae. 

Ul9. 9, 10. Sce 'nieoc. i 

produpent lnceniae," wbere ' 
nspanib to 'vigile*' here. ' 
'fi?[Te' unnnDpaDiuled in Aec 
"Aeqnmel noclj Indnin in 

17. Millt < 
■pecting the 1 

'.vHetl See IntrD 

CARMINUM m. 9. 167 

Neglegens ne qua popnlus laboret 25 

Parce priyatos nJTniiim cayere : 
Dona praesentis cape laetus horae et 
Linqae seyera. 

* caTere, efc . . / Bitter fbllows Orelli'8 in- mag^strata popali jnflsa oollato praeditos 
terpretatioD of ' priYatofl^' and adds " nullo neqae certis obstrictas officiiB."] 


Tlus is an elegant trifle (** an inoomparable dialogae," Battmann callB it), ahowing tbe 
procew of reoonciliation between two lovers, in which the deeire for peace appean in the 
midst of pretended indifference, and matoal jealoasy is made the means of re-anion. The 
solgect ooald hardly have been more delicately handled. Whether the treatment of it is 
original or not» it is impoesible to say. It h jast sach a sabject as one might expect to 
find amoDg the erotic poetry of the Greeks. One of Battmann's remarks with reference 
to this ode is well worth qaoting : " The ancients had the skill to constract sach poems, 
so that each speech tells as by whom it is spoken ; bnt we let the editors treat as all 
oor liTce as schoolboys, and interline snch dialogaes after the fashion of oar plays with 
the names. To their sedality we are indebted for the altemation of the lyrical name 
Lydia with the name Horatins in this exqoisite work of art ; and yet, even in an English 
poem, we shonld be offended at seeing Colin by the side of PhylliB." Sach offence 
the ofBdoosness of editors has already obtraded apon tbe readers of that poet ; and tho 
practioe, which jastly offends the good taste of tbis disceming scholar, had probably its 
origin among Horace^s vexy earliest transcribers. Like other anaathorized interpreta- 
tacMia» it takee away from tlieartistic character of Horaoe's poems, and substitates for it 
a sopposititioas roUity at variance with the passionless tone of the works. As works of 
sldn they are very elegant : as works of feeling they mnst always rank low. 


Wlule tboa didst love me better than all the world, no prinoe was as happy as I. 
WMIe Lydia was dearest to thee of women, the name of Ilia was not so noble as mine. 
Chk)6 the sweet singer is my qaeen : for her I woold gkdly die. 
GilsSs loves me and I love him : for him I woold gladly die. 

What if the M love were to anite ns again» if Chlod were cast off and tnmed trom my 
' door, and I opened it to Lydia agidn ? 

TkNigfa OalsiXs ifl handsome, and thon art fickle and passionate as the stormy sea, I 
iioiild five and die with thee. 

DoKBC gratus eram tibi 

Nec quisquam potior brachia candidae 
Cervici juvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 
Donec non alia magis 5 

Arsisti neque erat Lydia post Chloen, 

[S. 90<Mrl *Breferred.' SeeEpod.xv. Bentley adopts, thinking the copyists 

Uw ftitte.J woold have omitted the ' m ' in conseonenoe 

S. «lMil8QaMMBS.haTe 'aliam,'which of the same letter coming immediatel.v 


Miilti Lydia norainis 

Romana vigiii clarior Ilia. 
Me nnnc Thressu Cbloe regit 

Pulces dMta modoa et citharae scicns, 10 
Pro qiiu non mytuam mori 

Si ijarcent animae fata superetiti. 
Me torrct liiw; mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti, 
Pro (juo liis patiar mori 15 

Si jiarccot puero fata SQperstiti. 
Quid si priscu redit Venus 

Diductosque jugo cogit aeneo, 
Si flava e\(-otitur Chloe 

Rtycctawjue patet janna Lydiae? 20 
Quam([uam eidere pulchrior 

Ule estj tu lcvior cortice et improbo 
Iracundior Hadria, 

Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens. 

■wanlfl, rather tliaii have insertfd it. thfl yolte,' which m]ght be ad 
Jlth^iiksJH=t th,'U-y:T'o. Kitlicrci.m- doublL- mistructionuf -jugo '« 

CARMINUM III. 10. 169 


Thls ode is snppoaed to be sxing by a loTer under the window of his mistress, 
who on a cold night reftises him admission. It is what the Greeks called a frapaicXav' 
triBvpov, This spedes of serenade was so common among the Greeks, that we may 
sQppose Horaee had some poem of the sort in his mind when he wrote this. The thir- 
teenth ode of the foorth book is nominally connected with this ; bnt as there is no 
necessity for soppoeing, nor any likelihood, that Horace wrote this ftom his own 
experience, so neither is it likely that he wrote that to tannt in her decline the girl 
wbo is snpposed to r«gect his addresses here. There is something IncUcrons in Jani^s 
^tress at the vimlence with which Horace oonld ftnd it in his heart to attack a 
woman he had once been so fond of. 


Were Scythia thy dwelling-plaoe, Lyoe» this indement night shonld move thee to pity 
me. Hear how the wind howls ; see how the snow lies freezing. Venns loves not 
pride : the rope may break and the wheel mn back ; thongh nothing bends thee, 
ndther presents, nor prayers, nor tbese wan cheeks of mine, nor thy hnsband's faith- 
lessness, thongh thon be hard as the oak and cmel as the serpent, yet as a goddess 
have pity ! Flesh and blood will not stand this for ever. 

ExTREHUM Tanain si biberes^ Lyce^ 
Saevo nupta viro, me tamen asperas 
Porrectam ante fores objicere incolis 

Plorares Aquilonibus. 
Audis quo strepitu janua^ quo nemus fl 

Inter pulchra satum tecta remugiat 
Ventis, et positas ut glaciet nives 

Puro numine Juppiter ? 

1. TamaiM #t hibere9\ This is the way this passage already, * strepitn.' Bcntley 

tf ipeaking adopted in C. ii. 20. 20 and iv. changes ' Tcntis' into * sentis' without an- 

1&.21. [The Tanais (Don) was the limit thority. It is easy to snpply 'vides,' or 

tf the fleogmphical knowledge of Horace ' sentis,' or any other word more appro* 

b €Be dnreetioii. ' Extremus ' is the Greek priate than < audis.' One verb of sense is 

^[•m.] For 'porrectnm,' Bentley reads often made to serve for two or three. But 

'llRJcelum' here and in two other places Horace says elsewhere "inclinaremeridiem 

(jEpol X. 22; Sat. ii. 3. 112), with no autho- sentis" (C. iii. 28. 5) ; thcrefore, says Bent- 

%i bot relying, as he always does, on the ley, ' sentis' is the true reading here, a kind 

^ of tbe woxd by other writers. ' In- of reasoning which is inconclnsive. For 

^ Aqnikmibns' are the north winds those whowill not admit *sentis' for *ven- 

thit have thdr home in Scythia. tis,' Bentley suggests <en' for *et,' and 

I. iwwKg ] Small trees were sometimes *audi' for 'audia.' For *satnm,' which is 

fhnted roond the impluvinm of a Roman the true reading of the Beme, Zilrich, 

wBie. ' fiemogiat veutis,' * echoes back to Blandinian, and other old MSS., others 

tlie winds their howling.' Orelli, who takes have * situm ;' and such was Porphyrion's 

'vcBtis' to be the ablative case, quotes from reading, and the oommon one, till Bentley 

^ligQ "gemitii nemns omne remogit" edited 'satum' after Cruquius* Scboliast. 

(AaL xiL 722). Bot even if * gemitn' is Bentlcy substitntes *duro' for *puro,' wbich 

the ablitive, «od not the dative (as it may latter is an epithet well suited to a clear 

be), bi thttt pliec^ we liaTe one ablative in frostynight. Again, 'Inmine' istaidby Lam* 


Tngratam Veneri pone Buperbiam, 
Ne current-e retro fuiiis eat rota. 
Non tc Penelopen difficilem procis 

Tyrrhenus gcnuit parens. 
O inuimvis neque te muncra nec precea 
Nic tiuctiis viola pallor amantiuDi 
Ncc vir Pieria pellice saucius 

Curvat, snpplicibtis tuis 
Parcas, nec rigidii mollior aeECulo 
Neo Mauris animum mitior angnibus. 
Non boc semper erit liminis aut aquae 

Caelestis paticns ktus. 

ifl M9S. jou bc tl.n 


"'" "■ Fuiii»( ot »d quurtuui det 

■ iiiiin' jKinB equnm." 

■ ■'< iiifregi But tliB proper roiding there i 

I '■i LiiiHwers 'fuLiHlisi quartum;' Kud 'funia' 

... I U-,it wca- 1>air tliis menninp. Tlie 'fun 

't Iji^iiwn: wna □□eof tbow wbicb wcTc uu 

CARMINUM III. 11. 171 


Tbe common inscription Ad MEBOUBiiTif, adopted by Bentley and othen, U plainly 

wron^, and calcolated to mislead. The inecription Bhonld be ad tbstudinbm, if auy 

tbiiig ; for Mercury disappears after the first two versea. The miracles alhided to, 

exccpt Amphion'8, were those of Orpheus» and of the lyre in hb hands, not Mercory^s, 

^hich Orelli not peroeiving contradicts himself. The ode is of the same cUus as the 

two Ust. We have no means of tradng the original if it is a oopy, and there is no 

clue to the date. 


Mercory, who didst teach Amphion to move stones, and thon, lyre, once domb, now wel- 
come at feast and festival, tune me a strain to which even Lyde, thongh she be free 
ts the yooDg colt, mnst attend. Thon charmest tigers, woods, streams, and hell's 
bloody Kntinel, and Ixion, and Tityus, and the danghters of Danafi. Let Lyde hear 
of thdr crime and pnnishment, and how one was mercifbl and spared her young 
bosband^s life, saying, '* Rise np; begone, lest the sleep of death overtake thee. They 
biTe spnuig upon their prey. My heart is not as their heart. I will do thee no 
b^. Let my father do with me as he will, yet go thou while night and love protect 
tbee. Farewell, and when I am gone engrave a word of sorrow on my tomb.' 


Mercuri, — nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo^ — 
Tuque testudo resonare septem 

CaUida nervis, 
Nec loquax olim neque grata^ nunc et 5 

Divitum mensis et amica templis^ 
Dic modos Lyde quibus obstinatas 

Applicet aures, 
Quae velut latis equa trima campis 
Ludit exsidtim metuitque tangi^ 10 

Nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo 

Cruda marito. 
Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere et rivos celeres morari ; 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 15 

Janitor aulae 

[S- rm%ar€ . . . Callida] See C. i. 1. docere,' 'emetere,' 'keve/ ' insolabiliter,* 

W D.] * defingere,' * vepaJlidus.' (See Index.) It 

10. txtuUim] This word is not found does not follow because we have no other 

clwwfaere. The words &ira{ \€y6fAtya in cxamples of these words that Horace had 

Honeeare 'aUaborare,' 'tentator,' 'exsul- none. ['Bivos . . . morari:' compare C* 

tim,' 'inaodaz.' 'immetata,' 'fkustitas/ L 12. 9.J 
'bd h o w is/ ^KpgkgnnB,* 'inemori,' 'pro- 


CprlieruB, quamvis furialc centum 
Miitiiant aufiuefi cajiut ejus atj^ue 
Spiritus tct_cr ^ianipgque manet 

Ore Irilintiui. 
Quin ct Ixiini TityoBque voltu 
Kiwt invito, stetit uma paullum 
Siccu ilum ^rato Danui puellas 

Carniine inulces. 
AurJiat LyJe seelus atque notas 
Virf;inum poenas et inane lympbae 
Doluim fundo pereuntis imo, 

Seraque 1'ata 
Quac mruient culpas etiam sub Orco. 
Inipiae, — nam quid potucre majus? — 
Imjiiac sponsos potuere duro 

Pcrdcre ferro 1 
Una de multis faee nuptiali 
Diffna pcrjurum fuit in parentem 
Splcndidc mendax et iu omne virgo 

Nobilis aevum, 



Non times detar; soeerum et scelestas 

Falle sorores, 
Quae velut nactae vitulos leaenae 
Singulos eheu lacerant : ego illis 
Mollior nec te feriam neque intra 

Claustra tenebo. 
Me pater saevis oneret catenis 
Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum in agros 

Classe releget. 
I pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae 
Dum favet nox et Venus, i secundo 
Omine et nostri memorem sepulcro 

Scalpe querelam. 




37. Surge, qmae dtxW] Ovid has bor- 
Towed aU bnt the words of Horace in Hy- 
peniuiestra*8 letter to Lyncens, one of the 
most touching of his poems. Her. xiv. 

** Snrge age, Belida, de tot modo fratribus 
Kqx Ubi ni properas ista perennis erit." 

43. nec — neque"] Bentley says that 
Horace always varies these conjunctions 
when tbe metre will let him, not putting 
• nec — nec/ or • neque neque/ if he can 
help it. Hero he has good MSS. for and 
against his assertion. In the first line of 
the next ode, however, the MSS. are neai'ly 
all against him. 


Tbis ode represents a girl Umenting to herself over a love she must not indulge. The 
nngority of editions have supposed that the poet is himself addressing Neobule, and 
Laznbiniu waj%, " haec ode est freipatptriK^i seu irpoTptxTiK^fi, id est ad suadendum et ex- 
hQrtandam," the meaning of which is not very clear. The way I understand the first 
and ita connexion with the second may be seen from the Argument. Some sup- 
tbat Neobnle vg contrasting her own condition with that of others. ' Miserable are 
tlie women who cannot indulge in love and wine ; for thee, Neobule, it is othenvise.' I 
do not qnarrel with that interprctation, but prefer the other. There is a fragment of 
Aleaeos (68 Bergk) that may have belonged to a poem which furnished the materials 
of thii ode. Some have assumed it to be a free translation from Alcaeus' poem. There 
if nothing more to judge from than this fragment, which runs thus : ifi^ BtlKw, ifi^ 
srau«iSr mtueerirmp 9§94xoiffay, which line, as fkr as it goes, is in favour of the interpre- 
tafeian I have given. 


Poor wamen ! we mnst not love, we must not drown care in wine, or a cmel guardian 
•eolda m to death. Alas ! Neobule, thou canst not spin nor work for love of Hebrus, 
•o beaotiftil as he bathes in the waters of Tiber, a horseman like Bellerophon, unsnr- 
paaaed in tlie eombat and the rac^ in pierdng the flying deer or catching the lurking 


MrsEiiinuH est neqiie amori dare lodam neque dulo 
Miila vino lavere, aut esanimari metuentea 

Patruiie verbera lin^iae, 
Tibi quatum Crthereac puer ales, tibi tclas 
Optropaeque Minervae studium aufert, Neobule, 

Liparaei nitor Hebri, 
Simul unctos Tiberinis humeros lavit in undis, 
Eques i[}so mclior BeUerophont*, neque pugno 

Neque eegnj pede victus; 
Catus idem per apert^um Tugientes agitato I 
Grege cervoa jaculari et celer alto latitantem 

Fruticeto eicipere apmm. 

Fatmaf-'^ Compnri? (SBt. ii. 8. B8> 7. Simtr^ ■ Soon m ■ !■ sn ot 
lAi palrunn mili;." On tlie form eqniralent for ■ wheuevBr," hi 
ri',' Fie.' C. iii. 4. Bl n. bi»™ thBt «nse here. Thela. 
'ivalum] Waol-liaslict. TliiB ia per- Bfllfrophonte ia long- as fvym 
mi imitatioii of Sapijho : [■ Simul :' ree C. i. \i. 87.] 
, , , ,, , , 11. a«ol ThereisaDotherra 

V 5;..7.<. „1,. ,^.^ z: -A,,.- iirvroPdei^zrnii^:^ 

ilTo. (!»1. Berpii). ^^^ ,^t„_. „„d ,„ rfid ,,;, s, 
ii»iie Senbnlc. \i fi^imil jn ono of Ar- Acron. I)illenhr.pref.-ra -lUlo 

CARMINUM III. 13. 176 

Tlie ode ib an addretn to a fonntain, a common eubject enongh, and we need only 
rappose that the naroe was sng^^ted to Horaee by the rccollcctions of bis childhood, 
Britboat imagining him really on the point of oflTeriDg sacrifice, or being in the neigh- 
bourhood of his birth-place when he wrotc. It has something of the nature of an epi- 
^nunma or inacription, and is among the choicest of Horace's small pieces. 


Fair foantain of Bandosia, thou art worthy of my libation and of the kid that shall fall 

for thee to-morrow and dye thy cold strcam with his blood. Thee the snmmer^sheat 

pieroeth not; cool is tby water to the flocks and herds. Thon too shalt be placed 

among the fonntains of fame when I sing of the oak that hangs from the rock wbence 

Uiy babbling waters spring. 

O PONS Bandusiae^ splendidior vitro, 
Diilci digne mero non sine floribus 
Cras donaberis haedo 

Cui frons turgida cornibus 
Primis et venerem et proelia destinat ; 6 

Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 
Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
Nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile 10 

Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 
Pies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem 

Saxis, unde loquaces 15 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 

i' tpJendidiar vitro'] On thense of glass for the constellation Canis Minor, known 

^ tli« ancients whicb was long a matter by tbe Komans as Antccnuis, and by the 

of £ipate, bnt is now generally allowed Qreeks as UpoKitoi^, heeanse its rising 

to IttTe been brought by them to some precedes that of tbe Canis Major l)y a fcw 

I poftetioD, see Smith*s Dict. Ant.« art. days (in July). See C. iii. 29. 18. Bat 

'Vibnm.' Canicula is another name for the well- 

[i, JiarHms] Some critics connect this known star of the firHt inagnitude in the 

vord with ' mero/ and placc a comma after head of Canis Major, called by the Grecks 

it I think *non sine floribus' belong to ^fipios. See Pliny (N. H. ii. c. 47), *'Ar- 

«int fcllowi. Bat the reader may choose.] dentissimo aentatis tem])ore exoritur Cani- 

6. Fnutra] See C. iii. 7. 21 n. culae sidus, Sole priniani purtem Leonis 

9. atrox kora Canivulae] From its di- ingredieute, qui dies xv ante Ang. Cal. 

BiinntiTe fonn Canicola is taken by some est.' 


Mmg yc 



A.u.c. 729 or 730. 

i ode hM bcrn nmuiBdvrrteil upoii pretty WTerelj^, tnS even rtjected 
e uDpqiui] tu the occBBiou it was writt«D for. It mBynot be oneof E 
was Gvidcntly onty n privBtc bITbu'. It waa compoMd iit the close c 
vur. A.r.c. 729, nhFn Augwtus' rctum wu eipccteil, or on hii retiu 
sr. He waa dctained by illneu at Tnrmco. Franke (jives, &«n 
!nt of nu msmptioD ivhicb malieii it «ppear probKble t!iat AugnitnB i 
Bud returacd in the summcr of 730, iu uhich yeai C. NorbuiOB 


ICserarh returning r CDuqaOTor from Spaia, O ;-o pcople, he wbo bnt jort wt 
Uerculca to thc tirld, liet hii chaste wife und tiiter go forth (o offer ■ 
tlic niHtraii9. wbilo tlie youug soldiora and their bridea Btaud rerereiitl 
will kccp haliday ; fur I am uife wbile AugHBtuB ib lord of the world. 6 
bey. nnd cnntmciit. und my bost uld wiuc, nnd go bid Ncacrai coiue : if 
jiurttr ri'fuRe thee. coToe Bnay ; I hsve no miud for atrife, ttiough I mig 
bome as much in tlic lif jiIbj of inj youth. 



Yirginmn matres juyenumque nuper 
Sospitum. Yos^ o pueri et puellae 
Jam yirum expertae^ male ominatis 

Parcite verbis. 
Hic dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximet euras ; ego nee tumultum 
Nec mori per vim metuam tenente 

Caesare terras. 



Tmicis Sabinis" (C. ii. 18. 14), as if 'tinictis' 

Ittd the force of ityainrr6s, as that has of 

*iimciu,' *' aya^yiT6s enim praeter quem 

afios non datar, at eam philosophoram 

princepsoculam monocali dyonrr^Jfdixit" 

(HeiiBiu», Exercit. Sacr. in Marc. i. 11). I 

donotagree with Dillenbr. Pkatas (Cap- 

tiT.i.2.47) has "Tibi enim anicost, mihi 

ctiuQ Tuiico magis anicas f* and Catallas 

(73), "Quam modo qai me anam atqae 

^icom amicam hubait." 

^juitU operaia saerW] The MSS. 
JBTbetwecn •aacris' and 'divis.' The 
htter ii the reading followcd by all the 
^oliasti, and nearly all the editors till 
«otley. Dillenbr. sapports the Scholiasts 
««dretds «divis,' thinking that «sacris* 
«Bore likely to have crept in from a gloss 
*^'divi8.' [Kellcrhas 'divU.'] [Livy 
« (i. 31) ' operatam sacris.' * Laetis ope- 
^ in herbis' (Virg. Geoi-g. i. 339) ex- 
P'*» the pUce of sacrifice. Tiballus, ii. 
*• ^ ha« * operata deo pubes discumbet 
JjJ^ttba/] Ladies of birth appear to have 
2* «Ungaished on these occasioos from 
Jjedromen by a wreath, which explains 
Itaus (i. 6. 67) : 

"Sb modo casta doce, qnamvis oon vitta 
loBpediat crines nec stola longa pedes." 

^ penons forming the procession are 
'Bppned to be the wife, and Octavia, tlie 
m» of Aognstas, and the mothers of the 
^^ikn who bad retomed, and of their 
^'oviig wivet» who are represented as look- 
Bg on leverentially at the thanksgiving 

9.y«oeiMrM] Thisand 'poeri' both mean 

^ loldierB, as ' Tirginom ' and * puellae ' 

^otiiiDean theirwives. Cunningham con- 

JNtores aad Fea adopts 'expcrtes' for 

'opertae' in order to distinguish between 

*paeUaa' and 'Tirginam.' Dillenbr., oom- 

puiog the other paasages in which ' pucri ' 

omI 'Tirgioea' or 'pa^ae' come together 

(CLfiLL4;iT.1.25. S.i.1.83; ii.3.130), 

tttika tbe worda are a fbrmala for all the 

yoathef Boai9,aiidtbat 'Tinunexpertae' 

means that they had experienced thevirtaefl 
of Augastus. What he says of * pueri * aod 
' puellae ' is not tnie ; aod his way of ac- 
couoting for Horace having written ' ex- 
pertae,' whereas the masculine woald be 
required for his interpretation, will not 
satisfy many, neither is it very intelligible. 
* Virum expertae ' is clearly eqaivaleut to 
'nuper virgines nuptae' (C. ii. 8. 22). 
'Male ominatis' may be pronounced as 
one word, as ' maleolens,' ' suaveolens,' &c. 
[Ritter has 'male nominatis,' for which 
there is good MSS. authority ; but it is a 
badreading.] Bentley proposes 'inomina- 
tis.' All the Scholiasts have 'ominatis,' 
and some of the best MSS. 

14. eximet] OreIIi's B has ' exiget,' but 
all his other MSS. have 'eximet,' aud I do 
not find the other reading quoted by Jani 
or Fca. In C. iv. 15. 18, the MSS. vary 
more, though the majority and bcst have 
' eximet ' there likewise. OrcIIi makcs this 
distinction, that ' exigere ' is more appro- 
priate to express the violent expulsion of a 
good thing, as in the above passage ; ' ex- 
imet,' which he has here, for the quiet re- 
moval of an evil : but he is almost inclined, 
out of deference to his MS. H, to coutradict 
himself, and read 'exiget* here. * Eximet' 
is a better word, I think, in this place, and 
'exiget' in the other. 

— tumultum Nec mori per vim'] 'Tu- 
multus ' aiid ' vis ' are well-distinguished 
terms. When some would have softened 
tho terms of the decrce of the senate against 
M. Antonius by substituting the word 'tu- 
multnm' for 'bellum,' Cicero told thcm 
they did not know the meaning of the 
words : " Putest enim esse bellum sine tu- 
multu, tamultus esse sine bello non potest. 
Quid est enim tumaltus nisi perturbatio 
tanta ot major timor oriatur ? unde etiam 
nomen ductum est tumultus. Itaque ma* 
jores nostri tumultum Italicum, quod erat 
domesticus ; tumultum Gallicum quod erat 
Italiae finitimus; praeterea nullum nomi- 
nabant. Gravius autem tnmultam esse 
quam bellam hinc intelligi licet qnod bello 
vacationet valent, tommta non Talent." 



I pete ung^uentum, puer, et coronas 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spiirtiicum ei qua potuit vagantcm 

Fallcrt tcsta, 
Dic et ur^utae properet Ne&erae 
Murreum nodo cohibere criDem ; 
Si per invisum mora janitorem 

Fiet, abito. 
Lenit albescenB animOB capilluB 
Litium et rixae eu]>idos protcrvae ; 
Ntin cffo hoc ferrem calidus juvenfa 

Coiifiule Planco. 

in beUo i 

dnnl. et«i ad snlatem L-oinuiunem dwi (cn- 
tiunt." TumultUB wiw "a mddeD ri«ing 
ur hmtlle deRiuDstnition," aa Mr. Lang 
aajH ou the alwTe pd»(ag¥. ^ Via/ ' vio- 
lenop," wna eilLcr 'publ!i«' or 'priTsta,' 
■ud the distiiiction lietwwn the two will 
bo foond on n-ferring- lii tbe article ■ Vii' 
n Smitlrn Diot. Ant " ' ' 

CBloitamque t«iiet bellii aodu 

Tlie ' endUE.' ' teato,' mnd > 1111 
name* for the «□>« reoeL 

[19. Si7«o] If qa»'l8th( 
it 18 msdc long contmy t^ 1 
' si.' Bnt it rotij hc the abhLti' 
a eqnivBlent to AaBtir, Kcwi 
Tmtfd ' ttppnMches u ncar Ihi 
WB can rcnder ■■ivutaa:' hii 
m tlie 'i-itbaf 

CARMINUM III. 15. 179 


z- flB> itop to thy mtrig^aes ; for thoa art old and poor, a dond among bright stars, ready 
o <3n>p into thy grave. What becoraeth thy daaghter becometh not thee, Chloris. 
>b«9 may go and beneg^ the yoang men'8 doors : she is in love and cannot help it. 
^'«.'C do thoa go apin; masic and flowers and wine are not for thee. 

UxoR panperis Ibyci, 

Tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae 
Famosisque laboribus : 

Maturo propior desine funeri 
Inter ludere virgines 5 

£t stellis nebulam spargere eandidis. 
Non si quid Pholoen satis 

£t te, Chlori, decet : filia rectius 
Expagnat juvenum domos, 

Pulso Thyias uti concita tjmpano. 10 

Illum cogit amor Nothi 

Lasciyae similem ludere capreae : 
Te lanae prope nobilem 

Tonsae Luceriam, non citharae decent, 
Nec flos purpureus rosae 15 

Noc poti vetulam faece tenus cadi. 

^f9»feni\ He meaiis to ny a poor Bat Heyne and othen oonfonnd all tbete 

*ni vi6 ihoiild be thriflv and mind her persona. Sach, aa Battmann has very well 

*^ mdally if she be old. For < fige ' shown, are the inconsistencies of the mat- 

*^ MS8. baTe ' pone»' which Orelli says ter-of-fiict school of interpreters. [Bitter 

"^giiM. is one of them. He compares Pholod with 

& A Jlf22t« «eMafl»] An old woman in the Sempronia of Sallost, Cat. 25.] 
i0QiB|Hiiy of girls woald be like a cload 10. iymfano^ There are two good wood- 

■titany sky. On the elegy of Hballas cats, one from a painting at Pompeii, the 

*<Btioiiea bcSive (C. i. 83. 7) Heyne has other from a fictile vase, representing the 

ttefidlowing note, which Battmann calls aseof the tympanam in Smith's Dict. Ant. 

|Beoaipr^ieDsible (anbegreiflich) : «Pholod (sab. ▼.). [< Thyias :' comp. C. ii. 19. 9.] 
^ darss <jas aetatu paellas etiam ex 14. iMceriam\ This was a town of Apa- 

^Ritio Dota est abi, C. L 33. 7, aspera lia, now Lncera, in the neighboorhood of 

fvdkCjrramfiMtidit sliam moUem paeram, which was one of the largest tracts of pab- 

*^n- &. 17 eat ea Pholod fhgax. (Jhloridis lic pastare land. 
Mm filiam fbiaBe idem Horatias colligere 16. veiuUm^ Many good MSS. have 

^^ 008, iu. 15. 7> 8." The first of these ' vetala,' and in snpport of that reading, 

Aoioii is a Tirtaoos girl who woold scom which some editors have adopted, is qaot^ 

^ adranees of a pro^gate like C^ras. Catallas (xxvii. 1) : *'MinisterTetali,puer, 

^ leoond is a timid girl as her title Falemi." Bat 'vetak' woald be wiUioat 

'ftgai ' sfaowa. She is aLio ooapled with a force here. Porphyriou, however, read ' ve- 

fMBgChkm» ashandsome as herself. The tahi.' Tlie < m may have dropped oat in 

Aabi of this ode is the wanton danghter the asaal way from the omission of tha 

if • «101011 oU iiiother« Chloris by name. mark over the ' a.' 

N 2 



Aurum per medios ire satellites 
£t perrumpere amat saxa potentius 
letu fulmineo : concidit auguris 

Argpivi domus ob lucrum 
Demersa exitio ; diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos 
Reges muneribus ; munera navium 

Saevos illaqueant duces. 
Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam 
Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 



(p. i. 24. 8 n.). Bat the MSS., except one, 

^Vaps, do not vary. ' Fore enim* is an 

AVipti<»l form of tbe obliqua oratio, in 

tnnsUting which 'they said/ or 'they 

Vnew,' nnwt be sapplied. * Pretiam ' has 

wfemice to the comiption of the goards, 

^ priee at which thev were boaght. Oi*id 

I ipplies the bribe to Dana£ herself (Am. 

! ia.8.- ^ 

* Sed postqoam lapiens in mnnera venit 
PrMboit ipea sinns, et dare jassa dedit." 

10. anuU] Used as ^\9i, llke ** conso- 
«we imant" (C. ii. 3. 10) and "amet 
I V»»B tdspergere " (S. i. 4. 87). 

^l' eoncidit amguris Argivi domit:t] The 
; ^017 ii that of Amphiarans and of his wife 

\ XM^" ^iXov iy9phs iB4^aro rtfA4itrra 
I (Odyss. xi. 327). 

j «"phjle, bribed by Polyneices, indaced 

Jjr hwband to join the expedition against 

Tjjeljes, where he fell, leaving an injunction 

'ith his Bons to put their mothcr to death, 

^liich Alcmaeon did, and like Orestes was 

J^noed by the Erinyes of his mothcr, and 

W fittUly pat to death in attempting to 

9rt poneasion of the gold necklnce with 

vbiefa ihe had been bribed. * Exitio/ and 

^ 'excidio/ or ' exscidio/ is no donbt the 

Inie reading. 'Excidio' with 'demersa' 

voold be an incongraoos expression. Acron 

f^ 'exitio.' Imndinas, AKensius, and 

Croqnioa, among the editors I hiive scen, 

bare the same. Lambinus tbinks it is not 

to be despised, though he lulopts 'cxscidio/ 

aod Bentley adnpta and defends ' cxitio/ 

bot in doing ao writes as if he had thc merit 

of restoring it from the MSS. agaiust the 

jiidgment olf the editors. 

li. JPartMvir Mitcedo'] Plutarch (Pnu- 
lns Aemilhii c 12) says it was Philip's gold, 
Bot Philip, that won the cities of Greecc. 
Aiid CSeero fad Att. L 16) snys, *• Nunc est 
iiAfgctatio nigcns ooaiitionim: in quao 

omnibos invitis trn^t noster Magnns Auli 
filium; atqoe in eo neqne auctoritate 
neqne gratia pngnat, sed qnibns Pbilippus 
omnia expngnavisse dicebat in qnae modo 
asellos onustns auro poesct asoendere." 
Juvenal calls Philip "callidus emptor 
Olynthi " (xii. 47); and Valerius Max. (vii. 
2. 10), " mercator Graeciae." 

15. munera navium Saevos illaqueaiU 
duce*] Thia is supposed to refer to Menas, 
otherwise called Menodorus, the comman- 
der of Sex. Pompeius* tleet, wlio deaerted 
from him to Octavianus and back to Pora- 
peius, and then to Octavianus again. He 
was rewarded beyond his merits. He waa 
a freedman of Cn. Pompeius ; and Sueto- 
nius (Octav. 74) states that Augustns mnde 
him ' ingenuus :' " Valerius Messallu tradit 
neminem unqoam libertinorum adhibitum 
ab eo (Octaviano) coenae excepto Mena, sed 
adserto in ingenuitatem post proditam Sex. 
Pompcii classem." Appian (b.c. v. 80) 
aaya : Mrii^^ivpoy i\B6yra ikf^Sfpov f u0us 
k-wt^vtv i^ kwt\9vB4pov. However, a man 
could only be 'ingennus' who was bom iree, 
and all that Octavianus could do wns to 
confer the rights of ' ingenuitas/ which was 
sometimes done. According to Servius, 
Virgil assig^ him his reward (Aen. vi. 
612 sqq.) : 

" Qnique arma secuti 

Impia nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras, 
Indasi poenam expectant." 
See Introduction to Epod. iv. Forcellini 
quotes only one other instance of ' illaqueo' 
from Prudentius, and one of the passive 
participle from Cicero. ' Irretio/ as Orelli 
says, is the more common word of the same 

18. Majorumquefames] Bentley, after 
proposing to alter *maiorum* into 'ma- 
joris,* or else * pecuniam' into 'peouniaa,* 
m order that both may be of the sanie num- 
ber, comes to the right conclusion at last, 
that 'majorum' has no conncxion with 
' pecnniam,' but is of the neuter gcnder, as 
in Theocritos (xvi. 65), aiu 8i 9\t6vwv 


Late conspicuum tollere verticem, 

MaecGDoa, eqaitum decus. 
Quanto quisque sibi plura ucg^verit, 
Ab dis plura feret : nil cupientium 
Nudus castra peto et transfuga divitum 

Part«s linquere g^estio, 
Contempfae dominuB splendidior rei, 
Quum si quidquid arat impiger Apulua 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 

Magnas inter opes inops. 
Purae rivus aquae ailvaque jugerum 
Pauconim et segetis certa lides meae 
Fulgentem impcrio fertilis Africae 

Fallit Borte beatior. 

fx»' tfpos ittni,. With ' to1U'iv verticem ' 
rompara C. i. 18. 16; uid on ' equitum 
decni' me C. 1. 30. b o. 

2\. Q*anto ^uuqMa liii] Thia teiiti- 

TncDt npproacbea b« near ■■ poiwibte ba the 
fuDdaiiientalruleofChriitiBiletblcs. Tho 
««uracv of tlie picture ia the neit versei 
rouit not ht insiited on too closely. It 

89. Purat rivut agtae'] B 
to thc «miill rivBc Difenti», 
Bdt3'«eC.iii, 1.30n. ■¥£ 
■ Gnwk cotutracljon. XuMr 
ty. PropcrtlHn him (i. 4. 16) 
" Qdo DUfciB ct □oatToi amt 

Hoc Duigii Bdducta fUiit i 



Quamquam nen Calabrae mella feront apes 
Nec Laeiijbrygonia Bacclius in amphora 
Languescit mihi nec ping^uia Gallicis 

Crescunt yellera pascuis^ 
Importuna tamen pauperies abest^ 
Nec si plura yelim tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parya cupidine 

Yectigalia porrigam 
Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa : bene est cui deus obtulit 

Parca quod satis est manu. 



tnn U necesnrj, becauBe there is * fallit,' 
bnt we mnft also take * fhJgentem' to act 

: tl»pwtof'ftilgonti8.'l 

I ^ 38. Calabrae--ape92 See C. ii. 6. 18 n. 

i ^''^soaia amphora' (like 'Sabina 
^^* which was tbe aame sort of yessel, 
v> L9. 7), 'an amphora of Formian wine.' 
Tlte tohahitantB of Formiae rapposed it to 
(K tite Uestrygonia of Homer : 

^f^^l»ir^VU6tu<r$aAdfiov aiwbirrokUBpoy, 
f^hvKuf Amiarpvyowiiiv (Od. x. 81). 

^ Introdiiction to the nezt ode. Ovid 
(M«t xiT. 233) : 

" lade Lami veterem Laeitiygonis, inqoit, 

^ Scboliast on Lycophron (Canandra, v. 

«^) ttva, Aaiarrpvyopfs ol vw Afotrrtyoi, 

^ Ac^n in his note raisee a donbt wbe- 

ther ' Laestrygonia amphora' is ' Formiana 

«Sicula,-' but PUny ^. H. iil 6) write», 

"Oppidam Formiae, Hormiae olim dic- 

^ Qt ezifltimaTere, antiqna Laestrygo* 

M vbB.'* Cicero» writing to Atticns (ii. 

Uj, Myi, <Si vero in hanc rYjAffirvXoy 

"BMri» AaiarpvyoAiiv — Formias dico." 

'Ifligneseere ' means 'to be mellowed by 

ik)N|iiiig.' The Formian wine is men- 

md C. L 20. 11. The pastnre Unds in 

tbe huin of the Po (OaUica pascua) were 

*eiy extenaive and rich. 

ABl Nec siplmra velim] Compare Epod. 

1 81 : '^ Satii soperqne me benignitas tna 

DStant." In what fbllows he says, "I 

Aafl make my small means go fardier bv 

keepiDg my desirefl within bonnds, than if 

I were to join Lydia with Fhrygia (and 

cbD tbem nmie).'' The Mygdoma of Asia 

JfiBor (pait of Maoedonia was alao so called) 

vaanoi vo^ deariy defined, as Strabo says. 

nni Honea ideralles it with Fhrygia 

frm aSL 12.22^ <*-Aat pingnis 

Fhrygiae Mygdodas opes." Clanlian (in 
Enlrop. ii. 1) speaks of the mins of Troy 
as *<Mygdonii cineres." 'Alyattei' is 
the g^tive of ' Alyattens,' another form 
of ' Alyattes' (king of Lydia), as Achillens 
-ei of AchiUes, Ulyxens -ei of Ulyxes. 
Bentley established this reading, to which 
Tan. Faber made an approximation in 
* Alyattii,' seeing that * Ualyattici,' the 
reading of all former editions, had no mean- 
ing, though the editors snpposed it to meun 
Croesns, the son of Alyattes. I do not 
find that there is a reading * Alyattei,' 
bnt it is now generally adopteid. i* Parva 
vectigalia:' Horace's small inoome. Cicero 
nses ' vectigalia' in the same sense. The 
meaning of ' porrigam ' is given in the In- 
trodnction, and the word can have no other 
meaning here. Ritter, following Acron, 
savs 'porriffere vectigalia est darein manum 
colligentis.' But aiter the conqucst of 
Mac«donia (b.c. 167) there was no hind- 
tax (tribntnm) in Italy ; in Cicero's time 
(ad Attic. ii. 16) the * portoria' were abol- 
ished, and there remained no tax in Ittily 
except five per oent. on the value of ma- 
numitted shtves. There was, therefore, 
nothing for Horace to pay. Rittcr re- 
marks that Augustusestablished the ' oen- 
tesima,' or tax of one per cent. on artieles 
sold (Tacit. Ann. i. 78), but that tax would 
not tonch Horace. Further, Ritter*s trans- 
lation of ' porrigere' is inconsistent with 
'continuem' &c., which makes HorHce's 
meaning oertain. 1 omit part of Ritter's 
argument, which requires no notice.] 

42. MuUa petenHbtta] The sume senti- 
ment appears in C. iii. 24. 63 : 

** Crescunt divitiae, tamcn 

Cnrtae nescio quid semper al^est rei." 

' Bene eat ' occnrs again in Epp. i. 1. 89 : 
" Jorat bene sotis esse maritis." 


>!iOTt oiU, C. i. 36. ■nd tb>< t>de wen Mrtuoi to tba mbm penoa 

nii.i vnin-glorious— BBOrt of criticiiio impertineutand unreawnable «a 
n>at ii clear iB no more than thnt LuaiawM it joang inan ol goodbirt 
:liB gena, who wlt» pli!bci>ini, but oruld sunding. Likeother&DiUiei 1 
ikThupi glnd to tntec thoir origin to k fBhaloui luno, nnd belieredtheir 
nun, king of the Laentrjg^oulana, the h>ulder of PonBiae, from wbeace 
>iig™i«i lo Itomi; (sca I>wt ode, v. 33 n). Horace hed evidenlly im k; 
uug man Umia, whooe father vu a fnend of ai:en>, uid dicd rieh. 
jbWo the ode wiu written at hi» lionaa in the conntry, whether at Porm 
probuLilc." u;> Jaui, I don't lee why) or else".-licre. H hus no partic 
inld liave cmt Uurace little Ubour. He uinBt have written mnBy lucl 
been puhlisbed. and tlicBe two odes wcre probablj induded !□ tfae col 
ililimvut to Limia. But tbere i> not the lea>t reaBOn why Honce alioi 
iiot to have been thc aullior of the ode ; nnd thoogb it might do very wi 
, withont the venes 2-5, whieb ftome editora would «trike oot (Jani M 
Epurii sunt," and hna n long eicnrBus to prove it), but no MSS. omi 

.■ms, the rcceivol tcit into conformitj with some atandard wbich i) p 
cnt the min>l and itvle of the author. If tbia sytteni werc not >o com 

.tordabout It. Lainiu hnd a brotherQuintug, whodiedearly, Isthegr 

CARMINUM III. 17. 185 

Aactore ab illo ducis originem 6 

Qui Formiarum moenia dieitur 
Princeps et innantem Marieae 
Litoribus tenuisse Lirim 
Late tyrannus) cras foliis nemus 
Multis et alga litus inutili lo 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Stemet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

Honce wrote. He was consnl 1..D. 8 (Clin- unde emm bonis illis Librariis nnmmnm 
ton, F. H.). Orelli adopts tbe form 'fastoa' tam rarae notae?" And be quotes Virgil 
in preference to * fastoa,' as being, be says, (Aen. iii. 670) : 

r^*^"'"^ ;^'^^'"/ .^r ^ ^^S^ " Vemm nbi nnlla datnr dextra adfedare 
(x. 187); and Pnscian (vi. 14) says, that potestas 

Wb form. have beenfound by him in tbia ^rpotis lonios flnctus aeqnare sequen- 

passage of Horace. The words occur agam j^* ^ ^ 

*m C. iT. 14. 4. ^^- 

5. dmcitl This is tbe reading of all the To Bentle/s tbree MSS. Vanderburg bas 

^^. D. Heinsinsproposedtoread 'ducit,' added a fourtb, also of the tenth centurj, 

to be goTemed by ' genus,' and Bentley " et exstitit haud dubie in pluribus aliorum 

«annly tupports tbat reading. But tbere etiam codd. sed neglectum fuit," says Jani, 

i« 00 necewity to desert tbe MSS. Wbat because he likes a word ** tam exquisitum 

Honce tays is nearly as follows, ' Since, as et rarum." 

itUreported,your early ancestors declared 14. cr<u Oenium mero Ourahie] *Qe- 

^y were descended finom Lamus, and tbe nium curare' is &wa^ Kty^titvov, * nacare' 

ismctnuiitionhascomedownthroughtheir and 'indulgcre' are the usual words. 

*<^(^^e«on in the annals of tbe family, no Mitsch. says, thnt " any miin of politeness 

^bt TOQ draw your origin from tbat dis- will instinctively see that Horace means 

tingmshed «ource ;' in whicb tbere is no- politely to offer himself as a gnest at La- 

thiogiQorethanalittlejocularirony, whicb mia*8 table;" on which Orelli says that 

woQld amose Lamia whether it pleased his sueh politeness is a matter " de qua vehe- 

fiimilyprideornot. Thatthepronoun 'tu' menter dubitare licet." The commenta- 

l^bt to appear in opposition to ' priores' tors bave with their usual accuracy done 

UDoargnment a^rainst 'ducis.' Tbe poets, their best to detcnnine whether Lamia 

"^li Utin and Greek, often omit tlie per- was going really to offer sacrifice to his 

^^ prononn, even wben it is wanted for genius, or wliether Horace only mennt him 

^pMsis, as in C. i. 1. 35, " Quod si me to do so ; and also whether * curarc ' can 

^V^ ntibus inseris," where Maecenas is bave reference to a sacrifice, or whether it 

^pbatically addreased; and in C. iv. 2. does not rather mean that Laniia wus 

^ "Condnes majore poeta plectro Caesa- going to kecp bis birtbday next day ; to 

^,** where lulus Antonius is oppoRcd to which again it is objected tbat this could 

Horace bimself. ' Quando et' sufficiently not be, as blood wus not shcd in sacrilice 

oi^ei tbe opposition here. on birthdays ; of which statement anothcr 

6. Formiarum'] See Introduction. satisfactorily disposes (C. iv. 11. 8 n.). I 

7. Marieae lUoribut'] This means tbe leave the reader to exercise bis own judg- 
*bore of Mintumae on the borders of La- ment on the question. [' Quod et menim 
faoffl and Campania, where tbe nymph et porcus bimestris Genio dari nunc dici- 
^arica wos wonhipped. tnr, non satis accurate factum est : nam 

12. aqnae—amgur'] See C. iii. 27. 10, vnlgo Genium vino, Tellurem porco plncti- 

"Imbrium divinaavis imminentum;" and bant.' Epp. ii. 1. 143 — Uitter.] 

Orid (Am. ii. 6. 34), "pluviae graculus 16. operum solutie] This coustruction, 

iQctor aquae," wbere it appears Heinsius like "desincquerelarum" (C.ii.9. 17),and 

propoaed to snbstitute 'augur ' for 'auctor.' other cxprcssions tbere quoted, is similur to 

13. Dum potes] Bentley, from thrce of the Greek vdvoi/ \tKv/x4vois. [Coinp. S. 

liis ddest MSS., introduced *potis' for ii. 3. 27.] On these constructions Pix>f. 

'potea,'tbie readiog of fonner editions. He Key says ( L. G. § 940, and note), "occa- 

tigvU Sf "riiie dnbio ab Honitii incude: lionally verba of removal or separation 


Annoea cornix. Dum pofes aridum 
Compone li^um : cras Getiium meTO 
CuRibis et porco bime§tri 
Cura famuliB operum soktifl. 

c n (tmitive of the ■wlien™' in old ii. 20). "I« perMietmiMl 1 
W-rs .in.t in poetrj." "The legal Isq. Umenti «ilvBt." "Meomnii 
ige herp, a» ia «□ manjr cbm», retaiutd niiD lcva»" is a like cODrtm 
:*5of llieoUran«tnjcti™, Ksin Mibe- bj Mr. Kej from Plwinu. 
e tutelae."" So Citcro tmya (de Legg. 


a di.1 not Wke iila^^e llll Uxe None» of DDCBmber. (8ee C. i. 4. 6 <u>d i: 

i«.B. Tlie oonfusiou of iUb Grwk P«n with the Latio god Fauniu hu 
,rc an.l is well kuo»u. 

inu". come with niercj to my QcldB and depart gentle to mj joang 
vriflre and piiiir lihalions to thee at the f«ll of the yenr. Wben thj 
jiiiiil the old nltnr ■mnkea with incense; <li« Kock» «port in ufotj, Uw 
;8t, nnd the Till.igo i^ pij ; the wood shedB itn lenves. ond the dowi 
aeTnj, the enrth. in the dnncc. 

CARMINUM III. 18, 19. 


Ludit herboso pecus omne eampo, 
Cum tibi Nonae redeunt Decembres ; 
Festus in pratis yaeat otioso 

Cum bove pagus ; 
Inter audaces lupus errat agnos ; 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes ; 
Graudet invisam pepulisse fossor 

Ter pede terram. 



9. LudU herhoio] The ftfti?itie8 of De- 

ciniiber in Honioe'f pleaaant Talley would 

hardlv toit an Euglish May-day. Sevend 

middle-age MSS. have changed *paffn^' 

which stands for Horaoe^g yillage Ifandela, 

into 'pardos,' a monkish frand or blonder» 

to eflfect a reeeniblance between this pasMge 

•ad the prophecy (^ Isaiah (xi. 6), "The 

«olf thall lie down with the lamb, and the 

Irapard shall lie down with the kid/' ftc. 

U does not qnite appear why the wood 

i^ld be aaid to ihed its leayea in hononr 

of Fimiiu : it may be in aorrow for his 

^cputore, or as a carpet for him to tread 

^i or for his worshippers to dance npon. 

16. Ter} "Quod est tripndiare. Ter 

*dri).Tthmimi dactylicnm vel aDapaesticum 

Kttolit" (Scholiast, quoted by OreUi. not 

^wn, Porph., or Ck>mm. Cruq.). It is 

;lttt Sir Jobn Davies (Orchestra, st. 69, 


** Those current trayerses 
mt on a triple dactyly foot do mn." 

He detcribes another which seemi to cor- 
respond to the mstic dance in the tezt : 

" Tet is there one of most delightftd kind 
A lofby jumping or a leaping round : 
Where arm in arm two danoen are 
And whirl themselyes with strict em- 

bracements bound, 
And stiU their feet an anapaest do 
An anapaest is aU their music^s song 
Whose first two feet are short and third 
is long." 

These were the 'oourantoes' and 'kiYoltaes' 
of the Elizabethan age, in which our mo* 
dera dancers may perhaps trace something 
of their art. — * Fossor' is put generaUy for 
a labourer, who may be supposed to have 
no love for the earth that he digs for an- 
other. [* Fosspr' is the namc of the man 
who digs between the vines. ColumeUa, 
iv. 27.] 


^ impetooaity and UveUness of this ode are remarkable. It would be difficult to find 

iB i&j laoguage, I think, a poem more expressive of the freedom suited to the occasion 

^ whieh it was composed, — a sopper in honour of Mnrena'8 instaUation in the coUege 

^iogors. In regard to this peraon see C. ii. 10. Telephus is no doubt a fictitious 

amw^ thoogh Acron caUs him a Greek poet and a friend nf Horace, being lcd to that 

'iifennation as is common with commentators, old and modem, only by the ode itself, to 

*iBdi andoe reality is given. The name occurs in two different odes (C. i. 13 and iv. 11), 

*m1 filbrts bave been made to prove the peraon to bc thc same in each ca^e. In the first 

^ theie he is a "puer furens," with " cervix rosea" and " cerea brachia," with whom 

^dia is passionately in love. Here he is a bookworm givcn to antiquarian and historical 

iMrehes, and in the fonrth book he is stiU young enough to be a rival of the poct with 

PbylUs bis last love. '^Modero oommentators have fiUed up the details of the (SchoHasfs) 

JNctnre. Telephus u made out to be a Greek youth of rank, is fond of unticiuarian studies, 

•nd when be isonee bnried in them is hardly to be tom away from his books, with more 

of th0 same idle babble. Those good old scholars, Gcrard Vossius and Fabricius, never 

dreamt of any thing of the sort, else they would not have failed to enrich their Uterary 

bifltorlH^ in whioli tliqr oarefoUy i tick every name they can pick ap, witb that of thia 


u!. But it loai* rather ill thst thi. .e11-br«i leanied QrefiV, »-ho li 
te Urmt wUh Horaoe, ii never benrd of \a «nv other )iUee. The be«t 
liiD miiy be glenned from tliir otbcr two oies. TeU^phni Ua pocticnl 
1 nsei when it sniti his puqiosc, u herp, for in»l»nce, wben he wanted 

«it denl iibout the nicc of Codnn «nd of Aescus, snd «bout the Tri^i 
0«. wliere, «nd on *hiit wc ire lo dine lo-iUy, von don't say ■ word 
«nn'a opiuion, iind I think nny seiuible man who refleeU on tbe suly 
::eptionB of realily iu bia niind, wiil sgrtc with him. At any nite ■ 
work of truth would be enough for tbe p«rt Telephiii bean in t 
1 ((udBtionii 1'OUJL'cture and time are thrown ■wBy. [Ritter telli oi 

rsce giving hiin thi. n«nie U ■• wonderfii] ■< tbe di«»Terj itMlf. 
nt tbe T.'lc|>liu9 of C. iv. 11 is a dinV'n>nt perbon.] OT the date we c 
written hefore i.r.c. 732, for tba reaHins Btated C, ii. 10. TTie 
(v. 8), and tbe dny Wii» the flnt of the month (probably of the jeai 
nbr. Buii]iories the oile to liiive nriaen out of tbe following sccne. 
ntcr ficiiiiij! li.irLHu i- -illinainaroora with aome friend». They 

nkiii:; "' 1 , II. . .!. M itit. lill at luat Ibe dulneii of tbe eonvcmti 

rvp.iii. ■ ...Hi ilie pni*vpeilantryofsomeoneoftbep« 
iritii : _ ■ - uiii with the contcmptnous binguaga witl 

rin-; ti .::- [:■- ;i'.ii.|.. to lirink. ■ud ects tbem tbe eninpie. ] 

,udi a st-,.Mic lo tlic »U-; th.Te ean he litflB doabt. I tiiink, Umt 
Horuec heiloivei! uiope tlinii avenijte V"""- tliongh tliere ia no ode ii 

t, KB Di1li'iilir,'j viTv Tiivit adnjitation wonld reqnire ns lo «nppoM. 



Qao Chiam pretio cadom 

Mercemur^ quis aquam temperet ignibuB^ 
Quo praebente domum et quota 

Pelig^is caream &igoribus^ taces. 
Da lunae propere novae, 

Da noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 
Murenae : tribus aut novem 

Miscentur cyathis pocula commodis. 


a year which the Jewish chronologr puts 
bdTore ihe diBpenion of mankind, and 
Ta-ou the angnst was reigning at Pekin 
wlule Noah was floating in the ark. 

4. aatro — tub Ilio] Tbis is Homer'8 
epthet, Tpoifis itpbv wroKUBpoy. 

5. Ciinm — eeutum'] Tbis is the same 

fonn of exprpflsion as ** Laestrygonia am- 

pbora," "Sabina diota;" and the vessels 

were aU the same. Compare Tibnllns (ii. 

1.27),qnotedC. iii.ail. 

On the Chian wine see Sat. ii. 8. 15. The 
y^tX foreign wines were Thasian, Lesbian, 
Qiian, Sicyonian, Cyprian, and Clazome- 
uan. Only the second and third are men- 
tiooed hy horaoe, who pnts them togetber 
Ja Epod- ix. 34. They were mild wines. 
I^bisnwas 'innocens' (C. i. 17. 21). 

6> Qiiif aquam temperet ignibut] Tbis is 
«n»iT«lent to • who con give ns a bath V So 
^^wero, writing to Paetns, witb whom he 
J>tt goiog to dine (ad Fam. ix. 16, sub 
■ul), nys, ** ego tibi unnm sumptum affe- 
iiiD qood balneum calfacias oportebit." 
'^br. snppoees Horace to be proposing 
j^pw»f or sjmbola, each person contri- 
"V^ in kind to the entertainment. I do 
gtite that yiew of bis words. [Ritter, 
"lio^ng Acron, expkiins 'quis aquam tem- 
P'«t,*4c., *wbo wiU supply warm water 

8. hUgmt frigarihus'] Cold as bad as 
ue Pdigni know, who mhabited a high 
Pf^t of the Apennmes in the Samnite ter- 
''tory. «Qnota' means at wbat hour we 
^ lap. Bentley tells ns Horace might 
^Te nid 'qnotns,' as he does in Epp. i. 
^. He thinks tbat word would have 
'*« eqnaU^ good. I do not. [On * fri- 
S^Qi' Bittor remarks, < numerus multi- 
^ifiBii notionem frigoris adauget.' The 
^/nm nae of plnrals is oommon. Comp. 
^W, B. O. L l^ «propter frigora;' and 
G ir. 7. 9.] 

d> Da Uimae prapere navae'] The scene 

^ nddeDlj shifted to the supper-table. On 

tbsoQDitruction with the genitive see above 

(C ifi. a. 18). Tamebus givea the right 

iitMp ii iUtkii of 'Imiae novaa.' It means 

the Kalends, wbich was a feast day. (Com- 
pare iii. 23. 2, 'nascente luna.') The 
montbs of Numa's calendar being Innnr, 
tbe afisociation of the new moon witb tbe 
first day of the month remainod after the 
calendar was altered. A cup for midnight 
does not appear to have any otber meaning 
tban an excuse for another toast. " Dice- 
tur merita Nox quoque naenia" (C. iii. 28. 

11. irihuM aut novem Misceniur cyaihit] 
The 'cyathus' was a ladle with whicb the 
drink was passed from the niixing bowl to 
tbe drinking cup. The ladle was of certain 
capacity, and twelve *cyathi* went to the 
sextarius. Horace tberffore says in efffct, 
"let the wine be mixed in the proportion 
of tbree cyathi of wine to nine of water, or 
of nine of wine to three of water." He 
says also the poet under tbe inspimtion of 
the Muses likes the stronger proportion; 
but tbe Graces (in other woixls, good bri>ed- 
ingandgood teuiper) forbid the wine to be 
drunk pure, lest it lead to intoxication and 
strife. *Tres supra' means the tbree over 
the largest proportion of nine, and wbich, 
if added, would make the drink *mcrum.' 
Tbe above is OreIli's explanation, and it 
seems to me to be true. He beld a dif- 
ferent opinion at one time, and his £xciir- 
8US may be consulted by those who are not 
satisfied witb the explanatioo here given. 
There were different ways of drinking 
healths. One way was to drink as many 
cups as there were letters in the name. 
Some interpret this passage as meaning 
that the poet drank nine cups tothe Muses, 
while others to the Graees drank only three, 
according to their number. Tbis explana- 
tion OreUi does not g^ve; but 1 like it best 
after bis own. It requires us to render 
' tres supra' ' above three,' which I do not 
like. ' Miscentnr' means that such is the 
usual practice, and there is no necessity to 
change it to 'miecentor, as Bentley has 
done, followiog Rutgersius. ' Commodis,' 
fit and proper ' cyathi,' tbat is, bumpers. 
[It may mean that either three or nine 
maj be the right (oommodis) nomber of 


Qui Musas amat impares ^H 

Ternos Ut cyathos attonitiis petet ^B 
Vates ; tres prohibet supra li 

Riianim metuens tangere Gratia 
Nudifi juncta sororiljuB. 

Insanire juvat : cur Berecyntiae 
Ceseant flamina tibiae? 

Cur pendet tacitji fistiJa cum lyra ? 80 
Parcentes ego dexteras ^^ 

Odi : Bparge rosas ; audiat iDTidos ^M 
Dementcm strepituin Lycus 

Et vicjna seni non habilis Lyco. 
Spissa te nitidum coma, 35 

Puro te siiuilem, Telephe, Vespero 
Tempestiva petit Rhode : 

Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meac. 

•cT.tlii.'l Tho MaK.«re 'iini»™' M B4. «o-. iaftflw Zyco] .Tb 

eqmvnlfiit lo r>epJ"l"t. On -undi»' reailing RutgfrMai! unuit hn' 
IB. /!>ro/] This 11 a repetition inUcltin«iue ttlilerqQumrieiQi 

CARMINUM III. 20. 191 


Tob the lioneis of her wbelps, PyrrhQB. That girl wiH rash to the rescne of her 
V and like a ooward and thief thoa shalt quit the field aft«r a hard-fought battle 
ich he shall itand like Nireos or Ganymede^ the umpire of the fight. 

NoN vides quanto moveas periclo^ 
Pyrrhe^ Gaetulae eatulos leaenae ? 
Dura post paullo fugies inaudaK 

Proelia raptor 
Cum per obstantes juvenum catervas 5 

Ibit insignem repetens Nearchum^ 
Grande certamen tibi praeda cedat 

Major an illi. 
Interim, dum tu celeres sagittas 
Promis^ haec dentes acuit timendos^ 10 

Arbiter pugnae posuisse nudo 

Sub pede palmam 
Pertur, et leni recreare vento 
Sp^rsum odoratis humerum capillis^ 
Qualis aut Nireus fuit aut aquosa 15 

Raptus ab Ida. 

^» i^audtutf] Thia word, which is not 11. Arhiter puffnae] Nearchns is repre- 

'"^ diewhere, is the Greek iroXftas. sented as standing in doabt to which of the 

^ per obttanUs'] i. e. * when, like the combatants he Bhall yicld himself, with his 

'^^ banting throngh a host of hunts- naked foot apon the palm of victory, look- 

■o, ihe shall rosh to the rescne of Near. ing like Nireus, 

^nurebeaatifal than all (insifrnem).' * /. . zj. ^ vi^»* 

i W a» im] OreUi, who seldom .' *' KdXXioros ^p M IXioy 

*^from tbe MSS.. has here adopted * l\\ ^ « . a / „ w 

f««datkmwhichhecalls*<sagacemac ^*'' ^^^*;: ^^"^^!' ^*'^ *^^'*^*'» ""^*^" 

*«aiiBttn,"aiidwhichDillenbr.approves. """ (H. u. 673), 

lij" tuitmii iKm recepit," * m^jor an illa,' or like Ganymede. The difference between 

**di it dne to the timaltaneoas sagacity the perfect and the present, the one as re- 

*^rt kamp and Hanpt. The former bas presenting a complete, and the other a oon- 

■J>*wl little of Horaoe, and has not, I tinaingaction, bheredearlymarked. (See 

^fincrnaedhisdaimsbv thissagges- C. i. 1. 4 n.) «Fertnr' a little distarbs 

^ 'Mijor an illa' woald mean, <or the character of the description as a paint- 

^■(tlier sne la saperior;' 'mfgor an illi,' ing, whether we interpret with Dillenbr., 

'^tbcr to tbee or to her.' The Greek who supposes a real story to be the snbject 

^ not be mistaken if it ran v^fpa ^ of the ode, and luis no faith in a Greek ori- 

^ ^ fu((mif l||ci j| itcttrfi, where ii*l(»w ginal, or with Orelli, who understands it 

*|||dd be eqoivalent, not to Ac^af fiuiov to meantheremarksoftbe spectatorslook- 

j^FM^bat to MoAXor. CScero (ad (^. Fratr. ing on at this scene as it might be repre- 

j|t c4) aays, " Sit lictor non saae sed taae sented on a stage or in a picture. The latter 

j|Bititis apparitor ; majoraque praeferant does not satisfy me, and the word is one of 

■Kes iUi ac secores dignitatis insignia which it is difficnlt to fix the exact mean- 

9>tti po t estatia.** Probably Horace found ing. I cannot help thinking that this too 

M^Om m his original in somesach combina- savonrs of a pretty literal copy, and indi- 

tioo is I haye aoppoaed. ' Certamen' has cates a composition not flowing from the 

■engolar gofenuDcat. The oonstraction, mind of the writer, and therefore liable to 

*, ia iatalBgible witbont snpplying some confasion, thoagh to him it was plain 

' '«it^' aa MM propoM* ' enongb. [*Aqiioea;' Homer^svoXinriSa^.j 



hUlnn- nf M. Vnlcrint MeMalln Corvinua, of hii leftming' ■nd daqQi 

iriipu iif liU iloulilc co^QDQiei], nnder botb of wluch he Eppan in Hmcie 

|fullj giveu in VoUeiu». ii. 71. The clate of thi« oAe, whioh ii addrewed 

ii^ the wine intencied for Me«aIUst i supperto which he hM invit 

Ilomce'B houM, cnnnot by iui<r tart of evidE^nce he eren conjectored. Dii 

L BOiig eompoBed citeinpofe Bt & party at whicb Messalla WM ijmposii 

nptiranpoua pffusions Dillenhr. puli more fiiith thun I CHU ; hut tio o 

rercittd nt the supper-table, ODd cowposcd for tlie occuion it profeaw« 

tuposcd far, 


rbou nmpUora, who wnit fllled at my birth, whether thy miHioa be oae 
fatrife. or love or slecp. comr down, for Corviani woold h»re mj 
Lcarned though he he, be will oot deipiae tbse, for noither did old Cata 
enttfn the intlciitile, aud open the beart, and hring luck hope. and give 
couragc to tlic liuiiilile. Liber, Venua, and thc Qrace* sball liecp tliee 
the duwo of dnv. 

. O NATA mcuuin coDBule Manlio, 
5fu tii (]uerelas sive geris jocos 



Non ille^ quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te negleget horridus : 
Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Saepe mero caluisse virtus. 
Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro ; tu sapientium 
Curas et arcanum jocoso 
Consilium reteg^s Ljaeo ; 
Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Yiresque^ et addis comua pauperi^ 
Post te neque iratos trementi 

R^;xLm apices neque militum arma. 




tbe apotheca was in the upper part of the 

liooae. (C. iii. 8. 11 n.) For the same 

eanw ' deripe ' is nsed (C. iii. 28. 7). ' Dig- 

inis' is used sometimes by the Uiter prose- 

«riters with an infinitivc, and by Horace 

•ereral times in the Satires and Epistles. 

OrelU quotes Seneca (de Benef. i. 1. 10), 

** dignns est decipi." ' Languidiora' cor- 

Tesponds to ' Ungaescit mihi ' aboTe (C. iii. 

16. 35). For 'lectnm nomine,' Bentley 

fnposes ' fetum nnmine/ " hoc est, qua- 

«onqQe potestate praeditum; compellat 

ttim testam tanquam Dea quaepiatn fuerit. 

Stjuta ni fallor metaphora est; et ad 

moein Flacci indolem accommodata." 

B< mticipates the rejection of his emenda- 

l^becsnse it is nn emendation, but thiuks 

'tty MS. were to exhibit his rending it 

*^ be received with acclamation. There 

■ftiMdmg 'numine;' but no sigus yet of 

^scdamation Bentley expect^; when 

*felU!i' makes its appearance, editors may 

P^ft desert the receiTed reading. 

1 maigfj This word would hardly have 
"Mt ved for ' imbaitur ' in this sense on 
^ othflr oocanon, though Martial says 
r 10), ** Cecropiae madidus Latiaeque lnu- 
■•nMArtibiis." Pliny (Epp.iii. 12) copies 
^ cnresston 'SoCTaticis sermonibus,' 
*to Ordli SQpposes had passed into pro- 
**lid me. Speaking of a supper, he says, 
*Sl enc£ta : sit parca : Socraticis tantum 
^fOmkfM abondet." For ' negleget,' the 
JiiiliBg of most MSS. and editious, Bent- 
% ViSbn tlie pieient tense. [Bitter has 

IL jfmrr uim r et prUci CaionW] Plu- 
' tecb i^rttlie joonffer Cato drank a great 
M of wine in tbe latter part of his life, 
9d taeca wkjb the same. Some editors 
hsvie nnpond that Horace refers 
Bsk mh aot a]Iii£og to the in- 

temperate use of wine, and ' prisci ' can only 
apply to the elder Cato, as in " priscis me- 
morata Catonibus atque Cethegis " (Epp. 
ii. 2. 117). " Prisci : antiquioris, non 
Uticensis" (Acron). 

13. Tu lene tormentum in^enio'} ' Thou 
appliest a gentle spur to the usually unge- 
nial temper.' ' Duro ingenio ' does not, I 
think, as Bentley says, signify ' the genius 
that finds it hard to express itself,' but the 
rcserved temper whose sympathies are not 
easily drawn out, as in Terence (Fhorm. iii. 
2. 12), " Adeou' ingenio esse duro te atque 
inexorabili." ' Sapientium' Dillcnbr. sup-- 
poses to be said ironically, signifying the 
Sir Oracles, " who therefore only are es- 
teemed wise for saying notbing." 1 think 
it has a more serious and kindly meaning, 
and applies to the philosophical and 
thoughtful (as ' sapientia' is put for philo- 
sophy, C i. 84. 2), who have little to do 
with mirth till they are brought out by 
cheerful company. It is said that in his 
odes Horace always uses the termination 
' ium' for the genitive plural of nouns end- 
ing in ' ens,' and for participles the termi- 
nation ' tum.' But the instances of eitlior 
are not numerous enough to determine a 
rule, and the so-called nouns are usually 
participles, as ' sapiens' is. Ovid probabl}' 
had this passage of Horace in his mind 
when he wrote the following verses (A. A. 
i. 237) :— 

" Yina parant animoe faduntqne caloribus 
Cura fugit mnlto diluiturqne mero. 
Tunc veniunt risus, tunc pauper comua 
Tunc doloretcuraerugaquefrontisabit. 
Tnnc aperit mentes aevo rarissima noetro 
SimplicitaB artos excntiente deo." 




Tf l.ihPT et, SL laeta aderit, Venus 

SfKiiesijiie nodiim solvere Gratiae 

Vivaequc pr(xUicent laccmae, 

Dum rediens fugat astra Phoebiis. / 

l'(prnun" ii 'streiiKlli." 'oinragi;,' commentstor» wiy. It iWHM 
cv tii nttnck or ta n»i>t " (Ovid, Am. bond Ihst uuitm tbcm. Tlie 
l. I>|. KUer nlxcrvts tlmt IlBci-lms rvpresented «ilh thvir anu 
t^pifipuf, Kiirip. Bacch. 100, aml he Acnra «ys, • Siigneaciue nodi 
. to Tibnllns, li. 1. 3, ■ B»cche, veni, hoc «t quae nodnin non «olv 
■qae tnia e coniihuB uvb PendsBt.'] ne^Be aunt. Proptere» hoo Ah 
. Pail Ul "Quia post vina |{™vem qui fida inttr KKnitiii junsmi 

A« to ' iipiccB,' MB C. 1. 31. 1*. Grstiae conjnncti» intcr se lun 
, Si^/Mque nodMin toh-^e Oraliaf) tnr.' A« to tbe LCit lioe 
loracu rvprcHeiita thv GrncM niikcd, S. 11. 
iim' i.-Hunot Bigoify thc zonc, na lome 


imce on soine nccssion thnught St to dodicftto a pine in hii gaidea ti 
iinmpnUtopa havc Bupeeated 'mrious reaaone KDd occ»»iona for hii dt 

ic clate of thc o<le ; Bnother Ihst he had hnd nn eKspe fi™ thB attack . 

CAEMINUM III. 22, 23. 

Imminens yillae tua pinus esto, 
Quam per exactos ego laetus annos 
Verris obliquum meditantis ictum 
Sanguine donem. 


OQ T. 13 of thcb Secolar Ode. Diana was 
' Dira triformii' as being Lana in Heaven, 
IKana on Earth, and Hecate in Hell; 
whence Virgil speaks of " Tergeminamqne 
Hecaten, tna Tirginis ora Dianae" (Aen. 
hr. 511), alluding (as Horace does) to the 
akatoes of the goddess with three faoes set 
Qp wbere three roads met, so that she could 
look down all three at once, from which 
she was called Trivia. Compare Orid 
(Fbst. L 141) : 

" Ora vides Hecates in tres vertentia partes, 
Servet ut in temas compita secta vias." 

rPnellas : see C. iii. 14. 10 n.] 
6. QtMim per exaclos ego laettu annot] 
The antecedent to 'quam' is implied in 
'tua.' [(See Sat. i. 4. 28.^ It is, how- 
ever, possible that ' qaam may refer to 
' pinus.' ' Quam donem/ ' let the pine be 
thine to receive my annual offering.'] * Per 
ezactos annos' means 'eveiy year.' 


nudyle (finom ^(Sctfte) is, acoording to Jani, " villica haud dubie sen procuratrix 

ii fando Sabino Horatii :" to whom Horace wrote this ode, says Dacier, because she 

Mplained that she was not allowed by her master to offer fine enough sacrifices. Let 

vnther assume that Horace, wiBhing to embody the principle that any offering to 

Bfmi is aoceptable acoording to a man'8 means (see note on v. 20), put it into the form 

tf n iddreas to the plain and pious Phidyle, a person of his own creation, bringing a 

^Bible offining to her Lares with doabts as to its acceptance, or lamenting that she 

<Mikl not for her poverty offer a wortluer sacrifice. This expLmation lies on the surfiice, 

ind I do Dot see any otber that the ode is capable oL 


«yknnble Fhidyle» lift thy hands to heaven, and bring the Lares but incense, firesh 
^ ind a sacking*pig, and they shall protect thy vines and fields and lambe. Herds 
^flo^ fed on Algidus or Alba, these are for the pontificcs : do thou but crown 
% gods with rosemary and myrtle, for it is the clean hand and not the costly sacri- 
^ thit oomes with acoeptance to the altar. 

Caelo supinae si tuleris manus 
Nascente Luna^ rustiea Fhidyle^ 
Si ture placaris et homa 
Fruge Lares avidaque porca^ 

L mpma9\ The cksping of the hands 'uptumed.' The 's' in the Latin word 

■jnyer does not seem to have been usual corresponds to the aspirate of the Greek, 

(itb &e andeDtB. * 8ap-inus * and tw-nos as in ' silva' and 0Ai}. Compare Aesch. 

theflnneeiiBMiit^aDdboth signifjr (P. V. 1005): yvifwtoitifxots ^tdfftiturtw 

o 2 


Nec pesfilentem sentiet Africiun 
Fecunda vitis nec stentem seges 
Bobiginem aut dulcee alumni 
Pomiiero grave tempuB anno. 
Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilioeB 
Aut erescit Albanis in herbis 
"Victima pontificum eecures 
Cervice tinget : te nibtl attinet 
Tentire multa caede bidentinm 
Parvos coronantem marino 
Rore deoB fragilique myrto. 

X«pSk. Ai (fl 'nnBrente Lima" 

see C. iii. 

ley ronrt liBve forgotten hU qi 

19. 9 n. Tbo pni-o rnrm of • li 

■hornollnin.' Ttis epithot • dnl 

eaae roonnenint." The produi 

hBve been cnpii^il from Lucn-tins 

fii. 1160). 

finBl-B'in'»amptuo«' in nc 

•■ Ipsa ilwiit da\cfs fi>tu! per p«bu 

iIb l.etil." 

bie. but it i* BO <l«fcnce to m? 

Mja, thEt Martial hu (v. 69 

newly.plBnted tnws, iiaiued 'duli 

L-ea' from 

gladiuni demena Roin»n«strin 

the fniit. See ■ ainmDts' C. 1 

ii. 18. 4. 

for-rtr' i8 B verj different 

Cotumelln, iir. 37. epcaks of tho 

from ■ hl.' ind Qn™™ woold no 


thia lict-nco even with thoae li 



Immunis aram si tetigpit manos^ 
Non sumptuosa blandior hostia 
MoUiyit aversos Penates 
Eurre pio et saliente mica. 


Tb» 'R^nnaiipnictioe and the Greek were 

iifex^iit The o{»\al and obkox^cu were 

tbe eKi.tire gmin of barley mixed with salt. 

The s^rain was not poonded by tbe Greeks ; 

by tl»^ Romans it waa, and the salt kneaded 

«ith. i t. So *' Dant fruges manibua salsas " 

(Aeix. xii. 173). The crackling of the aalt 

m» a> good omen. Tibullus (iii. 4. 9) : 

* Kt natum in cnras hominnm genns onuna 
Parre pio phu»nt et saliente sale." 

Socrates was the fint among the andents 

vVk> took the view heregiven of the goda 

■BAtbetr offerinffs. His opinions are related 

V[ Xeoopbon (Memor. i. 8. 8) : Bucias 

N Mmr lUKpki kwh fUKp&if ov^hy ^uro 

ptMMrfoi rw kwh woWw koX /uydKw 

«•^ it«2 /ACTcUa Mwrmw . . . &AA* 

MfuC^ robs B€ohs rdts wop^ r&p c5<rc- 
fitcrdrwv rifiais fidXiara x^P^^"* All tbis 
b confirmed by the highestauthority, which 
tells us, that " if tbere be first a willing 
mind, it is accepted accbrdiug to that a 
man hath, not according to that he liath 
not " (2 Cor. viii. 12). Persius muy have 
had this ode in mind (S. ii. end) : 

" Quin damus id snperis de magna quod 
dare lance 
Non possit magni Messalae lippa pro- 

Compositnm jns &sqne animo, sanctos- 

que recessus 
Mentis, et incoctnm generoao pectus 

Haeo cedo nt admoveam templis et farre 



About A.U.C. 728. 

% ode li of tbe same dass and was probably written abont the same time as the 
«riy odes of the third book, t. e, about 728. It deals with tbe licentions abnses 
^ tlie timee, and pouits indircctly to Augustus as tbe real reformer of them, as in tbe 
Mnod ode of the flrst book. Horace is never more powerful than when he handles 
^^ iab}ects. Whether from a wish to please his patron or from a genuine sense of 
^iiejmTity of his age, he seems to put on all bis streng^b and to use his happiest 
IvigiMge wben he is attacking it. The variety of images and illustrations in this ode 
fc nrj lemarkable, and they are particularly well chosen and originaL There is none 
ftittthibits Horaoe^s peculiar style more completely than this does. 


I^aman be ■• ridi and extravagant as he may, yet, when Fate overtakes lum, flBar and 

desth wiH sdze him. The wandering tribes of tbe North with their free phdns and 

toib eqnally shared, where stepmothers are kind and wives are obedient and chaste, 

ind where erime meets with its reward, — are happier than we are. He who would 

pm a name for fhtnre times (for merit is only recognized afler death), let him put a 

chedc npon the lioentiousness of tbe age. Of what use b it to compUun if crime g^oes 

«Bpamshed ? Of what nse are laws without morals ? We are running every where in 

qaest of moBej, nrged on by the shame of poverty. If we really repent let ns g^ve 

oor gQld to the gods or cast it into the sea, eradicate the seeds of avarice, and strengthen 

iMr miiidf wifth nobler pnrsnits. Our youth are idle : their itEitbers hiy up wealth by 

finds te kfe ridMB increaae as they wilL they always fall short of men'8 dearea. 


Intactis opiilentior 

Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indiae 
Caementis licet owupes 

Tyrrhenmn omne tuis et mare Apulicum, 
Si Cigit adamantioos s 

Summis verticibiis dira Necessitas 
Clavos, non aDimum metu, 

Non mortis la^ueis eJtpedies caput. 
Campcstres melius Seythae 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos [0 
Vivunt, et rigidi Getae 

Immetata quibuB jugera liberas 
Fruges et Cererem forunt, 

Nec cuhura placet longior annua, 
DefLinttumque laborihus 16 

Aequali reuryat sorle viearius. 

1. ItlaelW] Cn. rompeiiu Mngno», and wadcr"» jortgmMit,] 

I othm iiaA entereil Arabi» Petrapa ; bnt 6. Smnpiii wrdciiiw] Thi 

Ambin Felix whicb is hore rcfen-til lo hnd v«rioQ»ly eiplaiDod. Bentlef 

not yvt becii iavnded. The ciprditinn toro«intheh«kdiof theniiiic. ' 

I Doder Aelinq Oullue waa prababl; i^flrv tbe drirc» in the nails to the heiidi 



Hlic matre carentibns 

Frivignis mulier temperat innocenSi 
Nec dotata regit virum 

Conjux nec nitido fidit adultero. 20 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus et metuens alterius yiri 
Certo foedere castitas ; 

Et peccare nefas aut pretium est mori. 
O quisquis volet impias 25 

Caedes et rabiem tollere civicam^ 
Si quaeret Patee urbium 

Subscribi st^tuis^ indomitam audeat 
Befrenare licentiam, 

Clarus postgenitis; quatenus, heu ne£as I 30 
Yirtutem incolumem odimus^ 

Sublatam ex oculis quaerimus invidi. 

^werethen reliered by otheni, who in bondfl, shrinks ftom any other mnn than 

^ir tarn senred a year and were relieved. the husband.' Plautoa again gapplies a 

l^ wbo stayed at home cnltivated the like passage (Amphitr. ii. 2. 207) : 

Wds. They bad no enclosnres and occu. «i^o„ ^ -^^ dotem mi ease duoo quae 

Pwd the ttme ground only for one year." jos dicitur, 

m Hortce do« not aUude, I think, to q^ pudicitiam et pndorem et sedatnm 

tteosigesof the Sueyi; and the 'vicanus' cupidinem. 

•tnnply the man who takea the plw» of jy^^^ ^^^j^^ parentum amoiem, et cog. 

Jn> who baa done h» year^s work, and ha« ^^^^ ooncordiam." 
^ t years rest, as Bitter correctly ex- 

phioi it] 25. O quisquuTi Bentley divides this into 

18. iempenW] 'holds her hands from,' 'O ouis quis.' He gives no heed, he says, 

*I>v<at' M^th 'nec dotata,' &c. compare to all the MSS. and editions, and charges 

^Wqs (Men. v. 2. 16.) : « Ita istae solent them with awicked combination (prava con- 

J»e Tiros sabservire sibi postulant, doti «piratio)in rctaining 'ouisquis.' Thecopy- 

^^** and agmin (Anlul. iii. 6. 61.) : ists he calls ' obesi,' and of his own reading 

*KaiQoi»eiiidotataesteftintMt^i»Ml; ^^ ^^^ '^^ ** " elegantissima," and adds 
«« quae inaouta, est ea m potesUte est „ niirificam vim et affectum sententiae." 

1W.I..' -X i. i. 1 ^ j • M Most readers will think it entirely destroys 

n«htae macUat et malo et damno vin»." ^^ ^^^^^ „^ simplicity of the passa^. 

JBvenal has not overlooked this evil : ' Pater urbium ' is not a title found else- 

'Optiina sed qnare Cesennia teste marito ? where, but is anaJogous to ' Pater patiiae' 

Kiquingentadedit," &c (S. vi. 136.) ^^i^^ Augustus received A.T7.0. 752 (C. i. 

■» ^ , . . , , ... 2. 50),and 'papenscoloniae' whichappears 

XbeGpeck comic poets had many alluMons j^ ^n inscription in OrelU'8 oollection (605). 

^the same «ibject. See m particular a with • refrenare Hcentiam' compare C. iv. 

"*gBient of Akxis m Atnenaeus (Ed. Cas. j^g^ 9 gqq^ . 

^X sad Anaxandrides in Stobaeus : • • . ^^ ordinem 

Wriff — Ttfr yvwauea wKovtrltiw Bectum evaganti frena licentiae 

^afiitp lx<« S^ovoiror ob yvwaiiC Hri, Iigecit." 

'5ee fidit' means she does not trust her ' Postgenitis' does not occur elsewhere. 

puimoiir to shield her with his infiuence 30. quatenus'] Forcellini gives other in- 

ft« her hosfaand's anger. stances of this sense, ' quandoquidem.' See 

2L Ihf €9t ma^na parentium] 'An S. i. 1. 64; 8. 76. The sentinient is re- 

iBpis porttoii fiir wives is their virtue and peated and illostrated in £pp. ii. 1. 10 &o. 

tbit oiMtitj wliidi» Uving in nnbroken 


Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non siipplicio culpa reciditur? 
Quid leges sine moribus 35 

A^ana* proficiunt, ei neque ferridiB 
Pars inclusa i-aloribus 

Miindi nec Boreae finitimum latus 
Duratacque solo nivea 

Mercatorem abignint, horrida callidi 40 
Vincunt acquora navitae, 

Ma^-num iiauperiea opprobrium jubet 
Qxiidvis et facere et pati 

Virtutisqne viam deserit arduae ? 
Vel nos in Capitolium 45 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium, 
Vel nos in mare pro:timura 

GemmaK ct lapides aurum et inutile, 
Sumnii materiem mali, 

Mittiimus scelcrum sl bene poenitet. 50 
Eradeiida cupidinis 

Pravi sunt elcmenta, et tenerae nimis 



Seu Graeco jubeas trocho 

Seu malis ve^ta legibus alea^ 
Cum perjura patris fides 

Consortem socium fallat et hospitem^ 
Indignoque pecuniam 

Heredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitiae; tamen 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 


57. Seu Oraeeo juheM troeko] On 
t^ Qse of the trochas see Smith'8 Dict. 
Ant, wbere there are engravings of three 
Kcnu illnstrating the practioe. The hoop 
^of metal, and it was gnided hy a rod 
^th a hook at the end, snch as hoyg com- 
n»nly uie now. Martial xiv. 169. 

68. M^a leffibue aled] There were 
***> at Rome against gaming, which 
^'•«tice was nerertheleM very prevalent 
^^^ all claaaes in the degenerate times 
« the repnblic and the empire (Dig. 11, 
^ 6). Javenal complains that yonng 
««Wren leamt it from their fethers (xiv. 

" ^ damnosa senem jnvat alea, lu^t et 

^^tos, parvoqne eadem movet arma 

J^rtial pv. 14. 7) has many references 
^this vicious habit, which had scope 
^ed it at tbe Satnmalia : 

"Dnm blanda vagns alea December 
Incertis soiiat mno et hinc fritillis 
St lodit popa neqniore talo." 

