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H O R A C E 



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I have to express to the Delegates of the Press 
and to the kind purchasers of the first volume of this 
edition my regret for the long but unavoidable delay 
which has intervened in the completion of the work. 
That it is completed now I owe to the unstinted and 
unselfish help of my friend Mr. A. O. Prickard, Fellow 
of New College. I desired at one time that the 
volume should appear in our joint names, and had 
obtained the sanction of the Delegates to this arrange- 
ment; but we found the difificulties of joint work 
too great, in view of the impossibility of our being 
much together; and therefore, although a first draft 
of the notes on the later Epistles was prepared by 
Mr. Prickard, I have ultimately rewritten these, and 
made myself responsible for the whole. At the same 
time I cannot overstate the help which I have received 
from him in this part of the volume, and indeed in 
suggestions and criticisms upon the whole of it. 

With respect to the text I have little to add to 
what I wrote, I hope with proper modesty, in the 
introduction to Vol. I. Keller's ' Epilegomena,' pub- 
lished in 1 8 79-1 880, has added to the obligation 
which he and his colleague have laid upon all students 



of Horace in givine them for the first time a clear and 

o o 

trustworthy conspectus of the evidence of value which 
is at our command. But it has not produced a general 
agreement, either with their method of grouping the 
MSS. in classes or families, or with their particular 
estimate of the value of Cruquius' Old Blandinian 
MS. (V) K Cruquius no doubt overestimated its 
antiquity ; but, on the other hand, the more the question 
has been sifted the less reason there has appeared 
to be for doubting the care and bona fides of his 
testimony, and the more reason for assenting to the 
general judgment of scholars from Bentley downwards, 
that we have access in its readings to a text, not 
necessarily always right, but of unique value as 
exhibiting a tradition independent of the other MSS. 

In addition to the Editors whose help I have 
acknowledged before, I have of course leant greatly 
in the Satires on Heindorf (re-edited by Wtlsteman, 
Leipzig, 1843) and in the First Book of the Epistles on 
Obbar (Leipzig, 1837). I have made great use of the 
thoughtful and independent commentary of Schiitz 
(Berlin, 1883), andhave derived many suggestions from 
the edition of the Satires by Prof. A. Palmer and that 
of the Epistles by Prof. Wilkins (Macmillan, 1884 and 
1885). I have come also to estimate very highly the 
compressed but singularly complete and sensible notes 

1 I would refer especially to the examination of Keller's conclusions by 
P. Hoehn ('de codice Bland. antiquissimo,' Jena, 1883) and W. Mewes 
(the editor of the re-issue of Orelli, ' Ueber den wert des Cod. Bland. 
vetustissimus,' Berlin, 1882); also to Professor Nettleship, 'Essays in 
Latin Literature,' p. 188 f. 



of Duntzer (Brunswick, 1849). Kiesslings edition 
came into my hands too late to be of full use. But 
I have felt again, as I said before, that the editor 
to whom the student of Horace is most indebted is 
Bentley ; and I have felt more than before (though he 
only speaks to us through his text and short preface 
and a few papers in the Journal of Philology) how 
strong and trustworthy is the judgment, whether in 
purely textual questions or in the questions of inter- 
pretation which cannot be severed from text, of the 
most Bentleian of English scholars who have touched 
Horace, the lamented H. A. J. Munro. 

May I make two requests of the younger readers 
whose needs I have had specially in view — one, that 
they will read, both before beginning a Satire or 
Epistle, and also side by side with it, the analysis 
which I have prefixed to it and without which the 
commentary will be incomplete ; the other, that they 
will not be deluded, by what has seemed the unhappy 
necessity of employing inverted commas for the 
double purpose, into mistaking interpretative para- 
phrase for translation ? The latter I have attempted 
rarely ; the former is often a convenient and necessary 
substitute for a long note. 

Wellington College, Oct. 1890. 

Note. — I must apologize here for a misunderstanding which has led to 
some uncorrected variation in spelling. To harmonize with the rest of the 
text 'cum' should be read in Sat. I. i. 86, 104, ' baca ' in Sat. 2. 4. 69; 
'aspectu,' 'aspicere ' in Sat. 1. 8. 26, 2. 5. 5,2.6.60; ' temptatum' in Sat. 1. 
1. 80 ; ' obiciebat ' in Sat. 1.4. 123 ; and ' o ' should be substituted for ' u ' 
in'avulsos,' 'vultis,' &c. in Sat. 1. 1. 58, 1. 2. 38 and several other places. 


(«. = notes, 1. = line.) 

Sat. I. 

14«. 1. 16 
80«. 1. 5 
110«. 1. 
12«. 1. 
32 «. 1. 

34 "■ 1- 

67 «. 1 

for ' one ' read ' me 






' Epp. 2. 2. 

' So.' 1. 5. ' Panis ' 

' boat is boarded ' 
Od. 2. 2. 3 ' 
' duumviro ' 

' dissyll.' 

6. 74«. 1. 13. 'board' 

115 «. 1. 2. 'Sat. 2. 3. 182' 

7. 10, 11 n. 1. 47. 'v. 14' 

8. 39«. 1. 4- del. ' and' 

9. 22 «. 1. 13. before ' two ' 

59 "• !■ 9- X w / ) ' s 

10. 22». 1. 5. MeveXaos 



Sat. II. 

1. 26 «. 1. 4. ins. kcu before trv£ 
60 n. 1. 14. ' Trebatius' words' 

2. 23«. 1. 2. for 'will ' read ' well' 
29,30«. I.23. for ' patere ' read 

' petere ' 
35 n. 1. 5. for ' dislikes ' read ' likes ' 
45»- H-3,4- 'Od. 1.4. 14, 2. 14. 11' 
53 n. 1. 14. for ' so ' read ' he is ' 

3. Introd. p. 132, 1. 1. after 26 ins. ' Z>.' 
7 n. 1. 2. for ' use ' read ' in ' 

51 n. 1. 11. for ' cause' read ' sense' 

and del. the following in- 

verted commas 
62«. 1. 2. after 'error' add ' of vv. 

49,51.' 1. 4. for 33read 53 
69 «. 1. 16. for ' which ' read ' whose 

name ' 
135«. 1. 2. del. ' the ' 
195 n. 1. 5. Tlpiajxos 




33 n. 1. 7. del. first ' of ' 

37 n. 1. 5. for 'getting' read ' gather- 

ing oV 
79 n. 1. 2. 'have' 
4«. 1. 1. after 'myself' ins. ' more 

Epp. I. 

3 n. 1. 2. ' pulsu ' 
31 n. 1. 2. 'sarciri ' 

17 n. 1. 2. for ' which ' read ' what ' 
2 2 «. 1. 3. for ' have ' read ' had ' 
24«. 1. 13. for 'Quisque' read 'Qui- 

que ' 
75 n. 1. 2. for ' quest ' read ' guest ' 
1 n. omit ' The phrase ' 
Additional note, 1. 6. for 1S69 read 

26 n. 1. 1. for ' first ' read ' final ' 
37 n. 1. 31. ' Graios' 
31 n. 1. 10. for 23 read 2. 3 

Epp. II. 

I3S«. 1. 2. for 3 read 5 
173«. 11. 51, 52. 'Dossennus' 

18 n. 1. 6. ' condicione ' 
117«. 1. 5. ' medulla' 

1 70 n. 1. 8. for ' servunt ' read ' serunt ' 

206 «, 


for ' si ' read ' is ; 
' intelligatur ' 

Ars Poetica. 

55 n. 1. 6. ' daedalus' 
120;/. 1. 43. del. ' is' 
128-135«. 1. *3- 'vindicates' 
158«. 'l. 2. for 'ut' read 'et' 
221 n. 1. 11. del. 'as' before ' mox : 
261, 262 n. 1. 7 .del. ' So' 



§ i. Division of the two Books. 

It may be taken for certain that the division of the two Books of 
Satires is a real and chronological division, not merely, like that of 
the first three books of the Odes, the division for artistic purposes of 
a collection given to the world together. Such a real division is indi- 
cated by the very definite epilogue with which the First Book is 
concluded and the prologue with which the Second Book opens. No 
doubt something of this effect is given by the placing of Od. 2. 20 
and 3. 1, and in a slighter way still by that of Od. 1. 37, 38 and 
2.1; but in the case of the Odes there is no mistake when we come 
to Od. 3. 30 and compare it with 1. 1, that we have in them the true 
prologue and epilogue to the work as a whole. To make the parallel 
effective, Book II of the Satires should have an epilogue which 
would mark not only the close of a Book but the achievement of a 
full purpose. Sat. II is ended in a manner suitable to the more 
dramatic character of the Book, not by a conscious epilogue, 
but by a sketch lighter in tone than the two which precede 
it, and one which gathers up and puts in more dramatic form 
some of the chief topics of the book and especially of its earlier 
part. Amongst Horace's collections of poems it is analogous to the 
conclusion of the Epodes and of the IVth Book of the Odes, not to 
that of Sat. I, Odes I— III, or Epp. I. He has his two manners, 
evidently, of ending a Book : but this does not render it more prob- 
able that he should have published the two Books of Satires 
together and ended the first with ' I puer, atque meo citus haec sub- 
scribe libello,' and the second with 'velut illis Canidia afflasset 
peior serpentibus Afris.' 

But in truth the two Books stand apart from one another widely, 
both in general form and topics, and also in tone personal and 



literary, and in the background of circumstance. In Book I Octa- 
vianus is mentioned only once and then incidentally as patron of 
Tigellius. In Book II he is set in the forefront as the person 
to whom compliments are to be paid and whose protection the 
* poet may look for l . In Book I the friendship of Maecenas 
occupies a prominent place, but there is no hint of his most valued 
gift, the Sabine retreat. In Book II the ' villa ' is the scene of Sat. 3, 
and the theme of Sat. 6. The peace of his country home has passed 
into the poefs blood, and the assured position of which it was the 
outward sign has modified his views of things. In 2. 1 he professes 
to take up the cudgels on behalf of outspoken Satire, but he meets 
his critics more than half-way. He is 'cupidus pacis,' and his 
weapon is to be one of defence only. Whatever of personality there 
had been in Book I has been yet further toned down in Book II. 
Horace's literary enemies Tigellius, Fannius, Demetrius, have had 
their final dismissal in Sat. 1. 10. Though, as we see from his later 
writings, his judgment on the general question between the ancients 
and moderns remains what it was, he is no longer concerned to 
defend himself against detractors who depreciated him by exalting 
Lucilius ; and accordingly he expresses his debt to his predecessor 
and his admiration for him without qualification. 

§ 2. Date of Book I. 

The first Book of the Satires is the first collection of Horace's 
poems that was given to the world. This would be the natural con- 
clusion from his words in Sat. 1. 10. 46, where, after assigning dif- 
ferent kinds of poetry to different contemporary masters, he says of 
Satire ' Hoc erat experto frustra Varrone Atacino Atque quibusdam 
aliis melius quod scribere possem.' Some of the Epodes may 
have been as early in composition as the earliest Satires, but the 
collected Epodes were not published before the battle of Actium 
(Epod. 9). 

In endeavouring to fix the date of the publication of Sat. I it is of 
the first importance to fix the time of Horace's introduction to the 
friendship of Maecenas. Six, if not seven 2 , of the ten Satires con- 
tain references to that friendship. The friendship is fresh, and yet 

1 Sat. 2. 1. 11, 19, 84. cenas incidentally on the improvements 

2 J - 3) 5. 6, 9, 10. Possibly we by which he had converted the old 
should add 8, which takes occasion in paupers' burial-ground into handsome 
laying the scene of Canidia's witcheries gardens. 

on the Esquiline to compliment Mae- 


has lasted a little while. Horace looks back on its stages (6. 54-62) ; 
it has stood some tests (3. 63-65) ; people are still curious about it, 
and yet some are already seeking to profit by it (5 and 9). Now if 
we can date Sat. 2. 6, Horace gives us in it the means of also dating 
approximately the commencement of his close relations to Maecenas : 
for in v. 40 he says — 

' Septimus octavo propior iam fugerit annus 
Ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum 
In numero.' (With the last words cp. Sat. i. 6. 62.) 

The expression is not perfectly clear, but this probably means ' It is 
seven or rather very nearly eight full years since,' etc. There is also 
the doubt, which always attaches to Roman reckoning, whether this 
is to be taken exclusively or inclusively, to mean what we should also 
call - seven years verging on eight,' or what we should rather call ' six 
verging on seven.' The date of the Satire itself can be fixed within a 
few months, but not more closely. Three indications of time are 
given in it. (1) In v. 38 the words ' Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas signa 
tabellis ' seem to refer to the time of the ' bellum Actiacum ' and the 
following events, during which Maecenas (in conjunction later with 
Agrippa) had the charge of affairs in Rome and Italy for Octavianus 
and bore his signet ring \ (2) In v. 53 Horace represents as one 
of the questions put to him by persons who credited him with know- 
ing state secrets, ' numquid de Dacis audisti ? ' The Daci are men- 
tioned by Dion as offering their services to Octavianus before the 
battle of Actium, and, on his declining them, to Antony 2 : and it 
is evident that they continued to be a cause of some anxiety at 
Rome, for he speaks of Crassus being sent against them in b.c. 30. 
(3) In v. 55 another question asked of him is, ' militibus promissa 
Triquetra Praedia Caesar an est Itala tellure daturus ? ' The allo- 
cation referred to is probably that after Actium, and the moment at 
which this question would be most in men's mouths would be 
in the winter of b.c. 31, when Dion reports that so serious a mutiny 
broke out among the disbanded soldiers, who feared they were to 
be disappointed of their rewards, that Octavianus had to pay a 
hasty visit to Italy and provide for the assignment of lands to them :; . 
Of these dates (1) would suit any time from the middle of b.c. 31 
to the return of Octavianus to Rome in 29 : (2) would be, so far as 
we know, best satisfied in b.c. 31 or 30: (3) points most definitely 
to the winter of b.c. 31, though the form of reference does not ex- 

1 Dion Cassius, 51. 3. introd. to Odes, Books i-iii. 1. § 7- 

2 Id. 51. 22. See Od. 3. 6. 13 and 3 Id. 51. 3-5. 

B 2 


clude the lapse of a little time since the question was actually put. 
The general conclusion is that when all the doubtful points are 
given in favour of the earliest date we cannot place earlier than the 
spring of b.c. 38 the occasion described in Sat. 1. 6. 61, when 
Maecenas, nine months after Horace's first introduction to him by 
Virgil and Varius, ' sent for him again and bade him be in the number 
of his friends.' The date may possibly be a year or two later. 

It is characteristic of Horace's change of position between Books 
I and II that the references to political events and persons, fairly 
frequent in the later Book, should be almost wholly absent in the 
earlier. His great anxiety in describing his friendship with Maecenas 
is to represent it as personal and literary, not political. The fifth 
Satire, which describes the journey which Horace took with him 
when he was bound on affairs of state to Brundisium, might be ex- 
pected to give us just the clue we want : but not a word escapes to 
indicate the occasion of the mission, and we are reduced to search- 
ing the pages of Dion for notices of movements which may suit it. 
It is very doubtful how far their picture of the time is minute or 
exact enough to enable us to do this with the hope of certain result : 
but of the occasions which have been suggested the only two which 
are not excluded by other considerations (see Introd. to Sat. 1. 5) 
fall one in the autumn of b.c. 38, the other in the spring of 37, 
either of which will suit the date we obtained from Sat. 2.6. 

A literary reference of some importance is in the same direction. 
The words used of Virgil, Sat. 1. 10. 44, where Horace is speaking 
of the way in which the main departments of poetry are already 
occupied by masters with whom he has no mind to compete, ' molle 
atque facetum Vergilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camenae,' must 
mean that Virgil was already known to the world as the author of 
the Eclogues \ Considerations drawn from the political references 
of Ecl. 10 show that these were not published before b.c. 37. 

The earliest date then at which the composition of the larger part 
of Sat. I can be placed is the end of b.c. 38. The earliest date 
which can be assigned for the completion and publication of the 
Book is in or after b. c. 37. Towards settling the latest possible date 
the first fixed point is b.c. n, to which there is reference in Sat. 
2. 3. 185. If we allow a little time on the one side for Horace's 
acquaintance with Maecenas to ripen, and to be the subject of 
public talk, and for the composition of the Satires which refer to it, 

] Franke would add Georg. 1, which 1. 1. 114-115, but see notes on that 
ie thinks Horace is imitating in Sat. place. 


and on the other for the settling in the Sabine farm, and the other 
changes which the Satires of Book II presuppose, the date of b.c. 35 
usually assigned for the publication of Book I will seem to be not 
far wrong. 

§ 3. Datc of Book II. 

The publication of Book II must on the ground of the references 
already discussed in Sat. 2. 6 be put after the winter of b.c. 31. If 
the connection of Caesar with the Parthians in Sat. 2. 1. 15 
' labentis equo . . . volnera Parthi,' and 2. 5. 62 ' iuvenis Parthis 
horrendus,' be held to refer to the interview of Octavianus with 
Tiridates during his progress through Asia in b.c. 30 * we must put 
it some months later. In any case the absence of any allusion to 
the triple triumph and the closing of the temple of Janus seems to 
show that the book was published before the year b.c. 29, whether 
before or after the Epodes cannot be positively determined. 

§ 4. Satires 2 and 7 of Book I. 

In fixing the general date of the composition of Book I we have 
omitted three Satires which contain no reference verbal or construc- 
tive to the acquaintance with Maecenas. Of these Satire 4 has 
nothing to separate it in tone or topic from its neighbours. It was 
written at some time after Sat. 2, and when Horace felt it necessary 
if he published that Satire to apologise for its spirit. Satires 2 and 
7 however have features which distinguish them from the rest of the 
Book. Satire 7 turns on a ludicrous incident which occurred in the 
proconsular court of Brutus when he was in Asia in the year before 
the battle of Philippi, and while Horace was in his suite. It culmi- 
nates in the jest on the name of Rex, in connection with Brutus' 
political antecedents, — 'qui reges consueris tollere.' The play on 
names is of just the kind in which Roman taste delighted ; and it is 
quite intelligible that having been one of Horace's first essays in 
composition, perhaps one which had been shown to Maecenas by 
Virgil when he ' told him what Horace was like,' the Satire may 
have been retained, possibly at Maecenas' desire. It is less likely 
that it should have been composed when Horace had begun to 
beware of playing with edged tools. 

Sat. 2 has other signs of date earlier than that of the bulk of the 
Book. There is the grossness of tone (never congenial to Horace, 
but always bearing the look of a concession to a supposed ' operis 

1 Dion, 51. 18. 


lex l ') to be paralleled only in some of the earlier Epodes. There is 
more appearance of those liberties taken with persons of position (not 
merely the thieves, moneylenders, misers, and parasites of later 
Satires) and of broad references to real scandals, which he professes 
to defend in Sat. i. 4 and 2. 1, but with apologies which, if we look 
at any Satire but this one, seem to outrun the needs of the case 2 . 
There is above all the curious tradition of the Scholiasts that under 
the name of Maltinus (or Malchinus) he was satirizing in v. 25 the 
personal habit of Maecenas. If this be true it is so completely un- 
like Horace's bearing towards his friends in high position that it 
must mean that the Satire was written before his acquaintance with 
Maecenas commenced, and preserved with Maecenas' assent if not 
at his desire. 

§ 5. Titk and Nature 0/ the Satires. 

Horace uses two words to designate his Satires. 

1. The only title which he uses within the Satires themselves is 
Satira. This he employs in Sat. 2. 1. 1 in the singular, to describe 
the form of composition or its spirit, ' Sunt quibus in satira videar nimis 
acer.' He is there speaking of himself as the successor of Lucilius, and 
the word has our modern sense of ' Satire,' the censorious criticism of 
life and manners of which Lucilius had set the type. In Sat. 2. 6. 1 7 
he employs the plural of the separate poems : ' Quid prius illustrem 
satiris ? ' and it may be noticed that there he has in view another 
aspect of Satire, familiar also to Lucilius (as he points out in Sat. 
2. 1. 30-36), but descending to him from the older ' Satura ' or 
medley, of Satire namely as a vehicle for autobiographical details 
and the expression of personal likes as well as dislikes. 

2. But it is noticeable that in the Epistles, when he looks back at 
the Satires and ranks them with his other kinds of composition 
he drops entirely the term ' Satirae.' His classification is ' Iambi,' 
' Carmina,' ' Sermones.' In Epp. 1. 4. 1 the first place where he uses 
this term, — 'sermonum nostrorum candide iudex,'— he is probably 
speaking of the Satires only ; and so too in Epp. 2. 2. 60, where he 

^ ' When anything like it recurs in flinging away his shield at Philippi 

Sat. 2. 7 lt is in a place where he is (Od. 2. 7. 10) is due to the similar pro- 

dramatizing the licence of the Satur- fession of Alcaeus. 

nalia, and possibly caricaturing also the 2 Is not Sat. 2 the one specimen 

tone of professed moral lecturers. In the which Horace allowed to be preserved 

same way the four lines which disfigure of an earlier type of Satires which had 

Sat. 1.5 are due probably toan incidtnt been shown to friends, but which his 

m Lucihus' joumey (3. 54) whieh he is own fastidious taste failed finally to 

reproducing, much as the story of his approve ? 


qualifies it, — ' Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro.' On the other hand 
in Epp. 2. 1. 250 ' sermones . . . repentes per humum' seems meant 
to cover the Epistles as well *. 

The term had in the first place a self-depreciatory meaning, and is 

explained by the words in Sat. 1. 4. 39-48, where he declines the 

name of ' poemata ' for his writings, and designates them as ' sermoni 

propiora,' comparing them in this respect to Comedy, which is, ' nisi 

quod pede certo Differt sermoni, sermo merus.' They were poems, 

if poems at all, on the level of common conversation. But it was 

a deliberate substitution not only for 'poemata,' but also for the 

natural name, which he had at first given, of ' Satirae.' It was meant 

to describe the poems as Horace wished them to be regarded, and if 

' sermo ' be taken in its common sense of ' talk ' it describes them 

very well 2 . Whatever else they are, they are imitations of conversa- 

tion — ' talks,' ' causeries ' — imitations of the best talk of a polished 

time — in its ease, its diversity of topic, its graceful transitions, its 

spice of personality, its play of repartee, its irony, its anecdotes, fables, 

quotations, allusions 3 . But the talk had a definite scope. It was 

such talk as Horace indicates in Sat. 2. 6. 71 f., on subjects of the 

highest interest, even if treated with a light hand. It was talk on the 

art of living. Even literature has an incidental rather than a primary 

place in it. He has to make his ' apologia ' both for venturing to 

follow Lucilius and for venturing to differ from him ; and this raises the 

question, which will occupy so much of his later writings, of the taste 

of the day in its unqualified preference of the older writers to the new 

classical school to which he attaches himself. He is also at first the 

conscious ' freedman's son,' the mark of envious tongues, and he has 

to justify his right to ' open his mouth ' as though his ancestors as well 

1 The Scholiast's statement is ' Quam- philosophical conversations (cp. ' Socra- 
vis Satiram esse opus hoc suum Hora- tici sermones' Od. 3. 21. 9) and especi- 
tius ipse confiteatur, " sunt quibus in ally by Cicero of his Dialogues. Dia- 
Satira videar nimis acer," tamen proprios logue plays a large part in all Horace's 
titulos ei voluit accommodasse ; nam hos Satires, and in Book II we have almost 
priores duos libros Sermonum poste- entirely dramatic scenes in which 
riores Epistularum inscripsit.' Porph. Horace himself plays no part or a sub- 
on Sat. 1. 1. 1. This speaks of Horace's sidiary one. 

ultimate distinction of titles for the 3 A characteristic feature of conversa- 

Satires and Epistles, and is not incon- tion is markedly imitated in the endings 

sistent with his coupling the two to- of the Satires, and of the Epistles which 

gether under the common title while approach most nearly to this type. 

the Epistles were still in process of They end generally abruptly ; but just 

composition. Keller's MSS. know of as talk is ended, when the topic threatens 

no title for the Satires but 'Sermones,' to become wearisome, with a jest or 

and it is the term used by the gram- personal sally, or again with an epi- 

marians. gram, fable, or story, which snms up 

2 It is just possible that the term the matter and leaves no more to be 
drew a further colour from its use of said. 


as himself had ' had three names V But the talk comes back again 
always to life and conduct, men's tastes and inconsistencies, the true 
path of happiness. We have sketches of life in Rome, of different 
phases of it from the point of view of bystanders, the honest country- 
man, the Stoic lecturer, the slave, the man of letters at the supper table 
of the rich upstart; sketches of talk as it shouldn't be, talk about eating 
and drinking ; sketches of personal and social vices, of avarice and 
the transparent excuses for it, of censoriousness, of vulgar pushing, of 

Politics we miss altogether. Political satire belongs to the age 
before the proscriptions, to the age when power belonged to an 
oligarchy, cultivated at least enough to read and to be amused, not to 
the two masters, or the one master, of legions. And Horace was not 
by nature a politician. He had had an enthusiasm and a disappoint- 
ment. He never became a turncoat ready at command to bespatter 
his old party. He was attracted by what promised to be an epoch of 
order and refinement. The regime of Octavianus meant to him the 
regime of Maecenas, with Virgil and Varius in the background. On 
the other hand his most continuous attraction was in moral questions. 
His standard was not ours ; but he had been brought up well by 
a manly and virtuous father. He was an acute observer of life, he had 
good taste, strong sense, a natural shrinking from excess of every 
kind. The professed teachers of the day seem to have repelled 
rather than attracted him. The Stoic lecturers survive for us in his 
gibes at their tediousness and dogmatism and in his caricature of 
their paradoxical teaching. Epicureanism was recommended to him 
by having found an exponent in a great poet ; and accordingly, in 
Sat. I at least, the infiuence of Lucretius dominates his philosophical 
views as well as his diction and rhythms. But he plays with 
Epicureanism as he does with Stoicism. His heart is with the 
'abnormis sapiens.' He is beginning to feel, what he asserts more 
roundly in the Epistles, that Homer is a better teacher than any of 
the schools. He feels, no doubt, another influence in the treatises of 
Cicero, of whom he was a diligent student, but Cicero again teaches 
him to be interested in all philosophies, and to bind himself to none. 

The term ' Sermones,' then, was part of the flpaveia, natural and 
assumed, which marks so deeply the Satires as well as the rest of 
Horace's writings. They were ' talks,' not ' Satires.' He was 
preaching, but he would preach in the least obtrusive way. He mis- 
doubts his right to preach. He is always inclined to turn the laugh 

1 Juv. S. 5. 127. 


upon himself. He would escape more and more into the back- 
ground and let others seem to speak. He is an interested, amused, 
hearer and learner, not a Stoic, nor even an Epicurean, dogmatist. 

No one interfered with his patent to the title. Persius, who, even 
when in his Stoic fervour he departs furthest from Horace's spirit, 
copies his form most closely, gives no name to his own composition. 
Juvenal, to whom there are no uncertainties, no lights and shades 
in his confident and ruthless declamation, returned to the name of 
Satires 1 . 

§ 6. Personal names in the Satires. 

If the Satires are imitations of conversation, they have naturally 
a personal element. Conversation starts from persons and incidents, 
it prefers concrete instances to abstract descriptions, a flavour of inno- 
cent malice is not out of place in it, its greatest adornment is the art 
of telling stories vividly and at the happy moment. As a whole it 
must be allowed that Horace's writing has this effect in a singular 
degree after the lapse of nineteen centuries. Even if Nomentanus 
and Opimius had no life outside his verses, he gives them life enough 
for his purpose. The interest of going behind what he has told us 
and seeing how far his characters can be identified with particular 
persons historically known, lies not so much in any gain of point to 
the Satire that may be looked for, — the persons are too obscure, as well 
as the results too uncertain, for that, — but in the light which it may 
throw on the methods of the poet, on his personal motives, and on 
his relations to his contemporaries. 

The Scholiasts are prepared in most cases to tell us who each per- 
son named is. They had access to earlier sources of information 2 , 
and no doubt in some cases they have preserved for us a true tradi- 
tion. But they evidently blunder. They differ from one another, 
showing that the tradition itself was unsettled. They betray that they 
are merely paraphrasing the context, sometimes the context mis- 
understood. They are not trustworthy on the question on which they 
had the greatest advantage over us, viz. the question whether a name 
is borrowed or not from some earlier writer. An instance which 

1 Dryden gives the palm to Juvenal purposes. English 'Satire' has always 

as a satirist, but he professedly takes had at its heart a personal bitterness 

Satire in the narrower sense. When which is entirely absent in Horace. 

Fope ' imitates Horace' he copies and The truest representation of his spirit 

even improves upon the wit of indi- in English literature is to be found in 

\idual lines and passages, but he misses the gentler prose-satire of Steele and 

always much of the play, the deli- Addison. 

cacy, the inner unity of thought, and 2 See on the Scholiasts, General In- 

he puts Horace to very un-Horatian trod. to vol. i. § 2. 


seems to combine several of these defects is to be found in their notes 

on the ' causa Petilli,' a cause celebre of the time, or one still remem- 

bered, to which Horace alludes in Sat. i. 4. 94, and again in 1. 10. 

26. In the first passage he gives him the fuller name of Petillius 

Capitolinus, and speaks of the charge brought against him as that of 

theft, and of his having been acquitted. The Scholiasts write of this 

as with perfect knowledge, and say that Petillius was a friend of 

Augustus, who had charge of the Capitol, and was accused of having 

stolen the crown of Jupiter, but was acquitted by favour of Caesar. It 

has been pointed out however, as conclusively discrediting this story, 

(1) that a coin has been foundwith a temple on the obverse and the 

inscription Petillius Capitolinus, which seems to show that Capitolinus 

was a cognomen of the gens Petillia, and traced by them to some 

honourable origin ; (2) that the crime of robbing Capitoline Jove of 

his crown was proverbial as early as Plautus : see Trin. 1. 2. 46, 

Menaechm. 5. 5. 38. 

It has been already suggested that in looking for real names a dis- 

tinction is probably to be drawn between Horace's earlier Satires 

(represented chiefly by Sat. 1.2) and the later ones. In the greater 

part of them his purpose was general. He was assailing follies, not 

gibbeting individuals \ and we have no indications or traditions of his 

having vented personal dislikes by making his enemies ' slide into 

verse and hitch . . in a rhyme.' At the same time he enforces his 

lessons by anecdotes, and sums up classes in individual names. He 

even justifies the method humorously by tracing it to the example of 

his good father, who taught him morals in a concrete shape, not by 

describing the character he was to aim at or avoid, but by pointing, 

as they passed in the street, to one and another as models or warn- 

ings (Sat. 1. 4. 105 f.). There are many cases in which we can 

imagine no motive for reticence, and in which the particularity of 

designation would lose all point if the particulars were not real. 

Such names are Sisyphus 2 and Turbo 3 the dwarfs ; Fufius and 

Catienus, the actors 4 ; Lepos 5 the dancer ; Horace's neighbours in 

his old Apulian home, Flavius 6 the schoolmaster at Venusia, Servius 

Oppidius of Canusium 7 , Ofellus 8 , Cervius 9 , Arellius 10 ; oddities met 

1 \Ye must exclude the bad poets and 2 Sat. 1. 3. 47. 

critics with whom he has both a per- 3 Sat. 2. 3. 310. 

sonal and a literary quarrel, and whom 4 Sat. 2. 3. 60, 61. 

he undoubtedly satirizes by name, Fan- 5 Sat. 2. 6. 72. 

nius, Hermogenes Tigellius, Demetrius, 6 Sat. 1. 6. 72. 

Furius Bibaculus, also the Stoic lec- 7 Sat. 2. 3. 168. 

turers who bored him, Fabius and 8 Sat. 2. 2. 2, etc. 

Crispinus. We exclude also the mys- 9 Sat. 2. 6. 77. 

terious Canidia. 10 Sat. 2. 6. 78. 


on his travels, as Aufidius Luscus, the jack in officeat Fundi 1 ; some 
of the money-lenders well known about the Forum, and who could 
hardlystrikeagainatafriendofMaecenas, Nerius, Perilliuswithhis nick- 
nameof Cicuta 2 ,the 'younger of the Novii,'the sightof whom accounts 
for the look of pain or the uplifted hand of Marsyas' statue s ; some 
'scurrae'; such a scornful list of the scum of society as in Sat. 1.8.39. 

There are cases again in which we obviously have allusions to 
anecdotes or characters which were public property, not meant 
maliciously, but the employment by way of illustration of what 
was already in everyone's mouth. Such are for instance Labeo the 
type of a madman 4 , Albucius and his poison, Scaeva and his long- 
lived mother, Turius the severe judge 5 . It is possible again that 
where stories or traits which reflect discredit are given the names 
may be the veils of known persons more or less transparent to 
Horace's contemporaries or his immediate circle. 

But there are two sources of his anecdotes and of his names, which, 
though we cannot measure exactly how much is due to each, are 
certainly answerable for a good many, and which so far as they go 
show that his purpose was genuinely to illustrate and vivify his moral 
descriptions, not to give pain or teach the world to sneer. 

1. It is certain that many of his stories and instances belong 
really to the last generation ''. His satirical sketch of Tigellius' 
character in Sat. 1. 2. and 3 (which in the latter satire he makes 
typical of his satiric style) relates to one who was already dead. 
Fausta, 'the daughter of Sulla,'takes at least one scandal of Sat. 1. 2 
some years back. Arbuscula the mime-actress, and the son of 
Aesopus, of whom stories are told in 1. 10. 77 and 2. 3. 239, are 
persons known to us in Cicero's letters. The reference to Alfenus 
in 1. 3. 130, whoever be the person, is by the tense of ' erat ' thrown 
back to a date antecedent to the text. So is the story of Staberius' 
will in 2. 3. 84 f., with the further indication that the ' epulum arbitrio 
Arri ' is to be illustrated from an anecdote told by Cicero in Vatin. 
12. 30 f 7 . 

1 Sat. 1. 5. 34. 2 Sat. 2. 3. 69, 75. where the whole scene and narrative is 

3 Sat. 1. 6. 121. invented. It may be noticed how such 

* Sat. 1. 3. 82. a name as Opimius in Sat. 2. 3. 142 has 

5 Sat. 2. 1. 47-54. every qualification for such a pnrpose. 

6 It will be seen that the same is the It is a good Roman name : it was 
case in the Epistles. familiar to readers of Lucilius : and its 

7 Are not some of the best stories due etymology lends itself to the play in 
to hisown invention, dramatic renderings the contrast 'pauper Opimius;' cp. ' im- 
of a general truth ? This was only to mitis Glycerae ' etc. in the Odes. Cp. 
do on a small scale what he does on a such a story as that of Maenius (clearly 
large one in all the Satires of Book II, an invented name) in Epp. 1. 15. 


2. Some anecdotes and allusions are confessedly due to oldtr 
poets, and it is certain that the list might be extended if we 
possessed Lucilius and the Latin dramatists in anything more than 
fragments. In Sat. 2. 2. 47 Horace refers to Gallonius as having 
introduced the ' acipenser ' to Roman tables and speaks of the evil as 
having happened ' haud ita pridem.' But this is from Lucilius, 
a fragment to the effect being quoted by Cic. de Fin. 2. 8. 24. Three 
names which are found in Lucilius throw some light on Horace's 
methods of employing the names he found in his predecessors. 

(1) Pacideianus^ . In Lucilius (4.17) he is the 'best gladiator since the 
beginning of the world.' In Horace Sat. 2. 7. 98 his name is given 
casually as one of the three gladiators, the rough wall-drawing of 
whose performance fascinates Davus. If Horace uses a literary name 
here instead of a contemporary one, where may he not be doing so 2 ? 

(2) Maatius. We know of Lucilius' use of the name from Porph. on 
Hor. Sat. 1. 3. 21, who quotes as from the older poet, ' Maenius 
columnam cum peteret,' and interprets it by the story that Maenius, 
when his home was sold over his head, reserved a column of it, 
thence called ' Maenii columna,' from whence he might see the 
gladiators. This is evidently a foolish invention to connect Maenius 
with the column, due to some one who did not know that the 
' columna Maenia ' was erected in honour of Maenius, the colleague 
of Camillus, in b.c. 338. We may suppose rather that in Lucilius 
there was a play on Maenius (i.e. some spendthrift) ' making for bis 
own column,' i.e. subjecting himself to the jurisdiction of the ' trium- 
viri capitales,' who sat by the columna Maenia ; cp. the play in Cic. 
pro Sest. 8. 18. In any case 'Maenius' is to Horace a name that 
occurs when he wants one for a good-for-nothing fellow, the ' pot that 
blackens the kettle' in Sat. 1. 3. 21, the glutton and spendthrift in 
Epp. 1. 15. 26 f., possibly also the associate of Nomentanus in Sat. 
1. 1. 101. (3) Nomentanus is a name which occurs in Horace in four 
different contexts. In the place just referred to he is with Naevius 
(or Maenius) the type of a spendthrift. In 1. 8. 11 he stands with 
' Pantolabus scurra' as a representative of those who ruin themselves 
and come to a pauper's burial. The line is repeated in 2. 1. 22 as a 
specimen of Horace's personal satire. In 2. 3. 175 and 224 he is 

1 It is worth noticing that as in the 2. 17. 41 ; ad Q. Fr. 3. 4. 2. 
case of Gallonius so in that of Pacidei- 2 Caelius, the brigand (1. 4. 69), has 

anus there is a double literary reminis- a name found in Lucilius, and the line 

cence ; for Cicero draws attention to inwhichit occurs, 'Ut semel in Caelipng- 

Lucilius' description of him in De opt. nas te invadere vidi,' makes it possible 

genere oratorum, 6. 1 7. Cp. Tusc. Disp. that he was a brigand in Lucilius also. 


again a spendthrift, and in the second passage of that Satire a 
dramatic picture is given of his way of inviting the purveyors of 
luxury and vice to help him dispose of his fortune. In 2. 8 he is 
one of Nasidienus' two ' scurrae,' the other being ' Porcius.' We 
notice there that Nasidienus is evidently a disguised name, if not an 
invented character, and it is necessary therefore that though the guests 
are real persons the ' scurrae ' of the host should have fictitious 
names. That of Porcius can hardly but be explained by ' Ridiculus 
totas simul absorbere placentas' of his greedy mode of eating. 
Nomentanus is therefore, as elsewhere, a typical not a personal name. 
Now Nomentanus occurs in two fragments of Lucilius (2. 6. and 8) as 
the name of a man whom he is exposing and to whom he wishes ill. 
Yet the Schol. explains the name in Horace of one L. Cassius Nomen- 
tanus, who spent 7,000,000 sesterces on his gluttony, and whose cook 
Dama was hired by Sallustius Crispus. Even if there was such a 
person, we may yet think it probable that Horace was thinking, not 
of him, but of the Lucilian Nomentanus. 

Horace refers from time to time to characters and scenes of 
Terence (1. 2. 20, 2. 3. 262 f.), and there is one reference which the 
Scholiast on A. P. 237 points out to a play of Caecilius l . But for his 
purpose the mimes and ' togatae 2 ' would be still more appropriate, 
and that there are references to these in his writings can hardly be 

It should be noticed that the literary use of names from the poets 
is quite in accordance with his way of using the prose author whom 
he knew best. ' A doctor' in Sat. 2. 3. 161 is ' Craterus,' the doctor 
of Cic. ad Att. 12. 13 and 14. The names that supply the dramatic 
framework of Sat. 2. 2, and 3, and probably4, are from Cicero's letters. 
It is analogous also to his use of Greek stories (as of Polemon in 2. 
3. 254) and of Homeric and tragic personages (2. 3. 132 f. and 
187 f.) 3 . 

It has been often pointed out that some of Horace's names are 
adapted etymologically to the characters they indicate. That in 
inventing names he should employ this device is natural. It has 
been a device of satirists and allegorists in all ages, and he has 

1 According to a probable emenda- that ' Pyrrhia ' is a wrong reading. 

tion of Ribbeck : the text has the irn- 3 Among the phrases which seem to 

possible ' Lucilius.' want the explanation of some literary 

2 The Schol. explains Epp. i. 13. 14 antecedent are the ' fecunda gens Me- 
as a reference to a play of Titinius. neni ' of Sat. 2. 3. 287, and the per- 
As he wrote 'togatae' or comedies plexing ' correctus (or 'corrector ') Bes- 
of native Roman life it is very probable tius ' of Epp. 1. 15. 37. 


traces of it in the nomenclature of the Odes, — Phidyle, Lalage, Lyce, 
Bibuli Consulis, etc, see App. I. of vol. I. But it is not done 
wholesale nor on any apparent system. One of the most evident 
instances, ' Pantolabus scurra' (i. 8. n, 2. 1. 22), is very probably, 
like Nomentanus, a stock name of satire, not Horace's own. Of 
others, the most certain are Opimius (2. 3. 142), Porcius (2. 
8. 23), Novius the upstart (1. 6. 40). The Scholiasts assert that 
Maltinus in 1. 2. 25 was coined from 'malta,' a word in Lucilius 
for an effeminate person. Some colour is given by the verses which 
follow to the connection of Balbinus in 1. 3. 40 with ' balbutire.' 
The name Canidia in 1. 8, besides being as the Scholiasts say a 
substitution for Gratidia, may have been itself suggested by ' canus,' 
and if so, Sagana by ' saga,' though the quantity of the a is different. 
Other instances have been found in Cupiennius, 1. 2. 36, as from 
'cupere'; Avidienus, 2. 2. 56, from ' avidus ' (although here also 
there is the difference of quantity, and the person described was 
'avarus' rather than 'avidus'); Pantilius, 1. 10. 58, from -nav riXkeiv ; 
Sectanus (a v. 1. for Scetanus in 1. 4. 112) from 'sectari'; Voranus, 

1. 8. 39, from 'vorare.' Even when such doubtful instances are 
included the whole number is a small percentage of Horace's names. 
In several of the cases the other names used in the same connection 
have no such colour. 

It is not perhaps irrelevant to notice that in the Satires as in 
the Odes if names are kept occasionally to a given character as 
Maenius and Nomentanus, some on the other hand are used in a 
subsequent Satire with no relation to their use in an earlier one. 
So Albucius 2. 1. 48 and 2. 2. 67, Barrus 1. 6. 30 and 1. 7. 8, Cervius 

2. 1. 47 and 2. 6. 77, Naevius 1. 1. 101 and 2. 2. 68, Novius 1. 3. 
21, 1. 6. 40 and 121. We may add Scaeva in Sat. 2. 1. 53 and Epp. 
1. 17. 

§ 7. Order of the Satires in their several books. 

The number and nature of the poems to be arranged do not 
admit of as much thought or variation in their arrangement as 
appears in that of the Odes, but the principles at the bottom of the 
arrangement are the same. (i-) It is not chronological. Sat. 1. 1, as 
we have seen, is subsequent to Sat. 2, if it be not, as many think, 
the last written in the Book; 1. 7 is perhaps the earliest of all. 
Sat. 2. 1 again has indications of the latest date to be found in the 
Book to which it belongs. (2) Each Book has its Satires written or 


chosen as prologue and epilogue. (3) For the rest we may trace from 
time to time either links of thought which attract Satires together or 
the desire of variety which seems to keep them apart. Of the first, 
instances are Sat. 1. 2 working out the thought which had come to the 
front in 1. 1. 101 f. ; 1.4 giving its full significance to 1.3; perhaps 2. 4 
matching a sally against the Epicureans with 2. 3 which had laughed 
at the Stoics. Of the second, the separation of 2. 3 from 2. 7, of 
2. 2 from 2. 4, and of that again from 2. 8. There is perhaps a sug- 
gestion of the irony so often seen in the placing of the Odes in the 
collocation of Sat. 2. 7, with its coarse slave-humour and its turning 
of his satiric sting upon himself, after 2. 6, in which his tone has 
been higher and more didactic than usual : compare the position of 
Epp. 1. 15, 16, 17. 

Omne vafer vitium ridenti Flaccus amico 
Tangit, et admissus circum praecordia ludit, 
Callidus excusso populum suspendere naso. 





This folly is seen in its extreme form in the hoarder of money. His case, his 
unreasonableness and the vanity of his excuses, are set out at length, but the Satire 
begins and ends more generally. Men are always wishing for what they have not, 
and so they do not enjoy what they have, and when life is over do not feel that 
they have had their share. 

Verses 1-12 state the difhculty generally. The world is a scene of discontent — 

restlessness — every one wishing to be what he is not. 
(13-41). The absurdity of this is shown by two considerations. 
13-22. (a) That if you could imagine men's wishes granted, they would not make 

the exchange. The wish is not a real one. 
2 3~4 T - (J>) That if you take the great object of wishing and motive of action, 

money, every one, whatever his profession, will tell you that he seeks it for an 

end — give him an assured competence and he looks to retire. He is like the 

ant storing for winter. Is he ? The ant when winter comes uses its store and 

ceases from work, but the seeker after money never stops while there is a man 

left richer than himself. 
(41-107). Hoiace then proceeds to argue more fully with the man who accumulates 

but does not use, partly directly, pai tly imagining and replying to pleas which 

he may be supposed to urge for himself. 
4 1, 42. What is the pleasure of storing, however large an amount of precious metal, 

in the earth ? 
43» 44- ' If you once touch the heap it melts away.' But surely it is meant to be 

45~5°- The pleasure is measured not by the size of the store but by the capacity of 

enjoyment. However full your barns are you can't eat more than I can. 
51. ' It is pleasant to feel that you are drawing from a large store.' 
52-60. It makes no difference if the amount we draw is the same. Nay, it does 

make a difference in another way. I prefer the clear and quiet little spring to 

the dangerous and turbid river. 
61, 62. ' Where are we to stop ? A man is estimated by his possessions.' 
63-67. It is useless arguing — the miser is so wrapt in his self-esteem. If the people 

hiss him he will applaud himself. 
68-79. You are like Tantalus, thirsting amid water. Money has definite uses — 

you get none of its pleasures — all its pains. 
80-83. ' At least money secures help in sickness.' 
84-91. You are alienating the love ready formed for you, and which you might so 

easily retain. 



92-100. Take care that you do not come to the end of Ummidius. 

101, 102. 'So you mean I must turn spendthrift and prodigal.' 

103-108. There is something between a miser and a prodigal — a happy mean. 

109-116. He returns to his original point. Life is spoilt by perpetual discontent — 

each trying to outdo his neighbour. 
11 7-1 19. This is why \ve so rarely see Lucretius' picture of the ' satisfied guest,' 

ready to leave the banquet when his time comes and confess that he has 

enjoyed it. 
120, 121. Enough — you will think I have been at Crispinus' stores. 

The reference to Lucret. 3. 938 and 960 is made clear in v. 1 19 (see note on that 
line), but Horace has the whole passage from v. 931 in mind ; v. 957 might serve 
as the text of this Satire, ' quia semper aves quod abest, praesentia temnis.' 

Qui fit, Maecenas, ut nemo quam sibi sortem 

Seu ratio dederit seu fors obiecerit illa 

Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes ? 

' O fortunati mcrcatores ! ' gravis annis 

Miles ait multo iam fractus membra labore. 5 

Contra mercator, navem iactantibus Austris : 

' Militia est potior. Quid enim ? concurritur : horae 

Momento cita mors venit aut victoria laeta.' 

Agricolam laudat iuris legumque peritus, 

1. quam sortem . . . illa= ' sorte illa 
quam,' the subst. being put with the rel. 
instead of with the demonstr. See on 
Epod. 2. 37. 

2. dederit . . . obiecerit. The verbs 
are suited to the substantives. Deliberate 
choice assigns. Chance casts in one's 
way : her mode of distribution is after 
her kind, haphazard. The alternative 
means ' however they come by their lot,' 
whether they are responsible for the 
selection or not. B. reads ' sors,' but 
it has many miswritings in this Satire. 
' Fors,' 'ralio ' is a Ciceronian antithesis, 
ad Att. 14. 13 ' sed haec fors viderit 
ea quae talibus in rebus plus quam ratio 

3. laudet, (uucapifa, ' commends,' 
i. e. not for their qualities but for their 
lot. From the negative ' nemo ' a posi- 
tive subject (' unusquisque ') must be 
understood for ' laudet.' So below, v. 
109. For instances in prose see Madv. 
§ 462 b. 

diversa sequentes, those who follow 
another path. 

4. gravis annis. Virg. Aen. 9. 246 : 
cp. Liv. 7. 39 of veterans ' graves aetate.' 
On both sides Horace makes the moment 

of grumbling the moment of feeling 
the discomfort of the profession. The 
soldier when years and hard work be- 
gin to tell on him ; the trader when he 
is caught by bad weather. For the 
latter cp. Od. 1. 1. 15, 2. 16. 1. 

7. quid enim, ri yap ; Sat. 2. 3. 
132. Cp. our elliptical use of ' why,' 
' what.' ' Why ! there is the battle shock,' 

horae momento, ' in an hour's short 
space.' Epp. 2. 2. 172 ' puncto mobilis 
horae.' Cp. Liv. 5. 7 ' horae momento 
simul aggerem ac vineas . . . incendium 

9-1 2. Look into the law court. The 
lawyer when he feels the pinch of his 
profession, early and late, envies the 
countryman. The defendant when he 
has to make a journey from the country 
to appear in court thinks how much 
more convenient it would be to live in 

9. iuris legumque. ' Ius ' is opposed 
to ' lex ' or ' leges ' in seveial of its 
senses. It is ' law or ' a body of 
law.' as opposed to a special enactment. 
It is used of departments of law, ' ius 
gentium,' ' ius honorarium,' which did 

LIB. I. SAT. i. 


Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. 

Ille datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est 

Solos felices viventes clamat in urbe. 

Cetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquacem 

Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 

Quo rem deducam. Si quis deus, ' En ego,' dicat, 

' Iam faciam quod voltis : eris tu, qui modo miles, 

Mercator ; tu, consultus modo, rusticus : hinc vos, 

Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus : eia ! 

Quid statis'? nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. 

Quid causae est merito quin illis Iuppiter ambas 




not belong to the Twelve Tables or to the 
legislative powers of the comitia. It is 
used for processes of law, ' in ius ire,' 
' iure agere.' In such cases as the present 
(cp. Epp. 1. 16. 41 ' qui consulta patrum 
qui leges iuraque servat ') the conjunc- 
tion is intended to express ' law on all 
its sides.' 

10. sub galli cantum, ' at cock- 
crow,' an exaggeralion, as when Cicero 
is laughing at the ' htrisconsulti,' pro 
Mur. 9. 22 ' Vigilas tu de nocte 
ut tuis consultoribus respondeas, ille 
(the soldier) ut eo quo intendit ma- 
ture cum exercitu perveniat ; te gal- 
lorum, illum buccinarum cantus exsus- 

11. ille, SciktikZs. That poor fellow. 
datis vadibus, lit. ' having named 

sureties.' The person who had done so 
was bound, ' respondere vadato . . . quod 
si non fecisset, perdere litem' Sat. 1. 9. 


13. cetera de genere hoc, tci aX\a 
Totai/Ta, a Lucretian formula, 4. 590, 

14. Fabium. ' Fabius maximus, 
Narbonensis, equestri loco natus Pom- 
peianas pat tes secutus aliquot libros ad 
Stoicam philosophiam pertinentes con- 
scripsit ' 1'orph. His name recurs in 
Sat. 1. 2. 134. He scems to be a 
Stoical teacher whom Horace is ridi- 
culing as he does Crispinus in these 
same Satires. 

15. quo rem dedueam. The ' sum 
of the whole matter,' the conclusions to 
which what I have said so far has been 
leading. ' All this desiie of change is 
unreal. They would not change if they 

si quis deus : the thought is re- 

peated in Sat. 2. 7. 24 ' Si quis ad illa 
deus subito te agat usque recuses.' 

en ego . . . iam faciam. We need 
not separate the two clauses grammati- 
cally. ' See, here am I ! I will,' etc. It 
is one sentence, but each word gives its 
own colour to it. ' En ' calls atten- 
tion to the speaker : ' ego,' the em- 
phatic pronoun, gives the assurance 
that the promise can be fulfilled, ' you 
have the word of a god : ' 'iam,' ' this 

17. consultus, absol. = ' iurisconsul- 
tus,' as Epp. 2. 2. 87, 159. Heindorf 
points out that ' rusticus ' is certainly 
the prcd. It was the lawyer who had 
wished (v. 8) to be a countryman. The 
countryman had only wished to live in 
town . 

hine . . . hinc. It is a complete 
metaphor from the theatre. They are 
bidden to change their parts and ac- 
cordingly to change their places on the 

18. eia! ' Quick ! ' ' move on.' So 
Sat. 2. 6. 23 ' Eia, Ne prior officio quis- 
quam respondeat urge.' It stands after 
the imperatives as here in Virg. Aen. 
9. 38 'Feite citi ferrum, date tela, ascen- 
dite muros Hostis adest, eia!' 

19. nolint. The construction re- 
turns to a proper apodosis to ' si 
quis deus . . . dicat ' v. 15, after the 
intenuption causcd by the momentary 
continuance of the dramatic form ' quid 
statis' ? 

lieet esse beatis, for the dat. cp. 
A. P. 372 and see Madv. § 393 c. 

20. quid causae. Madv. 285 b. 
ambas buccas inflet. A comic 

deseription of the expression of angcr. 
The Greek ras yvdOovs <pvo~dy (Derr. 




Iratus buccas inflet, neque se fore posthac 
Tam facilem dicat, votis ut praebeat aurem ? 
Praetcrea ne sic, ut qui iocularia, ridens 
Percurram : quamquam ridentem dicere verum 
Ouid vetat ? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 
Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo : 
Ille gravem duro terram qui vertit aratro, 
Perfidus hic caupo, miles nautaeque per omne 


de Fals. Leg. 442 ), is used rather of 
the grimaces of self-importance ; but 
<pvoav is used in both senses. Plautus 
(Bacch. 4. 2. 21) has ' sufflari ' of an 
angry soldier. Cp. perhaps Horace's 
own expression A. P. 94 ' iratus . . . 
tumido delitigat ore.' 

illis : it is indiffeient whether we con- 
sider it as a dat. after the anger of 
' iratus ' or the expression of anger in 
' buccas inflet.' 

ambas, like the Greek emphatic dual 
(as x e '~P e > ocrae), giving a rhetorical force, 
although it is one which will not bear 
pressing logically, as though he could 
actually puff one cheek without the 

23. praeterea : another Lucretian 
formula of transition. He passes, with 
an apology for his satirical tone, to 
the second proof of the unreality of the 
wish for change, namely, that though 
men of all trades profess to toil for 
the sake of attaining the power to 
rest, they are never satisfied to take 
the rest. 

ut qui ioeularia, sc. ' percurrit,' or 
perhaps some more colourless verb, as 
•narrat' or ' tractat,' to be supplied 
from ' percurram.' For the ellipse cp. 
Sat. 1. 3. 9, 1. 8. 32. 

iocularia. Cic. de Leg. 1. 20. 53 
; ioculare istuc quidem et a multis saepe 
derisum,' sc. a saying of jest, a drollery. 
Heindorf thinks the word had a definite 
reference to the badinage of the Atel- 
lanae, quoting Livy's account of the 
beginning of stage-plays at Rome (7. 2) 
' iuventus . . . inconditis inter se iocularia 
fundentes versibus.' The quotation 
however does not establish any technical 
sense in the word itself. It is not clear 
what the special lightness of treatment is 
for which Horace apologizes. Can the 
dramatic picture, the apparition and 

offer of the deity, the tragi-comic anger 
of Jupiter, be a parody? 

24. percurram can hardly be intrans. 
' run on to the end,' as Dill r . and 
others, for as we saw we have to elicit 
from it a transitive verb in order to 
govern ' iocularia.' It seems to mean 
' pass lightly, rapidly, by.' 

25. olim, the indefinite time of similes 
or fables : Epp. I. 10. 42, 2. 2. 197, and 
see on Epod. 3. 1. 

crustula. Sat. 2. 4. 47, dim. of 
' crustum,' small pastry. 

blandi, ' coaxing.' Horace is no 
doubt thinking of Lucrctius' simile 1. 
936 foll. 

26. elementa, their ' alphabet.' Epp. 
1. 1. 27. 

27. sed tamen : not introducing the 
apodosis or leading clause to ' ne sic 
. . . percurram ' (that is to be looked 
for in the continuance, in an altered key, 
of the direct statement, ' Ille gravem,' 
etc. see on Od. 1. 33. 1), but a con- 
clusion of the parenthesis ; ' but yet, 
though satirical humour has its place 
and use, let us for the moment be 

28. 29. ille . . . hic, SetKTiKws. Cp. 
v. 11. 

gravem duro, for the relation of the 
epithet, see on Od. 1. 3. 10: the plough 
had need to be tough if the ground is 
heavy : cp. also Epod. 5. 30. It is the 
hard toil of the ploughman which is in 

perfidus caupo. Cp. Sat. 1. 5. 4 
' cauponibus malignis.' The purpose of 
the epithet adds to its sting. He is 
naming in the case of each profession 
what costs the most toil. The tavern- 
keeper's hard cheating is set off against 
the countryman's ploughing, the sol- 
dier's campaigning, the trader's danger- 
ous voyages. 

LIB. I. SAT. i. 


Audaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 
Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, cum sibi sint congesta cibaria : sicut 
Parvula, nam exemplo est, magni formica laboris 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest atque addit acervo, 
Quem s^truit haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. 
Ouae, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, 
Non usquam prorepit et illis utitur ante 
Quaesitis sapiens ; cum te neque fervidus aestus 



30. currunt, of sailing, as Virgil's 
'vastum trabe currimus aequor.' So 
Od. 1. 28. 36; Epp. 1. 1. 45, 1. 11. 

hae mente : Sat. 2. 2. 90. 

32. aiunt. The position of the verb 
seems to imply that these are their own 

cibaria, used gen. of a soldier's 
rations or the allowances in kind of 
other public servants, and so the mean- 
ing here is ' enough for a bare and 
measured maintenance ' ; congesta, as 
Palm. points out, introduces the simili- 

33. exemplo, the model, the stock 
example, as in the Book of Proverbs 
6. 6-8, 30. 25, and Virg. G. 1. 186 
'inopi metuens formica senectae'; Aen. 
4. 402 ' formicae . . . hiemis memores.' 

parvula . . . magni laboris recalls 
the antithesis which pervades the fourth 
Georgic, ' ingentes animos angusto in 
pectore versant.' 

36. quae. As the editors say='at 
ea'; cp. ' quod si comminuas ' v. 43. 
The adversative force is of course in the 
thought, not in the Pronoun. It is a 
reply. What the relative does is to 
make us feel the identity of the subject 
in the two statements. Horace takes 
the money-getters on their own ground. 
They appeal to the example of the ant. 
This very ant condemns them. There 
is the same force (whatever be the case 
or construction of ' quod ') in the ordi- 
nary use of ' quod si,' ' whereas if,' ' yes, 
but if: it puts the new conditional 
statement and the original statement at 
the same starting-point. 

inversum annum. Summer and 
winter are represented like night and 
day (Virg. Aen. 2. 250 'vertitur interea 
caelum ') as two hemispheres which suc- 
ceed each other. In the winter the 
lower one has come to the top. 

contristat Aquarius. Virg. G. 3. 
279 ' pluvio contristat frigore caelum ' ; 
ib. 304 ' cum frigidus olim Iam cadit 
extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno.' The 
sun entered the sign of Aquarius on 
Jan. 16. 

37. usquam, with a verb of motion, 
as we say ' where ' for ' whither.' Cp. 
Sat. 2. 7. 30, Epp. 1. 7. 25. 

et, after a negative clause ; see on 
Od. 1. 27. 16 and Epod. 15. 14. 

illis, those of which you were speak- 

38. sapiens. So I have printed with 
Orelli, Ritter, DilR, and Munro. Keller 
gives ' patiens.' The balance of external 
evidence is nearly even. B. has ' patiens,' 
which the pseudo-Acron read ' patiens 
atque contenta.' Cruquius gives 'sapiens' 
as the reading of all his MSS., and the 
Comm. Cruq. interpreted it ' prudens, 
provida.' The schol. of Porph. is so 
much mutilated as to be valueless in 
evidence. Keller points out that the 
same confusion infests the MSS. in Epp. 
1. 7. 40. ' Sapiens ' is more in Horace's 
style, summing up his view of the 
ant's conduct in the last word, before 
he proceeds to contrast with it that 
of her professed imitator ; 'patiens,' 
although Sat. 2. 6. 91 (' praerupti ne- 
moris patientem vivere dorso ') and 
Epp. 1. 17. 13 ('si pranderet olus 
patienter') show that it might well 
stand for 'contenta/ would not be as 

fervidus aestus . . . hiems. The 
expression is at first taken from the case 
of the ant, ' she rests in winter, you rest 
never': in ignis, mare, ferrum it is 
proverbial. See Od. 1. 16. 10, Epp. 
1. 1. 46. Orelli quotes Eupolis (Frag. 
Com. ed. Meinek. 2. p. 487)^ oii -nvp 
ovSe aiSrjpos ov5i x a ^ K " s andpyei t*T) 
<ponav inl dunvov. 



Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ferrum, 

Nil obstet tibi dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Ouid iuvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri 

Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra? 

' Ouod si comminuas vilem redigatur ad assem.' 

At ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ? 

Milia frumenti tua triverit area centum, 4? 

Xon tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus : ut si 

Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 

Fortc vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias quam 

Oui nil portarit. Vel dic quid referat intra 

Naturae fines viventi, iugera centum an 5° 

Mille aret ? ' At suave est ex magno tollere acervo.' 

Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquas, 

Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris? 

40. alter, ' any second person ' ; cp. 
Sat. 1. 5. 33, 42 ; Epp. 1. 6. 32 ; Madv. 

§49 6 - 

42. Orelli points out that the whole 

verse is a fuller expression of Sat. 1. 
8. 43 ' abdiderint furtim terris ' ; here 
' furtim ' is more closely connected with 
' defossa,' ' timidum ' with ' deponere.' 

43. quod : see on v. 36 ' quae.' ' Ves, 
but this mass of which you speak if you 
were once to break in upon it would 
dwindle to a paltry " as." ' This is the 
first answer of the hoarder. 

44. ni id fit, i. e. ' nisi comminuis.' 

45. milia frumenti centum, sc. 
' modiorum.' 

triverit area, the conditional use 
without a conditional particle ; cp. Sat. 

2. 3. 292. For the expression itself cp. 
Virg. G. I. 298 ' terit area fruges,' and 
cp. Sat. 2. 8. 46 ' cella pressit.' Prof. 
Palmer points out the resemblance of 
this line to two lines of Lucilius (18. 
1 and 2.) ' Milia ducentum frumenti 
tollis medimnum, vini mille cadum,' 
' aeque fruniscor ego ac tu' ; lines which 
may very possibly come from a similar 

46. hoc, ' for that reason.' Sat. 1. 

3. 93 ' minus hoc iucundus'; 1. 9. 8; 
Madv. § 256, obs. 3. 

capiet, 'hold'; 'youwill not be able 
to eat more.' 

47. reticulum, a bag made of nett- 
ing. Cp. Juv. S. 12. 60 ' cum reticulis et 
pane et ventre lagenae ' ; he is speaking 

as Horace is of the things carried on a 
journey. We may remember the travel- 
lers' difficulties and niceties about bread, 
Sat. 1. 5. 89-91, and see on Epp. 1. 15. 

venales = ' servos. For the picture 
of the train of slaves following a great 
man 011 a journey cp. Sat. 1. 6. 108. 

49. referat . . . viventi : ' viventi ' is 
best explained by Heindorf as not 
governed by ' referat,' but as a dative of 
reference, analogous to the dative used 
with adjectives to signify a person in 
respect to whom the property exists, as 
in ' onus grave ferentibus,' ' what does it 
matter in the eyes of, in respect of, one 
who lives,' etc. ? 

intra naturae flnes : if the wishes 
and indulgences of life are limited to 
what nature requires. Yonge quotes 
Seneca, Epist. 16 'si ad naturam vives 
nunquam eris pauper ; si ad opiniones 
nunquam eris dives.' Cp. Hor. Od. 3. 
i- 25-32. 

51. at suave est 1 . . . acervo. This is 
the second apology for accumulating. 

52. relinquas, still allow, do not 

53. cumeris : cp. Epp. 1. 7. 30 ' in 
cumeram frumenti.' The Schol. ex- 
plains ' cumera ' as a box or bin of 
wickerwork or sometimes of earthen- 
ware in which corn was kept, also 
as a vessel of measurement containing 
five or six ' modii.' 

LIB. I. SAT. i. 


Ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna, 

Vel cyatho, et dicas, ' Magno de flumine mallem 55 

Quam ex hoc fonticulo tantundem sumere.' Eo fit, 

Plenior ut si quos delectet copia iusto, 

Cum ripa simul avulsos ferat Aufidus acer. 

At qui -tantuli eget quanto est opus, is neque limo 

Turbatam haurit aquam, neque vitam amittit in undis. 60 

At bona pars hominum decepta cupidine falso 

'Nil satis est,' inquit, 'quia tanti quantum habeas sis.' 

Quid facias illi ? Iubeas miserum esse libenter 

Quatenus id facit : ut quidam memoratur Athenis 

Sordidus ac dives, populi contemnere voces 65 

Sic solitus : ' Populus me sibilat ; at mihi plaudo 

Ipse domi simul ac nummos contemplor in arca.' 

54. urna . . . cyatho : both liquid 
measures ; the ' urna' being 24 sextarii or 
half an 'amphora,' i. e. a little less than 
3 gallons, the ' c^athus' being -^ of the 
' sextarius,' ' half a wine-glass.' 

55. mallem. ' I could wish if I had 
the choice.' This is the best supported 
reading. Some MSS. have ' malim,' 
and Dill 1 '. and Munro amongst other 
editors prefer it. The picture is not so 
much at the moment of a man choos- 
ing between offered lots as of cne dis- 
satisfied with his own. The answer in 
the next sentence is, ' let him have his 
choice and it will often end in his ruin.' 

56. tantundam, though it be exactly 
the same qaantity. 

eo fit, ' so it comes to pass.' The 
similitude has passed into a fable. 

58. Aufidus acer, 'violens' Od. 3. 
30. 10, ' longe sonans' Od. 4. 9. 2, cp. 
4. 14. 25 ; the Aufidus stands with 
Horace generally for a mountain torrent 
in flood : see vol. i. p. 36. 

59. neque limo turbatam, a point 
added to the original image. The 
flooding river is muddy as well as 
dangerous ; ' allegorice sordidos quaes- 
tus,' Acr. : the dirt which has to be 
swallowed by one who makes haste to 
be rich. 

61, 62. The third argument of the 

61. bona pars : cp. A. P. 297 : 'bona 
pro magna dictum, ut saepe Ennius et 
alii veteres,' Porph. Lucretius (5. 1025) 

and Terence (Eun. 1. 2. 43) have ' bona 
magnaque pars ' ; Cic. de Or. 2. 3 ' bo- 
nam partem sermonis.' 

cupidine falso, as ' pravi ' Od. 3. 
24. 5 1 ; ' mistaken ' : for the gender see 
on Od. 2. 16. 15. 

62. tanti quantum habeas sia. 
The miser is quoting (it seems) Lucilius 
(incert. 5. 22, recovered fiom Schol. 
on Juv. S. 3. 142) 'quantum habeas tan- 
tum ipse sies tantique habeaiis.' The 
mood is probably the same as in the 
oiiginal, 'sis' = ai' eiijs. Heindorf ex- 
plains it as a return, after ' inquit/ to 
the orat. obliqua. 

63. illi, the man who as the repre- 
sentalive of the 'bona pars' is sup- 
posed to have answered 'nil satis 
est' Bentley would read 'miseram,' 
so that ' illi ' may refer directly to the 
' bona pars.' For the dat. cp. Cic. 
pro Caec. 11. 30 'quid huic tu homini 
iacias ? ' 

64. quatenus, ' inasmuch as,' Od. 3. 
24. 30; Sat. 1. 3. 76, 2. 4. 57. Itake 
the opportunity of correcting a careless 
misstatement in my first edition on 
the first of these passages. lt is a fre- 
quent use in Lucretius ; see Munro on 
2. 927. 

id facit, sc. ' miser est.' Sat. 1. 4. 79- 
Such self-dclusion is impenetrable; bring 
home to him the fact that the world 
does not estimate him the higher for 
his wealth, he only falls back on his 
own approbation. 



Tan^al-is a labris sitiens fugientia captat 

Flumina — Quid rides ? mutato nomine de te 

Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 

Indormis inhians et tamquam parcere sacris 

Cogeris aut pictis tamquam gaudere tabellis. 

Nescis quo valeat nummus, quem praebeat usum ? 

Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius, adde 

Quis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque 

Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos 

Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc iuvat ? Horum 

Semper ego optarim pauperrimus esse bonorum. 

' At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus, 

Aut alius casus lecto te adfixit, habes qui 

Adsideat, fomenta paret, medicum roget ut te 



68-79. All the time you are getting 
none of the pleasure of your wealth, 
though you get all its inconvenience. 

68. Horace begins as in epic vein, 
(' commendandum est hoc pronuntia- 
tione ' Acr.,) he is interrupted by a smile 
from his audilor. Why does he smile ? 
Very possibly, Heindorfanswers (quoting 
Cic. Tusc. 1. 6. io ' adeone me delirare 
censes ut ista credam ? ') at the reference 
apparently serious to the old-world myth 
of Tantalus. Ilorace hastens to explain 
that it is an allegory; myth though it 
be, change only the name and it is 
strictly true and of yourself. 

71. indormis : cp. Virg. G. 2. 507 
' condit opes alius, defossoque incubat 
auro'; Aen. 6. 610 ' qui divitiis soli 
incubuere repertis.' 

inhians, keeping even in sleep the 
look of eager attention. 

tamquam saeris : Sat. 2. 3. 110 
' metuensque velut contingere sacrum,' 
where see note. 

72. tabellis, which please no sense 
but the eye. 

72-78. Heindorf pointed out that 
Horace is probably imitating some lines 
of Menander (Kvfiepvij rai 1-4) T&p-yvpiov 
(Tvai, fitipaKiuv, aoi <paiv(Tat | ov rSiv 
avayfcaiajv Ka9' Tjpipav pvvov | Ttp.fjv 
■napaoxtiv bwaruv, apTaiv, d\<piT<vv, \ 
6£ovs, (\aiuv, ptfifavos r' aKKov Ttv6s. 

74. vini sextarius, about a pint ; 
a temperate man's allowance. It was 

Augustus' maximum ; Suet. Aug. 77. 

75. doleat negatis, Sat. 1. 2. 112 
' quid [natura] sit dolitura negatum.' 

77. malos fures : the miser holds up 
his hands at their wickedness. 

78. hoc, summing up the previous 
infinitives ; cp. Sat. 1. 10. 60. 

79. bonorum, sc. ' vigilare,' ' formi- 
dare,' etc. ; it points the irony of the 
question ' hoc iuvat ' ? is this your idea 
of pleasure ? For the gen. after ' pauper- 
rimus' cp. Od. 3. 30. 11 ' pauper aquae,' 
Sat. 2. 3. 142 ' pauper . . . argenti,' and 
so 'dives' Epp. 2. 2. 3i,etc. 

80-83. The fourth apology for ac- 

80. condoluit, from ' condolesco,' 
the inchoative form ; the preposition is 
intensive : Plaut. Truc. 2. 8. 2 ' mihi de 
vento miserae condoluit caput.' 

tentatum : see on Od. 1. 16. 23. 

81. adfixit, 'has nailed you,' ' made 
you a prisoner,' to your bed. Perhaps 
a case where (with Bent, Orell., Ritter, 
Munro) we may prefer the reading of 
a minority of MSS., the majority, 
incl. V, reading ' afflixit.' There is a 
similar variety where there can be little 
doubt that 'adfigit' is the true reading 
in Sat. 2. 2. 79 ' adfigit (affligit) humo 
divinae particulam aurae.' Cp. Seneca, 
Ep. 67 ' ago gratias senectuti quod me 
lectulo adfixit.' ' Adfixit ' suits better 
the whole picture ' assideat,' ' roget ut 
te suscitet.' 

LIB. I. SAT. i. 

Suscitet ac gnatis reddat carisque propinquis.' 
Non uxor salvum te volt, non filius ; omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 
Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas, 
Si nemo praestet quem non merearis amorem? 
An si cognatos, nullo natura labore 
Quos tibi dat, retinere velis servareque amicos, 
Infelix operam perdas, ut si quis asellum 
In Campo doceat parentem currere frenis? 
Denique sit finis quaerendi, cumque habeas plus 




85. noti, ' acquaintances.' Cic. pro 
Caelio 2. 3 ' notis ac maioribus natu.' It 
stands here as a class in the descending 
scale of intimates below ' vicini.' 

pueri atque puellae. Sat. 2. 3. 130 
' Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque 
puellae.' It has. as Heindorf suggested, 
the air of a proverbial expression, and 
perhaps only means like ' old and 
young,' 'man and maid,' and the like, 
' all the world ' ; but compared with 
Od. 3. 1.4, it may well have the more 
definite meaning of ' the judgment of 
the simplest.' 

88. an si. This is the reading of B, 
of Keller's D, E, of ' two Bland,' and it 
is interpreted by Porph. It is supported 
by Bentley and of recent editors by 
Ritter and Macleane. If we accept it 
the sense is plain. Horace has said, 
' Do you wonder at finding that no one 
pays you the love which you are not 
earning ' ? He adds an alternative sug- 
gestion, ' Or can it be that you imagine 
that, though Nature gave you the love 
of kin without asking for any toil on 
your part, it would be a ridiculously 
impossible task for you to try to keep 
it ? ' Bentley justifies the taking ' nullo 
labore ' for ' with no labour to you ' 
by Sen. Apocolocyntosis 'Sponte sua 
festinat opus nulloque labore Mollia 
contorto distendunt stamina fuso,' and 
id. Epist. 84 ' quod in corpore nostro 
videmus sine ulla opera facere naturam.' 
More difficulty is introduced if with 
Orelli, Dill r ., and Munro we read ' At 
si.' This also has considerable MS. au- 
thority. It still leaves it open to us to 
point the sentence as a question (as 
Munro) and to take it substantially as 
before. The majority however of those 
who accept it take the sentence cate- 
gorically. ' Nay, should you think at 

no cost of labour to hold and keep the 
love of the kin whom nature gives you 
would be wasting your pains as utterly 
as one who should try,' etc. Bentley 
objected to this, (1) the involved order 
of the words ' natura quos tibi dat ' inter- 
rupting the construction of 'nullo labore 
retinere ' (a harshness hardly met by the 
reference to Sat. 1. 5. 72 and 2. 1. 60. 
Dill r . would get over the difficulty by 
taking ' nullo labore ' drro tcoivov with 
' dat ' and 'retinere,' but this is beyond 
Horace's use of that construction), (2) 
the apparent contradiction of ' nullo 
labore,' ' operam perdas.' How can 
you waste your labour if you spend 
none ? (3) the want of correspondence 
in the similitude ' si quis asellum,' etc. 
The difficulty in that case lies with the 
intractable nature of the material ; but 
according to this interpretation the diffi- 
culty in the thing to be illustrated lies 
with the insufficient trouble of the 

90. asellum eurrere. The Comm. 
Cruq. vouches for the existence of a 
proverbial expression ' docere asinum 
currere,' and it has been supposed to be 
alluded to in Scipio's jest on Ti. Clau- 
dius Asellus, 'agas asellum et cetera' 
Cic. de Or. 2. 64. 258 with Wilkins' 

parentem frenis, as if it was a horse, 
' equus frenis, asinus fusti paret.' Diint- 

92. denique, ' The sum of my an- 
swer is.' It is intended to introduce 
the last word on the general subject of 
hoarding, although the miser interrupts 
with yet one more plea, so that there is 
room (v. 106) for a second 'denique': 
but Horace is still specially answering 
the argument that money would secure 
attention in sickness. The futility of 



Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborcm 
Incipias, parto quod avebas, ne facias quod 
Ummidius quidam : non longa est fabula : dives 
Ut mctiretur nummos ; ita sordidus ut se 
Non unquam servo mclius vestiret ; adusque 
Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victus 
Opprimerct metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 
Divisit mcdium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 
' Ouid mi igitur suades? ut vivam Naevius aut sic 
Ut Nomcntanus ? ' Pergis pugnantia secum 



the plea has been exposed. He adds 
a picture of the end of the miser's friend- 
less life, niurdered by his venal atten- 
dant-paramour, not without some kind 
of approbation from the world. 

finis quaerendi : the expression is 
from Lucilius, fragm. incert. 1.6' Virtus 
quaerendae rei finem scire modum- 

plus answers to ' minus,' ' since you 
have more [ihan you had] fear penury 
less [than you did].' 

94. ne facias quod, the colourless 
use of ' facere,' standing, as our ' to do,' 
for some more definite verb ; see on v. 
64 ; ' lest that befall you which befell 

95. Bentley wished to substitute ' qui 
tam ' for quidam against the MSS., 
and Palmer iollows him. 

96. ut metiretur, to the point of 
estimating his money by weight instead 
of by counting — a proverbial expression. 
Cf. Xen. Hellenic. 3. 2. 27 tov Ktyu- 
p.tvov ptoipvcp uno^eT pr)o~aa9ai to irapa 
rov -raTpus upyvpiov : ' dives ut metire- 
tur' would be Horatian, see Sat. 2. 7. 
10: but here 'ita' is probably supplied 
from the second clause. 

100. divisit medium. Virg. Aen. 9. 
750 ' Et mediam ferro gemina intertem- 
pora frontem Dividit.' 

fortissima Tj ndaridarum, as Bent- 
ley explains it, lit. ' bravest of the children 
of Tyndarus' iwith Bentley the ' Tyn- 
daridarum ' is a masc. form) — i. e. a 
second Clytemnestra — yvvaiKos dvSpo- 
/SovAof iciap. The epithet 'foitissima' 
thcrefore properly belongs to Clytem- 
nestra, not to her imitator, but the re- 
ference to heroic piecedent is mtant to 
make his fate somewhat ridiculous, as 
though the worid would smile at it and 

think it served him right rather than 
be indignant at it. lt has been sug- 
gested that there may have been a 
further appropriateness in the actual 
name of the freedwoman (for the story 
is clearly a real one) — a ' Clytemnestra ' 
or ' Tyndaris.' 

101. The miser's last plea, ' What ! 
you wish me to be a spendthrift.' 

vivam Naevius, ' sic ut ' is to be 
borrowed from the foilowing clause. 
See on v. 96, and cp. the similar omis- 
sion of ' ut ' in the second clause in 
Epod. 1. 34. Naevius (or Nevius) is 
the reading of the MSS. It was altered 
to Maenius first by Glareanus, with 
next to no external grounds, in order to 
identify the representative of prodigality 
here with the Maenius of Sat. 1. 3. 21 
and Epp. 1. 15. 26, and so Orelli and 
DilK give it 

102. Nomentanus. Cp. Sat. 1. 8. 
11, 2. 1. 22, 2. 3. 175, 224, 2. 8. 23, 25, 
60. The Seholiasts call him Cassius 
Nomentanus, 'adeo sine respectu cal- 
culoium suorum prodigus ut septuagies 
gulae ac libidini impenderit,' and make 
him belong to Horace's generation, 
giving a story that Sallust the historian 
hired his cook for 100,000 sesterces a 
year. The form of Acron's note however 
betrays its little value, ' aliter, Nomen- 
tanus aut nomen proprium est aut gen- 
tile de Nomcntana civitale.' In reality 
the name is from Lucilius (fragm. 2. 4 
and 5). See Introd. to Satires, p. 

pergis, ' you proceed to set together 
forehead to forehead things that fight 
one another,' i.e. to set off against 
one another, as if there was no neulral 
third alternative, contradictory oppo- 

LIB. I. SAT. i. 


Frontibus adversis componere : non ego avarum 
Ouum veto te fieri vappam iubeo ac nebulonem. 
Est inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Viselli. 
Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 
Ouos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 
Illuc unde abii redeo, qui nemo, ut avarus, 
Se probet, ac potius laudet diversa sequentes, 
Ouodque aliena capella gerat distentius uber 
Tabescat, neque se maiori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet, hunc atque hunc superare laboret. 
Sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat, 
Ut, cum carceribus missos rapit ungula currus, 



103. frontibus adversis,afillingout 
of the metaphor of ' componere,' though 
in terms which suggest rather a bull- 
fight, Virg. Aen. 12.716. Lucretius uses 
the phrase of two clouds meeting, 6. 

componere is used of getting up a 
fight betvveen two gladiators : cp. Sat. 
1. 7. 20. Palmer prefers to make it = 
' reconcile.' 

104. fieri belongs to both clauses. 
vappam ac nebulonem. Horace 

puts the two names together again in 
Sat. 1. 2. 12. 'Vappa' is properly 
wine which had lost its fiavour : so Sat. 
1. 5. 16, 2. 3. 144. Catullus 28. 5 ap- 
plies it in special opposition to the name 
' Frugi ' (see Ellis in loco) to a man 
whose character is gone. ' Nebulo ' is 
a word of Lucilius : 14. 20 ' luci- 
fugus nebulo ' ; 20. 9 ' nugator ac 
nebulo.' In the first passage he seems 
to be alluding to its etymology, ' a 

105. According to the Scholiasts 
Horace has put real names (Tanais 
being a freedman of Maecenas) to a 
coarse Greek proverb which expresses 
the alternative of excess and defect. 

106. est modus in rebus, i. e. * in 
omnibus rebus,' ' modus,' ' measure,' 
' moderation,' the Greek fxerpiov, fxeaoTrjs. 
Horace perhaps has in mind the verse 
of Lucilius quoted on v. 92, where 
' modus ' and ' finis ' are brought toge- 
ther. As the ' denique ' seems to show 
he is returning to what he said there. 

108. qui nemo, ut. This was the 
reading of V. There is in favour of it 
(1 that this is ' the point from which 

he started,' ' Qui fit Maecenas,' etc. The 
following words ' laudet diversa se- 
quentes' show that we are going back 
to the very question propounded in vv. 
1, 2 ; (2) that the accidental omission 
of ' qui ' will explain ' nemo ut,' and 
v for the purpose of avoiding the hiatus) 
'nemon ut.' It is hard to see how 
' qui ' can have arisen from either of 
the other readings. The difnculty lies 
in explaining ' ut avarus.' Can it mean 
' Why as the hoarder [ts nof\ so no one 
is satisfied with himself ' ? Or does the 
phrase ' se probet,' which alone does 
not come from vv. 1, 2, lead us back to 
the special story of the miser at Athens, 
v. 66 'at mihi plaudo': 'why no one 
imitates the miser in the story '? Prof. 
Palmer proposes to understand ' fiat ' 
betvveen ' qui ' and ' ut,' ' how it comes 
that,' taking ' nemo avarus ' together, 
but he gives no example of such an 

112. hunc atque hunc, ' one and 
then another.' 

113. sic with ' festinanti ' ; one who 
is started 011 this race always finds a 
richer man than himself to compare 
himself with, just as in a chariot-race 
each driver's eyes are set on the one 
before him, not on those he has passed. 

114. The resemblance of the com- 
mencement ' Ut cum carceribus,' fol- 
lowed by ' Instat equis auriga,' to Virg. 
G. 1. 512 foll. 'Ut cum carceribus sese 
effudere quadrigae . . . Fertur equis 
auriga ' is too great to be accidental. 
Whether any argument can be drawn 
from this as to the date of either poem 
may be doubted. See Prof. Sellar, 



Instat equis auriga suos vincentibus, illum 
Praeteritum temnens extremos inter euntem. 
Inde fit ut raro qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore vita 
Cedat uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 
Iam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi 
Compilasse putes, verbum non amplius addam. 



Roman Poets Virgil, ch. 5,noteonp. 174. 
He thinks Virgil was the copyist. For 
the ' carceres ' see Dict. Ant. s. v. Circus. 

115. illum praeteritum, ' that other 
competitor whom he has passed :' ' il- 
lum,' perhaps with some sense of con- 
tempt. ' Extremos inter euntem,' the 
expression of his contempt, ' as amongst 
the hindmost in the race.' 

119. uti eonviva satur, cp. Epp. 2. 
2. 214. It is from Lucret. 3. 938 ' Cur 
non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis Ae- 
quo animoque capis securam stulte, qui- 
etem ' ? and ib. 959 ' nec opinanti mors 
ad caput astitit ante Quam satur ac 
plenus possis discedere rerum.' See 
Munro on the first of these passages. 
He points out that ' verbum non am- 
plius addam ' is a verbal echo of another 
line from this passage, though the sense 
is different, ' cur amplius addere quaeris ' 
v. 941 . Notice that Lucretius is tracing 
the unreadiness to die to the same cause 
as Horace, ' quia semper aves quod 

3- 139» x - 4- 

passages we 

fluent writer 

abest, praesentia temnis.' We have in 
fact the germ of the Satire. 

120. Crispini : Sat. 1. 
14, 2. 7. 45. From these 
gather that he was a 
(perhaps, as the Scholiasts say, of verses) 
and a Stoic, and that he had incurred 
Horace's contempt ; see above on v. 14. 
There is nothing to be added to this 
from external sources. 

scrinia : Epp. 2. I. 113. Cylindrical 
cases for rolls of papyrus. It seems to 
mean here ' the cases (Crispinus is so 
voluminous that he needs more than one) 
which contain Crispinus' writings.' 

lippi, probably in a moral sense 
'purblind': cp. Sat. 1. 3. 25, where 
it is part of a definite metaphor, and see 
Conington on Pers. S. 1. 79. Bentley, 
taking it literally, and thinking that 
Horace could not ridicule in another an 
infirmity which attached to himself (Sat. 
1. 5. 39, Epp. 1. 1. 29), wished to read 
' lippum.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 2. 29 


a fool's way of avoiding one folly is to fall 

into another. 

This is the text of the earlier part of the Satire, and, though the thread is not 
kept perfectly, of the unreadable discussion of vice in which it ends. It is a text 
on which Horace is fond of dwelling — we have already had it in Sat. 1. 101 f. 

The general view is no doubt right which makes this a specimen of Horace's 
earliest attempts at Satire. It is the Satire, which by quoting v. 27 in Sat. I. 4. 
92, he makes the typical instance of the personality by which he had roused alarm 
and enmity. The Scholiasts tell us that the real Maltinus (or Malchinus) of v. 21 
was Maecenas. If this tradition is true, it must follow that the Satire was written 
before Horace had made Maecenas' acquaintance, and that it was by Maecenas' 
wish that the line was left as it had stood. Such a liberty was certainly never re- 

For the Tigellius of v. 3 see introduction to the next Satire. 

Ambubaiarum collegia, pharmacopolae, 

Mendici, mimae, balatrones, hoc genus omne 

Maestum ac sollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelli. 

Quippe benignus erat. Contra hic, ne prodigus esse 

Dicatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico, 5 

Frigus quo duramque famem propellere possit. 

Hunc si perconteris, avi cur atque parentis 

Praeclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie retn, 

Omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis, 

Sordidus atque animi quod parvi nolit haberi, 10 

i. Ambubaiarum. The word oc- 2. balatrones, perhaps the same 

curs again in a similar connection in word as ' blatero,' and so probably 

Suet. Ner. 27 ' ambubaiarum minis- meaning properly 'idle or random 

teria.' It is explained by the Scholiasts talkers.' It occurs as the nickname of 

as a designation of Syrian women who a ' scurra ' in Sat. 2. 8. 21, etc. Here 

played the flute — from the Syriac name it seems to designate some class of 

of the instrument. Cp. Juv. 3. 62 ' Iam mime-actors. 

pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Or- 4. quippe : gives their reason, and 

ontes Et linguam etmoreset cum tibicine in their own words. They called him 

chordas Vexit.' ' generous.' 

collegia, 'guilds,"fraternities,'aterm hic. As ' hunc ' in v. 7 ' an- 

used ironically. other.' 

pharmacopolae, vendors of drugs. 8. ingrata, 'thankless,' ' insatiable.' 

They would have a bad name both as stringat, as a bough is stripped of 

quacks and as purveyors of poison — leaves. 

such a ' pharmacopola circumforaneus ' 9. conductis, ' borrowed/ as Juv. S. 

is mentioned as an agent in murder in 11. 46 ' conducta pecunia.' 
Cic. Clu. 14. 40. 



Respondct. Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. 
Fufidius vappae famam timet ac nebulonis, 
Divcs agris, dives positis in fenore nummis : 
Quinas hic capiti mercedes exsecat atque 
Quanto perditior quisque est tanto acrius urget ; if 

Nomina sectatur modo sumpta veste virili 
Sub patribus duris tironum. ' Maxime,' quis non, 
'Iuppiter!' exclamat simul atque audivit? ' At in se 
Pro quaestu sumptum facit hic' Vix credere possis 
Quam sibi non sit amicus, ita ut pater ille, Terenti 20 

Fabula quem miserum gnato vixisse fugato 
Inducit, non se peius cruciaverit atque hic. 
Si quis nunc quaerat, ' Quo res haec pertinet?' illuc : 
j Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt. 
Maltinus tunicis demissis ambulat ; est qui 35 

11. laudatur ab his, as Tigellius by 
the street-singers, etc. The point is not 
that his conduct is variously judged, 
but that he only attains the praise of 
one party at the expense of incurring 
blarae from another. In his dread of 
being thought mean he becomes extra- 

12. Fufidius, ' avarus quidam fenera- 
tor' Schol. 

vappae ac nebulonis, Sat. i. i. 104. 

13. The line recurs in A. P. 421. For 
positis cp. Epod. 2. 70. 

14. quinas mercedes: five interests, 
i.e. five times the usual interest. This 
was ' centesimae usurae,' one per cent. 
per month, or 12 per cent. per annum. 
This usurer exacted 60 per cent. With 
the expression cp. ' binae centesimae,' 
i.e. 24 per cent. Cic. Verr. 2. 3. 71. 165. 

capiti exsecat. Porph. explained, 
' slices off,' 'deducts fromthecapital/ i.e. 
in lending the money he deducts at once 
the first monUYs interest. Orelli and 
Ritter object to this explanation that it 
ignores the distributive force of ' quinas,' 
which ought to imply ' on each occa- 
sion,' and therefore take it in the more 
general sense as a stronger form of ' ex- 
toiquet.' It rejalls Seneca's phrase 
(Benef. 7. 10) ' snnguinolentas usuras,' 
'that draw blood.' ' He draws from 
his principal, even if it takes a knife to 
do it, five times the usual intcrest.' 

16. nomina sectatur, i. e. he triesto 

get their names into his books as bor- 
rovvers. Cp. Epp. 2. 1. 105 ' cautos no- 
minibus rectis nummos.' 

17. tironum. Thewords ' tiro ' and 
' tirocinium ' are used frequently of the 
moment when a young man exchanged 
the ' praetexta ' for the ' toga pura ' or 
' virilis,' and especially of a ceremony 
with which the change was accompanied 
when he was led into the forum by his 
father, ' deductus in forum tiro ' Suet. 
Ner. 7. 

19. pro, 'in proportion to.' 

20. pater ille, Menedemus in the 

24. The key line of the Satire. Cp. 
the argument in Sat. 1. 1. 101 foll. It 
is implicitly the Aristotelian doctrine of 
virtue lying in the mean : see Epp. 1. 
18. 9. 

25. Maltinus. The MSS. and the 
Scholiasts are divided between the 
forms Maltinus (or Malthinus) and 
Malchinus. Maltinus is said to be de- 
rived from ' malta,' a Lucilian word for 
an effeminate person, but Maltinus is a 
Roman name found in history and in 
inscriptions. For the traditional refer- 
ence of the line to Maecenas see Intro- 
duction and Introd. to the Satires. p. 
6. Seneca, Epist. 114. 6. says that it 
was recorded of Maecenas that he al- 
ways walked in Rome ' solutis tuni- 

est qui : sc. ' ambulat.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 2. 31 

Inguen ad obscoenum subductis usque facetus ; 

Pastillos Rufillus olet, Gargonius hircum. 

Nil medium est. Sunt qui nolint tetigisse nisi illas 

Ouarum subsuta talos tegat instita veste ; 

Contra alius nullam nisi olenti in fornice stantem. 30 

Quidam notus homo cum exiret fornice, ' Macte 

Virtute esto,^ inquit sententia dia Catonis, 

' Nam simul ac venas inflavit tetra libido 

Huc iuvenes aequum est descendere, non alienas 

Permolere uxores.' ' Nolim laudarier,' inquit, 35 

' Sic me,' mirator cunni Cupiennius albi. 

Audire est operae pretium, procedere recte 

Qui moechis non vultis, ut omni parte laborent ; 

Utque illis multo corrupta dolore voluptas, 

Atque haec rara cadat dura inter saepe pericla. 40 

Hic se praecipitem tecto dedit ; ille flagellis 

Ad mortem caesus ; fugiens hic decidit acrem 

Praedonum in turbam ; dedit hic pro corpore nummos ; 

Hunc perminxerunt calones ; quin etiam illud 

Accidit, ut quidam testes caudamque salacem 45 

Demeteret ferro. ' Iure ' omnes ; Galba negabat. 

Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secunda, 

Libertinarum dico, Sallustius in quas 

Non minus insanit quam qui moechatur. At hic si 

Qua res, qua ratio suaderet, quaque modeste 5° 

Munifico esse licet, vellet bonus atque benignus 

Esse, daret quantum satis esset nec sibi damno 

Dedecorique foret. Verum hoc se amplectitur uno, 

Hoc amat et laudat : ' Matronam nullam ego tango.' 

Ut quondam Marsaeus, amator Originis ille, 55 

Qui patrium mimae donat fundumque Jaremque, 

' Nil fuerit mi,' inquit, 'cum uxoribus unquam alienis.' 

Verum est cum mimis, est cum meretricibus, unde 

Fama malum gravius quam res trahit. An tibi abunde 

Personam satis est, non illud quicquid ubique 60 

Officit evitare ? Bonam deperdere famam, 

26. facetus : it is his idea of ele- lozenges meant to perfume the breath. 
gance. The line is quoted in i. 4. 92 as a spcei- 

27. pastillos, dim. of ' panis,' of men of Horace's personal salire. 


Rem patris oblimare, malum est ubicunque. Quid inter 

Est in matrona, ancilla, peccesne togata? 

Villius in Fausta Sullae gener, hoc miser uno 

Nomine deceptus, poenas dedit usque superque 65 

Quam satis est, pugnis caesus ferroque petitus, 

Exclusus fore cum Longarenus foret intus. 

Huic si mutonis verbis mala tanta videntis 

Diceret haec animus : ' Quid vis tibi? numquid ego a te 

Magno prognatum deposco consule cunnum 70 

Velatumque stola mea cum conferbuit ira ' ? 

Quid responderet ? ' Magno patre nata puella est.' 

At quanto meliora monet pugnantiaque istis 

Dives opis natura suae, tu si modo recte 

Dispensare velis ac non fugienda petendis 75 

Immiscere. Tuo vitio rerumne labores 

Nil referre putas? Quare ne paeniteat te 

Desine matronas sectarier, unde laboris 

Plus haurire mali est quam ex re decerpere fructus. 

Nec magis huic inter niveos viridesque lapillos 80 

(Sit licet hoc, Cerinthe, tuum) tenerum est femur aut crus 

Rectius, atque etiam melius persaepe togatae est. 

Adde huc quod mercem sine fucis gestat, aperte 

Quod venale habet ostendit, nec si quid honesti est 

Iactat habetque palam, quaerit quo turpia celet. 85 

Regibus hic mos est : ubi equos mercantur opertos 

Inspiciunt, ne si facies ut saepe decora 

Molli fulta pede est emptorem inducat hiantem, 

Quod pulchrae clunes, breve quod caput, ardua cervix. 

Hoc illi recte : ne corporis optima Lyncei 90 

Contemplere oculis, Hypsaea caecior illa 

Quae mala sunt spectes. O crus ! o brachia ! Verum 

Depugis, nasuta, brevi latere ac pede longo est. 

Matronae praeter faciem nil cernere possis, 

Cetera, ni Catia est, demissa veste tegentis. 95 

Si interdicta petes, vallo circumdata (nam te 

Hoc facit insanum), multae tibi tum officient res, 

Custodes, lectica, ciniflones, parasitae, 

Ad talos stola demissa et circumdata palla, 

Plurima quae invideant pure apparere tibi rem. 100 

LIB. I. SAT. 2. 


Altera nil obstat : Cols tibi paene videre cst 

Ut nudam, ne crure malo, ne sit pede turpi ; 

Metiri possis oculo latus. An tibi mavis 

Insidias fieri pretiumque avellier ante 

Quam mercerr^ ostendi ? ' Leporem venator ut alta 105 

In nive sectetur, positum sic tangere nolit/ 

Cantat et apponit : ' Meus est amor huic similis ; nam 

Transvolat in medio posita et fugientia captat.' 

Hiscine versiculis speras tibi posse dolores 

Atque aestus curasque graves e pectore pelli? no 

Nonne cupidinibus statuat natura modum quem, 

Quid latura sibi quid sit dolitura negatum, 

Quaerere plus prodest et inane abscindere soldo? 

Num tibi cum fauces urit sitis aurea quaeris 

Pocula ? num esuriens fastidis omnia praeter 115 

Pavonem rhombumque? Tument tibi cum inguina, num si 

Ancilla aut verna est praesto puer impetus in quem 

Continuo fiat malis tentigine rumpi? 

Non ego : namque parabilem amo venerem facilemque. 

Illam, 'Post paulo,' ' Sed pluris,' ' Si exierit vir,' 120 

Gallis, hanc Philodemus ait sibi quae neque magno 

Stet pretio neque cunctetur cum est iussa venire. 

Candida rectaque sit ; munda hactenus ut neque longa 

Nec magis alba velit quam dat natura videri. 

Haec ubi supposuit dextro corpus mihi laevum 125 

Ilia et Egeria est : do nomen quodlibet illi, 

Nec vereor ne dum futuo vir rure recurrat, 

Ianua frangatur, latret canis, undique magno 

Pulsa domus strepitu resonet, vepallida lecto 

Desiliat mulier, miseram se conscia clamet, 130 

Cruribus haec metuat, doti deprensa, egomet mi. 

Discincta tunica fugiendum est ac pede nudo, 

Ne nutnmi pereant aut puga aut denique fama. 

Deprendi miserum est ; Fabio vel iudice vincam. 

VOL. 11. 





Horace begins with a satirical picture of Tigellius as the type of a character 
made up of contradictions and inconsistencies (w. 1-19). 

He supposes himself interrupted (v. 19) with the question ' Have ycu no faults 
of your own ? ' 

Vv. 20-28. I pretend, he answers, to no infallibility. That is the vice of the 
censorious in private life. They are blind to their own faults, keen of sight 
to their neighbours. 
29-37. Little fanlts of temper or manner or dress overshadow sterling merits. 
38-40. Contrast the lover turning his mistress's defects into beauties. 
40-54. If friendship cannot go as far as that, it can imitate a father making the 

best of his boy's deformities. 
55-66. But we even turn virtues into vices. 
66-69. This censoriousness recoils on ourselves — for we have our own faults too. 

69—75. We nee d (0 mutual forbearance. 

76-79. (2) some discrimination of the relative gravity of faults. 

80-95. We see this in other cases. We should think a man mad who crucified 

a slave for a peccadillo. Is it not worse to break off a friendship because of 

some trifling accident or impropriety ? What are we to do when it comes to 

graver offences ? 
96-98. The Stoic will tell you that all offences are equal ; but this' doctrine 

will not square with life, neither with moral feeling nor with utility, the true 

basis of moral distinction. 
98-1 1 2. Historically the sense of justice is posterior to the experience of injustice. 
113-116. The Stoic is wrong in assuming a natural criterion of right and wrong, 

wrong in his conclusion that one breach of law is as bad as another. 
1 16-124. We need a just apportionment of punishment to offence. Not that I 

fear too great leniency. It is the rule of Draco that we are promised when 

the Stoic is king. 
124-126. ' When he is king,' do I say? Why, he is king, so he tells us, as he 

is everything else that is good. 
126-133. A Stoic is supposed to reply, ' You forget Chrysippus' explanation of 

the paradox.' 
133-142. 'Well,' Horace answers, 'it is a poor sovereignty. It does not 

save you from humiliations. No one recognizes it except Crispinus. I shall 

leave you your throne, contented for myself to live on terms of mutual for- 

bearance with my unphilosophical friends.' 

The connection of w. 1-19 with the rest of the poem is not made perfectly 
clear ; but the comparison in the following Satire, w. 7S _I 04> between the inno- 
cent sallies of Satire, half playful and directed against types rather than per- 
sons, with the license given to real malignity in private conversation, seems to show 
that this is the link here also, and the true subject of the Satire. 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 35 

The mnsician Tigcllius of this Satire (w. 3-19) and of the last (vv. 1-4) is iden- 
tified with the Tigellius of Cicero*s letters (ad Att. 13. 49, 50, and 51, ad Fam. 
7. 24). He was the nephew (or grandson) of Phamea (named in these letters 
and ad Att. 9. 9 ; 9. 13, and ad Fam. 9. 16), a rich freedman from Sardinia. 
He had quarrelled with Cicero because he thought him slack in a cause of 
Phamea's which the-great orator had undertaken, but was prevented from pleading 
by the fact that the case of P. Sestius came on the same day. We gather from 
the letters that he was a favourite of the dictator Caesar. Cicero speaks (to 
Gallus ad Fam. 7. 14) with contempt of his Sardinian origin, 'hominem pestilenti- 
orem patria sua.' ' Habes Sardos venales : alium alio nequiorem.' He calls him 
'salaconem' (aaKatcoJva), 'a swaggerer,' and speaks of him as ' addictum Calvi 
Licinii Hipponacteo praeconio.' Porph. (on this Sat. v. 1) has preserved a line 
of that lampoon, ' Sardi Tigelli putidum caput venit.' 

The Scholiasts identify him with the ' Hermogenes Tigellius' of 1. 4. 72, i. 
10. 80, the ' Hermogenes' of v. 129 of this Satire and of 1. 9. 25, 1. 10. 18, and the 
'Tigellius' of Sat. I. 10. 90. It seems clear however that this was another and a 
younger person. The Tigellius of Sat. 1. 2. 3 and 1. 3. 4 is already dead. The 
Hermogenes Tigellius of 1. 4. 72 and 1. 10. 80 is still alive, although Sat. 1. 4 
contains internal evidence of having been composed later than Sat. 1. 2 (cp. 1. 2. 
27 and 1. 4. 92), and Sat. 1. 10 of having been composed later than Sat. 1. 4 
(see 1. 4. 11 and 1. 10. 50). We may add that whereas the elder Tigellius was 
lampooned by Calvus, Hermogenes Tigellius in Sat. 1. 10. 19 is said to sing 
Calvus's songs. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 

Ut nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 

Iniussi nunquam desistant. Sardus habebat 

Ille Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 

Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam non 5 

Ouicquam proficeret ; si collibuisset ab ovo 

2. eantare, an instance ofthegovem- ' if at any time he asked he would gain 
ment dno koivov. It follows both ' in- nothing ' ? Cp. the Greek use of dv with 
ducant animum ' and ' rogati ; ' see on the impft. ansvvering to the relative with 
Od. 1. 3. 6. the optative, as Soph. Phil. 290 irpbs 5e 

3. Sardus. See the quotations in tovO', o ixoi jlaAoi | vevpoo-iraoT)saTpaKTos 
the introd. to this Satire. Its emphatic avTbs av rd\as | d\v6p.r)v. There is 
position shows that the epithet is meant none of the force of ' as is (or ' was') not 
to be contumelious. the case ' which belongs to the regular 

habebat hoe. Cic. Phil. 2. 32. 78 'ha- use of the impft. or plpft. subj. in con- 

bebat hoc omnino Caesar,' ' this was his ditional sentences. In ' collibuisset ' 

way.' It is a colloquialism, which is we have the plpft. because the word to 

lost if we supply ' vitium.' be dealt with was not ' collibeat ' but 

4. qui posset, ' though he could.' ' collibuerit,' the verb never (as Heindorf 

5. peteret . . . proficeret. Often remarks") being found in the present. 
referred to as instances of the impft. for See on Sat. 1. 6. 79. 

the plpft. subj. : but is it not rather an amicitiam patris, i. e. of his father 

instance of the pure hypothetical ' si by adoption, the dictator C. Julius 

petat . . . proficiat,' thrown into a Caesar : for Tigellius' relation to him 

past tense, the force of the subj. being see above in introduction to the Satire. 
not to express a doubt, but to generalize ; 6. ab ovo usque ad mala, i. e. from 

f D 2 



Usque ad mala citaret, ' Io Bacche ! ' modo summa 
Voce, modo hac resonat quae chordis quattuor ima. 
Nil aequale homini fuit 1111 ; saepe velut qui 
Currebat fugiens hostem, persaepe velut qui 
Iunonis sacra ferret ; habebat saepe ducentos, 


the beginning to the end of the banquet. 
It began with the 'gustus,' also called 
' promulsis,' dishes supposed to whet 
the appetite, served sometimes imme- 
diately on leaving the bath. Amongst 
them are mentioned eggs : Mart. 12. 
19. 1 ' In thermis sumit lactucas, ova, la- 
certum ' ; Plin. Epist. 1. 15 of a supper 
prepared for himself and one friend, 
' Paratae erant lactucae singulae, coch- 
leae ternae, ova bina.' The apples are 
part of the dessert, ' mensae secundae.' 
Mart. 10. 48. 18, at the end of the de- 
scription of a supper, ' saturis mitia 
poma dabo.' In the gastronomic lec- 
ture of Sat. 2. 4, eggs are the first subject 
treated, v. 1 1 ; apples come at the end, 
v. 70. 

7. citaret. Bentley pronounced the 
verb impossible, and would substitute 
' iteraret,' but it would seem that he had 
missed the parallel ' paeanem citare,' 
which has since been quoted from Cic. 
de Orat. 1. 59. 251. 'Io Bacche ' in this 
case represents the accusative. ' Citare ' 
is probably the frequentative of ' cieo ' 
in the sense of ' ciere vocem, murmur, 
tinnitum,' etc. Prof. Wilkins it is true 
reads in that place ' recitaret,' but on 
' a priori ' grounds ; and is it certain 
that ' recitare paeanem ' would be a 
suitable phrase ? Cicero is speaking of 
practising the voice in singing. 

Io Bacche : the reading is doubtful, 
the MSS. being divided betvveen ' Bacche' 
and ' Bacchae.' All the Bland. give 
' Bacche,' but the difference between 'e' 
and ' g ' and that in a proper name, is 
one on which stress can hardly be 
laid in MS. testimony. Hymns to 
Bacchus were called from their first 
words 'Io/3a«x°« and Ba«x e '3 a "X ot ( C P- 
iTjrraiojviaai /cal fiaicxtPaKxov doai Arist. 
Equ. 408). The lengthening of the 
short 'e ' is justified by the metrical ictus ; 
cp. ' Hyla Hyla omne sonaret ' Virg. 
Ecl. 6. 44. It is possible that the 
effect of the voice dweiling on the note 
is imitated. Of recent editors Haupt, 
Ritter, Holder, and Munro give ' io 
Bacchae.' No instance of such a cry is 
quoted except from Eur. Bacchae, as 

v. 596, where the Bacchants are person- 
ages in the drama. 

modo summa voce, i. e. now in a 
low key, novv in a high one : another 
instance of his changeableness. ' Summa ' 
= the Greek vira.Tr), ' ima' (' vox acuta' 
Od. 3. 4. z) =V7 ) Tr l> tn e terms used re- 
spectively for what we should call the 
lowest and the highest note of the tetra- 
chord, the designations being apparently 
given from the position of the strings of 
an instrument as it was actually handled, 
not as with us from the parts of the 
human throat employed in giving the 

8. chordis. It admits of doubt 
whether this is a dative, ' voce ' then being 
the note of the human voice, ' now on his 
" highest " note, now on that which 
answers "lowest" to the tetrachord'; or 
an instrumental ablative ' voce ' being 
the note absolutely, ' the note which 
sounds " lowest " when you strike the 

9. aequale, ' uniform,' ' equable.' Cp. 
' inaequalis ' in describing a similar cha- 
racter, Sat. 2. 7. 10. 

saepe velut qui. The constr. is 
' saepe currebat velut qui [curreret] fu- 
giens hostem, persaepe [incedebat] ve- 
lut qui Iunonis sacra ferret.' With the 
ellipsis of a verb to the first ' qui ' cp. 
Sat. 1. 1. 23. The verb which describes 
a pai ticular form of movement ('currere') 
having been transferred from its proper 
place in the first relative clause to the 
leading clause makes it necessary to un- 
derstand a colourless verb or one which 
describes another kind of movement 
with the second leading clause. Cp. the 
zeugma with 'crepat' in Od. 1. 18. 5, 6. 

11. Iunonis sacra ferret. ' Kavrj- 
(pupoi apud Athenas hodieque dicuntur 
quae sacra in capite portant et sensim 
incedunt et lento gradu ' Porph. Cp. 
Sat. 2. 8. 13 'ut Attica virgo Cum sa- 
cris Cereris procedit,' and Cic. de Off. 
1. 36. 131 ' Cavendum est ne tarditatibus 
utamur in ingressu mollioribus ut pom- 
parum ferculis similes esse videamur.' 

habebat. Bentley read ' alebat,' fol- 
lowing one MS. which gives ' halebat.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 37 

Saepe decem servos ; modo reges atque tetrarchas, 

Omnia magna loquens ; modo, ' Sit mihi mensa tripes et 

Concha salis puri et toga quae defendere frigus 

Ouamvis crassa queat.' Decies centena dedisses 15 

Huic parco paucis contento, quinque diebus 

Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsum 

Mane, diem totum stertebat ; nil fuit unquam 

Sic impar sibi. — Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : ' Quid tu? 

Nullane habes vitia?' Immo alia et fortasse minora. 20 

Maenius absentem Novium cum carperet, ' Heus tu,' 

Ouidam ait, ' ignoras te, an ut ignotum dare nobis 

1 2. decem servos. A small house- 
hold it would seem. The edd. quote 
Val. Max. 4. 4. 1 1 ' M. Scaurus quantu- 
lam a patre hereditatem acceperit in 
primo libro refert eorum quae de vita sua 
scripsit. At enim sibi decem sola man- 
cipia totumque censum centum quinque 
ac triginta milium numorum relictum.' 
Cp. Horace's own establishment, which 
he looks on as very modest, ' Cena mi- 
nistratur pueris tribus' Sat. 1. 6. 116. 

reges atque tetrarchas loquens, 
having their names in his mouth, as 
though he was intimate with them. Cp. 
Ul>sses' rebuke of Thersites Hom. II. 2. 
250 tw ovk av @aat\fjas ava arofi ix wv 
ayopevois. For the form the editors 
compare Cic. ad Att. 9. 2 ' nihil nisi 
classes et exercitus loquens.' Cp. Epp. 
I. 7. 84 ' sulcos et vineta crepat mera.' 

13. mensa tripes. The shape seems 
to imply simplicity of fashion, moderate 
size, and common material. Cp.Martial's 
' simplex Delphica ' (12. 66. 7). For 
the extravagance lavished on tables see 
Mayor on Juv. Sat. 1. 137. The most 
costly were ' orbes,' i. e. round slabs or 
solid sections of the trunks of trees, esp. 
the ' citrus,' resting on a single foot of 

14. concha salis puri : ' pauperiores 
in marina concha salem tritum habere 
solent ' Porph. It may be doubted 
whether ' concha ' necessarily meant an 
actual shell ; see Od. 2. 7. 23. The mo- 
desty of the requirements lies in the 
short list of his necessaries, a table, a 
vessel which will hold his salt and keep 
it clean (cp. Pers. Sat. 3. 25 ' purum et 
sine labe salinum ' ; a saltcellar is the 
one piece of ancestral plate in a humble 
home there and in Od. 2. 16. 14I, and a 
gown which, however coarse in material, 

will keep out the cold. With ' toga 
quamvis crassa ' contrast ' tenues togae ' 
Epp. 1. 14. 32. 

15. decies centena, sc. 'milia sester- 
tiorum.' Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 237, 240. It 
stands for a ' good round sum.' Cp. 
Juv. S. 10. 335. 

dedisses. See on Sat. i. 1. 45. 

16. quinque diebus, as Epp. 1. 7. 1, 
for a short period : Heind. remarks, 
that we should say ' in a week,' and 
that it shows that the hebdomadal divi- 
sion of time had not yet got possession 
of language. 

17. erat for 'esset'; Madv. § 348 
c. obs. : but the indicative gives reality, 
as though it were a thing that often 

loeulis, a casket used to carry money 
and other valuables. Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 146, 
Epp. 2. 1. 175 ; and see Mayor on Juv. 
S. 1. 89, 

19. aliquis. The person supposed is 
someone who dislikes satire, such as 
Horace argues with in Sat. r. 4 and 2. 1. 

20. immo alia. ' Nay,' I do not im- 
ply that. I have my faults, but not the 
special one which I speak of, ' for all 
I know ' less serious ones. Horace pro- 
ceeds to contrast satire with the censo- 
riousness of private life. That does 
imply self-righteousness. 

21. Maenius . . . Novium. Mae- 
nius is the name of a Lucilian spendthrift. 
See introd. to the Satires,p. 12. Is Novius 
here, as in 1 . 6. 1 2 1 , a usurer ; the two 
extremes blackening one another ? Or 
is Horace referring to some familiar 
scene in a play, or to two characters 
from Lucilius? 

carperet, ' was picking to pieces.' 

22. dare verba : 'verba' being op- 
posed to ' res,' mere words, and so = ' to 



Verba putas ? ' ' Egomet mi ignosco,' Maenius inquit. 

Stultus et improbus hic amor est dignusque notari. 

Cum tua pervideas oculis mala lippus inunctis, 25 

Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acutum 

Quam aut aquila aut serpens Epidaurius ? At tibi contra 

Evenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. 

Iracundior est paulo, minus aptus acutis 

Naribus horum hominum ; rideri possit eo quod 30 

Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male laxus 

In pede calceus haeret : at est bonus ut melior vir 

cheat;' Ter. Andr. i. 3. 6, Cic. ad 
Att. 15. 16. 

23. ignosco. Horace plays on the 
etymology. ' Is it that you are blind, 
or that you think us blind "? ' I shut my 
own eyes ' ; ' non ignoro sed ignosco.' 

24. improbus, dvatSris, the leading 
idea being, as often, of excess. 

amor, the love shown by that answer, 
i e. ' self-love.' 

notari, properly of the censor's mark 
affixed to the name by way of ignominy, 
thence metaphorically ; cp. Sat. 1. 4. 5, 
106, 1. 6. 14, 2. 7. 8 ; Epp. 1. 17. 15. 

25. pervideas. Bentley would read 
' praevideas . . . mala,' the former a conj. 
of Rutgers, confirmed by one or tvvo later 
MSS., which he interprets in the sense of 
■napafiXfTtav in the apposite verses prob- 
ably of Menander (Meineke, Menandri 
Reliquiae Incert. 5) ri rdWorptov, 
dvOpajirt fiaafcavajTare, | icaicbv b£v8op/cus, 
rb 0' 'totov TTapafiXeTrets ; ' mala ' he joins 
to ' lippus.' The use however of ' prae- 
videre' = 'praetervidere,' 'to overlook,' is 
unsupported. ' Pervideas' has itsnatural 
sense, ' to look all through,' as Ov. Pont. 
I. 8. 34 ' Cunctaque mens oculis per- 
videt illa suis.' For the oxymoron 
' pervideas lippus ' cp. (with Bentl.) Od. 
3. 7. 21 ' scopulis surdior Icari Voces 
audit,' Sat. 1. 2. 91 ' Hypsaea caecior . . . 

inunctis, while they are still smart- 
ing from the application of the ointment, 
and so incapable of sight. 

27. aquila. Hom. II. 17. 674 Ihar 
aUrbs, ov pd rk tpaatv \ b£vrarov bepicea- 
6at VTTovpavlwv Trerertvwv. 

Epidaurius. The snakes of Epi- 
daurus were probably proverbial in the 
mouths of Romans, from the story of the 
snake of Aesculapius brought from Epi- 
daurus to Rome in B.c. 291, and lodged 

on the island in the Tiber. 

contra='vicissim,' 'in return.' 

29. The Scholiasts have a story that 
this pictureof the passionate and slovenly 
man of genius is intended for the poet 
Virgil. This may rest upon some early 
tradition, but it is unlikely in itself. 
Such guesses are easy to make and 
impossible to disprove. Cp. the identi- 
fication of the poet Propertius with the 
' bore' in Sat. 1. 9. 

aptus = ' placens.' 

acutis naribus, of delicate perception ; 
opp. ' obesaenaris ' Epod. 12. Cp. ' em- 
unctae naris' Sat. 1. 4. 8. The Schol. 
offers an alternative explanation, taking 
' aptus ' as = ' aptus ferendis,' and ' acutis 
naribus' like ' naribus uti' Epp. 1. 19. 
45, ' adunco naso ' Sat. 1. 6. 5, of the 
grimace of contempt, ' intolerant of 
criticism.' Bentley, showing that ' acutae 
nares ' could hardly have this meaning, 
would alter it to ' aduncis.' 

30. horum, ' of our time.' A common 
usage, Liv. 1. 55 ' horum magnificentiae 
operum.' Cp.infr. v.6o 'hocgenus vitae.' 

eo, ' for the reason,' Sat. 2. 8. 65. 

31. rusticius with ' tonso.' Cp. 'cu- 
ratus inaequali tonsore' Epp. 1. 1. 94. 

defiuit, ' hangs,' ' slips from the 
shoulder.' Cp. Epp. 1. 1. 96 ' toga 
dissidet impar.' For the great pains 
taken in adjusting the ' toga ' see Quintil. 
11. 3. 137/011. 

male with haeret, or dirb /cotvov with 
' haeret ' and ' laxus,' as below v. 45. 
Cp. Ov. A. A. 1. 516 ' Nec vagus in laxa 
pes tibi pelle natet.' 

32. Therepetitionofthe 
particle ' yet,' ' yet,' ' yet ' givts rhetori- 
cal emphasis. So ' sed ' in Juv. Sat. 5. 
61, 8. 149. For 'at' in this sense, 
urging a plea in arrest of judgment, cp. 
Od. 2. 18. 9. 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 


Non alius quisquam, at tibi amicus, at ingenium ingens 

Inculto latet hoc sub corpore. Denique te ipsum 

Concute num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 

Natura, aut etiam consuetudo mala ; namque 

Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 

Illuc praevertamur, amatorem quod amicae 

Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etiam ipsa haec 

Delectant, veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnae. 40 

Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus ; et isti 

Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestum. 

At pater ut gnati sic nos debemus amici 

Si quod sit vitium non fastidire : strabonem 

Appellat paetum pater, et pullum male parvus 45 

Si cui filius est, ut abortivus fuit olim 

35. concute, ' shake,' as a dress, to 
see if anything is concealed in it. Cp. 
for the same metaph., though with a 
different purpose, Virg. Aen. 7. 338 ' fe- 
cundum concute pectus.' ' Excutere ' is 
more common in this sense. 

37. filix. Virg. G. 2. 1S9 ' filicem 
curvis invisam pascit aratris.' 

38. illuc praevertamur quod, ' let 
us take refuge in the thought that.' 

39. decipiunt : KavOavovai. 

40. Balbinum. The Scholiasfs note 
is ' Luciliana urbanitate usus in transitu 
amaritudinem aspergit,' but there is no 
tradition, or conjecture of value, as to 
the personality of the persons mentioned. 
The name has been thought to be coined 
from ' balbus,' used of the baby-talk 
of lovers ; see below v. 47. Cp. Sat. 
2. 3. 274; see Prof. Palmer there. 

polypus. Horace here and in Epod. 
12 lengthens the first syllable, following 
therein Lucilius (29. 114). It is to 
be noticed that the word occurs in 
Greek literature usually in the form 
ttovKvttovs : see Liddell and Scott, s. v. 

Hagnae. The MSS. are divided 
between this reading and ' Agnae,' but 
Bentley showed that 'Hagna ' is the form 
found in inscriptions. It is the Greek 
dyvrj. ' Libertinam fuisse recte colligas ' 

42. virtus. See on Od. 2. 2. 19, the 
personified judgment of the virtuous 

. 43. at ; 'but at least if that cannot 
be ' (cp. ' at ' after ' quamvis ' or ' si ' as 
Virg. G. 4. 20S, 241) : the form 

' vellem erraremus ' implies that it is a 
hopeless wish. If we cannot reach the 
complete blindness of a lover we may 
the partiality of a father. There is 
rather more MS. authority (including B) 
for ' ac,' but the transition is harsh. 

gnati : understand 'si quod sit vitium 
non fastidit.' 

44. strabonem . . . paetum : two 
terms used to express different degrees 
of squinting : ' paetus ' expressing the 
lighter and one which was thought 
almost a beauty, so much so that it was 
attributed to Venus. Cic. de N. D. 1. 
29. 80 ' Ecquos (deos) si non tam stra- 
bones at paetulos arbitramur ' ? Varr. 
quoted by Priscian, p. 6S4 ' de Venere 
paeta strabam facit.' 

44-48. With these lines should be 
compared Ovid's advice to the lover to 
make the best of his mistress' defects: 
' Nominibus mollire licet mala. Fusca 
vocetur Nigrior Illyrica cui pice san- 
guis erit : Si straba sit, Veneri similis : 
si rava, Minervae : Sit gracilis, macie 
quae male viva sua est. Dic habilem, 
quaecunque brevis,' etc. A. A. 2. 657 
foll. Both are imitations of Lucr. 4. 
1160 foll. 

45. pullum, ' a chicken.' It is a 
diminutive from the same root as ' puer.' 
It is found as a cognomen. L. Junius 
Pullus was consul in B. c. 250, and there 
is a Q. Numitorius Pullus mentioned in 
Cic. de Inv. 2. 34, de Fin. 5. 22. 62. 

male parvus, ' small to a fault ; ' for 
the use of ' male ' with an adj. see on Od. 
1. 17. 25 and Sat. 1. 4. 66. 



Sisyphus ; hunc varum distortis cruribus, illum 
Balbutit scaurum pravis fultum male talis. 
Parcius hic vivit, frugi dicatur. Ineptus 
Et iactantior hic paulo est, concinnus amicis 
Postulat ut videatur. At est truculentior atque 
Plus aequo liber, simplex fortisque habeatur ; 
Caldior est, acres inter numeretur. Opinor 
Haec res et iungit iunctos et servat amicos. 
At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus, atque 
Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis 
Nobiscum vivit, multum demissus homo ; illi 



47. Sisyphus: accordingtotheSchol. 
' a dwarf ' kept by M. Antony ' intra 
bipedalem staturam, quem ipse Sisy- 
phum appellabat ob ingenii callidita- 

48. balbutit, ' calls fondly his " Va- 
rus," his "Scaurus."' The point seems 
to be not only that these were mild 
adjectives to describe the deformity, but 
also that they were adjectives which 
give a certain heroic character to it as 
recalling the names of distinguished 
Roman families. 

49. ineptus describes a man wanting 
in tact. Cp. Cicero's definition de Or. 
2. 4. 17, which Horace has possibly 
in mind, 'qui aut tempus quid postulet 
non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut se 
ostentat, aut denique in aliquo genere 
aut ineoncinnus aut multus est, ineptus 
esse dicitur,' where ' plura loquitur aut se 
ostentat ' recalls ' iactantior ' in this place. 

50. concinnus seems here to mean 
' witty,' ' good company.' Cp. ' asperi- 
tas inconcinna' in Epp. 1. 18. 6. 

amicis, best taken after 'videatur,' 
' claims to be thought by his friends,' etc. 
Others take 'concinnus amicis ' together 
and render 'postulat ut videatur,' ' is 
wishing to be thought,' etc. i. e. ' this is 
his way of trying to make himself 
agreeable ; ' but we are not dealing with 
the motives of men but with the claims 
of a friend to kindly construction. 

52. simplex answers to ' plus aequo 
liber,' ' fortis ' to ' truculentior.' 

53. caldior, 'hot-headed.' Inv. 
2. 9. 28 ' idcirco aliquem calidum vocari 
quod temerario et repentino consilio sit.' 
For the syncopated form cp. ' soldum ' 
Sat. 2. 5. 65, ' valdius ' Epp. 1. 9. 6, 
A. P. 321, and see on Od. 1. 36. 8. 

acres, ' men of spirit and energy.' 
opinor : parenthetical as in Epp. 1. 
16. 78, 2. 2. 17. 

55. invertimus, 'turn the wrong way 
upwards,' ' turn into vices.' Orelli il- 
lustrates from Liv. 22. 12 ' [M. Minucius 
L. Fabium] pro cunctatore segnem, pro 
cauto timidum, affingens vicina virtutibus 
vitia, compellabat.' 

56. sincerum vas : Epp. 1. 2. 54. 
incrustare, ' to cover with a film,' 

' to foul.' Porph. quotes from Lucilius 
(3. 28) ' incrustatus calix.' 

57. multum demissus homo ; illi. 
There is a question of reading and a 
question of interpretation, not necessarily 
involved one with the other. The MSS. 
generally have ' illi ' and the Schol. 
clearly recognize it, for they interpret 
' illi . . . tardo.' The old Bland. however 
had ' ille,' which Cruquius defends, and 
he has been followed by Bentley and of 
recent editors by Ritter, Dill r ., Haupt 
and Munro. Bentley and others of the 
school which favours conj. emendation, 
as Haupt, complete the reading by 
inserting ' ac ' or ' et ' after ' tardo.' 
Holder gives ' illi.' The question of 
interpretation is whether in vv. 56-58 
' probus . . . damus ' there is one instance 
of perversion of character or two. 
Neither view is irreconcileable with 
either ' ille ' or ' illi ' ; but ' ille ' has been 
chiefly defended by those (as Bentley) 
who uphold the first alternative. He 
points out that what Horace is illustrat- 
ing is the disposition ' virtutes ipsas 
invertere,' not merely to give a blacker 
colour to failings. The virtues he 
chooses are ' probitas ' ' prudentia,' ' sim- 
plicitas.' ' Tarditas ' might not be a 
great fault, but it is never spoken of as a 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 


Tardo cognomen, pingui, damus. Hic fugit omnes 
Insidias nullique malo latus obdit apertum, 
Cum genus hoc inter vitae versemur ubi acris 
Invidia atque vigent ubi crimina ; pro bene sano 
Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus. 
Simplicior quis et est, qualem me saepe libenter 
Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas, ut forte legentem 
Aut tacitum impellat quovis sermone molestus ; 
' Communi sensu plane caret/ inquimus. Eheu, 
Quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam ! 



virtue. On the other hand, although it 
is true that ' demissus ' is used sometimes 
in a bad sense, it is used as often in a 
good sense for ' unassuming,' and is 
especially connected in this sense with 
' probus ' and equivalent terms, as in Cic. 
de Or. 2. 43. 182 ' ea omnia quae pro- 
borum, demissorum, non acrium sunt, 
benevolentiam conciliant' ; pro Mur. 40. 
87 ' sit apnd vos modestiae locus, sit 
demissis hominibus perfugium.' Bent- 
ley quotes, from Quintilian 6. 5, a 
sentence in which ' imbecillitas ' is 
said to be mistaken for ' probitas,' and 
one from I'lutarch (' Artaxerxes ') in 
which ntWrjais ( = ' tarditas ') is said to 
have passed for «jriei/ma (' probitas'). 
The construction which he supposes of 
' multum demissus homo ille,' ' an un- 
assuming man,' may be paralleled in 
Od. 4. 9. 51 'non ille . . . timidus.' It 
is unnecessary to do violence to the 
MSS. by inserting ' ac ' ; the asyndeton 
helps the sense of climax. Those who 
adopt the other view make ' multum 
demissus homo ' the judgment of the 
censorious. 'If we have amongst our 
friends a man of sober worth, he is of a 
poor spirit ; to another who is slow we 
give the nickname of stupid.' We may 
well prefer Bentley's interpretation 
though following the common reading. 
With ' multum demissus ' cp. ' multum 
celer' Sat. 2. 3. 147, ' multum similis' 
Sat. 2. 5. 92, ' multum dissimiles' Epp. 
1. 10. 3, 'multum diversa' Epp. 2. 2. 62. 

58. tardo . . . pingui. For the dat. 
see Madv. § 246, Obs. 2. 

59. malo, probably masc. 

60. versemur : So V (the other MSS. 
having ' versetur ') andBentleyargues for 
it. Whichever reading is adopted ' hoc 
genusvitae 'will probablyimplyageneral 
condition of the present time, not any 

special risk of the supposed person. For 
the use of 'hoc' see above on v. 30 
' horum hominum.' 

61. pro bene sano. Orelli quotes 
from Liv. 22. 39 ' sine, timidum pro 
cauto, tardum pro considerato, imbellem 
pro perito belli vocent.' 

63. simplicior quis et est. ' Et ' 
couples' simplicior'and' [talis] qualem.' 
For the position cp. v. 61 and Sat. 1. 6. 
65 ' Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea 
paucis Mendosa est natura.' 

libenter obtulerim, ' I should never 
mind having shownmyself.' Someeditors 
in criticizing this passage have credited 
Horace with less than his usual irony. 

65. impellat. In the sense of ' dis- 
turb,' ' call his attention,' much as its 
frequent use with ' aures ' Virg. G. 4. 
349, Pers. Sat. 2. 21 ' Iovis aurem im- 
pellere.' The reading has been ques- 
tioned, though the MSS. are unanimous 
and the glosses of the Schol. ' adloqua- 
tur,' ' interpellat,' seem to recog- 
nize it. Bentley proposed 'impediat,' 
which he supported with great ingenuity, 
but ' tacitum impediat ' does not seem 

66. communi sensu, ' the social 
sense,' the added sense or tact which 
comes from livingwith others andwhich 
fits a man for so living. There is an ex- 
haustive account of the meanings of 
' sensus communis,' both in classical 
and in later Latin, in Sir W. Hamilton's 
Notes on Reid (p. 756 foll.). He pointed 
out that this is its meaning in the present 
passage as also in Cic. de Or. t. 3. 12, 
2. 16. 68, and Juv. Sat. 8. 73. Quintilian 
(1. 2. 20) gives as a reason for preferring 
a school education to home education 
that a boy learns 'sensus communis.' 
It prevents him from becoming, as we 
say, an egotist. 



Nam vitiis ncmo sine nascitur ; optimus ille est 

Oui minimis urgetur. Amicus dulcis ut aequum est 

Cum mea compenset vitiis bona ; pluribus hisce 70 

(Si modo plura mihi bona sunt) inclinet, amari 

Si volet : hac lege in trutina ponetur eadem. 

Oui ne tuberibus propriis offendat amicum 

Postulat ignoscet verrucis illius ; aequum est 

Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Denique, quatenus excidi penitus vitium irae 

Cetera item nequeunt stultis haerentia, cur non 

Ponderibus modulisque suis ratio utitur, ac res 

Ut quaeque est ita suppliciis delicta coercet? 

