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6d i-r. Jir 















1840. . 


1/BRAR\ ^ 

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..\ 1 


Priated by Whj.iam Ci.ow«s and Sons, 

Stamford Stre«t. ^j[^ 





The attempt to translate tlie Greatest Oration 
of the Greatest of Orators iuto a language so 
different in its frame and idiom from tliat noble 
tongue in which it was pronounced, had long 
appeared so hopeless, that, after intentions re- 
peatedly formed, the plan was for some years 

During the period of my retirement from 
Parliament after the general election in 1812, 
I had frequent communications upon this sub- 
ject with one of the best scholars and most 
acute, thougli severe, critics of his time, my 
lamented friend Lord Dudley ; and it was prin- 
cipally an argument of his that then turned nie 
aside from the project. When pressed M'ith the 
considerations which naturally suggested them- 
selves in favour of it — among others the example 
of Cicero, who had made the same experiment on 
the Latin language, — his answer was calculated 
to make me pause, from its appearance of sense 
and force. " Either," said he, "the tranelatioii is 


addressed to tliose who know tlie original, or to. 
those who do not. The former cannot want it ; 
the hitter cannot materially profit by it ; for no 
translation can give an adequate idea of the 

Subsequent reflection has served to remove 
the deep inij)re5sion which Lord Dudley's ai's^u- 
ment hud made. 

It must be considered, in the first place, thrt 
even to scholars the experiment is not without 
interest of trying how far the two languages 
can he used so as to render in the one the 
thoughts couched originally in the other ; and 
even to scholars the comparative trial of the 
structures of the two, their resemblances, their 
differences, and their contrasts, is very ints* 
resting. Then, if indeed this be not iucludod 
in the preceding observation, there can ttft' 
more accurate method be fallen upon for 
well apprehending the force and genius of 
both tongues than such a comparative trial. 
Many things are sure to be thus observed whirfi. 
had previously escaped our attention : nor is 
it to be doubted that the sense, as well as 
the diction, of the original, i§ much more 
thoroughly perceived and felt after such 
attempt. I can truly say in the present caM, 

ore 1 
an 1 



tbat although the exquisite original had been, 
for many long years, familiar to me io all its 
parts, most of which I knew by heart, yet I 
never felt its ineomparable beauties, both in the 
sul}StaDce and in the diction, until I made the 
attempt at transferring them into our Saxon 
tongue; and although there is far less benefit 
in this respect to be derived from reading the 
work, yet whoever shall, in perusing, compare 
it carefully with the original, can hardly fail to 
profit considerably, and to discover merits and 
peculiarities which had before escaped him. 
There is something in this process resembling 
the advantage we gain in relisliing the beauties 
of the ancient dramatists, from seeing their 
pieces performed instead of reading them. 
Many a scholar has felt how greatly his notions 
of Terence were improved by seeing a West- 
minster play — however well actjuainted he 
may have been witii the original by previous 
study. The examination of the Greek Orator's 
passages, with a view to their being delivered 
to an English audience, the consideration of 
the effects which they are calculated to produce 
upon such an assembly, and the I'eehng oi' their 
eiFectg as given in our mother tongue, is calcu- 
hited to produce somewhat of the same effect. 


The example of Cicero must here again be 
adverted to. No one could more thoroughly 
know the Greek than he did, hardly even the 
Athenians themselves. He had practised de- 
claiming in that language so much as to speak 
it with perfect ease. When he sent his History, 
written in Greek, to Posidoiiius at Rhodes, de- 
siring he would write one in purer Attic, that 
Rhetorician said that the perusal of it filled him 
with despair of being able to improve the diction. 
Nay, when Molo, a teacher of rhetoric at the 
same famous school, heard him declaim in 
Greek, he is said to have lamented the complete 
subjugation of his country, which must now 
yield the palm in Attic eloquence to the people 
whose arms had subdued hei-. Nothing, then, 
could have made the Great Roman undertake 
the task of translating the two Orations on the 
Crown, except the desire of trying an experi- 
ment such as we have been considering, pro- 
bably with some such views as have just been 
stated. The loss of his Translation (of which the 
Introduction only has reached us) is deeply to be 
lamented. But we may venture to affirm that 
the English language is much better adapted 
to the task here exacted of it than the Latin. 
It is far richer in roots and in idiom ; much 

^H better a 


better adapted than the dialect of a barbarous 
people to express abstract ideas and the other 
thoughts which the progress of civility and 
refinement gives birth to ; indeed in all respects 
except the want of flexion, it is better fitted to 
convey with closeness the sense of the Greek 
original. The complacency with which certain 
French artists have expressed a conviction that 
their language comes nearest to the Attic of 
any, should make us suspicious of our national 
partialities and slow to claim for our mother 
tongue any decisive superiority — for it shows 
how far prejudices will warp acute minds. 
Yet still there seems good ground for affirm- 
ing that the Englisli and German, and gene- 
rally the dialects of Saxon or Teutonic origin, 
when improved and corrected by judicious 
importations from the ancient tongues are, 
of all others, if not the nearest in point of re- 
semblance to the Greek, yet certainly the most 
capable of making its treasures accessible to 
those who are denied access to the original. 
Even against the superiority of the Latin in 
its conjugations and declensions (its greatest 
though not its only resemblance with the Greek) 
we may set off its want of articles ; and how far 
its similar flexion has aided the work of transia- 


tion may be seen by its failure where the ex- 
quisite diction of the Attic Oi-ators Wiis to be 
imitated. The famous passage in the Hapa- 
w^eir^sia of jEschines (rauTOt sxckttui wourr,, 
&c.) which Cicero has traashited in the Ora- 
tion against L. Piso, (" Hts flammce ! Ha 
faces!" &c.,) being one where the merit lay 
in the seiise^ is far better given by him than 
either he himself has succeeded when parody- 
ing the beautiful climax in the tts^i fs^avou 
(oux Eurov fisv raiiTot, aux e-ypai^a. (is, &c.) or 
Quinctilian when professing to translate it, the 
exquisite diction being here the great beauty. 
In truth the similar flexion of the L;itin carries 
us but a small way towards approaching the 
Greek, It has no articles, and so far, is inferior 
to the English ; and as for particles, the Roman 
artists and ourselves are alike deticient in that 
great resource, as the equally signal failure of 
both in attempting the famous passage just 
mentioned may prove, the use of the particles 
being the source of the delicacy of the diction in 
that passage, and even of its perfectly luminous 
perspicuity, notwithstanding its extreme conci- 
sion. The tenses which are peculiarly Greek, to- 
gether with the particles, are certainly the great 
instruments by which such nice distinctions can 

be maintained, and such delicate shades of 
meaning expressed; and in both these particu- 
lars the Lixtin and English are alike at fault. 
As for the rhythm, there is assuredly no advan- 
tage in the Liitin over our own tongue. The 
English is as sonorous; it is more musical ; it 
is more majestic ; it is more various. At an 
immeasurable distance in all these respects 
from the Greek, our music is on the whole 
luperior to the Roman. 
It is, however, necessary here to remark that, 
I oithe scheme of Cicero's work, we can only form 
I an idea from the few sentences of the Introduc- 
tion which describe it very generally ; and that 
it appears from these to have been anything 
rather than a plan of literal or close translation. 
He seems to have set himself the task not of say- 
in Latin what Demosthenes had said in 
. Greek, but of speaking in Latin as Demosthenes 
\ would have done had he been a Roman and not 
an Attic orator. This may certainly iucreatie 
our regrets for tlie work, but it by no means 
shows that the experiment on the powers of the 
I languages was made. If on the other hand the 
plan was (as is barely possible) to show how 
I Cicero himself, with his taste, his habits of com- 
l position, liis turn of thought, would have treated 

the same topics, all likeness to the original must 
liave been lost, and we have little to regret in 
the work never having reached us; for in that 
case we have only lost one more Ciceronian 
oration . 

Another object of translation, and which has 
by no means been lost sight of in the present 
work, is to assist the student of the Greek lan- 
guage as well as the student of the rhetorical 
art. It is chiefly in this point of view that 
the learned Master of Rugby School (now 
flourishing beyond all former example under 
his auspices) has condescended to favour the 
undertaking; and the advice and assistance 
which I have received from him during the pro- 
gress of my labours, demand my grateful ac- 
knowledgments. With the exception of a few 
pages, the whole translation and notes have been 
submitted to Dr. Arnold; and I have in almost 
every instance adopted his views of the text 
when they differed from my own. If however 
anything remains which may be supposed er- 
roneous, I desire it to be assumed either that 
the fault is in my having retained my own 
opinion, or that the passage was part of the few 
pages which he happened not to see. 

It remains to mention the third object of this 


work — the conveying to persons unacquainted 
with the original some notion of its innume- 
rable and transcendent beauties. When one of 
the first scholars of the age, and the person of 
all I have ever known the most familiar with 
the Greek orators, urged me to undertake, or 
rather to complete the present work, (if I were 
to add also, the first statesman of his age, I 
should be spared the necessity of naming I^ord 
Wellesley,) he was certEunly misled by his 
friendly partiality of many years standing to 
think far more favourably of my fitness for the 
task than could be justified by the specimens 
which he had seen in the translation of the 
Chersonese Oration, puljlished a year or two ago* 
But with his advice there coincided the strong 
desire of some much esteemed friends, admirable 
judges of composition and well versed in Eng- 
lish oratory, to taste the streams which flow in 
such force from the perennial fountain of Attic 
eloquence, as near the well-head as their igno- 
rance of the language would suffer them to ap- 
proach. With them the experiment has prove(l 
eminently successful. They felt the wonderfxil 
power not only of the argument, but of the 

• Ajipendis to DiasertHtiou on Ancient Eloiuence. 
Speeclies, vol. iv. 


richly crowded statement, and of the noble 
declaraatioB, in a manner which clearly proved 
that the translation had preserved a consider- 
able portion of the original. The music and 
the diction of course escaped ; but upon the 
whole, this trial shewed in a very satisfac- 
tory manner that, at the least, whoever was 
accustomed to oratory would gain by perusing 
the translation some idea of the Demosthenean 
manner. I have been encouraged by another 
friend well acquainted with both ancient and 
modern oratory, and himself a most distin- 
guished speaker,* to believe that even on per- 
sons little versed in the arts of composition, the 
closeness, the vigour, the rapidity of the 
original are calculated, though only " seen 
as in a glass darkly," to produce a great 
effect. It was a remark of this excellent and 
experienced judge, on reading some of the notes 
where particular passages are pointed out as 
well adapted to succeed in our Senitte, that 
the whole oration is eminently of liiiit descrip- 
tion ; and therein it assuredly differs [irodigiously 
from almost all the compositions oi Ciceio."!" 

" Lord Ljniliiiirst. 

t My learned friend alao strongly urged me to under- 
take a task which I had lung been contempktiii^, namely. 

B Sucli 



Sucli were the impressions iiiuler u'liich this 
work has leen persevered in, and such the encou- 
ragements which have enabled me to bear up 
against the innumerable difficulties of the task. 
Among these difficulties, it certainly would only 
be a becoming ti'ibute to my predecessors were 
I to enumerate either their success or their 
failure. But, with every disposition to fol- 
low so customary a ju-actice, I really cannot 
honestly bring myself to do so, especially con- 
sidering the Notes with which I have been 
obliged to accompany the text. The reason of 
this must now be shortly explained. 

No one can deny a great knowledge of the 
Greek language to such men as Leland, and 
Francis, and Cesarotti and Millot;* nor indeed is 
Dawson in this respect at all deficient; while 
an Imitation of the Great Omtion, or some other ancient piece 
ufler the maoner of Drjdeii'saud Pope's Poetical Imitations, 
Tlie delicacy of introducing [larallel political topics, fertile 
as our times are of hucIi, has hitherto restrained me. 

• His translation will stand n comiinrison with any other ; 
it ia indeed, in many reapecta, dcaerving of mnch nduiiru- 
tion ; and as far ua a foreigner may judge, it atanda very 
much out from the common level of Italian prose. The 
Abale's taste, however, isoften at fault. What can exceed 
the outrage of adding a whole figure to the Oath passage, 
aad making the warriors '" coyer land and sea with their 
bodies?" as if Demosthenes wanted such a tro|je — as if 
the passage itself were not figurative enough 1 


Wolff and Taylor must be admitted to have beeu 
among the most perfect masters of it. Tliat botli 
Leland and Francis, too, had very considerable 
power over the English language it would be 
absurd to deny ; many passages have been ren- 
dered by both with success, some with great 
felicity. But one qualification for this task all 
those translators equally wanted ; none of them 
had any practical experience of oratory ; none 
of them had the habit of addressing popular 
assemblies, or even judicial bodies ; none of theni 
were orators either accidentally or by profession. 
If Pope had been ever so good a Greek scholar, 
and no poet, his Homer might have borne a 
nearer resemblance to the original, but it would 
have been the resemblance of prose to poetry. 
Had Dryden only written his admirable Pre- 
faces and Introductions, works that might have 
placed him in the first rank of English classics 
even if all his immortal verse had perished, he 
never would have given us that masterpiece of 
poetical translation, — his fragment of Lucretius. 
It could only be a great poet, too, who might 
attempt to supply Pope's deficiencies, and add 
to English poetry the Homeric sense and style, 
as Cowper has done with a success unaccount- 
ably overlooked, and well calculated to alarm 


any translator who relies upon his knowledge of 
Greek and his power over English, for the accom- 
plishment of a literal version. Now those who 
have rendered Demosthenes caine to the task as 
Pope, Dryden, and Cowper would have done had 
they never written any of the poems on which 
their fame is built. They were Greek scholars, 
and not English orators ; they knew the meaning 
of the one tongue, they did not know the resources 
of the other ; they could understand in what 
manner Demosthenes affected an Attic audience, 
but only by reading Demosthenes himself; they 
had no knowledge of the manner in which an 
English audience was to be affected, nor 
indeed hatl they a practical knowledge liow any 
audience was to be moved or controuled. Nay 
more, they not only were themselves no orators, 
but they had in all probability very little experi- 
ence of oratory as auditors. Their lives had been 
passed in colleges or schools where, if rhetoric 
is taught at all, there is a very great chance 
of something exceedingly unlike real eloquence 
being learned — possibly something the reverse 
of eloquence — for the true schools of oratory are 
the Senate, the Forum, the popular assembly. 
Their lives had not been passed in hearing the 
Erskine's and Currau's of the age, or in listen- 


ing to Pitt and Fox, and Grattan, and Wind- 
Iiain, and Canning. It was almost as if instead 
of Pope, and Monti, and Dryden, and Covvper 
attempting to transfuse Homer into English or 
Italian song, there had stood forward some one 
well acquainted with the Greek, a master of the 
Ionic and the Doric dialects, but who never had 
either written a couplet nor read a line of poetry 
from the time of Chaucer and Dante to his own 
age. Such a one might be of excellent use in 
helping a poet as Pope and Monti were holpen 
by men who knew Greek and had not the gilt 
of song; but their verse would never have found 
a patient reader. It would be an exaggeration 
to say that the translators of Demosthenes have 
fared as ill as these would liave fared — yet it is 
quite certain that what was altogether iuevitiihle 
has happened to them — their versions betray at 
every step their imperfect acquaintance with the 
art of oratory ; and whoever has been accus- 
tomed to address an audience or even to pass 
his time in hearing great debates, would have 
at once rejected many of the turns of expression 
adopted hy them, and have put the sense in 
another form quite as a matter of course. 

It ia a further consequence of the same defi- 
ciency, though not a necessary consequence. 



that these translators have been ignorant of the 
resources of the language in whicli they under- 
took to write. This has led, in all the modern 
tongues, in none more than our own, to the most 
mischievous practice into which a translator can 
fall — that of paraphrase and circumlocution — 
and still more that of preferring a foreign or 
roundabout turn of expression to the pure and 
racy and vigorous English idiom — tlie strong 
and natural Saxon dialect never to be departed 
from without the most urgent necessity or the 
greatest temptation. Of this so many examples 
occur in the course of the present work, that it 
would only be a superfluous repetition of the 
remarks containefl in the Notes, were any ex- 
amples to be given here. 

The present translation professes to be as 
close as it is possible to make it without aban- 
doning the peculiar idiom of the language in 
which it is written. How far any success has 
attended an attempt the extreme difficulty of 
which is most freely confessed as it has been 
most painfully felt, it is no business of mine 
even to form a conjecture. 

It remains to acknowledge the great kind- 
ness of my old and valued friend, Thomas 
Campbell, who readily complied with my re- 


quest that he would translate into English 
verse (of which he is so renowned a master) 
the Epitaph quoted by Demosthenes towards the 
close of the Oration. That a poet only could hope 
to succeed in this attempt has already, in dis- 
cussing another matter, t)een incidentally observed 
— that such a poet was certain to succeed needs 
hardly be added. But one who has the highest 
hereditary titles both to Eloquence and to Poetry 
has ventured to suggest an alteration iu one or 
two even of Campbell's verses, and with a suc- 
cess which he himself is the first to acknowledge. 
Since the Notes were printed I have had 
occasion to peruse a French Translation which, 
had I before seen it, would really have prevented 
some remarks upon the paraplu-ase of Dawson 
and others. Thus, " rwv ufj-eTSfiWv omrwv ^upiv 
jr^o(roi^sj?isTi. Vouz baisez les mains avides qui 
vous lachent comnie a regret quelque part de 
votre propre subsistence," Again, " oi 3* sv 
TToTiEi xfuSstp^cLvres ^l^o-s etrayoixyi siri Taura, 
xat TtSao-ffEuouo-i ^Ei^oijSstj oturoig ffoiouvTSS- 
Comme des lions qu'on grille dans leur cage, 
lis vous enferment dans vos murs ; ils vous 
tendent a manger pour vous caresser, vous appri- 
voiser, vous faire dociles a leur main." As- 
suredly no English master of paraphrase ever 


went so far as to lend a cage of iions to Demo- 
sthenes for rhetorical uses. Writers of this class 
must be supposed to consider the old Greek a 
far worse orator than themselves. 

The Editions which liave chiefly been used in 
executing this work are those of Reiske, Bekker, 
and Stock ; but recourse has occasionally been 
had to Hervagius, to Schafer's collection, and 
to the very copious notes of Mr. Dobson's 
edition, which is of great value, as contain- 
ing almost ail the commentaries of tlie prior 
editions. The Greek is printed from Bekker, 
but with a copious selection of Various readings 
from Wolff, Taylor, Reiskcj and other commen- 
tators. In preferring Bekker the advice of Dr. 
Arnold has been followed; altliough I own my 
partiality for Reiske, ivhom I generally use. His 
text, beside being defective in the periods and 
paragraphs, has the great imperfection of loose 
emendation, and often enfeebles the original by 
adding, without authority, explanatory words ; 
but his notes, and especially his Apparatu;t 
Critici, are most convenient, from the mass of 
I information which they bring together. Shall I 
■ also acknowledge the interest which one natur- 
ally takes in honest J. J. Reiske's zeal for the 



Attic ; his truly Germanic (levotion to liis great 
work ; his abomination (horrcAco refcrcnH .') 
of all translations except his own Gei-man 
one; his gratitude to his fan helpmate for her 
assistance (and indeed foi her not wholly orna- 
mental portrait) ; his innocent rage against pe- 
riodical critics ;* his yet more simple punish- 
ment of them, at his own expense, by affirming; 
that he knows many more errors in his work 
than they ever have found out ;t his fury against 
the degeneracy of an age that prefers interests 
and pleasures to classical studies 1\ The supe- 
riority of Bekker's text is, however, admitted. 

* Umbratici illi, elatebris. ut latroncs saltibue iiisidenles, 
tela ill prffitereiinleB cnnjicieotea. Ejuamodi libelli menBtnii 
SHtit buf^uina diabiili, vel ErynneoB, aut Bellonas, ut ve- 
tere» loquebantur, ejusque ululatum euni audieris el suspi- 
ceris quia inflarit, uiidc simultates eL runteiitiuncs 

■f Meb'iia egomet ipse novi meaj iiiterpretatiouis nmvoa 
quam illi omnea qui earn carpserunt. Sed meliorem pro- 
I'ecto qttivis omuiuia condat, ucque cuudct. 

X Bene de en seculo nunquam eperavi quod uaa novi 
ventrt, ganeiB, luxui, libidinlbue. cupiditati, et nvaritiie 
deditum, in eqiios, in cancH, in scorta, in aleam, in can- 
trices, in BCenicos, in nugas, in res quasque turpes, et cor- 
pori famreqiie, et rei deniqae fumiliari detrimeutOBaa fu- 
riose snas npea prodigi, in rea auteni diviaaa humanaaqae 
pTfeclaras public&que aalutares, ]iatrice glarioaas, et ad om- 
n memoriam aplendidna futuTaa vel nbolum erogare re- 
furmidare tanquam ai in pnceum abjicianl." 


^^'hoever gocsthrougii t!ie ilifftrent editions, as 
I have been qliligeil to do, in oi-der to select tlie 
Vdrious reiidings, will tiiid CDnstaut re.ison to 
admire the unerring jiidgnieut with which be iias 
steered his course, always fixing on the best read- 
ing, and rarely, If ever, indulging in conjectures 
of liis own. Indeed, Dr. Arnold's authority 
would have decided on the preference due to his 
text, if any doubt had remained upon the merits. 
But the paragraphs are in the present edition 
differently cast from those of any other, and this 
change has been made upon much consideration. 
Some have tbougbt that any division of para- 
graphs is inconsistent with the nature of a 
spoken discourse; and accordingly Reiske makes 
no new lines at all, not even on the transition 
from the documents to the speech, only marking 
the paragraphs in the other editions with a t,§, 
or t§> referring to the Augustan aud another MS. 
But pauses are rather more natural in spoken 
than iu written compositions ; indeed they are 
necessary to the speaker far more tiian to tiie 

In the present edition, the Various readings 
have been carefully selected ; but only material 
variations have been noted. Generally, all 
those have been omitted where the only differ- 


ence relates to the accents or the cuTuinflex, and 
which may rather he reckoned tyjiographical 
than belonging to the text. Readings too have 
been altogether rejected which were plainly 
errors, la whatever accident they may have 
originated. Thus, in the celebrated Oath, 
ijjuapTiTs and iJfta^TijxaTs, are both given ; hut 
to consider oi>8' h7\tos (which has actually been 
cited from one MS,) as a various reading for 
oirtug, would be ridiculous, as it plainly destroys 
at a blow the whole force of the passage. So 
in the same famous passage, Eflaofioto-EW for eSw^sv, 
appears in three MSS., and would be utterly in- 
admissible if it were in three hundred. The like 
may be said of 8r,fio(r(ot for £/*oia>s in the same 
sentence ; and of such variations in other 
places, as lpcovr,£ aurxtiirews for (piovatrxiag ; rga- 
yixog for auTOT^ayixog ; art^r^o'et for ouSsij stj 
fj-itrsi, jTOia ^ouXv] for toio. ^sT^tj, &c. To have 
dignified such absurd conjectures, or mani- 
fest blunders, with the title (>f Various readings 
would have been preposterous. It is only to be 
feared that notwithstanding the care taken to 
avoid it, some readings may have found admis- 
sion, against which better scholars would have 
shut the door upon the same obvious principle. 
It is right to add that Bekker's text, except 


as to the division of paragraphs, having been 
followed, it has not been deemed necessary to 
note every instance in which it differs from the 

The beautiful edition of Demosthenes' Public 
Orations, by Bishop Stock, does great honour 
to Trinity College, Dublin. The type is ad- 
mirable, and the size of the work very conve- 
nient. It is much to be wished that the '^ Irish 
Sister" would oftener break through tliose 
'* silent" ha))its which have almost become a 
second nature. 












Page 19 line 11, for " doing" read '^ acting. ^^ 
ib. „ ib. for " work" read "paW." 

ib. for " Eurybatus " read ** EuryhatesV* 
1, for " willingly " read " fain.^^ 
10, before "however" dele (,). 
18, after " Coronation *' insert *' Chkrso- 

[nesitan Decree." 
„ 154 „ 1 for ** THANKSGIVINGS " read " sacri- 

„ ISl „ 9, for "while" read " whereas,*' 

„ 183 „ 15, for " disr^ard" read " disregarding,'* 

„ 187 „ 21, for " danger " read " working^ 

„ 1 97 „ 8, after " we " insert " were.* 

„ 199 ., 20, for " formed " read " informed.'' 

,,209 „ 1, omit'SVo." 

,j ib. „ 2, for? put " a pmod." \ 

,. 216 ,, 3, for " them " read " themselves,*' 

,, ib. „ 7 from bottom for '* untolerating " read 

[" untotteringV 

In pp. 22. 38, 39. 57, 58. 7 1 . 78, instead " of the Paeanian 
tribe, Cothocidian tribe," &c., put " the Pseanian, the Cotho- 
cidian, &c." — Leland and others are clearly wrong in con- 
founding the country districts and towns with tribes. 

* A phrase used to signify the work or part of a traitor, 
from Eury bates of Ephesus, who betrayed his trust to 




Let me begin, Men of Athens, by imploring of 
all the Heavenly Powers that the same kindly 
sentiments which I have throughout my public 
life cherished towards this country and each 
of yon, may now by you be shown towards me 
in the present contest! Next I beseech them 
10 grant, what so nearly concerns yourselves, 
your religion, and your reputation,* that you 
may not take council of my adversary touching 
the course to be pursued in hearing my defence 
— that would indeed he hard ! — but that you may 
regard the laws and your oaths, which, among 
so many other just rules, lay down this, — that 
both sides shall equally be heard ! Nor does this 
merely import that uo one shall be prejudged, 
or tiiat equal favour shall be extended to both 
parties; it also impliet^ that each antagonist shall 
have free scope in pursuing whatever method and 
line of defence he may be pleased to prefer,-}- , 
• JoSlc 18 uot glory here, but honuur— character — repu- 

f wc liejSovKfiTai xai TTfjoiipJirai, — Theee words import tlie 
uiinOBt freedom of choice, for whatever reasun or from what- 
ever kind of inclination. 

^_ Upon the present occasion, Athenians, as in 
many things, so especially in two of great mo- 
ment, ^schines has the advantage of me. One 
is, that ive have not the same interests at staise ; 
it is by no means the same thing for me to 
forfeit your esteem, and for him to fail in his 
Impeacliment. That to me indeed — But I 
would fain not take so gloomy* a view in the 
outset. — Yet he certainly brings his charge, an 
unprovoked volunteer. -f- My other disadvantage 
is, that all men are naturally prone to take plea- 
sure in listening to invective and accusation, and 
to be disgusted I with those who praise them- 
selves. VTo him, therefore, falls the part which 

• SuffX£p£e. — Francia and Dawson (» more accurate 
echolar) render this as "inauapiciouB," and even Wolff and 
Leiand have it "ominouB." But this seems on unautho- 
rised vcraion. The word means calamitovis — vexatious 
— liierally, unhandy or difficult, and may here be gloomy. 

t fK iripiovmac haa occupied the comment a tors, and one 
(Ulpian) refers it to bribes received from Philip, (taking 
■wtpiovma as abundance,) out of which the fine, pro fatso 
clamore, might he paid. It seems to mean plainly enough 
ex abwidaiiii — gratuitous — uncalled for — the act of a 
volunteer in bringing hia charge — that which, because he 
attampta without any necessity, he may fail in without any 
elceith. Leland is certainly wrong here in his periphrastic 
version : he connects ti.-, &c. with the a/iraawTrrimQ, and givea 
it, "Sensible as 1 must beof this my adversary's advantage." 

X a^fBofiai may be rendered either by impatieuce, with 
Leland, or by annoyance, or disgusl. 


ministers to your gratification, while to me there 
is only left that wliicli, I may almost say, is dis- 
tasteful to all. And* yet, if from such appre- 
hensions I were to avoid the subject of my own 
conduct, I should appear to be witliout defence 
agfunst his charges, and witliout proof that my 
honoui's were well earned ; although I cannot go 
over the ground of my councils and my mea- 
sures without necessarily speaking oftentimes of 
myself This, therefore, I shall endeavour to 
do with all moderation ; while the blame of my 

■ dwelling on topics indispensable to my defence 
must justly rest upon him who has Instituted an 
Impeachment of such a kind. 

5' But at least I think I may reckon upon all 
of you, my judges, admitting that this question 
concerns me as much as Ctesiphon, and justifies 
OD my part an equal anxiety ;t for to be stripped 
of any possession, and more especially by an 

* lielaad unaccountably omitE the k^v (uv, and thus not 
only loBee all connesiou between the two aenleiiccB, but spoils 
the fine argument conveyed by them, He is also wrong in 
inBerting the worilB of contradistinctiou "on the other 
hand," for the clause that follows is not contradiBtinj^uished, 
but Bgreeti. 

t airoviri ia much more than " attention," (Leland) which 
would be exceedingly feeble to paint the feelings of Clesiphon 
and DemoetheneB. It ib a word of much intension — it is 
ardour — zeal — ansiety, from BirtvSui, to preaa forward, to 
make haste, 

enemy, is grievous and hard to bear; but worst 
of all tbiis to lose your confidence and esteem, 
of all possessions the most precious. 
7 Such, then, being my stake in this cause, I 
conjure and implore* of you all alike, to give 
ear to my defence against these Charges, with 
that impartiality which tlie laws enjoin — those 
laws first given by Solon, one as friendly towards 
you as he was to all popular rights — ^laws which 
he fixed, not only by engraving them on brazen 
tables, but by the sanction of the oaths you take 
when sitting in judgment, 1 not, I verily believe, 
from any distrust of you, but because he perceived 
that the accuser being armed with the advantage 
of speaking first, the accused can have no chance 
of resisting his charges and invectives, unless 
every one of you, his judges, keeping the oath 
sworn before God, shall receive with favour the 
• A.B ifthe Greek a£iu kqi Scofiai wayraii' bfuiiaiQ vfiuiy, 
were not strong enough, Francis is pleased thus to Bpin the 
words out into paraphrase, — " I with equal earne»LueK3 
demand from your integrity and implore from your com- 
pasBion." The "equal" is not in the original applied to a^tui 
and Sfo^ni, but to the audience, irarriitv. Ita^iiubeadeinand 
of justice as contradistinguished from begging a. favour, 
"require" would serve that meaning; but the distinction is 
groundless ; the words answer nearly to the Latin, oro et 
obsecro, or oro alque obtestor ; and Francis seems merely to 
have been led away by love of paraphrase, and not to have 
any such nicety in view, though certainly Wolff had taken 
the antithesiB before him. 

defence which comes last, and lending an equal 
and a like ear to both parties, shall thus make 
up your mind upon the whole of the case.* 
% But on this day, when I am about to render 
up an account, as it should seem, of my whole 
life, both public and private, I would again, as 
in the outset, implore the Gods, and in your 
presence pour out to them my supplications, 
first to grant me at your hands the same kind- 
ness in this conflict which I have ever borne 
towards our country and all of you; and next, 
that they may incline you all to pronounce 
upon this Impeachment the decision which shall 
beat consult the glory of the state and the re- 
ligious obligations of each individual judge !t 

• TranslflUirB have suffered to escape tliem the refine- 
ment of thia commentary and gloss on Solon's law, and 
its application to i's caBe, They make him only ask for 
justice. So he does, and no more, upon the whole ; but he 
asks for it in a peculiar manner ; he begins by asking more 
at first in order that justice may be done on the whole ; he 
desires that, in order to balance the advantage of the First 
Word, he siiould be heard with some portion of extra favour, 
and tliat by this meanu, both parties being placed on an 
equal footing, justice should then on the whole be done 
between them by a fair examination of the entire merits 
of themestion. 

t Tie impressive earnestness which this prayer derives 
from its repetition so soon after it had been first offered up 
is hardly be pointed out. la particular passages of deep 
los the same eSect is sometimes produced with succesH, 


MflS ^Bchines had confined his charges to the 
matter in question, I too would at once have 
proceeded to discuss, in my own defence, tlie 
proposed Decree.* But since he has chosen 
to employ no small portion of his speech in 
bringing forward other matters, and chiefly in 
order falsely to slander me, I hold it at once 
necessary and just, that I should begin by 
shortly adverting to those points, lest any of 
you, Athenians, led away by such extraneous 
topics, should lend an unfavourable ear to my 
defence in the cause itself.f 
\o To all his invectives, then, and the calumnies 
cast upon my private lifej hear my honest and 
plain reply. If you know me to be such as 

by repeating the same words without any variation, uuIbbb 
in (he tone of the delivery. 

* Tliia passage showa the difhculty which often arises of 
giving the entire meaning of the original in few words. ivOvs 
av oxtXoyoufHi- irtpi, file, denotes the proceeding straight- 
way to discuss the Decree, but to discuss it defensively. 

t Tile great skill of this movement, by which he at 
once takes up his position on his own ground, and there 
Aghts the battle, instead of 6ghting it on the very disad- 
vantageous ground chosen by his enemy (viz. the legal 
point of an honour having been conferred on a public 
accountant before audit), is worthy of especinl observation. 
Napoleon's movementat Wagram resembled this, and was at- 
tended with equal success. The Austrianshad been preparing 
for weeks to fight on one ground ; he made a sudden and 
unexpected march which let him fight on another. 

he has described — and I have never lived any 
where but among you — then let nie not be 
suffered to utter a word, be the merits of my 
administration ever so perfect, but rise up this 
instant and condeiiiu me ! * If, on the con- 
trary, you know and believe that I am far 
better than Ihm. and sprung from better men ; Mk 
that I and mine are in no way inferior to any 
others of moderate pretensions, (I would speak 
without offence,) — then give him no credit for his 
other statements, which are all manifestly fic- 
tions of the same mould.f but continue to me 
henceforth the same confidence which you have 

' Thie magnificent appeal can be rendered with great 
cloEeucBg if Che force of our Saxon tongue be attended to 
and the Greek espreasions not lust sight of or diluted. Of 
this Francia eeema to have been little sensible, ^heo, while 
reading lort, you are conscious, he translates uTrtpeuTrtTciXi- 
Tivfoii (ra Koiva) " my administration may have been un- 
blameable, and even meritorious." It is a word of great 
inteaBiyeness, meaning the utmost possible success or merit 
in administration. Dawson is better, if prolix, " though 
I had been the best public minister that ever was amongst 
you," Leland, "though my pubhck administration muy 
h&ve hod the most traiiscendant merit." 

t '0/ioiue (irXurrfro. This la literal and not paraphras- 
tical ; the real and original sense of irXaxToi or -KXaaabi being, 
to form aa a potter does his clay. We have borrowed from 
the Greek root oar fine woril, plastic ; and it baa not lost its 
original meaning. Stock, when he puts similiter m italics, 
appears to liiive rejected o/ioiuig from the text, to which it 
8 plainly quite essential. 

so often heretofore steadily shown. rt But you, 
.^chines, with all your crafty malice, have 
lieen simple enough* to believe, in good sooth, 
that I should turn away from the subject of 
my conduct and my policy, in order to deal with 
your calumnies. I shall do no such thing ; I 
shall show no such infatuation ; I shall proceed 
instantly to the most sifting discussionf of those 
measures which you have been distorting! ^^^ 
running down ; and afterwards I shall advert 
to the ribaldry § you have so shamelessly (| 
poured forth, if indeed there be any wish to 
hear that exposed. 
/V The crimes laid to my charge are many and 
' grave ; they are such as the laws visit with 

* Touro vavTiXus twjflec dnjAije — "Thifl you have alto- 
gether simply, and in good Booth, believed." The meaning 
is clearly " you have in good sooth been simple enough to 
believe," or " have rocked yourself into a belief." Tlie eense 
cannot be given without some circumlocution; ramtiOrji, 
being put in contrast to this simplicity, muat mean more 
than malice: it is malice in the legal sense — cunning spite. 

+ ESfToiTw must mean more than irairui, which is to sift. 

I Kareiffucou, lie about, SiajiaWcs, accuse. 

§ no/iir£tac, "ribaldry," is literal; the phrase being the 
kind of scurrility poured out on the stage, in the Thespian 
carts. El' raic Tro/iirais. 

\\ avaihriv or ai'tSiji'? is the question with some com- 
mentators. Wolff holds clearly against ayaiSi)v, V. g. ayaiSus, 
but Ulpian is as clear for it; and Reiake and Taylor both 
prefer it. 

r both 


heavy, nay with the severest punishments. But 
the institution of this Impeachment is marked 
with the spite and scurriiity of a person; 
enemy, with defamation, foul slander of 
my character, and everything of the kind.* 
Then such offences as I am accused off and 

" txOpov here must have " personal '' enemy to mark it; 
mere enemy is not enough to render the sense. irptnrTjXakicr- 
fioc ia more than slander — it is literally throwing dirt against 
one. Reiske changes ofiou into tfiov, correcting the text 
happily. The Trnt™ ra raiavra, here BB 60 often used hy A, 
and gathering its value from vehement enunciation, must 
be allowed to add nothing to the force, taut rather to weaken 
the effect, of the preceding passage. Tte sonorous quaUty 
possibly saved it in ihe Greek's delivery, 

t Tbiv jitVTOt Ka-myofiniii-, &c. This period, being appa- 
rently little more than a repetition of what had been said 
the sentence but one before, has been the subject of much 
commcDtary ; and most scholars seem disposed to consider 
the lest as corrupt, the rather apparently from the sentence 
immediately after on yap n^oiptiffOQi, seeming not itself to be 
very clear or significant. Taylor is very elaborate upon this 
altogether, and makes a bold emendation, exiolled by 
Francis as the happiest in bis whole work, but wholly 
misdescribed by him, as merely " a judicious arrangement 
of the members of the sentence;" whereas, beside transposing 
the members so as to make the invocation, ovri /la roue 
Stouc. imraedifltely follow the description of jEsehines' per- 
sonality, and apply to it, Taylor leaves out altogether the 
passage beginning raiy ^ieitoi, as if it had been a mere inter- 
potation. His defence of the transposition, by referring to a 
like curious collocation, in C. Nepos' Life of Hannibal, and 
which he corrects, leaves this omission wholly undefended. 


Httiicked for, the state really has not tli 
of punishing with adequate severity, 
thing like it, if the charge." were trueJANo 

Lambrinua transposes without omitting, and both these com- 
ineiitatora tranapoHe aj;aiii at the mention of Ctesiphon, im- 
mediately after the allusion to the yuH'pii irnpai/ofiuv, carrying 
that sentence to the ead of the whole passage, after rovroyi. 
There is no ead of such licences as thesej and they are 
wholly unwarranted by any of the Codices. It is to be ob- 
Ecrved that Belake makes not even a remark on the pas- 
sa^jje ; and Hervagius has it in the same form. But is the 
seuae imperfect in itaelf ? Is there a useless repetition ? Is 
there a want of connexion ? First it may be remarked that 
there are two senses of the senteuee, w yap a(paipua6ai ; 
one is the sense given in the text, and which seems to agree 
with the whole of the charge, both in the previous portion 
of the exordium and in this place, viz., that, by delaying his 
accusation &a long after the facts, as well as by attempting 
to hamper hiia in his defence, as already complained of, 
^schines hud deprived him of a hearing — and theu that 
he had done so through malicious mutives and personal spite. 
This fits perfectly well with the exclamation that immediately 
foilows; for to he sure it is the greatest wickedness which 
could be imputed to an accuser. To this sense Lamhrinua 
inclines apparently in his version. The other version is, 
that he is only admitting jTIschines' right to impeach hi 
provided he but dues it with fairness, but contending th 
this right must not be abused to purposes of spite, making the 
TOVTo woieiv apply to the TpoatKdiiy koi Xoyou rvx^iy, and 
to the atpaipiiirdni. It must be admitted that the connecting 
words, ouS' tr, suit the former less than the latter 

it either is quite consistent with the general cc 
with the exclamation being supposed to follow thi 

means I 

[■ any- 1 

^o one I 

:ach turn I 

ling that 

iking the i 

nnecting I 

ought on any account to be debarred of access 
to the people, or restrained in freedom of 


immediately, and uot to belong to the former one, as 
Taylor would have it. But the error of Taylor and those 
who follow him is in supposing that Che suhstantive to 
which the verb and the preposition in the disputed sentence, 
run' juivroi, apply, is the some with the substantive in the 
sentence but one before, and therefore that there is a re- 
petition. Now there is no repetition, for two reasons ; — 

1. The proposition is different ; the first sentence, ra ficv ovv, 
affirms that the many heavy charges brought against him are 
severely puuiafaable by the laws ; the proposition in the 
subsequent sentence, ruiy fuvroi, affirms that the laws do 
not adequately punish the oflfenccs to which it refers. 
These are manifestly different propoaitiona, and one is as- 
tonished at Taylor's triumphant esclaination, after putting 
the two side by aide in parallel columns — " Conferas, Iru- 
tines, metiaris, esculias, excrucies, quidvis fac pericuU" — 
you will find nothing in the second that was not in the first. 

2. The substantives referred to, the things respectiug which 
the laws are said to take the severest cognizance in the first, 
and not to punish adequately in the second, are ditFereat. 
In the former it is the i.-(irijyo(ji(;j£i'n, the matter formally 
charged; but immediately after the first sentence comes the 
complaint that jDscKines, actuated by personal enmity, had 
poured out personalities of all sorts against him. If these 
are true, there was no punishment half bad enough for me, 
says A- These what? Observe, the VL'ry word is different: 
it is Kaniyiipiiiiv ; it was before iiiTT/yopij^ti-a; the latter 
only means charge, the former also means matters or things. 
But, independent of this, it comes against the things 
enumeiated, as added to the formal charge^viz , i/Jpit, 
\o(2opin, 5rpo7rij\airn7/ioc, and plainly refers to them — and 

e the two are casilv reconciled. 


speech ; but so ought no one to use that pri- 
vilege for the purposes of oppreseion and spite. 
By Heavens ! Men of Athens, that is ueither 
honest, nor statesmanlike, nor just. But if he\'T 
saw me acting injuriously towards the state, 
especially if I were doing the things he has 
been declaiming and ranting* about, it was his 
duty to enforce the penal laws against me while 
those facts were recent ; if he saw me com- 
mitting an impeachable ofFence he ought to 
■have impeached me, and thus dragged me 
before you to justice ; if he saw me illegally 
propounding, he should have proceeded agaiust 
me for Illegal Proposition ."f For never can he 
with any justice assail Ctesiphon through nie ; 
and yet it is plain that, had lie any hope of con- 
victing me, be never would have accused Ctesi- 
phon. But if he saw me doing any of those 
other things which be is now attacking and 
running down, or saw me in any way whatever 
injuring your interests, there are statutes for 
all such cases, and penalties.^ and sentences 

' trpnyiif^tt, declaiming theatricallj. Perhaps ranting 
sufficiently euggests the idea of ihe stage, which A always 
it apt to bring up against the Tpirnyoi'iiTrqE. 

t The ypa^n ■naparofUdv was the prosecutiun for the 
offence of moving a law or decree of ao uncouatitutioaal 

t nyuiv and spiffie areplaiuly here used — the one for civil, 
the other fur criminal proceeilinge; ayuiy is also sometimes 


condemning to heavj- and bitter punishments. 
All these he might have enforced against me ; 
and, had he done so, and pursued this eourse 
towards me, then, indeed, his charges would 
have been consistent with his conduct. But now, 
departing from the straight-forward and the just 
path, and shunning all accusation at the time, 

used for the latter; aptaic never for the former. k<u rifiupta: 
here puzzles Reiske, eis it seeme to have done Hervagtus 
'ho omits it altogether. Reiake suggests that it should bt 

in the accusative, and then the sentence would r 


fX"">f<"i both Ttftoipias and cwiTifiia. Would not this, 
however, be on anti-climax from rt/iwpiac, if you read that 
" punish meats " to fityaXa cwiTifiia, great fines, as Heiske 
does, and indeed as all must suhstantiallj' do who take 
Ti/tapia to be "punishment," and xpiait, "judgment." 
This is B difficult; far more hard to get over than the 
last ; for who shall accuse A of saying — " For all such 
cases there are laws, and actions, and judgments, in- 
flicting punishments and bitter and great jines?" If this 
must be the meaning of Kpiais and rifiuipia, the text may 
safely he pronounced corrupt, and tbe ri/iwpini should 
come after the twiTijtia. There is perhaps no authority 
for TifiBipia meaning a condemnation or sentence ; if 
I there be, tpi^ic may be and is often used for the charge 
^or accusation- Independent of (he anti-climax, n/xapiai 
L e)(oiiaai cir,Ttfua is hardly sensible, if ri/iaipia means 
I punishment; for it would be punishment inflicting fines, or 
C punishments nf which heavy fines are parcel, as if that 
M were the worst of all sufierings. Both Francis and 
I Dawson are wholly careless of the original in their versions 
I of this remarkable passage. 

he trumps up, after so long an interval, his col- 
lected complaints, and invectives, and scurrili- 
ties. Then, he accuses me, but he prosecutes 
him ; he envelops his whole proceedings with the 
fiercest hatred of me, and, without ever meeting 
me fau-ly, endeavours to rob anotlier of his good 
name. M^Vherefore, Athenians, over and above 
all the otiier just defences which may be set up 
for CtesiphoD, this one appears to nie most 
manifestly in point, that ^schines and I ought 
to carry on our mutual hostilities between our- 
selves, and not lay aside our own controversy 
in order to try how much harm we can do 
another party; for that is indeed the very extra- 
vagance* of injustice. 
I • I It is easy then to see that all the charges 
against me are as Uttle founded in justice and 
in truth as those. Nevertheless I am desirous 
of examining them each and all, especially his 
falsehoods touching the Peace and the Embassy, 
respecting which he has transferred to me his 
own delinquencies and those of his associate 

I Philocrates. The transactions of those times, 

f Athenians, it is necessary, and wiU be con- 
venient, that you should recall to your recoilec- 

I tlon, in order to perceive how each of the 

I matters in question really stands. 

I • "The very hyperbole of injustice" would be literal, 

and perhaps not inadmissible. 

I After the Phocian war broke out, not through 
me, for I had not then entered into public life, 
you were at first inclined to save the Phocians, 
although well aware of their misconduct, and 
to rejoice at tlie loss of the Thebans, uitli whom 
you were offended, and not unreasonably or un- 
justly, for they had not borne their good fortune 
at Leuctra with moderation. Then the whole 
Peloponnesus was rent in divisions, and neither 
the enemies of the Spartans were powerful 
enough to overthrow tliem, nor were tliose who, 
through Spartan influence, had been formerly 
placed at the head of the peninsular cities, any 
longer in possession of them, but there pre- 
vailed, both among them and among the other 
Greek states, an unexplained* strife and pertur- 
hation^'71*Ijilip, perceiving this, for it was not 

" (pic (oKpiroe) KOI Tapajc?! a finely-chosen expreaaion to 
paint a confused, indiBtinct, surd disconteot. Perhaps 
rapajfri implies consternation also — people ill-disposed and 
angry, and not knowing why or how, like men qnaircl- 
ling in the dark, Some render atpi-os hy irreconcilable, 
interminable ; but the real aud nataral meaning of the word 
IB aa here given. Tlie description of Philip taking ad- 
vantRge of this is also fine : auycKpnus koi traparri — collided 

I them, or mixed, or jumbled, or confounded llicm together; 
knocked their heads together ; made them first come into 

I colliaion, i.e. interfere with each other, and then quarrel. 

I Our [)hraBe is necessarily less espreEsive, hccause neuter 
rnstead of flciive verba must he used. 

difficult to see, lavished his bribes among the 
traitors everywhere, and put all the states in col- 
lision and conflict with one another ; then, as 
they all fell into a mistaken or a profligate 
policy, he took advantage of it, and grew in 
strength at their expense. But when it Itecame 
evident that the Thebans, worn out with the 

■ length of the war, after all their insolence, 
must be under the necessity, in their present 
reverses, of flying to you for refuge, Philip, to 
prevent this, and obstruct the union of those 
states, jtroffered peace to you, succour to them. 

IQf.What, then, enabled him thus to overreach you, 
who were, I might almost say, wilfully deceiving 
yourselves ? It must be admitted that the other 
Greek states, either from cowardice, or from 
" infatuation,* or both, would give no assistance, 
I either in money or in men, or in any other way, 
I to you who were carrying on a long and unin- 
I terrupted war for the common benefit of all, as 
I the facts plainly showed; and you, not unfairly 
I or unnaturally angry at this, lent a willing ear 
to Philip's offers. The peace, then, which you 
granted to him was the consequence of these cir- 
cumstances, and tint of my efforts, as ^Eschines 
has falsely alleged. But in the measures and 

* ayvoia is literally igiiorBDce ; but here it must be igno- 
ce of their true intereets ; for the thing which sprang from 
it was refuung men and moaey. 

I corruptions of his party upon that occasion auy 
r one who fairly examines the matter will find 
I the true cause of our present condition ; and I i^f 
\ am now weighing and sifting* this matter, with 
the desire only of coming at the truth. For 
whatever misconduct there may have been in 
the then transactions, it cannot in auy way 
affect me. It was Aristudcmus, the player, who 
first spoke of or broached the subject of peace ; 

I and the person wlio took up the question and 
propounded a decree upon it, and exerted him- 
self with Aristodemus to further it, was Philo- 
crates the Agnusian, your accomplice, and not 
mine, .^schines, though you should deny it till 
you burst!"!" 1"heir supporters, from whatever 
motive (I pass over that for the present), were 
£ubulus and Cephisophus ; but never I in any 
manner of way. 

I * &up)(pnai is to go over or through, to pervade, to 

J Mirve; ; oifjipxo/tai niuBt iodicate the same process more 
Btrin gent— the closest survey — a sifting. 

t The Greek is here more expressive than refined ; ai- 
mi Zm^ayriQ ^[vSoiicvos, if e'en you lie till you burst. Such 
espresEions remind ua of the ancient character given of this 
great master — Koy)(pvs ti kui aiTawcXTae tadiuiv, {Athen.') 
We have vulgar phrases in Westminster Hall of a hke 
kind: "To swear through a brick wall"—" To swear till 
he is black in the face," Dawson is so offended with Ihe 
coarse expression that he thus changes it, contrary to all 

.-rule: "Notwithstanding your most vehement and false as- 

■wrtions to the contrary." 


/.' Yet, this being the state of the case, and the 
tmth of it being tiius plainly demonstrated, to 
such a pitch of effrontery has be reached, that he 
has the audacity not only to lay tbe peace upon 
me, but to accuse me of preventing this country 
from making common cause in the negotiation 
with the other Greek powers ! But you, — by 
what name shall I address you to describe you 
aright ? — when did you ever come forward at 
the moment to testify your indignation upon 
seeing me before your eyes wresting from the 
country so grand an opportunity for an alliance 
as that which you are now tragically declaiming 
about ? Or when did you ever stand forth to 
denounce or to scrutinize all that you are now 
impeaching me for ? Why, if I had, for the ' 
lucre of Philip's gold, deprived the country of '■' 
the Greek alUance, it was your duty not to hold 
your peace, but to cry out upon me, and testify 
against me, and denounce me before this 
assembly. In no manner of way did you this, 
nor did mortal ear ever hear your voice to such 
a purpose.* And well might you be silent ;'f 

* ThJB iH quite literal, and it is fine and picturesque ; but 
some traastalora wholly lose it. The Frciichmnn thus 
dilutes it away to notliing ; " Vous n'avex pas dil vn mot." 

■* eiirarue,— literally, likely — or truly; it is used to apply 
iEBchioes' silence the more closely to A'b defence, Dawson 
and other tran slat ore omit it altogether. 

for neither was there any era)>assy at that time 
Bent to any of the Greek powers, though the 

udispositions of them all were very easy to see, nor 

vliave you eveu now advanced any sound state- 
ment upon the matter. 

AlV But, beside all this, he calumniates the coun- 
try itself with his falsehoods still more than he 
does me.* For if you, Athenians, at one and the 
same moment were exciting the Greeks to war 
and sending ambassadors to make peace with 
Philip, you were doing the work of Eurybatus, 
and not acting either for the good of the state, or 
like politick men.f But that was not the fact; 
no, nor anything like it. What should you at that 
crisis call upon the Greek powers to do ? T(r 
obtain peace ? But they all had it already. To 
make wai? But you were yourselves delibe- 
rathig about peace. It is therefore demonstrated 
to be utterly untrue either that I was the original 
author of the peace, or in any way answerable 
»r it, or for any of the other things with which 
le has so falsely charged me. - You must, then, 
'Consider what course each of us held after the 
" ra jutynrra clearly iDBtitutei this comparison wilh wh^ 
had been before (the X'^'c Touraiy) said of i personal!^ 
and it mUBl be thus rendered without any periphrasis. 

t The literal meaning is here given of ^MiparrEo-St toXeiuc 
tpyor ouh ypTiaTaii' ai-Opanraiv. But a modem ear would 
prefer the turn of " You were neither seeking the good of the 

[ Mate nor the approval of politick men." 



country had made peace ; because it is thus that 
you will lie able to perceive who co-operated in 
all tilings with Philip, and who stood by you 
and sought only the good of the commonwealth. 
I immediately obtained a Decree of the Senate, 
that without a moment's delay ambassadors 
should sail for those places where Philip was re- 
ported to be in order to receive his Ratification* 
. ( But Machines' party were not for doing this, 
® even after my Decree had passed. What was 
its object ? I will show you. It was Philip's 
interest that the interval between our Ratification 
and his should be as long as possible ; yours, 
that it should be as short. Why so ? Because 
you had laid aside all warlike preparations, not 
from the date of the Ratification, but from the 
time that you first had hopes of peace; while 
he, on the contrary, was laying his plans more 
than ever upon the supposition, — a well-grounded 
one — that whatever possessions of yours he should 
seize before swearing to the Ratification must 
all remain securely his own, as no one would be 
for breaking the peace on that account. 
>n Foreseeing this, Men of Athens, and reflect- 
ing upon it, I proposed the Decree that the 
ambassadors should make sail to wherever 

* Literally, oath; but the meaaing U the swearing to 
observe the treaty, anBwermg to ratification of what ihe 
QCgotiatura had agreed upon. 


Philip might be, aad take his oath of ratifi- 
cation with all expedition, in order that, while 
Ljour allies the Thracians still held possession of 
the places which ^Eschines now affects to under- 
value, Serrium, Myrtium, and Eigisca, lie should 
execute his Ratification, and so be prevented 
from making himself master of Thrace by the 
acquisition of these important possessiona, and 
from preparing for the execution of his other 
designs by raising there a great revenue and a 
great force. For tliis reason jEschines does 
not read my Decree, nor so much as mention 
it. Yet because I, in discharge of my sena-, 
tonal duty, thought that ambassadors ought lam 
have an audience, he inveighs against me. But T 
what was I to do ? Was I to refuse access to 
men who were come expressly for the purpose 
of addressing you, or to forbid the arclutect 
giving them a place as spectators ? But had I 
not assigned them a place, they might have 
lad it for twopence. I ought, it seems, to have 
;ade this small gain for the state, and all the 
hile sold to Philip, as these meu have done, 
our highest interests! No, no. Here, take 
and read the Decree which he, knowing its 
intents full well, has taken care to pass over. 

In the archonsliip of Mnesiphilus, on the 13th 
of HecatombEeon, in the presidency of the tribe 
Pandion, on the proposition of Demosthenes, 
the son of Demosthenes of the Pseanian tribe : 
Whereas Philip having sent ambassadors to 
treat of peace, hath duly concluded a treaty with 
the people of Athens ; now to the end that the 
same may be ratified as decreed in the fonner 
assembly, it hath pleased the Senate and People 
of the said state, that five ambassadors be chosen 
out of the whole people, and that these, being 
duly approved, be despatched without any delay 
whatever, to wheresoever it may be ascertained 
that Philip is, and that they do as speedily as 
may be exchange Oaths of Ratification with him 
touching the treaty between him and the said 
people concluded, the allies of both parties 
being duly comprehended therein. As such 
ambassadors are chosen — Eubulus, of the Ana- 
pUystian tribe ; jEschines, son of Adrimetes, of 
the Cothocidian tribe; Cephison, of the Rham- 
nusian ; Democrates, of the Phlysian ; Cleon, of 
the Cothocidian.* 
fj;': When I had carried this Decree, consulting 

• The fiirmal and dry style of tliis iJocument is to be 
noted ; bo ditTerent from the ordinary Attic of the 
a kind of statutory, or at least state-paper style. 
tinctioQ has not been maintained by translators. 



,e interests of the country and not of Philip, 
lese H'orthy ambassadors, little solicitous about 
mission,* set themselves down for three 
lole months in Macedon, until Philip returned 
from Thrace, after entirely sulyiigating the 
country, although they might easily in ten 
days — ay, in three or fonr, have gone to the 
[ellespont and saved Thrace by receiving his 
atificatioD before he could take possession of 
For either he would not have touched that 
territory had we been there, or he would not 
have sworn to the peace, and thus would not 
have obtained it,! so that he could not have had 
both, the peace and tlie possessions. 
? Such iu this mission was the first fraud of 
Philip, but also the first corrupt act of these 
men, profligate and hateful to the Gods — a cor- 
ruption for which ever since then, and now, and 

I • 5(pijDTot IB plainly ironical here ; the word ia "uBefiil," 
"profitable," but "worthy" conveys its eenae exceeclingly 
well, and is often used ironicully. /3pii^u ifpaynaaiTCQ has 
dearly the seme given in the test, though expressed some- 

rhat elliptically. 
t This muBt pliiinly be the sense, especially if the 

igative ovt: is to remain in its place, and the semicolon is 
to be placed after avroi'- But why the second nc? This 
aeems superfluous, and perhaps there should be another q 
in the former limb of the sentence. The sense is however 
dear, and tlie whole atructiire of the passage ttnd rapidity 
of die argument is truly Demoathenean, 

for ever, I declare against them hostility and 
attack that knows no repose !* But you shall 
presently see another wickedness still greater 
than that'Yv When Philip had sworn to the 
peace, having possessed himself of Thrace in 
consequence of those ambassadors disobeying 
my Decree, he bribed them not to leave Ma- 
cedon until he had fully prepared his expedition 
against the Phocians, in order that you should 
not be apprised by them of his intention imme- 
diately to march, and so be enabled to sally 
forth and cut him off from all communication 
with Thermopylse by surrounding it with your 
fleet t as yon had done before; but that the 
intelligence through the ambassadors, and the 
accounts of his having entered Thermopylae, 
might reach you together, and you should thus 
he unable to act at all. " But although Phihp had 
thus occupied the ground beforehand.^ he was 

* iroXfficir nai Sim^cpcirBai. Leland has it " denounce 
perpetuftl war and opposition ;" and iie transposeB tlie Otois 
'X^P""" "iiwaiTautably. The " opiHiHiliuii" is an anti-climas, 
and ia nut a currcct translation. £ia^Ep<i/jai indicates a caa- 
Btant agitation — a reatlcBB enmity — hinc inde jactor, is the 
accurate and common tranBlation, Dawson's " implacable 
enemy" is much better; but then he in»kes woXtfiav " op- 
position;" it is mucli Btronger, 

t Literally, sailing round Thermopylffi with your galleys 
should close the uea ; but the sense is closely given iu the test. 

J i-ni TavTu TrpotiXijptiTot auTov. Literally, even having 

D such alami and anxiety,* lest upon hearing 
f his proceedings you should resolve to succour 
the Phocians before he liad overthrown them, 
and so his scheme should fail, that he again 
bribed this wretch.f not in common with the 
other ambassadors, hut by himself individually, 

^_to make you such a statement as proved the 

^kuin of our aifairs. 

^H But I call uiK)D you, I conjure you, Men of 

[ Athens, tlu'oughout this cause to hear this ever 
in miud, tliat if ^schiues had not gone into 
matter out of the four coruers of the Charge, 
neither should I have said one ivord away from 
the subject. But when he has heaped together 
all manner of imputations and maledictions, J it 

anticipated these things. The Greek is to anticipate or 
take beforehand. The Greeks never fell into such slip-slop 
as using anlicipate for expecl — almost us bad as transpire 
for occur. 

* ^o/3y Kai jfoXXq ayui'i^, ITie latter word is properly 
" anxietj" — not so strong us " coiiaternaiion," which would 
be (hpvfin^, and which perhaps rather helougs to multitudes 
than individuals ; and this probably is the strict and original 
me&ning of our word itself. Leland makes po/3cu " appre- 
henaion," and ayuvta, "violence of terror;" Dawson, 
" fearful aud full of trouble." 

•\ iraraTrruoTnc, spit out — spit upou — but come to mean 
anything despicable. 

I tiXaa^tlfiiai. Leland has recourse to the circum- 

nition "every invective which malice could suggest." 
^wiou's " reproaches of all kinds" ill renders the sense, 



becomes necessary that I should shortly ansner 
each of his accusations. 
?.5 What then were those representations of his 
which brought on such ruinous consequences ? 
That Philip's entei-iug Thermoiiylse ought to 
create no alai-m ; that if you would but remain 
quiet, all should be settled to your heart's content, 
and you should in two or three days find him turn 
out to be the enemy of those he had come to de- 
fend, the friend of those he had come to attack. 
" For it was not words that strengthen alliances, 
he somewhat gravely * affirmed, but community 
of interests. But it was equally the interest of 
Philip, and the Phocians, and yourselves, to be 
relieved from the inaction and the importunity of 
the Thebans.", Some there were who lent a 
willing ear to all this, from that dislike of the 
Tliebans which had insensibly gained upon us.t 
What was the immediate consequence? In- 

• fiuXa atfivuit orofiaiiiiv. Never was trnnBlation leas 
near the (iriginal than DawBon'e here, " smoothly glossing 
it." The literal meaning is clear, " rather gravely or 
pompously phraaing it." 

t Siu rqi' Tiid' VTOvaav awcffpfiav rpos roug Gij^aiouj. It 
may be rendered " the lurking dislike ;" but the text seeme 
to give the meaning. Translaiora have almost all lost the 
meaning of vrovjav. Dawson, "because we were at en- 
mity with the Thebans." Stock gives it better, " riam 
insedit." Wolff's " intercedenles" ia quite wrong. Lelaud 
unaccountably leavea out the whole sentence. 




Stantly, and not after any interval, the wretched 
iPhoeians were mined, their cities razed to the 
round, and you remaining inactive, and per- 
laded by ^schines' representations, were soon 
after removing your effects from the country for 
shelter,* while he was receiving his hire; and 
moreover the Thebajis and Thessalians turned 
their hostility against this country, giving their 
good will to Philip in return for his exploits. 
In proof of these things, read me the Decree of 
Callisthenes and the iietter of Pliilip, from both 
of which all I have said clearly appears. 

In the archonship of Mnesiphilus an extra- 
ordinary assembly being convened by the Stra- 
tegi, with consent of the Prytanes and Senate, 
on the 2nd of Msemacterion, on the report of 
Callistheneg, the son of Eteonicus of Phalaris: 
Resolved, that no Athenian shall on any pretence 
whatever pass the night in the country, but only 
in the citadel or the port, save and except such 
BB are etationed at any posts, each of whom 

• iTKtvayiiiyuv, lo pack up baggage ; but ik tuv oyptui' 
shoWB the meauing more preciBely. Leland uses, however, 
far too much circumlocution. He expreaae» these few words 
by ihie unpardonable periphraBis — "to leave your fields 
defolate and collect your property within these wftlla." 

shiiU keep the stution assigned to him, and not 
absent liimself by day or by night. Whosoever 
disobeys this decree shall suffer the punishment 
of traitors, unless he proves tliat he lay under 
some incapacity to obey, of which incapacity the 
General on duty, the Treasurer, and the Secre- 
tary of the Senate are to judge. All effects 
shall be removed from the country as speedily 
us possible; those which are within 120 stadia, 
to the citadel and port ; those beyond that 
distance, to Eleusis, Phyle, Aphidna, Rlianines, 
iind Sunium. Proposed by Callisthenes of 

Was it in the expectation of this that you 
made peace ? Or were these the prospects held 
out by this hireling ? But read the Letter which 
Philip immediately after sent, 


Philip, King of the Macedonians, to the 
Senate and People of Athens, greeting. Know 
ye that we have entered Tliermopylse, and 
reduced Phocis into our possession. In 
those to^vns which voluntarily surrendered we 
have placed garrisons ; those which held out 
we have taken hy force and razed to the 
ground, leading the inhabitants captive. But 


hearing that you were preparing to succour 
them, I have written you tlxese presents, to the 
end that you may give yourselves no further 
trouble in this matter. For, in fine, it does not 
appear to me reasonable that, after concluding a 
peace, you should notwithstanding take the field, 
and this although the Phocians were not com- 
prehended in the treaty between ua. If, there- 
fore, you do not abide by your engagements, you 
will only get before me by being the first wrong- 

Heai- how distinctly he declai'es and explains 
himself in this letter addressed to yourselves, 
addressed to his allies.'}' " Tliese things I have 
done," says he, " in despite of the Atheuians and 
their remonstrances ; and if you Thehans and 

The style of this letter is perfect, and gives the highest 
idea of Piiilip'fl capacity for composition. Pride — haughty, 
insulent, pride, yet such as to quell, not to irritate, is its 
characteristic. The style tuo is dignified and sustained 
throughout. The transition from the royal we, to the more 
individual /, is admirahly made. The tnm at the end is 
inimitable. The conciaeneas is such from beginning tu 
end, that no fewer words could have been employed to 
convey the aame ideasj and the choice of those few is as 
happy as their compression is remarkable. 

j- vpos repeated to u^nc and to aiifnnj(ous also is 
eminently argumentative, and is ill rendered by the literal 
L and unemphutic " (o." The text iuserling " addressed," 
B much better to give the sense. 


Tlieasalians be wise, you will reckon them your 
enemies and put your trust in me." If these 
are not his very words, this is clearly his mean- 
ing. With such speeches he so captivated 
them, that they neither made any prepiirations 
nor foresaw any danger, but suifered him to 
take possession of every place ; and heace have 
proceeded all the calamities under which the 
wretched Thebans are now suffering!! I And ^^^ 
coadjutor, his fellow-labourer in gaining tliis 
confidence, the man who is still milking you 
lalse reports, still deluding you — this is the 
man who now bewails" the sufferings of the 

* This fine pasBage is worthy of all attention. The 
hjipomticHl lamentations of j^eciiiues over Ills own handy- 
work IB (he suliject, and there is not a word picturesquely 
deecribing woe, real woe, that Demosthenes does not uae in 
referring to his adversary's affected aympalhy for thoae 
who were suffering under the effects of Lis own actiona — 
aSvpoficyoi, weeping or wailing. Stock has " lugel ;" Wolff, 
"lamentetuT ;" Francis, "lament;" Dawson, the same; Le- 
land has " affects deep concern." All these are clearly below 
the mark {Lelaud, besides, having " affects" contrary to the 
plain text) ; they do not come up to A^upofif I'oe- Then we 
have oitrrpa from oiKrot, which almost means "howling;" 
a single word can hardly render it without appearing ex- 
aggerated, for " agonies" applies too much to pain. Wolff 
has "miserabilia;" Francis, "distresses;" but then he adds 
" sadly" gratuitously to Su^lmv, though that word means 
only enumeration or espoaition, and applies to joys as well 
»a sorrows, akyeii;, " sorrow for, aa if it were your own ;" 


Thebans, and dwells oa their wretchedness, he 
bemg himself the cause of it all, and of the fate 
of tiie Phociitns, and of all the other sufferings 
of all the Greeks ! You, forsooth, you jEschi- 
nes, must needs sorrow for those disasters, iind 
compassionate the Thebans, when you are your- 
Belf in possession of their lauds in Bceotia and 
actually farming them! and 1 must be sup- 
posed to rejoice at their suffering, I, whose head 
the author of all these wrongs demanded IfcBu^i,,', 
I have fallen into topics which wiU be more in 
place hereafter. I now return to the proof that 
the corruption and profligacy of these men was 
the cause of our present condition. 

When you were circumvented by Philip 
through those liirelings of his whom you had 
sent as ambassadors, and wlio never in:ule you 
any true repi)rt, and when the miserable Pho- 
cians were also circumvented, and had their 
cities razed to the ground, what followed ? The ^■ 
'despicable Thessalians and the senseless Thebans 
looked upon Philip as their friend, benefactor, 

Wolff, "tegrefers;" Francis, "arc miserably affected;" 
Dawson, "are sorry for." tXmg, commiBeratf! — &ak for 
pity^nlao a strong word, and rendered by Wolfi' "ricem 
doles," about as feeble a word as the Latin affords ; Francis, 
" Bincerely weep over." 

(iyniv fill v, eimply "was demanded," will not express 
■■itiie mettntng ; for in those days demanding a person 
mplied imprlBonment or death. 

saviour; he was aU in all with them : if any one 
thought of saying anything to the contrary, not 
a word would they hear. You, on the other 
band, though these transactions awakened your 
suspicions, and caused some impatience, still kept 
the peace (nor indeed could you help it, stand- 
ing single as you did) ; and the other Greeks, as 
well as you, cheated and deluded in their hopes, 
strictly ohserved the peace, tliough already in 
some sort attacked by Philip. For when he ^4 •T 
was striding all around,* subduing the lUyrians 
and Triballians, and even some of the Greek 
states ; when he was acquiring large accessions 
to his power; and when some persons under 
cover "t" of the peace were prticeeding from "] 
different cities on a visit to be corrupted by 
him, jiEschines among the rest ; then I maintain 
that all the powers against whom he was 

* Tripuiiiv, an impreBsive word, rendered well by the 
Latin " grassans," to which our language has no very BuiE- 
cient purallel. Francis has it feebly, " extendiag hie 
conqueatB on every aide." Dawson's "ranging up and 
down" is far better. Leland's "in the circuit of hia es- 
pedition" reduces it to proae, and to a mere topographical 
point. The French "dans ses courses" gets rid of it 

+ Eiouffiyis left out by Dawson, who only says " on the 
peace." Leland'a, " served the opportunity," renders it 
partly. Possibly "under cover" is more than the phrase 
means, which yet seems to imply something more than 
merely "taking advantage." 

making such prepariitions were actuiilly at- 
tacked. If they (lid not themselves perceive it, 
that is another tiling, aud no concern of mine, 
for I foretold it, and testified tu it botli here to 
you, and wherever else I was sent as ambassador, j, , . 
But ail the states were infatuated, and while the ( | 
ministers and magistrates of some were cor- 
rupted and Ijought with a price, in others neither 
individuals nor the people showed any pro- 
vident circumspection, but all were taken with 
tJie ephemeral bait of indolence and ease, and all 
the states became so stricken with infatuation as 
to believe that nothing could befall themselves, 
but that they could work out their own safety by 
other people's perils * G It tlius came to pass, as 
I conceive, that the people lost their independ- 
ence through extreme and inopportune sloth, 
while the leading men, and they who designed 

• Leland givea ihe sense generallj, but loses the point of 
the expreesicui when he says " that each community con- 
ceived themselves exempted from the common calamity, 
nay, that they could derive their own aecuriiy from the 
public danger," The text is quite liieial, and it preserves 
the point of the original, without the least deviation from 
English idiom. Dawson makes it " particular persons" 
instead of states, which is wrong; and he miikes their plan 
be to secure their own wealth, which is still more erro- 
neous. He had just before entirely missed the sense 
paaraifit, b* if 't was thot men were " drowned in luxury," 
which is altogether wrong, beside being a bad metaphor. 


to sell everything but themselves, were found to 
have sold themselves first of all. Instead of 
friends and guests, names which they prostituted 
for lucre of gain, they must now be content to 
hear themselves called parasites, persons accurst, 
and whatever else fits them best. And justly !*tv> 
For no one, Athenians, when he bribes ever looks 
to the benefit of the traitor ; nor, when once pos- 
sessed of the bribeworthy service, do we ever 
after trust the traitor. If we did, nothing could 
be more fortunate than the traitor's position. 
But it is not so by any means. How should it 
be ?'felt is quite the reverse. No sooner has 
an amliitious usurper accomplisSied his purpose 
than he becomes master of those who have sold 
their country ; and, thoroughly acquainted with 
their villany, he detests them, and distrusts 
them, and loatlst them witli insults. For, ob- 
serve — if the events themselves are past and gone 
hy, yet the opportunity of reflecting upon them is 
ever present to the wise. Time was that Philip 
called Lasthenes his friend until he had be- 

• Tiiis passage is one of A's finest bursls j rapid, over- 
powering, full of matter — in one part every line has au 
ttlluBion to some known passage of recent history — the 
words chosen are of extreme force, and connected with 
such skill that the torrent, while it roars and rages and 
dasbea, is unbroken and clear. 

t npoiriiXantici is worse than insults — covers them with 
dirt litKally. Wolff's " invecialuT" jm clearly insufficient. 


trayed Olynthus ; time was that he thus termed 
Timolaus, till he had overthrown Thebes ; and 
Eudicus and Simus, of Larissa, until they 
had surrendered Thessaly to his arms. Then, 
when they were chased away, and covered with 
indignities, and there was no maltreatment that 
they had not to endure, the wliole habitable 
world* was filled with traitors. How fared 
Aristratus in Sicyon? How Perilaus at Me- 
gara? Are they not doomed to utter execra- 
tion ?'1n4From whence any one may clearly 
perceive that whoso most stoutly defends his 
country, and most vehemently resists such men 
as those, supplies to you traitors and merce- 
naries, iEschines, the means of being bribed ; 
and it is because such patriots are numerous and 
oppose your councils, that you can receive your 

* It is hard Co conceive why all transUtorB should drop 
the otKovficvjif and give only " world." Lelaud, indeed, 
makes it only apply to the nation. 

t airi^pififiirm, damned — musi in malam rem, literally 
— a word of extreme force; abjecti, aaya Wolff; Francis, 
"most abject and despised ;" Dawson, "despised and 
sent into the lowest degree of contempt;" Leiaiid, "in 
abject infamy." But multiplying weak words docs not 
make a stroiig impression ; besides, these words all refer to 
estimation, whereas i says they were damned — were under 
the infliction of a curse. Perhaps "doomed lo execration" 
comes as near the original as we can well go. " Abomi- 
"execrated," will hardly do; it means that they 
id sentence, and the sentence has been executed. 

hire in safety ; for as far as depended on your- 
selves you must long since have perished.* 
cDAnd now, although I have much more to say 
touching these transactions, yet I rather think 
I have dwelt too long upon them. But he is to 
blame for it ; his having poured out in our faces 
the crapulous remains f of his own profligacy 

* a«oXu\circ may possibly mean " would have loBt your 
trade;" but a^i ie there as well as e/i^iv^qi. Dawsun 
however reudera this single word "you muat have been 
laid aaide and your employment abolished." With 
aircppi/xficvBi he had some kind of excuse for such pro- 
lixity; here none at all. 

t iXtioKpaaiay eaTaaKiSaaac—nol merely " pouring out ;" 
for xTKiSaaac would mean that ; but puuriug out against ub 
— in our faces — like a pipe or a jet playing oa ub. 'EXi- 
ampaaia is the cup of last night's debauch. What right 
has Stock to translate xaTaaKtSairaQ, "evomutt?" Had 
not A Greek enough to have aaid t^ij/iio-aE, if he had chose 
ao Btrong, too strong, a figure? His " Iteslemam crapvlam" 
is not ao bad. Wolff " effuderit " Francia is worse than 
UBual here — " pouring out like a drunkard the excess of last 
night's wine, the filthiness of his malevolence and villany;" 
the first part of which is a mere description of the meaning, 
not a version of the words ; and the latter quite gratuitous in 
one of the words, filthiness ; and in the other, malevolence, 
does not even resemble the sense of irafTjpin. Dawson is here 
far better, though not close, " defiled me with his sottish 
ribaldry." What follows is admirable as a figure grafted 
on that of A, "hath obliged me to wipe off his base and 
wicked aspereionB ;" though he puts the " base aud wicked 
aapersions " in the wrong place. Leiand also uses the 
same figure — but it is, according to the French critics' 

and crimee, made it indispensably necessary 
that I should justify myself in the eyes of per- 
who have been born since those transac- 
tions. Perliaps, however, you are fatigued nith 
the subject, as before I had spoken a won!, you 
were aware of his mercenary conduct.^' That, 
indeed, he terms friendship and hospitality; and 
in one part of his speech he described me as 
having considered Alexander's hospitality a 
shame. I speak of Alexander's hospitality to 
you ! W^hence did you derive it, or Iiow earn 
it? Nor Philip's guest, nor Alexander's friend 
should I ever think of calling you ; I am not so 
senseless ; unless indeed we are to call reapers 
and others who work for hire the friends and 
; guests of those who pay them wages. V But it 
is not so ; nothing of the kind ! * Why should 

bitter remark, " wit lent to A ;" for all that he says ia " to 
acquit myself of them thus." The word is (uroXufroirflai, 
not avo\ovaarrflai. Possihly the tranalalors have all read 
it with the o, though I can find no Buch reading in any 
text. Francis has " purify " and Wolff " eluere." There 
BeemB even some reason to doubt if i\iiay:paaia bears the 
sense on which these versions all proceed, of vomiting. 
The scholiast explains it by referring to the cuatoia of 
pouring on the bead of a debauchee, who had fallen asleep, 
the wine left in last night's cup — a somewhat odd figure 
douhtleae for ^ to apply to himeelf or his audience ; for it 
is upon them that jEschines is said to pour out his abuse, 
' Where did Uawson get the " Flatter not thyself so 
I much," wherewith he has here accommodated i? 

it be ? Quite the reverse. But I and all here 
present call you the hireling, formerly of Philip, 
now of Alexander. If you doubt it, ask them. 
But I had rather do that for you. Men of 
Athens ! whether do you consider ^schines as 
the hireling, or the guest of Alexander ? — Do 
you hear what they say T4—1 now then proceed 
to answer this charge, and to explain my con- 
duct, in order that .^schines, though he is well 
aware of the whole, may also hear my own 
statement of my just title both to the honours 
decreed, and to tar greater than these. Read 
me, then, the Impeachment itself.* 


In the archonship of Chserondas, on the 6th 
of Elaphebolion, jEschioes, the son of Atrome- 
tus, of the Cotbocidian tribe, brought before the 
arclion, Ctesiphon, the son of Leosthenes, of the 
Anaplystian tribe, for the offence of proposing 
an illegal')' decree, to wit, that Demosthenes, 

• Xtyt ypa^ijv, \aliair. Thia is the coQStant idiom ; as 
if we ehould eay, " Take and read me the Irapeachmenl." 

t irapoj'o/ioc ia undoubtedly illegal, but it aeenia more 
properly unconstitutiiinai ; as any decree made by the com- 
petent authority must he lawful, and the proposer of it only 
called on that authority to make what he propounded a Ww. 
But a law may he unconatitutional even though formally 
made — that is, it may be repugnant to the general spirit 
of the laws. 

the son of Demosthenes, of the Pseanian tribe, 

shouhl be crowned with a golden crown, and 

that it should be proclaimed in the theatre, 

while the new greater DJonysian tragedians 

acted, that the people crowned Demosthenes 

tlie son of Demosthenes of the Peeanian tribe, 

on account of bis merits, and of his devotion to 

I the service, as well of the whole Greek states 

[ as of the Athenian people, and on account of 

his magnanimity in consulting at all times, 

[ both by word and deed, the best interests of 

I the said people, and in zealously promoting 

[ the same to the utmost of his power: — All 

' which propositions were false and contrary to 

the laws ; seeing that first the laws do not per- 

1 mit what is false to be propounded on the face 

of the public records, and next that they do 

not permit a public accountant to be crowned. 

But Demosthenes is a conservator of the walls, 

and has charge of the theatrical fund. More- 

I over, the crown ougbt not to be proclaimed in 

I the theatre by the new tragedians, but in the 

[ senate-house, if he is to be crowned by the 

[ senate; at the Pnyx in full assembly, if by the 

I people. Fine, 50 talents. Witnesses to the 

ieitation, Cephisophon, the son of Cephisophon 

[of the Rhamnusian tribe, Cleon, the son of 

jleon, of the Cothocidian. 

Sach, Athenians, are the grounds of his at- 


tack upon the Decree of Ctesiphon. But I shall 
first of all make it plain to you from the Chai-ge 
itself, that I am about to urge an honest de- 
fence. For I shall pursue the very order of 
what is stated in tlie Impeachment; and I shall 
speak to each article separately, not passing 
over any one thing knowingly. Touching the 
recital in the Decree, that I uniformly have con- 
sulted in word and deed the good of the peoplCj 
and zealously endeavoured to further their in- 
terests to the best of my aliility, upon which the 
panegyric is founded,* I take it that the truth of 
this must he tried by a review of my public con- 
duct. For it is only hy an examination of this 
that you can ascertain whether Ctesiphon's 
statements respecting me are true and just, or 
false. But as to his not inserting in the de- 
cree a proviso that I should only he crowned 
after rendering my accounts ; and as to the 
directions that tlie coronation should take place 

" Though the passage is of no remarkahle importance, 
yet its vcreion by Leland ehowe how careleaa of the original 
that great tmnslatoi (by far the heat of A'a) often is, and 
hon paruphrastical. He puts it thus : " As to the clause 
of that steady zeal in speaking and acting for the interest of 
this state, which I have ever discovered and still discover 
upon every occasion to the utmost of my power, and the 
honours appointed to ine on this account." This is really 
a paraphrase of " and still discover." ttratyciy may mean 
" decreeing honours," but is literally " eulogise." 

I in the theatre, I conceive that this belongs to 
I the question of my public conduct, whether I 
I deserve to be crowned and prochiinied in public, 
I ay or no. Nevertheless, it appears right that 
1 I should refer to the laws which sanction the 
Decree in these respects. 

It is thus, men of Athens, that I am resolved, 
honestly and frankly, to conduct my defence. 
I begin with the policy which I have pursued; 
and let no one imagine that I am digressing 
from the Charge^ if I refer to my measures aud 
my speeches upon the affairs of Greece.* For 
he who accuses the decree of stating that my 
councils and my measures were the best, and 
who charges this as a false statement — he it is 
that has rendered it both fitting and necessary 
for me to enter upon the whole subject of my 
I policy and conduct. Now, there beiug many 
r departments of the public service,t I devoted 

• The eitreme importance to A'b case of the skilful 
movement, so to speak, by whicli he availed himself of 
jEechines' error, and at once entered on the general subject 
of hie whole adminiEtratioii, thus escaping the immediate 
charge, to which he had no ansner, and overwhelming hia 
adversary by a triumphant defence on ground of his own 
I choosing, required that he should again and agaiu defend 
■■this tnovemeat, which he here does very carefiiUy. 

t This is the literal meaning of itvXkuiv TrpoaipcTciuv ovaoiv 
ItTIC iroXmiic, which Dnwaon renders unaccountably, " the 
and various methodB of policy used in the world." 


myself to that of the Greek affairs. Therefore 
it is but just that 1 should draw my evidence 
from this department. ^ 

Those possessions,* then, which Philip seized 
and kept, before I entered into public life, 
before I began to debate, I say nothing of; for 
I do not consider them as concerning me at ali. 
But those which ever since I came forward he 
has been prevented from seizing upon, of them 
I shall remind you, and shall render my account 
by a single observation, A prospect of great ad- 
vantage opened to Philip. In the Greek states, 
not one or two, but all, there shot up a crop f of 
traitors, mercenary and abandoned, men hateful 
to the gods, such as no one's memory served 
him to recollect at any former period of time. 
Engaging these supporters and fellow-labourers, 
Philip seduced the Greeks, already ill disposed 
and seditiously inclined, to a worse disposition. 