^fltto diaraet M. Antonins with paidon- 
Qgone licmius Lenticnhi, who had been 
^BB^ned fbr nming, and with whom 
^iitQiitni^ who, if we are to believe Cicero, 
^Magreat gamUer, had been in the habit 
^jjkjmg : ** Hominem omnium nequissi- 
■iB qia non dnbitaret vel in foro alea 
lodst lege qnae est de alea condemnatum 
aintcgrnm reatituit" (PhU. ii. 23). 

00. ConMortem eoeium] * Consortes ' 

MMinus stands for ' coheirs :' ** Sors et 

fitriinoninm significat» unde conBortes 

&iiinu" (Festns sub v.). He aUo ex- 

pluns ' disertiones ' as "divisiones patri- 

HMnion i m inter consortes." The word 

beus this meaning in Cic. in Verr. ii. 3. 

28: "Qnnm ex agris tres fratres con- 

iortei jperfogiaMfnt," and in Livy, xli. 

SS: '^Censoris frater et etiam consors." 

nndersfcands the word in this 

hen, ibllowiiig Dader, and proposes 

to insert 'et' hetween 'eonsortem' and 

* socinm.' There is no MS. anthority for 
this reading, and the meaning of *con- 
sors ' is not coniined to co-heirship. 

* Consortem sodum ' means the partner 
whose capital was embarked with his 
own. The Romans held it to be a very 
serious offence for a man to cheat his 
partner. Cioero (pro Boec. Am. c. 40) 
says "in rebus minoribus fallere socinm 
turpissimnm est." Also, in his speech for 
Boscius the player, he says (c. 6), " aeque 
enim perfidiosum et ncfarinm est fidem 
frangere quae continet vitam, et pupillam 
fraudare qui in tutelam pervemt, et 
socium faUere qui se in negotio con- 
junxit," which last words seem to explain 

* consors.' Horace couples these two last 
crimes in Epp. iL 1. 128 : 

*'Non frandem sodo pnerove incogitat 

Cicero (Brutns, c. 1) unites in another 
sense Horace's two words : ** Sodus et 
consors gloriosi laboris." 'Hospites' is 
the reading of manv good MSS., and 
Bentley adopts it [aiso Bitter and Kd- 

62. improhae'] This is one of the most 
difficult words to which to assig^ a 
proper meaning. Forcellini g^ves three 
or four separate heads with quotations 
illustrative of each, under any one of 
which most of the examples in thc others 
migbt be classed. Orelli has quoted in- 
stances (on C. iii. 9. 22) in which it is 
applied to lubour, a jackdaw, a man, a 
mountain, a tigcr, winter, and the Adriatic 
Sea. He niight have added others : see 
Index. It implies * excess,' and that ex- 
cess must be expressed according to the 
subject described. ['Bei' is the dative. 
Bitter following Nauckius makes it the 
genitive, and inappropriatdy compores 
'nescio qnid meditans nngamm,' S. L 


A.r.c. 724 (?). 

1» odi? reads nt Rnt liko &d introdafrtioD to one od k krger «eale i 

tu juilgo by tlip eulhufiasiii of tho huiga)!^', uibj' hive l>OeD lh« an 
ic Ukmg of Alexuulrift «.c.a 724. 

■har. whltlier do«t thoa hurr? ms ? 1d «rbit wood» or «7« ihall I ni 

ld«l to thp pod'. B "Pw "ixl nohle rtnia onlipsrd before ? As tlie iIp 
nks out rroiii Iho lici^-lits DpoD the «cr«l hills nnd rivcre of Thnce. 
«,«iidi,T bj tlje river-^d* and ia the «l™t grovB. O tlion lord of t 
, vulgnr .tn.iu «ill 1 siiig. 1 wiU foUow tbee, for the danger of Ihj 

Qi*o mc, Bncclio, rapia tui 

Pleniim ? (jiiae nemora aut quos agor in specui 
Volox mente nova? quibua 

Antris effiefrii Cuesaris audiar 
Acteniiim niwlitrms doeua 6 

CARMINUM III. 25, 26. 208 

Ripas et vacuam nemus 

Mirari libet. O Naiadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 15 

Proceras manibus vertere fra^os, 
Nil parvum aut humili modo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce pericidum est, 
O Lenaee, sequi deum 

Cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 20 

entlej, with a want of taste for this of the ' wild ' troopf of Maenads 

te appean to me pre-eminent celebrating the orgies of Bacchos. For 

ritics, objects to ' exsomnis/ for * ripas/ which has the best anthority, and 

ald Bacchants be slcepless ? Do that of all his own MSS. (a few others 

t sowetimes gleep ? See what have * rupes,' which Lambinas adopts, 

s says (Bacch. 6i82}, c^Sov 9h bnt it seems to have oome from C. iL 

T^/uun^ waptifidvcu : therefore 19. 1 : " Baccham in remotia carmina 

* not ' exsomnis,' is what Horace rupibas ") Bentley reads ' rivos,' wbich 

But if they sometimes sleep they has no aothority at all, both here and at 

sometimes are kept awake, and iv. 2. 31, saying that 'ripas' cannot stand 

ce represents one of them here. alone without the name of a river, which 

csomnis ' is not the mere oma- assertion is not correct. See, for instance, 

epithet Bentlev would make it C. iiL 1. 23 : " Fastidit umbrosamque 

but highly dcscriptive, which ripam." 
' is not, nor is it wanted at all. — 14. Naiadum poiens Baccharumquel 

mihi* Bentley reads <ac,' which These are the Nyuiphs mentioned C. ii. 

e little MS. authority. Horace 19. 3. Horace, in his description of the 

ue ut ' (C. i. 16. 7 — 9;, and othcr streugth of the Nymphs (Dryads), had 

buve * pariter ut/ * non minus ut ' perhaps in his mind Euripides' description 

15. 7), * perinde ut,' which are (Bacch. 1109) : — 
same certainly as * non secus ut.' . ,v / / 

there seen» to be no other in- ,. ,,, «i «/«>'(./«.' X^»» 

bat I believe ' ot ' to be the read- 'po'^""" ^^^■'V «4{<u'^<nr«<r«» xt»**»- 

! and to be used in prcference to For * O Lenaee, sequi deum,' Bentlej 

aiose that word occurs in the line proposes ' Te, Lenaee, sequi ducem,' say- 

Some would put a full stop before ing there is ambiguity in the sentence 

i make it a particle of exclama- as it stands, as to whether 'cingentem' 

id this is certaiuly the more in- applies to the follower or the god. But 

i punctuation . . . ' Ut — libet ' will the ambiguity is not removed by hia 

likc ' nt melius ' &c., C. i. 11. 31. emendation, and Horace sufficiently ex- 

t Scholiasta did not understand it plains his own meaning in C. iv. 8. 83 : 

" Ornatus viridi tempora pampino Liber." 
>ed0 harbaro] Orelli interprets 


ode represents a succesgful gallanfs first refusal, and his mortification and 
I; his defeat. To apply it to Horace, or to assume from the opening, as Franke 
Uowing the Scholiasts) that he was gctting into years, and about to abandon 
!try, or that Chlod is " illa haud dubic de qua i. 23 ; iii. 9. 9," or any other 
batever, ia to mistake the cbaracter and scope of the ode, in my opinion. If 
loraoe^s oompoBitions are pnrely fanciful, this may be pronounced to be so. 


hflv? TangUt nni! vcnn, Now I bimg np mj annt to Traiu. 
,' torclic!. iu,v bart, uiiil iny bow. O thDn qaeen of Cjpnu aud c 
iDce ity tbj rod upou Ihe proad Cliloi. 

Vixi puellis niiper idoneas 

Et militavinonsinegloria; 

Nitnc nrma iii'fuiictumque bello 
Barbiton liic paries liabebit, 
Laevum marinae tiui Veneris latua 5 

Custodit. Hle hic ponite lucida 
Funalia et vecles et arcus 
Oppositis inribus miniices. 
quae !>eatani Jiva tenes Cvprum et 
Mfmpliin cnreiittni Sitlioiiia nive, 10 

llct:ina, sublinii flngello 
Taiifje Chioen semel arrogantem. 

I l.Wonflf»] Oli-lIi'jiulcn)reta 

.._, J but we have qo BntlinHly tc 

.... m- .-' >"'<'i <|uite ulleru tlie iii|r bonrn nnil airowt, nnd 
iiiini;. I ttiink. Tlie wariln would dld uut; but Honice uiakH 

CARMINUM III. 27. 205 


e length of this ode is more imposing than the subject, which appenrs to be a jour- 
o Greece (v. 19) proposed to be taken by a lady of Horace'8 acquaintance, whom 
"etends to deter firom her purpoee, by reciting the dangers she will have to encounter 
the fkte that waits upon female obstinacy, as illustrated by the story of £uropa, 
h Btory occupies two-thirds of the ode, and thrusU Galatea and her joumey from 
K:ene altogether. I do not see the difficulty of the ode that bas arrested most of 
editors. The length of the digression is simply a way with Horace (as in the story 
^e^oB, C. iii. 5, and of Hypermnestra, iii. 11), and Pindar took the same liberty 
i greater freedom. It is a peculiarity which imitators of Horace will do well to 
iy for if skilfuUy managed it would relieve the tameness of many an ode which, pro- 
^ng to be an imitation of tlus anthor, has little but his rhythm and a few of his 
nues to sustain the resembUnce. [Ritter^s remark on the lady is a good specimen 
bia manner of interpretation. If it does not instruct, it may amnse. " Galatea a 
tds brachiis cerviceque candida nominata, olim Horatio cara, jam virum divitem in 
oere comitari voluit. Iter illnd aut in Cretam insulam dirigebatur, aut a viro e 
itilia Taarorum orto susciinebatur. Alterum ut coi^iciam faciunt verba (v. 26) : 
ic et Earope niveum doloso credidit tauro latus' (ut tu Taurum sequi animum in- 

By similar arguments Propertins (i. 8) deters Cynthia from going to sea, and Ovid 
irinoa (Am. ii. 11). The Scholiast on Homer (II. xii. 307) says the stor}* of Europa 
u treated by Bacchylidea, whose poem has not come down to us, nor .iny part of it, 
it wu probably, as Orelli says, in Horace's hands. The Scholiast'8 account of the 
ory is JQst that of the present ode. It would be difficult to find a more touching pic- 
nthan Horace has drawn of a yoang girl suddenly tom from her childish amnse- 
B>ti, transported far from the security of her home, and lefb forlorn among strangers, 
Knring no tie but that of her father^s love, to which she instinctively turns with long- 
g lad self-reproach : her f&ult had been in giving way to a foolish impulse, bnt she sees 
traime through her fears, wluch magnify it greatly by pointing to the probable issue, 
that she looks upon her idle curiosity as nothing less than madness (v. 36). There 
*bo great skill in the last stanzas, in whicb we havo, first, the deiisive laughter with 
bich Veuns and her son (whose bow is now unstrung because it hns done its work, the 
^ttBast says) break in npon the unhappy girl ; then the ironical prophecy in which 
irown words are used against her ; aud, lastly, the serious consolation and congratu- 
ti(m with which they announce her good fortuno, and bid her rise to it. The pain 
'tting ftom her oomphunt is thus relieved, and we are left with the conviction that she 
' iMondled to her destiny and proud of it. 


^tbe wicked go on their way with evil omens. I dobut pray for thee that the storm 
^y be averted. Be happy go where thou wilt, and remember me, Gaktea. Fear not 
tboie idle omeni : bnt see tlie rising storm : I know the dangers it portends. May 
t^ fiill npon my enemy rather than on thee. It was thus Europa left her girlish 
^ and crossed the sea by night, but feared not till she stood on the shore of Crete. 
^^ ihe cried oat in anguish, ** Alas ! my father, a daughter^s name I have aban- 
^oatA; k>ve is swallowed np in madness. What an exchange is here ! Many deaths 
^ Idewrve to ^e. Am I awake, or is it a dream ? Was it better to cross the sea 
^ to gather young flowers at home ? O that I might avenge myself on that 
■Kiiiiter ODoe too dearly loved. Shame on me that I left my home ; shame that I 
<ldty todie. Let me go naked among lions and perish by tigers, rather than waste 
vnj m a lingering death. Y ile girl, thy fkther taunts thee : why dost thou not die P 


tlinu iiiBVFit hnn^ hj' tby girdlA or daill tbcc on the rocki, or inb 
s, unless thon woulilcat yiplJ thjBilf » hij-l*riiHi'« »l«ve." — Then<«i 
on. and iBUKhtil mischieTously, and ssid. " Cea«e tby wnth wticn 

conit hsck to give thee thy rpTtnge. What, knowe^t thon not that 
te of Jove P Am«y wilh «igh», Be»r thj iioble deslinj, for ooe hi 

talie ita nume fruin thev." 

Impios parrae recineotiB omeu 
Ducat et praegnans canis aut ab agro 
Rava deeurrens lupa Lanuvino 

Fetaque vulpes : 
Rumjiat et serpens iter institutum 5 

Si per oljliijuuni Bimilis ea^ttae 
Terruit mannos r ego cui timebo 

ProviduB auspeK, 
Antequam stantes repetat palade» 
Imbrium divina avis imminentum, lo 

Oseinem corrum prece suscitabo 

Soiis ab ortu. 
Sis licet felix ubicunque mavis, 
Et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas, 
Teque nec laevns vetet ire picua 15 

CARMINUM III. 27. 207 

Sed vides qyanto trepidet tumulta 
Pronus Orion. Ego quid sit ater 
Hadriae novi sinus et quid albus 

Peccet lapyx. 20 

Hostium uxores puerique caecos 
Sentiant motus orientis Austri et 
Aequoris nigri fremitum et trementes 

Sic et Europe niveum doloso 35 

Credidit tauro latus et scatentem 
Beluis pontum mediasque fraudes 

Palluit audax. 
Nuper in pratis studiosa florum et 
Debitae Nymphis opifex coronae 30 « 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 

Yidit et undas. 
Quae simid centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten : Pater, o relictum 
Filiae nomen pietasque^ dixit^ 35 

Victa fiirore ! 

find in tbe elegies of Ovid and Propertius, and tbere is no necessity to nibstitnte 

wttced in tbe iutrodnction. * Vetat ' is tbe * Haedi ' or 'astri ' for * Austri/ * Astri * ap- 

MM&g of Lambinns and Bentley after one pears in tbe Ziiricb MS., bnt probably only 

«f the Yatican MSS. Bnt • vetet ' is re- frora an error of tbe pen. Bentley suggestfi^ 

^Mby tbe senae and is tbe reading of 'facili mntatione/'geraentes' for 'tremen- 

*tu1f ^^ HS. besides. [Ritter has tes/ bccauge, tbougb tbe sbore may be said 

*Tcttt'] The woodpecker was a bird of to slmke witb tbe lasbing of tbe waves, tbis 

A QBOL Bnt wby should ' Uevns ' convey oould only be perceptible to tbose wbo were 

ftit BManiDg ? and wby sbonld 'dexter ' on it, not to tbose at sea. [' Ripis :' see 

^pifr ' propitiona»' wben Cicero says just C. ii. 18. 22.] 

^ imne? (See bwt ode, v. 5 n.) Tbe 28. Palfuii^ So 'expalluit ' (Epp. i. 3. 

^BbBon may bave arisen from tbe dif> 10) and ' contremuit ' (C. ii. 12. 8) are used 

■NBt practice of tbe Greeks and Romans transitivcly. So Pers. (S. i. 124), *' Iratum 

■ tdmg Dote of birds, tbe former facing Eupolidem praegrandi cum sene pnlles." 

^Dortb and tbe latter tbe soutb, as is Id. v. 184, <' recutitaque sabbata palles." 

2J>>MBly snpposed. But wbat is oon- In v. 26 Bentley cbanges < et ' into ' at,' 

^■m to ns was none to a Roman. saying tbere is opposition between tbe two 

M^ iV p am Onon] C. i. 28. 21. On membersof tbescntence; buttbereis not: 
••ft»Iipyx,'8eeC.i. 3.4a 

and 7. 15. ' palluit ' is a consequence of ' credidit.' 

SL Siimm luporef ] So in C. i. 21. 13, [< Fraudes :' C. ii. 19. 20.] 

*intji ApoOo to tum away war, famine, 33. cenium — Oppidis'] See Epod. ix. 29. 

^ft^SieDce from bis oountry to ber Tbe description is from Homer^s Kp^njy 

^iOBifli tfae Fftrthians and Britons. Sucb iKar6fiiro\iif (II. ii. 649). £uropa's speech 

^^Qiioii b oommon with tbe poets, as is tbat of one just awake to ber real posi- 

^U|3 (Geoig. iiL 513), ' Di mefiora piis tion after tbe terror of ber voyage, aud tbe 

^ff^nmqoB hoatibns illnm ;" and Proper- departure of ber companion ; left alone in 

^(S. 8. 20), "Hostibus eveniat lenta a strango land with tbe consciousness of 

P«Di meb .*" aiid Ovid (A. A. iii. 247), her foUy first coming upon ber. She begins 

"Hoilibiia ereniat tam foedi cauaa pudo- distractedly, ' Fatber, alas ! I bave for- 

^* Hie ^***"»»^ xmd 'pneri' for cbil- feited a daugbtor^s name, and love hatb 

<km<ifiadiMaL ' Oriena is not usnally given place to madness.' 'Filiae' is tbe 

ifipfiedtoftwiiidttmtHoncesoapplies it, dative of tbe agent, [as Porpbyrion ex- 

CARMINUM in. 27. 209 

Yilis Europe^ pater urget absens : 
Quid mori eessas ? Potes hac ab omo 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 

Laedere eollum. 60 

Sive te rupes et aeuta leto 
Saxa deleetant age te procellae 
Crede veloci^ nisi herile mavis 

Carpere pensum 
IL^us sanguis dominaeque tradi 65 

Barbarae pellex. — Aderat querenti 
Perfidum ridens Yenus et remisso 

Filius arcu. 
Mox ubi lusit satis : Abstineto^ 
Dixit^ irarum calidaeque rixae 70 

Cum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 

Comua taurus. 
Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis ? 
Mitte sineultus ; bene ferre magnam 

•8rc ^ipdffi T\rryuffa y6(rots diisioii that ' vilii Earope' are tbe words of 

•€t( iup4w Mx^ipa Xaxova^, the girl addressing herself, and her father^s 

kX\* atrr^rofios (Affa fUini 8^ imaginary invective to end with *quid mori 

trarwr 'AtSar Karafiiifffu cessas/ Orelli thinks that the rest cannot 

_- _ - „ T T j » * ullo modo ' be assigned to Agenor. As a 

VkLaedere eollum^ 'l^ere corre- matter of taste I prefer supposing the whole 

tpnds to Xmfiuaeai m Soph. Ant. 54, to be the language of Europa addressing 

«jWToiirar kpri^aun \mfiarai filov, Lwn- herself, as I have taken it in the Argument. 

■BBi«js he finds m some of his MSS. Europa either puts the words into her 

■caUe.hder«coUum, and BenUey adopts father*s mouth, or Rhe uses them agiiinst 

ttitretdmg, "sed frustra, ut fere omnm herself, becauseshe thinks he wiU reproach 

q^ m Horatio conatus est vir caetera m- ^nd reject her, so that it comes to the samc 

IwQs et doctus, as he himself says thing either way. 

••ewbere of Dan. Hemsius. Several hCTo- qq^ ^derat querenti] See Introduction. 

«5, M the commcntators show, ended 59, AhHineto^—irarum'] ThisisaGreek 

»»lwwm thisunpomantic way,-Anti- f^^ ^oticed before (C. u. 9. 17). «Esse 

gMocMta, Phaedra, Amata; and the ngscis' is also a Greek construction [cor- 

wgtns have no stronger expression for ^ectly translated in the Introduction]. Not 

•fcng tfaan that it w enough to make admitting the irony in •invisus,' which he 

*»bing one^s sclf. The chorus, for m- thinkswouldbe*iUepida,"Venusinonostro 

mt^m Eonpides Alcestis (229) says— indigna,' Bentley propoaes to change «cum 

V <(» mU c^vyus riSc, ^^^^ invisus' into 'jam tibi injussus,' quot- 

«•1 vxltr % fif6x^ 94paM ohpatflt^ vc '^ Virgil, 

Airrai / •• ii^jasia virescunt 

«1 is--^ T A * . • . n ' Gramina" (Georg. i. 66), 

«1' mve U nipeffj As to 'sive,' see C. 1. 

;^n. 'Acata leto,' sharp to kill, whose and Epod. xvi. 4d, — 

*2^»refiitaL It is not quite clear «^injussae veniunt ad mulctra capeUae," 
^>werwearet0 8uppoeeAgenor(Europas •' ^ 

vhcr) to ynpoM the choice of all theso which prove that Horace and VirgU nse 

>RM of deirtliy or to ipeak anv of theso this word 'injussus' and that is aU. 
ttik or idl of than. The e<u1aons are 76. Notnina] The plural is thus osed 

Mi%poiiitod •outolMdtotheoon- in C. iv. 2. ^ aod Ovid (Tr. L 1. 90): 



Di^ei' rortiinnni ; tua eectiiB orbis 

NoiniDa ducet. 

He iB Dot ipeakin; 


I Wbo wsB Lf dp ? A gFiitlewauiBn, noblc, boD«t. and learocd, abo Tei 
rcrp, hat a friiHul (in nn honiinniblG Benaf) of Uotste. sbj-i one ; HoTMe'B 
lothcr; hi»nii*trra9,sflyaa third; a qmMcian.a dBnccr. « pKBtitotCj mni 
entutora iiiirr.'r, as wi')l lliey inay, when they try to fii the chBracter ui 
lo wlio mny be Bnj- buiiy ur nobody at ali. Thi» odo mnst hflve betn i 
ars after tlie elcventh of this booli, because tlien Lyde «aa bat a yoai 
Hnto; now i( in ctear that she hud beeii in tlio hBbit of eQtcrtaiuing 
■ of tLfie aniiiial ff>tiv:di of Nept 

CARMINUM III. 28, 29. 


Inclinare meridiem 

Sentis ac, veluti stet volucrls dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram. 
Nos cantabimus in vicem 

Neptunum et virides Nereidum comas ; 
Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam et celeris spicula Cynthiae ; 
Summo carmine quae Cnidon 

Pulgentesque tenet Cycladas et Paphon 
Junctis visit oloribus ; 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque nenia. 



4. Mtiniiaeque adhihe vim eapientiae'] 

This bas something of the heroic in it : 'Iny 

aief^ to wisdom in her stronghold/ ** Tu 

leiie tormentnm ingenio admoves ** (C. iii. 

21. 14) is qnoted, bat there is not mneh 

lesemblance; the metaphors are diffcrent 

aod the objects are difierent. It might 

be sapposed 'mnnitae' was an omamental 

epithet, and an adaptation of «caAAlTupyov 

99pia9 (Aristoph. Nub. 1024), but it cor- 

mponds more to Cicero's " Is sapientia 

manitam pectns egreginm gerat " (Divin. 

^[6. Iwclinare^ * Sol inclinat/ Jnv. Sat. 

5. 316. * Parcis deripere/ * you delay to 
^onydown-' Virgil nses *parcere* with 
a iafinitive (Aen. iii. 42).] 

S. Bibuii eonevU*'] M. Calpurnius Bibu- 
hiwsgConsnl with C. Julins Caesar A.n.o. 
^ SeeaULS. I2n. 

14. Fulgentea] See C. i. 14. 19. For 
* Paphon ' Bentley reads ' Paphum/ to avoid 
the rhyme with 'Cnidon.' But Horace 
rather studies this iigare, 6fiotor4\furoy, 
and he is not likoly to have written one 
name in the Greek fashion and the other 
diffcrently. Ou 'oloribus' compare Ovid 
(Mct X. 717) : 

"Vecta lcvi cnrru medias Cytheraea per 
Cypron olorinis nondum pervenerat alis." 

[But 'Paphum' Is the reading of some 
of the bost MSS. *Summo carmine,' in 
the third or last song, in honour of Venus 
and Nox.] 

16. JDicetur merita Nox'] See C. iiL 19. 
10. ' Nenia' is here a sort of luUaby. See 
£pod. xvii. 29. 




That tbis ode was written A.xro. 729 has been confidently assnmed by Franke from 
tteillosions in w. 25 — 28. It would be hard to show that the samc names might not 
■>« been introdnced in the same way at other times, and I have not sufficient confi- 
«Ktt in Uus date to adopt it. It is not clear, as stated before (C. iii. 8, Introduction), 
^ Maecenas had charge of the city or any specific rcsponsibilities during Angnstus* 
*^>nce in Spiun, and there is nothing in the lang^age of this ode to lead neoessarily to 
^ • eondnsion. There is a gpreat deal of tendeniess towards Maecenas in this as in 
^^ private odes that are addresscd to him. It is clcar that he appreciated the sound 
'^ of Horace, and allowed him fiill scope for expressing it ; which he has done in this 
I ode^ in a manly and at the samo time fceling way, with great poetical taste and an 
'i^nble selecUon of words, of which thcre is not ono thrown away or out of place 
t ii an invitatioa firom tbe poet to his patron, prcssing him to pay him a visit at his 


on^ Mmcwi— ; ihe wine, and oil, and the flowers are ready. Stay not for ever gazing 
km a ^stanee at the pleasant fields of Tibur, buried in the magnificence and tlie 

p 2 


CAEMINUM III. 29. 213 

«> am clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
Ostendit ignem^ jam Procyon furit 
£t stella vesani Leonis^ 

Sole dies referente siccos : ^u 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivumque fessus quaerit et horridi 
Dmneta Silvani^ caretque 
Itipa vagis tacitumaventis. 
Tu eivitatem quis deceat status 25 

Curas, et Urbi soUicitus times 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 
Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
Caliginosa nocte premit deus^ 30 

Ridetque si mortalis ultra 

Fas trepidat. Quod adest memento 
Componere aequus ; cetera fluminis 
Ritu feruntur^ nunc medio aequore 

Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare^ nunc lapides adesos 
Stirpesque raptas et pecus et domus 
Volventis una non sine montium 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae^ 

Cum fera diluvies quietos 40 

17. Andromedae paier] Cephens, a been disregarded by all editon ['Pru- 

jjj^tiieni star below Unia Minor, risea dens :' see C. i. 3. 22.] 

^ the beginning of Jnly. Procyon, a 84. e^quore'] OreUi and Cnnningham 

"^ of the iirst magnitude, in the con- are the only emtors, as far as I have seen, 

J^tkm Cauis Minor, and called ' Ante who have taken ' aequore ' into the text. 

Jtteni * by Gcero (de N. D. ii. 44), rises The common reading is * alveo/ which 

^Qvt the iame t^me, and the Sun enters has MS. anthority. Fea pronounces 

'^: lee C. iii. 13. 8 n. ' Stelk' is not ' aequore' absurd. I cannot see why. If 

^|||||B)oiily pat for ' sidns,' the oonstella- one of the words is an invention, as it 

"^ ['Occnltnm/ 'hidden' till it rises must be, the transcribers are more Ukely 

*4 ihow8 itself in the evening of the to have put in the commoner word 'alveo' 

'^tbofthe Ideaof July.] from a marginal gloss than the reverse. 

^. IV ewitatem] Sec Introductiou. Virgil has " viridesque secant placido 

J»to 'regnata,' see C. ii. 6. 11. Tlie aequore silvas" (Aen. viu. 96). The next 

^^ represent indefiiiitely the iBrthest line describes weU, to my ear, thc quiet 

j*Mteni nationa known to the Romans flow of a river. [KeUer and Ritter have 

(v. 1 12. 56). The Bactrians were for- ' alveo.' Ritter supposes that the Tiber 

■«riy psrt of the Persian empire, and is aUuded to.] 

^09 at this time partly sulject to the 37. Stirpesque raptaa'] This passage 

j^trthians and partly to a Scythian race, alone disproves the statement of Servius 

«e Tochari. Bactra was the capital. (on Aen. xii. 208) that ' stirps ' is used in 

^ meaning of Honce is, that Maeccuas the feminine gendcr only with reference 

Wttld not tromble himself about impro- to human beings. He says Horace em- 

Ude dangers. Bmtley'8 proposed emcn- ploys it here ' usurpative.' I do not kuuw 

iiitioiit *iman* Ibr 'diioors»' has justly what hc means. 


Irrital amncs. Ille potens sui 
Lat-tusiiiiL' Jutjet, cui licet in diem 
UixisBe Vixi : cras vel atra 
Nuljc jialum Puter occupato 
Vf 1 eolf puro ; non tamen irritum 
(linidninijLie rctro est efiiciet, nw[ue 
Uiifinfjt'! infectumque reddet 
Qiiud fuyicns Berael hora vexit. 
Furtuiia saevo laeta negotio et 
Liidiim insolentem ludere ])ertina3t 
Transmutat inccrtos honores, 
Nuuc mihi, nunc alii hemg7i&. 
T;aiido maiicntem ; bI celcres quatit 
Peiiuaa rcsifrno f|uaa dedit, et mea 
Virtute me involvoyfirobamque 
pLiujicriem siue dote quaero^ 
Non est mcum si m,ugiftt Africia 
Malu8 ])ri)ccllis ad mifieras precea 
Decurrere, ot votis pacisci 

Ne Cypriac Tyriaei]ue merces 

carminum; III. 30. 



Wbether tbii ode was written as the Epilogue of the third book, or of the thrcc 
first pablished together, mnst be determined by the data discassed in the genenil 
introdnction prefixed to the odes. It expresses a conviction, which time has ratified, 
thmt throagh his odes Horace had achieved an immortal name. Tlie same jnst pride 
liad been shown by poets before him ; as by Sappho, in a pocm of which the first linc 
only has been preserved* fivda^aaOai rufd ^ct/u koI tirrtpop &fAfi4ny (36 Bergk) ; aud by 
KnniTi^ in the well-known lines — 

"Kemo me hummis deooret nec fnnera fletn 
Faxit. Cur ? volito vivn' per ora vimm," 

whicb words Virgil has made his own (Qeorg. iii. 9). Propertins (iii. 1), Ovid (Met. 
XT. 871, ' Jamqne opns ezegi &c.'), and Martial (x. 2. 7 sqq.), have all imitatcd Horace 
▼ery closely. There is no extravagance bnt mnch dig^ty in the hinguage of Horacc, 
and I see no real resemblance between the tone of this ode and C. ii. 20, with which it 
is eompared (see Introdncdon). 


I baTe batlt myself a monnment which storms shall not destroy, nor Tlme himself. 
I sball not die bnt Uve in freshness of fame so long as the world endures. It will 
be said on the banks of my native river that I, a humble man made great, was the 
first to fit the Graedan strain to the lyre of Italy. Put on the bay that thou hast 
eftrned, my Mnse. 

ExEGi monumentum aere perennius 

Begalique situ pyramidum altius^ 

Quod non imber edax^ non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere aut inniimerabilis 

Annorum series et fuga temporum. 6 

Non omnis moriar^ multaque pars mei 

Vitabit Libitinam : usque ego postera 

Crescam laude recens dum Capitolium 

Scandet cum tacita virg^ne pontifex. 

Dicar^ qua violens obstrepit Aufidus 10 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 

lUgnavit populorum, ex humili potens, 

^ iUttl ThiM won\ is nowhere else 
iind io this tense that I can find. It 
m lignifies the building and not the 
■*« of it. What follows seems to be 
"utated from Findar (Pyth. vi. 7 sqq.)— 

^o^t dfAPtnf 

At»\A«frCf r«rc(x(0^<x vdwf 

rir d^c x*¥^<^' Sfifipos iinucrhs 

if^Hfijim nfilkai 

arparhs iififtktxos, oHr Awtfios 

aXhs &^oi<ri vafJL^6p<p x^P^ 

8. impotens'] This word is equivalcnt 
to *impotens sui,' not 'valde potens* as 
the Scholiast says; [that is, it means 
' violent.*] 

7. [LibUinam] See S. ii. 6. 19; Epp. 
ii. 1. 49.] 

— usque'] lu this sonse of *conU- 




A.U.C. 789. 

It is clnr thftt Konoe, after the pabHcation of the fint three bookt of his odes, laid 

aaide that style, or wrote in it only occasionally. So iar as his lyrical compositionB ex- 

pT fcd , if in hia caae thej ever did, any real pafliion, gpnowing yean and bodily infirmity 

wonld natorally tnm him from writing odea. So far as hia poems were mere imitations 

of the Greek, we can nnderstand hia getting tired of that style aa he grew older, and 

tBimBg to the more original and Berioos task which employed him in the Epistles. Of 

the ligfater sort, therefore, we find but few in this book, and those probably inserted to 

' vtke ap a sniBcient Tolume. Bnt his severer style he had not lost, and. none of his 

; «Biier oompoeitions surpass the moral and historical odes of tbis book. Why he shonld 

We written the first it is not easy to say. It was composed apparently * iuvita Minerva/ 

nd exoept the smoothness of its rhytbm it has little to commend it. Nobody will read 

itaad beUeve that the man was in lovc who wrote it, still less that he was inflnenced by 

^imdliDg affection for the boy Ligarinos mentioned at tbe end, and in C. 10 of this 

U. Perhapa he fonnd a Qreek ode that took his fancy and imitated it, and then 

^b&hed it to fill his book, not as a prologue to it, as many of the chronologists say, — 

^what is there in the ode that bears that character ? The sixth verse says it was 

*iittai when he was abont fifty (circa lostra decem), which age he attained on the 8th 

^^Kenber, ▲.u.o. 739. A fragment of Alcman (20 Bergk) — 

fpos pLf 8* aZrt Kvvpitos ^Kari 
y\vKvs Kartlfiwy Kopiiay laiyu — 

^to be part of an ode which this of Horace might be imitated from. So likewise 
fof Ibjcos (2 Bergk)— 

fpof o^T^ /ic Kvayiotaiy inrh fi\f^dpois raxip* 6fifiatrt ttpK^fitvos 
Kfik^/Aairi wayroiawo^s is ivtipa iiKrva K^ptSt /3(£aa«i* 
i| fiky rpofviw wiv itttpxofiiyay, K.r,\, 

K)t snodate the odc witb C. ili. 26 for the rcasons there stated. Bnt there is so 
resemblance between this and C. i. 19 as to confirm me in the opinion that they 
h imitations. 


i at war with me agun, Venns ? spare me, for I am old. Go to the yonng. Go 

Iliis, for he is noble, handsome, clever. Give him the victory, and ho will give 

retum a marble statue in a shrine of citron, with inoense» music, and dandng 

ome by the Alban lake. I bave no longer a heart for love and winei and yet» 

0% why do I weep and dream of thee ? 


IsTEuMissA, Vemis, diu 

Rursiis belU moveB ? Parco, procor, prci^or. 
Nun surii i]iialis VTam bonite 

MattT saeva CupiJinum, a 

Cir«a lustra di-eem flecfcere mollibus 
Jam durum impfriis: abi 

Uuo blanilae juveuum te revocant preces, 
TiTiiiifstivius iu domum 

Puulli purpureis ales oloribus 10 
Ci)iiii)js;i!]i-Te Maximi, 

Si torrcre jecur ijuaeriB idoneum: 
N;uiii]iic et, iiobilis et decens 

Kt pro sollicitis nou tacitue reis 
El Lvtitum puer artium 15 

Liifc signa feret militiae tuae, 

fiuriwjt MU morri] The Sclioliuit ' Parpurei»' (irblch Acroii rif 
.iiHiy« tln.-io<I^'i-(uii»IK'ur;vu1addn«i mtta ■ nitidu, pulchr»') wvc 
'cnu? pniviii).' Iier nol Lo tDUiiitl him to Oreek, uid miiAata voTi tAi' ' 
J1 iiii,v uinrL' I,.v>- r.i,'trv. wliieh uotiDn \s (Thvoc ili. 1) «hon that Hora 

CARMINUM IV. 1. 219 

Et quandoque potentior 

Largi muneribus riserit aemuli, 
Albanos prope te lacus 

Ponet marmoream sub trabe citrca. 20 

Hlic plurima naribus 

Duces tura, lyraeque et Berecyntiae 
Delectabere tibiae 

Mixtis carminibus non sine fistula; 
Illie bis pueri die 25 

Numen cum teneris virginibus tuum 
Laudantes pede candido 

In morem Salium ter quatient humum. 
Me nec femina nec puer 

Jam nec spes animi credula mutui^ 30 

Nec certare juvat mero 

Nec vincire novis tempora floribus. 
Sed cur heu, Ligurine, cur 

Manat rara meas lacruma per genas ? 
Cur facunda parum decoro 35 

Inter verba cadit lingua silentio ? 
Noctumis ego somniis 

Jam captum teneo, jam volucrem sequor 
Te per gramina Martii 

Campi, te per aquas, dure, volubiles. 40 

\ eofregponds to " militavi non sine ing the festival of Mars, the Salii, his 

***(€. iii. 26. 2). prieBts, went in procession through the 

1. Jstquandoqtte'] i. e. ' whenever with city singing and dancing, from whence 

r aid nis charms ehall beat the pre- they are said to have derived their name, 

tiofhisricbrival, heshall setyoanpin '*Jam dederat Saliis (a saltn nomina 

•ble onder a citron roof by the shore of dncunt) " (Ovid, Fasti. iii. 387). Thc prac- 

of tbe Alhan lakes/ of which there tice, according to Livy, was institut^ by 

e two dose tog^ther, the Albanns (Al- Numa (i. 20), ** per urbcm ire canentes car- 

o) and Nemorensis (Nemi), and on one mina eum tripudiis sollenuique saltatione 

boe it appears Fabius had a house. jussi snnt." See Epp. ii. 1. 86. [' Salinm i' 

reading *Cypria' must have arisen see C. i. 36. 12.] 

a 'trabe Cypna' (C. i. 1. 13). It has no [30. credula] Comp. C. i. 11. 8, ' cre- 

chere.thoughQcsneradoptsit. 'Largi' dula postero.' Here the gcnitive depends 

better reading than * largis.* Horace on ' credula.*] 

I not usually pnt the epithet next to [33. Sed cur'] Here the poet afiects to be 

Doon. As to ' Berecyntiae,' compare seizcd with a sudden passion after affirm- 

5. 19. 20. • Lyrae' and * tibiae' are in ing that he had ceased to love ; but he only 

dative case afler ' mixtis.' Bentley affeets, though Ritter thinks that Liguri- 

r Cniqnias adopts the ablative, which nus camc from Liguria or the maritime 

Kn in iome MSS., and among others AIps, and was the cause of this violent out- 

o]d«t Bhmdiniau. [Ritter has ' lyra- break.] 

et Bereeyntia . . . tibia.n 35.] The last syllable in this line b cut 

L ieromatiemt hummm] See C. iii. 18. off. 

On toe fixrt few dayt of Marcb, dur- 


A.r.c. 738. 

>A tra^oil cnd, i)a n< 
\j. Cru.<^!(JIiiia, & gniminunu 

iut, son o( tlic triuinvir M. AntoDlns b; hit 
t concera tliiaode. He wm htaau of letten 
wlio kept 1 tchoot iit Itome, to «thirh iniDj 
I fHmilios vere BFot. lic rcci^ived tber^ori? n good ednaLtiaOi iiul w^ h: 
jrily of thc Sclinlissta thflt he wrote bd heroic poem on the (brtnlie» of 
re buakB, brsidea soine prnse works. Acroii eeji thnt bis poeni was eii 
ia nal llkply ho evn- bow it, hla teatimDiiy is nat worth muoh. (Soe 
1. 213.) Hom™ pnyii him the coraplimeiit of «jicg tbat ha «in 
latus' victorio uiui')i bettcr tluin liinuelf. bnt thii he Hud to Haeoen 
mtd, tUoiiuh froi» tliiit piuMU)^ and thia ive mBj beheve that Mnerenai 
tiitimiiis ;ui>.'1rv. tlie qaiility of eithoranil the anbJH;U caiinot be iiiion 
Hiprace hiiK (;ivin iic Becnuse wo hnow Bothing of Antooius' poetica 
froiii Iht-' •"l-; iiinl W'jii^i' of tliediBtaucebetween the two nauie», • lul 

.iLii'(-.J-. i - 1...VC cliflijgcd ■lulc' inlo '1116' (pMrlka 1': 'M, i]]],l sujijMjiwd 'Antoni' to mnn AnU 

h uiHLir ' ' '■ \ l'. :jS:l) RudConiiD. Crnq.os one wlio wr 

|lhc..\i-i.r. ..I ■■■■li , |. ;-..ii i^ vi-rv douUful.tboughSoetoniUBniaDti 
cf Ilint iL:iiii''. iiiiLl <lvid tpuika of one Bnfiu who wrote lyric poet 
uf I'indiir ( Ex rout. iv. 16. 27 ■qq.) : 

" Rt itui Mneoiiisiii Phueiiciiln vertit; et nna 
l'inilaricaa &diacu ta qnoL|uc, Itufe. lyrae." 

CARMINUM IV. 2. 221 

PiNDARUH quisquis studet aemulari^ 
lule^ ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennis vitreo daturus 

Nomina ponto. 
Monte decurrens velut amnis imbres 5 

Quem super notas aluere ripas 
Fervet immensusque ruit profundo 

Pindarus ore, 
Laurea donandus ApoUinari^ 
Seu per audaces nova dithjrambos 10 

Verba devolvit numerisque fertur 

Lege solutis ; 
Seu deos regesve canit deorum 
Sanguinem per quos cecidere justa 
Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae 15 

Flamma Chimaerae ; 
Sive quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma caelestes pugilemve equumve 
Dicit et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat ; 20 

Flebili sponsae juvenemve raptum 
Plorat et vires animumque more^que 
Aureos educit in astra nigroque 

Invidet Orco. 
Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quotiens in altos 
Nubium tractus. Ego apis Matinae 

More modoque 

1 luU] VirgU makes this name tri- Bergk.] 

ylW)ic «iler the Oreek. Qesner allows * 13. reffesvel The editions before Bent- 

^ter^s text to stand — ley had ' rcgesque/ but there is opposition 

aemolari I betweeu ' deos * and * reges.' [Ritter has 

-ide,ce™tiB ' " •regesquc.'] . ., „ 

[ — deorum saf^uinemj Heroes, 'sons 

^ adds this note, " utrum in duo versi- of gods/ Comp. C. S. 60, * clarus An- 

^ distrahi nomen voluerit Horatius chisae Venerisque sanguis.*] 

<iJi. nisi quod Orac^cissat." Antonius' 19. cenium potiore ngnis munere'] 

l^vtdiDother on his father^s side was Compare Pind. Nem. v. 1 : o{'k aySptat" 

^ one of the Caesars, though how r6iroi6s flfi, &ar* ihivvcovrd /i* 4pyd{i<rdai 

^M to the dictator is not known. As ayd\uar <ir* abras fiadfilSos 'E<rra6ra. 

> the plaral * nomina ' see C. iii. 27. 76. * Equum ' is put for the rider as in A. P. 

10. nova — verba] Thesc are what 84, notwithstaiidiug what Beutlcy suys to 

nctotJe calls Btwka 6v6fiara (Poet. c the contrary. 

^)i and which he says are best suited to 27. apis Matinae'] Sce C. ii. 6. 18 n., 

edithjnunbic measnre. [In the third, and C. i. 28. 8. Sce Pkt. lon. p. 584, A. 

vth, and fifUi stanzas, Horace enume- Arist. Av. 787 sqq. The passase in Plato 

tci Uie fabjects of Findar^s poetry. See is very like this : ol %ofnra\ airh Hprivwv 

*. km booki •nd the fragments by fitXtff^wv iK Movawv K^yKwv rttf&v kcU 


Grata carpentis thyraa per laborem 

Pliirirnum cmr^ iitmuB uvidique 3C 

Tiburis ripas operosa porvus 

Carmina fin^o. 
Cotifines majorL' poeta [ilectro 
Cafsarem ijuandoiiue trahet feroces 

Fnjnde Sigambros, 
Qiio nihil majus meliusve terriB 
Fata doniivcrc bonique divi, 
Ncc daljiint quamvis rtidt;ant in aarum 

Temporu priscum. *o 
CoDcinoF hicttisque diea et Urbia 
Pulilicum liidum super impctrato 
Fortis Aufiiisti rcditu forumijue 


.. lp.ird^.™, T* ii,\„ iiiih «.>..«,» dell' Inst. yui. 238) : " Lc ' c 
p ^4X,T,a,. • l!i,iHa ■ aiBnifio* the «don Mnrtial uiontait hu l*dii 
s of thp Anio. Buiillc-v i'liiinsi'« ib k reitrioiite du Foraia le fla 
ivos.' (Scpf. iii. :!5.ia n.) ■ Ope- BErtiii.ire da Vesta." Fea. y 
ilpscribia, I sliould lliiiik. the protesB to have given (treut attention 
hii.'h nraply nll Hnra-;p'. odps w,Te jott, hns Uif following note o 



Tum meae si quid loquar audiendum 
Voeis aceedet bona pars et, O Sol 
Pulcher I o laudande ! canam^ recepto 

Caesare felix. 
Teque dum procedis, io Triumphe ! 
Non semel dicemus, io Triumphe ! 
Civitas omnis dabimusque divis 

Tura benignis. 
Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae^ 
Me tener solvet vitulus relicta 
Matre qui largis juvenescit herbis 

In mea vota^ 
Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri^ 

Cetera fulvus. 





A.V.C. 738 with the inscription 8.P.Q.B.y.s. 

tlO 8. ET BED. ATO (V.8. VOta 8118Cepta). 

'Orbom' appears to be an adaptation of 
hp^upis as it is used for instance by Pindar 
(Ifth. iii. 26), 6p<ftaifol v0pios, 

45. loqmar^ Bentley reads with scyeral 
MSS. ' loqnor.' Either will do. 

[46. boma pars'\ Sat. i. 1. 61. 

* k% bona pan hominom decepta cnpidine 

48./fttr] Whether 'felix' refers to 
Bonee himvelf or the Son is donbtful. 
Ilte retder'! taste mnst determine. 

4d. TBfue dum procedW] Bentley has 
fued^fficnUiesaboat this reading, which 

■ tkat of the greater part of the MSS. 
^ cditiot». * Tiinmphns ' is addrcssed 

■ • divinity, as in £pod. ix. 21, and 
wnee njt, ' Aa thou marchest, we will 
Aoift tbnt thy name, lo Trinmphe ! and 
l^ lo Triomphe !' I see no reason 
V adopdng ' procedit ' from the conjec- 
tvi of HeinsiiB, thoogh it be supported 
^tkeMS. B, and though Orelli takes it 
«oUietext; nor 'Dnxqne' from the 
*i>i9<ctare of the same person; nor 
'uqiie' from Bentley^s. < Tuque' has 
^"^ little aathority. Gesner and Jahn 
^dopt it and apply it to Antonius. [Ritter 
"VpOM that this ode was written ▲.u.o. 

741, a little beforc the roturn of Augustns, 
and in thi» yt^ar lulus Antonius was prae- 
tor. ' lo Triumphe ' is like * lo Bacche, 
lo Pacan,' usuul shouts of joy. ' lo, lo 
Triump ' occurs on the faee of a medal, in 
the centre of which is a branch of bay, 
and on thc other sidc are two eerpents 
nnited by thc tnils, fonniiig a torqu^ 
which snrronnds two amiillue. A. Agos- 
tini, Dialoghi intomo alle Medaglie, p. 3. 
Ritter has * Tuque dum proccdis,' on 
which he says, 'Antonius Augusto carus 
et tunc practor cum triumphaute principe 
proccdit.' This reading makca Antonius 
tbe prindpal personage in thc triumph. 
But * toque ' is difficult to explain.] 

54. Me tener solcet vitulus'] So " nos 
humilem feriemus agnam " (C. ii. 17. 32). 

58. Tertium — ortum'} * Its young homs 
just bent to the fonn of the moon'8 cres- 
cent when sho is thrce days old.' Several 
MSS. havo * orbem,' but that would siff- 
nify, as Bentley says, the third month, 
wluch would have no meaning here. 
' Traxit ' is the reading of one good MS., 
and it would do very well, as in Ovid 
(Fast. i. 596), " llle Numantina traxit ab 
urbc notam." But 'duxit' has most au- 
thority, nnd is equally good Latin. [* Ni- 
veu8 vidcri,' a Greek icUom.] 



A.U.C. 737 (?). 

prodqced by the publication of his three books of odes, which had 
knofni only to a few, was such as no donbt to silence envy, and to 

CARMINUM IV. 4. 225 

Totom moneris hoc tui est : 

Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Bomanae fidicen Ijrae^ 

Quod spiro et plaoeo^ si placeo^ tuum est. 

ihat I breathe tbe breath, not of life, but bat * vivo ' does not represent * spiro/ 

cf poetry. Compare C. iv. 6. 29 : " Spi- 21. iui est^ I bave departed a little from 

ntainPboebiismihi— dedit." Ovid. (Trist. tbe asnal punctaation here, making 'hoc' 

iT. 10. 115) says, it is truc, refer to the preceding verses, and joining 

* Ergo quod vivo dariaqae laboribuB obeto * ^^od monstror' with * quod «piro,* &c. 
Qntia, MuBa, tibi/' 


A.u.c. 789. 

Tbehutory of thia ode Lb earily made oat. The Vindelici were a tribe whose territories 

l^between tbe Danabe and the hike of Constance, comprising the greater part of 

&odeni Bavaria and Saabia, and some part of the Tyrol. The Raeti ky to the Bontb 

^ the Vindelici, and reached to Lake Como on the Boath. Thefle tribes, whom the 

hiitQriaiu describe as very fierce and warlike, commenced a syBtem of predatory incnr- 

>ODi into Cisalpine Ganl, in which they appear to have practised the greatest atro- 

J^ (Dion Caas. liv. 22; Strabo, p. 206). Aagastas was at this time (a.17.0. 738—89) 

>n Traiualpine Gktnl, and Tiberins was with him. Drasus, bis step-son, and yoanger 

^nlber of TiberiuB, was Qaaestor at Rome, and in bis twenty-third year. He was 

nqnired by Angastas to take the field against the offending tribes, whom he met ander 

^ Tridentine AlpB and defeated signally. Bat though driven from Italy they con- 

tiiRKd their attacks apon Qaal, and Tibcrias was accordingly sent by Aagustas witb 

ttve troops to his brother^B assistance, and between them tbey effectually humbled the 

^nbes, wbose territories were constituted a Roman province, afterwards named the 

^Mtise, Raetia Prima or Proper, and Secunda, which embraced the possessions of the Vin- 

dcfici: these also comprised several other tribes, of whom Horace particularly mentions 

tbe Qenaani and BreunL The whole of this war took place in the spring and Bummer 

^ tbe year A.U.C. 739, and we are Icd to suppose from C. iv. 14. 84 — 38, tbat it was 

"nmgfat to a conclusion in the month of August, on tbe anniversary of the capture of 

Akxandria by Augustus in the year 724 (C. i. 87, Introduction). In honour of these 

^Ktories Horace composed this ode and the fourteenth of this book, the one more ex- 

I>^j to oelebrate the name of DruBUs, the other of Tiberius. The two odes tberefore 

i&Qtt historically be viewed together. Whether they wcre written while the wars were 

yct fresh, or on the retum of Augustus to Rome in the year a.u.o. 741, is doubted ; 

W I indine to think they were written at ^fferent times, and should rather, from the 

cbineter of tbe odes themselves, infer that the first was written immediately on the 

ti£ng8 of Drusus' victory before his brother joined him ; and that the second, which 

hu nmch leas spirit in it, was compoeed on Augustus' retum and by his desire, as a 

iQppIement to the first. Tbe popularity of Drusus and the hopes that were entertained 

of him would create much enthusiasm at Romo on the occasion of bis success in his 

tecampaign, and there is a hearty and vigorous tone about the fourth ode which does 

hoi appear bo oonspicaouBly in the fourteenth. Here the praises of Drusus are upper- 

lUBt in the poef s mind, there Augustus is the real theme, and Tiberius can bardly be 

ittd to bear more than the second part. NevertheleBs I agree with Franke in thinking 

ifciiB|val«Ue that Horace would have writtcn the fourth ode without an allusion to 

I&Bfini^ if his Tictories in conjanction with his brother had taken place, or been known 

ilBoM wh0& lie compoMd it. There ia indced tacit reference to TiberiuB in v. 28; 



i)t mnn' IhHn niu DnaTaiilnt)1t> in )iUi)diiig to AogDrtui u tlie foDiil 

■11 wliicli iippi>anil m Ilrufsus. Not to have alliidGd to 'IlbniDS «ool 

iiHtnral u* to huvv oiuitted a mare apeciHc mention of hii {art in thi 

tiial it whi?n t1io ode wu writtoD. Beiitley'a notion thst Drntus onlj i 

f fealuil the Vtndi^Iid Hnil TibcrinB the Itaetd ii ridicaknu. He i> led toit b} 

!iiiiino«|.].ofC.U,aiidhythe»tat™ientofTeIIeio>C"-9S], '■Utcriiaedii 

etoB Viudi'lin».]iie «gKTensi," wliich merely mcBni th»t they divided tbei 

ackni the tribcs in diSi.T(.'nt qDsrters, as Liv; (iliv. II) aays of tlie tal 

idres. " Diriu* pnrlihns oppngnarc aitorti pnotor ct Eumen^" The tx 

I miuor tiilK.^a connecUMl with theoi were nnited in one leogne, and thi 

■mlelici Ijoinu Httaeked in or neiir tlie teTritories of tho Hneti <■' lUetia wa' 

|iile thi.' Iliivti thei»«i'1vi'.3 li<oked on aad waiti-d, eg Jani invs, for Hberiii 

□nl. 1 Hni Burpriaed thiit Fronkc fldopC« thiB DolioD OD a IJlenl iDta 


le the j-nimi; engleJnEit ilnrting on ite prey, or the yonng llon fVeah from 

JniMiAwhenhe met the mde Vindehd.^nnd made tlim fwl wb>t heu 

ruin»! Dniler the eya u( Anguittu«. Tbe hravo give hirth to tbe hrsve 

iiiii Ihn liorsc hnvo the lilood of Uieir rircs, and the eagte gives uot hirth 

I Kut edueution briugB out tbe aoeds of virtue. Wluit lCome owe* ta Ibe 

iruB witneEB, and tho day which aaw Uaadmbiil defeatid Bni 

lelondi ond the flerce Afrienn from Latiiim. Onr rtrength has grown a 

lliiive retumed frum tliDt day, and HmiDilMl wus farced to crf. "Ab tbc 

Ipiirsuc thcwnlf, ne uro pnrBning those we ahoald H;. Likothe sborQ o> 

n BtTTngtli with ever,v blow, is tlie llydni or the mflnitcra of ThetMS. S 

eep, thej rise more gloriom tbaii cvor, and ovcrthrow theirTietor in 1 



Venti paventem^ mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem yividus impetus^ 
Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnae : 
Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta fulvae matris ab ubere 
Jam lacte depulsum leonem 
Dente novo peritura vidit : 
Yidere Baetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici; — quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omne 
Tempus Amazonia securi 
Dextras obarmet quaerere distuli^ 
Nec scire fas est omnia ; — sed diu 




niiig of aaiamn, and Bentley does not see 

liov thift critic is to be answered. Never- 

thdbw he does not take 'vernis' into the 

text» tlunigh he thinka it the proper read- 

hig. Horaoe does not reqnire to be put on 

hSa defenoe for such an error, if it be so. 

*Propiiht»' •docoere/ 'demisit,' 'egit,' are 

vmA m an aoriatic sense. [' Patrins vigor/ 

*lot native atreng^h/ 'that which he de- 

, ntm frcm his dre.' Bitter gays that ' pro- 

fvfit' is agunst this expUination, and that 

tiMrire poshes the son oat of the nest be- 

fae be can fl j in order that he may learn 

tofly. The eagle is wiser than the com- 


14 mairu a5 uherel ' Ab' like ^^6, is 

ind tUcdately : ' fresn from the dugs of 

Im dsm, yea jnst weaned from the milk of 

\m mother.' There is no more tautology 

is tbii than may reasonably be allowed, and 

Iiee no defect in it. 'Lacte depulsum' 

ttd 'obere depalsam' are both common 

|hnge8y of which Bentley has given a saf- 

ideot nomber of instanoes; but he pro- 

j iOKB to sahstitate ' mane' or < sponte' for 

' *lMtfl^'aDd,tlioogh he will not contend that 

*Waee wrote either one or the other, he is 

tiiM that 'Bpoatt' ib mach better than 

'^t^' in whieh I am not aware that any 

} litor has ■gieed with him. Qesner, Jahn, 

lAeiharetidMn 'nbere' for an a(^'ective, 

[iidefen Dillenhr. takes 'jam' with 'ubere/ 

[iidiBterpretsthaa: ' driven (by the stroufl: 

tiaeta within him^ from his mother^s 

4, tboQgh it he stiil ahandant, that is, 

■■tarely weaning itself from the mo- 

r. [Bitterthinkathaffalvaematris' 

he aother of the 'caprea.' Acalfis 

IfVi^' lie m^ C. ir. 2. 60; bat so is a 

17. Eaetit'] The reading of all bnt a 
very few MSS., and those of no great 
wcight, that of Acron and Porphyrion [of 
Servins, Aeneid. i. 247], and every edition 
till Bentle/s, is «Baeti' ('Bhaeti' or 
'Beti/ but 'Baeti' is the form which is 
supported by inscriptions). The Scholiasts 
take tbe two names togetber, as if the name 
of the combined people was ' Bacti Vinde- 
lici. Other MSS. have ' et Vindelici,' but 
these are all modem. Dillenbr. retains 
'Baeti' witbout inserting 'et/ and sup- 
poses an anacoluthon to arise ont of the 
digression (18 — 22). Cunningham, who 
adopts ' Baetis,' will not allow Bentley the 
merit of an original coi^ecture, and he ac- 
knowledges that N. Heinsius had hit upon 
the same beforc him. The reading appears 
to me to be the true one (see Introduction). 
[The evidence however is decidedly for the 
reading 'Baeti/ and if we accept the 'et' 
before ' Vindelici,' we get rid of the dif- 
ficulty created by 'Baeti Vindelici,' who 
were different peoples. Bitter has ' Baeti' 
— Vindelici.] Several editors cast out the 
words 'quibus—omnia' as totally anmean- 
ing, and Franke rejects them as 'ineptum 
glossema.' He would have been abold scribe 
thatwould thrust such lines intothetext. 
They are quoted by Servius on Aen. i. 247, 
and, wbatever may be thought of their 
as genuine. Thc Scholiasts, preten^ng to 
interpret the lines, only infer from them 
that tho Vindelici derived their race from 
the Amazons. AU we can gather from 
these verses is, that the Vindelici carried 
some species of battle-axe, that the Bo- 
mans had felt the weight and edge of it, 
and that the Vindelici were connted a 



Latcquc victrices catervae 
ConBiliis juveniB revict-ae 
Sensere quid mens rite, quid indoleB 
Nutrila fnustis sub penetralibus 
PusMt, quid AugTisti jjaternus 
In jmeroa animus Nerones. 
Fortcs creaotur fortibus et bonis; 
Est iii juvencis) e*t in equis patrum 
VirtuB, iifque imbellem feroccB 
Profjenerant aqiiiloc columlmm ; 
Dnetriiia sed vim promovet insitam, 
Ilcctiquc cultus pcctora roborant; 
Utcvmqiie defecere mores 
Iiidccorant bene nata cnlpae. 
Quid dcbeas, o Roma, Neronibiis 
Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 
Devictus et pulcber fugatis 
Ille dics Latio tenebris 
(luL primiis alma risit adorea, 
Dinis per urbes Afcr ut Italas 


Cum laude victorem geretqne 
Protlia (.■onjugilmB loquenda. 
Kartbagini jam nou cgo DiiBtioe 
MitUtn BuperlMJS : occiditj occidit 7t 
SjK-s iimuis L't fortuna nostri 
Nominis Hasdrubale interempto. 

Quas et bcnigiio numine Jnppitcr 

Dufemlit et curac sagaces "; 
Espediuiit per acuta belli. 

' / ipat up rrnm tlie eaxtb ; whicb 19 Sonie mppOM. Bat it nM; 

110.1 b¥thrU«^'iiilufJ«iK»uinCo]dii», jugai* on «11 rid«.] 

■ Caauuu M Theh».] 73. ;.«->!.«ri] There U » 

rrpn.V] I iia Hurprised thHt mch for thc fulure tenw tlion tbe| 
1 «lilon a» Orelli Bnci Jahn Bhonld Bentlej adopls. Uld M ■ prc 
! sliinilerpat autliorltv udopt tbo bar- nmntb of an enem; it woul 
1 inmi 'L>iivt' iu thl* plui^e, inerelj weiglit, «nd be mon in acc 
rrf-iioml t'j tlie fulurcs 'proruet' tbe preceding conatroclions. 
ini'n.'t.' Ilcntlcy n-a,U ■ proruit ' nnd lut atuiu, ai Acron (tnd P< 
.' Iiut tbt' lH'^t M^^S. biive tlie fntnre. mark, tho poot it (peaking-, i 
1. t'. i. m. \%. ')iniruiiB.'l Xapo- thc 'cnne tapms' mnst be 

(leekirutiijn lluit tlie Eut;fiflh wero of Augastm, M Acron and 
ill 1« knoH «liLii tlipv were bealen 'AenU balli' corrc»piMidi.iis ' u n.'i>elition of Hi.Dnibal'» com- servei, to Hom. (ir. 353), 

CARMINUM IV. 5. 231 

Divis orte bonis^ optime Romulae 
Custos gentis^ abes jam nimium diu ; 
Maturum reditmn poUicitus patrum 

Saneto concilio redi. 
Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae, 6 

Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus 
Affulsit populo, gratior it dies 

Et soles melius nitent. 
Ut mater juvenem, quem Notus invido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 

Dulci distinet a domo^ 
Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curvo nec faciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 13 

Quaerit patria Caesarem. 
Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat^ 
Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas, 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae, 

Culpari metuit Pides, 20 

NuUis poUuitur casta domus stupris, 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas, 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae, 

Culpam poena premit comes. 

L Divit orte honUt] Compare C. iv. 2. name, and remain at their windows with 

*^ 'Costoe' is repcated in "cnstodere- eyes fixed on the capc which the vcssel 

"ffli Ciesare" (C. iv. 16. 17). * Romulus' is to double.' Swinbume, Two Sicilies, i. 

ofRonmleu»,' •Dardanus* or 'Dardanius,' 837. Those who are curious about old 

•reTuedasthemetre requires by thepoets. usages may compare Swinbunie's expla- 

7. i/ rfte»] C. u. 14. 6, ** Quotquot eunt nation (p. 335^ of C.i. 4. 13, * Mors aequo 

^*" pulsat pede,' ic, with llitter'8 unmcaning 

la Carpathii] C. i. 36. 8. ' Distinet ' note.] 

(r. 12) ig a better reading thati 'detinet,* 18. Nutrit rura'] Bentley iniroduces 

Md *u that of Acrou, since he explains it * farra,' and Tan. Faber substitutes * prata * 

**IiMat.' 'Demovet' I prefer to *dimo- in the former line to avoid the repetition 

**^'(t. 14), for the reason stated C. i 1. of *rura.* Cunninghaui proposes *culta;* 

13 0. I^mibinas first proposed ' deinovct' but the repetition i» plainly dcsigned. ' The 

«re. As asnal the MSS. vary, but most ox wanders in security ovcr the fields, to 

««▼e *dL' [Ritter and Keller have *di- the fields Ceres gives fertility. Nothing 

^OTct*] could be less probable than Bentley*8 con- 

[14. curvo — litore] Epod. x. 21. jecture, and his reasoning b worse than his 

The *cnrvo litore' is the shore hollowed ooiTCction. The diflSculty onlylies in this 

Wt by the action of the waves. In C. i. restless corrector*8 own want of simplicicy. 

33. 16, *carvantis' is correctly rendered Silius (xii. 375) speaks of **Arva Cereris 

'icoopi' by Kewman. ' If the Calabrian nutrita favore." * Faustitas ' is a new name 

febocu do not appear at the usual tcrm of not elsewhere met with for ' Felicitas ' 

tbeir annnal Toyage, the mothers and wives (Acron). Velleins (ii. 89) thus describes 

^tl» ■uloiB raer np inccssant vows and theblessingssecuredbyAugustus: *'Rediit 

prijcn^ call upoii tne beloved person by cultus agris, sacris honos, securitas homi- 


Qiiis Pftrthum paveat, quis gcliduni Scyther 
tluis Gerinania quos horrida parturit 
t\>tus, iucolumi Caesare ? quis ferae 

Bellum ouret Hiberiae? 
Condit quisque diem eoUibus in suib 
Kt v\U.'va viduus ducit ad arbores; 
Ilinu ud vinu rcdit laetus et alteris 

Te mensis adhibet deum ; 
Te multa prece, te proeequitur mero 
Dt'rusi.> pateris et Laribus tuum 
Misi'i't numen, uti Graecia Castoris 

F.t magTii memor HercnliB. 
LonjrnB o utinam, dux bone, ferias 
IV.if;;tes Hesperiae ! dieimiis integro 
SitTi roane <lie, dicimus uvidi 

Cum Sol Oceano subest. 


rniqae rerum 111871101 poa- all the dijs ofSoloinoD" (1 Kir 

■rtlum' nicansdeliverEdfrom For ■redif (t. 31), Buntlt!;, Cn 

coimnfHUtoni ignote SDeC uid S(ui>do& prefer 'leuit.' Tl 

iil. 98), *' VFcton» tinataeque de nari Cion U aafficieiit obji>c(JDn to tbi 

nndrinB Aupnntd nccliiniiirnnt perilltim whidi is suppprted bv verj littlc 

"llumaiiiii^iri'. litnTtiitnifiinc " Amun doo= uut retum tobieti 



A.TJ.C. 737. 

The appomtment of Horace to compose tbe principal ode at the Secnlar Games 
▲.ir.c. 737 ■eema to have giyen him much pleasnre, and to have g^ven hia mind a new 
stimnlnB in £eivonr of ode-writing. To the hononr thns conferred npon him we owe, 
perhaps as mnch as to Angnitns* bidding, tbis fonrth book, of which the third, sixtb, 
dghth, and ninth all bear marks of the legitimate pride that circnmstance awakencd. 
T\na sixth ode is a kind of preface to the Secnlar Ode, and dwells chiefly on the praises 
of Apollo as having been the slayer of Achilles, and thereby haying preserved Aeneas 
to be the fonnder cf the Roman family : and having prayed for and obtained the help 
of that god for the task he is going to pcrform, Horace tnms, as choragns, to the 
memberB of his chonu» and instmcts them in their dnty. 


O thoo, the pnnisherof Niobe and Tityos, and the slayer of Achilles; he who shook the 

walla of Troy was no match for thee, bnt fell nnder thy strength as the pine-tree 

laid low by the axe, or the cypress by the east wind. He would haye taken Troy, 

not by gnile bnt by cmel force, but that Jove had granted Aeneas to thy prayers 

and those of his dear Yenns. O Apollo, support the honour of the Boman mnse. 

His spirit is npon me: ye virgins and boys, keep time to my song and sing of 

Apdlo and Diana. O damsel, when a bride thou shalt look back and say, " When 

the age bnmght back its festiyal, I sang the pleasant song that the poet Horace 


DivB, quem proles Niobea magnae 
Vindicem lingnae Tityosque raptor 
Sensit et Trojae prope victor altae 

Phthius Achilles, 
Ceteris major, tibi miles impar, 6 

Filius quamvis Thetidis marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 

Cuspide pugnax. 

\ Diee] The pnrpose of the ode being 

tD inTQke the assistance of Apollo for the 

^o^pOBtioii of the SecnUur Ode, the invo- 

^*^ is snspended here, and not taken 

jfigiin tfll the praises of the god haye 

(Kot loog; as the ayenger of crime and 

l^ aotra^er of AchiUes (C. iu. 4. 77). 

^ itory of Niobe, the prond mother, 

^ the instfnl Tityos, will be found in 

^ Dict Myth. The Greek form being 

^f^bh tiie Latin is Kiobea, not Niobaea, 

tldeii is the coimnon reading. * Magnae 

Gigose' is a dose oopy of Ztbs yhp 

^fyiUfs yXAir^i^t ic^fiwovs 'Ttrfpcx^a/pci 

(Boph. Antig. 127). 'Altae' is an Ho- 

Baie ^ithefc fiir Troy, "lAios aiVcii^. 

The death of Achilles by the hand of 
ApoUo was foretold by Hector (H. xxii. 
358 sqq.) and is stated by Sophocles 
(PhUoct. 334),— 

r40yriK(¥ &ySpbf ot^tvhs 0€ov 8* 0iro, 
ro^(vr6s, &s \4yovaip, ix ^olfiov Sofitts, 

The common legend assigns it to Paris, 
bnt not without Apollo'8 help. 

6. quamvis^ All Orelli'8 MSS. have 
'quamvis,' and the old editors and most 
of the modcm. Qesner and Doering, fol- 
lowing the " better MSS." of Torrentiua 
have ' quamqnam,' and so Jani and Fea, 
See C. 1. 28. 11 n. 


Virginum primae puerique claris 

Patribus orti, 
Deliae tutela deae fu^aces 
Lyneas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem meique 35 

Pollicis ictum, 
Rite Latonae puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperam frugum celeremque pronos 

Volvere menses. 40 

Nupta jam dices : Ego dis amieum, 
Seculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen docilis modorum 

Vatis Horati, 

^l. Virginum primae] The chorns on cili» modornm ' (v. 43) are Chreek con- 

^ gpeat occasion was chosen from noble strnctionB. 

^inilies, as the passage ehows. The Les- [ — celerem — volvere'] Compare C. i. 

^ foot was the Sapphic. There is no 1. 18.] 

Qample of this nse of Hntehi' earlier A2,. festtu—luces'] The Secnlar games 

^D Uorace, as far as I know. lasted threo days and nights. Some 

36. PoUicis ictum] The beating of editors separate this ode into two parts 

time br tbe motion of the thumb, not at v. 29, an arbitrary proceeding which 

tbe striking of the lyre, as Stephens ex- substitutes two nnmeaning fragments for 

plaiiu it, ** quod dicit qnasi lyram ipsam an entire compoeition fnU of spirit, and 

P^tit." complete in desig^n. [The speaker was 

38. Noetilucam'] * Noctiluca ' is the taught, and then repeated (reddidit) or 
'B>^ of lome MSS. snng the measures of Horace.J 

39. Proiperamfni^m'] This and ' do- 


^t tbis ode is addressed to the same person as the fifth epistle of thc iirst book is 

V^J certain. That person was an advocate (v. 9), and this is commendcd for his 

^^oence (v. 23) ; that person was busy in making money, and so was this. But who 

«W Torqoatus was we have no means of decidiug. Estr^ (Prosop. Hor. p. 497) sug- 

9>ti tbat it may have been Aulus Torquatus, mentioned by Ncpos in his life of Atticus 

(^ U) ai having bcen with thc army of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. This would 

P^ him an acquaintance with Horacc, which may have ripencd into friendship. In 

oJoith^s Dict. Bic^. Weicherfs supposition that C. Nonius Asprenas Torquatus is the 

*i^ of these invitations has, I think, too hastily becn adopted. But it is all very 

iBittrtain, and not less so the date of the ode, which may have been written after the 

'piitle, or, which I think much more probablc, long bcfore. It bears the strongest 

^txtem to C. i. 4 (which, it may be observcd, was nominally addressed to one of 

HoriDe^B companions at PhUippi, and thcrefore, if Estr^'s conjecture is right, to a 

^ne&d (A Torqnatus) ; and Qupposing it to havc bcen written, which I think not at aU 

■Bfilcely, aboot the aame time as that, its not having been inserted in the first pubUca- 

tiitt woold be aooonnted for by that resemblance, and its being inserted in this was 

pnbiblj for the purpoeo of making np a fa»ciculus to pnblish according to Angnstus' 


niBnd. I do not knoir «lij ooe Bbould go into this HDJ Bucb-IJie mlii 

■pt n» it he1p« us to trnce tlie prc^ets of Horace'i miud Hud ityle, i 

a went tlirougli > great cbtnge after ttie publicatien of the three fi»t U 

I. I very miich donbt wbether ho coold hsvB coped hioiwlf »0 eiacU; 

e ia thoe two odcs if an; grcnt iulerral bsd cUpeed betweeu tbem. I tl 

kcUned to sct dowu tliis among Uonkcc'i wlier odes wbjcb be braught out 

r the pnrpose aboVG mGationed. Bat othera will have their own opinion 

it wediled fo miue. It will «t any rate be ohserved that the iotrodncti 

latuA' naine or tbe □misaion of it would be equatly iiamutcriid to tbe chi 

Hcopu of tho ode, and thut wbat hai boeu laid of otber ode«, aud uoong 

1 to, is equuUy applicahlo to this, namely, that tbe namii of i 

Bnly mtrvxluced to give life and individuHlity to tbe poem. 


1 wintcr is goue Bnd the spring ia retnmiDg wlQi ita green learei, 
trcumn, and it3 Uraccs. The scaiuiDs change ecd remind oi of oqt eni 
evolving jeur rcpuin; its losses, whiio we go to tho dust for ever, and wc 
rhcn it wil! lie. Wliat thou doit eiijoy thjaelT is «o much tuken &om 
beir. Whcn thon art dcad, Torquntus, thy fsmily, thine ctoqucnce, ant 
will not rcsteve thee to life aay more thao tho love of Diana eoulJ 1 
I Hippolytus or the friendship of Theieus Peiritbous. 

DiffijGere nives, redeunt jam gramina campis 

Arboribusquc comae ; 
Mutat tpvra vices et decreseentia ripas 

CARMINUM IV. 7. 287 

Quis scit an adjiciant hodiemae crastina summae 

Tempora di snperi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient heredis amico 

Quae dederis animo. 20 

Cum semel occideris et de te splendida Minos 

Feoerit arbitria, 
Non^ Torquate^ genus^ non te facundia^ non te 

Bestituet pietas; 

Infemis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

Liberat Hippolytum^ 
Nec Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

Vincula Pirithoo. 

to the cluuQges of the moon. ' Tamen' For 'snmmae ' there areMSS., and among 

*^^ows tbat the changes and deteriorations othen the Blandinian above mentioned, 

^ the weather and seaaona are intended, which read ' vitae/ which alBo appean in 

*i^'celereslnnae'aretheqnick-revolving Ven. 1488, bnt it ia only a glosa. No 

ii^QQtht. So Lncan (viiL 468) : copyist wonld have invented ' summae.' 

« noctiqne rependit ' Amico animo dare ' seems to be a literal 

^ minor hibemae vemi solatia damnL" version of ^fAp ^uxp x*vV«^<w- Simo- 

16.i»iat Aeneas'] Here OreUi agun nides eays,— 

^tterts hia Beme MS., which reada with . . , . 

'"Miy other» ' piua.' All the editors till . . .T"r.''^*^!;*^' ?^ 

Bentley had that word. Hia reasona for "^XV 'r«' dyaflo»!; TAjfli xapi(6titPos. 

*^ting * pater ' are, firgt the anthority V»5 Bergk, sub fln.) 

^ better MSS., eepecially the oldest ^- i ^-^ i rm.. • i 

BUndinian, and, secondly, that 'pietas' 21. ^«P^^»^] Thia is an unusnal 

«cars below (v. 24), an argument that is "^^ ^P^ *^^^ a meanmg. ForceU. mter- 

»ot worth much, and would rather tell P?^ i^ "praeclaram et aequam Benten- 

tJ»e other way. if any thine. Neither do ?*™ et proUtam ommbuj/ and I do not 

Ithink Orem'B notion, that 'pius' and !^°^V ^^»* ^^^^J? "^ any further meanmg 

'^m* would Bound too much like oppo- 1? ^^® ^°^\ ^^ ^^ hl® '5f®^'? ^ 

Mtion,a8 if Aeneaa were poor and TuUus the august character of the tnbunal, as 

nch, of any weight. Bentley proposes to ^^^J^^^ . „ xu /i i i a 

^ ' divea ' into * pauper,^ because the 25.] Horace foUows the Greek legend 

king» of old were poor. But he has no fespectmg Diana and Hippolytus. Ovid 

wthority. and Horace'B purpoee is to S^®** f- ,^ ?!?•) "»»^^8 him return 

jWthat no means are sufficient to bring ff^"^ ^]]^ ^f ^/ bemg brougbt to hfe by 

^^ the dead. not piety, nor wealth, nor *^.® i^'^} °^ Aesculapius. See also Aen. 

!»»«. I have on this assumption adopted ^}' ^^^ "^f ^.^1^^ *^T™°"xu ^f**! x^if 

•pin5'Mhavingmoremeaningherethan Theseus and his fnend is, that both 

'pter.' [RittCT haa ' pater.' He also has ^*^\"« ^f,° consigned to their punish- 

'Tana8,iveBet Ancui^and he refers to ?t?^ together, Hercules went down and 

11,«. . , -M- j «i. i. he understood that TheBeus pleaded for 

W» "^ '''" PeirithouB when he »as himMlf returning. 

17 /v^ but failed to obtain his release. Dillenbr. 

17. Qitif geit] This may or may not be supposes Horace to have followed Bome 

«Wtted from Euripides (Alc. 783) :— diflferent legend or to have altered the 

•^ foTi BntTwp SffTis i^t-witrrarai conmion one himBelf. 
yV tJfptop lUKKowrw c« /SM^a^cTcu. 



A11 thnt ia bnnwn r>t C, Marriaa CenioriDiU, tlie person to vliom tbii 
d. iriay ]w roiiiid in Smitb'» Kct. Bi(^. (Cetmprinus, 6). II<- wu a u 
i!ui'utinu. uni) mncb IipIdtciI, Ofcording' 1« Vulleiiu (ii. 103), who 
, " Gniviti^r tiilit ciTitaa." Horace piji him the compliincnt of bel 
mld citotm ho ode or bia niore liighl; thiiu ati; coxtly gifta he ro- 
lunce witb ttic comninn prortice amoDg: frienda or making cach ott 
ac) on nfw-ypiirV diiy and othcr Futivuli. We haTe lio mMIU of t 
[vlitii the ode wiia ivritttu. But aee C. iv. 6, IntradnftiotJ. 

I were rich in stntnea nnd pictarcm I would givc anch to my t:\en3a, ki 
,0 t1u'Q, rpunirinu». Kut 1 liive uono, Rud thou dcaireat not thew. '^ 
1 oSvr.—vereea in which thuu delighteat. Nii monQmenla of niarble 
)wu minlitj- ilecila cunld cnnoble the Scipionea like Enniua' verses. 
'irtura mu*t rciuaiu oliacure hut for tbe uinse. Wliat wonld Aoacua i 
iiivu txi'n witltiiiit lier P She miiiefl mcn to tbe skic^ aa ahe did Hi 
I TjniUridiie. andLibcr. 

RdNAHEW pateras grataque coiDmodas, 
CL'iis(ii'i(io, ineis aera sodalibus, 
DonarcTn tripodas, praemia fortium 

CARMINUM IV. 8. 239 

Non incisa notis marmora publicis^ 

Per quae spiritus et vita, redit bonis 

Post mortem dueibus, non celeres fugae 15 

Rejectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 

Non incendia Karthaginis impiae 

Ejus qui domita nomen ab Africa 

Lucratus rediit clarius indicant 

Laudes quam Calabrae Pierides : neque 20 

. Non incua] There is a little con- manis rebellamnt.'' Othera snppofle that 

a (which however is easily seen 'incendia' does not necesBarily mean the 

ogh by those who avoid the commen- boming of Carthage, bnt is only another 

"s and jndge for themselves) in the lines way of expressing the overthrow of its 

follow. Horace meana to say that power by the elder Scipio, or his bnming 

monaments raised to heroes by their of the fleet, or of the camp of Syphax. 

>ti7 and their deeds do not shed so Bat, considering the notoriety of the final 

h Iionoar npon them as the poefs destrnction of that city by fire, this woald 

es do. He illostrates the deeds of only be charging Horace with wantonly 

«sbythe exploits of the Scipiones,and confusing his readers. And yet it woald 

poet 8 verses bv the poem Ennius wrote seem that the Scholiasts and the older com- 

niie of the ^der. It is trae tbat, if mentators all nnderstand only one Scipio 

Iniew nothing of the destmction of to be referred to, and they mast have nnder- 

■bage bat wbat is here mentioned, we stood the line therefore in some way con • 

bt gappose that the person who de- sistentwithsnchaninterprctation. Itmust 

|>ed it was celcbrated by Ennius, and not be overlooked that the vcrse " Ejns, 

'usion would arise. But as we do not qni/' &c,, applies to eithcr of the Scipiones. 

wse that Horace was ignorant that Anothcr remedy which is proposed is to 

hage was bnmt by Scipio AMcanus suppose that two verses have been lost afber 

or, and that Ennias died many years theseventeenthjwhichwouldhaveexplained 

re that event, so neither would Horace its meaning ; the ground of which hypo- 

nie guch ignorance in his readers. thesisis, thatodesinthismeasurejofwhich 

m he says that the defeat of Hannibal however thcre are but two others (C. i. 1, 

be elder Scipio and the destraction of nnd iii. 30), are so written as to be capable 

^Uge by the younger, do not hold up of division into stanzas of fonr lines each, 

f name more nobly than the musc of and this ode wants two verses to make it 

U, who does not supply in his own meet that rule. But the rule is arbitrary, 

^"whichwasemployedindoinghonour and a precarious foundation for such an 

^ elder "? If, as Bentley says, every assumption as the loss of two verses, of 

of ten years old knows as much as which no traccs are found in tbe oldest 

to much the less obscurity is there in MSS. and commentators. On the whole I 

KDtence. He proposes to mend it by see no suiBcient objection to the vcrse to 

ting altogether the seventeenth verse, require its being omittod or branded with 

^) he says, halts in the metre and asterisks, even though Buttmann thiuks it 

asestheanthor^smeaning. Theremedy spurious (Mythologus, vol. ii. append. 

nple; bnt the MSS. we possess or have Horazundnicht-HorazV But his objection 

reoord of all contain that verse. The is founded on the rhytnm, which I hardly 

f remedics proposed are to changc think can be adraitted as sufficient. Bax- 

mdia' into some word which shall not tcr^s note is more sensible than his notes 

si^[dicable to the conquests of the elder usually are : " Nollem Bentleius ita se tur- 

^aodCunninghamhas supposed 'im- baret quod Horatius Scipionum acta in 

ia' to be the word, Doering * stipen- unum fere coegerit poetici compendii stu- 

Hermann ' dispendia,' nonc of which diosus. Certe vel summis poetis ejusmodi 

atis&ctory. That no word short of iLyiaroprtaia leve admodum est crimen." 

Dction (implying thereforc that the 15. yWotfj Hannibal's hasty departure 

ger Scipio is meant) existed in the from Italy at the summons of the Cartha- 

I of one of the Scholiasts (Comm. ginian senate. 

) may be inferred from his note, 18. nomen ah Africa lucraius] If the 

i ooDtra foeduB joramento violato lio- disputed verse preceding this is allowed to 


Si cliartap sileant quod bene feceris 
Merccdeiii tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 
Mavortis(]Lie puer si taciturnitae 
Obataret ineritis invida Romuli? 
Ereptiini Stygiis fluetibus Aeacum 
Virtus et favor et liugiia potcntium 
Vatutn (livitilms conseerat insulis. 
DigTium laudc virum Musa vetat mori : 
Caelo Musa beat, Sic Jovis interest 
Optatis epulis impiger Herculea, 
Clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab iufimiB 
Quossas cripiunt acquoribus rates, 
Oroatus viridi t^mpora pampino 
Libcr vota bonos ducit ad eiitus. 

|:iiiii1, thesc wordnreforloScipio Arricanni 
1 atlil tliHI thtyiiosomajbo inferrtHJ 
. ii. 1. G6, whtrp hc is lucQtiousd ii 

talbcn lilip "lingna* as belongii 

genii. facultas jioetiaL' I ratl 
meHning' a tbat, tboogb Aei 
tnoui {and he wu inuch (vlcfa 
jnatice), his virtue woutd not 
bim to tha skie» bnt for tbo ■ 

CARMINUM IV. 9. 241 

ihe medinm of statcments made at a Ume wben every one was ready to abuse tbc most 
▼irtnons wbo were ont of conrt favonr. LoUins, as we bavo scen (C. iv. 2, Int.), was 
defeated A.T7.C. 788 by tbe Sigambri, bnt be retained bis grcat influcnce witb Augustns, 
vhom it was not easy, we may believe, to impoee upon. At any rate, if be was bypo- 
crite enougb to deceive Angnstus, Horace may be excnsed for assigning to bim excel* 
lencies be did not possesa. Tbe date of tbe ode is not at all certain. Tbe dcfeat of 
IfoUins, wbicb canscd a great deal of alarm at Rome, very probably raiscd many voiccs 
•gainst bim, and gave an advantage to bis enemies ; and it is not improbable tbat 
Uorace wrote tbis ode to meet tbeir attacks, and to console bim nnder his (icfeat. Tlie 
eoofidcut tonc that mns tbrougb it brings tbe ode nnder tbe reuiurk iimde in tbe 
introdnction to Ode 6 of thia book. 


