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Full text of "Orderly-book of the Pennsylvania state regiment of foot May 10 to August 16, 1777"

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MAY 10 TO AUGUST 16, 1777 




APHir,. JCriyY, OCTOBER, JATftTARY, 1898 











or THE 


MAY 3 TO AUGUST 16, 1777. 

[The Pennsylvania State Eegiment of Foot was formed largely from 
the remains of the Eifle Battalion of Colonel Samuel Miles and the 
Musketry Battalion of Colonel Samuel J. Atlee, and on May 2, 1777, 
John Bull was commissioned its colonel. His appointment was, how- 
ever, unsatisfactory to the officers, who threatened to resign unless he was 
removed; accordingly on June 17 he was appointed Adjutant- General 
of the State, and Colonel Walter Stewart given the command of the regi- 
ment. The details of this movement are given in the " Diary of Lieu- 
tenant James McMichael," Penna. Mag., Vol. XVI. pp. 129 et seq. In 
July the regiment was designated the Thirteenth Pennsylvania Line, and 
in November, by resolution of Congress, was placed on the Continental 
Establishment. When Colonel Stewart took command of the regiment 
it mustered eleven companies, fifty-two field- and staflf-officers, seventy- 
nine non-commissioned oflicers, and four hundred and seventy-seven 
privates fit for duty. The Orderly-Book is in a fairly good condition, and 
many of the entries are in the handwriting of Hugh McGough, who was 
a sergeant in the company of Captain John Clark. On the inside of the 
cover is the following : " May 15, 1777. Crossed ye Eiver to Liberty 
Island from Eed Bank. Four of the enemies ships came into the Eiver 
and our Gallies bore down to meet them. On that night the enemy 
landed at New Castle and carried a number of live stock on board their 
ships, after cutting down ye Liberty Pole and taking away ye Alarm gun. 
The day following they stood for the Capes." On the same date Lieu- 
tenant McMichael in his diary records, " At noon the alarm guns down 
the river were fired and flags all hoisted. We were paraded and awaited 


4 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

the attack, which proved a false alarm." The fly-leaf has also the fol- 
lowing entries relating to two privates of Captain John Clark's company : 

" William JefFeries, 5 ft. 6 in. high ; pale complexion, long black hair, 
med. large grey eyes, a well made Irishman, received his furlough Aug. 
21 for 30 Days." 

"William Elliot, from Londonderry, Lancaster county Pa., short 
dark curly hair, fair complexion, about 5 feet 7 or 8 in. high, has fur- 
lough from Dec. 16 1777 to March 1 1778." 

"December 30, 1777, Lieut. Joseph Finley [of second company] 
being promoted to Captain, is to take the command of the company 
formerly Captain Patrick Anderson's." Captain Anderson had been 
elected a member of the Assembly.] 

Head Quarters Eed Bank May 3** 1777. 

The officers are to talkie care of tlie men & see that they 
lieep themselves clean to Prevent their being sicli. 

It is with the greatest Reluctancy that I perceive that great 
numbers of the men and officers are disabled & unfit for 
Duty with that vile and uncleanly disorder called the . . . 
as it is a Disorder that they bring upon themselves for if 
they would not . . . any they would not take it. I therefore 
am Determined to lay the fine of £3. upon the Captains as 
I Perceive they are very subject to that Disorder ; as for the 
subalterns I Perceive they are not subject to that Disorder, 
I therefore order a gill of Eum to be given to them on the 
1st Day of May 1780 gratis. 

The men are to receive 50 lashes. 

Jno Bull, 

Col. ComP. 

Head Quarters Red Bank May y^ lO"' 1777. 

Quartermaster to collect all Liquors belonging to any of 
ye Soldiers and their Wives exceeding 1 Quart each at Red 
Bank & order it on Board ye first Shalop or flat & suffer 
Women whose property it is to go on board with it to Phila- 
delphia ; y* Regt to leave if fit this evening and y* officers 
to see that all the men have themselves and arms clean by 
tomorrow morning and be on the parade at 8 of clock [torn] 
Every Sunday as usual and not appear upon the parade at 
any time without being Shaved and their hair Combed. 

The Capt. or Comauding officer of companys to give in 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 5 

a return of Arms and Acutreraents and other JSTecessaries to 
compleat their Companjs. 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer May 24"" 1777, 
The Reg' to be paraded at 6 o'Clock in ye morning & 5 in 
y* afternoon with arras & acutreraents to exercise y* Sero-*' 
to take in Rotation, to be orderly & keep an exact Roster of 
ye Companys, ye officers to attend ye parade as many as are 
present and when the men go to work at least one officer of 
each Company to attend to see y' y* men as many as are able, 
to turn out. Ye Captain of ye Day is to Inspect ye tents 
and order ye men to mend those that are tore and if any 
should be Tore in Future by Neglect to Report ye perpe- 
trators. Regular Division of Tents to be made according to 
ye number of men in each Company — one tent for six men 
or 5 men and one woman, ye Serg*» to be punctual in De- 
livery of their Reports precisely at 6 o'Clock in ye morning. 
Any ISTeglect to be taken in Notice. 

Fort Meroer May the 26"" 1777. 

The Quartermaster is to order the Camp Colormen to 
Dig two Necessaries, one at each wing of the Camp and 
when full to cover them well over— the Camp to be kept 
Clean. Any man found to . . . about the Camp shall be 
put in the Guard house— Orders issued before to be strictly 
observed both by Officers & Soldiers— the Serg'' to shew the 
orders as soon as they get them from the Adjutant to their 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer May 28"^ 1777. 

It is with the utmost Concern ye Colonel observes so 
great a backwardness of duty, therefore hopes y« Officers 
will exert themselves in future to see y' the men do their 
duty punctually— all Neglect will be taken Notice of with- 
out distinction. Ye Quartermaster to Issue Rum for none 
but for those on duty, the Women to draw none. Ye officers 
are to be particular in their provision Returns and to men- 
tion at the Bottom of them the Quantity of Rum due to 
their men. 

6 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Head-Quarters Fort Mercer May y^ 30"^ 1777. 
All the Rifles private property belonging to Soldiers of y® 
Pennsylvania State Reg* who chuse to dispose of them are 
to Deliver with their ISTames written on paper pasted on the 
huts in order they may be appraised. 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer June y® 6"" 1777. 
Standing Order. 

Every Soldier before ye hour to Parade shall be properly 
Equipped and Dressed, arms and Linnen clean, Shaved and 
hair Dressed so as to appear on Field Days & when on 
Guard decent and Soldiery like. Ye Quartermaster to 
divide ye Cloaths between ye Comp'''' according to their 
several Necessities taking Rec*^ for y* same — the Capt''' who 
are to keep Acct how y'' are Disposed of Ye Guard not to 
be Relieved on Field Days until on 6 o'Clock when the 
Adjutant will order y^ old Guard to Dress and prepare 
immediately to fall in Battalion by three o'Clock in y* after- 
noon in order they may not be Deprived of y* Benefit of 
their Duty. 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer June y^ 8'" 1777. 

Altho' frequent orders have been given against selling 
any Spirituous Liquors, yet some has been Brought into 
Camp. Ye Colo" is Determined that any person found 
guilty of Bringing & Selling such Liquors he shall be put 
in the Guard house and severely punished for Disobedience 
of Orders and never in ye Future allowed to sell, and the 
Liquor so brought shall be taken from them. The Men 
must be careful not to hurt the Fruit trees in the Camp, nor 
to burn any of the Rails or destroy them. 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer, June 13th 1777. 
Captain of the Day, tomorrow, — Capt. Clark. Ofiicers 
to command the Working Parties, Lieut. Van Pelt, Ensign 
Boyle, Ensign Gregg.^ 

^ Captain John Clark, of the seventh company ; Second Lieutenant 
James Van Pelt, of the sixth company ; Ensign Peter Boyle, of the 
third company ; and Ensign Robert Gregg, of the fourth company. 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 7 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer, June 14* 1777. 
Officer for the Day tomorrow, Capt. Gray; officers to 
attend the Working Parties, Ensign Dugan, Ensign Van- 
winkle, Ensign Colier.' 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer, June ye 14'" 1777. 
The Troops to be ready tomorrow morning by 10 o'clock 
with arras, ammunition, and accoutrements in good order to 
march to Gloucester as soon as possible and as 3'e Quarter- 
master is absent, one Commissioned officer of each Regt to 
use his best Endeavours to provide a wagon for their respec- 
tive Com. Baggage and one for ye Field Officers. 

Head Quarters Fort Mercer, June IS"' 1777. 

The Command to be left at Fort Mercer to consist of one 

Capt., one Lieut., one Ensign, three Serg', a Drum and Fife 

& fifty Privates, viz. Capt. Carnahan, Lieut. Gregg, Ensign 

Bickham, a Serg't from Capt. Gray, Robb and Carnahan, 

the Drum Major, and small Drum & fife, five Privates from 

each Company.^ 

Head Quarters Philadelphia June 15"" 1777. 

A Detachment consisting of one Capt. two Subalterns, 
four Sergeants, four Corporals & fifty Men must be Paraded 
by seven o'clock at the Barracks to escort Powder to the 
Camp — they must be all properly Equipt with every Requi- 
site as they do not return again until the Regm joins them. 
The Regt to be Paraded at the same time or rather sooner, 
when they must all receive their Clothing from the Quarter 
Master to prepare them for Marching to Head Quarters 
when ordered. The officers ordered to go are Capt. Ander- 
son, Lieut. Crane, and Ensign FuUerton.^ 

^ Captain Robert Gray, of the eighth company ; Ensign James Dun- 
gan, of the tenth company ; Ensign John Van Winkle, of the second 
company ; Ensign Joseph Collier, of the seventh company. 

^Captain James Carnahan, of the tenth company; Second Lieu- 
tenant John Gregg, of the fifth company; Ensign James Bickham, of 
the sixth company ; Captain John Robb, of the ninth company ; Drum- 
Major Isaac Holloway. 

^ Captain Patrick Anderson, Second Lieutenant Ambrose Grain, and 
Ensign Patrick Fullerton, all of the first company. 

8 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Head Quarters Philadelphia June the 18 1777. 
A Corporal and six Men to parade immediately and March 
to General Mifflin's Quarters, in order to escort his Baggage 
to Camp. 

Leavis Nicola, 

Town Major. 
To Col. Steavart 

or Officer Commanding his Regt. 

Head Quarters Philadelphia June the 18*" 1777. 

Allow me to Assure you Gentlemen that it was with the 
greatest Pleasure I accepted of the command of a Reg* 
whose officers stood so High in the Esteem of the publick 
both in respect of their abilities and their Ability & Activity. 
It is with no less pleasure I observe the Ardent Desire each 
Officer sustains to have his Men comfortably and completely 
equipt before the march to Camp, and its I think a Duty 
encumbant upon me to use every endeavour in my Power 
to procure thern what Necessaries they may want. I must 
desire the Quarter Master will immediately Clothe the Reg* 
as far as the things now in his possession will go, and deliver 
me a Return of what remains still wanting. 

The Captains will immediately be pleased to make Re- 
turns to the Adju* of their Companies, not the Names of 
those Men not yet Exchanged as I am informed there are a 
number of Deserters from the Reg* and many Recruits 
would be willing to join the Reg*. Every Officer ought to 
pick them up. The following Gentlemen will hold them- 
selves in immediate readiness to go on that Service. 