A clearly is speaking af Athens alone, and iU public buei- 

• Francis'8 " conqueats and UBurpationB" le well enough, 
ouly that wpoXajiiiy is to seize or take, and Kara^^cic, to 
keep, while UBurpation is \afiiiv oa much as conquest, 
DawBon has " acijuiGitiuns and usurpations ; *' Lelond 
" conqueslB and acquiaitiona," which ie the worst of the 
three. WullF, " occupavit atque obtinuit." 

t ipopa means a crop or revenue among other things, as a 
eupply. Leland haa " provision ;" Dawson, '' a vast num- 
ber." Wolff, rightly, " ftges." 


deceiving some, bribing others, corrupting the 
rest in evei-y way, and split into many fac- 

ttions those who ought to have had all one only 
common interest, that of preventing his aggran- 
disement. But in this state of things, and in 
the prevailing ignorance of all the Greeks as to 
the mischief which really existed and was grow- 
ing apace,* yom- duty, Athenians, is to examine 
what course it was expedient for the country 
to choose and pursue, while you call me to ac- 

» count for what was done. For the man who then 
•Aesumed the conduct of affairs, that man am I. 
Was it fitting, ^schines, that this country 
should bring down her great spirit so worthy of 
herself, join Thessalians and Dolopians, help 
Philip in his designs upon the mastery of all 
Greece, and abandon all the glories and all the 
rights of our forefathers? Or, if she took not 
this part, (which assuredly it would have been 
monsti-ous to take,) was she to overlook those 
things when they actually came to pass, which 
she had descried when they were about to 
happen if no one interposed, ay, and bad tbre- 
*n to all appearance for a long time before ?f 
• Some have given ^uo/xtvov, creeping oq ; but if A hail 
, such a figure, IpTtiZovTo^ was at his command In 
t, creeping does not apply to an evil already near, hut on 
e iiiCTeBse 

t Nothing can be more paraphrastical, ond indeed dif- 
we, than Leland is ui this somewhat difficult pasBage, 
mhich ia given literally in the teJtt, For •acpuiZtiv yiyvo- 

But I would now willingly ask whosoever most 
blames our policy, what part he would rather 
the country had taken ; that of those who have 
contributed so hirgely to the disasters and dis- 
graces which have befallen Greece, among whom 
may be reckoned the Tbessalians and their asso- 
ciates — or the part of those who suffered* all that 
happened, in the hope of working their own in- 
dividual aggrandisement, among whom may be 

ficva is here not to look around, and as it were see pass be- 
fore her eyes, but to overlook or neglect tbe coming to pass 
of the things. A only says that tbe country bad Been the 
events about to happen (ewpa aviijiqaoficra), and had been 
aware of them for a long while (jrpoijtrflactTo tt toXXou). 
Leland will needs have it " who had foreseen, who aeemed 
perfectly convinced of the coneequencea which must arise," 
and then, " lo have proved indifferent spectators when 
these consequences had really arisen." The translation in 
the text gives the point by distinguishing the evfiliiiaofitya 
from yiyto/iffa; but our language, from its want of flesion 
and declension, aud concord, ia extremely deficient in powers 
of coHocatioB, wherever tbe Latin, but alill more the Greek 
(which lias our resource of articles beside its own re- 
sources), can place the substantive and the verb in the most 
felicitous arrangement. In the present instance the collo- 
cation should be tbe reverse of what we are compelled, 
without repetition and interpolation, to adopt. 

' TTcpisatpaKviasheteis "having,or which has, neglected;" 
like wtpuiSciv in the last noie. Why Stock has " passa est 
et neglexit" ia not easily understood. One is enough, and 
" suffered " gives the sense. Lelond might have rendured 
it by " were indifferent ;" but he had no right to put " af- 
fected an indifference." 



elBSsed the Arcadians, Argives, and Messenians ? 
many, or rather all of them, have fared 
than ourselves ; and indeed had Philip, as 
■u as his object vpas attained, gone straight- 
way home, and remained thence forvrard at 
peace, offering no kind of injury either to his 
allies or to the other Greek states, still they who 
had done nothing to resist his aggressions, 
would have been exposed to complaint and to 
blame. But if he strip[>ed all alike of their 
dignity, their sovereignty, their freedom, nay, of 
their form of government, whenever he had the 

t power, did you not follow the most glorious 
of all councils, when you listened to me ? I 
come back to this point.* What ought the 
f * The passage th&t here follows is among the very finest 
in all A. The heavy fire of indignant invective is kept up 
throughout, only limited by the desire to avoid any too 
personal offence to an audience as vain as supine, and as 
impatient of censuree as it was deserving of them. The 
rapidity of tlie declamation is striking in the highest de- 
gree ; the number uf topics crowded into a few words, 
(pages 48 and 49 especially) uud the absolute perfection of 
ir choice, is not to be surpassed. We are left at a loss 
determine whether the substance or the diction should be 
iferred. Nothing too can be more natural than the in- 
'feoduction of this burst, nothing more closely bearing upon 
the argument. In modern e1o(guence passages of this very 
kind are never failing in success. The picture uf Pliilip is 
ily fine ; and it is both striking and figurative, especially 
iJoTi rjj Xoiwif i'ljv. The appeal to the Athenians, and 
contrast drawn between them and the natives of a mean 



country to have done, JEiachineB, when it saw 
Plrilip preparing to assume the dominion and 
sovereignty of all Greece ? Or what was I to 
urge or to propound iu the councils of Athens? 
(for the place is very material) I, who knew 
that from all time up to the very day when I 
first mounted the rostrum, my country had ever 
struggled for supremacy, and lionour, and glory, 
and had lavished more hlood and more treasure 
for her own renown and the interests of all 
Greece, than any other state had ever risked lor 
town, in respect of magnanimity, cannot be too much ad- 
mired. In our Parliament, pages 48 and 49 could not 
have been easily delivered for the biirBts of cheering they 
would have oceaBioned. I find Lord Welleeley prefcre this 
to almost alt the other passagee in A. — It is euch things bb 
this that haunt the student of eloquence, and will uut quit his 
mind by day or by night, in the solitary walk, or in the senate 
and the fonim, filling him at once with envy and admira- 
tion, with an irrepreBsible desire to follow in such footsteps, 
and with absolute despair at the distance of his own. 

The translators have not much distinguished themselves 
here, where they were bound to make every exertion ; 
Leland makes Philip " dislocate hia neck" (which is fatal) ; 
Stock, " juguio fracto" which is as bad ; instead of " fraa- 
ture hia collur-bone," which is easy and safe (kXkv 
carcayora)- Leland adds a verb to x^'P^i ""'^ makes it 
" pierced ;" he converts, moreover, the hand into tiie arm ; 
and he renders the conclusion of the noble description, 
the finest part, indeed Ihe very point of the whole, " that 
he might eujoy the rest with renown," instead of " that 
he might live with the rest to," &c. ; or " that the rest 
«iight survive to renown," &c. Dawson is closer, though 
"withered" is not TrtJrijpui/ifvui'. 


its individual benefit — I, who saw that very 
Philip, with whom our conflict for command 
and for sovereignty was maintained, have his 
eye torn out, his coUar-bone fractured, his hand 
and his leg mutilated, abandoning to Fortune 
whatever part of his body she chose to take, so 
that the rest might survive to honour and to glory? 
Yet even then no one would have dared say that 
in a man bred at an obscure and paltry town like 
Pella, such magnanimity could be engendered 
as to make him entertain the desiie of subju- 
gating Greece, or form in his mind such a 
plan, wliile in you, who are of Athens, and 
day by day contemplate the achievements of 
your ancestors in speeches and in spectacles,* 
BDch poorness of spirit could be bred, that will- 
'iugly and of your own accord you should sur- 
ttnder to him the liberties of Greece. That is 
xtitai no one would have dared to '^ay.j 

• How Fmoc'iB got "contraeied in your earliest educa- 
tion" aeeme incomprchenBible ; Otupj/iiairi mcana " school 
diacipliiie'' certainly ; but here we have koi Xoyoif joined 
with it, SB well HB Ka6' iKUffr^v /;/iff)tif, which clearly gives 
ihe other meaning of the word. The Osford translatora 
have falleu into Francis's error. 

t Leland'a '' Let not the presumptuoua assertioQ be once 
heard "ia as unlike ovh' ay lie ravrn ^iifffit as maybe; 
though very possibly A might have used such a turgid 
jfjirase liad it struck him — and had hia taste been the b: 
li his Iransrator'a. 

' It remains then to confess as a necessary con- 
sequence, that whatever be attempted of injury 
against you, you might justly resist. This, 
therefore, you did from the tirst, naturally and 
pi-operly. This I advised and propounded all 
the time I was in public life. I admit it. But 
what ought I to have done ?— that I earnestly 
demand of you. Pass over everything else, 
Amphipolis, Pydna, Potidsea, Halouesus — I-eay 
nothing about them ; Serrium, Doriscus, the de- 
vastation of Peparethus, and all the other wrongs 
of the same kind which have been done this 
country — I do not even know of their existence ; 
and yet you, ^schmes, chargfi me with having 
raised those enemies against the country, though 
the decrees were passed by Eubiilus, and Ari- 
stophon, and Diopeithes, not by me, thou man 
ready to assert whatever suits thy purpose ! * — 1 
will for the present say nothing on these sub- 
jects. But he who seizes on Euboea, and rears 
a fortress over against Attica, and lays his hands 

" Thia stirring apostrophe to jEschincB is by Francis 
reduced to a pareiithesiB — " as you can indeed very dex- 
teronaly assert whatever you think proper." Dawson 
weakens it by paraphrase, and alters it by mistranslation, 
and omits the apostrophe. " bo ready art thou to speak thy 
own sentiments whether right or wrong." It is not speak- 
ing his own sentiments, but stating falsehoods, that forms 
the charge of A in this passage. Leland has it, " No, thou 
prompt slanderer," which is better, but nut close enough. 


on Megara,* and occupies Oreum, and destroys 
Porthmus, apd establishes Philistides as tyrant 
of Oreum and Clitarchus of Eretria, and takes 
possession of the Hellesiiont, and besieges By- 
zaatium, and razes to the ground some of the 
Greek cities while he sends back their exiles -f to 
others — is he, I demand, who does all this a 
wrong-doer, a breaker of treaties, a disturber 
of the peace, or is he not ? Was it incumbent 
on some Greek state to stand forward and resent 
all this, or ivag it not ? For if not, and if Greece 
must be made what we proverbially call a My- 
sian prey,:|; while the Athenians yet had life 
and being, assuredly I was undertaking a boot- 
less task in making these statements, and the 
country was doing a bootless thing in listening 

• Eirixnpwv w not " meditnting an expedition against" 
(Francis) but " laying hands upon." Nor is KarairiiimTiiiy 
" dismantling," (ibid.) but " digging up the very founda- 
tions'' — " razing to the ground ;" DawBon, " levelled to the 
ground ;" Wolff, " efodii ;" Leland, " razed." This whole 
passage is wonderfully fine. 

i ^uyaSuf. Wlij DaWBOn must add '■ traitors" I know 
nut. He makes him "fill" the cities with the exiles iustead 
of " dri»e them back." 

t \tiai' Muoni'. The weakneBs of the MysianB was pTi>- 
Yerbial, and many stories, jests, and songs turned on it. 
Hence this means a "by-word." But Dawson must add, 
" and limidly resign herself a prey to the first invader." 
He adds a whole figine to the ^uivtuii' lai oitoii; about 
waving banners at his head." 



to my councils — and then let all the faults com- 
mitted aud all the errors be mine! But, if some 
one was required to oppose Philip, who, save the 
people of Athens, could he found fit for the 
task ? Such then was my course of policy ; i 
and seeing that he threatened the freedom of 
all mankind, I opposed him, and persevered in 
foretelling and in forewarning you against yleld- 
inij to him. 

And he it was, jEschines, who broke the 
peace by the capture of our ships, not this 
country. Profluce the Decrees and his Letter, 
and read these documents in their order. For 
Iiy attending to them, it will appear clearly to 
whom each event must be ascribed. 

In the arclionsliip of Neocles, in the month 
of Boetlroniion, at an Extraordinary Assembly 
convened by tlie Strattigi. On the report of 
Eubulus, the son of Slnestheus, of Cyprus: 
^A''hereaB Leodamus, the ailmiral, and twenty 
vessels under his convoy, despatched to the Hel- 
lespont ibr the importation of corn, have been 
carried into Macedon by Amyiitiis, an ofBcer in 
Philip's service, and by him detained ; it is re- 
solved, that the Prytanes and Strategi take 
charge of calling together the senate and naming 




ibasBadors to Philip, which ambassadors shall 
their arrival deal with him for the release of 
le admiral, the vessels, and the troops ; and if 
.myntiis hath acted through ignorance, then 
that the People of Athens make no complaint 
of him ; if tlie party detained has exceeded his 
instructions, that the People of Athens, upon 
proof thereof, will punish him according to the 
nature of his fault ; but if neither of these things 
be the case, and either he who was sent upon 
this sei-vice or lie who sent him hath clan- 
destinely broken faith,* then that Philip be asked 
to writcf to the People upon the matter, in 
order to their taking into their consideration 
what shall he done-l 

iif ayvia/iorovinv, 19 thuB Tead by commentatorB } but 
how could taking a fleet be a secret operation ? If tSi^ 
could be rendered " on their own part," the sense would 
be plain. 

t Tovro ypa'j/ai \cytiv. It BceniB Philip that was to 
write; and so all translators have it except Francis, who 
makes it the ambaaaadorB, and Wolff, who has " id indi- 
candwn," altering the \Eyuv to htv. 

i Anything less like the style of Philip's letter than this 
inoi>t tame and spiritless production can hardly be con- 
ceived, Yet A disonne it, not for its waot of spirit, but to 
avoid being mode responsible for so rash a 
we see throughout the whole of the contest 
ODnsciousnesB on the one side of weakness i 
t atrength. All A's spirit and patriotisn 
y turn by this easential ingredient in h 

In truth 
withPliilip the 
id on the other 
are quelled at 


Now it was not I, but Eubulus, who pro- 
posed this Decree. The next was Aristophus's ; 
then came Hegesippus's ; then Aristophus' again; 
then Philocrates' ; then Cepliisophon's ; then all 
the rest: I had no concern with them. Read 
Aristophus' Decree. 

In the archonship of Neocles, the last day of 
Boedromion, by the advice of the Senate, the 
Prytanes and Strategi reported what had passed 
in the Assembly, to wit, that the People resolved 
to send ambassadors to Philip toucliing the re- 
lease of the vessels, and to communicate the in- 
structions and the Decrees of the Assembly. 
There were chosen as ambassadors Cephiso- 
phon, &c. In the Presidency of the tribe Hip- 
pothoontes, on the proposition of Aristophon of 

As, therefore, I produce these Decrees, do 
you also, jEschines, show some Decree of mine 
whereby I brought about t!ie war. But you 
have u»qc to show; for if you hud, nothing else 
would jou have brought foas^u^ in preference 
to that. And indeed even Pl^lip does not in 
any way lay the waji^ my charge ; for he 


others. But\ow read his own Letter. 

Philip, King of the Slacedoiiians, to the 
Senate and People of Athens, greeting. The 
ambassadors from you, Cephisophon, Demo- 
critus, and Polycritus, have repaired to me, and 
treated* of the release of the vessels under 
Ladomua's command. I consider you extremely 
simple if you suppose that the real destina- 
tion of those vessels to succour the Selynihnans, 
besieged by me, and not comprehended in the 
subsisting treaties between us, could have been 
concealed from me, albeit their pretended object 
was the exportation of grain from the Hellespont 
to Lemnos. Moreover, those orders were given 
I to the admiral, unknown to the Athenian people, 
f by certstin magistrates, and otiiera who are now 
I retired from office, t but who at all times are 

' Prands reodere hiXiyovro, " remonBtrated concerning 

f the diamiaHal of the shipB," which is ae if the remonBlrance 

I waB against that diBmiBsal. If "remonBtrate" be used, it 

I tnuBt be /or "the diamiBaal;" but the word is only to 

diacuBB or treat of. 

t i3iiunDi' yvv ovTiay, " now being in private stationB," is 

SB plain a phrase as plain can be ; yet DawBon must have 

" now retired from businesB aad living privately ;" as if it 

I confirmed a thiug to say it twice over. Leland, however, 

I reversee the sense, and has, without any meaning, as with- 

»ny warrant, "others, in no private station." The 

I whole of Leland'B trnnslatiou of this fine piece (the Letter) 


desirous to plunge the people into a war contrary 
to tlie relations of aniity prevailing between us, 
and are much more anxious to end that amity 
than to succour the Selynitriiins ; and from this 
course tliey expect to profit ; hut I do not deem 
it likely to benefit either you or me. Where- 
fore I send back those vessels which have been 
brought into our ports ; and henceforth if you 
will not follow leaders who give you evil 
council, but visit them with punishment, I too 
shall do my endeavour to maintain the peace. 
Fare ye well !* 

In this letter he nowise alludes to Demo- 
sthenes, nor makes any complaint against me. 
Wherefore, then, when accusing others, does he 
make no meution of my proceedings ? Beciiuse, 

is loose tind [laraphraBtjcal : atTi uTEpxet/irnc ^iXiac he 
raakea " vinlute their engagements ;" roiouroc he calls "such 
a rupture." Philip simply asye, " I don't think this will 
profit either you or me." Leland makea him say, " Per- 
suaded as I am that our mutual iuterests rtquire us to 
fruBtrate euch wicked schemes" — a most violent addition. 
eTTiri^nrt he renders "let them feel the severity of your 
justice." This is really not the way to translate either A 
or Philip. 

* The style, for dignity and expreBsioTi, of this letter is 
equul to the policy which dictated it. The Athenians ap- 
pear tu little advantage in the contrast with this great 
though ambitious and unscrupulous prince. Even A adopts 

a low if not a whining U 

n comparison. 

had he spoken of me, he must have commemo- 
rated his own wrong-doinga. To these I had 
stuck, to these opposed myself. First I ob- 
t^ned hy Decree an emlmssy to Peloponnesus, 
the momtint he was seen creeping up* towards 
Peloponnesus — then another to Eubcea, when 
he threatened Eubcea — then an expedition to 
Oreum, not a mission — and another to Eretria, 
when he planted tyrants in those cities. After- 
wards I sent all the navid armaments by which 
the Chersonese, and Byzantium, and all our 
allies were saved. From all these measures 
were derived to you the noblest results — eulogies 
— glories— honows— crowns — the grntitude of 
those whom you saved^ — while they^vliom Philip 
had maltreated.t if they followed your councils, 
secured their own salvation ; if they neglected 
your repeated warnings, had the persuasion that 
you not only had their interests at lieart but 
were sagacious and prophetic men ; for everV" 
thing came to pass as you liad foretold. 

• itapatt,«, is Boraething mure than tpwi^m, which '^ 
crawling like a. aerpeiit. It is from Sim, to come wp . ^„(>a 
Svu is, to creep up tu a level. * 

t .!.«,«,.,.. Lel.nd maccount.W, re„j|,„ ,y, „^^^^ 
.ho h.d injured ,,.," .here., it i, p.„i„,. ,,4 „ ,1 

clflUBe shows the imijossibihty of his versioj, for i aVB 
of one cl.„ of the .(-„.,.„, „„ ' foife^JI'tW 
Alheniaii councils. D«"--""" := -■ l. ■> * . . 

presKd people." 

right Kcte— " i^eac: op- 

And now that Philistides would have given a 
great deal* to keep Oreuin, and Clitarclms a 
great deal to keep Eretria, and Philip himself a 
great deal to retain those advanced posts against 
you, and not to be chai-ged with all those other 
outrages, nor be called to account for the 
wrongs he was everywhere perpetrating, no one 
is ignorant, and you.^schines, least of all men. 
For the ambassadors who came to us from Cli- 
tarchus and Philistides lived at your house and 
you did the honours'^ of the city to them. The 
state, indeed, sent them away as enemies, and as 
urging what was neither honourable nor becom- 
ing ; yet they were your friends. Thus none of 
all you have stated is true.J thou reviler, who 

* The repetition of the phra 
simplicity is striking. In 
qaile admissible, anij is often i 
emphasis is laid on " great," on 
troduced by way of climax. 

t Tpov^Ei'oi — were those api>ointed to do the honours or 
exercise the public hoapitality to Htrangera of note; as in 
1814, persons nf distinction were appointed to attend foreign 
princes visiting this country, and more recently when the 
Sandwich Island chiefs and Russian princes visited us. 

I The great distance between this and the antecedent to 
which it refers, makes me strongly incline to think that the 
real meaning of ou roiyov twpa-}(Ori rovriav ovhv is " None of 
these suegeations were followed ;" the last antecedent being 
ovT£ SiKata oirre (ru/z^poi'm. AH the translators, however, 
choose the other sense, going back a page or two for ao 
antecedent, contrary to all likelihood. 

jToXXa ^ij^nra and its 
the figure would be 
ith effect. Then the 
' very" is in- 



can yet charge nie with keeping silence whea I 
take a bribe, and bawling out wben I have spent 
it. That, indeed, is not your way ; you both 
bellow when you have got your bribe, and will 
never cease to bellow until tliis assembly shall 
stop your mouth this day by stamping you with 

When, therefore, for these services you 
crowned me, and when Aristonicus framed the 
Decree in the very syllables * now employed by 
Ctesiphon ; when the coronation was announced 
in the theatre, and a second proclamation thus 
fell to my share ; jEschines, who was present, 
neither opposed it nor impeached the author of 
the proceeding. Read me then that Decree. 

In the archonship of Charondas, the 25th of 
Gameliou, in the presidency of the Leontian tribe, 
on the proposition of Aristonicus of Phreara : 
Whereas Demosthenes, the son of Demosthenes 
of the Pseanian tribe, hath rendered many and 
great services to the Athenian People, and to 
many of their allies, and both heretofore and at 
tliis present time hath by his Decrees succoured 
and freed several of the Eubcean states, and still 

■ nWa^ai — we rather say " the very words" 
n" than syllables. 

perseveres in his zeal for the Athenian People, 
and both councils and does whatever in him lies 
for the henefit of the said People ami the rest of 
Greece ; it h^th pleased the Senate and People 
of Athens to signalise Demosthenes, the son of 
Demosthenes of the Pseanian tribe, and to 
crown him with a crown of gold, and to proclaim 
tiie coronation in the theatre by means of the 
new Dionysian performers ; directing the pre- 
siding tribe and tlie superintendant of games to 
take charge of the proclamation of the crown. 
On the motion of Aristonicusof Phreara.* 

Is there one of you who conceives the state 
to have suffered any disgrace from this Decree, 
or that there was anything despicable or laugh- 
able in it, as he says would now follow from my 
being crowned ? But as these transactions are 
recent and notorious, if they were right, they 
will receive commendation ; if wrong, punish- 
ment. I, however, must be admitted to have 
received thanks upon the occasion, and not cen- 
sure or punishment. 

Wherefore, down to the time when these 
things were transacted, it is confessed that my 

• The difficulty of i's Greek, and the difference of or- 
dinary Greek composition, is not anywhere more perceptible 
than when the language of these Decrees is compared with 
hla diction. 



leasures were ever conducive to the public 
whensoever in your deliberations I could 
)revail, in favour of the Decrees which I pro- 
lounded ; that when my Decrees were acted 
upon, crowns were bestowed on the country and 
on me ; and that you offered up sacrifices and 
thanksgivings to the gods for the fortunate con- 
duct of your affairs. But after Philip was driven 
from Eubcea by your arms, by my councils and 
decrees, however, (let some of these men burst if 
they will !*) he sought out some new mode of 
beleaguering our state. Perceiving that we con- 
sumed a greater ([uantity of foreign grain than 
any other nation, he became eager to make him- 
self master of the corn-trade, marched upon 
Thrace, and urged the Byzantians, his confede- \. 
rates, to join him in attacking you. But when 
ihey refused, aud alleged most truly that their 
alliance with him extended not to this, he drew 
his works round their city, planted his batteriesf 

\ppay<aat. The strength of the figure is Bgain an in- 
stance of the character already cited fromAthenreiia. There 
ia no mention of " envy" here, though Leland and the 
other English translators add it, A may have meant spite, 
impatience, hatred, revenge, ox well as envy, the addition nf 
which is to assign a vaiaglorintis meaning. Leland trans- 
lateB the whole pariiphrftBticQlly — rendering uttXoic v^uv, 
" the military glory was yours," in order to work out the 

+ x"P'">''^/^'"'" — circumvallations, worka — fitiyavTiiiaTa, 

against it, and fonned the siege. In these cir- 
cumstances, I will Dot ask what course we were 
called upon to pursue, for that is manifest to 
ali. But who was it that succoured the Byzan- 
tiana and saved them ? Who that prevented 
the Hellespout at that juncture from being 
alienated ? You, men of Athens. But when 
I name you, I mean the whole country. But 
who was it that councilled the country, and pro- 
pounded the Decree, and carried the measures, 
and unsparingly, and without reserve, devoted 
himself to your service? It was I. And how 
much these things advanced the common in- 
terests needs not be learnt from words ; you 
have felt it in the results ; for the war which 
was undertaken, independent of the splendid 
glory which it brought you, made all the neces- 
saries of life more ahundant and cheaper than 
they were in time of that peace which these 
worthy persons would have you maintain against 
the best interests of their country, in the hopes 
of somethmg happeuinjr hereafter, (hopes which 
I pray may he disappointed,) nor share in those 
blessings which you, in your patriotic courses, 
have supplicated the gods to grant, nor mete 
out to you the boons they choose for themselves .' 
But read tliem the Byzantian and Perintliian 

e II gioEB — catapults — bal te rl ( 
trench round the walla" is r 


Crowns, bestoired on this country for its services 
to those states. 


In the pontificate of Bosporicus, Damagetus 
thus reported to the Senate, having ohtained 
leave to speak — Whereas the People of Athens, 
having on all former occasions steadily befriended 
the Byzantians and their allies, and their kins- 
men, the Perinthians, have, in the present 
juncture, conferred great and important hene- 
fits upon them, and when Pliilip of Macedon 
invaded the country and the cities of the Byzan- 
tians and Perinthians, ravaged their territories, 
and cut down their timber, did send 120 ships 
laden with grain, arms, and troops, whereby 
they rescued us from great perils, and restored 
to us the constitution, the laws, and the sepul- 
chres of our forefathers ; may it therefore please 
the People of Byzantium and Perinthus to con- 
fer upon the Athenians the rights of marriage, 
citizenship, property in lands and bouses," pre- 
cedence at spectacles, admission to the senate 
and assemblies near the ministers of religion ; 
also to sucli as desire to reside in the city, ex- 
emption from serving compulsory offices ;"!" and 

• oiadv in some readiugg- Reiake Buggests oi'Cinc, cor- 
rectly it should seem. 

FranciB iind Dawson and Leland render nXtirovpyijTo.j 

to direct that three statues, of sixteen cubits 
high, he erected on the Bosphorus, indicating 
that tlie Athenian People have been crowned hy 
the People of Byzantium and Perinthus ; and 
that proclamations • be despatched to the solemn 
meetings of Greece, the Isthmian, Nemean, 
Olympian, and Pythian, to announce the crown- 
ing by us of the Athenians, to the end that all 
the Greeks may know the merits of the Athe- 
nians, and the gratitude of Byzantium and Pe- 

Head now the Chersonesitan Decree of co- 

The Chersonesitans, inhabitants of Sestus, 
Eleus, Madytus, Halonesus, crowned the Senate 
and People of Athens with a golden croivn of 
sixty talents' value, and erected an altar to gra- 
titude and the Athenian People, for having 
conferred on the Chersonesitans the greatest of 

tl/icv iraaav rav Xitrovpyiav, " eseraption from all taxes 
and impuHtB." Wolffhas it " immunitatem omnium onerum 
civiliTim,'' But the word Xnravpyia means " serving an 

* Rcieke lias Btwpioc — Wolff and others Si^peac- The 
former ecema the preferable reading. Why preaenta were 
to be sent to the games, and who was to receive them, is 
hard to understand. Francis, Dawson, and Leland, how- 
ever, all read Jtuptac. 

all benefits in rescuing from the hands of Philip, 
and rest<jring to them, their country, theii- laws, 
their liberty, their religion. Nor will they 
ever, through all ages, cease to be grateful for 
the same, and to do the Athenians all the good 
in their power. Decreed in Public Council. 

Not only, then, were the Byzantians and Pe- 
rinthians saved ; not only was Philip prevented 
from seizing upon the Hellespont ; not only was 
this country honoured for these achievements, 
through my measures and my policy ; but the 
unsullied integrity of Athens, and the iniquity of 
Philip were made manifest to all maukind. For 
it was seen by all that he who was the friend 
and ally of the Byzantians had laid siege to their 
capital, than which what could be conceived 
more scandalous, more mean?" But you, who 
had so many and such just grounds of complaint 
for their misdeeds in times past, were seen not 
only unwilling to remember your own wrongs, 
or to desert those who were themselves suffering 
under injustice, hut anxious to save them; and 
liiUB you gained glory and favour and lionour 

' Francia gets rid of thia line exclaniBtion, and makee it 
B parentbesis ; he renders aiaxiov infamous, though shame- 
ful or scandalous is better. Wolff has " fcsdiua aut scelera- 
tiuB." Dawson, '' base and iniquitous." LelBnil, " n 
baser, a more abandoned outrage." 


with all. Now evei7 one knows that many of 
our statesmen have been crowned by you. But 
no one can name any individual, save myself, I 
mean any minister or orator, through whom the 
country has been crowned. 

Now, in order to show that all the invectives 
which he has levelled against the Euboeans and 
Ryzantians, as often as he made mention of their 
having done any thing vexatious* towards you, 
are pure calumnies, not only because they are 
utterly false (for that I imagine is already plain 
enough to your apprehension), but because, even 
if they were well founded, still the course which 
I pursued, in administering your affairs, was the 
most expedient, I will advert to one or two 
transactions which took place with glory to the 
country, and I will do so very briefly. For it 
becomes individuals in their private concerns, 
and the state in public affairs, to shape their 
subsequent conduct in consistency with the 
brightest passages of their former lives.t 

"T( Siiaxepts ia rendered " errorB'' by Francis, though 
il means unhandy, hurtful, vexalious, and is ahnoat the 
reverse of mere misCake. Accordingly Leland calle it 
" offencEi." DawBOD has made a word " diskindnesa"' for 
the DCCasioQ. 

t Francis has well rendered the meauing here. Stock 
leavCB it doiihtful by putting ''esempla q«BB sibi estant;" 
though adding " reliquaa actiones " seeraB to ascertain the 
"exempla." Dawson's '' eiugle out the most illustrious es- 



You, then, men of Athena, when the S| 
tans had the Hscendant by land and by sea, 
held all Attica round under their control and 
keeping, and Eubcea, and Tanagra, and all 
Bceotia, Megara, jEgina, Cleone, and the other 
islands, while this country had neither ships nor 
bulwarks, you marehe<l to Hatiartua, and a few 
days after to Corinth, at a moment when you 
had many grounds of complaint* against the 
Corinthians and the Thebans for their conduct 
in the Decelian war. But you remembered tliem 
not; nothing of the kind; and this, iEschines, 
the people did, not because of any benefit 
received, or because they descried no perils ; 
but because they would not cast off those 
who had fled to them for refuge, nay, would 
rather expose themselves to all dangers, rightlyf 
and nobly consulting their own glory and ho- 
nour. For death happens to all men at the 
last, even if they flee for sal'ety to the cellar ; J 

Spar- I 

El, and 1 

It the least. Xoiira leaves ii 
n putting inipatfOai irparTtiv, 1 

amplea" is also doubtful i 
doubt. Francis is wrong i. 

• firqiricaKtio-ai. Wolff has " caueas simultatum " {ha- 
berent). Stock " injuriao recordari et objicere;" but there 
s no " objicere" in the Greek, 

t opflwc — Francis: " conauhing their inlereat." Dawaon, 
' DO less huiiCBt than heroic." Leiand very prolixly, " and 
surely their delenni nation was just and generous." 

J Kaflfipjnc ri/pi- Literally, may shut himself up fur 

but the brave must ever attempt glorious deeds, 
animated by fair hope, and boldly resolved to 
endure whatever lot Heaven may send. Thus 
did our forefathers, thus did the more aged 
among yourselves, when you opposed the The- 
bans, after the battle of Leuctra, in theii' inva- 
sion of the Spartans, who were neither your 
friends nor benefactors, but had committed 
many and serious wrongs against this country; 
opposed * them, undismayed by their power or 
the glory they then possessed, nor caring what 
those had done in whose behalf you were about 
to encounter dangers. You thus declared to all ^ 
the Greek states, that whatever any of them 

defence- Francis, " hide himself for safety." DawBon, 
" the most Hecret inclu»urcB (oi>.-[iri.-y) cannot guard agaioBt 
it." Leland, " into whatever comer he may Bhriok from the 
inevitable blow" — the blow being & figure kindly lent to A. 
As DiKioKoe means a ceHar or other secret recess, why it should 
be left out, when it greatly aids the pictureaque description, 
is inconceivable. If cellar BCema too low, it may be rendered 
" if he Beeks safety in the most secret lurking place." 

* Francis and Taylor think a verb cfiotiBtjaav wanting 
here ta govern " Spartans." It seems, however, oaly nn 
inversion, and the tTTi-^^upovv govetnB AaKcSaifxcfiotrc. Wolff 
is, ae usual, nght, and so are Dawson and Leland ; although 
the latter wholly mistranslateB cat Sa^ay, making it the 
motive of the Athenians, whereas it is coupled with piu^i/c 
by the plain sense, the want of another verb to connect it 
with the Athenians, and the verb virapxovaav, which covers 
both substantives. 


might have done to iojure you, you reserved your 
displeasure for the proper occasion ; aud that if 
they came to be in jeopardy of their security or 
their liberty, you neither remembered the inj ary, 

•nor called them to account. 
Nor was it only then that such were your 
dispositions; but when again the Thebans 
claimed Euboaa, you did not leave them to their 
fate; you did not bear in mind the injuries you 
had sustained from Theniison and Theodorus 
respecting Oropus, but you succoured even them 
from the time that voluntary trierarclis were 
made, of whom I was one. But we are not yet 
come to tliat point. You acted nobly, however, 
in saving the island; but far more nobly stillj 
when, after gaining possession both of troops 
and towns,* you restored both to those who had 
wronged you, nor exacted any reparation for 
thdr injuries from those who now put their trust 
io you. 

I Numberless things which I might here add, 

'UfiUTiiiv KUi irdktiMiv. Moat traDslaCora render this 
inhabitants and cities," aa if the allusiou were to aparing 
jtheir Uvea. Apparently owftariuv refers to the aoldieiy, 
Iwcause awohm'at applies to giving hack thoae who had been 
Mved as prisoners ; auijiaTa is useil often in contradia- 
tinctioQ to )(jif(fi(ira, aa the French speak of the personnel 
ftnd materiel of an army, It is a!ao used for alavea, or such 

I men as can be held in property. This may be iU meaning 

I pass over; sea-fights, expeditions by land,* 
armanieiits uiitlertaken both in former times and 
of late by yourselves — all which the country did 
for the liberties and the safety of the rest of 
Greece. When, therefore, I saw that in such 
and so great emergencies she was determined to 
exert herself for the interests of others, what 
was I to urge or what advise her to do when 
the case in some sort became her own ? Was 
I, good heavens ! to make her remember the 
aggressions of those who wanted to be saved by 
her, and seek out pretexts for betraying the in- 
terests of all ? And who is there that might 
not have been justified in putting nie to death 
had I attempted by a single word of mine to 
tarnish the country's glories? For that you 
yourselves were incapable of doing such a thing 
I full well knew. Had you been so disposed, 
what was there to hinder you ? Had you not 
full power ? Were not those very men at hand 
ready enough to recommend it ? 

1 would now revert to my measures in their 
order; and do you again consider what in the 
circumstances was most for the public benefit. 
When 1 saw, Athenians, that your navy was de- 
caying; that the wealthier classes were escaping 

■ Lelaiid ia right in reudering irtf ac, literally " on foot." 
ae denoting land, in contradistinction to the favfia^ffa^. 
Wolff joins it with urpurfinc. 


all taxes by paying an insignificant contribution, 
while the citizens in moderate or in poor cir- 
.eumstances were sacrificing all they had ; and 
that the country was thus losing the means of 
acting until the occasion had passed by ; I car- 
ried a law by which I compelled the rich to 
contribute their share, and protected the poor 
irom being oppressed, and I provided what was 
most advantageous to the countiy, that all war- 
like preparations should be ready at the proper 
time. Being impeached for Illegal* Propo- 
sition, I appeared before you — I was acquitted — 
d my accuser had not a fifth part of your 
votes. But then how much, think you, the first 
class of citizens, or those in the second, or even in 
the third rank, would have given me not to carry 
this law, or if I must, then that I should suffer 
it to be frustrated by taking the Oath of Post- 
ijmnement ?t So much, Athenians, that I dare j 

* ypa^Eic rov aytava rov Trapamfiiav. It was properly 
iincoDBtitutional rather thao illegal ; but having always ren- 
dered the phraee ae a technical term, which the ypa^i 
f,*apayouuiv was, it is better to adhere to the Batne words. 
+ eoro/JoXojra tdi' tv v-iiuifiomif must menu as in the 
text. Leland tranBktea the last wurd " affected cavil and 
delay." But the word relets to the oath takeu when a 
trial wns postponed for cause, to go on with it another day. 
OaWBon is wrong in translating i-nra/3a\ovTii "defer," it 
^Si "frustrate — defeat." 

toKV<o;ioiiB"Idare not," or "1 am slow," or " unwilU 


not state it in this place ; and it was worth their 
while to do so. For by the old laws they could 
comhine sixteen together* to hear one assessment, 
so as to pay little or nothing individually while 
they ground down the poorer citizens ; hut my 
law provided that each should contrihute ac- 
cording to his means; so that the same person 
now gives two galleys, who had Ijefore con- 
tributed only the sixteenth part of one ; nor 
indeed did they call themselves trierarchs, but 
contributors. Hence there was nothing they 
would not have given to defeat me and escape 
being compelled to contribute their fair pro- 
portion. Now first read me the Decree by 
which it was prosecuted, and then the Assess- 
ment, both according to the old law and accord- 
ing to mine. 

ing," not "I am aBhamed;" yet Leland, Francis, and 
O&WEon all have the latter. WoIfF, " non audpo." 

" irvvtKi;athKa \iiTovpytty is literally, " sixteen together 
fill the uffice," and accordingly Wolff has it "munera 
obire." But the sense ie plainly as Id the textj for 
the manner of ^BeBBingwftH to ajipoint those who should fur- 
nish ships, trierarchs, which was an office cntailinj^ on the 
holder the providing a galley, and no other duty seems to 
have heiouged to it ; as if we should, instead of allowing 
men to raise regiments for rank and ihen to command 
them, oblige them to raise regiments and not let them have 
the command. The plan of ship-money in the seventeenth 
century resembled this, counties being ordered to find a 
ship or ships. 


In the archonship of Polycles, the 16th of 
the month Boedromion, and the presidency of 
the tribe Hippothois, Demosthenes, the son of 
Demosthenes of the Pfeanian tribe, brought 
forward a law upon the duty of trierarchs, in- 
stead of the former law, whereby the naval con- 
stitutions were regulated, and the Senate and 
the People decreed accordingly; and Patrocles, 
of the Phlyan tribe, impeached Demosthenes of 
Illegal Proposition, but not obtaining the fifth 
part of the votes, he was fined in fifty drachms.* 

Produce now the fine old assessment. 


Let I trierarchs for providing a galley be 

named in bodies of sixteen, according to their 

contributions in tribes, from 25 to 40 years of 

age, and let them bear the expense of this office 

, equally. 

I • After omitting to mark the difference of atyle, as has 
been nbove obierved, Leiand here all at once becomes 
formal aud teclmical wbea the original is not, and renders 
the simple conjunction kqc " Be it remembered," 

t Francis omita the first part of the asBeBsment alto- 

Ugether; it is not easy to see why. 


Produce now, to compaie with that, the as- 
sessment according to my law. 


Let trierarchs be chosen for providing one 
galley according to their means, from among 
those rated at ten talents ; but if their substance ■ 
be found greater by the rate, then let the burden 
be laid in the aforesaid proportion, as far as 
three galleys and a boat. But let the same pro- 
portion be observed as to those whose fortune 
is under ten talents, they being joined together 
in order to make up ten talents. 

Do I now appear to you as having but little 
holpen the poor ? Or think you that the rich 
would give but little to escape paying their 
just share ? Wiierefore I glory, not because I 
yielded not to the latter, or because I was ac- 
quitted OH the impeachment ; but because I 
enacted a beneficial law, and that I have proved 
it such by its working. For whUe fleets were 
fitted out according to its provisions during the 
whole war, not a single trierarch ever preferred 
a complaint to you of unjust treatment — none 
took sanctuary in ftlunycliia* — none were impri- 

" A temple of Diana in that promonWiy afforded eanc- 
tuary BgaiTist esecution under sentencCB of courta ; but 


Ethe naval superiors — no galley cap- 
ad was lost to the country — none were 

left at home incapable of putting to sea. Yet all 
these things used to happen under the old law, 
owing to the poor being made to bear the bur- 
den ; many cases, therefore, of their incapability 
occurred, But I transferred the galley service 
from the needy to the wealthy ; and then all 
was accomplished that could be required. On 
this account, therefore, I may justly challenge 
applause for pursuing the policy from which 
both glory and honour and power resulted to the 
country, while in that policy there was nothing 
invidious, or harsh,* or malignant ; nothing ab- 
ject or unwortliy of Athens ; and it is mani- 
fest that I administered in the same spirit our 
domestic affairs and those of Greece at large ; 
for I neither in regard to this country preferred 
the favour of the rich to the rights of the people ; 
nor in regard to our foreign policy did I value 

■the largesses and the hospitality of Philip above 

VUhe common interests of tlie Greek states. 'yC 

lie i 

It remains for nie, I conceive, to speak of the ' 

court of appeal in nautical 

some hold thie to alhide 
c&uses held there. 

• irirpoy ia harah ; but 

t aome, as Daweu 
ind others, as Iceland, rancour. ftarTKar: 
18, from both the derivation and the 
e it, though DuwgoQ muBt needs add ' 
i A'b negation force. 

L, call it spleen ; 
V ia plainly invi- 

Proclamation and of the Accounts ;* for I think 
I have su6&ciently shown, by what I have stated, 
that I always acted for the best, was zealous in 
your service, and bent upon pursuing your good. 
The greater part of my policy and my conduct, 
however, I pass over, considering in the first 
place that I liave to discuss fully the charge of 
Illegal Proposition, and next, that should I say 
nothing of my other measures, the conscience 
of each of you would be my witness before you. 
As to those arguments which, in utter confu- 
sion,t he has flung out about his comparative 
exhibition of the laws, J I protest, I neither con- 

• The Greek ib only rmv ivdwuir. Francis ie clearly 
right ill the meaning, but gives a paraphrase, not a transla- 
tion — " the obligation of passing my accounts before I am 
crowned." This habit of weakening the sense, sniolhering it 
with woids, is what makes A appear bq unlike himself in 
most trunBlations. Wolffs " rationibiiB referendia" is made 
uecessary by the Latin having no word answering to our 
" accountant.'" 

t ai'ai KOI KariiJ liai.-vKiai' . Dawson has rendered this, 
"tedious and perplesed harangue;" but why tedious? 
Francis, " confused and perplexed." Leland, "confusion 
and erabarraBament." Wolff, " sursum et deorsum per- 
mistos." Literally, " confused, topsy-turvy." 

t TTfpi Ttjy itapayeypnfificviiiv, Francis, following Tay- 
lor, is clearly right here. The phrase refers to the laws 
of which j^schines had theatrically exhibited a copy, lo 
show how ihey had been violated. niipaypai]jiii is to write 
side by side, or copy. Wolff's " legia esceptivic " is no 

^■eeive that you comprehend them, nor could I 
^^ myself follow the greiitei- part of them. But I 
shall plainly and in a etraightforward way argue 
the point of law. So far am I from contending 
against my being accountable, as he has now 
more than once falsely and distinctly affirmed, 
that I admit myself to be all my life long an- 
swerable for whatever I have*ver either under- 
taken* or administered in tour service. But 
respecting those gifts which, in performance of 
promises,t I made to the people from my private 
fortune, I deny that I am accountable for a 

»HtEgle day. Do you hear, ^schines ? Nor is 
iny other person accountable ; no, nor any one 
TPho may happen to be among the Archons. For 
where is the law so full :[; of injustice and cruelty 
as to strip of all the graces of generosity the 
man who has been lavish of his fortune upon the 
public in the performance of benevolent and mu- 

■nlficent deeds, leaving him a prey to false ac- 
cusers, and arming them >vith the power of call- 
tanalation at all, if it has any meaning at all. Dawson 
■inks the phrase in the convenient way, not unusual with 
tTBBsla tors, who are indolent or ignorant; he being of the 
former class. Leland has " his authentic trauacript of the 

^ * iiaKiX"pi'!t — fJ«e in hand, had in hand, 

' t ewayyuXaficiioc icZiuxa clearly means as in the test. 

■ t /jeffToc — perhaps " loaded, stuffed," Francis, " fiill." 
HWBOD oinitB it. Leland, " pregnant," Wolff, " plena." 

ing him to account for the gifts which he has 
given?* There is nowhere such a law. If he 
tjuys there is, let him produce It, and I shall sit 
down and be silent. But there is no such law, 
Athenians. But this Ciilumniator, because, when 
superintendent of theatres, I spent money of my 
own, affirms that the senate has pronounced a 
panegyric upon a public accountant. It was not 
for any such expenditure as made ine an account- 
imt, calumniator ; it was for my voluntary gifts. 
" But then," says he, " you were also Superin- 
tendent of the Wall Repairs." And so on this 
very ground was I eulogized, because I made 
a free gift of the sums expended, and did not 
charge them as expenditure. For expenditure 
implies accountants and auditors, but donations 
justly call for thanks and praise. Hence this 
decree (of Ctesiphon) in my favour. 

Now that all this is not only sanctioned by 
our laws, but established by our common feel- 

• Tovrouc tTi rag tuSwi-af tijiirjTavat — to place them over 
(oi as BUperinteiideiits of) accounts — to make them audi- 
tors. The phrase is very fine, to express the unreasonable- 
neas of so treating voluntary contributors. FranciB and 
Dawson lose it entirely, the one having " make them judges 
of his liahilicy," (which is not the sense at all ;) the other, 
■' esaminera and judges," which would have been better 
without the "judges." Leland loses the true meaning, 
hut gives a goodturu of another kind^" give them a power 
to scrutinize his hountj." Wolff, as usual, has the meaning, 
though here he is long, '' rationibus reposcendis prteRciat " 

* I shall easily show by many proofs. For 
first, Nausicles, when Strategus, was frequently 
crowned by you, in consideration of the sums 
which he expended from his private fortune; 
next, Diotimus, for the shields which he gave, 
and afterwards Charidemus, were both crowned. 
Then Neoptolemus standing there, who was 
superintendent of many public works, obtained 
honours for the money he gave towards them. 
It would indeed be hard f if a man in office were 
not suffered to give his own money towards the 
expenses of his own department, or were to 
be made a public accountant in respect of the 
sums so given, instead of receiving the thanks 
of the country. To prove the truth of what I 
say, read me the Decrees made respecting those 
whom I have named. 


In thearchonshipof Demonicusofthe Phlyan 

• ijOiaiv, not iOsuii; which translators, including eveu 
Woltf, have auppoaed it to be when they rendered it 
cuBtoma or usagCB. J *,>i' <.u'^^ '\'>' i- 

t irxeTSinv — Francis, " It would he deplorable." 
Though this is the meaning of the word, and if A were 
looking to the effects on the public service of the course he 
is deprecating, this might be the right translution, yet it 
seems as if he were only arguing on the treatment of the 
benefactor, in which case hard, or cruel, another meaaing, 
IB the right one. Dawaon, " Hard would be the lot." Le- 
Und, " Hard," Wolff, " Acerbum." 


tribe, and on the 26tli of Boedromion, by the 
advice of the Senate and People, CalHas of 
Phreara declared tliat it has pleased the Senate 
and People that Nausicles, general of infantry, 
be crowned, for that 2000 Athenian heavy 
troops being in Imbrus, and aiding the Athe- 
nian inhabitants of the said Island, and Philo, 
the superintendent of finance, not being able, 
by reason of the tempestuous weather, either 
to make sail or to pay the said troops, Nau- 
sicles contributed his own money, and did 
not charge the public; and further, that the 
Coronation he proclaimed at the exhibition of 
the new tracedians. 


Callias of Phreara, upon the rejjort of the 
Prytanes, after consulting the Senate, declared 
that, whereas Charidemus, general of in- 
fantry, being sent with the fleet to Salamis, 
and Diotimus, general of cavaliy, when sundry 
soldiers had been despoiled by the enemy at the 
battle fought near the river, did, at their own 
charge, equip the new recruits with 800 shields ; 
it hath therefore pleased the Senate and People 
that Charidemus and Diotimus be crowned with 
a golden crown, and that proclamation thereof 
be mjide at the great festival of Minerva, in the 
Gymnical contest, and at the Dionysian exhibi- 

[ tioii of the new tragedians ; and thiit the Thes- 
I raothetes, Prytanes, and Prefects of Games 
take charge of the proclamation. 

Every one of those men, ^schinea, was a i 
public accountant in the office which he held, 
but was not an accountant in respect of those 
things for which he was crowned. Wherefore, 
neither am I an accountant ; for I have, in 
eveiy res-pect, the same rights with them. I 
gave money to the state, and was thanked for it, 
not called to account for what I gave. I was 
in office, and I rendered an account of what 
appertained to my office, not of what I freely 
bestowed. But then, forsooth, it seems 1 exer- 
cised my office wrongfully,* Then why did 
not you impeach me, — you who were present 
when the auditors cited me to answer ? To show 
you, therefore, that he is himself the witness 
of my being crowned for the expenditure about 
I which I had not to render any account, pro<luce 

* aciKbis ipv'- Francis exceeds himself and all other 
paraphraaiana here. These two words he spins into, " I 
have lieen guilty of strange miBdemeanors in the discharge 
of these employments." Is not this really making a speech 
for A ? Then why must a new person, " the secretary," 
be called in to read this decree ? A only says, take and 
read. The omission of jrpojJouXtw/ia, previous order, is also 
. quite wrung. Francis, instead of this, says, " every article." 

unci read the whole Decree concerning me ; for, 
from the things which are not charged in that 
previous Decree, be will appear to be a false 
accuser in his present charge. — Read. 

In the aichonship of Euthycles, the 22d of 
Pyanepsion, and the presidency of the (Enei- 
dian tribe, on the proposition of Ctesiphon, 
the son of Leosthenes the Anaphlystian : — 
Whereas Demosthenes, the son of Demosthenes 
the Peeanian, being Curator of the Wall 
Repairs, and having advanced three talents out 
of his private fortune towards the works, did 
give the same to the people, and being Superin- 
tendent of the Theatrical Fund, did give to the 
theatrical fund of all the tribes one hundred 
minse towards the expense of sacrifices; it hath 
therefore pleased the Senate and People of 
Athens to honour Demosthenes, the son of 
Demosthenes the Peeanian, on account of his 
merit and the public spirit ivhich, on every 
occasion, he perseveringly displays towards the 
Athenian People ; that he be crowned with a 
crown of gold ; and that proclamation be made 
thereof in the theatre at the Dionysian ex- 
hibition of the new tragedians. The super- 
intendent of games is charged with having the 
proclamation made. 




That, therefore, is what I gave, and you have 
made no mentioD of it in your Charge ; but 
what the senate ordered to he given to me in 
return was that for which you are impeaching 
me. While, then, you confess that it is lawful 
to receive my gifts, do you charge as illegal the 
gratitude of the people in return? Good Hea- 
vens ! what manner of man can he be who is 
utterly profligate, and hateful to the gods, and 
truly detestable ? * Is not he precisely sui-h a 
one as this ? 

Then as to the proclamation in the theatre, I ^ 
pass over its having been done thousands of 
thousands of times, and myself having been 
often before crowned there. But, gracious 
Heavens ! ^schines, are you perverse "f and 

• jiamcavoc (UTiuc, truly envious, ia the ordinary Bense; 
but after trafiKoyripos and diott ex^P°s *^'* would be an anti- 
climax, while l3aaKavoe is used for nefarious, or abandoned, 
or detestable. Francis gives it " possesBed with the most 
malignant apirit of envy;" wordB enough, Burely, if that 
would suffice, to raise the aeuae above the antecedent epi- 
thets. Dawson, on the other hand, has not one ; but, to 
make up for leaving out ^UKavat and Qtoii iyppoQ, he ex- 
pands ov% b Toiovtoi into " And yet does not jEschines 
own himself to be a man of these detestable principles ?" 
Leland has " malignant wretch," and puts Otoie i\Opoi' 
after it, to help A apparently out of this anticlimax. 
Wolff, " revera lividus." 

t (TTOioc is rendered " perversely absurd " by Frftncis, 
and by Dawson " weak :" avaitrdi)To^ eeeras to implv the 


senseless to such a pitch, as not to perceive that 
the crown bestows the same glory wherever it 
may be proclaimed, and that the proclamation 
in the theatre is only for the benefit of those 
who confer the crown ? For thus all the spec- 
tators are stimulated well to serve their country, 
and they applaud those who bestow more than 
those who receive the crown. Wherefore the 
state enacted this law. But take now and 
read it. 


What persons soever shall be crowned in any 
of the provinces, let the proclamations thereof 
be made in those provinces severally, unless any 
shall be crowned by the Senate and People of 
Athens. Of such it shall he permitted to make 
proclamation in the theatre at the Dionysian 

Do you hear, ^schines, the law distinctly 
saying, " Unless any be crowned by the senate 
and people ; but these may be proclaimed in 

absurdity BufEciently ; and A never repeats or throws away 
any epithet. The meaning is '' perverse,'' from iTKaiui, to 
halt or limp; and denotes here a judgment maimed ox per- 
verted by apite. Wolff's " vecors el stupidus" comes 
pretty near. The Frenchman, as usual, eacapeB by sup- 
pression, making " ^tes vous assez dtSpourvu de seas " serve 
for both the Greek words. 


the theatre ?" Why, then, wretcli, do you 
bring your false accusations? 'Why do you 
fabricate words ? Why don't you pure;e your 
brain with hellebore for your malady? Are 
you not ashamed to prosecute through spite 
where no offence has beeu committed, and to 
pervert some of the laws and garble * others, 
when in common justice the whole should have 
been cited, especially before those who have 
Bworn to decide by these laws? And then, 
while such is your own conduct, you must lay 
down what sort of person a popular chief ought 
to be, as if one who had ordered a statue ac- 
cording to a given model f should accept it, 

• IXXifiopi^iit tTTi rouroic- Francis makes A alop to tell 
the Athenians that helleliore was used to purge away " the 
madneas of the brain.'' Daneoji " to purge the head of 
those dieordera which hare thrown them into bo great a 
phreuzy." In adding even the "brain" in the text more 
ia done than ia perhapa warranted or neceasary; but 
" purging with hellebore" might seem equivocal. Agiiin, for 
tt^nipiiif /itpTi, " taking away parts," garbliug, is a aufflcient 
version, and a strictly correct one. Francis has " quoted 
partially," which is well enough ; but Dawson adds a whole 
idea, and one quite superfluous for giviug the sense, when 
he Bays, " produce only such parts as make for your own 

t The original ia certainly not " mode!," but " bond or 
agreement," imyvpaf,T( ; but the sense seems to indicate that 
tbe agreement contained a model or plan ; eke the compari- 
, son fails ; for if it were only the written parts of the bargain. 

tliougli made on a different model entirely, or 
as if public men were to be known by their 
words and not by their deeds and their mea- 
sures.* And you bawl out, like a strolling 
player,! things whether fit to be spoken or not, 
and suited to you and your race, not to me. 

The case, however, men of Athens, stands 
thus. I hold abuse to differ from impeachment 
in this, that impeachment embraces offences 
punisbable by law, but abuse consists of what- 
ever scurrilities personal enemies choose to vent 
against one another, according to the malignity 
of their own nature. But I have always con- 
ceived our ancestors to have erected these halls 
of justice, not that you should assemble in them, 
leaving your private concerns, to hear what- 

as the price, lime of delivery, &c., in which the sculptor 
bad fai\eJ, the Himile would also fail. The Frencliman here 
omits the word on which the whole likeneaa turns, ko/ii^o- 
fiti'oc, importing the acceptance of the statue, and compares 
j^Bchines only to one who had given an order and been 

* MoBt tranalatora mnke the \oy^ and the vrpay/iaoi apply 
to the same persDii. Francis lakes credit for suggesting 
that \oyjj means, " by ^schines' account." This, though 
very agreeable to the sense, and more spirited perhaps than 
ihe other version, ecems not allowable by the construction, 

+ (UDTTtp [£ d;ia£ijc — with the allusion that follows to 
Machines and his family, was quite enough to fii what cart 
A meant, without Francis's addition, " the original cart of 
your profession." 



ever abominable things we could utter in abuse 
of eacli other, but that we might inquire of iiny 
offences committed against the state. jEs- 
chines, a\rare of this, full as well as I am, has 
rather chosen to make such an exhibition * than 
to prosecute an impeachment. 

But even in this kind of conflict it is right 
that he should get as good as he brings ; -f I 
will therefore go on and ask, Whether any 
one would call you the country's enemy or 
mine, ^scbmes ? Mine, beyond all question. 
Then, when by law you could have brought 
me to justice, for the good of the people, 
had I offended, you never proceeded against 
me, neither as a public accountant, nor as 
a public accuser, or on any other head of 
charge. But when I stand clear on all hands — 
by the laws — by lapse of time — by prescription, 

* TTOfrscvtiv. TranBlatorB have, for the must part, ren- 

' dered this as " pouring out invectives." Wulff, " Bcurram 

agere." Stock, " scommata effutire ;'' but it seeniB to be 

only exbibitiDg a theatrical display, the original meaning, 

and applies to the A|unjii — Leland '' discharge his vlru- 

t iXoTTov (XMv oTTiXdiiy — go off with leM—scil. than he 
brought — beiiigpreciBely our vernacular expresbinn. Fran- 
cis renders it, " Gio off in triumph, and escape the veji- 
geance be has provoked ;" Dawson only gives " to recrimi- 
nalc"— both leaving out the idiomatic termH. Leland here 
is had — both difiuae and feeble — " escape without the due 
retuniB of severity on my part." 

by the judgment repeatedly pronounced hereto- 
fore upon all these matters — by my never once 
having been convicted before the people of any 
offence — and when more or less of glory has of 
necessity resulted to the country from my public 
conduct,* then it is that you make your stand ! 
See if you are not in reality the country's 
enemy while you pretend to be only mine ! 

Having, then, made it clear to all what is 
the righteous and just vote to give, it seems 
incumbent upon me, however little given to 
invective my nature may he, in consequence of 
the slanders which he has vented,! "ot indeed 
like him to bring forward a multitude of false- 
hood8,J but to state what is most necessary to be 

* The original only has it, that more or lesa gloiy accrued 
to the Btate from the public proceedings or conduct, eij/ino-tp, 
TtTTpnyfici'i-iv ; hut it muEt mean, frimi A'b meaaurcB. 

t Wolff is the most cloae generally, and certainly at all 
times the moat abstinent, of translators. It seems odd, 
then, that he should render tipij^Evoc " coacenala." The 
" tnaledicta " joined to it might prevent the literal version 
being given, but many words nearer than coacervaia 
might surely have been found. On no other translator 
would this be deemed a fair remark ; but we only note the 
departure from his general scbeme. 

J Qvri is plainly " instead of," and not as Leland gives 
it, " in answer to." His note on evciZri toivw is singular. 
He gives the words " Well, then," and supposes they 
plainly denote that some acclamations had arisen, of which 
A look advantage. But the connexion of the passage with 

kaown respecting him, and to show what he is, 
and from what sort of race sprung, who is so prone 
to evil speaking, and who carps at some of my 
expressions, after hunself saying such things as 
no decent person would have dared to utter.* For 

^if ^lacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos, were 
my accuser instead of this word-monger.'f this 

what goes before ia plain and easy, and these words only 
mean, " After, then," or " Having, then." 

• ThJB is a fine question, or exclamation, in the original 
— " things which what moderate man it there that would 
have uttered ?" We lose in the English the force of this, 
and of such noble words as uKYTiirE ipdiy^andai. 

t <nripfio\oy<n; — Francis, "word-catcher;'' but it is 
" seed-catcher," if it cannot he rendered, according to the 
sense rather than the etymology, '' word-spawnei;'" Daw- 

^•0D, " impertinent babbler." Leland's '' babbling syco- 
phant '' is very sbBurd ; for why add sycophant either jin 
the Greek or English sense? In the latter it is indeed 
mere nonsense. Wolff, " vitiligator," perhaps meaning 
one who has a leprosy of words, if it be not a misprint for 
7i<ilitigator, a dealer in chicane. Stock, " blatero inanis." 
The real meaning is confined to the diseased fluency, and 
" word-monger" is as near it as we can perhaps corae. 
irtpirpi^fia is a thing worn down. Francis's " hack- 
neyed pottifo^er" is not bad. Dawson, " retailer of 
precedents." Leland joins it very incorrectly with the 
oX,rfpDC ypo^/inrtuc, and makes the two phrases into one, 
" wretched, hackneyed scrivener ;" the latter word apply- 
ing to a money dealer and not to a scribe. Wolff, 
"rahula for ends." Stock, " rabula detritus ." The ce- 
lebrity of this passage makes it excueabic to dwell so long 
L on its esact meaning. 

hack of the courts, this pestilent scribe, I don't 
niucb tliink they would thus have spok&a, nor 
should we have heard them delivering themselves 
like ranting stage-players, " Oh, Earth ! oh, Sun ! 
oh. Virtue!" and so forth; and then invoking 
"intellectandeducation, whereby right and wrong 
are distinguished," as we just now heard him 
declaiming. Why, what had ever you or yours, 
you abomination,* to do with virtue ? or what 
discrimination of riglit and wrong ? Whence did 
you get it? or how attain anything so respect- 
able 1 How should you be permitted to name 
the name of education, which they who are 
really well educated never allude to, — nay, blush 
if anotlier so much as mentions it ? But those 
who, like you, are without it, make pretences 
to it, from sheer want of sense, till they sicken 
their hearers while they speak, without at all 
making their own education appear. 
j'l'l But though I am in no want of matter to 
state concerning you and your family, I am in 

* KoSofi/ia, Francis, " impurity." Dawson, '' im- 
pudent wretch," which is wide of the mark. Leland, 
"Thou miscreant." Wolff, "O sentinu Jta^tionim." 
fUTOvam may also be rendered substantively, " What com- 
merce with virtue," &c. Wolff so gives it. Hia veraion 
of what follows is estremcly loose, especially for him, 
" QufBce talium rerum dijudicatio ? unde assecutus? qui 
earn dignitatem adeplus es ?" 




some difficulty where to begin. ShtiU it be with 
^our father Troines being a slave loaded with 
FctlerB and billets, to Elpius, who kept a reading 
hool at the temple of Theseus ? Or shall it be 
with your mother,* who celebrated daily mar- 
riages in her lodging-house.f at the temple of 
Calamites. and brought up your fine figure of a 
consummate third-rate actor? J But everybody 
knows all this, though I were to pass it all over. 
Shall I start then from the time when the boat- 
piper Phormio, the slave of Dion, took her away 
from this choice occupation? But, by Jupiter 
and all the gods, I begin to fear lest, while I am 
saying what is quite applicable to you, I may 
appear to be speaking things not very becoming 
myself. I will pass by these matters, then, and 
will begin with what he lias himself done. He 
is not such a man as you may meet every day, 
but one of those execrable to the people. For 
lately — lately, did I say ? — ay, yesterday, and 
longer ago, he became at once a citizen and 

• Dawson, deeming the invective of A too gentle, makes 
the mother " veneralile ;" a piece of irony which, if it ever 
occmred to the Greek, he has thought proper to siippreBs. 

t uXiiTiy, an eating or reBting-house— a garret or cellar. 

J at:pon TpirnyDi-HrTiji-. Francis, "a first-rate actor of 
thtrd-TOte parts," Dawaon, raXoc aySpiavra, "pretty 

ippet.V. The allusion to acting which follows Beems to 
thia, only that the word is a statue or figure. 

an orator, and adding two syllables to his 
father's name, he changed it from Tromes to 
Atrometus; but duly honouring his mother, 
he called her Glaucothea, whom we all knew 
by the name of Empusa, an appellation draivn 
from her habits of performing and submitting to 
everything. Whence but from hence Bhould it 
come? Yet so thankless at once and so unprin- 
cipled are you by nature, tliat, having by the 
favour of the Athenian people been raised from 
slavery to freedom, from poverty to riches, you 
show your gratitude for these benefits by hiring 
yourself out to pursue the course most ruinous 
to their interests.* I will pass over what is dis- 
puted, \\hether or not his words have been di- 
rected for the benefit of the country ; but his 
deeds, manifestly done for the benefit of her ene- 
mies, these I must recall to your recollection. 

Which of you is ignorant of Autiphon, struck 
off the citizens' list, and who came here, after 
having undertaken to Philip that he would fire 
your arsenal 1 When I seized him as he lay 
hid in the Piraeus, and dragged him before the 

* Wolff, by foUowing the Greek bo literally here, and 
rendering rovroviri and rourwvi, " hosce" and " eis," without 
more, would almost make it appear as if he thought the 
substantives referred to were the parents, inHtM^)f the 
people, to whom A plaiDly alludea. There «^^BI aome 
addition here to give the meaning. 

he thought 
, inaM^of 



Hassenibly of the people, this defamer roared and 
" Tociferated against me that I was doiag things 
monstrous in a popular government, trampling 
upon unfortunate citizens, invading their private 
houses, without the authority of any sentfince, 
and thus lie obtained the man's discharge; and 
had not the Areopagitic Council, hearing what 
he was about, and seeing you thrown off your 
guard at a critical moment, traced out the man, 
and brought him back in custody before you, 
the criminal would have escaped the punish- 
ment he justly deserved, and would have escaped 
through this specious declaimer.* But you put 
the culprit to the rack and to death, as you 

» ought to have done his defender. 
Wherefore the Areopagitic Council, observ- 
ing what he had done, and that you had ap- 
pointed him an advocate for the Temple at 
Delos, with the same improvidence which has 
made you so often neglect the public interests, 
when yon appealed to them and made them 
umpires of the controversy, rejected him in- 
stantly as a traitor, and named Hyperides to 
speak in his place. This they did, giving them 
votes from the altar, while not a single one 

■ rri/ivoXoytiy. WoliF, " speciosum oralorem." Daw- 

I and deep-mouthed declaimer." FrftnciB, 

^ cl aimer," Lelaiid, "Thanks to the pompoua 



was given for the wretch,* To prove the truth 
of my statement, call me the witnesses to these 

Tliese persons give evidence for Demosthenes 
in behalf of all the rest; Callias of Suniiim, 
Zeno of Phlya, Cleon of Plialerum, Demonicus 
of Marathon, that when the People appointed 
^^schines to manage the cause of the Temple at 
Delos, before the Amphyctions, we, in assembly 
met, decided Hyperides to be the more worthy 
of speaking on behalf of the country, and Hy- 
perides was sent accordingly. 

Thus, when the Senate displaced him as he 
was about to plead the cause, and appointed 
another, they also pronounced him a traitor and 
enemy to the state. One great political mea- 
sure of this hero you have here— similar, is it 
not, to those he blames of mine ? Recall now 
another to your recollection. When Philip 
sent Python, the Byzantian, and joined with 
him ambassadors from all liis allies, as if to put 
this country to shame, and make public her in- 

" fuapf. Why does this suddenly become ia francis' 
handa "unhallowed villain'" Leland and DawiMi "mis- 


Eiid not yield to Python's insolence or 
. ves against you; nor did I drawback, 

but stood up against him and answered him ; 
nor did I abandon the just rights of the country, 
but convicted Philip of injurious proceedings so 
manifestly, that his own allies rose up and con- 
tiessed it. But ^schines took their part, bore 

•fritness against his country, and bore false 
witness. Nor did this satisfy him ; for he was 
soon after detected going with Anaxinus, the 
spy, to the house of Thrason. But whosoever 
meets alone a spy sent by the enemy, and con- 
sults with him, he is himself in his own nature 
a spy on, and an enemy of, the country. To 

I prove the truth of these statements, call me the 
wituesses to them. 


Meledemus, the son of Cleon, Hyperides, the 
sou of CallEeschrus, Nichomachus, the son of 
tDiophantus, depose for Demosthenes, having 
been sworn betbre the Strategi — ^that they saw 
^schines, the son of Atrometus, of Cothocis, 
come by night to the house of Thrason, and 
consulting with Anaxinus, who was adjudged 
to be a spy sent by Philip. These depositions 
.were made in the archonship of Niclas, on 
3d of Hecatombseon. 


3 And now, although I have numberless othei- 
passages to relate respecting him, I pass them 
over ; for the matter stands thus — I am in pos- 
sesBion of many proofs that he was in those 
times employed in serving the enemy and ca- 
lumniating me. But neither have those things 
made any deep impression on your minds,* nor 
have they roused your indignation as they de- 
served. On the contrary, you have always 
given to any wretch that wished it, fuU licence 
to supplant t and to blacken those who pro- 
posed the measures most advantageous to you ; 
tlius bartering against the public good the 
pleasure and gratification of hearing invective. 
Hence it is always easier and safer to receive 
the wages of the enemy's service, than to choose 
the line of policy prescribed by your interests. 

And was it not monstrous.^ just before the 
n-ar with Philip began, for any man openly to 
assist him against their country ? Heaven and 

• ov Tidcrai cic axpi^jj ^vij/iifv— " have uot commilted to 
accurate memory." But it plainly means, " are not fond 
of recollecting," or " ha^e not had any groat impreBsion 
made on your minds:" " have been indifferent," 

t inroiTKcXi^ttr — " to trip Up, by pulting the fool or leg 
under." Francis and Leland, " supplant." Dawaou, 
"undermine." Wolff, " svpplanlare." 

I Francis chooses to tratiBlate ittrov here " impiety " 
and ZoTf aiTji TuvTv, '* pardon him this impiety." Leland 
renders envoy '' shocking " 

earth ! how can any one deny it ? Yet for- 
pve him if you will — forgive him this. But 

»fcfter Philip had openly seized our ships, was ra- 
vaging the Chersonese, was marching upon At- 
tica itself, surely matters were no longer in any 
uncertainty;* war had reached us.f Then what 
did this slanderer, this sneermongerj do for you Ij 
Not one decree of JSschines is there, he it 
greater, be it less, for promoting the interests of 
the state. If he pretends tliat there is any such, 
let him produce it, at the expense of my time 
and turn.§ But there exists nothing of the kind ; 
and now one of two things follows — either that, 
finding nothing to blame in my measures upon 
that occasion, he had no others to propose|| — or 

I that, seeking to benefit the enemy, he did not 
• a^^(CT/)ij7-i)(7i^y — equivocal or doubtful state, 
t cvcitmiKti. Leland and others make it " raged," but 
adde "at our very gates;'' and Wolff, ^' arderei." It ia 
" Blood near or close upon ub," and loeana only that at 
length and beyond all doubt war had reached them. 
t taiijioypaipos, altered by Taylor, and properly, ta^/3o- 
^ayoc, the lumbic measure being appropriate to abuse, and 
Machines never having, as far as we know, written any 
TerseB. Leland calls it " theatrical ranter." DawHon, in- 
correctly, " antyrical scribbler." If it might be lOfifio^oi;, 
it would be better. 

§ Literally, " in my water" — that is, during A's share 
of the water-hourglaas. The test seems to give the real 
turn of phrase; Wolff's " ad meant aquam" is noosenae 
by being literal. 

II Wolff's extremely literal version here, as in the last 
note, faiU ; " non alia scripsisse" is not Bense. 


propound measures better tban mine. But sad 
he uothing, propounded he nothing, where there 
was room for working you some mischief? 
Why, none but himself was then to be heard !* 
'^ And all the other things which he clandes- 
tinely did, the country might possibly have been 
able to bear ; but one thing, men of Athens, he 
worked out besides, f which gave the finishing 
stroke to all the rest+: — one on which he be- 
stowed a great part of his speech, dwelling upon 
the decrees of the Locrian Amphissians, and as if 
to pervert the truth. — But all will not do.§ How 
should it ? Quite the reverse. Never will you be 
able to expiate that passage of your life, speak 
you ever so long! But here, in your presence. 

* DawBon wholli/ nandeis from the seiiBe here. " And 
WM it then only that he chose to forbear either epeaking or 
writing, when he beheld you threatened with any impending 
danger? A fine time indeed to be ail ent, which afforded 
the fairest occasions fur speaking!" This, beside being 
moat unbearably paraphrastic al, is really not near tlie mean- 
ing ; it is the reverse of that meaning. 

t cvEUipya/raTo — I am not at all sure that this extremely 
compound word is not used to signify an outdoing of former 
outdoings. The literal meaning, however, is given in the 
teat. Leland omits tlie word, strangely enough. 

J Trani roic; irportpoic ifijitE rtAoj — literally, put the end 
to all the former. Francis " crowned and completed all the 
former." Dawaon, " crowned all the real." Leland, " crowns 
all his former treasons," Wolff, " fastigium imponerct." 

§ Literally " It is of that kind." There may be some 
corruption in this very elliptical passage. 



Athenians, I invoke all the heavenly powers 
which have the Attic regions under their pro- 
tection, and the Pythian Apollo, the hereditary 
deity of this state, I supplicate them all, if I now 
am speaking the truth before you, if I constantly 
spoke out before the people when I perceived 
this infamous man attempting the wicked act 
(for I was aware of it, I was quickly aware of 
it), then that they would vouchsafe uie their 
favour and protection ;* but if, through personal 
enmity, or mere contentiousness of spirit, I 
falsely press this charge, may they bereave me 
of every earthly blessing ! f 

" evTvx'ar is good fortune, or the goods of fortune, and 
o-uTijpiov, safety ; but when prayed fur from the dispensers 
of the former, and the only authors of ihe latter, may well 
and closely mean " favour and protection." Besides, if, 
with Leland and others, we render it " prosperity and 
safety," it is an anticlirnas, and accardinglv they are found 
to reveiBC the order, clearly admitting their version to he 

v ayaOuit — may he distasteful to 
M the good. Leland, " lilast my hopes of happineas." 
Wolff, " ne uilius boui fructum capere patiantur," I, have 
followed the uniform train of translation and comment- 
Mr, although doubting if ayada has this meaning, or in- 
deed ayovTiTos- The older editions, ai'oijroi' — which Tiiylor 
corrected justly. Wolff's rendering ijuXoytiKiuv " priva- 
tira simuhalem" Is extraordinary ; this not giving the 
meaning at all. The Frenchman's " rivalitd" ia much 
nearer the murk. Stock. " contention is atudio," is correct 
lOUgh ; but the best meaning is that given by the ijlaia 

Wherefore, then, am I thus vehement in my 
imprecations and asseverations ? It is because, 
having the documents in the public records to 
prove what I assert beyoud all dispute, and, 
perceiving that you remember the transactions 
in question, I only fear lest he should be sup- 
posed impotent to ivoik such mischief, as hap- 
pened once already, when he caused the destruc- 
tion of the unhappy Phocians by the false intel- 
ligence he brought us. For the Auiphissseau 
war, which brought Philip to Elatea, made 
him be chosen chief of the Aniphyctionic league, 
and ruined all the affairs of Greece, he — Ma- 
chines * — it was that excited it ; this one man 
was the cause of all our most heavy calamities ; 
and when I, without delay, protested and cried 
out in the Assembly, " You are drawing down 
the Amphyctionic war upon Attica, Mschines," 
— some who attended the meeting wouhl not 
suffer me to speak, while others marvelled how 
I could, through private pique, bring so futile a 
charge against him. But what was the true 

r contentiouBness of tpirit. 
— DawBon, " persunal anti- 

etymon — love of contention, o 
Lel&nd, '' perHonal animoaity"' 

• Literally, " on account of which Philip csme," &c. 
Machines' name must be introduced to avoid the amhiguity, 
Philip being the last autecedent. The composition here is 
very fine. 


description of these traDsactions, in what they 
originated, and how they were accomplished, 
you are now to hear, Athenians, since you were 
at that time prevented from hearing it ; for you 
wiW thus both perceive the nicety of the contriv- 
ance, and obtain much information upon the 
history of our affairis, and see how great was the 
dexterity * of Philip. 

There was clearly no termination for him of 
the war with you, aud no successful issue of 
that war, if he could not make the Thebans and 
Thessaiians enemies of this country. But, al- 
though your commanders fought against him 
with bad fortune and no skill, he also sustained 
a thousand disasters from the war itself and from 
our privateers.f For, while none of the pro- 

• Sctvoriji. That this means here " skill, address, dex- 
terity," is clear. Stock, "aolertia;" Wolff, "calliditas;" 
but why he should make of the last member of one sentence 
a new period altogether, and say, " Quanta igitur ftiit in 
Fhilippo calliditae, epcctate," is not easily perceived. But, 
though the meaniog is certain, translators have, in render- 
ing it, vied with each other in prolixity and paraphrase 
beyond all measure, Francis, " How great was Philip's 
desterity and address." Dawson, " With what singular 
desterity Philip managed raattera in that critical juncture." 
Leiand, " What deep designa the heart of Philip could 
conceive ;" and all this from these words, ooij oiivorijc iiv 

tr rji *iXi3rjrj) BcaiTeTQc. 

t Xijoruv, Leland and the French tranBlatore make this 
to mean " the Athenian cruisers ;" aud Francia. " out ^xv- 

duce of his territories could be exported, aud 
nothing which he stood in need of could be ini- 
porterl, he ueitlier hud any superiority over you 
at sea, uor could reach Attica unless the Thes- 
salians followed his standard, or the Thebans 
gave him a passage. It was his lot, after over- 
coming the generals whom you sent against 
him, such as they were (of that I say nothing), 
to be in great difficulties from the nature of the 
conntiy* aud the relative situation of the par- 
ties. If, then, to furtlier his own quarrel, he 
should urge either the Thessalians or the The- 
bans to attack you, he was aware that they would 
never listen to him; but if, pretending to make 
common cause witli them, he were chosen gene- 
ralissimo, he hoped easily to gain some of his 

vateerB." The word means " freebooter, pirate, robber." 
The word being put in contradistinction to iroktfiov shows 
it could not be intended to express any military operation, 
BO that, if any of the above translations be right, it must be 
Francis's. But Wolff, has " preedonibus," and so Stock 
imd Dawson, " depredations of pirates." The following 
sentence sbows that it was " piratical depredations," or 
those of privateers, who certainly combined the piratical vo- 
cation with their more justiBable o^ierations against enemies. 

" <jiu(rfi TOO Toirov Can never be " the situatioQ of this 
l^ingdom," as Leland has it. vTrap^oyri^y tKarepoic BWcaa 
to be as iti tlie text ; tliough it might mean, " the supplies 
it (the country) furnished lo eacli party ;" to which Stuck 

,s incliiied. The word inrapx'n'Ta often answers to " cir- 


ends by fraud, others by persuasion. What, 
tbeii, is his contrivance ? See only hoiv fine ! 
To involve the Amphyctions in war, and their 
councils in tumult;* for in these circumstances 
he concluded that they must want his assist- 
ance. But if either his own deputies'}" to the 
council, or those of his allies, were to take 
tlie lead in the matter, be conceived that both 
the Tbessalians and the Thebans would suspect 
the whole affab-, and that all parties would be 
put on their guard. But if an Athenian did it, 
and one of yourselves, his adversaries, then he 
reckoned upon his scheme being easily con- 
cealed; J and so it turned out. § How, then, 

• Wolff, " in Pyltea" — literal, to the destruction of the 
BCDBe. Stock, " consessu Pylffiu." The meaning is, " the 
Atnphyctionic council held near Thermopylffi. 

+ wp(i^i-ij/iov£c^presidenta over Bacrifjcea ; a BOrt of pre- 
fect in sacris. Francis and Leland "deputies." The 
Greek is, " Priests whom he had sent." Wolff, " Assess- 

I This elliptical pEissege is a good example of the diffi- 
cult; of reading A, even nhen his %s'ords are, as they gene- 
rally are, very easy Greek taken singly. They are all so 
full of meaning and so few in number, that each is abso- 
lulely necessary to the Bcose; and they are so connected 
with the preceding sentences, that they cannot be under- 
stood if taken apart: ui' £e A6i)i-aioc n rai irap iifiiiiv tuv 
tyaiTtutv o TOUTO iroiwc, EUTropdif Xrjfrciy, 

§ Leland'a prolixity and looseness in this whole passage 

e quite irilolerable — oirtp mind^, " Thus he reasoned, «.p.4 

(lid he effect his purpose ? He hired this man ; 
and, no one foreseeing what was to happen, as 
I inmj;ine, nor tnking any precaution (as gene- 
rally happens with you), he was named Am- 
phyctionic deputy, and chosen, three or four 
electors only voting. But as soon as he was 
armed witli the authority of the state, he pro- 
ceeded to the Amphyctionic council, and, throw- 
ing aside and neglecting all otiier business, 
despatched that for which he had been hired. 
Putting together and repeating over a string of 
fair phrases and old stories, about the purpose for 
which the CirrhEean territory was originally con- 
secrated, he persuades the priests, men unused 
to rhetoric and not aware of what was coming to 
pass, that they sliould resolve to walk the bounda- 
ries of the district which the Amphissseans main- 
tained they cultivated as their own, but wliich 

ihuB was the event." He then inserts these other wordB, 
without a shadow of authority in the Greek. " Here stanclB 
the man who seized the advantage of" (your iuatteaCion). 
Re&lly if A was bo meagre an orator, had eo little power 
of bringing out hie meanioj^, and knew so iH liow to make 
an impresBioD, that his traiiBlatorB are forced to help him 
out of their own slores, we should transfer to ihem the 
admiration which five-and- twenty centuries have appropri- 
ated to the great master of eloquence Dawson loo must 
make his contribution to the needy Greek, who Bays only 
" fuoOovTai TDvrori ;" but the translator will have it " bribing 
thia my worthy accuser," 


he contended was pai-cel of the sanred territory, 
while the Locriaus neither instituted any suit 
against us nor advanced any of those preten- 
sions now falsely urged hy him. Thus you will 
perceive from hence that it was not competent 
for the Locrians to prosecute a suit against the 
country without a previous citation. But who 
ever cited you? In what year?* Name me 
the man who knows anything of it ; point him 
out ! You cannot, iEschines — but you abused 
us by this futile and false pretence. 

