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Orchard and Garden 

A Guide Book foi Beginners - 



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1918 

Federal Publishing Company 

Indianapolis 



Dear apple lands, where soft 'wnds bring 
The first sweet fragrance of the Spring 
And o'er the warm ground softly fling 

The petals snow. 
Thou art a garden fairly dressed, 
Where song birds live and love and nest, 
And children come to play— «r rest, 

When breezes blow. 







Orchard and Garden 



A Guide Book for Beginners 



BENJAMIN WALLACE DOUGLASS 



1918 

Federal Publishing Company 

Indianapolis 



-^ 



M 



APR 19 1918 



©CI.A494659 



^. <P I 



The writer desires to acknowledge the use of a number 
of photographs of school gardens furnished by Miss Rousseau 
McClellan, Director of Gardening in the Indianapohs Schools. 
Mr. C. B. Durham, Landscape Architect of Indianapolis, also 
furnished several pictuj-es showing the use of shrubs around 
the home. 



Copyright 1918, 
Fkderal Publishing Company 



Introduction 



For a good many years, as State Entomologist of Indiana, 
I )3reached the doctrine of better fruits and better gardens 
and better farm crops. During the past six years I have been 
taking my own medicine — practicing what 1 had formerly 
preached. It has been a satisfaction to know that in most 
cases at least I "had the right dope" and in the places where 
theory did not accord with practice it has been a joy to work 
out new methods that would fit the case. 

It is not claimed that the subject matter of this book is 
entirely new. Very few books are really new— they only state 
in new terms things that we have known before. However, 
what new material is presented is such that has been thor- 
oughly worked out in actual practice and tested during a 
period of several seasons. 

It is hoped that this book may prove a safe guide to the 
beginner and an inspiration to support him during the dark 
hours of doubt that come to all beginners in any field. 

Owing to the scope of the subject treated and the limits 
of space, it has not been possible to digress very much from 
the main topics to dwell on the charms of life in the country 
and on the fascination of growing things. Farming, in^ any 
form, whether on a thousand-acre i-anch or in a city back 
yard,' is a creative industry and all creative industries are 
inevitably interesting. The man who paints a picture, or 
writes a poem, or grows a prize box of apples, or is the father 
of a fine baby, is each interested in his respective creation — 
vitally interested. The man who is selling city lots or auto- 
mobiles or shoes, or is practicing law, or teaching school, is 
doing his useful work in the world, but at no time can he 
be as interested in his calling as is the man who is actually 
creatino- soniething new. The man who can make two blades 



Introduction 

of grass grow where only one grew before is a wizard, but 
not nearly so much of a wizard as he who makes one blade 
grow where before there had been none. In this country we 
need both kinds. We already have some grass growing, — 
considerable in fact, — but we need more, and there are two 
ways to secure it. One is by doubling the present production, 
or at least increasing it (we can not all be wizards), and the 
other is by developing the waste places. 

We have too much waste land, too many fence corners 
and abandoned farms and neglected pastures and half cleared 
timber tracts. We must learn to make use of the soil in its 
entirety and we must learn to use the same soil over and over 
again without appreciable loss of its fertility. We have been 
doing with our farms too much as the greenhouse man 
does with his benches — using one lot of soil for a limited time 
and then abandoning it and taking a fresh supply. We have 
moved west year by year to virgin soil and left behind us a 
trail of abused land. All of the land must be used and used 
intelligently — farmed, not mined of its fertility and cast aside. 

These conditions are certain to come about in America. 
All of the land is going to be used to the best advantage. There 
is no question about it except the question of time. There is 
another question, however, that is not so settled and that is 
the question of who is to use this land. Will it be intelligent 
Americans, with insight enough to know that tilling the soil 
in one form or another constitutes one of the best "jobs" that 
an American can have, or will it be ignorant foreign laborers ? 
Will Americans choose to become in fact a ''nation of shop- 
keepers" or will they truly inherit the earth? American agri- 
culture should be built up by and for Americans. Our fore- 
fathers in this country were an agricultural race and the na- 
tional stamina that we have today is distinctly traceable to 
that old stock that developed its power by living close to the 
earth and breathing the clean air of Heaven. 

Recent generations have shown a tendency to migrate to 
the centers of population. Farm boys have become lawyers 
and doctors and "captains of industry" and too often the 
father of the boys has followed them to the bright lights and 



Introduction 

rented the farm to anyone who would pay him a grain rental. 
The fathei' and the boys had been on such intimate terms with 
the real things that count in life that they had become callous 
to them just as the city man becomes callous to the smoke in 
the air and the pasty black muck on the pavements. They 
rented tlie fai'm on the basis of what it would produce in grain 
and ovei'looked all of the life-giving elements that were free 
for the taking. 

On the other hand, we are beginning to see doctors and 
lawyers and even "captains of industry" returning to the 
land and, without exception, — and this is the encouraging 
part, — these city men invariably go to the country and remain 
there with far more enthusiasm than the farm folk exhibit 
when they move to town. The country, the open air, the hills, 
the sky and the smell of fresh turned earth, these are the real 
spice of life that make it worth the living. 

You may ask if the country will afford the bread and 
meat of existence as well as the spice. That is a question that 
only the questioner can answer. Some people fail at every- 
thing, but the man who could make a success in the city can 
usuall}^ do the same in the country. There are exceptions of 
course. Some men would go mad in the country from the lack 
of noise — though the probabilities are they are already mad 
but no one has discovered it as yet. Some men have so com- 
pletely sold their birthright that all they can see is their 
mess of pottage and their understanding fails to grasp the 
essential joys of country living. 

For six years now, I have lived in the country. I have 
often wished that more of my friends lived near me, but never 
have I regretted that I had put the city behind me, as I hope, 
for the rest of my days. As for my friends, I know too well 
that they are inoculated with the idea of country life and 
only bide their time. So it is the hope that this book may 
serve to pass the inoculation along, as well as make it easier 
for those who already have the habit. 

Benjamin Wallace Douglass, 

Hickory Hill, Trevlac, Indiana. 

December 17, 1917. 



CONTENTS 

PART I— THE ORCHARD. 

CHAPTER I. 

PLANNING THE ORCHARD. 

Location — Roads — Relative position on the farm — High 
ground — Character of soil — Direction of slope — Water 
supply — Laying out the orchard — Fillers — Planting 
distances — Varieties — Pear planting — Plums — Cherries 
— Grapes — Strawberries — Raspberries — Currants — 
Gooseberries 1 

CHAPTER n. 

PROPAGATING FRUIT PLANTS. 

Seedlings — Cross-fertilization — Horticultural varieties — 
Grafting — Root grafts — Top grafting — Budding — Cut- 
tings — Layering — Pedigreed trees 15 

CHAPTER m. 

SOILS AND SOIL MANAGEMENT. 

Drainage — Depth of soil — Orchard soils — Renewed fertility — 
Fertilizers — Cultivation — Dust mulch — Cover crops. 
25 

CHAPTER IV. 

PLANTING TPIE ORCHARD. 

Soil preparation — Selecting trees — Age of trees to plant — 
Staking the orchard — Dynamite — Inspecting trees — 
Planting 37 



Orchard and Garden 

CHAPTER V. 

pruning. 

Need for pruning- — Time to prune — Stubs — Painting wounds 
— Apple pruning — Pruning old trees — Pruning peaches 
— Plums and cherries — Pears — Grapes 45 

CHAPTER VI. 

INJURIOUS INSECTS. 

Sucking and chewing insects — Codling moth — Lesser apple 
worm — Plum curculio — Peach borer — Apple borers — 
Currant worm — Grape moth — Canker worms — Bud 
moth — Yellow-necked caterpillar — Tent caterpillar — 
Pear slug — Bark beetle — Flea beetles — White grubs — 
Scale insects — San Jose scale — Scurfy scale — Oyster 
shell scale — Apple aphis — Peach aphis — Phylloxera — 
Leaf hoppers 59 

CHAPTER Vn. 

PLANT DISEASES. 

Causes of disease — Bacteria and fungi — Apple scab — Bitter 
rot — Black rot — Blotch — Blight — Sun scald — Illinois 
canker — Crown gall — Peach scab — Brown rot — ^Leaf 
curl — Peach yellows — Black knot — Leaf spot — Grape 
diseases 81 

CHAPTER VHL 

SPRAYING 

Need for spraying — Spray materials — Contact insecticides — 
Lime sulphur — Tobacco — Oil emulsions — Internal poi- 
sons — Arsenate of lead — Paris green — Fungicides — 
Stock solutions — Bordeaux mixture — Self-boiled lime 
sulphur — Dusting — Spray machinery — Nozzles — Power 
sprayers Winter sprays — Summer sprays 99 



Contents 
CHAPTER IX. 

SMALL FRUITS. 

Soils— Soil preparation— Time to plant— Strawberries- 
Raspberries — Pruning: — Blackberries — Currants — 
Gooseberries — Novelties 119 

CHAPTER X. 

HARVESTING. 

Picking — Time to pick — Picking peaches — Pears— Plums — 
Cherries — Grapes — Small fruits— Packing sheds — Ap- 
ple packages— Box packing— Barrel packing— Peach 
packages— Plums— Grapes — Small fruits 131 

CHAPTER XL 

MARKETING. 

Uncertainty of conditions — I\Iethods of marketing — Parcels 
post — Commission men — Association selling — Soft 
fruits — Apples 14''' 



PART II— GARDENING. 

CHAPTER I. 

PLANNING THE GARDEN. 

The family garden — Foreign gardens — Vacant lot gardens — 
Farm gardens — Soils — Location — Arrangement — 
Manure — Double crops — Fencing 155 

CHAPTER IT. 

SEED SELECTION. 

Flower parts — New varieties— Saving seed — Buying seed — 
Testing seed 1^^ 



Orchard and Garden 

CHAPTBIR III. 

spring vegetables. 

Asparag-us — Beets — Corn salad — Lettuce — Onions — Parsley — 
Parsnips — Peas — Spinach — Radish 171 

CHAPTER IV. 

SUMMER GARDEN. 

Beans — Cabbage — Chinese cabbage — Cauliflower — Collards 
— Corn — Cucumbers — Egg plant — Kale — Muskmelon — 
New Zealand spinach — Okra — Peppers — Potatoes — 
Squashes — Sweet potatoes — Turnips 181 

CHAPTER V. 

SPECIAL CROPS FOR CANNING AND MARKET 

Truck crops — Selling special crops — Soils — Canning crops — 
Home hampers — Tomatoes — Growing plants — Trans- 
planting — Setting- plants — Cultivating and fertilizing 
— Peas — Sweet corn — Potatoes — Scab — Seed potatoes 
Formalin treatment — Celery — Blanching 195 

CHAPTER VI. 

INDOOR GARDENING. 

Greenhouse management — Forcing — Imitating out-door con- 
ditions — Soil — Watering — Hot-beds — Cold frames — 
House plants — Mushrooms 207 

CHAPTER Vll. 

GARDEN INSECTS. 

Chewing insects — Sucking insects — Cabbage worm — Corn ear 
worm — Stalk borer — Tomato worm — White grubs — 
Cucumber beetle — Flea beetles — Potato beetle — Squash 
bug — Harlequin bug — Plant lice — "Kaiser" bug 219 



Contents 
CHAPTER VITI. 

HOME STORAGE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

General methods — Pits — Surface mounds — Cellar storage — 
Temperature control — Concrete cellars — Screens — Ven- 
tilators — Roof — Apples — Beets — Cabbage — Carrots 
— Celery — Onions — Parsnips — Pears — Potatoes — 
Sweet Potatoes — Turnips 229 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE BACK YARD GARDEN. 

Present waste of good land — Patriotic gardens — The city gar- 
den — Lettuce — Spinach — Asparagus — Chinese Cabbage 
— The soil — Building up the soil — Its preparation for 
seed — Fertilizers — Cultivation of the growing crops — 
Vegetables for city cultivation — Asparagus — Beans — 
Beets — Cabbage — Carrots — Corn — Cucumbers — Kale — 
Lettuce — Onions — Parsnips — Peas — Potatoes — 
Radishes — Spinach — Squash — Tomatoes — Turnips_241 

CHAPTER X. 

AN ORCHARD AND GARDEN CALENDAR. 

A few timely suggestions for work to be performed in the or- 
chard and garden during each month of the year 257 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE VALUE OF A FLOWER GARDEN. 

The ethical and economical value of flowers — America should 
be a land of flowers — Cosmopolitan character of the 
American flower garden — Planning the flower garden 
— Lawns — Soil for the lawn — The seed — Clover — 
Weeds — Vines — Large growing shrubs 281 



Orchard and Garden 

CHAPTER XII. 

annual flowers. 

Hardy annuals — Tender annuals — Soil — A list of satisfactory 
annuals — Acroclinium — Ageratum — Alyssum — An- 
tirrhinium — Asters — Balsam — Calendula — Calliopsis 
— Candytuft — Celosia — Centaurea — Cosmos — Eschs- 
choltzia — Euphorbia — Four-o'clock — Globe Amaranth 
— Helianthus — Helichrysum — Kochia — Larkspur — 
Marigold — Mignonette — Pansy — Petunia — Phlox 
Drummondii — Poppies — Portulaca — Rhodanthe — 
Ricinus — Salvia — Scabiosa — Stocks — Verbena — 
Xeranthemum — Zinnia — Vines — Balloon vine — Cobaea 
— Dolichos — Echinocystis — Humulus — Ipomoea — 
Nasturtium — Sweet peas 291 

CHAPTER XIII. 

PERENNIALS. 

Permanent perennials — Soil — Propagation — Vines — Achillea 
— Anemone — Aquilegia — Asclepias — Aster — Campanu- 
la — Chrysanthemum — Coreopsis — Delphiniums — Dode- 
catheon — Hepatica — Hollyhocks — Iris — Linum — 
Lobelia — Monarda — Pentstemon — Peonies — Phlox 
— Physostegia — Rudbeckia — Tradescantia — Trillium 
— Verbena — Yucca — Dutch bulbs — Narcissus — 
Daffodils — Tulips — Perennial vines — Ampelopsis 
— Celastrus — Clematis — Lathrus — Wisteria 305 

CHAPTER XIV. 

SHRUBS. 

Value of shrubs — Native shrubs — Soil — Planting — Shrubs of 
known value — Amelanchier — Barberry — Calycanthus — 
Cercis — Cornus — Corylus — Crataegus — Cydonia 



Contents 

— Forsylhia — Hamamelis — Hydrangea — Lilac — 
Philadelphus — Physocarpus — Rhododendron — Rose 
— Location — Soil — Planting — Spirea — Symphori- 
carpus — Viburnum — Weigela — Wi How 327 

APPENDIX 

Grafting wax — Number of plants to acre — Amount of seed to 
100 feet of row — Packing table for apples 351 



PART I 



THE ORCHARD 



THE ORCHARD 



CHAPTER I. 
Planning the Orchard. 

Location. — The first thing to consider in planting an 
orchard is the location. This subject must be studied from 
several different standpoints. 

An orchard must be located close enough to the market 
that the fruit from the trees may be transported to the place 
of sale without too much expense. It is useless to attempt to 
grow fruit at such a distance from the market that the rail- 
road charges will consume all possible profits. 

Roads. — An orchard, then, should be located within rea- 
sonable distance of city markets and it must be located in a 
country where the roads leading to the railroad are suflnciently 
good that they will insure cheap and easy hauling. Bad roads 
are difficult for any kind of transportation and a load of fruit 
may sometimes be decidedly damaged by long hauling over 
them. 

Relative position on farm. — The second point in regard 
to the location of an orchard is the selection of the actual site 
on the farm. Usually a spot can be found that is better suited 
to the growing of fruit than any other place on the farm. If 
the entire farm is located on high ground and in a climate 
where fruit-growing has proved profitable, then the entire 
farm might be converted into a commercial orchard. 

In locating the position of the orchard the elements of 



2 Orchard and Garden 

elevation, soil, slope, water supply and convenience to the home 
buildings must be considered. 

High ground. — No orchard should ever be planted on low 
ground ; select the highest land that is available. The reason 
for choosing this situation is that the high land is better pro- 
tected from cold in winter and from frosts in spring. Cold 
air is heavier than warm air and settles to the lowest level, 
leaving the hill tops much warmer than the valleys. In gen- 
eral it may be stated that the difference in temperature will 




Tlie orchard road. 



amount to one degree to every ten feet of elevation. This 
variation applies, of course, only when there is no wind. On 
windy nights the temperature will be about the same at the 
top of a hill as at the bottom, because all the air is stirred up 
and an even temperature results. Frost, therefore, seldom 
occurs on windy nights. Frequently a very slight elevation 
will make all the difference between a full crop of fruit and 
none whatever. 

The character of the soil must be considered before the 
orchard is planted. Almost any soil will prove satisfactory 
for fruit growing except rich black prairie soil and t'^e soil 



Planning the Orchard 3 

of drained swamps. In general the richer the soil the slower 
the trees will be in starting to bear fruit. All forms of sandy 
soils are adapted to fruit growing and heavy clay loam soils 
are excellent. Pure clay soils are usually deficient in humus, 
that is, decayed vegetable matter, but this deficiency can be 
supplied by growing and turning under such crops as rye, 
oats, cowpeas, and clover. 

The direction of the slope of a hill is of less importance in 
the location of an orchard than has sometimes been supposed. 
Formerly it was a common practice to plant orchards on north 
slopes with the expectation that such a form of planting would 
prevent the trees from starting into bloom quite so early in 
the spring and thus save the fruit from injury by spring 
frosts. It is doubtful if this theory will work out in actual 
practice. On the other hand a south slope will receive more 
sunlight and as a result the fruit will be better in color than 
it will on north slopes. In most hilly sections it will be found 
that the soil on the slopes toward the prevailing winds will be 
much poorer in quality than that on opposite slopes. For 
instance, if the prevailing winds are from the west, then the 
best soil will be found on the east side of the hills. The reason 
for this condition is that a large part of the fallen leaves are 
carried by the winds over the crest of the hill and deposited 
on the opposite slope where they decay and form part of the 
soil. This process being carried on year after year ultimately 
results in a very great improvement of one slope to the detri- 
ment of the other. 

The question of water supply must not be overlooked in 
the location of the orchard. An abundance of water must be 
available even in the summer months so as to provide an 
ample supply for spraying purposes. 

Neai' the house. — The orchard should be located as con- 
veniently near the house as the other considerations will 
allow. An orchard filled with ripe fruit is always a temptation 
to the passerby ; and, since it is not intended to grow fruit 
for the free use of the public, it is well to have trees so located 



4 Orchard and Garden 

that they can be watched at all times. Convenience to the 
house will also often mean convenience to the water supply 
and also make it easier to gather the fruit. Incidentally, if the 
orchard is located where it can be seen every day, it will be a 
constant reminder that it should have its share of attention. 
"Laying Out." — After deciding just where to plant the 
orchard, the question of how to plant it arises. There have 
been various methods of ''laying out" an orchard and of 




•p P -p 

Diagram showing planting' methods. P. Permanent trees. F. Filler trees. 



these the commonest and perhaps the best is what is known 
as the square system. In this system the trees are planted 
equal distances apart and are located at the corners of an 
imaginary square. This method may be modified by planting 
a "filler" tree in the center of the square and sometimes this 
plan is still further changed by planting additional fillers be- 



Planning the Orchard 



tween the permanent trees and in line with them. The tri- 
angular system differs from the square system in that the 
trees are planted at the corners of an equal-sided triangle 







A six-year-old "Winesap in Indiana. 



instead of at the corners of a square. Thus the trees of the 
second row in the orchard will not come in line with the trees 
of the first row, but midway between them. This system is 
suitable only for level ground. All other systems of orchard 



6 Orchard and Garden 

planting are simply variations of these two methods. The 
accompanying diagrams illustrate the two arrangements, 
while their application will be taken up in the next chapter. 

Varieties. — In planning the orchard we must give a great 
deal of attention to the consideration of varieties. This is 
a subject on which the individual grower must be guided 
largely by the experience of other growers in his locality. If 
certain fruits have been a success under neighboring condi- 
tions, then it is a safe risk to plant those kinds unless it is 
known that the varieties in question are no longer in demand 
in the big markets. The Ben Davis apple can be grown suc- 
cessfully over a la/-ge extent of territory, but it is no longer 
planted to any degree, because growers have found that al- 
though they can grow Ben Davis apples to perfection, they 
can not sell that variety readily. 

Fillers. — As a general rule, commercial fruit growers try 
to plant only those fruits that can be grown with a minimum 
amount of labor and that are at the same time of the highest 
quality. Some high quality fruits have faults which unfit 
them for the commercial grower ; but they may be included in 
the list for the small home orchard, because such an orchard 
is not designed primarily to be a source of profit. It has been 
suggested that filler trees may be planted between the perma- 
nent trees of an orchard. For this purpose it is essential to 
select varieties which come into bearing at an early age. Fre- 
quently summer apples are planted as fillers, because many 
of them will bear fruit almost as early as peach trees. The 
early apples are also valuable to the orchardist in that they 
require less spraying and the crop is sold early enough in the 
season that the money can be used to pay the expenses of the 
main crop. Sometimes this consideration is of prime im- 
portance to the planter. 

Peach filler. — Peaches, plums and cherries have been used 
as fillers, but their use is not to be encouraged unless the 
grower has had considerable experience in the management of 
orchards. There is always a tendency to let the filler trees 



Planning the Orchard 




Stayman 



(Stayman Winesap), the most promising' apple of tlie Winesap 
family. 



8 Orchard and Garden 

stand for "just one more season," and in this way they do con- 
siderable damage to the permanent trees. 

Planting distance. — The following table shows the proper 
distances for planting the various fruit trees and small fruit 
plants. 

yoiiefij. Distance to Plant. 

Apples 40 feet 

Peaches 2(1 feet 

Plums 20 feet 

Clierries 20 to 30 feet 

Pears 30 feet 

Quiuces 15 feet 

Grapes S to 10 feet 

Currants 4 feet 

Gooseberries 5 feet 

Raspberries 3x6 feet 

Blackberries 5x8 feet 

Strawberries 4x4 feet or in rows four feet apart 

Va7'ieties. — It is sometimes possible to make an orchard 
pay its way by planting filler trees between the permanent 
trees, and then interplanting with berries or other small 
fruits between the filler trees. The following lists of varieties 
indicate in a general way what varieties of large and small 
fruits m.ay be expected to succeed in the zone for which they 
are suggested. The north zone includes the New England 
states, New York, and the northern part of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska and the territory to the north of 
these states. The central zone includes the territory between 
the thirty-fifth and fortieth parallels of latitude, and the 
south zone includes all the country to the south of the central 
zone. The varieties listed are those that are considered suit- 
able for commercial purposes. 

The letter N, C and S after the name of a variety indi- 
cates the zone for which it is suggested. Apples for the ex- 
treme north are indicated by NN. 



Planning the Orchard 




10 



Orchard and Garden 



Xame. Zone. 

Akin S. C. 

Arkansas S. 

Baldwin N. 

Ksopus Spitzenberg N. 

Faila water N. 

Grimes S. C. 

Hubbardston X. C. 

Ingram S. 

Jonathan C. 

King David C. S. 

Northern Spy N. 

Northwestern (JreeninL' N. NN. 

Khode Island (Jreening N. 

Rome Beauty C. 

Stark C. N. 

Stavman S. C. N. 



\anic. Zone. 
King N. 

Wagener N. 

Willow Twig S. 

Winesap S. C. 

Yellow Newton N. 

York Imperial S. C. 

Benoni S. C. 

Hibernal NN. 

Delicious C. 

Lowland Raspberry S. C. 

Mcintosh N. NN, 

Oldenburg S. C. N. 

Patten Greening NN. 

Red June S. C. 

Wealthy C. N. NN. 

Yellow Transparent S. C. N. 



In general it is advisable to plant yellow peaches for 
market. A few local markets will take white peaches, but, as 
a rule, they are not in great demand regardless of quality. 



Nuntc. 


Flesh. 


Zone 


Alexander 


..White 




s. 


Arp 


.-Yellow 


S. 


c. 


Alton 


-White 


s. 


c. 


Belle of Georgia- 


-.Yellow 


s. 


c. 


Carman 


. White 


s 


c 


Champion 


White 


s. 


c 


Elbert a 


-Yellow 


s. c. 


N. 


Early Elberta 


-A'ellow 


s. c. 


N. 


Fitzgerald 


-.Yellow 


c. 


N. 



yunie. Flesh. 

(ireensborough White 

,J. H. Hale Vellow 

Health Cling White 

Kalamazoo Yellow 

Krununel Yellow 

Ray White 

Red Bird Cling White 

Sol way Yellow 

Snioek Yellow 



S 



Zone. 

S. C. N. 

C. N. 

s. c. 

C. N. 

C. N. 

s. c. 

s. c. 

C. N. 

C. N. 



Commercial pear planting is decidedly on the decrease on 
account of the difficulty of controlling the pear blight. This 
is a bacterial disease for which there is no known control. 
At times new varieties of pears have been offered by nursery- 
men who claimed that the new productions were "blight 
proof." So far all these wonderful new productions have 
failed to make good and the blight proof trees seem to die 
just about as quickly as the old varieties. Many of the blight 



Planning the Orchard 



11 



proof varieties were so poor in quality that they were worth- 
less as commercial fruit. A few pears might by planted for 
home use, but the planter runs the risk of exerting himself 
uselessly. The following sorts are recommended if the or- 
chardist feels that he must have a few pears: Bartlett, Lin- 
coln, Seckle, Duchess, Cornice, Sheldon, Kiefer. 

Pbinis. — The following plum list is designed especially 
for the districts east of the Rocky mountains. On the Pacific 

coast there are cer- 
tain places where it 
is possible to grow 
varieties that are 
not suited lo East- 
ern conditions. Plums 
are among the most 
variable of our fruits. 
Some varieties have 
come to us from 
Europe and Western 
Asia, many from 
Japan and not a few 
have been developed 
from our native wild 
plum. The common 
blue Damson is said 
to have come from the 
old world city of 
Damascus and its 
present name is sup- 
posed to have been 
derived from the city 
near which it was first 
cultivated. Plums are 
of the easiest culture 
and will often grow 
where no other fruit 




Well-grown Burbank Plums. 



12 Orchard and Garden 

would survive. There is probably no place in the United States 
where some variety of plum could not be grown. The follow- 
ing list includes only varieties known to succeed in commer- 
cial orchards : 

'Name. Zone. Name. Zone. 

Abmulance S. C. X. DeSoto C. N. 

America S. C. N. Lombard C. N. 

Burbank S. C. N. Wild Goose S. C. N. 

Damsou S. C. N. 

Cherries. — There are two general classes of cherries, 
known as sweet cherries and sour cherries. The sour cherry 
will grow almost anywhere, but the sweet varieties are much 
more difficult to produce to perfection. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the sweet cherry will succeed in many more places 
than is usually thought, because it has not been extensively 
tested under modern methods of cultivation. 

Sour Cherries — Early Richmond, Montmorency. These 
two sorts are excellent wherever cherries are grown. 

Sweet Cherries — Black Tartarian, Lambert, Royal Ann, 
Schmidt, Governor Wood, Windsor. 

Grapes are the poor man's fruit, because they v/111 grow 
anywhere and with very little trouble. In some sections 
commercial vineyards are planted. In the East tne com- 
mercial varieties are limited to a very few sorts. Concord, 
Campbell's Early, Catawba and Worden are among the best 
sorts planted for market. In a few districts Delaware is 
planted. It is a small but very fine red grape. The follow- 
ing list includes varieties worthy of the home vineyard, al- 
though some of them will not prove profitable. 

Nit inc. Color. Zone. 

Herbert Black C. S. 

Diamoml Wbite C. 

Niagara Wbite C. N. 

Lady Washington Wbite C. S. 

Brighton Red C. S. 

Brilliant Red C. S. 

Woodruff Red Red C. 



Planning the Orchard 



13 



Straivberrie.s. — It is impossible to give definite lists of 
strawberries in a book of this sort for the reason that varie- 
ties of this fruit do not give equal satisfaction in sections 
often only slightly removed from one another. Then, too, 
there is no other fruit in v^^hich kinds go out of fashion so 
promptly and generally as in the cases of the luscious straw- 
berry. New and excellent varieties are being introduced 




A two-year-old vineyard. 



every year and the student of fruit culture must study nurs- 
ery catalogs and consult with his berry-growing neighbors 
before he can decide what will probably succeed on his 
ground. To give a list of sorts suitable for different places 
would mean several different lists for nearly every state in 
the Union. If there are no successful berry growers in your 
section, it is advisable to plant a number of varieties and 
watch their growth a year or two before trying this fruit on 
a commercial scale. 



14 Orchard and Garden 

Raspberries. — A list of a very few varieties will cover 
all the commercial sorts of this fruit. The black varieties of 
raspberries that are universally planted are the Cumber- 
land and the Kansas. The Hoosier, a new kind, is attracting 
much attention and may prove better than the two former. 
The Cuthbert is the most widely planted of all the red ber- 
ries and the Columbian and Haymaker are the best purple 
sorts. White or yellow raspberries are seldom planted ex- 
cept as novelties. The St. Regis, an ever-bearing red variety, 
is proving to be an excellent sort. It bears all through the 
summer and is a decided addition to our list of fruit. 

The Blackberry will succeed over a wide range of terri- 
tory. This popular bush fruit grows wild in many places and 
in a few localities great quantities from this source are gath- 
ered and shipped each year. Among the most popular cul- 
tivated varieties are the following: Early Harvest, Eldorado, 
Snyder, and Wilson. 

The Currant will thrive on many soils, but will not endure 
dry weather well. As far as climatic conditions are con- 
cerned it will survive great extremes of temperature. The 
sorts most widely planted are London Market, Perfection 
and Wilder. The best black variety is probably Black Naples 
and the best white sort is the White Grape. 

Gooseberries. — The Houghton is probably the most 
widely planted of any gooseberry, but there are some prom- 
ising new sorts that will undoubtedly become prominent be- 
fore long. The English varieties are quite subject to mildew 
and are not regarded as profitable, although the fruit is 
superior. 



CHAPTER IT. 
Propagating Fruit Plants. 

Seedlhigs. — All fruit plants produce seeds of some sort 
and from these seeds new plants can be grown. These new 
plants, however, are very seldom as good as the original 
plant that first produced the seed. For instance, the seed 
from a Grimes Golden apple will not be apt to produce fruit 
that even remotely resembles the parent fruit. For this reason 
fruit growers are forced to resort to artificial methods of per- 
petuating their varieties. 

There has been a tremendous amount of experimental 
work done looking toward the production of new varieties 
of all sorts of fruit. Some of this work has been productive 
of results, but much of it has been in vain. Nature does not 
seem to respond readily to attempts at improving on her 
handiwork. She is slow in her methods, but ultimately sure. 
Out in Iowa nature took things into her own hands and in an 
old orchard produced a seedling tree that bore the first 
"Delicious" apples. This apple, probably the best single 
variety in existence, is a chance seedling. On the other hand, 
in Indiana the State Horticultural Society tested more than 
ten thousand carefully selected seedlings and out of the entire 
lot did not secure more than half a dozen apples that seemed 
worthy of further testing — none of them to compare with 
the chance work in the old Iowa orchard. 

Cross fertilization. — One reason that the seeds of a 
fruit fail to produce similar fruit is that the seed has been 
fertilized by pollen from some other variety and as the two 
varieties mix they produce something that is entirely differ- 

(2) 



16 Orchard and Garden 

ent from either parent. This mixture of qualities might be 
compared to the mixing of certain pigments, A yellow and a 
blue paint when mixed will produce a green color. The green 
does not in the least resemble either of the colors that were 
used to produce it. Different kinds of blue or yellow will 
produce different sorts of green and even the expert painter 
must experiment with each particular batch of green in order 
to match a previous shade. In the mixing of pollen the same 
mixture will seldom occur twice and, therefore, it is rare that 
any two seedlings will even remotely resemble each other. 

Horticultural Varieties. — It must be remembered, too, 
that all our fruits are very much improved over the wild 
form. Our common varieties of cultivated fruit are what are 
known as "horticultural" varieties ; that is, they are not true 
varieties as found in a wild state, but they are kinds that 
have been improved by much careful, patient work on the 
part of plant breeders. 

All these so-called horticultural varieties have a decided 
tendency to revert to the original type from which they were 
developed. Their development has been simply a matter of 
selecting the best seedlings from time to time. The original 
wild apples of Europe were carefully watched for genera- 
tions, and whenever a better sort was found, that particular 
sort was taken by the fruit grower and carefully tended. In 
time perhaps it was found to have produced a new seedling 
that was still better than its parent. In this way the develop- 
ment of varieties has progressed for many years. Great ad- 
vance has been made in America in the evolution of new 
sorts of fruit during the past century. 

American Grapes. — Many, if not most, of the grapes 
grown in the eastern United States have been developed from 
native vines that formerly grew in the American woods. The 
widely planted Concord is simply a chance seedling of the 
native wild Fox grape that still grows over New England 
and westward to the Central states. 

Since we know that these improved varieties do not 



Propagating Fruit Plants 



17 



reproduce themselves from seed, we are ready to consider the 
methods that are employed in their propagation. 

Grafting. — The chief means of growing fruit is per- 
haps that of grafting. In this process a twig or scion of the 
desired variety is inserted in a stock of some common sort 
or into the root of a seedling. Accordingly grafts are spoken 
of as root grafts or top grafts. 

R<u)t graft. — The root graft is used mostly in propagat- 
ing the apple and similar fruits. Top grafting is used in top 

working orchard trees 
to change the va- 
riety and in a few 
cases to improve the 
tree qualities of a va- 
riety. Some varieties 
that are otherwise ex- 
cellent have poor root 
systems. This state- 
ment is true particu- 
larly of the Grimes. 
In order to improve 
the tree, it is custom- 
ary to graft a Grimes 
scion on a young tree 
of some vigorous sort. 
Various methods are 
employed in making 
grafts. The method 
used in the prepara- 
tion of root grafts for 

Top grafting a young apple tree. nursery Stock is COm- 

monly called whip grafting. A small, one-year-old apple 
seedling is selected and the top is cut off with a smooth long 
cut. This operation leaves the top of the root with a beveled 
end about an inch or an inch and a quarter long. This bevel 
is then split the long way of the root for a distance of about 
three-quarters of an inch. A scion of the desired variety is 




18 



Orchard and Garden 



next selected and a piece of twig of last year's growth is cut 
such length that not more than two buds are included. The 
lower end of this scion is cut exactly as the root of the seed- 
ling was cut. The two beveled and cleft pieces are then fitted 
together and the union is tightly bound with a bit of waxed 
yarn. This work can be done in a warm place just at the 
close of winter and the prepared grafts packed in moist saw- 
dust until the ground is in fit condition for planting. As 
soon as the ground can be worked easily the grafted seedlings 
are planted in rows about three or four feet apart and about 
six to ten inches apart in the row. They should be planted 
so deep that just one bud will be above the surface. Constant 
cultivation throughout the summer is required in order to 
insure a vigorous growth. 

hh top g^'afting the process is similar ; but, since a young 
scion is inserted in a much older stock, some preparation must 

be made to prevent 
the loss of moisture 
through the large ex- 
posed wound. In the 
case of the root graft 
the wound was cov- 
ered with earth so 
that very little mois- 
ture was lost. 

After selecting the 
tree to be grafted, the 
branches should be cut 
back with a sharp saw 
and only the stubs 
left. If it is not de- 
sired to insert grafts 
in all the main 
branches, part of them 
can be left during the 
first summer and re- 
moved after the grafts 
are well established. 




Apple tree showing the growth from grafts in 
one season. 



Propagating Fruit Plants 



19 



First split the stub of the branch with a sharp tool for a 
distance of from an inch and a half to two inches. Then 
select the scion and cut the lower end to a wedge shape about 
an inch and a quarter in length. This wedge should be 

slightly thicker at one side than 
at the other, and at the base of the 
thick side of the wedge should be 
one of the three buds. Then pry 
the split stub open far enough to 
admit the wedge of the scion. In 
inserting the scion be sure to place 
it with the thick side of the wedge, 
on which the bud is located, to the 
outside of the stub. Also be sure 
to see that the inner bark of the 
stub and of the scion exactly co- 
incide. It is from the line be- 
tween the inner and outer bark 

Li^gC- ^f'MS^"*''^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ growth starts, and 
««' *--x. ir^ i unless these lines are adjusted 

exactly, the graft will make a poor 
growth. 

After the graft is finished the 
stub of the tree should clamp it 
tight enough to hold it firmly. It 
is then ready to be waxed. This 
operation is done by covering all the cut surfaces with graft- 
ing wax, which should be applied evenly over the cut end of 
the stub and extend down the split sides as far as the bark is 
broken even slightly. The top end of the scion should also be 
carefully waxed to prevent the loss of moisture from that 
point. This precaution may seem trifling ; but, if one should 
ever try to make a graft grow without this bit of w^axing, it 
will soon be seen how very important it is to heed such ad- 







A grafted apple tree one yea 
after grafting (pruned). 



Vice. 



Budding is the term applied to a certain form of graft- 



20 



Orchard and Garden 



ing, because it involves the use of buds instead of the use of 
scions. Budding is a very easy method of propagation and is 
employed in relation with practically all fruits, including even 
those that are more often grafted. Peaches and other stone 
fruits are almost always budded. 




Al)ple tree two years after grafting". 



In nursery work it is customary to plant the seeds of 
peaches in the fall of the year or very early in the spring. By 
early summer the young seedling trees are large enough to 
bud. The buds are secured from trees of known variety and 
are cut in the form of "bud sticks," which are simply twigs 
of the present season's growth from which the leaves have 
been clipped. The buds are always located just above the 



Propagating Fruit Plants 



21 



base of the leaf and in the angle which the leaf makes with 
the stem. In removing the leaves it is customary to leave a 
short ])iece of the leaf stem by which to handle the bud more 
conveniently. The bark on the seedling tree is split with a 
sharp knife and laid open so that the clean white wood is 
exposed. Then a bud is removed from the bud stick and in- 
serted under the bark of the seedling. In this way the bark 
surrounding the bud is brought in contact with the wood of 
the seedling. The flaps of seedling bark are tightly bound 
around the bud to hold it in close contact with the wood. 
Aften ten days or two weeks the cords binding the bud are 
cut, because, at that time, the bud and the wood should have 
grown together and further use of the bindings might injure 
the tree. In cutting the bud from the bud stick be careful 

to remove the wood from the 
bud. Sometimes in cutting the 
buds the wood has a tendency 
to adhere to the bark and in 
such cases it is difficult to secure 
good results. In moist weather the 
buds will slip from the stick 
easier than in prolonged dry 
weather. 

This bud will not grow during 
the summer in which it is inserted. 
Early the next spring the nursery- 
man cuts off the old seedling top 
at a point just above where the bud 
was inserted. When the growth 
does start it must start from the 
single bud ; as a result, this bud 
forms the young tree. 

Budding is not so often prac- 
ticed in top working trees, because 

A four-year-old peach tree. ^t is difficult tO SeCUre gOOd re- 
showing the growth which was a„lfo with thi<; nrarfirp pvpn nn 
made from three buds inserted ^UUS Wliri LHlb prdCllCe even On 

the year before. Lines indicate frpp« frniT nr fi\7P vpnvc nlrl 
wliere buds were inserted. ireeS lOUl Or DVe yearS OIQ. 




22 



Orchard and Garden 



Cuttings. — Another method of propagation is by the use 
of cuttings. The cuttings are simply twigs, usually of the 
previous season's growth, and they are induced to grow by 
planting them quite deep in the earth. Only one or two buds 
should show above the surface. It is from these buds that 
the new plant is formed, while the buds below the surface 
provide points from which new roots develop. This method 

is not usually employed by nurs- 
erymen except in the case of 
grapes, currants and gooseberries. 
Other fruits do not form roots 
readily from cuttings. 

Layering. — Still another means 
of increasing the numbers of a cer- 
tain variety is by the practice of 
layering. In this case a shoot or 
branch of the plant desired is bent 
down to the ground and a section 
of the stem is covered with earth. 
Under this mound of earth new 
roots will form and ultimately the 
bent stem may be severed from the 
parent plant and the new indi- 
vidual taken up and transplanted 
elsewhere. This practice will work 
nicely with grapes, and it is used 
almost entirely in the propagation 
of raspberries and strawberries. 
In the case of strawberries, this 
system is the natural one by which 
means the plant is enabled to 
Grape cuttings. Spread rapidly. The "runners" of 

the berry plant are shoots which, on being brought in con- 
tact with the soil, develop roots and start a new plant. 

Dividing the roots of certain plants is another manner 
of propagating, but it is not largely used in fruit growing, 
because so few plants lend themselves to this method. 




Propagating Fruit Plants 23 

Effect of Stuck on Scioyi. — It will be noticed in all 
methods of propagating that the process is purely a vegeta- 
tive one ; that is, the question of seed does not enter into 
consideration at any point. When a scion is taken from a 
certain apple tree and made to grow by being placed in the 
root stock of some inferior seedling, that scion and the tree 
which it may make are not altered in the least. If the scion 
is taken from a Baldwin tree, the resulting tree is certain to 
be a Baldwin and to produce fruit exactly like the parent 
tree. Of course, it is assumed that the soil and climatic con- 
ditions are the same in each case. But nothing has been done 
to that scion to change its character in any way, and the 
fruit is bound to be just as good, but no better, than that pro- 
duced on the tree from which the scion was taken. 

"Pedigreed" Trees. — These considerations are of inter- 
est because there are always people who attempt to deceive 
the public by offering what they are pleased to term "pedi- 
greed" trees. A pedigree always implies two parents. In 
fruit tree propagation no real parent exists. The business' of 
propagating is a scheme of the horticulturist to induce the 
tree to make a more extended vegetative growth. Under 
such conditions any talk of possible pedigree is foolish. A 
seedling apple might be said to have a pedigree, but it would 
be of one generation only, with a mother of one sort and a 
father of another, which would mean very little in horticul- 
tural values. Under no condition could a budded or grafted 
tree be said to have a pedigree. 

Conclusive Proof. — The Purdue Agricultural Experiment 
Station has recently published the results of many tests along 
this line and all of their experiments tended to show that bud 
variations in apple stock were very rare. The following ex- 
tracts ai'e fi-om the report on this work, which was done by 
Mr. Joe A. Burton : 

"One of the first things undertaken in the experimental 
orchard was to graft Yellow Transparent and Chenango on a 
wild crab to observe the influence of the stock on the scion. 



-? 



24 Orchard and Garden. 

When these scions set fruit all the leaves were removed from 
the graft and the apples were compelled to grow from sap 
elaborated by the crab leaves. The fruits were perfect speci- 
mens of Transparent and Chenango." 

"As regards the variation in size and color of fruit, scions 
v/ere grafted from Ram bo trees which grew very large and 
fine fruit; and another lot from trees which grew small and 
inferior fruit ; also scions from Ben Oavis, which grew highly 
colored fruit and some from trees which grew poorly colored 
fruit, were top-worked on the same tree. When brought to- 
gether on the same tree, the fruit from scion wood from trees 
producing large sized and highly colored specimens were indis- 
tinguishable from the fruit borne on the scions which had been 
taken from trees which grew small and poorly colored fruit. 
This was repeated in practically the same manner with Ralls 
with results verifying the above. 

"These tests in the opinion of Mr. Burton would seem to 
indicate that the observed variations between varieties is 
probably due, in almost every case, to environment rather 
than to bud variations." 



CHAPTER III. 

Soils and Soil Management. 

Drainage. — There is one quality that any soil must have 
if it is to be used for the production of fruit. It must be well 
drained. All varieties of fruit are injured if they are sub- 
jected to the discomfort of "wet feet." If the natural sur- 
face of the land is not such as will cause all surplus rain to 
run off, then some provision must be made for drainage. A 
very simple and cheap method of drainage is to plow the 




A hillside orchard cultivated in strips. 



land so that a "dead furrow" will come between the rows 
of trees. This will form a shallow ditch which will carry off 
much of the surplus water. This plan has some serious ob- 
jections, but it has been successfully used by practical fruit 
growers. 

Tile drainage. — A better, but more costly, way to drain 
is to install a tile system throughout the orchard. Tile 



26 Orchard and Garden 

should be placed not less than thirty inches below tiie sur- 
face and on some occasions deeper. It must be remembered 
that the proper placing and laying of a drain is a matter 
generally requiring expert attention. The planter would bet- 
ter consult some local authority who not only knows the 
character of the soil in question but who also has had ex- 
perience in laying tile in that particular kind of soil. 

Depth of soil. — The expression "depth of soil" is some- 
times used in speaking of particular pieces of land. This 
term usually means the depth of that portion of the soil 
which is capable of growing crops. Often a soil may be 
several feet deep before rock or gravel is encountered, but 
more frequently only the few inches of top soil are fit for 
agricultural purposes. The deeper soil can be made avail- 
able by deep plowing or by the use of dynamite in some con- 
ditions. A deep soil usually has more plant food in the form 
of available chemicals, than a shallow soil. Deep soils also 
act as sponges to take up and retain moisture during the 
growing season. 

Orchard soil. — As a rule the same high degree of fertil- 
ity is not desired in orchard soils that is so important in 
general farming soils. Fruit trees planted on such rich land 
will make a rank growth, but will be slow in starting to bear 
fruit. Such trees, too, are more liable to be injured by some 
of the plant diseases than are trees that have made a more 
normal growth. This statement is particularly true of the 
blight of pear trees. 

Orchards on poor land. — On the other hand, it would 
be unprofitable to plant an orchard on the poorest land to be 
found. Some ground is too barren for any agricultural use. 
Extremes in both situations must be avoided. Many persons 
do not stop to consider that a crop of fruit removes certain 
chemical elements from the soil just as surely as a crop of 
corn or wheat removes other elements. It has long been a 
popular notion that orchards do not require fertilization, 
and this idea seems to account in some measure for the many 



Soils and Soil Management 



27 



Jj;; cc 




28 



Orchard and Garden 



neglected and deserted old orchards to be found over the 
country. The trees simply used up all available plant food, 
and when the supply was exhausted, they naturally 
failed to bear any more fruit. The chemical elements in most 
soils are of two classes, that is, available (ready for use) and 
unavailable materials. There is nearly always much more 
unavailable matter than that which is ready for the plant to 
use. 




A covi r crop of rye in a young' orchard. 



Reneived fertUitij. — By the action of roots, by the decay 
of leaves, and by the action of frost and air, the unavailable 
material is slowly made over into the other form which the 
plants can take up and use. In the case of old orchards that 
have ceased to be profitable, it is often surprising to find 
them unexpectedly producing a fair crop. This apparent 
exception means that while the old trees have been marking 
time for a number of years, the available chemical elements 



Soils and Soil Management 29 

in the soil have been accumulating until they reach a point 
where they are able to force the trees to bear another crop 
of fruit. 

Fertilizers. — In modern practice the wise orchardist an- 
ticipates this demand on the soil and provides his trees with 
the chemical elements which they need before they begin to 
slacken in the production of fruit. It is impossible to lay 
down rules for the fertilization of orchards, because the 
chemical needs of different soils will vary with the different 
localities. In fact, different soils within the same orchard 
will often have different fertilizer requirements. The best 
way to determine what to use is to start an experimental 
block of trees and use several different mixtures in order to 
decide just which fertilizer provides most nourishment. 

Barnyard manure. — As a rule, it is well to avoid the use 
of barnyard manure, because in many instances it has seemed 
to induce root trouble, A few good orchardists use it, how- 
ever, and apparently have no annoyance. In any event, if 
manure is used, it should never be applied close to the trees. 

The three elements that are usually found in all com- 
mercial fertilizers are potash, nitrogen and phosphorus. 

Potash is mined in Germany in large quantities and 
practically the world supply formerly came from that coun- 
try. This element is also contained in unleached wood ashes. 
In order to secure this element, orchardists have scattered 
ashes over the surface of the ground for many years. Potash 
is now obtained from sea weed and recent investigations indi- 
cate that we have in our southwestern states deposits that 
rival those of Germany. 

Nitrogen is found in the soil in the form of nitrates, of 
which there are several different kinds. The name itself 
simply means that the nitrogen, which in its pure state is a 
gas found in the atmosphere, is combined with some other 
element. For instance, nitrate of soda is a chemical in which, 
sodium, nitrogen and oxygen are combined in given propor- 
tions. Although nitrogen is a common gas. and is to be found 



30 Orchard and Garden 

everywhere in the air about us, it is of no value as a plant 
food unless it is chemically combined with some other ele- 
ment. Certain kinds of bacteria have the power to take the 
atmospheric nitrogen and combine it with other elements, 
thus making it available for the use of all plants. These par- 
ticular bacteria are found growing on the roots of clover and 
similar members of the bean family. Wherever they grow 
on the clover roots they form small nodules or lumps. When 
the clover plant dies or is plowed under, these nodules decay 
and liberate a very considerable amount of nitrogen in the 
form of nitrates. This method of securing nitrates in the 
soil by the growing of clovers is an almost universal prac- 
tice in general agriculture. It is by far the cheapest means 
of supplying nitrogen to the soil. 

Phosphorus as an element of commercial fertilizers is 
found in the form of a soft rock in some of the Southern 
states. In this form it is combined with other elements just 
as the nitrogen was combined in the case of nitrate of soda. 
The use of phosphorus as a fertilizer element appears to be 
increasing in most sections. 

Cultivation. — Any orchard that is worth planting 
is worth cultivating. Fruit trees respond to cultivation in 
just the same way that corn or potatoes answer to attention. 
No good farmer would attempt to grow a crop of corn with- 
out thorough cultivation, but these same good farmers some- 
times think that an orchard needs no care from the time it 
is planted till it begins to bear fruit. 

Orchard cultivation should start in the spring just be- 
fore the time when rye or wheat is starting to head out. 
These two grains are often used as cover crops in orchards 
and just before they start to head they should be cut up with 
a heavy disc harrow. The use of the plow is not necessary in 
most orchards, and, in fact, may cause some injury by cutting 
the roots of the trees. The disc stirs the soil just deep enough, 
and, unless the rye is permitted to grow too tall, the disc 
will turn it under sufficiently. After the orchard has been 



Soils and Soil Management. 



31 




(3) 



Nitrogen nodules on roots of clover. 



32 



Orchard and Garden 



gone over with the disc in at least two directions, it should 
be ready for some tool which will still further pulverize the 
surface. Any kind of harrow is good for this purpose, but 
most orchardists use either a spring tooth or one of the 
patent Acme harrows. The latter is designed especially for 
orchard work and is a very excellent tool, A common board 
drag will help to keep the top soil pulverized and in a good 
state of tillage. 

The chief object of cultivation is to retain moisture in 
the soil. This is done by forming what is known as a dust 




The dust mulch. 



mulch over the surface. The dust mulch acts like a great 
blanket of felt laid over the orchard. Very little moisture 
can escape from the soil if the surface is protected by such 
a mulch. In a well cultivated orchard damp earth should be 
reached easily by heaping up some of the mulch with the toe 
of the shoe. To emphasize this point, go into an uncultivated 
field with a pick and shovel and find how deep one must go 
before reaching moist dirt. 

Cultivation also kills all weeds. Since weeds need mois- 
ture in order to grow, it is reasonable to expect that, if they 



Soils and Soil Management 



33 



are kept down, more moisture will be conserved for the use 
of the trees. 

Dust 7nnlcli. — Any rain that might fall on a dust mulch 
will be gradually absorbed and a paste will be formed, which, 
if permitted to dry, will cause a crust over the soil. As this 
condition is exactly the one not desired, cultivation must con- 
tinue, especially after each rain or even shower. By this 




Clean cultivation in a young orchard. 

means the dust mulch is kept in good condition to protect 
the soil moisture for the sole use of the trees. 

Cultivation should be stopped about the middle of sum- 
mer in order to give the trees opportunity to harden their 
wood before the approach of winter. If the trees were made 
to grow till frost — which might easily be done — the newest 
growth would be found too tender to survive the cold weather. 

Cover crop. — At the time cultivation is stopped a cover 
crop should be planted. This crop still further checks the 



Orchard and Garden. 




I 



Soils and Soil Management 35 

growth of the trees and also furnishes a protecting cover for 
the ground during the winter. Land so sheltered will not 
freeze as deep and will also catch and hold the snow better. 
The snow itself is, of course, a protecting cover for the ground, 
and, as a result, the roots are less likely to be winter injured. 
Another function of the cover crop is to prevent the soil from 
washing away in winter. On hillsides this washing process 
may become a very serious problem which may necessitate 
planting the cover crop somewhat earlier to insure a heavier 
ground protection. In neglected orchards such erosion of the 
land has sometimes ruined a fine planting in one winter. Any 
of the winter grains, such as rye, wheat or barley, will make 
a good orchard cover. Rye is especially good because it makes 
a sturdy growth and is quite hardy. In some sections crim- 
son clover can be planted with the rye, thus affording the 
benefit of the rye as a protection and of the clover as an aid 
to fertilization. Winter vetch can be used in this same way. 
It must be understood that these cover crops are not planted 
as a source of direct profit. It is most unwise to attempt to 
take a crop of grain from land between the trees. It simply 
means stealing some of the fertility from the soil, which in 
order to insure a profitable orchard, must be replaced in some 
way later. 

Throughout the entire subject of soil management we 
must not lose sight of two facts. The first is that by good cul- 
tivation we retain moisture for the use of the growing plants. 
The second is that any crop that is harvested removes some- 
thing from the soil which must in some way be returned. If it 
is not returned, then it is but a question of a short time until 
the soil becomes "worn out" and unproductive. In America 
we have been too much inclined to mine our soils rather than 
till them. Starting with a natural rich soil, we have taken 
crop after crop from the same piece of land with no attempt 
to return some of the fertility we have each year removed. 

It is for this reason that we find in our older sections 
"abandoned farms." Most of them should never have been 



36 Orchard and Garden. 

abandoned. Many of them are even now beinp: reclaimed. An 
abandoned farm in Massachusetts was bought by a modern 
cultivator who was willing- to give the soil a fair chance. It 
took him about two years to get the old place back in such 
shape that it could be profitably handled. After that time he 
regularly harvested 500 bushels of potatoes to the acre — on 
land that had been abandoned because it was unproductive. 