Si quis eum servum patinam qui tollere iussus 80 

Semesos pisces tepidumque ligurrierit ius 

In cruce suffigat, Labeone insanior inter 

69. dulcis, 'indulgent'; inf. v. 139: 
cp. Sat. 1. 4. 135. 

70. eum has been taken either as a 
preposition or as a conjunction. The 
first seems preferable. As Orelli truly 
says, ' compensare aliquid cum aliquo,' 
and ' compensare aliquid aliquo ' do not 
mean the same thing. The first is to 
' vveigh one thing against another,' their 
comparative weight being as yet undeter- 
mined. The second is to ' set one thing 
off against others,' the weight ofthefirst 
thing being settled, to put something else 
in the scales which will balance it. We 
want here the first meaning. With the 
position of ' cum ' cp. Ov. Fasti 5. 551 
' Ultor ad ipse suos caelo descendit 
honores,' Madv. § 474, c. obs. 

72. hac lege, ' on this condition.' 

76. quatenus, Sat. 1. 1. 64, ' since.' 

77. stultis, atypoaiv. Horace begins 
his definite reference to the Stoic doc- 
trines. He humorously accepts for him- 
self and the mass of mankind the titie the 
Stoic would give to all but the perfect 
man or ' sapiens.' Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 32 
' insanis Et tu stultique prope omnes.' 

78. suis, ' its own weights and mea- 
sures,' such as Reason ought to have — 
reasonable ones. It should not be led 
away by the indiscriminating judgments 
of men at large, nor should it (v. 116 
foll.> endorse the philosophical folly 
which makes all offences equal. 

79. suppliciis coercet : both words 
of some severity of punishment ; ' pro- 

portion the severity to the true offence' ; 
for ' coercet' cp. infr. v. 134. 

80. tollere, ' to remove from table.' 

81. ligurrierit, the desiderative form, 
' has been tempted to lick.' 

ius is the sauce in which the fish had 
been served up. Cp. Sat. 2. 4. 38, 62, 
2. 8. 45 foll. 

82. Labeone. TheScholiasts explain 
this of M. Antistius Labeo, a ' iuriscon- 
sultus ' of high distinction, who is 
ranked by Tacitus (Ann. 3. 75) with 
Ateius Capito, and mentioned as dying 
in the same year (a. d. 21), ' duo pacis 
decora, sed Labeo incorrupta libertate 
et ob id fama celebratior.' They further 
assert that it was on account of his free 
speaking of Augustus that Horace thus 
gibbets him ' ut gratificetur Augusto.' 
Bentley pointed out how improbable 
this is. This Labeo would have been a 
young man at any date when this Satire 
could have been composed, and Horace, 
even if we suppose that he would at any 
time have espoused Octavianus' quarrels 
in such an indecent way, was not yet 
within the future emperor's circle. 
Weichert suggested, and Estre and Orelli 
follow him, that they may be right in 
the person, wrong in the reason, that 
Labeo as a young man may have become 
notorious for the excessive punishment 
of a slave ; but it seems clear that it was 
the reason and that only which suggested 
to them the person. Bentley would read 
' Labieno,' supposing the reference to be 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 


Sanos dicatur. Ouanto hoc furiosius atque 

Maius peccatum est ! paulum deliquit amicus, 

Quod nisi concedas habeare insuavis : acerbus 85 

Odisti et fugis ut Rusonem debitor aeris, 

Oui nisi, cum tristes misero venere Kalendae, 

Mercedem aut nummos unde unde extricat, amaras 

Porrecto iugulo historias captivus ut audit. 

Comminxit lectum potus mensave catillum 90 

Evandri manibus tritum deiecit, ob hanc rem 

to an oratordescribed by the elderSeneca 
(Praef. ad lib. 5 Controv.) who, from ac- 
cesses of furious temper, was nicknamed 
' Rabienus,' and who slew himself from 
vexation on the destruction of his books 
by his enemies. The Scholiast's note, 
however, seems a snfficient evidence that 
' Labeone ' is the correct reading. We 
are left therefore without the means of 
explaining the reference. 

inter sanos = ' apud sanos,' ' a sanis,' 
as Livy 6. 34 ' haudquaquam inter id 
genus contemptor habebatur.' Some 
edd. have taken ' inter sanos dicatur ' as 
= ' inter sanos numeretur ' : sometimes 
putting the mark of a question, 'though 
madder than Labeo, would he be 
reckoned among sane persons ? ' (Do- 
ering) : sometimes categorically, 'he 
would be madder than Labeo, although 
reckoned among sane persons.' (Hein- 

83. hoc, the nom. case ; ' this which 

85. concedas, ' excuse.' In the next 
Satire (1. 4. 140) it is used in this sense 
with a dative. A doubthasbeen raised 
as to the punctuation. The Pseudo- 
Acron took 'insuavis , acerbus' together, 
the asyndeton as in v. 58. Of recent 
editors Orelli and Ritter follow him. 
Bentley, followed by Dill r ., Holder, and 
Munro, joins ' acerbus odisti.' Ineither 
case ' acerbus ' is a stage beyond ' in- 

86. Rusonem. The Schol. add no- 
thing except that they call him Octavius 
Ruso. Mayor on Juv. Sat. 3. 9, in his 
exhaustive note on Recitation, compares 
a similar story told by Philostratus, the 
author of the ' Lives of Sophists,' of one 
Varo, whose debtors were allowed to 
count attendance at his declamations 
as a set-off against interest due to him. 
Polemon, whose biography he is giving, 

found the task too severe, ' sprang up, 
held out his hands and cried (ptpt tovs 
tvttovs, " bring the writ." ' Macaulay's 
story of the criminal who chose the 
galleys in preference to listening to 
Guicciardini's history, is a descendant 
of these older jests. 

87. tristes Kalendae. See on Epod. 
2. 69. 

88. mercedem aut nummos, 'inter- 
est or principal.' The price paid for 
the use of the money, or the money itself. 
For ' merces' in this sense see Sat. 1. 2. 


unde unde = 'undecunque.' Catull. 
67. 27. So ' ubi ubi,' ' quis quis.' 

amaras. So ' recitator acerbus ' A. 

P- 474- 

89. porreeto iugulo, as a con- 
quered gladiator offering his throat 
to be cut (Cic. Mil. 11. 31 ' dare 
iugulum '). For the metaph. cp. (of 
Horace at the mercy of the bore) 
' me sub cultro linquit ' Sat. 1 . 9. 
74, and the ' recitator acerbus ' of 
A. P. 474, who ' tenet occiditque 

90. catillum. Sat. 2. 4 75, where 
note the uses of such a vessel. 

91. Evandri manibus tritum, i. e. 
of some absurdly exaggerated antiquity. 
Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 20, where Damasippus is 
said to have hunted up the brazen foot- 
pan used by Sisyphus ; also MartiaFs 
epigram upon the rage for old curiosities 
(8. 6) ' Archetypis vetuli nihil est odio- 
sius Eucti . . . Hoc cratereferox commisit 
praelia Rhaecus Cum Lapithis ; pugna 
debile cernis opus. Hi duo longaevo 
censentur Nestore fundi, Pollice de Pylio 
trita columba nitet.' The Scholiasts 
explain it of the work of Aulanius Evan- 
der, an artist contemporary with Horace ; 
and it is to be noticed that this is one of 
the places where Porphyrion refers defi- 



Aut positum ante mea quia pullum in parte catini 

Sustulit esuriens. minus hoc iucundus amicus 

Sit mihi? Quid faciam si furtum fecerit, aut si 

Prodiderit commissa fide sponsumve negarit ? 

Ouis paria esse fere placuit peccata, laborant 

Cum ventum ad verum est ; sensus moresque repugnant 

Atque ipsa utilitas, iusti prope mater et aequi. 

Cum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 


nitely to earlier authorities, 'qui de per- 
sonis Horatianis scripserunt aiunt,' etc. 
The identihcationwasnatural andtempt- 
ing to those towhomthe nameof Evander 
was familiar as that of a worker in bronze ; 
but it does not follow that it is right. 
There is some difficulty as to date. Evan- 
der is not said to have come to Rome till 
after the capture of Alexandria in B.C. 
30, when he was brought among the 
captives. The parallels quoted make 
strongly for the other interpretation. 
MartiaPs ' Pylio pollice trita ' is very 
possibly an echo of this place. If we 
adopted the Scholiast's explanation we 
must take ' ti itum ' as = ' tomatum ' 
(Virg. G. 2. 444 'radios trivere rotis'), 
but with an extension of meaning similar 
to that with which Virgil uses ' tornus ' 
in Ecl. 3. 38 of the instrument with 
which a wooden cup was ornamented 
with the vine and ivy. The ' catillus ' is 
doubtless of metal, which might be 
dinted by a fall, not earthenware which 
would be destroyed. 

92. ante. It is doubtful whether this 
is to be taken with ' positum,' as a 
tmesis, ' anteponere ' having its sense, 
frequent in Plautus, of ' to set before,' ' to 
place on table ' ; — Cicero uses ' ponit 
ante ' (but for the purpose of emphasis) 
for 'anteponit' in Off. 3. 17. 71;— or 
(as Ritter 1 with ' sustulit,' ' has snatched 
nrst — before me.' There is the same 
uncertainty in Tibull. 1. 1. 13 ' Et quod- 
cunque mihi pomum novus educat 
annus, Libatum agricolae ponitur ante 

95. fide : archaic form of dative. 
See on Od. 3. 7. 4. 

sponsum negarit, 'has denied a 
pledge ; ' said that the pledge which has 
been given has not been given. ' Spon- 
dere' is the legal term covering many 
kinds of engagements. 

96. quis, ' quibus,' i. e. the Stoics. Cp. 
Cic. de Fin. 4. 19. 55, a passage which 

the resemblance of expression makes it 
probable that Horace had in mind. ' Recte 
facta omniaaequalia,omniapeccataparia 
esse: quaecum magnificeprimodicivide- 
rentur, considerata minus probabantur : 
sensusenim cuiusque et natura rerum at- 
que ipsa veritas clamat quodammodo 
non posse adduci ut inter eas res quas 
Zeno exaequaret nihil interesset.' 

fere with ' paria,' ' much on a level.' 
He takes the general tendency of the 
Stoic doctrine, guarding himself against 
the answer that they admitted certain 
differences. Compare other instances 
in which a qualifying particle is added 
to the enunciation of broad doctrines, 
'fere' Epp. 1. 6. 9, ' prope ' Sat. 1. 3. 
98, 2. 3. 32. 

laborant : diropovcri. 

97. Horace appeals against the Stoic 
dogma first to the moral feelings ('sensus 
moresque ') of mankind ; secondly to 
public utility. This, he says (following 
the Epicurean doctrine), is the highest 
source of our distinction of social right 
and wrong ; and it is evident that offences 
are not all equal as judged by that 
standard. If right and wrong were a dis- 
tinction of natuie self-evident, the Stoics 
might have more to say for themselves. 
His view of the utilitarian origin of all 
law he supports by a sketch of the origin 
of society based both in substance and 
expression on Lucret. 5. 925 foll. 

98. iusti et aequi : the double expres- 
sion means justice of all kinds and de- 
grees, in rule and in sentiment. 

99. prorepserunt . . . animalia. 
Though speaking of the human race he 
purposely, in describing their first state 
of savagery, uses terms which apply to 
them in common with the animal world. 

primis terris, as ' prima tellus ' Sat. 
2. 2. 93. He is thinking of the mode 
of generation described in Lncret. 5. 803 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 


Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propter 
Unguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis quae post fabricaverat usus, 
Donec verba quibus voces sensusque notarent 
Nominaque invenere ; dehinc absistere bello, 
Oppida coeperunt munire et ponere leges, 
Ne quis fur esset, neu latro, neu quis adulter. 
Nam fuit ante Helenam cunnus teterrima belli 
Causa, sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 
Ouos venerem incertam rapientes more ferarum 
Viribus editior caedebat, ut in grege taurus. 
Iura inventa metu iniusti fateare necesse est, 
Tempora si fastosque velis evolvere mundi. 
Nec natura potest iusto secernere iniquum, 
Dividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendis ; 




ioo. mutum. et turpe pecus. All 
the words describe man as not yet dis- 
tinguished from the lower animals ; 
' mutum ' has reference to the invention 
of language v. 103. 

glandem. Lucr. 5. 939, Virg. G. 1. 8, 
the suitable food of men as imagined in 
their primeval forests, ' silvestres homi- 
nes' A. P. 391. 

101. ita porro, and so on pro- 

102. usus, ' need.' 

103. verba . . . nominaque, A. P. 
234, the Greek prjixara Kat uvofiara, a 
rough classification of parts of speech ; 
the two standing together for language 
— language with all its apparatus. 
Language was the first necessary step 
towards law. Before that, they had felt 
the inconvenience of unrestrained desires, 
but had not learnt to classify and name 
their annoyances (theft, etc). It is evi- 
dent then, Horace argues, that law is not 
an original part of our nature but an in- 
vention slowly attained and for the prac- 
tical end of restraining the lawlessness 
of a state of nature. 

voces sensusque notarent : ' nota- 
rent ' is used by a kind of zeugma, ' give 
meaning to their sounds and expression 
to their feelings.' It is a variation of 
' vocibus sensus notarent,' but the phrase 
is from Lucr. 5. 1058 ' Pro vario sensu 
varias res voce notaret.' 

106. fur . . . latro. The second adds 
the idea of violence, so that the line 

generally describes the sanctity given 
to property, life, marriage. 

107, 108. For a new setting of the 
thought of these lines see Od. 4. 9. 25, 
etc. ' Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona.' 

109. incertam, ' lawless.' 

110. editior, ' the superior'; &Va£ \. 
in this sense. 

iii. iniusti. The use of the word 
involves cx hypothesi an anachronism, 
but it helps to make the point clearer. 
Horace argues that there is no trans- 
cendental, preexistent, ' ius ' or ' iustum.' 
They are afterthoughts, resorted to for 
the purpose of stamping a state of things 
which existed before them and the vexa- 
tions of which had been felt. Certain 
actions were inconvenient — men in- 
vented 'iura,' and stamped those actions 
as 'iniusta.' Notice the Lucretian phrase 
' fateare necesse est.' 

112. tempora fastosque : the two 
words mark the points in history which 
are here relevant — dates and orderly 
succession. It is a question of chron- 
ology, which ofthe two came first, ' ius' 
or ' iniustum.' 

113. nec . . . nec, ' as not,' ' so not.' 
As the line that separates the just and un- 
just is not one of nature's drawing, so 
philosophy will not persuade us that it is 
a hard and fast line, admitting no shades 
or varieties on either side of it. 

114. bona, dyaOd, ' things advantage- 
ous,' not in a moral sense. 

4 6 


Nec vincet ratio hoc, tantundem ut peccet idemque 115 

Qui teneros caules alieni fregerit horti 

Et qui nocturnus sacra divum legerit. Adsit 

Regula peccatis quae poenas irroget aequas, 

Ne scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. 

Nam ut ferula caedas meritum maiora subire 120 

Verbera non vereor, cum dicas esse pares res 

Furta latrociniis, et magnis parva mineris 

Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 

Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens est, 

Et sutor bonus et solus formosus et est rex, 125 

115. vincet. Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 225. A 
Lucretian use, 5. 735 ' ratione docere et 
vincere verbis ' ; but it is found in Cicero, 
as pro Clu. 44. 124; so ' evinco ' Sat. 
2. 3- 250. 

116. fregerit. Cp. 'fragili myrto,' 
' easily plucked,' Od. 3. 23. 16. The in- 
stances were probably proverbial, as 
Plutarch (Solon. 17) says of Draco's 
laws, that the same penalty, death, was 
fixed rofs \axava Kktyaoiv and tois 

117. noeturnus. Epod. 16. 51 ; 
Madv. § 300, obs. 2. 

saera legerit : ' legere ' is used by 
Lucilius in the sense of 'to steal.' The 
meaning remains in the adj. ' sacrilegus.' 

119. scutica, 'a leather thong,' an 
instrumeat like the ' ferula,' of school 
punishment, ' si quos Orbilius ferula 
scuticaque cecidit ' Dom. Marsus apud 
Sen. gramm. 9. 

flagello. Sat. 1. 2. 41 ' flagellis Ad 
mortem caesus ' Epod. 4. 1 1 ' sectus 
flagellis.' It was the extreme instru- 
ment of punishment. Cic. pro Rab. 4. 
12 contrasts it by climax with 'virgae.' 

120. ferula, the stem of the vap6r}£ or 
giant fennel, used as a cane. See Mayor's 
note on Juv. Sat. 1. 15. 

ut caedas non vereor, ' as for 
your striking with a cane one who de- 
serves to suffer severe punishment, I have 
no fears of that.' The separation of ' ut 
caedas ' from ' vereor,' and the fact that 
it precedes instead of following, soften 
the departure from the usual rule which 
would have required 'ne' instead of ' ut.' 
The construction is as though ' illud ' 
explained by ' ut caedas ' were the obj. 
of ' vereor.' Cp. Liv. 28. 22 'nihil 

minus quam ut egredi moenibus auderent 
timeri poterat.' Mr. Haskins (Journal 
of Philology vol. 7. p. 263) has, how- 
ever, proposed to take ' ut ' in its usual 
sense : T have no fear of your not [even] 
punishing with the rod,' etc, i.e. I am 
not afraid of your letting off altogether ; 
and this may be right. 

121. cum dieas, ' when you say,' in 
orat. obl., as it qualifies the clause that 
follows ' non vereor ; ' ' when you hold 
that doctrine of the equality of offences, 
I well understand that it means a 
levelling up, not down ; a doctrine of 
severity, not laxity.' 

122. furta, latrociniis, (cp. 106) 
theft with, or without, violence. 

magnis, dat. after ' simili ' ; in exact 
language it would be ' ei falci qua 
magna recisurus sis.' 

123. falce, ' pruning-hook.' 

124 foll. Having put into the mouth 
of the Stoic the profession of what he 
would do if he were made king, Horace 
takes the occasion which he has made 
to laugh at a second Stoic paradox — 
that the wise man is a king ! see notes on 
Od. 3. 2. 17-20, 4. 9. 39; Epp. 1. 1. 
107). The Scholiasts quote from Luci- 
lius (inc. 134) 'nondum etiam qui haec 
omnia habebit, Formosus, dives, liber, 
rex solus feretur ? ' — a passage which it 
seems clear Horace has in view. 

dives. Cicero i^Paradox 6) discusses 
the Stoic paradox 'solum sapientem esse 
divitem.' Cp. id. ad Fam. 7. 16. 

125. sutor bonus, an ad invidiam 
illustration of the doctrine that the 
ideal wise man is the master of every 

LIB. I. SAT. 3. 


Cur optas quod habes ? ' Non nosti quid pater,' inquit, 
1 Chrysippus dicat : Sapiens crepidas sibi nunquam 
Nec soleas fecit, sutor tamen est sapiens.' ' Oui ? ' 
* Ut quamvis tacet Hermogenes cantor tamen atque 
Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfenus vafer, omni 
Abiecto instrumento artis clausaque taberna, 
Tonsor erat, sapiens operis sic optimus omnis 
Est opifex solus, sic rex.' Vellunt tibi barbam 
Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces 
Urgeris turba circum te stante miserque 
Rumperis et latras, magnorum maxime regum. 
Ne longum faciam : dum tu quadrante lavatum 
Rex ibis neque te quisquam stipator ineptum 
Praeter Crispinum sectabitur, et mihi dulces 



126. pater, in the sense in which 
Cic. (N. D. 2. 9. 33) calls Zeno ' Stoi- 
corum pater.' It is a Stoic speaking. 

127. Chrysippus : Sat. 2. 3. 44, 2. 3. 
287; Epp. 1. 2. 4; the second founder 
of Stoicism ; el fxrj r)v Xpvcmmos ovk av 
r\v 2roa, Diog. Laert. 7. 183. He was 
born at Soli in Cilicia, B. C. 280, and 
died in 207. 

crepidas, soleas, the Greek and the 
Roman slippers. 

128. sapiens : the subj. repeated and 
in the emphatic place is meant to be 
characteristic. The Stoic is for ever 
talking of the ' sapiens.' 

129. Hermogenes : see introd. to 
this Satire. 

130. Alfenus. There is an Alfenus 
Varus, a ' iurisconsultus ' of eminence, 
of whose legal writings there are ex- 
cerpts in the Digest. The Scholiasts on 
this place say that Horace is speaking 
of him, that he was a native of Cremona 
and practised there as a 'tonsor' (acc. 
to one MS.) or as a ' sutor ' (acc. to the 
others"), that he removed to Rome and 
became the pupil of Servius Sulpicius, 
and eventually famous in the law. 
Whether the identification is right there 
is nothing to show. 

132. tonsor. This was the original 
reading of V, and it is supported by 
one MS. of Acron's note. Other MSS. 
have ' sutor.' Bentley argues strongly 
for ' tonsor,' on the ground that Horace's 
thesis is that the wise man is a cobbler ; 
he is illustrating this from other arts, 

that of the singer and the barber. It 
would be dull to take an instance of the 
very art in question ; ' tonsor ' is given 
by Munro and Ritter. 

133. vellunt, perh. with Heindorf 
' are plucking ' all the time that you are 
declaiming on the royalty of the wise 

barbam : affected by philosophers ; 
vSat. 2. 3. 35 ' sapientem pascere bar- 
bam,' Juv. Sat. 14. 12 'barbatos . . magis- 

134. fuste, also appropriate ; cp. 
Apul. Inst. 11. 8 ' qui pallio, baculoque, 
et baxeis, et hircino barbitio philoso- 
phiam fingeret.' 

136. rumperis (sc. ' ira ') et latras : 
the picture of impotent rage, with allu- 
sion to the title 'Cynic'; cp. Epp. I. 
17. 18 ' mordacem Cynicum.' 

137. quadrante, the customary price 
at the public baths, cp. Sen. Epist. 
86 ' balneum res quadrantaria.' 

135. stipator, the proper term for 
one of a royal suite. 

139. Crispinum: Sat. 1. 1. 120. 

et, answered by ' que ' in v. 141. This 
passage is quoted by Madv. on Cic. de 
Fin. 5. 22. 64'quis est quin intelligat 
et eos qui fecerint dignitatis splendore 
ductos immemores fuisse utilitatum 
suarum, nosque cum ea laudemus nulla 
alia re nisi honestate duci.' He holds 
them as rare instances of a careless junc- 
ture of clauses. 

dulees, supr. v. 69. 


Ignoscent si quid peccaro stultus amici, • 140 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter, 
Privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 

140. stultus : not being a philosopher. 



It should be noticed that Horace in v. 71 foll. expressly repudiates the idea of 
publishing his Satires. He composes thera for his own pleasure and profit, and 
only reads them to friends, and when pressed to do so. 

With this Satire should be compared Sat. 1. 3. and 2. 1. 

Verses 1-7. Satire in Lucilius' hands came straight from the great comic poets 

of Greece, who, when they saw a rogue, had no scruple in painting him as 

such. The spirit is identical, the metre only changed. 
7-13. In spite of high merits he failed in point of form, from thinking of quantity 

rather than quality. 
I3 -21 - That is the mistake of people like Crispinus, not mine. 
21-38. Yet this does not secure me popularity. Poetasters, like Fannius, have 

fame, but I have not ventured to publish, and I have not the courage to recite. 

Why is Satire unpopular ? Because so many people know that its shafts may 

fairly be aimed at them. They accuse the poet of trading on the weaknesses 

of his friends. 
3S-56. Hear my reply. Let me say first that they do me too great honour if they 

call me a 'poet.' I do not claim the name. It is an old question whether 

comedy is poetry. Its language is the language of common life : 
56-62. its passion the passion of common life. Take to pieces a line of Ennius, 

and the fragments are the fragments of a poet. Do the same for Lucilius, 

and you have nothing that marks the poet. 
63-65- But we will leave this question, and ask again why Satire is looked on so 

65-78. You suggest that my trade is that of the informer. I might answer that it 

is the guilty, not the innocent, who dread even the informer. But I am very 

unlike an informer. I seek no publicity, even in days when no place is sacred 

from recitations. 
78-79. You say I take pleasure in giving pain. 
79-91. You must ask my friends about that. True malignity is to be found in the 

gossip of private life. But you who are so much on the look out for malignity 

listen with pleasure to the illnatured buffoonery of the supper table. 

LIB. I. SAT. 4. 


91-103. You see rancour in my playful and general Satire, and yourself defend an 

old friend who is under a eloud in such a way as without sneering to teach 

the world to sneer. 
103-129. My Satire contains nothing of that sort. It is only a following out of 

the method by which my excellent father taught me morals — by examples. 
129-139. I have carried on the practice in my own self-training. My Satires are 

notes of it. 
139-end. At worst it is an innocent weakness; you must pardon it. If you do 

not, beware — lest we poets come in force, for there is a host of us, and convert 

you against your will into a poet like ourselves. 

EUPOLIS atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae, 

Atque alii quorum comoedia prisca virorum est, 

Si quis erat dignus describi quod malus ac fur, 

Quod moechus foret aut sicarius aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant. 5 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus 

Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque, facetus, 

Emunctae naris, durus componere versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus : in hora saepe ducentos, 

1. These three are put together by 
Quintilian (10. i. 6-0 as the most famous 
names of the ' comoedia vetus ' (as con- 
trasted, according to the Alexandrine 
classification, with the Middle and New). 
Horace possibly recognizes the division 
by the use of the term ' vetus comoedia ' 
in A. P. 281. ' Prisca ' here and in Sat. 
1. 10. 16 has probably no such technical 
sense. Cp. ' priscus ' ofCratinushimself 
in Epp. 1. 19. 1. At thesame time there 
is no doubt the feeling that comedy ' in 
early days ' was more personal and free- 
spoken than it became afterwards. This 
is the point of the passage in A. P. 281 

2. virorum,withemphasis, 'true men' 
(justas 'poetae' in v. 1 is emphatic, 'true 
poets'). Cp. Epp. 2. 1. 247 ' Vergilius 
Variusque poetae.' Cp. perhaps Lucr. 3. 
372 'Democriti quod sancta viri sententia 
ponit.' There is special reference to the 
manliness of their freedom. So Sat. 1. 
10. 16 ' Illi scripta quibus comoedia 
prisca viris est.' That line also illus- 
trates the constr. of the gen. in agree- 
ment with the relative instead of the 
antecedent, for which see on Epod. 2. 


3. describi. Epp. 2. 1. 154, A. P. 
18 'pluvius describitur arcus.' It seems 
to be a metaph. from drawing, ' deline- 


5. famosus. Od. 3. 3. 26«. 
notabant, Sat. 1. 3. 24 n. 

6. hinc, ' from them.' Od. 3. 17. 2. 
So ' unde ' Sat. 1. 6. 12. 

7. pedibus numerisque. A general 
description of ' metre/ ' feet ' and their 
rhythmical disposition. Lucilius adopt- 
ed (though not universallyj the Hexa- 

faeetus, 'witty,' as Cicero calls 
Aristophanes ' facetissimus poeta veteris 
comoediae' Leg. 2. 15. 37. 

8. emunctae naris. The expression 
is repeated, perhaps imitated by Phaedr. 
3. 3. 14 'Aesopus naris emunctae senex.' 
Quintilian uses ' emunctus,' speaking of 
the Attic writers (12. 10. 17) as 'limati 
et emuncti.' Cp. ' nares acutae ' Sat. 
I- 3- 3°> ' of keen perception.' 

durus componere. Explained by 
Sat. 1. 10. 1 ' Nempe incomposito dixi 
pede currere versus Lucili ' and ib. v. 58 
' Versiculos . . . magis factos et euntes 
Mollius ' : ' harsh in the construction of 
his verse : ' ' durus ' as ' poeta durissimus ' 
Cic. ad Att. 14. 20. 3. In A. P. 446 we 
have ' duros versus.' For the infin. see 
App. II to vol. i. p. 380. 

9. hoc, ' in this that follows,' viz. 
his rapidity of composition. With 
this picture cp. tbe boast of Horace's 
inlerlocutor in Sat. i. 9. 23 'quis me 
scribere plures Aut citius possit versus ? ' 



Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno. 
Cum flueret lutulentus erat quod tollere velles ; 
Garrulus atque piger scribendi ferre laborem, 
Scribendi recte : nam ut multum, nil moror. Ecce, 
Crispinus minimo me provocat : ' Accipe, si vis, 
Accipiam tabulas ; detur nobis locus, hora, 
Custodes ; videamus uter plus scribere possit.' 
Di bene fecerunt inopis me quodque pusilli 
Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis : 


J 5 

io. dictabat, Epp. 2. 1. 110, as to 

an amanuensis ; but it takes its place 
side by side with ' scribere ' (see w. 12, 
13), as a verb describing literary com- 
position, without speeial consideration 
at the moment of the method used. 

stans pede in uno : probably ex- 
plained as a proverbial expression mean- 
ing ' as an easy thing,' something that 
you could do without needing both feet. 
Schutz illustrates by Terence's ' manibus 
pedibusque obnixe facturum ' Andr. 1. 
1. 134, and Prof. Palmer still more ap- 
positely from Quintil. 12. 9. 18 'in 
his actionibus omni, ut agricolae dicunt, 
pede standum est.' 

11. cum flueret, 'as he flowed along 
in a muddy stream;' for metaph. cp. 
Od. 4. 2. 5-8. 

tollere, as ' tollenda ' in Sat. 1. 10. 50, 
' to remove.' The Scholiasts took these 
words strangely, making ' cum ' = 
'although,' and ' tollere' = ' excipere, et 
pro tuis habere.' Heindorf and Ritter 
follow them. Orelli points out how 
incongruously this verse would be placed 
if, as this interpretation implies, it con- 
tains praise. Quintilian's interpretation 
settles the point if it was doubtful, 10. 1. 
94 ' Ego ab Horatio dissentio qui Lu- 
cilium fluere lutulentum et esse aliquid 
quod tollere possis putat.' 

12. piger ferre. App. II. vol. i., p. 

13. ut multum, sc. 'scriberet,' ' for 
his writing a quantity I care not at all.' 
' Nil moror ' more commonly is followed 
by acc. and inf. 

14. Crispinus : cp. on Sat. 1. 1. 120. 
minimo me provocat. Poiph. ex- 

plains this by a proverbial expression, 
' minimo digito provocare,' which he 
vouches for as existent in his own time 
(' solemus dicere ') with the meaning 
' to challenge contemptuously;' 'cum 

volumus quem intelligi tantum valere 
minimo digito quantum alium viribus.' 
Acr. repeats this, but adds the alter- 
native explanation, ' Minimo provocare 
dicuntur hi qui in sponsione in laying a 
wager) plus ipsi promittunt quam exi- 
gant ab adversario,' so that the constr. 
would be as ' sponsione provocare,' and 
the sense ' offers e»e long odds.' It 
would seem, in spite of the definiteness of 
their statements, that both Seholiasts 
weie feeling their way to an explanation 
of a difficult phrase, and in that case 
we can hardly be more confident. No 
fresh light has been thrown on it. 
Bentley wished to read ' nummo ' for 
' minimo ' (a confusion of writing found 
elsewhere), ' would lay me a sesterce,' 
i. e. (as he explains) such a sum as his 
poverty allows. 

15. accipiam. The older MSS. are 
divided between this reading and 'Accipe 
iam ' as though Crispinus were becoming 
more and more urgent. V. had ' acci- 

1 7. inopis quodque pusilli = ' quod 
inopis pusillique,' etc. See note on Od. 
1. 30. 6. There is a good note on the 
subject in Dissen's Tibullus on 1. 1. 51. 

inopis, of want of ideas. 

pusilli, of want of spirit, so that 
perhaps they answer in inverse order to 
' raro,' ' perpauca ; ' he rarely finds the 
spirit to speak, and when he does he 
finds little to say. The constr. which 
attaches loquentis to animi (Lam- 
binus and Bentley wished against the 
MSS. to read 'loquentem') may be 
compared as a more prosaic form of the 
same trope with Od. 4. 9. 34-44, note 
on v. 39. For the qualitative gen. after 
finxerunt me, an extension of its use 
vvith ' sum,' cp. Sat. 2. 8. 84 'redis 
mutatae frontis.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 4. 



At tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras, 

Usque laborantes dum ferrum molliat ignis, 

Ut mavis imitare. Beatus Fannius ultro 

Delatis capsis et imagine ; cum mea nemo 

Scripta legat vulgo recitare timentis ob hanc rem, 

Quod sunt quos genus hoc minime iuvat, utpote plures 

Culpari dignos. Ouemvis media elige turba : 25 

Aut ob avaritiam aut misera ambitione laborat. 

Hic nuptarum insanit amoribus, hic puerorum ; 

Hunc capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius aere ; 

expresses both 

The metaph. is 

5. 10 and Juv. S. 

19. The similitude 
windiness and length. 
lmitated by Pers. Sat. 
7. ili. 

21. beatus. Cp. Epp. 2. 2. 108 
' quicquid scripsere beati,' of the happi- 
ness of self-satisfaction. 

Fannius : ' ineptus Fannius Hermo- 
genis . . conviva Tigelli ' Sat. 1. 10. 80. 
He is not mentioned othervvise in extant 
Roman literature. The Scholiasts call 
him 'Quadratus,' which wasa cognomen 
in the gens Fannia. Acr. says he wrote 
Satire, which is against the point of this 
passage, for Horace is saying that he is 
himself less popular than Fannius because 
he writes Satire. The meaning of the fol- 
lowing words can only be guessed. The 
Schol. offer us several guesses, some 
evidently wrong, as that the senate 
presented Fannius with his bust and 
some book-cases ; or that his heirs sent 
his bust and book-cases to some public 
library; — but Fannius surely was alive 
in Sat. 1. 10. ultro should mean that 
the act, whatever it was, was one of his 
own self- sufficiency. When Pollio 
founded out of the spoils of his Illyrian 
campaign the first public library in 
Rome, he put into it ' imagines ' of the 
great authors, but admitted Varro alone 
of living writers (Plin. N. H. 7. 31). 
Pollio's campaign and triumph were in 
B. c/39. It is possible therefore that the 
reference is to some story of Fannius 
having volunteered for the same honour. 
Or it may mean that he presented his 
bust and books to private libraries. For 
' imagines ' in private libraries see 
Mayor on Juv. S. 7. 29. 

22. capsis : cases put to the same use 
as ' scrinia ' (see on Sat. 1. 1. 120), but 
apparently the smaller. Sat. 1. 10. 63, 
Epp. 2. 1. 268. 

mea . . timentis. Madv. § 297 a. 

nemo legat . . . recitare timentis. 
Cp. vv. 71-74. They arenot published 
and are not read to mixed audiences. 

24. genus hoc, sc. Satire. 

sunt quos iuvat. See on Od. 1. 1.3. 

utpote plures, ws irkuovs ovras 
rovs ijroyov a£iovs. An attraction, more 
Greek than Latin, of the causal clause 
' quippe cum plures culpari digni 
sint ' into apposition to the pronoun 
' sunt quos.' These ' some ' are, or be- 
long to, the majority who know that 
they deserve the satirist's lash. 

25. elige. The text is doubtful. 'Three 
Bland ' had ' eripe,' ' one ' (the special 
reading of V. is not given) ' elige.' 
Some good MSS. have ' erue.' Acron's 
schol. ' de medio populo producito ' 
gives no clear indication. 

26. ob avaritiam. 'Laborare ob * 
is a constr. not found elsewhere. Bentley 
would therefore read ' ab avaritia,' which 
has since been found in a single MS. 
There is some MS. authority for another 
change, ' miser ' for ' misera,' i. e. ' miser 
ob avaritiam aut ambitione.' ' Labo- 
rare ' is used absolutely, so that there is 
no inherent impropriety in the constr. 
' laborare ob avaritiam.' Any harshness 
is softened by the distance and the inter- 
vention of a second construction. Orelli 
and Dill 1 '. quote to show that the varia- 
tion between ' ob ' with accusative, and 
an ablative in the same sentence is 
common though in the cases which they 
quote some difference of relation can be 
detected in the two clauses. 

28. argenti. Epp. 1. 6. 17 'argen- 
tum, et marmor vetus aeraque et artes." 
Cp. Od. 4. 11. 6 ; Epp. 1. 16. 76, 2. 2. 
181 ; of works of art in silver, plate, etc. 
see Mayor on Juv. S. 1. 76- 

stupet. Sat. 2. 7. 95 ' Pausiaca tor- 

E 2 



Hic mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum quo 
Vespertina tepet regio, quin per mala praeceps 30 

Fertur uti pulvis collectus turbine, ne quid 
Summa deperdat metuens aut ampliet ut rem : 
Omnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. 
' Faenum habet in cornu ; longe fuge : dummodo risum 
Excutiat sibi non hic cuiquam parcet amico ; 35 

Et quodcunque semel chartis illeverit omnes 
Gestiet a furno redeuntes scire lacuque 
Et pueros et anus.' Agedum, pauca accipe' contra. 
Primum ego me illorum deOferim quibus esse poetas 
Excerpam numero : nequevenin^coriclitdere versum 40 

neque sfN^ui 
putes hunc 

Dixeris esse satis 
Sermoni propiora, 


rioat/utf nos 
s$ poetam. 

2. 508 

pes, insane tabella,' Virg. G. 
' Hic stupet attonitus rostris.' 

Albius, whose son is beggared by this 
extravagance, v. 109. That the name 
belonged to Horace's friend, the poet 
Tibullus (Od. 1. 33 and Epp. 1. 4) who 
of course is not meant, is perhaps a 
proof that it is not taken at haphazard, 
but would have to a reader definite 
associations with some person either in 
real life or in previous literature. 

29. The ' mercator,' the standing ex- 
ample of a man who ' makes haste to be 
rich.' With this descr. cp. ' per mala 
praeceps,' etc. Epp. 1. 1. 45, 46. 

31. fertur, as though he were run 
away with. Virg. G. 1. 514 ' Fertur 
equis auriga.' 

32. 'nequid,' after 'metuens,' 
' lest he lose . . . or fail in increasing . . .' 

33. They hate the poet because they 
are afraid of what he writes. 

34. Porph. vouches for its having 
been a custom in his time to wam 
passers-by against a dangerous bull by 
fastening a wisp of hay to its horns. A 
metaph. allusion to the same practice is 
found in Plutarch, Vita Crassi. For 
the satirist as an angry bull cp. Epod. 
6. 1 1 ' in malos asperrimus Parata tollo 

35. excutiat, ' succeed in raising ; ' 
'excutere lacrimas.' Ter. Heaut. 1. 1. 
115. sibi, dat. commodi. 

36. illeverit. The expression seems 
to imply haste and carelessness. He 
will not even be at the pains to think 

carefully of what he writes. 

37. furno . . . lacuque. ' The bake- 
house fjuv. S. 7. 4) and the tank.' 
Agrippa had made 700 such ' lacus,' 
reservoirs filled from the aqueducts. 

39. primum : the second question, 
though not formally introduced by 
' deinde,' begins at v. 64. 

poetas : so the MSS. It was altered 
to ' poetis ' by Bentley on the authority 
of Comm. Cruq., who on Sat. 1. 6. 25 
supports ' tribuno ' by quoting ' dederim 
quibus esse poetis.' Both constructions 
are possible. though perhaps the dative 
is more in Horace's way; cp. Sat. 1. 1. 
19 ' licet esse beatis,' 1. 2. 51; ' muni- 
fico esse licet,' A. P. 372 ' medio- 
cribus esse poetis non di non homines 
non concessere columnae.' 

40. concludere, as ' pedibus quid 
claudere senis,' Sat. 1. 10. 59, ' pedibus 
claudere verba ' Sat. 2. 1. 28. ' To 
round off,' ' to make the feet fit in 

41. dixeris. 'You are not likely to 
say,' Madv. § 550 b and 370. 

42. sermoni, as often in Cicero, ' or- 
dinary conversation,' see inf. v. 48. With 
the whole passage cp. Cic. Orat. 20. 67 
' video visum esse nonnullis Platonis et 
Democriti locutionem etsi absit a versu 
tamen quod incitatius feratur et clarissi- 
mis verborum luminibus utatur potius 
poema putandam quam comicorum 
poetarum, apud quos, nisi quod versiculi 
sunt nihil aliud quotidiani dissimile 

LIB. I. SAT. 4- 


Ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis huius honorem. 

Idcirco quidam comoedia necne poema 

Esset quaesivere, quod acer spiritus ac vis 

Nec verbis nec rebus inest, nisi quod pede certo 

Differt sermoni, sermo merus. 'At pater ardens 

Saevit, quod meretrice nepos insanus amica 

Filius uxorem grandi cum dote recuset, 

Ebrius et, magnum quod dedecus, ambulet ante 

Noctem cum facibus.' Numquid Pomponius istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret ? Ergo 

Non satis est puris versum perscribere verbis, 

Quem si dissolvas, quivis stomachetur eodem 




43. ingenium. The native gift ; cp. 
its contrast with ' ars ' A. P. 295. What 
particular gift, must be settled by the 
context, but it is specially used for the 
gift of the poet — imagination, fancy ; 
cp. A. P. 323 ' Grais ingenium Grais 
dedit ore rotundo Musa loqui.' Horace 
claims it for himself, Od. 2. 18. 9. 

mens divinior, ' inspiration,' as 
something which raises him above the 
ordinary condition of human intelli- 
gence. The poet is ' divino quodam 
spiritu inflatus ' Cic. Arch. 8. 18. One 
who has this inspiration is said ' spirare ;' 
see the expression of v. 46 and note on 
Od. 2. 16. 38 ; cp. also Od. 4. 6. 29. 

os magna sonaturum, i.e. a corres- 
pondent diction ; cp. Virg. G. 3. 294 
'magno nunc ore sonandum.' For the use 
of ' os' cp. Od. 4. 2. 8, A. P. 94, 323. 

45. quidam,the ' nonnulli ' of Cicero, 
1. c. Heind. points out that the reason 
given applies to the new comedy of 
manners, Menander and his Latin imita- 
tors, not to the old Attic comedy. 

46. acer spiritus, fire of inspiration. 

47. rebus : a wide word for the matter 
as opposed to the diction, including 
Aristotle's Sidvota, 'sententia,' 'thought,' 
as well as nvOos, ' fabula,' ' plot ; ' cp. 
A. P. 89 ' res comica,' 322 ' versus inopes 
rerum.' Cp. with Orell. Quintil. 10. 1. 
27 ' ab his [poetis] et in rebus spiritus, et 
in verbis sublimitas . . . petitur.' 

pede certo, i. e. laws of rhythm, 
fixed succession of quantities. So ' tem- 
pora certa ' v. 58. 

48. at, etc, an interruption, answered 

The cases imagined are common- 

in v. 52. ' Surely there is fire in the 

scenes where a father storms at his son,' 


places of Latin comedy 

49. meretrice, for the relation of the 
ablative cp. Od. 3. 5. 6 'turpis mari- 
tus coniuge barbara.' nepos, Epod. 

i- 34- 

51. Persius seems to have this among 
other passages in view, 5. 163 ' an siccis 
dedecus obstem Cognatis? an rem 
patriam rumore sinistro . . . frangam, 
dum Chrysidis udas Ebrius ante fores 
exstincta cum face canto ? ' So that the 
' faces ' would be the ' funalia ' of Od. 3. 
26. 7, and the picture of a tipsy serenade. 

52. Horace answers, ' After all, this is 
only the language of passion in real 
life : for poetry we want not metre only 
but poetical diction ; no one would mis- 
take Ennius for prose even if you de- 
stroyed the metre.' 

52. Pomponius may be a real 
person whose circumstances would be 
known to the readers. Or he may be 
the person in comedy alluded to ; ' pater 
si viveret ' in that case meaning ' if it 
were a father in real life,' opp. ' perso- 
natus pater ' v. 56. 

54. puris, ' plain,' ' unadorned ; ' see 
Bentley on A. P. 99. Quintilian, 8. 3. 
14, recommends, as the suitable style for 
cases heard in private or before a small 
bench, 'purussermo et dissimilis curae.' 
Cp. the use of ' purum ' with ' argentum,' 
' not chased.' It translates \pik6s Arist. 
Poet. 1. 7. 



Ouo personatus pactor pater. His, ego quae nunc. 

Olim quae scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et quod prius ordine verbum est 

Posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis, 

Non, ut si solvas ' Postquam Discordia tetra 60 

Belli ferratos postes portasque refregit,' 

Invenias etiam disiecti membra poetae. 

Hactenus haec : alias iustum sit necne poema, 

Nunc illud tantum quaeram, meritone tibi sit 

Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acer 65 

Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male cumque libellis, 

Magnus uterque timor latronibus ; at bene si quis 

Et vivat puris manibus contemnat utrumque. 

Ut sis tu similis Caeli Birrique latronum, 

Non ego sim Capri neque Sulci ; cur metuas me? 70 

56. personatus, adj. from ' persona,' 
wearing a mask ; ' the father on the 

58. tempora certa modosque. The 
adj. belongs to both subst. Cp. the 
equivalent ' pedibus numerisque ' of v. 7, 
' regularity in quantities and rhythm.' 

60. The Schol. here and Servius on 
Virg. Aen. 7. 622 ' Belli ferratos rupit 
Saturnia postes ' attribute these verses to 

62. etiam vvith disiecti ; ' in our case 
you would not recognise, as you would 
in the case of Ennius, the limbs, even 
though you had dismembered him, of 
a poet.' 

63. iustum, ' proper,' ' legitimate.' 
The subj. is ' genus hoc scribendi.' 

65. Sulcius . . . Caprius, ' delatores 
et causidici ' Porph. Neither appellation 
can be strictly accurate, as the use of 
' delator ' for an informer is post-Augus- 
tan and ' causidicus ' is a term of the 
civil not criminal courts. It is usually 
supposed that the persons meant are 
professional accusers (such as are called 
' quadruplatores ' Cic. Div. in Caec. 7. 
24 et al.) Ritter prefers to think of the 
' apparitores ' of the aediles, i. e. police 
officers. The names here may possibly 
be literary. Caelius occurs in Lucil. 30. 
117, and in a context (' ut semel in 
Caeli pugnas te invadere vidi '), which 
is not unsuitable to a ' latro.' 

acer, as ' canis acer,' ' of keen scent.' 
Perhaps Horace has actually in mind 

the comparison of accusers to watch- 
dogs, which is in view in Epod. 6, and 
which forms the subject of an elaborate 
paragraph in Cic. pro Rosc. Am. 20. 
55-57, a passage which well illustrates 
the view that the class here spoken of 
are men who made a trade of accusation. 

66. rauci male, ' valde,' Schol., the 
adverb intensifying the unpleasant signi- 
fication of the adj. See on Od. 1. 17. 
25. Perhaps ' with ill omened croak.' 
Tbey are hoarse with bawling in court. 

libellis, notes of the case, deposi- 
tions, or other documents which the 
accusers would carry into court, as Juv. 
of the ' causidicus,' Sat. 7. 107 ' comites 
in fasce libelli.' 

69. ut, concessive, ' even suppose 
that ; ' Madv. § 440 a, obs. 4. 

70-73. The moods in this passage 
have caused considerable discussion. 
' Sim ' has been altered (as by Heind. 
and Orelli) to ' sum.' On the other hand 
Bentley, following some inferior MSS. of 
Lambinus, would read ' recitem.' Orelli 
is unwilling to allow the general 
potential use 'modeste affirmantis' of 
the present subjunctive. He therefore 
alters ' sim,' and makes ' habeat ' opta- 
tive. If we keep ' sim ' it is possible 
either to make it the apodosis to ' ut 
sis,' 'even though you be like Caelius 
I need not be like Caprius,' or perhaps 
better (with Lambinus) to make it a 
further supposition in the concessive 
clause, the apodosis being ' cur metuas 

LIB. I. SAT. 4. 


Nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila libellos, 
Quis manus insudet vulgi Hermogenisque Tigelli. 
Nec recito cuiquam nisi amicis, idque coactus, 
Non ubivis coramve quibuslibet. In medio qui 
Scripta foro recitent sunt multi quique lavantes: 
Suave locus voci resonat conclusus. Inanes 
Hoc iuvat, haud illud quaerentes, num sine sensu, 
Tempore num faciant alieno. ' Laedere gaudes,' 
Inquit, ' et hoc studio pravus facis.' Unde petitum 
Hoc in me iacis? Est auctor quis denique eorum 
Vixi cum quibus? Absentem qui rodit amicum ; 



me ' ? ' If you had clean hands you 
might laugh at the informers, but sup- 
posing that you are like Caelius, while / 
am not like Caprius, why should you 
fear me'? The mutual opposition of 
the two clauses under ' ut ' is expressed 
by the emphatic ' tu sis,' ' non ego sim,' 
' you are, I am not.' ' Habeat ' is 
potential. We are still feeling the hypo- 
thetical construction of ' ut sis,' etc. 
' It does not follow that my writing 
should lie in any bookseller's shop.' To 
make it optative renders the transition 
to ' nec recito ' impossible, as Bentley 
felt. You can pass from a modified 
statement to an unmodified one, but a 
wish and a fact cannot be connected by 
' nec.' 

71. taberna . . . pila : cp. A. P. 374 ; 
variously explained of a pillar erected 
opposite a shop and of shops under 
arcades, such as are common in Italian 
towns now (see Burn's Rome and The 
Campagna, p. 90). The pillar opposite 
the shop would be used both as a support 
for an additional stall for exposing the 
wares, ' armaria quae apud pilas sunt ' 
Porph., and for hanging advertisements 
and specimens : cp. Mart. 1.118. 10 'Con- 
tra Caesaris est forum taberna Scriptis 
postibus hinc et inde totis Omnes ut cito 
perFegas poetas,' ib. 7. 61. 5 'nulla 
catenatis pila est praecincta lagenis.' 

72. Hermogenis Tigelli, Sat. I. 3. 
129, 1. 9. 25, 1. 10. 18, 80, 90; see 
Introd. to Sat. 1. 3. He is the represent- 
ative of the foppish and effeminate taste 
of the day in music and poetry. So 
that Horace says ' I do not mean to 
court popularity either with the crowd 
or with the would-be critics whose taste 
I value no higher.' 

73. reeito : absol. as in Juv. S. 3. 9 

' Augusto recitantes mense poetas.' 
Bentley, thinking euiquam inert, would 
read ' quicquam,' with very slight MS. 

75. lavantes, asMartial, 3. 44. 12, of 
the egotistical poet, ' in thermas fugio : 
sonas ad aurem.' 

76. suave, etc, an iionical excuse, 
imagined for them. ' It is such a good 
room for sound.' The edd. compare 
Sen. Epist. 56 speaking of the noise en- 
dured by one who lodges near a bath ; 
' adice illum cui vox sua in balneo placet.' 

inanes, ' frivolous,' a Lucretian use, 1. 
639 etc. This is the comment on the 

77. sensu : cp. the use of ' sensus com- 
munis ' Sat. 1. 3. 66. 

79. inquit, sc. 'aliquis,' of an 
imaginedanswer, evenwhenthepassageis 
generally m the second person ; so Sat. 
2. 2. 99. It is a prose usage. Bentley 
quotes Cic. pro Clu. 34. 92 and pro Flacc. 

23- 55- , , , 

studio, with faeis ; ' with zeal. As 

Cicero ' studio accusare ' Rosc. Am. 32. 

pravus : as we say ' from a crook in 
yournature.' So Sat. 2. 7. 71 ' quae belua 
ruptis Cum semel effugit reddit se prava 

80. quis, ' aliquis,' as Sat. I. 3. 63. 
denique : the same use as in an or- 

dinary climax, though, as not unfre- 
quently, there are only two steps in the 
ascent. Cp. Epp.^2. 127. 

81-103. Horace first gives a picture 
of the malignity of disposition. Then, 
in the light of this, he contrasts with 
his own comments on his neighbours, 
first the readily-conceded licence of 
the jester at the banquet, then the in- 
uendoes of a ' candid friend.' 



Qui non dcfcndit alio culpante ; solutos 

Qui captat risus hominum famamque dicacis ; 

Fingere qui non visa potest ; commissa tacere 

Qui nequit ; hic niger est, hunc tu, Romane, caveto. 85 

Saepe tribus lectis videas cenare quaternos, 

E quibus unus amet quavis aspergere cunctos 

Praeter eum qui praebet aquam ; post hunc quoque potus, 

Condita cum verax aperit praecordia Liber. 

Hic tibi comis et urbanus liberque videtur, 90 

Infesto nigris. Ego si risi quod ineptus 

Pastillos Rufillus olet, Gargonius hircum, 

Lividus et mordax videor tibi ? Mentio si quae 

De Capitolini furtis iniecta Petilli 

82. defendit : for the lengthened 
syllable cp. Sat. i. 5. 90 ' soleat,' 1. 9. 
21 ' subiit,' 2. 1.82 ' condiderit,' 2. 2. 
47 ' erat,' 2. 3. 187 ' velit,' 2. 3. 260 
' agit;' see on Od. 1. 3. 36. 

85. niger, ' malignant. ' Compare the 
use of /« ; see Liddell and Scott. 

Romane. The emphatic ' tu ' calls 
attention to the import of the name. 
' Tu qui vere Romanus sis.' 

86. quaternos, four on each ' lectus.' 
It looks as if three, the number com- 
monly found in the references of litera- 
ture, was the limit only in the more 
luxurious society. On the other side 
five is spoken ofas an excessive number, 
Cic in Pis. 27. 67 ' Graeci stipati, qnini 
in lectulis.' The contrast ot numbers, 
' quaternos ' ' unus,' seems to mean 
' some one in a large party.' 

87. amet. The reading of V, against 
the vulg. ' avet.' The subjunctive is 
more fitting in what technically is a 
relative clause in the orat. obl. dependent 
on ' videas,' and substantially is the 
most important statement in the sen- 
tence : the less important additions, ' qui 
praebet,' ' cum aperit ' may stand in the 
indic, see Madv. § 369. For ' amet ' 
cp. Sat. I. 10. 60, etc, and see on Od. 
2. 3. 10. 

quavis, as Catullus (40. 6, 76. 14) 
used ' qualibet ; ' but by the choice of the 
designation for ' the host ' in the next 
line ' qui piaebet aquam,' a reflected 
force is thrown on ' quavis,' as though 
it were ' aqua ' that was to be under- 
stood, 'with water whether clean or 

88. qui praebet aquam. The ex- 
pression must have come from an tpavos, 
where the guests brought all but the 
water ; see Od. 3. 19. 6 ' quis aquam tem- 
peret ignibus,' and cp. Sat. 2. 2. 69. 
There seems here to be some play both 
on the preceding words ' aspergere,' etc, 
and on the following, ' when he has 
gone from water to wine.' 

post, ' postea.' 

91. infesto nigris : though you hate 
the character described above as ' malig- 

92. From Sat. 1. 2. 27, and standing 
generally as a type of the personalities 
of Horace's Satires. Similarly in Sat. 2. 
1. 22 he quotes 'Pantolabum scurram 
Nomentanumque nepotem' from Sat. 1. 
8. n. 

pastillos (dim. of ' panis '), lozenges, 
of aromatic substances, used to scent the 
breath, Mart. 1. 88. 2. 

93. lividus, ' spiteful.' 

mordax : for the figure cp. Od. 4. 3. 
16, Epp. 1. 18. 82, and especially Epod. 
6. 15, where ' atro ' = ' livido.' 

si quae. So K. and H. after the 
best MSS. It is Horatian ; see Sat. 1. 
6. 10 ' si . . . fors quae mihi monstret.' 

94. Capitolini Petilli, Sat. 1. 10. 25 
' cum Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa 
Petilli,' the subject of a ' cause celebre ' 
in Horace's time not elsewhere men- 
tioned. We should naturally think of 
some trial ' de peculatu.' The Scholiasts 
complete the story : ' Fingit se loqui 
cum quodam qui amicus sit Petillii, 
amici Caesaris, qui accusatus quod 
coronam Iovis Capitolini rapuisset 

LIB. I. SAT. 4- 

Te coram fuerit, defendas ut tuus est mos : 
' Me Capitolinus convictore usus amicoque 
A puero est, causaque mea permulta rogatus 
Fecit, et incolumis laetor quod vivit in urbe ; 
Sed tamen admiror, quo pacto iudicium illud 
Fugerit.' Hic nigrae sucus loliginis, haec est 
Aerugo mera : quod vitium procul afore chartis 
Atque animo prius ut si quid promittere de me 
Possum aliud vere, promitto. Liberius si 
Dixero quid, si forte iocosius, hoc mihi iuris 
Cum venia dabis : insuevit pater optimus hoc me, 
Ut fugerem exemplis vitiorum quaeque notando. 
Cum me hortaretur, parce, frugaliter, atque 
Viverem uti contentus eo quod mi ipse parasset : 
' Nonne vides Albi ut male vivat filius, utque 
Baius inops ? Magnum documentum ne patriam rem 
Perdere quis velit.' A turpi meretricis amore 
Cum deterreret : ' Scetani dissimilis sis.' 
Ne sequerer moechas concessa cum venere uti 
Possem : ' Deprensi non bella est fama Treboni,' 





1 10 

absolutus est.' ' Cum Capitolio praeesset 
coronam rapuit. Ex crimine Capito- 
linus Petillius vocabatur.' The account 
is discredited by two facts, (1) Capito- 
linus is known to have been a proper 
' cognomen ' in the gens Petillia. (2) 
The crime of robbing Capitoline Jove 
of his crown is provcrbial as early as 
Plautus, Trin. 1. 2. 46, Menaechm. 5. 5. 
38. See Introd. to Satires, p. 9. For 
the inversion of family and gentile name 
see on Od. 2. 2. 3 ' Crispe Salusti.' 

96. amicoque : for the hypermeter, 
cp. 1. 6. 103 ' peregreve,' Virg. G. 1. 295. 

100. nigrae, recalling the ' niger ' of 
vv. 85, 91. This is blackness itself. 

101. aerugo mera. Horaceusesthe 
expression again A. P. 330 of avarice, 
' aerugo et cuia peculi,' fixing the mean- 
ing here as a ' poisonous canker ' of the 
mind. Martial's use of theword 10. 33. 
5 ' viridi tinctos aerugine versus,' and 
2. 61. 4are recollections of thispassage. 

102. prius, to go still further back. 
ut, sc. 'promitto si quid,' etc, 'as 

I promise anything else that I can pro- 
mise with truth.' 

104. hoc may be the abl. as in Sat. 
2. 2. 109 ' pluribus assuerit mentem,' or 
a cogn. accus. after the precedent of the 
double accusative with ' docere,' etc. 
There is some MS. authority for the 
reading ' insevit ' which Lambinus com- 
pleted by the conjectural reading 'mi,' 
but H. is speaking of his fathers instruc- 
tion, not of inherited dispositions. 

106. notando describes the father's 
mode of teaching the lesson ; ' branding 
by means of examples the vices one by 
one, that I might avoid them.' It has been 
less satisfactorily taken after 'fugerem ' 
of Horace's own action, ' ut fugerem ' in 
that case explaining ' hoc' 

109. male vivat, ' has a bad life of 
it.' Epp. 1. 17. 10, opp. ' bene vivere ; ' 
see below on v. 138. 

Albi filius : see above on v. 28. 

110. Baius, 80 K. and H. with the /S 
best MSS. including the four Bland. 
The name occurs in inscriptions. Other 
MSS. give Barrus, Barus, Varus, Balbus, 
etc. Bentley conj. ' ut qui Tarts ' or A< 
' Farris.' 

inops, sc ' sit.' 



Aiebat. ' Sapiens. vitatu quidque petitu 115 

Sit melius, causas reddet tibi : mi satis est si 

Traditum ab antiquis morem servare tuamque, 

Dum custodis eges, vitam famamque tueri 

Incolumem possum ; simul ac duraverit aetas 

Membra animumque tuum, nabis sine cortice.' Sic me 120 

Formabat puerum dictis ; et sive iubebat 

Ut facerem quid : ' Habes auctorem quo facias hoc ; ' 

Unum ex iudicibus selectis obiiciebat ; 

Sive vetabat : ' An hoc inhonestum et inutile factu 

Necne sit addubites, flagret rumore malo cum 125 

Hic atque ille ? ' Avidos vicinum funus ut aegros 

Exanimat, mortisque metu sibi parcere cogit, 

Sic teneros animos aliena opprobria saepe 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis 

Perniciem quaecunque ferunt, mediocribus et quis 130 

Ignoscas vitiis teneor. Fortassis et istinc 

Largiter abstulerit longa aetas, liber amicus, 


115. quid . . . causas, a brachy- 
logy = ' causas cur hoc vel illud melius 
sit vitatu petituve.' For the position of 
' que' see on Od. I. 30. 6. ' A philosopher 
will explain to you the grounds of moral 
choice. My aim is only practical, for 
myself to keep traditional rules of con- 
duct ; and for you, to preserve your life 
and your good name till you are old 
enough to take care of yourself.' 

118. custodis, that is, naiSayajyov. 
Cp. A. P. 161 and see on Sat. 1. 6. 81. 
Horace's father discharged the duty him- 

122. quo, sc. 'auctore;' 'apatternfor 
so acting.' 

123. iudicibus selectis. The ex- 
pression describes the register (' album ') 
of ' iudices ' for the ' Quaestiones Per- 
petuae ' drawn up for the year by the 
' Praetor Urbanus.' To be so selected was 
a proof of respectability. Cic. Clu. 43. 
121 ' praetores urbani qui iurati debent 
optimum quemque in selectos iudices 
referre.' Ovid uses the expression in a 
similar way Am. 1.10. 38, Trist. 2. 132. 

obiiciebat, ' suggested.' 

124. an, to be taken before 'addubi- 
tes.' ' Can you then doubt ? ' see Madv. 

§ 453- 

iuhonestum et inutile, offending 

against both canons at once of conduct, 

'honestum' {rb ica\6v), and 'utile' (to 
cvpfpipov). Ep. 1.2.3' q u id sit pul- 
chrum. quid turpe ; quid utile, quid non.' 
Cp. Cic. de Off. 3. 2. 

125. flagret, as Cic. commonly, 'fla- 
grare invidia, infamia,' etc, 'to be in the 
full glow of,' i.e. to be the conspicuous 
victim of. Its more simple use is with 
passions, etc, ' amore ' Epod. 5. 81, 
' desiderio,' ' cupidine,' which may be 
supposed to cause the ' glow ' from 

126. avidos, sc 'edendi,'as in Od. 3. 
23. 4 and Sat. 1. 5. 75, the object of the 
' eagemess ' is to be inferred from the con- 
text; cp. Od. 3. 4. 58, where ' avidus' = 
' avidus pugnae.' 

aegros, predicative and temporal, 
' when they are sick.' 

127. sibi parcere. 'to be carefnl of 
themselves,' as Ep. 1. 7. 11 ' sibi par- 

129. ex hoc, ' thanks to this' — to 
my father's plan of education. 

sanus ab. ' Sanus ' may be taken as 
a more coloured rendering of ' liber,' 
and taking the construction of that word, 
or we may compare ' securus ab,' ' metu- 
ere ab,' of the quarter, i. e. the respect, in 
which the danger exists. 

132. liber, as above, v. 


; free- 

LIB. I. SAT. 4. 


Consilium proprium : neque enim, cum lectulus aut me 

Porticus excepit, desum mihi : ' Rectius hoc est : 

Hoc faciens vivam melius : Sic dulcis amicis 135 

Occurram : Hoc quidam non belle : numquid ego illi 

Imprudens olim faciam simile ? ' Haec ego mecum 

Compressis agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti 

Illudo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 

Ex vitiis unum ; cui si concedere nolis, 140 

Multa poetarum veniat manus auxilio quae 

Sit mihi (nam multo plures sumus), ac veluti te 

Iudaei cogemus in hanc concedere turbam. 

133. lectulus. Suet. Aug. 78 'A 
cena lucubratoriam se in lecticulam re- 
cipiebat. Ibi donec residua diurni actus 
aut omnia aut ex maxima parte confi- 
ceret. ad multam noctem permanebat — 
in lectum inde trangressus.' So Ovid. 
Trist. 1. 11. 37 'Non haec in nostris ut 
quondam scripsimus hortis, Nec, con- 
suete, meum, lectule, corpus habes.' 
Horace spent the morning till ten o'clock 
on his couch, Sat. i. 6. 122. 

134. portieus. Ep. 1. 1. 71, of the 
colonnades, of which there were so many 
in Rome (a fragment remains of the 
Porticus Octaviae, see Burn's Rome and 
The Campagna, p. 308) in which the 
citizens walked, or were carried in litters 
(Juv. S. 7. 178), and even drove (ib. 

4- 5)- 

135. vivam melius. It covers both 
'better' and 'more happily;' see above, 
v. 109, and compare the use of ' bene 
vivere ' in a quasi-philosophical sense in 
the Epistles, Epp. 1. 6. 56, 1. 11. 29, 
1. 15.45. 

137. ' olim,' ' some day,' A. P. 386 ; 
see on Epod. 3. 1. 

139. illudo chartis. The deprecia- 
tory use of ' ludo ' of a man's own com- 
positions (as in Sat. 1. 10. 37, see on Od. 
1. 32. 2) with the addition ' in chartis.' 

Horace is giving a final account of his 
vvriting of Satire. It is his playful and 
childlike method of self-rebuke and self- 

141. veniat. It does not seem neces- 
saryto read 'veniet' against the majority 
of MSS. The coming is put hypotheti- 
cally, the result, if they do come, as 
a certain future. 

142. multoplures, a comic exagger- 
ation (^Prof. Palmer well compares Juv. 
S. 14. 276 ' plus hominum iam est in 
pelago,' ' there are more men nowadays 
at sea than on land '), which serves the 
purpose of bringing the Satire to a close, 
suggesting at the same time Horace's 
familiar ironical plea for writing (Od. 
1. 1, Sat. 2. 1. 24 foll.), that he claims 
the freedom of taste that all others claim. 
Here it is ' more than half the world 
vvrite poetry of some kind, and we should 
make common cause.' 

143. Iudaei : the ref. is to their pro- 
selytizing spirit, S. Matt. 23. 15. 

in hanc turbam, sc. 'in manum poet- 

concedere. There is a certain play 
in keeping the same verb in slightly 
different senses : ' If you won't yield to 
us in one way you will have to do so in 




The idea of the Satire was from Lucilius. ' Lucilium hac satira aemulatus 
Horatius iter suum a Roma usque ad Brundisium describens quod et ille in tertio 
libro fecit, primum a Roma Capuam usque et inde fretum Siciliense.' A few frag- 
ments of the model exist : for one effect of its influence see note on p. 6. 

A chief purpose doubtless of the Satire is to give a picture of the poet's relations 
to Maecenas, the freedom and absence of servility which characterize them ; the 
literary circle with which they were shared, the absence, even at a critical moment 
in state affairs, of any political bearing in the intimacy. 

So strongly is this last characteristic reflected in the poem that it lacks any 
reference to public events by which we might have fixed the occasion and date of 
the journey. 

The only occasion on which we know of an arrangement having been concluded 
at Brundisium between Octavianus and Antony was the so-called peace of Brundi- 
sium in E.C. 40 (the occasion of Virgifs 4A Eclogue), when Maecenas represented 
Octavianus, Pollio Antony, and Cocceius was added as a referee (koivos>oiv 
Appian, Bell. Civ. 5. 709). This is excluded by the conditions of the case, as 
Horace was cei tainly not admitted to Maecenas' circle before B. c. 38 ; see Introd. 
to Satires, pp. 3, 4. It is however alluded to in v. 29, where Maecenas and Cocceius 
are called ' legati aversos soliti componere amicos.' Kirchner (followed by 
Franke, Orelli, and Ritter) maintained that the journey belongs to the ' treaty of 
Tarentum ' in the spring of B. C. 37. Antony came on that occasion to Brundisium, 
as though that were the place appointed for meeting, but being ill-received by the 
inhabitants went on to Tarentum, where eventually terms were arranged tlirough 
the intervention of Octavia, who called in the help of Maecenas and Agrippa as 
friends of Octavianus (Plut. Ant. 35). There is no further evidence as to any 
journey of negotiators on behalf of Octavianus to Brundisium, and if they also went 
on to Tarentum it is not explained why Horace stops the story where he does. 
Schutz has lately suggested, with great probability, that the reference is to the pre- 
vious mission of Maecenas to Antony, then probably at Athens, in the autumn of 
38 (Appian, B. C. 5. 728). Horace would then have accompanied him to the place 
of embarcation. It is natural that Maecenas should associate with himself for such 
a purpose Capito, who was a personal friend of Antony, and Cocceius, who had 
been previously employed by both sides as an impartial adviser. Cocceius is 
probably the M. Cocceius Nerva who was consul in B.C. 36, the great-grandfather of 
the Emperor Nerva. L. Fonteius Capito was ' consul suffectus ' in B. c. 30. We 
find him immediately after the ' treaty of Tarentum ' in Antony's company, and 
employed by him to bring Cleopatra to Syria. 

1-6. Horace starts with Heliodorus and travels along the Via Appia, the first day to 
Aricia, the second to Appii Forum, reaching it in the evening. 

7-26. The journey is continued through the night by boat along the canal [which 
had been part of a scheme of Octavianus for draining the Pomptine marshes 
(see A. P. 65)]. They land late in the morning, and have three miles to climb 
to Anxur on its cliffs. 

27-33. Here the negotiators join them, coming possibly by sea. 

LIB. I. SAT. 5. 61 

34-38. Starting again they pass through Fnndi, where the chief magistrate is ful- 
sorae and consequential, and after a long day reach Formiae, where they sleep 
at a house belonging to Murena, Maecenas' brother-in-law, Capito (who 
probably also had a ' villa ' there) finding cook and dinner. 

39-46. On the fifth day, as they pass through Sinuessa, Plotius Tucca, Virgil, 
and Varius join them. They sleep at a ' villula,' on the border of Latium and 

47-49. On the sixth day they reach Capua early. 

50-70. The seventh night is spent at Cocceius' ' villa ' beyond Caudium. [They 
are now beginning to cross the Appennines.] Here the amusement of the 
evening is described, the eneounter of the two ' scurrae.' 

71-85. On the eighth day they reach Beneventum in the upper valley of the 
Vulturnus. [From this point the Via Appia proceeds through Venusia to 
Tarentum and from thence to Brundisium. Maecenas and his party go by 
a cross road which diverges from this and makes more directly for the 
N. coast.] The night is spent at a 'villa' near Trivicum. On the road 
they have been catching sight of the hill outlines of Horace's old neighbour- 

86-93. They have now crossed the pass and descend rapidly (tenth day) to a 
little town with a name intractable for hexameter verse, and which cannot 
be identified. The eleventh day takes them to Canusium, where Varius leaves 

94-end. The twelfth to Rubi, a long stage in bad weather. The thirteenth to 
Barium. We are now on the coast. The fourteenth and fifteenth to Egnatia 
and Brundisium. 

EGRESSUM magna me accepit Aricia Roma 
Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes Heliodorus, 
Graecorum longe doctissimus ; inde Forum Appi, 

1. aceopit, ' welcomed,' Sat. 2. 6. 2. Heliodorus : otherwise unknown. 

81, Virg.Aen. 3. 78. The verb is specially He has been identified by some with 

used with ' hospitio,' as Cic ad Att. a writer on metre much praised by 

2.15.4. Some good MSS. have ' exce- Marius Victorinus (fourth cent.) ' inter 

pit ; ' cp. Liv. 38. 41 ' postero die Pria- Graecos huiusce artis antistes aut primus 

ticus campus eos excepit.' Ifwe retain aut solus.' For another conjectural 

'accepit,' the fact that Aricia was the identification see introd. to Od. 3. 19. 
' first stopping-place ' is left to ' egres- 3. Graecorum longe doctissimus. 

sum . . . Roma,' and the emphasis is laid Some good MSS. have ' linguae,' but 

entirely on the contrast ' magna,' ' mo- the Schol. had ' longe ' ; ' linguae ' may 

dico,' the exchange of the splendours of have been due to Od. 3. 8. 5 ' docte 

Rome for the first experience of a sermones utriusque linguae,' and to 

country inn. a sense of hyperbole in ' Graecorum 

Aricia. Virg. Aen. 7. 762 foll., Juv.S. longe.' ' Graecorum ' to Horace would 

4. 117 (Mayor, n.), Cic. Phil. 3. 6. 15. A be almost equivalent to 'rhetorum et 

town sixteen miles from Rome, one mile grammaticorum,' but the hyperbole is 

and a half beyond the modern Albano. intended and is playful. 
Thepresent town ofLariccia, which is on Forum Appi. Cic. ad Att. 2. 10. 

the hillj covers the site of the ancient There, as in St. PauPs joumey to Rome 

citadel, Aricia itself having lain in the (Acts 28. 15% it is mentioned in con- 

valley to which the ' Via Appia' de- junction with ' TresTabernae ' asamong 

scended by the 'clivus Aricinus,' the the stopping-places on the Via Appia. 

haunt of beggars, Juv. 1. c. and Pers. 6. The ruins still exist at the forty-third 

56. milestone from Rome. 



Differtum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 
Hoc iter ignavi divisimus, altius ac nos 
Praecinctis unum : minus est gravis Appia tardis. 
Hic ego propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, ventri 
Indico bellum, ccnantes haud animo aequo 
Exspectans comites. Iam nox inducere terris 
Umbras et caelo diffundere signa parabat. 
Tum pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae 
Ingerere. ' Huc appelle ! ' 'Trecentos inseris : ohe 
Iam satis est ! ' Dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, 
Tota abit hora. Mali culices ranaeque palustres 
Avertunt somnos, absentem ut cantat amicam 
Multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 
Certatim. Tandem fessus dormire viator 


4. nautis, eauponibus, because it 
was a stopping-place where travellers 
embarked on the canal. Strabo 5. 3. 6 
describes the canal which ran by the 
side of the Via Appia through the 
Pomptine marshes to within a short dis- 
tance of Tarracina. It was used chiefly 
for night travelling, the boats being 
dragged by mules. 

malignis : see Sat. 1. 1. 29 n. 

5. hoc iter, i. e. the journey from 
Rome to Appii Forum. 

altius praecinctis = ' expeditioribus,' 
a humorous adaptation of the measure- 
ment of distance in Hdt. and Thuc. 
evQSwtp dv5pi, as though all travellers 
went on foot. 

6. minus gravis. Horace speaks, 
Epp. 1. 17. 53, of the roughness (' sale- 
bras ') of the road to Brundisium. 

tardis : those who take it in short 

7. deterrima. ' Hodie quoque in 
Foro Appii viatores propter aquam quae 
ibi deterrima est manere vitant ' Porph. 
The badness of the water is explained 
by the neighbourhood of the marshes. 
Notice that the custom of mixing water 
with wine is so fixed that Horace does 
not get out of the difficulty by drinking 
his wine neat, but goes without his 

9. comites. Not his own party, for 
at present Heliodorus alone was with 
him, but others, possibly who had 
arrived before, who were to share the 

iam nox, etc. The heroic tone of 

this verse and the next is meant to 
heighten by contrast the humour of the 
Dutch picture which follows, just as the 
' Musa velim memores ' of v. 53 intro- 
duces the vulgar sparring of the clowns. 

11. pueri nautis. The scene shifts 
from the supper room to the landing- 
place of the canal. ' Pueri ' are the 
slaves in attendance on travellers, ' nau- 
tae,' men in charge of the barges in 
which the journey was made. 

12. huc appelle, of a slave hailing 
a boat. 

trecentos inseris. Not an answer 
to ' huc appelle,' but another utterance 
distinguished in the babel of voices, of 
a boatman whose boaty^ boarded by 
a party larger than it will hold, or 
larger than was bargained for. ' Tre- 
centos,' hyperbole for a large number, 
Od. 2. 14.5, 3. 4. 79. 

ohe ! Sat. 2. 5. 96 ' donec ohe 
iam . . . dixerit.' 

14. mali, ' comice vituperantis : ' cp. 
Sat. 1. 1. 77 n., 'the rascally mosqui- 

15. avertunt, sc. 'venientes;' 'warn 
them off.' 

ut, ' whilst.' Ritter and Munro put a 
stop at ' somnos,' and connect this clause 
with the following sentence : ' whilst 
they are singing . . . there comes at 
last a hush and the bargeman sees his 

16. prolutus. Sat. 2. 4. 26. 
vappa. Sat. 2. 3. 144. 

viator. One of the passengers, as 
we should say, in the steerage. 


LIB. I. SAT. 5. 


Incipit, ac missae pastum retinacula mulae 
Nauta piger saxo religat stertitque supinus. 
Iamque dies aderat, nil cum procedere lintrem 
Sentimus, donec cerebrosus prosilit unus 
Ac mulae nautaeque caput lumbosque saligno 
Fuste dolat. Quarta vix demum exponimur hora. 
Ora manusque tua lavimus, Feronia, lympha. 
Milia tum pransi tria repimus atque subimus 
Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 
Huc venturus erat Maecenas optimus atque 
Cocceius, missi magnis de rebus uterque 
Legati, aversos soliti componere amicos. 
Hic oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus 




31. cerebrosus, a word of Lucilins, 
15. 18, a.Kp6\o\os. 

prosilit, ' leaps ashore.' The canal we 
must suppose was very narrow, as the 
bargeman seems to have driven the mule 
from the boat ; he is now asleep on the 

22. saligno : cut for the pnrpose 
from the willows on the bank. 

23. dolat. A comic word, as it 
seems properly to have been used of 
' hewing,' ' trimming ' with an axe. 

quarta. As an ' hour ' in the Roman 
sense was a twelfth part of the time 
between sunrise and sunset, the meaning 
of the ' fourth hour ' will vary with the 
time of year. If the journey was made, 
as seems likely, near the equinox, it will 
correspond nearly with the hour between 
nine and ten of our time. There is the 
further doubt whether ' at the fourth 
hour ' means at the beginning of it or at 
the end of it. 

24. tua, Feronia, lympha. A shrine 
with a grove and fountain at the foot of 
the hills skirting the Pomptine marsh 
some three miles from Tarracina. Virgil 
mentions it in connection with Circeii 
and Anxur, Aen. 7. 800 ' viridi gaudens 
Feronia luco.' Feronia was an Italian 
goddess, who had also a shrine at the 
ioot of Mount Soracte, Liv. 1. 30. 

25. pransi : the usual midday meal, 
Sat. 1. 6. 127. 

repimus. An expressive word for the 
pace of carriages being dragged up a 

26. Anxur. The old (Volscian) 
name of Tarracina. It is the point at 

which the Volscian hills, and also 
the Via Appia strike the sea. For its 
lofty situation see Liv. 5. 12 'alto loco 
situm,' (although elsewhere (4. 59) 
he describes it as ' urbs prona in 
paludes,' ' sloping down to the marsh '), 
cp. ' praecipites . . . Anxuris arces,' 
Lucan. 3. 84. For the white rocks 
Mart. 5. 1. 6 ' candidus Anxur.' Porph. 
speaks of the city as having descended 
in his day to the lower level, although 
there were still remains of building, even 
of the city walls, on the top of the hill 
where it stood in Horace's time. 

27. huc venturus, probably by sea. 

optimus. It has been doubted 
whether the epithet belongs to Maecenas 
or to Cocceius. Bentley is doubtless 
right in taking it with the latter. The 
same question has been raised at Sat. 
1. 10. 82 ' Valgius et probet haec Octa- 
vius optimus atque Fuscus,' where the 
rhythm more imperatively than here 
requires the pause before ' optimus ' for 
' atque Fuscus ' would be intolerable. It 
is also probably true that for Maecenas 
' optimus ' would be as Bentley says ' com- 
pellatio paullo familiarior : ' it is a higher 
compliment to leave his name without 
an epithet. ' The worthiest of men ' is 
then almost an apology for bringing the 
name of Cocceius into such near relation 
with that of Maecenas. 

29. soliti. As the previous peace of 
Brundisium had been due to their offices. 
For Cocceius and for the reference of this 
verse see above in Introd. to the Satire. 

30. hic . . . ego. This is Horace's 
personal reminiscence of Tanacina, in 

6 4 


Illinerc. Interea Maecenas advenit atque 
Cocceius Capitoque simul Fonteius, ad unguem 
Factus homo, Antoni non ut magis alter amicus. 
Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 
Linquimus, insani ridentes praemia scribae, 
Praetextam et latum clavum prunaeque vatillum. 


contrast with the high affairs with which 
Maecenas and Cocceius were occupied. 

nigra. Celsus (6. 6. 7) distinguishes 
two kinds of eyesalve, one called ri<ppiov, 
from its ashy colour. This and v. 49 
are the onlyplaceswhere Horace speaks 
of himself as suffering from this weakness 
of the eyes, but he speaks as if it would 
be recognized as characteristic by his 
friends. Dill r ., who thinks that it is 
only meant as a temporary effect of the 
night in the marshes, recalls Hannibal's 
loss of an eye from inflammation in the 
marshes of the Arno, Liv. 22. 2. 

32. Capito Fonteius ; see Introd. 
to the Satire. For the order of the two 

1*1 . names see on Od. 2. 2*3. 

ad unguem factus, ' perfect,' in 
accomplishments and refinement; cp. 
A. P. 294. The metaphor is explained 
by Porph. as taken from workers in 
marble who test the finish of junctures 
by passing the nail over them. So 
Pers. S. 1. 64 'per leve severos Effundat 
iunctura ungues.' There are parallel 
phrases in Greek (see Liddell and Scott, 
S. vv. 6Vuf, 6vvxi£eiv, egovvxifciv). 

33. non ut magis alter. Cp. Sat. 1. 7. 
1 9 ' uti non Compositum [par] melius cum 
Bitho Bacchius ', 2. 8. 48 'sic convenit 
ut non Hoc magis ullum aliud.' It may 
be doubted in such cases whether 'ut' = 
' that,' the verb understood being subj., 
' to such an extent that no second person 
is more so,' or ' as,' the verb being 
indic, ' as no one else is in a greater de- 
gree.' The comparison of the constr. 
of v. 41 ' quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit ' is in favour of the latter. 
For the position of ' non ' we may com- 
pare 'non qui ' in Epp. 1. 15. 28. 

34. Fundos, hod. ' Fondi,' a town 
five miles inland, and halfway (thirteen 
miles from each) on the Via Appia, be- 
tween Tanacina and Fcrmiae. The Aufi- 
dia gens appears from Suet. Calig. 23 to 
have been native to Fundi, although 
some members of it attained ofhce at 

praetore. Acrons note is 'prae- 

torem pro magistratu dixit, id est 
deeemviro,' and Heindorf quotes Cic. 
de Leg. Agr. 2. 34. 92 ' cum venissem 
Capuam coloniam deductam L. Consi- 
dio et Sext. Saltio. quemadmodum ipsi 
loquebantur, praetoribus . . . Nam pri- 
mum cum ceteris in coloniis duumviri 
appellentur hi se praetores appellari 
volebant.' Other details follow, of their 
making their lictors carry ' fasces ' in- 
stead of wands, etc. Fundi is named by 
Festus as one of the ' Praefecturae ' to 
which the Praetor Urbanus sent yearly a 
' Praefectus iuri dicundo,' an officer who 
stood in the place of ' duumviri ' elected 
by the people. Aufidius Luscus would 
be the ' Praefectus.' The more dignified 
title of ' Praetor ' seems to be given to 
him in derision, perhaps as assumed by 
himself, as it was by the ' duumviri ' at 
Capua. The abl. absol. ' A. L. praetore ' 
is regular, and ' libenter ' goes closely 
with it. Fundi was not a place to stay 
long in during the ' praetorship ' of Aufi- 

35. praemia scribae : the preferment 
which this clerk from Rome has at- 
tained. Possibly Horace, himself a 
' scriba,' knew him at Rome. 

36. The 'praetexta/ or 'toga' with 
purple border, belonged to magistrates 
at Rome, and even in ' coloniae ' and 
' municipia ' (Liv. 34. 7). The ' latus 
clavus,' or broad purple stripe down the 
front of the 'tunica' (Sat. 1. 6. 28) was 
the distinctive mark of the Senatorian 
order. Whether Aufidius had a right 
to the ' praetexta ' may be a question. 
Perhaps he is represented as assuming 
every possible distinction of dress, law- 
ful and unlawful. Orelli suggests that 
his ' latus clavus ' would seern especially 
ridiculous in the presence of Maecenas, 
who was contented with the equestrian 
' angustus clavus.' 

vatillum. So the MSS. spell it rather 
than ' batillum.' What was the purpose 
of the ' shovel of hot charcoal ' is a 
matter of guessing. Porph. speaks of 
his having it carried to his house from 

LIB. I. SAT. 15 



In Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 
Murena praebente domum, Capitone culinam. 
Postera lux oritur multo gratissima ; namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Vergiliusquc 
Occurrunt, animae quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit neque quis me sit devinctior alter. 
O qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim iucundo sanus amico. 
Proxima Campano ponti quae villula, tectum 



the public baths, apparently as a per- 
quisite. The Comm. Craq. says it was 
with the view of offering incense ' pro 
felici hospitum adventu.' In this case 
his offence would be officiousness as 
well as self-importance. Various other 
purposes have been suggested by editors 
early and late : the heating of branding 
irons for criminals who came before him, 
incense for the inauguration of his court ; 
some have thought that ' fireshovel ' is a 
contemptuous name for something car- 
ried before the ' praetor,' perhaps a 
clumsy imitation of the ' scipio eburneus ' 
of the consul. It was proposed early to 
read ' bacillum.' a 'little staff' or 'wand,' 
which Cruquius supported by reference 
to the passage quoted above from Cic. 
de Leg. Agr. 2. 34, where there is men- 
tion of the ' baculi ' carried before the 
magistrates of a country town. To suit 
this ' prunae ' has been further altered 
to ' pruni,' ' a wand of plum-tree 

37. Mamurrarum urbe. A satirical 
description, ' the city of Mamurra's 
family,' as though it would be best 
known to theworld as the birth-place of 
one whose wealth and scandals were 
still in men's thoughts, the favourite of 
Julius Caesar, Suet. Jul. Caes. 73, 
'decoctor Formianus ' of Catull. 41. 
The place is Formiae (hod. Mola di 
Gaeta) on the Sinus Caietanus. 

38. Murena : see Od. 2. 10, introd., 
3. 19. 11. They lodged in the house of 
Murena, Maecenas' brother-in-law, who 
it would seem was absent. The supper 
was provided by Fonteius Capito, one 
ofthe company, who also may have had 
a villa at Formiae, or who may have 
brought cook and materials for the 

40. Plotius. Plotius Tucca, one of 
Virgil's two literary executors, Varius 


being the other. The three friends come 
together. Cf. the conjunction in Sat. 1. 
10. 81 ' Plotius et Varius Maecenas 
Vergiliusque.' Horace owed his own 
acquaintance with Maecenas to Varius 
and Virgil, Sat. 1. 6. 54. 

Varius, see on Od. 1. 6. 1. 

Sinuessae, near the modern Mondra- 
gone. Here the Via Appia turns sharply 

41. quales neque candidiores. For 
constr. see on Epod. 5. 59, and cp. above 
note on v. 33, ' souls of such sort as have 
never walked the earth more purely 

42. terra tulit. Sat. 2. 2. 93, Virg. 
Aen. 11. 285. 

neque quis : answering not to 
' quales,' but to ' neque candidiores;' the 
subjunctive ' sit ' following ' quis ' = 
' tales ut iis,' regularly : ' nor to whom 
any should be more closely bound 
than I.' 

44. contulerim, potential, Madv. 
§ 350 b ; ' sanus ' involves a condition 
' so long as I am in my senses,' as in Sat. 
1. 6. 89 ' Nil me paeniteat sanum patris 

45. Campano ponti, a bridge over 
the Savo (hod. Savone), which here was 
the boundary of Latium and Campania. 
It was three miles beyond Sinuessa. 
There is nothing to indicate whether 
the ' villula ' was a private house or 
a public place of reception, whether an 
inn or a posting-house where travelling 
ofhcials (' qui reipublicae causa iter 
faciunt ' Porph.) received such enter- 
tainment as the ' parochi ' were bound 
to supply. This was limited, by a 
'lex Iulia de repetundis,' to beds, fuel, 
salt, and fodder for horses ; see Cic. ad 
Att. 5. 16. The beginning of the prac- 
tice is described in Liv. 42. 1, and other 
allusions to it are found in Cic. ad Att. 



Praebuit, et parochi quae debent ligna salemque. 
Hinc muli Capuae clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego Vergiliusque ; 
"Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 
Hinc nos Coccei recipit plenissima villa, 
Ouae super est Caudi cauponas. Nunc mihi paucis 
Sarmenti scurrae pugnam Messique Cicirrhi, 
Musa, velim memores, et quo patre natus uterque 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
Sarmenti domina exstat : ab his maioribus orti 
Ad pugnam venere. Prior Sarmentus : ' Equi te 
Esse feri similem dico.' Ridemus, et ipse 



5. 10 and 21. Porph. gives ' copiarii ' 
as the proper Latin name of these 
' parochi.' ' Parochus ' is used in a 
transferred sense in Sat. 2. 8. 36. 

47. tempore, 'in good time,' 'early;' 
see Kritz on Sall. Jug. 56. 

48. lusum, sc. ' pila.' For the game 
of ball see on Sat. 1. 6. 126. It is 
noticed that Horace dwells on what 
shows the individual freedom allowed 
in Maecenas' circle. 

49. lippis : see above on v. 30. 
Horace had no infirmity which pre- 
vented him from playing ball at times ; 
see Sat. 2. 6. 49, where he speaks of 
playing with Maecenas. 

inimicum. Sat. 2. 4. 53. 

crudis, ' those suffering from indi- 
gestion,' Epp. 1. 6. 61. The author 
of the life of Virgil which bears Dona- 
tus' name mentions among his ail- 
ments that ' plerumque stomacho labo- 

51. super, the meaning is fixed by 
' Caudi cauponas ; ' they overshot the 
usual halting-place, the inns of Cau- 
dium. It is worth noticing that a large 
number of good MSS. fall the Bland. 
included) read 'Claudi,' an illustration 
of the untrustworthiness of MSS. in 
the case of proper names ; see on Od. 
3. 16. 41, 3. 20. 15. The mistake is 
later than the scholia of Porph., who 
has without hesitation ' supra tabernas 
Caudi oppidi.' It has begun to infect 
those of the Pseudo-Acron, which has 
side by side ' Caudium est civitas Sam- 
nii.' Lucan. ' Ultra Caudinas speravit 
volnera furcas,' and 'supra Caudi (some 
MSS. 'Claudi') cuiusdam cauponas.' 

nunc mihi paucis, a mock heroic 
commencement. Cp. Juvenal's intro- 
duction of the story of the great fish, 
4. 34 foll. Horace describes an encounter 
of wit between two buffoons (much like 
two jesters of feudal times), one of 
whom (Sarmentus) is travelling in Mae- 
cenas' train— the other (Messius) is a 
native of the neighbouring country (the 
Oscan language covered Samnium as 
well as Campania. see Liv. 10. 20), 
and belongs probably to Cocceius' 

52. Sarmenti. Juv. S. 5. 3 ' Si potes 
illa pati quod nec Sarmentus iniquas 
Caesaris ad mensas nec vilis Galba 
tulisset,' on which the Scholiast tells us 
that he was of Etruscan origin, a slave 
of M. Favonius, who, on the proscription 
and death of his master, passed into Mae- 
cenas' possession, and was freed by him ; 
he became a ' scriba ' and sat in the 
knights' seats, which exposed him to 
a prosecution. He fell again eventually 
to indigence. 

Cieirrhi, KiKtppos acc. to Hesychius 
meant ' a cock.' 

54. contulerit lites. a modification 
of ' conferre certamina,' to suit the 
wordy fray. 

clarum : merely ironical, as ' opicus ' 
= ' clownish ; ' or with special reference 
to the combat to come, ' famous in this 
field;' the ' Atellanae fabulae ' (Liv. 
7. 2) originated with them. 

Osci may be nom. plur. or gen. 

55. domina, sc. the widow of Fa- 
vonius ; see on v. 52. 

LIB. I. SAT. 5. 


Messius ' Accipio,' caput et movet. ' O, tua cornu 
Ni foret exsecto frons,' inquit, ' quid faceres, cum 
Sic mutilus miniteris ? ' At illi foeda cicatrix 
Setosam laevi frontem turpaverat oris. 
Campanum in morbum, in faciem permulta iocatus, 
Pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat : 
Nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 
Multa Cicirrhus ad haec : Donasset iamne catenam 
Ex voto Laribus, quaerebat ; scriba quod esset, 
Nihilo deterius dominae ius esse. Rogabat 
Denique cur unquam fugisset, cui satis una 
Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamque pusillo. 
Prorsus iucunde cenam producimus illam. 



58. accipio. Ter. Andr. 5. 4. 48 
' Ch. Dos, Pamphile, est decem talenta. 
Pam. Accipio,' ' I am satisfied.' ' Be it 
so.' Mr. Yonge compares Soph. El. 
668 (8e£a/j.r]i' to prjOiv. 

movet, i.e. as acting the part. 

cornu rii foret exsecto, in reference 
probably to the supposed 'unicorn,' 
which Pliny N. H. 8. 21 describes as 
' asperrima fera reliquo corpore equo 

60. at opposes the true explanation 
to the humorous one given by Sar- 
mentus. Cp. Epp. 1. 2. 42. 

61. setosam : the picture of his 
bristly hairs low on the forehead helps 
the resemblance to the wild horse. 

62. Campanum morbum. The 
Scholiasts were puzzled. The Comm. 
Cruq. connects it with the verse before, 
explaining it of warts or excrescences 
which grew on the forehead, and which 
when removed would leave a scar. 
Heindorfs note suggests its probable 
connection with the jest which follows, 
through the name given (by Aristotle 
and Galen) to a similar complaint 
<Ta.Tvpia.cris. Compare the connection in 
Epp. 2. 2. 125 of the Satyr and the 
Cyclops-dance, and notice that Horace 
kept in mind the etymological connec- 
tion of 'tragicus ' with Tpayos, ' a goat,' 
A. P. 220. 

63. pastorem Cyclopa, the accu- 
sative as in Epp. 2. 2. 125. For the 
nature of these dances see Dict. Ant. 
s. v. ' Pantomimus.' 

64. larva, here of the mask with white 


paint and gaping mouth ('personae 
pallentis hiatus'), which, according to 
Juvenal (3. 1 75 \ frightened children 
from a rustic stage. 

65. A satirical reference to the prac- 
tice of dedicating to some god imple- 
ments that their owner has done with 
(as the gladiator in Epp. 1. 1. 4, and the 
lover in Od. 3. 26. 3) ; perhaps specially, 
as the Scholiasts say, to the custom 
among freebom youths on attaining 
manhood of consecrating to the Lares 
their ' bulla.' Martial has a similar 
gibe (possibly with reference to this 
passage), on a man who from slavery 
had become an ' eques ' : 3. 29 ' Has 
cum gemina compede dedicat catenas, 
Saturne, tibi Zoilus annulos priores.' 
The ' catenae' would imply that he had 
run away and been sentenced to the 
' ergastulum ' to work in chains. 

67. nihilo, a disVll., as always/s 
in Lucret. ; see Munro on Lucret. 1. 


68. una farris libra. Heindort points 
out. from Aul. Gell. 20. 1, that this 
was by the Twelve Tables the minimum 
allowance to be made to a debtor in 
prison. Cato, De R. R. 56, fixes the 
usual allowance of slaves in the country 
at from four to five modii a month. This 
would give as the daily portion about 
three times what is mentioned here. 
Slaves it would seem from this ran 
away on account of bad fare. 

70. producimus, so the great ma- 
jority of MSS. against ' produximus.' 
Orelli's argument that the present would 



Tenclimus hinc recta Beneventum ; ubi sedulus hospes 

Paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni : 

Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 

Volcano summum properabat lambere tectum. 

Convivas avidos cenam servosque timentes 

Tum rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos 

Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus et quos 

Nunquam erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 

Villa recepisset, lacrimoso non sine fumo, 

Udos cum foliis ramos urente camino. 

Hic ego mendacem stultissimus usque puellam 

Ad mediam noctem exspecto : somnus tamen aufert 



require 'hanc' rather than 'illam' seems 
to be answered by v. 77. 

71. recta, 'without halts.' This 
seems to be mentioned because the 
stage is a short one, twelve miles. Bene- 
ventum owed to its position on the 
Appian road much of its historical im- 
portance, and especially the trinmphal 
arch in memory of Trajan's Dacian 
triumph which still adorns it. 

hospes, as ' hospitium ' in v. 2 of 
an innkeeper. The picture is comic ; 
the bustling host, the roaring fire, the 
skinny fieldfares. 

72. macros. Contrast Epp. I. 15. 
41 ' obeso Nil melius turdo;' cp. Sat. 

2. 5. 10. The host has got what is 
reckoncd a dainty, but they are in poor 

arsit, set himself (i.e. his house) on 
fire. As Virg. Aen. 2.311' iam proximus 
ardet Ucalegon,' Juv. 3. 201 ' Ultimus 
ardebit.' The confused order of the 
words ' Paene macros arsit dum turdos 
versat' may be compared with Sat. 1. 

3. 70, 2. 1. 60, 2. 3. 211; and see 
note on Od. 1. 6. 2. Orelli and Dill r . 
suggest (perhaps fancifully) that it is in 
imitation of the scene of confusion de- 
scribed. For the tense of ' versat ' cp. 
inf. v. 100 and Sat. 2. 4. 79 ; Epp. 1. 2. 
21, 2. 1. 7, 2. 2. 27; A. P. 465 : and 
see Madv. 336, obs. 2. 

73. Note the mock heroic rhythm 
and phraseology, 'dilapso Volcano,' etc. 
• The firegod slipped abroad amid the 
old rafters of the kitchen, and the llame 
on its travels was well nigh wrapping 
the rooftree.' 

75. avidos, timentes. The guests 
thought of their spoiling dinner — the 
slaves of the blame to be laid at their 
doors. The other touches are graphic. 
The first thought is to save the supper, 
the second to put out the fire. Note 
also the art which puts ' avidos ' next 
to ' cenam.' 

76. videres, the past tense of ' videas ' 
= ' videre licebat ; ' see on Sat. 1. 3. 5. 

77. notos, the mountains which stood 
at the head of the waters of his own 

78. Atabulus. It is named in Pliny 
(N. H. 17. 37. 8) as a hot dry wind 
peculiar to Apulia and destructive to 
vegetation. Cp. the Vulturnus, a wind 
which blew on the plains of Apulia, 
' torridis siccitate campis ' Liv. 22. 46, 
and carried clouds of dust in the eyes 
of the Romans at Cannae. 

79. erepsemus, of the slow process 
of climbing to the top of the pnss. For 
the form cp. Sat. 1. 9. 73 ' surrexe,' 2. 3. 
169 ' divisse,' 2. 3. 273 ' percusti,' 2. 7. 
68 ' evasti.' 

vicina, constructed as a subst. with 

Trivici. ' Trivicum ' is not men- 
tioned elsewhere. The modern town 
of Trevico is on the top of a hill ; the 
farmhouse (' villa') where the travellers 
found refuge before their final ascent, 
lay, no doubt, below it in the valley. 

80. lacrimoso fumo. A grievance 
which would try Horace especially, v. 
49. They were among the hills now 
and might need fires for warmth as well 
as cooking. 

LIB. I. SAT. 5. 

Intentum Veneri ; tum immundo somnia visu 
Nocturnam vestem maculant ventremque supinum. 
Quattuor hinc rapimur viginti et milia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo quod versu dicere non est, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima rerum 
Hic aqua ; sed panis longe pulcherrimus, ultra 
Callidus ut soleat humeris portare viator ; 
Nam Canusi lapidosus, aquae non ditior urna 
Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. 
Flentibus hinc Varius discedit maestus amicis. 



86. rapimur : they had crossed the 
pass and their road led down to the 
Apulian plain. 

87. quod versu dicere non est. 
Ov. Met. 3. 478 ' quod tangere non est,' 
Virg. G. 4. 447 'neque est te fallere 
quicquam.' Cp. Sat. 2. 5. 103, Epp. 
1. 1. 32. Orelli prefers to understand 
' facile ' from the contrasted clause. The 
whole expression is from Lucilius, 6. 39, 
whom the Scholiast quotes, ' Servorum 
est festus dies hic, Quem plane hexametro 
versu non dicere possis.' The Scholiasts 
go on to say that the place in question 
was Equus Tuticus (or Equotuticus). 
This, however, has been clearly proved 
to be a mistake. They were misled 
by a change in the course of the eastern 
branch of the Via Appia which dates 
from the reign of Trajan. Equus Tu- 
ticus was a stage on this Via Traiana, 
twenty-one miles from Beneventum. 
Horace and his companions seem to 
have taken a line to the South of this. 
To have gone by Trivicum to Equus 
Tuticus would have been to follow two 
sides of a triangle. Walckenaer fixes 
on Asculum, which is about the right 
distance from Trivicum and on the road 
which they seem to have travelled, but 
if we remember that Trivicum would 
have been unheard of but for this refer- 
ence, and that the Scholiasts were at 
fault, it will seem more likely that this 
' oppidulum ' is one of which the name 
has perished. 

88. venit vilissima : what is usually 
the least expensive thing in the world 
has here to be bought. This is the 
contrast, not ' vilissima ' and ' pulcher- 

89. ultra : to further stopping places. 
For the carrying of bread on a journey 
see on Sat. 1. 1. 47. 

90. soleat. For lengthening of the 
syllable see on Sat. 1. 4. 82. 

91. Canusi, Sat. 1. 10. 30, 2. 3. 16S. 
Near the south side of the Aufidus, four- 
teen miles from its mouth. In the im- 
mediate neighbourhood was the field 
of Cannae. Before reaching Canusium 
the old road joined the line of the ' Via 
Traiana,' so that the travellers are again 
on a route recognised in the Itineraries. 

aquae non ditior urna, agreeing 
with ' locus ; ' with ' aquae non ditior' 
cp. the parallel expression in which 
Horace makes the same complaint of 
Apulia generally, ' pauper aquae Daunus ' 
Od. 3. 30. 1 1 (cp. ' siticulosae Apuliae ' 
Epod. 3. 16). There are still some re- 
mains of an aqueduct .which is said to 
have been built some 200 years later, 
to supply this deficiency, by the wealthy 
and munificent rhetorician, Atticus 

urna : the measure of capacity, as 
in Sat. 1. 1. 54. 

92. Bentley (taking 'urna' in v. 91 
as a nom.) would eject this line as dull 
and faulty. He criticizes especially the 
phrase ' condere locum,' but it may be 
justified probably (as Heindorf says x < 
by the Greek tcri^eiv xwpav, vrjcrov, k.t.A. 
Orelli thinks point was given to the 
line by its being an echo of Ennius. 
who in describing Cannae would have 
mentioned Canusium. Ritter would lay 
stress on ' forti,' the fit founder of a 
' durum genus,' who can eat gritty bread 
and drink bad water. For the legend 
of Diomede's settlement in Apulia see 
Virg. Aen. 11. 243 foll. Canusium was 
one of the towns whose foundation was 
attributed to him, Strab. 6. 283, 284. 
For its continuous Greek character cp. 
Sat. 1. 10. 30 'Canusini bilinguis.' 



Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 

Carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri. 

Postcra tempestas melior, via peior ad usque 

Bari moenia piscosi ; dein Gnatia Lymphis 

Iratis exstructa dedit risusque iocosque, 

Dum flamma sine thura liquescere limine sacro 

Persuadere cupit. Credat Iudaeus Apella, 

Non ego : namque deos didici securum agere aevum, 

Nec si quid miri faciat natura, deos id 

Tristes ex alto caeli demittere tecto. 

Brundisium longae finis chartaeque viaeque est. 



94. Rubos, hod. Ruvo. 

longum iter, thirty Roman miles. 
This upper road from Beneventum by 
Brundisium is described by Strabo 
(6. 282) as not more than a bridle road 
(fifxioviKT)), the carriage road ( d//a^7y\aros 
fidWov) passing through Venusia and 

95. carpentes = ' quia carpebamus.' 
See a note of Kritz on Sall. Jug. 10. 2. 

corruptius : ' iter ' in this clause is 
the road itself. 

97. Bari piscosi. At Barium the 
road struck the coast, which thence- 
forward it follows. Bari is the first 
important station (seventy-five miles) 
on the railroad from Brindisi. It is, 
as it was, a fishing town. 

Gnatia, or Egnatia, thiity-seven 
Roman miles from Barium. The miracle 
is mentioned by Pliny, N. H. 2. 11 1 
' In Salentino oppido Egnatia imposito 
ligno in saxum quoddam ibi sacrum 
protinus flammam exsistere.' 

Lymphis iratis, ' under the dis- 
pleasure of the water-goddesses.' Cp. 
Sat. 2. 3. 8 'iratis natus paries dis.' 
Yarro R. R. 1. 1. 6 has 'Lympha' as 
a water-goddess, and the appellation 
has been found in inscriptions. The 

word is apparently the same as Nympha 
(cp. Od. 1. 37. 14 ' lymphatam '), an 
earlier or alternative transliteration from 
the Greek. For other instances of the 
change between / and n see Curtius, 
Etym. 3. 37, Meyer, Vergl. Gr. 1. 65. 

99. dum . . . cupit. For tense see 
supr. on v. 72. 

100. Apella, the Roman form of the 
Greek Apellas or Apelles, as Marsya 
Sat. 1. 6. 120, etc. It seems to be a 
special name taken at random for one 
of a class, as Dama, Davus, etc, a 
Jewish freedman. The name is fre- 
quent among ' libertini ' in inscriptions ; 
three of the name are mentioned in 

101. namque deos didici, 'I am 
one of those of whom Lucretius speaks 
who have learnt his lesson ' (5. 83 and 
6. 56) ' bene qui didicere deos securum 
agere aevum.' 

103. tristes, as Mr. Yonge points 
out, corresponds to ' securum ' v. 101 ; 
the special lesson which he has unlearnt 
is that natural phenomena are expres- 
sions of emotion in the gods. ' Tristes ' 
is the opp. of ' laeti ' Od. 3. 21. 21. 

104. que . . . que : as of the journey 
so of the story. 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 71 



Verses 1-6. Your princely Etruscan lineage does not lead you, Maecenas, to 
do what many do, despise such humbly born people as me the ' freedman's 
7-18. You think if a man is himself free born it matters little what his parents 
were, and your historical reasoning is sound ; Servius Tullius was not the first 
of no ancestry who lived honourably and climbed to great position ; on the 
other hand not ' all the blood of all ' the Valeiii made even the Roman people, 
for all their worship of ancestry, think Laevinus worth anything. How much 
sounder should our judging be ! 
19-26. It is no doubt all fair in political matters. It serves me right, if I, though a 
Decius, am rejecled in favour of a Laevinus, or if an Appius as Censor strikes 
me off the senate. Why can't I be contented with my own place ? But the 
well born have no monopoly of foolish ambition. You, Tillius, had better have 
rested without trying to regain your tribune's rank. You were less exposed to 
27-44. V\'hen a man gains a public position he makes the world ask about his 
birth, as a man who sets up as a good-looking fellow makes them pull his 
features to pieces. ' A slave's son going to order the execution of citizens ' ? 
' Nay, Novius my colleague is a rank lower still.' ' That does not make 
you an aristocrat. Besides he has a stentorian voice, that is his claim 
on us.' 
45-64. To go back to myself. People carped at me as ' a freedman's son ' when I 
was a military tribune. They do so now because I am admitted to your 
house. The first perhaps was fair, the second is not. There was no luck 
about it. It was no chance introduction. Virgil and Varius told you what 
I was like. When I was introduced to you I was too much abashed to say 
much, but at least I made no pretensions. I said what was true about my 
birth and state. You answered little, but nine months after you sent for me 
and gave me a place in your friendship. I value this because I take it as a 
compliment not to my birth but to myself. 
65-84. At the same time any merits of character that I possess, I am eager to 
acknowledge, I owe to my father. Poor as he was he insisted on giving me 
the best education. He brought me to Rome, spared nothing on me, would 
trust me to no ' custos ' but himself. He guarded me not only from actual evil 
but from breath of reproach. 
85-97. He did not mind if it ended in my coming down to his own trade after all 
— I have not done so, and I owe him all the more credit and thanks. Never 
in my senses could I be ashamed of such a father. I have no inclination to 
apologize for him. I would not change him if I could. 
98-109. The world may think this madness, but you will perhaps think it a pioof 
of sense ; for position brings burdens, duties, expenses. Now I may live as 
I like ; no one will accuse me of meanness as they do Tillius. 
110. I am freer than he — I walk out alone, amuse myself as I choose ; come 


home to my simple supper, go to sleep without care, lie in bed as long as I 
like, spend the day according to my tastes. This is the life of those who are 
free from the pain and the burden of ambition — a happier life than if my 
whole family had been quaestors. 

Though the Satire is mainly concerned in explaining and defending his own 
position, it also aims, both in the general picture and in particular turns, at expos- 
ing that which Horace ranks next to avarice as a vice of Roman society (Sat. 2. 3. 
165 f.), 'ambitio,' in the sense both of pretending to, and of seeking, greater 
position than belongs to you. 

NON quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quicquid Etruscos 

Incoluit fines nemo generosior est te, 

Nec quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus 

Olim qui magnis legionibus imperitarent, 

Ut plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco 5 

Ignotos, ut me libertino patre natum. 

Cum referre negas quali sit quisque parente 

Natus dum ingenuus, persuades hoc tibi vere, 

Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobilc regnum 

1 . Lydorum quicquid, ' of all the 
Lydians,' etc. Epod. 5. 1 ' deoruin 
quicquid.' The Lydian origin of the 
Etrucans is a commonplace with the 
Latin poets, as Virg. Aen. 2. 7S1, 8. 479, 
9. II. The legend is given in Herod. 
1. 94 and was discredited by Dionys. 
Halicarn. I. p. 21 foll. For Maecenas' 
Etruscan origin see on Od. 1. 1. I, 3. 
29. I. 

4. legionibus : not in the technical 
Roman sense, for the reference is to 
Etruscan not to Roman armies. Cp. 
VirgiVs use of ' legio ' as in Aen. 8. 
605, 9. 368, 10. 120. The rhythm of 
the verse is from Lucr. 3. 1028 ' magnis 
qui gentibus imperitarunt.' 

5. naso suspendis aduneo. Sat. 2. 
8. 64 ' Balatro suspendens omnia naso.' 
Cp. hvkt7]/A^(iv. 'fhe suggestion that 
the purpose of curling the nose is to 
hang on it the object of contempt is a 
comic touch of Horace's, as Persius 
recognizes in his repetition of the phrase 
1. 118 ' [Flaccus] Callidus excusso 
populum suspendere naso,' ' with a sly 
talent for tossing up his nose and catch- 
ing the public on it ' Conington. 

6. ignotos, as in v. 24. The reading 
of the line is doubtful. The majority 
of good MSS. have ' aut ' and so K. and 
H. printed. Their ' D ' (the MS. lost 

in the siege of Strasburg) had ' ut,' and 
this is found as a correction in other 
MSS. Keller argues ( Epilegomenal 
strongly for ' ut,' on the ground of 
sense ; thinking ' aut ut,' ' et ut,' ' aut 
me ut,' which are given in MSS. of 
repute, confusions or adaptations due 
to ' ut ' having been written as a correc- 
tion over ' aut.' There is also a var- 
iant in MSS. of value, 'natos' for 
' natum.' Professor Palmer reads ex 
coniectura, ' Ignoto, aut ut me libertino, 
patre natos,' thinking ' ignotos ' an early 
corruption which led to all the other 

8. dum ingenuus, ' provided he is 
free-born,' the limit which Augustus 
set on admission to his table. Suet. 
Aug. 74 ' neminem unquam libertinorum 
adhibitum ab eo cenae, excepto Mena, 
sed asserto in ingenuitatem.' 

vere, ' rightly.' 

9. ante potestatem Tulli : the 
same formula as in Sat. 1. 3. 107 ' fuit 
ante Helenam.' ' It is an older thing 
than the standing historic instances, it 
is a law of life ' : Liv. 4. 3 ' Serv. Tullium 
. . . captiva Corniculana nalum, patre 
nullo, matre serva, ingenio, virtute 
regnum tenuisse,' Juv. S. 8. 259 ' An- 
cilla natus trabeam et diadema Quirini 
Et fasces meruit.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 


Multos sacpe viros nullis maioribus ortos 
Et vixisse probos, amplis et honoribus auctos ; 
Contra Laevinum, Valeri genus, unde superbus 
Tarquinius regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 
Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 
Iudice quo nosti populo, qui stujtus honores 



io. nullis maioribus : none that 
could be named, none who had ' im- 
agines ; ' so Livy 1. c. ' patre nullo.' 

ii. et, with probos, vixisse being 
common to both clauses. 

12. contra. The constr. is con- 
tinued from ' persuades hoc tibi vere.' 

Laevinum. ' Hic P. Valerins [Lae- 
vinus] adeo foedis et proiectis in omnem 
turpitudinem moribus vixit ut provehi 
non potuerit ultra quaestoriam digni- 
tatem ' Porph. One Valerius Laevinus 
was distinguished in the war with 
Pyrrhus, another in the second Punic 
war, and a third triumphed over the 
Ligurians in B.c. 175. We are clearly 
to think here of a man of high lineage 
who on grounds of personal demerit 
failed to gain an election. 

Valeri, sc. of P. Valerius Publicola the 
colleague of Brutus. 

genus, of a single descendant, as 
' Iapeti genus,' Od. 1. 3. 27, ' iuvenis 
. . . ab alto demissum genus Aenea ' 
Sat. 2. 5. 63. 

unde, for ' a quo,' cp. esp. Od. 2. 
12.7, and see on Od. 1. 7. 7 and 1. 12. 17. 
But this is the instance of its use most 
nearly of agency, for ' a quo ' rather 
than ' ex quo.' 

superbus : an epithet, not merely a 
distinguishing ' cognomen.' The ' pride ' 
of Tarquiu heightens the historic fame 
of the house which took a leading part 
in expelling him. 

13. pulsus fugit. The reading of V, 
though there is in one or two good MSS. 
the variant ' fuit.' Madvig discusses the 
tense in his Opuscula Academica, ii. 
p. 224. After showing that 'pulsus 
fuit ' is an inapplicable form here (mean- 
ing as it does ' he has been, and at 
present is in the condition of having been, 
banished,' — for the simple passive aorist 
we require ' pulsus est '), he explains this 
as parallel with Virgil's use of the present 
in relative clauses where the leading verb 
is in a past tense, as Aen. 2. 275, 9. 266, 
361, 11. 172. Cp. Sat. 1. 2. 56, 2. 3. 
61, and see Persius' imitation 4. 2 

' barbatum hoc crede magistmm Dicere, 
sorbitio tollit qucm dira cicutae ' with 
Conington's note. 

unius assis . . . licuisse, ' was never 
estimated at more than the value of a 
single as.' Cp. Catull. 5. 2 ' Rumores . . . 
Onines unius aestimemus assis.' ' Pretio ' 
has also been taken as the abl. of 
measure, ' was never estimated (on that 
account) at more by the value of a 
single as.' But the point is the abso- 
lutely low value set on him. Horace 
does not mean to say that birth went 
for nothing withthe people ; — otherwise 
it would contradict v. 9 ; — but that no 
birth would make up for worthlessness 
even in the eyes of the worst judges. 
The expression may be compared with 
Arist. Equ. 945 toioi noWots tov(3o\gv, 
' the many for an obol,' i.e. the worth- 
less crowd. 

14. notante iudice : there is no strict 
relation between the technical meaning 
of the two words. The people's adverse 
judgment involves disgrace as the mark 
of the Censor would. ' Notare ' is a 
veib which Horace is fond of using in 
metaphors ; see on Sat. 1. 3. 24. 

15 iudiee cjuo nosti. This con- 
struction was helped very probably by a 
flavour of resemblance to the Greek 
attraction of the relative, but it may be 
doubted whether there is any real attrac- 
tion. The instances quoted are all of 
one kind, and involving an ellipsis 
which it is at least possible so to 
supply as to account for the case apart 
from any attraction. In this case it is 
not (as Mr. Yonge points outj the 
equivalent of ' quem nosti ' ; ' quo ' is 
rather the indirect interrogative, there 
being substituted for a defining epithet 
of ' iudice ' the compound clause ' quo, 
nosti ' = o'iw oTada, ' ajudge, of what kind, 
you know.' Cp. Sall. Jug. 104 ' con- 
fecto quo intenderat negotio redit' ; 
where we may supply the ellipsis as 
well by writing ' quo confecto redire 
intenderat ' as ' quod conficere inten- 
derat ' ; Liv. 1. 29 ' quibus quisque 



Saepe dat indignis et famae servit ineptus, 

Oui stupet in titulis et imaginibus. Quid oportet 

Nos facere a volgo longe longeque remotos? 

Namque esto populus Laevino mallet honorem 

Ouam Decio mandare novo, censorque moveret 

Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus : 

Vel merito quoniam in propria non pelle quiessem. 

Sed fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru 

Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tilli, 

Sumere depositum clavum fierique tribuno? 

Invidia accrevit, privato quae minor esset. 

Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit crus 


poterat elatis ' = ' elatis iis, quibus elatis 
quisque poterat [exire].' 

17. stupet in. Virg. Aen. 10. 446 
' stupet in Turno.' 

titulis to be closely connected with 
imaginibus, the waxen masks of an- 
cestry and the names and titles of honour 
inscribed on tlie presses in which they 
were kept. ' Let us accept the judg- 
ment of the world, want of rank is a 
disqualification a priori for office, in the 
opinion of people and aristocrats alike ; 
and not unreasonably ; but the tempta- 
tion to play the donkey in the fable is too 
strong for most of us.' The answer to 
the definite question ' quid oportet nos 
facere'? would be, ' to show our small 
esteem for rank more logically and 

18. nos. Maecenas and Horace. 
Their distance from the crowd is in 
feeling not in birth. Bentley thinking 
the expression arrogant would read 
against the MSS. ' vos.' 

longe longeque. Ov. Met. 4. 325, 
and even in prose, Cic. de Fin. 2. 21. 68. 

20. Decio . . . novo : ' one of the 
devotion of a Decius, if he was at the 
same time '' homo novus," ' i.e. had had 
no ancestor who had held a curule 
office. For the devotion of P. Decius 
Mus in the great Latin war see Liv. 
8. 6. Cp. Virg. G. 2. 169, Juv. S. 8. 
254 ' Plebeiae Deciorum animae,' etc. 

moveret, sc. ' senatu ' : ' strike from 
the list of the senate.' Cp. ' movere 
loco ' Epp. 2. 2. 113, wherethe image 
is of the censor revising the list of the 

21. Appius. The reference is to 
Appius Claudius Pulcher, censor B.c.50, 

who is named as exercising the ofhce 
with severity by Cic. ad Fam. 8. 14. 

22. propria pelle, from the fable of 
the ass inthe lion's skin. Cp. Sat. 2. 1. 

23. eonstrictos, ' drags a 
captive bound at her chariot wheels.' 
The image of the personified love of 
glory (4>(AoTi/Ji'a) in her triumphal car is 
repeated in Epp. 2. 1. 177 ' ventoso 
gloria curru.' 

24. An in^tance of this enslavement 
to the foolish desire of rank. 

quo tibi. Madv. § 239 ; see on 
Epp. 1. 5. 12. 

Tilli. The Scholiasts say that the 
refertnce is to one Tillius. a Pompeian 
who was removed from the senate by 
J. Caesar, and who after his death re- 
sumed his dignities and became a ' tri- 
bunus militum.' There is nothing to 
complete or corroborate this account. 
He appears in v. 107 as a ' praetor.' 
The laticlave (see on Sat. 1. 5. 36;, like 
the sandal leathers of v. 27, is part of 
the senator's distinguishing garb. It has 
been explained in close connection with 
' fieri tribuno ' by reference to Suetonius' 
statement (Aug. 38) that Augustus al- 
lowed the sons of senators to wear the 
laticlave, and on joining the army to be- 
come at once ' tribuni ' ; but we gather 
from the context rather that Tillius was 
of humble birth, and in v. 110 emphasis 
is laid on the fact of his being a senator. 
He is represented as resuming his posi- 
tion both civil and military. 

27. ut, from the time when. Od. 4. 
4. 42, Epod. 7. 19, Sat. 2. 2. 128. 

nigris pellibus. For the senator's 
shoe see Mayoron Jnv. S. 7. 192. Itwas 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 


Pellibus et latum demisit pectore clavum, 

Audit continuo : ' Quis homo hic est ? quo patre natus ? ' 

Ut si qui aegrotet quo morbo Barrus, haberi 30 

Et cupiat formosus, eat quacunque, puellis 

Iniiciat curam quaerendi singula, quali 

Sit facie, sura, quali pede, dente, capillo : 

Sic qui promittit cives, urbem sibi curae, 

Imperium fore et Italiam, delubra deorum, 35 

Ouo patre sit natus, num ignota matre inhonestus, 

Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. 

' Tunc Syri, Damae, aut Dionysi filius, audes 

Deicere de saxo cives aut tradere Cadmo ? ' 

' At Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno ; 40 

Namque est ille, pater quod erat meus.' ' Hoc tibi Paulus 

Et Messalla videris ? At hic, si plostra ducenta 

Concurrantque foro tria funera, magna sonabit 

apparently red (' mulleus '), fastened 
higher up the leg than other shoes (cp. 
' medium impediit crus ') with four 
slrap« (' corrigiae ' | of black leather, and 
with a crescent (' luna ' Juv. 1. c) at- 
tached in front. 

31. et. The reading of the best 
MSS., including 'omnes Ctuq.' It is 
epexegetic of the clause which precedes 
the ' same malady as that of Barrus,' 
being the desire to be thought hand- 
some. ' Ut,' which Orelli adopts, was 
a late reading, and intended to make 
this sense still clearer. 

34. promittit, ' undertakes,' i. e. in 
offering himself for high office. 

35. imperium : see on Od. 1.2. 26. 
Here its conjunction with ' Italiam ' 
marks its special reference to the foreign 
dominion, ' provinciae.' 

38. Syri, etc. : three familiar names 
of slaves ; for Damae see on Sat. 2. 5. 18. 

39. ' To exercise extreme powers 
against Roman citizens.' The special 
powers named are ideal (cp. Lucr. 3. 
1029 ' Carcer et horribilis de saxo iactus 
eorum, Verbera, carnifices '), and we 
need not ask too particularly what spe- 
cial magistrate exercised them. Hurl- 
ing from the Tarpeian rock was still a 
recognised punishment in certain cases. 
Tac. Ann. 2. 32, 4. 29, 6. 19. 

deicere, a trisyll. See Virg. Ecl. 3. 
96 ' reice capellas.' Some MSS. how- 
ever have ' e ' for ' de.' So Orelli. 

tradere Cadmo. ' Cadmus carnifex 
illo tempore fuisse dicitur' Porph. In 
answer to the objection taken by some 
editors that the ' carnifex ' had nuthing 
to do with Roman citizens, Cic. pro 
Rab. 411 is quoted, 'tu qui civibus Ro- 
manis carnificem, qui vincula, adhiberi 
putis oportere.' There is rather less 
variety than usual in the MSS. as to a 
proper name, but the explanation may 
be a guess. Acr.*has, after a note to 
the same effect as Porphyrion's, ' tradere, 
in exilium mittere,' which seems to mean 
that ' Cadmo ' (or some other word of 
vvhich it is a corruption) had been taken 
as the name of a place. 

40. Novius can hardly but be a 
name chosen for its etymology, see p. 14. 

gradu sedet. The expression is here 
figurative, though taken from the dis- 
tinctions of place in the theatre ; the 
real difference is explained in the fol- 
lowing line. 

41. hoc = 'ideo,' ' therein,' ' there- 
fore.' Paulus, Messalla, the names of 
high aristocratic families. 

43. concurrantque . . . vincatque : 
for the place of ' que ' in each case see 
on Od. 1. 30. 6. For the noise of a 
great funeral the editors quote Seneca 
(de Morte Claudii, p. 681) ' Et erat om- 
nium formosissimum [Claudii funus] et 
impensa cura plenum, ut scires deum 
efferri ; tibicinum, cornicinum, omnisque 
generis aeneatorum tanta turba, tantus 


Comua quod vincatque tubas ; saltem tenet hoc nos.' 

Nunc ad me redeo libertino patre natum, 45 

Oucm rodunt omnes libertino patre natum, 

Nunc quia sim tibi, Maecenas, convictor ; at olim 

Ouod mihi pareret legio Romana tribuno. 

Dissimile hoc illi est ; quia non ut forsit honorem 

Iure mihi invideat quivis ita te quoque amicum, 50 

Praesertim cautum dignos assumere, prava 

Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 

Me possum casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 

Nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit : optimus olim 

Vergilius, post hunc Varius, dixere quid essem. 55 

Ut veni coram singultim pauca locutus, 

Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 

Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 

Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed quod eram narro. Respondes, ut tuus est mos, 60 

Pauca : abeo ; et revocas nono post mense iubesque 

conventus, ut etiam Claudius audire 
posset.' With Tersius 3. 103 ' tuba, 
candelae ' = ' a funeral.' 

magna has been taken either with 
funera, or after sonabit, as Sat. I. 4. 
44, Juv. S. 7. 10S ' ipsi magna sonant.' 
The rhythm is in favour of the latter ; 
for ' quod ' cp. in either case Sat. 1. 9. 
25 ' Invideat quod et Hermogenes ego 

44. tenet hoc, ' he has this hold 
on us.' 

45. nune ad me redeo, a transition 
from Lucilius (inc. 98 . 

46. The words repeated are the words 
ahvays in their lips : see on Od. 1. 13. 
*> *• 35- J 5 I an d compare 2. 20. 5, 6. 

47. sim. I followK.and H. and Munro 
in giving ' sim ' instead of ' sum ' ^Bent. 
and Orell.). It has much authority, and 
'sum' is hard to reconcile with 'pareret.' 

convietor : cp. the expression of Au- 
gustus' letterto Horace, vol. i. p. xxviii. 

49. hoc illi, the present case — the 
former one ; ' hoc ' of the nearest in 
thought, nol of the last mentioned. 

forsit, aira£ A.67., a contraction of 
' fors sit.' It is common in the fuller 
form ' forsitan.' A few MSS. have 
•' forsan,' and the unusual form would 
doubtless bave been ousted by editors 

had it not been quoted by Priscian (p. 
10 15) from this place. 

52. ambitione procul : ' ambitione 
relegata ' Sat. 1. 10. 84. There was no 
thought on either side of bad or de- 
gradmg modes of gaining favour. 

53. sortitus : for the omission of 
'sim' cp. Sat. 2. 8. 2 ' dictus ' for 
' dictus es.' The ellipsis is more rare 
with the first and second persons than 
with the third. 

56. singultim: not found elsewhere 
till Apukius. It seems to mean ' with 
gasps,' of a stammering utterance ; adv. 
from ' singultus.' Kitter takes it as a 
collat. form of ' singillatim.' 

57. infans, ' tongue-tied.' 

59. Satureiano, i. e. Tarentino. Sa- 
tuiium was the name of a place or 
district near Tarentum ; x^P a ^\r/aiov 
Tapavros, Stephanus Byzant. (6th cent.). 
Strabo gives an oracle said to have been 
received by Phalantus, Sariptiv toi 5<£wa 
TapavTa Tt -niova Sfjpjv Olnrjaat. 

61. abeo . . . revocas. Horace waited 
patiently for nine months ; the acquaint- 
ance if lt was to be renewed must be re- 
newcd by Maecenas. Contrast the 
conduct sketched by the man who asks 
for an introduction in Sat. 1. 9. 56-59 
' haud mihi deero/ etc. 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 


Esse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco 

Ouod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honestum, 

Non patre praeclaro, sed vita et pectore puro. 

Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 65 

Mcndosa est natura alioqui recta, velut si 

Egregio inspersos reprehendas corpore naevos ; 

Si neque avaritiam neque sordes nec mala lustra 

Obiciet vere quisquam mihi, purus et insons 

(Ut me collaudem) si et vivo carus amicis ; 70 

Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello 

Noluit in FJavi ludum me mittere, magni 

Ouo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 

Laevo suspensi- loculos tabulamque lacerto, 

Ibant octonis referentes Idibus aera : 75 

63. turpi . . . honestum. Perh. Epp. 
1. 9. 4 ' legentis honesta Neronis,' shows 
that these are more probably neut. than 
masc. (as Orelli). 

65. atqui. ' But yet,' do not misunder- 
stand ine. Even when I say that I am 
proud to owe your friendship to myself, 
not to my father, I am indirectly ex- 
pressing my obligation to him, for I 
owe him ' my own self.' 

ac mea paucis : for the hyperbaton 
cp. Sat. 1. 549 ' pila lippis inimicum et 
ludere crudi,' and below vv. 69. 70. 

68. nec. The reading of V. The 
vulg. is 'ac,'w!iich Bentley rightly ob- 
jected to ; 'sordes' (' meanness,' see v. 
107) is the opposite vice to ' mala 
lustra,' ' haunts of debauchery.' Bentl. 
adopted ' aut,' which Orelli retains. 

70. collaudem : perh. in its simplest 
sense, praise myself too, i. e. as well as 
my father. 

72. Flavi, i. e. the scliool at Ve- 

magni . . . magnis, ' both bigger and 
grander than I was.' 

74. loculos has been taken either 
as = the ' capsa ' of Juv. Sat. 10. 117 
' quem sequitur custos angustae ver- 
nula capsae,' of a case containing books, 
writing materials. etc, or in its more 
usual sense (see on Sat. 1. 3. 17) of a re- 
ceptacle for money, here probably for 
counters. In the former case ' tabula ' 
will be a writing tablet (cp. SeXrov e<p- 
cuf/afievot, quoted by Mayor from Philo- 
stratus). In the latter it must be taken 

more closely with 'loculos' as the 
' abacus ' or counting boardg on which 
the counters were to be placed. The 
two will then describe the implements 
for the arithmetic lesson ; cp. A. P. 325. 
The line is repeated Epp. 1. 1. 56. 
For the construction of the accusative 
with the passive part. see Madvig, 
§ 237 b. 