When, therefore, the Amphyctions were sur- 
veying the territory, according to his sugges- 
tions, the Locrians fell upon them, and had 
well nigh put them all to the sword ;t they also 

• tTTt irotac apxic, "' in what arclionship," literally. But 
Leland haa it, quite gratuitously, " Produce the record of 
this citation." Aa if citatioDs were entered of record in 
AtbcDB. This portion of hie tranBlation is more loose and 
paraphraatical than any other, and often very incorrect. 

t carnkoiTifiD is to spear, though the spear may be 
thrown. Francis makes the Locrians bowmen, for he sajs, 
'' arrowB," Wolff, " jaculis conficiunt." Damson ie here 
intolerable ; " poured such a shower of arrows upon them 
that they had nearly entirely destroyed them ;" and this is 
the way to translate the most terse and concise of all ora- 
tors, when he only has said "/iitpou ficv airavTa^ KoriKiiyTi- 
iay" — " well nigh speared them all." Leland is not 
muck more chaale — " were assaulted with a violence which 
had well nigh proved fatal to tbem all." The violence is 

captured some of the priest deputies. But, as 
soon as reiminstrances and hostilities with the 
AniphisSEeans ai'ose from these proceedings, Co- 
typhus at first was put at the head of Amphyc- 
tiouic troops only ; as, however, some of the 
contingents never came, and those which came 
did nothing, the men suborned for the work, 
the old traitors of Thessaly and other states, 
forthwith were all busied in obtaining the chief 
command for Philip at the next assembly ; and 
for this they found specious enough pretexts ; 
for they said that it was necessary either to 
contribute towards the maintenance of foreign 
troops and fine those who refused, or to choose 
him generalissimo. Needs there more be said? 
By such arts he was chosen to the command ; 
and, straightway collecting an army, and ad- 
vancing as if upon Cirrh8ea, he bade the Cir- 
rhseans and Locrians a long farewell, and fell 
upon Elatea. If, therefore, the Tliebans had 
not, instantly upon seeing this, changed their 
councils and aided with you, the whole war* 
would have fallen upon this country .like a 

best shown by the thing done, and " putting to the sword," 
with " fell upon," the literal bb well as idiomatic veraiiin 
of TTpoCTrfffoiTfE, expreases the violence aa well as extent 
of the onelaught. 

• wpayija must here be rendered " invaaion," or " war," 
to give the sense. 



winter torrent.* But, as it was, they for the 
moment stayed his course ; chiefly. Men of 
Athens, through the favour of Heaven towards 
you ; but, as far as under Providence f it might 
depend on one man, it was done through me. 
But give me the documents and the dates of 
these several transactions, that you may see 

* iiTKtp x'-'f"'^p°''i — Francis, " This whole project, like 
a winter's torrent, had precipitately fallen on the Republic." 
Dawson, " The whole fury of the war must have been like 
a mighty torrent poured upon this Commonwealth," Le- 
land, " Fallen like a th under- Btorm" (a thunder-storm 
being rather a eummer than a winter phenomenon — and 
Xcifia^fiovg being plainly a torrent, not a Btorm). Wolff, 
" tanquara torrens, univerBa belli moles," &c. The mean- 
ing IB, that the whole force or momentum of the movement 
would have been nenr Athena. This passage is of great 
beauty and picturesque effect : the diction ia admirable ; 
and some critics have ohecrvcd that there is an onomatopoeia, 
the sound imitating the discordant rushing of a broken tor- 
rent, Tourreil, by far the best of the French translators, is 
of this opinion, anil adds, that this beauty cannot be trans- 
ferred into the French. Not so deems M. Planche, who 
flatters himBelf "avoir rendu Jt-peu-pres I'harmonie du 
Grec." There is no disputing upon a man's sense of dis- 
tance ; but let the reader judge, the following being the 
approximation to A. " Soit que ['effort de la guerre serait 
venu fondre sur Athenes avec la rapiditi^ d'un torrent," 
Certainly, if the accumulation of words were nil that was 
wanting, our Frenchman has beaten the Greek in the pro- 
portion of nine to four. For the rest, ihe translation is 
closer here and belter than utual. 
t Etrit clearly here han this sense. 

what troubles that vile head excited, and yet 
goes uupuoished. Read me the document. 


In tlie pontificate of Clinagoras, at the Spring 
Council — It hath pleased the Deputies and As- 
sessors of the Aniphyctions and the Assembly 
thereof, seeing that the Amphissseans did enter 
upon the sacred territory and sow it and depas- 
ture it wltli their cattle, that the Deputies and 
the Assessors do repair thither and mark the 
boundaries with pillars, and warn the Am- 
phisseeaus not to trespass thereon for the future. 


In the pontificate of Clinagoras, at the Spring 
Council — Seeing that the People of Amphissa, 
having partitioned among themselves the sacred 
territoiy, do till the same, and depasture it 
with their cattle, and, when prohibited from 
so doing, did come with arms and resist by force 
the general Council of the Greek States, and 
did even wound sundry persons, among others 
Cottyphus the Arcadian, appointed Commander 
of the Amphyctions ; it hath therefore pleased 
the Deputies and the Assessors of the said Am- 
phyctions, and the Assembly thereof, tliat an 


embassy be sent to Philip of Macedoa, requiriug 
him to succour Apollo and the Amphyctions, 
and not suffer this contempt of the God \>y the 
sacrilegious Aniphissseans ; and, to this end, 
that the Greek states attending the Aniphyc- 
tionic meeting do elect him Generalissimo and 

But read, also, the dates of these transac- 
tions ; for they are the dates of this ^schines's 
attending as deputy. 

In the archonship of Mnesithides, the 16th 
day of Anthesterion. 

Now give me the letter which, when the 
Thebans turned a deaf ear to him, Pliilip sent 
to his allies in Peloponnesus, that you may 
clearly see, even from this, how he concealed 
the true object of his proceedings, an4 of what 
he was planning against Greece and Thebes 
and you, and how he pretended all the while 
to be only executing the Decrees of the Am- 
phyctionic Council. But he who furnished 
him with these opportunities and those pretexts 
— ^schines was the man. Read. 

Y'I letter of PHILIP. 

Philip, King of the Macedonians, to the Ma- 
gistrates and the Assessors of the Peloponnesus, 
comprehended ui the Confederacy, and to all our 
other Allies greeting : Whereas the Locrians, 
who are called Ozolans, and inhabit Amphissa, 
have profaned the temple of Apollo at Delphos, 
and, entering the sacred territory with an armed 
force, are laying it waste ; we are minded to 
aid you in succouring the god, and to take ven- 
geance on those who violate whatever is held 
sacred among men. Wherefore see you meet us 
in Phocis, armed and having forty days' pro- 
visions, this month of Loos, as we call it, 
Boedromion as the Athenians, Panemus as the 
Corinthians have it. Of such as meet us with 
all their forces we will take council ; of such as 
hold back, vengeance. — Farewell. 

Do you see how he flies off from his own 
pretences, and takes refuge in the Amphyc- 
tions? \\'ho, then, was his helpmate in all 
tills ? Who furnished those pretexts ? " Who 
was the main cause of the mischief that ensued ? 
Was it not this >Escliines? Do not then, Athe- 

* ns 6 r^c Tpofavtis ivSouf. All tramElatora reader this 
supplied, or furnifihed. Possibly, however, it may be " sug- 
gested,'' from the force of cv. 


uiaas, go about * saying that Greece has suf- 
' fered so much from a single man. Not from 
one, but from many abandoned men, in every 
one of her states, by Heaven and Earth ! Of 
these certainly he is one; and, if I must speak 
tlie plain truth, I should not hesitate to call him 
the common pest of all that have since perished, 
men, districts, cities. For he that furnishes the 
seed of mischief, he it is that also causes the 
crop which springs up;+ whom I marvel at 
your not turning instantly away from as soon 
you beheld him. But a thick darkness | 

* xcpiovrcc- Francia, " Do not, as you walk and con- 
verse together, ascribe," &c. Dawson, " Don't, ae you 
are walking together." Wolff, " Ne igitur pasHim dica- 
lia." Stock, " Nolite inter deambiilandum," &c. It a 
singular how the pure, and also the literal idjotn, ia tost in 
all theee versions — " Do not go about saying." Leiand is 
here aa prolix and loose as possible, and omiis wholly the 
wtpwvTtg. "Yet, miatake me not" (a pure invention), 
" when OUT public calamities are the subject of jour eon- 
veraation, say not," &c. 

t It ia not <^f i^bii', but ijniyraiv xaicaiy ; and Stock and 

I Wolff, " Enntee segetia malorum." Leiand, " whole har- 
vest of miachief," Dawaon, " The sower of the seed ia 

' the father of the harvest," which ia certainly happily 
enough rendered. All these persona auppoae the meaning 

, to be H crop of evils; but it may be, weeds, bad growth ; 
the Latin and Greek, like the French, having no word for 

Jlf^ n o-Koroc — some thick darkness. Francie " thick 
I and impenetrable darkness." Dtiwaon will h&^e u &vo!i&^ 

would seem to be thrown between the truth 
and you. 

It has thus come to pass that, in touching 
upon the things which he did against the in- 
terests of the country, I have arrived at the part 
of my own conduct which he opposed ; and this 
you will of course listen to for many reasons, 
but chiefly, Athenians, because it n'ould be 
scandalous if, I having borne the labour of my 
actions in your service, you should refuse to 
undergo that of hearing my words in relating 

When I saw the Thebans, and almost saw 
yourselves, so led away by Philip's partisans 
and bribed agents in the two countries, that 
both of you were overlooking and taking no one 
precaution against your real danger, which de- 
manded all your care, the allowing Philip's 
aggrandisement, while you were quite ready for 
mutual enmity and collision, I assiduously en- 
deavoured to prevent this, conceiving such a 
course beneficial, not only upon my own judg- 
ment, but aware that Aristophon, and afterwards 

paraphiaac, " Cluuds of impervioua daiknesB have inCei- 
cepted ihe light rays of truth from jour eyes." But A 
only Bays, " some thick daikneaa is come betweeu you and 
the truth." Wolff, " mngnte tenebrte apud voa objectse sunt 
veritati." Lelaud, " ilnck cloud in which the truth lay 
concealed;" which is both an additional metaphor, and an 
iiisccurate one. 

Eubulus, were desirous of promoting this good 
uaderstanding, men who, differing from one 
another repeatedly upon other subjects, upon 
this were at all times agreed ; men whom you, 
crafty creature,* persecutedf with your flattery 
when living, but when dead are not ashamed ftt< 
to run down. For, in your attacks upon my 
Thehan policy, you are accusing them far more 
than me, they having approved of that alliance 
long before I did. But I come back to the 
period when, by iEschines causing the Aniphis- 
ssean war, and his accomplices exciting ill-ivill 
towards the Thebans, Philip's attack upon tbis 
country was brought about, which indeed was 
the object of these men in bringing the two 
states into collision ; and, had we not roused J 

■ xivaSoz, fox. Wolff, vulpecula. Stock, bellua. TliiB 
of Stock losea the appropriate meaning of cunning implied 
in the Greek, and required by the conduct described. 
Francis, " vile animal." Dawson, " with your usual dis- 
simulation." Leland mokes a new sentence of the word, 
and not at all a happy one. " Yes ! thou scoundrel to hu- 

t The true meaning of the Greek xapfjKoXouOEie, follow- 
ing close — keeping up with — is lost by all the English 
translators except Lelund. Wulff has It well " sectabaris." 

t The Greek is a iinc compound word ; Trpoc^avirrTOfxai ia 
to rise up, or start up, before another, or before an event, 
i. e., before it is too late. This meaning is poorly compen- 
■ated by substituting for it gratuitoualy " a lethargy," as 
Francis has done. " Roused us from out Wttim^-^," en. 


ourselves, just before it was too late, we should 
never have been able to recover ourselves — 
to such a state had these men reduced our 
afifairs. But what the dispositions of the pow- 
ers were towards each other in that crisis, you 
shall see from the Decrees and the Correspond- 
ence. Produce these, then, and read them. 

In the archonship of Heropythus, the 26th 
of Elaphoholion, and the presidency of tlie 
Erechthean tribe, by the advice of the Senate 
and the Strategi. Whereas Philip hath occupied 
certain of the neighbouring states, and is now 
laying waste some of them, and finally is pre- 
paring to invade Attica, accounting for nothing 
the treaties between us subsisting, and resolved 

even " seasonably," ae Dawson haa it- Leland only has 
" suddenly awakened ;" but adds, " to a vigorous exertion 
of our powers;" and then for ovS' ava\a(iiiy uvtouc ai- 
tjSvrr)Bvi^£y, " the danger tnuat have overwhelmed us" — 
which is possibly the effect of what A says, but not the 
thing itself the sense of ai-uAo/Stiv being, to recover when 
just going to fall, Wolff, ae usual, is correct: " nisi paullo 
antJi evigilassemus." It is singular that the ^lepoi' should 
not hove called the attention of the others to the true 
meaning of the phrase ; but they leave it out by common 
consent. In otic particular Wolff is wrong like the rest ; 
he makes i^ say " awakened," when he only says, " started 
up." The sleep they have all made him a free gift of. 

^B to violate 
^^ in hrfiflfili 


f to violate at once his oaths and t!ie peace, 
in breach of the faith niutuiilly pledged; it 
hath pleased the Senate and People to despatch 
a herald and aml^assadors to him, who may deal 
with him and exhort him more especially that 
he maintain the relations of amity and the trea- 
ties subsisting betwixt us ; or, if not, that time 
I be given this country to deliberate, and a truce 
[ made until the month of Thargelion. Simus, of 
,Auagyra; Euthydemus, of Phlya ; Bulagoras, 
I of Alopecia, are chosen from the Senate. 


In the archonship of Heropythua, the last 

Vday of Munychion, by the advice of the Poly- 

[ marchus : Whereas Philip is doing his endea- 

' Tour to place the Thebans at variance with us, 

and is prepaiing with all his forces to march 

I those places which lie nearest to Attica,* 

iu violation of the treaties subsisting between 

it hath pleased the Senate and People 

Lthat there he sent to him a herald and am- 

I bassadors who may urge and call upon him to 

I conclude a truce, in order that the Common- 

I wealth may have time conveniently to deliberate, 

seeing that it hath not seemed expedient to pro- 

I vide merely ordinary means of defence.f Of the 

• To wit, Bceolia. 

t The clause thus rendered is obscure, and possibly was 

Senate were appointed Jimbassadoi-s, Nearchus, 
son of Sozinomus ; Polycrates, son of Epiphron. 
Oftlie people was named herald Eunomus, of 

intended to convey nn obecure hint or threat, without irre- 
vocably committing the Btate. Koi -yap vuv ov v, 
^oilfltiv ev ovtivi Toiy /icrpiiui'. WolB" seems to aeiz' 
spirit of it in saying, " Nunc enim eum (populum) no 
Btituiaae opem ferre in aWt re moderate" Leland and 
Dawson very panLphnistically have a gitnilar though leas ob' 
BCiire meaning; hut Stock takes the opposite of this sense, 
and has it, " Non ceuEuit vel mediocre quidem auxilium 
ferre ae oportere." There seems certainly aome doubt of 
the meaning, for both constructiona suit the context, and 
the words are susceptible of both. Thia passage has 
created much embarrassment to commentators. Taylor 
holds it incajiable of aense ; after citing four several trans- 
lations, he says " attomen deploratuB valdeeat teslus," and 
adda that it admits of none of the versions given. Wolff, 
after asking who is meant, whether Philip or the Athe- 
nians, and what the words ev ovScyi ruv iiiTpiu>v can 
mean, suggests, as a mere query, whether it may not be, 
" if Phihp behaves moderately, the Atheniana will not 
oppose him;" and then cites three translations, all differ- 
ent from those quoted by Taylor. He observes too, some- 
what archly, on the comforlable lot of Aretinua, who bad 
to deal with a MS. which omitted all the documents, " Are- 
tinus magnum fructum cepit sine codicibus," &c. lUiske 
(ii. 511) gives, at much length, a commentary which cor- 
responds to Wolff's suggestion, the opposition lo Philip 
being in fact sending aid to the Thebans. Reiske and 
Schafer adopt Wolff's suggestion, which perhaps, after all, 
is the sound one, if the text is sound. 

^^^" 115 

H Now read the Answers also. 


PhiDp, King of Macedou, to the Senate and 
the People of Athens greeting ; Of the dispo- 
sitions which ye have from the first had towards 
UB I ani nowise ignorant, nor of what pains you 
take in the design of drawing over to your side 
the Thessalians and Thebans, and the Bceotiane 
also. But when these are found to judge more 
wisely, and to decline casting their lot with 
yours,* consulting their own interests, then you 
change your course, send to me ambassadors 
and a herahl, remind me of treaties, and ask 
for a truce, you having been in no one thing 
injured by us. Nevertheless, having heard 
your ambassadors, I accede to your request, 
and am ready to make the truce, provided you 
will send away those who give you evil council, 
and mark them with the disgrace which they 
deserve. — Farewell.f 

* It IB strange that Wolff, ao abstemious of paraphrase, 
and still more of ftdditions, should have intruded " vobisque 
■ubjicere," &c. ; ^ having only aaid, t^' ifiiv ffoijjffoofla) 
Stock makes (he meaning the same, but without 
f clause added — " vobia submitiere judicia sua." The 
.8 to give the influence which Athens would have 
fc the eveat of the Thesaaliatis, &c., joining her. 
I t This grecLt man's euperiority ia manifeat here aa usual. 


Philip, KiDg of Macedon, to the Senate and 
People of Thebes, greeting : I have received 
your letter, in which you desire to renew our 
amity and peace. Yet I hear that the Athe- 
nians are striving with all their might to make 
you assent to their requests. At first I ac- 
cused you of being led away by the prospects 
which they held out for the future to follow 
their party. But now that I find you rather 
seeking to live at peace with us yourselves than 
to follow the councils of others, I rejoice thereat, 
and willingly commend you on many accounts, 
but more especially for pursuing the safer couu- 
cils, and keeping in amity with us, which will, 
I hope, he of no small moment to you, if you 
shall persevere in the same resolution. — Fare- 
well ! 

Having thus set the different states at vari- 
ance with each other, by the agency of these 
men, Philip, elated with those decrees and those 

He first, in plain, elegant, and choice, but dignified and cut- 
ting language, espoBes the conduct of the Atheuiaos ; and 
then yields as if to their aubmiseive proyera, as he was pro- 
bably advised by his party at Athens, for his and their in- 
tereet, in order to strengthen their bauds, and inflict a blow 
on their adversaries. 


^^ and 


^o&wers, advanced with his army, and occupied 
Elatea, as if assured that, come what coiiie 
might,* you and the Thebans never would 
agree. The consternation into which the cityf 
was instantly thrown, you all know ; but it may 
be as well you should bear the most important 
particulars. It was evening.^ A messenger 
came to acquaint the Prytanes that Elatea was 
token ; whereupon some of them, instantly 
starting^ from the table at which they were sit- 

* Thie seems the true Bense of a very disputed passage, 
and agrees in the main with Toureil, and Wolff, and 
See, however, Reiske, Ap. Crit. i. 213. 
f City ia here used for 5ro\ie, instead of country, because 
striking narrative that follows (and few historical pieces 
can bear a compariBon with it for jiicturescjue effect) relates 
to the streets of Athens itself. This passage is lavishly but 
not excessively praised by all the great critics — Longinua, 
and the Hallcarnassian especially. 

t iavcpa fitv yap (iv. The yap here clearly illuBtrates 
the use of that as aomelinies being a connecting particle, 
and not indicating reasoning any more than /ur or it 
necessarily do. The sentence, however, is a fine introduc- 
tion of this noble narrative. 

% c^at'uirraaat'Tcq IttirvotivTii:. Francis, "Rising from 
iupper." Dawson, " Great nunibersof people ut their sup- 
pers arising," &c., " drove away the brokers." A having 
■aid nothing of brokers, but only " those in the booths." 
inginus expressly praises thie passage for the omission of 
particulars ; and A, to sliow the sudden rising, 
:ts liiirvovvTi^. Surely rising from table is enough for 
purpose. The use of the same word here applied to 
board, which all the traiislatorB had before applied to bad^ 
might have warned them of their erroT. 

^^^■aid n 




ting, cleared the boollis in the Forum, and set 
fire to tlieir wicker coverings ; others sum- 
moned the Generiils of the State, and ordered 
the alarum to be sounded. The city was filled 
with consternation. When the next day broke, 
the Prytanes convoked the Senate in the Senate " 
House : you repaired to your own assembly ; 
and before they could adopt any measure, or 
even enter upon their deliberations, the whole 
people had seated themselves upon the hill.* 
And now, when the Senators came forth, and 
the Prytanes announced the intelligence, and 
presented tlie bearer of it, and he had himself 
related it, the herald made proclamation, If any 
one desired to be heard ? No man stood for- 
ward. He repeated the proclamation again and 
again. No ])ei'son rose the more, though all the 
Generals and all the Orators were present. 

• aw Kd&rp-tti, Frftncis atlncks Touvreil for " the pretty 
boldaUdition"of "aelonrusagedelaplnce," and yet he him- 
self saye, "in their usual court," and says notliiug of avu, 
the difficulty of the passage. Wolff has only "jamconsede- 
ral," Stock, " suTBum," which ia not intelligible without 
more. I-eland, " taken their places above." UawBon, " in 
the gallery.'' Hedenc gives " in loco" for one meaning of 
ni'ii), but witliDut authority. It may mean " on the steps ;" 
or it may refer to the structure of the place ; the people 
Bitting above. The meaning, however, rather seems to be 
alotl, i. e., on tlie hill '' Piiyx," where the aasemblies were 
held, which is here accordingly adopied, on Dr. Arnold's 



and though the cries of our common coun- 
try were heard, imploring some one to lift his 
Toice and save her. For* the voice of the lierald, 
in the solemn form ordained hy law, may well be 
deemed the genetal voice of tlie country. And 
truly, if the only qualification to come fonvard 
then had been !tn anxiety for the public safety, 
all of you, and every other Athenian too, would 
have risen and ascended the Benia ;f for I am 
Well aware that all were anxious to save the 

• Would not one more practised in handling figures 
than A confesBedly was, have avoided the feebleness of thia 
explanatory paesage, after the nuble meiaphor that precedes, 
by making the country " call out with the voice of the 
herald ?" — which had rendered all esplanation or defence 
of [he figure unnecessary. 

t Rostrum is neither Greek nor English, nor is it indeed 
the Latin word either ; and, as we happily have no oratori- 
cal engine of the kind, it can hardly be naturalized as a 
word with us. It seems well to use /3i|/ja itself then. 
When we have called this an engine of oratory, pijropti.-av, 
Ought we not rather to prefix the a privativum? It is 
true A spoke from this height, so fatal to all modern elo- 
quence ; but see the French Chambers, and say if, in the 
country of Dupin, and Berryer, and Thiers, there wants 
more than an ase laid to the root of (he Tribune to com- 
plete the triumph of eloquence in France, unless, indeed, it 
be to throw the book of inscription inio the same fire that 
consumea the Tribune ? My learned friend, Mr. Morritt, 
infonns me that the term Benia is used hy antiquaries to 
denote the raised part of the floor in cathedrals, in front of 
the altar; and it is possible that in Athena the /5ii/in may 
only have been such an elevation, and not a pulpit, as at 
Rome formerly, and Paris, 

State. If wealth had been the quali6cattoQ, 
Wt! might have had the three hundred ; if both 
wealth and patriotism,* those who, in the sequel, 
became such ample voluntary contributors. But 
that was, mauifestly, tlie crisis, — that the day 
not merely for a wealthy and patriotic indivi- 
dual to bear apart, but for one who had, from 
the very first, kept pace with the progress of 
affairs, aud happily penetrated the motives of 
the conduct and the designs of Philip. For a 
man unacquainted with these, — one who had not 
anxiously watched them from their first ap- 
pearance, — might be ever so rich and ever bo 
zealous, and yet be none the more likely to 
descry the best course, and to give you the 
soundest counsel. In that day, then, such a man 
was I, — aud, standing up, I spoke to you, what 
you must once more attentively listen to, with 
two views : first, that you may perceive how, 
alone, of all the Orators and Statesmen, I did 
not abandon the post of Patriotism in the hour 
of peril, but, both by my words and my actions, 
discharged my duty to you in the last emer- 
gency ; — next, that, at the expense of a little 
time, you may acqnire a fuller insight into 
our whole polity for the future.f 

• The union of lliese makiug muuificence, that word 
would have eufEced hitd nut ^ given a/itjmnpa raura, and 
then specified both eucouc and -rXovmos. 

f This e^eech is atriltingly difiErent in diction and far 


B^ I coQL-eiveii, then (I said), that those who were 
in BO great a consternation at the idea of the The- 
Iians being friendly to Philip, were unacquainted 
mth the real state of affairs ; for I knew full 
well that, were this apprehension well founded, 
we should not now hear of him being in Elatea, 
but upon our own frontiers ; I knew for cer- 
tain, however, that he was come to get mat- 
ters in Thebes ready for him. But how the 
case stands, said I, hear now from nie. All 
those Thebans, whom he has been able either 
to bribe by gold or delude by craft, he has 
at his command ; but those who, from the 
first, have resisted hiiu, and are now opposing i 
liim, he can in no way move. What, then, 
does he now meditate, and with what view 
has lie seized on Elatea ? It is tliat, display- 
ing his forces In our neighbourhood, and march- 
ing up Ills troops, he may at once elevate and 
inspirit his friends, and strike terror into his ad- 
versaries, and that they, being overawed, may 
be induced, or may be compelled, to make cou- 

~L cessions which they now refuse. If then, I said, 
, in these cu-cum stances, resolved to bear 
mind whatever wrongs the Tliebans may 
s done us aforetime, and to distrust them as 

itier than i's ordinary etyle. Did this happen through 
, or did lie use ft plainer tangiinge purposely, at thai 
ii», with the Alheniane? 

taking part witli our enemies, we shall, in the 
first place, he doing the very thing that Philip 
is praying for, and next, I fear nie lest they who 
now are his adversaries may join him, and, all 
Philippizing after the same fashion, both The- 
bans and Philip may invade Attica. But if 
you will be advised hy me, and consider well 
what I am about to state instead of quarrel- 
ling with it, then it may come to pass, I con- 
ceive, both that you should approve of my coun- 
cils, and that I should dispel the dangers which 
furround the country. What, then, do I re- 
. commend ? First of all, to dissipate the pre- 
vailing alarm ; then to change its direction, 
and all be alarmed about the Thebaus, for they 
are far nearer a catastropiie than we, and the 
peril is much closer upon them than upon us; 
and then, that tlie young men* and the cavalry 
marching upon Eleusis should prove to all 
Greece that you are in arms, and tliat your 
partisans at Thebes may have an equal power to 
maintain their cause when they tind you are as 
rt-ady and as willing to succour the asserters of 
liberty, if attacked, as Philip was to aid with 
his forces in Elatea those who were selling their 
country to him. Next, I require tliat ten Am- 
bassadors be chosen hy vote, and that ihey, with 

• Citizens of military age. The iTnrtii;, too, were pro- 
(lerly an order like tlie Roman eqnileB. 


^^ne Coiiimatiders, have Huthunty to determine 
^the time both of their arrival and of their setting 
out. But when the Ambassadors come to 
Thebes, tiow do I recommend that they should 
conduct the affair ? Give me now youi- whole 
attention. Require nothing of the Thebaus (for 
at this time it would he shameful), but promise 
whatever succour they demand, tliey being in 
the most extreme danger, and we better able 
than they to foresee the result ; so tliat, if they 
agree ivith us and take our advice, we shall 
both carry our point und act ui>pn a plan 
worthy of the state; but if we should happen 
to fail in this object, then they will have them- 
selves to blame for their errors, and by ua 
nothing base, nothing unworthy, will have been 

Having said thus much, and more to the like |") i 
effect, I sat down. All assenting, no one say- 
ing one word to the contrary, not only did I 
make this speech, hut 1 propouuded a decree ; 
not only did 1 propound a decree, but I went 
ambussador ; not only went I ambassador, but 
I persuaded the Thebans ; and from the iirst, 
throughout the whole transaction, down to the 
end, I persevered, and gave myself up, in your 
service, Mithout any reserve, to confront the 
>eril8 that surrounded the country.* 
■The esquieite diction of ihiB justly-celel)tBAcd^BSfia.%t '\s. 


Bring me now the Decree made at the time. 
But would you, iEschines, have me show 

altogether inimitable in our language. The fny and Bi, the 
ovK and ouce, are wholt; Greek, and wholly untranslatable. 
We might come neater the original indeed than is done 
with " not only," and " hut," by using a double negative : 
thue, " I did not make a speech, and not make a motion ; 
nor make a motion, and not go ambasBador ; nor go am- 
bassador, and not perBuadc the Thehans ■" but the double 
negatife is always more or leas repugnant to our idiom. 
PoBsibly this tuni may reconcile it ; — " I was not the man 
to make a speech, and not carry a decree ; nor to carry a 
decree, and not go ambassador ; nor to go ambassador, and 
not convince the Theban people." If the sense be ren- 
dered by '' without," we are no nearer the original than by 
the course taken in the test. Thug, " I did not make a 
speech without making a motion; nor did I," &c. How- 
ever, the admitted difficulty, or rather impossibility, of ap- 
proaching near the Greek, is no reason for Francis and Daw- 
son keeping at bo great and unnecessary a distance from it. 
Francis, neglecting the technical meaning of typaj-a — "pro- 
poae, or even carry, a decree," makes cmor " give advice in 
words," cypai^a, "propose it in writing;" which, in Athena, 
where so few could read, would have been an nnticlimas, 
Dawson says, " formally proposed in writing." Wolff, for the 
sake of being literal, "scriberem " Leland is right, — " pro- 
posing a decree in form ;" and he uses the turn of " without 
proposing," Sec. But " peccat ad extremum." " From first 
to last my conduct was uniform, ray perseverance invari- 
able, my whole powers entirely devoted to repel the dan- 
gers then encompassing the State." This is not so near 
as the paraphrase of Francis and Dawson, and not half so 
concise or so spirited. " I began, I continued, I perfected 
the work, and for your service," &c., to which there is but 



Eriptioii we are to give of you on that 
what of myself? Would you have 

this objection, that it is not the figure of A, Wolff hat, in 
very unusual with him, introduced a new idea 
illy unwarranted by the Greek. He coutiecis each 
!r of the climax with the succeeding oac : thus, 
hfflc ((a disi vt non scribeiem ; neque ila acripsi 
ut legBtionem non obirem," &c. There ia no advan- 
tage whatever in this towards bringing out the meaning; 
and it is quite a departure from the text. Francis renders 
avvcvaiyiani/Twp " applauded;" but if all applauded, 
what foHowB, " no one objecting," would be an anticlimax, 
Leland is equally wrong. The word, too, means to assent 
as well as applaud. 

Cicero (pro Mil.) closely imitates this famous passage. 
" Neque vero se populo solum sed etiam senatui comrai- 
ait; neque aenatui modo, aed etiam publicis ptreaidiis et 
armis ; neque iia tantum verum etiam ejus poteststi cui 
Senatua totam rempublicam, omnem Italice pacem, cuncta 
populi Romani arma commiserat." What follows is finer 
alill, and very argumentative. It is pretty obvious from 
this that, in his translation of the great orator, unfortu- 
nately lost, Cicero had adopted the method employed in the 
test for rendering the double negative — namely, " not only" 
— " but." We may remark, in paasing, that there is none 
of Cicero's orations in which he comea so near ^ as this 
magnificent one, pro Mil.; none in which he reasons so 
closely, or is so entirely occupied with the subject. Cicero, 
in ihe Rhel. {ad Herenn.), lib. iv. cap. 25, dwells on the 
figure, and gives examples, but makes no reference to this 
most celebrated one in A. Quinctilian does, and gives a 
translation. "Nechiecdisi quidem, aed nee acripsi; nee 
ecripsi quidem, aed nee ubii legationem ; nee obii qui- 
dem, wd nee persuasi Thehanis," a version in which the 


ine describe myself as the Bataluswhich you, in 
contempt and contumely, call me — you as a hero, 
nor of the common sort, but one of those whom 
ive see on the stage, Cresphontes, or Creon, or 
(Enomaus, him whose part you, wretch, mangled 
at Colyttus by your vile acting?* Well, then, 
in that crisis, I, the Batalus of PBeania, showed 
myself a more useful citizen of the State than 
you, the CEnomaus of Cothocis. You, indeed, 
never were of any service in any manner of way, 
while I did all that was incumbent upon a 
patriot. Read the Decree. 


In the archonship of Nausicles, and the pre- 
sidency of the Ajax tribe, and on the 16th of Sci- 

stnse is loet by the attempt to be literal, as in icripsi and 
ohU quidem. 

' KQKOC KOKIiJI: VTIOKpiVOfltVOq tTTlTpi^t. ThlS IS fiDC ; 

tlie lost word is "wearing down" — "tearing to tat- 
teta" — "mangling, murdering the part." Francis, 
" whom you tragically murdered in one of our villagea by 
your representation." Whj not at Colyttus? and why is 
the man and uot the part to bemurdi-red? Leland wholly 
mistakes the sense of ETirpiJ^tc, making it to be that JE»' 
chines was punished by '' heavy stripes for his yile per- 

t The style of this piece is full of dignity, and the dic- 
tion perfectly simple as well as chftste, with the solemnity 
of a state paper, but not the wordiness or technicality. To 
attempt a tranalalion of it, after the admirable one of Mr. 


^ no 


ipliorioti, upon the proposition of Demostlienes, 
the sou of Demosthenes of Peeania : Forasmuch 
as it is manifest, that Pliilip King of Mace- 
don hatli aforetime broken the treaties of pijace 
by him made with the People of Athens, in 

mtemjit ofhis oaths and of all that is by all the 
©reeks held most sacred,* and hath seized upon 
towDH in no way belonging to him, and some 
indeed belonging to the Atlienians he hath cap- 
tured, albeit he had from the People of Athens 
received no kind of injury ; and forasmuch as 
he is at this present time waxing greater both 
in force and in cruelty, for some of the Greek 
towns he garrisons with his troops, overthrowing 
their constitutious ; others he razes to the 
ground, seliiug their inhabitants as slaves ;t in 

Justice Williams (Edinburgh Review, vol. xsxvi.p.489),w 
liurd task. Leland's version is not bad in geiieral, 
though he every here and there intnidea new matter, as ii' 
A's were not forcible enough ; and in several places omita 
the true eense, as where he renders tuiafieyoue Kai Bvaayra^, 
'• with due veneration," ami " imploring aid," whereas it 
is praying and sacrificing. 

'iKaia uyai — literally, rightful or jnat — but the test 
our established and almost technical phrase. 
XavZ()aT!o6i!ioiiBvoi; KarauKaTrrti. There are DO liner 
nor any more comprehensive words in any tongue. Lite- 
rally, " dug up the very walls after carrying away the ialia- 
bitHuts into slavery." All this is expressed ; for e£ shows the 
carrying off, av^pniroJifw being to make slaves of the men, 
s to dig under or into the earth, to sub- 



some he replaces the Greeks with Barbarians, 
letting them loose upon the temples and the 
tombs, in no one particular acting otherwise 
than might he expected from his country and 
his character, and abusing the fortune which, 
for the moment, he enjoys, nor mindful how, 
from an inconsiderable and very ordinary per- 
son,* he hath risen to bis present greatness, 
past all hope — and although, while the People 
of Athens only saw him seizing upon Barba- 
rian and unappropriated t towns, they might con- 
vert by digging under. Francis only has "enslaving" for the 
former wort!, though he well readers the latter by " razing 
to the foundationa." Dawaon — " treating the inhabitants 
as VQRBals and slaves," a feeble tautology, and also bd 
omission of the laeaningin part. Leland — enslaving — and 
razing their walls, neither being accurate. Wolff, Exscindit, 
et iub corona vendit. 

• The original is fine to express contempt — ^iiKpoti rat 
-ov Tv^oiTos, a small and ordinary man — a Bmall, a Mr. 
Anybody-kiud-of-man. Wolff, " parvo et quolibet." Fran- 
cis, '* inconsiderable and obscure." Dawson, same. Le- 
land, " mean origin." 

t ;3up/3apoug Kai iSiac- The Frenchman (and Stock 
agrees apparently) mistakes this apparently, rendering it as 
if the towns were Barbarian and dependent on Athens, and 
that therefore the Athenians did not mind an injury only 
affecting themselves — a magnanimity never affected at 
Athens. But the "Barbarian" and "dependent" is of 
itself an answer to this. Leland, " detached from Greece." 
Francis and Dawson agree. Dawson, " governed by their 
own particular laws." Wolfi's " privata" is hardly sense. 

sider no great wrong was done tliem, yet, when 
they now perceive the Greek cities themselves, 
some insulted, some destroyed, they deem it 
monstrous and utterly unworthy of the glory 
of their ancestors to stand by and witness the 
slavery of Greece — Now, therefore, it hath 
pleased the Senate and People of Athens, after 
supplicating and propitiating the gods and heroes 
who guard tiie city and the Athenian territories, 
and calling to mind the virtues of tlieir fore- 
fathers, who ever set more value on the pro- 
tection of Grecian liberty than on the defence 
of their own country, to launch two hundred 
galleys, and that the Admiral cruise within the 
Straits of Thermopylae ; that the General and 
tiie Commander of the cavalry march the horse 
and foot to Eleusis, and that Ambassadors he 
sent to the other Greek states, hut first of all 
to Thebes, Philip being nearest to that country, 
with the view of caUing upon the Thebans un- 
awed by him to defend their own independence and 
that of Greece at large, and to assure them that the 
People of Athens, hearing them no grudge on ac- 

ihough, if the wurd will hear it, the meaning !■ riglil. — 
Reiske, ii. 514, cannot understand iSiac, or, as he rendere 
it> " propria" — and aska cvi propria 1 suspecting a corrupt 
lest. Taylor justly says, " idem ac owuvo/xoi'i — Bui jnrig." 
Wolff explains his " privats" by " nullft aocielale cum 
Greecis conjuncin." — Reiske, Ap. Crit, i. 280. 


count of any untoward circumstances which miiy 
have occurred, will succour them with troops, 
and money, and weapons for light and for heavy 
armed troops, as well aware that, although it is 
a noble thing for Greeks to contend one ■with 
iinother for supremacy, yet to be ruled by an 
alien * bred man, and by him stripped of the 
sovereignty, is unworthy both of the glory of 
the Greeks and the valour of their ancestors ; 
iiioreovei', that the Athenian people do not look 
upon the Thel)ans as aliens either in race or in 
country, but call to mind the services rendered 
to the ancestors of the Thebans by their own an- 
cestors, when they restored the descendants of 
Hercules, whom the Peloponnesians were strip- 
ping of their hereditary dominions, and defeated 
by force of arms those who attempted to resist 
them ; and further, that we atForded an asylum to 
CEdipus and his comrades in banishment, beside 
many other passages of kindness and which are 
honourable to us in our intercourse with the 
Thebans. Wherefore the People of Atliens will 
not be wanting towards their interests and those 
of the other Greeks, hut will treat vvitli them 

* The solemn and earnest contempt of the stranger ia 
here vcrj- striking — aWoifiuXou urdpuiimv — an alien man, a 
foreign-horn men, an alien-bred man, is the must near: 
literally, a man of another tribe— of none of the Athenian 


^ ifoi' concluding an alliance offensive and defen- 
sive,* mutual naturalization, and an interchange 
ofratifications upon oath. Ambassadors appointed 
— Demosthenes, son of Demosthenes of Pseania ; 
Hyperides, son of Cleander of Sphettus ; Mne- 
altheJdea, son of Antiphanes of Plireaiium ; 
Democrates. son of Sophilus of Phlya ; Callses- 
chrus, son of Diotimus of Cothocis. i 

Such was the commencement, suoli the first 
framework, of our measures with relation to 
Thebes, the former policy of jEscbines's party 
having driven the two countries to mutual enmity, 
and hatred, and distrust. Tliis Decree caused the:] 
dangers which encompassed the country to pass ^ 
1 away like a cloud.f It was tlie duty of a 


irvfi/iaxias is n 
lightiug together. I 
hardly find any me 
Beema itself rather t 

e than alliance— it it alliance for 
nuet be admitted, however, that we 
alliance, ^iXio, of old ; and <i>i\tu 
I peace and neutral. 

than allied. Our tnvnBlatiim of av/inaxi" in the test ii 
clearly the literal one. 

+ Bimrtp TiipuE This pafisage, or rather phraee, is cele- 
brated, hut not therefore the better rendered by tranBlators. 
DawBon, "scattered and driven away like a cluud before 
the wind," Francis makes the phrase pnsaive, passed 
" away like a cloud, and was dissipated." Leiund 
adds figures as well as words, and makes it passive 
also—" the danger which hung lowering oyer our state 
was in an instant dissipated like a cloud." Nothing can 
L'Jbt worse. In rendering a paseagc, in campoeiug which 
K«very syllable was weighed, the more literal we are, the 


citizen, if he had any better plan, to propound 
it openly at the time, and not to cast reflections 
now. For a statesman and a partisan, in no 
other particular resembling eacli other, differ 
most of all in this, that the one gives his councils 
before the event, and makes himself accountable 
to his followers,* to fortune, to emergencies, to 
any one that pleases ; while tiie other, holding 
his peace when he should speak out, finds fault 
for the first time the instant that anything goes 
wrong. That then, as I have said, was the 

better, surely. If those who have " dispel," and ''disperse," 
and " scatter" he right, how comes it thiit ^ did-iioC know 
such words ae Siwptw, Eiao-KtSafu, SiaiTTupar, ^lasporeu 
(tiieplode), Biaireiia, (discoaa)? But he says n-apEXOiiv, to 
pasB by, or away, or over head. 

* Wolff makes jTEidfeioi govern rj? mxi — agaiuHt all other 
authority. Some have made the liability be/or andnot (o; 
but the construction will not bear this ; becHuse, if it had 
been /or, the genitive or the dative with tirt would have 
been used. Dawaoti makea the liability be lo the followers 
and any one that chose, /or fortune and emergencies; a 
eenee wholly gratuitouG, and which makes the dative mean 
two severai things in the game sentence. Leland's [lanslat- 
ing avKoipavrjK, sycophant, fieems quite incomprehensible ; 
he might as well call aplayer u hypocrite, or a peasant a vil- 
lain. Francis and Dawson make av/iliovKog merely an 
adviser; whereas it means here an honest or bona fide 
adviser, as opposed to a factious or selfish person seeking 
his own interest under cover of giving advice " States- 
man" being used in the text with '' partisan" opposed, tlie 
former is eulogistic, and the latter dyslogistic. 



occasion for a nmn to come forward, who stuflied 
the interests of the country, and had sound 
advice to tender. But I will go to such an 
excess of candour* as at once to confess I was 
ill the wrong, if even now any person will point 
out a better course, or show now that any other 
could then have bet- n taken than tlie one I pursued. 
For if there be anything which any one can now 
descry that ought then to have been done, of 
that thing I will admit I ougiit not to have been 
unaware. But if there be nothingi that either 
was feasible, or tliat any man in any way can 

*roiTavrr)r 'vriftftoKiiv iroiovfiai — This canuot be rendered 
safely by the mere wurds, I will make me Buch an hyper- 
bole—or, I will go me to such a pitch. Leland has the 
paraphrase, " Such is my confidence in the abundant merita 
of iny cause." Wolff, " tam proljxe ago." Dawson's, "I 
will venture to say," is nearer the mark — and Francis's "1 
will boldly venture to afRrm." But all ihese fall short of 
ihe Greek phrase, which implies some exceee or extrava- 

t The negativea in abtmdance here merit attention. 
There are in the Greek no less than five in a line and a 
half: the inieneity thui> produced is very alrlking and 
truly Demosthenean. In a modem Hssenibly it would be 
perfectly successful, and is ufteu tried witli effect. " If 
there is nothing, if there uas nothing if no man can in 
no way whatever at this hour, with all the benefits of 
Wtperience, and wise after the event, tell," &c. ; but still 
negative is of necessity omitted from ihe slruciure of 
our language. 


even at this day state, what behoved it ii couii- 
cilloi' to advise ? Was he not bound to choose 
the only course nliich presented itself, and was 
within our reach ?* That, then, did I, when 
the herald, jEschines, demanded, Who desires 
to epenk ? Not, Who wants to blame the past ? 
nor yet. Who is willing to guarantee the future ? 
But, while in those times you sat speechless in 
the assembly, I stood forward to speak. But, if 
you spake not then, at least speak out now. Say 
what plan ought I to have fallen upon, or what 
occasion of benefiting the Commonwealth did I 
neglect; what alliance, what measure was there 
that I ought to have preferred pressing upon the 
people ? But the past is ever forgotten by all 
men, nor does any one propose any council 
upon it ; the future it is, or the present, that 
calls forth the-eapadty of a statesman. At 
that time, then, some of the calamities were 
appi-oaching, others impended.t to meet which 

* ^aivD/ttybiv KOI tyoyruy. Francia, " visible and prac- 
ticable." Dawson, " that occurred and appeared practi- 
cable." Leland, not literal at all — " euch nieaBurea as 
occurred," leaving out one quality. Wolff, '■ quee e«»e 
videreotur qureque darentur." 

+ The Greek deacription is here very fine ; literally, 
" At tbat lime, then, eome cakniitiea as it seemed were going 
to iiappen at a future time (approached), but others were 
present (or at haud, or impending), in which (approach- 
ing calamities and present dangers) ohaerve my clioice 


only examine the course of my policy iiisle<«I of 
declaiming upon the event. For the result of 
all human councils must be as it may please 
Divine Providence ; but the line of his policy 
shows the perspicacity of the statesman. Lay 
not then the blame on me if it was Philip's 
fortune to win the battle ; for this depended on 
Heaven, not on me. But, if I did not adopt 
all possible expedients, according to all hu- 
man calculation — if I did not strictly anil strenu- 
ously persevere in them, and with exertions 
above my strength — or if I did not insist upon 
lose measures which were glorious for the 
iuntry, and worthy of her renown, and neces- 
sary for her safety* — show me that, and then 
impeach me when you please ! "I" But if the 


policy and don't lilame the event." Nothing can be 
clear than this seiiEe, and Wolff is aa ububI right. 
Francis must say, " tlie future threatened us with 
its lerrora, the present ojipressed us with its luisfortuiies ; 
in these circumstances e.'iamine," &c. Dawson makes the 
.&iture the thing A was to provide against, and not the 

I • " Worthy and neceasary," literally — but the sense seema 
to require being brought out as in the text ; though this is 
ft licence hardly ever taken in the present Iranalation. 

t rnr' ^eJ| — then immediately; — the text however is 
almost the same, and is the English version. This passage 
ta very fine, rapid, and spirited. Its success in our senate 
would be aasured. 

tempest, the liurricaiie* which visited us was too 
mighty, not for us only, but for every other State 
in Greece, wliat was to be dune ? As if, when 
the ownerf" of a vessel has done everything that 
her safety required, and fitted her out with ail 
that could secure her a prosperous voyage, and 
she encounters a stonn, and her works labour 
and entirely give way, some one should charge 

' av/ijias — happened to — came over — aUacked; but vi- 
sited may do, and le idlomiLtlc; aKiiTrruis certaiulv means a 
tliuuder-guat as well as a whirlwind — a common thunder it 
does not mean ; and, had A intended to aay thunder, he 
certainly would not have left his meaning ambiguous — nor 
have first put thunder-storm, and then yjifion; tempert 
generally. Besides, a whirlwind is as sudden and much 
more sweeping than thunder. Lelaud and the others have 
thunder, and so has Wolif. Reiske considers the words q 
Xfifiiui' as a various reading that has crept into the text, 
(ii. 516) — to which I incline. 

t I'auKXijpoc certainly should here be shipowner by the 
sense, — and so all authorities read it. Yet tbe word means 
shippej, pilot, one whose lot is on ship-board — naucleniB, 
nocchiero, iis only pilot. t/jTropoc is one using other men's 
ships, and originally was Dot a merchant ; for Homer, Od. 
B, 319, makes Telemachus say he is iiivopoQ, sailing in 
other men's ships, and on vijoc Eirij/JoXoc. vavap)(<is is an 
admiral, or commander, rather than a shipper or pilot, a 
however must here mean owner. Horace, to express the 
same thing, uses mercator, " iiavim jactautibus Auslris," 
though naucleruB would have suited the verse as well — 
therefore he plainly avoided it, as not meaning shipowner. 
Calepin's Polyglot and other books translate I'nutXijpof, 
nauclerus, pilut. 



dm with the shipwreck; But I had not the 
command* of the ship, might he say ; just so, I 
had not the command of your armies, nor was I 
master of Fortune, but Fortune mistress of all. 
But consider this, and mark ; if such was our 
fate when we conihated with the Thebans on 
our side, what had we to expect if, instead of 
having them for a!hes, they had joined Philip, 
which jEschines exhausted all Ids strengthf to 
make them do ? And if, when the battle was 
fought three days' march from Attica, so great 
peril and such alarm beset tlie city, what would 
have been our prospects if the disaster had hap- 
penedj close to our own territory ? Should we, 
think you, have been able to stand, to assemble, 
breathe? As it was, a single day, or two or 

•fttpvoy properly refers to the oflSce of the pilot or 
it "command' is also used for that, and better 
suits the compariBon lierc. The passage is a Hue one, the 
comparisun beii^ cloae and well brought out ; though the 
fact of the wreck ia nut stated, iior is it put, "ahould a 
wreck follow;" hut only the things leading to one are 
described. It must he farther ohserved that the compatison 
Bomewhat fdils at the end ; for Fortune still would have go- 
verned the whole, eyt^C the raerchant had steered in the 
cue case, or A had gaHianded in the other. 

t Literally, " raiseiill his voice." 

J TrXijffiov ia insertea after ttou by Reiske, his authority 
being apparently one -of the five MSS. cited by Taylor, ii, 
516, and Ap. Crit. i. 283. Wolff and most others omit this, 

id make the sense, wiihin the country. 

three, contributed much to the safety of the 

city. But in the event I am supposing* It 

is, however, useless to recount things which we 
have been spared, through the goodness of Hea- 
ven and the protection of the very alliance you 
are attacking. f ^All these things. Judges, I ad- 
dress chiefly to you and to those who compose 
the outer circle of this audience; for as to this 
despicable creature, a short and simple statement 
will suffice. 

If to you alone of nil others, .^schines, the 
future had been revealed at the time of oui- 
public deliberations upon these matters, you 
were bound to disclose it; if you did not foresee 
it, you were responsible for being as ignorant 
as the rest of us. How dare you then accuse me 
on this score any more than I am to accuse you ? 
So much better a citizen was I than you in 
those circumstances of which I am speaking 
(and of others for the present I say nothing), 
that I devoted myself to what all men deemed 
the best interests of the State, shrinking from 
no personal danger, nor so much as throwing 
away a thought upon it, while you gave no bet- 

* Francis omiis this striking interruption. 

+ An aotirlimax here is introduced, but with the view of 
clinching the argument agflinst jischines. It is a»if ihad 
Baid, " Our escape is owing, nnder Providence, to the 
Thelinn alliance you attack." 

^Hjber advice, (if you had, mine would not have 
^B^ been followed,) noi-did you lend your aid* in exe- 
cuting mine ; but whatever the meanest and most 
disaffected person could do, tliat you are found 
througliout tliese transactions to have done. And 
thus, at one and the same time, Aristratus in 
Naxus and Aristolaus in Thasus, the inveterate 
enemies of this country, are condemning the 
friends of Athens, and at Athens jEschines is im- 
peaching Demosthenes ! Yet ought that man, 
whose renown lies in the misfortunes of Greece, 
rather to perish ttian accuse another; and tliat 
man cannot he a friendt to his country whose 
purposes are served by the same events as be- 

Inelit her enemies. You prove this by all the 
life you lead, and all the things you do, and 
all the measures you propound, and all the 
measures you do not propound. J Is there 

■Xpnaifiov TtapciTxit — made or showed youreelf uaeful. 
Why Wolff has, contrary to hia wonted closenesB, both 
studium" and "utilitoa," seemB hard to tell. 

irptJi— well disposed to the country — but 
Wolff onaccouniably has " bonua civis el patriEe atnans." 
lUrely his test must have woXirfle ayadog or yptiaifioQ. 
J As tniktTivii cannot be rendered by one word, it ia 
necesBary, in order to preserve the aymmetry and force of 
the original, to render fqe and jtoieIs by Bubatantives aleo. 
This is a noble pasaage, and of a kind admirably auited to 

1 our parliamentary ' 
oet certain s 

and !■ 

Such rapid 

e the leas for hein 

anything in agitation for the interests of the 
country? ^scliines is mute. Does anytliing 
go wrong, and disappoint expectations ? Forth 
comes jEschines ; *as old fractures and sprains 
annoy us afresh the moment the body is stricken 
with disease. 
^o^*" But, since be dwells so much on the actual 
events, I will hazard a somewhat hold assertion,! 
and let not any one, I pray, be staggered by its 
extravagance, but attend particularly to my 
statement. If the events of futurity had been 
manifest to all, and if all had foreseen them, 
and you, .^schines, had foretold them, and had 
bellowed out your protestations ever so vocifer- 
ously, instead of never uttering a word — not 
even then ought the country to have acted 
otherwise than she did, if she had any regard 
either for her glory, or her ancestry, or her pos- 
and either unmixed with Harcaum, or Imving only a subdued 
EarCBstic tone. In A, however, the eBrcaam breaks out in 
full force at the end. 

* Dawson cliooaea to make j^Bchinea " appear all in a 
rage," and converts the ailments into " eruptions and sores." 
Francis, '' fractures and strains," aright. Wolff, rupta et 
cunvulsa. owaajxaTa may be cramps or spasms rather than 
sprains ; but the latter are more likely to come out than 
spasms, which are not any accidenta that can remain 
and lie dormant. 

t Trapalotov. Wolff, admirabile. Dawson and Francis, 
" kind of paradox." Leland, " hazard a bold assertion-'" 
The Itttter seems the better sense, but the other will also do. 

■ teiity. Ni 



terity. Now indeed she is supposed to have ' *' 
been frustrated in her proceedings, tlie lot of 
all mortals, if Providence so wills it ; hut then, 
had she, after aspiring to the foremost place 
among the other States, abandoned the attempt, 
she ivould have borne the blame of delivering 
them all over to Piiilip." For, if she had given 
up without a struggle all that your forefathers en- 
countered every danger to win,* who but ii'ould 
have spurnedf you, ^schines ? Nut the country 
indeed, not me. But what eyes, gracious God ! '''^ ' 
should we have been able to lift up on any 
I strangers comiug to Athens, if things had stood 
I in their present posture and Pliilip had been 
made general and master over all, wliile others 
than ourselves had borne the brunt of resist- 
ing Such a consummation ? — especially when 
in past times this country never preferred in- 
glorious ease to tiie peril of illustrious deeds? 
For which of the Greeks, which of the Bar- ^st,-, 
barians, is ignorant that, Ijoth from t!ie Thebans 
and from the Spartans who bore sway before 
them, ay, and from the Persian king himself, 

I * In the Greek ihcre is here a double uegHtive, for intenae 
affirmation. We must render it affiriautively. 

t tarnTruiTft-. Francis and Diiwaon take the literal 
meaiiiiig of "spit upon;" hut the former absurdly adds, 
" wiih vileneas and contFJiipt," of which the one word is 
nooaense, the other superfluoUB; for who spits on 
Q token of respect? 


jwrniissiun would thankfully and cheerfully have 
been given to the country to take what she 
chose, and to keep her own, provided she would 
only submit to a master,* and suffer some other 
State to head the Greeks? But this was felt 
neitlier to be national,-]- nor bearable, nor na- 
tural to Athenians ; nor could any one at any 
time persuade this country to join powerful 
wrongdoers and seek her own safety in slavery. 
Struggling for supremacy, and power, and glory, 
and confronting all hazards, she has Hved 
< through all ages of her history ! And your- 
selves feel that this ie noble and fitting your 
character, when you extol such conduct in 

• TO xiKtvo/iiyov vault'. ThiB was the " accursed thing" 
in the estimation of Greek pride — the doing iinother'H 
bidding; but we cannot render it literally, Leland's 
" receive law," if expanded into " receive the law from 
others," would not be bad. WulfF's " imjjevata faciei" 
does not render the sense; for the Greek words had, as it 
were, a technical meaoing. 

t av wnTpia,ouo' avtKra, ovB' ififvTa. The text ie litcrul 
enough, only that warpia aeema to relate more to ancestry 
than " national" does. Poasibly it might be rendered " At- 
tic," as we Bay " English ;" only that " Attic" has another 
sense. The last word of the three ia mhorn — innate- 
relating tcj the people's o«n cliaraeter and dispotdtionB. — 
Francis, " inconsisteiit with your innate love nf virtue," 
an intolerable circumlocution, which gets rid of all the 
force of the espression. Lelaud, " unhecomiug their 
descent, intolerable to their spirit, repugnant to their na- 
ture" — an amplificatioa, certainly, but a happy one. 



your ancestors. Justly* For wliieli of you is 
not astonished t at tlie virtue of those men, who 
could submit to leave this country and tliis city, 
and embark in their ships, ratlier than lx)\v to a 
master ? — choosing Themistocles, the adviser of 
the measure, for their commander, stoning to 
death Cyrsilus for recommending submission 
to tyranny,^ and not himself only, but your 
wives stoning his wife ? For the Atlienians of 
those days did not go in quest of an oiatur or 
a leader through whom they might enjoy a 
prosperous slavery ; they would not deign to 
live if the life of liberty were denied them. 
Each of them tiiought that he was born, not for 
his father and liis mother only, but for liis 
country. What then ? He who looks upon 
Liniself as only made for his parents, awaits his 
destined end in the coui*se of nature ; but he 

* Que wuTcl, ciKOTon:, Daweon has been pleased ti> make 
into a whale sentence — " And herein you have done 
nuthing but what la jualand generous." Qitousqiie landem? 

t uyairaiTo is more than " admire " (Francis and Wolff). 
IjclanU and Dawson's " astonishment" cumea neurer. It is 
a word of great intenBity. " Revere" is luu calm n jihrase. 
A is citing the greateet iuatuuce of patriotic devotioti in 
ancient times, as the aimilar project of the Dutch was in 

t hxaKomy roit tiriraTTOf^fOit — listen to orders — the 
ume kind of phraee with xtkcvoiuvov -nviuv — but not bo 

noted and techuical. 

wlio feels thiit he is born for liis countrj' loo, 
«'ill rather die than see her enslaved, and will 
account the insults and the disgrace whicli must 
needs await the citizens of a conquered state 
more friglitful than death itself. 

If then 1 should take upon me to affirm that 
it was I who made you entertain sentiments 
worthy of your forefathers, there lives not the 
man who ^uld justly blame me. But I am 
now demonstrating tliat those measures ivere 
your own, and showing that the country had 
adopted those principles before I did, while 
however I assert that in the execution of each 
design I too had my share. But ^schines, 
impeaching my whole conduct and bidding 
you hold me cheap as the cause of tlie coun- 
try's alarms and penis, ivould fain strip me of 
the credit at this moment, and thus deprive 
you of the glory ever al\er. For, if you 
condemn Ctesiphon on account of my* policy 
having been wrong, you will be proved to have 
yourselves done wrong, instead of merely suf- 
fering under the dispensations of fortune. But 
it is not true ! It is not true that you have 
done wrong, Men of Athens ! in fighting 

* It ia strange that Wolff should omit the e/jou in hw 
version, ana make the imXiTtvaafiCKau apply to the tov?i, or 
CtEBiphon, which would really be 


s battle of all Greece for her freedom and sal- 
ition ! No ! By your forefathers, who for tliat 2^3 
cause rushed upon destruction at Marathon, and 
by those who stood in battle array at Pla- 
tsea, and those who fought the sea-fight at 
Saiamis, and by the warriors of Art«niisiuni, 
and by all the others who now repose in the 
Sepulchres of ihe Nation — gallant meu, and to 
all of whom, ^schines, the state decreed a pub- 
lic funeral, deeming that they too had earned 
such honours, not those only who had combated 
fortunately and had come otT victorious — and 

twith strict justice;* for the duty of the brave 
' Ab tiKoriuc had furniehed Dawson with one sentence 
before, BO here Sixaiuis gives him the oceosion of inserting 
another, intruding his hand even into the sacred precinct 
of the famous oath itself. " And in this the cummonweahh 
acted upon the principles of the most strict and impartial 

I|uBtice" — this is really neither ai'ct:rur, nor -Karptor, nor 
^fvTov. Francis is nearly as had ; " Such distinctiou 
(rould have been most onjust," 
Leland in some parts of this great passage exceeda all 
bounds in nearly the same degree — roug ruv Trpoyoiwi' — 
•* those generous souls of ancient times," is really not only 
gratuitous, but resembles the style of a convivial eongj 
iTEpouc ayoflouc uv^puc, " those illustrious sons of Athens." 
Yet all the Ubour given to add and expand seems so much 
spared on the task of translating ; else why does he make 
irpui:iyCvyeviTayTat; merely, " who were exposed ?" Fmucia 
makes the country have only honoured the memory of the 
slain by inserting them " in the public registers;" though 
ftyitta is a sepulchre, and Kcififovt; shows a lying or being 

had been done by all; but what fortune Pro- 
vidence bestows on each, that they had shared. 

laid, and no one lias mentioned any public tablets where 
names were inserted ; while on the contrary, we learn from 
CcFTU. NepoB that Miltiadea and his army were represented in 
IhePortico. ThewordirpoKit'Bui'CDtrai'rogit iaimpoBsiblewell 
to render — it is meeting danger in order to drive or ward off 
some threatened blow. Wolff, "pro aliis dimicant," irapa- 
ra^Q^tcouc is a noble word for the sound ; but " arranged 
in battle," or "standing in battle amy," renders it well. 
Francis's "engaged in battle" gives it feebly enough. Daw- 
son's "bearing the brunt of the battle" is better. Wolff's 
" in acie steterunt," seenia merely " standing in line," and is 
insufficient. One thing is clear, that the more simply this 
celebrated piece is rendered, t!ie better. The original owes 
much of its sublimity to its great simplicity. 

The whole paeeagc which ends here, and begins ei yap 
ravTO Trpociro okoviti ("Foe if she had given up" p, 141), 
is deserving of close study, being one of the greatest 
pieces of declamation on record in any tongue. Much 
of it would have answered in our debates ; the allusions 
to history are quite such as would tell with us ; the common- 
places might alone require to be changed, those ,'e specially, 
about slavery and death, because (o us they seem trivial; 
but so probably would many of ours, such as those on toler- 
ance, humanity, and Jrcedom of discussion, on which we so 
uftea dwell. How far the Oath might be adopted by us 
with effect, may be doubted by some, inexperienced in 
]iubiic speaking ; but exclamation and adjuration as vehe- 
ment have by skilful men been tried with perfect success 
both in our Senate and our Forum. To be sure, the swift 
transition from this noble passage to very gross personal 
abuse and even ribaldry, would never with us have been 
borne, nor indeed with us could a defensive and cxpla- 


. And suchj execrable pedagogue,* such being 
he case, it is that you would fain strip nie of 
the respect and love of those very countrymen, 
and for this purpose divell upon the trophies and 
the battles, and the great deeds of old, with 
what tittle of which has this trial the least con- 
nexion ? And when I came fonvard, thou thiwl- 
rate actor, to counsel the state touching her 
claim of sovereignty, with what sentiments did 
it become me to be inspired on mounting the 
Bema? Should I have spoken things unworthy 
of those proud recollections ? Then had I de- 
served to die. For you yourselves, Athenians, 
ought not to hear private and public causes 

much in recriminatioa bb 
Q great risk of its making 

Datory speech have abounded bi 
the oration at large does, with 
the audience HUEpect a weak c 

• tnrtipaToc— devoted to the furies — object of divine 
vengeance i ypa/j^uarojcu^iuf, teacher of boys: the former 
a vehement expreaaion ; the latter a very unworthy sneer at 
the trade of j^schineh' father. Francis loses his temper 
even more than A in this place. " Thou accursed villaio ! 
thou miserable pettifogger 1" quoth he — the latter not being 
the true sense, Dawson, " vile scribbler." Wolff, " gibbose 
literator" (from nvtfiaiy, subst. — instead of KUTrrw). Leland, 
" abject scrivener" — always supposing this to mean a clerk 
or writer, whereas il is a money-changer, the former mean- 
ing of a conveyancer being quite obsolete. Tpirayovirrra — 
Dawson, "buffoon." Leland, " vile player." But why 
not the literal meaning — third-rate player — an actor of 
Le parts ? Francis is rii^ht here. 


ia the same temper of mind ; but as the daily 
transactions of life should be judged strictly and 
according to the rules and practices of society, 
' so should measures of state be considered with a 
view to the dignity of our ancestors; and each 
of you, in coming to decide upon state prosecu- 
tions, should, together with the staff and badge 
of justice,* take upon himself the impression 
of the country's greatness, if you feel that you 
should act up to those worthy recollections. 
But in touching upon the deeds of your fore- 
fathers.f I have passed over some Decrees and 
some trausactions. I would now therefore re- 
turn to the point from which I digressed. 

On arriving at Thebes, we found the ambas- 
sadors of Philip and of the Tliessalians and his 
other allies already there; our own frieuds in 

* The sticks and balls used in voting, lilerally ; but the 
w'cirds also mean staff and badge. 

t Nothing can be more simple than this transition, or 
rather return horn a digression; leaving it to the quick 
sense of an Athenian audience to gather that the topic had 
carried away the orator, as douhtlesB it liad done them ; 
yet Dawson must needs make him clumsily say that 
" the mention of the great actions of their forefathers had 
transported him." Leland falls into the same puerile 
turn. These tranKlalors really make the most skilfiil 
of composers fall into the same incredible clumsiness of 
expression wtich has made the readers of Lord Kaimes 
smile. " Returning now from such episodical diversions," 
is liis lordship's callida Jvnclwa. 


aUnii, those of Piiilip full of confideuce ; and to 
show tliat I do nut say so for any purpose of my 
own, read the Letter which as ambassadors we * 
immediately sent. For to such a pitch oi' 
calumny has this man reached, that vi'henever 
any tiiinc; is rightly done, he ascribes it to the 
occasion and not to me ; while of all untoward 
events I and my fortune are the cause. Nay, 
as it shoLild seem, 1, a counsellor and orator, am 
to have no hand* in any thing that is effected by 
<Iebate and advice, and yet am alone to he held 
accountable for all the miscarriages of our arms 
and our military commanders. Can there be a 
more cruel sJauderer, or a more execrable, than 
this man ? Read the Ijetter. 

LETTEK (not preserved), 

The assembly lieing convoked, the Mace- 
donian ambassadors were lirst introduced, 
having been received in the quality of allies. 
Upon rising to speak, they harangued much in 
praise of Pidlip, much in vituperation of you, 
and in recital of all that you had ever done 

• ouidinot' — co-operator — co-efficient — co-cau»er ; hav- 
ing A haud, as in the text, is literal, and is good English. 
FTttncis, " uo merit." Dawson's " no part " is much betier. 
LeUnd, " no ebare of merit " 

- 150 

adverse to the Thebans. In a word, tliey con- 
cluded that for the favours received from Philip 
they should show themselves grateful, but for 
the wi'oiigs done by you, they should seek 
redress in whatever way they pleased, either by 
giving a passage through their country to ours, 
or by joining in the march upon Attica ; and 
they showed, as they imagined, that if their 
advice were followed, the cattle and slaves and 
all the other wealth of Attica would be brought 
into Boeotia, while, by following the advice 
which they declared we were going to give, all 
the Bceotian resources would be squandered in 
the war. They said much more besides, all to 
the like effect. But the answer which we made 
to these tilings, I should take more delight in 
detailing point by point than anything in the 
whole world ;* only I am apprehensive lest, now 
the occasion is passed away, you should consider 
that some deluge has overwhelmed those trans- 
actions, and regard all that could be said upon 
the subject as keeping up a fruitless contentionf 
respecting them. Hear, however, our arguments 
and their reply. Read them. 

* Litetally, value it more tliao all in life ; but " anything 
in the whole world" is idiomatic and close, 
i" The KartLxXvaftoi and /iaratoc o^Kos are here both very 


ANSWER OF THE THEBANS (not preserved). 

After these proceedings, they called upon you 
and summoned you in form ; you marched ; 
you succoured them ; to pass over intemiediate * 
occurrences, they received you as familiar 
friends ; so much so that, while their own infan- 
try and cavalry were stationed ivitliout the walls, 
they quartered your army in their dwellings 
and their citadel,+ in the midst of their children, 
and wives, and whatever was dearest to them. 
Wliy, on that day the Thebans thrice pro^ 
nounced the noblest panegyrick upon you ; first 
on your courage, next on your justice, thirdly on 
your self-command. For when they preferred 
fighting on your side to fighting against you, 
they deemed you both braver than Philip and 
more just in your demands ; and when they left in 
your power their children and their wives, posses- 
sions wliich they and all men guard the most jea- 
lously, they proved the confidence they reposed 
in your honour. In all this, Athenians, they 
showed a correct knowledge of your character. 
For when our troops enteredj the city, no one 

* ly fitaui — intermediate; Frttncis, " less important " — 
but A only racaua plainly to pass over all till he comee to 
Thebes ; ami su Lelaml and Dawson. 

t aoru, counted as the house of their Gode. 

I nSii-ars clearly means to imply that no complaint, right 

ever preferred so much as a groundless charge 
against you, so teiuperate was your behaviour ; 
and on two occasions, while serving with tliem, 
the one ill the first engagement near the river, 
the other in the winter campaign, your conduct 
was not only irreproachable, Ijut admirable in 
discipline,* in equipment, in courage. Hence 
on their part, praises bestowed upon you ; on 
your part, sacrifices and processions to the Gods. 
And here I would fainf ask .^schines a ques- 
tion : MTien all this was going on, and the city 
was filled with enthusiasm, and gratitude, and 
eulogy, whether he joined in gratulation and 
thanksgiving with the people, or remained at 
home sorrowful, and bemoaning, and begrudg- 
ing I the public prosi)erity ? For if indeed he 
made his appearance, and took part with the 
rest, is not his conduct dreadful, nay rather is it 

VI wrong, wa.B ever made. But Dawson, coutraiy to the plain 
syntax bb well aa the rest of the sentence, makes it that no 
complaint of any injutlice was made — the qucetion being of 

• KOTiiif — discipline — ie literal and right here. Wolff's 
"modestia" must be wrong — the moderation (if thai be 
meant) belonged to another head, and is ulteady treated by 
ffiu^pooTini. Some have ornatus ; but trapaotfi'ij includes that. 

i r)li.b>e tpoijur. The text is both idiomatic and literal. 
Not as Francis and Leland have it, " gladly." 

X 3 utr/itraii'iui'— bearing ill will — begrudging. Leland, 
" provoked." Francis, " indulging the malevolence nf his 
spiTit. " DawBon, " discontented." Wolff, " segre ferens." 


f not impious, in now Citlling upon you to condemn 
1 those proceedings as evil which he had called 
the Gods to witness were good, those Gods in 
whose presence you have this day sworn ? But 
if he did not appear, does he not deserve a 
thousand deaths for groaning over a spectacle 
that filled all others with joy ?* Read now these 

• The beauty of ihis passage is verj Btriking. Not merely 
ihe esquiaite diccion — the majeaty of the rhythm — ihe skil- 
ful collocation— the picturesque deficription of jEschines' 
dismay, ttnd skulking f rum the public rejoicings; but the 
argument ia to be observed aod admired. It is a dilemma, 
Knd one which would be quite sufficient for the momentary 
yiclory at which alone an orator often aims. It is not 
closely reasoned ; it is not a complete dilemma ; a retort ia 
obvious, (to use the language of the logiciana,) and this is 
always fatal, being the test before which no bad liilemma 
can stand, jtischlnes had only to embrace the second alier- 
native^the second horn — and it never could have truns- 
lixed him. " I did remain at home, not mourning over 
the success of your measures, but their wickedness; not 
grudging the people their short-lived joy, but grieved to 
see them deluded by your arts to their ruin." Tliis answer 
was complete. Nevertheless, there are but very few com- 

s in the whole course of any argomenl upon 

any subject; 

and the one under cousideraiiou is quite good 

enough to pa 

a with an audience in a speech. Many much 

less complete 

are every day used with us both in the senaie. 

iQ popular a 

Bsemblics, and even at the bar, and with 

enflioient sue 

ess. This whole passage would be of ceriuia 

success in our 




We then were employed in thanksgivings, 
the Thebans in reflecting that they owed their 
deliverance to lis : and it turned out that you, 
who had seemed to require succour in conse- 
quence of the conduct of ^schines's party,* 
were yourselves succouring others in conse- 
quence of having been guided by me. But what 
criesf Philip raised upon those transactions, 
and in what trouble he was, you shall learn 
from the letters which he sent to Peloponnesus. 
Produce, then, and read these, that you may see 
whether my constancy, and journeyings.J and toils, 
and those various decrees which jEschines now 
tears to pieces, worked any good. For, indeed, 
Athenians, we have had before my time many 
great and illustrious orators, the famous Callis- 

* aif iiv cwparrov oiiToi. WolfF,"prop[eri8tonim conatua," 
which may mean either iEschines' parly or the Thehana, 
but rather the former, aa it is to be admitted oItoi with A 
generally does — So I.eland and the uthers. Dawson and 
Francis, as well as Leland, make it the Athenians who were 
helping others. 

t oioE ?)^(et ^wvac,with the Tapa^ais which follows, forbid 
UB to render ^wi-ac merely the " atyle adopted " by Philip, 
with Leland. 

J irXai'Oi — wanderings — peregrinations — and bo Wolff, 
erratioues. There may he an error in the Greek text; but 
jouitieyinge eeems to render the word as it stands. 

tratus, AristophoDj Cephalus, Thrasybuliis, and 
vast numbers more, but no one of them ever so 
entirely gave himself up to his countiy ; he that 
propounded Decrees did not go ambassador, and 
he that went ambassador did not propound 
Decrees ; but each secured his own ease, and, if 
anything went wrong, his escape.* What, then ? 
some one may say, Do you magnify your- 
self above all others, for fortitude and for daring, 
as if you had done all yourself? I say no 
such thing ; but I felt so convinced of the great 
risk which the country was about to encounter, 
that I saw no room for looking to my own se- 
curity, and made it my delight to leave no duty 
undone whicli any one ought to do. For I had 
persuaded myself,-]* groundlessly, peradventure, J 

* i/iriXciimo taury paariayijy, &fia 2" ti rt yiyi'inTO, ayn- 
ipopai: Nothing catt be more espresBive or more terse. 
" Left in store for himaelf some ease, and if anything hap- 
pened, a way out of it, a means of slipping out." It is 
literally a dipping up — an emersion — a rieiug out of the mess 
or sea of troubles. Francis, " Some refuge and resource." 
Dawson, " retreat." Leland, " reaource." Wolff, " recep- 
tum," it is to be supposed for " receptaciilura." 

t The great climax formerly cummented ou seems to 
have here been still iu his mind, probably from its brilliant 
Buccees. The composition of Ais passage is fine, though 
TDuch inferior to that of the other. 

t nrxpy ayaiaOfiTviv—'* perhaps too fondly," Dawson ; 
this is very good, Francis, " foolishly." Wolff, "stupide 
fortaeaia." Leland, " not perhaps on solid grounds." "Fond" 

yet still I liad persuaded myself, that no pro- 
pounder of Decrees could propound belter thau 
mine, nor any txecutor of plans execute better 
thau I, nor any ambassador negociate more zeal- 
ously or more honestly. Hence it was that I 
put myself fornard on all occasions. Read now 
the letters of Philip. 

LETTEBs (not preserved}.* 
To .such extremities, jEschines, did my pnhcy 
reduce Philip. Through me was he hrouglit to 
utter such cries, — he who had before cast on this 
country so many insolent expressions.t For 
tliia was I crowned by the people, when you 
stobd by and did not object. But Diondas, who 
did impeach the Decree for crowning me, had 
not a fifth part of the votes. Then read me 
those Decrees, which were at the time absoIved,;J; 
and which jEschi nes never so much as impeached . 

itid Chaucer uses to Imen for to 
B denotiog some foliv connected 

iti old English it " foolish," 
(lute ; but it it now used i 
with love of oneself or others 

• It is truly unfortunate that the only letter of Philip in 
which he appears to have quailed should be lost. Had A 
exaggerated in his description of it, so that lie was fain to 
suppress it when he published the oration 1 Of the publi- 
cation we have no account; but the loss of this letter ie 

t CTtatpoiuvut dpairuQ (}-oyavg), raising up against lis 
insolent words. 

X Acquitted when charged as unconstitutional. 

DECREES (not preserved), v 

TLese Decrees, Atiienians, are couched in the ^"^ 
selfsame words which first Aristonicus and now 
Ctesiphon have used for theirs; and these 
Decrees ^schines himself never attacked nor 
joined in attacking. But it would have been 
more reasonable then to impeach Demonieles, 
the proposer of those Decrees, or Hyperides, if 
the present charges against me are well founded, 
than 1o attack Ctesiplion now. And why? Be- 
cause Ctesipiion is at liberty to rest his cause upon 
those precedents, and upon the decisions of the 
courts, and upon the fact that ^Eschines him- 
self never accused them for propounding what 
Ctesiphon has now proposed, and upon the prin- 
ciple of law which does not allow of an im- 
peachment for things so settled ;* and for many 
other reasons. Then too the cause would have 
been decided on its own merits, without antici- 
pating any other resultsf to prejudice it. But 

• This IE clearly the meaning of rur' ourji irjia^^deyriiii', 
which Francis renders " a second proseqjition for things 
already determined" — a plea of aiilrefou acquit, iiiafead of 
the stntute of limitations. But there had been uo trial to 
which this kind of defence could api'ly. Iceland makes 
the same version. Dawsun is right. Wolff, literally, " Oe 
rebus ita actis nulla actio," 

t This passage is certainly difGcult, The first pan is 


I conceive it was not at that time possible to 
do what Machines is now doing, to cull out 
from times long gone by, and from a multitude 
of Decrees, such points as no one had any notice 
of, nor could expect to hear brought forward this 
day, and then to inveigh against them and make 
a show of saying something,*by falsifying dates, 
and substituting wrong motives of action for the 
true ones. Such things were not then possible ; 
but the statements should have been made while 
the truth itself was accessible, and while your 
recollection of men's conduct was fresh, and the 
things in question were still all but actually in 
your hands. Wherefore, avoiding the trial at the 
date of the transactions, he now comes forward 
when it is too late, expecting you, as it should 
seem, to make this proceeding a contest of ora- 
tory and not an examination of public conduct ; 

clear enough ; but what meana irpiv n Tovnav TrpoXn/Jeii'? 
Francis, " take advantage of circumstance a that have since 
p&Med." Dawson Sies irom the difficulty, and hides him- 
self in a paraphrase — " false colours which envy anj pre- 
judice have in part cast on it." Leland, "without any 
previous conaideratioaa in its favour," Wolff, " priusquara 
horum qnicquam acceBsiaset." It muat be, " before he couM 
prejudice it by any of those things." 

• SoKuv ri Xcyfii'. Dawson, " give hia assertioni the 
plausible air they now wear." Francis, " maintain the 
apeeious appearance ofa prosecutor." Wolff, " speciosam ad- 
ferre orationem." Leland, "made up a plausible harangue." 

a discussion of words,* and not an inquiry into 
the interests of the country. 

^ Then he becomes sententious,t and says that 
you ought to lay aside the opinions concerning; 
us which you may have brought with you from 
home ; and that as wlien in reckoning with any 
one you think there remains a balance over, yet if 
you find the account square and nothing due, 
you give in ; so should you now yield to what 
the debate has made appear. See now of how 
perishable a nature is everything hatched in 
iniquity, and justly so ! For by this very sapient 
illustration he has confessed that you recognize 
in me the advocate of my country, in him the 
partisan of Philip ; for he never would have 
besought you to change your opinion Iiad not 
this been your actual impression of us both : and 
that he has no just ground for conjuring you to 
alter your opinion, I shall easily show, not indeed 
by using counters, for we are not now upon an 
account of money, but by recounting each matter 

• Koybiv Kpiaii — Dawson, " criticize words." Francis, 
"judgment." Leland, "judge of Bpeech." 

^ amjitiofiai here eeema to be, nut to " argue with Bophie- 
I try" (Francia, Damson, and Leland). but to " be wise over- 
[ much." Wolff, " arguiatur." Others have " aeatentioaum 
I'ftgit," which eeeras nearest the mark. 

sliortly, aiid appealing to you who hear me as at 
once auditors" and witnesses. 
\35y policy, which he impugns, was the cause 
why the Thebans, instead of joining Philip to 
invade us, as every one expected, arrayed them- 
selves with us to resist him ; wliy tlie war, in- 
stead of being waged within Attica itself, was 
carried on seven hundred stadia from the city, 
onthe Bceotian confines; why, instead of priva- 
teers from Euhcea spoiling and harassing us,+ 
Attica enjoyed a maritime peace during the 
whole war; why, instead of Philip being master 
of the Hellespont, and seizing on Byzantium, we 
had the Byzantines mth us in our hostilities 
against hini.J Does this reckoning upon mea- 
sures strike you as resembling that with coun- 
ters ?§ Or nmst these events be taken out of the 

• XoyiToic — auditorB of accounte — keeping up the simile 
introduced into the argument by AlschineB. 

t ftjiQC (pipiiy Kdi ayttr ev rijij Eu/3oiac— Dawsun, led by 
the collocation, makeH this, not pirates from Eubtea, but 
" pirates driving uh from Enbtea " 

I This moat Demosthenean passage would have had infal- 
lible success with na. 