There are very few places on the face of the earth where 
the soil is so poor that it can not be made to yield a crop of 
some sort and even the poorest land and that which has long 
been neglected responds to intelligent care with a buoyancy 
that is at once the surprise and the delight of the agriculturist. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Planting the Orchard. 

Soil preparation. — Many orchards are planted on poorly 
prepared land, but in order to secure the best results the 
preparation of the soil should be considered as of vast im- 
portance. As a rule, the best preparation consists of fall plow- 
ing when the trees are to be planted in the spring following. 
Then as soon as the ground can be worked it should be gone 
over once or twice with a disc harrow. It should next be 
smoothed with a drag or spike tooth harrow. Except in the 
South, the best time for planting nearly all fruits is in the 
spring. When planted in the fall, trees frequently perish 
unless the succeeding winter proves mild. However, spring 
planting should be done early — the earlier, the better. 

Selecting trees. — Trees should be selected just as early 
in the season as possible. In fact, it is better to buy stock 
in the fall, and have the nursery man deliver it early in the 
spring. In this way the planter has the privilege of selecting 
the best, while if he waited until later in the spring he would 
have to take what was left. If the trees arrive before the 
ground is ready for planting, they should be carefully un- 
packed and heeled in. Heeling in is just another name for 
deep planting. A trench should be dug on the side of a hill, 
with the lower end left open to afford the best drainage pos- 
sible. Place the trees in this trench, with their tops slanting 
to the southwest. Fill in the trench, covering the trees with 
earth so that only a part of the tops show above ground. 



38 



Orchard and Garden 



Trees can also be heeled in temporarily in the spring by plac- 
ing them flat on the ground and shoveling some earth over 
the roots. But this method is not sufliicient if trees are to 
remain so all winter. 

Age of trees to plant. — In selecting trees for the orchard 
always select one-year-old trees. They are the best from 
every standpoint, and will prove more satisfactory than trees 
of any other age. This statement applies to all varieties of 
fruit trees. Small fruit plants are always sold when one year 
old. Some of the advantages of buying one-year-old trees are 




A nursery storage house where trees are kept ovei' ^\'inter. 



that they will stand transplanting better, that the grower 
can prune the heads of his trees to suit his own tastes, and 
that the cost of freight on a shipment is much less than for 
older trees. It is often thought that an orchard can be made 



Planting the Orchard 



39 



to bear earlier by using two- or three-year-old trees, but such 
is not the case. A one-year-old tree will get its bearings so 
much more quickly that it soon outstrips its older neighbors. 
Stakiug an orchariL — The orchard was planned in a 
previous chapter and now comes the actual realization of 
putting those plans into practice. First of all, a base line 
must be established as a starting point. A base line is simply 
a line of stakes set the given distance apart, with all of them 
in a perfectly straight row. A surveying instrument is very 
convenient in establishing this base line. With its help a 

straight line can be 
quickly located. Then 
a right angled turn is 
made and a parallel 
line of stakes set. 
With these two lines 
of stakes placed it is 
an easy matter to set 
up tall sighting stakes 
along the rows where 
trees are to be placed. 
Individual stakes are 
not required for each 
tree. The holes are 
dug in line with the 
sighting stakes and the required distances apart. Then the 
planter follows and sets the trees in the holes ; and, as he does 
this he can easily sight back to the old sighting stakes and in 
this way keep each tree exactly in line with the rest. This 
system has been used in some of the largest commercial or- 
chards in the country. While it is not as accurate as is some- 
times deemed necessary, it is sufficiently good for any real 
need. After the trees have been set a short time, some of them 
are always sure to lean a trifle, so they can really not be ex- 
pected to remain in perfectly straight rows. 




Planting an orchard. One man unpacks and 

trims roots and tops. Anotlier is seen dipping 

til? roots in a thick paste of mud, wliile a third 

is Just starting out with a bundle of trees. 



40 



Orchard and Garden 



Another method of staking an orchard is with the help 
of a long wire. This wire should be long enough to reach 
entirely across the field to be planted. If trees are to be 
planted twenty feet apart, a small copper band should be 
soldered to the wire at twenty-foot intervals. In practice this 
wire is stretched across a field and a stake set for each tree 
at the points where the copper bands are soldered on. After 
the first row is set, the wire is moved over the desired dis- 
tance at each end and another row of stakes placed. 

Digging the holes; Dynamite. — In digging the holes care 
should be exercised to make them large enough to accommo- 
date all the roots without cramping. The topsoil should be 
piled at one side of the hole and the subsoil at another. The 

^ use of dynamite has been suggested 

in connection with the planting of 
trees and the mistaken idea is 
prevalent that with its use the cost 
of digging holes is eliminated. As 
a matter of fact, more time and 
labor are necessary to dig a proper 
hole for tree planting when dyna- 
mite is employed than otherwise. 
If dynamite is used, a hole is bored 
at the place where the tree is to be 
planted and a small charge of 
powder exploded about thirty 
inches under ground. The surface 
of the ground should not even be 
blown away by this explosion, but 
simply heaved a bit, with the top- 
soil loosely piled up and no opening 
visible. Then a hole must be made 
with a spade just as if no dynamite 
had been used. In addition to the labor of digging an ordinary 
hole, the planter must dig to the bottom of the blasted area to 



f 1 
\i1 




An example of inipropei' plant- 
ing. No air space should 
be left. (After Wallace.) 



Planting the Orchard 



41 



r "li 








fc^/l 


1^'- 


L. 


...; 


1 


vk 


- 


<^ 


1 


Hf 




^ «■ 











make sure that no air 
cavity has been left by 
the explosion. If the 
ground is even moist 
when dynamite is used, 
a hard walled pocket 
will be left at the point 
of discharge. A care- 
less planter might eas- 
ily set a tree over this 
air pocket and would 
wonder what caused 
the tree to die during 

Planting- with dynamite. Inserting the charge. ^r^ first drV Weather 

In soils having a stiff 
"hard-pan" below the 
surface a short dis- 
tance, the use of dyna- 
mite is advisable, but 
must never be used 
when the ground is 
wet. It is a good plan 
to prepare the ground 
for tree planting by 
using dynamite in the 
places where trees are 
to stand, providing the 
work can be done dur- 
ing the dry weather of 
the summer previous to the actual planting. The use of dyna- 
mite in the spring is almost always a mistake. 

Inspecting trees. — When the ground is ready to receive 
the trees, they should be unpacked or dug up, as the case may 
be, and one man should be given the task of examining each 
tree and pruning the roots preparatory to planting, which is 
just as important as pruning the tops afterward. Each tree 




The blast. 



42 



Orchard and Garden 




should be taken up separately, and examined root, stem, and 
branch for insects and mechanical injuries. If many trees are 
found defective, they should be saved out and the grower 
should refuse to pay for them. It is against the law for any 

nursery to sell defect- 
ive stock, and no 
buyer who permits an 
unscrupulous dealer to 
impose on him is doing 
his duty. 

All broken roots 
should be pruned to a 
smooth, clean cut, and 
in the case of the apple, 
all small fibrous roots 
should be pruned en- 
tirely away. These 
small roots are usually 
matted together and 
when the tree is plant- 
ed they frequently die 
and cause the tree to 
suffer or perhaps per- 
ish from the disease 
known as root rot. It 
has been found that, 
if these small fibrous 
roots are taken away, 
the possibilities of 
avoiding root rot are greatly increased. 

Planting. — After the trees are inspected, and tiie roots 
are pruned, they are dipped into a thick paste made of earth 
and water. This gives the roots a coating of mud and prevents 
their drying out before they are planted. The planter sets the 
tree in the hole prepared for it and arranges the roots to the 



ri'unins' tlie roots. 



Planting the Orchard 43 

best advantage. If the hole is not large enough for this pur- 
pose, it should be enlarged to suit. The topsoil is then thrown 
about the roots of the tree and tramped down as firmly as pos- 
sible with both feet. More soil is added and again tramped 
solid. But the last soil placed around the tree should not be 
tramped down, but should be scattered in loosely. After the 
tree is planted it is a good idea to try to pull it up with the 
hands, and if it gives too easily it should be planted again more 
firmly, in order to be a well planted tree. 

Planting ^mall fniit.. — The general principles just de- 
scribed apply to the planting of all trees and nearly all fruit 
plants. Strawberries especially require great care in planting. 




If i *^- 



JL' 



••iKirtVw^'- i-'ta*- ■■ ■■ iX .■>v 




Planting with dynamite. Boring the holes. 

The young plants as they are received from the nursery always 
have plenty of leaves and more roots than they possibly need. 
The plants are tied together in bunches and the roots of an 
entire bunch can be cut with one blow of a hatchet. All the 
older leaves should be removed also. As a rule, about one-third 
to one-half of the roots should be removed from strawberries. 
The plants are set out by pushing a spade into the ground at 
the place intended for the berry plant and making a wedge- 
shaped opening by working the spade back and forth. The 



44 Orchard and Garden 

roots of the plant are then spread out in fan shape and inserted 
into the wedge-shaped opening. Then the earth is drawn over 
the roots and tamped down firmly. Care must be exercised not 
to get strawberries set too deep or too shallow. The crown of 
the plant must come exactly at the soil line to be right. 



CHAPTER V. 
Pruning. 

Need for Pruning. — Under modern conditions of fruit 
growing-, pruning is just as necessary and inevitable as spray- 
ing. Trees that grow wild in the woods prune themselves. The 
strong branches crowd out the weak ones and slowly but surely 
the tree develops the form that nature intended it to assume. 
The fruit grower finds it imperative to hasten the pruning 
process instead of waiting for nature. Modern fruits are more 
subject to insect and fungous injury than are the wild fruits of 
the woods, and for that reason everything possible must be 
done to help withstand injurious assaults from insect pests. 
If a tree were left unpruned, it would soon become a thicket 
of branches and leaves, and as a result, light and air are shut 
out from the center of the tree. A dense growth of this sort 
is always favorable to the development of fungous diseases. 
Sunlight and air are great disease preventers, whether in rela- 
tion to the human system or plant life. A man closed up in a 
damp house may well be compared to an unhealthy tree in mat- 
ters pertaining to light and ventilation. We must realize then 
that pruning is needed to give the tree light and air. 

Another reason for tree pruning is the need of building 
the size and shape of the tree. In the first place spraying is 
now considered one of the essentials of successful orchard 
work ; and a tall, overgrown tree cannot he sprayed to advan- 
tage, so it is incumbent upon the grower to keep his trees 
headed low to facilitate this work. Apples from low growing 
trees are also much easier to harvest than those from tall, over- 
grown specimens. The modern tendency is to prune fruit trees 



46 



Orchard and Garden 



so that they will assume the form of a large bush rather than 
the tall form that was so common in the older orchards. 

Priming is also used to stimulate the tree or even check 
its growth. Winter pruning can stimulate a weak tree toward 
making a sturdier growth. A tree of strong growth that tends 
to produce wood at the expense of fruit can be made to form 
fruit buds by early summer pruning. 




A thiiit\" \'mm,i 



ucliai'd. 



Time to prime. — We are now ready for the question re- 
garding the best time to prune. An old adage says that the 
time to prune is when your knife is sharp. While this saying 
is not accepted at its face value, still it contains much wisdom. 
If all pruners were particular to see that they used only sharp, 
clean tools, that work would be accomplished with much 
greater neatness and dispatch. Probably the best time to 
prune any kind of tree is just at the end of winter and before 



Pruning 47 

the buds have started to open in the spring. By pruning at 
this time, when the trees are just ready to start a vigorous 
growth, the wounds made in pruning will heal over much more 
easily. 

Stubs. — Regardless of the season at which the work is 
done, there are a few rules that must be kept in mind con- 
cerning this practice. In removing a branch from a tree care 
must be exerted to cut just as close to the body of the tree as 
possible. Never cut branches so as to leave stubs. They will 
not grow and simply die back to the main branch where, as 
they decay, they carry infection into the heart of the tree. 
Many orchards have been ruined by carelessness in this detail. 

L(()ge bmriches; Painthu) ivounds. — When a large branch 
is to be cut off, it is best to make two cuts. The first cut should 
be made eighteen inches or two feet from the place at which 
the branch is to be removed. In this way the weighs of the 
branch is eliminated and the stub can be sawed off without 
danger of splitting the bark on the underside. After large 
branches have been taken off, the wounds should be painted 
with something to prevent them from drying out and also to 
prohibit rot. If the orchard displays any evidences of blight, 
bitter rot, or black rot, all the large cuts should be washed 
with a disinfectant solution and permitted to dry before they 
are painted. It is especially important that all pruners keep 
this point in mind. The best disinfectant to use for this pur- 
pose is a one to one thousand solution of corrosive sublimate. 
This is deadly poison and the bottle containing it should be so 
labeled. This solution will kill the spores of any diseases that 
are liable to be carried from tree to tree on the pruning tools. 
Where small shears are used to work in diseased trees they 
should be dipped into the disinfectant before a new tree is 
touched. A few hours may be given for the cuts to dry after 
they have been washed with the disinfectant, and they should 
then be painted to protect the surface from further sources 
of infection. Orchardists have used various substances for 
this purpose, and the list of paints or "daubs" will include 

(4) 



48 



Orchard and Garden 



everything from mud to grafting wax. Mud is about the poor- 
est material and grafting wax about the best for this purpose. 
If grafting wax is used it should be handled hot enough to be 




Two-year-old apple tree before and :ill« i- inimiiiy. 



applied with a brush. However, excessive heat is to be avoid- 
ed also. A wax can be made with linseed oil as one of the in- 
gredients which resembles a thick, sticky paint. Such wax is, 
of course, not suitable for grafting. White lead and linseed oil 



Pruning 49 

make a good tree paint, and there are several brands of pre- 
pared tree paint on the market. These legitimate paints must 
not be confused with the so-called "tree paint" sometimes sold 
by fakers who claim such wonderful results if trunks are 
painted with their mixture. Trunks of trees should never be 
painted with anything that even remotely resembles paint un- 
der any circumstances. 

The ivork of priming begins early in a young orchard. In 
fact it begins as soon as the trees are planted. 

Apple Priming. — In the first place we will consider the 
pruning of the apple tree. If one-year-old trees have been 
planted, they will consist of a single "whip" from four to six 
feet in height. This whip should be cut back to a stub thirty 
inches in height. During the growing season this stub will 
throw out several branches which will be utilized in forming 
the permanent framework of the tree. At the beginning of 
the second year these new branches must be examined and 
three or four of the most vigorous selected to become perma- 
nent. All others are cut off. Those that are permitted to re- 
main are then headed back much as the original tree was 
pruned the year preceding. It will be seen that the work of 
training each particular branch of this small tree is but a 
repetition of training the tree in the first place. If this first 
pruning is done intelligently and carefully it will reduce future 
work in this respect to a minimum. 

If the planting consists of two-year-old trees, the first 
pruning will be, in general, the same as that given to a younger 
tree after it had grown for a year. A few sturdy branches 
are chosen to represent the permanent limbs of the tree and 
these are left after being cut back to a strong bud. It might 
appear that by planting two-year-old trees, the planter might 
gain a year's time. This supposition is not true, however, for 
the older tree never makes the same vigorous growth that is 
accomplished by a one-year-old tree. Of course there are occa- 
sional exceptions ; but exceptions do not always make rules — 
they usually prove them. After the young tree is well started, 



50 



Orchard and Garden 



the pruning should average about the same each year. It will 
be necessary to keep the centers of the trees from becoming too 
thick, and no crossed branches should be permitted to remain. 
Different varieties often require separate attention, so sugges- 
tions for their treatment v^ill be given at this point. 

Pruning different varieties. — Since the Grimes Golden 
does not require so much light and air as most other varieties, 
it v^^ill need consequently less attention. A bright red apple 




Before and after pruning- a four-year-old apple tree. The tree was started 

as a "leader" tree, but at this pr-uning it was decided to change it 

to an open center tree. The pictures show how this was done. 

will never acquire its full color unless it has plenty of sunshine. 
As a result, red varieties should be so pruned that every apple 
on the tree will have its proper share of light. Some of the 
Russian varieties, like the Yellow Transparent, have a ten- 
dency to grow upright, much as a pear tree grows. Severe 
pruning sometimes fails to correct this inclination and accord- 
ingly this variety constitutes one of the severest trials of the 
fruit grower. The Winesap is by nature an open-headed tree. 
With but a little training it will cause less work in an orchard 
than any other sort; but if neglected, it has a habit of tying 



Pruning 51 

knots in its branches. A long- neglected Win.esap is indeed one 
of the most trying trees imaginable to prune. 

Pruning old trce^. — The work of pi'uning any old neglect- 
ed tree often presents very difficult problems. If the branches 
are thinned out enough, too much direct sunlight will result in 
the injury known as "sun scald." Sun scald is simply tiie sun- 
burning and killing of bark that has grown too long in the 
shade. Old trees should have all dead wood and all water 
sprouts taken out. Water sprouts are the vigorous upright 
sprouts found on the trunk and large limbs of neglected trees. 
Next all crossed branches that seem to interfere with each 
other should be removed. Time and care should be taken to 
study the tree as it is shaped. It should always be borne in 
mind that the object of pruning is to enable that particular 
tree to bear the greatest number of perfect apples possible. 
Apples can not be perfect if grown in a tangle of brush. They 
must have air and sunlight. Good pruning of old trees is 
largely a matter of wise judgment and common sense. I have 
seen men prune satisfactorily who could scarcely tell an apple 
tree from a peach tree. Those men were not backward in using 
their brains on so common a proposition as the best way to 
saw out a superfluous limb. 

Pruning peaches is a much different proposition from the 
pruning of apples. The peach bears its fruit on wood of the 
previous season's growth. Consequently, in order to have an 
abundance of fruit-bearing wood each year, the peach tree 
must constantly be cut back so as to make it throw out a vigor- 
ous growth of new wood. In this instance the production of 
wood and fruit are synonymous. When the young tree is 
planted it is cut back to a stub from eight to eighteen inches 
in height. Authorities disagree as to the best height, but the 
author finds that height most advantageous. From this stub 
the new growth starts vigorously and the next season the tree 
must be thinned out so that only three or four sturdy shoots 
are left. These shoots are then cut back about the same way 
that the shoots on fie young apple were cut back or preferably 



52 



Orchard and Garden 



farther. During the second year the peach will grow to be 
quite a tree, and again the extra branches are removed and the 
remaining ones are cut back from one-half to two-thirds their 
original length. If this practice be neglected, the tree will 
soon be out of reach of the grower and all new wood will be 
produced so high above ground that a ladder will be needed 
to harvest the fruit. There should be but little use for lad- 
ders in the modern peach orchard if the trees are proprly 
pruned from the start. If they are not pruned right at first, 
there is no tree that will grow to more ungainly proportions. 
After the third year the peach tree should not be pruned so 
heavily. At about that time it may be expected to bear a few 
peaches, and if too much of the previous season's wood is re- 
moved, the fruit buds are also decreased in number. 

The vigor of old peach trees may sometimes be renewed 
by heading them back to stubs. This process is called "de- 
horning," or, better, "deheading." All the upper part of the 

tree is taken off except the stubs 
of the main branches. Under fav- 
orable conditions these stubs will 
throw out strong shoots that will 
replace much of the fruit-bearing 
wood that was removed. This pro- 
cess may also be used on peach 
trees after they have been severely 
injured by a very cold winter. As 
a general rule it is a good policy to 
prune any peach tree severely that 
has had its fruit buds killed during 
the winter. At such time there is 
no sacrifice of fruit bearing wood 
because under those conditions no 
fruit buds exist. The heavy prun- 
ing will result in a vigorous growth 
that will reproduce most of the 
fruit bearing area that was re- 




Severe heading back of a peach 
tree after a cold winter. 



Pruning. 



53 




f 




54 Orchard and Garden 

moved and at the same time serve to bring the bearing portion 
of the tree nearer the ground and within easier reach. 

Plums and cheryies differ from the peach in that they do 
do not require such severe pruning. Some growers never 
prune their cherry trees except to remove weak branches or to 
open the head of the tree slightly. The sweet cherries are 
quite a problem to the orchardist on account of the fact that 
they tend to grow in an upright form with a main stem. It is 
difficult, if not impossible, to change this habit of the sweet 
cherry tree, and, as a result, the growers of this class of fruit 
simply make the best of circumstances. Sour cherries natur- 
ally form a low, open top and require practically no pruning. 
Plums are sometimes seriously injured by too much pruning. 
A few vai-ieties of Japanese plums seem to be moderately ben- 
efited by pruning, but in no case should it be as severe as that 
outlined for peaches. 

Pears should not be pruned at all, if the greatest protec- 
tion from blight is desired. Blight is a disease that seems to 
attack the more tender growth, and, as pruning tends to stim- 
ulate growth, such work should be avoided. Sometimes it is 
necessary to remove a few branches to improve the shape of 
the tree ; but, aside from this, the general pruning of the pear 
should be avoided. 

The pnining of grapes is an art in itself. There are many 
systems in vogue and each grower thinks his method best. As 
a matter of fact, many systems have given admirable results 
and it is a choice of which system is better suited to a given 
district. In this text space can be devoted to only one of the 
many different methods of grape training and this particular 
form is known as the "Knifin" system. There are even varia- 
tions of the Knifin system, but the general idea is the same. 

When grapes are planted, from one-third to one-half the 
roots are cut away. This is perhaps the first pruning to which 
the vines are subjected. After planting, the vines are cut back 
to one or two buds. The vines are permitted to grow the first 
year without supports. At the end of the first season they are 



Pruning 



55 



ag'ain cut back to the ground and during the second summer 
thoy should be induced to form only one or two upi'ight canes. 
When these canes have reached a height of four to six feet they 
should be cut back and made to throw out side branches. 
Wires are then stretched on posts at a height of from four to 
six feet from the ground. If two canes have been allowed to 
develop, one of them should be tied with its lateral branches 
to the top wire and the other to the lower wire. The vines 
should be ready to fruit during the third year. In the case of 




Illiistiating- tho Knifln system of grape training'. The same vine pruned 

and unpruned. 



grapes the fruit is borne on shoots which grow from buds 
located on the previous year's growth. This is always an im- 
portant point to remember in this connection. The lateral 
branches that are tied to the wires will throw out numerous 
shoots on which the grapes will be produced. The shoot near- 
est the main cane should not be permitted to bear any grapes, 
for it is reserved for next season's crop. At the end of the 
season all the fruiting portion of the vine is cut off with the ex- 
ception of the shoot that was not permitted to bear. This shoot 
is bent upward and tied to the wire. It is then headed back for 
a distance of from one-third to one-half its length. This cane 



56 Orchard and Garden 

then becomes the renewal branch for the crop of the succeed- 
ing- year. The accompanying photograph taken in a large com- 
mercial vineyard illustrates this entire process perfectly. 

The pruning of small fruits will be taken up in the chapter 
devoted to them. 



CHAPTER VI. 
Injurious Insects. 

Al! injurious insects of the farm may be roughly divided 
into two classes known as the chewing insects and the sucking 
insects. Chewing insects secure their food by eating the tis- 
sue on which they feed, while the sucking insects insert their 
mouth parts into the plant tissues and withdraw the juices. 

Sucking and cl)cw'ui(j insecl>i. — It will thus easily be seen 
that the two classes of insects must be controlled in entirely 
different ways. It would be useless to try to kill plant lice, 
which are sucking insects, by applying to the trees or plants 
any poison such as Paris Green. Paris Green is an "internal" 
poison and must be taken into the system with the food, if it 
is to kill the pest in question. Since it is impossible to inject 
the Paris Green into the juices of the plant, it is self-evident 
that the plant louse would not have access to any of the poison, 
and might continue to feast on a sprayed plant with entire im- 
punity. Consequently, Paris Green, arsenate of lead, and sim- 
ilar insecticides are used only for those insects that actually 
eat the tissues of the plant. For the sucking insects sprays 
must be used that will kill as they come in contact with the 
insects. This latter class of sprays is called "contact insecti- 
cides." 

Codlinrj moth. — Probably the best known orchard insect 

in America is the codling moth. It is found wherever apples 

are grown. No section is free from its ravages and each year 

it does thousands of dollars worth of damage 

in every state in the Union. This insect may 

be taken as a type for its entire class and a 

brief outline of its life history will serve as 

an example of the many chewing insects. The 

i.aiva of codiins- adult (mature) codling moth is a small, 

'"ot'^- brownish winged insect about three-quarters 




58 



Orchard and Garden 




Adult codling' moth (enlarged 
4 times). 

to the species of insect. 



of an inch in length. The female lays her eggs on or near the 
young apples and as soon as the eggs hatch, the tiny worm 

(larva) eats its way into the fruit 
and remains there until it attains 
its full growth. The full grown 
larva then emerges from the apple 
and spins for itself a small cocoon 
under a scale of bark or in some 
other well protected place. Within 
the cocoon the larva changes 
into still another form called the 
"pupa." In the case of butterflies 
the pupa 's called a chrysalis. The 
insect remains in the pupa form, 
which is purely a resting stage, for 
various periods of time according 
In every case, however, the pupa 
eventually transforms into the adult or mature insect. 

For the most part, chewing insects do their greatest dam- 
age while they are in the larval state, because it is during that 
period that they make their greatest growth. Very often the 
adults do not feed at all and in some cases only to a very small 
extent. These changes which the insect experiences trom the 
time it hatches from the egg until it assumes adult form are 
called the life cycle. 

CocUing Moth control. — The codling moth lives over the 
winter in the pupa stage and early in spring the adult appears 
in orchards. The eggs are laid as above indicated at about the 
time that the trees come into bloom. It is the problem of the 
orchardist to poison the young worms before they can get 
inside of the fruit. This is accomplished by spraying the trees 
soon after they bloom, with a solution of arsenate of lead. Most 
of the young moths enter the fruit at the blossom end and one 
of the objects of spraying is to fill the blossom or calyx end of 
the fruit with poison. If the spraying is properly done, prac- 
tically all the worms will be killed before having an oppor- 



Injurious Insects. 



59 




The Sfcund brood of codling ui..Lii usuall.\ niters the apple at 
the side or wheie the apples touch. 



60 



Orchard and Garden 



tunity to damage any fruit. Actual experiments have shown 
that it is possible to prevent over 98 per cent, of the injury 
caused by this insect. If neglected it is one of the most de- 
structive insects known ; but with a little careful work it is 
easily controlled. 

Second brood. — The codling moth has a second brood ar- 







Flakes of bark from an aple tree showing- cocoons of the codling' moth on 
the underside. A and B — Cocoons unopened. C — Cocoon containing a pupa. 
D — Cocoon containing an as yet untransformed larva. E — Shows a small 
hole through the flake of bark. Thi-ough this hole one of the smaller 
winter- woodpeckers has extracted the insect. 



riving the last of June or early in July. This second brood con- 
sists of individuals that were not killed by the poison or that 
developed in some nearby neglected orchard. If all orchards 
were thoroughly sprayed, the second brood would be insig- 
nificant in numbers. Some orchardists are not as careful as 
they should be, however, and as a result even the careful grow- 



Injurious Insects 



61 



ers must spray for the second brood. It is the adults of this 
second brood that winter over and deposit their eggs the fol- 
lowing spring. 

The lender apple worm is often mistaken for the codling 
moth. It bears a striking resemblance to the latter, but ap- 
pears much later in the season and can always be recognized 
by its peculiar method of injuring the fruit. The codling moth 
makes its way directly to the core of the fruit. The lesser 
apple worm makes a tortuous mine or tunnel under the skin of 
Che fruit. The lesser apple worm is a very destructive pest in 
stored fruit for the reason that it will migrate from one apple 
to another. In this way one wormy apple may be the cause of 
injury to several apples in the same barrel. Since the eggs are 
laid late in the season, it is often hard to see any signs of the 
insect when the fruit is gathered. The only remedy is to spray 
with arsenate of lead later in the summer than is usually done 
for the codling moth, and by all means to do a thorough job of 
spraying. 

The plum curculio is perhaps the most destructive of all 
insects affecting fruit. While its name might lead one to be- 
lieve that it damaged only plums, it is also found destructive to 

peaches, cherries and apples and oc- 
casionally other fruits as well. The 
adult insect is a small beetle that 
appears in the very early spring 
and lays its eggs in crescent shaped 
slits which it makes in the fruit. 
The eggs are deposited within the 
flesh of the fruit, so that poisoning 
with any of the ordinary sprays is 
impossible. In a few cases growers have devised a means of 
collecting the insects from the trees by placing canvas under 
the trees and then jarring them. The beetles fall into the can- 
vas, where they are readily gathered up and destroyed. This 
method is not entirely effective and so expensive as to be pro- 




Plum curculio (natural 
and enlarged). 



62 



Orchard and Garden 



hibitoiy to the average grower. The most progressive or- 
chardists are now controlling the curculio by spraying the 
trees very early in the spring, just as soon as the first leaves 
open. A strong solution of arsenate of lead is used. This 
spray, which is intended to kill the adult insects before they 
have an opportunity to lay their eggs, is found very effective. 
The peach borer is the name given to an insect that bores 
into the base of the trunk of the peach tree. The borer is the 




Work of the curculio on iti'ach. 



larva of a small moth. The adults emerge about the first of 
June and from that time until September mature individuals 
may be found. They probably lay eggs all summer long. In 
the fall the larvae are to be found in all stages from very 
small "worms" to nearly full grown borers an inch or more 
in length. All sorts of plans have been devised to control this 
pest ; but. from the standpoint of the practical fruit grower, 
there is only one method of control that is practical. This 
consists of simply digging the borers out with a sharp knife. 
They sometimes extend into the roots of the tree and the soil 
must be removed from about the trunk to a depth of five or 
six inches. This method may injure the tree more or less, but 




Injurious Insects 63 

not nearly as much as the borers would if they were unmo- 
lested. 

The flat headed apple hover is the larva of a beetle about 
an inch in length. These beetles are widely distributed and 
probably injure many kinds of trees. It is certain that they 
sometimes appear in isolated orchards that 
have been newly planted in cleared spots 
in the woods. As a rule, this borer will 
not attack a tree unless it has been pre- 
viously weakened from some other cause. 
They are seemingly on the lookout for 
trees that have been reduced in vitality for 
The flat-headed apple ^^j^^^ reasons, and, when they once attack 

a young tree, they usually make short 
work of it. There is no known remedy except to keep the trees 
in a state of good health, and if they should be attacked the 
borers should be cut out. Of course if the tree is badly dam- 
aged it must be replaced. 

The imported currant ivorm is the most common of the 
insects injurious to currants and gooseberries. The larva is 
about three-quarters of an inch in length and a pale green in 
color. Like all leaf eaters, it may be controlled by the use of 
arsenate of lead. If the fruit has started to ripen, powdered 
hellebore should be substituted for the arsenate. It is not quite 
so effective, but there is less danger of poisoning the persons 
who use the fruit. 

The grape berry moth is the most serious insect enemy of 
the fruit of the grape. It causes the common injury known as 
wormy grapes, that are to be found in most places where the 
vine is grown. The insect passes the winter in its cocoon at- 
tached to dead leaves on the ground. Cleaning up the vineyard 
will do much to keep this pest in check, but thorough and fre- 
quent spraying must be practiced in badly infested vineyards. 
The arsenate of lead may be combined with Bordeaux mixture 
and the spray made effective for both the grape berry moth 



64 



Orchakd and Garden. 




(Jrapes that )i,-i\ L Lh-'Ii sucked nrv usually free from insect injtiiiea and dirt. 



Injurious Insects 65 

and for several fungous diseases. In small vineyards and in 
home grape arbors the fruit can be easily protected by tying 
a paper bag over the bunches. This should be done soon after 
the grapes bloom and before there is any sign of injury on 
them. 

Canker ivormss are sometimes very injurious to apple or- 
chards. The larva is a brownish measuring worm and the in- 
jury consists of eaten foliage. Entire orchards may be defol- 
iated by this pest, but the ordinary spray as for the codling 
moth will usually prevent any serious damage. 

The so-called bud moth is one of the insects that has re- 
cently attracted the attention of fruit growers and each year 
it becomes more common. The larva of this moth is a brov^i 
caterpillar with a black head and measures about half an inch 
in length. The caterpillars winter over in small nests and in 
early spring they emerge and eat into the opening buds. An 
application of arsenate of lead just as the buds are opening 
will usually control the bud moth satisfactorily. 

The ijeUoiv necked caterpillar is easily recognized by the 
fact that there is a band of bright yellow just back of the head. 
It is a large worm, measuring nearly two inches in length, and 
feeds in colonies. In young orchards these colonies can be 
easily seen and the worms killed. In older orchards that are 
regularly sprayed most of the pests will be controlled inci- 
dentally. 

The tent caterpillar builds a nest in the forks of small 
branches on many kinds of fruit trees. The worms are about 
one and a half inches in length, blue black in color, thinly cov- 
ered with yellowish hairs and marked by a white stripe down 
the back. Their nests may be burnt out or arsenate of lead 
may be sprayed on the surrounding foliage where they feed. 
The fall web worm is similar in all respects to the tent cater- 
pillar except that it occurs in the fall, while the tent caterpillar 
is found only in the spring. 

The pear slug is a slimy, soft bodied larva which attacks 



66 



Orchard and Garden 



the foliage of pear, 
plum and cherry. It 
usually eats only the 
upper surface of the 
leaf, leaving the skel- 
eton of the veins. Ar- 
senate of lead will con- 
trol it; but, owing to 
the fact that the body 
of the insect is sticky, 
it may be more easily 
destroyed by dusting 
the trees lightly with 
powdered lime. Place 
the lime in a burlap 
bag. tie the bag to a 
pole and shake over 
the trees. The lime 
sticks to the body of 
the larva and quickly 
kills it. I have known 
fruit growers to get 
the same results from 
a handful of road dust 
sprinkled over the in- 
sects, A little watchfulness early in the season will save much 
damage later. 

The fruit tree hark beetle is a small insect that bores holes 
in the trunk and branches of most any fruit tree. It has been 
claimed that this insect will never attack a healthy tree, but 
prefers to work on some other tree that has been previously 
damaged by another agency. This is probably true, although 
trees are sometimes found infested with this form which ap- 
pear to be perfectly healthy in every other way. At any rate, 
when the beetles once get started there is no cure for the 
trouble. The tree should be cut and burned at once. 




The pear slug and its work. 



Injurious Insects 67 

The blue flea beetle is one of the commonest pests in the 
vineyard. It winters over in leaves and rubbish on the ground 
and comes out in very early spring to feed on the new shoots 
of the vine. In a few days it may entirely destroy all pros- 
pects for the year's crops. Clean cultivation in the vineyard 
and early spraying with arsenate of lead are the only means 
of keeping this beetle in check. 

White grub ivorms, the larvae of the common brown "June 
beetles," are frequently injurious in strawberry fields. They 
are more common in land that was previously in sod, and for 
that reason it is unwise to plant strawberries in sod land. If 
the sod can be pastured to hogs for a few months in the fall, 
they will usually clean out most of the grubs. The use of 
tobacco stems will also make the soil distasteful to them, and it 
has been suggested that strawberries be mulched with these 
stems instead of straw. The cost will be somewhat more, but 
if injury can be prevented, the extra expense may be justified. 

Sucking insects. — The second great group of insects that 
are to be considered are those which obtain their food by suck- 
ing the juices from the plant. As has been mentioned before, 
these insects can not be killed except by the use of some spray 
material which will kill when it comes in contact with their 
bodies. These are called contact insecticides. The sucking 
insects include many of the worst pests with which the orchard- 
ist has to deal. All the scale insects and the plant lice are true 
sucking insects. 

The scale insects are so named, because when they attach 
themselves to a tree or plant, they secrete a plate or scale which 
completely covers their bodies and aflfords them much protec- 
tion. It is this scale which makes the insects difficult to control, 
for any insecticide must first penetrate through or under the 
protective covering before it can come in contact with the 
body of the insect itself. 

The Sam Jose scale (pronounced San Hosay) is easily the 
worst and most widely distributed of our scale insects. It was 
imported on nursery stock from China many years ago and has 



68 



Orchard and Garden 



since been distributed generally over the country by careless 
nurserymen. The insect itself is a small sulphur-yellow crea- 
ture, but is covered from sight by the circular scale plate. The 
young scales are not hatched from eggs, but are born alive and 
immediately begin to crawl about in search of a place to which 
to attach themselves. This continues for about twenty-four 
hours, when the insect attaches itself to a portion of the bark 
and inserts its beak into th.e living tissue. Very soon after- 
ward the secretion of the scale covering begins and this scale 
covering increases in size as the young insect grows. Under 
the magnifying glass the individual scales appear to be per- 
fectly round and with concentric rings extending from the out- 
side to the center. The center is slightly raised or pointed. 
The first young are produced with the first warm weather in 
spring, and they continue to multiply all summer. A few 
scales on a tree in the spring may be the means of completely 
covering it before fall. The accompanying picture shows a 
portion of bark from an apple tree that is crusted over with the 
San Jose scale. In the picture they are 
magnified about ten times or about as 
they would be enlarged with a strong 
hand magnifying glass. At one time it 
was feared that this scale would de- 
stroy all the orchards in this country. 
After a vast number of them were for- 
feited, experimenters found that the 
pest could be kept in check by the use 
of a spray made from lime and sul- 
phur. This material is very caustic and 
will injure the foliage, if applied during 
the summer; so that work toward exter- 
minating the San Jose and other scale 
insects must be confined to the winter 
season. 

GraTpe Scale. — Some times grape 
The grape scale. vines, especially in cities, are infested 




Injurious Insects 



69 




San Jose Scale (enlarged). 



70 Orchard and Garden 

with a scale insect that closely resembles the San Jose 
scale. This is the grape scale, and it is to be found only 
on these vines. On the other hand, San Jose scale seldom 
attacks the grape. This insect on the vines is particularly 
difficult to control because of the fact that it works its way 
under the thin, scaley bark and is protected from any spray 
solution that may be applied. However, the lime sulphur 
solution will kill it, but it must be applied thoroughly and with 
a good deal of pressure so as to penetrate all of the irregulari- 
ties of the vine. 

Spraying to control scale insects. — In spraying for the con- 
trol of any scale insect the fact that these insects can be killed 
only by the contact of the spray dope with their bodies must be 
kept constantly in mind. Every portion of the tree must be 
completely covered with the mixture. Remember that these 
scale insects are firmly attached to the bark, and, even if they 
were not, they would probably not be so obliging as to crawl 
about and wallow in the insecticide. It is the business of the 
man doing the spraying to be sure that every portion of the 
tree is absolutely covered. 

The Scurfy scale is a whitish scale much larger than the 
San Jose. It is to be found in nearly all apple orchards, but 
seldom does much damage. The scale insect lays eggs in the 
fall of the year and these eggs are protected by the same scale 
plate which formerly covered the old female scale. The eggs 
are somewhat more difficult to kill than are the insects under 
the scale plates of the San Jose. Whenever this scurfy scale 
does become a serious pest, it is often more difficult to kill than 
is its Chinese relative. 

The oyster shell scale is a common form which is some- 
times serious in nurseries and orchards. It is also to be found 
in the woods, as it is a native scale. I have found it as far 
north as Canada, growing on some of the shrubby dogwoods. 
It is fully illustrated in the accompanying cuts. Like the 
scurfy scale, this insect lives over winter in the Qgg state and 
is quite difficult to control. One of the most effective means 



Injurious Insects 



71 




Oyster Sliell Scale (enlaiged). 



72 



Orchard and Garden 




Typical plant lice. 



Tlie large, rounded ones were brmvii in color and 
were inhabited by parasites. 



Injurious Insects 



73 




Scurfy scale. 

to the opening buds where they begin to feed 



of controlling it is to spray the 
trees with whale oil soap or coal oil 
emulsion just as the young scales 
are emerging in the spring. At that 
time they are very easily killed. 

Plant lice. — There are many 
forms of plant lice, all of which are 
highly injurious to the plants on 
which they feed. They are small, 
soft-bodied insects which obtain 
their food by sucking the juices 
from the more tender parts of the 
plant. The plant lices are called 
"aphids" (singular, aphis). 

Green apple aphis. — One of the 
commonest and most injurious of 
the plant lice is the green apple 
aphis. It is green in color and 
feeds on the under sides of apple 
leaves and on the stems and leaf 
stalks. It is usually found on 
the tender, growing tips of the 
branches and after it has been at 
work on a branch for a short time, 
it causes the leaves to curl under 
from the edges. In this way the 
insect is greatly protected against 
any spray material that might be 
used. It winters over in the egg 
form. The eggs may be found dur- 
ing the winter on the younger 
branches. They appear as very 
small, glossy black objects, often 
gathered together in some num- 
bers. These eggs hatch early in 
spring and the young aphids crawl 
The orchardist 



74 



Orchard and Garden 



should always be on the lookout for these eggs while he is prun- 
ing the trees in the winter. By being watchful, he can tell which 
trees are infested. If no eggs are found, no control measures 
are of course necessary, but if eggs are present, tn^a trees 
should be sprayed with either a strong lime sulphur solution, 
such as is used for the San Jose scale, or with a tobacco solu- 
tion soon after the buds open. If this work is neglected until 
after the lice have had a chance to curl the leaves any control 
measure will naturally be less effective than if the pest were 
given prompt attention. 

The rosy apple aphis differs from the green form in habits 
as well as in color. It is supposed to spend part of its life on 

some other plant; but 
up to the present time 
entomologists have not 
discovered what this 
plant is. At any rate 
the insect does not ap- 
pear on the apple until 
some time in the early 
spring and leaves the 
tree after a few weeks. 
As a rule it is not so 
injurious as the green 
louse, because it does 
not remain on the tree 
during the entire sea- 
son. Both this and 
the former insect feed 
on clusters of small 
fruit and cause them 
to become permanent- 
ly dwarfed. Apples in- 
jured in this way will 
never develop into 
marketable fruit and 




Early infestation by plant lice produce these 
clusters of dwarf apples. 



should always be removed and destroyed. 



Injurious Insects 



75 



The black peach aphis feeds on the roots of peach trees 
and at certain seasons it ascends to the top of the tree and 
feeds on the branches. It is during the period spent on the 
branches that it breeds and spreads to other trees. It is easily 

controlled by spraying 
with a tobacco solu- 
tion and the root form 
may be eradicated by 
the use of ground 
tobacco stems worked 
well into the soil. If 
this is done in dry 
weather, the first rain 
will wash the extract- 
ed poisons into the 
ground where they 
will kill the insects. 

The woolly aphis is 
another form that lives 
on both the tops and 
the roots of trees. It 
is most commonly as- 
sociated with the ap- 
ple. On the roots this 
louse will form small 
knots or galls and 
around these will usu- 
ally be found the white 
woolly covering of the 
lice. The insect itself 
is of a dark color, but 
is so completely cov- 
ered with the white "wool" that it has the appearance of being 
a white insect. This pest is often sent out on young trees 
from the nursery. The planter should exercise great care in 
examining all trees before planting to be sure that none of the 




Plant lice on "Golden Glow. 



76 Orchard and Garden 

unwelcome aphids are present. If, however, they once become 
established in an orchard very little can be done to exter- 
minate them. They can not be readily killed in the ground, 
and the best thing the grower can do is to keep the trees other- 
wise healthy and to try to force them into a vigorous growth 
in spite of the woolly aphis. The insects as they appear above 
ground, on the branches, can be killed by the use of tobacco 
solutions. 

The phylloxera is one of the very small aphids that attack 
the grape. It is a native American insect and does not do any 
great damage to our native varieties of grapes. European 
varieties are badly injured by it. The first vineyards of Euro- 
pean grapes that were planted in this country were all killed 
by this pest. Then it was sent across the ocean to be- 
come established in France, where it threatened to wipe out 
the grape industry in that country. At last growers adopted 
the expedient of grafting the European varieties to Anierican 
stocks, and in this way the pest was outwitted. Since all 
grapes grown in the Eastern states are of practically pure 
American strain, the damage done by the phylloxera does not 
count for much. Some varieties that have been produced by 
crossing American and European sorts are badly injured. 
The most serious work of the phylloxera is on the rooi-S, but 
infested plants may usually be detected by the presence of 
small and inconspicuous galls on the leaves. The leaf form 
does not do much harm and is even sometimes found on Amer- 
ican sorts. The insect itself is so small as to require a strong 
glass for its examination. 

The grape leaf hopper is an insect that differs from both 
the scale insects and the plant lice. It secures its food in the 
same manner, however, and has been a most difficult form to 
control. It is an unusually pretty insect that by feeding on 
the leaves of the grape causes them to turn brown. They are 
extremely nervous and when a vine so infested is shaken, the 
hoppers will leap off in large numbers. These insects are very 
hardy and it requires a vigorous contact insecticide to exter- 



Injurious Insects 77 

minate them. This has been the main difficulty, in fact, con- 
nected with the control of this species. Any insecticide that 
would kill the pest would also kill the vines. One of the most 
approved and by far the most practical method is to spray the 
grapevines with a solution of Bordeaux mixture. This spray 
should be directed in such a way as to dislodge the hoppers 
from the vines, knocking them to the ground. Another spray 
machine should follow close behind the first and spray the 
ground with a coal oil emulsion or other strong insecticide, 
killing them before they can get back to the vines. 

There are many other insects to be encountered in orchard 
work, but lack of space will not permit a description of them 
all. There are none, however, that will not fall naturally into 
one of the groups here mentioned ; and, if the student masters 
the different forms and learns to recognize them as well as to 
prevent them from doing injury, he should have no difficulty 
in providing adequate treatment for any other insect that may 
come to his attention. 

Not all insects are injurious. Some are beneficial in 
that they get their living by eating other insects. Those 
forms which prey upon others are called parasites and they 
do a most useful work in the world. If it was not for the 
parasites among the insects it would not be possible for 
human beings to exist, for the injurious forms would quickly 
overrun everything and destroy every vestige of vegetation. 
Consequently it is wise for us to know and to protect those 
forms that we know to be beneficial. , 

Lady Birds. — Nearly all lady bird beetles are parasites 
on other insects. These are usually small, bright-colored 
beetles, more or less round in shape and having a rather 
characteristic tortoise eff"ect. One of the best known of these 
is the "twice stabbed lady bug," a beautiful little insect, coal 
black in color and having on each of its wing covers a bright 
red spot. This form feeds on the scale insects and it has 
been known to keep the San Jose scale in check. Other lady 
birds feed on plant lice and are largely instrumental in pre- 
venting very serious injury from these destructive forms. 



78 



Orchard and Garden 



The golden-eyed lace-winged fly is another curious and 
interesting parasite of the plant lice. The adult of this insect 
is a gauzy winged flying creature with bright golden eyes. 
The eggs are among the most curious structures to be found 
in the insect world. They are white in color and are attached 





Eggs of the lace winged fly. 



Blister beetles attacking- plum 

bloom. Arrows indicate position of 

beetles. This twig was stripped in 

thirty mjnutes. 



to leaves, twigs or grass by means of a slender stalk several 
times longer than is the Qgg itself. The larva of this insect 
is often called the "aphis lion" because it is so savage in its 
attack upon the plant lice. 

Blister Beetles. — Some of the blister beetles are parasitic 
and do much to keep in check the various grasshoppers. How- 
ever, most of these same blister beetles are also leaf eaters 



Injurious Insects 79 

at some stage in their life history and it is sometimes dim- 
cult to decide whether they do more harm or good. One 
form in particular feeds upon the opening liowers of fruit 
trees and it has been known to appear in such numbers as 
to strip every bloom from an orchard. They are particu- 
larly injurious to plums. The orchardist must decide for 
himself whether or not such a form as this is doing enough 
damage to warrant control measure. If the blister beetles 
are doing serious damage, then the trees should be promptly 
sprayed with a mixture of arsenate of lead at the rate of 
four pounds to fifty gallons of water. 

Other parasites. — There are innumerable small liies that 
prey upon insects, most of them so small that they will often 
be overlooked. One of these lays its eggs in the skin of the 
common green tomato worm. The larva lives inside the 
body of the worm and eventually emerges and spins a white 
cocoon on the outside of the worm. Often tomato worms 
may be found that are simply covered with these cocoons 
and some people have had the fanciful notion that they were 
the "eggs" of the worm and attempted to destroy them. 
Nothing could be more foolish, as these white cocoons will 
each produce a single small fly, w^hich, in its turn, will attack 
hundreds of other worms. 

Most of these flies are so small and inconspicuous, how- 
ever, that they will readily be overlooked, so they can take 
care of themselves. Very few parasites are destroyed through 
the ordinary processes of spraying. 

One of the most interesting cases of insect control by para- 
sites that I ever saw was in a large nursery where cherry trees 
were being grown in great numbers. The one-year-old trees 
were loaded with the black cherry aphis. These were confined 
to the tips of the branches. There were quite a lot of lady bird 
beetles feeding on the aphids, but not enough to get all of them. 
The nurseryman started a gang of men out, each with a bucket 
of oil emulsion. Each tree had to be treated and before dip- 
ping the infested tops into the insecticide the workman would 

shake the trees slightly to dislodge the beetles. The tips of 

(fi) 



80 Orchard and Garden 

the branches were then submerged in the emulsion and the hce 
killed. This work was not quite finished by Saturday night 
and the nurseryman had scruples against asking his men to 
continue the work on the Sabbath. Accordingly the block of 
infested trees was allowed to stand untouched until Monday 
morning. 

When the workmen started out the first of the week they 
were surprised to find that there was not a single live aphis 
left on the trees, where Saturday night they had been abundant. 
Since much of this infested block had been gone over with the 
insecticide and at the same time the lady birds had been saved 
by being shaken to the ground, it followed that the propor- 
tion of parasitic insects had materially increased. All day 
Sunday these little beetles, not knowing it was Sunday doubt- 
less, had concentrated on the untreated corner of the block 
and had made a grand finish of the lice that were sapping the 
vitality of the trees. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Plant Diseases. 

Cause of disease. — The San Jose scale is often mentioned 
by the uninformed as a disease. It is not a disease any more 
than the fleas on a dog are a disease. In either case the condi- 
tion is called an infestation. A plant disease is a sickness or 
disorder of the plant caused by the action of some bacteria 
or fungus which is growing on or in the plant. In this regard 
that condition in human beings and lower animals which is 
instantly recognized as a diseased condition has its resem- 
blance in plants. In addition, plants also have diseases of 
which the cause is as yet unknown. One general term covers 
all of these as well as our ignorance of them. They are called 
"physiological diseases." The peach yellows, which ras puz- 
zled scientists for years, is in this class. 

Bacteria and fungi. — It may be well to secure some idea 
of the nature of bacteria and fungi before proceeding to con- 
sider the various diseases which they cause. Both bacteria 
and fungi are very low forms of plant life and in most cases 
they are almost microscopic in size. Bacteria are always 
microscopic. Fungi are frequently large enough to be seen 
and easily handled. 

Bacteria are one-celled organisms which possess remark- 
able powers of increase. A single bacterium may, in the space 
of a few hours and under the proper conditions of growth, give 
rise to thousands like it. Bacteria multiply either by simple 
division, i. e., pulling apart of the minute cell plant, or by the 



82 



Orchard and Garden 



formation of spores within the cell. In the latter case each 
spore is capable of developing into a bacterium. This process 
of spore fo];;mation is common whenever the conditions for the 
growth of the bacteria become impoverished. The spore is re- 
sistant to adverse conditions and will endure more heat, more 
cold, and any general abuse than will the active bacteria. 

Fungi. — In order to obtain a good idea of what the plant 
body of some common fungi looks like and of the way in which 
it grows, a piece of stale bread should be moistened slightly, 
placed under a cover, and kept in a warm place for a few 
days. A white mold will be seen to form over the bread, and, 
if close examination is made, this mold will seem to penetrate 
into the bread mass. In due time tiny black specks will appear 
on the surface of the mold. If these are closely examined, they 
will be found to consist of a small black ball surmounting a 
stiff, straight stalk growing up from the mass of white 
threads. The white threads are called the "mycelium" of the 

fungus ; and the little 
black specks are the 
cases in which the 
plant produces the 
spores. The spores 
themselves are micro- 
scopic in size, but 
serve the purpose of 
seeds, A microscope 
should be used to ex- 
amine the fruiting 
bodies and their con- 
tents of spores. 

Apple scab. — Of 
all apple diseases the 
one known as apple 
scab is probably most 
widely distributed. It 
is to be found in every 





f 


H^H^B^^^^^^ 


1 


\ 




Ki 


fyf^ 




^♦1^'' «'*^|B 













Apple scab. 



Plant Diseases 



83 



place that apples are neglected. It is essentially a disease 
of neglect and, like tuberculosis, can be easily prevented. 
In fact most of the control work with plant diseases is 
work of prevention rather than of cure. The apple scab 
fungus lives over the winter in the dead leaves on the 
ground. With the first warm weather in the spring 
this fungus begins to develop. The fungus in the leaves 
starts to grow and soon develops fruiting bodies containing 
countless spores. These spores are carried in the wind and 
deposited all over the trees. As soon as the young fruit is 

formed, as soon even as the young 
leaves begin to peep out of the 
buls, the apple scab fungus is 
awaiting them. It will attack the 
fruit, the leaf, and the young 
branch, although its injury to the 
latter is of minor importance. The 
characteristic appearance of scab 
on mature fruit is well shown in 
the accompanying cut and no 
especial description is needed. 
This affliction can be controlled 
by an application of dilute lime 
sulphur just before the flower buds 
open and another after the petals 
fall, using the same material. 

Bitte7- rot is another disease of 
the apple that is more common in 
the southern districts. It is more 
difficult to conquer than scab, but appears later in the year. 
The fungus that causes this disturbance lives from year to 
year in large, rough cankers on the large branches of the 
tree. Each summer a crop of spores is produced and 




Apple scab as it appears on 
the leaf. 



84 



Orchard and Garden 



sprinkled downward through the 
tree, falHng- on the fruit which 
hangs below. Wherever these 
spores fall on an apple, they may 
develop the rot which is so charac- 
teristic of the disease. The rotten 
area is brown in color and it 
spreads from the surface towards 
the core just as fast as it spreads 
on the surface. This will usually 
serve to distinguish it from black 
rot. The dilute lime sulphur solu- 
tion will not control bitter rot. 
Bordeaux mixture applied at inter- 
vals, starting about five or six 
weeks after the petals fall, is the 
common procedure. If the dis- 
eased areas on the branches are 
also cut out and painted with 
melted grafting wax. the disease 
will be still more easily kept in 
check. 