75. oetonis Idibus aera. There is 
serious question as to both reading and 
sense. If we keep the vulgate it is best 
explained (see Bekker's Gallus, Excursus 
on ' Education ') of the monthly pay- 
ments and four months' summer holidays 
of country schools as contrasted with the 
yearly payment and full year's school- 
ing in Rome, ' bringing their fees on the 
Ides of eight months.' The distributive 
is used regularly for the cardinal nu- 
meral with a noun which is plural in 
form even when singular in sense, as 
' bina castra,' etc. In Orelli's explana- 
tion, ' eight-day Ides,' ' quia Idus in oc- 
tavum post Nonas diem incidunt,' it is 
difficult to feel any ground for the dis- 
tributive. An alternative reading is 
found in a few good MSS., and is given 
by Keller, ' octonos Idibus aeris,' where 
' aeris ' is equivalent to ' asses,' as in 
Cic. pro Q. Rosc. 10. 28 ' duodecim 
aeris.' The distribntive then means 
'eight asses on each Ides.' This read- 
ing seems to be interpreted by Acr. 
'nummos pro mercedibus, octonos asses 
aeris.' On the other hand ihe note of 
the Comm. Cruq. shows that he found 



Scd puerum est ausus Romam portare, docendum 
Artes quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 
Semet prognatos. Vestem servosque sequentes, 
In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 
Ex re praeberi sumptus mihi crederet illos. 
Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnes 
Circum doctores aderat. Ouid multa? Pudicum, 
Oui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omni 
Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi ; 
Nec timuit sibi ne vitio quis verteret olim 
Si praeco parvas aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor 
Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus 
Laus illi debetur et a me gratia maior. * 

Nil me paeniteat sanum patris huius, eoque 


at hoc nunc 

1 octonis,' and being puzzled by it, got 
out of the difficulty by treating ' octonis 
Idibus ' as a hypallage for ' octonos 
asses Idibus,' ' viraXXayr), hoc est sin- 
gulis Idibus referebant octonos asses 
aeris pro mercede scholastica.' This is 
very possibly the origin of the reading. 
Some one who held this view indicated 
it more briefly by writing ' octonos . . . 
aeris ' as a gloss over ' octonis . . . aera.' 
The assonance of ' octonos Idibus aeris ' 
is disagreeable, and one which Horace 
avoids even in his roughest hexame- 

77. artes, branches of knowledge, 
which Ovid (Pont. 2. 9. 47) calls ' in- 
genuas artes,' grammar, rhetoric, philo- 
sophy, etc. 

79. in magno ut populo, ' as be- 
fitted a great city.' At Venusia he 
might have gone as others carrying his 
own books, etc. Cp. Virg. Aen. 1. 148 
' magno in populo,' ' in some great city.' 

si qui vidisset . . . erederet. Cp. 
Sat. 1. 3 5-7. The impft. subj. does 
not deny the hypothesis, but is due to 
the past time and the general statements : 
' any one who saw would (was sure to) 
believe.' The tense of 'vidisset' is be- 
cause in present time it would be ' vi- 
derit ' : believing is subsequent to seeing. 
Cp. also (with Bentl.) Sat. 2. 3. 93. 

avita, of two generations. 

81. custos = Traida-yai-yos : see on Sat. 
1. 4. 118, and cp. A. P. 161. 239, Juv. 
S. 7. 218 ; usuallya conlidential slave to 
watch over a boy, take him to school, 

keep him from harm, etc. Horace's 
father will depute ihe ofhce to none. 

83. primus, the first in point of time 
— virtue must begin there. 

84. His fathers presence protected 
him not only from temptation but from 
scandal : turpi belongs to both sub- 

85. sibi vitio verteret si, a phrase 
of Latin prose, Cic. Fam. 7. 6. 1, 
' reckon it as a fault of his if.' For the 
case of ' vitio ' see Madv. § 249. 

86. praeco : Dict. Ant. s. v. It was 
a specially despised calling. Juv. S. 7- 
5 ' nec foedum alii nec turpe putarent 
Praecones fieri,' with Mayor's note. 
Cp. Epod. 4. 12, Sat. 2. 2. 47, Epp. 1. 
7. 56, A. P. 419. 

coactor, ' collector.' The term was 
used in several connections. In this 
case the Suetonian life of Horace fixes 
its meaning by adding 'exactionum,' 
i. e. the dues farmed by ' publicani.' 
See Rab. Post.i 1. 30, from which 
we learn that a ' coactor ' was allowed 
one per cent. on his collection. 

87. at hoc. I have followed all the 
editors (including Orelli. Ritter, Dill r ., 
Munro, and Holder) in altering the ' ad ' 
of the MSS. and Acr. to ' at,' and it is 
an improvement ; but ' ad hoc ' (' ad 
haec' Cruq. gives, following ' one Bland.') 
seems possible : see on Epod. 9. 16 and 
Epp. 1. 19. 45. In our reading ' hoc ' 
is ablative, as in v. 41 of the Satire. 

89. paeniteat, potcntial : see on Sat. 

I. 5- 44- 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 79 

Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 90 

Quod non ingenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 

Sic me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 

Et vox et ratio : nam si natura iuberet 

A certis annis aevum remeare peractum 

Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes 95 

Optaret sibi quisque, meis contentus honestos 

Fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere, demens 

Iudicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 

Nollem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestum. 

Nam mihi continuo maior quaerenda foret res, 100 

Atque salutandi plures, ducendus et unus 

Et comes alter uti ne solus rusve peregreve 

Exirem ; plures calones atque caballi 

Pascendi, ducenda petorrita. Nunc mihi curto 

90. dolo suo, said (by Heind.) to 
be a juristic use. = ' culpa sua ' ; but 
perhaps with some play ' that it is not 
of malice prepense.' 

93. ratio, ' sententia ' Porph., opposed 
to ' vox,' as it often is to ' oratio,' 'what 
I think as well as what I say.' 

94. a certis annis, ' after a fixed 
period.' ' If life repeated itself in cycles.' 
Cruquius' note is ' post mille annos ait 
Plato in Phaedro.' 

95. I.e. 'alios legere ad fastum [pa- 
rentes\ quoscunque parentes optaret 
sibi quisque.' It has been also punc- 
tuated so that ' optaret sibi quisque ' 
should begin the apodosis, ' each would 
(or ' might ') choose for himself,' 'quos- 
cunque' going with 'alios legere,''others, 
whoever they might be,' but this is less 

ad fastum, ' to the full of their pride,' 
as ' ad voluntatem,' ' ad arbitrium,' 

96. honestos fascibus. For the 
ablative cp. above v. 36 ' ignota matre 
inhonestus.' There is a varia lectio 
with some little MS. authority, ' honus- 
tos ' = ' onustos,' strongly supported by 
Lambinus. But it would not be so 
suitable. Ennobled ancestry would be 
a burden (v. 99) to Horace ; he is not 
concerned to say that the distinction 
would have been a burden to them. 

97. sellis, sc. ' curulibus ' : cp. Epp. 
1.6. 53 ' cui libet hic fasces dabit, eripi- 
etque curule . . . ebur.' 

101. salutandi. The early morning 
levees in great people's homes were a 
standing vexation in Roman life, Virg. 
G. 2.462, Juv. S. 3. i26foll., 5. 19 foll., 
76 foll. ' Salutare ' was used both of 
tho^e who paid and those who received 
the call. See Cic. ad Fam 9. 20 ' mane 
salutamus domi . . . multos . . . qui me 
perofficiose observant.' As Horace is 
here giving a whimsical list of the in- 
conveniences which would beset him if 
he were a great man, he is probably using 
it in this latter sense. 

102. rusve peregreve. So with 
most editors I have given ; but the 
reading is not quite certain. The mass 
of MSS. have ' rusve peregre aut,' and 
Porph. interpreted it ' ordo est rusve aut 
peregre.' The sound is harsh, but the 
conjunction ' ve' . . . ' aut ' is possible : 
see Prop. 2. 1. 23. It is suggested that 
the hypermetric line (for which cp. Sat. 
1. 4. 96) caused the substitution in early 
copies of ' aut ' for ' ve.' 

103. calones, Epp. 1. 14. 42 ; used 
by Horace apparently for the lower ser- 
vants in his town establishment. 

104. ducenda, a train of them. 
Contrast Umbricius' household (Juv. S. 
3. 10) which ' reda componitur una.' 

petorrita, ' four - wheel chariots ' : 
Epp. 2. 1. 192. 

curto, ' cauda curta ' Comm. Cruq. 
No illustration has been found : unless 
' cnrtus equus,' in Prop. 4. 1. 20, means 
a horse whose tail has been cut off ; see 



Ire licet mulo vel si libet usque Tarentum, 
Mantica cui lumbos onere ulceret atque eques armos 
Obiciet nemo sordes mihi quas tibi. Tilli, 
Cum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur 
Te pueri lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 
Hoc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, 
Milibus atque aliis vivo. Quacunque libido est, 
Incedo solus ; percontor quanti olus ac far ; 
Fallacem Circum vespertinumque pererro 
Saepe Forum ; adsisto divinis ; inde domum me 
Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum ; 
Cena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 
Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echinus 
Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supellex. 
Deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus mihi quod cras 
Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 





Dict. Ant. s. v. Palilia) nor better ex- 
planation offered. 

106. mantica. ' Mantica pera est, 
sed hoc ex Luciliano illo sumptum est' 
(Frag. 3. 31) ; ' Mantica cantheri costas 
gravitate premebat ' (Porph.) 

107. Tilli : see above on v. 24. 

iii. milibus atque aliis, probnbly 
neuter, 'in thousandsof otherways.' The 
more usual expression would be ' mille 
aliis,' the singular being ordinarily an 
adjective. the plural always a substantive. 
It is to be noticed, however, that this is 
not a case of 'milibus' used with a 
substantive in agreement. It is rather 
a peculiarity in the use of ' aliis,' an ad- 
jective instead of a genitive case, ' thou- 
sands besides' rather than ' thousands of 
others' — aWai X'A<a5(sinstead of aWwv. 
The genitive whether it be neut. or masc. 
is understood. 

1 1 3. fallacem Circum, ' because it 
was the haunt of astrologers and for- 
tune-tellers,' the ' divini ' of the next 
verse. Cp. 'de Circo astrologos,' Enn. 
apud Cic. Divin. 1. 50, 'Si mediocris 
erit (if the superstitious woman is of 
midri ing rank) spatium lustrabit utrin- 
que Jwetarum ii. e. on each side of the 
" spina " in the Circus et sortes ducet 
frontemque manuroque Praebebit vati' 
Juv. S. 6. 582. 

vespertinum : Epod. 16. 51. n. In 
sense both adjectives are meant to qualify 
both substantives. 

115. ciceris, a kind of pulse : Sat. 
%.%. 3/182, A. P. 249. 

lagani, described by the Scholiasts 
as a thin cake of fine flour served with 
pepper sauce. It would resemble the 
modern Italian maccaroni. 

116. pueris tribus : see on Sat. 1. 
3. 12. For the dative cp. Epp. 1. 19. 3 
' carmina Quae scribuntur aquae potori- 
bus,' and Madvig, § 250 a. 

lapis albus, a slab of white marble 
serving as a sideboard. Cp. the fumi- 
ture of Codras, Juv. 3. 203 'urceoli sex 
Omamentum abaci.' 

117. pocula . . . cyatho : for the con- 
nection of these see Od. 3. 19. 12. 

echinus, some vessel of the shape 
of the sea urchin. The purpose was in 
doubt in the time of the Scholiasts, 
' vas aeneum in quo calices lavantur,' 
Acr., ' vas salisin modum echini marini' 
Com. Cruq. With the second explana- 
tion, cp. 'concha salis ' Sat. 1. 3. 14. 

118. cum patera guttus, a flat 
saucer and a narrow-necked flask (' a 
guttis guttum appellarunt' Varro). 
These seem to have been used for 

Campana, of Campanian ware : Sat. 
2. 3. 144 ' Campana trulla.' 

120. obeundus Marsya, ' to visit 
Marsyas,' i.e. to go to the Forum on 
law-business. 'Marsya statua erat pro 
Rostris ad quam solebant homines illi 
convenire qui inter se lites alque negotia 

LIB. I. SAT. 6. 


Voltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 
Ad quartam iaceo ; post hanc vagor, aut ego lecto 
Aut scripto quod me tacitum iuvet unguor olivo, 
Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. 
Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 
Admonuit fugio Campum lusumque trigonem. 


componebant . . . a statua nomen locus 
acceperat ' Acr. Cp. Mart. 2. 64 7 ' fora 
litibus omnia fervent : Ipse potest fieri 
Marsya causidicus,' i. e. the statue itself 
may find a voice and join in the plead- 
ing. Either the face of pain 011 this 
statue (cp. Juv. S. 9. 1 ' Scire velim quare 
toties mihi, Naevole tristis Occurris, 
ceu Marsya victus ') or the uplifted 
hand (' Marsyas in foro positus . . . qni 
erecta manu,' etc. Servius on Virg. Aen. 
4. 58), is represented satirically by 
Horace as indicating displeasure at the 
sight of the younger Novius, a money- 
lender, according to the Scholiasts. 
For the form Marsya see on Sat. 1. 5. 

122. With this description of Horace's 
day compare the account which Cicero 
gives of himself when he professes to 
have given up active politics, ad Fam. 
9. 20 ' Haec est igitur nunc vita nostra, 
mane salutamus domi multos . . . ubi 
salutatio defiuxit literis me involvo, aut 
scribo aut lego. Veniunt etiam qui me 
audiant . . . Inde corpori omne tempus 

ad. quartam : see on Sat. 1. 5. 23. 

iaceo, sc. ' in lectulo lucubratorio ' : 
see on Sat. 1. 4. 133. Horace would 
not approve of sleep beyond the first 
hour ; see Epp. 1. 17. 6, 1. 18. 34. On 
the other hand he speaks of reading and 
composing in the early morning, Epp. 
I. 2. 35, 2. 1. 112. 

post hanc vagor. He started some- 
times earlier, for in Sat. 1. 9. 35 he has 
been afoot for some time at the end of 
the third hour. 

aut ego lecto (pass. part., not fre- 
quentative verb as Porph. took it) to be 
connected with what follows — ' I stroll, 
or when I have read or written for the 
amusement of my quiet hours, I anoint 
myself,' i. e. prepare for exercise. ' Lecto, 
etc' repeats, with explanation, the pre- 
vious ' ad quartam ' ' post hanc ' : ' ego ' 
is due to the fact that he is calling 
special attention to the freedom and 
variety of his day. Bentley connects 
' aut ego — iuvet ' with ' vagor,' ' I stroll 

VOL. II. 1 

after either reading or writing etc.' The 
list of occupations is then 'iaceo,' 
' vagor,' ' unguor,' but is there time 
before the sun is hot for both the stroll 
and the game of ball ? 

124. fraudatis, the lamps were 
stinted or robbed. The using of bad 
oil is a form of petty parsimony familiar 
in Latin poets, Sat. 2. 2. 59, 2. 3. 
125, 2. 4. 50 ; Juv. S. 5. 87 foll., where 
notice ' olebit lantemam.' 

126. lusum trigonem, ' the game of 
three,' a game of ball. The word 
' trigon ' is found elsewhere only in 
Martial ; there as a subst. denoting 
either the game (4. 19. 5 ' tepidum 
trigona,' 7. 72. 9 ' trigone nudo,' i.e. 
which men stripped to play ; cp. Horace's 
' unguor ') or the ball (ib. 12. 83. 3 ' cap- 
tabit tepidum dextra laevaque trigo- 
rem'). Horace speaks in Sat. 2. 6. 49 
of playing (ball) in the Campus, 011 
which the Comm. Cruq. annotates, ' sole- 
bant Romani in Campo Martio ludere 
pila trigonali.' Bentley himself sug- 
gested altering ' lusum ' into ' nudum,' 
to make it correspond with Mart. 7. 
72. 9. Munro, thinking ' trigon ' was 
the ball itself, would either take ' lusum ' 
as a participle = ' elusum,' 'cheated,' 
' left in the lurch,' or alter it to ' pul- 
sum.' On the reading see Introduction, 
vol. i. p. xv. All existing MSS. except 
g (a Gotha MS. of the I5th century) 
have ' rabiosi tempora signi,' and this 
was the text interpreted by all the Scho- 
liasts. V (which is followed by g) had 
the text as I have given it in accordance 
with most editors since Bentley. Keller 
and Holder, who consistently undervalue 
the authority of V, have restored 'rabiosi 
tempora signi.' The origin of the 
divergence cannot be guessed : Ritter 
imagines an alteration by the poet's own 
hand. ' Rabiosi tempora signi ' has been 
taken both of the heat of noon, — ' signi ' 
= ' solis,' — and of the dog days, ' aestivi 
tempora sicca canis ' Tibull. 1. 4. 6 ; cp. 
Od. 1. 17. 17 ' caniculae vitabis aestus.' 
Neither are satisfactory. The first 
makes the two lines tautological. Ths 



Pransus non avide, quantum interpellet inani 
Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Haec est 
Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique ; 
His me consolor victurum suavius ac si 
Quaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque fuisset. 


second is open to Heindorfs complaint 
that Horace is not giving an account of 
his day in July and August only : 
Munvo adds that Horace would not be 
in Rome in the dog days : and in any 
case ' rabiosum signum ' for the sun is a 
strange and un-Horatian phrase. 

127. interpellet durare, ' save me 
from lasting the day out,' i.e. till the 
' cena.' The prose construction would 

be ' quin,' ' quominus,' or ' ne,' with the 

129. misera gravique, ' the pains 
and burdens of ambition.' 

131. quaestor. Henames thelowest 
office which would have rendered a 
family ' nobilis ;' ' than if I had as much 
claim as so many of my neighbours, 
aye, than if I had twice as much, to be 
an aristocrat.' 



A Personal anecdote from Horace's experience in the short period that he was 
attached to Brutus' fortunes. Brutus, who was ' Praetor urbanus ' in the year 44, 
had been promised by Caesar the province of Macedonia, and after a struggle with 
C. Antonius, who had been actually nominated to it by the Senate, took posses- 
sion of it at the beginning of B.C. 43. Cassius had in a similar way taken posses- 
sion of the province of Syria. In the course of this year C. Trebonius, another of 
the conspirators, who, having been consul in 45, had received the proconsular pro- 
vince of Asia, was treacherously murdered by Dolabella. This brought both 
Brutus and Cassius into Asia. 

The scene of the story is laid at Clazomenae on the bay of Smyrna, where 
Brutus is represented as holding a ' conventus' as though he were ' proconsul.' 

The story all leads up to the play on the name of ' Rex,' with which it concludes, 
and which was of a kind which gave especial pleasure to Romans ; but it is told 
with some humour, and the different types of the two litigants are well 
marked, the half-Greek trader and money-lender, courtly, fluent, witty, and the 
country-bred Roman of Praeneste, with his thick skin and heavy-handed sarcasms. 

There is no certain indication of the date, but everything points to an early one. 
The joke on Brutus's act (v. 34), is one most naturally made before his tragical 
end, and is at any rate one which Horace would have avoided when he had 
come to Rome and had realized that the world was passing to ' Caesars avenger.' 
See Introd. to Satires, p. 5. 

The Scholiasts have a story that the Satire was written by way of revenge on 

LIB. I. SAT. 7. 


Rupilius Rex, who had been one of those who, in jealousy of Horace's rank as 
tribune, taunted him with his parentage (Sat. 1. 6. 40). 

PROSCRTPTI Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 

Hybrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus, opinor 

Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. 

Persius hic permagna negotia dives habebat 

Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rege molestas, 5 

Durus homo atque odio qui posset vincere Regem, 

Confidens tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari, 

Sisennas, Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 

Ad Regem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque 

t. Proscripti Regis. The play on 
his name begins with the first line 
in this juxtaposition, ' that outlawed 
King,' as though he were another 

pus atque venenum, metaphorically 
of ' foul and venomous ' utterance. Lu- 
ciHus had possibly used the word in 
the same sense, fr. 15. 13. Nothing 
is known of Rupilius Rex but what 
Horace tells us. The Scholiasts iden- 
tify him unwarrantably with P. Ru- 
pilius ' magister publicanorum ' in 
Bithynia, mentioned in Cic. ad Fam. 13. 
9. 2. A misunderstanding of ' Pro- 
scripti ' (which means probably pro- 
scribed by the Triumvirs) leads them to 
describe him as ' a civibus Praenestinis 
in exilium missus.' 

2. hybrida, ' mongrel,' or ' half- 
bred': ' patre Asiatico matre Romana' 
Schol. for literal use cp. Plin. N. H. 1. 79 
' in nullo genere aeque (atque in suibus) 
facilis mixtura cum fero, qualiter natos 
antiqui hybridas vocabant ' : for metaph. 
cp. Suet. Aug. 19 ' Asinii Epicadi ex 
gente Parthina hybridae,' Mart. 8. 
22. 2. 

3. lippis et tonsoribus = hearers 
and purveyors of gossip. Cp. Plautus, 
Amphit. 4. 1. 5, of places where loun- 
gers would be looked for, ' in medicinis, 
in tonstrinis . . . sum defessus quaesi- 
tando.' The point of the line is, ' all the 
world knows the story — perhaps I may 
tell it again.' 

6. odio, in a passive sense as in Ter. 
Hec. 1. 2. 48 ' tundendo atque odio,' 
of offensive language and manner. 

7. confidens,a word whichbyCicero's 
time (Tusc. 3. 7. 14) had acquired a 


bad meaning, ' bold,' 'audacious.' In 
Plautus it is used in a good sense. 

tumidus, ' blustering.' Cp. A. P. 
94 ' Iratus . . . tumido delitigat ore.' 
Many MSS. add ' que,' but it was want- 
ing in V. 

8. Sisennas, Barros, ' such men as 
Sisenna and Barras,' names unknown 
to us in this connection — standing in- 
stances (possibly in Lucilius) of bitter 

equis albis, apparently the same pro- 
verbial expression as in Plaut. Asin. 2. 
2. 13 ' Nam si huic occasioni tempus 
sese subterduxerit, Nunquam edepol 
quadrigis albis indipiscet postea.' Two 
explanations are given by the Schol. 
(1) 'albis, sc. velocioribus,' according to 
Homer's AevKuTepot xtovos Belav 5' avk- 
yLoiaiv 61J.0101, of the horses of Rhesus, 
11. 10. 437, imitated by Vin>il, Aen. 12. 
84; (2) 'quasi quadrigis tiiumphalibus,' 
' triumphantly,' white horses being used 
in the triumphal procession. The first 
is the most likely, as suiting best the 
use in Plautus. 

9. ad Regem. Not an exact expres- 
sion, for he does not ' come back to 
Rex ' in the sense of describing him 
as he has described Persius. The 
meaning seems rather to be that he 
passes from the general description of 
Persius to the special story of his rela- 
tion to Rex. 

postquam, ' when they cannot settle 
their differences between them ' : the 
apodosis is lost in the long parenthesis 
that follows, for when in v. iS we re- 
sume the direct statement, we begin 
again as though there was no temporal 
protasis still pendant. 



Convenit, (hoc etenim sunt omnes iure molesti 
Ouo fortes quibus adversum bellum incidit ; inter 
Hectora Priamiden animosum atque inter Achillem 
Ira fuit capitalis ut ultima divideret mors, 
Non aliam ob causam nisi quod virtus in utroque 
Summa fuit : duo si discordia vexet inertes, 
Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 
Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior ultro 
Muneribus missis) Bruto praetore tenente 
' Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 


io, ii. The construction is not cer- 
tain. (i) Acr. interpreted 'iure' by 
' exemplo, pacto, modo, potestate.' If 
this could be, the sentence would run 
' for all [i. e. all combatants] are awk- 
ward to deal with [apya\foi, x a ^ fTrot 
tlai) by that right [i. e. in virtue of that 
quality] by which brave men are so 
who meet in single combat.' Heindorf 
thought to amend this, but hardly 
does so, by taking the clause ' quibus 
adversum bellum incidit ' as qualify- 
ing ' omnes.' It seems clear that ' bel- 
lum,' both here and in v. 16, has its 
proper sense of actual combat, and is 
opposed to civil quarrels. (2) The 
Comm. Cruq. led the way in making 
' molesti ' the subject, and taking ' hoc 
iure sunt ' as = ' hanc potestatem sibi vin- 
dicant,' ' all quarrelsome persons have 
the right which brave men have who 
meet in single combat,' viz. to fight their 
quarrels to the death. This has on the 
whole been the usual interpretation, 
being followed by Lambinus, Torren- 
tius, Orelli, Ritter, Yonge, Schutz, and 

Neither is quite satisfactory. The 
use of 'iure' in ^i), and the constr. 'hoc 
iure sunt ' for ' hoc ius habent ' in (2), 
both want support. Perhaps while ac- 
ceptingthe first interpretation generally, 
we had better separate 'hoc ' from ' iure' 
and take it as the instrum. abl. with 
' molesti,' answered to by ' quo/ ' are 
troublesome by this [quality] ' : 'iure' 
may then either be taken in its com- 
mon sense, frequent in Hor., ' rightly,' 
einoTws, or perhaps as opposed to ' bel- 
lum,' ' in law,' ' in civil suits : ' cp. its 
use in ' iure consultus,' ' iure peritus,' 
and notice that when the threads are 
taken up in w. 1 8. 24, we have ' in ius 
acres procurrunt.' For the neuter ' hoc 

.. . quo ' compare Sat. 2. 1. 50 ' quo 
quisque valet,' etc. ' Hoc ' here = ' vir- 
tute' (v. if). Their courage is their/- 
weapon which makes them ' molesti ' to 
their opponents. 

11. inter . . . inter, an illogical but a 
Latin use. Epp. 1. 2. 11 ' Nestor com- 
ponere lites Peliden festinat et inter 
Atriden.' Cic. de Am. 25. 95 ' quod in- 
tersit inter popularem civem et inter con- 
stantem.' He takes two instances of 
single combat from the Iliad, that of 
Hector and Achilles in II. 22, which 
ends in Hector's death, and that of 
Glaucus and Diomede in II. 6, which 
ends in the exchange of armour {xpvcta 
xa\K(iwv) in which Glaucus has the 
worst of it. Horace, either from his 
own view (cp. Epp. 1. 2), or following 
later tradition, emphasizes the half- 
comic aspect of this exchange as 
though it implied surrender on Glaucus' 

13. ira capitalis. Cp. ' capitale 
odium ' Cic. de Am. 1. 2. 

ultima, i. e. nothing short of 
' death.' 

15. vexet. Two ' cowards' (for ' in- 
ertes' cp. Od. 3. 5. 36, 4. 9. 29) do not 
welcome a quarrel. 

17. pigrior. Cp. ' impiger,' the epi- 
thet of Achilles A. P. 121. 

18. missis, ' proffered.' This would 
be inexact if it were applied directly to 
Glaucus, for in Homer the proposal of 
exchange came from Diomede. 

praetore tenente. See Introd. 
' Praetor' is used loosely of a person 
who, having been ' praetor,' is goveming 
a province : see Long's note on Cic. pro 
Q. Ligario, 1. 

19. par gives the connection with 
what precedes. They were not ' dis- 
pares,' like Diomede and Glaucus. 

LIB. I. SAT. 7. 

Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacchius. In ius 
Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 
Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni 
Conventu ; Jaudat Brutum laudatque cohortem : 
Solem Asiae Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 
Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem illum 
Invisum agricolis sidus venisse. Ruebat 
Flumen ut hibernum fertur quo rara securis. 
Tum Praenestinus salso multoque fluenti 
Expressa arbusto regerit convicia, durus 
Vindemiator et invictus, cui saepe viator 
Cessisset magna compellans voce cucullum. 
At Graecus, postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, 
Persius exclamat : ' Per magnos, Brute, deos te 





uti, consecutive to ' par ' = ' ita par,' 
' a pair so vvell matched that,' etc. 

20. compositum, sc. ' par.' Some 
MSS. have ' compositus ' or ' compositi,' 
both apparently corrections. YYe may 
understand ' sit ' or better ' pugnet ' ; 
for ' compositum ' see on Sat. I. 1. 103. 
' Bithus et Bacchiusgladiatorum nomina 
celebrata apud Suetonium Tranquillum 
sub Augusto ' Acr. 

in ius. As ' vocare in ius ' Sat. 
I. 9. 77, 2. 5. 29, ' rapere' 2. 3. 72. 

22. ridetur, best taken impersonally, 
' a laugh is raised.' 

23. eonventu : ' the court.' ' Con- 
ventus : was the technical term for the 
courts held by a proconsul or pro- 
praetor in the chief towns of a pro- 

cohortem. Epp. 1. 3. 6, 1. 8. 14; 
the staff or personal surrounding of the 
commander or provincial governor : 
' cohors praetoria ' Cic. Verr. 2. 1. 14. 
They were also called individually 
' comites' Epp. 1. 8. 2. 

27. fertur quo rara, i. e. in some 
steep ravine. 

28. salso multoque fluenti, ' in an- 
swer to his copious stream of wit.' With 
' multo fluenti ' cp. Virg. Georg. 3. 28. 
It is a Greek usage, t<j) Tlvdaivi dpaavvo- 
Htvcx) Kal ttoWw piovTi Dem. de Cor. p. 
272. ' Multo,' which is the reading 
of the best MSS., was restored to 
the text by Bentley, in the place of 
' multum.' 

29. expressa arbusto, ' forced, ex- 
torted, from the vineyard.' Rupilins 
is like one of his native Italian vine- 
dressers, hard to sting by taunts, but 
when he is stung, the master of a sup- 
ply of retorts which few can stand up 

30. vindemiator : for the scansion, 
see Od. 3. 4. 41, 3. 6. 6; Sat. 2. 8. 1 
' ut Nasidieni.' 

31. cessisset, 'was likely to have 
yielded.' The time of the leading 
clause is really historic, if it were present 
it would be ' cesserit.' 

magna, etc, however loud the voice 
in which he had called ' cuckoo, cuckoo.' 
' Calling cuckoo ' is explained by Pliny, 
N. H. 18. 66, 'taunting men engaged in 
dressing their vines by imitating the 
note of a bird of passage called the 
cuckoo : for it is held a disgrace that 
when that bird returns it should find a 
pruning-hook still at work in the vine.' 
Cp. the picture in Auson. Mosella, 165 
' inde viator Riparum subiecta terens, 
hinc navita labens, Probra canunt seris 

32. Note the contrast implied in 
the emphatic G-raecus, Italo. The 
characteristics of the Italian's retorts are 
kept up in perfusus, ' tlrenched,' 
' soused,' and aceto, recalling the 
figure of the ' vindemiator,' the kind of 
humour coarse and plentiful with which 
the Romanswere familiar in the ' fabulae 


Oro qui reges consueris tollere, cur non 34 

Hunc Regem iugulas? Operum hoc, mihi crede. tuorum est.' 

34. qui consueris, ' since you are,' Od. 3. 13. 13 ' fies nobilium tu quoque 
etc. fontium,' Epp. 1. 9. 13 ' Scribe tui 

35. operum. For the gen. see on gregis hunc' 



The first, probably, of Horace's attacks on Canidia. See Epod. 5, and especially 
the introductions to Epod. 17 and Od. 1. 16, and compare Epod. 3. 8 ; Sat. 2. 1. 48, 
2. S. 95. 

The Scholiasts (on Epod. 3. 8 and on v. 24 of this Satire) say that under the 
name of Canidia was satirized one Gratidia ' unguentaria Neapolitana.' With this 
exception we have no exttrnal assistance in reading the riddle of the poems them- 
selves. We are to imagine a woman whose fascination Horace has felt though he 
resents it, and which he attributes with more or less of irony to magic. The ludicrous 
catastrophe of the Satire as well as the mock heroic air which flavours the narrative 
seem to forbid us to take it quite seriously ; cp. in this respect Od. 1. 16 introd. 

The scene of the Satire is the Campus Esquilinus, the plateau from which the 
several arms of the Esquiline hill are thrust out. It was without the ' agger ' of 
Servius Tullius and had been used ' as an extensive burial place for the lowest class 
of people, and a place of execution for criminals.' Cp., besides this Satire, Epod. 5. 
99. Sat. 2. 6. 33, Bum's Rome and the Campagna, p. 225. Maecenas had 
recently become possessor of it and had laid it out in pleasure gardens. He even- 
tually built a residence there (Od. 3. 29. 10, Epod. 9. 3). The Satire thus becomes 
the vehicle of a compliment to one who is already Horace's patron. The speaker 
throughout is Priapus, a rough wooden image of the garden god (Virg. G. 4. noj 
which has been erected in the new garden. The transformation of the ground is 
barely complete. There are still ' magna sepulchra,' and bones to be found by 
scratching the ground. It is still haunted apparently by witches. With the 
witchcraft of this Sat. cp., besides Epod. 5 and 17, Theoc. Idyll 2, Virg. Ecl. 8, 
Tibull. Eleg. 1. 2, Ov. Met. 7. 179 foll. 

Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, 
Cum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum, 

1. ficulnus, more usually ' ficulneus,' 2. ne: for the position of the paiticle 

the adj. of 'ficula,' dim. of ' ficus.' The see on Od. 1. 30. 6. Note the accumu- 

wood of the fig was proverbially value- lated irony, the valueless material, the 

less, whence the use of avicivos in the altemative destiny — a stool or a god— 

sense of worthless, ovkivoi avSpes Theoc. the powerthat decides betweenthem,viz. 

1 o. 45 . the carpenter's fancy — the single source of 

LIB. I. SAT. 8. 87 

Maluit esse deum. Deus inde ego furum aviumque 

Maxima formido ; nam fures dextra coercet 

Obscenoque ruber porrectus ab inguine palus ; 5 

Ast importunas volucres in vertice arundo 

Terret fixa vetatque novis considere in hortis. 

Huc prius angustis eiecta cadavera cellis 

Conservus vili portanda locabat in arca. 

Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 10 

Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti : 

Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 

Hic dabat : Heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus atque 

Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes 15 

divinity — ' and so a god I am.' It may 
be compared with the more serious 
irony of Isaiah 44. 10 foll. ' He burneth 
part thereof in the fire, with the part 
thereof he eateth flesh . . . and the resi- 
due thereof he maketh a god.' 

4. fures dextra : his hand should be 
uplifted and hold, as the Schol. says. a 
club or a sickle, as in Virg. G. 4. 1 10 
' custos furum atque avium cum falce 
saligna Hellespontiaci servet tutela 

6. arundo has been taken, as by Orelli, 
of a wisp of reeds that would rattle in 
the wind and so frighten birds ; but the 
meaning seems to be fixed by Prop. 4. 2. 
33 (a poem which has several links with 
this Satire where Vertumnus describ- 
ing, like Priapus, the various adornments 
of his own image, says 'arundine sumpta 
Fautor plumoso sum deus aucupio;' 
' arundo ' being used in a well recognizcd 
sense of a limed twig. 

8. cellis. Cic. Phil. 2. 27. 67 ' servo- 
rum in cellis.' Every word adds to the 
sense of ignominy, ' angustis, eiecta : ' 
mean as are their quarters they are 
no sooner dead than their ' cadavera ' 
are tossed out from them ; such burial 
as they receive they owe only to a fellow 
slave's compassion ; it is the cheapest 

11. ' It is the fate to which the worth- 
less and the brokendown come.' The 
line is quoted as a specimen of Horace's 
personal satire in Sat. 2. 1. 22, but 
the names are evidently fictitious and 
literary. ' Xomentanus,' as we have 
seen on Sat. 1. 1. 103, is the conventional 

spendthrift of Satire, a name inherited 
from Lucilius. Pantolabus is a name 
coined for the character as the Schol. 
sees ' quia a multis pecuniam accipiebat 
inde Pantolabus dictus.' 

12. in fronte, in agrum, ' frontage,' 
1 depth.' The dimensions are meant liter- 
ally, but the cippus and its inscrip- 
tion is probably imaginary and ironical, 
being borrowed from the provisions of a 
private buiying-ground and equivalent 
to saying ' it was the private burying- 
ground of the very lowest, which no one 
would rob them of.' They are all 
technical terms and occur in monumental 
inscriptions. The last words were in- 
tended to reserve the ground for the 
specified purpose ; it was not to pass, like 
the rest of the pioperty, to the heirs of 
the original proprietor. They are rnore 
fully explained in an inscr. preserved by 
Lambinus, ' ita ne unquam de nomine 
familiae nostrae exeat hoc monumentum, 
hoc monumentum heredes non sequitur.' 

13. dabat, i. e. ' recorded the gift.' 
ne sequeretur, the tense because he 

is quoting what was the v supposed) hi- 

14. salubribus, pred. = ' salubribus 

15. aggere, prob. the 'agger' of 
Servius Tullius, from which men would 
look over the Campus Esquilinus, and 
which would therefore be now a 
pleasanter lounge than it had been. 
Juvenal S. 8. 43 calls it ' ventosus,' the 
place whither the Romans resorted to 
catch the wind as well as the sun. 

quo, prep. ' in ' is not repeated. 



Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum ; 
Cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque suetae 
Hunc vexare Iocum curae sunt atque labori, 
Quantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis 
Humanos animos : has nullo perdere possum 
Nec prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum 
Protulit os, quin ossa legant herbasque nocentes. 
Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis passoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana maiore ululantem : pallor utrasque 
Fecerat horrendas adspectu. Scalpere terram 
Unguibus et pullam divellere mordicus agnam 


17. cum. The emphasis on 'mihi' 
gives it almost the force of ' cum tamen,' 
' while yet to me.' To the world at large 
the Esquiline is now wholesome and 
pleasant, but its old use has left a legacy 
which to me is worse than all my other 
troubles. The witches still haunt it. 

ferae, ' lupi et Esquilinae alites ' 
Epod. 5. 99. 

suetae, not merely ' that are wont,' 
but ' that have been wont, and so in 
spite of its altered state still haunts the 
place,' just as the witches themselves 
who come here still though it is no 
longer a graveyard. The scansion of 
' siietae ' as a trisyll. is Lucretian (1. 60, 
etc). Cp. Horace's resolution ' siliiae ' 
Od. 1. 23. 4, Epod. 13. 2, ' miliius ' 
Epod. 16. 32, Epp. 1. 16. 51. 

19. carminibus, sc. 'magicis.' Epod. 
5. 71, 17. 4; Virg. Ecl. 8. 69, 70. 

venenis. Epod. 5. 62 and 87 ; 17. 


31. vaga luna ; Vi-g. Aen. 1. 
742 ' errantem lunam.' The epithet is 
in point because if she stood still there 
would be no need to wait for her. The 
witches look for moonlight. Cf. Theoc. 
2. 10 dAAd SeAdia <f>aive koXov, Epod. 
5. 45 ' Nox et Diana quae silentium 
regis Arcana cum fiunt sacra,' Virg. 
Aen. 4. 513. 

decorum os : cp. Virg. G. 4. 232 
' Taygete simul os terris ostendit hones- 
tum,' Aen. 8. 589 ' Lucifer . . . Extulit 
os sacrum caelo.' 

22. ossa legant. Epod. 5. 23, 17. 


23. vidi egomet. ' Habent hi versus 

aliquid tragicae descriptionis 11 1 illi 

Vergilii (Aen. 3. 623) Vidi egomet duo 
de numero cum corpora nostro,' Comm. 

nigra, as the lamb sacrificed in v. 27 
is ' pulla.' 

succinctam answers to 'expedita ' in 
Epod. 5. 25, ' girt up for work.' Cp. its 
use Virg. Aen. 6. 555, 12. 401. 

24. pedibus nudis. So Medea in 
Ov. Met. 7. 183 ' Nuda pedem, nudos 
humeris infusa capillos.' 

25. maiore. Our doubts as to the 
meaning are as old as the Scholiast. 
Porph. quoting by name Helenius Acron 
says that Sagana was a freedwoman of 
Pompeius (al. Pomponius), a senator 
who was proscribed by the triumvirs. 
No such note is found in the Acronian 
scholia as we have them. He adds that 
the term ' maiore ' implies either that 
she had a younger sister, or that there 
was another Sagana at the same time 
' minorem hac vel aetate vel natalibus 
vel censu.' Acr., in a note which 
is in some confusion, gives the same 
variety of meanings to ' maiore,' but 
adds ' aut maiore quam fuit ipsa Cani- 
dia.' If we interpret without assistance 
this seems the more likely. There still 
remains the doubt whether it means 
' the elder ' or ' the greater,' i. e. 'the 
more powerful witch ; ' or does ' altum 
caliendrum,' v. 48, suggest the physical 
sense, ' taller ? ' 

utrasque. For the irregularity of 
the plural see Madv. § 495, obs. 2, Virg. 
Aen. 5. 233. 

27. unguibus : see Epod. 5. 47 n. 

pullam : see on v. 23, Ov. Met. 7. 
244. Aeneas(Virg.Aen. 6. 249) sacrifices 

LIB. I. SAT. 8. 


Coeperunt ; cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 

Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 

Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerea : maior 

Lanea, quae poenis compesceret inferiorem ; 

Cerea suppliciter stabat servilibus ut quae 

Iam peritura modis. Hecaten vocat altera, saevam 

Altera Tisiphonen ; serpentes atque videres 

Infernas errare canes, Lunamque rubentem 

Ne foret his testis post magna latere sepulcra. 

Mentior at si quid merdis caput inquiner albis 

Corvorum, atque in me veniat mictum atque cacatum 

Iulius et fragilis Pediatia furque Voranus. 

Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto alterna loquentes 

Umbrae cum Sagana resonarent triste et acutum, 




a black-fleeced lamb to Night, 'the 
mother of the Eumenides, and her mighty 
sister,' Earth. 

28. confusus, ' poured together, into 
the trench.' He describes the process 
of vfKvojxavTfia Hom. Od. II. 23 foll. 
Spirits of the dead are invoked to tell 
Canidia the destiny of her lover. 

30. The two fij^ures indicate respect- 
ively Canidia and her lover. In all poetical 
descriptions of magic rites it is necessary 
to the effect of mystcry to leave much to 
the imagination. Effigies of the person 
to be affected appear in Virg. Ecl. 8. 75, 
Aen. 4. 508, a waxen image in Ov. 
Her. 6. 91 ' [Medea] Devovet absentes, 
simulacraque cerea (sc. Iasonis) fingit, 
Et miserum tenues in iecur urget acus.' 
The meaning of the wax is obvious, 
and is explained in Theoc. 2. 28 dis tov- 
tov tuv Kapov eyw o~vv oalpovt tclkcv I ths 
tclkoiO' vit' epcuTos 6 Mvvdtos avTiKa Ai\- 
<pis, and by Virg. 1. c. The special mean- 
ing of the wool as representing Canidia 
is not so clear. According to Festus 
(Paulus) s.v. ' Laneae ' it was the custom 
at the Compitalia to distribute little 
figures or dolls of wool, and the reason 
given is that the Lares were supposed to 
be 'animae hominum reductae in nume- 
rum deorum.' This may be connected. 

maior quae. ' One of wool, the larger 
of the two, that it might, etc' 

32. servilibus modis : 'gravissimis 
verberibus,' Acr. Cp. Liv. 32. 38 ' in 
servilem modum lacerati atque extorti.' 
Others, as Dill r . punctuate so as to con- 

nect 'stabat servilibus modis,'but Orelli 
rightly objects to the rhythm and the 
awkward double qualification of 'stabat,' 
' suppliciter servilibus modis.' 

ut quae, sc. 'stant '; forthe ellipsis see 
Sat. 1. 1. 23, 1. 3. 9. Some good MSS. 
have ' utque ' which Munro gives. 

34. atque couples ' serpentes ' and 
' canes.' Eor the hellhounds that ac- 
company Hecate cp. Virg. Aen. 6. 257 
' visaeque canes ululare per umbram 
Adventante dea,' where Con. quotes Ap. 
Rhod. 3. 12 16 ap,<p\ 5e rqv ye (Hecate) 
'O^eo? vXaKjj xOovtoi Kvves i-pOtyyovTo. 

35. rubentem, blushing to see such 
sights, not as in Od. 2. 11. 10. 

39. fragilis = ' mollis,' ' effeminate.' 
Pediatia, acc. to the Schol., the con- 
temptuous designation of one Pediatius, 
ft»*l a knight of ruined fortune and 

fur Voranus. The Schol. call him 
' libertus Q. Lutatii Catuli,' and tell a 
story of his robbing a money-changer's 
table, and hiding the coins in his shoe, 
giving occasion, when he was discovered, 
to the witticism of a bystander, ' belle ' 
inquit ' si te non (KxaKKtvei, hoc est 
verberibus tanquam aes recudat, alludens 
ad calceos.' The story was a current one, 
but it is attached by the Schol. on Juv. 
S. 13. iii to the ' fugitivus scurra Ca- 

41. resonarent. Bentley objected to 
the tense as contrasted with ' abdiderint,' 
etc, but the action in this one is more 
continuous. He would read ' resonarint,' 



Utque lupi barbam variae cum dente colubrae 
Abdiderint furtim terris, et imagine cerea 
Largior arserit ignis, et ut non testis inultus 
Horruerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum : 
Nam displosa sonat quantum vesica pepedi 
Diffissa nate ficus : at illae currere in urbem ; 
Canidiae dentes, altum Saganae caliendrum 
Excidere atque herbas atque incantata lacertis' 
Vincula cum magno risuque iocoque videres. 



a form for which he quotes Manilius, 
and Horaee's ' os magna sonaturum ' 
Sat. 1. 4. 44. 

triste et aeutum. Homer's rpi^tv 
II. 23. 101, Od. 24. 5, of the ' squeak- 
ing and gibbering' of ghosts. 

42. lupi barbam. It appears from 
Pliny [N. H. 28. 44 ' Veneficiis rostrum 
lupi resistere inveteratum aiunt, ob idque 
villarum portis praefigunt '] that the 
purpose of this was to protect them 
against the counter charms of any other 
sorceress. Cp. Epod. 5. 71. 

variae, ' spotted/ as Virg. G. 3. 264 
' variae lynces.' 

43. eerea : for the scansion cp. 
'ostrea' Sat. 2. 2. 21, and Virgil's use 
of 'aureus' as a disyll. Aen. 1. 698, 

7. 190, 10. 116. 

45. Furiarum : see on Epod. 5. 15. 

4 1 - 

46. displosa, ' burst with a blow. 

It is pointed out that Horace is recalling 
Lucr. 6. 130 ' Nec mirum cum plena 
animae vesicula parva Saepe ita dat 
magnum sonitum displosa repente.' 

48. caliendrum. The Schol. explain 
the word as meaning either some head- 
dress or a wig. They quote a passage 
of Varro in which it occurs, otherwise it 
is unknown. 

49. lacertis, abl. with ' excidere.' 
ineantata vincula, ' enchanted love- 

knots'; the ' terna licia' and ' Veneris 
vincula' of Virg. E. 8. 78. 

LIB. I. SAT. 9. 91 



The sufferings of Horace under the hands of a ' bore ' are the amusing part of 
the Satire, but they are only the dramatic setting of the true subject. In Sat. 6 he 
told the story of his own admission to the intimacy of Maecenas, how small a pait 
he had himself had in it, how natural and consistent with self-respect had been 
every stage in it. He completes the matter by this contrasted picture of the way 
in which vulgar and pushing people vainly hoped to gain an entry. The person 
described is a man of letters (v. 7), but of a type which Horace despised, fluent, 
vain, and effeminate ^vv. 23-25). His obtuseness and want of tact are displayed 
in his acts, and he is made to paint with his own lips and in perfect unconscious- 
ness the meanness of purpose and method which Horace had in view when he said 
(Sat. 1. 6. 51) that Maecenas was careful ' dignos assumere, prava ambitione 
procul ' : ' He will miss no opportunity, he will take no refusal, he will bribe the 
servants, if Horace will help him he will go shares, and together they will oust 
all rivals.' He was painting by contrast the life in Maecenas' house, aswell as the 
avenues to it (v. 48). Horace must often have had requests from such people to 
introduce them to the great patron of literature, and this is his answer to them. 
His own tact had taught him the lesson which he passes on to a younger geneiation 
in Epp. 1. 18. 76 ' Qualem commendes etiam atque etiam aspice.' 

The occasion imagined for the scene is when Horace is taking his morning stroll 
('ad quartam iaceo : post hanc vagor' 1. 6. 122). He is walking, as it chances, 
on the Sacra Via towards the Foram. When they reach (v. 18) the entrance to it, 
close by the Temple of Vesta their paths diverge, for his interlocutor was bound 
for the Forum to appear in a case, and Horace, who had announced that he was 
going to pay a visit on the other side of the Tiber, would leave the Sacra Via at 
that point, and turn round the side of the Palatine towards the river. 

Horace is probahly dramatizing an imaginary situation, or at least improving 
some slighter incident ; but attempts have been made to guess the particular 
person intended. The only noteworthy suggestion is that Propertius is intended 
(see on Sat. 1. 3. 30, Epp. 2. 2. 100). The dates make this next to impossible. 
If the Satires were published in B.c. 36 Propertius would, according to the most 
probable chronology, be only 16. Propertius was admitted to Maecenas' circle 
probably about the year 30. 

Ibam forte via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis. 

1. via Sacra. Epod. 4. 7. the sense here. 

sicut meus est mos, with the words totus in illis, ' absorbed in them.' 

that follow, — ' thinking, as is my wont Epp. 1. 1.11 ' omnis in hoc sum.' Some 

when walking ' — not with ' ibam,' which MSS. of inferior value insert 'et ' before 

would contradict ' forte.' ' totus.' Bentley wished to read ' ut ' 

2. meditans nugarum. Bothwords after 'ibam'; but in both cases the 
are used of poetical composition (Epp. asyndeton belongs to the negligent style 
2. 2. 71, 76, 141), and this is possibly of familiar narration. 

9 2 


Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum, 
Arreptaque manu, ' Ouid agis, dulcissime rerum ? ' 
' Suaviter, ut nunc est,' inquam, ' et cupio omnia quae vis.' 
Cum adsectaretur : ' Num quid vis ? ' occupo. At ille 
' Noris nos,' inquit ; ' docti sumus.' Hic ego, ' Pluris 
Hoc,' inquam, ' mihi eris.' Misere discedere quaerens, 
Ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem 
Dicere nescio quid puero, cum sudor ad imos 
Manaret talos. ' O te, Bolane, cerebri 
Felicem ! ' aiebam tacitus, cum quidlibet ille 
Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi 
Nil respondebam, ' Misere cupis,' inquit, ' abire ; 


3. accurrit . . . arrepta : both ex- 
press the vehemence of his affected de- 

4. quid agis ? ' how are you ? ' Epp. 
1.3. 15 ' quid mihi Celsus agit ' ? 

dulcissime rerum. For the differ- 
ence of gender see Madv. § 310, obs. 1 ; 
cp. Ov. Met. 8. 49 ' pulcherrime rerum ' : 
' rerum ' = ' in all the world.' The 
question has also been taken to be 
' quid remm agis ' ? but ' rerum ' in 
this inert sense could hardly stand at 
the end of the verse ; and the answer 
' nicely ' would be inappropriate. 

5. ut nunc est, ' just now.' Orelli is 
right in noticing that the point of the 
answer is its conventionality. Horace 
wishes to get rid of his interlocutor. 
This bars any deeper meanings in ' ut 
nunc est,' which would have invited 
further questioning. 

cupio omnia quae vis, a formula of 
politeness. Plaut. Pers. 5. 1. 14, Rud. 

0. adsectaretur. Note the force of 
the prep. and of the frequentative 

num quid vis, ' can I do anything 
more for you ' ? a formula of leave-tak- 
ing. See Plaut. Aul. 2. 1. 53 (Wagners 
note), and Donatus' note on Ter. Eun. 
2. 3. 49 ' abituri ne id dare facerent 
numquid vis&iceb&nt iis quibuscum con- 

occupo, i. e. before he could begin. 
Epp. 1. 7. 66 ' occupat et salvere iubet 

7. noris nos : taken by Acr. as an 
answer to ' numquid vis ' ? ' hoc volo 
(ut) noris nos,' and so Dill r . and 

Ritter. Orelli takes it independently, 
' you surely know.' This is the best 
dramatically. It is the part of the 
speaker to assume mutual acquaintance, 
asit is Horace's part politely to ignore 
it. Note the force with this latter pur- 
pose of the fut. ' eris.' Horace has not 
known hitherto his literary tastes. 

hic, inf. v. 26; Sat. 2. 2. 7, 2. 8. 16. 

8. misere, inf. v. 14; it is common 
in the comic poets for ' vehementer.' 

10. puero. Even the master of a 
modest household (see on Sat. 1. 3. 12, 
1. 6. 116) had a slave (' pedisequus ') in 
attendance on him when he walked out. 
Horace whispers in his ear as though 
he had some private business which 
good manners would compel his perse- 
cutor to respect. 

11. cerebri felicem ; happy in the 
power of flying into a passion and so 
cutting such a knot. Horace is fettered 
by his good breeding. Cp. ' cerebrosus ' 
Sat. 1. 5. 21; 'cerebrum' is the seat 
ofthe passion of anger in Plautus, Poen. 
3. 2. 25, Bacch. 2. 3. 17. For the gen. 
cp. Sat. 2. 2.66 ' cultus miser,' Ov. Met. 
5. 267 ' Felices studiique locique,' ' in 
respect of.' 

B olanus (from Bola, a town of the 
Aequi) is the name of a friend of Cicero, 
ad Fam. 13. 77, and of a Roman 
governor of Britain. Tac. Ann. 15. 3. 
The person at whom Horace discharges 
this Parthian dart is unknown. 

14. misere cupis. This is possibly 
an aside, like Horace's words vv. 28 f., 
the man's thoughts being put for him 
into words. But it is more probably 
intended as a joke, though it is the real 

LIB. I. SAT. 9. 


Iamdudum video ; sed nil agis ; usque tenebo ; 15 

Prosequar hinc quo nunc iter est tibi.' ' Nil opus est te 

Circumagi ; quendam volo visere non tibi notum ; 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat is prope Caesaris hortos.' 

' Nil habeo quod agam et non sum piger : usque sequar te.' 

Demitto auriculas, ut iniquae mentis asellus, 20 

Cum gravius dorso subiit onus. Incipit ille : 

' Si bene me novi non Viscum pluris amicum, 

Non Varium facies : nam quis me scribere plures 

Aut citius possit versus? quis membra movere 

Mollius ? Invideat quod et Hermogenes ego canto.' 25 

Interpellandi locus hic erat : ' Est tibi mater, 

truth. He is so unconscious of the 
distastefulness of his company that he 
has no fear of being taken literally. 

16. prosequar : ' I will attend you.' 
The external evidence is fairly divided 
between this word and ' persequar : ' 
1 1 will follow to the end.' It is a 
common point of variation in MSS. 
On internal grounds we may prefer 
' prosequar,' the usual word for compli- 
mentary attendance, as giving a softer 
tone to the preceding word. The point 
is the unconsciousness of the interlo- 
cutor, not his brutality. ' Persequar ' 
would leave less room for the answer 
1 nil opus est te circumagi.' There is a 
variety also in the punctuation — some 
editors putting a stop at ' prosequar ' or 
' persequar,' and marking the following 
words as a question. This stopping 
seems to suit best the reading ' perse- 

18. cubat, ' is ill in bed,' as Sat. 2. 3. 
289 (cp. Epp. 2. 2. 68). Thereare three 
reasons given why he should not come 
too — the friend to be visited is unknown 
to him, he lives a long way off, and he 
is ill. 

Caesaris hortos, on the Ianiculum ; 
the gardens which the Dictator left by 
his will to the Roman people : Suet. 
Jnl. 85. 

20. ' I yield sullenly.' 

21. subiit. See on Od. 1. 3. 36 and 
Sat. 1. 4. 82. 

onus is acc. as ' subire iugum,' etc. 

22. Viscum, one, no doubt, of the 
two Visci whom Horace names in the 
next Satire, ('haec utinam Viscorum 
laudet uterque ' Sat. I. to. 83) among 
the literary men whose judgmenthe cared 

for. There is also Viscus Thurinus (again 
in the company of Varius) at Nasidienus' 
supper, Sat. 2. 8. 20. Nothing isknown 
besides of them. The Scholiasts speak 
doubtfully, ' optimi poetae,' ' alii dicunt 
criticos fuisse,' both conjectures from 
the passages in Horace. They say the 
father of/two was Vibius Viscus, a rich/'^= 
knight and a friend of Augustus. Some 
MSS. of Porph. read in this place 

23. Varium. See on Od. 1. 6. 1. 
Note the nature of the accomplishments 
on the ground of which he claims to be 
ranked before Varius — he can write 
verses (not well, but) fluently (cp. the 
picture of Crispinus in Sat. 1. 4. 13 
foll.), he can dance (cp. Sat. 2. 1. 24, 
and Cic. Mur. 6 ' nemo saltat sobrius, 
nisi forte insanit '), he can sing better 
than Hermogenes, Horace's ideal of 
effeminacy and bad taste ; see Sat. 1 . 4. 
72, and introd. to Sat. I. 3. 

25. mollius, from Lucr. 4. 789 
' mollia membra movere,' and ib. 980 ; 
the alliteration is part of Lucretius' art, 
but it is purposely adopted here to give 
a mincing tone to the speaker and pour 
contempt on the accomplishment of 
which he boasts. 

26. est tibi mater ? Orelli thinks 
that this is only a question of formality, 
its sole purpose being to interrupt the 
man's list of accomplishments. Of 
many suggestions perhaps the best is 
that like Davus's ' frugi quod satis est 
Ut vitale putes ' (Sat. 2. 7. 3), it implies 
that too great perfection is dangerous to 
life, and that it is therefore ironical. The 
man, however, is too much wrapt up in 
himself to perceive the irony. 



Cognati, quis te salvo est opus ? ' f Haud naihi quisquam. 

Omnes composui.' ' Felices ! nunc ego resto. 

Confice ; namque instat fatum mihi triste Sabella 

Ouod puero cecinit divina mota anus urna : 30 

Hunc neque dira venena nec hosticus auferet ensis 

Nec laterum dolor aut tussis, nec tarda podagra ; 

Garrulus hunc quando consumet cunque : loquaces 

Si sapiat vitet simul atque adoleverit aetas.' 

Ventum erat ad Vestae, quarta iam parte diei 35 

Praeterita, et casu tunc respondere vadato 

27. quis te salvo est opus, as we 
should say, ' to take care of you.' 

haud mihi quisquam ; the purpose 
of the answer is to put a full stop to the 
topic which Horace has started. 

28. This and what follows to v. 34 is 
supposed to be said aside, as is clear 
from its provoking no answer. 

30. divina mota urna: all ablatives, 
though the Schol. took ' mota ' = ' com- 
mota,' ' excita,' as a nom. For ' mota 
urna ' cp. Virg. Aen. 6. 432 'Quaesitor 
Minosurnammovet.' With 'divinaurna,' 
Bentl. (who, for himself, wished to read 
' mota divina anus urna,' making ' divina ' 
nom.) compares Sil. Ital. 3. 344 'divina- 
rumquesagacemFlammarum.' The refer- 
ence is to divination by means of ' sortes,' 
or written slips dropped in a vessel and 
drawn or shaken out. They would con- 
sist of ambiguous sentences which the 
' sortilegus' would apply as prophecies 
to the persons who drew them. Cicero 
describes it in Div. 2. 41, and speaks of 
it as an art already discredited. This and 
other forms of witchcraft would linger 
among the Sabine hill folk: Epod. 17. 
28, with note. The whole picture here 
is imaginary and burlesque. 

31. hosticus, archaic form of 'hos- 
tilis ' Od. 3. 2. 6 ; cp. ' civicus ' Od. 2. 1. 
1. n., Epp. 1. 3. 23. 

32. laterumdolor,'pleuritis' Comm. 
Cruq. Orelli reminds us that Crassns, 
in Cic. de Orat. 3. 2, dies of ' lateris 

33. quandocunque, ' whenever that 
time comes ' ; the construction is ellipti- 
cal, as with ' quicunque,' 'qualiscunque,' 
etc. Bentl. quoles Ov. Met. 6. 544 
' Quandocunque mihi poenas dabis,' 
Trist. 3. 1. 57 ' Quandocunque precor 
nostro placata parenti, Isdem sub do- 

minis aspiciare domus.' For the tmesis 
see on Od. 1. 6. 3. 

35. ad Vestae. Burn (Rome and the 
Campagna, p. 78) takes this to include 
the Regia (see on Od. 1. 2. 15, 16^ 
which stood between the Sacra Via and 
the actual temple of Vesta, to which it 
was attached. The two had now reached 
the Forum, which gives Horace this 
chance of deliverance. His own route 
would diverge to the left if he were 
to make for the Tiber and the Iani- 

quarta parte. The third hour was 
over and the fourth beginning. Law 
business, according to Martial 4. 8. 2, 
began with the third, ' Exercet raucos 
teitia causidicos.' 

36. respondere vadato. The plain- 
tiff in a civil suit when, with the Praetor's 
leave, he had declared the nature and 
process of his action, had to give 
the defendant time to prepare his 
answer. He called on him therefore 
' dare vades,' and was said' vadari reum,' 
to bind him over to appear. If the de- 
fendant failed at the appointed time to 
come into court (' vadimonium sistere,' 
' respondere,' or apparently as here 
' respondere vadato,' he was said ' vadi- 
monium deseruisse,' and the plaintiff 
moved for judgment, ' ut ex edicto bona 
possidere liceat.' See a case in Cic. pro 
Quint. 6. ' Vadato ' then is dat. No 
other instance of the actual phrase is 
found, ' respondere ' being usually abso- 
lute. It has been, therefore, proposed 
by some editors to take ' vadato ' as 
an abl. absol. like ' auspicato,' etc. 
Bentley wished to read ' vadatus/which, 
as he showed, is found in a passive 

LIB. I. SAT. 9. 


Debebat, quod ni fecisset perdere litem. 

' Si me amas/ inquit, ' paulum hic ades.' ' Inteream si . 

Aut valeo stare aut novi civilia iura ; 

Et propero quo scis.' ' Dubius sum quid faciam,' inquit, 40 

' Tene relinquam an rem.' ' Me sodes.' ' Non faciam ' ille ; 

Et praecedere coepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 

Cum victore, sequor. ' Maecenas quomodo tecum ? ' 

Hinc repetit ; ' Paucorum hominum et mentis bene sanae ; 

Nemo dexterius fortuna est usus. Haberes 45 

Magnum adiutorem, posset qui ferre secundas, 

Hunc hominem velles si tradere : dispeream ni 

Summosses omnes.' ' Non isto vivimus illic 

38. si me amas, 'as you love me/ 
a formula of earnest request, Cic. ad 
Att. 5. 1 7, etc. For the hiatus and short- 
ening of 'me ' cp. Virg. Aen. 6. 507 ' te 
amice.' Horace has ' cocto num adest' 
Sat. 2. 2. 28. 

ades, a quasi-technical term of those 
that give help and countenance in court. 
It appears from such passages as Cic. 
Rosc. Am. 1 ('ita fit ut adsint propterea 
quod ofhcium sequuntur, taceant autem 
quia periculum metuunt') that such 
countenance did not imply actual ad- 

39. stare, the meaning is doubtful. 
(1) Acron took it (of recent editors 
Ritter follows him) of the physical 
fatigueof standing in court. (2) Porph. 
(followed by Macleane) ofstandingstill, 
waiting. (3) Heind., Orell., and Dill 1 '. 
follow Torrentius in taking it for ' to 
appear in court.' Torrent. quotes from 
Ulpian for the use of ' stare,' and com- 
pares the term ' statores ' for the ofhcers 
of the court. Of these (2) seems to be 
inadmissible both as involving a ques- 
tionable use of ' valeo ' and as anticipat- 
ing the later excuse 'et propero quo 

41. rem : nearly synonymous with 
'litem.' Cic. Mur. 12. 27 laughs at the 
lawyers for not having been able in all 
these years to settle ' utrum rem an 
litem dici oporteret.' 

44. hinc repetit, 'makes this fresh 

paueorum hominum, ' choice in his 
friends.' It was a current phrase : Ter. 
Eun. 3. 1. 18 'sic homost : perpaucorum 
hominum,' and in a fragment of Cic. de 
Fato preserved in Macrob. Sat. 2. 12, 

Scipio who has received a sturgeon and 
is inviting more of his visitors to stop and 
eat of it than Pontius, who is staying in 
the house,approves, is remonstratedwith 
in the words ' vide quid agas, acipenser 
iste paucorum hominum est.' 

45. It has been doubted whether the 
comparative abl. after 'dexterius ' should 
be 'eo' (sc. ' Maecenate ') or 'te' (sc. 
' Horatio '). The first is rather the more 
probable. ' Te ' would probably be ex- 
pressed. Also this strong statement 
would be inconsistent with the question 
just asked, ' Maecenas quomodo tecum? ' 
The suggestion is that Maecenas is so 
exclusive and so wide awake that 
Horace will be none the worse for a 
seconder in his attempts to improve his 

46. ferre seeundas. sc. ' partes.' 
There is the same metaphor Epp. 1. iS. 
1 3 ' vel partes mimum tractare secundas,' 
of an obsequious friend. It is worked 
out more fully in Cic. Div. in Q. Caec. 
25 ' ut in actoribus Graeci fieri videmus 
saepe illum qui est secundarum aut ter- 
tiarum partium, cum possit aliquanto 
clarius dicere quam ipse primarum, mul- 
tum summittere, ut ille princeps quam 
maxime excellat, sic faciet Alienus : tibi 
serviet, tibi lenocinabitur, minus ali- 
quanto contendet quam potest.' 

47. hunc hominem, sc. ' me,' as in 
Ter. and Plaut. an imitation of the 
Greek Tof5' dvSpa. 

tradere, 'to introduce.' Epp. 1. 9. 
3, I. 18. 78. 

48. summosses, ' clear from your 
path ' (as in the usual ' i, lictor, summove 
turbam '). There is a want of delicacy 
in the word as well as in the idea which 

9 6 


Quo tu rcre modo ; domus hac nec purior ulla cst 

Nec magis his aliena malis ; nil mi officit/ inquam, 50 

' Ditior hic aut est quia doctior ; est locus uni 

Cuique unus.' ' Magnum narras, vix credibile ! ' ' Atqui 

Sic habet.' f Accendis, quare cupiam magis illi 

Proximus esse.' ' Velis tantummodo : quae tua virtus, 

Expugnabis ; et est qui vinci possit, eoquc 55 

Difficiles aditus primos habet.' ' Haud mihi deero : 

Muneribus servos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 

Exclusus fuero, desistam ; tempora quaeram, 

Occurram in triviis ; deducam. Nil sine magno 

Vita labore dedit mortalibus.' Haec dum agit, ecce 6o 

Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus et illum 

Qui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. ' Unde venis?' et 

' Quo tendis ? ' rogat et respondet. Vellere coepi, 

provokes Horace's protest. ' Dispe- 
ream ' is optative ' may I perish ! ' ' Sum- 
mosses' is potential, ansvvering to an 
understood condition ' si traderes,' the 
tense implying the rapidity of the effort, 
' you would find at once that you had 
cleared,' etc. ' Disperenm si ' or ' ni ' 
does not by itself require a subjunctive 
to follow. Catull. 92. 2 'dispeream nisi 

50. inquam. This is the reading of 
all the older MSS. including V. It was 
restored to the text by Bentley, and is 
rightly defended by Ritter on the ground 
that it emphasizes the transition to the 
personal statement ' nil mi officit,' ' I 
have no need of the help you offer, there 
is no scramble for favour there.' Orelli 
retained ' unquam,' which has com- 
paratively little authority. 

51. uni cuique, for the division 
cp. Epp. 2. 2. 188 ' mortalis in unum 
Quodque caput,' A. P. 290. It occurs 
in prose as Cic. de Or. 25. 92 ' ne in 
uno quidem quoque.' The words are so 
separable that it does not reach the 
license of Sat. 2. 3. 117, etc. 

53. sic habet, ovtojs ex*i 
form of ' sic res se habet ' ; 
habet' Cic. Mur. 6. 14. 

quare. Madv. § 440 b, obs. I 
ut ob eam rem.' 

54. velis tantummodo, ' if you 
merely wish it ' ; for the conditional use 
see on Sat. 1. I. 45, Madv. § 442 a, 
obs. 2. 

a shorter 
so ' bene 


quae tua, ' such is your,' etc. 
Madv. § 446. 

55. et adds another reason of hope ; 
the metaphor, as Orelli points out, is 

58. tempora, tcatpovs. Virg. Aen. 4. 
423 ' Sola viri molles aditus et tempora 

59. deducam, 'escort to his destina- 
tion.' It is one of the recognized 
civilities to greater personagcs. Cic. de 
Sen. 18 'salutari, appeti, decedi, as- 
surgi, deduci.' Cp. Cic. Mur. 34. 

nil sine magno: he encourages him- 
self in his small ambition by a heroic 
yvduix-q : cp. xaXtva tol tcaXa, and Sopho- 
cles, Electra 945 ttuvov toi x&P ts oi>Siv 

60. haec agit, ' is so occupied ' ; 
perhaps with the sense of conducting 
his case — pleading, as in Virg. Aen. 445 
' haec inter se . . . agebant Certantes.' 

61. Fuscus Aristius : see introd. to 
Od. 1. 22 and Epp. 1. 10; cp. Sat. 1. 
10. 83. For the order of the names 
see on Od. 2. 2. 3. 

62. pulchre. There is, as often, an 
ironical tinge in the adv. = 'only too 

nosset, the subj., because it is Ho- 
race's thought, not bare fact ; 'who must 
surely know him.' 

unde venis et quo tendis ? a usual 
formula on meeting ; Sat. 2. 4. 1 ' undc 
et quo Catius ? ' 

63. rogat et respondet, he asks me 

LIB. I. SAT. 9. 97 

Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 

Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. Male salsus 65 

Ridcns dissimulare : meum iecur urere bilis. 

' Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 

Aiebas mecum.' ' Memini bene, sed meliore 

Tempore dicam ; hodie tricesima sabbata : vin tu 

Curtis Iudaeis oppedere ? ' ' Nulla mihi,' inquam, 70 

' Religio est.' ' At mi ; sum paulo infirmior, unus 

Multorum : ignosces : alias loquar.' Huncine solem 

Tam nigrum surrexe mihi ! Fugit improbus ac me 

Sub cultro linquit. Casu venit obvius illi 

Adversarius, et : ' Quo tu turpissime ? ' magna 75 

and I ask him. The comment of the 
Schol. is ' eleganter mixtum inter se 
et confusum sermonem interrogandi re- 
spondendique expressit.' 

64. preusare, 'to grasp with the 
hand ' is a further step to ' twitching ' 
(the 'toga') with the fingers. There is 
a variant ' pressare,' ' to squeeze,' which 
Orelli adopts. It was possibly read by 
the Schol., who interpret ' stringere,' ' re- 
stringere.' On the other hand all Cru- 
quius' MSS. (i. e. it may be presumed, V) 
had ' prensare.' 

lentissima, pred., the arms gave no 
sign of feeling. 

65. male, ' unkindly.' 

66. dissimulare, ' pretends not to 

iecur, Od. i. 13. 4. 

69. tricesima sabbata. Much learn- 
ing and ingenuity have been expended 
upon these words, but it is probable, as 
Macleane snggested, that the riddle has 
no answer. Some words with a mystic 
sound, but chosen at random, would 
suit the conditions of the case. If a 
definite solution is to be looked for, the 
most likely is that of the Schol., who 
refer the words to the new moon ; ' sab- 
bata ' being used generally as the Jewish 
term for a sacred day, and ' tricesima ' 
meaning ' on the 30th day ' (Dill r . quotes 
from Ovid, A. A. 1. 76 ' Cultaque Iudaeo 
septima sacra Syro,' where ' septima 
sacra ' = ' seventh-day rites'), the 3oth 
day of the ' full ' months, the Greek 
evij /cal via, being the day on which the 
new moon was watched for ; see Dict. 
Bibl. s. v. New Moon. Taking the 
words to mean the 30th Sabbath in the 
year, they have been variously explained, 


(1) of the Passover (so Torrentius), 
vvhich would fall abottt 30 weeks from 
the beginning of the Jewish civil year, 
sc. from Tisri, our Sept. — Oct. ; (2) by 
Orelli, following Roeder and an un- 
named Biblical scholar, either of the 
Feast of Tabernacles or of the Great Day 
of Atonement, each being according to 
various calculations the 30U1 ' sabbath ' 
from the first of Nisan, the beginning of 
the ecclesiastical year, and correspond- 
ing to our March — April. For the ob- 
servance by superstitious Romans of the 
Jewish Sabbath see Mayor's note on Juv. 
S. 14. 96 ' metuentem sabbata patrem.' 
Cp. also Sat. 2. 3. 291. 

7 1 . unus multorum, ' one of the 
many,' i. e. not exempt from their weak- 
neases ; so Cicero Brut. 79. 274 '[M. 
Calidius] non fuit orator unus e multis,' 
' an ordinary orator.' 

72. huncine, etc. : Sat. 2. 4. 83, 2. 8. 
67; Virg. Aen. 1. 37 'Mene incepto desis- 
tere victam ' ; Madv. § 399. This is 
Horace's exclamation at the time when 
he finds Aristius immovable. 

73. surrexe. For the contraction 
cp. on Sat. 1. 5- 79 ' erepsemus.' 

improbus, ' ruthlessly.' 

74. sub cultro, as a victim with the 
knife at its throat. 

75. adversarius. The legal diffi- 
culties of this passage are exhaustively 
discussed in Long's note to Cic. Verr. 
2. 3. 15. They turn upon the use of the 
phrase ' in ius vocare' (here 'rapere'), 
which seems in legal phraseology to 
have been restricted to the first appear- 
ance before the Praetor, before the 
giving of ' vades,' the remedy after- 
wards being the loss of the suit and 

9 8 


Inclamat voce ; et ' Licet antestari ? ' Ego vero 
Oppono auriculam. Rapit in ius ; clamor utrinque ; 
Undique concursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 

forfeiture of the security. If this is the 
case, either Horace has used his legal 
phrases carelessly, or we must suppose 
the ' adversarius ' to be a different per- 
son frorn the plaintiff of v. 36. This is 
in itself unlikely. The formulae of this 
passage are well illustrated from Plaut. 
Persa 4. 9. 8, where Saturio is about to 
prosecute Dordalus for the abduction of 
his danghter : ' Sa. Age, ambula in ius, 
leno. Do. quid me in ius vocas ? Sa. illi 
apud Praetorem dicam : sed ego in ius 
voco. Do. nonne antestaris? Sa. tuan' 
ego causa, carnifex, quoiquam mortali 
libero aures adteram ? ' 

76. licet antestari ? ' may I call you 
as a witness ?' i. e. that I have duly sum- 
moned him ; addressed to Horace. The 
person so addressed gave his assent by 
offering the tip of his ear to be touched ; 
see Plaut. 1. c, and cp. Plin. N. H. 11. 
45. 103 ' Est in aure ima memoriae 
locus quem tangentes antestamur.' 

78. Apollo, prob. as the Schol. sug- 
gest in remembrance of Hom. II. 20. 
443 of the rescue of Hector toj/ 5' 
t£r)pTta£ev 'AttoWoiv (which, as they also 
notice, had been quoted by Lucilius 6. 
40), with the further thought of Apollo 
as the natural protector of a poet. 



Horace has been assailed by the school, of whom Demetrius and Hermogenes 
Tigellius are the representatives, with contemptuous criticism on his Satire, and 
especially for his words in Sat. 1. 4 about Lucilius. He replies by repeating and 
justifying what he said. 

Verses 1-19. ' Yes, I did say that Lucilius' verses are rough. Is it not true? I 
also praised him for the wit and freedom of his satire. The two things are 
consistent ; you may praise a good mime ; that does not imply that it is 
perfect poetry. To make people laugh is a merit, but more is wanted — 
brevity, play. and a proper alternation of declamation and irony. These are 
the characteristics of the great Greek comedians whom Ilermogenes and his 
school have never read.' 

20-30. Horace's assailants are supposed to reply that Lucilius was clever at 
mingling Greek phrases with Latin. ' That is an easy trick,' he answers ; 
' but why do you admire it in poetry more than you would in oratory ' ? 

31-49. This offers the transition to himself. ' I too,' he says, ' had the idea of 
writing wholly in Greek, but I had a dream of what true patriotism would 
say, " It is too late to write Greek poetry." So while Bibaculus writes his 
turgid stuff I take my own modest line. I leave comedy to Fundanius, 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 99 

tragedy to Pollio, epos to Varius, bucolics to Virgil. Satire seemed what I 
might try and do better than Varro Atacinus and others, though confessing 
my inferiority to Lucilius. I don't dispute the garland with him.' 

50-71. You say I speak of the 'turbid stream that often carried much rubbish.' 
Well, do you find nothing to criticize in Homer ? Did not Lucilius in 
Accius and Ennius ? Why may we not think that Lucilius was too hasty ? 
Give him all credit as more finished than you wonld expect, than his pre- 
decessors. Still if he lived now he would find much to correct ; he would be 
more exacting in his criticism. 

72-92. What is to be worth reading must have cost much pains, and not be 
written for the multitude. You may look to have your poems read in bad 
schools. That is not my ambition. I am like Arbuscula ; if the front stalls 
admire, the pit and gallery may be hanged. I care for the approbation of 
true poets and true critics, not for that of the poetasters and drawing-room 
critics of the moment. 

The verses enclosed in brackcts are found in some of the ioth cent. MSS. (<p \p \ 
1 P), but they were absent from Cruquius' Bland. MSS., and were certainly unknown 
to the Scholiasts, who not only do not comment on them, but evidently found 
' Nempe incomposito,' etc. as the opening words of the Satire, ' Respondet his 
a quibus culpatus fuerat quod Lucilii versus damnasset in satira " Eupolis atque 
Cratinus," et dicit se non poetam improbasse sed versus,' etc. It is in favour also 
of the more abrupt commencement that Persius, an imitator of Horace ; begins 
Sat. 3 with ' Nempe.' 

[Luci/i, quam sis mendosus, teste Catone 

Defensore tuo, pervincam, qui male factos 

Emendare parat versus ; hoc lenius ille, 

Quo mclior vir et est longe subtilior illo, 

Qui multum puer et loris et funibus udis 5 

[i.Catone^apparently^ValeriusCato,' 4. quo melior vir et est, the read- 

a ' grammarian ' and poet of the later ing of P ; but the majority of the older 

Republic, who is described by Suetonius MSS. read the line unmetrically without 

(de grammaticis illustr. 2 and 11) as ' et,' and the variations in others ' adest,' 

having read Lucilius in the lecture-room ' hic est, ' ' meliorque vir est,' ' est quo 

of Philocomus. Orelli thinks that that vir melior,' indicate that ' et ' is only 

passage gave the suggestion of this one conjecture amongst many for reme- 

interpolation, the action attributed to dying a fault in the original copy. 
Cato ' emendare parat versus,' being due illo. In the uncertainty of the author- 

to a misapplication of some earlier ship of the verses it may seem idle to 

words of Suetonius, who speaks not of guess who this ' grammaticorum equitum 

Cato, but of earlier grammarians as doctissimus ' is that is contrasted with 

editing and retouching (' diligentius re- Cato. Ritter suggests that the person 

tractare') the writings of older poets. imagined is Horace's own teacher Or- 

Valerius Cato, acc. to Suetonius, lost bilius, of whom Suetonius says that in 

his property whilst still a minor in early life ' in Macedonia . . . equo me- 

Sulla's proscriptions, and lived to an ruit.' If this is so we may perhaps 

extreme old age. This would render it, imagine further that the severe dis- 

though not probable, possible that he cipline of v. 5 is suggested by that which 

should be engaged in literary work at has made Orbilius himself famous; see 

the date that Horace wrote. EpP- 2 - *• 7 1 - 

H 2 



Exoratus, ut cssct opem qui fcrrc poctis 

Antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra, 

Grammaticorum cquitum doctissimus. Ut redeam illuc :] 

Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 

Lucili. Quis tam Lucili fautor inepte est 

Ut non hoc fateatur? At idem quod sale multo 

Urbem defricuit charta laudatur eadem. 

Nec tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque cetera : nam sic 5 

Et Laberi mimos ut pulchra poemata mirer. 

Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 

Auditoris : et est quaedam tamen hic quoque virtus : 

Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 

Impediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures ; 10 

Et sermone opus est modo tristi, saepe iocoso, 

Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 

Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus atque 

Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 

Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 15 

6. exoratus : sub. ' est.' Other MSS. 
have ' exhortatus,' which would be used 

8. ut redeam illuc : suggested by 
Sat. 1. 1. 108 ' Illuc unde abii redeo'; 
but it is harsher here.] 

1. nempe . . . dixi, 'it is true I said.' 
We are to imagine ourselves as over- 
hearing part of a conversation. Horace 
is replying to criticism on what he had 
said in Sat. I. 4. 

incomposito . . . pede : cp. ' pede 
certo ' Sat. 1.4. 47; 'halting rhythm.' 
There is possibly some sense of con- 
tinuity in the metaphor 'pede currere.' 
What he had actually said was that 
Lucilius was ' durus componere versus ' 
Sat. 1. 4. 8. 

3. sale multo . . . defricuit. The 
general sense is imitated by Pers. 1. 114 
'secuit Lucilius urbem.' The Schol. 
is probably right in taking it as a con- 
tinuous metaphor. His wit was the 
salt which made the sore places smart. 
The praise which Horace claims to 
have given to Lucilius must be looked 
for in the whole passage, vv. 1-8 of Sat. 
1. 4. 

4. charta. Sat. 1.5. 104 
is used of a single poem. 

5. cetera, every other good quality 
including smooth versification. 

The sing. 

6. et Laberi mimos, which contain, 
like Lucilius' satires, plenty of well-ap- 
plied wit. Laberius is the Roman knight 
whom Caesar compelled to act his own 
mimes. The prologue which he spoke 
on the occasion is given, with the story, 
in Macrob. Saturn. 2. 7, and has great 
spirit ; but Cicero is at one with Horace 
in speaking slightingly of the mimes 
themselves, ad Fam. 12. 18 'equidem 
sic iam obdurui ut ludis Caesaris nostri 
animo aequissimo . . . audirem Laberii 
et Publii poemata.' 

9. brevitate : whereas Lucilius was 
'garrulus'; ' erat quod tollere velles'; 
Sat. 1. 4. 11, 12. 

11. tristi, 'serious.' 

12. defendente, ' maintaining,' as 
A. P. 194 ' partes officiumque defendat.' 
It is a variation of the common ' tueri 
personam,' 'tueri munus,' etc. 

vicem, as 'fungar vice ' A. P. 304, 
'place,' ' part.' 

rhetoris, one who composes declam- 

13. parcentis viribus, a description 
of irony. 

15. plerumque, as usually in Ho- 
race, ' very often.' Sat. 2. 5. 55 ; Epp. 
1. 18. 94, 2. 2. 84 ; A. P. 14, 95. 

secat, ' decides,' ' cuts the knots.' 
Epp. 1. 16. 42 ' multae magnaeque se- 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 


Illi scripta quibus comoedia prisca viris est 

Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulcher 

Hermogenes unquam legit neque simius iste 

Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. 

' At magnum fecit quod verbis Graeca Latinis 

Miscuit.' O seri studiorum ! quine putetis 

Difficile et mirum Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 


cantur iudice lites.' Cp. Cic. de Or. 2. 
58. 236 'odiosas res saepe, quas argu- 
mentis dilui non facile est, ioco risuque 

16. See note on Sat. 1. 4. 2. 

viris is evidently contrasted here with 
the effeminate taste of the day. For 
the dative cp. Epp. 1. 19. 3 'scribuntur 
aquae potoribus,' Madv. § 250 a. 

17. stabant. They owed their suc- 
cess to this. A phrase of the theatre, 
opp. 'cadere/ (KmirTtiv : Epp. 2. 1. 176 
' cadat an recto stet fabula talo.' 

hoc covers the whole description of 
the excellence of satirical composition, 
vv. 9-16. 

pulcher, said of a fop. 

18. Hermogenes : sc. Tigellius. See 
on Sat. 1. 4. 72 and introd. to Sat. I. 3. 

simius : probably, as the Schol. say, 
the Demetrius of v. 90. 

19. This verse is best illustrated by 
Cicero's ' O poetam egregium, quam- 
quam ab his cantoribus Euphorionis con- 
temnitur' ! Tusc. 3. 19. 45, where ' can- 
toribus,' as ' cantare' here, is of reciting 
in a sing-song and maudlin tone. Cp. 
' plorare ' v. 91. Euphorion of Chalcis 
was a popular elegiac poet of the Alex- 
andrine school whom Cicero is there 
contrasting with the more manly stand- 
ard of their own Ennius. It is as imi- 
tators of the Alexandrine poets instead. 
of the great Greek classics, Homer, 
Alcaeus, Archilochus, that Horace is 
here vilipending Calvus and Catullus. 
He is not just to Catullus, but he is 
treating him as a representative of the 
school with which he was always at 
war. Calvus is C. Licinius Calvus, the 
orator and poet, a contemporary and 
close friend of Catullus. 

20. ' Surely it was a feat to mingle 
Greek words in his verses as he did.' An 
argument imagined for a defender of Lu- 
cilius, but hardly a serious one. Cp. 
' alyiAnroi montes ' in fr. 3. 7. It was 
a practice of early Latin writing — not 

entirely dropped in Lucretius (4. 1162, 
etc), criticized by Cicero, de Off. 1. 31. 
III ' ut sermone eo debemus uti qui 
notus est nobis, ne, ut quidam, Graeca 
verba inculcantes iure optimo irridea- 
mur ' — but allowed by himself freely in 
the freedom of his letters. 

21. seri studiorum : a translation of 
the Greek oxpijxaQus, of dunces turned 
pedants. So Aulus Gellius (11. 7), 
probably in reminiscence of the passage, 
as he is speaking of the practice of intro- 
ducing antiquated novel or foreign 
words, ' est adeo id vitium plerumque 
serae ernditionis, quam Graeci diptuaOio.i' 
appellant, ut quod numquam didiceris, 
diu ignoraveris, cum id scire aliquando 
coeperis, magni facias quo in loco cun- 
que et quacunque in re dicere.' Horace 
adds point to his criticism by setting the 
example of translating the Greek word. 

quine. A usage of the comic dra- 
matists. See Ter. Ad. 2. 3. 8 ' festi- 
vum caput ! Qui ne omnia sibi post 
putavit esse prae meo commodo ? ' ' Qui ' 
is the nom. plur. of the relative : the 
interrogative tone added by ' ne ' gives 
a rhetorical emphasis — ' what ? when 
you think,' etc. Cp. the exclamatory ' ne ' 
in ' utne ' Sat. 2. 5. 18. It is found, as 
Bentley says on the passage quoted from 
Terence,both with the ind. and subj., that 
is, both with ' qui ' as a simple relative 
and with causal or other force which 
affects the mood. For the first see 
Virg. Aen.10. 673 'Quos ne, nefas, omnes 
infanda morte reliqui.' In my note on 
Epod. 1. 7 this place was inadvertently 
quoted as an instance of the redundant 
' ne ' with the interrogative ' qui.' 

22. Pitholeonti. Nothing is known 
of him unless we accept Bentley's inge- 
nious suggestion, that he is the same as 
Pitholaus (he compares the double forms 
of the names TtuuAaos, ItuoKiwv — MeVe- 
Aaos, MeviKtas) mentioned by Suetonius 
(Jul. 75) as a poetical libeller of Julius 



Contigit ? ' At sermo lingua concinnus utraque 
Suavior, ut Chio nota si commixta Falerni est.' 
Cum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an et cum 
Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli ? 
Scilicet oblitus patriaeque patrisque, Latine 
Cum Pedius causas exsudet Publicola atque 

2 5 

23. concinnus. In our ignorance of 
the etymology of this word it is impos- 
sible to say whether any metaphor is 
felt. Nonius Marcellus (a grammarian 
of uncertain date) derives it from ' cin- 
nus,' the name of a drink, like the Ho- 
meric kvkzwv, of meal and wine. If this 
was believed in Horace's time it would 
suit the similitude of the following 

utraque : see on Od. 3. 8. 5. 

24. nota : see on Od. 2. 3. 8. ' Chio,' 
' Falerni,' a Greek and an Italian wine. 

25. ' Is that a principle which you con- 
fine to the criticism of poetry, or would 
you apply it also to oratory, and to 
oratory of a serious kind ? ' 

te ipsum, ' I press the question home 
to yourself, give me your own experi- 

26. causa Petilli stands, generally, 
for a case where much is at stake and 
where the defence is difhcult : see on 
Sat. r. 4. 94. 

27 foll. ' Donbtless you would forget 
fatherland and father and prefer, whilst 
Pedius Publicola and Corvinus spend 
their strength in pleading in pure Latin, 
to adulterate your mother speech with 
foreign words like a double-tongued 
Canusian.' I have followed Orelli, 
though with some doubt, in giving ' La- 
tine.' It is found in some good MSS. 
(</>, \p, \, 1), although the majority read 
' Latini.' Cruquius himself preferred it 
against all his MSS. as the reading, 
though not of V, of the marginal anno- 
tator on V, who wrote ' cum exsudet, id 
est, cum sudore et omni instantia Latine 
recitet, Latine proferat.' The scholia 
of Acr. and Porph. point the same way, 
though their argument is not quite lo- 
gical, as they both dwell on the fact that 
the two orators named were purists in 
respect of Latin words. As Orelli re- 
marks, the corruption of ' Latine ' to 
' Latini ' to suit ' patris ' is easy to 
imagine — easier than the reverse altera- 
tion. If with Bentley we read ' Latini ' 
\ve may either take it as an adj., as 

VirgfTs 'genus Latinum' Aen. 1. 6, or (as 
he prefers) of Latinus (' pater Latinus ' 
in Virg. Aen. 7. 61, etc), as the eponym- 
ous ancestor of the Latin speaking race. 
Cp. in that case, with the whole expres- 
sion, Od. 3. 5. 10, 11. Latinus' name is 
not so used anywhere else. With this 
reading the obvious mode of construct- 
ing ' intermiscere ' is to suppose a sub- 
ject 'eos,' sc. ' Pedium et Messallam.' 
Bentley, to make the sentence run more 
smoothly, altered ' oblitus ' to ' oblitos ' 
to agree with this subject — and he is 
followed by Ritter and Munro. I am 
not sure that it is not open to Orelli's 
objection that, although ' oblitus patriae,' 
etc. is in place as forcibly putting the 
crime of the person addressed, it occu- 
pies too emphatic a position if it be- 
comes the hypothetical description not 
even of what these orators were, but of 
what the person addressed might prefer 
them to be. 

28. Pedius. . . PublieolaatqueCor- 
vinus. Corvinus is the M. Valerius 
Messalla Corvinus of Od. 3. 21. 7 (see 
introd. to that Ode), Sat. 1. 6. 42, A. P. 
371 'diserti Messallae.' Who Pedius 
was is uncertain. The Scholiasts say 
that he and Corvinus were brothers. 
This may be illustrated by, or may be 
due to, v. 85 ' te, Messalla, tuo cum 
fratre,' where they annotate ' sc. Publi- 
cola,' but see on that verse. That the 
two families were connected is known 
from Pliny (N. H. 35. 7) who states that 
Q. Pedius, the nephew of C. Julius 
Caesar, was married into the family of 
Messalla. Their grandson was a deaf- 
mute who, by Messalla's advice, was 
taught the art of painting. This is all 
that is known. It has been conjectured, 
but on no further grounds, that Q. Pe- 
dius the younger, the father of the deaf- 
mute, adopted his cousin's son, a brother 
of Messalla the orator, who therefore 
became ' Pedius.' Doubt hangs also 
over the name ' Publicola.' Estre joins 
it with ' Corvinus,' quoting as parallel 
' optimus atque Cocceius ' Sat. 1. 5. 27, 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 


Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 

Verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 30 

Atque ego cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, 

Versiculos, vetuit me tali voce Quirinus, 

Post mediam noctem visus cum somnia vera: 

' In silvam non ligna feras insanius ac si 

Magnas Graecorum malis implere catervas.' 35 

Turgidus Alpinus iugulat dum Memnona, dumque 

Defingit Rheni luteum caput, haec ego ludo, 

' optimus atque Fuscus' v. 82 of this 
Satire. The arguments, which are strong 
for taking ' optimus' in these cases with 
the following name, do not apply eqnally 
here. It is more usually taken with 
' Pedius.' Those who believe that the 
two were brothers sometimes (as Dill r .) 
take it &Tro koivov with both. Very 
possibly the additional name is intended 
to recall the pure Roman descent to 
which they are true in their native Ro- 
man speech. The cognomen of Pub- 
licola belonged to the Valeria gens and 
so to Messalla. Cp. Virg. Catal. 11 (ad 
Messallam) 40 ' Messallis Publicolis.' 
It may have belonged to Pedius either, 
according to the Scholiasts' theory, as 
a member by birth of the Valeria gens 
or, as Estre suggests, on the female 
side from the Valeria who married Q. 

30. Canusini . . . bilinguis. The 
Schol. tells us that both Ennius and 
Lucilius had given the title ' bilingues ' 
to the ' Bruttates ' or ' Bruttii,' doubt- 
less in the same sense, as speaking Greek 
as well as the native Italian dialect. 
For Canusium see Sat. 1. 5. 91, 92. 

33. cum somnia vera. Mosch. Id. 
2. 2 foll. vvictos ore TpiraTov \a\os 'io~Ta- 
Tat eyyx/Oi 5' i)cjs . . ., evre tcal aTpeKeaiv 
iroipaiveTai eOvos dveipaiv, Ov. Her. 19. 
195 ' sub aurora, iam dormitante lucerna, 
somnia quo cerni tempore vera solent.' 

34. in silvam . . . ligna. The editors 
recall proverbs of similar import, y\avK 
es 'A6r)vas, ix^vs els 'EWrjanovTOV. Cp. 
our ' coals to Newcastle.' 

36. turgidus Alpinus. Acr. has 
a note, ' Vivalium quendam poetam Gal- 
lum tangit.' Cruquius had suggested 
for ' Vivalium ' ' rivalem ' ; but Bentley 
ingeniously altered it to ' Vivaculum,' 
the form which Acron on Sat. 2. 5. 41 
writes for Bibaculum. This key given, 

the two passages explain one another. 
They are both satires on M. Furius Bi- 
baculus, a poet of the previous genera- 
tion, whom Quintilian (10. 1. 96) classes 
with Catullus and Horace as a writer 
of ' iambi,' and whom Tacitus (Ann. 4. 
34) puts with Catullus, as one whose 
writings, 'referta contumeliis Caesarum,' 
were still read. 'Gallum'is probably 
a misunderstanding of ' Alpinus,' as it 
would hardly be used of his birthplace 
in Cisalpine Gaul, Cremona. The nick- 
name ' Alpinus,' ' poet of the Alps,' is 
due to his verse parodied in Sat. 2. 5. 
41 ' Iuppiter hibernas cana nive conspuit 
Alpes,' or possibly to fuller descriptions 
in the same vein of Alpine scenes (as 
the ' Rheni caput ') occurring in the poem 
on the Gaulish wars (' pragmatia belli 
Gallici ') which Acron attributes to him. 
' Turgidus ' probably means ' bombastic,' 
though it is tempting to parallel it with 
' pingui tentus omaso ' in Sat. 2. 5. His 
personal habits were part of the tradi- 
ticn of him ; cp. Pliny N. H. praef. 
'qui Bibaculus erat et vocabatur.' 

iugulat . . . Memnona, i. e. writes of 
Achilles slaying Memnon, the subject of 
the Aethiopis ofArctinus,the cyclic poet. 
' Iugulat,' a rough word, of his clownish 
way of ' despatching ' his hero. 

37. defingit luteum caput seems a 
continuous metaphor — ' gives his Rhine 
a head-piece of brown mud' Conington ; 
'defingere ' is a rare word, perhaps one 
used, as is suggested, of rough, offhand, 
workmanship. Probably the point lies 
in Bibaculus having used the epithet 
'luteum' of the source of the Rhine. 
Did he know enough of the upper 
courses of the Alpine rivers to apply the 
epithet purposely ? In any case it was 
prosaic ; but Horace probably figured 
the source of the Rhine or Rhone as 
Virgil would have figured it in the hall 



Quae ncque in aede sonent certantia iudice Tarpa, 

Nec redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda theatris. 

Arguta meretrice potes Davoque Chremeta 40 

Eludente senem comis garrire libellos 

Unus vivorum, Fundani ; Pollio regum 

Facta canit pede ter percusso ; forte epos acer 

Ut nemo Varius ducit ; molle atque facetum 

Vergilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camenae. 45 

of Cyrene, or as he knew his own Ban- 
dusian spring ' perlucidior vitro.' 

ludo. See on Od. i. 32. 2. 

38. in aede sonent ; ' in aede Mu- 
sarum ubi poetae carmina sua recitabant' 
Porph. See Juv. S. 7. 37, of the poet who 
recites in a room lent by his patron, 
' Musamm et Apollinis aede relicta.' 
The temple of Apollo Palatinus, which 
contained figures of the Muses, was not 
opened till B. c. 28 (see introd. to Od. 1. 
31). The only knovvn temple of the 
Muses before this was the temple ' Her- 
culis Musarum,' built by M. Fabius 
Nobilior, the friend of Ennius, in B. C. 
187, and restored by L. Marcius Philip- 
pus, the step-father of Augustus, Burn, 
p. 311. Pliny (N. H. 34. 10) tells a 
story of Accius the poet having put a 
statue, larger than life, of himself ' in 
Camenarum aede,' which may be a loose 
designation of this one, or may refer to 
one not otherwise known. In the time of 
Livius Andronicus the temple of Minerva 
on the Aventine was assigned ior meet- 
ings of the ' collegium poetarum ' (Fest. 
s. v. Scribae. Val. Mas. 3. 7. 11). These 
may probably have been transferred later 
to a temple of the Muses or Camenae. 

Tarpa. The critic who presides at 
these prize recitations is given by the 
Schol. the additional names ' Sp. 
Maecius,' which identify him with the 
' Maecius' of A. P. 387, andso withthe 
critic who is named in Cic. ad Fam. 7. 1 
as having been in some way made 
responsible for the plays to be performed 
in Pompey's theatre in b. c. 55. We 
know nothing of him from other sources. 
See on A. P. 1. c. 

40. arguta. So Epp. 1. 14. 42 'calo 
argutus,' of the slave whose wits are 
sharpened by town life. The names of 
Davus the slave, and Chremes the old 
man, are those of the Andria of Terence, 
though there is no scene which exactly 
corresponds with that suggested here. 

41. comis, probablynom. = 'comiter,' 

' so as to please.' 

garrire libellos, = to write light 
comedies of easy talk. Fundanius is not 
mentioned by Quintilian, nor otherwise 
known to us. Horace puts the story of 
Nasidienus' supper, in Sat. 2. 8, into 
his mouth. For ' garrire ' cp. Sat. 2. 6. 


42. Pollio. Od. 2. 1. introd. 

regum. Od. 4. 2. 13, the kings of 

43. pede ter percusso =' trimetris ' 
A.P. 252,'the measure withthree beats'; 
' pede,' in the same sense as supr. v. 1. 
It is also taken (as by Orelli and Dill 1 ".) 
literally ' to three beats of the foot,' i. e. 
to a metre which is so marked. For 
' percusso ' as a technical term see Cic. 
de Orat. 3. 47. 182 ' sunt insignes per- 
cussiones eorum numerorum,' i. e. of 
the iambic and trochaic. 

forte, ' manly.' 

acer ut nemo, ' with a fire all his 

44. ducit. There is no continuous 
metaphor. Heindorf and others compare 
the use of ' deducere ' (Sat. 2. 1. 4, etc), 
' to spin ' ; but ' ducere epos,' ' versus,' 
(Ov. Trist. 5. 12. 63), 'carmen' (ib. 1. 
Ii.i8,etc), are perhaps rather analogous 
to the uses of ' ducere ' of architecture 
(Od. 4. 6. 23), of moulding in brass 
(Epp. 2. 1. 240), or marble (.Virg. Aen. 
6. 848). For Varius as the epic poet see 
Od. 1. 6. 2 'Maeonii carminis alite.' 

molle atque facetum, ' smoothness 
and exquisite finish.' ' Facetum ' is in- 
terpreted by Quintilian, 6. 3. 20 ' Face- 
tum quoquenontantum circum ridiculum 
opinor consistere. Neque hinc diceret 
facetum carminis genus natura con- 
cessum esse Vergilio. Dccoris hanc 
magis et e.xatltae cuiusdam elcgantiae 
appellationem puto.' Virgil had at this 
time made public his Eclogues. See 
Introd. to the Satires, p. 4. 

45. annuerunt, Epod. 9. 17 'verter- 
unt,' Epp. 1. 4. 7 'dederunt.' 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 


Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 

Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, 

Inventore minor ; neque ego illi detrahere ausim 

Haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam. 

At dixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50 

Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis. Age, quaeso, 

Tu nihil in magno doctus reprehendis Homero? 

Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Acci ? 

Non ridet versus Enni gravitate minores, 

Cum de se loquitur non ut maiore reprensis ? 55 

Ouid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta legentes 

46. hoe repeats the ' haec ' of verse 


Varrone Atacino. P. Terentius 
Varro, called ' Atacinus ' from his birth- 
place on the river Atax (Aude) in Gallia 
Narbonensis. His Satires are not men- 
tioned elsewhere. Quintilian's mention 
of him (10. 1. 87) recognises the fact 
that some of his poems did not merit 
immortality, ' in iis, per quae nomen est 
assecutus, interpres operis alieni,' with 
reference no doubt to his Argonautica, 
a poem frequently referred to by later 
poets (as Ov. Fast. 2. 439). 

47. quibusdam aliis. Macleanejustly 
remarks that but for this reference we 
should not have known that Varro had 
written Satires ; it is not surprising that 
there were other writers whose names 
are not preserved. 

48. inventore minor. Cp. Sat. 2. 
I. 74 ' Quicquid sum ego, quamvis Infra 
Lucili censum ingeniumque,' etc. 

49. haerentem, as though it would 
be unwilling to be removed. 

50. at, ' but, you repeat (see on verse 
1), I said,' etc. Ritter unnecessarily 
makes it more directly dramatic by 
reading ex conj. ' dixti.' The reference 
is to Sat. 1.4. 11, where see note. 

52. doetus, 'are you not learned 
critic enough to pick some holes, like 
the Alexandrines, in Homer ' ? For a 
reference to such criticisms see A. P. 


53. eomis : not ironical, but yet an 
epithet taken from his admirers, as in 
verse 85, ' for all his graciousness.' 

tragici has the force of ' the true 
tragic poet.' 

mutat, ' emendat ' Porph. 

Acci. Cp. Epp. 2. 1. 56, A. P. 258, 
L. Accius, born, according to Jerome, in 

B. c. 170. His tragedies are praised 
and frequently quoted by Cicero. Quin- 
tilian'sjudgment (10. 1. 97) is ' Tragoe- 
diae scriptores Accius atque Pacuvius 
clarissimi gravitate sententiarum, ver- 
borum pondere, et auctoritate person- 
arum. Ceterum nitor et summa in 
excolendis operibus manus magis videri 
potest temporibus, quam ipsis defuisse.' 
Porphyrion's comment on this and the 
following lines is ' Facit autem haec 
Lucilius cum alias tum vel maxime in 
tertio libro . . . et nono et decimo.' 

54. gravitate : Epp. 2. 1. 59 ; not the 
abl. of comparison as Orelli takes it, con- 
structing ' Enni ' airb koivov with ' versus ' 
and ' gravitate,' ' verses of Ennius, below 
the dignity of Ennius ' ; but the abl. of 
respect, as Epp. 2. 1. 183 'virtute et 
honore minores.' Servius on Virg. Aen. 
11. 601 (see Conington, i. 1.) illustrating 
Virgil's use of the verb ' horreo,' has 
preserved an instance of Lucilius' 
criticism of Ennius, ' Est autem versus 
Ennianus (probably Sat. 3. fr. 6 'Sparsis 
hastislongis campus splendet ethorret ') 
vituperatus a Lucilio dicente per irrisio- 
nem eum debuisse dicere, " horret et 
alget." ' 

55. ' Whilst he speaks of himself not 
as though he were greater than those he 
criticizes.' cum almost = 'cum tamen.' 
Heindorf makes this a separate question, 
understanding a second 'loquitur,' ' when 
he speaks of himself is it not as one 
greater than those he criticizes ' ? but 
Madvig (Opusc. i. p. 106) rightly 
pointed out that, even if the double 
ellipsis of ' loquitur ' and of the prep. 
before ' maiore ' were admitted, the 
would be wrong. Horace is arguing 
that criticism of your predecessors is no 
proof of disrespect to them. 



Quaerere, num illius, num rerum dura negarit 
Versiculos natura magis factos et euntes 
Mollius, ac si quis pedibus quid claudere senis, 
Hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 
Ante cibum versus, totidem cenatus ; Etrusci 
Ouale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 
Ingenium, capsis quem fama est esse librisque 
Ambustum propriis ? Fuerit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus, fuerit limatior idem 
Quam rudis et Graecis intacti carminis auctor, 
Quamque poetarum seniorum turba : sed ille, 
Si foret hoc nostrum fato dilatus in aevum, 


57. rerum dura natura. ' Rerum 
de quibus scripsit ' Acr. ; but possibly 
' rerum natura ' has its Lucretian or 
Ciceronian sense of the total order of 
things — ' some difficulty insuperable 
whatever had been his individual force 
and care.' ' Dura ' qualifies ' natura ' as 
constructedwith 'rerum/notwith 'illius.' 

58. magis factos, ' more finished.' 
Cic. de Orat. 3. 48. 184 ' oratio polita 
ac facta quodamrnodo.' 

59. mollius, ac, ' more smoothly 
than.' Though putting it in this in- 
direct way, Horace repeats the charge of 
Sat. 1. 4. 9 foll., that Lucilius' rough- 
ness was due to his rapid composition. 

pedibus claudere. Sat. 2. 1. 28 
' pedibus verba claudere ' ; and on Sat. 
I. 4. 40 ' concludere versum.' 

60. hoc tantum = ' hac una re ' ; ' this 
and this only ' — repeating the previous 
infinitive. Cp. Sat. 1. 1. 78. ' Contentus ' 
is constructed both with an abl. and (jn 
poetry) with an infin. 

61. Etrusci Cassi : a writer other- 
wise unknown. The Scholiasts identified 
him with the ' Cassius Parmensis ' of 
Epp. 1. 4. 3,and all the earlier editors, 
including even Bentley, followed them. 
Weichert, who treated the question 
elaborately (De L. Varii et Cassii 
Parmensis vita et carminibus — Grimae 
1836), proved that this must be an error. 
Even if the two epithets ' Etrusci ' and 
' Parmensis ' are not inconsistent as they 
seem to be, the writer called 'Cassius 
Parmensis,' according to all testimony, 
was one of the conspirators against 
Caesar, and was put to death in Athens 
by the order of Octavianus after the 
battle of Actium, some years after the 

date to which this Satire is to be referred. 

64. fuerit. ' Let it be granted that 
he was.' 

65. comis : see on v. 53. 
urbanus, juined with ' comis ' in 

Sat. 1. 4. 90. It seems to imply some 
refinement in the humour, as that implies 
good temper in it. 

66. ' Than the creator of a new style 
of poetry, and one unattempted by the 
Greeks.' Does this mean (1) than he 
was, or under the circumstances of his 
writing could be ? or (2) than some one 
else, such as the writers of the early 
Saturnian rhythm? Casaubon taking (2) 
altered ' rudis et ' to ' Rudius ' so that 
the line definitely described Ennius. In 
spite of some harshness of expression the 
first is the most probable. Both ' Graecis 
iiitacti carminis ' and ' auctor' are phrases 
evidently meant to imply the praise of 
originality which Horace always gives to 
Lucilius : see v. 48 and cp. Sat. 2. 1. 63. 
Cp. Quintil. 10. 1. 93 'Satira quidem tota 
nostra est (Horace's ' Graecis intactum 
carmen ') in qua primus insignem laudem 
adeptus Lucilius quosdam ita deditos 
sibi adhuc habet amatores ut eum non 
eiusdem modo operis auctoribus sed 
omnibus poetis praeferre non dubitent.' 
With ' rudis ' cp. Virg. G. 2. 211 ' rudis 
campus,' of unworked soil. With ' lima- 
tior' cp. A. P. 291 ' limae labor.' 

68. dilatus, ' postponed,' if he had 
lived a century later. The reading of 
this word is very uncertain. A large 
proportion of the MSS. have the variant 
' dilapsus,' which K. and H. print, 
thinking it to have been the reading of 
the archetype, but an original mistake 
for ' delapsus.' There is a similar diffi- 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 


Detereret sibi multa, recideret omne quod ultra 

Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 70 

Saepe caput scaberet vivos et roderct ungues. 

Saepe stilum vcrtas, iterum quae digna legi sint 

Scripturus, neque te ut miretur turba labores, 

Contentus paucis lectoribus. An tua demens 

Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis ? 75 

Non ego : nam satis est equitem mihi plaudere, ut audax 

Contemptis aliis explosa Arbuscula dixit. 

Men moveat cimex Pantilius, aut cruciet quod 

Vellicet absentem Demetrius, aut quod ineptus 

Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli ? 

Plotius et Varius, Maecenas Vergiliusque, 

Valgius, et probet haec Octavius, optimus atque 

Fuscus, et haec utinam Viscorum laudet uterque ! 


culty in Od. 4. 13. 28, where the MSS. 
are divided between ' dilapsam,' ' delap- 
sam,' one (1) reading ' delatam,' and in 
Epod. 17. i8, where ' relapsus' and ' re- 
latus' have nearly equal authority. 
With ' delapsus ' Holder compares Virg. 
Aen. 2. 377 ' sensit medios delapsus in 
hostes,' ' if he had strayed into this 

69. detereret sibi, the same metaph. 
as ' limatior,' ' would use the file on him- 
self freely.' 

70. traheretur, 'dragged out,' ' pro- 

faciendo, as ' factos' in v. 58, ' per- 

71. caput scaberet. The editors 
quote from a fragment of Varro ' scabens 
caput novo partu poetico.' The re- 
mainder of the line is imitated by Pers. 
Sat. 1. 106, speaking of composition 
which has caused no effort, ' nec demor- 
sos sapit ungues.' vivos = 'ad vivum,' 
' to the quick.' 

72. stilum vertas, of erasing the 
writing on the wax tablet with the 
rounded end of the ' stilus.' Cicero 
has the same expression, ' [Verres] vertit 
stilum in tabulis suis ' Verr. 2. 2. 41. 

75. vilibus in ludis. Horace here, 
as in Epp. 1. 20. 17, professes to shrink 
from the fate which Juvenal tells us ^ 7- 
225) had befallen his poems of becoming 
a schoolbook, ' Quot stabant pueri, cum 
totus decolor esset Flaccus, et haereret 
nigro fuligo Maroni.' 

76. equitem, who occupied the seals 
of honour. Epod. 4. 15, Epp. 1. 1. 

77. contemptis aliis : see on Od. I. 


Arbuseula. A ' mima ' whose name 

Cicero also has preserved, ad Att. 4. 15 

' quaeris mima de Arbuscula, valde pla- 

cuit ; ludi magnifici et grati.' 

78. men moveat, imitated by Pers. 
S. 1. 88. 

cimex. Hadrian is said (Philostratus, 
588) to have tolerated the attacks of a 
slanderer calling them Sjj^yuara tcupiwv. 

Pantilius, an unknown person. Estre 
thinks his name is invented for its ety- 
mology, irav tlXKuv, in the sense of 
' vellicare.' 

80. Fannius: see on Sat. 1. 4. 21. 

81. For the conjunction of persons in 
this line cp. Sat 1. 5. 40 with note. 

82. Valgius, to whom Od. 2. 9. (see 
introd.) is addressed. 

Octavius, very possibly the same 
as the Octavius whose death is the sub- 
ject of Virg. Catal. 14, in which he is 
spoken of as a man of letters and a his- 

optimus with ' Fuscus.' See on Sat. 1 . 

5- 2 7- 

83. Fuscus. Aristius Fuscus ; see 

Od. 1. 22, introd., Epp. 1. 10, introd., 
Sat. 1. 9. 61. 

Viscorum uterque : see on Sat. 1. 9. 



Ambitione relegata te dicere possum, 
Pollio, te, Messalla, tuo cum fratre, simulque 
Vos, Bibule et Servi, simul his te, candide Furni, 
Complures alios, doctos ego quos et amicos 
Prudens praetereo ; quibus haec, sunt qualiacunque, 
Arridere velim, doliturus si placeant spe 
Deterius nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 
Discipularum inter iubeo plorare cathedras. 



84. ambitione, in the same sense 
Tacitus (Hist. 1. 1) speaks of 'ambitio 
scriptoris ' as one of the corrupting in- 
fluencesin history, — the interested desire 
to please. 

85. Pollio. Od. 2. 1 introd., supr. 
v. 42. 

Messalla: see on v. 28 of this Satire 
on ' tuo cum fratre,' the Schol. annotate 
' Publicola.' This they further interpret, 
as we have seen, of ' Pedius Publicola ' 
mentioned in that place. But Messalla 
had a brother called by Plutarch (Vit. 
Anton. c. 65, 66), and the epitomizers 
of Livy (122), Publicola, and by Dion 
(47. 24) Gellius Publicola, who had 
been an ally of Brutus and Cassius, but 
conspired against them, was forgiven on 
account of their friendship for Messalla, 
and subsequently commanded a wing 
of Antony's squadron at Actium. Cp. 
introd. to Od. 2. 3. 

86. Bibule, a certain correction of 
Heinsius for the reading of all MSS. 
' Bibuli.' The corruption was due to 
' vos ' and to a misrendering of ' Servi ' 
as plur. voc, which it could not be. 
K. and H., who print ' Bibuli ' as 
the MS. reading, equally denounce it 
as a blunder. The person intended is 
supposed to have been the youngest son 
of the Consul Bibulus (Od. 3. 28. 8), 
who was still a boy when his father 
died, and his mother Porcia married 
M. Brutus. We hear of him as at 
Athens (and in company with Messalla, 
Cic. ad Att. 12. 32) in B.C. 45, and sub- 
sequently at the battle of Philippi with 
his step-father. This will account for 
his friendship with Horace. It also 
seems that he wrote a memoir of M. 
Brutus (Plutarch, Vit. M. Bruti 1 3 and 


Servi, possibly the son of S. Sulpi- 
cius Lemonia Rufus, the jurist and friend 
of Cicero, of whose gifts and literary 
tastes Cicero speaks in letters to his 

father, ad Fam. 4. 3, 4, 13. 27; cp. 
Phil. 9. 3, foll. 

candide, Epod. 5. 5, Epp. 1. 4. 1 ; 
cp. Sat. 1. 5. 41, Epp. 1. 6. 68. 

Furni, doubtless the person with re- 
spect to whom Seneca tells a story (de 
Benef. 2. 25) of his reconciling Augustus 
to his father C. Furnius (friend and cor- 
respondent of Cicero, ad Fam. 10. 25, 
26),whohadbeen a supporterof Antony. 
He was consul in B.c. 17. In the Euseb. 
Chron. occurs ' Fumii pater et filius clari 
oratores habentur, quorum filius consu- 
laris ante patrem moritur.' 

88. prudens, ' if I omit any names 
it is not that I forget them.' 

89. spe deterius, ' less than I hope.' 

90. Demetri. Nothing is known of 
him but what can be gathered from the 
text (cp. v. 18) ; for the omission of ' te ' 
before ' Demetri ' Bentley compares the 
omission of the first ' sive ' as in Sat. 2. 
8. 16; cp. Od. 1. 3. 16, 1. 6. 19. 

91. discipularum, ' mimarumethis- 
trionum,' Comm. Cruq. ' ingenuarum. 
quia hoc tempore maximum earum 
studium adfectandi lyricam disciplinam.' 
Acr. For the first we may compare the 
' mimae ' of Sat. 1. 2. 2, who mourned the 
deathof theotherTigellius. Forthe latter 
Orelli compares the picture of Sem- 
pronia in Sallust, Cat. 25 ' literis Graecis 
et Latinis dicta, psallere et saltare ele- 
gantius quam necesse est probae.' 
Ritter adds the description of women's 
education, Od. 3. 6. 2ifoll. It may be 
questioned, however, whether Horace 
means to depict Demetrius and Tigel- 
lius as professional singing-masters; or, 
rather, as we might say, as drawing- 
room critics, whose auditors would be 
young ladies lounging on armchairs. 
Cp. ( Heindorf ) Martial's picture (3. 63. 
5 foll.) of the ' bellus homo ' : ' Cantica 
qui Nili, qui Gaditana susurrat, Qui 
movet in varios brachia volsa modos: 
Inter femineas tota qui luce cathedras 

LIB. I. SAT. 10. 
I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello. 


desidet, atque aliqua semper in aure 

iubeo plorare, nXaUtv KeKtvcv, a 
form of contemptuous dismissal ; but 
perhaps also with a play on the words 
in reference to the whining tone of the 
poetry which they admire ; see on 
v. 19. 

92. This verse is no doubt rightly 
taken by Bentley (Praef.) as an epilogue 
to the first book of the Satires. See 

Introduction, p. 1. For the use of 
' libellus ' compare the extract from 
Augustns' letter vol. 1, p. xxviii, 
' Pertulit ad me Dionysius libellum 
tuum.' Horace imagines himself de- 
livering the Satire to his copying slave 
('librarius') to add to the roll just 
completed of the other nine. It has been 
also taken, less probably, of the addition 
of the last taunt as an afterthought to 
this particular Satire ; so Heindorf. 




An apology for Satire, and (as befits the beginning of a Second Book) for 
Satire that has given offence. It is put in the form of a consultation with a shrewd 
old lawyer. 

Verses 1-5. H. My Satires are criticised — sometimes as too fierce, sometimes as 
too feeble — advise me ? 

5, 6. T. Give them up. 

6, 7. H. The best advice : but how to spend my sleepless nights ? 

7-12. T. There are prescriptions for sleeplessness ; but if you must write poetry, 

write the praises of Caesar. 
1 2-16. H. I wish I could ; but it is not every one who is fitted to describe warlike 

17, 18. T. Then describe his civil merits, as Lucilius described Scipio's. 
18-20. H When the time comes ; but it needs tact. 
21-23. T. It is better than Satire. Your fictitious names only make it worse. 

Everyone takes the hits to themselves. 
24-34. H- ^ nat can I d°  Other people indulge their tastes. My taste is writing 

verses, like Lucilius. They were his perpetual resource, his confidants. His 

life is mirrored in them. 
34-46. I follow in his train. Like my ancestors set on outpost duty at Venusia, 

my weapons are for defence not for offence. I would fain live in peace, but if 

any one assail me the town shall hear of it. 
47-56. Instinct tells every living thing what is its weapon of self-defence. 
57-60. The sum is ; whatever and wherever I am, write I must. 
60-62. T. I fear then you will come to trouble with some of your great friends. 
62-79. H" Nay, Laelius and Scipio were not offended when Lucilius laid bare 

the vices of Metellus and Lupus. He attacked great and small impartially. 

Laelius and Scipio were his friends and companions in their leisure. I do not 

compare myself to his greatness, but no one can deny that I too have lived 

with great men. 
79-83. T. Be it so ; let me at least remind you of the law. It is a criminal offence 

to write ' mala carmina ' against anyone. 

[Horace brings the Satire to an end with the jest he has prepared.] 
83-85. H. Ay, but suppose they are ' bona,' and Caesar thinks so : if the Satire 

be deserved and the Satirist's own hands clean ? 

LIB. II. SAT. i. 


86. T. Then the indictment will be quashed in laughter and you will be ac- 

C. Trebatius Testa was a ' iurisconsultus ' of repute, a friend and correspondent 
of Cicero, who introduced him to Julius Caesar (Cic. ad Fam. 7. 5). The letters 
(ad Fam. 7. 6-22) are addressed to him, and the Topica is dedicated to him (Top. 
1. 1). Cicero's letters to him are familiar, and deal in raillery, as inad Fam. 7. 10, 
where he rallies him for shrinking from crossing the British channel, though he 
was a votary of swimming, and in 22, where writing to justify a legal reference 
which he had made the night before, and which Trebatius had treated contempt- 
uously, he says ' illuseras heri inter scyphos,' and says that though they had drunk 
deep he had been himself sober enough on his return home to turn out the passage 
which he sends. It is supposed that Horace has such traits in view in w. 8, 9. 
Trebatius is probably dead at the time, and Horace's interest in him is a literary 
one through Cicero's letters. 

SUNT quibus in satira videar nimis acer et ultra 

Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera quicquid 

Composui pars esse putat, similesque meorum 

Mille die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 

Quid faciam praescribe. ' Quiescas.' Ne faciam, inquis, 5 

Omnino versus ? ' Aio.' Peream male si non 

1. Sunt quibus videar. The ba- 
lance is in favour of ' videar ' against 
' videor,' especially as Porph. so quotes 
it on Sat. 1. 1. 1. Either is possible. 
See on Od. I. 1. 3. 

ultra legem . . . opus. Comparing 
A. P. 135 ' operis lex,' ' legem' is 
perhaps best taken as meaning in the 
first place, ' its own proper limits ' — ' to 
make Satire more trenchant and per- 
sonal than it should be.' But there is 
probably something of the play with 
which the Satire ends, where ' mala' is 
taken by one speaker in a literary, by 
the other in a legal, sense. 

2. tendere, ' to strain.' The meta- 
phor of a bowstring may be in the back- 
ground, but it is not clearly felt ; still 
less is the metaphor kept up (as Dill r . 
says) in ' sine nervis,' which means 
' without sinews,' ' flaccid,' as A. P. 26 
' sectantem levia nervi deficiunt.' Cp. 
Cicero's use of 'enervatus' and ' ner- 
vosus ' of style. 

altera pars, ' the other half of the 

4. deduci, the metaphor from spin- 
ning, as in Epp. 2. 1. 225 ' tenui deducta 
poemata filo,' Virg. Ecl. 6. 5 ' deduc- 
tum carmen/ etc. As Conington sug- 

gests, there are several points in the 
similitude, one or other of which may 
be prominent. It may be a compli- 
ment, as expressing the fineness of the 
work, or a depreciative expression, as 
here, of its length and thinness. 

5. praescribe. If not actually a 
technical term in this sense, it is a word 
for authoritative advice generally, and 
also a word which, with its cognates 
' praescriptum,' ' praescriptio ' had tech- 
nical associations. 

quiescas, as in v. 6 ' aio,' the sen- 
tentious style of the man of wisdom. 

ne faciam : not after ' inquis,' which 
is parenthetical and intended to express 
surprise, 'Do you say'? ' Can I hear 
right ' ? but adapted to the construction 
of the preceding ' quiescas,' of which it 
is offered as an interpretation, as that is 
adapted to the construction of Horace's 
request, the first 'praescribe' suggesting 
' praescribo ' and ' praescribis ' in the 
clauses that follow. ' Ne faciam ' gives 
a certain play by its likeness to ' quid 
faciam,' as though Horace said, 'I asked 
you what to do and you tell me what 
not to do.' 

6. peream si: Sat. 1. 9. 38. 



Optimum erat : verum nequeo dormire. ' Ter uncti 
Transnanto Tiberim somno quibus est opus alto, 
Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 
Aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit aude 
Caesaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 
Praemia laturus.' Cupidum, pater optime, vires 
Deficiunt : neque enim quivis horrentia pilis 
Agmina nec fracta pereuntes cuspide Gallos 


7. optimum erat; see on Od. 1. 37.4. 
It comes under the first head. ' It is, all 
the time, though I did not think so ' ; the 
Greek dp qv. 

nequeo dormire. The humour con- 
sists in the matter-of-fact old lawyer 
taking this literally and prescribing for 
physical sleeplessness. Poetical com- 
position is often spoken of as a natural 
rival of sleep : Epp. 2. 2. 54 ' Ni dor- 
mire putem melius quam scribere ver- 
sus,' Juv. S. 1. 77 ' Quem patitur dor- 
mire nurus corruptor avarae ' ? The ex- 
planation is to be found in such expres- 
sions as Hor. Epp. 2. 1. 112 ' prius orto 
Sole vigil calamum et chartas et scrinia 
posco,' Juv. S. 1. 51 ' Venusina digna 
lucerna,' 7. 27 ' vigilata proelia,' Aus. 
Epigr. 34. 7 (of ineffective efforts at 
composition) ' Utilius dormire fuit quam 
perdere somnum Atque oleum.' 

uncti : see Od. 3. 12. 7 n. It is doubt- 
ful whether the oil is a preliminary of 
the bathing itself, or implies the exer- 
cise which precedes it. 

ter transnanto. Note the affecta- 
tion of the imperative form common in 
laws. Three is the mystical number 
suitable to magical and to medical pre- 
scriptions, Epp. i. i. 37, Virg. Ecl. 8. 
73. It is to be noticed also that both 
swimming and deep drinking are sub- 
jects of humorous allusion in Cicero's 
extant letters to Trebatius (see Intro- 
duction to this Satire), so that Horace is 
giving Trebatius' advice a personal 

9. irriguum : cp. ' uvidus,' Od. 2. 19. 
1 8; 4. 5. 39. It is the opposite of 
' siccus ' Sat. 2. 2. 14. ' Irriguum corpus ' 
seems a step further, but it goes with 
such expressions as that commented on 
upon Od. 2. 2. 14. Cp. Phaedr. Fab. 4. 
14. 9 ' irrigatus multo venas nectare.' 

10. rapit : Od. 3. 2. 12, Epod. 7. 13. 
Bentley preferred ' capit/ a reading of 

slight authority, as more suitable to Tre- 

aude, ' have the courage,' i.e. it is 
a high undertaking. For this method 
of giving panegyric under the form of 
refusing it see Od. 1.6; 2. 12 ; 4. 2. 

11. invicti. Horace gives the title 
to Achilles, Epod. 13. 12 ; to Jupiter, 
Od. 3. 27. 73. 

laborum praemia. Heind., Orelli, 
and DilK seek to soften the apparent in- 
delicacy by explaining ' praemia ' either 
of the worthiness of the subject, or of 
the praise and popularity to be gained ; 
but it is simpler to notice that the words 
are in Trebatius' mouth. He may be 
supposed without offence to take even 
a mercenary view of the poet's calling ; 
but he is specially concerned in pointing 
by contrast the thanklessness of his pre- 
sent style of composition. Horace does 
not profess to look upon the suggestion 
as having any practical bearing on him- 

12. pater. Cp. Epp. 1. 6. 54; see 
on v. 60. 

13. neque quivis, a favourite form; 
Epp. 1. 17. 36, A. P. 263. 

14. fracta cuspide ; often explained 
after the Schol., of a stratagem such 
as that of Marius, who, according to 
Plutarch, in the war with the Cimbri 
substituted a fragile wooden peg for one 
of the two iron pegs which fastened 
the head of the ' pilum ' to its shaft, in 
order that when it struck, the weaker 
peg breaking and the other bending, 
the javelin might be doubled on the 
enemy's shield, and so be difficult to 
extract and encumber his movements. 
This however, as seems to be conclusively 
argued by Funkhaenel (see Orelli's 
excursus", is too farfetched, special, and 
technical a reference to be looked for. 
The alternative seems to be, with him, to 
suppose ' cuspide ' to be a generic name 

LIB. II. SAT. i. 


Aut labentis equo describat volnera Parthi. 

' Attamen et iustum poteras et scribere fortem, 

Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius.' Haud mihi deero 

Cum res ipsa feret : nisi dextro tempore, Flacci 

Verba per attentam non ibunt Cacsaris aurem, 

Cui male si palpere recalcitrat undique tutus. 

' Ouanto rectius hoc quam tristi laedere versu 

Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotem, 

Cum sibi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, ct odit!' 

Ouid faciam ? Saltat Milonius, ut semel icto 

Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis. 25 


for the Gaul's own special weapon, the 
javelin or lance, called by Virgil, Aen. 8. 
662, 'gaesum,' by Caesar, B. G. I. 26 and 
Livy, 7. 34, ' matara ' or ' mataris.' The 
conespondence then is between w. 14 
and 15 ; the Gaul is dying, his lance 
broken, the Parthian when he can no 
longer sit his horse — both contrasted 
with the unbroken Roman lines brist- 
ling with their national weapon the 
' pilum.' 

16. iustum et fortem. The woids 
recall the ' iustum ac tenacem propositi 
virum ' of Horace's actual panegyric, 
Od. 3. 3. 1. Diintzer points out how 
Horace is in the habit of adding ' fortis ' 
to other terms of praise ; to ' bonus ' 
Epp. 1. 9. 13 (cp. Od. 4. 4. 29), to 
' sapiens ' Epp. 2. 1. 50, to ' strenuus ' 
Epp. 1. 7. 46. 

poteras. See on v. 7 ' optimum erat,' 
and cp. A. P. 328 ; ' you need not have 
done this, you could sing of Augustus' 
civil virtues.' 

17. Scipiadam, inf. v. 72, the acc. 
ofScipiades or Scipiadas, a GKck foim 
which Virgil employs (G. 2. 170, Acn. 
6. S24); but Horace takes it directly 
from Lucilius, incert. 57 and II. 14. 

sapiens, a touch of iiony in Tre- 
batius, as it would hint the meaning, 
' he knew what was good policy.' 

18. res ipsa, the facts of the case, 
opp. to mere fancy or suggestion (as 
now) from outside. 

feret, as ' natura fcrt,' ' occasio fert,' 
' shall prompt.' 

dextro tempore : eontrast ' tempore 
laevo' Sat. 2. 4. 4, and cp. Epp. 1. 13. 
3-5, and Epp. 2. 1. 1-4. 

19. attentam, predicative, will not 
find his ear attentive and so gain ad- 


20. male, ' awkwardly.' 
recalcitrat. Bentl. would read ' re- 

calcitret ' in order to complete the con- 
ditional sentence, but the special apo- 
dosis to ' si palpere ' is merged in the 
general statement of his attitude, ' from 
whichever side you approach him he is 
on his guard, and has his heels ready.' 
For an analogous breach of exact cor- 
respondence cp. Od. 3. 3. 8. 

21. tristi, 'sour,' 'illnatuied.' Cp.the 
use of the word in Od. 1. 16. 9 and 

22. From Sat. 1. 8. 1 1, where see note. 
The verse here stands as a specimen of 
Horace's personal Satire. 

24. quid faciam ? ' What am I to 
do ? other people follow the bent of 
their taste. Why may not I ' ? Imitated 
by Pers. Sat. 1. 8. With the excuse for 
writing satire as a taste not more un- 
accountable than others cp. Od. 1. 1. 1, 

saltat. He yields to his impulse to 
the extent of sacrificing Roman decoium, 
as Cicero says (Mur. 6. 13) ' nemo saltat 
sobrius nisi forte insanit.' What special 
personal play there is in the words is 
beyond our recovery. Porph. calls Mi- 
lonius ' scurra illorum temporum ' ; but 
his note shows no source of information 
beyond this passage, and, in a ' scurra,' 
to dance on occasion would be no im- 
propriety, Sat. 1. 5. 63. The passage 
in Cicero bears witness that such an 
action, though indecorous, was not un- 
known in persons of higher station, for 
he is answering the charge that Murena 
had danced. 

icto. Cp. oTvos ae rpwei /j.e\LT]Sr]i 
Hom. Od. 21. 293. 

25. numerus lucernis : the ' seeing 
double ' of a drunken man, ' cum iam 



Castor gaudct equis, ovo prognatus eodem 

Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum 

Milia : me pedibus delectat claudere verba 

Lucili ritu nostrum melioris utroque. 