§ This appeal is fine, and indeed full of wit, almost of 
humour. Having shown how he can handle jtlachinea' 
simile and point it against him, lie turns round sharp upon 
liim, as if to aak him how he likes it — how he relishea this 
other kind of rerkonirg ? This sort of turn is very suc- 
cessful when prnctieed with due skill in our asKemblieH ; 


opposite side of my account ? But rather uuglit 
we not to see that they be had in everlasting re- 
ineitibrnn<;e ? I do not add anything on that 
cruelty having been experienced by others which 
Philip, whenever he had the mastery, invariably 
showed; while of the good will which he affected 
towards you wlien casting about* how he might 
effect his other purposes, you deservedly reaped 
the fruits. Of thesethings I say notliing^'' Yet ' ''-■ 
I hesitate not to affirm that a person desirous of 
fairly examining a minister's conduct, and not 
calumniating him, would never impeach those 
things which you, .iSschines, now refer to ; 
putting casesf and mimicking words and ges- 
tures ; for the whole fate of Greece depended, do 
yoit not perceive ? on this — whether I spoke one 
word or another — whether 1 stretched my band 
but it requires not only due skiil^it ia one of tlie many 
things only competent to apeakerB of due weight aUo. 
avravtKuy ia tiilalie from the opposite or debit aide of the 
account. Francia, forgetting the force of the avTi, merely 

[ eays, " taking out of the account." Su Leland, " erased 
from the account." Dawson is extremely learned in the 
phraaeclogy of accounting here, and apeaks of stock, balancea, 
pur; but miBsea the word. 

* This aeems literally to exprcea ittfuflaXKojitvo^, and it 
is quite idiomatic. 

t inpaStiy/iara irXnrTwv — making esamplea — putting 

[ cases. Francis, '' inventing compariaona," Dawaon, " in- 

E venting similes." Leland, " inventing melaphots." 

f Wolff, " exeroplaconfingeuUo." 

this way or that way.* But the fair accuser 
would survey the transiictions themselves, and 
see what resources and what forces the country 
possessed when I entered into public life, and 
what I collected for her after I came forward, 
and how lier enemies were circumstanced. So 
that if I had reduced her power, he might show 
that the guilt ivas mine ; but if I had greatly 
augmented it, then would he never have attacked 
me. But since you, ^scliines, have fled away 
from tliis comparison, I will institute it ; and do 
you, Athenians, mark if I fairly state the case. 
1 -ij v+ The power of the state, then, consisted in the 
Islands, not all of them, but the weaker ones, 
for neither Chios, nor Rhodes, nor Corcyra were 
of our side. Our revenue was five-and-forty 
talents, and that was anticipated ;t of infantry 
or cavalry, except common citizens, not a man. 
But the most alarming thing of all, and what 
made most for the enemy, was that these men 
had prepared all oar neighbours for hostility 
rather than friendship with us, the M egareans, 
Thebans, Eubceans. Such was the situation of 
the country, nor can any one gainsay any of 

* Thia whole pa Bsage is really humorous, even to drollery. 
Nor did the " ridiculua consul" ever give more into it, as 
far as a single phrase or two goes, even when laughing at 
him who gave him the memorable apjieUation. 

t Trpoftii^Ey^fi-a — DawBon " proved deficient" Francis 
and Lelmid right. Wolff, "jam ante exacla." 



these statements. But observe how Philip stood, 
with whom our contest lay. First he com- 
manded his followers, by his own undivided 
authority,* which is everythiug for the success 
of a war. Next, they had their arms always in 
their hands.f Then he abounded in revenues, 
and acted as he chose, not announcing his 
designs in Decrees, not consulting in public, nor 
impeached by calumniators, nor having to de- 
fend himself against charges of Illegal Propo- 
sition,}: nor accountable to any one, but himself 

• avroKpariup. This meoiiB as in the text, in contradia- 
tincti on to influence over allieBorsubBidiBry troops not under 
the actuiil command of the power employing them. Leland, 
" absolute and uncontrolled," gives the same meaning in 
the result, hut loses the contrasting effect of the word. 

t Francis makes this, which should be given as in the 
text literally, '■ his troops were inured to action." Daw- 
ion, " continually under arms, and completely disciplined" 
— the latter part being quite gratuitous. 

t Dawson leaves out the cream of this fine and skilful 
enumeration — the ypof f wnparoiiiav — the charge of Illegal 
Propounding — which ^ says Philip had not, like him, to 
be always thinking how he might avoid. This too applies 
to the existing prosecution. Dawson only has " charge of 
illegal procfedings" — which means anything. Leland is 
worse — " guard against impeachments." There is hardly 
B nobler passage in all A than this. It is a close and rapid 
Bumroary of almost his whole caee. It is peculiarly suited 
to our Senate, where it is no wearisome reiteration, bat a 
necessary part of oratory to presenl the ease in various 
forms, sometimes in detail, sometimes in abridgment, 
sometimes metely hy way of allusion, or even in illustration 
of a patticular topic. 


absolutely the master, the leader, the lord of all. 
But I who was pitted against him,* (for it is 
but ffiir to examine this also,) what sway had I ? 
For first, this power of haranguing, the only 
power I possessed, you guveequiilly to his hire- 
lings and to me ; and whenever theyf over- 
powered me on any question (as frequently 
happened from accidental causes) you took 
ciunsel in theeiiemy's favour, and then left me.J 
Yet did I, under all these disadvantages, obtain 
for you the alliance of the Euboeans, the 
Acheeans, the Corinthians, the Thebans, the 
Megareans, the Leucadians, the Corcyrians, 
from whence you collected 15,000 foreign 
infantry and 2000 cavalry, beside the troops of 
the State. Of money I also obtained as large 
a supply as was practicable. 
2$% But if, jEschines, you now speak of our 
rights with respect to the Thebans, or with 
respect to the Byzantians, or with respect to the 
Euboeans, or put the argument upon the footing 

■ TTpne roiToi' avTirtrayfuyoi — literally, drawn up in 
aiTBy BgaioBt him — or as we say, idiomatically, "pitted 
against him." 

t Dawson makes ouroi, " parricidea" — all of a Eudden ! 
ThiR is one of the oddest freaks ever exhibited by a translator, 
unless indeed DiiWBon had seen some edition with a miS' 
print, or some MS. which no edition takes notice of. 

I ujr;;(ii-£^ — ^Francis, " departed after passing every pos- 
sible resolution in favour of your enemiee." Iceland 

nn-'fm Ih- HenartinB : 80 doCB WlAS. 


^^ of equality* with all these powers; first of all 
■^ you are not aware that when 300 galleys main- 
tained the conflict for all Greece, this country 
furnished "200 of the numher, and never con- 
sidered herself as ill treated, nor brought to 
trial those who advised her, nor ever seemed to 
be aggrieved by the disproportion (indeed, it 

» would have been disgraceful if she had) ; but 
rendered thanks to Heaven for having, in the 
midst of the common dangers that surrounded 
Greece, contributed a double share towards 
securing the common safety. Besides, you will 
get but slender thanks fi-oiu this assembly by 
calumniating me. For why will you now be 

I insisting on what ought then to have been done, 
when you never brought forward any such pro- 
position at the time, though you were in the 
city and were present at the debates ? if indeed 
you could have suited your measures to the 
temper of those times in which we obtained 
not what we wished, but what we could. For 
there was a bidder against us, quite ready 


• Reiake has here irtpi rwv vijiruy — all othera reading 
leu/y. Why should ihe Islanda contribute ? Besides, ?rpoi, 
used to the other states, and ehanged into irtpt here, shows 
the meaning— independent of the whole argument immedi- 
ately turning upon the proportions. Reiske gives no kind 
of authority for his emendatiou; but merely says, "eorrexi" 
(ii. 521). 

instantly to receive whatever allies ive rejected 
and to advance upon our price.* 
"' ^ But if I am now accused for what I actually 
did, what think you would have happened had 
those States gone over to Philip while I was 
captiously disputing upon the contingents, 
and had he become master at once of Eubcea 
and ITiebes and Byzantium ? What think 
you would those abandoned men have done 
or have said then ? Would they uot have 
said the allies had been betrayed 1 Woald they 
not have said that, desirous of siding with us, 
their advances had been repelled by us ? — that 
he had become master of the Hellespont through 
the Byzantiana ? — that he had got possession of 
the corn trade of Greece? — that the weight of 
a near and a heavy war had been brought down 
upon Attica by the Thebans? — that the sea 
had been made unnavigable by the privateers 
stalldngt forth from Eubcea ? Would they not 
have said all this and a great deal more ? A 
wicked thing, Athenians, a wicked thing is a 
calumniator ever, and in every way a slanderous 

' XPl^*""" TpooSijiTciij'. Francis, " enlarge iheir price." 
DawBon," liberal rewards." Leland, "bid much higher." 
Wolff, " pretium augeret." 

t bpfmiiipoiy meuns either simply " faring forth, or 
breaking out," Wolff moat properly here uses the very fine 
word " grasaaotes," with which our text coincides. , 



E-ulous* thing. But this creature is 
by nature, and incapable of any trace 
of all generous and noble deeds; ape of a tra- 
gedian, CEnomaus of the barn, spurious orator If 
»For what does your eloquence profit the coun- 
try ? You now descant upon what is past and 
gone ; as if a physician, when called to patients 
in a sinking slate, should give no advice, nor 
prescribe any course by which the disease 
might be cured ; but after one of them had 

red, and the funeral duties were performing, 
* ^aot^voy Kai ^tXainav. Francis will have these words, 
" malignant, envious, and fond of contention," the whole 
being in anti-climax as well as feeble. Dawson, '* com- 
plaining of the government of Proridence itself;" herein 
following the Scholiast, and quoting Paul's Bpistle to the 
Galatians, wbo uses the words nc ti/i«c tfiaamvt.. Who haa 
bewitched you ? Leiaud, " Querulous, and industrious in 

IMeking pretence of complaint." 
B t This is a remarkable piece of abuse, and as ia the 
lireat passage, it succeeds immediately a noble and chaats 
■od truly Demosthenean passage. Kivaloe t ayOpuirtov 
^^ beastly (fox-like) little fellow. Francis, "pernicious 
Wiimal in human shape." Dawson, " diminutive wretch 
and savage brute." Leland, " fos in human shape." The 
other epithets might be rendered perhaps as cloacjy as may 
be by " mimic tragedian ! hero (or CEnomaus) of the bam ! 
Brummagem orator ! or base-coin orator!" aaTorpayno^ 
must be more than mere tragedian — it is uutaugiit — seif- 

made t raged i a: 

I adulterated, 

Bpurioua, Dawson's "infamous" is not at all like it. 
" orator of false and adulterate coin." What 
tator may that be precisely? 



should follow him to the grave, and expound 
how the poor man never would have died had 
such and such things only been done. Moon- 
stricken !* is it now tliat at length you too speak 

Nor yet will you find that our very defeat, if 
you exult in that over which you, wretch, rather 
ought to groan, befell the country in any wise 
through my policy. Consider only, Athenians: 
Never from any embassy upon which you sent me 
did I come off worsted by Philip's ambassadors ; 
not from I'hessaly, not from Ambracia, not from 
Illyria, not from the Thracian kings, not from 
the Byzantians, nor from any other quarter 
whatever, nor finally, of late, from Thebes. But 
wheresoever his negociators nere overcome in 
debate, thither he marched, and carried the day 
by his arms. Do you then require this of me, and 

• £^/3(joiTip-e — thunderstruck — Blitpefied. Wolff, " attoii- 
nite." FraiiciB, " in very phrensy" (and he mistakes 
the cjueBtion put here). But Dawaon Bpina these four 
words — £;i6pDV7TjT£ ciTQ vvv XEyjifi — iiito two wLolfi aod most 
gratuitous gentences — " Hardeued follow that thou art, and 
proof against all correction, even though a peal of thuuder 
were the vehicle of it" — (this is pretty well for one single 
word of the Greeli ; and now for tlve other three)—" Is 
this a time of day to begin a discourse of matters so long 
past and gone?" Tills is really worlh a place in the 
cabinets of the curious, as the uttermoBt extent to which the 
powers of paraphrase can go. At this rote A would have 
spoken not three hut seven and twenty hours, or there- 
abouts, had he spoken our language. 


I are you not ashamed, at the moment you are 
i upbraiding me for weaknegs, to require, that I 
' should defy him single-handed and by force 
of words alone ? For what other weapons had 
I ? Certainly not the lives of men, nor the for- 
tune of warriors, nor the military operations of 
which you are so blundering as to demand an 
account at my hands.* But whatever a minister 
can be accountable for, make of that the strictest 
Bcrutiny, and 1 do not object. What then falls 
within this description ? To descry events in 
their first beginnings, to cast his look forwai-d, 
and to warn others of their approach. All 
this I have done. Then, to confine within the 
narrowest bounds all delays, and backward- 
, netts, and ignorance, and contentiousness, faults 
I wliich are inherent and unavoidable in all States; 
and on the other hand, to promote unanimity, and 
friendly dispositions, and zeal in the performance 
of public duty: — and all these things I likewise 
I did, nor can any man point out any of them 
I that, so far as depended on me, was left undone. 
If, then, it should be asked by what means 
Philip for the most part succeeded in his ope- 
rations, every one would answer, By his army, 

by his largess 



the sense ia Btriclly as gi' 

additional limb of the s 
1 by transposition i 
Francis altogether. 


head of afiFairs. Well, then, I neither had 
armies, nor did I command them, and there- 
lore the argument respecting military opera- 
tions cannot touch me. Nay in so far as I was 
inaccessible to his bribes, — there 1 conquered 
Philip ! For as he who purchases* any one, 
overcomes him who has received the price and 
sold himself, so he who will not take the money, 
nor consent to be bribed, has conquered the 
bidder. Thus, as far as I am concerned, this 
country stands unconquered. 
, ^ These and such as these, beside many others, 
are the grounds which I furnished in justification 
of Ctesiphon's Decree in my favour. What 
grounds are furnished by you all, I will now 
proceed to state. 

Immediately after the battle, when it would 
not have been very wonderful if, in the midst of 
such disasters and alarms, the multitude had ma- 
nifested some feeling of discontent, still the people 
knowing, liecause they had witnessed, all my con- 
duct, began by resolving to adopt all my councils 
for the safety of the State ; and whatever de- 
fensive measures were taken, the distribution of 
the guards, the fosses, the provisions for the wall- 
repairs, all were ordered according to my 

* This simile is very fine and close, provided we make 
the purchase be of a pereon — if of a thing, it is not close nor 
even sensible; and eav irpttirai shows tbe sense. 


^m Decrees. Then at the election of Superintendant 
™ of Grain, the choice of the people fell upon me ; 
and afterwards when those who were seeking 
my destruction combined together and pressed 
against me prosecutions, reckonings, treasonable 
charges, and all the rest of it, not at first in their 
own persons, but through those behind wliom 
they thought they might skidk (for yoit 
well know and remember, that at first I was 
nearly every day put upon my trial, and neither 
the fury of Sosicles, nor the calumnies of Phiio- 
crates, nor the phrensy of Diondas and Melanus, 
nor any other engine, was left untried by the 
faction against me) — in all these perils, chiefly 
through the goodness of Heaven, next through 
you and all the rest of the Athenian people, I 
was righteously saved. For this is both the real 
truth, and that conduct was becoming Judges 
who had sworn to do j ustice,* and who knew how 
to keep their oath. When therefore on my trial 
for treason you acquitted me.f and did not give 
ray prosecutors a fii^h of the votes, you decided 
that my conduct had been unexceptionable. 
When I was acquitted of Illegally Propounding, 
I was proved to have both advised and to have 

p«u yi'iAivTCQ, Wolff's " rcligjo pronunciaret" ia not 
it all clear, 
t That is during llie period that immediately follawei! the 


propounded according to law. M'lieri you coun- 
tersigned* the discharge of my accounts, you 
further adraittedf that I liad acted in all respects 
honestly and in corruptibly. 

Such being the state of the case, what appel- 
lation was it fit, what was it just, that Ctesiphon 
should apply to my conduct? What but that 
which he saw the people give it? What but 
{hat which he saw the sworn judges give it ? 
What but that which all firmly believed to be the 
In rg truth ? Ay, but, says jEschines, tliat was a fine 
boast of Ceplialus that he never had to defend 
himself against any charge :;[; and truly it was 

* (TTfffii^Qivija-Sf — Francis " audited ; " Dawson, 
" passed ;" Ldand, "passed and approved;" Wolff, "ra- 
tionum acCiunes obeigtiaretia :" this is good and literal, 
and aiiBwers to couDtereign. 

t ■wpiiiruii.nXoyirirf, confessed over and above. The force 
(if the irpog is not given by Leland saying " authentically " 
— or Dawson, " freed from all suspicion " — or Francis, 
'' gave public testimony, " Wolff, to leave it out, has 
metely " confitebamini." 

X This is a passive of much delicacy and beauty in the 
diction, The translatora)in general give rather the result, or 
in fere nee, than the meaning of Cephalus' saying — to ^ijSt/iioi' 
ypa^iji' ipoytif — ^literally, to escape from no charge — never 
to have been even acquitted — i. e. that it is better not 
to have had occasion for an acquittal — and unless the words 
are given nearly as in the Greek, the parados or epigram of 
the saying is gone, though certainly ipvyny is " to be a de- 
fendant." Francis, "The glory of Cephalus that he never 
was indicted." Dawson, " never once had an accusa- 


a lucky Iwast as well as a fine one. But he who 
hiis often been accused and never once convicted 
of any wrung- doing, how sliould he the rather 
on that account be with any justice held liable to 
reproach ? But in truth, Athenians, it is for me 
to use against* Machines this fine saying of Ce- 
phalus. For never did he himself either institute 
or prosecute any charge against me ; so that by 
his own confession I am in no respect a worse 
citizen than Cephalus, 
I From every quarter then may we deduce the 
proofs of his unfairness and spite ; but not the 
least from wliat he has argued about fortune. 
I hold any one to be utterly senseless and bar- 
barous, who, being himself a man, can uphi'aid 
any of his fellow men with human misfor- 
tunes; for seeing that he who fancies himself 
most prosperous and Fortune to be most 
kind, knows not that she will continue such 

tion preferred against him." Leland, " never 
to be acquitted'' — and this in better; but Btill tbe deli- 
cacy of the original escapes, Wolff gives the icnXov 
better, making it the boast ur saying of Cephalus, which 
none of the others do ; hut the thing still is not rendered by 
" nulliuB reum fieri criminis." Cephalus said it iu aoswer 
to others who were boasting of acquittals. 

' irpog yi tovtov. This is wholly lost by Leland and the 
Dthers, who only paraphrase and lose the force of the 


*until the evening of the same day, how diires 
he speak of Fortune, or hoiv upbraid another 
with her frowns ? But since jEschines has, be- 
side many other such things, spoken so proudly 
on this point also, mark, Athenians, and you will 
perceive how much more true and more becom- 
ing a man will be my language than his.f I 
hold, indeed, the Fortune of this country to be 
favourable ; I see the Dodonean oracle of 
Jupiter and the Pythian of Apollo thus pre- 
dicting; but I also see that the fortunes of all 
individuals in this crisis are precarious and dis- 
astrous ; for which of the Greeks or winch of 
the Barbarians has not in these times ex- 

* As the ellipsis here must be supplied, there is a temp- 
talion to introduce oui common phrase, " that Fortune 
shall smile on him," &c. FranciB, "hoastof her favours." 
Dawson, " forsaken by her" (liaviug '' smiles and frowns " 
hefore). Leland, without personification, says, " it '' 
(fortune) " may remain unchanged even for a day," losing 
the picturcaque expression of " the same evening." 

t The whole of this passage upon Fortune seems inferior 
to the general style of A. But it must he remembered that 
fortune and merit were confounded together hy the ancient 
morality. They deified Fortune, and thus made it a merit 
to be in her good graces, and a shame to he out of them, 
ft/ii was a praise of their sovereigns. Juvenal alludes to 
this in the well-known lines. Nullum numen, &c. In 
this passage there is little personification in the Greek, 
apioTi/i' being the only word of the kind, 


^V perieiiced mauy and great reverses ? Tims our 
having chosen as a community the more glorious 
part, and our now being in a better condition* 

Pthan those other States which thought to secure 
their own prosperity by casting us off, I reckon 
part of the good fortune of titis country. That, 
however, we have sometimes failed, and that 
things have not always gone with us as we 
wished, I only regard as this countiy receiving 
back her due share of the fortune of other men. 
But my own particular fortune and that of each 
one individual among us ought, I conceive, to 
be judged of by observing our own particular 
condition. Such are my notions concerning 
fortune, and they appear to me riglit and just, 
as they will, I tliink, also appear to you. But 

I^schines contends that ray individual fortune 
J8 greater than that of the community at large ; 
the small and the mean tlian the great and the 
important. How can it be so ? If, .tEschines, you 
are resolved to examine my fortune, view it in 
comparison with your own ; and should you find 
mine is better than yours, pause before you in- 
veigh against it. Observe it now from the very 
'.tivov TpoTTety. Francis, " received better terms 
\e conqueror.'' This would have been a moat offeii- 
ft.nve complaint, and given the AtheniaoB little advantage 
gilFer the other Greeks. Dawson, " in a better condition." 
[jeland, "more prospcrouB." Wolff, '' fcliciorea Bumue ;" 
■literally, " be Ijetter off," or " do better," 

first, and, by Heavens ! let no one condemn me 
for folly;* for I deem no one of sound mind 
who either insults poverty, or, brought up in 
affluence, makes wealth liis boast. But I am 
driven by this hard-hearted man's railings and 
slanders to touch upon such topics, which I 
shall handle as temperately as I can and as the 
subject will allow. 

It was my lot then, ^schines, when a boy, to 
frequent the schools suited to my statiouj and to 
have wherewithal to avoid doing anytliing mean 
through want.f When I emerged from boy- 
hood, I did as was consistent with my origin ; 
filled the office of Choregus, furnished 

* ^pvxport)ra. Francis, ' 
Dawaon, " absuTdity" — and 
aDil quotes Horace's joke 
jEtnam insiluit." Leland, ' 
mind." It ia " benumbed 
likely; though it may be 
" ineptire." Some read a 

t FrancJB eeems here to be stricken with 4"'XP''"1C 
mentioned in the last note; for he says, '' affluence which 
alone can preserve ub from the necessity of committing any 
base or dishonourable action." Thie is really as near as 
may be what A in loco does not mean to eay. So Francis 
afterwards makes him speak of the generous education 
" which be had received." Dawson also makes him speak 
of "the generosity" of his education, Leland only has 
■' liberal." A speaks of only being above want, and hav- 
ing bad an education suitable to such ctrctimetaDces. 

meaning anything offensive." 
in a note he gives " frigiditns," 

on Empedocles, " frigidus 
' betraying indications of a low 

or stupefied faculties," most 

low, vulgar-minded. Wolff, 
iffjy>onjra. Stock, " insalsi- 


^B contrilmted to the revenue, and was wanting in 
^^ no acts of munificence, public or jirivate, but 
ready to aid both my country and my friends. 
When I entered into public life, I deemed it 
proper to choose the course which led to niy 
being repeatedly crowned both by this country 
and the other Greek states, so that not even 
you, my enemies, will now venture to pronounce 
the part I took other than honourable. Such 
then were my fortunes; I pass over many other 
particulars respecting them, that I may avoid 
giving offence to any one* by referring to what 

II glory in. 
But you, venerable-f man, who looicj down 
upon others, see what kind of fortunes were 
yours compared with mine I Brought up from 
your boyhood in abject poverty, you both were 
helper in your father's school, and you ground 
the ink, sponged the forms, and swept the room, 
doing the work of a household slave, not of a , 
freeborn youth. When grown up, you recited your ' 
mother's books as she performed her mysteries, 

»• This seems & plwn hit at his enemies aaJ those of the 
t atiivoQ. Thia may be glorioUB, illuatrious, great. 
Stock, " gwvia," Wolff, " prfficlarc." Dawson, " most 
worthy." Francis, " illuelrious murtol." Leland, " thou 
mau of dignity." " Chaste" or " pure " ia one of the mean- 
■t probahly in this plnce. 
I icarnitTi;£(i — Spit down— we say, " look down ;" reftll'j 
ianing much the same thing. 


and you helped in her other trickeries. At 
niglit, dressed like a bacchanal, and draining the 
goblet, and purifying the initiated, and rubbing 
them with clay and with bran, rising from the 
lustration, you ordered them to cry, " I've fled 
the evil; I've found tlie good;"* bragging that 
none ever roared so loud before ; and truly I 
believe it ; for do not doubt that he who now 
speaks out so lustily, did not then howl most 
splendidly. But by day beading those fine 
companies along the highways, crowned with 
haybands and with herbs, and squeezing Parian 
snakes and brandishing them over your head ; 
bellowing, Euoe Sahoe, and dancing to the tune 
r Hyes Attes, Attes Hyes, you were saluted by the 
poor old women as leader, and forerunner, and 
basket-bearer.and link-bearer, andthe like.and re- 
ceived as wages for these offices cakes, and chains, 
and new-baked bread — on all which, Athenians, 
who but would heartily congratulate him and his 
fortune? Afterwards, when you came to be en- 
rolled among the members of your township some 
how or other, I pass that over, but when you were 
enrolled, you vei-y soon chose out for yourself a 
most noble employment, that of clerk and servant 
to the city officers. Then quitting after a time 

* The Greek having no verse nt all, why Francis should 
volunteer twu very indifferent lines eeems unaccoiintnhle. 
Tliey nrc, ns Dawson observea, words used in the feasli, 
referring to Etcoma and\)re&i,m\ioTiQu\'4^CME*. 


this employment also, and doing everything yoiii-- 
eelf of which you accuse others, God kno^vs, 
your suhsequent life was no way unworthy of 
hut hiring yourself out to those 
players called Ranters, Simylus and Socrates, you 
acted third-rate characters, and collecting grapes 
and figs, and olives, which you ivere pelted withal, 
like a fruiterer in other people's orchards,* you 
received in these perfnrmaueea more blows than 
are given in games performed with risk of life. 
For there was between the audience aud yourself 
an implacablef and unceasing warfare, in which, 
having received many woundf^, you naturally 
enough laugh at those as cowards who are unac- 
quainted with such dangers. 

But passing over these things, which may be 

• This is on obscure pftaaage, perhaps the moat so in 
the oratioD, and the purity of the text is also douhtful. 
Translators have felt the Uttle 
play-acting, and hence put i 
siona," or some audi phrasea 
words iioTTifi djTuipuytis fKcitc 

uf the fruit with the 
on your strolling escur- 
ut the difHculty lies in the 
111 some MSS. the e«<i'(jc 

I omitted. The sense given in the text Beems the true 
t These words are fine and expreseive applied to a war, 
aarorSos! without treaty, nKtpvKtog, where no herald pru- 
claima a truce ; for that here is the sense, and not its other 
'meaning, of a war not proclaimed by a herald formally. 
Francis, " implacable and irreconcilable." Leland same. 
DftWHon, ■' cruel and irreconcilable." Stock, " intemeci- 
, num>et iraplacabile." Wolff, " iraplacabile et perpetuum." 

ascribed to poverty, I come to the charges that 
apply to your life and conversation. You chose, 
then, that line of policy, (ever since the plan 
struck your mind,) by which, as long as the 
country flourished, you led the life of the hare,* 
frightened, and trembling, and perpetually ex- 
pecting the scourge for the ofl'ences of which 
you ivere conscious ; hut when all others were 
suffering, you were seen in high spirits by all. 
But be who was so cheerful after the death of 
thousands of his fellow-citizens, what does he 
deserve to suffer at the hands of the survivors ? 
But though I have many other passages of his 
history to recount, I will omit them all. For I do 
not consider myself obliged to state in detail all 
his scandalous and disgraceful acts, but such only 
as I may cite without disgracing mysflf. Draw 
then the parallel between your life and mine, 
-^chines, quietly and not acrimoniously; and 
demand of this audience which of the two each 
of them had rather choose for his own. You 
was an usher, — I a scholar; you were an ini- 
tiator, — I was initiated ;f you danced at the 

• Why Dawson should be aeiKed with a fit of squeamisb- 
DesB and not venture upon the word hare ia strange; — '' the 
most fearful of all creatures :,'' and then a note ie given to 
eay how naturalists have remarked thia quality in the hare, 
aud that it eleeps with its eyes o|)eu. 

t Fraiicia gets rid of the rapidity as well as of the anti- 
thesis here — the two great qualities of A, and for indulging 



I games — I presided over them ; you was a clerk 
' of the Assembly, I a member ; you, a third-rate 
actor, I a spectator ; you were coostautly break- 
ing down — I always hissing you ; * your mea- 
sures were all in the enemy's favour — mine 
always in the countiy's ; and, in a word, now on 
this day the question as to me is whether or not 
I shall be crowned, while nothing whatever is 
alleged against my integrity ; while it is your 
lot to appear already as a calumniator, and the 
choice of evils before you is that of still con- 
tinuing your trade, or being put to silence by 
failing to obtain a fifth of the votes. 

Most happy (don't you perceive?) has been 
the fortune of your life, so that you may well 
speak contemptuously of mine. Come, then ! 
I will run over all the testimonies of the offices 
which I administered; but do you, ^schines, 
also recite to us the verses you used to nmrder — 

" Quitting the gates of darkness, lo, I come !" 
and again, 

" Relucianily I bear bad news, ye know ! " 
and then 

" May curses light " 

the latter of which ton mucli the Athenian hypercritica took 
him lo task (Alhen. avnOtroi' t<). Thus Francis translates 
ereXiic, et-w o' trtXovfif i', " jou mitiuted others in the lowest 
mysteries of our religion, 1 was initiated into the most 

• The tense here clearly denotes a constant recurrence. 


Yes, — and first of all upon yourself, abandoned 
citizen, traitor, third-rate actor, first upon you 
may the Gods, "and then this whole assembly, 
bring destruction ! Read the Testimonies. 


Such then was my conduct towards the country. 
As to my private life, if all of you are not aware 
that I was accessible, and kindly, and ready to 
help all who asked my aid, I have done, nor will 
add one word, nor bring forward any evidence 
upon the subject, nor speak of captives in war re- 
deemed, nor of daughters portioned, nor of any 
other acts like these. For my notion is this ; 
that he who has received a kindness sliould 
remember it for ever, and he who has con- 
ferred it should instantly forget it, if the fianner 
would bear the characterof agood man, and the 
latter avoid that of a paltry spirit. But to bear 
in mind one's own good deeds and talk of them, 
is much the same with upbraiding tliose tliat 
benefited by them. Therefore I will do nothing 
of the kind, nor go into the subject at all, but 
rest content with whatever estimation I enjoy 
in this respect. 

But passing over my private concerns, I am 
still disposed to say somewhat upon those of the 
community. So if, ^schines, you can name 

^m any mortal under the sun, untarnished hy the 
™ tyranny, first of Philip and now of Alexander, be 
he Greek, or be he Barbarian — tiien be it so — 
I will grant you that my fortune, or my ill luck,* 
if you please so to call it, is tlie cause of all 
that has happened. But if of those who never 
set eyes on nie nor beard the sound of my voice, 
many have suifered much and grievous evil, not 
only individuals but whole cities and nations, 
how much more just and correct is it according 
to the probability of the case, to regard the 
comuioi] lot of humanity, or some force of cir- 

tcurastances, untoward and difficult to resist, as the 
origin of these calamities? You, however, dis- 
regard all those, throw the blame upon me, called 
upon as I was to carry on the government iu such 


" fopay xo^EiTf I' i^<" ovx' oiav eSti. This is, in the Tari- 
OUB editions of A, joined with xai to the preceding sub- 
stantive. There Heema little donht that it should be tj. 
The ijiopav means clearly a " rush," a " movement, a 
farce;" and xaXciriji' is beat rendered by " hard to resiat." 
The other words conatitule " nnf«vourable," or " inoppor- 
tune." Wolff, " impctutn gravem et alium quani oporte- 
ret." Slock, " concursum sffivuni atque infauBtum." 
DawBon, " general hard fate of all mankind, and the ter- 
rible confusion of all affairs, " of which the former is a com- 
plete mistraBBlation by transposing x"^"'"''' **> '^X1''i and 
making it rfonsejiHe ; and the latter is as wide of the mark 
as may be. Leland is very prolis, but gives the sense, 
that torrent of unhappy events which bear down upon us 
with an irreaiBtible violence." 

a crisis ; and this, though you well knen' thiit if 
not the whole, at least a purt of the reprobation 
is due to the community at large, but principally 
to youi'self. For if I had councilled the State 
with full and absolute powers, your other orators 
would have had some right to accuse me. But if 
you were yourselves always present in all the pub- 
lic assemblies— if the State publicly propounded 
for discussion the course fit to be pursued — if 
what was done appeared to all, but chiefly to 
you, the most expedient — (for it was through 
no good will towards me tliat you allowed me 
to enjoy all the hopes and admiration and honours 
that waited on ray measures at this time, but ma- 
nifestly because you were overpowered by the 
truth and had nothing better to propose) — are 
you not now unjust and outrageous* in crying 
out against measures than which you then knew 
none better ? 

Among all other men I observe these prin- 
ciples and these distinctions to prevail. Does 
any one wilfully do wrong? He is the object 
of indignation and of punishment. Does any 
one commit an error unintentionally ? He is 

" ditra woiui, " miquus;" but this falls ehort— beside 
being included in atiKCig. Stock, '' itnpiobe" — Leland, 
" highly cruel." — DawBon gives the whole thus, and very 
badly — " the most flagrant iiijuslice, and inexcusable base- 



pardoned, not punished. Has one who neither 
does any wrong nor commits any error devoted 
himself to a course which to all appeared expe- 
dient, and has he heen in common with all disap- 
pointed of success ? It is not fair to reprobate or 
to attack him, hut to condole with him. All this j 
is established not only lo all our jurisprudence, ' 
but by Nature herself in her unwritten laws, and 
in the very constitution of the human mind." 
Thus has iEschines so far surpassed all other 
men in cruelty and calumny, that those .same 
, things which he enumerates as misfortunes he 
r also imputes to me as crimes.f And not to mea*^ 

* aypa({ioii rofitfiot^ Kat arBpiins-tvotc i)deiji. Thl«"" 

remarkable paesage, resembling the Roman, rather 
than the Aliic maruier, gave rise probably to (hat noble 
expression of it by Cicero, so well known to acholara, and 
indeed to almost all men : " Non enim acripta, sed nata 
lex, &c." The latter part of the phraie ia literally, human 
ciLBtoms, habits, or wave of thinkingj but it means such aa 
are innate by ^uo-ic preceding ; and therefore the text ren- 
ders it iiterally enough. Wolff, " inalitutis noa acriptis et 
toorihuH humanis." Stock, " legibus non scriptia et hn- 
minum moribus," in which yo/iifioit: and vofioiQ, which pre- 
cede, are rendered improperly by the aame word ; rofiifiov 
ia, properly speaking, customary or common law. Dawson 
as badly aa possible, " the everlasting dictates of Nature 
herself esprcascd in the universal consent and practice 
of mankind." Leland, not mucb better, though shorter, 
indeed too elliptical — " the unwritten precepts of hu- 
L manity." 

■f KaTTiyopu must be here rendered by adding '' aa 


tion other things, as if he had hhnself always 
spoken candidly and w\th all kindness, lie desired 
you to keep a watch ujion me and to bewai-e of me 
lest I should circumvent or beguile you, calling 
me fair spoken,* and canting, and sophistical, 
and the like ; as if when a man by anticipation 
says of another what applies to himself, it must 
stick to him, witliout the audience even so much 
as asking who and what the person is who thus 
speaks. But I well know that yon all know him 
well, and are aware bow much more applicable 
these terms are to liim than to me ; and this 
also I know full well, that my eloquence, (for so 
be it,t although I observe, that for the most 

crimes," else the fnitithepis in our language would be en- 
tirely lost. Tlie cmnpoaition of this wtole passage begioB, 
" Among nil men," iropa jucv roti'oi', ia truly admirable — 
BO concise, bo clofc, so full withal— it deserves to be Htudtcd 
word by word, and tlie hearing upon the case is perfect. 
Any version of such ti passage must fail j hut it can never 
be kept too literal : — yet the English tranBlatora make it a 
scene of paraphrase and prolixity. 

" Siiroc is probably not here eloquent, but fail 
Francis, " terrible impostor." Now, either hemi 
original meauiug, " terrible," or the translated a 
ning" — both he cannot take. Dawson's ' 
speaker" isnot so wide of the mark. Wolff, " veleratorem." 
Stuck," callidum." Leland," vehement declaimer.'' I..eland 
is very vague and paraphrastical in this passage throughout, 

t Francis, in translating errrui, really puts into A's mouth 
ai] admission which is quite monstrous. " My eloquence 

it take the 

■ powerful 


part the audience is master of the speaker's 
powers, since it is only according to the recep- 
tion you yive him and the favour you show him, 
that any speaker passes for skilful) — but if I 
possess any such skill you will all find it was 
employed in public offices for your benefit, 
never against you, nor for my personal advan- 
tage; while his eloquence, on the contrary, has 
been bestowed not only in behalf of your 
enemies, but also in impeaching whoever vexed 
him or offended him personally. He never uses 
it honestly for the benefit of his country — for it 
not surely be the part of a true patriot to en- 
savour that his private anger, or enmity, or other 
personal feeling, should be adopted and acted 
upon by those judges who are called to dis- 
charge a public duty ; nor ought he to come 
before you for any such purpose. It were far 
better that his nature should be alien from such 
feelings ; but if it must be so, then ought he to 
mitigate and motlerate their danger. 

In what circumstances then ought a states- 
man and an orator to be vehement ? When 
the State is in jeopardy upon the ruin of affairs 

(fur I must allow the charge) ;" all that i^ says b, htromc 
(iiTTuj, y<i(i), whcncc^tivoTTjcmay be, and probably is, in the 
bad aeuBe already given. Dawson, though roundabout, is far 
more tolerable—" My eloquence, Buch as it is (for since 
he will have it so, I submit to the charge)." 


— vvlien tlie people are in conflict with the 
enemy — then it is that the strenuous and 
patriotic citizen appears.* But when ^schines 
cannot pretend to have any ground whatever for 
even charging me with any offence in public 
life, or, 1 will add, in private, either in the name 
of the country or his own — for him to come for- 
ward with a vamped up attack on my crowning 
and my honours, and to waste so many words 
upon this subject, is the working of personal spite 
and envy, and a little mind,t and shows no good 
man. Then this proceeding of leaving his 
controversy with me out of the question, and 
attacking Ctesiphon, comprises everything that 
is base. J 

To me indeed, ^chines, it appears from 
these speeches of yours, as if you had instituted 
this impeachment through a desire of making a 
display of vociferation, not of punishing any one's 
misconduct. For it is not the speech of the orator, 
^schines, that avails, nor yet the compass of 
his voice, hut his feeling in unison with the com- 

• Thiscannot literallyberendered as in theGreek, viz., 
" in those circumBtancee — for tliese are the circuinBtanceB 
of ft Btrenuous and good citizen ;" that is, they try, or test, 
or bring out, or require the exertions of such a one. 

■\ This topic again recurred to. 

J This other once more pressed, because, after the 
brilliant declamation that precedes, it was sure to be 
douWy effective. 


UQunity and bearing enmity or affection towards 

iem whom his country loves or hates. He that 

s possesses his soul* speaks ever with right 

' feeling. But he that bows to those from whom 
the country has danger to apprehend, does not 
anchor in the same roadstead with the people; 
accordingly he does not look for safety from the 
same quarter. But mark me, 1 do : for I have 
always made common cause with the people, nor 
have I ever taken any course for my peculiar and 

r individual interest. Can you say as much ? Then 
how ? — You, who, instantly after the battle, went 
on the embassy to Philip, the cause of all that 
in these times befel your country ; and that after 
refusing the office at all former periods, as every 
one knows ? — But who deceives the country ? Is 
it not he that says one thing and thinks another ? 
And who is he upon whom at every assembly 
solemn execration is proclaimed? Is it not such 
a man as this ? What worse charge can any one 
bring against an orator than that his words and 
his sentiments do not tally ? Yet you have been 
discovered to be such a man ; ami you still lift 
your voice and dare to look this assembly in tlie 
face If Think you they do not know you 

• ouriuc ixuiy niv ^vxv- Th^ 'c** gi'^B lliis literally, 
but iiliomatically. Francis, " Whoee bouI ia thus affected." 

t Wolfl''8 hnbitual aljBtincnce ia here broken in upon. 
He has for /JXejthv wpoiruiTra, vuUum atque ora inlueri. 


for what you are ?* or that such a slumber 
and oblivion has come over them all as to 
make them forget the speeches you declaimed 
before the people, swearing and imprecating on 
yourself if you ever had any kind of dealings with 
Philip, and that I falsely made this charge upon 
you from personal enmity ? But no sooner 
came the news of the battle than, forgetting all 
this, you at once confessed and evenf affected 
being Philip's friend and guest, changing into 
such names as these your contract of hiring 
with him. For by what footing of equality, or by 
what pretext of title, ^schines, could Philip be 
the host, or the friend, or even the acquaintance, 
of Glaucothea the tambourine player's son ? I 
can see none. But you were his hireling to 
ruin the interests of this nation. Yet when you 
are detected by the people as a traitor, and have 
become informer against yourself since the issue 
of the contest, you must needs attack me, and 

" uoTic El. Francis, " What a villBin thou art !" — as 
if there was any occasion for lending abusive terms to A. 

■\ ii!/ioXDy£tfi xai TTpoae-Kmov, " confcBseJ," or " avowed," 
or " admitted and put forward," or " pretended," or " af- 
fected," it may be " proclaimed," but "afiectedlv confeBaed," 
gives the sense best ; or more literally (but which means 
the eame thing) " confessed and nffected. " Wolff 
" prte te ferebas." Stock, same. Dawson's " threw off the 
mask" is excellent. Leland has " affected," but gives the 
rest most paraph rustically. 

upbraid me for these events, for which you will 
find all others much more to blame than I." 

Many great and glorious achievements, 
JSschines, has the country both undertaken 
and prosperously conducted through my coun- 
cils ; and of these she is not unmindful : wit- 
ness the people selecting me to make the oration 
upon those who fell, the very moment after the 
catastrophe, — not you, though you were pro- 
posed, how fine soever your voice ; nor Demades, 
though he had just made the peace ; nor Hege- 
mon, nor any other of you all — but me. And 
when you stood forward with Pythocles, cruelly 
and shamefully — good heavens ! — to charge me 
I as you now do, and to run me dona, yet so much 
I the more did they choose me. The reason of 
' Here is the same leading topic once more introduced ; 
['but introduced after new topics and fresh illustralionB. The 
I' lepetilions, the enforcement again and again of the same 
V points, are a distinguishing feature of i, and formed also one 
■ of the characteristics of Mr. Fos'e great eloquence. The 
I andent, however, was incomparably more felicitous iu 
I this than t))e modern; fur in the latter it often arose 
I from carelessness, from ill-arranged discourse, from want 
■of giving due attention, and from having once or twice at- 
Vlempted the topic and foi^otten it, or perhaps from having 
failed to produce the desired eSect. Now in A this is never 
the case : the early allusions to the subject of the repetition 
are always perfect in themselves, and would sufficiently 
have enforced the topic, had they stood alone. But new 
latter afterwards handled gave the topic new force and 
ireah iliustratiun, by presenting the point in a new ti^ht. 


this, though you are not ignorant of it, I will 
nevertheless tell you. The people were aware 
of two things, — the patriotism and zeal with 
which I had carried on their affairs, and your 
guilt ; for those things, which, when our affairs 
prospered, you all denied with oaths, you con- 
fessed as soon as the State was unfortunate ; 
and nieu concluded that they who obtained from 
the puhhc calamities impunity for their coun- 
cils had all along been secret enemies of tbe 
country and now were openly avowed ones. They 
thought it, moreover, unbecoming that he who 
made the oration over the deceased warriors, and 
extolled their merits, should be one who had sat 
under the same roof,* and drunk of the same cup 
with those who had stood against them in battle 
array; or thut they who in Macedon had revelled 
and sung songs of triumph on the disasters of 
Greece with the perpetrators of the slaughter.^ 

" oiiaipvijiioy — 6/iomroi-hov — " Under the Bume roof — 
making tbe same libations." Francis, " dwelt under the 
same roof, and made the eume hbations of hospitality 
and religion." Dawson, " bosom friends and intimate 
acquaintance a." Leland, " conversed in strict coanesiou 
with," which is really to get out of the way as the diffi- 
culty approaches. Wolff, " sub eodem tecto fuissent — 
eadem sacra libaasent." 

t Francis, " whose hands were drenched in the slaugh- 
ter of their fellow- citizens," which prolixity, introducing 
" fellow-citizcnB," loses the whole point ; namely, that it waa 

) should on their return be received mth honour; 

^ or that the calamity should l>e deplored by those 
who counterfeited tears, but by such as grieved 
in their hearts. This the people saw in Ihem- 
Blves and in me, but not in any of you ; and 
therefore they made choice of me and not of you. 
Nor when they thus acted, did the parents 
and brethren of the slain, chosen to conduct the 
iiineral obsequies, do otherwise,; for when the 
funeral feast was to be given, they held it at my 
house, as though I were, according to the usage 
in such cases, nearest in kindred to the deceased. 
And most properly ; for though they ivere each 
of themselves* more nearly related to some of the 
deceased by blood, no one could be more closely 
allied to them all than 1 was , since tie whom it 
most concerned that the warriors should be 

the slaughter of tbcpersouHto be cummemDrated, aod there- 
fore like the murderer pronouncing the funeral oration of 
hii victim. 

* iKaarug liairrji Can hardly be as literally "each to 
each." Franc, B has it, " Nay, each of you, separately, 

I ■WSB more isearly related in bluoc! to each of the deceased." 
which is atark nonsense, beside changing the pronoun from 
(Awn, the families, lo you, the people. Dawson is better — 
" every one was more nearly related to some one or other 
amongatthem." Lelaiid also takes this more sensible course. 
Wolff, " ipsi inter se." Stock, " singiiH singulis," which 

' may well do— being nearly the same with Leiand and 
Dawson, and not wide of the Greek text ; as in law we eay, 
"reddendo singula singuliBj" in geometry, " each lo each." 


unscathed and victorious, he had the greatest 
share of the griet" to benr v\lieii tliey suffered 
what, M'ould to heaven ! had never beiallen tliem. 
But read here the Epitaph which Lhe State 
judged it fit to inscribe ou their monument, that 
you, iEschines, may see yourself in it unjust, 
cahminious, and profligate. Read ! 
h^^ "These were the brave, unknowing how to yield, 
Who, tenjble in valour, kept the field 
Against the fue ; and higher than life's breath 
Prizinji; their honour, met the doom of death. 
Our common doom — that Greece unyoked might stand, 
Nur shuddering crouch beneath a tyrant's hand, 
Such was the will of Jove ; and now ihey rest 
Peaceful enfolded in their Country's breast. 
The Immorliil Gods alone are ever great, 
And erring mortals must submit to Fate." 
Do you hear, ^schines, even in this very 
inscription, that " The luiniortft] Gods alone 
are ever great?" Not to the statesman does 
it ascribe the power of bestowing success 
upon armies, but to the Gods. Wherefore, 
then, accursed wretch, upbi-aid me with what 
has happened, and with things, which may those 
Gods turn against the heads of you and yours ! 

Although, however, Atlieuinns, he has brought 
many other charges against me, and made many 
false statements, yet have I chiefly marvelled at 
one thing, that while he iiuide mention of those 
calamities which have befallen the country, he 
never felt like a patriot and a good citizen, 


E tears, nor suffered any affection ap- 
^■.„^v, ^ to tears; but raising his voice, and 

exulting, and vociferating,* fancied, forsooth, he 
was accusing me when he was only showing 
that he did not feel as all other men felt upon the 
puhlic misfortunes. And yet the man who affects 
a deep concern for our laws and constitution, as 
jEschines now does, ought, if he has no other 
quality, at least to have the fellow feeling with 
the people of sorrowing and rejoicing over the 
same events, and not pursue that line of policy 
which must make him take part with the 
enemy, as you, ^scliines, are now clearly 
proved to have done, while you pretend that 
every thing is owing to me, and that through me 
the country has been brought to its present con- 
dition, instead of admitting that slie first began 
I to succour all Greece through my policy and 
my measures. For if, Athenians, you were 
• Xapvyyiliwv. Franria, " clamoroiialy distending hig 
throat." Dawson, " cliunoroiisly insulting you." Jjeland, 
" strained and swelled." The word is very expreaaivc. 
Wolff, " fttudhus resontuiB." Stock, "gulam dilatnns." 
The literal meaning is to strain the throat or wind- 
pipe, — This is properly the commencement of the rang- 
nificent peroration, of which no part is finer than the 
earlier portion, both in sense, in diction, and in rhythm. 
The recapitulation and enforcement of all the main topics 
of the oriitoT, with new and exquisite beauties, and esen 
fresh topics, is deeply to be considered, and never can be 
enough admired. 


only to grant me tlis, that I was tlie cause 
of your resisting the domination wliicli was pre- 
paring for tlie Greeks, a far greater gift would 
be conferred upon me than all you have bestowed 
upon others. But this I will not assert, 
for it would be doing you injustice, nor would 
you, 1 well know, admit it ; and ^schines him- 
self, if he acted with any fairness, would not, 
even through hostility towards me, thus tarnish 
and destroy * the greatest of all your glories. ' 
'f iJ But why do I dwell on such things, when he 
' made ao many other charges, and asserted so many 
other falsehoods far worse than these ? For he 
who could — gracious God ! — accuse me of PhUip- 
pising.t what will he not say ? But, by all the 

• £;3\aTrrEi' Kai EiajiaXKiv. Francia is here bad, 
" wounded your reputation or calumDiated your fairest 
annala." Dawson must needa leave out tialf, and then 
lend A a figure — an antithesis too — "blacken those means 
which you were of opinion had shed new luetre on your 
ancient glory'' — an accommodation which A asBuredlj 
never stood less in need of than here. Leland's " diegrace 
and deny" is insufficient. TKr words literally are "wound 
and tear to pieces, or rundown." Perhaps "wound and tear 
Bway" might do; but the version adopted in the test is 
literal enough, and it is according to our idiomatic collo- 

i ifuXanria/ioi'. This cant word was like our "Jacobinism," 
and also " Gallican" and " Anti-GalllcHn." Francis feebly 
gives it, " supporting the interests of Philip." Leland, 
" favouring Philip." Dawson, " being Philip's creatures," 


^H Powers of 



Powers of Heaven, if we are to regard the 
truth, and lay aside all falsehood and personal 
slander, it wUl be found that they on wliose 
heads should truly and justly fall by common 
consent the blame of <:ausin^ these events re- 
semlile him and his party in each state and not 
me — men who, when Philip's power was feeble 
and his influence small, while we, repeat- 
edly warning, and exhorting, and inculcating 
the soundest views, saci-iliced the public in- 
terests for lucre of gain,* each deceiving 
and corrupting his own countrymen until tliey 
made all of them slaves : — Daochus, CinSas, 
Thrasidfieus, the Thessalians ; Cercidas, Hie- 
ronynius, Eucalpidaa, the Arcadians ; Myr- 
tis, Teladamus, Mnaseas, the Argives ; Euxi- 
theua, Cleotimus, Aristaechmus, the Eleans ; 
the sons of Philides, a man hateful to the 
Gods, Neon, and Thrasylochus, the Mes- 
senians; Aristratus, Epichares, the Sicyonians; 
Dinarchus, Demaratus, the Corinthians ; Ptseo- 
dorus, Helixus, Perilaus, the Megareans; Ti- 
molaus, Theogiton, Auemsetas, ihe Thebans; 

which is better. Wolif, " Philippi Btiidiura." Surely the 
meaning cannot well be given without coining a word as the 
Grceka did. 

• aiff){pDi>-rp3riac. " Lucre of gain " hai become, from 
Scripture, a common idiomatic eipreasion — though its 
■tructure is not very sensible. It perfectly expresses the 
Sordid quality finely given in the Greek. 

Hipparchiis, Clitarchus, Sosistratiis, the Eu- 
The day would fail me were I to recall 
tlie names of all the traitors. Those are they, 
Men of Athens, whose councils have been each 
in his own country like those of our adversaries 
here — base and fawning creatures, wretches who 
have mutilated the glory each of liis own native 
land, toasting away their liberties to (he health, 
iirst of Philip, then of Alexander ; * mea- 
liuring their happiness by their gluttony and 
debauchei-y, but utterly overtliiowing those rights 
of freemen, and that independence of any master 
which tlie Greeks of former days regarded as 
the test and the summitf of all felicity. 
,.. This disgraceful and notorious conspiracy 

• »rcn-«ivorte irporepoc *iXnnrw, yvy 3' .Wt^artfibi. The 
text ie literal, and the fine expression of the original is pre- 
eerved. The T'renchman feels ita beauty, but says, unable 
to render it, " I have substituted another figure I " So 
he leaves out Alexander, imd also A's figure, and saye, " asais 
k la table du Philippe, la coupe k la main, lui vendoient la 
lihend puhlique." This ie too much. Wolff, " Propi- 
nantea." Leland, " tendering to Philip with a wanton in- 

fopDt KOI ciH'otic, literally "the boundaries and rides;" 
but " boundary" or " limit," may well mean " height" or 
" summit," and "teat" is quite sufficiently near " rule" 
or " canon." This is a noble burst — aXuaroptc, in most 
codices, is given as part of the epithets ajiplied at first and 
unconnected with what follows ; but the joiniug it with Tjk-pa)- 
rijpiaffjutM) saves the intioduction of "men,"or"perBOnB." 


[ and wickedness, then, — but rather, Athenians, 
I let us say, if we would not trifle with the 
I subject,— this betrnyingof the liberties of Greece, 
can, by the common consent of all mankind, 
neither be charged upon the State, which fol- 
lowed my counsels, nor upon me in your eatmia- 
tion. Then you ask what is my title to public 
honours ? I will tell you.* It is, that while the 
statesmen of Greece, beginning with yourself, ' 
jEschines, were all corrupted — first by Philip 
and then by Alexander — over me neither op- 
portunity, nor fair speeches, nor lavish pro- 
I mises, nor hopes, nor fears, nor favours, 
I any other eartlily consideration ever prevailet 
seducing or driving me to betray in any one ' 
particular what I deemed the riglits and the 
interests of my country. Never did I, like you, 
and such as you, incline my councils as if 
weighed in a balance towards the side that paid 
the best ; but my whole conduct was formed by a 
righteous, and just, and incorruptible soul; and 
having borne the most forward part among the 
men of my times in administering the mightiest 

f • There are few finer paeaagea, even in A, than this. 
The rapidity and force ore aatunishing ; its effect, in the 
noble langunge of the original, must have been prodi- 
gioua J but it would have wonderful power in any tongue, 
and before any audience, from the multitude up to the 


affairs, my whole policy has ever been sound, 
and Lonest, and open. For these things I claim 
to be honoured. 

*Eut this repair of the walls and the fossK! 
\rhich you revile, I deem to merit favour and 
commendation : wherefore should I not ? Yet, 
I certainly place this far below my administration 
of public affairs. For I have not fortified Athens 
with stone walls and tiled roofs: no, not I! 
Neither is it on deeds like these that I plume 
myself. But would you justly estimate my 
outworks, you will find armaments, and cities, 
and settlements, and harbours, and fleets, and 
cavalry, and armies raised to defend us : — these 
are the defences that I drew around Attica, 

* The fame of this noble paesage ie great and uuivcrBal. 
It is of a beauty and force made for all times and all 
places ; its efl'ect with iia may be imagined by supposing 
Mr. Pitt to have been attacked for his Martello towers, the 
use of which wus far more doubtful tbaii A's Tttxtir)io^ and 
ra^pdo, and to have indignantly and proudly appealed to the 
other servici^E be bad rendered, and the other outnorks he had 
erected for our internal protection against foreign and do- 
mestic enemies. One seems to hear bim nobly pour forth his 
magnificent periods, alike majestic in structure and in tone, 
upon the " lines of circumvallation far mightier than nny 
fortress, lines which the energy of a united people, and the 
'wisdom of a British parliament had drawn around our glo- 
rious constitution, placing it, in proud security, above all 
the assaults either of an insulting enemy from without, or 
a more desperate foe at home," — and " desiring that his 


[ as far as human piiidence could defend her, and 
with such outworks as these 1 fortified the coun- 
try at large, not the mere circuit of the arsenal 
and the city ! Nor was it I that succumbed to 
Philip's policy and his arms; very far other- 
t wise ! but the captains and the forces of your 
' allies yielded to his fortune. What are the 
proofs of it? They are manifest and plain, 
and you shall see them. For what was the part 
of a patriotic citizen ? What the part of him 
r ■who would serve his country with all earnest- 
■ ness, and zeal, and honesty of purpose ? Was it 
not to cover Atlica, on the seabord with Euboea 
—inland with Boeotia — on the Peloponnesus 
with the adjoining territories ? Was it not to 
1 provide for making the corn trade secure, that 
I every coast our ships sailed along till they 
reached the Piraeus might be friendly to us 
Was it not to save some points of our dominion 
such as Preconnesus, the Chersonese, Tenedos. 
hy dispatching succours, and making the neces- 
sary statements, and proposing the fit decrees 
Was it not to secure from the fii'st the co- 

I title to the gratitude of hie country should be rested on fuun- 

I datiouB tike these, far more imperishable than any works 
vhich the hands of man could raise" — Or would he haply 
have spoken figuratively of " the loftier towers which he had 

I rHised ill the people's hearts, and the eshauBtleasmagRzineB 

i of (heir luyuUy and valour ?" 


operation and alliance of other states, Byzan- 
tium, Abydos, Eabcea? Was it not to wrest 
from the enemy liis principal forces ? Was it 
not to supply what tliis country most wanted? 
Then all these things were effected by my 
Decrees, and my measures. All these things, 
Athenians, if any one cliuses to examine the mat- 
ter without prejudice, be will find both correctly 
advised by me, and executed with perfect in- 
tegrity ; and that no opportunity * iras lost by 
me, through carelessness, or throug;h ignorance, 
or through treachery^f nor any thing neglected 
which it could fall \vithin the power and the 
ivisdom of one man to do. But if the favour of 
some Deity, or of Fortune, or the remissness of 

• Literally, the opportunity for each thing neither omitted, 
nor imknowu, norbetrayed — {ov rap[d£VTii,uvp' nyi-oijfltn^, 
ovSc TtpoioSevTii) — but the fitructure in the text is evidently 
both English bqi) literal, thuiti;h an additional ]inrticiple is 
neceesarily introduced, from the want of a. word answering 
to ayyo>)8i.tE, or ignoratus. 

Tlie whole of this rapid summary and recnjiitulation of 
his adminlBtratioQ is admirable — too short nnd general for 
the body of his defence, but perfectly suited to the resump- 
tion of it in the peroration, and following the fine burst 
ov yap \iOme, with prodigious effect, because showing that 
the subject of the burst was not a mere figure, a happy an- 
. tithesis, but a serious statement of facta. This is a quality 
almost peculiar to A'a figureB, and it is probably one reason 
wliy Bome critics have denied him a figurative style. His 
■figurcB are facts nnd reasona as well as figures. 

■f Wolff omits iiyiiiiQ. 

^B commaDdei 
^1 you, ^sch: 

' coramandei's, or the wickedness of traitors like 
you, ^schines, in different states, or if all these 
causes together have embarrassed our whole 
affairs, and brought them to ruin — wherein has 
Demosthenes been to blame ? But if there had 
been found in any Greek State one man such 
as I have been in my sphere among you, rather 
if Thessaly had only possessed a single man, and 
if Ai'cadiahad possessed any one of the same prin- 
ciples with me, none of all the Greeks, whether 
within ThermopylBe or without, would have 
been suffering their present miseries; but all 
remaining free, and independent, and secure from 
alarm, would in perfect tranquillity and pros- 
perity have dwelt in their native land, render- 
ing thanks to you and the rest of the Athenian 
People for so many and such signal blessings 
conferred on them through me. That you may 
perceive how much smaller my words are than 
my works,* through fear of misconstruction, 
read now and recite the account of the succours 
sent in pursuance of my Decrees. 

• Dawaon, with singular infelicity, makes i aay here, 
" thrtt I have used espreasions far short of the greatness of 
ray actions." Francis la not much happier iu hia version, 
" benenlh the dignity of ray actions." Leland far 
better, "that I have epoken much less than I could jus- 
tify by facts." Wolff, "verbis longe tenuioribua quaui pro 
raagnitudine rerum." It is indeed an expression for " un- 
derstating hia case." 


These, and acts like these, ^scliines, it ia 
the duty of a perform, (which, had 
they proved successful, oh, God ! would have 
placed us beyond all controversy on the summit 
of power, aud without a wrong to any piivty ; but 
as tlie eveut has been different, we have only 
obtained the glory, aud the state and niy policy 
is freed from all blame. Fortune alone being in 
fault, which has so ordered our affairs) — no, by 
heaven ! never will a patriot* abandon the cause of 
bis country — uor hire himself outto lier enemies — 
nor watch over their interests rather than over her 
own — nor run dowu whoever uudertalves to in- 
culcate and propound measures worthy of the 
state, and perseveres in this course — nor record 
and treasure up whatever private injuries be may 
have sustained from any one — uor lead a life of 
criminal and traitorous retirement, f as you 
are too wont to do. There is, indeed, tliere is 
a kind of retirement justifiable and beneficial to 

" Thia is repented, from the great diHtance of t!ic relative 
noun beftjre the long parenthesis. 

t iirrvx""' ayiiv. Wolffs " otium " badly renders this. 
Francis and Dawson have " retirement," and Leiand has 
the same ; and poeaibly his version of Agnnoy aprf vjrovXoy, 
dishonest and invidious, ia not wrong, though tliot in the 
teit aeems preferable. 

f the State ; a retirement which the hulk of you, 
my fellow citizens, honestly* enjoy. But that is 
very far indeed from being the retirement of this 
1 man ; keeping aloof from public affairs when 
he thinks fit (and he oftentimes does think fit), 
he watches the moment when you are tired of 
some one who is alvyays addressing you, or when 
, some adverse fortune has befallen us, or some 
L other untoward thing has happened (as will 
often occur in human concerns) ; and then, at 
I this juncture, sudden the orator rises from his 
I retirement, like a gustof wind,t and raising his 
I voice, and crowdiug together words and phrases, 
rolls them forth, fluently and breathlessly, to 
no profit of the country, nor the attainment of 
I any good whatever, but to the detriment of in- 
I dividual citizens, and to the disgrace of all. And 
this concern, ^schines, and this zeal, if it pro- 
ceeded from a sound heart, and one only anxious 
for the interests of ,the country, would bear 

• Not making it a cloak for mischief. airXwi:, literally, 
sincerelj, e imply. 

t TliiB IB H very fine simile, and equal to the litTrcp viifioc, 
only being less sudden, shurt, and trauaieiit, it ia better 
adapted to spoken discourse. Wolff renders wfcu^a 
" veiitus." Stock, " turbo." So Francis, " whirlwind." 
DaWBOii, " tempeal," which is clearly wrong. Leiand, 
" sudden gnat of wind." Perhaps it is better rendered by 
gust or blast than by wind, apf^ioE being wi:id. There aeema 
1 no reusDn fur "whirlwind," any more than "icmpeat." 

wliolesome fruits, and fair to behold, and bene- 
ficial to all ; alliances with foreign states, 
sup[)lies of money, establisliments of trade, the 
enactment of useful laws, resistance to open 

All these things were exemplified in past 
times, and those times afford many exhi- 
bitions of the qualities of a perfect patriot ; in 
which exhibitions assuredly you, ^scliines, 
never would iiave been found, neither first, 
neither second, nor tliird, nor fourth nor fifth, 
nor yet sixth,* iior in any place at all ; certainly 
not when the resources of the state were to be 
extended. For, ivhat alliunce ever accrued to 
the country of your making? Or what suc- 
cours, or goodwill, or glory of your gaining 1 
Or what embussy, or what other public func- 
tions, whereby the state acquired honour ? 
What domestic affair, or concern of the 
Greek states, or of strangers, over which you 
presided, was ever set right through you? 
What galleys, what armaments, what arsenals, 
what repairs of the walls, ivhat cavalry ? 
In what one of all these particulars have you 
evei- proved useful ? What benefit has ever 

* Thia refers, as is Buppoaed, to »n oracle of Apollo, in 
anawer to the question, " What rank the JE^eans held?" 
The answer wns, " Neither third, nor fourth, nor twelfth. 
You have no character or number at all." 



accrued to either ricli or poor from your for- 
tunes? Noae "But, hark!"* says someone, 

" if nothing of all this was done, at least there 
existed good dispositions and public spirit." 
Where ? When ? you most wiclied of men ? — 
you who, when all that ever opened their moutlis 
on the Bema contributed somewhat to the public 
safety, when at last Aristonicus paid in aa a 
gift the money he had saved for recovering his 
raak,-f — you, who even then neither came forward 
youi'self, nor gave one mite ! Not that you 
were poor. For why ? You inherited from 
your kinsmanj Philo above five talents ; and 
you received a gift of two talents subscribed by 

* ii Tar, rendered here by translators hsvs. It is an ex- 
clamation, and ia put into either the mouth of ^schinea or 

t fic eiriTifiiay. Reiske, '' to BUp])Ort his dignity." So 
Francia. Wolff, " ad dignitatem recuperandam," Dawson 
says it ie " money collected to pay his fine, in case, after 
being paymaster, he should be mulcted." If bo, we must 
read roj' ETrtn/jioi', or m tirtn^ia. But Wolff givEB it as 
leal money. It apjieara that Ariatouicua owed a sum to the 
treasury for aome oSence, and that he cunningly paid his 
deht as a patriotic gift, and had liia line remitteil. Some, 
AS Ulpian, render it that it was money in his hnnds belong- 
ing to the state, and raieed for thepnblic service " to re- 
cover their dignity bb r nation.'' Leland refers it to an 
advanue required as a qualification for office. Perhaps 
Dawson is right, and that we should rend tjriri/iioc. Ferri, 
LambinviB, Perionius are otherwise. 

I vijh(7T(Jv. Francis, " father-in -law." So Scapula, 

the wealthier tax-payers for defeating the naval 
law. But 1 shall pass over these things, 
that I may not he diverted from the main ques- 
tion by going from toiiic to topic* Still what 
I have said already will show that your contri- 
buting nothing was not owing to your poverty 
but to your tailing special care nothing 
you did should ever counteract the schemes of 
those to whom all your policy was subservient. 
In what, then, are you bold, and when are you 
munificent ? When any thing is to be urged 
against your countrymen, then are you most 
copious of speecli — most profuse of money — 
most rich in memory — a first-rate actor — the 
Theocrines of the stagelf 

* Francia, " multiplying arguments upon argumeniB." 
DawBon, " touching on every tiling that happeus Co fall in 
mj way." LelanJ, " led off fiom one point to another." 
Wolff, " aliud ex alio diceudo." It means, "'by letting one 
word or topic BUggest Bnother ;" Xoyov ck Xoyji \cyuif . 

f Theocrines had been a etage-plajer, and turned in- 
former ; he waa often named in reference to the Christians 
in early times proverbially. Dawson says, " oulbluater 
Theocrines," which is his own figure, not A'e. Palmer 
takes it adjectively, " chosen of God ;" but this would be 
Gcotpiroe, and then why rpnyuoc ? The whole passage 
here is magnificent — of prodigious force and concision. 
The ideas are powerful, and the diction perfect. A grand 
effect ie ever produced in oratory by closing a passage with 
Buch accumulation of weighty and telling expressions, con- 
densed and powerful. It is a resource of the art far loo 
little drawn upon in our times. 


^H Then do you recount the famous men of 
^" other days?* And you do well to pfaise tlieni. 
But it is not fair, Atlienians, to take advantage of 
the love you bear the memory of the deceased 
for the pia-pose of matching and comparing me 
with them — me, who am your own contem- 
porary. For which of us all can be unaware 
that every one living is exposed to more or less 
ol envy, while not even tlieJr enemies bear any 
hatred to the dead ?t Such being the nature of 
mei], am I to be judged and tried in reference 
to those who have gone before me 1 By no 
means. It is not just, it is not fair, j53schines ; 
the parallel must be with yourself, and whom 

► else you please, of those that side with you and 
: are still living. And consider again — whetlier is 
it more honourable and more for the interest of 
the country, that, because of the services r 
dered by our predecessors, prodigious though theji 

' This refers to Ihe magnificent peroration of ,^schin« 
which would be one rif the grealest of all the remains of an- 
cient eloquence, but fur the terribly lame conclusion — the last 
few words. That peromtion plainly auggi'steil the oath to 
to ^, and not, as Lunginue euppoaes, the versea from Eu- 
polidca : TTcpt i>4'' ^- '^' 

t Tliia is as observable in modem as in ancient parly 
strifes. — Cicero's Euppoaed answer to Salluet's oration 
almost iranalatea this fine paaaage about envy and death, 
A has here copied ThucydideB,ii. 45 — fdofus yap roic fwai 
Tpoc Tt avrmaX'iv' to et jij] ifnroluiy avnvTityuvtorif tvvotif 

be bej'ond all power of expression,* we should 
show ingratitude and detraction towards those 
of the present day ; or that we should show 
honour and favour to all who have ever done any 
patriotic deed ? And yet, if I must speak out, 
my measures and policy, when they shall be accu- 
rately considered, will appear to resemble those 
of the men who have been eulogized, and to be 
pointed towards the same ends, while yours, 
jEschines, are like those of their calumniators. 
For it appears that there were in those days 
persons who ran down the great men t of the 
age, and praised tliose that had gone before 
them ; an invidious thing, and the very thing 
you are now about. Do you say that I in no 
respect resemble those patriots ? Do you then re- 
semble them yourself, ^schines ? Or does your 
brother ? Or does any of the orators of these 
times? I deny it altogether. But with tlie living, 
most worthy person (I say no more), compare the 
living and those who belong to the same depart- 

• oi/irac vTrcp/uyidiig ov/icvovy etiroi nc Ac fiXtKa^. 
Wolff, " qua; Euiit immensa quonira utique mngnitudo 
verbis exprimi nou potest." Leland, " great nnd esalted 
aa they are, bejond all expresBiou great." Thia is not 
tranalating ; nor is it translating to add b, whole figure, 
" makiiig the benefits received from our anceatore a pretence 
for," &c. 

t The ambiguity of o6roi and tovtovs here, aa elsewhere, 
renders it necessary to introduce a word. 


^B merit, as we do in every thing else — poets, 
eingei-s, wrestlers. Philammon did not leave 
the Olympic games uncrowned because he was 
inferior to Glaucus of Cnrystus,* and other 
wrestlers of a former age, but because he over- 
came all who appeared against him he was 
» crowned and proclaimed conqueror. Compare 
me thus with the present race of statesmen, 
with youreelf, ivith ivhomsoever you please of 
them all, I will yield to none; men among 
whom, ivhile it was possible to preserve the best 
interests of the country, while the contest of 
patriotism was ojien to us all, I was seen giving 
the soundest counsels, and eveiy thing was 

t ordered by my decrees, and my laws and my 
negotiations. But of all your party there was 
not oue that ever appeared in any way, unless 
when some affront was to be put upon the 
people;! y^* when that event J happened, 
which would to Heaven we had been spared, 

»Bud when men were wanted, not to counsel, but 
• This GlaucuB, having been a ploughboy, once knocked 
in the coulter with hia fiat. Being taken by hta father to 
the Games, for want of skill he was nearly beaten; when hia 
father cried out, " Treat him hke the coulter," on which he 
felled hia antagonist to the ground. 

t i-ritptaaai. Francis, "Uiatresa the country." Dawson, 
" criticise and cavil." Iceland, " vent his insolence," 
TVolff, " insultandum." 

X Chnronea. 


to do as they might be orilered, aud eagerly to 
exert themselves against the country, and to 
play the willing parasite to others, then it was 
that you and eaeh of your party became flourish- 
ing, and wealthy, and attended with equipages,* 
while I was fuelile, I confess it, but far more 
devoted than you to this People ! 

Two qualities,'!' men of Athens, every citizenj 
of ordinary worth ought to possess (I shall be able 

• imrorpoijioi. Keepers of horaee, or equipage. Francie, 
" pomp of equipage." Dawson, " fine horses and mi^nifi- 
cent equipages." Why both? Leknd has " equipages," 
but he puts three olher words instead of A's two, namely, 
" magnificence, state, and splendour." Wolff, " equos 
spleiidide alehat." 

t It does not very distinctly appear that he enumerates 
two qualitiea; for though we have first the official course, 
and then the genera! zeal in all Bituationa, yet the same 
verb governs both, ^vXaTTciv, and it cornea after another, 
fX^'v, applied to the ci/o ; and moreover, the word which con- 
nects the ])recediug sentence with natural disposition, ^voie, 
is in the singular, tovtou, as if only one quality had been 
mentioned ; and there seems no reason for confining the 
distinction between nature and fortune to the latter of the 
two things, cui-oia. An orator in our careless times some- 
times forgets the scheme he had laid down, or the mattera 
he had promised to touch. This never can be Imputed 
to ^, and we must therefore suppose the two to be enu- 

X jitT^wv. Francis, " however moderate his abihtiea." 
This ia nonsense. The word is one of moral praise, and of 
the highest praise in aome cftses, almost comhinini; all good 
qualities, though here it means any one of average worth, 


Wii|ii f^i'iii I III li nil' ' III |ii ill III III I I'll III llii 4east 
» invidious nianner) : he should both niainiaiii in 
office the purpose of a firinf mind and the course 
suited to his couotry's pre-eminence, and on all 
occasions and in all his actions the spirit of 
patriotism. This heloiiijs to our nature ; victory 
and might are under the dominion of another 
power.J These dispositions you wiil find to 
have been absolutely inherent in me. For ob- 
serve; neither when my head was demanded.^ 


* oi/Tb) or ourwe seems here to be " thus generally." Le- 
land's " in general terras " seems to hit the mark exactly. 
Wolffs " sic enim" is hardly enough. 

t ytt'vaioii denotee here much rather hrmneas or m^^m- 
nimity than generoBity. Stock, "niBgnanimitatis." Wolff, 
" generosi." Leland escapee by making it " zeal for the 
lionour of the state ;" giving "pre-eminence" for the 

I iripa refers to furtnne here ; hut the text, with Leland, 
gives that clearly enough. Wolff, notwiths landing all hia 
abstinence, gives " fortuna." 

§ (iarou/jfi-oc- Franeia, " When Philip demanded I 
should be given up to hia resentment," enough certainly for 
one word. Dawson is much better, " demanded me to be 
given up ;" but he had juat before exhausted hia powers of 
paraphrase on tovtov i) (jivaic Kuptn. " By preserving these 
BcntimentB we follow Nature herself, and bind ourselves tg 
nothing but what is in our own power." Then tov Svi'aadai 
Si Kdi laxvitv iTtpa. " But conquest and empire are not the 
necessary consequences of virtue and wisdom, hut depend 
upon a mere capricious being." It really should seem 
that aportion of the reverend author's sermon Lad found its 

,y into this portiou of his translation. 


nor when they dragged me befure the Am- 
phyctioDs, nor when they threatened, nor when 
they promised, nor when they let loose on me 
these wretches like wild beasts,* did I ever 
abate in any particuhir ray affection for you. 
Tliis straightforward and honest path of policy, 
from the very first, I chose ; the honour, the 
power, the glory of niycountry to promote — these 
to augment — in these to have ray being.f Never 
was I seen going about the streets elated and 
esult'mg when the enemy was victorious, 
stretching out my hand, and congratulating 
such as I thought would tell it elsewhere, but 
bearing with alarm any success of our own 
armies, moaning and bent to the earth like 
these impious men, who rail at this country as 
if thiy could do so without also t^tigmatizing 
themselves ;J and who, turning their eyes abroad, 

* Dawson makes them actually " worry " A, who only 
aays, they were let loose upon him. 

t /itra TOVTiav Eii'ai. Wolff, " in his vivere," well 
enough — not literal. Stock, " cum his consiBterem." Le- 
land, '' iny whole being is devoted to this glorious cause;" 
which silly addition of " glorious cnnse " really only 
serves to weaken a very good version — " in these to live," 
or '• by these to abide," might do. The text is more literal, 
and gives the sense pretty fairly. 

t Francis, good here, " as if they could slander her 
wilhont publishing their own infamy." Leland also good, 
though less close, " defamers of the state, and thus de- 
famers of themselves." The trausition" from this common 
topic lo the actual peroration is inimitable. The whole 



and seeing the prosperity of the enemy in thai 
calamities of Greece, rejoice in them, and main- 
tain that we should labour to make thent last 
for ever ! 

* Let not, oh gracious God, let not such con- 
duct receive any mannei* of sanction from thee ! 

passage, begiuiiing ouo, is beyond nil praise. When Cici 
aaid his cars were so insatiable as even in A ever to deside- 
rate something more to fill ihem (ita avida; et capaces) 
he miBt have foi^otten the effect of thia wonderful perora- 
tion, which is condenied, full of matter, rapid, even fierce, 
and rolls on iu a. torrent so majestic, with all its fiiry, that 
nothing like it can any where else be seen. In the raidst 
of it all there is a touching, almost a pathetic introduction 
of feeling, " ovSnftaic irpo^f i^iuKa ryui rijv tie vfiat si 
which here ia not seal or patriotism, but the aft^ction he 
cherielied in his bosom for the people, all and each of them, 
as he says in the exordium, and which not all his own 
troubles and perils could extinguish, or abate, or cool. The 
transition to the calm, butsolemn, dignified, eminently ira- 
pressive close of the whole is equally line, anil must have 
had a marvellous effect. 

Hard as is the translator's task before and throughout, 
more especially as he approaches his release from an 
almost impossible attempt, at the very end of all it become* 
yet more hopeless. The ■very first words are uniranslate- 
able by ihe structure of our language, the ;iij e?; r'. The 
aBsociations of religion make the next impossible. We can- 
not individualise with any gravity, and say, " O all ye 
Gods, let not anyone of your number sanction," Yet to 
an Attic audience the intensive effect of this must have 
been very great. The noble phrase rorout; /icv avrovc 
DUt is not BO inapproachable, yet never can be 
.equalled. Francis iias it very ill, " separate you wholly 


Katlier plant even in tfiese men a better spirit 
and better feelings! But if they are whuUy 
incurable, tben pursue them, yea, themselves by 
themselves, to utter and untimely perdition by 
land and by sea ; and to us who are spared 
vouchsiife to grant the speediest rescue from 
our impending alarms, and au unshaken se- 
curity ! 

from this people." Dawson worse, " banish you fiom all 
commerce with human kiiid." Leland, " tin ihem, on them 
only, diachaige your vengeance." Now though & by the force 
of these wurds, and the autiBequent prayer for iifiiy roij Xoi- 
Toic implies the separating; he does any thing rather 
than Bay it iu terms. Wolff omits ihc words entirely, giving 
only "eos," wSiich is very bad. Then come the most 
difficult words of alt, the i^iaXtic kch jrpoitfXtis. ipowXEic 
probably means cutting off before their time, end cfwXcts 
antirely extirpiitiug. In the Trapawpeajiiia A Buys tJuXijc "Mt 

irpouXifs a-KoXot/iiii 
precate i^uiknaf, ut 
of tlie wocld. It is 
is left out. Wolff, 
" fundilus 
uoiveraally." Daws 
extirpated." Leland, 

;r destruction : it 
remarkable that 

thing i 
ans being cut off out 
lome MS. vrpaiuXEic 
funditus." Stock, 
morte." Francis, " entirely and 
, " with hasty vengeance utterly 
pursue ibera even to destruction." 

The o-ttirijpmv aaipaKij is almost equally difficult ; it is un- 
slippety, untolerating, but it also means un deceitful.— After 
much consideration " unshaken " has been adopted on the 
suggestion of a friend whose taste and knowledge of our 
language is not surpassed. The inversion of the original 
however has been avoided as not idiomatic. The music of 
this closing passage is almost as fine as the sense is impies- 
sive and grand, and the manner dignified and calm. I 


* * 


nPfiTON fAv Z ai-^^ss 'ACn'oCioi to7s holQ 
sv^of^ai •jrSia't xai vratrcug, otrtin iuvoiav i-^m eysu 
oianT^m t^ ts toKsi xai •?rai<rii> vf/^n, roirctUTtii/ 
vragieti f/,01 •jra^ ufiut ug tovtovi to> ayam, 

vfi.iTi^ag evirs^eiag n kbu So^fig, touto Ta,^tx.irrti~ 
ffctt Tovg Ssavg vims, ^^ rov cctTihxov irvf^fiovXov 
voir.ffarrSxt ^e^l rav Tmig ctKovsiv v[/.5.g ifA,ov oe7 
{a-^iT'hioi' ya,^ av itri toijto yi) aXXa Toug tOf/.ovg 

I xai rov o^xon, Iv S T^og a.wa.a't To7g aXKoig Sixotioiq 

f ica,) TOUTO yiy^ctTTCx.!, to of/.olug ufJ/poHv kx^ok- 
tratrOa,!. tovto ^ iittIv oi f^ovos to fji.ii crooxar- 
tyvaixiva.! (/.ti^iv, ov^\ to t^v evvoiav tirris af/.^QTi- 

, f0(5 a.^oSotJva.1, aXXa xai to t'^ to-^h xai tTj 
a.To'Koyia, ug l3s(3o6XtiTai xa) s-^oi^riTai tc^v 

I dyaivi^of/,iiiaiv ixaa-Tog, 01;^^ lairai y^^ritraerSai. 
IloXXa fJ^m ovv iy^^^KaTTovf,e,ai xaTci tou- 

Tovf Ton a-yaiva Ajvy/iiov, duo o u avo^ig AOtihoioi 
Koi fX.i'ya.Xoi., £v fjCiv on ov x£^( ray "imiv dya/vi^o- 
f^ai' ou ya,^ itrriv ktoh hvv if^ot tjj; 9rag vfMiiv 
surotctg Siaf/.uarB7v xai toCtu (/.tj i'Kiiv t^v y^oLtpitv, 
dw' if^o'^ f^iv, ov (SouXof^ai il Svtr^egsg em7» 
oviti' a^^o^evo; rou Xoyov, ourog o Ix. xi^iouffldi 
f^ov Kotrriyo^ii, 'in^ov 0, o tpvint Tciirtv avS^uwois 
itird^^ti, TO)v fM.v XoiSofiaiv ko.] rm KUTiiyogWV 
uxoCiiv riSiaig,To7g iwattoixTt ^'\' aiiToug a.-^h<T6a,i' 
TouToiv ToUv» a fjLiv iiTTi T^og tioovrji', ravTu aiooToit, 
Oi Toiffiv aig iTog I'lveiv EfO^Xs?, XoiTOv IjmU 
K«c f/^iv EuXaj3ovf/,smg tovto f/^ri Xiyn} to Tsw^ay- 
fA,tvtx, ifA,avTu, oVK 6p-;s(c oiToXutTa<r&ai to, xarnyo- 
^Yi[t.i\ia, So^a 01/^ eip* oig «|jai Tt[ji.a,ir&ai ^sixvviiaf 
an 3" l<p' a KoCi vexoiTifia. xai TBToXiTSVfjuti /3a- 
Sl^sj, ToXXotKig Xsynv dyctyKcttrSruroiJ-ai jrep! 
ifjLctvrou. fi,iv avu aig fi.Er^iWToe.Ta 
rouTO irotiiV o rt 6 ocv to T^dyf/^a avro dvecy 
xaQi, rovrou tjih airlni/ ovrog itrrt SiKtuiog f^siv 
T0I0U70II ctyma. tnTrri<rk}x.ivog' 

Oifcoti ufiLoic, ai uno^tg hxct/rrcci, •ravTBtf 
a.11 OfioXoyritrai koivov eivoti tovtoh tov d.yma, e^mi 
xai KrjjfTiipa'i'Ti xal ovoi,)) IXotTm/og a^iov <nrou- 
irg iiz-o't' -Trd-nraiii f^tv yu^ d^otm^uffSai Xwjrtjgoy 
ttTTi Koi y^ctXtTov, otX^g rs xdv vt ty^d^ov tjiJ 

1. & A. 