Hiink not that my verses will die : tbongh Homer stands first among poets, Pindar, 
Simonides, Alcaens, Stesicboms, Anacreon, Sappbo, — tbcse all survive. Helen was 
not tbe first woman that lovcd ; nor Ilium tbe only city tbat bas been sacked ; nor 
the heroes of tbe Iliad all tbat bave fougbt; but the rest bave been forgotten, be- 
caniie tbey bave no poet to sing of tbem. Buried virtne is little better tban buricd 
dnlneas. I will not tberefore let tby labonrs pass nnsung, LoIIius, tby sagacity and 
nprigbtneaa, tby mind free from avarice and secnre from cormption. It is not the 
posiessor of riches that is wealtby, bnt tbe man who knows bow to nse the gifls of 

Heaven and to endnre poverty, wbo bates corrnption, and is ready to lay down bis 

fife fbr his oonntry or his friends. 

Ne forte credas interitura quae 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor soeianda chordis, 
Non si priores Maeonius tenet 5 

Sedes Homerus Pindaricae latent 
Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces 

Stesichorique graves Camenae; 
Nee si quid olim lusit Anacreon 
Delevit aetas ; spirat adhuc amor 10 

Vivuntque commissi calores 
Aeoliae fidibus puellae. 

L 5e forW] " Ne drcnmflexe pronun- his native town, was fifbeen miles sonth of 

^Qdam est, t. e. ne credideris." This note tbat rivcr, on that brauch of the Via Appia 

J' the Seboliast is, I believe, incorrect whicb Iea<ls from Benevcntum to Taren- 

wogh Jftni says it is "simplicior et pro- tum. As to ' no,' sce S. ii. 1. 80 n. 

^fciBor ratio"), and so at any rate is Bax- [7. Ceaeque'] Thc pocms of Simonidcs of 

Wi conelnsion, " Forte igitur 'K\tovd(u" Ceos. The poems of the Aeolian girl, Sap 

tk KOtenee I tbink is : " Lest i^ercbance pho, were still extont.] 

IDB dionld soppose — rememberthatevenif 8. Stesichorique gravea Camenae'] The 

Boner staods first Pindar is not forgotten.'' muse of StCHichurus is called ' graviii ' as hc 

b Umh, Croqnins, Heins., Bentley, and chose for his subjects principally thosc 

■oift modera editors. If, as Orelli tmly which I)elunged to Kpic poetry, as wars 

Ji^ Honoe feels a pride in referring to bis and beroes und so fortb. " Magnac, pro- 

itife stream, why does be object to tbe inndae ; nam et ipse bellomm scriptor," is 

phaatioo I have given as tbe most ob- the SchoIiast's explanation of tbe word. 

«B oT C. in. 80. 10 P Thongh Horace [< Stesicborive,' Ritter.] 
« ht «!• boni nmx the Aofidiia. Venusia, 


Nim Pola comptos arsit adiilleri 
Criiics ct aiirum vuntibus illitum 

Alirata rc;ja'<**iue cultuB J3 
Et lOTuites Helene Laeaena, 
1'riniusvu IVucer tfla Cydonio 
DirexUareu; non eemej Ilios 
Vexata; non puj^navit ingens 

Idomcneua Sttienelusre solue 20 
llicLmdn Musis proelia ; non ferox 
Ilector vc! accr D«i])liobus gntves 
Excc]iit ietus pro pudicis 

Ciiiijiigibus puerisqne ])Hmu8. 
Vixere furteB ante Agameninona 25 
Miilti ; sLsI omiK'8 illacrumabiles 
l'rffentur ignytiijue longa 

N'j(.'le, tiirent quia vate sacro. 
Piiiittiiin &i'pultae distat incrtiae 
Cclal;i virtiis. Non ego te meifl 3C 
Ctiurtis iiiornatiim sitebo, 
Tulve tuos patiar labores 



Impune^ LoUi^ carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 
Rerumque prudens et secundis 
Temporibus dubiisque rectus, 
Vindex avarae fraudis, et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae, 
Consulque non unius anni 
Sed quoties bonus atque fidus 
Judex honestum praetulit utili, 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium 
Vultu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 



cel&ta,' hiddcn throogk the neglect 
aets. But the text is iiiuch better 
ulson the uuthority of all the MSS. 
!e6o] Many MSS. and editors have 
Imt 'silebo' is equally well sup- 
lud is better I think. So C. i. 12. 
eque te silelx), Lil)er." [Keller has 
Bentley takes more credit thun 
ntitled to for restoring •silebo/ 
imbinus and most of the earlier 
ave it. His argumcnts in support of 
10 weight, and he is wrong in sup- 
sileri ' to have bcen a late inter- 
for Cruquius' commentator, who- 
may have been, had thut word 
m when he wrote thus : '* Non ego 
patiar tuam virtutem silcntio ob- 

>ive tuos patiar labores'] These 
n to bave reference to the unpopu- 

LoUius in connexion with his 
luch appears to be alluded to in 
1 'dnbiia' below. He may also 
a the object of slander in respect 
enonai character, which Horace 
mly defends. There seems to be 
waj of accounting for tbe eamest- 
i wnich he declares his innocence 
36 of avarice, for instance, than to 
that iault had been laid to his 
■ it was »0 freely after his death. 
tanimmM tihf] ' Rerum prudentia' 
irledge of the world. The Scho- 
I it ' phUosophia,' and so it is, of 
t 0ort> tbe philosophy of common 
1 obMTvation. "Cato multarum 
Rim habebat" (Cic. de Am. c. 2) 

the same kind of expericnce. 

mean» 'erect,' not stooping or 
nm, aa '* Fana deos habuere rec- 
hr. 4. 48). Fea quotes Boethius 




Quisquis composito Berenos aero 
Fatum 8ub pedibus dedit superbum ; 
Fortunamque tuens utramque rectus 
Invictum })otuit tencre vultum.' 


Sce also Ennius, quoted by Cicero (de Se- 
ncct. c. 6) : " Quo vobis mentes, rectae 
quac stare solcbant Antchac, dementes sese 
flcxere viui ?" 

37. abstinen^^pecuniae'] For similar 
Qraccisms sce C. ii. 9. 17 n. 

39. Consulque non unius anni] Compare 
C. iii. 2. 19. Lollius was consul A.T7.C. 733, 
but Horacc says that an upright judex is 
always on a levcl with the highest magis- 
trates, and such ever was LoIIius, besieged 
likc others with temptations to comiption, 
but rcsisting thcm all, and so overcoming 
thc enemies who encompussed him, and de- 
Ilvering himself by his virtue from their 
calumnies. This I tako to be the meaning 
of * obstantes catervas,' &c., though these 
two stanzas are not fVee from obscurity. 
Docring thinks LoUius was consul when 
this was written. Objections have been 
raiscd to the construction of the sentence, 
by which 'consul* is refcrrcd back to *ani- 
mus,' which is mere trifling. His heart 
was the heart of a consul, which could 
hardly have been expressed more plainly 
than it is here. Lambinus, Cruquius, Bent- 
Icy,and others,adopt 'et' afler 'utili' and 
' vultu.' Orelli says that all the existing 
MSS. cxccpt one omit the conjunction, and 
he does so. ' Explicuit' is not easy to 
rcnder so as at once to satisfy the etymo- 
logy and the sense. ' Exprompsit,' ' expe- 
divit,' are the equivalents supplicd by the 
commcntators. ** Per medios hostcs victor 
evusit" (Landinus). That it should be a 
mutter of groat mcrit and diificulty to 
maintain the character of an uncorrupt 


CAIL\[IXU.M IV. 10, II. 


Mutilus Li^-urlnum in facicm verterit hispidam, 
Dices lieu qiiotiens te speculo videris alterum : 
Quae raens est hodie, cur eadem non puero fuit ? 
Yel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt geuae ? 

' uinbra,' &c. "A^rriKos was a nanie given 

^ ibe Greeks to beunllcss boys. Boys' 

Wir ¥rag allowed to erow till they assumed 

tbe 't^ni virilis.* wlien it wa.s cut oflf, as 

cAwrved on C. ii. 6 2^k The feathers of a 

V»td are a* giKxl a likcncHs to the down on 

tyouiigcheek m wool, fwm which *lanugo' 

tt derived. [* Superbiuc ' i» the diitivo 

5**^] Bentley also changes Ligurinum 

into Ligarine» after two of Torrentius* 

^88,10 that * verterit' would be equivalent 

to '▼erterit Re.* But the othcr reading is 

ww forciblo and reproachful, though 

Boitley caunot see tbat it is Latin. ' In 

^ftjolo' is the rcading of somc MSS. and 

fffltiooi. But • in' ia not wanted and in- 

pttthe rhythm. • Speculo, without • in' 

■ tlie abUtne of the instrumcnt. There 

■ dttriy no analogy betwecn thia exprcB- 
>wn ind " nuper me in littorc vidi," * I 
■■vnijielf when I was on the shore ' (Virg. 

Ecl. ii. 25), which Bcntley qno*cs, Jani 
says 'apte.' 'Alterum* i» nowhiTC else 
used exactly in this scnso, ' mututuni,' and, 
though the word adinitH of that use, it is 
80 like the Qreck crfpot', which is frc- 
quently so used, that I think it is a truns>- 
lution of that word. * llei^ ' is an cxcla- 
mation of the poet, not of Ligurinus. What 
follows is so liko two lincs in Terence (llec. 
i. 1. 17), that Cruquius' Scholiast says it 
is taken from them : — 

"Eheu me miBeram! cur non aut istaeo 


Aetas et forma est aut tibl haec scu- 
tentia ?" 

Respecting tbe mirrors of thc I^omans, 
which at this time werc onlv of metul, gluss 
mirrors having been intnKluced latcr, and 
then of an inforior quality, sec Dict. Aut. 
art. ' Speculum.' 


Hmk win be fband in this and in the only other two Sapphic odes contained in this 

"^ Dora deviations, in the prop<)rtion of nearly four to onc, from thc cacsural arrange- 

''tttobierred in the flrst three books than in all the odes of thosebooks put togother. 

ntn tliif and other intemal evidence it has becn argued that this odo is a late onc, but 

I think theargumentfl are inconclnsive. It is true that Horace addresscs Phyllis as his 

■■tlore, but noty ao far aa I can see, in the tone of a person now g^wn old, as Butt- 

**n Mys. Most men wiahing to plcase a woman vow constancy to hcr, and onc who 

*M oUiged to confefls that ho had been inconstant to othcrs would only be the more vc- 

■tatinprofeflflingstedfastnesfl to her whom he desirod for the occasion to win. But I 

flOBOtmeBD to expreflfl any decided opinion ono way or thc other. It is only important 

tobcir in mind that thia book was published, not to rcvive Horace's reputation as a 

*iiter of amatory ▼ersefl, butat the desiro of the cmperor, who wished tho praises of his 

i^MDi to be aent fortb to the world, and his own with them. The ode to Lyde, on 

^diy of the Neptonalia (C. iii. 28), is liko this and has morc spirit. It is not im- 

pOKibk Honioe may have written this as early as the other, but thought thc othcr 

^ctter, and that one of the kind was enough for publication. The form ' spargier,' which 

^tem Dowhere else in the odes, gives this the appearance of a diffcrcnt stylc of 

MpQation from otbers ; bnt whether this is due to design or carclessness, or to ita 

hiPig ta euij or kte production, cannot be detcrmined. It is not at all unlikely, as 

caaraMiitator has snpposed, that the ode was sent to Maecenas on his birthday, 

VM ooly tbrown into tiie form of an addross to Phyllis for poctical convenience. 


• n pmd nld (ini]i1ic>rn or Albtin iritli paralp; Bnd ivj to mslce thce a er 
LT 011 iny iHHirf], ni^d an Bttor tbat wsitA for thc tjicriRc^ ; the ^laveA 
ia liumiiip, conic biiiI cclebrato tbo Idw of April. (oT it U Maeeen. 
't uicrrd lo n\e tban my uwn. TGlepbni ia iniitrlinl alreiitl;, and 
tliee, Tliy fHle» pf PliiiL-tlnin ind Bollerophou tcath th™ to beware 
II!, iDiT lust lovc, with tliy «nvai v<uoo >iiig tbe aoDg I abnll teach the^ 

EsT mihi aonum euperantis annum 
Plenus Alliani cadus; est in hortO) 
Piiyili, nwti-iidis apium coroLis; 

i->t lieapnif vis 
MuUii, ijua c-rinfs religatii fulgeB; 5 

Ridet ai-^a'nto domus; ara eosti» 
Vincta vci-bcnis avct immolato 

SitarjriiT ii»no; 
Cuncta rcstiimt manus, huc et illuc 
Cursifant niixtue pueris puellae; lo 

Sordidiini flammuu trepidant rotantcs 

Ycrtiw funuini. 


Ut tamen noris quibus advoceris 
Graudiis^ Idus tibi sunt agendae^ 
Qui dies mensem Yeneris marinae 15 

Findit Aprilem ; 
Jure sollemnis mihi sanctiorque 
Paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce Maecenas meus adfluentes 

Ordinat annos. 20 

Telephiun, quem tu petis, occupavit 
Non tuae sortis juvenem puella 
Dives et lasciva^ tenetque grata 

Compede vinctum. 
Terret ambustus Phaethon avaras 25 

Spes, et exemplum grave praebet alcs 
Pegasus terrenum equitem gravatus 

Semper ut te digna sequare et ultra 
Quam licet sperare nefas putando 30 

Disparem vites. Age jam, meorum 

Pinis amorum — 

10. Onrntantmixtaepuerit puelUie] As qnioquid namero et successione constat" 

Oi^aTS, 'puellae' ia most rarely used (Gesner). 

Iv ftDuJe dayes. The word in use was 21.] Telephus is a favourite name with 

'■dllie.' 'Vertioe' ia the top of the Horace. For what reason he chooees this 

ine which ' flickers as it whirb the dark name for youths whora maidens vainly love, 

MdDe on its crest :' a spiral flame, termi- does not appear ; hut such is the fkct. 

y^Bsag in a colamn of smoke. It secms as ' Occupavit ' ' has pre-occnpied ' (C. ii. 12. 

if Honee were writing with a iire huming 28). [Kitter remarks that this Tdephus 

Ubre him, and caught the idea as he cannot be the same as the Telephus (Heli- 

vnte. Bentley dialikes * trepidant,' and odorus) of C. iii. 19, for he travelled with 

pnpwu * crepitant,' which deatroys the Horace in a.u.o. 717 (S. i. 5. 2) ; and this 

^BttJ of the image altogether : moreover Telephus is a young man even after A.Tr.o. 

ttcn ii no reapetrtable authority for the 737, for Rittcr places the date of this ode 

tege. Some oommentators make 'ver- bctween a.u.o. 737 and 742. He con- 

te' tfae roof of the house. jectures that this Telephus is Maximus (C. 

U. MruMf] C. i. 3. 1, and C. iii. 26. 5. iv. 1), for tbe words agree syllable fbr syl- 

J^m wiB ndd to have risen from the sea lable. See iii. 19, Introd.] 

a^moiithof AprilyWhich was therefore 22. Non tuae eortie] This belongs to 

WiMmth, the name of which Macrobius 'juvenem/ not to 'pueUa.' " Si qua voles 

'sfTQi fttxn B/^pos : Varro more probably apte nubcro, nube pari " (Ovid, Heroid. ix. 

te 'waeno,* * qnod ver aperit omnia.' See 32). 

C* 1 4h Introdnction. [Macrobius (Sat. i. 23. ^ata compede'] See C. i. 33. 14. 

U) afUr giving variona absurd etymolo- 32. Finis'] See Introduction, and com- 

A of ' JSob,' oondudes " ut idus vocemus pare Propert. i. 12. 19 : — 

gaqd diridit mensem ; ' iduare ' enim « j^j ^ ^^^^ ^li^ ^ ^y, y^ ^ 

annfin^ 'diYidere' est." But the cedere fas est ; 

-^lI^jXm' hlmrr^^ contains the Cynthia prima fJdt, Cynthia finis erit." 

Ul t^mtmim ^rdimai anmae] 'Beckons Whether 'condisce modos' means 'prac- 

•A jiMur as H snooeeds.' "Ordinatur tise some of yoor aongs beforo you come/ 


I PTittn postliaf alia calebo 
linu— rnmlisce iuodos amanda 
f (nios reddus ; miimentur atrae 



np lli,nl. I niU " Be.Widi mnnen docliii 1 

(c.l, jLTiil in iwt V«tis Homti," 

UlOM' Uf C. i 

inl- .-..rrL-pond wliich Mtinot bu laislalLCn. J 
V. (i. 13 : d..ritiind. it M 1 do. 


Before A.D.c. 735. 

ll'""""-^ .fiviilpd in (licir opinion» aa to tlie pcrson ti 
:..,...:■,. ;-„i.vnrv, lint in mcli a mannerttslo «lio 

.■',■. ''l'.,r™nHni mentioiw threo MS! 

' _ :■■..- u]>^cn|Hiu \im camuiDn muai. 

■ h .,.!.,j,!- tluB abBurdity, dfrived from 

nnil V, -J'i, nnd whcn be interprct* " jnrenuni nobili 
ns, ar Ihv ^«tpp-snns of Aaguttue, Le nliowi hu kne* 
.m(. IftLe ijnention were ta be dcoidcd by nninlx 



ode» in honotir of DrnsTW and TibcriTi» br the leftding featnre of this book, and their 

piiblication ns the chief objcct of its publication, I can easily understand old composi- 

tions and new ones comparatively indiflerent being inserted to make up what after all 

wouUl be but a small volume. I neither assent to nor differ from the datcs given by 

those who assign an early period to the compositiou of tlie ode ; but I differ, as every 

one must, from Bentley, who assigns all the odes of this book to a period long subse- 

qucnt to Vir^rs death, but yet 8uppx)ses him to be here addressed. As Gesner says of 

the great critic, "sua vineta caedit." [Ritter also affirms that all the odes of this book 

wen.> whtton after Virgirs death, and he consistently denies that the ode is addressed 

to the poet Virgil.] If any body wcre to affirm that no Virgil or invitation is really to 

he foand in the ode, and that it is a mere composition from the ima^nation or the 

Qrcek, I ghould not quarrel with him, only I should still believe that it was composed 

^fore the death of the poet, A.Tr.o. 735, with Virgirs name added to give It a real 



The spring is oome, the frost is iled, the stream flows gently, the swaUow builds her 
nest, the shepherds are piping to Pan in the fields, and the days of drought have re- 
tnrned, Vlrgil. Bring mc a box of nard and I will bring thec in rctum some generous 
Calvnian from Sulpicius' cellar. If my bargain please thee make haste, lay aside 
hntineM and, remembering that thou must die, relax while thou mayst into folly for 

Jam veris comites quae mare temperant 
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae ; 
Jam nee prata rigent nee fluvii strepunt 

Hibema nive turgidi. 
Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, 5 

Infelix avis et Cecropiae domus 

1. imperaiU] This is explained by C. 
'•ilSn. TheTnracian windsareherc the 
■wth-cast winds of spring. Their effect is 
^ differently describSi by Sophocles 
(Ant g86\ but the effect of a north-east 
viod 00 the east coast of Grcccc would be 
^ (Kfferent from the effect of the same 
viw blowing on the west coast of Italy. 
^^oliiDd)a(xi. 2. 21), quoted by most of the 
^i^BMntatorB, speaks of northerly winds 
ciBed Omithiae, which blew for about 
^J days from the 20th February. But 
**tneriy winds prevailed throughout the 
*priiig, and continaed into the middle of 
'vainer, tbeir quality changing as the sea- 
fm ■ilvaoced. Lacretius speaks of them 
u» tlie hcight of sammer : — 

"Inde loei seqaitar Calor aridus, et comes 

pQlverulenta Ceres, et Etcsia flabra 
iquilonam " (▼. 740 sq.) ; 

vkrehecallsthem ''Etesia tlabra/^because 
tbtt Bame wm given to all kinds of periodi- 
od winda. TheM were the winds which, 
'"vrAmg to one of the theories Herodotus 

contradicts (ii. 20), caused the ovcrflowing 
of the Nile : ^ irfprj tilv \4yti rovs irijaias 
iufffiovs flvat alriovs x\r)66fiy rhv irora- 
fi6y, Ku\6oyra5 is $<i\aaaay iKp4eiy rhv 

3. nec fluvii atreptint'] This explains C. 
iv. 7. 3. The time is not quite the begin- 
ning of spring when the snows melt and 
the rivers are swoUeny but aftcr they have 
subsided, which soon tukes place. 

5. Nidum ponit] Hc alludes to Procne, 
daughter of Pandion, king of Attica (Cecro- 
pia), tumed into a swallow. It is grace- 
fully intro<luced here to give ornament to 
a coinmon fact and sign of spring. Horace 
elsewhere introduccs the swallow with 
the west wind (Epp. i. 7. 13). The 
swallow and not the nightingale is pro- 
bably here meant, though Doering and 
Dillenbr., on account of * flebiliter geraens,' 
supposc Philomela to be intcnded. It is 
not easy to decide. One vert»ion of the 
story changes Philomela into the swallow, 
and Procne, the mother of Itys, into the 
nightingale. A third version makcs Phi- 
lomcla the mother of Itys. Sce Hom. 


Aetcrmim npprnljriiiin, quod male barbaras 

Rv^ftim est ullii libidines. 
Dicunt iu tenero ^amine pinguium 
CusttMies ovium earmina fistula, 10 
Deloptjintque deum cui j>ecna et nigri 

rftllen Arcadiae idaccnt. 
Adduxere Bitini tempora, Virgili ; 
Scd prussum Ciilibus ducere Liberum 
Si {p.'Ktis, juveuum nobilium cliens, is 

Nardo vina merebere. 
Nardi parvus onys eliciet eadum 
Qiii nunc Sulpiciis aecubat horreJs, 
S]ics douarc novas largus amaroque 

Curarum etucre efficax. ao 

ss. jii. S19) : ijjlAi- . . iro.T iM>*u- 9. D!nnt] C. m. 4. 1. ' 
■n 'lT«Miy •pif^or. wLLfh version 0«id (t. 11) i» a Tsrious reaciing 
n bi ruIluw(Ara. ii. G, Ttiia):— Gesapr witboot much ■uthoril' 

».„,™ ,.,,,„. ,™,i. ™wu. ^rs;.",;r:;ji'.'';;i:, 

■..■i . , ,, ■ ■ ,„ 1. ,„- toniut to cletJ^nniQe wbo thest 

CARMINUM IV. 18. 251 

Ad quae si properas gaudia^ cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immunem meditor tingere poculis, 

Plena dives ut in domo. 
Verum pone moras et studium lucri, 25 

Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ignium 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 

Dulce est desipere in loco. 

.25); " abditu rerum" (A. P. 49). 25. sivdium lucrt] Sce Introduction. 

oiercc/ sec C. i. 31. 12. 26. Nigrorum — ignium'] Tliis epithct ii 

mmunem'] Ter. (Phonn. ii. 2. 25): commonly applicd to tbe ftincral fires, as 

u^yinbolum vcnire !" The dronc is (Aen. xi. 186) " sabjectis ignibns atrU.'' 

itcd as " immunid scdcnH Hlieua ad Ov. Fast. ii. 561 : — 

\ (Virs. Gwrg. iv. 2 H), and Horace «« Conde tuas, Hymenaee, faces et ab igni- 

uiinself, *' qucm scis imraunem Ijujd atris 

placuisse rapaci'' (Ep. i. 14. 33). Aufer." 


t need be said on this odc has been said in the Introductions to C. iii. 10. and 15. 


fersare answered, Lyce. Thou'rt old and wouldst captivate stiU ; but love abides 
m the fresh cheek, and runs away from the withered trunk, and from thee, with 
•lack teeth, and wrinkles, and grey hairs. Try and hide thy ycars with pnrple 
ewels, but the tcll-tale records betray thee. \Vliere is thc girl that I loved only 
to Cinara ? whom fate curried off too soon, while it lefb Lyce to grow old, that 
JverB might hiugh at hcr declinc. 

AuDivERE, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
Audivere, Lyce : fis anus, et tamen 
Vis formosa videri 

Ludisque et bibis impudens 
Et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 5 

Lentum soUicitas. lUe virentis et 

divere, Lyce] WTiether there is so fore, "taceturC]iiaepucllaenomen,"should 

tttemess and dcrision cxprcssed in havc beeu corrccte<l by his e<litor Gesner. 

e vcrbal compositiou of this odc as *Delia' and 'Lesbia' are formed in tho 

•. has discovered, or whethcr, for same way. 

; the cacophony of thc tirst stauza [3. Tw] * You try,' not *you wish:* 

rolar u not rather the fruit of carc- ' stni^glc to look fair ;' Conington. This 

than dosign, may be doubtcd. Thc help.s to cxplain * importunus ' (v. 9). Cu- 

werer is sufficiently tauuting, and pido cares not for her attcmpts and solici- 

sasilj be believed that more thau tutions. Conington translatcs *importu- 

1011 may have been stung by it. nus,' *rude;' Newman, 'vexatious.' Con- 

i proper nanie. Baxter'8 note thcre- tcmptuous ' is thc idea.] 


Doctae psallere Chiae 

Pulcliria exoubat in genie. 
Importunus enim traoBVolut ariilas 
Quercus, et rcfugit te quia luridi 
Dcntes, te quia rugne 
Turpuiit et eapitis niveB. 
Nec Coae referunt jam tibi purpurae 
Nee cl.iri lapides teoipora, quae scmel 
Notis cunJita fastis 
Inchisit volucris dies. 
Quo fufjit venus, heu, quove eolor ? deccna 
Quo motus ? quid habes illJus, illius, 
Qu;io spirabat amores, 
Quui? me surpuerat mihi, 
Folix piist Cinaram, notaque et artium 
Gratanim liicies? Sed CiDarae breves 
Annos fata dederunt, 
Servatura diu parem 

but ahe canEot gcf thein ba 


ComiciB vetnlae temporibns Lyeen, 
Possent ut juvenes visere fervidi 
Multo non sine risa 

Ditapsam in ciueres facem. 


A.u.c. 741. 

M nnder wliirh ihln odc wda KTitten, snd it» probsble date, «re given 
in tbe lnlroductiini to C. 4 of thia bouk, to wliich the reader is referred. Tlie cominou 
m^v^riptiDng which nudc it au addrcss iu hoiiour of Augustus BulHcicutly describc the 
■piritnf it, thoagh the profeeited purpose isto celebrate the parttbatl^beriuB toobwith 
Dnwu ui Uie Tietoriea oier the Qertnui tribei. 

Witli whit honoon shill we perpctonte tlij virtiieB, mightieit of prinoe», whow 
•treDgth the inaolent Viudelici hare fclt ? Witli grtnit elauglitcr DntsuB riiBt them 
dmifmii tbeir heightm and TibcriuB drove theni bcfons him, as tbe Bouth wind 
dfifcttlie wmTCB, or tbe BwoUen AnfiduB lays woBte tbc corn, — & ^'tithcicBg victory ; 
•nd UKm Jidit lend thine sjinicg thjfouDBelB andthinc auspices. 'Twbb fifteen years 
Im ttut dij when Aleiandria opencd licr gates to thoe, tlint Fiirtunc brouglit tbis 
glo; to Ihino anna. All nationibow down to thec, from thc eost to tbo woat, from 
Ib Hrtli (o the Kinth, O thou guardiHn of Itnl; and lUimo ! 

QuAE cura patrum quoeve Quiritium 
Flenis honorum muneribuB tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum 
Per titulos memoresque fastoa 
Aetemet, o qua sol liabitaliilfs 5 

Illustrat oras maxime principum? 
Quem legis expertes Latinac 
Vindelici didicere nuper 

1 .PErau iloMJmn muneribiit] OretU writcrBof the NcwTcBtamcDt.Bignifloa the 
u>l otben nuke 'plcniB* nliMilntc. tiigiii. Kimiun world. [Itittcr aud Ketlet have 

JKDoent on ' muueritioa.' I prcfcr tiiking 7. Qaem — didictre — jnii MarU 
thciroid* » thev atnnd. 'Aeternarc' ia pmtfi'] This construction ia not nncom- 
■ mird which hnd proltablj hecome aliiioat mun in Terenco and in Plnntna (Aein. i. 1. 

B ujother aDthor, eicept in a frngincnt <|uulis siet ;" and (Eun. iv. 3. 15). " Ego 
«tVuTO. Uanj worda tbat Hocace uhcb, illuin neijvio qui fnerit," aud otlier plntcB. 
■nd Do otber extant writer, were prohuljly With tho Grtek poeta nnlhiii^ is mora 
BMnKia coongh before the age of Ciecra. ccnnmon, as in SophoolcB (TiBcliin. 429) :— 
'Habitalnln onu,' Uke i aUou^in, so Tpit Btir ippiaar, «Un 
1 ^ i^ PIiil«rth aod the tiffntra. t6rt* tU w«t' icrU i i(nt , 


Quiil Murto ]i"sscs. Milite nam tuo 
UruBus Geuiiuiifis, implaetdum gvniiSj 
Breunosque Vfloees, et arces 
Alpibus imjiogitaa tremcndis 
Dejeeit acer plus viee eimplici ; 
Major Ncronum mox grave proelium 
Commisit immanesque Raetos 
Auspiclis pcpulit secundis, 
S]H.>ct:indiiM in eertamine Martio 
Dcvota morti peetora liberae 
tiuaiitiij fatigaret ruiniH ; 

Indomitas prope qualis undaa 

■lO,] Tlif Gennuiii «ere une ot tba words nre not free rroin diffic 

"'iiT!! Iriljua uf Itaitiu trt?twecu the tho coniitraction "plu» vii*,' 

ViTliuniia (Mimsinrr) und LiiriuB £0. 

lu). Cniincr p1uri'j< tliu Brtuni Hiutli 17. Speelandiu — quaatiy] 

ihe Alju iu tl!r Vsl Bniuniftj otlier» imitftlciJ from the Greek Saiii, 

nfidBm 20. Indontitai prope qtiat 

Itliine propiHed 'iDdoinitua* becaase ' 

II» oc- BHetiaiis roulil not properlj- ) 

■[11,-a liir^-, I i'.. !■ iit liuetiu to tba untguied water». One S 

■' ' ' ' 1 .. - fouiid to support him. The • 

tlmt tltera ai 

CARMINUM IV. 14. 265 

Exercet Aueter, FleVadum choro 

Scindetite nubes, im|)i^r hostium 

Vexare turmas et frumentem 

Mittere equum medios jjer ignca. 
Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 23 

Qui regna Dauni prueUuit Apuli, 
Cum saevit horrendamquc cultis 
Diluviem mcditatur a^ris, 
Ut barbarorum Claudius a^mina 
Perrata vasto diruit impetu 30 

PrimoEque et extremos metendo 
Stravit humum sine clade victor, 

wiiKb, "veHs comitvs quii« miire WhcDce this ronreptton of ■ bnll u repre- 

Dt " (C. iv. 13. I), tfae wavei be- sentiug thc fom of h river.god may have 

enemie* of Koine. But this de- nriwa it U noC caay to W;, bnt proUibly 

le coDipariEum obvioiuty contain«l from tbe brsDcliing of «0 niaiiy la^;* 

rbole pnHKuge l>etH'ccu tlie miglit 9tn:am*Httbuirmoutliit,thoug;h tliatvoald 

ini aDil of otlivr li<.'a(Ilong tbiii).'* not apply to (ho Autldus. 'Hie Aafidui, 

to tbc work of diwtruotiiin. For wtiicL now ia cal1«l ORiTito, U invuriably 

ica' Bviillcy proposca 'pcrcnaca,' dcscrilicd 1>v Horacc Haa boiaterouaetrcami 

■ny autlionty. ' ]gnea' ia a giiod atid bo (iilins ilc«:ribFS it, who had loa* 

nd naed bj othem in tbe same iDtOrest in mai^Hifyiiig ita importance: — 

u SiL ItaL, "pcr medioa ignca «Sanguineu» tumida» in campos Aufldni 

n. per en.e." (.,v. 175); "per ^«^ ^ 
'(Hitare aciea meuiosqae per if^nen 
). Ov. Met. viii. 76 : '■ Ire per 
er gladiol anrim." Tlie Scholiast 

Criii|.) lufBciently ciplainB 'per But tbe chamctcr of such atTeama varied 

y " per mcdium pupiae fervorem, greatly at ditfereut BeBsouR of tLe year. 

lam Btilorem belli." 28. aedUalsr^ Tbia ia the cildoit and 

nri/briHu] ThiniitakpD from tlie moat (utborized readiDg, and tliat of the 

•Ii^>i»p4>ai, applied to the CepliiBUa Scboliaitn. oncof whoin, Porphyrion, Anda 

p. (lon 1261). The only othcr &ultwithit. ■MiiiUatur' ia thereadinifof 

liTer that waa represented under many MSS.,andsome editorshave adopted 

m waa the Eridaniit, of whicb it ; lientley aniang otbera. Hia rciuioni 

lya (QeoTg. iv. 371 aqq.) :— bavc do wel);ht at all. The ScboliaHfa 

_! .„. .„„.j -..i... objection, that ' meditntur ' deuot™ n suB- 

pcnited action Tnther than one in progTv», 
badas it is, isbctlcrtban any of Bentley'!; 

m purpurci.m riolenUor effluit ^"'. *.» '''^}^ "^^y tT^X ." "^J^ - 

^" minitatoi, and the facl ii that ' medilari ' 
dciiot«« SD act aawell BS the premeditution 

I therefore representcd not only of it, like tbe Qrcek won) to wbicb it ii 

nu, bnt with gilded homa. Al- akin, ^LiMrie. Sec C lii. 26. 5 n. It 

Ibia featnreis attribatedlo Bcvcral dooa not, thercfore, ncccssarily imply any 

ij tbe poct» (to tbc Rliine hy pansc hetwcen the threat and tbe accom- 

>iM. iv. 2. 41, and to diffcrent plisbinvnt of the tlii^eatin thiniuiitance. I 

treaina, especially Achelous thcir do uot think tbcrefore tbat Oretli has bit 

k) hwt one of hia bomB wbile con- the true forcc of tbc word, wlien he Mys it 

vith HcTculcii), none of thcm is "sinc duhio longe irsiTrriicifTfpar,' be- 

.•pnaented in the ancient works of «lose it FiprcBaCB tlie silent and trembhng 

li»»e Burvived. Hornce h»s pro. cipectation wilh whieb nien are lookii^ 

rented thitdeKTiptionufbisnative for thc coining desoUtion. 

wayof mafniifyingits importance, 31. melendo'} Horace (liko Virgil, Aon. 

kinp it witb tbe greater BtrciUD». i. &13 : " Proiima qnaeque metit gloi^'') 

los, quo noD alins per [nngnig 


'l'(i copias, te consilium et tuos 
Prai-lieiitc divos. Nam tiLi, quo die 

Portua AlexanJrea Bupplex 33 

Et vaciiam patefecit aalani, 
Fortiina lustro prospera tertio 
Belli scfuiidos reddidit esitus, 
LaudoiQijue et optiitum peractis 

Imperiis decus arrogavit, ta 

Te Canta!>er non ante domabilis 
MeiiusqTie et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Minitiir, o futelii praescns 
Italiae dominaeque Romae. 
Te fontium qui telat oritjines «S 

Nilusfiue et Ister, te rapidue Tigris, 
Te liehiosns qui rcmotia 

Obstrepit Oceanua Britannia, 

onlfmm IlomiT (11. i1. 67), ofr Antonias; thciSi^j^hlani had [ 

-^pis ivxmiiii ^ti^Durir 'Or^ioi' iiUiuicei Ihe distaol, natiom 

doae the Bsme (see C. S. 55 n 

• fladr^ Sve notc on v. 13. oess ot Lentuliu tuul eh«cked 

" ■ ■■ oi] Spo C. i. 7. of Ihe tribe» of tho Danube (( 

CARMINUM IV. 15. 257 

Te Don paveDtis funem Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Hiberiae, SO 

Te caede gaudentes Sigambri 
Compositis venenmtor annia. 

^ nb B^lia port DHirtero trtinnre ad ■lio», [61. Sijnmirr] Tlie nlltision i^ ai Rit- 

tque boc mMime sd virlultiii eicilari ter »bjb, to tlie uvtnt» incntionod in Dinn 

utHiit, metnmortiiiieglecto." SeeLucan, CHssius, 51. c. 20, auil pliicnl by him in 

467. A.D.C. 738.] 


Thta oie *{ipc*n Sn early timn to bave been read u part of the foartopiith. Th« 

Scholiut Porphyrion mjs, "Quidam >«paraDthnTicodcDasnperiore,>fd poliitiUi jnngi 

ijDOiiuini hic laadei liicnntnr Augniti." TliiB is II poor reoiOD, and there can be little 

doobt tlie ode* were written ■epBrately, though probBbly aboiit the Hme time, on tbe 

i g tu in of AugUBtn* to Romc, A.O.C. 711. In conBeqnence of tbe mention made io T. 9 

of tlie cloAing of the tcmple of jHniin, a later date ia Bsgigned to tbe oile, namcly, l.V.C. 

74fi, wben it ii alBnneil (bat withoat sufficieiit rGisoD, bs KraDke baa bUowii) that the 

temple waa cloKd, for the third timo dnring the life of Aaguatns. [Tlie date of tfae 

tUrd clonng ii flied bj Orosini (vi. 22) iD l.U.C. 752. J But aa it had been cloECd 

twioa hefoTe uid Horacc docs not Bpocif; the particulBr time, bat merely aSnDa wliut 

i^^it bkTe becD iaid with equal tratb any jcar an«r 725, thia argumcnt provpB 

MtUng. If we maj auQme, as ha* becD oiisuiued throughout tbii booh, tbiit it nafl 

jahKdied, aa SoetoDiDB nvs, for tlie sBlie of the odcB in honoor of AagaBtuij' atep.Boni. 

tkoi it IB highlj improbable tbat the pa1)licBtioD was delajed for four jears. and there 

haalliing in thia ode nbich migbt nnt have bceD writtcn on his returti, bat tnnch 

Mmd to BUppoK it was. AIl tbat i» bere «aid of thc Buhjcctioa of the world and the 

tfnnal peaeewas «aid iu effect at tlie close of tbe fourleentb ode; but it was natural 

[ tti^ if Honea had received tbe emperor'i cominBDds to publish aDothcr book of odcs, 

W ihaild condiide it nith one addretscd to Augustua himaclf. reviewing thehleniDgs of 

lii i^ wludi at tbis time had been crowned bj a >encs of lacceasea bj whicfa imi- 

Vbaalwooldaing of wais Phoeliua cbected me witb bii lyre. TTiy rcign, O Caeaar, 
^ Imagllt haeli onr loat honour, witb plenty auil pcnce and order and the means 
V "llkh OOT Dame Bnd atrengtb have' become great. Under thj protection we fear 
Mwusat home or abrosd; tlie North and the East obej thj laws. snd wa with our 
nrti ind cbiidren wiU aitig of tlie heroes of oid, of Troy, and ADcbiaea, and of 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Victaa et urbea increpuit lyra, 
Ne parva TyrrheQura per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Cuesar, actaa 

1 itertpwU hfra] Thii ii «xpbuncd liv " Hoec ego cnai eanerem, Bobito manif^- 
)rid (A. 1. iL 4B»)\~ tu> Api^o 

Movit inauratBe poUice flla Ijrae." 


Frnfjcs et npris rcttiilit ubercs 
Et sifjiia Dostro restituit Jovi 
Dpn?pta Part.honira Buperhis 
Powtibus, et Tacuum duellis 
Jiiimra Quirini elausit, et ordinem 
Kcctuin cva^anti frena liceiitiae 
Injmt, cniovitque eulpae, 
Et viitores revocavit artcB 

of all tlw MSS. Tho niraal f 
o buve bccn 'Jaiiui Qairinus, 
imniig ntbcr oxumplea, tTom S 
:. 32). "Jnnnm Qairinuui — t 
incl Mnenibi™ (S«t. \. 9). " li 

PstrciOi Janum Jnnauinin, J 

sivinm, JiniJii QTnBiwuH, Jd 

cium ct Closivium." ThiTe is 

M a nint- I belivva of Janam Quirini bi 

lOl oftEU tbe tcinple of Jhhub bnviiijt 

«n giHicl n» ilj' II! -:. 11 . I. II .■:•■ iliriftwt by acconlin)! to tniditioii, bj- fJu 

inatiiict. 11«' iiiUii nn .^>iiIilii' h i.'iiiiiiiion Uomnlue, tbere le mocb in &[i 

enough. Sii: Vir^il (l.ii.^Lir^, li. 41) : " E'L>la- rinam.' AU tluLt i* Bgiiiist it 

■gDijue volnns da vitlu putfuLi /' nnd Uviil of bnnnony Briung out of ' un 

■ (Tr. ii. S2yj :— poiti.-d, anil tbe anthoritj of t' 

Imt bj ti.iidiinB^ llie strinffs of his Ivrf, and 
llendiii)- nie tu ii ntrain niom titteil to my 
i»e.' TbHt Dui.'rin)r, h[Ut baving ^'vpn 
i n<lopt«l th» eiplanation, Bbonlil bnve 
ingcd bia niind nnd follgwed tbe Seho- 
stB and Ihcwe aftpr thpin wlio joiii ' Ivn 

i'« it.] ll..riu- i'i.l'_.n'''"^j:..n,^ijl 
ldir('C;ti!il liiiir :....- 

L idm diibrt lylaan «e frpdcrp • 


wiih ». 



Fer quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires famaque et imperi 
PoiTecta majestas ad ortus 
Solis ab Hesperio eubili. 
Custode rerum Caesare non furor 
Civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira quae procudit enses 
Et miseras inimicat urbes. 
Non qui profundum Danubium bibunt 
Edieta rumpent Julia, non Getae, 
Non Seres infidive Persae, 

Non Tanam prope flumen orti. 
Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris 
Inter jocosi munera Liberi 

Cum prole matronisque nostris, 
Bite deos prius apprecati. 




MSS. have 'ortas/ and others 

* That the question cannot bc 

hj the repetition of the final * s ' 

■ay be teen by any one who examines 

Honee^s style carefully, The ar^mcnts 

« tiie other sido have not much more 

veighi than this, which is Bentley's, and 

Ifc ■ always better to acknowlcdge the un- 

CMteiaty of a reading than to refine npon 

H OM way or the other. Tliis is what 

IXDcnbr. has done, I think, in this aud 

nae other instances, thongh his edition 

iHicari to me in the main as judicious as 

07 that has been pnblishcd. [Ritter has 

■ nodnote on 'ortus:' 'uumerus multi- 

tMqut li eoncreta praeditns loca ct terras 


ri&. wuffesiat'] 'Majestas' is magni- 
teoe^ bot particnlarly the dignity of a 
pnple» or a prince. in some IU>man trea- 
&■ the exprewon ' majestas populi Ko- 
Mri'«asinserted. 'Minuere majestatcm,' 
'to iaipair this dignity/ was an offence 
i^ivilent to treason.] 

17. yfaror eivili* aut t>i>] 'Civilis' bc- 
liiigito 'foror/ and ' vis/ whicb is a tcch- 
s «Iwonlymeans here 'personal violence.' 
; 'Iia' appfiea to fbreign ^uarrels. See C. 
fii* 14w 14 n. ' Inimico' is a word whicb 
Aneo probably fonnd in use by writcrs of 
inur day. Later writers have takcn it 
<DBi him. ' Inimicat' means < scts at cn- 
V •Apprecatt' (v. 28), 'rcmixto' (v. 
L aie alao trords first fonnd iu lloruce. 
W. exige(\ Tbe MSa and editors hero 
im. ara diVided between 'eximet' and 
%rt.' I^ter cditon prefer the lattcr, 


and it appears to mo more forciblo and 
appropriate. (C. iii. 14. 14 n.) [Horace 
has ^exigere' in a differcnt scnse C. iil. 
30. 1. Rittcr and Kcller havc 'cximet ' here.] 

21. qui profundum Danubium bibuntj 
Tlic Gennan tribes, particularly the Vinde- 
lici latcly Fubducd. ' Kdicta Julia ' can 
only nican herc thc laws of Augustus laid 
upon them at their conqucst, though in 
thc t<K?hnical sense thc word *cdicta' would 
not apply. The rules which a govcmor 
publishcd in hi» province were his * cdic- 
tum/ but tbesc ))eoplc wcre not in a pro- 
vincc. Horace therefore docs not use the 
word in its legal sense (sce Mr. Long^s 
Kxc. on the * Edicta Magist.' Cic. Vcrriuae 
orationcs). The Getae lay towards the 
mouths of thc Danube, while the Daci 
werc situatcd to the west of thcm, on the 
same or north side of thc river. 

23. Seres—TanaU^ See C. iii. 29. 27 n. 
Thc Seres and Indi are not much dis- 
tinguishe^l by Horacc (C. i. 12. 56), and, 
whcn ho is referriiig to thc East, their 
namcs are genenilly associated with thc 
Purthians, niorc for thc sakc of amplifica- 
tion than with historical or geographical 
accuracy. Thc Koman annies ha!d not yct 
crossed the lowcr Tigris. But when Au- 
gustus was in Syria, we are informed by 
Suctonius, ambassudors came from thc fur 
East to ask his protection and alliance. 

25. lucibus'] This word is used for 
' dicbus ' by Ovid. (Fast. iii. 397) :~ 
" His ctiam conjux apicati cincta Dialis 

Lucibus inipcxjis dcbet habcrc comas." 
The singulur is morc common. 



Virtule Tmiotos more patrum dnceB 
Lvitis remixto earmine tibiis 3i 

Trtijamque et Anchisen et dmae 
Progeniem VeneriB canemuB, 

fiite functot'] ThU U ■ «DriM ogF oT boyliood, u harmonii 

pnwins 'virtutia mnniTe fuoc- nnd training it 1« good. Tli 

Cicirw ('rii!.c, 1. Iti) ; ■' Nhilo ticular forec, howtvur, hcn; 

liiLi [|"i V [rimi.- i.i.Tfi'L'lin- ptr- ■ L;di(.' It shonld b« oWrv 

iL^- 1-1 iiiurLi II' " 'tibiB' appears io tliv pliinil 

j:,i,;'-, I ir. r'l'ii-L'. i. S, and 1.32; KpDd. a. &) it huref 

II- [ii..< iiL ti:.' Ui'i^:i[]i'3of CHt4i ortliHeinatnunFDtiplijFdl 

I Ji it ii IM1- lIjc tu^tutu of old t4> Their jAtch wm dilTereDt, tbi 

.li I ... II- iiil'1i1b n)ioii tbe virtuc* tibia bcing called 'dpitni,' b 

. II. \ .,]. i^iuB Maiiniu» (ii.1.10) hdd In tbe right huid; thc t 

, 11.. .'iL.^Liim: "Mi^oroanoalri bcciiuc it wna be!d in tlie Itif 

...1 iil.iii- ciircgin BUporiormu nafd by the Ljdian» theuiiel 

III ijij.ivlii.ii-L( ].iiiii:.'liim(.qiio by Herodotui (i. 17) aM^ 

iiini.l.i- jin 1 Miiiiiii jiLicriiiri-m ■uA.ii Tvi-oiJrtMii. «• repnaent 

" 'llii' |irji..:ii I- m.iv liiivc hwn of a ninn ttiid a woinmn rraiei 

r\',y,d .11 n..r.i.. '.'ihiv. Tlic iDterrn.'tBt.iau hu beon doub 

uf Iliiii U.I.' ivl^lII» L'. iv. b. 31 HDd it ia tbe opinion of so 
pi)iea wfre eo nlled ae being | 

ii] Plato (dc i!ep. 3- 10, p. 398, a nmn luid tLe other bj- a n 

B that thc Lyilian anil loniuD Ur. liltikca1e;'Bnoteon tlic&l 

pi-p bcnt BHitiil to dclicacj Bud Thc fmniljof Anthisa», tbe g 

" ■ id riirvt,'iun to wur; lulua, i» mentioned hcre, twca 



A ng uitu i h«d oompleted the period of ten years for which the impcrial power 

at first pkoed in his hands (▲.u.c. 727 — 737), he determined to celehrate his suc- 

at bome and abroad by an extraordinary festival, and he took as his modcl the 

Lndi Tarentini or Taurii, which had in former times been observed an a means of pro- 

pitiating the infemal deities, Dis and Proserpina, on occasions of grcat pnblic calumi- 

tiea. It doea not appear that this festival ever was held at regular intervals. How 

thcrefore tbe name Ludi Saeculares arose is not clear : but as it was now for the first tirae 

fpwmit it waa probably convenient to have it believed that thc games wcre no more than 

the obaervance of s periodical solemnity. The Quindecimviri were ordered to consult 

the Sibyllxne books, and they reported, no doubt as they were desired, that the time was 

coaie wben this great national festival should be repeated, and the dctuls of it were 

Ind down in s set of hezameter Greek verses, which have bcen preserved by the histo- 

lian Zoamus, who gives a description of the festival (ii. 5). [Zosimus namcs the verses 

tW 2i3^AAi|t xpv^f^'^ ' A°d he says that they have been reported by othcrs before 

Um.] The rerses will be found at the end of thc odo. 

Snoe Dis and Proserpina were the divinities cbiefly invoked in the ancient games, 

tbe q;Qestion arises, Why were ApoUo and Diana the leading deities on this occasion ? 

If it be admitted that the festival was observed as a matter of convenience and not 

fraa any religious feeling, it is not difficult to understand that the older procedents 

*ere ouly generally adopted, and the deities most in fashion werc as a matter of courso 

Kbititoted for the obeolete Dis and Proeerpina. Aug^tus considered himself espccially 

vider the protection of ApoIIo, and the attributes assigned in the olden tirae to the 

Bftnial deities, as the originators and averters of physical evils, had by thii ttme beeu 

tnoifiErred to Apollo and his sister as representing the sun and moon, as Mitscherlich 

■uobienred. Orelli on this point quotes with approval somo remarks of Jahn on Virg. 

^ir. 10 to this effect : that a notion commonly existed among the Qreeks, and also 

*BM]Dg the Etruscans and Bomans, that the universe was moving in a cyde the com- 

pi^tioQ of which would measure one great year of the world ; that this year was divided 

^toten months or ages (saecula), the length of which was not defined but was doclared 

^ time to time, as they were completed, by prodigies sent from heaven. This 

^Qoants for the irregular cclebration of tho Saccular games at Bome. The Sibylline 

oki, hegoes on tosay, declared which divinity especially presided over each month; 

^ni presided over the first and Apollo the last, Diana over the last but one, as in the 

1 year she daimcd November as her own particular month. This is the reason why 

e dirinities were worshipped rathcr than others, bccause on the appearance of the 

4 at the death of C. Julius Caesar it was announced by the soothsayer Volcatius 

tbe ninth (Diana's) month was passing away and the tenth was then beg^ning. 

leoount evidently has reference to the great Platonic year, which, when complete, 

ring all the besvenly bodies back to their original reUtive places. That tho 



.nnus n*ne p?ncnil1y bplipved in ii corUin. Vii^ ref^ to it Ii 

rdcre ni™*!» " (v. 12). Citero diKUMea it in hi» trentise de N»t. Deor 

Qiiarain (i. e. o( Lhi? jihinett) ux Uisparibua maUDnibiia nugnua) uinuui i 

oiiiuiuvifTunt i qoi tnm efficitnr quum BOli* ct Iniiac ct quinqne emntiiim 

^Utk cQUipBralinnpin confi^ctis oinniuin ipatiis est fketa nitiveniD. Qniu 

it maBnii quneatia eit. Etee vero certaui et dcfinitara neceani e»t." Tbe 

t llie nnciciitn vury fnm 4£l,0D0 to ncarly 26,000 jean. The la»t corres] 

I ppnod calculutid for tliv jinwesaion of the equiuoies, witli wLich, however, 

I Aiiuus of tbf (Srwks uud Rommas bnd notbing to do. It ia represenled oc 

a iumIhI of Uttdrian iu tbi; rorm of a man iu ■ loose robe, witb a globe i 

liis li'ft tiunil, niiil lii» right rniaeil over bii bead. He ia BuiTOonded hj 

distiiijriii^li tiim friim t!ic fi~iiri!s of Etemity, repre^cnted in a drele. ' 

m is Suciv. !■!]-, \--.T. ".r.-.. M'liiit nmount of credit ii due to all the detai 

lei]iliinnti<<ii. t '' ' ' ' ' -' i ' '<h<tly frointbeBtatemente of Senrluion the 

!,■ Nuti 

Bnt, nithoDt 

rwolviil tu u 



nuulc Aiwlli. 



In lirerertnc 

e t< 




L-\ 1' 

being .■lio-,<„ 

I << ■..,ii Honkl bnve beeu vcry BurprisiuE if Aogt 

II i.' l'.-tii*nl iii hononc of Mb own «lepeufiil can 
cipiil feuture of it, and bsd caUed npon Pluto to h\at 

. goil to « linm he iJlowed bimsclf to be likoned bii 
liiiii ii.>< liiH fnlhiT. Horace appears to bnve been ninc 
I in< .■< <.f tb.-occnsion(C.iv.G,Introd.). Tbe ode 
■', wliile tbo emperor waa in perHon offei 
e upon three altarB. a< 



laisted oft 



AnchiBes* noble son his prayers, for his victories shall be tempered with mercy 

li.>d \a the Mede, the proud Scythian and the Indian (53 — 56). 
plenty, and all the virtues have retumed to our land (57 — 60). 
*lioebufl thc au^r, tbe prince of tho bow and of song, the phyBician who fiivour- 
ri^ganleth his Palatinc tcmple and the fortunes of Rome aud Latium, evcr extend 
blcMingg to anothcr and still happier lustre (61 — 68). 
)iana who inhabitcth the Aventine and Algidus hear our praycrs (69 — 72). 
ill go home believing that our prayers are heard, the choir of Phoebus ond Diuna 

Phoebe silvaramqae potens Diana, 
Lneidum caeli decus^ o colendi 
Semper et culti^ date quae precamur 

Tempore sacro^ 
Quo Sibyllini monuere versus 5 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis quibus septem placuere coUes 

Dicere carmen. 
Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et celas aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris^ possis nihil urbc Roma 

Visere majus. 
9 Rite maturos aperire partus 
Lenis^ Hithjia^ tuere matres, 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari 15 

Seu Genitalis. 
Diva, producas subolem patrumque 
Prosperes decreta super jugandis 
Feminis prolisque novae feraci 

Lege marita, 20 

tiharumque potetu] Compare C. iiL 
» and L 3. 1, < potena.' ' Lucidum 
decos ' applies to both deities. 
Alme^ This epithet must be taken 
i proper sense aa derived £rom 'alere.' 

MUe maturos'] ' O thou whose office 
rently to bring babes to the birth in 
wason.' [As to the construction 
le lenifl/ aee C. L 1. 18.] ' Rite ' 
I 'according to thy province and 
oos.' Ei\€iBvlcL, the Qreek name 
Te and Artemis, or more properly, 

plural namber for their attendants 
presiding at the delivery of womcn 
1 name is said to contain the root of 
. bnt that is doubtful) is representcd' 
B Latin 'LuciDa,' "quae in lucem 

profert," which title also was given in^- 
criminately to Juno and Diana. The title 
'Genitalis' does not occur elsewhero in 
this sense, but appears to be a version of 
thc Greek FtytTvWis, which was applicd 
to Aphrodite as well as Artemis and her 
attendants. Bentley contends for the 
Greek form being rewned, and considers 
* Gcnitalis ' a corrupt readUng for « Gcne- 
tyllis:* "locum esse corruptum et coutn- 
minatum existimo, vel potius certo scio." 
If Horace had written 'Genetyllis' it 
would have been another way of ezpressing 
the same name ; but as ' Gcnitalis cannot 
be objected to as the Latin form of that 
word, and all the MSS. have it, there is 
no reason for altering it. 'Eileithuia' 
could not be representcd by any eqoiva- 


Ccrfus iindenos deoiea per annos 
Orljig ut cantus Teferatque ludos 
Ter die elaro totiesque grata 

Nocte freqiientea. 
Vosqne veraces ceeinisse, Parcae, 2S 

Quod Bcmel dictum est stabilisque rerum 
Terniinus servat, bona jam peractis 

Jungitc fata. 
Fertilis friifjum pocorisque Tellue 
Spiccji donet Cererem corona; 30 

Nutriant fctus et aquae sulubres 

Et Jovis aurae. 
Condito mitis plnciilusque telo 
Suppliees audi pueros, Apollo : 

(iii ; it ia thrtcfnreuo prooftLat omittjng 'nt.' The grett i IheOrL-ck C.jrm ia thc one MSS. n>ad 'eafand 'serrrt)' 
1»!' he ilid Hi in the other, bs ing in thnt CBU bang iniide iji 
Ulcy 4iHlniM. BMiilcs which it «oald poaing ■ stubihB— »crvet ' to bi 
II tlmt thu Latin nninL-» nre purwMply tiral : ' jo Pnrme whs tdl tnil 
(roUurctl in uuntmst to the Un.^et:. onre be^ detenuined (uid iiiii 
ordcr ofeveBtepreaerre it»o),' 
ciplain», 'j-e linaiB who tml. 



Sidernm regina bicomis audi^ 

Luna^ puellas : 
Boma si vestrum est opus, Iliaeque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
Jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospitc cursu, 
Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus Aeneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter^ daturus 

Plura relictis : 
Di, probos mores docili juventae, 
Di, senectuti placidne quietem, 
Bomulae genti date remque prolemque 

Et decus omne 1 
Quaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
Clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis. 





^ the sailors who npproached the coast. 
B» Tirg. (Aen. iii. 274 sq.) :— 

"Mqx efc Leacutae nimbosa cacninina 
Kt fonnidatuB nantis aperitnr Apollo." 

Aad on the shield of Aeneas (viii. TOt) :— 

"Actius haec cemens arcnm intendebat 

I^per : omnis eo terrore Aeg}'ptns et 

Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga 


jothii god Aug^stas paid his devotions 
iif^lus battle with M. Antonins, and to 
"» he attribnted his suecess. " Vincit 
^ fide Phoebi " (Propert. iv. 6. 57). 
Accopdingly, on his retum to Rome, he 
^ atemple to Apollo of Actium on Mons 
Wttinus (v. 65. C. i. 31. Epp. i. 3. 17), 
"^ Kt up a statue of the god, but in a 
"^rent charactcr, the bow being laid 
J8ie and a lyre substituted for it in one 
™. asd a plcctram in the othiT. (" Ci- 
^livun jam poscit ApoIIo Victor, et ad 
^'•cidos exnit arma choros," Prop. iv. 6. 
^iq.) He was chid also in a long flowing 
^- Propertius was present at the de- 
^atioii of the temple, and gives a descrip- 
^of it (ii. 31); the last object ho men- 
^ being tbe statne of ApoUo :~ 

*])einde inter matrem deus ipse, interque 
Pjrthios in longa carmina veste sonat." 

86. ngima hiearnW] In a rilievo on 

Constantinc*s arch Diana, as tho moon, is 
represented in her chariot drawu by two 
horses, and with a small crescent on her 
forchead, which is a comraon wav of re- 
preseuling hcr on gcms and medHls. In 
this group Hcsperus is flving in front. 

4^1. fraude^ C. ii. 19. 20. « Castus :' C. 
iii. 2. 30, whero the correlative term is 
uscd : " Neglectua inceato addidit into- 
grum." Aen. vi. 661 : " Quique sacerdote» 

[40. Sospite cursu] *With saving 
course.' Comp. i. 37. 13, ' sospes ab igni- 

[43. munivit iter] 'Munire* istheusual 
word for mokiiig u road, und it has tlie 
derivcd scnse of makiug a way towardg 
any object.] 

45. doeHi jurentae'] Bcntley substitutes 

* docilis ' und • sencctutis ' for * docili ' and 
' Rcncctuti/ pntting * mores,' * quietem,' 

* rem,' and * prolem ' all in one category, as 
tho boons to bc given 'liomulao genti.' 
He says this arrangement is ' melior, ro- 
tundior, et elcgantior * than the common 
one. I do not think many will agree with 
hiui. Nothing conld be more natural or 
suitcd to the occasion than the brief peti- 
tions contuined in thc toxt as it stunds. 

49. Qnneqne] The MSS. and editions aro 
divided betwecu * quique' and * quaci]ue* 
in thisline, and *imperet' and *impetret' 
in the fifty-first. Cruquius' Scholiast reuds 
'quaequo' and 'impetret,' explaining * vc- 
neratur' to mean 'vencrando prc(»tur et 
postulat.' This is a common signification, 
of which thcro ure two iustances in Horaco 


Imi>c'lrut, liflliiiite prior, jacentem 

Luuis in hosti^m ! 
J n aniiB po «ntes 
M \ n m «. u cs, 
J S j n a pe unt superbi 55 

\ I 

n P H n P (lorque 
P n A rtus 
Aud ap|ta (ju 1» a p no 

C p i nu 60 

67 Jam Fide, rf Par] 

l occ T» orarl; >d thc nme «« 

C . 6. Tbt flgnrEi ■» 

p c?irf tud on raediilB, Ac ■ t 

h reBiQta honBatv.goodriiitli, 

<1 h We|>i«ra-ju«tit>He« 

re enliil of V»puian a» > 

ra B bc, vptj crect figore, li 

po patera ' in lier right hni.ii, ■« 

H ni oopiac-intbeotber. '1 

cam "s a caduceu» and olivc-h 

d U os,' wbich hos nothing 


An^r et fulgente decoru9 orcu 
FlioebuB acceptusque novem Camenis, 
Qui Balutari lcvat arte fessos 

Corporis artus, 
Si FalatiDas videt aeqnus arces 
Bemque'Romanam Latiumque, felix 
Alternm in lustrum meliusque eemper 

Froroget aevum. 
Quaeque Aventinum tenet AJgidumque, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 
Curet et votis puerorum amicas 

Appticet aures. 

(C. L 17. 14 n.), bnt waa >Ik) (^ven to 
nuny ot)ier divJDiUea, u Fidc*. Felicitas, 
Coaronliii. Htnioii, ic., wai hertelf rcpre- 
«entcd ander the fnrmt of AbandiintiiL and 

gcnenl formor Plvnt^, alie h exliilntrd od 
& medal of Trnjui iit;iit(.-d on a chBir nmde 
of two ' comu» copiae :' hi Annon», which 
dufsctcT wu confined to tlie ■upply of 
ooRi, ft incdal of AntoDiDiia I^as repra- 
•ait> ber u ataDdiDg witb a ' coniu copino' 
in bcr left hiDd, i.nd BOme com in hcr 
ligU; with ■ bukut of com od one side, 
■Dd B afaip'( bcak (■yinhoIiziTig tho tbraga 
aopplj of tliat article} od thc other. 

n- AMgmr tl /utgentt decom arat] 
TU> Mem* to contriLdict tbe praycr io v. 
n,- bnt the bow of Apollo did not alwaya 
faupin drad. Heiaiometimcsrepresentcd 
nUi thia onitniDe at hia back, and the 
tfn Mid plecCnim m hii haDda (C. ii. 10. 
19); alMl itiBnnceTtaiQwhetherhedidDOt 
•D miBT in tbe •tatne Bbove refiiiTed to. 
Jm aoow Bndent lilievi sDd paintinp^a 
^oD» U Knreaented aa icated id tbe midst 
•( tbe niiM Hwea, who are ill piying at- 
Iwilb»! to luni. AdmHuiu wrote an inncrip' 
tiM (I4fU. n.) fi>r a groap of tbe Miuea, 
in wUra Apollo appeitred in the midat. 
Sodi a gRmp <* *mii «^^ > «arcophBgita in 
th> Oinatiniani pBlace st Bome, giveu in 
IIait&Dcon'B ooUectioii, toI. i. Pl. 60. 1. 
ApoOt^a attribate u the Healer is odc of 
tlK oUert tbnt wu attached to hiui, and 
fa mort comiiionJj eihibited in his stiaucs 
and oCfaer npreaeatstiaDa. It ia ■ymtiol- 
iaed fay tbe aerpent which alwaya Bttenib 
IhtSgDiwof SalDi, Aeacnlapiua, and otlicra 
cmneeted with tlie healing art. In Apol- 
kTa CBie tbii i* otten taken for tho Ecipent 
^rtbon, STCD wbMI there ii nothing bnt 
■kllMM in tba laoe ud Bttitndo of tbo 
gg^ Orid (Baai. Am. 76) addrcuca him 

Inventam mcdicini 

[fi3. acFrplni] In thc «enio of 'pleaa- 
ing,' aa iu Livy i. 15. ' acccptiMiwa» im- 
lituin animis.' 'Canicnli' i* the dative. 
CacsHr hiui ' ptvbi accc|itns' (H. U. i. 3).] 
" ' " videl aeqviu arce*] 

' Ania ' i» the rcndiDg 
ofaome MSS- and editiona, but 'arcvs'ia 
bettijr. I UDderstHDd 'felix' toagreewith 
1,' and 'videt' to govern ' 

65. Si Falatin, 



Horaceto put anBdjectivc and its nulistaQ- 
tive at the two eitremcB of a pcriod. 
Acconlitig to some 'felii' Iwlonga to 'La. 
tinm,' and nldO to * rein ;' and ' proroget 
fdii liitium' is eqniviilBnt to ' proroget 
felicitntem Latii.' Orelli Ukea 'feiix' 
with ' lustrum.' Bciitlsy tnkea it so like. 
wise. but goes farther, and putting ' Si 
Falatiiiaa — I«itiamque' in a porentheeia, 
makea 'aevuin' theobjectafler 'prorogat, 
aod tBkcB sll tho adjectivea with 'In^- 
tiiougb the mcaiiing wcre 'Apollo 


and e 

tlie indicative to tho aDbjanctive. Many 
guod MSS. Lave it so, but most editora 
prefor tlio SDpplicatory torm, [Ritter liaa 
'prorogat.'] Uentley ii con^iatenl^ and 
read» ' curat ' Bnd ' applicat ' in tha neit 
stanza, for wbicli be liaa about ttio samo 
amount of MS. authority. fRittcr ba» 
'curat' and 'applicat,' and Keiler abo, 
though he bafi ' prorogot.'] 

fit). Quaeqnt AeeiUiiivm] DiBOa had a 
tcmple OD MoDi Aventinoa aud «d Al^doi 


Ilaoc Jovptr sentire deosqac cunctos 
Spoin ljon;ini certamque domum reportti, 
Doctus et Phoebi cborus et Dianae 75 

Dicere laudes, 

I (C.t.21.6). Fnjm tbinBUazaithubwii flftoen eltlier by Bnlla or C. Jnli 

I uauniKd 1>y Bome tlut t1ii> ancred ranumis- ' i'acrorain ' iauluiU-n thc wliul 

noDtrs (tbii^quindudmviri') toak pnrt iu boyi and girli. 
t\ii3 Biugin^, wbii-ii Ib not fer; probutilc. 76. Doclui] C. W. 6- 43 1 

ITicir uuinbcr, nliiib wua origiunlly tno, roodornui VftUs Horati." 
u.d tbi?u iuLTeused to tuu, wu niiied to 

ZOSIMDS (Ub. iL c. V.). 
it i» n?nrl.v tbc stiroG at tbut !a Rcilenieicr^e cJit^ 
'Am' iwirar /iV'""' t«tJ xp^'»» irSpiiroiai 
Zu^i, fii /T(mi> JiiaTii' Stiia ii£>iAar ^iSf£«v, 
Mf^i-fjD^n, 'Fu^aif, <ib1 a& ^Aa Anmi iairrir, 
Mft^w^aeiii TiSt Tttrra. SfoiVi fiir iSoxiTaiin 
'F^fov ^r iriHifi irapi ei;>ifi|iiliii AirAfTov SSaifi, 
"OirirTj BTtirriTaTOf, Ni:{ ^rUn ^oIm' /■■iASj, 
'HfAiau vpiii^avTsT Ii> «iiiot- fi«a ai ^ditir 
'Itpa TriirToyAyQtt Holpatt &prat tc Kal alyat. 
Kuopioi J' ^il Ta?aS' EiA(i0ufai &iiiaaa9at 
noiSuTilHDKt 0uf«r<ri>', Sini 0iVi<. Ajfli gi rafii 




A.u.c. 723. 

WsxiT CaeuT Octnviniiiii had deUrmiiied on tbe expedit.ion igtinKt M. Antoniai trnH 

deopatn which lcd to the battle of Acttnm, A.u.o. TS3, he anmmoned, u we leHm 

finm Dion C>uiiu(SO. 11), tho leadingKnatarsaDdmeD of Equcatriannnktameet him 

■t Brnndnanm, for the beDefit of thvir counael nnd (the hiBtorian imji) to keep the 

EqoestriiDS from miachieF, and alao to show the worid the liarmoDy to wbich be had 

Imiight meii of ill orden at Itomc. Whatcver tbe mativea may linve been, tlie fact 

Xuj be accepled. Maeceou olieyed thie siinimDna and went to Urtitidueium, but woi 

Mt Wk bj CHeaar to watch over the peace of the city and the aflaira of Italy, witU 

«lat particolar powen, or nnder wbat title, hislorj does not inform ua, nor ii the 

linliou DiHteiiHl here. The Scholiaita (Acron and Comm. Cmq.) atate that Maecenai 

U nceiTed the command of the 9cet, or part of it u tribune, from Auguatua. But 

tei ii no eredit dae to aucb atatemcnts, whicli nre of\f u takeu (aa tbia inoj l>e), like 

U* iBecriptuBiH invented hy grammariaua, from iucidentnl namea and ailuuona in the 

4> tlnnHelreH. He appean to have HccoinpuDied tbe cipeditiou to Sinly againit 

^•ita Pompeiua A.c.O. 718, and the wiiter of the articla 'Maccenai' in 8niith'i 

^ Kog. thinks that thia Epoilu wna written on tbat occBaion. This opinioa la qnil« 

'*■. ttd I betieve the general opinion to be correct. The hingnage of atfectioti in thii 

'Pdliitoo gtrongtorthe ehort actguaintance HorucetiHd tbcn enjuyedwith Maecenai; 

'Ktbere ii eridence of the Sabine fkrm haviag come into Horace's pOHaeeaion nben 

^ note it (t. 31). But thnt tbis did not occur till aller tbe pnblication of the lirat 

^ ef Satirei ii ceriain, end it ia gencrally rercrred 1« A.n.c. 720. Tbe opinion of 

'^ lUM writer that Honce actaally accompanied Maecenos on thii eipedition to 

^ l> noticed elaewhere (C. iii. 4. 28 n.). It ia very poesible that Maoceoae may 

"> bad the offer of a couimand in the etpcdition againat H. Antoniua, and that t>Dtb 

Ud Honce belieied he wag going on tlmt twrvice. until on hii arrivul ut BrunduBium 

SMia tbongbt flt ta Bend him back to diecbarge more importaut dntiea at Rome. 

Tic^ aappofling him to 1>e going on tliia expcditioa, wiibed to nccompunj him, hut 

Kwe nauld not allow it (v. 7), whicb )jave occaoou for tbia Epode. 



; iiitn thc midtt of ilaiigcr, Muceniu. to iIiRre the fSntnnm 
Ht linini' nt pitH', or mtvt the daager with thve, ou whoK liU: 
< ? I nill pi with (liiw whith<!rsoi'ver than goist. To whut 
.' Iiinl fi'iu-11 liwi for her j^ooDg wliea ahe ia hgbt tbem, ui riinll 
gu witli lh.'p, aii.l I g.i lo win thy lovo, not thj fiiroiiro. Tli; 
uMgii, I seck not wiile landj ot Bna hoiucs uid oittlti, aai g 

luis Liljurois inter alta n 

Amico, propiifrnacula, 
Pai^atus omne Ciesaris pericolum 

Siibire, Maeeenas, tuo. 
Quid uos, quibuB te vita sit superGtitc s 

Jucunda, si contra gravi»? 
Utrumnc jussi persequemur otiuoi 

Ncrn dulce ni tecum simul, 

■' T',. -. wcre light vobsoIb the battle of Actiiim dewribe t 

t:-!!!! the Hhipa tucd M. Antaniun Bnd Cleopalni at o 

I M.itical tribegn thc «ite. Like those of Caewr, thi 

V .-■<:. cniiilDyeil tlii'in rcawla werc fitted with towers 

.iii-t Si.j, l\iini>ciu^ nucula '), from «hich the ni 



Aii hnnc laborem mente laturi decet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 
Feremus et te vel per Alpium juga 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum, 
Vel Occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Boges tuum labore quid juvem meo, 

Imbellis ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Qui major absentes habet ; 
Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium allapsus timet 
Magis relictis, non, ut adsit, auxili 

Latura plus praesentibus. 
Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae, 
Non ut juvencis illigata pluribus 

Aratra nitantur mea. 





Ufoar of * ii.* Orelli snpposes the con- 
uction to be compounded of ' te super- 
e* and 'si saperates mihi eris.' Cru- 
118 reads 'sit,' and notices no varioas 
lin^. We may mppose thercfore that 
Bkndinian MSS. had that wurd. Tho 
ctaati<Mi bj which some cditors try to 
:e the aeuae pbiin renders it hopclesBly 
'lued. Doering, for instance, aud Mit- 
Tlicfa point thus : — 

lid no9 ? qaibus te, vita, si superstitc, 
Jacouda, si contra, gravis." 

'oald be hard to imaginc a greater abuse 
ouimai. [Kitter has 'te vita si est;' 
*ett' b his own invention. 'Sit' is 
nly right. The words are badly ar- 
^ That is all.] 

7. Utrumne — an] This form occurs in 
fn^^ments df SLsenna : ' utrumne divi 
a ei^ ae mortalinm lactiscunt an 
muie gentea hnmana negligant.' Horacc 
it Sei. iL 3. 251, and ii. 6. 73.] 
^ Udurt] The regular construction 
Id be 'feremus/ which word docs ap- 
r in V. 11. Perhaps the idea in * \^t- 
lemar' is continucd, ' an laborem |>er- 
lemar latnri (enm) mcutc qua decctt' 

2. luJkospUalgm-' Caucoium} Sec C. i. 


^Jbrwim» parmm'] This is gcnernlly 

poKd to refer to Uorace's stiitc of 

UbbWbicliwaBiieTergood; but I thiuk 

it is only taken froni tlie Greek tivaKKiSf 
whicli goes connnonly with airTSKffidi (as 
Doering says). In the next line Beutley 
reads * sim* on thc conjccture of N. Hein- 
sius, " ut resi)ondcat t^ juvem," which I 
do not understaml. * Sum futurus ' is a 
direct answer to tlie supjwsed (|ucstion. 

19. Ut aAsidens'\ * As the bird that sits 
by her unfledgcd brood is morc afniid of 
the 8erpcnt*8 stealthy approtich if slie 
leave thcm, and yct, if shc were with 
them, she could give no more hclp though 
they should bc under herwing.' •Relictis' 
I take witli Dacier to be the ablative abso- 
lutc. For * ut adsit,' Bentlcy reads * uti 
sit ' with a few MSS. But it does not make 
very good sense. The objection to the 
tautolugy in ' ut adsit ' and ' praesentibus' 
need not wcigh against the reccivcd read- 
ing. See Ter. (Adelpli. iii. 3. 39) : " Non 
qnia ades praescns dico hoc." Ib. (iv. 5. 
3 ^) : " Cum hanc sibi videbit praesens 
praesentem eripi." 

23. milUabUur bellum'] The Scholiast 
says of this, " Nove et eloquenter dixit." 

* Eleganter et nove ' is Baxter*s opinion, 

* audacitcr et nove ' DiIIenburgcr*8. But 
Plautus has thc same expression (Pcra. ii. 
2. 50) : " At confidcntia illa militia mili- 
tatur multo magis quam pondere." See 
also C. iii. 19. 4 : " bclla pugnata," which 
cxpression is repcatcd Epp. i. 16. 25. « In 
spcm,' ' looking to the hope,' is nsed where 
wc should say * in the hope.' * Mea ' and 


Pi^cusvc Ciiliibris antc sidus fervidum 

Lucana muU-t jiaseuiB, 
Nuquc ut eiiperni vHla candens TnscuH 

Circaea tinjjat moenia. 30 
Siitis 9uper(]ue me beni^nitas tua 

Ditavit : hiind [laravcro 
Quuii iiul uvarus ut Chremes terra premaEi, 

Ditscitietiis aut jierdani nepoa. 

, ar.l in- l".lh .i.i.pi>rtRl liy tto- 1,-D. 1181 in thc ciTJl wiin- 
ll„. l.iti.-. iMi- -.u.Tnlh aaoptcd oipkinMl l)v C. iii. 2a. 8 n. 

W..1II..1- i,' nLl,lA"..I.M..rvii.![ i.Ttnrc» ■siuini' for ■ sui¥.'rn 

l' i....i,...i.. .■Ii_';.t to lic 'o "Tibur 8Ut.iuaio," C. iii. 

i:l. . ....i -...-' .1. ivt, nnd ti.cre b no vnrution io tbu M^ 

!>.. . ■ „1.1 -plu. if« 

' - ' .irt' liiid. periii' could only be U9«l r. 

Lii.l I-:..'li !mi.. ■ii..j^.'] The naj imBgine thm the 
■ii.Tiill> u]i.Ur.|i.n.l H..r..™to ha town ("superiu» TuBcalani," 
to tli.' rc..niinls iif s.Tvi<.B in tba iava) w«s niore Bgr«.i.blo thu 
• ■ iiji]mirs mlliiTt.i lii- impreaaiD^ Bul the word » osed abtolr 

- ■■■■■ 1 i;. ' 1 t : ■ .■ . bitim Bhould imve found fiiv 

. 1 1 .;.. m.C .60 Bn.l reiich to Tuwolum,' whicl 

■. ,1- l:n ■■ ,■ ■■ ■^■■■iitbiitwith :nile»off. Lombinm say» he . 



Honioe, meanlng to write on the pniises of the conntry, pnt his pocm (whether &« 

I after-thonght or not may be open to conjectnre) into the shape of a rhapsody by a 

oney-getting nuirer who^ after reciting the bleflaings of a coantry life and sighing for 

le enjoyment of them, reaolTing to throw up his bnsiness and persnading himself that 

i desiret nothing lo mnch as retirement and a hnmble life, finds habit too strong for 

m and fidls bock npon the sordid pnrsnits which afler all are most congenial to him. 

ime may perhaps think that this little bit of satire is the chief object for which the 

nm was written. Hy impression ia that it was commenced (whether in imitation of 

bgD, Georg. iL 458 iqq., as Franke supposes, or of a poem of Archilochus [Fr. 21. 

eigk] as Lachmann, or not in imitation of any thlng, whioh is more probable) as a 

laodatio yitae msticae " (which is thc tenor of most of the inscriptions), and that the 

■t foor verses, which have been called clumsy, were added to give the rest a moral, 

t aoy rate the greater part of the speech must be admitted to be rather out of koep. 

g with the suppoeed speaker. We should not ezpect, fbr instance, to hear a dty 

nrer talk about an hereditary farm, the dungers of the soldier and the sailor, and the 

ii«i of love. The last diiBoulty is got rid of by Doering and others, who interpret 

UDor ' (▼. 87) as the love of money, wbich that editor says " vix dubitari potest," 

KMgfa the word 'habendi' "paulo licentius omisit." This I am quite sure is wrong; 

id I think we must allow that Horace was more intent upon his description than on 

iintaining an aocurate oonsistency bctwecn the circumstances of the speaker and 

) ■antunents he utters. But, however this may be, the picture is very beautifhl and 

moTBl very true. In the most sordid minds more genial impulses will sometimea 

e : bat the beauties of nature and the charms of a peaccful retirement are» like 

ne itaelf, only attractive in the distance and at intervals to minds that have gprown 

cted to the pursuit of gain for its own sake. To such minds domestic and innocent 

mm offer no ksting gratification, and the picture of rustic enjoyment on the one 

, and of the jaded bnt still grasping usurer struggling for a moment against hii 

nntiea on the other, affords a wbolesome lesson for many. In respect to the dato, 

bnly be conjectured that Horace had tasted the enjoyments he describes so g^- 

\y, and was in possession of his farm. But even that is uncertain. Franke, 

Qg that Horace must have had before him Virgirs seoond (^eorgio (468 sqq.), 

■ome say was not published till a.u.c. 724^ attributes this ode to 724 also, in 

lis firiend Lachmann informs him he seems ** nimis subtiUter ignorabilia rimatus 

Hiere is a fHgment from the comedy N^o-oi attributed to Aristophanes (344» 

which is very like this ode. Whether Horace ever saw it or thougbt of it when 

friting^ it is imposnble to say. It runs thus : — 

i fiApt fiiopff ravra irdirr' iw rpS* ^vi* 
oIkuv fikv iy iiyp^ rovrov iy r^ 7i}8(y 
iiwaWayipra r&w Kor* ayopiof irpayixdrotif, 
K€Krriti4yoy (tvydpioy otKuoy fioolw 
hrftr* iutoitiw irpofiarlatv fiXtix^y^^y^^ 
rpvy6s rc ^»v^v cls Acic(ti^v wOovfitvrii, 
S^<p Tc j^^ffOcu airivi^iots tc Kcd Kix^citSp 
KoX fiii W€ptfi4vftv i^ iyopcis Ix^^^^ci 
rptroua, iroXvrifirjra, fitficuravtfffiiva 
iv* IxBvoK^Xov x<'P^ wapayofmrdrp, 

lay also comparo Ovid, Fast. iv. 691 sqq., and Martial, iii. 68. 




j iu tho miin who \ivn • 
dim^TB of nur uad u( tlie i 
hii tmw, or Btorp» hiA honcv, o 
Priupus and .Silvnnu 


ii rami rcmate from the tranhlci af tbi 
He trai[u bis Tinci, or watchea hi« tloi 
r Bhears Ua iheep, or brings offering 
tho Bhsde ar on tlietoft gnu nhere hiri 
r hauti thn boar. or l[i<re nets fbr the bli 
aud herein forgelB the pangB of lovc. Give me t chasl<3 wiji? vho abal 
homc Bnd rhildrfii, milk my goiita. |irepiire in; nnbooghl meal, uid tio 
plmsi,- ine like my couDtiy fare, na I lit «nd watoh the kine and oien 
comiu); hume to tlieir rcst nt eveu, So iiud Alphiiu thc lunrer, and di 
livc iii thc country he ^ot in sH hia moiicj', bnt •oon repeated, and j 
u-iiir)- ngaiu, 

ISeatus ille qui procul negotiis, 

Ut [)risc'!i ^ens mortalium, 
Patcnia rura bobus exercet euis, 

Solutus omni feuore, 
Neque excitatur clasBico miles truci, 

Nequc horrct iratum mure, 
Forumque vitat ct superba civium 

Potentiorum limina. 
Kr(a;ti aut adiihfl vitium propaginG 
Altas niaritut pnpuloa. 


Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 

Cei-tantem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor iinium I 
Libet jacere modo sub antiqua ilice^ 

Modo in tenaci gramine. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aquae^ 25 

Queruntur in silvis aves, 
Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At cum tonantis annus hibemus Jovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas, 

^teiB, Qt transitam paret ad alia ; ctfm re- explains 'alti rivi' to be 'decp brooks 

'P^t ad praegressa." Bat in that instance which therefore make little or no noisc.'] 

*^^ is no apodosis : it is an elliptical way Bentley contradicts his own theory by 

^«xpressing what the speaker has to say. advocating ' ripis ' (C. iii. 25. 13 n.). 

"Oe ' vel ' b followed by * ut gaudet:' the * Altis ripis ' are rocky overhanging banks, 

l^iibtbiDg to observe therefore is that ' vel' uot, as Bentley and Gesner say, banks ren- 

l^ bere a copulative forco and not a dis- dered high by the subsiding of the stream 

j^nctivcas "SilviusAenenspariter pietato in summer, in which there is no poetry. 

^^ annis Egr^us " (Aen. vi. 769). ' Et' • Obstrepunt ' is used absoIuteJy, as C. iii. 

voi^ have made the sentence too much of 80. 10. Some (thinking a dative case re> 

idimtx, especially with the exclamation quiredaftcr •obstrepunt') understand *illi,' 

'ot gaodet' ' Gaudet decerpens ' is after some ' avibus,' and Markland prefers to 

^ Oreek idiom ip^vuy )}8eTai. In v. 18 change ' fontc» ' into ' frondes ' and mako 

^b., Cmquins, and others read ' arvis ' < lymphis ' the dative case, as in Propert. 