Ille velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim 

Credebat libris, neque, si male cesserat, usquam 

Decurrens alio, ncque si bene ; quo fit ut omnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Apulus anccps : 

vertigine tectum Ambulat et geminis 
exsurgit mensa lucernis ' Juv. S. 6. 304. 

26. No identity of other conditions, 
not the closeness of twin brothers, car- 
ries with it identity of taste ; the ref. is 

/»Cow to Homer's Kaaropa 6' imrooafiov^Trv^ 
dyaObv Tlo\v5evK(a II. 3. 237). 

27. An adaptation ofTerence's ' Quot 
homines lot sententiae ' Phorm. 2. 4. 14. 

quot capitum. sc. ' milia.' 

28. pedibus claudere, Sat. 1. 10. 
59. Here, as there, it is a depreciatory 
phrase for verse making, putting the 
mechanical part foremost. Cp. ' conclr.- 
dere versum ' Sat. 1. 4. 40. 

29. melioris. The Schol. explain 
' censu et natalibus,' but, as Orelli says, 
it is useless to ask in what respect 
Lucilius was 'a better man than either' 
of them. It is a proverbial term. He 
compares Lucretius' remonstrance with 
the man who complains of death, 3. 
1025 ' Lumina sis oculis etiam bonus 
Ancu' reliquit Qui melior multis quam 
tu fuit, improbe, rebus.' 

30. A further reason for writing 
Satires, suggested through Lucilius. It 
is a vent for feeling, a substitute for a 
friend's ear into which to pour one's 

areaua . . . credebat. Cp. the ac- 
count of Sappho's poetry, Od. 4. 9. 
11 ' commissi calores Aeoliae fidibus 

31. si male cesserat : ' if things had 
gone ill with him,' a common phrase, 
esp. in Ovid, and cp. Virg. Aen. 12. 
148. The greatest number of MSS. 
have ' gesserat,' a natural mistake in 
eopying an uncial MS. As Bentley 
shows, the absolute use of 'gesserat' 
without an accusative would be un- 

usquam, with • alio,' ' to any other 
quarter whatever.' It has better autho- 
rity than ' unquam,' and has more force. 

33. votiva tabella. For the prac- 
tice common in antiquity, as even now in 
many countries, of vowing and offering 
a picture of some escape from danger to 
the power to whose good offrces the 
escape is attributed, cp. Od. 1. 5. 13, 
and see Mayor on Juv. S. 12. 27. Per- 
haps the ftgure is suggested by ' de- 
eurrens,' ' flying for refuge.' In any 
case the ' votive picture' carries the 
suggestion of life outside literature as 
a sea, if with calms also with storms. 
Such a picture at once paints the sea, 
and proclaims that its subject has 
reached the shore. 

34. seuis. Probably best taken in 
any case, as in Epp. 2. 1. 55 (of Pacu- 
vius and Accius), as meaning ' ancient ' ; 
' though it belongs to a bygone time, 
his writings keep a fresh picture of his 
life.' The other interpretation, ' the 
old man,' as though the point were his 
long life, would be excluded on other 
grounds if the dates in the Chron. 
Euseb. were trusted, which place his 
birth in 148 B. c, and his death in 103 ; 
but Mr. Munro (in Journ. of Philol., 
vol. 8. p. 214) gave some reasons for 
thinking that the iirst date should be 
put twenty years earlier. 

sequor hunc. The second is the 
emphatic word. ' It is he that I am 

Lucanus an Apulus anceps : ' an- 
ceps' is prob. the nom., ' of whom it is 
doubtful whether,' etc, as ' incertus ' is 
used in Liv. 30. 35, Sall. Jug. 49. 5, 
where see Kritz. For the geographical 
point see on Od. 3. 4. 10. The auto- 
biographical colour given to these lines 
is perhaps suggested by the practice just 
described of Lucilius in painting himself 
in his Satires ; but the special point of 
the description is that which I have 
indicated in the analysis of the Satire. 
The position of the Venusines is a 

LIB. II. SAT. i. 


Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus, 35 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama Sabellis, 

Ouo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis, 

Sive quod Apula gens seu quod Lucania bellum 

Incuteret violenta. Sed hic stilus haud petet ultro 

Ouemquam animantem et me veluti custodiet ensis 4 o 

Vagina tectus ; quem cur distringere coner 

Tutus ab infestis latronibus? O pater et rex 

Iuppiter, ut pereat positum rubigine telum, 

Nec quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! At ille 

Oui me commorit, (melius non tangere, clamo) 45 

parable of the literary position of tbeir 
great son : ' He is a true border man, 
of fighting stock, ready to do battle to 
any one who assails the territory he has 
to guard, from whatever side he comes ; 
but (he goes on in v. 39) like them it is a 
defensive post he holds, not an offensive 

36. missus ad hoc. The foundation 
of a colony at Venusia in the third 
Samnite war, b. c. 291, is mentioned by 
Velleius 1. 14, and in a fragment of 
Dion. Halic. 

ad hoc ...quone. The use of ' quo ne ' 
as simply equivalent to ' ne ' or ' ut ne ' 
belongs acc. to Drager (Hist. Syntax, 2. 
p. 689) to later Latin. There are, hovv- 
ever, as he points out, instances where 
' quo ' has both a final sense and a de- 
finite relative sense ; as Liv. 34. 6 ' cau- 
tum erat quo ne plus auri et argenti 
facti, quo ne plus signati auri et aeris 
domi haberemus,' where '.quo' is the 
comp. abl. after 'plus,' having also the 
final force of the clause following 'cau- 
tum erat,' ' we had been warned of a sum 
beyond which ive mttst uot,' etc. Drager 
thinks that in this place ' ad hoc ' gives 
'quo' this double force ('ad hoc ' is 
followed by a final ' qui ' in Sat. 2. 6. 
42, 2. 8. 25), and compares Ter. Andr. 
2. 1. 34 ' efficite qui ( = quomodo) delur 
tibi : ego id agam mihi qui ne detur.' 
Prof. G. G. Ramsay (Selections of Tib. 
and Propert. p. 306) points out that if 
' quo ' can be used, ' quo ne ' is the na- 
tural negative, ' ne ' being substituted 
for ' non ' after final particles, as always 
after ' ut,' and as after ' dum ' in Sat. 1. 
1. 40 'dum ne te sit ditior alter.' Mr. 
Prickard suggests that ' quo ne ' had a 
legal flavour (the earliest quotation that 
Bentley could find for its wider use is the 

Digest 21. 1. 17) as though Horacewere 
professing (in play as towards Trebatius) 
to quote some deed of foundation of the 
colony. Compare the play in Sat. 1. 
8. 13. Other ways of taking the words, 
all very forced, have been suggested 
by those who doubt the construction. 
Schiitz takes ' quo ' as = ' ut eo,' 'that in 
that direction,' etc. Prof. Palmer joins 
' quo vacuum,' ' that, if unguarded by 
him,' etc. K. and H. print ' Quo? Ne,' 
etc, sc. 'to what purpose? lest,' etc. 

Sabellis. Horace uses this name for 
the country folk of his native district, 
Sat. 1. 9. 29. 

37. Bomano, the sing. for the plur., 
as in Epod. 7. 6 and 7. It may also be 
taken, with Bentley, for ' agro Romano.' 

38. quod = ' aliquod.' 

39. incuteret, a favourite word with 
Horace, who extends its meaning ' quid 
negoti ' inf. v. 81, ' pudorem ' Epp. 1. 
18. 77' 'desiderium' Epp. 1. 14. 22. 

sed hic stilus : the bearing is pointed 
out on v. 34. The play is helped by 
the remembrance of the two uses of 
the ' stilus,' as a pen and a weapon. 
Cp. Cic. Phil. 2. 14. 34 ' si meus 
stilus ille fuisset, ut dicitur, non solum 
unum actum sed totam fabulam con- 
fecisset. ' 

42. tutus, 'so long as I am safe.' 

43. ut pereat : 'Iuppiter ut Chaly- 
bum omne genus pereat ' Catull. 66. 48 ; 
' ut ' = ' utinam,' as in Virg. Aen. 10. 

44. nec, nsed byHorace where stricter 
prose usage would require ' neve ' ; see 
on Od. 3. 29. 6. 

45. melius, sc. ' erit.' Cp. ' optimum 
erat,' supr. v. 7. So in a threat, Liv. 3. 
48 ' quiesse erit melius.' 

I 2 



Flebit et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urnam, 

Canidia Albuci quibus est inimica venenum, 

Grande malum Turius, si quid se iudice certes. 

Ut quo quisque valet suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet hoc natura potens, sic collige mecum : 

Dente lupus, cornu taurus petit : unde nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scaevae vivacem crede nepoti 

Matrem ; nil faciet sceleris pia dextera : mirum, 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam neque dente petit bos : 55 

Sed mala tollet anum vitiato melle cicuta. 

Ne longum faciam : seu me tranquilla senectus 

Exspectat seu Mors atris circumvolat alis, 

Dives, inops, Romae, seu fors ita iusserit, exul, 

Ouisquis erit vitae scribam color. ' O pucr, ut sis 60 

46. flebit, fcXavaerat, as ' cantabi- 
tur ' recalls the use of v/JtveiaOai, in the 
sense of ' to be the subject of talk.' 

47. Cervius,aninformer. TheComm. 
Cruq. has ' Cervius Ascanii libertus ca- 
lumniator accusavit Cn. Calvinum lege 
de sicariis.' Lambinus read ' Servius,' in 
which case Horace would take the name 
from Cicero, ad Q. Fr. 2. 13 ' vereor ne 
homo teter ac ferus Pola Servius ad 
accusationem veniat.' 

48. Canidia Albuci venenum. The 
Scholiasts, by the diversity of their 
explanations, show us that they had no 
real source of information. They offer 
us 'Canidia Albuci' ('sub. filia ut, Verg. 
" Deiphobe Glauci" (Aen. 6. 36) vel 
uxor, ut Hectoris Andromache ' (Aen. 
3. 319) ), or ' Albuci venenum,' which 
may mean either ' such as Albucius ad- 
ministered,' or ' such as she administered 
to Albucius.' Of these the last is the 
most probable. The identification of 
Canidia is not needed to readers of Sat. 
I and the Epodes. The introduction of 
a second employer of poison overloads 
the line, and weakens the attack on 
Horace's great enemy. On the other 
hand the hint of a special crime and of 
a companion to the ' Varus' of Epod. 5 
is quite in keeping with his treatment of 
her. ' Albucius ' is a name from Lucilius, 
inc. 9. Horace uses it again of an old 
man who is a tyrant to his slaves, Sat. 
2. 2. 67. 

49. Turius, ' iudex corruptissimus ' 

Schol. Their attempts at identification 
are various and not of value. 

50. ' That every one uses the weapon 
with which he is strong to frighten 
those whom he suspects, and that this 
is the bidding of nature, whose will is 
law, join with me in thus inferring.' 

51. sic collige. Epp. 2. 1. 129. 

52. unde, with monstratum, 'a 
lesson learnt from whence, if not from 
within ' ? i. e. from instinct. It has been 
also taken as = ' quare,' ' wherefore, 
unless as a lesson learnt from within ' ? 
but cp. ' unde datum sentis ' Sat. 2. 2. 
31. With intus cp. A. P. 108. 

54. mirum, a parenthetical holding 
tip the hands, ' marvellous.' The next 
line rebukes the wonder by giving the 
explanation, ' Yes, on the same ground 
that the wolf does not use his heels nor 
the bull his teeth.' Schutz compares 
the place of ' mirum' to that of ' durum ' 
in Od. 1. 24. 19. 

56. vitiato, ' poisoned.' 

melle, i. e. the drink of honey and 
wine ; see Sat. 2. 2. 15, 2. 4. 24. 

57. ne longum faciam, Sat. 1. 3. 
137 ; so ' ne te morer' Sat. 1. 1. 14. 

58. circumvolat, as a dread bird of 
prey, — a touch of poetry. 

60. scribam. For the order of the 
words see on Sat. 1. 5. 72. The unusual 
collocation seems to give emphasis to 
the misplaced word, as in the similar 
instance Sat. 2. 3. 211 'Aiax cum im- 
meritos occidit, desipit, agnos.' 

LIB. II. SAT. i. 

1 1 

Vitalis metuo, ct maiorum ne quis amicus 
Frigore te feriat.' Ouid, cum est Lucilius ausus 
Primus in hunc opcris componere carmina morem, 
Detrahere et pcllem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederet, introrsum turpis, num Laelius aut qui 
Duxit ab oppressa meritum Karthagine nomen, 
Ingenio offensi aut laeso doluere Metello 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus? Atqui 


color : Epp. 1. 17. 23. 

puer, as Horace himself addresses 
Trebatius (v. 12) as ' pater.' 

ut sis vitalis. For the contrasted 
constr. ' metuo ut . . . ne ' cp. Sat. 1. 
4. 32. ' Vitalis ' as in Sat. 2. 7. 4, ' with 
much life in you,' 'likely to live.' 
There is a reference in Trebatius^both 
(as Schiitz notices) to the alternative 
named by Horace in v. 58, and also 
verbally to ' vitae ' in v. 60. Horace 
has also in mind probably the words 
of Thetis to Achilles (Hom. II. 18. 95) 
u/Kvfiopos 5r/ poi TiKos 'iaotai oi ' ayopevus. 
The gist of the answer is that Horace 
cannot afford this freedom. He lives 
on the breath of great patrons. This 
gives him the opportunity of vindicating 
the character of his friendship. It leaves 
him as free as the friendship of Laelius 
and Africanus left Lucilius. 

61. maiorum, in the sense of ' the 
great,' ' those greater than yourselves,' 
as in Epp. 1. 17. 2. ' Maiorum quis ami- 
cus ' may be compared with ' quae vir- 
ginum barbara ' in Od. 2. 29. 5. 

62. frigore, in the first place (as 
is seen in Persius' imitation 1. 108 'ne 
maiorum tibi forte Limina frigescant ') 
of the 'coldness,' i. e. indifference, of 
offended friends ; but there is also with 
' feriat ' the metaphorical sense of 
Wolsey's* ' a frost, a killing frost.' 

63. primus, as ' inventor,' Sat. 
10. 48. 

64. detrahere pellem, as Epp 
16. 45 ' Introrsum turpem, speciosum 
pelle decora.' As the use of the word 
' pellis ' (i. e. the skin of a beast) shows, 
there is a reference more or less con- 
scious to a fable, such as the ass and 
the lion's skin, the fox and the sheep's 



skin ; see on Sat. 1. 6. 22. 

65. cederet = ' incederet,' an archaic 
nsage ; ' incedere per ora,' ' to niarch 
before men's eyes,' Sall. Jug. 31. 

Laelius. C. Laelius Sapiens (cp. 
v. 72), the son of the friend of Africanus 
maior, the interlocutor in Cicero's de 

qui duxit. For this mode of desig- 
nating Scipio Africanus minor see on 
Od. 4. 8. 13-20. 

67. ingenio offensi, sc. 'sunt?' 
'did they find matter of offence in his 

Meteilo. Q. Caecilius Metellus Mace- 
donicus, a political opponent of Scipio. 

68. famosis, ' scandalous,' as in 
Epp. 1. 19. 31 ' famoso carmine ' of 
Archilochus' lampoons. 

Lupo. The name occurs in several 
fragments of Lucilius, esp. in a passage 
quoted in Cic. de Nat. D. i. 23. 64 ' Tu- 
bulus si Lucius unquam Si Lnpus aut 
Carbo Neptuni filius, ut ait Lucilms, pu- 
tasset esse deos, tam periurus aut tam 
impurus fuisset ' ? The Scholiasts ex- 
plain the reference of P. Rutilius Lupus, 
cos. B.C. 90, but Servius on Virg. A. 
10. 104 says that Lucilius in the first 
book of his Satires had represented the 
gods in council as discussing the death 
of Lupus, and Lucilius himself accord- 
ing to the Chron. Euseb. died in B.C. 
103. Torrentius suggested that the 
person intended is L. Cornelius Len- 
tulus Lupus who was cos. in B.c. 157, 
and though subsequently convicted ' re- 
petundarum' was Censor in a later year. 
cooperto, ' pelted,' ' smothered.' 
atqui, ' and yet ' it was not merely 
one or two great offenders that fell under 
the lash. 

The metaphor and its application is more fully worked out in Shakespeare's Sonnet 25 : 
' Great prince's favourites their fair leaves spread 
But as a marigold at the sun's eye 

For at a frown they in their glory die.' 



Primores populi arripuit populumque tributim, 
Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque eius amicis. 
Quin ubi se a volgo et scena in secreta remorant 
Virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo et discincti ludere donec 
Decoqueretur olus soliti. Ouicquid sum ego, quamvis 
Infra Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 
Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et fragili quaerens illidere dentem 
Offendet solido ; nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 
Dissentis. ' Equidem nihil hinc difrindere possum 
Sed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti 



69. arripuit, ' laid hands on,' Sat 2. 
3. 224; perh. with the Ciceronian asso- 
ciation of 'arresting,' ' in ius vocandi.' 

tributim : cp. Cicero's ' dare specta- 
cula tributim,' Mur. 34. 72. It balances 
' primores :' he struck high and lovv, and 
he struck far and vvide. 

70. Orelli conjectures, not improbably, 
that the expressions of this verse (in- 
cluding the use of 'eius') may be Lu- 
cilius' ovvn. 

71. 'Yet not only vvere Scipio and 
Laelius not offended or frightened, thty 
made a companion and playmate of 

a volgo et scena, the throng and 
shovv of public life. 

72. virtus Seipiadae : see Od. 1. 
3. 36 n., 3. 21. 12. 

sapientia : the name of 'sapiens' 
vvas specially given to him according 
to Plutarch (Vit. Tib. Gracchi 8) on 
account of his political moderation or 
pliability. Cicero (de Am. 2) gives it 
a vvider reference. 

73. discineti, ' in easy undress,' liter- 
ally and metaphorically ; see on Epod. 

1. 34. The Comm. Cruq. gives a pic- 
ture of Lucilius pursuing Scipio and 
Laelius round the couches of a triclinium 
vvith a tvvisted napkin ' quasi ferituius ; ' 
an illustration or a fictitious expansion 
of the vvords in vvhich Cicero describes 
the friends in the country ' incredibiliter 
repuerascere esse solitos . . . et ad om- 
nem animi remissionem ludumque de- 
scendere ' de Or. 2. 6. 10, 11. 

74. olus, of their simple fare, Sat. 

2. 7. 30; Ep. 1. £. 2, 1. 17. 3 ; cp. Sat. 
1. 1. 74. 

soliti, sc. ' sunt ' as above, v. 67. 

75. censum, as much belovv Lucilius 
in social rank as in vvit. Lucilius was 
a Roman knight, of a good family ; his 
sister vvas grandmother to Pompey. 

76. eum magnis : cp. Epp. 1. 20. 25. 

77. fragili . . . solido, neuters. There 
is the hint of a fable, as of the viper and 
the file. 

78. Horace softens the self-assertion 
of the last lines, by this submission of 
his sentiments to the judgment of Tre- 

79. dimndere, a very doubtful read- 
ing. Of the Scholiasts, Porph. ex- 
pressly recognises the vv. 11. ' diffingere,' 
and ' diffidere.' Acr. gives an inter- 
pretation of both ' diffingere ' and ' dif- 
findere.' V. had ' diffindere,' the other 
Bland. MSS. ' diffingere.' Our existing 
authorities are divided between these 
vvords and 'diffidere,' ' diffundere.' If 
we retain ' diffindere ' we must accept 
Acron's reference to the formula of the 
Praetor, apparently in adjourning a trial 
' hic dies diffissus esto' : cp. Liv. 9. 38 
' triste omen diem diffidit.' Trebatius 
then would say ' there is nothing in what 
you say that needs further thought,' i. e. 
' I assent at once' ; but there is no proof 
that ' diffindere rem ' vvas equally good 
vvith ' diffindere diem ' ; and though a 
legal phrase seems wanted, this is not 
quite the sense we expect. Bentley 
argues for the alternative ' diffingere ' 
(p.ccepted by Munro, and by Keller in 
his Epilegomena, though K. and H. give 
' diffindere ') which he interprets, as Acr. 
' mutare, infirmare,' in the same sense 
as in Od. 1. 35. 39, 3. 29. 47, ' to alter.' 

80. ut monitus caveas, for constr. 
see on Od. 4. 9. 1. 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 119 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum : 

Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, ius est 

Iudiciumque.' Esto, si quis mala ; sed bona si quis 

Iudice condiderit laudatus Caesare? si quis 

Opprobriis dignum latraverit, integer ipse ? 85 

' Solventur risu tabulae, tu missus abibis.' 

81. incutiat : see above on v. 39. 84. iudice Caesare,"an abl. absol. ; 

82. si mala condiderit. Horace see on Od. 1. 6. 2. 

seems to be referring to the actual 85. latraverit, for * allatraverit,' as 

words of the XII Tables, for Cicero, de in Epod. 5. 58, Epp. 1. 2. 65. For 

Rep. 4. 10. 12 (preserved by Augustine, the implied comparison of a satirist 

de Civ. Dei 2. 9) has 'Nostrae duo- to a watchdog see on Epod. 6. 1. 
decim tabulae cum perpaucas res capite integer, Od. 1. 22. 1. 

sanxissent in his quoque sanciendum 86. solventur tabulae. The general 

putaverunt si quis occentavisset sive sense is plain, but the figure employed 

carmcn condidissel quod infamiam fa- is uncertain. There is an apparent 

ceret flagitiumve alteri.' Horace refers reference to the phrase in Quintil. 5. 

to the same law in Epp. 2. 1. 153. 10. 67 'Cum risu tota res solvitur.' 



Verses 1-16. 'Listen, my friends, to a lecture on plain living' — it is not Horace 
speaking, but Ofellus — a plain man, but a philosopher in his way — ' listen, 
but not in a smartly laid out dining-room nor when your bellies are full. Go 
and hunt, or break a rough horse, or (if you are only fit for such effeminate 
exercises) have a good game of ball or quoit, and then I defy you to despise 
plain fare. 

16-22. Hunger is the best sauce. The rarest delicacies lose their flavour if appetite 
is wanting. 

22-30. It is, I suppose, useless to protest against the preference of a peacock to 
a barndoor fowl. It is more costly and appeals to the eye. Even that is 
ridiculous, for you are not going to eat the smart feathers. But your fancies 
about food go farther still. 

31-39. You think you know whether the pike is caught in the river or in the sea. 
You like your mullet large (though you must divide it to eat it) and your pike 
small. Your only principle is to take what is rare and avoid what is natural. 
That comes from not knowing what it is to be really hungry. 

39-44. You say you like to gloat over the big dishfull. One is inclined to call 
the south wind to taint the glutton's dainties ; but there is no need : boar and 
turbot lose all their savour when the stomach is tired ; then you prefer 

44-52. Princes and peasants share the taste for eggs and olives. The fact is 
that it is greatly a matter of fashion. The nastiest dish can be made the 

53-69. There is a great distinction in my judgment between plain living and mean 
living, for there are faults on both sides. You need not be like Avidienus. 


Thcre is a medium betvveen looking after things too sharply and not looking 
after them at all. 

70-81. Now hear the advantages of plain living. First, it means good digestion, 
and with good digestion comes a free and active mind. 

82-88. Next, it leaves a margin for improvement ; for holidays or when health 
requires it. Luxury has used up all its resources. 

89-99. In the good old days delicacies were always reserved for hospitality. 
Gluttony leads even now to disgrace as well as to ruinous extravagance. 

99-1 11. Do yon answer that there is no fear of ruin in your case ; that you have 
enough to spend on your gluttony ? I answer that there are better uses of 
money. Relieve the poor, restore temples, give to your country. But have 
you immunity from human chances? And if change come, who is best fitted 
to meet it, the man who is accustomed to plain living or the man of luxury ? ' 

112-136. Ofellus practised what he taught. I knew him when I was a boy as a 
proprietor where now he pays rent and works hard. He lived plainly then, 
and when reverses came he applied his philosophy to his own case and taught 
his sons to do the same. 

The lecture (verses i-iii) is pretty clearly meant to be put into the mouth of 
Ofellus, who is described as an old neighbour of Horace's, and as a representative 
of the sturdy independence and strong sense of his fellow countrymen the ' pernix 
Apulus ' (Epod. 2. 41), 'Sabellus' (Sat. 2. 1. 36; Epp. 1. 16. 49), etc. The 
purpose of the lecture suits the character, but, as in those of Stertinius in Sat. 
2. 3 and Davus in Sat. 2. 7» there is little or no attempt to make the style or 
topics in detail correspond to the speaker. It is a Satire, such as in the First 
Book would have been in Horace's own mouth, on the luxury and caprices of 
the day. 

It will be noticed (see on v. 114) that Ofellus is supposed to have been dis- 
possessed of his property at the same time as Horace himself, viz. in B. c. 41, 
and to have lived on as a tenant under Umbrenus (v. 133), the veteran to whom 
the land had been assigned. "Whether he is supposed to be alive still does not 

It is one of the Satires in w T hich Horace seems to have taken the topic and 
general idea of treatment from Lucilius, who, according to Cicero, de Fin. 2. 
8. 24, put a lecture against greediness into the mouth of Laelius. One of the 
fragments of it quoted by Cicero is referred to in v. 46 ; see note there. 

OUAE virtus et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo 

(Nec meus hic sermo est, sed quae praecepit Ofellus 

Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassaque Minerva,) 

1. boni, 'good sirs.' Ofellus' ad- though of no school.' V. had 'abnormi,' 
dress to some imagined audience of but the mistake is easy (there is a similar 
neighbours, rather than Horace's own, mistake the other way in some MSS. in 
in wbich case it would be unlike his verse 1, ' bonis sit ' for ' boni sit'), and 
usual style. For its use in the sing. the reference which Lambinus first sug- 
see on Sat. 2. 3. 31. gested to Cic. de Am. 5. 18 ' Nunquam 

vivere parvo : Od. 2. 16. 13. ego dicam C. Fabricium, M'. Curium 

2. nec meus : a Greek form, ov yap quos sapientes nostri maiores iudicabant 
tfxbs 6 nvOos dAAd ^aiSpov rovSe ov ad istorum normam fuisse sapientes,' has 
^eAAcu Xiyeiv Plat. Sympos. p. 177. a fuller bearing than he noticed, for not 

3. abnormis sapiens, 'a philosopher only is Cicero speaking in the same 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 


Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes 
Cum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus et cum 
Acclinis falsis animus meliora recusat, 
Verum hic impransi mecum disquirite. Cur hoc ? 
Dicam si potero. Male verum examinat omnis 
Corruptus iudex. Leporem sectatus equove 
Lassus ab indomito, vel si Romana fatigat 
Militia assuetum graecari, seu pila velox 
Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit, pete cedentem aera disco ; 
Cum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis 
Sperne cibum vilem ; nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 
Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus et atrum 


sense as Horace, in asserting for the 
practical wisdom of Roman worthies a 
claim to the title, in a certain sense, of 
philosophy, but the use in the following 
sentence and in the same connection of 
the phrase ' pingui Minerva ' makes it 
most probable that Horace had his ac- 
tual words in mind. 

erassa Minerva, 'homelymotherwit.' 
Cp. A. P. 385 ' invita Minerva.' 

4. nitentes ; with both subst. For the 
extravagant outlay on tables see Mayor 
on Juv. S. 1. 137. Contrast ad Sat. 1. 3. 
13 ' sit mihi mensa tripes.' 

5. insanis. The edd. quote Cicero's 
epithet forClodius' extravagant building 
at Alba, ' substructionum insanae moles ' 
Mil. 31. 85. 

6. acelinis, in a literal sense in Virg. 
Aen. 10. 835 ' acclinis trunco'; here 
metaphorical, as Livy uses ' se acclinare 
ad ' for ' to incline towards,' 4. 48. 

7. impransi. Sat. 2. 3. 257, Epp. 
1. 15. 29; 'before breaking your 

8. male verum examinat. For 
another application of this principle see 
A. P. 422 f. 

9. sectatus, ' after following.' 

10. ab. Virg. G. 1. 234 'torrida 
semper ab igni,' Madv. § 254 obs. 2 ; as 
we say, ' tired from/ as well as ' tired 
with '; but there is perhaps the sense of 
' coming from,' ' fresh from.' 

Eomana militia : the soldierly exer- 
cises of a Roman — i. e. not military 
exercises proper, but those named in the 
preceding words, hunting and horse- 
breaking ; with this comparison of Greek 
and Roman exercises cp. Od. 3. 24. 54 

foll., Epp. 1. 18. 49 foll. For the ' pila " 
and ' discus 'cp. also Sat. I. 5. 48, A. P. 
380, Od. 1. 8. 10 foll. 

11. seu pila velox. We have to 
understand ' te agit/ and also the impera- 
tive apodosis to answer to ' pete ceden- 
tem aera disco,' ' play at ball.' 

12. studio, sc. ' the spirit of emula- 
tion,' the interest of the game. 

fallente. As Sat. 2.7. 114 ' somno 
fallere curam.' 

13. agit, ' draws,' ' attracts,' as Cic. 
Arch. 7. 16 'haec studia adolescentiam 

pete, ' fling the quoit into the yielding 

14. cum labor extuderit takes up 
again the main protasis which was 
broken off by the alternatives offered, 
' vel si,' etc. ' After a day's hunting or 
riding (or, if you prefer ball or quoits, 
play ball or quoits), in any case when 
hard work has given you a healthy 
appetite, etc' 

extuderit, 'eiecerit,' 'excusserit,' Acr. 

15. sperne. ' Despise if you can.' 
nisi Hymettia. Do not drink your 

'mulsum' (see on Sat. 2. 1. 56, 2.4. 
24) unless the honey is from Hy- 
mettus Od. 2. 6. 14) and the wine of 

16. Necessity has the same effect as 
exercise. If you cannot get relishes. 
bread and salt will make a dinner. 

promus, defined by Plant. Pseud. 2. 
2. 14 ' procurator peni.' The difficul- 
ties supposed are alternatives : the store- 
room is locked, so that you cannot get 
what is in it : or the weather is bad, and 
so the market is empty of fish — so that 



Defendens pisces hiemat mare : cum sale panis 

Latrantem stomachum bene leniet. Unde putas aut 

Oui partum ? Non in caro nidore voluptas 

Summa sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria quaere 

Sudando ; pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea 

Nec scarus aut poterit peregrina iuvare lagois. 

Vix tamen eripiam posito pavone velis quin 

Hoc potius quam gallina tergere palatum, 

Corruptus vanis rerum, quia veneat auro 

Rara avis et picta pandat spectacula cauda ; 

Tamquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vesceris ista 

Quam laudas pluma? Cocto num adest honor idem ? 

Carne tamen quamvis distat nil, hac magis illam 


the use of ' et ' may perhaps be added to 
the instances given in Od. 3. 11. 49 of 
the substitution of a conjunctive for an 
alternative conjunction. 

atrum. Od. 3. 27. 18 'ater Hadiiae 

18. latrantem : vkaKTovvra, see Lid. 
and Scott, s. v. So ' iratum ventrem ' 
Sat. 2. 8. 5. 

unde . . . partum, 'a power gained 
whence think you, or how ? ' ' ' Partum ' 
stands in apposition to cogn. accus. 
which would describe the action of the 
verb ' leniet.' 

19. caro nidore, ' the smell of costly 

20. pulmentaria, 'relishes.' Acr. 
tells a story that Socrates was asked 
when walking what he was doing, and 
answered ' se pulmentaria quaerere,' 
whichPorph.givesinGreek oipov avvdyoj. 
Cicero has ' pulpamentum fames ' Tusc. 
5. 32. 90, and 'cibi condimentum esse 
famem ' de Fin. 2. 28. 90, a passage 
which, from the following reference to 
Gallonius, (see below verse 47) Horace 
possibly had in mind. Cp. Epp. 1. 18. 
48 ' pulmenta laboribus empta.' 

21. pinguem vitiis, v. 77 ' corpus 
onustum Hesternis vitiis.' 

album. Od. 2. 2. 15, of a dropsical 
patient. So ' pallidus ' inf. v. 76 ; and 
cp. Persius' imitation 3. 98 ' Turgidus hic 
epulis atque albo ventre.' 

ostrea: a dissyllable ; see on Sat. 1. 

22. scarus, Epod. 2. 50, a fish of the 
eastern Mediterranean, rare and costly 
at Rome. Ennius speaks of it with 

affected rapture ' cerebrum Iovis paene 
supremi ' Heduphagetica 8. It is not 

lagois. The comparison of the passage 
just cited from Epod. 2 would indicate 
that this is a bird. The Scholiasts ex- 
plain the name ' avis leporino colore.' 
lt is suggested that it is the same as an 
Alpine bird called by Pliny (N. H. 10. 
68) ' lagopus,' and said to be so called 
from having down, like hare's fur, about 
its feet. 

23. eripiam, sc. ' tibi.' The Schol. 
w/11 explain by ' extorqueam,' ' impe- 

posito, ' served,' ' sent on table.' Sat. 

2. 4. 14, 2. 6. 64, 2. 8. 91 ; A. P. 422. 
pavone. The peacock is said by 

Vano (R. R. 3. 6. 6) to have been first 
servcd at table in Rome by Hortensius, 
at his inaugural feast as augur. See 
Mayor on Juv. S. 1. 143. 

24. tergere, as our phrase ' to tickle' : 
either implies that rather more effort 
than usual is employed to rouse the 
sensibility of the palate. 

25. vanis rerum. Od. 4. 12. 19 
' amara curarum,' Sat. 2. 8. 83 ' ficta 
rerum,' A. P. 49 ' abdita rerum.' 

28. num. For the hiatns cp. Lucr. 

3. 1082 ' Sed dum abest quod avemus.' 
honor. Epod. 17. 18 n. For the 

thought of this verse Horace was pos- 
sibly indebted to Lucilius ; see fr. 27. 
12 ' cocus non curat caudam insignem 
esse illam (?) si pinguis siet.' 

29, 30. The reading is doubtful. 
Some of the best MSS. have ' patet ' for 
'petere'; and so Bentl., Orelli, Munro, 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 


Imparibus formis deceptum te petere ! Esto : 30 

Unde datum sentis lupus hic Tiberinus an alto 

Captus hiet, pontesne inter iactatus an amnis 

Ostia sub Tusci ? Laudas, insane, trilibrem 

Mullum in singula quem minuas pulmenta necesse est. 

Ducit te species video : quo pertinet ergo 35 

edit. There is no direct testimony to the 
reading of V ; g, which follows it on 
other difncult questions, has ' petere.' 
The testimony of the Scholiasts is not 
clear. Porph. favours ' petere,' ' Came 
tamen hanc magis illa petere te de- 
ceptum imparibus formis quamvis nihil 
distet esto.' On the other hand the 
note which goes by the name of Acr. 
recognizes ' patet,' ' Sensus est : quam- 
vis hac carne nihil distet magis illa te 
patet imparibus formis deceptum,' ' ma- 
gis, delectaris,' ' illa (al. illam") non dis- 
tat, inquit, sed ideo petis quia maiorest.' 
It will be seen that this contains in- 
consistent interpretations — the first sen- 
tence, taking ' hac carne ' with ' distat ' ; 
the second supplying ' delectaris ' as 
Orelli supplies ' vesceris ' ; both how- 
fz ever exclude ' pjftere ' in that they pro- 
vide ' magis ' with a verb without it ; 
the third sentence seems to give a link 
between the interpretations of Acr. and 
of Porph., and possibly to have been, 
through Porph.'s scholion, the origin of 
the reading ' petere.' On the other hand 
' patet ' in Acr. may be due to an inter- 
pretation of the infinitive. If we read 
' petere ' it seems to be necessary to ac- 
cept alsoeither'hanc' or'illam,'of which 
the first has the authority of Porph., 
the latter of several good MSS. ; and it 
is better to construct ' te petere ' as an 
exclamation Madv. § 399, not as Porph. 
took it as following ' esto.' Reading 
' patet,' the simplest constr. is Bentley's 
' yet in point of flesh there is nothing to 
choose, in this flesh over that, it is evi- 
dent that you are beguiled by the differ- 
ence of outside.' Orelli following Acr. 
puts a stop at ' illa,' and supposes a 
very harsh ellipsis, ' yet though there is 
no difference in the flesh [you eat (ves- 
ceris)] this in preference to that.' In 
either case ' hac ' is the peacock's flesh. 
With the reading ' petere ' 'hac' is that 
of the common fowl — not as the last 
mentioned, but as the one which the 
poet is recommending ; cp. the inversion 
of the usual order in verses 36, 37 ' illis 
. . . his.' 

30. esto, ' be it so.' You may be 
foolish ; but you have something to say 
for yourself. If there is no difference to 
the taste there is to the eye ; but what 
is the new sense which enables you to 
distinguish the waters from which a 
particular fish came. 

31. unde datum. Sat. 2. 1. 52 ' unde 
monstratum.' It differs from Sat. 1. 4. 
79 ' unde petitum ' in that the accus. is 
here cogn., there object. ' Whence 
comes the faculty by vvhich you per- 

32. hiet pictures the fish lying with 
its large mouth open. 

pontes inter. This is the traditional 
description of the feeding ground of the 
' lupus.' Lucilius, fr. inc. 50 ' pontes 
Tiberinus duo inter captus catillo,' 
Macrob. Sat. 2. 13. So Plin. N. H. 9. 
54. What ' inter duo pontes' meant in 
Lucilius' time is not known. Words- 
worth (Early Latin, p. 631) explains it 
as meaning ' off the island.' 

iactatus, i. e. by the current, not an 
ornamental edition. Columel. 8. 16 
' docta palata fastidire docuit fluvialem 
lupum nisi quemTiberis adverso torrente 

33. Tusci. Od. 3. 7. 28 'Tusco 
alveo,' Virg. G. 1 . 499 ' Tuscum Ti- 

trilibrem. Plin. N. H. 9. 30 ' [mulli] 
binas libras ponderis raro admodum 
exsuperant.' Seneca (Epist. 95) tells a 
story of one of four pounds ; Juvenal 
(S. 4. 1 5) of one of six. 

34. singula pulmenta, ' separate 
portions ' — in helping the guests. The 
argument is the same as in Sat. 1. 1. 45 
foll. Store is set by the size of the fish ; 
yet large or small it has to be carved 
into small pieces before it is eaten. 

35. video, like ' esto ' in 30, grants 
the explanation, ' your eye is pleased,' 
in order to press the inconsistency — 
' why then does it dislike in the pike 
what it dislikes in the mullet ? The 
Epicurean would possibly have found a 
good answer. 

quo pertinet. Sat. 2. 3. 11 'quorsum 



Proceros odisse lupos ? Quia scilicet illis 

Maiorem natura modum dedit, his breve pondus. 

Ieiunus raro stomachus vclgaria temnit. 

1 Porrectum magno magnum spectare catino 

Vellem,' ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus. At vos. 40 

Praesentes Austri. coquite horum obsonia, — quamquam 

Putet aper rhombusque recens. mala copia quando 

Aegrum sollicitat stomachum, cum rapula plenus 

Atque acidas mavolt inulas. Necdum omnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum ; nam vilibus ovis 45 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus. Haud ita pridem 

pertinuit,' ' what is the tendency ? ' and 
so, what is the principle, the purpose? 

36. scilicet, ' I will tell you,' because 
you like in each case what is unnatural. 

illis, sc. ' lupis.' 

37. his, sc. ' mullis ' ; see also on vv. 
29, 30 ; ' hic' is used of the nearest to 
the speakers mind even when it was the 
first mentioned : cp. Epp. 1. 17. 19. The 
' mullus ' is here the main subject, as 
\ve see by his retuming to it in v. 39, 
without again mentioning it. The ' lupi ' 
have only been introduced as an illustra- 
tion of the inconsistency of the reason 
for liking the mullet large. 

38. The edd. generally (adv. Holder) 
are no doubt right in joining ' raro ieiu- 
nus,' 'whichseldom feels real hunger'; 
cp. vv. 14, 15. Acr. mentions and 
prefers an ingenious variant ' rari,' con- 
stracted after ' ieiunus,' ' hungry for 

39. An alternative explanation put 
into the mouth of the epicure himself. 
No, it is not fastidiousness, it is pure 
greediness. ' I should like, if it were 
only possible, not a three pound mullet, 
but one that should try the capacity of 
the hosfs dishes.' 

porreetum. Sat. 2. 8. 43. 

magno magnum. Perhaps, as Prof. 
Palmer suggests, there is a mock heroic 
echo of Homer's fxeyas neyaXaiaTi ; but 
cp. inf. v. 95, where there is a similar 
mocking repetition, 'grandes . . . grande,' 
in satirizing the fancy for size. It is an 
anticipation of JuvenaPs Satire on the 
' spatium admirabile rhombi,' and the 
dish made to order to match it. 

40. Harpyiis. Virg. Aen. 3. aiofoll., 
a natural type of an appctite insatiable 
and disgusting. 

at. A good instance of the use in an 
appeal, spoken of on Epod. 5. 1. 

41. praesentes, ' potentes ' Schol. 
Virg. Aen. 9. 404 ' Tu dea tu praesens 
nostro succurre labori.' They are ad- 
dressed as divine powers. 

coquite, ironically, ' spoil them.' 
quamquam : ' corripit se, quasi frus- 
tra austros vocaverit, cum luxuriosis 
necesse sit suas putere delicias,' Acr. 

42. quando. Taken by Orelli and 
others as causal ; but this throws too 
much emphasis on the clause introduced 
by 'cum.' Both conjunctions are tem- 
poral, ' quando ' giving the occasion ; 
' dainties , however fresh, lose their savour 
when the plenty only worries a wearied 
stomach ' : ' cum ' adding a circumstance 
which characterises the same moment. 
' a time when it looks rather for stimu- 

43. rapula, with the epithet ' acria 
Sat. 2. 8. 8, some kind of radishes. 

44. inulas, ' amaras ' Sat. 2. 8. 51; cp. 
Lucr. 2. 430, probably elecampane, Inula 
Helenium of Linnaeus. The root is 
edible, and has an acid taste. The 
Schol. however explain acidas by the 
fact that they were dressed with 

necdum omnis, etc. Another illus- 
tration of the capriciousness of luxury. 

45. pauperies, the fare of humble 

■regum, the rich and great Od. 1.4. 
14, 2. 14. 4u 

46. nigris. The epithet recalls them 
to the eye — so it has the force of ' the 
olive that you know, the same plain un- 
comely olive that the poor eat.' 

haud ita pridem ; in Lucilius' days 
— for the reference is to some verses of 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 


Galloni praeconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis. Quid? tunc rhombos minus aequora alebant? 

Tutus erat rhombus tutoque ciconia nido 

Donec vos auctor docuit praetorius. Ergo 50 

Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana iuvcntus. 

Sordidus a tenui victu distabit, Ofello 

Iudice ; nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud 

Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, 55 

Cui Canis ex vero ductum cognomen adhaeret, 

his which are preserved in Cic. de Fin. 

2. 8. 24 

' O Publi, o gurges Galloni : es homo 

miser, inquit ; 
Cenasti in vita nunquam bene, cum 

omnia in ista 
Consumis squilla atque acipensere cum 

See above on v. 20. The point is 
that the standard of luxurious living 
varies from age to ace. This is notice- 
ably confirmed by Pliny, N. H. 9. 27, 
who says that the ' acipenser ' had ceased 
in his time to be valued. 

47. erat. For lengthening of syllable 
see on Sat. 1. 4. 82. 

49. tuto . . . nido, descr. ablative, 
Madv. § 272, 'the stork found its nest- 
lings safe.' 

50. auetor . . . praetorius. The Scho- 
liasts give various names in explanatiun 
— Plotius Plancus, Asellius.Sempronius. 
In one of several contradictory notes 
Porph. says that the person meant is 
one Rufus, who had set the fashion of 
eating young storks, and who, being 
defeated for the praetorship, was made 
the object of the following epigram, 
• CiconiarumRufus iste conditor. Hic est 
duobus elegantior Plancis : Suffragiorum 
puncta non tulit septem. Ciconiarum po- 
pulus ultus est mortem.' ' Praetorius,' 
if the person meant was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the praetorship, must be 
ironical ; but the guesses are evidently 
of little value. 

51. edixerit, ' with a praetors au- 
thority.' Cp. Epp. 1. 19. 10. 

mergos, ' divers,' birds of hard and 
unsavoury flesh. 

assos ('ardeo"), roasted or broiled, 
i.e. cooked in the way that suits only 
the tenderer and more delicate meats. 

52. pravi docilis. The gen. as in 

Od. 4. 6. 43 'docilis modorum.' Schutz 
points out that ' docilis ' answers to ' do- 
cuit ' in v. 50, as ' edixerit ' answers to 
' praetorius.' 

Romana iuventus. Orelli notices the 
irony of using here this heroic title, fre- 
quent in Ennius, as in Ann. 538 ' optima 
cum pulcris animis Romana iuventus.' 

53. It is not meant in satirizing luxury 
to recommend meanness. 

distabit. The best supported reading 
is ' distabat ' ; but, in spite of Bentley's 
sanction, few editors have given it. Rel- 
ler considers ' distabit ' a necessary emen- 
dation ; ' distabat ' could hardly mean 
' differed in Ofellus' judgment,' which 
is an English not a Latin idiom, and 
the following tense ' vitaveris ' excludes 
the impft. The future leaves open the 
question whether Ofellus is supposed 
to be speaking throughout or not. If 
se (as I have assumed) ' Ofello iudice'= /&*. «s 
' me iudice.' 

55. alio, ' in another direction ' ; as in 
Sat. 2. 1. 32. 

pravum, proleptic, so as to go 

Avidienus. The following words 
seem to show that a real person is in- 
tended. If so, the name is probably 
fictitious, possibly carrying in it a clue 
to contemporaries. For the supposed 
derivation of the name from ' avidus ' 
see introd. to the Satires, p. 14. 

56. Canis. Cf.'canisimmundus'Epp. 
1. 2. 26; in reference to the dog as a 
foul feeder. Possibly the person in- 
tended had one of his real names from 
' Canis,' as Canidius, Caninius, Canius, 

ex vero, no meaningless je?t. 

ductum. The reading of V., against 
the more common ' dictum.' Cf. Sat. 2. 
1. 66. So Bentl. and Munro. 



Ouinquennes oleas est et silvestria corna, 

Ac nisi mutatum parcit defundere vinum, et 

Cuius odorem olei nequeas perferre, licebit 

Ille repotia natales aliosve dierum 

Festos albatus celebret, cornu ipse bilibri 

Caulibus instillat, veteris non parcus aceti. 

Ouali igitur victu sapiens utetur, et horum 

Utrum imitabitur? Hac urget lupus, hac canis, aiunt. 

Mundus erit qua non offendat sordibus, atque 

In neutram partem cultus miser. Hic neque servis, 

Albuci senis exemplo, dum munia didit 

Saevus erit ; nec sic ut simplex Naevius unctam 

Convivis praebebit aquam ; vitium hoc quoque magnum. 

Accipe nunc victus tenuis quae quantaque secum 



58. mutatum. Sat. 2. S. 50 ; ' turned 
to vinegar.' 

defundere. Od. 4. 5. 34. 

59. cuius odorem olei, i. e. ' oleum 
cuius odorem.' See on Epod. 2. 37. 

licebit. Epod. 15. 19. 

60. repotia, ' second drinkings' ; the 
name, according to one of the Scholiasfs 
notes, of the day after the wedding, when 
there was feasting at the bridegroom's 
house ; according to another of them, of 
the seventh day, when the bride revisited 
her parents. 

alios dierum. Cp. ' vanis rerum ' 
supr. v. 25. 

61. albatus, with a new or freshly 
cleaned toga — in holiday dress. Cicero 
in Vatin. 1 3. 31 ' cum ipse epuli dominus 
albatus esset.' So of the proper dress 
for visiting a temple, Pers. S. 2. 40. 

62. veteris non parcus aceti. A 
receipt for a miser's salad — the oil bad, 
and even then very carefully measured, 
the vinegar good (the old is the sourest) 
and in plenty. As Schutz suggests, it 
is a parable of the host's character : and 
the dressing secures that very little of 
the salad will be eaten. Others take 
the words as referring back to v. 58, 
' aceti ' being substituted napd. irpoa- 
So/ciav for 'vini'; but this does not give 
as much point. 

64. ' Proverbium est ubi duae res mo- 
lestae sunt ' Acr. The proverb is adapted 
to the two characters offered, the ' gula 
Harpyiis digna,' and the ' canis ' of v. 

65. mundus erit. The subj. is 
' sapiens.' 

qua must be explained with the 
Scholiasts and Bentley as = ' quatenus,' 
i. e. ' eatenus ut,' to such an extent as 
not to offend by signs of meanness.' 
' Qua ' was the reading of all the Bland 
MSS. ' Qui ' has inferior authority. It 
would have the same sense. ' Qui of- 
fendit ' or ' offendet ' (which makes the 
words a definition of ' mundus ') chiefly 
occupied the text before Bentley, but 
has little authority. The thought is 
familiar in Horace. Cp. Od. 2. 10. 6-8, 
2. 16. 13-16. 

66. in neutram partem, ' in neither 

cultus, ' style of living ' ; cf. Virg. 
Aen. 3. 591 ' miseranda cultu.' For 
gen. in ' cultus miser ' see on Sat. 1 . 
9. 11. 

67. dum mvmia didit, 1. e. notmerely 
when they have actually offended. ' Di- 
dere ' is a Lucretian word. Albucius 
may be the same person who is named 
in Sat. 2. 1. 48, q. v. ; but there is no- 
thing to help us. It is a name in Lu- 

68. simplex, of simplicity carried to 
a fault. He lets his slaves neglect the 
decencies of hospitality. 

unctam, ' greasy,' Sat. 2. 4. 78. 

69. praebebit aquam : Sat. 1. 4. 

70. tenuis. For the contrast of ' te- 
nuis ' and ' sordidus ' latent in all this 
passage cp. Od. 2. 16. 13-16. 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 


Afferat. Imprimis valeas bene : nam variae res 
Ut noceant homini credas, memor illius escae 
Quae simplex olim tibi sederit ; at simul assis 
Miscueris elixa, simul conchylia turdis, 
Dulcia se in bilem vertent stomachoque tumultum 
Lenta feret pituita. Vides ut pallidus omnis 
Cena desurgat dubia ? Ouin corpus onustum 
Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, 
Atque afifigit humo divinae particulam aurae. 
Altcr ubi dicto citius curata sopori 
Membra dedit vegetus praescripta ad munia surgit. 
Hic tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam, 
Sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus, 
Seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus, ubique 


71. valeas, potential. See on Sat. 
1 . 4. 70, and cp. ' credas ' in the next line. 
variae res, 'variety.' 

73. quae simplex sederit, which 
because it was simple sat well. ' Se- 
derit ' the opposite of ' tumultnm feret.' 

74. miscueris. For the long is cp, 
Od. 3. 23. 3 'placaris,' 4. 7. 20 'dederis,' 
ib. 21 'occideris,' Sat. 2. 5. 101 'audieris,' 
Epp. 1. 6. 40 ' fueris.' In the first four 
cases, as here, the use is potential and 
hypothetical ; in the last it is prohibitive, 
' ne fueris.' In all other cases in Horace 
where the quanlity appears it is short, 
even where (Sat. 1. 4. 41 'ne dixeris') it 
is the prohibitive use. 

75. 76. bilem . . . pituita. Ilorace 
is using medical language of the day, 
for with Celsus (4. 12) ' bilis ' and ' pi- 
tuita ' characterize two disorders which 
befall the stomach, and Pliny (N. H. 20. 
7. 26) speaks of ' lentitia pituitae,' which 
lcttuce was said to loosen ; but it is not 
quite our language, and he uses it as a 
layman and as a poet, so that we must 
be content with the general purport. 
The figure of ' tumultum ' is an old one. 
Cp. Hippocrates^woi^iA^Tpof/)?? voowo-qs, 
rapax^Tjs ydp, and in another place in 
the same sense, ra dv6/j.oia OTaatd^tt. 

' Pituita ' is probably to be scanned as a 
trisyllable, since Catullus 23. 17 has the 
first ' i' long, ' mucusque et mala pituita 
nasi.' See Mayor on the scansion of 
' fortuitus ' in Juv. S. 13. 225. 

77. cena dubia. A phrase to which 
Terence had given currency, Phorm. 2. 
1. 28. (342) 'Ph. cena dubia apponitur. 

Ge. Quid istuc verbi est? Ph. ubi tu 
dubites quid sumas potissimum.' 

79. affigit humo. Cp. 7]yjoer?7Aof Plat. 
Phaed. p. 83 D. There is a v. 1. ' af- 
fiigit,' but here of small authority. See 
on Sat. 1. 1. 81. 

divinae particulam aurae. Cp. 
Virgil's ' partem divinae mentis' G. 4. 
220 and ' aurai simplicis ignem ' Aen. 6. 
747. ' Particula ' is a favourite word 
with Horace. 'Corpus onustum ' is a 
phrase of Lucretius 3. 113; but in his 
terms for the spiritual part of man Ho- 
race is echoing rather his other master, 
Cicero, and Plato and the Pythagoreans 
whom he quotes. See especially de 
Senect. 21. 78 ' audiebam Pythagoram 
. . . nunquam dubitasse quin ex universa 
mente delibatos animos habeamus,' Tusc. 

1. 26. 63 ' Ergo animus ut ego dico di- 
vinus est, ut Euripides audet dicere 
deus; et quidem si deus aut anima aut 
ignis est, idem animus est.' Pythagoras, 
according to Diog. Laert. 8. 28, called 
the soul artvanaa im tov aiOepos . . .dOdva- 
tov tTreiSrjTtep >cai to d<p' ov aTTiOTiaoTai 
aQavaTov tOTt. 

80. alter, the man of plain living. 
dicto citius, with curata, the hy- 

perbole is less felt because ' dictocitius' 
was a current phrase. Cp. Virg. Aen. 1. 
142, Liv. 23. 47. 

82. melius, ' belter fare.' 

quondam, ' on occasions.' Cp. Od. 

2. 10. 18, Epp. 1. 18. 78. 

84. tenuatum, i. q. 'attenuatum.' 

Tac. Ann. 15.63' pai vo victu tenuatum.' 

ubique. Bentley would read ' ubive ' 



Accedent anni et tractari mollius aetas 
Imbecilla volet ; tibi quidnam accedet ad istam 
Ouam puer et validus praesumis mollitiem, seu 
Dura valetudo inciderit seu tarda senectus ? 
Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 
Illis nullus erat sed credo hac mente, quod hospes 
Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius quam 
Integrum edax dominus consumeret. Hos utinam inter 
Heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset ! 
Das aliquid famae quae carmine gratior aurem 
Occupat humanam : grandes rhombi patinaeque 
Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus ; adde 
Iratum patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Et frustra mortis cupidum, cum deerit egenti 
As, laquei pretium. ' Iure,' inquit, ' Trausius istis 
Iurgatur verbis ; ego vectigalia magna 
Divitiasque habeo tribus amplas regibus.' Ergo 





against the MSS., as suiting better 'sive/ 
' seu ' ; but perhaps the change is not 
quite without point. ' On a chanee holiday 
or after an illness if so it be, and when 
growing years ask for more generous 
treatment.' It is not against this in a 
poet that in v. 88 he prefers another 
point of view and couples ill-health and 
old age under ' sive ' and ' seu.' 

88. Note the ' chiasmus ' with which 
'dura valetudo ' answers to 'validus,' 
' senectus ' to ' puer.' 

89. Greediness is inconsistent with 
true hospitality. 

90. liac mente : Sat. 1. 1. 30. Cp. 
with the passage Juv. S. I. 140 'quanta 
est gula quae sibi to tos Ponit apros, animal 
propter convivia natum.' 

92. integrum, opp. ' vitiatum.* 

93. prima, cp. Sat. 1. 3. 99 ' primis 
terris,' ' the young world.' 

95. occupat. The reading is not cer- 
tain. V had ' occupet,' and so have 
many MSS. The subj. is given in K. 
and H. Keller now supports ' occupat,' 
which also has the weight of Bentley and 
Munro. Either would stand, ' quae oc- 
cupet ' would be ' seeing that it falls on 
human ears,' etc. ; ' quae occupat ' is per- 
haps simpler and therefore more likely, 
' fame which falls,' etc. ' Das ' is ' you 
give, I suppose.' Some editors (as 

Schiitz") put a question. 

grandes, with ' patinae ' as well as 
'rhombi': contrast 'modica patella,' 
Epp. 1. 5. 2. The repetition of ' grandes 
. . . grande ' is emphatic and gives the 
idea of proportion ; 'the bigger the 
dishes and the fish, the bigger the dis- 
grace as well as the expense.' 

96. For damuo see on Od. 3. 5. 27, 
and cp. Epp. 1. 18. 21, 2. 1. 107. 

97. patruum : the ' uncle ' embocied 
to a Roman the critical or censorious 
disposilion of a mahs own familv. Cp. 
Od. 3. 12. 3, Sat. 2. 3. 88, Pers. S. 1. n 
'Pertristis quidam patruus censor ma- 
gister,' Cic. Cael. 11. 

99. as, laquei pretium. Perhaps 
from Plaut. Pseudol. 1. 1. 86 ' Ps. Sed 
quid de drachma facere vis? C. Res- 
tim volo mihi emere. Ps. Quam- 
obrem? C. Qui me faciam pensilem.' 
The jest became proverbial ; so Lucian, 
Timon. 20 ovSi 6[3o\ov &are -rrpiaaOai 
Ppu^ov ia^rjKoTas. 

iuquit. For this use of an imaginary 
interlocutor with no nom. cp. Sat. 1. 4. 
79. A few MSS. altered it to ' inquis.' 

Trausius. An unknown name, stand- 
ing for one who is at once poor and ex- 
travagant. It was a Roman name, as 
inscriptions show. 

LIB. II. SAT. 2. 


Quod superat non est melius quo insumere possis ? 

Cur eget indignus quisquam, te divite ? Ouare 

Templa ruunt antiqua deum ? Cur, improbe, carae 

Non aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo ? 105 

Uni nimirum recte tibi semper erunt res. 

O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Uterne 

Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius ? Hic qui 

Pluribus adsuerit mentem corpusque superbum, 

An qui contentus parvo metuensque futuri no 

In pace ut sapiens aptarit idonea bello ? 

Quo magis his credas, puer hunc ego parvus Ofellum 

Integris opibus novi non latius usum 

Quam nunc accisis. Videas metato in agello 

Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum, 115 

' Non ego,' narrantem, ' temere edi luce profesta 

Quicquam praeter olus fumosae cum pede pernae. 

103. indignus, ' undeserving,' that is, 
of poverty. Heind. quotes Cic. Tusc. 4. 
20. 46 ' ad calamitates hominum indig- 
norum ablevandas.' 

104. templa ruunt. Cp. Od. 2. 15. 
19, 3. 6. 1 f. 

106. ' Have you no thought of a pos- 
sible reverse ? ' V read ' rectae,' which 
may possibly be right, but this use of 
adverbs is common. See infr. v. 120 
'bene erat,' Sat. 2. 8. 19 ' pulcre fuerit 

107. risus, as ' iocus' in Sat. 2. 5. 37, 
' laughing-stock.' 

uteme. See on Epod. 1. 7. 

109. superbum, with both substan- 
tives and proleptically, ' so as to pamper 

110. metuens futuri : Od. 3. 19.16, 
Madv. § 289 a. 

112. quo magis his eredas: the 
purpose not of the thing to be stated 
but of the stating of it ; as with nega- 
tive clauses, see on Od. 1. 33. 1 ' ne 
doleas,' etc. 

puer novi usum. Heind. points 
out an exactly similar construction in 
Cic. de Sen. 9. 30 ' Ego L. Metellum 
memini puer.' It seems to be an attrac- 
tion for ' me puero.' 

113. latius : opp. ' angnstius.' Yonge 
quotes Juv. S. 14. 234 ' indulgent sibi 
latius ' 

114. videas .. . narrantem. Horace 
represents this as Ofellus' habitual lan- 


guage since his deprivation of his pro- 
perty. The time of his deprivation is 
no doubt B.c. 41 ; for Venusia is specially 
named (Appian, Bell. Civ. 4. 3) as one of 
the towns where lands were assigned 
by the triumvirs to veterans after the 
battle of Philippi. Horace or his father 
would have lost his property at the same 

metato, 'measured off for division.' 
For the passive use cp. Od. 2. 15. 15 
and see on Od. 1. 32. 5, and to the in- 
stances given there add ' venerata ' in 
v. 1 24 of this Satire. 

115. mercede colonum, i. e. as a 
tenant working the land himself and 
paying a ' pensio ' or ' merces ' (Colu- 
mella, R. R. 3. 7) to his landlord. 

fortem. ' a sturdy tiller' of the soil, 
though tilling land he paid rent for. 
Virg. G. 3. 28S ' hinc laudem fortes spe- 
rate coloni.' For the general picture of 
the dispossessed proprietor or rather 
' possessor ' cp. Virg. Ecl. 1 and 9. 

116. temere, ' hghtly,' ' without rea- 
son ' ; a favourite word with Horace. 

edi, i.e. ' in old days.' His example 
is made more relevant to the point of 
the Satire by making the simplicity of 
his table the special ground of his in- 
difference to the blows of fortune. 

luce profesta, ' on working days,' 
Od. 4. 15. 25. 

117. pernae. Cp. Mart. 10. 4S. 17 
' cenisque tribus iam perna superstes.' 




Ac mihi seu longum post tempus venerat hospes, 

Sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 

Vicinus, bene erat non piscibus urbe petitis, 

Sed pullo atque haedo ; tum pensilis uva secundas 

Et nux ornabat mensas cum duplice ficu. 

Post hoc ludus erat culpa potare magistra, 

Ac venerata Ceres, ita culmo surgeret alto, 

Explicuit vino contractae seria frontis. 

Saeviat atque novos moveat Fortuna tumultus ; 

Ouantum hinc imminuet ? Ouanto aut ego parcius aut vos, 

O pueri, nituistis ut huc novus incola venit ? 

Nam propriae telluris herum natura neque illum 

Nec me nec quemquam statuit : nos expulit ille ; 

Illum aut nequities aut vafri inscitia iuris, 

Postremum expeilet certe vivacior heres. 

I2 5 


119. operum vacuo, explained by 
' per imbrem,' on a day of enforced idle- 
ness. ' Frigidus agricolam si quando 
continet imber ' Virg. G. 1. 259, though 
Virgil points out that the said husband- 
man need not be altogether idle at such 
times. For the gen. cp. ' operum solu- 
tis' Od. 3. 17. 16. 

120. bene erat, ' we made merry'; 
cp. Sat. 2. 8. 4 ' fuerit melius,' id. 19 
' pulcre fuerit,' and above v. 82 ' ad 
melius transcurrere.' For these ' dapes 
inemptae ' added to the supper on occa- 
sions cp. Epod. 2. 48 foll. and the poem 
of Martial (10. 48) above referred to. 

121. pensilis, ' hung,' i.e. ' to dry as 
raisins ' ; cp. Sat. 2. 4. 72. 

seeundas mensas, ' the second 
conrse.' ' Alteris mensis ' Od. 4. 5. 31, 
' mensis secundis ' Virg. G. 2. 101. 

122. duplice, ' bifida.' Schol. 'split,' 
probably to dry. 

123. eulpa magistra. Porph. ex- 
plains these words by ' libere, sine archi- 
posia,' without. that is, a ' magister ' or 
' arbiter bibendi.' His explanation sug- 
gests, though it does not say, that 'culpa' 
had some known technical sense. Va- 
rious attempts have been made to guess 
at one ; as that it refers to some game 
of forfi-its where the (pleasant) penalty 
was to diink a cup of wine. The form 
' culpa magistra ' is then dictated by the 
figure of the ' magister bibendi,' 'to drink 
when [not a formal president of the 
feast but] a breach of rules (sc. a forfeit) 

bade us.' That some sense of the infor- 
mality and freedom of the drinking is at 
the bottom of the expression is likely 
from Horace's description of his own 
table (Sat. 2. 6. 68), where each guest 
drinks as he likes, ' solutus legibus in- 
sanis.' Bentley, di^satisfied with all 
suggestions, would alter 'culpa' to 
'cupa,' i.e. ' copa,' 'a tavern mistress,' 
and many other emendations have been 
suggested. Perhaps they all lose the 
force of ' ludus erat,' which seems hardly 
to describe simple drinking. 

124. venerata, addressed with the 
prayer ' so might she rise.' ' Venerata ' 
pass. as in Virg. Aen. 3. 460, see on 
' metato ' supr. v. 114. 

ita, so, as the prayer or libation was 
duly offered — a formula of prayer, as ' sic* 
in Od. 1. 3. 1. 

surgeret, the prayer ' surgas ' quoted 
in orat. obl. 

125. explicuit, Od. 3. 29. 14 ' solli- 
citam explicuere frontem.' 

127. hinc, 'from our present con- 

128. nituistis, of being in good 
case, as ' nitidus ' Epp. 1. 4. 15. 

ut, ' from the time when,' Od. 4. 4. 
42, Epod. 7. 19, Sat. 1. 6. 27. 

129. propriae, pred. ' as true pro- 
perty '; cp. the use of the word in v. 134 
and Od. 2. 2. 22, Sat. 2. 6. 5. 

131. vafri iuris, of the law with its 
subtleties. Cp. ' ius anceps ' Sat. 2. 5. 


LIB. II. SAT. 3. 131 

Nunc ager Umbrcni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 

Dictus, erit nulli proprius, sed cedet in usum 

Nunc mihi nunc alii. Ouocirca vivite fortes 135 

Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus.' 

1 34. cedet in usum. With this germ of all is in Lucretius ' Vitaque 
wliole passage on the limited sense of mancipio nulli datur omnibus usu ' 3. 
property cp. Epp. 2. 2. 158 foll. The 971. Cp. also Epp. 1. 12. 4 n. 



The Satire is based on the Stoic paradox that every one but the wise man is 
mad (oti vds d<ppcuv ^aivtjai, see Cicero's 4th Paradox), which Horace treats after 
his wont, laughing with others at it, but using it as a weapon with which, without 
departing from his habitual irony, he can strike at practical follies. 

The bulk of the Satire is put into the mouth of Stertinius, a lecturer of the day 
(like Crispinus of Book I), whom in Epp. i. 12. 20 Horace, makes, but in a ban- 
tering tone, the representative of Stoic philosophy. He is otherwise unknown to us. 
The Scholiasts say his works filled 220 volumes. 

Damasippus (like Trebatius in Sat. 2. 1) is a character in Cicero's Epistles, in 
which he appears as a clever go-between in the purchase of estates and works of 
art (Cic. ad Att. 12. 29 and 33, ad Fam. 7. 23; cp. vv. 20-26 of this Satire). 
Horace represents him (whether with any historical foundation or not, we cannot 
say) as having been ruined and on the point of suicide. Stertinius meets him on 
the Pons Fabricius and saves him from this folly by preaching to him the Stoic 
doctrine that all men save the true philosopher are mad alike — he need not be 
ashamed ; let his misfortunes be as ridiculous and his conduct as foolish as possible, 
he has all the world as companions in his folly. This is set out at length in a 
discourse which, as is usual with Horace, loses after a time its vital connection 
with the scene. The dramatic tone is resumed at v. 296, and Horace ends the 
Satire by good-humouredly turning the laugh against himself. 

This Satire should be compared throughout with Sat. 2. 7, which deals in a 
similar way with another Paradox. 

Verses 1-16. Damasippus rallies Horace for his fastidiousness and laziness in com- 

16-18. ' Excellent advice,' says Horace, ' my philosopher. How do you know me 

so vvell ? ' 

K 2 


/ D 18-26/' Since I lost my own business, I have made up for it by minding that of 
everybody else. I was known as the great connoisseur, and dealer in everything, 
from antiquities to houses and gardens.' 
26, 27. H. ' 1 know, and I wondered how you got rid of that madness.' 
27-30. D. ' As others do — the madness only changed its place.' 
31. Horace makes a light answer, and Damasippus goes on more seriously to 
iay down the truth that has explained life to him, and so reconciled him 
to it. 
31-76. 'I was going to drown myself for shame ; but Stertinius saved me from 
that folly, and bade me become a philosopher, by explaining to me that I was 
no worse than others — only one more madman in a mad world. Everybody 
is mad but the true philosopher. It is only a choice of follies. Some are 
afraid where no fear is — others are not afraid where they should be. Dama- 
sippus is mad on buying old statues — Is not the money-lender mad who sup- 
plies him with means to do it? ' 
77-81. All passions are equally signs of madness — ambition — avarice — extrava- 

gance — supeistition. 
82-157. Avarice first. Staberius bade his heirs engrave on his tomb the amount 
of the fortune he had left. That seemed to him the one solid title to fame. 
That is a madness which matches Aristippus, who flung away his money in 
the desert. Money is of value, but only to use. Avarice is not thought mad- 
ness, merely because it is so common. Why do you hoard ? For fear you 
come to poverty? Your petty economies do not affect the result. On 
the other hand if you can live on so little, why commit such criines in order to 
get more? See the picture of the wealthy miser Opimius, dying of starvation 
for fear of the cost of a rice pudding. 
158-222. Is the man who spends his life on ambition less mad? Servius Oppidius 
of Canusium, when he was afraid of signs of avarice in one son and extrava- 
gance in another, not only forbade them either to increase or diminish their 
patrimony, but specially forbade either to accept a public office, as sure to 
lead to waste of mon;y on the vain attempt to ape the wealthy. Poor Ajax 
was mad when he slaughtered the sheep — was not Agamemnon, when for fame 
and power he slew his daughter ? 
2 25-280. The extravagant spending on hixury. Look at the types of the spend- 
thrift : Nomentanus, the moment he has inheriled a fortune, summoning all 
the ministers of his pleasure and 'in effect) dividing it between them — ' You 
deserve it more than I ' : the son of Aesopus melting a valuable pearl to drink : 
the sons of Arrius breakfasting on nightingales. If a grown-up man took to 
childish sports all would put him down as mad. Are not the follies of love 
as childish ? the changes of mood — the silly omens — the baby-talk — and it 
ends in murder and suicide. 
281-295. Superstition — the old man who used to ask the gods to give him im- 
munity from death — ' one was such an easy favour ' ; the mother who vows 
that if her boy is saved from a fever he shall do something which is sure to 
give him another. 
296-299. ' You see Stertinius armed me well — and anyone who calls me a madman 

now will get as good as he gave.' 
300-326. H. ' You are a perfect Stoic — so tell me what is my madness — I do not 
see it.' 

D. ' Madmen never do.' 
H. ' Be it so, but tell me.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


D. ' You are given to building, aping your betters, like the frog that would 
be as large as an ox. You write poetry — you have a bad temper — you live 
beyond your means — you are always fancying yourself in love.' 

H. ' Enough ! — we are both madmen ; but the greater should have some mercy 
on the smaller.' 

' SlC raro scribis, ut toto non quater anno 

Membranam poscas, scriptorum quaeque retexens, 

Iratus tibi quod vini somnique benignus 

Nil dignum sermone canas. Quid fiet ? At ipsis 

Saturnalibus huc fugisti. Sobrius ergo 

Dic aliquid dignum promissis : incipe. Nil est : 

Culpantur frustra calami, immeritusque laborat 

Iratis natus paries dis atque poetis. 

Atqui voltus erat multa et praeclara minantis 

Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tecto. 


1. Sic. The reading is doubtful ; 
the balance a little in favour of ' si.' 
On the other hand only some of the MSS. 
which give ' si ' give ' scribes,' which 
seems necessary if it is to be a regular 
conditional sentence, ' si scribes . . . quid 
fiet ? ' But ' si ' and ' sic ' are so fre- 
quently interchanged (cp. Od. 1. 16. 8 
and Epp. 2. 2. 175, where ' sic ' is cer- 
tain, yet ' si ' is found in the best MSS.) 
that weight must be given to the sense, 
and this is surely for ' sic' The condi- 
tional sentence would be ill-balanced, 
and on the other side the direct assault 
in the opening words has more spirit. 
With 'sic' = 'tam' cp. Sat. 1. 5. 69 
' gracili sic tamque pusillo.' For the 
lengthened vowel in scribis see 011 
Od. 1. 3. 36. 

2. membranam : the parchment is 
here evidently for making a ' fair copy.' 
Horace does not ask for the parchment, 
because he is for ever rubbing out again 
whathe writes on his 'tabulae' (Epp. 2. 
2. 110), ' saepe stilum vertens' (Sat. 1. 
10. 72), in the metaphor he uses here 
(' retexens '), treating it like Penelope's 
web. ' Membrana ' is used in the same 
sense in A. P. 389. He is perhaps, un- 
der cover of Damasippus' charges, sug- 
gesting the true reason of the scantiness 
of production of which his friends so 
often complained, viz. his fastidiousness 
of taste. 

4. dignum sermone, \6yov a£tov, 
but with the more definite meaning of 

' deserving to be talked of,' ' Romana 
venire in ora ' Epp. 1. 3. 9. 

at, so Bentley after V, and most edi- 
tors follovv him, though K. and H. give 
' Ab.' ' At,' as usual, introduces an 
imagined answer, ' You reply that, so 
far from being the man of pleasure I de- 
scribe, you have taken refuge in your 
country-home from the revelry of the 
Saturnalia in Rome. Well then you 
have no excuse for not composing — 
begin. Nothing comes, only excuses.' 

5. With fugisti Saturnalibus, cp. 
Juv. S. 7. 96 ' vinum toto nescire De- 
cembri,' of the industrious poet. 

6. dic, of poetical composition, as 
usual in the Odes ; see Od. 1. 32. 3 n., 

3- 25- 7- 

dignum promissis : A. P. 138. 
^ 7. calami. Cp. the expansion of this 
hs* Pers. S. 3. 10-20. 

8. The unhappy wall suffers at the 
hands of the poet in the throes of com- 
position : cp. Pers. S. 1. 106 of poetry 
that has cost no effort, ' nec pluteum 
caedit.' For ' natus ' see on Od. 1. 
27. 1. 

iratis dis : Sat. 1. 5. 98. 'Poetis' 
comes as a comic vapa rrpoaSoKiav. 

9. minantis : Epp. 1. 8. 3 ' multa et 
praeelara minantem ' ; like the Greek 
anu\tiv, ' of loud or boastful pro- 

10. si cepisset : not quite the same 
as the ' temporal ' use of ' si ' (see 011 
Epp. 1. 7. 10), for here he speaks of a 



Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro, 

Eupolin, Archilochum, comites educere tantos? 

Invidiam placare paras virtute relicta ? 

Contemnere miser ; vitanda est improba Siren 

Desidia, aut quicquid vita meiiore parasti 

Ponendum aequo animo.' Di te, Damasippe, deaeque 

Verum ob consilium donent tonsore. Sed unde 

Tam bene me nosti ? ' Postquam omnis res mea Ianum 

Ad medium fracta est aliena negotia curo, 

Excussus propriis. Olim nam quaerere amabam 

Quo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus aere, 


condition. ' Cepisset ' in the orat. recta 
would have been ' ceperit.' 

vacuum : Od. i. 32. j. 

tepido, because it is winter. 

11. pertinuit : Sat. 2. 2. 35. 
Menandro : ablative ; ' to squeeze 

Plato by putting Menander on the top of 
him.' The literature which Horace is 
imagined as taking with him is what 
would give material and spirit for writing 
Satire. Plato, probably the philosopher 
(cp. A. P. 310 ' Socraticae chartae'), as a 
treasury of character and moral ideas — 
it has however been taken also for 
Plato the comic poet ; Menander, as the 
representative of Greek comedy ; and the 
lampoons of Archilochus, the earliest 
type of poetical attack and caricature. 
It should be remembered also that the 
composition of the Epodes, in which 
Archilochus was directly the model, 
apparently was going on at the same 
time as that of the Second Book of 

12. tantos, ' so bulky,' Schol., prob- 
ably rather as Heind., Orell., etc. ' such 
great men.' It helps the human meta- 
phor of ' comites educere.' 

13. 14. ' Is your reason the odium 
which your Satire brought on you, and 
which you would appease by ceasing to 
champion virtue ? You will only be 

14. Siren: Hom.Od. 12. 39f., treated 
as an allegory of seductive pleasure, as 
in Epp. 1. 2. 23. 

15. quiequid parasti, i.e. the con- 
sideration which you enjoy. 

16. ponendum = ' deponendum,' 
Epp. 1. 10. 31. 

17. verum : 'true' advice is that 
which corresponds to the facts of the 

tonsore. The long beard was af- 
fected by philosophers (Sat. 1. 3. 133, 
infr. v. 35). Horace treats it as an in- 
convenience which Damasippus would 
fain get rid of. The ' tonsor ' would 
trim it. 

18. Ianum medium. The expres- 
sion occurs twice in Cicero (de Off. 2. 
25. 90, Phil. 6. 5. 15) and in both cases 
of the place where monetary business 
was transacted. Horace (.Epp. 1. 1. 54") 
has ' Ianus summus ab imo.' The exact 
meaning is not certain. The Scholiasts' 
notes are a combination of inconsistent 
explanations. Bentley, followed by 
Dyer (Dict. Geog. s. v. Rome) takes 
' Ianus ' to have been the name of a 
street, possibly a covered way or arcade, 
near the Forum. ' Summus ab imo ' 
meaning ' from end to end,' and ' medius 
Ianus ' the middle of this arcade. Bum 
(Rome and Campagna, p. 105) thinks 
the reference is to arches (perhaps simi- 
lar to the Tanus Quadrifrons ' still stand- 
ing in the Velabrum) on one side of the 
Forum, used for the transaction of busi- 
ness. Livy (46. 27) speaks of Fulvius 
Flaccus, as censor, undertaking amongst 
other works 'forum porticibustabemisque 
claudendum et Ianos tres faciendos.' 
The passage is mutilated, and it is un- 
certain in what town these works were 
executed, but if, as seems probable, it 
was a provincial town, it is still of im- 
portance, as the public works of pro- 
vincial towns were usually imitations of 
Rome. Cicero (de N. D. 2. 27. 67) ex- 
plains * Iani ' as = ' transitiones per- 
viae,' and Livy (2. 49) gives the name 
to the arch of a city gate. 

21. A hyperbolical description of ' old 
curiosities,' the TTocaviinrip used by Si- 
syphus. The reference (as has been 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Quid sculptum infabre, quid fusum durius esset ; 
Callidus huic signo ponebam milia centum ; 
Hortos egregiasque domos mercarier unus 
Cum lucro noram ; unde frequentia Mercuriale 
Imposuere mihi cognomen compita.' Novi, 
Et miror morbi purgatum te illius. ' Atqui 
Emovit veterem mire novus, ut solet in cor 

2 5 

pointed out) is probably a literary one 
to the KcovTofiafjLuv o~tcd<j>7] x a ^- /n 7^ c ' 7 " o r> 
mentioned in a fragment of the Sisyphus 
of Aeschylus. We notice also that 
Sisyphus was the mythical founder of 
Corinth, the home of brass work ; cp. 
Sat. I. 3. 90 ' Evandri manibus tritum,' 
and see note there. 

vafer : «spSioTos . . . avbpwv Hom. II. 
6. 153. 

22. ' The artistic merit of marble 
sculptures and bronzes.' 

durius, the opposite of Virgil's 'excu- 
dent . . . moilius aera' Aen. 6. 847; cp. 
A.P. 33 'molles imitabitur aerecapillos.' 

23. ponebarn, 'fixed.' 
callidus, 'asa connoisseur.' 

24. mercarier : this archaic form of 
the infin. occurs in Od. 4. 11. 8 ; Sat. 1. 
2. 35, 78, 104, 2. 8. 67 ; Epp. 2. 1. 94, 
2. 2. 148, 151. 

unus, ' as no one else,' Epp. 1. 9. 1. 

25. Mercuriale cognomen. Cru- 
quius speaks of one MS. as reading 
' Mercurialem,' Torrentius of one or 
two as reading ' Mercurialis,' Lambinus 
of several as reading ' Mercuriali,' which 
latter reading has been adopted by many 
editors, including Prof. Palmer. They 
seem however to be all interpretative 
emendations. ' Mercuriale cognomen ' 
has been variously understood. The 
Comm. Cruq. (followed by Lambinus 
and of recent editors, Heindorf, Orelli, 
Ritter, Schutz) took it as meaning ' the 
nick-name of " Mercurius." ' Acr., in- 
terpreting it more generally, by ' a nick- 
name related to Mercurius ' (the god of 
gain), understood some name such as 
' cerdo ' («epSos). Porph. seems to take 
it as practically identical in sense with 
the other readings, ' a nick-name from 
Mercurius ; ' meaning the ' nick-name 
Mercurialis : ' ' Mercurialis ' would not 
be immediately connected with the ' col- 
legium ' called ' Mercuriales ' at Rome, 
but would mean ' a favourite of Mer- 
cury,' just as Horace calls poets from 
another function of Mercury's ' viri Mer- 

curiales ' Od. 2. 17. 29. This is followed 
by Ascensius among older editors, by 
Dill r . and Macleane among recent ones. 

26. compita ('peto'^, broad spaces 
where several streets met. They are 
possibly named only as places where 
men meet and talk, as in Sat. 2. 6. 50 
' a Rostris manat per compita rumor,' — 
but the Scholiast explains it probably 
of the auctions which took place com- 
monly in such places. Cicero ^de Leg. 
Agr. 1. 3. 7) speaks of an auction held 
' in atriis auctionariis' instead of ' in 
triviis aut compitis ' as a hole-and-corner 
proceeding. Damasippus was known 
to the frequenters of auctions as the 
most skilful of purchasers. 

27. morbi purgatum, a Greek gen. 
cp. ' sceleris purus ' ; Od. 1. 22. 1 ; Livy 
uses it 37. 28. 1. 

atqui introduces Damasippus' an- 
swer as Sat. 1. 9. 52 and frequently. 

28. mire answers ' miror ' ; ' it is a 
marvel — but it is as happens in physical 
maladies also.' Doubts have been en- 
tertained what the new malady is, but 
the differences are not as deep as some 
editors represent. The Scholiasts ex- 
plain it of the Stoic philosophy, and so 
Ritter, saying that Damasippus would 
accommodate his language to Horace, 
' what you would call a new malady.' 
It is pointed out as against this that 
Stoicism has not yet been named. But, 
though not his philosophy, it is his philo- 
sophising, his readiness to lecture others, 
to meddle in other people's business (v. 
19). Damasippuswill not allow even of 
himself the uncorrected phrase ' morbi 
purgatum.' For him, as for all but the 
true philosopher, it was only a question 
of one mental malady or another. When 
Horace (v. 31 ) by his light answer seems 
to be missing his drift he presses the 
lesson home, ' I fear you mistake me ' 
(' de te fabula narratur ') — ' yozc are mad 
also — and well nigh all the world.' 

cor, ' the stomach,' as icapdia : see 
below, v. 161. 



Traiecto lateris miseri capitisve dolore, 

Ut lethargicus hic cum fit pugil et medicum urget.' 30 

Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libet. ' O bone, ne te 

Frustrere, insanis et tu stultique prope omnes, 

Si quid Stertinius veri crepat, unde ego mira 

Descripsi docilis praecepta haec, tempore quo me 

Solatus iussit sapientem pascere barbam 35 

Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 

Nam male re gesta cum vellem mittere operto 

Me capite in flumen, dexter stetit et, Cave faxis 

29. traiecto : acc. to Porph. a tech- 
nical word (Gr. ne8i.OTaa6ai, niraaTaais) 
for the shifting of disease from one organ 
to another. 

miseri, ' aching.' Orelli quotes Plaut. 
Poen. 5. 2. 43 ' miseram buccam.' Cp. 
Sat. 1. 9. 32 ' laterum dolor,' where the 
Scholiasts annotate ' pleuritis.' 

30. ut cum, to be taken together, 

&)S OTf. 

lethargicus cum fit pugil, etc, 
where he passes suddenly from the 
' lethargus,' which Celsus defines as 
' marcor et paene expugnabilis dormi- 
endi necessitas,' to 'phrenesis,' in which 
' difficilior somnus, prompta ad omnem 
audaciam mens est ' Cels. 3. 20. For a 
picture of a ' lethargicus ' see below, 
v. 142 f. 

hic, otiKTiicws, ' yonder ' ; cp. v. 23 
' huie.' 

31. esto, 'let it be'; ut libet echoes 
the ' ut solet,' ' ut cum.' Horace feigns 
to take Damasippus literally, and to ex- 
pect to be assaulted himself. 

o bone, w 'yade, Sat. 2. 6. 51 : the 
voc. alone 16. 95, Epp. 2. 2. 37, in ear- 
nest or affectedly earnest appeals. See 
also in plur. Sat. 2. 2. 1. 

ne frustrere : as is usual in Horace, 
not an imperative, but a final clause, 
' that you may not deceive youiself (let 
me tell you) you also are mad.' See on 
Od. 1. 33. 1. 

32. et tu, ' you also.' 

prope omnes, as the Greek ox<odv 
a-navTts, an habitual softening of a 
sweeping statement ; see on Sat. 1. 3. 96. 
With this di>course should be read 
Cicero's rendering of the Stoic paradox, 
ori nas acppcvv paiveTai Parad. 4. 

33. Stertinius : see Introd. 
crepat : see on Od. 1. 18. 5. Add 

Epp. 1. 7. 84, Plaut. Mil. G. 3. 1. ;.6, 

of the man who would talk law at a 
dinner-table, and Lucr. z. 1168 of the 
man who always harps on the good old 
times ; ' if there is any truth in what is 
always on Stertinius' tongue.' 

unde, from whose lips ; see on Sat. 1. 
6. 12. 

35. sapientem paseere barbam, ' to 
grow the beard of wisdom' ; forthe beard 
as belonging to philosophers see on Sat. 

i- 3- 133- 

pascere, as Virg. Aen. 7. 391 ' sa- 
crum tibi pascere crinem.' 

36. Fabricio ponte : the bridge 
(Ponte di quattro Capij which still 
exists between the island and the old 
Campus Martius. It was built (Dion 
Cass. 37. 45) B.c. 62. An inscription on 
it says that it was built by ' L. Fabri- 
cius, curator viarum.' 

37. male re gesta : for the phrase 
and its correlative ' bene rem gerere ' 
see infr. v. 74. With this picture cp. 
Liv. 4. 12 ' multi ex plebe, spe amissa, 
. . . capitibus obvolutis se in Tiberim 

operto capite, as in the passage of 
Livy just cited. It was the familiar 
attitude of meeting death. Socrates 
covers his head in Plato's Phaedo, Caesar 
in Suetonius, Jul., 82, Decius in Liv. 

38. dexter, ' on the right,' and so 
with good omen, as a good genius. 
Virg. Aen. 8. 302, to Hercules : ' Dexter 

cave. The last syllable is shortened 
in the conversational style, as infr. v. 
177, Epp. 1. 13. 19. It is long in 
Epod. 6. 11, so 'vide' in Pers. Sat. 1. 108. 
The constr. ' cave laxis,' without a nega- 
tive particle, is found in Cicero as ' cave 
putes,' ' mind you do not think,' ad 
Fam. 10. 12. 1. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Te quicquam indignum ; pudor, inquit, te malus angit, 

Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 4 o 

Primum nam inquiram quid sit furere : hoc si erit in te 

Solo, nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. 

Quem mala stultitia et quemcunque inscitia veri 

Caecum agit, insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 

Autumat. Haec populos, haec magnos formula reges 45 

Excepto sapiente tenet. Nunc accipe, quare 

Desipiant omnes aeque ac tu, qui tibi nomen 

Insano posuere. Velut silvis, ubi passim 

Palantes error certo de tramite pellit, 

llle sinistrorsum, hic dextrorsum abit : unus utrique 50 

Error, sed variis illudit partibus ; hoc te 

Crede modo insanum. nihilo ut sapientior ille, 

Oui te deridet, caudam trahat. Est genus unum 

39. pudor malus. The expression 
recurs in Epp. i. 16. 24: 'rnalus,' as infr. 
vv. 43 and 78, is of the consequences, 
' mischievous.' 

angit, ' tortures ' ; the pain must be 
extreme to have such a result. 

40. insanos inter, ' in a world of 

41. primum inquiram. The Stoic 
begins, in character, with a definition. 

42. nil verbi : the gen. of an adj. is 
more usual ; but cp. Plaut. Bacch. 4. 8. 
18 ' nihil lucri.' 

pereas quin, ' to pievent your dy- 

43. et quemcunque, as Ritter points 
out, is a stronger statement than that 
of the first clause, ' et ' having, as often, 
the force of ' and indeed,' so that it is 
not necessary to supply ' cunque ' with 
the first ' quem.' 

44. caeeum. The essence of mad- 
ness is the not seeing where you are 

Chrysippi, infr. v. 287, Sat. 1. 3. 
127, Epp. 1. 2. 4. 

porticus, aroa Trot/clkt], in which Zeno 
and his successors taught, and from 
which the sect was named. 

grex : not as it is in Epp. 1. 4. 16 
' Epicuri de grege,' with a special colour 
on it from the context, but in the 
general sense in which it is used in Epp. 
1. 9. 13, ' the Portico and all its com- 

45. autumat, ' affirmat,' Acr. It is 

a frequent word in Plautus, occurring 
once in Terence, Horace, Catullus. 

formula . . . tenet. Ritter seems 
right in explnining this as a legal phrase ; 
' this definition attaches.' He quotes 
from Off. 3.14. 60, where ' formula ' 
and ' definitio ' are used convertibly of 
the legal definition of an offence. 

populos . . . reges : of number and 
rank ; whole peoples, and from the pea- 
sant to the prince, there is only one 

48. passim palantes. These words 
put shortly what is in the following 
words more fully described in its pro- 
cess : ' as in a forest ; when men lose 
their way they miss the path, one on 
one side, another on the other.' 

51. variis partibus, ' on different 

hoc modo : usually taken as = ' sic,' 
answering to 'velut'; ' ut ' then intro- 
ducing a consequential clause. It is per- 
haps better to let the ' sic ' which should 
answer to ' velut ' be understood, and 
take ' hoc modo . . . ut ' together in the 
sense of ' ita ut,' as limiting the scope 
of ' crede te insanum,' ' to this extent,' 
' in such a eSSse,*** only, that.' 

53. caudam trahat. According to 
the Scholiast a proverbial expression for 
being a fool without knowing it : 'solent 
pueri nescientibus caudam suspendere ' ; 
the tail he explains to be a sheep's tail. 
The man who laughs at you for having 
a tail tied to you, has one himself. 



Stultitiae nihilum metuenda timentis, ut ignes, 

Ut rupes fluviosque in campo obstare queratur ; 55 

Alterum et huic varum et nihilo sapientius ignes 

Per medios fluviosque ruentis. Clamet amica 

Mater, honesta soror, cum cognatis pater, uxor : 

' Hic fossa est ingens, hic rupes maxima, serva ! ' 

Non magis audierit quam Fufius ebrius olim, 60 

Cum Ilionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

' Mater, te appello ! ' clamantibus. Huic ego volgus 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

53-62. ' It is foolish to fear where 
there is nothing to fear, as you did when 
you would have killed yourself to avoid 
the ridicule of men as foolish as your- 
self ; but it is equally foolish to ignore 
real obstacles and dangers.' 

54. nihilum, as an adv. with ' me- 
tuenda.' So below v. 210. 

timentis. It is difficult to say whether 
this agrees with ' stultitiae,' a personal 
subj. being supplied for ' queratur,' or 
whether the masc. gen. should be under- 
stood with it. 

56. varum, a coloured equivalent to 
' dissimile,' and taking the same con- 
struction (dative") ; by the word ' varum ' 
Horace implies that both are deformi- 
ties. It is like two legs, equally crooked, 
though they are bent in different direc- 

ignes. For the metaphorical use of 
' ignes,' ' rupes,' etc. cp. Sat. i. I. 39, 
Epp. 1. 1. 46. He is speaking of the 
headlong pursuit of the objects of de- 

57. clamet. For the omission of 
any conditional or concessive particle 
see on Sat. 1. 1. 45, Epp. 1. 1. 28. 

amica mater, ' melius est sic accipi, 
ut sit ex Graeco tractum, (£1X77 ix-qrrjp, 
quam per se, amica, perse deinde, mater, 
quia mentionem uxoris facit in sequen- 
tibus' Poiph. Each of the first two 
relations has an epithet indicating its 
special claim on him — 'honesta' = ' de- 
serving respect' ; ' cum cognatis' serves 
the same purpose with the last two, 
' with all his kith and kin.' For Horace's 
way of varying a list by the use of 
' cum ' see below v. 229, and cp. Sat. 
1. 10. 85, Epp. 1. 6. 17, 2. 1. 5, A. P. 


60. The allusion is to an incident 
which occurred in the acting of the 

Ilioneof Pacuvius,a play to which Cicero 
refers more than once, and from which 
he quotes the same words (Tusc. Disp. 
1. 44. 106, Acad. 2. 27. 88, pro Sest. 59. 
1 26). Ilione, the daughter of Priam and 
the wife of Polymnestor, had in this ver- 
sion of the story substituted her brother 
Polydorus (see Virg. Aen. 3. 49 foll. 
for her son Deiphilus. Deiphilus has 
been killed under this error by his 
father, and his shade rises and calls on 
his mother Ilione, ' Mater, te appello, quae 
curam somno suspensam levas, Neque 
te mei miseret, surge et repete natum.' 
Fufius, who is acting the part of Ilione, 
seems to have gone really to sleep, 
and not to have been waked by the 
appeals of Catienus who acted Dei- 

61. cum . . . edormit, as ' cum prae- 
cipitat ' inf. v. 277, and as the common 
use of ' dum ' with the pres. of a past 

Ilionam edormit = acts to the full, 
over-acts, the part of the sleeping 

mille ducentis : perhapsas the double 
of ' sescenti ' (as that is of ' trecenti,' cp. 
Od. 2. 14. 5) for an indefinitely large 
number. ' Sleeps, though not one Ca- 
tienus but twelve hundred shout at him !' 
The picture is of the audience entering 
into the joke and taking up Catienus' 
appeal in the vain endeavour to waken 

62. huic errori. ' Errori ' takes us 
back to 'error^' ' This mode of going^f 
astray ' is the second alternative of vv. 

i-^3-62, viz. the pursuit of ends and in- 
dulgence of passions without heed of 
the difficulties and dangers. 

63. similem, sc. 'errorem,' the cogn. 
accus. after ' insanire,' as in Epp. 1. 1. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo : 
Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? Esto ! 
Accipe quod nunquam reddas mihi, si tibi dicam, 
Tune insanus eris si acceperis? an magis excors 
Reiecta praeda quam praesens Mercurius fert ? 
' Scribe decem a Nerio ; non est satis : adde Cicutae 
Nodosi tabulas centum, mille adde catenas : 

64, 65. insanit . . . ereditor. These 
are the two judgments of the supposed 
opponent which Stertinius, after ironi- 
cally allowing them (esto!\ proceeds 
to show to be inconsistent with one 

integer mentis, as ' integer vitae ' 
Od. 1. 22. 1. 

66-76. Stertinius propounds a di- 
lemma : he personates the ' creditor 
Damasippi,' and imagines two alterna- 
tive forms under which he may offer 
his loan to his insolvent borrower. He 
may say at once ' Take it and don't 
repay it.' In that case surely Dama- 
sippus is not mad if he assents. Or he 
may demand bonds and securities, which 
are as useless as the attempts to bind 
Proteus. In that case he is at least the 
madder of the two. 

66. aecipe quod nunquam reddas 
= ' accipe hoc ea conditione ut non 

67. excors : Epp. 1. 1. 25, ' sense- 

68. Mercurius : see on v. 25. The 
Greeks called a windfall or lucky ven- 
ture kpixaTov. 

69-71. The general sense, as explained 
on v. 66, is clear ; but even the Scho- 
liasts were in doubt as to the technical 
terms and the significance of the names. 

69. scribe decem a Nerio. Either 
' Enter (on the debtor side of your ac- 
count) ten (sestertia?) from Nerius,' or 
' Sign ten bonds ('tabulas' understood 
from the next clause) of Nerius's.' 
Diintzer quotes Cic. Att. 16. 7 ' Antonii 
edictum legi a Bruto,' as meaning ' after 
Brutus,' i.e. in his style. If this were so 
it would suit, but query whether it does 
not mean ' received from Brutus.' In 
either case Nerius must not be taken 
to be a real party to the transaction. but 
to be the stern money-lender, (oras Profs. 
Palmer and Maguire suggest, banker, 
through whom the money was to be 

~advanced),,(wki€k the ' creditor Dama- 

sippi' is supposed to use in order to 
make his debtor understand the terms 
on which he stands ; ' Understand that 
you are borrowing as from (or through) 
Nerius.' Persius (2. J.4'1 takes the name 
of Nerius from this place, and the Scho- 
liast explains that he was ' fenerator 
notissimus.' As between the two expla- 
nations of the ellipsis with ' decem,' both 
offered by the Scholiast, it is difficult to 
choose. A satisfactory parallel for the 
ellipsis of ' sestertia ' is quoted by Bent- 
ley (on Epp. 2. 1. 105) from the Digest 
12. c. 40 ' L. Titius scripsi me acce- 
pisse a P. Maevio quindecim mutua,' — 
the formula of a note of hand. On the 
other hand, it is difficult to separate 
' decem ' entirely from ' centum ' and 
' mille,' as that explanation compels 
us to do. ' Decem tabulas ' is not 
literal any more than ' centum tabulas.' 
It is an attempt to give to degrees of 
intensity a numerical expression : ' Sign 
ten times over, a hundred times over, 
binding agreements.' 

non est satis. If ' scribe decem a 
Nerio ' is, as seems prjjbable, in the 
mouth of the supposed ' creditor,' the 
words that follow are Stertinius* com- 
ment, urging him on to more precau- 
tions, but telling him beforehand that 
they are all idle. ' Cicuta ' (see inf. v. 
175) has the air of a nick-name (see 
below on v. 75), ' fenerator qui propter 
asperitatem et amaritudinem cognomi- 
natus est ' Schol. 

70. nodosi, ' with his knots.' The 
association seems twofold : (1) with the 
use of ' nodus' of tangled and intricate 
pointsoflaw ('iuris nodos'Juv. S. 8.50); 
(2) with the use of legal subtleties for 
purposes of constraint and oppression. 
Cp. Lucretius' frequent use of ' nodus,' 
' nodi religionum,' etc. Notice that this 
word seems to suggest the metaphor of 
' catenas,' and the full figure of Proteus 
and the attempts to bind him. 



Effugiet tamen haec sceleratus vincula Proteus. 

Cum rapies in ius malis ridentem alienis, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo saxum et cum volet arbor.' 

Si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene sani, 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perelli, 75 

Dictantis quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 

Audire atque togam iubeo componere, quisquis 

Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore, 

Quisquis luxuria tristive superstitione 

Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; huc propius me, So 

Dum doceo insanire omnes, vos ordine adite. 

71. Proteus, the sea-god, as de- 
scribed in Hom. Odyss. 4. 485 and 
Virg. Georg. 4. 387 foll. He would 
only give oracles when he was bound, 
but when men tried to bind him he 
eluded them by changing into a thou- 
sand shapes. 

72. malis ridentem alienis. There 
can hardly but be some relation to 
Homers ■yva.6iJ.oiai yeXoiaiv aWoTpioiaiv 
Odyss. 22. 345, though how close an 
one it is difhcult to say. Eustathius in 
loc. tells us that the words had passed 
into a proverb, and proverbs, especially 
in another language, are constantly mis- 
used. It is possible that Horace, re- 
mincled of the Odyssey by the image 
of Proteus, recalls the vvords and pur- 
posely gives them a quasi-comic adap- 
tation. It is possible again that they 
occur to him as a blank form of expres- 
sion without their context, as ' cui bono' 
occurred to Byron, and he puts his own 
meaning to them (see his use of a Greek 
proveib in v. 276;. What the actual 
meaning put on them is, is not certain. 
It may be his disguises, ' laughing 
from behind strange masks,' or it may 
be with a play on ' aes alienum,' of the 
debtor's complete indebtedness, ' laugh- 
ing as though even his cheeks were 
borrowed (and so need not be spared).' 

74. bene, sc. ' gerere.' 

75. putidius, as we speak of ' addled 

Perelli : this and not ' Perilli ' is 
the spelling of the MSS. ' Perellius ' 
is identified by the Acr. with the 
' Cicuta ' of v. 69. It may be so. In 
any case the name is here given to 
the ' creditor ' of whom we are speak- 
ing, so that it is ' a Perellius/ i. e. ' a 

76. dictantis . . . reseribere : the 
correlatives from two sides of scribe in 
v. 69. The money-ltnder/rar?77v.r the 
formula of the bond, the borrower writes 
and signs it, and should by and by 
cancel it, write it off, by repayment 
of the money borrowed. 

tu. Stertinius is again addressing 

77 foll. Here Stertinius' discourse 
takes a larger sweep, as he fancies him- 
self addressing an audience. It is in 
appearance brought within the frame- 
work of the Satire in v. 296, but we 
are hardly intended actually to picture 
Stertinius as delivering it to Damasippus 
on the biidge. See what I have said of 
Ofellus's sermon in introd. to Sat. 2. 2. 

77. togam eomponere. The Schol. 
explain it of the respect due to a 
teacher. They also notice the vcntpov 
TtpuTtpnv. It is like VirgiPs 'moriamur 
et in media arma ruamus ' Aen. 2. 353, 
etc, the order not of chronology of 
fact but of prominence in thought. 

78. ambitione mala : Sat. 2. 6. 18 ; 
cp. the epithets ' misera gravique ' Sat. 
1. 6. 129. 

pal]et, as ' morbo calet,' the language 
of medicine. 

81. Some question has been raised 
as to the punctuation. Heindorf puts 
the stop at ' vos,' Prof. Palmer at ' or- 
dine,' in order to indicate that 'omnts' 
is not ' all men ' but ' you all,' the 
classes of ' stulti ' who have been al- 
ready named ; but even if we stop at 
' omnes,' as on rhythmical grounds it 
seems well to do, we naturally under- 
stand ' vos ' as a subj. to ' insanire.' 

ordine adite, as to an oracle rather 
than a lecturer. For a somewhat simila 
mixture of figures cp. Od. 3. 1. 1 foll. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Danda est ellebori multo pars maxima avaris ; 

Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis clestinet omnem. 

Heredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro : 

Ni sic fecissent gladiatorum dare centum 85 

Damnati populo paria atque epulum arbitrio Arri, 

Frumenti quantum metit Africa. ' Sive ego prave 

Seu recte hoc volui, ne sis patruus mihi.' Credo 

Hoc Staberi prudentem animum vidisse. ' Quid ergo 

Sensit cum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 90 

Heredes voluit ?' Ouoad vixit credidit ingens 

82. ellebori, ' hellebore ' (Helleborus 
orientalis, Linnaeus) was held a specific 
for mental maladies, Plin. N. H. 25. 5. 

pars maxima : as to those whose 
madness is the maddest. 

83. nescio an, ' I am pretty sure.' 
Antieyvam omnem, ' the whole store 

of Anticyia ' ; see below v. 166 and A. P. 
300 ' tribus Anticyris caput insanabile.' 
The Anticyra where Strabo tells us the 
best hellebore grew, and there was a 
' cure ' for madness. was in Phocis on 
the ' Crissaeus sinus ' ; see A. P. 1. c. 

84. summam. sc. ' hereditatis.' Sta- 
berius is quoted r.s an extreme instance 
of the value attached to money ; he 
cared for the posthumous reputatiun of 
having had it. 

85. centumparia : ahundred pairs of 
gladiators would be an unusually large 

86. damnati : a proper legal use for 
an obligation imposed by the terms of 
a will ; the phrase used would be 
' damnas esto dare . . .' 

epulum, ' a funeral feast.' 

arbitrio Arri, ' such as Arrius would 
order ' : the reference is to a famous 
funeral feast which Q. Arrius (Cic. in 
Vatin. 12 foll.1 had given in honour of 
his father. Cicero speaks of ' many 
thousands ' having been entertained at it. 

87. frumenti, a third obligation, 
viz. a ' frumentatio ' or general dis- 
tribution of corn. The hyperbolical 
description of the amount is like Od. 

1. 1. 10 ' quicquid de Libycis verritur 
areis.' Bentley, offended at the asyn- 
deton, proposed to read in v. 81 
' Arri et.' Heindorf proposes ' Fru- 
menti et.' 

88. ne sis patruus mihi, ' do not 
come the uncle over me ' ; see on Sat. 

2. 2. 97. These words are suggested 

as Staberius' answer to any one of his 
heirs who criticised his conditions. Ster- 
tinius goes on to throw his shield over 
Staberius ; he was acting with foresight 
and consistency. 

ne sis. This is one of the exceptions 
allowed by Madv. (Opusc. 2. p. 105J 
to the rule that in prohibitions ad- 
dressed to a definite person writers of 
the classical age used the perf. subj. 
not the pres. subj. Mr. Postgate in the 
Journal of Philology (vol. 18, p. 326) 
suggests that ' ne sis patruus,' though 
apparcntly addressed to a definite person, 
is the application in a particular in- 
stance of aproverbialsayinglike Cicero's 
' actum ne agas ' ad Att. 9. iS. 3, of 
which Madv. 1. c. gives thatexplanation. 
But see on Sat. 2. 5. 17. 

89. hoc . . . vidisse. Orelli, Ditnt- 
zer, and others throw the emphasis on 
prudentem ; ' I imagine in making this 
provision Staberius showed a far?eeing 
mind.' Without raising the question 
whether ' vidisse ' could be so used by 
Horace, this seems forbidden by the 
relative places of ' hoc ' and ' pruden- 
tem.' The emphasis must surely be 
on the first of the two. It may be still 
doubted what ' hoc ' refers to. Hein- 
dorf takes it of the attitude of the heirs 
which has been assumed in Staberius' 
words. Perhaps it may be better taken 
of the explanation to follow in vv. 
94 f. ' This I imagine is what Staberius 
looked forward to.' An interlocutor is 
supposed to interrupt with ' Quid ergo 
sensit,' etc. ' What do you mean he 
perceived?' ' sensit,' heing an echo of 
'vidisse': for'ergo' in an impatient ques- 
tion, cutting short or implying doubt of 
what has just been said, cp. v. 156. 

91. quoad, a monosyllable, asalways 
in Lucretius : so ' prout ' Sat. 2. 6. 67. 



Pauperiem vitium et cavit nihil acrius, ut si 
Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset 
Ipse videretur sibi nequior : omnis enim res, 
Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque pulchris 
Divitiis parent ; quas qui construxerit ille 
Clarus erit, fortis, iustus. Sapiensne ? Etiam ; et rex, 
Et quicquid volet. Hoc veluti virtute paratum 
Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 
Graecus Aristippus ? qui servos proicere aurum 



92. ut, 'so that.' 

93. perisset . . . videretur. The 
tenses are proper : ' videretur,' because 
it is in strict sequence to ' credidit,' etc, 
' so that he seemed to himself a worse 
man ' being equivalent to ' so that it 
seemed to him that he would be a worse 
man ' — ' futurus ' might have been added 
to ' nequior 1 : ' perisset,' because it stands 
for ' perierit ' thrown into past time in 
the orat. obl. ' Periret,' which divides 
the MSS.j would not be wrong ; but the 
plpft is more exact, as the being (or 
being thought) a worse man is the sen- 
tence which is imagined as following the 
crime of dying a poorer one : cp. (with 
Bentl.) the relation of 'vidisset' to ' cre- 
deret ' in Sat. 1 . 6. 79. Prof. Palmers 
criticism, that ' periret ' is right because 
if the man had been already dead he 
would have known nothing of the mat- 
ter, ties Horace to a logical point of 
view which would have been strange 
to him. It is like Aristotle's famous 
criticism on Solon's saying that no one 
should be counted happy till he was 
dead (Eth. N. 1. 11). Horace would 
have erred with Solon and Sophocles, 
not have been right with Aristotle. 

94. nequior = ' abiectior ' : ' quia 
tanti quantum habeas sis ' Sat. 1. 1. 
62 (Orelli) : but perhaps a moral sense 
is felt, as it is the conclusion which he 
drew from his faulty premiss that poverty 
was a moral vice. 

omnis enim res, etc. Stertinius 
ironically adopts Staberius' premiss. 

95. pulchris, a transl. of «aAos : cp. 
Epp. 1. 2. 30 ' pulchrum fuit in medios 
dormire dies,' and VirgiFs 'pulchrumque 
mori succurrit in armis,' of types of 

96. parent, ' are the subjects of ; 
wealth is the sovereign. Cp. Epp. 1. 

1. 53 ' quaerenda pecunia primum est : 
Virtus post nummos.' He inverts the 
true Stoic doctrine ' virtuti omnia parent ' 
Sall. Cat. 2. 7. 

construxerit, ' raised a pile.' Cp. 
Sat. 1. 1. 44 ' quid habet pulchri con- 
structus acervus ? ' Some good MSS. 
have ' contraxerit.' 

97. sapiensne ? Stertinius asks and 
answers the question himself, as also 
in w. 89, 90, and below in vv. 99-102, 
vv. 158 foll. Heindorf points out that 
it is an imitation of the Stoic style, 
quoting Cic. Paradox 1 'Cato, perfectus 
mea sententia Stoicus . . . minutis inter- 
rogatiunculis quasi punctis quod pro- 
posuit efficit.' Stertinius (as Prof. 
Palmer points out) is ironically invert- 
ing (see on v. 96) his own true view. 
Contrast Sat. 1. 3. 124, where the 
' sapiens ' is said to be 'dives ' and ' rex.' 

etiam, ' even so ' ; the nearest equi- 
valent to our ' yes/ as in Cicero : see 
especially Acad. 4. 32 ' aut "etiam" 
aut " non " respondere.' 

98. hoc, sc. wealth. Here we have 
Staberius' true motive. To have pos- 
sessed wealth was a proof of virtue, and, 
if the fact was remembered, a security 
for fame. 

99. quid simile, sc. ' fecit,' not as 
Orelli = ' quam dissimile ! ' The thought 
though thrown into the rhetorical form of 
questions is ' the point of vievv of Stabe- 
rius and Aristippus is the same. Neither 
is more or less mad than the other. 
Neither understood the true use of 

100. Aristippus : Epp. 1. 1. 18, 1. 
17. 14 foll. ; the founder of the Cyrenaic 
school, the predecessors of the Epi- 
cureans. The story which Horace tells 
is to be found in Diog. Laert. 2. 77. 
Horace lays the scene of it in Libya, 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


In media iussit Libya, quia tardius irent 

Propter onus segnes. Uter est insanior horum ? 

Nil agit exemplum, litem quod lite resolvit. 

Si quis emat citharas, emptas comportet in unum, 

Nec studio citharae nec Musae deditus ulli ; 105 

Si scalpra et formas non sutor, nautica vela 

Aversus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 

Undique dicatur merito. Oui discrepat istis 

Oui nummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 

Compositis, metuensque velut contingere sacrum ? 110 

Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum 

Porrectus vigilet cum longo fuste, neque illinc 

Audeat esuriens dominus contingere gTanum, 

Ac potius foliis parcus vescatur amaris ; 

Si positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 115 

Mille cadis — nihil est, tercentum milibus — acre 

Potet acetum ; age, si et stramentis incubet, unde- 

i. e. in a jonrney to or from Cyrene. 
' Graecus ' = ' in the Greek story,' but 
perhaps it is dramatic and depreciatory, 
as though Cyrenaicism (and Epicurean- 
ism) were Greek, Stoicism the Roman 
school. Stertinius is hitting hard the 
founder of the school of thought most 
opposed to his own. 

103. It is of no use to set up Staberius 
against Aristippus or Aristippus against 
Staberius. Each is open to criticism 
in turn. You have only substituted one 
question for another. Take examples 
from some other art ; it will be seen 
at once that a man who accumulates 
implements and then does not use them 
is thought a madman. 

104. emat . . . emptas, ' buy, and 
after buying pile them on a heap.' For 
the eftect of the repetition Orelli quotes 
Virg. Aen. 6. 420 ' offam Obiicit ; 
ille . . . Corripit obiectam,' Ov. Met. 
9. 74 ' (Hydram) domui domitamque 

105. nee Musae. If he were fond 
of music at all he might have some con- 
ceivable use for the instruments, even if 
he could not play them himself. 

106. formas, ' a shoemaker's last.' 
non sutor, ' one who is not a 


108. undique, ' on all hands,' i.e. 
by every one ; see on Od. 1. 7. 7. 

qui, 'how,' as Sat. 1. 1. 1. 
110. eompositis, ' after he has stored 
them ' ; ' componere opes ' Virg. Aen. 8. 

velut. To complete the sentence 
' contingere ' must be understood before 
it, ' fearing to touch them as to touch 
what is sacred'; cp. Sat. 1. 1. 71 ' tam- 
quam parcere sacris Cogeris,' a parallel 
for the position of ' velut ' as well as for 
the thought. 

iii. acervum. The picture is (as 
Ritter points out) of corn just thrashed 
out on the ' area,' which its owner 
watches himself till it is sold or carried 

113. esuriens dominus, ■' though 
hungry and the master of it.' 

eontingere. Repeated from v. 110 
in order to point the similitude. 

114. parcus, absol. ' as a miser.' 

115. Chii . . . Falerni, ' of the best 
Greek and Italian wines ' ; cp. Sat. 1. 10. 

117. aeetum, 'wine turned sour.' 

age, si. So Cic. Phil. 5. 11. 27 ' Age, 
si paruerit,' 'Nay, if he disobey,' etc. 

stramentis, ' a straw bed.' 

unde-Oetoginta. For the division 
between the two verses cp. Epp. 2. 2. 
93 ' circum-Spectemus,' A. P. 424 
' inter-Noscere,' Porph. (on Epp. 2. 2. 
93) speaks of it as a licence copied from 



Octoginta annos natus, cui stragula vestis, 

Blattarum ac tinearum epulae, putrescat in arca : 

Nimirum insanus paucis videatur, eo quod 

Maxima pars hominum morbo iactatur eodem. 

Filius aut etiam haec libertus ut ebibat heres, 

Dis inimice senex, custodis ? Ne tibi desit ? 

Quantulum enim summae curtabit quisque dierum, 

Ungere si caules oleo meliore caputque 

Coeperis impexa foedum porrigine? Ouare, 

Si quidvis satis est, periuras, surripis, aufers 

Undique ? Tun sanus ? Populum si caedere saxis 

Incipias servosque tuos quos aere pararis, 

Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellae : 

Cum laqueo uxorem interimis matremque veneno 

Incolumi capite es. Quid enim, neque tu hoc facis Argis 


l :■ 


Lucilius. The apparent exactness, 'but 
one short of eighty,' gives verisimili- 

118. stragula, fem. adj. etymologically 
not differing from ' stramentum.' but by 
usage of luxurious rugs and coverlels. 

120. nimirum : Fpp. 1. 9. 1 ; ' no 
doubt,' 'of course,' a particle of irony : 
this can be the only reason, but it is a 
sufficient one. 

121. iactatur, as ' calet ' and ' pallet ' 
in vv. 78, 80. Avarice is a fever in 
which a large part of mankind toss. 
For ' maxima pars ' cp. A. P. 24. 

122. 123. Two questions suggesting 
possible motives for the misers craving, 
thefirst evidentlyironical, and sufnciently 
answered by stating it, the second re- 
futed by the question in 124-126. 

122. Gp. Od. 2. 14. 25 foll. ' Absu- 
met heres Caecuba dignior,' etc. 

123. dis inimice : dtoh ex^P 6 '- 

ne tibi desit, ' for fear you should 
yourself want.' 

124. enim : as ynp, so often, asking 
for a justification of the previous words. 
' Why, how small a sum will be each 
day's deduction from your capital ? ' 

125. oleo meliore. See on Sat. 1. 6. 

127. si quidvis satis est, ' if you 
justify your thrift by saying that your 
wants are very small.' 

surripis, aufers, ' illud clanculum, 
hoc vi ' Orelli. 

128. populum, etc. If you threw 

stones at passers-by, or at your own 
slaves (those who are nothing to you or 
those who are your own chattels), you 
would be hooted as a madman. Are 
you sane when you murder outright 
your nearest and dearest (to get their 
money) ? 

130. clamentque. For the position 
of 'que,' see on Od. 1. 30. 6, and cp. 
below, vv. 157 and 182. 

132-141. These linesare perhaps best 
taken by Bentley, making ' incolumi 
capite es ' an afhrmalive stalement, 
ironically intended. ' Quid enim ' (see 
on Sat. 1. 1. 7) imaginesan objection or 
hesitating assent, and proceeds to con- 
firm the statement : — ' Why, you are not 
at Argos (in old heroic days, and in the 
land of tragedy) but at Rome, and you do 
not use a sword as poor mad Orestes 
did, (but some more deliberate imple- 
ment of death) ' : — the points being that 
the differences given are 110 differences, or, 
if they are, are against the modern mur- 
derer, and that Orestes was allowed to 
have been out of his mind. The re- 
mainder (' for you surely do not believe 
that the Furies and the madness came 
after his crime, — they were its cause ; his 
after performances, when the poets recog- 
nise his madness, were quite tame and 
respectable ') is quite in Horaces own 
vein of playfully rationalizing poetical 
legends, but it is also possibly (as Kitter 
thinks) an imitation of the treatment of 
myths by the Stoic lecturers. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 145 

Nec ferro ut demens genitricem occidis Orestes. 

An tu reris eum occisa insanisse parente, 

Ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis quam 135 

In matris iugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum ? 

Ouin ex quo est habitus male tutae mentis Orestes 

Nil sane fecit quod tu reprehendere possis : 

Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem 

Electram, tantum maledicit utrique vocando 140 

Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud iussit quod splendida bilis. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 

Qui Veientanum festis potare diebus 

Campana solitus trulla vappamque profestis, 

Ouondam lethargo grandi est oppressus, ut heres 145 

Iam circum loculos et claves laetus ovansque 

135. ac non : Epp. 1. 10. 46, 2. 2. 
143, where Orelli points out from *be 
Hand. Turs. I. p. 473, that it is used 
rather than ' nec ' where there is a direct 
opposition between the negative and the 
positive definition, in cases, that is, 
where 'non' might stand alone, ' this, 
not that.' 

malis : perh. with an ironical touch, 
' those naughty Furies ' (see on Sat. 1.5. 
14 ; cp. Sat. 1. 1. 77). So ' ferrum tepe- 
fecit,' an imitation of the Homeric 
realism (as Virgil, ' hasta . . . tepe- 
facta cerebro ' Aen. 9. 418). They intro- 
duce the semi-comic conclusion of the 

137. male tutae, ' unsound.' Bent- 
ley showed that 'tutus'was a recognized 
medical term. 

1 39. aususve. See above v. 1 30 and 
on Od. 1. 30. 6. 

141. Furiam. As in Eur. Or. 264 
fxtQts' fx'C ovaa ruiv ifxuiv 'Kpivvwv | aiaov 
fi 6\fxa(eis chs Pa\r)S us Taprapov. No 
such abuse of Pylades is found in any 
extant tragedy. 

splendida bilis. Horace seems to be 
playingwith medical language, madness 
being attributed to a special condition 
of the bile (see A. P. 301 'O ego 
laevus, Qui purgor bilem sub verni tem- 
poris horam,' and Epp. 2. 2. I37icalled 
LieAayxoXia (whence our 'melancholy ') 
' atra bilis ' (Cels. 2. 1.), and this again 
being described as having a special 
glittering appearance, fxi\atva x°^V o-ri\- 
irvoripa avrov rov ai'paros lariv woirep 


Kal fj Ik rr)s vacpas 6a\arrrjs aa<pa\ros 
Galen, de causis Symptomatum 2. 50. 
Persius imitating Horace, butalsotrans- 
lating another Greek epithet, va\wdrjs, 
speaks of ' vitrea bilis ' 3. 8. 

142. pauper argenti positi intus : 
the gen. as in ' pauperrimus bonorum ' 
Sat. 1. 1. 79, ' dives rerum ' Epp. 2. 2. 
31 : the words ' positi intus,' ' though 
there was store of it in his house,' turn 
it into an oxymoron = ' magnas inter 
opes inops ' Od. 3. 16. 28. The name 
' Opimius ' although it is found in Luci- 
lius, and though it is a familiar Roman 
name, is evidently used here in conscious- 
ness of itsetymological meaning,forming 
an oxymoron with ' pauper,' as ' immitis 
Glycerae ' in Od. 1. 33. 2, etc. See on 
the whole subject pp. 11, 14. 

143. Veientanum, a poor wine ; in 
Pers. S. 5. 147 ' Veientanum rubellum,' 
and Mart. 1. 104. 9. 

144. Campana. Sat. 1. 6. 118, of 
Horace's own dinner-service, ' Campana 

trulla (dim. of ' trua'), a small dip- 
ping-ladle usually of silver, or gold. 
Martial (9. 97. 1) talks of stealing a 
' trulla ' as we of stealing spoons. 

vappam : Sat. 1. 5. 16; ' spoiled 
wine'; described by Plin. N. H. 14. 
25. 20 ' vitium mustoquibusdam in locis 
iterum sponte fervere : qua calamitate 
deperit sapor, vappaeque accipit no- 

145. lethargo. See above on v. 30. 



Curreret. Hunc medicus multum celer atque fidelis 

Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni iubet atque 

Effundi saccos nummorum, accedere plures 

Ad numerandum ; hominem sic erigit ; addit et illud : 150 

c Ni tua custodis, avidus iam haec auferet heres.' 

'Menvivo?' ' Ut vivas igitur, vigila : hoc age.' 'Quidvis?' 

1 Deficient inopem venae te ni cibus atque 

Ingens accedit stomacho fultura ruenti. 

Tu cessas? Agedum, sume hoc ptisanarium oryzae.' 155 

'Quanti emptae?' ' Parvo.' ' Quanti ergo?' ' Octussibus.' 

Ouid refert morbo an furtis pereamque rapinis ? ' 
Quisnam igitur sanus ? Qui non stultus. Quid avarus ? 
Stultus et insanus. Quid, si quis non sit avarus, 
Continuo sanus? Minime. ' Cur, Stoice ? ' Dicam. 160 

Non est cardiacus (Craterum dixisse putato) 
Hic aeger : recte est igitur surgetque? Negabit, 
Quod latus aut renes morbo temptentur acuto. 

147. multum celer. See on Sat. 1. 
3. 57 ' multum demissus.' ' Celer,' of 
readiness of resource. 

150. illud, of what follows. Sat. 
2. 5. 70. 

151. avidus heres. Od. 4. 7. 19. 

152. vigila, ' keep yourself awake.' 
hoc age, ' give all your attention.' 

Epp. 1. 6. 31, 1. 18. 88. It is the 
Roman sacrificial formula ; cp. Lucr. 

1. 4( (Munro's note), 4. 969. 

153. inopem, ' for lack of support.' 
venae. Celsus uses the phrase ' venae 

conciderunt ' for ' the pulse is lowered.' 
Seneca, probably from this passage, 
writes ' vino fulcire venas cadentes ' 
Epist. 95. 22. 

154. ingens. The doctor represents 
the support required as something ex- 
ceptional and enormous, in order to 
persuade the patient to face the extrava- 
gxnce of a basin of rice gruel. 

fultura. The metaphor from a house 
in danger of collapsing ; cp. Lucret. 

2. 1140 ' fulcire cibus,' 4. 867 ' Prop- 
terea capitur cibus ut suffulciat artus,' 
and Seneca as quoted in the last 

155. ptisanarium, itriiravapiov, a 
dimin., the correl. of ' ingens.' 

156. emptae, sc. ' oryzae,' continuing 

the construction. ' What did the rice 
cost ? ' The ' ptisanarium ' could be 
made at home. 

158. Stertinius is preparing to pass to 
those suffering ' ambitione mala' (v. 78), 
but he first insists again that there are 
different forms of ' stultitia,' but that 
all 'stulti' are also mad. On the 
arguments by short questions see on 
v. 97. 

160. continuo, ' then and there.' 

161. cardiacus : Juv. S. 5. 38; suf- 
fering from a complaint of the stomach ; 
see above 011 v. 28. 

Craterum : another name fiom 
Cicero's letters ; he is the physician 
whom Atticus consults, Cic. ad Att. 
12. 13. 1, 12. 14. 4. To Persius (from 
Horace) it has become the conventional 
name for a doctor, 3. 65. 

162. recte est, ' is he well ? ' So in 
Cic. ad Att. 14. 16. 

163. With the substitution of 'si' for 
' quod,' and the indic. for the subj., this 
verse occurs again in Epp. 1. 6. 28. 

latus : Sat. 1. 9. 32. 

temptentur. Od. 1. 16. 23. The 
subj. has the best MS. authority, includ- 
ing ' Bland. omnes.' The reason is 
given as from Craterus' mouth. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Non est periurus neque sordidus : — immolet aequis 

Hic porcum Laribus : verum ambitiosus et audax : — 165 

Naviget Anticyram. Quid enim differt, barathrone 

Dones quicquid habes an nunquam utare paratis ? 

Servius Oppidius Canusi duo praedia, dives 

Antiquo censu, gnatis divisse duobus 

Fertur et hoc moriens pueris dixisse vocatis 170 

Ad lectum : ' Postquam te talos, Aule, nucesque 

Ferre sinu laxo, donare et ludere vidi, 

Te, Tiberi, numerare, cavis abscondere tristem ; 

Extimui ne vos ageret vesania discors, 

Tu Nomentanum, tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 175 

Quare per divos oratus uterque Penates, 

Tu cave ne minuas, tu ne maius facias id 

Quod satis esse putat pater et natura coercet. 

Praeterea ne vos titillet gloria, iure 

Iurando obstringam ambo : uter aedilis fueritve 1S0 

165. porcum Laribus. As a thanks- 
giving for his immunity from these 

audax, ' reckless.' The argument is 
narrowing to the ' ambitiosus,' but it 
has not yet completely done so. He is 
viewed here and for some time to come 
as in a way the opposite (' dum vitant 
stulti vitia in contraria currunt ') of the 
' avarus,' the man who, instead of hoard- 
ing his money, flings it away recklessly 
on the objects of ambition. 

166. naviget Anticyram, c let him 
sail for Anticyra,' i.e. to be treated with 
hellebore ; cp. vv. 82, 83. 

168. Canusi : see Sat. 1. 5. 91, 1. 10. 
30. We are in Horace's own neigh- 
bourhood in Apulia. Cp. Ofellus in the 
last Satire. 

169. antiquo censu, ' as incomes 
were reckoned in old days.' 

divisse. For the contraction see on 
Sat. 1. 5. 79. 

171. talos nucesque, 'a boy's play- 
things.' Suetonius speaking of Augustus 
' animi laxandi causa . . . modo talis 
. . . nucibusque ludebat cum pueris 
minutis ' ; 'nucibus relictis ' Pers. S. 1. 
10. For ' tali ' see on Od. 1.4. 18. 

172. ludere, sub. ' iis,' ' to play with 
them,' that is, to gamble, the winner 
taking the loser's, as Bentley shows ; 
he wished to read 'perdere,' bufludere' 

gives the same sense. 

173. tristem, ' sour.' 

174. vesania discors, 'two different 
kinds of madness.' The MSS. are 
divided between 'vesania' and 'insania.' 
If the latter is read this line must be 
added to the instances quoted on Sat. 1. 
4. 82, of a short vowel lengthened 'in 
arsi.' It may be noticed that Horace 
exhausts in this Satire the designations 
of madness,' insanus,' 'demens,' 'amens,' 
' delirus,' ' furiosus,' ' commotus,' ' cer- 
ritns,' ' desipere.' 

175. Nomentanum. The Lucilian 
name for a spendthrift ; see on Sat. 1. 1. 
102, and in this Satire v. 224. 

Cicutam, above v. 69. 

176. divos Penates : Epp. 1. 7. 94. 

178. coercet, ' what nature limits,' 
means what does not exceed the require- 
ments of nature ; the needs of luxury 
are artificial. Cp. Sat. 1. 1. 49 ' intra 
Naturae fines viventi.' 

179. titillet. A word of Lucretius 
(2.429) and Cicero (de Fin. 1. 11. 39). 

180. aedilis . . . praetor. Ritter 
points out that the two offices named 
are those which entailed the expense of 
' munera,' the charge of the public 
' ludi.' Sterlinius is still connecting 
ambition with extravagance. 

fueritve ; see above on v. 1 30. 

L Z 



Vestrum praetor, is intestabilis et sacer esto. 
In cicere atque faba bona tu perdasque lupinis, 
Latus ut in Circo spatiere et aeneus ut stes, 
Nudus agris, nudus nummis, insane, paternis ; 
Scilicet ut plausus quos fert Agrippa feras tu, 
Astuta ingenuum volpes imitata leonem.' 
Ne quis humasse velit Aiacem, Atrida, vetas cur? 


181. intestabilis et sacer, ' out- 
lavved and accursed.' Two distinct 
legal expressions put together to indi- 
cate the extreme of disgrace : the first 
signifying incapability of giving witness 
in court or bequeathing property ; the 
second the position of a man who has 
violated a ' lex sacrata,' and thereby 
forfeited all rights of life and goods to 
the divine powers offended. Prof. Pal- 
mer notices that ' is . . . esto ' is meant 
to be the formula of the oath imposed, 
and quotes appositely Plaut. Mil. G. 5. 
21-24 ' Py. Iuro per Iovem et Mavor- 
tem me nociturum nemini. Pl. Quid si 
non faxis ? Py. Ut vivam semper intes- 

182. cieere . . . faba . . . lupinis, 
different kinds of pulse. ' Cicer ' occurs 
in Horace's own fare, Sat. 1. 6. 115, and 
as the fare of the humbler part of an 
audience in a Roman theatre in A. P. 
249. These are supposed to be thrown 
to the populace to be scrambled for, as 
at the Floralia in Pers. S. p. 176 ' cicer 
ingere large Rixanti populo.' They are 
not mentioned as a type of the largest 
expenditure on such objects, but of the 
smaller acts of largesse, which are yet 
enough to ruin those who with small 
fortunes try to rival the great and 
wealthy in the race of bribery. 

tu. Either of the sons ; the contrast is 
not now between the two, but between 
either of themand Agiippa, seeon v. 185. 

183. latus spatiere : for the literal 
sense cp. Epod. 4. 8 ' cum bis trium 
ulnarum toga,' with note thereon. Bent- 
ley quoted passages to show that it had 
acquired also a metaphorical sense of 
walking proudly, with an air and osten- 
tation, as Sen. Epist. 76 of actors, ' lati 
(there is a v. 1. ' elati ') incesserunt et 
cothurnati,' etc. 

in Cireo. The aedile might take 
a turn in the circus to be recognized and 
complimented on his liberality. 

aeneus stes, ' have a statue of 
bronze ' ; cp. ' levi de marmore tota . . . 

stabis ' Virg. Ecl. 7. 31, and see on Od. 
4. 1. 20 ' ponet marmoream,' Epp. 2. 1. 
265 ' proponi cereus.' So frequently 
Xo.\kovv riva iordvai, as Demosth. Lept. 