Black rot resembles bitter rot, 
but it is not such an important 
fruit disease, as it is a leaf dis- 
ease. The fungus causes limb 
cankers that are difficult to dis- 
tinguish from the cankers of bitter 
rot and these cankers furnish the 
infection for the leaves. The dis- 
eased leaves usually fall about the 
middle of the summer, and in this 
way cut off much of the food supply 
from the tree during the fall months. This nourishment ob- 
tained in the fall is most essential for the fruit crop of the 
ensuing year. Thus the effect will be secondary, but is a 




A canker on a small limb 
apple. 



Plant Diseases 




l>eft apple alTectcfl with bloldi, Ifinlit, witli bitter i-dI. Aitow sIkjws 
location of blotch. Notici- lliat it is a siiiieilicial or .sl-iiii disease. 

serious damage nevertheless. The usual sprays, as for apple 
scab, will generally control black rot, but in addition to that 
precaution all branch cankers should be carefully removed. 

Blotch is a disease of the fruit of the apple that has at- 
tracted much attention in recent years, and has apparently 
been spreading rapidly enough to warrant any amount of 
notoriety. It is another southern disease that has been grad- 
ually making its way 
northward. Blotch win- 
ters over in small cin- 
namon brown cankers 
on the twigs and small 
branches. These can- 
ker^ disseminate 
spores about the mid- 
dle of June. Soon after 
this tim-^ small brown- 
ish patches may be 
noted on the fruit. 
The disease on the 
fruit is superhcial as 
it does not extend far 
below the skin. On 
the surface the indi- 




Apple blotch. 



86 Orchard and Garden 

vidual blotches appear as if they might have been caused by 
some Hght brown liquid splashed on the skin. As the disease 
progresses these blotches become hard and much darker in 
color. Eventually they crack open and the fruit is ruined. 
The first method of control used on blotch consisted of re- 
peated sprays applied every two weeks after about the middle 
of June. Bordeaux mixture was preferred to the dilute lime 
sulphur for this purpose. Recently it has been found that the 
disease can be absolutely controlled by spraying the trees in 
winter with a solution of commercial lime sulphur diluted at 
the rate of one part lime sulphur to five parts of water. This 
spray also controls scale insects. 

One characteristic of apple blotch is its aptitude for at- 
tacking certain varieties and avoiding others. Almost all 
greenish or yellow apples, except possibly Grimes, are more 
subject to blotch than are the completely red apple. A very few 
red apples are injured by this malady, however, and vhe fol- 
lowing varieties, none of which are first rank commercially, 
are much more subject to this disease than others : Northwest- 
ern Greening, Mann, Smith Cider, Stark, Missouri Pippin, 
Ben Davis. 

Sooty blotch and fly speck are two minor fungous affec- 
tions that sometimes attack apples. The name of each 
describes its appearance fully. In the former, evidence of dis- 
ease appears like a small dab of soot spread evenly over the 
fruit. The fly speck looks exactly like what its name implies. 
They are both controlled in regularly sprayed orchards. 

Blight is a bacterial disease that affects both the apple and 
the pear. It is so much more common on the pear that com- 
mon usage has given it the popular name of pear blight. The 
disease is identical whether it happens to be on either the apple 
or the pear. This disease lives through the winter in the in- 
fected twigs and branches and in the spring these infected 
parts exude a sticky substance that is filled with the organism 
that causes the disease. Insects, including the honey bee, visit 
this sticky exudate and carry away a supply of spores on their 



Plant Diseases 



87 



bodies. Then in crawling about over the blossoms and twigs 
of the apple and pear, they start the trouble in some new local- 
ity. Probably, if the honey bee were to be exterminated, the 
spread of blight would be greatly checked ; but the bee is so 
necessary in carrying pollen from one flower to another that 




A good wax til I'liiKixi' (list-ased trees in tlie in'chard. 



no good fruit grower should ever discourage it in that task. 
We are obliged to have the bees in the orchard and so must 
risk having them carry the germs of the deadly blight vdth 
them. There is no cure for blight. Diseased branches can be 
cut off and burned, but must be taken off much below the place 



88 Orchard and Garden 

giving evidence of affection. Be sure to cut down into the 
clean, healthj^ wood or the malady will simply follow the stem 
and eventually kill the entire tree. There can be no mistaking 
a tree or branch that has been killed by blight. From no other 
cause do the leaves turn black and remain on the tree. In 
pruning a blighted tree, the contagious nature of the disease 
must be constantly kept in mind. Always disinfect the pruners 
with a solution of corrosive sublimate made by dissolving one 
part of the chemical in one thousand parts water. This solu- 
tion will kill the germs of the disease, but it is highly poison- 
ous and must be handled accordingly. After pruning, wash 
the wounds with the same solution and when they are dry, 
paint them with a good lead paint or with melted grafting 
wax. 

Blight seems to occur in different forms at different times. 
Sometimes an attack will be very severe ; and at another it will 
result in killing a few twigs. In this respect there is a resem- 
blance to certain bacterial diseases that attack the human 
family. In some years the epidemic of grip is very sweeping, 
while in other seasons the disease will seem more like a severe 
cold. Sometimes blight will attack only the twigs and again 
only the trunks and large branches. Sometimes it attacks 
the trunk near the surface of the ground and kills a ring of 
bark around the tree. Such conditions are nearly always 
found in orchards in which raw stable manure has been used 
around the trees. 

Sun-scald. — Blight injury must not be confused with sun- 
scald which is in reality a mechanical injury and not a dis- 
ease. It is caused by the alternate freezing and thawing of the 
trunk. The wood of a tree freezes every winter with very 
little effect. When, because of severe pruning or some other 
reason, the trunk of the tree is exposed to full sunlight sud- 
denly, especially on the southwest side, sun-scald may nearly 
always be expected to result. If one should freeze his ear and 
use warm water in thawing it, he would probably be so unfor- 
tunate as to lose part of his ear. But if cold water or snow 
were used, the after-effect would be slight. The sun-scalded 



Plant Diseases 



89 



1 






HP 


•*:*■/' •■■■'3'/ 











Hairy root on apple. 



90 Orchard and Garden 

tree experiences this same situation. The winter sun is warm- 
est at about 2 or 2 :30 o'clock in the afternoon. At that 
time it is in the southwest and strikes that side of the tree 
with its full force, so that the juices are suddenly thawed out 
on that side of the tree. Then the sun sets and the tree just 
as suddenly freezes again. As a result the tissues at that period 
are minutely ruptured — torn to pieces — and die. A similar re- 
sult doubtless follows severe pruning when the southwest side 
of a tree is exposed to the scorching, hot summer sun. This 
is often the case with young nursery trees. Apple trees more 
than one year old will have become tender from their two years' 
growth in the shaded nursery row and when they are planted 
in the open orchard they fall an easy victim to the hot sun. 
One of the worst features of this scalding is that it provides 
exactly the right conditions for the entertainment of the flat- 
headed apple borer that was mentioned in an earlier chapter. 

Tlie lU'mois canker is a disease of the trunk and branches 
of the apple tree. The fact that the cankered areas appear to 
be blistered should afford easy recognition of this affliction. 
When these blisters are shaved off" with a knife, they will be 
found to extend into and through the inner bark. Each indi- 
vidual blister will show as being marked with a black ring. 
There is no known control for this disease and whenever it is 
found, it should be cut out and burned to prevent spread. 

Croivn gall, or hairy root, is a disease that is not confined 
to the apple alone. It attacks the roots, usually just at the 
surface of the ground or a little below. The characteristic 
evidence is the formation of large, warty knots, often over- 
grown with masses of hair-like roots, that are easily seen 
and surely identified. This affection almost always starts in 
the nursery. It is bacterial in origin and the bacteria gain 
entrance to the plant at the point where the graft is made. All 
trees that show any evidences of this affliction should be re- 
jected, for they never make satisfactory orchard trees. It is 
against the law for any nursery to sell trees having this dis- 
ease, and money paid for such stock should most certainly be 
refunded. 



Plant Diseases 



91 



Peach scab is among the most common diseases of the 
peach. A peach so infected becomes mottled with black spots, 
which eventually cover the peach, finally turning it completely 
black and during this process cracking it open. This disease 
is widely distributed over the country, so that there are few 
peach orchards not suffering from scab. It is easily controlled 
by spraying with a self-boiled lime sulphur solution. 

Broivn rot is another disease of the peach that also attacks 
the plum and cherry. It attacks the fruit in very much the 

same way that the 
mold affected the bread 
as described in the 
early part of this 
chapter. The disease 
starts with the plant- 
ing of the spore of the 
fungus on the fruit, 
usually by the wind or 
by some insect. Bees 
are a pest in a peach 
orchard at harvest 
time, because they are 
always crawling about 
over whatever rotten 
fruit is present, and 
then drag their bodies 
over the sound peaches 
in their search of the 
sweet juices of the 
fruit. In this way they 
spread serious infec- 
tion. When the spore 
starts to grow, the 
fungus causes a dis- 
coloration of the fruit 
in a constantly widen- 






Brown rot of the peach. These dried peaches 

luing on the tree all winter and cause infection 

the following year. 



92 Orchard and Garden 

ing circle. Eventually the peach becomes brown all over and 
then the grayish spore bodies appear on the surface. These 
rotten fruits will remain on the trees all winter and are a fer- 
tile source of infection for the next year. This disease is 
always much worse if there is warm, wet weather at the time 
of harvest. This assertion recalls the fact that in growing 
mold on bread the moisture was kept in by a glass cover. 
Many plant diseases will thrive under similar conditions. 
Spraying the peaches with the self-boiled lime surphur early 
in the season will remove much danger of infection. In the 
case of cherries, especially sweet cherries, this disease is sus- 
pected of causing unfruitfulness in some localities. In such 
circumstances the fruit was all destroyed before it was given 
opportunity to develop. A few applications of self-boiled lime 
sulphur have been known to correct this condition so that 
trees that had been barren for years, produced a record- 
breaking crop. 

Leaf curl is a fungous disease of the peach that would be 
quite serious if it were not so easily controlled. It manifests 
itself by curling the leaves of the plant as soon as they come 
out of the buds in the spring. In fact the spores of the disease 
are present on the twigs all winter, seemingly waiting for the 
leaves to give them a chance. Late winter spraying with 
strong lime sulphur will kill the spores of the disease and at 
the same time eradicate any San Jose scale that might be 
present. This point illustrates the fact that the business of 
spraying is not a simple one and the grower must have the 
situation well in hand if he desires to accomplish most work 
with the least expenditure of money and labor. 

The peach yellows is a highly important disease, so im- 
portant, in fact, that it deserves special attention. It is a 
physiological affection, which means that nothing tangible 
is known about it. Scientists have studied it for thirty years 
or more and it still remains as little understood as it did at 
first. Many growers and some scientists are beginning to 



Plant Diseases 



93 




Brown rot "muniniies" on peach tree in winter. 



94 Orchard and Garden 

feel that yellows has a distinct relation to winter killing. It 
it known that the yellows is more likely to appear after a 
severe winter. It is also claimed that potatoes grown in the 
peach orchard will cause the yellows. Scientists have scouted 
that theory, but it has recently been suggested that it agrees 
with the belief regarding winter injury. When potatoes are 
planted in an orchard, they are cultivated until midsummer 
and then permitted to rest. The stoppage of cultivation nat- 
urally checks the growth of the peach trees. Later in the 
fall the potatoes are dug and in digging them, the peach trees 
are incidentally given the most severe cultivation to which 
they have yet been subjected. Growth naturally starts again 
and the tree enters the winter in a vigorous growing condi- 
tion — entirely unseasoned against the severity of the winter. 
The next year yellows often appears in the orchard. This 
riddle of peach yellows will undoubtedly be solved in the near 
future, but in the meantime nothing can apparently be done 
as a corrective. 

The black knot on the plum is a disease that affects the 
twigs and branches of the tree. The Japan varieties are 
almost never affected by it, and, since it is difficult to control, 
the wise orchardist will avoid planting the sorts that are 
subject to it. The only means of controlling it is to cut out 
and burn the affected branches. 

The leaf spot, or shot hole fungus, causes spots to appear 
in plum leaves. Later these spots fall away, leaving a round 
"shot hole." To remedy this the trees should be sprayed with 
strong lime sulphur solution before the leaves open, and dur- 
ing the summer they should have several applications of self- 
boiled lime sulphur. 

The black rot of grapes causes the berries to turn brown 
at first, then black, and finally to shrivel away. The spores 
develop on these first berries attacked and the disease will 
soon spread over an entire vineyard. Some varieties are 
much more liable to rot than others. For relief the vines 



Plant Diseases 



95 




(7) 



96 



Orchard and Garden 



must be sprayed in the winter with strong Bordeaux or with 
winter strength Hme sulphur. During the summer the vines 
must be sprayed regularly as directed in the chapter on spray- 
ing. 

Anthracnose on grape causes a circular spot on the ber- 
ries and also forms a small canker on the canes. Severe 
pruning to remove the damaged canes and spraying as for 
black rot will help control the infestation. 

Anthmcuosc on berries. — Another disease, also called 




CJrapG anthracnose. 

anthracnose, appears in whitish spots on the canes of rasp- 
berries and blackberries. Eventually the canes die, and the 
fruit is always much poorer in quality and less in quantity 
on diseased plants. The old canes should be cut out and the 
new ones sprayed with Bordeaux. 

The leaf spot of straivbo'nj is sometimes a serious dis- 
ease, although it does not damage the fruit directly. The 



Plant Diseases 



97 




98 



Orchard and Garden 



fungus forms small 
spots in the leaf and 
weakens the structure 
so that it is unable to 
continue in its normal 
functions. Badly in- 
fested beds should be 
plowed under or burnt 
as soon as the crop of 
fruit has been har- 
vested. Sometimes the 
practice of burning 
over is decidedly ben- 
eficial, as it kills not 
only the diseased 
leaves, but also eradi- 
cates numerous leaf- 
eating insects. In new- 
ly planted strawberry beds the plants should be sprayed with 
Bordeaux mixture at frequent intervals. 




strawberry leaf spot. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Spraying. 



Need fo) 
horticultural 



spruijing. — Of all the recent developments in 
practice, none is of more significance than 

spraying. Not so many 
years ago it was pos- 
sible to grow most 
fruits without any spe- 
cial attention other 
than an occasional 
pruning and cultiva- 
tion. This time is now 
past and fruit growers 
everywhere recognize 
the fact that the trees 
must be sprayed thor- 
oughly, if a first-class 
crop is to be produced. 
Very often the applica- 
tion of the right spray 
at the right time 
makes all the differ- 
ence between a full 
crop of -fruit and none 
at all. In one instance 
a large sweet cherry 
tree illustrated this 
point very forcibly. The tree was unusually large and each year 
it bloomed freely, but had never ripened any fruit. The owner 
of the farm declared that in his twenty years proprietorship 




Perfect apples are obtained only by spraying'. 



100 Orchard and Garden 

he had never seen any ripe sweet cherries on the tree. By the 
form alone it was decreed a sweet cherry in the neighborhood, 
but no one knew whether the color of the fruit was yellow or 
deep black. This tree was sprayed and produced that year 
over sixty gallons of fine Royal Ann cherries. With similar 
spraying it has done equally well ever since. 

Spray materials. — In order to understand spraying fully, 
a general knowledge of spraying materials must first be ob- 
tained. These may conveniently be divided into three classes, 
viz., contact insecticides, internal poisons, and fungicides. The 
word "insecticide" simply means a preparation that will kill 
insects. Fungicide is the term applied to those solutions used 
to kill fungus. 

Contact insecticides. — There are three contact insecticides 
in almost universal use in orchards. The practical grower 
must know what they are and how they are prepared and used. 

Lime sulphur solution. — The first and most important of 
this group is the lime sulphur solution. This is a mixture of 
lime and sulphur in which the sulphur, or part of it, is brought 
into solution by boiling it with lime. Sulphur by itself is only 
slightly soluble in hot water. By mixing it with lime and boil- 
ing vigorously, the lime and sulphur form a combination that 
is soluble. It is this combined sulphur and lime that consti- 
tutes the insecticidal part of the mixture. 

The common method of preparing the solution is to take 
fifty pounds of good unslaked lime and add enough water to 
cover. Then add fifty pounds of sulphur and stir well. As 
soon as these ingredients are well mixed, enough water should 
be added to make one hundred and fifty gallons altogether, and 
the entire mass should be boiled until it develops a deep coffee 
color. This process will take from thirty minutes to one hour, 
according to the intensity of heat applied. The solution may 
be prepared in large iron kettles or might better be made in 
wooden tanks into which steam pipes from a small boiler are 
permitted to discharge. By using live steam in this manner 
the amount of heat may be easily controlled at all times. 



Spraying 



101 



Concentrated lime .mlphur.— There is now on the market 
a preparation known as concentrated lime sulphur solution 

which many orchard- 
ists have adopted in 
place of makmg the 
mixture as it is need- 
ed. If properly used, 
the commercial solu- 
tion is just as good as 
the home-made and all 
the labor of making it 
is avoided. Since the 
home-made material 
should be freshly pre- 
pared as it is used, it 
will be easily seen that 
it will require time for 
preparation just when 
the fruit grower can 
least spare it. By us- 
ing the commercial 
solution all the avail- 
able time is devoted 
to spraying instead of 
being taken up in the 
preparation of the 
spray. The commer- 

Using the hydrometer. cial SOlutlon iS USUally 

of a uniform strength and can easily be tested to make sure 
that one quantity is exactly like every other. ' For this pur- 
pose an instrument, called the hydrometer, is used. The 
hydrometer is made of glass and is so constructed that it 
floats in any solution in an upright position. A graduated 
scale on the glass indicates the strength of the solution. There 
are many different hydrometers made for testing various sub- 
stances, but the one used in connection with lime sulphur is 




102 Orchard and Garden 

known as the "Baume" hydrometer. On this scale the fresh, 
undiluted commercial lime sulphur should test not less than 
32 degrees. When diluted for use it should test not less than 
ly^ to 8 degrees. The directions put out by most manufac- 
turers will advise diluting the material till it tests only 5 
degrees, but this recommendation should not be followed, if 
good work is to be expected. It is generally conceded that 5 
degree lime sulphur will not kill all the San Jose scale; and 
so the wise orchardist will use his material at the higher 
strength. 

Tobacco is the base of another kind of contact insecticide 
that is used for summer spraying against soft-bodied insects 
like the plant lice. The lime sulphur solution at winter 
strength can not be used while the trees are in foliage because 
it is so caustic that it will burn the leaves. It is for this reason 
that the tobacco preparations are used during the summer. 
Tobacco tea may be prepared by boiling stems and refuse 
leaves in water, but the ordinary grower has no means of 
knowing whether his solution is sufficiently strong. Here 
again the manufacturing chemists have been of good service 
by preparing a tobacco solution of known and uniform 
streng'th. There are several preparations on the market 
which contain not less than 40% of nicotine sulphate, which 
is the important ingredient in the solution. This is the strong- 
est preparation of tobacco that has yet been made and it is a 
very violent poison. It should be handled with care and 
stored out of reach of children. The solution is diluted for 
use by adding from 500 to 1000 parts of water according to 
the insect that is being eradicated. Since these preparations 
vary somewhat with the different brands, it is safest to follow 
the directions provided by the manufacturer. These strong 
preparations should not be confused with the weak and mostly 
inert mixtures, that are offered by some firms. It is a wise 
precaution to examine the label on any tobacco preparation 
and assure one's self that the article contains not less than 
40% nicotine sulphate. 



Spraying 103 

Coal oil emulsion is a contact insecticide that is not as 
popular as formerly. At one time it was widely employed for 
the control of the San Jose scale in winter, and, in a dilute 
form, for the control of plant lice in summer. At the present 
time it has been largely supplanted by the lime sulphur solu- 
tion and the tobacco preparations. There are still a few situ- 
ations in which the kerosene emulsion may prove of value. 
This is particularly true in regard to some of the scale insects 
like the oyster shell scale, which are most easily destroyed 
when the eggs are hatching in the spring. The emulsion is 
made as follows: 

("hiplied Imrd soil) V2 pound 

Water 1 gallon 

Kerosene 2 gallons 

Heat the water and dissolve the soap in it. Add the coal 
oil and churn vigorously. At first the mixture becomes milky, 
but soon becomes quite as thick as soft butter. As it grows 
cold it hardens and may be kept some time without having the 
oil separate out. For summer use it should be diluted with 
from twelve to fifteen parts of soft water. If soft water is not 
obtainable, a small portion of borax must be added to make a 
smooth solution. In use this preparation must be carefully 
observed as it is likely to injure tender foliage. This possi- 
bility varies with the weather conditions, and, because a cer- 
tain strength solution failed to injure a certain plant on one 
day, is no assurance that it will not injure the same sort of 
plant the next day. As a rule, warm, dry weather is favorable 
to its use, because under such conditions the oil is evaporated 
more quickly. On cool, moist days the oil will remain on the 
foliage longer and to most plants kerosene is a positive poison. 

TJie "miscible oils" are very similar in their action to 
the coal oil emulsion. There are several brands made by 
various manufacturers. They are all prepared under the 
same principle and as purchased they all appear to be a heavy 
dark oil. This oil, when mixed with water, makes a milky 




104 Orchard and Garden 

solution. If used strong enough, 
these solutions will kill most varie- 
ties of scale insects ; but they have 
an unfortunate record of having 
killed many trees also. Their use 
is generally regarded as danger- 
ous, and careful fruit growers are 
avoiding them whenever possible. 
The lime sulphur solutions will ac- 
complish all and more than any of 
Spray injury on apple. ^^^ miscible oils and without any 

of the element of risk attached to the employment of the latter 
class of insecticides. 

hiternal poisons. — There are only two internal poisons 
sufficiently important to be mentioned here. They are arsen- 
ate of lead and Paris Green. Arsenate of lead is a chemical 
preparation of arsenic and lead. During the past few years 
it has come into almost universal use as the best internal 
poison. It can be prepared at home, but the home-made sub- 
stance varies in strength to such an extent that no practical 
orchardist will attempt to make his own. The commercial 
composition has been standardized and all that is sold must 
come up to United States government inspection. As a result 
the orchardist is protected from getting an impure chemical 
regardless of the brand he purchases. As supplied by the 
trade, arsenate of lead is a pure white paste containing about 
50% water. A newly-opened package will resemble a package 
of ready-mixed paint in that the heavy portion will be settled 
and more or less caked at the bottom. This hard cake should 
be carefully stirred up until the contents of the original pack- 
age is of a uniform consistency. None of the water in the 
package should be poured out as it is all counted in with the 
weight of the substance, and, if part of the contained water 
should be poured off, a paste would result which would be ma- 
terially stronger than would be anticipated. The well-mixed 
paste is to be applied at the rate of from two to three pounds 
to each fifty gallons of spray solution. 



Spraying 105 

Dry arf<enate of lead. — Recently some manufacturers have 
been making a feature of dry powdered arsenate of lead. In 
most cases this is simply the ordinary paste form, dried and 
ground. As a result this product is not so finely divided as is 
the paste — that is, the particles of arsenate of lead are larger 
in the dried form and consequently do not remain in suspen- 
sion as long as the paste does. Thus the poison settles in the 
spray tank and the solution as it goes on the tree is not uni- 
form in strength. The saving in freight, the convenience in 
handling, and the accuracy in weighing are all in favor of the 
dried substance ; but until the present time at least, the paste 
form has procured the best results in the orchard. With im- 
proved methods of manufacture the dry form will soon doubt- 
less be made quite as effective as the paste. 

Paris Green is a combination of arsenic and copper. It 
was widely used before arsenate of lead came into general use. 
It is not now so extensively employed as formerly except for 
certain pests. It is more likely to injure the fruit and the 
foliage, and it is altogether more expensive than the newer 
poison. 

Fungicides. — The preparations that are used as fungi- 
cides are interesting on account of the methods which occa- 
sioned their discovery. Many years ago the grape growers 
near Bordeaux, in France, were much annoyed by having their 
fruit stolen by tramps. They made a mixture of lime and 
copper sulphate and sprinkled it on the vines nearest the road 
to make it appear as if the grapes had been poisoned. After 
this had been done several times they discovered that the 
vines that had been sprinkled were not only unmolested by the 
thieves, but were growing more vigorously than their neigh- 
bors farther from the road. In this accidental way was dis- 
covered the preparation which has ever since been known as 
Bordeaux mixture. It is probably the best general fungicide 
that is now known in spite of the fact that it has some unde- 
sirable characteristics. It consists simply of the mixture of 
two solutions, one of copper sulphate and the other of lime. 



106 



Orchard and Garden 



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Spraying 107 

The solutions are prepared separately, and then diluted and 
mixed. The following formula is in general use: 

Water HO gJiHons 

Copper sulphate J Itoiinds 

Lime 4 poiiiids 

Stock solutions of both lime and copper should be pre- 
pared in advance, as the copper is not easily brought into solu- 
tion. The best way to prepare these stock solutions is to weigh 
out a given number of pounds of copper sulphate, place it in 
a burlap bag, and suspend it in a barrel containing the same 
number of gallons of water as pounds of the chemical. After 
the copper is all dissolved the resulting solution will repre- 
sent one pound of copper for each gallon of water. Similar 
measures should be taken in the preparation of the lime solu- 
tion. When ready to start spraying, take four gallons of each 
of the solutions, dilute them separately and then mix. Unless 
special diluting tanks are at hand, this is somewhat trouble- 
some and the same results can be obtained in the following 
manner. Take four gallons of the copper solution, place it in 
the tank of the spray machine which has been previously 
almost filled with water, and stir vigorously. If the machine 
is equipped with an agitator, this solution may be easily mixed 
by working the pump a few moments. While the solution is 
being stirred vigorously, add the four gallons of the lime solu- 
tion. The solutions should never be mixed in the concentrated 
form, as the resulting combination is not nearly so effectual. 
If the spray tank holds more than fifty gallons, proportionate 
quantities of the stock solutions can easily be used. 

Self-boiled lime sidpJiur. — Probably second in the list of 
fungicides comes the self-boiled lime sulphur mixture. Its 
value as a fungicide was discovered from the fact that it was 
at first thought to be a means of controlling the San Jose scale 
in the summer time. It failed to accomplish the latter pur- 
pose, but proved itself to be admirably adapted to the work of 



108 Orchard and Garden 

controlling certain plant diseases. The self-boiled lime sul- 
phur mixture differs from the lime sulphur solution in that it 
is simply a mixture of the two chemicals made in a specific 
way, and not a chemical combination. It is prepared in the 
following way : 

Good unslaked stone lime S pounds 

Flower sulphur S pounds 

Wnter 50 gallons 

The lime is placed in a barrel and enough hot water added 
to slake it. Hot water increases the heat which is normally 
generated in slaking. As soon as the hot water is poured on, 
the sulphur must be added and the entire mass stirred for a 
few moments. It should boil vigorously from its own heat 
so that no artificial heat need be applied. If the solution is 
permitted to boil long enough, some of the sulphur will com- 
bine with the lime and the resulting compound will be a clear 
coffee-colored liquid which rises to the top. This action may 
be remembered as very similar to the one obtained in the 
preparation of the lime sulphur solution. For fungicidal pur- 
poses it is not desired that the cooking should progress farther 
than this stage. Just as the brown liquid begins to form, cold 
water should be added to stop the boiling. In practice, it is 
customary to add enough water to complete the required fifty 
gallons. The preparation is then ready to spray on the trees. 
Care and judgment are necessary in the preparation of self- 
boiled lime sulphur, but if the fruit grower learns to check 
the boiling at the proper time, he may well believe that his 
undertaking is becoming successful. This fungicide has an 
advantage over Bordeaux mixture in that it can be applied to 
any kind of foliage without the danger of burning. It is also 
the only satisfactory spray for use on peaches and plums. It 
is not so vigorous in action, however, and has not proven that 
it will perfectly substitute the Bordeaux in the apple orchard. 

Commercial lime sulpliur. — A dilute solution of the com- 
mercial lime sulphur is another fungicide with which every 



Spraying 



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fruit grower should be 
familiar. All the lime 
sulphur solutions have 
the power of killing 
fungous growths or 
preventing such dis- 
eases. The commercial 
lime sulphur, however, 
is so strong in its ac- 
tion that it must be 
greatly diluted when 
used in the summer as 
a fungicide. The usual 
method of employing it 
is to weaken the com- 
mercial material with 
forty parts water. At 
this strength it is not 
injurious to the apple tree, but will probably cause serious 
burning on the leaves of the trees bearing stone fruits. Dilute 
lime sulphur solution is extensively used as a first spray on 
apples and the Bordeaux is applied later. 

Dusting. — Formerly spray materials were much employed 
in the form of powder or dust which was blown over the trees 
by special blowing machines. There have been recent at- 
tempts to revive this form of treatment ; but, for the most 
part, the agitation has been made by the manufacturers of 
dusting machines. In practically every instance the use of 
dust has not given as good results as the wet spray. 

Spray machinery is now made in a great variety of styles, 
but the most common outfits are the barrel and power rigs. 
The barrel outfit is designed to be used by hand. It consists 
of a barrel to contain the spray material, a pump to force the 
liquid out, and a stirring device to agitate the solution in the 
barrel. Many spray materials tend to settle if allowed to 
stand and the agitator, as a consequence, is a highly essential 



110 



Orchard and Garden 



part of the outfit. The pump should by all means be made of 
brass, and should have a sufficiently large air chamber to 
maintain a uniformly high pressure. Most barrel outfits will 
furnish enough force to supply only one line of hose. In fact, 
it is unwise to attempt to make them supply more than one 
line, for a lowered pressure would most assuredly result which 
would be greatly detrimental to eflficient service. All pumps 
should be provided with a gauge to determine pressure, which 




Winter spraying-. 



should never read below 100 pounds on hand pumps and 175 
pounds on power pumps. But higher pressure can be main- 
tained at whatever point the power plant is able to furnish. 
More solution is required if applied at a low pressure, and it 
will not prove so eflfectual. The high pressure breaks the 
spray substance up into small particles and provides a very 
thin coating for the entire tree. 

The barrel and pump can be mounted on a low sled or set 
in a small wagon. If the ground is rough, the sled is much to 
be preferred for it is less likely to upset. The spray outfit 



Spraying 111 

must also include fifty feet of good half-inch rubber hose, an 
extension rod and a good nozzle. The hose should not be 
shorter than the length specified, because a shorter hose will 
prove a handicap for good work. When a tree is being sprayed 
the workman must go completely around and spray all sides 
of it before he can consider his work well done. The long 
hose will enable a man to spray an ordinary tree without mov- 
ing the machine. The hose should have been made for spray- 
ing and should not be an adapted garden hose, which can not 
endure the high pressure and which will quickly be rotted by 
the chemicals. Good half-inch spray hose should last for three 
years and should not cost more than from fifteen to seventeen 
cents per foot. Extension rods are made of bamboo, lined 
with a thin brass tube. The brass tube is threaded at both 
ends so that the nozzle can be attached to one end and the hose 
to the other. There should be a good brass cut-off valve be- 
tween the hose and the rod. All these parts can now be pro- 
cured of standard size, so no difficulty should be encountered 
in the matter of proper fittings. Nearly all bamboo rods are 
made alike, and, as a rule, are perfectly satisfactory. Never 
use an iron pipe as an extension rod, because it is heavy and 
difficult to handle and flakes off inside, thus clogging the 
nozzle. Iron extension rods are furnished only with the 
cheapest outfits. Nozzles are of various styles, which differ 
with the manufacturer. The nozzle known as the double 
Vermorel has long been popular with fruit growers, and is 
capable of extremely effective work. Its only possible objec- 
tion is the ease with which it becomes entangled in the 
branches, but this has no weight with the careful workman. 

The disc type of nozzle has come into general use in the 
past few years, and is steadily gaining in popularity. To the 
experienced, however, its only obvious advantage is that it 
does not catch in the branches, thus facilitating speedier work, 
but this fact might easily become a disadvantage since careful 
spraying is to be encouraged rather than speedy work. 

The Bordeaux nozzle throws a fan-shaped sheet of spray, 

(8) 



112 Orchard and Garden 

It is not used to any great extent by practical growers, but is 
often used in spraying shade trees because it throws a large 
volume of spray, thereby insuring quick work. 

Potver sprayers are built on the same principle that is 
used in the hand pumps except that the power for running 
them is supplied by a gasoline engine. This type of outfit is 
usually provided with a tank which will hold from one hun- 
dred to two hundred and fifty gallons of spray material. The 
smaller sizes are best adapted for hillside work, as they are 
much more easily handled. 

Power pumps are built with either one, two, or three 
cylinders. The three cylinder pump, called a triplex, has prac- 
tically three times the capacity of the single cylinder and is a 
very efficient pump. The engine used on any spray machine 
should be constructed as light as possible and should not be 
larger than is absolutely needed for the work. It is absurd 
to haul a heavy four or five-horse-power engine about over the 
orchard when one of half that capacity and weight would do 
the work just as well. Experienced orchardists find that a 
small one and a half or two-horse-power engine gives all the 
power needed and has the added advantage of lightness. In 
every case the engine should be just as simple in construction 
as is possible, for fewer parts to become deranged means less 
delay on such account. Any gas engine, even the best of them, 
will need attention from time to time. Keep the machine well 
oiled and clean it thoroughly after each spraying. It will then 
require the minimum care and attention. 

Small hand sprayers are made in a great variety of de- 
signs. Most of them are but little more than playthings, but 
occasionally such a sprayer will be found most convenient for 
small work. One of the best types is that known as the com- 
pressed air sprayer which is made by a number of different 
firms. It consists of a tight, brass cylinder holding three or 
four gallons. The pump is inside the cylinder and is operated 
much like a bicycle pump. The cylinder is filled partly full 
of material and the cap screwed into place. Several pounds 



Spraying 113 

of pressure are then pumped up in the can over the liquid, 
and this pressure forces the spray substance out through the 
nozzle. For small shrubs and vines around the house, this is 
quite a convenient outfit, but it does not supplant the larger 
machine in the orchard or the fruit garden. 

Freak sprayers. — There have been, from time to time, 
several kinds of "freak" sprayers on the market. Most of 
these are run on the same theory as the little hand sprayer 
above described, and none has proven in the least satisfactory. 
The prime objection to them all is that they have no means 
of agitating the spray liquid. In this respect they have all 
failed. 

Careful spraying. — Regardless of the kind or type of 
spray machine used, there is one point which the fruit grower 
must always bear in mind, which is that his work must al- 
ways be done thoroughly. A man may own the finest spray- 
ing machine on earth, and still make a failure of his spraying. 
I have seen this proposition work out so often in actual prac- 
tice that I cannot make the argument strong enough. Suc- 
cess in spraying does not depend so much on the kind of ma- 
chine used as it does on the man who is directing the nozzle. 
If trees are to be slighted, the money wasted in such manner 
might better be saved and put into some other business. But 
the future will be the harvest time to the careful fruit grower 
— to the one who knows how to spray and is not afraid of 
work. 

Spraying is not a disagreeable task if proper preparation 
for it is made. In the first place, old clothes must be worn 
that can be discarded at the end of the season. If the sprayer 
is not afraid of his work, he will undoubtedly be covered with 
the spray material. However, the spray solution has no in- 
jurious effects on the human animal except a most discourag- 
ing odor. The winter strength lime sulphur solution is rath- 
er caustic and sometimes burns a tender skin. To avoid any 
discomfort, everyone who sprays should take the precaution 
to oil his hands and even his face before starting work. Tal- 



114 Orchard and Garden 

low is a good thing to use for this purpose and vaseline is ex- 
cellent. If glasses are not worn, a pair of large amber glasses, 
such as are used on bright days in winter or on the water, 
should be secured. They will most admirably serve the double 
purpose of protecting the eyes from the strong light as well 
as the spray. They are better than goggles because the latter 
fit so tight that they permit no circulation of air about the 
eyes, which soon become very tired and hot. 

Winter' or dormant sprays are usually applied for the con- 
trol of scale insects and for certain plant diseases. The strong 
lime sulphur solution will control most scale insects and also 
help control various fungous diseases. Besides it acts as a 
cleansing wash to the trees, which would make its application 
profitable even if there were no scales present in the orchard. 
By cleaning the bark of the tree it seems to put new vigor into 
every branch. Any spray applied in winter should be used 
at a high pressure so as to drive the liquid under the small 
flakes of bark and into all the cracks and crevices. Scale in- 
sects prefer such sheltered places, which are also convenient 
for the lodgment of the spores of diseases. 

The first spray to be applied to apples is usually put on 
when the buds are first showing their pink color. This should 
consist of the commercial lime sulphur solution diluted with 
forty parts water. To this is added two pounds of arsenate of 
lead to each fifty gallons of solution. The combination makes 
a spray solution that is effective against leaf-eating insects 
and against such fungous diseases as the apple scab. This 
spray is designed to eradicate the scab, the curculio and the 
bud moth. 

The second apple spray is applied just after the petals 
fall. This spray is intended primarily to control the codling 
moth and is often called the codling moth spray. It will be re- 
membered that the codling moth usually enters the fruit at the 
blossom end. The object of this treatment is by using high 
pressure to force the spray substance into the calyx cup of 
every blossom. A little later in the season, as the young 



Spraying 



115 




£^ 



116 Orchard and Garden 

apple begins to grow, the lobes of the calyx curl inward and 
close the cup. Unless the fruit is sprayed before these lobes 
close, very limited opportunity remains for controlling this 
pest. A dose of spray poison must be inserted into each calyx 
and the young codling moth will be poisoned at its first bite 
toward eating his way into the apple. The dilute lime sul- 
phur is used as a basis in this spray which is identical with 
the first spray. 

The third application is made about two weeks after the 
second and has the same object in view. It is to a certain ex- 
tent a "good measure" spray, so if any of the spray work is 
to be left undone, this third spray should be the one neglected. 
The identical dilute lime sulphur solution is used as in the 
first two instances. 

In spraying for the lesser apple worm a very high pres- 
sure should be maintained and a nozzle used that will form a 
very fine mist. In the codling moth spray a high pressure 
was used to drive the poison into the calyx cup. In the con- 
trol of the lesser apple work a spray will be needed to coat all 
parts of the tree and all parts of the fruit as well. For this 
purpose I have found that the triple Vermorel nozzle, with a 
pressure of at least 200 pounds, will give by far the most sat- 
isfactory results. Other attempts at controlling this pest with 
a disc nozzle have absolutely failed. 

Peaches should be sprayed just as the calyx cups are being 
crowded from the growing fruit. These little husks protect 
the young fruit until it is two weeks or more old. In this 
early stage spraying would do no good because the poison 
could not be brought into contact with the young fruit. This 
spray controls the scab and in a measure it also controls brown 
rot. Where the latter disease is serious the trees should have 
a second, and perhaps a third, application later in the season. 
The self-boiled lime sulphur solution with three pounds of 
arsenate of lead paste to each fifty gallons, is the spray used 
in all summer sprays for the fruit. 

In vineyard spraying it is customary to mount the noz- 



Spraying 



117 




The propel' time for the peach spray. 



118 Orchard and Garden 

zles in such manner that they do not need to be turned, and 
are permanently fixed in position. Enough nozzles are used 
so that the entire vine surface on both sides is coated at one 
trip between the rows. This is a similar arrangement to that 
used in spraying field crops, except that nozzles can be placed 
in such a way for field work as to cover several rows at a time. 
The chief points to remember in connection with any kind 
of spraying are : first, know what you are spraying for ; 
second, know what you are to spray with, and third, do the 
work thoroughly. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Small Fruits. 

The term small fruits is applied to the various berries, 
such as strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries and to cur- 
rants and gooseberries. All small fruits require special care in 
planting and cultivating, but ar.e otherwise easy to raise. They 
seldom require much spraying and are so productive that they 
are a source of profit to growers. They all come into bearing 
at an early age, and for this reason they make admirable crops 
to grow between the rows of trees in an orchard. Strawber- 
ries are a practical intercrop in vineyards. 

Rich soil is to be preferred in the commercial production 
of any of the small fruits. They adapt themselves to a wide 
variety of soils provided that there is enough available fertil- 
ity present to force them into a sturdy growth from the start. 
Like all other quick crops, they demand that the fertility be 
available in order to be of immediate use. On poor soils the 
plants very often succumb before they are able to establish 
themselves. It is not advisable, therefore, to attempt the 
growth of berries on any but the best soil obtainable. New 
ground, that is, ground which has been recently cleared, is 
nearly always suitable for small fruits, because it contains 
plant food in large quantities and is usually in a condition 
which favors the retention of moisture during dry weather. 

Soil 'preparation. — Next to the fertility of the soil comes 
the preparation. The ground must be thoroughly prepared 
before attempting to plant small fruits. Apple and peach 
trees sometimes grow well in newly cleared ground with very 
little preparation, but the same is not true of the berries. If 



120 Orchard and Garden 

it is planned to use small fruits as an inter-crop in orchards 
that are planted on new ground, it will be wise to cultivate 
the land in some other crop for a year before the berries are 
planted. This practice will insure much better cultivation 
when small fruits are planted. Without cultivation they are 
sure to perish. If small fruits are planted on old ground that 
has been cultivated for many years, some measure should be 
adopted to restore fertility. A good plan is to sow a crop of 
cow peas or soja beans and turn them under some time dur- 
ing the fall previous to the planting of the berries in the 
spring. If old pasture land is used, it should be plowed in the 
fall and frequently gone over with a spike tooth harrow to 
break up the sod and to kill the white grubs that are always 
present in such land. The white grub is one of the chief ene- 
mies of the strawberry and also injures some of the other 
small fruits. 

The best time to plant any of the small fruits is in the 
spring. Assuming that the ground and especially the surface 
of the ground, has been as well prepared as if a garden crop 
were to be planted, the actual work is ready to be started. 
The plants should be kept moist until they go into the ground 
and should be inspected as carefully as fruit trees. In all 
cases the roots should be pruned and the tops cut back. The 
principle involved is exactly the same as in the case of fruit 
trees. The roots as they come from the nursery are always 
more or less imperfect and sometimes in small fruits the roots 
are matted together in a tight mass. These must be thinned 
out and the top reduced so as to restore the balance between 
top and root. In planting the various berries the plants should 
be set just about as they grew in the nursery and the soil 
must be firmed about the roots. This is one of the most vital 
points in securing a good stand of plants. After planting, the 
berries should be regularly cultivated and no weeds should be 
permitted to grow near them. The cultivation should start 
within a very short time after the plants are set. Some 
strawberry growers cultivate the day after the plants are set 



Small Fruits 



121 




The ultimate aim of the berry grower — shortcake. 



122 Orchard and Garden 

and keep the ground loosened throughout the season. A safe 
rule is to cultivate about as for a crop of corn or potatoes. 
Strawberries are an interesting crop, easily grown, and, on 
good land, they are very profitable. A single acre has been 
known to clear as much as five hundred dollars, but the aver- 
age profit is much less than this, owing to poor culture, poor 
varieties, or low market prices. 

Strawherry varieties must be given special attention, be- 
cause a variety that is a success in one section may prove a 
disastrous failure in another. Do not plant too large an acre- 
age until you know what varieties are suited to your ground 
and climate. If no neighbor has made a success of strawber- 
ries, it will be best to plant a single row of several varieties 
and observe results. The next season suitable varieties can 
easily be selected and may be safely planted. A few old varie- 
ties have succeeded in many different localities. New varie- 
ties especially should be carefully tested before being exten- 
sively planted. This last precaution applies to all sorts of 
fruits, but particularly to strawberries, A new variety may 
prove a wonder for its originator so as to cause him to be per- 
fectly honest in advertising it as a splendid new production. 
In the adjoining state, however, it may prove worthless, dis- 
appoint the planter and give the originator a bad name. 

Straivheiiy plants come from the nursery tied in small 
bunches of about twenty-five plants each. These bunches 
should be packed for shipment in crates so that the green 
leaves are exposed to air. If they were packed in tight boxes 
like dormant trees many of them would die. As soon as they 
are received they should be planted, and, if it is impossible 
to take care of them at once, they should be heeled in. This 
is done by digging a narrow trench and opening the bunches 
so that all the roots come in contact with the soil. Lay the 
plants in the trench and cover the roots and crown with earth, 
firming it with the foot. In planting see that the plant is set 
just as deep as it formerly grew. Many strawberry plants 



Small Fruits 123 

are lost each year by being' set too deep or not deep enough. 
And lastly clip off all but one or two leaves before planting. 

Suste7ns of planthKj. — Strawberries may be planted either 
in hills four feet apart or in matted rows. In the latter case 
the rows are four feet apart and the plants arc set about 
twelve to fifteen inches apart in the row. The runners from 
the plants in the row are kept trained in the row and a mat of 
plants is formed which will vary in width according to the 
vigor of the variety. In the hill system the runners are con- 
fined to a small space in order to form a compact clump. This 
method produces very fine fruit, but not nearly so much to the 
acre as the row system. 

Some varieties of strawberries produce flowers with im- 
perfect flower parts. That is, the flowers of certain varieties 
do not contain pollen-bearing organs and so must depend upon 
the flowers of other varieties to furnish the fertilizing ele- 
ments. Other varieties produce flowers that are perfect, con- 
taining pollen-bearing organs. Those sorts which produce no 
pollen are called sterile varieties to distinguish them from the 
perfect varieties. In growing sterile varieties it is necessary 
to plant them in close proximity to plants that are perfect, or 
there will be no fruit or at best only imperfect fruit. This is 
an important thing to remember, as some of the best varieties 
are imperfect or sterile. 

Straw mulch. — In the fall of the year, at the approach 
of cold weather, the plants should be given a cover of straw. 
This protects them during the winter and prevents severe 
injury to the roots caused by the alternate freezing and thaw- 
ing in the spring. The straw should be permitted to remain 
until severe night frosts are past. When the straw mulch 
is taken off" in the spring, it should be piled in the space be- 
tween the rows and left. A slight covering of straw should 
be left through which the plants will be forced to push, in 
order to keep the fruit oflf the ground, thereby keeping it 
cleaner and making it easier to handle. The bulk of straw 
which is left in the space between the rows will be convenient 



124 Orchard and Garden 

to protect the blossoms from possible frosts by covering the 
plants again whenever such emergency threatens, thus sav- 
ing the crop. 

Burning old beds. — Strawberry beds will bear a crop one 
year after they are planted ; but, as a rule, they are not con- 
sidered profitable for more than two or three crops. Some 
growers are satisfied with only one crop from a given plant- 
ing, while a few permit their beds to stand several years. In 
such cases it is customary to burn the beds over after they 
have fruited. The old plants are mowed close to the ground, 
dried for a few days, and then burnt. This treatment kills all 
leaf-eating insects and eliminates much of the leaf spot dis- 
ease. Afterward the space between the rows should be well 
cultivated and manured. Such precaution will sometimes 
rejuvenate an old bed and make it profitable. 

Everhearing strawberries. — A recent introduction in the 
strawberry line has been the everbearing variety, which is 
simply a sport from the older sorts that tends to produce its 
fruit in the fall instead of the spring. As a matter of fact, 
such varieties product berries in small quantities all summer, 
but never enough to make them profitable. They are of value 
chiefly to the man who grows only a small amount of fruit 
for home use. In some seasons the ordinary varieties pro- 
duce fruit in October, often enough to make a profitable har- 
vest, and they have even been known to ripen under a light 
fall of late October snow. Such occasions are experienced 
only rarely, but it is probable that in some favorable year, 
the everbearing varieties may yield a profit. The cautious 
grower, however, will permit others to do the experimenting. 

Raspberries. — There are two main classes of raspberries 
— the red and the black. The red and black varieties are 
also crossed with each other, producing a purple sort that is 
quite popular. Red raspberries are propagated by separat- 
ing the suckers from the old plants. These suckers or sprouts 
are generally produced in great abundance, even resulting in 
one of the great sources of trouble in planting this sort of 



Small Fruits 



125 




strawberries in a young orchard. Notice straw mulch. 



126 



Orchard and Garden 



fruit. By this method of propagating, the nurseryman also 
propagates and distributes the root gall disease. As a con- 
sequence root galls are to be found almost everywhere that 
red raspberries are grown. In some sections the disease has 
wiped out the red raspberry industry. All plants of this 
variety should be carefully examined to make sure that the 
roots are in a healthy condition before they are planted. The 




Clean culture among- i-aspberries. 



black raspberries are propagated by layering and are, there- 
fore, much less annoyed with root disturbances than are the 
red sorts. The tips of the black raspberry canes are per- 
mitted to grow until they touch the ground when they are 
covered with earth. In a short time they take root. The fol- 
lowing spring they may be separated from the parent plant 
and dug for transplanting. 

Raspberries should be planted in rows above five feet 
apart and about three feet apart in the row. Some growers 



Small Fruits 127 

place them even farther apart than this distance. Constant 
cultivation is necessary to insure a good growth. The plants 
w^ill produce a few berries the next year after planting and 
should be ready for a full crop in two years from planting. 
Wires are sometimes used to support the canes, but most of 
the large growers depend on pruning to secure a stout stem 
which will hold up its load of fruit without artificial sup- 
port. No mulch is required on raspberry plantations until 
the second summer. Then a light mulch of straw should be 
placed around the plants to help hold the moisture during the 
dry weather. At this time the plants are so outspread that 
they can not be cultivated as closely as during the first sum- 
mer and the straw mulch simply takes the place of cultiva- 
tion. If preferred, the mulch may be placed next the plants 
and a space left between the rows in which the cultivator may 
continue its work. 

Raspberries should be pruned in the spring before 
growth begins. If pruned in the fall they are liable to die 
back from the point where they were cut, thus causing a still 
further loss of fruit bearing wood. As a rule they may be 
shortened from one-third to one-half their length. The re- 
sulting fruit will be better and the stem stouter. After fruit- 
ing, the old cane should be cut out and all the strength of the 
plant permitted to go into the new shoots. 

Blackberries grow wild over a large part of the eastern 
United States. They prefer a clay loam, but sometimes are 
found growing in quite sandy places. They grow best in 
those soils in which they grow wild. This is one reason why 
they are not more extensively cultivated. The wild crop in 
favorable years amounts to enough to keep the price of the 
cultivated fruit so low that the grower makes no profit. In 
sections that have been settled for a long time and where 
there is no waste land, it may prove advisable to plant black- 
berries commercially, but there is still a great quantity of 
wild fruit supplied to the markets each year. This supply 
in some cases is so great that the fruit is shipped by country 

f9) 



128 Orchard and Garden 

buyers to distant markets. They are there doubtlessly sold 
as cultivated berries. Blackberries are propagated in much the 
same manner as are raspberries. Their culture is about the 
same as that of the raspberi-y except that they should be plant- 
ed farther apart (from six to eight feet) and they should be 
pinched back each summer as soon as the canes are about three 
feet high. Such pruning causes the canes to branch and become 
very stiff in order to hold up a great load of fruit. Dew- 
berries are a species of blackberries, but are produced on 
vines that run on the ground. They are not commercially im- 
portant. 

Currants are easily grown except in heavy clay soils. 
They require plenty of moisture and do not endure drouth 
well. Their cultivation is the same as for raspberries, but 
they should be planted four feet apart each way. They are 
propagated by cuttings taken from the old plants in the fall. 
These cuttings should be planted at once and they will start 
to grow the following season. In some conditions they are 
permitted to grow for two years before planting. The fruit 
of the currant is produced on old wood and for that reason 
very little pruning is desirable. The important facts con- 
cerning their culture are to keep the plants from crowding 
and take out all dead wood. Borers may woi*k in the older 
canes and give cause for their removal. The red currants 
are the most popular and are by far the most easily grown. 
There is always a ready market for them and the supply 
never seems to be able to keep up with the demand. 

GoosebcD'ie,'^ are grown much the same as currants. The 
European varieties are subject to mildew and for that reason 
they should not be planted. A few good crosses between 
American and English varieties have resulted in a fruit that 
is of high quality and still fairly free from mildew. The 
variety known as Downing is said to be such a cross. The 
demand for gooseberries is not so great as that for currants 
and they are not being so widely planted. A few plants will 
furnish all the fruit that an ordinary family will possibly use. 



Small Fruits 129 

Novelties. — There are frequently new varieties or new 
kinds of berries brought to the grower's attention, and some 
of these deserve a slight notice on account of the fact that 
they are usually downright fakes. A few years ago a so- 
called plant wizard heralded what he was pleased to call a 
new garden huckleberry. It proved to be a member of the 
nightshade family, devoid of flavor, utterly useless and en- 
tirely unlike any known huckleberry, to which family it did 
not even belong. More recently the Himalaya berry has been 
widely advertised. All trials of it seem to indicate that it is 
a totally worthless variety and that it usually kills to the 
ground each winter except in the extreme south. So instead 
of being a hardy plant from the highest mountains of India, 
it is so tender that it can not withstand the mild winters oi 
the south central states. All novelties that are advertised 
as being "the greatest ever" should be regarded with sus- 
picion until their worth is proven. 

Small fruits for back yards. — Nearly any of the small 
fruits can be grown with success in a city back yard with the 
possible exception of the blackberry. All of the others are 
small growing plants or bushes and do not require much room. 
Currants and strawberries can also be grown in portions of 
the yard too shady for other uses. They will not do so well as 
if they had full exposure to sunlight, but in a shaded strip 
along the north side of a board fence or shed they will pro- 
duce a very fair crop. 

A bed of everbearing strawberries ten feet square has 
been known to supply enough fruit for a small family in the 
city. For city growing it is probable that the everbearing 
strawberries are the best. At no time will they bear as full 
a crop as the older commercial sorts, but they will produce 
a small amount of fruit over a long period. 

This is also true of the everbearing raspberries, of which 
the St. Regis is the best. Twenty-five plants of this variety 
will supply more fruit than the average family can use and 
its production will be extended throughout the entire summer. 



130 Orchard and Garden 

Cuthbert is another good red raspberry that has been a suc- 
cess in city gardens. Raspberries, however, should only be 
planted where they can have full sunlight throughout most of 
the day as they are not shade enduring. 

The successful growing of any of these small fruits in a 
city back yard depends upon the use of exactly the same sort 
of care in the preparation of the soil, planting, cultivating, 
etc., as is necessary when the same fruits are grown on a 
commercial scale in the country. Accordingly all that has 
been said of their general culture is applicable to their suc- 
cessful growing in the city. 



CHAPTER X. 
Harvesting. 