Jf •■gris.' [Keller has * arvis.'] But the (iv. 4. 4) : " Multaque nativis obstrepit 

j^ ^these words belongs only to arable arbor aquis." 'Lymphis ' is what is called 

'^ while ' agris ' represeats any lands thc ablative absolute. [It was suggeste<l 

*biterer. to me by T. F. EUis that Horace Ims imi- 

[19. Ut gaudet'] See C. i. 11. 3, and this tated a fragment of Sappho : — 

•pode V. 61.] A Al «• 05 

. fi. Silvane, tutor finiuin] Silvanus ,• ^ , Jv, y • ^^ 

i« only U ciOled the protector of boun. "77"'"'^.« ""^V *' ,{'il' 

*He% wtuch provmce bclonged to the god '«^'T' '^««"'^J""' « *<*'^*«' 

IWiiuDi». V^rgil call. him the god of it<.M« ««W^' : 

^•fieUs and cattle (Aen. viii. 601). nnd if this is so, it is fnrther snpposed 

ti temaei] This is merely a redundant that it confirms Markland's ' frondes.'] 

^bet GratSy etpecially short tnrf grass, 26. Queruntitr] Virg. (Ecl. i. 56) : 

Vndi is here meant, binds the soil and "Saepc ievi somnum suadebit inire su- 

tantdootly adheres to it, both of which surro." 

^dcM leem to be indnded in this word, 29. annut] * The season of the year,' ns 

ftnn which most of the editors attempt to in Virgil (Ecl. iii. 67)> ''formosissimus 

atnet more than it will yield, in ordcr to annus." 

atke it snit the oocasion. 'Interim,' as 31. Aut trudit aeree] There is a de- 

ve ay 'the while.' Some of the oldcst scription in a simile of Statius (Achill. i. 

XSS. read 'rivis' for 'ripis' in V. 25. But 459 sqq.) of this way of hunting wild 

this confiision ia very common, and the beasts. The hunters encompassed some 

0aly edltors I have seen that adopt it are Inrge space (gencrally the foot of a wooded 

Ibt w a iUua and Fea» who conteud for that hill) with strong nets, which they gra- 

nuSoDa Tcry •troogly. Theformer quotes dnally drew into a more and more narrow 

GL 5. IL ]!• [Bifttcr bas ' rivis/ and he circle, whUe dogs and beaters with torches 

T 2 



Aut amit« levi rara teodit retia, 

Tunlia eiiaeibus dolos, 
Pavidumqm' lcporom et advenam laqueo graem 

Jucunda captat praeraia. 
Qui. non malarum quas amor curaa habet 

Hacc inter obliviscitur? 
Quodsi [ludh d niuher in partera juvet 

Domiim itqut dukes liberos, 
Satjina quali'« auf perusta solibus 

PernRis uxor Apuh, 
Sacrum \etuslis eifatruat lignis focum 

Lassi aub adveutum viri, 

!r> drivE the bnMf into ■ ^voii uTid qaiili in tWir einiKul flt 
■e Ihoy n'vre attac^ked sDd Ann ; bamc. Tlie Two Sicilii» ii. 5. 
■y wore driTOn donn to the net^ 3tf. i« p<n-(™1 'On her 
lith,.yiv<..rPsnUiipledoratoppeil, Oreeki mid *. ».fp«.. 'InpB 
■y cdutrivcd. lu tliev BomctimM in Hux.tua (Arin. iii. 3. 89). 
laik tlironch thein, which wonld iu paiifm nnnc jnui liunc deli 
ioii for & chOBa in tho opcu pUin 41. perutta toUbiu'] The 

■BpeBkBnf toilatwplvc milca long. ttdrrn 'IrrxiJ'', aAiiiifaiirJTO»', 


ClaudetiEque textis cratibus laetum pccuB 

Distenta stccet ubera, 
£t boma dulci vina promenB dolio 

Dapes incmptas apparet : 
Non me Lucrina juveriitt conchylia 

Magisve rhombus aut scari, 
Si quoB £ois intonata fluctibus 

Hiema ad hoc vertat mare; 
Non Afra avia deecendat in ventrem meum, 

Non attagen lonicus 
Jucuudior, quam lecta de pingxiissimiB 

Oliva ramts arborum 

^requirethem. The conneiian ii See JnTnul (Sat.iv. 140*ndnola). ['Ap- 

□iigli. Statiiu hu imitatod Umce paret ^ we C. i. 87. 1.] 

1.132}:— ■ 61. infoutii] Thiipartidpleoccaniio- 

„ „„j„, i™,i.,™,:„, wbere olee in «itant writera ; bat it i« not 

«1«« riri, propm m™«,u, ■■^•'1'" &pVi™ "r' ''°?'?V" 

-- 1 r 1 DQentier rcuders it aa « paHivo participle, 

™i«n.l,a. «nun rrf.uull. '■•"Itbuudmmi' butlt i. u,;.W .u 

■.•• old opponent fonn. Tho '«carni, what- 

erer tbat flBb maj be, ia aald by Pliny to 

maT have remembered thepatsige haveabonodediiioBtintheCBrpathiBDMa. 

p. Elee. 71 «qq. [' Sub ' with an The »torm tberefore most come from the 

ire, whcre timc isreferredto, aome- east tbat shoold diive it to the coait of 

■eans *ju9C before,' and •ometimca luly. What bird iBineantby ' AfVa ari*' 

iiatcly afler.' Compnre C. i. 8. 14 we cannot tell, nor doea Varro help na by 

C. ii- 18. 18, 'Buh ipsnm funus j' Mying that thc Oreeks called OalliciSB 

b bacc,' Epodo V. S3, nnd Epp. ii. Alricanae by the name lifXtaypltn, a bird 

■nb hoc tempiu.' ' Sub Bdventum' bIso unknown. Columella (riii. 2) diitin- 

erefbre meon ' juat bcfore,' or 'just gDlahcs them, siying the AtVicana had a 

>nt the better interpretation ia per- rcd creat, tbe Grcek a blne. The Atrii.^aa 

a readiness for his coming.'] pbwuant ia a bird of remarliBbly beautiftil 

«rnii — dolio] Poor wire of that plninaf[e and vcry rare, but I believo that 

bicb bad not been bottled for kcep- it Ie outy found at preaent on tbe tonthem 

: wM drunk direct from tbc dotium. coest of AfHca : and, whatever blrd the 

le atfaer parta of tbia drscription, Roman writers refer t*^ it wu leu re- 

meaiit to convcy tho notion of pri- marlied for its beaaty than ita delicaey. 

limplicity. Tbe winc of tbe year ia Hiiitial(m. 68. IS) Bpealu of " Nnmldicae 

ly dronk now in and about Rome. gnttatae" 'ipeckled,' Bhieh ieemB to be 

lua ' ii a •horter form of a word like the lame bird, aud BUBweia to the appear- 

!ek fipiHT. But tbe Oreek word ii ance of the g;uinea-fowI, whidi fbwl al*o 

corresponda to Tami'i deacriptlon, " Qal- 

Mcmplai'] Georg. iv. 132 :— linae Africanae lunt Krandea, variac^ gib- 

.. «T,quBreverten8 ^" (D» B- »• i^- 8- 1«- •I?"'^ 

domDm dambni meniai onerabat mentiona it ai a dehcacj (Sat. xi. 142 

pBa.- «q)^- 

1 meiMoot the oyiter* lioni the "Necfnutun)eapreManbdncere,nBci]atn« 

ilBke(ida,B2):— „***". 

Novit Bvia noBter Umncnlna." 
Tbe '■ttagen' ii luiiBlly Mid to be the 


Aut Iicrbu lapnthi prata amantis et gravi 
MaK-iif Malulires corpori, 

Vel haedua i^reptus lupo. 
Has inter epulas ut juv;it paetas ovea 

Videre properauteB domum, 
Vidcre fcssos vonuTem inversum boves 

Collo trahentes langTiido, 
Positosque vernafi, ditia examen domus, 

Circum renUleutes Lares I 
Iluet ubi lix-utus feuerator Alpliius, 

Jam j;ini iiilurus rusticuB, 
Omnem redeffit Idibus pecuniam, 

Quaerit Kalendis ponerci 

. Mnrlialsiir^ilivfiSDneof thcir quoted hy Cruquias) Hivs: ' 
lous birrt-i (iiii. 61) !— (villlcui) rmtifl» cir™ Lnrcii 




Between a.u.c. 718 — 721. 

Horace bere vents liis wrath against some garKck he had eateD the day hcfbre at 
'Maecenas' table, and which had fisagreed with him. He seemg to imply that Maecenas 
liad played off a practical joke upon him, and the whole Epode is fnll of hamoar and 
familiarity. This leads to the sapposition that it was not written very early in their 
«oqnaintancej while from tke kst two verses it has been jmstly inferred that it was 
-wTitten before Maecenaa was married to Tcrcntia, or in k>ve with her, since the BotioB 
«uggested by Acron (not as his own however), that Tereatia is there alluded to, is oat 
of thc qaestion. Bnt, for reasoos that will be stated in Epod. xiv., Introdaction, it is 
Xnobable that Maeceniw was married, or in k>ve with his future wife, in a.u.€. 721. This 
<xle was therofore written in all probability some time between 718 and 721. 


If a man has murdered his fiither, only make him eat garUck. Oh, the bowels of those 
ooontry folk ! What poison have I got in me ? Was a viper^s blood in the mess, or 
did Ganidia tamper with it ? Sure with such poisondid Mcdea anoint Jason and bis 
intended bride. Apulia in the dog-days never burnt like this^ nor the coat on Her- 
coleB' shoulders. If thou dost ever take a &ncy to such stuff, Maecenas, mayst thou 
•ik iar a kiss aiid be refused ! 

PASEims olim si quis impia mana 

Senile guttur fregerit, 
£dit cicutis allium nocentius. 

O dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in praecordiis ? S 

Num viperinus his cruor 
Incoctus herbis me fefellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 

l. ParenUM olim] He uses the same 7. fefeUifi C. iii. 16. 82 n. 

inastrati0& in cursing the tree that nearly 8. Canidia] This is onc of tlic few 

kiDed him (C. iL 18. 6). names of which we may bc pretty sure 

8. Edii] The old form of the prcsent that it represents a real pcrson. The 

•oljimctiTe was *edim/ 'edis,' 'edit.' It Scholiasts on this place, and Sat. L 8. 24, 

oocora again (Sat. ii. 8. 90). CHcero uses say that her real name was Gratidia, and 

tfaiifomi»andJPlautusfirequently. ['AUnm' that shc was a Neapolitan seller of per- 

appean to he tlie true form.1 fumes. Shc is mcntioned always as a witch ; 

4. O dmrm] Horaee perhaps remem- but I do not know why Buttmann snys 

hered Virgil^s line (Ecl. ii. 10) : Horace describcs hcr every wherS as a 

«fM.^i*x •jj»* «u j. woman frrown old amid her intrigues, and 

«Theakyl» et rapidofessismessonbusaestu ^ ^^^^» j^^ ^^^^^^ „^^ from 'Canus/ 

AI^«ljrUumque herbaa contundit whichobservationEstr^commends. Pranke 

"*™^ also calls her « anilis muHer." But this 

h, prmsoordiiM] This is sometimes put contradicts thc notion, which Buttmann 

tor tbe intefltiiiei, as in Sat. ii. 4. 26. himself adopts, that she was a " former 

[*What poiton is this which is raging mistress" ofHorace'8. He was not more 

^rittdnme?^ than twenty-eight or twenty-nine (somt 

t vipmkmi onw'] fiee C L 8. 9. say twenty-nx) when he wrote against he? 


Medea mirata e^t ducem, 10 
IgTiota tauria illigaturum juga 

PtTunxit hoc lasonemi 
Hoc duliljutis ultii donia pellicem 

Serpente tvgit alite. 
Nec tantus uiKjuiim siderum iitsedit vapor IS 

SitiuuloBae Aimliue, 
Nec munus Iiumeris effica^is HerculJH 

Inareit aestuosius. 
At si quid unquam tale eoncupiveria, 

Jocoee Maecenas, precor ao 
Manum puella savio opponat tuo 

Estrema et iu spouda cubet. 

la m Epod. V. or Sst, i. S). Bnd days. Compare Bp. iri. 61 ; 
wpnly-fniir ivhfii he arrivecl in «stri Grpgem aeBtnosa torrct il 
■i.l..<; ll, 1... l.^nme enn. Tbe «rid unwate™! cbarsctet 
n...i ,., 1.-. 1 .■ .l.,„Miianot has hetm noticcil beforc (C. i 
,;,ri..;. !„.-,»<-licr SouthofthcAnHdwtherowui 
■- 1 : . ' . ■,.•< rar?i3 U!l jon reachpd the Gslaenw t 
..r |. II .■.-, ..ii;. 1 i-iliiit Ihc.y tam. Thia (»Q8e<i Uio arran^ 
t.iTi.,i :<* :, -vi r.i „i,-ki..,l ol.i tioncdbv Varrn in tlie paasagi! 



All the positive inibniiation we can derive from this ode in respect to the pnrport and 
date is, that it oontains a vehement invective against aome person of low birth andcon- 
tcmptible character, who gvre himself airs» and disgusted the people of Rome : he was 
alao a military tribnne. The approximate time \b fixed by the last linea, which show 
that It was written whUe Caesar Octavianns was preparing or carrying on war against 
Sextns Pompdns, who had enlisted in his service pirates and slaves, as we leam from 
Dion (49. c 1 — 12. See below, ix. 10). To bring ns nearer to the exact date, it has been 
argued (Brst by Maason in lus life of Horace) that, inasmnch as in the second expedition 
of Caersar against Sex. Pompeins there were enlisted in his fleet a great body of slaves, it 
is not probable that Horace wonld have nsed langnage of oontempt which would apply as 
moch to Caesar^a as the enemy^s foroe. It mnst therefore have been written, if this 
aHniinpticm has an j weight, before that armament was formed, which was a. v.o. 717. In 
716 there deserted to Caesar, Pompeina* Ueutenant Meuas or Menodoms (C. iiL 16. 
15 n.), and it was in consequence of the advantage gained by this man'8 defecUon that 
Caesar dedared war againat Pompeins, in which war he sustfuncd two severe defeats ; 
after which be snspended operationa for a twelvemonth, and during that period it is said 
ynth oonfidence tUs Epode was written. It is also stated by allthe Scholiasts that Menas 
!s the snlject of this hunpoon. The g^eater number of modem critics doubt their accuracy, 
and as tbe name ' Yedius Rufus ' occurs in one or two inscriptions, that name has been 
fixed npon instead of ' Menas,' thongh no attempt is made to identify him with any his- 
torical diaracter. The objections raised to Menas being the person alluded to are : 1. That 
Honoe would not have fluled to noticc the treuchery as wcU as the pride of this person. 
Bat that argnment, which is Gesncr'8, bas no great force. Horace meant to attack the 
saagger i ng airs of the man, which wero morc oflensivc to thc citizens than his betrayal 
of Pompeins, by which they had gained, and which could not have becn noticed without 
offiending Caesar. 2. That Menas had been so short a time in Romc, that ho could not 
have been posaessedof large landed property, and having charge of the floct would have 
had DO opportunity of making himself unpopular in thc manner hcre described. Bnt no 
kngth of time was wanted for these objects. He had no doubt made himself rich before 
he betrajed hia tmst, having had plenty of opportunities for doing so, and probably he 
did Dot adl hia oonsdence and his trnst for nothing. Hc had had time to invest his 
mooej» beoome a fiivoured guest of Caesar, and have his head tumed ; and a very few 
exlubitioiis of himself in the character here described woald be enough to call forth this 
ibort lampooD. 8. That Menas was not an equcs. But hc was elevated to that rank by 
aa we leara from Dion (xlviii. 45) ; and at any rate, if he hod but the reguhited 
of an eqnes, he had the privileges of that order at least as regards a seat in the 
4b It is affirmed that Menas could not be called a 'tribunus militum/ inasmuch aa 
he who had been under Pompeius the goveraor of two Inrge islands (Sardinia and Corsica), 
aa wdl aa admiral of his fleet and commandcr of three Icgions, would have held a higher 
poit mider Caesar, who hud reccived and contiuucd to treat him with great respect. 
Bvt it ii a matter of hisiory that Mcnas' descrtion of Caesar and retura to his old 
Httster arose out of his discontent with tlio rank givcn him by the former, and it is hard 
to tay what that rank may at any givcn timo have bccn. It was always subordinate; 
■ad, thoQgh we leara'he rose to be Icgatus to Calvisius Sabinus the chief admiral, he 
Btty at first only have been a military tribunc, which post however would at once give 
^ eqoestrian rank (S. i. 6. 25 n.). 5. It is 8(ud wc do not know that Menas ever 
^ iiogged ; bnt that he was once a slave (Iie was a freedman of Pompeius Magnus) waa 
Aiovgh to' give rise to such an assertion in a satire of this kind, whether it was known to 
^ tme or not. Thns I do not think thero is sufficient interaal evidcnce to impug^ tho 
gtateineDt of the Scholiasts ; and though it mnst be admitted thati without 


thonty. HQ in(;ennilj wmld haTc discovcrrf tliat Menna wgg tltp »i 
Miul ii,ilH;ili-( Tm^ llii' iippenniaTe of aaother niime, llie rurgcrj o 

it-,-i ■ ■■ ■ ...■!:[, veiitljhasbeentheopiDiongCTimlljpec 
y<'i;l. - : 1 MSS. with inKriptiaiia benrit^ tlic nnaico 
iniiii-i '■ V-- lR'st ii inBeribBd ■'ad qncudKm Iribnno 
" >> )i ■ ■ . ■ ikd nnturallj nlfii 1a tW pnem who hid oi 

iii ■ ■■ i,Lll..rds. Bnt tliB viat lo^oritjof MSS., c 

il.ili.^ ,. ^ 1.. ..,!,'>i vvilbin8cnptioo«to thBeffectUist) 
>lt.i.l..l.i:.^i_:. 'h- ■■■].v-tHliaUN)litilere>pe«tlbrtheutitleitb 
lii tak.' ■ii.Tilj 1 Ul^ ■iLli-timcp dI" them, aince no Iwo MSS. eiactlj 

J to Usva heen uffiied hj Uorace binuclT. 

thec. tboit wLlpt ^liivc, ns tlie Iunib hnt<.'i the wDlf and tbo volf tbi 
iicvcr sa pniuil. luck dulh not chaoge tbe broed. See, u tbon »ir»g 
wd how Ihcj lun. nnd «j, ■' Hcre is > (coundrel who wae fl<^eed uud uow lie Im liit uires, uid UDblea on bls lug, luid uta 
es. Rnil fcunp? lii^ liiip.'r» «t Otho )iiid hi» Uw. What ii ih« lue of 
to iitturk tlip iiiinti'4 if -iuch u rujcnl u this i9 to bo mUitiu? tribiui 

Ltipis et aRni,s qnanta sortito obtjgit, 

Ti'Piim milii (liBCordia cst, 
llibLTii.'iB iicrnstc funibns latug 

Etcnini (lurarorapede. 


Ut ora vertat huc et hue euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? lo 

Sectus flagellis hic triumviralibus 

Praeeonis ad fastidium 
Arat Falemi mille Aindi jugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit^ 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques 15 

Othone contempto sedet ! 
Quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Bostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum 

Hoc^ hoc tribuno militum ? 20 

in poetical ways of expretnng what in fastidinm :' ' till loathing seized the crler.' 

inie iB expreBsed with ' iOac,' ' illinc ' in Newman.] 

Ute Kcond place. The Romans of this 13. Arat Falerm] The FHlernian hilla 

poiod iukI * nlna ' as an eqniTalent for were covered with vines, bnt the vineyards 

'enbitns;' therefore 'bis trinm nlnamm ' were plonghed between the trces and sown 

feast be nnderstood to have reference to with com. The Appian road lending into 

tbe width of the ' toga/ which was abont Campania would be passed and repassed by 

thrpe times the height of the wearer fVom the parvenu as he went to and ftt)m bis 

tbe shonider to the ground. Tho effect of estates. 'Tero' is equivalent to rplfiu», 

■0 wide a ' toga ' wonld be to give a broad wbich is used in the same wav. 

impofting appearance to the mati's person, 15. eques] See Introdnction. If the 

whjch 1 mention, because some snppose person was a militarv tribnne, he had 

Roraoe to mean that his ' toga ' swept the eqnestrian rank ; and, if of one of the four 

groimd as he walked. Compare S. ii. 3.183 ; first l^ions, hc had a seat in the Senate, 

"Latos nt in Ciroo spatiere." The shape and wore the 'latus clavus.' See S. i. 

tnd acyustment of the ' toga ' are dis- 6. 25 n. If he had a property of 400,000 

eossed in Becker^s Gkllns (Exc. on the Male sesterces, he could, under the law of J4. 

Attire); and in a notefrom a Frenchwriter» Roscius Otho (passed a.u.o. 687), take his 

upended by the translator, it is said that place in any of tbe fourteen front rows in 

mwn stretched ont it formed an elliptic tbe theatrc, and laugh at Otho, whose 

earT^ which is very probable : " une courbe purpose was to kecp tbose seats for persons 

vpn. ii'teit pas XxiaX-k-fvM circulaire mais of birth. See Juv. iii. 154 sqq., and the 

«B pem dliptiqne." Scholiast thereon, and Uorace, Kpp. i. 1. 

9l w& riai '] This the Scholiasts interpret 62, " Roscia, dic sodes," &c. 

'tmM away in disgnst ;' but it rather im- 17. ora'] Bentley proposes 'aera,' but 

pGes tliat the passengers tumed to one docs not take it into tlie text. Sanadon 

«notlMr« and tnmed to look at tbe coxcomb proposes ' ora aerata.' But, thongh the 

•nd point at him. expression ' ora navium rostrata ' is new, it 

11. 8eelm»] This is snpposod to be thc is vcry intelligible, and noed not be alterod. 

langaage CMn man holds to his neighbonr. A fm^ncnt of Anacreon bas been preserved 

Hie ' tiinBiviri capitales ' had the power of in Athcnueus, xii. 533 E (20 Be^k), which 

CBmmarilj pnntshing slaves. Tiie plnce was in some res^^ects is so like this Epode that 

«oany at tha Maenia columtia. Itdoesnot it seems probable Horace remembered it 

necciiiarily overthrow tbeScholiaHts' theory as hc was writing. He describes a person 

(▼. 3) that here the pnnishment is luid in named Artemon, who had risen from the 

Bome. If eitlier were true, both iniglit lowest poverty, and was now carried about 

be. Bat the aignment irom ' Hibericis ' like a finc lady in his litter : 

e» Introd.) 11 not strong. A crier stood Hav0p Z4 y* Ev/>vir^A]7 ^^Aci 

while floggings were going on, and kept 6 irept<p6priTos *Apr4fiuir ic.r.A.. 

pfodaiming tbe offender^s crime. So Plato irok\it p,(v 4w Bovpl ri6(U avx4ya, iroK\k 

ViadofnHf in the Laws, ii. p. 917 D, that 8* 4y rp6xvt 

tte fwiadkr ihall be flogged at the rate iroWit 8i v&row CKurlwp fidai lyi $»- 

of m$ Mm fbr eadi drachma while the f/iix^tU, «c.r A. 

hb crime. [' Praeooms ad wvw 8* 4iri^w(i (rartw^ww, ic.r.A. 



B hetwra lUi ■f^obr o^ la^ part </ iiae tigl 

■t It ii gcnenllj nippwal Omj wot «riUiai abaat tbe B 

A K^ae ii npnMnlfd io irbkh tbe iiiift)(tiiiial« viri 

1 atiinercifiitly atirusd bj Honn far 4 laoceaDOD cf ^ 

>he ii puaimuteljr hi lore ■itti ofie Vtm. wbom ahe i 

|t hIiok hml ehe it reMlved to iriii. To thii a 

in of wbich. io ampaiij with tlme othcr ■ 
I«'<1 fainily, Dirip hiia nikeal, uuJ baria hiin npto bii cbinin 
ivitli {(loi imt beforc bim be migbt vitb«T ■waj in the □ 
liver miifht (mta, in ranjniietioD with other ingrcdieiita, ■ 
. n il t>i thi.' fiOthiess Vorru. What oonld h*Te put tutii > 

t u oan tbit ■ctiwllj happeited, i 
11 V. 43). PurphyrioTi and thow wbo h«TB fbllowed bini sli 

"■■ " ' o be kid «t N«| 

n uf thi^ ^ubura (5MJ, uid the ToltiUH of the Eaquiliu 


Per liberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Lucina veris affuit, 
Per hoc inane purpurae decus precor, 

Per improbatunim haec Jovem, 
Quid ut noverca me intueris aut uti 

Petita ferro belua ? lo 

Ut haec trementi questus ore constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer^ 
Impube corpus quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora, 
Canidia brevibus implicata viperis 15 

Crines et incomptum caput 
Jubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressos funebres^ 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine, 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis^ 20 

Herbasque quas lolcos atque Hiberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta jejunae canis 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
At expedita Sagana per totam domum 35 

Spargens Avernales aquas 

flojed in •odden tnmritions in a tpeech" tilian (Declam. 840) : " Ego vobiB allego 

(Kay*» Lai» €lr. 1445, d). See S. ii. 2. etiam illad socnim praetextaram qno 

40 D. sacerdotes yelantur, qno magistratns, qno 

ml iltfonMil Liyy nsea the same infirmitatem pueritiae sacram facimus ac 

iL 5; zxiu. 9. See also S. i. yenerabilem." Pliny calls tbe * pur- 

6L1: ' Lfjdomm qnidqnid.' pura' "majestas pueritiae" (N. H. ix. 

ft. Pmr UbMrat W] ' Te ' is addrcssed to 36). ' Odia novcrcalia ' wero proverbial. 

Onidia. Tboagh Torrentina thinka it far- (See Tac. Ann. xii. 2.) 

Mt\mii to fiippoM there is any double 8. Fer improhaturum] Comp. C. L 2. 

in what foUowi, a doubt is cer- 19. 

tBBljr implied of the woman'8 fertility. 12. Ifuigmhut] That is hui ' praetezta' 
•iw«k««n^ li letnusted in Ep. xvii. 60 aqq. and * bulla.' * Impubo corpua ' ii in appo- 

7. pmrpmr ae deeut] The ' toga prae* sition with < puer.' 
tnta»' the ngn of (Vee birth and of youth 21. lolcos aique Hiheria] lolooa waa 

■hoald hftve tnmed his persecutors a town of Thcssiily, and Hiberia % legion 

frtn thetr porpoie bnt did not. Cic. (in east of Colchis and south of the Cftociumii, 

Veir. iL 1. 58)t "Vestitns enim (the now part of Georgia. See C. U. 20. JW, 

' togm pnetezta ' wom by tbe young Elsewhere in Horace, Hiber and HiUiria 

JniBna) nendnem comnaoyebat is quem have reference to Spain. fiiitlAr r»^lmm 

M moe et jna ingenoiUtis dabat." In to Tacitus, Ann. vi. IM^ «rW r*«yt¥U • 

•d£t&oo to thif ' toga,' chUdren of frec tradition that the Htberi td ihtt i^eA^mme 

pncnta wm a nnall ronnd plate of gold were descendanU of TbeMidjiMM. J ^^\mtm 

Ir Vdk') WMpended from their neck. of Colchis are magie fkmM, eu^^b m M*dim 

BOth wm kid Mide on the assumption prepared. 

tf Iht «to^i Tirilit' (niaally about 15), 25. expediia) Tkm itf*M»«rs iv Um 

•Itib ' bnBi' mii p f c w m ted aa an offcr- description of Ciuil4iii hmtM, M. ^ ^ 

H ^ tttt Lm (aee Diet Ant). Qnin- 28:_ 


IIom>t capillis ut marious asperi» 

Euliinus awt curri-iiB aper, 
Abacta nulla Veia conBcientia 

Liconibus duris hmnum 30 
Exliauriubat iugeinons laboribuB, 

Quo posset infossuB puer 
Longo die bis terqiic mutatac dapis 

Ineniori spcctaculo, 
Cum iirominiTet ore quantum exstant aqua 35 

Suspeusa niento corpora; 
Essucca uti mcduUa et aridum jecur 

Amoris csset poeulum, 

Rtimpt uigra succinctnm Tidero mori.' which appratB in Ten- 
u ternuB ' menifies ' ftequently ;' 

t tliCTC npiiQ intriaiuc^a in her " Attraxit prope M tnanu tii 
(nfi> iii^t). Et bii tirque quatertjue b 
^rm>h, «7«oi] So BUo in hn- 

1 mm^icnl «Temony sprinlilcd ' Bi» terve ' (whirh WM Ihe cc 

simviliUni foDtia Avemi " (Aeu. jng tjll BoDtley editrf the ol 

■ nin-iy.' BeDtlcj ii irrong in 

ri-fit nprrl Bcntlcv hns aub- nll the cditiona since tho filt« 



Interminato cum semel fixae cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Non defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam 
Et otiosa credidit Neapolis 

£t omne yicinum oppidum^ 
Quae sidera excantata voce Thessala 45 

Lunamque caelo deripit. 
Hic irresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem 
Quid dixit aut quid tacuit ? O rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrae^ 50 

Nox et Diana quae silentium regis 

Arcana cum fiunt sacra^ 
Nunc, nunc adeste, nunc in bostiles domos 

Iram atque numen vertite ! 
Formidolosis dum latent silvis ferae 55 

Dulci sopore languidae^ 
Senem^ quod omnes rideant^ adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes 

luierminaio'] This word, com- 
poanded of ' inter'^ and ' mmor/ is a 
ftnniger wmy of expressing ' intordicto.' 
It ii tlie interpotition of a threat instead 
«f a pUdn oommand. '* Ab soon as bis 
«re-balls fiwtened on the forbidden food 
ifaniild hMwe waited awa^." Sat. ii. 1. 
24: " Ut ■emel icto Accessit fervor capiti." 
VitKrlierlich takes 'lemel' with «iixae/ 
ia if it meant the eyes fiMtened on tbe 
fiBod and never remored. 

41.3 Folia of Ariminnm (an Umbrian 
town) f cpi e ac nts some woman of unna- 
tanl lewShien well Icnown at Naples and 
the neighboorhood, where, Horace means 
to mj, when this atory was told OTery 
body befiered ahe had bad a hand in it. 
Wi is the most obvioos wa^v of explain- 
iag the psfliage without sapposing the 
nne to be laid at Naples. 

49. oiiotd] 80 Ovid calls it : <* in otia 
Biftam Fvtlienopen" (Met xv. 711). 

46. Q"^ ndera excantata'] Tbis fa- 
colU' 01 witcbea is weU known. Virg. 
(BcL tSL 69): "Carmina vel caelo pos- 
■vit dedooere Lonam." Tibnll. (i. 2. 43) : 
** Hape cgo de caclo ducentem sidera 
Flato spealcs of rhs riip atKhvriP 
r«f, TJb ^rrraXiZas (Oorg. p. 513, 
A). And Sferepaiades' ingenions aevicc for 
tlie pttjfment ra intcrest for hls 

dcbts was to get a witcb to bring down 
tbe moon from tbe sky and thcn lock ber 
np, tbat thcre migbt be no more montbs 
bringing pay-day ronnd (Aiist. Nub. 749 

— Thesialal C. i. 27. 21. 

55. Formidolons] The MSS. vary be^ 
tween tbis and ' f^rmidolosae.' As the 
word bears both an active and a passive 
meaiiing, it is not clear which Horace 
wrote. If applied to the woods, it is cqui- 
valent to * borridis/ as Vii^. (Georg. iv. 
468), " Caligantem nigra formidine Iu« 
cnm ;" and the oldest MSS. have it tbus. 

57. Senem, quod omnea rideant] She 
bere prays that the dogs may bark at 
Varus as he goes to tbe brothels of the 
Subura, so that all may tom out and 
kugh at thc viie old man sccnted with 
the ricbest perfumes, sucb as even she, 
Canidia, had never made. Sbe knows that 
tbese are his haunts, and wonders why her 
drugs (which sbc calls tlie drugs of Mcdea, 
as imitating those) takc no effect upon 
him : when shc snddenly breaks out with 
the exclamation, " Ah ! ah ! I see, some 
strongcr spell is at work ; but I will iind 
one tbat is strouger tlian any." Tho 
greatest difficulty has bcen made with 
vv. 69, 70, which aro certainly captible of 
various renderings. Orelli says she had 


Nardo peruncUim, qiialc non perfectins 

Meae iaborarint manus. — C( 
Quid nocidit ? Cur dira barbaroc minus 

Venena Medeae valent? 
Qtiibus sujHirbam iugtt ulta peUieem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Cum palla, tabo munus imbutam, novam 6l 

Incendio nuptam abstulit. 
Atqui nee herba nec latens in asperis 

Radix fefellit me locis. 
Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Oblivione pellicum. — " 71 
Ah ah ! solutUB ambulat veneficae 

ScientioriB carmine, 
Non usitatis, Vare, potionibuSj 

multa fleturum caput, 
Ad me recurres, nec vocata mens tua 7J 

Marsis redibit vocibus : 

lii. eoQ.'U lie slcpt on witli .Iruif-. 63. Vmma Medeat} She 
>iii> ruiv,'t iill Ns'.>mcn )jut iwTKH, <bo bsd heea ortiully oiing i 




Majus parabo^ majus infundam tibi 

Fastidienti poculum, 
Priusque caelum sidet inferius mari 

Tellure porrecta super, 80 

Quam non amore sic roeo flagres uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus. — 
Sub haec puer jam non ut ante moUibus 

Lenire verbis impias^ 
Sed dubius unde rumperet silentium 85 

Misit Thyesteas preces ; 
Vencna magnum fas nefasque non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem ; 
Diris agam vos ; dira detestatio 

NuUa expiatur victiraa. 90 

^88. Suh kuee] ' Afler this/ * in reply to Bese.^ (Sce Epod. xvii. 42 n.) I <lo not see 

thi^' Seo Epode ii. 44 n. ' Lenire ' is the why * vcncna ' should not sta^d for ' vene- 

bbtoric infinitive, as it i8 sometirocs named. iicas/ liko ' scelus ' for < scelestus/ as Fca 

' Sed dubius unde :' ' hardly knowing with pays, but which Dillenbr. says cannot be. 

what wordg to bcgin his curse^.'] Bcntley acknowledges he can make nothing 

86. Thg€9te<u preces'] Curses such as of thc sentence ; and, as the corrections he 

Tfayestes might have imprccated on tho suggests do not please himself, thcy need 

bead of Atreus. The opening scntence of not be rcpcated here. Thc Scholinsts throw 

the boy'8 speech is variously interpreted. no Hght upon the subject with thcir expla- 

Lambiniui proposed, and many scliolars nations, and I feel very doubtful about the 

faare ftdopted, the following version : meuning. The words may bc trauslated as 

immdiy, ** Witchcraft can overthrow tho they siand : " Witclicraft or the grciit 

gmt principlesof justice, but cannot ovcr- powers of riglit and wrong cannot chango 

tfarovr (or change^ the condition or fate of tho fateof men ;" i. e. nothingcan, whether 

mni f* wfacre 'valent ' is understood in the it be good or bad ; and though that inter- 

jfint cfauiae. In snpport of the oonstruction pretation does not satisfy me, I prcfer it to 

an qnoted Tac Ania. xii. 64 : " Agrippina the others, because it is the least strained 

qaae fitto dare imperinm, tolerare imperi- with reference to the coUocation of the 

twttfin neqmfaat." Ib. xiii. 56 : " Deesse words. The omission of a copula between 

s tem in qua vivamus, in qua moria- 'venena' and 'magnum' is no argument 

non potect f* and Flaut. Amphit. i. 1. ag^nst this version. The only other ex- 

: ** Tise ti qoid via nnntiare (sub. si- planation that coincidos at dl with the 

i\ hjKDC noatram adire non sinam ;" ordcr of the words is that which makea 

wfaidi no doafat ezactly represent the case ' magnum fas nefasque ' an exclamation : 

astheie interpreters view it. But I do not " Witchcrafb, by tho mighty laws of hea- 

ne tke aeme wfaich fay this constmction is ven ! cannot chango tho destiny of man." 

fami^t oat of Horace^s words. Orelli It had occurred to me as a possible solu- 

mikce 'fiu ne&iqae' the anbject, and sup- tion of the difficulty ; and, notwithstand- 

poies the faoy to say thatappeals to justice ing Orelli'8 bad opinion of this interprota- 

■ndtbe Iswa of Heaven are of no avail to tion, I thiuk it may take its place among 

torntlieooiineof witchcraft (orthohearts the more plausible of the many explana- 

ofwitebcs); ao he Tesorta to cursos. The tions that have been offered. OreUi has 

wordi ' hiimaDam vicem' he renders ' more given every other that has been sng^ested, 

Biodoqiie hominQm/ which he cxplains by in his excursus on thc passage. [Ritter 

*famBii]iie aenaibiiB.' It wonld be better if translates it thus : ' Poisonous juices, be 

HDt view of the oonftmctaon were adopted they good or bad, have no power to keep 

to render ' hnmanam vicem ' ' on behalf of off the lot that bclongs to man.'] 

■KD,' or *of humaiiity/ as (Cic. Epp. ad 90. NuUa expiatur victima] See C. i. 

Fam. L9.S) ** noatnm ricem nltus est ipse 28. 34. 



Uuiii ulii porirc jussiiB exspiravero, 

Pfti»mi]iie viiltufi iimbra cun-is tinguibus, 

Qnai? vis deornm est manium, 
Et. iiiiiuietis assidens praecordiie go 

P ivnre «omiios iiuferam 
\ OB tiirba A iL itim hmc et hinc sasis petons 

rt.ntundtt ob-iotoafl ami'<, 
Pdst lu^upiilta membra difiorent lupi 

l-t Lsnuihnat ahtes, 100 
^KliR hoc parLnt(.s heu mihi snperstitt-s 

tliuycnt bpectaculum 

h «1 S.1 C 111 11 31 n] «.rtidentiadwiUi the Ij.rr» 

1 1 y hii hunrtb «u iu nery haU. [r^ 

I 1 sharp pre«»>n na -quiio vii' ic. ii 
t. liUii trflnBlsted ' tuch i» the po*i 

r iB .lo nsual I<rttm funu, in whieh 
] 1 anare relera cilhur to oiie word or « 

II 1 r -. K 11 1 IJinie precediuf or following. bnt ag 
iilmnmll\ Un* alK^t nor dcr witU a uonn whieU follow» 

the powcr' &c. Comp. S. i. U. 

rm-- r.j if^annx esl Hm».<r™] The 1€HI. Etqmlinaf aft/e.] On 


it to snpport this opinion, I do not tbink ho has sncceeded. It may be allowed 
Lcron had some ground — we know not what— for calling the man Cassins, and if 
notorions orator would occnr to the copyists and those by whom the inscriptions 
ramed, who were as ig^orant as we are of the real Cassius. Estr^ has, with his 
exactness, given all the anthorities from wbom tbe life of Cassins Severus has 
iompiled, among whom not one, it appears, makes any mention of his being a poet. 
Der snpposes Maevius to be meant, and Grotefend Bavius. But if a name is 
ed I think it shonld bo Cassins, it being admitted that the man is otherwise nn« 
1, and that perhaps Horace writing when he was young, gave him more oonsi- 
on than he deserved in composing this satire upon him. 


inarl at innocent strangers, dog, and mn away from tho wolf ? Attack me if thoa 
Bst I am ever ready to hunt thc prey, while thou dost but bark and tum aside 
ill thy belly. Beware ! for I havc lifbed my homs cven as Archilochns and Hip- 
ax lifted theirs. If I am attacked, think^st thou I will stand like a child andcry? 

QuiD immerentes hospites vexas eanis 

Ignavns adversum lupos ? 
Quin huc inanes^ si potes^ vertis minas 

Et me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam qualis aut Molossus aut fulvus Lacon^ s 

Amica vis pastoribus, 
Agam per altas aure sublata nives 

Quaecunque praecedet fera : 
Tu cum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. la 

Cave^ cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata toUo cornua, 
Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An si quis atro dente me petiverit i & 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 

Qviii — vertW] Maiiy MSS. have and Laoonian dogs were, they were more 

' and ' pete, which rcadings are uscd for hunting than for watching sbeep, 

in tbe Venetian edition of 1483» and were loved by shepherds beoiuse in- 

bfltanding the metrical difficulty, packs they destroyed thewolvesand beasts 

Cmquina gets rid of by putting of prey. (Georg. iii. 405 sqq^ 
' before * si potes.* But the con- 13. Lycambae — Bupalo] Lycambes», 

on with tho imperative is conversa- after promising Archilochns ms danghter 

and dramatic, and there is no reason Neobule in marriage retracted his promise, 

tk Horace wonld say ' quin verte ' and was then attackcd so sharply by the 

tie coiild say ' quin vertis/ which is poct tbat he is said to have hanged him- 

i qneation. [See C. iii. 11. 21 n.] self. The same fate was supposed to have 

Umea vis pastoribug'] Lucretius (vi. bcfallen Bupalus and Atheuis, two scnlp- 

ipeakft of ' fida canum vis ' and Virg. tors, who tumed the ugly features of Hip- 

iT. 182), 'odora canum vis.' It ponax into ridicule [and were repaid by 

lot, tberefore, express < praesidium the pocfs stinging iambics. Plin. H. N. 

tocBa g^regibusy' as Orclli says, but 36. c. 5 ; and Sillig. Catalog. Artificum.] 

fcemt to signUy 'apack/ or sonie- 16. Inultus ut fl^bo puer] Theconatmc- 

}f tbatiort. Wlutever the Moloesian tion i^ ' inultus flebo ut puer.' 

U 2 


!<■ U by Fratite. KLrchnw (p. 22). Mitocherlicli. Aod othi 
n 11,.' liLHt war betwccii C«i,w OcUriaaus and M. Antoultw brolc 
io ilic lie^'mnmg of Ibe Knr of Pcrnsia, A tr.o. 713-14, tfl wbich l 
iign. i)ilk>tibr. refure it. ivltbont usigaing onj partJcular n» 
whtTi Aupistns B-na goiug iigaiort Sei. PoinpwQB. Tliere a very 

tlif v.iir «liicb Kiu tiriHinuleil bj tbe battle of Philippi, in which 
2. KS). TliU h tlio upiiiioii of Acron. Itittor thinbe thnt Epode i 

iini-uluiii ii.soniin li.iect : sed poeta patriao redditu» poUvi»» i 
u;u;L'uuii4Utf iu ntrupitu urmorum etpartium stadio concltatius vou 

riiu .VI- 1/. nrms ?-liii(li uot hlood ouough of Romans bccn >bed ? 
he »;in'i or<'iinli.'i^o, nrliuiuble tbc Dritoa, but tbut tho Pnrtbiui 
ii;: 1[i<iiio r.ill by lior r;u'ii liund. Tbe beaMa do not war upon thuii 
>^. nr lon.',' irrOfistililc. ur wickeduca» that drivc vou ? Thoj nre 
• iiot. 'TiK ovoii .'to : lliL- blood of Itcmiu ie WHtcd on tho <I»tiuIe 

Qi'(>. ([iio scck-sti ruitia? aut cur dexttris 
A]iliiiitur i-nsL's fonditi ? 



Sed ut secundum vota Parthorum sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera ? 
Neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus 

Unquam nisi in dispar feris. 
Furome caecus, an rapit vis acrior, 

An culpa ? Resp jnsum date. 
Tacent et albus ora pallor inficit 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est : acerba fata Romanos agunt 

Scelusque fratemae necis, 
Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Bemi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 




Therc a elight descent commences leading 
to the Templnm Fuagtinae and tbat of 
Antoninns Pius (according to Fea, bnt tbe 
ritnation of that Temple seems to be very 
nncertain). Then the procession passed 
throogh tbe Forum till it reached thc spot 
wbere was afterwards bnilt and still stands 
tbe arcb of Septimias Severus, close to 
wbicb, nnder tbe east side of tbe Mons 
Capitolinos, was the Carcer Tullianus or 
Mamertinus, tbe great prison built, as tra- 
dition said, by Servius Tullius. At tbe 
ibove spot tbe captives were taken off to 
tbis prison, as Jugurtba was, and usually 
itnngled at once. The procession tben 
baving arrived near tbe gate it started 
from, wonnd its way up the Mons Capi- 
tolinns till it reached tbe Capitol. If this 
descriptioD, wbicb a map of tbc city will 
enable tbe student to follow, be corrcct, 
ind if tbe wbole circuit of tbe Campus 
Kartins was traversed, tbe distance passed 
orer most bave beeu not less tban six niiles. 
The part of tbe road whicb Horace (C. iv. 
2. 85) calla tbe ' Sacer clivus,' is tbe above* 
aanied dedivity between tho Templum 
Pkda aiid the Fomm. 

12. Umquam] Some of the old editions 
bave 'nanqoam,' as that of 1483, wbere 
fiar 'diqpar we bavc 'disparibus/ sbowing 
t f^rylfWff copyist. Tbc same reading was 
finiid by Bentley in tbe edition of 1490, 
aiid ie printed iu bis text, but tbe edition 
of 1490 is a repriut of tbe otber, and tbat 
of tbe Fknrentine edition of tbe previous 
rar, which Fea says bas tbe same read- 
mgi. It was easily perpetuated as being 
•i tlie first glanoe more intelligible. But 
ia oo MS. antbority for * nunquam,' 
tbe cnly otjection to * unquam ' is tbe 
rhat Rdondant cbaracter of tbe word 
/ «iudi Ordli excoseB on tbe score 

of the autbor's yontb, but Dillenbr. uiid 
otbers tbink a striking beauty, as giving 
empbasis to tbe word, as if it meant 'fiercc 
as tbey are.' 'Genus,' said by Lambinus 
to be tbe roading of many MSS., is an evi- 
dent gloss. Compare a beautiful passago 
of Juvenal (Sat. xv. 159 sqq.) : " Sed jam 
serpentum m^or concordia. . . . oonvenit 
ursis." Augnstin (de Civ. Dei, xii. 22) : 
" Keque cnim unquam inter se leones aut 
inter se dracones qualia homines intcr se 
bclla gesserunt." *Dispar' sigpiifies an 
animal of another species. 

13. Furorne caecu9\ Tbis is tbe reading 
of most MSS. Bentley from two or three 
bas * caecos,' wbich is a good reading too, 
as (Sat. ii. 3. 44) * caecum agit.' Aen. ii. 
356: " Quos improba ventris Exegit caecos 
rabies." [Keller bas * caecos.'] * Vis 
acrior ' scems to be an absolute expression 
(not comparative witb * furor *), and equi- 
volent, as Lambinus says, to Otov fiia, Bto- 
fiKdfitia ; and it is so explained by Gaius 
with reference to sucb a visitation of God 
as a storm, eartbquake, and so fortb (Dig. 
19. 2. 25. § 5) : " Vis major, quam Graeci 
Btov play appeUant, non debet oonductori 
damnosa esse, si plus quam tolerabile est 
laesi fuerint fructus." Horace means somo 
irresistible force. [Ritter and Keller bave 
' ora pallor albus,' as many good MSS. bavc, 
and Bitter tlunks tbat tbis order of tbe 
words is better.] 

19. Ut immerewtis] *Ut' signifies *ever 
since,' as C. iv. 4. 42, and elsewberc. See 
Key'8 L. G. 1457. 1. Horace bcro fetcbes 
bis reasons from a distant sourcc, more 
fanciful tlian natural. He wrote more to 
tbe purpose afterwards, C. i. 2; ii. 1. 
f ' Saccr nepotibns,' ' a curse on jKMterity.' 
Ritter eiplaiiis * sacer ' ~ 

curse on pofit 
by (tyoj.j 



RonABK lon;^ piitidam te Bacculo 

ViriiK i|Liid eiitTvet meaB ! 
Ciini sit tibi dens ater et rng^B vetus 

Froutem geiiectus exaret, 
Hietqiic tiirpis inttr aridas nal«a 

Pfidcx vclut cnidae bovis. 
Sed incitat me pectiiB et mammae putre=, 

Eqiiiiia qualcs ubera, 
Veiitcrque mollis et femur tumeutibus 

Exiic suris additum. 
Esto beatiij funus atJ^ue imaginos 

Ducant triumphales tuum, 
Nec sit marita quae rotundioribus 

Ouusta baccie ambulet. 
Quid, quod libclli Stoici inter soricn-! 

Jaeere pulvillos amant; 

1 minua nervi ripcnt, 

EPODON LIBER, 8, 9. 295 


1« datc of this ode cannot be mistaken. It was written when the news of Actinm 
(is fVuiib, in Soptember, A.u.0. 723, immediately before the 37th of the first Book. It 
. adclTessed to Maecenas, and it is impossible to read it and snppose he had just arrived 
rom Actinm, where some will have it he was engaged. As to Sanadon, he thinks 
icI.orace wrote to Maecenas while he was still on the other side of the water, which is 


VThen shall we drink nnder thy tall roof, Maecenas, to Caesar the conqneror, as late wo 
did irhen the son of Neptnne lost his fleet and fled, — he who threatened ns all with 
tlie chains his slaves had wom ? Will onr sons believe it ? Romans have sold them« 
sel ves to serve a woman and her eanuchs, and the luxurious ganze hath fluttered 
ftnoiig the standards of war. But their allies deserted to onr side, and their ships 
«kulked from ' the fight. lo Triumphe ! bring forth the golden chariot and the 
i&<^rifice. So g^reat a conqueror never came from Africa to Bome. The enemy hath 
cliatigcd his purple for mouming, and hath fled to Crete or the Syrtes, or knoweth 
w>t whithcr to fly. Bigger cups, boy, — Chiad, or Lesbian, or Caecuban, — we will 
<TOwii our old anxicties for Caesar in wine. 

QuANDO repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes 

Vietore laetus Caesare 
Tecum sub alta— sic Jovi gratum — domo, 

Beate Maecenas^ bibam 
Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra^ 5 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus cum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit ustis navibus, 

^* fsi aiia — domo] This was the house he had taken from the fiigitive slaves who 

^ by Maecenas in the gardens of the formed a large part of his force. Sextus 

^''Mie. See Introduction to S. i. 8. appears to have boasted that Neptune wus 

^ ^wrbaruin] Phrygian, for which this his father and the sea his motber : & 8^ 

l^ a oommon equivalent as opposed to UoiiiHiios oh^* M roi^lt cifKaipltf roffoTadt 

Jj^^fiQan. So (Epp. i. 2. 7) " Qraecia bar- pauayiots iirixfipuv ^^iov iAA* ^fiwe tiSvov 

^^ lento coUisa duello. Aen. ii. 504 : QaXdtrirrf Ka\ Uoaut&vi Koi vlhs ahrwv 

^(Hisrico postes auro spoliisque sn- h<pi<rraro KaKtiffOai (Appian. B. C. v. 100). 

pbi.** Catnll. (Ixiv. 265) : ** Barbaraqne " Is tum occupata Sicilia scrvitia fugiti- 

^^"libili stridebat tibia cantu." See C. iii. vosque in numerum exercitus sui recipiens 

^•18n.; and iv. 15. 30 n., on the plural magnum modum legionum effeoerat, per- 

'^im,* que Menam et Menecratem, patemos li- 

7. tnper] [Ritter puts a comma after bertos, praefectos classinm, latrociniis ac 

'Urbanmi' and the interrogation after praedationibus infestato mari, ad se exer- 

'pBr6dis ' V. 10. He explains ' ut nuper ' citumquo tuendnm rapto ntebatnr, cum 

0) the same way as it is explained in the eum non depuderet vindicatum armis ac 

^i|iDnent.] Tnis was nearly six years ductu patris sui mare infestare piraticis 

wc^ when Sextns Pompeius was de- scelcribus" (Vell. Paterc. iL 73). In his 

fttted by Affrippa off Naulochus on the life, in Smith^s Dict., there is an engraving 

ooait of SicuY, ▲.u.c. 718, when his fleet of a coin, on the reverse of which is Nep- 

mi bnmt ana he himself obliged to fly to tune standing on a column erected on a 

i«a. Honoe laya hethreatened tofasten war galley. See Epod. iv. 19, and Intro- 

BpQB the free oitueDa those chains which duction. 


Minatus Urlji vincla, qiiae detraxerat 

Survis amiL'U8 perfidiB. 10 
Romaniis,~eheu, ]iosteri negabitis — 

Emannpatiis femina« 
I''ert vallum et arma miles et spadonibus 

Servire nigosis potest, 
liiferque sii^na turpe militaria 19 

Sol adspicit eimu]iium. 
At huc frcmentes vert«nmt bis mille equos 

Giilii cuneiiteB CaeBarem, 
llostiliumque navium portu liitent 

Pujipes siuistrorsiun citae, 20 

inBripirr.M] ■"MHnpijiBtio' 'a feminaa fart smitt.' 'a RomaE 
i,v..(,;.-i. . ,...r-.,., «linwKsnot sl.vsd to » woman ™m« «tu» 
' " 1 ! 1 .iii-.i. 1 r. .1 1.. ili.i ■ ™tes- «oldicr ohevB eonnclia."] 
.tl..-. ■-. : .i.t..|.tii)n. 17. i«.c] The MSS. v»r< 
III'.' ' -1IL tu rx- th«t the true reidiiig i> verv ' 

fi. . .|„„u'ipo' ftndalIthcoM«-oditi<...a,lwve 

.i.-i|.. : .^uded in «hicli ja the reBdingfollon-ed b) 

' .. ,Il' Se- lii»t«AcroasndPorpi..vrion, ll.d 

., ■ - ..,.,11 r*t.") kv, by not quotintf Uie latler 

livil. -III'. n, ..',.':, -Maii- uialies him fuYODr hla readini:, 

EPODON LIBER, 9. il'37 

lo Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

Currus et intactas boves ? 
lo Triumphe, nec Jugurthino paxem 

Bello reportasti ducem, 
Neque Africanum, cui super Elarthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum condidit. 

20. sinistromtm citae] Tlieso words ii. 16). Four liorscs, which on speciul 

*^^^y rcfer to the desertion of Antonius' occa.Hious were white, were used for dmw- 

*^«».vitl force, as the foregoing rcfer to his ing the triumphal cliariot. Hcifors that 

^^^<^p3. Some of his ships either did not had not been undcr the yoke were oflercd 

'^^ter the hattle or quittcd it and took in sccrificc at the close of the procession. 

*W*ltcr in Eome neighbouring harbour. Sdpio Africanus Miuor triumphed in 

^'^hether Horace means to be so precise as A.U.C. 608, and Marius in 650. 

^determine the true position of this har- 25. cui guper Karthaginem] AU that is 

^^r, I think doubtful, though there are here said about Scipio'8 tomb is that his 

^^ty of harbourB in the Ambracian Gulf valour built him one on the ruins of Car- 

*P ^nich they may bave fled. The Scho- thage, which is no more than a repetition 

^^^ and ncarly all the old commentators of C. iv. 8. 17. Acron'8 story tbat the 

^i^entaud ' sinlstrorsum ' to mcan ' to- Komans, by command of the oracle, built 

^ttdi Alexandria,' and the flight of An- a tomb to Scipio at tho mouth of theTiber 

^ns and Cleopatra to be meant ; but it looking towards Carthage, is no doubt a 

^ not known whither Antonius had fled fabrication; and Tumebus' note, "cujus 

^ben the messcngcr came to Rome and sepulchro cversae Carthaginis titulus sub- 

tfaii ode was written. I believe the mean- scriptus est," if it were true would have 

ii^ of the words to be impenetrably ob- nothing to do with Horace'8 words. No 

imre from our ignorance of the ancient doubt the conqucst of Carthnge was, as he 

Baiitical phrases; bnt if we take 'sinis- says, "titulo res digna sepulchri" (Juv. 

tromim' aa rignifying literally 'to the vi. 230). But Horace is spcaking of a 

left,' it most be onderstood that the de- tomb of renown, in which Scipio'8 memory 

Mrting ihips made their escape from the is enshrined, not his body. Bentley has a 

•eene of action intothe g^lf, andthere re- long note here, the substance of which is 

mained till tho battle was over. Bentley, this: ' Africanum ' may mean either tho 

withoQt acknowlcdgiiig that Heinsius had elder or younger Scipio ; if the elder is 

preoeded him with th? same notion, sup- understood, we must suppose that ' sc- 

poaes * ainistrorsum citae ' may be equiva- pulchrum ' means Ennius' poem (C. iv. 8. 

lent to irpifxpeuf Kpo^<raff6at, * to back 17 n.), which was to him a tomb or monu- 

water.* Somcthing of that sort, con- ment 'surpassing Carthage;' but if the 

nected with flight, I have no doubt it youngcr is meaut, tlien he proposes to 

meani. Whethcr Horace exuctly states change ' cui ' into ' quo,' that we may have 

what he had heard, and whethcr the in- ' quo super,' ' on whose behalf,' and the 

fimnatiofi was preciflely correct, we cannot tomb his valour built him was Carthage. 

telL He wrote while the tidings were He proves that Statius (Silv. ii. 7. 72) calls 

freab, and probably gave only jpopular re- Lucan's Pharsalia "Pompeio scpulchrum;" 

ports. Tho defection of the Galatians is and in an epigram in the Anthology, Hec- 

Bentkmcd by Plutarch (Ant. 63). 'Citae' tor claims Homcr^s poem as his tomb. No 

v the participle of ' ciere.' one can deny that ' quo super ' may mean 

21. lo TriMmphe] Trinmphns is per- 'on behalf of whom,' and that Carthuge 

■oiiiAed* aa in C. iv. 2. 49. might be callcd Scipio's tomb, as Salamis 

— €iureo» eurrus] Philostratus (i. 7), is Themistocles' in another epigram. But 

in Ui life of Dion, the sophist, says, the why the reading of all the MSS., which is 

£m|Mnr Tnyan nJsed to take him np by <cui,' should be abandoned for 'quo,' it is 

hit ride on tbe gilded chariot used by con- difficult to tell. I think it refers to the 

qiierQn ki their trinmphs. The form of youngcr Scipio, which gives the most ob- 

tbe ehimt is detcribed by Zonaras (vii. vious meaning. The reference to Ennius' 

21) ai tlwC; of a ronnd tower : rh 8^ 8^ poem would be too obscurc. The applica- 

mui flfrt kyofPitm^pt^ ptfrc voXtfitarripl^p tion to thc clder is as old m Cruquius' 

im ififwpit, &XX* clt v^pyov wtpt^tpovs Scholiast. [Ritter takes the reading 

rpdmw i^i^l^yaffro (qooted by Tornebus, 'Airicano' with which 'bello' mnst be 

v^apaeiores afTer huc^ puer, sc 

Et Chia vina aut Lesbia. 
Vel^ quod fluentem nauseam 
Metire nobis Caeeubum : 
Curam metumque Caesaris re 
r • Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 

< ^, supplied, but then 'cni' caxmot be ex- Thoog 

{l ])laiiicdj in the 

, Tr 27. iiBrra marique'] Thcre was no land ffeneral 

''■ .. iiufi^cment ; but all Antouius' forcef, (v. 11). 

y w}ion he deserted them, hdd down thcir 'has t 

t nrms. 'Punicum sagum' ii called by the propotei 

,; J; Greek writers ^otpucis, So Plutarch aage.] 

^ (Hnit. c. 58) : rhp 8^ Booutop 6 'Ayr^piot 29. e 

' . ^ avtvpitp Tf$priK6ra, rh fuy a&iia rp voXv- 83 n. 

■ T rf \«<rr(£r|7 rmp kavrov poiriielZctP vtpifior yourable 

L % Kuif iiciK9vir%p, dartpop Zh r^y ^ipuclia '* Vota i 

\ K^HKtfifidpriP alff$6fA*pos iiirdicruyt rhp eqnivalei 

r 0(piK6yra. llie Sugum wai» properly the water w( 

. !:i cloak wom by the oommon soldier on ser- with the 

'i vice ; bnt qualifled as it is here by * puni- 83.] T 

' ^' cain/ * purple/ it can only mcan the palu. expressiv 

^ damentum, or offioer^s military cloak. [36. C 

Horace says the eneroy has changed his estCaacu 

purplo cloak for a black ono in token of cet.' Poi 

mouming and shame for his dcfeat. and fear 



AU that is known or has been coi^jectured about M 
Smith'B Dict. Biog. He is most popuhurly known thi 
Buvium nonodit Rmof «— — 

EPODON LIBER, 10. 299 

Mala soluta navis exit alite 

Ferens olentem Maevium : 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus^ 

Auster^ memento fluctibus ! 
Niger rudentes Eunis inverso mari 5 

Fraetosque remos differat; 
Insurgat Aquilo quantus altis montibus 

Nec sidus atra nocte amicum appareat 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; 10 

Quietiore nec feratur aequore 

Quam Oraia victorum manus, 
Cum Pallas usto vertit iram ab Hio 

In impiam Ajacis ratem I 
O quantus instat navitis sudor tuis, 15 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
Et illa non virilis ejulatio, 

Preces et aversum ad Jovem, 
lonius udo cum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam ruperit ! 20 

Opima quodsi praeda curvo litore 

Porrecta mergos juveris, 
Libidinosus immolabitur caper 

Et agna Tempestatibus. 

iijferat^ Comp. Ep. ▼. 99, * diffe- Corcyra and Italy. Vu^. Georg. ii. 108, 

-• TriatU Orion :' see C. i. 28. 21.] * Nosse quot lonii veniant ad littora fluc- 

Ajaei*] The 8on of Oifleus. Aen. tus.'— 'Cnrvo :' see C. iv. 5. 14.1 

23. immolabUur caper^ See Virg. Aen. 

llht] He speakB as though he heard iii. 120; v. 772; Ov. Past. vi. 193; Aristoph. 

n crying. Ran. 847, — in all which places the offer- 

^ lonius — *inus] *l6yios kSKitos, ings, as might be expected, are depreca- 

lides, i. 24> and vi. 30, the southem tory; here they are thankBgivings. 
' the Hadriatic, and the sea between 


^«uce of iti date, this compariBOH evon then 
they were written. Franke compares Sat. ii 
with *' Mille pneUamm, pncrorum mille fni 
little in this odc, " Amore, qni me praeter om 
nrerc " (vt. 8, 4) ; and from this infers they 
tho Satire appoars to have heen written at tl 
tho Epode was writtcn in that year ; which hc 
nothing in tho ode but a specimen of that spc 
botook himself in iiuitation of the Qreek ama\ 
difScult of adaptation to the Latin Umgnage, a 
guage would resort to for the exprettioii of p 
expressive and tender. I do not believe theref 
any preciso period of Horace^s life ; and to imagi 
Lyciscna ia quite foreign to the view I take of Ha 
18 probably formed from Lycu% AlcaenB* fiivonrit 


Fettiua, I am so smitten with the heavy hand of 1 
victim, that I cannot write as I nsed. 'Tis two 
what a byword was I then ! How I sighed in coi 
to thee when wine had opened my heart ! " 
against the rich man'8 purse ? My wrath is 1 
i»ighs to the winds ; I will contend with snch 
bnt my feet carried me still to her cmel door. 
who boasts that ho snrpassos every woman in 
deliver me, nor aught but some new flame. 

Petti^ nihil me sicut antca jv 
Scribere versiculos amore j: 

Amore qui me praeter omnes 
Mollibus in pueris aut in i: 

1. Peun '^ • 

■ ^ 

EPODON LIBER, 11. ;]0l 

Hic tertius December, ex quo dcstiti 5 

Inachia furere, silvis honorem decutit. 
Ileu mc, per Urbem — nam pudet tanti mali — 

Fabula quanta fui ! Conviviorum et poenitet, 
In quis amantem languor et silentium 

Arguit et latere petitus imo spiritus. lo 

Contrane lucrum nil valere candidum 

Pauperis ingenium ? querebar applorans tibi, 
Simul calentis inverecundus deus 

Fervidiore mero arcana promorat loco. 
Quodsi meis inaestuat praecordiis 15 

Libera bilis, ut haec ingrata ventis dividat 

^1.7.11. 'Me' isgorernedby *expetit,'not and that was tbereadingof Acron and Por- 

E ^'UfCTe,' as Dilfenbr/B note would lead phyriou, not of Comm. Cruq. "Contrane* 

^ ^tosnppose, comparing ** certat tollere " is better. "Can it be that thc honest 

t^ (CLl. 8). 'Expetit—nrere' is a Grcek gcnius of the poor man has no influcnco 

Mitnictioii; 'quemurafis the rcgular against gold?" 'Ne' might be omitted, 

lAtin. Bentley prefers ' aut pueris ' to but then it would be a mere excUimatiou 

*!■ poeris,' but assigns no good rcason, *'to think tliat," &c. 'Applorans' is uot 

■nd he does not adopt his own conjecture. found clsewhere, except in Seneca. (For- 

TUs nse of ' in ' is not yeiy common. It cell.) 

eeenn Or. Met. iy. 234: "Neque enim 13. ISimul] Sce C. i. 12. 27. 'Soonas 

■oderatus in iUa Solis amor fucrat." the god had brought out from their placo 

6w Imaekia] This is another of those the Becrets of one (myself) warmed with 

^Mk names whicb Horace invariably wine ' as Ritter says, and the arg^meiit 

•dopfai in hts merely poetical compositions, cxpresscH.] 

■neh as I belicre this ode to be (see Introd.). — inverecundus deus'] When Horace 

[Ritter, as nsual, supposes Inachia to be a means to discoumge brawling over wiuc>, 

real woman: 'pnellam Argis in urbem hc calls Bucchus 'verccundud' (C. i. 27. 

profectam ^deturnominare.'] 'Inachiam' 3). Thobcstworks of art represcnt thid 

li • reading quoted by ono of the editors, g(Hl as young and efTcminat^^ly bcautiful, 

and is snpported by the double construc* with long hair like Apollo, as the emblcm 

tiovi with 'ardere;' bnt nearly all the MSS. of eternal youth. [In Dr. Billing's work 

are tn favonr of the ablativo. ' The Science of Geuis, &c., Ancient and 

— konorem decutit'] This expression is Modcm^Hhereisarcprc.-^entatiouofPistruc- 

need by Virgil, who either borrowed it from ci*8 csmeo of Young Bacclius (No. 125).] 

Horace, or from some common original It iD a coarse modcrn notion to reprcsent 

WteiJTf!, ii. 404) : " Frigidus et silvis Aquilo him as a jolly round-faced boy, or a drunkeii 

decosait honorero." Some suppose that sot. This charactor belongs to Silenus, 

Horaee copied Virgil, and thercfore that who is alwayu drunk. " We have rcadily 

this ode was written after the publication retnincd tbHt idea of this attendant of Bac- 

of tbe Georgics. See C. i. 17. 16 : " Kuris chus iu onr northern drinking part of tho 

hoDonini opnlenta." world, and po bave mixed up the youth of 

& JPabuta] Epp. i. 13. 9 : " Fabula fias." Bacchus with the plumpnc;» and sottish- 

— - Cdnvimorum et poenitet] Bcntlcy ness of Silenus ; and to finish all, iuMtend 

eoBMHctnree 'nt poenitet,' which has no of an ass we set him usuallyastride atun" 

mtbarnty, bnt if there wero any MSS. in (Spcnce, Polymetis, p. 131, fol. edit.). 

its fln^nir I woold adopt it. ' Arguit ' (v. Bacchus (C. ii. 19. 30) had horns as- 

10) iiUbe perfect tense. [Ritter says that signed him as the son of Jupiter Ammon, 

ningit 'et qnantnm conviviorum called Corniger, and Alexander took this 

' 'qnantum' being drawn out of emblcm because he too aitected to be 

nanta ftu.' Both he and Kellcr the sou of Ammon, and brothcr of Bac- 

maafter 'fni.'] chus. " Eodem nenipo quo fratcr Bitc- 

/rane] Many MSS. and old edi- chuM instituto ; cui idco comua adsciibit 

Venot. 1483) have ' oontrnque/ Diodorus (lib. iii. p. 206) quod Comi- 





^ionantis quamiiDet n 
Vincere mollitie amor Lyc 

preri Ammonis esset filios " (Spanheim de namq 

Numism. Dissert. vii.). ifiovKtro ih koX tem.' 

'A\4^nyZpot "KfifMPos vlhs «7rai «cU iccp(i<r- ib eqn 

i^opos &vair\(£rr«<r9cu vphs rwv iLydKfJMTO* pador 

vo^»r (Clem. Alex Protrept. p. 36). See C. 

15. Quodsi meis'] He mcans to say that elsewh 

his wrath has got the bettcr of his loveand prepoe: 

modcsty ; and he will cast his compUunts to ner of 

thc windfl, and ceaae to contcnd with rivals aa an a« 

that are onworthy of him. This ■npposea veram' 

tho common reading * inaestuet ' to be ose Fort 

wrong, which I believe it is. [Ritter and 20. si 

Keller have ' inacstuet.'] Doering and go one > 

(iesner have ' inaestuat,' and it appears to Some ha 

tne that the indicative is the proper form from the 

here. The Bubjunctive could only be effcct of 

rendered as an hypothetical threat (as poetobvi 

1 ' Cruquins says) that if he could only get fine boasl 

up his wrath sufficiently to cast his oom- vain to kt 

plaiuts away, he would abandon Inachia ; Tibull. (ii 

which does not appear very good sense. «Macma 

* Si ' is not hypothetical, but affirmative, ^ux 

and the wholc is a positive resolution made £xcn 

one moment and broken tho ncxt ; other- Junivi , 

wise tho inconsistency of the lover^s oon- ^q 

duct is lost. 'Fomenta' means 'sighs' Cnm 
and 'complainings' with which g^cf is 

sought to be relieved. Lambinus, Tume- Baxter, a 

bus, and others take ' fomenta ' for * ali- as applyii 

mcnta,' ' thoughts which foster love and and porp< 

fiorrow ;' but that is disproved by the words poites ' u 

that follow : * vulnus nil malnm levantia.' ante fbrei 

Such incffectual remedies are elsewhere tum' expl 

called " frigida curarum fomenta " (Epp. wearied i 
i. 3. 26). • Fomenta ' are there crln«. — ' 

8uch likn »^ ' 


EPODON LIBER, 12. 808 

Unde expedire non amicorum queant 25 

Libera consilia nec contumeliae graves, 
Sed alius ardor aut puellae candidae 

Aut teretis pueri longam renodantis comam. 

) on C. i. 1. 28 ['roand-limbed ' ' Dianam' (Argon. v. 881). As tbe word ii 

r.] At to 'longam comam/ see not found any where else, perhaps thia 

LO. 3 n. ' Renodantis/ which writer took it from Horace, mistaking or 

•nder ' nntyiDg, and allowing altcring the meaning. I find ' renidentis' 

ipon his shonldors/ means rather in the Vcnetian edition of 1483, and Gesner 

• in a knot like a girl. Valerins mentions that reading from the Bodleian 

oses it in the other sense, which MS., but there isno weightto be attached 

does not notice : " Teqne renoda- to it. 
iretrifl ac pace frnentem," Le. 


QuiD tibi vis, mulier nigris dignissima barris ? 

Munera quid mihi quidve tabellas 
Mittis nec firmo juveni neque naris obesae ? 

Namque sagacius unus odoror, 
Polypus an gravis hirsutis cubet hircus in alis, 5 

Quam canis acer ubi lateat sus. 
Qui sudor vietis et quam malus undique membris 

Crescit odor, cum pene soluto 
Indomitam properat rabiem sedare ; neque illi 

Jam manet humida creta colorque lo 

Stercore fucatus crocodili, jamque subando 

Tenta cubilia tectaque rumpit ! 
Vel mea cum saevis agitat fastidia verbis : 

Inachia langues minus ac me ; 
Inachiam ter nocte potes, mihi semper ad unum 15 

MoUis opus. Pereat male quae te 
Lesbia quaerenti taurum monstravit inertem, 

Cum mihi Cous adesset Amyntas, 
Cujus in indomito constantior inguine nervus 

Quam nova collibus arbor inhaeret. 20 

Muricibus Tyriis iteratae vellera lanae 

Cui properabantur ? Tibi nempe, 
Ne foret aequales inter conviva magis quem 

Diligeret mulier sua quam te. 
O ego non felix, quam tu fugis ut pavet acres 25 

Agna lupos capreaeque leones ! 


ile is like thi> diuLIi of llie flr>^t book.— > eonvivial umg writti^n ll 
nllQsion is cilractcd froin v. 7 fia frnm v. 9 of tliB other odc, a' 
nBV (uiipose it poasihlc tliut the trouble» of Ihe tinies are indii 
nhich w«re to be lelt to tbe goda. But this prorc* nothiug 
mt they were both written bofore tbo closo of llie (a\-il wara, whi 
ia this oile, odiI vcry pmbable lu to tbB other. Thcre eaa he B 
^^t S9 well as tliE totln.- bcing iniitattd from the fireet. Tbo 
rnminilB us of C. i. 8. nuil of the nllnsioQ to Teuccr (C. i. 7). Th. 
^uitcieoD (G Bergli) wbicb beBra Bomo likeneu to the opeuiiig of Chi 

X"liiyt woTitytvirir. 


x>st is rngiag, lat tis nmlio merrj, mj' frienJs. while we are yoni 
■t tu tbe goda wbo will give us a good tnm jet. Bring ointmcn 
r,)ii tnuglit bi» grent pupil, snjing, '■ To Troy tliou must go and 

EPODON LIBER, 13. 805 

Et decet, obdueta eolvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move consule pressa meo. 
Cetera mitte loqui : deus haec fortasse benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfimdi nardo juvat et fide Cyllenea 

Levare diris pectora soUicitudinibus ; 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 

Invicte, mortalis dea nate puer Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina lubricus et Simois, 

ctrai (Odyss. i. 267), whicb Dillenbr. 11. Centaurus'] Cheiron, the instnictor 

I, and which the Scholiast explains of Achilles. Orelli has collocted a large 

V i^owrlq, 4irrlj has no bearing npon nnmber of places in which this subject is 

usage. It rather secms akin to that mentioned. Whether Hoi-ace took what 

ision of Solomon (Prov. c. xvi. v. 33), foUows from any story or not it is impos- 

lot is cast into the lap, but the whole sible to determine, as in the bimilar episode 

ing thereof is of the Lord." But-, of Teucer in C. i. 7. 

er this may be, * dum virent genua ' — ^randi'] Juvenal (vii. 210) describes 

merely ' while our limbs aro strong Achilles as a big boy ut school, ** Metnens 

p are young/ (C. i. 9. 17.) Dacier virgae jam grandis Achilles Cantabat 

iily tne tottering of the knees Ls one patriis in montibus ;" but * grandis ' has 

first signs of old age. not that mcnning here, though some have 

*hdmcia—/'ronte'] * Clouded brow.' supposed it has. 

renal (S. ix. 1, 2) : — 13. frigida'] This is an adaptation of 

velim quare toties mihi, Naevole, ?T®1^* description (II. xxii. 151) : hV 

g^jg kriffn Bfpti irpopttt tiKvia X^^^^V " X**"* 

rras frontc obducta." '^XP?- * Domus Asstjraci/ « proles Assa- 

raci, are oommon m Yii^il. Assaracus was 

(Phoen. 1328), &AA& yiip Kpiovra greut-grandfather of Aeneas. Homer took 

> T^rSc ScCpu awvi(pri — artixoyra. a more heroic viewof tliedimensionsof the 

tns ' is nowhcre else used in thid river Scamander, which was fiiyas irorafibs 

f * melancholy,' though ' senium ' is fiadvZivris (II. xx. 73). Bentley suggests 

n>mmonly. See Porcell., who does * proni * for * parvi ;' others have proposed 

ice this ose of * senectus.' * Tn ' is ' pravi' (that is, * tortuous'), *pnri,' *navi,' 

iter of tbe feast. Sex. Manlius Tor- ' tardi.' But the MSS. do not vary. [* Lu- 

WB8 consnl ▲.v.o. 689, when Horace bricus :' smooth-flowing.] 

m. Compare '* O nata mecum con- 15. tubtemine] ' The woof of the web.' 

inlio" (iii. 21. 1). 'Certo subtemine' means only by an un- 

etera] See Introdnction, and C. i. alterable destiny. There is no need of 

Permitte divis caetera." Bentley^s alteration to ' cnrto,' nor of 

eedem] The commentators quote taking 'certo subtemine' with 'Parcae/ as 

rds of Angustus' edict (Suet. Octav. if it were the adverb of quality, signifying 

It* mihi salvam ac sospitem Kem the ' Parcae' whose woof of destiny is un- 

an sistere in sna sede Uceat." alterable. SeeCatuII. 64. 328, &c, : "Cur- 

cfkaemenio] Venet. 1^183, aud ncarly rite ducentes subtemina currite fu^i." 

e^ditions tifl Bentley^s, with Comm. ' Matcr cacrula ' means Thetis, not tho sea, 

many MSS., bave 'Achaemenia.' as Com. Cruq. supposes. 

[um ' is the word, not ' nardus,' us 18. alloquiis] If the tme reading is 

59 : " Nardo perunctum quale without any conjunction, ' alloquiis ' wuuld 

^ius ." appear to be in apposition with * vino can- 

^enea] The lyre invented by tuque.' There is no other instance of 

on Mount Cyllene in Ar- ' aUoquium' being used otherwise than with 

*/ not 'duris,' is the readinj: reference to conversation. But Horace 

litionB and nearly all the may have followed, afler his cnstom of 

prefen the ktter. imitating the Greeks, the nse of vo^- 


ErODON LIBER, 14. 307 


^Vm kniest me, my noble Maeccnas, asking agaiii and agun if I havc dnink tlie watera 
of Lethe. It u love, it is love thut keeps back the vcrses I have promised, such love 
ti Anacreon wept in hia flowing nnmberd for Bathyllus the Sannan. Thou too feelest 
the flune, and if thoa art more blessed than I am, be thaukful. Thou lovest the most 
bmtifol of women : I am in torment for a strumpet. 

MoLLis inertia cur tantam difiuderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus^ 
Pocula Lethaeos ut si duccntia somnos 

Arente fauce traxerim, 
Candide Maecenas^ occidis saepe rogando : 6 

DeuS; deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen^ iambos 

Ad umbilicum adducere. 
Non aliter Samio dicunt arsisse Bathyllo 

Anacreonta Teium^ 10 

Qni persaepe cava testudine flevit amorem 

Non elaboratum ad pedem. 

L mii — Mnnhtu] So Virgil (Ecl. iii. contradiction by Orelli and Dillenbr., oon- 

Ujt "Sendbiu haec imis (res eat non veys no meaning. ' Carmen/ for a volume 

|Mi) rapooM.'' of ' carmina,' ia an ezprcssion which raises 

4 irm i m im ] This is the earliest instance a very natural doubt as to Horacc'8 mean- 

of fhii ma of * traho.' ' Dnco ' ia more com- ing here. ' Ad umbilicum adducere ' seems 

mm (CL L 17* 22 ; iii. 3. 34 ; iv. 12. 14). to rcfer to a volume, ' carmen ' to a single 

Orid od kter writers use ' traho.' Tlie poem ; bnt the former might be taken in 

Giwki HMd tfviw and cAk« commonly in a derived sense, " ad finem adducere/' as 

tUi lenM. ' C^ndide ' seems to signify reaaonably as the latter in a collective sonse. 

'gcacfoui»' ' trne.' It is used familiarly. See Introduction. Whether ' olim' belong^ 

8b ^ mmbiliemm addueeni] Theseveral to 'inceptos' or 'promissum' is open to 

■heateof parchment on which thecontents doobt. Bcntley does not strengthen his 

~ werawrittenwerejoinedtogether, opiuion that it belongs to 'promissnm' by 

■tlheeitreniityofthelastwasfiutencd refening to A. P. 46 : "Hoc spemat pro- 

which the whole was rolled like missi carminis auctor." The objection to 

; aiid in the same way, at the taking it with 'inceptos,' if 'carmen' 

of this roUer, were knobs which means the book of Epodes, is, that it wonld 

cdled 'oomna' or 'umbilici.' The imply that the different odcs were written 

~ bobvions enongh. Thektter to form part of a volume, whereas they 

jpmperly perhapstotheshapo mnst have been written at intervals and 

ends of the rotl woold take when without refcrenco to their collective pub- 

were wanting ; bnt it was also lication. 

-^^ -*^ jpBBd to the knobs themselves, and so 9. BathyUo] C. ii. 4. 7 n. Anacrcon's 

^->- «lIm ombQieam adducere ' is to bring a versos were fuU of passiouate addresses to 

lelnne to the kst sheet. Mart. (iv. boys. The name of Bathyllus does not 

[3^ ^Sl) ^— occur in any of the fragments that have 

• Obe Jun «tia ert ; ohe libelli *^™« ^?^,^ ^ ' ^°*^ '^ |« «entioned by 

J«D parenimas nsqne ad umbilicos." f ^*^" ^'^"^ H^«™<^' "°'1,1»« J» ^."°'^ ^ 

' " hrive bt'en one of Anacreou s cliict favour- 

y^9nnatkp "umbilid vocabantur quia ites. He was a gracoful performer on ihe 

~ ~' pertelibri eranty" qnoted without flutc, which accomplishment, wc leam from 

X 2 


Urcrifi iiisc miser; quodsi nou pulchrior ignis 

AwviidH ol)s,'ssaiii Ilion, 
Ouuitf fiorfi' tua ; me libertina neque uno « 

Contentu Phryne macerat. 

ihT ■ ■■ !' "■■.Ili», An«- talnChelnaoT»,wid«flwWr 

■ ■i 1. : . iTii-nfthe from the imimttl'» back (bnni 

.l-.* > r..i.n (iG Ijre (PKuraniu, Tiii. 17. 5).l 

i-ii.l.!i.--. ! . 1 .. .- ..... E.ofluWLo»: 13. Urerii ipir murr} Se 
.mllNLl .V,. ^lI-i. Ir;,n, l!i:it lic wiui. Udd. Tha Scliolinsts ifll™ t 
1, t,i- t' i, 2j(.o. tdt' (hem rpit.f ii here alluclBi to, «nii Ihere 

/k BagiKX',^. Auii(.TiWl. ht.iUK douhl nf it. There «b» r lial 
fm,ii hi-ii,Hivf1i.",iTt-.'iti Itiinii, l^miiiint. nflmp.1 Bathvllns, 
iiiriv ..■.iT^ .,1 S., - ,i,„l,.r (ih- !.'■"■ r..>i-<li"ii" .,f Mmv,™is,Hnd of. 

^■:!''j' ^;'''':^^':':: r"""'' ■''":t'S 

.1" '. ■ ■ ■■. Il..ili,iiln.' lip|i,iiiM.T«in»oi 

-VI.. ! 1 iiii[>iv[Kirlj raferred tliewonl 

11- .■ . > ..r Mippositig An«cr«in"i Bnthj 

1.. ■■ n l"4.'n intraclnwd witb refen 

11 :. 1 ■ :..i..;..i .l-i1,'l. j.lajer. For • qoodri ' Orelll 

llii. ttiLi. .\iir,.i. ...,,"- p. .i.ii,^. daes not edit 'ijUBUdD,' wbiel 

r,r,,. I.:yl,„l,„.' ■ 1-:|.. ivi. 4. ■ mva s «.rrupt^d fonn in hU MS. 

■I.'j,v,i' i- a iH.,.iiiiil i)rntini(.nt lie- Buncnr? to 01« mncb bftter, 
■■r..,i, Ih.. f,.7nii,f Ih,. •tf.^lniii.,' or oliicr MSS. liave it. [A. to ■ 
ri.nliiuLUcnuLTimugUoulhouiouu. -Ilion' 8«'C. iv. 9. 18.] 