184. insane, the keynote of the Sa- 
tire ; but, as with ' vesania ' in v. 174, the 
point is the natural way in which the 
charge comes from the lips of Op- 

185. Agrippa : see introd. to Ode 
1. 6. He was Aedile in B.c. 33, and 
discharged the office with great mag- 
nificence, Dion 49. 43, Plin. N. H. 36. 
24. 15. This allusion gives us a date 
before which the Satire could not have 
been written. 

186. ' Quia quod leo viribus hoc 
volpes astutia agit ' Acr. No fable is 
found to which this is a definite refe- 
rence, but Horace frequently uses in a 
proverbial way the raw material of 

187-223. Ambition as leading to 
other crimes. The instance taken is that 
of Agamemnon sacrificing Iphigenia to 
effect his political purpose (N.B. that 
this is a scene vividly drawn, though 
used for another purpose, in Lucretius 
1). The bearing of the act is exhibited 
in a supposed dialogue between Aga- 
memnon and an unknown speaker, who 
expresses the vievvs of the Stoic Ster- 
tinius. The idea of this is suggested 
no doubt by some Greek dramatic scene, 
as that in the Ajax of Sophocles, in 
which Menelaus forbids Teucer to bury 
his brother Ajax (see note on v. 204). 
The unknown Stoic pleads the cause of 
Ajax by showing that though he vvas 
admittedly mad in slaughtering the cat- 
tle, Agamemnon was at least as mad in 
sacrificing his daughter. The dialogue 
ends at 207. In the remaining lines the 
lesson is dravvn, and, though Stertinius 
seems still to be addressing Agamem- 
non, the application shows more visibly 
through the allegory. 

187. ne quis humasse velit, an 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


' Rex sum.' Nil ultra quaero plebeius. ' Et aequam 

Rem imperito ; ac si cui videor non iustus, inulto 

Dicere quod sentit permitto.' Maxime regum, 

Di tibi dent capta classem reducere Troia ! 

Ergo consulere et mox respondere licebit ? 

' Consule.' Cur Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus, 

Putescit toties servatis clarus Achivis, 

Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inhumato, 

Per quem tot iuvenes patrio caruere sepulcro ? 

' Mille ovium insanus morti dedit, inclitum Ulixen 

Et Menelaum una mecum se occidere clamans.' 

Tu cum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide natam 



old legal formula ; see on Od. 3. 4. 51. 
For the quantity of the last syll. of ' velit ' 
see on Sat. 1.4. 82. The position of 
' cur ' by itself after the fact has been 
positively stated, — ' you forbid — why? ' 
— emphasizes the question. So again 
Sat. 2. 9. 104. 

188. quaero. V had 'quaere,' and 
Cruquius and Bentley strongly defend 
it. (If accepted it would be a parallel 
for ' io Bacche' in Sat. 1. 3. 7.) The 
Schol. however distinctly recognise 
' quaero,' and as against Bentley it 
may be argued that ihe vulg. gives a 
smoother and more dramatic course to 
the dialogue. Agamemnon seems at 
first curtly to refuse discussion. The 
Stoic ironically bows acquiescence. The 
king goes on to finish his sentence, and 
explains that he bases his act on reason 
as well as will, and that he is prepared 
to argue the question. The Stoic is 
delighted, but hardly able to believe 
that a king means to listen to reason. 

et joins the clause to rex sum, not 
to the following ae. 

191. An echo of Hom. II. 1. 18 
vplv /xev 9tol 5oiev . . . | etcirepaai TIpiap.010 
iroktv, ev 5' oticab" ineaOai. 

reducere (or 'redducere') is the 
reading of all the best MSS. It is found 
with the first syllable long four times in 
Lucretius. Some edito^s, on the advo- 
cacy of Eentley, havereceived 'deducere,' 
which Orelli interprets on the analogy 
of 'decedere de provincia,' i.e. ' domum 

192. consulere . . . licebit? the 
formula with which the consultation 
of a ' iurisconsultus ' was opened i^Cic. 
pro Mur. 13. 28); as 'respondere' is 

for the counsel's advice. Part of the 
humour consists in the burlesque ming- 
ling of tecbnicalities of Roman life with 
Homeric echoes. It is doubted whe- 
ther both verbs are meant to belong to 
the Stoic, ' to put questions and pre- 
sently to assume the counsel myself and 
advise you/ or the second to Agamem- 
non, ' shall we be allowed to have a 
regular consultation, I asking and you 
replying ? ' ' Mox ' has most force in 
the first way. Cp. also Sat. 1. 9. 63 
' rogat et respondet.' 

193. ab Achille secundus, 'second 
to Achilles' as Virg. Ecl. 5. 49 ' alter 
ab illo.' The rank of Ajax is from 
Hom. II. 2. 768 avopwv av pey' dp.aros 
erjv Te\ap.wvios Aias, \ 6<pp' 'Ax'A.6t/y p:-q- 
viev 6 yap tioKv (pepraros r\ev. Cp. 
Soph. Aj. 1339. 

194. putescit, a coarse word, but 
probably due to the Homeric -nv9erai 
(as II. 4. 395, Od. 1. 162). The form 
' putesco ' with the first syll. long is 
found in the best MSS. of Lucretius, 3. 

195. gaudeat ut, of a result so evi- 
dent that it seems like a purpose. The 
line is a transl. of Hom. II. 1. 255 
(though of a diffeient matter) 77 nev 
yrj9r)aai Hpiap.os Xlpidp.016 re iraiSes. 

197, 198. The answer of Agamemnon. 

197. mille ovium. Horace in every 
other place prefers the constr. of ' mille ' 
in the sing. as an adjective. Cicero has 
both constructions. 

insanus. The word falls first from 
Agamemnon's own lips, and so leads to 
the retort which gives the whole story 
its relevance. 

199. pro vitula natam. Noticehow 



Ante aras spargisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 200 

Rectum animi servas? 'Quorsum?' Insanus quid enim Aiax 

Fecit cum stravit ferro pecus? Abstinuit vim 

Uxore et gnato ; mala multa precatus Atridis, 

Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulixen. 

' Verum ego, ut haerentes adverso litore naves 205 

Eriperem, prudens placavi sanguine divos.' 

Nempe tuo, furiose. ' Meo, sed non furiosus.' 

Oui species alias veri scelerisque tumultu 

their acts are paralleled. Ajax mistook 
the sheep for his comrades. Agamem- 
non treats his daughter as a heifer. 

200. mola salsa, the salted grains of 
spelt strewed on a victim before it was 
sacrificed. Cp. Virg. Aen. 2. 133 'salsae 
fruges.' It is a question whether (as the 
poets assume) the Roman practice of 
using salt was also a Greek one. 

201. rectum animi = ' rectum ani- 
mum.' Heindorf quotes Ennius in Cic. 
de Sen. 6 ' mentes rectae quae stare 
solebant,' opp. to ' dementes.' Cp. the 
use of upOus, and the phrase ' stas animo ' 
below, v. 213. 

quorsum ? The Scholiasts had this 
reading (unless Porph. had ' quorum'), 
for they are puzzled by it, and give 
various explanations. If it is to stand 
the explanation of the Comm. Cruq. 
seems the best ' sc. tendis ? quid vis ? 
loquitur Agamemnon ' ; so, at fuller 
length, in Sat. 2. 7. 21 'Non dices hodie 
quorsum haec tam putida tendunt ? ' No 
exact parallel is found for the abbre- 
viation. Holder and Prof. Palmer 
accept Bothe's ingenious emendation, 
' Rectum animi servas cursum ' ? 

insanus, ' the madman, as you call 

quid fecit cum stravit, 'what did 
his crime come to vvhen he butchered 
the sheep ? ' For the indic. perf. in this 
use see Drager, Hist. Syntax. vol. 2. 

P- 557- 

202. abstinuit vim uxore. Orelli 

quotes Ov. Met. 8. 751 ' ferrum Trio- 
peius illa Abstinuit.' 

203. uxore et gnato. Tecmessa 
and Eurysaces. 

204. non ille : cp. ' ille non,' etc. 
Od. 4. 6. 13 oxik tKttvus yt. 

Teucrum. Ritter points out that in 
the Ajax of Sophocles Teucer is absent, 
and does not return until after his bro- 

ther's death. Horace therefore is either 
forgetful of this, or is following through- 
out some other drama on the subject. 

ipsum TJlixen, even Ulysses his 
mortal enemy. 

205. adverso, 'the facing shore,' i.e. 
the shore that faced the enemy— the 
Greek shore. 

206. prudens, i. e. quite knowing 
what I was about. It is an answer to 
the charge of madness. Cp. v. 89. 

207. nempe. For this use of 
' nempe,' where a speaker ironically 
completes the sentence of another, cp. 
Epp. 1. 16. 75 n. 

208. Bentley's description of this line 
perhaps still holds good, ' locus lubri- 
cus, quem nullus interpretum non at- 
tigit, nullus dubium adhuc et incertum 
non reliquit.' For the reading, the large 
preponderance of MS. authority must 
be allowed to be in favour of veri as 
against ' veris.' V acc. to Cruquius had 
' veris ' and the annotation ' contrarias 
veritati,' but it had also (as have other 
good MSS. which read 'veris') the 
unintelligible ' celeris,' and there were 
signs of the j having been transferred 
from the beginning of the later word to 
the end of the earlier. With the read- 
ing 'veri' the simplest explanation, if 
it can stand, is that given by Heindorf, 
who makes ' veri scelerisque ' gen. after 
'species,' and ' alias veri scelerisque ' = 
' alias veri, alias sceleris' (no complete 
parallel for this is quoted), ' differing 
ideas, now of right, now of wrong, mixed 
up in confusion.' ' Species ' are ' ideas/ 
but with the metaphor of sight not yet 
lost, ' images,' ' visions.' Cp. A. P. 25 
'decipimur specie recti ' ; 'veri' is used 
for ' moral right,' as in Epp. 1. 12. 23 ; 
cp. v. 312 of this Satire. Orelli and 
Rilter give ' veris,' the constr. then 
being ' species alias veris,' ' ideas at 




Permixtas capiet, commotus habebitur, atque 

Stultitiane erret nihilum distabit an ira. 

Aiax immeritos cum occidit desipit agnos : 

Cum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 

Stas animo, et purum est vitio tibi, cum tumidum est, cor ? 

Si quis lectica nitidam gestare amet agnam, 

Huic vestem, ut gnatae, paret ancillas, paret aurum, 

Rufam aut Posillam appellet fortique marito 

Destinet uxorem ; interdicto huic omne adimat ius 

Praetor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 

Quid ? si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna 

Integer est animi? Ne dixeris. Ergo ubi prava 

Stultitia, hic summa est insania ; qui sceleratus, 



variance with true ones,' the abl. after 
' alias,' as ' alium sapiente bonoque ' 
Epp. 1. 16. 20, etc. For ' tumultu,' 
whether taken by itself or (as with this 
last reading) with ' sceleris,' compare 
Od. 2. 16. 10 'miseros tumultus men- 
tis.' In any case the general meaning 
is that a confusion of moral ideas, how- 
ever caused, is a sign of madness. This 
is most pointedly expressed (if the Latin 
will bear the sense) by the reading which 
makes ' veri scelerisque ' answer to one 
another. It isnot the falsity of Agamem- 
non's ideas, but the confusion in them 
of good ends and bad means, which is 

209. commotus, as below, v. 278. 
Pliny has ' mentes commotas' N. H. 36. 
40. 21,' upset,' 'unhinged.' Cp. the use 
of ' concussa' below, v. 295. 

210. nihilum, adverbially, as above, 

▼• 54- 

2ii. desipit, ' has lost his wits.' 
For the position of this word see on 
Sat. 2. 1. 60 ' Quisquiserit vitae, scribam, 

212. prudens, Agamemnon's own 
word, v. 206. 

ob titulos inanes. For ' titulos' cp. 
Od. 4. 14. 4, honorary inscriptions on 
monuments, etc. For the useof Roman 
phrases of Agamemnon see on v. 192 ; 
but in these last lines it is more con- 
tinuous, and indicates that the allegory 
is being lost in the application. 

213. vitio, in its more general sense, 
' flaw.' 

tumidum : cp. Epp. 1. 1. 36 'Laudis 
amore tumes.' 

cor : the seat here both of intelligence 

(as in Lucret. 4. 53 ' hebeti cognoscere 
corde ') and of passion. Horace recalls, 
though he does not use, the word ' ve- 
cordia,' of madness. 

216. Eufam aut Posillam, as Bent- 
ley notices, common female names (so 
found in inscriptions), not pet names. 
The madman is supposed to treat a lamb 
as a girl, just as Agamemnon had treated 
a girl as a lamb. 

217. interdicto. Horace alludes in 
Epp. 1. 1. 102 (' Nec medici credis nec 
curatoris egere A praetore dati') to the 
same legal process of depriving an in- 
sane person by the Praetor's ' inter- 
dictum ' of the control of his property, 
and putting him under the guardian- 
ship (' tutela ' or ' curatio ') of rela- 

220. integer animi : see above, v. 61 
' integer mentis.' 

ne dixeris, ' Do not say so.' With 
these words Agamemnon is finally dis- 
missed, and the general conclusion of 
his story is drawn, ' Ergo,' etc. For the 
quantity of ' dixeris ' see on Sat. 2. 2. 


prava : which makes a man go 

220-223. Not three types or grades 
of madness, but three modes of describ- 
ing such acts as those of Agamemnon 
(and, it is suggested, of all men of am- 
bition). From each point of view the 
sentence of madness in the highest de- 
gree is affixed to them. The climax is 
attained by putting last the motive, 
the desire for fame, as in itself, apart 
from acts, the proof and result of 



Et furiosus erit ; quem cepit vitrea fama, 

Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis. 

Nunc age luxuriam et Nomentanum arripe mecum : 

Vincet enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. 225 

Hic simul accepit patrimoni mille talenta, 

Edicit piscator uti, pomarius, auceps, 

Unguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici, 

Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro omne macellum, 

Mane domum veniant. Quid tum? Venere frequentes. 230 

222. vitrea, ' with her glitter.' This 
is more likely than the other alternative 
offered by the Schol. ' vel fragilis.' 

223. circumtonuit, has made him 
enPpovTTjTos. For the worship of Bel- 
lona and the frenzy inspired by it see 
Mayor's note on Juv. S. 4. 123 ' ut fana- 
ticus oestro Percussus, Bellona, tuo,' 
which explains ' gaudens cruentis.' His 
votaries gashed themselves, like the 
priests of Baal (' quos sectis Bellona 
lacertis Saeva movet' Lucan. 1. 565). 
' The votary of fame has caught a frenzy 
which, like that of Bellona, leads to 
cruel and bloody acts.' It should be 
remembered that this picture of ambi- 
tion is drawn by one who had lived 
through the proscriptions and other 
horrors of the civil wars. For a some- 
what similar comparison of the effects 
of passion and of the frenzy of inspira- 
tion cp. Od. 1. 16. 5-9. 

224-280. Stertinius proceeds to ar- 
raign as madmen the extravagant ; the 
description narrowing itself presently to 
one special form and cause of extrava- 
gance, viz. ' meretricum amores.' 

arripe : see on Sat. 2. 1. 69. 

225. vincet ratio : Sat. 1. 3. 115 
(vvith ' ut ' and subj.), see note there. 
Cp. 'evincet ' below, v. 250. 

stultos, closely with ' insanire'; come 
under the class of ' stulti,' and therefore 
are mad. 

226. hic : not necessarily Nomenta- 
nus, which, as we have seen (on v. 175% 
is a conventional name, but 5tiKTiicui>, a 
specimen of the class. 

simul = ' simul ac,' Od. 1. 12. 27, 3. 

4- 37- 

227. edicit, issues his notices, in 
lordly style ; an official word belonging 
to consuls, praetors, tribunes. Cp. Sat. 
2. 2. 51, Epp. 1. 19. 10. 

piscator, auceps, ' dealers in fish 

and game ' ; but, as it seems from v. 234, 
their procurers also. The requirements 
are all for a banquet. 

228. Tusci vici, a street leading 
from the Forum Romanum into the 
Velabrum. It was a street of shops. 
In the satirical list of spots of bad re- 
pute in Rome (Plaut. Curc. 4. 1. 21) its 
characteristic is that ' ibi sunt homines 
qui ipsi se venditant.' It was afterwards 
called the ' vicus Turarius,' and is very 
probably the street ' vendentem tus et 
odores,' etc. of Epp. 2.1. 269. Cp. also 
Epp. 1. 20. 1 n. See Burn's Rome and 
Campagna, p. 277. 

229. fartor : variously explained as 
' poulterer,' ' sausage seller,' or ' profes- 
sional cook.' The last, which is given 
by the Pseudo-Acron, would suit the po- 
sition of the word best. If he were con- 
cerned with the purveying of the provi- 
sions we do not see why he should come 
by himself after the ' scurrae.' With 
this interpretation there is some point in 
coupling the seasoner of the dishes and 
the seasoners of the talk. 

Velabro, in the low ground be- 
tween the Capitoline, the Palatine, and 
the river. Plautus 1. c. describes its 
trades, ' In Velabro vel pistorem, vel 
lanium vel aruspicem, Vel qui ipsi 
vortant, vel qui alii subvorsentur prae- 
beant.' The Comm. Cruq. says ' In 
Velabro prostabant omnia quae ad victus 
rationem et delicias pertinebant.' 

macellum. Ter. Eun. 2. 2. 24 ' ad 
macellum ubi adventamus, Concurrunt 
laeti mi obviam cupedinarii omnes ; Ce- 
tarii, lanii, coqui, fartores, piscatores, 
aucupes, Quibus et re salva et perdita 
profueram et prosum saepe.' 

230. venere frequentes : the anti- 
thesis is ' they came in numbers, one 
was the spokesman.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Verba facit leno : ' Ouicquid mihi, quicquid et horum 

Cuique domi est, id crede tuum et vel nunc pete vel cras.' 

Accipe quid contra iuvenis responderit aequus: 

' In nive Lucana dormis ocreatus ut aprum 

Cenem ego ; tu pisces hiberno ex aequore verris. 235 

Segnis ego, indignus qui tantum possideam : aufer: 

Sume tibi decies ; tibi tantumdem ; tibi triplex 

Unde uxor media currit de nocte vocata.' 

Filius Aesopi detractam ex aure Metellae, 

Scilicet ut decies solidum absorberet, aceto 240 

Diluit insignem bacam : qui sanior ac si 

Illud idem in rapidum flumen iaceretve cloacam? 

Ouinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum, 

Nequitia et nugis pravorum et amore gemellum, 

Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemptas, 245 

233. aequus, 'just and generous.' 
The irony is the same as in Sat. I. 2. 4 
' quippe benignus erat.' 

234. in nive dormis : cp. Od. 1. 1. 
25-28. Bentley wished to read ' Tu ' 
for ' In.' An emphatic ' Tu ' is omitted 
in a similar way in v. 212. 

Lucana : ' Lucanus aper ' Sat. 2. 8. 6. 

235. verris, with a sweep-net, (Tayrjvrj, 
' everriculum,' a word used metaphori- 
cally by Cicero, who applies it to 
Verres plundering his province, Verr. 2. 
4. 24. There is an alternative reading 
(given by Hokler) ' vellis,' of consider- 
able MS. authority and interpreted by 
the Pseudo-Acr., though he adds ' alii 
verris.' The Blandinian MSS. all had 
' verris.' ' Vellis ' must imply catching 
with a line. ' Hiberno ex aequore ' would 
be hyperbolical. Orelli questions the 
use of ' vellere,' and no parallel is 

236. tantum. ' all this fortune.' 

237. deeies, i.e. ' centena milia ses- 
tertiorum,' ' a million.' 

239. filius Aesopi. The story of 
this mad freak is repeated by Pliny 
N. H. 9. 59. 35 (at the same time with 
the story of Cleopatra and the pearl ), with 
the addition that, having swallowed the 
pearl himself, he provided one each for 
his guests also. Aesopus is the famous 
tragic actor, the friend of Cicero ; see on 
Epp. 2. 1. 82. Pliny gives the name of 
the young man as ' Clodius.' Valerius 
Maximus (9. 1. 2) speaks of him as 

' non solum perditae sed etiam furiosae 
luxuriae.' ' Metella ' is not identified, nor 
is it essential to the story. It is an in- 
genious conjecture, accepted by many 
editors, that she was the Caecilia Me- 
tella who was divorced by P. Corn. 
Lentulus Spinther, and with whom Dola- 
bella, Cicero's son-in-law, intrigued. 
Prof. Palmer suggests that Cicero's 
' Filius Aesopi ' (he notices the verbal 
coincidence) ' me excruciat ' (ad Att. 
*3- J 5- 3) was connected with these in- 

240. solidum, sc. ' integrum,' Acr. 
'decies ' (see above, v. 237) being treated 
as a neut. subst., ' a million entire — at 
one gulp ' ; so Martial 4. 37.4 'tricies 

241. bacam, 'a pearl.' The pearl 
to the Roman jeweller occupied the 
place of the diamond in modern times. 

qui : above on v. 108. 

242. iaceretve : above on v. 130. 

243. Nothing is known of the bro- 
thers. They would seem to be sons of 
the Arrius mentioned above in v. 86. 

par, ' a well-matched pair ' ; see on 
Sat. 1. 7. 19. 

244. gemellum : cp. Epp. 1. 10. 3. 
Cicero has ' geminum in scelere par ' 
Phil. 11. 1. 2. 

245. luscinias. Their proper plea- 
sure is for the ear, as that of the pearl 
was for the eye, not for the taste. The 
two stories are parallel not only as cases 
of insane exLravagance, but of extra- 

[ 54 


Quorsum abeant? Sani ut creta, an carbone notati? 
Aedificare casas, plostello adiungere mures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si qucm delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 
Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare, 
Nec quicquam differre utrumne in pulvere, trimus 
Quale prius, ludas opus, an meretricis amore 
Sollicitus plores, quaero, faciasne quod olim 
Mutatus Polemon ? ponas insignia morbi, 
Fasciolas, cubital, focalia, potus ut ille 



vagance directed by the caprice which 
delights in contravening natural dis- 

impenso : in prose ' impenso pretio,' 
' at large cost.' 

prandere : no distinction is probably 
intended between the ' prandium ' or 
early meal, and ' cena ' the later, as 
though an extravagant luncheon were 
worse than an extravagant dinner. Cp. 
Epp. 1. 17. 13, A. P. 340. 

eoemptas : Sat. 1. 2. 9. 

246. ' Into which class shall they go ? 
Marked with chalk as sane men or 
with charcoal (as insane) ? ' See on 
Od. 1. 36. 10. The expression ' with 
chalk or charcoal ' is of course prover- 
bial ; cp. Pers. Sat. 5. 108 ' Illa prius 
creta mox haec carbone notasti ? ' Some 
doubt overhangs the reading of ' sani 
ut,' vaiiants being ' sani aut,' ' sani an,' 
' sani.' If it is to be displaced, it should 
be rather in favour of the last, the read- 
ing of two of the Blandinian MSS., than 
in favour of Bentley's conj. ' sanin,' i.e. 
' sanine.' ' Notandi ' has been adopted 
by some editors, but against the great 
weight of MSS. 

247-280. He turns to the madness of 
foolish attachments, connected with 
the last as another cause of extrava- 

247. aedificare casas : the first of 
a series of childish amusements. It is 
probably taken up again in ' in pulvere 
. . . ludas opus ' v. 251, and therefore 
means castle-building on the sand, <&s 
ore tis xf/dp:a9ov nais dyxi Oa\doorjs, | os 
t' errel ovv rroirjor) dOvpfxaTa vrjirterjoiv, \ 
aif/ avns ovvtx lve iroolv Kal \epolv 
dOvpwv Hom. II. 15.363. Had Roman 
children boxes of bricks ? 

248. ludere par,T — dpTid£eiv, 
Arist. Plutus 816. It was played vvith 

' tali ' or with coins or counters which 
could be held in the hand (sometimes 
walnuts, Nux Eleg. 79), one holding, 
the other guessing whether the number 
was odd or even. 

equitare in arundine : a recognised 
child's play. So Plutarch's Apoph- 
thegm. I.aconica of Agesilaus 1,70) 
fxtKpois Tois rraiSiois Kakapiov nepifiefirjKWS 
ixiorrep 'irrrrov oikoi ovverrai^ev. 

249. amentia verset, ' it must be 
madness turning his head' : no one could 
doubt it. 

250. ratio evincet, as 'vincet' above, 
v. 2*2 5. 

amare, absol. Epp. 2. 1. 171. 

251. utrumne : Sat. 2. 6. 73. So in 
direct question Epod. i. 7, where see 

252. ludas opus : referring back 
chiefly to ' aedificare casas ' ; ' opus ' 
being specially used of building opera- 
tions, fortifications, etc. For ' ludere ' 
with accus. for doing things in play 
cp. Virg. G. 4. 565 ' carmina qui lusi.' 

254. Polemon. The story of the re- 
form of Polemon was a commonplace. 
It is told, amongst other places, in 
Lucian, Bis Accus. 16, 17. He heard 
Xenocrates lecturing as he passed his 
school, entered, was changed by what 
he heard, and eventually succeeded to 
his chair. 

255. fasciolas : some kindofstock- 

cubital, a pillow for the elbow to 
rest on at banquets. 

focalia, ' a scarf for the neck.' They 
are called here 'insignia morbi,' as 
badges of luxury and extravagance, 
additions to tlie ordinary dress which 
only the effeminate and luxurious would 
wear. Cp. Quintil. II. 3. 144 'Pallio- 
lum, sicut iascias,quibus crura vestiuntur, 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas, 
Postquam est impransi correptus voce magistri ? 
Porrigis irato puero cum poma recusat : 
' Sume, catelle ! ' negat : si non des, optet : amator 
Exclusus qui distat, agit ubi secum, eat an non, 
Ouo rediturus erat non arcessitus, et haeret 
Invisis foribus ? ' Nec nunc, cum me vocet ultro, 
Accedam ? an potius mediter finire dolores ? 
Exclusit ; revocat : redeam ? Non si obsecret.' Ecce 
Servus non paulo sapientior : ' O here, quae res 
Nec modum habet neque consilium ratione modoque 
Tractari non volt. In amore haec sunt mala, bellum, 
Pax rursum : haec si quis tempestatis prope ritu 
Mobilia et caeca fiuitantia sorte laboret 
Reddere certa sibi, nihilo plus explicet ac si 
Insanire paret certa ratione modoque.' 
Quid, cum Picenis excerpens semina pomis 




et focalia . . . sola excusare potest vale- 

256. coronas. For he was returning 
from a revel when the incident occurred. 

257. impransi : cp. Sat. 2. 2. 7 ; 
' still fasting.' 

258 foll. The lover is like a child in 
his capriciousness, wanting what is 

259. catelle : a term of endearment. 
Plaut. Asin. 3. 3. 103 'igitur me ana- 
ticulam, columbam, vel catellum.' 

260-271. Horace is recalling, almost 
verbally, the scene at the beginning of 
the Eunuchus of Terence, where Phaedria 
is debating with Parmeno whether he 
shall go back to Thais, who has sum- 
moned him after excluding him from her 
presence. Ter. Eun. act 1. sc. 1 
' Fh. Quid igitur faciam ? non eam ? ne 
nunc quidem 
Quom arcessor ultro ? an potius ita 

me comparem, 
Non perpeti meretricum contume- 

Exclusit : revocat : redeam ? non, si 
me obsecret. 
Par. Here, quae res in se neque con- 
silium neque modum 
Habet ullum, eam consilio regere 

non potes. 
In amore haec omnia insunt vitia : 

Suspiciones, inimicitiae, induciae, 
Bellum, pax rursum : incerta haec 

si tu postules 
Ratione cei to facere, nilo plus agas, 
Quam si des operam ut cum ratione 
Cp. the picture in Epod. 11. Persius 
imitates Hoiace in 5. 161 foll. 

260. agit. For the lengthening of 
syll. see on Sat. 1. 4. 82. 

261. To the place whither, when he 
was not invited, he was meaning to 

262. invisis foribus : 'adnonamicos 
heu ! mihi postes et heu ! Limina dura ' 
Epod. 11. 31. 

nec nunc. The equivalent of Ter- 
ence's ' ne nunc quidem.' It must 
therefore be considered as a single in- 
stance in Horace of the use of ' nec,' for 
' ne-quidem,' which became afterwards 
established. See Madv. on Cic. de Fin. 
1. 11. 39, and excurs. iii. Bentl. defends 
' ne-nunc ' (in the same sense), which has 
less support in the MSS., and which 
Madv. shows to be wrong. 

265. servus : Parmeno. 

26S. tempestatis ritu. Od. 3. 29. 
33 ' Cetera fluminis Ritu feruntur ' ; ' as a 
storm rises and falls again.' 

270. explicet : ' disentangle,' ' re- 
duce to order.' 

272. quid cum: Sat. 2. I. 62, like 



Gaudes si cameram percusti forte, penes te es ? 

Ouid, cum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

Aedificante casas qui sanior ? Adde cruorem 275 

Stultitiae atque ignem gladio scrutare. Modo, inquam, 

Hellade percussa Marius cum praecipitat se 

Cerritus fuit, an commotae crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem et sceleris damnabis eundem 

Ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus ? 280 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 

' quid, si,'etc, Epp. i. 19. 12 ' quid, qui,' 
etc. Epp. 2. 1. 40, with argumentative 
questions enforcing or refuting what 
had been said. 

Picenis is an ' epitheton ornans.' 
The best apples came from Picenum, 
Sat. 2. 4. 70. 

273. cameram, ' the arched roof.' 
He is describing an amusement of lovers 
shooting apple-pips from between their 
thumb and finger at the ceiling, to 
see whether their love was returned, 
the omen being favourable when they 

For percusti see on Sat. 1. 5. 79 and 
2. 7. 68 'evasti.' 

penes te, ' under your own control,' 
i. e. ' sane.' 

274. feris : interpreted by Persius' 
imitation (1. 35) ' tenero supplantat 
verba palato ' ; ' trip up your lisping 
words against an old man's palate.' Cp. 
' balbutit ' Sat. 1. 3. 48 ; and see on the 
name ' Balbinus ' ib. 40. He is speak- 
ing of the mincing baby-talk of lovers. 
In an old man it is a proof of second 

annoso palato. Cp. the frequent 
hypallage in the Odes ' adulteros crines ' 
1. 15. 20, etc. 

273-280. Love leads not only to 
childishness but also sometimes to deeds 
of violence. 

275. cruorem, 'blood' = ' deeds of 

adde means, suppose them added, 
what will your judgment then be of my 
proposition ? 

276. ignem gladio scrutare. A 
translation of the Pythagorean proverb 
nvp /xaxaipq p.f) o/caXtveiv. It is given, 
amongst other places, in Diog. Laert. 8. 
18, and is explained by bvvarwv vpyfjv 
nal olSovvra Ovfiuv Kivtiv. Possibly 
ixaxaipa. meant originally a cook's knife ; 

and the saying was equivalent to ' do not 
make a hot fire hotter.' But like the 
other proverbs it had probably various 
turns given to it. Horace possibly mis- 
translates, at any rate gives his own 
application of it. Cp. his use of -yvad- 
fj.otai yehoiwv aWorpioiaiv in v. 7 2 of 
the Satire. Cp. also his reference to 
another Pythagorean proverb in Sat. 2. 

modo, 'just now.' Heindorf put the 
stop at the end of the line, taking ' modo, 
inquam ' with the preceding words, and 
Keller (Epilegomena) advocates this 
punctuation ; but ' inquam' has little 
force in that place. 

277. Nothing is known of this story 
of love, murder, and suicide, but what 
Horace tells us. 

P^or cum praeeipitat cp. above, v. 
61 ' cum edormit.' For the form of 
suicide cp. Od. 3. 27. 61 foll., and the 
story of Sappho's leap. 

278. commotae mentis : see on v. 

2S0. ex more, 'as men so often do.' 

cognata vocabula, i. e. ' scelus ' 
and ' commota mens' are names which, 
though not the same, are first cousins to 
one another — the distinction is without 
a difference. 

281-295. The superstitious. The in- 
stances are a freedman who hoped by 
prayers to escape the universal debt of 
mortality ; and a mother, who, in her 
anxiety for her boy's recovery from an 
ague, vows that if he gets well he shall 
do that which is sure to bring the illness 
back in a worse form. 

281. circum compita : see on v. 26. 
Here the ' compita ' are named as places 
where there were altars to the ' Lares 

siccus. He had not drunk ; the ex- 
planation of his folly did not lie there. 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Lautis mane senex manibus currebat et, ' Unum — 

Quid tam magnum ? ' addens, — ' unum me surpite morti, 

Dis etenim facile est ! ' orabat ; sanus utrisque 

Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 

Exciperet dominus cum venderet. Hoc quoque volgus 

Chrysippus ponet fecunda in gente Meneni. 

' Iuppiter, ingentes qui das adimisque dolores,' 

Mater ait pueri menses iam quinque cubantis, 

1 Frigida si puerum quartana reliquerit, illo 

Mane die quo tu indicis ieiunia nudus 

In Tiberi stabit.' Casus medicusve levarit 

Aegrum ex praecipiti, mater delira necabit 

In gelida fixum ripa febrimque reducet ; 

Quone malo mentem concussa ? Timore deorum. 

Haec mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, amico 

Arma dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 



2 95 

2S2. lautis manibus, a ritual pro- 
priety. The edd. quote from II. 6. 266 
X f P°i °" dvLTTToiffiv Ail Xeijieiv atOova 
olvov | a^oixai. 

283. quid tam magnum? He puts 
what is the essence of the impossibility, 
the fact that it would be the breach of a 
universal law, as though it were the 
convincing proof of its easiness — ' it is 
such a small concession.' 

surpite, for ' surripile ' ; see on Od. 4. 
13. 20 ' surpuerat.' So in Virg. Aen. 8. 
274 ' porgo ' for ' porrigo,' and in com- 
mon use ' snrgo ' for ' surrigo.' 

2S5. nisi litigiosus, ' unless he 
wished for a law-suit.' For the practice 
of warranting a slave when sold, and 
specifying his defects, see Epp. 2. 2. 1- 
19. The verb ' excipere ' is used there (v. 
16) as here. The figure is specially 
applicable here as the person spoken of 
is a ' libertinus.' ' Were he still a slave, 
and being sold, his master would,' etc. 

286. volgus, i. e. the superstitious, 
for there are plenty of them. 

287. Chrysippus. The Stoic's text- 
book ; see above on v. 44, Sat. 1. 3. 127. 

Meneni. There is no evidence but 
the text. The ' gens Meneni ' must 
mean lunatics ; but why, the Scholiasts 
knew no more than we. It is very pos- 
sibly a literary reference ; see p. 13. 

289. cubantis, ' who has been keep- 
ing his bed ' ; see on Sat. 1. 9. 18. 

290. quartana : an ague whose fits 

return at intervals of four days. 

291. quo tu indicis ieiunia. The 
referenceis, as is usual when superstitious 
observance is in question, to the adop- 
tion of Jewish practices. The division 
of time by weeks, and the naming of the 
seven days after the sun, moon, and five 
planets, though not adopted civilly till 
the time of Theodosius, was known to 
the Romans at this time, and is the snb- 
ject of occasional allusion. The ' dies 
Iovis,' therefore, is our Thursday ; but 
the fast on the fifth day was not a Roman 
but a Jewish practice, one of the inter- 
polated ' two fastings in the week ' of 
St. Luke 18. Cp. Tibullus 1. 3. 18 
'Saturni sacram me tenuisse diem,' where 
'Saturni dies ' is the Jewish sabbath. 
On the whole subject see Hare's article 
on the ' Days of the week ' in vol. 1. of 
the Philological Journal 1832. 

292. levarit : for the omission of ' si ' 
see on Sat. 1. 1. 45 ; ' have lifted him 
from the brink.' ' In praecipiti ' is used 
for ' in mortal peril ' by Celsus the me- 
dical writer, 2. 6. 

294. flxum, ' by planting him.' 

295. quone. For the redundant ' ne ' 
see on Epod. 1. 7. 

timore deorum, SeiatSaiixoviq. 

296. sapientum oetavus : one who 
deserved to be ranked next to the famous 
seven sages of Greece. 

297. eompellarer, ' be called names' ; 
Sat. 1. 7. 31. 

i 5 8 


Dixerit insanum qui me totidem audiet atque 

Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo.' 

Stoice, post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris, 300 

Oua me stultitia, quoniam non est genus unum, 

Insanire putas? Ego nam videor mihi sanus. 

' Quid, caput abscissum manibus cum portat Agave 

Nati infelicis, sibi tum furiosa videtur ! ' 

Stultum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 305 

Atque etiam insanum ; tantum hoc edissere, quo me 

Aegrotare putes animi vitio ? ' Accipe : primum 

Aedificas, hoc est, longos imitaris ab imo 

Ad summum totus moduli bipedalis, et idem 

Corpore maiorem rides Turbonis in armis 310 

Spiritum et incessum : qui ridiculus minus illo ? 

An quodcunque facit Maecenas te quoque verum est 

Tantum dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 

298. totidem, neut. plur., a word for 
every one of his. 

299. ignoto, 'ofwhich he knows so 
little.' The reference is to the fable of 
the two wallets, ' Peras imposuit Iuppiter 
nobis duas ; Propriis repletam vitiis post 
tergum dedit : Alienis ante pectus sus- 
pendit gravem,' Phaedr. 4. 10. 

300. Stoice : Horace addressing 
Damasippus, who has so amply proved 
his acquaintance with the principles of 
Stoicism, goes back to the sentence 
pronounced on him in v. 32 ' insanis 
et tu,' and asks his critic to define the 
form of madness which he imputes to 

sic : see on Od. 1.3. 1 ; 'as you answer 
me this question.' 

pluris : ' at better profit ' than you did 
before your bankruptcy. Horace forgets 
or ignores the fact that Damasippus has 
given up the trade. 

3°3j 3°4- The reply of Damasippus : 
' Of course you do. The strongest 
evidence does not convince mad people 
that they are mad.' 

Agave, holding in her hands the head 
of her son Pentheus, whom she has tom 
to pieces in her liacchic frenzy, is a pic- 
ture from the Bacchae of Euripides, a 
play which attracted Horace ; see on 
Od. 2. 19 passim. 

303. manibus. The more picturesque 
and forcible reading of V, restored to 
the text by Bentley as against ' demens.' 

2. 149 

on his 


Kpara 8' aOXtov | orrep Aa&ovo~a Tvyxavd 
l"l Tr IP X ( P°^ V Eur. Bacch. n 37. 

305. veris, neut. as ' pravorum ' v. 
244, ' totidem ' v. 298 ; ' let me give 
in to truth.' 

306. edissere. Virg. Aen. 
'haec edissere vera roganti.' 

308. aedificas : no doubt, 
Sabine estate. 

hoc est, longos imitaris, 
means, you ape full-grown 
though you are a dwarf ; ' a figure, but 
in playful allusion to the fact that he 
was really ' corporis exigui ' Epp. 1. 
20. 24. See Augustus' jests on the 
subject in his letters to the poet in the 
extracts from the Suetonian life of 
Horace given in the Introd to vol. 1. 

309. moduli bipedalis. Suetonius 
mentions a dwarf actually ' bipedali 
minor ' Aug. 43. 

310. corpore maiorem, 'too big 
for his body ' : cp. ' onus corpore parvo 
maius' Epp. 1. 17. 40, ' maiores pennas 
nido ' Epp. 1. 20. 21. 

Turbonis, according to Scholiasts 
a gladiator of small size but great 

312. verum, ' right,' above v. 208; 
Epp. 1. 1. 11, 1. 7. 98, 1. 12. 23. 

te, sc. ' facere.' 

313. tantum, the reading of V; 
most other MSS. having ' tanto,' an 
accommodation to the ' tanto ' which 
follows. As Bentley shows, ' tanto,' 

LIB. II. SAT. 3. 


Absentis ranae pullis vituli pede pressis, 

Unus ubi effugit, matri denarrat, ut ingens 315 

Bellua cognatos eliserit. Illa rogare 

Quantane? num tantum, sufflans se, magna fuisset? 

" Maior dimidio." " Num tanto ? " Cum magis atque 

Se magis inflaret, " Non si te ruperis," inquit, 

" Par eris." Haec a te non multum abludit imago. 320 

Adde poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino ; 

Quae si quis sanus fecit sanus facis et tu. 

Non dico horrendam rabiem.' Iam desine. ' Cultum 

Maiorem censu.' Teneas, Damasippe, tuis te. 

' Mille puellarum, puerorum mille furores.' 325 

O maior tandem parcas, insane, minori ? 

though right with the comparative, 
would not be suitable with the posi- 
tive. ' Tantum ' on the other hand is 
Horatian : cp. Epp. 1. 10. 3 ' mul- 
tum dissimiles,' inf. v. 317 ' tantum 

certare, best taken (with Bentley) 
after minorem, as Virgil's ' cantare 
pares ' E. 7. 5, to be added to instances 
of the inf. after an adj. in vol. 1. App. 
2. § 2. 

314. The fable of the Frog and the 
Ox freely retold by Horace. It is to 
be found Phaedr. 1. 24, Babrius 28. 

317. quantane : see above on v. 295 
('quone?') and Epod. 1. 7. 

fuisset : the questions of the mother 
frog are indirect, the answers of the 
young frog direct. 

318. maior dimidio, ' half as big 
again.' Bentley felt strongly the im- 
propriety of the answer, and proposed, 
though hesitatingly, ' pernimio.' Ritter 
divides the words ' maior ' ' Dimidio ? 
num tanto ? ' To others the incapacity 

of the young frog to measure size will 
seem part of the picture. 

320. abludit, ana£ \ty. 

321. oleum adde camino : 'to throw 
oil on the fire ' is a proverb in all 
languages for to make bad worse. 

322. quae si quis sanus fecit. 
Poetry has always been attributed to 
fiavia. Cp. A. P. 296. 

323. horrendam rabiem : a playful 
exaggeration of what he attributes to 
himself in Epp. 1. 20. 25 ' Irasci celerem 
tamen ut placabilis essem.' 

eultum: Sat. 2. 2. 66; style of living. 

324. censu, ' income,' Od. 2. 15. 13. 
teneas tuis te, ' keep to your 

own business, leave me alone ' : perhaps 
a reference to Damasippus' confession 
v. 19 ' aliena negotia curo.' 

326. maior . . . insane. Diintzer 
points out the way in which ' insane ' 
comes irapa trpoaooKiav to spoil what 
had seemed to be a compliment and a 




Horace meets Catius hurrying home to arrange his notes of a gastronomical 
lecture which he has just heard. When pressed to name the lecturer he makes 
a mystery of it, but he gives the heads of the lecture (i-io). 

It comprised hints on choosing eggs (11-14), cabbage (15, 16), on dressing 
a fowl hastily so as to be tender (17-20), on choosing mushrooms (20, 2i\ on 
the wholesomeness of certain articles of diet (21-29), ^he season and locality 
of various shellfish (30-34), the importance of studying sauces (35-39), subtle 
points with respect to the condition and age of various animals, fish, and birds 
(40-46), the error of concentrating attenlion on one thing in a banquet and 
forgetting others equally important (47-50), the treatment of different wines 
(51-57), and the way to keep a drinker in taste for his wine (58-62), the com- 
position of the ' simple ' and 'double' sauce (63-69), the choice of apples and 
grapes for dessert (70-72), the garnishing of the table (73-75), size of dishes, 
tricks of slaves, importance of cleanliness in arrangements (76-87). 

The Satire ends with Horace's expressions of admiration and earnest entreaty 
to be taken where such lore and secrets of happiness were to be learnt (88-95). 

Who was Catius, and what is his relation to the gastronomic lecture of which 
he is the mouthpiece ? It can hardly be a name which carried no associations, 
for the drama would lack point. 

1. The Scholiasts give us a complete answer and one which meets fairly the 
conditions. They say (1) that Catius was an Epicurean who had written a 
treatise 'de Remm Natura et de summo bono' ; (2) that in this Satire Horace 
is playing with the Epicureans as in the last he played with the Stoics. 

It is a striking confirmation of this statement that (as they do not say) a Catius 
is named in one of Cicero's letters (ad Fam. 15. 16). He is rallying Cassius on 
his Epicurean tenets, and quotes jestingly a use of the term ' spectra ' by ' Catius 
Insuber Epicureus qui nuper est mortuus.' If this is the person meant the 
dramatic framework of this Satire will turn, as does that of the first and of the 
third Satire in this book, on a character from Cicero's Epistles. 

Some such play as the Scholiasts suggest suits well enough with Horace's 
attitude towards rival philosophies, with his principle of placing his poems 
(whether Satires, Epistles, or Odes) as companion or contrasted pictures, and 
possibly with hints in the Satire itself *. We need not make this relation between 
Catius and the discourse on cookery very close. Horace's primary purpose was 
probably to laugh at people who made gastronomy into a science and professed 
to know better than their neighbours how to cook a chicken or arrange a dinner 
table (cp. the play of Sat. 2. 8). It occurred to him to give a further point to 
the Satire by its framing and placing, much as he gives a point to the idyllic 

* It is difficult to know how much one reads into a poem when once a theory of its purpose 
is conceived, but whatever hints of play there are seem to point in this direction. Catius i 
v. 3 speaks of the lecture as a philosophy : that he does not name Epicurus may be dramatic. 
Horace in v. 95 welcomes the teaching as an art of living, not only of dining, ' vitae praecepta 
beatae,' and parodies the famous words of Lucretius, as though to suggest that it is a new ' De 
Rerum Natura' that we have been listening to. Add the reference to the attitude of the 
' sapiens' in the presence of these problems (v. 44), the criticism of a previous teacher (v. 24*1, the 
affectation of such terms as 'praecepta,' ' quaesita,' 'ingenium,' ' natura,' ' ratio.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 4. 161 

praises of country life in Epod. 2 by putting them into the mouth of the ' fenerator 
Alfius.' He chooses for the purpose an Epicurean of the last generation, knovvn 
to him chiefly, perhaps only, as having been laughed at by Cicero. 

2. Both Acr. and the Comm. Cruq., though giving the theory just stated 
at the beginning of the Satire, and referring to it again on v. 88, have a note 
on v. 47, which, unless it is corrupt, must belong to a rival tradition as to 
the person of Catius and the point of the Satire. In its fullest form it runs 
'Irridet eum quod de opere pistorio in suo libro scribit de se ipso: Haec primus 
invenit et cognovit Catius Miltiades.' Nothing else is known of such a work 
or person. Orelli, who leans to this explanation, imagines him to have been 
a freedman of Cicero's Catius. 

3. A third view was suggested by Manso, and is advocated warmly by Prof. 
Palmer. It is that Catius is a pseudonym intended thinly to veil the name 
of C. Matius, the correspondent of Cicero (see especially ad Fam. 11. 27 and 28), 
and the friend of Julius Caesar and of Augustus. Columella tells us that he 
wrote a book on the art of cookery, divided into three parts, which were called 
severally Coquus, Cetarius, Salgamarius. Pliny speaks of his having given his 
name to an apple (N. H. 15. 14). 

In any case the humour of the Satire probably consisted mainly in the mixture 
of truisms and paradoxes on the subject, and in the introduction of authority 
in a matter where each man should be allowed his own taste. Orelli well 
compares Sat. 2. 2. 51 ' Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos Parebit pravi 
docilis Romana iuventus.' 

Notice also that the topics follow the usual course of a Roman supper ' ab ovo 
ad mala' (Sat. 1. 3. 6). 

Unde et quo Catius ? ' Non est mihi tempus aventi 

Ponere signa novis praeceptis, qualia vincent 

Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Platona.' 

Peccatum fateor, cum te sic tempore laevo 

Interpellarim ; sed des veniam bonus oro. 5 

Ouod si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid, repetes mox, 

Sive est naturae hoc sive artis, mirus utroque. 

1. Unde et quo : more fully in Sat. the field. The rival reading in point 
I. 9. 62 'unde venis et quo tendis ' ? of MS. authority is ' vincunt.' Bentley's 

non est tempus, i. e. I have no time ' vincant ' has less support. He quotes 

to stop and talk to you, for I am in a Epp. 1.4. 3 ' scribere quod Cassi Par- 

hurry ^aventi), etc. mensis opuscula vincat,' but that is not 

2. ponere signa, a doubtful phrase, a case where definite prophecy would 
possibly only = Cicero's 'consignare lit- be in point. 

teris,' ' to put into writing'; but also 3. Anyti reum. Socrates was ac- 

explained with some probability of the cused by Meletus, Lycon, and Anytus. 
symbols of some ' memoria technica,' 4. eum, ' since,' ' in that.' 
such as is described in Cic. de Orat. 2. laevo : contrast Sat. 2. 1. 18 ' dextro 

86-88. 351 f. This suits well with the tempore ' ; ' tempore laevo ' explains 

assurance expressed in vv. 6, 7, that ' sic,' or we may take ' sic laevo ' to- 

Catius' memory is excellent, both natural gether, as ' sic raro ' Sat. 2. 3. 1. 
and artifi.cial. 6. repetes, ' you will recover it.' 

vincent : the reading of V adopted 7. hoc, the power of remembering. 

by Ritter and Munro. The new philo- artis, of the art of mnemonics ; see 

sopher will drive the old masters from on v. 2. 

f VOL. II. M 



' Ouin id erat curae quo pacto cuncta tenerem, 
Utpote res tenues tenui sermone peractas.' 
Ede hominis nomen, simul et Romanus an hospes. 
' Ipsa memor praecepta canam, celabitur auctor. 
Longa quibus facies ovis erit illa memento, 
Ut suci melioris et ut magis alba rotundis, 
Ponere ; namque marem cohibent callosa vitellum. 
Caule suburbano qui siccis crevit in agris 
Dulcior ; irriguo nihil est elutius horto. 
Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam mixto mersare Falerno ; 
Hoc teneram faciet. Pratensibus optima fungis 




S. Calius is mollified by the com- 
pliment, and enters into the thought. 
' Ay, that is what I vvas thinking of, 
how to keep in my mind every single 
word, for indeed they were nice points, 
and handled throughout in nice style.' 

9. utpote : Sat. 1. 4. 24, 1. 5. 94, 
A. P. 206. 

tenues, XfWTas, opp. to what is 
coarse and common; see on Od. 2. 16. 


10. ede : Sat. 2. 5. 61. The word is 
nsed of oracles, of persons who speak 
with authority, etc. 

simul et, a common combination in 
prose ; ' at the same time also.' ' Ro- 
manus [ne sit] an hospes.' 

1 1 . canam, answers ' ede ' ; of ora- 
cular utterance, Sat. 1. 9. 30. 

celabitur auetor : a part of the 
play, but beyond our guessing. 

12. ovis : see on Sat. 1. 3. 7 ' ab ovo 
usque ad mala.' The eggs come first in 
the lecture, as first served in the feast. 

13. suci, ' flavour,' as explained by 
Plin. N. H. 10. 74. 52 'quae oblonga 
sint ova gratioris saporis putat Ho- 
ratius Flaccus.' 

alba : the epithet probably refers to 
the white as it looks when cooked — it is 
whiter. It is otherwise taken of the yolk 
and white together — ' pale-coloured.' 
But why should that be a merit ? Heind. 
reads ' alma,' a conj. of Bentley's. 

14. ponere, ' to serve'; see on Sat. 
2. 2. 23. 

namque : it is implied that the yolk 
of an egg which would hatch a cock- 
bird is fuller flavoured. Columella [8. 
5. 11) and Pliny (1. c.) agree with 

Horace that the longer eggs produce 
the cocks, the rounder ones hens ; 
Aristotle (Hist. Anim. 6. 2. 2) states 
the fact the other way. 

callosa: either the white is firmer, 
or, possibly, the skin which encloses the 
yolk is stronger. 

15. suburbano : the market gardens 
near Rome would be more carefully 
irrigated, probably more richly manured. 
Pliny's statement (N. H. 1. 9. 41) coin- 
cides, ' humor fimusque si defuere maior 
saporis gratia est, si abundavere laetior 

16. elutius, 'more watery,' 'tasteless.' 
horto, i. e. the contents of a garden. 

17. vespertinus hospes. Cp. Epod. 
16. 51 ' vespertinus . . . ursus,'Sat. 2.6. 
100 ' nocturni.' 

oppresserit, ' have surprised you.' 

18. malum, adverbially. Cp. ' ca- 
net indoctum ' Epp. 2. 2. 9; ' malum 
responset ' ' makes unkind answer,' ' dis- 
appoints.' It is not quite the same use 
as ' responsare ' without an adv. in Sat. 
2. 7. 85 and 103, Epp. 1. 1. 68. 

palato, ' the taste,' as below, v. 46. 

19. doetus cris. The tense corre- 
sponds to ' si oppresserit,' ' you will 
know what to do.' 

mixto Palerno. Grammatically 
rather an absol. than a local abl., to 
mix Falemian and drown the fowl ; the 
commoner element is taken for granted. 
Bentley read ex mera coni. ' musto,' and 
is followed by Heindorf and Palmer ; 
' mersare ' probably, as he took it, = 
' mersando occidere.' 

20. pratensibus : as contrasted with 
those of the woods. 

LIB. II. SAT. 4. 


Natura cst ; aliis male creditur. Ule salubres 
Aestates peraget qui nigris prandia moris 
Finiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. 
Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis committere venis 
Nil nisi lene decet ; leni praecordia mulso 
Prolueris melius. Si dura morabitur alvus, 
Mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae 
Et lapathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo. 
Lubrica nascentes implent conchylia lunae ; 
Sed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae. 
Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris, 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini, 
Pectinibus patulis iactat se molle Tarentum. 
Nec sibi cenarum quivis temere arroget artem, 



21. male ereditur. Virg. Ecl. 3. 94 
' non bene ripae Creditur.' 

23. ante gravem solem, ' before the 
sun is hot on them.' 

24. Aufidius. It is suggested that 
this may be the M. Aufidius Lurco 
mentioned by Pliny (N. H. 10. 23. 20) 
as having made a large fortune by 
setting the example of fattening pea- 
cocks for sale. 

miscebat, i. e. in making the ' mul- 
sum ' or drink of honey and wine ; cp. 
Sat. 2. 1. 56, 2. 2. 15. With ' forti ' 
cp. the epithets ' severi Falerni ' Od. 1. 
27 9, ' ardentis' Od. 2. II. 19. 

25. venis : see note on Od. 2. 2. 14. 

26. leni : the emphatic word, opp. 
' forti ' v. 24. 

27. prolueris : Sat. i. 5. 16, Virg. 
Aen. 1. 739 ' pleno se proluit auro.' 

28. The statements of the lecturer are 
in accord with the medical doctrines of 
Celsus, 2. 29 ' Alvum movent .... 
lapathum .... cochleae, ostrea, pelo- 
rides, echini, musculi, et omnes fere 
conchulae . . . vinum dulce vel sal- 

mitulus. Schiitz points out the force 
of ' et,' adding the genus, ' the mussel 
and shell-fish generally.' Cp. Sat. 2. 7. 
36 ' Mulvius et scurrae,' Mulvius being 
a ' scurra ' himself. 

29. lapathi ' herba lapathi prata 
amantis ' Epod. 2. 57; ' sorrel.' 

Coo, wine of Cos (Sat. 2. 8. 9, and 
see on Od. 4. 13. 13). Coan wine, ac- 


cording to Pliny, was much mixed with 
salt water, and the mixture called Leu- 
cocoum, N. H. 14. 10. 8. 

30 lubrica. The epithet probably 
refers to their look and to the way they 
slip over the tongue The juxtaposition 
of 'lubrica Coa' Pers. S. 5. 135, looks 
like a remembrance of this place, and 
may possibly show that he was speak- 
ing of Coan wine, and took ' lubrica ' 
(as the Scholiast takes it here) in 
the general sense of this passage, as 
' alvum solventia ' ; see Conington in loc. 
The fancy that the shell-fish varied with 
the phases of the moon is found in 
Lucilius, fr. inc. 21. 46 ' Luna alit ostrea 
et implet echinos.' 

31. generosae, ofgood kinds ; used 
of wine, Epp. 1. 15. 18. 

32. The 'murex' (an edible purple 
mussel) every one gets from Baiae ; the 
' peloris ' (or giant mussel) ' is even 
better, provided it comes from the Lu- 
crine lake.' 

33. Circeiis : the promontory in La- 
tium ; cp. Juv. S. 4. 140 ' Circeiis nata 
forent, an Lucrinum ad saxum Rutu- 
pinove edita fundo Ostrea, callebat 
primo deprendere morsu." 

Miseno : the promontory which ter- 
minates on the north a/i the bay of Naples. 

35-37. nec . . . nec, ' nor,' . . . ' nor,' 
two qualifications to be added to the 
one natned in vv. 31-34. Your shell- 
fish must come from the right places, 
and you must not forget that it is of the 



Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. 
Nec satis est cara pisces averrere mensa 
Ignarum quibus est ius aptius et quibus assis 
Languidus in cubitum iam se conviva reponet. 
Umber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas 
Curvat aper lances carnem vitantis inertem ; 
Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 
Vinea summittit capreas non semper edules. 
Fecundae leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 


utmost importance to understand how 
to flavour and how to dress. 

35. arroget, potential, not hortative. 

36. exacta, 'thoroughly studied.' See 
Conington 011 Virg. Aen. 4. 475 ' tempus 
secum ipsa modumque Exigit.' 

termi, ' subtle,' ' nice,' see on v. 9. 

37. averrere. The verb describes 
the indiscriminate purchase, taking 
whatever there was, at whatever price. 
Perhaps there is a sense of metaphor 

~* tl- from the sweepnet ' getting ^every kind ' ; 
see on Sat. 2. 3. 235. 'Averrere' was 
the reading of V, and was interpreted 
by Porph. ' abstrahere, auferre.' Orelli 
gives ' avertere ' with some good MSS., 
interpreting it ' to appropriate to him- 
self (as VirgiPs ' avertere praedas ' Aen. 
10. 78, etc). 

mensa, the market-stall 011 which 
the fish was exposed. 

3S. ignarum, with the subj. of ' aver- 
rere,' ' while ignorant what had better 
be stewed and what broiled.' 

ius, the sauce in which the stewed 
fish was served. The edd. quote from 
Varro, R. R. 3. 9 the pun ' in ius vocat 
pisces coquus.' 

quibus est . . . reponet : to be added 
to the few cases such as Virg. Aen. 6. 
614 ' ne quaere doceri . . . quae forma 
viros fortunave mersit,' where the clas- 
sical poets seem to adopt the ante- 
classical usage of an indic. in indirect 
questions. See Drager, Hist. Syntax 2. 
p. 474, Madv. § 356, obs. 3. 

assis : see on Sat. 2. 2. 51. For a 
fish so dressed see Sat. 2. 8. 29. 

39. in cubitum se reponet. Ritter 
seems first to have urged that these 
words should express the return to 
a position of repose. Cp. ' cubito re- 
manete pre.-so ' Od. 1. 27. 8. We are 
to picture the guests (see Dict. Ant. s. v. 
' triclinium') as leaning forward over the 

table with both arms free in eating, and 
in the intervals resting on the left elbow. 
The sentence then must mean ' which 
when broiled the gue.-.t will eat till he 
is tired, and only then replace himself 
on his elbow : ' ' quibus assis ' may be 
taken as an abl. absol., or directly with 
' languidus.' The Scholiasts' way of 
taking it, still maintained by Schutz, 
Orelli, and others, is ' for which when 
broiled the tired guest (cp. ' marcens 
potor ' of v. 58) will at once place him- 
self again on his elbow.' They imagine, 
that is, that he is lying back on the 
cushion, and that he rouses himself 
again for the appelizing dish. This is 
excellent if the picture of his attitudes 
is right. 

40-43. ' As with fish, so with game ; 
think of the place it comes from, and so 
of the food on which it has fattened — 
a boar from the oak forests of Umbria, 
not from the marshes of Laurentum : 
the roe that has fed in vineyards is at 
times less good eating.' 

41. vitantis, after lanees. 
inertem, ' flavourless.' 

42. Laurens. Cp. Virg. Aen. 10. 
708 ' aper, . . . quem . . . defendit . . . 
palus Laurentia, silva pastus arundinea.' 

43. summittit, ' supplies.' 

44. feeundae : the reading of V, 
rightly defended by Eentley against 
'fecundi,' which was an alteration due 
to the fact that ' lepus ' is usually mas- 
culine, but in this case the feminine 
gender is appropriate. The line has 
been best understood by Ritter. It is 
another refinement of taste parallel to 
that of the last line. The epithet ' fe- 
cundae ' cannot be, as Orelli is content 
to think, otiose. It must contain the 
point. The Scholiasls no doubt ex- 
plain it rightly ' quia dicuntur semper 
praegnantes esse lepores,' with reference 

LIB. II. SAT. 4. 


Piscibus atque avibus quae natura et foret aetas, 45 

Ante meum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit. 

Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam; 

Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 

Ouali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 50 

Massica si caelo suppones vina sereno 

Nocturna si quid crassi est tenuabitur aura, 

Et decedet odor nervis inimicus ; at illa 

Integrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 

Surrentina vafer qui miscet faece Falerna 55 

Vina columbino limum bene colligit ovo, 

Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

probably to the belief in their super- 
fetation (Pliny N. H. 8. 55). It means 
therefore a female hare, and is meant 
probably to limit and give (though 
without explaining) the reason of the 
wise man's preference of the shoulders. 
For a gastronomical refinement turning 
on a similar point see Sat. 2. 8. 43 : see 
also 2. 8. 89. To make ' fecundae ' 
otiose and throw the stress of the pre- 
cept on the choice of the part of the 
animal only, is to lose the key of the 
passage which lies in vv. 45, 46. It 
professes to contain original observa- 
tions ' de natura,' about the physical 
conditions, of shell-fish, boars, roedeer, 
hares. The lecturer contents himself 
with suggesting, without proving, that 
he has in store other observations of 
the same kind ' de natura aut aetate ' 
of fish and birds. Nole also that there 
is both in v. 43 and 44 an air of mys- 
tery affected, of truth only partially re- 

sapiens, ' the pbilosopher.' The word 
is in the spirit of vv. 2, 3; cp. ' inge- 
nium ' v. 47. 

45. quae natura : not absolutely,but 
in reference to their fitness for table ; 
but the language is as if he were a new 
Aristotle, ' palatum,' coming almost 
Trapa TrpoaSofciav, at the end. 

47-50. ' The philosopher must take 
a large view, not narrow himself to a 
single corner of his subject.' This is 
an apology for the apparently miscel- 
laneous character of the precepts ; vv. 49, 
50 also give a rough summary of the 

passage to follow, v. 49 referring to 
vv. 51-62, v. 50 to vv. 63-69. 

47- crustula, ' pastry' ; see on Sat. 1. 
1. 25. 

48. satis, sc. ' est.' 

consumere, 'to use it all,' 'use it 

U P-' 

50. securus, with the indirect ques- 

tion. So Od. 1. 26. 6, Epp. 2. 1. 176. 

51. Put your Massic wine in the open 
air to tone it down. Do not strain it 
or you will spoil the flavour. Surrentine 
wine should be mixed with the lees of 
Falernian, and then cleared with a 
pigeon's egg. 

53. odor nervis inimicus. Cp. 
VirgiFs description of a potent wine 
'temptatura pedes ' G. 2. 94. The in- 
toxicating effect is here attributed to 
the smell. 

illa, sc. ' Massica vina.' 

55. Surrentina, from Surrentum at 
the south end of the bay of Naples. 
Pliny names the wine as ' concalescen- 
tibus probatum propter tenuitatem ' 
N. H. 14. 8. 1. It is to be fortified 
with the hardened sediment of the 
stronger Falernian. This is a mode of 
treatment described by Columella (12. 
30) ' sumito faecem vini boni et panes 
facito et in sole arefacito . . . postea 
terito et pondo quadrantem amphoris 
singulis infricato.' 

vafer, ' as a connoisseur.' 

57. quatenus, ' inasmuch as.' See on 
Sat. 1. 1. 64. 

aliena, 'all foreignmntter;' the float- 
ing particles called ' limum ' in v. 26. 



Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 

Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 

Post vinum stomacho ; perna magis ac magis hillis 60 

Flagitat immorsus refici ; quin omnia malit 

Quaecunque immundis fervent allata popinis. 

Est operae pretium duplicis pernoscere iuris 

Naturam. Simplex e dulci constat olivo, 

Quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit, 65 

Non alia quam qua Byzantia putuit orca. 

58-62. ' If the fault is not in the wine 
but in the drinker, you rnust keep hiin 
up to the mark with salt and piquant 
dishes.' Heseems to be speaking of the 
later courses. A salad of ' lactuca,' 
' lettuce,' was the traditional end of a 
Roman supper. Cp. Mart. 13. 14 ' Clau- 
dere quae cenas lactuca solebat avorum, 
Dicmihi, curnostras inchoat illadapes'? 
The lecturer takes sides against the old 

58. marcentem, ' flagging.' 
squillis, ' prawns.' Sat. 2. 8. 42. 

59. innatat, i.e. remains undigested; 
Pliny N. H. 23. 22. 1 ' dulce (vinum) 
stomacho innatat, austerum facilius con- 

61. immorsus, participle = ' vellica- 
tus,' ' excitatus.' Cp. ' qualia lassum 
Pervellunt stomachum ' Sat. 2. 8. 9. ' It 
entreats to be freshened by the sharp 
sting rather of dried ham, rather of sau- 
sages.' Lambinus followed a few MSS. 
in separating the words ' in morsus,' 
comparing Virgifs 'reficitque in proelia ' 
Aen. 11. 731 ; but the only sense that 
can be put on them is ' to be freshened 
to a new appetite.' But ' in morsus ' is 
a strange phrase — Bentley asks 'an sto- 
machus dentes habet? ' — and the end in 
question is not to renew the appetite for 
eating but for drinking. Doderlein and 
Dill 1 '. of recent editors accept it. Bentl. 
would read ' immorsis.' 

61, 62. ' To a cold salad the stomach 
would prefer even the coarse dishes of 
the cookshops, provided they were hot 
and savoury.' 

popinis: illustrated byMart. 1. 42. 9, 
quoted by Bentley, ' Quod fumantia qui 
tomacla raucus Circumfert tepidis co- 
quus popinis.' ' Popinis ' is probably 
tb,erethe portableovensof street-hawkers, 
and it may be so here. Otherwise the 
abl. had better be taken as local, ' all 

that is served hot and hot in the cook- 

63-69. The use of oil and other in- 
gredients in the sauce or pickle served 
with fish. See above v. 50. 

63. est operae pretium. Perhaps 
theie is a mock heroic reminiscence of 
Ennius. Cp. Epp. 2. 1. 229. 

duplicis, either in direct opposition 
to ' siroplex/ but in that case there is 
some liltle awkwardness in the sense, as 
there are more ingredients than two 
named in the fuller sauce, or (as Bentley, 
Orelli and others) = of two kinds— the 
'simplex,' which follows, being one of 
the two — the 'compound' being de- 
scribed, but not characterizcd in a single 

65. This line begins the description 
of the compound sauce. Bentley's dif- 
ficulty, that in this way the oil is used 
twice, as the basis and as the last in- 
gredient added in vv. 68, 69, does not 
seem serious : 65 and 66 describe the 
materials — oil, wine, and brine : 67-69 
describe the process and order; ' hoc ' 
is the mixture of the ' merum ' and 
' muria,' which are to be well mingled 
( ( confusum' N i,boiled with chopped herbs, 
sprinkled with saffron, stood to cool, 
and then to have the best oil added. 
Cp. the account of the ' ius mixtum ' in 
Sat. 2. 8. 45-53. 

pingui, ' rich and sugary.' 

66. ' Of the kind of which a Byzantine 
jar has reeked.' 

putuit, ' putesco ' (see Sat. 2. 3. 194). 
Byzantium was the centre of the thunny 
fishery. The ' muria ' spoken of seems 
to have been a preparation of the roe 
and other parts of the thunny, salted 
and kept. So ' garum ' (Sat. 2. 8.46) 
from the ' scomber.' They are analogous 
to our caviare. 

LIB. II. SAT. 4. 


Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis 

Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 

Pressa Venafranae quod bacca remisit olivae. 

Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia suco ; 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit ollis ; 

Rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. 

Hanc ego cum malis, ego faecem primus et allec, 

Primus et invenior piper album cum sale nigro 

Incretum puris circumposuisse catillis. 

Immane est vitium dare milia terna macello 



67. sectis herbis. Some such herbs 
as are narned in Sat. 2. S. 51. It is an 
abl. absol. adding a circumstance to the 
mixture and the boiling. 

68. Corycio, from Corycus in Cilicia. 

69. Venafranae : see onOd. 2. 6. 15. 
remisit: Sat. 2. 8. 53. 

70. We have got now to the dessert, 
' ab ovo usque ad mala ' Sat. 1. 3. 

6. For the apples of Picenum see 
Sat. 2. 3. 272, of Tibur cp. Od. 1. 

7. 14. 

suco, 'flavour, above v. 13. 

71. Venucula. Understand 'uva' 
from the next clause. It is the name 
of the kind of grape — not apparently 
local. The word is written variously— 
' veniaila ' (so in best MSS. of Fliny, 
who gives the same remark, N. H. 14. 4. 
2), ' vennuncula,' etc. 

convenit ollis, ' suits the preserving 

72-87. The speaker claims for him- 
self the introduction of these smoke- 
dried Alban grapes at des-ert. This sng- 
gests some other original devices of his 
own, for putting within reach of all 
guests condiments and provocatives of 
appetite. This again suggests the im- 
portance of attention to the accessories 
of a banquet — especially cleanliness of 
table, dinner service, floor, hangings, 

73. hanc, after ' circumposuisse,' or 
rather, some simple verb meaning ' to 
have served.' 

faecem et allec = ' allec, faecula Coa' 
Sat. 2. 8. 9 n. The invention seems 
to be leaving them on the table during 
the meal. 

74. invenior, i. e. those who investi- 
gate it find that I was the first, etc, as 
though a history of the art were being 

written. This was the reading of V, 
and is generally given. Some good 
MSS. have ' inveni,' and others ' in- 
ventor,' both perhaps due to scholia 
such as Acron's ' primus inveni ut allec 
condito misceretur.' It is a place where 
the verb to 'invent' and its cognates 
corne naturally to the fore when one is 
thinking of the general purport, and 
not noticing the possibility of con- 

piperalbumeumsalenigro. Horace, 
or the lecturer, is pleased with the ver- 
bal contrast of colour ; and the epithets 
given, being the opposile of what would 
be generally expected, give the idea of 
special refinements of taste. White 
pepper is described by Pliny as the seed 
at an earlier stage than the black, and 
as being less pungent (N. H. 12. 14. 7). 
Black salt seems to refer to the method 
of its preparation, ibid. 31. 40. 7. 

75. incretum, from ' incerno,' ' sifted 
into them.' Notice that all the epithets 
are directed (1) to make the most of the 
invention : — it may be a small matter, 
but there are great refinements in it : 
(2) to lead to the following remarks 
on the importance of attending to mi- 
nute details. 

puris (like ' album ' and 'nigro'), an 
epithet for the eye (see on Od. 2. 7. 21), 
leads specially to what is to be said on 
scrupulous cleanliness. Cp. Od. 2.16. 
13 n. 

catillis, the dim. of 'catinus ; see 
Sat. 1. 3. 92. It seems to stand here for 
little salt-cellars. 

76. immane vitium. A playful ex- 

maeello, where the fish itself was 
bought, Sat. 2. 3. 229, and in this Satire 
v. 37 ' cara mensa.' 



Angustoque vagos pisces urgere catino. 

Magna movet stomacho fastidia, seu puer unctis 

Tractavit calicem manibus dum furta ligurrit ; 

Sive gravis veteri craterae limus adhaesit. 80 

Vilibus in scopis, in mappis, in scobe quantus 

Consistit sumptus? Neglectis flagitium ingens. 

Ten lapides varios lutulenta radere palma 

Et Tyrias dare circum inluta toralia vestes, 

Oblitum quanto curam sumptumque minorem 85 

Haec habeant, tanto reprehendi iustius illis 

Quae nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis ? ' 

Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 

Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 

Nam quamvis memori referas mihi pectore cuncta, 90 

Non tamen interpres tantundem iuveris. Adde 

Voltum habitumque hominis, quem tu vidisse beatus 

Non magni pendis, quia contigit ; at mihi cura 

77. angusto vagos. The verbal an- 
tithesis is to express the incongruity. 
To come more closely, it may be doubted 
whether 'vagos' describes the look of 
the fish 'sprawling,' 'all abroad,' on the 
dish too small for it, or (as though 
he gave a slightly ludicrous reason) 
its previous habits, with the sea to roam 
in, now cooped up where it could not 
lie at length. Cp. the picture in Sat. 2. 
8. 42 ' squillas inter murena natantes In 
patina porrecta.' 

79. dum : depends on ' unctis,' ' which 
feas become greasy whilst,' etc. Cp. the 
slave in Sat. i. 3. 80 ' patinam qui tollere 
iussus Semesos pisces tepidumque ligur- 
rierit ius.' 

80. gravis : prob. as Orelli, ' offen- 

veteri : like the epithets in vv. 83, 84 
' varios,' 'Tyrias,' to emphasize the in- 
consistency ; an old and valuable mixing- 
bowl ; but left uncleaned. 

limus, ' dried sediment.' 

81. scopis, from ' scopa,' ' brooms.' 
mappis. Here apparenlly napkins 

for the waiters. In Sat. 2. 8. 63 and 
Epp. 1. 5. 22 they are for the guests. 

seobe. Mayor on Juv. Sat. 14. 67 
shows that the sawdust (sometimes 
coloured and perfumed, sometimes of 
precious material) was slrewn on the 

floor and remained there during the 

quantus, ' how great is it'? i. e. ' is 
it a large one ' ? 

82. negleetis, abl. absol., sr.pply 'est.' 

83. ten . . . radere. See on Sat. 1.9. 
72 ' hunceine solem Tam nigrum surrexe 
mihi'? 2. 8. 66. 

lapides varios, the tessellated pave- 

palma, a broom of palm-leaves. 

84. inluta toralia: Epp. I. 5- 22 
' ne turpe toral ne sordida mappa Cor- 
ruget nares.' ' Toralia ' are of some 
washing material thrown over or round 
the permanent covers of richer stuff. 

For vestes, of the covers of couches, 
see Sat. 2. 3. 118, 2. 6. 103, 106. 

86. reprehendi, ' they are complain- 
ed of ' ; a short way of saying 'every 
carelessness about them is complained 

88-95. Horace retums to the mystery 
of v. 11, 'YVho can the great teacher 
be ? The best reporter will not make 
up for him. I must see him and learn 
the secrets of a happy life.' 

89. perges quocunque, ' whither- 
soever it be that you will go,' i. e. to 
hear some more such lectures. 

91. interpres, ' being only a re- 

LIB. II. SAT. 5. 169 

Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos 

Atque haurire queam vitae praecepta beatae. 95 

94. From Lucretius 1. 927 'iuvat lecture by speaking of it as though it 
integros accedere fontes Atque haurire,' were whatthe Epicurean philosophy was 
etc. Ile makes fun of the culinary to Lucretius. 



This practice is touched in passing in Epp. 1. 1. 77. It is described in Cicero, 
Paradox 5. 2 ' An eorum servitus dubia est, qui cupiditate peculii nullam con- 
ditionem recusant durissimae servitutis ? Hereditatis spes quid iniquitatis in ser- 
viendo non suscipit ? quem nutum locupletis orbi senis non observat ? Loquitur 
ad voluntatem : quidquid denunciatum sit, facit : assectatur, assidet, muneratur.' 
The 'orbitas' which was the temptation to it belongs to that disinclination to 
marriage and its responsibilities which was a marked feature of Roman life. See 
notes on Od. 4. 7. 19, C. S. 18-20. 

The satiiical description of the arts of a ' captator ' (v. 57) is thrown into the 
form of a burlesque continuation of the dialogue between Ulysses and the shade of 
Tiresias in Odyss. 1 1 . 

It starts with Tiresias' prophecy in v. 114 foll. 

oipl /cafcws veiai oAecras diro rrdvTas eraipovs, 
vrjos err' dWorplrjs' drjeis 5' ev irrjfxaTa o'Ikw 
dvopas vrrepcpid\ovs 01 toi fiioTov KareSovai. 

Verses 1-3. Ulysscs. — ' One more thing, Tiresias; you should tell me how to re- 

trieve my lost fortunes. Why do you laugh ? ' 
3-5. Tircsias. — ' Is it not enough for a man of your renown that you shall get safe 

home ? ' 
5-8. Ulysses. — ' The good part of your prophecy is no doubt trne ; but so is the 

bad, and I am to arrive at home stripped of all I have, and find my stores 

plundered by the suitors. What is a man without substance, even if he be a 

king or a hero ? ' 
9, 10. Tircsias. — ' It is a simple case, and may be prescribed for simply. What 

you dread is " pauperies " ; listen, and hear how to become " dives." 
10-17. Make up to some rich old man. If a delicacy is given to you, send it on 

to him — the best produce of your farm ; he must come before the household 

gods. Whatever his character and antecedents, never refuse to walk with him 

and give him the place of honour.' 
18-22. Ulysscs. ' The place of honour to Dama ! That is to belie all I ever was.' 

Tiresias. ' Very well, then you must be content to go without wealth.' 

Ulysses. ' I submit ; I have borne worse than this — only tell me, prophet, how 

to amass wealth.' 
23-26. Tiresias. ' I have told you already. Turn legacy-hunter ; don't be easily 

discouraged if one or another escapes you. 


27-44. If a case is being heard in the forum, and one party is a rich man without 

children, ask nothing more— espouse his cause — address him by his praeno- 

men — make him go home and nurse himself, and leave his case in your hands ; 

stick to it through midsummer or midwinter. Your assiduity and energy will 

attract attention and open the way to other ventures. 
45-50. Look also for a rich man with one sickly heir. It is really a safer game 

than one evidently without heirs. 
51-55. If you are offered a will to read, refuse it steadily; yet in pntting it 

from you manage to catch a side glance at the second line on the fhst page ; 

see if your name is there, and alone or with others. 
55-59. There are many slips. A Coranus will often outwit a Nasica.' 
58. Ulysses. ' What can you mean ? Are you jesting with me?' 
59-60. Tiresias. ' Do not laugh at my prophecies. They are as true as all 

61. Ulysses. ' Explain.' 
62-69. Tiresias. ' It is a tale of the days of Aeneas' great descend;int. Nasica will 

give his daughter to Coranus in the hope of a legacy which shall free him from 

debt. Coranus will hand him his will to read ; after much refusal Nasica will 

take it and find himself disappointed. 
70-S3. My further instructions. If your patron is under the nrie of some dis- 

honest dependents, make up to them. Humour his own tastes. 
S4-SS. Be warned by the story of the old woman of Thebes, who was determined 

to slip through her heirs' fingers after her death as she had not done so while 

S9-91. There are dangers on both sides : too little zeal and too much,loquacity 

and silence. 
91-98. Play the obsequious slave of the stage — watch your patron's needs and 

99-1x6. Do not drop your attentions when he is dead and you find yourself left 

with a quarter of his property. Gain credit by show of your feeling. 
107-109. Make up to one of your coheirs. 
109-110. But Proserpine summons me — I must away.' 

HOC quoque, Tiresia, praeter narrata petenti 
Responde, quibus amissas reparare queam res 
Artibus atque modis. Quid rides ? 'Iamne doloso 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi patriosque penates 
Adspicere ? ' O nulli quicquam mentite, vides ut 5 

1. praeter narrata. As we have for Ulysses iroXvTpoitos, iroXvLirjTis. It is 

seen, it is supposed to be a con- probably, as Heind. takes it, the third 

tinuation of the conversation in Odyss. person — 'to a man of craft.' Tiresias 

11. So the 'amissas res ' in v. 2 affects surprise that a man of such re- 

refer to the prophecy of v. 114 quoted source should show such lack of self- 

above. dependence. 

3. quid rides ? He sees a smile on 5. nulli quicquam mentite : perhaps 

Tiresias' face. Tiresias proceeds to ex- in remembrance of the description of 

plain it. Tiresias in Soph. Antig. 1092 emard- 

iam, 77877, ' Is this what we have come tieaOa ... //77 7rci7roT' avrov xpevbos es 

to?' iru\iv XaKetv, Oed. R. 298 fxdvTiv . . . 

doloso, a trans. of Homer's epithets w | TaXrjOh efnre<pvKev dvOpwnwv fxdvw. 

LIB. II. SAT. 5. 


Nudus inopsque domum redcam, te vate, neque illic 
Aut apotheca procis intacta est aut pecus ; atqui 
Et genus et virtus nisi cum re vilior alga est. 
' Ouando pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 
Accipe qua ratione queas ditescere. Turdus 
Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi, devolet illuc 
Res ubi magna nitct domino sene ; dulcia poma 
Et quoscunque feret cultus tibi fundus honores 
Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives ; 
Qui quamvis periurus erit, sine gente, cruentus 
Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus, ne tamen illi 
Tu comes exterior si postulet ire recuses.' 


6. te vate, Epod. 16.66; 'according 
to your prophecy ' ; i. e. in Odyss. 11. 


7. apotheca, 'storeroom,' and especi- 
ally the room upstairs, and often con- 
nected with the chimney, where wine 
was stored. See on Od. 3. 8. 11, 3. 21.7, 
3. 28. 7 (k is called there 'horreum'). 
Cp. Cic. Phil. 2. 27. 67. 

8. vilior alga, a proverbial com- 
parison. Virg. Ecl. 7. 42 ' proiecta vilior 
alga': cp. Od. 3. 17. 10 ' alga inutili.' 

9. missis ambagibus. These words 
are best taken neither (as the Schol. 
followed by Orelli, but against tl.e 
natural order) with ' accipe,' nor (as 
Heind.) with ' horres,' but with the 
whole sentence : ' Let us use plainness 
of speech.' It apologizes for the blunt- 
ness of describing what Ulysses dreads 
as ' pauperies,' and what he seeks as 
'ditesctre.' These words occupy the 
emphatic places. ' Pauperies ' has in 
Horace's langunge almost a technical 
sense; see on Od. 1. 1. iS, Epp. 1. 1.45. 
The word transfers the question from the 
heroic age to the age of the poet. 'The 
complaint is the very one so dreaded in 
our Koman society, the prescription may 
well be the same which it adopts.' 

10. turdus, ' obeso Nil melius lurdo ' 
Epp. 1. 15. 41 . For the om. of ' sive ' 
before'turdus'see on Od. 1.3. 16, 1.6. 19. 

11. privum (Epp. 1. 1. 93), to be 
taken with dabitur, for ' your own pecu- 
liar eating.' It is a phrase of Lucilius. 

devolet : a humorous adaptation to 
the first-named present. 

12. poma. Cp. Epp. 1. 1. 78 'suntqui 
Frustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras.' 

13. honores : see on Od. 1. 17. 16 

' ruris honorum,' i. e. fruit, flowers, etc. 

14. anteLarem,i.e.the LaresKurales, 
who guarded the interests of the husband- 
man, and to whom offerings were made 
of his produce. See an excellent note 
by Prof. G. G. Ramsay on Tibullus 1. 1. 
20. ' Consuetudo fuit ut rerum primitias 
Laribus ponerent ' Porph. 

15. sine gente : either because he is 
of servile origin or because he hasbecome 
' capite deminutus.' 

16. fugitivus, one who has never 
even, legitimately, obtained his freedom ; 
cp. Sat. 1. 5. 66. 

17. exterior, i. e. as the Schol. 
explains, ' on the left side,' which is that 
on which a walker is more defenceless. 
To take the left hand of a companion 
was called 'latus claudere' Juv. S. 3. 131, 
or, as here, ' tegere ' ; cp. Suet. Claud. 
24, where it is used of an act of con- 
descension of Claudius towards his friend 
Plautius. Eutropius, relating the same 
incident, uses the phrase ' laevus ince- 
deret.' Ovid has the correlative ' interior ' 
in speaking of two men walking lo- 
gether, Fast. 5. 67. 

si postulet : not ' ask you to take 
that position,' but 'ask you to walk 
abroad with him.' If he asked it would be 
assumed that he did so as the supeiior. 

ne recuses. See note on Sat. 2. 3. 88. 
This is, if the text is sound, an instance 
of the pres. subj. in prohibition which 
does not admit, as possibly that does, 
of being explained away. Those who, 
on such grounds, are ready to alter texts 
may perhaps accept the reading of the 
St. Gall MS. (<t) ' non,' comparing v. 91 
of this Satire ' non sileas ' ; but it seems 
safer to allow that Iiorace, who has 




2 5 

Utne tegam spurco Damae latus? Haud ita Troiae 

Me gessi certans semper melioribus. ' Ergo 

Pauper eris.' Fortem hoc animum tolerarc iubebo ; 

Et quondam maiora tuli. Tu protinus unde 

Divitias aerisque ruam dic, augur, acervos. 

' Dixi equidem et dico : captes astutus ubique 

Testamenta senum, neu, si vafer unus et alter 

Insidiatorem praeroso fugerit hamo, 

Aut spem deponas aut artem illusus omittas. 

Magna minorve foro si res certabitur olim, 

Vivet uter locuples sine natis, improbus, ultro 

Oui meliorem audax vocet in ius, illius esto 

Defensor ; fama civem causaque priorem 30 

Sperne, domi si natus erit fecundave coniux. 

" Quinte," puta, aut " Publi," (gaudent praenomine molles 

Auriculae) " tibi me virtus tua fecit amicum ; 

Ius anceps novi, causas defendere possum ; 

Eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi, quam te 35 

Contemptum cassa nuce pauperct ; haec mea cura est, 

Plautus and Terence at his finger tips, 
returned, at least in this instance, to a 
freeclom habitual with them, as he does 
in Sat. 2.4. 38, in the case of the indic. 
in an indirect question. See also note 
on v. S9 of this Satire. 

18. utne tegam. Madv. § 353, obs. 
It is an analogous constr. to the in- 
dignant use of the infinitive with a ques- 
tion, as in Sat. 2. 4. 83. Cp. also the 
exclamatory use of ' ne ' (/ qui ne ') in 
Sat. 1. 10. 21. 

Damae, inf. v. 101 ; a frequent name 
with Horace for a slave : Sat. 1. 6. 38, 
2. 7. 54 ; cp. Fers. S. 5. 78. It is said to 
be an abbreviation of ' Demetrius.' 

19. melioribus : prob. asProf Palmer 
suggests, a Homeric echo, Kpdooooiv 
J<pi ( II. 21. 4S6, etc. 

20. tolerare iubebo. etc. afterHomer's 
Ttr\a0i 5?) KpaoiTj' ical /a v Tipov aAAo ttot' 
(tXtjs Odyss. 20. 18. 

22. ruam, of making a heap, as in 
Virg. Aen. 11. 211 ' coniusa ruebant ossa 

augur, the Roman equivalent of 
fxavTts. See on Od. 1. 2. 32. 

25. praeroso hamo, ' having bitten 
the bait off the hook ' ; having accepted 
your presents without being induced by 

them to alter his will. 

27. res certabitur. Cp. Sat. 2. 1. 
49 ' si quid certes.' The cogn. accus. 
has become the subject of the verb in 
the passive. 

28. uter, the rel. of which ' illius ' is 
the antecedent, 'whichever of the two 
.... take his side.' 

improbus answers to ' fama priorem,' 
and so is to be repeated from the follow- 
ing words, ' though he be disreputable, 
though,' etc. 

ultro, ' wantonly,' ' with no case.' 

32. puta, ' suppose,' ' let us say.' It 
is parenthetical. 

gaudent praenomine. The slave on 
manumission received a ' praenomen.' 
To be addressed by it would be a plea- 
sure at once as a sign of familiarity and 
as sinking the old name with its associa- 
tions. Cp. Pers. S. 5. 7S ' Verterit hunc 
dominus, momento turbinis exit Marcus 
Dama, papae ! Marco spondente recusas 
Credere tu nummos? Marco sub iudice 
palles ? Marcus dixit, ita est,' etc. 

molles, ' sensitive.' 

34. ius anceps, ' the law with its am- 
biguities.' Cp. 'vafri iuris' Sat. 2. 2. 131. 

36. contemptum : ' despise you and 
rob you.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 5. 


Ne quid tu perdas neu sis iocus." Ire domum atque 

Pelliculam curare iube ; fi cognitor ipse, 

Persta atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findet 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso 

Furius hibernas cana nive conspuet Alpes. 

Nonne vides, aliquis cubito stantem prope tangens 

Inquiet, ut patiens, ut amicis aptus, ut acer ? 

Plures adnabunt thunni et cetaria crescent. 

Si cui praeterea validus male filius in re 

Praeclara sublatus aletur, ne manifestum 

Caelibis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spem 

Adrepe officiosus, ut et scribare secundus 



cassa nuce, ' a nutshell.' The great 
preponderance of MSS., including all 
the Bland., read ' quassa.' I venture to 
retain ' cassa ' with Orelli and Munro, 
as it seems to be purely a question of 
spelling, and the MSS. of Plautus (who 
has ' cassa nux' Ps. I. 3. 137, ' cassa 
glans ' Rud. 5. 2. 37) give 'cassa.'' 
However spelt, it seems not to be con- 
nected with ' quatio ' but to be the adj. 
which Cicerouses(Tusc. D. 5. 41. 119) as 
a syn. for 'inanis,' which Virgil (Aen. 2. 
85, etc.) constructs with an abl. and 
which we know in the compound ' in- 

37. iocus, 'an object of mirth,' as 
' risus' in Sat. 2. 2. 107. 

38. pelliculam curare. So 'cutem 
curare ' Epp. 1. 2. 29, 1. 4. 15. It is a 
more orless contemptuous expression for 
' making oneself comfortable.' Observ- 
ing the distinction, noted on Epod. 1 7. 
22, between ' pellis ' and ' cutis ' as well 
as the diminutive, we may take the ex- 
pression here as containing an additional 
shade of contempt (' his precious hide'). 

cognitor : in the technical sense, the 
fully authorized representative of one of 
the parties to a suit. 

39. seu . . . seu. The ridiculous 
description of the heat of summer, 
' splitting the poor dumb statues,' is 
evidently (as Heind. pointed out) a 
parody, very possibly from the same 
tasteless poet as the following descrip- 
tion of the cold of winter. 

40. pingui tentus omaso : Epp. 1. 
15. 34 ' patinas cenabat omasi ' ; as 
though the coarseness of taste in his 
metaphors were connected with coarse- 
ness of taste in his feeding. 

41. Furius. See on Sat. 1. 10. 36. 
The Scholiasts' note on this place is 
' Furius Vivaculus (Bibaculus) in prag- 
matia (Trpnyixareia, ' a narrative poem') 
belli Gallici, Iuppiter hibernas cana nive 
conspuit Alpes ' ; a line which Quintilian 
(8. 6. 17) quotes, without naming the 
author, as an instance of a harsh meta- 

42. Those who see you will notice to 
one another your zeal for your friend, 
and you will catch some more rich fools 
to make your prey. 

prope, with ' stantem,' ' his next 

cubito tangens, ' nudging.' Pers. S. 
4. 34 ' est prope te ignotus cubito qui 

43. amicis aptus, ' at his friends' 

44. Cp. Epp. 1. 1. 79 ' excipiantque 
senes quos in vivaria mittant.' It is to 
be noticed how Horace plays round the 
metaphor suggested by the habitual 
phrases ' captare testamenta' (v. 24), 
' captator ' (v. 57). 

45. validus male, as 'male sanos ' 
Epp. 1. 19. 3. Notice the antithesis 
expressing the advantage on both sides, 
' a sickly heir,' ' a splendid property.' 

46. sublatus aletur, ' shall have been 
born and be being reared.' 

47. caelibis, the ' locuples sine 
natis ' of v. 28, the obj. gen. after 
' obsequium.' 

nudet te, ' expose your purpose.' Sat. 
2. 8. 74. 

48. officiosus : by the fulness of your 

48, 49. ut et . . . et. Difficulty has 
been felt in the sharp distinction between 



Heres et, si quis casus puerum egerit Orco, 

In vacuum venias : perraro haec alea fallit. 50 

Oui testamentum tradet tibi cunque legendum, 

Abnuere et tabulas a te removere memento. 

Sic tamen ut limis rapias quid prima secundo 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne coheres, 

Veloci percurre oculo. Plerumque recoctus 55 

Scriba ex quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 

Captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano.' 

Num furis? an prudens ludis me obscura canendo? 

' O Laertiade, quicquid dicam aut erit aut non : 

Divinare etenim magnus mihi donat Apollo.' 60 

Ouid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 

' Tempore quo iuvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto 

the two clauses which the repetition of 
' et ' implies, for ' heres secundus ' seems 
to mean what was legally called ' heres 
substitutus,' i.e. a person named to 
receive the inheritance in default of the 
first-named heir (• institutus '). Heind., 
noticing that a few MSS. give ' ut ' 
without ' et,' wished to read for ' ut et ' 
' uti,' the second clause then only ex- 
plaining the first. Very probably how- 
ever Schiitz is right in taking the two 
clau^es of two distinct wills, the suppo- 
sition being that the sickly boy dies 
before his father and the legacy-hunter 
fills the gap, by being made first heir 
in a fresh will. 

49. Orco : for dat. see on Od. i. 24. 

50. alea. It is a hazard, a playing 
for chances, as contrasted with the 
simpler process of making up in the 
first instance to a childless man, but it 
is a hazard that seldom disappoints. 

51. quicunque, (as often) = ' when- 
ever any one.' 

53. limis, sc. 'oculis,' 'by a side 

prima cera, which Juvenal (S. 4. 19) 
calls ' praecipua cera ' ; the will is sup- 
posed to be written on several waxed 

secundo versu, ' the second line ' ; 
the first would contain the testator's 
name. It is implied that the second 
would contain the name of the legatee. 

55. plerumque, ' very often.' See 
on Sat. 1. 10. 15. 

recoctus scriba ex quinqueviro. 
A commissioner who has gone into the 
melting pot and come out as a clerk. 
Cicero uses ' quinquevir ' as the title of 
one of the humblest of public officers, 
Acad. Prior. 2. 44 ' neminem consulem 
praetorem imperatorem, nescio an ne 
quinquevirum quidem quenquam nisi 
sapientem.' Acommission of five, perhaps 
the one intended, had charge of the 
night police. The purpose of the 
description is not apparent. Possibly, 
as some editors think, it means that he 
was a man whose antecedents made it 
unlikely that he should be taken in. 
But it may be only personal, and beyond 
our power (as indeed the story is) wholly 
to unriddle. 

56. corvum hiantem. The raven in 
Aesop's fable ( Phaedr. 1. 13) opened its 
mouth at the fox's flattery to sing and 
dropped the cheese. Horace is referring 
to this fable, but as nsually is the case 
with his reference to fables, to a single 
point in it. 

59. It seems clear that Horace is 
parodying the ambiguous utterance of 
an ancient oracle. ' Iocatur in ambigua 
responsa ' Schol. The words might 
mean to Tiresias ' will be ; if so I have 
said) or will not be (if so I have said),' 
but they would also bear and were meant 
to bear the safe meaning ' either will be 
or will not be.' 

62. iuvenis. Od. 1. 2. 41 n. 

alto : Od. 3. 4. 37 n. Cp. Virg. Aen. 
6. 500 ' genus alto a sanguine Teucri.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 5. 175 

Demissum genus Aenea, tcllure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

Filia Nasicae metuentis reddere soldum. 65 

Tum gener hoc faciet : tabulas socero dabit atque 

Ut legat orabit ; multum Nasica negatas 

Accipiet tandem et tacitus leget, invenietque 

Nil sibi legatum praeter plorare suisque. 

Illud ad haec iubco : mulier si forte dolosa 70 

Libertusve senem delirum temperet, illis 

Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut absens. 

Adiuvat hoc quoque ; sed vincit longe prius ipsum 

Expugnare caput. Scribet mala carmina vecors : 

Laudato. Scortator erit : cave te roget ; ultro 75 

Penelopam facilis potiori trade.' Putasne? 

Perduci poterit tam frugi tamque pudica, 

Ouem nequiere proci recto depeliere cursu? 

'Venit enim magnum donandi parca iuventus, 

Nec tantum Veneris, quantum studiosa culinae. 80 

Sic tibi Penelope frugi est, qui si semel uno 

De sene gustarit tecum partita lucellum, 

Ut canis a corio nunquam absterrebitur uncto. 

Me sene quod dicam factum est : anus improba Thebis 

63. demissum : Virg. G. 3. 35 'de- 67. multum, as Epp. 1. 3. 15 ' mon- 

missaeque ab Iove gentis,' id. Aen. 1. 288. itus multumque monendus.' 

genus, of a single descendant, as 69. praeter plorare, x^V'* T0 " 

' Valeri genus' Sat. 1. 6. 12. Cp. Od. 1. icXaUiv. It may be doubted whether 

3. 27, and Virg. Aen. 6. 500, just quoted. ' praeter ' is used here as a preposition, 

65. metuentis : shrinking from as the infinitive being treated as an 

from something to be avoidedif possible. accusative in government after it, or 

soldum, his debt in full, as Cicero, rather as an adv. = ' praeterquam ' ; see 

Rab. Post. 17. 46 ' ita bona veneant ut Madv. § 172. III. obs. 2. 

solidum cuique solvatur.' Some edd. suisque. Even his daughter has got 

imagine the debt to be money bor- nothing by the sacrifice. 

rowed of Coranus, which he hopes to 70. illud : Sat. 2. 3. 1 50 n. 

be excused, in return for his daughter; 71. delirum, ' doting,' as usually in 

others think of him as generally in- Cicero, ' senex ' de Or. 2. 18. 75, ' anus ' 

debted and hoping for a legacy to de Div. 2. 68. 142, Tusc. D. 1. 21. 48. 

put him straight. The story and per- temperet, ' rule.' 

sonages are apparently familiar (notice 84. me sene. Prof. Palmer points 

e.g. the epilhet ' procera,' which adds out the play by which Tiresias, speaking 

nothing to the scene as an ideal one) as a shade, is made to refer back to his 

and needed no explanation. In his old age in the actual way that a living 

wider circle of readers Horace is content person says ' me puero,' etc. He speaks 

to leave much to the imagination, which in character and lays the scene of the 

will fill in the details variously. For story at Thebes. The edd. show that 

the syncopated form ' soldum ' see on Od. Roman jurisprudence discouraged foolish 

1. 36. 8. and malicious instructions as to the 



Ex testamento sic est elata: cadaver 
Unctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit heres, 
Scilicet elabi si posset mortua ; credo 
Ouod nimium institerat viventi. Cautus adito : 
Neu desis operae neve immoderatus abundes. 
Difficilem et morosum offendet garrulus ; ultro 
Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus atque 
Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti. 
Obsequio grassare ; mone, si increbruit aura, 
Cautus uti velet carum caput ; extrahe turba 
Oppositis humeris ; aurem substringe loquaci. 
Importunus amat laudari ; donec Ohe ! iam 
Ad caelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urge, 




testator's sepulture ; but this indicates 
that such instructions were not uncom- 
mon. Whether the present story is 
more than a caricature we cannot pro- 

improba, dvaiSrjs. 

87. scilicet, explaining her motive in 
the condition. 

si, 'to see if she could.' There was 
a variant in V, ' ut sic,' possible, but 
more likely to be a gloss than ' si.' 

89. neu desis . . . neve abundes. 
It is possible to take these as final or 
interpretative clauses after the previous 
imperative, but it is simpler to take them 
independently. See on v. 17 of this 

abundes is used absolutely, but an 
abl. or gen. of respect can be supplied 
in sense from ' operae,' ' be unmeasured 
and overfiowing in your zeal.' 

90. difficilem : A. P. 1 73. 
morosum : Od. 1. 9. 18 'morosa 

canities,' ' moody.' Cicero couples the 
two adjectives, Orat. 29. 

ultro, sc. ' quam ut garrulitatem vites.' 

91. non sileas. The form of the 
advice is softened to a potential ; but 
here as in the somewhat similar cases 
with the third person (Epp. 1. 18. 72, 
Virg. G. 3. 140, Aen. 12. 78 ; see Wag- 
ner's note there, and cp. Drager, Hist. 
Syntax 1. p. 2 86), there is a speeial em- 
phasis on the negative giving it a stronger 
fbrce of contrast. 'Be cautious, etc, 
. . . but this does not mean that you 
will go into the other extreme and be 

Davus comicus : 'the Davus (i.e. the 

slave) of the comic stage.' So ' comicus ' 
Cic. Rosc. Am. 16. 47. Cp. 'tragicus 
Telephus ' A. P. 95. Davus is the name 
of Horace's own slave in Sat. 7, who is 
there represented (except during the Sa- 
turnalia) as ' multum similis metuenti ' ; 
see vv. 1,2. We do not know of any 
reference to a special comedy. 

92. capite obstipo, 'benthead.' Pers. 
S. 3. 80 ' obstipo capite et figentes 
lumine terram.' 

multum, with ' similis,' as ' multum 
dissimiles ' Epp. 1. 10. 3. 

93. grassare, ' proceed,' ' make your 
approaches,' as frequently in Livy, ' iure 
non vi grassari ' 3. 44, etc. 

increbruit : ' has freshened.' Cic. 
ad Fam. 7. 20. 3 ' ventus increbrescit/ 
Virg. A. 3. 530 ' crebrescunt aurae.' 

95. substringe. Itisdoubtfulwhether 
the expression is litcral, of the actual 
attitude of a hearer who is rather deaf 
or fears to miss a word, holding the ear 
with his hand below it, or metaphorical, 
as Quintil. 10. 5. 4 ' effusa substringere,' 
' hold your ear fast,' i. e. do not allow 
your attention to wander ; ' subiunge, 
patienter audi ' Schol. 

96. importunus amat : ' is eager in 
season and out of season.' 

Ohe. Pers. S. 1. 23 ' dicas cute per- 
ditus, Ohe ! ' The fuller phrase is ' Ohe 
iam satis est ' Sat. 1. 5. 12. Orelli and 
others make ' ohe iam ! ' the exclamation ; 
but the quotation from Persius makes 
for ' ohe ! ' ' Iam ' then qualifies 'dixerit ' ; 
' till he already shall lift his hands to 
heaven and cry " hold !" ; 

LIB. II. SAT. 5. 


Crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrem. 

Cum te servitio longo curaque levarit, 

Et certum vigilans, Quartae SIT PARTIS Ulixes, 100 

Audieris, HERES : ' Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 

Nusquam est? Unde mihi tam fortem tamque fidelem ? ' 

Sparge subinde, et, si paulum potes, illacrimare : est 

Gaudia prodentem voltum celare. Sepulcrum 

Permissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstrue ; funus 105 

Egregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quis 

Forte coheredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 

Dic, ex parte tua seu fundi sive domus sit 

Emptor, gaudentem nummo te addicere. Sed me 

Imperiosa trahit Proserpina ; vive valeque.' 110 

98. utrem : the more you see the 
bladder swell. ply the more the bellows 
of flattery. Cp. a similar metaphor in 
Sat. 1.4 19. 

100. certum vigilans. With the cer- 
tainty that you are not dreaming. Ovid 
has the opposite, ' incertum vigilans ' 
Her. 10. 9. 

quartae partis : the technical phrase 
would be ' ex quadrante.' 

101. audieris, for the long Is see on 
Sat. 2. 2. 74. 

ergo : Od. i. 24. 5. 
Dama : so he has called the rich man 
in v. iS. 

102. nusquam est. In Greek it 
would be ovtcer' kariv. Cicero, Tusc. 
D. 1. 6. 11 (of the dead) ' ubi ergo sunt, 
quos miseros dicis ?...'' Ego vero nus- 
quam esse illos puto.' ' Igitur ne esse 
quidem.' ' Prorsus isto modo.' 

unde tam fortem : for the ellipse 
cp. Sat. 2. 7. 116 ' unde mihi lapidem? ' 

103. sparge subinde : Virg. Aen. 

2. 98 ' spargere voces in volgum ' ; ' let 
fall froni time to time ' such utterances 
as the two just given. 

illaerimare, imper. deponent. 

est, e£eoTi : Epod. 17. 25, Epp. 
1. 1. 32. 

105. permissum arbitrio,'if it is left 
to your discretion.' 

108. sit emptor, ' should he wish to 
be a purchaser.' 

1 09. nummo te addicere, ' that you 
gladly knock it down to him for a ses- 
terce,' i. e. make it his at a nominal 
price. Cic. pro Rab. Post. 17. 45 ' Ec- 
quis est qui bona C. Rabirii Postumi 
nummo sestertio sibi addici velit ? ' 

110. imperiosa, ewaivrj Xlepoe<pvveia. 
' Saeva' Od. 1. 28. 20. It is Persephone 
who sends and withdraws the shades 
that visit Ulysses in Odyss. 11. vv. 47, 
213, 226, 385, etc. 

vive valeque, a Roman farewell ; 
Epp. 1. 6. 67. 






Verses 1-5. In my Sabine farm I have got just what I longed for ; and more than 

that, I have nothing more to ask for. 
6-15. My prayers are the acceptable prayers of honesty, soberness, and content- 

16-19. Here then is the first theme for my satiric muse, my happy mountain home, 

and the contrast with the vexations and dangers of the city. 
20-26. Janus, god of the morning as of all beginnings, let us record a day in 

Rome from its beginning. First you summon me in hot haste, in any weather, 

to give surety for a friend. 
27-31. YVhen that dangerous business is over I have to fight my way through the 

streets. ' What are you about,' cries angrily one whom I have jostled, ' in such 

a hurry to keep an engagement again with Maecenas ? ' 
32-39. Ay, there is the sweetening of town life to me, but I cannot even go to 

Maecenas' house in peace. As I get near it one waylays me to remind me 

that Roscius claims my attendance in the Forum to-morrovv. Another that the 

scribes want me to-day. Another desires Maecenas' signature and I must 

get it for him. If I promise to do my best he thinks I am putting him off. 
40-49. That is the way with my friendship for Maecenas. All these (nearly) eight 

years it has been misunderstood, the object of remark and of envy. 
50-58. I am catechized about state secrets, and thought a wonderful man for not 

revealing what I do not know. 
59-67. So a day is wasted in Rome. YVhat wonder if I sigh for the country, for 

my books, my siesta, my simple supper : 
67-76. amongst friends and home-bred slaves, no ceremony, no gossip, but talk 

on things of moment, the nature of happiness, the grounds of friendship, the 

end of life. 
77-1 11. My neighbour, Cervius, has always one of his simple stories which just 

hits the point. For instance, if any one is rash enough to speak admiringly 

of the wealth of Arellius, he will tell the fable of the town mouse and the 

country mouse. 

The Satire is of great importance in fixing the chronology of Horace's life and 
writings. If it can be dated itself it fixes (v. 40) the date of his admission to 
Maecenas' intimacy, and so gives a starting-point for dating most of the Satires of 
Book I. Three indications of date seem to be given in the Satire, in vv. 38 and 
55, 56. For their full discussion see Introduction to the Satires, pp. 2-4. 

HOC erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnns, 
Hortus ubi et tecto vicinus iugis aquae fons 

1. Hoe : this that follows, ' modus modus agri : Juv. S. 14. 172. 

agri,' etc. non ita magnus, ' not so very large,' 

erat in votis, was a subject of my i. e. ' of moderate size.' 

prayers. Cf. Epp. 1. 11. 5 ' venit in 2. iugis, with ' aquae,' as Epp. 1. 

votum.' Persius has ' erat in voto ' 3. 49. 15. 16. 

LIB. II. SAT. 6. 


Et paulum silvae super his foret. Auctius atque 

Di melius fecere. Bene est. Nil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 5 

Si neque maiorem feci ratione mala rem 

Nec sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

Si veneror stultus nihil horum : ' O si angulus illc 

Proximus accedat qui nunc denormat agellum ! 

O si urnam argenti fors quae mihi monstret, ut illi 10 

Thesauro invento qui mercenarius agrum 

Illum ipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico 

Hercule ! ' ; si quod adest gratum iuvat, hac prece te oro : 

Pingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter 

3. paulum silvae. Cf. Od. 3. 16. 29. 
Schiitz reminds us of his words ' Scrip- 
torum chorus omnis amat nemus ' Epp. 
2. 2. 77 ; cp. Od. 1. 1. 30. 

super his, ' besides these.' 

4. bene est, ' I am content.' It is 
used with a dat. in Od. 3. 16. 43, Epp. 
1. 1. 89. 

5. Maia nate. Mercury is the luck- 
bringer. We are not to think here of 
the special ground on which Horace 
claimed his patronage, somewhat latcr, 
as the god of the lyre ; Od. 2. 7. 13, 2. 
17. 29. 

propria, ' my own,' in the sense that 
they are not to be taken away again : so 
Od. 2. 2. 22, Virg. Ecl. 7. 31 ' Si pro- 
prium hoc fuerit.' 

6. si. ' If, as is the case,' the apodosis 
being in v. 13 ' hac prece te oro' ; a form 
used in prayers ; cp. Od. 3. 18. 1-5. 

7. vitio culpave : ' culpa ' includes 
errors in judgment. Ov. Trist. 4. 1. 24 
' Et culpam in facto, non scelus, esse 

8. veneror nihil horum. ' Veneror,' 
in the sense of ' to offer prayers,' is used 
(1) most commonly, with obj. accus. 
of the deity addressed, as in Virg. G. 
1. 338 ' in primis venerare deos.' (2) 
With both an obj. accus. and an 'ut-' 
clause, or jussive or optative subj. or a 
cogn. accus. of the prayer or wish, as 
Plaut. Aul. prol. 8 ' venerans me ut id 
servarem sibi,' Virg. A. 3. 33 ' Nymphas 
venerabar agrestes Rite secundarent 
visus ' ; cp. Hor. Sat. 2. 2. 124, Caecin. 
apud Cic. Fam. 6. 7. 2 ' Multa deos 
venerati sint contra suam salutem.' Cp. 
Hor. C. S. 49 n. (3) As here, with a 


cogn. accus. only. The sense of 'to 
pray,' ' to express a wish,' seems to have 
been (cp. the instances from Plautus in 
Forc.) historically prior to that of ' to 
reverence,' as it is etymologically the 
original one, if the root is the same as 
that of ' Venus ' (' desire '). 

stultus, with 'veneror,' so that it falls 
nnder the negative of ' nihil,' ' I offer no 
snch foolish prayer.' 

9. denormat, spoils its regularity. 

10. illi qui mereenarius, an in- 
stance of the attraction of which Horace 
is fond ; cp. Sat. 2. 2. 59 ' Cuius odorem 
olei nequeas perferre,' and see on Epod. 
2. 37 ' to the hired labourer who,' etc. 
Horace seems to be referring to some 
well-known story. We are reminded of 
the parable of the treasure hid in a field 
of St. Matt. 13. 44. With the wish cp. 
Persius' imitation, 2. 10 'O si Sub rastro 
crepet argenti mihi seria, dextro Her- 
cule ' ! which passage see Conington's 
note) also illustrates the reference to 
Hercules as the giver of treasure- 
trove. For this see the full note 
of Ramsay's on Plautus' Mostellaria, 
4. 3. 45. Mommsen (Rom. Hist. B. I. 
ch. 12) thinks there was a confusion of 
the Greek Heracles with the Sabellian 
Herculus or Hercules, the god of the 
homestead and so of property generally. 

13. quod adest : Od. 3. 29 32. It is 
questioned, but it is difficult to decide, 
whether 'gratum' is the acc. masc. or 
the nom. neut. ' Iuvat ' is used abso- 
lutely in v. 32. 

14. pingue, with a play on its sense 
of 'stupid;' Sat. 1. 3. 38, Epp. 2. 1. 



Ingenium, utque soles custos mihi maximus adsis. 
Ergo ubi me in montes et in arcem ex urbe removi, 
Quid prius illustrem satiris musaque pedestri ? 
Nec mala me ambitio perdit nec plumbeus Auster 
Autumnusque gravis, Libitinae quaestus acerbae. 
Matutine pater, seu, Iane, libentius audis, 
Unde homines operum primos vitaeque laborcs 
Instituunt, sic dis placitum, tu carminis esto 
Principium. Romae sponsorem me rapis : ' Eia, 
Ne prior officio quisquam respondeat, urge.' 
Sive Aquilo radit terras seu bruma nivalem 
Interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. 



16. in montes et in arcem : see 
Od. 2. 6. 22 n., my mountainstrongbold, 
safe retreat. 

17. satiris : Sat. 2. 1. 1. See Introd. 
to Satires, p. 0. 

musa pedestri : see on Od. 2. 12. 9, 
and cp. A. P. 95 ; and with the de- 
scription ofhis Satires as ' prose-poetry ' 
cp. Sat. 1. 4. 42, 48 ' sermoni propiora,' 
' nisi quod certo Sermoni differt, sermo 
merus,' and Epp. 2. 1. 250 ' sermones 
. . . repentes per humum.' 

18. ambitio, the pretentious and 
pushing life of the city. Horace speaks 
here as if in Rome he could not keep 
quite clear of it. In Sat. 1. 6. 129 he 
classes himself as one ' solutorum misera 
ambitione gravique.' Orelli quotes 
()vid's pretty line, Met. 11. 765 ' Se- 
cretos montes et inambitiosa colebat 

plumbeus Auster : of the depressir.g 
effect of the scirocco : Od. 2. 14. 16. 

19. Libitinae : Od. 3. 30. 7, Epp. 2. 
1. 49, the goddess who presides over the 
funeral rites, so that the sense is the same 
as Epp. 1. 7. 5 ' fieus prima calorque 
Dissignatorem decorat lictoribus atris.' 

quaestus, ' a source of gain to.' 

20. The commencement is mock 
heroic. He proceeds ' illustrare ruris 
felicitatem ' by painting the troubles of 
life in Rome. The form is as Virg. Ecl. 
3. 60 ' ab Iove principium,' Theoc. 17. 1 
iic Aius dpxajfj.eo6a, Arat. Phaen. 1 !* 
Aids 6p\wp.ia9a : cp. Od. I. 12. 13. 

matutine pater, ' sire, god of the 
morning.' The Roman conception of 
Ianus as the god of beginnings, en- 
trances, undertakings, is described in 
Ovid, Fast. 1. 63 foll. He was wor- 

shipped at the beginning of the year, 
the month, the day. 

Iane, audis. For the use of ' audire,' 
like the Gr. aKovttv, in the sense of ' to 
be named,' cp. Sat. 2. 7. 101, Epp. 1. 7. 
38, 1. 16. 17. For the vocative ' Iane ' 
cp. Od. 2. 20. 6n. ' quem vocas, dilecte." 
It is the actual addrcss which the god 
would ' hear.' It is helped by the pre- 
ceding vocative as though it were ' vel 
Iane, si id libentius audis.' 

21. unde = ' a quo,' Od. 1. 12. 17 n. 

23. sponsorem. So in the list of 
distractions for a poet in Rome, Epp. 2. 
2.67 ' Hic sponsum vocat.' Ianus is 
said to ' hurry him off to be surety for 
a friend,' with the meaning that this is 
the first occupation of his morning. 

eia . . . urge, the words with which 
Ianus presses him. For ' eia ' cp. Sat. 
1. 1. 18 n. 

24. urge. We are not to understand a 
personal object ; the true parallel of the 
use (as Schiitz points out) is the con- 
struction ' urgere opus,' ' to push 011 
a work ' ; for ' opus ' is substituted the 
obj.-clause ' ne prior . . . quisquam,' etc, 
' be instant that none be before you,' 
etc. Cp. Od. 2. iS. 10 n. 

omcio respondeat, as Cic. ' officio 
satisfacere,' to fulfil an expected service. 

25. ' However cold the wfnd or dark 
the mornings.' 

26. interiore . . . gyro : a smaller 
circle, the arc traversed apparently by the 
sun growing smaller from day to day. 

trahit, best taken with the Seholiasts 
as = ' breviorem facit,' 'contrahit'; cp. 
Lucr. 6. 967 ' coria et carnem trahit et 
conducit in unum.' It is also explained 
of making the day come slowly. 

LIB. II. SAT. 6. 


Postmodo quod mi obsit clare certumquc locuto, 

Luctandum in turba et facienda iniuria tardis. 

' Ouid vis, insane, et quas res agis?' improbus urget 

Iratis precibus ; ' tu pulses omne quod obstat, 

Ad Maecenatem memori si mente recurras ? ' 

Hoc iuvat et melli est ; non mentiar. At simul atras 

Ventum est Esquilias aliena negotia centum 

Per caput et circa saliunt latus. ' Ante secundam 


27. postmodo quod mi obsit, ' to 
my own harm presently,' i. e. if my 
friend, for whom I have given security, 
plays false. ' Postmodo ' has been also 
taken with ' luctandum,' ' presently,' i.e. 
as I go home from court ; but cp. 
Od. 1. 28. 31 ' nocitnram postmodo te 

clare certumque. Palmer suggests 
very probably that these words were 
part of the formula in which the 
' sponsor ' was called upon to give his 

29. quid vis, insane. The words 
of the ' tardus ' whom Horace has 
elbowed. Most of the best MSS. 
have ' Quid tibi vis,' which makes the 
line unmetrical. Bentley pointed out 
that this rather than ' quid vis ' was 
the usual phrase (cp. especially Propert. 
*• 5- 3 ' Quid tibi vis, insane?' and 
Pers. S. 5. 143 ' quo deinde, insane, ruis? 
quo ? Quid tibi vis ? '). He therefore 
wished to accept it, and to emend the 
verse by reading ' quam rem ' for ' quas 
res,' quoting many instances of ' quam 
rem agis ' from the comic writers. 
It is of course quite possible on the 
other side that the fact that ' quid tibi 
vis ' was the commoner phrase led to the 
early corruplion. Several MSS., read- 
ing ' quid tibi vis,' otherwise emend the 
line, some omitting ' agis,' others omit- 
ting ' et/ and putting ' insane ' after ' agis.' 

30. preeibus, i.e. ' imprecations.' 
Epod. 5. 86 ; cp. Sat. 2. 3. 203 ' mala 
multa precati,' 2. 7. 36 ' non referenda 

tu pulses. Best taken as a further 
remonstrance of the ' improbus,' the ' un- 
reasonable ' fellow who does not like to 
be jostled by a man in a hurry. Horace 
in his self-consciousness imagines him to 
know where he is going. Grammatically 
it is a regular conditional sentence. ' Is 
this the principle, the accepted condi- 
tion, that if you, sir ("tu"), are in a 

hurry to get to Maecenas' house, where 
you rememberan engagement,you would 
elbow anything or anybody that was in 
your way ? ' 

31. recurras. Schiitz well compares 
'revocant' in Od. 4. 1. 8. The ' re- ' 
implies that Maecenas' house is his 
habitual resort. With the whole pic- 
ture of the man in a hurry, making his 
way by jostling, cp. Plaut. Capt. 4. 2. 
11 foll. ' Eminor interminorque, ne quis 
mihi obstiterit obviam, Nisi qui sat 
diu vixisse sese homo arbilrabitur : Nam 
qui obstiterit ore sistet,' etc. 

32. hoc : these visits to Maecenas. 
' They are, I will confess it, a sweetening 
of town life ; but I can't even pay them 
in peace. My very friendship with 
Maecenas is a source of fresh worries.' 

atras, from the old use of the place 
before Maecenas built his palace and 
laid out the gardens ; see Sat. 1. 8, in- 
trod. The epithet is complained of as 
out of keeping here ; but it seems pur- 
posed, and to refer to what follows : 
' something of the old gloomy associa- 
tions still hangs about it.' 

34. per caput, ' over head and ears.' 
The use of ' per ' as in Catull. 1 7. 9 
' per caput pedesque.' 

circa latus, ' in front and on flank.' 
The metaphor of saliunt is doubtful : 
of a hailstorm ? of waves (Ritter) ? of 
a swarm of troublesome insects ? It has 
been questioned whether the lines that 
follow describe requests which Horace 
remembers (so Orelli, who takes ' per 
caput' as 'through myhead'), orwhich 
are urged by messengers vvho waylay 
him near Maecenas' door. A strong 
argument for the latter view is the re- 
petition of ' orabant,' which has a defi- 
nite point if two independent messages 
are reported, both harping on the same 
troublesome string, but is un-Horatian 
if he is speaking himself. If they 
are in the mouth of messengers the 



Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal cras.' 35 

' De re communi scribae magna atque nova te 

Orabant hodie meminisses, Ouinte, reverti.' 

' Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas signa tabellis.' 

Dixeris, ' Experiar : ' ' Si vis, potes,' addit et instat. 

Septimus octavo propior iam fugerit annus 40 

Ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum 

In numero ; dumtaxat ad hoc, quem tollere rheda 

Vellet iter faciens et cui concredere nugas 

Hoc genus : ' Hora quota est? Thrax est Gallina Syro par? 

tense of ' orabat,' ' orabant,' is the epis- 
tolary imperfect (Madv. § 345J used 
also in messages, as Ter. Eun. 3. 3. 26 
' Thais maxumo te orabat opere ut cras 

ante seeundam . . . adesses ad Pu- 
teal. Cp. the parallel quoted from 
Cic. pro Quintio 6. 25 ' necessarios . . . 
corrogat ut ad tabulam Sestiam sibi 
adsint hora secunda postridie.' ' Tabula 
Sestia ' is not mentioned elsewhere, 
though ' tabula Valeria ' occurs in similar 
connections in Cic. pro Vatin. 9. 2 1 and 
ad Fam. 14. 2. They are variously ex- 
plained as bankers' counters where 
money would be paid or accounts veri- 
fied, and as the localities of courts for 
the settlement of money questions. A 
similar doubt, as old as the Scholiasts, 
besets the meaning of ' puteal ' ; ' locus 
Romae ad quem veniebant feneratores ; 
alii dicunt : in quo tribunal solebat esse 
Praetoris' Acr. It cannot therefore be 
certainly determined whether Horace's 
unknown friend Roscius has asked his 
eountenance in court (for ' adesset ' in 
this sense cp. Sat. r. 9. 38) or his pre- 
sence or guarantee at a banker's. On 
'puteal' see further on Epp. I. 19. 8. 

36. re communi. The ' scribae,' 
clerks in public offices, were organized 
in ' decuriae.' Cicero calls them collec- 
tively ' ordo' in Verr. Act. 2. 3. 79. 183 
Horace had held a clerkship in the 
quaestor's office. ' Communi ' naturally 
means ' common to them and you' ; but 
this would not necessarily imply that 
Horace was still engaged as a ' scriba.' 
His interest in these affairs would still 
be taken for granted by the ' scribae,' 
though from his own point of view 
he classes them amongst ' aliena ne- 

37. Quinte. Orelli bases on this 
use of the ' praenomen ' his chief argu- 
ment for these being soliloquies. He 
thinks a messenger would not have been 
so familiar ; but perhaps this is answered 
by Ritter ; the scribes address Horacs 
as an old colleague ; the message may 
well be brought by one of the order. 
This is the only place where Horace's 
' praenomen ' is named in his writings. 

reverti : to come back from the Es- 
quiline to the Forum. 

38. imprimat signa. It is a highly 
probable inference from these words 
that Maecenas was at the time of the 
writing of the Satire in the position 
described in Dion 51.3, having charge 
of affairs at home during Augustus' 
absence from Italy, and bearing his 
signet ring; see Introd. to the Satires, 

P- 3- 

39. dixeris, the subj. of supposi- 
tion, the second person generalizing, as 
though Horace's experience were not 
peculiar; ' if one says.' 

40. septimus oetavo propior iam 
fugerit, ' the seventh year, already 
nearing the eighth, will soon be gone,' 
i.e. it is now seven, or more nearly 
eight years since, etc. For the bearing 
and difficulties of this line see Introd. to 
the Satires, p. 3. 

42. dumtaxat ad hoc, ' at least to 
this extent,' the extent defined by the 
relative clause ' quem tollere vellet,' etc. 

44. hoc genus. Madv. § 237, c. 
obs. 3. 

Thrax : Epp. 1. 18. 36: a gla- 
diator armed with Thracian buckler and 
short sword. A ' Thrax ' was usually 
coupled with a ' mirmillo.' G-allina, 
a nickname, perhaps of a Gaul, and 
Syrus are proper names. 

LIB. II. SAT. 6. 183 

Matutina parum cautos iam frigora mordent ; ' 45 

Et quae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 

Per totum hoc tempus subiectior in diem et horam 

Invidiae noster. Ludos spectaverat una, 

Luserat in campo : Fortunae filius ! omnes. 

Frigidus a Rostris manat per compita rumor : 50 

Quicunque obvius est me consulit : : O bone, nam te 

Scire deos quoniam propius contingis oportet ; 

Numquid de Dacis audisti ? ' Nil equidem. ' Ut tu 

Semper eris derisor!' At omnes di exagitent me 

Si quicquam. ' Quid, militibus promissa Triquetra 55 

Praedia Caesar an est Itala tellure daturus?' 

Iurantem me scire nihil mirantur ut unum 

Scilicet egregii mortalerrt altique silenti. 

Perditur haec inter misero lux non sine votis: 

45. mordent : so of heat, Epp. i. 


46. rimosa, ' leaky ' : Ter. Eun. i. 
2. 25 ' plenus rimarum sum, hac atque 
illac perfluo ' ; ' things which may be 
safely talked of to the most indiscreet.' 
Cp. Epp. 1. 18. 70 ' Nec retinent patulae 
commissa fideliter aures.' 

48. noster, ' our friend,' i. e. I my- 
self, dvijp o5e, a colloquialism found 
from time to time in Plautus, as Rud. 4. 
7.19' minume istuc faciet noster Dae- 
mones,' where Daemones is speaking. 
Bentley first perceived the meaning. 
Previous editors had punctuated at ' In- 
vidiae,' attaching ' noster ' to the follow- 
ing sentence only, and interpreting it 
either of Maecenas or of Horace, the 
words being put into the mouth of the 
jealous critics. 

speetaverat : he carries on the third 
person from 'noster.' For the plpft. 
indic. of a case supposed cp. Epp. 2. 2. 
151. Bentley from a fevv secondary 
MSS. read ' spectaverit,' and from still 
fewer ' luserit,' and theyare accepted by 
many recent edd. 

una, i. e. with Maecenas. 

49. Fortunae filius : ourfigure would 
be ' Fortune's favourite.' Sophocles' irals 
TvXi]s Oed. R. 1080 is hardly relevant. 

50. frigidus, i. e. alarming. 
manat, the indic. of a supposition : 

see above on v. 48. 

a Rostris per compita: the rumour 
would start from the centre of Roman 

life, and spread through the lesser gather- 
ing places. For 'compita' see on Sat. 
2. 3. 26. 

51. O bone : infra v. 95, Sat. 2. 3. 
31, Epp. 2. 2. 37. 

52. deos, as the fountain-head of 

53. Dacis. For the bearing of this 
question see p. 3. 

ut : an exclamation, as Sat. 2. 8. 62 
' ut semper gaudes'; cp. Od. 1. 11. 3 n. 
' ut melius.' 

55. si quiequam, sc. 'aiidivi.' 

quid ? a fresh question, perhaps a 
fresh questioner. 

Triquetra. Lucr. 1. 717 ' triquetris 
terrarum in oris,' of the three-cornered 
island ' Trinacria,' Sicily. The reference 
is probably to the assignment of lands 
to the soldiers after the ' bellum Actia- 
cum.' See Introd. to the Satires, p. 3. 

57. unum, one above all others ; 
the only one that deserves to be so 
styled. Cp. Sat. 2. 3. 24, Epp. 1. 9. 1. 
This is analogous to the use of ' unus ' 
with the superlative, ' iustissimus unus 
Qui fuit e Teucris ' Virg. A. 2. 426. It 
is distinct from the instances sometimes 
quoted to illustrate it, ' unus caprimulgus' 
Catull. 22. 10, ' unus paterfamilias ' Cic. 
de Or. 1. 29. 32. See notes of Ellis and 
of Wilkins on these places. That use is 
inclusive, ' one of the class,' this is 
exclusive, ' the one and only one.' 

59. perditur, 'is wasted.' The only 
instance in good Latin of the pres. pass. 

i8 4 


O rus, quando ego te adspiciam ? quandoque licebit 
Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis, 
Ducere sollicitae iucunda oblivia vitae ? 
O quando faba Pythagorae cognata simulque 
Uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo? 
O noctes cenaeque deum ! quibus ipse meique 
Ante Larem proprium vescor vernasque procaces 
Pasco libatis dapibus. Prout cuique libido est 
Siccat inaequales calices conviva, solutus 
Legibus insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 
Pocula seu modicis uvescit laetius. Ergo 



of ' perdo.' On which account Lachmann 
would alter it, suggesting ' porgitur,' 
others 'proditur.' 

votis : illustrated in the aspirations of 
vv. 60-65. 

61. veterum libris. What books 
they would be we may see in Sat. 2. 3. 
11, Epp. 1. 2. 1. 

somno: Od. 1. 1. 20, Epp. 1. 14. 35- 

62. dueere: Od. 1. 17. 21. The 
metaphor is evidently from the ' waters 
of Lethe.' 

oblivia, the draughts that make us 

vitae, the gen. obj. 

63. faba Pythagorae cognata. For 
the allusion cp. Epp. 1. 12. 21 n., and 
Juv. S. 15. 173. 'Pythagoras cunctis ani- 
malibus abstinuit qui Tanquam homine, 
et ventri indulsit non omne legumen,' 
with Mayor's exhaustive note. The 
reference is to the Pythagorean proverb 
Kvapasv 6.Trix(o9at Diog. Laert. 8. 18. 
It is one of a series of short rules on 
diet, some of vvhich were generally in- 
terpreted literally, some as metaphors. 
Cicero mentions it (de Div. 1. 30. 62) 
' Pythagoricis interdictum ne faba vesce- 
rentur,' and explains it ' quod habet 
inflationem magnam is cibus, tranquilli- 
tati mentis quaerentis vera contrariam.' 
Many other fanciful reasons are given. 
The ground given in the text, connecting 
it with the doctrine of metempsychosis, 
as though in eating a bean you might be 
unconsciously eating a kinsman, whether 
it be an original jest of Horace's or not, 
suits well with the tone of amused interest 
with which he habitually refers to the 
Pythagorean school. See introd. to Od. 
1. 28, and cp. also his treatment of an- 
other Pythagorean proverb in Sat. 2. 3. 

276. The immediate purpose of the 
allusion in this place is to give a hu- 
morous exaltation to the vegetable 
which Horace appreciates : Pythagoras 
honoured it in one way : Horace honours 
it in another. 

64. satis, with uncta. For the 
dish cp. Sat. 2. 2. 116 ' olus fumosae 
cum pede pernae.' 

65. mei, the guests ; hiseasy relation 
to whom he describes in the following 

66. procaces, ' saucy.' He is paint- 
ing the freedom and homeliness of his 
establishment. Cp. the similar scene in 
Epod. 2. 65 'Positosque vernas . . . Cir- 
cum renidentes Lares.' 