The Pay Master^ having received the Money for the pur- 
pose, will as Expeditiously as possible settle with the Men 
to the first of June or as late as the Money will allow of. 

Walter Stewart 

Colonel P. S. R. 

Head Quarters Philadelphia June 18, 1777. 
Two Guards each consisting of 1 Subalteran, 1 Serg*, 1 
Corporal, 1 Drum & 20 Men, must be ready in the State 

' Captain Jacob Laverswyler. 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 9 

House yard at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning to escort some 
Wagons to Camp. The Officer will receive his Instructions 
from Capt. Watkins. 

Lewis ISTicola, 
To Col. Walter Steavart, T. 31. 

or Senior Officer iciih his Begt. 

Head Quarters Philadelphia June y* 19'" 1777, 
Ensign Bemper/ & Ensign Fullerton will proceed on y« 
above command & when ye have executed this order from 
Capt. Watkins they immediately proceed with their parties 
to Correll's Ferry there to join ye rest. Ye 'R^gt. will be 
paraded tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock when they are to 
be properly equipt, to proceed to Camp. It is absolutely 
necessary yt each Capt. immediately delivers Returns men- 
tioned in yesterdays Orders, and Col. Stewart flatters him- 
self as the time fixed for leaving the City is so near at hand, 
that all will exert themselves in getting the men in proper 

Eegimental Orders June the 20th 1777, 
The Captains are desired in the most possitive manner to 
get the Pay Rolls for the Back Pay due the Men imme- 
diately finished as I shall be under the Necessity of deliv- 
ering to the Board of War a return of those Companies 
which have not been settled with this afternoon. If the Pay 
Master has not Money sufficient for this purpose the Board 
of War will supply him with more. Those Men who have 
not received all their Clothing must have it this afternoon. 
The Roll to be called at six this afternoon and six tomorrow 

Walter Stewart, 

Colonel P. S. B. 

Bound Brook June the 26th 1777. 
The Regt. to be drawn up on the hill near the three gun 
battery to the northward of the Meeting-house, at seven 
o'clock this evening, when a guard will be fixed at said 

^ Ensign Abraham Boemper, of the ninth company. 

10 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

place consisting of one Capt, two Subalt's, four Serg'% 

and fifty rank and file. One Serg* and twelve men on the 

Quibbletown road, one Sergt and twelve men on the road 

to Corell's Ferry, one Lieut, and two Sergts. on this side 

the Bridge. At Tattoo the loose boards on the Bridge are 

to be brought to this side, and in case of an alarm in the 

night, the men are to parade on the same ground the Roll 

was called near the three gun battery. The wagons to be 

paraded on the hill at Roll call, where the wagons will have 


Regimental Orders June the 27'" 1777. 

The Regt. to be paraded tomorrow morning at four 
o'clock, when they are to manouver to seven ; the Roll to 
be called at six, and manouver to eight o'clock. The 
Capt's of the difi'erent companies to see that their men 
come clean on the parade, and order that they have their 
dirty linen washed. 

The Quarter Master will see that the Men, according to a 
Standing General Order always have three days provisions 
before hand; after having it, have it cooked as soon as 

As I find there is a great number of Men in Camp [torn] 
their Corps which belong to this Regt., the Ofiicers will be 
very industrious to find them out, and give a return of their 
names and companies to me. 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Regimental Orders July y^ 1 1777. 

The different Capts will make a return to the Adjutant 
of the Sergt's already appointed in the different companies, 
& what vacancies there now are, & he will take care for the 
future not to attempt Breaking or Nominating a Sergt. 
without my permission, as it is impossible for the Adjt to 
know the Sergts. of the Regt. when they are so frequently 

A General Return of the Regt. to be made to the Adjt 
by tomorrow morning at 8 o'clock. It is desired that each 
Capt, will be particularly careful in making their Returns 
out exact. 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 11 

An Officer for the week to be appointed in each Company 
to superintend the Cooking of the victuals, to whom I shall 
look, if there is any irregularity, & he may depend upon 
being punished if found Negligent. 

An Officer of the week likewise to attend the Sursreon in 
visiting the sick. 

The Capts must appoint good, sober, diligent men imme- 
diately as Corporals. The Quarter Master to make a return 
of the Tents, Camp Kettles, Wagons & all the Camp Equi- 
page now with the Regt, by 8 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Middle Beook July 1st. 1777. 
General Orders. 

A General Court Martial to sit tomorrow at 9 o'clock at 
ye usual place for ye Trial of such prisoners as may be 
brought before them. Col. Walter Stewart is appointed to 
preside & all witnesses to attend. The late Court Martial 
whereof Col. Stephan w^as president is dissolved. A pay 
roll for ye month of May to be made immediately and de- 
livered to ye Pay Master General for examination. The 
several Troops and detachments of Col. Bland's Light 
Horse are to assemble forthwith at ye Colonel's Quarters ; 
ye Quarter Master General of Forage will assign a place 
w^here they may get Forage to recruit their horses. 

A Return of the Sick in Camp of ye different Regts. to be 
made to ye Surgeon General of the Army every Tuesday 
and Friday at 9 o'clock in ye morning specifying ye mens 
names, their diseases and ye Company they belong to; 
these returns to be signed by the Surgeon of the Regt. 

Jno. Mifflin, Henry Emanuel and Luther Leh Esq" are 
appointed D. Q. M. Gen^^ for this Army and are to be 
respected and obeyed as such. Clement Biddle Esq' is 
appointed Commissary of Forage for this Army. 

ISTotwithstanding ye Order of the 3rd of June, the Gen- 
eral is informed that many Officers are turning their horses 
into fields of grain and grass, and giving assurances to the 
proprietors of them, that the damages done shall be paid 

12 Orderly -Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

for by ye Q. M. Gen^ [torn] ye Orders already given, and 
considers ye [torn] y* distress under which the inhabitants 
of New Jersey still are and still groan, the General is aston- 
ished to find that neither duty, honor, nor humanity can 
restrain Officers from so cruel and unlawful practice, he 
once more, therefore, in ye most pointed and possitive terms 
forbids it and orders that no horse be turned into any field 
whatsoever without License for it signed from the Qr. Mr. 
Genl. or some person acting by his authority. After this 
second notice, any Officers ofiending, upon complaint being 
made, may rest assured that they shall not only be answer- 
able for the Damage done, but brought before a Court 
Martial and tried for disobedience of orders. 

Detail for the Court Martial ordered yesterday : 1 Field 
Officer, 2 Capts. ; for the Court Martial whereof Colonel 
Stewart is President; 1 Capt. 2 Subaltn's. 

General Orders. 

The whole Army is to get ready to march tomorrow 
morning at 6 o'clock ; ^ ye Tents & Baggage all put up prop- 
erly into ye wagons. If it should rain ye Tents not to be 
struck. The two Regts. ordered to be detatched from Lord 
Stirling's Division, towards the Sound is not included but 
are to wait till further orders. The Honb'l Congress having 
been pleased to order and direct a Deputy Qr. Mr. Gen^ 
should be appointed to each Division of the Army, and an 
Assistant to each Brigade, left the said appointments to ye 
Qr. Mr. Genl. with the approbation of the Comm. in Chief 
he requests ye Major Generals and Brigadiers of each 
Division to recommend a proper person to discharge ye 
duty of Deputy Qr. Mr. Gen^ in their respective Divisions 
and ye Brigadier and commanding officers of each Brigade 
to recommend an Assistant in their Brigade. In doing 
this proper care and circumspection it is hoped will be used, 
as the comfort and good order of each Division and Brigade 


^ The army marched from Middle Brook to Morristown July 3, where 
head-quarters were established. 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 13 

will in a great measure depend upon ye knowledge and 
activity and care of ye persons they make choice of. 

Head Quarters, Morristowk July 4"" 1777. 
As it is impossible to tell now with certainty how soon or 
how suddenly ye army maybe called upon to march, as it is 
an event dependant entirely upon ye enemies movements, 
ye General orders that no Officer or soldier shall be absent 
from Camp ; that every thing be had in perfect readiness 
except striking of Tents. As no opportunity can be more 
favorable than ye present to get rid of all heavy baggage, 
the General once more strongly urges the Officers to store 
what they can possibly spare at Morristown. If after this 
second notice they fill the Lumber "Wagons with old Tables, 
Chests and Chairs &c., they are not to be surprised if they 
are left in the Field. This must be the inevitable conse- 
quence of a scarcit}' of teams. No fences are to be destroyed, 
nor horses to be turned into fields of grain or grass before 
they are appropriated by the Qr. Mr. Genl., who will direct 
where wood is to be had, that some of the wagons of each 
Brigade may be employed in hauling it to their Encamp- 
ment. After orders will issue at 4 o'clock this afternoon 
for the better regulation of ye Troop's Wagons and C 
upon a march, at which time all the Brigade Majors will 
attend the Adjt. Genl. Observed yesterday that Wagons 
were very irregularly loaded ; the Wagon Masters have 
now an opportunity of attending to that matter; for the 
future they are to see that the loads are properly distributed. 

Head Quarters, Morristown, July 5"^ 1777. 
General Orders. 
When the order is given to march, and the men are 
paraded for that purpose the Rolls are to be called and the 
commanding Officers of each Corps is to see that his men 
are all present or know with certainty where they are. 
When they are told off" in Subdivisions or platoons and 
Officers assigned to each such officers are to abide constantly 

14 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

with them and upon a March to see that No man is suffered 
to Quit his Ranks upon any occasion, without a Kon Com- 
missioned officer, who is to bring him to his place again. 
Whenever a halt is made and ye Ranks are suffered to be 
Broke, in order for the men to Rest and Refresh themselves, 
ye officers Comm'g Divisions as above, is so soon as they are 
ordered to Arms again to see that they have every man in 
his Division in his place. If either of ye Maj. Genls. in 
their respective [torn] should see any apparent cause for a 
halt before the time & place Designed to send a A. D. C. to 
ye Comm'g officer with his Reasons for it, who, if he Judges 
it expedient will order it accordingly. When a march is 
begun after a halt ye Drummers are to be ye first Division of 
ye foot, march to be taken from Front to Rear & upon ye 
last flank of ye first Division being struck the whole are to 

If any man falls Sick or Lame and is thereby unable to 
walk, ye officer Comm'g ye Sub Division or platoon in 
which he is, immediately to send Notice thereof to his Br. 
G. or officer Comm'g ye Brigade to provide a Berth for him 
in some Wagon under his care. As it is Impossible that 
good Government & Order can be preserved until every 
officer will take his share of Duty and be attentive to ye 
Discharge of it, the Commander in Chief directs upon a 
March — that Maj. Genls. do not quit their Divisions; Br. G. 
their Brigades; Co? their Regts. nor other officers their 
respective Divisions unless it be in case of an Absolute 
Necessity, by order or with leave, each watching with a care- 
ful eye ye Conduct of all those under his Command. It is 
unreasonable to expect Regularity & Good Order in ye 
Common Soldiers if ye example is not set by ye Officers. 
Nor can ye officers with propriety punish a Soldier for a 
Disregard of orders which he Dispenses with himself. It 
would be a happy Prize and a most Laudible ambition to 
see ye Company officers of each Com^ veying with each other 
in Discipline and good behaviour. 