EPODON LIBER, 15. i]09 

Nox erat et caelo fulgebat luna sercno 

Inter minora sidera, 
Cum tu magnorum numen laesura deorum 

In verba jurabas mea, 
Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex, 6 

Lentis adhaerens brachiis : 
Dum pecori lupus et nautis infestus Orion 

Turbaret hibemum mare, 
Intonsosque agitaret Apollinis aura capillos, 

Fore hunc amorem mutuum. 10 

O dolitura mea multum virtute Neaera 1 

Nam si quid in Flacco viri est, 

2. luier minora ridera] * Sidns ' pro- This is one of the ezampleB in which ' at- 
poiy ngnifies a oollection of stars, a con- que'is8upposedtobeeqaivaIentto 'quam/ 
ilcUation ; bnt here it Lb equivalcnt to Suetonius, Caesar, 14 is compared : * Sen* 
'itelhi,' which in its tum appears for 'si- tentia gravius atqne ipse sensissct ezcepta.' 
du' in C. iil 29. 19. In C. i. 12. 47, it See C. i. 25. 18, and S. i. 1. 46.] 

ii alao ft single atar, and the moon is re- 6. Leufis adhaerent brachiisj * Lentis- 

praented aa she is here : ** Mieat inter sima brachia ' is used in a different scuse 

oomea Jnlinm sidna, velnt inter ignes in S. i. 9. 64. Here * lentis ' signifies 

Lana minores." 'twining,' as that which is soft and 

3. iaentnt] * Laedere ' is applied to in- pliant. 

jorybjwordordeed, tofrand('laesafides') 7. Dum pecori Utpue'] 'Infestns' be- 

or slander, or violence done to the person, longs to both clauses, but in the first 

or damAge of any kind. li applics to htgh ' csset ' must be supplied. There is a 

treason» whereby the majesty of the sove- slight irregularity thcrefore in thc sen- 

leign power is vioUted, and to pcrjury, as tcucc. As to Onon, sce C. iii. 27. 18. 

blii«phtfming the name of God. Ovid ' Turbaret' and ' agitaret,' for which 

(Heroid. ii. 43) : — Bcntlcy and Fea have * turbarit,' * agi- 

"'Si dfi tot Uiesis sna nnmina quisque ^^»' ^ required by thc obliquc con- 

doomm struction. 

Viiidicct, in poenas non satis nnus ^- Inionsosque agiiaret] Longhairwas 

^i^» the mark of youtb (C. iv. 10. 8 n.), and 

Th* offence however of lovers' norinrv was ^^P^"** ^ ^^^^ ^ Bacchus (Efiod. xi. 13 n.) 
ine onence nowever oi lovers pcrinrj was , n . , _|^^ vonnir HonnA 

Bot snppoMid to weigh very heavily (C. ii. J^*"^, ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^'^f^*'. >°""&: ^^^P% 

A lo vrm. ¥\:« T& • _>. 4. 1 • m tt»l ancient representations of Apollo (of 

& 18 n.). The Dii Magui were twelvc m i • u 4.1. x» i i . '^ « ^. 

_\ , ' T •!. >»• T TM which the Ijelvedcre is a specmicn fami- 

immb^: Jupmtep. Mmerv^ Juno Nep. ,^ ^ j ^ ^ , ^ 

tmie^ Venns, Mars, Vulcan, Vesta, Apollo, .., , . , , ^ > 1 «v 

Mm^ CeM, «nd Mercury '^^ .''"".^*^, °' ^T^' "" "^"^ !!: 

^I»^ J,rab^ea2 This U the T^K^ k" ,^'5°*°*'^ ~'"P?'ff ,;?* 

, - ^l . *u-^*i, ^fi ^K« mcchus by the pocts. Sce Ovid (Met. 

n>D>l W.Y of expreN.iig the oath of obo- .;. ^ .{j, ^ ^^^ ^^ 

^^Sf *^ wldier.thewor.l8 being ^ „ J'cri„^» '^i^ Martial (ivf46) :- 

dictitea to the men. Hence the phrases ^ ^ ' 

* ooDceptiB Terbis jnrare,' ' conceptis vcrbis " Perpetuo sic flore mices ; sic dcnique 

p^ermre.' ' Jnrare in verba' was convon- non sint 

tionsny applied to any oath of allegiance, Tam longae Bromio quam tibi» 

md the poet says INfcaera swore by tbe Phoebe, comae." 

gods etenial derotion to his will. Else- . , T«;K„n.,- /; a. Qn\. 

Srb« Honc» ezpressea by these words the ^"^ TibuUus (i. 4. 37) :- 

blind adhernioe to a pArticnlar teachcr, " Solis actema est Fhoebo Bacchoqne 

dflckring tlttt he himself is "Nullios ad- juventa : 

jormre in Terba magistri " (Epp. i. Nam dccet intonsns crinis ntmmque 

1. 14). deum." 

[5. ArUmt af^iie] ' Closer than the ilex In the full dcscription 'Hbnllus (or the 
ifl embmced by tbe outstretching ivy.' pscudo-TibuIlns) gives of his person, in 


Nf>n fiTct as^iJuas potiori te dare noctes, 

£t quacret iratiis parcm, 
Nec Bciiiel odensae cedet constantia fomiae, 

Si oertiis intrarit dolor. 
Et tu, qiiicunqiic cs felicior atque meo nnnc 

Superljus iomiie malo, 
Sifi pecore et multa dives tellure licebit 

Tibiquc PactoiuH fluat, 
Nec te PytliafTorae fallant arcana renati, 

Formaque vincas Nirea, 
Ehcu translatofi alio maerebie amores r 

Ast ego viciBsim risero. 

irri? ran t«3 litlle lioabt ho Followod Bnt before he Teathi^ tlie cnd 
:- M «,.il as ntiituca *l'I1 knovra iu ne« light in upon liim. 
lio Hiji':— bIIow thBixiinoion rradingto » 

libat Svrio Diyrtcn roTV comii." retiire!)' N«er«hCT»tlf: "Et t 

h.™i.n in tbc Ll i, IhZi f"™!»" N™.™.«jnrf B,ihi invi 
N.l iiriLl Ni.inni'3 vmv ii ouc of "-'""l'''' i»™)» ""11 «w thit 1 
■i.l,'litv. A,IoAmll.iVliiiir«eC.i. thc -bola point, «nd that th. 
I,i|.,Ii-nm,u„.ri;iiul,.C^ntl,iura;" ''P";™t'f-. "^^ '.«ligo pro 
<'2. '■aui n.i. i,iirMi'!i-'i.,li:if lavit af^ "" ou hia own gide. I do i 



This ode it writien with great care, and was probably one of those compontions by 

whicb Horace brongbt bimself into public notice. It bas more tbe appearance of baving 

been written for fiime than any otber in tbe book. I bave no donbt it waa written soon 

after Horace came to Rome at tbe ontbreak of tbe Perusian war, iL.u.0. 7lS. Some 

Mow wbat tbey snppoBe to be tbe meaning of tbe ScboliaBt Acron, wbo tays on tbe 

word ' Altera' (▼. 1) : <<qnando Antonini dimicarit contra Angnstnm." Bnt be may 

bare referred to L. Antonini the consul ; at any rate tbe language and sentiments are 

•0 different £rom any tbat Horace used or was likely to ubo about tbe time of Actium, 

that the ode cannot be referred to that period. Tbe state of Bome at the time sup- 

poted is described veryTividly by Appian (Bel. Civ. ▼. 18—49) and Dion (zlviii. 9—15). 

It has been luppoeed that tbe notion of mig^tdng to the fortunate islandB, which many 

of the oommentators bave taken too literaUy, was derived from the words of Sertorius, 

noorded by Plutarch in bii life (c. 8), and said by the Scboliast Acron to have bcen 

BMntioned by Sallcut. Wben he was hard puflhed by Luscus the legate of SuUa, Ser- 

ionoM, fidling in witb some BaUOTn who had visited or been driven to tbe Westem 

TakmrtB, and hearing firom them a glowing dcBcription of their dimate, ia said to have 

cooeetved a denre to go and Uve there, and bo to get rid of tbe troubles of bis Ufe and 

tfae never-ending wars. SertoriuB* speech may have become notorioui, or Horaoe may 

kave heard of it ; but tbe idea may have occurred to him independently or been sug- 

fBBtedy as the description seems in part to bave been, by Rndar^s description of the 

Happy Iilands (OL iL 70 sqq.), and Hesiod^s of the same (Op. et DL 167) : rdis Zh Zlx' 

h4pAw mw fiioTow Kat ijB^* Muraas, ic.r.\., or Homer^s description of the Elysian pbuns 

(OdyiB. iT. 663 sqq.). [' Carminis Uneamenta dncta sunt anno 712 (a. Chr. 42) in 

Oraeda, cnm beUum civUe ezarsit, perfecta demum, ut videtur, cum poeta anno 717 

'*^affntiti iambos cupienti morem gessit ; cf . ad Epod. xiv. 7/ Ritter.j 


AanHMw ige Is wisting in dvU wars. Sbe wbom no enemy oonld tame shaU be de- 
ibnjcd bj ber own accnrsed children ; the wUd beast shaU devour ber ; tbe barbarian 
iliill trample npon her, and scatter the dust of her Bomulus to the winds. Wbat are 
«• to do f Go fbrth Uke tbe Fbocaeans, leave onr homes and our temples to be the 
dens of beasts, and go wberever tbe winds sbaU waft us. ShaU it be so P Then wby 
dday f Bnt let ns swear :— wben rocks sbaU swim, and the Po shaU wash the tops 
of Maitimii^ and tbe Apennine be cast into tbe sea ; wben the tiger shaU Ue with the 
kind» and the dove with tbe bawk, and the herds fear not tbe Uon, and the be-goat 
dudl love the waves, — then we wiU retum to our home. Tbus let the nobler spirits 
rBMlra while the craven clings to bis couch. For ub there are tbose bappy isles wbere 
the earth yidds her harvests and tbe treee their fruit unbidden ; wbere boney drops 
fnm the oak» and the stream leaps babbUng from tbe hUls; where tbe goat comes 
wiVhM*»" to the miUc-paiL and udders are fhU, and the fold fears no beastSy and tbe 
gnondbears noviper; where the rain-flood and tbe drougbt are not known; wbitber 
tlM f euturoDa saU oomes not ; where the flock is unhurt by pestUence or beat. Jove 
dwtini^d these Bhores for tbe pious wben tbe gdden age had passed away, and thither 
tiM pioiia nnj xeeort and proeper. 


Al-TERA jam teritur bellis civilibus aetaa, 

Suis et i]isa Itoma viribus ruit: 
Qiiam neijue fiuitimi valuerunt perdere Marei 

Minucis iiut Ktrusca Poraenae manus, 
Ai^mula nec virtus Caiiuae nec Spartacus aeer • 

NoviB<iue rL'bus infidelia Allobroi, 
Ncc fera eaerulca domuit Germania pube 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal, 
Impia perdemus dcvoti sanguinis aetas, 

Fcrisipie rursus occupabitur Bolom. 
Barljanis heu cineres insistet victor et ITrbcm 

Equcs sonantc verberabit un^Ia, 

/Ifr^] If Iloraco rMkona from pnndpalwitneBBM igunsttht 
ni,r8 of L. Sulla and C. Mariiw, (Sall. Cat. 11; Cic- in Calil 

t.ihavc panai^dawm. Itnt it ia brokBn out in wnt and inv 
t» forin Diiv CDii.lii^ioE froui tliB NarboOHiBis, were drfeaWd t 

,■. -1 ,,..., i I>,,i-|.l,iH..ii qnote» reaUesBiieBs of the Qalli i» m 
iv(.. -1 TiM^i.[.i.liriL. laliorot Cawar (B. Q. iv. 6). 

tl.... .,..,..1. ...-,■ .i„..e. But llio noHliem nalion^ who vrtT 

EPODON LIBER, 16. 813 

Qnaeqne carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini^ 

Nefas videre I dissipabit insolens. 
Forte quid expediat communiter aut melior pars 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus : 
NuUa sit hac potior sententia, Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitajs 
Agros atque Lares patrios habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis, 20 

Ire pedes quocunque ferent^ quocunque per undas 

Notus vocabit aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? — Secunda 

Batem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremus in haec : Simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Yadis levata^ ne redire sit nefas ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea^ quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina^ 
In mare seu celsus procurrerit Apenninus, 

Novaque monstra junxerit libidine 30 

Mirus amor^ juvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo^ 
Credula nec ravos timeant armenta leones^ 

Ametque salsa levis hircus aequora. 

ipraidihembeforetheBan: they shallnot 23. 8ic placef] 'PlacetneP' a nsnal 

he gathered nor beboried; tbej shall be foimnla. The poet funcies himself ad- 

aadnng on the &ce of the earth." Horace dresBing the citizcns. ' Habet snadcre ' ia 

does not' take acoonnt of the apothcosis of another Greok constmction, wtl$*i¥ Hx^t. 
Bomnlas» which he himself rcfers to else- [27. conrersa domum] * Tumed bome- 

where (C. iii. 8. 16). Porphjrion, on the wards ' iudicates a change in the * lintea ' 

autbority of Varro, says the tomb of Ro- for thc purpose of causing a change in the 

mnlns wat behind the Bostra. directiou of tho course, which is home- 

15. expsdiat'] This belongs to ' carerc;' wards, as it wos at firdt from home. 

*wbat may be onr best course, that we 'Conversa' alonc with 'signa' or *Iintea' 

nmj be set free from tbese wretchcd suf- expre^ses a change in direction. Caesar, 

fieniigs,' where the Greeks would express B. U. i. 25 ; ii. 26. — ' Matina cacumina :' 

or (more commonM understand io-rc. sce C. i. 28. 3.] 

The story of the Phocaeans abandoning [31. Mirus amor,juvet ut'] *A passion 

their dtj when Harpagns was besieging so strange that tigers will delight,' &c. 

it, wad dedarinff that they would not rc- This is a common position of a Latin ad- 

tnm tffl a bar oi iron thev threw into the jective followed by * ut.' ' Mims ' is em- 

sea dionld float» is told by Herodotus (i. phatic without the addition of ' ita.' — 

166). It mnst have been ramiliar to edu- ' Adultcretur ' is probably the passivc, 

eated men, and the form of oath may have though it is generally taken as a deponent 

beoome prorerbial. 'Exsecrata' is used in verb.] 

n nlddle sense, 'binding tbemselvcs under 33. ravos'] C. iii. 27. 3 n. This is the 

n cnrae/ iwotiicapTo Urx^P^^ Kardpas, So, reading of the oldest MSS., tho Berne and 

'agna' is govemed by 'profugit' not Blandinian. Many have 'flavos;' others 

hy 'czsecfnta.' "Praeenntibus exsecrabile ' soovos ;' Lambinus ' fulvos.' " Levis 

amneii steerdotabns jnre juraudo adacti " hireus amet," " the goat bccome sleek, and 

(liT. xzu. 17)* love thc salt water." 

EPODON LIBER, 17. 315 


Fi-anke considers this to be the latest of the Epodes, written with the ironical pnr- 
of making peace between the poet and Canidia, whom he had so nnmercifiilly 
pooned, before the publication of the poems in which she figures. Certiunly tho 
CAzmtation la not less severe than the diatrilH». I do not think it neccssary or feasible 
&ssign it a datc, and am not disposed to agree with those who from y. 23, " Tuis 
piUns albns est odoribns," infer that this Epode was not written, and therefore tho 
K>Ic was not published, till Horaoe was advanced in years, or till after the composition 
' O. iii. 14 (▲.u.c. 729 or 730), because there he says his hair is beginning to turn 
^y . If his hair was })erfectly black, it would only enhance the satire of the above 
^s^r^ion. The whole snbject af this quarrel (as might be expected) is so obscure that 
^ i» Qseless to offer any conjectnres npon it ; but no one, I think, can read this Epode 
^^ suppose that the affair was altogether fictitious. There is too much vigour and 
S^ial humonr in these verses to admit of such a notion. Adnutting therefore the 
^^^^stence in some shape of Canidia, I only deprecate the inferenccs derived from a too 
^^ral interpretation of particular expressions, as noticcd in the former odes referring to 
^^^ same woman (Ep. iiL 8 n. ; y. Introd. &c.). 


jidd, I yield ; I pray thee by Proserpine, by Diana, by thine own mighty spells, 

Cui<^ cease thy charms; stay, stay thy wheel. Achilles had compassion npon 

Tdephns, and healed him. He was entreated and gave back the body of Hector, and 

the matrons of Troy anmnted him for burial. Ciroe restored the companions of 

Ulyises. Surely I have been pnnished enongh, O thou that art loved of sailors and 

of hucksters ! The complexion of youth is gone from me ; my hair is white ; I rest 

not day or night, and sighs give me no rclief. I now believe what I once denied, that 

Sabine spells are shaking my breast, and my head is splitting with Marsic charms. 

What wonldst thou more ? O sea and earth, I am on fire, likc Hercules with Nessns' 

bkxtd, and Aetna^s everlasting flame. As a crucible filled with Colchian drugs thon 

wilt bnm tiU I shall be oonsnmed, and my ashes scattercd to the winds. What death 

or what penalty awaits me ? Speak, and I will offer a hundred oxen, or praise thy 

diaatity in lying song. The brothers of Helen were entrcatcd and g^ve the poet back 

his ^es ; and do thou, for thon canst, loose me from my madness. Indeed thou art 

uot debased by thy parents' sins ; thou dost not scatter the new buried ashes of the 

poor; thy beart is kind, thy hands are pure, thy son is thine own, and thy births are 

no pntence. 

Wby waste thy prayers npon ears that are deaf as the rock lashed by the waves ? To 

tfaiDk thoQ riionldst pnblish and laugh with impunity at our mystic rites, and fill the 

town with my name ! What profit then have I of the skill I have leamt ? Thus 

ihah thoa live with strength ever renewed for fresh endurancc, as Tantalns vunly 

•eeks to be at rest, Promethens to be delivered from his vulture, and Sisyphns to plant 

hia ttona on the top of his monntain. Thou wilt seck death in every form, and it 

ahflB Doi oome. I will bestride thee, and spnm the earth in my pride. What ! mnst 

l^ who ean more images, bring down the moon or raise the dead, — I the mingler of 

]o(f«-dMumii^^nmrt I lee my spells of no avail for snch as thee ? 


Jam jam efRcaci do manus scientiae, 

Siipplfx ct oro regna per Proserpinae, 

Plt et Dianae non movenda uumina, 

Per utque Hbros carminum valentium 

Bclixa caelo devocare eidera, 9 

Canidiaj ]iarce vocibus tandem sacris 

Citunujiie rctro solve, eolve turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 

In ijiiem supevlais ordinarat agmiua 

Mysorum et in i[ucm tela acuta toiserat. 10 

Unxcrc matrcfi Uiae addictum feris 

AJitibus akiue canibus bomicidam Hcctorem, 

in Jnm'] Tlie ri'petitiDn dLHotei Imck. 'Volve' U too obvioB 
„1 ..,s,Ti.c-Bs. 'Rce. «ee I yteld.' tUtioD. and nol required. 
-iiid ■ .liir,. »rauus ■ «l,<i givo tljoir 8. Morii «rt.o(ni.] Tdephi 
U.i' .lii.iTie <..( H <'OU>!.iorDr. See oT Mj-sio, wa> «otiDded aod 
ti II. \i. [i<'Si : ■' nmiu' iiHe mBniu henlcd bv Acfaillef. thc soa oT 
l>.li..i.T." f.ii^iiir lU. U, T. 31): M grnndioii of Nerm». Proii 
, iliil i.-nuii ii..ri.„ilusnianu«; «Q- to tho rtorj (ii. 1. 83): 

ilU_«J,o.„ 11.C Hitd, lin» njo.t Sen.e™^^ hac ip<B cu. 

ErODON LIBER, 17. ai7 

Postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 

Heu pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 

Setosa duris exuere pellibus 15 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei 

Volente Circa membra ; tunc mens et sonus 

Kelapsus atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque poenarum tibi, 

Amata nautis multum et institoribus. 20 

Fu^t juventas et verecundus color 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus ; 

Nullum ab labore me reclinat otium; 

Urget diem nox et dies noctem, neque est 25 

Levare tenta spiritu praecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina 

^*<4cv a(«^ ^Ao/^f. ' Homicidam ' is a inserting 'o' betwcen tbese words the 

"^<B(al Tern<N[i of ky9po^6¥oy, the Uonieric sentence " quae prius languida et hiulca 

^het for Hector. The rhythm of the erat novas vires novamqne juncturam ac- 

'^ in which it occnn is withont a prc- quirit." The quiet irouy in the Bentenco 

^^t in Horace. gives it the best force. " Hoc urbanis- 

16. Labarionl Thia epithet is repcatcd (<ima contumelia dicit " (Porph.). (Com- 

fivD the laat Epode (v. 60). In the next pare C. iii. 6. 80 n.) Bentley chaugcs 

vene mort editors since Bentley have fol- ' ossa' to *ora,' quoting Julius Scaliger : 

Wed his ezample, and given the Latin " Quis dicat colorem reliquisse ossa ? Non 

nther than tbe Qieek termmation to Circe'8 igitur debuit dicere ossa aniicta pelle sed re- 

aame. Bentley foonds bia adoption of this liqnisse peUem amicientem ossa ;" and add- 

ftrm (which had before been so corrected ing *' nihil hac censura justius clariusve dici 

bj Bnmkbosins on Propert. ii. 7. 18) on potest ;" and goingon toprove that men's 

toe ftatement of Valcrius Probus, whose bones do not blush, or if tbcy do it is a 

•Btbority, as he jostly says, is of great disease which has escaped the notice of the 

weifffat, aa being far anterior to any known profcssion, and more of the same sort. The 

MSo. of Horace. Probus says (p. 1446) : MSS. all agree, and we may suppose the 

* ' E ' Domioa terminata Graeca sunt, ut poor mau to say that he is nothing but 

Ikiuie» Eaterpe, Circe, Agave. In geni- skin and bone and has Inst his colour. 

tivo 'ee,' in accnsativo * en j' bujus Danai^s, Wliether Horace does not sufBciently ex- 

hanc I>anaen. Ablativum enim, quia Grae- press this by the words as they stand, plain 

eam est, noa habent» et oonvertnntur. Sic men may judge. On v. 23 see Introduc- 

cx 'e ' litera 'a' fkcit et dicitnr < Circa,' tion. 

mide esfe illfid Horatii, ' volente Circa.' " [23. tuU — odorihusl The ' odores ' of 

Bentlcy addi, tbat in the Epodes, Satires, Canidia, ' ungucnts ' which had tumed his 

and Epistlei, Horace nses the Latin forms, hair grey.l 

and tn tbe Odes only the Greek, which 24. ao labore'] This preposition is nsed 

miglit be expected. like &ir6, 'after,' and 'est' in thc next 

18. Belaptus'] This is the reading of versc like f<rrt for l^^tari, 

mostMSS. Threeoftho Bemehave*rc- 28. Sabella] The Sabine, Pelignian, 

latm,' whicb ia Lambinns' reading and and Marsic women had credit above others 

Cmqniaf'. Bentley says the MSS. arc apt for witchcraa. Sce S. i. 9. 29 : " Nam- 

to Tairbetween the coraponnds of ' lapsus' que instat fatum mihi tristo, Sabella Quod 

•nd ' iatiis.' Except the preponderance of puero cecinit divina raota anus uma." See 

M8S. anthoiity, I do not see much reuson below, v. 60, and Epod. v. 76. " Incre- 

iar yiefeiii ng either to the other. pare : dirampere, sive incitaro" (Acron). 

Ifi. iHig Amakf\ Be&tley thinka that by [' £rgo uegatnm vincor ' &c., meaiis < I am 


Caput(]"e Mar<;a dissilire nenia. 

Quid umplius vis ? mare, o terra, ardeo, 30 

Quantum nequc atro delibutus Hercules 

]S\'ssi cruore, nn- Sicana fervida 

Virens in Aetna flamma; tu donec einis 

Injuriosis aridus vtntia fcrar 

Calcs veuenis officina Colchicis. 35 

Quac linis aut quod me manet Btipendium? 

EtTare ; jussas cum fide poenas luam, 

Parutus expiare, seu poposceris 

Ccntum juvencos, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonari : Tu pudica, tu proba 40 

lllic.nli.a<lmit«lintld,'n!*4thiit that BQchii irofd ahoaU haw 
iiiiriiis ai-L,.rl,- ,tr 1 ■ .Veiiia ' i9 wded bv <me so nDOBual lu ■ vi 

i.S,,.„, ,-„,i.,.l, \. \.ii. 102); 35. Cafe*] Bentler cLange 

■::, Marra the third penon : to do »Ucl 

1 .. : 11'' ' ^. ' i.jii,! ia Yo- lig<!d to cfiHUge 'tu' iuto ' t 
Li-.,, '_,'.' u,'.- ii i. .Li^otisni great dptrimciit of the veiw, ■! 
V l,.i .. ,,,;:l,i--,.i,^- li'. iii, iMi,16)j duce tha poMessira prononii wh 
iiiiiiiiu-iKplj i.iH-lrj rtf .SiiiioniaoB winled. The received resdiog 
^S*); uiul iu itsprop^rwnseof a leut u Porpbyrion, «ho aa 
tbe dtaiil (C. ii. aO, 21). Cieero mnlierom ofBcinBm veneoon 
ii. a l) : ■' Honoratorum viroruai diiit," Bnii bo »e mmst tnke i 

EPODON LIB1:R, 17. 319 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum. 

Infamis Helenae Castor ofrensus viecm 

Fraterque magni Castoris victi prece 

Adempta vati reddidere lumina. 

£t tu^ potes nam^ solve me dementia^ 45 

O nec patemis obsoleta sordibus^ 

Neque in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

^^tance of what he promues to say in her It occora repeatedly in Li vy, as Beutley has 

jr^^^«e, placing her, like Ariadne and other shown. [Ritter and Keller have ' vice.*] 

*~^^oa^ women, among the constellationB. There is a like usage in x^P^*^ ^^^ fioipay, 

• ^2. Infamit HeUnae] The story of Ste- which occnr together in a fragment of 

f^^onu loaing hia sight as a pnnishment Simonides {^tpi yvyaucStVy 103. Fr. 6 

'■'^ a libel on Mden, and recovering it after Bergk) : — 

^Jf^t iug an apology and recantation, has ^^ ^* ^^ udXKrra 6vnv9uy hoicn 

7?^ referred to C. i. 16, Introduction. » » a ^ •» « al a ^ i 

^^-Qer wnten attnbnte the restoration to i r^ r > r a.t 

'^len benelf, Horaeetoher brothers. The 45. potes nam] Tliis is a common for- 

*^^ it mentioned, besides Plato, by Iso- mula in entreaticM both in Greck and Latin. 

^>%tei (Heleu. Encom. c. 28^, Chrysostom Of what follows Porphyrion says, '* urban- 

(Olit. ii. p. 77)» Pausanias (lii. 19), Suidas issime obscura dicitur ironia: in coutra- 

W Terbo), Lucian (Ver. Hist. ii. 15). rium namque acci^ienda hacc : quis enim 

Other writers refer to Stesichoms' rccanta- sic laudet qui simphciter agit ? ' o quao non 

tioo or palinode, as it is called, most of es sordidi gencris ! nec ossa humana ad 

viiom are mentioned in Bergk's note on maleficia collisis!' et reliqua." This suf- 

tbe Qoly firagment of it that has been pro- ficiently explams the spirit of the passage 

lerved. TherB can be no doubt Horace (see Argument), and what is meant by 

«aa well aeqnainted with the whole poem. ' novendiales dissiptire pulveres.' It ap- 

Why he aboald haTe a different version pears, if we are to believe theoldcommen- 

of tbe atory from that of others who must tators, to have bcen the practice to bury 

•bo have known it does not appear. The the ashes nine days after death. Servius 

poem must hare contained a prayer to the (on Aen. v. 64) says the body was kept at 

biooeari. Mnch haa been written on the home sevcn days, on the eighth it was 

inbieet bv modem icholars, some of whom bumt, and on the niuth burii>d, and then 

an mentioned by Estr^ Acron attributes he quotes this pussago. Cmquius' Scho- 

tho blinding and the restoration to tho liast says as much, with a little variation 

brotben» but he evidently only follows as to the time of burniug, which, he says, 

Horaoe, while professing to explain him. was on the third duy ; nnd this is more 

Tmtiwd of 'rieem,' nearly all the MSS. probable, at least as regards the poor, who 

nppcAr to have ' vice.' Dacier prefers could not aflTord tlie oiutmeuts necessary to 

*ynaeaij which he says is found *'dans preserve their dead auy time (see Bccker^s 

qnclqnc» mannscrits," but he does not Gallus, Exc. ou the ** luterment of the 

nwntion which they are. Bentley knew of Dead "). Heync, on the above passage of 

oolj one, which is quotcd by Torrentius, Yirgil (which refers to the g^mes institutcd 

hat on the anthoritv of that one he adopts in memory of Anchises), and on v. 762 of 

' Tioem,' I think nghtly. Fca montions the same book, may be cousulted. Sacred 

foor other MSS., bnt no diligence is suf- ceremonies appear to have been observed 

ficieot to traee Fea's MSS., for he gives a (bnt wo cannot suppose this was general) 

very tmperfbct litt of them. He opposes for nmc days in honour of the dead (seo 

' vicem venr sharply, and nearly idi the besides Virgil, I. c, Stat. Thcb. vi. 238 

edxtOTi read ' vice.' ' Vice ' and ' prece ' sqq.). But this has nothing to do with 

form an ill-eoonding ^ftoior^^cvroy. Pro- Horacc's meaning, who says that the witch 

ffflior Kej (Lat. Qt, 917 n.), referring to dug up the ashos of the dead immediately 

the indepenaent nse oi ' vicem/ says it is aftcr their burial, while thcy were fresh 

perhnpe the eqniralent in form and mean- and bctter snited on thut account for ma- 

in^ 01 the Qennan ' wegen ' [as ' deinet- grieul ceromonies. The ushcs of the poor are 

wcgcn"oiiihyaooonnt» 'ikcaasedetoi']. iixed upon, says Craquius' commentator. 


Tilii liospitak' pcctiis et purae inaiinB, 
Tuusqiii? venter Pactumeius, et tuo 50 
Criiore rubros obstL-trix pannos lavit, 
Uti-unqiie fortiB exBilia puerpera, 

Quiii obseratifi auribus fusdis preeea ? 
Noii soxa nuilis surdiora navitia 
Neptunus alto tundit bibenius salo. 5J 
InuUus ut tu riseris Cotyttia 
Vulguta, saerum bberi Cupidlnis, 
Et Esquilini pontifes venefici 
Impune ut Urbem nomine impleris meol 
Qutd prodentt ditasse Pelignas anus, 60 

<liL-y wcr« not wntt-licd u> the rieh Han aay of them. Bat the 
,-tl: ■ Norcmliulc^)' u^u.illv iierui- «nd the «liUoiu of Uie fifleen 
iiuoclHVi-cuntiuuuDro/butiDciiii- hu^» notbing af th>it •rord, 
! tlut mcauliii- livre. HL.ctor wu luunded on n Hithj notion. tho. 
ftLT i.!ue dajs (11. Jliv. 781) : fcnden think it a clr»er jolte. 

:;■ •* •'■'" '♦'" »■■"*•'•■ zz'f^; S."j^ir'.ril 

EPODON LIBER, 17. 821 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent : 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est in hoc 

Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 65 

Egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis, 

;ie9 as if he were the priest who alone and Bentley. ' InfidnB ' and ' infidi ' both 

1 might attend them. Aa to the have snpport from the MSS. Bnt the 

18 Esquilinus, where the witches held latter lias the best, according to Torren- 

nidnight meetings, see £p. v. 100, tius, Bentlej, and Orelli. Fers references 

i. 8. 8. [Ritter infers fh>m oom- I cannot follow, but he reads ' infidos.' 

' this passage and Sat. i. 8 that this The old editions have 'infidos,' and I know 

was written ailer the satire ; bnt of none but Torrentins' that has ' infidi ' 

no jost conclusion.] till Bentley^s. As fiiither and son each 

Quidproderat ditasse] * What good eamed the epithet, it is not easy to judge 

lid I get by spending money upon in this conflict of authority to which of 

l Pelignian witches (i. e. to teach me them it should be ^ven. The poets of the 

afl), and mingling for thee a more Augustan age, in relating the punishment 

and potent dniught ? But, though of Tantalus, refer only to that legend ac- 

[iiick and potent, yet the death that cording to which, standing in the midst of 

thee shall be slower than thou water, with fVuit-trees over his head ('be- 

est have it.' There is another rcad- nigna daps '), hc is not able to reach either. 

)aid proderit ' and ' Si tardiora,' sup- Thc other story, followed by Pindar and 

by good MSS., and the first of the the Greek poets, of a great stone suspended 

r ue authority of Porphyrion, who over his head and ever threatening to fall 

te sense is uncertain ; but he inclines on him, the Roman poets do not allnde to. 

ier it thus: ' What will it profit thec But Cicero does, and only to that (de Fin. 

) paid the witches for antidotes more i. 18; Tusc. Disp. iv. 16). In the Barberini 

indpowerfulthanmycharms? But,' Palacc at Rome there is a rilievo contain- 

[e had the reading < sed.' I am not ing a very striking group of the three snf- 

that ' proderat ' appears in any edi- fcrcrs, Ixion, Sisyphus, and Tantalus, in 

fore Bentley^s ; but it has good MS. which the last is represented with a stream 
Ity, and if the witch be speaking of of water pouring from his hands, which 

the imperfect is preferable with are joined and raised to his mouth. The 

Fea retains 'proderit' and <si,' and expression of pain and disappointment 

' Yotis' the witch's prayers. * What approaching to despair is admirably repre- 

profit me . . . . if a death awaits sented, to judge by the engraving given by 

ower than I would havc it?' For Spence. In the same group Sisyphus is 

ose we should have ' maneant.' The rcprescntcd as carrying a huge stone on 

ticms, Ven. and Ascensius', follow his shoulders up a steep mountain, which 

loliast in reading < sed.' Lambinus seems to agrce with Ovid's expression : 

e editors of his day have <si.' I "Acoliden saxum grave Sisyphon urget" 

the reading and interpretation I (Met. xiii. 26). There is however but one 

iven, which is that of Bentley and story about Sisyphus' punishment, which 

and now of Dillenbr., who has been Horace refers to (C. iL 14. 20) as a 'longus 

;ed. [Keller has ' proderit.'] ' In labor.' Nor is he inconsistent in res[^ct 

br this purpose.' to Prometheus, whom in C. ii. 18. 87, 18. 

aboribus'] The MSS. vary between 35, he places in Tartarus. The story, as 

^Qs' and 'doloribus.' The former related prophetically by Hermes in Aes- 

itronger word of the two, and was chylus' play (V, V. 1016 sqq.), is, that the 

j the reading of the Scholiasts, Scythian rocK on which Prometheus was 

wbom (Cruq.) explains ' suppetas ' first boond by Hephaestus was struck 

aa ad novos dolores et labores per- down, with him upon it, by Zms into 

B et poeoas." ' Labores ' is tho Hades, and that he was bronght thence 

iewbere nsed for the punishment of after a long time (fiaKphv hjjkos iiertKty» 

u (C. ii. 13. 88), and I think it has r^fjaas xp^^^^) ^ nndergo upon earth the 

operlj restored to the text. Ascen- puniHhment awarded to Tityoe in helly of 

( n»biit none I bdieve between him having hii liver devonred by an eagle. 



Optat Prometheiis oWigatus aliti, 

Optat liupriiino collocaro Sisyphus 

In moiitc Baxum ; sed vetant leges Jovis, 

Voles modo altis dcsilirc turribus, rc 

Jlodo cnnc peftua Norico recludere, 

Fmstraque viiifla gutturi nectes tuo 

Fastidiosa tristis aef^rimonia. 

Vectabor humcris tunc ego inimicis eques, 

IMeacquc tcrra ccdet insolentiac. rs 

An (juae movere cereas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti euriosus, et polo 

Deripcrc iunam vocibus possim mejs, 

Pospim crematos excitare mortuos 

Dcsidcriquc tcmperaro pocula, 8C 

Plorera artis in te niJ agentis exitus ? 

Ilnri nerl'-» Ifio] AiiHinrit)- scema And Hypalpyle S>ja of Metlc 
■ or ■ imiocti™/ Hut ncvt.rtheles. roid. vi. 91)!— 

r:,Vinu",ldtn'tt^n ■ ■"'■ r'- "»«--' ''«^^ ^'"^^ 
iiinl ■(luUiirl imiwtf;.;' biit hi! ia j^ J>ri"pi;rFl Thc vari» 





Thx profeaed parpofle of thU Satire, or that with which Horace seemfl to have hegon, 
nuij he gathered from the first two lines. Discontent with the oondition that Provi- 
denoe hae asngned them ; disappointment with the position many years' laboor and 
perfaaps diahonesty have gained them ; envy of their neighbonrs' circnmstances, even if 
they are worae than their own ; disaatisfaction in sbort with what they have and are^ and 
cniving for aomething they have not and are not, — theee are featnres common to the 
great migority of men. For this vice of discontent the Qreeks had the comprehensive 
aame |M^^Mip(a. It afforda a wide field for satire, and could only be toached lighUy, 
or in one or two of ite many parts, in the composs of one short poem. It will be seen 
that after proponnding the whole snbject in the shape of a question to Maecenas, 
eonfines himself to one solation of it, and that, it mast be admitted, not tbe 
oomprehenfive (see notes on w. 28, 108). Nor has he managed the connexion 
Uetwtion bis qoestion and the only answer he g^ves it with very great skill. Avarice is 
llie only xeason he aasigns for the nniversal disease, and any one will see that hereby 
ko l i ¥ gi many nntonched who are as cnlpably restless as the avaricions, bnt not in 
ihmr aoidid way. However, when he is npon this snbject he writes, as he ahnost 
tthmji doei^ with eLegfonoe and trath, and tbls is among the moet popular of Horace's 

The dmnoIogiBts eztract a date firom the verses 114^ 115 : 

" Uty qaam caroeribns missos rapit nngnhi currus, 
Instat eqnis aariga saos vincentibus, " 

« fittle Uke the last three verses in the first Geor^g^c of Yir^ : 

** XJt cnifi carceribns sese efihdere qoadrigae, 
Addnnt in spatia, et frnstra retinacula tendens 
Fertnr eqnis auriga, neque audit currus habenas." 

Horaoe is laid to have imitated ; and as this Georg^c is snpposed by some 
to iMnre heen pablished 719, tbe Satire could not bave been written before 
abai jear. Bot even if 719 be correctly assigned as tbe date of the first Qeor^c, which 
are no foiBciait arguments to prove, it is not at all impossible that the above 
■m Imitated by hoth poets from some conmion original, as Orelli Buggests. The 

Bm Sdirn k pnfc fint in the order of this book, not as an introdnction aa aome say 
faf «itt i^ bean no ligiui), bat becaose it is addressed to Maeoenas. 

Y 2 



'. wIj; is ib ttint na mnn '19 coQtcnt with liii owd lct, bnt eretj one 
nur? Tlic wcary BuldiiT tnvie» thc iradcrj tho trodcr oa tbe it 
tlu' solJiiT ; tht jurisiwnsult, impatient of hiu «irly client, en»ie« tl 
^hi. ilrapcfil up to lomi by a law BuiC cavios tha inhahitant* of 
i« 110 end to thP initiQfes. Well. snpposa «nno god weto to offer 
Lu J hid thrm chaiigo placM,— Ihcy would rcfuM it ! What hiaden 

i'j>ik tVi.i.t «'■i.^l^fL' fl..'C.^ jii—^Tnnmra nnrl llt.> i-or^ nf Tiwfk KmnH^ nl». 

M'i] jriJiii MMiinf LiitH.' uiormnrera, anu Liio CHTS Di jove iJciDg cun 
"iir i'V<'r ? But to bc acrions (thongh Irath maj bo told in jcst), 
iiiiiii. tlif (iRiitiiic linet, tlic «otdier, tho ventnrong trBdcr, pretend 
U 11 f..a.r.. a pr.,vi-ion for old sge. liko tho ant provident of the fn 
inf H licN thc witilcr fomcs, andeojoyB her Bton.'; while viinterand 91 
iin.I «■111-« ohstnict not jonr puranit of wealth. WTiftt ia the nec 
.von hidc liko a cowavd in the gronnd ? " 0. hnt if .you late fmn. 
.■JuL-p it to nolhiiiB," be it »0 i but if you do not, what eliann hai 
If You thresh thousiinds of hushels of coru, yoa cannot cat mora tb«n 
Imt cnrrics tha hrcad esU no more thiin he who carriei Qone. L'i*c 
1 of nnturc, and a huudrcd acres are as goad as a tbonsand. " B 
it tn tahc wb.jl jnu vriint ftnm a hiigo hcnp ! " Naj. I do not •> 
n arc uut OB ^iod us jour hams, if I cun take aa much from m; i 

SATIRARUM I. 1. 325 

Qui fit^ Maecenas^ ut nemo quam sibi sortem 

Seu ratio dederit seu fors objecerit^ illa 

Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes ? 

'' O fortunati mercatores V^ gravis annis 

Miles ait multo jam fractus membra labore. 5 

Contra mercator^ navem jactantibus Austris : 

'* Militia est potior. Quid enim, concurritur : horae 

!• quam *»H Mortem] See note on C. eqnally common in tbo same senso. That 

9. 14^ as to '8ors' and 'fors.' These two Aogastas' soldiers got their discharge be- 

e opposed as cffect and caose, the condi- fore they were fifly is nothing to the pur- 

m and that which prodnces it. 'Fors' pose. A hard-worked soldier wonld fcel 

td ' ratio ' are opposed aa accidcnt and the advance of age sooner than a man of 

sign, — that which a man cannot holp, pcace and ease. Horace, in his own cam- 

td that which he caryes ont for himse^. paig^ning, had heard many a veteran no 

le. ad Att. xiv. 18. 3.] doubt gmmbling at his condition ; and if 

2. iUa\ Fea qnotes several MSS. which he wrote 'annis,' he meant age, not service. 

LTe 'nlla' for 'illa,' and he adopts that Lacan pnts sach complaints into the lipsof 

■diDg as 'elegantins et plenius vnlgato/ Caesar^s soldiers (v. 273 sqq.) : 

ifltlng Cicero in Verr. Act. iL 5, c. 3 : „ j^„j3 j, qnaeritar armis ? 

Neqiie ego nllam m ^m dispato.' q^^ satis est, si Roma param? jam 
bere he says 'nllam' is for * alterutram.' ^ respice canos, 

at (Hoero means that he in no way dis- TnirQi{!^ocniitt «nontia «f ;non^ ^^n. i« 

., - . * rii j • u ^A Ai 7 11 * invaiiaasque manus, et manes cemc la- 

ites the fiuit ' IUa ' is better than * ulla ' certos 

every way, particularly, as Orelli says, Usus abist vitae : bellis consampsimng 

8. laudet] ' Laudare is ' felicem prae- 

cmre/ tiaicapl(tiif. It is repeated bclow, 'Armis' is a conjectural reading which 

9b and in V. 109, where it occurs in some editors have adopted, and Heindorf 

oibmation with, and as cqnivalent to, says it is specious (schmeichelnd), but it is 

Nobare.' Heindorf quotcs SUius (i. 395) : not general enough to be admitted, and 

Mix hen ! nemorom et vitae laudandus the MSS. are uuanimously aguinst it. 

metutf* (iv. 260) "laudabat Icti juve- ['Fractus membra:' sce C. i. 2. 31 n.] 
im." 8o CSoero (de Am. c 71) says, 7. Quid enimt concurritur] I have not 

Ks qao illomm beata mors videtur, inserted the usual note of inten^ogation 

mm ▼Ha laudabilis." after * cnim.' * Quid' and ' quid enim' are 

-^iamdetdiveria9equente»]lih\%\AhT\e^y each nscd as introductory to somcthing 

pwcd for 'sed quisqne laudet,' as Hein- that itiustrates, or explains, or accounts 

nrf lemarks. The irregularity is almost for what has just been said. Thcy intit)- 

iperoeptihle ; the absence of a nominative duce an cxample, or they carry on an 

■o litUe felt in such a position that any argument, or something of that sort. It 

Dgiiage wiU allow of its omission. See is not difhcult to sce how tbat coiiventional 

lato) Bep. ii. p. 366 d) : rSov yc tiWwv sense may have bccorae conncctcd with the 

Scls iKitv 9iK€uos iX\* iwh iLvayBpias — word ' qnid,' but to expluin it by an cllipse, 

Pyet rh &8i«c<> kZvvarSov abrh Zpav, In as " quid est enim quod contradici qucat ? 

le transition from ncgative to positive nonne concurritur?" (Heiudorf,)andsoto 

■tementa, the positive elemcnt which is point the words as to indicate that mean- 

wilTiTTF^ in the former is often carried on ing, even if that explanation werc corrcct, 

, the mind so as to affect the latter, as in which I doubt, is uo more dcsirable than 

loteaentences which are ooupled by ' ncc' to break up any other scntencc and reduco 

id 'et,' o^€ and rc. it to its possible clemcnts. Any language 

^ grame annit] I see no reason for would be spoilt by such a procesi». (See 

loptini^, with Orelli, Jahn's limitation, C. ii. 18 23 n.) What Orelli says, that in 

Sigiiiftait poeta non annos vitac sed an- Cicero the formula < quid enim' is always 

M mifitiae. VirgU says (Aen. ix. 246) : followed by anothcr question, only shows 

ffie amiis gravis atqne animi maturus how little necessity thcre is for interrupt- 

lcln.'* « Qravls' is one of the common- ing the scntcnce as ho does, by an inter- 

ifc «Offdi ■ppfied to old age, and fiap{n is rogation after those words. Fea's reading^ 

SATIRARUM I. 1. 827 

Solos felices viventes clamat in urbe. 

Cetera de genere hoe^ adeo sunt multaj loquacem 

Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer^ audi 

Quo rem deducam. Si quis Deus, " En ego/' dicat, 15 

" Jam faciam quod vultis : eris tu, qui modo miles, 

Mercator j tu, consultus modo, rusticus : hinc vos, 

Yos hinc mutatis discedite partibus : Eia I 

Quid statis ?'* nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. 

Quid causae est merito quin iUis Jupiter ambas 20 

Iratus buccas inflet, neque se fore posthac 

Tam facilem dicat votis ut praebeat aurem ? 

Praeterea ne sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens 

Percurram (quamquam ridentem dicere verum 

Quid vetat? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 25 

Doctores elementa velint ut discere prima) ; 

Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo. 

Ure-gravem dnro temm qui vertit aratro, 

[18. Celera de genere hoc'] This expres- ' En ego ' does not belong to ' famm/ bnt 

>n, tays Ritter, shows that Horaco was is absolate: 'Here am I.' *£ia' is an 

eih fiom the reading of Lucretius ; and exclamation of haste, * Away V ' Nolint,' 

is a hxr sog^restion. Ritter refers to 'they would not' (oIk idiXoiw Hm), is the 

Kretans iv. 460, 742, and other pas- apodosis to ' si quis Deus dicat.' Compere 

{et.] S. ii. 7. 24 : ** Si quis ad illa deus snbito te 

14. Delaeeare valeiW] Though ' delasso' agat, usque recuscs." A small number of 

n not oocor elsewhere, there is no reason MSS. and editions have ' nolunt,' which b 

mspect the word or to alter it. The in- dearly wrong. 

■▼• force of 'de' is well added to 21. Iratus hucca» inflet'] An obvions 

MOb' It oorresponds to Kardy which has but not verv reverential representation of 

• mne fbrce. By making <adco sunt passion. Heindorf quotes Dem. de F. L. 

Ha* parenthetical, the construction is p. 442: 8uk rTJs ityopas vopt^trai OoifAd' 

in. Acnm says that Fabius was a Ro- rioy KodfU &xp^ ^^'^ a^pvpwy, iaa fiairwp 

D 'eqnes' of Narbo, who wrote some nv0dicA«i, rits yvddovs tpva&y, 
kt OD the St<nc philosophy ; that hc 27. S^ tamen amoio'] * Sed,' ' sed ta- 

lof Fompeius' party, andthat he often men/ 'veruntamen' are often used, and 

^Nited with Horaoe, whence he calls espedally by Cicero, not to express oppo- 

I 'loqoaz;' which looks very like an sition bnt after a parenthesis or digression, 

eotioo derived from the text. Por- as here and C. iv. 4. 22. See for another 

rrioQ and Cruqnius' Commentator both instance, Cic. in Verr. (ii. 3. 2) : ** Atque 

tbe seme story, and the former gives ego hoc plus oneris habeo quam qui ceteros 

I the oognomen Maximus. Supposing accusarunt, si onus est id appellandum quod 

I to be t£e Fabios we meet mth below cum laetitia feras et voluptate, veruntamen 

134), we leam nothing more of him ego hoc amplius suscepi quam ceteri." 
n thftt paseage. One of the Scholiasts 28. Ille ffravem] The cause of that dis- 

«nm. Crnq.) there calls him a 'juris- content which was spoken of at the begin- 

soltiia^' — probably invented, Estre says, ning is here traced to the love of money, 

n tbe word *judice,' thongh no two each man thinking that his neighbour is 

ids oonld be mnch more different in getting it faster than he is, ana wishing 

miDg,— and adds that he was detected therefore to change places with him. But 

idoltCTy. [' Yalere ' with an infinitive Horace does not mean that to be the only 

moMk in Horace, S. i. 9. 89, &c.] solution of the nniversal discontent. That 

5. 8i quie Detu] This b not a Roman wonld be absurd, and one at least of his 

f of fpeakingy bot Greek, cl ialfivv ns. own examples wonld contradict his theory. 

SATIRARUM I. 1. 829 

N3 obstet tibi dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Qoid javat immensum te argenti pondos et auri 

Fartim defossa timidum deponere terra ? 

'^ Quod si comminuas vilem redigatur ad assem/' 

At ni id fit quid habet pulchri eonstructus acervus ? 

Milia fromenti tua triverit area centum^ 45 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus : ut si 

Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 

Forte vehas humero^ nihilo plus accipias quam 

Qui nil portarit. Yel jdic quid referat intra 

3 aecond penon is nsed to ^ve force to " Hic ego, Flnris hoc mibi flemper eris." 

t langoage. The lelf-deoeiver is con- See the passage of Cicero qnoted on v. 27. 

>nted with his own iUnstration. Lambinua says, incorrectly, that 'hoc' lb 

42. JWWtm] Orelli sayB that * fartim ' to be taken ZfticTucws, ' by so mnch,' ** verbi 

longsonly to^defossa;' bnt 'defoesade- gratia, pilo et similibns." ' Plns ac' oc- 

mere terra' cannot be taken too closely cors again S. i. 6. 130, "victnmm snavins 

>gether, as DiUenbr. jnstly remarks. ac si." S. i. 10. 34, ** non ligna feras in- 

43. Qgod H eommifnuu] The miser is sanius ac si." S. i. 10. 59, " Mollins ac si 

Afpoted to intermpty and say, "bnt 'if qnis." S. ii. 3. 270, «Nihilo plns explicet 

P^ were to take from it, it wonld soon ac si Insanire paret." Cicero likewise nses 

iwiodle to a paltry * as.' " Bentlcy and * ac ' with the comparative (Ad Att. xiii. 

''^ others put a comma after * quod,' 2), ** Diutius abfuturus ac vellem." See 

jodiiuike thesameperson speak the wholc. Key's L. 6. § 1439. ' Plus quam' occurs 

^^^OQgh * qnod ' is always tbe neuter of tbe immediutely below. The scene that foUows 

'^tive^ whether it be translated ' that,' is that of a rich man's household pre- 

'bccaiise!,' or * bnt,' here it is *' nsed to con- ceding him to the oountry, a pack of slaves 

^ a new sentence with what precedes " (venales), some carrying provisions and 

(^e^iL. G. 1464 i), and is not connccted particularly town-made bread in netted 

*Hh<pondns' as its antecedent. [I think bags (reticula), and others with different 

^ k : bnt the explanation is right?] burthens, and some with none at alL The 

4B, Miliajirumenti] * Modiorum' mnst man who carried the bread would not get 

*B Mipptied. As to ' millia,' * mille,' see S. any more of it on that account when the 

• S, 197 n. On ' area,' see C. i 1. 18 n. rations were given out, but all would 

IVimit,' ' snppose that it threshes.' On share alike. [' Venales ' may mean a gang 

lis ooncesaive nse of the subjunctive, see of slaves for sale : Kruger.] 

9j*B L. Q. 1227 b. The practice of put- 49. quid referat — vivenii'] This is a 

igaDote of intern^ation in such scn- very natural constniction. 'Refert'is'rem 

Dces as this is bad. The older editions fert ' (Key'8 L. 6. 910), and the constmc- 

Derally have it. See Cic. in Verr. Act. tion ' mca/ ' tua/ &c., ' refert,' is no more, 

3. 2 : " Fnrem aliquem aut rapacem as Professor Key shows, than a corruption 

cnflaris : vitanda tibi semper erit omnis of ' meam,' ' tuam,' kjc., * rem fert.' So 

aritiae snspicio," kc^ with Long^s note * magni refert ' is * rem magni fert,' ' it 

d HeindoTf^s on this passage. Similar brings with it a matter of greatprice' and 

ifltmctions are S. 10. 64 : " l?\ierit Ln- ' refcrt viventi ' significs * it brings some- 

iofl inqnam Comis et nrbanus ; fnerit thing that concems him who lives,' that 

ifttior — sed ille," &c. S. 3. 15: "De- is, it affects him, and 'quid refert' is 

■ eentena dedisses :-^uinque diebus nil * wberein does it affcct him ?' The bounds 

it in locnHs." £pp. i. 1. 87 : " Lectus of nature can only be explained rclatively. 

Dialift in anla est ; Nil ait esse prius, Artiiicial wants are natural wants in some 

•iiiifl nil ooelibe vita." Epp. i. 6. 29 : conditions of life, but this second nature 

Tv^ recte viva« : qnis non ? " v. 31, also has its limits, which there are few that 

rirtstem verba pntas nt lucnm ligiia : do not transgress who can. The man who 

re ne portns occnpet alter." Horaco can livc npon the produce of a hundred 

!S the abhitive 'hoc ' for ' propter hanc acrcs might live upon fifty and still satisfy 

n' in other phusei. S. i. 8. 93 : " Minus the wants of naturc, though in some con- 

e jiicaiidas amiciu Sit mihi?" 9. 7« ditions of society, in which the wantBof 


faturae fines viventi jugera centtim an 

lillc aret? " At siiave eet ex magno tollere acervo 

lum ex parvo nobis tantundem hamire relinquas, 

ur tua plus laudes cumenB granaria nostris? 

't tibi Bi eit opus liquidi non amplius urna, 

d cyathoj et dicasj " Magno de flumine malim 

lii:im CK hoc fonticulo tantundcm sumere." Eo fit 

lenior nt si quos delectet copia justo 

\im ripa simul avulsoa ferat Anfidus acer. 

.1 qni tantuli eget quanto est opus is neque limo 

urbataiu liaurit aquam nequo vitam amittit in undi 

.t hona p:iT3 hnmimun dccepta cupidine falso, 

icrame confiisiHl with the wiiiit> of wonld hnve donc it if 1 «mld, 
lir «oiild fiud it hnnl to do 80 ; i» past.' Hpindoif deftnda ■ ! 
liiiiklirain aprvatdcgree, thoogh ■ riolena AnfiJnB' (C. iii. » 
n.-\</, with tbc Boeinl liiwB oc httbiU «JDte the copiotu Btreani, 1 
Tfulf tlint iliHiciiltv. Tlie eue Horece'» pnrpoee to repraent 
liathntofiiiooii v.l'ioproreE»eii to ns wcU B$ brmd. SmnbBn» 
live rcuainHhlv, nud luu greater the ttvo Sieiliee,' voL i. p. IK 
linii H rcasDnuble mnde of life re- river, which he Tieited in tl 
^VImt Vfllu.-, Horaee mU, hns tte 1778, ■■ there wi. h.rt llttle w, 
forthe ow-ner? The an*»er (in- Umt wliiti«h and randdj; l 
1 na usuol by 'nt') soniids irra- wiiiencas of ilsbiiJ.lhesRndh 

SATIRARUM I. 1. 831 

'^Nil satis est/' inqiiit ; '' qnia tanti quantnm habeas sis" 

Quid &cia8 illi ? Jubeas miserum essej libenter 

Quatenus id facit; ut quidam memoratur Athenis 

Sordidus ac dives^ popidi contemnere voces 65 

Sic solitus : " Populus me sibilat ; at mihi plaudo 

Ipse domi simul ac nummos contemplor in arca/' 

Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat 

Flumina .... Quid rides ? mutato nomine de te 

Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

Indormis inhians et tamquam parcere sacris 

Cogeris aut pictis tamquam gaudere tabellis. 

Nescis quo valeat nummus ? quem praebeat usum ? 

Panis ematur^ olus^ vini sextariusj adde 

Quis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 75 

B«e T^ce (Ean. i. 2. 48) : <'Nam hic constraction 'Qoid fiuaas iHi?' «what 

^^Mxnie bonam magnamqne paitem ad te wooldyoudowithsuchamanfiBCommon; 

*^t." A. P. &7 : " Bona pars non and the ablative is also nsed in the same 

^ttgVM ponere cnrat." On 'cupido/ see sense.] 

CS. 16. 15 n. 69. Quid ridet'} The miser is rappoaed 

88. imaii ^[uanium JkabeM n*\ This ap« to laugh at Horace'8 trite illnstration and 

JMin to have been a proverb. iiambinas the solemn way it is announced ; perhaps, 

qnotea Plntarch (vcpi ptXawXomlas, c. 7) Orelli says, in imitation of some poet of 

nirmy6f4ffrufhirafKuvovffiKailii9daKovaf the day, but I think more likely fi*om 

i^ pfaiyt KuL ^tiZov Koi roffo^Tov v6tn^t hisownhead. [Wieland in his translation 

nanhf K^wr ftroy &y ^X?'* Jacobs (Lect. of the Satires explains * Quid rides/ thus. 

Ven. p. 988) haa restored the last worda Tlie covetous man smiles when Horace 

tbns as taken from some comic poet : — solemnly beg^ns to talk of silly stories 

ji^Soiyf, ^i9ov, «ol roffo{nov •/ 4|toK which nobody at that tirae believed. See 

w^i* ffourhp Bffoy Jtv IxpJ» Cicero, Pro Cluentio, c. 61, Juvenal, Sat. 

T-^i.. -!-«> ww f^ a^^ /1?« 11R i^\ "• 1^' ^^^ ^^e Satiriat shows him tho 

f ^?SL^ ^ ^ ^*^' t' Ih application of the fable.] This version of 

r S"?^^ ^S^Z^^^Z ^^f^^nf the legend of TanUlus is taken f«>m Homer 

fait," wlnch ia tAen from a tragic poet of (Odyw. xi. 682). Fmdar (01. i. 67) and 

?^ STrT^f w^^i ••'°'?2^ itherpoetegiveadifferentone,thataitone 
^lr^^^ ^ i^ "'• f waak^altayshangingoverandthreat. 
/«QnMtamquiMnei^^ ening to faU upon Sm. See Emipides, 

Orcst. V. 6; Lucretius, iii. 993 sq. See 

•> Aanmi i^ne ambitio «pecimen virtutis ^^ jjpod. xvii. 66 n. 

■Wqoeeat; 71, tamquam parcere sacris] This ap- 

Timtiim (qnantnm ?) habeas tantum ipse pears to have been a proverbial expression. 

te tftntiqne habearis." Compare Isocrates (Panath. c. 66) : r&y 

68. iiU} 'Snch a man as this;' but fi^u yh.p *'E.K\i)viZw v6\fwy oHrtts ainois 

Boitlej, taking it to refer to ' pars,' reads itir^x^ffOai ff<p6?ipa Moyfi4vov ^v Gffirtp 

«Buaenun' on his own conjecture. Orelli rois tiffftfitfft r&v 4v ro7s hpo7s &yaKci- 

qootes one MS. in its favour. * Quatenus ' fifvoov. See also S. ii. S. 109 sq. : *' Ne- 

sigiiifiea 'flinoe^' not 'qaamdia,'a8 Acron scius uti Corapositis metoensque velut 

«js and others foUowing him. See C. iii. contingere sacrum ?" 

84. 90. The story that follows may have [73. Ritter writes this line withont the 

heen pid^ed np by Horace at Athens or in- (?), and perhaps he does right.] 

TCBted by him. Acron says it refers to 74. sextaritts'} See v. 54 n. A 'sex- 

IfaDon, who hating man retired to his tarius ' of wine would be quite enongh for 

j-begs ftr eonsolation, which is non- one temperate man's consnmption in a day. 
;lNifcLnihiiiiiahasrepeatedit. [The [Ritter writes 'holns.'] 



1 vigiUre metu cxanimem, noct^squc dicsque 
irmidare malos fures, iuceudia, senros 
i tc compilcnt fugientcs, hoc javzt ? Homm 
mper egv optarim pauperrimuB esee boDOnim. 
\t 81 eondoluit tentatum frigore eorpna, 
it aliua camis IiictiO te adiixit, habes qni 
kideat, fomenta paret, medieum roget ut te 
leeitet ae ^atis reddat carisque propinqnia." 
on uxor sulvum te vult, nou filius; omnfiS 
icini odemnt, noti, pueri atqui; puelliu!. 
iraris, quum tu argento poiit omnia poao*, 

nemo praestet quem uoa merearis omorem ? 
a si co)»nat«B, nuUo natura labore 
Qos tibi dat, retincre velis Bcrvareipie amicM, 
Jelix opcram perdas, ut gi quis ascllum 

Campo doceat parentem ciurcra frenis ? 

. . , qaud me lci-tulu al&iit: M» 

ea(1o-A«coni<u> otpUins thu woid Vdit. Act. ii. S. 7) i " l^itor | 

"7(Cie.V(irv. U. 1. 13): 'KkiBiwr- jirai dia Wto tenBiiBhiT." 
ic iViiudiivcrit furto Ut uo pilas 8a. pverialqiiipiitllMlTh 

SATIRARUM I. 1. ;333 

Doniqiio sit finis quaerendi, quumquc liabeas plus 

Pauperiem mctuas minus et finire laborem 

Incipias^ parto quod avebas^ ne facias quod 

Ummidius quidam^ non longa est fabula, dives 95 

Ut metiretur nummos ; ita sordidus ut se 

Non unquam servo melius vcstiret ; adusque 

Supremum tempus^ ne se penuria victus 

Opprimeret mctuebat. At hunc libcrta sccuri 

Divisit mediom^ fortissima Tyndaridarum. 100 

" Quid mi igitur suades ? ut vivam Maenius aut sic 

92. pmmque haheas plus^ This is the 101. vt vitam Maeniut'] The constnic- 

Teadmg of all the MSS. Somo editors havc tion is thc same as "discinctus ant pcrdam 

•dopted 'qaoque' on the conjectare of ncpos" (Epod. i. 84 n.). Maenius and 

Mnretv. * The more you have you may Nomentanus appcar to have bcen sqaan- 

fcarpoverty leM,' would bo an encourage- derers of moncy and good liven, according 

nent to hoarding instcad of a dissuasion. to the obvious mcaning of this passage, 

Wbit Horace says is, * Since you havo more which the Scholiasts mistaking mako 

^ others, yon should frar poverty less.' Macnius a sordid fcUow and Nomentanus 

I [*Dniiqiie/ * to concludc,' 'kurz und gut/ a pro<ligal. They are unitcd again in S. i. 

■ fatbrevi praecidam/ as Rittcr says.l 8. 11 ; ii. 1. 22, whcre the former appcars 

V_ 96. Ummldiut quidam'] The ortho- under the name Pantolabus, one who lays 

\ Ittphj ofthis namo (for which the coincd his hands on any thing he can get. Ue 

f Bnae Nnmmidius has boen substitutcd by snent his money and tumed parasite. 

*BBe to sait the oecauon, and Fufidins by 'Diis is in accordance with what the Scho- 

^flwni from the next satire, v. 12) is de- liasts Acron and Comm. Cruq. affirm on 

cided hj BeDtley fVom inscriptions and a Epp. i. 15. 26 : — 

Fi«ge from Varro (deRe Rust. iii. 3. 9), „ ^^^^„3 ^^ ^bus matcmis atquo pa- 
viereoneof thisname 18 mentioned, wlio temis 

tottjqrthinksnmy be Horace'8Umniidiu8. p^^iter absumptis." 
AC uo sayi that a man so nch must have '^ 

^ veiT oelebrated, and would not have But on S. i. 8. 11 thcy toU a diflTorcnt 

^ ipoken of as ' a ccrtain Ummidius ;' stor^', nnd sav that thc real namc of Pan- 

nd fbr this and otber rcasons he cliangcs tolaDus was Mallius, to which Acron and 

'qnidam ' into ' qni tam ' on his own con- Porphyrion add Vcrna, whether as a de- 

jeetim. The end of thb worthy was that scription or a cognomcn is uncertain. 

ie wBs mnrdered by one of his frccd- Comm. Ouq. for * Vema ' has * Scurrn.' 

wmen (lus mistren probably), who Horacc It ha8 becn proposed acconlingly to chango 

■iji WBi as itoat-hoarted as Cl^^tcmncstra, Mncnins into Mallius iu the above Epistlc. 

flie bnrest of her family. 'Tyndaridamiu' (Hcusdius, Studiu Crit. in C. Lucilium» 

ii miifntinfi : 'l^ndaridnm' would bc the p. 230.) Rut we Iiad bettcr admit some 

femiiiine form. The sons of Tyndaru», coiifui^ion to cxist in the Scholiasts' state- 

thwefare , aa weH as his daughtcrs, must mcuts or text. Both Macnius and No- 

be indndeda as Lambinus, Ucntlev, and mentanus arc namcs U8cd by Lucilius for 

otfaen obwrve. ' Facias ' is equivalent to charactcrs of the same kind, and Horaco 

9pArv%i¥9 'toikre.' [' Dives ntmetirctur :' may havc only borrowiHl tho nnmes to rc- 

'niich tbat he measnred, not countedhis proRcut soinu living chnracters whom ho 

Boney/ Thia is a oommon fonnula, both does not choosc to mention. Nomentnnus 

m profe and Teno; and Bentley'semcnda- (whom thc Scholiasts on this pasfmge call 

tioD b Tery bed. See Epod. xvi. 31.] L. Cussius) wus thc name of one of tlic 

97. adntqMe] Forcellini givcs only two guests at Nasidienus' dinner (S. ii. 8. 25), 

otber instenceB of this word from writings and thc Scholiasts tell us n story of thc 

of Honce'a day. Virgil (Acn. xi. 262), historian Sallust hiriug his cook for an 

"Mciidaiis edosqiie columnas Exsulat," cnonnous suni of moncy. Cruquius' Com- 

■nd Honoe himseif (S. i. 5. 96), " adusquo mcntator (on thc pasiiagc last quotcd) suys 

mocum piacori." It is only an invcr- Iic was a * decumanus,' onc who farmcd 

of 'iiiq[iioadt' 'erery stq) to.' thc 'documae,' and thcrefore an 'cqnoa' 


h- Nomentanus?" Perpis pugmntia Eecnm 
Vontihus advcrais componere : non ego avarum 
liium vtto tc fieri vnppam jubeo ac nebulonem. 
Ist inter Tauain quiddam Bocerumque Visellj. 
1:^1 mntlus in rebus, siint eerti deniqne tines, 

Ihte unde abii redeo, nemo nt avaniB 

e jirobet ac potiiis laudet diversa Bequentea, 

liLi-idque aliena capella g«rat distentius uber 

'abcseat, neque se majori pauperiorum 

'iirliae cnmparet, bunc atqne hunc BUperare laboret. 

\l- 1't'stinanti Bempcr ioeupletior obstat, 

■ 1, quum carceribus niissos rapit ungula currus, 

V.rr \rt ■-. e.7l,n--'!,LoDir's point from whence I h«Te fli 

il. •- u. 3. B34 that no ra»etoin man u » 

■r \ ■ : 1 1 ) ,-iimi)iir« hiiuBdf.' I adopt tliis rcadii 

.1 i.-.-ithhLm other hitttUMS by «rhich Onfl 

1 ' '' 1 'l.iijina wiu ' Nomo' ■piKan (Fea snys) ' 

1 . .i.n.rofthQ PriDccpa prinled at MiUn ia 

1. 1 :, 1 ^iivotbiit in tbe Venetinn editioD of 11 

.■ : . .;.-.-., ^nd ho of Cmqaia.' M.SS.. «id «m 

.N,,., ■.!-,' .,- ':.,,,:i;- imd Fea fBrrod to bj Fm. Tho best 

SATIBARUM I. 1. 886 

Instat eqois auriga suos vinoentibus^ illum lis 

Praeteritum temnens extremos inter euntem. 

Inde fit ut raro qui se vixisse beatnm 

Dieat^ et exacto contentus tempore vita 

Cedat uti conviya satur^ reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi 120 

Compilasse putes^ verbum non amplius addam. 

.14. Vi, qumm eareeribus] 8ee iDtro- made mirtb for the rich. They were kept 

ition. by the wealthy to amuse them as the coait 

.19. Cedat uH eantnva etUur] These fooU of latcr days. In thia character 

) so fike the worda of Lncretius (iii. CriroinoB appears in the third Satire of 

)), that perhapa Horace remembered this book (v. 139), where he is the onlv 

an:— attendant of the wonld-be 'rez.' Crispi- 

Cur non ot plenna vitae conviva le- f^ *PP«^ ««f* ^ S. ii. 7. 46. ThiJ 
^Q^ '^ he may have been called m contempt 

Aeqno animoqne capia aecnram, stnlte, '"«^^l??^' ^ ^^* ^"Tff^^^ J^* . 
^^^m^ p »>* ^ was actnally a person of that oondition la 

^ not likely. That he wrote as a Stoic may 

» Loeretins liL 960. [There is (v. 119) be tme, bnt it is only gathered jprobably 

iMdfaig 'vitae.'] from this passage, ricnes being a nvourite 

190. Criepiui eerima Uppi] Crispinns topic with the philosophers of that sect. 

rrw M a dens ex machina, and helps Bentley cannot endure the reading of aU 

iraoe to hring his homily to an end. the MSS., Scholiasts, and editions, < lippi.' 

li we know notlung abont him. The Horace (says he) was himself afflicted with 

tifity of his pen, as Estr^ observes, sore eyes, and ne was not so wanting in 

I profited him nothing. He was more deoency as to ridicnle another person for 

nofos to write mnch than to write that defect. This argument against aU 

D. (8. i. 4. 14). The Scholiasts authority is not worw discussing. The 

r be vras called ' aretalogus,' and reader may refer to Cunningham, Anim. 

tt he wrote verses on the Stoic doc- c. xi. p. 165. Persius has * nppus ' twice 

MB. The word 'aretalogus' occurs for the mental blindness which, as Cru- 

Jwrmul (S. XV. 16: «mendax aretalo- quius* Commentator says, is what Horaoe 

s*)»sndui Sneton.(Octav. c. 74),where means to charge upon Crispinus. See 

■HBbon has this note : " vox est Romae Pers. (S. i. 79) : " Hos pueris monitus 

te : et ni ftUor Crispino illi primum patres infundere lippos." And S. v. 77 : 

iflNita haec appellatio." Suetonius in- "Yappa et lippus et in tenui farragine 

dooeetiiaM) 'aretalogi^along with the mencUuc." Persius was an imitator of 

mt eovt of actors, and it appears that Horaoe. [BenUey has 'lippum' in pUce 

ij wv jerten» who affected to diBCourse of ' lippi*'] 

■I tbe Stoio doctrines of virtue^ and 




^tire ipiwir» tn have Wn wrilten oD tlm iimtii at TtgDlthiA n 
paU, who. aa «e latra from the opming vsnc uf tlie iKrtt Sitiir. 
r fktnllinT intiitiBcy witb C. Juliiu CiiKmr. The SrlialhuU «'tia 
«nea Tigdlii» a.y thnt be Kflarwirdii hrcanic > fsviniritc witli 01 
lia irilb Anguetni. Acron «iijs Honw i|nuTFll<d willi hini tiHni 
th tbe rhjtlim of hi* vend. It ii pmhablo Uut tbli "niMlUiii t> 
i«»i, snd Uwt tbi> nBine belnng» oiUy ta uwUut Tigclliiu *bo wu 
^inS.S.ofthiiboo);. 129; 4.72,- S.SGi la 18. H», 90. TIim 
en HipHrat«l till Dacier diatin^iibed tbun. ncIndoTf adhorcs to tb 

think biis been >iiti*fni:tori1y dispoHd of h; Ku^alincr in hic ImUi 
^llio " {Quarat. Hor. p. 4S ntq). Tbe 'HgtJliiui of thi* Satlni 1* « 
lian, in the neit (r. S). It «ppcara from Uie Scboliuta tb>t ba i 
liiit, from whom they quote tlii* verae : " Sardi TigclU putJilnia 4 

proliably tbereforc ■ libertinai. Cicera bad > qoitrTvl with thl* { 
ft with Caeur wan nnch tbnt it mado hiin ratbn' aiuioiiB, tbeagh 

hia lettm U> hold the mnn chcnp. Cbmparc Epp. ad Fum. rii 

GO. and Sl. Ho toD allnd» lo Licinina' v«r»i, anit calla TtKvUlB 
.iorem potTia >na (the cliuiate of Sardinla wns connlcd •lay bad). e 
I dudom Calvi Licinii Hipponiirteo pnemniu" (AiL t^un. I. c. 
rHgeUiua u drHiTD cIcvErly ia tbo npcniug viinwa of tba naxt SaJti 
tatcncDt of tlie SchDliuta oii v. SS of thia Sotiro, tbat Kiinc auppoa 






an iinmoilfst fellow ; tlic man who smelt of perfumes w:us u coxcomb ; and hc who stuuk 
like a goat was dirty and ofrensivc by naturc or habit, or both. It was not in either 
caso becaiise the man was trying to avoid tho oppoBite oxtrome. Each man follows his 
own taste and propeDsities, whcthcr it be in such cascs or in the quality of hia amours ; 

tnd the instances in no way bear out the promise of the tcxt. It is difficult, indeed, to 

lee how they grow oat of it at all. 

Ambubataruh colle^a^ pharmacopolae^ 
Mendici^ mimae^ balatrones^ hoc gcnus omnc 

1. Amhuhaiarum eoUeffia'] The rednc- money, and move on. 
^ of Syria to the condition of a Roman 2. ifendici'] Tliis word includes beggars 
province (a.u.o. 690), while it opened to of all sorts, of whom a great variety ap- 
the Bomans tbe trade of the East, was the pearcd as religious mcndtcants, pricsts for 
Mns of introdncing into Italy many evils mstance of Isisor of Cybcle (kuown by tho 
ftva the same quarter ; among others, the Grecks under the title o( /jLtirpayvprou) and 
dMof woinen kuown by the above name» Jews, who made gain of thcir law, invent- 
flf vhom Acron and Comm. Cmq. say that ing charms perhaps from it» and persuad- 
tkj «ere so called in the Syrian language, ing the foolish to purchase phylacteries. 
fttn la instmment of music tht^ played Juvenal mentions this dass of beggars in 
^on : " etenim lingua eorum tibia sivc his sixth Satirc (v. 543 sq.) : " Arcanam 
VBphonia arabubaia dicitnr." These wo* Jndaea tremens mcndicat in aurem Intcr- 
■CBi wfaoie profession wns that of prosti- pres legum Solymarum." There were also 
^^ Horace speaks of jocularly as if thcy fortune-tellcrs all ovcr the town. See C. 

i. 11, Introd. Streot musioians were as 
common and as discordant at Rome as 
among oursclves. Of jugglcrs likcwise 
there were swarms, and many other sorts 
^) Jnrenal rden to these women (S. of impostors. 
&63): — mitnae'] The regular actors at Rome, 

'Jiin pridem Syrns in Tiberim defluxit as in Oreece were men; but the dancing and 
- - ' pantonumic parts were sustamed also by 

women. Horace mentions one of this class 
nnmed Arbuscula (S. i. 10. 77), who was a 
celebrated 'mima' in Ciccro's time (Ad 
Att. iv. 16. 6, written A.r.c. 700): "quaeris 
nunc de Arbuscula. Valde placuit. Ludi 
magniiici ct grati." They wore persons 
of loose character, as tho woman Origo 

*d ibnned themselves into coUcges or 
^■Ai laeh ai at this time were conimon in 
^iMMb Mme sanctioned by law, othcrs not. 
(8ee irL <CoUe|^nm,' in Smith's Dict. 

Ht Kngnam et moreB et cnm tibicine 

Ob&qnai, neo non gentilia tympana secum 
Vait, et ad Circum jnssas prostaro puel- 

'^piarwiaeopolae'] These were itincrant 

dfldcn in noitmms and vendors of medi- mcntioned below (v. 55), and the bofore« 

diMi, who were to be seen in the forum nientioned Arbuscula, aud tho woman 

■nd all plaoee of pnblic resort. They do Cytheris, whom M. Antonius carried 

■oi appear to have g^t much custom. about with liim under the namo of Volnm- 

M. CatOb in bis speech against M. Caelius, nia (Cic. ud Att. x. 10; Phil. ii. 24). 

inTcighi against luni ns an inveterate — balatronetl The meaning and etymo- 

talker. and ssys hc was so greedy of si^ecch logy of this woru are hopelessly lost. Cru- 

tbat he woald hire people to listen to him ; quius' Scholiast gives three difierent deriva- 

and that yoa rather henrd thnn listcnotl to tions ; from Servilius Bnlatro (mentioncd 

tlie nmn, ake a ' pharmacopola ' who could S.ii. 8. 21), who, as Forcellini observcs, more 

make hia voioe heard, bnt no sick person probably got his name from the specics 

ever thmu^t of pntting himself into his than thcspcciea from him ; *a balatu,' from 

Imidi (Q^u^ i. 15). ^cero (pro Clnent. an atfected ridiculous way of speaking, 

c.l4)iiiakeamentionofoneL. Clodius, who which is against prosody; *a blutiendo,' 

nnctiaed thii trade. Snch persons nmy from their sensoless babble ; and some he 

hava been leen in the snbnrbs of Phris with say s read < barathronos,' as from ' barathrum,' 

n eart and borae and a man to make music. bocause they were gluttonous livcrs who 

Thn^ «onld atop at fit places, make their devoured thcir substance, according to Ho- 

mniie or their speech, give advice, hand raco's cxpression " barathrumque macelli " 

oat piQa aiid othermedicmcs, receive their (Epp. i. 15. 31). It ii not neoeuary to go 


SATIRARUM I. 2. 839 

Quanto perditior quisqiie est tanto acrius urget; 15 

Nomina sectatur raodo sunipta veste virili 

Sub patribus duris tironum. Maxime^ quis non, 

Juppiter ! exclamat simul atque audivit ? — At in se 

Pro quaestu sumptum facit hic. — Vix credere possis 

Quam sibi non sit amicus^ ita ut pater ille Terenti 20 

Pabula qucm miserum gnato vixisse Aigato 

Inducit non se pejus cruciaverit atque hic. 

Si quis nunc quaerat^ Quo res haec pertinet ? illuc : 

Dum vitant stulti vitia in contraria currunt. 

Maltinus tunicis demissis ambulat ; est qui 25 

na ander age. Persons nnder twenty- vary between Maltinns, MaHhinns, and 

ve were protected by thc ' lex Plaetoria ' Malchinus. Of these the first is the only 

Dot'Laetoria/ as the Scholiasts and others historical name, having becn the surname, 

Ave it) from the consequences of their own acconling to Jnstin (xxxviii. 3), of Man< 

rt if tbey were enticed into any engage- lius, who went as ambassador to Mithri- 

MQtofthis oppressive kind. Suctonius, dates. This is of no grcat importance, for 

s i fragment preserved in Priscian, says Horace did not conftno himself to real 

'Uuiljiw, ''vetabat illa minorem annis names, though Madvig (Opusc. 74) says he 

Dv itipnlari ;" but that can only mean did. The oldcst Herne Ms. haa Maltinus, 

^titgavesuchpcrsouspowerof escaping and Orelli adopts it. The Scholiasts had 

^ frunduleut transnctions into wliich Malthinus, which is HeindorTs [and Rit- 

'°9 bid been trepnnned, and punished ter^sl reading. Judging from Fea's list and 

'W who had cheated them ; for the power Bcntley'8 assertion, the mnjority of MSS. 

^mtkiogcontracts waspossessed by every have Malchinus. That is tho readinff of 

■^OBtn citizen ader he had attained the Vcn. (1483) and nearly all the earliest 

fK'^ of pubcrty. (See Smith*s Dict. Ant., editions. Bentley adopt« it against Mal- 

"t 'Curator.') As to 'uomina ' scc C. iii. thinus, which was the common reading at 

'I* 5. * Nomina sectatur/ &c. means that that timc. He derives it from Malchus, 

eieefaitoget into his books boys abont which was an ^stern name, or a corrup* 

(ittQ or sixtecn whose fathers were strict tion of ono. The Scholiasts say that the 

itli tbem, and did not allow them U8 much nnnie is derived from /iaX0aic((s, and that 

cket-mcMiey as they wished. He was a Horace alludcs to Maccenas because he 

Id nuui to b^n with them so early, for was said to wcar his tunic long, a sign of 

tny tini« till thcy wcre twenty-fivcthey cffcminacy as it was gencrally r^farded; 

gffat daim the protection of the al)ove- but in his case it was, says Acron, to hide 

ntifflied law. * Tiro ' which in military vnricose veins with which he was troubled. 

gnage signified a recmit, and thcrcforc Tliat Maecenas was spokcn of as effeminate 

( wbo waa not under seventeen, was ap- in his habits is wcll known, and the cir- 

id abo to Touths who had lately takcn cumstHnce of his wearing long tunica is 

* toga Tiriiis,' which act was oalled ' tiro- mentioned by Scneca (Ep. civ. § 6) : '*. Huno 

inm fori,' the boy'8 introduction to pub- esse qui solutis tunicis in urbe semper in- 

lifeu coaserit ? uum etiam quum absentis Cae- 

18. simul atqve^i Horace oftcn omits saris partibus fungeretur signnm a dis- 

•atqne ' as in C. i. 12. 27. and ii. 8. 5.] cincto petebatur ;" aud by tbe unknown 

8. M in »e pro quaestu] But, you author of the clcgy on his death :— 

l mj, or it may be said, he spcnds his « Q^od discinctus eras animo qnoque, car- 

ney largely on himsclf in proportion to pitur unum, 

gaina. Not so. says Horace ; you would Dihiitur nimia simplicitate tna. 

rcdv credit the way in which he pinches gic iHi vixere qnibns fhit aurea vu^o, 

Mw« Quae bene praecinctos postmodo pulsa 

0,paier UW] Menedemns in Tercnce'8 fugit. 

f BftQtoiitimommenos. [' Pejns atque :' Invide, quid tandem tunicae nocuere 

&L1.46n.1 solutaeP 

ft. MaUimm*] The MSS. and editions Ant tibi ventosi qnid nocnere sinns?" 

z 2 

SATIRABUM I. 2. 341 

Permolere uxores. " NoHm laudarier/' inquit^ 35 

" Sic me" mirator cunni Cupiennius albi. 

Audire est operae pretium^ procedere recte 

Qui moechos non vultis^ ut omni parte laborcnt^ 

Utque illis multo cornipta dolore voluptas, 

At(|ue haec rara, cadat dura inter saepe pericla. 40 

Hic se praecipitem tecto dedit ; ille flagellis 

Ad mortem caesus ; fugiens hic decidit acrem 

Praedonum in turbam ; dedit hic pro corpore nummos ; 

Hunc perminxerunt calones ; quin etiam illud 

Accidit^ ut quidam testes caudamque salacem 45 

Demeteret ferro. Jure omnes ; Galba ncgabat. 

Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secundaj 

Libertinarum dico, Sallustius in quas 

Non minus insanit quam qui moechatur. At hic si 

Qua res^ qua ratio suaderet^ quaque modeste 50 

36. Cmpienmiiul This peraon is identU more than the crime deaerved. A man of 

fti^d bj tne Schouastfl with C. Cupiennius this name is mentioned by Juyenal (S. 

Libo of Cnmae, a fayonrite of Augustus. v. 8) : — 

The name, according to them, and in the u gj ^^ jua pati quae ncc Sarmentns 

oid editiooii, waa Cnpennius. Lambinus imqaas 

aad most editora aiter him have Cupien- Caesaris ad mensas nec vUis Galba tulis- 

uns. Aa to ' albi,' see v. 63 n. ^^ » 

8S. Qmi moeckot non vuUis'] Most of 

tbe MSS. and editions have tbe dative [Ritter thinks, that is, he guesses that 

'moechis.' The accusative isfonnd in tho this Galba is Servin» Galba, who butchered 

foUowing Teraes of V.nnirm, quoted by the Lusitani and was tried for it in B.c. 

Acron :— 140.] 

« k^im^ ^ ^^^^ ,«*Af;.^». ««i./wMwi^*<. 47. elasse eecunda] Servins Tnllius 
"Aodiw ert operae pretium procedere ^^^-^^^^y^^ ^^^ into classos, and Horace 

Qoi nm Bomanam LaUnmqne angescere ^?^ *^« ~^^ V^^ *^^ ^'^"^*^"' " '^°J!^' 
^^JL|j. M * ^ tius says. He is wrong however m refer- 

ring * tutior ' to the legal oonsequcnoes of 

TBnt \t Horaoe did imitate Ennins, that adultery arising out of the ' lex Julia de 

u DO argoment fbr 'moechoa ' here, though adulteriis,' which was not in existenoe whon 

Ordli thinks that it is. Ritter has this Satire was written. 