H TOVTo <rvf/,^aivi^, f^ctXia-Tot Ss r^jg -Trap v^nv stinoiag 
xai ^i'kcyS^u%la,g, otrai tb^ xa) 70 Tuyilv rouToii 

Tls^i TOVT(UV i' oyro; rovrovt tou dymos, d^iu 

Oiofiat vavTuv oi^oioig u^A-m a,Kovffa'i fi-ou 

I Tegi Toiv xoi,rnyo^ri(j^imv avo'hoyouff.ivou Sixctiuf, 

1 uirjTE^ oi ita[/,oi KsXsvoutrtt, aig Tj^eij i^ ^Sy/l^ 

[ ZoXa/f, iuvoug aiv vf/,7v Kcii o>if^0TiKog, ctu //.oiiov 

\ rai y^a,-\pai xv^ioi/g oiiTO ostv iivai, dXXa xal 

Tfti Tovg ^SKa,^ovTa,i v^A-oig ofj,iiif/,oxiycti, oux diri- 

L rruv vfj-Tn, ug y s^ol'f' (paUiTUt, dx?.' o^w» on 

; alTiotg xat rag 010,^0X1x5, ctig Ix rou xgo- 

■fifofj Xiyst» Oioixuv tirji^vsi, ovx ivi tu (psvyovTi 

tra^EX&s7v, st fA,Ti rmv Stxa^onrajv 'ixarrTOg v/aZv t^c 

I 9r§og Tovg deoug sviri(3eiciv otDi.cpuXoi.TTm xoii to, tov 

I XiyovTog utrrs^ov^ Stxatict iuvoixwg v^rxrOi^iTai, 

( •!,c"j(uv lai/TOv t(rov xai xoivov a.f/,iporifoig 

WttK^OKT^v ovra rrjv diuyvi^irivW Troifimrcti ts^J 

I iitmti/T&iy. 

Me'XXftic is TOV TB ih'ov (Biov wavTog, aig soiXi, 
yov oiaonat Trif/,i^ov xcti toiv xoiv^ 7ri7roXiTsvf/,i- 
', 0oCXo[^oct, xaOa,Tio Is d.^y^h TctXtv rovg Seovg 
■a^axaXiffUi, xa.i ivct-JTiuv ufLcuv ivyfi[/,a.t w^wtqh 
, og-nv iiivoiav Xyjav iy&/ dianXai t^ ti toXh 

1 yi /It... J TrpoT-E 

§ ioTtpOf. 

II Oiayiw^i)!.. 

L a 

tig T0V7OH TO) L 

\ymix., 'ivuS o Tt pLiXkti {ruvoitrsiv 
V xoiv^ KEu T^og suirt/Bsiav waorai, 
■a; Tohg Biovg -xairiv Vfjuv ^s§i rav- 
rntTi rtji 'y^a,<png yvatai. 

E( [j,t» ovv vs^t Z)i iSiCDKs f/dovov KarJiyo^rjirsv 
Aifr^lvr,g, Kayu ws^) aiirov tou w^oponAsUjWaTos 
eu&vg an airiXoyovi^riV' iXH^rj J' ovx ihaTTU "Koyov 
TaXXa hi£^im a.vri'ktk)jcg'j KCti ra TXelirra xetrs- 
■<\/SU(rix,To jitoy, a.tcit,yKaiov Eivat voi/,t^oi Kctt otxcuo* 

iixeTv x^atTOv, ina. fAijh'ig uf/Mv rdig k^tuSBv \oy<»? 
riyf^ivog dXXor^iciiTs^ov rmv uTi§ r^g yga^Ss o'- 

XUfUf a-KOUT^ fAOU. 

IIe^j fisv Sri Tuv thim otra, Xoioa^ov[x,ivog /3s- 
^hcis'(p^f/,Tliis ■jTsfi l[M^, &sd,rra.ff$i ig arXa xtu 

hfKCtia XiyU. i'l f/,iV ItTTl ^E TOIOVTOV oiof OVTOg 

jriaro (oo ya§ a.Xko6't ■jtov (^i^iuKa ri xof' 
uf-uv), f^j^Sl (paivtsi' anafr^rifrSe, f/.ri^' eI TavTct rot 

KOi*a VWigiV tTiVOXiTlVlAjOLIi dX}^ UVeHTTOiVTig KOt- 

Ta-^7i<p't(rot.rr8i Tihi^' it h\ -jroXXS (3bXticii toutou KCU 
ix ^sXtiovuv, Km f/^nbtnog rav ^iT^im, ha, jC^ijOSf 
'-raypig Xsym, y^si^ovx'i^ xa) s^e «al roug ifMvg 
i'urstXTi'pa.Ti ««» yiyyutrxiTi, rovrai fjdv f^rid wsg 
TOf dXXa/y ■Tnimuirs (^rjXov yot^ aig o^o'iag CLvafr 



tTXclTTBTO), Sf/,Ot 0, flV TCC^a TOLVTa TOV Jf^OVOf 

ivvoiay IvSidst^^s It] ToXXm aymav rm vpoTiooii 
yiytvu^ivuv, xat vvn ■Troc^dtr'^iffdi. xa.xori6r;g 3* uv, 
A'la-^Uf!, TovTo wavrsXaig ivrihs fiJ^^Jjf, rows -rsgi 
raiv TiTTpatyfAiyaiy xat wSToKi-nvf^iva/v Xoyous 
atpivra fte Wfos rag Xoioo^iag rag wa^a, irov rpi- 
•^SffSat. oi) ^^ ■noirifToi rouro' ou^ ouTtu rSTUipa>f/,a,f 
aXX' vwi^ f/^iv raiv -rsToXiTivfLiiia/v a KctTi-^iv^ou 
KM oii^ctWsg, avTixx l^eratro), Trig Js Tof/,'!rs'tai 
ravTfig t^; Knsonv yiyivr,td,'iyni uim^ov, av /3&u- 
>i.ofi,t»oig axouiiv ^ tovtoiiti, f/.nj(rdr!irof/.cci. 

To, fiiiy ovv xaT>jyo^))fJt,ivx ToWa xotl Suva, 
Kcu TE^t &IV snarv fjLiyaXocg XM rag nr^fx-rag oi 
m[AMi raTTOvrrt Tifiaigiag' rou os vct^ovTog ayuvog 
ij T^ooii^itrig auTt] lyS^ov ^sv i'xn^nav lyji xat 
v/s^iv xcti \oi^a^'itx.y xat w^oxtiXot.KKrf/.oy ofMV xu'i 

TTaVTO, TO, TOtCtUTO,' TdlV fJi.iVTOr^' XCtTriyO^IUV XOLI 7Uy 

ainm rSiy i'i^tifj.ivaiv, eite^ riffocv a.Xriditg, ovx ttil^ 
r^ iroXei 3j<jj( ai^lcty Kafoilv, ova lyyv;. ov yup 
it<pctt^Bi<TOai Oil TO v^oTiXOiiv Ttu oft^aa) xai Koyou 
Tu^siy, ovo ky i-jr7i^na.g ra^et xai <p6oyov touto 
voteiy ovTS [juh Tovg diavg o^^ws t^oy ovts toXi- 
Tixov outs yixoLioy 'uTTiv, 01 avS^ii 'AQtivoCioi' BtXX' 
i^' «(? uSiKOWTo. fi.s iu^ct Tnv ToXiy, cixri yt t^ 
KtxovTotg iiXixa vvv Irgayuhi^ xai ht^jti, raTg 

• ai-mc?!*'. t ruy ftiv TOivvy. ( fV' § Siirpayuicis . 


SX T^f tlOfMIV TtfAi/^icUS VOl^ OtUTO. TailXtlf/MTO, 

y^a^a.i. It f^sv fis-a-y'ysXSa.g a^ia vga.TT0VTOi fj.i 
tai^tx, iKTctyyiWovTCt xcti tovtuv tov t^o^jto) ng 
K^iffiy xctdio'Ta.i'Ta wag vf/Av, e'i 5e 'y^a.^oVToc xa- 
^kvai/Mf ' ygix,<pofA,iV6i' oi) ykg OtjTou 
K.Tii<ri<puy7a fn^h ovvctrcti oinixety oi lf/.i, if/,s os, 
sl'irej i^iXiy^Uv ho^i^zv, avrav ovk av lygaipaTO, 
Kcci iM)» ti Ti Tsji/ aXXm uv KUfl'f' Sis^aXXs xai 
iiB^TIEt q xai aXX' otwuv aSixovvra. {/,s Uf/^ag 
iai^ot, siiri vofMt xi^t xavruv xai Tif/.ii)gtcti xat 
uya/yss xai xgicrus •jrix^a. xai fAsyaXa i^oiKfo-t 
ra.vir'i(Ji.ta., xai tovtoic e^iiy arairi'!^ •^^Tiir&ai xblt 
ifMU, xa.1 OTrtjiiixa UpaiviTO raura wiwoiiixag xat 

ToZtOII tov TgO-JTOV Xi^gt!ft,itl05 Tolg Xg>0; SfAt, aifjLO- 

XoysiTO ay n xarriyogia To7g igyoig avToiJ. vvv J" 
ixirrag rrig o^d^g xai hixa'iag oSoU xai ^vyay rovg 
Taf avra ra wgayf^ara. Ixiy^ovg, roffovroig 
viTTi^os ^i^^otOig uiTiag xai irxaif^f/^ara xai Xoi- 
iogiag t7uiA,(p6grifrag vwoxgiDei-ar si'ra xarnyogsl 
fji,sy ifioij, xgivei ol tovtovi, xai tov f^iv ayuvog 
oXou Tf}\i w^of if/X iySgcAv ■^rgotffraTat, oiiSafMv 3" 
iTi TauTrjv airtjirfixiDg ifA,oi ttjv ere'^ou ^r,Tm im- 
rifiiav a(pBXi(r6ai ^aiHTnu. xa'tToi x^og axamv, 
0) aw^ig ASi^raioi, Totg aXXoig oixaioi; ois ot¥ 
sivtiv Tig vvig KTijiTi^aiyTOi i%oi, xat tout ifMiyi 
• i^iXcy)(iiy. t yvv. % aurji irarrt. 


I eoxE? Ko,) f^ciX UKOTOjg uv Xiynv, on rra Tif/.s- 

I T6g>a; lyP^i^i flf^oig l(p' riy^siv avTuv SiX'Otiov tin to* 

I i^erafffMv womrrSai, ou to ftly T^og d'kK^T'.oug 

{ ayuviZiTSat •jra.^ot.'hu-^rnv, iTS^u o otw xcckov ti 

I dai(TOf/,ei!. Q^tbTh' v-!rB^(3oXri ya^ -dotKiag tovto ye. 

TIxnTcc jtiEii roUvv TO. Ka.myo^yi(^ii/a. of/-oiaig nt 

TOVTuiv at Tis thai OUTS hxaiajg ovt iw dXri^uas 

ouoifj.iag el^Tif^sva' (BouXof^(Mi as, xbu xaff W \xct- 

(TTOV BLUTc-iv e^erdiTcti) xat f/^d'hta-ff oirrx, uwi^ T^g 

it^nvTig xa.] Trig T^BirlBsiag xaTS-\l'Sua-ctTo fi,ou, tk 

reT^ayf/.tva tavru (/.ito. ^tXox^xTovg avaTiSttg 

^i^oL 'iffTi ^ avayxaiov a av^^ig ' Adtivetioi xeu 

tfoa-iixov itra/g, ug xu,t ixemvg Tohg ^ovovg il^f 

'jT^ayf^ciTa, a.vctf/.v'^ircii vficlg, iva T^og TOt 

t v'xa.^')(fiVTa. xcLigov 'ixaiTTa, Siai^nn. 

Tou ya.^ ^axtxov trva-rayTog •^o'kif^ov, ou oi 
ffii (ov yag ^ 'iyuye WoXinvofj^riv iru tots), 
T^s/Tov fLsv vf/,e7g outu hi'ixmrSi, ojitte Oaixeae f^f* 
{3ovKEo-dai fraiSrivat, xaiTre^ ou ^ixaia ToiouvTCtg 
o^uvTig, Qi^^aioig J" otiouv ctv e^jjir^^fa* ttcc^ov- 
irtv, olx kXoyaig ou^' abiKaig auTOig o^yi^of^svor 
oig ya^ iUTuyrixurctv iv Aeuxr^otg, ou fAST^iug 
txs^^tlvTO' tTzsiff ri TlsXomiDnirog k'Ka.tra. oisiitt^- 
ȣ(, xa] ouff Oi fA,n70VVTSg AMXtOrxifMviovg ouTO/g 
_ nrj^^uov Lirri mshiiv avToug, ouS o'l -tt^ots^ov ai 

ris jjc axpiTOg aai xol^ol rovTotg xoti ira^a toTs 
aXkoig a.'j^a.stv ipig xcc) rct^ay^^. -ravTcc o o^nnv o 
^IXtTTog (ou ya^ nv a^ctv^J roti ircLg sxaoTOig 
v^oooTcctg y^^rtj/.aTO, avaXiiTKUv Tavra-g a-vux^ovs 
xcti w^og ccvTovg'f ito.^oi.ttsv''^ ejt iv oig Tif/.a^TCtiov 
01 aXXoi xou xa.xmg Itp^ovovii, ctvrog TagstrxsvaQro 
xai Kara Txura/v i<puiro. aig Ss ra.Xamai^oufjt.ii'Oi 
Tf [i,^xu Tou o'l tots f/Xt (Bx^Eig vuv o 
aruy^ilg %npouot (pafs^oi ^airiv /i/rctv avayxetirSji- 
irofLivoi xaTO.^iC'/iiv Ip' vfA,ag, 6 O/XfTTOC, inz, (Mi 

TOVTO yiVOiTO fLljSs ^V\li}^SoiSV tt/ XOXsif, Vfl7v fAt» 

si^riv:}^ ixima ^e ^ofiSeiav ivriyyilXaro. ti ouv 
ffwn' alru w^og to 'koc^ilv oXiyov Ofli '■ 
vfbag iKovTag l^ce.'XaTdifd.ivovg j ij T»y cLWaiv 'EX- 
\rivm, iiTi ^^fi xaxiav sit ayrotat nn xai a.fA- 
^OTB^a. Taur emTj', o'l 'iroT^if/.oi' /rvvEy^i; xcci f/.ax^ov 
'JToXifMuvrtiv vjdMV, xai rourov wiri^ twv xa^i 
tnifi.ipE^ofTa/i', ug i^yai tpxvE^ov yiyovey, ouTt 5^1?- 
fiMiTin oiiTi iri^j.ct.tri'i ovt aXTiw ovoivi Tm axm/TUt 
trvvsXay-^avoy uijav oig xai Sixxliug xcti T^oo'tt 
KOVT&ig o^yi^of/,Evoi 'sT0if/.6jg V'^nxoua'KTS tm Oc 
X/xrai. fj f/.iii ovv tots (rvy^ju^riQiitra. i't^riori ota 
toZt , oi 01 lfj.%, aig ouTog hs^aXXsv, W^a^^ri' 
Ta oi TouTtuv a.^ixf!f/.ctTix, xai Su^oooxrifAUTa sv 


U.VT71 Tain iiufi iro-^ovTuv •aga.y^a,' 

Ta^JI Oixaloig, 

Trig kXt^Siiug a>{.^i(Bo7\oyfiV[/,at Kct) Sis^s^y^ofX.cci. ei 

ya^ iiva'i ri Soxoiti to, (/.ctXurra Iv rovroig ail- 

^^yMjjUcf, ouom itrn o^'s'ou Tgog Ifii, aXX' {ms 

^^brgatrog sitoiv xcci f^vtia-^sig v-jng Tijg ei§^v>ig 'A^i- 

^Kirrodi;^o; ^v U'jroxgirfis, d' izh^a[/,iyog xa] 

^^^^a\|<a; xai ietvrov [i^sra, roarov fii<rSa(rug iv) 

^ ravTo. <I>(Xo«|ar>j; ' Ayvoug-iog, (rog Aiirj^ivj} 

xoivuvog, ov^ EjOCOf, ouo av irv Oiappa'yt;g'Y ■^psu- 

io/^oiog, 01 h'i trvntvavng otov SWotb 'inxa. (lu 

^nmf ravro y h rw -ragovri) Ew/Soi/Xos xai Kj;(p(- 

^RrWpo'i'* iya S ouoiv ouoccf/^v. 

%\, 'AXX' o'^wf, TOVTUV rotovrm ovTuv xa.] sw' 

avT^g TTig a.'Kridifcig ouToi onxvaf^iviuv, stg rovff 

Ivctihiag, utrr eVoXjCtaJ Xiynii ug a^ct, 

,yaf -x-^ag tu T^g e'l^ijvrig ct'iTiog ysyiv^rrSoit xat 

^tKQiy~vxaig iii^v TTjv voXiv fji.tru xoipov <rvvi0^iov 

'KWtivaii auTt!» Toiri(ra,irdcti. tir a — ti a,» 

vciiv (Ti rig o^Qag T^oin'iwot ; itrrtv oxou tru 

u^av, TfiXixuuT^i' irfa|iu§ xai truf^fAx^iav, 

vvv hs^jsig, o^uv a.'pa.i^ovfj.svov f/,s riig 

toi^iatg tjyavaxrrja-ag, h ■jragiX^oiV raZra, k vuv 

'MTtjyo^ilg iSi^u^ag xai Sis^r,X0Bg ii^^cc.) {/.y^v 

■I TOVTiiiv. "1" Etappayenjc. X toKiuxv. 

ti TO Ku'hvercu rn' tuv '^X'Arimv xoiwviav exg- 

^*, dxXa. (3oa-y Ko.) oia[/,a^Tu^sir0at xa) otj'Kov* 
TOVTOiirt. ou ToUvv iToirja-ag ol^afMU rovro, ou?t 
fjxovfTi (TOM ravT^v rhv ^iovr,» o'vhuc, tiKoraig' outs 
yaji ijv T^iff^ila w^os oi<i'^va,q* arttrraXf^ivTi tots 
r^t ''EXXrimv, «X^a TaXai TottTsg rjirxv eJsAfl- 
XiyfAtyoi, ouff ourog ii-yisi Tg^i tqutuv u^tixtt 


>'■ X»^JS Se TOiiTm Kui ^la^aKXit tjj> •reiki* to 
(AiyKTra. iv oif -^/EijJErar s'l yag v(/.i7g afJiM, 
Tove f/^Sf EXX?;yaf slg iro'Ki[A.ov vx^exaXsTrs, avTOt 
i\ Wfiog 4>iX;9rTov tts^] sl^^ytig v^iir^Eig Ixifi/rtTS, 
Ev^v^ctrov T§uyf/,a, ov woXscug i^yov ouot ;^>J- 
ffToiy kvS^^uv OiiX^ciTTiffSi. a,'K}\ ovK ttrrt ravrtx, 
oiix itrrr t'i ya.^ xa,] (iauXof/i^ivot fi,srETif/^rs<rff 
a.v auTOvg sv toutoi tu xa-i^Z; iti Tr,v si^fiftim 
aXX' v'^^^'^EV u'Tra.irfy. aXX' W) rav mXsftMr ; 
aXX' aiiToi w£^« ti^Tivtig i0ou'KBvs<rh.'f Ovxovt 

ovTi Ttig it, «f%^s ii^zvi^g Tiys[/^u\ 



lyo! ^aifO^l, ovTS T&iit oiXXaiii a/v ,xct,Ti-^(vtraTO 
(Mil ovoiv dXtiSkg h OEixvvTai.'J^ 'E^Hdij roivvv 
eiro*«ffaro rtiv sl^rifriv h «Xi?, ivTctv^a tuXiv 
fniipaaSe ri nf^uv lxa,Ts^os T^osiXtTo ■x^ocTTtn- 

• ovhtm 

t enptfrjStv 

i ijiaivtrat. 


KKi yao Ik rovrm iitnaSe, -rig h" o ^jXiVtcu 
wavTO, trvvayaiviZpiJ/i»a<;, xal rig o T^a.m^ii vwi^ 
iffiMv xttt TO r^ 'TToXii <rvf^<pigov ^firav. 

'Eyal f/Xv rotvuv iy^c-^ix. (3ovXsvuv aTo^XsTv 

«Jg ay avra O/XjT'Tov •jrvfSa.mvrcii, xai rovq o^KOug 
a.ToT'.af^^a.viiv obrot h\ 'oiihi •y^dil/ay^ros If^ov 
TO-VTct xoiiTv ii6^.riffa.v. ri ^i tout fjSvvaro, u 

iruf/.(pi^ov aig wXiiffrov roc ^sragy y^^ovov ■ymitrSat 
Tuy o'^Kuv, 6^7v i' aig iXfi-^tffTOv . Oioc. rt ; or* 
ifAs7s fMv ov» a,<p' ?5 ufMiira,rs f^ovov TjfAS^ag, 
tix?C K(p' ?5 riXriiraTs rriv eS^^vny sirsirdai, -rda-ag 
s^sXva-a<rh rag •ira.^uffxeiicig rag rov woXsf^ou, o 
ol T0VT6 Ik •PTCtiiTOg Toti ^^ovov [/.BtKiirro, iw^ocy- 
fiarsvETO, \iof/,i^oiv, oxe^ riy xXriStg, oira Trig ToXiiug 
w^oXoij3oi w^o Tou rovg o^xovg a.'Trooovyai, ■iravra 
ravTcc /Se/Sa/iyf s^nv ouisyce. yix,^ rriv tJjjjkflv 
KviTBlll Tourm iVSXCX.. 

'A iyai ■jT^oo^miAivog a uy^^sg ' A.^Tjva'tot XoCi 
Xoyt^^OfAtyog "fro ■^ti^iit^u tovto y^uipci), •^Xtiv 
sm raug ro'prouc iv oig av ii ^^iXiwwog, xai rovg 
egxoug T?!y rayjrrxTty dvoXccf^pdneiv, 'ty iy^oyrm 
Tm &^axa>v, rm uf/,iTi^iuv <rvi/.f/,a.jQuy, ra %u^*bl 
rauff a vvy ovrog iistrv^i, to 'Hippioy xui to 

ay. t '■"'"■D TO i/.(l^iiTfia. 

MvpTiov^ x-ai rrjv Y^ayirrx.nv, avrai yiyvotvb 
ogKOl, xcii [JLYI T^dka-^mv iKiivo^ rovg £irjxa('|ow; 
tUv To^m xv^iog rrig 0|axjj; xoLTCtg-Tain, f^rjal 

iU-JTO^tltyai ix rovrm pahiaig Toig Xowo7? iTi)^si^oit} 
irgci'/f/.aiTiv. sira toUto'^ f/,lv oit^t Xiysi to li"^- 
ipitrfA,a, ovo avocyiyvaiiDitt' b'i 06 /SouXtuai' iyu 
'PTgotrdysiv rovg ■^^srrl^tig ^f^rji' Si7v, touto fMu 
5(a/3a?,Xe(. dXXa. ri iy^^v (ja toi&iv ; f^ri v^otr- 
dysiV y^ci-ipa,! touc siri rovff fjKovrag, iv vimv 
itaXiySoKTIV ; 71 SiUV f/,71 XCtTdfEifilMl TOV d^y^iTsx- 
Tovtt aiiTolg xtXnjtrcLi ; a^^' Iv toIv Svo7v o/SoXo7* 
lOsm^ovv dv, il fMi TOVT eygdpri. rd, (/.ix^aj^ trvfA- 
(pi^ovra Ttjg ToXExg %Sei f/,s (puXdrTiiv, rd i' 
oXot,, ajfrwi^ oOtoi, ■^ST^aXii'a.t^; ou hriwou. Asyt 
romvi y^tti to ■\prii^iirfA,ct tovti Xa^uv, o tra<peig 


En-( ag^oiiTog M.iir!iT«piXotJ, ixaroj/^^aimog 'ii/ri 

xctt via,, (pvXtjg T^uraosuoua-fjg Hetvho/iSog, A;)- 

fi.oirdiy^g Ai;f^oird%vovg Ila.ia.visvg hVec, tTiiSii 

O(>L(^X0f dwotTTEiXag iroirrpug vs^'t rzg Ei^^cjjs 


H OftoXoyovfi^ii'Cig ^siroirjrat ffwdrixaq, Oi^oySat r^ 

IixxKrifrla, ■r^ia-(3sig Vhnrdcn ix, 'Ka.^Toin ' A.Sri»atoiv 
ffOTi TTivrs, Tovg ^6 yif^oTov^Sttrixg aToofif/.sIv fA,i}- 
OSfMccy v-ss^fBoXriv Toioufji.&yovg, o'^rou an avra -jniv 
Bavaivrcti ron ^'iXtit-^ov, xoii rovg o^xovg hafHiv 
»( Ttt^ avrou Kcti Sovvcti t>iv Tu^iirrriv ivi rdig 
x{4,oXo-yr!f^'iiiaig ffvv&yixmg airai ^^oc rov 'A^?j- 
vaim h^fion, a'vf^TB^i'Aaf.blSxi/ovTag'f xou rovg ixa,- 
r'i^us rruf/^ijAy^avg. ir^fV/Seis j^id/jcrav EupouXo; 
' A¥a(p\vtrTiog, Aia-^nns Ko^aixthm, K^ri^iiro^aiv 
'PccfivoviTio;, Af}fA,oK^a,r)jg OXueJj, KXi&iv Ko- 


TctUTca ypa.'^oLyTOg if/,ov.TOTB, xat to rjl TOXit 
trvi/.<pspoy, ol) to ^PiXtT'Xaj ^jjtouito?, (i^ayu (p^ov 
Tttrasrsg ol )^pr,ffro\ T^irrfing oZroi xce,SfiVTO^ Iv 
Maxs^ok/a r^iig oXovg (/''jycig, l&ig fiXh ^tXiwrog 

i)(^i^m hixct, (/.SLXkav ^e r^tuy n TSTTUguv, e'lg tov 
EXX^jff-jTO^rok ci<p7^^ce.i xat rot. ^aJ?i'a tru^rai, Xa- 
poyrug rovg o^xoug xpy txiiyoy i^iXity aura* ov 
ya^ Kv ^-xl/aT auTUV TOL^ovrm rif/My,^ !j aix otv 
agxl^of^sv airov, airm riig it^nvi^g ay ht}f/,a.^Trixii 

f /TVfiTfapa^a/ijiai 

\ f.'nfl.!.T 



KUi ovx ait afjLipoTs^a. U)^e, Kai TJ5^ sijutflv »aj to. 

"^X To ^iv Toltuv Iv r^ w§sa'0eia v^wrov x>.s^^« 

atSgii^mv sicu dioig i^S^t toiovtoii tyivBTo' vrtg 
ou *al rare xcu vvv xa) au ofMtXoyu iroKif*.iiii kbu 
iia!pigeirdou tovtoi;, eri^oc & iu6vg e^e^^s sti 
Toi/rou fJ^iiZp* KXKOv^'yfif/.a 8ia,rra,ir6i. iviiiij yk^ 
(W|M.0!r6* rflf s'l^nioiii ^iXi'irwog v^oXa^a/v rijv &fd- 
KTiv oia TQVToug ovyj vtitrdivTUi rai ifAu ^ri<p'i' 
ffi^art, ■za.Kiv iimTat wag' uiruv ovug [/,)] amairi*'^ 
ix yiaxioavtBL^, iui rot rijg trT^ecTsiag'^ rfls" it) 
Toi/i ^uxBui siir^B'Tti iroiriiraiTo, I'liot f^n> ^ei'f 
cfjrayyEfXanTair avrtuv on f/,iKXu xatt wa^a<rxsuct- 
^ireci To^iVKT&at, i^iX&otn^ Vf/-l7g xta) Ti^iwXiv- 
tra-yTig roug T^tri^ifTtv. ilg IluXaf aiffTEg TgOTtgoti 
xXiia-aiTB tov vo^d(/,ov, ahX a-i^ axouoiTt rauTo. 
arayysXXovTm toutcuv xotxETvog tyrog Ufi HyXewv 
xeti fjtnizv i)^oiff Vf/,Eig voi^ircti. outu ill o 0t- 
?.(!rTOf iv <po(Bai xai ^oT^X^ aymia, fi,7i xai rctura 
T^on'kri<poTog ctuTOVj si t^o tov roug ^uxtag avor 
Xitrdcii il'jjipitra.icrSe ^ojjdely [aurol'sj, iKipvyoi t« 
'TtBf/.yiiM.T auTOv, litTTi f/,iirOoiJTCti rov xaTaXTVtrTor 
', ovxsTi xoJtij f^E-ra rut aXXuiv •rgis'piu]/ 

' iiiioXoyijirt. 

+ aTTiiii/jef. 



a.S awTOv, rma.xjTO. t^o; u^ttas sjVsTk 
KTa.yyii'kcLi, ot ii)/ a.Tce,vr aT&iXiro. \ 
'A^(u Ss, u ava^eg ' ASj^vdioi, kbci Oiof/^on rouro 
fiti6f/,v>iir0a.t vfioig Tag' oXov Toy Dfyn/va, on fAri 
Ztt.Tijyog^iras'Tog A'lir^ivou ^r^div sfw r'^g ygcfp^g 
aio ccv lycu Xoyov ovSsva, iTOiov/ZiTjv ste^ov, a.'na.tratg 
a aiTtKig xcti (BXa,ir<p)jfA,ia,ig otf^arourov xs^^TjfAivou 
avkyxri *a.^ol -jcgog sxua-Ta rav xoiTJjyogrif/iSvojv 
ftix^ay dwoxgivotrrdat. 

Timg ovv ijfra.]/ oi wct^a. toutov T^oyot Ton 
ftvTig, xai Si obg aravr a.itwKiro ; ^g oo 
iel" &ogvf?s7(r^ai tu wags>.>j>.vSsva,i ^'iXiTT-ov d'lru 
TlvXoiv iiTTai ya,g a,-?cavff offo, (iov'Kiifff'^ vf^sif, 
sac i)^^ff Ti^uyluv, xa.1 axowtffh ivm n rgwi 
jj|ttE^ftic, Qtg jjjiv ^%^gog ijxsi, <pi7.ov ai/rov ytyt- 
trifiifov, oi; Si piXog, Tovfavriov ly^S^ov. on ya^ 
TO, prifJiara, rccg olxsiorrjTag i(pri /SsjSciiovv, ^.a.>.a. 
ffifiLvug ovofiiOL^iuv, dXXa to TctvTa truf/.<pigiiy' 
trvfitpi^iiv 3s 0;X(Wai xcu ^Mxevin xoci C/f/Jiy 
ofjLOiug a.'jrcctrt Trig anaXyrirriag xai T^g pct^uTTirog 
a,vaX7\ay)iva,i T^g Tm Stj^aiaiii. tuutcx, S' a- 
fffiivaig Tivsg nxovov xvTOiJ Six Tri» t'o8 vTovfray 
texi'^aet.v Tgog Tovg Qripctiovg. ti ovv iruvipyj 
jLiTO. TOUT ivSug, oiix sig f^otx^ut J Tovg ^iv ra,~ 
Xeeixaf^ou; OnJXEa; aToXitr^ai xai xa.Ta.a-Ka<pTiyai 

rag •uro'Kitg avraiv, vfieti 6 fiiru^iav ctyBf/osTai 
Kai TOVT&i viKrHvTai; fiux^ov uuTt^or trx-iuocyiwym 
ix ra/v ay^m, roZrov OS y^virtov XapBtv, xcll en 

ouf xeti Q&TTaXovg rij ■jroXsi yssser^ui* riiv is 
ytn^iv rriv uwi^ rm wtT^uyfJi-tmii ^ihfjrr&i. on 
ovrai TOUT iy^ii, xiyi f^ot to n rov KaXX*- 
trSivovg ■^npiirfi.a x.a.i t^v Ixta-Tcih^v ttiv tov ^t- 
}\i'7nrov, l^ m a.^(poTi^m Tdvff kva.\i§ iif/AV nrrai 


Ext MnjfTi^p/xoy a^^ovTog, trvyxX^TOV exxX^- 

a-ictg v^o iTT^a.Ty,ytii)i;g, Xctl ■jr^VTamuv xai 
(souXTJg yvufjbyj, ^Ktf/,axTti^iZ»og htxa-T^ cfTrtovTog, 
Yi.a.'KKiirSivtig "F.TiQvUou '^aXif^iig ejVs fi.rihiva 
' ASrivaiuiii ^riOiiAia, •^rct^iu^itnt iv t? 5;»^? x<htouov 
ytyviir6a.i aXh m ccittsi xai Usi^aisi, oirot f/,^ tv 
Toig (pgou^ioig s'ltrtv ixTOTSTa,yf/,ivor tovtuh o ixa- 
iTTOug, 7!v '7ra^%Xa,Qov Ta^iv, SiciTri^siy f/^rjTS u^ri- 
^losvoi/Tag fx,rjTi dvoxoiTOVVTag. og S' av KwuOiia-^ 
TM^s TM -^priiplfff^aTi, iyo)^og 'itrToj Toig rng T^- 
ooiriag iwiTif/,(oig, lay f^n ti d^vvaroV^ iTtouKyuii 
TS^i lavTOv Of xs|( OS Tou dStivxTov i'jriK^inTai 
* yfyji'ij^Odi. + ff£[)i he Tov n&vytiTDi/. 


irsmg koll o y^cifAfAaTivg rriq pouXng- xuTaKOf^i^un 
oe KKL TO. ix. Titiv dy^uv xatra ttjv Tay4iTTyiv, to, 
fi,tii ivTog CTfto'iQiv txarov sixoiriii slg arrTV kbli 
Yitt^aiS,, TOt h\ E«Tof fTochlan ixarov bikoo-iii sk 
'E>LBua-7va xctl OwX^c xal "ApiSmt »cd 'Faftr- 
vovvTU xal '^ovviov. Sitti K.ct\}^nr8siir;g ^'a^jj^suf. 

' A^' Ewt ravrctig Tcug iXwtin ttiv sl^^vtjii iTotii- 
ffSi, Ji ravr k-TCtiyyiWiS vf/AV ouTog a fA.ifrSsDTog ; 


^KfTtXivg M.axi^ovm ^'tT^nrTog 'A^Tivaiuv rtj 
/3ovX^ xal Toi ifSfMi yoci^itv. iffrt tifiag -ra^i- 
X^'Au&OTaf iia-u UvKoiv xon tcc kocto, rrjv ^ux'tha. 
. u<p \a\iTovg\ Tivotrii/.ivavg, xat aira, ^iv ixoviriaig 
wgoirsTidiTO rm ToKurf^turaiv, ip^ou^ag s't/rayfjo^o- 
Tctg [s*5 ayra], ra Ss f/,ri uTctxovovra xuraxoei- 
Tog ^.a^oyrsg xcci i4ayo^cKroOtcrcifi,svoi xan^xd- 
■>^,BV.^ axoveDii ol xou vf/,ag To^aiTKiud^Btr^ai 
/So>i^{)v ctiiTo7g yiy^ix.<pa, yjiwv, iva f^tj i-rt ^J^sroc 

" i-KJiyyiiXftlf , 


rag ToXsig aiivm, iifJMi; h' iitrvyncv a,ya.yavTccc 

SK rm dy^aiv, toutov Ss ^^virtov 7.af3ih, xai in 

nvg Ko-t ©jTraXouj rri xoXsi yiviffSai, mv oe 

3' olira rauT i%n-, >Ayi i^at ro n rov KaXXc 
trStyoug ■•^vjipicrfji.a, xui ttiv tTia-roX^v rnii Toa <!>(- 

(pBCIIEgCt. Xiyi. . 

Yjti Mvjjfnfpi^of a^yavTog, irvyxKriTOV e««Xj)- 
irtctQ vTTo iTT^ciTsjyaiii yifof/.ivfig, XU.I ■jr^uranuv xui 
0ov}\ni ymf/,r„ fA,a.tfLa,xTti^tm6? Ssxctn^ aviovrog, 
KaXXiffdivtis "FjTeovi'xou Q>a,Xf!^svg siVe ftLtiotna. 
' A6)ivaim fA.?jhft,ia. xa^iv^iiru iv t^ ^»f« xoirecio* 
ylyvirrSoLi dxx' kv S.ern xa.i Hii^ix.iii, ocdt fAtj Iv 
To7g (p^ov^ioif eJfffv a,TOTBTayfj.iyoi- rauroiv utar 
rrravg, tjv wa^iXtx.^ov tcc^iv, ^lari^^siv ^^rs a,(pr!- 
pts^svovTctg f^fiTE aToxotTOVvrag. o; i' ac aTuSiia-^ 
ToiSe 7ai -i^Jt^ipia-fAun, ho^og ta-ru roig rng x^- 
(Sorriag £mTif/,ioig, ian jati Tt a,^u\ia.Tov\ i-!riiu»i>vij 

TSgl SCtUTOV Of -ri^t Si TOU aSvVOCTOli ECi«fit>ST« 
* yiytvuirdai. + x£pi It row aZuvaTOv. 


mag kcci o y^aiAf^anvg rng (iouXng- xaraxof/.l^Bin 
if KIX.L ra. ix rm a.y^m ■jtuvto. rriv Tay^ltrrnv, ra 
fbfv ivTog a-TxSla)v ixarov s'txotnv uq dim xau 
Un^Kici, rei ol sxrof frTa,o'tai» ixaroy el'xo/riv iig 
EXsvffTva »ai f^vXiiv xai ' A^tOtav xai 'Vatf/y 
^tovvToc xai "iovviov. stTs Ka?,X((r^£f)j; ^otXti^sv;. 

Ag iTl TELVTCtig TCtig iXXIITi TtjH il^TjtnV iVoiE?- 

ff^e, h To-VT Ivriyy'i'KKiS Vfuv outoc i fA,iirSairo% ; 

EmrroAH (PiAinnoT. 

^otinKiig ^ctxt^ovm ^/Xiirn-Of ' KSntvat'iaiv rii 

/3oyXp XOCt TO) OrifAOl yOLl^ilV. IffTS ilf^KS VUpt' 

XtlXvSoTat Utrai TlvXwv xai tcc xblto, t>}v ^a>KiSoi 
. vip' kavTOugl^ TB7roitif/,ivovgy xou oira, ^ev Ixouiriais 
w^oa-enSiTo rm ■roy^ia'f^UTW, ip^ov^ctg tiirctytjoj^o- 
rag [s'lg auraj, ra ^l f/,?i VTaxouovTO. xaraxfa,- 
Tog Xa^ovng xai i^a.iio^a7rootiriifi,svoi xccTi^xu- 
i^cic[/.iv.^ axovm Z'i xou vf^ug wa^a.irxsvk^itrdcu 
^or,6i7v avraig yiy^oupa vf/Av, ivx f^r; i-ri t7.uov 

i miriwiroij'ncrac. 


IvoyX^rrdi ■Trs^i rovnaV roTg f/.h yap oXoig OvSh 

Kcti ofjLoiiug di/Tfra^e^dyovTSg, km ravTa ovoi 
trvi/.Tri^iii'Kr,i/.fLivui ruv <t>axim Iv -rex-Tg Kondig 
rifjwii ffSJV^TiKatg. urrn ictv fi,?; ifj,fj,i»>iTi To7g a/fjLO- 
XoyJIftSVO/J, OvSh T^OTS^tltrSTS s|ftl TOV i<pSa,Kivou 

T^og vfA,dg iVifTToK^ w^og roug iolutou trv[A^a~ 
yovg^ on " raura syai ■nTrot/jKU a.KorTo/y A^Jj- 
nouan xcu TLVTrov/jLium, uitt iiTi^ tii ip^omre, ai 
S7i(Baejoi xcx.) &STTaXoi, rovTovg f^tv ly^S^ovg viro- 
'k^-^tirSi, Ifio) Oi ■^irmus-iTi" ov rovroig To7g pri- 
fA.cnrt y^cf^ag, Taxira, oi (iov'kof^Eiiag Sttuvuvai. 
Toiya^ovv \k rovrm fy^STO IxBivovg Xa^ai/ sig to 
f^t!$' OTiouv '^^oo^cf.v Tuv f^srct rucvra f/.i^h' a.'i- 
irSa,viir6cn, aXK iairai wavra to. ■^gdyfji.aru 
iKElvof vip' iavrai wotrjo-au-dar ef div roCig wa,go6- 
trctig (rtJfL(po^a7g ol TotXa'tTOii^oi xi^^ni/rai. o i% 
TKUTfig Ttjg TtiTTiug auTU Tvus^yog xai irunx.yai- 
vnrrrig xai o osv^' d-JrotyyiiXag to, -^sv^^ xcit 
(pivaxttrctg vf/,ag oOrog iiTTtv o to. Qt^jSaim oSt/eo- 
f^Eiiog vvv Toi,d?i xai au^i^n aig olxr^a,, xcii toutuv 
Kcu rat ill ^cux£vtrt xctxait xoii o(t uXXk wswovBbl- 




ydg on a-v f^iv aXyslg It) roJg irvfJi.l3s(3nx6iTiv, 
A-'iiry^lvt!, xa.i TOi/s ©l/Sa/ouj iT^iiit;, Krfiy.a,T i-j(aiv 
iv T^ BofoiTia. xa.) yiu^ym to, ixiUm* lya Ss 
jjai^ai, Of iudvg i^^rovf^tiv uwo rov TdUTci ir^a- 
^avTos. 'AxXa ya^ ifMTS-prra/xa. sig Xayovg, oil 
etVTixa f^aXXov iffaig a^fMirii Xsysiv. ixoc^eif/.i Stj 
vaXiv im rag ctTodsi^uc, ag ra Tourm ccSik^- 
fdUcTBt TOiv vwt ■^aoovTm T^a.yfJi.fx.Tm yiyonv aiTta. 

^tXiirrov Ota TdCrm tuv ev reCtg T^sirjSeictig 
f/:,Kr6iii{j-avriu)/ iavrovg xa.) ovom aXriVig vf^7v aTcty' 
yiikmrotf, s^JiTdrfivTO 5e ol TotXtn'iToi^oi ^!uxiig'\ 
xai ctv^^nvTO al froXEi; avTcvf, n lytvtro ; ot f/,iv 
xaTctTTviTTOi QiTToc'Koi xcii dvctiird?!Toi Qfi^aioi 
fiiXoi/, ivi^yiTTiv, traiTii^a. rov ^iXiwoy Tiyovrro' 
rdsr ixsivog ijf avroTg- olSl (poivriv rixovov, ii rig 
ahXa Ti ^ovXoiTO Xtynv. vf/^iig hi u(po^ajf/,iyoi 
ra ■riT^ayfjtiva. ko) aua-^i^oirtvovrig ny&Ti ti)v 
ti^riVTiv of^aig' ov yag fiv o ti ecu ixOiiiTS fMvoi. 
KUi Ot a>.\0i li "EXXjjvs?, if^Qiaig ii{MV ■^i<piva.- 
Knr(/.ivot xa,i Oi^j^a^rjjxoVe; m tiXirttruv, riyov t^* 
il^tivfin cttriAHiot, xui aVTOt r^ovov Tma, ix toXXow 
roXsf/.ovf^,evoi, on yag Tsgtiav o ^iXiwog IX- 
j^y^iouf xed Tf//3«XXoyf, rira; H xai rm 'Ex- 


Xtiiiaiv xaTEiTT^i^sTO, xai Sv\ia,y,sig TOAKag xai 
fj-sydXag ixon~iff tup' lavru, xotl ring tuv Ix tuii 

ixiim SiE<pdsi^ovro, uv sig obrog iiv, tots wdvTSe, 

si St 

M ■ 

BTi^og Xoyos ourog, ov t^os 

xou ira.g ufJAV as) xat oxot •!rEf/,<p0eifiv at Si TO- 
?.ttg iiiofrovv tuv f/.iv iv t^ voXiTEVsirSat xai t^xt- 
Tuv O'ji^oQoxouvTm xai SiKtpdsigof^Eym tTi "X^n- 
f/,ix,iri, r<i]\i fii Wtmrm Koti ■roXX^i' ra fA,iv ov t^o- 



TJj xail rifA.i^civ pus-ray^ xa< 

iTj^oXri asXsa^of/,iyoiiv, 
■xaydoTm aTayruy, -tt'Ktis ovx t<p' tavTovc iKaoTuv 
oiofj,ii/aiv TO Siiyov 'r,^iiy, aWa, ^lot, rav ire^uv 
xivouvmy to. iecvrm ce.rr(pa,Xtug <T-^trtiv, "^oto-v pot/- 
Xwn-a*. ejV <il^a,i trvf^^t^rixe rotg fj^iy ■K'Kn8iiny 
ayrt r^g woXX^s xott a.xa,i^au pa^vfjciag rjjy sKfu- 
^tgieiy ctTToXuXixevai, To7g Se •s'^osffrrixotrt xai 
raXXa. a-^jfc lavrovg oiopLSvoig ToiKiiy ir^aroug 
sauroug ■JTS^^axotriy uttrSiir6cct' avri ya.^ CpiKan 
xa.) ^sy&iv, a tote i/yoyM^ovTO, rivtxa, EOcu^oooxouy, 
my xoXaxtg xat dtoig ^XiH^' **' '""^^' ** "^^orrTi- 
xEi TavT axovoufTiv. sixoraig. ouSs]g yi§, ^ otya^sg 
' ASrivaioi, ro Tou T^oh^oyTog irvfA^pi^ov C/It'^* 


y^rifi^T cLvaXifTKii, 

KVglOg yiVTjTBtl, Til) 

y.oiXeDV iTi y^^DTai' oudsf 
■fTt^oy T^oooTov. bXA' avx itrrt Tavrct, ovx. stn-i" 
, -a-oWov yi xai h7. aXX' Ivsi^ar ran 
>^fa.y[/,a.Tuy eyx^ctrrj? o ^fjToiv a^y^uv xarctg-T^, 
■itai rm ravra ctTroSof^ivaiv Sso'TOTt^g iirTi, rnv hi 
wovtigictv sloeng tots on, tots x,ct,t f^iffu xcti dmrTTsi 
Itai T^oiTjjXax/^ei. rrKOTiiTS oe" xai ya^ el t«^£- 
X^Xuf'iV ToJii T^oe.yfA.a.TMv xkj^o;, o tou yi iiiinai 
uauTo. xai^og asi Tru^iirri To7g su tp^ot/oviri. 
'f'^XS' '^'*^'^°^ A.a(!-6ivnQ (piXos a)VOf/-a,QBTO ^iX'fTr- 
vov, iug ir^oihuiKiV OXufSov' f^s^^t toutou Ttf^o- 
Xaog, i&>g a.'^tuKiffi 0^/3a?" jM.s%3( toutou ^i/iixog 
KEti "^TfLo; 01 Aa^iirctiot, tug QsTTaXiav vto 0(- 
X'limcii imoi/ia-av. sit lXK,vvof/.iym xctt v^gi^o- 
/jt-svaii/ x.a.1 Tt xBcxof ouy^i ■ra.trj^^OfTuy vaira ij 
oiftovf/,iv}i f^sffTfi yzyovs t^ooot^v. ti 'A^iW^a- 
'j iixvaii'i, Kcci TI JJi^iKaog ty M.eyu^eig ; 
leVK airEppif^f/.ivoi i e| aif xcu troi(()iffTa,T a\i Tig 
I loot OTt f/.a.XifTTix. pvXa,TTiuv Ttiv iavTou -^aT^iaa 
TXeitTTa ayriXiym Tovroig, ouTog Vfuv, A.\- 
L ry^ivfi, To7g w^oSiooum xai f/,iir6a^vov(ri to \yiiy 
\ i(f> oTw iaiPoSoxtsasTE Tsgi-roisi, xai ita Toug toK- 
\}t,oug ToUTOug xai rovg civQurTa^ivoug rolg vftiSTf 

* avodtcofuyii 

^oig ^ovX7if/-a(rtii vf/.eig urn iruioi xai sfL^i/r^oi, 
iTi) Old ys uf^ag avrovg -rdXai ccv dvohaXeiTC. * 
Kai TS^/. f/.tf Toiv TOri 7r^a^6siiTa)ii sy^av in 
Toy^Xa. Xiysiv, xai rocura. tjyouf^cci tXeiih rir 
'mavav el^^trSctf, etirioi h' mitttq, »We^ tai'Aoxga.- 
iriaii Tita fA.ov rtjg woyij^ias Trjg tavroZ kbll rm 
d^ixriiiATtu)! xarafTKiSdirag, ^c di/ecyxciiov fin xpoj 
Toug t/idiTi^ovg Toiv TriT^a.yf/.ii^m aToKua-OLffSai, 
wex^Tim^XntrSi Ot xat y^M-sTs irrojc, ol xoci t^Iv kfiX 
imiiv OTiOuv iloQTig rrjv tovtou tots [j!,itr&ix,^nu¥. 
xa-'tTot (fnX'tav ys xa,i ^ivlav o-vt^v Oio[/.d^si, xai 
vvit u-jri TTou Xiym " o riiv ' AXs^dvi^ov ^sstetv 
omii^oiv ifMi'i'' iyu trot ^svictv 'AXe^dv^povi 
vodiv Xee,/3ovTt jj ira; d^tuHvrt ; ovts ^iXiwot/ 
^hon'f OUT ' AXb^kvS^ov iplXoiiJ^ BiTOtyJ dv syai ffs, 
ou^ ovroi fcaifOfii'Cti, si f/,ri xa.i Tovg de^tiTTag xai 
Tovg a.XXo ti f/.iO'^otJ -x^dTToVTag <pl7^ovg xoU ^s- 
vovg hii xaXiiv tuv (/.tirdsuffeif^svaiv. dxx' oiix 
iiTTt TKUTO,- ■TTO&iv ; ToXXov ys XBti Ss7. dXXot 
fjuKT^uTOy iyai trt ^iXi^tov •jt^qts^ov xcci tvn AXe- 
^dvi^ov xaXZ, xai ouroi TdnTig, ii 3' dxnTTsTg, 
i^uTJiTov avTovg. f/.d,XXov iyu rovS uws^ treu 
■jTotTiir&i. xoTi^ov ufMv, u oi,vh^ig ' ASriVciioi, ioxel 
fLitrSwTog Ata^tt^q n |stos tivcu 'AXs^dv^gov ; 
dxovug d X%youfrtt. BoliXO|U.«j toUvv jjo^ xai 

* a7^o^(u\a^t &■ oJro\uiX7|r( 

t ?..A, 



[ 9ri^i Trig 'y^'^'P'ii avrtig d'ToXoyritra.ffSa.i 
eis^O.Siiv ra, wsT^ayf^iv l^avra}, ha, xkjVe^ 

I trt T0V7m otii^iaiv oixaiog iivat Tuyya-vuv. Kai 
I jU>0( Xiyi TTiv y^a<piiii ctuTtivf Xa/3a/v. 


liffTa^Efoy, AKT'^ivfig ' A.T^of/.riTov Ko^afXid>i? a.'ir- 

^ilHyxi T^OQ TO* K^^ovTo. wct^DCvo {Lus y^tx<pr,v xctrcc 

wUrriiri^iivTOi rov A-imirSivovt AtaipXviTTtou, on 

ty^a-^S •^a.^a.soj/.oy ■^ri(pKri^a, aig a,ga ou ffTi- 

^ct.mira.1 An^otrSn/Tiv Ar;f/.o<rSii/ovg Hatavna, ^fv~ 

ffa (r7t<pBbm, xai ai/ayo^svirai iv tu Szar^o) Aio- 

vuirioig To7g (/.lyaXoig, r^ayuioig xuimg, oti 

enCpBLvai o ^i^^og Arii^offSivt^v Anf^offhvoug Haia- 

. «sa )^v(ra/ im^oLvai a^ETtig svexct, xai tuvoioiq 

I If iy^MV ^tobTiku iff re Tovg EiKXtivag aTavrag 

rov i^f/,ov Tov ' AStiskiiuv, xa.) ctvi^ccyct^lag, 

I xai SioTf ^ictreXei t^uttuv xai Xiym ra (i'iX- 

a rZ oi]^m xai T^odvf/,05 iffrt -jcoiuy rt ay 

Vevt?iTai ayaSov, vavra, ravra ■4'*"^^ y^a-^ag 

m^at 'jrapavofAa, rm tofji.aiv ovx iaii/raiv T^uron f/.iy 



iJ/if^sTf ypa^g eh to, otif/^<ritx, y^kf/^fMLra, «,ou- 

is A>!fiQffdsiiri? TSi^fyjroios xa.) It) ru ha^izu* 
TtrayfASnoi), 'in i\ f^n avayo^sustt rov a-r'itparot 
it Tu $ta.7^6i Aiowiricis r^otyaiSaiv t^ xxm^, aXX' 

coeiTslv, iocv Oi ^ -jroXig, tv Uvxvi Iv rjj ixxXTstrm. 
Tif/,r!f/,ct TCiXctvTct xiVTrixovTO., xX^ro^Ec'j' Kijipi- 
iro'piay KTjipiiToipa/yTog 'Paf^yosJtriOS, K.XiQiii KXEwru; 

'A f/,tv OiaxBi Tou tl'Ti<pi'irf/,aTog, a arigs^ 
"A^ffva7oi, TotvT ttrrty. iya ^ avr ccutuv rourm 
x^aiToy oiy.a.t oriXoy vfuy TOin/rnv on Tavra 
OtKaiii? aToXoy^a-ofiKi' Tijv ya^ air^v tovtm 
xoirjirct^syog rmv ysy^a.f/,f^tiim roc^iy Ti^i travriui 
e^aj x.a^ ixarrroy l<pi^r,g xx) ov^iv Ixa/v -ra^it- 
Xii-^ai- rov'!^. f/^sv ouv y^a-i^ai 'pr^aTToyra xa) Xe- 
yovra, Ta ^sXtiittx /as tw ^nf^ai SiariXtiv xeu 
Tfo^U|Mrf)r s(Va( xotiiy o rt ay hiiyu(/,a.t ayaSsy, 
xoLi nroLivuv exi Touroig, iv To7i ■rre'iroXiTSVfAevois 
rr,!' x^iffty Bi'vat^ yofii^iii' kiro ya^ TOVTuy t^era- 
(^oiiiyciiy sv^effrjirsTat, uts kX^dri ^rs^) ifM)u yt- 
ypa,(pi K.Tfiirt(puv ravru xai T^o/rrixovra sirs xai 
i//Etj3^' TO ot fA,ri x^oa-y^k'^a.yToi. " ewsjoac ra{ 

* rilH- btlllplKlltV . "t nAlJTTjpiC- 1 TO. § fO'OI /10(. 




roil a-TStputOf jceT^iutrai, xoiv&tviiy fi,iy ?iyouf/,cti xixi 
TovTo Toig wsToXiTevf/.svois, urt a^iog eif/,i tou 
vri<pa.>ou X.BU rr,g a.i/uppritri&ig rrig sv rottrot; iiri 
mai {Lrj, Wi f^ivroi xa) tovs vof/iOvg oitxTtot a'tai 
fU)i ooxii, XDtS oug ravra y^a.<piiv l^r/v tout^. 

OwTsw) f/Xv 61 avS^sc 'A&nvaioi OiKaisjg xctt 
aTX&ig riiv KTroy^oy'inv tyvaixcc -TTOtitirdai, f3cthoviA,a( 

Ii' W avra u 'jriT^ccKTai f/^oi. kcli /ls jiMjotif vwo- 
>«pjj awa^raii rov 'koyov rijg ygu<p7ig, lav Ei{ 
^EXKrivixag -r^a^ug xai \oyoug fpreo-ftt' o yag 
■ituxaiy TQv li^ntpiirpLarog to Xsyny xai ir^amt* 
ret a^itrra, (Lt xou yey^apLf^svog ravra ug oix 
oKfjSji, ovTOg liTTtv a tow; Ti^t dltclvtmv thiv SfA.ot 
^E'jroXiTsvf/.ii/m T^oyovg oixtioug xcti ayecyxuiovf 
*"7 VS^^'T ^E^oixais. iiTcc xat woXKuv T^oai^t- 
asai) owZv TTJg •xoXiTBia.g Tfif ■^Sf ' ra? 'EXXjjuixaf 
Tfa|Bif slKof^tif iyci, aim xa.\ rkg dwoiii^eig 
ix rovTm hUaiog e'lfii ■xoiHo'Sai. 

A jM-Ev aav Tpo Tov ■jToXiTivsirBai xal o)j,«.)j- 
yo^iiv i{j-i -z^otjXafBi xui xarta-y^e '^IXiTTog, 
taa-u- ouOiv yk^ ^yavj/Mt Tourmv sivai w^og lu,t' 
« a aip rjg tif^e^ag I-tt) ravTCC Its/ttt^v lyu OH- 
xuXCSri, raZra, ix,va.(i,vr,a'i>i xctt rovraiv v<p'i^ia "Koyov, 
Toa-ouTov v-jTHTm. 'rXsotixTTjfji.a. u avi^sg ' A@n- 
* turn TOVTO. + rijc ypo^rj':- 


"K?.Xfi<riv, oit 7-i(rh dXXa, ■jtS.itiv ci[j.6iqic, (po^Kv 7r§o- 
ioTaJf xcci ^m^a^OKoiv no.) hoig s^S^aiv <x.iiS^iUTa> 
irvvi^t) •ysviirda.i'f TOffciuTfiv, o/rfiy o'viiig irai 't^ots^o¥ 
f/.sf/,iinTtx,i yiyovvidv ohg trvvaycDi'iimx.g xcti (7Uv- 
e^yovi Xa/3<uii xcti T^on^ov xctxug tov; "EXX^jvae 
ij^Ofrag x^o; nxvTovg xeci frruiTiciirTixaig tri 
y^Ci^av iii&TiXi, Tciug fjLiv i^a.Tra.Toii', roig Si SiSovg, 
Tfujg Je ■xkvra. t^o-ttov ^laipSii^m, xcti SieffTtiiTit 
I'lg f^i^T! ■JToklka, ivog rou irvf/.ipt^oiTog a'^atrtv otTOi, 
xtuXviiv ixiivov fA,iyav yiyviffSat. iv rotacvrj^ at 
xuTa/rraa-ei xa.) in dynoia, tov ffviitfrrct,[ji,tvov xm 

rrxoTTEiv vf/,ag, u avO^ig ' Adrjsatoi, ti t^o/t^xov t.v 
iXia-dai Tgetmiii xai 'jroiHv rris ■zoXiv, xai tovtuv 
Xoyav ■-ra^' s^oo Xa/3e7v o ya.o ivTuv^ct lavTov 
Tu^ag Tfjg ^o>.iTiitx,g ilf^i iyai. 

a.'^Hrrot.v xal Tfiv a^lan ttiv aurns e* T^ ©erraXiif 
xct) ^o'KoTm TCLZU suyxa.ra.xta.tTda.i ^iKixirt» t^v 

xoCt iixaiu. dvai^uv i ^ toi/to (a.\v (mi wonlii, iuvcn 
ya^ ug dXtjSaig, a. ^' iu^a. a-ufj.l3!itrofAeva, si fj,tih)s 
xmXutrii,'!!^ xa) •7rpoi^ , wg soixst, sx ttoXXov, ■ 

TUUTU TE^IlOlJv yiytOfjLBllfX- ; 

* ''"'SpX'' ^ yc'iadat i,qi. t cuXuoai. 

'AxXa vuii iyaiyi tov f:(.a.\nrTa itriTif^aivTa rots 
I wiir^ayfjjivoig tioiag av i^oif^tiii, r?f Tolai f/,e^iaos 
lyrstiir^ai rtjn 'jroXiv i^ouXsr* cLv, cro're|oc r^f o-yK- 

r eUTtUi TUV (TVfApSpjJKOTa/V Toii "EXXjJfTi HOtKUV 

I Kcci KiiT^^ir, ijg ai/ ©srraXouc xa.) Tovgf/,tTa. tov- 

' Tun wjroi Ti%, n Tijg ■JTS^isai^a.Kviag rccZra, ytyvofjcsva 

' (5r) Tj; Tr,Q lOiocg ■xTi.sovs^ictg eXmSi, ^g av' A^xaSag 

Ko,) Ms/rs-tjviovg xa) 'Agysioug hitiasv. oiXXix. xa) 

T0VT6JV ■JToKko'i, fJi.oiX'kov h\ ■sa.vrig, ^Bi^ov rju-aiii 

a^r{k'Kay^a,(Tii, xat ya^ s'l f^iv aig ixpecTTstn 0(- 

. Xt^vrog f)^ST svOvg utioiv xa,) [/.sto. ravr ijytv tiirv- 

j^tai/, fjLyjTS rm aurou a-vfi.f.oi^iiii/ f^tjTS rm a'K'Km 

'^KXiiveiiv f^TjOiva //.rihls Xv^rriirag, o^»e ftv at rig 

Kara rtiiv \mx\ ii/avriuSsvTm'f oig iT^arrsv ixUvog 

f^ift-T^'ig xa) xaTr,yo^ia- i'l il ofLOicug aToiiiTuv to 

Ct^iai^a, T};v riyii/,o\tiav, rriv IXiv&s^la'j ws^isiXsro, 

I fuiKXov Oi xa) rag ■ro'KtTiiag, otraiv Ti^vvaro, ^rajf 

I ou^ a^avrmv 'voo^orara uf/.s7g i^ovXsv/rair^E ifio) 

vtiirdivTig ; ' ATO^ ixsiin i%avi^-^o[i,ui. r'l rrtv^o- 

Xjt, AlffyjvTj, ^goir^xe voisTv d^^fjv xa) Tupamha 

I Tuv 'EJ\'KriVi))i a^uirav Ictvrai xaruffxtva^oi^isav 0(- 

1 XiTTOVj h ri Tov iruf^^ovKov e^£i Xiytir ^ y^d.<pei> 

I TOV ' ASijiinfft)) ifA,i (xaJ ya^ tovto ■!r\i7frrcii ha- 

(pEjSf), hg (Tuvriisii^ fiXs Ix -rairog rev p/fotoi> 

^^XiS' '""^ ni^-i^ot? SXilVtjg, a.ip tig auTog im to 
/SiJ^a dvs^tjv, «£( Ti^f ir^uTttaiv xai rif^?j( xeti 
io^fig ayaivito[LS\>riv ttiv -xar^'i^a, xa.i xXe/ai xui 
a-aifJuOLra xat ^^fif/^etrct ainx.Xaix-uTce.ii'f vti^ (piXori- 
ficlag KKi tSv wafft fTuf^cpe^ovTm ^ rm aXXaiv 
'%KXnvmy ws-i^ clutcuv ctvaXaixa/riv skciittoi, iai^am 
3' aiiTQV rof ^iXf!nrov, T^og on fjv rijJAy o d-y^n, 
v-Tn.^ d^'xfiz ««' huva.fr7va.g rov o^^aXf/jOr ixKi- 
KOfz-f-EKiv, Tfjv xXiiv xarsctyoTot,, ttih ^sfgci, to trxe- 
XoQ ^e'lTj^^stif^hov, wav Ttl^ povXti^^eir; fz-i^og h TV^rj 
TOV ffojfiarog TU^sXia-Dcci, tovto [paoic^g xai l-roi- 
f/,ii/g\ w^oiif/,2i/Oj/, aim rZ XoiToi ^etk riuLTJg xa) 
oo^K? ^>' "»' l^^i<' o^oi TOVTO yi ou^st; uv 
iiirfiv ToXf/,^irsnv, &/g tw /aev iv TliX'K)^ T^a^ivri, 
%!^^i^ cioo^oj TOTS yt ovn xai f/.iK^ai, ToirauTHV 
fj^iyaXo-^uj^tuv ■jr^orr^Xiv lyyiviffSat, uffrs rrg 
rm 'EXX^viui' oio^rig Ixidvf/.liffct.i xa) tout tig 
Ton \i6vv sf/,l3a.Xsa-Sai, vfMV $' ovtyn 'A^tjutioii 
xcti xara Ttjn hf^t^ct)/ ixodrTfiv in iroitri xcti Xoyoig 
xai ^Bm^riLCCta-i^ rrig toiv T^oyovaiv K^STJjg iixofivri- 
f/,aff ogaitrf TOffauTT,!/ xatxtav vtclp^o-l, utTTt tjij 
Tiuv ''E.'KKrimv iXsudtgiag auTiTayyiXTOug iSeXov- 

Aof^on Tomuv r,i/ xat mayxoAov af/.ci, -raa-iv 

• "/ >IQ- t ("■'A'"*.'i"ai'. I Ti ay. § dicifxiiat. 



iiKalug, rovr sttoisTtb (/,iv vfAstg s^ ct^x.^? sixotos 
XBti -TT^otryiKovraic, iygcapov is xat trusifiov'Kivov 

Xoyoi. aKXa rl ty^fi* f^s Totsiv ; ^St; yct^ tr 
i^tura, TaiiTet raXX' a^slg, ' AfitpiToXiv, Huivaii, 
TloTiOciia!/, ' AXonv/irrov ovoivoi rourm f/.if^ii?!f/,ar 
^ippiov 3b xcci Ao^iiTKOv xaL rriv XisTa^riSov 
vo^6riffiv xcti Off aXKa, rotixvrct, ri ToXig TiSiKrjTO, 
\OvS g; yiyoviv oioet. xatrot tru y i 
.ravTct Xtyovra sig i^Sguv if/.foaXiiv 
Ev(Bo6Xov xcti ' A§iirTO(pmTog xai Aio-rsi&ovg rm 
Xi^i Tourm i^ri<pt(rf^a.7a>v oiituv, ovx IfjLm, Z xiyuv 
eb^ioaig o ri av (iovXriSrig, olis tvv ■ttb^l toutoiv 
igai. blXX' rriv Eti'/Soiav Ixslvog (r(psTigt^i/,ivog 
KUl XCtTOLfTXiVa^euV iTlTEf^KTfJ.a Itt) t^v 'Arr/x^i', 
xa) Miya,^oig tmy^et^m, xa.) Kara>,(ia.vo)v 
n^£oc, xcci xarufrxoiTTOiv Ylog&fi-ov, xui xctdia-Tag 
iv fiiv 'life* (^iXia-Ti^Tiy Tuganav Iv h' '^sTglu, 
K'ASiTag^ov, xce.) rov ' KXXfirrvoyro!' tj<p' lavrai'Y 
V'iiaviJ.svag, xa.) Qv^mriov iroXiogxniv, xat icoXitg 
'^XXrinhag «.g fAv avat^m, s'lg «;J 3e rovg (pv- 
ya^ag xa.Ta.ym, ttots^ov ravra, -uraiTO, towv 
ij^ixii xa.) Tcx^s/rvovoii xcti IXvs T^iv i\grjvri> ^ ov ; 
xcti woTipov ^affjvai nnx, tqiv EXX^jnaiy toi> ravrct 
Trai- i;-i. t t1>' iuvru. J 



3ui>jt«vrra. xuu* awrw tyr^n* « /^; i 

'^^Jtia. eZs-a* o^i^nu ?jiwnM 'AA puu' o mtu 
SwTMt, Tifiiiiff-yoff^ftai pA» iytt -rt^t norw artm, 
xegniffyarroi S ii •xi>ai n TUf^wwt tftatt tmt 
St aisxiiiJUtTa Toarret et viT^axrat sou ifbo^tir 
fiura IfLou u ii iou rudc nvraw K«Aim|» for 
Mgnu, nW a>.Xot | to* ' AAtpalttt ^/u* rgornrnfY 
ytna^eu ; ravra rotttn c^nXtrEoaeui* tyti, xai 

XOti y.tyi l^i%r,%- k-ra yao ravrv> i^trci^tifiitin. 
Tig rmi airto? ivri, yittf^rrai ^ais^M. }.iyt. 


iX3ckr,irias irwyxXriTov vro ffr^arzyi* e^viayr^fiwia, 
Ev^swXoj 'Shy,iTi6iou KCxgto; sirey, inii^ xmt- 
riyyuXav oi a-r^aTtiyot in rp tKKXr.fia in dfet 
\.tiiioix,[Aa.vTCL'\ ray vaCo^yys xcu ra f^tr cu/nv 

5 N,., 

t r-poaticii. J rpofffftu. 

aTatrraXivra. iTKa,(pn SiKoiriv sot tijv tou trirav 

/TTPXTti'yog A.fiiViira,g x.ocTot.'yrio'viv e'lg Mctjcsooviav 

xaJ Tovg iTT^a.Tfi'yoig, owmg ri (^ovK^ trvvaySuiri 

•^K^ctyivouuifoi SiaXs^oVTcti T^og avrov irs^i tov 
api6riiix.i roil vavao^os'j' xai t« TKo7a kixi roug 
a-rgccTi^rai. xa) t't fLiv Si ayvotav raura Ti- 
voItjksv 'Afj.uyTetg, oti ov ^if^i^if^oi^E7 o Sijf^og 
ouisv tt,UTu- i'l ^i Ti ■jtXij f/,f/,sXovvTa, Ta^ct rot, Wb- 
(TTotXf/.ivoi.'^ XafBuv, oti Iwio'Ki-^ce.fJ.ivoi ' A6tivouoi 
twiTif/.riiroU(ri ko-to. rijv r^g oXtya/^i/x.; a^iKV. U 
Si fA,riOETS^oii rovrm ss-riv, aXX' ISia a,yya>iJ.oyovirty 
n k'jroffTiiXoLg 7i o a^sa-raXf/^H'og, xai tovto 
y^u-^ai 'Aiyiiv, I'va alirdavoiABiiog o orjfA/og pou- 
Xsv/r^rai ti as7 toieTv. 

TovTo f/,Ev Toivus TO '^fi^i/rpLct Eo/3ou?,of 
iy^a.-^l'sv, ova lya, to ^ I'pi^ng ' A^is-roipiv, eiff 
' ti-yr,iriTTOS, SIT ' A.^tffTO<paJv xa.'Kiv, situ. OfXo- 
xfcerjjf, EiTtx. K.T!(pi(ro<pSii, sira iracre; oi ce-XKoi' 

\) a ouoiv Tsgi TOVTm. Aiyi to ^pn<pia 





xai Via, ^ouXng -ymfii^, -xr^uTdvui xai trr^ocrTiyoi 
s^tifActTtirav TO, i» t^; iKxhTjiriag anviyxovriQ^ 

xov s-E^i r^s 7Ui tXoioiv avaxQiiithni xcu Et^oXaj 
oovvou xat TO. IX Trig IxxTirsinag ■^fiCpuriA.a.Ta. 
xai eiXovTO tovitoe, K.r;^itro(piisToi K.XicDtos 'Avet- 
<p}^u(rTiof, AfifjLox^iTon AfSfjLDip^vTog Avayvgeiirtor, 
HoXvK^iTov ' A-Ttif^ciiiTou K.oSdJxiS))!'. w^uravtia 
<pv\tig 'l-nroSonivTidog, ' A^tarro^aJv KoXyrrsvs ^^o- 

' Q,ir7rt^ TOiiiuv lyu tocutix, Ssixvuia ra •^rj^i- 
ffiJ.a.Tu, ol/Tui xai trv ^st^ov, AW'^ivr,, Toiov tyu 
yj>ai^af ■^^^itr[Aa. airiog sifAi tov voXifMv. 
aXX' obx av iX,oig' ei ya,^ E'^^e, ov^\v a.v cti/Tov 
•rgore^ov vvvi !ra^6(r^oy,§ xai f/,?iv oul' o ^iXi^vog 

iyxobhn))!. Aiyi a alrriv riiv Wjo-ToX^f riiv tov 
* BovXivfta. t NiicokXciivc, { ti'tyKDiTte & aw^ycyrnvrec- 


I EnnTOAH 4>iAmnoT. 

BatriXshg M.a.xsioi'm 'i'lKiTTO? ' A&j^vatcav t^ 

TiPi Tr,g rm •?r'KottdV a,<pirrsiiig Zv hava^^ei 
fi.ibw.'f Kccff oXou f/Xv ovv if^otys ^a.Uiff9i h 
f/^iyakri ivt^Sna. i/TE/rSon, sl"^ oiss-ff ifjbi Kav8a,vti* 
OTi i^a.s'ia'Ta.'Kri rafra§ ra, vkola v^oipoitriv fi.iv 
aig TOv a-irov Ta-^cfjrif/.^ovra e« tou 'EX?,;j(rxovrou 
slg Anf/.voi', (iori6rifrovTa OS ^3jXv[^(S^iciiio7g roig 

f/iivoig Si h Tciig riig tptXiag koii^ KHfAivaig ^[Mt 
^^■vvdnxaig. Koi Tctura. (rwera^dij tZ yuua^^u 

^KkVEU jUEf TOV d^fMV TOU ' A07!VaKklV, UTO OE TlVUlf 

TctvTog SI r^oTov (iov'Koi/.iym tou onfMV ctvTi 
r^g vuv vToc^^oua-fig T^og £/*£ (ptXiocg tov irO' 
Xi(MV CtVaXct^sTv, ■^o'kT^Z (Ji,5.Xh0i> (piXoTift-ou- 
(Livaiv TouTo rrvvTiTikiff8a.i\\ h Totg 'ifjXvfj.fBpia.rolg 
^ofid}jtrai. Ko,) uToy^afi.^a.vovirtv avTOig to rot- 
ovTo wgo/roiov ttrsir6ct.r ou [/.ivTOi (j-oi Soxsi tduto 
y£Ti(rifJ.Qv vvap^itv ouS u^v out ifi,oi. iioTtg 
TCi Ti vuv xotTCCj^SiDTBL vKolo. 'JT^Og >!fA,ug acpiTjfjLi 
' aifinifitatiiig. f AaoJu/iog. t f tovt. § flty raura. 


vf/Av, xai 70V XoiTou, ia.> jSouXria-Si {Atj irtrgSTSiv 
Toig '^r^oitrTrjKoirts v[uij\i xaxotidiug va'KirsuirrSai, 

'Evrail^ ouSfx.fji,ov A}jft,otr$iy/! yiy^a.<ptv, oii^' 
alnccv oboifA-lav star l[J.ov. ti tot ovi/ rcSg 
uXXoig iyx,u.'Km\ twv sfLoi •jreTPoi'yfLitiaiP ovvi 
l/,ifA.vriTa.i -, OTt 7m» a.oixi^f/.ocTO)y a.v Sf/,if/,V7iTo 
Tuv ocvrov. El Ti Tre^) ifuiv yiy^aipt toiituv yog 
£i^O|tt>jf tyai xai rovToig ijtictvTiov/J.riv. xai rgaror 
(Liv Triv t\g Yli'Ko's'onTiiroy w^icpsictv ty^aipa, 
OTS x^uTov Ixilvos Bii Ho^oTOvvfjfrov Ta^fSyeTO,T 
EiTO, TT!V 2ig ^i/poian, iiv'tx Eii/Soias T^-jmro, 

SfTO, Tfll/ iTT '^^SOV £^0^01', OVxIti T^ilT^liCty, 

KoCt TT/V dg 'E^67|/«v, iwEiSt} ru^obwoug sKiTvog iv 
TUVTatg Toug ■Jro'Kiiri xamrni/rsii, (lstel tuvto, is 
Toug ctTorrroXoug a.'jravrag a.Tiirru'Ka, xctS ei/g 
^sppomtrog iffnidn xat Hi/^avrion xai wuiirsg oi (ruf/^ 
fji,a^oi, sj aiy v/Mf (M,ek ra xaXkiffra, ewccjto/, 
io^cii, Tif/.a,i, rm^dpoi, yk^tTig Td^a, tuv iv 
•a'i'^ovSorm virrt^yjiy' rav S aZtK0UiJ,ivm To7g f/,iy 
u[^!v TOTE Tiio'Ssitriv h (rarri^ia ■Jri^iByiyero, roTg 
$' oXiysi^Tjirafri to ■xoXXa.xig uv u^e7f T^osiiraTE 
fA,ifi.vr:iT8a.i, xui yof/,iQEiv v^Sig //,>; f/,oyoy Evvovg 


f/LavTSiS smai' TavTO, yxg ex/Ss/Sflxey a vrgosi- 

Xia-r'i^Tli aa-T e^etv '^^eoi/, toXXo, 3s KXs/ra^- 
^0? uff-T ij(^siv 'E^£T^(av, ToXka. o avrog o 
^iXiTTOc arm rocvff vTa^ystv tip' vfjLciq clutZ, 
xai ■zs^) Tuiv aXXaiv^h i^iXiy/^sirdai ^/.^^ 
a •jrmm itViKit fi,rii'iva. i^era^eif Tavray^otJ, ouoiig 
kyvoii, X.CU •s-avraiii fiKurra irv' oi ya.^ Tot^a 
roZ KXsira^^ou xa) rou ^iXtfrriooa ron T^itrpug 
ittig a,(pixvoCf/,syoi* va^a a-oi xa.TS>.uov, Aitrj^iit), 
xat (TO T^ov^iviiQ otVTW ovs tj fLiv ToXig ug tj^- 
ipovg Ktti OVTS SiKccia. ovrs trii[/.<pi^oiiTct Xiyotrag 
a^'ka.trz, troi J" jjiray ipiXot. ov toUvv iT^a.'jfpri 
yroiiTuv ovhiv, HI (^>.a,ir<pt^f/.aiv Tip) Ef/,ou kui Xtymv 
Ki rrnuTU (JAv, /Sow 3' aXX' oi> 
irv yi, a-XKa. (Boag Ej^ai^ Tctvirsff 3s ovSs'Tot, 
iuii fir; ci ovroi -ravtraxnit ix.ri[/,uffavTii rrif^igot, 

'Znipayuira.vTait roitvii ufiav ifi,s etj Touroig 
TOTS, xai y^a.-^a,VTag A^tiTTOVixov Tag avTug 
ffvk'ka.fia.g ainrs^ ovTorr) K.Tr;iri(pSv wv ysy^efpi, 
xoii avctpptt^iVTog It riu Qiar^u tov s-Tspccvou, 
Kfti iitiTS^ov x>igvyf/,aTog rsSfj f/.oi toCtov yiyvo- 

fLSVOV, OUT O^VTslTif Alff^ll'JJC Ta^aD OUTi TOt 


vaToi f/^iyce, uTtj^^i* ^iXlwvo). wa^a ya^ rati 
EXXjjfTd', ou Timv aXXa Trua-iv ofLoiiuc, <po^a,v w^o- 
OOTUV Kcc) hcagoioxM xai ^toig iyS^^v avS^uvaiv 
ffuvifBrj ytviirdcti'f TO(rccvTf)v, orrtiv ouisig vm t^ots^ov 
fjLifAttiTai ysyoniiaf oug ffuvctyaivurrag xai i7uy- 
e^yovg Xa^uv xai •jt^ots^ov xaxsig rovg "EX?.;jva; 
i^ovTBcg -jr^os iavToug xea ffTatrtotirTlxaig en 
^il^ov hi0fixs, Tovg jjCiv i^a-xrctTm, ro^g Z\ iiSovf, 
Toyf 3e TTUVTOt T^owov ^icc^Gi't^uv, xai JiEffrijiTEe 
iig f/iigit iroXXa ivog rou (rvf/,ipi^otrog ccvcktiv otTcg, 
xaiXuiiii ixeti/oy fj^iyav ylyvitrSa-i. \v Totavrti ai 
xa,7a,ffTa,(Tit Kent trt dyvoia, tov /runKTraf^aov »eu 
(pvofJ,ivov K/xxov rm aTccvraiv 'EXX^j'wj' otrui osi 
irxo-jTsTv vjj.5,g, ai avo^ig 'A&r!va.7oi, Ti •jr^orrfjxoy r,v 
iXiirSai yjarreic xai ToisTt tjjv %oXiv, xcu tovtuv 
Xoyov T&^ If^ov Xct^siv ya,^ ivravSa. tcLvro* 
Tct^ag TYig xoXjTEia; i'tf^t iyai. 