67. libatis (Virg. Aen. 5. 92 ' Liba- 
vitque dapes '), ' tasted,' i. e. from the 
masters table, and vvith plenty still left 
for the slaves. The vvord denotes the 
moderation of the meal. 

prout, a monosyll., as 'quoad ' Sat. 2. 
3. 91. 

68. inaequales, i. e. mixed in differ- 
ent proportions, as explained in the fol- 
lovving line. See on Od. 3. 19. n. 

solutus legibus insanis : see on 
Sat. 2. 2. 123. 

70. uvescit. Cp. the adj. ' uvidus ' 
in Od. 2. 19. 18, 4. 5. 39. 

ergo, ' and so ' ; as in Epod. 2. 9, 
there is slight illative force. The free- 
dom to talk of vvhat is interesting is 
part and parcel of the absence of other 
foolish conventionalities. With the pic- 
ture of the conversation on high matters 
vvhich gives its flavour to the simple 
feast cp. the vvords of Lucilius quoted 
by Cic. de Fin. 2. 8. 24 ' Condito 
sermone bono,' evidently in the same 

LIB. II. SAT. 6. 


Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 

Nec male necne Lepos saltet ; sed quod magis ad nos 

Pertinet et nescire malum est agitamus : utrumne 

Divitiis homines an sint virtute beati ; 

Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos ; 

Et quae sit natura boni summumque quid eius. 

Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit aniles 

Ex re fabellas. Si quis nam laudat Arelli 

Sollicitas ignarus opes, sic incipit : ' Olim 

Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur 

Accepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum, 

Asper et attentus quaesitis, ut tamen artum 

Solveret hospitiis animum. Quid multa? neque ille 

Sepositi ciceris nec longae invidit avenae, 

Aridum et ore ferens acinum semesaque lardi 

Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia cena 

Vincere tangentis male singula dente superbo ; 

Cum pater ipse domus palea porrectus in horna 



71. de villis . . . alienis, i. e. topics 
of envy, as the following line represents 
those of frivolity. 

72. Lepos : according to the Schol. 
the name or nickname of a famous 
' mimus' of the day, so named ' quod 
molliter saltaret et eloqueretur.' 

73. neseire malum est. We might 
without harm be ignorant of the merits 
and demerits of a dancer. 

utrumne : see on Sat. 2. 3. 251. 
75. usus : to xpV ai f M0V - 

77. Cervius . . . Arelli, names of 
neighbours. The name ' Cervius ' occurs 
in a wholly different connection in Sat. 
2. 1.47. 

garrit, of light and easy talk. Cp. 
Sat. 1. 10. 41. 

78. ex re : stories ' of the nursery,' 
but redeemed from triviality by their 
being exactly ' to the point.' 

79. sollicitas ignarus : exactly the 
collocation of adjectives which we 
notice in the Odes. See on Od. 1.3. 10 
' fragilem truci.' 

olim, ' once upon a time,' the for- 
mula of a fable, Epp. 1. 1. 73. 

80. rusticus urbanum murem mus : 
the pairing of the words and the re- 
petition say rather happily ' it is only a 
story of mice, but the essential difference 
is the same as if they had been men.' 

82. asper : perhaps likeVirgiPs 'as- 
per victu ' Aen. 8. 31S, ' faring roughly.' 
The mouse of the country is painted as 
like a countryman ; cp. ' durus attentus- 
que ' Epp. 1. 7. 90. 

ut = ' ita ut,' a qualification of the two 
adjectives, 'not but that he unbent occa- 

83. hospitiis, acts of hospitality, the 

ille, a mouse of his character : for 
the use of ' ille ' cp. Od. 4. 9. 51, Sat. 
2. 3. 204. 

84. sepositi, ' choice.' 

longae. prob. (as Palmer) of the 
shape of the grain of oats. It is then in 
contrast with the round pea. The ban- 
quet is described from the point of view 
of the mouse, vvho pictures his dainties 
to the eye as well as the taste, as the 
human epicure does. For Horace's way 
of suggesting a contrast by an epithet 
with one of the two subjects, see on Od. 

2 ; 3- 9» 3- 4- 4 6 > 3-. *3- 7, 4- 4- /o. 
The gen. of respect is Greek ; ovoe ti 
o~e XPV I o-WoTpiojv (pdovtiiv Hom. Od. 
18. 18 : see on Ode 2. 9. 17. 

87. male with tangentis, ' just 
touching,' of his languid and fastidious 

88. palea horna, threshed out straw 
fresh from the threshing-floor. Horace 




Esset ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 

Tandem urbanus ad hunc : " Ouid te iuvat," inquit, "amice, 

Praerupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? 91 

Vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis? 

Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes ; terrestria quando 

Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 

Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga : quo, bone, circa, 

Dum licet in rebus iucundis vive beatus ; 

Vive memor quam sis aevi brevis." Haec ubi dicta 

Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 

Ambo propositum peragunt iter, urbis aventes 

Moenia nocturni subrepere. Iamque tenebat 

Nox medium caeli spatium, cum ponit uterque 

In locupiete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 

Tincta super iectos canderet vestis eburnos, 

Multaque de magna superessent fercula cena, 

Quae procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistris. 

Ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 

Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes 



is preparing the contrast of his seat in 
the town-house ; v. 106. 

89. ador = ' far, ' ' speit,' a harder and 
coarser grain. Ritter suggests that he 
is finding grains of this in the imper- 
fectly threshed ears. 

lolium, darnel, the ' tares ' of the 
Parable, which would be cut with the 
corn and left unthreshed on the floor. 

90. ad hune : not unlike the use in 
Epod. 9. 17 ; ' at the sight of him,' ' in 
reply to him.' 

91. patientem, absol., as Sat. 2. 5. 
43, but with more sense of a life of 
hardship : as in Virg. Ecl. 10. 52 ' in 
silvis inter spelaea ferarum Malle pati.' 

92. vis tu, 'surely you will.' Bentley 
was the first to point out (on this place) 
the idiomatic force ' orantis, hortantis, 
flagitantis, iubentis,' which belongs to 
this form, as contrasted with ' vin tu ' 
(Sat. 1. 9. 69, which he unnecessarily 
altered), which only asks a question. 
Cp. Juv. S. 5. 74 ' Vis tu consuetis audax 
conviva canistris Impleri, panisque tui 
novisse colorem; ' ' have the goodness, 
please, bold guest,' &c. 

93. mihi crede, ' trust my advice.' 
quando, ' since,' the townmouse 

preaches the Epicurean lesson. 

95. quo, bone, circa. A tmesis not 
found elsewhere. For ' bone ' see Sat. 
2. 3. 31 n., and this Satire v. 51. 

98. pepulere, 'struck,' 'impressed,' a 
Ciceronian use. 

100. noeturni, ' while it was still 
night.' For the adj. cp. Sat. 1. 3. 117, 
and ' vespertinus ' in Epod. 16. 51, Sat. 
2. 4. 17. 

iamque tenebat. Notice the Epic 
form, and cp. Sat. 1. 5. 9. 

103. canderet, 'glowed.' It is a 
poetical extension of the use of the 
word of fire and things glowing from 
heat : ' lamna candente ' Epp. 1. 15. 36. 
The subj. is due to the causal force of 
' ubi,' explaining ' locuplete.' We re- 
turn to the indicative in ' quae . . . inerat,' 
which states that there actually were 
such remains. 

vestis, of the covers of furniture. See 
on Sat. 2. 4. 84. 

105. procul, ' hard by.' It expresses 
separation, but not necessarily distance. 
Cp. Epp. 1. 7. 32 ; and see Conington's 
note on Virg. A. 10. 835. 

hesterna, of yesterday's feast. 

107. veluti suceinctus. Like a 
waiter with his tunic girt up. Sat. 2. 8. 
10 ' alte cinctus.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 6. 


Continuatque dapcs nec non verniliter ipsis 
Fungitur officiis, praelambens omne quod affert. 
Ille cubans gaudet mutata sorte bonisque 
Rebus agit laetum convivam, cum subito ingens 
Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 
Currere per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 
Exanimes trepiclare simul domus alta Molossis 
Personuit canibus. Tum rusticus : " Haud mihi vita 
Est opus hac," ait, " et valeas ; me silva cavusque 
Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo." 



108. continuat dapes : course after 
course without pause. 

ipsis officiis, ' plays to the life the 
part of a homebrcd slave, even in his 
attentions, by licking every dish before 
he serves it ' ; possibly with a reference 
lo the ' praegustator,' an institution in- 
troduced by Augustus from Eastern 
courts, but ccrtainly with reference to 
the habits of slaves noticed in Sat. 1. 3. 
81, 2. 4. 29. 

112. valvarum strepitus : the noise 
of opening doors indicates that the 
household is awakened and the servants 
coming to clear the ' triclinium.' 

114. simul = ' simul ac.' The bark- 

ing of the watchdogs, who are disiurbed 
by the movements, adds to the alarm of 
the mice. 

Molossis : Epod. 6. 5,Virg.G. 3. 405. 
Mayor (in a long and interesting note on 
Juv. S. 15. 7) remarks on the noticeable 
absence in this fable (as in Greek and 
Roman life generally) of the cat. 

115. haud. The emphatic negative, 
with ' mihi ' ; ' whatever you may think.' 

116. et, ' and so.' See on Od. 2. 2. 
11. Schiitz prints it, et 'valeas,' ' et' 
introducing his second utterance. 

me solabitur, ' will satisfy my needs.' 
Cp. Virg. G. 1. 159 ' Concussaque 
famem in silvis solabere quercu.' 




A DIALOGUE during the Saturnalia between Horace and his slave Davus. 

Verses 1-5. D. ' If I could only have my turn at fault finding.' 
II. ' Is that Davus ' ? 

D. ' Yes, Davus, not a bad bargain to his master, for all his faults.' 
H. ' Well, use the licence of the Saturnalia, and say your say.' 
6-20. Davus starts off in the style in which Horace represents a Stoic lecturer as 
declaiming, with stock instances to illustrate his picture of life. 

' Mankind is divided into those who are consistent in their vices, and those 
who hover between vice and virtue. 

' Priscus was an instance of the last, Volanerius of the first, and his life was 
the less miserable of the two.' 
21-45. Horace interrupts. ' What a long preamble, what does it all refer to'? 
D. ' To you/ 
II. ' How, villain'? 

D. ' You praise moderation but don't practise it. You praise the country 
when you are in town — the town when you are in the country. If you are not 
asked out to dinner, it isall ' ' a dinner of herbs." If an invitation comes rather 
late you are in a fuss and fury to be gone. The poor parasite who meant to 
sup with you goes away disappointed, but he sees through you, and is more 
honest than you are. Nay, I, your slave, am more of a philosopher than you. 
Don't frown at me ; listen to the lessons which I picked up from the porter at 
Crispinus' lecture-room.' 
46-71. Davus then begins again with a coarse declamatory comparison, evidently 
(from vv. 53, 54 ' proiectis insignibus, annulo equestri . . . prodis ex iudice 
Dama ') not addressed personally to Horace, between the vices of slaves and 
those of their masters, to the disadvantage of the latter, as worse and leading 
to a more hopeless slavery. 
72-94. He supposes Horace to protest : 'non sum moechus ' ; but brushes the 
excuse aside with the Stoic doctrine that abstinence from vice from secondary 
motives is no true abstinence. (Cp. Epp. 1. 16. 46 f.) ' You are a slave whom 
no manumission can free. I am at most your deputy slave or your fellow 
slave. No one is free, but the wise man, who is master of himself. That is 
not the position of one who is at the beck and call of a mistress. 
95-101. ' So you share your slave's other faults. He loiters to look at pictures 
(after his degree), so do you : though they call you a man of taste for it, 
while they call him a lazy fellow. 
102-111. ' He likes a smoking cake ; your virtue is not proof against a good 
supper. If he gets a thrashing, you get a fit of indigestion. It is as bad to 
sell your estates to feed your gluttony, as for a slave to exchange his master's 
" strigil " for a bunch of grapes. [Davus is getting away from Horace again.] 

LIB. II. SAT. 7. 189 

111-115. ' N.iy, you are a runaway, for you are always trying to escape yourself 
and give the slip to care ; but you are caught again, as a slave might be.' 

116-118. This last sally is supposed to exhaust Horace's patience, and after one 
more thrust Davus is driven away by the threat that he shall be sent to the 
Sabine farm. 

It is a companion Satire to the third of this Book. The substantial part of both 
is in the playfttl 11 se of a Stoic paradox as a text for a discourse on the follies of 
men. In both Horace turns the laugh against himself, Damasippus there, Davus 
here, charging him with his own faults and especially with the two, laziness (Sat. 3) 
and changeableness (Sat. 7), to which he professes to plead guilty in Epp. 1. 8. 10- 
1 2. In the third Satire the thesis taken is the one dealt with in Cicero's Paradox, 4 
oti 7ra? d'</>p<w /laivtrai, in this one Cicero's Paradox, 5 oti p.6vos 6 aocpus tXevOipos 
/cal irds d(ppwv bovkos. There are signs in both that Horace was familiar with 
Cicero's expositions of the text. The setting in each case is dramatic, the para- 
dox being pressed on Horace in Sat. 3 by the bankrupt virtuoso, who has himself 
been saved from suicide by discovering that he was no more mad than most men 
— in this Satire being put into the concrete form of a slave's claim, urged with the 
freedom of a licensed moment, to be as good as his master. In neither Satire is 
the dramatic purpose kept perfectly ; when the Stoic teaching is reached the style 
becomes declamatory and imitative of the lecturer, and the particular occasion is 
for the moment forgotten. 

The Bland. MSS. had this Satire (as liave some good extant MSS.) written 
continuously with the preceding one— evidently amistake ; but it bears witness to a 
true instinct of the close relation between this Satire and its predecessors. Bentley 
explains ' iamdudum ausculto' in v. 1 of Davus having heard Horace declaim Sat. 6, 
and feeling stirred to answer it. This is probably put too narrowly ; but the position 
of the Satire in relation to Sat. 6, when compared with thatof Sat. 3 to Sat. 2, and 
its position in relation to the Book in view of its manifest reference to both the 
directly didactic Satires (cp. vv. 22, 23 with Sat. 2. 2. 89-93, as well as v. 28 with 
Sat. 6) make it clear that one purpose is to lighten with his habitual irony any 
tone of assumption that might be felt in the preceding Satires. ' Who am I 
to lecture others? Tbey may very well return it in kind.' 

It should be noticed that it is irony, though the irony be a veil of real modesty. 
Not to speak of the graver charges which he seems to countenance against himself, 
his love for the country which he appears here, for fear of having spoken too en- 
thusiastically about it in Sat. 6, to undervalue as a mere phase of feeling, was deep 
and true ; see Epp. 1. 10. 2 and 14. He contrasts his own constancy in respect of 
it with his bailiffs changeableness, Epp. 1. 14. 14-26. 

' Iamdudum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicere servus 
Pauca reformido.' Davusne ? ' Ita, Davus, amicum 

1 . Iamdudum ausculto, ' I have The opposition between ' ausculto ' and 

been all this time listening.' Bentley ' dicere ' forbids Heindorfs interpreta- 

asks, ' to what ' ? and answers, ' to the tion of ' ausculto,' in the technical sense 

reading of the preceding Satire.' Davus of ' wait at the door,' after Plaut. Truc. 

being supposed to have overheard it and I. 2. I ' ad fores auscultato.' 
to wish to take the conceit out of its 2. Davusne? 'isthat Davus?' forbids 

author ; but see Introduction. The scene Macleane's view that Horace has been 

is a fragment. Davus, accustomed to giving Davus good advice. 
listen, claims for once to be listened to. ita, 'just so,' 'yes,' a colloquial use. 



Mancipium domino et frugi quod sit satis, hoc est 
Ut vitale putes.' Age, libertate Decembri, 
Ouando ita maiores voluerunt, utere ; narra. 
' Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter et urget 
Propositum ; pars multa natat, modo recta capessens, 
Interdum pravis obnoxia. Saepe notatus 
Cum tribus anellis, modo laeva Priscus inani, 
Vixit inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas, 
Aedibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 
Mundior exiret vix libertinus honeste; 
Iam moechus Romae, iam mallet doctus Athenis 
Vivere, Vertumnis, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis. 


3. frugi : ' servus frugi ' Cic. Clu. 16. 
47 ; ' honest,' ' serviceable.' 

4. ut vitale putes : that you need not 
fearhis being' too good to live' ; accord- 
ing to the proverbialsaying in Menander, 
fr. 4. 105 bv ol Oeol <pihovo~iv utto9vt)ok(i 


ut explains 'quod sit satis' as qualify- 
ing the preceding adjectives. Cp. Sat. 2. 
6. 82. For 'vitale' cp. Sat. 2. I. 62. 

libertate Decembri. The Saturn- 
alia were a remembrance of tlie golden 
age — men were equal again. ' Saturn- 
alibus tota servis licentia permittitur ' 
Macrob. Saturn. 1.7/ ni os traditus illinc 
Iste ut cum dominis famuli epulentur 
ibidem ' Accius quoted ibid. 

6. Notice that there is no attempt to 
make Davus speak in character. He 
begins at once with a Stoic apophtbegm, 
illustrated by stock instances after the 
manner of Satire. Priscus and Vola- 
nerius are not persons within his own 

7. natat, of one who is ' at sea,' who 
has no solid ground under him. Cicero 
usesit de Nat. Deorum 3. 24. 62, but the 
figure is there helped by the jest of de- 
riving the name ' Neptunus a natando,' 
' magis tu mihi natare visus es quam 
ipse Neptunus.' 

8. notatus : see on Sat. 1. 3. 24, 
1. 6. 14 ; ' noticed' and by way of criti- 

9. cum, ' as being with,' ' as wearing.' 
Three rings are spoken of as an extreme 
number. In later times Martial's fop 
' Senos . . . omnibus digitis gerit ' 11. 
59, and Seneca, Nat. Quaest. 7. 31 says 
' exornamus anulis digitos : in omni ar- 

ticulo gemma disponitur.' The original 
Roman practice (for those who had the 
' ius anuli ') was to wear one signet 
ring of iron. 

laeva, the hand for rings, ' usus an- 
ulorum exemptus dexterae quae multuni 
negotiorum gerit, in laevam [relegaba- 
tur] quae otiosior est ' Ateius Capito 
apud Macrob. Saturn. 7. 13. 

10. inaequalis. Compare the pic- 
ture of Tigellius' ' inconsistencies,' 'Nil 
aequale homini fuit illi ' Sat. 1. 3. 9. 

ut, after the adj., as though ' tam ' 
had preceded it. See on Sat. 1. 1. 95. 

clavum mutaret : now the senators 
laticlave, now the equestrian angusti- 

in boras. ' from hour to hour'; 
' mutatur in horas ' A. P. 160. Cp. Od. 
2. 13. 14, A. P. 60. 

11. From a grand house he would 
plunge suddenly into quarters from 
which a freedman of any refinement 
would be ashamed to be seen emerging. 

13. doctus. It is with some hesita- 
tionthat I print 'doctus,'against'doctor,' 
the reading of the oldest MSS. (including 
the ' Bland.') and of the Comm. Cruq., 
who annotates 'dicitur enim Priscus ora- 
toriam docuisse.' The corruption, if it 
is a corruption, is an early one. There is 
respectable authority for ' doctus,' which 
is accepted by all recent editors except 
Dill 1 '. Bentley printed ' doctus,' though 
in his note he holds the balance even 
betvveen the two readings, ' nescire con- 
tenti erimus.' ' Doctus ' is the rnore 
natural antithesis — the'man of learning,' 
against the ' man of loose pleasures.' 

14. ' Born under the evil influence of 

LIB. II. SAT. 7. 



Scurra Volanerius, postquam illi iusta cheragra 

Contudit articulos, qui pro se tollcret atque 

Mittcret in phimum talos, mcrcede diurna 

Conductum pavit ; quanto constantior isdem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser ac prior illo, 

Oui iam contento, iam laxo fune laborat/ 

Non dices hodie, quorsum haec tam putida tendant, 

Furcifer ? ' Ad te, inquam.' Ouo pacto, pessime ? ' Laudas 

Fortunam et mores antiquae plebis, et idem 

Si quis ad illa deus subito te agat usque recuses, 

Aut quia non sentis quod clamas rectius esse, 25 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et haeres 

Nequicquam caeno cupiens evellere plantam. 

Vertumnus in all his thousand shapes.' 
Ovid calls Vertumnus ' conveniens di- 
versis iste figuris . . . deus ' Fast. 6. 341, 
and describes at length, in Met. 14. 642 
foll., his metamorphoses when he was 
wooing Pomona. He was in origin the 
god of the changing year, generalized 
as the god of change. He has made 
Priscus as changeable as himself. 
15. iusta, ' well earned.' 

17. phimum. The Greek name for 
a dice-box ; whether of precisely the 
same kind as the ' fritillus ' is a moot 
question. The Scholiasts differ. See 
Mayor's note on Juv. S. 14. 5. 

18. isdem. A large number of good 
MSS. have 'idem.' 

19. levius miser : perhaps with some 
feeling of the use fcommon in Plautus) 
of 'miser'for 'sick.' Cp.Cicero's' leviter 

19, 20. Few lines of Horace have 
been more vexed by copyists. The va- 
riants are, in v. 19. (a) 'ac prior ille ' ; 
(b) ' ac prior illo ' ; (c) ' acrior ille' ; (d) 
' acriorillo.' Inv. 20 (a) 'iam ... quam'; 
(b) ' tam . . quam ' ; (c) ' iam . . iam.' 

Of these in v. 19, the reading of 
strongest external authority is ' acrior 
ille,'whichwas in three of theBlandinian 
MSS. and was interpreted by Acr. ' Ac 
prior,' however, which was in the fourth 
Bland., and is found in good extant 
MSS., is not like an emendation. It is 
easier to imagine the obliteration of ' p ' 
in some archetype. The hesitation be- 
tween ' ille ' and ' illo,' and the varia- 
tions of v. 20 seem due to differcnt, and 

some awkward, attempts to make sense 
of the lines. ' Iam . . iam ' was inter- 
preted by Acr. ' iam " modo " intelle- 
gendum = modo laxo, modo con- 
tento.' As given in the text, the lines 
present no difnculty. ' Prior ' has the 
sense of ' better,' ' in a better position,' 
as in Epp. 1. 1. 88. If ' ille ' is read 
' ac ' must be taken as following the 
comparatives ' levius' and 'prior' in 
the sense of 'the first mentioned,' i.e. 
Priscus, — an awkwardly prosaic ex- 

20. eontento . . . laxo fune. The 
metaphor is perhaps from a ship. The 
danger may be either from straining the 
rope too tight or from letting it swing too 
loose. Cp. the metaphor from a similar 
subject in Od. 3. 10. 10. 

21. hodie, ' must I wait all day with- 
out your telling me what all this stale 
stuff comes to ' ? 

22. fureifer. One who has worn or 
deserves to wear the ' furca,' an instru- 
ment of servile punishment — a yoke in 
the shape of a V, which was put over 
the neck and the arms being fastened 
along it. 

23. The reference seems to be to Sat. 
2. 2. 89-93. 

24. si quis deus: Sat. 1. 1. 15. 
25-27. Either because it is all talk, 

not your genuine feeling, or because 
with right purposes you have not the 
energy to carry them out. 

27. Cp. the Greek proverbial expres- 
sion, as in Aesch. Cho. 669 i£<u KOfxi^aiv 
. . . irqXov TTuSa. 



Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus urbem 

Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 

Ad cenam laudas securum olus ac, velut usquam 30 

Vinctus eas, ita te felicem dicis amasque 

Ouod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Iusserit ad se 

Maecenas serum sub lumina prima venire 

Convivam : " Nemon oleum feret ocius ? Ecquis 

Audit ? " cum magno blateras clamore fugisque. 35 

Mulvius et scurrae tibi non referenda precati 

Discedunt. " Etenim fateor me," dixerit ille, 

" Duci ventre levem, nasum nidore supinor, 

Imbecillus, iners, si quid vis adde popino. 

Tu, cum sis quod ego et fortassis nequior, ultro 40 

Insectere velut melior verbisque decoris 

28. In this and the following verses 
there is of course primarily reference to 
Sat. 2. 6. 60 foll. For the charge of 
inconstancy in his preference of town 
and country, cp. Epp. 1. 8. 12. 

absentem, of the place from which 
one is absent; cp. Epp. 1. 11. 21. 

30. velut usquam vinctus eas, ita. 
' Ita ' is to be taken before ' velut'; ' just 
as though you went anywhere in chains,' 
i. e. on compulsion. For ' usquam eas ' 
see on Sat. 1. 1. 37 and cp. Epp. 1. 7. 


31. amasque, 'hug yourself,' i. e. are 

pleased with yourself. The comm. quote 
Cic. ad Att. 4. 16 ' in eo me valde 

33. serum convivam. Evidently, of 
a guest invited late, to fill up a vacancy. 

sub lumina prima, about the light- 
ing of the lamps ; Epp. 2. 2. 98. 

34. oleum. Doubtless for the lamp 
to light him through the dark streets. 
On this see Juv. S. 3. 285 foll., with 
Mayor's note. The Scholiast took it 
of the anointing at the time of the bath, 
'ut lotus et unctus abeat cenatum '; but 
this would imply an earlier hour and 
more leisurely start. 

feret. Holder gave ' fert ' in his text 
(1869,, but Keller has returned in his 
Epilegomena to ' feret,' the reading of 
the Bland. MSS. 

35. fugis, ' you are off.' The reading 
is doubtful. V had ' furis.' Acr. in- 
terprets ' fugis ' ' expressit velocitatem 
hominis festinantis ad cenam.' Holder 

points out that ' furit ' is a corruption of 
'fugit' in Epp. 2. 2. 75. Prof. Palmer 
quotes for ' fugis,' Plaut. Asin. 2. 2. 113 
' quasi tunm officium facis ergo ac fugis? ' 
Poen. 1. 3. 17 ' Mi. propera atque abi. 
Ag. fugio. Mi. meum est istuc magis 
officium quam tuum'; where there is 
allusion to the ' fuga ' of slaves. In the 
same way he thinks there is irony in 
putting the word into Davus' mouth of 
his master. 

36. Mulvius. An unknown name. 
et adds the genus, ' Mulvius and 
(other) parasites.' See on Sat. 2. 4. 28. 
These professional diners-out have come 
to share Horace's meal and they have 
to go away supperless. 

precati = ' imprecati'; Sat. 2. 3. 203, 
2. 6. 30. 

non referenda, ' not meant to be re- 
peated to you.' 

37. dixerit ille, sc. 'Muivius.' Davus 
imagines what the lesser parasite may 
have said of the greater : the only differ- 
ence is that Mulvius avows his motives 
more honestly than Ilorace. 

38. supinor. For the quasi-middle 
use Schiitz compares ' purgor bilem ' A. 
P. 302. The verb describes the opening 
of the nostril and laying back of the 
head in snuffing up the savoury smell. 

40. tu, ' you, sir.' Cp. with the pro- 
noun and the whole constr. Sat. 2. 6. 


41. insectere, i. e. in the satires 

which assail glnttony and laugh at 

LIB. II. SAT. 7. 193 

Obvolvas vitium ? " Ouid, si me stultior ipso 

Ouingentis empto drachmis deprenderis ? Aufer 

Me vultu terrere ; manum stomachumque teneto, 

Dum quae Crispini docuit me ianitor edo. 45 

Te coniux aliena capit, meretricula Davum : 

Peccat uter nostrum cruce dignius ? Acris ubi me 

Natura intendit, sub clara nuda lucerna 

Ouaecunque excepit turgentis verbera caudae, 

Clunibus aut agitavit equum lasciva supinum, 50 

Dimittit neque famosum neque sollicitum ne 

Ditior aut formae melioris meiat eodem. 

Tu cum proiectis insignibus, anulo equestri 

Romanoque habitu, prodis ex iudice Dama 

Turpis, odoratum caput obscurante lacerna, 55 

Non es quod simulas ? Metuens induceris atque 

Altercante libidinibus tremis ossa pavore. 

Quid refert uri virgis, ferroque necari 

Auctoratus eas, an turpi clausus in arca, 

Ouo te demisit peccati conscia herilis, 60 

Contractum genibus tangas caput? Estne marito 

Matronae peccantis in ambo iusta potestas? 

In corruptorem vel iustior. Illa tamen se 

Non habitu mutatve loco, peccatve superne. 

Cum te formidet mulier neque credat amanti, 65 

Ibis sub furcam prudens, dominoque furenti 

Committes rem omnem et vitam et cum corpore famam. 

Evasti : credo metues doctusque cavebis : 

42. me ipso. Davus begins to speak 45. Crispini : see on Sat. 1. 1. 120. 
himself, contrasting himself in these ianitor. The doorkeeper has picked 
words with Mulvius. up fragments of the master's lectures 

43. quingentis draehmis : ' a fair and retails them to men of his own class. 
price for a good ordinary slave ' Dict. It is not the actual teaching of Cris- 
Ant. s.v. ' Servus.' It was almost equiva- pinus nor of his ' ianitor,' but a lecture 
lent to £18 of our money. For a higher by Davus to Ilorace a la Crispinus, as 
price ol a slave see Epp. 2. 2. 5. A reported by his ' ianitor.' We need not 
foreign slave assesses his value in Greek imagine it to be too appropriate at 
coinage. every turn to Horace. There ought to be 

aufer terrere, an inhn. substituted some Stoic commonplace in it. Some 

for the usual accusative after ' anfer ' = should be evidently inappropriate, and 

'lay aside,' ' cease.' ' Aufer lacrimas ' under cover of this there should be some 

Lucr. 3. 955, ' nugas ' Plaut. Truc. 4. sly hits at his actual or reputed cha- 

4. 8, etc. racter. 




Quaeres quando iterum paveas iterumque perire 

Possis, o toties servus ! Ouae belua ruptis, 70 

Cum semel effugit, reddit se prava catenis ? 

Non sum moechus, ais. Neque ego hercule fur ubi vasa 

Praetereo sapiens argentea : tolle periclum, 

Iam vaga prosiliet frenis natura remotis. 

Tune mihi dominus, rerum imperiis hominumque 75 

Tot tantisque minor, quem ter vindicta quaterque 

Imposita haud unquam misera formidine privet ? 

Adde super, dictis quod non levius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est qui servo paret, uti mos 

Vester ait, seu conservus, tibi quid sum ego? Nempe 80 

Tu mihi qui imperitas alii servis miser atque 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Quisnam igitur liber? Sapiens sibi qui imperiosus, 

76. minor, ^ttoiv, ' at the mercy of.' 
vindieta : the rod with which a 
slave was touched in the legal form of 
manumission ; see Pers. Sat. 5. 75-88, 
and ib. 124, 125. 

77- formidine : first a slave's fear of 
a master; bu in interpretation, the fear 
which, acconling to the Stoic, was in- 
separable from desire, and which was 
the essence of the ' slavery ' of the un- 
emancipated soul; see Epp. 1. 16. 65 
' qui cupiet metuet quoque : porro Qui 
metuens vivit liber mihi non erit un- 

78. super : best taken (with Bentl.) 
as = ' insuper ' (cp. Epp. 2. 2. 33), ' dictis ' 
being the abl. of comparison after ' le- 

nam : to our usage, redundant ; as 
yap often is, where it justifies the asser- 
tion that something will be said by 
saying it. 

79. viearius : a slave was allowed 
to purchase out of his ' peculium ' a 
slave to himself to do his work. This 
deputy was called ' vicarins ' : see Mart. 
2. 18. 7, where a metaphorical use of the 
custom is made similar to this one. 

80. vester. Davus speaks of the 
habits of the Roman world as standing 
himself, as a slave, outside of it. 

nempe, ' I will tell you'; used with 
some irony where the speaker after 
asking a question answers it himself : 
see inf. v. 107, and Epp. 1. 10. 22. 

81. alii. The sing. has the better 

authority (incl. V) as against 'aliis.' It 
is true that, when interpreted.the ' other 
master' means his passions ; but in ' alii 
servis ' we are still within the metaphor, 
and a slave had one master, not several. 

82. alienis: 'outside yourself,' 'which 
another will pull.' Persius has the same 
figure with reminiscence of this place, 
5. 127 ' servitium acre Te nihil impel- 
lit, nec quicquam extrinsecus intrat Quod 
nervos agitet ' : see Conington's note 
there. Bentley quotes the description 
of marionettes from Apuleius, de Mund. 
p. 125 ' illi qui in ligneolis hominum 
figuris gestus movent, quando filum 
membri quod agitari solet traxerint 
torquebitur cervix, nutabit caput, oculi 
vibiabunt, totus videbitur vivere.' Bent- 
ley asked how the material of the pup- 
pets was in point, and wished to accept 
the conj. 'signum' for 'lignum'; but 
Orelli rightly answers that ' lignum ' is 
intentionally contemptuous, ' a block of 
wood,' which owes any movement or 
simulation of life entirely to the show- 
man's strings. 

83. sibi qui : the balance of MSS. 
(incl. V) is for ' sibi que ' ; the sense is 
for ' qui,' which is read by Bentl., Orelli, 
Ritter, Keller 1 Epilegomena, Holder 
has ' que '), and Munro ; ' sapiens ' is 
more forcible as the single answer to 
the question ' who ? ' — ' The philosopher 
of the Stoics,' — the other words give 
thejustification of the answer. ' Sibi im- 
periosus,' iyKparrjs : ' qui imperat sibi. 



Quem ncque pauperies neque mors neque vincula torrent, 

Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 85 

Fortis, et in se ipso totus, teres, atque rotundus, 

Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari, 

In quem manca ruit semper fortuna. Potesne 

Ex his ut proprium quid noscere ? Ouinque talenta 

Poscit te mulier, vexat foribusque repulsum 90 

Perfundit gelida, rursus vocat : eripe turpi 

Colla iugo ; ' Liber, liber sum,' dic age. Non quis ; 

Urget enim dominus mentem non lenis et acres 

Subiectat lasso stimulos versatque negantem. 

Vel cum Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 95 

Qui peccas minus atque ego, cum Fulvi Rutubaeque 

Aut Pacideiani contento poplite miror 

qni se habet in potestate ' Sen. de Benef. 
5- 7- 

85. responsare : inf. v. 103, Epp. 1. 
1. 68 ; in the sense of ' to liave always 
an answer for,' not ' to acquiesce at 
once in.' 

86. fortis, with infin., as Od. 1. 
37. 26. 

in se ipso totus : explained by 
Cicero's words in Parad. 2 ' qui 
totus aptus est ex sese, qui in se 
uno possit omnia ' ; ' self-contained,' 

teres, atque rotundus, ' smoothed 
and rounded.' The Stoic similitude of 
a sphere for the mind of the wise man 
seems to include the idea of perfection 
(the sphere being the most perfect 
figure) and of independence of external 
things, the surface presenting no angles 
or fiat surface to give lodging to alien 
matter, as explained in the next line. 
Ausonius imitates the passage Idyll. 16. 
1 ' Vir bonus et sapiens . . . Iudex ipse 
sui totum se explorat ad unguem ; Quid 
proceres vanique ferat quid opinio volgi 
Securus, mundi instar habens teres at- 
que rotundus Externae ne quid labis per 
levia sidat.' 

88. manca : she has lost her usual 
means of taking hold of him. 

89. ut proprium, ' as belonging to 

89-101. Both in particular expres- 
sions and in the order of the topics it is 
evident that Horace has in view Cicero's 
declamation in Parad.5 'An ille mihi libcr 

videatur cui mulier imperat ? cui leges 
imponit, praescribit, iubet, vetat, quod 
videtur ? qui nihil imperanti negare po- 
test, nihil recusare audet ? Poscit ? dan- 
dum est — Vocat ? veniendum — Eicit ? 
abeundum — Minatur ? extimescendum 
. . . Pari stultitia sunt quos signa, quos 
tabulae, quos Corinthia opera, quos 
aedificia magnifica magno opere de- 
lectant.' Cp. also Sat. 2. 3. 259 foll., 
and the picture which Horace professes 
to give of himself when he turns the 
sting of his iambic verse on himself in 
Epod. 11. 

94. ' Goads you sharply when you 
are weary, and tugs at your mouth when 
you jib.' 

95. Pausiaca : Pausias of Sicyon, a 
painter of the same age as Apelles, 
about B. C. 360-330. 

torpes : a stronger form of the same 
figure as ' stupet Albius aere ' Sat. I. 4. 
28, so tKir\7]TTea0ai. Cp. the expression 
when there is no sting of satire, ' sus- 
pendit picta voltum mentemque tabella ' 
Epp. 2. 1. 97. 

96. Fidvi Rutubaeque . . . Paei- 
deiani : names of gladiators. The third 
is certainly from Lucilius, who speaks 
often as ' optimus multo Post homines 
natos gladiator qui fuit unus ' fr. 4. 11; 
a passage referred to several times by 
Cicero, as in Tusc. D. 4. 21. 48. See 
Introd. to the Satires, p. 12. 

97. contento poplite. It is a doubt 
as old as the Scholiasts whether these 
words describe the attitude of the 

O 2 



Proelia rubrica picta aut carbone, velut si 
Re vera pugnent, feriant, vitentque moventes 
Arma viri ? Nequam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 
Subtilis veterum iudex et callidus audis. 
Nil ego si ducor libo fumante : tibi ingens 
Virtus atque animus cenis responsat opimis 
Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est cur ? 
Tergo plector enim. Oui tu impunitior illa 
Ouae parvo sumi nequeunt obsonia captas ? 
Nempe inamarescunt epulae sine fine petitae. 
Illusique pedes vitiosum ferre recusant 
Corpus. An hic peccat, sub noctem qui puer uvam 
Furtiva mutat strigili : qui praedia vendit, 
Nil servile gulae parens habet ? Adde, quod idem 
Non horam tecum esse potes, non otia recte 
Ponere, teque ipsum vitas, fugitivus et erro, 
Iam vino quaerens, iam somno fallere curam : 




gladiators as drawn, or of the spectator 
standing on tiptoe to get a better view 
of the drawing. There is force in the 
argument of Schiitz, who takes them as 
grammatically qualifying ' picta,' that 
we want some characteristics of the 
drawing in order to explain ' velut si 
re vera pugnent.' Horace means to de- 
scribe the exaggerated drawing which 
would mark such rough work. 
98. rubrica, red ochre. 

100. cessator, ' an idle fellow '; Epp. 
2. 2. 14. 

101. callidus : Sat. 2. 3. 23. 
audis: Sat. 2. 6. 20. 

102. nil ego. ' Nihil esse ' is a 
Ciceronian phrase, as Div. in Q. Caecil. 
14, in the sense of 'to be worthless,' 
' nequam esse.' 

103. responsat : see above on v. 


104. For the position of ' cur ' making 
the question more emphatic see on Sat. 
2. 3. 187. 

105. enim gives the reason why the 
question may be asked. At first sight 
it may seem that gluttony does harm 
me most, for I suffer for it on my back ; 
but is your punishment less ? 

qui : not ' why ? ' but ' how ? ' as is 
clear in Persius' imitation, 5. 130 ' si 
intus et in iecore aegro Nascantur do- 

mini, qui tu impunitior exis ? ' etc. 

107. nempe : see above on v. 80. 

108. illusi, ' made fools of.' Cp. 
Virgil's figure, Georg. 2. 94 'temptatura 

109. hic qui puer : Sat. 1. 4. 2, 1. 
10. 16 ; Epod. 2. 37 n. 

110. mutat : used with an accus. of 
that which is taken in exchange ; see on 
Od. 1. 17. 2. The 'strigil' was an 
instrument of bone or metal used to 
scrape the skin after bathing. It stands 
for a thing of little value, that will be 
scarcely missed. 

qui praedla vendit : ' who sells his 
estate ' : gulae parens, though it is 
placed so as to construct with nil ser- 
vile habet ? belongs also in sense to 
' praedia vendit.' Cp. Epp. 1. 15. 32, 
Juv. S. 1. 138 ' una comedunt patrimonia 

112. tecum esse potes, ' can bear 
your own company.' Sen. Epist. 10 'non 
invenio cum quo te malim esse quam 
tecum.' Horace has in mind in the 
following words, Lucr. 3. 1053 foll., 
esp. v. 1068 ' hoc se quisque modo 

113. ponere, ' to lay out,' ' employ,' 
frequent in Cic. with ' tempus,' ' diem,' 
and the like. 

LIB. II. SAT. 8. 


Frustra ; nam comes atra premit sequiturque fugacem.' 115, 
Unde mihi lapidem ? — ' Ouorsum est opus ? ' — Unde sa- 

' Aut insanit homo aut versus facit.' ' Ocius hinc te 
Ni rapis, accedes opera agro nona Sabino.' 

115. Cp. Od. 2. 16. 22, 3. 1. 40. 

116. unde mihi lapidem. For the 
ellipsis cp. Sat. 2. 5. 102. 

unde sagittas ? Ritter suggests that 
Davus, in spite of his assumed uncon- 
sciousness of Horace's purpose in de- 
siring a stone, is edging away out of his 

117. aut insanit. ' He is either 
mad or ^what is next door to it) com- 
posing verses.' Davus recognizes the 
rhythm in Horace's words. With this 

sally cp. the comic explanation of the 
fate of the unhappy poet in A. P. 470, 
etc. ' nec satis apparet cur versus 

118. It is the standing threat to 
slaves in the comic dramatists that they 
shall be transferred to the ' familia rus- 
tica'; sent to harder work and fewer 
pleasures in the country. Plaut. Most. 
1. 1. 18 ' Augebis ruri numerum ' ; see 
Prof. Ramsay's excursus to the Mostel- 
laria ' on slave punishmcnts.' 



A sketch of a supper given to Maecenas by a man of wealth without taste 
or breeding. Horace puts the description of it into the mouth of Fundanius, 
the comic poet, of whom he speaks with admiration in Sat. 1. 10. 40 : but it 
represents, no doubt, many entertainments at which he had himself suffered and 
been amused. 

Three men of letters have been invited as appropriate guests to meet Maecenas, 
Fundanius himself, Viscus (see on v. 20), and Varius. Tlie rest of the company 
consists of the chief guest with two ' umbrae ' (vv. 21, 22) whom he has brought, 
and two ' scurrae,' ' Nomentanus,' and ' Porcius,' who are habitual frequenters 
of the host's table. 

The host is called Nasidienus Rufus (vv. 1, 75, 84, and 58) — doubtless a 
fictitious name. A conjecture of Lambinus identifies the person so disguised 
with Salvidienus Rufus, who had been advanced by Augustus ' ex infima 
fortuna ' (Suet. Aug. 66), and who was put to death by him for conspiracy 
against his interests in B. C. 40. In that case the Satire would be written some 
years after his death. Nasidienus was itself a Roman name and occurs in Martial 

7- 54- 

What is satirized is the vulgarity of the man. He has literary men to meet 
Maecenas, but he can talk of nothing but the dishes. He is full of the gas- 


tronomic art, but the results are shown in paradoxes, not in perfection. There 
is display and yet meanness (cp. A. P. 374, 375). The sketches of the four 
' scurrae ' are drawn in a few strokes. Vibidius the hard drinker and Balatro 
the buffoon, both presuming on their relation to the great man to quiz or 
patronize the host. Nomentanus and Porcius (for their names see on v. 23) playing 
to Nasidienus, and making the most of their own supper. It will be noticed that 
Maecenas is not mentioned. 

The affectation of gastronomic preciseness in this Satire will be compared 
with the fourth Satire. It is perhaps meant as a specimen of the kind of talk 
at supper-tables which moved Horace's spleen, and which he laughed at more 
elaborately in that Satire. 

Verses 1-5. H. 'How did you enjoy Nasidienus' supper? I heard you were there.' 
F. 'Vastly.' 

//. ' Tell me the order of proceedings.' 
6-9. F. ' First there came a wild boar, and our host told us all about it ; where 

it came from, and when it was killed. It was garnished with salad and things 

of piquant flavour. 
10-17. ' Then a bustling page wiped the maple table with a purple cloth, while 

another gathered up the fragments, when enter a solemn procession, an 

Indian slave carrying Caecuban wine, a Greek slave with Chian. The 

host asked Maecenas if he would prefer Alban or Falernian ; both were in 

the house.' 
18, 19. H. ' Alas for the sorrows of wealth ! But who were your party ? ' 
20-25. F. ' On one couch myself, Viscus, and Varius; on the next Maecenas and 

his two " umbrae," Servilius Balatro and Vibidius ; on the third the host 

in the middle, Nomentanus on one side of him, Porcius on the other. Nomen- 

tanus was so placed in order to point out to Maecenas the secrets of the 

2 5~33- ' Most of us were hopelessly puzzled, as I soon found. Meanwhile the host 

lectured us on the proper time to pick apples. You must ask him what the 

reasons were. 
33-41. ' Vibidius, determined to take out his revenge, asked for larger cups, which 

made our host turn pale. He dislikes hard drinkers, probably because 

their tongues are too free, or their palates too dull. At the suggestion all 

filled the new cups except the two parasites of the house. 
42-53. ' Then came a lamprey in a big dish garnished with shrimp sauce. The 

host told us of its condition and how the sauce was composed. 
54-74. ' At this moment the awning fell on the table with clouds of dust, frighten- 

ing us all. The host put down his head and cried. Nomentanus consoled him. 

The more courteous guests tried to stifle their laughter. Balatro, with mock 

sympathy, tried to encourage him. 
75-78. ' Nasidienus rose and left us, and we fell to whispering.' 
79, 80. H. ' What sport ; and what was the next scene ? ' 
80-95./". 'Vibidius calling again for wine ; the company finding excuse for 

laughter. Presently Nasidienus comes back with his self-possession restored, 

more slaves bearing a huge charger filled with divers delicacies, not bad 

in themselves, but rendered unendurable by the host's discourse upon them. 

We avenged ourselves by going away without tasting them.' 

LIB. II. SAT. 8. 


Orelli, who is in accord with most authorities, arranges the ' triclinium ' thus : 

imus locus 
sive consularis 

mcdhis summiis 










medius lcctus 




Maecenas occupied the place of honour. The only departure from usual 
practice is that noticed by Horace in v. 23, viz. that Nasidienus put Nomentanus 
in his own place next to the chief guest as more able than himself to do the 
honours of the table. 

Ut Nasidieni iuvit te cena beati ? 

Natn mihi quaerenti convivam dictus here illic 

De medio potare die. ' Sic ut mihi nunquam 

In vita fuerit melius.' Dic, si grave non est, 

Ouae prima iratum ventrem placaverit esca. 5 

' In primis Lucanus aper ; leni fuit Austro 

1. Ut. In a question, as in Epp. 1. 
3. 12. As we learn from v. 19 Horace 
is addressing his friend Fundanius, Sat. 
1. 10. 40. 

Nasidieni. For the scansion (cp. 
below, vv. 75, 84), the second ' i' being 
treated as a ' y,' see Sat. 1.7. 30 ' vin- 
demiator.' In this case it apparently 
has the effect, as in Od. 3. 4. 41 ' con- 
silium/ 3. 6. 6 ' principium,' of lengthen- 
ing the preceding vowel» for Martial 
7. 54. 11 has ' Nasidiene, tibi ' as the 
end of a pentameter. 

beati, with a tinge of irony, ' for- 
tune's favourite.' 

2. dictus. The omission of ' es ' is 
less common than that of ' est,' but it 
occurs in Virgil, Aen. 1. 237 ' pollicitus,' 
5. 687 'exosus,' 10. 827 ' laetatus.' There 
and here some editors would write ' pol- 
licitu's,' ' dictu's,' etc. 

3. de medio die : cp. Epp. 1. 14. 34 
'media de luce ' ; not ' from noon,' but 
as ' de nocte ' Epp. 1. 2. 32, ' media 
de nocte ' Epp. 1. 7. 88, ' before the 

period of midday is over ' ; see note on 
' de die ' Epod. 13. 4. The reference 
is to what Cicero calls ' tempestivum 
convivium,' a banquet which begins be- 
foie the usual hour ; see 011 Epp. 1. 7. 71. 

4. fuerit melius, 'I enjoyed myself/; 
so inf. v. 1 9 ' pulchre fuerit ' ; cp. Sat. 
2. 2. 120 ' bene erat.' 

dic. There is some doubt between 
this reading and ' da.' The weight of 
MSS. (mcluding all of Cruq.) is for 
' dic' The Comm. Cruq. read and 
interpreted 'da.' Bentley thinks it an 
emendation of a copyist who remein- 
bered Virg. E. 1. 19 'iste deus qui sit, 
da, Tityre, nobis.' Orelli gives ' da,' 
and Keller argues for it. 

5. placaverit : cp. Sat. 2. 2. 18 
' Latrantem stomachum bene leniet. ' 

6. Lucanus : Sat. 2. 3. 234. 

leni Austro : see Sat. 2. 2. 41. The 
point apparently is the vulgarity of the 
host iu discoursing on the dishes pre- 
sented, and his affectation of gastro- 
nomic precision. The boar was from 




Captus, ut aiebat cenae pater ; acria circum 
Rapula, lactucae, radices, qualia lassum 
Fervellunt stomachum, siser, allec, faecula Coa. 
His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 
Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 
Sublegit quodcunque iaceret inutile quodque 
Posset cenantes offendere ; ut Attica virgo 
Cum sacris Cereris procedit fuscus Hydaspes 
Caecuba vina ferens, Alcon Chium maris expers. 
Hic herus : Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falernum 
Te magis appositis delectat, habemus utrumque.' 
Divitias miseras ! Sed quis cenantibus una, 
Fundani, pulchre fuerit tibi, nosse laboro. 
' Summus ego et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra 




the forests of Lucania, not from the 
lowlands (see on Sat. 2. 4. 40-43). It 
had been killed when there was a south 
wind, but not a strong scirocco. We 
are probably going wrong in thinking 
(with Gesner) of irony, as though the 
boar was really tainted, and Nasidienus 
was making the best of it. 

7. cenae pater : cp. ' pater domus ' 
Sat. 2. 6. 88. 

circum, garnishing the table. A 
comparison with Sat. 2. 4. 73 n. makes 
it appear that putting these stimulants 
and condiments on the table through the 
meal was a recent affectation. 

8. rapula : Sat. 2. 2. 43. 

9. siser, ' skirwort,' a plant of which 
the root was pickled and eaten. 

allee : Sat. 2. 4. 73. 
faecula, the dim. of ' faex.' It is 
used by Lucr. 2. 430. 

10. alte cinctus, as was the fashion ; 
' ex alticinctis unus atriensibus ' Phaedr. 
2. 5. 11; so below v. 70 ' praecincti.' 
It gives the idea of ' active,' ' bustling ' : 
cp. ' altius ac nos praecinctis ' Sat. 1 . 
5. 5, and Sat. 1. 8. 23 ' succinctam.' 

acernam. Much store was set by 
the material and beauty of the tables ; 
see on Sat. 2. 2. 4, Mayor on Juv. S. 1. 
137: the favourite wood being the 
' citrus.' Maple is named by Pliny, 
N. H. 16. 20, as an inferior material 
' citro secundum.' It would seem that 
the humour consisted in the pretentious 
care taken of a second-rate table. 

11. gausape. Hor. is imitating Ln- 
cilius (20. 1) 'Purpureo tersit tum latas 

gausape mensas. 

13. ut Attica virgo : like a Kavrjfpopos 
in the rites of Demeter or Athene : cp. 
Sat. 1. 3. 9 ' velut qui Iunonis sacra 
ferret.' The pompous dignity of these 
slaves is contrasted with the fussy 
activity of the preceding ones : each 
is equally inappropiiate. 

15. maris expers : ov TeOaXarra}- 
ixkvov Athen. 1. p. 32 ; brine was 
mingled with Greek wines both for 
the sake of the taste and for whole- 
someness. This is the simplest ex- 
planation, and it suits Persius' imitation 
5. 39 ; see Coningtous note. Why the 
usual treatment has been omitted is not 
clear. It may be a ' fad ' of Nasidienus, 
or he may wish to make the wine less 
drinkable. Various other suggestions 
have been made, as (1) that 'maris 
expers ' means ' home-made,' a Greek 
wine ' that never crossed the sea'; (2) 
that, as Casaubon took it in Persius, 
' maris ' is from ' mas,' ' tliat has lost 
its strength,' ' insipid.' 

16. The host offers what he does not 
expect to be accepted ; shows off his 
cellar and spares it. 'Sive' is omitted 
before ' Albanum ' ; see on Od. 1. 3. 16. 

18. divitias miseras. Horace's 
comment. ' What a miserable exhibi- 
tion of wealth of the " beatus Nasi- 
dienus," ostentation with meanness.' 

1 9. pulchre fuerit : see above on v. 4. 
laboro : Epp. 1. 3. 20. 

20. summus ego. For the placing 
of the guests see introd. 

Viscus Thurinus, i. e. of Thurii ^Od. 

LIB. II. SAT. 8. 


Si memini Varius ; cum Servilio Balatrone 
Vibidius, quas Maecenas adduxerat umbras. 
Nomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius infra 
Ridiculus totas simul absorbere placentas ; 
Nomentanus ad hoc, qui si quid forte lateret 
Indice monstraret digito : nam cetera turba, 
Nos, inquam, cenamus aves, conchylia, pisces, 
Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 
Ut vel continuo patuit, cum passeris atque 
Ingustata mihi porrexerat ilia rhombi. 
Post hoc me docuit melimela rubere minorem 
Ad lunam delecta. Quid hoc intersit ab ipso 
Audieris melius. Tum Vibidius Balatroni : 

2 5 


3. 9. 14), on the west side of the Taren- 
tine gulf. From his juxtaposition 
here, as in Sat. 1. 10, with Varius and 
Fundanius, he is probably one of the 
two Visci named in Sat. 1. 10. 83. 


6. 1 n., Sat. 

Sat. 1. 2. 2 
nickname = 

It would 
'jester' or 




21. Varius 
1. 5. 40, etc. 

Balatrone : 
seem to be a 

Servilio, to be scanned as a 
syllable : see on Sat. 1. 7. 30 ' 
demiator ' ; the first ' i ' is long : 
Juv. S. 10. 319. 

22. umbras : Epp. 1. 5. 2S ; 
invited guests brought in the suite of 
some guest of distinction. 

23. Nomentanus and Porcius are the 
parasites of the host. 

ipsum, Nasidienus. As explained 
in the introduction, Nomentanus occu- 
pied the place usually belonging to 
the host. The reason is given in v. 25, 
for ' ad hoc ' goes back to ' erat super 
ipsum.' He was put there as knowing 
more about cookery than Nasidienus, 
to point out the features of the banquet 
to Maecenas. The names are chosen 
each with a malicious purpose, Nomen- 
tanus recalling the ' spendthrift ' of Sat. 

1. 1. 102 (see note there), 1. 8. 11, 

2. 1. 22, 2. 3. 175, 224; Porcius as 
suiting his greediness. 

24. ridiculus absorbere : vol. 1, 
App. 2. 

simul. The MSS. vary between 'si- 
mul ' and ' semel.' Either makes sense ; 
' totas simul ' or ' semel (' at one 
mouthful ') absorbere.' There isa doubt 

also between absorbere and ' obsor- 

26. indiee digito, the forefinger. 

cetera turba, the rest of us, besides 

28. celantia adds to the force of 
dissimilem noto ; the look gave no 
indication of the taste. 

29. passeris, a flat fish compared by 
Plin. N. H. 9. 36 to the ' rhombus.' 
Bentley would read for 'atque' ' assi et,' 
which Lambinus had found in some 
MSS., of what age it is not said. Heind. 
follows him. 

ut vel continuo patuit. Prof. 
Palmer proposes to give more point to 
this by taking 'ingustata' to mean 
'without tasting,' i.e. the strangeness of 
the flavour became apparent to an 
earlier sense ; but this is perhaps broader 
humour than Horace intends. The un- 
initiated wanted a guide, for neither the 
look of the dishes nor their previous 
experience prepared them for the mani- 
fold surprises. Fundanius learned this 
early when he was handed this dish 
' which he had never tasted before.' 
The words are carefully chosen to em- 
phasize the novelty of the cookery and 
avoid any expression either of approval 
or disapproval. 

30. porrexerat. The subj. is the host. 

31. melimela, ' honey apples,' ' dul- 
cibus aut certent quae melimela favis ' 
Mart. 1. 44. 4 ; a special kind of sweet 

minorem ad lunam, by moonlight, 
and when the moon was waning. 



' : Nos nisi damnose bibimus moriemur inulti : " 

Et calices poscit maiores. Vertere pallor 35 

Tum parochi faciem nil sic metuentis ut acres 

Potores, vel quod male dicunt liberius vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 

Invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus ; imi 40 

Convivae lecti nihilum nocuere lagenis. 

Affertur squillas inter muraena natantes 

In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus : "Haec gravida," inquit, 

" Capta est, deterior post partum carne futura. 

His mixtum ius est : oleo quod prima Venafri 45 

Pressit cella ; garo de succis piscis Hiberi ; 

Vino quinquenni, verum citra mare nato, 

Dum coquitur — cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non 

Hoc magis ullum aliud ; — pipere albo, non sine aceto, 

34. damnose, 'ruinously,' so as to 
drink him ' out of house and home.' 

moriemur inulti, an epic parody. 

35. calices maiores : not apparently 
an unusual liberty for guests to take, at 
some period at any rate. The edd. 
quote Cic. Verr. 2. 1. 26. 66 ' poscunt 
maioribus poculis.' 

vertere : see on Epod. 4. 9. 

36. parochi : see on Sat. 1. 5. 46. 
Its application here to the host has an 
air of slang. 

37. vel . . . vel. Reasons suggested 
ironically, the true one being that he 
would spare his cellar, as Nomentanus 
and Porcius were aware, v. 41 ; but they 
are illustrations also of his own style of 
making rather transparent excuses. 

39. Allifanis, the dat. after inver- 
tunt. Allifae was a town in the valley 
of the Vulturnus on the frontier of Cam- 
pania and Samnium, 'ubi fictiles et la- 
tiores calices fiebant ' Comm. Cruq. 

40. imi convivae lecti, i.e. Nomen- 
tanus and Porcius ; see on v. 37, and cp. 
Epp. 1. 18. 10 n. ' imi derisor lecti.' 

42. squiUas : Sat. 2. 4. 58. 
muraena : Juv. S. 5. 99 ; a fish greatly 

prized by the Romans; see Mayor's 
note there. 

natantes, i. e. in the sauce which 
Nasidienus describes in v. 45 foll. 

43. porrecta: Sat. 2.2.39. Contrast 
Sat. 2. 4. 77 ' Angustoque vagos pisces 

urgere catino.' 

sub hoc : Epod. 5. 83 ' sub haec,' 
Epp. 2. 2. 34 ' sub hoc tempus.' 

gravida, before spawning. For simi- 
lar gastronomic refinements see Sat. 2. 
4. 44 n. 

45. his, of these ingredients. For 
the composition of this sauce see Sat. 
2. 4. 63 foll. 

prima, usually, and perhaps rightly, 
taken for ' at its first pressing,' Co- 
lumella telling us that the olives were 
pressed three times, the quality of the 
oil being best at the first. The Schol. 
says ' optima." 

Venafri : Od. 2. 6. 16, Sat. 2. 4. 

46. cella = ' cella olearia,' the store 
or garner in which the olives were 
housed, and in which the presses stood. 
' Cella pressit ' as 'area triverit' Sat. 1. 

i- 45- 

garo. ' Garum ' was a preparation 

of the roe of the ' scomber ' or mackerel. 

The best came (according to Plin. N. H. 

31. 43) from New Carthaqe in Spain, 

thence called here ' piscis Hiberi ' ; see 

Sat. 2. 4. 66 n. 

47. citra mare nato, i. e. Italian ; 
cp. Sat. 1. 10. 31 'natus mare citra.' 

48. cocto, an abl. abs. Italian wine 
is to be stirred in while the sauce is 
simmering ; when it is ready for use 
Chian is to be added. 

LIB. II. SAT. 8. 


Quod Methymnaeam vitio mutaverit uvam. 5° 

Erucas virides, inulas ego primus amaras 

Monstravi incoquere, inlutos Curtillus echinos, 

Ut melius muria quod testa marina remittat." 

Interea suspensa graves aulaea ruinas 

In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri 55 

Quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. 

Nos maius veriti postquam nihil esse pericli 

Sensimus erigimur. Rufus posito capite, ut si 

Filius immaturus obisset, fiere. Quis esset 

Finis ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 60 

Tolleret : " Heu, Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos 

Te deus ? Ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 

Humanis ! " Varius mappa compescere risum 

Vix poterat. Balatro suspendens omnia naso, 

" Haec est conditio vivendi," aiebat, " eoque 65 

Responsura tuo nunquam est par fama labori. 

Tene ut ego accipiar laute torquerier omni 

Sollicitudine districtum, ne panis adustus, 

2. 44 


50. Vinegar made from Lesbian wine. 
mutaverit : Sat. 2. 2. 58. 

51. erucas . . . inulas (Sat. 2. 
' acidae '). The herbs to be so 
are not named in Sat. 2. 4. 67 ' ubi con- 
fusum sectis inferbuit herbis.' 

52. inlutos, and so with the salt 
water still in them. 

53. ut melius, etc, ' as something, 
better than fish pickle, which the sea 
shell-fish of itself yields ' : ' quod ' = ' id 
quod,' ' id ' resuming ' inlutos echinos,' 
which was equivalent to ' sea urchins 
with their brine.' For ' muria ' see on 
Sat. 2. 4. 66. It was not mere brine, so 

the reading of some but 
MSS., would be hard to 

Sat. 2. 4. 69, Epp. 2. I. 

that ' quam, 
not the best 


54. aulaea, as this passage shows, 
an awning between the roof and the 
table. The dust would lodge upon it ; 
see on Od. 3. 29. 15, and Conington on 
Virg. Aen. 1. 697. 

57. maius : ' ruinam domus metu- 
entes' Comm. Cruq. 

58. erigimur, metaph. ' recover our- 
selves ' ; so ' tolleret' v. 61. 

Rufus, i. e. Nasidienus. 

62. ut semper : Sat. 2. 6. 53 ' ut tu 
Semper eris derisor.' Nomentanus con- 
soles him by representing his calamity 
as part of the common lot of humanity. 

illudere : cp. Od. 3. 29. 49 ' Fortuna 
saevo laeta negotio et Ludum insolen- 
tem ludere pertinax.' 

63. mappa : see on Sat. 2. 4. 81. 
Varius stuffs his napkin in his mouth. 

64. suspendens omnia naso, ' who 
has a sneer for everything ' ; see on Sat. 
1. 6. 5 'naso suspendis adunco.' 

65. eo: Sat. 1.3. 30; ' for that reason.' 

67. tene : for construction see on 
Sat. 1. 9. 72, 2. 4. 83, Madv. § 399. 
There is irony in ' tene . . . ut ego,' Balatro 
making the most of the difference be- 
tween Nasidienus and himself, and yet 
professing to suppose that the entertain- 
ment was for the sake of himself. 

68. adustus, ' scorched,' ' overbaked.' 
On the nicety of the Romans in respect 
to the quality of bread cp. Sat. 1. 1. 47, 
1. 5. 89 foll., and especially Juv. S. 5. 
67 foll. with Mayor's notes. Orelli 
thinks that the several points touched 
are supposed to be blots in Nasidienus' 
entertainment. But the overbaking of 
the bread is a detail which must, if it 
were real, be obvious, and Nasidienus 



Ne male conditum ius apponatur, ut omnes 

Praecincti recte pueri comptique ministrent ! 

Adde hos praeterea casus, aulaea ruant si 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. 

Sed convivatoris uti ducis ingenium res 

Adversae nudare solent, celare secundae." 

Nasidienus ad haec : " Tibi di quaecunque preceris 

Commoda dent ! Ita vir bonus es convivaque comis." 

Et soleas poscit. Tum in lecto quoque videres 

Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros.' 

Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse ; sed illa 

Redde age quae deinceps risisti. ' Vibidius dum 

Quaerit de pueris num sit quoque fracta lagena, 

Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, dumque 

Ridetur fictis rerum Balatrone secundo, 

Nasidiene, redis mutatae frontis, ut arte 

Emendaturus fortunam ; deinde secuti 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 

Membra gruis sparsi sale multo, non sine farre ; 



could in that case hardly be obtuse 
cnough to take the speech as kindly 
meant. The 'sneer' of Balatro con- 
sists in the profession of sympathy which 
he does not feel, and in his encourage- 
ment of the host to new efforts which 
he expects to be as ludicrous in their 
results as the former ones. 

69. ne male conditum refers to 
Nasidienus' account of the thought he 
has bestowed on the sauce, v. 45 foll., as 
the next verse refers to the actual dress 
of the waiters, v. 1 o. 

72. ut modo, 'as they did just now.' 

agaso, lit. a stable-boy. Here prob- 
ably and in Pers. 5. 76 for a clownish 
slave. We are not to think with Heind. 
that Nasidienus has actually brought 
his groom in to wait. 

77. soleas : Sat. 1. 3. 128, Epp. 1. 
13. 15; slippers worn indoors. The 
guests lay with their feet bare (cp. the 
story in St. Luke vii. 37, 38). When 
they moved they resumed the ' soleae.' 
Plaut. Truc. 2. 4. 1 2 ' cedo soleas mihi,' 
when Dinarchus rises from table, ibid. 
16, when he sits down again, ' deme 
soleas.' Cp. Mostell. 2. 1. 37 with 
Ramsay's note. 

78. Notice the imitation of whisper- 
ing in the accumulated sibilants. 

81. quoque, with the sentence, ' whe- 
ther the wine-jar had been broken as 
well,' i. e. besides the accident of the 

83. fictis rerum : see on Sat. 2. 2. 
25 ' vanis rerum'; ' pretended jests,' to 
conceal the fact that they were really 
laughing at their host and his shifts. 

secundo, 'strenue adiuvante,' the 
metaphor from ' vento secundo,' ' Balatro 
filling our sails.' 

84. Nasidiene. The vocative is 
mock heroic, after Homer's Ou5e aeOev, 
MeveKae, Oeol na.fca.pes XeKdOovTO, etc. 

redis mutatae frontis, an extension 
of the common use of the gen. of quality 
with ' sum ' ; see on Sat. 1. 4. 17. 

arte, from Ter. Ad. 4. 7. 23 ' illud, 
quod cecidit forte, id arte ut corrigas.' 

86. mazonomo. Properly a trencher 
for serving barley - cakes (/«i£a) on 
(Athen. 4. § 31, p. 149). Here it is 
used for a large dish on which was 
collected this medley of delicacies. 

87. gruis sparsi. It is noticed that 
' grus ' is in all other places feminine, 
' anser ' masc. (The reading ' albae ' 

LIB. II. SAT. 8. 


Pinguibus et ficis pastum iecur anseris albae 

Et leporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 

Ouam si cum lumbis quis edit ; tum pectore adusto 90 

Vidimus et merulas poni et sine clune palumbes, 

Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 

Naturas dominus ; quem nos sic fugimus ulti, 

Ut nihil omnino gustaremus, velut illis 

Canidia afflasset peior serpentibus Afris.' 95 

here is that of V.) It is very pos- 
sibly intended to indicate that Nasi- 
dienus called attention to the sex of 
the birds, cp. v. 43 ; so he spoke of the 
diet on which the goose had been fat- 
tened, of its colour, of the part chosen 
of the hare. See on this last Sat. 2. 
4. 44. 

90. edit : subj. as Epod. 3. 3. 
pectore adusto (see above v. 68). 

This, as ' sine clune,' seems to have been 
a drawback or peculiarity. In spite of 
these Fundanius says the dishes were 
not bad if the host would have let them 
be eaten in peace without his lectures 
upon them. 

91. vidimus, as v. 94 shows, em- 
phatic : ' we saw but did not taste.' 

92. causas, naturas : wordsthat sug- 
gest a philosophy of the table. ' Rerum 

causas ' Virg. G. 2. 450, ' rerum na- 
turam' Lucr. 1. 21, etc. Cp. the similar 
play in Sat. 2. 4. 

95. peior serpentibus. For the 
poisonousness of the serpent's breatli 
the edd. quote Colum. 8. 5. 18 'ca- 
vendum ne a serpentibus afflentur [pulli] 
quorum odor tam pestilens est ut in- 
terimat universos.' 

Afris : ' Mauris anguibus ' Od. 3. 10. 
18. For Canidia as a witch see introd. 
to Epod. 5 and 17, Sat. 1. 8. She is 
introduced here as a sort of refrain, a 
literary reminiscence i the words are still 
in Fundanius' mouth, but he is made 
in effect to say ' I am speaking Horace's 
feelings'), like the ' Tityre, te patulae,' 
which ends Virgil's Ecl. 10 as an echo 
of the 'Tityre, tu patulae ' of Ecl. 1. 1. 




Date qf the Book. 

The Second Book of Satires and the Epodes were published 
between the years 31 and 30 b.c. The three Books of the Odes 
occupy the next seven years of Horace's life and were published, 
as seems almost certain (see vol. 1. p. 2), in b. c. 23. He may 
have written some of the Epistles before that time, but all which 
can be dated fall into the years between 23 and 20 (or 19 at the 

Epp. 1. 13 refers no doubt to the presentation of the Odes to 
Augustus, though there are difficulties as to the occasion contem- 
plated; 1. 19 is polemical against critics of the Odes and Epodes : 
these would most naturally have been written soon after b. c. 23. 
Tibullus, who died in B. c. 19 or soon afterwards, was still living 
when 1. 4 was written. For more exact dating, 1. .3 is addressed to 
Florus, who is at the time accompanying the future emperor Tiberius 
in his progress into Armenia, i. e. it is composed in b. c. 20. 
Epistles 8, 9 and 1 1 have possibly links with the same event. 
Epistle 18 is fixed to the same year by the words 'Sub duce, qui 
templis Parthorum signa refigit,' an evident reference to the restora- 
tion by the Parthians of the standards taken at Charrae, which was 
an incident in that progress. In 12. 26-28 this event is again 
referred to and with it another which causes a little more difficulty : 

' Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 
Armenius cecidit ; ius imperiumque Phraates 
Caesaris accepit genibus minor.' 

The first words have to do with the final conquest of the Can- 
tabrians by Agrippa, which appears from Dion C. 54. 11 to hr.-/e 


been begun and completed in b. c. 19 (see introd. to Odes I— III. 

I. § 6). ' 

On the other hand, in Epist. 20, where Horace is apparently in- 
tending to date the Book as well as his own life, he says that he 
completed his forty-fourth December (the month of his birth) in 
the year when Lollius was consul. This was in b. c. 21. It is 
a natural mode of dating if it means ' last December ' — a less 
natural one if another birthday has already passed. We are driven 
therefore to choose between supposing that Agrippa achieved his 
victory over the Cantabri or some parts of it in b. c. 20, in spite of 
Dion Cassius' words, or that Horace's desire to link Lollius' name 
with the conclusion of his book has led him to date it by the year 
before the one last expired. 

Title and natnre of the Epistles. 

Horace once uses the word 'Epistula,' in Epp. 2. 2. 22, possibly, 
but not certainly, in the sense of a poetical epistle. In Epp. 2. 1. 
250 he seems to include the Epistles of the First Book with the 
Satires under the common title of 'Sermones 1 .' Otherwise we have 
no direct evidence what title he intended them to bear. The 
MSS. all call them ' Epistulae,' and the Scholiasts say that the title 
was given to them by Horace himself. 

They are ' Epistulae ' in varying senses. Some have not only the 
form, but a definite purpose at the moment and such as finds 
natural expression in a letter — enquiries about absent friends, as in 
Ep. 3 ; an invitation, as in Ep. 5 ; the introduction of a friend, as 
in Ep. 9 ; desire for information about a watering-place, as in Ep. 15. 
To these we may add, as short and purely personal in their tone, 
Epp. 4, 8 and 12. It is hard again to draw a fixed line between 
these and such Epistles as 7, 10 and n, where, though a larger 
and general subject is in view, the person addressed and the oc- 
casion are never wholly lost. But the epistolary introduction and 
conclusion tend by degrees to become merely an excuse for the 
moralizing which intervenes, till, as in Epp. 1 and 6, the only relic 
left of the letter is the vocative case which begins it, just as ' Qui 
fit, Maecenas ? ' or ' Vel quia, Maecenas,' begins a Satire. It is of 
course possible to underrate the personal element which is really 

1 They are probably also included is said that Augustus ' post Sermones 
in the title ' Sermones ' in the Suetonian lectos ' complained that none was ad- 
life of Horace (vol. i. p. xxix), where it dressed to him. 


present in the composition of any particular Epistle. But Horace . 
meant us, we may be sure, to see this element in the Epistle itself, 
not to depend upon tradition for it. 

It must be added that the Epistolary form becomes in some cases 
a matter of play — as when he makes a professed letter to his bailiff 
the vehicle for the humorous expression of his own love of the 
country and dislike of restlessness (Ep. 14); when he puts an 
apology to Augustus into the form of a letter sent after the mes- 
senger who is supposed to be carrying to him a volume of poems 
(Ep. 13); or when he addresses to his own Book of collected 
Epistles the confidences and anticipations which he means for his 
world-wide audience-to-be (Ep. 20). 

In calling his Epistles ' Sermones ' he is expressing the continuity 
in substance, and even in form, which unites the most important of 
them, those for the sake of which the book was written, to the 
Satires. Their subject is the same, that which always interested 
him most deeply, — the art of life. It runs into the same topics, the 
folly of avarice, the wisdom of enjoying instead of wishing, the 
charm of country life, of moderate tastes, of contentment. He 
fingers amusedly, as before, the paradoxes of philosophers, and puts 
even more confidently his view that more is to be learnt from 
common sense and from the poets than in the schools. The style 
is the same — the free and unrhetorical style of the best conversation, 
playful and serious by turns, lighted up by wit, good humour, 
touches of poetry. It still cuts an argument short with an anecdote 
or a fable. There is the same tendency to use an individual name 
where a class is meant, and in doing so to mix indiscriminately 
names of the day with literary or even mythological reminis- 
cences l . The epistolary form is in truth as much a dramatic 
adaptation as the form of dialogue adopted in Book II of the 
Satires. As Acron remarks, it is conversation still, conversation 
with the absent instead of conversation held or overheard, with the 
present : ' Epistulis enim ad absentes loquimur, sermone cum prae- 
sentibus 2 .' In speaking of the Satires we noticed the influence 

1 'A gladiator' is Veianius, i. 4; Lucullus 6. 40 f., Philippus 7. 46 f., 

'a man of keen vision,' Lynceus (the Eutrapelus 18. 31 f., belong to persons 

Argonaut), 1. 28; ' an athlete,' Glycon, of a former generation. 

1. 30. Maenius is, as in the Satires, the 2 Cp. Augustus' words in complain- 

glutton and spendthrift in 15. 26. See ing that Horace has addressed none of 

the note on Bestius, ib. 37. It should his ' Sermones ' to him : ' irasci me tibi 

be noticed also, as illustrating what is scito quod non in plerisque eiusmodi 

said on p. 11, that the anecdotes of scriptis mecum potissimum loquaris' 



which Horace felt both in respect of form and matter from the 
philosophical dialogues of Cicero. It cannot be doubted that his 
Epistles in the same way are infiuenced by Cicero's Letters. 

The differences between the Epistles and Satires are analogous to 
the differences between the later Satires and the earlier. 

Life is passing on and has brought to him, if not strong health, 
the means of taking care of himself, ease, interests, and content- 
ment. He spends his autumn in the Sabine valley, his winter by the 
sea, returns to Rome with the swallows, and stays there only as 
long as he feels disposed. His acquaintance among the congenial 
part of Roman society has grown. He has a recognised position 
as a man of letters. There are still critics who in public decry his 
Odes and Epodes, but they read and admire them in private, and 
they pay him the flattery of foolish imitation. He has no real 
disposition to quarrel with them. We see him in one light which 
is always an amiable one. His correspondents are greatly among 
the younger generation of literary men. He is interested in their 
work, he has their confidence, and can speak at once honestly and 
kindly with no false affectation either of superiority or of equality. 

If his views of life are richer and more mature than in the Satires, 
his expression of them is more perfect. We feel the training of the 
seven years given to lyric composition. There is more ease and 
music in the verse — more touches of imagination in the language. 
He has reached the perfection of his own style and the most 
finished grace of which Latin writing is capable. 

Order of the Epistles. 

It has been already pointed out (vol. i. p. 8) how exactly the 
arrangement of the Epistles in this Book corresponds in one im- 
portant particular with that of the Odes of the first three Books — 
the first Epistle and the last but one being addressed, as Ode i. i and 
2. 29, to Maecenas, the last place in each case being reserved for 
the poet's own pride at the accomplishment of his task. We may 
trace occasionally in the order of the rest of the Epistles some of 
the same principles which seemed to dictate the order of the Odes 
and, in a less marked degree, of the Satires. Ep. 2 seems to follow 
Ep. 1 as an immediate putting into practice of the purposes an- 
nounced in it. Epp. 17, 18 are put together as dealing with one 
subject in a way that might be less easily perceived if they were 
apart, at the same time the two are put at some distance from Ep. 6, 


closely though that is connected with them, lest too great attention 
should seem to be drawn to the matter. In the same way Epp. 
13 and 19, which speak of his own poems, are separated. I have 
pointed out in the introd. to Ep. 16 how the ironical conclusion of 
Ep. 15 is made to form, quite in Horace's manner, an introduction 
to one of the most serious and high-toned of his Epistles. The effect 
of irony is increased by the sequence which puts Ep. 17, with its 
tone (however it be explained) of cynicism, immediately after Ep. 16. 

r 2 

Epistulis ad absentes loquimur, sermone cum praesentibus. 





The Epistle is written for its place. It is the dedication to Maecenas of the 
First Book of the Epistles, and it is an apology (i) for his change of style — from 
the Odes to the Epistles; (2) for the subject-matter of his new compositions. He 
has outgrown the power and taste for lyric poetry. His soul is set now on attain- 
ing a philosophy of life. He has not done so ; but short of that, he would make 
the most of such eclectic and elementary fragments of truth as he has made his 
own. It is his own mind and life that he professes to be thinking of ; but it is 
implied that his compositions will reflect his new tastes. 

Verses 1-6. You have every claim on me, Maecenas, and I have always acknow- 

ledged it ; but what you ask of me now is to shut the door of the training 

school again on a gladiator who has earned his discharge. 
7-9. I am for turning a horse out to grass in time, before he breaks down. 
10-12. So now I am laying down lyric poetry as one of my playthings. I am 

thinking now of philosophy, with a practical aim. 
13-19. Do not suppose that this means that I have a system cut and dried. I am 

still an eclectic. At one time I think myself a Stoic, at another I relapse into 

20-26. I am impatient for the day when I may accomplish the most serious work 

of life by attaining a true philosophical scheme. 
27. Meanwhile I would guide and comfort myselfwith such rudimentary lessons 

as these. 
28-32. A little is better than nothing — especially in a medicinal art. 
33-40. There is no passion that does not admit of mitigation if the patient will 

submit to treatment. 
41-47. Humble and negative as this is, it is the first necessary step to virtue and 

wisdom. If only men were as eager to escape wrong desires as they are to 

escape poverty ! 
49-31. On all analogy they should be so; for the prize offered is greater, the 

effort required less, for virtue is to gold as gold is to silver. 
52-56. Unfortunately the opposite doctrine is preached by the business world of 

Rome and learnt eagerly by all classes. 
57-64. The arrangements of social rank go the same way. Your place depends 

on your money. How much better our boys could teach us with their 

nursery jingle ' Rex eris si recte facies.' That is sounder than the law of Otho. 
68, 69. Vvhich is the better adviser, one who says, ' Make money without regard to 

the means,' or one who says (and teaches you how to do it), ' Stand up like 

a man and face fortune ' ? 



70-75. If the world were to ask me why I do not acquiesce in its judgments, I 

should answer, first, in the words of the old fable, that I will not enter its 

den because I never see that any who do so come out again. 
76-80. Secondly, that it is difhcult to imitate when even where men are agreed 011 

the end they differ greatly as to the means : — where in the scale of disgrace 

am I to stop? — 
Si-90. nay, when no one man has the same taste for an hour together. 
91-93. In this matter of capriciousness there is no difference of rank. The poor 

follow the rich : 
94-105. I am as bad as others ; but though you are ready to laugh at incongruities 

of dress and habit, you do not notice incongruities of mind and life : or if you 

do, you think them such common forms of madness as not to call either for 

cure or for restraint. 
106-108. What is the conclusion? what but the sum of all the Stoic paradoxes? 

All the world is sick, except the philosopher — he never, except when he has 

a cold. 

Note the accumulated irony of the ending. (1) Who am I, to preach? I am 
hitting myself as hard as any one. (2) What does my preaching come to ? Am 
I not assuming the very Stoic tone at which I am always laughing ? 

Prima dicte mihi, summa dicende Camena, 
Spectatum satis et donatum iam rude quaeris, 
Maecenas, iterum antiquo me includere ludo. 
Non eadem est aetas, non mens. Veianius armis '^H^ 

1. Prima dicte, after Homer's kv aol 
/xiv \t]£oj, aeo 5' dp^o/xai II. 9. 97, Virg. 
Ecl. 8. 11 (to Pollio) 'a te principium, 
tibi desinet.' There is reference of 
course to the place which Maecenas oc- 
cupies in Horace's previously published 
collections of poems, Epod. 1, Od. 1. 1, 
Sat. 1. 1. For 'dicere' in the sense of 
' cantu praedicare ' see on Od. 1. 12. 13. 
Note the careful order. First the ad- 
dress, which means, ' you have infinite 
claims on me, and you know that I have 
never failed to acknowledge them ' ; then 
the circumstance which should exempt 
Horace from the present request, ' I 
bave already earned and received my 
discharge ' ; then the fact that Maecenas 
is actually making the request, and the 
true nature of the request — the vocative, 
which gives the tone of remonstrance, 
being put between these. Then follows 
in language free from metaphor, but 
directly answering the ' iterum antiquo,' 
the reason why what was possible before 
is not possible now. 

2. speetatum, 'approved,'like 'rude' 
and ' ludo,' a technical term of the 
gladiator's life. ' Tesserae ' have been 
fonnd with the inscription ' SP. ' which 

are supposed to have been presented 
to gladiators as marks of popular ap- 

rude, the gladiator's wooden sword 
used for praclice and given to the retir- 
ing gladiator as a symbol of his dis- 
charge. Cic. Phil. 2. 29. 74 ' tam bonus 
gladiator rudem tam cito ? ' Ovid, per- 
haps remembering that Horace has the 
metaph. of literary effort, Ov. Trist. 4. 
8. 34 ' Me quoque donari iam rude tem- 
pus erat.' Cp. Juv. S. 7. 171 ' Ergo sibi 
dabit ipse rudem.' 

3. ludo, 'the gladiator's training 

4. mens, ' inclination.' The words 
imply that the one has changed with 
the other. 

Veianius : evidently a retired gladiator 
of note. The Scholiasts say that his 
arms were dedicated at a temple of Her- 
cules at Fundi (in Latium). For the 
practice of dedicating to some deity the 
implements of a discarded craft see on 
Od. 3. 26. 3. Hercules is a natural god 
for a gladiator to honour in this way ; 
and the Scholiasts' note may point to 
some special connection of Veianius with 
Fundi and so with a temple there. No 


LIB. I. EPIST. i. 



Herculis ad postem fixis latet abditus agro, 5 

Ne populum extrema toties exoret arena. 

Est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 

' Solve senescentem mature sanus equum, ne • 

Peccet ad extremum ridendus et ilia ducat.' 

Nunc itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono, 10 

Quid verum atque decens, curo et rogo et omnis in hoc sum ; 

Condo et compono quae mox depromere possim. 

Ac ne forte roges quo me duce, quo lare tuter, 

proof is alleged of any more specific 
relation between gladiators and the 
worship of Hercules beyond Vitruvius' 
injunction (i. 7% quoted by Orelli, that 
temples of Hercules should be built near 
gymnasia,amphitheatres, or (asatRome) 
the Circus. 

5. abditus : Od. 3. 4. 38, of retired 
veterans, ' abdidit oppidis.' But here 
with ' latet ' there is a stronger sense of 
hiding ; ' he hides himself out of sight in 
the country.' So Cicero of his retire- 
ment from public life, de Off. 3. 1. 3 
' abdimus nos quantum licet et soli 

6. The idea seems to be that if he 
were tempted or forced back into the 
arena he would have each time again 
to win his discharge by appeal to the 
people. He wishes to have done with 
it once for all. 

extrema arena, ' from the arena's 
edge,' i. e. approaching the parapet 
round the arena behind which the most 
distinguished spectators sat. The ex- 
planation given of populum exoret is 
that of Acron, who vouches for the fact 
that gladiators obtained their 'rudis' in 
this way. Some editors interpret it of 
his being defeated and having to appeal 
for his life; cp. Juv. S. 3. 36 ' verso pol- 
lice volgus Quem iubet occidunt popu- 
lariter.' It is more difhcult however 
to give in this way a satisfactory mean- 
ing to toties ; and the chance of end- 
ing with a breakdown seems to be kept 
as a last consideration for the following 
verses and a different similitude. 

7. est mihi : as Orelli interprets, 
an inwaid monitor. Cp. with him 
Pers. S. 5. 96 'Stat contra ratio et se- 
cretam garrit in aurem Ne liceat facere,' 

purgatam. It is a double statement ; 
that there is such a monitor and that 
the poet's ear is open to listen. Cp. 

' auriculae collecta sorde dolentes ' Epp. 

i- 2. 53- 

8. mature sanus, ' be wise in time 
and loose,' etc. 

9. ilia dueat : the tired horse which 
stands 'straining his flanks' in the effort 
to get breath. 

10. et cetera ludiera, ' among my 
other playthings.' Cp. Epp. 2. 2. 55 
'Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes: 
Eripuere iocos, Venerem, convivia, lu- 
dum ; Tendunt extorquere poemata.' 

pono, sc. ' depono.' 

1 1. quid verum, sc. ' sit.' ' Verum ' 
and 'decens' are two descriptions of 
moral right, both from philosophical 
language of the day. For ' verum ' in 
the sense of true to a moral standard 
cp. Sat. 2. 3. 208, 312 ; Epp. 1. 7. 98, 
1. 12. 23 ; Virg. Aen. 12. 694 ' me verius 
unum Pro vobis foedus luere.' 

decens, acc. to Ciceio's definition 
(Off. 1. 27. 93") the equivalent of ' hones- 
tum ' and of the Greek Trpi-nov. 

omnis in hoc sum : Sat. 1. 9. 2 
' totus in illis.' 

12. condo, of storing material. 
compono, of setting it in order. 
depromere, a continuation of the 

metapbor, 'to bring out of the store ' for 
use. He is accumulating or digesting 
principles of practical philosophy for his 
own guidance. 

13. ne roges, ' to forestall yonr ask- 
ing ' ; the negative purpose of the state- 
meiit made in v. 14 foll. See on Od. 

1. 33. 1, and cp. Epp. 1. 16. 1, 1. 19. 26, 

2. 1. 208. 

quo duce : ' dux ' was nsed both of a 
leader in war and of the chief of a 
philosophical school. See Munro on 
Lucr. 1. 638. 

lare, a variation of the frequent use 
of ' familia' and ' domus ' (Od. 1. 29. 14) 
for such a school. 

me tuter : the verb is best adapted 


Nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri, 

Ouo me cunque rapit tempestas, deferor hospes. 
Nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis, 
Virtutis verae custos rigidusque satelles ; 
Nunc in Aristippi furtim praccepta relabor, 
*- Et mihi res, non me rebus subiungere conor 


Ut nox longa quibus mentitur amica, diesque 20 

Longa videtur opus debentibus, ut piger annus 

Pupillis quos dura premit custodia matrum ; 

Sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora, quae spem 

Consiliumque morantur agendi naviter id quod 

to the metaphor of the last of the two 

14. addictus : properly of a debtor 
who has been by sentence of court given 
over for the time as slave to his creditor ; 
then used metaphorically, as Cic. Tusc. 
2. 2. 5 ' qui certis quibusdam desti- 
natisque sententiis addicti et consecrati 

iurare in verba. Cp. Epod. 15. 4 
' in verba iurabas mea ' ; to swear after a 
formula dictated. It was specially used 
of the military oath of allegiance, as in 
Liv. 28. 29 ' in verba P. Scipionis iu- 
rarunt.' Here however the reference is 
to the oath of obedience taken by those 
who engaged themselves as gladiators ; 
' magistri ' being a title of the ' lanista ' 
or trainer of a gladiatorial school 
(Cic. de Or. 3. 23. 86 'magister Samni- 
tium '). See Mayor on Juv. S. 1 1. 8 ' leges 
et regia verba lanistae,' and cp. Hor. 
Sat. 2. 7. 58 ' uri, virgis ferroque necari, 
Auctoratus.' ' Addictus ' here takes the 
place of ' auctoratus ' (' having hired 
himself out '). The inf. in both cases is 
of the class discussed in Appendix 2 
(§ 2) of vol. 1. 

15. deferor hospes, 
and claim hospitality.' 
is a natural one, but 
Prior. 2. 8 ' ad quamcunque sunt 
ciplinam quasi tempestate delati.' 

16. agilis : Epp. I. 18. 90 ' agilem 
gnavumque'; 'a man of action.' Cicero, 
de Fin. 3. 20. 68, quotes Chrysippus as 
teaching the Stoic doctrine that the wise 
man should take part in public life, 
' velit gerere et administrare rempub- 

civilibus undis : Epp. 2. 2. 84 ' re- 
rum fluctibus in mediis.' 

I come to land 

The metaphor 

cp. Cic. Acad. 


1 7. verae : trne to its standard, not 
lowered to suit men's weakness. 

custos rigidusque satelles. 'Rigi- 
dus ' belongs to both substantives and is 
outside the metaphor, describing other- 
wise the strictness of the true Stoic : 
' custos,' ' satelles,' as though Virtue 
were a sovereign. 

18. Aristippi : Sat. 2. 3. 100, Epp. 
1. 17. 14, 23 ; the founder of the Cyrenaic 
school, who ' voluptatem finem esse 
voluerunt ' Cic. Acad. Prior. 42. 131. 

furtim relabor, as though he was 
ashamed of it. Horace does not paint 
this eclecticism as an ideal. He is in 
search of a philosophical system. This 
hesitation is a proof that he has not 
attained it. 

19. ' Try to make things serve me, 
not myself serve them.' A general de- 
scription of his own attitude towards 
external things in his Epicurean mo- 
ments. He finds the principles of his 
life in his own inclinations, not in rules, 
claims, relations outside himself. 

21. opus debentibus, ' whose work 
is a matter of debt.' A man who is 
working for his own pleasure or advant- 
age finds the day too short. 

22. pupillis . . . custodia. The 
former is a technical word, the latter not. 
The boys are orphans and therefore 
' pupilli,' 'wards' of some guardian, 
'tutor,' appointed under the father's 
will. They live still w ith their mother 
and are therefore under her control, in 
fact, though not in law, as a woman 
could not be a ' tutor '. 

dura, ' irksome.' 

24. id quod, etc. , i. e. the obtaining 
of fixed principles of conduct. 

LIB. I. EPIST. i. 


Aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, 
Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit.^ 
Restat ut his ego me ipse regam solerque elementis. 
Non pqssis oculo quantum contendere Lynceus, 

Non tamen idcirco contemnas lippus inungi ; 
Nec quia desperes invicti membra Glyconis, 
Nodosa corpus nolis prohibere cheragra. 
Est quadam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra. 
Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus 

2 5 




25, 26. prodest . . . noeebit. The 
future adds ' by and by, though it may 
not seem so at the moment/ and it suits 
the comparison in its clause between 
successive stages of life. The young 
see no evil results, but they vvill follow 

27. restat : till I attain to the 
system, I must do what I can with so 
much of the alphabet of philosophy as 
I have learnt. 

his : such as are exemplified in the 
rest of the Epistle. 

ego me ipse emphasizes again that 
his aim is practical and personal. He 
is not going to mount the professor's 

regam solerque : the practical aims 
of moral philosophy, guidance in con- 
duct, and the attainment of content and 

2S-31. These lines contain an apo- 
logy. ' Little is better than nothing.' 
They also offer a first example of the 
' elementa ' of philosophical common- 
place of which he speaks. 

28. non possis : see on Sat. 1. 1. 45. 
The omission of the concessive or con- 
ditional particle, that is, the return to 
co-ordinate construction, has the effect 
of contrasting more forcibly the possible 
hypothesis and the impossible conclu- 
sion which might wrongly be drawn 
from it. Notice that in usingthe second 
person henceforth in the Epistle (at 
least until v. 95), Horace has in view 
not Maecenas. but an imaginary dispu- 
tant or object of hfs teaching. See 
note on Epp. 1. 16. 41-43. 

oculo contendere : lit. to make an 
effort with the eye, as Cic. Lig. 3. 6 
'voce contendere.' Bentley, following 
Lambinus, with small MS. authority, 
reads and argues for ' oculos,' though 
allowing that both constructions are 

lawful. The position of ' contendere ' 
makes it the inf. not after ' possis,' 
but after ' potuit ' or ' potuisset,' in the 
rel. clause. 

Lyneeus : one of the Argonauts, 
famous for keenness of sight. Pind. 
Nem. 10. 62 Keivov -yap enixOoviwv -nav- 
Tcav jiver' b^vTarov 6/xp.a. 

29. lippus inungi : Sat. I. 5. 30. 

30. Glyconis. Lessing pointed out 
that a famous athlete, Glycon of Per- 
gamum, is the object of an epigram by 
Antipater of Thessalonica, a contempor- 
ary, as appears, ofHorace. Otherwisehis 
name is unknown, and as early as Acron 
the conjecture ' Milonis ' had been sub- 
stituted in some copies. Curiously, Milo 
is the name in the sentence which is 
quoted from Epictetus, and which pos- 
sibly was suggested by this passage : 
ov5e yap MiAwv eaojxai, Kal ovx 
dp.e\w tov aw/xaTos' ov5e Kpotaos, dAA.' 
oiiws oxjk apieXw T7?s KT-qaews. 

31. cheragra : Sat. 2. 7. 16. 

32. est, e£eon. Sat. 2. 5. 103. 
quadam . . . tenus. The tmesis as 

in Virg. Aen. 5. 603 ' Hac celebrata 
tenus.' ' Quadam ' is one of the many 
true readings received into the text of 
Horace by Cruquius on the testimony 
of V. It had been conjecturally re- 
stored by Lambinus, but has since been 
found in most of the best MSS. The 
earlier readings were ' quodam ' and 
' quoddam.' The latter made no sense, 
the former is contrary to the usual 
formation of adverbial compounds of 
' tenus,' which have the fem. abl. as 
' hactenus,' ' aliquatenus.' 

33. fervet. Perhaps, ' is fevered,' 
the metaphor being continuous in this 
and the two following lines. Cp. Sat. 
2. 3. 79 ' luxuria . . . aut alio mentis 
morbo calet.' Otherwise we should 
take it as Cicero's ' fervet ferturque 




Sunt verba et voces quibus hunc lenire dolorem 
Possis et magnam morbi deponere partem. 
Laudis amore tumes ; sunt certa piacula quae te 
Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello. 
Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator, 
Nemo adeo ferus est ut non mitescere possit, 
Si modo culturae patientem commodet aurem. 
Virtus est vitium fugere et sapientia prima 
Stultitia caruisse. Vides quae maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum turpemque repulsam, 
Ouanto devites animi capitisque labore. 
Impiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos 
Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa 

4 o 

avaritia' pro Quint. 11. 38, or Ovid's 
' tumida fervebat ab ira ' Met. 2. 602 ; 
' is in a ferment.' For the indicative of 
hypothesis cp. inf. v. 58 and 87. 

misero : Sat. 1. 4. 26 ' ob avaritiam 
aut misera ambitione laborat,' ib. 1. 6. 

eupidine : a larger word than 
' avaritia,' including all the ways of 
desiting instead of enjoying, of which 
that is (to Horace) the standing instance. 
See introd. to Sat. I. I. Cp. the phrase 
' inops cupido ' in Epp. 1. 18. 98. For 
the gender of ' cupido ' see on Od. 
2. 16. 15. 

34. verba et voces : perhaps with 
remembrance of Eur. Hipp. 478 elolv 
8' tircphal Kal Kvyoi OtktcTrjpici' | (pavr)- 
oerai ti Trjafie (pdpp.aKov voaov, where 
eircvSai would answer to ' voces,' Kuyot 
to ' verba.' The teachings of philosophy 
are likened to the spells of the iarpo- 


36. laudis amore : ambition stands 
next to avarice, as in Sat. 1. 4. 26, 
2. 3. 179 foll. ; Epp. 2. 2. 205. 

tumes, as Sat. 2. 3. 213. The choice 
of the figure is due to the windy, un- 
substantial, chaiacter of the objects of 
ambition, ' inani ambitione' Epp. 2. 2. 
206. But it is also another medical 
word, ambition is as a dropsy. 

piaeula : continuing the figure of 
ancient medicine, which mixed the arts 
of the physician and of the seer. 

37. ter : see note on Sat. 2. 1. 7. 
pure, as Orelli explains it = dyvws, 

KaOapws. So, with a similar mixture of 
medical and religious import. Plin. N. H. 

, per lgnes 

mare paupenem 

... n>|/ 




caste pureque col- 

22. 10 

lecta. : 

libello. The word covers both the 
philosophical treatise and the book of 
magic formulae to which it is likened. 

41. virtus. We are probably, as 
is usual with Horace, to understand 
' prima ' from the second substantive. 
' It is a first step in virtue to avoid vice, 
as it is the first step in wisdom to have 
got rid of folly.' He is still apologiz- 
ing for the elementary and negative 
character of the wisdom which is to 

43. censum . . . repulsam. These 
follow the order of the two vices of which 
he has spoken, avarice and ambition. 

turpem : cp. Od. 3. 2. 17 ' repulsae 
. . . sordidae.' 

44. animi capitisque labore. A 
difficulty was early felt in the apparent 
contrast of ' animi ' and ' capitis.' Our 
opposition of ' heart ' and ' head ' is not 
to be thought of. The true explana- 
tion is probably indicated in the early 
glosses which have in some MSS. crept 
into the text as substitutes for ' la- 
bore,' (1) ' dolore,' i.e. 'labor' means 
' pain' rather than 'effort'; (2) 'periclo,' 
i. e. ' labor ' is used with something of 
a zeugma, ' capitis labore ' having rather 
the sense of ' riskto life.' 

46. per mare . . . per saxa, per 
ignes. The enumeration is proverbial 
and metaphorical, though it begins with 
a danger which may be understood 
literally. Cp. Sat. 1. 1. 38, 2. 3. 54. 
With the general picture of the trader 
cp. Od. 3. 24. 36 foll. 

LIB. I. EPIST. i. 


Ne cures ea, quae stulte miraris et optas, 

Discere et audire, et meliori crcdere non vis? 

Quis circum pagos et circum compita pugnax 

Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, 50 

Cui sit condicio dulcis sine pulvere palmae? 

Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. 

' O cives, cives, quaerenda pecunia primum est ; 

Virtus post nummos : ' haec Ianus summus ab imo 

Prodocet, haec recinunt iuvenes dictata senesque, 55 

Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. 

. -7"' — i- r vv<v '' 

Est animus tibi, sunt mores et lingua ndesque ; 


47. ne cures : the negative purpose 
of ' discere,' etc, ' to save yourself irom 
caring for,' etc. 

48. meliori : cp. Epp. i. 2. 68 ' te 
melioribus offer.' 

49-51. These lines enforce by an illus- 
tration the appeal of vv. 47, 48. Com- 
pare the prize in the two cases and the 
effort required. It is as though a hack 
prize-fighter were offered a garland at 
Olympia without having to fight for it. 

50. coronari Olympia, a Graecism : 
OTi<pavovadai 'OkxifjLiria, as Ennius ' vicit 
Olumpia,' quoted by Cic. de Sen. 5. 13. 

52. vilius, etc. This is the inter- 
pretation of the preceding question. 
' Virtue is the prize offered, and that is 
as much more valuable than gold, which 
you are seeking at such cost, as gold 
itself is more valuable than silver. But 
(he goes on) here is the difficulty : — this 
doctrine which seems to me so clear is 
the very opposite of the doctrine which 
all the world preaches and repeats.' 

54. Ianus summus ab imo. As to 
the exact meaning of this phrase see on 
Sat. 2. 3. iS ' Ianum ad medium.' In 
any case it means, generally, the head- 
quarters of the busine^s of money-mak- 

55. prodocet, an ana£ \ey. It seems 
to answer to 'recinunt dictata'; ' deals 
forth asfrom the teacher's chair.' ' Prae- 
docet/ ' perdocet/ each found in a few 
MSS. of inferior value, are emendations 
of a rare vvord. 

recinunt dictata : Epp. 1. 18. 13 
' saevo dictata magistro Reddere ' (cp. 
Sat. 1. 10. 75), of lessons taught orally 
and repeated in sing-song by the class. 

56. The line is repeated from Sat. 
1. 6. 74, where see note. It seems here 

to emphasize ' senes' ironically. ' Yes, 
the old, in this matter, are as true 
schoolboys as those whom I used to see 
and whom I described tripping to sjhool 
at Venusia.' Similar repelitions of a line 
with a purpose occur between Sat. 1. 2. 
27 and Sat. 1. 4. 92 ; Sat. 1. 8. 11 and 
Sat. 2. 1. 22 ; apparently without a pur- 
pose between Sat. 1. 2. 13 and A. P. 
421 ; Sat. 2. 3. 163 and Epp. 1. 6. 28; 
and, though the reading is questioned, 
Epp. 1. 14. 34 and Epp. 1. 18. 91. It 
is also a usage found in the Odes under 
both circumstances. Cp. Od. 1. 19. 1 vvith 
4. 1. 5 ; and Od. 3. 21. 20 vvith 4. 8. 33. 

57, 58. The great majority of editors 
since Cruquius place these lines in this 
order, and there is some MS. authority 
for it, including Holder's E and g. 
Bentley, who argues strongly for it, sup- 
poses 57 to have been at some time 
omitted and wrongly replaced. He 
points out that in one of his MSS. (that 
beionging to Magdalen College, Oxford) 
it is inserted after v. 61. 

If 58 is to be put before 57, we must 
imagine it to be a reply of the money- 
seeker, answering to that made in Sat. 
1. 1. 62 ' Nil satis est (inquit) quia tanti 
quantum habeas sis.' ' Nay, the world 
is right, not you, for I am still some 
way off the income which carries with it 
respectability.' But this is a serious 
break in an otherwise orderly series of 
thought. Putting 57 before 58 vve find 
Horace still pursuing his statement that 
the world puts money before merit. 
That is the lesson taught on 'Change. 
That is the lesson (so vv. 57-59 run) of 
our social distinctions. 

57. est, ' suppose you Jiave.' 

animus ; here ' gifts of mind,' which 

2 20 


Sed quadringentis sex septem milia desunt ; 
Plebs eris. At pueri ludentes, ' Rex eris,' aiunt, 
' Si recte facies.' Hic murus aeneus esto, 
Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 
Roscia, dic sodes, melior lex an puerorum est 
Nenia, quae regnum recte facientibus offert, 
Et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis? 
Isne tibi melius suadet qui, rem facias, rem, 
Si possis recte, si non, quocunque modo rem, 
Ut propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupi, 


in the similar Od. 2. 18. 9 is ' ingeni 

lingua fides. Some relation is to be 
felt between these. Contrast Plaut. 
M. G. 2. 2. 35 ' os habeat, linguam, 

58. sed. There is a v. 1. ' si ' in 
some good MSS. (incl. the Queen's Coll. 
MS.), followed in the early editions, 
which placed this line before 57; but 
the weight of evidence is for ' sed,' and 
' si ' was perhaps an emendation in- 
tended to smooth the transition when 
the verses were read in that order. 

quadringentis, the 'equestris summa' 
of A. P. 383, a fortune of 400,000 ses- 

ses septem, ' six or seven,' a collo- 
quial use. Ter. Eun. 2. 3. 40 ' his 
mensibus sex septem,' Cic. ad Att. 10. 
8 ' sex septem diebus.' 

59. plebs for ' plebeius.' Prof. Wil- 
kins points out the Homeric parallel, 
dTjfxov tovra, i. e. one of the people, II. 
12. 213. ' Plebs ' is used with its usual 
Horatian meaning of ' the people ' in a 
depreciatory sense, ' one of the crowd.' 

at. Horace's answer to the judgment 
of the world. 

60. si recte facies. The Scholiast 
gives the full line of the ' nenia,' a 
trochaic tetrameter catal. , ' Rex eris si 
recte facies, si non facies, non eris,' and 
the same verse is quoted as a proverb by 
Isidore of Seville (beginningoi yth cent.) 
in his Origines (9. 3. 4). What mean- 
ing the boys gave to 'recte facere,' 
whether ' to play well ' or ' to keep the 
rules ' is a matter of guessing. Horace 
is concerned with the words, and the 
connection into which ' rex ' and ' recte 
facere ' are brought. Plato (Theaetetus, 
p. 146) alludes to a Greek game of ball 
in which the worst player was called 

ovos, the best @afft\evs. 

hic : for the attraction of the pronoun 
see Madv. § 316. 

murus aeneus, i. e. a perfect protec- 
tion. See on Od. 3. 3. 65. 

61. sibi : an indefinite subject being 
understood to ' conscire.' Wilkins 
points out a similar instance in Cic. de 
Nat. D. 1. 30. 84, where we have 'sibi' 
(altered by some edd. to ' tibi ') ' displi- 
cere,' although thesentence is addressed, 
as here, to tbe second person. 

62. Roscia lex. See on Epod. 4. 15. 
It is taken as the type of an estimate 
of rank based upon money. 

sodes : Sat. 1. 9. 41. 

63. nenia : see on Od. 3. 28. 16 ; 
'refrain,' ' nursery rhyme.' Phaedrus 
depreciatingly calls his fables (3. prol. 
10) ' viles neniae.' 

64. maribus : A. P. 402 ' mares 

Curiis . . . Camillis : Od. 1. 12. 41, 
42 ; for the plural see on ibid. 37. 
Virgil has ' Camillos ' G. 2. 169. 

decantata. See on Od. 1. 33. 3. 
Here we have only the idea of repeti- 
tion, from generation to generation. 

65. rem . . . rem . . . rem, of the one 
thing preached in season and out of 
season, ' money, money, money.' Cp. 
a slighter instance of such repetition 
Epod. 14. 6. 

67. propius, i. e. in the seats which 
the 'lex Roscia' appropriated to the 

lacrimosa, ' doleful.' Nothing is 
known of Pupius but what the Scholiasts 
tell us, viz. that he wrote tragedies and 
that the following epigram was composed 
on him, they say, by himself, ' Flebunt 
amici et bene noti mortem meam : 
Nam populus in me vivo lacrimavit 

LIB. I. EPIST. i. 


An qui Fortunae te responsare superbae '.<*<■**, 

Liberum et erectum praesens hortatur et aptat ? 

Quodsi me populus Romanus forte roget, cur 70 

Non ut porticibus sic iudiciis fruar isdem, 

Nec sequar aut fugiam quae diligit ipse vel odit, 

Olim quod volpes aegroto cauta leoni 

Respondit referam : ' Quia me vestigia terrent, 

Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum.' 75 

Belua multorum es capitum. Nam quid sequar aut quem? 

Pars hominum gestit conducere publica, sunt qui 

Frustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 

Excipiantque senes quos in vivaria mittant ; 

Multis occulto crescit res fenore. Verum 80 

68. responsare : see on Sat. 2. 7. 85. 

69. ereetum. Orelli compares Cic. 
Deiot. 13. 36 ' magno animo et erecto 
est, nec unquam succumbet inimicis, ne 
fortunae quidem.' 

praesens : much as it is used of divini- 
ties, ' with ready help,' ' in hour of 
need ' ; it goes with both verbs : he not 
only advises but helps you to keep the 

aptat. A few good MSS. (incl. Regin.) 
' optat.' There is the reverse mistake 
in Epp. 1. 6. 55, some old MSS. reading 
' adapta.' 

71. portieibus : see Sat. 1.4. 134 n. 

fruar : not only use, but ' use with 

73. olim, as in Sat. 2. 6. 79, the 
' once upon a time ' of a fable. Cp. Epp. 
1.3. 1 8. It is an Aesopean fable. Porph. 
tells us that Lucilius had used it, and 
some of the lines in which he did so 
have been pieced together in his frag- 
ments, 30. 80 foll. ed. Miiller, cp. esp. 
vv. 86, 87 ' Quid sibi volt, quare fit ut 
introversus et ad te Spectent atque ferant 
vestigia se omnia prorsus ? ' 

76. belua multorum capitum. 
Horace dwells on the figure of the fable 
and gives another aspect to it. The 
world which bids me imitate it is well 
represented as a beast — a those 
of legend, with many heads. 

77-80. We are passing from the 
charge brought against the world, of a 
wrong standard, to that of inconstancy, 
but this is not donewith logical accuracy, 
and the instances given of variety of 
taste in different people belong still to 

the old subject, being limited to various 
ways, including the most questionable 
ones, of making money. 

77- eonducere publica, ' to take pub- 
lic contracts.' The phrase seems to cover 
contracts both for the farming of the 
revenue (cp. 'publicis male redemptis' 
Cic. Q. Erat. 1. 1. 11) and for woiks to 
be executed for the state. It is possible 
that Horace is thinking of various grades 
of dignity in such contracts (cp. JuvenaFs 
' Quis facile est aedem conduceie, flu- 
mina, portus, Siccandam eluviem,' etc. 
3. 30), but the main irony lies in the 
verb ' gestit,' ' is greedy to,' and in the 
juxtaposition of the calling of the ' pub- 
licanus ' with that of the legacy-hunter 
and the money-lender, as though the 
difference were one of taste. 

78. frustis : Perhaps acontemptuous 
term ; ' scraps,' ' broken meat,' of such 
presents as the 'turdus' of Sat. 2. 5. 10. 
Most editors have preferred the reading 
' crustis ' (' cakes,' ' pastry ' ; cp. the 
dim. 'crustula' in Sat. 1. I. 25), which 
Cruquius and Lambinus found in some of 
their MSS. and which has the authority 
of 0- (the St. Gall MS.). 

pomis : Sat. 2. 5. 12. 
venentur . . . excipiant : Od. 3. 12. 
1 2 ' excipere aprum.' 

79. vivaria, of catching wild game 
and turning them into preserves. Cp. the 
similar metaphor of catching fish and 
putting them in fishponds, Sat. 2. 5, 44. 

80. occulto. It is difficult to choose 
between the interpietations 'secret,' i.e. 
unlawful, and therefore not arranged in 
public, and ' the interest that grows, men 



Esto aliis alios rebus studiisque teneri : 
Idem eadem possunt horam durare probantes? 
' Nullus in orbe sinus Bais praelucet amoenis,' 
Si dixit dives, lacus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 
Fecerit auspicium, cras ferramenta Teanum 
Tolletis, fabri. Lectus genialis in aula est 
Nil ait esse prjus, melius nil caelibe vita ; 
Si non est, iurat bene solis esse maritis. 



Ouo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo ? 

Ouid pauper ? Ride : mutat cenacula, lectos, 

Balnea, tonsores, conducto navigio aeque 

Nauseat ac locuples quem ducit priva triremis. 

Si curatus inaequali tonsore capillos 

Occurri, rides ; si forte subucula pexae ><**-. ^c) 95 

know not how,' after Od. i. 12. 45 
' crescit occulto velut arbor aevo.' In 
the latter case the epithet would suggest 
the idea of an ' unearned increment,' and 
so of an invidious mode of monev-makinaf. 

84. lacus et mare : the Lucrine lake 
and the sea outside the bar. The rich 
proprietor disturbs both by his buildmg. 
Cp. on the subject Od. 2. 18. 19-22, 

3- 1. 33-4°> 3- 24- i-4- 

sentit, in a bad sense, ' feels the effects 
of,' ' smarts for.' 

85. libido, ' fancy,' 'caprice.' 

86. fecerit auspicium : ' facere au- 
spicium ' is said of the birds or other 
appearances that give the omen. 

Teanum, i. e. from the seaside to an 
inland town. Teanum called 'Sidicinum,' 
to distinguish it from the town of the 
same name in Apulia, was a town of 
Campania on the Via Latina between 
Cales and Casinnm. 

87. lectus ganialis : the bed dedicated 
to the genius (called ' lectus adversus' 
Prop. 4. 11. 85) which stood in the 
' atrium ' of a house where a married 
couple lived. 

est : see above on vv. 33, 58. 

89. bene esse : Od. 2. 16. 43. 

90. Protea : see on Sat. 2. 3. 71. 

91. quid pauper P A reply of the 
rich man to Horace's arraignment. 
Perhaps, as Cruquius suggests, it is 
meant to be the answer of Maecenas 
himself. Horace hastens to answer 
that the same charge of inconstancy 

holds against all, against himself. It is 
the commencement of the ironical con- 
clusion. For the meaning of ' pauper ' 
see on Od. 1. 1. 18. It covers, as we 
see, a man in Horace's own station. 

cenacula : by usage, of the hired 
garrets of the poor. See Mayor on Juv. 
S. 10. 18. 

92. conducto navigio : though he 
has to hire the boat, he goes to sea and 
is sick just as much as the rich man who 
has his own trireme. 

93. priva triremis : see on Od. 2. 16. 
21-24 and 3. 1. 37 foll. 

94. inaequali tonsore, an abl. absol. 
(see on Od. 1.6. 1). The point is not a 
general air of untidiness but the par- 
ticular incongruities — the hair trimmed 
unevenly on the two sides, a new outer 
tunic and an old inner one, a ' toga ' 
that sits unequally on the two shoulders. 
Maecenas' eye is especially quick for the 
want of harmony in any such external 
matters, yet he is blind to greater internal 
inconsistencies. At the same time the 
passage would seem tp imply that 
Horace actually laid himself open to 
such criticisms, and therefore increases 
the probability that in Sat. 1. 3. 31 foll. 
he is thinking of himself. 

95. occurri. The omission of the 
pronoun or any emphatic mark of a 
change of subject or person addressed 
supports Cruquius' view, that the refer- 
ence to Horace himself has begun in 
the preceding lines. 

LIB. I. EPIST. i. 



Trita subest tunicae vel si toga dissidet impar, 

Rides : quid mea cum pugnat sententia secum, 

Ouod petiit spernit, repetit quod nuper omisit, 

Aestuat et vitae disconvenit ordine toto, 

Diruit, aedificat, mutat quadrata rotundis? 

Insanire putas sollemnia me neque rides, 

Ncc medici credis nec curatoris egere 

A praetore dati, rerum tutela mearum 

Cum sis et prave sectum stomacheris ob unguem 

De te pendentis, te respicientis amici. 

Ad summam : sapiens uno minor est Iove, dives, 

Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum ; 

Praecipue sanus, nisi cum pituita molesta est. ' 


subucula : acc. to Varro (fragm. pre- 
served by Nonius) this was a second 
tunic worn under the other. 

pexae, of wool still fresh, with the 
nap on. Cp. Mart. 2. 58. 1 ' Pexatus 
pulcre rides mea, Zoile, trita.' 

96. dissidet impar, corresponds to 
'toga defluit ' in Sat. I. 3. 31. 

99. asstuat, sways to and fro like 
the tide. 

disconvenit : Epp. 1. 14. 18. 
ordine toto : his life is a succession of 

100. diruit, aedificat. Horace makes 
the Stoic in Sat. 2. 3. 307 laugh at him 
for spending money in building. 

mutat quadrata : probably a pro- 
verbial expression for fanciful altera- 
tions, based, as Lambinus suggested, 
on the story told of Agesilaus (see 
Plutarch, Ap. Laconica, Agesilai 27) 
that on seeing in Asia square beams 
used in the roof of a house he asked if 
trees in that country were square, and 
being told that they were round, said, 
' then if trees grew square would you 
make your beams round ? ' Some modest 
alterations in his Sabine villa would 
be enough to give occasion to his ovvn 
ironical laughter at his own expense. 

101. sollemnia, as the Schol. ex- 
plains it, ' pro consuetudine cunctorum,' 
one more madman in a mad world ; the 
doctrine of Sat. 2. 3. For the use of 
' sollemnis' cp. Epp. 1. 18. 49, 2. 1. 103; 
for the cogn. acc. with ' insanire ' see 
Sat. 2. 3. 63. 

102. curatoris : see note on Sat. 2. 3. 

103. rerum tutela, etc, ' though you 
take such responsibility for me, and are 
so sensitive for my reputation, and 
thongh your lightest word has such 
weight with me.' 

106. ad summam : cp. his way of 
bringing a discussion to a close in Sat. 
*■ 3- J 37 ' Ne longum faciam.' He 
sums up in this ironical way his whole 
moral lecture. ' You see what I have 
been saying. It is the old story. The 
true object of desire is "wisdom," the 
" wise man" is all that the Stoics have 
called him — that I have often laughed 
at them for calling him.' See note on 
Sat. 1. 3. 124 foll. 

108. praecipue, 'above all,' 'as a 
chief distinction.' 

sanus, ' sound,' i.e. primarily. as opp. 
to 'insanus' (v. 101), but the double 
meaning suggests the playful qualifica- 
tion, 'except when he has a bad cold.' 
Orelli shows by quotations that among 
the later Stoics at least the question was 
common how far such minor physical 
infirmities deduct from the perfect 
happiness of the wise man. It is pos- 
sible that there is a playful reference to 
a medico-philosophical doctiine that 
' pituita' (see on Sat. 2. 2. 75) clouded 
the intellect. Cp. Plin. N. H. 20. 7. 26 
' [lactucae] lentitiam pituitae digerunt 
atque ut aliqui tradiderunt, sensus pur- 
gant ' with Pers. S. 2. 57 ' Somnia 
pituita . . . purgatissima ' ; see Coning- 
ton's note there. 

For the scansion of ' pituita ' see on 
Sat. 2. 2. 75. 






Verses 1-4. I have been re-reading my Homer, Lollius. He is a better teacher of 

morals than your Stoics and Academics. 
5-8. The whole story is full of the follies both of the few and of the many. 
9-16. Antenor and Nestor, in the Iliad, are the philosophers, going to the root of 

the matter, showing the way of safety, composing foolish quarrels. Paris, 

Achilles, and Agamemnon are the ' madmen ' of common life, refusing to be 

saved, driven headlong by desire or anger. The many suffer for the sins of the 

few. Life and its follies are the same in both camps. 
17-31. So in the Odyssey, Ulysses is the philosopher, studying life, thinking for 

others, proof against adversity, deaf to the Sirens and to Circe, while his 

comrades fall victims to them. We find our part in the ciphers of the story, 

the suitors, the courtiers of Alcinous, prodigals, fops, and loungers. 
32-39. This is the bane of life. Wake up, show in a good cause something of the 

energy which robbers show in a bad. Laziness will avenge itself in the 

case of moral health as of physical. 
40-43. Do not procrastinate. Time waits for no man. 
44, 45. You plead excuses. You are busy on legitimate objects of desire. 
46-54. Be it so, but set a limit to these. Remember that wealth to be enjoyed 

presupposes health to enjoy, health of mind as well as body. 
55-62. Pleasure is often bought too dear. Avarice is perpetual poverty. Envy 

is a torment. Anger is a temporary insanity. 
62-67. These can all be tamed if you treat the mind as you treat your horse and 

your dog — break it in early. 
67-70. Listen to me while you are young. Early lessons are long retained. 
70, 71. But, whether you listen or not, I shall go my own pace. 

This Epistle is to be read with the First. It is an instance of the rudimentary 
philosophy, the thoughts on life and morals, which Horace represents himself then as 
storing. They are brought out now for the benefit of a young man. Homer's 
poems are only the text and excuse, a link, it may be, between Lollius' old studies 
and new needs. But we see elsewhere (see on Epp. 1. 16. 73) that Horace was in- 
clined as he read the Greek poets to find for himself moral applications of their 

The ' Lollius ' of this Epistle and (we may suppose) of the Eighteenth is a young 
man who in the later Epistle is spoken of as having served under Augustus in the 
Cantabrian campaign, B.c. 25, 24. He is possibly the son of the M. Lollius to 
whom Od. 4. 9 is addressed. 

Various theories have been held as to the meaning of the appellation ' Maxime ' 
given to him in v. 1. It has been taken (1) as = 'natu maxime,' as though there 
were several brothers. One brother is mentioned in Epp. 1. 18. 63. Cp. ' O maior 
iuvenum ' A. P. 366. This is Orellfs view, but it has been pointed out that there 
is no authority for the use of ' maxime ' by itself in the sense of ' eldest.' (2) As 
either iiterally or playfully = ' illustrious,' the former by those who with the Scholiasts 
take the Epistle to be addressed to M. Lollius who was consul in B.c. 21 ; among 

LIB. I. EPIST. 2. 


these is Ritter. The latter by those who think it to be addressed to a boy. (3) As 
a cognomen. This is no new theory, having been held by Scaliger, but it has 
gained general belief since Meineke's advocacy of it. There is no trustworthy 
evidence of the cognomen borne by M. Lollius, the consul of B. c. 21. Under the 
Republic the only cognomen found in the gens Lollia is Palicanus. A grand- 
daughter of his is called ' Lollia Paullina,' and this has been supposed to indicate 
that the cognomen was Paullinus. But the whole question of cognomina at this 
period is very obscure. A 'Lollius Maximus ' is found in an inscription, but of 
a much later date. Keller compares Ovid's address (ex Pont. 2. 8. 2 and 3. 5. 6) 
' Maxime Cotta ' to the son of Messalla, the orator, who had been adopted into the 
Aurelia gens, and bore apparently both the cognomen which belonged to it, and 
that of Maximus, an old cognomen in the Valeria gens, to which by birth he be- 

v. w 

ti BM 

TROIANI belli scriptorem, Maxime Lolli, 

Dum tu declamas Romae Praeneste relegi ; 

Oui quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non, 

Planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit 

Cur ita crediderim nisi quid te distinet audi. 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 

Graecia Barbariae lento collisa duello, 

Stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus. 

>.*. |»-r»-y 


-•> *r 

1. Maxime Lolli. Taking'Maxime' 
as a cognomen (see introd.), notice the 
inversion of the two names, as in Od. 
2. 2. 3 ' Crispe Salusti,' where see n. 

2. deelamas, of a young man practis- 
ing the art of speaking under the guid- 
ance of a ' rhetor.' Cicero describes 
himself as doing so Brut. 90. 310 
' commentabar declamitans (sic enim 
loquuntur) saepe cum M. Piceno et cum 
Q. Pompeio aut cum aliquo quotidie ; ' 
see Mayor on Juv. S. 7. 150. 

Praeneste, a haunt of Horace ; see 
Od. 3. 4. 23 n. It does not follow that 
he possessed a house there. 

3. pulehrum . . . utile : /caXov, 
Xp-qaifxov. The two tests of action 
according to Cic. de Off. I. 3. 10. 

4. planius. The Bland. MSS. seem 
here to have had the worse reading 
' plenius.' The Pseudo-Acron had 
' planius,' which he interprets by 'aper- 
tius,' the Comm. Cruq. by ' manifestius.' 
' Plenius ' would involve an unnecessary 
paradox, as Chrysippus and Crantor are 
both spoken of as most voluminous 
writers. For Chrysippus the Stoic see 
on Sat. 1. 3. 126. Crantor was an Aca- 
demic, ' Legimus omnes Crantoris veteris 
Academici de luctu ' Cic. Academ. 
Prior. 2. 136, ' Crantor ille qui in nostra 

VOL. II. ( 

Academia vel inprimis fuit nobilis ' id. 
Tusc. D. 3. 6. 12. Diog. Laert. (4. 24) 
speaks of him as having written a book 
of virofx.vrjfj.ara, which contained 30,000 

5. crediderim. For the tense cp. Od. 

3- 5- 1 • 

distinet : the reading of the best 
MSS., including the Bland., as against 
' detinet.' 

7. Barbariae : cp. Od. 2.4.9' Bar- 
barae postquam cecidere turmae,' and 
Epod. 9. 6. The Roman poets intro- 
duce into their language about the Tro- 
jan war the post-Homeric distinction of 
Greeks and fiapfiapoi, so that ' barbari ' 
becomes the equivalent of Trojan or 
Phrygian ; see Conington on Virg. Aen. 
2. 504. 

duello. Horace affects this archaic 
form Od. 3. 5. 38, 3. 14. iS, 4. 15.8; 
Epp. 2. 1. 254, 2. 2. 98. Notice, with 
Orelli, the effect of the sonorous verse 
with its heroic tone, in contrast with 
the preceding line, in emphasizing the 
inadequacy of the cause and the serious- 
ness of the result. 

8. stultorum. In the philosophical 
sense, as opposed to the ' sapiens.' 
Antenor and Nestor are the philoso- 




Antenor censet belli praecidere causam : 

Quid Paris ? Ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 

Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden ; 

Hunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. 

Quicquid delirant reges plectuntur Achivi. 

Seditione, dolis, scelere atque libidine et ira 

Uiacos intra muros peccatur et extra. 

Rursus quid virtus et quid sapicntia possit 

Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen, 

Oui domitor Troiae multorum providus urbes 

Et mores hominum inspexit, latumque per aequor, 

Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 

Pertulit, adversis rerum immersabilis undis. 

Sirenum voces et Circae pocula nosti ; 

Quae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset, 

Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excors 

Vixisset canis immundus vel amica luto sus. 

Nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati, 




i . 

2 5 

9. Antenor. The reference is to II. 
7. 347 foll. Cp. also Liv. 1. 1 ' duo- 
bus Aeneae Antenorique . . . quia pacis 
redclendaeque Helenae auctores semper 
fuerunt, omne ius belli Achivos abstin- 

10. quicl Paris ? II. 7. 357 foll. 
' 'AvTrjvop oi) fx\v ovKir' kp.01 cfnXa ravr' 
dyopfvas, k.t.X. Horace puts theresult 
of Paris' answer into his mouth as 
though he had actually foreseen and 
chosen it. Bentley, not allowing suffi- 
ciently for the irony, argues strongly for 
the reading of inferior authority, ' Quod 
Paris,' ' quod ' being the accusative after 
' cogi.' 

11. Nestor : II. 1. 254 foll. 

1 2. inter . . . inter. For this idiom 
see on Sat. 1. 7. 11. 

1 3. hunc : sc. Agamemnon. 

14. plectuntur : Sat. 2. 7. 105 ' tergo 

15. atque, not coordinated with et 
but a kling to seelere its two motives, 
' crime, and the lust and anger from 
which it springs.' 

19-22. A free translation of the first 
five lines of the Odyssey, of part of 
which he gives another version in A. P. 
141, 142, dvdpa pot tvvine, Movoa, 

TToXvTponov, bs paXa jroXXd | TrXayx^Vt 

klTil TpOtTjS hpOV TTToXliOpOV iTTipCTe' \ 
TToXXwV 5' dvOpUlTTCVV tfiiV aorea Kal voov 
eyvcu, | iroWa 5' o j iv ttovtcu irdOiv 
d\jia ov icard Ov^ibv \ dpvvpavos tjv Ti 
^vxrjv Kal vuotov iraipcvv. 

23. Sirenum : Odyss. 12. 39 foll. 
and 166 foll. 

Cireae pocula : Odyss. 10. 230 foll. 
Horace recurs to the story of the crew 
of Ulysses in Epp. 1. 6. 64 foll. 

24. stultus cupidusque. He per- 
haps means to suggest that the pu/Xv 
with which by Hermes' advice Ulysses 
had fortified himself bcfore he drank of 
Ciree's cup, represents temperance, with 
which the cup of pleasure becomes 
harmless. He did not drink ' in foolish 

25. turpis et excprs, ' shamed and 
witless.' Lambinus suggests that the 
words are an echo of Homer's kokov Kal 
dvfjvopa Od. 10. 301. For 'excors' see 
Sat. 2. 3. 67. 

26. immundus . . . amica luto 
seem to suggest a moral interpretation 
of the story. 

27. nos numerus sumus. Ulysses 
is the one in the thousand ; we are 
the nine hundred and ninety-nine, 

LIB. I. EPIST. 2. 


Sponsi Pcnelopae, nebulones, Alcinoique 
In cute curanda plus aequo operata iuventus, 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies et 
Ad strepitum citharae f cessatum ducere curam. 
Ut iugulent hominem surgunt de nocte latrones : 
Ut te ipsum serves non expergisceris ? Atqui 




1. 104. 

the apiOfius, itpu(iaT aAAws, dpupoprjs 
1'evijo-fxevoi of Arist. Nub. 1203, where 
the succeeding designations explain the 
first : men without individuality, who 
can only be spoken of in the mass. 

fruges consumere nati, ' fit for no 
task higher than to eat their share of 
eartlvs fruits ' ; an adaptation of the 
Homeric fipoTwv ot dpovpr/s Kaprrov 
(Sovoiv. For ' nati ' with the inf. see 
App. 2 of vol. 1. § 2. 

28. sponsi. Cp. 
quondam flexere mariti ' of 
suitors, Aen. 4. 35. 

nebulones : see on Sat. 1. 
It is a further designation of 'sponsi,' 
giving the application by a familiar 
phrase of Roman town life, answering 
to the description of ' Alcinoi inventus,' 
' good-for-naught suitors of Penelope.' 

Alcinoi iuventus, the young cour- 
tiers of Alcinous, as he describes them 
in Odyss. 8. 248 ahl 5' r)piv Sais re (jnArj 
Kidapis T6 XOpoi re | iipard t' e£rjpoifid 
KotTpd Tt deppd Kal eiivai. Cp. Epp. I. 
15. 24 ' Pinguis ut inde domum possim 
Phaeaxque reverti.' 

29. cute curanda : Epp. 1. 4. 15 
'bene curata cute,' Sat. 2. 5. 3S ' pelli- 
culam curare ' ; ' in keeping their skin 

30. in medios dormire dies. This 
belongs to the life of a lazy young 
Roman (cp. Pers. Sat. 3 passim), not the 
actual Homeric picture. 