'moediis.'] 48. SallueHue in quas] See C. ii. 2. 

4ft. Jure omnes; Oalha heffahat'] What Horaee says of him is this : If he 

* Emy ODe else sud they richly deserved chose to be libend to that extent that his 

it : QmRm said nay.' Tms person, whom mcans and good sense would snggest, witb- 

tbe Scboliuta call a ' jurisconsultus,' is by out any extravagant munificence, he might 

BKMt modem interpreters, fbllowing Tor- give to thc needy and not injure or difl- 

rentiiis (to whom Weichert, quoted by grace himself, that is, he wonld gun credit 

Orelli as tbe anthor of the notion, was in- by it ; whereas he is content to pride him- 

dcbtod Ibr it), identified with A. Galba, a self on this one merit, that he does not 

paraute of Angnstns of loose cbaracter, of meddle with married women. ' Hoc ' (v. 

wbom Flntarch tells a well-known ancc- 53) is ' on this account,' and ' se ' is g^- 

dote ia resiird to Maecenas' partiality for vemed by each of the three verbs. [' Hoc' 

hb wife (Brot. c. 16). Having little re- rcfors to what he is supposcd to say. ' He 

nrd Ibr ms own honoor as a husband, he prides himself on this.' Some critica sup- 

UKNiBfatk Horace aays» that the retribution poee the second ' hoc ' to be the accosa- 

iiWiiitiad la the pnoediDg verses was tive.] 


riiiillli.M ossi> licet, vellft bonus atijue beniyiiUB 
-;.■;,■, iliirot (|iinntiini satia esset nec sibi diunno 
'iiiirijriqiK- Ibret. Vertim hot' ec fttnplectitur iiuo, 
[in- iimiit ct laiidat ; " Matronam nutlamego tiiugo.' 
't (luiiiiiliiin SlarsoeiiP, amator Originis ille, 
lui (latrium miraae donat fundumqiic kremque, 
Nil iuerit mi," inijuit, "cum uxoribus unquam allti 
eriim est i-um inimis, est cum oierctricibue, unde 
'ama malum g;ravius tjuam res trahit. An tibi abtm 
'LTsonam satis est, non iJiud quidquid ubique 
Hliijit uviture? Bunam tleperdere Ikmam, 
Li-m puti-is oblimare, moliim eat ubicunque. Quid in 
Iwt in matrdiia, anoilk, pecccsne togata? 
'illius in Fausla, Siillae gcner, hoc miser ano 

larfnrttt. amalor Oriffiniil Orip». clianite the ■ stola ' fiir Ihe ■ lo( 
im, ia rpfcrr.ll to alinvc (v. 2 n.), dilli6r(iice hetwmn theoi i» 
siicn?, bnr l.iv.r, \vc t;™iw notliiDg prostitute» btfiiiK tlmt thcy «■ 
„„ ,i„. s-.i, .,!;.,.„ .\s K-tv* ob- whUe the Uttor wore > di 

'■',„. \ .. ■ .-. „f njmr- MartiBl!- 

, .' , , 'i '■ ,".'' ', '* " Coccinii fkmostte dDois t 

■^ '[|'>i Vl,' I- ■'',''';■"' ™ moeclinc. 

SATIRARUM I, 2. 313 

Xomine deceptus, poeinis dodit iisque superque 65 

Qiiam satis est, pug^nis caesus ferroque petitus, 

Exolusus tbre cum Lonofarenus foret intus. 

Huic si mutonis verbis mala tanta videntis 

Dieerct baec animus : " Quid vis tibi ? numquid €go a tc 

MagTK) prognatum deposco consule cunnum 7» 

Velatumque stola mea cum conferbuit ira 'i" 

Quid responderet ? " Magno patre nata pucUa est.'' 

At quanto meliora monet pugnantiaque istis 

Dives opis natura suae, tu si modo recte 

Dispensare velis ac non fugienda petendis 73 

Immiscere. Tuo vitio rerumne labores 

Nil referre putas ? Quare, ne poeniteat te, 

Desine matronas scctaricr, unde laboris 

PIus haurire mali est quam ex re decerpere fructos. 

Nec mag^s huic inter niveos viridesque lapillos 8ti 

(Sit lioet hoc, Ccrinthe, tuum) tenerum est femur aut crus 

Rectius, atque etiam melius pcrsaepe togatae cst. 

Adde huc quod mcrcem sine fucis gestat, aperte 

Quod venale habet ostendit, nec si quid honesti est 

Jactat habetque palam^ quaerit quo turpia celet. S5 

Beg^bus hic mos est, ubi equos mereantur ; opertos 

Inspiciunt, ne si facies ut saepe deoora 

MolU fulta pede est emptorem inducat hiantem, 

Quod pulchrae clunes, breve quod oaput, ardua oervix. 

Hoc illi recte : ne oorporis optima Lyncei 90 

Contemplere ooulis, Hypsaea caecior illa 

Qnae mala sunt speotes. O orus I o braohial Verum 

Depugis^ nasuta^ brevi latere ae pede longo est. 

Matronae praeter faoiem nil oemere possis, 

Ceten^ ni Catia est, demissa veste tegentis. 95 

•aghter r ; md it was the notion of mti- tbe merits of the sevcral readings, and the 

laey wito lo grcftt a man'8 danghter that senso of the passago. 

sdhim «tray (bocnno nominedeceptas)]. 86. Re^ihfu'] See note on C. i. 4. 14. 

rfnigaraiiis may be any body. ' Fore ' is In some MSS. this line is the beginning of 

be ablatiTe of ' fbria.' a new Sntirc. 

[6d. ridemti»'] The best rcading accord- 91. Htfpsaea caeewr illa] To thii 

igto ibe MS8. ia 'yidenU.' Rittcr, who woman Porphyrion givcs thc name Plotia 

aa 'Tidenti,' makes ajocnhir remark on or Plautin. We know no more of her 

rideiitii,'whi€hHdndorfdefended. Both than what the text tells ns. Of Catia 

otes t» cnrions.] Cruquios' Scholiast tclls us aii anecdote ia 

81.] Thb part of the Satire is rather coufirmation of her shameless impurity, 

beeue» ptftly from the variation of the which appears to have been proverbial, ai 

EB8. I hope I fhall not be considered Hypeaea'8 blindncaa seems alao to havwi 

rar JMtirtfami \S I deeline enterinif upon been. 


intcrdicta petes, vallo circumdata (nam te 
Lpc Tacit insanum), multae tibi tum officient ns, 
i^todes, lectica, cinilloneB, parasita«, 
1 taloa stola demiesa et cironmdafa palla, 
iirima quae invidcmit pure apparere tibi rem. 
Itera ni! obstat : Cois tibi paene videre est 
t nudam, ne cnire malo, ne ait pede turpi ; 
ctiri possis oculo latus. An tibi mavie 
isidiaa ticri pretiumque avcllier ante 
iiam mcrcem ostendi ? " Leporem venator ut alta 
1 nive Boctetur, positum aic tangere nolit," 
lufat et apponit : " Meus est amor huic similis; na: 
■ansvolat in modio posita et fugientia captat." 
iscine versiculis eperas tibi posse dolores 
tque aeetuB curusque gravos e pectore pelli ? 
onne cnpidinibus statuat uatura modum qucm, 
uid latura, sibi quid sit dolitura negatum, 
uaerere plua prodest et inane abscinderc soldo? 
um tibi cum fhnfcs nrit sitis aurea quaeria 
:icula ? num osuricns fastidis omnia praeter 

SATIRARUM I. 2. 315 

Stet pretio neque eunctetur cum est jussa venire. 

Candida rectaque sit; munda hactenus ut neque longa 

Nee ma^s alba velit quam dat natura videri. 

Haec ubi supposuit dextro corpus mihi laevum 125 

Ilia et Egeria est : do nomen quodlibet illi, 

Nec vereor ne dum futuo vir rure recurrat, 

Janua frangatur^ latret canis, undique magno 

Pulsa domus strepitu resonet^ vepallida lecto 

Desiliat mulier^ miseram se conscia clamet^ 130 

Cruribus haec metuat, doti deprensa, egomet mi. 

Discincta tunica fugiendum est ac pede nudo^ 

Ne nummi pereant aut puga aut denique fama. 

Deprendi misemm est ; Fabio vel judice vincam. 


^ PeniDiis daring the second Punic coctam/ and the note. 

^ <Liy. xiix. 11. 14; Jav. iL 116; vi. 130. contda^ The 'andlla' who was 

a Oyid Fast. iv. 361), were eannchs. privy to her mistress' adnltery. Tortnre 

^^oonftmction ia ' Illam Philodemm» ait by breaking the legs was not nnasual in 

1^^ hanc Bibi.' Philodemns was a Qreek the case of shiyes. ' Deprensa' means the 

1 «n Epicnrean. He liyed at Rome on mistress canght in her crime, who feared 

^ of great intimacy with L. Hso, for her marriage portion, of which she was 

^mt whom there is an oration of Cicero. liable to loee a considerable part : one-sixth 

TWmus wrote poetry, and some of the might be retiuned by the hnsband, and 

^^ms in the Anthology are his. Cicero two-sixths for the children ; bnt not more 

cieribes him (in Pisonem, c. 28) as " in- than three-sixths could be taken away, if 

B&kmm hominem atqne ernditnm." (which is doubtfal) this law existed when 

Srt antem hic (he continues) non philo- Horace wrote. If not, we do not know 

phia iolam sed etiam litteris, quod fere the particnlars of the law which then 

teroa Bpicnreos negUgere dicont, perpo- affected snch cases ; but that adultery in- 

BS. Pbema porro facit ita festiyum, ita yolyed the fbrfeiture of part of the ' dos,' 

icmnnm, ita elegans, nihil ut fieri possit is clear from the text. (See Ulpian. Fr. 

litins." He charges Philodemus with Tit. de Dot. vi. 12.) 
ring oormpted Piso. 134 Fabio vel judice vincam] As to 

JB9. vepaUida"] On this Bentley has a Fabius, soe S. i. 14 n. [' Vincam ' means 

g Bote and edits * ne pallida,' which ' I will prove.' If Fabius had been caught 

us the rapld accumulation of images himself, it would be easy to proye to him 

n whidi the passage derives its expres- that 'deprendi iiiiserum ease:' but, as 

u 8o does that of Acron, 'vae ! pallida' Ritter truly remarks, Horace says, * Fabio 

pted by Fea. 'Ye' in composition secms vel judice,' which must mean something 

iBve ttae fbrce of ' male.' Sec Forcell., else. Ritter explains it thus : * Niniirum 

Hcolos.' G^ellins (y. 12^ says it has the Stoicus Fabius, ut ceteri ejnsdem sectae 

ie "aogendae rei et mmuendae/' and satellites, nibil miscrum esse dicere sole- 

it bes some resemblance to the use of bant, quod extrinsccus accidat.' If Fabius 

ile' with an adjectiye (S. i. 4. 66 n.). was a Stoic, this may be the meaning of 

Peruni 8. L 97) 'pracgrandi subere the passage.J 


M nlippsr» tohBVP broiitrlit i'nomic»QpoiihiiDMlf bjthe laat 

.,„!ii,.|,l...^..n,.i 1„.,.„ ,,nl,lMu.a. HisnmUhletcmperwiuinotvrrj 
lli,Li - . ' M - ..- .. .K\i, iiiii}' iuta from the prewnt poeu tlul 

1,.. , .!., . ' 1 !.,. miiit.\iaii betwtvn the ttro Satina k 
i,fi'. .i !. 1 .. .Jii- isnpiiii introducHlaiid thopecolimrititi 
1-i'vii.. 1. i .'-,,11, asit wonhlii)eni,biitta«orve»»»t«it 

''. !:. : li. i-i[ii.rksou tUissn1(JM.t Horicecouicaacroii 

>~iii^i;i..-- ,,i,.- ,1...: ..'.i l'4uUs nr» olike {v. 96 wiq.}. which he m 
. lliiii .,i|i.-ilii-iicj is iiliu,«t tht inothQr ol' juBtice miid eqoitj-; uu 
..rv ivK.. niiiTi (iliiit is Stoif) U cuilon-cd wilh kll the ^fta 
IV.iinlli,^^l.ill..l' IhiiiinH^liiiuiclotheiiowerof ■ ting. With»JM 

-hiinictcr of Tic..|Uiit. \s luippity detcrihnl ("Xot one, bnt >11 mn 
, iiiiil a tiinc i>( yuuil e.vWni; rnna thronghuul the SBtirc. The Ua^ 

stiitiiiit.iitn ttii.iiJili;, 'rhe «tjic ii Humce'» own, os wc aii.v in|ipo9 
.. il i.s clcnr, ivttH uiuro uftvr thc ruliion of tlie seroDd Satirc. iii 

i)f sjicitIi oiid llwnti.ini Uugaago «ppcnr lo mo to be nimed at t 
,).k.|i hc iKVsi.-^scil -if civiii^- Ihem puiut nnd leverily. Ho one wb< 
i-.,uldni,hlos,^ I[..™-ein thodisguiwoftlieoiher. 

SATIRARUM I. 3. 347 

bandecL let hiin be nataral and manly; the passionate, high spirited; — this is the 
«ray to make friends and to keep them. But we do just the revene, tnrning virtacB 
into defects. An honest man is a driveller ; the slow and snre is a hog ; the pmdent 
and caatiooa, a liar and a foz ; the nnsophisticated, a fool. 

Wluit rashness thos to establiah a rnle which mast react npon onrselyes. All have 
their (kolts ; he is bcst who lias fewest. Let my Mend weigh my good with ray bad, 
aud I will do the same by him. If he woald not have his great deformltics ofiend 
luy eye, let bim leam to ovcrlook my little ones : who wonld have indnlgence most 
show it. 

In short, sincethedefects of fools, according to your Stoic thcory, eannot be got rid of, 
It is reasonable we should judge others as we judge ourselves, and visit each faolt with 
Do more than its due censure. The man who shoold cracify his slave for eating the 
Temnants of his fish most be mad ; but he is not less mad who for some trifling fault 
hates his firiend. Because a friend breaks my old-fashioned dish, or helps himself 
befbre me at table, am I to love him the less for that P What if he were to oommit 
tbeft, OT embeuleraeBt, or fraad ? They who declare that all faults are alike, are 
reAited by oommon sense, experience, and ezpediency. Ezpcdiency is the parent of 
justice : therefbre men when thcy were in their first rude state fought like beasts for 
their fbod ; bat when they became civilized, expediency taught them to make laws, 
wfaich every one mnst admit were framed to put down injustice. Nature cannot draw 
the ^atinetioa between right and wrong ; nor will any argament convince us that a 
petty theft is as bad as sacrilege. Let us visit each faolt tben with its proper mecd 
of paniahmeat; that is, let os not usc the scoarge where the whip is only due ; for I 
faave no fear of your reversing this and substituting the whip for the scourge, though 
yom do say you would cat up all vices alikc if men woald but make you king. 

^dnt are yoa not a king ? Is not tfae wise man rich and bandsome, a cobbler and a king ? 
DoD*t yon know wliat our founder Clirysippus said ? " Tho wise man never made him- 
«If a ahoe in his life, yet is the wise man a cobbler." How is this ? Why just as 
HenBOgenes is the best of singers, even when bis lips are closed, and Alfenius con- 
timied to bea clever shoemaker after he bad cbanged his trade and shut up his shop; 
10 the wise man is tbe best and only workman, and a king. And yet thou king of 
the little boys mob thee and pluck thy beard ! To make a long story short : 
while jeor kingship goes down to a chcap bath with no body-guard but Crispinus 
the blockhead, my friends shall make allowance for my faults, and I will mako allow- 
•nee fa tfaeirsy and I shaU live as a subject more blest than yoa or any otber king. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus^ inter amicos 

Ut nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati^ 

Injussi nunquam dcsistant, Sardus habebat 

Ille Tigellius hoc : Caesar, qui cogere posset, 

Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam^ non i) 5 

Quidquam proficerct ; si collibuissct ab ovo 

fS. imdmeamt animum'] Thc Romaiis also his friend Paetus (Ad Fam. ix. 20), teHs bim 

«la ' indooere in animum.'] )ie has taken to a better style of living. 

4b T^^eilimsl 8ee Sat. 2, IntiTKlnction. ** At quem virum ? non enm qucm tu es 

[ — CaeMurj 'Caesar Octaviaaus :' 'pa- solitus {^romnlside conficere. Intcgram 

tra»'ia C CaeMT, the great uaele of Octa- famem ad ovum aflfero. Itaque usque ad 

viairaii^ and his father by testamentary assum vitulinum opera perducitur." The 

adoptHNu] 'promulsis,' otherwise called 'gustas,' with 

8. mh avo Mgfi(# ad mala'] The dinner which Cicero says his appetite osed to be 

witk egg. Thos C^oonv writiQg to satisfied, preoeded the regahur meal, and 



Omnia magna loqnens; modo^ '' Sit mihi mensa tripes et 
Concha salis puri et toga quae defendere frio^s 
Quamvis crassa queat/' Decies centena dedisses 
Huic parco paucis contento, quinque diebus 
Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsum 
Mane, diem totum stertebat ; nil fuit unquam 
Sic irapar sibi. — Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : ^^ Quid tu ? 
Nullane habes yitia?^^ Immo alia et fortasse minora. 
Maenius absentem Novium cum carperet, '^ Heus tu/' 
Quidam ait, ^^ ig^oras te^ an ut ignotum dare nobis 
Verba putas ?'' " Egomet mi ignosco/^ Maenius inquit. 
Stultus et improbus hic amor est dignusque notari. 



I. i. Tetmrchs were properly governora 
■ fourth part of a province or other 
rritorial diTision ; bot the title was not 
limited in practiee. It was a title ori- 
iiallj confined to some of the petty 
inces of Asia Minor ; the Romans gnve 
to difTerent members of Herod'8 family. 
t^^wribing the troops assemblcd at Phar- 
lia, Lncan says (vii. 226) : 

" Sicci sed plurima campi 
Knrchae regesqne tenent magniqne ty- 

tqne omuiB Latio qnae senrit purpura 

d Cic. (pro Mil. c. 28 ) : " Omitto socios, 
teima nattoues, reges, tetrarclms." 
13. wtensa iripe*] This was the simplest 
d iDoat old-faahioned shape, and the 
>les were small, only snited to a persou 
ling bj himself or with one or two com- 
uoiu. The wealthy Romans were verY 
mTagant about their tables. See S. ii. 
4 B. The salt-cellar was usually, ex- 
)i minoDg the poorest sort, of silver, and 

beir-loom. It stood in the middle of 
t tMe, and had a sacred character (C. 

16. 14). ' Puri ' only means * clean.' 
Pannn aal' may be 'sal simplex, non 
iditom.' . . Phny, H. N. 31. c. 41, 
rt "conditnr etiam sal odoribus additis.' 
tter smys that this explanation is far- 
cbed, and perhaps it i8~'defendere/ 
eep off.' Comp. C. i. 17. 3.] 
15. DecieM centena] 'Ten millions of 
(teroes,' — a common way of cxprcsBing 
t largest nnmber. On the coustruction, 
! ab^e, S. 1. 45 n. ' Erat ' is used in 

oncommon way. ^v Jkw would be the 
eek eqnivalent. It is a loose conversa- 
oal way of speaking. 
[18. 'Mane' is a nenter noun inde- 
Peniii% 8. iiL 1, 'clarum 


20. Immo alia] Orelli says 'immo' here 
expresses wonder at a man asking a ques- 
tiou on a matter where thcre is no doubt. 
I do not see how that meaning can be got 
from it. Professor Key hns given the in- 
terpretetion of it here ( L. G. 1429) : " ' Imo' 
Bcems to have signified propcrly an asscnt 
with an important qualification." This 
explanation is bome out by the etymology 
of the word, which is comix>undea of • in ' 
and ' modo.' (The subjcct is discussed in 
Mr. Lotig^s note on Cic. Verr. ii. 1. 1.) 
The qualifieation is fonnd in 'et fortasse 
minora,' which some editors have cor- 
rupted into * haud fortasse miuora,* de- 
stroying the sensc and tuniing it into 
cant. A man does not qualify himself for 
a censor by proclaiming thnt his own faults 
are as bad as thoHe he is blaming. ' At ' 
for ' et ' is unauthorized and unnecessary. 
The qualification it conveys is contained 
in *immo.' The correction is Baxter^s, 
and arose out of the Scholiasts' paraphrase 
(Comm. Cruq.) : '* ccmfiteor me habere 
vitia sed fortasse minorn." Horace means 
to sny he admits he has his faults, and is 
not so selfish and foolish as Maenius (see 
S. 1. 101 of this book), who reviled the 
man Novius behind \m back, and, when 
told to look at his own fuults, said he made 
excuses for himsclf which he would not 
make for others. Whether Novius has 
any connexion with the Novius in the 
sixth Satire of this book, v. 40, the ple- 
beian tribune, or the usurer in v. 121 of 
the same Satire, it is impossible to say. 
' Dare verba ' means to give words in tho 
plnce of facts, to deceive. 

24. rnprohue] See C. iii. 24. 62 n. 
' Amor' means ' self-love.' ' Pervideas ' in 
the next line was altered by Bcntley, oq 
the authority of one MS., to ' praevideas,' 


■ulis niala lippns iTiunetia, 3! 

is tiim rertiis ocutum 
seqiens Epidiiurius ? At tibi contra 
|vitiii ut tua rursus et illi. 
1, miriiig aptiip ycutis 
linuin; rideri ]>ossit eo quod x 

fX^ dcltiiit ct nmlu luxns 

i't : nt est Ijonus ut melior vir 
, iit tilii amicus, at ingenium ingens 
Bub forpire. Deni<iue te ipsum 
Itibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 

■rlurrd. He 29 Iraiimdior nf fnmlo] Bcmt^ ^ 

HS 'P""'i- iliust™tin}[ hore tbo tenilmcy of lJr.r<:^ 

■1) Vaticnu i]iiitk-B!gUl«l critiea of Iheir iidtcbboon' 

■ MuAl^ii' rliHntrtpn to roagnift tlw fiinltK t1i«y fioi 

it nf ' prnp- tiv<> nnilrr (niit suited fbr) the niarpjadi- 

erlook," in ment of tbe men of tlurt day ('hotwa 

liip verw» of hominiini '), nien irho h»d the keeun™ rf 

a li1(>i)illinnnd'> scent in fiikling ont dcfKtf. 

)iad nn dclioacj in proclaitainp tbein. Sa 

jiaa^tirj.t ■ ' andoratand 'minns sptiu,' Ai4.KilbUif 

' Scboliosts. In rpflpect (a the neit inataiK^ 

of a persnn of Flovpnlv hsbita, AiToo «Jf 

■ [,ir liu^itnr iiiii«Hre Virmliam qui inde- 

■ I L LnrifiriB et luibitiit fuil." He jad» 
>. ':1<: imt nith tbiit ntstemeiit, wludi i> 

. |.. .il»i| l.y Cmquin»' Scholiast, bol luw 

Ii^LiiiT i< to be placed upon iltoi- 

- :■ I... (iL.lmiiined. WmcberHop- 
vii;(0pii9e. p.60)n 

oaBO,' uid 'd^ 

liings d, 

(See v. 45. • 




Natura, ant etiam consnetudo mala ; namqne 
Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 
Illuc praeTertamur, amatorem quod amjcae 
Turpia decipiunt caecnm vitia^ ant etiam ipsa haee 
Dclectant, veluti Balbinum polypns Hagnae. 
Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus ; et isti 
lOiTori nomen virtns posuisset honestum. 
At pater ut gnati sic nos debemus amici 
Si quod sit vitium non fastidire : strabonem 
Appellat paetum pater, et pullum male parvus 



\.\i\TiK bid in it. Orelli calls this " imagi- 

ihriki <k»uniptam ab eo qui furem concutit," 

tkiat [&, it moEUiB ' to search/ as suRpected 

lpCT«oitt are seHrched by the police. * Ex- 

cotio' ifi so nsed in Plautus (Aulul. iv. 4. 

18) : " Dt me perdant si ego tui quicquam 

ibtlQU — af^om, £xcutednm pallium." 

Wiaedntt (f ab. v. 6. 17) : 

" — Sic porcelli vocem est imitatus sua 
Venm nt snbesfie puUio couteudereut 
^ acnti jnberent." 

W. KeyUetit «renda Jtlix] This, as 

^^^ ityi, haa the appearance of a pro- 

^' Virgil calls the fem ** curvis invisam 

"*««." (Georg. ii. 189). 

^W. IUne praaveriamur] * Before we go 

'*tW let m first tum our attentiou to 

^ oaniely, how lovers arc blind to the 

2>Hsof their mbtresses.' Balbinus nnd 

«>gia are peraons nnknown. Thc fonuer 

^i Bonan name. A person so callc<l was 

^odcd in tbe proacription of Octavianus 

iBd II. Antonins (Appian, B. iv. c. 50), and 

^ penon has, withont any anthorityt 

WcD idoitificd with the man of this Satire. 

(Spoha m Jahn'8 2nd Edit. in Horace, p. 

26S.) Another of the same name is men- 

tioned by Cicero (Ad Att. xiii. 21). Kstre 

ngMts that Hagna roay have made up 

to BiUlnnus by her money for the ugly 

defect in her nose» which is a libel on tbe 

«nrtbj lover, the blindness of whose afiec- 

tioa ift beld up to imitation. Bentley bas 

ibowD froin inscriptiona and etymology 

that Haffna» deitved from 07»^, cannot 

praperiy be written 'Agna/wbich is thc 

raimng of many of the old editions. The 

fint syllable of ' polvpns ' is long, though 

the oomnion Greek lorm is iro\{nrovs. 

4SL momen mrtu* poMtiiMef] The Ro- 
Bnna need ' ponere nomen/ aller the Grcek 

r4S. M pater\ * Ac pater/ Ritter, ' ex 
mdioribai Hbns.'] 

44. ttrahonem appeUai paetum] The 
difFercnee between 'strabo* and •paetus* 
is only one of dcgree ; a slight cast of the 
eyc i» by soiuc cotisidcred a beanty, whence 
Yeuus Iiad tbe epithet * pacta ' applicd to 
her. Ovid (A. A. ii. 659) : " SH ))acta cst 
Venori sinnlis, si flava Minervae." Botb 
tliese words passed into cognomens, whicb 
Pliny nicntioning, observes that man i» 
the only nnimal that sqnints (N. H. xi. 37. 
55). * Pullns/ * Varu»,* * Scanms * were 
also iH>gnomons. Sisyphus was the name 
of H dwarf kept by M. Antonios. " Sisy- 
phus M. Antonii triumviri pumilio fuisse 
dicitur intra bipcdalem staturam ingenio 
tainon vivax " (Porpbyrion). Cruquius' 
Scholiasf adds n storyubout his doligbting 
Antonins aud Cleopntra by his dexterity iu 
hundling a boat, which looks very like a 
blnnder firom the word * velificari/ whicb 
is uscd for 'flatteriug' and *doing homagCy' 
and so forth ; bnt nevor (as a doponcnt 
vorb) in tho sonsc in whicb tbis story-toUer 
nsos it. ]f it be, as I suppose, that tho 
conmicnttitor^B original merely told how 
tlie Httle man pnid court to his mastcr 
aud mistre^s (ut iis volificaretnr^, it is a 
curioos specimen of the way m which 
Soholiasts' unocdotes are manufiictured. 
Hd suys " ipse (M. Antonios) Sis^^phum 
appellabat ob ingonii calliditatcm ; hic 
aliqnando in Aloxandrino mari com, in- 
spoctantibus Autonio et Cleopatra, in 
Koupba velificarctur cum acqnalibos, tanta 
doxteritate antevertit alios nt eis quidem 
os*et deloctanionto uliis vero admirationi." 
Torrontius bolievos Sisypbus to be the trao 
roading in that passage of Suetoniua 
(Octav. c. 43) : '* Adoloscentulum Lttcium 
honohte nntum oxhibuit : tantum ut osten- 
deret quod erat bipedali minor, librarnm 
soptenidecira ac voeis immensae." Dwarfs 
worc kept by thc rich to amnse them and 
play to them, for they were generally in- 
Btructed in music. Propertiu» (iv. 8) in- 


i cui Hliiis osl, iit ahiirtivus fiiit olim 
isjjnuis; liunt- variim distortiseruribiiBj illmn 
ailiutit waiiium jiravis fultum male talis. 
arcius hiu vivil, fruci liicatnr. Ineptus 
,t Jintantior !iiu iiaiilo est, coucinnns amicis 
oslLiIat ut vii]fatur. At est truculcntior ntque 
liiB aequo liber, simptes fortisque babeatur; 
;iMior cst, acres inler numeretur. Opinor 
[ufc res et junfjit junctos et servat amicos. 
I iiips virtutts: ipsas invertimus, atque 
iiiwnim cupimus v:is inentstare. Probus quis 
lobisciim \ivit, niultum demissus homo : illi 

ilj 10 tliu souiiU of ifio fliito :— <, . p^ 

. et ipBc BUDS bravittr eoncrctiia io Nobiscom Tivit, inultnm den 
tns ille : 

ul>3t IruDcaB ad e»va buxu mnnus." Tardo aa cognameii pingul dan 
(V. 41 sq.) . iij^ ■ for • iUi ■ haB tbe authi 

III 1' . ' . . -' l.>r one qoitii. ' Ac ' is BentWs own 
..1.1. . i> ;.'iither 

i- -■■ . .. .. ■ ...■ dii.tiunn- hdve lui boneat roBU liriuB ai 

,1 „i„- .-...,!., Iii.,. ,.. I.„v.- !i chilrt vcn- humble niBU he.' More 

^-« rv 1, , 1 6 ^ 

SATIRARUM I, 5. 353 

Tardo cognomen pingui damus. Hic fugit omnes 

Tnsidias nullique malo latus obdit apertum^ 

Cum genus hoc inter vitae versetur ubi acris 60 

Tnvidia atque vigent ubi crimina : pro bene sano 

Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus. 

Simplicior quis et est^ qualem me saepe libenter 

Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas^ ut forte legentem 

Aut tacitum impellat quovis sermone molestus, 65 

Conimuni sensu plane caret^ inquimus. Eheu, 

Quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam I 

Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur; optimus ille est 

Qui minimis urgetur. Amicus duleis ut aequum est 

Cum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce 7o 

^S9. wutlo] This is raascnline: he lays Fca separates 'molestns' from tbe preccil- 

^jBM^open to no malignantperson, gives ing words, and reads "Molestns! Com* 

i^ 00 handle. ' Hoc ' is like ' homm ho- mnni sensn plane caret, inqnimns." [Ritter 

^nnn' (t. 30). Bentley adopts and de- and Kniger have it thns : ' molestns, Com< 

^|^'TerBemur/ the reading of the oldest muni . . . caret/ which means the same as 

^ittdinian MS. But the other is at Fea's text.] < Common sense/ for which the 

w 11 good a reading, and better sup- Greeks had the expression 6 Koivhs yovs, ie 

Pted. In connexion with what foUows, so called, not as bemg excrcised upon com- 

^ oonuuentators quote Livy : " Pro mon every-day things, but as being sup- 

^BBcittore segnem, pro canto timidum, posed to be common property, and not 

^pogm vicina virtutibus vitia, compel- confined to the leamed. [Juvenal, S. viiL 

Wnt** By • simplicior ' Horace means •un- 73/1 

'^iticated :' one who in the simplicity 67. leffem aancimM'] * Sancire legem ' 

«Itii ftelings may perhaps sometimes ob- is properly to give effect to a law by adding 

tnidi himself npon those he likes, think- a penalty for the breach of it. See Cic. de 

iittliemost be welcome because he is him- Am. c. 13 : " Haec igitur prima lex amici- 

w plctted to meet them. He says he has tiae sanciatur." 

te aeted in that way with Maecenas. 70. Cum mea compentet vitiis bona'] 

b Satire therefore was not written very There is a strife here among the commen- 

irif in their aoqnaintance. tators. The Scholiasts interpret ' cum' as 

6S. impellat'] Foroellini g^ves no other a preposition. Some editors take it as a 

itaneeof' impellere' in the sense ofin- conjunction. Bentley, Heindorf, Orelli, 

ipdknip' hnt gives it that sense here. and Dillenbr. follow the Scholiasts, I think 

nrinsiu readt * appellet ;' Craquius * ap- with good reason. Fea, Meineke [Ritter], 

Ocm/ Bentley oonjectures *impediat/ Duentzer are on the otherside. The last 

the nme time callmg Lambinns' con- says with much confidence that Horace 

tnre ingeniona and leamed. The Scho- would have put the snbstantive next to 

rta* interpretation is < interpellet ;' the * cum ' if he had meant it for a preposition. 

ii£iig of every MS. is < impellat,' and I But Horace perhaps preferrcKl bringing 

Doi feel inclined to adopt Bentley'8 together the words tliat are oppoeed to ouc 

endetion or his explanation of the re- another, * vitiis ' and * bona.' There is no 

red reading, which, for the beuefit of more abraptness arising ont of the absence 

ne wbo bttve more scraple than himself of a- coi:junction between ' bona ' and ' plu- 

dewiting the MSS., he tells us must ribus ' than the character of the discourso 

■n nndging yonr friend with your renders natural. Heindorf takes 'hac 

0V9 or poshing him, to draw his atten- lege ' with ' amari si volet.' I do not see 

■• Tbe instroinent is plainly not * cu- any objection to that punctuation ; bnt the 

»' or *mann,' ai he snggests, but 'ser- common way is at least as good. 'Com- 

BC^' and the meuiing ie that he brcaks pensare ' is a Icgal term. ' Compensatdo ' 

wfom one when leecung or mediUtting is a ' set-ofi*.* [* Let him set off my good 

rtvtt Um] w^ aome hrrelevant tallu qualitiea against the bad.'] 

A » 

SATinARUM 1. :i. ;55r) 

Qund nisi ooncedas liabeaiv insuavis, acerbus : 85 

Oilisti et fii^is ut Rusonem debitor aeris, 

Qui nisi cum tristes misero venere Kalenda^ 

Mereedem aut nummos unde unde extricat, amaras 

Porrecto jugulo historias captivus ut audit. 

Comminxit lectum potus mensavc catillum 90 

Evandri manibus tritum dejecit, ob hanc rem 

Aut positum ante mea quia pulhim in parte catini 

Sustiilit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus '^* / ^ ' ^ 

Sit mihi ? Quid faciam si furtum fecerit, aut si 

Prodiderit commissa fide sponsumve negarit ? 95 

Quis paria esse fere placuit peccata laborant 

Honoe thould adopt the old fonn here and [88. ' unde unde '] Tliesc words Rre 

^Uterthcre. sometimes repeated; thcy mean 'from 

86. Rauonetk] Nearly all theold edUtions some quarter or othcr.* * Extrieat :* com- 

■ve ' OniMonem/ because Porphyrion, ac- pare C. iii. 5. 31. An old grammarian 

^onling to the tczt of AscenBius, calls tlio explains * tricae ' to ho hairs or threads 

!<noii «Octavius DruAns a usurer and whioh cntanglo the fect of young fowls. 

*ritcr of hifftories, to which he obliged his The sense of ' eztricatus ' appcars clciirly 

^A^ to liftten, which was the worst from a passagc of Ulpinn (Dig. 9. 2. 27 § 

^iihinent they could suffer." Othcr 30) where * margaritae extricatae * are un- ' 

vvvtioiu are * RiM),' < Rufo,' ' Hisso ' strung pearls. * Mcrccs ' is the intercst, 

(Akoh.), ' Rnfib,' < Tnuo.' Cruquius first and ' nummi ' the principal.] 

^>|*orMl of * Ruflo,' but Bentley claims the 90. catillum JEvandri manibus tritum'] 

■■it of reitoring that name. Philofltra" The Scholiasts, apoiling the joke, havo rc- 

Ih (Vit. PblemoniB) mentions one VaruR, ferred to a cclcbratcd engraver and statuury 

■k fbUoved the aame calling as Ruso, and as the Evander of this place, who ia clcarly 

■■de a itipalation with his debtors that the old king and ally of Aencas, Porphy- 

^hewabaoM, bendea paying intcrest, liatcn rion professes to quotc from certain writen 

to Dia recitatkms of hia own writings. who had written on IIorace*8 characterK ; 

icnm interprets ' historias ' by 'contume- so that thcro nmst havc bcen a good dcal 

W in cne place, but contramcts himself of attcntion paid to that .subject at a very 

vitliin a few lineB, calling Ruao " histori- early pcriod. Comparo S. ii. 3. 21 n. 

onm malnm acriptorem.*' The text of [Sillig, Catal. Artificum, Wicland, Ritter, 

thewSdioUaataisvery corrupt. 'Historias' agroe in taking Evander to be an artist. 

I inppow to mean tales or narrativcs of Heindorf doubts, but inclincs to the artist, 

mme Mtt. Sec C. 2. iii. 7. 20. [The notwithstanding thc allusion to Sisyphns, 

modnn oommentaton, ao far na I know, S. ii. 3. 21. Orelli argues for the king. 

agiee in taking * biatoriaa' literally. Ruso Thosc who cnn uudcrstand a joke, will \ye 

Ad not» njs Wieland, compel his debtors for tbe old Arcadinn. Doederlein has 

to lirten to bii bistorical writings, but proved that Evnndcr cannotbc tho artist.] 

theT ibreed themtdTeatolisten, when they [93. hoc'] ' On this account.'] 

eoBld not niT, in order to conciliatc thc 95. /?^f«] A form both of the genitive 

Tliia iB all, addt Wieland, that the and dative. C. iii. 7. 4: "Constantis 

needi to know in order to feel the jnvencm fide." 

wit and droQeiy of the paasage. I don't 96. Quis paria essefere'] This common 

me nnT wit in thit ezplanation, and it is doctrinc of the Stoics is noticcd by Cicero 

aBtircij inoonnfltent with the whole tenour (dc Fin. iv. 19) and condemned on the 

ef the pemage. 'Htter stories' are bitter priuciples of oommon sense (sensus cvQun- 

«ofdi and ahnae, inch aa a prisoner might quc et natura rcmm) and truth, as hore. 

be eompelled to lieten to fhnn his captor ' LnlH)rant,' ' thcy are in ^ dilemma ' 

iriUi oatetzvtehed neck, or throat, like a [' when they come to reality,' to apply 

■n awuting hia death/] thcir doctrine. It is doubtful what 

87. tnaim KaUHdae] Epod. ii. 70 n. word * fere' qualifics. Doederidn connects 

' A a 2 


um ventum ad verum est ; sensua moreBque repugn 
,tque ipsa utilitas, justi prope mater et aequi. 
iim prQrepaerunt primis animolia terris, 
lutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propt#i 
Inguibus et pu^nis, deiu fustibus, atque ita porro 
ugnabant armis quae post fabricaverat usus, 
luuec verbn quibus vnces sensuBque notarent 
Miminaque invenere ; dehine absistere bello, 
l]>pida coeperunt munire et ponere leges, 
le qiiis fur esset, neu latro, neu quis adulter. 
lam fuit anto Helenam cunnus teterrima belli 
'ausa, sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 
luos venerem ineertam rapientes more feranim 
iribus editior eaedebat, ut in grege taurns. 
ura inventa metu injusti fateare necesse est, 
finpora si faatosque velis evolvere mundi. 
[ce natura potest justo secernere iniquum, 
lividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendis; 

laborant." If it iinalifii^a ' pariK,' jSnfioTo. ' Scrtae ' are «vmbols, 
UiiiiU tUo dm'trmr.1 of lUl feulL» liand writiiiK for iostinw : a 

SATIRARUM I. 3. 357 

Nec vincet ratio hoc^ tantundem ut peecet idemque 115 

Qui teneros caules alieni fregerit horti 

Et qui noctumus sacra divum legerit. Adsit 

Begula peccatis quae poenas irroget aequas^ 

Ne scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. 

Nam ut ferula caedas meritum majora subire 120 

Yerbera non vereor^ cum dicas esse pares res 

Furta latrociniis et magnis parva mineris 

Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 

Permittant homines. Si dives qui sapiens est^ 

Et sutor bonus et solus formosus et est rex^ 125 

15. Nee vincet ratio hoc\ * Nor will was ' fiirtam/ whether attended with vio- 

TeasoniDg prove this.' * Vincere cau- lence or not ; but Horace means to distin» 

' is an ordinary expression for winning g^ish between thefts without violence and 

use. ' Idem ' is explained by ' tantun- robbery with violence (' rapina '). See 

k»* the same in degree of guilt. [Ritter artides ' fhrtum ' and 'bona rapta ' in 

us note on ' caiSes,' refers to Draco^s Smith'8 Dict. Ant. (Scero distinguishes 

B (Flut. Solon, c. 17). ' Qui sacra le- ' furtum ' from ' rapina ' (in Verr. ii. 5. 18). 

it ' is a ' sacrilegus,' a stealer of ' sacra/ — ['Moffnuparva '] These words oome 

)f things appropriated to the servioe of together because great and small are oou- 

gioa.1 trasted. The dative ' magnis ' depends on 

19. Ne tcuHca dignum] The epithet ' simili/ but it is a careless way of writinff, 

rribili ' belongs to ' flagello/ which was for the man means to say tnat he wdl 

srerer instrument than the ' scutica,' apply the knife to great and small offences 

wai lometimes constructed with hor- alike.] 

I emelty. and fatal in its application 125. et est rexl This notion of the 

L 2. 41, and Epod. iv. 11). The ' scu- Stoics is expressea again Epp. i. 1. 107. 

' had one thong, of leather. ' Ferula ' Plutarch alludes to it in his treatise w€p\ 

a iwitch usually from the vine. The Zb$ufiias, c. 12 : &XA.* Imc robs ii\v 2rrt»U 

n derivatives from «ncDrof are short in fco^f oXovrai weU(uv tra» iucoitreoiri rhi^ 

flnt ^llable» and some have supposed tro^hv wap* ahrots fi^ yAvop ^p6viiMv iral 

Bzistence of a trK^nos with the v short. ZiKoiov koI kvZpuov &XX& «cal ^4tropa iccU 

this is doubtful. There are other in- arparriybv iral irovnr^v ical «rAo^tov ical 

ees (as ' anchdra ' fVom (i^fcvpa, ' crd- ^offiXia wpoaayoptv6fi*vov, aM-obf 9^ wdv^ 

* hom Kp%wis, &c.) in which the quan- rttv &|ioG<rc ro^wv, Khv /i^ rvyx^^tt^ 

oi tlie Qreek vowel is changed in the iviAvrai. The absurdity of the doctrine, 

n. if such it may be called (it has no founda- 

iOL ui ferula eaedae'] The rule in re- tion in the reported opinions of Zeno, Cle- 

t to Ycrfas of fearing b that " the Lntin anthes, or Chrysippus, being the invention 

rts a negative where the English has of their foUowers), consists, not so much in 

i, aod viee verea " (Eey^s L. G. 1186 the statement that the wise man's intelli- 

)» i. e. ' vereor ne ' means ' I fear it gence contains in itself the germ of all 

;:* ' vereor ut,' ' I fear it will not.' practical knowledge, and that such know- 

re appears at first to be a deviation lcdge is power, as in the limitation of wis- 

I the mle here ; but the position of dom to the pale of a sect, and the attempt 

makes it independent of ' vereor.' to give a practical application to a notion 

r thet you shonld beat,' or ' as to your of this kind. The later Stoics looked to 

ing with a twitch one who deserves to Chrysippus as the founder of their philo- 

srgo ft severer flogging, of this I have sophy ; but he adhered, with little essential 

BBT.' [' Femla ' is the schoolmaster^s deviation, to the doctrines taught him by 

nmieDt of jranishment. Juv. 8. i. 16; his master Cleanthes, and Cleanthes was • 

fial X. 68.J devoted disdple of Zeno. ' Inquit ' means 

Hb JWrto lairoeimUe'] This is not that some Stoio says this, inoiuding fWrni 

Ar ft tedmicd distinction, nor is '^la- 'non nosti' to 'eet sapiens,' and after 

dni' ft teehnieal term. AU robbery 'quiP' to 'sic rex' (▼. 188J. What he 


r (ijitiis (]iio(l huljcs? Non noeti quid pater, irn^uit, 
ry]-iii|.mw .iic;it : Sii]iifns crepidas sibi nun.|uam 
!■ i-ulfus livit, sutor taiiien est eapiene. Qui? 
ijuiimvia tucet Hermugenes, cantor tamen atque 
tiiiiua est modulator; ut Alfenius vafer, omni 

l hiibcs ? ■ is, tlmt iimn maj bc, Acron aajs on this pomoge. " l' 
k- sfnat, a ting, anit jet not be AlfenHm Vatrara (Vnnini ?) 
iliim to cHTpiBc Hathorily, Ha hh Mra deridet, qiii ahjecCa antrii 

■ a siimcT uiay btill be griiit in mnnicipio sno exercuenit Ron 

■ cvcii wlieii h« h)u hud asidc tlie mHgiitroqoB n»ii* Snlpieio jnris 
r it. tantam perrcnit acientiiim nt 
fpidiu — /olraf\ 'Crcpidn' (jt/ifl- tum gercet, et pnWico funere 

i low thoc or flipper fakpn from Porphyrion hiu ncarly the « 
^ Hiid niWD in nDdreas ; ' aoh» ' Biid Comm. Cruq. hu <»mp< 
n «uidid fBttti?ui-il overllie iiutep tno, ooly changing 'AUeauin 
1, und «orn ()j nwu a» llie • »n- 'Alfinjura VHrum,' Hnd prio] 
iMu woni hv w>.mL.n. Gcllin. the mune of Marcii.. E»l« 
„:,I.,-H [l,u • ,r,.,,i,iii ■ jiiid ' aolBi ' Hgreein^ with Weichert (Lecl 
,«li.,'U U„i ,vidL'iitlv «cr,. not in 45 aqq.). thints tbe™ ia noth 

iritiii.i . 1- 1 . i.i.iii :ii:Ui ct tcre- eloneuts, one of which ia tho jai 
ii 1 . . . ■.UiLTuiit, na. TliP SchoUoats, it ia obi 

il : 1 1 -1 ... . .1, |iiiUrioa' tliej Dppenr only to hnve ^t 


SATIRARUM I. 8. 859 

Abjecto instrumento artis clausaque taberna, 

Sutor erat, sapiens operis sic optimus omnis 

Est opifex solus, sic rex. Vellunt tibi barbam 

Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces, 

Urgeris turba circum te stante miserque 135 

Rumperis et latras, magnorum maxime regum. 

Ne longum faciam : dum tu quadrante lavatum 

Rex ibis neque te quisquam stipator ineptum 

Praeter Crispinum sectabitur, et mihi dulces 

Ignoscent si quid peccaro stultus amici, ] 40 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter^ 

Privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 

t Alfenins was dead when the Satire privacyaiidbetterbBthingand attendance. 

• wriiten. It merely means, that thoagh The ' quadrans/ which was the fonrth of 

tbrew np his trade, he still continned an * as,' and therefore the 64th part of a 

^ (potentially) a ' sutor ' or * tonsor/ * denarins,' afler the reduction of the ' aa,' 

cberer ia right. [Comp. Xenophon, to -^ of that coin, was of the valne of abont 

X&. iii. ^ Kol yAp &<rw(p 6 KiOapi{tiv half a farthing of onr money, taking the 

^9, Koi ihy ftii Kt$api(v, KiBapiar^fis valne of the ^denarius' at 8|(f. [The pas- 

t» ftc.1 Cunningham, Sanadon, Fea, sage in Jnvenal, ' nec pneri credunt, niri 

izi«ke [Ritter] have 'tonsor.' qui nondum aere lavantur' (Juvenal, 8. ii. 

33. Vellumi tibi barham] The Bomans 152), has sometimea been misunderstood.] 

^ih period did not usually wear beards. As Becker says, Juvenal means children 

tthosewho affected philosophy letthem who have not yet beon sent to the publio 

i^w, and were hooted by the boys in the baths (Gallus, £xc on the Baths^. The 

^sts (8. ii. 3. 17). Bomans were great bathers. If oathing 

137. dmm iu qnadrante lavatum'] In could be made for onr poor a ' res quadran- 

^veitibiile of the public baths of Pom- taria' (Seneca, Ep. 86), the public health 

fi was found a box, stated by Sir W. in large towns would be much benefited. 
(Otohavebeenfor receivingthebathers' 139. Crispinum'] See S. i. 1. 120 n. 

e. *Qnadrante lavari' (Juvenal, S. vi. The body-^uards of kings were called 

T^waaanexpressionequivalenttotaking * stipatores." Horace therefbre uses the 

pQbUe bath, becanse a 'quadrans' was word ironically in that seuse. For 'et 

) ordinary ram paid by each visitor. mihi,' some MSS. have * at mihi.' ' £t ' ia 

t tt may be inferred from Horace's better; itjoins 'ignoscent' with ^patiar' 

rds that they who paid this sum were and ' vivam.' 

therichersortofbatherB; forhe seems [140. gtuliui'] 'Stultus' is opposed to 

•y, 'while yon, a fine king as you are, the Stoic ' rex.' ' If I, who am considered 

aod bathe for a quadrans.' The rich a madman (by the Stoics), shall oompiit any 

f periiapa hare paid more and had more faulfj 

SATIRARUM I. 4. 361 


eat was the liberty wberewith thoee worthies of the Old Comedy set their mark npon 
Lhe vidoiu, SDd them Ladlins has copied ; a man of wit and perception, but a barsh 
rernfier ; caring Um for the qnality of his versea than the qnantity ; fhll of words and 
Enll of &nlt8, which he was too haj to avoid. Aa to yonr qnantity» I care not for 
bhat ; and when Crispinns challenges me at great odds to try which of na can write 
^ckest, I decUne the invitation, and thank heaven that I am a man of qniet tem- 
penment and few words. He may go on puffing and blowing like a pair of bellows, 
bat that is not in my way. 

21.) Fannins gets a testimonial from his admirers, while no one will read what I 
inite (and I am too nervous to recite it in public), because men do not like to have 
tiheir firalts exposed, and there are few who are not open to blame. Take any man 
cmt of ft crow^ he is avaiidons, or ambitious, or lecherous, or he dotes npon fine plate 
or fine statneB» or is runmBg abont the world to make his fortnne. All snch are 
afraid of verses like mine, and hate those who write them. ** Take care of him ; he 
!■ dangerous; all he cares for is to get up a langh and amnse the old women and 
duldren at the expense of his friends." 

• 88.) Kow let me say a word in reply. In the first place I do not profess to be a 
poefe. 8ix feet in a verse which otherwise is mere prose, this does not make a poet, 
Vnt genins, inspiration, and sublime language. And this has led some to qnestion 
ivlMther comedy is poetry, seeing that the language and ideas are all those of com- 

life. There are your fiMihers, for instance, soolding their sons, just as you may 
every day ; moreover you may shuffle the worda as you please in true poetry 
vithoat altering the sense, but that is not the case with Lndlius' language and mine 
(yoQ mnst read it as yon wonld prose, or you make nonsense of it). 

• 68.) Bnt this qnestion I may discuss dsewhere. My present pnrpose is to show that 
joa have no reason to be afrdd of this sort of writing. There are yo\ir informers 
wbo go abont and are the terror of aU rog^es : the honest man may despise them. 
Baty even snpposing you are tbe rog^e, I am no informer. I have no desire to have 
Biy books thnmbed by the vulgar, or to read them to any but my friends, and that 
oalj when prest. There are many I g^rant you who bawl their verses in the forum 
«nd in the pnblic baths, but they are mere blockheads. " But we know you love to 
•nnqj, and do it with malicious intent/' How can you charge me with this P Nay, 
the man who slanders his friend behind his back, or fails to defend him from the 
fbnder <^ others, who aims only at being called a wit, who invents fiilsehood and 
Uabi aeeTOtfl, that man is a sooundrel; let every bonest dtizen avoid him. I have 
often been at table when one of the company has amused himself with breaking his 
wit npon the gnests, not sparing the host himself when he gets warm ; now this man 
jon IooIl upon as a funny fellow, while for my innocent satire I am called malignant» 
wntstic, and so forth. When your fricnd Petillius is mentioned yon defend him 
«fter yoor own fhshion, that is, you damn him with a sneer, the veriest pdson, which 
dnn neTer be fbnnd, if I know myself at all, in any thing I may write. 

r. 108.) If I have spoken a little too freely of others, I may be pardoned on this gronnd : 
my caoeOent fkther always taught me by examples. If he would have me live fru- 
gdJty, he would say, " Look at the misery to which our f^iend Albins' son and Bamxs 
hsveredQced themselves by their extravagance." When he wonld keep me from bad 
"Tike Soetanius for a waming." " See what scandal attaches to Trebonius^" 
men may teach you by preccpt and theory : my care shall be to watch over 
jonr pmetioe till yon are able to take care of yourself." If he wonld have me do 
■fimetiiing that was right, he would take one of the judices and say, " There is an 
finr yoo.** On the other hand, if he wonld prevent me firom doing something 


lnbboiir tnmtd lo Ibe >^ve, to joung ponoD» aa oftcn kept fro 
iiv it briDgi upon otbcr»." Snch waa the trainitig thiit hu m»dt 
1 from griLri! fBuIta, if not froni Tenial, and eren tbese will cJii 
.1 reflcction, whitli I iiractiiie erery dny. When [ hsTO leisnrf 
.'i Into wHting, whii-h is oiie of m; little m>s; foi •rbich »□. if i 
ioivnnce, 1 Bbn]] bring all mj pack to help De. uid wc iihiill tnili 

i'OLTS atqne Cratinus AriatophaDesque poetae, 

|Uf alii (juonini comoedia prieea virorum est, 

|iiis erat iligiius deserilii quod malus ac fur, 

ikI uioffliiis foret aiit siuarius aut alioqui 

iinsus, multa cum libertate notabagt, i"^ ;^X 

.11, afque Crali^Hn Arhlopha- about B.O. 230. Schlegol (1 
lipse three reprpnent the Old Loct. tIL) denieB theeiirteore ■ 
livhifh tliey Wcro thc Bcknow. Comedy, wilh wbicb .|ue«tiou 

\-s: Aiiit«phnDe« tanipn et Eu- that Homee fiiea on Iho Comoi 
iiusi[ne jinietipni ;" auij Persiu» becanae the snbacqnent phn; 
:— Oreek Comie DramB were uol < 
■ . . m > r f piTsonallv Botiricsl oist. the licei 

\ . 


omnis pendet Lucilius^ hosce secutus 
tis tantum pcdibus numerisque, facetus, 
ictae naris, durus componere versus. 
fuit hoc vitiosus : in hora saepe ducentos 
lagnum versus dictabat stans pede in uno. 
flueret lutulentus, erat quod toUere velles ; 


^. ». .i •'►-■"' 


;o - ^ r 

y^ altered from the true, would 
isions eqnally intelligible and 
)U8. Neithcr of these pse- 
l more than a couple of years. 
1 n., on * notare.' 
tnU pendet Lucilius^ 'Hinc' 
thcm/ B8 * unde' is elsewhere 
eference to persons. What 
of Lncilius is this : that his 
th was laid ont on the satir- 
! in living persons; that he 
itatcd the writcrs of the Old 
{ changing their metre ; that 
and acutc, but harsh in his 
wordy and sometimes vulgar, 
ce of the hastc with which he 
is impatience of the trouble 
. As Horace must huve bcen 
I Lucilius' writingSy this de- 
.y be taken as correct. It 
:y on tho facc of it as far as 
le criticism touchcs only the 
the critic could not be mis- 
• not to be supposcd to have 
b he says below (S. 10. 3) the 
nis admirer of Lucilius conld 
t his st} le was imcouth. He 
idds that Tiucilins loved to 
}k words with his own lan- 
), that he was good tempercd, 
ling his satiri<»l vein (v. 53), 
iit he was very unrcserved and 
1. 30—34). This is valuable 
the character of Lucilius and 
Other writers have neither 
to it nor succcssfiilly im- 
The fragments of Lucilius are 
mable us to form a very accn- 
, but in Bome points (such as 
nixture of Greek and Latin) 
.t Horace's statements about 
ire useful oontributions to the 
nnan literature. 
9 iantum pedibus'] The writ- 
.ius appear to have been veiy 
1 by the grammarians into 
I, of wluch two-thirds were 
ezameter verse, and the rest 
3 and trochaic measures. 
tae narit'] "Signiiicat sapi- 
) oontrRrio mnngosum stultum 
' (Aeron). Porphyrion takes 

the words with ' vcrsus/ and explains them 
to signify "elegantes et decentes;" the 
error therefore of ForccIIini noticed by 
Orelli was not original. 'Mungosus,' 
Acrmi's word, is not in the lexicons. 
*'Emunctae naris' is one who has his nofle 
well wiped, and is therefore no driveller. 
Phaedrus explains it (iiL 3. 14). 

*' Aesopus ibi stans naris emunctae senex, 
Natura nunquam verba cui potuit dare." 

' Emungere ' is used by the comio writers 
for 'cheating/ as in the fragment from 
the Epiclerus of Caedlius. (Cioero de Am. 

"Hodie me ante omnes comicos stultoe 
Versaris atque emunxeris lautissime." 

" To wipe a man's nose for him, is to im- 
ply that he is a driveller who cannot do it 
for himself, and henco it mcans to 'outwit' 
and to 'chcnt' him" (Long in loco). 
Others explain ' emunctae naris ' as ' keen 
sccnted/ like a hound. [Compare 'pur- 
gatam aurem/ £p. i. 1. 7: 'durus com- 
ponere ;' see C. i. 1. 18 note.] 

10. versus dictabaf^ See S. 10. 92 n. 
The words ' stans pede m uno ' mean ' with 
the utmost facility,' or ' standing at ease,' 
as we might say. Heindorf compares the 
expression with the Greek proverbial 
phrases ti\^ iro9i, iK 9vo79f wo9oty, i^i^lw 
iroio^y, meauing with aU one's might ; the 
first of which is quoted by QuintUian as a 
rustic saying (xiL 9 fin.) : " Itaqne in hiB 
actionibus omni, ut agricolae dicunt, pcde 
standum est." ['In the most careless 
posture and attitude' (HeindQirf ) ; but to 
stand on one foot is the most difficult of 
attitudcs. Horace may mean to say that 
Lucilius could dictate two hundred verses 
in an hour, and stand on one foot all the 
time, which would make the performanoe 
still more wondcrfnl ; or standing on one 
foot may mean that he was paying more 
attention to this difficult feat than to the 
composition of his verBea. Lastly» ' stand- 
ing on one foot' may mean simply ' resting 
on one foot/ whicn is the attitnde of a 
man who is at ease, and not bnsy abont 
any thing.] 

11. Ctttnjlueret lutmleniue] 'Lntnlen- 

■■'1 "" SA* 

luliis atque piger seribendi ferre laborem, 
ibfndi recte : Dam ut multum nil moror. EcCBj 
-jiinus minimo me provocat : " Accipe, si via, >*i 
■ipiam tabulas; ddur iiobis loeus, hora, 
tude^; videamus uter pluB Bcribere posdt." 
i bonc fecurunt inopis me quodque pnBJlli 
xtTunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis. 

ilflincd tiy Acron aa •' BOrdLdi» ; of cliidlengp ; uid I^mbmiH ■ 
liuin lui^ulmtus." «hitl. «iiU. thBScholi»sI*:CraqQia.dD««no 
LiitiiuL>B liio uotious, liirtinea» qu'ilea a SfholiQm whiob gi»H 

bL'cnllk(.'uinu<)d>'stri.'um. The vemHo." ' He oaera me th 
doubt, Foni])rtlieiids drfcfts of odd«' it the meaniii^ accordii 

5 MiiU miniuilhi r|iinc vclis iudo aa hii own conjectnre ■nuiiiino 
il jiPi lii!- l,.(1iiT.." (1'orph.). iiinio,' a« Bigniljing that Crispi 
.] k;-]\. -!■■■'!■:'■■■ '. \r:--u^. Cru- poor he could onlj atake ■ aea 

.'i.-' ■ ■'■ - J'|.irc- do not see anj poiiit ia Bnch Bn 

1)1. ' '.'i.iitiliun thc maii't povert;. Hii coDtide 
vii 1 -iijtioqui tOTY ia the nmtter Horace mea 


■ / 




>w .- . - 

Mf ^ 




^ t. f».C5. 

V *■ 

^»" SATIRARUM I. 4. 

'T H^^t^llA 44^tru>^ X^A-*-»"^! 

At I3} conclnsas hircinis follibns aoras^ 

Usque laborantes duni f^rjfum molliat ignis^ 

Ut mavis imitare/^ Beatus !Pannius ultro 

Delatis capsis et imagine ; cum mea nemo 

Scripta legat volgo recitare timentis ob hanc reni, " 

Quod sunt quos genus hoc minime juvat, utpotc plures 

Cul par i dignos. Quemvis media erue turba : 25 

Scholiasts say abont Fanniur bust havmg 
been placed in thc various public libraries 
is not inconsistent with U9age. Asinins 

Pollio built a library a.u.c. 715, or there- 

FoUe ^U rentoi nec clauao murmure *5^"<^ and placed in it portraits and buste 
YfojlcaM," &c. vanous distinG^ished men (Plm. H. N. 

•>. * . -■ f». . -n . . '^"' c. 30), and the practice was thencefor- 

21. BetUm» JVi»»m«] This Fannms la ^ard observed not ouly in thepublic libra- 
spoken of in another place (8. 1. 10. «0) as rfes, but in those of pnvate persons. Mar- 
s ooQtemptible person and a parwite of tial, writing to his friend Avitus, sends 
Hermogenes Tigemua (S. 8. 129 n.). The i^in, an inscription for his own bust, which 
SeholiaflU ny that he had the cognomen Avitus was going to put with others in 

QoadTatiis : that he was a poet full of ]^\^ Hbrary : 

words and fl[^y: that the Senate made _ 

him • pieient of some 'capsae' (book-boxes) " Hoo- tibi sub nostra breve carmen imagine 

;. J14 

.. ' 

(•» l/aitf 

^ 19. J^ tn eoneluMcu'] Perdua imitates 
, thLsS^v. 10: 

^A* ig BBCfae anhelanti coquitur dum massa 
^ camino 


and m bust of himself ; that when he was 
dying he desired hia books and book-cases 
to be bnmt publidy ; othcrwise, that he 
was ft writer of Satirc, and childless, and 
that eertain persons, hoping to be remem- 

Quam non 



obscuris jungis, Avite, 

(ix. 1.) 

23. volffo recitare timentW] See note 
on V. 73. The usage which leaves the 

bered in hia will, got his busts and his personal pronoun to be inferred from the 

books depodted in the public libraries, to possessive is common both in Greek and 

which bononr his own mcrits did not en- Latin. (C. iii. 22. 6.) Compare Arist. 

title them. Wherever all this came from, piat. 32 : 

it isof oo valnefor determining Horace'8 % . % « . ^ .. « / .v 

mcMiing. Lambinus foUows the ScholiasU it" ^M^»;/*'' ««'tov roy rakanr^pou ex^9hp 

lofiunS to snppose that Fannius was ho- ^^^» "^^^^f"" ^«TCTo^vcreat filo^, 

iMmred by a spontaneons present (' ultro :' and Ovid (Ueroid. v. 45) : " Et flesti, et 

lee C. ir. 4. 51 n.) on the part of tho nostros vidisti flentis ocellos." 'Timeb' 

" popalos dve senatus " of a set of book- and ' metuo ' do not govem an infinitive 

raus and a bnst, as a mark of public re- luood in the prose writings of Horace^s 

^weC And Tnmebus says, "Fannium day. 'Vereor'is usedin that constraction. 

lifisrio qoem poetam cujus libros Romani Torrentius asks why Horaeo's works should 

ei snnsrio et capaa, ipsum imagine dona- not be read because he was afraid to recite 

lut» pflme lefelicem praedicat." But who them in public ? Was it bccause the multi- 

ever hesrd of snch a thing P and who was tude follow popular applause which is drawn 

this Fsnnios that be shonld have been forth by public display ? The reason Ho- 

thns distingoished ? It appears probable, race gives is the same that deters him from 

ftom Horooe^s words, that Fannius had his reciting his pocms, that no one likes to see 

^dmif e i B » as rant and emptiness will always any more than to hear his own vices ex- 

hoTe^ and that they made him a present, poscd. People nre not at all fond of ' genus 

by wmj of a testimonial as it is called, of a hoc,' this satirical sort of writing, becnuie 

aei of handsome ' oapsae' and a bust. The most are opcn to blame. He has particular 

* capsA ' was a nmnd box snited to hold one classes, or persons perhaps, in his eye, when 

or more roUed Tolnmes. The larger sort he says ' sunt quos ' (C. i. 1. 3 n.) ; but he 

%ras caned 'acrininm.' (See Smith'8 Dict. speaks otherwise generally. That Horace 

Ant.) Neither 'capeae' nor 'scrinia' must wrote many pieces which have not been 

ho ooolbiuided with ' armarla,' which were preserved, appears to me clear from this 

eopboMd^ not boxes, bnt dso nsed for passage and v. 71 sqq. See Introduction. 

hooks» thoogh Dotconfinedto that purpofle 25. Quemviemedia erue turha'] Orelli, 

•nj moio than 'capsse' were. IVnat the who adopts ' erae,' does not givc the MS. 


iit cili avaritiam aut misera ambitione laborat. 
ii' nuinanim insanit amoribuB, hic puerornm; «^ 
uni.' cujiit argetiti splendor; stupet Albiue aere ; *■ 
K muliit merces sursjente a sole ad eum quo 
t^spertina tepet regio ; quin per mala praeceps v . 

r Fa nOfflM ™ MSS KennnidertheerilBtbatmn» 

ur 1) r) th V Tlo winiil ambilion. and the eag 

rua 1 urhich pl>c«* of honour wete t 

a hnt tiniegof thcKcpublic. isnot s 

V diu ^. Sune capU argenti ipli 

on I iincl other veraeli curioiiilj 

"d to silvpr and CoriathUn bronw 

W, bnt cofltly (racli u JaTenal deecril 

11 ba tuted " Argcntam»etn*,etBtsnt«nii 

Hi Three of capnim ") were iraong the niBi 

h n nli bbe eitravHgance at Bome. Tho i 

U i dxM no to fur such ivorks of axt. mie 

k bcen puativelfharmlEMifitdidiui 

n wdgoas mta diihonest wivb of scqniriiL 

u d ^ng bcggaring their fiiniiliea, at Al 

u h Ucn whom the ScholiBst» loll ui nol 

ni u ng of lOTi ia mentioncd below (v. 10! 

T ni luhnp amjop in n-aDt throngh hb father^a ei 

Q n d t e stu futher to 1» suffcnDg for the 
p vuKnncc, tbc fiithcr bang no 

I ^ . •■ f ^ J 

». * 


SATraARUM I. 4. 367 

Fertur uti polvis collectus turbiue^ ne quid 
Summa deperdat metueks auti amplietjut rem^ 
Omnes^i metuunt versus, odere poetas. ^" "^ * 

" Foenum habet in comu ; longe fuge : dummodo risum 7^ , * ^ 
Excutiat sibi^ non hic cuiquam parcet amico ; 35 

£t quodcunque semel chartis illeverit omnes 
. Gestiet a fumo redeuntes scire lacuque 

^ ^^ . Et pueros et anus.'' Aggdumj pftuna acgip ^ contrg^ . 

^ . * Primum e go m e illoru m dederim quibus esse poetis c\'-" 

S4. Ibemnm hahei in eomu] " Romae writers like myBelf among poets (tbe wonl 

tatem Tidemiu hodie qnoque focnum velut assumcd above, " Omnes hi metunnt ver- 

•nsoUm factom inoomulobovis" (Porph.). sus, odere po^'tas," v. 83). This quuBtiou ,,- 

AUwofthe XII tables gave an action to occupics twcnty-fonr verscs, after which 

iDj Buin who was injured by another pcr- hc rctums to the main point, which is the 

mq'8 animal : " Si qnadrupes pauperiem odium attaohing to writcrs of SSatirc. In 

fcciae dicator" (Dig. 9. tit. l^, where this line ' poetas ' appcars in all the M8S. 

"ptaperieaeat damnumsineinjunafacien- and cditions till Bentlcy, who restorcd 

tiidatam." It became customary therefore the reachng *pootLs/ N. Hcinsius having, 

te nark in ox or other animal of vicious without Ik*ntley'8 knowledge, dono the 

popeDiitiea in such a way as to wnm pan- Rame. Tlie Scholiasts found * poetas/ and 

KBgers, and enable them to gct out of the Porphyrion on S. 6. 25, " Quo tibi, Tilli, 

**J« Heace tbe proverb " he has a wisp of Sumere depositum clavum iieriqne tri- 

■yonhishom." Plut. (Crassus, c. 7) says, buno?" where the MSS. vary bctwccn the 

'*^»*i«f "Kfht rhv ^Mvra rl 8^ fidfoif oi dative and accusativc, adopts thc fonncr 

•*^pilrr« rhp Kpdtra-ot^, x^f^ov ^x***' ^ve)!^ case, but says the Inttcr would Imvc hccn 

^^ K4paros. He adds in another pluce the simplcr construction. The Scholium of 

( Tniiert .Bom. p. 281), ov /btV ^A.' tampov Cmquiui»'Coramcututor, on the passagc just 

^^X^ vdAiv (ri Kpdtraov Kcutrof» it^jip^ictt quoted, is " • tibi Tribuno ' dixit elegiintcr 

^ Xh^w, iarr4arji yitp ainhs irpioroi iw ct figurate ut supra ' dcdcrim quibus esse 

^'A^cff Koi itart^p6in\at. In illustra- poetis ;' " which rcmark is attributod by 

^ of the proverb he qnotes a fragmcnt of Bentley and OrcIIi to Acron, but does not 

^^l^hoeleB : — appeiir in Ascensius' tcxt of that Scholiast. 

•* W oifMCui w&Xos &s ^h^op^ia, \^ ^« ^»"* probably from anothcr Imnd ; 

HjTib Ti T^ aov Koi yvdBos itKipns^ ^°'" *^® reniark contradicts the comnieutary 

'^ of both thesc Scholiusts on the pass.nge 

'Dninmodo risom excutiat sibi' corre- beforc us, whcre thc reoding 'poetus' is 

tpoad» almott in words with Aristotle*8 dc- cxprcssly assumed. Nevcrthelcss I belicve 

iffiptiOD of the bnfToon (Nic. Eth. iv. 14) : the dutivc to be right thongh all the kuown 

' M fimfi6Koxos ^rrttif iarl rov ytXotov MSS. are against it. Like instunces are 

«■] a$r9 4avrov offrc rw &X\»v &t(x^- S. i. 1. 19: **atqui licctcdsc bcatis;" i. 2. 

lupat €l y4x»tra woiiiau. <Fumus'i8thc 51: 'Mnnnifico esse licet;'' A. P. 372: 

bake*lioaiie to which the lower sort of " Mcdiocribus esse poctis Non I)i non ho- 

people» old women and children, carricd mincs non concessere columnac." Hcindorf 

their breed to be baked [or they bought it has * poetns ' [and Ritter]. The exprcssion 

tbcre]. ' Lacua ' were tanks distributed * concludcrc versum ' is repeated bclow (S. 

throngh the dty, into which water was 10. 59) : " si quis pcdibus quid cluuden; 

oonveyed trom the aqueducts, and to which scnis." "Sermoni: quotidiano" (P<)r])h.), 

poorer pertODS resorted for water. See which word is suppliod in Cic. (Onit. 20) : 

Terenee (Adelph. iv. 2. 45) : " Apud ipsum '* Video visum cssc nonnullis Piutonis ct 

lacmn est pistrilUi " (a com-mill). Dcmocriti locutionem, etsi absit u vcrsu, 

38. Agedmm'] ' Dnm,' as an cnclitic, sig- tamcn quod incitatius fcratur ct clurissimis 
nifiee 'awhile;' 'agednm/ *come a mo- vcrlmrum luminibus utatur, potins poema 
ment.' (See Key^s L. G. 1448 d.) putandam quum couiicorum poctanim, 

39. jPrimmmaffomeilloruin'} 'Primum' apud quos, nisi quod versiculi sunt, nihil 
neenfl * in tbe tot phioe, bcfore I begpn, est aliud quotidiani dissimile sennonis." 
lefc me ^ipoie of the fidlacy which classes Hence the name ' Sermones ' givcn to the 

SATIRARUM I. 4. 369 

Qiiem si dissolvas, quivis stomachetur eodem j^ ^^ 65 

Qluo personatus j)acto patcr. His ego quae nune, 

Dlim quae scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

rempora certa modosque, et quod prius ordine verbum cst 

Posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis, 

N"oTi . ut si solvas " Postquam Discordia tetra 60 

Belli ferratos postes portasque r^fregit " -^ ^* * ' ► ''^ •'* • - 

[nvenias etiam disjecti membra poetae. 

Hactenus haec : alias justum sit necne poema^ 

Nunc illud tantum quaeram, meritone tibi sit *:.'.■ - 

Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acer - 65 

AnibuTat et Caprius rauci male cumque libetlis, 

B^ag^nus uterque timor latronibus ; at beuQ^si quis 

Et vivat puris manibus contemnat utrumqueT" j'^-'> 

Ut sis tu similis Caeli Birrique latronum, 

Non ego sum Capri neque Sulci : cur metuas me ? 

N^ulla tabema meos habeat neque pila libellos, 

'%. '^ :V 

' m. J 


^» ^ 


t .!•« »• 

lion for plain langraage free from 
■* «^cr onuuuent. Terencc (Heaut. 

laboriofia est, ad me curritur : 
est, ad alium defertur gregem. 
*c «t pora oratio." 

L Qdliiu (ziii. 28) Quadrigariu9 the 
*xi ii mentioned as a man *' modesti 
ptiri ac prope quotidiani scrmoni.H." 

(^enr. ii. 4. 22) speaks of ' puruui 
^m,' plate with the ornamental work 

oflT. 'Poni' ifl a various reading 
^hn • in A. P. 99 : " Non satia cst 
^ MW podmata; dulcia sunto.'' 
^QQatiu:' the father on the stage, 
^ tbe player assumes the ' persona ' 
*eUr) at a father. See S. i. 2.^.] 
*^^Mtfmam DUcordia Uira'] Tho 
|^*iti imply that this is^a verse of 
'^ bot Uiey do not say from what 
* k ii taken : '* Non eandcm gravi- 
^ i&Yaiies qnam in Knnii verHU ct 
^ wlnto" (Acron). Virgil (Acn. i. 
|ki '*cUadentnr l)elli i^ortnc." As 
«potitioD of 'non' bcc S i. 6. 1. 
L tliatjutimm git neene poHma] The 
tion ii not retnmed, though Horacc 
Mt aappoee that his arguments havc 

iittled it. (See Argument.) 

Mcimf aeer ambnfat et Capriut] 
\ perionB are nid by the S<:holiast8 to 
pabKc informcrs or ' cuusidici ' 
TC^Qnt faisse causarum/' 
), siid to have made themselvi^s 
) «ilh rattring in the Courta. Thi> 

* lilKjlli ' thcy carried were their note- 
hooks. 'Ambulat' signifies their strut- 
ting through thc strccts with the oon- 
8ci<>urine«3 tliut men were atraid of them. 
Tlie palmy days of the 'dclatores' had 
not yet come, but they were sufficiently 
abunduut in Horace's timc. [Ritter thinks 
tliat thcse men were officers of the acdileSf 
nnd that they arrcstcd thieves and rob- 
bcrs.] • U t Ris,* * say that/ or * though 
you bc/ which rcquires the indicative in 
tlie next verse, where the greatcr part of 
thc MSS. und editionit have 'non ego sim ' 
[which Ritter und Bentloy have]. 

[(>6. rauci malel 'Quite hoarse.' In 
S. ii. 5. 45, 'validuM malo ' is 'not strong;' 
in S. i. 3. 45, *male parvus* is 'very 
small,' and *malc luxns,' S. i. 3. 31, is 

* very loosc.' In C. i. 9. 24, ' male perti- 
naci' is * unresisting,' or * half-resisting.' 
In some pasHagen then ' male ' expresses 
cxcesiiive defect : in othcrs, defect in good 

71. JyuUa (aherna meos haheat"] The 
' tabema ' wa.s sometimes nnder a porticus, 
in which casc thc titles of the books for 
sale within were hung upon the columns 
('pilae') in iront. Horace alludes to this 
wheu he says (A. P. 372) : ** Mediocribus 
essc poetis Non Dii, non homines, non con- 
ce«»Here columnae," which means that in- 
ditfercnt pocts would uot be patronized by 
t Ik; booksellcrs. Martinl adviscs hia fricnd 
Lnpercus to buy a copy of his Epigrams 
at tlie shop of Atrectus : 

" Contni Cacflaris est fomm tabcma, 



^ A 


\i>c rnL'ito cuiqiiam nisi amicis, idque coactus, 
ioii iibivi!^ coramye quibuelibet. In medio qni 
luripta foro recitt-nt sunt multi quique lavant«B: 

loc juvat, liaiid iiludtiuaererites, num sine sensu, 
'cmpore uiim fuciant alieno. " Laedere gaudes," 

:ie ncistibns liinc ct mde totii, ' and itinovinH; n^Igliboiirs w1 
-, ,.t dto i«.rlcir«s poeta* " (i. IIB). Uaed themKUe.. I do not 
■k-f of liU l..,k be suys «■■ Bve '• nglit 'n «aociating tLi. 
i' (j,l,„„l tlir.-« Hnd siipence). the reciUtiooi sbove refer 
(lijilbi-, Km-. (.11 tli.' Iii«ik-..!lrn.) ".vinp "qui rel in medio 
, i|,,i r .> . ri„ 1 r.' 1... 1.. ...1,. ilenipta hypCTboln eoram mii 

".,.','.; Il..m« mcaus litemlly in 
.i..] ,1,, .- ..... .; 1,,. rj'... l;.., i,..r Uri.|li Bupiwsea « kaot otfriei 

■n.r-i:«.-r. il.l.,-.,! .ki.i,-..,-. .1 "n tUc '6cLoIa' roond the 

"" "" " "" '■'«■■""'- -"'■''■ ;';; sr %^C. 

\>e rfcYn ™;vr,„m1 Soiiie MSS., pmjJe to rit or w«lli on ron 
.,iilt h. l.i.inl,ri,i.-, I.rri! ■ uec ivd- p'ii«™llj, not merely TOQnd 1 

,;',r,i, H, ,' ,.-. I,. uiuiiiMin whicli wa< a bath «f ■ma: 

,;u .,, ■ 'luibpat,' «ttarlied to tha principal 1 
■ "r..wii MSS. B«ker-i «.llus. E.C. -on 

■ . ! .iir „f Liim- On tlitse '«hoUe' people » 

„l,.i. . : ■ ., r,.,r.,,' tUc ra- a"<l conceiti^d autha» coiilr 

7to c/ -.t^^ jl «L.> . ^„ ,c ^ ^ ^ ^ ._ 

A.»«i ^^f m ki. iJvJtjt^f^ 


»f. ■- 

SATIRARUM I. 4. 871 

In^uit, " et hoc studio pravus faQJs/' Unde petitum 

Hoc in me jacis ? Est auQ^r quis denique eorum 80 

Vixi cum quibus? Absentem qui rodit amicum, ^/^ ' "' "V ■ -'• ^ ^. 

Qui non defendit alio culpante, solutos ^'t /^;, 
Qui captat risus hominum famamque dicacis, u^ 

Fingere qui non visa potest, cofhmiSto tacere ' - .-^^' ;- . '. "•^''' 
Qui nequit; hic nigej* est, nunc tu, Romane, caveto. 85 

Saepe tribus lectis videas coenare quaternos, ^ ,.,^ 

n -v* 

E quibus unus amet quavis adspergere cunctos 

Praeter eum qui praebet aquam; post hunc quoque potus, •^'^ ■' 
1_ Condita cum verax aperit praecordia Liber. 
Z,, Hic tibi comis et urbanus liberque videtur 90 

Infesto nigris. Ego si risi quod ineptus 

Pastillos Buiillus olet, Gargonius hircum, " . ^ » . . , \ , . 

lavidus et mdrdax videor tibi? Mentio si qua 

De Capitolini furtis injecta Petilli 

ibBr Mid before, tv. 84—88, he now re- MSS., and I have no donbt that is the 

Citi. I think Ritter is right, and that right word, inthe same sense as '*ambram 

JMb' withont any farther argument hospitalem consociare amant" (C. ii. 8. 

vOTtt tbat he is right.] 10) : " Quavis : qna ratione vis " (Acron). 

80l Btt ametor quis denique eoruni\ * Qui praebet aquam ' is the host '* qui 

fbe eoDmentatore take ' quis ' variously aquam temperat ignibns.'' See C. iii. 19. 

• n mterrogative or an enclitic. The 6 n. ; S. ii. 2. 69. On ' vcrax Liber/ see 

(tboKaits take it in the fonner sense. C. i. 18. 16. A fragment of Alcaens (56 

UBdorf and OrelH in the latter. Doeriug Bergk) runs ohos & ^i\t ira? icai i,\d0fa, 

Mvci it an open question. Ab to 'auctor/ which the Scholiast on Plato (p. 377, 

10 C L 28. 14 n. Bekker) speaks of as a proverb. Theo- 

Si cowtwUesa tacere qui nequif] This, critus (29. 1) uses Alcaeus' words, adding 

^bA b too commonly softened into a \4ytTcu. ** In viuo veritas " is the well 

iilnMi, the inability to keep a secret, known Latin equivalent. Compare A. P. 

oraee ym jnitly marks as one of the 434 : *' Reges dicuntur multis nrgere cu- 

Qit prominent sig^a of a mischievous lullis Et torquere mero qucm perspexisse 

•raeter. C.iiL2.25n. On'Romane/ kborant." And Epp. i. 18. 38: "Com- 

I C iiL 6. 2 n. missumque teges et vino tortus et ira." 

861 Saepe trihue lectit] This wonld be 5. 16 : " Quid non ebrietas designat ? 

nmiially large party at one table. operta recludit." 

m oo eadi ' lectus tricliniaris ' was the 92. Pastillos Rufillus olef] This verse 

mI iuimber when the table was full. is quoted from a fomier Satire (2. 27), only 

! 8. H. 8. 20 n. to show the innocent snbjects with which 

)7. JB gmibus unus amef\ Some of Fea*s Horace^s satire dealt. 
18. aiid Uiree qnoted by Orelli, have 94. De CapitoUni furtis'] ** Petillius 

nii' for 'nnos,' and Fea adopts it, Capitolinus cum Capitolii curam ageret 

itiiig Epp. L 18. 10, "imiderisor lccti;*' coronae subreptae de Capitolio causam 

I PetroDiua (c 88), " Vides iUum qui in dixit, absolutusqne a Caesare est " (Por- 

» imiii recnmlnt ? " But this does uot pbyrion). *' Cnjns amicus erat," adds 

▼e that Horace conld have said ' imus Cruquius' Scholiust, who says he was called 

vita' to repreaent any one individuul Cupitolinus froni his imputcd offencc. But 

belbarwhowere reclining on the 'iwus this was a cognomen of the Petillia gens. 

m.' [Bitter has 'avet'], which wus Lambinus mentions having seen at Bome 

noAred reading, and that of all tlic a silver coin, having on the reverse a re- 

fcioiis I have seen, aa well as of tlie prcscutation of the tcmplc of Jupiter Ca- 

loliAit Porpbyrion, tiU Bentley adopti d pitolinus, and the name of Petillius. On 

Ni' firooi one of (>aquiD8' BUndinian the obverse waB Jnpiter^s head with Capi« 

Bb 2 


^i'*.7 . 


■|' cnrnm fiiciit, JLTenJns ut tuus est mns- 
M-' C:i]jit'jlinus conviotore usub amicoque 
l [luoro e&t cinisaquc mea permulta rogatns 
■Vcit, et iHciiliimis laetor quod vu-it in urbej 
k-il tamcu admirur qiio paeto jadicuim illufl 
''iitferit." llic ni-rnif succua loiiginis, iracc est 
icnigo mcni. Uii'iii vitium proeul aibrc ehartia 
itijue atiimo prius, ut si quid promittere de me 
'oesum aliud, verc pronaitto. Liberius si ^" h"" 
lixero quid, si fort* jricosiHS.Tibfc mihi juris 
'iim veniu duiiis : insuevit patcr optimue lioc me, 
't iuKcrcm exemplis vitiorura quacque uotaudo. 
■um nie hortarftnr, paree, frugaliter, atquc 
.'ivcrcm uti cnnlentus eo quwl mi ipse parassct: " 
Noiinc vidcs Allji ut male vivat filiuB, utque 

nuiiiil it. Sudi H .'oiii l^ rppre- tiv? luwcH a< nii.!Qtcr<iei>iI^i 
in llii' iiiiliii' i'r iiii~ |M.'r«in iu UMmllf nn accMUdtive of th< 
l>ri ii...... i;.. -lurv of Uia diUiveofthething.wl.U'liord 

->..>..;. I.'. . . .] iiivsuted. in Vii|f. (Acii. vi. S3S1. •'! 