Under the heading- Harvesting, will be considered the 
picking and packing of fruit. This subject is highly im- 
portant to the grower, because, if proper attention is not ac- 
corded this phase of the business, an entire season's work 
might be lost. Many good crops of fruit have been ruined 
because they were not properly picked and many more have 
been seriously injured by improper packing. 

Picking. — No other feature of fruit growing requires 
more careful attention than the picking of the fruit. In the 
"good old days" apples were shaken to the ground and gath- 
ered into piles in the open, where they were permitted to re- 
main until the necessary time was found to put them under 




Women and girls make successful apple pickers. 



132 



Orchard and Garden 



shelter. These methods are always wasteful. No grower 
need expect to realize a profit from fruit handled in such 
manner. Unfortunately, however, a few men still persist in 
trying to harvest their fruit in such a way. One of the first 
points to learn about harvesting any fruit is the proper time 
to pick it. Some crops are ruined if allowed to hang too long, 
while others will yield greater returns and will be of better 
quality if they are permitted to stay on the tree as long as 
possible. The market should, in some cases, be considered, 
because fruits intended for the use of a nearby market can 




The crop from an avei'ag-e seven-year-old tree in a well-cared-for orchard. 



be permitted to ripen more fully on the tree than if they 
were to be shipped a great distance. 

Twie to pick. — Apples will vary in the time of picking 
with the variety. Ordinarily they should be gathered as soon 
as they acquire their full color, but there are some excep- 
tions to this rule, which will be dwelt on at greater length. 
Some growers prefer to have their apples remain on the trees 
till the stems part readily from the twig. This condition 
usually means full maturity of the fruit. In some cases, 
nevertheless, it is not desired that fruit should be fully ripe 
at picking time. If part of the crop begins to fall to the 
ground of its own accord, that is an indication that the fruit 



Harvesting 



133 



should be picked. Most growers do not wait for the fruit to 
reach this state of maturity. The Ben Davis should hang as 
long as possible, for the color and quality are thus improved. 
This variety will keep better, however, if picked as soon as 
it is well colored. The Winesap should not be gathered until 
it acquires full color and the stem parts from the twig easily. 
The Grimes should be picked before it becomes clear yellow 




Perfect finit lepresents a profit. Imperfect fruit is often a loss. 

in color ; in fact, it is better picked while the skin is still per- 
fectly green. A yellow Grimes will rot easily, while if picked 
green, it will sometimes color well in storage. The Delicious 
should be gathered as soon as it is well colored. Like the 
Grimes, it is a poor keeper if allowed to hang too long, but if 
picked while still hard and firm, it will keep till May in cold 
storage and come out in perfect condition. The Jonathan 
must be picked even before it is well colored, for it will be 
much less likely to develop the Jonathan fruit spot if gath- 



134 Orchard and Garden 

ered slightly green. The Stayman resembles the Winesap 
in that it should be allowed to hang as long as possible, other- 
wise it sometimes withers in storage. Summer apples are 
usually picked as soon as they will do to cook regardless of 
their state of maturity. A few varieties, such as Red June 
and Liveland, grown chiefly as eating apples, should be al- 
lowed to color well before being gathered. Yellow Trans- 
parent and Duchess may be picked as soon as they are well 
grown. It is a good practice to make several pickings of 
summer apples because they do not all ripen at the same time 
on the same tree. The last picking may be left to mature 
more fully and be disposed of in local markets. 

Picking peaches. — The proper time to pick peaches will 
vary slightly with the variety and the distance shipped to 
market. Ordinarily the fruit is given opportunity to soften 
a bit without becoming ripe enough to eat. The average 
commercial peach as it comes from the tree is certainly far 
from being a tempting fruit. Some varieties, like the El- 
berta, can be picked quite green, will ripen in transit, and 
will open up on the market perfectly ripe. Other sorts, like 
the Greensborough, which is a splendid peach when ripened 
on the tree, will not ripen rapidly after being picked. The 
variety has this defect and many growers will not plant it 
for this reason. Peaches allowed to ripen on the trees are 
always of much better flavor than those shipped to market 
green or half -green. If they were left to become soft on the 
tree, however, they would be too ripe for use by the time 
they were purchased by the city customer. So few city 
people know the flavor of the fine orchard-ripened fruit, that 
they accept the ripened-in-transit peach without question. It 
is a safe guess, however, that the experienced fruit grower 
would not eat his own product if he had to take what arrives 
in market. It is one of the rewards of the fruit grower to 
have all the fine fruit he wants as nature intended he should, 
direct from the tree. 

Pears are almost always picked green and ripened in 



Harvesting 



135 



storage. They are better in flavor and in quality when 
handled in that way than if they were permitted to ripen on 
the tree. Western growers pick some varieties as soon as 
they are large enough to sell readily, and they invariably 
reach the eastern market in good condition. 

Plums are usually gathered before they become fully 
ripe. The Japan sorts color well after being picked. They 

should be quite firm if 
they are to be shipped 
any distance. 

Cherries should be 
picked as soon as they 
become well colored. 
The sweet kinds 
should be taken off as 
soon as they develop 
the sweet flavor, but 
before they become 
fully ripe. 

Grapes should ripen 
well on the vines, as 
they do not change 
much after picking. 

Small fruits must 
be picked when they 
are well colored, 
Stra wherries are 
sometimes picked be- 
fore they acquire 
much color, because 
they do not bear up 
well under shipment. 
Raspberries are gath- 
ered when they sep- 
arate easily from the 
stems. Blackberries 




The America plum — a cross between the 
American native and the Japanese type of fruit. 



136 Orchard and Garden 

aie similar to raspberries in this respect. Currants are taken 
off while still slightly green, or at least as soon as they show 
color. Their chief use is for jelly-making and, if too ripe, 
they are less desirable for that purpose. Gooseberries must 
be plump, but quite green, for in this condition they are most 
salable. 

Care needed. — There are several points in regard to the 
picking of the various fruits that must be borne in mind. In 
picking apples the fruit must be firmly grasped in the hand, 
with the thumb pressed against the stem forcing it tight 
against the apple, and then the fruit is given a slight twist, 
thus causing the stem to separate from the twig. Care should 
be used to pick the apple with the stem entire, but with no por- 
tion of the twig. The next year's fruit bud is often formed 
close to the stem of the apple, and careless picking will cause 
the spur bearing the new fruit bud to break off and remain 
attached to the apple. Such a practice will not only lessen 
the chances for a plentiful crop the following year, but also 
furnishes a bit of sharp cornered twig that will puncture the 
skin of the apple wherever it touches other apples. Apple 
pickers should always have their finger nails closely trimmed. 
A very slight injury might result from a sharp nail which will 
readily provide a place for the spores of rot-producing fungi 
to enter. The apples should be picked preferably in baskets 
or in specially constructed canvas picking bags, but never 
in grain sacks. Apples gathered in sacks will not only bruise 
each other, but risk greater injury from being crowded 
against the branches by the picker. Remember that the apple 
is a valuable fruit and accord it the same treatment as any 
other high-grade product. The fruit should be gently laid in 
the receptacle — not thrown. And when containers are emp- 
tied the fruit should not be poured out, but should be lifted 
out carefully. 

Peaches are picked with the same care as apples. Having 
very short stems, they should better be twisted off so as to 
separate cleanly from the tree. If they do not part from the 
stem easily they are probably too green to be harvested. 



Harvesting 



137 



Women pickers. — Small fruits are usually gathered by 
women and children and picked directly into the packages in 
which they are to be marketed. The customary package is 
the quart box, and a tray is generallj^ provided for the pickers 
which will hold four or six of these boxes. The pickers fill 
the boxes in the field, but the careful grower will repack each 




A packing- table. 



box to assure himself that the bottoms are filled with goo^ 
clean fruit. 

Packing sheds. — As soon as any fruit is picked it should 
be taken to some central point, usually a packing shed, and 
there packed for shipment. Packing sheds are of any size, 
shape or arrangement according to the individual needs of 
the grower. Sometimes a tent erected in a berry field will 



138 Orchard and Garden 

serve as a small fruit packing center, to which all fruit will 
be brought to be crated. Some small fruit growers build 
sheds, and the apple and peach growers will, of course, have 
extensive facilities for the handling of their fruit under 
cover. Apple packing houses are generally much larger than 
those for peaches, because the peach crop moves in and out 
of the packing shed promptly, while the apple crop may be 
permitted to accumulate for several days before being 
shipped. 

Apple packages. — There are two standard packages for 
apples. The barrel has for years been the standard package 
in the East and the bushel box in the West. Recently there 
has been a tendency on the part of eastern growers to adopt 
the box as a standard package and it is gaining in popularity 
every year. One fact that has hindered the general adoption 
of the box in the East is lack of information on the part of 
eastern growers. Through inexperience they have lacked the 
skill required in packing boxes and they have not realized that 
the box package is suited only to strictly fancy fruit. Old- 
fashioned methods which still prevail over a large part of the 
eastern apple districts have resulted in the production of large 
quantities of poor fruit. Imperfect fruit is not suitable for 
box packages and it is a great mistake to attempt to market 
it as such. Wherever good fruit is produced, it will pay the 
grower to investigate and learn how to pack the box. This 
skill can not be accomplished by reading the directions in a 
book and can be learned only by actual first-hand experience. 
There are a few principles of box packing, however, that can 
be stated concerning the proper procedure and which when 
mastered will do much to assist the practical application of 
such knowledge. 

Apples for box packages should be sorted for size, color, 
and condition. Apples of different sizes can not be packed 
in the same box and be expected to result in a standard pack. 
The color should be uniform throughout the box. Concerning 
condition, it should be emphatically borne in mind that no im- 



Harvesting 



139 




A well-packed box of apples. 
(Photo by H. H. Coburn.) 



140 Orchard and Garden 

perfect fruit can be tolerated in a box package. Boxes must 
be packed with perfectly clean fruit, entirely free from rot, 
scab, worms or any mechanical blemish. Each apple should 
be wrapped separately in paper. The box should be lined 
with paper. 

The standard apple box measures lOV-iXlli/^xlS inches, 
inside measurements. The top and bottom must be made of 
thin, flexible boards. Place the empty box so that the bottom 
is inclined from the back towards the front. Line it wtih 
white paper, ordinary unprinted newspaper stock, in such a 
way that two flaps of paper are left to cover the top of the 
box. Have a supply of thin, soft paper cut about ten by ten 
inches in size, to wrap the fruit. A rubber finger tip pulled 
over the thumb of the left hand will enable the sheets of 
paper to be picked up easily and quickly. Take up a sheet 
of paper so that it lies flat in the left hand, select an apple 
with the right hand, place it in the center of the paper with 
the blossom end down, and twist the flaps over and around the 
fruit. Be sure that the stem of the apple comes at the point 
where the corners of the paper are folded or twisted, for if it 
were placed in the center of the sheet, it would perforate the 
paper and possibly injure the apple next to it. There are sev- 
eral systems of placing the apples in the box which vary with 
the size of the apple. The pack known as the "three-two" 
pack is an easy one for beginners and is adapted to several 
sizes of fruit. First apples are placed in the two lower 
corners of the box. Then one is paced midway between these 
two, which leaves short spaces between the end apples and 
the middle one. The next row consists of only two apples 
which occupy the spaces mentioned. The next row repeats 
the arrangement of the first row, consisting of three apples, 
and so oh alternately. When the first entire layer has been 
arranged in the box, the apples should be so tightly packed 
that there can be no possible movement of one apple against 
the other. When the box is completely filled, the apples 
should extend above the top of the box for a distance of one- 



Harvesting 141 

half inch at each end and one and one-half inches in the 
middle. This bulge is produced by turning some of the apples 
in the middle of the box so that their longest diameter will 
extend perpendicularly. Some packers use a slightly larger 
apple in the center of the box, but the really fancy packs are 
made bj^ using apples that are quite uniform in size. When 
the box is full the paper is folded over the fruit and the lid is 
nailed in place. A box press is generally employed in nailing 
on lids. The reason for making the top and bottom of the box 
of thin material is to accommodate the bulge in the pack. 
When the lid is pressed on, some of the bulge is pushed down 
to the bottom so that both top and bottom will bulge approxi- 
mately the same. The thin, flexible top and bottom act as 
springs to hold the fruit firmly in place and prevent it rolling 
about and becoming bruised. If there should be any shrink- 
age in storage, the top and bottom boards will still keep the 
package tight. In storing and shipping boxed apples they 
should always be piled on the sides, which are of thicker ma- 
terial and will prevent the fruit from being crushed. Other 
styles of pack include what is known as the "straight" pack, 
the "two-two," the "four-three," the "off'set" and other packs. 
Most of these are good, but the straight pack should never be 
used unless the size being handled can not be packed in any 
other way. The objection to the straight pack is that each 
apple bears directly on its neighbors, thus almost certainly 
bruising the fruit. The various styles of packs are dia- 
grammed in the accompanying illustrations. 

The barrel package is adapted to apples that do not grade 
high enough to be put into boxes, although some eastern grow- 
ers still pack their finest fruit in barrels. Formerly there was 
no standard size for apple barrels, and, as a result, fruit 
reached the market in barrels that held from two and a half 
to four bushels. The barrel has now been standardized in 
most apple-producing states and, while the prescribed meas- 
urements will vary slightly in the diflferent states, the barrels 
all hold practically the same, viz., three bushels. A barrel of 



142 



Orchard and Garden 







Showing- tlie start of four different paclvs for box apples. 



Harvesting 143 

that capacity will measure about sixty-four inches around 
the bulge, seventeen inches across the ends, and have staves 
twenty-eight and a half inches in length. The government 
has adopted a certain standard for the packing of apples in 
barrels, and fruit so packed and so labeled must come up to 
certain requirements. This rather absurd standard is not 
much used by growers because it tolerates the presence of 
ten per cent, wormy apples. The box has not yet been stand- 
ardized by the government, and still it is practically impos- 
sible to find an imperfect apple in a box packed in any of the 
sections which have familiarized themselves with the smaller 
packages. Growers realize that good fruit is their best ad- 
vertisement, better even than any artificial government stand- 
ard. Every grower should attempt to pack his fruit in such 
a way that it will be above suspicion rather than in accord- 
ance with a special standard. If it is perfect fruit, then it will 
be above any standard yet established. 

In packing a barrel of apples, a layer of corrugated paper 
should be placed in the bottom of the barrel. Then a layer 
of apples is laid in with the stems down. In fancy barrel 
packs two layers are placed in this manner. Then the fruit is 
carefully poured in from containers that can be lowered into 
the barrel. The barrel should be shaken frequently to settle 
the apples as much as possible. It should be remembered that 
wnen they are shipped, they will receive rough handling so 
it is necessary that they be packed solid to avoid bruising. Fill 
the barrel and then carefully put on another layer of apples 
with the stems toward the top. Lastly place another sheet of 
corrugated cardboard on top and then head the barrel. Place 
the barrel in a barrel heading press, loosen the top hoops and 
force the head into place. This process will crowd the fruit 
down into the barrel and no doubt injure some of it slightly, 
but will not damage it as greatly as if it were permitted to 
rattle around loosely in the barrel on account of slack pack- 
ing. After the head is forced into place, tighten the hoops. 
Some practice is, of course, needed in order to do this quickly 

(10) 



144 



Orchard and Garden 




Harvesting 145 

and neatly. Do not use too many nails in fastening- the heads, 
only enough to hold the hoops securely in place. Remove the 
press and tack lining hoops in the head at each end. Lining 
hoops are sections of curved wood to fit inside the staves on 
the head of the barrel, to prevent the head from working loose. 
Lining hoops should always be used, if the barrel is to be 
shipped. The label should be put on the end of the barrel 
which was down while the fruit was being packed. That end 
will open with a more uniform show of fruit and create a 
better impression than will the other end. Neatness of pack 
is an important feature in selling fruit. 

Early apples are often sold in bushel baskets, which are 
convenient containers for such fruit, but should not be used 
for winter packages. 

Peach packages will vary in different localities. Some 
sections ship all peaches in bushel baskets, while others ship 
in crates containing six small baskets. For fancy fruit the 
latter is a very attractive and popular package. But it is 
slightly more expensive than the bushel basket and requires 
more skill and experience in packing. Its relation to the 
peach trade is the same as that of the box to the apple trade, 
i. e., it is adapted only to fancy fruit. 

Plums are shipped in a variety of packages. In the West 
they are marketed in small crates containing several small, 
square baskets. In the East the Climax basket is a popular 
package. It is a veneer basket with a handle, resembling the 
grape basket, but much larger. 

Grapes are packed in four- and eight-pound baskets, 
which are fitted with a thin, wooden top to be held in place 
with a specially bent wire staple. 

Small fruits and cherries are sold by the case or crate, 
which contain either sixteen or twenty-four quart boxes. Red 
raspberries are often sold in pint boxes. Formerly this class 
of fruit was sold by the "drawer," which was a large flat tray 
holding as much as the grower desired. The drawers were 
returned to the grower and used over and over again. They 



146 



Orchard and Garden 



soon became dirty and unsightly, and their use has been dis- 
continued by all progressive growers. The crates of small 
boxes always present a neat, clean appearance and while they 
cost more, they nevertheless demand a better price for fruit. 
Tight pack. — No matter what kind of fruit is being 
packed, or what sort of a package is being used, fruit must be 
packed tight. The package must be completely full and must 
be filled in such a way that there will be the minimum of set- 
tling in transit. All packages should be neat and clean and 
should bear the name of the grower and the name of the 
variety of fruit contained. The ultimate aim of the fruit 
grower is to sell the fruit he produces. A clean, honest pack- 
age is the best advertisement possible in the selling of fruit. 




An old orchard in full bloom. 



CHAPTER XI. 
Marketing. 

Uncertainty of conditions. — After a crop of fruit is 
grown and packed, it remains to be marketed and this detail 
is often by no means a small part of the year's work. The ex- 
perienced fruit grower does not purchase a luxurious new 
automobile as soon as he learns that his peach crop has not 
been killed by cold weather ; nor does he begin to plan an ex- 
tensive pleasure trip when the buds begin to show color. He 
realizes instead that his year's work is not assuredly safe until 
he has the money from its disposition in his pocket. Profits 
on fruit are often very large, much larger than on any other 
crop taken from the soil, but the grower remembers from ex- 
perience that there are many chances of loss. A hail storm 
may ruin a fine crop of fruit on the day before it was to have 
been harvested. Then, a crop may be gathered, escaping the 
hail, only to encounter overstocked markets with prices so low 
that the returns will not pay the freight. Fruit may spoil in 
transit, or it may rot in storage ; and last of all, dishonest 
commission men are still doing business. Loss from that 
source is probably now less than formerly, and as time goes 
on, there is every indication that the dishonest dealer will be 
eliminated, so that the sale of fruit will be conducted on a 
basis that is fair to both the producer and the middleman. 

Methods of marketing. — There are a number of ways of 
disposing of a crop of fruit. If the grower does not have too 
large an acreage, and has easy access to markets, he may 
peddle his products from door to door. It is probable that 
this method yields the best returns, because it eliminates the 



148 Orchard and Garden 

cost of transportation, commission, and multiple handling. 
Of course such methods are impossible if the orchards are 
extensive or if they are far from market. 

Parcel post. — Some growers sell their fruit direct to the 
consumer by advertising in local papers and magazines. Since 
the advent of parcel post this scheme has gained considerable 
favor and has been reported as giving excellent results. If 
fruit is to be sold by parcel post it must be packed in a light, 
tight package that comes within the size and weight limits of 
the postoffice regulations. Since these regulations are as yet 
frequently changed by the postoffice department, it seems un- 
wise to publish any measurements that may be in effect at 
the present time. The grower who contemplates sending fruit 
by parcel post should consult the local postoffice authorities re- 
garding permissible sizes of packages and rates to various 
points. In advertising fruit for sale the grower must first 
decide on a fair price for the fruit itself. The first expendi- 
ture will be for the corrugated cardboard packages in which 
the fruit is to be packed, the packing of the fruit and the 
postage. Then the cost of advertising should be estimated and 
the sum of expenditures incident to shipping, added to the 
actual value of the fruit itself, should give the proper price at 
which to quote the fruit in the advertisements. For instance, 
if the orchardist thinks he should secure forty cents net for 
his fruit, he must add to that forty cents the cost of the pack- 
age, about seven cents, the cost of packing, about three cents, 
and the postage, about fifteen cents. This gives a total of 
sixty-five cents, which is the theoretical price at which he 
should advertise his fruit, but the cost of advertising must not 
be overlooked. It has been found that the cost of advertising 
on this class of produce amounts to from fifteen to twenty-five 
per cent, of the selling price. Consequently the above-de- 
scribed peck of apples could not safely be advertised at less 
than seventy-five cents per peck. 

Consider the cost. — There is a large and growing demand 
for apples and other fine fruits supplied from the producer 



Marketing 149 

direct to the consumer, and it is probable that the parcel post 
will help develop this class of trade. The grower must exer- 
cise care that his selling expense does not eat up his profits ; 
and the illustration just given will furnish a fair idea of the 
relation between the net selling price of the grower and the 
actual purchase price of the consumer. Many orchardists do 
not stop to figure the cost of growing and packing their fruit. 
They think that a certain sum of money returned on a crop of 
fruit should be all profit. But a record should be kept of the 
work done on the orchard. Accounts of the costs of pruning, 
spraying, cultivating, picking, packing, and selling should be 
filed so an intimate knowledge of the selling price can be ob- 
tained in order to estimate a profit. Producing a crop of good 
fruit is an .expensive process. But a good product is, at the 
same time, very valuable. When a selling price is set, see that 
it is high enough to make a fair return on the investment, and 
is also a reasonable price for the consumer to pay. It is human 
to expect to sell more low-priced apples than high-priced ones, 
but, if a customer cultivates the habit of buying fruit, he will 
soon find himself unable to do without it. If the public would 
form the habit of eating fruit not once in a great while, but 
every day, such a condition would not only help sell fruit, but 
would not be a detriment to the victims of the habit. It will be 
one of the habits that will be of untold benefit to the ones who 
practice it. 

Commission men. — Probably the most common way of dis- 
posing of fruit is through the medium of the commission man. 
A commission merchant is one who receives fruit from the 
grower, sells it for him and then sends the receipts, less the 
commission, back to the grower. Often the commission firms 
are blamed for failures of which they are not guilty, but some 
authentic cases on record prove that the dealer, evidently not 
satisfied with receiving his rightful commission, tried to ap- 
propriate the entire shipment. However, for the average 
grower the services of the commission man are indispensable. 
He is the only means of communication between the producer 



150 Orchard and Garden 

and the consumer, and in nearly every case the price expected 
for his work is very low, when the amount of work and worry 
involved is considered. A commission man will receive a ship- 
ment of fruit from the grower, pay the transportation charges, 
drayage charges and in some cases will have to repack the 
fruit. These costs are charged against the selling price of the 
fruit and are deducted from the amount finally sent the grower. 
No charge for store room, salesmanship, book-keeping, or ad- 
vertising is entered, for these items are all covered by the ten 
per cent, com.mission which the dealer extracts from the selling 
price as his pay. In return for this ten per cent, commission, 
the grower secures the equivalent of a store of his own in the 
city, with the added advantage of not being confined to any 
one store or any one citj^ So the middleman appears to be a 
very useful link in the chain between the orchard and the city 
purchaser. 

Association selling. — In some localities a different system 
of selling has been organized, known as association selling. 
The growers form an association which will sell all fruit 
produced under their brand and guarantee. In the northwest 
and in California this plan has been developed most satisfac- 
torily, so that the growers have been enabled to secure better 
prices for their fruit as well as to reach distant markets with 
relative safety and ease. The influence exercised on the grow- 
ers by these associations has also been highly beneficial, because 
such organizations have adopted a very high standard of qual- 
ity and have insisted that fruit sold under the association brand 
must meet those requirements. This idealism has resulted in 
making the growers more alert in the control of pests and 
more careful in the packing of boxes and crates. As an extra 
precaution every package that is sold has an identification 
number on it so if its contents caused complaint, the source can 
be easily traced. The cost of selling through associations is 
not quite so high as the cost of selling through the agency of 
commission dealers, but, on account of a recent increase, a few 
growers in the Northwest have indicated their dissatisfaction 



Marketing 151 

with association methods. Probably association plans have not 
yet been developed to their utmost perfection and will steadily 
increase in popularity. The association plan is not practical 
unless there are a number of growers located near each other, 
all of whom are experts capable of producing the very highest 
grade of fruits. Association methods are not adapted to the 
selling of low class produce, because one of the features of the 
plan is the advertising which the fruit receives, and it is very 
poor policy to advertise worthless commodities. Any article 
.should be just as good or preferably a bit better than described 
by the advertisement, in order to realize the best returns. 

Soft and quickly perishable fruits are, of course, sold as 
soon as they are ripe enough to ship. A few growers sell their 
fruits on the tree, with the stipulation that the purchaser 
should manage the picking and packing. The price received in 
such an arrangement must be low enough so that the buyer 
has a safe margin to cover any possible risks, for none are as- 
sumed by the seller in this case. Occasionally, however, the 
grower will sell his fruit for less than it actually cost him to 
prune, spray, and cultivate, merely because he had no means 
of ascertaining these costs. 

Apples are often sold on the tree, but more frequently the 
grower chooses to pick and pack his own crop. Then the prob- 
lem of the proper time to sell confronts him, for which there 
is only one solution. The best rule to follow is to sell when- 
ever a price is offered which will pay a reasonable profit. There 
is sometimes heavy loss connected with the continued storage 
of fruit. There has been a tendency toward planting apples 
that are known to keep well with the expectation of holding 
them in storage until spring, when a good price will be demand- 
ed. This practice is often a great mistake. One grower picked 
and sold his Jonathans before they were much more than half 
colored, as cooking apples. Since the market for such apples 
was brisk at that time, he realized five dollars per barrel for 
his crop. His neighbors laughed, held their apples until spring, 
paid storage on them and finally sold the crop for three dol- 



152 Orchard and Garden 

lars per barrel. It is not an unusual experience to find that 
storage charges have consumed the profit on a crop, with the 
storage bill amounting to as much as the cost of producing the 
fruit. Such exorbitant charges should be controlled by a state 
public utilities commission, with the hope that in the future 
these gross over-charges will be righted. In some localities the 
growers have combined to build small storage houses of their 
own, thus reducing the costs to a minimum. All old horticul- 
tural books for three-quarters of a century have presented 
plans for the construction of apple store houses, but the idea 
has never become popular possibly on account of uncertain 
conditions. 

Altogether, there is no branch of the business of fruit 
growing that requires as much judgment as the selling of the 
crop. It is the final test of the grower's ability, in which too 
many growers fail. 



PART II 



GARDENING 



GARDENING 



CHAPTER I. 
Planning the Garden. 

The family gaideyi is a universal institution, but is not 
developed to the same state of perfection in our United States 
as in foreign countries. Very fev^ farm homes exist at the 
present time without the customary kitchen garden, but in 
rare cases are they cultivated to the best advantage. In most 
situations the entire management of the garden is left to the 
women of the household. The men have not realized that the 
returns from a well-kept garden are just as valuable and 
more important than from any similar area on the farm. As 
a result the status of the American garden has remained very 
much as it was a century ago. We have not been so alive to 
the improvement of the quality, quantity and variety of our 
vegetables as of our fruits. In many instances the garden 
space is still devoted to a few staple vegetables, such as beans, 
corn and cabbage. 

Foreigfi gardens produce not only a great quantity of the 
old standard foods, but in addition they grow a much greater 
variety of vegetables than are ever found in the American 
garden. Numbers of old farmers are known to exist who have 
never eaten asparagus and seemed to consider it as an orna- 
mental shrub to be grown in the door yard by the "women- 
folks." As a rule the improvement of the varieties in our 
American gardens has been the result of the work of a few 



156 Orchard and Garden 

specialists and the commercial seedsmen. After a nev/ sort is 
introduced and cataloged for a number of years the seedsmen 
have gradually retired the less worthy sorts, and the public 
has blindly purchased whatever was offered. Fortunately the 
public has benefited by the outcome, which has been evolved 
with very little cooperation on the part of the individual 
planter. This statement is not meant to reflect on the success 
of the occasional progressive grower, but to stimulate the lag- 
gard into a realization of what he is losing. 

Vacant lot gardens. — Practically every farm has its own 
garden. Recently many city folk have taken up gardening, 
and as a consequence, the vacant lot garden idea has spread 
rapidly. In most of our American cities enough vacant land 
exists which, if cultivated, would supply vegetables to the 
entire town. It has been said that the entire Japanese nation 
could live on the products from the waste land in our Ameri- 
can fence corners. This theory is especially true in regard to 
waste land in cities. Most cities enlarge their boundaries in a 
manner that exceeds all normal demand. A land owner at the 
edge of town will decide to dispose of his holdings in the shape 
of a new city addition of lots, so the ground is taken out of 
cultivation and divided into small parcels. It is not, as a rule, 
rapidly taken for building purposes, so for a period of years it 
lies idle, when it could very well be used for garden space. The 
idea of vacant lot cultivation is a worthy one that should be en- 
couraged to increase in popularity. Such work will be a step 
toward the highest economic development. It will mean the 
production of a crop on ground that was previously sterile. 
The idea of the family garden is not primarily to produce 
foodstuffs to sell, but to furnish fresh vegetables to the family. 
If a market can be found for any surplus supply, that will 
yield additional profit. 

Farm gardens. — On the farm there is generally a choice 
of locations for the family garden. It is extremely advisable 
not to situate it in an out-of-the-way corner which can not be 
used for any other purpose. Put it where its importance de- 



Planning the Garden 157 

serves, on the best ground that is available. Choose for the 
garden a location that has a favorable exposure, where the 
sun will strike it early in the day and as late as possible. If 
a slope is used, choose one which inclines toward the east or 
south, as soil on such slopes will become warm earlier in the 
spring than it will on a north or west slope. A garden on a 
hill will be ready for planting earlier than one in a valley and 
it will not have its plants killed so early in the fall. One season 
in a garden extending along a hillside the plants at the foot of 
the hill were killed three weeks before those on top of the hill. 
In this manner the yield of tomatoes and other plants may be 
greatly extended. 

The soil for the garden should be as rich as possible, and 
in addition to the native fertility it should be well enriched 
with stable manure each year. Stable manure is much better 
than any other form of garden fertilizer for general use, for 
it not only adds the chemical elements most needed, but also 
furnishes plenty of humus, which must be present to keep the 
garden in good physical condition. A well manured garden 
soil will retain moisture longer and will require less cultivation 
than one that has been given little or no manure. Chemical or 
commercial fertilizers should be avoided in garden work as 
they have never proven better than manure and in many cases 
their long continued application tends to destroy the texture 
of the soil, causing it to become pasty. 

Locate the garden as conveniently to the house as can be 
managed. As the products of the garden are to be used 
chiefly by the family, the site chosen should be close enough to 
the home to be easily and quickly reached from the kitchen. 
Such a location will prove not only a convenience, but a great 
time-saver for the women of the house whose time and labor 
should be conserved as carefully as that of the men. 

Arrangement. — In arranging the different plants in the 
garden it is well to have the perennials at one side along with 
the space for hot beds or cold frames. Perennial plants are 
those that live from one year to the next, planted perma- 



158 Orchard and Garden 

nently in the garden. Among them are asparagus, rhubarb 
and the herbs, such as sage. Some herbs are annuals, but it is 
well to have them occupy the same space from year to year. 
The portion of the garden that is devoted to annual crops 
should be arranged in long rows or in flat beds. The old style 
of making garden provided for raised beds, with paths be- 
tween them. These raised beds were objectionable in several 
ways. In the first place they were adapted to hand cultivation 
only. It was impossible to use a horse in such an arrange- 
ment and even the modern wheel hoes were found impractical 
for use in such beds. Then, too, much good space was wasted 
by the large number of patches that were necessary, and 
moisture was wasted as well. By raising the beds, a greater 
amount of surface was exposed for evaporation and, as a re- 
sult, the soil dried out very quickly. 

Manure. — The garden plot should be given a heavy cover 
of well rotted manure in the fall of the year, which may be 
plowed under either at that time or very early in the spring. 
Whenever it is plowed, it must be plowed deep, for that is 
one of the secrets of good gardening. Unless the soil is turned 
to an unusual depth the garden will suffer during the hot 
weather which is likely to appear any summer. After the 
ground is plowed it must be worked down well with a good 
harrow. Some gardeners use a disc harrow after the plow 
and follow the disc with a spike tooth harrow and a board 
drag. The intention is to secure a well packed seed bed that 
has been loosened to as great depth as possible. Such soil 
conditions provide for the prompt germination of the seed and 
for its continued growth during the season. 

Long roivs in the garden reduce cultivation work to the 
minimum. Every farmer knows that it is much easier to cul- 
tivate a field of corn in which the rows run the long way of 
the field than one in which they run the short way. When the 
roM^s are long, fewer turns of the cultivator will be needed, 
and it is on the turns that the most time is consumed. This 
fact is particularly true of gardens in which a horse is used 



Planning the Garden 



159 




The wheel hoe is a great convenience and labor saver. 
(11) 



160 



Orchard and Garden 



to cultivate the crop. It is also true of those gardens in which 
wheel hoes are used. Another advantage of the long row is 
that it economizes more space than the short row. Low-grow- 




Plant the g-arden in long rows so as to make cultivation easy. 

ing plants should never be planted between rows of tall grow- 
ing crops. Plant low growers at one side of the garden and 
tall growing vegetables, like corn and pole beans, at the other 
side. Rotate the planting each year so that the same crops 
will not occupy the same soil twice in succession. This prac- 



Planning the Garden 



161 



H^rb^ 


T^hu ^^r ^ 


/^i ^^.ra-f i/i 




7^«.<<i-j'i 


^trr„^^ Oh...^> 


Pca-^ 


ZjS e_ -^ >L-~s' 


^SweCT^ Cov-vv, 


C^ ^ ^ -^r^ 


/ 'o y^ a-""^ " t-s" 





T^awijr^e.^ f 0--1. f e».ea "J j 


^I^U-^-k. Jj:^ e. ■^ -y^ s 




"Pa-f k 


{2. « ^ ^^ 7«N 


Beets 


T.K. <,-/... («>. -fe-^te.^ 1 



Upper — Suggested plan for a farm garden. 

Lower — Suggestion for a garden in a city back yard. 



162 Orchard and Garden 

tice is simply good farming, but is not really so necessary in 
the growth of garden crops as it is with the usual farm fields, 
for the reason that a more liberal supply of manure is pre- 
supposed for the garden than for the regular crops of farm 
grains and grasses. 

Double crops. — Often the garden space can be so arranged 
that two crops of vegetables can be secured from the same 
ground in the same year. There are many combinations that 
can be used to secure this result. By obtaining an early start, 
many of the spring vegetables will be harvested before it is 
too late to plant the customary summer garden. As an ex- 
ample, sweet corn may follow a crop of early peas. The peas, 
being a legume, really improve the soil to a certain extent, 
making it more productive for the crop of sweet corn which 
follows. Lettuce and radishes are quick-growing, cool weather 
crops which mature early and which are worthless if per- 
mitted to stand too long. The plan, then, is to force them to 
a quick growth early in the spring, use them while they are 
prime, and finally utilize the space for later vegetables. Beans 
are a good crop to follow these spring relishes, but cabbage 
or tomatoes may be used. Later sowings of lettuce may be 
planted to follow the early crop of the same vegetable and 
the same theory is true of sweet corn. If the first planting of 
sweet corn is of an early maturing variety, it will ripen in time 
to make way for a later planting of the same sort which can 
be used in the fall. Crops which mature about midsummer, 
such as early cabbage, corn and some kinds of beans, can be 
succeeded by plantings of kale or spinach for fall use. The 
accompanying diagrams indicate some plans for the average 
garden, but they are, of course, to be modified to suit the indi- 
vidual tastes of the growers. Crops to follow early seedings 
are also indicated. 

Fencing. — The garden should by all means be enclosed by 
a good fence, which should be so constructed as to exclude all 
farm animals and especially chickens. Small mesh wire fence 
is most often used for this purpose and is probably the best 



Planning the Garden 



163 



and cheapest material. Some gardeners prefer to build a tight 
board fence, but such a protection is expensive to build, and 
has the added objecton of providing too much shade for 
economical planting. Gates must be furnished large enough 
to permit the entrance of the manure wagon and enable cul- 




The garden drill. 



tivation by horses. Some growers have designed their fences 
in such a way that the fence at either end consists of a series 
of removable panels which can be quickly taken down while 
the garden is being plowed and cultivated. Such an arrange- 
ment enables the horse to be turned outside of the garden and 
results in clean cultivation to the ends of the rows with no 
danger of uneven rows where the horse turns. This kind of 



164 Orchard and Garden 

fence costs but little more than the ordinary tight fence, and 
if it is built properly, is just as serviceable as if it were made 
of continuous wire. At all events a garden fence should be 
built substantially and permanently. A few growers believe 
in changing the location of the garden every limited number 
of years, but there is no good reason for such a theory. Well- 
kept gardens will continue to increase in productiveness each 
year, if they are properly tilled and regularly manured. Old 
garden soil should be very rich and warm. Why should years 
be spent in building up a productive soil only to change the 
garden to a new locality? The gardens of Europe have been 
in use for generations and without exception they are more 
fruitful than any of our American gardens. With them inten- 
sive gardening has become a necessity, while with us it should 
be practiced before it is our last resort. 



CHAPTER II. 

Seed Selection. 

Seeds. — During recent years a great deal of attention has 
been given to the question of seed selection and, as a conse- 
quence, many important discoveries have been made. In the 
discussion of the propagation of fruit plants the point was 
developed that it was impossible to pedigree fruit trees, be- 
cause of the fact that reproduction in the nursery is purely 
vegetative. The blossom with its attendant mixture of pollen 
does not play any part in the growing of a young fruit tree, 
A scion (twig) is simply cut from the tree which it is desired 
to propagate, and this scion is induced to grow in a seedling 
root. The young fruit tree is merely an extended growth of 
the tree from which it came. In this same relation the point 
was established that fruit trees that grew from seed seldom 
produced fruit similar to that of their parents. These two 
points should be kept in mind when considering the selection 
of garden seeds. 

Flower parts. — In order to understand the manner in 
which a seed is produced, a fundamental knowledge must be 
first established concerning the typical flower parts of a 
plant. On examining any common flower it will be found that 
it consists of certain very definite parts whose shape and ar- 
rangement may vary somewhat on comparison with other 
flowers, but whose functions are similar in nearly all cases. 
On the outside of the flower, and often covering it in the bud, 
will be found certain green leaf-like divisions. These parts 
are called sepals and together they form the calyx. Inside the 
calyx is another row or rows of divisions forming in most 



166 



Orchard and Garden 



cases the showy part 
of the blossom. These 
parts are called petals 
and when considered 
as a whole, they form 
the corolla. Inside the 
corolla is a row of 
slender stalks sur- 
mounted by a cap of 
powdery yellow or 
orange. These are the 
stamens and in the 
center of the group of 
stamens is found a 
heavier stalk, usually 
with a sticky end, 
which is called ttie pis- 
til. The parts which 
are the important ones 
in the work of the 
flower are the stamens 
and the pistil. The pistil is connected directly with the ovary in 
which the seeds are produced, but the seeds can not be devel- 
oped until some of the pollen which is produced in the stamens 
is transplanted to the sticky top of the pistil. When the pollen 
reaches that point, it quickly develops a microscopic tube which 
passes down through the stalk of the pistil and unites with the 
embryo seeds in the ovary. In some plants only pistils are found 
present and the plant is forced to depend on the pollen of its 
neighbor of the same species. The pollen from one species 
will not fertilize seeds of another species. Radish pollen will 
not fertilize lettuce seed, but pollen from yellow corn will 
readily fertilize the seed of white corn. In a few cases it is 
found that, while both stamens and pistils are found in the 
same flower, the seeds are more readily fertilized by pollen 
from some other individual plant. This general mixing of 




Flower Parts: 
Stamens. 



C. Corolla. 
O. Ovary. 



Seed Selection 167 

pollen results in seeds almost hopelessly mixed and it also 
accounts for the great variation found in plants grown from 
seed. 

New varieties. — At this point the question naturally 
arises relating to long established varieties that have re- 
mained the same for many years, such as Burpee's Bush Lima 
bean, Livingston's Stone tomato, Golden Bantam corn, etc. 
The first step toward answering this question is to ascertain 
how these varieties originated. To begin with, some gardener 
or seed grower probably noticed a particular plant in his 
garden which seemed to be better in some respects than 
others of its kind. Sweet corn is a good plant to consider as 
an example. In a field of mid-season corn a grower finds a 
stalk which ripens its corn earlier than the rest and is of a 
golden color. He saves the seed from this stalk, plants it by 
itself the next year, and awaits results. Part of the resulting 
corn proves to be similar to the original stalk and the rest is 
quite diflferent. The grower then selects those ears which 
come nearest to the type that he is trying to develop and makes 
another planting the succeeding year, again thinning out all 
the ears but those which approach his type. After a few 
years of this selection he finds that practically all his seed 
comes true to type, and he can then claim to have developed a 
new variety. A similar process was no doubt followed in the 
development of all our named varieties of vegetables. As a 
matter of fact, there is a constant tendency on the part of a 
plant to change its characteristics, sometimes for the better 
and sometimes for the worse. This fact furnishes one reason 
why so many seed catalogs are continually advertising what 
they choose to call improved varieties. It is also one reason 
why individual growers who are careless about saving their 
own seeds, do not have much success in perpetuating varieties. 

Advantage of large seed. — Recent investigations have in- 
dicated that improved yields might be expected by using only 
the largest and plumpest seeds of a given variety. Experi- 
ments were conducted by planting both small and large seeds 



168 



Orchard and Garden 



of various kinds. In every case the large seed showed a de- 
cided advantage over the small seed. Just how valuable this 
discovery will be in practice remains to be seen, but it is cer- 
tainly worth further investigation which can easily be pur- 
sued by any one with the inclination. 

Saving seed. — If the gardener expects to save his own 
seeds, he must select samples from those plants which have 
shown themselves to be true to the variety or an improve- 
ment on it. Do not let only the poorest and scrubbiest speci- 
mens remain for seed. Let the fine big heads of lettuce stand 
so that next year a larger percentage of the whole crop will 




A simple form of seed tester. 

resemble them. Do not try to gather seeds from the tag ends 
of the garden, but leave a few plants especially for seed pro- 
duction and make sure they are good plants. 

Buying seed. — If the grower does not save his own seed, 
it must be bought from a reliable dealer. Plenty of seedsmen 
sell good seed, but some also sell very poor seed. As a rule, if 
a firm has been established in one locality for a long time and 
has built up a big business, its reliability can be depended 
upon. Some of the ordinary faults of seed dealers are that 
they do not keep fresh stocks, they adulterate high-priced seed 



Seed Selection 169 

with cheap seed, and they do not exercise care to label their 
seeds properly on the packages. It is a known fact that sev- 
eral varieties of lettuce often come out of the same lot of seeds. 
The cost of good seed is very little more than the cost of poor 
seed. It is expensive economy to attempt to save on the cost 
of seed. 

Testifig seed. — All seeds should be tested before planting 
them. In order to have plenty of time for this work the 
season's supply of seeds should be ordered early in the year. 
The gardener can test them himself or he can have samples 
tested at his state experiment station free of charge. Experi- 
ment stations are equipped to examine the purity of seeds and 
also their germinating qualities. If germinating qualities are 
to be tested at home, one of the devices to secure quick sprout- 
ing of seeds is illustrated herewith. It consists of two plates, 
one of which is slightly smaller than the other, and a fold of 
cloth placed between them. The cloth is dampened, the seeds 
placed between the folds, and the smaller plate is used as a 
cover. Blotting paper may be substituted instead of the cloth. 
The top plate retains the moisture. Put the plates in a warm 
place and examine from day to day. 

The ''rag doll" seed tester- is one of the most convenient 
devices for the testing of the larger garden seeds such as corn, 
peas or beans. It is especially valuable in the work with corn 
because it enables the grower to make an accurate test of each 
ear before planting. All that is needed is a strip of cloth, a 
black pencil and a water pail. Take any strip of white cloth 
and mark it off in squares about four inches across. Leave a 
strip of six inches at each end that is unmarked and allow a 
wide margin along each edge. Then take ten grains from 
each ear of corn or from each lot of seed to be tested and 
place these grains in a bunch on one of the squares. When 
all of the squares have been filled fold the edges of the cloth 
carefully over the seed from each side, taking care not to 
molest the grains or to mix them. Then very carefully roll 
the whole strip up and tie it securely with string. It is now 



170 Orchard and Garden 

ready to be soaked in warm water for a few hours. After 
it has been soaked for from three to five hours it can be placed 
in a bucket or pail with a little water in the bottom and a cover 
over the top. It is well to place a stick of wood in the bottom 
of the pail so that the "rag doll" does not actually lay in the 
water. At the end of a week the tester can be carefully 
unrolled and each lot of seed can be examined to detrmine 
the percentage of germinable grains. Each square of course 
will represent an ear or a lot of seed and the ears or lots 
tested should bear numbers and the corresponding numbers 
should appear on the cloth. 

Seeds should not be gathered until they are fully ripe, 
when they should be put into envelopes, properly labeled and 
stored in a cool, dry place. 



CHAPTER III. 

Spring Vegetables. 

Certain spiing vegetables may be planted very early in 
the season before danger from frost is over. This chapter is 
concerned only with these plants. 

The spring garden. — The time for planting the spring 
garden must be determined by the progress of the season and 
by the condition of the soil. The rule is to plant the very 
hardy vegetables, like onions, radishes and lettuce, just as 
soon as the ground is in fit condition to be worked readily. 
A wet season will retard this planting time and a dry season 
will advance it sometimes considerably. No garden should be 
planted at any time unless it is possible to work the soil deep 
and pulverize it to a fine, firm seed bed. 

The plants suitable for the early garden will be consid- 
ered in alphabetical order and not in the order of their sea- 
sonal appearance in the garden. 

Asparagus. — This vegetable is a perennial, that is, it lives 
in the soil from year to year. It is customary to have the as- 
paragus bed at one side of the garden where it will not be dis- 
turbed. The plants form thick mats of roots from which 
heavy stalks are sent up early in the spring. These stalks are 
the parts to be eaten and constitute a delicate vegetable that 
should be in every garden. 

Its culture is quite easy. It is customary to plant one- 
year-old roots instead of seeds in order to gain time in the 
preparation of the bed. These roots should be planted in rich 
earth at a depth of about six inches. For garden culture they 
may be planted in rows about three feet apart and placed 



172 



Orchard and Garden 



from twelve to fifteen inches apart in the row. Asparagus 
will not thrive in poor soil, and, if the soil is not naturally 
light and rich, it should be made so by the addition of an 
abundance of well-rotted manure. Keep down the weeds, 
especially during the first two seasons. Mulch with stable 




Asparagus roots, showing' where the shoots originate. 

manure in the fall and permit the manure to remain on per- 
manently, for it adds to the depth of the soil over the crowns 
as well as furnishes much needed fertility. Shoots should not 
be taken off during the first year and only sparingly the sec- 
ond year. If cut before the plants are well established, there 
will be a tendency to weaken the roots and cause the bed to 



Spring Vegetables 



173 



be unprofitable. Favorite varieties of asparagus are Con- 
over's Collosal, Barr's Mammoth, and Reading Giant. 

Beets. — While beets are not among the very early gar- 
den vegetables, they are sufficiently hardy that they should 

be planted soon after 
the ground is thor- 
oughly warmed. Some 
growers even plant 
part of their seed be- 
fore the ground is 
quite warm. Beets 
are quite easily grown. 
They should be planted 
in rows from twelve 
to fifteen inches apart, 
several inches apart in 
the row, and about an 
inch deep. By making 
successive plantings 
about a month apart, 
beets may be had 
throughout the sum- 
mer. The tops are 
sometimes eaten as 
greens, but the form 
knowai as Swiss Chard 
is much more adapted 
for this purpose. Swiss 
Chard is a kind of beet 
that does not develop a 
fleshy root. The leaf 
stalk and the leaves 
are eaten, the former 
to be prepared as asparagus and the latter to be boiled and 
served as spinach or kale. Beets planted late in summer will 




A good type of garden beet. 



174 



Orchard and Garden 



usually keep through 
the winter if gathered 
after cool weather sets 
in and stored in a dry, 
cool place. 

Coj-n Salad. — This 
plant should be more 
generally known, as it 
furnishes a substitute 
for lettuce before that 
crop is ready for use. 
It may be planted in 
the fall of the year and 
protected during the 
winter with a light 
mulch of straw. It 
will start to grow as 
soon as the least warm 
weather approaches 
and will be ready for 
use before other vege- 
tables. It may also be 
planted in early 
spring. In either case 
it should be planted in 
drills about a foot 
apart. Its culture is otherwise the same as for lettuce. 

Lettuce. — A garden would not be worthy the name if it 
did not include its rows of lettuce. This salad vegetable may 
be had in a great many varieties which are suited to differ- 
ent purposes. Some varieties form tight heads almost like 
small cabbages, some are collections of large loosely curled 
leaves and others are a combination of the two forms. 

Since lettuce is eaten green, it is necessary to force the 
leaves to a quick growth, thus insuring their crispness and 
tenderness. Accordingly the soil should be loose and rich 




■hard. 



Spring Vegetables 



175 




(12) 



Kvery garden should have its row of lettuce. 



176 Orchard and Garden 

and cultivation should be very thorough. Often lettuce is 
planted by sowing the seed broadcast on a small plot of 
ground. But this method crovv^ds the plants and prevents 
both perfect development and cultivation. It is a much better 
plan to plant the seed in rows and thin out as the plants in- 
crease in size. In this way the small plants can be used while 
quite young and the plants which are left will have more 
space in which to develop. The varieties that form heads 
are grown to perfection only by transplanting. The seed 
should be sown in a cold frame and as soon as the plants are 
large enough and the outside earth warm enough, the small 
plants can be transplanted to the permanent row. The rows 
should be a foot apart and the heads should be set from 
eight to twelve inches apart in the row. They should have 
constant cultivation. Plants of head lettuce may be set in 
any vacant space in the garden. If there is a vacancy in a 
row of some other vegetable use that space to set out a few 
heads of lettuce. They mature rapidly and can always be 
disposed of for some later crop. In the South, lettuce may 
be planted in the fall and permitted to remain in the ground 
over the winter. This practice is not successful in the North. 
The best varieties of leaf lettuce are Black Seeded Simp- 
son and Grand Rapids. The best of the heading forms are 
Big Boston and All Heart. 

Onions. — Onions may be grown from sets, which are 
merely small onions, or from seed. They require the very 
best cultivation if grown from seed. Those produced from 
the sets are used extensively for green onions eaten raw in 
the spring. The sets may be planted as soon as the ground 
is in condition to work and will grow rapidly. The seed may 
be sown in the open ground or it may be started in a hot bed 
and the seedlings transplanted after the arrival of warmer 
weather. Such an arrangement hastens the crop quite de- 
cidedly. When grown on a large scale the seed is sown in 
drills and the young seedlings thinned out so that they stand 
a few inches apart in the row. Frequent shallow cultivation 



Spring Vegetables 177 

is essential for this crop. If the onions are grown for winter 
use, they should be harvested as soon as the tops are dried 
and stored in a cool, dry place. Distinct varieties of onion 
sets are difficult to obtain so they are generally sold by the 
color as white, red, or yellow. 

The best varieties to plant from seed are the Prizetaker 
and the Yellow Globe Danvers. 

Parsley. — This small and very ornamental plant is used 
as a garnish and as a flavor in soups. The seed should be 
sown very early in the spring in permanent rows or may be 
planted in a cold frame and the young plants later set out in 
rows a foot apart and about four inches apart in the row. 
When once set, the plants may remain in the ground over the 
winter if they are protected with a slight mulch. A few of 
them can be potted at a time if wanted for winter use. and 
brought into the house where they will continue to grow. A 
pot of parsley in the kitchen window is attractive as well as 
useful for whenever leaves are taken off, they are rapidly 
replaced by new ones. 

Parsnip. — The seeds of this vegetable should be sown 
as early in the spring as possible in rows about two feet 
apart and the plants should })e thinned so as to stand several 
inches apart in the row. This plant is grown for its edible 
roots and should be given frequent shallow cultivation. 
While the parsnip is included among the early spring vege- 
tables, it is so listed merely because it must be planted early. 
The roots are not ready for use until late summer and are 
improved if permitted to remain in the ground till after the 
first freeze. They may even remain in the ground over the 
winter without injury, but they must be dug before any 
growth starts in the spring or they will be unfit for use. If 
permitted to remain neglected in the soil, they produce quan- 
tities of seed and may become a pest in the orchard. 

The variety known as the Hollow Crown is perhaps the 
best. 

Peas. — Among the first seeds to be planted in the spring 



178 Orchard and Garden 

are the peas. Some varieties may be planted earlier than 
others. The smooth peas are, as a rule, regarded as more 
hardy than the wrinkled varieties, although some of the 
wrinkled sorts are quite hardy and of superior quality. If 
the ground is too heavily manured, a heavy growth of vine 
will be forced at the expense of the pods. Moderate fertility 
is to be preferred. Fertilizers rich in nitrogen are to be 
avoided. The rows should be three feet apart for most sorts, 
although the dwarf kinds, like the American Wonder, may 
be planted more closely. Sow the seeds so that the plants will 
be a few inches apart in the row. Some growers plant two 
rows together about six inches apart and use the same sup- 
port for both rows. Where space is limited, this is a good 
plan. Three-foot poultry netting makes an ideal support for 
peas, but small brush from the woods is just as good if prop- 
erly selected and firmly stuck into the ground. Peas will 
succeed better if planted several inches deep than if drilled 
with an ordinary garden drill. Some gardeners dig a trench 
about six inches deep and plant the peas in the bottom, cov- 
ering them with two inches of dirt. As the peas appear 
through the surface, more soil is filled in until the trench is 
filled. This method causes deep rooting, thereby avoiding 
danger from drouth. 

Sugar peas are a variety used much like green beans, 
the entire pod and its contents are cooked and eaten. This 
sort is popular in some parts of the South. 

The best standard varieties are (early) Gradus, (me- 
dium) American Wonder and (late) Telephone. All varie- 
ties may be planted at intervals of a few weeks to insure a 
succession of crops throughout the season. 