As much irregularity in many instances was observed in 
ye march yesterday, particularly with respect to ye Guards, 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 15 

Women and Wagons, the General further orders that the 
following Regulations be observed — 

Mrst, that when ye Baggage will accompany ye army & 
form of ye time of march, No Regt. do allow more than 2 
men as a Guard to each Wagon ; that these men must be 
under the care of a Subalt" or Non Commissioned officer as 
ye Corp'' or Comp^ officer of ye Regt may chuse as ye case 
may require. That each Brigade to furnish a Capt" to 
superintend those and when the Baggage of ye whole move 
together each Division as aforesaid officers. 

Second, that the 2 men assigned to each wagon shall 
march on ye side, but as far back as ye Fall of each Wagon, 
that if anything falls out, to be discovered and put it up 
ao-ain. The Subalterans or ISTon Commissioned officers is to 
be about the Centre of his Reg" wagons, ye Capt°' about 
the same place of those of the Brigade and ye field officer 
in that of ye Division. 

Third, that no woman shall be permitted to ride in any 
wagon, without leave in writing from their Brigadier to 
whose Brigade they belong, and ye Brigadiers are requested 
to be cautious in giving Leave to those who are able to walk. 
Any woman found in a Wagon contrary to this Regulation 
is to turn back, and be immediately turned out by ye Qr. 
Mr. Gen^ or W. M. G., or any of their Assistants in ye Divi- 
sion or Brigade to which the wagons appertain ; as also by 
any one of the officers who command ye Baggage Guard. If 
any interruption is given to the Executioner of this Order ye 
Names & Reg' of the prisoner is to be reported to ye General. 
Fourth, None but spare arms & such as belong to Sick & 
Lame men shall be suffered to go in wagons, as they are 
almost certain of Receiving some injury ; or if any Drum- 
mer or Soldier presumes to put his Drum or arms into a 
waaron, unless under similar circumstances that Soldier or 
Drummer so offending shall be immediately flogged by ye 
officer of ye company of ye Baggage Guard of such Wagons. 
Fifth. To prevent ye enormous abuse and loss of Kettles 
by slinging them to the wagons, from which numbers fall, 
ye General orders that each Mess in turn carries their own 

16 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Kettles, as is usual in all Armies, and can be little burden- 
some. In this the Wagon Master Gen' is to be furnished 
with a Copy of ye Orders of the March, or at least so much 
of it as pertains to his Department by the Qr. Mr. Gen\ 
and in common would do well not to quit the Encampment 
from where the Army is moving till he sees the Wagons in 
motion and W. M. assigned to the different Brigades of 
Wagons. On the march the D. W. Mrs. are, when they 
have got their wagons on ye move, to see that the heads of 
each wagon are close to the tail of another & that no stops 
are made that can be possibly avoided, even to water horses, 
unless at a general halt. They are not to stir from their 
Brigade ; they are also to prevent Women from getting into 
wagons, unless by license, as before mentioned ; nor are to 
suffer idle and lazy men to do so, or others without orders 
from ye officers Commd^ ye Brigade to which they are 
annexed, as before mentioned. 

In all marches they are to restrain ye Wagoners from de- 
stroying fences, grain or grass, unless that appropriated by ye 
Quarter M. Gen' or his Deputy under whom they act, that 
restitution may be made to the owners. No officer or sol- 
dier on any pretence whatever, to impress either horse or 
wagon, but by ye order of ye Qr. Master Gen' or one of his 
Deputys, or his Brigadier, unless he happens to be on a 
separate Command, where such application cannot be made 
and ye Service must suffer without. In this case a Cer- 
tificate must be given specifying ye Service &c. Any im- 
pressment contrary to this mode will bring Officers into 
a disagreeable situation, and severe punishment to the 

That these Orders may be well known & duly attended to 
the General directs that every officer & other persons con- 
cerned provide themselves with copys of them as the plea 
of ignorance will be altogether inadmissable. 

Head Quarters July 6 1777, 
Major General, — Stirling. Brigadier, — Woodford. 
Field Officers, Colonel Stephens and Major Davis. 

Orderly-Book of the Pennf<ylvan'ia State Regiment of Foot. 17 

A Court of Inquiry to sit tomorrow morning at a certain 
place near the Park of Artillery to inquire into the conduct 
of the Artillery Officers whose Field pieces were lost in 
the action of the 26th of June last. The Court is to con- 
sist of five members, Colonel Brodhead, president — the 
Court is appointed at the request of the officers. 

The Commander in Chief has observed with concern, 
notwithstanding the Order of June 1st last, requiring all 
Officers of Corps not sick or on other duty, to attend the 
Parade daily at the time of exercise to learn and perform 
their Duty — yet there is very great neglect — he wishes it to 
be impressed on the minds of every Officer that nothing 
may be more hurtful to the Service than the neglect of 
Discipline, for that Discipline more than numbers gives 
one Army the superiority of another, he therefore requires 
in the most possitive manner all Officers to attend Parades 
and Exercises agreeable to the orders, and the Command- 
ing Officers of Corps put under arrest who fails of an ex- 
act observance of them. Whenever Corps and Brigades 
assemble for Exercise every Officer is to take and keep his 
proper post; such as have command directing those men 
only who are under their immediate care and that in such 
a manner as not to interfere with the orders of the Exer- 
cising Officer. Those men who appear to be least ac- 
quainted with exercise, are daily when off duty to be sent 
to the Drill and particular care taken to instruct them and 
effectually promote Military Discipline in the Army. The 
Officers must set the example to the close attention to that 
point, assemblying frequently each Corps by themselves 
and learning with diligence the Manual Exercise and the 
most useful manoeuvres, together with the Guest Salute, 
already directed in General Orders. Such a practice can- 
not fail of producing the best effects and nothing can 
do the Officers more honour; they will know their own 
duty and what they have a right to expect from all 
who are under their command; and the men excited by 
their example will eagerly embrace every opportunity to 

18 Orderly -Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

G. 0. Head Quarters July 7, 1777, 

Major General tomorrow, Lincoln ; Brigadier, Maxwell. 

Field Officers, Colonel Martin Hall, Brig. Major, Wither- 

The General expects the strictest attention will be paid 
to the order of the 20th of last month, for sizeing the men 
and placing the shortest in the front. Unless this is done 
the whole fire of the rear rank will most assuredly be lost, 
especially if the files should happen, as is too often the case, 
to be crowded together. 

The Commander in Chief approves the following sentences 
of a General Court Martial, held on 6th inst. of which Colo- 
nel Walter Stewart was president — Jn" Halfpenny of 10th 
Virginia Regt., charged with getting drunk, raising a riot, 
and abusing his Officers. Two evidences appearing before 
the Court, ordered him to be released from confinement. 

It being injurious to the health of the Soldiers, on account 
of the foulness of the waters, and inconsistent with decency, 
for them to bathe in the mill pond by Howell's Mill, near 
the highway leading from Head Quarters to the Court 
House, that practice is forbidden, and the guard and sen- 
tries posted near there are to arrest and confine all offenders. 
The pay rolls of the several regiments and Corps for the 
month of June to be made out immediately and lodged 
with the Paymaster General. 


A case of pocket Surgical ware was lost the day the Army 
marched from Middle Brook to Morristown. The finder 
of them is desired to return them to the Surgeon of the 
Second Virginia, and he shall be duly rewarded for his 

A servant boy about ten years old with a leathern cap. 
Swan skin vest, a drab coloured Coat turned up with blue, 
Oznabrig trousers, has been missing for some days. His 
name is Jacob Cook ; he is supposed to be lurking about 
the Camp. It is requested when found he may be sent to 
Mr, Mackey's in Morristown. 

Onhiiy-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 19 

Colonel Morgan's Corps of Riflemen not being annexed 
to any particular Brigade, are to draw provisions from the 
Commissary, who may be nearest the place where they may 
be stationed. 

Brigade Orders. 

Oflicers commanding regiments are requested to have all 
tlieir men fit for duty under arms every morning for exer- 
cise in going through their different manoeuvres. Particular 
attention should be paid to their manner of Wheeling and 
Marching. All wheels should be performed complete and 
with life, and instead of the short step which the Troops in 
general practice, they should be taught to throw their feet 
well before them, which may be done with as much ease 
and in as good time with the Musick, as the other method 
is more graceful and gains ground faster. 

The Ofllcers should make themselves acquainted with 
the Salutes as pointed out in General Orders of 16th of 
June last. 

It is strongly recommended to the soldiery of General 
Weedon's Brigade to have all their hair cut short by trim- 
ming it close before thinning and cutting it behind so as to 
leave it in a short curl or bob; it prevents vermin, keeps 
their heads cool, and is much more convenient in rainy 
weather ; it is also dressed with ease and looks more soldier- 

There being a great difference between the Regimental 
returns of this and last week, has rendered it necessary to 
give the Brigade Major possitive orders to receive no returns 
for the differences arising between them, and the former are 
not particularly accounted for; and as the Adjutant pleads 
ill their excuse that the Officers do not account for any 
differences arising in their companies returns ; ordered that 
they may expect of no returns from the companies not 
corresponding with the directions. Detail for Guard. 
C. S. S. C. P^F. D. 

0, 0, 1, 1, 15, 1. 1. 

Adjutant for the day, Ruth. 

20 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

G. O. Head Quarters July 8, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Greene; Brigadier, Muhlenberg. 

Field Officers Major Weltner and Colonel Lewis; Brig. 
Major, Swain. 

The Court of which Colonel Brodhead was president, ap- 
pointed to inquire into the conduct of the Artillery Officers, 
viz. Captain Eustis and his officers, and Captain Archibald, 
whose pieces were lost the 26th of last month, report 
that having examined divers officers, whose names they 
mention, relative thereto, they are of opinion that Captain 
Huston and his officers behaved with becoming bravery and 
good conduct during the whole action, and that the loss of 
the field pieces was unavoidable, they being left in the rear, 
unsupported; also that Captain Gibbs Jones and the officers 
under his command behaved with becoming bravery and 
good conduct during the whole action, and that the loss of 
the piece commanded by Captain-Lieutenant Archibald was 
inevitable, it being left in the rear unsupported. 

The ground on which part of the Troops are encamped 
may be less dry and healthy than others in the neighbor- 
hood, the Major Generals are desired in such cases to shift 
the encampments of their Divisions or such parts of them 
as they shall judge necessary to preserve the health of the 
Troops. Dewy and foggy mornings may be less favorable 
to the health of the Soldiers than other parts of the day ; 
commanding Officers of Corps will in such seasons postpone 
turning out their men 'till the close or other part of the day 
as they and their Surgeons shall find most expedient. 

Canteens, hammocks and other camp essentials must be 
very beneficial to the Troops, but unless more care may be 
taken to preserve it will be impracticable to preserve them. 
The Quarter Master General, therefore, in issuing those 
articles will charge them to the respective Quarter Masters 
of Regiments and Corps; these Quarter Masters to the 
Captains or officer commanding companies, and they to 
their men, each to account with the other in the order 

Captains and officers commanding companies are every 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 21 

Saturday to examine the Clothes, Arms, Accoutrements, 
Ammunition and Camp utensils of their men, that if any 
are missing and a good account of them cannot be rendered, 
the person found deficient to be answerable for them. 

In vain are orders given and repeated, if after one cursory 
reading they are thrown aside and neglected — many orders 
are entered for standing regulations and are of great im- 
portance to be known and remembered — the Commander 
in Chief therefore, in the strongest manner enjoins upon 
all ofla.cers to examine the Orderly Book and frequently 
review the Standing Orders, and also often cause to be read 
to the men such as immediately respect them. 