■"..-■- .■i<.uscbBrp) tanta >Dimis utmeKite IvlU 

.1111'.:. .i:.i :.. ■ ■ li,'tdiiinQt 109 wc havE " PluriboB iMi 

hi..|,i..i,,;, 1- .l,,., i,..,„ il,.- routcit. c.irp-.isi|ue" [He 

l^Li-K*^ .•m*.4ri,. 

SATIRARUM I. 4. 373 

Barrus inops? Magnum documentum ne patriam rem iio 

Perdere quis velit/' A turpi meretricis amore 

Cum deterreret : " Scetani dissimilis sis/' 

Ne sequerer moechas concessa cum venere uti 

Possem : '' Deprensi non bella est fama Treboni/' *^* t^7( "^ '^^ " ' " ^ 

Aiebat. " Sapiens vitatu quidque petitu 115-;) . , 

Sit melius causas reddet tibi : mi satis est si ^^t ^ .«. f - , » ^ V 

Traditum ab antiquis morem servare tuamque^ r-"*'/H •> ■ , 

Dum custodis eges, vitam famamque tueri 

Incolumem possum ; simul ac duraverit aetas ^tv^- ■ ' y 

Membra animumque tuum nabis sine cortice/' Sic me 120 

Formabat puerum dictis; et sive jubebat - ^^^ 

Ut facerem quid : " Habes auctorem quo facias hoc j^' 

Unum ex judicibus selectis objiciebat; '^ mt-.i:-); - jij^^.^y-» -**^^ 

Sive vetabat : " An hoc inhonestum et inutile factu^v; 


U^i ^Ui^ ••'<•;■... 

Sn. The MSS, and editions vary be- word for cducation. C.i. 10. 2: "Qaiferos 

«n the forms Barrus, Bartas» BHms, cnltas hominum recentam Yoce formasti." 

ros Kanu, Baius, of which the hist is See C. iii. 24. 64 n. 

itobethemostcommon. Estrc follows [^— jubebat ui facerem] Thia con- r^%^ 

aUej in reading Barus. [Ritter has struction is sometimes used even by prose *'^' 

lius.*] This person, at any rate, of whom writers.] "^*-^* ^n/ 

liing is known, must be distinguished 123. Unum ex judicibus telectW} Itwas ' '^ 

U tEe coxcomb in the sixth satire (v. thedutyofthePraetorUrbannsannuallyto 

. Bat thongh Bentley edits Barus, he selcct a certain number of persons whose 

poses the cracndation ' ut qni puuis names were rcgistered in the Album Judi* 

(»,' or ' farris inops,' out of his own cum Selcctorum, and from whom were 

d,— plainly an attempt to improve Ho- choscn by lot the * judices ' for each crimi- 

e. That a proper name was there in nal trial. It is uucertain whcther at tliis 

time of the oldest of the Scholiast«, time, or subsequently, their functions wero 

oi^ tppears from his note : ** Mira ur- extended to civil as well as criminal pnj- 

itate dam qnasi ostendit quomodo sc cecdings. Thc numbcr of theso 'judicos' 

3* laia monitis monere solitus esset in- vuricd. By the * Icx Servilia Glaucia 

1 moltos percntit." Scetanius (other- Rcpetundarum' it was fixcd at 450. The 

I Sectanios) is not more known than law that was in forcc at the time Horace 

ma. Trebonius appears to have bcen rcfcrs to wa« the ' Icx Aurelia,' (b.c. 70), 

bero of tome notorious bit of scandal, by which the Judices Selecti werc eligible 

toharepaidaseverepenaltyforhisvice. from tbe Scnators, fiquites, and Tribuni 

.5. Sapiens vUatu quidque petitu'} Aerarii. Thc changes that took place in 

ice*! fiiiher had no mind to refine npon respect to thc Judiccs, and the frequcnt 

Ibfmdation of morals, nor any pretcn- shifbing of the judicial power between tho 

I to A philosophical view of thesc mat- Scnate and the Equites, aro stated vcry 

f«»r Sapiens is the philosopher. Ue clearly in Mr. Long^s Excursus on the 

r that right was right and wrong was * Judicia' (Cic. in Verr. Orationes). IIo- 

f, and foUowed the beaten tnu-k, nnd race'8 fathcr, as plain men are wont, looked 

bave his son do the same. Uorace up with rcverence to the body in whom 

BMCa this, S. i. 6. v. 82 : — were vested such high functious ; but the 

4- r\^'j, _ 11. o 1* -. office was not an enviable one, nor always 

,.^1:^1^'^ pndicum, ^^^^ , exercised. See C. iv. 9. 39 n. 

^lSSri^^fvti™ '"^"^r^ "^^^ Asto^auctor,'8eeabove,v.80. ['Objicie. 

•^mn ikcto venim opprobno quoque ^^ , ^^ ^^^ ^^^ same sense as « pro^ne- 

^ bat :' Liv. iv. 51.] 

dder Horace wai no donbt a phtin 124. An hocinhonestum] Heindorfsays 

iUe BMB. < nn ' is hcrc put for ' utrum/ and opposed 

(!• Jf\Brmahaf\ Thb is Horace's usuul to * necnc' His editor Wustemanu corrects 


•■ -1- ^,»' 

«■no sit iiil.liil.ites, fliif^et rumqre nialo cum Y>* 
ii- iitque ilif?" Avid'iB vk-inum runus tfaogroB^ 
saiiimat, mortisque metu sibi paro^cogili j^ " 
io teuti'os iuiimoa iilieua opprobria Baepe — - "^ 
lislfrreiit vitiia. Ex hpc ego tianoe ab illif ^.^^ 
LTniuiem quaeciiiKiue ferunt, mediocribus et qmB ^ 
fiKiscns vitiis tcneor; fortaBsis et istine 
lar-iritcr aV^itulerit lou^ oetas, liber amicus, 
uiif^ilium projirivini ; ncque cnim cum lectulus aut m 
orticvis cKceint de^um mihi, " RectiuB hoc est : 
[ue fiiciens vivam mulius : Sic duicis amici^'^ ""• * 
iL-uvnram: Hoc fiuiUam non belle: numquid ego illi 
m^rudens olim faciam simile?" Haec ego mecum 
Viinfiressis ayito labris ; ubi quid datnr oti 
llvulo ehartis. Hoc est mediocribuB illia 
;k vitiis unum; cui si concedere nolis, 
rulta poetarum Vfniat manus ausilio quae 
it mihi (uam mvdto jilures sumus), ac veluti t«_ 
uduei cogumus in hanc concedcre turbam. ^ 'jT^ 

SATlllARL.M I. 5. o75 


In tlie yeaT A.r.c. 714v afler the taking of Penisia by Caesar Octavianus» M. Autoniua 

pirepared for war, which was averted by an arrangcmcnt made through the mediation of 

Mi&eeiuu on the part of Caesar, and of Cocceius and Pollio on the part of Antonius, aud 

by i\ie marriage of Octa via, Caesar^s siBter, to Antonius. But that this was not the occasion 

aftlie joamey recorded in this Satire is certain, becaufle Horace was not introducedto 

llaccenas till the beginning of A.u.c. 716. l*he same objection, among several others, 

11 UXhX to the theory which connects the joumey with the spring of the year 716. At 

that time M. Antonius arrived at Brundusinm with his fleet at the request of CBCsnr, 

vbo bad asked him for help against Sex. Pomiieius ; but not finding Ciiesar there, ho 

^Ktj floon took his departure. This is the date adopted, among many others, by Hein- 

dorf. It has been disposed of by Kirchner (Quaest. Hor. 656 sqq.) in a way that can- 

iMtbe answered. In the spring of the following year 717, Antonius brought over an 

■nny to Italy, and a fleet of SOOships (Appian, v. 93 ; Dion Cass. 48. 5i; Plut. Ant. 

e* ^) : U Tit^w¥ 9ietfio\&y vapo^uydfls irphs Kalaapa, says Plntarch. Hc pretended, 

IKoB nytt to come for the purpose of helping to put down Sex. Pompeius, but his real 

^^i^ wd« rather to see what was going on thnn to take any active part. He came to 

BnndQsium, but thc people would not let him into tho harbour (acoording to PIu- 

t^Kb), and he tberefore went on to Tarentum. Negotintions were carricd on betwecn 

^ tvo rivak (Caesar being at Kome) through agents employed by both, but without 

cftcti till Octavia ondertook to mediate between hor husband and brother, and was 

^Bdlj laooessfnl in reconciling them. It has been supposed, with every probability, 

^thenusftinn which Horace accompanied was sent by Caesar to mect Antoniuson his 

cipttted arrival at Bmndusium on this occaHion, in the spring of a.u.c. 717. That the 

Maoi wu not winter may be inferred from v. 11-, w^hcre Ilorace speaks of being dis- 

Med by the gnata and frogs. That it was uot summer is probablc from thc party 

n^ttriog a fire at Trivicum (v. 80). Appian statcs expressly that Antonius arrivod 

it Bnmdnnam lipos hpxoiiivov, which correspouds with thc above &cts. 

Hofiee ftarted from Rome with only one eompanion, Heliodoras the rhetoricinn 

('•2)iUid they travelled together three days and one night, sixty-one Roman miles, tiU 

tky nached Tarracina or Anxnr, whcre by appointment they were to meot the official 

femben of their party. These were Maeccnas and Cocceius, who had been employed 

h Dc^gotiating the fint reconciliation between Caesar and Antonius, and Fonteius, 

M intinuite friend of Antonius. Three days aftcrwards they met at Sinuessa Horace'8 

thice iMMt intinimte friends, Plotius Tucca, Varius» and Yirgil ; one of whom, YariuB, 

kept thflni company only for six days, and left them, for reasons which are not men- 

tioiied, at Gaininnm (▼. 93). The rest of the party went on togcther till they reached 

Bhndnriiim» fifteen days after Horaco had left Rome. Thc routo thcy took was not 

tiieibortert orthe eariest, which lay through Vcnusia and Tarentum. They prefcrred 

tiking the road which strikea across thc country from Benoventum, and, reaching tho 

CQUt at Bariam, continnes along the shore till it comcs to Bmndusinm. They wcre 

fffidcntlj not pwiiod for time, and probably took the road they did because it passcd 

Uu o iyli Omiiriam, whither one of the party was bound. Maccenas made his joumey 

m agraeible ■■ nnder the circomstanccs it could be, by taking with him such oom- 

puioiia i end they all appear to great advantage in Horace^s good-humourcd diary. 

Thera wne no rasteaint hetwecn the patron and his friends, and Uieir affection for him 

nd Qoe uiother it ia very pleasant to contcmplato. 


"irn^lon dSoto sopirosed be that on which tha m!»aion wm «ent 
iiift Antoniu» nt Briindii^iimi, and tlieir journey could not hnve i 

L-e iiccon.piidied thcm Ih unccrtain. 1 Ibint probahly he did m 
. hfurinf thiit Antcnius had come to Brundnsium, Bnd piifsed on t 
m-tr- tri rnich Ihat plnce. I think it likelj, however, that Hon 
1. „f )>i- r,'tLirii to II01.1C ta risit hii native town ind the na 
li;ii. Ilor, y. -i-J s:|.) tlii.iU that it w«» on thU ocamion he wrot 
ir.«l,iiTiillliii( l.illi.tbuntainofBaudn«U{C.iii.l3);th«the-!Lii,lv.ii.>.,-,lLl->n..|miintui.cowilhOfcll«(8.ii. 2}. Prob.Uj 
, <m,. jjuni.y ti) Ti.rcntiii.i, «ith wliich «■hcn he wrotc liis odc 
s U. l, L,ij i-orv ]ilcusi.iit nssociBtions. Ho scems to bave ha.1 
Ijisl.- -ay, Ih.' ^,'.-.011)11101, by l.ucirma of a jonmey lo Capoo, of nl 
'u oiily huvu bccii iirc^crvcd (ico noto on t. 6}. 

iHESSVM mnfjua me eseepit Aricia Roma 
isjiitirt ni.niico ; rlictor comes Heliodoras, 
■awoi-iim longe doctissimus; inde Fo'nim Appi, 
lltjrtum nautis caiiponibus atqiie malignis. 

''<v<m m.-inn,! me ''j-rPiul Arirla'] vtlien of any importance n 

<• i ■■ 1I..I'.-;. rii.cna, be- fricods Bt tfae principid towD! 

1- \ ..■ - ■■■ ;i-Cupliua tuincd thom. 

.■\. 'Aci-e' S. rhelor comtt HeUador 
■: !■ . _-...rnhiph. ji^^ularly «.gfrerate» the m 
.!■!.. ]■ .i.iii'.. . .1!-.,lk)' hos rlicliiriciiin. Tlie rPBdinR '' 



ter ignavi divisimus^ altitis ac nos 

inctis unum ; minus est gravis Appia tardis. 

go propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, ventri 

3 bellum^ eoenantes haud animo aequo 

^ctans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 

ras et caelo difiundere signa parabat ; 

pueri nautis^ pueris convicia nautae 

ere. Huc appelle ! Trecentos inseris : olie 


r] Tlie joumey from Rome 
am, which was usnally roade 
hey took two to accomplish. 
' is opposed to 'discinctufl/ 
one wcU girt/ tHfeoyos, and 
tive exertion, rnnning, &c. 
;he word more literally, S. ii. 
)mno8 Praecincti recte pucri 
linistrcnt." Servius quotes 
Aen. viii. 724^ saying, "Dis- 
habitura eorum ostendit qui 
)8 fluebat— aut DisciNCTOS, 
itine: omnes enim qui mili- 
nt : aut inefficaces, ut contra 
} strenuos dicimus. Homt. 
108 praecincti sunt.'" The 
up in their girdles their long 
m thcy are prcparing t^ nm 
:. Hencc such expressions as 
in Scripture, " Gird up the 
nind." * Succinctus,* 'tuckcd 
re usual word. [* Altius ac :' 

est gravis Appia tardis'] 
lon est molesta tardioribus 
ilis frcquentabatur ubi pos- 
.• quocuuque pervenerint " 
is interpretation is followed 

the commentators. Orolli 
liink Horace menns that the 
.3 less fatiguing to the slow 
1 to the qnick ; that it was 
, over which the slower you 

unpleasaiit was the joumey. 
reading 'nimis* ndopted by 
:;ad was constnicted with a 
f largc squared blocks of 
i'hich was laid a coating of 

the Emperors Nerva and 
t with Silcx according to nn 
>und on a raile-stone in the 
d of Forum Appii, and noticed 
ly (iii. 391): " IMP. caesau 



spcaks elsewhcre of the traveller "qui 
Capua Romam petit imbre lutoque Ad- 
spersus " (Epp. i. 11. 11). 1 think with 
Orelli that Horace means tbo road was 
bad, and that they who took the joumey 
leisurely escaped jolting and inconvenience. 
In one of the verHcs of Lucilius' Satire 
mentioned in the Introdnction he Bays, 
" Praeterea omne iter eat labosura atque 

7. Hic ego propter aquam] " Hodie in 
Foro Appii viatores propter aquam quao 
ibi deterrima est manere vitnnt. Dicit 
crgo Horatius sc ibi coennre noluisse ne 
neeesse haberet bibere" (Porphyrion). At 
Appii Forum they embnrked at night in a 
boat that was to carry them by canal to 
Terracina. A party were waiting at the 
same inn to go with them, and Horace 
waited with impntience till they had done 
supper. These he means by 'comites.* 
This canal, which was constructed by Au- 
gustus in his attempt (A. P. 65) to drain 
tho Poniptine marslies, is referred to by 
Strabo (v. p. 233) : TlKriarlov rrjs Ta^^OKii^rjs 
fia^iCoyri 4irl rrjs 'Piifiris rrapa04fi\rfrai r^ 
68^ TJ7 *Amric^ Hiupv^ 4rrl rroWous t6wovs 
rrXripovfi^yri ro7s iXtiois rt Kal ro7s iroro- 
fiiois 08curi* irA,€rTa( 8^ fiiKnrra filv vvxrwp, 
&(rr ^fifidvras 4<pi' iffrr4pas iK^aivuv rrpwias 
KoH $aiiCftv rh \otrrhv rp 68^ (t^ *ArrTi<f), 
&\Aot Koi fifff rifi4pav ^vfxovKKU 8* rifAt6viov, 
There are still traccs of this canal, which 
was nincteen miles long, and was called 
in consequencc Decennovium. It is also 
mentioned by Lucan (iii. 85) : " Et qua 
Poraptinas via dividit nda paludcs.'* The 
road mny hnve boen defective hereabouts, 
as it was the general practice of travellers 
to exchange it for tho canal, and to makc 
the jonrney by night, as Strnbo informs us 
in the nbovc pnssnge. 

9. Jafn nox inducere terris'] This is a 
parody of the beroic style, unless it be 
tnkeu from some poet, as Enuius. [Ritter 
compares S. ii. 6. 100.] 

12. Huc appelle'] "Put in here and 
take us on board !" crics the slavo. *' How 



Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 
Huc ventunis erat Maecenas optimus atque 
Cocceius^ missi magnis de rebus uterque 
Legati^ aversos soliti componere amicos. 
Hic oculis ego nigra meis coUjria lippus 
Illinere. Interea Maecenas advenit atque 
Cocceius Capitoque simul Fonteius^ ad unguem 


^), which bj the Yolscians was called 
^xir, and by thU name it is always men- 
^med by the poeU. Ovid (Met. xv. 717) 
^^ it Trachas, after that which Strabo 
^* p. 233) ULjs was the original name, Tra- 
'-«^ine, given it by the Greeks, from the 
"^^h tutOMtion (rpaxcTa). Tbe winding 
^f rae road np the hill, and the difBcolty 
tf the ascent, exphiin 'repimns.' The 
kld town of Tarracina was bailt on the 
cp of the lull, bnt this site was aftenvards 
bandoned, and a new town bnilt on the 
lain below, close npon the shore, which is 
ie site of the modem Terracina. It was 
I Horace's day, and had been for a long 
me» and continned to be, a towu of great 
aportance, as it was one of yery great 
itiqnity. Porphyrion mentious that in 
s tune the ruins of the old town and the 
alls were standing. What that timc was 
qnite uncertain,— not earlier, however, 
mn ihe fifth centnry. Afler leaving the 
Mti the party Innched before thcy pro- 
«ded. The 'prandinm ' was a light meal 
nmlly eaten about noon, bnt sometimes 
ifUeTy as probably in this instance. 
Pransas,' hke ' potus,' and other similar 
nni» haa sometimes an active sense. 
he Bomans have no active participles 
Keept in the present. See C. i. 2. 31.j 
27. Sue veiUunu eraf] See Introauc- 
tm» Bentley thinks ' optimus ' too fami- 
ir tn epithet ibr Maecenas, and joins it 
ith Coccdns : [and Ritter also, who de- 
9idi it in a long note. I think ho is 
gfatj* For the same reason fientley 
iten «care' into <clare' (C. i. 20. 5). 
u Gocoeins Nerva was a friend of M. 
ntoninsy and was among those whom 
■fir foond in Perusia when he took it 718). He offered theHe persons no 
v^gBotj, bot made frieuds of them, and 
oeerins leems to have become edpecially 
itimate with Caesar without betraying 
is fHcndship for M. Antonius. According 
> Appien (B.C.T. 60 sqq.) it was this Lu- 
mCooeeios irtio by his tact and good sense 
m tlie mceni of bringing about the recon- 
Batioo whidi took nlace (a.17.c. 714) be- 
nm hSm t«ro friendi. Vnt Lucius hud, 

as Appian mentions, a brother, and these 
two have been confounded. llie brothcr^s 
name was Marcus ; whercas Appian men- 
tions this Cocceius expressly as Lucius. 
Af{>Ktos ^y KoKtcfilos iKar4ptp ^lKos» Ur- 
sini (Fam. Rom. p. 65) thinks Lncius here 
is a mistake for Marcus, and there is some 
ground in Appian's own statement for sop- 
posing such is the case. He says (v. 60) 
of Cocceius ai^uing with Antonius, oifK 
cfa irw rhy Kalaapa icaAciy ix'^?^^ ^' '''< 
AcvKioy Koi rohs JSlKKovs *Ayrwylou <pl\ovs 
Tot6vSf yfyeyfifAtyoy : and when he re- 
tums. Caesar chides him for delaying, ov 
yap tipi\ Kai rhv ahy i,6t\<phy *iv* ^x^phs 
fs fiot ir9pt4<ruaa : which makes it appear 
thiit the Cocceius who negotiated tho re- 
conciliation Appian refers to (see Introduc- 
tion) was not the person whose life was 
S|>ured at Perusia, but his brother. But 
the former is (»Iled Lucius ; the negotia- 
tor, therefore, was, according to this ac- 
count, Marcus. This Marcus was probably 
great-grandfathcr of the Emperor Nerva. 

30. ni^ra meis collyria lippus] * CoUy- 
rium/ uu ointment for sore eyes. Accord- 
ing to Celsus (vi. 6. § 7). one kind, most 
commonly used, was named r^ipptoy, **a 
cinereo colore." 

32. Capitoque simul Fonteius] C. Fon- 
teius Capito was deputed by Caesar on this 
occasion, as being a particular iriend of 
M. Antonius, who afterwards, as Plutarch 
relates (Anton. 36), sent him, while he 
was in Syria, to fetch Cieopatra thither 
from £gypt. When Augnstus laid down 
tho consulship in A.T7.C. 721, Capito was 
appointed Cousul Suflectus. He* had a 
son who was consul with Germanicus, 
A.u.c. 765, witli whom Heindorf con- 
fouuds Antonius' friend in the text. Orelli 
mentions a coin of this Capito with thc 
following inscription : — " C. P0NTEIV8. 

The expression ' ad nnguem factus ' is taken 
from the crafb of the sculptor, who tries 
the surface of his statue by passing the nail 
over it : if the parts be put perfectly to- 
gcther, and the whole work well finished. 



Murena pracbente domum, Capitone etilinam. 
Postera lux oritur multo gratissima ; namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Virgiliusque 
Oeeurrunt^ animae quales neque candidiores 


^innrrarnm honesto loco naia"). The 
ember of this family hest kuown is thc 
miDander of the en^ineers in C. Cae.<ar*R 
my. Ue was in great favour with Caesar, 
d becauie very rich. Ue spent his 
alth on goocl living (Cic. ad Att. vii. 7), 
d altogethcr was of low repute. It does 
\> follow from this that Uorace is spoak- 
r irouically, as most commentators think. 
9 &mily may have heen as well known 
Porraiae, as that of Lamia (C. iii. 17 
.), eapecially if there he any truth in 
statcuient of Cruquius' Scholiast that 
V owned the greater part of thc town. 
.amurra senator fuit Romanus qui 
dmam partem civitatis Fonniunae pos- 
ibat.*' Wlien the party got to Forniiae, 
ing traveUe<l twenty-six miles, they 
e tired, and resolved to pass the night 
re. L. Licinius Murena (C. ii. 10 Int.), 
ing a honse at this place gave them the 
of it ; but as he was not there himself, 
bad no establi»hment prubably in the 
jse saitable to the entertainmcnt of 
li gaesta, Fonteius Capito invited his 
}w travellers to diue with hini. Ue 
relbre appears to have had a hou»e at 

0. Simuestae'} Leaving Forraiae uext 
, tbe party set out for Sinnessa, eigbteen 
ea distant. Ualf-way thcy passed 
:fugh the ancient town of Miuturuae, 
the right bank of the Liris, aud three 
bar niili>8 from the mouth. This town 
lot Dicntioncd here, thongh as a half- 
r atation the party may probably have 
ted tfaere. It was vcry damp, uud si- 
ted in the midst of marsh-Iand. The 
:e ia mentioned £pp. i. 5. 5. Thc road 
leed the Liris (C. i. 31. 7) at Minturnae, 
i went down the coast till it reached 
ueKMi, the most southerly of the Latin 
ns. The site is now called Monte 
igone, and in the neighbourhood are 
le warm springs which existed in the 
e of Horace, and from which a modem 
rn has the name Bagni or Bagnoli. 
Ickenaer identifies it with Sinuessa. 
raa on the sea, and said to have beeu 
nded on the ruins of the Greck city 
ope. Strabo (v. 234) derives the nanio 
n the Sinos Vescinufi on which it stood. 
tiua Tucca, to whom a Scholium editi d 
Sealiger(Aiiimadv. in Chronol. Eusebii) 

gives the praenomen Marcus, nppears from 
the same uuthority to have been a native 
of Cisalpine Gaul. He wus a^^sociatod with 
L. Varius Rufus by Virgil. wlio loved thfm 
both, in the task of cilitiug thc Acneid 
after his death. Nothing more is known 
of hini, but what we gather from this pus- 
su^e and S. i. 10. 81, that ho was one of 
Maeceuas' friends, and on intimate terms 
with Horaoe. L. Varios, whose cognomen 
appears to have l>een Kufus, was a distin- 
guished poet in his day. As an epic poet 
Horace places him among the first (C. i. 6. 
1 ; S. i. 10. 43). To him after Virgil ho 
owed his iutroduction to Maecenas (S. i. 6. 
55), in whose company we find him at the 
honse of Nasidieuus (S. ii. 8. 21). That 
he was very popular with his contcmpora- 
ries, nnd much admired by them, may Iie 
inferred frora every mention that is ninde 
of him, particularly frora the ninety-third 
verse of this Satirc : " Flentibus hic Vu- 
rius disccdit maestus araicis." He is sup- 
posed by Weichert to have been much older 
tlian Virgil and Horace, and to be the 
friend alluded to by CatuIIus in his poeni 
(C. X.), which iu the common tcxts b^ius 
" Varus me meus ad suos amores." Au- 
gustns also had an aftection for him, as we 
know from £pp. ii. 1. 2^^^ : 

" At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia 

Munera, quae multa dantis cum lande 

Dilecti tibi Virgilius Variusque pofe*tae;" 

on which passaprc Conira. Cruq. informs us 
that Augustus had niade a preseut to each 
of these poet« of u niillion sestcrccs. Tlii!;! 
is confirmeii bv the Parisinn co<lex referred 
to in his life in the Dict. Mvth., whicli 
says Varius rcfeivttd this suin for his 
Thyestes. (See C. i. 6. 8 n.) Varius and 
Virgril are oflon nieutioned together by 
Horacc, and Martiul ))uts theni all toge- 
ther (xii. 4, to Tereutius Pruicus) : 

" Quod Flacco fuit et Vario summoque 


Maeceuas atavis regibus ortns eques, 

Gentibus et populis hoc te mihi, Prisce 


Fama fuisse loquax chartaque dicet 



■nn tiilit npqne (iiiis mc sit devinctior alt«r. 

i|iii i'oin|ik'xiiB et fr.iiniia quauta fu«ruutl 

il 01^0 fontulerim jufiindo sanuB amico. - 

inximii Campano jronti quae villula tectam 

i';R'l)uit, et ]i;irw]ii ipiiie del^ent ligna salcmque. 

iuf niuli Capuae ditelJas tempore ponunt. 

iisuni it Miiecenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque ; 

iimque pila lij^pis iuitnieum et ludera crudis. 

iue niis Cocceii recipit plenissima villa 

ii;ie Buper est Caudi eauponas. Nunc milii paucis 

Vo.r;,mT C,«;.««o po»/.] Afber Bn«Tt.iii lialth. «nd to h.rn 

llii' A].].ii. \i,i omliiiiHHi to take qnendy eiiher froin tootliwh. 
rlv .llr,-,-ii(,ii i.n.i .Tt,--.'!! llic Siivo or oi>iiii>1iiint«ortliortoinBch, 

1.1 1 il.T-.-.'« fr,,,., ihBUown, 50. fli« 1.M CoccfW] Th( 

iM". i: i!.. ■ 1 1 : CiiinjmniH. tinuinif in . «onthHBUt dir« 

' r. .. »]ii.>lin'n» UCi>(1ea*Ui»!)andAdNovs 

i..'i-' imoclii- but tlie usQil lialtintf-plsee 

!..:" ' i"il'li<'hu»i. wu tho town of Caudiuui, w1 
.1' 1 . . ' .- .,|.{,„i,.ted flr.t SnmoLte town on Ihe Api 

^ i1. 1 . ■.,.,.,..^rii<t,. wns litUHted nt Ilie h«id of ti< 
i ..'.■ .i.-.iri.iToi! thfl FnrcBC or Faa<^ Candin* 
.,l"vi..' i..l.' ..' a co- for llii- surprisfi Bnd captupc of 

SATIRARUM I. 5. 383 

Sannenti scurrae pagnam Messique Cieirrhi^ 

Musa^ velim memores^ et quo patre natus uterque 

Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci; 

Sarmenti domina exstat : ab his majoribus orti 55 

Ad pugnam venere. Prior Sarmentus : " Equi te 

Esse feri similem dico.'^ Ridemus^ et ipse 

Messius " Accipio/' oaput et movet. ^* O, tua cornu 

»1 potes illa pati, quae ncc Sarmentus only a runaway, and still belonged to his 

iniquas mistress thc widow of Favonins (v. 66), 

^u«^ris ad mensas, nec yilis Galba ta- wbicli is only a joke tbat would aniuse 

lisact," Maecenas, wbo had bougbt and manu- 

irounds tbe Sarraentua of Juvenal with jnitted Sanncntus. On the strengtb per- 

5 parasite of Maecenas, tbougb tbey were 1»P« <>^^^t*^ »» «tated by tbe above Scbo- 

Terent (Plut. Ant. c. 59): Tbe Sar- ii^*' Porpbynon says Sannentus was a 

iutus of Horace was an Etnirian by ?«»"?" «MU^s» ft"<\ tbe same l\e wys of 

rtb, and originally a skve of M. Favo- ^^^^'^»> but doubtless witb as httle foun- 

o« (wcU known in tbe civil wars, aud put dution. \\Tien Horace says tliat Messius 

' a«ath bv Octavianus Caesar after the ^^ of the noble blo<Kl of tbe Osci («Messi 

Jttle of Pliilippi). On tbe confiscation ^enus 0«ci suut, ' Porpb.-*Osci' benig 

f Favonius' property, Sarmentus passed **»« nominative plural), he probably means 

TimblicsaleintotbehandsofMaecenas, («« *»tre says) wbat Cicero mcans by 

»W) gave bim bis liberty. He then was " sumrao genere natus, terrae filius" (Ad 

«Ne a scriba in the qiacstor^s depart- tam. v"-»)» Hud also alludes to tbe scar 

'«ttit.and affectedtbe positionofane^iues: on Ins t^raple wbich indicated tbe disease 

"Bd ts be sat in tbe front row in tbe tbeatre ''f^ Campanian (the Campanians were 

«wEpigram was composed upon bim : 2^^"° dcscent), of whicb Cmquius 

«.,. j.^ itlo X 1. 1 Schohast writes thus: " Hoc cniiu quasi 

ilind scriptnm babet Sarmentus; aliud ^ ^^^^^ Cam,)anis fcre omnibus inest. ut 

populns voluerat : , , . capitis temiwrihus iim^ae verrucae iunas- 

^^ *""*L^*^ Sannentus babeat ^„„tur in moduin cornuuiu : quas cum in- 

crasaas compedes. ,. . _ cidi fkciunt, cicatrices iii fronte manent 

^^'JlW " *^ '^'''^ Sarmen- ^j^^j ^^^^ exsectorum comuum. In 

tom alliget. hunc ergo morbum, id cst, faciei vitium, 

[lie joke in tbe first line is, that whereas quoCampani laborant, jocatur Sarinentus." 

) bad got himself one kind of ' scriptum,' This sort of disease is called by Aristotle 

e.the officeof a scriba, the people wished (rarvptav (de Gen. Aniui. iv. 8). The Os- 

» had got anotber, i. e. tbe brunding of a cans also were tbe authors of the ' Atel- 

iiAwaY blave.) He was brought to trial lanae fabulae,' which were full of broad 

r pffvteuding to a rank he had no claim raillery and coarse wit, which may have 

(perha|« under tbe law of Otbo), and something to dn with Horace's joke. 

it off ouly by tbe favour of the jury, and 'Cicirrhus* is a uiikname from KiKipftos^ 

' the accuser beine put out of the way. which significs, according to Hesychius, 

lien old be was reduccd to grcat poverty * a cock.' Witb tbese explanutious most 

rongh his licentiousness and extrava- of tbe allusious will be intelligible. 

inee, aud was obliged to sell bis place as 58. Accipio, caput et inovef] Mcssius 

ribe. When persons taunted bim with accepts Samiciitus* jokc as a challenge, 

Is he showed bis ready wit by replying and shakes his head fiercely at bim, on 

at he had a good mcinory ; by which, w hieh Samientus takes bim up and pre- 

eoctliiig to Rntgersins (Ven. Lect. c. xvi. tciuls to bc ularnieil. The wild borse to 

u« where tbis man'8 story is told), he which Messius is likenod is the unicom, an 

eant that he bad no occasion to write imaginary animal described by Pliny (X. 

\y thing down, for he could carry it in H. viii. 21) : " Asperrimam autem feram 

8 head. It appears tbat at tbe tinie tiovoKtptinnv, reliquo corpore equo similem, 

oraoe wrote be was free, and bcld liis capite cervo, pedibus elephauto, cauda 

ribe*» office, tbougb be continued to apro, mugitu gravi, uno cornu nigro me- 

tendHaecenaa; for bis adversary says, dia froute cuhitomm duuiu emiuente;" 

oagfa he waa a scribe, be wus in fact — u tcrriblc beast euougb. 


i fcret cssi^cto Cmw^," inquit, " quid faceres, cnm 

■ iiiiitilus minitiTis i"' At illi foeda cicatrix 

losiim l:ievi fronteni luquiverat oris. 

iiiilianum in niorbum, in faciem x*rmulla jocatus, 

i-tniTm sdtiirct iiti Cj-flopa rogabat; 

il illi larva iiut tnif^ifis opus esse cotbumis. 

ii]l:i Cicirrliiis iid luieo ; Donasset jamne catenam 

V vutii Luribiiw, ([ii;n.'rL'bat ; scriba quod esset, 

iliilii iK'li'rius tinrniiiiu- jiis esse, Kogabat 

rjiitpii' (.'ur unquani fugisset, cui satis un& 

irns libra foret gracili sic tamque pusillo. 

■orsuM jufundi! coemim produximus illam. 

'iidiinua biuc rec-ta Beneventuin, ubi sedulus bospes 

„;.'.■■■ 11. M- ,.,.l ..Jltions lilinKlfbj-ninninB ■*«-. Tb 

.■a 1 1 .,!..! tlie iii- u'licrwi>en1lal -iidDrenm,' u 

r. 1. i-riglit. Imve been tliB ««me os lUe Gi 

!''>■ :■■■ ,1 ■ i;, i,il.-,viiii<l «*.«(«. The nfttore of tliii e 

,;i. >-..!..■,- 1, (1. 1 eiBKtlj known. That two fm 
,.r,.r,«. <:„■!. ,:,l IkL'. l,.-!lioiild the«inililionof8]iiT«iilioiilil 
„. C'vrl..|,.i ,l;iii-','. iii »l,iL'h the wnitinR on »ny man. preat or 

,...iv.-..ii.,,-..ul.,.i. N.,-Ki,v. ii. 2. 8uch low buiro.npryii8 tlie «1 

SATIRARUM I. 5. 885 

Paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni ; 

Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 

Volcano summum properabat lambere tectum. 

Convivas avidos coenam servosque timentes 7& 

Tum rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos 

Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus et quos 

Nunquam erepsemus nisi nos vicina Trivici 

Villa recepisset^ lacrimoso non sine fumo^ 80 

Udos cum foliis ramos urente camino. 

Hic ego mendacem stultissimus usque puellam 

mn inn, when the host nearly set fire cnm, described by Smnbnme (voL i. p. 

> bia boaie throag^h carelessnesB in roast- 130) as '* a baronial town on an eminenco, 

^ some indifferent thmBhes for their and still callcd Trevico, a marqoisate of 

luuier. ' Hospes paene arsit,' tbe host the Loffredi, a family of Lombard or Nor- 

^ly got bimself on fire, means that he man origin," at which they were able to 

^^j bnrat the hoQM down, as the con- pnt np for the night. He means the next 

^ ihows. The expression is the Bame stage, which was twenty-fonr milee for- 

*^ b Aen. iL 311 : " Jam proximus ardct thcr on, would have been too long a jonr- 

^ciklegoa." The position of * maeros ' is ney. Horaco had been familiar with these 

* little careless; and Lambinas, followed mountains in his early childhood, for they 

kf HMMt of tbe editors of his time and by overlookcd his native town. ' Notos ' re* 

'% tnosposed ' macros ' and ' arsit/ on fers to these early reminisconces. ' IVivi* 

^ rathonty of one MS., the value of cum ' is not mentioned in the Itinerary of 

*U is not known. Bentley found that Antoninus, or the Jcrusalem Itinerary. 

J^iogement in another of no weight. It was probnbly on a cross road (Cramer, 

Hie rest have all ' Paene macros ursit.' ii. 259) which lay bctween the two 

78. fU09 tarr§t Alahulu»] Gellius (ii. brHnches of the Appia Via, one of which 

•i) redcons Atabulus among local winds ; took the niost dunect course from Bene- 

ad Seneca mentions it (Q. N. v. 17) as vcnlum throngh YcnuBia to Tarentum 

ifefting Apnlia : " Atabulus Apuliam ia- and Brundusium, and the other took a 

stat» Calabriam lapyx, Athenas Sciron, more northerly course across the Apen- 

alliam Circias." Pliny likewise says (N. ninos, near Equus Tuticus ; and then, 

!. xvu. e. 24) : " Atabulus si flavit circa siriking directly eastward till it arrived 

'omam firigore exnrit arefacieas ut nullis vcry near the sea-coast, near Cannae, pro- 

«toa solibns recreari possint." This may cceded down tlie line of coast till it rcached 

phun ' torret,' a woi^ which applies to Brundusium. Pratilli» supported by Bec- 

« eflbct of cold as well as heat. It is ker (Gallus, Sc. iv. n.) denies that the 

nenny interpreted by the commentators nortbera road was called Via Appia, which 

' ' icirocco,' a hot land wind. But it name, he says, belongs only to the direct 

nie directly off the sea ftom the east, road through Venusia. But even that he 

d Flmy ipieaks of it as a winter wind. thinks doubtful, since Strabo confines the 

nqaiiiii' Scholiast says the vulgar cor- namc to that part of the road which lay 

ptsoD of the name was ' Atabo/ which between Rome and Beneventnm : rohv^ 

mef near to the modern name 'Altino.' rtvBtv 8* ^817 /a^XP* '''^^ 'Pw/i^f 'Airirfa 

kS to ApaHa, see C. iiL 4. 9 nj[ «ceiAciTai (vi. 283. Cas.). Cramer sa^-s, 

79. Nunquam ereptemuM] This is one ** the little town of Trivico, which appears 

the many abbreviated forms Horace on a height above the course of the ancient 

ea. (C. i. 86. 8 n.) ' Vixet/ in Aen. Appian way, points ont the direction of 

. 118^ ia a like contraction of the same tbat road; ana some ruins, which are said 

Me M ' erepsemns.' Horace says tbat to be visible below it, probablv represent 

ey wonld never have got out of tbese the farm which afforded a lodging to Ho- 

Qe (tlie renge that borders Samnium race and his fellow-travellers ;" in my 

d ■qMrstfa it from Apalia) had they opinion a most improbable conjectore. 
i fraod an inn et the town of Trivi- 81. eamind] S€« Epod. ii. 48 n. 



il nuJi:im niHtoin csspecto: BOmnus tatnen aufevt 
lUiitiim vcnLTi; tiim immuiido somiiia visu 
iK*liirnam vebtem munilant vcntremque sujiinum. 
!i:iltu(ir hinc rii|iimiir viginti et milia rhedis, 
[:insuri ojiiiiduln nimd versu dieere non eet, 
i:,Niis perJacile cst : venit vilisBima rerum 
Ih' :ii|1i:i ; Ficd ]i:iiiis hin^ puleherrimus, ultra 
:illidus ut Buleat hiimeris portare viator; 
[:im Canusi ln]iii!o8ii3, aquae non ditior urna 

liiiiiiiri ii/ij-i:l«lo 1 !t ii]i[*'Mr« pro- and nisnj reiMiDB gniong; tlie il.. 1.....I ..■! 'Uil. li Trivirutd t» Ihe tbnner weallb of Cni 

ui. 1 . . : ■ ■■ thc in llie time of Tnijmi ; Biid f 
\- .1 it 19 iD >t luflVred drnidfDlly Dt the I 
IL.-I 1 ■ -■ i Mlc towii borbarian», and olti-i-wanlj t 

■ '. . ! t "hich raMii». Amoag the sncienl 

1 '■ ■ ■ ia now be Beea (ragment* Df «qoedi 

\ -..; ■. ..1. Equua amphilhmtre!, bathB, millia 

i- :i 1 ;.i.ii bv the aiid an aiiiHent gatewa^. 

i-.i.: : -miarriod town Btaiids ou a lieight wliCT 

iK.-i . .... . |.1..<'.' »hich ■tood, and <-oii[iiiii9 not aWi 

■ ■. ■ i .. ..11111]. It -Tlicmodahs of Canmiinm i 

l.i.! ...■ 1 u.-.,i,v.-nient KANTIlNnN, with a hend of 

SATIRARUM I. 5. 387 

Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. 

Flentibus hinc Varins discedit maestus amieis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 

Carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri. 95 

Postera tempcstas melior, via pejor ad usque 

Bari moenia piscosi ; dein Gnatia Lymphis 

to agrce with it in the sense of ' uherior.' the sea, nre entire as high np as the 

Se endoees in [ ] the ncxt verse as bottom of the battlements. Sij^teen 

Tuimcaning and nnworthy of Horace. courses of large stones are still complete, 

93. Varitu] See v. 40 n. and the tliickncss of this bulwark is exactly 

9i. Bubas'] This town of the Pencetii eijrht yards, an extraordinary breadth, 

retains its name nnder the form Ruvo, and which i ascertained by repeated measure- 

was aboai thirty miles from Canusium. ments. The town seems to have been 

IhemedBlBfoandatRuvohavetheiiiKcrip- Bquarc, and its principal strects drawn in 

tioDS PT. PTBA. PTV. PTBAXTElNnN. straight lines." " Want of wator canscd 

Theyhave also a heudof Minerva or Jove, the destruction of Gnatia, — a scarcity I 

•Ddon the reverse an owl on a branch. had au opportunity of being made sensihle 

Svinbnme (L 400) dcscribes the remains of. I was oblige<l to content myself with 

«ftlie road for twelve miles from Canosa the water of a cistern fuU of tadpoles, and 

ti ptred with comraon rough pebbles, and qualify it with a large quantity of wino 

Ittnng over a pleasant down. thnt rcsembled treaclc much more than tho 

96. ad vsque'] See^J. i. 1. 97 n. jniccof the grape. Wliile I hehl the pitcher 

97. Bari moenia piscosi'] Barinm still to my lip«), I formed a dam with a knife to 
KUint its name Bari, occupying a rocky prcvcnt the little frogs from slipping down 
pnintaU of a triangnlar form about a my throat. Till that day I had had but an 
Bnlein drcamference on the coast. 'ITic inijKjrfcet idea of thirst" (Swinbume, i. 
datmce from Rnbi was twenty-two miles, 208). [But modcm authoritics, Pnitilli 
"t Doit (tingreeable stony road through and RomanoUi^ state thnt there is plcntv 
• ^ coanti^" (Swinburae, i. 397), and of frcah water, and onc fountain. which 
^^ way there lay the town Butuntura is tbe finest in the couutry (Art. Egnatia, 
(KUmto). Brass coins have becn dis- Dict. Geog.). Wicland snys, I know not 
COTfred at Bari, bearing, on one side a on wlmt authority, that Gnatia was ex- 
l^tidof Japiter crowiied with bay, on the posed to fn?quent damage from the torrents 
ctibcr a figare of Cnpid seated at the prow f roin thc ncighbouriiig mountains.] The 
^^ifwd, and shooting an arrow, with miracle Horace montions appcars to have 
tke tnseription BAPINAN. Othcrs have a becn a cheat of hmg contiuuanoe, for 
^••d of Japiter and the prow of a vessel Pliny mcntions it likewiHC (N. H. ii. o. 
^ the inscription BAPI. Others again 107) : " In Salentino oppido Egnatia, ira- 
kvrt a head of Pallas, and a ship, and ])osito ligno in saxum ({uoddam ibi sacmm, 
Chpid exowning a trophy. There must ])rotinus ilammam cxisterc." * Lymphae ' 
■t^ htea a harbonr to reccive the galleys aiul ' Nymphae ' are essentially the same 
^ridi, finom thc above coins, it is evident word, but I um uot uwarc of any other 
tUi Bilace possefwed. Swinbume writes place in wbich the Nymphs are called 

». (i-19i), **& pleotifal iish supper was pro* Lymphae. [Pliny docs not distinctly 

vlird hj <mr kind host (the Prior of a assigu thc causc of this phaenomenon; 

» IbBDiiican convent), anxious to sup]3ort but as he is writing (c. 106, 107) of 

l^ ^ Rpotation of Bari in that article. The nuturnl tlame and heat issuing from the 

tr ^fcindince and delicacy of the fish vouch cnrth, hc allows us to conclude that 

■^ fcr Honce*8 knowledge of the peculiar tliis wus so at Gnatiu. Rittcr, who does 

5 tMellencies of hi» own country." not refcr to Pliny, concludcs fVom * Lym- 

— Onaiia] This was ])erha})8 the local pliis initis' that there was an issne of 

Vljr €f pironoancing Egnatia. It Wiis iiiHunniiablc gus nt Gnatia. But Horace 

■Mhcr Ma-port town, and thirty-sevcn did not scc the flanie ; for he says the 

v ftom Barinm. The ruins of Gnatia ])riestK trv to ]K'rsuudc ])co))le that incense 

Mr Torre d'Agnazzo, or Torre di nielts without flaine or heat on thethresh- 

■fi^ nz milea from the town of Mo- hold of the tem]>Ie ; and if it didmelt, we 

fll. "littUiremanif^sayf Swinbnrne), must sup])06e that the priests artfully oon- 

Jfl pnt of ihie nunparta, which, near cealed the flame, and only showed the 

CC 2 

SATIBARUM I. 6. 389 


In addition to the obloqny broaght upon him by liis satires, Horace, afbcr hU intimacy 
with Maecenas was known, had to meet the envy such good fortune waa sure to excite. 
His birth would fumish a handle for the envious, and he was probably called an upstart 
and hard names of that sort. In this satirc, which is nothing but an epistle to 
Haecenas» he spoms the idea of his birth being any objection to him, while at thc 
taxne time he argues sensibly against mcn trying to get beyond their own legitimate 
tphere» and aiming at honours which are only attended with inconvenience, &tigue, 
aod ill will. This satire, be^ides the good sense and good feeling it oontaius, is valuable 
as bearing upon Horace*s life. His inti*oduction to Maeccnas is told concisely, but 
iully and with much propriety and modesty ; and nothing can be more pleasing thau 
the filial afiection and gratitude shown in those parts that relate to his father and the 
education he gave him. He takes pleasure in refening whatever merits he might have 
to this good parent, as he did in thc fourth Satire. 

The Satire then may be supposed to have been written chiefly for the purpose of dis- 
amuDg envy, by showing thc niodcsty of the author's pretensions, and the drcum- 
■tancft that led to his intimacy with Maecenas. The views of public lifo which it 
ffontains were no doubt sincere, and the daily routinc dcscribcd at tho end wns better 
foited to Horace's habit of mind than thc fatigues and anxicties of office. There is 
not the lcHst appearance in any of his writings of his having been spoilt by his good 
fbrtuie and by his intercourse, on terms of rare familiarity, with Aug^tus, Maccenas, 
aod others; and probably malignity never attacked any one less deservin^ of attack 
tban Homce. There is no great vigour or varicty in this piece, and its chief value is 
hit<mrifftl. Attempts have been made to fix a date for the coniposition, but when 
Vmike nys that because Horacc declares he might ridc to Tarentum if he liked on a 
■nile^ witbout attractiDg any notice, therefore hc must lately have been at Tarentum, 
and nrast have writtcn tbis Satire shortly after the fifth, and makes his calculations 
tara duefly on this point, it may be inferred that there are no suffident data for 
fgmiiig anj thing like a definite opinion on the subject. 


Hioa^ ilie blood of king^ flows in your veins, Maecenas, you despise not the humbly 
hora, siich as myself a freedman's son. It matters nothing to you who a man's 
frther was, if he be but a freeman bora, knowing well that King Tullus, ay and 
miy before him, though they had no ancestors, wcre honest men ; while Laevinus, 
whoie forefathers ezpelled the Tarquins, is not worth an as, even in the judgmcnt of 
a pofKdaoe that stupidly worships ancestry. And we who are so far above them, 
how shall we judge ? Allow that they prefer a Laevinus with his ancestors to a 
Decioi who had none, and that the censor miglit degrade one who should aspire to 
the senate without being free born, tliat nccd not altor our judgmcnt. The censor 
woold act right if he did so ; lct every man keep his own place. But high and low 
are all willing captives following in the train of glory. Wliat have you to do, Tillius, 
to resume yonr tribuneship and your badgc ? You are only drawing more envy on 
joor head. The moment a man puts on a senator'8 dress, " Who is this ?" says one. 
** Who was his iather ? " says another. As the fop who likes to be thought handsome 
Biakeo aH the girls cnrious to examine his features, his ande, his foot, his teeth, his 
ur, 10 tha plaoeman hears on all hands, " Who was his father ? what was his 
>? What JOQ, the son of a slave, do you take upon yourself to put citiiens to 


■■■ " nVH," tJivi he. ■■ bnt aiy coHeagne ■> « ttep lower thiin I." 
.1.1,-« tlmt miikc ynu a Paullus or a HciMilhi ? ^e at any ratc bu 

Lou al-uut nivMlf. thc fren1iiian'> lon, with which they an all Unn' 
f I am a frleni) of yoan, Mnccenu, «a onre they did beoDW I Iw 
.nd. Ttiia tliey niiffht ptrhaps enrj me with some reaton ; bnt » 
iHrcevL-rmicfLil in yiiiir choice of fHcndi. and bate luw fUttery. 
lut lnMuj:ht uii' tii your noticei Vii^ intnidnced me first, and 
iiii>.li-tlj iiitn ynur iipcscnce. I made no boast of birtli or woi 

1 i'l "li'ii 1 <.< i>. V<in nnswcred u nsoal briefly, diFtui!>ted me, 

- -i;' ' - ' i'i.l Liilniitted mc toyoor circle. Ucreinluii 

"i;ii..-inlL'ilmcto oncmdiMeming. Bul if t 
'.1-. .. ! . ..!■ ir.' utlachedtomD, IhaTBlo thank mylkt 

.iij!d 11. .L -' i untrvschool, butbrought me to Rome to 

,t.'.l ,u, . i.|,.i,>.' ; I„. ti>.fc iiic to whool cvcry d«y him«lf; in diort, 
111 vl.'.' aiiil iviii ilio iinjiutalion of it. He wonld not hare beeii 

VI' ■ i-iLLlni-il ft liil, To liim bc «11 the pr»i»e Bod «11 my g™titud 

11^1.11 1 1 nt' Aiicli 11 fiLtlierns tbat, or Eny, a< aomany do,it wai oot i 

li.riin.' "iit iHirn ii fnvmna. My InngnBge and vicw» aro v«7 d 

'ii- lii M'l,.. i.ill L'l -.' ncwparraita to Buit their pride, I am contenl 

i.'ui. .'!.■■ . .1 ■! ii.l. (lu' uind to SBy »o, yon will judge me wiiie 

ii_- ,: : ! .■ It-ibcnr. I ahouM havc to cnlnrge my mi 

. iLttLiidants to wulk with mp; to gct mor 

.I..I.II.. \. it is Imay rideloTarentum, if I like.. 

SATIKAllUM I. Ck :iin 

Noe quocl avus til>i iriatornus fuit atquc pateniuti 

Olim qui niagnis legionibus imperitarent, 

Ut plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco [> 

Jgnotos, ut me libertino patre natum. 

Cum relcrre iiegas quali sit quisquc parente 

Natus dum ingenuus, persuades hoe tibi verc, 

Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile regnum 

'* Ut te quidcm omiics Dti Deae qaaiitum expression atid ^ives it a lictter si>nsc. It 

est, Syre, v» repeatcd l)el(Mv, S. ii. 8. 6 1^ : *• Balntro 

Cum tuo isto iuvento cuiuqne incopto HUSixMideii^ oinnia iiaso." ' Ut' occurrir^ 

{icrdiiint." twice in thcBc two liues introdnccs con- 

[•GfiuWior/ *of more noble dcscent.' ^usi^^n-, 1'»»« 8<?<-ond mcans «as Ibr in- 

8ceV.2l. ftUdC.iii. 1. 10.] ^*""^% .. . . -. r.n ^.^ 

4. mnqmis le^ionihvs imperifarenn Be- ^' ['^^rUno patre natum] Tlic difier- 

ttuse Mai^.na8' ancestors arc commonly ence betweeu Milnirtus' aud •libcrtmus is, 

called • roge*,' Fea ohungcs * lcLnonibus ' ^*»^*^ ' hliertiuus expressed gencncally a 

into • re-ionibus,' and hc has tlie anthoritv '?'*" ^'^*° ^"** becu manumittod. • hbcrtus 

of one M.S. in his favour, which hc cjills ^^l^ «l»»? ™?» "» V"* 'eUtion to thcmastiT 

the "codcx Chisianus." But thcrc is no "^^^"^ *»»4 P''?V !i"" ^" frcedom. On.'ih 

- * j '»-. ix. ^ ^ actatc ct aliquandiu nost Hbertini diceban- 

-Inde nhi multi regcs rerumque potenUhi ^,,^ „^„ jj^^^, ^^ ,i»,,^,.tj ^^ iU,ertomm 

Oc«deraiit, ma-nis qui gcntibus imiKn- ^,^5 ^ ^^j 4^,^^,^ .„t^^ ingenuos postea 

""■""*• habiti sunt.' Suctoniiis, Ckiid. 21.] Ho- 

Bot that docs not prove that Hornce wroto race cxprcssly says his father was a * liber- 

'repfmibiis.' The MSS. ^-ary in thc fonu tinus.' Bnt if * libertiiius ' mcant the son 

of tlie verb, some haviiig: the perfcct indi- of a libertus, HorncoV fathcr would bc frce- 

cative * iuiperitarunt/ others the jKTfoct born (ingcnuus). Thc souof a Mibcrtinus' 

fabjuuctivc * impcriturint.' But tlie im- l>orn nt\cr his futher's manuinission, and 

pcrfect vcems to bc rL>i]uircd, und BcntW all othcr pcrsons bom free, were * inge- 

nys that that tcusr, nither than thc p(>r- iiui ;' and Horacc says that Maccenas, 

fect, alwaysdoes toUow Muitqui,'asbi>low, though hc would not tako into his inti- 

Epp ii. 2. 128 8(iq. In prusc thcrcc:iu bc macy a frccdmnn, mnde no inquiry as to 

no donht thesubjunctivc would bercquircd the ])arciita^c of uny one bora frce, but 

hcre (Kcy*8 L. G. 118y), and thc imperfcct wouhl makc hiin his friciid if he dcserveil 

ii requircd by thu scnsc, which does not it. Acron intcrprcts * ingcnuus ' as " ad 

meaa to limit tlie stattnncnt to ouc of inoris probitatcni pertincns." And somc 

Hftecenas' auccstoi-s, bnt rcfcrs to a t!uc- cditors ((JcsntT among thcin) hnvo fol- 

ionofthem. lowal hiin. [Dotfdcrlcin also takes *in- 

5. iia40 SMspendi* adMneo'] Tliis thc gcnuus ' iu the scnsc of onc who has a noblc 

Greeks espresucd by iivKrripl%€iv, To say charactcr. I am uot sure that he is wrong. 

that it is a metaphor taken froin thc sa;;a- lle also scpurates 'vcre' froin ' pcrsuades' 

dty of the do^, as Forccllini docs, is n iind connects it with ' vixissc :' but here, 

mi^take, forit is obviously taken froiii tliat I thiuk, he is wrong.] 

iiutinctivc niotion of the fcatures wliich 9. Ante potestafem TuUi'] Horace hcre 

expre:»9«ai contciupt. How to account for follows thc legcnd which made Servius 

it may not be easy, though it is ko coui- Tullius thc soii of a slave-girl, and himsclf 

mon. The ezpressiou * naso sus]K'iulcrc ' I a slavc in the ])alacc of King Taiiiuinius. 

eonceive Horace invented, niilcss it were a In this sense his reigu was ignoblc, while 

. iort of ilant; of the day. It CK-curs no- in truc nobility it was surpassitd by none 

t wfaere elae, ezcept in Pcrsius (S. i. 118). of tlic othcis. Auothcr lcgcud (which 

where it is applied to Horace and is cvi- Ovi<l followti, Fast. vi. ()27 sqq.) makes 

dnitlj craica from bim (like somc othcr Tullius thc sou of Vulcan, but his mothcr 

Sdeti of rmSm)^ thongh he modiHes thc is there alno a ahive, havuig been mudp 


Nos facere a Tolgo loiige longeque remotos ? 
Namque esto popnlus Laevino mallet honorem 
Quam Decio mandare novo, censorque moverct 
Appius ingenuo ei non esEem patre natus: 
Vel merito quoniam in propria non pelle quiesGcm. 
Sed fulgente tmhit constnctos Gloria curru 

inngv loDffeqne rera meliomn fccit." Tlie 
lo lamny athers in tbe Latin Ungnage, B> 
'ctiam atiine etiain,' 'niminm Dimiumque,' 
* inagu nuigiiqne,' &c. Afler Cruqaioa, 
lluCer WM the flnt to «dopt ' longc lon^' 
qoB,' whidi Bentlej edited «oon niC^rwsris, 
■nd it ia nnir Ihe received resding. 

19. XamqHe eito^ He goes on to iliow 
tliat thongb the nlne >et npon titles aud 
hitth bj tbe poptilaee inigbt be eia^e- 
nt«d, jet tbe otheT eitreme ia not to lie 
mllowed; ■nd tbK be wbo ueki to pueh 
Unuelf bejond lui ipbero migbt be juitl; 
nbuked fbr bit preaamption. 

20. Qaam Dtcio maadare noDo] P. De- 
ciai Miu, wlio dcToted tiiinticlf to deatb 
tar hii conntry >t the battle of Vf^uviiu 
in th« Idtin mr, «.r.c. 414, wb> tbe (int 
coanil of hi> (amilj. He held the office 
with T. Hanliui Torqaatn) in tbat yesr. 
Ajlcr tlie camle magiitraciea irere openod 
to th« [le)>eiiin>, ■□ order of nobilit; 
RRUig np among tbemwlvea hiued upon 
uw holding of the«e offlcei'. Thoie fami- 
te of whtch a mcmber hud lieltl a cumle 

» WHre ' nobile»,' the rest ' ignobiles,' 

II boino.' Tha l>eda gens wni 

st Appiv'] Tbe Ap- 
|riiNwhaii £ete takcn nn thet.vpoof wvcre 
tWMihip ii Appiu> CleQdiua Oaecui', the 
wwtmetor of the road and animlntt that 
fagn Ua aame. [Heindorf ^kii how Tor- 
mtii» conld fbllow the Scholiari* (Actod 
■nd Cnujniiu) iu nippoiiing tbat the old 
eauar ApjMUi ii elliided to, wbo, ai Livy 
(ix. 4Q aya, "lenatnm primos 1ibi'rtimi- 
rao liliii lci-tii inquinavcrat." Tho rccoiit 
•ffiton ■oppDie that Cicero'i coutemponirj 
Anpiu Claiidisi Pnlcher i> alluded to, 
wkw eemoTihip felt ins.c. 701i and bc 
ii i^ to b«Te eierciied bii ofBce with ic- 
vari^ (IKoo, 40. «. 63) bj cjcctiuK froin 
th» Mlate all tbe «an^ of frcedmen. and 
•tlMn abo, aiDOnit wbom waa the hiittonnD 
g the name of Ap- 

vould lyuct tbe aona of tibertini from 
tliD >enate; «id tbe AppLua of B.c. 704 
did eject tbcin, an we nre ttild, end the old 
cennor Appius admittcd tlu'm. Still, bi 
Horace namci Lnevinus Hiid Uecius, it ii 
poHiblc tlint the faman> oM cenmr wai in 
his (houghts, and not the modem Aptdiu. 
HorBce'ii liintory maj sometiinei be 00 
better tlum ]iis RCOgniphy.1 It wai the 
proviiicc of thit Ccuaon, tiU that office 
wBi nicrgcd iu tlie imperiat power. to 
■upply vacuncie* iu the leuBle from the 
list of tbotc wliQ were eiigible. But thej 
coqIiI elao, in revising the list of lenaton, 
degrndo tbose who had previonslj' been in 
tlie lenate, ai well ■■ eiclude luch bi bj 
tbeir offlcial nnk were qualificd to be se- 
nutors. Tlicvctrect^tbi>eicluiiQnmereIj 
by iiiBrklng the name, and tlieir mark wbs 
called ' nota censorie.' Hamce, therefore, 
mcnns tbat if be, tbrough the ftiTour of 
Uueccnas or other iiii.iins, souglit ai a 
frced]nan'> son to roacli thc dlguity of a 
senstor, nnd iinceeeded, the ceoson, if 
they did tbelr duty etrictly, would do- 
^ilo bim. Tbcre wai no money quali. 
Hcation for Ihe BCnate. 'Movcre' u the 
tecbiiiciil word far degrading ■ senator, 
and tboec ivho were dfRradcd Or not ad- 
mitted Kcre cHllcd 'praetcriti seiintorea' 
fnim the circumstHiicc of thcir namebeing 
pcsaed by wbcn tiie lists wcre made out. 
(Sce Dict. Aiit,, arts. ' Senntus," ' Cen- 
lorcs,' ' uota Cvnsoria.') ' In propria aon 
pcllc qaiessem ' is the old atory Qt' the an 

23. Std fulgtnU trahit^ Thi> vene 
may or may uot be takcn from lomo 
herolc poem. It ia introduced hnmor- 
onsly, and jet wilh a «erioua meaning. 
' Let the populace >et tbeir htaits iiixjn 
i-iiuk and descent, and let tbe cenKin 
innkc thnt tlicir atandHrd for tbe senate, 
jet tbe hnmbly boru may bavc tbeir 
hoiiuurs Bs wclli' that is, the honoun 
that nrise from virtne Koi genios. Tbo 
picture of Olory mounteil on her car ii 
rcpcated in Epp. ii. I. 177, wliere thc 
cpithet ■ fu1f;onte' ii eicliHngcd for'ven- 
toso,' ' Scklo aa thc wiiiriii.' Aa observed 
bcfore (C. 8. 57 n.), 'Gloria' appcan in 
tbe ancicnt dcscriptiotu in two chamcten. 


nii miniis itriK.tos generosis. Qno tibi, Tilli, 

imtru dc]W5itiim clavum fierique tribimo? 

iviiliu acerevit privato quae minor eeeet. 

»111 iit qiiisr|UL' iiisamis nigrjs medinm impeJiit cras 

■lliliiis et l»tuiii dfmisit pectore clavum, 

uiiit Liniliium: " Qiiis liomo hic est? quo patie cati 

l !-\ liiii afijrotct quo niorbo Batrue, haberi 

1 liii.!. In tlii' r.yriiicr Aw it re- wh»re the shoe « puriilf or 
1 hy U..n<-. Snch ■ «hoe «u tbe ' tuallen 
"1, !,ii. TiJh". Comp. Epp. i. 6, BD|ipo*e« Ihi» to have been tlii 
.■ S.1m.1;,.-1h A.rnn ,,n.l <.'oimii. roUr. .nd th.t Juseiinrs 'ni 
^ lii.i: 11 >■ p.t--.',i, >vli,«o UBine ivfer, u this puH^ of Hoi 
11, -. ■ M-- ,-.i ,,) il,.n*, *« do». only to the «trinfpu ((■ 
■,...1 ..r..lnlm. ' M.U «Itire.'] If ». the «i 
■! 1 i-:lh»t the »ine lettber ai the iboe, 

■'■■' . .l.itl.. »ml over Ihe ■ Innt/ which *« per 

■ -' •■ i'iK-'lillim cmterrideofthefoilL 
-iii", . j lO.uBir. 3!). rj«.fi< coafiHo] Liten 
.^.11 ' :■ ,.^iD>t wilh he bnn ;' tlj«t u, • fortl 
^^ , ' - niliu> w are the inoairin mad« nboDt l 

V ■■ .. - ,11 ii.iiii..iii.d U- pnrc S. ii.6.20; 7. 101. aml 

07, M i-.i.., ,,.-- ,., .„_v. E>lr6 17,] 

irdti Huil oi l,.-i» ,,ilin.i. IhBt he i> _ Q^U io.o Mo wf f vmI 
.. il,,'r. Y ""■. ""»:'■ '" B""'= v«y b.t««n tli» rcdi^ » 
■li 1.'[;ii'ii li.,d ^ii tnht.uos. and uuo ' and • hic, nut qno." * 
"".,' *['!'"!""-'" I'"^' """^ "'' "'"■'■'^- Tlie rnidins I hB« foll 

SATIRARUM I. 6. 395 

Ut cupiat formosus^ eat quacunque puellis 
Injiciat curam quaerendi singula^ quali 
Sit facie, sura^ quali pede, dente^ capillo : 
Sic qui promittit cives, urbem sibi curae, 
Imperium fore et Italiam^ delubra deorum^ 35 

Quo patre sit natus^ num ignota matre inbonestus, 
Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. 
'' Tune Syri, Damae aut Dionysi filius, audes 
Dejicere e saxo cives aut tradere Cadmo?'' 
At Novius coUega gradu post me sedet uno ; 40 


fore he was so reduoed be was aa immo- wbo were pat to deatb cbiefly by craci- 

derate daody and a liceutious fellow/' tixion outside tbe city on the Esquiliae. 

whicfa 18 a little too dogmatical in a (Epod. v. 99 n.) ' Cadmus ' is said by all 

matter ao anoertain. Tbere is no simi- tbe Scboliasts to bave been a public exe- 

larity betwcen tbe two characters, and catiouiT of that day: "camifex notae 

the correspondence of tbe names proves cradolitutis" (Acron). Tbere is anotber 

nothing, eveii if tliey arc the samc, which reading, w^bich ia adopted by Landinns 

is Dot oertain. A foal-moutbed person of (Ven. 1483) ' camo/ to which be adds tbe 

4he nme name occura in the next Satire note " spectes vinculi est." Constantine, 

(v. 8). in bis Greck Lexieon, nnder the word 

31. Ut cupiaf] Craqaius, Torrentius, icnMOf , recommonds tbe word ' camo ' berey 

and otbers [Ritter alsoj after them have and it occurs iu onc of Cruquius' MSS. 

'et cnpiat.' The old ccQtions I bavo scen Lnndinas must al^o have liad it in bis ; 

( VtfU. 1483, AscenBius, 1619) liave ' ut ' but it a])peur9 to be only au error of tbc 

which Bentley restored. Orelli prefers transcriber. Constantinc^s iuteri^rctation 

'nty' Mying it sbows morc clearly tban of ic^/aos— that it was a aort of bit put into 

'et' ibe disordor Barrus hil)oured under, tbc mouthof aslaveby wayof punisbment 

which was a longing to be tliought band- — if corrcct, wouUl prove that thc word 

•oine. I do not see tbat onc exprossos it bas no placc hero, sincc Horace is speakiug 

uion! clearly tban the otber, and the ' ut ' of the punishment of citizcns, not of sUves. 

fepe«ted in two lines reads hur8b, as above Estre rather favours * Camo.' Cruquius 

in Tv. 5, 6. Tbe preponderanoe of autho- proixwos *Bathmo* to ropresent tbe Ocmo- 

rity is in (kvonr of ' ct.' Tbo sensc with niae, the doclivity from whicb tbe bodies 

'nt' is, 'if any one were afflictcd witb tlio of malofactors wero thrown after tboir 

■une diflorder as Barrus, tliat hc should execution. I liavc an imprcssion that 

looff to be tbonght hundsomc' [' Ut ' ' Cadnio ' is not thc rigbt word ; bnt I do 

with a snbjanctive is oftcn usod to exphiin not foel disposed to adopt eitber of tbe 

wlat bas preceded. It is one of tho niost othevs. 

eominoD of Latin forms : < Hclvotii id quod 40. At Noviui] Thc npstart» wbo is 

cOQctitnenint tacdv conantur, ut e finibus 8uppose<l to bo addressed in tbe previous 

mit exeant.' Cacsar, B. 6. i. 5.] lines, afBiins thut if his birtb is low, tbat 

34. iSicr fni promittii] This plaiiily rc- of his colleaguo Novius (who may be any 

fere to tbe line promises of ctuididutos for body ; soe noto on S. 3. 21) is still lowcr. 

office* voA the tbree princi[Kil uiupstrncies Froodmen und porsons foUowing low trades 

are implied : tbe city praetorship in the wero aduiitted into tbe sonute by C. Julius 

words 'orbem sibi curae;* tho conbulship CHcsar, nml it was not till somcyears aflcr 

iii ' imperinm ct Ituliam ;' aud thc aodile- this Satiro was written that Augustus 

ihip in 'delubra deoram.' purged the senate of theso membors. The 

88. Sifrif Danutt aut Dionyifi'] Thosc wonls * gradu i)ost mo sodot nno ' aro not 

were common names of slavcs. Tho prac- oasily hiterproted. Cruquius' Scboliust 

tiee of executing criminuls by thmwiiig oxplains theui of thc fourtcen first rows 

them froni the Tarpeian Rock (part of the at tho thoutrc whicb were assigned to tbe 

llons Capitolinus) was not comiiion in the eciuitcs (Epod. iv. 16 n.) " in quatuordecim 

kter pcriod of the rc)mblic; [but it is gradibus equcstris dignitatis sedet ano 

BCDtioacd by Tacitns, Ann. ii. 32 ; vi. 19. gradu post me." But tbere is no reason 

Bittar.3 It was never applied to sluvos, to suppose tbat there was any distinctlon 



Praesertim caiitum dig^os assnmere prava 
Ambitione procul. Felieera dicere non hoc 
Me possnm casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 
Nulla etenim mihi te fore obtulit : optimus olim 
Virgilius, post hunc Varius dixere quid essem. 
Ut veni coram singultim pauea locutus, 
Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari^ 
Non ego me claro natum patre, non eg^ circum 
Me Satureiano vectari rura eaballo, 
Sed quod eram narro. Respondes ut tuus est mos 
Pauca : abeo^ et revocas nono post mense jubesque 
£sse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco 
Qupd placui tibi qui turpi seeemis honestum^ 
Non patre praeclaro sed vita et pectore puro. 



Maeoeiws woald not listen; [or it may 
«ignify ; * Maeoenas who is far removcd 
fnun leeking friends in an nnworthy 

62. Felieem dieerel * FeKx * is * lucky.' 
Honice roeana he did not owe his intro< 
doction to Maecenasto his luck, but to his 
friends. As to ' hoc,' see above, y. 41 n. 
Tbe MSS. rary between ' possum ' and 
' poanm/ and one of the Scholiasts (Coram. 
Croq.) aeeu)s to have read ' possunt,' which 
Bendey adopts, once morc oii the score of 
arrogance, "arrogantiao quid prae se ferre 
Yidetnr iUud vov POSsrM. Itane vero ? 
KoD cognosoo tnum, o Flacce, tam su- 
pcrbmn : nt enim hoc vere dici posset, tu 
tameii non idonens qui id diccres ; neque 
Tere ai bene te novimns dicere unquam 
Toluifti.'' Most persons will think that 
thia Bpoetrophe is thrown awuy, and that 
tbere is no arroffance in the first pcrsou 
wbidi is Dot involved as much in thc third. 
All tbe MSS. have the iirst either in the 
indieative or the snbjunctivc mood. I 
prefer tbe former; OrcUi [and Kittcr] do 
not. His detractors were fond of calling 
Honu» •'Fortunae filius" (S. ii. 6. 49). 
Beniley is eqnally eloquent on the reading 
' mifai te fbrs obtulit/ which he declares to 
be " inscite et stolide hic dictum ut uihil 
magis. Qoid enim? an patrono et rege 
■00 Maecenate, cui vitam, opcs, omnia 
deboity muorem hic se gerit coactoris 
OnecnU fmna? Tibi vero, o Nostcr, 
Mififfiiattfin fbn obtulerit ? qnod sodes ex 
t0 fbum andio? Lnmo te Maecenati 
qnotcoDque fiiemnt, sunt, 
Soffeiiorom primns es." 'Tibi 
ao ' 1m Ibaiid in one M8., and so Cmquius' 
to hoTe read the passage. 

But there is pcrhnps more modesty and 
fecling in the poefs saying that his for- 
tune or his friends presented him with a 
kind and powerful patron, than that he 
was throwii in the way of the great man. 
llie MSS., with the above exception, have 
all ' mihi te/ and the common sense of all 
the editors I have sceu exccpt Cunning- 
Imm and Sanadon bas disr^;arded Bent- 
k»y*8 tirailc. 

55. VirgUiu»^ post hune Varitts^ S. 5. 
40 n. [* Singultim :' Kitter affinns that 
this is another form of 'singulatim' or 
* siggilatim ' as hc writes it. Orelli main- 
tains that it is ati adverbial fonu of ' sin- 
gultus/ and most people will agree with 
him. The French 'voix eutrecoupee' ex- 
presses the mcaning.] 

59. Satureiano^ A fine horse bred in 
the pastures of Saturium in Calubria, near 
Tarcutum, acconlinj^ to Scrvius on Georg. 
ii. 197. The Scholijist Porphyrion says it 
wa» a pluce in Apulin. The leugtliening 
of tl)c ante})enult is rcqiiired by the metre. 
Others expluin Saturi Tarenti in tlie abovo 
passiige of Viigil from Saturus being a 
divinity particularly worshippcd by the 
Tarcntines (Cic. in Verr. ii. 4. 60). This 
would inake ' Sut. caballo' mcrely a Taren- 
tine horse. 

64. sed vita et pectore puro'] 'Not as 
being thc son of a distinguished father, 
but I)ecau8e my life and heart were pure.' 
Orelii snvB this interpretation is " prorsus 
imperita," and he applies ' vita et pectore 
puro' to the father, 'as bom of a father 
not distinguished, but of life and heart 
pure :' rbut the true interpretation is given 
in the uurd e^tion of Orelli.] 


Iqiii ni vitiis mediocnbus ac mea paucis 
fiiiiiisa t'Kt natiir.i, alinqui recta, velut ei 
L;rr;;iii iiisjuTsos i-eprfhendas eorpnre naevos; 
!ii'(jiiu uvuriliiim neiiue sordes aut mala lustra 
l^jieiot \iiTe qiiisqiiiim mihi, purus et msons 
Jt mv (■ollaiid.^m) si et vivo carus amicia; 
;iLis:i tuit j>3ter his, (|ui macro panper a^llo 
oliiil in Flavi ]u<Ium me mittere, magni 
110 jnieri magnis o ccntHrionibus orti, 
;ie\o suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto, 
>;iiit nctonis referentes Idibus aera: 

r' m.i/.i ?H«(rfi] TliG reccived rend- or Hicj mBj mMQ 'iinporl* 
l!,.ntl..v »■»- ■bc.' No MS. h«g liidtiu» and thBir «iiui might li 

,1 H,.iiil,v;,i„l «ul.^,-.i,n-t,t«liW.r. town. 

yr.n ^. '..u..flal9. !■ repCHt»! in Epp. i. 1. 66. [ 
... .,,-, lupthe uciiil loculM,' nmpore C. i. 

-"i :.. I«aiiy Ea,;!. boy went to «bnol »itl 

l,;,i,. ■■ ■. !^ ■■i. v.,.vfliQ wbicb he Mrrifd bi» buoki ar 

1,1,1 ■ ■'■.■..-. .„i,H.utarY oilcnlBUon. The niMiner of 'aut' i* cotycctunill; expkitne<l ia S' 
l( ■- 1 . |. > .1 .:■!. (I,.ii),t Ihe Ant., art. ■Abnem.' ' Tabol 



Sed paenim est ausns Romam portare docendum 
Artes quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 
Semet prognatos, Vestem servosque sequentes^ 

i tlie master 9 stipend, and this to be paid 
i tbe Ides of every nionth, or as others 
j, on any one of thc days betwecn thc 
one:» and Ides. Another interprctation 
18 been giren by C. P. Hermann» and 
lopted by Dillenbr. and Eittr^. They 
|i|K><t« that 'octouis mensibus' means on 
le Ides of eigbt months iu the year, the 
nr «nmmer montbs froni tbe Ides of Jnne 
tbe Ides of Octobcr being kept as holi- 
lys. Thev rely upon an epigram of 
artial (x. 62) : 

Lodi Magister, parce simplici tnrbae : 
Sic te freqnentes audiant capillati, 
Bt delicatac dilignt choras mensae, 
See calcnlator nec notarins velox 
Iffajore qnisqoam circnlo coronetur. 
(UbM Leone flamuieo calcnt luces 
roatamuae ferwns Julius coqnit uiessem. 
uimis. loris horridis Scythae pellis 
()iui TApulavit Marsyas Celacnaus, 
Pemlaeque t ri^tes S4>eptra paedagogorum 
D^enent et Idns dormiant in Octobres. 
leatate pneri si valent satis diHcnnt." 

•mn this it is inferrcd that it was an 
eeption to the mle if schools wcre not 
M^ daring the summer months. That 
ese months were fonr is not statcd by 
ntial, end for an nninterrupted vacation 
y bodj will see that it is excessive. 
wre are oommentators (Torrentius, 
•mii, uid others), who suppose that * re- 
tfntei aen' means not bringing with 
em their school-fec, but calculating, ac- 
rdiog to exercifies given them by the 
iflter, iums of interest (which the 
oniaiis peid on thc Ides). ' Reforentes ' 
er tamtte to be entering in these 
Uet. rBat this is a mistakc.] Tor. 
ntiaa auo aiBnns that the schoolmaster's 
ipend was p«id him annually, because 
iTenal mjs (vii. 242 sq.) : 

EEaeCy inqait» cures et com se vcrterit 

kedpe, Tictori populos quod postulat, 

it the practioe may- have varied cven in 
oraee^s time, and still more betwceu 
onoe^s tnd Javenal's. In the absence 

UBj decided aathority (Martiars is 
me) aa to any specific practice about 
odaje or dby of payment, I am inclined 
tbiBk *octcniiB IdiDas' mnst be merely 
^lphiai i a ibr ' Idibai.' ' Aera ' is used 

Jafwd fbr the teadier^s fee (" Minus 

est autem quara rhetoris aera/') and in 
that sense I take it, not with Torreutius. 
To assumc from Juvenal (x. 117) that the 
regnlar payment at one of these cheap 
schools was an ' as/ and that ' aern ' is 
eqnivalent to 'asses,' is nnwarrantod. 
The * as * there referred to was the Miner- 
val, a voluntary offering presented by each 
scholar to Iiis master at the Quinquatria, 
the festival of Miuerva. The tenns no 
doubt varied, thongh they mnst have 
bcen low at this Venusian school, and 
at all, compared with those of modem 

76. Sed puerum e»t ausns] At what 
age Horace was sent to Koine he does not 
inform us. But it is probable he went 
when he was twelve years old. 

77. Artes quan doceat'] In the enrlier 
days of Roman history the education of a 
boy was of the simplest kind, consisting 
chicfly of reading, writing, and arith- 
metic. ' Calculator ' and * notarius ' con- 
tinued until the time of Martial to be 
nnmes for a scboolinaster ; and, as ob- 
served bcfore (v. 72 n.), the majority 
of bovs leamt little more than the above 
even m Horace*s time. When Cicero wa» 
a boy the leaming of the twelve tablea 
formed a necessary pnrt of edncation (Leg. 
ii. 23) : " Discebnmns enini pncri duodecim 
ut carmen necessarium, quas jam nemo 
discit." Intercourse with Greece and the 
Grcck towns of Italy brouglit a more libe- 
ral class of stndics to liouie, where Horace 
says he studied Homer (Kpp. ii. 2. 41). 
Khetoric was a branch of stndy pursued 
by the young Romans; poetry likewise, 
and Greek philosopby. Their studies com- 
menced undcr the tcaching of the * paeda- 
gogi,' and afterwards (till they assumed 
the 't(^a virilis,' and in some cnses 
longer) at the Mudi literarii,' private 
schools which they attended as day scho* 
lars. Tbc ' pnedagogus,' whose offi|GMV#* 
of late growth at Ronie and li||fME& 
from Oreece, bad tbe samc fbnotions aa 
tbe Traihayttyis among the Greeks, and 
was a slave as tbere. He was continnally 
about the boy, and went with him to his 
mastcrs. This task Horace's father, who 
could bave hnd but few slaves, and had 
noiie whom he could trust with snch im- 
portant duties, performcd himself. He- 
sides the ' pacdagogus ' (v. 74 n.), other 
slaves went with the boy to carry hia bag, 
and to givc him conseqaence. 

Si praceo parvas aut, ut fuit ip. 
Mcrcedes scquerer ; neque ego 
Laus illi debetur et a me gratii 
Nil me poeniteat sanum patris 
Non^ ut magna dolo factum ne 


79. /» moffuo ut populo'] The meftning el 

of this 18 variou!«ly jriven. " As u proper tli 

in a yn^t city like Hoiue,'* Dillenbr. sayt : to 
" Bo fiir ofl one could fiee me in sach a husy 
crowd," is On>lli'8 intcr])rctation (2nd ed.) 
and Heindorf*8. Doerin^ is divided be- 

twecii the two. I Hm not clear npon the Al 

point, bnt I incline to Heindorf 'a opinion. hii 

()n the construction, bcc Key^s L. G. m\ 

§ 1461, note. The reading^ of the old at 
eiiitions, and the receivcd readin^ in 

lJentIcy'8 time was ' si quis.' But the Blan- edi 

dinian and other old MSS. liave ' si qui/ litl 

which oiTurs abovc, v.30. [Th. Schuiid. roi 

hos unanbwvmbly shown that the 'servi pof 

MHiuifntes ' did not belong^ to Horace ; and dci 

the ' vestem ' of course would not he the abl 

drcfls of Horacc: Docderlcin, whose note cop 

on V. 7l> is ingcniouB, but perhaps uot hoc 

trup.] of 

SG, praeco—eoaetor'] The •praeco* was reai 

a rricr either at auctions (one of his duties wit 

bcinfjf to induoc pcrsons to attend and buy wht 

— siHJ A. P. 419, " Ut prncco ad mercc»H con 

turbHni qni cogit emendas "), or in courts * A1 

of juMtici>, or thc pnblic asscmblies. Thero sen 

waK u * pracco ' at punishments and execu- by 

tions to dcclara the crimc of thc oHender et ] 

(Kpo<l. iv. 12 n.) ; also town-criem, who dic< 

crifd hwt propcrty, as with un, and othcr con 

kindK of criorK. Which class Horace refers ing: 

to wc cunnot toll. Nor is it dccidcd what GhI 

rljwH of • couctorcit ' his father bclontrcd to. tli« 

riM. _ 



Quod non Ingenuos habeat clarosqne parentes^ 

Sie me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 

Et vox et ratio : nam si natura juberet 

A eertis annis aevum remeare peractum 

Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes 

Optaret sibi quisque, meis contentus honestos 

Fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere^ demens 

Judicio volgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 

Nollem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestum. 

Nam mihi continuo major quaerenda foret res 

Atque salutandi plures^ ducendus et unus 

Et comes alter uti ne solus rusve peregreve 



'am portmodo tc ^niti8 fTaudem com- 
ttcre," fbr a faolt generallj : ' dolo sao ' 
his own fflult. 