Radi.'ih. — This vegetable is one of our most hardy spring 
sorts and may be planted as early as any vegetable grown. 
In most parts of the North it may be grown all winter in hot 
beds and in the South it will grow all winter out of doors. 
In every case the radish should be planted in warm, rich soil 
where it will mature quickly, in order not to become tough. 



Spring Vegetables 



179 



Plant radishes in permanent rows about a foot apart and thin 
to one to two inches apart. As they grow, the largest may 
be pulled for use. They thus receive the desired thinning. 
Radishes do not thrive after hot weather starts; so it is in- 
advisable to attempt to plant them for successive crops. Win- 
ter radishes are planted late in August or early in September 
and are ready for use before frost. Some varieties are very 
fine and firm and with care can be stored for winter use. 
They are usually dug at the first indication of cold weather 




Several types of radish. 



and either stored in a cool cellar or placed in a pile and cov- 
ered with earth to a depth of two feet. 

The Cardinal Globe, Icicle and Long Scarlet Short Top 
are some of the popular sorts. White Chinese is a good winter 
variety. 

Spinach. — These most delicious greens may be very easi- 
ly grown. The seed is planted either early in the spring or 
late in the fall. If planted in the fall, the plants will live 
over winter and furnish an abundance of greens as soon as 



180 



Orchard and Garden 




Victoria spiiiacli. 



growth starts in the spring. The spring-planted seed will 
furnish a plentiful supply of summer greens. Spinach does 
not succeed well in warm weather and for this reason the 
fall planted seed is usually more successful. The New Zea- 
land spinach is a variety that thrives in warm weather and 
is recommended for planting for the summer crop. 

The best variety of the ordinary spinach is the Victoria. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Summer Garden. 

Certain vegetables are regarded as being strictly adapted 
to warm weather, so an arbitrary form of dividing them into 
classes has been adopted. Those vegetables for the spring 
garden have been considered in the previous chapter and now 
the various plants suitable for the summer garden will be dis- 
cussed. 

Beans. — Any garden worthy of the name must contain 
some beans, and often in the country, when a good idea is 
carried to an extreme, a garden contains little else. There 
are many varieties of beans and several distinct classes, such 
as pole beans, kidney beans, lima beans, etc. The soil re- 
quirements for all beans does not vary to any extent. The 
seed should be planted in well-prepared soil which is mod- 
erately rich, and given good cultivation. Beans of all varie- 
ties are very tender, so that they should never be planted until 
all danger of frost is past and the ground is thoroughly 
warmed. Beans planted in cold, wet soil are slow to germinate 
and usually rot before they sprout. In planting the larger 
beans, when only a small quantity is to be grown, it is advis- 
able to place each seed in the soil with the fingers, using care 
to place the scar on the side of the bean down. If the bean is 
laid on its ''back," it will sprout only with great difficulty. 
Try planting some lima beans in a box of soil in the house in 
various positions and see which position furnishes the first 
plant above ground. 

Pole beans should be planted in hills not less than three 
feet apart. As their name implies, they must be provided with 



182 Orchard and Garden 

some sort of support. This support may be poles of any 
description, strings, or the stems of some other growing crop 
such as corn. Often certain varieties of pole beans are 
planted in the same hill with corn and permitted to climb the 
stalks. 

For the small garden the bush beans are more satisfactory 
than the pole beans, because they do not require so much at- 
tention or need support of any kind. They form a low bush 
and the beans are usually produced in great abundance. 

The snap beans are grown for their edible pods, although 
many sorts can be allowed to ripen their seeds which are 
then used dried. Some of the snap beans are green in color 
and some are yellow or white. The latter are generally called 
wax beans. 

The following varieties are the best of their respective 
classes for general planting : Bush beans : Refugee, Golden 
Wax, Valentine. Pole beans : Kentucky Wonder, Lazy Wife, 
Golden Cluster. Lima beans : Burpee's Improved Bush, Ford- 
hook Bush, Carpentaria, and Early Leviathan. The last two 
are tall-growing varieties. 

Cabbage. — This vegetable may be grown as an early sum- 
mer crop or it may be planted later and harvested late enough 
so that it may be stored for winter use. Early cabbage must 
be used promptly after the heads form or they will crack and 
spoil. 

Cabbage seed should be planted in a hot bed, if early 
cabbage is desired, or in a prepared seed bed in the open 
ground, if it is desired to grow a crop for storage. The seed 
bed should be carefully worked up and the soil made very rich 
and fine. The seed may be sown broadcast or planted in rows 
a few inches apart. As soon as the young plants show above 
the ground they should be thinned so as to develop strong 
individual plants. They are allowed to remain in the seed 
bed or hotbed until they are ready for planting in the open 
ground. They should not be too large at planting time. It 
takes some experience to know just how early to plant the 



The Summer Garden 



18J 




'Kentucky Wondei'" is the best green pole bean. 



184 Orchard and Garden 

seed in order to have plants of the right size at the proper 
time. The permanent plants should be set in rows about three 
fCiSt apart and about eighteen inches apart in the rows. Some 
growers space them farther apart than this ; but in garden 
culture it is usually desirable to economize as much space as 
possible. In setting the plants in the open ground the tops 
must be clipped back so that the leaf surface is reduced at least 
half. This pruning enables the plant to become established 
quicker, and, if well watered at the time of planting, young 
cabbage plants seldom wilt. If they are not cut back, many 
plants will die, because the large leaf expanse gives off 
moisture more rapidly than the recently disturbed roots can 
gather it. 

Some quick-acting fertilizer, such as sheep or hen 
manure, should be placed in each hill in order to stimulate a 
good vigorous growth at the start and cultivation should be 
constant from the time the plants are set out until they begin 
to form heads. If they are cultivated after the heads begin 
to form, a new growth might be stimulated and, as a result, 
the heads will split. The same effect may be expected if the 
cabbage is grown during a dry summer and heavy fall rains 
set in before the heads are harvested. Winter cabbage may 
be stored in a cool cellar or it may be placed in piles and cov- 
ered with earth. In the latter method the plants are placed 
in rows with the heads down and with the roots up. The en- 
tire plant should be pulled up instead of cut off when so stored. 

Danish Ball Head, Flat Dutch, and Charleston are stand- 
ard varieties of merit. Savoy cabbage is a form with curled 
leaves and is of very good quality, but is not easily grown by 
the amateur. 

Chinese cabbage is an entirely different vegetable, al- 
though it belongs to the same botanical family. It resembles 
a large bunch of celery, and, like celery, it is grown for its 
stalks. The leaf stalks of the Chinese cabbage are prepared 
for the table in the same way that ordinary cabbage is served. 
Its taste is similar, too, but in cooking, it lacks the familiar 



The Summer Garden 



185 




A good head of early cabbage. 



186 Orchard and Garden 

cabbage odor so often found objectionable. It is of the easiest 
culture and is grown as a distinctly late summer crop. The 
seed is planted about the middle of August and the plants are 
thinned to stand about twelve to eighteen inches apart each 
way. Their cultivation is similar to that of ordinary cabbage, 
for they must not be permitted to dry out. Chinese cabbage 
makes a very handsome vegetable and the ease with which 
it can be grown and the excellence of its table qualities should 
make it more generally used in this country. 

Cauliflower. — The care of this vegetable is the same as 
the cultivation of cabbage. Everything that has been said 
concerning cabbage culture will apply to this crop except that 
it is often necessary to tie up the outer leaves of the plant in 
order to blanch the large flower bud in the center. This flower 
head forms the edible part of the plant. Dwarf Erfurt is a 
choice variety for home use. 

Collards. — A form of the kale plant is much grown in the 
Southern states under the name of collards. It is planted in 
rows about two feet apart with the plants about two feet apart 
in the row. The leaves are eaten as greens. 

Com. — Sweet corn is one of the most valuable of all our 
summer vegetables, and it should have a place in every gar- 
den. Since it requires as little attention as any crop that can 
be grown, it is by no means difficult to grow. The ground for 
sweet corn should be rich and well prepared. If this condi- 
tion is observed, any one can grow corn to perfection. 

Most varieties of sweet corn are rather tender and should 
not be planted until all danger from frost is past, and the 
ground is thoroughly warmed. The seed may then be planted 
in rows two or three feet apart and stand from one to two 
feet apart in the row. Closer planting is permissible for the 
smaller growing kinds like Golden Bantam and for most any 
kinds in small gardens where space is at a premium. 

As soon as the corn shows above the ground it should be 
well cultivated and during the season the rows should be hoed 
after each shower. If showers are not plentiful, it should be 



The Summer Garden 187 

cultivated occasionally in order to keep down the weeds. Suc- 
cessive plantings should be made at intervals of ten days to 
two weeks so as to have tender corn throughout the season. 
The later plantings can be made in the ground which was oc- 
cupied by early garden crops such as radishes, lettuce and 
onions. 

Golden Bantam is a very fine early variety that is more 
hardy than many other sorts and can often be planted to ad- 
vantage long before other kinds could be safely started. This 
variety, as its name implies, is small both in stalk and in ear 
and the grain is golden yellow in color. The color has helped 
prevent its popularity on the markets ; but growers generally 
are learning that it is one of the very best kinds to grow for 
home use. Undoubtedly there will be a strong market demand 
for this sort after the public becomes educated to its excellent 
flavor. 

Early Adams is also a good early variety, while StowelFs 
Evergreen will yield an excellent main crop. Country Gentle- 
man is a corn of fine flavor, although the grains are not ar- 
ranged in regular rows, but are distributed over the cob in an 
irregular fashion. Mammoth Late is a good variety to grow 
for late summer and fall use, but, while it is large in size, it 
lacks much in quality when compared with the better sorts. 

Cucumber. — The cucumber belongs to the same family to 
which the melons, squashes and gourds belong. It is a hot 
weather plant, so, therefore, the seed should not be planted 
until danger from frost is past. Like all members of the melon 
family, it demands good soil that has been well prepared. If 
not already rich, the soil must be made fertile by the liberal 
use of manure. The seeds should be planted in hills about 
six feet apart and cultivated constantly till the vines reach 
such size as to interfere with the work. About a dozen seeds 
should be planted in each hill. The young plants can then be 
uhinned out so as to leave only two or three of the strongest 
vines. Thinning will preferably be done only after all danger 
from the striped beetle is past. If desired the young plants 



188 



Orchard and Garden 



1 


^M 




"1 


pi^^^' ^ 


Wf,y n 




iHIB 








1 



can be started in the house by planting the seeds in old berry 
boxes or on square chunks of sod turned bottomside up. There 

is also a very convenient paper pot 
manufactured for this purpose of 
transplanting plants. In any case 
the plants are set out without dis- 
turbing the medium in which they 
have been started. This method 
results in the production oi cucum- 
bers somewhat earlier in the sea- 
son than if they were planted in 
the open ground. A few very early 
cucumbers may also be grown in 
the hotbed by planting several 
seeds in the center of each bed 
where other early crops are grow- 
ing. The cucumbers will not begin 
to cover much ground until the 
other crops are disposed of, when 
they can be alloted the entire space 
if necessary. 
The White Spine is one of the 
favorites for general cultivation, although there are many 
good varieties offered by seedsmen. The Boston Pickling and 
Chicago Pickling are widely grown for the purpose of secur- 
ing the small cucumbers for use in making pickles. 

Eggplant. — This vegetable belongs to the same family as 
the tomato. It is grown in the same way. The cultural direc- 
tions for tomato will apply to the eggplant except that the 
seeds of the latter are to be planted earlier in the spring. The 
young plants are very tender, but, after they are planted out 
in the open ground and become established, their culture is 
not difficult. 

Kale. — The edible part of this vegetable is the leaves, 
which are eaten as greens. The name is sometimes applied 
loosely to several members of the cabbage family, but the true 



Melon plant started in an old 
tin can. The can has had the 
top and bottom melted off and 
one side has been split so as to 
facilitate the removal of the 
ball of earth. 



The Summer Garden 189 

kale is a distinct plant of much merit. It is easily grown by 
sowing the seeds broadcast like turnip seeds during the month 
of August. It thrives without transplanting and will furnish 
an abundance of greens during the fall months. If the earth 
is lightly raked over the seed, germination is more satisfac- 
tory than if the seed is merely left on the surface of the 
ground, although in favorable seasons it will grow with no 
further attention. It may thus be planted among late sweet 
corn and will yield greens until freezing weather. By cover- 
ing with a light mulch of straw, it may be kept in condition for 
use far into the winter. When kale is to be grown in a small 
space, the seeds should be planted the middle of August in 
shallow drills about eighteen inches apart. The plants may 
then be thinned to stand a foot apart in the row. This style 
of planting coupled with good culture will produce larger 
heads than the easy method first discussed. 

The Scotch Curled Kale is regarded as the tenderest and 
best flavored of the several varieties oftered. 

Muskmelon. — This most delicious of all garden products 
should find a place in every garden except those of the far 
North. Like most members of its family, it requires warm 
weather to develop successfully. The soil should be rich and, 
in fact, can hardly be too rich. The culture of the plant is 
exactly the same as for cucumbers. If ground mice are abund- 
ant, some care must be used in planting muskmelon seed, as 
the mice are extremely fond of them. There is on record 
a five-acre field that was replanted to muskmelons three differ- 
ent times. The third planting was eaten just as promptly as 
the first ones and by that time it was too late in the season to 
try again. Some gardeners claim that such damage can be 
avoided by supplying an abundance of seed and leaving part 
of it on top of the ground for the use of the mice. It has 
been also suggested that the seeds be lightly coated with tar 
to make them distasteful to the mice. It is probable that a 
few traps and a little poisoned seed might be useful in a 
field that was previously known to be infested with mice. In 



190 



Orchard and Garden 



harvesting muskmelons they should remain on the vine until 
the stem separates readily from the melon. When grown for 
market they are always to be gathered before they are fully 
ripe. This fact constitutes another good reason for growing 
muskmelons in one's garden instead of buying those that were 
picked green. 

Watermelons. — These melons are grown in exactly the 
same manner as cucumbers and muskmelons except that the 

vines require some- 
what more space. All 
directions concerning 
the culture of musk- 
melon will apply also 
to this splendid fruit. 

The following varie- 
ties are good: Sweet 
Heart, Watson, Ice- 
berg, and Rattlesnake. 
New Zealand Spin- 
ach. — This form of 
spinach is suitable for 
hot weather culture. 
The seed is to be plant- 
ed in May after no 
more frosts are to be 
expected and will fur- 
nish an abundance of 
excellent greens dur- 
ing the hot months. 
Otherwise its culture 
is similar to that of the 
ordinary spinach. 

Ok)'a. — As this is a 
southern plant it is not 
as well known in the 
North as it should be. 




Tliere is no doubt but that the watermelon is 
a splendid "fruit." 



The Summer Garden 



191 




(i:^) 



192 Orchard and Garden 

In the South it is a staple article of food and is served in sev- 
eral ways, but chiefly in soups. The tender green seed pods 
are the parts to be used. The seed is planted in rows about 
eighteen inches apart, with the plants about six inches apart 
in the row. As the young plants are tender, the seed should 
not be planted until the earth is warm. Good cultivation will 
assure an abundant crop. The seed pods must be used before 
they become too hard, when they are unfit for food. The 
flower is large and quite showy, so the plant is sometimes 
grown for its ornamental effect. 

The varieties known as Long Green and Perkins are best. 

Pepper's. — Peppers are used mostly in pickling. Their 
cultural directions are the same as for tomatoes. 

Potatoes. — Most average gardens do not boast of sufficient 
acreage for growing potatoes so they are hardly to be classed 
as a garden crop. They will be discussed in detail in the chap- 
ter on special crops. 

Squashes. — The care of squashes is the same as for cu- 
cumbers and the other members of the family already men- 
tioned. For serving they are baked, or cooked for pies like 
pumpkin. 

The White Bush Squash is a summer sort that is easily 
grown and exceedingly prolific. The vines grow somewhat in 
the shape of a bush, occupying but little space. They may be 
planted three or four feet apart. The Hubbard is a very fine 
black-shelled variety that is grown largely for market. This 
variety requires a long, warm season in which to mature its 
fruit properly and after which they can be safely stored all 
winter. The Cushaw or crook necked squash is a favorite in 
the South, where it is universally grown. Directions for its 
culture are the same as just described. 

Sioeet Potatoes. — In the South sweet potatoes are a com- 
mon garden crop and in favorable sections are extensively 
raised as a field crop. They are easily grown on any light soil. 
The tubers of the previous season are planted in a hotbed in 



The Summer Garden 193 

the early spring, and, as the green shoots appear, they are 
pulled from the parent potato and used as sets for the garden 
planting. These sweet potato plants are merely sprouts from 
the old tuber and they are produced in large numbers. They 
should be planted to a depth of several inches, and, as the 
season advances, the soil should be drawn toward the rows 
so that ultimately the plajits will stand on the top of a slight 
ridge. If there has been a shortage of plants for the earliest 
setting, more can be obtained by cutting off the tips of the 
growing vines as soon as they are well started. These tips 
should be about a foot long, and are to be used in the same way 
as the sprouts produced from the tubers in the hotbeds. This 
method is, of course, of value only in sections having a long 
season and would perhaps, be useless in the North owing to 
the fact that the plants set late would not have time to ripen 
their crop before frost. As a rule, the plants are left undis- 
turbed from the time the vines cover the ground until frost. 
At the first slight frost the vines are likely to be killed. The 
potatoes should then be dug and removed to a dry frost-proof 
storage room. They are often successfully stored in dry sand ; 
but under ordinary conditions they are somewhat difficult to 
keep without rotting. 

Tomatoes will be considered under a separate chapter on 
special crops. 

Turnips. — These vegetables are usually planted on ground 
that was occupied by another crop earlier in the season. They 
may be planted in rows ten inches apart or they may be sown 
broadcast over the soil to take care of themselves. The latter 
method is most widely used and produces very good results. 
The turnip is such a hardy, vigorous vegetable that it requires 
but little attention after the seed is planted. If the ground has 
been planted to other crops during the summer, it should be 
fairly free from weeds and the soil should be loose. Other- 
wise the ground must be especially prepared in the same way 
advised for the preparation of the spring garden. Then the 



194 Orchard and Garden 

seed may be scattered over the surface and afterward lightly 
covered with a rake. If, after this preparation, the gardener 
can be favored with a good shower to start the seed, he may 
rest assured that he will harvest a crop of turnips. Perhaps 
the assurance that they require so little attention is the main 
reason that turnips are so universally grown. 



CHAPTER V. 
Special Crops for Canning and Market. 

Truck crops. — Any garden crop can be and often is grown 
as a special crop for the market. In most instances the grow- 
ing of these special crops is managed by trained men who 
have had experience along their particular line and have be- 
come expert in the cultivation of certain vegetables. Success 
with some particular crop in a small garden does not neces- 
sarily imply success with the same crop when grown on a 
large scale. Because a man has grown very excellent rad- 
ishes or cabbage or onions in his home garden, he should not 
feel too confident about attempting to grow the same crops 
on a large area with the idea that he can market them profit- 
ably. There are many items to be considered in the growing 
of the truck crop. 

Selling special crops.— The first point to consider is the 
ability to dispose of the crop after it is sold ; because, if it is 
impossible to sell what has been grown, it would be more pref- 
erable never to have planted the seed. Selling vegetables is 
not an easy matter to accomplish for several reasons. In the 
first place, the question of transportation is an important fac- 
tor. The successful truck growers are usually situated close 
to some large city where they can sell their products imme- 
diately after gathering and no unreasonable transportation 
bill will absorb the profits of the crop. Some truck growers 
of the South ship their vegetables great distances North every 
spring, but always very early in the season before northern- 
grown crops are available. Crops of lettuce and other tender 
vegetables grown in California are often marketed in the East 



196 Orchard and Garden 

in spite of the great distance to be transported ; but this 
produce also is sold at a time when no similar vegetables are 
obtainable in the East. 

Soils. — The question of soils is important in connection 
with commercial gardening. Almost any farm contains a 
small plot of ground sufficiently rich for a successful garden ; 
but, if the entire farm were utilized for gardening, the quality 
of the soil would probably fall far short of expected standards 
for growing a profitable crop. 

TJie previous experience of the grower will also have 
much influence with the measure of success which the busi- 
ness of trucking may bring. Most successful commercial 
gardeners are men who have had long experience in the busi- 
ness and who have gradually extended their plantings of cer- 
tain crops from year to year until they became proficient in 
handling the large area of some one commodity to the best 
of their ability. Many of the most successful market garden- 
ers in this country are foreign born. The fact has been men- 
tioned before that gardening in Europe and in Asia is much 
more efficiently done than in this country, but this statement 
does not infer that Americans do not make good gardeners. 
Until this time the massing of our population has not been 
crowded enough to force excellence in this branch of agricul- 
tural work. Gardening in any form constitutes hard labor. 
The American farmer finds it easier to devote his time to such 
crops as corn and small grains than to develop a backache over 
a truck farm. Conditions have arisen, however, that are caus- 
ing American farmers to turn their attention to market gar- 
dening and, of course, our Americans will ultimately make as 
good gardeners as they are general farmers. 

Sometimes a lack of capital will cause failure in truck 
growing. This kind of farming requires more labor, more 
men employed and more money for handling the crop than any 
other branch of our agricultural activity. Consequently those 
who enter into the business with small means may find that 



Special Crops for Canning and Market 197 

they are unaljle to grow and harvest a crop which they planted 
with the highest hopes. 

Canning cro?j.s-.— Probably the simplest form of market 
gardening is the growing of special crops for canning fac- 
tories. Strictly speaking, this work can hardly be called mar- 
ket gardening, because it is restricted to certain specified crops 
that are capable of being preserved in cans. Among the.se are 
tomatoes, corn, beans, peas, and, to a lesser extent, spinach, 
pumpkins, etc. In growing such crops it is customary to .sell 
the entire yield to the canning factory before the seeds are 
planted. That is, the grower makes a contract to supply the 
factory with the entire product from a certain acreage at an 
agreed price. A contract of this .sort .should be .so drawn that 
it will protect both the grower and the factory, and in filling 
the contract the grower should exercise care not to violate a 
clau.se or phrase which might render the contract void. If he 
agrees to deliver the entire marketable crop from a given area, 
he should be sure that this crop really is delivered and that no 
shortage in the measurement of the land exists. Sometimes a 
grower is tempted to .sell a portion of such a crop to another 
cannery at a higher price, only to find that he has broken his 
contract thereby and so can not compel the factory manage- 
ment to live up to its side of the bargain. Most of the crops 
gi-own for canning are of fairly ea.sy culture and for the most 
part they do not require the soil, care or capital necessary for 
the smaller crops. Some of these crops will be mentioned in 
detail later. 

"Home Hampers.'' — On Long Island a method of market- 
ing produce direct to the consumer has been developed. This 
"Home Hamper" .system involves the use of a kind of crate or 
hamper in which are packed an assortment of fresh vegetables. 
The collection is planned to supply families of diff'erent sizes 
and contents vary as the season changes. The hampers are 
shipped direct from the farm to the consumer, the vegetables 
arrive clean and fresh and the city cu.stomer pays less for his 
garden truck than if he had bought it from the local market 



198 Orchard and Garden 

or grocer. On the other hand, by eliminating a middleman 
the producer is enabled to realize more for his produce than 
if he sold it through a commission house. The plan has been 
such a pronounced success that it is worth trying in any local- 
ity where vegetables are produced in commercial quantities. 
Such a system of marketing, of course, necessitates the pro- 
duction of a complete list of vegetables and small fruits, so 
that the individual grower has no opportunity to specialize in 
any one crop. 

It should be kept in mind that gardening on a large scale 
is not different from family gardening in method. All the care 
necessary in the small garden is also demanded in commercial 
planting. This occupation means much physical labor, which 
can, however, usually be made lighter by the use of drills, 
horse cultivators and other special farm machinery adapted to 
this particular branch of agriculture. 

Tomatoes. — Among the most important vegetables that 
are grown commercially are tomatoes. Until comparatively 
recent years this attractive and valuable fruit was regarded 
as unfit for food and was grown only for ornament in gardens. 
This old-time prejudice has been completely overcome, till 
today the tomato, either fresh or canned, is known everywhere 
and is increasing in popularity each year. Thousands of acres 
are grown annually for the exclusive use of canning factories, 
while the product of other thousands of acres is shipped to the 
market for immediate use. The demand for tomatoes seems 
to be growing constantly each year. 

Growing the plants. — Tomato seed is sown very early in 
the spring in specially prepared beds in the open ground, in 
hotbeds or cold frames, or in boxes in the house. The earlier 
the plants are started, the better are the prospects for an early 
crop of ripe fruit. For the most part the canning factories 
prefer to have their tomatoes delivered later in the season 
after other crops have been canned. On this account tomatoes 
that are intended for the canning factory are frequently grown 
from seed planted in beds in the open ground. Regardless of 



Special Crops for Canning and Market 199 

where the seed is started, the soil must be rich so as to give 
the young plants sufficient nourishment for a sturdy growth. 

Transplanting. — When they have thrown out one or two 
permanent leaves, they should be transplanted so that they 
stand not closer than three inches apart. Some growers trans- 
plant a second time, claiming that they thereby secure an addi- 
tional yield that more than pays for the cost of growing the 
plants. A few growers even advocate the method of planting 
the seeds in paper bands placed in the hotbed. These bands 
take the place of small flower pots and serve to hold the soil 
about the roots when the time comes to set the plants in the 
field. While this system may seem a rather elaborate prac- 
tice for a commercial grower, its value has been proven in 
some cases. The amount of work involved by this method is 
so great as to make it prohibitive for most commercial grow- 
ers, but it is doubtless a good plan to follow in setting only a 
small patch. 

Setting the phuits. — The plants are set in permanent 
ground as soon as danger from frost is past. In the latitude 
of central Illinois tomato plants should be in the field not later 
than May twentieth. Danger from frost is over in that local- 
ity by the tenth of May and an interval of ten days is avail- 
able in which to do the planting. For home use a few plants 
may be set out as soon as the ground is warm and the plants 
large enough to be set out. If cold weather should follow, they 
may be protected by placing some temporary shelter over 
them. Fruit jars make good covers, or any one of several 
patent plant protectors may be purchased. One or two layers 
of newspaper placed over tender plants in the early spring 
will often save them when frost is threatening. As a rule, it 
does not pay to attempt to grow early tomatoes in the North, 
because the southern crop is available long before the earliest 
grown northern fruits can be marketed. The commercial 
grower in the North will meet with more success if he con- 
fines his attempts to the main crop, which, as a rule, is mar- 
keted after the southern crop is exhausted. 



200 Orchard and Garden 

Cnltivating and fertilizing. — The plants are set in the 
field four feet apart each way and they should be in checked 
rows so as to enable cultivation in both directions. No crop 
responds more readily to cultivation than the tomato and with- 
out cultivation it is a commercial failure. The fields should be 
cultivated from six to eight times during the growing season, 
with a frequent hoeing by hand to kill whatever weeds were 
missed by the cultivator. Good stable manure makes an ex- 
cellent fertilizer for a crop of tomatoes ; but, when that is not 
available, it may be substituted by a commercial fertilizer con- 
taining two per cent, of nitrogen, eight to ten per cent, of 
available phosphoric acid and ten per cent, of potash. About 
five hundred pounds of such fertilizer to the acre will produce 
satisfactory results on average soils. After the crop has been 
harvested in the fall, the land should be plowed so that all 
remaining vines and unripe fruit are turned under. In this 
way injury from some of the insects and diseases attacking 
the tomato is prevented to a certain extent. 

Varieties. — The variety known as Livingston's Stone has 
been a favorite for canning during the past years and remains 
the best sort that can be planted for this purpose. Many new 
varieties are introduced each year, but the sensible planter will 
not use new sorts until they have been thoroughly tested and 
their value demonstrated. The Earliana is a good variety for 
the home garden when early fruit is desired. Ponderosa pro- 
duces a very large, but somewhat irregular fruit. 

Peas are often grown in large quantities for canning fac- 
tories and make a profitable crop. Frequently the ground de- 
voted to peas can be utilized for a second crop of some other 
vegetable, such as potatoes or late corn. Commercially, peas 
are drilled in rows about six inches apart, and, when the ma- 
jority of the pods are well filled out, the entire vines are cut 
like hay. They are hauled to the factory on hay wagons and 
threshed. The grower should provide for the return of the 
vines and empty pods, for they make good feed for animals. 
Before this fact was known, managers of canning factories 



Special Crops for Canning and Market 201 

were often at a loss for the best means of disposing of the 
vines and empty pods. By accident a farmer learned that the 
refuse could be stored so that it would provide an excellent 
cattle feed. Now some factories are retaining this refuse to 
sell at a good price. 

S2veet corn is sometimes a profitable crop either for the 
factory or for market. When growing it for the factory, the 
grower should inform himself concerning the type of corn de- 
sired by the canner and then plant the variety which is wanted. 
Field cultivation of sweet corn does not differ from the care of 
other corn, except that it is much more subject to the corn ear 
worm so that in some localities it must be sprayed in order to 
produce perfect ears. This situation will be further discussed 
in the chapter on insects. 

Potatoes were merely mentioned in the list of garden veg- 
etables because they are more truly a field crop than a garden 
crop, perhaps one of our most necessary vegetables. The fol- 
lowing directions are intended to cover their cultiv&tion on 
either a large or small scale. 

5-0^7 — Scab. — Although land for potato growing must be 
rich, it is not advisable to apply a dressing of manure to the 
potato field. Manure, as a fertilizer, will predispose the crop 
to the disease known as potato scab. While it does not exactly 
cause the scab, it will bring about proper conditions for the 
scab to develop. The disease is really caused by spores which 
remain in the ground from year to year. A field that has pro- 
duced scabby potatoes should not be used again for that pur- 
pose for several seasons, as these spores live about five years. 
In preparing the soil it should be plowed deep and the ground 
well worked until it is soft and friable. If a potato planter is 
used, no furrowing off will be required, otherwise the ground 
should be marked with furrows about three feet apart and 
four or five inches deep. The seed potatoes are dropped in the 
furrow at distances of about eighteen inches and covered by 
hand or with a drag. 

The seed potatoes should be selected from the very best 



202 Orchard and Garden 

stock obtainable. Saving small potatoes for seed is poor econ- 
omy as they will never produce the best results. The careful 
grov^^er will select his seed in the fall when the potatoes are 




The two lower specimens show poor types to select for seed. The upper 
is a g-Qod seed potato. 

dug, choosing the largest specimens from those plants which 
produce large and uniform potatoes in the greatest abundance. 
By this method of seed selection the yield of potatoes can be 
very materially increased. The selected seed should be care- 



Special Crops for Canning and Market 203 

fully stored during the winter. The best means of storing 
on the farm is by placing them on the ground, covering them 
with straw and then piling at least eighteen inches of good 
soil on top of the straw. Potatoes have been known to keep 
perfectl}^ in this way through a winter when the thermometer 
registered thirty degrees below zero. Stored in this manner 
they will be in better condition for planting than if kept in a 
cellar, unless the cellar contains the right amount of moisture 
and is frost proof. To define the right amount of moisture 
is a difficult matter, which is even more perplexing to main- 
tain. It is safer, therefore, to resort to the outside system of 
storage for seed potatoes. If stored in the ground they will 
not sprout so readily as in the cellar and may keep perfectly 
dormant until the first of June. 

Cutting the seed. — In preparing the potatoes for planting 
they should first be cut so that there are not more than two 
or three eyes to each piece. However, cutting the potatoes 
into very small pieces is also inadvisable. It is much more 
preferable to have a fair-sized piece with several eyes too 
many than to shave the piece down to secure a given number 
of eyes. The potato plant will secure its start from the food 
that is in the piece of seed potato that is planted. If this piece 
is shaved down to a small quantity of food material, it will 
result in giving the potato vine a poor start in life and per- 
haps seriously affect the ultimate yield. Some growers have 
even planted potato peelings bought from hotels. That these 
peelings will produce potatoes is true, but the yield will be so 
light that it would more than pay to put the money in good 
seed. 

Formalin treatment. — After the seed is cut it must be 
soaked for two hours in a solution consisting of one pint for- 
malin to thirty gallons of water. This treatment is to kill the 
spores of scab, if any be present, and is a safe practice for all 
seed. After soaking, the potatoes must not be returned to the 
bags that previously held untreated potatoes or they may 
become reinfected with the disease. It is a good plan to have 



204 Orchard and Garden 

a place where the potatoes may be poured out to dry, after 
which they should be put into containers that have been 
treated with the same disinfecting solution. Every precaution 
should be taken to be sure that only clean potatoes are planted, 
that is, potatoes that are free from disease. In no other way 
can the earth be kept free from scab, and, of course, no kind 
of treatment for seed put into infected land can be expected 
to produce a crop of clean potatoes. 

Cultivation. — The potatoes should be cultivated at fre- 
quent intervals and the surface of the ground around the 
plants should be kept level. The level cultivation has the ad- 
vantage of being cheaper, of conserving more moisture and of 
disturbing the root system less. After the first few cultiva- 
tions some tool should be used which will not disturb the 
ground deeper than an inch or two. Deep cultivation 
is injurious to the potato, and, if the ground was properly 
prepared in the first place, it is not necessary. Shallow culti- 
vation is kept up to eliminate weeds and to maintain a mulch 
during dry weather, thus conserving the moisture in the soil. 
The fine feeding roots of the potato plant spread a consider- 
able distance through the soil, so that, if cultivation is deep, 
many of these roots may be cut. As a consequence, the plant 
is deprived of a certain amount of food and must in addition 
make an effort to replace the roots which were injured. 

The time of planting potatoes varies with the locality and 
the intention of the grower. If early potatoes are desired, 
they must be planted as soon as the ground is warm and in 
fit condition to work. Potatoes for storing must be planted 
much later or they will ripen so early in the fall that they will 
not keep during winter. Sometimes, too, a crop of late potatoes 
will ripen early and then make a second growth, which will 
cause them to be misshapen. In the latitude of central Indiana 
late potatoes should not be planted before the middle of June 
and fine crops have been grown which were planted the tenth 
of July. In southern Indiana late potatoes may be put in after 



Special Crops for Canning and Market 205 

the wheat is cut and still have time to mature a full crop before 
frost. 

For early potatoes the Irish Cobbler, Early Ohio and 
Early Rose are favorites. For main crop purposes Green 
Mountain, Rural New Yorker, Sir Walter Raleigh, Carmen, 
and Duchess are grown. The Early Rose is also often planted 
as a late potato and can be depended upon for a full crop even 
if planted a considerable length of time after the other varie- 
ties are in the ground. 

Potatoes are harvested either by hand digging, by plowing 
and hand picking or by use of one of the improved machines 
designed to dig and sort them. Large growers in the North 
prefer to use the digging machines, while in the South, where 
labor is cheap and plentiful, hand digging will prove more 
economical. Potatoes are shipped and stored either in light 
barrels covered with burlap or in burlap bags. The legal 
weight for a bushel of potatoes is sixty pounds, but there are 
no specially defined standard packages as there are for apples. 
As a result potatoes are shipped in odd sized barrels and bags. 

Celery is an important field crop in some sections, but will 
not thrive unless planted in the type of soil demanded for its 
growth. It requires a rich, black soil that will not bake and in 
which there is an abundance of moisture. Drained swamp 
land, with the water table reduced to a point about two feet 
below the surface, is very satisfactory for this crop. On such 
areas in the North and in the South celery culture is carried 
on extensively. In the ordinary garden this crop is often un- 
satisfactory, but some growers meet with fair success in its 
culture even under seemingly adverse conditions. 

For the early crop the seed is planted in well-prepared 
soil in hotbeds, from which the small plants are transplanted 
into shallow boxes. Transplanting stimulates a better root 
system so that the plants will more ably endure the ultimate 
transplanting to the field. The ground must be kept moist 
after the seed is planted, and one way to accomplish this detail 
is to cover the soil with a piece of burlap and water the ground 



206 Orchard and Garden 

through it, removing the cloth as soon as the seeds germinate 
in order not to injure the young plants. 

The plants are set in the open ground as soon as the earth 
is well warmed. Planting at that time will insure an early 
crop. In the North it is customary to grow late celery as the 
main crop and often seed for this yield is planted in the open 
ground after danger from frost is past. The treatment of the 
young seedlings is the same as for plants grown in hotbeds. 
When plants are set in the open ground, the tops should be 
sheared off or the leaves will evaporate moisture faster than 
the recently transplanted roots can secure it from the soil. 
If permitted to follow its own inclination celery would spread 
out with the leaves lying flat on the ground. To prevent this 
result, the soil should be worked up close to the plants in order 
to hold the leaves in an upright position. 

Blanching. — After the plants have made their growth, 
they must be blanched or whitened, which may be accom- 
plished in several ways. Some growers merely use boards 
along each side of the rows. Others place the celery in pits, 
while some sorts can be blanched by the use of the ever-ready 
newspaper. A few varieties, known as self-blanching, pro- 
duce white stalks normally, but is not regarded as fine in 
flavor as the older kinds. 

The culture of celery is a highly developed business to be 
undertaken only by those who have had previous experience 
with the crop. The varieties most widely grown are Giant 
Pascal, Boston Market and Golden Self-blanching. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Indoor Gardening. 

INDOOR gardening is a comprehensive 
subject in itself, and in a book of this 
size little more can be accomplished than 
the establishment of some of the prin- 
ciples underlying the successful man- 
agement of those crops which are grown 
under shelter. These principles will 
apply to the growing of any indoor crop, 
whether it be in a green house, hotbed 
or in a box in the kitchen window. A 
man, to be an expert gardener, must 
first be an expert in growing plants in 
the open, because success under shelter 
depends on the grower's knowledge of the needs of growing 
crops. 

In greenhouse management two primary rules must al- 
ways be kept in mind. Unless the conditions mentioned in 
these two rules are met, no grower can hope for any success 
for any crop grown under glass. The first of these is that 
every plant has its normal season to rest and to bloom and 
produce fruit. The grower must have a working knowledge 
of which plants to grow during a certain season so as to pro- 
duce the greatest returns. Plants that are entitled to their 
period of rest must not be crowded into active growth. Grow- 
ing plants in a greenhouse does not imply that the same plants 
are to be kept in a condition of active growth from one year's 
end to the next. They must be provided with a season during 




(14) 



208 Orchard and Garden 

which they may take the rest which would be accorded them 
if growing in a natural state. Even the plants of the tropics 
are not in a constantly equal stage of growth at all seasons of 
the year. They have periods during which they slacken their 
efforts and recuperate in preparation for another season of 
active growth. 

Indoor seasons — Forcing. — By a close knowledge of the 
habits of the different crops, the indoor gardener can arrange 
his seasons so that his greenhouses will have a succession of 
profitable crops instead of a large quantity of idle space while 
some certain crop is apparently sulking. A few indoor crops 
are very peculiar in that they absolutely refuse to be forced 
into bloom ahead of their time unless given some special treat- 
ment. In an attempt to grow strawberries under glass in a 
small way, the plants were taken up in the fall before the 
ground froze, and placed in a house where carnations were 
growing. It was presumed that the temperature of the car- 
nation house would be right for the berries, but the plants not 
only refused to bloom but even declined to grow, because they 
had not had their normal winter's rest. They eventually 
bloomed at about the same time the berries bloomed in the 
garden. Since then it has been discovered that this temporary 
resting period can be greatly shortened by using ether on the 
plants. In this treatment the plants are put into a tight box 
and subjected to the fumes of ether for several hours, after 
which they are potted and placed in suitable houses. Such 
treatment has enabled florists to force the blooms on lilacs, 
hawthorns, lilies-of-the-valley and other plants. The ether 
fumes merely take the place of the normal resting period 
which the plant would have if left in the open ground. Un- 
doubtedly the same plan would have worked on the strawberry 
plants. 

Some varieties of plants bloom at different seasons than 
other varieties of the same plants. Accordingly the florist 
must plan to have his roses of a certain kind planted so that 
they will produce a crop that will be available at a certain 



Indoor Gardening 



209 




210 Orchard and Garden 

time. If he fails to secure a crop of bloom at Christmas or 
at Easter when flowers are in great demand, he may lose his 
entire season's profit by a week's miscalculation of the proper 
season of growth. 

Imitating outdoor conditions. — The second rule always to 
be kept in mind is that the weather conditions inside the house 
must imitate as closely as possible the weather conditions of a 
typical day of the growing season out of doors. Thus the 
florist must try to maintain in his rose house the same condi- 
tions of temperature and moisture that he would expect to find 
out of doors on an ideal June day. Roses out of doors are at 
their best during the month of June when the day temperature 
is relatively high, with cool nights and abundant rainfafl. 
Many amateurs make the mistake of supposing that ihe day 
and night temperature of a greenhouse should be approxi- 
mately the same. In every case the night temperature should 
be lower than that maintained during the day, because this is 
the condition of the natural air temperature out of doors in 
all climates ; and an attempt must be made to imitate in the 
house the ideal out-of-door conditions. Carnations require a 
much lower temperature than roses, so they can not be suc- 
cessfully grown in the same house. The temperature of the 
ideal carnation house will follow closely the temperature of a 
typical day late in May when the thermometer does not reach 
above seventy degrees at any time. At night it may lall low 
enough to be fatal to good results with roses. Vegetable 
growing furnishes as many problems as flower growing under 
glass. Different vegetables require different weather condi- 
tions, but the principle is the same in both cases. Lettuce, for 
instance, is a well known cool-weather crop which succeeds 
best in the early spring before the days have become very 
warm. Grown inside, it requires similar temperatures. It 
will grow in a house that is suited to carnation culture, but 
since cool nights are really beneficial to it, lettuce can endure 
more cold than carnations. On the other hand, tomatoes 
under glass require a high temperature. They will endure as 



Indoor Gardening 211 

much heat as the rose, but usually require a drier atmosphere. 
In this detail they conform to the rule just quoted in that they 
succeed best in the late summer when the normal outdoor 
climate is hot and rather dry. 

Soil for' use indoors should be selected with great care, 
for richness and adaptability to the particular crop to be 
nourished are demanded. Richness alone is not always enough 
to suit some particular crops. In a few favored localities soil 
is found exactly right for some one plant. For instance, the 
clay soil at Newcastle, Indiana, has proven to be exceptionally 
well adapted to the culture of roses, and as a consequence, a 
great industry devoted to this beautiful flower has been de- 
veloped at that town. This soil is so well adapted to its pur- 
pose that it has been shipped great distances to other rose 
growers. In general, the best indoor soil is a mixture of good 
loam or clay loam with well rotted manure and rotted sod. 
Florists often make a compost pile of manure and thick sods 
and permit this pile to rot for a year or two before using it in 
the greenhouses. It pays to devote a little extra time to the 
preparation of the soil for use indoors in order to make every 
square foot as productive as possible. This advice, of course, 
applies to soil that is used for any sort of indoor work, 
whether it be greenhouse or hotbed. 

Watering. — Plants grown indoors require more water 
than the same plants when grown outdoors. This statement 
is particularly true concerning greenhouses and plants kept 
in the living rooms of dwellings. The greenhouse beds are 
usually made on benches, with a circulation of air on all sides 
and beneath them. This condition is conducive of great evap- 
oration and water lost from the soil must be replaced promptly 
and regularly. House plants demand a great deal of water 
because the air in the house is always too dry for the most 
favorable growing condition and moisture must be supplied 
to meet this deficiency of the atmosphere. On this account 
furnace-heated houses are very unsatisfactory for the grow- 
ing of plants. Most farmers' wives have success with indoor 



212 Orchard and Garden 

plants, because the average farm house in warmed by means 
of stoves, and consequently the air in the house is not as 
thoroughly dry as when a furnace is used. In greenhouse 
work it may be said that the amount of water needed, as well 
as expert care, is proportionate to the height of the tempera- 
ture. The high temperature tends to produce a quick, rank 
growth which is more subject to fungous diseases and to 
insect attacks. The beginner in greenhouse work will do 
well to start with crops requiring a moderate temperature and 
after he has become familiar with them, he can gradually as- 
pire to the crops needing a high temperature. 

Moisture in the air. — The need of moisture in the air as 
well as in the soil can easily be proven by a simple experiment 
that can be made by any one. Take two small potted plants of 
any sort, but of similar size and condition. Place them in a 
warm, dry room where they will have plenty of light. Invert 
a glass fruit jar over one of the plants, and leave the other 
exposed to the air. Give each plant the same quantity of 
water daily and note the difference in growth. This experi- 
ment is especially successful with hyacinths and with some 
of the other Dutch bulbs. Indoor plants should always be 
watered in the morning and preferably on bright days. Never 
water plants late in the afternoon or on very cloudy days or 
when the temperature is falling. 

Hotbeds are simply greenhouses in miniature, with an- 
other means of supplying heat than the use of steam or hot 
water. They are usually heated with fresh manure packed 
under the soil of the bed, but they may also be kept warm by 
building a brick flue under the frames. The popular method 
is to heat with manure. In preparing a hotbed the soil should 
be excavated from a pit slightly larger than the desired size of 
the bed. This pit should be about three feet deep and filled 
with fresh manure that has been permitted to heat once. 
Fresh horse manure is the best to use and it should be piled in 
a heap until it heats thoroughly. After heating, it is to be 
well stirred and mixed with from half to two-thirds its bulk 



Indoor Gardening 213 

of leaves or short straw. The mixture may then be packed 
down into the hotbed. When in a short time it begins to heat 
again, it can be covered with about six inches of good soil. 
Hotbeds prepared in this manner should be good for about two 
months, and, if started the first of March, they will keep the 
plants in good growing condition until warm weather. The 
hotbed should be managed exactly like a small greenhouse 
and be watered and ventilated on the same principle. 

The chief value of the hotbed is in the production of early 
vegetables and in starting some of the long season plants such 
as tomatoes and melons. Lettuce is a very satisfactory crop 
when grown in hotbeds and is largely grown under such 
methods of cultivation. It can be grown at either the begin- 
ning or the end of winter with perfect assurance of success. 
When grown in the fall it should be planted at intervals from 
the time of first frost until the first or middle of November in 
order to insure a succession of good crops. Each new plant- 
ing should be made in a separate hotbed so that the last plant- 
ing will have at least six weeks of strong hotbed heat to pro- 
tect it from the cold weather. 

Hotbed protection. — In severe weather, hotbeds should be 
provided with some kind of covers to furnish additional pro- 
tection. The customary cover consists of a shutter made of 
light lumber, matting, straw mats or simply large sheets of 
heavy burlap. The straw mats aflford the most eff'ective shel- 
ter and can either be bought at a low price or made at home 
very cheaply. Make a frame the same width as that desired 
for the mats, w^hich is generally determined by the length of 
straw available. If rye straw is used, for it is considered the 
best for the purpose, the mats can be made from four to 
four and a half feet wide. Lay the frame on two supports 
high enough to assure a comfortable position while at work 
and stretch six pieces of binder twine lengthwise of the frame. 
Secure the twine to nails driven at each end of the frame, in 
such a manner that it can be readily loosened. Then wind 
six balls of binder twine small enough for skillful handling. 



214 Orchard and Garden 

and attach their loose ends to the nails at one end of the frame. 
Now lay a wisp of straw across the stretched strings, take each 
ball in turn and draw the string tight over the wisp of straw, 
bring it once around the stretched string and lay on another 
wisp of straw and proceed. When the mat is the size of the 
wooden frame, the strings may be loosened, the mat rolled up. 
and the strings restretched ready for another section of mat. 
In this way long pieces of matting may be made which will be 
found very convenient for covering a whole row of hotbeds. 
Some growers use these mats in addition to the board shut- 
ters, placing the shutters on top of the mats. This shelter 
keeps the straw dry, thus preventing complications in freez- 
ing weather. In late spring the glass sash can often be re- 
moved from the hotbed and be replaced by unbleached muslin. 
This arrangement is particularly useful in growing tomato 
plants, for when they are transplanted, the cloth furnishes 
enough shade to prevent the wilting of the plants. 

Cold frames are quite similar to hotbeds except that no 
means of heating them is provided. They are used in early 
spring after the severe weather is over and their value is 
chiefly in protecting tender plants from late frost. A hotbed 
that has ceased to give out heat practically becomes a cold 
frame for the rest of the season. Tomatoes, cabbage and 
similar plants can often be started to advantage in cold 
frames. 

House plants of some sort should be in every home, for 
they require so little care that there is no excuse for being 
without them. The chief requisites for success with piants in 
the home have already been mentioned, but too great stress 
can not be put on their need of moisture as contrasted with the 
usual lack of moisture in the average dwelling. Geraniums 
are old-time favorites for house culture because they are so 
easily grown and so hardy that they will grow under all sorts 
of adverse conditions. Various begonias and palms are per- 
haps next in popularity. In some places the culture of Dutch 
bulbs is well understood and these beautiful flowers are a con- 



Jnijoor Gardening 215 

stant Hourt-je of deli^^ht durinj^ the winter month.s. They are 
so easily ^own that with a little care they will supply con- 
tinuous bloom from December until spring. Most of the varie- 
ties of narcissus are suitable for house culture, as are hya- 
cinths and a few of the tulips. The big yellow daffodils are 
such favorites that they are universally grown to supply win- 
ter cut flowers. The varieties known as Emperor, Empress, 
and Sir Watkin are all excellent for ordinary- house culture. 
The pretty and reliable paper white narci.ssus is perhaps 
easiest of all the Dutch bulbs to grow. All these bulbs may 
be grown under the same conditions. They are produced for 
the mo.st part in Holland, but more are being propagated in 
our country each year. When they are offered in market in 
the early fall, good sized, clean ?julh»s should be selected and 
planted in pots or boxes. They .should be covered with about 
two inches of good soil and then set away in a cool, dark place 
for several weeks. The best success is had rjy placing the 
boxes out of doors and covering them with six inches of rich 
soil. This soil does not freeze readily and furnishes all the 
protection needed until the boxes can be brought into the 
hou.se. They should V^e brought in as soon as the ground out- 
side is well frozen, but before the fro.st penetrates to the boxes 
containing the bulbs. The boxes are then placed in a cool dark 
Cellar, and as they are wanted, they are brought into the 
warmth and light where they bloom in the course of a few 
weeks. 

The accompanying illustration shows a hotbed that can 
easily be built in the furnace room of any modern home. The 
bed is glazed with double glass .sa.sh and the heat is supplied 
from the furnace. Such a bed is not practical for the culture 
of ro.ses or other greenhou.se stock requiring much heat, light 
or moi.sture, as none of these elements are well supplied. It 
serves admirably, however, as a place to store hou.se plants in 
winter and to grow Dutch bulbs, violets, parsley, etc. 

MvAihroom.H. — In recent years much attention has been 
given to the growing of mushrooms for either home or market 



216 



Orchard and Garden 




Indoor Gardening 



217 



supply. The preparation of a mushroom bed is not by any 
means a complicated task, and, as the average farm supplies 
the material in abundance, there is no reason for such slight 
recognition of the crop. While mushrooms do not have the 
high food value that was once accorded them, they furnish an 
excellent change in the winter diet on the farm. Mushrooms 
are simply the fruiting bodies of a certain fungus which can 




As the hot bed appears from the outside. 



best be grown on fresh stable manure. The manure for this 
purpose should be stored in a dry place and should be forked 
over every day until it has ceased to heat violently, when it 
is ready to be packed into the mushroom bed. The location for 
this bed is best in a warm sheltered place where it will not be 
subjected to drying winds. Even moderate air currents are 
to be avoided. A basement under a residence often furnishes 
an admirable situation for a mushroom bed. A crib or box 
should be prepared on the floor of the cellar the size of the 



218 



Orchard and Garden 



bed desired. This box is then packed full of manure, which is 
tamped down hard and firm. It is then lightly sprinkled so as 
to cause it to become quite hot again in a few days. When 
this heat subsides and the temperature is falling, the mush- 
room spawn is planted in the beds. The spawn is merely a 

prepared form of the fungus 
used to start a new growth. 
It is purchased in the form of 
bricks which are to be cut into 
two-inch squares and planted 
in the bed in ten-inch inter- 
vals, about two inches below 
the surface of the soil. In two 
weeks the beds should be 
cased or covered with one 
inch of good, garden loam, in 
order to help retain moisture 
and induce the fungus to pro- 
duce more mushrooms. After 
the spawn is put in the bed 
it should not be watered 
The cultivated mushroom. Until after the mushrooms 

begin to appear, which will be from six weeks to two months. 
As they appear they should be gathered each day and no 
specimens should remain on the bed after they are large 
enough for use. If the beds become dry at this time, they 
should be watered with slightly warm water, but not soaked. 
After the bed has ceased to produce, the manure and soil must 
be removed preferably to the garden to be used as fertilizer, 
and the frames of the bed should be well scrubbed with white 
wash. 




CHAPTER VII. 

Garden Insects. 

Need for spraying. — The control of insect pests in the 
garden is so important that no gardener should neglect to pro- 
vide means of eradicating the various pests as they appear. To 
fail to spray certain crops or to take other necessary measures 
of precaution may make all the difference between success and 
absolute failure. Each year garden pests seem to be more 
numerous and require more prompt measures of control. This 
same condition has been noticed in connection v^^ith orchard 
insects, so the conclusion is reached that the men wJio make 
provision for controlling attacks of pests will win success, 
while those who neglect this duty will certainly fail. Every 
garden should be equipped with a small sprayer and the gar- 
dener should be familiar with its use in controlling injurious 
insects. 

Chewing insects. — One great class of insects feeds by 
eating the substance of the plant on which they exist. The 
Colorado potato beetle, commonly known as the potato bug, 
is an example of this class. Such feeders are controlled by 
the use of arsenate of lead applied in the form of a spray. 

Sucking irisects. — The other class of insects secures its 
food by sucking the juices from the plant. Food for these in- 
sects can not be poisoned because it is obtained from beneath 
the surface of the leaf or stalk. A good example of this class 
of insects is the squash bug. These sucking insects can be 
controlled only by some poison that kills as soon as it touches 
them. The best contact insecticide for use on garden crops 
is a solution of tobacco. This preparation may be obtained by 



220 Orchard and Garden 

boiling tobacco stems or one of the commercial products may 
be purchased. Black Leaf 40 is one of the best preparations, 
for it contains forty per cent, of nicotine sulphate. As it is a 
very violent poison, it must be handled with extreme caution. 
In use it is diluted several hundred times according to the 
plant and pest that are receiving treatment. 