A return of tents in each Regiment to be made at four 
o'clock this day post M. R. to the Quarter Master General 
such regiments as have not received the horseman's tents 
to apply to the Quarter Master General. 

G. 0. Head Quarters July 9, 1777. 

Parole — Warwick; Countersign, Warren Warfield. 

Major General tomorrow, Stephen ; Brigadier, Wayne. 

Field Officers, Colonel Hartley, Lieut. Colonel Febiger, 
Brig. Major, Ryan. 

In General Orders of 1st inst. returns of the sick in Camp 
to be signed by the Surgeons of each Regiment were directed 
to be made every Tuesday and Friday at 9 oclock A.M., to 
the Surgeon General of the Army, which have not been 
done, nor have returns of other kinds been regularly made 
when demanded — such neglects are highly prejudicial to 
the service. All persons are therefore enjoined to make 
due returns in future, and who fails may depend on being 

The guards who are relieved daily are to send a Sergeant 
or Corporal to the Grand Parade at 8 o'clock in the morning 
to conduct the new Guard to their Posts. 

General after Orders July 9, 1777. 
A General Court Martial to sit tomorrow at the usual 
place at 9 o'clock for the trial of such prisoners as shall be 

22 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

brought before it. Colonel Chambers is appointed presi- 
dent of the Court. 

Head Quarters, Morristown, July 10, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Lord Stirling; Brigadier, 
Weedon ; Brig. Major, Perry. 

Every Brigade which has not furnished its quota of Pio- 
neers to the Qr. Mr. General is to do it immediately and 
have them sent to his quarters. General Wayne's brigade 
to furnish 10 men, and General deHaes 10 men, such as are 
fit for the purpose. 

The tents of the whole Army are to be struck at gun 
firing tomorrow morning and packed up ready for march- 
ing with the utmost speed. The line of march to begin 
afterwards as soon as possible. All Baggage Wagons, 
those with tents excepted, are to move this afternoon 
towards Bonamtown, to a place appointed by General 
Mifflin, guards for which are to be supplied in the follow- 
ing manner, viz. each Brigade to furnish 1 Captain, 2 
Sub^ and 30 men ; each Division a field officer, that from 
General Greene's to be Colonel Commandant. The women 
are to march with the baggage. Two days provisions to 
be cooked and ready this afternoon ; canteens to be filled 
w^ith water before the march begins, as no soldier will be 
allowed to quit the ranks on that account. The three 
pickets, viz. on the Pompton, Chatham and Middle Brook 
roads will quit their posts at gun fire tomorrow morning 
and join their respective Corps without delay. All other 
guards will attend to their dut}^ in their several depart- 
ments, where they are placed until relieved, moving with 
their charges respectively. 

Brigade Orders, Morristown July 10, 1777. 
The sick of each Regiment to be sent to the Hospital 
tomorrow morning and every necessary preparation made 
to march tomorrow morning at the alloted time; 1 sub- 
altern officer to be left behind to superintend the sick of 
their regiments, whose business it will be to bring up as 

Ordet'ly-Booli of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 23 

soon as thev are able to march and to see that they do not 
suffer while in the Hospital. Two women of each Regi- 
ment to remain with the sick respective Corps as Nurses. 
Adjutant for tomorrow, Overton. 

Regimental Orders, July 11, 1777. 

The Quartermaster to draw three days provisions and 
the Captains to see that their men immediately dress the 
same, as there is a prospect of marching in the morning. 
Those guns which want repairing must go immediately to 
the Qr. Mr., having an order to get them put in repair. 

The men are to be warned for guard in the evening and 

they are not to turn out in the morning to exercise, but to 

take care to have their guns in order, themselves well 

shaved and powdered, otherwise they must be severely 


Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Head Quarters Pompton Plains, July 11, 1777. 

The Array to pitch their tents tonight and tomorrow 
morning at the gun firing, if the weather is good, to stretch 
them and prepare everything with the greatest dispatch for 
a march. If it should rain, the tents standing to remain, 
unless particular orders are given to the contrary. No 
kind of baggage to be taken out of the wagons besides the 
tents. Immediately after firing the morning gun the Gen- 
eral to be beaten through the Line instead of the Reveille. 
Two field pieces firing from the Park of Artillery to be the 
signal for marching; the same order of march to be in 

Tomorrow each Division will station necessary guards 
about their encampments — the separate column of baggage 
to march under direction. 

Head Quarters Pompton Plains, July 12, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Stephen; Brigadier, Scott; 
Field Officers, Scott ; Lieut. Colonel Nelson ; Brig. Major, 

As the foul weather prevents the marching of the troops 

24 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

today, they are to draw two days provisions and cook them 

Complaints have been made to the Commander in Chief 
that some soldiers have pulled down the fences to burn and 
lay open the fields of the inhabitants, he enjoins it upon the 
officers to use the utmost watchfulness and care to prevent 
this prejudice, and whoever is found guilty of it shall be 
severely punished. The same orders that were given last 
evening are to determine and regulate the march tomorrow. 

After Orders. 

The morning gun will not be fired tomorrow morning. 
As usual the tents are not to be struck 'till dry. The firing 
of one field piece to be the signal to march, strike tents and 
prepare to march ; two field pieces fired, to begin the march. 
When the Army marches the Deputy Qr. Mr. Grl. and his 
assistant from each Division are to go forward, the Qr. Mr. 
Genl. to lay out the ground for encampment. 

Head Quarters Pompton Plains, July 13, 1777. 

Major General for tomorrow, Stirling; Brigadier, Con- 

Field Officers, Colonel Spotswood and Major Williams. 

Brigade Major, Tarling. 

The Commander in Chief approves the following sentences 
of a General Court Martial held the 7th, 8th, and 9th inst., 
and orders that they be put in execution forthwith. Lieut. 
Comans of the l'' Virginia Regm't. charged with messing 
with the common soldiers and speaking disrespectful words 
of the commanding officer of the Regiment, and with 
carrying a soldier belonging to the 1*' Regt. away — The 
Court having no evidence to prove the charge of speaking 
disrespectful words of the commanding officer of the Reg', 
cannot determine he is or is not guilty of that charge — they 
are of opinion considering the peculiar circumstances of the 
matter as to the messing with the common soldiers, related 
by the prisoner, and having no evidence to prove it — he 
should be reprimanded by the commanding officer of the 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 25 

Reg* to which he belongs, at the head of such Reg'. The 
Court do excuse the prisoner for taking away a soldier 
from his Reg', considering the bad state of health he was 
in. Jno. Walker a Sergeant in Captain Jno. Steel's Inde- 
pendent Company charged with absenting himself twelve 
days from his company without leave plead guilty, but he 
was returning to his company when taken up. Sentenced 
to be reprimanded at the head of his company and one 
months pay to be stopped from him. Anthony Asket, 
charged with the same crime as Walker, belonging to Cap' 
Steel's Independent Company as above. Jno. Grant of the 
24th Yirginia Reg' charged with sleeping on his post, plead 
guilty. Sentenced to receive 25 lashes on his back, but it 
appearing in evidence that he was a good, orderly, well be- 
haved soldier, and was probably unwell when he was a 
sentry, the Commander in Chief remits his punishment. 
Lieut. Samuel Smith of the 8th Penna. Regt. charged with 
uno;enteel behaviour in the Regt. and disobedience of orders, 
not attending the Parade as constantly at morning times as 
he ought to have done, and sentenced to be severely repri- 
manded in General Orders, the Commander in Chief is ex- 
tremely sorry that an officer of whom it is testified that in 
posts of danger he behaved with prudence and spirit, should 
be guilty of neglect of discipline which is so essential to 
form the good soldier. Neglect contrary to orders highly 
injurious to the service and disgraceful to the subject of it 
— Neglect for which neither prudence nor bravery can com- 
pensate it, which if persisted in will be an etfectual bar to 

Jno. Dougherty, of the Artillery, charged with stabbing 
Lieut. Carrington of the 7"" Virginia Reg' — the Court 
having considered the charge and evidence, are of the 
opinion that the prisoner is guilty of the charge, and are 
likewise of the opinion that if the prisoner is guilty of the 
charge against him, he was justifiable in doing it as he acted 
in the way of his duty. 

As the weather was bad and the ground wet, the general 
orders a gill of Rum to be issued to each man immediately — 

26 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

From intelligence lately received the General informs 
the Army that it is possible the next move of the Army 
may be towards the Delaware, but desires that no steps may 
be taken towards it 'till further orders. 

Thomas Frederick Esq. was on the 1st inst. appointed 
Brigade Major to Brigadier Glover — to be respected and 
obeyed as such, 

Roger Alden Esq. is appointed Brigade Major to Brig. 
General Huntington, to be respected and obeyed as such. 

Head Quarters, July 14, 1777. 

Major General for tomorrow, Greene; Brigadier, Max- 

Field Officers Colonel Matthews, Major [torn], Brig. 
Major, Witherspoon. 

Each Major General will order the Guard necessary for 
the security of his Division. The Quarter Master General 
with his Deputies will mark out the ground for the Encamp- 
ment of each Division tomorrow, as the Army -will arrive at 
its ground early in the day. As soon as the men are settled 
in their quarters, the officers are to critically inspect their 
arms and accoutrements, and have them put in the best 
order possible. The Commander in Chief was surprised 
this day to see the bad condition of many arms, they 
being not only unfit for fire, but very rusty, which latter is 
in the power of every man to prevent, and the neglect of it 
must arise from an inexcusable inattention of the orders. 

The tents are to be struck tomorrow morning at gun fire, 
which will be at the usual time, and the whole Army to get 
ready to march at 5 o'clock. One field piece is to be fired 
and then the march is to begin, and as the baggage of each 
Brigade wnll join its Brigade tonight, it is to follow close 
after it tomorrow. The whole Arm}- to march from the left 
in half platoons, the Brigades following each other in order 
observed this day, saving that the baggage, as before 
directed, will immediately follow the Brigade it belongs to. 
As the distance is not great, no part of the Army is to halt 
'till it arrives at the ground of encamping. If it should 

Oi'derly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 27 

rain tomorrow morniug the Army is to remain in the 
present encampment. On a march, neither officers or 
soldiers are to pay a salute or pull oti' his hat to the Com- 
mander in Chief or any other officer passing by. 

G. O. Head Quarters, The Clove, July 15, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Stephen ; Brigadier, Muhlen- 

Field Officers, Col. Lawsou, Major Murray, and Brigade 
Major, Swain. 

It was yesterday directed in General Orders that neither 
officers or soldiers should pay a salute or pull off their hats 
to the Commander in Chief or other officers passing by, 
and the total disregard of this order is a proof of how little 
pains officers take to acquaint either themselves or men 
with the Orders of the Day. Other orders issued this in- 
stant respecting the march of the Army are also neglected 
in instances which came directly under the observation of 
the Commander in Chief, which cannot be presumed to 
arise from any other cause than ignorance of these orders. 
For the future, therefore, all officers are each day to make 
themselves acquainted with the orders of it, and with re- 
spect to the orders of 14*'' inst., the Commander in Chief 
directs that the Brigadiers do as soon as possible call to- 
gether all the officers commanding Corps in their respective 
Brigades and read to them those orders ; and the command- 
ing officers of Corps are likewise required to assemble all 
the officers in their respective Corps, and read to them the 
same orders, and all who are not already provided are forth- 
with to furnish themselves with copies of them and still 
more effectually to execute those orders. 