YloTE^ov avTtjv i^^^K', Ai<r^iy>!, to ^gonrifia 
a^utrav xai rnv a.^iav rnv avrrlg tv r^ ©erraXaJ* 
xat AoXo'TTcuv recast trvyxaTaxratrdai ^iKiTjra rijv 
Tain EAXjjvwv i^^y^riv xai TO, raiv T^oyova/v xctKct 
xai ^ixaia avai^uv i ?i rovro (/Xv fA,ii -TTOttTv, Ssiiioit 
ya^ aig aATi&aig, a h' luaa frvfi,^riirOf^&va, si jCAi^^ei; 
xaiXvini,'^. xai •!r^0Ti<T$aveff , oig iotxi\i, Ix xoXXov, ■ 
TCtura vs^tiOiTv yiyiof/.ita ; 



tun sysuys Toy fAxXirrTct eTiTifi^aivra mf 
Ttirgayf^ivotg ioi&is av i^otfii,}jy, rjjg ^oictg f/,E^toos 
yivitr6u,t rii» •xroXtv l^ovKiT a,v, vort^ov Trjs ffvt- 
aiTias rm ffVfJk^i^riKorait roiq "^TO^iiirt xazSii 
xai atir^^uy, i!g av &iTToO\ovg xai rove f/,tTf)i. tou~ 
raiv EiToi Ttc, n Ttjs Tf.^ts&i^fX.x.uia.i ravrci ■ytyvof/.iva 
sv) TTi TTii (J/as trXsofsl/Ms E'K'TriSi, rig a,!/' A^KCiSccg 
ticti M.sira'fiiiioug xai 'A^ysiovg 0sit!u,sv. ciXXa xas 
Tovrm -TToXXoi, li^oiXKoy oi 'jravTsg, )^ii^ov Tiy.uv 
wirriXKct-^atTiv. xat ya^ it ag SKpocTTi/rE 0(- 
AiiTffoj fXi^T sv6vg a.wmv xat f^STix. ratiT fjytv titru-, f^iiTS rm auTov irvfAf/.a^ain ft^j^B raiv cLKKniv 
'EiXkw&'» [i^n^iva f^ijhh 'Kvs-TiTa.g, of^ci/g rjv ix,v rig 
Kara rm [oux] ivavriufSivrut/'f oig t-^^amv Ixsmg 
{Ji,i[/.'^ig KO.) xaTnyo^'ia.' si is ofJi^o'iaig ktccvtoiv to 
ti^taf/.a, Ttiii rjysjjLoviBe.v, rtjv iXivSi^tocv ■zs^isiMto, 
.fjbaXXov Oi Kcit Tug ■s-oXiriiag, oiruiv riovvaro, w«s i 
my^ kiravTaiv 'vio^orara, vf^ug e^ouXsvirarrdi i/J,ot i 

TTBIirSil/TSg ; 'AXX' iKilfn eV«^6|j;0| Ti TJJk B-0- 

Xiv, A'kt^Uj!, ■jTgotT^xs voiiiv o^^yjli' xcc) rv^ctm^a, 
Tuv ''Ei'KXriViiv o^ucrav sxvtu xa.Tcttrxsva^ofA.Ei'OV Oi- 
.iTs-oc ; h r't rov (ruft/SoyXoK ihu 'Kiyui ^ yodipuv 
■Dv 'A^TivrjiTiv l(i,i (««( ya.^ tovto vKiiffrov ha,~ 
^SjEj), o; iriiVJ^Oltv f/.lv Ix Tccvrog tov ^oovou 

• r)li<iu\iT. 

u.2^^i Tfjg ifit-s^xg ixsiiDig, oi,(p m uvrog i 

So^^e Kymt^ofJ^ivtiv Ttiv TCtT^ioa, xa.l •s-Xeiai xa.) 
suift.tx.Tci. xm ^^r)^u.ra.'tavY v-jn^ ipiXoTi- 
f/,lag XBti Tiiv wa/ri <rv^<pi^QvTti>ii ri twv a/KXait 
'^KXriyuv uwip oiuTaiv emuXuxairiy txutTTOi, tai^ai 
S' aVTOV Tov O/XjTWOf, T^og ov riv rif/Af o a,yaiv, 
i/TSp iipy^iig KOI.) Suvatrrsiag rov oi^dcc?.fA,oii ixxs- 
KofA-fiinov, Tfiv k'aw KOLTictytra, ttiv y/i^^t, to irxi- 
?io; TETijf ajK-Evoy, ■jray o Ti'^ fSouXridsiri f^e^og fl TU^t) 
Tov iraJf/MTog xa.^t'kifrOa.t, tovto [paSlag xal iTo'i- 
fi,aic\ ■PT^Of^f/.svov, axTTi Toi T-oiTTf fiSTo, TiaJ^g xau 
^o^li ^f' *«' f^'J" ovoi TOVTO y$ ovong av 
i'ivuv ToXfi-riesnii, ug Tm f^h ev IleXXfj r^atpivri, 
Xm^iai dSo^a/ totb yi ovri xat /^fx^w, roffawTTjC 
fAEyccXo-^ljv^tav ■fr^otrtixsn iyytviir6a.i, i^trn rrg 
Tuv 'EiKXTirun o^^y^g ixt6ufii,^<ron Km tout 6 if 
rot vovt ifjb^oi,xiir&ai, vi/av d' oviriv ' A.6rivotioii 
Kcti xUTo, 7-jjv ^|M.E^aii ixctfTTiji) it TTatTi xui hoyoig 
xai Si!u^iiiJba.m^ Tr,g rm -TTgoyovaiv d^erng VTOf/'V^- 
f/.aS o^aiiri To^ravTriH xoixictv uTcig^ai, uffn rt;; 
THIS EXXjjvajv sXs'j^sgiag avTiwctyyiXrovg s^eXov- 
rag 'pra.oa.^u^riirot.t '^iyd-^rviu. ovif av iig Tavret 

A.0i^0f To'ivuv ijv xa) clfA.a. wariv 

" iifi' i(c. t <tvl|\l■l^:vtal■. J ti ui'. § flidfiiiffi. 



tig spiiivos i-s-^am* a^ixm y^a; ivavviovrSeu 
oixaiaig. ravr I'TroiHn f/,sv v^ug l^ etg^fj; slxoraii 

ttai lyu xaff ovg IwoXtrsvof^fiv ^^ovovg. ofM- 
Xoyai. aXXa, ri e^^S" (J^^ •Jrotuv ; n^*! 7«f <r 
i^uToi, ■jravra 7aX7\ k(pilg, ' A.fjLtptTo'htv, TiuavKV, 
TloTiSaiai/, ' A-Xonvi^trov ovosvog toutuv fAif^yrificar 

iipplOV 06 KCil Ao^llTKDV X.01.1 Tt!V Tli'TfCL^^SoU 

V0^9ri<nv xctt h(T aXKa. toux-vto, r; ^oXig fiotxrjro, 
•i>v&' SI ysyoviv oidet. Kalrat trv y efiijirtfa j«.s 
•rt^To, xiyovTci sig iX.^g'x.i' IfJ-l^aXsTv toutovo-i, 
^h(iovXov xcii A^iiTTOipcivTog xai Aityrsidovg tuv 
srsgi rouraiv i^}!(pitrf/.oirii>]/ oiiTm, oux. ifAun, u Xiyuv 
ev^s^mg Ti av ^ovXr;d^g. ouos vvv -Tn^i rovrm 
Igiv. ciX?^ Trjn Yjvpaictv ixtmg tripsrE^t^of^Eycg 
xui Karatrxsua^uv iTiTSi^nrf^a %m TriV 'Arrix^y, 
xai Meyu^oig imy^si^m, xat xa,TaXa/x,0a.vaiv 
'ilfisoy, xa.) xaTccffxctTrrav Xio^df/A>v, xat xaditrrag 
it fLiv 'Q^iai il?iXia-Tiotiv Tv^ctimov Iv S 'K^sr^la, 
K.Xsircc^'^ov, xcct rov 'YiXXritr^ovrov vp %a.VTai'\ 
Totovf^itog, xa,] ^v^anriov ■x-oXio^xuv, xat ■^oXug 
'^XKrjv'ihag ocg fAiv avut^ain, it; a;J 06 Tovg <pu- 
yaOag xarayain, vots^ov Tctura TavTO. voim 
xa) Tcc^strvroviei xa) tXvi ttjv si^rivriv ^ owj 
i xai -TTonoon ^oi.v^va.i rtva, rm '^XXiimv tou ruvTo, 

xuXvirovra s-omv aurov txi'!' l f^li ^' f^^" y^'i 
u,ti iX.e^''^ a^?^« f*!' MyiTwi' y^uav KaXouy.tvrit' tjj* 
' EXXct^a, o^dtjyai ^wiirm 'A^nvalm x,a.i 
ovrm, ■jriPiii^'ycta-f/.a.t f/AV iyu -n^) ravroiv sitoih, 
vtpti'ip'ycLtrroi.t o tj "ttoXk; ti xuir8il<roi. ^{JMi, itrTu 
Si aiixrif^aTcn, TanTce, a, Ti-rgaxTcii xa) a.(/,a,^rri- 
f/,a7a E/AK. £1 Si S^EI Til>a TQVTOIV KiuXvTr,v ^ct- 
v)ivcci, Ttva, aXXov ri tov 'A8? ^}i[AOi w^ofrrixB'j 
■yEvitr&a,! ; ravra toIvvv exoXiTSt/Oftjjv sya, xeu 
o^aJv Karcc^ovXoCf^Evoi/ •na.tTO.q ay0^arovg hxs7vor 
riva-V7taui/,riv, -jr^oXiym xa,) hi^a.(Txm t^oI' 
ia-Oai'i^ ravTU ^iXiTT^iv aiBreXouv. 

Ka.1 fA.ijii TJjv SJfJifjjf y sxiifoi iXutrs to, TrXoia 
Xa(3m, ob-^ ^ ToXtg, A.'Kr-^/tvrj, ^e^e Si avra, to. 
^ri<pi(ri/,a,ra xai rijv lirjo-ToX^y rfjy roti OiX/xrof, 
xxi Xiye iips^?jg- a?ro ya^ Tovrm i^era^of/Ami; 
Tig Tivog atrioc ectti, ysyrimTai (pavspof. Xiys. 


'EiTi a^^ovTo; NioxXeovc,^ f^iivog f3o^d^ai/,iaivog, 
EKKXijtricig fTvyxXfiTov vkc (TT^aTtiyuv (Tuvaydniniig, 
YMjdouXog Mytj/nhou KuT^iog si'sriv, ETsi^ii ttpov- 
riyyuXav o'l ffT^ttr^yot it t^ sxxXi^tria, tig aoa 
Aecitouf/,avrce.\\ rov vava^y^ov xai to. u^zt ccvrou 

avoiTTaXiiiTa. (rnaipT! iixo(ri\i f^i Tr,i> rou (tItov 

trr^ccrnyfii ' Af/,v\iTa,g xa.Tce,yf,oy^eti 115 Maxe^ov/ac 
Kai iv (pvXaxjj i^n, imi/^iKri^r,vcn roug T^uravsif 
■JMt' Tovg ffT^a.TTi'youg, oVa/e t; /3oijX^ truvay^Saig-i 
xctt a,'i^s8oim x^6cr/3s«f ;r^o; O/Xisrwoi', ot Ting 
Ta^a.-yEVQfj.svoi ^la'ki^ovTat T^og CLurov -iri^i rov 
a^s^^vat rov^y^ov'^ xoti to. -TrXdia xai rovg 
trr^aTiairag. xa) St fj,iv di uynotav rcLvra ts- 
■ ^oirixEV 'Af^uvrag, tn ov fA,ipi.'\pif,i,oi^E7 ^^jtto; 
ovoiv OLurZ- SI ^e ri ■xXfif/.f^EXowrce, •^a^oc to. ewe- 
ITTCtXflivCt^ Xafiuil, OTt I'TTKrKi-^kfJl.iVOi 'AOrivctioi 
ivirif/.titToviri xccra tyiv rtjg oXi-yu^iag k^tav, a 
ot fJ.r}oirt^oy tovtuv IittIv, aAX' 'lo'ia, cc-yvaifioi/OVtrtv 
rj a.vo<miXtx.g ri o.'iTEirTciXfAiS'og, xai tovto 
y^oc^^ai Xiyuv, ivu al/rSavo^zvog S^fMg ^ov- 
Xii/trriTcti r'l hii •^oiiiv. 

Tovto f/,\v toUvv to ■^Ti^pKrf/.a Ey/3ofAof 
ty^a-^gy, dux lytd, to 5' stpi^ijg ' A^itrroipm, u'ff 
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K^drrig, eiTU Kri^itroipuy, sira To-vrig 01 aXXot' 
iycu d oiiSkv TTsei ToUTm. Aiyt to -^tipurfLa, 




xai vsa, /3ouX?e yvmfj,!^, T^vTBtmg xai trr^aTriyot 
i-)(^niA.a,Tt(rccv TO. sx T^i ixxXna-'ioii aviiiyxoiiTig,X 

TTQii Tig) TTJg Tuv w'Aoimv dvaxof^iOTie kou kfrcKa^ 
iovvat xai to, ix rijg iXKXririag -^Yitptir^aTa. 
xa) ii\ov7o Tova-h, KjjipJiroipiijvT-o! K'Ksaivog 'Ava- 
^Xvg-Tioii, AjifMx^tTov Ar!f4,o(pM\iTOg ' Avayv^titTtov, 

WoXllXgiTOV ' A-H-tlpLXHTOV Ko^OlxlSflV. -T^VTCCVsitf, 

tpuX^g ' l^rTodoaivTiSog, ' A^t<TTo<puy KoXyrTeuf x^o- 

e3|0S itTS'iV. 

"Q.iTW£^ roiiiuv iyu ravra onxvva ret 4"!?'" 
fff^ara, ovtu xai trv &i7^ov, Aiirj^/ffl, Toiov tyu 
ygaipas il/ri<pnrf^ux. utriog eifu rov ToT^tfMiv. 
ctW' ovx ocv i^oig' 61 yug ei;^ef, oi/hy ocv ccvroti 
ir^OTegov svn 5ra?etrj^ou.§ xai fj-nv ov^' o O/Xjimse 
ovOiv cciTiBtrai %fCi vtti^ tov TroXifn-ov, Iregoig 
iyxaXuv. As'ye ^ uuttiv rriv smcrro'A^v rriv rov 

§ 7rnj,ETX£t. 

EnUTOAH oiAinnoT. 

BuiriMtjg MaxsSoyiuv fpiXiTTog ' A0>iiia*tiiv tj 

sr^os s^s 5/ Taj' iljaiyv TT^nr^ivrai, K.riipifTO'paiv 
Kui A/jf/i-OKgiTOi Kai JloXvx^trog, onXtyovro 
viPi TTig Ttoy TXoiatv a^Sfreaig n/ii svauapvet Aao- 
fjbiiain.'Y KaS oXov //.sr ovv i^otyi ^aiUtr^i \v 
^lyctkTi ivfideia, sa-Bffdai, e'i'^^. oistrS lf/,1 XasSavuv 
on l^aTt<rTa.Xr) rctvTccsi to, vXoia. T^a(pa,<riv fiXv 

fig A^iO.voi', ^ari6ri(rovTa Oi ^T!Xvf/-l3^ietvo7g To7g 
]ir SfMV f^v Toy^iogxovf/iivotg, ov irvfA,irs^iii},rif^- 
fuvotg is l» Tolg r^g (piXiag xtnv^ KUi^ivong iffMr 
ffuv6ii»atg. »ai raura travira^^Ti tu yuva^'^ai 
eivsv fjAv Tov orsf^ov rov ' A^tjiiaKkiv, uto as rtvaiv 
ag^oiiTOjy *«! iTi^av loiairuv fMv vuv avraiv, f» 
vavTOg oi r^o-^ou (iouXofJ^isoiv tov SrifMV avri 
rng nvv vva^-^owTig -^^^ag ijil (piXiag ror -tto- 
^SfMiv ai'aX«^£7v, ttoXXm (JMXhov ^I'Kortf/.ou- 
fuwv ToiJTO <ruvTi7i\iiT6at\\ n roig '%ri\v(i.^^ta,voig 
QoriSritrai. K«i vTo'h.a.f/.f^a.vovfftv auroig to toi- 
ovTO w^oa-oooy lasffSar ov (jLiVTOf ftoi SoKSi touto 

IJ(^^mfMV VTa^^EIV OV0 UfMV OVT if^Ot. SlOTtg 
ru TB viJv xaTay^SivTa vKola ■jrfog hf^cig k^irifM 


uiMv, Kou ToiJ KoiTov, lav ^ovKriirH f/^n iviTPiTBtt 
Tiiig ■^^aurrriKoiriv ufM/n xaxoi^Stug ToXiTSvBo-dcti, 

otiT/ac ovSsfji,iccv xar' ifA.ov. r't vor oiiv roif 
aM^otc iyKCL7'.!ini r&iii BfM)i ■^sw^ayf/.iteiiv ov^i 
f/,if/,yilTai i qti ™v k^iKTi^ctrtuv a.v if/.if/,v^To 

si)^of/.riv iyo) xa) tovtois f!vccvTioiifi.>iv. xai v^urcr 
fi,iv Ttjv 6*5 Tls}i.oTovvri<rov ■TT^nrf^s'tav ty^a,-^a, 
0T( v^uTov iKiino^ 6*5 IIe X TO w); [TO c -jra^s^iiiro^ 
tira riiv e*; Ey/So(«v, TivIx E^^o^a; ^ttito, 
Sira rnv ew' 'il^ion k^oOov, ovkIti ir^itr^itoty, 
«ai ri^y s'lg 'E^sV^jai', stbiSti rv^ctwovg exsTco; in 
TauTBLig ralg ToXstn xctTiffrTiasr. {istol Tuvrex, hi 
Tovg ctvairro'Kovg aTctvrag a.TifrTn'Ka., xa0 ovg 
\eppovti<rog liraidri ku) ^v^ctvrttw xai TavTeg oi truf/^ 
^ccy^oi. 1% aiv vfuy f^h to, xaXkiffrct, Waivoi, 
oo^cci, Ti^al, (TTt'payoi, ^agireg 5ra^a raiii s£ 

Ti-JTOvSorm w'^oy^OV' TdlV ^ a.htXOV[/,iiQIV 70*5 |tcsc 

u[/AV 707i irsiirdiiirtv tj trsorti^ia Ti^ityiviro, roig 
oT^iya/^yiirairi to xoXkctxtg m v^ug T^otivart 
(/.if/^vriffSat, Ka) vof/,i^siv vfA-oig //.^ (/.oitov tvvovg 

* ytypaipti. f TUpuaiZutTo. 


tctVToTg etXXct 
fjcavTsig itvat' • 




' T/^ixsi fA,riSiy 

Ka'i [iiTiv ort voXXa, f/,h ecu ^tif/MTO, iSaxe Oi- 

ypg utrr iy/n 'E^£Tf(ac, woXXct o cturog o 
VTTa^-^Qiiv i(p' v^oig auru, 

aytou, KO-i vavTuy rjKtiTTa. trv 0( yct^ wa^K 
rod K.Xtira.^)^ov ko.) tou ^iXio-tiSov tots T^i<r(3sig 
Jsu^' a,pix.ii6Vf/,£soi ira^a. troi xaTiXvov, Alffj^ivt), 
xcti ffv ■jr^ov^ifiig clvtvv ovg ri "jroXtg ug s^- 
i^oig KOLt ovTS hiKKia, ovTt rrvfA^i^ovTa. xiyovTag 
■nirri'kairs, croi ^ "^trav (plXot. ov Toivuv ^.T^a,^6>i 
^ovTo/y oloiv, 01 /SXair^jjjfAiWv ite^} Ifiov kcci hiyu* 
■ig maiiru fbh XajScuv, /Sow 3' dvctXaiirag. aXX' ov 
fu yi, aXXa /Soaf f>Xv i^i'V, xa.v/TBi'f os ouoswor, 
im fji.fl a-i ovToi 'ruuirwtnv drtf/MO-avTEg T^f/,igov. 

^TS(pavaiiTatTa>v roivvt VfJMV EfLi em rouTOig 
TOTS, Kott ygd^i/atTOg ' A^tffTovixov rag aurBLg 
irvKXo^(ia.g atm^ ovroiri KT^jfTJ^wv vvv yiy^oLlpi, 

KoCt dtCtppTl^iVTOg ill TU di^T^ai TOU fTTS^dvOV, 

xa) SevTioov XTj^vyfAarog ^Ojj fcoi tovtou ytyvo- 

fl,fVOU, OVT a.VTii'XiV Alf^lVtiC ■^a^aiV OVTi TOV 


XimoQ iXT^ dmovTOi, (pvT^rjg T^UTanuoua"ris})- 
Ti^og, ' A^iirroiiiKog ^^sctppiosY siven, i^uoii Ajj- 
lM)irdivr,i Aij^Loir^tvovg Yiaiamevq ■jra'KXaq xai 
(/.syiiXag %^^'"^'^ irccgga-^tirxi rm irifx,m tw 'A^tj- 

xa.) EK Tw -jra^oyTi xatgu (St^oridriKB Oici ruv 
■^ri^tj'f/.aiTuy, xai rivag tuv iv r^ ^v(3oia, ToXtaiv 
flXsvSepaixs, xa.) Sicct£Xs7 evuovg »v r&i orif/,ai ru 
' AOnvc't'-av, xai XsyEi xai wgaTTii o n a-ii ouvrjTact 
dyctdoy wi^ rs auraJv ' A^jjuatcov xai rm ct^-Xcuv 
'%7Jh.Tivaiv, SeS6^9a,i r^ jSofX^ xa) tu o^fLai 
Tu ' A6nva,to!v i-jraivitrat Ar!fM<r6Biiriii An(/jOtr6ivouq 
Tieiiamia xcti irTS(pa,wfrai ^u/ra im^avy, xut 
avoLyo^iZirat tov rrrEpaiiot ev rai Ssar^ai Atonvirioig, 
T^ar/^hdig xamolg, Tr,g ^e ctvayo^evtreug rov trrs- 
^avov im(i,t'kr}S7iva( Tfiv ^^vravsuoutray (pvXiiv xcti 
70V aymodiTTiv. siTi}/ ' A^irrronixog ^^sappiog. 

'EtTTd' oi/y ofTTig i 

* Hyjijiovos- 

6i Tiva aia-^vsTjf 



ovrog iipti fTVfA- 


p^(rs(r^B(, lay s-yai /rri' 
>I VE« KCil yviD^i[/,a Tatri ra. w^ay^ara, lav te 
xaXa/g iy^Ti, ■^K^iTOf Tvy^ctVBi, lay ff aiq 6r6g>aff, 
Tif/,&)^iac. (pamofioti Tomvn iyeu y^ec^irog tetu^jt 
xaig TOTE, KKi ou f^if^ipsc^g ouSi rti^ai^ia,^. 

OvKow f^iX§i fAi]/ Tuy ^^oyaiy ixtmaiv, iy oig 
TauT iTgayP^, ■jravrag avc^fjUiXo'yi^pi.ce.i rovg 
^ovovg TO. a-gtiTTO. T^arrsiv t^ -jroXsi, rm nxstk, 
6T \(iovh.iut(r6i, Xiyuv xai y^a.<paiv, rifi K.arct- 
,vgaj^6iivct.f TO, y^atpivra, «.al /rretpdyoug b| 
Wrotf T^ iro'Kti kou ifAoi xat Toiirit vf/Av ytvi- 
trdat, Toi 6vffiag To7g 6io7g xa.i ■jr^oiroOovg'J oig 
kyoi.d&)v Tovrm ovrm u^oli TSTai^rrdau Etsj^^ 
To'iyvv ix TTJg Eu/So/af o ^iXittos i^r/Xd^fi, 
roig fJbiv cfrXoig v<p' vf^m, t^ i\ ■^oXtrBia, xai 
To7g ■^tj'pirr[JMtri, xkv Siappotyaiiri rivs; tqu- 
•n>v, w EfMu, ersfov xarcc Trig ^oheaig iTiTu- 
j^nTfion iQ^Tii, ct^uv i' oTt ir'tToi ToivTaiv dvS^v- 
vaiy TXiifrTu y^^ii^iS ZTeitrcixTai, l3ovX6f/,fyog 
Ttjg TiToxof/,Tia.g xv^tog ystur^eti, ■xot^iT^di^y iwi 
Q^xxf^g Bv^ayTioug irvf^f/,cc^oug ovrag ocutu to 
fjt,S\i v^aJTOV ht'lov trufC-JToXiM'iiv TOv tr^OE i/fiag 
ToT^Sfiov, ug oix 'ri6iXov oho iwi TOVTOig itpa,- 
' vpuTTwy. f K<ii irpoffo^oui: roic Qiois. 


j^Dt^x-xojf/M (ia,X(iy,(voi T^og r^ woXsi xou furr 
yj^<ti^^a.r iicnTT^iTa.% ivoXio^xei, touthiv os yiyto- 
jAlvan Ti T^oirriKi %omv vfMlg, ovKtr t^ar- 
vtitru-\ S^Xon ydg strriv UTOuriv. aXXa rig z* i 
^oti&titrag ro7g Bv^eivrioig ko.) troffag auroug j rig 
KaXCtTKg TO* '^XXtitrvovTov d.XXor^nuS^inx.i'lf. xar 
tKSifOvg Toug y^^ovovg; vf/.t7g, w ctvi^ig ' A,6ti\iaioi. 
TO v[/,sig orav Xiym. rr^v toXiv Xiyu, rig 
T); ToXei Xiyoiv kou y^a^uv xai •jt^octtuv kcu 
awKeng iaurov ilg rci irpa.yf/.cx.Ta dptiia/i Sliovg j§ 
eyal. aXXa, f^biiv r^x'nctt tclZto, ai<piXri(rev aTavrag, 
wxir Ik Xoyou ist fi.ix.&i7v,\\ ctXX' s^ya/ Ttwu- ' 

^BLffSi' ya,^ TOTi iviTTOLg T0'ASfM>S aVEU T6U 

xaX^ii So^av iveyxuv in ■jratri To7g xctra rov 
pion dtpGovuri^oig xal svmoTi^otg ^inya-yiv ufXMg 
T^f nvv Bi^fivtig, Tjv ouTOi xctTtt, Trig var^iOog t))- 
^oviriv 01 '^§>li'"''oi eVl Toug f/^sXXo6traig iXwis-in, 
at oia,f/,dgToisy, xm f/,^ y.tTa,iry^oitv uv vfAite oi 
ret piXrurTa ^ovXofAivoi Toiig 6eovg ixirETrf* 
fAn^i f/.tTaSois)i ufMv Sy ctvroi Tcor^j^vrai. Aeye 
avTo7g xa) Tovg Tain Bv^avria^ii ffri<pdvovg xai 
Tovg Toiy Yit^iȤiMV, oig io-TiCpavouv ix tovtw -mr 

■ XapttKuifiaTii 
§ iovc- 

K tinpiiiTTiaai X aira\XoTpuo6iivo 



Ewi ii^ofi.iia,f/,ovog 3oa"To^iy^ai AufAotyiiTOi tv 
TO, aXia, eXs|ev, ix rag (3iiXa.g XalSaiv prir^av, 
£5re(3i ^a.f/^g o ' A.Sfifctioiv 'iv ts To7g Tr^o-ysvo- 
fLisoig KSti^oig ivvoim iictreXu Bu^amoj; *a( 
To7g (rvf^f(,a.^ofg xat (rvyyii/itri He^ivdton x.a.1 
vo'k'Kctq x.a.1 fji/iyakag ■^^iiKg'\ vot^itryj;Ta.i, iv rs 
Tu ■xa^srrrctxoTi xai^a ^iXittttm to} M.a,KE^6vog 
iTTurT^ctTiVfroivTog swi Tccv j;<y|ac ««( rav Tra'kty ex 
avaiTTciirsi liv^ai'Tiajy »«) Ih^iv^iaiv xat ran yj^^av 
aaioi/Tog xcti hsvh^oxoTiovroi, (SoTjOriiratg TXotoiiTtv 
SxacTOv xaL Sixom xai /titm xai (HXirri xa.1 6'^xi- 
ratg i^siXsro a.ft,fA,i^ ix rm f^iyaKav xti^hiivcuv xui 
a^oxaTurrairs rav irar^iov ■jroT^iTUav xoci raig 
fOfJS'O/g Kai rag Tii<pug, ^tshoySa,!^ rai ddiu.oj tu 
''Sv^avrmiv xcti lii^ivdim ' A^fjua/oig dofjLsv tTriyee.- 
fLiav, JToXtTEiaii, iyxrairiii yag xai oixtav, iroo- 
sag/av iv roig dyutn, iroSohtiM ttoti tuv ^aiXav 
Xal Tov auf^oy ■Tt^droig f^sra ra U^d, xai rotg 
xaTOixiiv iQiXoviTi TBLV TToXtv dXsiTouoyjiroig 
Jlf/,sy Ta.(rd!' Toiv XsiTov^yiSiv' (rrd,a-ai hi xai slxavag 
T^ilg ixxatosxa/T^y^itg l\i tu ^a-TOPi'yai, <TTS<pa' 
yov(/,ivov Toi' ^xfAQV T0¥ ' Kdrivatm u-jto to/ Sd/A,sii 
Tw^ Bu^avr/uv xai lli^ivdlmv' d^oimTXat ^e xai 
cy TcaXiq, t j("p"'''C. 1 o/ic & cfic. 


tTTiaivTctt 01 "EXXanes TcHvrtg ' ASi^vatm a^sj 

Aiys Kai Tovg Ta^a 

i- ^sppofiitrai irri- 


^sppovtitriToiv ol xctTOixovvTBg "^TifrToy, 'EXfi- 
ovvra, MativTon, ' AXiuxexowjjo-oy, /TTsipavoiJiriv 
^A6>jvst(a» T^c (SoyX^K x«) rov Srjf^ov %^^T^ im- 

iS^vovrat xa) Stif/^u ' A&tjyaiuv, ort vavrm fieyi- 
DTOU dyu8m wa^atTiog ysyove^ 'K.sppoi/fiO'iTais, 
i^iXof/,ivos ix Ti^q ^tXiT^av xa) ktoSov; rag 
TaT^loa,;, Tovg vofiovg, rm IXevh^iotv, ra. isgct, 
KBii h Tu [/.STob ravTOt- Utmvt wctvrt ovx eXXscv^-fii 
tu^a^tiTTwii xai Toic^v o ri av ^uvjiTa.t a.ya.doii. 

Ouxovv ov (/.ovot TO X.if)pov)jrroy xoa BfJ^avrion 
iruirui, ovhi to xa/Xvfrai tov 'EXXijiTS-ovro^ viro 


^^iXiT^a yiviirStx,! tots, ovhl to TifJMtrSat rfjn 
vrohiv Ix. Tourm h ■jr^oai^sa-n ft if/,ii ^ toXituk 
'•iit^^ci^a,TO, dXXa Kcti Toimv sSii^sv avSauvoti 
Tjfv Ti Ttjg ToXsmg KccKoKciyctdtav xai TTjy ^tXiT- 
■weu Kctxiay. o (a,iv ye ipiTio; xai irvft.fMZ^og am 
'Toig Bv^jxtTioig ToXio^Kuv avToug lu^oiro wo 
,-raiiTm, ov Ti yivoiT kii a'lir^iov jj {j^ioigaiTB^ov , 
iifi,s7f &' ot Ktnl f/.tf/,ipa,i/,svoi ToXXsi xat iixaia 
av ixiifots iixQTOig wt^i aiii nynaifioyriXdran eig 
vfias h To7g Sf^w^oirSsv y^^avoig, of ^ovok ov fj,v7;(ri- 
KKKovvTig o'uoi T^oisi/,svoi Toug a.Otxovf/-zyovg, aXXa 
■tttit ff^^ovTSg \ipa.'ivifr&i, s| m ho^av, ivvotav, TifL^v 
ra^a ■^avraiy ixrHirh. xai ftjj* on f/.sy ToXXovg 
iim<pa,vaKa,T n^ri r&iv ■^oXiTSVOf/-iwy,'Y a-s'avTsg 
ttrairi' Oi oyriycc a aXXov it woXig ieri^ayiurai, 
irv{/,{iovXoy Xsyai kou p^roga, TXtsy Si kf/,i, ob¥ 
ay (ig uriiy i^fit- 

"\yu. Toiyvv, xa.) rag (3Xccir(pr!fA.iUg, a.g x-ocra. rm 
Ei/SoEa/niJl xai ruy ^v^avTiM i-7rotria-aro, n ti ov 
ffX^i^ig auToii i'jriTPo.xro T^og v^5.g wrofi.if/.vriirxani, 
ffVxotpavTiccg oitrag iTiosi^a fn^ri [/.oyoy ru ipevSiis 
|Jk>ai (touto fi,iy ya.^ uTotf^iiy vfi,a.g slSoretg 
ityovfj.a,i) akXa xa.) rw, it ra, j/MXirrr ritrut 
a.Xr,&iic, auTug aig iyoj xi^n[/.a.t roTg •jr^a.yfJLBtiri 
■gvfjjipipiiy y^p^!rarrScr.t, ly r Sua 0ovXof^ai ruy kulS 

Tctur' \v (igayiiTi' xa) ya.^ or.yo^a iota. Kce,t -jroXiy 
xoif^, ■PT^og TO, KaXKiiTTa. t&iv v'^u^yavTuv ecu oii 
TUpao'oai TO. XoiTx Tparrsiv, 

"Tf^sig Toivm, u avS^eg ' ASrsvouoi, Aaxtiatf/,o- 
niuii ytjg xa) 8ix.>.a.T7rig a.^yj)vrm ko.) ru x-vxhu 
Ttjg'Amxtjg Ka.7iyJvTm a,^i^,o<T7cug xa.) <p^ov^a7(, 
Ew/3ojac, Tavay^ctv, rny Bojar/av aTcttra.!/, MEyo- 
ga, Atyivav, K.Xea\>eig, rag aXKag vni^ovg, ou navg, 
oh rei^f! TTig ■xoMoi^ rort xBXTTjfLsvtig, l^^Xhrt si; 
'AxictoTov xa.1 TstXiv ov ToWoug iifi.igaig uffrt^ot 

t'lQ Ko^ll/SoVt TcilV TOTi ASriVO-im %OXk ay S^OVTiJI 

f^VTi<Tixof,xr,a-ai xai Ko^ivStoig xai S^ipaiois ruv 

■Xi^l TOII AiXEXllXOf 'ITOXifMiV T^a-^OiVTa)V' OCXX 

oix iwo'iouv TOVTO, ovh' lyyug. xatroi tote rauros 
a,fL<poTi^a., Atir^ifn, ov0 vTi^ EusgysTtuv i'sro'iovv 
ovT axiioviia. isj^m. a?,?,' ov Sta TctvTa t^ouvto'y 
Tovg xaTa(psvyovTag i<p' rnvTovg,"^ wXX' ots^ ivao- 
^lag x<x,i TifMJg tj^sXov Tolg ouvolg auTovg oioortti, 
Ogdaig xai xctXug j3ovXtiiOf/,iiioi. TS^ag f^m ya^ 
ccwcurm an&^ai'Z-oig Iitti tov ^tov Sa,va,Tog, ««► \v 
o'lKtcrxai Tig aiiTov xaSn'^^aig Ti^otj- Sbi Si tou( 
ayaSoug avo^otg lyy^st^Hv § f/.iv a-Trocinv ibsi 
Toig xakdig, Ttjv otyuS^v ^oo(3a},Xo[/,i)'Ovg IXwiSct, 
(pi^Sd' Ti ay 0iog Si^ai yswa'ttng. tocvt 


tue^yiras, aXXa ■JroXka. rr;v woXiy rjf^uv ^^ixti- 
KOrag xai (/.iyotXa., tTnon @ti(aaioi K^ccTrjO'cci'TSS 
t» A.ev»T^oig knXsiv l^s^si^ouy, hexaiXva-aTs, ou 
■ipofdn^iyrig rtiv Ton &>ifBaioig paf^fiv xai ^o'fav 
.UTO^^ouiray, oito vt&^ oict Ti^ottiKorav avB^uvuv 
tu*ovyivfTi7i aifx-Xoyi(rafiii/oi, xai yd^ toi irSitri 
ro7g 'EXXjjo-iy ihii^ccre Ix Toura/v on xav oriovv 
Xig i'lg Vfcag i^af^a^T^, rovTu Tfiv o^ytiv ilg raXXet 
<^6Te,"f' av i' VTi^ trairj'ioice.g !] IXsvds^iag xiii^vfOg 
fif avroug *ar«Xaj«./3avjj, ovrs f/,y>!TiKax^ffire 
^S v'!rokoytiiir9i, 


^oiccv ou Ts^fsiSsTE, ov^ wv VTO Qif/,ia-mos xai 
QsoSu^ou x£^i 'il^aiToy ioixfirrSs ccvsfJi.y^(rS)iTS, 
aXX' il3o!}9yitra,TS xed rouToig, rm IdiXovTwv tots. 

»rgiri^a,gj^ii» -jT^aiTov ytyof/^iyaiv t^ ttoXsi, am eig >iii 
tyu. aXX' ouvu xE^i rovruy. xairoi xaXov (jCtv 
liroiriTctTB xai to (tqisch t^v t^trov, •aoKK^ o en 
TOVTOU xaXXiov to xaTaiTTCcvTig xv^toi xott tuv 
ffuiiiocToiv, KOI.) TUV ToXsmv ctTTodouva.! TOAJra. oi- 
KMiag auToJg To7g l^fiy^^rnxotriv Big uy,S.g, {ati^iv 
aiv i^htxtiirSi iv otg wio'TiuSriTi u^oXoyt^af^iyoi. 

tKVfMt^ictg, l^oooug ■jri^a.q, a-TgatTBicis, xat iraXcu 
yiyavuiocg kix.) vuv i(p ufjiMV avraiv, a,g a.vao'a.q 
Tj ToXig rriS tmv aXXav Efs^' 'E?iX^c(UP sXev^s- 
^tag Ko.) triurri^iocg VEWo!>iTai. ar iy6> Tt6sc*- 
^fjKaig iv ro(rouTOig xat rotourois rijv croXiv i«r£f 
Tswv To7s aXXoig ffufji^s^ovraiv idiXouiroLv a,yu- 
viC^Eir&ai, VTSg auTtj; r^owov Ttva. T^g pou'K^g 
oufTtjg Ti ifJi,iXkov xbMuosiv ^ ti trvf^^ovXsvasir 
a.VT^ TOiiTy ; fj.yr,a'iKa.xii)i'\ vri A'la, •xpog rovg /3oo- 
Xofiivoug ffai^itrdcx.t, ko.) •Trpo'pa.mig ^nrsiv Si kg 
otTuvrct TT^oijiTOf^tSa. KKi Tig ouK ay aTiKruvi 
/*s oiKctiaig, u Ti Tuv uira^^ovTi/v t^ toKu KU.t^y 
y^ayo) [/.ovov Kot,7C(,ia")(vvEtv iTiy^iiori(ra ; sirsi rayt 
t^yov oux ccv E^oifitraff ufAiSig, dx^tpoig oto iyw 
il ya.^ rifiavXiffh, t'i ?f ifiToSm ; ovx s^tjii ; ouy^ 
vjT^^^ov 01 ravT t^ovnTSg ovrot i 

BouXofJ^at TOiVvv iTavEXduv e^' a tovtoiv t^ijg 
exoT^iTiVCf/.tii'' xai tfXovuTt tv rovrotg •xctXn' ecu, 
Ti TO r? ToXsi ^sXtio-tov riv. o^aiv ya,^ a ai/i^sg 
'A^rjvatoi TO favTtxov vf/JJv xa7a}^vo(/.iyov, xai 
Toitg [/^iv wXoviriovg aT£Xe7f d'xo f/.iK^Sv'!^.^a>- 
f&aTut yiynof^ivovg, Tovg 3s f^iT^ict r; ^ix^aj^ 
KSXTrif;i,tvovg Tuv ToXiTuv TO. ovTOt. awoXXvpTU^, 
iTt J" vtrTigi^outrav Ix tovtoiv tt^v toXiv tS» 
xcti^m, iSi^Koc voj^ov xaff hv rovg f/,iv ret. otKcttct 

" ITVfjjiovKtIC. t (AVUOlKtllClltieLV. X (UllKfUUV & OfUKpn. 


•jraiiiv tii/ccyxaira, rovi -^Xovtriovg, raug is ■jrivrira.% 
iTctviT aSiKovf^movg, T^ iroXs( 5' oVef tjn y'PWi' 
^aiTaTOf, iv x-ai^m yiyvefrd/xt rag •^apaa-xsva.g* 
iToiritra.. xui y^atpug rov ct-yZna tovtov e'lg u[/.a{ 
s'liTiiXdov Kai a,%i<pvyav, kou to fJ.i^og 7m ■^ii<paiy 
aiuxiuv aix sXafSsv. xaiToi Toir/x,'^ ^^rif;i,a.Tcc 
Tovg riye^ovag thui/ (rviA.(^o^tuv ri TOvg aevTS^ovg 
Kct.) T^tToug o"i<rdi ^mi hhomi, aiVre fi-aXurra 
l^tv f^Ti 8{iva,t 70V vof/.os TOVTov, u h\ f/-fi, xarct- 
(ia.'KovTix lav Iv v-^uf/^oiTia, ; roffavr , <n ava^sg 
' ASuvctToi, otroc oxvri<ra,t(L av v^og vyMg i'l'^riiii, 
Kcti TctvT i'lKOTCiig iv^DirTov ixsliioi. Tji ya^ 
aiiToig IK fiCty ran T^OTS^aiy vof/^v irvvexxaiisKct 
Xurov^yiiv, avTolg fj.iv f^tx^a xcti ouosv dvaXi- 
irxovtri, Tovg ^' aTo^oug ruv ■s'tuXtvuv imT^i^ouiriv, 
sx Se tow sf^oZ nofA-ou TO ytyvof^ivav xara. riiii 
oviriai/ txaffrov nSivai, x,oCt dvo7y icpxvn T^ir;^- 
af^os T^g fAfoig IxTog xcu OiKccrog irqoTi^o\t 
ffuvTikrig' ov^s ya.^ T^iti^d^y^oug sri ayof/.a^on'!^ 
iavTovg, aKKa ^vvriXeTg. iVrs 3»j tocvto. Xud^veu 
kk) f^ri TO. olxa-ia icoiiiv a.vcf.yxa.ir8nva.i, oux isS 
Ti oix ISiSoircti'. Ka/ (/.oi Xsyt ■jt^cutov jMSV to 
i^^ipiiFftM xaff a i'lffriXSov ttiv y^a.p*iv, itra. Toug 
KBtTaXoyoug, Tov r ix rov "^^on^ou vo^ov xa.i rov 
xetTot Toy ifjuoy. Xsyi. 




iKTrmyxs vo^of tig to f^iTi^a.^yjKOv a-yri rou 
T^CTS^ov, Ka,S ov cc'i ffvvTiXsiat fjirav rZv T^irj^a^* 
j^a/v Ktui i-7riysi^cirovri<ri\i ri (iovX^ xai o S^fLo;' 
Kctt OLirnviyxi Tra,^oivofx,m At!f/.oirSiVEi Uar^oxXiJi 
'JfKusiig, KCtl TO ftEoo?"!" Tuv i^riipuv ou ^.nl^&iv a.Xi- 
TKn rag 7nvTci,xoirta,g a^a^f/'ug. 


Toys '^^^''i^^^yj^vg^. KO.'kiiiTOa.i ein r^t r^irtg-n 
trv»SKxct.ihxa Ix tuv h To7g "Kayptg irwriKitm, 
ifjro slxofTi xai wmre trZv sig TiTTO-^a,. 
itrov T« yj>^^yi^ y^ufLinoug. 

•a^a. TOUTOV TOV iX, rOV if^OV tOfLOV ■ 



Trig oixrlag xar« Tif/,)ja-iv, avo Tu'ka.vTiuv Sixtx.- 

* laO' 0. t TO TfiATTToy /itpoc- t '"p'TpipX"''- 


sctv as ^XsiovM r, oviria a.TOTiTtf/.^yAv^ ^ Xi^f^^' 
Tmii, xccTCt TOii avaXoyitTf/.av saig r^taiv vXoiav 
xai vJTtj^ETixou n MiTov^yia iffrtu. xaroi rriv 
avrtiti 0£ duaXoyiav irrju x,a.i oig IXarreuv ovrrla, 
itri Tuv oixa. TaXavTuv, e'lg irvvTiXsiav cwx'yo- 
flivotg tig TO, isxa. TotXavTa. 

Ago, ys [/.ix^a, ^OTidijffai Toig Trivritriv iifLwv* 

doxZ, ri f/AK^a dvaXuirai as toZ fMi rei Stxaiet 

^—■TOiBiv 01 ■rXovtrioi ; ov roivvv [/.ovov ra f/,ri xa- 

Blfopsi'yaj raura B-if^vv}io(t,a.i, « ou^\ ra •y^a.ipiig 

avo^vysiv, dWci xoti tu frv^(pe^ovTa. Suvai tov 

voflov xcti Tu '!rit^av i§yif/ oiOmxtvai. Tmia. ya,^ 

Tov ToXiffOii tZv aa-oirroXwii yiytof'.ssiuv xara. rov 

vof/.os TOV ifiov ov^ IxeTri^iBtv idr,xs ^f'^fKf^osy 

ovSsig TroKToff mg koiKou[/.Bi/og "tto.^ u{mv, ovx iv 

Moi/cu^/a IxuSiC^iTO, ouy^ uiro tuv a-^oa-roXiu)'^ 

k^iS?^, oi) r^ifi^fig ovt s^iu xarcLkyitpBtls-a avuXiro 

r^ •pToXei, OVT ccvtov a.-!riXsi(p8ti ov Svvctfd.ivt} 

^di/ctyia-^oii. xoiitoi xotra Tovg T^on^oug vof/.ovs 

clvotvTK Totvra lyiynro. to o tuTiov, iv roig 

•rivritriv rtv to Xstrou^yuv' ■roXXa, or; to, eiovvaTa 

iTvvi^ocmv. lyai o Ix thh ctTo^mv Eig rovg suwo- 

povg fA,iTt!VByxa, Tag r^iti^a^y^tag- %a.VT oSf ra 

iiovTO. syiyvsTO. xui [/,ri« xai xcct auro touto 

, a^iog tlf^i l-ramov Tuj^ih, or* wavTa ra 

t Tplfjpnpj^ljf. I OTTfllTToXtUV. 


■TT^or.^oCjA^v ■noKtTtv^a.ra., cap a/y af/,a domett xai 
Tif/.ix.) xa.1 Suvctf/Atg cun(^a.ivov rj wo'Xsi* jSaa-KU- 
V6V 3'e KOLi ^iK^ov xa) xuKori&sg oi^iv irrri "^rokf 
Tiv/^a ifioii, audi rcf^rsiyov, ouoi r^f wo^.eaig am- 
^lov, TcivTQ Tomvy rjdci t^aiv ft n rotg kbctk t)j» 

fAai' ovre yu.^ \v rlj woKsi raj irct^a, rm -frXov 
irlav ■^a.^iTO.i fJMXXov Jj ra rtny -ttoXXuv Sixctia 
uXof^riv, OUT fv 7-o7s 'EXXjjkxoTs ra 't'tXiTmv 
hai^tx, xa) rriv ^sviav riya.^7itrct aur) rm xotvi iratri 
Toig E?iXj;(r; rrufjcips^ovTm. 

'Hyof^-ai TOifvv Xonrov nvat [Mi -re^t tov 
Kr,s6yfiotTog siwiTv aai rm su&vvm' to ya^ us ™ 
a.^i<rra, re 'tT^arrov xcCi Oia TravTog smovg U[/.i xat 
■^^o0vf/.oi ii) Tottiy ufAug, txavZg ix tUv u^tif/,iyuy 
htiTSXZ(r8c».i fAot vofti^ai. xtxiTOt rot. {/.iyiffTce. yi 
rm TTivoXiTSVfA.ii'm xa) TST^ayf/.imf tfMx,vT^ 
'ra.gaXsiTait {/■jroXa^pa.Kun t^oitov f^lv l^s^^g rovi 
■jre^i avTou tov wajano^ou Xoyovg cf!roSovyai f/,t 
3eT>, €tTa, ftav f/,>iai» iixa Ts^i tuv Xoituv ToXt- 
T(uf/.a,ra)v, of/,oiii/g wa^' vf,i,^v ixottrrai to (Tvnei^og 

Teui f/,tv ovv Xoymv, oug ovTog atai xai xctTu 
iioixuxniyT" sXtys Ti^t twv ■jra^oc.yEy^cif/.fLsyaiv vo- 
^aiy, OVTS fMX, rovg 6sovi ufAag otuMi f/,etvSci»Biy, 

tov (iioy vwBv^vnog iiycct Q^akayu m >i Sioizs^ii- 
^ixa, jj ■jre-PToXiTitif/Mi •ru^' vfiis. uv (/.h/toi ye Ik 
TJj; loiag ovrrtag lwayy£iXcif/,iVog Oioaixa ru 
i>lf/.ai, ou^Efj'.ictv ^jUE^ctv vTsudwog ttvai ipni^i 
(oLxoCiic A'i<Ty^ii7i i) otJ3' a.X'Kov oiilivci, ovo' av 
rm Effect a.^yj>vTaiy rig aiv '""JtJT- ^'5 y^§ ^^"^^ 
voy-og rorraCrrig aSixlag xai i/.ttTctvS^i!Tia.g f^ta-TOg, 
anTTB rov iovTo, ri rav lOim xai ToitiiravTa •^^ay- 
fi.a ^I'kottvS^UTrov xtx,L ^tKodoi^ov Ttig ^d^tTog fitv 
as-oiTTS^iiv, iU ^s "Tovg ff-uxoipd,vTag olyeir, xcu 
Tourovg etti Tag njSvvug a)v ioiuKiv uptardva,! ; 
Olios sig. SI oe (p^iinv ovrog, osi^cctoi, xdyu trrt^^a 
xat (TidiTTitrofiLai. dXX' ovx nmv, a> a,i/o§sg 'A^jj- 
iia7o(, aXX' ouTog rruxo^avTuv, ort itcl toi dmn^ix^ 
TOTi aiv sTiSaixat to. ^^nf^ara, iTi^viiriv avTot 
ipniriv ^ (3ov>ri VTiudvvov ovra. ov Ti^l rovruv 
yi niihwg, »v vTrm&wog jjk, aXX' e^' alg iwionxa, 
01 ffVKotpiivTa.. aXXa xor-t inyjurrnog hir&a^, (pritri, 
xa.1 hd ye rovro o^Soig exjjfflw^jji', or* TanTiXtii- 
fiLisia iTiOuxa xxi ovk IXoyi^Ofbfii'. o (/.iv ya.^ 7.o- 
yitr//,05 iii&vmpj^ xcil tuv l^iTairoiirwv ^§o<riuTai, 

t noXXovQ a 

. tuBvrruiy, 
e 1 


"Or* ^ ouTOJ ravTcc oh f/^owv ts roig vOfMig aA- 
Xa xai h To7g vf/,STt^Oig riSztriv ai^ta-TOtt, lyai paoiajg 
xoXX«;^o'^6v hl^u. T^aiTOii [i.l\i ya,^ NotuffixX?; 
<rT^arr,yaJv, i^ oig a.'jro tuv iSiaiv ^^oeito, xoX- 
T^axi; io'Ti^murat vip' vf/.^y' si'ff on rag cttrTt- 
ootg AioTiiJi-oi iomxe xat -TrctXiv^i07i[/.og, nm- 
<paiiovvTo' tiff ovtot) ^so'TToXEf/^g -^oKkZy i^ymv 
ssriffmrjjs uv, i(p' otg eiteSajxe, Tsrf[/,jjTa,i. it^st- 
Xtov ya,^ av SIT! tovto ye, it tZ rtva, ct^y^h* 
ct^-X/jvri n iiSovui TTi ToXu ra laurou 3(a rJii- 
a^^t!V fji,rs i^etrrat, ?i rZv SoStvTuv dyri toU x^fiJ- 
tra./r6ai ya-^iv iu^uva.g i>(pe|EJ."f' 'Oj"i roiyvv rauT 
dXi;&^ 'Kiyu, Xiyi to. ipPiCpifrfLaTci [loi to. rouroig 
ysyivtjf^iva, uura, 7^.a(iuv. Xiys. 


Agy^m Arii^QVixog ^"kvsiig, (ioT^b^ofJ-imog sxri; 
[j^BT eixcLSct, yvc^fJi^ri^ j^ovXtjg xa) i^f^ov, KocXXia; 
^gsappiog ii-TTiv an SoxtJ t^ /SouXji «at toi 07ifi.a 
iTTKpccva/trai ^avirixXia tov iwi rm o'jr'Kaiv, on 
' A.Stiyalu« wXiraiv hicy^i'kiiiiiy asrm Iv lfj,(3^a> xat 
(ioridouiiTcDV TOig xaroixoviriv ' A.0ti»a,iaiy riiv v^vot, 
oil ovpci.f/.iyov ^tXaiyog Tou sti t^s oioixriffts^ 
* Tuvra txtt KQi ov. t u^tEeii'. I yvuin^v. 


fjLKr^oooTijirixt -rovg o^Xirccg, ex rtjg ioiixg ovtriag 
^iuerai tov s-Ti(pa,vov Awvuirioig T^ayMOoTg xaivoig. 



Ef^S Ka7.>.'irx,g <i>^sa.ppiog, x^VTavim "Kiyovraif 
^ovXrig ymii,^^ iTSiori Xa^/^jj^ito; o km raiv orr- 
'kiTdiy, KTOiTTaXsig i'lg ictXctfiUvot, *a( Aiorifiog o 
ISrJ raK ITViaiV, iV Tjj ItI TOU ■TTOTO.f/.OlJ fta^)) Toiv 

tn TOK lytaiv MvaXai/^aTftiv Kot-dwrXKrixv roue neiiri- 
iTKOvg affTitriv oxTuiKO/ricitiq, ^sio^&oti rij /Sou^S 
ICO.) T0 hriiAai im(pam(Tcti ILa^ioi^fjiov x.a.t Aiori- 
fjLov XjPvit^ ffTi(pa,vu, x-cti^iZffix.i WavaSi^vai- 
aig Toig ^syaXoig tv rai yui^vixZ ayuvi xai Aio- 
tvirioig T^ctywooig Katvoig' Trig os ai^ayo^suffEwf 
iVii^i'kijOrivcii.i Si(ry^SiTag, T^vravsig, ayMohrag. 

Tourav iKcttTTog, A'i(ry/t\iri, rtjg [/.iv ^^y/ii If 
f!^X^' yxsui'i'i'o; ^y, ecp' oig i<rTi<pavovro, oi/^ 
vTiuSwog- ouKovn ouS lyiu' Taura yu^ ^'ixata. 
Itrri fJ.01 Ts^i Tut avTtut roig aXXoig ^titou. sors- 
iwKct ; t'Traivovf/.ai Si 



\lUKCt yi 

% tTTsSaixa 
VVBcg iK,U' 


iiTo, Tct^m, on f/,B i'ttrnyov ol 'koyirrTo.i, av Kotrri- 
ya^nq ; "Ivoc. to/vuv eI^^te on aurog ourog fMi fW(^~ 
tu^e7 i<p' oig o'uy^ vvtv8vvog riv iim<pa.suirS<x,i, Xa/Sac 
tavkyva/Qi ro ■^riPiiTfJi.oi. oXon ro y^a/^i)/ jmi, oig 
yag ovx ly^a-^oLTO rov '!r^o0ovKevf/,aTog, Tourete, 
a. SiuKsi, irvKo(pix.vTaiv ipavfi/rirrtt. Xtyi, 

'EiTi a^^ovTog ^uduxKioug, wuatvsipicuvog Itctr^ 
d^mrog, <puX^g w^vTctvivovfnjg Oivtif^og, Knjffi^* 
AtoMrSivovg ' A.\)Ot.^xC<Trsog siwsv, IvEiSri Ari[j,o<r6k- 
vr,g ^tifA,oirSivoijg TlaiavtEvg yEvo/A.svog iTipcsXTjrrig 
Tiig Tuiv Tityuv i'TriiTx.svJig xcti "ir^orra.vtx.Xiuira.g si? 
TO. l^ya. a,Ta rr,g toiag outr'tag r^'ioc raXavTO. 
iwi^aim Tctvret, rm ^rif/joi, xai im tov Siupixou 
xotTatrraSiig tTioeoxs roig ix imffoiv tuv <puXa* 
6e&>^iKo7i ixarov f/.)iSig $ig duiriocg, ^lOo^Seii r^ 
(iovXlj xa.1 Tu irif/,oj rw 'A^jjta/aiv iTouyia-oti 
^rifLoffdiyrii ^ri(^oir6ivovg Tiaiana. U^STr.g iUKct 
xui xaXoxayaSiag rig sy^m $ice,reXB7 iv •sravTi 
xai^&z tig Toti dtjfjLOi tov ' MtiyKim, xai (rrt^avZa-ut 
}^pvrr&i ir7i(pa.\i»/, ««( ai/ayo^itJirai rov arsCpavov 
EC Tu 6ia.T^ai Atonvirloig T^ayuhoig xcavrilg' rijg 
Si dvctyogtuosajg iTCifLeXrid^vai tov aycuvodiT^v. 
* tv Tovroii. 


OuxotJV a, jj,iv 'nrihtuKa, tdlvt iffr'iv, div ovSin 
ffv yi-y^a-iliccr a 3s ^fjiriv ri ^ovXii hstv am 
Tovrm yii/iirSa.i j/^at, tkvt iaff a Sis-jxeig. to 
Ku(3e7v om ra, OiOof^Bva, of^oyoXniv kwofj^ov sivai, 
TO )^oi^iv Tovroiv kwohouvoci ■^uiy ypa.<pi\, 
« 06 -TrafL-xovTi^og aj^^nKro; x.aL 8ioig s^^fOf i,bu 
pourxavog ovrmg wo7og rig an si?i ■?r^og Siuv ; ov^ 


Hai fifin TTS^i Tou y £v Tw Sikr^i^ Kri^vrTitr^oci, 
iTO [Liv fLu^ia-Kig fAiV^tovg KSKTi^uy^dai ■ra^a.XtiTa/ 
xat TO iroKKuKig avTog iffTi!pa.yai<r8ix.i ir^ort^ov, 
4tKKa. v^og 6iuv outu CKo-tog it xbu auetiirdtiTcg, 
■Atir^mi, uffT oh avvairaff KoyttrourSat on tu 
fiiiv frTs^a.sou[i,ism tos olvtov ly^ii ^Aov a o-rs- 
^ix,vog, oxou Kv a,vcippfi0r„ tov 3s tuv trrs^avouii- 
Tom evExa irv{/,<pi^oi/To; iv tu ^sbct^oi ytyviroct to 
HTI^uyf/M ; 01 yag axoinranTig ocTrai/Tig slg to 
■roiETii su Ttjv '^roXif ■jr^oT^swonTCti, xat Tovg a/ro- 
\ii^mTa.g rh X"'S"' f^^^^^" i'^ct.ivov/ri tov tm- 

Ipaj'OUjM.EtOO.J ^lOTl^ TOV VOf^OV TOVTOf tj TTOki; 

yiy^oc(ptv. \iyi 3' auTov f^oi tov vo[j.oii Xa.j3m. 


"Otrovg im<poL»ovffi tivs; tbHv SfifAojn, rag diiat 
■fyo^iuiTfig Toiv a'rE(pce.vuii •xoiuirBix.i tv auroTg ixot- 
■rrovg Toig litoig ^r,f/^oig, lav f/,ri Tivctg o i?if/,o? o 


Tuv ' A-S^iict'tav n ri 0ouXn trTe<pavo7' Tovravg i' 
i^tTtai iv T6) 0sar^a) AtovutrSois idvayogeus/rSaiJ. 

'AxovEig, Ata-^mt), rov nof^ov Ktyovrsg irafpug, 
ir/fli' ^av Tivag o o^f/,og rj ij ^ovhrj ■^Ti<pt'a-riTai.t' 
TOUTOvg 06 dvayo^evirat. ri ovv, a raXetfru^f, 
irvxocpctvTslg ; ri Xoyoug irXocTTUg ; rt iravTor ouk 
IXXs^oPi^Ui E!rl TOVTOig ; aX?i' oi/o' ctia"^vvr, (pdovov 
i'lxi^v i'lrrdyaiv^ oIk aStKr/fiarog ovoivog,"^ Ksti 
vof/Mvg f^sTK'^roiiiiv, t(uv o dpat^aiv fhi^ti, olg ohovg 
^Uaiov ^f a.vKyiymfTxtirifa.i To7g ys of/,ufM»6iri 
Kara, rovg nofiovg ■^ri(pti'i/rSnci ; iTritra. rotavra 
•xoiuv Kiyiig a. 3s7 •r^otrufai tS otjf^orixai, ojinrt^ 
anS^tuura mhSi^Kuc kkto, s'vyy^a,(pr!v, sir ow 
iy^oiTO. a, ■x'^atrriKiv Ik rtjg iruyygaipljs «of/.t^ofAsvog, 
ri Xoyai -Tovg OTifMriKovg aXX' ou raig rgctyfiUxa-i 
xa.) roig ToXiTev^cttri yiyi/tu/rxofJ-inovi. xa) (ioag 
pflTO, KOI,) apptiTO. ovof/,ik^ojy, aiinri^ 6| a,f^a,^>ig, a. 
troi KOLi tZ (tm yivii w^omimv, ovk if/,01. 

K-KiTOt xai roVTO, ai avS^sg ' Adr,vaioi. iya Xoj- 
OO^taii xaTTjyo^iag tovt^ OtDi.(pi^itv r;youf,t,cti, rcu t-^h 
{/,iv xxTfjyo^iccv a^ix^fiKT 1%H9, m iv ToTg tOfMig 
sla-h at Ttf^iiioicti, rriv 3s XotSooiav ^Xatr^TifiUiag, 
a,g ko-to, rris auraiv (puiriv roic i^d^dig crs^i a^^X^- 
Xaiv ffvi/.(^a,ivii Xsyuv. QixooOfji.rjirce,t OS rovg TTgo- 
yovQvg'^ ravrt ra OiKurrTti^ia vrrsiXtj^a, oi/j^ tva 
<rt/k>.i^cLVTeg v^ag e'lg ra-vra, dwo rmv l^lwi xaxag 
* (TTCifiavaatjTai. i ouccroQ Xalitiv rifiupta^. 

X TTpOTOVOUC hi'*''''- 



Tct aTopptiTcc Xiyuf/.sy aXKriXovQ, aKK iva i^s- 
Xiyy^w^sv, lav rig rioiKtiKoig ti Tvy^kvrt rriv ToXtv. 
TavTct Toiiiuv e'lOaig AitT^ivr/g ovoi» riTTOV e//.ov 
vof/.'^evsiv avT( tou xartiyo^sin siXero. 

Ou (Mjv ouh' lvra,u6a. iXocrrov iyjuv i'tKaioq 
ItTTtv a-jriK&uv- rjii] ^ et) Taurtx, To^tvirof/,ai, to- 
irouTot auToii i^aiTfitrag. ffors^ov tre Tig, A'kt^ihj, 
Ttig ToXsaig l^S^ov tj lt/,ov iivai ^^ ; iiJ.ov Sfj^oi/ on. 
sira ov fjLi)/ fjv wa^' e^oi> OiKnv x-tnTct Tovq vofJ.QUg 
UXEg TOVTOIV "KupilV, ttTi^ rjOIKOUV, i^iXiTSg, iv 
Tcug iuSunKig, iv rdtg ■y^a<pci7g, iv ralg aXXcttg 
K^itritriv o5 3' lya (/.iv ddaiog uTota-i, toi; vof/,oii, 
TO) X^ovai, T^ ir^o6iff(Ji-icA, rZ xix^tirffai tts^) tuvtuv 
voKkcmtg -r^oTi^ov, rai i^r;otiriirTOTB l^iXiy^Sriyai 
fAfjOSv uf/'cig dotxaiv, r^ ToXii o tj 'jrXzov t} sXctTTOV 
ctfayKn rmv ye OfifAOtria, TreT^etyfAivuv fjuiTUvai r^g 
OO^jjS, iyrauda oi-jrrtvTnxag ; o^a f/>t; toCtidv [Aiv 
iy&^og ^g, ifi.og Hi ■^^otr-Trot^. 

'Eire(3^ roivuv h fjCkv Bvfft^fig xa.) iixaiot, -^tj^og 
tfjTcifri oiosixrui, ou oi f^Sf'f aig toiKi, xai-jrig ov 
tptXaXo'i^o^OV ovTot, tputru, Sia rag y^o ToCrou 
(3Xas-<p}ipi,iag t't^fii^ivag am -ttoXX&iv xa.) -^tvliiv 
avToc TdvayxaioraT iWslv 5re|( atlrow, Kat Ss7^a,i 
,«ff aiv xsti Tivikir paoisag ovToig af^E' tou xaxug 
•Ktyeiv, xa) Xoyoug riiiag hacu^li,'!!^ 'x,urog sl^r,xaig 
ouK an aixuriO-i tuiii (/.tT^icaii av^^anruv 
c/iov- t £" •.<" ff^' \ Bi.(jLa«^tw , 


^hviig Tiv KKTriyo^uit, ctXka, ^j; ffwe§f^oh.oyeg, 
TSgiT^ifA-fMi. dyo^oig, o'KeS^m y^a,f^f/,artvg, ovx a» 
avTOv oif^ni ronxZ-r il-jritv ovS a» ovrug i'^a^^iig 
Koyovg •!r6giiraa-0oti, Zirirs^ it r^a.yuhia, ^oxvra 
Z y^ Kol SjXis xx) dgsrii xai to, TOiavra, xcti 
TctKiv iruviinv xou •jruilila.y iTixaKov/Aivov, ? ra 
xkXo, xai TO, a'i<ry^^a. hia-yiymirKSTott' rauTOt 
yag ifsTTOuHev rixouBT aurou xiyofTO?. trol ^t 
a^iTTig, a xa.&a.o^a, rt rotg trolg rig [jCiTovtrtce, ; >} 
xaXaii'* 1} fiA) TOiOVTotv rU hacymirig ; To'tfevy n 
■JCiig d^iaSiVTi ; ^ou oe ■jrotiosiKg <roi ^Ef/,ig fjL*r}- 
irSrivat, rig tuv f/,lv aig a,Xi^8Zg TirV)rrjxOTuv ouo 
av i'lq e'lTQi ^E^t avTov roiovrov ouOiV, aKXa xat 
srigov Xiyosrog l^v6^ioi.rr£H, roig S' d-ro'XsKp&tTtri 
fi^iv (uim^ (TV, ■T^orrToiov^ivoig ^ ux dyai(rOriiriag 
TO Tovg oLxaCovTUg eiXyt7t Toitlv, orav Xiyaitriv, ov 
TO ^oxiiv ToiouToig ihctt Ts^'ita-riv. 

Oux d,Togaiv y Ti )^^^ vs^i irov xai tuv <ruv 
etTTsTy, uTo^i TotJ ^^mTov iA.]in(T8ea, worff aig o 

7^ Q>!/ruai hSda-xovri y^a.f/,feMTa, yjiUixag a-ct- 
•)(^iia.g i^m xm ^uKov, ^ ai; >i f^^rr.^ trou To7g 
fji,i0t!f^s^ifo7g ydfMig tv tm xXiinai rai Tgog tu 
Kci}Mf^iT:^ ri^ui )^§a>f^i»}} TOy xaXov atO^tcifTcc 
xa.) TgiTayuynrTtiii ax^ov i^id^si^i in ; aXXa, 


ipyairiccg ; aXXa vri rev Aia kbh rovf Siovq oxtai 
fi/Ti OTSflt irov TO. •JT^oiTtixovTa Xiytav auTog ou T^off- 
flicovTa.g if/^vra ho^m T^origiitrSa.i Koyouq. ravra 
^£v ovv idffu, d,T aiirmv }ii iiv tx,i>Tog ^E(3ia»siif 
ag^o[/,ar ovSl yd^ iv trvj^sv ^f, aXX' oig i 
otjy.og xaragdrai. 0'\ps yd^ Ton — , o-^i Xsyw j 
jy^£? (/.iv ovu KM TT^uriv dfj! 'A^j;ua7o; xa) prjTup 
lyiyovi, ko.) S6o (TuXXK^dg "Tr^otrSitg tou f^iv tcc- 
Ti^a, am Tfo^Jjro; l^oifiirev 'Ar^ofijjroy, r^y Si 
fAtiTi^u, /ref^mg vdvv TXavxoSictv atiiof/,atrsy, ^v 
^fjLTOtJtraii d^avTig ursuri xa.Xovf/.iyriv, ik tou 
vdvTct -jroisiv xdi wdtr^siv OtiXovori ravTtig r^g 
iTO/vvfjiixs Tx^yjiwa.]/' ■7ro6sv yd^ dXkoBin j aXX' 
OU.wg ovTOig u.ya.pi<rTog n xai wovtjpog ^urrei, axrr 
iXsvSi^og ix SovXou xdi -rXova-iog Ik wrcuy^ov did 
TOVTouiTi ysyowf ouy^ owa/g yjX'^iv OLuroig s^sjc, 
aX?.« fwff^<wV«f o-aurov xa.rd Tovrtiin iroXirsop.* 
»«) wi^i uiv ftsv so-r/ Tig df/,<piir(B^Trimg, a/g ot^a 
itrej TKS woXsug e("|)jxec, idirca' d 6 oirs^ rm 
gY&^cjti pccuB^eiJg dTEhay^Ori'f -jr^drraiv, txvtbi. dva- 

Tif yd^ vfA,iuv oix oloi rov dTa-^riPiff^ivrtx. 

^T^ 276 

' AvTi(pci/vra, og ixoiy/it'koLfJ.ivog OiXfTToi ra- vta- 
gttx. tfi-x-^tia-iiy ra, vf/.STS^a sk r^*" ■^roXiv ^xOti/ -, 

naratTTfiiravTog eij rrst SKKXtjiriav /Soac o /3ce,ff-Ka- 
vog ourog kci) Ksx.oa,yuQ, ug iv oyi[A,OK^a.T'ia. huva, 
TOiSi Toug riTV)^T!X0Tctg toiv ToKirm tjjSgi^aiv xai 
sir olxictg iSaoj^wc anv •^Tj^ifTy.aTog, a^sB^vat 
Ixo'tTiiriv- xcti £(' {/,?! t! jiov'Kn ri i^ 'A^siov -sar 
you TO ■jr^ayf/.a u'ta-Oo^ivf] rriv vf^tTi^cL* 
olyvoictv Iv oil iioyri <r-jfi,f3sj3nxv7a,ii iSovira ixt- 
Krirw^ '""'' avS^uvov xa) tru'kXa^avira, ivoLVfiyaya 
ui Vj^ag, i^Ti^-jraa-T av o towZtos kou to hiX7i» 
haiiva.1 iiaivg s^s-x^fj^ET at v-jro tov irifMoKoyov 
rovTOUi' vuv 3' w^E~s /rr^sfSXaaffavTEg a.vTOV dvi- 
XTilyecTEf &>g ISii ys xa.) tovtov. 

Toiya^ovn t'lOvia. tccvtcc ri (SovXtj ri i^ 'A^e/ou 
•n-ayov tote tovtu ■JTEir^ayf/.iiia, yjn^oroin^trccvruy 
ahrov vfA.aJv rriivhixov vwl^ tqv 'ie^ov tou h A;jX» 
a«-o Ttjg avT)jg aynoiag a(p iiimg ToXXa v^dnff&E 
Tuv xotvZv, ug T^oEtXitrSi'^ xaxEiVTiv KoCt Tov ir^u.y- 
f4,a.Toc au^iocv E'TtinsttTi, rovTov fAiv tuSvg XTT^Xairtt 
aig T^oaoTt;!/, "T^b^iOti OE Xsyiiii 'Tr^offira^E' xat 
TOtZrot. a.'jro tov (Baif^ou (pi^ovira. ri^v i^^ipov ewoa^s, 
xa.) ovhfiiet ipr,(pog nvEyPn tu (hbl^u tovtu. Kai 
oVi rctsJT etXfj0>i Xiyai, xaXEt fAot rouraiv ro'jg 

* eOTakafiovTa^. \ v^iuXmBt. 



§svs, Ajj^okxoj Mcc^aSuviog, on tov ^rifjLou vori 

■rev h A^Xw t'lg Tovg 'Af/^ixruovctg iTuvih^ivtra,\irig 
'■ili.iig ix^Uaf/,i»"T«t^i^riv a^iov that [Ji,a,XXov v^i^ 
T)ig VQktag "kkyuv, xcti amfrraX?! "Iwioi^yig. 

OiiKOvy OTS TOUTOO fAiXXovTog Xsynv ctTT^Xaa-iy 


iirgoSoT^v sitai Km xaxovovn if/Av ot.^i<pnvi]i. 'Ef 


TovTQU, ofAoiov yi, ov yo,^ i oig if/,OU XCiTJjyO^il' 

STsooii &s afct^ifAvritrxitrde. ots ycig Xludma <Pi. 
XiTTTog ixtf^-^e TOV Bv^avriov xal -jra^a. jm 
auTou trv[Ai/.a-^tiiv icmTiui Sijimi^'ifii •jr^iirfistg, ug 
iv d'ur^vvri •xoiTi/ruv Tnv ■J^oXiv xai Sei^atu aStxoZ- 
^gfctv, TOTS lytii f^iv Tiu T\v6aivi d^acvvo^ivai xoti 
^woXXf pioVTi xaS' vfMJt ovK ei^a. oii$' i^s^^u^ijira, 
ctXyJ avaiTTug avTi't'^rov xa.t t« Tr,g TroXiug h'lKcun 
ey^i T^ovSaXct, aXX' aOiXouyTO. OjXiwwon e^'S- 
Xiy^a <pa.n^Mq oiiTug soiTTi TOug ixtiiov inj//,fj(,a- 
ji^ovg auTovg amrraf^ipovg opLoXoyitv' ovrog as 
ffuiitjyaivi^tro xeu TCtvavria i^u^tv^h t^ iroiT^ioi, 


aXXa ru'Ki* ft-tret ravd' vorrsgo* 'Atet^iyai vm 
xureca-Kovai ffvnm s'n r^v Qgaffunog o'ltciat 
(>.^(p^r,. KKtroi otTTii ru uto rait 

TSfJblpdiVTI jttOHS; f/.OVU trVVl^il KKi tX0l¥0'k0'yi7T'S, 

oStos aiirof virri^^i r^ ^ffu KarecirKovog »«( 

'Aiyiu, xa.Xtt fA,oi tovtuh rovg fx.ct§Tv§ctg. 

NjKOfta;^;©? AiO(pa,»TOv fMx^rv^ova-i Arifiotr&im 
KCti i^a/f^offocvro Iw) Tuv err^ccTfj'yaiy BfOirat A'l- 
""X,''^* 'Arfo^^rou '^aSux.'iinv ffvii^y^o(i,i¥0» vuxr'oi 
[$ TYiD Q^a,ffuvoc oiKiau xat xoivaXoyovfj^Etoi' 'Ara- 
Of tx^iSti sivcti xarairxoTog -Tra^a. OiXitrTOV. 
( aTi^oStitrctf a.i (/.agrvgiui em N(«('oy, txei- 

Mvgia Toiwv irs^' BiTi7v 6;^»* Tsg) avrou 

iyu vvv S7-(* ToCruvf 'i^oii/.t lii^at, uvX ourof xar 
ixiitoui TOUi ■^^ovavs To7i fJLiy i^Sgdig vvagirm 
tflOi a i^ii'tct^uii iv^i$fi. a.XX' ou TiSiTdt Tuvra 
T«*' ufuv^ si; ax^i^}) f^i'tlf*'!' ou^' ijv vgoirtixst 

" iiTi, ■f TOiirwv ieiforcpa. J St' oii: !) t'/jiui , 


r <f yJJ^j a.'KXa. dsdetiKCiTS idn tivi ipauXu n-oXXfl* 

truf/,(pB^6»Tiiv vTroirKS\i(^iiy xa) irvxotpavTslyy rfl; 

■ iiTTi Kctl a,ff(paXia-7igov au To7g iyS^alz liT^rj^i- 

I xo'kiTivsa-^ai . 

Kui TO i/,iv ori T^o Tou ■jTo'kifJt.uv (pave^ag trvi- 
stymi^i/rdai ^oJvttu hivov yAv, u yn xai 0soi, 

I wjuf ya^ ov ; xura, r^g vctr^idog' $ots h' , u 
^ovXiff&s, OOTt ctvToi TOUTO, aX?\ Ivti^f! <pa,v&^ug 
riot] TO. vKoTct lirstTvXjiTo, ^sppovwog Ivo^duTO, 
im rnv 'A-TTixriv Ito^euiS' uvd^aiwog, ovxir'^ m 
a,{A>(pt<r(it!rr!<r't[/M to. T^ayfjiara ?v aXX* iviirrriKit 
■jtoXtfMg, ri (/.in Wiror § l-7r^u%iv uxef vfj^v o 
(SaiTKavog ovTOfft ictfi^sio!pa,ycg, \\ ovk a,* s}^oi 

Oii^Cti, OVO iO-Tif OVTt f^it^V OUT iXUTTOf •^fj^l- 

ffj»a ouoiv AjffyavT} irs^i vaiv <rvfx.ipi^ovTc^v t^ voXti. 
tl ii <Pn^t, "vii Sii^aToi iv tZ Ifiai vSari. aXX' 
ovx 'iiTTtv o65ev. xcLiTOi lu(AV^ uvTOii aiayxfj Soi.ri • 
gov, n f/'>}^iv To7g ^^aTTO/^ivoig v% sfiou tot t^ovr 
tyxaXfTv f/.ti y^atpsiv waga raZd' In^a, ij to rut 

f ai'TtKardWoiiEvot. J oi 


iv6pm ffVf/,^tpov ^jiTOVfTct (AT! Ipi^iin SIS p^iirov ret 
ToCru> ay.eivii. Ag' ouv ova eXe^ti^, tutTTrig ova 
typa^sv, r;iiiXBt i^yaffaffStii ri OE«i xctKov vfMg i 

15 woXi; xeti irotm o'Croi \ayda,Ki»' tv i' ivs^ei^- 
yktraTO a/ avS^eg 'A&rivaioi toh>uto», sraffi 
Toig TT^QTigois \-j'i6rixs Tikag' ws^l ov rove a-oX- 
XiM/; avaXaxTi*' Xoyovc, ra Tsiv ' A(/jpiStria>* rail 
Aox^mv iii%ii)V ioy^ara,, ug hatrr^i-^uv raXjj^e?. 
TO ^' ou roievToi/ i(rri' ^oSsv j'f' elhivor ixvi-^i^ irv 
raxii Tgjrjay^ena eavru' ouy^ ovrai wtiWa i^ilg. 
KaXu h' hatTioy CfMiv a> avS^eg 'Adfiyctiot rov? 
diovs chiravrag xoc) xairaf, iitrot rr,t ^a^fa* i'^evn 
Tjjii 'Arrixriiit *«' to*" AvoXXcu rev Viu&iov, bf 
'xa.T^uog tiTTi rtj WXeij xai STTBU^ofLai %a,ffi rov- 
roig, s( jKEv bcXtiS^ cr^o; i^tta; t"zoi[Ji.t xai ti-^rov 
rOT ivdvg iv rui S^f^a, ore x^i/rov BiSo* rovron 
Tov fjna^av rourov rov ■jt^a.yf/.arog a,^rofe.ivo» 
(iyi>uv ya^, iidiag iyvuvjt svrv^iav (a-di oouvc^^ 
xai a-aTTj^'tav, u is %^og e^^fai' n (piXossixitxs 
loiag liiK alriav iTrayai rovrai ^iuit], wavrut 
T^¥ aya6uv auanTiro))'^ f/,s icainffui . 

Ti oui/ ravr i'7rri^ctf/,at xa) inTSim(¥ ciirun 


xsif/,fva, e| my TctvT ivtoii^a cufpai^, xa] y/AWf 
siSug ra Tsir^etyf/>sya (Av^fMvsvovTag, tKitvo ^o(3qii' 
[j.a.1, (/.ti Toiv S(aya)rft,2\iciiv airai xaaaiv UToXri^pS^ 
iXarrm ourog' OTt^ v^otsoov iruvifBr;, cts rovg 
TKXaivai^ovf 0caxiag Woi)}trev ctTroT^iir^ai ra 
■^evhri 5eu^' aTctyyiiKag. rav ya^ iv 'AftipiVirjj 
'Jto\ifi,ov, ii ov iig 'Y.Xa,TUav fiXSt ^tXiTTTog xeet 
ii' ov ^^e^J) Tav ' Af^^iXTVovoiv f)ye[/,uy, hg a'pravr 

UViT^i-\^6 TO. TOIV 'EXXjJliaJli,* (tUTOg IfTTIV ffuy- 

xaraa-xtvkffa^ koi ttclvtuv ug kvri^ ruv /Aey'ia-Tav 
aiTiog xaxa/v. xa) tut tvSvg l{J,av Oia(Jua^rv^o- 
f/-ttov xat (iouvTog iv rrj tKx7.>}/ria, "ToXEfA-ov u( 
Tijn Amxtiv i'nrayiig,'\ Aitr^iv?], -roXefiov A^ 
iptxTvovixo*" 01 fASii EX Tct^scxXTjirsiiig trwyxetH^- 
(J.SV01 ovK sieuv f^i Xiyuft ci d' iOa,vf/,a^ot xui 
xsvriv a'lTiav ^ta ttjv laictv ^X^i^' ixctyns ft.i vss- 
}.a.f^lBixvov airZ. i^rig o ij (pvirig u ds^^tg ' XSti- 
yaioi yiyovi tovtoih toiv 7r^ayf/,aT&ir, xai r'tvog 
ivixct ravTO, trviBtrxEvair^fi xat Tag iT^ayj^n, vZv 
aKoutrars, l^eid^ tots iX(uXv0>iTi' xct) yap ev 
■xi>ay(/,ct /rwTS&iv o^sirSi, xai [AByaXa, oj(piX^~ 
iTEirdi -jr^og 'lo'TOgiai/'H^ rav xotvuv, xai 'lirr> hivoT?)g 
_^y Iv tZ ^tX'fJTJriii, SiaiTiires. 

Ova jjc Tov %fo? U|i4aj woXsfiov -re^ag ov^' 

* 'EA>tji'iu>' irpa'/fidTa. + U'/fk, J rTbiTi)piai'. 