93. JSl vox et raitio'] 'My language 
1 my jndgment/ 

M. A. certi» annuf] * From any givcn 
>e.* [These worda are very obscure. 
Iter attaining a certain age;' Kriiger. 
«derlein takes them in the sense of 
Mittans aetasy' KaOfcrr^KVia riKiKla, at 
ich age Horace had arrived.] ' Legere 
lastuin/ to choose with refereuce to 
bitioa wliatever parents each man 
ght deftire. Most of the editions are 
pointed as to make ' quoscunque ' inde- 
ident of ' optaret,' and the sense to be 
ptaret sibi quisque/ each man might 
xme for himself, or each man would 
note, at Lnmbinus says. But 'opto' 
1 hardly bear this sense here, and the 
Htion of ' qnoscnnque ' makes the other 
i more natoral oonstruction. So Acron 
ces tt: "Si ficrct illi potestas eligendi 
fiitif qnos vellet parentes contentus 
em parentibus meis." We know no- 
ng of Horace*s mother, but he here 
imate» his respect for her memory as 
n ai bifl father^B. [Some editions, Rit- 
'a and others, place a comma after 

96. houesioy] Several MSS. have <ho- 
itoe ' and ' onnstos,' and Lambinus says 
it leading has older and better autho- 
r than 'honestos.' The Blandinian 
». and all Cruquius' others had 'ho- 
itot.' Torrentius denies Lambinus' as- 
tion» which Rutgersius defends. (Lect. 
D. e. 17.) But 'onustos' in all pro- 
nStj arote oat of y. 99. The SchoUasts 
1 ' hopeatoa.* [' Honestos ' is ' honoured.' 
• h^ officea were ' honores.'] 
A,,^#fi(MM] Tbe Qreeks nsed ttrus in 
I waj whm m ocrtain and not a doabt- 

ful proposition is intended. 

101. salutandi plures] This does not 
mean that he woofd have more acquaint- 
ances, but that in order to preserve his 
position he must sell his independence, 
l)o\ving to persons he would not otherwise 
notice, and paying visits of ceremony early 
in the moming, — a trouble that Horace 
would feel more than most men. [He 
may mcan that he must receivc visits at 
home.] Ho must also, he says, hire one 
or tuo persons to go about with him in 
the chanicter of clients; he must buy a 
number of horses and slaves of thc lower 
sort. * Calones * were propcrly sluves who 
went with the army. But the word was 
also applicd to domestic slaves cmployed 
on mcnial work, The * petorritum * was 
a four-wheeled carriage. Gellius, who has 
a chupter on the snbject (xv. 30), affirms, 
on thc authority of Yarro, that it was in- 
troduced from Qaul beyond the Alpe. 
Festus says the name is derived from the 
nuinber of wheels, and the Welsh ' ped- 
war/ * four/ and * riden,' * wheels,' make 
the Celtic origin of the name not impro- 
bable. (See Gronovius' note on the above 
passage of Gellius.) The Aeolic form 
irirvpt^t and the Oscan * petur,' ' four,' 
and the Latin ' rota/ show that the above 
is not the only etymology of which ' pe- 
torritum' is capable. Comm. Cruq. on 
Epp. ii. 1. 192, suys the ' peton-itum ' was 
uscd for the convcyance of female slaves ; 
but there is no reason to suppose it was 
limited to that use. [* Peregre aat ;' 
Ritter, who says that Aldus introduced 
' peregreve,' which is also in two inferior 
MSS. He adds 'versus hexamctros ubi 
numero oontinuato dcdit Horatius, in 
longam syllabam desinentcm fecib eom 
qoi proximo oonnectitor.'] 



xirem; pliires calonea atque calialli 

:is<.rmli, (liimuiii petorrita. Nune mihi cmto 

V liivt iniilu vi'l si liliet usque Tarentum, 

:^Hitii';i uiii hiiiiliiis (iiii^re u1c«ret at^jne equee armos: 

l.jifict iRMiio «Mrilcs mihi quas tibi, Tilli, 

um Tiburtc via ])ractorem quinque sequuntur 

j pufri liisanum iiortantes oenophorumque. 

nc i'^,o commodius qujim tu, prEeclare seuator, 

[ilibus utque aliis vivo. duacunque libido est, 

iCL'tIii sohis; ii(.\coiit"r quanti olus ac far; 

ulhii^cm Circum vesjiertinumque pererro 

■urlo tri- lint mvlo^i Fonvmm \a- dibniTillii seqaitm luinan 
fhis. afler foniin, fruq., ■ dockwl.' cam ofnoplioro.'] Tbe Vi« T\ 
<nvs tl.i, U onlv .n, EnglHh Rome by tl^Esqmline 8«t«. » 
iin.l -.,i.,..-, . ,r ■., |,:,vc been neme ai ftr a* Tibur, from 

•■ ,, - ■ i,i,iv liav« with Atemiiin an tba Adriatie 
■«,- ,11, uor of m. Milibuj at^e alti,] 
..!.,, !,. , -l^ivi. sHjn r«diDg nf all tbe MSS. L- 

L). ■ . 1 ■ ■ ■■ 1, inioriircti adopted that wonL conni: 
■<■■ . I>»biu> «t •milii' inthc plunlualm 

;..,i-.- ■■■ -..■..l.,.v'' (Pcra. tive. Sce noW on 8. ii. 3. '] 


SATIRARUM I. 6. 403 

Saepe Fornm ; adsisto divinis ; inde domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris referb lag^anique catinum; 115 

Coena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 

D thc words of Ennias : — common in Italy than with us. A dish of 

' Non habco nauci Marsam au^rem, 1<'*»<^«^'' "^^^ ^'^^' '''**|°1^ '^^^V'"*^^? 

Non vicanos haruspices, non de Circo {°j:»° " '"^ the time of Martial 0- 104. 

nstnJosros, ^^)* -^^*® ^^^ tepidum constat. A 

Non Isiacos conjcctores, non interpretcs vegetable dinner, with a great variety of 

«u^mtiiiim »» dishes, is descnbed by Martial m an invi- 

somnium. • ...... 1 y *— «» - -w •• 

tation to a fnend (v. 78). ' Laganum is 

Jnvenal saysthatthe poorer sort of women de^tcribed by the Scholiast as a flat thin 

pjt their fortunes told in the Circus (S. vi. cake, fried and eaten with condiments. It 

^) : was sometimes fried under roast meat or 

«^Si inediocris erit, spatium lustrabit fowls, so as to get their dripping, and so 

Qtrinuue would be Iike our Yorkshire puddmg. 

Metaruni et sortes ducet, fiontemque ma- ,, V^- ^««^, ^^j^f^, ™* ?"™^ -T*^ 

numqae ^"^ lo west probably that at tbat time waited 

IWbebit vaa crebrum poppysma ro- «5 «"X P^^««» ^i»<> had any slaves at all. 

naii;*' (P^ V. 108.) 'Lapis albus' wasasmall 

side-table of white marble. The wealthy 

vliere 'spatium utrinque metarum' mcans Konians had a great variety of tables of 

tbe area on each side of the * spina,' or the handsomest sort in their dining-rooms 

cntnl wall that ran down the middlc of for exhibiting theh* plate. (S. u 8. 18 n.) 

^ (Srctts, at eitch cnd of which were the All the plate Horace had to show was two 

'Betae.' Juvenal says again, a few verses cups and a cyathus (C. iii. 19. 12). Fea 

^rtber on, in allusion to the same prac- says that ' lapis albus ' does not mean a 

we^ ''Plebeium in Circo positum est et table, but a slab with holes, iu which the 

O «ggere fatum " (* nggcre ' is explaincd cups (whose bottoms, he says, wcre round, 

"^, 6. 8. 14 n.). This class of chcats, and so not suited to standing on a plane 

^^oefore, no doubt infcsted the Circus and surface) were placed. Is was called by the 

9VB it a bad name, but it was also fre- Grecks^T^i/O^frn^Athen. v. p.209,Cas.), by 

^MBted by prostitutes, who hired the the Romans * incitega,' a corruption of the 

^J^ ond*T the ' cavea,' and carried on snme word. This slab Fca says was sup- 

^^ vile trade there, and was surroundcd portcd by another below it, thc uppcr one 

^ ibope established for the bencfit of bcing callcd * basis,' the othcr ' hypobnnis,' 

«■8 meetators. The Circus Maximus was as appears in an inscription he quotcs from 

•W Circos KOT* ^{ox^v> Whcn there Gruter, which records the prcsentation to 

*<Re Qo races or games going on, it was Hercules of " cbatbbah. abgybocobin- 

P^nkibly frequentcd as a lounge by all tuiam. cum. basi. sua. et. hypobasi. 

^tt&er of people. There could be nothing mabmobea." But thcre is not enough in 

'B florace going to the Circus as a spectator what hc says to tix this mcaning on ' lapis 

^ tbe fMmes, which all did ; but probably albus,' which I should not havc noticed if 

^ of conseqnence did not care to be Orelli had not adopted Fea'8 explanation. 

'md there among the vulgar at other The 'echinus' is a vcssel nowhcre else 

^^Dci. The Forum was not frequented mentioned by that name. The Scholiasts 

iBtheeveuing by the richer class of pco- give us the choice between a salt-ccllar (in 

gft who were iben eating their dinner. the shape of an ' cchinus *), a glass botUe, 

onee liked to stroll out at that hour, a leather bottle, and a wooden bowl in 

UmI take his light meal afterwards, and to which to wash the cups. This last is the 

tepsnd hear what the fortune*teIIers hnd explanation adopted by Heindorf. Cru- 

tty. Respecting these persons, scc C. quius says, " locus obscurus est et ipso 

• 11, Introduction. [< Adsisto :' ' I stand echino spinosior." Fea contends for the 

J iod listen to the fortune-tellers, con- salt-cellar, thinking Horace could not omit 

iron,' and fo fbrth.] all mention of that. Some MSS., accord- 

115. Ad porri et cicerW] This Pytha- ing to Lambinus, have ' echino,' making 

rrmn meal of leeks, pulse, and fritters, 'vilis' agree with the foHowing substan- 

•s partly pcrhaps matter of choice, and tives. I am not aware that they are en- 

(rtly of necessity. Horaco was poor at titled to any weight, but Gesner edits 

11 time. and his bealth was inditrerent. ' echino.' ' Paterae ' were broad flat sau- 

▼egcbible diet was and is much more ccr-shaped cups, and were much Qsed in 

Dd 2 


.. ii1;i (-11111 cyallio dtio sustinet ; adstat ecIimnB 
i~, cuiii iiati-m t^uttus, Campana supellex. 
iuil,' fo (lunnittiin, non sollioitus mihi qutMi cras 
ir;;t'!iilum fiit mane, nltt-imduB Marsya, (lui se 
illiiiu fcrrc ncf^r-^it Noviorum posse minoriB. 

I (juartum jaceo ; post hanc vagor ; aut ego, leeto 

' nuttus ■ WB^ n loD,; thm-nerkMl side ot this gem. whirli i» «itcn 
..III niiioh ojl wus p.iureil vrry aiaea. Kre tiie Wd> oTNerui 

iinil Hii"ii.' t«o veaaeli, «a hire gom. nnd the olher ■ cluintj 
iiw n r.T.nfu tii ihii imictif* of howevcr tbin nuij be. " « Man 

II Ulvi-l.iii i.t cvi-n- iiiral tn the niiQue" wm «jnonvmou» wit 
S.-,.' t;. Iv. i. 20 n. were u>d ill Luinonr. Thaii Juvcn 
iiiviire «liich ciuqu fmm Crtiupa- NiievDlua (S. ii. 1) ;— 

! a. ii. 3. 1.1-1, and Murtial, xiv. ..Scire vdim qiuire toti» mi 

, , „ 1 ., ,. t"«i' 
h.,.„,l... ^f. .'■'■-,' M."r,..eBny«hB Oceams fronte obdncta, 
l-.i " ■■...II -..-... - ..1- f.*lit;g vietu.." 
i] '[L^iaw So that, when Bervli» d«m-b 
■ ■, 'i'. crcoted in the Fonioi (to which JUrt 

|.i . 1 . ■ r liiH..rtj- iu with hia Brms mlsed, it i» pro 
..| .i.ii 1 .1 il..- . ■:■. ili.' stutue of Mtreme BolVering; and h 



Aut scrij)to quod me tacitum juvet, ungor olivo, 
Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lueernis. 
Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 
Admonuit, fugio Campum lusumque trigonem. 


felt inclined, be auointed himself with oil 
and weut to the CampnB Martius to get 
mne exercise. (* Lecto ' and ' scripto ' are 
obvioatly pnrticiple^, not verbs, as 8ome 
take them.) [As Bentley says, the vevbs 
wonldbe Mectito/ ' scriptito.'] The Ilo- 
mains mbbecl oil on their limbs either before 
swimminj; in tbe Tiber (C. iii. 12. 6, " Si- 
iniii iinctos Tiberinis humoros lavit in 
uihIim :" S. ii. 1.8: " ter ancti Transnanto 
Tiberim"), or before their moro violent 
excrcifies : 

** cur olivum 

Sangoine viperino 

CautiuB vitat," &c, (C. i. 8. 8.) 

Tbe pttrsimonious Natta, who robbetl the 
hunpa to oil bimself, was probably a person 
of gT)od family, that being the cognomen of 
the Pinaria gens, one of the oldcst putri- 
eian families in Rome. 

125. AMt ubi mefessurn] Wlien the sun 
begmn to get hot about noon, and Horace 
waa tired with his game, he went to 
the pablic baths to bathe, which was usual 
•Aer playing. and then took a light lunch- 
«on (S. 5. 25 n.), after which he lounged at 
bome till evening, when he went out for 
lik stroU perhaps, and came home again to 
lus sapper, as he told us before. In v. 126 
tlwra bai been made a more violent change 
in the text than any other that thc cditors 
of Honoe have ventured upon. From the 
«■riiest of the Scholiast« till Bentley the 
reoehred reading was " fugio rabiosi tem- 
pon sigiu,^ which Acron cxplains "acs- 
taono diea canicukres ;" Crutiuius' Com- 
mentator and Porphyrion tlie siune. It 
woold bave been better if tliey had ex- 
plaimd it of the noonday sun. Cruquius 
obaenrea in hia Commentary that tbe oldcst 
ct bia Blandiman MSS. had «fugio Cam- 
pvm hiramque trigonem," but with marka 
of a donbtfiil reading undemeath, and 
the lecdT e d words in the margin. Bcnt- 
Itf iosed with his osual avidity upon this 
rceding. " Ant enim egregie fallor, aut ea 
sola rincem lectto ett, et Yenusina lucema 
£gmi." With one exception it has been 
noexTed into the text by every subsequent 
•fitor wbose edition I have seen. Dillenbr. 
Mje tts it, and calls the old reading ** imice 
veni lectio.'* X cannot mysclf see the 
gTOondi npon which the new rendln'^ has 
Men so uiiheitita.ingly adoptod. It' thc 

other be weak, as I think it is, and tbis 
somewhat more to the pnrpose, tliat muy 
only pruve it to be a morc ingenious inter- 
polation than the othcr, supposing both to 
be invcnted by the copyists, which ia not 
uiilikely. F. V. FritZ!«che (in Aristo})h. 
Thesm. p. 13), quoted by Wustemann in 
his edition of Heindorfs Notcs and bv 


OrcIIi in his cxcursus on tliis pussnge, suvm 
that Mavortius, a vcry enrly cditor, fouiid 
an biatus aftcr ' fugiu ' in his copies, uiid 
absurdly filled it up witb the words 'rulii- 
osi tenipora signi.' [Ktit OrclH obsfrves 
that thu recension of Mavortius oiily cx- 
tended to tbc Odes und Epodcs, not to tlie 
Sermones and Epistoloc.] I hnve followed 
tbc judgnient of sucli scholars a-s (iesncr, 
Doering, Heindorf, Fea, Orelli, in recciving 
thc new reading, wliich is undoubtedly 
neater than the otbcr, but without mucli 
fuith in the verse having been so writtcn by 
Horace. [A Gotha M8. has *Campum 
lusitque tngonem,' where the copier in- 
tcndcd to writc * lusuquo.' Ritter.] * Lu- 
sum trigonem' was a game of ball only 
mentioned elsewhero by Martial. Tho 
players, as the name implics, were three in 
numbor, and stood in a triangle. Their 
skill nppears to huve bccn shown in throw- 
ing und catchiug the ball with tho It?lt 

" Sic palmam tibi de trigone nudo 
Unctae det favor arbiter coronae ; 
Nec laudet Polybi magis sinistras." 

(Mart. vii. 72.) 

An unskilful player is represented as catch- 
ing the ball with the right hand as wcll as 

" Captabit tepidum dcxtra laevaque trigo- 
Imputet exceptas ut tibi saepe pilas." 

(Ibid. xii. 83.) 

Dillenbr. doubts whether this game was 
played in Horace's day. It is not mcn- 
tioncd earlier than Martial. Becker, froin 
whom (Gallus, Exc. 'on the Gaines') thc 
above account is taken, does not refer to 
this passage of Homcc. From the abovo 
passage of Martial (vii. 72), Hontley pro- 
poses to rcad ' nudum' iii place ot* Musuin,' 
thcreby (for tho sake, ra usual, of a mcr«' 
verbal corrcspondence botwocn passagca 

satiiiaiii;m i. 7. 407 

whcre tbe sccne most hnvo beon uukuown or little known ; when most of those who 
might have enjoyed the joke were dead or in exile, and his own feeling against Hupilius 
miut bave been forgotteu in the 8(.'ene8 that hc had Biuce gone through. The poem is 
a mere iragment in tbe dramatic style so admirably sustained in the nintb satiro ; but 
in this tbere is no cbaracter brougbt out, none of the happy toucbes and traits of nature 
whicb tbere are foand in every line. Certainly no two poems could bear less evidenco 
of being the work of the Ranie mind, and tbis may be taken as some indication of thc 
early compoiiition of the present Satire ; but I rest more on tbe circumRtance that the 
point of tbe story would havo been lost in a great mcasure any length of tinie afler the 
erent it refers to. Perbapa we may infer from the abruptness of the conclusion that 
Horace intcnded wben be began to make a longer poem, bat foand bii) materials or bia 
time or bis spirit faiL 

pROSCRiPTi Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 

Hybrida quo paeto sit Persius ultus, opinor 

Omnibus ct lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. 

Persius hic permagna negotia dives habebat 

Clazomenis^ etiam lites cum Bege molestas^ 5 

Darus homo atque odio qui posset vincere Regem^ 

Confidens tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari 

Sisennas Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 

1. ProMe ripii Begis BupiW] The Bn- Apnd emporiam atqne in macello; in 
piSft gens was a plebeian family of no great palaostra atque in foro ; 

noAe in Bome. Tbe only one of the name In medicinis, in tonstrinis, apnd omnes 

wbo waa distingnisbed was P. Rupilius, aedes sacras, 

eonsal in jlu.c. 622, who put an end to Sum defessus quaeritando." 

tlM finit ^ve war in Sicily. He was the ^1^^ expression in tbo text is a proverbial 

mtimete fhend of If ehus and tbe Younger of speaking, and might have bcen nsed 

8^ (Cic. de Amicit. 27). As to Rupi- ^^^ ^^^^ f^. ^^ ^^^ ^y^^ ^be 

ta ^ a^ Persius, see Intnxluction. ^^:^^^ ^^ ^jt^en at Rome, as somc sav. 

2. Myl^aquopactoMUPerMiusultus] pNegotia:' he was a * ncgotiator.' Sio 

ron Mys hybnda w p«)perly the off- \^^^^ , ^ > ^^ obstinSte feUow, and 

5^**^, *" il^^^ *''^ 7^^?"^' ' i ""S^^" one obstinate enougb to surpass ' Rex ' in 

rioii, 01 a low-bred dog and a hound ; Phny jjatinj. -i o r 

«. H. Tiu. 68. 79) and Martial (viii. 22) ^ cinfidens tumidusque] See C. iii. 4. 

or A twne low and a wild boar. Tho word 50 n 

V^t^ «U doss-bred animals. and was s.' Sisenna» Barros ut equu] Of Si- 

?^ ^ \!^ Tu'' "^ r"^. ^'''°'* "^*" * «enna and Barros nothing is known ; but 

«nd the otber a foreigner. . it may be coiyectured, from this place, 

x^ Sr^v'* ^^ "^,'r ^ '?T"" that their namis were proverbial for foul- 

Iw] Tbe apothecanes' and barbers shops mouthcd abusive feUows. Tbe plural 

wm «ortanUy crowded witb idlers, who ^^^y^^ ., ^ ^ according to a usagc 

" "5f^"^i^^^i^.u*f^*PK^'^iu*'® «>«»™o« to aW languages. So Aristoph. 

MWB of tbe honr. With tbe biu.ber8 it has ^ ^^^^ ^ UaTp6KX^T,vKpS>y Bviioxhy • 

been eo in aU agt» aad conntn^. Tho ^^^ \0h^ , ^y olv irh x4y^s \vKa&nrrohs 

BanmoM were a^icted with weakness of ^^j noprcwrSv m*7*'^. Dom. adv. Lept. 

^ qre^ «nd th» cansed the apothecary ^^ ^. ^,^j^^^ '^^ Atoyvalovs, Honibe, 

tobe » mncb nuxed np witb idlers as tbe g ^ ^ g^ , yirg. Goorg. u. 169 : "Uaec 

t*?fV Ij P»?J°tns' Play, AmphitTO^ j/^. ^^^ iign««,uc CamiUos, Sci- 

fir. l)he baabecn looking for Nuucnites -^^^ ^^^ y^^, ^^^ ^^n, j, 10. 

& ell tbe moet freqaented places : «Vam)nos Egnatios lulos." Cic. Cat. 

" Hmd omiiee platcas perrcptavi, gymnaaia Miij. 6: " Fabricii Curii Coruncanii." 

.etmyropolia: Liv. ix. 17: "Exactores regnm Jumi Vu- 

leriiqac ; ita (leiiicop!i Fubii Quinrtii Cor- q 

nclii/' 11ut.tli> Fi.rt. Koin.c.3: /3oi'A.c(r0f i: 

8c xi>daffitda TiVf s wot4 ciVtv ovroi ; ^a/9' {1 

plKtol <fMi(nr c7rai iral K(£uiA.Xoi iral Ao^- c 

irioi irat KiKiVvaroi iral Mo^ijuoi ^ijBioi «ai si 

KAai/Sioi MctpircAAoi iral Siriirieovcf. Sec c 

uUo ttbovc. C. i. 12. 37, whcrc SeuuroH is d 

probubly put for the bcst of thut fumily, < 

M. AeniiliuA. ' Kquis albi»' is eiiuivolcnt si 

to ' fle«t steedH,* uccordinp to thnt line of t. 

Virgil, in wliich he de»cribc8 thc lioncs of t< 

TuniuR **Qui candoro nivcs unteircnt, 2 

curnibuH uuras" (Acn. xii. 84). llautus n 
8))cakfi of whitc hortics in a proverblal way 

for Bwittnc&s (Aiiiu. ii. 2. 12) : — T 

'* Xain Ri fc huic occasioni tempus Bubtcr- !^ 

duxcrit, J\' 

Kunfpiam cdo})ol quadrigis albis indi- ^' 

piricct iKwtctt." 8^ 

And UH the horscK of Jovc werc said to bc j 
whitc, this provcrh connects itsi-lf with 

anothcr in thc Amphitruo (i. 1. li)5): — ^ 

" Jfcr. Quo n^is te ? Sot, Domum. JUer, / 

QuadripH fi nunc inHCcndas Jovis K 

Atquc hinc fu^riuflf ita vix ix)tcris ccfu- i 
gerc infortunium." 

Tlie Scholiasts also rcfcr thc provcH) in In 

thc text to thc circumstancc, that white vi< 

horscs wcrc uned in triumphn) proccssions. Bi 

9. Poatquam nihil inier ntntmqne coh- pr 

venif] Whcn thcy found thcy could not 1\ 

scttlc their quarrel privatcly, they went th< 

l)efoiH? th<» practor (v. 18). Thc dijjrrcssion pos 

tlint intcrvcn(*s is a compnrison bctwccn iu 

such disputauts and thc warriors of the hai 

llind. Whcn mcn fall out, says he, thcy goi 

fight uflcr thc tashion of two bravc hcrot^s oiu 

cngu^rcil iti a deudly fcud, cven as Ilcctor pci 

nnd AchillcH, who hutcd cach othcr vo thc 

niortnlly. and wcrc so cxccedingly bravc, bel 

SATIRARUM I. 7. 409 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 

Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior ultro 

Muneribus missis :) Bruto praetore tenente 

Ditem Asiam Rupili et Persi par pngnat, uti non 

Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacchius. In jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 

Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni 

Conventu ; laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem : 

Solem Asiae Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 

Appellat comites excepto Rege ; canem illiun 25 

«tingbetween GlancnB and Diomecles, in for ' corapositus/] Bitbns and Baccbias 

cb the former lotes beart and gives ap were glac^ators, accordiDg to tbe Scboliasts, 

anns to bis adversary, is related in of great repute, wbo an;er baving killed 

m. II. yi. 234 sqq. On ' nltro/ see C. many antagonists finally killed eacb otber. 

4. 51 n. Acron suys tbey are mentioned by Sueto- 

8. Bruto praetore tenetUe'] Brutos nius, but tbe names do not appear in his 

I praetor urbanns in tbe year a.xt.o. 710, existing works. The MSS. and editions 

m Caesnr was killed ; and in the course vary between * concurrunt ' and * procur- 

be same year he left Rome for the pur- runt.' The old editions have ' concurrunt,' 

e of takiug possession, as propraetor, of but 'procurrunt' is the more forcible word 

provinee of Maeedonia whicb hud been, and is now gencrally received. ' In jus/ 

gned bim ; but tbc senate revoked bis sce S. 9. 77. 

ointment before be bad reached bis 22. ridetur ah omni conventu^ 'Uide- 

vince and assigned it to M. Antonius, tur ' is uscd impersonally. [Or it may be 

l he made it over to his brother Caius. ' Persius ridetur ' os in Ovid, Ep. ex Pont. 

itos however took possession of the iv. 12. 15.] On tbe proper meaning of 

vince of Macedonia, and retained it * conventus/ whicb was a meeting, at fixed 

nr the formation of the ooalition between times and places, of tbo inbabitants of a 

avianns and M. Antonius. Ue then province for the purpose of settling dis- 

his troops into Asia Minor, and over- putes and transacting business, and whicb 

Lyda, and dealt witb Asia as bis owu waa also applied to certain districts out of 

vinoe. Proceeding tbrough the country wbicb sucb meetings were composed, see 

probably beld 'conventus' at particular Long^s note on Cic. in Yerr. ii. 2. 13. 
oea for tbe purpose of bearing disputes 23. laudatque cohortem] Tbe ofBcial 

propraetor ; and it was at sucb a ga- staff of a provincial govemor was called 

ring at Clazomenae, tbat tbis oause of his * cobors ' and ' comites.' See Epp. 1. 3. 

•mm and Bex was heard. 6 : ** Quid stndiosa cohors operum struit.^' 

X>. ComposUum melius cum Bitho BaC' 8. 2 : " (Celso) comiti scribueque Neroni ;" 

■#] * Coimpositnm ' agrees with * par ' and v. 14 : " Ut plucfat juveui pereontare 

lentood, tbat word being used as a utque cohorti." Thc lowtT ofbcialt», who 

«tantive for ' a pair/ both in tbe sin- did not belong to the ' cohors/ but werc 

lar, aa here, and Ovid. Met. xiii. 833 : about thc person of the govcrnor, Cicero 

^rwe colnmbamm demptusve cacumine speaks of as those " <iui quasi cx cohorte 

os;" and tbe plural, as Cic. Lael. c. 4 : praetoris appelluri solent" (Ad Qu. Fr. i. 

Ix omnibns sacculis vix tria aut quatuor 1, c. 4, whcrc scc Long's note). See Ca- 

ninantor paria amicoram." So in the tullus (x. 10) : — 
istle to Livia attributed to Ovid (v. « Ncc practoribus esse nec cohorti," &c. 

^ . ,. . ^ _x' He also addrcsses Verannius and Fabullus 

•kr bene compoaitnm: juvennm fortis- „ „ pjg^^^jg comites cobors inanis " (xxviii. 

nmiMalter, Ij^ «Comes' was retained as a title of 

Attera tam forti mntna cura viro. j,onour during tbe empire, and baa snr- 

• VBoeiTed reading in Bcntley^s time was vived to tbe present day in tbe word 

impoaitiia:' on tbe antbority of one MS. *count.' 

■Itafeditto 'componti.' 'Compositum' 25. canem] The ^dog-star/as opposcd 

I gopd anthority ; P>Qt there ia autbority to tbe ' steUae Balubres.' ' Excepto Bego ' 

^M.v viiacciis, post((unin ost It; 
l\'i"sius oxclamat : Vvr mnf^w 
Oro (^ui ro^es consueris toUer 

Fhowfl thnt Riipilius hL-luii^LHl to the ' co- 

'21.fer(wr qno rara securisl IJotwcen 
pn»ci|»iton« hanks ct)ven'tl wiih tiws whoro 
tho axe M>hh}ni comos troni thcir inucucssi- 
blo )M>sition. 

2S. inulfoifue fliifnfr\ The o<liton* till 

IWutU^V htul * niultnm ;' und ull, with the | 

excc]ition of Ihicier, inchulinfir the Scho- r 

linsts, n-liTn»!! thc wonls to * arl)u.Hto,' with ^ 

whnt nicaininu: it is hunl to iina^ne, even _ 

with their notes lM>fon> \w. Torrcntiu8 first ^ 

broufrht the rcailiiii^ * niulto' toli^ht from . 

Bonie pxKl M SS., und it has siiice tip]H>ared y 

in niuuy. Dcntlcy (lUotLfi nptly IVm. do |.j 

Conin. (|). 272), r^ ni^»»'i BpaavyofAty^ Koi jj^ 

ToA.X^ ^fovn Ka6* vtiSov ovx 6Tcxwpi)cra. p| 

21). Kxpretsa arhuxfo'] The ion l^ 

llonicc c)ioosi>:« for thu ubuse which tlie v^ 

eiir.i<;cd Ku|>ilius hurls Imck (' ropcrit ') jj^j 

U))on hiB unttipniist [ on iVn<iua * sulso — ^y^^ 

flucnti,' who wus tlowinpr like a torroiit «alt _, 

uud full I Ih thut which the vinc-drcjwcr ~^ 

TCtorts ujwn the tniveller, who ])n>voko8 ^^ 

hiin in thc tirst instauce by cuUinijr to him ^^^^ 

• cuckcx),* but who is fain to retn^at before g^ 

thc Mtonn of foul lunfnio^e the vino-dn^saer « ] 

n^tuniH hiin, Rtill howevor cullin^ lut he re- ^g^ 

tiri*s "cuckoo, cuckoo!" He waa eon- ^^^ 

Hidure<l a tardy pt^ntou who had not got Iiifl ^^ 
viiu'» triniinod by the arrivul of the cuckoo, i 

aiid the joke consists in the pastk^n^rcr ^^^ 

teHiii}; the vine-dresMT that tbe cuckoo ^jj, 

wus coiiiiii;r> and would fiiid his tni*s un- ^^,, 

])riiiu'd, whicli wati os much as to call him i_g 

a lu7.y fcllt)w. [Plin. H. N. 18. c. 2<). 66.] jj,, 

Luinhiiius aj)tly tjuotcs Ausrjniiw* «- 


SATIRARUM I. 8. 411 

Hanc Begem jugulas ? Operum hoc^ mihi crede^ tuorum est. 35 

tbe part he took in that marder. Tbe gcripti Kej^s/' &c. [Ritter takes the 

m lYiusst be supposed to allude to him rcferuiicc to be direct to C. Julius Caesar. 

lom Bnitus claimed for his ancestor, L. Orelli (2ud ed.) seems to think that 'reges' 

uins BrutuSywbobelpedtoexpel thelast includes both Tarquinius Superbus aud 

the kings. The plural * regen ' does not Caesar. But he makcs a better remark 

md in the way of this explanation. Ku- when he says : ' Losas ipse explicatione 

ius is bronght into compurifton witli Tar- uon eget ? '3 
iniuB in the fint linc of the Satire ** Pro- 


On the ontBide of the city walls, in front of Mons Esquilinns lay the Campns Esqni- 
m, m which was a public burial-ground for the poorest of thc people, and the place 
execution for gUiTes and others of thc lower sort, whose bodies were lefb nnburied for 
e dogs and Tultures to prey upon (Epod. v. 100). Tliis place^ which must always 
Te been a public nuisance and a sourcc of malaria, was given (as some say) by a decree 
the lenate to Maecenas, or else purchased by him, cleared, drained, and laid out in 
rdens, in which he afterwards built a handsome house (C. iii. 29. Epod. ix., xiv. 
trodoction. S. ii. 3. 309). His example was aftcrwards foUowed by a member of 
e bonie of Lamia, in whose gardcns Caligula was bnried (Suet. Calig. c. 59). The 
lowing Satire was suggested by a figure of Priapus set up in Maecenas' garden. The 
d is represented as contrasting the present state of the ground with what it once was, 
' which a compliment is oonveyed to Maccenas for his public spirit in ridding tho 
;y of inch a nuisance. Priapus also complains of the troublc he has in keeping the 
onnd dear of trespassers, but more particularly of the witches, who, having formerly 
rried on their practices among the tombs uud bones of the dead, continued to haunt 
e 10016 of their iniquity. This is introduced for the purposc of dragging in tho 
imnn whom Horace satirized undcr thc name of Canidia. The description is in some 
rts Tery like that of the fiith Epode, and the two may have been written about the 
time. It is not very likely Horace would have maintaincd his warfare with this 
wboever she was or whatever her oflfence, for several years. Kirchncr (Qu. 
or. p. 16), because in S. iL 3. 312 refercncc is madc to Maecenas as eiigaged iu build- 
g^ places these two Satires in consecutivc years, this being written a.u.o. 721 (Intro- 
letioD to Epod. t.). But there is not mnch in this arguinent. The clcariug, drain- 
g, and endoung of the ground must have taken some timc, and it may havo 
cn serend years before it was fit for living on, and no refcrcnce is madc to a houso in 
is Satire. Franke places it in a.u.0. 718. There b vcry little clue to the datc. 

Olih truncus eram ficuliius^ inutile lignum^ 
Ciun faber incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum, 

ll,iUnlnus] The ac^ective, as Kitter aiplyyer^ ifiaWSBtreu rh tpdyfiara, yi^ 

marlES, b not formcd directly from irapKay rts 

lcnsy' bnt ' ficula,' a possible word, but I cfr];* trvKivoi iyipts, iiir^Ktro x* oZros 

t not know if it is found. Rittcr also 6 fiitr06s, 

«erres that tbere is both « ficulnus ' and Theocritus has an epigram about Priapus 

lenfaieiBB * as • ilignus ' and • iligneus.] (4), Jn which he describes him thus : — 

— tmaOe liffnnm:\ The uselessnesj. of ^^^^ ^a^ xo^poy r60i ral ^p^ts, aiw6k*, 

m «ood of the ng-tree was proverbial. Kduylfat 

MBlBg; ufM lHeoc. Z. §A : TpimceA* j aifr6<p\oioy kvoiarov. 

In thifl ronfrli way ull the iniairi<4 of this 
^mI wm> nni4li', aiid thi> anoicntshnd littlc 
n*»»|H.'ct torhiin, unli-fs it wcre thoM* of the 
lowvtit Mirt ; th<in;;h in thi> Nimo i'|iiirraiu 
thut containH tln* aU^vcahsunl ih^iii-riiititin 
of thi* ^(mI \w iit |irayo<l to for dcliviTunce 
fmui the iM)wcr of K»vo, and Horaiv, who 
tri-utH hini so coiitcinpt nou»ly hure, »)ieakB 
of hiin «•lM'whi'n> (K)mkI. ii.), in conjunction 
with Silvanus uh rocoivin^ the sacritice 
duo to hini. No oiioc<juld Wttcrhave ap- 
prociatoil than a I^miun of HoracoVwuyof 
thiiikinpr, whctlior in ros}K'ct to thi» duity 
or uny othor, tho ironicul doscription of the 
prophot Isaiah (xliv. 9—20), whioh corre- 
ii]Mni<is Ho i'lo»oly with this passape that I 
reitnninond thu roador to n^ftT to it. Tliere 
U no mtntko in tho wholo of that di>fK;ription 
nion' Hovorothan Ilonice's "incertUHscani- 
niiin fuivrctno i*riapum nialuit etwe deuni." 
Not niucli loHN in tho samc strain is that 
addn*MS of Murtial (viii. 40) : 

'* Non horti ne(]uc palmitis hoati 
Sod ruri noiuoriis Pria))c, cuiittos, 
Kx quo natUA ra ot ]K>teA rcnasci, 
Funii*os moiu^) inanus rcjx^llas, 
Kt Mlvain doinini f(K*i8 rci«t>r\'es. 
Si ilofoivrit Iiaoc ot ipso lignum cs." 

TIi<« likTun»^ of Priajius wcro poncrally busts ^j 

liko th<> IIi'nii;io, bnt isoinctinii»s they wcre ^ 

full l<'ii^th of tlie kiud Uoracc describcs. j, 

r^nally tlioy liold a sickle or a club in \^ 
tlio ri*>rlit haiid hy way of fri^htcnin}^ 

tIii<'\o« 'funifahv sjilijjna,' Virjf. Goorjjf. u 

i\ . 1 Iti , aixl a wisn of straw, or somothing: f] 

<»f ihat M»rt. iotri;:iiton the hinls. lViu)ins j\ 

iiImi MiiilinIi7<Hl tlio fortility of nnture in ^ 

tho hit< r ni\ihoI<tcy of tho Cirecks as well „ 
as tho Kitinans. In Ap)stini*8 colk*ction of 
pMii* (]i;iri ii. ])1. i:))tIiLMt}isonerepresent- 

III tf a MUTililV !o IViiiinin wh.MM» 1».» ^*..«.J- 


SATIRARUM I. 8. 413 

Hoc miscrae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, lo 

Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti : 

Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 

Hic dabat^ Heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus atque 

Aggere in aprico spatiari^ quo modo tristes 15 

Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum ; 

Cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque suetae 

1. Pantolabo teurrae Nomentanoque &c.,Explic. Romfte,1699. [BitternlsntalcfS 
oti] Afl to thefle persoos, see note above thc words ' Hercdes/ &,c., as added l>y the 
S. i. 101. Id conscquence of thcir ex- poet in joke. Acron'8 intcrprctation is, 
raguuce Priapns foretells they will come tliat some unknown person had given the 
i iHinper'8 fanerah We nccd not under- land for public use ; which can hardly be 
ul them as already dead and buried in truc. It was given by the city probnbly, and 

K^qniliae, as Comm. Cruii. says. if so, the words ' Heredes/ &c., have uo 

2. Mille pedes infronie] This public meaning here; but I do not see the joke 
ial-gronnd was 1000 feet in breadth and nor the satire.] 

^indepth. 'Infronte' meansfacing the 14. Nune licet Exquiliis'] The whole of 

ilic road, the Via Tiburtina (S. 6. 108), the Es(|uiline or fifth region of Rome, was 

;he Via Praenestina, one of which, or called Esquiliac, and from having been an 

h, mnst have passed very close to it. eye-sore and a plogue-spot it was made 

e Caesar, B. Q. ii. 8, an^ Mr. Long^s a heaUhy and pleasant residence. Sueto- 

e.) It was usual to engrave on mcmu- nius tells us that Augustus, when he was 

its the following letters, h. h. n. n. 8. ill, went to Maeeenas' house in the Esqui- 

ich stand for " Hoc monumcntum liae to recruit (Octav. c. 72). The *agger' 

edes non seqnitur ;" or H. M. ad h. n. here referred to was a raised terrace eom- 

1X8. The words were soinetimes given menced by Scrvius Tnllius, and carried by 

'uU length. Sometimes kx t. (ex tes- him from the Porta Collina to the Porta 

leoto) were inserted betweeu H. and y. Esquilina. It was continued (according 

nbinns has given four inscriptions, to Cramer, who quote» Dion. Hnlic. iv. 54) 

\vi\ by himself, from ancient sepulchres, by Tarquiuius Superbns as fitr as the Porta 

vliich the following he found in Rome : Querquetulann, beiug in all nbout twelve 

>I18 XAKIBUS SACBUM MABio L. LIB. stadia, aud about fifty feet in breadth. It 

KXETI XT DOCITIAB FA8IDI MABius thus skirtcd on tlic etist the wholc of the 

LIB. FELIX PATB0NI8 8VIS BEyE ME- fiilh or Esquiliiie quarter, iiiid the sixth, 

!rTiBU0 DE BUO FECIT ET 8IBI ET which had its name Alta Seinita from this 

tBBTiS LIBBBTABTTSQUE suis POSTEB- grcat work. Herc the Koinuns walked in 

rx BOBUM. ITA NE UNQUAM DE cold weathcr to get thc suii, and had a fuU 

MnrB TAMILIAE N08TBAE EXEAT. HOO vicw of thc pcstilent pluiu which Maecenas 

iruMBKTUM HEBEDE8 NON 8EQUITUB. convcrted into a i>nradise. Juvenal calls it 

FBOirTE LAT. PED. XX. ET Dio. II. ' ventoeus ' (S. viii. 43). Bentley edits 

▲OB. LONO. The others are of like ' qua ' in v. 15, and is followed by sonie 

wt ; that is to eay, they specify for editors : but it is against all the MSS. and 

086 particular use the sepolchre was older editions, and ' quo,' in the sense of 

It, and provide against its going, with ' ex quo,' will do very well. [Ritter takes 

\ rest of the man'8 property, to his he- ' quo ' as equivalent to ' in quo.'] 

es. Horace writes as if there were a 17. Cum mihi non tantum] ' Cum ' is 

oe (cippus) set np on some part of the thus connected with what goes before. 

indary ci this borial-gronnd, with the Priapus says the locality is now niade 

cription nsnal on private monuments, healthy, and the citizens may take their 

M. H. N. S., which is obviously only a walk without being sickened with the 

ire. The words could only apply to a sight of bones bleaching npon the plain, 

vmte place of burial. AIl he reidly means whereas (while) his vexations still remain, 

that a apace of ground of the extent he — the driving away of thieves and wild 

ntioM waa marlud ofi' for the burial of animals which still frequented the Bpot, and 

•e poor people. For other examples of yet worse the punishmeut and scaring away 

ih iDaeripticmi^ lee Fahretti Insc Antiq. of the witches who there continued to curry 

SATIRARUM I. 8. 415 

Coq)erant; cruor in fossam confusas ut inde 

Manes elicerent^ animas responsa daturas. 

Lanea et effigies erat, altcra ceroa : major 30 

Lanea, quae poenis compesceret inferiorem ; 

Cerea suppliciter stabat servilibus ut quae 

Jam peritura modis. Hecaten vocat altera, saevam 

Altera Tisiphonen ; serpentes atque videres 

Infemas errare canes^ Lunamque rubentem 35 

Nc foret his testis post magna latere sepulcra. 

Mentior at si quid, merdis caput inquiner albis 

Corvorum, atque in me veniat mictum atque cacatum 

Julius et fragilis Pediatia furque Voranus. 

28. eonflmu] 'Poured and stirred.' (ii. 35) kiiows Hccate is ooming by the 
Compare TibulL (L 2. 45) : bowliiig of the dogs : 

^Habc canta finditque Bolam, Manesqne e^trTvAi, raX K^yts ififdp iyk wrSxttf 
■epnlciis upiovrof 

KUcit, et tepido devocat ossa rogo." 'A Oths iv rpi6Zoi(ri, 

[•iDde' 'bj tbese meana/ the correlative S6. sepulera'} Seo note on v. 17. [Ritter 

of * ande,' * bv wliich means.' — Doe<1crlcin, says : ' cogita moimmenta virorum illus- 

fbUowed by Kruger, takes 'MancR unimaH' trinm a cetero canipo E.squilino discrcta.' 

M adjective and subgtantive, Hke ' Dii Heindorf suggcsts the samc m^auing. We 

Manes ' (Epod. v. 94).] must supposc then that aftcr part of the 

90. Lamea ei effigies erat, altera cerea"] ground was clcared of the boncs, thero 

Tbe meaning of the woollcn image which was stiU a largc cemetcry that wus lcft 

«B* to panish the waxen onc is uot very untouchcd, ou which tliero wcre fuuonil 

dear. The wax was to melt, and as it monuments. It is instructivc to obscrvo 

metted ao waa the lover to cousnmc in the the various wnys in which peo))lc look at 

Bm of love. according to tho witch'8 thc same things ; nnd it is a ncccssafy dis- 

duuin in Theocritus (iL 28). See Epod. cipline for thosc who wish to learn. For 

srii. 76. this reason, ns therc is room, I trunslate 

82. sermlibue — modis'] Thcre was a note by Docdcrlcin : '* It is iinpossible 

■Otfeely bhj imaginable forin of cmclty to that there could have bcen great funcral 

whicJi tbiTes were not liable through the monuments, bchind which the moon could 

oqirioe of their owners, and this of roast- hide hcrself, for a hurial ground for tlie 

ing or half roasting alive may have hap- poor, as it is rcprcscnted in v. 10, hns no 

pened to more than one poor i^Tctch of such monument^ ; und if it had coutaincd 

tbia chus. Tacitus (Hist. ii. 72) says of a such, they would huve bccn removcd when 

nmaway slave : " Sumptum de eo suppli- the place was changcd into a park. That 

dam in aervilem modum ;" and again of this chunge was not yct complctcd, as Dil- 

a freedman of Vitellius (Hist. iv. 11) : lenburgcr conjcctnrcs, is a (lcsperatc sug- 

" Aaiaticas nudam potentiam scrvili sup- gestiou, which is hurdly satisfactory. If 

plicio ezpiavit." The old rcading was the moon must hide hcrself to avoid sccing 

' otqoe.' ' Ut quae/ which Lurabinus the scandal, why docs not tlie poet rather 

■trongly denounoea, Bentley vcry propcrly, make hcr hide bchind clouds, which is 

and on good authority, received into his certainly more naturul ? In fuct ho docs 

text. this : we have only to understand ' quasi/ 

84. terpentes — iiifemas errare canes] as is oftcn the case ; for instance. S. i. 1. 

Snakea in her hair, round hcr waist, and 116; 7. 29; ii. 3. 8, 274; and 5. 47. The 

in ber band for a whip, are insignia al- masscs of clouds, in whicli she hides her- 

«aja fonnd in the representations of Tisi- self in the heavcn, aro compared to great 

phone. The infemal bounds are those funcral inonumcnts, bchind which sbo 

that Virgil mentions as liowling ut the would conccal hcrsclf for the same pur- 

appnncfa of Hecate (Aen. vi. 257) : " Vi- pose, if she moved ubout on the oarth."] 

nluktfe per umbram Advcn- 39. Juliue et frafjilis Pediatia] The 
tante Dea." 8o the witch in Tbcocritus counexion between thcso persous, Julius 

SATIRARUM I. 9. 417 


lich is juBtlj popnlar for hamoiir and great dramatic power, has an 
as showing, undesignedly bat more clearly than almost any de- 
lo, the character of Horace. It pats the man bcfore ns as in a 

bimself as sanntering alone and early on the Sacra Via, when a person 

than by narae, a forward coxcoiub, comes np familiarly and falU into 

hira, to his grcat annoyance, for he wanted to be alone and knew the 

Horace does his best to shake him off, bnt he is too amiable to cope 

y of his companion, whose object is to get throngh Horaoe an intro- 

nas, with whom the poet must therefore have been known to be on 

( at the time tliis Satire was written. The man'8 vnlgarity and want 

cuous throughout the scene ; while Horace exhibiti in every part good 

imiable temper ; and though he is tricd to the utmost by reflections on 

s fricnds, he is incapablc of saying a mde word, u taken ofif his guard 

8 arausingly conscious of his infcriority to the man of insolence on his 

e efTect of this picture is heightencd by the introduction towards the 

>f Fuscus Aristius, an old friend of the poet, and a man of the world, 

understood character, but had that sort of moral courage and promp- 

friend wantcd. The rcadiness with which he takes up the joke and 

e's absurd position, and the despair to which his desertion reduces the 


anting that the characters of men and the ways of the world are little 
pse of ceuturics, this Satire would afford it. I look upon it as the 
•hamcteristic of ull Uoraco*s productions. If we wanted to form an 
lan, I do not think we could go to any other part of his works with 
r gotting a correct one ; and his powcrs as a moral satirist are, I con- 
are<l with his perccption of, and ability to dcscribe, a scenc of dramatic 
If he iiad lcfl us only this amusing poera to judge by, his gcnius 
d high, and the goodncss of his nature would have been acknowledged 
aniiable poet Cowper, Horace appears as a satirist of human life and 
iety ; but both are too gentle for that rough work, and shine most in 
umour and inoffensive fun. As respects Horace at least, lct any one 
ud judgc for himsclf. 

via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 

l meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 

via Sacra] Horace doos who inserts 'ut' after *ibam.* All Lam- 

was his custom to stroll biuus' MSS. hud *et* before 'totus.' All 

, espociallv at that hour Cruquius' but one were without *et.' 

about oight o'clock (v. Thoso two editors insert the conjunction, 

tien he walked his miiul and sonie luter editors do the samo, in- 

l itPclf with triHos, boinpr cludiug Dacior and Gesner. Turnebus 

md having fow anxiotios savs ** * ot ' logi in antiquis exompIanbuH. 

itheSacraVia, s<.-o Ep.Hl. Foa qnotOH some in the Vatican. but he 

The rejider wboso oar riffbtlv roucloiuns the word as superttuoui 

theexpressiveabruptnoss aud inologant. The old editions have no 

'ill disscnt trom Bentley, conjunction. 



Persoqnar : hinc quo nnnc itcr est tibi ?" " Nil opns eat te 

Circumagi ; quendam volo viserc non tibi notum ; 

Trans Tiberim longe cabat is prope Caeeans hortos." 

" Nil habeo qnod agam et non snm piger; usque sequar te." 

Dcmitto aaricnlas ut iniquae mentis asellus, 

Cum graviue dorEO subiit onus. Incipit ille : 

" Si bone me novi non Viscum pluris amicum, 

Non Varium facies ; nam quis me scribere plures 

18. Tran* T7*m"ii«— ™*o( «] 'CubHf 
• ccuerally takpn to mean that hii friend 
1 iyipf: airk, iinil I nm inclined to thinli it 
«n hiiTe noothcrmesninfrhorc. loolhcr 
ibcciwhereit occurs it inightt>e iQppogol 
:o deriTe thii lignification from the con- 
«t. SeeSut. ii. 3. 289:— 

' ValeT ait pueri meiuea Jam quinqne 
FligiiU ti pnernm qnartkna reliquerit ;" 

3Ie «tremc 

a. 68) :— 

cnbat hic ii 

> iu ATeutino, \ 

n eolle Qnirini 
riieadns utet- 

nnrtw (Caa. Pnil. 37) :— 

■ lervTiB qui iu morbo cubat : 

iHmo hercle Tero in l«;to ne quid men- 
■d otber placea ainally qaot«d for thia 

ht woid here that i> ■apported by uiiige 
'AltHf alwTe a mile of frround Bcjoud 
ba Tibtx," whicli ii Francii'a translation, 
• an Dneiampled meaniDg to give tho 
fsvd. bat inany huvo sdopted it) ; and 

Hm «leue hj kbv of «linkinp: otT liis com- 
HB^ In Cic.Verr. (ii. 3. 23, «here, 
m Ur. Imik'* aoU), ' cuharet ' meana no 
m Iku tbat the man waa in hcd. C. 
dCaiChaMr had lome pleaaure-groundd, 
rtick ba beqoeabed to the Boman 
Mla^ « tbe T^ht - 
(Im «ooldbe a tmg' 

iiwbBi 'th« 

tM an ii etaoB under a load too 

VilemmplmrU amiaim} In tho 
Satfa* we hava (v. 88) " Fuscas et uo 

at Naiidienni (S. ii. S. riE 
mtm ego et prope ne w< 

ViscDs ThQrinna, et inlia Sl mcniini Va- 
rinB." On thc preBent pRsgage AcTon and 
Comm. Cmq. «ay that Visco» was " dieer- 
tu<i illiai temporii bomo," and some Hiid 
hc was a poet, and a fricnd of Ilnraci^. 
PorphjTiou hHB here the namc ' Fuscuin * 
{or, aa it iippesr» in AsrenBiuB' teit twjce 
ovcr, 'Tuiicnin'), nnd Bnya he wa9 a din- 
tiiiguinhcd writer of trngtilifa. Here ho 
ia uMociated witli Varius. and in the Uttcr 
of tho above paaaagcg a Vincua nlao nppeara 
in VarinB' eompanj. In the fonncr tlicro 
aro two Viaci and a Fuacus, and Varias 
joet above. All this crcatea somc daubt as 
to tho rcading hen>. Aristius Fnscoa wai 
nnc of Horsee-B mOBt intimnte frieuds (C. 
i. 22, Introduction), and we mect n-ith him 
below (v. 61) iu u verj' humorous charac- 
tcT. It ifl perbaps bcttor to suppoie oob 
o( tbe Visci (o bo meaat here, for be 
plninly beld them both among his be«t 
frionds (S- i. 10. 83). A» to VBrius, lee 
S. V. 40n. 

23. qaia me icrihere plvrn aal crtiu*] 
Tbe ignorant fetlnw hcre fhBteUB npon tbo 
Tcryfnculty that Horace beld in the grcat- 
est contempt. On Hermc^ncs, see 8. i. 
S. 129 n. Thi; opportunity for interrupt- 
ing tbe prater wbich Horaco Bcized upoii 
ia not vcrj npparcut. Orclli nnd otliers 
Bny becnuse he was determincd not to listcn 
to tlie proiiicB of Hemiogeues, whom he 
ilctcntcd. Koraco gets in a woid, and, 
trjin^ to reBign himself to hia &le, and to 
turn the convcrsntion to tojMca too nn- 
meaning to givc a bandlc to tha man'i 
vnnity, he aaks bim if hia fatber and mo> 
tlier are idivo : ' qnia te ralvo est opns ' ia 
only it tbnnula of civility. Tbe msn, wha 
]iag no fecliug for any one but bimBcIf, an- 
swers with indilfcrenca that be has buried 
them all, wbich givee occaHon for Harace 
to eiclaim intematlv, ho wiahes he wns 
dead too. What fbllow» ('Felices,' Ac.) 
I Buppose we muat understand as a quainC 
Qotion passing throogb Horace's own mind. 
— one of tbose pleasantriea that sometimea 
' mock men in despair. Certainly 
it to imagiue tbat he i* spnkinj; 

SATIRARUM I. 9. 421 

Debebat, quod ni fecisset perdere litom. 

" Si me amas/' inquit^ '' paulum hic ades/' '' Inteream si 

Aut valeo stare aut novi civilia jura ; 

Et propero quo scis/' '' Dubius sum quid faciam/' inquit, 40 

" Tene relinquam an rem/' " Me sodes/' '^ Non faciam " ille ; 

Et praecedcre coepit. Ego ut contendere durum est 

Cum victore sequor. " Maecenas quomodo tecum ? '* 

Hinc repetit ; ^^ paucorum hominum et mentis bene sanae ; 

moninm/ which was somctimes equal to good character does not apjicnr. Thc Sdio- 

thtf sum in dispnte, sometimcs only ouo- liasts, and all editions bcforc Bentley havc 

half. [fiaius, iv. 185, 186.] OrcIIi inter- that word, which, as Orclli says, may havo 

S^etd * liteni ' of the ' summa vademonii.' droppcd out of the text from having bct* n 

ut it was rather the amount claimed by united with 'durum,' thus 'durumst/ The 

tbe plaintiff, as in certaiu uctions it was example Bentley quotes from Tcrcnc«; 

the amount of damagcs assessed under a (Phorm. ii. 1. 8), " Etinm idnelex cocigit? 

' litis aestimatio.' lUud durum. Ego expediam : sine," is 

88. Si me atncu — hic ade»'] " * Adesse ' nothing to the purpose. This is a narra- 
k s word of tcchnical use, to accompany a tive, and a very different case, as any one 
penon to court, there to givc him your aid will see. Homce's dismay at the loss of 
sad advice " (Long on Cicero in Verr. ii. this promising opportnnity may be ima- 
2. 29. See also ii. 4. 36). * Hic ' shows they gined. He gives up the battle and resigns 
^pere within sight of the court to which himself to his fote, while the man pursncii 
tbe speaker points. His impudence is his advantago, and brings in that which is 
Yciy anrosiDg. [' Si meamas :' Rittercom- the chicf purpose of his intmsion. * Hinc 
paies Virgil, £cl. yiii. 108, ' crcdimus, an rcpetit:' ' he resumcs the conversation with 
qoi amant.'] this.' He asks abruptly, ** How do yon and 

89. Aut valeo ttare'] Orelli and others Maecenas get on togcther ? a shrewd man, 
imke this aa equivalent to ' adesse.' Comm. and docsn't make himself common. No 
Cmq.. whom Tumebus follows (1. xv. c. man ever madc a bcttcr use of his oppor- 
18)» nya Horace intends to say he has not tunities. Could you not introduce me to 
itraurth tostand about the court while this him ? I shouUl be very happy to play into 
tnl la going on, which is the meaning ; your hands, and if I nm not very much 
•ad he knows nothing of the law; and mistaken, we should soon push aside 
bMJdce, he adda, ' et propero quo scis,' your rivals." Other interpretations have 
wUcb refen to his excuse in v. 18. been given, and thc scntcnces differently 

4L Tene reUnquam an rem'] Those divided. * Paucorum hominum' has tho 

coameiitfttors wbo are not aware that dis- s&me meaning as in Terence (Eun. iii. 1. 

JnDetive qneetions may be put by * ne — an ' IS) • — 

molifiqae as well as in direct constmc- " ' Immo sic homo e«t; 

liOM^ pnt a note of interrogation after Perpaucoram hominnm. Qn, Immo nul- 
■!•«-» But aee Ke/s L. G., § 1423. b, lomm arbitrop 

•ad tiM exemple there quoted frora Cicero : Si tecum vivit." 

^^Qneeio eom Bratine similcm malis an [It may also mean ' a rare kind of nuiD,* 

AafeODL" ' Bes' is technically used here as ' unus multomm,' v. 71, means 'a oom- 

•ad eiiewhere (in legal formulae) as an mon sort of man ;' and this is perhape tlic 

•qnivikDt tn ' lis.' It need not be con- better interpretation.] ' Ferre iecundas ' 

Mercd nimAtnral that the intrasive fellow nnd ' adjutor ' aro sccnie tenns, and ani 

. ihmlil bentate between losing his cause said the first of tho 9tvTtp«ymifUrfi9, Um 

miA leeving the man he was tormenting. other of all thc subordinate pUiyeni» ' Hutm 

He had aa object togain which, if he could homincm ' is thc Greck r6i^S' Mpek» 'Tni' 

E' 1« st» wonld (he might consider) be dere ' is a couventional term for \uirtAmt' 

e tlMUi • compensation for the loss of tions, and ' submovcro ' fnf ihm duty </f \\m 

waSAt esd he was prettj sure Horace lictor in clcaring tbe way (H. W.l^, \U). 

dd never give him snch an opportimity [' Submoeses :' this tenne t^^mtA% e* \hm' 

dn. derlcin obscrvcs, * you wouia h«^# ftm¥tr»M\ 

■aieef] Bentleyandothersafter all yoxur rivab oat of the wey, if y«>g }iwJ 

*mk! which in some MSS. of only introdncod mu,'] 


Jexlenus fortuna est usus. Haberes 
iiiim afljiitorem possut qui ferre secundas, 
.■ lii^iniriL'm velles si tradere; diepeream ni 
:ii.sses oiimes." " Nun isto vivimus illic 
tii rere modo ; domiis liac nec purior ulla est 
mLi^'is liis alieua maliH ; nil mi officit unquum 
T iiic aut cst quia doctior; est locus uni 
w suus." " Magnum narrafi, vis credibile ? " " J 
liibct." " Aceendis qiiare eupiam magis illi 
iiniis essc." " Vclis tantummodo : quae tua virtus 
iijiiubi^i ; ct cst (jiii viuci poesit, eoque 
jilcs iiJitus prinios habet." " Haud mihi decro : 
cribu;' t;crvos eorrumpam ; non hodie si 
usus fuero dcsiatam ; tcmpora quaeram, 
iiTiim in triviis, dcducam. Nil sine magno 
laborc dedit mortalibus." Haec dum agit, ecce 

.,, ;.f,. .;,„.,„< ,7/„-, \\\- maj case«iiTe(|uitBdiffereot,andt 
i|.. i-..l _:ii:;..ii nlili isliii'h lio- iwreOQii! feeliug eipreased b; 
,,■.!!.. 11.,. 1:, -.1.1,,,.. .1 lii. ^ni. tbsn by ' vivitnr.* AUtheol. 
II.. .,,.i..~,i,i- hii„-.-U il,r,>i.gliout MSS.Hudeditic«iiihave*Ti«i 

SATIilAUl':M I. !). 1:23 

Fiiscu< Ari.stiiis oecurrit, uiihi carus et illuui 

Qui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. Unde venis ? ct 

Quo tcndis ? rogat et rcspondet. Vellere coepi 

Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 

Distorqucns oculos, ut me eriperet. Male salsus 65 

llidens dissimulare : meum jccur urerc bilis. 

" Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 

Aiebas mecum." '* Memini bene, sed meliore 

Tumpore dicam ; hodie tricesima sabbata : vin tu 

Gl. FitJtms Aritiiu»] Sce C. i. 28, Int. thc .Tcwr hnd any sabl^ath Ihut they callcd 

Tliis is tho inoftt hainoroas part of thc tho thirtieth, nnd I doabt the fuet. The 

locne. Fiisca< knows Horace'8 friend wcU utter contenipt with which the RomuUit, 

by «ight and charucter. He seizes the joke cspccially of Horuee*t) ckss, lookcd opon 

at once. lliey stop and begin with the the Jcwish superstitions (as thcv countcd 

asual questions. See S. ii. 4. 1, *' Unde ct thcm), is thc esseuce of the joke in tho 

qno Catius ?" Virg. Ec. ix. 1, *' Quo tc, tcxt. That tho Jcws had a sabbath of 

Moeri^ pedes ? an, quo via ducit, in ar- course evcry body kucw. Tliat thcy had a 

bem ? " Foscos gocs on talking ubout sabbatical year and a year of jubilee no 

nothiDg. Horace winks at him, twitchcs doubt wus kuown to somc, and that this 

hhn by the toga, pulls him by the ann : camc round evcry fitly years ; alsothatthev 

to all which ho gets no responsc ; the ann obscr>'ed days and montlis and years with 

lEeiiu aot to feel, and the owner secms not scrupulous exactnciw. Beyond this I should 

to peroeive, whilo all the time hc sces tho imaginc Aristius Fuscus knew littlc or no- 

fon a&d laoghs in his sleeve. Horace can thing of thc Jcws, cxccpt that thev were a 

beor it no longer. ** I think you had ramc- troublcsome sct of peoplc, aud livcd by 

thin^ to say to me in privatc, had yoa themsclves on thc other side of the Tiber, 

DOt?" "Thie; Iremember: butl'lltuke not fiir by the by from where the party 

a beCter opportnnity: don*t you know were standing. ' Tricesima sabbata' I be- 

wluit day it 18 ? — the Jews' thirtieth Sab- lieve to be a merc extcmporaneous inven- 

bath ! lon wonldn't think of offending tion madc to covcr his retreat and tantalize 

thoee good people." "Pooh ! rvenosuch his unfortunato iricnd. Until some more 

•cmplefl." " Ay, but I have : I don't definite accouut is given of thc mattcr than 

proieM to have your strength of mind. I any I have read, I shall venture to hold 

go with ihe saperstitious multitude, and thc above opinion. The plural <rd0fiaTa is 

oare not risk such an ofTence. Yoa'U commonly used by the writcrs of the New 

mciise me. Good moming ! " And so Testamcnt for the sabbath day. The joke, 

■nother ezcellent opportunity of cscapo is howcver, would have little pomt if it were 

kat. not the fact that thcre wero at Rome sn- 

68. Qvt pulehre nossef] Thc meaning pcrstitious pcoplc, espcciully womcn and 
ii^ ' ooe who knew him weli ; but I am not persons of ncrvous habit and of the lower 
tware of any passage that exactly corre- orders (S. ii. 3. 291 n.), who, being ready to 
iponds with this. [If it were * norat/ the be influenccd by any superstition, were 
meaiung woold be a plain affirmation that preparcd to be frightened at the stutements 
Fucasknewthefellow well: but hc means of tho Jows, who wcre zealous in makiug 
to Mj, Foscut was the man to know him prosclytcs (S. i. 4. 143), and no doubt tcr- 
vfllL Comp. S. i. 7. 6, ' Duras homo atque riiicd somc by thcir rcpresentation of tho 
o£o qni poaset Tincere Regcm.'] curses dcnounecd upon tho transgjessors of 

64. JSt vrensare manu} I prefer this to thc sabbath. Ovid, advising a man howto 

'pieaMre» wluch OrcIIi cdits, rcferring got out of lovc, bids him above all things 

'fdlere' to the *toga.' Bentley rcads go away from his mistrcss, and lct nothing 

'nraMue^' which appears in all the old stop him (Rcm. Am. 219) : 

•iitim and was first altered by Lambi- ,,^^ .^^ ^j^ ^^ ^^ peregrina mo- 
BH. ['Maleauni:' 'showinghishumour rcntnr 

oatofMMoa.' Comn. 8. i. 3. 46.] Sabbata, nec damnis Allia nota sais." 

69. tneenma eaobataj I do not find 

ttiat it ia made ont on auy authority that [Bcntley has (v. 60) ' vis tu/ and rcfers to 

SATIRAEUM I. 10. 425 


The line of flelf-defence Horace took in the foorth Satire (see Introduction, nnd 
▼. 6 n.), led him into a criticism of Lncilins, which gave a fresh handle to his adversa- 
Hes, who profeased an admiration for that poet, hut admired him fbr his worse iaults of 
taste, and especially for his comhinatiou of Greck words with his mother tongue, — a 
practioe the affectation of which no one would more iustinctively feel and condemn than 
Horace. The occasion did not give scope for much good writing, and the Satire haa 
little mcrit as a composition. Somehody wishing to try his skill in imitating Horace, 
prefixed to this poem the foUowing verses, which are gcnerally, though not nniversally, 
mUowed to he spurious, hut they appcar in some good MSS. Franke (F. H. p. 107) says 
they are genuine. They are discussed in an Excursus hy Orelli, and in a -paper by 
Jacoba (Lect. Ven. xi.) :~ 

** Lucili, quam sis mendosus, teste Catone 
Defensore tuo, pervincam, qui male factos 
Emendare parat versus ; hoc lcnius illo 
Est quo vir melior, longe subtilior illo, 
Qui multum puer et loris et funibus udis 
Exhortatus, ut esset opem qui ferrc poetis 
Antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra, 
Grammaticonun equitum doctissimus. Ut redeam illuc ;" 


Well» I nid that Lucilius' verses wcre rough. And who can deny it ? But I gaye 
luni credit at the same time for his great wit. If allowing this I must allow him 
erery thing, the farccs of Labcrius I must call poems of great beauty. It is not 
enongh to raise a laugh, though that has its mcrit ; there should be terseness and 
TBiiety, going irom gravc to gay, irom the scvere orator or thc keen satirist to the 
poUshed wit. A mixture of humour and scverity is the way to settle grave questions. 
Tliis waa the ground of the old comcdians, whom Hermogenes and his mincing tribe 
never read a word of. 

** Oh ! bnt Lucilius was great in the blending of Greek words with our own." Block- 
beadi ! la that a great thing which Htholeon can do ? " But a language com- 
poimded of the two is surely so much sweeter, likc mixing Chian and Falemian 
wmet." Now I ask you, would you apply that rulc to the language of the Forum ? 
And while onr great advocates are woiking out their speeches with much labour in 
tbe best poasible Latin^ would you mix up yours with Greek ? When I once thought 
of writing Greek verses the shade of Romulus appeared to me by night, and bade me 
nther cany fiiggots to the forest. So while Alpinus is murdering hcroes in bombast, 
I atick to my unambitious trifles. Fundauius may write comedy, as he does better 
than any man living; Pollio may write tragedy ; Varius bold epics ; Virgil bucolics; 
my itrength lies in that style in which Varro and others have failed, though I am 
noi eqoal to LuciliiiB who invented it. I have no wish to rob him of the crown that 

Bnt I aud the flow of his vene waa that of a muddy stream, carrying with it more 
Ikiilte tban beanties. Well, do you never fiud a blot even in Homer, with all your leam- 
ing ? Did not Lncilina find faults in Accius and in Ennina ? Why may not I in« 

SATIRARUM I. 10. 427 

Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 

Auditoris ; et est quaedam tamen hic quoque virtus. 

Est brevitate opus^ ut currat sententia neu se 

Impediat verbis lassas oneranti})us aures ; 10 

£t seimone opus est modo tristi saepe jocosO;^ 

Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 

Interdum urbani^ parcentis viribus atque 

Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 

Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 15 

Illi scripta quibus comoedia prisca viris est 

Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulcher 

Hermogenes unquam legit neque simius iste 

lea Schlegel therefore fDrama, Lect. Of these three the gravity of stem reproof 

.) and others say that Horace speaks Horace eBtimates lowest, saying that ridi- 

paragingly of Laberias' mimes, and cnle generally settles qaestions of however 

w inferences from this fact adverse to grave importance better and more deci- 

own judgment, they appear to me to sively than severity. *Secare' is osed in 

itake thc meaning of this passage. He the sense of < decidere' in Epp. i. 16. 42: 

C9 Laberius as much praise as he gives " Qao maltae magnaeqae secantar judice 

cnlios, and though that is qualified litcs." Cicero (de Or. ii. 58) says, " Est 

iae, the nature of the compositions he plane oratoris movere risum — maxime 

ployed himself on rendered this unavoid- quod tristitiam ac scveritatem mitigat et 

s. There can be no doubt that his wit rekxat odiosasque res sacpe quas argu- 

ild havc adomed a higher sphcre of mentis dilui non facilo est joco risuque 

ting, if he had sclectcd it. Cicero, dissolvit." 

ting to Comificius (ad Fam. xii. 18) 16. Hliscripta quibtti] See S. i. 4. 2n. 

B, * Equidem sic jam obdurui ut ludis ' Hoc stabant,' * stood on this ground,' as 

staris nostri animo aequissimo vidcrem * hinc pendet,' S. 4. 6. [' Stabant :' this 

Pbmcum, audirem lAberii et Publii word is used to signify a dramatic piece 

mata,' which may imply that he had a which pleases. Comp. Terence, Phormio, 

at dislike to the mimcs of Laberius and Prol. 9 ; Horace, Epp. ii. i. 176. Orelli.] 

blins Syrus, and he may very wdl be 18. Hermoffenesl See S. i. 8. 129 n. 

ipoeed to have been displeased at the 'Simius iste' issaidbytheScholiast8,with 

iracter of the plays, while he may have every probability, to mean Demetriufl^ 

ireciated the abilities of the authors. whom we meet with below (v. 79) as an 

7. ricium] * Rictum ' and * rictus ' abuscr of Horace and (v. 90) as a trainer 

Ltain the root of * ringi ' (Epp. ii. 2. of ' mimae,' like Hcrmogenes with whom 

^). Ciccro (Verr. ii. 4. 43) uses 'ric- he is associated. The Scholiasts say he 

q' for the mouth, where he is spcaking was callcd an ape because of the shortnesa 

i atatne.l of his stature and the deformity of hia 

h Sst Srevitate opue'] The want of pcrson. It may be doubted whether that 

s qoality in Lucilius he condomns in idea was not derived irom Aristophanes* 

4. 9 sqg. ' Tristi ' signifies * scrious.' description of Cleigenes, Kan. 708, 6 ir/0i}- 

efendente vicem,' supporting thc part, k6s y* olros KXftyiyris 6 fitKp6s. His only 

B 'iiingar vioe cotis' (A. P. 304), and skill was to sing the love songs of Calvua 

;toris partea choras officiumque virile and Catullus (and to imitate them, Acron 

fendat ' (v. 193). On * modo,' sec S. i. adds, probably at a gucss). Horace hav» 

12. The combination Horace com- ing mentioned the great masters of Greek 

nds is that of the orator steraly or comedy, cannot help stcpping out of his 

(rdj rebuking vice, of the humorous way to aim a blow at theso pitiful persons, 

irift (poetae) broadly ridiculiug it, and Hermogenes and his ape. It has been 

tbe pdiahed wit who, instead of throw- rightly observed that Horace doea not 

: himaelf with aU his strength upon his mean to disparage the two favourite poets 

tim, labatituteB sarcasm for invective, and swom friends, Calvns and Catnllus, 

1 leti his power be rather felt thon seen. but merely to show that it reqoirod a more 


il i^raitLT Calvum ct dootua cantare CtttuIIum. 
At niafrniim ffi^it (juod verbis Graeca l>a.tuiis 
li-riiit." O sfri studiornm I quine putctia 
iinvile et niirum Rliodio qiiod Pitholeonti 
imti^it ? " At sermo lingua concinnus utraqne 
navior, ut Cliin nota si commixta Falerni est." 
uni vi.Tiiis tacias, tc ipsum percontor, an et cum 
iiira tibi purdj^-fuda rei sit causa Petilli? 
i^ilifct oljlitus patriacque patrisque, Latine 

. (a~t.' 111-111 Ilormoei^nes or Denic epijimin», in whu-li lie mii^ 
'-i'.vii't[ to uiipifiiEiU' ur evtn ta wonla with the Latin. Torrpul 
li»rit,:n ai Ari^tu[>lml»^> Hiul hi< Dpiniou, Bnd BentW iind Weicl 
L. e«T «liom he bnd 4in iiiihoniidcd Lat. RpI. p. 333) Df the »ine. 
iiin. Il uiljjlit Ih! supiKwed Ihat peraon lucant i< « frecdiMui of i 
iiitrml- [n«r opiiiion lim, wbose name he bore (M. 
- jiii.t Ci.Hillu- ; Imt I tHHiiul we Pithol«Q«). of wbom Soetouin», 
II iiiiii. «iT.- tu «n i.r u luodeni of C. Jnlin* C»«iar (c. 76), «j 
i|.M'i.iiiU nl,(, c.iil.l .1.1 nodiin^ Bttaclced C»ps«r in HnDe rer 
Niii 1.1. iL-.. .1 ni'.l, ..!■ Im.Ul..* nith s TeiBea, bnt th»t Cae«T took it i 
»..iiL-..:.l i.-r..'!. .,;...., tliut he temper. Hig name wiis Pithi 

i^; .i: ■■■ i.^L-riiiiinK Horace miglt chnnRe tbat U 

l.n\r. . .1.1 lineuf withcmt TJuUtinp tbe Orcelt 

ur.', .-].,mi^ing TifidAoai nnd liiiiKnar, Moi 

U'.ful -.■■ _ ■' L "■■..-iLwhom, 4c., are different for 

SATIRARUM I. 10. 429 

Cam Pedias caasas exsadet Poplieola atqae 

Corvinas, patriis intermiscere petita 

Verba foris malis^ Canusini more bilinguis ? 30 

Atqae ego cum Graecos facerem natus mare citra 

Versiculos, vetuit me tali voce Qairinus 

Post mediam noctem visus cum somnia vera : 

" In silvam non ligna feras insanius ac si 

Mag^as Graecorum malis implere catervas/' 35 

Targidus Alpinus jugulat dum Memnona, dumque 

elaboratin^ their Bpeeches in their pnre any of thcse was the orator, it mnst havo 

iQother ton^iic, — would you, I say, prefer been the son of the tirst Q. Pcdins, and 

mixing^ np a foreign jargon with your ua- either grandsonor gri>at grnndson of Julin. 

tive langnage, like a donble-tongued man His family were eonnccted by niurriHge 

of Canusium ? " He puts the compoHition with the Mcssallae, but thcre is no record 

of ver8e8,onBnch thcmes as Luciliuschose, of the cognomen Poplicola belonging to 

ona par with the gravity of forensic speak- any of them. Neithcr is there any rcason 

ingy and asks why if the mau would not that I know of to suppose it was bome by 

apply the rule to thc latter he should do Mcssalla Corvinus, to whom Horace here 

■o to the former. ['llic MSS. anthority for alhideA. (Sec C. iii. 21, Int.). Hc had a 

• Latini ' ia bettcr than that for ' Latinc' brother by adoption named GcUius Pop- 
Aannming thcn ' patris Latini ' to bc the licola, and it was a cognomcn of tho 
right reading, we must choose between the Yaleria gens, to which Messalla belongcd, 
MSS.reading 'ohlitus' and thc conjcctnre but hc is nevcr so called himself. Acron 
'oblitos.' Now if we 6rst oroit 'cum Pe- takes Poplicola with Pcdius, and says ho 
dins — Corvinus/ the scnse is, * would you and Messallu wcre brothcrs. Orelli savs 
foivetting your country and your Ijatin that Q. IVdlus, the fathcr of the duinh 
&tner rather choose to mix foreign with paintcr, adopted a brotlier of Messalln, 
native words ? ' and the conncxi(m iH^twecn whcnce he was named Pedius. Estro 
'oblitna' and 'malis' is clear. The diffi- takcs Poplicola with Corviuus, ns in S. 5. 
cnltj is in *cnm Pedius— Corvinus.* When 27, " Maecenas, optimus atquc Cocceius ;" 
HoTBoe says *though theyswcat ovcr their and bclow, v. 82, "Octavius, optiraus 
eases,' we mnst supposc that it is itnplie<l atque Fuscus." In rcspcct to MessaIIa'8 
Uiat thej talk purc Latin. If we rcnd rcligious reverence for his niother ton<^e, 

• oblitos,' then wo have the constrtiction thc Scholiiists write (the words aro those 
*oblito8--intcrmisccre — mnlis,'and Pcdius of Comni. Cruq., but Porph. tells the snme 
and Corrinns, to whom ' ohlitos ' refcrs, arc story), "u Oraccis vocalmlis ita ablior- 
introdnced by a ' cum.' Such a con!*truc- ruerunt ut Mes«HlIa (rxoiyo^drijif Latino 
tkm is absnnl, and the emendation 'obli- 'funambulum* reddiderit, ex Terentio in 
tos ' manifestly 8{)oiIs the sentence. Whc- Hecynv, ubi ait, Funamhnli eodem nc- 
tber 'patris I^tini' mcans a^Latin fnthcr' ccssit exiyectatio ;" which Estr6 intcrprcts 
or old Latinns, tho father-in-Iaw of Aeneas thus ; that in thc place in question (He- 
is immaterial.] cyrn, IVoI. v. 20) Terence wrote originally, 

28. Cum Pediu8 cauxas'] It is douhted "Schoenobntnceodcm acccssit expectatio," 

wbether Poplicola should bc tnkcn with and thnt Mcssnlla substitutcd the word 

Pedins or Corvinus. Tlie son or gnmclson ' fuunmbuli,' which was rctained in nll 

of Jnlia, sistcr of C. Julius Cacsar, wns Q. the subsequcnt copies. Quintilian de- 

Pedinsy who dicd in the year of his con- scrihes Messalla fx. 1. 113) as "orator 

snlship, A.U.C. 711. This redius, thcrefore, nitidus et candidus et quodnnmio<Io pnie se 

conld not bave been thc orator of the tcxt. fcrcns in dicondo nobilitiitcm suam." And 

He had a son, of whom history snys no- Ilorace spenks agnin of his eloqucncc, A. P. 

tlung, bnt that he was thc father of Q. 370. His intimacy with Horace began in 

Pedins, who was bom dumb, and having Brutus' anuy, and continucd unbrokcu 

been tanght painting through thc mcnns till Horace'8 dcath. 

of Mesnila Conrinas his kinsman, bccamo 80. Canusini more hilin^/ttis'] See S. i. 

cminent as an artist. Thcse ore all thc 5. 91 n. 

FtodB of this age that we know of ; and if 36. Turgidut AlpinMi] See Excnrsos. 

SATIEARUM I. 10. 431 

Facta canit pede ter pereusso ; forte epos acer 

Ut nemo Varius ducit ; moUe atque facetum 

Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camenae. 45 

Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 

Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, 

Inventore minor, neque ego illi detrahere ausim 

Haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam. 

At dixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50 

Plura quidem toUenda relinquendis. Age, quaeso, 

Tu nihil in magno doctus reprehendis Homero ? 

Nil eomis tragici mutat Lucilius Acci ? 

tempoTRries with poets of the first rank. rentius Varro/ Bonnae 18-17. Eittcr.] 

Certainly hia Eclogues do not descrvc a 50. At dixi, ^c.'] Sce S. i. 4. 11. — 

H;ber place than is due to polisbed versi- [Ritter writes ' dixti on his own authority, 

ficitioD, and will bear no comparison with and defendsit thns: 'per totam eclogam ad- 

tke Idylls of Theocritns. — *Facetum' versus Horatium pugnat interlocutor.' He 

■gnifles < elegant,' as in a coxcomb it would adds truly*a< in Satiris ponit Horatius, 

beadled 'fine/ S. i. 2. 26. [Quintilian quoticns aut advcrsarium inducit aut ipse 

(▼i* 8. 20) says of * facetum :' * Dccoris quae opposita sunt refutare aggrrcditur, nou 

bancmagiset excnltaecuju&damelegantiae ubi ad novam rem ipAc transitum facturus 

*!>pdktionem puto.*] est.' But this remark contiiins the answcr 

^ Varrone Atacino] Jerome (in Euseb. to his * dixti^' for ' At dixi ' means, * I said, 

^^it^ Olymp. 174. 3, a.u.o. 672) says as you will say, &c.:' and the altcration is 

*r. Tercntins Varro vico Atace in provincia useless.] 

K*fboDenai nascitnr qui postea XXXV annum 53. Nil comia fragici mutat Luciliva 

^Qu Oraecas literas cum sunimo studio Accil] 'Comis' isusually tnken ironically. 

™>Qt." (See Clinton, P. H. sub an.) Ho I thinK it is more in acconlauct; with Ho- 

■•adledAtacinnSjWhetheriTom adistrict race'8 tcmper and thc purposc of this 

•» •« the Scholiasts say, a river of Gallia Satirc, which is conciliatory, to take it 

AtrboDensis (tbe district is not named, but litcrally as Orelli does, referring to tlio 

**we ii a river Atax, the Aude), to distin- dcscriptiou in S. ii. 1. 30, &c. (sce below, 

J^W» him from M. Terentius Varro, who v. 65). Accius was bom b.c. 170, and was a 

**0iDetime8 called Rcatinus. His attempts writcr of tragcdics, chiefly from the Qreek, 

^Htare, in which Horace snys that ho but some * practcxtatac.' Cicero calls him 

jyd fiuU^ are nowhere noticed but here. " gravis et ingcniosus i^oota " (pro Planc. 

'^^MB. Ony(\. thus paraphrases Horace'8 c. 2^4), " sunimus poeta " (pro Scstio, c. 

*^: " Hoc erat quod ego mcUus posscm 56). Quintilian's judgmcnt will be found 

^^boeqiiam VarroAtacinus et alii multi, in the note on Epp. ii. 1. 56. Horace 

9n eonati snnt scribere Satyras quas non speaks elscwhcre (A. P. 258) of ** Acci 

^^ltiidabiliter ediderant." Porphyrion nobilibus trimetris," where, as in the aI>ove 

•^pfeiis 'quibusdam aliis * to mcan P'unius EpiHtle, hc is rcferring morc to the populnr 

^ FbcariiiB, which is very improbablc. judgnient than giving bis own. GcIIins 

***e ihoold not have known that Varro (xiii. 2) relatcs how Accius rcad to Pacu- 

^•■l»tiriat>if Horacehad not mentioned vius one of his early pnxluctions (Atreus, 

'^■owemajsnppose thereareotberseven a tragcdy), and tliut the old man snid, 

^^Ong the poets whose nnmes have como ** sonora quidem esse quae scripsissct ct 

^''•n to ns with credit, and many wc have grandiu ; scd videri ca tamien sibi durioni 

^ heud of, who wrote in this stylo and paullum et acerbiom." Accius ackuow- 

iMenoihiog of it. Estr^ mentions Saevius ledged it was so, but hoped thut what was 

AioiDor and Lenaeus, firom Suetonius de hai^d and harsh in him would be mellowed 

^I^Gnmmat. c. 5andl5; andL. Albu- by tirae. Gellius finishes his account of 

^ ftom Varro de Ko Kust. iii. 2. 17. Komnn authors (xvii. 21) with*'Q. Ennius 

(^dfaida» p. 588.) [M. Terentius Varro et juxta Cuccilius ct Terentius ac subinde 

Jnte fimr boolu of Satirae. Kitschelii et Pacuvius, et Pacuvio jum sene Accius, 

'die Schriflstellerei des M. Tc-