Each Brigade is to appoint a field officer to attend his 
Brigade and particularly of the wagons belonging to it, 
whose business it shall be to ride backwards and forwards 
along the line to see the march conducted with propriety 
and agreeable to orders. Advantages to be taken of the 
present halt to get the horses shod and the wagons repaired ; 
— no delay is to be made in this matter, as it is very uucer- 

28 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

tain bow soon the Army may move. Again and for the 
same reason, all officers and soldiers are to keep near their 
quarters, and on no pretence to ramble about the country 
without leave — officers from their Brigadiers, soldiers from 
their Colonels or officers commanding their Regiments. 
All wagons are to join their respective Brigades, and get 
proper orders for marching, and when the Army moves again 
the officers and Wagon Masters are to see that they are more 
equally loaded than they have been ; and when any men 
fall sick on the march, they are not to be put in the heavily 
loaded baggage wagons, but left to be taken up by the 
empty wagons which follow in the rear for that end. 

The commanding officers of Corps are immediately to 
make returns to the Adjutant General of the clothing most 
wanted in their respective Corps. As the quantity of cloth- 
ing to be distributed is not great, the Commander in Chief 
most earnestly desires that officers will make returns for no 
more than is indispensably necessary for them. 

Each Brigade to furnish men for cutting wood, to parade 
tomorrow morning at 8 o'clock in front of Tavern. 

D. 0. The Brigades in Gen. Greene's division are to 
furnish by daily relay 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal, 12 privates 
as guard for the General's baggage, and this guard is ex- 
pected when circumstances will admit of it, to be regularly 
returned, for a neglect of which no excuse will or can be 


Head Quarters, July 15, 1777. 

After Orders. The Commander in Chief expects that all 
officers will make it their business to see that the Orders 
issued respecting the destruction of property of the inhab- 
itants are particularly attended to at all times. 

Head Quarters, July 16, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Stirling, Brigadier Wayne. 

Field Officers, Colonel Spencer, Lieut. Col. Parker of 
Gen. Weedon's Brigade, and Brig. Major, Ryan. 

The General Court Martial whereof Col. Chambers was 
president is dissolved. 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 29 

A General Court Martial is to sit at 10 o'clock this fore- 
noon near Gen. Maxwell's quarters for the trial of such 
prisoners as are brought before it. Col. Shreeve is appointed 
president of the Court. 

G. 0. Head Quarters, Clove, July 17, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Greene; Brigadier Weedon. 

Field Officers Lieut. Col. Willis, Major Hay, Brig. Major, 

Some disputes having arisen between Col. Hamilton and 
Col. Johnston respecting seniority, the General Officers are 
to meet at some place to be appointed by Major Gen. Greene, 
at 5 o'clock this afternoon, and after hearing the pretensions 
of both these officers and enquiring minutely into the matter, 
to report the case and their opinions thereon to the Com- 
mander in Chief. The frequent discharging of pieces, in 
order to clean them and keep them in order, occasions the 
waste of ammunition — the General orders in very pointed 
and positive terms, that no musket shall be loaded with car- 
tridges until we are close to the enemy and there is a moral 
certainty of engaging them. The Quarter Master of each 
Regiment is to draw a small quantity of powder, ball and 
wadding to furnish the Guards from his Regiment, who are 
to load with loose Powder and running ball when they 
mount guard, and this the officers of those guards are in- 
variably to have drawn and return to the Regimental Quar- 
ter Master before their dismission from the parade, after 
being relieved. The practice of this kind particularly ad- 
hered to will not only be a great saving of ammunition, but 
the means of preserving the arms, for nothing is so hurtful 
to the barrel as lying loaded, especially in damp weather. 

About 80 tents have arrived in Camp and such as are 
destitute of them may now be supplied therewith. But 
previous to the delivery of them, returns must be made 
from the Quarter Masters of each Brigade of the number of 
men in each Corps belonging to the Brigade and the num- 
ber of Tents now in their possession. 

The Adjutant General in issuing orders for the delivery 

30 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania Slate Regimenit of Foot. 

of clothes is to compare the returns made to the command- 
ing officers of Corps of their wants with their Clothiers 
accounts, as far as he can come at them, and see to the utmost 
of their power that equal justice be done in the distribution 

of them. 


Found a Red Morocco Leather Case containing Colonel 
Hartshorn's Commission and sundry other papers. The 
owner may have it by applying to Captain Sergeant at the 
Park of Artillery. 

Tomorrow at Troop beating, the Quarter Master General 
is to have the road through the Clove to New Windsor 
reconnoitred and all proper places for halting and encamp- 
ing, with the distances from hence noted, and reported to 
the Commander in Chief, and to do the like on the road to 
King's Ferry. A field officer, two captains, 4 sergeants and 
100 rank and file to be paraded at daylight tomorrow morn- 
ing on the Grand Parade, with two days provision in a light 
wagon. The commanding officer will receive his orders 
from the Adjutant General. 

A subaltern and 12 light horse will parade at the same 
time and apply to the Adjutant General for orders. 

Doctor Cochran is to inspect the state of the sick and their 
condition, and will give such orders respecting them as shall 
appear proper. 

Each Brigade to furnish a good Blacksmith to parade 
tomorrow at 10 o'clock before Lord Stirling's quarters at 
Suffern's Tavern. 

The Quarter Masters of those Regiments for clothing re- 
turns have been made, and to apply to the Deputy Clothier 
General tomorrow at Baldon's mills, about a mile from 
Head Quarters, on the road to Pompton. The detachment 
to be commanded by Major Miches. 

Head Quarters, The Clove, July 18, 1777. 
Major General tomorrow, Stephen; Brigadier, Woodford. 
Field Officers, Lieut. Col. Farmer, Major North, and Brig. 
Major, Day. 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 31 

The Commander in Chief approves the following sen- 
tences of a General Court Martial held 16 inst., whereof 
Col. Shreeve was president, and orders that there be no 
delay in putting them into execution. Levi Springer of the 
4th North Carolina B. T. in Capt. Nelson's company, charged 
with desertion from the 4th Regiment and enlisting with 
Capt. Sims of the 10 Regiment— found guilty and sentenced 
to 50 lashes on his bare back, and to serve out his time with 
Capt. Nelson, and the bounty he received from Capt. Sims 
be returned to him. 

Joshua Hunter of the 1st Virginia Regiment, charged 
with desertion, found guilty and sentenced to receive 50 
lashes on his bare back. 

Eegimental Orders, July 18, 1777. 

A Regimental Court Martial will sit this morning. 

The Officers in the future will when manoeuvring pay 
greater attention to the beats of the drum, and take care 
that their men do the same. When they are to face to the 
right, the drum will beat one stroke and a flam ; to the left, 
two strokes and a flam, the right about three strokes and a 
flam, and the left about four strokes and a flam. 

The Regiment is to be paraded every morning at 6 o'clock, 
and in the evening to manoeuvre till further orders. 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Head Quarters July 21, 1777. 

Major General, Thompson ; Brigadier General, Muhlen- 
berg. Brigade Major, Green. 

The AVagon Masters are to see that their horses feed as 
much with grass this day and save what grain they have and 
Dry Forage. The Wagoners to stay by their wagons and 
horses to prevent their doing any damage to the corn, flax 
&c. If such things are damaged by their negligence they 
will be severely punished. The Quarter Master General is 
immediately to inspect the oats and take the most eftectual 
measures to prevent their taking any damage. Everything 
is to be in readiness to march tomorrow morning. The 


32 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

General is informed that some of the Troops are without 
provisions — they are to draw them today for tomorrow. 

Regimental Orders, July 21, 1777. 

The Adjutant is to make an immediate return of the Offi- 
cers present belonging to the Regiment, and a list of those 
absent, where stationed and on what duty. 

It is His Excellency's pleasure that Mr. Thomas Jones 
formerly a Lieutenant in this Regiment immediately with- 
draw from Camp, and that he does not in the future look 
upon himself as an officer belonging to the United States, 
unless he receives a new commission therefor. 

It is ray express orders for the future, no Camp kettles 
are carried in the wagons, and the officers who break 
through this order may depend upon being taken notice of 
in a very severe manner. The Officers for the future will 
take notice that no man must be allowed [torn] on a march 
to be out of the ranks, except the Field Officers and Cap- 
tain's waiters, and they must turn out every afternoon at 
roll call the same as the rest. Only two waiters are allowed 

to each company. 

Walter Stewart, Col. 

Head Quarters, The Clove, July 23, 1777. 

Major General . . . Brig. General . . . 

Field Officers, Lieut. Col. Parker ; Brig. Major, Pierce. 

The march of the Army, whenever it begins, will be 
made with the utmost despatch ; this renders it indispen- 
sably necessary to divest it of as much baggage as possible. 
Each Brigadier, therefore, immediately to cause certain 
wagons to be prepared for the tents of his Brigade, and 
when orders are given to march, they are to suffer nothing 
to be put in those wagons but the tents, and see that they 
are not heavy laden even with them. And the more to 
facilitate the march of the Army, the Commissaries are to 
leave no means untried to procure a supply of hard Bread 
to be reserved for the march. And when the Army moves 
they are to go forward and get the provision ready to be 
delivered the moment the Army halts. The Quarter Master 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 33 

General will have ready a proper number of empty wagons 
to follow each Brigade to take up the sick and lame. The 
rest of the baggage is to be left under the care of small 
guards, to follow on after the Army accompanied by the 
women, none of whom are to be suffered to go with the 
Troops. The Army is to be put and kept in readiness to 
march on the shortest notice. 

Ramapo, July 24, 1777. 

D. 0. There are great complaints of the horses of my 
Division being turned into the inhabitants' meadows with- 
out any orders for so doing by the Quarter Master General 
or any of his deputies, and that the horses are beating down 
the grass to the injury of the owners of the plantations. 
All the Artillery horses are to be immediately taken out of 
the meadows and grass cut for the cattle. The officers are 
also desired to take their horses out of the meadows, if they 
have any out. The Brigadiers are desired to see this order 
immediately executed, as the complaint comes through His 

The commanding officers of Regiments in my Division 
are desired to have vaults dug as soon as possible after 
encamping, and the Soldiers are strictly forbid going into 
the fields of grain adjoining the road to do . . . , a stench 
arises from such places extremely offensive to the Camp and 
the passengers on those roads. This is to be a Standing 
Order and to be observed accordingly. 

Nathanael Greene, Major General 

Near Coryell's Ferry, July 28, 1777. 
Brigade Orders. — The Brigade is to march tomorrow 
morning at four o'clock. If it should not rain at that time 
-the General to beat at half after three ; the Assembly at 
half an hour after, and the whole to march off in foot 
march today exactly at the time before mentioned. To pre- 
vent any confusion as to the men forming in their Regi- 
ments there is no drum to beat but those before mentioned. 
All the troops will follow on the beating of the Assembly. 

34 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Camp Coryell's Ferry, July 29, 1777. 
General Orders. — The troops are to put their arms in the 
best order the nature or situation will admit, and to be 
ready to march at short notice; to be provided with two 
days' provisions; such as choose hard bread instead of flour 
may be furnished by an order of the Commissary for that 
purpose, who is directed to issue out Salt provisions this 
drawing and to order up peas for the use of the Brigades. 
The Regimental Quarter Masters are to see that all men 
are furnished with clean dry straw for their troops. . . . 

Q-. 0. Camp near Coryell's Ferry, July 29, 1777. 