TuXuvs iyj^^ovi ^oi/jtrm tjj woXsc a\Xa. Katvsg 

ffoXfjitoui'rwf aurai ofMii; ut! avrou rou voT^efMu 
xa] Tm 'Aj^trraiii f/.v^ia ''^i xctxa,. ovTf -ya.^ 
i^^ysTo Tuv IK 7-^f X'^^i •yiyvofi.imiv oihv, ovt 
elffriyero m i^iiT a.vTu' ijv li gut h tj SaXarrif 
rare k^sitto/y iif/^v, out t'n Ttsii 'ATTi&ijr iXSiii 

hvva.70i fLTiTi QiTTOkSlV aXCikOvSoVvrait ftflTg ©))- 

/Sa('ai» ^n'itTuV iTvMi^aivi l\ avTu tu xo7\.ifji.f' 
xpaTOVfTi* Tovi oToiovrr^^'Toff vf/.eis l^iTifLitreTi 
tTT^aTtj'yGug (lai yct^ tovto ys) uut^ ry <pviru 
rau TOTTOVf x&i Tm VTca-^-^mrm lnuTi^oig xaxa- 
•jTuhly' il (Av ouv Ttjg ij/af tysx \yd^ag jj rovi 
QiTTOktivi tj Toy; Qfj^cttoug ffv/jLursiSoi ^aii^sit 
i<p' v[/.5,g, ovSiv ail rsyEiTo ■srgoiri^ttv avru ret 
iiouv' u» ds 7a,g ixilvuv xoivag -ir^Btpamsg y.u^a» 
i!ySfJ.m ct'i^s^^, paov tjX-Tn^e to, yXv Tra^axgov- 
ina^a,!,'^ ra, Si •aiitrnv. t'i ouh ; i-jrf^si^it, 6ia.fftx.sS 
aig ill, ■!ro}.Sfjt,Qv ■zoi^trxi to7( A[^ixTt/o(n xai Ttpi 
TJ^v TlvXaiat Ta^a^tjv' ilg yoe,^ raor ivSug 
auTOvs uireXaft^a*£c avTOU hirjffitr^ai. el fi,i* 


fA,f}j(^oiiuv h 7UV Ixtivou a-vf^/AOty^iuii eirrtiyolro r/s, 
iiro-^iffScti TO T^uyfA,a hofii^s xa) TOt/g Qji^aiove 

'' Kttixep uparoviTi. f- tui' rowan; J irapaitpfVirairOai. , 




W) Tovg ©BTTaXovi xal vavrag <pv?.a.^iir0at* ait 
e 'Adtiva.7og j xcu xct^ vfj^aiv twv v^ivavrimv o 
Tovro "TTOiuv, guxo^iff y.riiriiv' ows^ cvn^i^. xai; oiit 
toZt iTro'iTjffiii ; [ita-dourai rovrovl. o'v^ssq^ ^s 
xgoEJ^OTo;, oi[, to ■x^S.'ypLa oh^\ ipuXacTTOHTOs, 
*>a-B-£j ii'a)Ss ra roiavrac sag v^jiTiv yiyvtaSai , w^o- 
^Xfl^sif TTu'ka.yogag obrog xa) rgim h TiTTagaiv 
'^iigoTovTia-ocvrus auToy kvipp^Ori. aig ai to tth 
voKiug a|(WjCta Xot,(3aip u^'iKiro eig rovg 'AfA,<pi- 
KTVOvag, ■xa.vTO, rdXX' a^sig kki ■jra.giOaiv Wf^aicsf 
1^' oli iiz-KTSaiStt, xui Xoyovg tv^^oiruxovg xai 
fjuvSovit oOev i Kippaia. X'>'gct xada^s^Sri, truvh'ig 
tea) Sis^eX&oiV md^cuvoug a.'Prsigoug Xoym xat to 
.fiLiXXov on sgoogii)f/.stou;, raug isgofji^vjjfLavxs, iretSei 
•^^tlipiffcctrSat ■TTi^isXhTy rtiv ')(aiga,v rjt o't ^iv 'A^M- 
^liTffilg trcpaif auruv oiitrav ynDoyuv sipairaiij ouTog 
h^ag yi^iti^ot-g ^tikto iivai, ovSspbicts Siktiv 
Tuv Aox^iJV i-xctyovTuv rjfMV, ouh' a, vv» ouTog -r^o- 
(pair'i^iTai, >^iyiuii ovk ccXn^^- ytaxritrh^ S' iXilhv. 
\.^i/«, Sf^v aysu tov w^otrxoKiffCDrSat iris-ov roTg 
AoK^o7g oixrii xatTU rrig ToXscog ri'Kiira.tTdai, rig 
»uv ix'kTiTivffiv ^!^oii ', Itt]'^ Tolag a^y^g ; em tok 
fj^ora, oii^'i). aW' ovx ay '^yjngt aXha, xivr^ 
■go^aa-it TctvT^ xaTiy^gu xai a^suJs?. 

Ui^llOrTUV TOiyU* TtJV Xi^gOlt TOI* Af/L^lXTVOtKt 

Kara rjji- v<prjyrsmv t«c Tourovt vgotrTttroiiTeg t 

Aox^o) (i.tx^ov fji,iv a-ranTUs Ka,Tfi?ioi'Ti(Tay, rivccg o£ 
xtei (rvf^^^aa-av rciv h^of^vTii^OiCtit, ug o a-jra^ tx 
TOvra* i-yxX^f/.dTa xcti itoXe^o; ir^os Tovg Af/,- 
(piffffUi era^a^^jj, to ^m ^^sutoh o Korrupof ay- 

{/.\\i oux ^T^Sof, 61 5' i>,0ovTig ovSkv i'^oiovv, tig rtj* 
STiovtrav TruXalctv eot rok O/Xwffoc ivdvg riyiftova.* 
iyovf 01 xaretrxivaiTfAifoi xat waXa/ TtotTj^oi twu 
0eTTaXa/ii xat 7uv iv ralg uWaig ^o7.iirt. xai 
7r^o(pa.irsig iv'Xoycui ii7^7i(pia'a.v' n yct.^ ccvTovg t'ltr- 
^i^iiv sect,] %ivovg T^i<pny zipatrav hiiv xai ^>!f/,iovt 
Toug fi.fl Tccvra TOJoyvTaf, t; ixilnov a-t^eiirdat. rt 
Os7 TK voXXa Xiysm; j^idri ya.^ ix Toura>» hyi- 
fjLiut. xa.) [/.iTO, rawT ivdiig ^uvafnv truXKi^ag 
KCLi •ra^i'KSaiy aig tTi Ttiv Kippaiav, ippuirdcci <ppa,- 
trag ■jroK'ka Kippaioig xm Aax^atg, viit '^Xccthi/.* 
xa.ra.T' u fj^iv om pcij f/.&Tiyyaiira.v iii6ug, 
aig TOUT sioov, o'l ©>jl3a7oi xat f/,i6' ^jttwf iyivovro, 
ug-TTi^y^si^oippovg a* aVa* tovto'^to 'X-^uyfLot sig 
Tfjv mXiv ilffiificri' ^ tvy^i to y i^a't!pyngiTtiiryoy 
auTov iKiiyat, {/.xXiffTO, pCiv ai ayS^sg 'ASi^ycCtOi 
0tuv Ttvog £Vyoia -jr^og up^ag, fira (/.ivrot, xcti orrov 
xaS iva ava^oiy xai Si lpi,i. iog Ss pi,0i to, o6y- 
[/.arot TauTO. xcti roug ^^ovoug iv otg txtx-rja 


K«pa.X^ TU^a^ctira.* avrri otxriv ovx \oaixs. T-iyt 
f/uoi TO, ooyfiarct. 


'£t( U^ia? KXtiyayo^ou, let^ty^g •sv'Kaia;, sSo^s 
TotQ -jrvXayogoi? xai rot; irunsS^on rm 'A^(pi- 
xrvotaiv xai rZ xoim tZv 'Af^^txrvovaiv, lviii>} 
Afi(piirirs7g imfSatyova'iv €T( rtjv hoaii jQ^^a.) xa.i 
ff'^Si^oviri xa) ^mrxijf/.aa't xaTctvif/.ownvj'f WiXOsir 
rouf ■^vXccyo^oug xul TOtjg trunSgovg, xcti a-r^Xaii 
iia,'ka(3si\i Toiig o^ovg,'^ xcti aTSiTrsTv 7o1g 'Af/,<pitr- 
fftviTi Tov Xoi-irov ^ri iTilSaifBiv, 


Et] U^iug ILXuvayo^ov, eu^ji^; TvXaiag, iio^s 
TflTf wXctyofoig xa.) toT; trvnigoig tui 'Af/.^i- 
Tvotaiv xa) tZ xomu rHv 'A^<piXTuoyai\i, Itsioti ol 
i| A(i.ipt(rtrng rrtv U^av %u^ci,v xaravsif^aiLSfOi 
yiu^yoCtrt xa.) ^oirxri[Aa.TBi lifAoviri, xa] xoiKvo- 
fj.tvot TOUTO iroiiiv, in roig OTXoig 'jra^a.ymofjjEvot, 
ro xotvov rm '¥.X7.tiViiV trvvii^tov x.ixaiKi>xa.iri fLsra 
fiiag, riva,g Oe ««) Tsr^xuf^ariKaTi, [xaij to* 

' 'rrpa^aa-a. + Sfntti/iaTa reiievirtv. [ opKov^. 

xidotct, xctt a.'^iouv ira IBojjSfim^ tZ n 'A.irlKhavi 
Ku) Toig 'Aft.^iKTVoirf)', o^rw; (/.tj wt^iiSt; vto rut 

'EWtjvtg 01 f/.(Ti)^0)iTSi rou a-vni^iov rut 'AfjUfn- 

ffi ya^ xa.6' ovg iTuXayo^rinsy ovrog. >.iyi. 

i'TTi Oixarri* 

Aog on f^oi TT)!' STrttrToXriv Ijv, aig oi-^ UT^xouof 

fTDLtpui art TJj* [Aiy aX^Sn Tr^6pa.<riv tuv Toa,yfJt,a.- 
Tuv, TO raZr \x\ -rh 'E?,Xa^a kcu rovg QtifBciiovi 

To7g AfiLtpixTSJoa"! ao^avra -Troiilt v^otnTotUTo' o 
at rag a\ ravra; xm rug ir^o(p««i; ctvTOJ 



Eni2TOAH oiAinnoT. 

Raa'i'Kivg M.axs^oym OIXi^to? Tle>.OTt>vi'>]triuy 

in Tij (Tufi.fLix.'^ia To7s $T!f/.ioug'yo7g Km to7s 

roiq aT^Xoig trvf/.f^a^oig Train y^ai^itn, 

STliOTl AoK^Ol 01 KBLKoUl/^iVOt 0^7^at, KBiTOlXOVVTBg 

h 'Afc<pi<rT^, T'kfJiJ.^i'Kavirtv ilg to h^ov rov 'AiroX- 
hmog rod m AeX^o?; xai Tr,v h^av ^ai^(x.i/ e^%o- 
fbsd' oVx&Ji' XstiT^dTOViri, rai 6iZ 
fLid' vfiMV ^or,&{iv xat ai/.utas'Sui rovg w«ga- 
paitorrccg ri Tuv sv avSgwToig iuapuv' cuittb 
rvvavraTi [Atra. ruv ovXuv sig rflt <Piiix'iia., i^otj-ii 
»vtirtTi/rf/,ov Tii^i^m Tsinru^axovru, rov ivhttutos 
fktivog 'y.uout aig rif^iig a-yo/ASv, a>; Si 'A0tiva,7oi, 
'o;iOfo^i»cos, ojf 0£ Kogivl^toi, ■^ai^ifiov. roTg oe 
jttjj trvnai'Ttia-a.fft Ta.voyiu.ii ^^ti<rofJ,(dct, To7g di 
trv^fSovy.oig*^ TifMV xuf/^itoig lxi(^?;fiicig. ilrv^Cm. 

'O^a.8' on (piuysi j/Xv rag iolotg T^opairsig, tig 

EoE Tag 'A[ji/ptXTVOviKaf xaTU^iuyn. rig oiiv o 

I TaiiTX irvi^bTagaa-Ksvatr'^g avru ; ti; o rag t^o- 

(pairiig ravTa; hSoug ; rig o rm xaxuii 7u\t 

yiyivJii/.i]io»> fA-aXitrra aUio; ; ov)^ ovrog ; f^i) 

Tolvvv XsySTE, a/ avo^sg 'A^tiiiaioi, Trs^iiovng aig 

tip' hog TOiavTCt Tri^ovDBv if '£X7.a; avS^u'. 

• Ton Se ^fuv irvi'avTtiffatri ■n-avSt]fiF.i, ;y))j(ro/ie6o /ii) atr/- 

TCLO iXCCITTOig, lU 7? KXl SfOt' 01 tl^ OUTOfff, Of, U 

ftijosK ivXapriDnTct TaXjj^; EiVe7v iioi, oi/x- an 
oxiiy,iraifj,t eymye xoiyou x^.iTii^ioii rain (iirk ravret 

•xoKtuV 'yag to (T'ln^f/.a Tra^arr^iiiv, outo; tuv 
punTiuv aiTiOg. ov o-jraig wors ovx suUv; iSonn; 

ioiKiv, IffTl Ttx.^ vf^7> Tgo T^f a.>,Ti&iia;. 

TOUTM •jnxpOL'yfJ^ivav a'^oci/.ivai i'lg a, TOUTOig tvavrt- 
ovf^stog avTOf wiTto'kiTHif/.a.i a<pl-)(Pa,i' a. iro'kXm 
f/.iii ivix. av iiKOTOjg ctxouiraiTi'f fj-out [la-XiiTTa 
3' oTi ulffy^^ov itTTDi, u avh^tg 'A&>i\ia,7oi, ei lyu [jliv 
TO. ioyoi rm vTng v[/mv •sovuv vTifAitva, vfit7g 5e 

'O^my ya.^ iyai &rif3aiovg, try^sho* ^"t xai vfLag 
v-!ro TQ/v TO, OiXiViroy ip^ovouvjoiv xoct hsipdi!i^fi,imf 
TTct^' IxctTisaig, h fii^ ^f ct[/,<poTi^oig ipo^s^ov xai 
tpuXax^f iToXX^; Seof^tvov, to vov O/Xixwov sat 
au^attffSat, wa^o^twcraj xai ovSi xaS' Iv (pu'ka.TTO- 
f/,syou;, i'lg tyS^av i\ xai rh Tr^otrx^ouuy aJ\X^Xoig 
6T0i|»»; sy^ovTag, oTwg tovto ftJj ynoiro vaoaTTj- 
^m otSTiKouv, ouK k'rro r^; IfiuvTou yyufjkrig fjuovov 
Tavta ffUfjL,(pt^iiv^^oLrm, ctXX' sioaii 'Agt- 

^ouXof/,iyooi T^ci^ai rauTyjv r^y (piXtav, xa.) tsp] 
Toiii ccXXam T6XKa.Kig avTiXiyovrag iavTo7g tovS 
hf/.oymi/.owuvrce.q asi. obi au ^atnTag fx-tv, m K(va- 
oog,* KoXaxsva/ii Tra^tiKoXoudsii, TiSvitarmf S' 6UX 
ttlffSavtt Karriyo^uV a, ya.^ tte^j Qti^awi/ ititi- 
fAui i(io'i, Ixi'imv -jToKv ^u,a.XXov n ifiiov narnyo- 
gs7i, Tm ir^oTs^ov ri lyu rauriiv rtiv ffV[i.{i,a,-)^luv 
SoKif^-airai'Taiv, a,\x' ixiliri iTunst^i, on toii Iv 
' Af/,<piiT(rri ToKifji,oy tovtov fisv TroitifravTOi, tnjfA,TB- 
^ocva^ivaiv ie rav o-XXoiv raiv trvvi^ym avru r^v 
w§0{ 0>i/3a/oys i^S^ur, a-uyi^Bij-f rov 0'tXtwiroy 
ixh7v l<p' rifi-ai, oviri^ iftKO, rag -rrohsig ovroi 
trvfiK^ovov, xat bi f/,Ji v^os^ana-TTjfAtv /aix^oh, 
ou5' a,vD!,'Ka(iiiv a\JT6Vi'^ ctv fiovyij0>if^sy' oiro) fii- 
y^pt -rojipm ■s-^o^yayov ovtoi to %^a.y^a. tv oig 
h' firs j^St; ra ^^oj aXX^Xoyfj t6vt&/h ruv 4"!- 
<piir[i.aTaiy axovtravTeg xa.) 7uv avox^iireay ifffiffSB. 
Kai fj-oi xiys ravru. Xa^uv. 


'Km a.^yjiiTog 'H^otvPov, (/.rivog tXa^TipoXiaivog 
tx7n <p0iyoiiTog, (pvXtjg ^^uruvtvovirtig '^^B^&fi'iooi, 
iSoyXijf xa) irT^a.Tnyu> yyufj,^, i-inthh O'lXi's-s-og ag § 
fiiy xartiXfi^B ToXstg jus ciirrvyiiToniiv, Tii/ug oi 

^tToti ira^ctyiyfiir^ai, iraf ob^\y tiyovu.svog tu; 
tlfAiTipcig fruv8rix,a,%, xai roug ogKOug \vbiv e7n- 
(Ba>.>.trai xal r^» Bi^Tivtii', ■sct^rx.^xlwg Tag xoivag 

rr^oQ avToy Tgiir^sig, oiTivig a.uTu SiaXe^ovrcti xat 
■TTCtostKuXiffoviriv avTov {/.oKiaTCt [t.iv rijn fr^Of 
j^jCta? Of/,oyaia,s otctrri^eiv xui rag ffVV&iixoLg, ti Oi 

'Avayv^aiTiog, Eu8uSn,i^og OXu«irJ0c,'f" Bouhayo^a^ 

' A./.Stil^lKTjSiV. 


'EtI a^-^ayTog 'H^otvSov, fAtsyog fA.6vyu^iaivog 
iv^ xai na, ToXsfca^j^ou yvu^^, sxe/oj; OiX/xTflf 
eJ; aXhoT^toTTjTa Qfif^alovg ^r^o? flftag STijSaX- 
7.iTUi xctTixa-rjjs'cti, 'jra.ostrKiva.ffrcn ^% xa) vavrt 
roi iTT^ctTSUfLciTt ■JT^og Tovg iyyiara, r^j ATTfxSf 
'!?(A^ayiyn(r&s/.i ro^ovg, Ta^a^ccUm rag v^og vi^ag 
ii'Ktx.^youira.g airZ trwSrixag, Ssioj(^dai t^ iSouXp 
XIX,) tZ Siifia/ Trsf/,-\pat wjo; auTov xts^uxct xai 
5r^££r/3sif, o'lnyeg a^iuirovri xai vu§axK7\ifrouiriy 


Nsa^j/o; '2utnyopt,ov, UoXvx^aTrig 'E'x-i^^cvog, xcit 
xri^v^ 'Elii/ofLog ' Ava,(pXvirTiog Ix too $^f/.ov. 
Aiyi 0)j xut Ta; avoxgliniQ. 

BuiTiXEfc M-axiiovuv ^iXiirwog 'ASri'ctioiv r^ 

ity^iTi TT^og iiy^oig ai^t(riv,'f ovx ayyo&/, xai thu 
/T'TouSriv iromirSs ■jr^orrxcc'kiiTafrDa.i ^ovXou,eyci 
QirraXovg nat Qri^a'taug, in 3s xat RoKuroug' 
(itXriov avraiv (poovovyrnii/ xa) [/.li (^ov'koi/.'ivuv 
t<p vfMv -JTOiriffCLffdoLi TTji) iccvTo/v u't^iffiv, a,y.y.a 
KUTO. TO <rv^<ps§o» 'ifrTUfJi,imv, wv s| b-7roffT^oipr,g 
axorrei'kttvrsg vf^iig w^o'e f/,e w^str^eig xou x^^vxcc 
(TVv&JlKm [/.vrtfionviTi xa,) rag kioy^ag cuTUjh, 

cixovrag raiv ^^sa-^svTs^n ffuyxctTUTidificti roig 
TKfaxaXoUjttSKXs xat BroifAog UfA.t ^onltri^ai rag 
avoyjtg, av tej rovg oiix o^daig trvf/.^ou'kiuovTa.g 
V(M» 7r%^ctvi(L-^a»Tfg rng ir^oa-jjxoJo-jj; aTiy,ioc.g 
k'^tmriTf. sppaiirSt, 

' ^Di'AeiNTCTai. f Trpaaipeniv, J Tri:TrAi;7;uei'oi. 

BatrtXthg Maxiioyuv O/Xixro; Qn^ct'tm r^ 

vfjiAD 'A&yivaios TrgoiripB^oiiTXi tpiXoTif/,iatv /Sot/Xo^s* 
HOI W|«a; ffuyxnCTamovi yina-Oai roig vt avrm 
■ra^axaXovfAitoig . ^gore^ov f/.iv ovi vfAuv Karsyi- 
yvairxoii iTt 7u f/,iX)\stv "iriiStffSat raig exsivaa 
eXxJiTi xai iTaxoXavStiv kvtuv t^ T^oaiosffii. 
mv S' iviyyovq vf^ag ra 3-^05 rif^ag t^j^Ttixorag 

yviufLccig, ntrSriV xa.) fj^SiWov vfbag sjraita xara 
■^oXKa, (/.ciXiffToi, It) tZ ^ouXivirua-dai vspl 
TQUTmii a/ripBtKeimgov xai ra* Tfos JjjStaf evejv ev 
euvoia' oxi^ ov f/,ix^ai vfus oiiriiii eXm^v po-jr^y, 

\ct,V ff£f ElTi TUVTtSg f/,if?lTE Ttjg If^odifflug ."^ ippoiffSs. 

Oura" oiaSsig O/X/tito; Tag mXtig Tpog 
iXXfjXaf Oioi rovToiv, xa.) rooToig \-jap6iig tois 
■iliri<pi(rpi,airi xai Ta7j aTox^iasfriv, fjxsv i^siv t^o 
^vva(/,i« xa) TTiv "E^Karetav xarsXafBiv, wg 6v^' 
av ti Ti ymoiTO in a-vpLTvivo'oeTa/i rif^Zs xa) rm 
Qtipawr. ahXa ^tiv tov totb (rofjLJBavTa sv rr 



To'Xe* So^v^ov i'a-Tt fih aVavrss' f^ix^a. 3' axov- 
ffBiTi ofJ^a^, ccuTct ravayKaioTaTcc. EcTi^a 
fAtti ya,^ ;jf, Tixs S' a.'yysXXaiv tis wg tous 
vguramg ag EXar£;a KtnTBtXiiTTBii, xai fiiru 
TccvTct o'i jttsv eh&ug l^avatrTavrtg ^i-ra^u ott- 
vrovvTis To6g r Ik tuv (TKI^vmv tuv xuto. ti^h 
ayo^oiv s^sT^yov xai to. yippee. iSi'7:ifd,ir^a,(Ta,v, o't 
5e rovg tTT^ctrriyoug [/,sriTi/ii,voiiro nai rov rra.'k- 
's'iynTfiv lKa7,Qvv' ««* So^vpou itX^jtjj rjv tj wo'?,ij, 
T^ vTTi^aia ikf/.cc rjj flf^^^i^ "' f^iv T^vratsig 
r^K (iou'Xrtv iKahouv i'lg ro povXsvTts^iov, v[Aug 
S 6j; Tnv ixx'kriiria.i/ I'uro^BVBtrh, xa.) -rrfiv Ixtivtiv 
■^^j^jj.fCTiffo.i KoCt T^o^ovJ^svtrai Trag o atjf^og avu 
KctSl^TO.* xa) yATX TCtiira wg uffriXDsvf r; /3ouX^ 
xai ctTTiyyu'hav o't Tr^UTavBig ra T^off^yyi'hf/.iva 
savToTg xai to;' rixovra. ■pra^riya.yoii xa.Kf7vos etVet, 
Tl^ura j/,\ii x^fwl " T'g ayo^iuiiv ^ovXiraii" 
■jra^^ii $' ovoilg. xoXXaxj; oe rov xf,^uxog l^oirm- 
rog ol^iv [X.o'.'KXov kviffraT ovoug, aTanT&iv f^iv 
rm trT^a.Triyaiv wa^onTOiv, a^jranra/v as nun ptlTO^&itt 
xa}.ouirr,g as r^g irxT^iSog tti xom^ tpmt^ tov i^avv& 
•jzsg 'i^s'oiTri^iag' Jjn ya,o o xij^v^ xaTO. tows to'^ou; 
^lunrjv a,Cpiti(ri, TUUTrjv xotvhv rrjg Trar^iSas iixaiov 
ta-Tiy ^yiiirSat. xu'itoi I'l fiXv roug traSri\iot,i ttiv 
To'?.ic j3ouXofi,ivovg ira^iT^Silv iOU, vatrsg av JjifisTj 

xui oi aXXoi 'ASijvttToi anaa-Tavrtg sti to |S?^« 
l^a^i^erv votvvsg ya^ o7^ art ffu8riva.t avr^v 

ffiOi' SI Si Totjg a,f^<poTi^ix, ravTcc, xctl euvovs r^ 
TToXsi zai xXova-iovg, o'l [aito, rccvra rag fiiyaXag 
iTiioa-tig hmSovTZS' tta) yag luma. nai jrXovrai 
TOUT ixoiri<ra.v, ctW wg iOiXEii, iKilvog o KCtigog 
xai tj nf^i^cc sxiinji ou fionov ivvovn xai "rXcug-tov 
ano^u ixaXn, aXXa, xa) •^a^tjKoXovStiKOTOc roif 
^^ocyf^airiv e| Kf/^Sfj »«' tru'h.XiXoyitrijAvoii o^Sig 
Ttvog SUKK TavT iir^oiTTiv 6 ^iXi^TTog xai ti 
0ou7\O[j.isog' o yot^ f^i tuut elSeug fA,rio' l^ijTCtKarg 
Toppai^EH iTif/.f'Kais, ovt a suiiovg flv ovt ti ^hov- 
Tiog, ovSsv ^aXXov rifiiXXev o ti y^^n toiHv suti- 
rrdctt ov^' vfiun t^gis frvfi,f3ovXeveiv. lipainiv jonuv 
cvTog Iv iKt'iVT^ T^ ^/'^f?' ^y*', xai %a.^i7.Sai* itiro* 
iig vfiag, a fiou ^uoiv 'ivix uxoviraTi ■sr^oa-i^^ons; 
Tov saw, hog f/.iv, IV sia/JTs on fi.ovog tuv Xsyov- 
TUf xeti ■zoXtTEUof/jiwv iyai Tfir T^g tvtoiag ra^iv 
III Toig hivo7( ovK sXivoy, «XX» xai Xiyuv xa) 
y^atpuii l^tiTU^ofiTiv tu Uotf v-Ag u/awj' ec avrvlg 
raJg <po^E^o7;, iri^ou ii, on f/.ix§ov dvaXatravrts 
j^oovQV woXXa v^og Ta XotTra T^g a-afDj;* -ttoKi- 
Ttiag iiTitrS Sfj.'U'Ei^OTi^oi. 

E/xoy roivvv on " rovg //.a aig V'jrae^otTaiv 


TO. va^ona. T^a.yf/.ad' Tiyovf^ai' iv ya.^ oi'S' on, 
S( TovS' ouToig iTwy^amn fij^ov, ou/c ctv aurov 

Ti^on o^'iotg. oTi yAVToi J V 'f' Eroifta wo/^iDjra/ to, 
is &^(2atg tjKSi, ira<pag liria-Taf^ai. aig 5'ejje<" 
i(pnv "tccutci, aKovtran f^ov-X ixsTvog o/rovg ^ 

OiTrasTctg /ibT^i7rirrra,t' roug d'T oi^y/ig dvSi- 
trrriKOTixg avrm xa; wv havriovf^ivovg ovSafca/g 
wiliya.t iCvarcn. rl avv (BouXsrai, kk) tiho; tvixa 
Tfiv 'E?i«T£i»y xantXri^iv ; ^rX^irtov ovyufiii/ ou- 
faf xai ■jra^ao'Tiifrag to, oTXa roug f/isv iavrou 
^i}\Ovg STcl^cti xcct d^Bttrslg Troii^irat, rohg ^' Ivav- 
Tiovfj'.itovg xarcczXTJ^att, i> tj iniy^iu^ria'aiiTi (fo/Sjj- 
divrsg a, yvv ovk t6s>.oviriv, ^ ^tafTdoimv. il fCtv 
TOiVuii ■jr^oai^T;(rof/.s{} ^jM.s7;" fitpjjK " sv tZ wa^ovri, 
ti Ti iutrxoXoc TST^uxra.i &npa,ioig 'x-^og rifiag, 
TOVTOU (/.tfXjvriirScLi xai aTiirrslii uurotg aig Iv tt, 
rm ly^d^as ovtn f/A^'i^i, t^wtov f/!iv a at iv^ctiTO 

ii^a.f/.ivaii' Tuii nvii a,)i8iiTTi!xari»i clvtu xat f/,t^ 
•yvcafjin Ta.VTojv'^ (piXiTWiff-xvrav ilg tt}v 'ArTixiiv 

x^os Tw (TKO-riiv a.X'kci (M} (pi'Kovsixitv ■^rsgi av 

' yvv oiTd. + eat: J i 


av \i-/u yinTSirdi, oif/,at xixi to. diovTCc Xiym 
3o|e(* xa] Tov i^ttTTriKora k'ivquvov t^ ■ptoXsi* 
SiaXva-eiv. ri ouv iprifM otTv ; T^arov fAiv rot 
ru^ovTo, tTtuvftvcn Ipofiay, htu fX.STa.&i(r0tx,i xui 

Tuv otiyuv slirh rif^&ivf lyyvTS^iti, xa) v^OTteoic"^ 
aitToli ItTTtv KivSvvog' STSIT l^sXSavTai 'EXew- 
oTfaog TQue iv ri>.ixice, xa.i tovz i-jmctg osl^ai 
Toio'n avroug iy voig CTrKoig otrug, ica 
To7g sv Q^^aig (p^oyoutn ra vfAiri^a, t^ itrov . 
ysvTiTai TO -Trappriffia^iirDai ^te^j tus itxalaiv, 
liooa-iv oTi, f^a-TTE^ rotg •suXoZtri ^iX't-Trvat rr,v 
iTocTo'i^a. •Tra.^itrd tj (SoriSriffouira iuvafj-tg sv 
'EXars/a, o'vtoi roig uwi^ rrj; E?tsu^£o;a; otycivi- 
^iffdoti ^ouXoff-ivoig vira^^iS vfA,i7i ETatfjLoi xui 
^oriS^s-iT, lay m Eir' uvroi/g it;, f^sra TaVTU 
•j^tt^orov^irui xi'Kium oixa T^itr^sig, kk) toi^itih 
TOVTOug xv^iovg fierce, tiuv ffr^aTriyiv xui rov 
T^ln hii (3a.Si^tiy txuiri xa) t^; t^dhov. striiiac 
J' '{'hOaa-iv o't vr^sar^sig eJs 0^/3as, inajg %%rt<rct-- 
ffdoti TW •^^a.yi/.ce.n Tcc^aiyu \ Tavra) ■zatv fioi 
T^otn-^iTi Toy vovy. y,ri ^€(r&s Qrif^ctiaiv f/.7}0ty 
(a.iir)^gog yaf o xai^og) aX?.' iTxyyiXXia-^s 
^onSweiVj EKc xiXevsia-fy, ag ikhvuv fJi-it avToiv 
\y Tolg Itr^aTOig xiy^vvoi;,* hf^^v Js afAtiyov ri 


ha/xiifJLi»oi xa) f/,iTa ^^otry^rif^ctTOi* a^iou Tjjf 
roKeaii ravra, v^oc^ufiiv, lav a agct [/.ri ffvf/.p^ 
xa.TBe,Tu^ii» J ixiivoi fLiv iauTols lyxaKuffiv, av 
Ti vu* l^afA.agTavaio'iv, ^f/.7ii Si f^ti^iv aiir^§o» 

TaJJTa xai-f-jra^ocTy-ritriaTOVToii utuv xaTi^rii. 

ftruvejraivsffavrm b\ -T^ccvrm xa) olhvoe eivovTOs_ 
tuavTiov ou^ey olix uvov fMv rauTci, oux sy^ai^a 
06, oiy iypoc'^oc [A.%11, oux I'jr^iirpevirct Oi, ouo 
iir^iir^iva'a, (/.is, ovx iwenroi h\ 0}}^aiovg' aXX' 
affo r^f ^SXi'^S ^'M Tonraiv ay^^i Trig rsXtvT}jg Oi- 

ts^TJK^ov, xui soaix if/MUTOv vy,7t a^Xa; s'lg Toug 
rs^tsa'TtixoTcig t^ toXsi xivovvovg.'^ 
Kai fioi (pigs TO -ipTi^tiriAa. to tots yivofis- 
ncii. KaiToi Tiva 0auXsi (re, A/V^/kt;, xcii Tiva 
IfAavTov Ixiistjv Ttjv nf^sgav e7vat 6u', (iovl-u 
ifAuuToii [ji,iv, ov av 17V Xoidogovfi,ivog xa) Siaa^ugav 
xaMiratg, 'Bo.tkXov, ci Si i^ri^ ^gai tov tv^ovto,, 
«XX« Tovrm TiDOL TCiv am r^f >rx!]v^g, K^sffipoyTTii 
>! KgioiTa Tj ov iv KoXvTTiJ TOTi Ohof^aoy xaxog 
xaxug vnox^myAVOg t'rirgi^a.g ; totb toUvv xar 
ixiitof Tov xaigov Ilaiawvg iyu B«Ta?.os Om- 
f^oLOv TOV Kofaix/^oy g-ou ^X'.ionog a^iog aiv \(pa.v>iv 


I TJJ TToAei TTFpieffTlJIlOTas. 


■Pna-iiMC I 


Eiri a^^ovTog Nau^rixXsoyf, (pvXjji v^vTctnu- 
ou<r>}g AtavTioog, trxi^otpo^mvoe exrjj W* oixa, 
ArifAorrdivt^g Atifboa-Oivovs Uaictiinvi n^sv, lwsi3;J 

XyiKvSoti %^oy»> TK^afialvm (pamrai rag yiyt- 
vyi[A,iVKg aVTu iruv8rix.a,g t^o; tov 'ASt^raiar a>}[/.DV 
xe^J Trig ii^^fiit vts^iSsjh Tovg it^xovg xai tk 
Ta^a iraiTi To7g"EXXrifri vofAitji^iva. dvat iiKaia, 
xou •jcci^sig iTBL^at^urat ou5e* uvtZ ^^oirrixova'as, 
Tivag OS xxi 'A^jjva.wv ovirug ^o^iciXaTOvg wsTOit]- 
xsvf cvhy 'jr^6aSiXfj0B)g vto tov SrifAOU tou 'A&ij- 
vataiv, iv Tt Tar •jra^ovTi et( 5ro?iU w^oaysi rp n 
0ict xct) rn ojfAOTJ^Ti' xa) yag 'F.XX)iviSag voXtig 
Dcg f/,iv IfAip^ou^ovg voiii xa.t TCtg ■jroXiTnag xa.Ta- 
Xvii, Tttag Ss xai e|ayJ^K9roJ(^0|«.ECo; xuTaffXtt- 
irru, iig Wiag ii xai blvt) 'EWrswv ^a.§j3a^ovg 
XBtTOixi^ii Wj to, lipa xcn Tohg TU^oug Iwaym, 
ovoiv ahXoT^ior vroim ovt6 r^g iavrov •xaT^ioog 




(jbtx^ov xai Tov Tv^oiTog 'yiyomii aviXwiiTTug at- 
yag. icui iaig fLiv •jro'Kug iojpot, •x'upctipovu.tvov 
airov fSa^lSa^ovg xul i^iixg, wO'-ai/.Qa.tis 'iXaTTOv 
sirai ^^^oj ' A^nvctlmv to ilg avrov irXtif^f^e- 
AsTrrSa,!' nvii hi o^uii 'EXXjjt/^as mXeig rag [^it 
iji^i^o(A,kyag rag Zi ancttnocTovi yt-ytof/^ipugt Jejkov 
tiyttrut ifjDci xa.1 amnion Trig rm Tr^oyovaiv ^o^Jjf 
TO wB^io^av TOi/g "EXXjji-a; xKTahov>.ovyAvavg. iio 
hhoxTcti T^ jSoyXji xa) tu S^f/.^ tS 'XSiimtttiv, 
iu^afj^D/ovg xai SuiravTag Tc7g Oiolg xm 'r,guiTi To7g 
xa-Tiy^ovirt rjjf ttoXiv xat rtiv y/^^ctv ttiv 'AStinnlm, 
xai h9vi/.7iS'ivra,f\ r^s rm ^^oyowf k^gTrig, ^lort J 
we|( tXs/oi'OS i'^oiQvvTo rsjii ra* 'ExXij'kui' IXsu- i 
Sigicn harngeTv 2 t^k iSiav ■^ar^'iha, ^ia.xoiriag J 
tavg KctdiXxuv s'lg rijii ^kkaTTo.)! xa) tov vocvctpvof 
itvawXsTv iuTog HuKuv, xai tov ar^UT/jyoy xa\ tov 
7wa^')(ov Tag «-£^as xai rag irmxag Svvaf^ng 
EX£Uff7*aSe l^aynv, ■!rsfA,-\pai OS »«1 ■jc^itr^sig -Ti-pog 
TOV? aXXoy; EXXjjtas, 'TTgUTOV h\ vrctUTaiy -jrpog 
Q>l{Baioijg Sia to lyyvTaro) Bi'vai tov OiXi'^TOv 
Tng txilviuv "X/^^ag, ^ragaxaXei'* 06 avToug fA,riSiv 
"hayivrag tov OfX/arn-on avn^sirSui Ttig 
xai Tr,g tuv aXXoiv 'EXXjji'h'v Ixii/^igiag, 
xa) oTi 'ASr,vatuii i}if/,og, ovSev fj^vritrixaxm zi ti 

Tfo; aX'krii.ovi $iaf/,Cpia-(BfiTt7u ^(§i rrji riyifi^oviag 
ouiriii"K'K'AT!<ri xaKov, wiro oe aXKo^uhov av^^tuvov 
a.^vio'Sai xa) r^j r,yi[^ovtotq KTOrm^Uirdat ava.- 
%tov iha.1 Ka\ TT!i rav 'EX^^kwc 3'o|jj; xcti t^s Tat 

e(y«j 'A^tivaiuii Sfjf^og rot ©tj/Sa/fUn oi^fiov ourt 
Tjj ffuyytvtta,* outs tZ of/^o^vXa. avctf^tl^yrjirxsTcn 
oe Kal TEtf rwii TT^oyovm tuv lavTov tig roug 0jj- 
fBctiaiv %^oyovovg tli^ysiriag' xa) yu§ rovg 'H^a- 
xXBOug ■fToCioag k-riiTTegoui^svoug vto JliXo'jrotvtiinm 
Tfl; vctT^fug ci^'X/ig xa.T7jyayov, To7g oicXotg x^a- 
TfjiravTsg rovg avTi^aUuv -Trii^uf^ivovg roig 'H^a- 
xXeou; lyyo\>oig,-f xa.) tov OISitow xctl rovg jEaet 
iKiisou iX'TfiiravTcx.g vTios^afA-^Sa, xat iri^a, •roT^XcL 
rifjSii'Jl^ hisk^y^i (ptXaiS^a-jTU xai svdo^ct '^gog &Ti- 
paiovg' oio'^i^ ouSi pvp KTOiTT^ffSTai o A^nvaiaiv 
Ssjf^og im Qjjfiaioig rs xa) roig oiWoig "EXXijiri 
<rvfL(psgQtTiiiv, rrvt9i(r9a.t ^e -zpog avTohg xai trvcA- 
fAU^tav xut iwiyix,f/,ia\i ^oi^traa-^ai xai o^xoug 
iouvai XKi XKJ3s7y. •K^'irr(^sig A7!f/.C(r9syiig AnfiiO- 
ard'ivovg Yia.ia.vtivg,'X-!ri^l^n5 KXiavS^ov 'S,(pnTTiog, 
MunirihiSfig ' AvTi<pavovg O^iuppiog, Anfito*^»rtis 

ot^X,ri xai xaroiiTTairig T^mrt!, to. tpd toutojv s'lf 
i'jfPga.i xcti f/iirog Kai aTia-riciv tuv wo^.tm virriy- 


Tj ^oXsi ^igiffTcttTX xlvovvor vagiXduv i-TtotritTit 

aiffVi^ nipOi' r;v f/-iV TOiHIV TOV OtKOtlOV TO'klTDU 

roTS h7^ai -^oLtriv, it ti tdutuv ti'^ev af^sivov, ft^ 
tijy lTiTif/,av. yaf trvfj^liouXoi xa.\ trunotpavTiii, 
ouSi Tm wXXftfv olh\v loixoreg, tv tovtoi TrXil/rron 
aXXri'km otatpi^oviriV a f/.iv yi w^o thiv fr^ay^K- 
Tuv yuef^riv a^otpKinSTa*, xtui SlSajtriv avTOV uvsu- 
6vvov Toie 'niiirDiiffi, T^ "^^y^i ™f xai^oTs, tu 
0ovXof/,im' h triyrirra: nv'ix ihn xiytiy, ay n 
iuiTKoXov irvfi^^, TOVTO (3a,irxaiyei. Tjy f^tv oZv, 
airig iiTOv, iKihoQ xai^oi rou ye ip^oyTi^ovrog 
avioo; T^i iro'Xsaff xa) ruv Sixaiaiv XoyuV iyai ^S 
TOffaijrj)* V'^B^f3oXr;y irotovjjjKt, uitts ay yvy e^jj th 
is7^ai TI ^i'ATiof, jj oXoii SI Tt aXXof ivnv tX^v uv 
\yu xgoeiXo^jjk, aoixily o^oKoyu. i\ yk^ itrS" on 
Ttg'l vijy itv^axiv, o trvyriytyxiy ay tots ■rga^^it, 
rovT lyti ^tji^i iih e^s f^ii y.a.6tiy, si i\ (i.r^T 
iffTf (A^TS ti" f^fiT ay i'lveiy sj^oi f^Jiittg ^odsTot 

• *Aieiis. + rare eviji: X ^rf" ° tij. 


Tm <pat»of/,'iva)v xa) ivovTm ra x^oLTia-Ta sXeirSui ; 
TovTO ToUuv iiroifia'a iyai, tou xriguxog tguTatroi, 
Aitr^Uri, " Tii ayo^iusiv povXsrai, ov " rig ai- 
TiS-trSoct vi^i Tm •ra^eXsjXvdarutt ovae " rig ly- 
■yuaa-^cti to, ^sXXofT Etratr^ai." trov ^ aipaW 
xctT iKimvi Toi/g y^^ototis Iv Tu7g exxXflo-jaij »a- 
SrjfLivou iyo) 'Tra^tuv sXeyot. sxEj^jj 5' ov Ton, 
a,XKa vZv iii^ov. e(Ve Tig n Xoyag, otTtv i^S^* 
ev^tly* Ti xm^'og (rvf^<pi^m ut tfjLou ■s-a^eXeiip^t] tj 
voXei J Ti's S\ irviA,fA.a^ici., rig irea^iS, lip' Tjy fiMK- 
>,ov iSsi ft£ ayayilii rovTovtri ; 'AWa, fAiji/ to 
f/.\v wa^sXjjXu^Ds asi jraga vrainv aptiTai, xa) 
ovSeig iT'e|) rovTOU r^oriSriiriv oiictf/,oii (3ouX^>' 


Ta,^i\i ccTaireT. tots roitv* ra ^sy ^f/,sXXt>, 
ug iooxit, null autuv, ra o riati xctg^f, h oig 
rrjv ir^oal^siTiy [mv trxovti r^g •ro'KiTtta.c, fi,ri ra 
irufi^atTccj- iTv»o(payTii. to fjLiv yag •xi^ag, ug av 

oaif/,m pouXri$^, ■sUvrav yiyverai' ^ Ss vpoai- 
^sa-ig cthrn ri^v tov trvff-^ovXov Sion/oiav irtXoT. ft,ii 

01 TOVTO ug aoixjjf^a IjA-or di^g, ei x^artitrcti trvn^ri 

^tXlT-XU t"^ ^^y^' ^'' y^? "^^ ^^? '"" '''OVTOV 

TiXog jjy, oux h Ifi^oi. aW' ug ou^ aravra otra 
h^v xaT ctvSgaTifoy Xeyitrfiov i'iXofj,tiv,xai iizaius 

• epEii'. + ati/i^aivoiTa. 


[iara SMirrjjo-a^Jji' *«) aywyxeuct, ia\ir«. ^oi 
3«r|ov, »a; roT* nhn ftUTnyogu (/.ou. ei 3 o o-u^w,- 
(Sa; (TXTiTTog [ij j^e;^wvj ft^ ittofOv Bi^-aii' aXXa, xa) 
vavTm Tm aXKm 'EXX^vav (/.fl^rn yiyovi, rt X.^hf 
iroiiiv ; uff'^i^ ay it rjf vavxKri^ov wavr iiri tr&i- 
rn^icf, vpa^avra, xai vairi xaTcurxiucttrasTa to 

l/MSi ■^^'oi' xa) TovTjtravTav avrai rm trxivm 
««( ffvvT^t^ivTm oXjws, t^s vavayloci ctlrifro, 
BiXX' OUT iKv(2i^va>if Ttiv vauv, (p^irsiBV uv, sairirt^ 
CVO iffT^XT^youy iyu, oun tth TiJj^fjf xvgios Tjy, 

ilXy. ixeiVT] Tail TCCtTUV. 

AXX' IxbIvo Xoyl^ou ku] o§a, t'l (/.ira. 0>i^x!m 
tifiii uycavi^ofAiZvoig oCTwg iiy,ix,^TO •jr^S.^a.t, ti y^grji 
•x^otr^oxa.v, s\ (/,}jh\ TouTOVi 'iir-)(Q{/.iv truf^f/.a'^ovs 
eiXXa ^iXixiry jrgoinSiyTo, vTi§ ov tot IxsTyog 
vctiTOif CL<pT)Ki (patag ; xai ei vuf T^iaiy ^fie^tuy U'zo 
T?5 'Attix^z o5o» rrii f^ay^m ysycfLivni Toirovrog 
Kivivvos xa\ ^o/3(3s vrs^isiTTti T^v ToXiv, ri at, ei too 
''Sf X'^?^^ X ''''^^To TovTO •aa.Sog ffwi^rj, Tr^oiT$ox>i~ 
(Tdi X&^t ; Kf' oItS' oTt vuy jW6v§ ffrriyoLi, (TuvihSiiy, 
ityairyiutrcn, iroWa, f/,icc rifhi^a kol] ouo xai r^ilg 

• i}.. 

1* Toiy SIS ffUTti^'tav Tp a-oXsi, totS d — , ofx 

tZv (pxtvofAimv kk) hoyraiv to, K^ariiTTet sXstrSai ; 
ToZro Toivvv iirotntra fya/, tov x-tjiVKog igaiTmro;, 
Aia-^ivTi, " r'ti ayo^ivnv pouT^trai, ou "rig ai- 
TiatT^Kt XEgi ™v vct^eXtiXudoraiv, ovos '* ti; ty- 
yuu/rSai to. (/.iXKovT i<Ta.irSa.t." <rov ^ etipMov 
xar iniivoug rav; y^^onoug h Tctig ixxXt^ffiaig «a- 
6rif/.ivav iyar Taotm iXtyov, i'^rsioti o ov roTt, 
uKKa tw Sii^ov. e(Ve rig v Xoyog, osrtv i^h 
eu^iiv* )) KCbi^og ffufz-ipi^uv UT ifi,ov vce,^i'Ku<pd^ tj 
woXsi ; Ti's Js (Tv^iLayla., rig ^oH^tg^ tip' ^^ fA,aX- 
7,0V sSsi f/,E ayayiiv tovtoviti ; AXXa ^jjv to 
fih wa^sAjjXu^oj all jrccga, iccLtrtv ccipiTTxi, xa.) 
ov$e)g fl-e^l TovTOU T^oTtSriirtv ou^ctfiou ^ouh^t' 

TO Sb fJ,iXX0V fi TO TTK^OV Tljr ToS ffV[A^OU>.OU 
Toi^lV aTXlTtl. TOTS TOIVVV TO, fASV fl'jttgXXSC, 

ojg tooxii, Tarn onvm, ra. a ria>i tci^^p, In oig 
Tnv r^oai^ierU (mu o-kotu rj; <jro>.iTBiac, f/,^ tol 
iTV(A.(ictvTcc\ ffUKocpocvTtt. TO fjLtv yctg Tigot-i, ug a.¥ 
ictif^m (iovKTi^, TBiPTiun yiyvirai' ^ S's -Trgoai- 
^stng a'uTn Ttiv tov trvft.^ov'Kov itanoiav itjXoT. fi^ 
0^1 TOVTO dig ao'tKTjfMt ii^oy Srig,u K^aTjjirstt trvtipt! 
OiXiXfffti T^ f'-^X^' *'' y"? '''^ ^^? ''" '''otitov 
TiXog ^v, ovx in Ifioi. aXX' ag ovy^ aravTO. o'tra 
ly^s KBI.T ctv6^c^%ivov 'Kcyia'(/,o» siXof/,>iy, xcti hxuiius 


fiara, lviirTTj<r»pi.tii' xai ma,'yxa7a, ravTot [//n 
Jm^Q)), x,m TOT* ^5fl Kartiyogsi [f,ov. u S" o irufi,- 
0CtQ tTKilTTTOg [I ;^Ei|M.Wv] fAfj /iOVOV ^/^Zn o-XXo, xcti 
xavTOiv Tm aWaiV 'EXXflftuv [LilZfav yiyovi, ri ^.^ti -f 
votiiv ; ufT'jri^ ai si ng vuvkXti^oh ttuiit iTi imt- ; 
Tti^iix, ■j^et^arra., xat 'Tcatri xa.rct.a'xtua.u'avTa ■ 
v'Kotoy a.<p' av V'!rO'.a,u,(3ays <rad^<nrr^ce.i, ttra %ii~% 
fLBuvi ■^^jjtra.f/.ivov xat irovria'avruv uvtu tuv trxivu»\ 
ij xat <rvvT§i0ivTa)y oXaii, Trig vavaylag oUtimtoA 
kXK' o'vT iKv(i^^vm rrni vauv, (p^a-nsii «y, aiVa-f j ■ 
ova' itrr^ar^yovv iyu, ovrt r^f tw^jjs xvgiog ?c»l 
uKX Bxe/ffl r&is wai/Tuv. 

'A'K'K' ixiito Xoyi^ov xa] oga, it fcSTO. &*!^aim 
illMv aya/n^of^syoig ovraig sifAd^TO wga^at, r'l y^^nv 
v^ojooxav, it f/,rjo\ toutovs 'itr^of/^sv iruf^f^a^ovs d 
(tXXa 0(Xiirx^ T^otnSivTo, uTsg ou tot ixiiro^M 
xairaf aiptixi ^mag ; xat ei vvr T^taiv rjfii/S^c-iy cito 
Tflf 'ArrjK^s 0^01 tth f^at)^^i yivo(i.i\>nq TotroZroi 
xivSvvoi xa) ^ofidQ tti^iso-ti} riiv toXiv, ri av, st tov 
'■flS X'^S'^^ + rauTo TOVTO ^adog irvn^ri, w^oirSox)}- 
rai X?'^" < '^i o/tr^' oTi vuv /A6f§ ffTrivatt trvvi'kSur, 
itu^vivirat, voXXa f^ia i;fx-&§a xat duo xa) r^itg 
foorav Toiv it; truTri^iay t^ voXsi, Ton a — , oux 

* tout'. + XPV- t X'^P"^ xAtjiTfo 


cL^iM BiTSii, a* ys ^q^E -rst^av iiaxi 6suv TttOi 
sufotet xai to '^^o^a'KiirSai rriv ttoXiv ravT/jv rn* 
(rvf^f^a^iav, rig irv xa.rn'y a^tii, EffTi oe ravTi 
vaiTa f/,ot, TO, ■TToXXa., ir^o; vfiag, uyd^eg oixa- 

(TTUI, K»t TObg TS^ltlT'TJlXQTag l^uSsV KCtt ax^o- 

vfAevovg, Iwit ir^og ys toZtov [awTOf] rov xetrot- 

Ei ftsc yci^ flv a-oi ff^oJjjXa ra jU.sXXoj'Ta, 
Aitr^inti, fi,ov(u Tuv aXXaik, or ifiov'KitJiS' fj iroXtg 

5Tlf( TOVTUV, TOT iOSi -^^oT^iyStV . El 6t ft.71 T^O^- 

Off) T^s avTTJg a.y vol ag"^ wjriuSvvo; tt rotg aWoig, 
atoTS Ti (/.ciXKov tfAov tru Tuvrtc KO-rriyo^us ij iyu 
irou ; TOtroVTov ya^ ec/ASiKiii' iyu a-ou iroXirjjf yi- 
yovu e'lg avra rauS a, Xiyui (x«( ov^u ve^i tuv 
oiXKwv OiixXiyof^ai), atrov lym ^bc io&ixa if^KVrov 
iig TO, %S.tri SoxovvTa ffv[ii<pipiiv, ov^'iva. xUSvuov 
oxyrjirag lOiov ouh' viroXoyis-a,[^svog, try ie ouS' tre^ee. 
iiTtg ^sXtIo) Touraiv (ou ya^ av Tovrotg e^ga'i'''o), 
OUT fj's TuvTct y^^^irff/,ov ovoiv irctvTOv ^agnr^^ig. 
oTE^ 3' a* (pauXoTctTog xx.) Sviry,ett<rTaTog ccv- 
S^uvog Tjj 'JToXei, TOVTO Ti'^otrixug est* Totg trvfA- 
(Sciirtv i^Jiratra.!, ««) 0,(^.01, 'A^jW^kto; tv Najai 
xa] 'A^iVToXsug^ h Qa,<ru,\\ 01 xaSaToe.^ ^^^f*' '^S 
ToKtug, rovg KSrivatuv x^tvovtrt (p'tKovg xctt Apj}- 
vtiffi* \lirj^ivr,g Aiji^otrSivovg xaTriyo^t7. xaiTOi 
* lip. + e^ijpKei fioi. t ai'oias. § ApiffroAaoc- II Oatriiu). 

xaTfjyopBin iTi^ov' KO.) OTf a'wivniO')(au'iv oi avrot 
XKi^Oi x,ai ToTg rjji vroXsaig ly^S^oic, oux ivi toutov 
svvoun iivBLi rp TctT^iSi. itiXdis $\ xa) e| a/v ^^g xat 

TiTcti Tt rm vfuv hoxovsTuv {rvf/.(p%^Eiv ; aipmos 
AiV^/vq;. a.VTix^ovo's n xot) yiyovsv tuoy ouk ion; 
wa^iffTif A'lrry^UtiS' aa-xi^ ra p^yy.a.ra kui ru 
<rTa,ir[^aTee,j- 'oTa.» Tt xaxon to a-af/ca "KaQi^, tot% 


pouKof^at Ti xai ira^aio|oJ' iWuv' xai fj:.ov sr^o! 
Alls xa) Ssu]> fLTiit'ig T^y ti'XB^^o^.fis Savf/^ain^, 
i.^.'Ka. fj^T tvvoiag o Xiyu Beai^nira.Tai. tt yug ti¥ 
ttvoitn TgooijXa, ra ftsX^ocra yiVTitrtirdcih "«' 
rgajheran a^aiireg, xa) (rv ■^r^ovKtyeg A'ia")(^in] xcu 
'itf/Mg7v§ou 0oa/v xa) xtK^ctyug, og ouJ' l^Siy^a, 
ovo ovToig aToa-TCCTiOv 7^ vto'Xe* rOl/TUV tj*, iCXSg 71 
ooJjjE fj -JT^oyova/v J J? too f^iXXovTOg a'tcuvog si'^t 
Xoyoc. i^vv f/.sf ys a.-aoTvyilv ooxsT toiv vgayf/.a- 
rait, •xairi xotvov bcttiv avd^mwoig, orav roi 6iai 
mvTBt Joxj" Tore $' a^ioutra, xgoiffroLvat run 
,tt)t.Xsiv, UT avotrrSiffa. toutou, Q>tX't7rjru ir^aoiiu- 
ituieu Travrag av la-^iv aiTtctv. e'l yag raura 
\iT£iyei. t oirapaffiaTa. | Sofij; Tuir irpirfoytav. 

trgOElTO CiXOViTif* T6gJ 0)* oloiva KiVOVVlm OVTl* oO^ 

u-rifAiivety o't TTgoyonot , Tigfouy^t xaresrruffev etv trcvi 
l^n yaj T?? B-oXea/'j ye, |U,)i3' £^oy. T(V/ 5' h<p0ak- 
fio7i ^§0i Aiog gfljfftijU.Ei' ac Tovi ilg ^rjv ^oXiv 
DLW^u^ovg a^ixvovfLBVoug, i'l to, yAV 5r|aj-^aj-' i]g 
oTig vvn TBgna-T/i,* riyefi&iv at xu) xu^tog ^^iStj 
O(X(T^0E aTctkraic, rov b' vt's^ roZ (jltj ysusir&ai 
TctuT kyma, sts^04 j^ufiQ ri{^y ^cai' xeTOisj^Ew*, 
»DC( TdUTO, (J^rjOfTTuTori Tijg -^oKea/g l» To7i ifi^ 
w^offSe )^§oiiois a(r<pa,Xna,v ctSo^oii f^oiWov ij rot 
viri^ Toiv xa'Km Ktnouvov ^^jj^EJjjf. rig -yag ovx 
oiSet 'E}.xfii/a)v, Tig ^6 (Sa^^a^a/y, on xai Taga, 
(-)t!(3atm xa] vrapa, tuv trt tovtoiv t^ots^ov l^Jf^v- 
^0)11 yivofj^ivm^ Aa.xsSctifA.oviaii' xa) -ra^a rov Tlig- 
rrcuv (iatrt'kiaig f^sra, ffoX?,^; ^a^iTog tovt ar 
atTjaevffij Eooi'jj r^ ^oKii, on jSouT^STUi Xapova-ri 
xut ret. lauTTig i^outrrj to xiXsvo^Aenoi ■s-oieTf xat 
iat iTipov raiii E-Xhijuiuji w^OiTrayai. aXX ovx iiv 
TBc.v6\ aig ioixs, roig Tcre 'AStjvaioig Tar^ta, oui' 
avixra. oih' i^ipvTa, olio' Tiovi/ii^t] waiTOTe t?iv iroXiv 
ovSiig Ix ■jTo.nTog toZ xS^'"" ''"^'^''■*' ™f nr^^uovtrt 
f/kv f/.ri otxocta os ir^ctrrouirt T^otrSifJuivriv ctiripciXug 
SouXbusiv, «XX' a.yayi^of/,ey>) crsfi "jr^&iTsiuy xai 
Tifiirig xa) Jofjjs xivduyiuovtra •saira rov aiatta 
iiariTtXtxi, xai ravd ourai xat ■^goatjxovTa 


wail Km Toiv T^oyovav rovg rotVTa •s-^a^atTcis 
ftikhiffT frex-ivilTi, itxOToif. Tig ya^ ovk ay a-yor- 
traiTo Tm ctpS^&iv Ixneaiii rtji a^sTTJg, oi xa) rtjii 

^a^»J' Xal Tflf TTOXlV iXXlTriTl l/5r6;M.£(Vav Eli TO^S 

•T^iii^tig l^^avreg*' vws^ tov im] to xiXEV0f.itov 

VOt^ffCti, TOV /AtV TCtVTO, ffVf/,IBouXSU<rai/TIX, ©SjCtdTTO- 

x7<.ia, iTTPOiTii'yov sXe^eto*, toi/ o uwaxounv axo- 
privctiASVov To7i tTTiTaTTOf/^svoig Kv^iriXov xaraXt- 
6u(ra,VTig, ou (lovov auTov,^ kWa xui at yuvaixsg 
It't vfJ^iTi^ai Ttjv ymalxa aurov. oy ya^ b^jjtowv 
«i roV A&f!va7oi outs priTo^a ovTi iTT^aTriyov at' 
OTOV SovXsviToiia-iv iuTvyuq, aXX ouoi Z'^v ii^tovv, 
SI ( f'i^ iXivds^'tag i^iiTTat tovto voit7v. fsysiTo 
yu^ avTo/v ixairTog ou^t ru var^i xai t^ ^ijt^i 
fiovof yzytvi^trSai, aWa xai r^ war^iii. ha^i^tt 
<di 71 ; DTI f^iv Tolg yovsutri (lovov yiytv^trSai 
■MjM./^*c TOv T^s e'if/.a^f/,hr;g xai tov auTOfiaroii 
'Skvarov -jrE^tfj/SVEi, o oe xa\ t^ Tar^tSi VTSg tou 
fi.Ti ravTtjv I'^riSsTu $ovXeuou(rav cf^odv^trxEiv e^EXfl- 
{Tti, xcc) <papi^!i}Ti^a,g r,yri(nTat rag u^^sig xat 
to; cen^Jcc;, ag m oouy.ivou(r^ t^ ttoXh ^i^av 
Btvayxr), rau SuvaTOu. 

E( ^b To'iwv rour Ittb^si^ovv 'Kiyitv, wg\ lyai 
■v^ariyoLyov vf/.ag a^ia, tuv x^oyovm ^^oviiv^ oux 

10-^' otrrig oux ay i'lKoras l-TirifArirsn fioi. vvt 

Cpaivu, xDt; Siix.yvy.1 on Kcei ■Trgo e/Aou rour eTj^t 
TO ipfo'fjj^a ^ ^o7).ii, 7)jg fi,iVTOi Siaxotia; rijf eip' 
ixaffToig tvv wsTr^ayf/.sviDV ku) if/,ix,vrai (LtTUvai 
<pi}fi.i, ovTOs 3e ^ciiv o?kuv xetTi^'yo^ciiv^ xa) xsKsvai/ 
u/AKS if^o) T^ix^Sg i%ny aig ipo^uv na) xtsSuyuv 
a'lTiai 7tj •jTO'KBt yi'yiftif/.tvii), 77jg [i-iv ug to 'rot^or 
TifMJg £^B ccTToiTTS^riirai ylKty^irui, ra o ug avav- 
Tu rov "Kofjtov "^^^ovov iyxu[/.ta vfiav apai^sTrai. 
ii ya^*' ug ov ra, (SsXtitto, If^ou ■^roXtTSuirafA.sycu 
TovS) xa.Ta.-^ri<pnlirSi, tif^a^rnxsyai 5o|er6, oC tk 
TTii Tvyrrig ay^aiftoirovti ra <rvf/,^ayTct suOiiv. aXX' 
ovx ta-Tiv, oux iiTTis OTug T!f^a,^TBr£,f olvS§Eg'A6>j- 
fctloi, TO* uiTBji Ttji cfSKfruv iT^svde^iag xa) iruTfi- 
gloi^ xivoiiyov k^K^ivoi, ^a, rove 'M.a.^u&avi -x-^oxif' 
ivviiJi7tx.vra,g ru\i x^oyoym xa.) rovg sv XlKetraioiig 
■3ra,ecx,TX^a.f^svovg xa) roug ly 2u>.a,f/,7yi yavpt.a)i^ii- 
trayrag xa.) rot;; It' ' AfTSf/,ia-iu xa) -jroWaug 
iTigovg TOvg iy Tolg ^ufAOffioig lAynfLairi xtif/,ivovg 
ayuSciug oiv^^ac, ol; awayrag ofLn'img ^ woXig t^c 
avTtig a^ianratra Tif^ijg 'iSa-^iy, Aitr^^^iyti, ovj^i 
Tovg Karo^SuiravTag avrZv ov^\ roug xgaT^imcvrag 
[Mvovg. hixa'iwg. it f/ky ya.§ ^f av&gaiy ayuScay 
i^yoy, a-rairi viir^axrai' r^ "^^X^ ^'> ^* ° iaifiuaiy 

* yap ovx'- 




E.TitT , ai xaragaTS xai y^af^f/.aToxti^aiHf irv f/.if 
Tr,g Ta^a tovtoih rifi^g xat (piXat&^ai'jria.g ifi. 

■TtaXata 'igya 'iXiytg, iiv tIvo; •Tr^otnoiiro o ira^uf 
ayait ovTo/Ti ; Ifj-i Si, ii T^iTa.yQiiit(rTa., rov ffe^j rm 
■TT^UTiiaiv /r6f/,f3ovy.ov rrt iroXei wct^iovTCC 70 rtvog 
ip^on^f/M Ka^onT f oiva(3ot.'ivui/ ItI to /3^^' Ihii ro 
rou TOUTniv unoi^ia l^ouyTog', hixa'to)? (j-iVT av cvTr'i- 
8a,\iov. etrslj ov3' vfiug, avS^sg 'ASrivuioi, ano Ttjg 
avTfjg Siasoiag hi rag re iMag Slxct; xa) rag Srif^o- 
tr'iag x^iviiv, ctKXa ra, (^iv rov xad' tiy-sgav ^lou crv(/^ 
(ioKctia EirJ rm Ih'ituv vay^m xai 'i^ym (rxowouvrag, 
rag di xoiyag Tgoat^iir&tg i'lg to. raiv irgoyonui 
ii^iu/j-Kra, ocTo^Xt'zovTCtg. xa) •xa^a'Kaii.^a.tiiv yi 
a[itx, Tn (SaxTti^ia xeii tu ffvf/.(3oXai to (p^ovT!fii,a, 
ToXsa/g vo[/.{^siii 'ixatrToii i^m Sit, orav ra 
Oflf/iOa-ia, iitriTiTZ xgivouvrsg, e'ivs^ a^m txsiwi 
x^arretv oiitrSs ^^jjyai. 'A?iXa ya^ lf/,Teirav§ 
ng Ta ■rsT^ayfj.iva to7; T^oyofoig vfAam uttiv a 
TW ■^T^tpiiTi^aTcus Ta^i^r,v xai raJvH -^^aySiiTm, 
Ixavi'XGiiv ovv, o-raSsv slg raZr l^i^fiv, ^ouXofAai. 
fig ya^ a,ipixoi/.iS' ug Tag ©jjjSaf, xarehaf/,- 
pavofjLiv ^iT^iTTTou xa) OiTraT^uv xa) tuv aXXaiv 
fvft'fj'.a^itiv ToL^ovTag T^itrlSitg, xai Tovg fjiikv fsf^t- 
luev. t avaXa^ojTa. 1 eTrena. 


Tt^ovg ^iXoui iv ^opai, Tovg a txstvoo Sgartls. 
on i' ou vvy ravra "Kiyu rov truf/,(pt^ovTOC (Stxei 
IfLavToi, Xeys f/,ot ttjv iicurrtt'Kriv i}i tot t-rsptr- 
■^ctfAiv su&us ol T^tirl3tig. xkitoi roirauT^ y vreg- 
(SoX^ trvKopaVTioig ourog xiy^^r,rix.i, mar ei ^s» rt 
Tu* Ssovra/i' ix^kyStj, tov xcci^ov, ovk tfA,i <pi^iri» 
a,trtov yiyiv^irdat, tihv q &ig iTi^ug a-uf/.poi,»Tut 
a.'iruvrm ifjCi xeit Ttiv Sf/,ijv 7vyjiv aiTtaii thai, neu 
wg ioiKiv, (r6fi,j3ovXog xoci priTup lyo) ray f/,EV t» 
Xoyou xa) tov ^ouXivtrarrSaf* ff^a^^scTav cuotyog 
a.vrZ truvatTiag ayat ^oxw, ruv S' l> to7( owXoig 
xai xctTK T?if ffTfctTnyloLv itTv^tiSsvTiui i^ovog 
cuTiog iitat. wojg ay mfiore^og ffuxo^avrtig yitOiT 
7) Ka.Ta^a.TOTi^og ; Xiys rtjy tTurTO^.tiv. 


'E^rs/o^ roifvv iiroi^travTO t^v Ixx'Atiirieiy, t^oo-- 
jjyoy ixiivovg'f ^^OTi^ovg dta ro T^v raJv truf^i^ot^ar 
Tct^iy ixeivovg e^siv. xa) •xa^ikSoyTig tStift-tiyo- 
§ovy iroXXa f^tv ^iXitttov ey»»^ia^ocrsf» ToXXa 
vfJi-i^y xaTTiyo^ovyng, ^avd' orra xaVor' IvayriK 
szfa^aTS &]j^aioig mafAtf/.yTiirxoyTsg . to i' ouy 
Xi^aT^aioy, tj^iouy uy [Liy su xs'^ovhffix.vX t"ro OiXfir- 
TOv X^S" '^^^°^i aTTOOOvyui, Zv 5' vp' uftSiy r;Oi- 
xrino SiKJiv ?^a/3s7v, oirori^aig ^ouT^oyrai, n ^iivTo-g 


avTOog 6^' vf4,as tj rvfi^/SaXovTa; tig riiv 'ArriKifi 
Koi IdiiKvvirav, ag uovto, Ik f/,iv m avTci ervt- 
60ovXevov TO, Ix Tfii 'KrTiKnq 0oa-Kr!fi,aTa, 
avi^u-^oia xa) ra.>X ayada, i'tq 7r,v Boiurias 
tj^ovTsii iK Ss ay if^ag l^Etv sipcttrav to, Iv r^ 
Bota/ria iia^-jratrSrirro^/Ava, uxo tou •ro'Ksf^ov, xai 
aXX« ToXKa Tr^oi rovToig, e'l; tccvto, $& ^av7(x 
irvVTeivovT tXsyov. a 5' ^i^iiq ^^oj rnvra ocvnl' 
•xoi^iv, 7a {/.iv xa9 ixaa-Tie. iyw fjuiv avTi itavTog 
av Tt[i,rjira'tiA.riV uttsTv tov (Biov, vf/,ug hi oiOoixa, 
(/,>! ira,^i'Ktikv9oTav ruf xai^ajv, aitr-rs^ ctv ei xara- 
KKufffiov yiytv^irSctt 7uv ■^^(xyfAaraiv r,youft,tiioi, 
ftaratov o^y.oii Toug vrigi tovtcov \oyovg vof/^ifftin' 
a i' ovv tTtiiraf^et rifAsls xx) a ^|U7f airtx^Uatro, 
axcuruTS. Atys ravTi Xa^ay. 

AnOKPI2I2 0HBAinN/^\^M 

Merci TCtvTet roiwv IxaXovv vfJi-aQ xai fjLtTS- 

"KiiTu, OUTv; oixiisig i[j.Eif ISi^OVTO, ai^r i\u ruv 
oirXiTftit xai TH)]/ nrTiiuj' ouToiy i'lg tu^ olxiag xai 
*o aiTTV Si^Birdai riiv CT^aTixy Im va-lSag xa) 
yv]/a7xai xai 7a, rif/iiurara. xairoi 7^ia. it 
ixsiv^ T^ tlfAt^a •Jtairtv a,fS§awoig iSsi^av lyxuftia 
• .ft..r.. 



iTioov i\ iixa,iO(rvy>!g, t^itov OS tru^^ofruvriQ. xai 
yct^ Ton a,yu]ict fitS v[/.<uii fi.aX'Kov )j xfos V(A.Sig 
i'Ko^ivoi iroirs^rcc/rda,! xcu a,[^iiiiou; uvcn xcti iixoti- 
OTig a^iovv ix^ivav ^iXivtou' * xcn Tet-xa.^ 
avTolg xa) -ra^a vatrt a In !rXsja"T)j ^uhax^, ^ctT- 
iag xa.) yuYctiKotg, sip' vfMV Toiri/ravTeg iraip^etrvvtjg 
ximv T£^i vfjiMv ly^ovTtf idii^av. h oig -sroiirir, 
a>3ji; 'Ad>iva7oi, xara y w^aj-f" a^^wg %<pavi}ira» 
lymixofBg. ovti yug iig Ttjv vo7.iv iiirsX6ovTog toZ 
trr^aTO-Tiihov oviiig ouKiv ov^\ aSixtug u^7i' ivsxa~ 
Xiirtt' ovToi trutp^ovag '^'ot^nyyiirSiX uf/,oig avTovg' 
iig rs (rujitT«fara|a^^ej'OJ§ rug ir^i^rag ft.a.'^ttg, 

Ttjll T tiri 70V ■ZOTO.fLOV XOH TtiV ^ilfli^lUffV, ovx 

UfJ.ifATTOvg f/.oyor vfj^Scg avrovg aX'ka. xui SavfAa- 
trrovs ISii^otTi TaJ KOfTfLo)) Tct7g '^a^a/rxivaTg, T^ 
■X^oSv^ia.. i^ Gig iraga f^iy rait ctXXay vf^in syi- 
yyovTO iTUmoi, Tafa J' uf^aiy Ova-'ion xui ^o^xai 
Tolg 6io7g. xa.) tyuyi Tioitug ay s^oif/,r,y A'ur^irt^y, 
on ravT eiTfarrsro]! xcu ^^Xov xa) J^agas *a» 
Wttiya/v !) To}^ig ri> fAEcrrrj, -zon^ay ffvyiSut xa\ 
e-vvivip^amTO 7oig iroX?.o7;, n hwjrov^iyog Keii 
tTTiyuv xa.) Sv<r[/,sycc,tytuy lirt roig xotmg aya0o7g 
01X61 xaO^To ; ei [My ya§ va^ny xa) f^csra t»k 


ovo Officii it a'v wf K§i<rrm* avrog rovs Sioui i-Troiii- 
(raTO fj^a^Tu^as J tclvS' a; ovx a^itrraf yvv vy-ag 
a^ioi ■^ri^ttra.ffSa.i rovg of/,s/f/,oKOTai rovg dsov; ; 
ei h fJLYi ^a^tiv, iraif oux ocjro'KikiXitm -s-oWaxig 
Iffr) iUaiOi, SI l(p oig tyai^ov o'i oiXKoi, ravrat 
iXuTslro i^aiy ; AiyE iri ku] raZra. to, i|')i(p(- 
fff^ara. /aqi. 


¥Ha>I5MATA 0T2inN. 

OvKovv hy-iis fuv \v ^vtrictig fjf^sv tots, Qtj- 
^uloi i' iv Tu h' 7i(/.oig irsfrScrdut yo[/,'t^iiv, xai 
iriQiitTTTiKii Toi{ J ^oti^sictg Ssfjirtir&ai Soxoiiiriv a^ 
m W^ccTTOv ovTOi, avTOvg^ poTjSsiy tre^oig e? »» 
iTiitrSriT if^oi. aXXa {/.rjy oiag tot ^<piii (puvag o 
0thi^7rog »on iy oistig rjv TU^a^ulg iTi TovTOig, ix 
Tm twKTTo'Km tuv sxeiyoa [i.itdnirEffdt wv ug ITsXo- 
'^mrsffoy 'irs^'rgy. icai fjt,oi "kiyi ravrag Xa^m, 
'I'y S(5flre, ^ s^ij irvys^sia xa) •^'KavoiW kol) TaXat- 
•jTu^tai xoLi TO. ffoXXa -^ri^iiTf^aTa, a vuy ouTOg 
eSiio-v^B, Ti aTBi^yutretTo, Ka/Voi woXXci T«f" 
u^7v, clv^^eg 'KSrjyuioty •ysyoyetiri priTo^ig ivOo^oi 
Kai fCsyaXot tt^o ifjLov, KaXXigrT^aTog sxif'ko;, 
'A^irrcCpa/v, Ke^aXof, ©^airy/SoyXo;, ire^ot (f,v^tof 

aX^ of/,aig ouostg vai'roTB toutqiv dioi TravTog 
HaiXEv tavTov I'lg ovoiv tjj voJ^si, ctXX' o ff^iv 

oux ail 'i-y^a-\^f». yTEXEjVero •ya.g auraiv sxa- 
a-Tog iavTu a'fta fjLSv paa-ravriv, a,(i,a. J', it ti 
y'tyvotT, urcttpogav. rl ouv ; eiwoi rig av, irv 
TOirovTOii vTS^^^ug TOug aXKoug p&ifjL^ xcti roXf/,^ 
arre ■xa.vTix, voiut avTOg ; ou ravrcc Xiyai, ceXX' 
ouToig iwi-suir^riv fjusyav that rov xctTSiXtj^ora 
xisiuvov TTin woXit, u/TT ouK Hoxii f/,01 j^af^ac* oiiSi 
TT^otoiay ouhfji,iav r^g l&iag air^ecXsiag hSoveti, 
aXX' a.ya.TriTov ittai, it f/,r!ast ■jrct^aXtiTwn rig a. 
Oil •jT^a^etiv. ivivufrfj^riv o vvi^ 'if/,avTOV, rvvot 
fCiji moiifrOnTuv ,'\ 'of/.ug h' l-Trzinla-fj^n^, f/.^Ti yga.- 
ipovT a.v E/AOU y^a-'l/Cii ^iXrtOV fJ.)jiivct, ^^ts 
fr^arravTa, ■Tr^a^at, f^^re T^is-^Bvovra T^£(r{3ivtrai 
T^oSufA,oTEgov f/.fjdi SixaioTSgoy. ha ratira i\i 
aToia-iv IfictvTov trciTTov. Aeyi rag i^ritrroXag 
r«f TOO OiXiCTiToy. 


K(; ravTo. KUTitTTTitri ^iXiTTov ri t^Ti ToXtriict, 
AiV^*c)l" ravT?!V rriu (p&iviju ixsivog cttprjxs di l^s, 
voXXovi KOI S^atritg ra T^o rovruv Tn toXci iTfut- 
• apav. t ai-aiiT8^Ttj>f. 


VTO TOVTaH, KOI ffV TTU^UV OUK etvTihiyt?, Oi 

yfai^K/Aevos AimSag to f^i^o; ru» •^ri<pm ovx, 
t'Ka^i*. Ka/ ^oi Xcys TavTo. to, -^ri^irrfACira 




TavTi T« '^}}^ttrfA,aT a> uva^ig KStivmoi rag 

irgOTi^oii f/Xv ' Apia-Tovixos vvv 3'e KT>j£rj^av yiy^a,- 
Ipiii ouToiTi. xa) TctvT Aiff^i'i'ris OUT iow^iv asjTog 
OUTS Tu y^a-\poi^ivu (rvyxa.Triyo^ti<Tis. xcttroi 

\,ri(i.O[t,iXTj TOS TOVTO. y^OLIpOVTEl RUI TOt 

"Tvsgi'dTjs, e*T£^ ah-^ffii f^ou vv» Kctrriyo^il, fJ.a'k- 
"kov av s'tKOTois ri rovo fiOjWe^. oia t/ i oti tm fi>tt 
ifl-r avifsyxslv W sxitvoui xaJ ras tuv hxcttrT}]- 
fimv yrairsis xai to tovtov uvtov iKn'sm J firi xaT?i- 
yo^rixsiictt TUvTo. y^ct-^avToiv a,TS^ ouTOi cow, xui 

TO TOUi VOfJUOVi f/-7]XiT SaH TTl^i Tan OUTU T^O,- 
^QlVTUV KXTTiyO^iiv, XOt IToXXa 676^a" TOTS CIVTO 

TO Tfgoiyfj, ail sx^/vsto tip avTOv, nt^h ti tovtojv^ 
''Bty. a,Xy\ ovx ^v ot^ai tots, o w>i ^oitT, 
tK ^uXat&iv ^^oiaiv kch -^ri^ttrfiaTuv voh-Xmy Ix- 
^slfltvra, a, ft^TS '?r^ojhi fj^Ji^t]g f^riT av ^rfiri 



Tifi,s§ov pTjd^vaii hia^ciKKtiv, kou f^trtvsyxovTct 

iiii [ASTa.SitTa, to7; ■^i-jr^ayfjuivoi? ooxiiv ri Xiynt. 
ovK ^y TOTS 7aura,a,\>.' eori* T^i ctKriSiiccg^lyyus 
Toiv t^yiuft tTi f^efj^f^fiLivm v^/mv r.m [i.o)iov ouk It 
rati yipirtv iKccffrct, i^ofTW, •jravrii tytyvovr a» 
01 y.Q'yoi. SiOTEp Tov; na.^ avTo. tu w^ay^ar' 
\\iyyovi; (pvyeiiv vuv virri^ov ixn, pjiro^uv ayaita 
toi/,'i^oiy, ug y ijWol %ox.ii. Km ol-^i rm •st'saXiTiM- 
f/,ivaiv l^iTctiriv -Tratwtiv u/wtg, xai "Koyou k^'ktiv, oil 
TOV r« ^o\s( ffv[t.<pi^ovTai itrttrSai. 

Yatk tro^'i^STUt, xat ^jjrrl T^oiritKitv , tjg ^8» 
oixohv 7)Xfr 'iyjtmg 5o^>ig «-e^) ttfiav afAS>.iitren. 
ua-Kip J', oTav o'lOfcsvoi ■jri^ieivcti ^^rs^aru tj» 7,0- 
y'i^71ff0s, ac xctSx^a.) aiffiv ct'i -^ri^oi Xd.) f/.^Sii> 
^BPi^, ffvy^a^tiTt, ovTU xai iivii rolg tx tov Xoyov 
<pix,ivo(i,iVDiif •pt^off&itrdat, dtaa-aa-h rohvy ag itol- 
S^cv, ug iotKiv, iirri puiru itoiv o n av f/,^ iixuiais 
J? •iriTga.yfA.ivov. ix yag avTOv tov ffa^oD tovtov 
vaga,oiiyf/-UTo; wfMiXoyrixs vuh vf/,ag vva^y^siv 
iysaiff(A.'ivovgX '^f^"^ f^^^" Xeysii' vmg Trig -s-ctrgiSoi, 
aVTov i' iiTi^ ^i>,i'7r9rou' ov ya^ un ^iTUTciiSn* 
vfiag e^ijrji ^jj TOiuuTns ouirtig Trig u-xoL^-)(ouffng 
ya-oX^i/zEai; wEfi iKa-Ti^ou. xcli fAtjr on ye ou 
iiKcua Xiyii fji.$TuSt<r0ai tuuti;* Tfjy io^at ct^im 


vfLaq, f/cu oioa^iD pa.3i'ais, ov Tt^ug -ili^tpovg (oC 
•yuf la-Ttv 6 rm •jr^ayf/.a.Tm* oZroq "koyia-f^oi) a,h>J 
avocf/.ifit.vw'taiv ixota-Tct h (^^a^^ffi, Xoynrra.'ii a.u,a. 