The imported cabbage worm is v^ell known to everyone 
who has tried to grow cabbage. The adult of this insect is a 
white butterfly, with black m^arkings on the wings. The insect 
is not a native of this country, but was imported from Europe 
many years ago. There are also some native butterflies thai 
lay their eggs on the cabbage, but they are not sufficiently 
numerous to be of any serious consequence. The butterfly lays 
its eggs on the young cabbage plants and from the egg 
hatches the familiar green worm. All the actual damage is 
done while the insect is in the worm or larval stage. At this 
stage the insect is a voracious feeder, eating the substance of 
the leaves and frequently eating into the heads as they form. 
Arsenate of lead sprayed on the plants while they are young 
will kill the first larvae that appear, but as the plants grow, 
the leaves become more waxy on the surface and the spray 
solution will not stick. At such times it is far better to use a 
poison in powder form. Arsenate of lead can now be secured 
in a dry state. Mix powdered arsenate with dry slacked lime 
and dust the compound lightly over the plants. Dry lime alone 
has been used with fair success, for the larva or worm is very 
thin skinned. Some growers have reported success in con- 
trolling the cabbage worm by the use of hot water. It would 
appear, however, that the objection to this measure might be 
in the diflTiculty in having the temperature of the water right 
to kill the pests without injury to the plants. 

The corn ear worm is too well known to need any descrip- 
tion. It is the larva of a moth that is widely distributed, but 
that has been more injurious in recent years than in the past. 
The eggs are laid on or near the tips of the ears at about the 
time when the silk is showing and the young larva eats its 



Garden Insects 



221 




Corn ear worm and its work. 



222 



Orchard and Garden 



way into the tip of the ear of corn. It is usually not satisfied 
to remain in that position, but must advance along the entire 




Arsenate of lead sprayed in the corn when it is first showing- the silk will 
prevent the ear worm injury. 



length of the ear and ruin the entire structure. Other crops 
are also sometimes damaged by this pest. 

Arsenate of lead applied in the form of powder at the time 



Garden Insects 223 

the silk is showing will eradicate the ear worm in most cases. 
The powder should be dusted over the entire ear of corn as 
the insect sometimes eats its way through the husks and en- 
ters the ear at the side. Fall plowing will also tend to reduce 
the number of insects, for they live in the ground over the 
winter and the adult moths emerge in the spring. 

The stalk borer is the larva of a moth which lives in the 
vines of the cucumber, melon and squash. The eggs are laid 
on the stems of these plants and when they hatch, the larva 
at once bores into the stalk and makes a tunnel lengthwise 
through the stalk. Late in the season the borers emerge from 
the stems, spin their cocoons, and spend the winter on or near 
the top of the ground. Since the insect lives and feeds on the 
interior of the plant, it can not be reached with any kind of 
poison, so that preventative measures of control must be re- 
sorted to. The presence of the borers can always be detected 
by the wilting of the vines and all such injured vines must be 
removed and burned in order to destroy the pest. This prac- 
tice will also help to control the melon wilt, a bacterial disease 
which might be mistaken for the work of borers. A few grow- 
ers have reported success by cutting out the borers as soon as 
any wilt appears. In this manner a vine can sometimes be 
saved, but the practice is not universally a success. 

The common green tomato ivorm is the larva of the to- 
mato sphinx moth and is widely distributed. It can be found 
in every garden and field where tomatoes are grown and is a 
close relative of the tobacco worm. The eggs are laid on the 
leaves of the plants on which it feeds and hatch in a few days. 
The larva is deep green in color, marked with oblique white 
stripes on the sides of the body. A spine or horn is present 
on the tail end of the larva which is commonly supposed to be 
the stinger. The insect is quite harmless, however, and the 
spine is provided by nature to make the inoffensive larva ap- 
pear terrible to its enemies. The winter is passed in the pupa 
or resting stage in the ground. The accompanying cut fur- 
nishes a good illustration of the insect in its larval stage. Fall 

(In) 



224 



Orchard and Garden 



plowing will kill many of them in the soil. If this measure 
should fail to keep them in check, the fields may be sprayed 
with arsenate of lead at the rate of three pounds to fifty gal- 
lons of water. 




Tomato worm and its work 



White grubs are the larval forms of various species of 
June beetles, or June "bugs," as they are commonly called. 
For the most part the damage from these pests is done when 



Garden Insects 225 

they are in the larval stage, although in other cases the adult 
beetles seem to be the offenders. The larvae eat the roots of 
many kinds of garden vegetables and sometimes become a 
serious problem to the gardener. Fall plowing, followed by 
pasturing hogs in the field, will be of much assistance in elimi- 
nating the pest. The use of fertilizers containing refuse to- 
bacco is to be encouraged, for the tobacco makes the soil dis- 
tasteful to the larvae. They are usually more obnoxious in a 
field that has been heavily manured or an old pasture field. 
Wire worms are the larvae of various click beetles whose life 
history and control resembles that of the white grub. 

The striped cucumhe^^ beetle is perhaps the most serious 
pest with which the melon grower has to contend. It is a small 
yellow beetle with three black stripes running the length of 
the body. In this adult stage it feeds on the young melon 
plants and will often destroy an entire crop. It is customary 
to plant more seeds in each hill than are necessary in order 
to make allowance for the damage from this insect. Thorough 
and early spraying will provide the best means of extermina- 
tion, however. The plants should be sprayed with arsenate of 
lead at the rate of three pounds to fifty gallons of water as 
soon as the first leaves appear above ground. They should be 
treated again as soon as more leaves form and the entire 
plant should be kept covered with the poison until the plants 
begin to form running vines. After that time there is little 
danger of injury from these beetles. Air-slacked lime, dusted 
on the young plants, will also serve to repel the insects, but 
will not kill them. Another disadvantage in using it, is its 
inclination to be washed off in the first rain, leaving the plants 
unprotected, while the arsenate of lead will stick to tne leaves 
indefinitely. 

Flea beetles are very small, active beetles that often dam- 
age garden plants early in the spring. They are especially 
destructive on young cabbage and tomato plants that are be- 
ing grown in a prepared seed bed. If the seed bed is pro- 
vided with tight board walls and covered with cheese cloth, 



226 Orchard and Garden 

the insects may be excluded. In actual experiments the plants 
inside the protected area were not touched, while those out- 
side were almost entirely destroyed. 

The Colorado potato beetle is the most injurious insect 
that the potato grower has to fight. It is now universally dis- 
tributed wherever potatoes are grown. The eggs are laid on 
the leaves almost as soon as the young plants api^ear above 
ground and the larva begins to feed as soon as it is well out 
of the Qgg shell. The insects eat the entire plant, seldom mov- 
ing to another while there is still green forage on the first vic- 
tim. Early in the season, when the damage first becomes no- 
ticeable, the larvae can easily be picked off by hand; but, if 
they are neglected for a few days, they will multiply so numer- 
ously that hand picking is not only difficult but ineffective as 
well. The best method of control is by spraying with arsenate 
of lead added to Bordeaux mixture. The Bordeaux itself is 
beneficial to the potato plant as it prevents leaf diseases and 
stimulates the plant into a more vigorous growth. The neces- 
sity for using Bordeaux on potatoes makes the control of the 
insect very simple, as the only expense is the cost of the poison. 
The application of the spray solution is indispensable, so that 
the expense of adding the arsenate is negligible. The Bor- 
deaux is prepared as directed for controlling fungous dis- 
eases. 

The squash hug, or "stink" bug, is a familiar insect to 
every farm boy. It belongs to the group of insects known as 
true bugs (Hemiptera, or half-winged insects). The adult 
is grayish brown in color and one-half to three-quarters of an 
inch in length. It feeds by sucking the juices of all members 
of the melon family, including melons, cucumbers, squashes 
and pumpkins. It is doubtless responsible to a great extent 
for the rapid spread of the melon wilt, a bacterial disease. The 
insect will feed on an infected plant and later on a healthy 
one, transferring the bacteria from one to the other. The in- 
sect is controlled by gathering the eggs by hand or by trapping 
the adults. The eggs are large for the size of the insect and 



Garden Insects 227 

are laid on the under side of the leaves. They are bright yel- 
low in color, so are not readily overlooked. The adults may be 
trapped by placing boards near the melon vines, under which 
the insects will seek shelter at night. If the boards are lifted 
each morning, large numbers of the beetles can be taken in 
this manner. 

The harlequin bug is very injurious on cabbage in the 
South and is now found as far North as south central Indiana. 
The adult winters over in trash on the ground and begins to 
lay eggs early in the spring. The eggs hatch after a short pe- 
riod of incubation and the young grow with amazing rapidity. 
Many broods are produced each season and by fall the cabbage 
field may become a swarming mass of harlequin bugs. Since 
the insect secures its food by sucking the juices of the plant, 
it can not be eradicated by the use of arsenates, but must be 
reached by contact insecticides. Another problem is presented 
here because the bugs are so resistant that they will not yield 
to any contact poison except those strong enough to injure the 
cabbage plant. It has been observed that the bugs prefer 
mustard to cabbage and that one of the best methods for con- 
trolling them is to plant a row of mustard about and occasion- 
ally through the rows of cabbage. When the bugs have gath- 
ered on the mustard, they may be sprayed with pure coal oil. 
The oil will not only kill the bugs, but will also injure, if not 
kill outright, the m.ustard as well. Where this pest is estab- 
lished, a community should cooperate to destroy it completely. 
If an entire neighborhood would work together in this way, 
many common pests would be much more easily controlled. 

Plant lice of various kinds are often encountered in the 
garden, and, in most cases, they can be controlled by the use 
of Black Leaf 40, a preparation of nicotine sulphate. The cab- 
bage aphis lives over the winter on the old stubs left in the 
garden. These old roots should be removed and burnt, or 
plowed under deep. The corn root louse sometimes becomes a 
troublesome pest on sweet corn. The insect is colonized by 
ants, for, by itself, it is quite helpless. The ants carry the lice 



228 Orchard and Garden 

about, permitting them to become established on the roots of 
the corn plants. The use of kainit, crude potash salt, or of 
nitrate of soda will discourage these pests. Fall plowing of 
the corn fields will also tend to check the spread of these in- 
sects, as it will result in breaking up many of the ant nests. 

Kaiser Bug. — In the summer of 1917 a new aphid pest 
appeared in many sections of the country on potato and tomato 
plants. This aphid was in some sections given the name of 
"Kaiser bug," on account of the suddenness and insidiousness 
of its attack. This was a case of a previously unimportant 
insect suddenly becoming a dangerous pest. The insect was 
first described in Florida thirty-five years ago and since that 
time has been observed as an occasional obscure louse. Sud- 
denly it appeared in enormous numbers and caused tremen- 
dous damage. It will yield to the usual treatment of a tobacco 
spray (Black Leaf 40 diluted 1 to 500) , but the treatment must 
be very thorough and must be repeated at intervals of not 
more than three days. As the insect attacked not only pota- 
toes, but many other plants as well, there were always plenty 
of specimens to crawl back on the vines that were cleaned by 
spraying. Hence the necessity for repeated spraying. This 
particular aphis has a tendency to "let go all holts" and fall to 
the ground when the plants are disturbed. As a result of this 
habit we have another method of control that is available to 
the small grower. Take a shallow pan, such as an ordinary 
wash basin, and put in it about an inch of kerosene. Hold 
the pan under the side of the infested plant, bend over the tops 
and give them a shake. With a little practice the gardener 
may treat quite a patch in a surprisingly short time. JSome of 
the insects are sure to miss the pan and fall to the ground, but 
they will crawl back to the growing tips as soon as possible 
and the next day the treatment can be repeated. One gardener 
in Indianapolis who used this method kept his vines practically 
free from the pest, while his neighbors who were doing only 
indifi'erent spraying lost most of their crop. 



CHAPTER VIII 

Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables 

After a crop of fruit or vegetables has been produced for 
home use it will pay to use exceptional care to have it properly- 
stored for winter. Many fresh fruits and vegetables can, of 
course be kept only by canning them; but that is an activity 
apart from the design of this book. Those crops which can 
be stored in a fresh state will be mentioned in detail at the end 
of this chapter. 

There are three general methods of storing fruits and root 
crops out of doors as follows : Storage in pits, in surface 
mounds and in special cellars. 

Pits are simply trenches dug in the ground at any con- 
venient place where good drainage can be secured. The lower 
end of the trench should always be open so as to allow water 
that has run in to drain off, for no crop should be stored in a 
place in which water is standing. The vegetables to be stored 
in the pits are placed there in the fall as soon as cool weather 
approaches, after which the pits are covered with straw to a 
depth of eighteen inches. Over the straw is placed a covering 
of boards to shed the water. This method of storage is par- 
ticularly adapted to the preservation of celery. 

Surface mounds present the easiest method for storing 
many kinds of fruits and vegetables. The mound should be 
made in a portion of the garden or other place where the soil 
is mellow and where good drainage can be secured. The land 
should slope in all directions from the location of the mound. 



230 



Orchard and Garden 



It is usually preferable, but not necessary, to place on the 
ground a layer of clean straw. On this is heaped the fruit or 





Wr 


« 


^* . i^ir*^ *'^^' ■:^^;-U' 







Turnips prepared for wintering. They are ready to be covered with earth. 

vegetables to be protected. They should be arranged in the 
form of a rough cone and covered with straw to a depth of 
about six inches. If heavy paper is available it should now be 



Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables 231 

placed around the cone of straw in such a way as to shed the 
water and keep it from running down over and through the 
pile of vegetables. Paper for this purpose should be strong 
and water proof. Red builders' paper will answer the pur- 
pose, but tarred paper should never be used. The writer once 
used tarred paper to cover several barrels of apples that were 
stored by this method and when the fruit was removed in the 
spring every apple had acquired a moth ball taste that no 
amount of exposure to the air would remove. After the build- 
ing paper has been applied over the straw, earth should be 
heaped upon the mound. Begin at the bottom of the mound 
and work completely around the pile, making a wall of earth 
of definite thickness and gradually build up this wall from the 
bottom toward the top. Do not attempt to cover the mound 
by throwing the earth on top of the pile and allowing it to run 
down the sides ; always build the earth walls from the bottom. 
In that way you can always be sure of the thickness of the 
covering. Apples will not require to be deeply covered, be- 
cause slight freezing does not affect them. A four- to six-inch 
wall of earth on top of the straw will keep apples perfectly. 
Potatoes, however, require much heavier covering, as do all 
root crops. The earth covering for potatoes should be at 
least as thick as the average frost depth in the locality in 
which the potatoes are stored. If the ground commonly 
freezes to a depth of twelve inches, then the earthen walls 
should be twelve inches thick. However, some growers avoid 
the use of thick coverings by applying a light cover of manure 
on top of the earth. By this method the thickness of the wall 
may be reduced at least one-half. 

Apples or potatoes in barrels or boxes may be stored on 
the same principle as the surface mounds. Instead of building 
a mound of the fruit or vegetable, the boxes or barrels are 
merely laid on the ground with a few short pieces of timber un- 
der them to prevent actual contact with the soil. They are then 
covered with straw and treated in the same manner as the 
mounds. The use of paper in these mounds prevents the water 



232 



Orchard and Garden 



from leaking down over the stored product. If the mounds leak 
the fruit is almost sure to have a mouldy taste imparted to it by 
the water that has run through the soil covering. 




At the door of a modern apple cellar in February. The heavy screen door 
can be seen in the background. 



Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables 233 

Cellar storage is by far the best method for keeping the 
majority of fruits or vegetables. The cellar under a dwelling 
may be used to keep all sort of fruits and vegetables, but, as a 
rule, such cellars are not adapted to this purpose and so it 
nearly always pays to build a separate outside cellar for this 
especial purpose. 

Air and moisture are the two essentials to the successful 
storing of most fruits and vegetables and unless these two fac- 
tors can be supplied in controlled quantities the cellar will 
never be a success. Air is needed because of the fact that all 
fruits or vegetables are still parts of living plants. They are 
actually alive and the life processes of plants are still going on 
in them. The skin of an apple takes in oxygen and gives off 
carbon dioxide gas just as the skin of an apple leaf does. If 
fresh air is not supplied, this carbon dioxide gas may accum- 
ulate in sufficient quantities actually to injure the fruit. It is 
now supposed that this action causes most of the injury known 
as "storage scald." The theory is further strengthened by the 
fact that apples that are picked slightly green, i. e., those 
that are still more actively engaged in doing leaf work, are 
much more liable to this injury than are apples that have been 
allowed to become fully colored, fully ripe and more or less 
dormant so far as their plant activity is concerned. 

Moisture must be supplied in any cellar where apples are 
stored because of the fact that the fruit may dry out if it is 
kept in too dry an atmosphere. Moisture is also necessary 
early in the season in order to reduce the cellar temperature. 
If plenty of dampness is supplied to the walls and floor and an 
abundance of ventilation is provided, the temperature of the 
cellar will be greatly reduced by the evaporating moisture. In 
Mexico water jars are made with slightly porous walls 
through which a portion of the water seeps to the outside sur- 
face. These jars may be placed in the hot sun and the water 
will always remain cool due to the loss of heat through the rap- 
idly evaporating moisture. It is this principle that is used in 



234 Orchard and Garden 

reducing- the temperature of an apple cellar in the early fall ; 
and unless both moisture and air can be supplied in liberal 
quantities one of the chief objects of the cellar will be defeated. 

Temperature Control. — In the early fall the temperature 
of storage cellars may also be reduced by opening the door at 
night and closing it during the day. This should be done some 
time in advance of the actual use of the cellar for storage so 
that the place may be as cool as possible when the fruit is 
put in. 

It is also advisable to place the fruit in the cellar in the 
morning and not in the latter part of the day. If fruit is put 
in the cellar late in the day it will have become warm with 
the sun and will accordingly tend to raise the temperature of 
the cellar atmosphere. Some growers leave their fruit in an 
open shed until the first very cool night and the next morning 
place it in the cellar. This pre-cooling of the fruit before plac- 
ing it in storage is important enough to be given some extra 
care. 

Material. — Storage cellars may be built of brick, stone or 
concrete. Stone cellars are open to the disadvantage of being 
accessible to mice unless the joints are very thoroughly and 
carefully pointed. Brick cellars are mouse and rat proof, but 
are not as strong and usually not as cheap as concrete cellars. 

Concrete cellars should be built with walls of sufficient 
thickness to support the roof, as the entire weight is thrown 
on the side walls. The accompanying plan for a concrete cel- 
lar has been thoroughly tested and several structures have 
been built to the specifications mentioned. The walls are 
twelve inches thick and the roof is built of hollow tile twelve 
by twelve by twelve inches. These tiles are covered by a three- 
inch layer of concrete. 

The wall forms are first built and then the inside form is 
roofed over with tight fitting boards. This wooden roof is to 
form the support for the tile roofing. The square tiles are laid 
across the cellar in courses, with a four-inch space between 
each course. These spaces are to form concrete beams be- 



Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. 235 



tween the rows of tile. Near the bottom of each of these beams 
should be placed a twisted steel bar, U inches thick, to serve 
for reinforcing. 




pi 









^^!'^ff^^t:^%>j-:^-/?" 



^'-^/o'Tilt^ 






^iK^ 









I 



H 






''^■^^ ^ ' ^r^ '^'' 



'«' 






Some construction details for a concrete cellar. 

r/ze Uoor should be of concrete and should have one or 
more openings connected with a ten-inch drain tile to afford 



236 Orchard and Garden 

both drainage and ventilation. Most of the ventilation can be 
obtained through the door. In very cold weather it is necessary 
to shut off much of the air circulation in order to retain the 
proper temperature. Consequently a ten-inch drain will sup- 
ply all the air that is needed when the weather is so cold that 
the door should be closed. 

Screens must be provided over the drain tile and also over 
the ventilators in order to exclude mice. It is also very im- 
portant to provide a heavy screen door that will close neatly. 
All of these screens may be made of ^j-inch mesh galvanized 
wire cloth, which will last for years. They form one of the im- 
portant items in the construction of a successful storage cellar. 

If the walls are built one foot thick they will support a 
roof span of fourteen feet with perfect safety. The cellar 
can then be built fourteen feet wide and as long as may be 
desired. These proportions have been found to be very satis- 
factory in actual practice. 

Ventilators should be placed in the roof at intervals of 
about twenty feet. These are best built in the form of con- 
crete flues at the time the roof is made. The concrete should 
extend about eighteen inches above the top of the roof and 
should be capped with a galvanized iron extension three feet 
long. This extension should have a hood and the air openings 
at the side should be covered with screen to prevent mice from 
entering. 

The door need not be built unusually heavy. In some 
cellars it has been the practice to use heavy refrigerator 
doors, but a simple door made of two thicknesses of inch 
boards, with an air space between, will answer every purpose. 

Roof. — After the concrete work is finished and before 
the earth is put over the cellar, the roof should be given a 
heavy coat of pitch, to enable it to turn the water. It is 
immaterial how much water comes through the walls or runs 
over the floor, but it is not desirable to have any leaks in the 
roof. Such leaks cause water to run down over the fruit and 
if it is stored in barrels or other packages the moisture will 



Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. 



237 



spoil the appearance of the package even if it does not injure 
the fruit. Where tile has been used in the roof as above de- 
scribed, it will not require a very heavy covering of earth to 
make the roof frost proof. The walls, of course, will be cov- 
ered completely to a depth beyond the possible frost line. Six 
inches of earth on the roof has kept one of these cellars warm 




Apples in a concrete cellar. This cellar is fourteen feet wide and eighty- 
feet long-. 



in weather that caused the thermometer to register ten to 
twenty blow zero for more than a week. 

The accompanying chart will give some idea of the tem- 
perature range inside one of these cellars as compared with 
the range outside. It is desirable to hold the temperature as 
near one place as possible. 

The following notes on the storing of various fruits and 
vegetables will serve as a guide in the matter of keeping the 
different sorts for winter. 



238 



Orchard and Garden. 




Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. 239 

Apples. — The fruit should be well grown, have reached 
its full size, but not necessarily its full color. Grimes should 
be fairly green. Delicious must be picked while still very hard 
and firm. May be kept in either surface mounds or cellars, but 
preferably in cellars. There must be a surplus of moisture in 
the air or they will wilt and lose quality. 

Beets may be kept in pits, mounds or in moist cellars. 
They should be fully grown before harvesting and should 
have the tops cut off about an inch or two from the root to 
prevent too much loss of moisture. 

Cabbage. — Store in pits or mounds. Cellar storage is not 
uniformly successful. A common method is to pile the heads 
in a long "rick," with the roots sticking up. (For storing in 
this way the plants should be pulled root and all.) Then cover 
the rick with earth just heavily enough that the roots stick out 
of the ground. 

Carrots. — Store in mounds or in a cellar having plenty of 
moisture. 

Celery. — This is best stored in pits. The trench should be 
made deep enough to receive the entire plant. Plants are 
transplanted to these pits and are packed in them just as close- 
ly as possible. The roots should be well covered with earth in 
order to maintain an abundant supply of moisture to the stalks. 

Onions should be gathered during a dry time and should 
not be allowed to become moist or they will rot. They can 
best be stored in a dry room where they will be free from frost. 
Some varieties are not injured by freezing if they are allowed 
to thaw out slowly, but the safest plan is to keep them from 
freezing. 

Parsnips may be dug in the fall and stored in pits, mounds 
or in moist cellars. However, many growers allow them to 
remain in the ground over winter. They are perfectly hardy 
and withstand freezing. The flavor is improved after they 
have been frozen so that even though they are to be stored they 
should not be dug until after a severe freeze. 

Pears. — Some of the very late varieties of pears may be 

(16) 



240 Orchard and Garden. 

kept in storage until January or February. Each fruit should 
be wrapped in paper and handled carefully. They require 
less moisture than apples and can often be stored to advantage 
in a cellar under a house that would be entirely unsuited for 
apples. 

Potatoes. — This is one crop that is not in the least par- 
ticular about the way in which it is stored. If the tubers 
are kept from frost and at the same time not permitted to get 
too warm they will remain in good condition. Cellar storage 
such as is adapted to the keeping of apples will also hold pota- 
toes in perfect condition. They also endure both more and less 
moisture than will apples. They can be kept out doors in 
mounds if protected from freezing and do well in an ordinary 
house cellar. If the air is too dry they are inclined to wilt and 
if it is too warm they may sprout. Potatoes stored on the 
farm by any of these methods make much better seed potatoes 
than do those which have been kept in chemical cold storage. 

Sweet Potatoes. — Unlike Irish potatoes, these must be 
stored in a warm, dry place. They may be packed in dry sand 
and kept in a house cellar. They are difficult to retain in good 
condition. 

Turnips should be pulled in the fall after cool weather sets 
in. They will withstand some freezing weather in the field. 
They are best stored either in mounds or in a moist cellar. If 
stored in a mound they should be as well protected from freez- 
ing as potatoes. Although they are not injured by rather cold 
weather while they are standing in the field, they are soon 
ruined if allowed to freeze after they have been gathered. 



CHAPTER IX 
TiiE Back Yard Garden 

In an earlier chapter the fact has been mentioned that in 
all large cities, and in many small towns, a great waste of 
good land exists through the premature "laying out" of addi- 
tions to the town. At the edges of all of our towns and cities, 
more vacant lots are often found than lots on which are houses. 
This land, often in small parcels, produces as a rule only a 
crop of weeds — a crop that must be harvested by being cut 
down, but which produces nothing of value to the community. 
The majority of our American homes also have in the rear of 
the house a space of considerable extent designated as the 
"back yard". Too often the back yards are an expense, when, 
as a matter of fact, they should be an asset. The recent high 
prices and general shortage of all sorts of food stuffs has 
caused a more or less systematic movement throughout the 
land involving the cultivation of these vacant spaces in our 
towns. "Patriotic gardens" have sprung up in the most out- 
of-the-way places and have been tended by people who had pre- 
viously never thought of themselves as possible agriculturists. 

This movement has been so enthusiastically received by 
such large numbers of the population that it seems advisable 
to devote one chapter particularly to the city gardens in order 
that some of the difficulties beginners experience in this new 
field may be removed. 

Patriotic gardens are an innovation in America, but they 
have come to stay. (This is written during the winter of 1917- 
1918.) I recently heard a woman in one of our large cities re- 
mark that she "hoped the war would be over before spring so 



242 



Orchard and Garden 



that they would not have to bother with a garden again." As 
a matter of fact, if the war was already over our patriotic 
gardens would be an economic necessity for several years to 
come. It will require a number of years for the world to get 
its balance again after hostilities have ceased and by that time 
our city people will be so enamoured of their gardens that they 




A city garden of a foreign-born citizen. Tlie surplus from this garden is 
sold to a local grocery. 

will continue them for the enjoyment in the work if for no 
other reason. The joy of seeing things grow is one of the gar- 
dener's rewards. It is not necessary to make "two blades of 
grass grow where one grew before," but it is quite important 
to produce something of value where nothing at all had ever 
been produced. 

Some people have tried to minimize the value of the city 
garden and to intimate that the general adoption of gardenmg 
in the city would never be a success, but the results of the past 
year have proved that quite the contrary is true. Many city 
gardens failed, but many more were a success and as the years 
go on the percentage of successes will grow amazingly. 

A city friend of mine sent me his list of seeds that he had 
selected for his first attempt at back yard gardening. He had 



The Back Yard Garden. 



243 




'■.- /'* T^ 



Even the leaf lettuce will form rather compact heads if it is transplanted 
and given plenty of food and room. 



244 



Orchard and Garden 



a large yard, but the list which he presented was large for even 
such an extensive garden as I have in the country. I discour- 




'■-"'c^ 






Big- Boston lettuce. 



aged him about planting so many different things, but he fin- 
ally made it clear to me that he wanted my advice only in re- 
gard to the varieties he had selected and that he expected to 



The Back Yard Garden. 245 

grow everything that he had listed. Late that summer I had the 
pleasure of seeing his "plantation" and I was truly surprised 
at the measure of success he had attained. He had grown 
everything from radishes to watermelons and had had some 
of nearly every crop to give to his neighVjors. This was before 
the popular movement toward city gardens and the same man 
has repeatedly equaled his first success. During the past year 
he produced, in addition to his usual summer crops, nearly 
enough potatoes to supply his family throughout the winter. 

Such a case might seem exceptional, but, as a matter of 
fact, is not. The school gardens that were started last year in 
most, if not all, cities proved beyond a doubt that the waste 
land in our back yards can be made to produce a very consid- 
erable amount of food. However, the idea of the school garden 
is not a new one. In many localities such gardens have been 
long estalished and they have produced more than food. They 
have taught the children who tended them, the value of labor. 
To some they have taught a trade ; I know several young men 
who are now commercial gardeners who obtained their start in 
a city school garden. To many of these city children the gar- 
dens have brought the joy of the open air in its best and most 
valuable form. 

Gardening in the city, however valuable and interesting 
it may be, has its drawbacks and disadvantages. There are 
more difficulties to be overcome than there are in the country — 
difficulties of atmosphere, soil, and experience. Most of these 
difficulties may be overcome by work and patience. Next to a 
good soil, sunlight and air are garden requisites. The air is, 
of course, abundantly provided and in spite of the smoke in 
some parts of cities it is good enough for most growing plants. 
Even in the factory districts and near railroad yards I have 
seen splendid gardens in spite of the smoke; but the sunlight 
is sometimes a difficult matter to secure. In small lots the 
houses and fences often shade too large a portion of the avail- 
able land to enable the amateur gardener to make much head- 
way, but even here changes may be made to help conditions. 



246 



Orchard and Garden 



Board fences may give way to fences built of woven wire and 
thus provide not only a strip of light, but provide at the same 
time a support for such things as can be trained to grow on 
a trellis. Along the fence, if it be of wire, is an admirable 
place for tomatoes. Pole beans of all sorts can also be planted 
along such fences and the need for poles vanishes. 

Often in a back yard there is an old tree, a "loafer" tree, 
that produces nothing but shade and even then sheds its 




A good back yard garden. 



leaves early and stands as an unsightly and useless object. 
Such old trees should be cut down wherever they interfere 
with the garden. It is difficult to grow fruit in the city, much 
more difficult than it is to grow garden stuff ; and a live garden 
is undoubtedly more beautiful and valuable than a half-dead 
tree. There will always be some places in a city yard that will 
be shaded. Buildings can not be removed, and sometimes 
owing to the contentious dispositions of neighbors wire 



The Back Yard Garden. 



247 



fences can not even be erected. In such cases we must make 
the best of our adverse conditions and plant in the shaded por- 
tions only such plants as we know are shade enduring. For- 
tunately there are such plants, about which the gardener 
should know in order to make the most of his opportunities. 

Probably chief among vegetables that will grow in the 
shade is lettuce. As a matter of fact, a lettuce bed thrives bet- 
ter in partial shade than it does in the open sunlight, especially 
after the weather turns quite warm. In the country it is not 
an uncommon practice to plant a bed of lettuce under a tree 




A school girl's city garden. 

and in such situations it remains in good condition long after 
the open-grown lettuce has become tough and bitter. Radishes 
will also grow in the shade and for this purpose the small Card- 
inal Globe is one of the best varieties. 

Spinach is another crop that could be grown in shaded 
areas, though it will not do as well as it would if it had full 
sunlight. In fact, very few plants will grow as well without 
plenty of sun as they will in the open, but for the purposes 
of this chapter a few vegetables are suggested that may be 
grown with a minimum of light. 



248 



Orchard and Garden 



An asparagus bed might well be planted in a shaded cor- 
ner. I have seen some good asparagus grown on the north 
sides of buildings, for the nature of the asparagus foliage is 
such that it can make the most of the light which is available. 
Swiss chard is another vegetable that will endure a measure 
of shade without much injury. In fact, chard which is grown 
in partial shade is more tender than if grown in the open. The 
same fact is true of Chinese cabbage, one of the newer vege- 
tables that only requires to be known to be appreciated. Chi- 
nese cabbage is always planted late in the season and could 
well occupy the same ground that had previously been produc- 
ing lettuce and radishes. This form of cabbage, however, re- 
quires a fertile soil and plenty of moisture, so unless these can 

be supplied the city gardener 
would better not attempt its 
cultivation. 

It is with the soil that the 
city gardener will probably 
have most his troubles. Some 
city gardens would try the soul 
of a saint at spading time and 
probably later too. 

Most cities are "built up". 
In an effort to bring the town 
to a uniform level the city 
fathers have rearranged the 
face of nature to such an ex- 
tent that she would not recog- 
nize herself. The average back 
yard, if it is an old part of 
town, probably has several lay- 
ers of "made dirt" whose sur- 
face soil is composed of a 
choice mixture of brick bats, 
old plaster, clay, gravel, stones 
,, . ,, ' ■ , . and more or less decomposed 

Keeping the rows straight. '■ 




The Back Yard Garden. 



249 



tin cans. I have delved in city yards and I have sometimes 
thought that my feehngs were akin to those of the man who 
makes a business of digging up buried cities. I have found 
everything in back yard soils except treasure — that is for the 
man who will patiently work with such conditions and pro- 
duce a crop. It is a treasure that must be planted and that 
will increase each year. 

If a garden is attempted in one of these filled-in yards, the 
first thing to be done is to have the garden area spaded as 
deeply as possible. Somewhere below all that rubbish is a lay- 
er of soil that is probably good. In many cases it is very good. 
It is indeed buried treasure and will yield up gold in several 
forms to the patient toiler who will work for it. 

It is not necessary to uncover this deep layer of good soil 
in order to make its fertility available for your garden plants. 

Loosen the soil deeply and the 
probabilities are that your 
plants will send their roots 
down after that long-covered 
fertility and bring it to the 
surface in flowers and fruit. 

Taking out the stones, the 
bricks and the tin cans is a job 
that embodies very little of 
the poetical, yet it is a job 
that pays good wages. These 
stones and bricks must be re- 
moved not only to afford root 
room, but to facilitate cultiva- 
tion of the crop. Taking out 
the foreign matter means sim- 
ply putting the city soil into 
good mechanical condition. It 
is no more rigorous labor than 

The children are always interested "^^ny NeW England farmers 

in what ^^hey^have helped endured when they cleared the 




250 



Orchard and Garden 



forest from their hillside farms and then had to remove the 
stones to obtain access to the soil. Unlike the virgin hillsides 
of New England, however, the city soil is usually deficient in 
fei-tility in addition to being in bad physical condition. To 
improve the fertility and also to help the texture of the soil, 
a good heavy application of stable manure should be applied 
and thoroughly turned under. This procedure means that the 
soil must be worked twice. Once to remove obstructions and 
again to cover the manure that is applied as a fertilizer. 

In the majority of cases manure is the best fertilizer that 
can be used in gardens whether in the city or elsewhere. Com- 







[32^17919^^ 




^» ■■^^rw^flf^ 




^' ■«, . ^^ '^*'^ 









Kentucky M'onder Beans grown on an otherwise useless fence. 



mercial fertilizers have their value in their proper place, but 
never have they been able to replace advantageous use of 
stable manure in the growing of garden truck. After the 
manure has been applied and spaded under, go over the whole 
surface with a sharp small hoe or with a steel rake entirely 
pulverizing the clods not only on the surface, but as deep an 
the ground has been worked. Any air spaces under the roots 
of your plants must be prevented. Such air spaces allow the 



The Back Yard Garden. 



251 



soil to dry out and will cause the plants to perish more quickly 
than almost any other cause. 

After the seed is planted and the young plants are appear- 
ing- above the ground be sure that the surface of the soil is 

kept loose and well stirred. If 
the first preparation of the 
ground has been correct, cul- 
tivation need not be deep, two 
inches is enough, but must be 
done thoroughly and constant- 
ly. If the garden is watered 
with a hose be sure not to wa- 
ter too frequently. More gar- 
dens in the city are injured by 
too frequent watering than by 
not watering at all. Some 
gardeners have attempted to 
water their plants every day. 
As a result they have applied 
only a small amount of water 
each time — not enough to soak 
into the soil so as to benefit 
the roots, but just enough to 
wet the surface. When this 
wet surface dried a crust was 
formed and in that way still 
more soil moisture was allow- 
ed to escape. The deep moisture in the soil can get away more 
easily through a hard crust than through a well cultivated sur- 
face. If artificially watered let it be infrequently, but when 
it is done the soil must be thoroughly soaked. A garden that 
is well soaked' once a week is always more greatly benefited 
than one that is just "sprinkled" every evening. 

The following list of vegetables is given for city cultiva- 
tion, with a few remarks applicable to city conditions. 

Asparagus. — Except in unusual cases, not advised for city 
gardens. When the ground can not be well be used for other 




Even the city gardener must spray. 



252 



Orchard and Garden 



purposes on account of shade or where there is plenty of room, 
it might prove a desirable crop. 

Beans. — The bush beans are most desirable for city cul- 
tivation. The bush lima beans are good and the White Wax 

and Valentine are splendid. As 
a rule it does not pay to try to 
grow "navy" beans in the city, 
as they require too much space 
for the amount of food pro- 
duced. 

Beets should be in every 
city garden, as they are easily 
produced and seem to thrive 
on many different soils. They 
are very hardy and so the seed 
may be planted early, Swiss 
chard, a form of beet grown 
for its edible leaves, is a pop- 
ular vegetable. It is the most 
easily grown of all plants used 
for greens. 

Cabbage. — Not as a rule 
advised for city cultivation, as 
it requires too much space. 
The Wakefield is undoubtedly 
the best cabbage for city pur- 
poses. 
The ground should be kept 




This boy specialized on lima beans. 



Carrots are easily grown 
loose to allow full development of the roots. 

Corn. — This crop requires much space, also shades other 
crops near by. However, if a good variety of sweet corn is 
used it can be planted with some of the pole beans and the 
corn stalks will not only produce their crop of roasting ears, 
but will also provide support for the beans. A good combi- 
nation of this sort is the Stowell's Evergreen corn and Ken- 
tucky Wonder beans. The very dwarf corns, like Golden Ban- 
tam, should not be planted with beans. 



The Back Yard Garden. 



253 



Cucumbers require less 
room than almost any other 
member of the melon family. 
They may be grown on a 
trellis or over a wire fence. 
As a rule, however, they are 
not desirable in the city gar- 
den. 

Kale. — As a crop to fol- 
low early vegetables, kale 
will produce considerable 
food. It can be planted in 
the space formerly occupied 
by lettuce, radish and beets. 

Lettuce. — By all means 
every city garden should have 
its bed of lettuce. Although 
it is possible to buy fine head 
lettuce in the markets nearly 
every day in the year, the city 
man should know the quality of really fresh lettuce. It is 
quite diflferent from the quality of lettuce that has been 
shipped across the continent or stored by the dealer for sev- 
eral days. Big Boston is a good variety for the beginner. 

Onions from sets can be grown readily and a small area 
will furnish enough to supply the average family. 

Parsnip. — The parsnip can be grown in most soils, but the 
grower must have patience with the seed after it is planted. 
Germination does not take place very promptly and most be- 
ginners make the mistake of making a second planting, think- 
ing that the first seed had for some reason been killed. Event- 
ually both plantings come above ground and the plants are then 
much too thick. This fact is also true of parsley and carrots. 

p^a. — The dwarf varieties are best for the average city 
garden. They are an early crop, that can be followed by later 
crops of other vegetables. 




Real 



I'ood stuff pi-oduced 
crowded part of town. 



254 



Orchard and Garden 



Potato. — The potato is really a field crop, but nearly every 
amateur gardener feels the necessity of growing a few pota- 
toes. As a rule, greater value can be obtained from a small 
piece of ground if it is planted in some other crop. However, 
some city gardeners produce enough for their own use. If the 
city man feels that he must grow some potatoes, he should 
adhere to the well established rules for their cultivation and 
not experiment with any new schemes which are advertised to 
increase the production many fold. As far as is now known, 

no successful artificial system 
exists for speeding up produc- 
tion with this or any other 
vegetable. 

Radishes should be in ev- 
ery home garden. A small bed 
will supply a large family. 

Spinach. — This is the best 
of all the "pot herbs" grown 
for greens. It is of the easiest 
culture and should be in every 
garden, especially as it may be 
taken oflf the ground in time to 
be followed by later crops of 
other things. 

Squash — The only squash 
that is suitable for the city 
garden is the white scallop 
bush squash. One hill of this 
vegetable will not take much 
space and will produce a sur- 
prising number of fruits. 
Tomato. — A few tomato plants should be in every garden, 
no matter how small. Few plants are so satisfactory and none 
are more easily grown. They may be trained to a fence or 
tied to stakes. If allowed to run on the ground they will take 
up more room than is necessary. 




Real gardening' — -and in a big city. 



The Back Yard Garden. 



255 



Turnips are good in a city- 
garden as they can follow the 
early vegetables. They will 
probably produce more food 
value to the square foot than 
almost anything else. 

Cooperation. — Owners of 
city lots who desire to estab- 
lish back-yard gardens can 
often cooperate in such a way 
as to render the work easier 
and simpler for all concerned. 
I have already mentioned the 
fact that fences can be re- 
moved and either left out 
entirely or can be replaced 
with wire fences that will 
allow the light and air to get 
in. Other forms of coopera- 
tion consist of the community 
ownership of spray machines, 
plows or even of smaller gar- 
den tools. Often the purchase 
of seed may be left to one man in a group, who will buy it in 
quantities so that lower prices can be obtained. A commun- 
ity hot bed for producing early plants of cabbage and tomatoes 
will simplify the production of all plants of this sort and the 
expense of the hot bed will be distributed between several peo- 
ple instead of being borne by each individual. Such coopera- 
tion is urged in every community because it will reduce 
expense and result in the production of better gardens. 




Tomatoes on stakes. 



(17) 



256 Orchard and Garden 

Such cooperation will often result in securing a greater 
yield from a given area than if the same area was to be culti- 
vated by one person. The city man who plants a garden for 
the first time should also guard against trying to do more than 
he is able. It is far better to have a small garden well tilled 
than to have a large tract that is neglected. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



257 




An Orchard and Garden Calendar 

Kings and Emperors and Popes have fought over the 
proper arrangement of the months in the year, so it is per- 
haps unseemly for a tiller of the soil to meddle with a royal 
quarrel, but to the man who lives with growing things the 
present scheme seems most illogical. Our year starts long 
before the first breath of life from the southland stirs the dor- 
mant plant life into action. The world is wrapped with a 
blanket of snow when the new year begins and all the noise we 
may make about it will not stir one leaf into activity or swell 
one bud upon the sleeping branch. 

To one whose years are measured by the activity of his 
plants, it would seem that the old Romans, with their new 
year opening in March, had much the best of the arrangement. 



JANUARY 

Orchard. — Of all months, January is to the orchardist the 
least active. The weather usually precludes any attempt at 
out-of-door activity. If warm days come, some pruning may 
be done in the apple orchard, the vineyard and among some of 
the small fruit plants. It is not wise to pi*une either peaches 
or raspberries this early in the year, because the pruned stubs 
may be injured by severe cold weather later. This sort of in- 



258 Orchard and Garden 

jury is of course liable to affect any variety of fruit, but those 
mentioned are the most apt to suffer. Unless there is much 
pruning to be done, it would better be deferred this month. 
Never under any circumstances prune even apple wood while 
it is frozen, as injury is almost sure to follow. 

This is a good month in which to haul out fertilizer and 
place it around the trees or on the small fruit blocks. 

Indoor shop work can be accomplished so as to have it out 
of the way when the season for out-door work opens. Be sure 
that all tools are properly oiled. Spray machines should be 
overhauled to see that no parts are broken and that the pump 
valves are all in good order. Pruning 

be sharpened. Grafting wax can be made and if apples are to 
be propagated the root grafts can be prepared during this 
month. Examine the apple trees for eggs of the apple aphis, 
which will be found in small cracks in the bark and around 
the buds on last year's wood. 

Garden. — Manure should be hauled to the garden and 
either left in piles or spread over the surface. Hot bed sash 
should be repaired and repainted and the frames for the hot 
beds should be repaired, or if there are none, material should 
be obtained from which to make them. Seed catalogues should 
be ordered and studied to ascertain what new varieties have 
been introduced and the order for the year's seeds should be 
sent. Do not neglect ordering the garden seed early. It is 
just as safe in your home as it would be at the dealer's and you 
are assured of its presence. By placing orders for seed late the 
dealer is swamped just at the time you are needing your seed 
and as a result it makes trouble for him, delays you, and per- 
haps prevents you from getting the choice of varieties desired. 

In the South much preliminary work may be done toward 
making the garden. Our country is so large and our climate so 
varied that it is impossible to give exact directions for each 
month that will fit all sections. In the main, these suggestions 
are written for the conditions prevailing about the thirty- 
ninth or fortieth degree of latitude. Allowances can be made 
for relative differences. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



259 




FEBRUARY 



Orchard. — This is the month in which the orchardist 
should plan to do most of his pruning. Severe weather may 
prevent the work from progressing as rapidly as it should and 
may cause it to lap over into March, but as March is a busy 
time in other ways, it is well to get as much of the pruning out 
of the way as possible. 

While pruning, watch the trees closely for insects and fun- 
gous diseases. The San Jose scale can be readily detected by 
the observant pruner and wherever it is found in an orchard 
the trees should be marked. Later these known infested dis- 
tricts can be given extra attention at the spraying time. 

Black rot and bitter rot both form cankers on the twigs 
and branches. If such cankers or rough, dead areas are found, 
the branches bearing them should be cut out entirely if pos- 
sible. Blight cankers are also easily detected at this time and 
should be removed. Where it is impossible to remove a cank- 
ered branch without injury to the shape of the tree or where 
the removal would necessitate taking away too much good 
fruit-bearing wood, the canker itself can be carefully cut out 
with a sharp knife, the wound disinfected with corrosive sub- 
limate solution (1 to 1000) and afterwards painted with white 
lead and oil or with hot grafting wax. 



260 Orchard and Garden 

Notice the peaches particularly before pruning and if the 
buds have been killed, it will pay to give the trees an extra 
heavy pruning. The heavy pruning will remove much of the 
wood which would have borne fruit next summer, but it will 
induce a vigorous growth that will bear the succeeding year. 
See that all branches and twigs are carted out of the orchard 
and burned as soon as possible in order to kill any insects or 
plant diseases that might infest them. 

In pruning plums look for evidences of black knot, and if it 
is present have all infected branches promptly cut out and 
burned. Also gather all dried or mummied plums and peaches 
and either bury them or, better, burn them. They carry the 
infection of the brown rot and their removal at this time will 
simplify spraying later. 

Garden. — Start saving the manure for the hot beds. It 
should be fresh and mixed with bedding straw. Keep it under 
shelter where it will not be rained on, or it will lose much of 
its heating value. Horse manure is the only kind that is en- 
tirely satisfactory for this purpose. If the hot bed frames are 
not already built, have them set up without delay, as they will 
soon be needed. On bad days mats for the hot bed can be pre- 
pared and stored away ready for use later. They may not be 
needed at all, but it is best to be prepared in advance. If very 
cold weather should set in after the hot bed is once started the 
mats may save the plants from freezing, and such mats can 
not be prepared in a hurry. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



261 




iK-5Vfla«->. "*-iti , »-^»--:i.*» !S ■ 





MARCH 



Orchard. — This is the best of all winter months for the 
application of the dormant spray. Every twig and branch 
must be well covered with the spray solution. Those portions 
of the orchard that have been found to be infested with scale 
insects or with the eggs of plant lice should be given extra 
attention. The trees should be examined a few days after they 
have been sprayed and if any exposed areas of bark are found, 
the work must be done over in these parts of the orchard. 

After a spray machine has been used for the dormant 
spraying it should be taken to the shop and thoroughly cleaned 
and all of the valves examined and oiled. The strong lime sul- 
phur solution is quite inclined to attack the metal parts of 
machinery and may cause moving valves and other parts to 
stick. It will be some weeks before the pumps are again used 
and if they are oiled now they will be in good shape for the 
big rush later. 

Tree planting can often be started this month. If the 
ground is not frozen, this is the best month of the year for set- 
ting out trees and shrubs. If the ground should freeze again 
after the trees are planted it will be so much the better for the 
trees. It will cause the soil to be more firmly fixed around the 
roots. 



262 Orchard and Garden 

If all of the pruning was not done last month it can be car- 
ried on in March. 

Garden. — The hot beds should be started the first week 
in March. In some localities it is even better to get them 
started late in February so that seed can be planted the first 
of March. The hot beds will usually maintain their heat for at 
least six weeks and after that they still aff'ord as much or more 
protection as cold frames. Consequently the starting of the 
beds should be about two months before the average date of 
the last severe frost. 

Cabbage and tomato seed may be sown in the hot bed for 
early plants. Lettuce may be sown in hot beds for the earliest 
crop. Late in the month onion seed may be sown if it is in- 
tended to grow a few large onions by the transplanting method. 
This method has been followed in Bermuda for many years. 
The seed is grown inside, until strong plants are formed. These 
seedlings are set in the open ground at the time the regular 
garden is made and are carefully cultivated and kept free from 
weeds. The method involves more labor than does the other 
methods of onion culture, but it enables the season to be pro- 
longed and thus grow to maturity in the North those varieties 
that have heretofore only been grown in warm countries. 

If the season is advanced and the ground in such shape 
that it can be worked, plant a few peas in the open ground for 
the early crop. Some growers always plant their early pota- 
toes on March 17th. But the proper time to plant them is when 
the season is properly advanced and when the ground can be 
easily worked. 

In the flower garden sweet peas may be planted if the 
ground is in good condition. 

See that the garden is thoroughly cleaned up and all 
weeds, trash and stalks of last year's plants are burned. This 
work should really be done in the fall, but too often it is neg- 
lected owing to the pressure of other duties. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



263 




APRIL 



Orchard. — If the peach trees have had a dormant spray 
they will not require any more attention until about ten days 
after the petals fall, but if they did not receive a dormant 
spray, then they should be sprayed with lime sulphur at the 
rate of one gallon of commercial solution to nine of water. 
This treatment controls leaf curl and should be applied just 
before the buds open. The apples should be sprayed just as 
soon as any pink shows in the buds. Spraying must stop as 
soon as the bloom opens. They are sprayed again as soon as 
the petals fall. This work usually comes the last part of April 
and usually runs over well into May. 

Grafting may best be done early in April just before 
growth starts. Be sure the scions are still perfectly dormant. 

Order barrels and boxes for the fall crop. Also purchase 
crates for small fruits. Packages of this sort can usually be 
bought now at a lower price than later and the grower is al- 
ways sure to have them when needed. 

Garde7i. — Apply manure to the asparagus bed and break 
the surface of the soil so that the sprouts can come through 
easily. 

Plow the garden and get the soil in condition just as early 
as possible. 



264 Orchard and Garden 

Early beets may be planted if the ground is in good condi- 
tion. 

Cabbage seed may be sown in the open or in cold frames. 
If sown in the open, some provision should be made to protect 
the plants on cold nights. 

Lettuce plants from the hot bed may be set in the open 
ground the latter part of the month. The onions started m the 
house should also be ready to set out if the weather is warm 
enough. Tomato plants should wait for settled weather. 

In the open ground, lettuce and radishes may be sown and 
also peas, spinach, parsley and parsnip. Parsnips that have 
remained in the ground over winter should be dug before they 
start growing or they will be tough. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



265 




MAY 



Orchard. — Finish the spraying left over from last month 
and clean up the machine as soon as you are through with it. 
This warning can not be repeated too often. 

Remove the wrappers from around the trees, as there is 
now but little danger of rabbit injury and it is not commend- 
able to have the trees wrapped during hot weather. Start cul- 
tivation in the orchards early in the month. If any trees have 
failed to leaf out examine them for rabbit or mouse injury. If 
damaged trees are discovered promptly, there may still be time 
to dig them out and replace them with new trees. 

Cultivate all small fruit plantations except strawberries. 
These should be mulched between the rows with clean straw 
until after the crop is harvested. 

Spray grape vines. 

Garden. — This is the busy month in the garden, as nearly 
everything can be planted now. Early in the month plant 
beets, peas, lettuce, radishes, onions, sweet corn. All of these 
can be planted at intervals of two weeks so as to provide a 
succession of mature crops. 

Tomatoes can be planted in the open ground the last of 
the month. 

Cabbage plants may be set out. See that they go in rich 



266 Orchard and Garden 

and well prepared ground, as this crop needs plenty of fertility 
to succeed best. 

If the weather is warm, plant melons, cucumbers, 
squashes, which may have been started in the hot bed or cold 
frames. Do not plant these warmth-demanding vegetables 
unless the weather is suitable or more will be lost than gained. 

Plant potatoes for the main crop and be sure that the 
seed is treated for scab before planting. 

In the flower garden all sorts of annuals may be planted, 
but the soil must be as well prepared as if a crop of vegetables 
was to be grown. Perennial plants may be set this month — 
the earlier, the better. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



267 




JUNE 



Orchard. — Grapes must be sprayed again this month. As 
soon as the grape berries are the size of small peas, select the 
best bunches for sacking. 

The orchard cultivation must not be allowed to lag this 
month. Keep at it unless the weather should be very wet. 
Even then cultivate between showers. 

Gooseberries, strawberries and raspberries will be gath- 
ered this month. The gooseberries will not need much atten- 
tion, but the strawberries and raspberries should be given 
careful work. After the strawberry crop has been harvested, 
mow the beds, let the leaves dry for a few days and then burn 
them over. This practice kills many insects and gives the beds 
a good growth of new leaves. In old patches that have had the 
rows grown together, plow out paths so as to confine the plants 
to definite rows. After the raspberries have fruited, cut out 
all of the old canes so as to force the new canes to make a bet- 
ter growth. 

Garden. — Asparagus beds should not be cut after the first 
of June or the roots may become exhausted. After the last cut- 
ting, apply a light dressing of manure and then keep down 
weeds until the asparagus shoots have had time to cover the 
ground. 



268 Orchard and Garden 

Keep down weeds in the garden. Plant additional rows of 
corn, wax beans, beets, etc., to supply fall vegetables. 

Plant navy beans the latter part of the month. If these 
are planted late they are less apt to be damaged by the bean 
weevil and also their cultivation is simplified. If they are 
planted late and the ground has been carefully prepared they 
will not require much attention after they are above ground. 
They grow so rapidly that they often cover the ground before 
the weeds have an opportunity to crowd them. 