31. fcessatum ducere curam. So 
editors usually print, even those who, 
as Munro, do not believe Horace to 
have written it. If vve accept it, it will 
probably mean ' to beguile care into 
stopping.' Any objection to the phrase 
itself is not to the supine after ' ducere,' 
which is abundantly supported by Sat. 
2. 4. 89 'auditum ducere,' but to the 
fanciful character of the expression, 
which has nothing in Homer to account 
for it, and is unlike Horace's style. 
But although the majority of Ihe older 
MSS. give this reading, all Cruquius' 
BlandinianMSS. had ' somnum ' instead 
of ' curam, ' and this Keller considers the 

reading generally of his ' second class ' 
of MSS. The scholium of Acr. in its 
later partexplains ' cessatum curam,' but 
Bentley argues that the first annotation, 
' quia adhibemus sonitum citharae ac 
lyrae ut facilius sopiamur ' belongs to 
an earlier reading of ' somnum.' The 
Bland. MSS. seem to have had ' cessa- 
tum,' which with ' somnum ' has no 
meaning, and so have the other MSS. 
Bentley, building in part on the reading 
of some early editions ' cessantum,' pro- 
posed to complete the sense by altering 
' cessatum ' to ' cessantem,' and he is 
followed by Haupt, Meineke, and others. 
Munro (Journ. of Philology, vol. 9. 
p. 217) proposes ' recreatum,' ' to pro- 
long sleep restored at the sound of the 
lyre.' Bentley takes ' cessantem ' in the 
same sense as Od. 3. 28. 8 'cessantem 
amphoram,' ' to tempt sleep when it is 
coy.' The parallel will be Od. 3. 1. 20 
' Non avium citharaeque cantus Somnum 
reducent.' The problem can hardly be 
said to be solved : but there is great 
force in Bentley's argument that the 
context both before and after is in 
favour of some reading which makes 
sense of 'somnum.' The young Phaea- 
cians are not painted as burdened with 
care which needs beguiling, and we need 
to emphasize in every way, and to end 
with, the charge of excessive sleep, as it 
is the text of the moral lecture which 
follows. With ' curam ' the connection 
of 32 foll. is harsh. 

32. hominem. Orelli follows a few 
MSS. in reading 'homines.' Keller 
shows that, besides the great preponder- 
ance of authority, the usual phrase for 
' murder ' was ' hominem occidere,' as in 
Epp. 1. 16. 48. 

de nocte, ' while it is still night.' 
See on 'de die ' Epod. 13. 4. 

33. te ipsum. We must not sup- 
pose these lessor.s to be pressed home 
directly to Lollius. As in the last 
Epistle, Horace addresses an imaginary 
person, some young ' Phaeacian ' of 
Roman society. 




Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus ; et ni 

Posces ante diem librum cum lumine, si non 35 

Intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis, 

Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur 

Ouae laedunt oculos festinas demere, si quid 

Est animum, differs curandi tempus in annum ? 

Dimidium facti qui coepit habet ; sapere aude ; 40 

Incipe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam 

Rusticus exspectat dum defiuat amnis ; at ille 

Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum. 

Quaeritur argentum puerisque beata creandis 

Uxor, et incultae pacantur vomere silvae : 45 

Quod satis est cui contingit nihil amplius optet. 

34. et couples two statements, tlie 
one of which is the illustration and 
analogue of the other. ' As if you will 
not take exercise while you are well you 
will have to do so to cure an illness ; so if 
you will not wake to study and honour- 
able effort, you will wake to suffer the 
torture of bad passions.' For the use 
of ' et ' cp. ' neque, nec ' Od. 3. 5. 27 n. 
Some good MSS. have ' nolis ' and 
' cures,' and Bentley prefers this reading, 
understanding ' expergisci,' but the 
Bland. had ' curres,' and the Scholiasts 
interpret it. 

39. est : sc. 'edit.' 

in annum : Epp. 1. 11. 23; 'till 
next year,' i.e. indefinitely. 

40. dimidium, etc. A Greek pro- 
verb, apxv ^ rot flpuvv iravTos. 

41. recte vivendi : Epp. 1. 6. 29, 
1. 8. 4, 1. 16. 17, 2. 2. 213. 

42. rusticus exspeetat 'is as the 
countryman waiting for the river to 
run by,' i. e. acts as though he thought 
time would stop for him. One of 
Horace's fables remembered or invented. 
It is not found elsewhere. 

43. volubilis : Od. 4. 1. 40. Notice 
the imitative rhythm of the verse de- 
scribing the unbroken course of the 
sliding water. 

44 foll. Excuses imagined for him 
who postpones his self-reformation. He 
is busy for the moment getting money, 
or a wife, or biinging an estate into 
order. (Cp. the excuses in the Parable 
of the Guests.) Horace allows them, 
but gives cautions. Such desires must 

be limited to what is enough. They 
must not be allowed to degenerate into 
unsatisfied cravings. Moral health is 
necessary to any enjoyment. 

44. beata. Perhaps best taken as by 
the Scholiasts ('partn felix '), and as 
by Ritter, closely with ' pueris creandis.' 
The two lines seem meant to describe 
a man's aims from his own point of 
view, and the irony (which Orelli and 
others imagine) of the juxtaposition, 
' a rich wife to bear children,' would be 
out of place. 

45. pacantur, ' are in process of 
being tamed.' Other things must wait 
till the urgent task is accomplished. 
The metaphor implies both the bene- 
ficence of the work and the struggle in- 
volved. It is better taken, with Orelli 
and earlier editors, of forest land re- 
claimed, a metaphor from the civilizing 
progress of Roman arms (cp. ' mitiget ' 
Epp. 2. 2. 186), than with Ritter and 
Dill r (after Lachmann on Lucret. 5. 
1 203^1 in the more literal sense of clear- 
ing the country of wild beasts (as Manil. 
4. 1S2 ' pacare metu silvas'). The in- 
terpretation is given by ' incultae' on the 
one side and ' vomere ' on the other. 
Cp. the picture of the breaking up of 
woodland in Virg. G. 2. 207-211. 
Orelli's quotation of id. v. 239 ' ea 
[terra] nec mansuescit arando ' is tempt- 
ing, but not fully in point, for there. as 
in Lucret. 5. 136S, which Virgil had in 
mind, the ideas put together are of 
taming wild animals and exchanging 
wild growths for cultivatgd. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 2. 


Non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri 

Aegroto domini deduxit corpore febres, 

Non animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 

Si comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 

Oui cupit aut metuit, iuvat illum sic domus et res 

Ut lippum pictae tabulae, fomenta podagram, 

Auriculas citharae collecta sorde dolentes. 

Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis acescit. 

Sperne voluptates : nocet empta dolore voluptas. 

Semper avarus eget : certum voto pete finem. 

Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis : 

Invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 

Maius tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irae 

Infectum volet esse dolor quod suaserit et mens, 

Dum poenas odio per vim festinat inulto. 

Ira furor brevis est : animum rege, qui nisi paret 

Imperat ; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 

Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 




47. Orelli points out that the three 
things named, ' domus,' ' fundus,' ' aeris 
acervus,' answer, in varied order, to the 
three objects of desire nientioned in vv. 

44- 45- 

47-49. non . . . non. Another 
illustration or argument from analogy. 
As they do not restore bodily health, so 
they do not mental. 

48. deduxit. The aoristic use. 
This line is an echo of Lucret. 2. 34, 
where the general sense is the same, 
' Nec calidae citius decedunt corpore 
febres,' etc. Cp. Od. 3. 1. 41 foll. 

49. valeat. Health isa condition of 
enjoyment. Cp. the emphatic position 
of ' valido ' in Od. 1. 31. 17. 

51. sic ut, i. e. no more than. 

52. fomenta. Usually explained 
since Diintzer by Seneca de Prov. 9. 4, 
which speaks of 'fomenta subinde 
mutata ' as a means practised by the 
luxurious of keeping the feet warm, hot 
flannels or the like. The argument is 
' if the organs of sense are diseased, 
that which ordinarily gives pleasure to 
them ceases to do so.' \Vhat gives 
pleasurable warmth to a healthy foot 
will give pain rather than pleasure to an 
inflamed one. If ' fomenta ' were ex- 
plained of applications used to relieve 

the gout, there would be no parallel to 
the other cases. 

54. sincerum, ' clean,' Sat. 1. 3. 56. 
For the thought of the line cp. Lucr. 6. 
1 7 ' Intellegit ibi vitium vas efficere 
ipsum Omniaque illius vitio corrumpier 
intus,'where the meaning is the same as 
here, that till the heart is clean no plea- 
sure can be enjoyed. 

55 foll. Precepts towards the moral 
health of which he has been speaking. 

56. voto has been taken both as an 
abl. closely with pete, ' aim your wishes 
at a fixed point,' and as a dative, ' find 
a definite limit to your wishing ' ; cp. 
' sit finis quaerendi ' Sat. 1. 1. 92. 

58. Siculi tyranni, as Phalaris with 
his brazen bull. 

60. dolor, ' soreness.' 

mens : what kind of ' feeling ' is ex- 
plained in the following line which 
defines the occasions ' in his hurry to 
satisfy his vengeful hatred.' 

61. festinat : cp. Horace's use of 
' properare ' with accus., Od. 3. 24. 62, 
Epp. 1. 3. 28. 

63. tu : see on Od. 1. 9. 16; and cp. 
Epp. 1. 11. 22. 

64 foll. ' It is possible if you begin in 

64. tenera cervice : abl. with ' doci- 

2 .)° 


Ire viam qua monstret eques ; venaticus, ex quo 
Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, 
Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 
Pectore verba puer, nunc te melioribus offer. 
Ouo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem 
Testa diu. Ouodsi cessas aut strenuus anteis, 
Nec tardum opperior nec praecedentibus insto. 


lem,' 'vvhile he learns the lesson easily 
because his neck is tender.' 

65. ire feels the constr. both of ' fin- 
git ' = ' docet ' and of ' docilem.' 

venaticus : pred. ' The hound who 
does service in the forest has been a 
hunter from the day when he barked at 
a stuffed stag's hide in the yard.' 

67. puro pectore : perh. = while the 
heart is still a /caBapiJs iriVaf . 

68. puer, ' in boyhood.' Iftheword 
is meant to characteiize Lollius cp. 
Epp. 1. 18. 55 ' puer . . . Cantabrica 
bella tulisti.' That would be two or 
three years previously. But possibly, as 
so often in the Epistles, it is an 
imaginary auditor rather than Lollius 
whom Horace is addressing. 

melioribus : see Epp. I. 1. 48 
' meliori credere.' 

69. See note on Od. 1. 20. 2, Quin- 
tilian 1. 1. 5 (putting together in mean- 
ing this line and Od. 3. 5. 27) ' natura 
tenacissimi sumus eorum quae rudibus 
annis percepimus, ut sapor quo nova 
imbuas durat, nec lanarum colores qui- 
bus simplex ille candor mutatus est elui 

70-71. The point of this seems to be 
the ironical assurarice that his preaching 
is not too earnest. ' You must take 
what I have said or leave it. If you 
try to throw me off I shall make no 
efforts to keep pace with you.' Cp., 
for the figure, Sat. 1. 9. 9, of one 
trying to get rid of a companion, ' Ire 
modo ocius, interdum consistere,' etc. ; 
and for the use of ' praecedere ' id. 
v. 42. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 3. 231 



Verses 1-6. I WANT to know all about the progress of Tibcrius' journey, and quite 

as much about the literary occupntion of his staff. 
7, 8. Who is to write the panegyric of the reign ? 
9-14. What is Titius about, that brave imitator of Pindar ? his pfomising lyrics ; 

or tragedy which lends itself too easilyto rant ? 
15-20. What of Celsus ? I hope he is remembering the warning to avoid too 

much imitation. 
21-29. And yourself, on which of your many interests are yott busy ? You have 

great gifts and have cultivated them. Distinction is assured to you if yott aie 

seeking it, in oratory, in legal knowledge, in poetry. If you wottld take the 

right course yott might attain the still greater happiness of the philosophe 1- . 

That is the true end of life. 
30-36. One more question. How do you stand with Munatius ? Do you value 

him as you should ? or is the quarrel imperfectly made up ? 
Farewell. I am looking anxiously for the return of both of you. 

The Epistle is addressed to Julius Florus, to whom Horace addresses also the 
second Epistle of Book II. See introd. to that Epistle. 

Florus is probably identified with the Florus who is named by the elder Seneca 
(Controv. 4. 25) as a pupil in oratory of M. Porcius Latro, a famous ' rhetor ' of 
Augustus' time and by Qttintilian 10. 3. 14 as ' in eloquentia Galliarttm, quoniam 
ibi demum eam exercuit, princeps ' (cp. v. 23 of this Epistle). The Scholiasts 
say ' Hic Flortts fuit Satirarum scriptor, cuius sunt electae ex Ennio Lucilio 
Varrone cet.' This has been explained to mean that he published selections (Pliny 
uses the word ' electa ' in this sense Epp. 8.21) from these older poets, perhaps 
modernized (see introd. to Sat. 1. 10). 

He, with other young men of literary tastes, is in the suite of the Emperor's 
elder stepson Tiberius, who has been sent on a mission by Augttstus to the East, in 
the year B. c. 20, to place Tigranes on the throne of Armenia. 

Iuli FLORE, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro. 
Thracane vos Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus, 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 

2. Claudius. Tiberius Claudius grandsons of the Emperor, were still 

Nero, the elder of Livia's sons, and the alive. 

future Emperor Tiberius. Horace calls scire laboro : Sat 2.8. 19 ; ' I am 

him ' Claudius,' Od. 4. 14. 29, Epp. 1. anxious to know.' 

9. 1, 'Claudius Nero,' Epp. 1. 12. 26, 3. Thraca : for the form cp. Virg. 

' Nero ' Epp. 1. 8. 2, 2. 2. 1, ' maior Aen. 1 2. 335 ' gemit ultima puls^ Thraca/u- 

Neionum ' Od. 4. 14. 4. pedum.' 

privignus. He did not become 4. turres. V had ' terras,' and Tent- 

Augustus' son by adoption till E. C. 3. ley defends it ; but the Scholiasts all 

At this time C. and L. Caesar, the interpret ' turres,' sc. ' Hertis et Lean- 



An pingues Asiae campi collesque morantur? 

Quid studiosa cohors operum struit ? Hoc quoque curo. 

Ouis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit? 

Bella quis et paces Iongum diffundit in aevum ? 

Quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in ora? 

Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus, 

Fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos. 

Ut valet? ut meminit nostri? Fidibusne Latinis 

Thcbanos aptare modos studet auspice Musa, 

An tragica desaevit et ampullatur in arte? 


dri,' Porph. The tower of Hero is 
frequently spoken of, and Strabo, 13. 1. 
22, speaks of a tower on the opposite 
coast from which the passage between 
Abydos and Sestos was made. 

6. studiosa, used absolutely = ' litte- 
rata ' Comm. Cruq. ' Operum ' follows 
' quid.' 

cohors, 'suite': see on Sat. 1. 7. 


hoc, the question which precedes. 
' Mind you do not omit what is to me 
the most interesting part.' 

7. seribere sumit. For constr. cp. 
Od. 1. 12. 1, and see vol. 1. App. 2. § 1. 

scribere, probably of poetry ; see on 
Od. 1.6. 1. 

8. bella et paces. Either ' how he 
made war and peace,' the plur. as in- 
Sall. Jug. 31. 20 'cum regna, provinciae, 
leges, iura, iudicia, bella atque paces . . . 
penes paucos erant,' where see Kritz's 
note; or as in Epp. 2. 1. 103 'bonae 
paces,' ' times of war and times of peace.' 
The first is perhaps most likely, as there 
is no doubt special reference to the 
mission of high politics on which 
Tiberius was travelling. A metaphor of space 
transf. to time ; the pres. in the sense 
' is to spread.' 

9. Titius. Nothing is known of him 
but what may be inferred from the text. 
The Comm. Cruq. identifies him with 
the Septimius of Od. 2. 6. 1 and Epp. 
1. 9. 1 ; but this can hardly be right, as 
both Titius and Septimius are gentile 
names, which are not cumulated. We 
gather from the text that he had 
ventured on the task, from which Horace 
in Od. 4. 2. 1 foll. professes to shrink, 
of writing Latin lyrics in imitation of 
Pindar, and that he wrote tragedies. 

venturus in ora : soon to be on the 

lips of all in Rome. Prop. 3. 9. 32 
' venies tu quoque in ora virum,' and 
Virgil ' volitare per ora ' G. 3. 9, ' ferri 
per ora' Aen. 12. 235. 

10. Pindarici fontis : 'to drink of 
the fountain of Pindar,' must mean, in 
the first place, to seek the source of in- 
spiration in Pindar ('Thebanos modos' 
v. 13), and in Pindar directly, not in imi- 
tations in which his fresh stream stag- 
nates or runs thinly ('lacus et vivos'). 
Mr. Prickard suggests with some prob- 
ability that Horace had in mind also 
Pindar's own expression for what is ori- 
ginal as against what is borrowed, which 
Quintilian has preserved (10. 1. 109) 
' non pluvias (ut ait Pindarus) aquas 
colligit [Cicero] sed vivo gurgite exun- 

12. ut valet? Sat. 2. 8. 1. 

13. Thebanos, i. e. of Pindar, the 

auspice Musa, as Virg. has ' dis 
auspicibus ' Aen. 4. 45. 

14. desaevit, ' storms.' The prep. as 
in ' decertare ' Od. 1. 3. 13. 

ampullatur. ' Ampullor ' is a verb 
coined perhaps by Horace from ' am- 
pulla ' in the sense in which it is used 
in A. P. 97 'proiicit ampullas.' The 
two words evidently mean the using 
of florid or bombastic language. Porph. 
explains them as adaptations of the 
Greek \r)Kvdos and \t]kv6'l^(iv, quot- 
ing \tjkv6uos Movaa from Callimachus. 
Acr. and the Comm. Cruq. on the other 
hand, without suggestinga Greek origin, 
explain them from the shape of the 
'ampulla' (dim. of 'amphora'\ ' in- 
flata' Acr., 'ventricosa' Comm. Cr. If 
these explanations are to be combined, 
as has been very generally assumed, it 
will follow that Horace either con- 
sciously or unconsciously put a tum on 

LIB. I. EPIST. 3. 


Ouid mihi Celsus agit? monitus multumque monendus 
Privatas ut quaerat opes, et tangere vitet 
Scripta Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo, 
Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 
Grex avium, plumas, moveat cornicula risum 
Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes ? 
Quae circumvolitas agilis thyma ? Non tibi parvum 
Ingenium, non incultum est et turpiter hirtum. 
Seu linguam causis acuis, seu civica iura 
Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen, 
Prima feres hederae victricis praemia. Quodsi 

J 5 


2 5 

the phrase which did not originally be- 
long to it : for the true explanation of 
\T)icv6os seems to be given in the passage 
usnally quoted from Cicero, ad Att. I. 14 
' Totum hunc locum quem ego varie meis 
orationibus . . . soleo pingere de flamma, 
de ferro (nosti illas \tjkv9ovs) valde gra- 
viter pertrahit, ' where it is clear that he 
takes it to mean ' a paint-pot ' ; cp. ad 
Att. 2. 1 ' Aristotelia pigmenta.' It is 
however equally likely that Horace 
thought only of the Greek \r)Kv6i£uv, 
and that ' ampullatur' means 'uses the 
paint-pot,' ' lays the colour on thick.' 
This is Ritter's view and that of Prof. 

15. quid agit? As in Sat. 1.9.4 
' How is Celsus ' ? 

mihi, dat. ethicus, ' tell me,' ' I wish 
to know.' Celsus is probably to be 
identified with the Celsus Albinovanus 
to whom Epp. 1. 8 is addressed. 

16. privatas opes, wealth that he 
can call his own. 

1 7. Palatinus Apollo. The temple 
of Apollo on the Palatine dedicated by 
Augustus in b.c. 28, attached to which 
was the famous library. See Od. 1. 31, 

18. olim, 'oneday'; see Epp. 1. 1. 

19. grex avium. The form of the 
fable in Horace corresponds with that 
of the late Greek collection of Aesop's 
fables (Fab. 78). In the earlier version 
of Babrius and Phaedrus the jackdaw 
dresses himself in peacock's feathers 

cornieula: a word not found else- 
where. It answers to Ko\ot6s, 'gracu- 
lus,' in the Greek fables and in Phae- 

drus ; but the diminutive is playful, 
' poor little crow.' Orelli rightly warns 
us that we are not to think of Horace 
as charging Celsus with what we under- 
stand by ' plagiarism.' That he em- 
ploys such a fable in writing of a friend 
shows that he has no idea that any 
moral stigma can be imagined. He is 
rather urging originality on a young 
writer. What he charges imitators with 
(Epp. 1. 19. 19 foll.) is servility rather 
than dishonesty. 

21. agilis, ' on your nimble wing.' 
The point, as explained by the follow- 
ing lines, is his versatility. 

thyma. For the metaphor rather 
differently applied see Od. 4. 2. 27. 

22. turpiter : to the husbandman's 

hirtum : opp. ' nitentia culta,' ' bram- 

23. linguam acuis. The metaphor is 
in Cicero; Brut. 97. 331 'tu illuc veneras 
unus qui non linguam modo acuisses 
exercitatione dicendi.' 

causis is the dat, ' for pleading.' 
eivica iura respondere. Cicero 
uses the phrase ' ius respondere ' (de 
Leg. 1. 4. 12, de Orat. 1. 45. 198, see 
Wilkins' note) of the ' iurisconsultus ' 
giving advice on questions of law. ' Ci- 
vica iura ' is the poetical variation of 
the technical ' ius civile.' For ' civicus ' 
see on Od. 2. 1. 1. 

24. amabile, as he calls the ' chori 
vatum ' ' amabiles ' in Od. 4. 3. 14. 

25. hederae victricis : the ivy pro- 
perly belongs only to the poet (see on 
Od. 1. 1. 29). The epithet 'victricis' 
(scarcely appropriate to the poet's ivy 
crown, which was rather a sign of his 


Frigida curarum fomcnta relinquere posses, 

Ouo te caclestis sapientia duceret ircs. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, sit tibi curae ; ,«a^ 

Ouantae conveniat Munatius. An male sarta 

Gratia ncquicquam coit et rescinditur, ac vos 

Scu calidus sanguis seu rerum inscitia vexat 

Indomita cervice feros ? Ubicunque locorum 

Vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere foedus, 

Pascitur in vestrum reditum votiva iuvenca. 



dedication to Bacchus than of his van- 
quishing other poets) helps here to the 
generalizing of the words to cover the 
prizes of other learned pursuits. 

26. frigida curarum fomenta. This 
phrase has been much discussed, but it 
seems to be simply explained by the 
Ciceronian use of the metaphor, ' haec 
sunt solacia, haec fomenta summorum 
dolorum' Tusc. D. 2. 24. 59, and by Ho- 
race's own ' Fomenta volnus nil malum 
levantia' Epod. 11. 25, where the last 
words answer to the general epithet 
' frigida.' The sense will thcn be ' You 
are sure to win distinction, if that is 
your aim, in oratory, jurisprudence, 
poetry. You might attain to the more 
celestial heights to which philosophy 
conducts, if you wonld discard the ano- 
dynes to care which have not the first 
condition of comfort.' How close the 
application, what the special career of 
Florus, what the anodynes with which he 
sought to mitigate them, whether wealth, 
luxury, the objtcts of ambition, or the 
like, we have no materials for guess- 
ing. Generally we may compare for the 
figure Fpp. 1. 2. 47 foll., Od. 3. 1. 41 
foll. In the ' caelestis sapientia ' and 
the figure of ' duceret, ires,' we have, 
perhaps a distant echo of Lucret. 2. 7 
ioll. ' Edita doctrina sapientum, templa 
serena,' etc. 

28. hoc opus : the task of attaining 
the true philosophical mind : ' quod 
Aeque pauperibus prodest locupletibus 
aeque, Aeque neglectum pueris seni- 
busque nocebit' Epp. 1. 1. 24. For 
' properemus ' see Epp. 1. 2. 61 n. 

29. nobis cari : cp. ' Quid minuat 

curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum ' Epp. 
1. 18. 101, where ' quid minuat curas ' 
answers to ' fomenta curarum' of this 

30. sit. This is the reading of the 
best MSS., including all the Bland., 
and was interpreted by Porph. (' deest 
an'). Orelli and Ritter follow Bentley 
in preferring ' si,' though it has little au- 
thority, Orelli as the ' lectio difncilior'; 
Ritter thinking that ' si ' was turned to 
'sit' by the sequence of ' tibi.' With 
either reading a direct question begins 
with ' an male.' 

31 foll. ' Or does your broken friend- 
ship, like a wound ill-stitched, close 
to no purpose and tear open again ; 
and do you suffer still, in the fierceness 
of untamed necks, be it from hot blood 
or from ignorance of life ' ? 

31. sarta. The edd. show that both 
' sarcitfri and ' coire ' are medical terms 
for the artificial and natural processes 
of closing a wound. 

32. ac. So the best MSS. Orelli fol- 
lows the early editions (^before Bentley) 
in reading ' at,' marking the question 
at ' rescinditur ? ' For ' gratia coit et 
rescinditur' cp. Epp. 1. 18.41 ' gratia 

33. seu . . . seu seems the certain 
reading, though many good MSS., in- 
cluding all the Bland., had ' heu . . . 
heu.' Acron interprets ' seu.' 

35. indigni rumpere. Orelli and 
Dill r . point out that this is an inaccu- 
rate expression, being = ' quos indign m 
est, non decet, rumpere,' after the mo 'el 
of the Greek idiom with <x£<oj, ditcaios, 
and the like. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 4. 




Albius to whom I owe thanks for your fair judgment of my Satires, I wonder 
what you are doing at your country house — writing your excellent verses, or stroll- 
ing in the forest, gaining health and meditating like a philosopher ? You are a 
happy man with all the gifts outward and inward. Mind you keep to the true 
Epicurean creed, as, if you will come to see me, you will find that I do. 

A comparison with Od. 1. 33, which is also addressed to the poet Tibullus, 
suggests that the enumeration of his : dvantages and the exhortation to imitate 
Horace's philosophy of life have a definite personal purpose. 

The contemporary epitaph on Tibullus by Domitius Marsus seems to imply 
that he died about the same time as Virgil (' Te quoque Vergilio comitem non 
aequa, Tibulle, Mors iuvenem campos misit in Elysios '), i. e. in B.c. 19 or 18, 
a date which will allow this Epistle to fall within the same limit with the others 
vvhich can be dated, i. e. before B.C. 19. 

Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide iudex, 
Ouid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? 
Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat, 
An tacitum silvas inter reptare salubres, 

w-c • 

1. sermonum. For Horace's use of 
this term see Introd. to the Satires, 
p. 6. It is impossible to prove that 
Tibullus had not seen privately some of 
Horace's ' Sermones ' of the new Epis- 
tolary type, but the term must mean 
here in the first instance the Satires : cp. 
the address 'candide Furni ' Sat. 1. 10. 
86, where he is contrasting fair and un- 
fair criticism on his Satires. It was 
there that he had been hurt and was sen- 
sitive : the tone of his Epistles was 
not provocative of censure. 

2. regione Pedana. For 'regio' 
cp. Epp. 1. 15. 2. Pedum, a town whieh 
in Horace's time was in decay, if it had 
not already ceased to exist, is described 
by the Scholiasts as betvveen Tibur and 
Praeneste, and this agrees with the no- 
tice of it in Liv. 8. 13. The site is iden- 
tified by Burn (Rome and Campagna, p. 
388) with that of the modern village of 
Gallicano. Caesar had a villa in its 
neighbourhood : Cic. ad Att. 9. 18. 
The locality of Tibullus' property is not 
named elsewhere. 

3. Cassi Parmensis. See note on 
Sat. 1. 10. 61 for the strong arguments 

agninst the Scholiasts' identification of 
this person with the ' Etruscus Cassius,' 
the fluent and bad writer whose funeral 
pile was formed of his own books. The 
natural interpretation of the present 
passage requires that the standard by 
which Horace tries the poems of Tibul- 
lus should be one which in the judgment 
of both would imply a compliment. 
The Pseudo-Acron (^whose evidence 
however is damaged by the above men- 
tioned confusion ofpersons) says of Cas- 
sius Parmensis ' hic aliquot generibus 
stilum exercuit : inter quae opera ele- 
giaca et epigrammata eius laudantur.' 

opuseula. There is perhaps some 
slight depreciatory meaning in the dimi- 
nutive, as when Horace uses it of his 
own Odes in Epp. 1. 19. 35. It is used 
in Plin. Epp. 8. 21 as the usual term 
for the separate poems which compose a 
book, ' liber opusculis varius.' 

4. taeitum carries the idea of quiet 
uninterrupted thought, as in Sat. I. 3. 
65, 1. 6. 123. 

silvas inter. Theedd. quote Tib. 4. 
13. 9 (not however certainly a poem of 
Tibullus) ' Sicego secretis possum bene 

23 6 


Curantem quicquid dignum sapiente bonoque est? 
Non tu corpus eras sine pectore. Di tibi formam, 
Di tibi divitias dederunt artemque fruendi. 
Quid voveat dulci nutricula maius alumno, 
Oui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui 
Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 
Et mundus victus non deficiente crumena? 
Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras, 
Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 
Grata superveniet quae non sperabitur hora. 
Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises 
Cum ridere voles Epicuri de grege porcum. 



vivere silvis, Qua nulla humano sit via 
trita pede.' 

reptare, of leisurely strolling. 

6. eras. The time is explained by 
the emphasis laid in v. 2 on 'nunc.' 
Horace's ground for being sure that 
Tibullus is now either busy on good 
poetry or living as a philosopher, is his 
previous knowledge of him. See note 
on Od. 1. 37. 4. This instance comes 
under (2). ' I thought so when I knew 
you aiid I was right.' 

pectore, used as ' cor,' ' animus.' 
Ovid has ' rudis et sine pectore ' Met. 
13. 290. 

formam. In two lives of the poet 
prefixed to MSS. of his poems he is de- 
scribed as ' insignis forma.' 

7. divitias : the word, as Dissen re- 
remarks in his introd. to Tibullus, is 
explained in v. 11 by ' mundus victus 
non deficiente crumena,' and so recon- 
ciled to what Tibullus himself repeatedly 
says of his circumstances. He speaks 
of having a reduced estate, small but 
sufficient : 'paupertas' 1. 1. 5, ' compo- 
sito securus acervo Despiciam dites de- 
spiciamque famem' 1. 1. 77, but ' riches ' 
is a relative term. 

dederunt : Epod. 9. 17 ' verterunt,' 
Sat. i. 10. 45 'annuerunt.' Some MSS. 
have 'dederant.' 

8. voveat, in the sense of ' to pray 
for,' as ' votum ' frequently. 

nutricula. For a foster-mother's 
prayers cp. Pers. Sat. 2. 37 ' Ego nu- 
trici non mando vota,' etc. 

9. qui. The constr. is quite straight- 
forward. ' What more should a fond 
foster-mother desire for a dear child 
who already can,' etc. ? This was missed, 

and some comparative constr. after 
' maius ' looked for ; and the result was 
the variant 'quam,' which with the inter- 
polation ' ut ' before ' possit ' occupied 
the early edifions. Some good MSS. 
have ' quin.' 

sapere et fari. Obbar recalls Thuc. 
2. 60 yvwvai t( t<x Seovra Kal ip^iTjvivaai 

11. mundus : illustrated by Od. 3. 
29. 14, Sat. 2. 2. 65, and the opposite 
' pauperies, immunda domus ' Epp. 2.2. 

12. inter, etc, ' in a world of ; ' where 
others, who are not philosophers are 
tossed by divers passions, do you hold 
fast the secret of tranquillity. 

13. omnem crede. Another version 
of such precepts as ' Quem fors dierum 
cunque dabit, lucro Appone' Od. I. 9. 
14, and ' carpe diem quam minimum 
credula postero ' Od. I. n. 8. 

14. superveniet : come as a welcome 

15. me, in its emphatic position 
points the argument, ' I practise what I 
preach ' ; at the same time when speaking 
of himself Horace with his usual irony 
puts Epicureanism in a playful aspect 

pinguem, an actual feature in 
Horace's case acc. to the Suetonian life, 
' habitu corporis brevis fuit atque obesus.' 

nitidum : Sat. 2. 2. 128. 

curata cute : Epp. 1. 2. 29. 

16. grege : Sat. 2. 3. 45. A usnal 
metaphor for a ' school ' of philosophy, 
but here it is intended to suit, and as 
Prof. Wilkins says to lighten i^by the fact 
that it is an habitual figure), the meta- 
phor of ' porcum.' ' Epicurus' sty ' 
would turn play into earnest. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 5. 237 



See introduction to Od. 4. 7. 

An invitation to a modest entertainment at the poet's house on the night before 
Caesar's birthday. The tone and topics are very like those of the Odes. 

If you do not mind a simple entertainment, Torquatus, I shall expect you at 
sunset. I will get you what vvine I can : if that is not to your liking, you must 
send better. All is ready and in best trim in your honour. Leave money-making 
and ambition. To-morrow is a holiday, so we can sit all night if we like. The 
only use of fortune is to enjoy it. I am in the humour for merriment. Wine is 
nature's best gift. My business is to see that all is neat and clean, and that the 
company is well chosen. I shall have Butra and Septimius and, I hope, Sabinus. 
There is room for you to bring some guests, but remember the drawbacks of too 
large a party. Your business is to say how many you wish them to be, and then 
to slip away from your business and come. 

Sl potes Archiacis conviva recumbere lectis, 

Nec modica cenare times olus omne patella, 

Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 

Vina bibes iterum Tauro diffusa palustres 

Inter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. 5 

1. potes. For 'posse' in the sense both places he is matching some modesty 
of TXrjvai see on Od. 3. 11. 30, Epod. in the cups or dishes with the modesty 
9. 14- of their contents. Is it of make and 

Arehiacis. ' Archias faber fuit vilium material ? or of size ? For the latter 

lectorum ' Acr. The adj. as ' Pausiacus ' cp. Sat. 2. 2. Q5 'grandes rhombi pati- 

from ' Pausias ' Sat. 2. 7. 95. As naeque Grande ferunt una cum damno 

another instance of furniture of a special dedecus ' and 2. 8. 35 ' calices poscit 

make being known by the maker's name maiores.' 

is quoted Aul. Gell. 12. 2 ' Soterici olus omne, 'a mess of vegetables.' 

lectis.' Horace's couches were not as We need not suppose that the supper 

in great houses ' rubro ubi cocco Tincta consisted entirely of this. 
super lectos canderet vestis eburnos ' 3. supremo sole. Cp. ' sub lumina 

(Sat. 2.6. io2"),buttheywerefromaknown prima ' Sat. 2. 7. 33, of" the hour of 

maker, and the tone implies that he is Maecenas' supper. 

modestly proud of them. Some MSS. 4. iterum Tauro, i. e. ' consule.' T. 

had 'Archaicis,' which has been taken Statilius Taurus was consul (iterum) 

as a Latin form of apxaiKoTs, but such a with Augustus in B. C. 26. 
use of a Greek word is not Horatian, and diffusa. Juv. S. 5. 30 ' Ipse capillato 

in all words of similar form (as ' Achai- diffusum consule potat ' ; as we should 

cus' Od. 4. 3. 5) the antepenultimate 'a' say, ' bottled,' transferred from the 

is long as in the Greek. The Comm. ' dolium ' to the ' amphorae.' Thiswas 

Cruq. who read ' Archaicis,' explained it only done with the better wines which 

of the name of the maker. would keep. See note on Epod. 2. 47. 

2. modiea. Cp. Od. 1. 20. 1 ' Vile 5. Petrinum. ' Petrinus mons est 
potabis modicis Sabinum Cantharis.' In Sinuessae imminens vel ager Sinuessae 

2 3 8 


Si melius quid habes arcesse vel impcrium fer. 
Iamdudum splendet focus et tibi munda supellex. 
Mitte leves spes et certamina divitiarum 
Et Moschi causam : cras nato Caesare festus 
Dat veniam somnumque dies ; impune licebit 
Aestivam sermone benigno tendcre noctem. 
Ouo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti? 
Parcus ob heredis curam nimiumque severus 
Adsidet insano. Potare et spargere flores 


vicinus' Comm. Cruq., ' vicus olim et 
locus in agro Falerno ' Acr. Horace 
defines the locality, but more cannot be 
known. ' Between Minturnae (at tlie 
mouth of the Liris) and Sinuessa ' (a 
dozen miles eastward along the coast) 
would be in the near neighbourhood of 
the Mons Massicus. 

6. arcesse, ' send for it,' i.e. bid it 
be brought from your own house to 

imperium fer : ' patere me regem esse 
convivii ' Comm. Cruq. ; ' submit to my 

7. splendetfocus, both ofthehearth, 
cleaned for the occasion, and the ' reni- 
dentes Lares ' (Epod. 2. 65 n.) by it. 

8. leves : they seem trifles to-day. 
certamina divitiarum, ' wealth with 

its rivalries.' ' Noli curare de divitiis 
quibus certamus anteire ditiores ' Schol. 
Cp. Sat. i. 1. 113 foll. 

9. Moschi causam. Some famous 
cau.-e in which Torquatus was engaged. 
The Scholiast says that Moschus was a 
' rhetor ' from Pergamum who was tried 
for poisoning. 

nato Caesare. Suetonius (Aug. 57) 
says ' equites Romani natalem eius 
sponte atque consensu biduo semper 
celebraverunt.' and Horace's supper- 
party the night before seems to have 
the same purpose. 

10. veniam somnumque : licence for 
holiday and for longer sleep than usual, 
so that we need not fear a late revel 

11. aestivam. The word is used 
with some latitude, for Augustus' birlh- 
day was A. D. ix Kal. Oct. (Sept. 23). 
This has been felt to be a serious diffi- 
culty and various modes of escape have 
been sought. (1) Meineke, Haupt, and 
Munro, iollowing one or two later MSS., 
read ' Festivam.' This is objected to, 

apart from its small authority, on the 
ground that the antithesis ' festus dies,' 
' festivam noctem ' is cold and not Hora- 
tian. (2) Others suppose it to be the 
birthday of Julius Caesar (July 12) or 
(Ritter) of Gaius Caesar the elder son 
of Julia and Agrippa, who was born in 
the summer of B.c. 20. ' Caesar ' is used 
without further designation for C. Jul. 
Caesar in Od. 1. 2. 44 and Sat. 1. 9. 18, 
but in both cases the context makes the 
use of it clear. Everywhere else it is the 
name of Augustus and can hardly but be 
so here. 

12. fortunam. It is difficult to decide 
between ' fortunam ' and ' fortuna ' ; good 
MSS. are divided. The Bland. had ' for- 
tuna ' : but the exchange of ' a ' ( = ' am ') 
and ' a ' is easy. The schol. of Acron ' ad 
quid mihi dederunt dii fortunam,' though 
not conclusive, points to his having 
found ' fortunam.' On the possibility 
of the ablative in this constr. see Con- 
ington on Virg. Aen. 4. 98 ' quo nunc 
certamine tanto?' The evidence for it 
is doubtful. On the other hand the 
accusative is amply supported not only 
in cases (as Ov. Am. 2. 19. 7 ' Quo mihi 
fortunam quae nunquam fallere curet '?), 
where a similar doubt of reading might 
arise. but in such cases as ibid. 3. 7. 49 
' Quo mihi foi tunae tantum ? quo regna 
sine usu ? ' where the metre excludes the 
ablative. Cp. for a somewhat similar 
ellipsis with the accus. Sat. 2. 5. 102 
' unde mihi tam fortem ? ' 2. 7. 1 16 ' unde 
mihi lapidem ? ' 

13. ob heredis curam. Forthe feel- 
ing cp. Od. 2. 3. 19, 2. 14. 25, 4. 7. 19, 
with the notes on those passages. 

14. adsidet : as we say, ' is next door 
to ' ; a metaph. use not found elsewhere ; 
though the opposite, ' dissideo,' is com- 

spargere flores. Od. 3. 19. 22 



LIB. I. EPIST. 5. 


Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. 
Quid non ebrietas dissignat ? Operta recludit, 
Spes iubet esse ratas, ad proelia trudit inertem ; 
Sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artes. 
Fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum ? 
Contracta quem non in paupertate solutum ? 
Haec ego procurare et idoneus imperor et non 
Invitus, ne turpe toral, ne sordida mappa 
Corruget nares, ne non et cantharus et lanx 



' sparge rosas.' It is not certain which 
is described, whether strewing the table 
with flowers, or pelting one another with 

15. inconsultus, 'a madcap.' So 
' furere ' Od. 2. 7. 28, ' insanire iuvat ' 
3. 19. 18, 'desipere'4. 12. 28. 

patiar haberi : for constr. cp. Epp. 
I. 16. 30 'Si pateris sapiens vocari.' 
It is a Grecism going beyond the prose 
use, which would require ' me ' with the 
accus. of the complemental adj. 

16. dissignat. This, as against ' de- 
signat,' is the reading of all the best 
MSS. So also ' dissignatorem ' in Epp. 
I. 7- 6. ' Di^signare ' was in any case a 
rare vvord, and its meanings have been 
made more uncertain by the frequent con- 
fusion with ' designare.' This confusion 
is as old as the schol. on Horace. Acr. 
and Porph. apparently had ' dissignat,' 
the Comm.Cruq/defignat.' Threemean- 
ings have been traced in ' dissignare ' : 
(1) ' to stamp apart,' so ' to order the 
distinct parts of something.' Thisshould 
be the meaning in ' dissignator,' the ' un- 
dertaker, or master of the ceremonies at 
a funeral ' : (2) ' to stamp differently,' so 
' to do something at once marked and 
strange.' This is the interpretation 
which Nonius and Donatus put on Ter. 
Adelph. 82 'quicl dissignavit,' (but the 
reading is very doubtful both in Terence 
and in Non. and in Donat.) : (3) 'to un- 
seal ' (cp. the use of ' discludere,' ' to un- 
close,' as in Virg. Aen.12. 782), so ' to di- 
vulge,' ' to reveal.' Porph. took it here in 
thiss?nse = 'aperit.' Acr. hesitates; 'ape- 
rit vel confundit,' the latter interpretation 
approximating to (2). Prof. Nettleship, 
in an artiole on the word in the Journal 
of Philology, vol. 10, p. 206 f., perhaps 
unnece-^sarily, would make the use in (2) 
a modification of (3). He interprets it 
here by, ' of what miracles is not in- 
toxication capable ? ' Schiitz still pie- 

fers, and perhaps rightly, ' designat.' 
The word would have a mpa npoaooiciav 
force, attributing purpose to that which is 
usually thought the cause of random 
action. He well compares Aristophanes' 
adjective : Oivovyap evpoisdv tl irpatcTiicu}- 
Tfpov ; | upqs ; cnav mvtvcnv avOpamoi, 
tot6 | irKovTovai, SiairpaTTOvai, vikuiolv 
bucas, | evStiifiovovcnv, &)<p(\ovai tovs 
<pi\ovs Eq. 91 f. 

operta recludit. Cp. in the stanzas 
parallel to this passage (Od. 3. 21. 13- 
20), ' sapientium Curas et arcanum 
iocoso Consilium retegis Lyaeo.' He is 
not speaking of the betrayal of secrets, 
but of sharing and so lightening the 
burden of them. 

17. spes iubet esse ratas, ' bids 
hope be fast ' Con., gives it substance 
and confidence. 

inertem : see on Od. 3. 5. 36. 

18. addoeet : airag \ey. (unless 'addo- 
cti' be read, which is verydoubtful, inCic. 
Clu. 36), 'teaches new arts.' Cp. the 
correlative 'addisco' freq. in Cic, as 
de Sen. 8. 26 ' quotidie aliquid addi- 
scentem senem fieii.' 

19. fecundi : besttaken (with Ritter, 
Schutz) as ' fertilizing,' ' life-giving.' 
A metaphor is suggested, — wine is to the 
intellect what water is to the parched 
soil. Orelli prefers ' flowing,' ' ever re- 
plenished.' There is a v. 1. with some 
authority, ' facundi,' but the tautology 
of ' facundi disertum ' has little point. 

21. ego, opp. to ' tu ' in v. 30. ' This 
in my part.' 

imperor, 'I am under orders,' i. e. 
from himself. A rare instance of a 
personal passive for a verb which 
governs a dative. So ' invideor ' A. P. 
56. So Virg. ' credor ' Aen. 2. 247 'non 
unquam credita Teucris.' 

22. toral : see on Sat. 2. 4. 84. 
mappa : Sat. 2. 4. 81, 2. 8. 63. 

23. corruget nares. Quintilian (11. 



Ostendat tibi te, ne fidos inter amicos 
Sit qui dicta foras eliminet, ut coeat par 
Iungaturque pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 
Et nisi cena prior potiorque puella Sabinum 
Detinet, adsumam : locus est et pluribus umbris 
Sed nimis arta premunt olidae convivia caprae. 
Tu quotus esse velis rescribe, et rebus omissis 
Atria servantem postico falle clientem. 


3. 80) quotes this in illustrating the use 
and abuse of gestures and grimaces, 
adding ' naribus derisus conteinptus, 
fastidium significari solet.' 

25. dicta eliminet. The edd. quote 
the Greek proverb preserved by Martial 
I. 28. 7 A"ffw fWTjHOva avfiiruTrjv. 

par pari : in allusion perhaps to the 
Greek proverb u/ioiov dfioiq). 

coeat, of the choice of the company : 

26. iungatur, of its assortmentat table. 

27. cena prior: ' prior,' as in Epp. 
1. 1. 88, 'better.' The tautology of 
which Orelli complains in this rendering 
is removed by the fact that ' prior poti- 
orque ' is a common conjunction ; here 
the two are apportioned betvveen the two 
substantives. It is also taken for ' an 

earlier invitation ' (Orelli) or ' a supper 
at an earlier hour' (Schiitz). 

28. adsumam, a certain reading, 
though the meaningless ' ad summam ' 
got possession of all the MSS. except 
Keller's E. 

umbris : see on Sat. 2. 8. 22; here 
guests whom Torquatus might bring 
with him. 

29. premunt caprae, ' when a party 
is too crowded a flock of goats is dis- 
agreeably near.' 

30. quotus, ' one of how many.' 

31. atria servantem, ' waiting in the 
hall.' Sen. de Brev. Vitae 14.7 'quam 
multi per refertum clientibus atrium 
prodire vitabunt et per obscuros aedium 
aditus profugient.' 

LIB. I. EPIST. 6. 241 



' CHOOSE your "summum bonum " and having chosen itpursue it with thorough- 
ness and consistency? One who says this has his own idea of the true ' summum 
bonum,' and the illustrations of his principle in the case of ideals other than this 
must be in some degree ironical. 

Verses 1, 2. Assume the ' summum bonum ' to be the drapa£ia of the Epicureans. 
3-16. Then, see all that follows from this and remember (17-27) how the absurdity 

of overestimating sublunary things is pointed by the instability of human life. 
28-31. So with all ideals. You are energetic in trying to cure a pain in your side 

or back. Be the same in moral things. 
If virtue is the one road to happiness, make any sacrifices for her. 
31-48. If on the contrary there is no standard but a material one, then pursue with 

energy material wealth. 
49~55- If the objects of ambition give happiness, spare no pains on them. 
56-64. If good eating, then take the shortest roads to that. 
65, 66. If love and mirth, think of nothing else than them. 
67, 68. These are my principles, Numicius ; tell me frankly if you have any better 


Note that the phrases which give the connection are v. 2 ' facere et servare 
beatum,' v. 29 'recte vivere,' v. 47 ' facere et servare beatum,' v. 49 ' fortu- 

natum praestat,' v. 56 ' bene vivit,' v. 66 ' vivas in ' all expressions of the 

' summum bonum ' or ideal of life. 

In speaking of the philosophical idea of arapa£ia identified with dOavpaaria (see 
onv. 1), vv. 1-27, the key-words are ' admirari ' v. 1, ' miratur' v. 9, ' mirare ' v. 18, 
' mirabilis ' v. 24. 

We have no clue to the identity of Numicius. The Scholiasts are silent about 

NiL admirari prope res est una, Numici, 
Solaque, quae possit facere et servare beatum. 
Hunc solem et stellas et decedentia certis 

1. Nil admirari : cp. Strabo's words prope, ' is perhaps the one and only 

(1. 3. 21) ttjv dOavpaaTiav fjv iipvu thing.' See on Sat. 2.3.32 ' stultique 

ATjpu/cptTos Kal ol 6\\oi <piXoao(poi -ndvTts ; prope omnes,' and cp. A. P. 432 ' faciunt 

irapaKtiTai yap tw dOapjiu Kai drapdx<i> prope plura.' 

mi dvacnXTjKTai, and Cicero, de Fin. una solaque. Cicero prefers ' unus 

5. 29. 87 ' Id enim ille [Democritus] solus' without the conjunction, and uses 

summum bonum tvOvpiav et saepe dOap- it frequently. ' Una,' = ' praecipua.' 

Piav appellat, id est animum terrore li- Notice the additional force given by 

berum.' MrjStv Oavpafyiv is a precept or dividing 'una'from ' solaque,' and by 

a boast attributed to philosophers of the insertion between them of the voca- 

several schools, but Horace is likely to tive which asks for special attention. 
be thinking chiefly of the aTapa£ia of the 3. hunc solem, ' yonder sun.' 





Tempora momentis sunt qui formidine nulla 
Imbuti spectent : quid censes munera terrae, 
Ouid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indos, 
Ludicra quid, plausus et amici dona Quiritis, 
Ouo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore? 
Oui timet his adversa fere miratur eodem 
Ouo cupiens pacto ; pavor est utrobique molestus. 
Improvisa simul species exterret utrumque. 
Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem, 
Si quicquid vidit melius peiusve sua spe 
Defixis oculis animoque et corpore torpet ? 


4. momentis, ' movements,' as in 
Cic. de Nat. D. 2. 46 ' astra . . . sua 
momenta sustentant.' 

formidine nulla imbuti, ' with no 
tinge of fear.' The fear meant must be 
the fear from which Lucretius' poem 
was written to free mankind. The key 
seems to be given in the epithet ' certis ' 
in v. 3. The philosopher does not 
wonder or fear, because he learns the 

5. quid eenses . . . quo speetanda 
modo . . . crodis. The construction is 
rightly illustrated by Cic. pro Rosc. Am. 
17. 49 ' Quid censes hunc ipsum S. Ros- 
cium, quo studio et qua intelligentia esse 
in rusticis rebus?', a more lively way of 
saying ' quo studio, etc. hunc S. Ros- 
cium esse censes ? ' ' Credis ' only re- 
peats ' censes.' It is an argument from 
the greater to the less. If philosophy 
teaches indifference in the presence of 
the great celestial movements of the 
universe, how much more in the pre- 
sence of things terrestrial. 

6. Arabas et Indos : Od. 3. 24. 1. 

7. ludicra : either the plur. of ' ludi- 
crum,' a frequent word in Livy for a 
show of games, or the neut. plur. of the 
adj., a move general term than ' ludos,' 
'public games and all that concerns 
them.' We must remember the large 
space occupied by spectacles in the aims 
and dreams of a Roman. The words 
have been punctuated and taken in many 
ways. Acr. intei prets by ' inania,' but 
there is nothing to show whether he 
took it as in apposition or agreement 
with ' munera,' ' mere playthings,' or 
with ' plausus,' the latter being a geni- 
tive, ' empty applause.' The objection 
to these seems valid that a contemptuous 

epithet spoils the rhetorical force of the 
question, still more when it is affixed to 
part only of the objects of the sentence. 

plausus et dona are to be taken to- 
gether as both goveming ' Quiritis.' 

Quiritis, properly a single Roman 
citizen (as in Od. 2. 7. 3). Here used 
collectively for the Romans, as ' Ro- 
manus ' in A. P. 54; with ' dona Quiritis,' 
cp. Juv. S. 10. 78 ' qui [populus] dabat 
olim Imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia.' 

9. fere, best taken with eodem, as 
in Sat. 1. 3. 96 with ' paria,' (see note 
there ) ' the same or nearly so.' 

miratur : he breaks the rule ( nil ad- 
mirari.' It is well translated by Prof. 
Wilkins ' overesteems.' 

10. cupiens, ' the man who desires 

pavor, in the sense of Virgil's ' pavor 
pulsans' G. 3. 106, A. 5. 138, 'the flutter 
of excitement.' ' There is the flutter of 
heart which is painful in either case, so 
soon as a sight that was not looked for 
amazes the one and the other.' 

11. exterret is u-ed much as in Virg. 
A. II, 806 ' exterritus Arruns Laetitia 
mixtoque metu,' of the amazement of 
strong emotion. There seems no need, 
in spite of Lachmann's authority (on 
Lucr. 4. 1022, where he adopted the 
same verb), to accept the conj. of Jacobs 
(Lect. Venus.) ' externat ' (a verb 
analogous in formation and sense to 
' consternare '). 

12. The same fourfold division of 
emotions as Virg. A. 6. 733. 

13. spe, ' expectation.' 

14. ' Eyes are riveted, and heart and 
limbs alike spellbound.' With ' torpet ' 
cp. Sat. 2. 7. 95 n. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 6. 


Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui, 15 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsam. 

I nunc, argentum et marmor vetus aeraque et artes 

Suspice, cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores; 

Gaude quod spectant oculi te mille loquentem ; 

Navus mane forum et vespertinus pete tectum, 20 

Ne plus frumenti dotalibus emetat agris 

Mutus et (indignum, quod sit peioribus ortus) 

Hic tibi sit potius quam tu mirabilis illi. 

Ouicquid sub terra est in apricum proferet aetas;^" : 

Defodiet condetque nitentia. Cum bene notum 25 

Porticus Agrippae et via te conspexerit Appi, 

Ire tamen restat Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

15, 16. The sentiment is that of Cic. 
Tusc. D. 4. 29. 62 ' Omnium philosopho- 
rum una ratio est medendi, ut nihil, quale 
sit illud, quod perturbet animum, sed de 
ipsa sit perturbatione dicendum . . . 
etiam si virtutis ipsius vehementior ap- 
petitus sit, eadem sit omnibus ad deter- 
rendum adhibenda oratio.' 

17. inunc. An ironical exhortation 
to do whre& in the face of what has 
been said ('nunc') is ridiculous, Epp. 2. 
2. 76. Cp. Virg. A. 7. 425 ' I nunc, 
ingratis offer te, irrise, periclis,' Juv. S. 
12. 57 'I nunc et ventis animam com- 
mitte.' For ' i ' without ' nunc ' Juv. S. 
10. 166 ' i, demens curre per Alpes.' 
For 'nunc' without 'i' Virg. E. i. 74 
' Insere nunc, Melibaee piros,' ' with this 
before you,' as Conington renders it. 

argentum: see on Sat. 1. 4. 28. 
artes : Od. 4. 8. 5, Epp. 2. 1. 203; 
1 works of art.' 

18. suspiee : the opp. of ' despice.' 
mirare, again the key word, vv. 1, 

9> 2 3- 

cum gemmis colores : Virg. G. 2. 
506 ' Ut gemma bibat et Sarrano dor- 
miat ostro.' 

20. vespertinus, adj., for adv. of 
time : Sat. 2.4. 1 7 ' Si vespertinus subito 
te opprtsserit hospes.' ' Vespertinus ' 
implies industry, as business stopped 
generally soon after noon. 

21. ne plus : ' that you may gain by 
your own exertions as large an estate as 
Mutus, who excites your envy, gained 
by a fortunate marriage.' He might 
have said only ' that you may gain a 
large estate,' but the additional purpose 

of thereby cutting out Mutus shows still 
further the standard by which the 
wealth-seeker judges things, the ideal 
(note the word ' mirabilis ') which he 
sets before himself. 

22. Mutus, an unknown person. 
Bentley showed that the name is found 
in inscriptions. Previous editors havk 
altered ' Mutus et ' to ' Mucius,' with 
some MS. support, but to the injury of 
the grammar. 

indignum : a parenthetical charac- 
terising of the action, like ' nefas ' in 
Epod. 16. 14, Virg. A. 8. 688. Tt is less 
usual to append, as here, a justifying 
clause ' quod,' etc. 

24. in apricum, ' into the sunshine,' 
as ' nitentia,' ' those that are in the 

25. defodiet condetque, ' will hide 
underground.' The generations of men 
pass as other things that grow of earth. 
This is the thought which condemns 
such idealizing of wealth. The edd. com- 
pare for the expression Soph. Aj. 646 
airavO 6 paKpos KuvapldptrjTos XP° V0S \ 
(pvei t a.57]\a Kal (pavevra KpvTrreTai. 

bene notum, ' a familiar sight.' 

26. porticus Agrippae : see on Sat. 
1. 4. 134. The colonnade here mentioned 
is taken to be the Porticus Neptuni 
erected by Agrippa in B. c. 27, and 
adorned with paintings representing the 
story of the Argonauts — a memorial of . 
his own naval victories. 

via Appi : in Epod. 4. 14, the up- 
start displaying his wealth, ' Appiam 
mannis terit.' 

27. Numa quo devenit et Ancus, 

R 2 



Si latus aut renes morbo temptantur acuto 

Ouaere fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere : quis non ? 

Si virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 

Hoc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas et 

Lucum ligna : cave ne portus occupet alter, 

Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas ; 

Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, porro et 

Tertia succedant et quae pars quadrat acervum.. 35 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote fidemque et amicos 

Et genus et formam regina Pecunia donat, 

'the best and greatest of kings.' See 
on Od. 4. 7. 17, Lucr. 3. 1025. 

28. si latus, etc. This verse, sub- 
stituting ' cum ' for ' si,' and the subj. 
for the ind., occurs in Sat. 2. 3. 163 ; see 
note there. The original text ' nil ad- 
mirari ' is now exhausted, and he turns 
to other conceptions of the ' summum 
bonum,' putting betvveen the two parts 
of the Epistle the principle which gives 
it its true thread. This is expressed in 
a figurative form : ' If you are ill you 
would take some pains to be well.' 
The relation between the two members 
of the analogical comparison is ex- 
pressed, in the absence of conjunctions, 
by assimilating the form of sentences, 
two imperatives, as though he said 
' when I bid you choose your ideal 
and pursue it with spirit, it is only as 
though I bade you do what you would 
do without my bidding, namely, try to 
get well if you were ill.' 

29. recte vivere, ' to guide your life 
aright,' ' to follow the true end whatever 
it is.' See on Epp. 1. 2. 41. 

quis non ? ' All men have their 

30. omissis delieiis, for they belong 
to another ideal, pleasure. 

31. hoc age, ' to business ! ' ' give 
your whole attention,' Sat. 2. 3. 152, 
Epp. 1. 18. 88. 

virtutem verba putas. This an- 
swers not to ' vis recte vivere,' but to ' si 
virtus hoc una potest dare.' We may 
mark it as a question, or take it as a 
supposition. The reference is probably 
to Brutus' last words, 3i tXtjhov apfTrj, 
\6yos dp' t)0~6' , «yo/ 5« ere | ws epyov 
fjOKovv. See note on Od. 2. 7. 11, 
and cp. Epp. 1. 17. 41 ' Aut virtus 
nomen inane est Aut,' etc. Bentl. 
preferred ' putes,' which is in some good 

MSS.,asmoremodest: 'you maypossibly 

' Are you a man who takes a purely 
matenal account of everything, who 
thinks virtue a thing to talk of but of 
no substantial existence, who thinks a 
sacred grove so many yards of timber ; 
seek then with vigour the ideal which 
suits your view, namely, material wealth.' 

33. Cibyratiea. Cibyra was a town 
in the south of Phrygia, on the borders 
of Caria and Lycia. It gave its name 
to one of the largest ' conventus ' in 
Roman Asia Minor, that one, namely, 
of which Laodicea was the chief tovvn. 
Strabo, 13.4. 17, speaks of an iron trade 
at Cibyra. Bp. Lightfoot (Introd. to 
Ep. to Colossians, ' Churches of the 
Lycus ') thinks that the phrase ' Ciby- 
ratica negotia ' refers rather to the trade 
of Laodicea. 

Bithyna : Od. 3. 7. 3 ' Thyna merce 

perdas, i. e. if any one forestals you. 

34. rotundentur, ' rotundo ' and 
' corrotundo ' are used for ' to make up a 
round sum.' 

35. quae pars quadrat, ' the fourth 
thousand which makes the heap four 
times the original.' The MSS. vary 
between 'quadrat' and 'quadret'; either 
can stand. 

36. scilicet : ironical, and marking 
that the sentiment is not Horace's but 
that of the votary of wealth ; ' of course, 
you know.' 

fidem : cp. Juv. S. 3. 143 ' Quantum 
quisque sua nummorum servat in arca, 
Tantum habet et fidei.' 

37. et genus et formam. Schiitz 
seems right in saying that there is a 
parody of the Stoic paradoxes of the 
perfection of the wise man, ' liber 
honoratus pulcher rex denique regum.' 

LIB. I. EPIST. 6. 


Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadcla Venusque. 

Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex : 

Ne fueris hic tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scenae praebere rogatus, 

' Oui possum tot?' ait ; 'tamen et quaeram et quot habebo 

Mittam:' post paulo scribit sibi milia quinque 

Esse domi chlamydum ; partem vel tolleret omnes. 

Exilis domus est ubi non et multa supersunt 45 

Et dominum fallunt et prosunt furibus. Ergo, 

Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 

Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittas. 

Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat, 

Mercemur servum qui dictet nomina, laevum 50 

Oui fodicet latus et cogat trans pondera dextram 

38. bene nummatum. A phrase 
found in Cicero, de leg. Agr. 2. 22. 54 
' adolescens non minus bene nummatus 
quam bene capillatus.' 

Suadela, Tleidcu. The man of money 
is the man who is listened to, the man 
who is loved. 

39. The king of the Cappadocians 
and Luculhis are instances, the former 
of failure, the latter of success, in com- 
plying with the precept to do what you 
do thoroughly. Cicero, speaking of 
Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocia (pre- 
decessor of Archelaus, who was king at 
this time), writes ' nullum aerarium nul- 
lum vectigal habet . . . nihil illo regno 
spoliatius, nihil rege egentius ' ad Att. 
6. 1 , ' erat rex perpauper ' id. 6. 3. 
The Roman slavemarket was flooded 
with Cappadocian slaves. ' The king 
sends us many slaves but cannot pay 
his tribute ; Lucullus was truly royal in 
his magnificence.' The story of Lucullus 
is repeated by Plutarch in his life of 

40. ne fueris hic, ' do not answer to 
this picture.' Cp. Epp. 1. 15. 42 ' hic 
ego sum.' For the long syllable 'fueris' 
see on Sat. 2. 2. 74. 

chlamydes, the Greek soldier's cloak, 
here wanted for a pageant on the stage. 
Cp. Epp. 1. 1. 190. 

44. tolleret, the subj. is the praetor 
or the person giving the show. 

46. fallunt, ' are forgotten by,' as 
by Lucullus in this instance. 

47. facere et servare beatum. The 
repetition from v. 1 is meant to show 

the connection. The phrase is varied 
in v. 49 ' fortunatum praestat.' We are 
passing in review various ideals. 

49. species, ' display,' ' splendour.' 
Epp. 2. 2. 203. The edd. quote Cic. 
Pis. 11. 24 'magnum nomen est, magna 
species . . . consulis.' 

50. qui dictet : what was called a 
' nomenclator.' 

laevum, as the slave would walk on 
the left side ; see on Sat. 2. 5. 17. A 
little doubt hangs over the reading. The 
mass of MSS. (including the Bland.) 
having 'saevum,' which makes no sense. 
Keller's E gives ' laevum.' Ritter reads 
' servum ' with some slight MS. au- 
thority, but the repetition has no intel- 
ligible force. 

51. trans pondera. A phrase which 
has not been certainlyexplained. (i)The 
Comm. Cruq. and Acron explain ' pon- 
dera ' as the high stepping-stones (such 
as are to be seen in Pompeii) by which 
people crossed from the raised path on 
one side of the street to that on the 
other ; ' to stretch half across the street.' 
There is no other ground for thinking 
that ' pondera ' was a technical name 
for these stepping-stones, and it may be 
a guess as baseless as others. It has 
been taken in several other ways, as (2) 
' across the counter,' of shaking hands 
with tradesmen in a ' taberna ' opening 
on the street, 'pondera' being the 
weights used in scales. This view is 
taken by Orelli, Keller, and Schiitz. 
(3) ' Beyond your balance,' ' at risk of 
tumbling down' Con. This was suggested 



Porrigere: 'Hic multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina ; 

Cui libet hic fasces dabit eripietque curule 

Cui volet importunus ebur.' Frater, Pater, adde ; 

Ut cuique est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta. 55 

Si bene qui cenat bene vivit, lucet, eamus 

Ouo duc t gula, piscemur, venemur, ut olim 

Gargilius, qui mane plagas, venabula, servos 

Differtum transire forum populumque iubebat, 

Unus ut e multis populo spectante referret 60 

Emptum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique lavemur, 

Ouid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 

Digni, remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulixei, 

Cui potior patria fuit interdicta voluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore iocisque 65 

by Gesner and is supported by Lachmann 
on Lucret. 6. 574. It is given by 
Ritter. (4) It has lately been explained 
of weighted tassels attached to the dress 
in order to make it sit properly, such as 
are represented in monuments, and such 
as have been found in Etruscan tombs 
(Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etru- 
ria, vol. 2. p. 515). It is difficult how- 
ever to see how, if this is the sense, it 
adds anything to the picture. 

52. Fabia . . . Velina, sc. ' tiibu.' 
Horace apparently takes two names of 
tribes at random. Pers. 5. 73, probably 
in imitation of him, has 'Velina.' 

53. hic, not the ' hic ' of v. 52, but a 
third citizen. Some good MSS. (in- 
cluding Regin.) have ' is,' which Bentley 

54. importunus,witheripiet,'rough- 
ly,' ' ruthlessly ; ' see on Od. 4. 13. 9. 

frater : so Juv. S. 5. 135, Virro to 
Trebius, when his fortune has come to 
him, ' Vis, frater, ab ipsis Ilibus?' See 
Mayors note. 

55. facetus, ' blande et comiter ' Orell. 
The quotations for this use are from 
Plautus and Terence. 

56. lucet : ' let us start at daybreak 
and prepare for our feast.' 

57. piscemur, venemur. ' Let us go 
fishing and hunting, not in the way that 
involves manly exercise, but after Gar- 
gilius' easy fashion.' The story is sug- 
gested by the metaphorical use of 
' venemur,' and adds nothing to it. 

60. populo. The repetition means 
the same people that saw him go out. 

61. crudi : used both of undigested 
food and persons in a state of indiges- 
tion. See Sat. 1. 5. 49. For the practice 
spoken of cp. Pers. Sat. 3. 98 ' Tunndus 
hic epulis atque albo ventre lavatur,' 
etc, Juv. S. 1.142 'Poenatamen praesens, 
cum tu deponis amictus Turgidus et 
crudum pavonem in balnea portas.' See 
Mayor's note there. 

62. quid deceat. Theie must be no 
back-glances at ideals you have for- 

Caerite cera digni, ' worthy of the 
register of Caere.' This phrase, which 
does not occur elsewhere, is explained 
by the Scholiasts and byA. Gellius 16.13 
to be the equivalent of ' qui in aerarios 
referantur,' that is, to be reduced to the 
condition of ' civitas sine suffragio,' ' dis- 
franchised.' The origin of the phrase is 
traced by Gellius to the story told in 
Liv. 5. 40 f., of the services rendered by 
Caere to Rome during the Gallic inva- 
sion and its consequent reward of an 
honorary citizenship, by the Scholiasts 
to the occasion of the later rebellion 
of Caere (Liv. 7. 20) when the citizen- 
ship originally given was limited in this 
way as a punishment. The matter is 
discussed by Madv. Opusc. vol. 1. p. 240. 

63. remigium Ulixei : cp. the in- 
terpretation of this story in Epp. I. 
2. 23 f. 

64. interdieta voluptas. With par- 
ticular reference perhaps to the slaughter 
of the cattle of the Sun, Hom. Od. 12. 
271 f. 

65. Mimnermus, of Colophon, an 

LIB. I. EPIST. 7. 247 

Nil est iucundum, vivas in amore iocisque. 
Vive, vale. Si quid novisti rectius istis 
Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. 

elegiac poet of the time of Solon. See Numicius they become in v. 68 ' his' in 

Epp. 2. 2. 101 ; cp. frag. 1 (Bergk) relation to himself and Numicius to- 

ris S( fiios, 71 81 Tfp-nvuv drtp xp va * r l' i gether. ' Istis ' is to be referred, not to 

'A<ppoStT7]s ; | TiOvalrjv ore p.01 prjKtTL the advice of Mimnermus (as Pope per- 

TavTa /xe\oi k.t.X. haps took it in his imitation of the 

67. vive, vale : see on Sat. 2. 5. 110. Epistle), but to the whole tenor of the 

istis, ' what I have given you ' : hav- Epistle. 
ing been identified thus in relation to 



Verses 1-9. I TALKED of a few days in the country, Maecenas, and it has proved 

to mean all August. But as you would excuse me if I were ill, so you must 

excuse me for shunning what makes me ill. 
10-13. Rome in autumn is deadly ; and if the winter is cold, I must go to the 

sea-coast ; so yo.i must not look for me till the spring. 
14-19. Your generosity to me has not been that of the Calabrian host who presses 

on his guest pears that are so plentiful that what he refuses goes to the pigs. 
20-24. True generosity chooses worthy objects, but gives what it values. I hope 

I am not unworthy of your bounty. 
25-28. What fails me is youthful health and vigour, ahd that you cannot restore 

to me. 
29-34. If any one says ' you have surrendered your liberty, and can only regain 

it in the same way as the vixen who got into the corn-bin when she had an 

empty stomach,' I take him at his word. 
35, 36. I quite mean what I say, and really prefer liberty to wealth. 
37-43. It is not that I am discontented or ungrateful ; but you would see that 

I could cheerfully return all you gave me, and answer as Telemachus 

answered when horses which he could never use were offered to him. 
44, 45. What I want now is not the grandeur of Rome but the leisure and peace 

of the country. 
46-98. The story of Philippus and Volteius is a warning to the givers and receivers 

of patronage. The latter should be wise in time and draw back as soon as 

they find that the offered improvement of their position is no improve- 

ment. The measure which suits one man will not suit another. 

The Epistle is a picture of patronage as it should be and as it shotdd not be. 
It is implied in the idea of such a poem as well as asserted in words in it, that 
Maecenas' patronage has been of the former kind, — such as was honourable both to 
patron and to poet. The Epistle, therefore, ranges itself with Sat. I. 5, 6, and 
9, which describe and defend Horace's relation to Maecenas. 



The story of Philippus and Volteius gives a picture to be contrasted with that 
of Maecenas and Horace. It is patronage based on no intellectual sympathy 
or real benevolence, but on caprice and a selfish desire for amusement. It has 
the effect for the time of breaking down the sturdy independence and destroying 
the contented simplicity of Volteius. It puts him into two false positions — first 
as guest at a table where he does not understand the proprieties, then in a 
country life for which he has no taste or aptitude. 

The story is cleverly imitated, in its outward aspect, by Swift in his ' Address 
to the Earl of Oxford,' though a different turn is given to it ; his own banishment 
to the deanery of St. Patrick's being the analogue to Volteius' settlement in a 
Sabine farm. 

OUINQUE dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum, 
Sextilem totum mendax desideror. Atqui, 
Si me vivere vis sanum recteque valentem, 
Ouam mihi das aegro, dabis aegrotare timenti, 
Maecenas, veniam, dum ficus prima calorque 
Dissignatorem decorat lictoribus atris, 
Dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet, 
Officiosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 
Adducit febres et testamenta resignat. 
Ouodsi bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 
Ad mare descendet vates tuus et sibi parcet 
Contractusque leget : te, dulcis amice, reviset 


i. Quinque dies : proverbial for a 
short time ; Sat. i. 3. 16. It is the 
equivalent of our 'a week,' and indi- 
cates that the hebdomadal division of 
time had not yet taken hold of lan- 

2. Sextilem : Epp. 1. II. 19, the 
month that was subsequently named 
after Augustus. 

mendax : of breaking a promise ; 
Od. 3. 1. 30. 

3. sanum recteque valentem : Epp. 

1. 16. 21. It is an habitual combina- 
tion, ' sani sunt ac valentes ' Cic. Acad. 

2. 7. 19. 

4. das...dabis, 'now'... 'all through 
the unhealthy month of September (,Epp. 
1. 16. 16) which is just coming.' 

6. dissignatorem : see on Epp. 1. 
5. 16. Seneca, Benef. 6. 38, joins ' dis- 
signatores et libitinarios,' the latter 
being the attendants here called ' lic- 
tores atri.' 

7. matercula : a fond mother. 

8. officiosa sedulitas : constant oc- 
cupation in paying attention to the 
great or to friends. Cp. Sat. 2. 5. 48, 

6. 23 f., Epp. 2. 2. 67 f. These pas- 
sages illustrate also the ' petty business 
of the Forum,' the duties, that is, of 
' sponsores,' ' advocati,' ' testes.' 

9. resignat, ' breaks their seals,' by 
causing the death of the testator. 

10. quodsi. For the quasi-tem- 
poral use of ' si' see Virg. A. 5. 64 ' si 
nona diem mortalibus almum Aurora 
extulerit,' and Catull. 14. 17 ' si lux- 
erit.' It seems to have been idiomatic, 
having arisen (see Conington and Ellis 
i. 1.) from a ' modest or religious way 
of speaking of a future event.' 

Albanis agris : the slopes of the 
Alban hills. 

illinet : perhaps a painter's word ; 
the first ' touches ' of snow. 

11. vates tuus. Horace throws on 
Maecenas the responsibility of the title 
' vates.' Cp. Od. 1. 1. 35 ' si me lyricis 
vatibus inseres.' 

12. contractus. The phrases that 
seem to explain the word best are Vir- 
gil 's ' contracto frigore pigrae ' of the 
bees, G. 4. 259, and Phaedr. 4. 23. 12 
of a fly, ' mori contractam cum te co- 

LIB. I. EPIST. 7. 


Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non quo more piris vesci Calaber iubet hospes 

Tu me fecisti locupletem. 'Vescere sodes.' 

' Iam satis est.' ' At tu quantum vis tolle.' ' Benigne.' 

' Non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis.' 

' Tam teneor dono, quam si dimittar onustus.' 

' Ut libet ; haec porcis hodie comedenda relinques.' 

Prodigus et stultus donat quae spernit et odit ; 

Haec seges ingratos tulit et feret omnibus annis. 

Vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus, 

Nec tamen ignorat quid distent aera lupinis : 

Dignum praestabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 




gunt frigora.' Horace likens himself 
to creatures that feel and shrink from 
the cold. Orelli takes it as painting 
hisactual attitude ; 'zusammengekauert,' 
as Lucian's fTri>cacv(pws dfupl tt)v k&- 
fiivov, ' crouching ' or ' huddled at the 
stove.' But the word is bald in such 
a sense, and the touch too comic. 

leget carries with it the sense of 
' stay indoors,' ' stay on my couch,' Sat. 
1. 6. 122. 

13. The zephyrs and the swallows go 
together as the representatives of return- 
ing spring in Virg. G. 4. 305 ' Hoc 
geritur Zephyris primum impellentibus 
undas . . . ante Garrula quam tignis 
nidum suspendat hirundo.' 

15. sodes : Sat. 1. 9. 41 ; Epp. 1. 1. 
62, 1. 16. 31; A. P. 438. 

16. benigne, inf. v. 62 : sub. 'facis' 
or ' dicis,' a phrase of common life. 
Cicero has ' benigne ac liberaliter,' ' you 
are kind and generous' in Verr. 2. 3. 85. 
In these two passages of Horace it has 
the idiomatic forcc of refusal, 'no, thank 

18. tam teneor : ' I am as much 

20. prodigus et stultus : one per- 
son, not two. ' Prodigus ' is opposed 
to ' bonus,' the really generous who 
count the cost of what they give and 
yet give it. Seneca paraphrases (Epist. 
120) 'mentitur prodigus liberalem, cum 
multum intersit utrum quis daresciat an 
servare nesciat. Multi sunt qui non 
donant sed proiiciunt.' 

21. haee seges : ' land sown in this 

tulit et feret : Od. 2. 13. 9 ' rapuit 

rapietque,' 4. 2. 38 ' donavere nec da- 

22. dignis ait esse paratus. For 
the constr. cp. Od. 3-. 27. 73 (the first 
interpretation given) ' uxor invicti Iovis 
esse nescis.' The same Grecism is 
found in Catull. 4. 1 ' Phaselus ille . . . 
ait fuisse navium celerrimus.' The 
Virgilian uses of the idiom usually cited 
(A. 2. 277, 5. 372) are less certain. 
' Dignis ' is masc. and dat, ' those who 
deserve it,' 'paratus' being taken, like 
Irofftoj, with dat. in the sense of ' ready 
to help.' It has also been explained as 
the neut. abl. ' ready with worthy gifts ' ; 
but this sacrifices the evident corre- 
spondence with ' dignum ' in v. 24. 

23. aera lupinis, ' the difference be- 
tween real and sham money,' i. e. be- 
tween valuable and valueless gifts. Lu- 
pine seeds were used for money on the 
stage, and for counters in playing games. 
Cp. Plaut. Poen. 3. 2. 20 ' Ag. agite, in- 
spicite, aurum est. Co. profecto, spec- 
tatores, comicum : macerato hoc pin- 
gues fiunt auro in barbaria boves.' 

24. dignum pro laude merentis : 
' qualem tua de me merentis postulat 
laus atque virtus ' Obbar. ' Dignus ' is 
absol. as ' dignis' in v. 22. 'Pro laude' 
adds the determining standard. Cp. 
Lucret. 5. 1 ' Quis potis est dignum 
pollenti pectore carmen Condere, pro 
rerum maiestate hisque repertis ? Quisve 
valet verbis tantum, qui fingere laudes 
Pro meritis eius possit ? ' ' Worthy I will 
show myself too, to match the renown 
of my benefactor.' For ' merentis ' absol. 
cp. Virg. Aen.6. 664 ' Quifque sui me- 
mores alios fecere merendo.' The 



Ouodsi me noles usquam discedere, reddes 
Forte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos, 
Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et 
Inter vina fugam Cinarae maerere protervae. 
Forte per angustam tenuis volpecula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti, pastaque rursus 
Ire foras pleno tendebat corpore frustra ; 
Cui mustela procul, ' Si vis,' ait, ' effugere istinc, 
Macra cavum repetes artum, quem macra subisti.' 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno ; 



thought, though not the exact expression, 
is paiallel to Epp. 2. 1. 245 ' At neque 
dedecorant tua de se iudicia atque 
Munera, quae multa dantis cum laude 
tulerunt Dilecti tibi Vergilius Variusque 

25. usquam discedere : see on Sat. 
i- i- 37, 2. 7. 30. 

26. latus : chest, lungs : ' Si ventri 
bene, si lateri, pedibusque tuis est ' Epp. 

1. 12. 5. 

nigros angusta fronte capillos : 
see on Od. 1. 33. 5 'tenui fronte,' and 
cp. Plin. Epp. 3. 6. 2 ' rari et cedentes 
capilli, lata frons.' Horace was now 
'praecanus' Epp. 1. 20. 24, and, it is 
here implied, becoming bald. 

27. dulce loqui, ridere : cp. 'dulce 
ridentem, dulce loquentem' Od. 1. 22. 
23, ' canet indoctum sed dulce' Epp. 

2. 2.9; ' dulce ' means, so as to charm 

28. Some lover's play is described. 
Orelli takes inter vina as qualifying 
both fugam and maerere. In any 
case ' protervae ' implies that the flight 
is playful, and the position of 'maerere' 
implies that the mourning is not serious. 
Eor ' Cinara ' cp. Od. 4. 1. 4, 4. 13. 21 ; 
Epp. 1. 14. 33 ; and see in App. I. of 
vol. 1. ' on the unknown names in the 
Odes.' Here, as in all the other places 
where the name occurs, it is to recall an 
epoch in the poet's life. 

29. forte, like ' olim,' a wonted par- 
ticle in beginning a fable. 

volpecula. This is the reading of 
all MSS. and Schol. Bentley would 
read ' nitedula,' ' a shrew - mouse,' ex 
conj., arguing that a fox does not and 
cannot eat corn, and that all the cir- 
cumstances suitan animal much smaller 
and more accustomed to human dwell- 

ing-places. He shows from St. Jerome 
(ad Salvinum) that a similar fable ex- 
isted in which a mouse plays the part : 
' docet et Aesopi fabula plenum muris 
ventrem per angustum foramen egredi 
non valere.' On the other hand the 
fable, both in Babrius (Fab. 86) and in 
the later Aesopean collections, makes 
it a fox, but changes the bin of corn to 
a hole or a larder with meat and bread, 
and the weasel to a second fox. At- 
tempts have been made to save Horace's 
credit in the second way by accepting 
the reading of some inferior MSS. ' ca- 
meram,' and interpreting (Dacier) ' ca- 
meram frumenti ' as ' a granary,' where 
the attraction might be not the grain 
but pullets and pigeonswho frequented it. 
Bentley shows that though Columella 
says ' sedem frumentis optimam quibus- 
dam videri horreum camera contentum,' 
' camera frumenti ' could not have the 
meaning necessary for this purpose. 
Lachmann (on Lucr. 3. 10. 14) strongly 
supports Bentley's conjecture, and it 
is received into the text by Haupt and 
translated by such a conservative scholar 
as Conington. Keller and Munro both 
condemn it. The latter says ' Bentley's 
famous " nitedula " for " volpecula " de- 
serves all praise — it is brilliant ; is what 
Horace ought to have written, but I 
sadly fear did not write ; not from 
ignorance probably, but because he had 
in his thoughts some old-world foxes, 
whose foxes were not as our foxes.' 

30. cumeram : see on Sat. 1. 1. 53. 

32. procul, ' hard by': see on Sat. 
2. 6. 105. 

34. hac si compellor imagine : ' if 
this figure is used to challenge me ' ; 
Sat. 1. 7. 31, 2. 3. 297. 

resigno : see on Od. 3. 29. 54. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 7. 


Nec somnum plebis laudo satur altilium, nec 
Otia divitiis Arabum liberrima muto. 
Saepe verecundum laudasti, rexque paterque 
Audisti coram, nec verbo parcius absens : 
Inspice si possum donata reponere laetus. 
Haud male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulixei : 
' Non est aptus equis Ithace locus, ut neque planis 
Porrectus spatiis nec multae prodigus herbae ; 
Atride, magis apta tibi tua dona relinquam.' 
Parvum parva decent ; mihi iam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet aut imbelle Tarentum. 
Strenuus et fortis causisque Philippus agendis 



35, 36. An enforcement of ' cuncta 
resigno.' ' I do so sincerely (not merely 
as an epicure will praise simple living) 
and with no backward glances, no mind 
to barter freedom for wealth.' 

35. somnum plebis : 'somnus agres- 
tium Lenis virorum non humiles domos 
Fastidit ' Od. 3. 1. 21. 

satur altilium, ' with fat capon 
lined ; ' for ' allilis,' ' a fattened fowl,' 
see Juv. S. 5. 115 with Mayor's note. 

36. otia liberrima : such as he de- 
scribes in Sat. 2. 6. 60 f. Cp. the 
phrases ' mihi me reddentis agelli ' Od. 
1. 14. I, ' mihi vivam' Epp. 1. 18. 

divitiis Arabum : Od. 1. 29. 1, 2. 
12. 24, 3. 24. 1. 

37. ' I have your own testimony that 
all this is not a cover of discontent. My 
gratitude has been expressed behind 
your back as much as to your face.' 
Cp. the picture of himself in Od. 2. 18. 
12 ' nec potentem amicum Largiora 
flagito, Satis beatus unicis Sabinis.' 

rexque paterque. For ' rex ' of 
a patron cp. Epp. 1. 17. 43 ' Coram rege 
suo de paupeitate tacentes,' Juv. S. 1. 
136, 5. 14 and 161, etc. 

38. audisti, 'you have been called.' 
See on Sat. 2. 6. 20, 2. 7. 101 ; Epp. 1. 
16. 17. 

39. si possum. Madv. § 451, d. 
The indicative in this use is not found 
in prose. Cp. ' visam si domi est ' Ter. 
Heaut. 1. 1. 118. 

40. This reference is to Odyss. 4. 601, 
where Telemachus refuses the proffered 
present of Menelaus : 'ittttovs 5' es 'lOaKtjv 
ovk d£o/, d\\d ool avraj | evOabe 

\ei\poj dyaX/j-a' o~v ydp -neoioio dvdoaeis 
. . . ev 5' 'WaKT) ovr dp Spofioi evpees 
ovre ri Keifiwv. 

proles, ' the true son ; ' his father's 
spirit showed itself in the answer. 

patientis, a translation of Homer's 
iro\vr\as. Cf. Epod. 17. 16 ' Laboriosi 
remiges Ulyssei.' 

41. aptus equis : Od. 1. 7. 9; I-tttto- 

42. spatiis, a trans. of Spu/xot : Epp. 

1. 14. 9, Virg. G. 1. 513, 3. 202 'maxima 
campi . . . spatia ; ' ' spaces for racing.' 

44. regia Roma, Rome with its 
regal magnificence. Cp. ' regiae moles ' 
Od. 2. 15. 1, but there is also perhnps a 
feeling of the ' Roma princeps urbium ' 
of Od. 4. 3. 13, ' domina Roma' of Od. 
4. 14. 44. 

45. vacuum : so ' vacuas Athenas ' 
Epp. 2. 2. 81. 

imbelle. Cp. ' molle Tarentum ' 
Sat. 2. 4. 34. They are both epithets 
which to the lover of life in Rome would 
be epithets of disparagement ; bnt 
Horace is attracted by the ' emptiness ' 
which means quiet, and the ' softness ' 
of a southern climate. For Horace's 
love of Tibur and Tarentum see Od. 2. 
6. 5 foll. 

46. strenuus et fortis : see on Sat. 

2. 1. 16; this particular conjunction was 
habitual. This appears not only from 
their frequent use together, but also 
from such a passage as Cic. Phil. 2. 32. 
78 ' si minus fortem, attamen strenuum,' 
where it is implied that the two qualities 
naturally go together. As that passage 
also shows, ' strenuus ' is of energy, 
' fortis ' of courage or resolution. The 



Clarus, ab officiis octavam circiter horam 

Dum redit, atque Foro nimium distare Carinas 

Iam grandis natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 

Adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris in umbra 

Cultello proprios purgantem leniter ungues. 

' Demetri,' — puer hic non laeve iussa Philippi 

Accipiebat — ' abi, quaere et refer, unde domo, quis, 

Cuius fortunae, quo sit patre quove patrono.' 

It, redit et narrat, Volteium nomine Menam, 55 

Praeconem, tenui censu, sine crimine, notum 




description seems to touch the story at 
several points. In the first place it 
marks the contrast of the two men, the 
great man who lifts the little man out 
of his sphere, the busy man who is 
struck with the leisureliness of the more 
homely life. It serves also to explain 
the forcefulness which Mena was unable 
to resist, and perhaps to apologize (cp. v. 
79) for Philippus' amusing himself in 
such n. way, — ' he had done a good day's 
work ' — it was a freak in an energetic 
and honourable life. The person meant 
is L. Marcius Philippus, consul in B.C. 
91 , the opponent of the tribune M. Livius 
Drusus. Cicero characterizes him (de 
Orat. 3. 1. 4) as ' vehemens et disertus et 
imprimis fortis ad resistendum.' 

47. octavam horam. Forthe mean- 
ing of ' hora ' see on Sat. 1. 5. 23. 

48. Carinae : Virg. Aen. 8. 361 'lautis 
. . . Carinis;' a fashionable quarter where 
Philippus may be supposed to have 
had a house. It was on the Mons Op- 
pius, the southern spur of the Esquiline, 
which runs out towards the Arch of 
Titus. The Sacra Via commenced in the 
Carinae, and ran through the Forum. 

50. adrasum. The main point is 
the leisurely and contented life of the 
man. It is in contrast with the busy 
and strenuous life of Philippus. He is 
already shaved, the barber has gone 
away, and he is sitting on at his ease in 
the shade of the hisnails, 
as though he had nothing else to do 
( ' leniter ' ). This contrast with himself 
is represented as the first thing that 
attracts Philippus to Volteius ; then the 
picture of the contented, ordered, life of 
an ' abnormis sapiens,' as described in 
his messenger's words (w. 55-59), then 
the character of the man as shown by 
his blunt refusal of his invitation (62- 

64). It is possible that ' adrasum,' like 
the whole picture, implies also that he 
isnot a man offashion ; cp. ' tonsa cute,' 
as a sign of rusticity, Epp. 1. 18. 7. 

51. proprios: agranderorlessleisure- 
ly person would have left this to the 
' tonsor.' Plaut. Aul. 2. 4. 33 ' Quin 
ipsi pridem tonsor ungues dempserat.' 

52. Demetri, a Greek slave ; see on 
Sat. 2. 5. 18. 

non laeve, ' very cleverly.' 

53. unde domo : Virg. Aen. 8. 114 
' Qui genus ? unde domo ? ' 

54. quo patre quove patrono : 
father, if he were free born ; patron, if 
if he were a freedman ; ' nullo patre 
natus.' Cp. A. P. 248 ' quibus est 

55. Volteium Menam. It is pointed 
out that the two names together implied 
that he was a freedman, Volteius being 
a Roman gentile name, the name of his 
'patronus,' Menas, a Greek name, con- 
tracted from Menodorus. Bishop 
Lightfoot, in notes on Coloss. 4. 12, 14, 
15, has collected a large number of such 
contracted names. 

56. praeeonem, an auctioneer, as we 
see from v. 65. Cp. A. P. 419 'praeco 
ad merces qui turbam cogit emendas.' 

notum has been taken separately 
(Orell.,Dill r . as ' benenotum ' Epp. 1. 6. 
2 5 ) or with ' sine crimine' = ' notae probi- 
tatis ' (Obbar). In either of these cases 
it will be best to take the infinitives 
(with Orelli) as in orat. obl. after 
'narrat,' not with ' gaudentem,' which 
has its own constr. with the ablatives. 
It is perhaps better however with the 
more recent editors (Ritter, Keller, 
Munro, Wilkins) to construct 'notum' 
with the infinitives, ' known to.' Bentley 
proposed ' sine crimine natum, " of blame- 
less, respectable, birth,' but with hesita- 

LIB. I. EPIST. 7. 


Et properare loco et cessare et quaerere et uti, 

Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus et lare certo 

Et ludis et post decisa negotia Campo. 

1 Scitari libet ex ipso quodcunque refers ; dic 60 

Ad cenam veniat.' Non sane credere Mena, 

Mirari secum tacitus. Quid multa ? ' Benigne,' 

Respondet. ' Neget ille mihi?' ' Negat improbus et te 

Neglegit aut horret.' Volteium mane Philippus 

Vilia vendentem tunicato scruta popello 65 

Occupat et salvere iubet prior. Ille Philippo 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 

Quod non mane domum venisset, denique quod non 

Providisset eum. ' Sic ignovisse putato 

tion, and with the conclusion 'inter- 
pretes, ut opinor, semper inter se dis- 

57. loco, as ' in loco ' Od. 4. 12. 8, at 
fitting times. ' Et . . . et ' with ' pro- 
perare ' and ' quaerere ' standing first 
in the two pairs implies ' to be busy as 
well as leisurely, to get as well as to 
spend.' His present condition is not 
his constant one, nor the proof of lazi- 
ness, rather of the good sense which 
knows how to temper work with en- 
joyment. For 'cessare' cp. Epp. 1. 10. 
46, 2. 2. 183. ' Quaerere ' and ' uti ' are 
contrasted as in Sat. 1. 1. 38, and both 
are used absolutely as ' quaerere ' in Sat. 
1. 1. 92, 'uti' in Epp. 2. 2. 190. 

58. parvis. For ' parvum parva 
decent ' sup. v. 44. 

eerto. Bentley was inclined to 
' curto,' which Cruq. found in two of 
his MSS. (not the Bland.) ; but it is no 
improvement. The phrases are balanced 
between his advantages and drawbacks. 
The modesty of his home may be 
gathered from that of his companions. 
He is not like the ' scurra ' in Epp. 1. 15. 
28 'vagus, qui non certum praesaepe 

61. sane : it seems an echo of what 
he said himself, ' non sane credo ; ' see on 
Epp. 1. 15. 5. 

62. benigne, as above in v. 16. 

63. neget. Rather better supported 
than 'negat;' ' is he to refuse me?' 
The subj. expresses better the tone of 
pique, from which the slave takes his 

improbus : cp. Sat. 1. 9. 73 ' fugit 
improbus,' Sat. 2. 5. 84 'anus improba,' 

avaiSrjs. The amount ofreal or mock in- 
dignation implied will vary with each 

64. neglegit aut horret : the anti- 
thesis settles the meaning of ' horret ' : 
Volteius shows either defect or excess of 
the proper respect. Cp. Epp. 1. 18. II. 

65. tunicato. See Mayor's note on 
Juv. S. 3. 171 ' Pars magna Italiae est 
. . . in qua Nemo togam sumit nisi 
mortuus.' The ' toga ' was only worn 
even in Rome by the well-to-do or on 
public occasions. Tac. de Orat. 7 
' volgus imperitum et tunicatus hic po- 

popello : the dimin. of depreciation ; 
Pers. S. 4. 15, 6. 50, so ' plebecula ' 
Epp. 2. 1. 186. 

66. oceupat, ' surprises.' 

67. excusare, with accus. of what 
is alleged as the excuse, as often in 
prose, ' valetudinem ' Liv. 6. 22. 

mercenaria vincla, the bonds of 
' a mercenarius,' i. e. of a person paid 
for his work. He was not selling his 
own goods. Cp. Sat. 1. 6. 86 ' si praeco 
parvas . . . mercedes sequerer.' 

68. mane domum, of the 'salutatio ' 
or early morning visit ; a recognized 
compliment to a patron or great man ; 
see inf. v. 75 and on Sat. 1. 6. 101. 

69. providisset, seen him first. Ter. 
Andr. 1. 2. 12 ' Herus est, neque pro- 
videram,' Plaut. Asin. 2. 4. 44 'non 
hercle te provideram : quaeso, ne vitio 

sic . . . si, ' on the sole condition 
that ' ; Liv. 1. 17 'utcum populusregem 
iussisset, id sic ratum esset si patres auc- 
tores fierent.' 



Me tibi, si cenas hodie mecum.' ' Ut Hbet.' ' Ergo 
Post nonam venies ; nunc \, rem strenuus auge.' 
Ut ventum ad cenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus 
Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hic ubi saepe  
Occultum visus decurrere piscis ad hamum, 
Mane cliens et iam certus conviva, iubetur 
Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. ; 
Impositus mannis arvum caelumque Sabinum 
Non cessat laudare. Videt ridetque Philippus, 
Et sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique quaerit, 
Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 
Promittit, persuadet uti mercetur agellum. 
Mercatur. Ne te longis ambagibus ultra 
Ouam satis est morer, ex nitido fit rusticus atque 





70. ut libet, ' as you please,' a for- 
mula of careless assent; so in v. 19. It 
is frequent in Terence as Ad. 2. 2. 

72. dicenda tacenda, ' on every 
topic wise and foolish ' ; the expression is 
probably from the Greek proverbial 
prjTa Kal apprjra (as in Dem. de Cor. 
§ 157, Soph. O. C. 1001). Persius 4. 
5 imitates the phrase, but describes the 
oppositecharacter, ' dicenda tacendaque 
calles,' '■ you know well what should be 
said and what not.' 

74. piscis, ' as a fish ' ; for the figure 
cp. Sat. 2. 5. 25. 

visus, sub. ' est.' 

75. mane cliens : see on v. 68. 
certus, 'a constant daily^juest.' 

76. rura has the constr. of ' rus ' 
without the preposition, as ' domos' has 
of 'domum ' in Liv. 22. 22 ; see Madv. 

§ 233- 

indictis Latinis. The ' feriae La- 
tinae ' were ' conceptivae,' that is, the 
time of their observance was fixed for the 
year by the consuls. This is the mean- 
ing of ' indicere.' They were marked 
by a ' iustitium,' so thatthe courts being 
closed, Philippus would be able to take 
a short holiday. Cicero makes the 
' feriae Latinae ' the time of the discus- 
sion ' De Republica,' at the garden of 
Scipio (De Rep. 1. 9). 

comes. Forthe practice of the great 
cp. Sat. 1. 6. 102 ' ducendus et unus Et 
comes alter, uti ne solus rusve pere- 
greve Exirem.' So Sat. 2. 6. 42, Epp. 
1.17. 52. 

77. irnpositus mannis, ' mounted in 
the pony-carriage '; Virg. Aen. 12. 736 
' ccnscendebat equos.' G. 3. 35S ' in- 
vectus equis.' For ' mannis ' cp. Od. 3. 
27. 7, Epod. 4. 14. 

arvum caelumque Sabinum . . . 
laudare, the delight of the townsman 
at country sights and sensations ; pos- 
sil >ly also, as Orelli thinks, his ignor- 
ance, fbr a Sabine farm would not be 
valued highly. He quotes Catull. 44. 

79. sibi requiem. Orelli interprets 
' oblectationem et recreationem a foren- 
sibus negotiis,' and this is the usual 
rendering ; but it is doubtful whether 
' requiem ' could by itself have this 
force. It is helped however by the con- 
trast implied in the ' sibi,' emphasized as 
that is by its position both in its own 
clause 'per chiasmum' with 'undique.' 
The person whose case he thought of 
was not his client but himself, even as 
what he cared for was a laugh, not for 
the quarter in which he sought it. Rib- 
beck (followed by Schiitz) explains it 
as 'rest from Menas' chatter ' (' non 
cessat laudare '), but this is not Philip- 
pus' view : he is amused at the chatter, 
' videt ridetque.' 

dum . . . dum . . . dum. There is 
a conversational roughness in the substi- 
tution of ' dum ' in the first two cases 
for causal clauses, in the third for a 
gerundial one. 

81. persuadet, 'tries to persuade.' 

83. ex nitido, ' from a spruce towns- 

ftA^A^» CCca «O 

LIB. I. EPIST. 7. 

Sulcos et vineta crepat mera ; praeparat ulmos 

Immoritur studiis et amore senescit habendi. 

Verum ubi oves furto, morbo periere capellae, 

Spem mentita seges, bos est enectus arando, 

Offensus damnis media de nocte caballum 

Arripit iratusque Philippi tendit ad aedes. 

Ouem simul aspexit scabrum intonsumque Philippus, 

' Durus,' ait, 'Voltei, nimis attentusque videris 

Esse mihi/ ' Pol me miserum, patrone, vocares, 

Si velles/ inquit, ' verum mihi ponere nomen ! 

Ouod te per Genium dextramque deosque Penates 

Obsecro et obtestor, vitae me redde priori.' 

Oui semel aspexit quantum dimissa petitis 

Praestent, mature redeat repetatque relicta. 

Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est 





84. erepat, has always on his tongue ; 
see on Od. 1. 18. 5. 

mera : Cic. ad Att. 9. 13 ' mera 
scelera loqmintur.' 

praeparat ulmos, i. e. for the vines 
to climb on ; see on Epod. 2. 10, and 
cp. Od. 2. 15. 4. 

85. immoritur . . . seneseit, ' kills 
himself,' 'grows old before his time,' 
hyperbolical descriptions of his eager 
industry. For ' sene^cit' cp. Epp. 2. 2. 

87. spem mentita. Cp. Od. 3. 1. 30 
' fundus mendax ' and the opposite 
'segetis certa fides' 3. 16. 30. 

88. media de nocte : see note on Sat. 
2. 8. 3 ' de medio die.' 

90. scabrum intonsumque. Con- 
trast ' ex nitido ' v. 83 and the picture 
in vv. 50, 51. 

91. durus : see Epp. 1. 16. 70, and 
cp. the epithets in Sat. 2. 6. 82 'asper et 
attentus quaesitis.' For attentus also 
cp. Epp. 2. 1. 172. 

94. quod : cp. Virg. Aen. 2. 141 
' Quod te per superos . . . oro,' id. 6. 
323, Lucr. 1. 221. It is the same use as 
in ' quod si,' ' whereas, if.' 

per Genium, sc. 'tuum.' For ' Ge- 
nius ' see on Od. 3. 17. 14, Epp. 2. 2. 
187. It was a common adjuration, 
though the word has been at times con- 

fused with ' ingenium,' as in Ter. Andr. 
*• 5- 54 ' Quod te ego per dextram hanc 
oro et Genium tuum,' wheresee Bentley's 

96-98. Horace's comment on the 

96. semel. Recent edd. are unani- 
mous in accepting this reading against 
' simul ' which is found in all good MSS., 
and was found by Cruq. in his Bland. 
The mistake arose from the copyist's 
eye or memory carrying him back to v. 
90 ' qnem simul aspexit.' ' Semel ' and 
' simul ' are confused in other places, as 
Sat. 2. 8. 24 n. 

dimissa, ' what he has let go.' 

98. suo modulo ac pede. The 
figure is explained by Sat. 2. 3. 308, 
where Horace accuses himself of the 
folly of aping his betters, ' Aedificas, 
hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo Ad 
summum moduli bipedalis.' Cp. also 
for the metaph. use of ' modulus ' Sat. 1. 
3. 77 ' cur non Ponderibus modulisque 
suis ratio utitur.' 

pede, the foot measure. A pigmy's 
' foot ' is a different ' foot ' from that of 
a giant. 

verum est : Sat. 2. 3. 312 ' An 
quodcunque facit Maecenas te quoque 
verum est ? ' cp. Epp. 1. 1. 11, 1. 12. 23. 




' Greet Celsus for me, my Muse, the friend and secretary of Tiberius. If he 
asks after me, say that I am in my old way — with more intentions than perform- 
ances, well enough in estate and body, not so well in soul ; unwilling to learn, or 
take advice, unable to profit by experience or keep a purpose. Ask him how he 
is, how he stands in favour with prince and staff. If he says "well," first wish 
him joy, and then in his private ear whisper that he must not let his head be 
turned by his fortune.' 

We can hardly be wrong in thinking the last verse the gist of the Epistle. 
Horace's half ironical confessions lead up to it. ' You may say worse of me than 
I wish to suggest of you. I do not listen to my friends ; so I cannot compiain if 
you do not listen to me.' We may compare the art with which a more tender 
reproof is conveyed to Virgil in Odes i. 24 (see introd.). 

Weichert (poetae Latini, p. 382) would distinguish the 'Celsus Albinovanus' 
of this Epistle from the 'Celsus ' of 1. 3. 15 f. ; but he is driven to do so by his 
view that those lines are meant harshly and contemptuously. In default of proof 
tbey have too many points in common to be separated. 

Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano 

Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaeque Neronis. 

Si quaeret quid agam, dic multa et pulchra minantem 

Vivere nec recte nec suaviter ; haud quia grando 

Contuderit vites oleamque momorderit aestus, 5 

Nec quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris ; 

1. Albinovano. It is the cognomen 3. minantem : cp., both for the 
also of C. Pedo Albinovanus, the friend verb and for the description of himself, 
of Ovid. Sat. 2. 3. 9 ' voltus erat multa et prae- 

2. rogata, ' as I pray you.' clara minantis.' 

refer : deliver as your message. It 4. nec recte nec suaviter. As 

is followed by ' gaudere et bene rem Schutz says, ' neither to the Stoic's 

gerere,' ' greeting and good wishes.' standard nor to the Epicurean's.' For 

Orelli says ' subaud. "me eum iubere.'" ' recte vivere' see on Epp. 1. 2. 41. 

Compare the use of \aipeiv in beginning haud quia, etc. My troubles are not 

letters. ' Refer ' is a proper equivalent those of the rich proprietor of vineyards 

to 'nuntia'; the Muse is to carry to and oliveyards (cp. Od. 3. 1. 29-32) or 

Celsus the wishes of Horace. It is not of herds who are driven as the season 

therefore necessary to take it with Orelli changes from pasturage to pasturage 

as = 'carry back,' as though the letter (cp. Epod. I. 27, 28). 

were an answer to a letter from Celsus. 5. momorderit, ' have nipped or 

It may be so, but there is nothing to blighted.' ' Mordere ' is used of the 

indicate it. effect of cold in Sat. 2. 6. 45 ; of rough 

Neronis : see on Epp. 1. 3. 2 and cp. wind, by Martial 8. 14. 2 ' mordeat et 

Epp. 2. 2. 1. tenerum fortior aura nemus.' 

LIB. I. EPIST. 8. 257 

Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto 

Nil audire velim, nil discere, quod levet aegrum ; 

Fidis offendar medicis, irascar amicis, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere veterno ; 10 

Ouae nocuere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam ; 

Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam. 

Post haec ut valeat, quo pacto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat iuveni percontare, utque cohorti. 

Si dicet, ' Recte,' primum gaudere, subinde 15 

Praeceptum auriculis hoc instillare memento : 

Ut tu fortunam sic nos te, Celse, feremus. 

7. mente minus validus quam cor- 
pore toto. Cp. the prayer in Od. i. 
31. 18. 

8. audire . . . discere : Epp. i. i. 

to. cur properent. The question 
which in his anger he asks. See note 
on Od. I. 33. 3, and cp. the constr. of 
Sat. 2. 2. 124 ' venerata . . . ita snrgeret.' 

12. ventosus. Some good MSS. 
(incl. the Bland.) had ' venturus,' a pos- 
sible reading and one of some antiquity. 
It is given by Porph. in a note on Sat. 
2. 7. 28. 'Ventosus' was interpreted 
by the Comm. Cruq. ' inconstans, insta- 
bilis.' Cp. Epp. 1. 19. 37 'ventosae 

plebis.' Note that when Horace is 
writing with another purpose he says 
just the opposite of himself, Epp. i. 14. 

14. iuveni, a complimentary, not a 
familiar, term : Od. I. 2. 41, Virg. Ecl. 


cohorti : Sat. 1. 7. 23, Epp. 1. 3. 6. 

15. gaudere, sc. ' eum iubere.' The 
ellipsis is like that in v. 1, but it is here 
helped by the following ' instillare me- 
mento.' Some more colourless infinitive 
may be substituted for ' instillare.' 

subinde, ' presently.' It is used in 
another sense in Sat. 2.5. 103. 





' Septimius presses me to introduce him to you. He knows, you see, better, and 
rates higher, than I do, my influence with you. I would fain have excused myself ; 
but having to choose between the appearance to him of a selfish mock-modesty 
or to you of a brazen impudence, I chose the less fault. If you can approve of 
boldness assumed in a friend's behalf, admit Septimius to your circle and believe 
all good things of him.' 

This Epistle is addressed to the young Tiberius himself. The tact and grace 
of it have commanded universal admiration. 

Septimius is doubtless the friend of Od. 2. 6 ' Septimi Gades aditure mecum.' 
See introd. to that Ode and cp. note on Epp. 1. 3. 9 for the apparently erroneous 
identification of him by the Comm. Cruq. with the Titius of that Epistle. 

SEPTIMIUS, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus 

Quanti me facias. Nam cum rogat et prece cogit 

Scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner, 

Dignum mente domoque legentis honesta Neronis, 

Munere cum fungi propioris censet amici, 5 

Quid possim videt ac novit me valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi cur excusatus abirem ; 

Sed timui mea ne finxisse minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis propriae, mihi commodus uni. 

Sic ego maioris fugiens opprobria culpae 10 

Frontis ad urbanae descendi praemia. Quodsi 

1. Claudi : see on Epp. 1. 3. 2 honesta, ' all that is honourable.' 

' Claudins, Augusti privignus ' ; and cp. The neuter makes the chaiacteristic 

Od. 4. 14. 29. more general than the masc. Cp. Sat. 

nimirum : see note on Sat. 2. 3. 1. 6. 63 ' turpi secernis honestum.' 
120. 5. The subj. of fungi is 'me'subaud. 

unus, ' as no one else' ; Sat. 2. 3. 24. 7. multa cur, ' many reasons why.' 

3. scilicet. Calling attention in irony 9. dissimulator. ' Dissimulatio ' is 
to what is going to be said,as though it Cicero's equivalent for Aristotle's eiptu- 
were something specially absurd. ' Mark veia, the habit of oue who ooKet dpvei- 
you !' 'think of it ! ' Sat. 2. 2. 36, 2. 3. O0at rd bvapxovra fj eKaTTQi irotetv Eth. 
185, 240; Epp. 1. 15. 36. Nic. 4. 3. 

tradere, ' tointroduce'; Sat. 1. 9. 47, opis, 'power'; Virg. Aen. 1. 601 

Epp. 1. 18. 78. 'non opis est nostrae.' 

4. dignum, ' as one worthy.' 11. frontis urbanae, ' town-bred as- 
mente, of the intellectual standard, surance,' opp. Cicero's ' pudor subrusti- 

as the following words are of the moral cus' ad Fam. 5. 12. 1. 

standard. descendi ad praemia, rather ' have 

Neronis : ' a Nero ' ; see on Od. 4. 4. lowered myself to [claim] the privi- 

29. It is the name which recalls the leges ' than ' have entered for the 

character of his ancestry. prize.' The parallel to ' descendi ad ' is 

LIB. I. EPIST. 10. 259 

Depositum laudas ob amici iussa pudorem, 
Scribe tui gregis hunc et fortem crede bonumque. 

to be found in such phrases as Cic. the partitive gen. cp. Od. 3. 13. 13 ' fies 

Rep. I. 43 ' senes ad ludum ado- nobilium tu quoque fontium.' 

lescentium descendant,' not in such as fortem bonumque. It is a common 

'descendat in campum ' Od. 3. 1. n. conjunction in Cicero, as Mil. 2. 4 ; cp. 

13. tui gregis. As Cicero uses 'grex ' iustum et fortem ' Sat. 2. 1. 16. The 

amicorum ' ad Att. 1. 18. 1, ' gregales ' words imply high praise, for they are 

= ' comrades,' ad Fam. 7. 33. 1. For used in Od. 4. 4. 29 of Tiberius himself. 



Verses 1-7. Hail to Fuscus, brother of mysoul! parted from me by no single 

difference, but that he loves the town while I love the country. 
8-1 1. I will tell you why this is — I have lost my taste for town delights; I care 

now for the bread, not for the honey-cakes. 
12-21. If nature is to be our standard of life, and that means first, of choosing 

a site for living, what town site can beat the country — sheltered winters, 

cool summers, fragrant groves and flowers, fresh water ! 
22-25. When you build a lown house you try to reproduce these things ; you plant 

trees in the peristyle, and choose a site with a country view. Nature re-asserts 

herself in spite of your efforts to get rid of her. 
26-34. There are spurious imitations in life as well as in upholstery, and a mistake 

about them is more mischievous. Such is setting our admiration on wealth. 

We prepare for ourselves disappointments. A humble life may be happier 

than a grand one. 
35-41. The man who increases his desires is like the horse who called in the man 

to help him against the stag — he has surrendered his freedom. 
42, 43. Circumstances are like shoes — if they don't fit, they hurt us. 
44-48. You, Aristius, will find true philosophy in contentment, and will expect 

your friend to do the same. Wealth should be our servant, not our master. 
49, 50. I am writing on my Sabine estate behind the temple of Vacuna. 

Aristius Fuscus, like Septimius in the last Epistle, is one of Horace's older 
friends. See Sat. 1. 9. 61, 1. 10. 83; Od. 1. 22 ' Integer vitae ' is addressed to 
him. See the introd. to that Ode for the continuity of tone between it and this 

Urbis amatorem Fuscum salvere iubemus 
Ruris amatores, hac in re scilicet una 

1. salvere iubemus : Epp. 1. 7. 66. what Drager (Hist. Syntax i. § 9) calls 

It is a formida of greeting in letters as the ' pluralis modestiae.' Cp. Od. 1. 

well as by word of mouth, Cic. ad Att. 32. 1. 

4. 14. 2. The plural, which in such 2-6. ' Lovers of the country; for in 

cases often alternates with the sing., is this one point you must know v\e differ 

S % 



Multum dissimiles, at cetera paene gemelli — 
Fraternis animis quicquid negat alter et alter — 
Annuimus pariter vetuli notique columbi. 
Tu nidum servas ; ego laudo ruris amoeni 
Rivos et musco circumlita saxa nemusque. 
Quid quaeris ? Vivo et regno simul ista reliqui 
Ouae vos ad caelum effertis rumore secundo : 
Utque sacerdotis fugitivus liba recuso ; 
Pane egeo iam mellitis potiore placentis. 
Vivere naturae si convenienter oportet, 
Ponendaeque domo quaerenda est area primum, 


much, but in all clse nearly twin brethren 
with brotherly hearts (when one says 
" no," the other says " no " too), we nod 
in time like two old familiar doves.' 
The punctuation of these lines has been 
the subject of great difference. I follow 
Dill 1 '. and (in the main point) Orelli. 
Bentleyhasinduced many modern editors 
(including Munro, Ritter, Keller) to put 
a strong stop at ' amatores ' and another 
at 'pariter,' leaving ' vetuli notique co- 
lumbi ' to begin a new sentence. But 
the figure of the two old doves on a 
perch has grown out of the description 
of the two old friends, ' gemelli,' ' fra- 
ternis animis,' with the picture — suggest- 
ing 'annuimus pariter.' The metaphor 
is carried on by a fresh departure in ' tu 
nidum servas,' etc. ; but there would be 
little point in the epithet 'noti vetulique,' 
if the doves belonged wholly to w. 6, 7. 
In any punctuation and rendering there 
is something harsh in the change in 
the meaning of the plural first person 
from ' I ' in v. 2 to ' you and I ' in v. 5. 
2. scilicet is used particularly by 
Horace (see esp. Od. 1. 37. 30, 2. 14. 9, 
4. 8. 5) as in our view it is used here, 
with adjectives (or participles^ to call 
special attention, whether in irony or 
not, to the relation between the adj. and 
the main statement. 

6. One is a stay-at-home, the other 
ranges far afield for things to admire. 

7. circnmlita : perhaps a word of 
the painter's art, of rocks ' touched,' 
' coloured,' with patches of moss or 
lichen. Cp. ' oblitus ' Epp. 2. 1. 104, 
 illinet ' Epp. 1. 7. 10. 

8. quid quaeris ? a colloquial phrase 
implying ' ask no more,' used either 
after an explanation, usually a laconic 
one, has been given, or to bespeak at- 

tention to one which is to be given and 
which must be sufncient. Cp. Cic. ad 
Att. 1. 14. 7, 1. 16. 4, and 2. 16. 1, with 
'Watson's notes. 

vivo : ' it is real life' ; @tos /3iwt6s. 

regno, ' rex sum' ; ' my mind to me 
a kingdom is.' Cp. infr. v. 33. 

9. vos : ' you, and those who think 
with you ; you townfolk.' 

effertis : the reading of V (supported 
by a (St. Gallen)) against the majority 
of MSS. Both phrases are found else- 
where (' efferte ad caelum ' Cic. ad Fam. 
9. 14. 1), though 'ferre' is the more 
common, Sall. Cat. 53. 1, Jug. 53. 8, 
Cic. Fam. 10. 26. 2, Lucr. 6. 8. 

rumore secundo, ' amid favouring 
voices,' ' with general assent.' See Con- 
ington on Virg. Aen. 8. 90 ' iter inceptum 
celerant rumore secundo.' 

10, 11. The 'pleasures' of town are 
to me what sweet cakes are to the slave 
who has run away from a priest's house- 
hold — the very things which I am tired 
of and want to change for more simple 
and wholesome fare. 

10. liba. Defined by Servius on Virg. 
Aen. 7. 109 as ' placentae de farre, melle, 
et oleo. sacris aptae.' 

12. naturae convenienter. ' Quod 
summum bonum a Stoicis dicitur conve- 
nienter naturae vivere ' Cic. de Off 3. 3. 
13, 6fio\oyovfxh'0Ji ttj <pvaa. 

'Ifthe Stoic principle for living is 'to 
be applied to the first preliminary for 
living — namely, choosing a place to live 
in.' There is perhaps a reference to 
some proverbial order in the needs of 
life. Cp. Hesiod's oIkov fitv irpwTiOTa, 
k.t.X/^E. Kal 'H. 405. 

13. ponendae domo. The Bland. 
MSS. had ' ponenda,' but we cannot say 
whether by a mistake or by a correction 

LIB. I. EPIST. 10. 


Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 

Est ubi plus tepeant hiemes, ubi gratior aura 15 

Leniat et rabiem Canis et momenta Leonis, 

Cum semel accepit Solem furibundus acutum ? 

Est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura? 

Deterius Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis ? 

Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum 20 

Quam quae per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum? 

Nempe inter varias nutritur silva columnas, 

Laudaturque domus longos quae prospicit agros. 

Naturam expelles furca tamen usque recurret, 

dne to the unusual form ' domo ' for 
'domui.' The abl. might be taken as 
an abl. absol. ' in placing a house,' but 
the sense is not so good. The only 
other instance quoted of ' domo ' dat. 
is Cato, R. R. 134. 

14. beato, ' the charms of the country 
are allowed. Do you know any town 
house where they can be bettered ? ' 

15. tepeant hiemes. Horace has 
primarilyin mind his own Sabine retreat, 
for which, in Sat. 2. 3. 10, he claims 
this merit ' Si vacuum tepido cepisset 
villula tecto.' Elsewhere he tells us that 
in the cold of winter he went to the sea, 
Epp. 1. 7. 10. ' The contrast here is 
only between town and country. You 
can't find more means of keeping your- 
self warm in town than in the country.' 

16. momenta. Probably as in Epp. 
1. 6. 4 ' movements' ; ' the Lion when he 
comes round.' It has been also taken 
as in Sat. t. 1. 8 for a short space of 
time, ' the Lion's hour,' or for 'influence.' 

17. furibundus: Od. 3. 29. 19 
' stella vesani Leonis.' The adj. is 
predicative, going closely with accepit. 
It is the sun's heat that causes the mad- 

19. Libycis lapillis, tessellated 
pavement of Numidian marble. 

olet : perhaps with reference to the 
practice of sprinkling the floors with 

20. tendit rumpere : our momen- 
tary sympathy is bespoken for the im- 
prisoned water as though it were a 
violation of nature. The water brought 
to Rome by the aqueducts was distri- 
buted over the city by pipes of lead or 

22. nempe : for the use of 'nempe' 
where the speaker after asking a ques- 

tion answers it himself with some irony 
see on Sat. 2. 7. 80. 'I will answer the 
questions ' — you are so far from thinking 
the gifts of the country worse than those 
of the town, that your aim in building a 
town house is to make it as much like a 
country house as you can. 

inter columnas, ' within the peri- 
style ' ; but with the suggestion that for 
all the varied tints of the marble columns 
the eye desired some of nature's columns, 
some green trees. 

nutritur, i. e. ' is grown with care 
and effort.' For the practice see note 
on Od. 3. 10. 5, and cp. Tibull. 3. 3. 15 
' nemora in domibus sacros imitantia 
lucos ; ' see Mayor on Juv. S. 4. 6. 

23. domus, 'a town house with a 
wide country view.' Cp. the view from 
Maecenas' house on the Esquiline as de- 
scribed in Od. 3. 29. 6-8. 

24. expelles : this is the reading 
of all the best MSS. including all the 
Bland., and it is given accordingly by 
most recent edd. Orelli keeps to 'ex- 
pellas ' which had general possession of 
the text before Bentley. With the sub- 
junctive the constr. will be as in Od. 4. 
4. 65 ' Luctere : multa proruet integrum 
Cum laude victorem.' ' Turn out (or 
"try to turn out"), if you will,' etc. 
With the future it seems an instance of 
the omission of the conditional particle : 
see on Sat. 1. 1. 45. This use is more 
common with the fut. perfect (as there) 
than with the future simple. ' Furca 
expellere ' is a proverbial expression. 
Cic. ad Att. 16. 2. 4 ' quoniam furcilla 
extrudimus,' Catull. 105. 2 ' Musae 
furcillis praecipitem eiciunt.' So in 
Greek Siicpavois wOeiv Lucian, Tim. 12. 
Cp. Arist. Pax 637 dacpois uidtlv [k(- 
Kpa-yp.aoiv~\ . 



Et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. 
Non qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum 
Certius accipiet damnum propiusque medullis, 
Quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
Ouem res plus nimio delectavere secundae, 
Mutatae quatient. Si quid mirabere pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna : licet sub paupere tecto 
Reges et regnum vita praecurrere amicos. 
Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis 
Pellebat, donec minor in certamine longo 
Imploravit opes hominis frenumque recepit ; 
Sed postquam victor violens discessit ab hoste 
Non equitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 

2 5 



25. fastidia. Cp. the use of 'fasti- 
diosus' in Od. 3. 1. 37, 3. 29. 9 ; Epod. 
J 7- 73 °f disgusts and cravings that 
are against nature. V had ' vestigia,' 
which must be a mistake. The Comm. 
Cruq. interprets ' fastidia ' by ' super- 
biam.' Some good MSS. have the 
intermediate reading ' fastigia,' which 
being meaningless (though Torrentius 
explains it of nature shut out froin the 
doois returning obstinately ('mala'j 
over the ' rooftops ') would be wrongly 
corrected to ' vestigia.' 

26 foll. The preference of town to 
country has been brought round to seem 
a hollow and illogical fancy, belied even 
by those who gratify it. ' Yet,' Horace 
goes on, ' in matters of life we need the 
power of distinguishing shams from 
realities more than we do in buying 
purple stuffs.' 

26. contendere eallidus, ' to com- 
pare skilfully,' i.e. so as to distinguish 
them. Cp. the use of ' callidus' Sat. 2. 
3. 23 ' as a connoisseur.' We do not 
know from other sources anything of 
this manufacture of purple at Aqui- 

28. propius medullis : as Eur. Hipp. 
255 'irpos aKpbv pvt\uv <ppevujv : of that 
which touches us deeply. 

30, 31. Two instances to show that 
false judgments in matters of life are 
followed with immediate and inevitable 

30. plus nimio : see note on Od. 1. 
18. 15. 

31. quatient. In the same sense as 
Od. 3. 3. 4 ' mente quatit solida.' 

si quid mirabere. The doctrine of 
Epp. 1. 6. 1, etc. 

pones = ' depones' Sat. 2. 3. 16. 

32. fuge magna. The over-estima- 
tion of 'grandeur' (cp. the thought in 
Od. 3. 29. 9-16) is clearly connected by 
Horace with the preference of town life 
to country life. 

33. reges, as types, conventionally, of 
grand and happy living. ' Persarum 
vigui rege beatior ' Od. 3. 9. 4, ' Regum 
aequabat opes animis ' Virg. G. 4. 132. 

34. cervus equum. This is the fable 
told at length by Aristotle (Rhet. 2. 20) 
as an illustration of the term A070S or 
' fable.' It is attributed by him to the 
poet Stesichorus, who is said to have 
addressed it to the people of Himera in 
order to dissuade them from putting 
Phalaris into supreme power. It is 
given with some variations by Phaedrus 
4. 4, a boar being substituted for the stag. 

37. victor violens. This is the 
reading of all the MSS. except that E 
reverses the order, ' violens victor.' 
Bentley suspected a corruption, and 
Haupt's ingenious suggestion, ' victo ri- 
dens,' has seemed to several recent edi- 
tors (incl. Munro and Wilkinsj suffi- 
ciently probable to be adopted into the 
text. Keller and Schiitz adhere to the 
MSS. If we keep ' violens ' it is not an 
epithet of ' victor ' but a separate pre- 
dicative qualification. It answers to 
' improbus ' in the application of the 
fable. The horse was ' violens,' ' force- 
ful,' ' for carrying things by force.' He 
was successful in doing so, but found he 
had sacrihced what was more valuable. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 10. 


Sic qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominum vehit improbus atque 
Serviet aeternum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede maior erit subvertet, si minor uret. 
Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi, 
Nec me dimittes incastigatum ubi plura 
Cogere quam satis est ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 
Haec tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunae, 
Excepto quod non simul esses cetera laetus. 




39. metallis : prob. like ' lamna ' 
in Od. 2. 2. 4, the word is meant to 
emphasize the purely material concep- 
tion of wealth. 

40. improbus : see the note on ' vio- 
lens' in v. 37; dvaidrji, for his un- 
conscionable greed. 

41. nesciet : the time corresponds to 
serviet. The two pictures are two sides 
of the same thing. He will always be a 
slave because he will never be contented. 

42. 43. Circumstances are like shoes 
— they must be fitted to the person, not 
the person to them — otherwise they are 
sure to give trouble. 

42. olim: Sat. i. I. 25, Epod. 3. 1 
' adverbium usitatum in fabellis et ex- 
emplis ' Orell. It may refer to some 
actual fable of an ill-fitting shoe. 

43. uret, ' gall.' 

44. ' You, Aristius, I know, will be 
content, and so will live like a philo- 

46. cessare, ' to take holidays'; Epp. 
1. 7. 57, 2. 2. 183. For 'ac non ' see 
on Sat. 2. 3. 135. 

48. The purport of the metaphor is 
clear ; but the source of it is uncertain. 
It has been taken of an animal dragged 
by a rope, of a barge, of a school-boys' 
' tug of war.' In all of these ' toitum ' 
is (as in Virg. Aen. 4. 575 ' Festinare 
fugam, tortosque incidere funes ') an 
epithet without special force. Its em- 
phatic position is perhaps against this 
and in favour of the view (supported by 
Schiitz) that the reference is to awindlass 
or pulley (cp. Od. 3. 10. 10, which seems 
to refer to a similar machine) ; ' tortum ' 
will then refer to the turning of the rope 
in the process of hauling, and go with 
' sequi,' not with ' ducere,' ' to be at the 

command of the machine and follow 
the rope when it turns on the pulley, 
not command it and draw the rope from 
it as it will.' 

49. dictabam : the Epistolary im- 
perfect, Madv. § 341. 

post fanum putre Vacunae. From 
all the evidence we judge (1) that Va- 
cuna was the name of a Sabine goddess ; 
(2) that the Romans were very doubtful 
with which of their deities to identify 
her ; (3) that one identification was with 
Victoria, and that this was adopted by 
Vespasian, the emperor of Sabine origin, 
who, as an inscription shows, rebuilt 
a ruined temple to Victoria at the vil- 
lage now called Rocca Giovane, close 
to Hoiace's farm ; (4) that the name 
was often connected by the Romans 
with ' vacare,' ' vacuus,' and played upon 
as meaning the goddess of ' holiday ' or 
' laziness.' Fea quotes Auson. Epist. 4. 
99 ' Totam trado tibi simul Vacunam,' 
and an inscr. ' Qui legis haec divae bona 
verba precare Vacunae Nunc saltem 
vacuo donet ut esse mihi.' The words 
have been used as a chief argument for 
placing the site of Horace's villa 
where there is some old terracing im- 
mediately above the village of Rocca 
Giovane, instead of in the place pre- 
viously pointed out somewhat further 
up the valley. It is doubtful, however, 
whether they prove anything. See ad- 
ditional note to Epp. 1. 16. ' Post ' may 
be used loosely and mean only that in 
going to the villa you passed the temple, 
and the main object probably is not 
to give a topographical definition but 
(as in the quotations just given) a play 
on the name of Vacuna, ' in holiday- 





Verses 1-10. You have been visiting all the famous and beautiful places on the 
coast of Asia. Well, what do you think of them ? Do you think Rome 
beats them all ? or have you a hankering for one of the towns of Attalus' 
old kingdom ? or have you an enthusiasm for even Lebedus as an alternative 
to further travelling on the sea ? 

11-20. But travelling is not the business of life. It is good for those who are 
sick. in mind or body. Those who are not do not need it, and should be 
content to praise the sights of foreign lands but spend their lives at home. 

21-30. Enjoy what you have. Our modern restlessness does not diminish care. 
What we need is a well-balanced mind. 

The occasion is a visit of Bullatins to places of interest on the coast of Asia 
Minor, places of which Horace speaks with the air of one who has himself seen 
them (see on Sat. 1. 7). Bullatius is apparently to be thought of as still in the 
East (see on v. 21), perhaps as having written a letter, to which this is an answer, 
with some travellers raptures on the beautiful places he is visiting. The substance 
of the Epistle is an indictment of foreign travel as a form of the restles?ness of the 
age. The feeling which finds definite expression here is to be traced in many 
passages of the Odes. It is part of the motive of Od. 1. 3 — Horace wishes Virgil 
a happy voyage, but ' non invidet, miratur magis : ' of Od. 1. 7 — he agrees with 
Plancus that Rhodes and Mytilene do not make up for banishment from Tibur, 
even though he preaches for the occasion patience under it : of Od. 2. 6 — ' Septi- 
mius' friendship would stand the strain of any travel, but may it not be put to such 
a strain ! " Sit modus lasso maris et viarum." It is more plainly put in Od. 2. 16. 
18 foll., which should be specially compared with this Epistle. 

Nothing is known of Bullatius. It is possible that he visited the East in the 
train of Tiberius : see introd. to Epp. 1. 3. 

OuiD tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos, 
Quid concinna Samos, quid Croesi regia Sardis, 
Smyrna quid et Colophon, maiora minorave fama ? 

1. Quidtibi visa Chios. Tho phraoo 
' What thought you of Chios?' so Cicero, 
' quid tibi videor' ad Div. 9. 21. 2 ; so 
in Greek ri aoi (jtaivtrai vedviatcos ; 
Plat. Charm. 4, etc. Cp. also ' Lebedus 
quid sit,' infr. v. 7. 

2. concinna, ' trim,' ' pretty.' It 
must be meant of the city rather than 
the island. 

Sardis represents the Greek 'Sapoets 
(the form is noted as a plural by Pris- 
cian, 7. 17. 85): regia is therefore in 
apposition — 'Croesus' royal home.' 

3. maiora minorave fama. For 

the difficulties of text and interpretation 
which encompass these words see note 
at the end of the Epistle. With our 
reading and punctuation they are per- 
haps best taken as the qualification, in 
the first place, of 'Smyrna et Colophon,' 
' places greater, or it may be less, than 
the world thinks them,' but as intended 
to be carried back in sense to the places 
characterized before, and to convey a 
hint of depreciation— the tone of a tra- 
veller who has himself outgrown some 

LIB. I. EPIST. ii 


Cunctane prae Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent ? 
An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una, 
An Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? 
' Scis Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 
Fidcnis vicus ; tamen illic vivere vellem, 
Oblitusque meorum obliviscendus et illis 
Neptunum procul e terra spectare furentem.' 
Sed neque qui Capua Romam petit imbre lutoque 
Aspersus volet in caupona vivere ; nec qui 



illusions. They lead the way, therefore, 
in feeling to the qnestion of v. 4, even 
if they are not to be connected with it 
grammatically as by Orelli and Dill 1 '. 

4. sordent prae seems to mean 
' pale before,' ' in comparison with ' ; 
Epp. 1. 18. 18. 

5. venit in votum : see note on 
' esse in votis ' Sat. 2. 6. 1. 

Attalicis urbibus. The splendid 
legacy of the last of the Attali (see on 
Od. 1. 1. 12, 2. 18. 4) had so struck the 
imagination of Ilorace, if not of his 
countrymen generally, that 'Attalicus' 
carries with it here, besides having its 
proper sense of ' belonging to the old 
kingdom of the Attali' [\n other words, 
to the Roman province of Asia 1 the ad- 
ditional idea of princely wealth and 

6. Lebedum. Lebedus, fifteen miles 
N.W. of Colophon on the Caystrius 
Sinus, had been one of the twelve cities 
of Ionia, but about B.c. 300 was nearly 
desolated by Lysimachus, who tran sferred 
the population to Ephesus. It seems to 
stand here for some place in which only 
a tired traveller^s caprice could lind at- 

odio maris atqueviarum: as Od. 
2. 6. 7 ' lasso maris et viarum.' 