H ya,^ if/,f! woKiTiict, m ovrog xu.7ttyo^t7, avri 
fiii rov 0Ti(3aiovg fLSTa OiXjWou (rvnfJi.f3ix.Xs7vf 
Big Tiiv ^ai^av^ o Tu-trts o/ofTO [^iiTi(T&ai'\, ^s8' iif^ciii 
•ra^ara,^af/,ivoug Ike7voii xuXveiv Woi'i^tTiv, avTt h\ 
Tou m rn Attik^ rot ■zoT^sf/.of iivai iTrraxoTio, a-roi- 
ciu aTo Tijg -^oKiug sxj 7o7g 'BoiaiTuv o^i'ois yiHo-^ai, 
i Si Tov Tovg XtiiTTBig rif/^ig (pi^ttv xai uyiiv \x 
Tijs Ku/Soioig h si^riv^ ttjv 'Attix^h Ix &a.'ku.r7i\g 
sinxi TBtiiTix. TOV mXEf/,011, am ae tou tou 'E?^X^- 
rwovTov 'kyziv ^^tKiTTov, Xa^ovra 'Rv^a.vTtaVt irv^- 
vohi^iiv Toug Hv^atTiovg f/^ed' rifiav T^og lKe7voy.X 
ago, troi ipTj(poig of4,otog o tuji i^ym 7^oyi<r(/i,og (pal- 
riTCCt i r! oiiv ciVTKvsXi7v ravrix,, kXX' ov^ o^riag 
TOV oifraiiTCi ^^ovov i^vtif/.onvSria'iTcn a-Kiipuirdai ; 
««( o'uxiTi Tgoa-Ti^tifJi,! OTI Trig ftsv ufionirog, tjh h 
Oit xa^xTToii Ttmv xv^tog xotrsiTTtj OiXjirirof iimv 
toi7v, tTi^oig vii^aSrivat trvvep?;, Tjjg os ^I'Kavd^u- 
TTiotg, jjn ra "KoiTrac 7m trgaj'/AKTwi' ixuvttg ni^i- 

reioviTtf roug xa^Tovg nsxof^ier&B. a7,X iai tuvtu, 
K«i ftfl* cuSe TOUT elTe7v oxv^tra, on o roy 




(pavTiit, ovx- wv Ota tru tuv sXej-er, roiavTo, xocri}- 
yc^it, ■Tra^aluyfiara, rrXarraiv ku) pti^a-ra, xai 
ff^^fiaru fLif/,ovf^svog (yravu ya^ wa^a* rovro, ouj; 
o^a; ; yiyom ra r^v 'il}.X^vaiv, si rourt to p^fiu 
uXXce ftjj tovt) Sit>.t^S}}v lyea, fj hvgi r^v %£''f» 
ct>.\a. ff,n itv^l Tagiiiityxa), ctKX' t^'f a.\iTuv rif Tn/ag Suyaf^m, or eh tu v^ay^ar gi(r^ti», 
xat Tiiiag ffuiiriyotyov aurjf [LiTo. toZt ivurrag 
iy^, xat xfii'; ti^s ra fair tvayrtaiv, sir iv f/.tt 
IXaTTovi iTOintra, rag ovva,f/,eig, ira^ (f/,Oi TaoiKri[/^ 
a\i sSiixvviv dv, Bi Oi toXkZ f^ei^ovg, ovx av srw- 
xolpa.»7ti. t-!ruiri oe <rv touto vi<psvyag, iyv 
Totriirai' xai ffKOTiin, u SiKaiag y^^^croftai r^ 

ACva[/,iv (Liv Toiyvv ax*" h "foXtg rovg nfurtc^ 
Tag, ov^ axairas, aXXa Tovg aaStvurTOLToug' 
6VTS ya,^ X/of ovrs 'Pooog olTt Ke^xy^a fjLsff 
ilfi^m ^»' ■^gfifj.araiv ds iruvTa^ii i'lg insn xci) TiT- 


f^iva'X OTXirriv r, (Vfrsa ir7^riv toiv o'ikhoiv ovos- 
va. As TravTuv xou {po^c^coraTov xai f/,a\i<r6' 
v'jnp Tttic l^dpcev, oZroi vagStrxiuaxBio'eit Tovg «■*- 
fijjw^oyf vksTag 'iyP^ctg n 'pi'Kiag lyyvTi^ai, 
* iia. + e^. ' vpoairartjfXEva. 


Mtyei^Bit, ©ti^aiovi, Ev^osag. ra fj.i\i r^g to- 
Xsftif otiTcug WTj^^t* sy^oiira, xai ovosts u» i^oi 
vn^a rauT iWzlv a,Xko oujev" to, ii 70Z OiXIt- 
90V, Wfoe ov flk i!{/-7y otyaiy, trxi-'pairSs weug. 
xgQiTQS (/Av ^^y^i 7m aKo\ou0ovs7m av7og avro- 
*ga,7uo SUV, riv s'lg toii ToXef^of (Jt-'tyitrrov eo-t(» 
awKjiTftPC' iiS ouToi TO. ottKu nyyiy in rctig Ytptrtv 
etii' i-jii7a y^^i^iJba.T<tiv svto^ii, kcu i-!r^ix,T7(v, a 
oo^mv auTu, ov ^^oXiycDV Is roig ■^fitpia-fA.atrit, 
cvb' iv tZ Ipctuf^ai ^ovXivof/^ivog , ov^' uwo tus 
aVKO'pavro'JVTtiiv x^n/ofi,ivog, olSi y^a.ipag (pivym 
va^a»OfA.av, ovo v^ivSvvoq atv ovoifi, a.'k'K av'Kuq 
auTog ai(rvro7t!g, riyi^x^uv, xv^iog wccv7m. syat a 

V^Og 70V76V aV7l7S7Bt,yi^iV0i {xai yOL^ 70V7 i^i- 

ruiraf Sixciias) rUog xv^iog )jy ; ovasvog' auro 
y«^ TO Srii^riyo^Eiy t^utos, oy (/.ovov"" f/^iTily^o* 

tyu, 6| tlTDU T^OVTldid' VfJ^Ug TOi'f iTKgi' ixtmu 

fibifrdct^vouffi xcti lf/.oi, xai o(ra ov7oi vre^iyi- 
tcmo i[x,ov (roXXa, 5' tylyvi70 rawa,, h' n^ 'ixu- 
rrov 7vy^oif ^goipatrm), 7avS' v^ig 7uv lyS^m 
a-rr^TS ptpov'Kivfjbitiot, iXX' o^ws ix TOiOVTOis 
tXa77a(J,a,7UV tyai /rvjA-f^oty^ovg fcsv vf^iv Iwolniru. 
Ey/3oeaj,]; 'A;^a(oyj> K.o^iy0iovg, Sf^fBalovg, Msya- 
fsas) AsvxaSioug, Ks^xv^aioug, a.ip' ay f^vgioi fjch 
HOI TtvTaxuryJ'Ktoi ^isoi, ^(fj^/XfOi J' iWe?; a/su 

t i 


ctrrn kouvrjdriv iyu, •^KtitrrTiv <rvvri\fiav ivot^irct. 

E( 5s y.iysig j; ra fr^of &ripaiovi oince.ta., Al- 
trylvriyTj ra w^o; By^acrjouj ^ tcc Trgog Ev/3os«e, ;j 
a-Sf J TaJv itraif vvii JiaXeyj), ■x^urov f/Xv ayvoelg oti 
xcci •JT^OTigov icav vxig rtmy EXXijuuc iicnyiav ayaivt- 
traf/.ii'uv T^ir,^m,* T^taxotrioif outrun raiv ■xuffatv, ras 
hctKOffias fl mKig •^ra^i./r^sro, »«( ovk IXetTTov- 
tr&a,i vo^i^ovtra, ou3e K^lvovtrtx, roui rat/roi irvftr- 
(SoyXefira^'Tas oh^i ayocvaxTouffa ewi tovtoh \u- 
^oLto [ais-x^^ov yot§}, aXXa roTg &ea7g 'i^^outra }^a^itt 
i'l Koivov KiviCvou^ ro7f "E?.X;j(n ■jrs^ia-TaVTOS avrii 
OfTrXLiTitx. rm aXXaii e'lg tjiv K-rccvTorv (rswTijpi'ar 
TQC^tiry^iTO. + ura. Kiva.g ys yj^^'t^ yjt.^t'^a.g tqv- 
TOKTi <ruKO<pcivrm e^e. n ya^ vvv Myii; oix 
\-^^ni -sr^CCTTUV, CtXX' OV TOT uv U T^ -KoXti xa.\ 

•jrcigovTag xm§oug, iv olg ov^ otrct l0ovK6f^£Sa 
otXX' oirct ooifi TO, 'ir^a.yf^a.T i^it ^kyir^at' o yap 
a.iiTa)va6[i.ivog xal Tayu rovg xx^' rifiaiy aTsXuv- 
voii-isovi Tgotrh^ofi-svog «al ^g^fi.aTix ■x^otrSi^ffm 

VTTjj^^i]/ tTOIfjLOg. 

AXX it vuii siTi Tolg TTiT^oLyi/.ivotg xotTtiyopiag 

'^X^i " ""' OUtrdi, it TOT IfiLOV Ti^\ TOVTO/I' UKgl- 

poKoyou(i,ivov,^'K&ov at •xcXng xat -jr^offtdiVTo 
' rpitjpuv. t iToAe/jov, { irapair^oiTo. 


^avTiou Kv^iOi Kantrrrj ; ri -roitTv an rj r't ^.tynv 
Tovi cc,<n0i7s avS^u^QVi rouroviri; oyj; ui l^sho- 
^tjirap ; oi/-)/ ug k'xri'Ka.Srstrctv ^ovKoi/.tvot f/.id' tifiLuv 
imat I tiToc Tov [^iv ' KXXriirvovTOV oia By^af- 
Tiaiii lyxgaTtig xaDiTTriKi* xat Tr,g (nro^ofimag 
T^g Tav 'KkT^^vain xv^io; ly^yofs], ^oXsf^og o otM- 
fos Ko.) (3a^vg elg t^h Attixti» oia Qripatm 
Ksxof/^itrrah aTXavg S' h Sa.'ka.TTa vto tuv Ik trig 
E.v(3otag o^f/Mf/,ivm Xf;TTuv ysyovsv ; ovx a.v rauT 
sT-syoc, xai ToXy^a, yi ff^ o; TOtlrOis m^« ; iroviigov, 
01 ccvS^ig 'AS>ivk7oi, •^ov/j^ov o trvxo(^atvT>ig as) xcn 
TravTay^ohv (iarrxccvot xa.) (piKccinov' tovto o6 xa,) 
^vmi xUa^og ravC^uxiQV limy, oboiv £| ^-^^^S 
vyug Ti^oifiKog ovS' sAjy^SfOi', auTor^ayixog 'jrtSri- 
Kog, a^ov^cciog O'vof^aog, •jra^ccs'tif/.Oi priToif. n 
yagi n trh hivorn; stg ovjifrjiif ^kh r^ Trar^iii', vCk 

it rig IctT^og aa-Stvoviri fjXii Toig xa,f/.voviriv slffiuv 
fji-n 'kiyoi fi.rih huxwoi ii ud ct'jro^eu^ovTai rni' 
voiTotfiirBiosj oe TsXsuT^trsjs rig tx-urm x«i ra co^i- 
^o[/,iva, auTM ipE^oiTO, axoXou^iwv eirl to f/,vri[/,a, 
oie^ioi "u TO xai to I'Tc-oitio-m u.vS^ai'xog ouro/ri, oiix 

Ou Toivvv auQi rri* riTTavt u TctvT^ yav^iag 

' naSeOTij. 

+ oKvtjmti. 

Tftic xaf' ifjLoiJ*' yiyovmav tvgijiriTS ry ttoXh. 

(r^Evr>i; l^e[A,(pdr,vj' v<p' v[^wv lyu, tirr^Stis a,'XT,\8ov 

oix i^ 'Af^lS^axiai, ovK ej IXXy^jwc, eu ^aga 

ciXXodiv ou^a.ti.oSit, ov to, nXsuraTa ^faiji' ex 
&*!flci>v, aXX' Iv oi's x^xTijdiiSiv o'l 7rgi(r(3sis auTov 
TO) Xoy&i, 7UU7a roig owXatg iinav xciTiirT^i(f)iTo- 
TccuT CVS aTTUiTilg xa^ i(/.Qv, xai oux- aury^vm 
Tov auTOV sig te fLK^axiaii /rKciwraiv xui r^g ^Pi- 
XiTTov ivvaf^sug ct^iaJn ivee, qvto. x^uttoi ysvitrOat ; 
Rcu T^.vTa To7f Xoyoig ; rivog yu§ aAXou xugiog 
fiv sysu ; oil ya^ t^j ys IxacrTOV ipvy^tig, ovoe rhi 
Tv^tig T6>v ■Tra^aTOt.'ia.fjLkiim, ouJe TTjg iTT^aTnyiaf, 
ni s^' u-TtttTilg ilSvvag' oSto) trxaiog si. ct?\.Xa 
f^iiv Zv y av o pJiTu^ v^jteuSwos en], ■jra<ra> slera- 
ffiii Xaft/Sai'e' ov TTCt^aiTOVfjiai. riva. ovv etrn 
TUVTot. i iob7v to, o-^ay^ara a^^o^Sfa xcbi irgo«*- 
rr&iirilxt xai w^oHTBTt roTg aXXoig. ravra irivpa- 
xToti fioi. xal iTi Tag ixatTTay^ov ^^aivr^rotg, 
oxTiovg, ayvotag, <pi7^oysixiag, a woXirixa J rmg 
^o}:.iffi '^^oa-iiTTui avatraig xat uvayxaia afjiugrri- 
f/^EiTa, ravd u; s'lg i'Ka^KTTov irvirTiiKai, xal 


^P Touvot\'Tiov ilg ofiovoiav x.a.) tpi'kiav*^ xa.) rov tec 
SiOfTU vanlv o^(^r,v ff^or^s^'*'- *"*' "^ct^^a, f/,oi 
vavra TSTOitirai, xat olou; {A.fiToS' eo^si to xar 
tfiLi ovoii/ s7^Xsi<pdiv, u roimv rig i^otro avTivouv, 

triiri TO. irXitiTTa, ^'iXiT'Troq as xari-x^a^i hiuxrj- 
trarOi tkitss av st^oiss tu trT^UToiriOoi kbu tu 
iidovai XBCi'f oici(p&ii^siv rou; ea-i 7uv •j^a.yfia.rav. 
ovxovv tZv f^iv Susuf^eain ovre xv^ios 6vd' ^ysf/^av 
tjv lycd, iStTTS ova o Xoyog rm xurct Tavra Tga- 
ji^divrm TT^o; l^its. xai f/.riv tZ ys (Ji.ii iiafp&u^^vai 
j^^rif/,aiTii/ xix^artixa OjXf^rffou' utrTig yug o 

Imovf^svog vsnxrjXi 70v Xa/BovTcct lav -jr^itiTai , oi/Tcug 
fi>i >.a^m [/.}ji\ ita.<pCa.^iig vsvixfixe rov uvovfAS- 
voy. Ltrn a,r!TTr,Tos h ■ao'kig to xur £fte. 
"A (JAv Tomv iyai sa^nryai^riv ug to hxafa/g 
roiavTO, y^aipsiv rowrov) ts^] e^ou, ^^og woXXo7f 
iTE^oig TdVTa xa] ra^a-nr'Afjiria, Tourag ka'Tiv, a 
01 TavTSg vfiitg, Tavr riorj Xi^ca. 

MeT« ya^ T^y IJ-c^Xlv suSug o $n//.og, e'lSug xct) 
I iugaxaig Travra offa iT^ccTTOv lya, Iv avrolg rolg 
I httvoig xai <po^£po7s e^j3£/3jjk*j, ^wV ovo kyvai- 
I u.ov^iTce,i Ti SaufZ-afToy fiv rovg •iroXKoug ir^og sfis, 
v^uTOV f/AV 5re^i ffaiTTi^iag r^g WXe»f rag If^ag 
r yvcDf/,ag i^sigorovst, xai icavS oirtz tth (pvXuxtjg 
I hixa. sr§a.T7STo, fi SiaTU^ig rHv (^vXaxav^ ul 

rap^M, TO, tig ret ru^ti •^^riii.a.rott oict tuv iftat 
■^nPtfffi,a.Tuv ly'tyviTo' i-xuS' al^oufAeto; trirmftv in 
TratToiy tfAi i^sigOTOVtjffiV o i^jitof. xtxi fj^sra. ravra 
ffUffTanTm oi( rjv sxi^eXtj xa.Keu% e^s Toiiiv, xcct 
•ygapag, euduiiag, i'urBe.yyi'Kictg, irocvrot, raur sira- 
yovToiv f/,01, ov Si ictuTSii TO ye T^urov, uXXa Si Zv 
fAOiXiffO' vwiKa.i/.(ia,vov ay\ioii<nirSa,i (Jots y«^ o^tov 
KUi i^ifLvtiirQi OTt Tovg w^aTovg y^^ovovg xara. rrit 
ilfAigat iKaffrr^y* ix^ii>ofA.r!v tyu, »a,i out ocToyota 
^aiiTixXioug otin irvxoipatTia 0iXox^a,TOvg curt 
^iuvSoii xai M.eXa.vToa'f fj,a,i/ia out ocXX' ouitv 


vatri [X,a.\itrTa fLtv Sioi tov; 6ioug, StVTi^ov Oi 
Si U|M.a; xDtA Toug uXXovg 'A.Snva.'iovg itra^o^riv. 
Sixoclaig' TovTO yag xixi k'KTiStg i(TTi xctl vir%^ Toiy 
ofAaifjbOKoTiiiv xat yvovTiivX TO, mo^xa SixutrTuv. 
o'uKoZv iv ii.iv 0(f iis-r,yye7.>,o(Ar!V, or' awg\^»(pi^i*'^ 
fjLov KBti TO [i.i^og T^v -^n^m To7s Siuxouiri* ov 

[AlTsS'lSoTt, TOT llprjtpi^ia-ds TM cL^llTTK. ^i TTgaT- 

TUV tv olg ti\ rag y^a.<pa,g cf^icpivyov, iyvofi,a xui 
ygaipeiv x«i "ktynv a,'z&SEixvvy,}iv' It olg Ss rag 
suStipxg i'!riin!]iS(T&E, Sixaiaig xai aSsn^oSoxriTug 
■ravTa •ai'nga.'^ai [lOi •jr^oirufA.o'KoyiiTi. 


Sixuiov vv TOig vx e^toy ■jrtT^ayft.ivotg 6'itr6ai rov 
■ Kod' eKaTTtiv (Tj^eJoi' ^/ifpav. t MeAamv. J Siafvovrm: 


KrriFiipuiira ovofA.ix., oi)j/ h rov ^iif^ov su^a 

TJjc aKYidtiav tra^a. ^atri ^ipaioviTa» ; Nk(, (pr,- 
e'tv, aXX» TO rov KsipaXou xaXovj to f^riaif/^iun 
y^oi^r,v (puyiiy.*' xut v^ A/' ivoix,if/.ov yt. ky.ho^ 
Ti fi.S.K'Kov -^oXXaKig f/,it (pvyun, f^nOSTtuwOTe 
3' i%iXiy)(Pi\g k^iKuv iv (yx,\rilJ^aTi yiynoiT ecu 
aia TOVTO oiKaiug; xairoi w^o; yB tovtov, ocvo^a 
'A^ti'^Toh ««' TO rov K6^a?toii xa'Aov s'i'TUv etrn 
fMi. ouoef/'iav yu^ ■ttmtot ly^a-^ctTo fLi ouo 
lOiafe y^a^tji, outtb vtto trov ys a){^QX6yr,f/,at 

fttlOil' iivUi TOM Kt^BtXoV yit^OIV VOXlTI]?. 

Vlo'k?\oi,)^60i» f/Xv To'lvus av Tig iSoi tzjv ctyta/f^o- 
ffunj" "I'VTOu KDu T^v (BatTxavtav, ovy^ tjitiffTa o 
a<p' a]i X£0( T^; '■y;^^'!? ^'SXe^^jj, lyu J' d'Aiu; [/.iv, 
oo'Tig avS^iuTog iuv cctd^coTro) Tv^r/V v^oipi^et,'f ayosjTov 
ijyovf/,ai' rjv ya.^ o /SeXTJo-Ta v^uttsiv rofji-tljut xa,\ 
BLplffTriv iji^Biv olof^svog oux oioiv, t'l fj,in7 roia-uTr, 
fiiiypi Trig eirwEgat, TWf y^^r^ i^i^i ravrtis 'Atyuv 

^ TTUg 0V£l5i(^liV iTi^M; ilTitOT! oilTOg %^0g TOA_ 

Xoig a'Ahotg xoti in^i Tov7a)v v^e^Titpavaig xs)^§r,TKi 
Tu Xoyai, <rx'iipa<rd' &i af^j 65 ' ABrjvaloi xa) Secu^tj- 
ffCLTl ofTo) xai a?, Ji^Eo-TEf 01' xa) atS^uicivaiTi^QVl tyai 

IiTSfi TTig Tvyjig tovtov lia.'Kf^Sriffou.a.t, \yu t^v fj^iv 
TTii iroXtu; rCy^n" a.yot.6i^ii Siyov^ui, xut raZd o^w 

II OTTClJlVTOl' ifinviKXi. 


yu^ 'EXX^KUJ' ij Tig (ia^^a.^<i)V oil xoXXa/t KuKtuv^' 
tr Tu wu^onTi^ ^iTii^ctTcti ; to fj^it Tomut a-fOE- 
Atirdai TO, KahT'.KTTCt. *«* to tuv o'tn^lVTtuv 'EX/.j;- 
fm, u -x^oilvTO t!f/^ag, h tvoafy,osia, ota-^uv, tovtu* 
avTuv ctfLtiron ■TroaTTiiv Trig ayaSrig TV^r,g Tr,i 
•^o7.iiiig tivcti TiOrif/.!' to Si Tgofrjt^ov/ra.i xai [/.ri 
•^ravd' ag ri^ouXof/^t^' rifMv tTV(*.^riVBi.i t^s ruv a'K'Km 
avd^of^m T^yrrig to Wt^u,>.Xav \<^ ^iftaf f^i^cg 
fj,BreiXr,^svni vof/,i^ai tt;* ■jtoXiv- Ttsu o IStai/ Tu^fit 
TYiv iff,riv xui Ttiv tvog rif^a/v 'iXKffrou iv rolg ihloig 
i^iTa^tiv hlxaiov tiva-i vof^i^a/. \yu f/Xv ovv OUTuffi 
xe^< 7^; Tvyrig a^ta, o^Swg xcCt Sixatiiig,us ifAauru 
ooKoi, vofi-i^ai o\ xtx) v[mv [trufioKuv]' o St Tfl* 
i^iccv Tv^riy ttiv ii^n' t^S xotiirig T^g irohiag xvgw- 
Ti^av ilvat ipjitri, t-jjh f^ix^av xa) (patJ?.)j» rr,; 
ayaSr,; xai fAsyaXrig. xai ira!; svi tovto yiviaScn; 
Kcci p.;jii iiye ttjh ijAyiv TV^nv irain-a/f i^iTU^iiv, 
Aia")(iin, ^foaifsi", wgof Tr,ii trotUTOV trxo'^U, kuv 
tv^^g 771' ifJi-Ti* )SE?iT/w r?5 <rr,Cf •na.viTa.i XoiSogou- 
fjLivog auT^. (TKOTtt Toirvv ivfug i| ei^yjig- xcci 
f/.ov T^og A/Of xa) ^iut ^jjji^/a* ii'VX,§^''''^'''^X 
xetTciyvai fi.tioeig, iyu ya.o out i'l Tig Viviuv tt^o- 


TuXciKl^il, VOUt SJ^S't" ^yOVfJUtl, OVT SI Tig If 

a^Sovon rea^iig E;ri toutu irsiAiiviiTat' aX}' vto 
Trig TovTovt rov ^aXs^rov ^Xair<pfii/,!ag xai ffuaO' 
(paVTiag ng roiouTovg Xoyovg if^iriTTnv av&yxa,- 
Cpff^ai, oiff EX Taj/ lyovTmv ug c.v ^umy^ai yAT^im- 
ra-TO, ■^^TKTOf/.Ut. 

fiVTi poirai/ eig to. T^otr^Kovra. ^t^affxob'hita, xati 
iyiii (lira, ^^rj rov ftflOik a'ltr^^ov TotiitrasTct. Si 
moeictii, i^eXSoyri ok Ik 'TraiSoiv aKoXovSex, rovroig 
•^oamty, yo^riyiiV) r^iti^ag^sTv, s'lircpi^iit, f/,)jS£' 
f/,ici( (pi'KaTifJLta.g f/.^re ISiag f^.f,TE ^rifLotr'ictg ctvo- 
Ximiffdai, a)\\tx. stui tjj 5ro?,6( xoia rolg (piXoig 
^ri<ri{Aov tivai, ex£j5^ 5e xjos to. xoiva, ■^^ca-eX&eTy* 
'iSc^i fx,oi, voiutJTU iroktTiV[Aa.Ta. 'oAirSat ucrs xcii 
■JTO Tjjg auTgioog xa) vt' aXT^cuy 'ExX^vai' woXXaJti 
ffoXXaxff iffTi(pct,mirSKi, xa.i f/.rii\ touj i')(J)^ovg 
vfAag, ui ov Koktx. y tjv a. T^onXofiLtiv, iTi^a^itv 
'/.tyuv. iyu ftsv hrj toioivtti trufi^e^itaxet ruy^jj, 
xat TToKK av i^m irs^' eixeTv ts^i aurtig vct^a- 
/.iiwoi, (pv'Kex.TTOiji.ivog TO 7.vT^irai mag tv oig 

1u <rsfJ.vog avri^ xa) StaTTVwv Tovg «?,- 
?^ovg ffxo^si a-^oj ravrnv •jroia-^ rivi xiy^^ijffai 
Tuy^ri, ii nv •sctig (tki m fi-tTO. ToXXfls hiuas 

* TTpOITtl^Onl'. f OTTOia. 

Ir^a^lit KtLO. TU TKTgl TgD( TOI OtdettTXCtXtlil 

vaofft^^suuv, TO fj,iXa.t Tgipaiv xai to. pctffgci 
ffToyyi^my kui to iraidayaiyelov KOgaiiif otxBTOV 

KoX raXXa trvviffKivui^ov^r ^n [/Xti vCkto, n^^i^ut* 
Koi K^arrs^'i^oji/ koX xaOat^ain Tovg TsXovfAitovg 
xai a'JtoftaTTuii tZ ir^jX^-j' xat to7{ TTirvgoig xut 
ai/nTTag^ a,%o row xada^fAov xcti kO^suwv 'Kiyuf 
" iipvyof KttxoVf eu^ov dfiuvov,^ l-ri tZ [^tjSsta 
vuTOTi TtiXixovr oXo'Xv^ai ' irSf/,fviiofj:,Btoe (k«( 
'zymyi vo^i^a>' fJ.h ya^ oisirO' aurov (pSiyyttrBoti 
^iv ourai f/,iya, oXoXv^stt o' ou^ vTn^'hafA.T^eiv), 6» 
01 rati TiyA^atq Toyj xaXovi Ctkirovi aycuy Ota rm 
cSair, TOvg i(rTipavai/-ivovg tcu [/.a^kSai Ka) t^ 
X«y*jj, Tovg o<piig rohg wa^uag Sxi^ut xcti virg^ 
T^f xEipaX^t alaiga/v, xbc) ^omv evol (ra(3o7, xai 
i'!rogy^ov(j[.6VDg vrig httjj; wrTJjf vrig, i^a^^og xcti 
ffgottysfjioii' xai *iirTo<pogog § xai Xixtcipogos »ai 
roictvTO. viro Tmv ygaSimi^ -r^otrayo^tvofJ-ivog, [/.ktOov 
>.u,[/,^a.*uv Tovrm inS^vTra xai errgivTovg xai 
yitlXara, l(p' oig rig ovx av a; kXriSug avrot euJa/- 
f^otiirsie xai t^v avroiJ rC^rir ; iTStSn ^' itg rovg 
Ofi[/.0Tag tviy^atprig oTraxrc^won, im ya.^ tovto yt, 
(T6i5j7 3' evv hiy^a<prig, ilStug to xaXXi^rfiv 
• icvpi^iav. + TTiAw. I araara^. § Knrsixpopo<i Si Kirroipopci. 





rn7s a^y^tOioiq* wg o a.'^rj'i.'Ka.yrji a 

fMTa raura ^'tai, aXXa f^nr^uffaq fr(x,V70V roig 
pa^vrrovciQ STixa'Xouf^ivOfg Ixslvotg v^OK^traig-, 
2i|tty?,fti-J- KCtt Scux^KTEi, iT^iTCtya/i'ta'Tiii. rrvKCtxctt 
(^OT^vi x,a\ sKactg irv'k>.iym a/a-z^^ OTW^uvii iK 

■^"'Z^f flyft/C(^£a"^s ■ ^r ya.^ dfffroviog xat ctxtj- 

§VKTOi Uf/AV ir^Of TOUJ ^SKTBCf TO^EftrO^, U<P <UV 

iroXXet T^avfiar Bi}^ijtpa/g iixorug rovi avuoovg 
raiv rotouTmv KivOvvwv aig oaXovg /rxm^TTSig. 

AXXcc yap WKpsig aiv T^r 'jTEVia.v a,iTia, auric, 
wgog ctvTo, TO, rov T^axov tov ^a$iouf/.a,i xartiyo^r- 
fi.ara. TOintuTtiv ya.Q i'lKov ■Trohinlav, k'jtitori xon 
xai toZt WrjXSi troi ToiiJTa.i, Si' f/v Euruj^ouiDrs 
fn^tv rrtg •^rxr^tSos Xcty&i ^lov B<^fig SsSiaig xal rje- 
pttui' xx) ae« -jrXriy^mtr&ai T^offSoxuv lip' olg trctvTU 
ffvv^Sitg aSiKOVVTi, ev 015 J' irv^ija'av 01 a'k'Koi, 
(faairvg aii/ vip' ctTcttTm a>-\pa-i. xxiroi oiTTig ^Oaaiv 
ToXiT^v a.'roSa.vo)i7m i^app^aSy ti ovrog ^aSut vjto 
rm ^aWaiK Slxctiog ItrTif ; TroXXa toiwv trtg s'i'ri7v 
t^at wej) avTov Ta^aXei-^u"^ ov ya^ ot uii 
* ap\Finii. T 2i/jt/«Ka. ♦ -jrapaXFiTu. 

ifi^BttfAi 'jr^otranT aia")^^ci tovtu xal oveiSri^ •jtoctt' 
otfAaf h7r tu')^eeaii Xsysiv, aW' hrct, f/.tiSiv alo-^of 
la-Tir iiTsiv Ifioi. Ejeraffoy TOmvr ^a^' oLXT^rfKa. 
TO. tTOi xxfLoi /Ss/Sta/Aeva, ir^kaii xcct [/.tj vix^^g, 
Aia-j^ivt}' SIT &gaiTjj>roii tovtouiti tjjv iroTi^ou ru^riv 
a.\i iT'.otff txaiTTOs auTsJc. shoairxii •y^otfA.ft.uTa, 

lyu \(pOITm. ItIXHQ, iy^ ITiXoVf/^tlV, 6^0- 

§sv£g, lyu S' iyn^Tiyovv, iy§cifi.y,a,Tsus;, \ya i' 
flKxy.rima.{^os. iT^irayaitta'TSig, lyai 3' iSsupovv, 
i^iTivreg, iycu a itrv^irrov. wig tuv I^Spuv vi- 
woXiTiuiroii ^etyra, \yu 6 v-^tg T^q -^raTgiSos. tu 
TaXXa, ciXha. wst t?![/,s^o\> lyai fjbiv VTig tov trve- 
(pa.yai8^vai ooXif/.a^of/,ai, to oe ittflo oriovn aiixtiv 
ky(ui/^okayi^[/.ai, trot os (rvKO^ocrr^ f/^tu aval ooksiv 
uragy^ii, Ktvivviuug ^e ejVe ^Ei' (f 'in tovto tokTv, 
SIT Ji^i) TBTau(rdai fA-rj u.ira,Xa.(3oyTOt to ^efi,jrTO¥ 
y-igog TU¥ -^Yiipav, ayaS^ yi* ovy^ °§^S > '"■^JK" 
irufi,^i^i(iixaig rjjg l^'iig aig (pau\jig KctTtiyogsig- 
Os^s Ofi xat Tag Tm XsiTov^yniv ^.u^Tugiag, Zs 
XsXsiTov^y>!Xci, vjMv avccym. Tsig' ag Trapava- 
ymSi Kcci <ru iloi rag pijtreig kg I'Kvf/.a.Uov,'^ 

yiKu Xfjrm xiv&f^oiya xu) a-x.orou wvT^ag, 

KatayyeXsiy fitv "a-^i (/.ii CiXovTa ^s, 
«a( xaxon xaxeag <ri f^aXitrTa fMV ol dsoi, STura 


xai T^irayuntTTriii. 

Aiys rag f;ca^rv^iccg. 


Ev fAiv roivvv To7g ^pog tjjv soXtt roiauTog'* is 
01 roTg ioioig it f/,ri '^avng I'rm on xoivog xa] 
<ptXav0^ai7rog xa.i -fTolg oiOf/.iiiois iTct^x&iv, trianru 
Kcii ou^iv av siTTOiftt ouJe va^atr^oif^Tjv ite^* tov- 
raiv ou^tf/,ia.v fba^Tv^'icty, out il' rtvag l» ruv voKe- 
(t,'iuv sXvtra,f/,tiv, dvt uriffi SuyctTi^ing'l frvte^iSaiKot, 
Ouri raiv toiovtoiv ovotv. xott ya,^ ovrai -raig uzti- 
/jjipa. iycu vofjLi^ii) Tov f/^iv iv TaSovra h7v {/jt(Ay?j- 
rScti TOV -ravra )^§ovov, rov at § 7roifj<rai'Ta ii&vg 
STiXt'X}}ir&ai, el Oi7 tov fj.iv ^^wtou, tov os fi.ri 
(/.iK^o-^vj^ou •^oiiiv i^yov oi.vS^a'sou. to oe Tag 
iilag sut^ytiriag VTOf^i^vri/rxsiv xai xiyitv fbixoov 

Oity Of/.0iOt itTTi Tlf Onihk^tV. OV 07J TOIt!ir&l TOt- 

OVTOV Duasfs ovOi Tooci^d^(rofji,ce,i, aXX ovaig to^' 

V'S-ilXrif^f^ai ITE^i TOVTWi, U^KBI fjLOl. 

Boc/XCjUk; ok Tcuf loiojv a^aXXaytig in fx^ixga, 
v^og vftag imil* iti^t rait xonut. Si f/,sy yetg 
t'X^ug, Piia-y4si^, tSv vtto tovtovi toi* ^Xtot i'lTiTv 
ut6^a)^uf offTig aSuog Trig '^iXiwou t^ots^ov xai 
fvii TTjg 'AXs|acJ^oy OvvutrTtlag yeyovevs i Tut 

. t Wfl, 


rii* ifAtiv tiTS ru^riv tirs ivirrv)^iat ovo[/,a.^si¥ (ioC- 
7.11 "^oLvruv atTiaii ysysvfis'Sat. ti Si kcc) tup 

fLfl^S-reuXOT l00»T&>V ifJLB f/L^ii I^OIV^f «X)}X007Ar)' 

ifj-ou TaX'Aoi TToWa xa.\ osma, Ti7roi/0eitri , ft,ij uonv 
XKT avS^a, uXKa xaJ woXiiq o'Xoti Koi \Svt}, Toru 
oixaioTi^ov xa) kXTiSnTTf^ov rriv acra^Ta;*, ug 

iOIKiV, UvS^mTmV TVyrrjy KOtVfH KSti (po^ctv Ti¥Ot 

v^Ky/^oLToiv ^EtKtTijv xcci oh^ o7a,v tiu Tovraif 
aiTiav nyiifrSai. ru Totvm tuZt a^ug ifjn rot 
•x-ct^a TovTOitri ■^s^oXiTivf/.itoy* aiTia, xcu TCtvr 
sio&)s oTi, xal SI f/.ri ro oXoc,"!- jCASfo; y iTi^aXXu 
T^g (3\cter^rifAiag a,vaa-i, xa) [/.a^.tiTTa iro't. ei ft-%r 
ya^ tyai xctT tfiavTOv avToxgarsj^ ait xeji rait 
'Tc^ayiAurm l/3ovXivo^ti», ?c an roig uT^Xttg 
pTjTo^iriv vfMii Ejice atTiSirrSa.r I't hi waf?« [mv I* 
Tois txxXritriuii axairetti au, l» xomu i\ to ffv(/--- 
ipi^oy ri a-oXis •jr^our'iSn trxo-JTm, -satri hi tovt 
iSoxii ror a^iffT i'mat, xai (j^akitrrct iroi (ou yag 
«5r' et/vo/a y If^o) ^a^i^cu^HQ IXniaiv xa) ^15X011 
xai TifAoiy, a. ^ocvTo. T^oiri^v Toig tots wga.TTOft.ivoig 
vT if/.ov, (iXXa Ttjg a,Xr,8tiag i^TTufj^svog hrikovoTt 
xai rw f^rjhy t}^£iv iWiiv 0s7.Tioy), Tug ovx ctitxtlg 
xa) Suva -xatiig toutoi; vvy tyxa'Ae^', m tot ovx 
li^eg "KsyiiV /3iXr/(u; 




TOiasJra. aoiKiT rig Ixiuv ; o^yi* xai rif^upia^ 

KaTO, TOUTQU. S^tlfjLU^Tt Tig UKOIV ; (TUyj-CfiJ^JJ + 

ayri rrtq TifLu^iui tovtoi. out ochxSv ti; out 
l^ctfi^aoTatnui, iU to. •aatrt ooxovvra, cvfi.<pipiiv 
tauTov oout ou KctTai^SuiTi f^i6 a^oLfTaiii ; ouk 
r,yti^(^Eiv ovSs XoiSo^iTaSai rZ TotouToi bixaior, 
aXXa, irvvoi^&s(rdai. (pcvritrirai toivuv Tetura. ■jravm 
^evTOii au [i,ovoii l» To7g sofAif/.ots, aM.u xai ri 
^V/r'S auT^ TO~g ay^ctOoig VOpLOii § xct) toi; ctv^^tu- 
■rivoig riditTi iiu^ixiv, Atcr^ivrig to'ivvv tos-outo* 
Uwsf/3t'|SX)jXEi' aw'avj-af mS^uTroug aifj:.0T)jTt xui 
ffVxo(pai'Tia,, oitTTS xa) mv avrog mg krvy^rif/^aTwi 
iu,iu.vriTo, Kcti raUT s^ou xaTnyo^il. Ka) T^og 
Totg aXXoig, atr'jrtg aurog axXwj xai f^sr Buma^ 
va-tTug si^riKiug rot/f Xoyavg, puXctrTSif s^s xcti 
TTi^iiy ixiXsuiv, oirug ^r; ■!rctgaK^ou(FOf/.at [/.rto 
e^a^UTTia-oj, hivoy xai yonra xa) ffopta-Ti^y xai 
roiccvT onOf^DL^uv, ug i.ay ■^^ori^og Tig tt^i^ 
TO, TgotroiiS' loLUTu •jci^i aXXou, xai at] 7au$ 
euToic sj^otTct, xai ouKiTi Toug axouotrag ffxt- 
ipofisvoug Tig iror auTOg Etrrjf o Tavree. Xfyut. 
iyu i' Old' OTi yiyyiua-KBTS toutov airavrtg, xa) 
woXu T0UT6I f/,aX}~ov ti If/^o) voy,i?^STf TavTa irgo<r~ 


010, OTi TTjU tfJbtHI heitOTfITU 

— icrai ya^- kbutoi lyaiy o^ai tjJs toiv XsyonTUt 
iavaaeag tov? ccKovoiTag to TrXil/TTOn f^i^og xv^toug 
mTa%' ati yot.^ «v y^e7; aToht^t^irSs xai T^og sko,- 

iTTO» iy/l7 sumag, ovraig o }:tyo>v fiJo^E tp^oveT*' t'l 
3' tiZv iffr) xa,) Tag \^ot Tig ly,TngiK Totavrri, rau- 
rjjfjM.Ei' tu^TiffiTi wctvTtg m To7i KOi]/o7g i^sTa^off,ivjiv 
Cws^ vf^aiii ctEi xcti ovSecfiov Ka,8' 6f/,av oud' ioia, 


TCDV i-^6^av, oi.hXot xeti ti Tig sXvTtjtrt ri toutov 

r, ToatriK^ovtn ircv, Aaru. rovTav. ov yug avrij 
Sixctia^g, oiy £ip' a, irvf^(p%gsi r^ ■xo'Ksi, ^g^rai, 
r/UTS yag rjjy ogyriv ovts Tr,ii iy^9^av out aXT^o 
ouSsv r&Jv ToiouTcuv Tov xa'kov KCiyetdov ■jro'k'iTfiv ^ii 
rovQ vTi^ rm KOtvQiv sia'iXrj'hvdoTcig iixatrrag 
ct^iwv auTf (ii^aiom, cu$' i!xgj tovtoiv slg Cfx^ag 
ufTiivaii aXyA (LahnTTO. ^ly [j.ii iy^uv tuut iv t? 
ipufTEi, el o' a^' avkyxTj, s-^aaif xaJ f/.tTg'ioig iia- 
x.ilf/.s>' lx"<'- 

'E» riViv oun a-fpoSgov sivaci tov •iroXiTBuo^tvcii koi 
TQV ptiToga. h7 i iv oig tus oXaiv ti xivdunivtrai rri 
■jToXii, xai IV 01 J T^og rovg Ivctyriovg ecri* Tu ififAoi, 
iv TOUTOig' rauTct ya.^ \ ysmctiou xeci ayet^ov to^/- 
Tov. fA-ij^mog &\ ahxiif/,aTog ^utoti ^TifAOtrtov, 
■TT^oirdritru is [A,r,i' iSiov, iiKtjv a^mitrayTix Xa^slr 


^Kf' 6/Aou f/.ri0' vws^ Tfl; ■^oKitag f^rid' v%\q aiirou, 
ffTi<pavoii xat tTctivoti Karjfyogiav tm rixeiv iruv- 
iiTXiuair{i,ive,v, xai Totrovrovert T^oyovg avrjKuKi*a,i 

frriy,slov, olSii/og j^^r^irTOv. to oe o;j xa) rovg tt^os 
IfCi auTov ayainixg taa-avra vvv iTi tovo tixeiv 
-^oirrav i^si xctx-iav. 

Kai f/'Oi SoKug Ix rovTuy, Ala-^ltri, "Koym Eir/3fi- 
|i'c r(uot xal (paiycttrxiag (iov'kafi.tvag ■^oititraaSai roZ- 
Tov vBOiy-itrSai rov kyaita., obx aSix^f^uroi ov^ivog 
7.a^iiv 7ifi.u^'ia.v. iirri o ovy^ o hoyog tov p^ro^oc, 

TBiura. Tpoaiputydoci To7g «-o?,Xo7e xat to rovg 
ai/Tolg-f f^iffily ««» ipi'Auv oua-Teg a.v rj Tra'T^ig. a 
ya.^ o'vTug iy^uv Ttjv 4"'5i^''> ovrog W svyola TavT 
i^u' y a(p' aJf f! •Jto'Kig T^oogStrai riva xiyduvov 
iUUTTi, TOUTOug Dipawtveuv ovx tirt r^; auT^g opu,ii 
To7g 'JToMMg, ovxovv ouos rr,; a.<r(pix,'Ki'KX,g t^v «i3- 
TTiv i)(^ei -TTQOfrooxioi.v, aXX', o^as '■, iyu' rauTO. 
ya.^ (rvf/.(pe§ovO' ej'Xo'^jjc Touroitr), xv) ou^iv t^al- 
^sTOv ova tOLQv ^i'TTotfif/.ui . a| ovt ovoi iru; xai 
TWi ; Of tiiSiug f^ira, rriv f^ay^^v xgEtr/SsurjJs siro- 
^iUQv vgog 0iXi'^xov, og rt» 7a> sr %xsiyoig Tc7g 
^^ovots irv^<po^ii» atrtog t^ ^ar^toi, xal tuvt 
u^iouf^mog xkyrtt. rov tf/.-^goa-^s y^^otov ravrny Tr,v 

yptiav, ais Tanrsi KTcurtv. xai toi rig o tijv roAi> 

x}}fiV^ XKTCtpaTat oixctiui ; ou toi toioutoi ; ri Oi 
fCilZ^v t%oi Tif ail sjVeTv a,dtx>if/!.a, Kotr avisos 
ptlTQpoi h t't (/.ri Tuura ip^otEi kki Xiya ; iru Toitw 
ovTOi sveiSri;. ilra iru (pSiyy^ xeti (BXiTreiv tig ja 
TOVTsuH ir^atTaiTra, TDX^nas ; irors^' ov^ ^yii yi- 
yveiffxnv avroiis OTTtg Bi ; ri TOtrovTOii uin-ok xai 
J\tidrir UTratrccf i')(ii'', wffT om ^i^\riirBa.i rove 
Aoyoug ovs liniAriyo^ng iv tu oiifii,ai,'f xaTa^^f/ritOf 
xa] hai^vvy.eiiog (/.ri^a ilvai tro'i xai ^iXfinFoi 
x^aj-jita, aXX e^e rriv alncLV iroi ravTtjv i'Kayut 
7T)g l^icts iMK iXi^^^gt OVK ov/rccn ttKriSri. *f 
a-jfriyyiXdij ra.yj(T&' ii fta^jj, olh\y toi/tuv ip^on- 
ri/rag iu8ug oifLC'Aoytig xa) ^goa-froiov (pi'kitx.i', Kfltt 

fi.srctrt^ifA,ivog to, ovopLotra' Ix -xoicig ya^ itrrjg r, 
iixaiag ^^o(pa,iriaig Aitry^ivri tm rXmuxoSEag r^g 
TVfJifTrayta'T^ictg ^svoj jj ipiXog tj ynii^iu,og t;* OiXiw- 
•^o; ; sym ftm ou^ o^w, aXX e^fo-^w'^t;; 6Xi tw ra 
TOVTUvi (ruf/.ip'i^ov7a hiafpSitpuv. aW' o[J.a)g ouVai 
(pctvi^aig avTog'^ uKri^n.^ivog ^^oiomg xa.) xara 
fTKVTou fj^tivuTtig ewl To7g (ru(A,(3afri ysyonaif sfMi 
Xei^o^ii xul ovei^j'^tjf raura, uy wavTCtg jj-SLKKov 
uWiOv: Sb^zffltg. 

" KUTaparai KaO' tKaOTtiy fKKAiiftiai: + -vAtfiu^. J airToi;. 



rioXXa Koi KCtXa ku\ f/.iya.T^.a. q vo'ktg, k'l- 

ovx, fjf/,tnf/.ov)jiriy. irr![/,s7ov of ^ei^oTovuv •ya^ o 
OJ!fji,o; TOv i^outT iTTi To7c TiTtXevrnxotTt xaf avrn 
ret <rvf^(3a.yTa, ov irs ly^st^orovn/rs T^o(2Xf!&iiiTOi, 
xai'ssg iu(p(iimv ovra, ovh\ Arif^a^iiv , a^ri Tsiroi- 
7]KoTU Tfi) sigtiyriv, oiy "iHyriUMva, oliS' fxXXon 
u(i.wv Guhfu, aXX' lf/,i. xa) TTU^OJovrog a-ov xal 
IlvdoKXsotJi a/pwg kk) maionig, u "Lm xa) hoi, 
xa) xarfiyo^avi/Trnv ifiou tuvto, a, xa) cu vvvi, xa) 
KoiOD^oviJ.ivaiv, W a.^iiwv'^ l^si^oTOHi^rrsv IfLS. to 
C airiOf oix a-yvozTg pt-in, opbojg &s (p^arrai trot 
xkyu. a^ipore^' iJSes-xv outoi, 7r,v r IfA-hv eiivoiav 

KCtl TT^oSuf^iail, fjLid flS TK TT^ayflUT IT^etTTOVf 

xai Tfit VfiSTi^av aotxiay' a ya^ ibdiyouvrmj Tain 
T§ayfA,a,Tiuv rj^vilffSi Stof/.v6f/,tyoi, ravr' iv atg 
t^Tatffiv fj voXig a)[/.oXoy7i<raTS. roui ouv iwi 
To7g xoifo7g arv^fifLairiv uv 'apgovovv Xu^ovrag 
uhlan ly^&gaus fbiv TaXai, (pavigou; Ss to&' riyn- 
ffavro avrolq ysyiv^trSai. sirce. xai Tr^oirrixsiv 
VTsXaf^^aiov tov i^avir ixt To7g rirsXevTtixoa'i 
xai Ttiv ixiii/uv a^iT?!v xOfffj^riffotTa j^riQ' of/.&i^oCpiov 
fjt,ti^' of/.oa-^opooi' ysysti!!fAivov n'vai To7i T^og ixii- 
vov; Ta^ara^au.sfoig, ftjjj' exet" fi.\ii xcujAa^nv xoti 
Taia>vi^et»X sti rojg tui'' KWriyav irvfi.^oga.7g fii.iTa 
TB/v aiiroyjii^av rou ^oyov, obv^o &' iXSovTa Tif/.a.- 

Tv^riv, oKha rr) 4"*;^? ffmotKytiv. royro 
tv^aiy 5ra^' iavro7g Koi •xa.g ifi,Oi, iraga ufu* 
ou. iict TOUT \^i i^ii^oToytitro^* x^' ov^ ufLag. 
J ovj; /Aev 5^^o; ouraig, ol is Toiji TfTsXtuTif- 

KOTUV XaTi^a KtU atSiX^tH U70 VOV Orif/A>V TOO 

■SiVTig S5ri ra; raipae aXhui wing, aXXu oe6» 
TOiSJi' ccvTOvg TO'- vi^iisiiryov a/g wa^' OiJiUoraTai 
7av 7lTt'hlUTr,K0Tuv, utTTTi^ To-Ts-X tloiSi •ytyvso'Sctl, 
TOUT iiroitifroty xa^ tfLol' e'lXOTais' yini [i^iv y»f 
'ixatTTOg ixaffToi fj.a,X}^ov olxsTog ^» ifi,ov, xoiv^ it 
ivos'ig iyyuTi^ai' at ya§ iKiivoug truSniicu 
xa.) xctTO^diuirai firaKKTrot iii^s^iv, outos kou wa- 
SoitT^v a. f^riTTOT wipi'Kcv rra viri^ aTavrm Xutjjs 
'jrXiiffToy [/.ETsly^iv. Aiyi i' avTu tout\ to st-/- 
y^afibfLct, ijJiAmr'icf. •jr^oil'KiTO h woXig avroig m- 
ygatt^uti if slo^g, AliT^Uri, xa,) iv avTot toutu 
r ayyaifnova, xai irvxopciiiTtjv orra xtti f/,ict£o*. 

,.„_ ,:,.. EfttpPAljMAy', ^ /7- ^ J.T* 

0"li vaT^ag syixa o-piri^ctg elg Sngivf Weyro I 

'otXcc, xai kvTtira'Km u^giii cfiriirxiiatrav. 1 

f^,ix,§vxti,ivoi 3' koiTt^g xai ^i/^aro; J olx Iffctaitrav ' 

if/U^Kf, a.X^ AjOJJV KOtVOV iStVTO (i^U.^7i», 
" eiTi TOK awodavovaiv etrrta^ fiva/ici'ov ■rrepiienri'ov. 

ouviKit 'EW^mv, aig firi ^vyov aly^Ui S'lVTii 
aovXoTuvng irruys^av a^(pig i^aiinv v^piv, 

ffufAXT, Its! SvtiTo7g Ik A(o; n^e x^itrtf. 

f/.>10iv djM.«^Ts7v siTTi Sioiy xat travra xaro^douv 

iv (S(OT^, fA,o7^ix,v o' oii Tt <pvyi7v iVO^SV.^' 


'Axovtig, Aia-y^ivti, xa) h abru Tovrai, as to fiti^iiv 
cti/^K^Tuv iirrl 6iuv xcti vravret xaro^Souii ; ov tu 
g-ufA^ovXifi T^v Tou xare^douv Tohg otyuvi^oyAyoui; 
a,vi&7]xs ovvccfAiVt aXXa roig 6eo7i. -rl oZv, u xura.- 
^a.T , Ejttoj xe^t TOvrui Xdtoo^u, xa) Xeyei; a iroi 
xa.) roii reTg oi hot r^i-il^siav ilg xi^cLktiv ; 

xctTii'yo^rjxoroi'f avrov xa) xaTit^ivtrfiivoVy'^ \v 
jiAaXjor' iSav^atra, Tavrani, on rm itv/a^i^tixotuv 
TOTS T>i ^oXst (K-»)j(r^£lf § 00^ ug av ivvovg xal ii- 
KUtog ToXtTris itr^s ttjv yyu(ji,rjv, ouj' \oax^\j<riv, 
oo3' eVa^e toiovtoii ou^lv r^ "^y^?, aXX' tTa^ug 
rjff cpiuv^v xa) yeyiiSai} xtx.) >.x^uyyi^<iiy\\ sjero fj,ty 
e^ou xciTtiyo^siv StiXovori, bs7y(/M ^' E|sipBfS xctd' 
laUTOu oTi Wi To7g yeyiv?if/,ivoi; a.vta.^o7g ovoiv 
o(i,oiaig 'iir^e ToTg oi'K'Koig. xctiroi rh rm vo{M>v 
XKi T^r voKirtiag <pa,<rxovTa, ^^ovTi^ttn, aiir^B^ 
0VT6S vuvi, Ko.) it fhriisv a,X\o, touto y iy^siy osT, 

§ ai'a/jiijiT9ri< 

( Karf-lfriMirafiei^v, 

Koi f/.f! r^ -rrgoctigiiTU run xoivm h rZ rm Em>ria>» 
ftEptJ TiTo.ySa.t. (TV Dvn ■JTS'JrotiiKaif il (pctvi^og, 
i[Ai ira.vTmv a'l'rtat koCi Oi E^tte s'n ■x^^a.yfji.aTa. <pa- 

ffKUV t/AITiffeiv Ttltl TOXlV, OVK. CtTO T^f ift-iji •JTOXlTUai 

ow^B ir^octi^imtui ct^^af/,iyojii vf/Mv roig EXXfja"* 
0o)jSiiy, STi) 'if,i,oiy' u tovto do(^ei>i'* va.^ •jf/.m, ii 
E|M.E ufAcii TjvairTiaia'^ai tjj Kara ruv' EXT^rii/wn ci^%^ 

Toi; a,X7>.oig ^iluxan. aX?i' ooV a.v iyw raura 
priiruif^i (aiiKoifiv yaj av v[/.S.i), our' av v(Jt,ui tu 
0(5' on a-vy^a^tjiraiTS' ovrog t il iixatcc l-roiEt, 
ovx a» snExa t^s ff^o; EjM.e ly^d^a^ ra, fx-syiffrei 

A?.?.a Ti ravr iTiTifJw, -^oKXai a")/tTXiwTi^ct 
a.'K'ka. KciTtiyo^riKOTog avrov Kct) Kan-^iutrf^ivov ; 
oj yct^ ii^ov ipiT^tT'jna'f/.ov, ai ytj xeti Ssoty xartiyo- 
^ii, Tt ourog oux ai> biwoi ; Kctiroi vti TOv'H^axXta 
xa.) TBLVTXg 8s6vg, uy s^' aXfl^s/af Sioi trxoTfi- 
irduhX '"0 xaratpsuSiir&at, xai Si' i^6^a.y rt 7-tyuv 
kvi'koyTa.g Ix fjuiirov, Tivsg a/g aXjj^aJ; sifr)y otg an 
t'lKOTsug Ko.) Qtxaiaig rriv raiv yiydrrifiinuv aiTiay 
ET* Ttit xEipce.'Kfiv atochlm a-jravTi^, 7oig ofj,oiovs 
TovToi va,^' Exao-ry raiv vro'i'.im iv^oi rig av,§ ovj/A 
Tovg l(i,oi' o'h or ?f curdm^ m Oi\tT?reu Tgay- 

doSeirj Stapfa, + KpeiTToiv, } iXKOireiv, § evpeir' oi'. 


■ iii/M» xat va^dKokoiiyTUV ko.) OiSettrKOitTuv to. 
^iXntrra, r?f liiag 'inx a,i<r^^OKeghlag ra xoivJi 
'VfA^S^OVTCt W^o'liVTO, TOtl? vwa^^ovTug iKaa-Toi 
iro'kiToi.i l^aTraTmrii xai oia^^st^oyTig, iaig iou- 
Xous t'JTOiTiiroty, ©trraXou; Aae^of, Ktnag, 0^a- 
iruXaof, 'A^Kaoag Kt^KiSug, 'lt^Mvi/,og, Eyxa^- 
Ti'Jas,* 'A^ysioug Mu^rigt TeXiSafAog,-^ Mtiaa-iag, 
'HXsiovg Ev|/^so;, KXioti f/,og, 'A^'trrTaiy^fj.i>g, Msir- 
irtivious 61 (t>iXiaSou tov holg «j;''fou fraT^ef Nioir 
Ktt) Q^a.ffv'Ko^og , "^iKumioug 'Aai(rr^a.Tog, 'Kwi- 
yct^ng, Ko^ivSioug Asiva^^og^ Atif/i,a.^aTog, Me- 
ya^'iag UrOiohiD^og, "E.'ki^ogi lls^i\a,og, &)jl3a,ioug 
Tiy.oXctg, Qioyi'iTus, 'AvsjA-oirag, Ev/3o£a5 J "It- 
iraf^og, KXsira^'/^oc , tanr'trrr^aTOg. exj?.E/-t^Ei (A,i 
Xiyov'ca h flf^i^ce, to, 7uv v^ohormv ovof^ctra. ovTot 

tieavreg tliriv, a»^§sg 'AdtivaToi, tHh auraiv ^ovMv- 
fbctraiy h rmg dcutcuv var^l/nv miri^ ovtoi ^a^' 
uf/,7iiy av^pawoi {/.lagoi xut xoXaKig xai otXatrro^igy 
f!KPii)Ty,Picca'fA.svoi rag lauri/v ixaffTOi wctT^ioag, 
TB^ iXiv^t^iav w^oTiTTuxoreg ■z^ore^ov fnv ^tXi^TM 
j tvv Sii 'AXi^avS^ai, r^ yuirr^t fjuir^auvng x.a.i rolg 
I altrviirToig rriii svSaif^oviav, ttiv i' iXeu9i^iav xai 
\ TO u.Yih'iiia txj^ty isa-'TOTriv avrSv, a riiig T^ortgoig 


Taurrsg To'iyui rtif ouTug aiir^^ug xa.) we^(^Ofl- 
Tou <rvirTa<reaig KoCt xaxia^, {AaXXov u anogig 
'AStlfoioi T^oiotrta.g, s'l oil f/^ri T^n^iiv, r^g t*c 
' IXeudi^iag, ^ ts «Xi; ira^a xao-iv «►- 
Sguvotg aiairiog y'iyonv \k tZv \(/.m -^oXiTiUf^a- 
xcti iyu irao' tj^7v. utol /a, i^aiTCfg avri 
oiag oi^sTr^g k^iu Ttf/.oc(TSon ; lya J15 <roi 7\iytD, 
vv 'proXiTsvof/.imiv xa^a To7g ' ^Khtiiri $ia.<p&a- 
V uTravrctit, a.^'^a^ivuv kira irou, ir^on^ov (/.i» 
ijtro <t>iX/Vffou vvn h U5r' AXe^avogoy, ifj^i ovn 
xai^og cure <piXccv0§ciima. Xoyaiv our iwayyiKtait 
[Aiyidog OUT eX^Tif oun <po(Bog our kXXo ouii* 
ea-^^Ev o:;^e T^o/jyaysTo aiii 'ix^tva, htx.Kiai* xa\ 
<rafj,pB^otT(»v rji TcaT^'ihi ouh\v xgoJoytaj, ou3', oVa 
tyvf^pipoij'KivKCt '^awors tovtokti, ofj-oioig vfjuv 
aio-a-e^ ay eJ Ivf t^vtuii^ pfxtnii It] to Xijy.f/.a trvfju- 
^ifiouXiVKo,, aKf\ ut' o^O'^g xaj itxaiag xa.) 
aoiaip^o^ou r^g if-uj^^f ra ^avra, f/,oi vsT^ccxTai, 
xcti [jjiyiirraiv o>i •jr^a.yf/.aTs.iv tuv xa,T If^avToii 
cty^^aiTOiV w^oiTTaf nkvTo. ravra vyiaig xa.) Sixaiikig + 
Tc-^ iia. tclut a^w Tifji.atrScei. 

Toe OS Tii^tiTf^ov TouTOv, oit ffu fLOV hitirvpig, xa\ 
* avarerpiHpoTes. + uovep ev. t J'to""? t«' bttAuis. 


va/i yug ou ; TToppo) [AitTOi Toy rat spi.aurai fCKO- 
^iTevfJ.ivm TidifAai. of XiSotg irti^iffa Ttiv ^oXtv 
oii3e TXindoi? iya, ou5' \m roCroig (/.iyitrrov ran 
tfAauTov p^otio' aKK tat tov tfjLOf Tii'^nrf/^ov 
/SouXjj omaimg trxovsTt, tv^^ctis otXo, ««! ^roXe/s 
xsci TO'^ovg xai XifJ-ivctg no.) vavq xu) [xoXXoy;] 
iTTOvs xat Tovg ump rauT&is af/.tJi>ovf/,irovg' ruZra 
^^ovj2a}.of/.tiv* iyan tt^o riii 'Arrtxrig, otroy TiV a.y- 
SgaiTinai T^oyiiTf^ai ovparoy, xai rovroig Ith^^iitd!. 
Tjj* X'^S'^^f ^^X' ^^' xvxXovf Tou Ylei^aiZg ouh\ 
TOV atrnog, ouSs y t!TTr;6>iv tyu to7s Xoyia-f^olg 
'PtXi^Tov, ToK7:.DU yi xoCt ^eTj ouSi raig vagot- 
fxsvciig, aX>. ot raiy ffvi/.iJ.ay^iiiy irr^Di.rr,yoi xai <xi 
iuvoL^iig T^ "^^yj^' v'^ytg «< rovnuv a.'^oSsi^stg ; 
fya^yeig xal ^an^ai, irxo'SitTi hi, T( XV'" 
Toc ivfow ■!roXiTr,v xonlii, ri tov (/.ira, voLirrig 
vpovo'ictQ xci) w^oOvj/.'ia.i J xal hixtttotruyrig viti^ 
Tr\g Tctr^ihog •jro'KiTHioy^ivov \ ovx ix [/.it 8a.- 
'Karr^g Ttjv Y-vfioiav Tr^olBaXitrdcti t^o t?s 'At- 
TixriS, IX Ss T>ig f/^icroyt'tag TTjy BouuT/ai', Ix oi 
Twy woo; TleXo'7rQyyji<roy TO'^m rovg of^O^ovg raur^ ; 
ou T>iif inTowof/,7nay, oTug ■xa.^a, •^a.iray <pt?\ia¥ 
^X,V ''"'' riEJfaia; xof^nr^riiriTai, i^^o'ionrdcti \ xent 
ra ft£v irsi/frcti toiv i-xa^yoyrm ix^if/,TotTa potj- 


Xo'wjJlTOl'i TflV XfppOyjJffOlij TTIV TiViOOV, TtX. OTUS 

o'lKUOt «ai irvfA^i^aj^ t/'x-a-g^ei T^a^en, to Bv^avTion, 
Tijv "A/3u^0k» Ttiv EiiiSoiac; «a» tuh fA,tv toi; i^- 
S^oi? UTcagYaxiem ^tJva,f/.Ba>p rag [/.syi/rTotf aipiXuv, 
eiv i' gkeXgurs t^ toXsi, raura ^ooirSihai ; ravra. 
TOiivv axavra, Tiv^cturat toTs e/aoT; il^rjipiiriAairi 
Koi roig IfLoig ■jrcKinvf/Mffiy, a, xal ^tfiovXiv- 
^eca, u avSgsi 'A0>!fa.7oi, sccv avsv <p^ovou ng 
^ouXrirai <rKoiruv, heOZg sv^ri/rsi xai •utif^ayfjuiva. 
vobirn oixuiorvv^, xai rov ixa-trTov xai^ov ov Ta^t- 
SiVTo,* ov$' uyvarjQivTo, dvo\ o-ooE^'ei'Ta t t'^' if^ov. 
xaX ora s'lg evos avo^og ovyctfiLit xai Koyio-f^ov 
^KiVi oubiy iM-Bi(pS'iv. u Si r, ^a,if/.oiog rivos ^ 
'■"^W '"^X"^ 1 "■r^ar^jyajc tpauTiortig t; ruv w^oat- 
SovTuv rag iroXstf vfbuii xax'ta ij wavra ravra. 
a[Ji.a iXviA-aiviTO rolg aXon, iug kvir^t-^z,* rt 
^tifj/OffSiVTii ahtxii; it S' oiog 1V iyai to,^ ufJi^v 
Kara, t^c i[*.o(,UToZ ra^iv, n'g h sxaa'rJj riv 'E.X?.n- 
vlSaiv voXiu* kvi}^ lyii/iro, (Ji,a.X7\(»/ o si iva eiyogot 
fiiovov &£TTCx,Xia xcii ivex, cmS^ot, 'A^xaSla Taiira. 
ip^ovowra ta"^is if/,oi, oide)g ours raiv e|» JlvXaiv 
E.XXnwv osjTi Toti nffQi roig ■^ct^ovtri xaxo7{ ixe- 
XSV^ ^"i a-Wa vavTsg av ovrsg IXsvSs^ot xai {Aira, ■jra.irjjg ahi'tag na-ipaXug Iv tv^ai- 
* cadft'Ta. + 'TpoioOEira. J ucetrTpei/fe. 



fiovict rag savrSy aixovii TaT^ioagt rat tocovtu* 
xeti ToiouTuv cfya&Zn u[a7v xa) roig aXXoig A^n- 
taioig i'^Qureg X^^'y ^' if^^- 'f* ^' iioijrs on 
ToXXftf Tolg Xoyoig iXtnTTOiri j^^o/fiai tuv i^yav, 

SU>.a(3ovfJ.SVOi TOV pSovOf, XsyS jU-Oi rauTi KOU 

itvayvuSt XajSaiv [_tov KgiSf/^ov ruv ^OTiSuus Kara 
Ta s^a ■^fjipiirf^aTa,.'} 


"Taurct xoLi rojafra ■jr^a.TTnii, Aur^m}}, rot 
xaXav xayadov xoX/rtjt di7, m KctTo^^ovf/.ivaiii 
f^iv, u yn xa\ 0ioi, iA.iytiTTotg\ avoc,{^(piirl3!jTnTai( 
utr^fj^Ec %iyai, xa.) to ^ixalug v^otrn't ^iX f.7i^ag 
hi tj'ijf/.(3avTa>v TO youf tvhoxi^eiv ■Xi^iiiTTi xai ro 
fAttoiyu f/,if/.psn-Sa,s rhf ToXm ^t;ie rtsv T^oodt^itrtv 
avTijg, it-KkBt, rrjv vv^riv xaxi^nv Ttjn ovra ra 
%^a,yf/,a.ra. x^ivcurav, ou ft-a. Ai ovx aitotrrai/Tct. 
ruv irufA-<pi^ovTiuv rij xoXej, fi,iir6wa-av7a a' avrov 
Toig ivatTioig, roug VTri^ ray iy6guv xoci^ovg ccvn 
run T^g ■x-a.T^loog St^tfutunv, ov^i roy fAf T^ay- 
fMtra, a^ia, Tr,g voXmig uiroa-rafra Xiytiy xat 
y§u<p(iy xcil f^iyav sm toutuv fr^oeXo^evo* (3a- 
e-Kcthuv, eaii is rig li'ta. n Xvw^rrrij tovto f^i- 
fiYtjirSai xai rti^s7y, ovi$ y titru^lav aytty ahxon 

API0MO2. *H*IS:MA. t cv /ievhttok ayaf 


xcet tncivy.ot, o irv Toiflg voWctxtg. urn yog, t 
ijiru-^ia, iixaia, xcii <rvf/,^igova'et r^ ToXgj, ijr oi 
ireXXol Tuv ttoKitZ) ufjLiti a.TXug aytre. ceXX' 
oC rctuTtif ourog ayn Tr,i r,<rv^ia.f, iroXKav ys 
Kou isi, aXX' aTOa-Tcig oTay aurQ oo^i^ rrig vo- 
XtTtiag (voXXotKig o\ ooufT) ^vKctmi mtjhV 
'sffTE fAiiTTOt 70U (Tviity^eug "Kiyovrag jj va^ot rw 
Tvyr>ig rt irv^^i^rixiv hcttTiaif^a. t) a.X'Ko ri 3iJ- 
ffKoKov yiyavi (ToXXa ii ravS^^iva}' tir ea-J 
Tovra tZ aoli^Z prtrcu^ i%a.iipvrig Ix Tijg iffo^ietg 
awe§ vnvf^ E^Kvi], Ktit Ttpmaa-Ktixaig xai 
ffVfBiXoy^ag'f prifbara, xbu Xoyouf trvvii^it to6~ 
Tovg ffoK^ag xai axpevirri, om^triv fiiv ovisf^iaf 
(pigovTug ovi' xyttSov K7^/riv olhvog, wf^^o^uv Je 
riu Tu^ovTi T&it toXitZv HBti KOiv>;v oiia-^vvriv. xairoi 
ravTtjg r?5 ftsXirt^g kx) irig lvii/.iXsiag Aitr^Ufi, 
EjVe^ sx 4"'^^S hxcciag ly'iyvsTO xa) rot r^g 
votT^ioog ffv^i^ovTBt ^^ori^vf^^'li, "^^oug xsigvevg 
f^Bi yswaioug xa,) xaXovg xai ^Siiriv o/piXtfAOvg 

§iov KctTa.iTxivr,v, i/ofjLoii trv(^<pt^ovTm Sursig, rotg 

Tovrm yu^ kiravTW rsf sv roTg avu y^^ovoig t^t- 
rairig, xa) s^uxev o ■^a.^iXduv x^otog vo'K'Ka.g kto- 
isi^eig at^^i xa'hZ te xa.ya8u, iv oig ovSet^ou <rv 



AV TtTSlgTOg, ou ^if/,TTOg, OU^ iKTOi, OV^ OTTOITTOiroijVf 

wxeu» BTTi yi cm ri ^ar^i; hv^olihto. rig yai^ 
rVf^fba^ia trov 'x^a^avrog yiyon t« itoXe* ; rtg ot 
pon^tta, n KT}j(ng* svvoiag r; So^fi; i rig ds ir^i- 
vpaa, ; Ttg SiaKOviu Oi ijv ri ^oXtg hrif/jon^a 
yiyon ; ti tuv oixiiuiy tj ruv Y.XKrtVtKm xa* |ew- 
KoiVi oh i'jriiTTfig, iTriw^8iuTa.i Ota. <n ; iro7a;< r^iri- 
f lif J ■jroitx, |8sX)3; •solot nuiraiKot i-f Tig E'?rKrKiuri 
Tfi^aiv ; voiov f^vixov; ri raiv a.ira.y'ruv <rv %fi?(rj- 
fMg tl ; rig n To7g siiirofoif 8 ro7; azo^oig flroXi- 
TiXTj KUi »ot»j poriQaa. •^^nf^krav va^a o'ou ; 
ovotfiia. uW'i a Tciv, ei fji,riS\v toutoiv, i'wvoict. yt 
xai w^o^vf/.ta ; tov ; -ttots ; o/rTtg, d n-acrsw* a^<- 
xuTCiTi, ohy OTi aTotvTsg, o(roi ina'jror 'np&sy^ctvro 
Iwi Tou ^jiy.cLTog, slg (TiuTti^iav sire^jioirav, xa) to 
TiXiurotiov A^tiTToinxoi to trvvit'Ksyf^stQii tig tjjk 
*wtri^itx,v a^yv^ios, oiiSi ran ovts TU^tixSe; our 
tviOuxKg oy^EV, oh* ctTO^oiv, vrug ya.^ ; oq yt 
xsx'Krj^ovOf^riKtx.g i/.iy tuv OiXmog tov xriSeiTTOV 
^Jjftarwc wXejokov J r; ViSTSTaXayrmt OiTOL}.avToy 
iiy^ig i^avov ooi^ixf 'KO.^a. ruv riytf^omv ran 
<rvfi,y.o^iZv Eip' c'lg iXvi^rivu tov T^in^etg^^ixoy vojjlov. 
a>.x' I'va f/.Ti "Koyov ix T^oyoo "Kiyut tov TOtgavzog 
Sft-uvTov ixx^oixrv, 'jra^a.'ki'f^u ravra. aW' on 

aX>.£^ ipu\u.TTU» TO i/,rii\v IvavTiov •ysmirSex.t xaga 
trov TovTOii oif a^avTot voXiTivti. m ritrtr oi/ii irv 
tsayia; xot) VJifiKU XufiT^os j ^t"V a» st-^sTn xarot 

fAorixaTarog, VTOXgirrig oigitrroi, r^u-yixos 04o- 


EiTa rm •x^ort^ov ytyi»ri(/i,ivm ctv^^m a.ya.^Z» 
f/.ifiLfil<rai. net] xceXsis toje7;. ou f/^svTot iixaioi/ 
liTTiv, u avS^sg 'ASrivaloi, rijii ir^og tov; TersXivrti- 

vuv ^uvra [A.18' u^*v, rig ya.^ ovk oiSi raiv ifavrm 
on Toig fi.iv ^iri xSia'tv iTea-Tt ng n wXeim j> 
ikobrrm ipSonog, rovg Ss Ti&murag ou^i tcdv i^d^u* 
ouSs)g 'in {j^ktu ; ouraig oi)v i^ovrai* Tot/rojn rj 
^utrii, -pr^oi rovg ir^o if^auTou vun iyo> K^ivaiyMt'^ 
xa.) ^sai^HfAcci if ^jjJoj^ac* ovrs ya,^ otxxiov out 
iirov,X AfVj^ii'U, aWoL T^og ffi xcct ce.'K7^oy S( ma 
/3ov>.u Tuv TctuTa cot ir^o^^ni^iiio/v «K( Z^Mvraiv. 
xaxuno ffxoxEf. TTOTigov xaXXiov xai afj-nvon rr, 
■^okii oia TCtg ruv tt^qte^ov svBpysffiag, ovrag 
uTS^fiLsyiSeig, ou f/^iv out tiiroi ng av iihiKCtg, Tag 
Wi TOV va^ona, ^iov yiyvof/,svag tig kya^Kma* 
Kctl ■TT^oTTTi'ka.xitrf/,!)!! xyiiv, jj vatriv, orot n ^f 

t dcopov/iai 




IUII01CC5 ■JT^ccTTOtiffi, Tt}Q irct^a, toutoiv Ttfjbtn Km 
^iXavS^amiag y-iriivai ; xa) fjLfjv si xai tout a^« 
'si [Xii EfVeTk, ^ fjuiv ijjuT! icoKiTita. xa) T^oett^STif, 
»v Tig Q^daig irxow^, Toig tuv tot traivovfjLman 
avo^uv ofbota kcc) tuvto. (3av'\ofJt,iv>j ^oivrifftTKi, ii 
Of trrt raTs tsJc too? TomCrovQ tots (rvxo^a.yTOUv-' 
TQ)V' OrjXov ya.^ on xai xar ixiiyovg riirav rmsg 

[rOUi X^^OVOVg], 01 hl'ifTV^OV fMV TOUg OVTCtg* TOTS, 

tow; ds T^OTB^ov yiysvJif^Evovg ST^vovv, (BotffKctvov 
Wgoi'yf/.K KHii ravTQ -jrotomTtq iroi. sira Xsysig lag 
ovisv ofiijoiog e'lfii sxsiyoig iyv; in< J' 'of/,oiog, Al- 
iry)\iyi ; o i' ais^ipo; o <rog ; aXKog 'hi ng tuv vvv 
pjlTo^mv ; \yii> f^iv ya.g oihivoL (pjjft/. uXkii. T§og 
Tovg Zp'TKi, a "Xj^WTi, 'tya. f^nOiv aXX' eciTQi, tov 
^avTot l^iTct^s xai Toug xcid' oi,UTCii,f liirs'i^ To-Kka, 
■xra,)/ra> TOug TonjTotg, rovg yfl^oug, tov; a.yciivi(rTot,g, 
0(Xai^f^aiii oiy^ on TXauxov tov iLa^variou xcit 
Titaiv iTioiuy wpOTSpot yiysyrif/.svui' aSXtjTaiii atr0tiit~ 
(TTSPog riv, arrTitpataiTog ex rfig O>.vf^irtot.g awija, 
aXX' OTi TMv iiffiXdovToiv Tr^og nurov a^iiTTa tf/,a- 
^ero, iTTHpatovro waJ nxa/v avtiyo^EUSTO. xoti iru 
Tpog Touq svt o^a (/.t p^To^oci, T^og iravTov, T^og 
ovTina, jSovXei rm aTKVTo/V ovSih i^'t<rrci.fiM4. m, 
oTt i/Jii r^ iro'Kii to. (BsXTurrnt sXsir6ett ■jrot^tjv, 
i<pai/,iWoo rSf 6(f rriv tut^ioci suvoiag tt xoiv^ 
* oi StaavpovT^ Tout ovrat- t koto rravroy. 

xai To7g 8cto7( ^p7!ipKrfJi,cc<rt xa) vofJLOig xai wo6ff/3fi- 
aig avavTCc oi&ixsito, ufji.a>ti oe ovotig iv ouiocfLov, 
vXri» t't TOVTOiQ tTfigiairai ti hoi' iTii&ij Si a 
f/.tj'jroT diipt'ki irvvt^t!. xcci tvKin /rvfc/SovXav kXha 
•rm Toi{ i^ira.TTOf/L.ifOic vjtrt^irovvTm xai tSv xara 
rig ■jraT^iSog f^taSa^Hlv iToifj^wv xai ruv xoXaKivav 
iTt^ovg /SooXo^Evwi' i^itctirtg it, rrivixuvTa ffv xa) 
70UTM ixaa-rog iv to-^h Kai ff-iyxg xat "KafA/jr^og 
'fXTar^aipog, iyai o cta-hf^g, oi^o'Koyu, aXX' svnovg 
I/mXKov vfi.w» TOVTCiiri. 

Alio h', Z avl^ig 'AdtitcifOi, ravrct Tov ^Cirei 
^iT^iov s-oX'tTr,)! tyjn hi (ouTo) yoLg fJLoi srsgi 

SfACtVTOU XiyOVTi a<li'Kl(p8o\{UTBt,T01l Itiriiv)) It fLit 

TOig i^ova-'iuig Tur row yevvaiou xeu tov wgu- 

rs'iov T^ TToXgi v^oa't^inv JjaipyXaTTSiKit £► "xcuri 
h\ xai^m xa) ■TT^ot^u rt^t Evvoictii' tovtov yag fi 
^vffig xvoia, tov h otJtot(rSui xai iff^vBit srsfa.J 

TUUTtiV TOlilVV iraf' tfA.OI fAifUStTIKlllCtV SV^TirtTS 

ourXaii. o^arB ii. oux lloCiTOvf^EVOg, ovx 'AfA^t- 
KTVoviiag oixag i-x-ayotTuv, ovx k'Jctt'KovVTUt , oux 
iwuyysX'Kofiiym, ov^t rovg § xarccgoiTovg toutovq 
oxT'JTi^ S^^la, f/,01 ■x^otr^uX'kotTiuVf ouSafiMg iyu 
^^ohSivxa, rrit tig vfA.6ig Bvvoiat. to yag l^ ^S^JIi 
tuSug o^dtit xoit otx(x,'tav Ttiv oOov Tijg iroXiTtiag 

3f^riaTa. + 3fi iiatl>v\aTTii\ 

t FTtyiq. 



<iXO|it»;f, ri; Tif/,a,g, rag SumtiTTSia;, rug ivoo^tat 
raf T^f warp'thog di^aTivtiv , ravrag al^an, fj,iTOL 
■Tovroiv aval, ovx ewt f/,it To7g iTSeuv ivTvy^?if/,a.fri 
Ia(^fo; lyo)^ xai ysyridaig Kara tjjv ayo^ay -xs^n^- 
j^of/^ai, Ttiv Oi^iav '^^onlvaiy xai iuayyi'Ki^^ofJijiyog 
TOVTOig obg av ixiliTS uTayyiXXsiv'^ oiufLat, raiv Ss 
Tiig ■?ro\t!iig a,ya.&mv Tztp^ixtu; axovaif xa) (rnyuv xa) 
i'lg Ttjv y^iv, eurrvi^ o'l ouirtrs^iig ovroi, o) 
Ttiv f^iv xo'kiv oiaffv^ovciv , wtr^e^ ovj^ avrovg oia- 
irv^ofTSft oral tqvto ^oiaiirtii, e^u os pXsTOyiTi, 
Ka) h olg a-TU^rig-asTaiv -ran ' E\7\.riviuii iUTUj^jjo-d' 
fre^og, raur i'S'aivovtrt xai oTug roi avavro-^ 
v^ovov hta^svsl <pair) hiiv TTj^iiv. 

M^ ^Tir , d) Tavrsg hoi, fLtjoe'ig ravf VfjMV ' 
i^ivtuireiev, aWa. f^aXurra. [/.iv rouToig psX- 
Tioi Ttva vovv Kon ^^'ivag hdiitire, si n^' iyovffiv 
avtaTug, rovrovg fA,sii uvroug xaD' lavrovg i^aiXsig 
Ka) ■jTQou'Kuf iv yr, xai QaXarrn xotritrOrTe.X flf^^' ^'s 
roig "koiiroig rjjv Tci^itrTTjv airaX^ayiiv rur eTJj^Tjj- 
f/,ivav (popam oqts xa) ffoirtj^iav atr^aX'^. 

* aira77EAeii 

V Stamford Street. 




Tp TOXS/, JJ)* Of 


•jToXXoi ra/v voXtTwv v[iu% avXaig aysre, «XX 
ou TBcvrriv ovrog a,yu rri* risvy^iBtHj iroXkov ye 
KoCi iu, aXX' aTotTTUg OTUV avrZ 5o'|j) T?f iro- 
Kireiag (iroXXaK/s is 5o*sT) ifuXarrsi o-rmK 
*\tr7i ii,iffTOi 7oZ trvvsy^ug Xiyovrog n Ta^a t?; 
Tuy^tig Ti (rvf/>^i^tiKB> IvctHTi&ifi-cc h al-Xo n S6- 
(TxoXoii ysyon (■jro'XXci i\ Tavd^mrtua,)' siV t^i 

TOVTal TV Kai§f p)]TCil^ i^ClilplliJi £» Ttjg TJffU^iaff 

aig-TS^ vysZfju e^avjj, x«i n-epajvairxjjKaij xai 
ffy»'B)Xo;^iy; + prifAxra xctl "Koyovg g-msi^u rou- 
TOvg (Tcti^aii Koi UTVivirri, ovtiffiv f^sf oviefit,iaii 
^soovTotg oyj' ayadou xTfi/Tiv oy^EfOf, OTJfiipo^av ot 
Ttu Tvy^ov7i TuyToXtTut kcti Koiyyiv aiiry^urrir. xetiTOi 
TOLvrng vrig [A.s'Kirrig xx] r^f i-Triy^BXiiag Aiirj/^IV}], 
eiTsg ix i^uj/^s hxaiag lylyvsTO xa) ra rfig 
■xar^'tiog ffuf/.(pi^oyT» ^^ari^iifAivt);, rovg xm^vavg 
iOii ysvvKiovg xst) xaXovg xa) irS-mv aiipiXif^ovg 
sivai, trvfA.f/^^/a-g ■jro'Xim, To^ovg y^^rif/.a,7uy, if/,iro- 
giou xaTctirKiur,yy vopi,aiv irufi,<pe^oyTuy ^strug, roii 
aTootf^Seiffiv iy^^ing svakTfiy^ara. 

TouTswi' ytt,^ KTi'a.vTm riv e-f rolg aval ^^oyotg s|s- 
TCKTig, xa,] i^MXEi o ■xa.^i'KStey y^ayog •roX'Kag a-ro- 
osl^etg avS^) xaXu ts xxyadaj, ev olg ovOa^iov trv