In the flower garden the plants should be kept cultivated. 
Asters should be set in the location in which they are to bloom, 
as should all other annuals that have been started in special 
seed beds or in cold frames. Roses should be pruned imme- 
diately after blooming. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



269 




JULY 



Orchard. — July is one of the most trying months on the 
orchardist because the apples now demand their regular sum- 
mer spray for the control of the second brood of the codling 
moth and for various fungous diseases. This spray usually 
comes just at the hottest part of the summer and spraying 
under such weather conditions is anything but pleasant. How- 
ever, it must be done. The Bordeaux spray should be applied 
with fine nozzles and a good pressure in order to secure a fine 
mist-like spray, that must reach all parts of the tree. 

Apples and other fruits should be thinned early this month 
if they are too thick on the trees. Few orchard practices pay 
better than this usage. As a rule, when two apples hang to- 
gether one of them should come off. The one that is left will 
be a better apple and will be worth more money than the 
two would have been worth if they had been allowed to hang. 

After blackberries have fruited the old canes should be 
cut out and burned. This custom is a great help toward keep- 
ing the patch in a healthy condition. As the new blackberry 
shoots grow they should be cut back as soon as they reach a 
height of three feet, which causes them to throw out side 
branches and make more sturdy canes. The first early apples 
will be ready to be gathered the last of this month. It is 



270 Orchard and Garden 

better to make more than one picking with most early apples 
because they do not ripen uniformly. This fact is especially 
true of summer apples that show color. The Red June should 
be picked only when it has developed a good red color. Live- 
land Raspberry and Chenango are others of this class. The 
Yellow Transparent, while it is a yellow apple, always yields 
better if given several pickings. The first picking of the Yel- 
low Transparent can be made to include only the largest of the 
apples. It will be found that those that remain will increase in 
size wonderfully. 

Cultivation must be continued through this month. Keep 
down weeds. 

Garden. — The garden must be kept cultivated through 
July. Weeds are the great enemy of the gardener. This rule 
applies to flower gardens as well as any other kind. 

The ground should be prepared for the planting of turnips 
and other late crops. See that the surface dirt is made fine and 
loose. Turnips may be planted the last of the month. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



271 




AUGUST 



Orchard. — If the trees show an inclination to turn yellow 
they must be sprayed again. In apples this yellow leaf may be 
caused by black rot or by cedar rust. In either event the rem- 
edy is Bordeaux mixture. Apply it liberally if any leaf trouble 
exists. Among peaches and plums the leaves often turn yellow 
through the action of other fungous diseases. These stone 
fruits should be sprayed with the self -boiled lime sulphur solu- 
tion. 

Summer apples should be picked this month and peaches 
also should ripen in some quantity. Harvest them on clear 
days whenever possible and pack them carefully. Stop culti- 
vation in the orchards and plant cover crops early in the month. 

Garden. — Plant turnips the first of the month. Also plant 
Chinese cabbage and kale. Winter radishes may also be 
planted now. Provide the Chinese cabbage with plenty of 
moisture and do not let the seeds dry out. After the plants 
are a few inches high, give them an application of liquid 
manure. 

James Whitcomb Riley in writing about the month of 
August said something about "the glorious month of indolent 
repose". If there is any such thing as "indolent repose" for 
the orchardist or gardener it probably comes in this month 

(18) 



272 Orchard and Garden 

of heat and dust. It is a difficult month for the grower of 
plants, for often very little can be done to prevent the burn- 
ing sun from withering the efforts of the preceding months 
of toil. 

But in such times of drouth it is well to remember that 
cultivation is a great conserver of soil moisture and the more 
we can cultivate, the more moisture we retain in the soil for 
the use of our plants. So that one of the best rules for 
August in the garden is to cultivate and cultivate and culti- 
vate. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



273 




SEPTEMBER 



Orchard. — Quite a bit of work can be done this month in 
preparation for the apple harvest. Provide plenty of picking 
bags or baskets and repair ladders or buy new ones. On 
rainy days build boxes and remove the heads from barrels in 
preparation for the apple packing. By doing this work now 
much time is saved later when the rush is on at harvest time. 
Clean out apple storage cellars and then spray them thor- 
oughly inside with good whitewash or, better still, with a 
strong Bordeaux mixture. This treatment is to kill the spores 
of rot-producing fungi that are probably on the walls and 
floor. A little care at this time will pay dividends later. 

Grapes are ripe in September. Pick them and pack care- 
fully if they are to be shipped. If sold to a local canning 
factory they can be handled in larger baskets and with less 
care. Those in paper bags will not ripen so early and will 
remain in good condition until November. This is usually the 
busy month for peaches. The Elberta and similar sorts ripen 
early in the month. Do not allow them to get too ripe. 

Gardeyi. — The early part of September is a rich time in 
the garden. Melons, tomatoes, late beans and sweet corn 
are at their best. Now is the proper time to save much of the 
seed for next year. Select the best melons, tomatoes, cucum- 



274 Orchard and Garden 

bers, etc., and from them save the seed. In saving bean seed 
gather it from pods that are perfectly clean and healthy. This 
attention will do much toward securing a healthy crop next 
year. Select the seed corn from vigorous stalks in a crowded 
part of the patch. It is not best to select corn for seed when 
it has grown on hills very much exposed. That which has 
made good ears under average garden conditions is much more 
liable to yield good seed than that grown under very favorable 
conditions. In other words, a weak strain of seed might do 
well where all conditions were favorable, but what is desired 
is seed that will do well under average or perhaps adverse con- 
ditions. Navy beans should be ripe enough to pull the last of 
the month. Pull the entire vine and stack them up in little 
piles to dry out. If they can be placed under an open shed, it is 
to be preferred. As soon as they are dry enough to shell easily 
they can be threshed and the beans spread out in the sun 
every day for several days to cure thoroughly. Never attempt 
to put them away for the winter unless they are perfectly dry. 

Dig potatoes. As they are dug, have some one follow along 
the row and select good specimens from the best hills to save 
for seed. This method is better than attempting to select seed 
from a barrel or bin. Sometimes a hill will contain only one 
large potato. It is not advisable to keep that potato for seed. 
Take the seed from hills that produce a number of good med- 
ium sized potatoes. This precaution takes some time, but it 
will eventually pay. 

Chinese cabbage may be ready for use the last of the 
month. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



275 




OCTOBER 



Orchard. — In the apple orchard this is the culminating 
month of the whole year. Now the results of all our labors 
are to be seen and enjoyed, and if we have the good fortune 
to harvest a crop of clean, perfect fruit we may consider that 
our work has been well done. The pleasure of picking and 
packing absolutely perfect fruit is one of the rewards of the 
fruit grower. Pick apples just as carefully as if they were 
much more delicate and tender structures. Sometimes a 
bruise may not show at the time, but it is certain to show 
later. Handle the fruit gently, do not throw it about or allow 
it to fall on the ground. As a rule an apple that falls on the 
ground is not fit to pack, no matter how perfect it may appear. 
It is almost certain to be bruised. 

Pack the fruit honestly. Be honest with yourself about 
it. Do not put into a barrel any apples that you would not 
like to buy yourself if you were getting fruit from the market. 
Feed the bad ones to the hogs or have them ground into cider. 
They are worth more money as cider than they are as apples. 

If you have an opportunity to sell your crop at a fair price, 
sell it. If the price is too low and you are equipped to store the 
fruit, then by all means hold it. It may even pay to send it to 
a cold storage plant in the nearest city and have it stored there. 



276 Orchard and Garden 

After the crop is harvested the trees should be wrapped 
with paper to protect the trunks from rabbit injury. At the 
same time scrape away all trash and leaves around the trunk 
for a distance of two feet in all directions from the tree. This 
precaution will discourage the work of mice, which are often 
very destructive to the roots of apple. 

Garden. — Dig sweet potatoes before they are frosted. It 
is customary to let them grow till the first frost nips the 
vines. Then cut oflF the vines at the ground. After this they 
will stand a severe frost without injury. 

Pot a few plants of parsley to keep in the kitchen. It 
makes a very pleasant addition to the kitchen window and is 
useful as a garnish and in soups. 

Onions should be gathered before severe frosts and stored 
for winter. Turnips may be gathered or may be left till early 
in November if the weather is not severe. Cabbage should 
be gathered this month. Chinese cabbage and kale can be 
lightly covered with straw and will remain in good condition 
late in the winter. The kale is perfectly hardy and will grow 
vigorously in the spring. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



277 




NOVEMBER 



Orchard. — Early in the month the same activity continues 
in the orchard as prevailed in October. The two months often 
overlap and not infrequently is the weather better in Novem- 
ber than earlier. 

Late in the month is a good time to remove dead trees 
and burn them. They can often be pulled out by the roots at 
this season, v\^hile they would be hard to pull at almost any 
other time. 

If peaches have been used as fillers in an orchard and are 
old enough to begin to interfere, do not hesitate to pull them 
out. This is the season to do it. If you allow them to remain 
over winter the fruit buds may escape damage and then you 
will not have the courage to take them out — when the good of 
the orchard demands it. Order fruit trees for next year's 
planting. By doing so at this time you are sure to get better 
trees than if you waited until spring after everyone else had 
placed his order. Have the trees held and shipped in the spring 
or get them now and heel them in. 

This is a good month to repair the fences around the or- 
chard and garden. Time is now to be had and posts set at 
this season will remain solid better than if set in the spring. 

Garden. — After everything has been harvested from the 



278 Orchard and Garden 

garden it should be cleaned up and all trash burned. Too often 
this is left until spring. It is better management to do it now. 
Tender shrubs should be protected by being mulched with 
straw. Roses and other plants liable to winter injury should 
be wrapped with straw saved for the purpose. 



Orchard and Garden Calendar. 



279 




! ,. 




DECEMBER 



Orchard. — If the weather is favorable the first part of the 
month the November work can extend well into December. 

Haul manure to the garden and orchard. 

Mulch strawberry beds with straw, but not until after the 
ground freezes hard. Freezing will not hurt strawberries ; in 
fact, it is beneficial, but freezing and thawing will cause them 
to pull out of the ground. The straw mulch prevents this pos- 
sibility. Mulch raspberry patches that were recently planted. 
Old ones will usually not require it. 

Late in the month the weather often puts a stop to all out- 
door work in the orchard. 

Garden. — There is not much to do in the garden this 
month. If parsnips are wanted for winter use they may be 
taken up after the first hard freeze and stored in sand in a 
moist cellar. They are best left in the ground over winter, but 
if this is done they are very difiicult to dig when the ground 
is frozen. 

Kale that has been protected by straw may be used until 
late in the month or in some localities all winter. Chinese cab- 
bage should still be good if it has been protected by straw, but 
it will not withstand the same amount of cold as kale. 



280 



Orchard and Garden 




Hardy perennials and shrubs bordering- a diive. 



CHAPTER XI 

The Value of a Flower Garden 

I once came upon a deserted cabin in the woods of north- 
ern Michigan, miles from any settlement. The roof was fall- 
ing in and the crude door drooped on its hinges, but by the step 
bloomed a riot of old-fashioned flowers and I knew that a wo- 
man had been a member of the household that had once occu- 
pied that outpost of civilization. She was gone, but her flow- 
ers remained, seeding themselves from year to year, and as 
they caught the eyes of those who passed by they proclaimed 
abroad, 'This house was once a home." 

We have for too long a time considered flowers as unnec- 
essary luxuries. We have taken them too much for granted. 
Although v/e have had them about us, we have not felt that 
they were indispensable. 

Floivei^s help to make life worth the livhig and anything 
which helps bring this condition about has what we may call 
a money value. Some people can understand a subject only 
when it is presented to them in terms of cash. They eat their 
food by the colorie and do not realize the wealth they miss in 
the beauty of the life around them. And yet even such as these 
will pay more for a house that has some trees around it, some 
flowers in the door yard and a vine over the entrance, than 
they would for a house that stood out bare and unattractive. 
They are paying their hard cash for beauty — for flowers — but 
they probably never thought about it in just that way. They 



282 



Orchard and Garden 




would miss the flowers if they were not there, but they do not 
give them a second thought when present. Railroads and other 

"soulless" corpora- 
tions have never been 
known to spend mon- 
ey unless there was a 
chance that the same 
money would come 
back and bring more 
with it, and yet we 
find that railroad 
companies are among 
our most extensive 
flower gardeners. It 
is not enough to build 
an attractive station 
at a promising town ; 
that station must be 
adorned with flowers and trees. This is a practice that has 
grown with the years and it has never failed to pay dividends. 
A station that makes an instant appeal to the traveler may 
bring a resident or an industry to the town ; and from thriv- 
ing towns railroads get their revenue. 

Some of the largest manufacturing plants are situated 
literally in flower gardens. We have outgrown the idea that a 
factory must necessarily be a dirty, ugly structure. Plants 
of Boston ivy are soon grown and flower seeds are not ex- 
pensive. If these are combined with a little common sense a 
factory may be converted from a dingy workshop, where men 
work for a daily wage to a place where the worker will value 
his job, where he will always be on time and where he will for- 
get about the time clock. 

America of all places should be a land of flowers. The first 
Spaniards who landed on our continent were so impressed 
with the wealth of flowers that they gave the land the name of 



An attractive railroad station. 



The Value of a Flower Garden. 283 

"Florida." Florida is still a land of flowers, but if those Span- 
iards could have gone over the whole country they would have 
had their first judgment confirmed because, in a slightly lesser 
degree than Florida and the south, this was, indeed, a land 
of flowers. The American forests were carpeted with flowers 
and the streams and marshes were rich with blooming vegeta- 
tion. The shores of the Great Lakes were blue with the 
fringed gentian, while in early summer the prairies stretched 
an unbroken bed of color, not for miles alone, but for hundreds 
of miles. 

New England's coast was a bleak spot when the Pilgrims 
landed there, and they had much to contend with in their first 
winter; but an American flower gave them their first cheer 
and brought new courage to their hearts — the trailing 
arbutus. 

In our American flower garden we have opened our 
hearts to plants from the four corners of the globe. We have 
flowers from the wind-blown hills of wild Manchuria, from the 
sunny gardens of Japan, from Europe, from Africa and from 
the islands of the sea. As time goes on we will add others 
from far countries, but in the meanwhile let us not forget 
that our native plants provide us with a wealth of beauty that 
it ill becomes us to neglect. Let us try to encourage the grow- 
ing of American flowers and plants in every way possible. We 
need not shut our eyes to that which is good and beautiful from 
other countries, but, by all means, let us open our eyes more 
widely to the wealth of beauty that God placed on this conti- 
nent in reach of everyone. 

Planning the flower garden amounts in a way to planning 
the home surroundings, because the flower garden includes all 
that is planted with the intention of improving the appearance 
of the house. The way in which the home grounds are planted 
is often an index of the character of the people who live in the 
house. Often the owners are too preoccupied with their other 
affairs or too indifferent to the real meaning of the decorative 



284 Orchard and Garden 

planting around the home and so they allow a landscape archi- 
tect to have entire charge of affairs. 

The landscape architect has his place in modern home 
building; he is often just as necessary as is the architect who 
builds the house, but he should stand in the same relation to 
his client as does the house designer. Only a man devoid of 
ideas and ideals would say to his architect, "Build me a house", 
and then give his order no further thought. Of course it has 
been done — as the houses often testify — but it is a foolish 
means of securing a place in which to live, although no more 
ridiculous than telling a man to "Plant me a flower garden". 
If the owner does not know much about flowers, that is his 
misfortune, which he should attempt to correct, for he will 
miss much pleasure. He probably does not know anything 
about house building either, but he knows enough about what 
he wants to enjoy the realization of his ambitions. 

The small flower garden that is planted by the owner and 
tended by him usually shows more character than does the fin- 
est planted "estate" that is maintained by a force of gardeners 
and is of interest to the owner only as a show place. 

As for the old-fashioned gardens of our grandmothers, 
they may have missed much of being artistic successes as 
judged by present standards, but they reflected the love of flow- 
ers that was one of the innate characteristics of their owners. 
Some of these old gardens were positive joys both to their 
planters and to everyone who saw them. The old-fashioned 
flowers fitted in with the old-fashioned people who grew and 
loved them, and it is a wise gardener who has the insight to 
include plenty of the old favorites in his modern garden. 
Styles have changed in gardening in recent years just as they 
have changed in architecture. In the mid- Victorian period, 
when houses were built with all sorts of "scroll work" and 
with outlandish lines, the flower gardening coordinated with 
that type of architecture. It was a favorite plan to project 
a few gaudy beds of striking color from the midst of an other- 



The Value of a Flower Garden. 



285 




A well planned entrance. 



286 Orchard and Garden 

wise beautiful lawn and the result was supposed to be beau- 
tiful. 

We have returned to simpler styles both in regard to our 
houses and with our ornamental planting. Flowers are used 
for borders, for back grounds and for hedges. They are 
planted in long lines and broad masses where they will create 
an effect that works in with the architectural scheme of the 
house. The lawn should be kept open and free. There is 
nothing that finishes a house more than a broad sweep of 
graceful lawn, whose lines are not marred by flower beds or 
shrubs in the center. Keep the flowers back away from the 
lawTi. 

Laivns. — So few people know the value of a good lawn in 
improving the appearance of a place, and, by a good lawn is 
meant not only one that is soft, smooth and velvety with a 
sturdy, healthy growth of grass, but one that is a lawn, not a 
grass plot in which are studded "specimen" shrubs and cres- 
cent shaped flower beds. 

Still fewer people know just how to go about starting a 
good lawn. Primarily a lawn is nothing more than a grass 
plantation. The grass is a plant requiring the same elements 
that other plants must have in order to be vigorous. It must 
have to begin with a good soil, and, after the seed is planted, 
it must have abundant moisture. Given these two factors a 
lawn can be grown any place — yes, even under trees. One rea- 
son why grass sometimes fails to grow under trees is that in 
the beginning the trees were planted in soil none too rich in 
plant food and what fertility did exist has been exhausted in 
tree growth. As a result there is none left for the grass — and 
grass requires much fertility. 

If the soil is rich enough to grow a fair crop of corn or 
weeds, it will nearly always grow grass. As a rule grass will 
not grow well in a soil that contains any free acid and if an 
acid condition exists it can readily be neutralized by the addi- 
tion of lime — preferably in the form of ground limestone. 



The Value of a Flower Garden. 287 

The soil for the laivn should be prepared with just as 
much care as if a garden crop was to be grown. Do not lightly 
rake over the surface, roughing the ground up a bit, and think 
that your soil is properly prepared for the planting of grass 
seed. It will sometimes really grow with that sort of prep- 
aration, but it will flourish much better if started properly. 

. The seed should be sown broadcast, and an abundance 
should be used. The desire is to have a large number of small 
plants rather than a few large, coarse ones and if planted too 
thick the plants will quickly thin themselves out. 

Kind. — For the north only one grass is universally suit- 
able for lawns and that is the Kentucky blue grass. This will 
thrive on many soils and will also grow under trees, if the soil 
is of sufficient fertility to support any grass. However, the 
Wood Meadow grass is often used for shady situations, but is 
an expensive seed to buy. Rhode Island bent grass is good, 
mixed with blue grass, but it also is costly. Red Top will per- 
haps endure more moisture than blue grass, but otherwise is 
not superior. If any of the more high-priced grasses are 
grown they should be mixed with the blue grass. 

It is sometimes desirable to mix a proportion of either 
timothy or white clover with the grass seed at the time of 
planting. Blue grass requires about four weeks to germinate, 
while the timothy will appear in a few days. Timothy, being 
a strong grower, will act as a shelter crop for the blue grass. 
Do not expect to produce a finished lawn in one season. It is 
not done. 

The seed should be sown as early in the spring as the 
ground can be put in condition. It is a good idea to have the 
ground prepared in the fall, then it will only need raking over 
in the spring before the grass seed is sown. 

Clover. — On very difficult clay soils the white clover is in- 
valuable, as it acts as a nurse crop for the grass during the 
first two years, during which time it is loosening the soil and 

(19) 



288 



Orchard and Garden 



adding fertility to it. 
When the grass once 
gets started it will 
crowd out the white 
clover and take the 
space to itself. 

Weeds. — Where 
much manure has been 
used in enriching the 
soil the first year will 
see more weeds on the 
lawn than grass. 
However, weeds need 
not cause any worry 
if they are fre- 
quently mowed. Most 
of them are annual 
plants that will die in 
the fall, so the main 
object is to keep them 
from producing seed. 

A newly planted 
lawn must be kept 
watered. If allowed 
to dry out, the grass is 
given a set back, even 
if not killed outright, and the finished lawn is removed just 
that much farther into the future. Where weeds persist in 
the lawn the best method of destroying them is by the use of 
a chemical spray. There have been several chemicals recom- 
mended for this purpose, but the best is undoubtedly iron 
sulphate. This spray is used at the rate of two pounds to the 
gallon and must be applied in the form of a fine mist. Heavy 
applications are to be avoided, as they may injure the grass 
as well as kill the weeds. Applied properly this solution will 
not injure the grass but will kill all broadleaved weeds. It 
should be applied five or six times during the season in order 




White clover used as a nurse crop on a lawn. 

The g-round is entirely covered by the clover, 

makes a good appearance and the grass is 

coming- along nicely underneath. 



The Value of a Flower Garden. 



289 



to kill successive crops of leaves produced by the perennial 
weeds. This treatment is effective against dandelion and dock, 
two very common pests in lawns. 

After a good lawn is acquired, learn to appreciate it, and 
value it for what it represents. Do not start cutting up to 
plant shrubs or to make a rose garden or geranium bed. 
Flower beds placed about over a lawn are just as much out of 
taste as bric-a-brac on a billiard table. Shrubs and flowers, 
however, are just as important to the finished appearance of 
a place as the lawn. But keep them around the borders of 
the lawn and not in its midst. 

The garden for annual flowers should have a place by 
itself, and preferably in a location where it does not form a 
part of the general picture of the yard as a whole. Annuals 
have their purpose, but for permanent effects it is better to 
use perennial plants and shrubs. 

Vines around a 
doorway are always 
good and they may 
often be planted so as 
to be not only things of 
beauty, but to furnish 
shade at a place where 
it would otherwise be 
difficult to obtain. 

The foundations of 
a house, no matter 
how important they 
are to the structure, 
are often more pleas- 
ing if they are out of 
sight behind a mass of 
shrubs or are over- 
grown by some good 
clinging vine. For 
this purpose use shrubs 
that are p e r fe c 1 1 y 
A framed doorway. hardy— native shrubs 




290 



Orchard and Garden 



if possible. Many hardy plants may be planted among- shrub- 
bery with charming effect. 

Large groiving shrubs may be used for screens to cut off 
a portion of the yard or grounds from the public view. There 
are many native shrubs admirably suited for this purpose and 
for the most part they grow rapidly and are entirely satisfac- 
tory. The native "pussy" willow, altho technically a tree, can 
in effect be used as a shrub, and, as it makes a tremendous 
growth in one season, it is nicely adapted for the purposes 
of a screen plant. 

One of the big advantages of using hardy shrubs and 
plants around the house is that they do not necessitate plant- 
ing every year, as do 
annuals, and they 
nearly all improve 
with age. The owner 
learns to watch for 
their first activity in 
the spring and thus 
becomes interested in 
them so that ultimate- 
ly they become a reg- 
ular part of his life. 
This friendship with 
growing plants is no 
small part of the satis- 
faction that results 
from having a flower 
garden, of having 
one's home surrounded 
with beautiful plants 
that faithfully each 
year present their 
tribute of beauty in 
return for the care 
lavished upon them. 




Daffodils as house plants. 



CHAPTER XII. 



Annual Flowers. 



Annuals are those 
plants which produce 
a crop during the 
same season the seed 
is planted and which 
die with the approach 
of cold weather. As a 
matter of fact, among 
flowers there are 
some listed as annuals 
which do not conform 
to this rule, but in 
effect and for all prac- 
tical purposes they are 
annuals nevertheless. 

Hardy annuals. — 
Some of the annuals 
are perfectly hardy 
and will not only grow well from seed sown in the open, but 
will ripen seed and seed themselves for another year. The 
common corn flower follows this rule and when a red is once 
started it seems to be able to look after itself indefinitely. 

Tender annuals. — Other annuals are more tender or re- 
quire a longer season in which to develop their flowers and so 
must be started indoors in pots or boxes. A good example of 
such plants is the common "moon flower" and the China asters. 
Sometimes perennials, such as pansy, are grown as annuals 




292 



Orchard and Garden 



when as a matter of 
fact they are peren- 
n i a 1 s . Ordinarily 
they would not pro- 
duce blooms the first 
season from seed, but 
by being started in- 
doors early in the 
year the plants gain 
a season on the ac- 
tual calendar. 

The soil for 
growing annuals 
should be a rich gar- 
den soil such as would 
grow good vegetables. 
If not in that condi- 
tion plenty of ma- 
nure must be turned 
under when the 
ground is spaded in 
the spring. One fortunate fact is undeniable concerning most 
soils. A section of the earth's surface taken almost any place, 
if not particularly good soil, can always be improved. Nothing 
seems to respond to good treatment quicker than the face of 
the earth. 

In the following list of annual flowers I have tried to 
include only those species that are known to be satisfactory. 
Most of them are old sorts. Some of them were in our grand- 
mothers' gardens. These same old sorts are still just as at- 
tractive and interesting as ever and new "introductions" have 
not crowded many of the old favorites off the list. In a few 
cases varieties have been improved by selection and in other 
cases really valuable additions have been made from other 
countries, but in the main our annual flowers are flowers that 
have been grown for generations and have family traditions of 




Moonflowers started in pots on the window 
sill. 



Annual Flowers. 293 

their own. This fact, if no other, should give them a place in 
our flower beds and in our hearts as well. Figures following 
names, refer to height in feet. 

Acroclinium. 1.— This genus contains several species 
grown as "everlastings." The seed should be planted in the 
open ground after danger from frost is past. They make at- 
tractive plants for an open border and so are valuable aside 
from their use as dried flowers. The color varies from white 
to almost red, through very delicate shades of pink. The 
beauty of the flowers and their easy culture should include 
them in every garden. If used for winter bouquets the flow- 
ers should be cut before they are fully opened. 

Ageratum. 8 to 10 inches.— Blue, light blue or white flow- 
ers are characteristic of this rather delicate annual which is 
so extensively used for flower boxes and for garden borders. 
It is a tender plant, requiring a long season, and the seed 
must be planted in a hot bed or indoors very early in the 
spring. Florists grow great quantities of these plants every 
year for sale with such plants as geraniums, coleus, etc., to 
be used in ornamental beds. 

Alyssum. :} to 1.— Several varieties of alyssum are 
offered, all of which are good. The sort sold under the name 
Little Gem is a dwarf grower that produces an abundance of 
small white flowers. After blooming, the plants may be cut 
back, when they will bloom again. The seed may be sown in 
the open ground where the plants are to remain. It some- 
times naturalizes itself and comes up in the same place year 
after year if the ground is undisturbed. 

Antirrhinium (Snapdragon). 2.— Snapdragon is in fact 
a perennial, but is often treated as an annual and as such gives 
excellent results. If the seed is sown in the open ground in 
May the plants will bloom in August if given good care. By 
planting indoors earlier the season of bloom may be consid- 
erably advanced. The plants are not entirely hardy, but if 
given a light covering of straw, will winter in good shape and 
produce an abundance of bloom the next season. This plant 



294 Orchard and Garden 

is now being grown by florists on an extensive scale and is a 
popular cut flower throughout the winter. There are a variety 
of colors, varying from scarlet to white with many interme- 
diate shades. 

Asters. 1 to 2. — Many varieties of asters are grown as 
annuals and they are among the most successful of all our 
late blooming plants. Like most desirable things, however, 
they have their drawbacks and their culture is attended with 
several difficulties. Fungous diseases pecuhar to the genus 
sometimes destroy the crop. This misfortune is particularly 
liable to occur when asters have been grown on the same piece 
of ground for a number of seasons in succession. It is well 
to change the location of the beds each year. The aster beetle 
is often troublesome and eats holes in the flower heads. The 
only successful way of eliminating this insect is to pick the 
infested portions and burn them. Root lice are also trouble- 
some, but they can be killed or prevented by working some 
tobacco in around the roots of the plants, or spreading it 
lightly over the surface of the ground. The soil for asters 
should be well enriched. The seed is planted in boxes in the 
house or, if late blooms are desired, it may be sown in the open 
ground. House-grown plants that have been transplanted 
once or twice often make better flowers. There are many 
kinds to select from, covering a great variety of color and 
form. Some of the larger sorts rival the chrysanthemum in 
their regal beauty. 

Balsam. Vj to 2. — Altho this plant was introduced from 
India, it has been with us so long that it seems like a regular 
member of the family. It has long been a favorite in gardens 
in spite of the fact that the flower habit is such that it is not 
well suited for cut flowers. Plant the seeds in good soil in 
May. 

Calendula (Pot Marigold). 1.— This is the "Marygold" 
that was cultivated in England in Shakespeare's time. It is a 
very old favorite and has lost none of its ancient charm. The 
flowers come in various shades of yellow and are produced 



Annual Flowers. 295 

continuously from early summer until frost. It is one of the 
easiest annuals to grow. Plant the seed where the plants are 
to remain as soon as the ground is well warmed in the spring. 
By planting a few seeds in pots late in summer the marigold 
can be used as a house plant and will bloom well during the 
winter. 

Calliopsis. 1 to 2. — Related to the perennial Coreopsis. 
Seedsmen offer a number of varieties of Calliopsis, varying in 
color, form of flower, and size of plant. Most of them are good 
and some of them are natives of this country. The seed should 
be sown where the plants are to remain and after they are a 
few inches high they may be thinned so as to stand about six 
inches to a foot apart, depending on the size of the variety 
grown. 

Candytuft. 1. — Seed should be sown from mid- April until 
June in order to provide a succession of bloom. This is a 
splendid plant for securing a mass of color and for this reason 
should be planted in large beds. It is to be had in a variety of 
shades of red and in white. It is excellent for cut flowers. 

Celosia (Cock'scomb). 1 to 3. — This plant is an old favor- 
ite in annual gardens, but is inclined to grow rank and coarse. 
It lacks much of being a desirable plant when grace and color 
are desired. May be planted in open ground or started in the 
house and transplanted later. 

Centaurea (Corn Flower). 14. — Seedsmen offer a number 
of sorts of cornflower, some of them native American wild 
plants. They are all annuals, but usually re-seed themselves 
and appear year after year in the same place. Seed should be 
planted in the open ground early in the spring. The sweet 
sultans are a form of the cornflower and are more desirable 
in point of beauty. Shades of color vary from white to rose 
and lavender. They are excellent for cut flowers and should 
be grown in every garden. 

Cosmos. 3. — This new introduction to our northern gar- 
dens has proven of great value. No other plant can take its 
place for the production of an abundance of graceful bloom late 



296 Orchard and Garden 

in the summer. As it is a large growing plant it should be 
planted behind other lower growing forms and in such 
situations produces a good back ground for almost any 
of the earlier llowers. In the latitude of central Indiana 
cosmos will sometimes re-seed itself and appear in the same 
place on successive years, but it is not regarded as entirely 
hardy. Most growers start the plants indoors and set them 
where they are to remain after danger from frost is past. 
When the plants are a foot high the central shoot should be cut 
off so as to make the plants more bushy. If this is not done 
the plants will often grow so tall that they are unable to sup- 
port themselves and as a result fall over in great disarray. An 
early strain has been introduced which produces its bloom 
from early August until frost. The flowers, however, are not 
so large as in the late flowering sorts and the variety is other- 
wise less desirable. It is a good plan to have some of each 
sort. The colors are chiefly shades of red and a fairly clear 
white. 

Eschscholtzia (California Poppy). 1. — The California 
poppies are very bright flowers of the easiest culture. Seed 
should be sown where the plants are to remain very early in 
the spring. The variety sometimes re-seeds itself. If the 
flowers are kept gathered before forming seed the plants re- 
main in bloom until frost. With a little protection the plants 
will live over in mild winters. 

Euphorbia (Snow on the Mountain). 2. — This plant is 
grown for the eflfect of its pretty green and white foliage. The 
flowers are inconspicuous. Seed may be planted in the open 
ground where the plants are to remain. It makes a good back 
ground for other low growing flowers. This species should 
be handled with care as the juice acts somewhat like that of 
poison ivy when it comes in contact with a tender skin. Like 
poison ivy, too, many people can handle it with entire im- 
munity, 

Foi'.r-O'clock (Marvel of Peru). 11, — An old-fashioned 
annual not of unusual value except for its associations. There 



Annual Flowers. 297 

are other better plants, ?jut this one can be easily grown al- 
most anywhere by anyone. The seed is sown in the open 
ground in May. 

Globe Amaranth, li. — This is another flower grown for 
winter bouquets. The flower heads are composed of many 
small, bright colored bracts which hide the true flowers. These 
heads resemble the flower heads of red clover. They should 
be cut Ijefore the flowers are fully mature and hung up to dry 
for winter use. They remain attractive long into the winter. 
They are not as attractive, however, as some of the other ever- 
lastings. Seed may be planted in the open ground as soon as 
the danger from frost is past. 

Halianthii^ (Sunflower). — The sunflower, coarse as it is, 
is not to be despised. It has considerable value in many situa- 
tions. Nothing will serve quite so well to screen a rough 
coi-ner quickly — and the flowers are far from being unpleasant 
to the sight. Another fact that should not be disre- 
garded, is that the sunflower will provide an abundance of 
food for many kinds of birds, and it is always interesting to 
watch the little creatures hanging on desperately trying to get 
their breakfast from the downward-bent seed heads. Try to 
find a place for a few at the far end of the garden. The seed 
can be sown as soon as the danger from frost is past. Need- 
less to say, they like a sunny situation. 

Hdidirysum f Strawflower). 1^. — This plant is one of the 
mo.st popular of the everlastings and is grown from seed 
planted in the open ground. Like all other everlastings, the 
flowers should be cut before they are fully opened so as to 
cause them to hold together more firmly. Strawflowers come 
in various shades from white to crimson. 

Kochia (Summer cypress). 3. — Related to some of our 
common weeds and, like them, grows very rank whenever it 
has an opportunity. It is a plant without any particular char- 
acter to recommend it except that any one can grow it under 
any sort of condition. It is to the flower garden what the 
Ailanthus is to the shade trees. The seeds are planted in the 



298 Orchard and Garden 

open ground after frost dates are past and it should be thinned 
to stand two feet apart. Its best use would be as a background 
for the better low-growing plants. 

Larkspur. 14. — In recent years we have seen remarkable 
improvement in size and color among the annual larkspurs. 
These old-fashioned flowers were always favorites and they 
have good reason to be, for they are easily grown, make a fine 
appearance in the garden, bloom from early summer until 
frost, and are excellent for cut flowers. The seed should be 
sown in the open ground by the first of May or earlier if the 
weather will permit. In a favorable season the plants will be 
in bloom by July and will continue to bloom till killed by frost. 
Frequent cuttings will tend to make the plants bloom better 
and will keep them in better shape generally. A double sort 
has become popular and grows nearly twice the size of the 
single forms. 

Marigold. \ to 1|. — There are a number of flowers that 
are known by the name of marigold. Calendula was known 
under this name in old English gardens. The marsh marigold 
is a native spring flowering plant that grows in swampy places. 
The marigold of the seedsmen, however, belongs to the genus 
Tagetes and is quite unlike any of the other plants that some- 
times bear its name. There are two common forms, the 
French and the African. The French marigold is a dainty 
little yellow plant that is excellent where a mass of yellow 
bloom is desired. It is of dwarf habit and is a splendid thing 
for edgings and for window boxes. The African marigold is 
a much larger growing plant and produces a wealth of color, 
ranging from clear lemon yellow to brilliant orange. In the 
French varieties these same colors prevail and in addition the 
flowers are often striped with rich brown. Both forms are 
excellent plants. The leaves have a distinct odor when 
crushed that is very unpleasant to some people, but rather at- 
tractive to others. Probably no other plant can be grown to 
perfection with as little care. The seed is planted in the 
open ground early in May and the plants will be blooming by 



Annual Flowers. 299 

the last of June and will continue to bloom until after frost. 
If the seed is scattered in some out-of-the-way corner it will 
often grow with no attenti")n at all. 

Micjnonette. 1 to 2. — This plant is a native of Africa, but 
has been in cultivation in flower gardens so long that it is now 
quite cosmopolitan. The flowers are insignificant in appear- 
ance and are neither graceful nor beautiful in color, but the 
fragrance is such that the plant is a general favorite. The 
seed can be sown in the open ground in late April, and again 
in June or July to have a late crop. The plants do best if they 
are grown in partial shade. 

Pansy. — These interesting flowers have been developed 
from one of the wild violets native to the cooler portions of 
Europe and have been in cultivation for centuries. They will 
not withstand hot, dry weather and the plants often perish in 
midsummer. In the cooler parts of the United States they 
often thrive from year to year, as they are in fact perennials, 
I have seen pansy beds in northern Wisconsin that produced 
an abundance of flowers year after year with practically no 
attention and no winter protection except the snow. They are 
often treated as annuals and for that reason are in this list. 
For such purpose the seed should be sown in a cold frame very 
early in the spring. The soil should be well prepared and 
should not be allowed to dry out after the seed is planted. 
The young plants are very delicate and require careful atten- 
tion. The seed should be very lightly covered. After they 
have attained some size the young seedlings are thinned out or 
transplanted so as to allow each plant plenty of space. They 
are set in the open ground as soon as they are large enough to 
withstand handling and will bloom the same season. Pansy 
plants are produced by the professional growers each year in 
great quantities and it is probably best for the amateur to 
purchase his plants from them. Late in summer seed can be 
planted for early bloom the next spring. The plants should 
be well grown by the time cold weather appears so as to be 



300 



Orchard and Garden 



in good condition for winter- 
ing. In sections where there 
is considerable freezing and 
thawing the plants must be 
mulched to prevent them from 
drawing out of the ground. 

Petunia. — These are fa- 
vorites in nearly every garden 
because they are so easily 
grown, are such vigorous 
growers, and produce an 
abundance of bloom. The 
flowers vary in form and in 
color. The single forms may 
be planted out of doors in the 
garden as soon as the ground 
is warm, but the double and 
more tender sorts thrive best 
if started in the house, in a 
cold frame, or hot bed. The 
seed is very small and should 
not be covered deeply. If the 
ground is pulverized finely 
and the seed sprinkled over 
the surface it will usually bed 
itself. It is best to cover it 
very lightly by sifting a small 
amount of good soil over it. 
Phlox Drummondii. 1. — This annual phlox is a native of 
Texas, but is a very satisfactory annual well into the north. 
The seed can be planted in the open ground the first of May 
and will bloom in about six to eight weeks. Like many other 
plants, this one does better if started in a well prepared seed 
bed and transplanted to the desired spot later. It will grow 
in almost any soil and is a very satisfactory plant. As a bed- 
ding plant, where a solid low mass of color is wanted, it is 




Petunias. 



Annual Flowers. 301 

excellent and is also exceedingly satisfactory in flower boxes 
or hanging baskets. 

Poppies. 1^ to 3. — There are several kinds of poppies that 
are grown as annuals, but all of them require about the same 
care. No class of plants will produce such a brilliant color 
eff'ect as will the poppies when they are properly handled. 
They should be planted in large masses where their colors 
will have an opportunity to show as a whole. Individual 
plants are not efl'ective. They make great material for bank- 
ing against the borders of a flower garden where strong effects 
are desired. For the most part they are not useful as cut 
flowers because the petals are inclined to fall soon after the 
flower is picked. Sow the seed very early in spring where 
the flowers are to bloom, as they do not survive transplanting. 
If they come up too thick, thin them out so that they stand 
about six inches apart. The Shirley poppies are among the 
most popular of the single sorts and "White Swan" and ''Car- 
dinal" are good doubles. 

Portulaca (Trailing). — This popular dwarf is useful for 
edging and among rock work. It prefers plenty of sunshine. 
The flowers are bright and attractive. The seed can be sown 
out of doors as soon as the ground is warm and danger from 
frost is past and is another very small one that must be 
planted carefully. One great danger with small seeds is that 
they will be planted too thick. With the more careful planting 
they will usually require thinning. 

Rhodavthe. 1. — This plant is another good everlasting. 
It is smaller and more delicate than the Helichrysum and is 
handled in the same manner. 

Rlcinus (Castor Bean). 3 to 10. — This valuable annual 
is good as a background for flowering plants. There are many 
horticultural varieties offered by the seedsmen, varying from 
dwarf plants with variegated foliage to immense plants that 
would serve well to hide a small barn. Seeds are planted in 
the open ground after danger from frost is past. 

Salvia (Scarlet Sage). 2.-. — This plant has long been a fa- 



302 Orchard and Garden 

vorite for situations where a belt or mass of scarlet color is de- 
sired. It furnishes a good clear color, but the plants are not par- 
ticularly attractive in form and is not what could be called 
"characterful." The seed must be sown early either in the 
house or in a hot bed for the best results. Florists annually 
produce thousands of plants of salvia for bedding material. 

Scabiosa. 2. — In spite of its rather unpleasant sounding 
name, this annual should be more widely grown. It is 
excellent for cut flowers and is easily grown. There is a 
range of color from white to scarlet. The seed can be sown 
in the open beds, but is better to be started in a special seed 
bed and later transplanted to the place where it is to bloom. 
This treatment improves the plant habit of many of our an- 
nuals. 

Stocks. 2.— Popular annuals that are not as widely grown 
as they might be. They are not only beautiful, but fragrant 
as well and make excellent cut flowers. Seed should be 
planted in a hot bed in February or March and transplanted 
once or twice to develop a good root system before being 
planted in the open ground. 

Verbena. 1. — Every old garden had its bed of these charm- 
ing plants. They should be more extensively planted in our 
modern gardens. Seed may be planted in the hotbed in Feb- 
ruary for a crop of early bloom or may be planted in the 
open in May for bloom later in the summer. By keeping the 
bloom cut, the plants will produce flowers till frost. As a rule 
they are inclined to trail over the ground and will produce 
great mats of bloom. 

Xeranthemum. 3. — This is another of the everlastings 
so is treated in the same manner. It is one of the most at- 
tractive in the list. 

Zinnia. 2. — The last plant on the list, but by no means 
the least important. They are old garden favorites and are 
good both for their appearance in the garden and also as cut 
flowers. They are offered in a variety of colors and in form 
ranging from rather interesting single bloom to those which 



Annual Flowers. 303 

are very double and with curled petals. The plant has been 
improved by selection in recent years and some of the newer 
varieties that are offered are excellent. The seed is planted in 
the open ground where the plants are to remain about the first 
of May or whenever the soil is warm and in good condition 
to work. They will thrive in a variety of soils, but require 
full sunlight to be entirely successful. 

VINES. 

There are a number of good annual vines, but in most 
places it will be more profitable to plant perennials for all pur- 
poses where climbers are desired. The following brief list in- 
cludes the best of the annuals. 

Balloon vine. — A quick growing vine, with insignificant 
white flowers followed by expanded seed pods from which it 
takes its name. The foHage is good. Plant in the open ground 
in May. 

Cobaea. — A rapid growing vine, but must be started in- 
doors and set in the open after danger from frost is past. Has 
interesting flowers. 

Dolichos (Hyacinth bean).— One of the best of the quick 
growing annual vines. Makes an attractive plant when grown 
over wire fences. In the south is used as a stock feed plant. 

Echinocystis (Wild cucumber) . — A native wild plant that 
has much value as a climber. Plant in open ground in May. 

Humulus (Japanese Hop). — A recent introduction from 
Japan. It has good foliage and in rich soil makes a good 
growth, 

Ipomoea (Morning glory).— The old-fashioned morning 
glory is the one best vine for a quick growth to cover some 
unsightly building or to screen an unsightly corner. This old 
favorite will re-seed itself, however, and can become a trouble- 
some weed. The "moonflower," a more recent introduction, 
blooms after sundown. Its habit of growth is much slower 
and must be started indoors. The seeds are very hard and a 

(20) 



304 Orchard and Garden 

hole should be cut or filed in the outer seed coat before planting 
to hasten germination. 

Nasturtium. — The nasturtium is one of the best annual 
climbers, or rather trailers, as it is more inclined to trail than 
to climb. It demands much moisture so must not be allowed 
to dry out. Seeds are planted in the open ground in May. A 
dwarf form does not trail to any extent. 

Sweet Peas. — This is the one annual vine that is entirely 
justifiable in any garden. In fact it is almost a necessity. The 
vines are grown not for their value as climbers, but for the 
bloom, which is as beautiful as that of any flower we have. 

The soil for sweet peas must be rich and deep and should 
be prepared with the greatest care if success is expected. It 
is a plant that requires plenty of moisture and does not thrive 
well in very hot weather. The finest sweet peas are grown in 
the cooler parts of the country. The flower gardens of north- 
ern Michigan are noted for the excellence of their sweet peas. 

The seed should be planted as early in the spring as the 
ground can be put into condition. Some amateurs attempt 
always to plant the seed on a certain date, but nothing could 
be more foolish than this practice. The time to plant is when 
the season is right. Plants do not always accommodate them- 
selves to the solar calendar. It is often desirable to plant the 
seed about an inch deep in the bottom of a six- or eight-inch 
trench. As the plants appear in the bottom of the trench, fill 
in with good earth, causing the plants to push up through the 
filling. By the time they have reached the top of the trench 
their roots are several inches below the surface and they are 
less apt to be aff'ected by dry weather. Some support must 
be furnished for the vines, and the flowers are to be kept 
picked off and no seed allowed to form. This procedure pro- 
longs the season of bloom much beyond what it would be if 
seed were to be produced. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Perennials. 

The use of perennials in the flower garden and in con- 
nection with shrub planting has fortunately been on the in- 
crease during the past years, and many of our American gar- 
dens are developing that air of permanence that can not be 
produced by the use of annual plants. Perennials are plants 
that live over from year to year. Some of them are perfectly 
hardy and some require protection in severe winters. With 
the greatly increased interest in this class of plants nursery- 
men have introduced a host of forms not generally known 
and many of them are worthy additions to any garden, but 
some of them are intended chiefly to grace the pages of the 
catalogues and it were better for the gardener if they were 
allowed to remain there. 

Permanent. — Although perennials do not require re- 
planting each season, the grower must not get the notion that 
they will succeed under neglect. It is true that they generally 
require less care than do the annuals, but some rules must be 
observed and some work must be done if the grower is to 
secure results of which he can be proud. 

Soil. — When perennials are planted the soil must be in the 
best possible condition. In growing annuals the soil is worked 
up each year and mistakes of one season can be corrected the 
next, but with perennials there is no chance to retrieve an 
error after it has once been made. For this reason the grower 
should insist that his soil be stirred deeplj^ and that it be pro- 



306 Orchard and Garden 

vided with an abundance of plant food. Turn under plenty of 
manure and make sure that the soil is well drained. If the 
subsoil is stiff and hard it should be excavated to a depth of 
two or three feet and the bottom of the bed filled in with 
broken jugs, tin cans, pieces of brick and mortar — anything 
in fact which will provide for the escape of excess moisture 
in wet weather. 

Propagation. — Perennials in many cases may be grown 
from seed, but it is best to purchase the young plants from a 
florist or nurseryman who makes a business of producing this 
class of stock. It is a business in itself and the young seed- 
lings invariably require more care than do the plants after 
they are well grown. Some kinds are best reproduced by 
making cuttings or by division of the roots. Phlox and 
chrysanthemums make large clumps that are easily divided. 
After a clump of this kind has stood for several years it will 
flourish better if it is taken up, the roots divided and replanted 
in newly prepared soil. 

Vines. — Many perennials are climbers and are greatly 
superior to annuals where vines are wanted. Some of them 
have in addition to their permanence a good winter appear- 
ance that makes them beautiful throughout the year. 

In the following list an attempt has been made to include 
only those plants which are of known value and which are 
sure to succeed in the hands of the average grower. Some of 
them are native wild plants that can be collected from the 
woods and fields. This class has been too much neglected, as 
it furnishes an abundance of good material that is perfectly 
hardy and is often superior in beauty to some of the horti- 
cultural varieties put out by plant dealers. The utilization of 
this class of plants should be encouraged just as much as pos- 
sible in our American gardens. 

Achillea. — This genus is represented in our woods and 
pastures by the common yarrow, a plant with finely cut leaves 



Perennials. 307 

and flat heads of white flowers. Occasionafly the flowers are 
a bright pink, but this is not a constant characteristic, as the 
pink forms often bleach out under cultivation. Another form 
of the plant offered by plant growers is A. Ptarmica, variety, 
"The Pearl." This is a double form, producing an abundance 
of small, double white flowers. The plants are perfectly 
hardy and will grow in almost any soil. They often grow in 
old pastures and seem to thrive even with the grass crowding 
their roots. On that account this is a good plant for natural- 
izing in places where it can not be regularly cultivated. 

Anemone. — There are some native members of this genus 
that make admirable hardy plants. There are two common 
wild flowers often called anemones, but which belong to diff"er- 
ent genera. These plants are the little wildflowers of the 
spring woods. One is Syndesmon and the other Isopyrum. 
They are low growing and will thrive in any moist, rich, 
shaded soil. They are of value only for their bloom in early 
spring. The true anemones are larger growing plants, bloom- 
ing later in the year and with the flowers followed by inter- 
esting seed heads. A. virginiana is often cultivated. Flowers 
white. Plant grows to three feet tall. It will withstand some 
shade. The seed head is cylindrical in shape, while that of 
the A. canadensis is spherical. This latter form is also culti- 
vated in gardens and thrives best with a sunny exposure. Of 
the introduced forms, the Japanese anemones are by far the 
most beautiful and are worthy of a place in any garden of 
hardy plants. They are off"ered in a number of varieties. 

Aquilegia. — The common columbine of the American 
woods makes a good garden plant, although it is not so desir- 
able as the more ornamental introduced species. All of the 
columbines are perfectly hardy and will grow in a variety of 
soils, but prefer one that is not too heavy. If the garden soil 
contains too much clay it would be well to work in a small 
proportion of sand to loosen it before planting these flow- 
ers. The bright colored, drooping flowers are produced in great 



308 Orchard and Garden 

abundance in early summer. They prefer a situation which 
does not receive the full sunlight. 

Asdepias. — This group is the one which the milkweed be- 
longs. Some people looking at this plant wholly as a weed 
will feel that it has no place among the aristocrats of the hardy 
flower garden, but even the more common milkweeds are not 
to be despised. While it is true that it is an ordinary weed in 
many localities, that fact does not detract from the beauty of 
the plant. If it had been imported it would be grown by every 
florist. The species that has the most value to the plant 
grower, however, is that known as "butterfly weed," a form 
most common in low, wet places. It produces great heads of 
brilliant orange yellow flowers that are as striking and beau- 
tiful as any of the pampered pets of the most fastidious gar- 
dener. Although the plant grows wild in rather moist situa- 
tions, it will thrive in many soils and where a number of 
plants are set together they furnish a dash of color that cannot 
be equaled by any other plant. While the plants are in bloom 
they are constantly visited by hosts of the Monarch butterfly 
whose orange and black coloring flts in with the general color 
scheme of the flowers. They must be watched at this time, 
however, because the butterflies are not there purely for orna- 
mental purposes. They are usually feeding and incidentally 
laying their eggs on the foliage. The eggs produce a green 
and black striped caterpillar which is about the only serious 
insect enemy of the plant. They are usually not numerous, 
however, and can be readily picked off by hand. If they are 
allowed to continue their development they produce, eventu- 
ally, one of the most beautiful chrysalids. Truly even the 
pests connected with this plant have an undue share of beauty. 

Aster. — For the hardy garden there is just one best aster 
and that is the form known as the New England aster. It is 
perfectly hardy and makes a wonderful show of purple bloom 
in the fall of the year. It can be planted in clumps among the 



Perennials. 309 

shrub border and will furnish a wealth of color just at a time 
when llowers in such situations are needed. The native form 
has been improved by selection until now there are several 
shades of color offered by plant growers. Aside from the 
variation in color they are all very similar. There are many 
native asters in our autumn woods, but none of them have the 
value of the above form. Some of the delicate, small flowered, 
blue and white kinds are very pretty when naturalized in great 
masses along ravines in wooded places, but for the average 
garden they are not particularly commendable. 

Campanula. — Bailey lists forty-nine species of campanula 
and many varieties under each species, so it will readily be 
seen that this is a large group. It contains, among others, the 
bluebell, noted in Scottish literature. Its growth is not con- 
fined to Scotland however, as it is also native over a large part 
of the northern United States. The best of the group from 
the standpoint of the flower gardener are the Canterbury bells, 
those graceful, bell-shaped flowers which come in a variety of 
pleasing shades and which are so well adapted to the condi- 
tions of the average garden. C. persicifolia is a taller and 
more attractive plant than the Canterbury bell, but the flowers 
are not quite so attractive. 

Chrysanthemum. — The old-fashioned hardy chrysanthe- 
mums of the old farm gardens are among the best hardy plants 
that can be planted. They produce an abundance of bloom 
long after everything else has been killed by frost and even 
after a severe freeze they will often continue to open their 
flowers. If very severe weather should threaten to ruin the 
bloom, the stems may be cut and brought in the house even 
long before they are ready to open and when placed in water 
they proceed to develop their flowers in the most perfect way. 
Recently too many tender sorts have been oflt'ered in the cata- 
logues and growers have been disappointed to find that their 
plants died during the winter or were ruined by early frosts. 
For that reason the plants from old established patches that 



310 Orchard and Garden 

are known to be hardy are the best. Some nurserymen realize 
this disposition and have collected their stock from plants that 
have been growing in old gardens for years. Such plants will 
give universal satisfaction and will make one of the best addi- 
tions possible to the hardy border. The plants will grow in any 
good garden soil and require but little attention. They are 
best planted either in the fall or in the very early spring be- 
fore they start to grow. The growing of the fancy varieties 
of chrysanthemum should be left to the commercial grower 
who is equipped to take care of the plants and who under- 
stands their requirements. 

Coreopsis. — This bright yellow plant resembles the an- 
nual cosmos in nearly everything except color. The flowers 
are splendid for house use and their constant cutting 
tends to keep the plants in bloom for a longer period. They 
come into bloom early in the summer and if not allowed to 
form seed will continue to bloom until frost. 