7-10. These lines seem to be rightly 
treated by the Scholiasts as an imagined 
apology of Bullatius for his strange 
preference : ' I do not deny that it is a 
very dull place, but I could live there 
for ever rather than go to sea again.' 
It has been said that such a fragment of 
unexpected dialogue belongs rather to 
the style of the Satires than that of the 
Epistles, but any harshness is much 
lessened by noticing that the lines are 
a dramatic illustration of the words that 
precede, ' odio maris atque viarum.' Per- 
haps we may compare Epp. 1. 15. 11 
where ' Quo tendis/ etc, is an illustra- 

tive expansion of ' praeteragendus eqmis.' 
Cp. also Epp. 1. 16. 31 and 41, A. P. 


7. Gabiis . . . atque Fidenis. The 
two names stand together in Virg. Aen. 
6. 773 among the list of Latin towns. 
In Juv. S. 10. 100 they stand, after 
Horace, as representatives of places 
which have come down in the world. 
Cp. the epithet ' simplicibus Gabiis ' 
Juv. S. 3. 192. In Epp. 1. 15. 9 Gabii 
is spoken of as an unfashionable water- 
ing-place. Cp. Juv. S. 7. 4. 

9. Imitated by Pope ' Eloisa to Abel- 
ard,' 206 ' The world forgetting, by 
the world forgot.' 

10. liullatius is meant to recall the 
famous Epicurean pleasure described by 
Lucr. 2. 1 ' Suave mari magno turban- 
tibus aequora ventis E terra alterius mag- 
num spectare laborem.' If Lebedus 
can give no other pleasure it can give 

11. sed neque. This is Horace's 
repiy, ' What you describe is very well 
as a passing feeling — the result of cir- 
cumstances of the moment — it is not 
a principle to build your life on.' 

neque . . . nec . . . nec perhaps are 
meant to recall some formula of the 
schools (cp. Plin. Epp. 2. 20 ' suffieiunt 
duae fabulae, an scholastica lege tertiam 
poscis?') which required three instances 
— but the third instance is so like the 
actual case proposed that the construc- 
tion resembles Od. 3. 5. 27 foll. 'neque 
amissos colores Lana refert medicata 
fuco, Nec vera virtus, quum semel ex- 
cidit, Curat reponi deterioribus,' where 
see note. 

imbre lutoque aspersus, 'drenched 
with rain and bespattered with mud." 

12. caupona : the inn is relatively 
comfortable ; but it is not home. 

vivere, ' to spend his life.' 



Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat 
Ut fortunatam plene praestantia vitam. 
Nec si te validus iactaverit Auster in alto, 
Idcirco navem trans Aegaeum mare vendas. 
Incolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra facit quod 
Paenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 
Per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus. 
Dum licet ac voltum servat Fortuna benignum, 
Romae laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens. 
Tu quamcunque deus tibi fortunaverit horam 
Grata sume manu, neu dulcia differ in annum, 
Ut quocunque loco fueris vixisse libenter 



13. frigus coUegit : so ' sitim col- 
ligere' Ov. Met. 5. 446 ; cp. Virg. G. 3. 
327. Possibly a poetical variation of 
the prose use of ' contrahere ' ; ' has got 
chilled through.' 

furnos et balnea : he would like to 
warm himself, but he does not therefore 
place the sum of happiness in having 
access to ovens (as a baker), or hot 
water (as a bathman). For ' furnos ' 
see on Sat. 1. 4. 37. 

15. nec : ' so neither,' etc. 

16. vendas, i. e. with the idea of 
staying there for your life. 

17. incolumi. Editors question 
whether this means sound in health or in 
sense : ' mentis sanae ' Schol. Surely no 
exact interpretation is to be given. It 
answers to and applies in the widest 
sense to the drenching of v. n,the chill 
of v. 13, the tossing of v. 15. Remedies 
are for the sick. If you want to travel, 
there is unsoundness someivhere. No 
doubt in the end the disease is to be 
traced to the mind. 

Khodos et Mytilene : an echo of 
Od. 1.7. 1. They stand here for foreign 
travel generally. 

facit quod : does the same service 
as, 110 more service than. 

18. paenula: a woollen cloak wom 
in rainy weather, see Mayor on Juv. 
S. 5. 79 ' multo stillaret paenula nimbo.' 

solstitio, ' midsummer,' as in Virg. 
E. 7. 47, G. 1. 100. 

campestre. For the adj. cp. A. P. 
379 ' campestribus armis.' The neut. sing. 
was used of a light apron or drawers 
worn in exercises of the Campus Mar- 

19. Tiberis, i.e. for bathing. 
Sextili : see on Epp. 1. 7. 2. 
caminus : Sat. 1. 5. 81. 

20. dum licet : with a glance at the 
chances of Roman life. ' The time may 
come when you may have no choice.' 
The banished Ovid imitates the line, 
Trist. 1.5. 27 ' Dum iuvat et voltu ridet 
Fortuna sereno.' 

2 1 . Romae laudetur. The emphasis 
on ' laudetur ' is the same as on VirgiFs 
(G. 2. 413) ' Laudato ingentia rura : 
exiguum colito.' Cp. also the force put 
upon ' contemplere ' in Od. 3. 29. 7, 
' look [wistfullyj at, without going to 
them.' ' Romae ' might mean ' stay at 
Rome and praise,' etc, or ' come back 
to Rome and praise,' etc. The latter is 
probably the sense : see introduction to 
the Epistle. Notice that the three 
places have all been named in the 
Epistle, so that this is the summing up. 

absens : as an epithet of the place 
from which one is absent ; see Sat. 2. 
7. 28. 

22. tu, as always, the note of en- 
treaty : Od. 1.9. 16, 1. 11. 1 ; Sat. 1. 4. 
85 ; Epp. 1. 2. 63. 

quameunque . . . horam. The tone 
of Od. 3. 8. 27 ' Dona praesentis rape 
laetus horae ' and 3. 29. 29. As in Od. 2. 
16. 18-25 he identifies the restlessness 
which makes men travel for pleasure 
with the vice which he is always assail- 
ing of not making the most of pleasures 
which they have. 

23. dulcia : your pleasant things, i.e. 
the enjoyment of them. 

in annum: see Epp. 1. 2. 39. 

24. libenter : ' as though life were 

LIB. I. EPIST. ii. 267 

Te dicas ; nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 25 

Non locus effusi late maris arbiter aufert, 

Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt. 

Strenua nos exercet inertia : navibus atque 

Ouadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis hic est, 

Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus. 30 

worth living,' as ' cenare libenter,' ' to 27. See on Od. 2. 16. 19 fcp. also 

dine with appetite'; cp. Cic. ad Fam. Epp. 1. 14. 12, 13). Horace had perhaps 

9. 19. 1. It is possible however that in mind Aesch. in Ctes. 78 ov tov rpotrov 

' libenter ' is to be taken with ' dicas ' aWa tov tottov povov ntT-q\\a£tv, or 

and ' vixisse ' absolutely, ' that you have Cic. pro Quintio 3. 12 ' fit magna mu- 

really lived,' as in Od. 3. 29. 43. tatio loci non ingenii.' 

26. effusi late maris : ' a broad 28. strenua nos exercet inertia : 

surface of sea.' travelling is 'working hard at doing 

arbiter. Cp. Epod. 5. 50 ; Od. 3. 20. nothing.' 

11, 1. 3. 15, 2. 7. 25. These passages navibus atque quadrigis : to be 

give the stages in the use of ' arbiter.' taken literally ; ' by means of locomo- 

(1) ' The witness,' as frequently in tion.' 

Cicero ; (2) the impartial bystander act- 29. bene vivere : a happy life, the 

ing as umpire ; (3) the judge with power ideal of life ; Epp. 1. 6. 56. 

to pronounce effective sentence, ' po- 30. Ulubris : a town near the Pomp- 

nere seu tollere.' The present use is tine marshes. Juvenal (S. 10. 101) calls 

perhaps nearest to (2), the image being it ' vacuae,' classing it with Gabii and 

of sitting on high and overlooking the Fidenae, in reminiscence therefore of 

sea with its tumults. There is a refer- this Satire. Cicero jests about it in a 

ence, no doubt, back to v. 10, Bulla- letter to Trebatius (ad Fam. 7. 18), 

tius' defence of Lebedus, so that a calling its citizens ' little frogs.' 

stormy sea is specially in view. animus aequus : Epp. 1. 18. 112. 

Additional Note on Verse 3. 

Maiora minorave fama. Doubt hangs over both the reading and the meaning. 
The earliest editors, followed by Bentley without comment, gave 'minorane.' 
This is not found in any tenth cent. MSS. Holder gives 'ne' as the reading of 
Regin., but this has ' ue' as has been verified. E has ' minoraque.' Holder in the 
edition of the text (1869) gave 'ne,' but his colleague Keller in the Epilegomena 
/%o (1869-) has returned to ' ve ' as the original and right reading. It is given by 
Orell., DilK, Ritter, Munro, Schiitz, Wilkins. If ' ne ' were read we must point the 
verse as containing two questions : ' What of Symrna and Colophon ? Are they 
greater or less than their repute ? ' It is doubtful however (apart from external 
evidence for the reading) whether the intrusion of a fresh question does not 
injure the sense. The meaning of the four times repeated ' quid [tibi visa] ? ' is 
given in the three alternative questions of vv. 4, 5, 6. Horace's interest is not in the 
new light which a traveller has to throw on places he has visited, but in the 
traveller's own frame of mind : ' Has he had the good sense to feel that home was 
the best place after all? or has he, for one or another of a traveller's reasons, been 
fascinated by any of them ? ' If we read ' ve,' some uncertainty is left as to the punc- 
tuation and sense. (1) It would be possible (if the consideration just alleged does 
not bar it) still to put the two notes of interrogation and translate, not ' are they 


greater or less,' etc, as though 've' could be used in alternative interrogation, 
but ' are they either greater or less ? ' i. e. ' are they just what the world says, or 
either greater or (" ve") less? ' (2) Keller with the same punctuation understands 
a repeated ' Quid ' : ' what of Smyrna and Colophon ? [what] of towns greater 
or less in repute ? ' ' fama ' being in this rendering an abl. not of comparison but 
of the ' part concerned.' (3) Orelli and Dill r . remove the stop at ' fama,' con- 
necting the words ' maiora,' etc. with the following line : ' Be they greater or less 
than their repute, do all alike pale before the Campus and Tiber stream ? ' In 
this interpretation also ' fama ' may be taken for ' in repute,' instead of ' than their 
repute.' (4) Schiitz removes the question at 'Colophon,' retains it at'fama?' 
The words ' maiora . . . fama ' then become the qualification grammatically of 
' Smyrna et Colophon,' answering to the more special epithets which have been 
given to Chios and Lesbos, Samos and Sardis. ' What of Smyrna and Colophon, 
greater places or (it may be) smaller than the world thinks them ? ' This is the 
view, substantially, taken in the note. 



This Epistle brings together the Iccius of Od. 1. 29 and the Pompeius 
Grosphus of Od. 2. 16. The purpose is in the first instance personal— to intro- 
duce Grosphus to Iccius, who is acting as ' procurator ' in charge of Agrippa's 
Sicilian estates. It is to be noticed that Grosphus seems when the Ode (see 
vv. 33-37) was written to have been a wealthy proprietor in Sicily. He is now 
returning to the island, and is in a position, we know not how, in which Iccius 
may be able to help him. 

The Epistle also implies that Iccius has complained (either in a letter to 
Hoiace or otherwise) that he is managing the estate of another rather Ihan an 
independent property of his own. The poet rallies him gently for this (vv. 1-16), 
turning his remonstrance into compliments on the simple life which no increase 
of wealth would affect (w. 7-11 \ and the maintenance of high philosophical 
interests in a post where there was so much to foster a greed of gain (vv. 12-20). 
From this he passes lightly (v. 21) to the introduction and commendation of 
Grosphus ^vv. 22-24}. The Epistle ends with some lines (vv. 25-29), of which 
the professed purpose is to give the news from Rome, but which, if we suppose 
such an Epistle to be written for a larger circle of readers, associate with it the 
names, in a climax, of Agrippa, Tiberius, Augustus, and fiood the picture as with 
the light of a returning golden age. 

The last lines should also incidentally fix the date of the Epistle. With respect 
to the difficulty caused by the reference to Agrippa's conquest of the Cantabri 
see general Introd. to the Epistles, p. 208. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 12. 


FRUCTIBUS Agrippae Siculis quos colligis, Icci, 

Si recte frueris, non est ut copia maior 

Ab Iove donari possit tibi. Tolle querelas ; 

Pauper enim non est cui rerum suppetit usus. 

Si ventri bene, si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil 

Divitiae poterunt regales addere maius. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vives protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret ; 

1. Fructibus quos colligis. ' Fruc- 
tus ' is used for ' produce ' of all sorts. 
Iccius is a ' procurator ' (see Cic. de Or. 
1. 58. 249 with Wilkins' note) or man- 
ager of the estate of a non-resident 
proprietor, with a ' vilicus ' or ' vilici ' 
under him. Agrippa (see on Od. 1. 6 
introd.) has estates in Sicily, acquired 
possibly (as Ritter suggests) either after 
the battle of Naulochus on the Sicilian 
coast, when he defeated Sextus Pom- 
peius, or in B. c. 21, when Augustus 
summoned him to Sicily and gave him 
the hand of Julia, Dion C. 54. 6. 

2. si recte frueris. It is assumed 
that one who collected the produce 
lived on the produce. There is probably 
a play on ' fructibus . . . frueris,' ' if 
you enjoy what is meant to be enjoyed ' ; 
'recte,' ' as you should,' possibly in the 
literal sense ' as the law allows you,' 
certainly in the moral sense, ' as philo- 
sophy bids you.' 

non est ut : Od. 3. 1. 9 ' est ut.' 

3. tolle : ' away with,' ' a truce to ' 
(Conington). Epod. 16. 39 ' muliebrem 
tollite luctum.' 

4. cui rerum suppetit usus : ' who 
has the full use of property.' Horace 
is thinking all through of the juridical 
term ' ususfructus ' (see vv. 1, 2), ' If 
you enjoy as you should what by its very 
name tells you it was meant to be en- 
joyed, it is a true " ususfructus," and 
that, as any lawyer will tell you, is as 
good as possession.' Cp. Epp. 1. 2. 160 
' Qui te pascit ager, tuus est,' etc, a 
philosophical view which there he re- 
inforces by the legal principle that 
' usus ' for a certain term actually con- 
veyed possession. Cp. also Sat. 2. 2. 


5. si ventri, etc. Horace is perhaps 
thinking of Solon's apophthegm, fr. 24 
io6v toi ttKovtovoiv otoj ttoKvs apyvpos 

kOTi | Kai xpvobs /calyrjs irvpotyopov TTt5ia,\ 
'ittttoi #' fjpdovoi re, Koi w /xova TavTa ttol- 
peOTi | yaorpi Te Kal ir\(vpfis Kai nooiv 
a/3pa TraQeiv. 

For lateri cp. Sat. 1. 9. 32, 2. 3. 163 ; 
Epp. 1. 6. 28. 

pedibus : i. e. if you are free from 
the gout. 

7-9. The compliments tolccius begin 
with a certain archness (conveyed by the 
hypothetical form ' si forte,' ' if to put a 
case,' and by the hyperbolical ' herbis et 
urtica') — as though they were half jest; 
then the tone becomes graver andunmis- 
takeably sincere. They are lightened 
again in w. 19-21 by the half bantering 
spirit always roused in Horace by the 
differences and paradoxes of philoso- 

7. in medio positorum abstemius. 
Lambinus seemstohave been the first to 
suggest the interpretation which has 
thenceforth been usually given to these 
words, viz. ' temperate in respect of the 
simplest luxuries,' ' abstemius ' being 
con^tructed with the gen. as ' abstinens ' 
in Od. 4. 9. 37. ' In medio posita ' is an 
habitual phrase (Sat. 1. 1. 108 ' Trans- 
volat in medio posita et fugientia captat ') 
for ' things accessible to all': cp. 'ex 
medio' Epp. 2. 1. 168 n. 

8. urtica : the common nettle. So 
Persius, perh. remembering this passage, 
' mihi festa luce coquatur Urtica ' 6. 69. 
Pliny i^N. H. 21. 55) speaks of the young 
shoots in spring as pleasant eating. 

sic vives protinus, 'you will con- 
tinue so to live.' For ' protinus ' see 
Virg. Aen. 9. 339 ' felix si protinus illum 
Aequasset nocti ludum.' 

ut, 'even supposing that' ; see on 
Epod. 1. 21. 

9. confestim : ' in a moment.' 
Fortunae rivus. Fortune is looked 

on as a Pactolus (' Tibique Pactolus 



Vel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit, 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miramur si Democriti pecus edit agellos 

Cultaque, dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 

Cum tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri 

Nil parvum sapias et adhuc sublimia cures : 

Quae mare compescant causae, quid temperet annum, 

Stellae sponte sua iussaene vagentur et errent, 

Quid premat obscurum lunae, quid proferat orbem, 



fluat' Epod. 15. 20) which ' culta . . . 
irrigat auro ' Virg. Aen. 10. 142. ' In- 
auro ' is used figuratively of a person in 
Cic. ad Fam. 7. 13. 1 ' te malle a 
Caesare consuli quam inaurari.' 

10. vel . . . vel. Iccius may take his 
choice between the reasons. Both apply 
to him. His simplicity of taste belongs 
both to his nature and to his ideal of 

naturam : a man's nature. Cp. 
Epod. 4. 6 ' Fortuna non mutat 

11. una: Epp. 1. 7. 30; contrasted 
with ' cuncta.' Everything else in one 
scale, virtue in the other. 

1 2-14 foll. miramur . . . cum tu/ we 
marvel . . . and that though you,' etc. 
Iccius is a greater marve! than Demo- 
critus. The latter lost himself to his 
own concerns in his philosophical 
dreaming. The former has kept all his 
philosophical interest though immersed 
in business and its temptations. Demo- 
critus.the Eleatic philosopher, of Abdera. 
Epp. 2. 1. 194, A. P. 297. He is in 
Cicero a stock instance of absorption in 
philosophy, de Fin. 5. 29. 87 ' ut quam 
minime animus a cogitationibus abdu- 
ceretur patrimonium neglexit, agros 
deseruit incultos.' Cp. D. Tusc. 5. 39. 

13. peregre est, ' is on its travels.' 
Cp. Od. 1. 28. 5 ' animoque rotundum 
Percurrisse polum,' and Plato's picture 
(Theaetet. p. 173 E.) of the philosopher 
whose body only ev rfj ttu\€l kutcli xai 
emorjpei, ij 5e Sidvota . . . rravTaxfi <pepe- 

velox : of the swiftness of thought ; 
cp. Od. 3. 25. 3. 

14. scabiem et contagia, as the 
Comm. Crvtq. says = ' scabiem conta- 
giosam ' ; lueri goes with the two 
subst. together. Cicero uses ' scabies ' 

of the easily excited desire of pleasure, 
Le?g. i. 17. 47. ' Among so many 
itching palms.' 

15. nil parvum sapias. It is diffi- 
cult to find an exact parallel for this 
use. Is it ' act the " sapiens," philo- 
sophize, on lofty themes,' a coloured 
synonym for ' cogites ' with reference 
to the uses of <ppoveiv, twivoeiv, etc. ? 
Or can it mean ' have no mean tastes ? ' 
There are uses that come near this. Cp. 
A. P. 212 ' Indoctus quid enim saperet !' 
and Cicero's play on the word ' cui cor 
sapiat, ei non sapiat palatum ' Fin. 2. 8. 
24. For ' nil parvum ' cp. Od. 2. 25. 17. 

adhuc : ' as you did in old days.' 
Cp. Od. 1. 29, introd. and vv. 13, 14. 

sublimia eures : not without refer- 
ence to the phrase used seriously as well 
as in jest of Greek physical philosophers, 
Tcx pierecvpa <ppovTi^eiv. See Riddell 
on Plat. Apol. 18 B. With the physical 
problems which follow cp. Virg. G. 2. 
475 foll., Prop. 3. 5. 25 foll. 

16. quae mare compescant causae. 
Virg. 1. c. v. 479 ' qua vi maria alta 
tumescant Obicibus ruptis rursusque in 
se ipsa residant.' 

temperet : Od. 1. 12. 15. 

17. sponte sua iussaene. A poetical 
statement (resembling that in Od. 1. 34) 
of the question at issue between the 
Stoics and Epicnreans, as to the presence 
or absence of Divine Will as a factor in 
the universe. 

vagentur et errent : this combina- 
tion is common in Cicero in the sense of 
'wandering at large' ; cp. de Or. 1. 48. 
209 'ne vagari et errare cogatur oratio,' 
Acad. Prior. 2. 20. 66 'eo fit ut eorum 
et vagar latius,' and in the same con- 
nection as this of the planets) de Rep. 
1. 14. 22 'stellarum quae errantes et 
quasi vagae nominarentur.' 

18. obscurum, predicatively with 

LIB. I. EPIST. 12. 


Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors, 
Empedocles an Stertinium deliret acumen. 
Verum seu pisces seu porrum et caepe trucidas 
Utere Pompeio Grospho, et si quid petet ultro 
Defer; nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et aequum. 
Vilis amicorum est annona bonis ubi quid deest. 
Ne tamen ignores quo sit Romana loco res : 
Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 



premat 'hides in darkness.' It is prob- 
ably of the monthly changes of the moon 
(Prop. 1. c. v. 27 ' unde coactis Cornibus 
in plenam menstrua luna redit') rather 
than of eclipses. 

19. quid velit et possit, ' the pur- 
pose and effects.' 

concordia discors, ' harmony in dis- 
cord.' The reference is to the two 
KLvfjcreaJS dpxai, veiKos Kal tpiXia, to which 
Empedocles (Arist. Metaphys. 1. 4) 
traced the origin of things. Cp. Cic. 
de Am. 7. 24 ' quae in rerum natura 
totoque mundo constarent quaeque 
moverentur ea contrahere amicitiam, dis- 
siparediscordiam ' with Dr. Reid's notes. 
For the oxymoron cp. ' strenua inertia ' 
in the last Epistle. The phrase recurs 
in later writers as Ov. Met. I. 433 ' discors 
concordia foetibus apta est.' 

20. Empedocles, of Agrigentum, 
A. P. 465. He wrote a long poem in 
hexametersonNature, fragmentsofwhich 
remain. Lucretius speaks of it with 
enthusiasm (1. 717 foll.) and looked on 
it as his model. 

Stertinium aeumen. For the ad- 
jectival use of the gentile name, ' Ster- 
tinium ' = ' Stertinianum,' cp. ' Sulpiciis 
horreis' Od. 4. 12. 18. It is an exten- 
sion of the practice in prose, which is 
limited (acc. to Madv. § 189), when the 
name is used of an individual, to public 
and official relations and undertakings, 
' leges Iuliae,' ' via Appia ' and the like. 
Cp. the similar liberty taken with tribal 
names, ' Marsus aper ' and individual 
names 'Romula gens' see on Od. 1. 15. 
10. For Stertinius see introd. to Sat. 2. 
3. Like the ' sapientum octavus ' of 
that Satire (v. 296) this treatment of him 
as the representative of Stoicism is in 

deliret : Epp. 1. 2. 14. This strong 
word is used prob. in reference to the 
charges of madnessflung about so freely 
by Stoic teachers on which that Satire 

turns, ' or whether it is the philosopher 
who calls us all crazed who is crazed 

21. The tone of banter begun in the 
last line is continued in this. 

verum, ov 0' ovv, ' to turn to the 
practical matter.' ' Whatever be your 
position in philosophy or the principles 
which you draw from it for your table 
(referring back to vv. 7, 8\ whether it 
allows you as a Stoic to eat fish, or, as a 
truePythagorean,makesyoufeel it almost 
murder to eat a vegetable . . .' 

pisces. It is doubtful whether fish 
are named as a luxury (this was perhaps 
the Scholiasfsunderstanding of it ; ' seu 
laute sive parce vivis ') or as specially 
forbidden to Pythagoreans ; Athenaeus, 
p. 161 ol irv9ayopi£ovTts -yap ws dKovoptev 
j ovt o\pov koGiovoiv, ovt aX\' ovSe ev | 

porrum et caepe trucidas, imitated 
by Juv. S. 15. 9 ' Porrum et caepe nefas 
violare et frangere morsu.' For Horace's 
jests on the vegetarianism of Pythago- 
reans see on Sat. 2. 6. 63. 

22. utere, as in Epp. 1. 17. 2 and 14, 
sc. ' familiariter ' ; ' make a friend of.' 

Pompeio Grospho : see introd. to 
Od. 2. 15. 

ultro, ' readily,' as though you had 
thought of it first. 

23. verum : Epp. 1. 7. 98, as Schiitz 
suggests, perhaps here as a touch of 
philosophical jargon, the word that 
Iccius himself might be supposed to 

24. ' Friends are cheap in the market 
when good men are lacking something,' 
1. e. to do a service (as you may now do) 
to a good man is an easy way of gaining 
a friend. It is a rendering of Socrates' 
saying (Xen. Mem. 2. 10. 4) oi p-kvToi 
dya6ol oiKovopiot, orav t<j ttoWov atiov 
piKpov k£rj irpiaoOai tot( (paol Sttv tvvei- 
o9ar vvv 5e Sid ra vpdynaTa evcvvoTaTovs 
eOTi tpiKovs d~ya9ovs KTr)oao9at. 



Armenius ceciclit ; ius imperiumque Phraates 
Caesaris accepit genibus minor ; aurea fruges 
Italiae pleno defundit Copia cornu. 

26. For the fimk defeat of the Canta- 
bri by Agrippa see Dion C. 54. II, 
Introd. to Odes B. I-III. 1. § 6 ; cp. Od. 
14. 41. For the question of the date 
here implied, as betvveen b. c. 20 and 19, 
see Introd. to the Epistles, p. 208. 

Claudi Neronis, sc. Tiberius : Epp. 
1. 3. 2 n. For the event referred to see 
introd. to that Epistle. 

27. ius imperiumque aecepit, ' has 
submitted to Caesar's imperial rule.' 
With the phrase cp. ' dat iura ' Virg. 
G. 4. 562, ' in ius ac ditionem recipere' 
Liv. 21. 61, 'in ditionem imperiumque 
concedere' id. 29. .29, ' imperia accipere ' 
id. 25. 9. 

28. genibus minor : lit. 'humbled 
in respect of his knees,' humbled to the 
point of kneeling, 'genibus supplex posi- 
tis ' Ov. Met. 3. 240. Orelli, Diintzer 
and Dill r . prefer to take 'genibus' with 
' Caesaris,' making the phrase = ' sub- 
missus ad genua Caesaris.' The event 
thus described is the restoration by the 

Parlhians of the standards of Charrae, 
which was another incident of Tiberius' 
progress into Armenia, Suet. Tib. 9. 
' The line of Horace Epp. 1. 12. 28 
alludes to coins struck at this period in 
which we see the figure of a trousered 
Parthian presenting the Emperor with a 
standard or in some cases a bow' Meri- 
vale, vol. iv. p. 173. Cp. Epp. 1. iS. 56, 
Od. 4. 15.6, and Tacitus' words Ann. 2. 1 
' Phraates cuncta venerantium officia ad 
Augustum verterat' vvith Furneaux'.>> 

aurea. Cp. Od. 4. 2. 40. A good 
harvest is the occasion of the poetical 
suggestion of a return of the golden age 
of peace and plentv. Cp. Od. 4. 15. 5, 
C. S. 60. 

29. defundit : the reading of ' omn. 
Bland.' as against ' defudit.' The 
present seems to date the letter in harvest 

Copia cornu : Od. 1. 17. 16, C. S. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 13. 273 



This professes to be a letter addressed to one Vinius Asina who is conveying 
some poems of Horace to the Emperor : the letter is supposed to be sent after the 
messenger to reiterate instructions already given as to the care and tact to be 
observed in discharging his commission. 

lt seems obvious that it is an ' Epistle ' in form only : being analogous in this 
respect to Epp. 1. 20, for it is intended primarily for Augustus, to whom it offers a 
jesting apology for any untimeliness in the poet's presentation of his poems. It is 
a dramatic rendering of the caution in approaching Caesar which he recognizes as 
necessary in Sat. 2. 1. 18-20, and of the apologetic tone with which he addresses 
the Emperor directly in Epp. 2. 1. 1-4. Much of the point and of the imagery of 
the Epistle lies in the play on the family nanie of the messenger, a play in which 
the Romans delighted, and which seems not to have been neeessarily offensive to 
those who bore the name. 

For further questions as to personality of Vinius, the nature of the ' carmina ' of 
v. 1 7, and of the circumstances imagined, see the additional note at the end of the 

The Epistle should be compared with the poem (5. 6) in which Marlial begs 
Parthenius to introduce his book unobtrusively to Domitian's notice. 

1-5. 'Let me repeat the orders I gave you on starting. You are to give Augustus 

my poems at the right moment, not bore him with them. 
6-9. Refuse the commission at once rather than discharge it so as to recall your 

family name of Asina. 
10-15. An ass's strength by all means in overcoming the difnculties of the errand ; 

but once arrived you have still to watch your opportunity for presenting the 

book, and for that you want grace and tact. 
16-19. Don't tell any one your errand. Now away with you, and have a care of 


Ut proficiscentem docui te saepe diuque, 
Augusto reddes signata volumina, Vini, 
Si validus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 
Ne studio nostri pecces odiumque libellis 

2. reddes : ausualword of delivering fancies of a valetudinaiian : Suet. Aug. 
a letler, a message, etc. Cp. Od. 1. 3. 80-83, Merivale, 4. p. 358 note. 

7. The fut. for the imperative, Madv. si poseet : cp. Mart. 1. c. v. 16 foll. 

§ 384, obs. ' Nec porrexeris ista, sed teneto Sic tan- 

signata, i. e. without breaking the quam nihil offeras agasque. Si novi 

seal ; they are for Augustus' eye alone. doininum novem soroium Ultro pur- 

3. si validus, si laetus. Cp. the pureum petet libellum.' 

dangers described in Epp. 2. I. 220 4. ne peeees: the negative purpose of 

' cum tibi librum Sollicito damus aut the restrictive conditions ; ' then and then 
fesso.' Augustus had the habits and only, lest,' etc. 




Scdulus importes opera vehemente minister. 
Si te forte meae gravis uret sarcina chartae, 
Abicito potius quam quo perferre iuberis 
Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque paternum 
Cognomen vertas in risum et fabula fias. 
Viribus uteris per clivos, flumina, lamas. 
Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 
Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 
Fasciculum portes librorum ut rusticus agnum, 
Ut vinosa glomus furtivae Pyrrhia lanae, 


5. sedulus : so 'sedulitas' Epp. 2. 1. 
260. ' Opera vehemente' and ' sedulus 
minister' = 'sedulo ministerio,' are 
to be taken in close conjunction. They 
add, under different grammatical forms, 
two descriptions of the manner in which 
the verb importes operates ; ' excessive 
zeal ' and ' officious service.' 

6. uret : Epp. 1. 10. 43. 

7. abicito, ' fling it away on the 
road rather than dash it down in ill- 
temper at your journey's end,'i. e. throw 
up your commission at once rather than 
discharge it unwillingly and awkwardly. 

8. Asinae : see introd. and additional 
note. The ass with Horace is always 
the type of clownishness and ill-temper, 
Sat. 1. 1. 90, 1. 9. 20; Epp. 1. 20. 15, 
2. 1. 199. 

9. fabula fias : ' fabula quanta fui ' 
Epod. 11. 8. 

10. viribus uteris. ' There is a 
place for energy ; namely, on the way; 
when you come into the presence what 
is needed is grace and tact.' The figure 
is still that of the ass. 

lamas, ' pools,' ' sloughs.' ' Lacunas 
maiores continentes aquam caelestem : 
Ennius: Silvarum saltus latebras lamas- 
que lutosas ' Acr. The word is noticed 
by Festus s. v. ' lacuna,' but is other- 
wise unknown in Latin. 

11. victor propositi, ' when you 
have won your purpose.' Cp. ' voti 
compos ' A. P. 76, and the Greek use of 
ty/tparrjs with gen. 

illuc, ' to your journey's end.' It is 
vaguely designated, as in v. 7 ' quo per- 
ferre iuberis.' 

12. sic ne : A. P. 151, 152. 
positum, usually taken, as by Orelli, 

closely with servabis, as though it 
were ' sic pones et servabis,' as beginning 
the description of the way in which the 

books are to be held in the Emperor's 
presence. If this were so it is hard to 
see why the word ' onus ' should be 
u.-ed, and changed immediately to ' fas- 
ciculum librorum.' Is it not better to 
look on ' sic positum servabis onus ' as 
the words in which, addressing Vinius in 
his proper person, he resumes, nnd 
passes from, the preceding image, which 
then wholly vanishes ? We mnst not 
have any suspicion of an ass carrying 
a parcel ' sub ala.' ' Sic ' goes with 
'servabis': ' positum ' is ' laid aside.' 
' When you have landed your burden 
your task is not done, you will then 
keep charge of it, not in the awkward 
way in which a man holds a parctl 
when he doesn't quite know what to do 
with it' 

13-15. ut . . . ut . . . ut. These 
three illustrations (see on Epp. 1. 11. 
11) are from familiar sights that have 
moved to laughter in real life or on the 
stage, but they seem to touch different 
grounds of awkwardness — as though 
what you carried was hard to hold ; as 
though you were ashamed of it, trying 
uselessly to hide it ; as though you were 
yourself a clown going into company 
above you. 

14. glomus, 'a ball of wool'; see 
Lach. and Munro on Lucr. on 1. 360. 
The word occurs there with a long pen- 
ultima. Bentley restored it to the text 
here as against ' glomos.' 

Pyrrhia. According to the Scholiast 
she was a character in a play of 
Titinius. The form of the name is very 
possibly corrupt, as Lachmann (on 
Lucr. 6. 971) points out that it is not a 
proper female name either in Greek or 
Latin. The MSS. of Porph. have 
' Purria,' and K. and H. quote from an 
inscription 'Purreius ' as a Roman name. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 13. 

Ut cum pillcolo soleas conviva tribulis. 
Ne vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 
Carmina, quae possint oculos auresque morari 
Caesaris, oratus multa prece nitere porro. 
Vade, vale, cave ne titubes mandataque frangas. 


As Titinius is said to have written 
' togatae,' a Roman name would be 
more suitable than a Greek one. Rib- 
beck conj. 'Proclia' (for 'Procilia'). 

15. eonviva tribulis, i. e. one going 
to be entertained as a tribesman, not as 
an equal, but as a humbler member of 
the tribe whom the rich man patronizes. 
He is to be seen going to the great house, 
not in a litter, nor even with a slave, but 
carrying himself his felt cap for his 
return at night, and the slippers (see on 
Sat. 2. 8. 77) which he will put on when 
he enters the house and takes off his 

16. ne narres. There is some ques- 
tion as to the constr. It is perhaps best 
(with Schiitz) to make ' ne ' dependent 

on ' oratus.' ' Push steadily on your 
journey, remembering my earnest request 
(cp. ' rogata ' in Epp. 1. 8. 2) that you 
will not tell all the world,' etc. Others 
(as Orelli, Dill r .) make 'ne narres ' 
a separate imperative (see on Sat. 2. 5. 
1 7) and explain ' oratus ' ' though pressed 
[by people to tell them].' 

17. morari : A. P. 321. 

19. cave : see on Sat. 2. 3. 38. 

titubes . . . frangas. There seems 
to be a return to something of the figure 
of v. 9 foll., and there is a jest on the 
brittle goods which were entrusted to 
Vinius. ' Push on, nor stop for ques- 
tions. Now goodbye. But pray don't 
trip and smash the poetry.' Conington. 

Additional Note. 

We may suppose that Horace has given us as much light on the circumstances 
of the poem as was sufhcient in his judgment for its proper appreciation. If we 
would push further, several points are uncertain : 

(1) The personof themessenger. Horacecallshim Vinius (or 'Vinnius'; the MSS. 
of Horace are in favour of the latter ; the MSS. of Tacitus and inscriptions in 
favour of the former as the Roman gentile name) and speaks of Asina' as his 
father's ' cognomen.' The Pseudo-Acron and Comm. Cruq. call him 'C. (' Caninius' 
some MSS. give) Vinnius Fronto' ; Porph. 'Vinnius Asella.' The heading of the 
Epistle in the MSS. is more often ' ad Vinnium Asellam ' (or ' Asellum ') than 
' Asinam.' 

Both ' Asina ' and ' Asellus ' were well-known ' cognomina'; the former in the 
family of the Scipiones (see the story in Macrob. Sat. 1. 6. 28), the latter in the 
Annia and the Claudia gens. The jest on the name was a time-honoured one, for 
Cicero (de Or. 2. 64. 258) quotes it as having been made by Scipio Africanus Min. 
against Ti. Claudius Asellus. There is nothing else to connect the cognomen 
either of Asina or Asellus with the gens Vinia, of which the first member who 
became famous is the T. Vinius of Tac. Hist. 1 passim. 

What relation are we to imagine Vinius as holding to Horace or to the Emperor ? 
The notion that he was a ' tabellarius ' or slave courier is excluded by v. 8, which 

T 2 


implies that he had a ' pater' and was therefore ' ingenuus.' Others have thought 
of him as one of Horace's neighbours, employed by him to carry his parcel from 
his country house to Rome. Is the Emperor however to be supposed to be in 
Rome ? If so, it has been suggested that the Sosii (Epp. i. 20. 2) who would 
have prepared the copy, would be the more natural agents in its delivery ; also 
that the imagery of a journey ' per clivos, flumina, lamas,' even if it be in part 
at least metaphorical, seems less appropriate to such a short and well-beaten road 
as that from Tibur to Rome. If the Emperor was abroad, as we know him to 
have been from B.c. 22 to 19, Vinius may have been anyone in Rome who was 
going to Sicily, Samos, or some other place where the Court at the moment was. 
(2) The nature of the 'carmina' of v. 17. What was Horace sending or 
professing to send? The usual answer has been, thefirst three books of the Odes; 
and there is much probability to be alleged for it, in respect of the importance of 
the occasion supposed, of Horace's usual employment of the term ' carmina ' when 
applied to his own writings *, of the plural ' libellis ' v. 4 (contrast ' libello ' of the 
first book of Satires, Sat. 1. 10. 92), 'fasciculum librorum' v. 13, and getierally of 
the date to which the Epistle is then referred. If, however, any more particular 
date is sought, difficulties arise. The Odes, we have every reason to believe, were 
given to the world in B.C. 23. Augustus did not leave Rome for Sicily and the 
East before the middle of b. c. 22. Are we to imagine, then, that Horace's Odes 
were unknown to him for some months after their publication ? or are we to look 
upon this as a formal presentation of a book which the poet already knew to be 
approved of? Must we fall back on the theory of a mission from the Sabine villa 
to Rome ? or should we remember how fragmentary is our knowledge of the 
Emperor's movements, whether in Italy or outside of it ? 

* 'Carmina' is Horace's word for his Odes when contrasted with the ' Iambi' and 'Sermones,' 
Epp. 2. 2. 59 ; cp. Epp. 2. 1. 250, 258. At the same time ' carmen ' is used (Sat. 1. 10. 66 and 75, 
2. 1. 63) of Lucilius' Satires, and therefore might presumably be used of Horace's own. Its use 
in Sat. 2. 6. 22 is part of the mock-heroic language adopted for the moment. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 14. 277 



The Epistle professes to be addressed to his 'vilicus' or slave-bailiff, whom he 
had promoted from his town household to the charge of his country house and farm 
with its eight slaves (Sat. 2. 7. 1 18), but who hankers still after city life. 

Under cover of a comparison between his own tastes and the bailiff s, he justifies 
his love of country life (cp. Sat. 2. 6, Epp. 1. 16, etc), and preaches his habitual ser- 
inon against restlessness and the desire of change. 

Verses 1-5. Bailiff of the farm which I love and you despise, let us see whether my 

moralizing is as good as your farming. 
6-10. I am longing to get into the country, as much as you to get away from it to 

11, 12. That on the face of it is folly on both sides. 
14-17. There is however this difference, that you change continually, always 

disliking what you have. My preference is constant. 
18-30. The fact is ourtastesare different. Whatyou think unredeemed barrenness, 

I think beauty. You complain that you miss all the pleasures of the city, and 

yet have constant work. 
31. What is the dividing line between us? 
32-39. It is true that I also loved and became town life, but times have changed, 

and I have recognized this. The true inconsistency would have been not to do 

so. In the country I am free from envy and ill-will, so busy at my fieldwork 

that my neighbours are amused. 
40-42. You are seeking to go back to a lot which a city drudge is sharp enough to 

see to be much worse than your present one. 
43, 44. Ox would wear horse's trappings, horse do ox's work. My advice is, let 

each keep to that which he understands. 

VlLICE silvarum et mihi me reddentis agelli, 
Ouem tu fastidis habitatum quinque focis et 

1. Vilice. The duties of a 'vilicus' me feel myself again' Con. Cp. ' vivo 

are described in Cato, de R. R. 5. 1 ; et regno,' etc, Epp. 1. 10. 8, ' Me 

a slave whose heart was in town plea- quotiens reficit . . . Digentia ' Epp. 1. 18. 

sures would not have satisfied them : 104. 

' Ne sit ambulator, sobrius siet semper, agelli : a favourite word with Horace, 

ad cenam ne quo eat, familiam exerceat, sometimes in a depreciatory sense (as 

consideret quae dominus imperaverit Sat. 1. 6. 71). Here it carries the 

fiant. Ne plus censeat sapere se quam double feeling— at once the ' snug do- 

dominum, 1 etc. Columella 1. 8. 1 warns main 1 (cp. Sat. 2. 6. 9) as it is to 

a landowner against selecting one whose the poet, and the 'poor little farm ' as 

accomplishments and tastes are of the the bailiff contemptuously calls it. 
city. 2. habitatum quinque focis. The 

silvarum : Od. 3. 16. 29, Sat. 2. Scholiasts all treat 'habitatum' as a 

6. 3. proper past participle (' aliquando J Acr., 

mihi me reddentis, ' which makes ' olim ' Porph.) and explain it as de- 



Ouinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patres, 
Certemus spinas animone ego fortius an tu 
Evellas agro, et melior sit Horatius an res. 
Me quamvis Lamiae pietas et cura moratur 
Fratrem maerentis, rapto de fratre dolentis 
Insolabiliter, tamen istuc mens animusque 
Fert et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra. 

scribing the occupation of Horace's do- 
main before it came into his hands — 
' though it has been the dwelling-place 
of five households,' etc. They explain 
' patres ' in the next line by ' senatores,' 
meaning probably ' decuriones ' or 
members of the municipal council of 
Varia. This view is espoused fully by 
Dill 1 ". Ritter and Obbar follow it in 
respect of the time of ' habitatum.' On 
the other hand Orelli takes ' habitatum ' 
as a quasi-present part. (' though it is 
the dwelling-place'j, explaining ' patres' 
by ' patres-familiarum,' and supposing 
them to have been ' fortes mercede 
coloni' (Sat. 2. 2. 115), free tenants 
working parts of Horace's estate and 
sharing the produce with him or paying 
rent. The eight slaves of Sat. 2. 6. ti8 
must then have been occupied with what 
we might call the ' home farm.' The 
strongest arguments in favour of Orelli's 
view is the omission of the temporal 
adverb which the Scholiasts supply, 
and which seems needed for clearness. 
Against it may be said (1) that it 
makes the estate ' habitatum quinque 
focis,' something different from the 
estate otherwise spoken of, for which 
the ' vilicus ' is responsible : ' agelli 
quem fastidis habitatum ' becomes ' the 
little farm which you despise, though 
[part of] it is the dwelling-place of five 
households.' (2) That there is more ap- 
priateness in Horace's telling the ' vili- 
cus ' a piece of the earlier history of the 
land now in his occupation, than a fact 
which was as well known to one as to 
the other. 

3. Variam : hod. Vico Varo, in the 
valley of the Anio, where the Licenza 

joins it. If the ' patres ' are ' heads of 
households,' not ' decuriones,' they may 
be supposed to visit Varia as their 
market town. 

4. certemus. Notice that the chal- 
lenge gives a playful air to the Epistle 
— also that it implies a compliment to 
the bailiff 's energy in farming. Surely 
Orelli misreads it in thinking that the 
suggestion is that he is lazy in weed- 

spinas : for the metaphor cp. Epp. 2. 
2. 212, also Sat. 1. 3. 35. For the posi- 
tion of ne cp. Epp. 2. 2. 65. 

5. melior, ' in better condition.' 
res, ' his property.' There are to be 

two comparisons, between the energy of 
their respective work and its success. 

6. For Lamia see introd. to Odes 1. 
26 and 3. 17. There is nothing to prove 
or disprove their identity. 

rnoratur, ' keeps me awhile in town.' 
The feeling of this reference to Lamia's 
sorrow and Horace's sympathy, though 
it would be rather incongruous in a 
letter actually intended for the ' vilicus,' 
is natural and appropriate if we look on 
the Epistle as intended rather for the 
eyes of the poet's friends *. 

S. istuc, ' to where you are,' sc. to 
the country ; so ' istic ' in v. 37. 

mens animusque : the accumulation 
seems to mean ' every impulse of my 
soul.' Cp. the frequent phrase ' animus 

and so ' mens tulit ' Stat. 
cp. ' mens ' = inclination, 

Theb. 4. 
Epp. 1. 



9. amat: see on Od. 2. 3. 15. 

spatiis obstantia claustra, ' the 
doors that bar its course ' ; ' claustra ' = 
' carceres'; see Sat. 1. 1. 114. 

* Dr. Verrall, in his 'Studies in Horace,' has an ingenious chapter in which he argues that 
the Lamia of this Epistle and the two Odes is none other than the ' vilicus ' _ himself, the 
name being here substituted for the personal pronoun, as ' Horatius ' for 'ego'in the pre- 
ceding line. It follows that 'moratur' and ' istuc fert ' must mean ' hinders me from' and'drives 
me to ' the discussion to follow. This is in itself an objection to the view. The words are 
singularly unlike Horace's usual ironical way of entering upon a philosophical lecture. There 
is also the same difficulty which weighs against the reading ' Pulliae ' in Od. 3. 4. 10, the un- 
iikelihood of such a personal detail in the poet's life having escaped notice in early times. It 
also makes the 'vilicus' a much more important person in the Epistle than on our theory he is. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 14. 


Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe beatum. 
Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors. 
Stultus uterque locum immeritum causatur inique : 
In culpa est animus, qui se non effugit unquam. 
Tu mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 
Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea vilicus optas ; 
Me constare mihi scis, et discedere tristem 
Ouandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam. 
Non eadem miramur ; eo disconvenit inter 
Meque et te : nam quae deserta et inhospita tesqua 
Credis, amoena vocat mecum qui sentit, et odit 
Ouae tu pulchra putas. Fornix tibi et uncta popina 
Incutiunt urbis desiderium, video, et quod 
Angulus iste feret piper et thus ocius uva, 
Nec vicina subest vinum piaebere taberna 
Quae possit tibi, nec meretrix tibicina, cuius 





11. nimirum, 'ofcourse.' ' The phi- 
losophical account of the matter is per- 
fectly clear. We are both " stulti " ; the 
fault does not lie in the place.' Horace 
puts himself on a level with the bailiff, 
but proceeds immediately to point out 
the difference between them. 

13. Cp. Od. 2. 16. 19. 

animus : cp. v. 4. This is one of the 
' spinae.' 

14. mediastinus, 'a common drudge.' 
The Scholiasts made it a hybrid word, 
as though from 'medius' and darv 
('astu' is found in Terence, etc.) in 
order to find in it the idea of ' in the 
city ' which the place seemed to requiie 
— but tbe word does not convey this in 
itself. In Lucilius 15. 30 it is used of a 
' vilicus.' Here the contrast with ' vili- 
cus ' and the nature of the two wishes 
give the necessary sense. 

tacita, ' which you did not dare 

16. See note on Epp. 1. 8. 12. 

1 7. invisa negotia : cp. the picture 
in Sat. 2. 6. 20-59. 

18. non eadem miramur, ' we have 
different ideals.' See the use of ' mirari ' 
in Epp. 1. 6. 

diseonvenit : Epp. 1. 1. 99. It is 
here impersonal. 

19. inhospita tesqua. A quotation 
from Lucilius (2. 31) ; ' tesqua ' is inter- 
preted by 1'orph. ' loca aspera et silves- 

tria,' by Acr. ' loca deserta ac difficilia,' 
and said by the latter to have been a 
Sabine word. 

20. amoena vocat : ' Hae latebrae 
dulces, etiam, si credis, amoenae,' of his 
farm, Epp. 1. 16. 15. 

21. uncta. It is doubtful whether 
this means ' greasy,' as in Sat. 2. 4. 78 
('manus') and 2. 2. 68 (' aqua ') — or 
' savoury,' as in Epp. 1. 15. 44, A. P. 

22. incutiunt, ' cause you a thrill' of 
desire. It is used generally of terror 
and other painful emotions ; see on Sat. 
2. 1.39. 

video : parenthetically,' I understand,' 
'I read your motives' ; so Sat. 1. 9. 15, 
2. 2. 35. 

et quod, ' and the fact that ' ; adding 
further subjects to ' incutiunt.' 

23. angulus iste. The words seem 
to be an imagined quotation of what 
the ' vilicus ' himself has said : and 
either ' angulus ' is used here in a de- 
preciatory sense (contrast Od. 2. 6. 14), 
' this out-of-the-way place,' or else it is 
an answer supposed to have been given 
to Horace, ' the corner you speak of — 
some sunny corner which had been 
pointed out as fit to try vines in — will 
grow pepper and spices as soon as the 

24. taberna, the farm lay too far off 
a high road. 




Ad strepitum salias terrae gravis : et tamen urges 
Iampridem non tacta ligonibus arva bovemque 
Disiunctum curas et strictis frondibus exples ; 
Addit opus pigro rivus, si decidit imber, 
Multa mole docendus aprico parcere prato. 
Nunc age, quid nostrum concentum dividat audi. 
Quem tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli, 
Ouem scis immunem Cinarae placuisse rapaci, 
Ouem bibulum liquidi media de luce Falerni, 
Cena brevis iuvat et prope rivum somnus in herba. 
Nec lusisse pudet, sed non incidere ludum. 
Non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat, non odio obscuro morsuque venenat ; 


26. terrae : the dative after gravis. 

et tamen. These words are best 
taken as a continuation of the supposed 
complaints of the bailiff. He has none 
of the pleasures often found even in the 
country, ' and yet ' he has plenty of work. 
This view gives more meaning to ' iam- 
pridem non tacta ' ; we need not look too 
carefully for justificatory reasons— it is 
partofhisgrumbling — ' the ground seems 
as if it had not been dug for years.' 
Note also, possibly, with Schiitz that 
a slight verbal play is carried on from 
' terrae gravis ' to ' urges arva ' : you 
can't make the ground feel in one way 
(cp. the feeling of the rustic taking out 
his revenge in Od. 3. 18. 15 ' Gaudet in- 
visam pepulisse terram Ter pede fossor'), 
but you have to make it feel, at your 
own cost in another. The verses have 
also been taken (by Conington) as 
though Horace were commenting on his 
tasks (ironically) as a set-off to his dul- 
ness, ' and yet time need not hang heavy 
on your hands.' This does not lead as 
well to the change in v. 31. 

28. disiunctum. The bailiffs la- 
bours do not even cease when the ox is 
unyoked ; cp. the feeling of Od. 3. 6. 


strictis frondibus : \ irg. E. 9. 60 

' agricolae stringunt frondes' ; cp. Epp. 

1. 16. 9, 10. 

29. pigro, ' if you feel lazy.' The 
rain which brings a holiday from other 
farming work (Virg. G. I. 259, cp. Sat. 

2. 2. 119) brings you fresh toils. The 
verse shows that Horace had some 
meadow land reaching down to the 

' Digentia.' For the metaphor of do- 
cendus cp. A. P. 68. 

31. nune age : a Lncretian formula 
of transition ; see on Epp. 2. 1. 214. 
This fresh start suits very well with the 
view that we have been listening since 
v. 19 to the bailiffs views. 

concentum dividat, prevents our 
singing the same tune. 

32. tenues : contrast ' toga quamvis 
crassa ' Sat. 1. 3. 15. 

nitidi capilli : Od. 2. 7. 7. 

33. immunem, ' thoughempty-hand- 
ed ' ; Od. 4. 12. 23, and see on Od. 3. 
23. 17. 

Cinarae : Epp. 1. 7. 28 n. The con- 
trast between the epithets in these two 
passages and Od. 4. 1. 4 possibly imply 
that she died in the interval ; see App. 
1. to vol. 1 ' On the unknown names in 
the Odes.' 

34. liquidi, ' well cleared'; Od. I.II. 
6, Sat. 2. 4. 55. 

media de luce : see on Sat. 2. 8. 3. 

35. cena brevis : cp. ' mensae bre- 
vis'*A. P. 198. 

36. lusisse : for the sense of ' ludere ' 
cp. Epp. 2. 2. 56, 142, 214. The state- 
ment is general ; the shame is not in 
having played, but in not putting a limit 
to the play. For ' incidere ' cp. Virg. 
E. 9. 14 ' novas incidere lites.' 

37. istic : as ' istuc ' in v. 8. 

38. limat, lit. ' files down.' Cp. the 
somewhat similar metaphor of ' de- 
terere ' Od. 1. 6. 12. Lachmann ^on 
Lucret. 3. 11) suggested that there is a 
play on ' limi oculi ' (see Sat. 2. 5. 73), 
' sidelong glances.' 

LIB. I. EPIST. 14. 


Rident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 

Cum servis urbana diaria rodere mavis : 40 

Horum tu in numerum voto ruis ; invidet usum 

Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus et horti. 

Optat ephippia bos, piger optat arare caballus ; 

Quam scit uterque libens censebo exerceat artem. 

3. 16 ' dente minus 42. ealo argutus._ For 'calo' see 


morsu : Od. 4 
mordeor invido.' 

venenat, the ' tooth ' of envy ' poi- 
sons ' what it nibbles ; so ' atro dente ' 
Epod. 6. 15. 

39. rident, ' smile at.' The emphasis 
is not on their laughter but 011 the 
energy in his nevv occupations which is 
measured by it. ' I dig and gather stones 
till my neighbours are quite amused.' 
The essence is ' I am thoroughly con- 
tented with the change of life.' 

40. As Porph. says ' Tu vero ' must 
be supplied. Its absence is compensated 
for by the ' tu ' of the next line. Cp. the 
omission of ' ego ' in Epp. 1 . 17. 21. 

urbana diaria : the measuredrations 
of city slaves icp. Sat. 1. 5. 68) are 
compared with the free use of field and 
garden produce which the bailiff en- 

rodere, of tough morsels. 

41. horum : emphatic, as was ' cum 
servis.' ' This is the company into whose 
number your prayers bear you amain.' 

voto : cp. 'prece ' in v. 14. 

on Sat 1. 6. 103. For 'argutus' 
Sat. 1. 10. 40. 

43. One of Horace's fables com- 
pressed into a sentence. 

piger is best taken (as Bentl.) with 
caballus. There is no point in mak- 
ing the motive the same in both cases. 
Human 1 estlessness has many. If lazi- 
ness were at the bottom of the ox's de- 
sire of change the ' trappings ' would 
hardly be the point named in the horse's 
condition as that which attracts him. 

44. Horace is thinking of the Greek 
proverb tpooi ns rjv tnaoTos tlStir) 
T*x vr l v (Arist. Vesp. 1431) or of Ci- 
cero's rendering of it, Tusc. D. 1. 18. 41 
' bene illo Graecorum proverbio prae- 
cipitur : quam quisque norit artem, in 
hac se exerceat.' 

libens : pred. ' ply his own trade and 
be happy withal.' 

censebo, ' if ox and horse refer the 
matter to my arbitration I shall answer 
them with the proverb.' 




This is one of the Epistles which carry on their face rnore of the occasion and 
purpose of a true letler. Horace writes to Vala as one well acquainted with the 
coast in that part of Italy to ask about Velia and Salemum as winter resorts ; ex- 
plaining by the way why he is not going as usual to Baiae : ' It is not my fault, 
but that of Antonius Musa, who has put me on the cold water treatment : yet, no 
doubt, I am looked upon at Baiae as a traitor and renegade.' The questions 
which he asks (with this interpolated explanation in vv. 2-13) last until v. 25. 
The remainder of the Epistle is occupied with an ironical apology for the incon- 
sistency between these particular enquiries as to the luxuries to be had at the 
southern watering-places and the tone of contented Stoicism with which his friends 
at this time were familiar. ' You see after all I am like Maenius, a philosopher 
when I must be so, a bon-vivant when I can ' (vv. 26-46;. This turn of the 
P^pistle has been prepared for by the parenthesis (vv. 16-21), in which he explains 
that he asks about the water rather than the wine of the country, not that he means 
to drink water, but because, although at home at his farm he can drink anything, 
at the seaside he wants something better than ' vin du pays.' 

Missing the connection of thonght, some of the best MSS. divide the Epistle, be- 
ginning a new one at v. 26 (see introd. to Ode 1. 7). 

Of the Vala of this Epistle, called Numonius Vala in the heading given in several 
MSS., we know nothing certainly. The name of Q. Numonius Vala has been 
found in an inscription * at Paestum — half-way, that is, between Salernum and Velia. 
We gather from the Epistle that he was well acquainted with both places, and from 
v. 46, probably, that he had a handsome country house in the neighbourhood. 
One Numonius Vala met an inglorious death in the German campaign of a.d. 9 
under Varus, but there is r.othing to identify the two. 

We may note in the Epistle the recurrence to the topic of his own inconsistency, 
especially in respect of his love of simplicity and pretensions to philosophy. He is 
conscious that such charges are made against him, and he meets thein sometimes 
with denial, sometimes with playful and half-ironical confessions. We must not 
be misled by these. or suppose that he really attributes to himself the same motives 
as to Maenius. His true answer is little more than ' there is a time for every- 
thing.' In the last Epistle he preached that inconsistency was sometimes the truest 

Ouae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum, Vala, Salerni, 
Ouorum hominum regio et qualis via, (nam mihi Baias 

1. hiems : for Horace's practice of as Salernum (now Salerno) is some 

spending the autumn at his farm and twenty-five miles north of it. The 

going to the sea forthe winter see Epp. latter was within the borders of Cam- 

I. 7. 10. Probably Epp. 1. 10. 15 im- pania, the former was in Lucania {see 

plies that this was not invariable. v. 21). 

Veliae, the Greek 'E\«'a, on the coast 2. qualis via, ' what the road is like ' ; 

some twenty-five miles south of Paestum, a question always of mterest in Horace. 

* Corpus Inscr., vol. x. no. 481. 




Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamcn illis 

Me facit invisum, gelida cum perluor unda 

Per medium frigus. Sane murteta relinqui, 

Dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 

Sulphura contemni, vicus gemit, invidus aegris, 

Oui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent 

Clusinis Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura. 

Mutandus locus est et deversoria nota 

Praeteragendus equus. ' Quo tendis ? Non mihi Cumas 

Est iter aut Baias,' laeva stomachosus habena 


nam introduces a long parenthesis, 
the indirect questions being resumed at 
v. 14. There is a similar parenthesis 
introduced by 'nam' in vv. 16-21. 

3. Musa Antonius. The freedman- 
physician who cured Augustus in B.C. 
23 of an illness by the cold water treat- 
ment, Suet. Aug. 59 and 81, DionC. 53. 
30. This proves nothing as to the date 
of Horace's adopting a like treatment, 
but it suits well with the date which is 
otherwise assigned to the Epistles of 
this book. For the order of the two 
names see on Od. 2. 2. 3. 

supervacuas. Baiae was resorted 
to for its sulphur vapour baths. Horace 
being put on cold water would find 
no use in it beyond other watering 

et tamen, ' and yet,' i. e. though it 
is the doctor's fiat, not my fancy, and 
though I am told that their specialty is 
of no use for my case. The passage 
well hits off the way that the whole 
population of a health-resort, officials 
and visitors alike, espouse its cause as a 
point of personal honour, and look on 
any one who undervalues its treatment 
or goes elsewhere as guilty of a grave 

5. sane, ' really.' The word which 
the champions of Baiae would use in 
beginning their indignant outburst ; 
cp. its use iu Epp. 1. 7. 61, A. P. 

murteta. Celsus 2. 17 describes the 
treatment ; the myrtle woods are the lo- 
cality : ' naturalium sudationum ubi a 
terra profusus vapor aedificio includi- 
tur, sicut super Baias in murtetis.' 

6. nervis elidere. ' Elidere ' seems 
to have been a technical medical word, 
for the ' dislodgement ' of a malady, 

Cels. 2. 15. The malady seems to be 

9. Clusinis, of, or near, Clusium in 
Etruria. There is no other allusion to 
them nor any trace of medicinal springs 
there. It has been thought that the 
reference is to some baths twelve miles 
south of Clusium, at a place now called 
S. Casciano di Bagni. 

Gabiosque : see on Epp. 1. 11. 7, with 
the qnotation from Juv. S. 10. 100 ' Bal- 
neolum Gabiis.' We learn froni this 
place that it was a place of cold bath- 
ing. It is to be noted that Horace does 
not say nor even imply that he went 
himself to Cltisium or Gabii. They are 
named as specimens of the rival estab- 
lishments whose names stunk in the 
nostrils of the votaries of Baiae. He 
had ' frigida rura ' in his Sabine hills, 
and cold water which he pronounces 
medicinal for head and stomach ; see 
Epp. 1. 16. 14. 

10. mutandus locus est, pursues 
the explanation which was broken off in 
v. 5 lo picture the annoyance of the 
people of Baiae. The result of Musa's 
advice is that I must change my desti- 
nation, not take as usual the turning to 
Baiae, but continue the road toward 

deversoria nota : 'the inns he (i. e. 
the horse) knows,' acc. after ' praeter- 
agendus.' They are the inns on the 
road between Baiae and the place where 
the Appian Way was left ; the horse as- 
sociates the turning with the baiting- 
places to which it led. 

11. quo tendis? part of the im- 
patient rider's address to the horse who 
from old habit is turning off to the 

28 4 


Dicet eques ; sed equi frenato est auris in ore). 
Maior utrum populum frumenti copia pascat ; 
Collectosne bibant imbres puteosne perennes 
Iugis aquae ; (nam vina nihil moror illius orae ; 
Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique ; 
Ad mare cum veni, generosum et lene requiro, 
Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 
In venas animumque meum, quod verba ministret, 
Ouod me Lucanae iuvenem commendet amicae). 
Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros, 
Utra magis pisces et echinos aequora celent, 
Pinguis ut inde domum possim Phaeaxque reverti, 
Scribere te nobis, tibi nos accredere par est. 
Maenius, ut rebus maternis atque paternis 
Fortiter absumptis urbanus coepit haberi, 



1 3. sed equi, ' but it is the tug of the 
rein, not the words, that the horse un- 
derstands.' ' Equis ' which Bentley (fol- 
lowed by Munro and Wilkins) adopts 
against the best MSS., makes this a 
general statement, and so loses point. 

14. Horace begins his catechism with 
necessaries, bread and water, and pas^es 
on to luxuries. Note that bread and 
water were the two things about which 
he was most particular in his picture of 
the journey to Brundisium, Sat. 1. 5. 7 
and 88-91. 

frumenti eopia will imply cheapness 
and choice. 

15. perennes, wells fed by springs, 
opposed to the intermittent supply of 
tanks of rainwater. 

16. iugis. V had ' dulcis,' as have 
a few other MSS. But we want an 
epithet which will point the contrast 
with ' collectos imbres,' as ' dulcis ' does 
not. Keller suggests that the reading 
was due to a reminiscence of Virg. G. 2. 

2 43- 

nihil moror. ' I do not stop to 
ask aliout'; with obj. acc. as here Epp. 
2. 1. 264, with obj. clause Sat. 1. 4. 13. 
He does not trouble to ask the relative 
value of the nalive wines of the district ; 
none had any name. His practice at 
the sea is to bring or buy better wines. 

17. quidvis : more general and so 
more forcible than ' quodvis,' sc. 
' vinum.' 

perferre patique : perhaps the 

strength of the expression implies that 
it requires some philosophy even in 
Sabine air. 

iS. Perhaps this seaside regime is 
implied in the ' sibi parcet ' of Epp. 1. 
7. 11. Note the contrast between his 
mode of life, Epp. 1. 7. 12 'contractus 
leget,' and Epp. 1. 14. 39 'glebas et 
saxa moventem.' 

With the description of what he looks 
for from the more generous wine cp. 
Epp. 1. 5. 16 foll. 

20. venas : see note on Od. 2. 2. 14. 

21. Lucanae : so he is thinking 
chiefly of Velia ; see on v. 1. 

iuvenem, predicative ; 'make me 
young and give me grace in the eyes,' 

22. apros : cp. 'Lucanus aper' Sat. 2. 

23. echinos : Sat. 2. 4. 33. 

24. Phaeax. One of the 'Alcinoi 
iuventus' of Epp. 1. 2. 28. It is this 
apparent recantation of so much of his 
philosophy which leads directly to the 
ironical apology of the remainder of the 
Epistle. As the Scholiast puts it, ' quia 
de se ut luxurioso locutus erat subicit de 
Maenio fabulam.' 

2^. aecredere, ' to give full credence 


27. fortiter, ' {jallantly,' ' with 

Maenius : Sat. 1. 3. 21. 
fortiter, ' gallantly,' 
; said ironically. 
urbanus : Catull. 22. 2 ' dicax 
uibanus,' ' a wit.' 


LIB. I. EPIST. 15. 


Scurra vagus non qui certum praesepe teneret, 
Impransus non qui civem dinosceret hoste, 
Ouaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere saevus, 
Pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 
Ouicquid quaesierat ventri donabat avaro. 
Hic ubi nequitiae fautoribus et timidis nil 
Aut paulum abstulerat, patinas cenabat omasi 
Vilis et agninae, tribus ursis quod satis esset ; 
Scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepotum 
Diceret urendos, correctus Bestius. Idem 



28. 'A parasite at large, not one to 
keep to one crib, not one when he 
wanted a dinner to distinguish be- 
tween countryman and foeman.' For 
the order of non qui cp. Sat. 1. 5. 33. 

praesepe : the metaphor is an old one 
of a parasite, Plaut. Curc. 2. 1. 13, as 
though he were an animal looking only 
for a belly full. 

29. impransus : Sat. 2. 2. 7, 2. 3. 


civem hoste : not to be taken in too 

literal a sense ; all distinctions were ob- 

literatcd, even that which to a Roman 

would last longest. 

dinoseeret, with abl., as Epp. 2. 2. 


30. fingere saevus : App. 2. to vol. 1. 

31. He swept the market clean like 
a hurricane, swallowed its contents like 
a bottomless pit. The accumulated 
figures are abundantly illustrated from 
the comic poets, as Plaut. Capt. 4. 3. 
3 ' Quanta pernis pestis veniet, quanta 
labes larido,' Alexis apud Athen. 8. 21 
eicvtcpias Karatyiaas . . . | els ti)v dyopav 
roinpov Trpui/j.evos oixtTai | <p4poJV dnav to 
\r)<]>6ev. Plaut. Curc. I. 2. 28 ' Age 
effunde haec cito in barathrum.' 

32. donabat. Of the two readings 
offered by the MSS., this and 'donarat,' 
this, which is the reading of the majo- 
rity, is the most pleasing ; but it is quite 
possible that Bentley was right in think- 
ing that ' donarat' of the Bland. MSS. 
was a mistake for ' donaret,' and that 
this was the original reading : the sent- 
ence is then continuous, ' donaret ' being 
in the same constr. as 'teneret,' ' dinos- 
ceret ' after ' qui,' and the apodosis be- 
ginning with v. 33, the subject being 
repeated in ' hic ' because of the length 
of the protasis. 

33. ' Those who encouraged his 

wicked wit, or feared it.' It is not 
necessary to this sense that timidis 
should be taken as partly governing the 
gen. as Dill 1 '., quoting A. P. 28 ' timi- 
dus procellae.' 

34. paulum abstulerat, ' had got 
little spoil.' 

patinas, ' plate after plate.' 
omasi : Sat. 2. 5. 40. 

35. agninae. Lamb is seldom spoken 
of as an article of food, never, it secms, 
as a delicacy. In the passage quoted 
by the edd. from Plaut. Capt. 4. 2 38 
Ergastulus is speaking of the frauds of 
the market, of selling stale fish for fresh, 
etc, and he charges the butchers with 
selling the meat of an old ram as though 
it were young wether mutton, and so 
(apparently) of passing off lamb at 
twice its proper price as mutton, ' dupla 
agninam danunt.' 

vilis seems to go with both substan- 

36. scilicet ut. For the force of 
'scilicet' before the consecutive ' ut,' 
calling attention to the length to which 
his change of tone was carried, see on 
Epp. 1.9. 3. 

lamna candente. For ' lamna ' see 
on Od. 2. 2. 2. Red-hot plates of 
metal are mentioned frequently as in- 
struments of torture, as Lucr. 3. 1017, 
Cic. in Verr. 5. 16. 163 ' ardentes la- 
minae, ceterique cruciatus.' 

nepotum, i. e. of those who wasted 
money on gluttony. 

37. correctus Bestius. The expla- 
nation of the words, whether we keep to 
the text of the MSS. which only give 
the choice of ' correctus ' or ' correptus,' 
or accept the emendation of Lambinus, 
' corrector,' must equally be a matter of 
conjecture : for the clue to the reference 
to Pestius is lost. Very possibly he was 



Quicquid erat nactus praedae maioris ubi omne 

Verterat in fumum et cinerem, ' Non hercule miror,' 

Aiebat, 'si qui comedunt bona, cum sit obeso 40 

Nil melius turdo, nil volva pulchrius ampla.' 

Nimirum hic ego sum ; nam tuta et parvula laudo 

Cum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis ; 

Verum ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem 

Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 45 

Conspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis. 

a character in Lucilius. If we keep 
' correctus ' it may mean either ' like a 
reformed Bestius/Bestiusbeingsupposed 
to be a glutton or spendthrift who 
changed his tone, or ' a very Bestius now 
that he is reformed,' Bestius being as 
Acr. suggested a man of stern fruga- 
lity. If we accept ' corrector ' it will 
mean ' a very Bestius in his zeal for re- 
form ' ; but we have still to supply from 
our imagination, what there is no evi- 
dence of, that Bestius was a preacher of 
good morals in actual life or in some 
Satire or play. Bentley shows that 
' corrector ' was a common term, and 
was used both with a gen. as in Epp. 2. 
t. 129, and abscl. as in Ter. Adelph. 4. 
7. 24, but we cannot say that ' correctus ' 
or ' correptus' (cp. Sat. 2. 3. 257 of just 
such a reformed character ' correptus 
voce magistri ') is impossible. Persius' use 
of the name ; 6. 37 ' Bestius urguet Doct- 
ores Gj^iios ') apparently for a general 
censor would suit the reading ' correc- 
tor ' very well, but the language which 
is likened to that of Bestius is censorious 
enough to explain the reference without 
his being actually called ' corrector.' 

38. quiequid : here equivalent to ' si 

39. in fumum : the words must be 
metaphorical ; ' any plunder he got was 
treated as the plunder of a captured 
city.' Nothing was kept, everything 
devastated ; cp. the metaphor of v. 31. 
Such metaphors are not very clearly 
realized, and there may be a half con- 
scious suggestion of the kitchen altar on 
which his gains were consumed. 

40. comedunt, ' put down their 
throats.' Cic. has the word with the 
same mixture of literal and metaphori- 
cal meaning, ' utrum ego tibi patrimo- 
nium eripni, Gelli, an tu comedisti ? ' 
pro Sest. 52. III. 

obeso turdo. A fieldfare is the 
titbit to be sent to the rich man by the 
legacy-hunter, Sat. 2. 5. 10. Cp. the 
' macros turdos ' of Sat. 1. 5. 72. 

41. volva, sc. ' suilla.' Juv. S. 11.81 
' calidae sapiat quid volva popinae.' 

melius . . . putehrius : words which 
in his short-lived reformation he learnt 
to use of moral excellencies : for ' pul- 
cher' in that sense see Epp. 1. 2. 3 and 

42. nimirum : the particle empha- 
sizes the explanation of this long para- 
ble, but, as often, it has in it a suggestion 
of irony. 

hic, ' the man so pictured ' ; see Epp. 

I. 6. 40. 

tuta et parvula : cp. Od. 2. 10. 6 
and the context, and the spiritof Od. 2. 
18; 3. 16; Sat. 2. 2. The question (as 
Orelli points out^ is widened beyond 
the matter of eating and drinking. 
Horace is giving a playful account of 
his alternation of Epicureanism and Stoi- 

43. fortis : in the sense of Sat. 2. 2. 
115 and 135, 136. 

44. melius et unetius. The table 
recurs, but here rather as a figure. Cp. 
' impransi mecum disquirite' with the 
context Sat. 2. 2. 7. For ' unctius ' see 
on Ep. 1. 14. 21, and cp. Epp. 1. 17. 12. 

45. ' That you are the only philoso- 
phers, and alone have the secret of life.' 

bene vivere : cp. Epp. 1. 6. 56, 1. 

II. 29. 

46. fundata. A metaphorical use, 
but with a half literal sense given to it 
by its coniunction with ' villis,' 'with a 
solid foundation in trim country houses.' 
It seems clear that there is an implied 
contrast between the smartness of Vala's 
country house in south Italy and the 
roughness of the poet's own humble 
quarters in the Sabine valley. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 16. 287 



Verses 1-16. You ask abont the produce of my farm, but seem hardly to under- 

stand its nature. It is in the heart of the hills, but for such a situation it has 

all possible advantages — a sunny aspect, good climate, surprising richness of 

woodland fruit, and foliage, fresh water. 

It is to me a paradise of beauty and snfety even in September. 
17-24. And now of yourself. I hope you too have found the secret of life. 

We are all congratulating you on your good fortune — and rightly ; provided 

you are taking your measure of your happiness not from our words, but 

from your own feelings and from philosophy. 

Trae happiness belongs only to the wise and good. Are you that ? 
25-31. If the world tells you so, do not believe it at once, any more than you 

would if it told you that you were a second Augustus. 
31-40. No doubt all feel pleasure in being called good and wise. 

But we must remember that those who give titles can take them away. Are 

we to feel pain when they destroy our character ? Such pleasure and such pain 

are alike proofs that we are not yet good and wise. 
40. For what, to go back, do you mcan by a ' good man ' ? 
41-43. The stock answer is ' the man of respectability, who breaks no law, whose 

word is a bond, whose testimony is trusted.' 
44, 45. Nay, that is ontside only. He may be a villain underneath. 
46-49. Negatives do not constitute goodness, even in a slave. 

The truly good man is good from love of virtue. 
50-56. True goodness implies motive as well as act. The pretender to goodness 

is often kept straight by fear of punishment. 
57-62. But his true desire is not to be good but to seem good, in order that he 

may the better gratify his love of gain. 
63-6S. There is the true motive, and that makes the man who feels it a slave. 
69-72. You may make a useful shepherd of him, or ploughman, or trader, but not 

a philosopher. 
73-79. The truly wise and good man is like Dionysus in the play. He fears no 

one, wants nothing, can never lose his liberty, for he has in his own hands 

the key of liberty. 

It is characteristic of Horace's irony that an Epistle in which, more than in most, 
he assumes the tone of a Stoic and mounts the professor's pulpit, follows one in 
which he has described himself as a second Maenius. 

Who Quintius was, and to what extent he was meant to take home the lecture, 
we cannot tell. It may be the ' Quintius Hirpinus,' to whom Horace addresses 
counsels in a very different vein in Od. 2. II. It is to be said however that the 
total ignorance which is presumed in him of the poet's country house does not 
point to a friend of long standing, and that the tone of v. 17 foll , if it does not 
require, certainly suits well with, a friend young in years towards whom congratu- 
lations on some early success may not unbecomingly be followed up, by an eldcr, 
with some good advice. \Ye need not imitatc some editors in drawing out in 



detail dcfects of Quintius' character to suit thc turns of the poefs lecture. Its 
personal bearing is probabJy salisfied with ' \ve are all calling you happy, only 
remember what the Stoics tell us happiness really means.' We havc seen in Epp. 
i. i that Horace passes from a personal address to professorial argument with an 
imagined interlocutor withuut indicating thc point oftransition (see note on vv. 41- 
43 of this Epistle). It is to be noticed that in the present Epistle he touches in 
succession on many current Stoic doctrines, and wilh sympathy, not putting in front, 
as is usual with him, their paradoxical form. See notes on vv. 33, 55, 65, 79. 

The connection between the description of the Sabinc farm and the discussion 
on standards of happiness and goodncss which follows is not strongly marked. 
We are meant probably to feel something of the easy inconsequence of a letter, 
the early part finding its immediate explanation in some questions that Quintius 
may be supposed to have asked. The point of actual conneetion is made in v. 17 
by ' Tu recte vivis ? ' which implies that the sum of the picturc given in the preced- 
ing lines has been ' ego recte vivo.' The retirement and simple pleasures in which 
he paints himself as finding health and contcntmcnt are a fitting introduction to 
the remainder of the letter in which he is to argue that happiness cannot be 
separated from goodness, and that they both are to be sought within us, not 
without us. 

Ne perconteris fundus meus. optime Ouinti. 

Arvo pascat herum an bacis opulentet olivae.. 

Pomisne an pratis an amicta vitibus ulmo, 

Scribetur tibi forma loquaciter et situs agri. 

Continui montes, ni dissocientur opaca 5 

1. N"e pereonteris, ' to forestall your 
asking.' See on Epp. i. i. 13, Od. 1. 33. 
1. ' Perconteris ' means ' ask particu- 
larly,' ' repeatedly ' ; the tone is as though 
Quintius has asked. 

2. opulentet, a word not found else- 
where. It is equivalent to ' bacarum 
copia donet ' rather than ' bacis divitem 
reddat ' ; so that although ' paseat ' is 
specially suitable to corn-growing land 
we are not to think of a climax, as 
though oliveyards were spoken of as 
making rich, while cornland only tinds 
a maintenance for its owner. 'Opulentet,' 
or some verb more colourless still, under- 
stood for it, has to do duty with the 
ablatives of the following line. It is to 
be noticed (with Wilkins) that the 
alternatives are not mutually exclusive. 
Where vines were grown as now in Italy 
on trees corn would be sown between 

3. an pratis. The MSS. are divided 
b.4ween 'an' and ' et,' which Orelli 
gives. The sense is rather for ' an.' 
There is no reason that a farm should 
not be divided between orchard and 
meadow ; but the two are not so near 
akin as would be implied by coupling 

them in the question. 

amicta vitibus ulmo : the process 
described by the more poetical metaphor 
of the marriage of vine and elm in Od. 
2. 15. 4, 4. 5. 30 ; Epod. 2. 9. Cp. Epp. 
1. 7. 84. 

4. forma seems to have been a tech- 
nical word (Varro, R. R. 1. 6 for the 
charaeter of an estate, the general lie of 
the ground, whether arable, pasture-land, 
woodland, etc. 

loquaeiter, i. e. with all an owner's 
fond garrulity. Obbar compares Pliny's 
words of his Tusculan estate (Epp. 5. 
6) ' aceipe temperiem caeli, regionis 
situm, villae amoenitatem, quae et tibi 
auditu et mihi relatu iucunda erunt.' 

5. eontinui montes, ni dissocientur. 
With ' continui montes ' we understand 
' sunt ' rather than ' sint.' It is one of 
the cases that come under Madv. § 348 
b. Cp. Epp. 2. 1. 108 'ultro si taceas 
laudant.' ' Imagine a mass of hills 
unbroken, were it not parted by a 

opaca, ' shaded,'probably by trees, as 
in Od. 3. 4. 51, for the following line 
excludes the idea that the sides of the 
vallev shut the sun out. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 16. 


Valle, sed ut veniens dextrum latus aspiciat Sol, 
Laevum discedens curru fugiente vaporet. 
Temperiem laudes. Quid, si rubicunda benigni 
Corna vepres et pruna ferant ? si quercus et ilex 
Multa fruge pecus multa dominum iuvet umbra ? 
Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 
Fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nec 
Frigidior Thracam nec purior ambiat Hebrus, 
Infirmo capiti fiuit utilis, utilis alvo. 
Hae latebrae dulces, etiam, si credis, amoenae, 
Incolumem tibi me praestant Septembribus horis. 



6. sed ut, etc. : a qualification not of 
' opaca,' which is not an epithet which 
would seem to convey blame and need 
explaining away, but of the whole some- 
what unpromising description. It is a 
valley buried among the hills, but one 
so favourably placed as to catch the 
earliest and the latest sunshine. As the 
valley runs from N. to S. it is clear that 
if it was in the sunshine in the morning 
and evening a fortiori would it be so 
during the day. This consideration has 
been lost sight of by many commen- 

dextrum . . . laevum : the right and 
left as you look down the valley. 
Keller accepts, on the authority of few 
MSS., the reading in v. 5 ' si ' instead of 
' ni.' This would alter the framework 
of the sentence. ' Continui montes si 
dissocientur opaca valle ' then becomes 
fhe protasis, ' temperiem laudes ' the 
apodosis. The result is an awkwardly 
balanced and un-Horatian sentence. 
And, though Keller dissents, the Scho- 
liasts' notes show them all to have read 

7. curru fugiente. Cp. Od. 3. 6. 44. 
vaporet either merely ' warms,' a 

sense it has in Columella 2. 15. 6 ' glebae 
solibus aestivis vaporatae,' or of the 
fiickering mist caused by heat. In either 
case cp. the use of ' vapor ' in Epod. 

3- 15- 

8. temperiem : the tempering of the 
air, high and yet warm. Cp. ' Utrumque 
rege temperante caelitum' Epod. 16. 56. 

si ferant. ' Supposing they were to 
bear,' i.e. supposing you were to find 
that they do bear. 

11. dieas : not the direct apodosis to 
' si ftrant,' for that is contained in ' quid.' 


' Why, you would say that the rich vege- 
tation of S. Italy had been brought to 
our doors.' 

12. fons : Od. 3. 16. 29, Sat. 2. 6. 2. 
On the question whether this is the 
' Fons Bandusiae ' see introd. to Od. 

3- 13- 

dare nomen idoneus : for the inf. 
see App. 2. vol. 1. ' Idoneus dare ' does 
not necessarily imply that it did give its 
name to a river. If that were the case 
it must have been named ' Digentia.' 
In any case it was a confluent. Cp. 
Epp. 1. 18. 104 ' gelidus Digentia rivus.' 

ut, in such a way that (i. e. with the 
additional qualification) that it is as cool 
and as pure as the Hebrus. For the use 
cp. A. P. 3. 

13. ambiat : not quite properly used of 
a river which does not flow round but 
through. It is meant to describe a 
winding course. The Hebrus (' hiemis 
sodalis' Od. 1. 25. II, ' nivali compede 
vinctus ' Epp. 1. 3. 3), the river of the 
Bacchants (Od. 3. 25. 10), of Orpheus 
(Virg. G. 4. 524), is idealized here, and 
the comparison gives to the Sabine farm 
the associations of a poetic dreamland. 

14. capiti . . . alvo : cp. Epp. 1. 15. 
8 ' Qui caput et stomachum supponere 
fontibus audent.' He is speaking of cold 
' douches.' 

15. dulces . . . amoenae, 'attractive 
to me,' ' lovely in themselves.' ' Amoe- 
nus ' is used by Horace of ' Baiae ' Epp. 
1. 1. 83, of ' Surrentum ' Epp. 1. 17. 52, 
in the mouths of admirers of those places, 
of the airs and streams of Elysium Od. 
3. 4. 7, of places idealized by poetic 
fancy A. P. 17, or by affection as Epp. 
1. 14. 20 and here. 

16. tibi. Notice how the touch of 




Tu rccte vivis si curas esse quod audis. 
Iactamus iampridem omnis te Roma beatum ; 
Sed vereor ne cui de te plus quam tibi credas, 
Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum, 
Neu si te populus sanum recteque valentem 
Dictitet, occultam febrem sub tempus edendi 
Dissimules, donec manibus tremor incidat unctis. 
Stultorum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat. 
Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 
Dicat et his verbis vacuas permulceat aures, 



feeling in this ' ethical dative ' softens 
the transition to the question of Quintius' 
own life. It is not so much ' This is 
how I live ; how do you?' as though 
Horace held up his own example broadly 
to Quintius, as rather ' So I live, and so, 
what I know you care for very much, 
my health and happiness are secured. 
What of your own ? ' 

Septembribus horis : the unhealthy 
season ; Sat. 2. 6. 19, Epp. 1. 7. 5. 

17. reete vivis : a phrase of Stoic 
import which gives the keynote of what 
follows. It includes the having found 
the true ideal and the following it, and 
it implies happiness, Epp. I. 2. 41, 1. 6. 
29, 1. 8. 4, 2. 2. 213. 

esse qnod audis, ' to be what you 
are said to be.' For the sense of ' audis ' 
cp. Sat. 2. 6. 20, 2. 7. 101 ; Epp. 1. 7. 38. 
Horace is of course referring to the con- 
trast of Soneiv and eivat, ' esse ' and 
' videri ' or ' haberi,' which was a 
commonplace with philosophers (asCic. 
Off. 2. 12. 43, Xen. Mem. 2. 6. 39), and 
in what follows he will make that his 
text, but at present his standing-point is 
what the world is actually saying of 
Quintius, ' we are calling you a happy 
man. This is indeed to fulfil the ideal 
of life, if you are taking care to be what 
we call you. But see that you do not 
only take our word for it, and remember 
that happiness presupposes wisdom and 

18. iactamus, ' have on our lips.' 
iampridem : happiness is one step on 

the road to ' recte vivere,' and that step 
has been already taken. 

20. alium sapiente : the abl. with 
 alium,' as Epp. 2. 1. 240 'alius Ly- 
sippo,' and, if ' veris ' be read there, Sat. 
2. 3. 208. 

21. neu si populus, etc, the third 
fear is put figuratively ; ' or be taking the 
popular voice for your happiness against 
your own consciousness, which would be 
as absurd as to take it on the question 
whether you have a fever or not, and so 
go to a feast only to find the ague- 
shaking come on you in the middle of it.' 

sanum recteque valentem : Epp. 1 . 

si dictitet : ' if they say it often 

22. occultam : pred. with ' dissimu- 
les' ; ' hide and pretend not to feel it.' 

23. unctis, ' already in the dish.' 
This reminds us that the Romans ate 
with their fingers. Ov. A. A. 3. 755 
' Carpe cibos digitis ; est quidam gestus 
edendi : Ora nec immunda tota perunge 

24. stultorum, the emphatic word, 
the opposite of ' sapiente ' in v. 20. ' And 
that is not at all like a philosopher, to 
hide your sores instead of getting them 

pudor malus : cp. ' pudens prave' 
A. P. 88 ; ' false shame,' i.e. shame which 
mistakes ils object. 

25-31. ' You would detect the falseness 
at once if people used language of you 
in military and political matters which 
would be applicable pnly to an Augustus ; 
why not when in moral ones they use 
language which is applicable only to the 
ideal sage ? ' 

25. tibi: it is doubted whether the 
dat. is to be taken with pugnata or 
with dicat. Either is possible and 
makes good sense, the former is perhaps 

26. vacuas : at leisure, when you 
attend to him. Lucr. 1. 45 ' vacuas 
aures . . . adhibe.' 

LIB. I. EPIST. 16. 


' Tene magis salvum populus velit an populum tu, 
Servct in ambiguo qui consulit et tibi ct urbi 
Iuppiter,' Augusti laudes agnoscere possis : 
Cum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 
Respondesne tuo, dic sodes, nomine ? ' Nempe 
Vir bonus et prudens dici delector ego ac tu.' 
Qui dedit hoc hodie cras, si volet, auferet, ut si 
Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 
' Pone, meum est : ' inquit. Pono tristisque recedo. 
Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 



27. The Scholiasts tell us that this is 
a quotation from the ' Panegyricus in 
Caesarem Augustum ' of the poet Varius ; 
see on Od. 1. 6. 1. It will be noticed 
how skilfully Horace introduces by the 
way, in a letter which is to be published, 
a compliment to Augustus. 

30. pateris sapiens vocari ; for constr. 
see on Epp. 1. 5. 15. 

sapiens emendatusque : ' the flaw- 
less wise man ' ; the ' qne ' is due only to 
the Latinusage, which does not generally 
allow adjectives to be accumulated with- 
out a copulative conjunction. Madv. § 
300, obs. 5. 

31. respondesne tuo nomine. 
' When you allow yourself to be called 
so, do you virtually claim the title ? ' 
This must be the sense. The phrase is 
possibly suggested from the ' respondere 
ad nomina ' of a Roman levy (Liv. 3. 
41, etc). If so, the technical phrase is 
slightly varied according to Horace's 
wont (see on Od. 2. 4. 24, etc). But 
' respondere vocatus ' is a recognized 
phrase, with no such special references 
(see Cic de Or. 3. 49. 191) and ' tuo 
nomine,' ' on your account,' ' as though 
the name belonged to you,' may be an 
addition modelled on such phrases as 
' mihi tuo nomine gratulabantur ' Cic. 
Phil. 1. 12. 30. This is one of the in- 
stances sometimes alleged of ' ne ' for 
' nonne ' ; i. e. where the answer expected 
is 'yes'; but see on Epp. 1. 17. 38. 
There is here, as there, an ironical effect 
in the more indefinite form of interroga- 
tion. For ' sodes ' see Sat. 1. 9. 41, 
Epp. 1. 1. 62. 

nempe, a supposed reply, assenting, 
but putting the statement in a way that 
explains and justifies it, and with a touch 
of irony. 

32. vir bonus et prudens seems a 


synonym for the ' vir bonus et sapiens ' 
of v. 73 ; cp. Epp. 1. 7. 22 with A. P. 445. 

dici delector: to be added to the 
instances of the extended use of the com- 
plementary infinitive in Append. 2 to 
vol. 1. 

ego ac tu, ' I as well as you.' We are 
all alike in this respect. 

33. qui, sc. ' populus.' This is 
Horace's rejoinder. ' Those who give 
can take away.' He has perhaps in view 
the paradox in which the Stoic clothed 
his assertion of the inalienable dignity of 
virtue, ' the wise man is always king,' 
and the Roman version which he so 
often gives to it, ' the wise man holds an 
office not bestowed or taken away " ar- 
bitrio popularis aurae" ' ; see on Od. 3. 2. 
17, 4. 9. 39. Orelli is also doubtless 
right in suggesting that Horace has in 
mind Lucr. 3. 995 ' Sisyphus in vita 
quoque nobis ante oculos est, Qui 
petere a populo fasces saevasque secures 
Imbibit et semper victus tristisque 

34. detrahet : a comparison of Od. 3. 
2. 17 shows that we need not ask with 
some editors whether Horace is referring 
to that rarely exercised power of ' abro- 
gatio imperii.' He is speaking popu- 
larly, and ' detrahet ' is sufficiently 
explained of his being rejected for 
the next office sought or even of not 
being elected at all. Cp. Epp. 1. 6. 53 
' eripietque curule Cui volet importunus 

35. pone, meum est : ' pone'= ' de- 
pone.' Bentley pointed out that the 
object is not ' fasces,' which would raise 
difficulties as to ' meum,' but the same 
as ' hoc ' of v. 33, viz. the name of 
' good and wise.' 

36. ' If it was to go further, and not 
only refuse a good name but give a bad 




Contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum ; 

Mordear opprobriis falsis mutemque colores? 

Falsus honor iuvat et mendax infamia terret 39 

Quem nisi mendosum et medicandum? Vir bonus est quis? 

' Qui consulta patrum, qui leges iuraque servat, 

Ouo multae magnaeque secantur iudice lites, 

Quo res sponsore et quo causae teste tenentur.' 

Sed videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 

one.' ' Idem ' is best taken of the same 
subject as before, viz. ' populns.' Bentley 
put a slightly different turn on the sen- 
tence by changing the question at the 
end of v. 38 to a fullstop and making 
' idem ' = ' ego.' 

clamet : ' should raise the hue and 
cry.' ' Me esse ' has to be understood 
with furem. 

37. ' To strangle your father ' is with 
Horace a proverb for crime of the 
deepest dye, Od. 2. 13. 5, Epod. 3. 1. 

38. eolores. Bentl. explains of going 
red and then white, and compares Prop. 
1. 15. 39 ' multos pallere colores,' ' to 
turn white of different shades.' Some 
MSS. have 'colorem,' which Schiitz 

40. mendosum : with definite re- 
ference back to ' emendatus ' in v. 30. 

medieandum: ' in need oftreatment.' 
For the metaphor cp. vv. 21-24, which 
are perhaps actually in view. Cp. also 
Epp. 1. 8. 7-10. A false reading ' men- 
dacem,' corrected by Bentl., had crept 
into some good MSS., and was given by 
the earlier edd. 

vir bonus est quis ? The argument 
takes a fresh start. Dependence on the 
world's praise has been deprecated on 
the ground that if you accept its praise 
you must accept its blame — the one may 
be as false as the other. He now attacks 
it on another ground. ' It is based on 
appearance only. What do they mean 
by a " vir bonus " ? The answer only 
covers outvvard respectability. The 
man whom the world calls " bonus " may 
be known in his home and even in his 
neighbourhood as a rogue.' 

41-43. This, like vv. 31, 32, is the 
answer of the person whom Horace is 
addressing. On the face of the Epistle 
this is Quintius, but the personal refer- 
ence to himself has passed away, and 
though the second person is still used it 
indicates only an imaginary interlocutor. 
For Horace's practice in the matter see 

the note on Epp. 1. 1. 28. 

' Bonus ' was used in many conven- 
tional senses, as e. g. by Cicero for ' men 
of our side,' ' sound politicians,' and lent 
itself easily to ironical applications. Cp. 
Cic. Att. 9. 12. 3 ' Praetores ius dicunt, 
aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras 
perscribunt.' Horace is not throwing 
any doubt on the reality of goodness, 
but pointing out the limited senses in 
which the term is popularly used. 

We may compare on the whole Cic. 
de Off. 3. 19. 77 for the story of Fim- 
bria's refusal to arbitrate on the ques- 
tion whether M. Lutatius Spinther was 
a ' vir bonus ' on the ground that this 
turned on matters beyond observa- 

41. The whole line means one who 
keeps within the four corners of law 
in all its forms and aspects. ' Patrum 
consulta ' is variation of the technical 
' senatus consulta.' For leges iuraque 
see on Sat. 1. 1.9. 

42. quo iudiee seeantur, i. e. such 
a person as, whether by the agreement 
of the two parties or by appointment of 
the ' praetor,' will be set to decide grave 
civil suits. ' Secantur ' is a popular or 
a poetical, not a technical term, Sat. 
1. 10. 15. 

43. Money is safe when he is the 
security, a cause when he is the witness. 
There is some zeugma in the use of 
tenentur, which is an habitual phrase 
for winning a cause, as Cic. pro Caec. 
24. 67 ' Scaevolam dixisti causam apud 
centumviros non tenuisse.' 

The reading quo res sponsore rests 
solely on V as quoted by Cruquius, all 
extant MSS. having ' responsore.' It 
has been accepted by all recent editors 
except Ritter. K. and H. give it, but, 
in accordance with their depreciating 
view of V, prefer to consider it a con- 
jectural emendation of Cruquius. 

44. vicinia : Sat. 2. 5. 106, Epp. 1. 
17. 62. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 16. 



Introrsum turpem, speciosum pelle decora. 45 

' Nec furtum feci nec fugi,' si mihi dicat 

Servus, ' Habes pretium, loris non ureris,' aio. 

' Non hominem occidi.' ' Non pasces in cruce corvos.' 

' Sum bonus et frugi.' Renuit negitatque Sabellus : 

Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus accipiterque 

Suspectos laqueos et opertum miluus hamum. 

Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore ; 

Tu nihil admittes in te formidine poenae : 

Sit spes fallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 

Nam de mille fabae modiis cum surripis unum, 55 

Damnum est non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 

Vir bonus, omne forum quem spectat et omne tribunal, 

Quandocunque deos vel porco vel bove placat, 

Iane pater ! clare, clare cum dixit, Apollo ! 

pelle deeora : 
where many of 



45. speciosum 
on Sat. 2. 1. 64, 
words recur. 

46-49. ' Freedom from some gross 
faults is not moral perfection.' 

46. dicat. The greatmajority of MSS. 
have the subj., Regin. nearly alone the 
ind.,which Bentl. and Munro follow. It 
is however impossible to clear away these 
irregular hypothetical correspondences 
from Horace. Cp.Od. 3. 3. 7 'illabatur . . . 
ferient.' Epp.2.1. io8'sitaceas,laudant.' 
'Aio,' ' my answer is,' is substituted for ' my 
answer would be.' See Madv. § 348. b. 

47. ureris 
Epod. 4. 3. 

49. frugi : 
slave ' ; Sat. 2 


cp. ' peruste funibus : 

the proper virtue of a 

rightly restored to the 
text by Bentl. from V. It is really the 
reading of the best MSS., though many 
have 'negat atque.' The frequentative 
has its proper force, ' shakes his head 
and says no ! no ! no ! ' 

Sabellus, ' one of us Sabines,' i. e. 
' a farmer of the plain, hard-headed sort.' 

50, 51. 'Such a man is only like 
beasts and birds of prey and greedy 
tishes, checked not by conscience but by 
fear of unseen snares.' Notice that, in 
Horace's manner (see on Od. 4. 9. 29 f.), 
the words necessary to the full idea, 
' cautus,' ' suspectos,' ' opertum,' are dis- 
tributed betvveen the clauses. 

51. miluus : a trisyll. See on Epod. 

16. 32. 

53. tu: see above on vv. 41-43. 
admittes in te. ' Ea in te admisisti 

quae,'etc. Cic. Phil. 2. 19. 47. 

54. miscebis sacra profanis, i. e. 
' you will knovv no distinction of right 
and wrong.' Cp. A. P. 396, where it is 
said to have been the work of wisdom 
' secernere sacra profanis.' 

55. nam justifies not what has been 
said but the implied thought, ' and what 
good is such limitation of your wrong- 
doing ? Wickedness is a matter of 
qualily not quantity.' Horace is falling 
into the language with which a Stoic 
would support the paradox ('that all 
offences are equal ') in which he expressed 
this truth. Whether he has the paradox 
actually in view is doubtful. The figure 
used is suggested by the dialogue with 
a slave in vv. 46-49. 

fabae : the sing. as a collective noun : 
so in Ennius, Ann. 545 ' perque fabam 

57. vir bonus, etc. This ' good man' 
of vv. 41-43, the ideal of respectability 
to all who see him offering surety at the 
bankers or giving evidence before the 
praetor's chair. 

58. placat : see on Od. 1. 36. 2. 
vel porco vel bove : ' whether with 

a smaller or a larger offering.' 

59. Compare with this passage the 
imkation in Persius S. 2.8. For Iane 
pater cp. Sat. 2. 6. 20. 



Labra movet metuens audiri : ' Pulchra Laverna, 60 

Da mihi fallere, da iusto sanctoque videri, 

Noctem peccatis et fraudibus obice nubem.' 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus, 

In triviis fixum cum se demittit ob assem, 

Non video ; nam qui cupiet metuet quoque ; porro, 65 

Oui metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit unquam. 

Perdidit arma, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 

Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 

Vendere cum possis captivum occidere noli ; 

Serviet utiliter : sine pascat durus aretque, 70 

Naviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis ; 

Annonae prosit ; portet frumenta penusque. 

Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere : ' Pentheu, 

60. Laverna : the goddess of thieves 
and impostors. 

61. iusto sanctoque videri,restored 
to the text by Bentley for ' iustum sanc- 
tumque,' found in many MSS. V had 
the dative. For the constr. cp. Sat. i. i. 
19, Madv. § 393. 

63 foll. The connection is through 
the motive suggested for the secret 
wrong-doing in vv. 60-62, ' Laverna,' 
' fraudibus.' ' This man a " vir bonus" ! 
vvhy he is a slave to the vulgarest of 
desires and fears.' 

64. Imitated by Persius 5. 11 1 'Inque 
luto fixum possis transcendere nummum.' 
The Scholiast there explains that it was 
a trick of Roman boys to fasten a coin 
to the pavement in order to see who 
would stoop to pick it up. If this is 
doubted we must take fixum in the 
sense of ' sticking,' i. e. in the mud, 
which is more possible with ' in luto ' 
than witli ' in triviis.' 

65. qui cupiet metuet quoque. 
Cp. Epp. 1. 6. 9. foll. ; also Epp. 1. 
2. 51, 2. 2. 156. We are handling here 
commonplaces of Stoic teaching. 

66. mihi, ' in my judgment.' 

67. perdidit arma. He is a piipa- 


locum virtutis deseruit. The gen. 
gives the matter of the allegory. He 
was a soldier in virtue's army ; but not 
(as the true 'virbonus ') a good soldier, 
but one who deserted his post. ' Locum ' 
as Virgil's ' loca iussa tenere ' Aen. 10. 
238. Orelli quotes Dem. Olynth. 3. § 36 

. . ttjs Ta£eo)? 



68. obruitur : a Ciceronian figure 
' obruimur ambitione et foro ' de Or. 
1. 21. 94, ' obrui tanquam fluctu in 
magnitudine negotii ' ad Qu. Fr. 1. 
1. 3. For in re augenda cp. Epp. 
1. 7. 71. 

69-73. Horace, following up the 
figure of the runaway soldier, apo- 
strophizes his imagined captor. ' He is 
a born slave — keep him — set him to 
shepherd or to plough, or do your bid- 
ding on the sea.' In plain language, 
' of snch stuff are made not " viri boni " 
or philosophers, but those who pursue 
the menial and money-making profes- 
sions.' The ' mercator/ as usual, is the 
type of eager pursuit of wealth ; see 
especially Od. 3. 24. 40 n. and Epp. 1. 
1. 45 foll. Note the philosophical con- 
tempt for industrial life. 

70. durus. Cp. Epp. 1. 7. 91. It 
ansvvers in its own clause to ' mediis 
hiemet in undis ' in the next — ' the man 
will shrink from no toil.' 

72. annonae prosit, ' help to cheapen 
corn ' by taking part in its importation. 
It is a contemptuous allowance that the 
trader is of some benefit to the com- 

penus : defined by Cic. de N. D. 2. 
27. 68 ' est enim omne quo vescuntur 
homines penus.' Horace's use of the 
word as a neuter is noticed by Priscian. 
Virgil makes it masc. in Aen. 1. 703- 

73. vir bonus et sapiens. We 

LIB. I. EPIST. 16. 


Rector Thebarum, quid me perferre patique 

Indignum coges?' 'Adimam bona.' ' Nempe pecus, rem, 

Lectos, argentum : tollas licet.' ' In manicis et 

Compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo.' 

' Ipse deus, simul atque volam, me solvet.' Opinor 

Hoc sentit, ' Moriar.' Mors ultima linea rerum est. 


have at last the serious answer to the 
question of v. 40 ; but it grows out of a 
direct comparison with the picture last 
given of the pretender to goodness with 
his real heart in riches as a slavc. ' The 
true " vir bonus " is the man independ- 
ent of favour or disfavour — of wealth or 
poverty — able to command freedom 
even in a prison.' "With the spirit of 
the description cp. Od. 3. 3. 1-8. 

This is thrown into the form of a 
paraphrase of the dialogue between 
Dionysus and Pentheus in Euripides, 
Bacch. 492 foll. 
AI. e'i<p' oti -naOeiv 5er ri fie rb Setvbv 

epyctaet ; 
IIE. rrpwTov ptev afipbv $6ot pv\ov TC/tw 

AI. iepbs 6 nXoKaptos' tw 6ew 5' avrbv 

IIE. eireiTa 6vpaov rovoe irapados 1« 

AI. avTus pt drpaipov' TovSe Atovvaov 

IIE. elpnTaioi t evSov awpta abv <pv\a£- 

AI. Kvaet fi 6 Saiptwv avrbs otov eyw 

Qekw, k.t.K. 
The feeling of the god's replies is well 
kept in Horace's lines, but there is much 
freedom in the reproduction, especially in 
the substitution for the ' lock of hair ' 
and the ' thyrsus ' of the luxuries which 
the Roman man of wealth values, the 
closing of the dialogue with the answer 
of Dionysus, that he can have his release 
at will, and the turn which Horace gives 
to this answer (see note on v. 78). We 
notice here, as in Epp. 1. 2, how Horace 
read the Greek poets with the inclina- 

tion to give allegorical and moral ap- 
plications to their legends. 

74. reetor Thebarum : an addition 
to the Greek. The feeling is ' for all 
your greatness.' Cp. in Od. 3. 3. 3 (the 
passage cited as parallel in general sense 
to this) ' voltus instantis tyranni.' 

For perferre patique cp. Epp. 1. 15. 


75. nempe, ' to wit,' ' I understand,' 
introducing an ironical completion of 
the interlocutor's sentence. Cp. Sat. 2. 

3. 207 'placavi sanguine divos.' 'Nempe 

76. leetos : couchesof costly material 
and make. In Juvenal's time they were 
made of tortoise-shell (Juv. S. 11. 94) 
and precious metals. 

argentum: Epp. 1. 16. 17, Sat. 1. 

4. 28 n. 

78. opinor. Cp. 'credo,' in an in- 
terpretation,' Sat. 2. 2. 90. Horace has 
stopped the dialogue at the place that 
suits him, and the interpretation which 
he puts on the words is also arbitrary, 
and one which could hardly suit the 
actual speeches. Dionysus' freedom is 
recovered in the play by his exercise of 
divine power. 

79. mors ultima linea rerum est. 
Horace's comment (not Dionysus'). 

linea, probably from the figure of a 
racecourse, to which life is constantly 
compared. Cp. Cic. Tusc. D. 1. 18. 15 
' nunc video calcem ad quam cum sit 
decursum nihil sit praeterea pertimes- 
cendum,' also the use of KaicSiv 
Eur. Fr. 174, fiiov id. Electr. 945. 
Notice how the Stoic teaching as to 
suicide is here sanctioned. 



The ' Sabine valley ' in which Horace's estate lay can be certainly 
identified, though the exact spot on which his house stood is still 

Seven miles above Tivoli in the Anio valley, on the road to Subiaco 
(i.e. on the ancient ' via Valeria,' a few miles before the point at which 
the ' via Sublacensis ' diverged from it), stands the little town of Vico 
Varo, the Varia of Epp. i. 14. 3. Here there opens from the left a 
side valley, running directly from north to south. In this valley, near 
its junction with that of the Anio and beyond the stream, is seen at 
some height the village of Cantalupo-Bardella, or, as it is called in 
the Italian Staff Map, Mandela, for it has been conclusively identified 
with Horace's Mandela ' rugosus frigore pagus' (Epp. 1. 18. 104). 
The valley is that of the Digentia (Epp. 1. 18. 104), a name which 
survives in the form of Licenza, and is given both to a village which 
did not exist in Horace's day, or his ' vilicus ' would have found the 
tavern life which he so much missed (Epp. 1. 14. 24), and to the 
stream in its lower course : higher up it is known as the Maricella. 
At Vico Varo a road turns off up the Licenza valley, keeping at 
some height on the western side, and in three miles reaches the 
little village of Rocca Giovane. It was here that a few years ago 
an inscription was found recording the restoration by Vespasian of 
a temple of Victory. This is held with great probability to have 
been the ' fanum putre Vacunae' of Epp. 1. 10. 49. Vespasian was of 
Sabine origin, having been born at Reate, and it is natural that he 
should have restored the temples of Sabine deities, and especially 

1 The chief references to the villa in cussions of the site will be found in a 

Horace are Od. 1. 17. 1-12, 3. 1. 47, 3. letter of G. Dennis in Milman's Horace, 

16. 25-37, (possibly 3. 13); Sat. 2.6. in the introduction to Didofs Horace 

1-3 ; Epp. 1. 10. 49, 1. 14 passim, 1. (Paris, 1855) and in Burn's Rome and 

16. 1-16, 1. 18. 104-110. Recent dis- the Campagna, pp. 430, 431. 


OodoTcL Uruversiry Press. 

4 The heiqhts are giverutn. Englzshfeetabove 


of one who, as we learn, was worshipped at Reate and who, as Acron 
tells us from Varro, was according to one view identified with the 
Roman ' Victoria.' Of the other names which we have in Horace 
' Ustica cubans' (Od. 1. 17. 11) possibly still survives in the name 
La Rustica, said to be given to some part of the valley ; but peasants 
are so willing to recognize names which travellers suggest that 
such discoveries are to be received with caution. Two names are 
given of hills or forests, 'Lucretilis' Od. 1. 17. 1, 'Haedilia' ibid. 9. 
The latter has left no discoverable trace. The former is possibly 
found in an altered form in the Liber Pontificalis, in a record of 
a donation by the Emperor Constantine to a church on the via 
Labicana, where an estate is described as ' possessio in territorio 
Sabinensi quae cognominatur "ad duas Casas " sub monte Lucretio.' 
The name ' ad duas Casas ' is supposed to survive in the chapel of 
the Madonna della Casa on the hill side beyond Rocca Giovane. 
The Mons Lucretius or Lucretilis will be the high ground behind it, 
but it still may be either some minor point immediately at its back 
or the whole mass of hills between the valley and the Campagna, 
of which the highest point is called in some maps Gennaro, in 
others Monte Zappi. This point is 4165 English feet above the 
sea, and is visible to a great distance. The nearer tops are from 
600 to 800 feet lower. When the valley was identified, about the 
middle of the i8th century \ the site selected as that of Horace's 
villa was that marked A in the annexed plan. There are some 
remains of an ancient dwelling-house, 'a scattered fragment or 
two of columns of travertine or a small piece of mosaic,' and it is 
said that the fioors of six chambers were uncovered, but covered 
again with the earth, as nothing of value was found 2 . All sub- 
sequent visitors and topographers took this for the site till the 
question was reopened (1855) by M. Noel des Vergers and Cavaliere 
Rosa, the Roman explorer, who examined the valley together and 
put forward the claims of a rival site (that marked B) just behind 
Rocca Giovane, where some terracing is noticed. Their arguments 
for this situation are (1) that it answers more exactly the description 
of ' post fanum putre Vacunae.' But any place higher up the valley 
than the temple might fairly be so described, especially as the pur- 
pose of the expression is pretty certainly not topographical, but 
humorous, being equivalent to ' in holiday land ' (see note on Epp. 

1 The arguments for the valley and de Sanctis, 1761, and by the abbe 
the special site are given in books Capmartin de Chaupy, 1769. 
printed at Rorne by the abbe Domenico 2 Mr. Dennis' letter. 


1. 10. 49) ; (2) that it is in close proximity to a spring of water which 
theyjheld to be the Bandusian Fountain (see introd to Od. 3. 13) 
and the ' iugis aquae fons ' of Sat. 2. 6. 2. The distance however is 
greater than the account recognizes. I visited the valley some years 
ago' and walked from Rocca Giovane to the older site, passing the 
spring, and I could not satisfy myself that there was much difference 
between its distance from one site and the other. 

LIB. I. EPIST. 17. 299 



Verses 1-5. You do not need the advice of such a humble and incxpericnced 

person as I am as to the way to live with the great, but take it for what it is 

6-12. If it be true that quiet and freedom are what you care for, the question will 

not arise — you will give up ' society ' once and for all. There is something 

to be said for that course ; but if you have hungry relations and like a good 

dinner yourself, it is natural to make up to the great. Nor is that wrong. 
13-17. The Cynic gibes at the Cyrenaic ; but the Cyrenaic has his answer. 
17-32. Neither is wholly independent, but the view of Diogenes is the narrower 

and least practical of the two. 
33-36. The great glories of life are for the chosen few. To win the favour of 

these chiefs of mankind is another grade of distinction, and it is not for every- 

one any more than the first. 
37-42. Some are deterred from trying by fear of failure. But here, as elsewhere, it 

is not true virtue (i. e. manliness) to give up for want of trying. Only remember, 

when you have found your patron, two golden rules. 
43-5 t. 1. Never ask ; you will gct more and rouse less envy. 
52-62. 2. Never gramble ; your real troubles will gain more credence if you have 

not bored people with trifling ones. 

Porph. treats Epp. 17 and 18 as one continuous Epistle, and all the Scholiasts 
make Scaeva and Lollius the same person. Both are evidently mistakes, but they 
mean that the early critics perceived that the two Epistles were meant to be read 
in close connection with each other. They deal with one subject, the reverse of that 
treated in Epp. 1. 7. That spoke of the relation of a patron to his protege — these 
of the relation of the protege to his patron. When the two Epistles are taken to- 
gether they deal pretty fully with the subject. We see the matter from the patron's 
side, the greed and pushing of one dependent, the servility of another, the clumsy 
attempts of a third to assert independence by being rude and disobliging. We see 
also the natural shrinking of many men from a questionable and difficult position. 
We read between the lines Horace's advice on the whole about it : ' Keep out of it 
if you can — bear yourself naturally and with selfrespect while you are in it. Re- 
member the higher ends and pleasures of life, and be content (as I have been) to 
make your escape early into a modest competence.' 

But there are great differences between the two Epistles. The spirit of Ep. 1 7 
seems at least half satirical. The humility of the beginning from such a master in 
the art of pleasing the great (Ep. 1. 20. 29) is overdone forcomplete seriousness ; the 
motives suggested in w. 11, 12 are too broadly put, the tone of ' aut virtusn omen 
inane est ' (v. 41) recalls too nearly the irony of Ep. 6 ; the two golden rules which 
end the Epistle, as though they contained the whole art of which v. 2 promised to 
speak, are too like an intentional bathos. 

Scaeva is an unknown person. Is he a young man with whom Horace is on 
friendly terms and in whose particular case the apparent satire has a playful turn 
beyond our guessing ? Or is he a shadow ? Is it really a Satire under the form 



of an Epistle ? In any case the literary effect is dramatically to represent a class 
of aspirants, irresolute at first and half ashamed of being patronized, yet driven to 
it by greediness and the importunity of relatives, and in danger when they enter 
on it of turning out beggars and grumblers ? 

Quamvis, Scaeva, satis per te tibi consulis, et scis 

Ouo tandem pacto deceat maioribus uti, 

Disce, docendus adhuc, quae censet amiculus, ut si 

Caecus iter monstrare velit ; tamen aspice si quid 

Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. 5 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam 

Delectat, si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 

Si laedit caupona, Ferentinum ire iubebo. 

Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia solis, 

Nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit. 

Si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum 

Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 


2. tandem. The particle often used 
in direct questions to give emphasis is 
here kept in the indirect question. With 
Orelli and Diintzer we may take it to 
imply that the question is a difficult 

maioribus — 'thegreat' — thosegreater 
than yourself, as in Sat. 2. 1. 61. They 
are called ' potentes amici ' in Epp. 1. 
18. 44, ' potentiores ' in Epod. 2. 8. 

uti, sc. 'familiariter,' as invv. 13,14; 
see on Epp. 1. 12. 22. 

3. docendus adhuc, ' who still 
needs plenty of schooling himself.' 

amieulus : the diminutive of depre- 
ciation, ' a humble friend.' Possibly 
there is reference to ' maioribus,' a friend 
who is not one of the great, but as small 
as yourself. But it is all ironical ; see 

4. tamen : in spite of these draw- 
backs to the value of his advice. 

5. et nos, ' even such as I.' 
cures, ' you may take the trouble.' 
fecisse : for the perf. inf. see on Od. 

3. 4. 51, and cp. Epp. 1. 18. 59. 

6. primam in horam. For one who 
hasa patron to please must be up before 
daybreak to call at hishouse: ' sollicitus 
ne Tota salutatrix iam turba peregerit 
orbem Sideribus dubiis ' Juv. S. 5. 20, ' si 
curet nocte togatus Currere ' ib. 3. 127. 
Cp. Epp. 1. 7. 68 and 75, 2. 1. 104, and 
Martial 4. 8. 1 ' Prima salutantes atque 
altera continet hora.' For the meaning 
of 'prima hora' see on Sat. I. 5. 23. 

7. pulvis strepitusque rotarum. 
Obbar well compares the Nnx Elegia 
89 (of the walnut planted in the coun- 
try) ' Non hominum strepitus audit, non 
illa rotarum : Non a vicina pulverulenta 
via est.' 

8. caupona : i.e. the noise of taverns 
in the streets of Rome. 

Ferentinum : i. e. a quiet country 
town. Two places of the name are 
known, one on the Via Latina, forty- 
eight miles from Rome, in the country 
of the Hernici, which the Comm. Craq. 
understands to be meant, the other in 

The gist of the line is ' If you are 
sincere in saying that the claims of 
society bore you, shake them off, but 
do it thoroughly, go quite into the 

10. vixit male : the opp. of 'bene 
vivere ' Epp. 1. 6. 56. 

natusmoriensquefefellit, 'has been 
born and died unknown ' : an imitation 
of the use of KavOavtiv with the part. 
Cp. Od. 3. 16. 20. Plutarch quotes as 
an Epicurean precept \a6e Piwffas. Cp. 
Ov. Trist. 3. 4. 25 'bene qui latuit, 
bene vixit,' and the ' fallentis semita 
vitae ' of the next Epistle, v. 103. 

11. benignius ipsum tractare : cp. 
' tractari mollius ' Sat. 2. 2. 85. 

12. sicous ad unctum. The Scho- 
liast gives, no doubt, the sense, ' sc. pauper 
ad opulentum,' and generally the figure 
employed is clear; but it is doubtful 

LIB. I. EPIST. 17. 


' Si pranderet olus patienter, regibus uti 

Nollet Aristippus.' ' Si sciret regibus uti, 

Fastidiret olus qui me notat.' Utrius horum 

Verba probes et facta doce, vel iunior audi 

Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia ; namque 

Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 

' Scurror ego ipse mihi, populo tu ; rectius hoc et 

Splendidius multo est. Equus ut me portet, alat rex, 

Officium facio : tu poscis vilia, verum 

Dante minor, quamvis fers te nullius egentem.' 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 



whether ' unctum ' is neut. as in A. P. 
422, 'as a hungry man to a savoury 
dinner,' or masc, the epithet being 
transferred from the fare to the person 
who partakes of it. ' Siccus ' is most 
easily explained by Sat. 2. 2. 14. It 
is possible, however, that it is more 
closely related to ' unctum,' meaning 
one who lives on dry food, Cicero's 
' aridus victus ' Rosc. Am. 27. 75; cp. 

13-15. The saying of Diogenes and 
the reply of Aristippus were traditional. 
Diog. Laert. I. 68 irapidvTa irore avrov 
('ApicrTnrnov) \dxava ttXvvcuv Aioyevrjs 
eOKwxpe Kai <}>rjcnv, Ei ravra efia9es irpoa- 
cpepeaOai ovk av rvpdvvcov avhds eOepd- 
neves. 'O 5e, Kal av, eTnev, einep rjoeis 
avOpwTTOts 6fii\eTv ovk av Xaxova evKvves. 
For Aristippus see on Epp. 1. 1. 18. 

13. pranderet, with accus., as in Sat. 
2. 3. 245: so 'cenare' Epp. 2. 2. 168, 
Sat. 2. 8. 27, etc. 

uti : see above on v. 2. 

15. qui me notat, 'my censor.' For 
the metaph. use see on Sat. 1. 3. 24. 

16. iunior, ' as the younger ' : i. e. ' I 
take my privilege of age ' ; see introd. 

18. mordacem, 'snappish,' as a cur ; 
the usual play on the name ' Cynic' 

ut aiunt seems to imply that Horace 
is still following some well-known story 
of Aristippus ; but his saying is freely 
paraphrased and adapted to the purpose 
of the moment. Porph. quotes a Greek 
proverb (Vttoj fie <pepet, @acri\evs \xe 

19. scurror . . . mihi. He begins 
with the offensive term for the profes- 
sion (cp. ' scurrantis ' Epp. 1. 18. 2) 
to be softened (as Porph. points out) 
to ' officium facio,' ' render my service,' 

in v. 21. ' We are both " scurrae," for 
we gain our sustenance by pleasing some 
one else; but in my case I am really 
pleasing myself, for by pleasing my 
patron I make him please me.' 

hoc, ' mv plan ' : see on Sat. 2. 2. 


21. facio: for the om. of ' ego see 
on Epp. 1. 14. 40. 

verum. The constr. is ' tu poscis 
vilia, verum [poscis] dante minor,' 
' what you ask is worthless, but in 
asking it you humble yourself to the 
giver.' This (or ' verum es ') is the 
reading of all MSS. of authority, in- 
cluding all the Bland. Horace fre- 
quently begins a clause or sentence with 
' verum ' at the end of a line and after 
a stop : Sat. 1. 2. 92 ; Epp. 1. 1. 80, 2. 
2. 70, 106 ; A. P. 303. The alternative 
reading ' rerum' was introduced into the 
text by Lambinus from some of his MSS. 
It was accepted without comment by 
Bentl., and is given by Orelli, Dill 1 '. 
and Munro. ' Vilia rerum ' is then 
constructed as ' abdita rerum ' A. P. 49, 
'vanis rerum' Sat. 2. 2. 25, ' fictis 
rerum ' Sat. 2. 8. 83. Ritter points out 
that ' rerum ' is wrongly given for 
' verum ' by some MSS. in Epp. 2. 2. 
45 and 70. He writes ' verums ' for 
' verum es.' 

22. dante minor. 'However paltry 
the boon, you at once become the depen- 
dent of him who supplies it, for all 
your boast of independence.' 

nullius : possibly best taken (with 
Orelli) as a masc. ' in need of no man,' 
as suiting ' dante minor.' It is neut. in 
A. P. 324. 

23. color, as Sat. 2. 1. 60 'vitae 



Temptantem maiora, fere praesentibus aequum. 
Contra, quem duplici panno patientia velat, 
Mirabor, vitae via si conversa decebit. 
Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 
Ouidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca vadet, 
Personamque feret non inconcinnus utramque ; 
Alter Mileti textam cane peius et angui 
Vitabit chlamydem, morietur frigore si non 
Rettuleris pannum. Refer et sine vivat ineptus. 
Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes 
Attingit solium Iovis et caelestia temptat : 
Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 
Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit qui timuit ne non succederet. Esto! 

2 5 



24. temptantem: cp. v. 34; lifting 
his thoughts to. 

fere with aequum. Either in the 
sense of ' tolerably ' or of ' as a rule ' : 
see note on Sat. 1.3. 96. 

25. panno = patcei, a contemptuous 
term for the Tpifiaiv or coarse cloak of 
the philosophers. 

duplici, because the Cynics wore no 
undergarment ix iT " JV ) but doubled the 
cloak instead : so Juv. S. 13. 122 
' Stoica dogmata . . . A Cynicis tunica 
distantia,' i. e. by the presence or ab- 
sence of a tunic. 

patientia : cp. ' patienter' in v. 13 ; 
'endurance.' Cic. de Or. 3. 17 ' ab 
Antisthene, qui patientiam et duritiam 
in Socratico sermone' maxime adamaret, 

27. alter, Aristippus. Horace is 
following the traditional picture of him, 
cp. Diog. Laert. 2. 60 5:o irore 2t/jo- 
Twva, 01 5e TlKaTwva, itpbs olvtov elneiv 
2oi p.6vw deooTai /cal x^a/^Sa <popeiv Kal 

29. inconcinnus, 'awkwardly'; Epp. 
I. 18. 6. 

30. Mileti textam : cp. Virg. G. 

3. 306 ' quamvis Milesia magno Vellera 
mutentur Tyrios incocta rubores.' 

cane peius et angui, ' a dog or 
snake ' : see on Od. 3. 11. 49. The 
expression is doubtless proverbial. Both 
dog and snake were of unlucky omen 
to meet; see Od. 3. 27. 2 and 5. ' Peius 
vitabit' seems, as Wilkins says, an ex- 
tension of the use in ' peius timet ' Od. 

4. 9. 50. The MSS. vary between 

' angui ' and ' angue.' Priscian notices 
the use of ' angui ' in this place. 

32. ineptus. Notice how this word 
gives the final verdict on the impracti- 
cable Cynic and sets the writer free 
for his new approach to the subject. 

33-42. For the general purport of 
these lines see the analysis. Some irony 
is no doubt to be felt in the heroic tone 
of the commencement, and in the ap- 
parent reference in vv. 37, 38 to Horace's 
doctrine (set out in Epp. 1. 6) that men 
are to be measured not so much by their 
ideals as by the thoroughness with which 
they pursue them. 

33. res gerere, of warlike enter- 
prises. The reference is to Augustus ; 
his triumph B.c. 29 and the successes 
spoken of in Epp. 1. 12. 26 foll. Tibe- 
rius was associated in the latter, and it 
has been suggested that he is included 
in this reference, and that it is his favour 
especially which Scaeva is contemplated 
as seeking. 

34. Compare the expression of Od. 
3. 3. 10-12, 4. 2. 17, 18. ^ 

36. A Greek proverb ov iravTos dvSpbs 
es KoptvOov eaB' 6 tt\ovs, is quoted by 
Acr. Several explanations are given of 
the danger originally intended, the pre- 
valent one being that it meant ' Few 
have the long purse needed for the 
expensive vices of Corinth.' In any case 
the application here is quite general. 
' There are pleasures and dignities which 
are not for everyone.' 

37. The tone reminds us of the fami- 
liar story of Sir W. Raleigh : ' Fain 

LIB. I. EPIST. 17. 


Ouid, qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter? Atqui 

Hic est aut nusquam quod quaerimus. Hic onus horret, 

Ut parvis animis et parvo corpore maius : 40 

Hic subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 

Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. 

Coram rege suo de paupertate tacentes 

Plus poscente ferent ; distat sumasne pudenter 

An rapias. Atqui rerum caput hoc erat, hic fons. 45 

' Indotata mihi soror est, paupercula mater, 

Et fundus nec vendibilis nec pascere firmus,' 

Oui dicit, clamat, 'Victum date/ Succinit alter: 

would I climb, but that I fear to fall.' 
' If thy heart fail thee, do not climb 
at all.' 

ne non succederet : the impersonal 
and absolute use, as Cic. Or. 28. 98 ' si 
quando minus succedet.' 

esto : ' Well.' ' Perhaps he is right.' 
It is, in short, a repetition of vv. 6-10. 

38. 'Tell me, the man who has made 
his way there, in spite of the obstacles, 
think you, he has shown manly energy ? ' 
' Sedit ' (has stayed at home) and 
pervenit keep up the figure of v. 36. 

feeitne ; see on Epp. 1. 16.31. Both 
passages may be added to the instances 
collected by Kiihner on Cic. Tusc. D. 2. 
11. 26 of ' ne?' used where we rather 
expect ' nonne ? ' He points out that 
it is sometimes used, in a similar way, 
for 'num' ; the explanation in both cases 
being (as with apa for ap cv) that the 
question is purposely put as if it were 
an open one, with the effect (as in 
other cases of ironical Kitottjs ■) of giving 
stronger, not weaker, emphasis to the 
true nature of the answer expected. See 
also Heindorf on Sat. 2. 7. 61, and 
Mayor on Juv. S. 10. 28. Cp. also the use 
of 'ecquid sentis ? ' in Epp. 1. 18. 82. 

39. hic, sc. ' in viriliter faciendo.' 
quod quaerimus. He is speaking 

of the quest on which he supposes him- 
self and the readers of his Epistles to 
be engaged (see Epp. 1. 1. 24-26, etc), 
viz. for the true principle of life. 

41. aut virtus nomen : cp. Epp. 

I. 6. 31 'virtutem verba putas.' Horace 
seems to be arguing or playing on the 
etymology of ' virtus ' as he does in 
other places. Cp. notes on Epod. 15. 

II, 16. 39. ' What is "virtus" if it is 
not " viriliter facere," if it is not the 
quality of the " experiens vir " ? ' 

42. reete petit, ' is rightly seeking,' 

experiens vir, 6 Tretpwfievos (es Tpoiav 
neipajftevoi -qvdov 'Ax<u°i Theoc. 15. 61) ; 
cp. Cic. Clu. 8. 23 'vir fortis et ex- 
periens ' ; enterprising. But there is an 
emphasis here on  vir,' ' one who tries 
as a man should.' See note on v. 

43 foll. Horace turns abruptly to some 
practical precepts for keeping a patron's 
favour ; the two chosen must be intended 
to contrast satirically with Scaeva's pre- 
viously supposed scruples. 

rege suo. For ' rex ' of a patron 
cp. Epp. 1. 7. 37. Munro follows Bentl. 
in reading ' sua,' but on slight MS. 

45. atqui, etc. ' Yet this was the 
very fount and source of everything,' i.e. 
the very essence of the whole business 
with which we started was to get all you 

hoc goes back to ' plus poscente 
ferent,' the intervening words being 

erat. The impft. refers to the time 
when the motives of seeking a patron 
were considered, i. e. in vv. 11, 12. It 
is hardly idiomatic in the sense of the 
note on Od. 1. 37. 4. 

46. indotata. The father is dead 
and the brother feels it a disgrace that 
he cannot provide a dower. The edd. 
quote Plaut. Trin. 3. 2. 63. 

paupercula : the diminutive expresses 
pity, as ' misellus.' 

47. A farm which we can neither sell 
nor live by. For pascere firmus see 
App. 2. vol. 1. 

48. clamat, 'Victum date,' is like 
a common beggar ; the thought is kept 
up in the next line. 



' Et mihi ! ' Dividuo findctur munere quadra. 
Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet 
Plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque. 
Brundisium comes aut Surrentum ductus amoenum, 
Oui queritur salebras et acerbum frigus et imbres, 
Aut cistam effractam et subducta viatica plorat, 
Nota refert meretricis acumina, saepe catellam, 
Saepe periscelidem raptam sibi fientis, uti mox 
Nulla fides damnis verisque doloribus adsit. 
Nec semel irrisus triviis attollere curat 
Fracto crure planum, licet illi plurima manet 
Lacrima, per sanctum iuratus dicat Osirim : 
' Credite non ludo ; crudeles, tollite claudum.' 
' Quaere peregrinum,' vicinia rauca reclamat. 



49. et niihi ! I have followed K. 
and H. and Schiitz in their punctu- 
ation, which seems to have been that 
of both Acr. and Porph. If the 
whole line be made the cry of the second 
beggar there is a difficulty in the future 
tense, as there seems no point in the tone 
of command (cp. Epp. 1. 13. 2) which it 
conveys. With our reading, the inter- 
pretation of Acr. is substantially right, 
' dimidium accipiet, dum impudenter 
petendoetiamaliumad eadempetitionem 
accendit.' ' The gift will be divided 
and you will get your share ; but you 
might get more and that mor