The Commander in Chief has reason to believe that it 
has been owing to the carelessness and inattention of the 
"Wagon Masters in not seeing that the horses are properly 
fed and managed that such great numbers have foundered 
and died — they may be dismissed from the service for this 
neglect of duty, and also merely contenting themselves with 
directing the wagons. 

Regimental Orders, July 30, 1777. 

As we have now a good opportunity for washing the 
dirty clothes belonging to the Regiment, the Colonel expects 
no time will be lost in doing the same, as an examination 
of the arms and men will be made with great strictness 
tomorrow morning at Troop Beating. 

The Regiment is to be paraded this afternoon at 5 o'clock 
to attend Divine service. 

The men will be careful not [torn] the heat of the day, as 
it is productive of Fever and Ague, but defer it until Sun- 

"Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

D. 0. J"ly 30, 1777. 

The commanding Officers of Regiments in General Muh- 
lenberg's and Weedon's Brigades are immediately to ex- 
amine into the state of their men's arms and ammunition, 
and have those who are deficient in the latter supplied with- 
out delay — the arms to be clean and in good order. It is 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 35 

expected that particular attention will be paid to these 

D. 0. July 31, 1777. 

Assembly to beat at half after five in the morning — to 
march exactly at 6 o'clock. Before the march begins the Bag- 
gage Guard to parade as small as possible and those that are 
appointed for that duty must be such soldiers as are unfit 
for service. Such soldiers as are incapable of marching in 
the line are to be left under the care of a subaltern ofl3.cer 
of the Regiment to which they belong. A Field Ofiicer to 
be appointed for each Brigade to take charge of the whole. 
All the invalids to march in the rear of the baggage of the 
whole Division. Col. Abbot is directed to furnish wagons 
to take up such as fall sick upon the road. The troops in 
the line are to march in good order by platoons and none 
allowed to straggle. The invalids are also to be kept to- 
gether and march by files. The order of march as hereto- 
fore will take the route to Germantown. 

B. 0. The ofiicers of Gen. "Weedon's Brigade are par- 
ticularly directed when posted in the different platoons, 
except in cases of the utmost necessity not to leave them or 
suflfer any soldier to do it. 

Lieut. Col. Buford Field Ofiicer for the day; and Field 
Officer of the day, for tomorrow, Lieut. Col. Kendrick. 

Eegimental Orders, Cross Egads, August 1, 1777. 

It is extremely disagreeable for the Colonel to refuse those 
Officers who desire to absent themselves from the Regiment 
— he must therefore inform them he has received positive 
orders not to permit it, and requests that they will not 
put him to the trouble of refusing them. 

The Officers will be very careful not to leave their posi- 
tions, as they must be confident the soldiers will follow 
their example, which is attended with the most disagreeable 
circumstances to the inhabitants. 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

36 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Head Quarters, August 1, 1777. 

Bj Express from His Excellency received a few hours 
past, the General is directed to acquaint the officers and 
soldiers that they are not to go into the City of Philadelphia 
without a permit from a General Officer. Any officer that 
disobeys will be arrested, and any soldier that attempts to 
go without leave will be severely punished. All the Gen- 
eral Officers are requested not to grant permission to any 
person unless it be to execute business of real necessity. 
The commanding officers of Regiments are directed to 
make out returns immediately of the arms out of repair in 
their Regiments and the number wanted to furnish every 
man fit for duty. The arms in each Regiment in want of 
repair, to be cleaned and put in the best order for action. 
None of the arms of the guards to be loaded until further 
orders. All the arms that are loaded in each Regiment to 
be drawn at some proper place under the direction of the 
commanding officer of the Regiment or one of the Field 
Officers, and discharged all at once, and the General desires 
the officers of each company to see that the men do not load 
for the sake of firing, such a wanton waste of ammunition 
cannot be justified. 

The Quarter Masters of each Regiment are directed to 
see that the men are provided with wood for cooking — the 
Quarter Master General of each Brigade will direct the 
Regimental Quarter Masters where to cut wood — no fences 
are to be burned on an}^ account. All the officers of every 
rank are to protect the inhabitants from personal insults 
and their property from being plundered. 

Field Officer for tomorrow for the Brigade, Major 
Nichols; Adjutant for the Day, Fowke. 

Head Quarters, Germantown, August 2, 1777. 
Major General Greene orders the troops to be imme- 
diately furnished with two days' provisions and hold them- 
selves in readiness to march at a moment's warning. The 
tents to be immediately separated from all other baggage — 
no officer or soldier to be absent from camp on any account, 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 37 

and the General expects particular attention will be paid to 

these orders. 

The returns called for in yesterday's orders to be made 
forthwith. The commanding officers of each Regiment to 
appoint an officer to prepare such clothing as the men are 

in want of without delay. 

Nathanael Greene, 

3Iajor GeneraL 

Regimental Orders, August 4, 1777. 

The Captains are to make out a return of the guns in 

their different companies, that application be made to the 

General for them. The Officers will be careful to examine 

the arms of the men every day when they come on the 

parade and see that they keep them in exceeding good 


Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Head Quarters, Eoxborough, August 4, 1777. 
In the present marching state of the Army every encum- 
brance proves greatly prejudicial to the service, the multi- 
tude of women in particular, especially those who are 
pregnant or have children are a clog upon every movement. 
The Commander in Chief therefore, earnestly recommends 
it to the officers commanding Brigades and Corps to use 
every reasonable method in their power to get rid of all 
such as are not absolutely necessary, and the admission or 
continuance of any who shall or may have come to the 
Army since its arrival in Pennsylvania is positively forbid- 
den—to which point the officers will give particular atten- 

Pay Rolls for the month of July are to be made out 
immediately and lodged with the Paymaster General for 
examination. The officers commanding Corps will be an- 
swerable for the execution of this order. 

A General Court Martial will sit tomorrow at 9 o'clock 
in the morning near Judge Laurens's Quarters by Schuyl- 
kill Falls, for the trial of all such prisoners as shall be 

38 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

brought before them. Col. James Wood is appointed Pres- 
ident of this Court. 

The Regimental Surgeons are to send all their sick to the 
General Hospital in Philadelphia. 

Camp at Germantown, August 5, 1777. 

B. 0. Officers commanding companies to have their 
Muster Rolls ready by tomorrow morning when the Mus- 
ter Master is to attend to muster the men. A return of 
arms and accoutrements wanting to complete each Regi- 
ment, to be given to the Major of Brigade as soon as 

The Troops are not allowed to cut down any wood in the 
front of the Camp — The Regimental Quarter Masters to see 
that wood is brought for their men to cook with. 

Eegimental Orders, August 6, 1777. 

The Camp Color men immediately to throw one foot of 
dirt into the vaults, and to take care that the same is per- 
formed every day, and if any man attempt to ... in any 
place about the Camp except at these vaults, on being caught, 
he will receive immediately twenty lashes. 

The Drum Major is to take care of the Drum practice, 
at least four hours each day, and the Fife Major to observe 
the same. 

The Regiment during our stay here to parade morning 
and evening at 5 o'clock for exercise. 

Walter Stewart, Cohnel. 

T). 0. Germantown, August 6, 1777. 

A Fatigue Party to be immediately appointed from Gen. 
Muhlenberg and Gen. Weedon's Brigades, to consist of one 
Captain, one Subaltern, two Sergeants, two Corporals and 
forty privates from each Brigade, to be employed in burying 
all the filth in and around the Encampment. All the Camp 
Color men in each Brigade to be immediately set to work in 
filling up the old vaults, and digging new ones. All the filth 
around the environs ... to be taken up and buried. The 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 39 

commanding officer of the Fatigue Party is desired to be very 
faithful in cleaning the Camp. There is such a stench arises 
from every side of it now as to threaten the passers by with 
an immediate pestilence. 

Gen. Muhlenberg and Gen. "VVeedon are desired to ap- 
point an officer from each Brigade to examine such pro- 
visions as officers refuse to take, that justice may be done to 
the Continent and to the Soldiers; the names of the persons 
to be sent to the Commissaries of the Division and inserted 
in the Brigade Orders, that the officers may know who to 
apply to when any dispute happens. The General desires 
the troops may be exercised twice a day, morning and even- 
ing, during their stay here. 

N. Greene, Major General. 

B. 0. August 6, 1777. 

Lieut. Stubblefield of the Sixth Eegiment is appointed 
to inspect the quality of such provisions as may be refused 
by any regiment in Gen. Weedon's Brigade. The Quarter 
Master of said regiment is directed to inform the Division 
and Brigade Commissary of it, to prevent the great irregu- 
larity in [torn] the necessary duties of the camp. The 
Drummers of each Regiment are to meet at the hours 
appointed for the troop, retreat and tattoo, in those Brigades 
from which they are struck off, moving to the right and left 
of the Brigade and then returning to the centre, where they 
are to dismiss. The Drum and Fife Majors are to take the 
command of the whole Brigade, by a daily rotation, begin- 
ning with those on the right of the line. It being highly 
improper for any drums to beat after Retreat, that practice 
is positively forbid. Should any Regiment happen to be 
exercising after that time, they are to march by the fife 

Officers commanding the Regiments in the Second Bri- 
gade are desired to consider it as a Standing Rule, that 
whenever the Brigade is to encamp for a longer time than 
one night the Camp Color men are detailed for the care of 
the vaults of the encampment, and any soldier who may be 

40 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

found throwing any meat or . . . elsewhere than in those 
places, is to be immediately punished. 

It is with concern the General observes that so little 
attention is paid to the General Orders issued at Morris- 
town the 6th July, respecting that part of them which par- 
ticularly relates to soldiers, being read to them. If a soldier 
is caught destroying the property of the inhabitants he 
immediately excuses himself by declaring he did not know 
it was forbidden. As it would give him the utmost pleasure 
to see the strict observance of duty, and orders from the 
Line of every officer's conduct in his Brigade — he earnestly 
requests and recommends to them a particular attention to 
these points. 

Head Quarters near Germantown, August 6, 1777. 

A Board of General Officers consisting of the Major and 
Brigadier Generals in Camp is to sit tomorrow at 10 
o'clock in the forenoon at General Stephen's Quarters, 
at Dr. Smith's house near Schuylkill Falls, to make inquiry 
why the Pay Abstracts are not regularly made out and 
lodged with the Paymaster General according to orders. 
The Pay Abstracts of every Regiment and Corps in the 
army for the month of July, and any time preceding that 
month, for which they have not been made out, are to be 
delivered to the Paymaster General by Monday next. The 
officers commanding Regiments and Corps will be answer- 
able for the execution of this order ; and every officer who 
does not deliver in his Abstracts punctually by the time 
assigned, may depend on being arrested and tried for dis- 
obedience of orders. Unless there are reasons which may 
render it impracticable to any to make out and deliver their 
Abstracts, by that time — in that case they are to appear 
tomorrow and lay those reasons before the above mentioned 
Board of General Officers — if they do not, it will be taken 
for granted that no such reasons exist. 

J. Ward Esq., Commissary General of Musters, will 
attend the same Board to assign the reasons why the Regi- 
ments and Corps of the Army have not been now generally 

Orderly- Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 41 

mustered. The Regimental Paymasters are immediately 
to apply for warrants to receive pay for the several Corps 
for the month of June. 