Delphiniums. — The perennial delphiniums or larkspurs 
are among the very best of the hardy plants for the flower 
garden. The Chinese forms are small flowered dwarf plants 
suitable for any position where a low, dark blue flower is de- 
sired. The stately English delphiniums are among the most 
beautiful of the group. They grow from four to eight feet 
tall and will bloom from early summer till frost if they are 
properly treated. As soon as a spike of flowers is through 
blooming, that is when the top flowers are beginning to fade, 
the flower stalk should be cut to the ground. The plant will 
then throw up another great spike to repeat the show. They 
thrive in any good garden soil, but the richer it is, the better 
flowers will be produced. The colors vary from pure white 
through various shades of blue. The light, clear blues are very 
eff'ective, as this color is not at all common in plants capable 
of producing a large mass of bloom. 

Dodecutheon. — This native American plant, commonly 
called the "shooting star," is an excellent perennial for situa- 



Perennials. 



311 



tions where a spring 
blooming plant of low 
growth is required. 
It is characterized by 
spikes of white or 
pinkish flowers of a 
very intresting shape, 
growing much after 
the habit of the Alpine 
violet or cyclamen. 
The flower suggests 
that of the cyclamen 
very decidedly and no 
doubt our little native 
plant would be a green- 
house favorite if it 
were not so common in 
the woods. 

Hepatica. — This is 
another familiar plant 
of our woods that de- 
serves to be recog- 
nized in our gardens. 
While it is a spring 
blooming plant, the foliage is persistent and beautiful all sum- 
mer, making a ground cover in shady places. The leaves re- 
main .green, or rather red bronze, all winter and until the 
flowers come in the spring. It is one of the most desirable 
plants to mass in beds on the north side of houses where it 
will have shade and moisture. Plants that will thrive in such 
situations are needed and the hepatica should prove a wel- 
come addition to the list. 

Hollyhocks. — Every one loves the good old-fashioned 
hollyhocks. They are rank growers and are not particularly 
graceful and many other plants produce colors that appeal 
more to the artistic eye, but at that there is something stately 




The blouii 



the .shiMiLiny- 
a Cyclamen. 



star resembles 



312 



Orchard and Garden 



about the plants that cannot be overlooked. They recall old 
gardens and old times and through long association have won 




Good old-fashioned hollyhocks. 



Perennials. 313 

the place in the hetirts of flower growers that will cause them 
to retain their place in the garden. They are splendid to use 
as a background for other flowers or in a mixed border of tall 
growing- plants. Their wide range of colors causes a regular 
riot in the garden — an eff'ect that is often wanted. 

Iris. — The flags are among our most useful perennials 
because of the fact that they will grow in such a variety of 




Iris bordering- a path. 

situations and are so universally beautiful. There is nothing 
better with which to border a bed of other flowers or to use 
along a path or an approach to a house. They grow stitt' and 
upright and have no tendency to lop over on their neighbors, 
although the roots will in time spread and cause the indi- 
vidual patch to enlarge and the border strip to become slightly 
wider. The German iris, so called, although it is not a native 
of Germany, is one of the most useful, as it adapts itself to 



314 Orchard and Garden 

many types of soil and will do better in poor soil than almost 
any other perennial. It requires good exposure to sunlight, 
however. After the first year or two it does not seem to need 
cultivation and is able to take care of itself very effectively. 
The Japanese iris is a much more showy plant, producing 
flowers of great beauty of form and coloring. It is by far the 
finest of all the group, but unfortunately is a moisture-loving 
plant and if deprived of its moisture it often fails completely. 
The same statement is true of the blue flag of our American 
marshes. It is an attractive plant but it will grow only in wet 
places. The Spanish iris is a delicate form of easy culture. The 
bulbs, for this is a bulbous form, are planted early in the fall 
and bloom the next season. Altogether there are more than a 
hundred species of iris and many hybrids between species. 
No flower has been more highly developed and few forms 
will yield greater satisfaction to the lover of flowers. 

Li num. — The ornamental flax is a pretty little perennial 
with delicate foliage and covered with a multitude of blue 
flowers. It comes into bloom early in the spring and remains 
covered with flowers nearly all summer. The plants are not 
tall growing and not bold in coloring, but for a situation 
where delicacy and grace is desired they are splendid. 

Lobelia. — The red flowered lobelia, or cardinal flower, is 
a beautiful perennial, but requires plenty of moisture. If a 
place can be secured where moisture is assured throughout 
the season it would be well to try it, but in the average gar- 
den there are other plants that are more apt to succeed. 

Monarda. — This is one of the mints that is well worth 
cultivation in a hardy border. The flower heads are not only 
interesting, but they also attract numerous butterflies and 
provide forage for honey bees. It is a wild plant over the 
most of the country. 

Pentstemon. — There are a number of species of pentste- 
mon native in the United States, but P. digitalis is the form 
chiefly cultivated. It produces attractive spikes of white 
flowers in early summer and is worthy of more extended cul- 



Perennials. 



;i5 



tivation. P. grandiflorus is native in the prairie district. It 
has larger flowers of light lavender blue. 

Peonies. — Perhaps no other hardy flower is so widely 




A native monarda. 



316 Orchard and Garden 

cultivated as the peony. Certainly none is more admired. 
The bloom exceeds the rose in beauty of form and color and 
most varieties are equally fragrant. In addition to producing 
the most splendid flowers, the plants produce clean, vigorous 
foliage that is seldom attacked by insects or fungous disease 
and which makes an excellent appearance throughout the sea- 
son. If only one hardy plant can be selected, let it be, by all 
means, a peony. The plants that are furnished by nursery- 
men are usually single roots cut from a large clump. As a 
rule these single roots will produce only one or two stalks the 
first season they are planted and the results are apt to be dis- 
appointing to the amateur, especially when he is told that the 
plant should not be allowed to bloom the first season. For 
immediate effects it is best to purchase original clumps of 
several j'ears' growth, although such clumps will cost about 
five times as much as the single plants. The roots may be 
planted either in the fall or in very early spring before growth 
starts. In any event they should be placed in the best soil ob- 
tainable and in a situation where they will have an abundance 
of light and air. They do not succeed in even partial shade 
and their excellence entitles them to the best location in the 
garden. No plant is better adapted for grouping around 
houses and along drives and walks. There are many varie- 
ties offered and practically all of them are good. Some are 
single, but the most of them are double. The great white 
variety, festiva maxima, is one of the finest flowers in exis- 
tence. 

Phlox. — There are several native species of phlox that 
are worthy of cultivation. One of these, P. divaricata, is the 
common wild flower known as blue phlox and is to be 
found in rich woods over a greater part of the eastern states. 
It is suitable for garden culture and as a plant for early bloom 
in a shrub border it is excellent, making large clumps. P. 
subulata, or moss pink, is a dwarf form, blooming very early 
in the spring and covering itself with charming little lavender 
or rose pink flowers. It is a creeping plant, with grass-like 



Perennials. 



317 



foliage, and if given an opportunity will form great mats, 
covering the ground for yards in every direction. There is 
nothing finer for a ground cover in situations where the soil 
is poor and where an early show of color is desired. This 
phlox does not succeed in rich soil. It grows to perfection on 




Phlox divaricata, one of our native plants. 



difficult yellow clay and if it can get its roots in a crevice 
under a stone it will thrive as well as if it were growing in a 
rich garden. The tall growing phlox of the garden is either 
P. paniculata or P. maculata or a cross between the two. 
Nearly all of our named varieties are such hybrids. From 
this it will be seen that this is a strictly American family. 
These tall growing phlox are among our best hardy plants 



318 Orchard and Garden 

and if given good soil will soon make large and showy 
clumps. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden gives the following direc- 
tions for the cultivation of these hybrid plants : "The garden 
culture of phlox is very simple. As they are gross feeders, the 
soil should be worked up to a depth of eighteen inches to two 
feet and well enriched with well-rotted manure. The manure 
is especially necessary in light sandy soil to conserve moisture. 
It should be used sparingly in stiff heavy soil, however, in view 
of a prevalent spot disease caused by a fungus, Cercospora 
phlogina. The disease is characterized by circular brown 
spots on the foliage, which on the upper surface show a dark 
brown border. The distance of planting should vary from two 
to three feet, depending upon the effects desired. For color 
grouping clumps may be set two feet apart without being 
overcrowded. Phlox suffer in hot weather because of their 
tendency to form roots at the surface. To avoid this, mulch- 
ing with well-decayed cow manure should be resorted to in 
June. Moderate shade is also beneficial during the hot part 
of the day, so that an eastern or western border is preferable 
to one facing south. For the best results phlox should be di- 
vided every three or four years." 

Physostegia. — Another American plant that is widely 
cultivated in gardens, but not as extensively as it should be. 
It produces tall spikes of pink or white flowers and makes a 
graceful addition to the hardy border. 

Rudheckia (Golden Glow). — This perennial is one of the 
best of the tall growing plants. It is not what could be called 
a graceful plant, but its vigorous growth and unfailing sup- 
ply of bright yellow flowers give it a value that a less thrifty 
plant would lack. Being tall growing, it should be placed 
where it will have plenty of room. Sometimes the stems re- 
quire support or they wiU blow over in the wind. They can 
be strengthened by pinching out the leader when it is about 
two or three feet high and causing the plant to branch. 

Tradescantm. — The native spiderworts make excellent 



Perennials. 



319 



little plants for the hardy border and as they will endure some 
shade they may be planted among shrubs or under trees. The 
flowers are blue or purple and last but a short time, but are 
quickly followed by others. 

Trillium. — For a cool, rich spot in the garden there is 
no more striking plant for early bloom than the large white 
trilliums. These are native in our rich woodlands. The tall 
stalks bearing the three-parted leaves of sturdy green, appear 




Tradescantia, or spiderwoit, makes a fine perennial in a sheltered location. 



early in the spring and the bloom opens soon after the leaves 
reach their full development. This is one of our most interest- 
ing native plants and should be more widely grown. Many 
plant specialists list it in their catalogues, but it can also be 
obtained direct from the woods in many parts of the country. 
The bulbs should be planted deep — at least as deep as they 
grew in the woods, about six to eight inches. There are other 

(21) 



320 



Orchard and Garden 



varieties of native tril- 
lium, but for the most 
part they are not suit- 
ed for garden planting. 
The little snow tril- 
lium, one of the earl- 
iest wild flowers, may 
be naturalized in the 
border or on the lawn 
in a sheltered situa- 
tion. It grows only a 
few inches high and 
produces white flowers 
almost as soon as the 
snow is off the ground 
in the spring. 

Ve7'bena Venosa. 
— This is a hardy form 
of the verbena and 
should be more widely 
grown. It is often 
found in old gardens 
where it has been es- 
tablished for years. 
When allowed to have 
its own way it will 
form large mats of 
deeply cut foliage and 
will produce a perfect mass of flowers from early spring until 
frost. These flowers, a purplish violet in color, attract large, 
black, swallow-tail butterflies in great numbers. Any bright 
day in summer will see the plants shadowed over by these in- 
sects which seem to visit it only for the nectar of the flowers, 
as the larva of this butterfly feeds on other plants. 

Yucca. — The common yucca is a good evergreen plant, 
perfectly hardy, and valued not only for its great spikes of 




One of the showy trill iums. 



Perennials. 



321 



white flowers, but also for its striking stiff, green foliage, 
which remains in good condition indefinitely. It is of the eas- 




The Emperor Daffodil. 



iest culture and often escapes from cultivation and runs wild. 
It is a good plant to give a touch of green in the winter among 
the shrubbery. 



322 



Orchard and Garden 




Paper White Narcissus as grown in the house. 



Perennials. 323 



DUTCH BULBS 



There are many sorts of plants commonly sold under the 
name of Dutch bulbs, because of the fact that their culture has 
been developed to its highest state in Holland. 

Among: these, the various members of the narcissus fam- 
ily hold a high place and are among our best perennials for 
spring bloom. The great yellow daffodils are for the most 
part perfectly hardy and can be planted among shrubs with 
very pleasing effect. The variety known as Emperor is prob- 
ably the best for this purpose. The bulbs should be planted in 
the fall in soil which has good drainage. It is a good plan to 
dig a trench about seven or eight inches deep and put an inch 
or two of sand in the bottom of it. On this sand the bulbs are 
placed and covered with good earth. 

The paper white narcissus is also an excellent form for 
naturalizing among shrubs and trees and is handled exactly 
like the daffodil. The "poet's narcissus" is perfectly hardy 
and makes a good plant for outdoor culture. 

All of these can also be grown in the house by planting in 
boxes and pots and allowing them to remain out of doors until 
cold weather approaches. They are then brought into a cool 
cellar and later into a warm, lighted room. 

For the hardy border there is no more effective plant than 
the Darwin tulips, which are just as different from the small 
early flowering tulips as could be possible. The Darwins pro- 
duce tall stems, bearing great cup-shaped flowers in a wonder- 
ful variety of brilliant colors. No hardy garden should be 
without them. They are planted and treated just as the daffo- 
dils. Ground mice have a great fondness for the bulbs of the 
Darwin tulip and the beds should be examined every fall for 
signs of these pests. If they are present, as will be indicated 
by their runways, means must be employed to exterminate 
them. Oatmeal dusted with strychnine can be placed in the 
entrance to the burrows and the hole covered with a stone or 
clod. This will prevent birds from eating the grain. If after 



324 Orchard and Garden 

a few days the holes are again open the dose should be re- 
peated. If the holes remain closed and no new openings ap- 
pear you may feel sure that the mice have perished. 

perennial vines 

Ampelopsis. — The five-leaved ivy of our forests makes a 
good vine to cover old stumps or to run over a dead tree, but it 
is not so effective on walls and on foundations as is the A. 
veitcheii or Boston ivy. This is a splendid plant and makes 
the best foundation screen in the list. Sometimes it is reported 
as being difficult to get started clinging to the wall. This 
nearly always means that it is not making a vigorous growth, 
as it would if it was planted properly in the right kind of soil. 
Too often the soil next to a foundation wall is filled with rub- 
bish from the construction of the building and unless this is 
removed and good earth supplied it will be difficult to cause 
anything to grow. Given good soil and a fair amount of mois- 
ture, the Boston ivy will do its part vigorously. 

Celasirus. — This is the native bitter-sweet and, while it is 
not a quick growing vine, it is a most excellent one. As a rule 
the vines do not produce any berries until they are several 
years old, but the winter beauty of a well-grown specimen is 
so great that it pays to spend some time in securing this result. 
In the woods the bitter-sweet will grow in partial shade and 
cover small shrubs and trees with its long stems. It has been 
observed, however, that these vines grown in the deep woods 
seldom produce many berries, while the plants found along 
the edges of the woods or on fences in the open are usually 
laden with their attractive seed pods. From this occurrence 
it would appear that it is a sort that will grow in either shade 
or sun, but that it produces its truit best when it has a full 
exposure. 

Clematis. — There are many varieties of clematis offered 
by nurserymen, but none of them are any prettier than our 
native C. virginiana. This makes a vigorous growth and bears 



Perennials. 



325 




Bitter Sweet. 



326 Orchard and Garden 

in profusion small white flowers. The flowers are produced 
in great feathery masses which make the plant one of our most 
graceful climbers. The large flowered forms are easily grown, 
but lack the delicate beauty which marks our native plant. 
C. paniculata is a newer introduction from that land of plant 
marvels, Japan. It is similar to our native form, but produces 
slightly larger flowers and at the same time loses but little of 
the grace of our own vine. 

Lathriis. — This perennial vine greatly resembles the 
sweet pea. The flowers, however, are not fragrant. It will 
grow in any soil and makes an excellent vine where height is 
not desired, for, like the sweet pea, it does not grow very tall. 
The flowers are produced all summer and are good for cutting. 

Wisteria. — Two species of wisteria grow wild in America, 
but the Chinese form is superior to either of them as a culti- 
vation plant. Few vines make a more rapid growth or are 
more universally satisfactory. It should be planted in deep, 
rich soil and allowed plenty of moisture. In dry weather it is 
well to mulch the surface with leaves or straw to help retain 
moisture. 



CHAPTER XIV 



Shrubs 



Botanically, a shrub differs 
from a tree in that it has many 
stems, while a tree has but one. 
From the standpoint of the gar- 
dener, however, there is no reason 
why a small ornamental tree should 
not be treated as a shrub. What is 
wanted is a small woody plant that 
is ornamental and that ¥/ill not 
grow beyond a certain definite size. 
The vahie of shrifbs for orna- 
mental planting can not be over es- 
timated for no class of plants lends 
itself to a greater variety of effects 
nor is any sort of ornamental 
planting more permanent. Many 
of our best shrubs are native to 
this country, but it is only in re- 
cent years that gardeners have ad- 
mitted this fact. Years ago the gardens of England and 
Europe were using great quantities of American material, 
while at the same time our American nurseries were listing 
and recommending chiefly varieties that had been introduced. 
Native Shrubs. — Each year sees a still greater inclination 
to make use of our own material in this line and some land- 
scape architects are building an enviable reputation chiefly 
through the use of native stock. 

There are, of course, many valuable shrubs as well as 




328 



Orchard and Garden 



other plants that have been brought to us from far lands and 
in the course of time others will be brought. It is not the de- 
sire to minimize the usefulness of any of these, but it is de- 
sirable that our own plants of value should not be overlooked. 
Soil. — When a shrub is planted it is expected that it will 
occupy that particular spot for some time. It is not likely that 
it will be moved in a year or two. It is a permanent addition 
to the establishment and for that reason it should be selected 
and planted with care. The soil should be properly prepared 




The proper protection for tender shrubs in winter. 

to begin with. Do not expect shrubs or any other sort of plants 
to grow and thrive if the preparation of the ground from 
which they must get their life is neglected. Most shrubs 
require a fertile soil if they are to make fine specimens. Do 



Shrubs. 329 

not blame the nurseryman if your plants do not look like the 
pictures in the catalogues. In most cases catalogue pictures 
are very modest and the failure to exceed them rests entirely 
with yourself. 

In the actual planting of a shrub use just as much care 
as though you were planting an apple tree from which you 
some day hoped to secure part of your sustenance. Have the 
hole dug deep enough and large enough to receive all the roots 
without crowding. Then see that the roots are in good condi- 
tion ; prune off those that are broken or damaged in any way. 
Set the shrub in the ground as deeply as it grew in the nur- 
sery or a trifle deeper. Throw in the top soil and tamp it well 
with the foot, or, better still, work it and pack it around the 
roots with your hands. Do not allow any air spaces below the 
roots, for such spaces cause the earth to dry out and may cost 
the life of the plant. The last soil that is used in filling the 
hole should not be tramped hard, but should be left loose — and 
kept loose. 

In most cases the shrub should be pruned immediately 
after it is planted. In transplanting, the root system has, of 
course, been damaged to a considerable extent and some of the 
roots have been lost. Those that are left can not begin to sup- 
ply moisture to the plant in its accustomed quantity and m 
order to balance the water supply some of the water using 
area of the plant must be removed. This is the only reason 
for pruning either a tree or a shrub at the time it is planted. 
The rule holds good for any sort of plant, whether it be an 
oak or a stalk of celery. 

If the plants are not to be moved far, it is sometimes pos- 
sible to transplant large well-grown shrubs without much 
pruning, but in such a case the work must be done at the 
right time and in the right way. The only satisfactory time 
for such work is in the winter when the ground is frozen hard. 
It is then possible to dig a trench around the shrub that is to 
be moved and pry it out of the ground with a large ball of 
frozen earth. In this way very few of the roots are disturbed. 



330 Orchard and Garden 

It is about like setting a pot-grown plant in the garden. Even 
in such cases, however, the shrubs almost invariably show a 
tendency to make a weak growth for one or two seasons after 
they have been moved and the safest way for the amateur is to 
start with small nursery-grown plants and let them acquire 
size as they will. 

Most shrubs grow rapidly, so that it does not take a long 
time for them to begin to repay the labor lavished on their 
planting and after care. In the following list are included 
only shrubs of known value and where their culture differed 
from the normal a note has been made of that fact. 

Amelcinchier (June berry). — This small tree often grows 
in the form of an open bush, but even where it attains tree size 
it is always an ''under wood" in the forest. Its principal orna- 
mental value lies in the fact that very early in the spring it is 
covered with a multitude of small white flowers. Before the 
other trees have more than started to leaf out, the June berry 
has thrown its cloud of misty blossoms to the April air. If 
grown as a shrub it must be given plenty of room so that it 
can develop its full beauty. As it is shade-enduring, it may be 
planted under larger trees with good eff'ect. 

Barberry. — The best of the barberries is the form intro- 
uced from Japan as B. thunbergii. It makes a graceful shrub 
if planted in the border or it may be used with fine effect as a 
hedge plant. The stems are quite spiny and if the plants are 
placed about eighteen inches apart they will form a low hedge 
that will turn stray dogs very effectively. One of the chief 
beauties of the plant lies in the fact that in winter it is cov- 
ered with loads of bright red berries which retain their plump- 
ness and color well into spring. It may be propagated by 
taking dormant cuttings and sticking them in the ground to a 
depth of several inches. These will quickly take root and in a 
season or two will make sizable plants. If an immediate effect 
is desired it is better to buy well grown plants from the nur- 
sery as quite large bushes can be transplanted with consid- 
erable success. If the larger plants are set out they should 
be cut back to the ground after planting. It is shade enduring. 



Shrubs. 



331 




June Berry. 



332 Orchard and Garden 

Calycanthiis (Sweet Shrub). — This is an old favorite for 
garden culture and deserves a prominent place in spite of the 
fact that it is not particularly ornamental and the flowers are 
not suited for cutting. Its popularity is due entirely to the 
fact that its dark, brownish red blossoms are extremely fra- 
grant with a spicy, fruity odor not found in other plants. The 
twigs of the shrub, when broken, give off a very pleasant odor 
also. These facts, coupled with the fact that it has long been 
an inhabitant of our gardens, make it a shrub worth while. 
It will grow well in the shade of trees and this gives it an 
added value. 

Cercis (Red Bud). — The red bud of our forests is one 
of our most valuable shrubs. It sometimes forms a small tree, 
but it is always attractive. It can be used either as a single 
specimen or may be planted in groups or in lines to form a 
screen. It blooms very early in the spring, before the leaves 
open, and when in full bloom is one of the most beautiful 
sights of the American forest. In those parts of the country 
where the red bud is still plentiful it forms one of the chief 
attractions of the spring landscape. The flowers are small, 
pea shaped and of a beautiful shade of pinkish lavender. They 
are produced in such great abundance that they fairly clothe 
every twig and branch of the entire tree. As they fall they 
are quickly followed by the glossy, heart-shaped leaves which 
remain in good condition all summer. By midsummer the seed 
pods are well grown and take on a beautiful red coppery color 
so that the tree is only a little less beautiful in fruit than it was 
in flower. The red bud can be transplanted successfully only 
when it is quite small. Large specimens are usually ruined by 
transplanting and it generally pays with this, as with most oth- 
er plants, to use small healthy specimens to start with. It grows 
rapidly and a small tree well started will often outstrip a larg- 
er one that has had its root system damaged in handling. It 
will grow in the shade, but requires full sunlight to develop 
to perfection. 



Shrubs. 333 

Comas (Dogwood). — The large flowering dogwood is 
one of the most striking of our native trees — for it is a tree 
although often used for the purposes of a shrub. The branches 
are covered each spring with a load of large white blooms that 




Red Bud. 



334 Orchard and Garden 

never fail to provoke comment. Once in a long while a single 
tree is found in the woods bearing flowers of a delicate shade 
of pink. This pink flowered form is even more beautiful than 
its parent — for it is considered as only an ofi'shoot from the 
white variety. Nurserymen now offer both kinds. In autumn 
the foliage of the dogwood turns from green to a deep rich red 
and it is then one of the most ornamental trees in the forest. 
Later the leaves fall and the bright red berries, produced in 
small clusters, stand out sharp and clear and give the tree an 
interesting appearance well into the late fall. This plant nas 
so many good qualities that it should be in every ornamental 
collection. It is not so large but that it could be grown to 
perfection even within the confines of the average city yard. 
Certainly it takes up less room than do many of the exotic 
magnolias that seem to be so popular and, aside from the fact 
that it is a native and the magnolias are not, every argument 
is on the side of the dogwood. For some reason people will 
buy plants that are introduced from some far-off country and 
sold under a high-sounding name, while they leave neglected 
the most beautiful trees and plants of their own state. The 
dogwood will stand a moderate amount of shade, but in the 
forest it is at its best when it breaks through the edge of the 
timber and gets a space of sunshine all to itself. 

There are other members of the dogwood group that are 
true shrubs. The only ones of these that are extensively cul- 
tivated are those that have red stems in winter. This red- 
stemmed character is the most striking feature of this group 
of plants and it is a valuable one because it produces a note of 
color in our gardens at a season of the year when color is at a 
premium. The American species, C. stolonifera, is a good 
one of this sort, but C. alba, a form introduced from Siberia, 
has more brilliant red stems and is the more desirable of the 
two for planting. Both of these have small clusters of white 
flowers in spring, followed by flat heads bearing white berries. 
They are useful shrubs, but are not to be compared with the 
tall-growing form first mentioned. 



Shrubs. 



335 



Corylus (Hazel nut). — The common hazel makes an ex- 
cellent shrub for shady situations, doing well even under old 




Dogwood. 



forest trees. It has many interesting features that recom- 
mend it to the planter. To begin with, it is probably the first 



(22) 



336 Orchard and Garden 

plant of any kind to bloom in the spring. The first warm day 
of early spring will bring the hazel into bloom and many lov- 
ers of the out of doors watch for it with eager eyes each year. 
The flowers, however, are not such as would attract attention 
from the average person. They are of two kinds, one produc- 
ing the pollen and the other bearing the ovary from which 
develops the fruit. The pollen-bearing flowers are catkins 
which in bloom measure from two to five inches in length. The 
female flowers, however, are tiny tufts of pinkish pistils that 
might easily be overlooked. However, they are the flowers 
and the fact that they brave the season to make their appear- 
ance so early in the year has made the plant dear to the heart 
of every nature lover. The foliage of the plant is rather rough, 
but not unpleasant and the fruit is a delicious, though small 
nut. The hazel will grow in heavy shade. A northern form 
of it is similar except that the nuts, instead of being protected 
by a short envelope or husk, are situated at the base of a long 
leafy tube. They are interesting in appearance, but difficult to 
extract from their protective covering. 

Crataegus (The Haws). — We have in America many va- 
rieties of the haw family and almost without exception they 
are deserving of more extensive cultivation. A few of them 
are worthy of special mention. C. mollis is one of the best 
because of its excellent form, its fine white bloom and its loads 
of red fruit. This is the only one of the haws that the average 
person would consider as edible, although small boys have 
been known to eat with relish the fruit from many kinds. 
The fruit of this haw ripens in August and September. It is 
nearly or quite three-quarters of an inch in diameter and is 
useful in making a clear red jelly of wonderful flavor. C. 
CGCcinea and C. punctata are both well worth the attention of 
the grower for both are excellent varieties. C. cordata, the 
Washington thorn, is one of the most valuable of the group. 
If allowed to take its natural shape it will form a small tree 
up to thirty feet in height. However, it can be and often is 
trimmed to a much smaller size. It makes a good hedge plant 
and stands trimming well. The foliage turns to a rich red in 



Shrubs. 






the fall and after the leaves are off the bright red, though 
small, haws show up to perfection. These are produced in 
great abundance and remain on the tree all winter, 

Cydon'm (Japan quince). — This shrub is one of the early- 
introductions from Japan and has remained fairly popular 




An American haw. 



338 Orchard and Garden 

although it has many bad characteristics. In early spring it 
produces an abundance of glowing red flowers, which are fol- 
lowed in late summer by the fruit, which somewhat resembles 
the cultivated quince and has an attractive odor. However, 
the plant sprouts from the root badly and unless given a great 
deal of care it soon makes an unsightly bush that is devoid of 
character. It is also very subject to the attack of the San 
Jose scale. If there is a scale insect within a mile of a Japan 
quince bush it seems to be able to locate it and settle down 
there. As a result these are often a source of infestation for 
the neighboring country. Orchardists have been known to 
spray their trees thoroughly and wondered how they happened 
to have so much scale on the trees the next fall. Too often it 
has happened through the fact that they had a neglected 
Japan quince in the dooryard. 

Foisythia. — Several forms of this have been introduced 
and they are all valuable shrubs. Their chief value lies in the 
fact that they produce a wealth of clear yellow flowers very 
early in the spring long before other plants have started their 
work of brightening up the garden. It does not do well in 
shaded situations. 

Hamamelis (Witch Hazel). — The hazel nut is the first to 
bloom in the spring and this, the witch hazel, the last to throw 
its yellow blossoms to the wind in November. They are not 
related, but both have their value. The individual bloom of the 
witch hazel is rather insignificant, but it is produced in such 
quantities that the whole shrub seems crowded with the yel- 
low flowers. In nature it grows about the edges of rocky 
ravines, but under cultivation it adapts itself to many situa- 
tions and is an admirable shrub worthy of more extended 
planting. The seed pods, which ripen just before the bloom 
appears, are one of the interesting features of the bush. The 
seed capsules open in such a way as to shoot the seeds some 
distance and with considerable force. This is one of the means 
by which the plant manages to distribute its seeds. 



Shrubs. 



339 




Witch Hazel. 



340 



Orchard and Garden 



Hydrangea. — The 
native wild hydrangea 
is not only a charming 
plant, but one of value 
because it can be 
grown in shady situa- 
tions. It is a vigorous 
grower and will pro- 
duce results in a shad- 
ed corner about as 
quickly as any plant 
that can be used. The 
most commonly plant- 
ed horticultural vari- 
ety is the H. paniculata 
grandiflora, with its 
great masses of white 
bloom. It is a valuable 
sort, but, unlike the 
wild kind, it must be 
grown in full sunlight. 
Lilac. — The lilac 
is not a native of this 
country, but it has 
been grown here for so long that it seems as though it belonged 
to us. It was one of the first plants introduced and must 
have been brought from England and France at a very early 
date. It is too well known to require description and too valu- 
able to need any advertisement of its virtues. The lilac 
reaches its finest development in the cooler parts of the coun- 
try. On Mackinac island, Michigan, are the finest specimens 
of this shrub to be found any place. Doubtless the plant was 
brought to that section by the early missionaries, for certainly 
some of these specimens are very old. The older ones have a 
tree-like form and are of such size that they are used as ham- 
mock supports in some cases. In recent years several named 




Wild hydrangea. 



Shrubs. 



841 



varieties of lilac have been introduced. They produce blooms 
larger and finer in color than the old-fashioned lilac, but with- 
out exception they lack the vigor of growth that is possessed 
by the original form. 

Philadelphus (Syringia). — This is another favorite that 
deserves to be perpetuated because of its wealth of white flow- 




Tree-size lilacs on Mackinac Island. Mich. 



ers in the spring. In habit the shrub is not greatly to be ad- 
mired and outside of the period when it is in bloom it is not a 
particularly beautiful object. However, it seems to withstand 
adverse conditions better than almost any of our shrubs and 
for the city back yard it is probably the one best shrub. City 
back yards can not be too partial about their plants anyway 
and it is well that some forms seem to thrive in spite of the ad- 
verse conditions. As for the better shrubs, they will revel in 
the cleaner air of the country. 

Physocarpus (Nine bark). — This attractive plant has 



342 



Orchard and Garden 



been brow beaten by the botanists until it probably does not 
know its own name. The writer learned to know and love it 
under the generic name of opulaster, which has since been 
succeeded by that given above. It has also been classed as a 
spiraea, and nurserymen still offer it under that name. A 
golden leaved form is listed as "golden spiraea," Regardless 
of the name, it is a splendid plant and should be in every col- 




Physocarpus. 



lection of shrubs. The branches rise from the ground with 
a graceful sweep and in spring are covered with white blooms. 
Later seed pods take the place of these blooms and the plant 
is then almost as attractive as it was when the flowers were 
at their best. It is a quick growing form and one that will 
succeed in many soils and situations. 

Rhododendron. — The rhododendrons, kalmias, azaleas 



Shrubs. 343 

and others of this group make wonderful plants for the snrub- 
bery or for massing against a house or under trees, but they 
are among the most difficult of all plants to grow. They may 
be grown almost any place, however, if the bed is properly 
prepared for them. They grow naturally in a soil composed 
almost entirely of peat and where this material can be 
obtained rhododendrons and their allies can be produced. 
Excavate the place where they are to stand to a depth 
of at least three feet and fill the bottom with broken 
stone unless there is a gravel subsoil to provide good 
drainage. Then fill the excavation with peat mixed with 
in the soil and if this element is present in any quantity in the 
surrounding soil it will eventually work into the bed of peat 
and ruin the planting. To prevent this it is sometimes advis- 
able to build a thin-walled concrete pit, coat the walls with 
pitch to keep out the soil water and then fill with peat in the 
usual way. The plants will do better in a shaded situation, 
such as the north side of a house and the surface of the soil 
should at all times be mulched with a layer of leaves to help 
retain moisture. Some plant growers have at times claimed to 
have a "secret" for growing rhododendrons and have treated 
the beds with a chemical to make the soil suitable for the 
plants. This chemical is usually magnesium sulphate which 
when carefully used has been known to be of assistance in 
growing these evergreens on soil that would otherwise 
promptly kill them. Just as often the use of this or other 
chemicals has resulted in the very prompt death of valuable 
plants. There is no secret about growing this beautiful class 
of shrubs, simply plant them in peat and they will grow. 

Rose. — It is presumptous to attempt to deal with rose 
growing in the brief space of a paragraph. There are some 
four or five thousand varieties of roses under cultivation now 
and single growers list as many as eight hundred diff"erent 
kinds. Our native wild roses are not particularly rich in 
garden material when compared with the wonderful horticul- 
tural varieties that are offered by the trade. Some of the native 



344 



Orchard and Garden 



forms are of value when they can be used along fences on 
large estates, but for the most part they are too rank in growth 
to be desirable in the average garden. The sweet brier is an 
old favorite, and though not a native, it has escaped from cul- 




Native American roses. 



Shrubs. 345 

tivation and is to be found in many old fields and pastures. It 
is valued for the fragrance of its foliage and for the bright 
red "hips" that remain on all winter. The list of climbing 
roses contain some sorts that are exceedingly beautiful. The 
crimson rambler has long been a favorite in spite of the fact 
that its color is against it. The Dorothy Perkins is just as 
good a climber and the color of its flowers is far superior to 
that of the older form. A rather new rose is the American 
pillar, a climber of great vigor. The flowers are single, of a 
delicate shade of pink with a white eye. It is still further to 
be desired by the fact that it has unusually handsome foliage 
that remains bright and green until cold weather. It is quite 
hardy except in very severe winters. The following notes on 
starting a rose garden are taken from a publication of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden : 

Location. — Roses are entitled to the choicest location in a 
yard. Good exposure to the sun, and proper protection from 
prevailing winds will do much to make the rose garden a 
success. While a location with a full-day sun exposure is 
much to be preferred, it is not absolutely essential, and where 
a choice must be made it is best to give roses the morning sun. 
Buds should not be located near trees or shrubbery. Roses 
are heavy feeders and for their best development require an 
unusual amount of fertilizer; when planted near trees or 
shrubbery, the roots of the latter deplete the soil of nourish- 
ment, with the result that the roses suffer. If, however, plant- 
ing in close proximity to trees and shrubs is unavoidable, it is 
advisable each year to dig a trench (about a foot wide and two 
or three feet deep) around the rose bed and fill with well- 
rotted cow manure. This procedure will tend to prevent the 
roots of shrubs from actually entering the rose bed. Some- 
times a concrete wall is constructed deep enough to prevent 
this encroachment. 

Soil. — Roses usually do well in any good garden soil, but 
better results are obtained if considerable care is exercised in 
the preparation of the ground. Roses require a heavy, well- 



346 



Orchard and Garden 



drained soil. To obtain this, the area to be used for a bed 
should be dug- out to a depth of from eighteen inches to two 
feet, and if the drainage is not good another six inches should 
be removed and this space filled with fine broken stone, brick, 




American PiUar Rose. 



Shrubs. 347 

or old flower-pots. Upon this porous stratum six inches of 
well-rotted cow manure should be placed, and finally sufficient 
heavy soil to finish the bed, raising- it not more than three 
inches above the surrounding grade. This latter layer should, 
if possible, be top soil (including sod) from an old pasture. 
After making the bed it should be allowed to settle for a week 
before the planting is begun. 

Plantinf). — Roses may be set out either in the fall or in 
the spring. The spacing depends very largely upon the vari- 
ety; tea and hybrid tea varieties may be planted about eigh- 
teen inches apart, but hybrid perpetuals, on account of their 
more vigorous growth, should be spaced at least two and one- 
half feet, and ramblers eventually need about four feet. In 
any case an eight-inch margin from the edge of the bed should 
be allowed. Where potted stock is being planted, the ball 
of earth should be placed with its upper surface about two 
inches below the soil ; field-grown stock may be set two or three 
inches lower than its former position in the nursery. The 
holes for receiving the plants should be large enough to admit 
the stock without bending or crowding the roots, the soil 
should be firmly packed around the roots, and the plants thor- 
oughly watered immediately after planting. All stock should 
be so pruned that but two or three buds remain on each shoot 
— the upper bud, in each case, pointing outward. 

Spiraea. — There are numbers of spiraeas listed by the 
plant dealers, but of the entire lot one stands out as being far 
and away the best. This is the spiraea Van Houtii, which has 
many points to recommend it. It blooms early in the season, 
producing a great mass of delicate white. Its brancnes are 
long and drooping, giving it a graceful appearance not ex- 
ceeded by any plant of its type. Also it is a quick grower and 
will produce results in a short time. Probably no other shrub 
is so largely planted as a foundation screen. S. Anthony 
Waterer is another good introduction, producing heads of bril- 
liant red flowers and blooming from July until frost. It is 
stiflf and erect in habit as compared to the first named. 



348 



Orchard and Garden 



Su tnphoricarpas. — This genus contains just two shr^abs, 
both native and both of decided value. One is the snowberry, 
a delicate little shrub with long", slender branches. Early in 
summer the plants are covered with an abundance of tiny 
pink, bell-shaped flowers, which are later followed by clusters 
of the most beautiful waxy white berries. These remain on 
the shrub until cold weather causes them to darken and 
shrivel. The other plant is the Indian currant, a more robust 
form than the snowberry, although only growing about thirty 
inches high at the most. It is covered in the fall with masses 
of small, dull red berries that might be imagined to resemble 
currants. The plant is ornamental from the standpoint of 
form and the berries remain on all winter and give color to the 
planting just when it is most needed. Both of these forms are 
made more valuable by the fact that they withstand a consid- 
erable amount of shade. 




The black haw, one of the viburnums, makes an attractive laige bush. 



Shrubs. 



149 




The always welcome "Pussy Willow." 



350 Orchard and Garden 

Viburnum. — Probably the best known of the viburnums 
is that form which is known as the "snowball." It makes 
an attractive large shrub and, with the syringa, is one of the 
best shrubs for city planting. The maple-leaved viburnum 
is good for shady situations. It has flat heads of white flow- 
ers, followed in the fall by dark bluish-black berries. The 
"black haw" is a viburnum and a splendid one too. It makes 
a large bush and is a desirable form to use where it can be 
given plenty of room. The fruit, which certainly does not 
resemble a haw in the least, is, nevertheless, edible. 

Weigela. — This was one of the first plants introduced 
from the orient and has been tested out through a period of at 
least seventy-five years. It is still a valuable shrub and, al- 
though many horticultural varieties are offered, the old rosy 
pink species is still as reliable as any of them. It blooms early 
in the summer, producing a great mass of bloom on its curved 
branches. It delights in full sunlight. 

Willoiv. — No list of shrubs and no hardy garden should 
be complete without a "pussy willow". Although this is tech- 
nically a tree and will do its best to grow into a tree, it can be 
kept a shrub by the simple process of keeping it cut back to 
the ground every few years. Such treatment seems cruel to 
an ambitious plant, but it is the pussy willow, the shrub, that 
we desire and not pussy willow, the tree. No other feature of 
the early spring is more delightful than the soft, silvery-grey 
catkins on the willow twigs. They are among the "harbingers 
of spring" that we learn to look forward to with joy and ex- 
pectation and when they appear we feel that the season of 
growth is indeed close to us and we can expect before long to 
see the flood of green sweeping back over the trees and turn- 
ing our dreary world again into a place of sunshine and of 
song. 



APPENDIX. 
Grafting Wax. 

Grafting wax is made as follows : 

Melt together four ounces of resin, two ounces of bees- 
wax and one ounce of tallow. When it is thoroughly melted 
and mixed, pour it into a pail of cold water and pull it as you 
would molasses candy. Grease your hands well with tallow 
before attempting to pull it. If it should become lumpy, melt 
it over again and let it heat somewhat hotter than it did the 
first time. After it has been pulled it should develop a smooth 
texture and a lighter color — just as molasses candy does. 

The tallow should be good beef or mutton tallow. Crisco, 
a vegetable substitute for lard sold for cooking, can be used in 
place of the tallow and makes an excellent grafting wax. It 
is usually more easily obtained than is pure tallow. 

By the addition of a small amount of linseed oil to the 
above wax while it is still melted, its normal melting point can 
be lowered. Such wax should not be pulled, but should be kept 
in a metal pot similar to a glue pot, in which it can be heated 
and applied to cut surfaces with a paint brush. 

Number of Plants Required to Set One Acre. 

1x1 foot 43,560 2x4 feet 5,445 

1x2 feet 21,780 3x3 feet 4,840 

1x3 feet 14,520 3x4 feet 3,630 

1x4 feet 10,890 3x6 feet 2,420 

2x2 feet 10,890 3x8 feet 1,815 

2x3 feet 7,260 4x4 feet 2,722 

2x2 feet 6 inches 8,712 4x6 feet 1,185 

2x3 feet 6 inches 6,223 5x5 feet 1,742 



352 



Orchard and Garden 



5x8 feet 1 

6x6 feet 1 

6x8 feet 

8x8 feet 

8x10 feet 

10x10 feet 

10x12 feet 

12x12 feet 

12x16 feet 

15x15 feet 

16x16 feet 

18x18 feet 



,089 


20x20 feet 


,210 


20x30 feet 


907 


24x24 feet 


680 


25x25 feet 


544 


30x30 feet 


485 


32x32 feet 


363 


33x33 feet 


302 


34x34 feet 


226 


36x36 feet 


193 


38x38 feet 


170 


40x40 feet 


134 





108 
72 
75 
69 
49 
42 
40 
37 
33 
30 
27 



Amount of Seed Required to Sow 100 Feet of Drill. 



Beet 

Beans (bush) 

Carrot 

Chard 

Okra 

Onion seed _. 
Onion sets __ 



1 


oz. 


1 


pt. 


I 


oz. 


1 


oz. 


2 


oz. 


1 


oz. 


1 


qt. 



Parsley 1 oz. 

Parsnip i oz. 

Peas 1 qt. 

Radish 1 oz. 

Spinach 1 oz. 

Turnip i oz. 



Packing Table for Boxed Apples. 



Diameter 

in 
Inches 

2% 

2% 

2% 

2% 

2% 

2% 

2% 

2% 

3 

3Ys 

31/s 



Style 
Pack 

5 Straii?ht 

.5 Strai.^lit 

3-2 

3-2 

3-2 

3-2 

3-2 

3-2 

2-2 

2-2 

o.o 



Packed No. 

Flat Unless Apples 
Marked Per Row 

9-9 

S-S 

8-7 



'Side 
Side 
Side 



<-( 
7-6 
6-6 
6-6 
5-5 
7-7 
7-7 
7-6 



No. of 
Layers 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

4 



Apples 
in Box 

225 

200 

1S8 

175 

163 

150 

150 

125 

112 

112 

104 



Standard 

Boxes 

Unless 

Marked 

Siiecial 



Special 



Special 

Special 
Sjiccial 



^'Pack 4 to 6 apples flat at the alttinate end of each layer. 



•> ,4 



Appendix 353 



2-2 Side 6-G 4 96 

314 2-2 G-6 4 96 

3% 2-2 0-5 4 80 

31/2 2-2 5-4 4 72 

3% 2-2 4-4 4 64 

3% 2-2 4-3 4 56 



3% 3 Stniiiiht Side 6-6 3 54 Specinl 
378 3 Straight Side 5-5 3 45 — 

Note that all apples are packed flat in standard boxes unless desig- 
nated otherwise. 

The above table is one prepared by Purdue University. 



INDEX 



Achilea 306 

Acroclinium 293 

Ageratum , 293 

Alyssum 293 

Amelanchier 330 

American Grapes 16 

Ampelopsis 324 

Anemone 307 

Annual flowers 291 

Anthracnose 96 

Antirrhinium 293 

Aphis 73, 227 

lion 78 

peach 96 

Apple — 

aphis, green 73 

aphis, rosy 74 

barrels 141 

boxes 138 

harvesting 132 

])ackages 138 

priming 49 

scab . 82 

storage 239 

varieties 10 

April 263 

Aqulegia 307 

Arsenate or lead 104 

Asclepias 308 

Asparagus 171, 251 

Associations of fi'uit growers. 150 

Asters 294, 308 

August 271 

Bacteria 81 

Balloon vine 303 

Balsam 294 



Barberry 330 

Bark beetle ; 66 

Barrels 141, 143 

Beans 181, 252 

Beets 173, 252 

storage 239 

Beneflcial insects 77 

Bitter rot 83 

Bittersweet 324 

Blackberry 14, 127 

Black knot 94 

Black peach aphis 75 

Black rot 84 

of grapes 94 

Blight 86 

Blister beetles 78 

Blotch . 85 

Blue flee beetle 67 

Bordeaux mixture 105 

Borer — 

peach 62 

apple . 63 

stalk 223 

Box apples 140 

packing table for 352 

Brown rot 91 

Buds I 20 

Budding 19 

Bud moth 65 

Bud sticks 20 

Cabbage 182, 252 

Chinese 184 

worm 2'j'o 

Calendar for orchard and gar- 
den 257 

Calendula 294 



356 



Orchard and Garden 



Callyopsis 295 

Calycanthiis 332 

Campanula 309 

Candytuft 295 

Canker worm 65 

Canning crops 195, 197 

Carrots 252 

Castor bean 301 

Caterpillar — 

tent 65 

yellow necked 65 

Cauliflower 186 

Celastrus 324 

Celery 205 

blanching 206 

storage 239 

transplanting 206 

Cellar storage 233 

Celosia 295 

Centaurea 295 

Cercis 332 

Chard 173 

Cherry 12 

picking 135 

pruning 54 

Chewing insects 57 

Chrysanthemum 309 

Clematus 324 

Clover 287 

Coal oil emulsion 103 

Cobaea 303 

Cockscomb 295 

Codling moth 57 

Cold frame 214 

Collards 186 

Colorado potato beetle 226 

Columbine 307 

Commission men 149 

Concrete cellars 234 

Coreopsis 310 

Corn 186, 201, 252 

ear worm 220 

Corn salad 174 



Corn flower 295 

Cornus 333 

Corylus 335 

Cosmos 295 

Cover crops 33 

Crataegus 336 

Cross fertilization 15 

Crown gall 90 

Cucumber 187, 253 

beetle 225 

Cultivation 30 

Curculio 61 

Currant 14 

borer 128 

soil 128 

worm 63 

Cuttings 22 

Cydonia 337 

Daffodils . 323 

Darwin tulips 323. 

December 279 

Delphiniums 310 

Dehorning peaches 52 

Diseases of plants 81 

Distance for planting 8 

Division of roots 22 

Dodecatheon 316 

Dogwood 333 

Dolichos 303 

Double crops 162 

Drainage 25 

Dusting 109 

Dust mulch 32 

Dutch bulbs 323 

Echinocystis 303 

Egg plant 188 

Escholtzia 296 

Euphorbia 296 

February 259 

Fence for garden 162 

Fertilization of bloom 15, 166 



Index 



357 



Fertilizers 29 

garden 158 

Filler trees 4 

Flea beetle 67, 225 

Flower structure 165 

Flowers 281 

annual 291 

Fly speck fungus 86 

Forcing 208 

Formalin 203 

Forsythia 338 

Four-o-clock 296 

Frost 2 

Fruit storage 229 

Fruit tree bark beetle 66 

Fungi 82 

Fungicides 105 

Gardens 155 

arrangement 157 

double crops in 162 

fence 162 

fertilizers 158 

flower 281 

insects 219 

location 157 

seeds 165, 167 

soil 157 

vacant lot 156, 241, 

Garden huckleberry 129 

Globe amaranth 297 

Golden glow 318 

Gooseberry 14, 128 

Grafting 17 

wax 48, 351 

Grape 12 

black rot 94 

berry moth 63 

leaf hopper 76 

packing 145 

phyloxera 76 

pruning 54 

scale 68 



Grass 287 

Greenhouse management 207 

Grub worm 67 

Hairy root 90 

Hamamelis 338 

Harlequin bug 227 

Harvesting 131 

Haw 336 

Hazel 335 

Heeling in 37 

Helianthus 297 

Helichrysum 297 

Hepatica 311 

Himalaya berry 129 

Hollyhocks 311 

Home hampers 197 

Horticultural values 16 

Hot beds 212 

House plants 214 

Huckleberry, garden 129 

Humulus 303 

Hyacinth bean 303 

Hydrangea 340 

Hydrometer 101 

Illinois canker 90 

Imported cabbage worm 220 

Insects 57 

beneficial 77 

garden 219 

Insecticides 100 

Ipomoea 303 

Iris 313 

January 257 

Japanese hop 303 

Japan quince 337 

July 269 

June 267 

June berry 330 

Kaiser bug 228 

Kale 188, 253 



358 



Orchard and Garden 



Knifin system 54 

Kochia 297 

Lady birds 77 

Larkspur 298, 310 

Lathrus 326 

Lawns 286 

Layering 22 

Leaf curl 92 

spot 94 

Lesser apple worm 61 

Lettuce 174, 253 

varieties 176 

Lilac 340 

Lime sulphur 100 

self-boiled 107 

commercial 108 

Linum 314 

Lobelia 314 

Location for orchard 1 

March 261 

Marigold 298 

Marketing 147 

apples 151 

by post 151 

cost 148 

methods 147 

perishable fruits 151 

Manure 29, 158 

May 265 

Middlemen 149 

Mignonette 299 

Miscible oil 103 

Monarda 314 

Morning glory 303 

Mushrooms 215 

Muskmelon 189 

Narcissus 313 

Nasturtium 304 

New Zealand spinach 190 

Nicotine 102 



Ninebark 341 

Nitrogen 29 

November 277 

Number of plants to acre 351 

Nozzles 111 

October 275 

Oil sprays 103 

Okra 190 

Onions 176, 253 

storage 239 

Orchard — 

location 1, 3 

roads 1 

slope 3 

soil 2, 26 

Oyster shell scale 70 

Painting wounds 47 

Pansy 299 

Parasites 79 

Paris green 105 

Parsley 177 

Parsnip 177, 253 

storage 239 

Peach 10 

aphis 75 

borer 62 

fillers 6 

harvestins 134 

package^ 1__ 145 

pruning 51 

scab 91 

yellows 92 

Pears 10 

harvesting 134 

pruning 54 

slug 65 

storage 239 

Peas 177, 253 

for canning 200 

sugar 178 

Pedigreed trees 23 



Index 



359 



Penstemon 314 

Peonies 315 

Peppers 192 

Perennials 305 

Petunia 300 

Philadelphus 341 

Phlox 300, 316 

Phosphorus 30 

Plylloxera 76 

Physccarpus 341 

Physostegia 318 

Planting 42 

plans 4 

small fruit 43 

distance S 

Plant diseases 81 

Plant lice 73 

Plums 12, 54 

curculio 61 

harvesting 135 

Poisons 57 

Pollen 16 

Poppies 301 

California 296 

Portulaca 301 

Potash 29 

Potatoes 192, 254 

beetle 226 

cultivation 204 

early 205 

for market 201 

formalin treatment 203 

harvesting 135 

planting 204 

scab . 201 

seed 201 

storage 240 

sweet 192 

Pruning 45 

apple 49 

cherry 54 

grapes 54 

peach 51 



Pruning — 

pear 54 

plum 54 

time to prune 46 

Radish 178, 254 

Rag doll seed tester 169 

Raspberries 14, 124 

pruning 127 

Red bud 332 

Rhododendron 342 

Rhodanthe 301 

Ricinus 301 

Roads 1 

Root grafts 17 

Root division 22 

Roots 42 

Rose 343 

Rudbeckia 318 

Rye 30, 35 

Salvia 301 

San Jose scale 67 

Scab 82 

potato 201 

Scabiosa 302 

Scale control 70 

Scarlet sage 301 

Scions 17, 165 

Scurfy scale 70 

Seed 165 

advantage of large 167 

amount needed for 100 ft. of 

row 352 

buying 168 

saving 168 

testing 169 

Seedlings 15 

Selecting trees 37 

September 273 

Shot hole fungus 94 

Shrubs 327 

Slope 3 



360 



Orchard and Garden 



Slug, pear 65 

Small fruit 119 

packing 145 

soil 119 

time to plant 120 

Soil 2, 25, 157, 196, 211 

Soil preparation 37, 119 

Sooty blotch 86 

Spiraea 347 

Spraying 99 

Spray materials 100 

machinery 109 

Squash 192, 254 

bug 226 

Staking 39 

Stalk borer 223 

Stocks ^ 302 

Storage 229 

Strawberries 13 

everbearing 124 

leaf spot 96 

mulch 123 

planting 43 

varieties 122 

Strawflower 297 

Sucking insects 57, 67 

Sunflower 297 

Sun scald 88 

Sweet corn 186, 201 

Sweet peas 304 

Sweet potato 192 

Sweet shrub 332 

Symphoricarpus 348 

Syringa 341 

Temperature 2 

Tent caterpillars 65 

Testing seed 169 

Tobacco 102 

Tomato 198, 254 



Tomato — 

growing plants 198 

cultivating 200 

transplanting 199 

varieties 200 

worm 223 

Top grafting 18 

Tradescantia 318 

Tree selection 37 

Trillium 319 

Tulip 323 

Varieties 10 

development of 167 

horticultural 16 

Vegetable storage 229 

Verbena 302 

venosa 320 

Vetch 35 

Viburnum 350 

Vines 303 

Watermelon 190 

Water supply 3 

Weeds 32, 288 

Weigela 350 

Whip grafts 17 

White grubs 67, 224 

Willow 350 

Wisteria 326 

Witch hazel 338 

Women pickers 137 

Woolly aphis 75 

Xeranthemum : — 302 

Yellow necked caterpillar 65 

Yellows, peach 92 

Yucca 320 

Zinnia 302 



3^77