As the time is uncertain Avhen the army will march — it 
may be very soon and sudden — all officers and soldiers are 
to keep near their quarters; and such officers as had leave 
to go to Philadelphia are to return, and none are permitted 
to go thither but upon real necessity business, which being 
finished they are immediately to rejoin their respective 

When the army moves it will be possibly necessary that 
it march with the utmost celerity ; the tents therefore, agree- 
ably to former orders are to be lodged in the wagons by 
themselves and in such manner that they may without diffi- 
culty keep up with the troops — for the same reason the 
officers will take with them only a few articles of clothing, 
such as shall be indispensable, leaving the bulk of their 
baa-ocao-e to be brought after them, and in order to facilitate 
the march the Quarter Master General is to provide so 
many wagons as shall be necessary to carry the men's packs, 
but those packs are not to be suffered to be loaded with 
useless trumpery — as from the sizes of many of them there 
is great reason to suppose is now the case, and the officers 
are to see that they are not, for which purpose the Com- 
mander in Chief most earnestly desires and expects that 
the officers particularly inspect the packs of their men, and 
select only such articles as are necessary and useful — all 
the rest, each man's being rolled by itself, is to be collected 
by the Quarter Masters of regiments and by them deposited 
in proper places, to be provided by the Quarter Master 

Pursuant to the Resolve of Congress of July IGth last, 
the officers commanding Regiments and Corps are directed 
that in case they have any Sergeants, Corporals, Drummers 
or Private Men deemed incapable of doing field duty, such 
men should be examined by the Doctor General of the Hos- 
pital or some other physician or surgeon, and if judged fit 
for garrison duty they are not to be discharged, but trans- 

42 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

ferred to the Invalid Corps and sent to Philadelphia as soon 
as possible. Men having only one leg or one arm each, if 
otherwise capable of doing garrison duty, are to be deemed 
proper recruits for this Corps. 

G. O, Head Quarters, August 7, 1777. 

The Wagoners with the heavy baggage of all the Brigades 
are immediately to proceed to Coryell's Ferry and cross, and 
wait on the other side for further orders. Each Brigade is 
to send a small guard with their own wagons under proper 
officers — the whole to be under the command of a Field 

The wagons are to move in the following order — those of 
Lord Stirling's Division first. General Lincoln and General 
Stephen's next ; General Greene's last. The Boats are also 
to move at the same time. The Forage Master General will 
take care that forage is provided for the horses on the march 
and at the Ferry. 

The troops of the whole line are to be in readiness to be 
reviewed tomorrow morning at 5 o'clock, when it is ex- 
pected that every officer and soldier not on other duty and 
able will attend. The troops are to be drawn up on their 
respective Brigade parades. 

It is expected that the "Wagoners and w^agon teams which 
will remain in camp, will all be in their proper places, that 
an inspection may be had into their condition — this the 
Wagon Master General will comply with. 

Brigade Orders. 

The usual guards, viz. two men to a wagon from each 
Regiment to attend their Brigade, Colonel Stewart to fur- 
nish one Captain, and Colonel Stephens a Subaltern, to take 
care of the whole baggage of the Brigade. 

G. 0. RoxBOROUGH, August 7, 1777. 

At a General Court Martial held the 18th and 19th 
days of July last the following soldiers were tried and ac- 
quited: William Foster and Adam Brooker of the 10th 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 43 

Virginia Regiment. At the same Court Martial the fol- 
lowing soldiers were tried for various crimes and found 
guilty : James McAllister, James Scott, Daniel McCay, 
James Montgomery, and John Montgomery of Colonel 
Stewart's regiment, and many more of different Brig'ades. 
The Commander in Chief, grieved at the number of of- 
fenders, but ever desirous of showing Mercy, where it is not 
incompatible with the publick good, and hoping that his 
clemency will, hereafter, have a happy tendency to reclaim 
the guilt}', is pleased to grant a general pardon, and the 
offenders convicted as aforesaid are declared hereby to be 

The following sentences of the same Court are approved 
by the Commander in Chief: Captain Tresbach of Colonel 
Armand's Corps charged first, with absenting himself with- 
out leave; second, when being ordered to join his Corps, 
when under arms, answered he had time enough and 
declined doing it; third, when being put under arrest made 
use of bad language and treated his Colonel in a manner 
unbecoming an officer ; fourth, when the Corps was ordered 
to march to Amboy he uttered discontents loudly before the 
soldiers and wanted to know why they were returning to 
Amboy. Acquited of the first charge, but found guilty of 
all the other charges, and sentenced to be reprimanded in 
General Orders, and to ask pardon of Colonel Armand in 
the presence of the officers of his Corps. The Commander 
in Chief wishes all officers to be impressed with this truth, 
that nothing is more essential than subordination and ready 
obedience to the commands of superior officers, and that 
it is this which gives life and vigor to an army ; that the 
contrary conduct must clog and impede every movement 
and excite a spirit of discontent, disobedience and licen- 
ciousness amongst the troops ; that in this view Captain 
Tresbach's conduct must be deemed highly criminal and of 
a dangerous tendency. 

Captain Berry, Lieut. Myres, and Ensign "Westfall, of 
the 9th Virginia Regiment; Captain Brant, and Lieut. 
Smith, of the 4th Virginia Regiment, charged severally 

44 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

with neglect of duty, in not having their men's arms in 
good order and with disobedience of orders relating thereto, 
found guilty. 

Eegimental Orders, August 7, 1777. 

As a General Review is ordered tomorrow mornino: at 5 
o'clock, Colonel Stewart flatters himself his Regiment will 
acquit themselves with honor to him and pleasure to the 
General. In order to do this the officers and men must 
appear clean and decent upon the parade, and he desires 
each Captain and officers commanding companies to see 
that all the men fit for duty are turned out on the parade at 
that hour. "We are known to be a strong regiment, and 
likewise known to have been long in the service, it is there- 
fore, incumbent on the officers to pay particular attention 
for their own sakes, as well as the Colonel's, to this 

As the men will be paid off this afternoon, the officers 
will be careful that no quarrels take place between my men 
and the Virginians who are Brigaded with them. Any man 
attempting such a thing will be severely punished. We are 
all brother soldiers in the service, and it is our duty to sup- 
port each other, not to quarrel among ourselves — they are 
soldiers who will support us in action, and it is horrid that 
intestine quarrels should arise between Pennsylvania and 

As the men are to be paid off this afternoon they are 
excused from turning out until Retreat beating. 

Walter Steavart, Colonel. 

Orders of Review. 

The men are to parade on the open ground on the left of 
the Encarppment, to front as the tents are now pitched, the 
Captains and subalterns to dress in a line from right to left, 
four paces in front of the men ; the Colonel on foot ad- 
vanced six paces in front of the officers ; the Lieut. Colonel 
three paces in the rear of the Colonel and the Majors only 
on horseback in a line with the Lieut. Colonel. 

When the General comes in front of the Brio^ade the 


Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 45 

Exercising Officer will give a signal for salutes by dropping 
his sword, at which time the Drums are to beat, and the 
Officers as the General passes along towards the right to 
salute in the manner directed by His Excellency the 16th of 
June, viz. the Captains and subalterns standing with their 
Fusees over their left arms, are to bring them to an order and 
take off their hats, carefully bring their arms down close to 
their left until the General passes, w^hen they return to their 
former position. The Field Officers are to salute by drop- 
ping the points of their swords, which are to be drawn. 
All the officers and soldiers are to face as the General goes 
round the flanks of the Brigades, and when he comes again 
in the centre of the front, a General Salute is to be per- 
formed by a signal as before. The Artillery to be upon 
the right and left of the Brigades, and the officers to salute 
in the same manner with the Captains and subalterns of 
the regiments in the Brigade. 

Eegimental Orders, August 8, 1777. 

The Sergeants of the different companies will take care 
in the future to assemble their men in the different streets, 
and the Captains or officers commanding companies will 
see that their men are all present or be able to account for 
them when demanded on the regimental parade. 

A Regimental Court Martial to sit tomorrow morning 
at 9 o'clock to try such prisoners as are in the Guard- 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

Head Quarters Roxborough, August 9, 1777. 
The Army is to move slowly to Coryell's Ferry and cross 
the river, the march to begin tomorrow morning, as soon 
as possible, if it should not rain. All absent officers not 
upon actual duty to be ordered to join their respective 
Corps immediately. The commanding officers of Regi- 
ments to give in the names of all such absentees to his Brig- 
adier or officer commanding the Brigade, who is to lose no 
time in issuing his orders for this purpose. All possible 

46 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

pains are to be taken to get the men of each Regiment to 
it. The Wagon Master General and all those acting in the 
Department under him are to govern themselves agreeable 
to the Rules and Regulations of the Army conformable to 
all General Orders, Division and Brigade orders, in the 
Divisions and Brigades to which they belong, and those 
attached to Brigades to be subject to the verbal orders of 
the field officers of the Brigade appointed to the charge and 
direction of the line of march for the day. For every of- 
fence they are to be confined to their Quarters and tried by 
such Court Martials as shall be appointed to hear and 
determine the same. If any officer in the Department, 
either on march or in Camp, shall neglect his Duty, com- 
plaint is to be made to the Field Officer superintending the 
line of march for the day or to the Brigadier or Major 
General of the Brigade or Division, either of whom may 
order the person to confine himself to his Quarters as above. 
This provision being made to keep the Wagon Masters to 
their duty, every officer is positively forbidden to put any 
of them under guard or in the Provost, and their doing it 
will assuredly subject them to be tried by a Court Martial 
for a breach of orders. The names of the Deputy Wagon 
Master Generals appointed to the Direction of the Wagons 
of the Divisions to be inserted in the Division Orders and 
those of the Brigades in Brigade Orders, and those officers 
to have recourse to the General Orders for the regulation 
of their conduct. 

For the future the Commissaries are to issue five ounces 
of Soap for each man per week, and if it shall ever happen 
that they have not Soap to issue, they are by no means to 
give money in lieu of the Soap not drawn, but to reimburse 
the commanding officers of regiments and Corps such sums 
as they shall have expended for that article for the use of 
their Regiments and Corps when not to be had at the Com- 
missary's Store — but in such cases the officers will confine 
themselves to the above allowance, and no soldier shall on 
any pretence be permitted to sell his soap, and if detected 
in doing so, he shall be severely punished. This ample 

Orderly-Boole of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 47 

allowance of Soap being made, the commanding officers of 
Reo-imeiits and Corps will be answerable, that hence forward 
their men appear decent and clean. 

Ko officer having appeared before the Board of General 
Officers to show cause why the abstracts cannot be made 
out agreeable to the General Orders, it is expected that they 
will be completed and delivered to the Paymaster General 
by the time limited in the General Order of the 6th instant, 
and hence forward the pay Abstracts are to be delivered 
regularly to the Paymaster General on the first Monday of 
every month for the month preceding. 

The Hon'''^ the Continental Congress have been pleased 
to appoint William Buchanan Esq. Commissary General 
of Purchases, and Charles Stewart Esq. Commissary Gen- 
eral of Issues of Provisions for the Armies of the United 
States, Joseph Trumbull Esq. having declined serving in 
these offices any longer. All the rations of the Army are 
to be made up to the next Monday in order for a settlement 
with the late Commissary General Trumbull, Mr. Bates 
will attend the Army constantly until the wdiole are paid 
off. He will take his Quarters as near as he can to Head 

G. O. Head Quarters near Cross Egads, August 12, 1777. 

The Commander in Chief is pleased to approve the fol- 
lowing sentences of a General Court Martial held yesterday, 
whereof Colonel Spencer was President, viz. Adam Close 
of the Sixth Virginia Regiment charged with Desertion — 
no witnesses appearing the Court ordered him to be sent 
to his Regiment. Jno. Jones and Jno. Franklin of the 
Fourteenth Virginia Regiment charged severally with de- 
sertion; sentenced to receive each one hundred lashes on 
his bare back, well laid on. 

The Commander in Chief orders that the foregoing sen- 
tences be put in execution immediately ; and that at all times 
hence forward so soon as sentences of a Court are approved 
and published in Orders, the officer whose duty it is shall 
send for the prisoners and cause the sentences to be executed 


48 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

without delay, if the situation of the Army will possibly 

The Major Generals are to consult their Brigadiers and 
oflicers commanding Corps in their respective Divisions 
and set up as many Armouries as are sufficient to keep the 
arms of their respective Divisions in repair, and to see that 
if necessary one or more traveling forges be provided to 
effect this purpose in their Divisions. In making provision 
for this business it may not be amiss to consult the Com- 
missary General of Stores and Thomas Butler Continental 
Armourer on the means proper for it. It is hoped that 
each Division can furnish their own Armourers. 

The General does in very strong terms request that the 
Brigadiers will confine every Regimental Quarter Master 
of their respective Brigades who neglect to have proper 
. . . erected for the convenience of the men at any en- 
campment of more than one night continuance, and who 
does not cause all offixl to be buried — the neglect of this 
in our encamjSment near Schuylkill Falls occasioned it to 
become a public nuisance and a public reproach, to the 
great discredit of the Army, which in fact is not less injured 
in health than in reputation by such uncleanness and of- 
fensive smells — these ... in a single line of encampment 
always to be dug in the rear and regular, and not at the will 
and pleasure of any Camp Colorman, many of whom have 
placed them most indecently — they are also to be covered 
with bowers and bushes when the places are marked out 
by the Quarter Masters, — it is expected this order will be 
invariably adhered to without repetition. 

B. O. 

A Brigade Guard — a Captain, a Subaltern, a Sergeant, 
a Corporal and fifty men, to mount in future, wherever 
the Brigade may be encamped, from which a chain of sen- 
tries are to be posted at proper intervals for the security 
of the Camp. A subaltern is to perform the visiting rounds 
and the Field Officers of the Brigade. The Grand Rounds 
are to see the sentries do their duty. 

Orderly -Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 49 

Any officer or soldier absent from camp after Tattoo not 
being on necessary duty — if an officer to be reported by the 
officer commanding the Guard in his morning report, and 
if a sohlicr, he is to be contined, that the proper notice 
may be taken in either case. 

The Guard when the Brigade is upon a march, is always 
to compose the Rear Guard and to encamp when the ground 
will admit of it in the centre of the Brigade in front. The 
officer commanding it is requested to consider it as a part 
of his duty in conjunction with the Field officer of the 
Day, to see that the Camp is kept clean and to confine aii}^ 
offender against the Brigade Order of 6th inst. 

Regimental Order. 

The Regiment to be paraded this afternoon at 5 o'clock, 
and to exercise by double companies from that time to gun 
firing — the Captains to make their men exercise by the beat 
of the drum. 

Walter Stewart, Colonel. 

G. O. Head Quarters Cross Roads, August 13, 1777. 

Major General, Greene; Brigadier, Muhlenberg. 

Field Officers, Col. Patton ; Lieut. Col. Butler. 

Brigade Major, Swain. 

The Officers of the Day will consider the necessary guards 
to be posted in this place, and attend to the order and dis- 
cipline of the Camp agreeable to General Orders of June 
5th. The General requests the Officers of the Day to dine 
at Head Quarters as usual. 

The Brigadiers or officers commanding Brigades are at 
orderly time tomorrow to return a list of all absent officers 
in their respective Corps to the Adjutant General. In doing 
this the name and rank of all the officers are to l)e set forth, 
how long they have been absent; whether they are upon 
duty and what duty; or on furlough, and the length of 
time for which it was granted. A strict compliance with 
this order is expected. 

The Quarter Masters and Wagon Masters General are 

50 Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

now to arrange all matters in their respective Departments 
in the best manner possible and be ready to move on the 
shortest notice whatever route the Army may be called to 

The Board of General Officers held the 12th inst. to 
examine the complaints made against Colonel John White 
and other officers of the Georgia Battalion for enlisting 
some men out of the Continental Army, who were already 
enlisted in other regiments, report that upon the fullest 
enquiry there does not appear the least imputation against 
Colonel White, or against any of his officers, except in the 
instance of Captain Lucas, who supposed himself author- 
ized in the matter complained of by a General Order from 
Major General Gates issued by the Town Major. All 
officers from whose Corps it is suspected any men have 
deserted and enlisted into Colonel White's Battalion are 
instantly to make out lists of their names with proper 
descriptions of their persons and dress and deliver them 
to their Brigadiers or officers commanding their Brigades, 
who will then immediately send a subaltern officer of the 
Brigade to Philadelphia to examine Colonel White's Bat- 
talion agreeably to his request; he will deliver up these 
deserters, if any shall be found in his Corps. These officers 
will at the same time apply to the officer commanding the 
Galleys and other vessels of War at Pliiladelphia and below 
the city for leave to search their vessels for deserters, and 
they are desired to permit such searches accordingly. 

Two sober, honest lads, who are to talk French, are to 
be sent to Head Quarters this afternoon at 6 o'clock. Gen- 
eral Muhlenberg will send one from his Brigade and General 
Scott another, if to be found in their Brigades. One orderly 
sergeant from each Brigade to Head Quarters forthwith. 

I^- 0. Camp Cross Roads, August 13, 1777. 

A Court of Inquiry to sit tomorrow morning whereof 
Colonel Stephens is President, to examine into a complaint 
made by Mr. Vanderslico, a Wagon Master, against Lieut. 
Colonel Davis of the 5th Virginia Regiment, for striking 

Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 51 

and abusing him ; the state of the matter to be reported at 
large that his Excellency who orders this Court may judge 
who is the aggressor. 

General Muhlenberg is requested to order a Guard over 
Mr. Miller's oats, to consist of a Sergeant and ten men. 

The commanding officers of Regiments to make a return 
of all the Armourers in their Regiments as soon as possible. 

N. Greene, M. G. 

B. O. Field Officers tomorrow, Lieut, Colonel Parker, 
Lieut. Colonel Buford. Court of Liquiry, Major Nicholas, 
Major Johnson. Colonel Stewart to parade tomorrow at 
Troop Beating, one sergeant, one corporal, sixteen privates. 

B. O. Camp Cross Eoads, August 14, 1777. 

A return of tlie absent officers of the different Regiments 
to be given in by Colonels this morning at 10 o'clock, in 
doing which strict attention must be paid to the General 
Orders of yesterday, respecting the occasion of their ab- 
sence, how long, on what duty &c. The gentlemen officers 
will also, in the forenoon, comply with the General Orders 
which relates to Suttlers, and make their report as early as 

Head Quarters 
G. O. Camp Cross Roads, August 14, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Lord Stirling; Brigadier, 

Field Officers, Colonel Cook, Lieut. Colonel Innes. 

Brigade Major, Witherspoon. 

A Board of General Officers not on duty to sit tomorrow 
at 10 o'clock in the forenoon at General Greene's Quarters 
for the purpose of settling the rank of all the Pennsylvania 
Field Officers. 


Stolen from the stable at the Cross Roads a pair of Silver 
mounted Pistols with screw-barrels. A handsome reward 
will be given to any person who will deliver them to Major 

52 Orderly -Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

NichoUis of the 10th Virghiia Regiment, and no questions 

Lieut. Colonel Heath of the 3rd Virginia Regiment had 
a horse stolen from him while the Army lay at the Clove. 
When the Army came to Coryell's Ferry, the horse was 
found in the hands of one Jones Ingomar where he was 
left by John Cummins and Patrick McGovack, said to have 
been Sutlers to the North Carolina troops. The horse was 
much abused and much disfigured. Commanding officers 
of Corps are desired to make inquiry in their Corps for the 
said Cummins and McGovack, that they may he brought to 
condign punishment, or if innocent that by their means the 
villain may be found out. 

B. O. Camp Cross Roads, August 15, 1777. 

The Regimental Quarter Masters to make returns this 
day of such public stores as are in their possession to Lau- 
rence Trent, who is appointed Quarter Master of the Brigade. 
They will also make returns of the wagons belonging to 
their Regiments, that if there he any deficiency they may 
be supplied. The Wagon Masters of the Brigade will make 
him a return of the public horses in their regiments, and 
let him know if any are wanting for the Brigade. Any- 
thing wanting in the future for either of those Departments 
must be immediately communicated to him, and it is ex- 
pected nothing will be left undone that may forward our 
marches when ordered. Mr. Trent will see to procure straw 
for any Regiments who are not supplied, and send their 
wagons immediately for it. 

Eegimental Orders, Cross Roads, August 15, 1777. 
It is with great concern that the Colonel sees his Regiment 
appear on the Parade so very dirty. He must look upon 
this as in a great measure owing to the negligence of the 
officers commanding companies, by not paying attention to 
the cleanliness of their men. Cleanliness is the first means 
to keep men healthy — that when the men get into the habit, 
there will be less trouble to the officers, otherwise it will 

Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 53 

reflect on them and the appearance of their companies, and 
on the Colonel. The Colonel therefore requests the Cap- 
tains and their ofiicers will immediately examine into the 
dress and appearance of their men every day, and have such 
as appear dirty severely punished; he desires that the Cap- 
tains divide their companies into squads, and give each of 
their sergeants the command and care of these squads, who 
is to be accountable for their cleanliness. It is my express 
order for the future, that no man appears on ye parade for 
guard without his uniform, close shaved, hands and face 
well washed and his hair powdered. Any soldier who in 
the future appears otherwise, must be immediately confined 
by the Sergeant-Major until the guard is relieved, when the 
oflicer of the main guard is to bring him to the front of the 
Regiment, attended by the guard, and he is to receive twenty 
lashes on his bare back. 

"Walter Stewart, 

Gr. 0. Head Quarteks, Cross Roads, August 15, 1777. 

Major General tomorrow, Stevens ; Brigadier, Woodford. 

Field Ofiicers, Lieut. Colonels Conner and Heath. 

Brigade Major, Day. 

Detail, Col. Stewart, 1 s, 1 s, 18 p. 

B. O. Field Oflicer for the Brigade tomorrow, Major 

B. O. Cross Eoads, August 16, 1777. 

The tents are to be struck at 10 o'clock and the encamp- 
ments of the different regiments properly cleaned up, that 
the Wind and Sun may dry the ground. Regimental 
Quarter Masters will attend to this order and see that their 
encampments are clean and the tents pitched again in regu- 
lar order in the afternoon. JSTo bushes or fllth of any kind 
must be left on the ground, either in the front or rear of 
the tents. The guards in future to parade in front of the 

54 Orderly-Booh of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot. 

Eegimental Ordebs, Cross Roads, August 16, 1777. 
A return to be made out by each Captain or officer com- 
manding a company, of the number of men enlisted in their 
companies during the War, with the names of said men, to 
be delivered to the Adjutant immediately. No drums of 
the regiment to be beat in camp at any time, without the 
liberty of the commanding officer of the regiment. If fair 
weather the men are to be paraded tomorrow morning at 
five o'clock for exercise. 

Walter Stewart, 





MAY 10 TO AUGUvST 16, 1777