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A AN or AVEN (Gael, abhuimi, 'river'), a rivulet of 
A the Eastern Grampians, rises on the NW side 
Jtx. °? Mount Battock, at an altitude of 1650 feet, 
near the meeting-point of Aberdeen, Kincardine, 
and Forfar shires. Thence it runs about 8J miles NE 
mostly along the boundary between Aberdeen and Kin- 
cardine shires, to a confluence with the Feugh, 4 miles 
SW of Banchory. It flows in a rocky bed, is subject 
to great freshets, and is open to the public, but affords 
no very good sport. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Abbey, a precinct in Canongate parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, adjacent to the foot of the lines of street eastward 
from the centre of the Old Town of Edinburgh. It 
contains Holyrood Palace and Abbey, and includes the 
Queen's Park. First enclosed by James V. , it was from 
ancient times until 1880 a sanctuary for insolvent debtors, 
a bailie for it being appointed by commission from the 
Duke of Hamilton, and siltiijg in a small court-house 
on the first Saturday of every month. Its population 
has dwindled since the alteration of the law respecting 
debtors, and it now has few inhabitants except in con- 
nection with Holyrood. The objects of interest, parti- 
cularly the palace, the abbey, and their adjuncts, are 
described under Edinbukgh. 

Abbey, a quoad sacra parish, formed in 1875 out of 
South Leith and Greenside parishes, Edinburghshire. 
Its church, on London Road, close to Abbeyhill station, 
and 1 mile ENE of Edinburgh Post Office, is a Gothic 
structure, built (1875-76) at a cost of £8000, with 855 
sittings, and tower and spire. Behind it is Abbeyhill 
school (1881); and not far off are London Road U.P. 
church (1875 ; 950 sittings), a very good Early English 
edifice, also with tower and spire, and Abbeyhill Epis- 
copal mission church (1880 ; 300 sittings) and school. 
Pop. (1891) 8907. 

Abbey, a village formerly of Clackmannanshire, 1J 
mile ENE of Stirling, but transferred by the Boundary 
Commissioners in 1891, along with the reconstituted 
parish of Logie, to the county of Stirling. It takes its 
name from the neighbouring abbey of Cambttskenneth, 
and has a public school, which, with accommodation for 
48 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 40, 
and a grant of £34, 13s. 

Abbey or Nungate, a suburb of the town of Haddj- 
ton, with which it is connected by a bridge of f 
arches, situated on the left bank of the river Tyne. 
so named from a Cistercian nunnery which was fo - 
here in 1178 by Ada, mother of Malcolm IV. 
in this abbey or nunnery that a parliament w/ 
vened on the 7th of July, 1548, during the\ 
Haddington, when consent was given to the m. 
of Queen Mary to the Dauphin of France, and \ 
being educated at that court. No traces of it now r< 
Abbey, a quoad sacra parish in Arbroath an 
Vigeans parishes, Forfarshire, around the ruins o. 
broath Abbey, in the town of Arbroath. Constit 
in 1869, it had a population in 1891 of 5737, and 

the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. The church, erected in 1787 as a chapel of 
ease, at a cost of about £2000, contained 1281 sittings, 
but was enlarged by 80 more in 1879. One school 
under the Arbroath burgh school-board bears the name 
of Abbey. It has accommodation for 590 children, and 
had (1891) an average attendance of 589 and a grant of 
£574, 6s. lid. 

Abbey, a parish of NE Renfrewshire, including part 
of the town of Paisley while completely surrounding 
the burgh parishes, and itself called sometimes Abbey 
Paisley. It also contains the town of Johnstone, the 
Dovecothall portion of Barrhead, and the villages of 
Elderslie, Thorn; Quarrelton, Inkerman, Hurlet, and 
Nitshill. It is bounded N by Renfrew parish, NE Vy 

Govan in Lanarkshire, E by Eastwood, ^.n ' 
Neilston, W by Lochwinnoch, and N¥ by K 
A small semi-detached portion of the pa) 
river Cart, and another small detached i 
in 1S91 transferred by the Boundary 
to the parish of Paisley. The White 
about 5 iriles westward, partly alonp 
boundary, and partly through the int( 
thence striking 1J mile northward in! 
on its way to the Clyde ; at Crooksb 
the Levekn, which from BpMheai 
south-eastern and eastern border' p 1 ' 
north-western border, from MiUi : -er/ P:"* 
House, a distance .J: 4 J miles,, is marked 
Cam; and all threvi stream?, are fed bv 
5TW of Paisley is a mineral ■ f-ring ; sr 
the Stanely and Row Dank reservoirs. ' 
of water. Tie no: ' ■■ ■' "' 
perfect level, f 
near Boghea 
southward • 
whinn 1 " 




Cardouald are ancient mansions ; while Johnstone Castle, 
Ferguslie, Househill, Ralston, Barshaw, and Egypt Park 
are all of modern erection. This parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and it 
contains the quoad sacra parishes of Elderslie and John- 
stone, with almost the whole of Levern. The i 
since 1641 has been collegiate ; and there are two minis- 
ters, the first of whom has an income of £707, and the 
second of £502. The parish church is that of the ancient 
abbey, described under Paisley, where, as also under, Johnstone, and BARRHEAD, other places 
of worship of various denominations will be noticed. 
The landward school-board consists of 9 members ; and 
7 schools under it, with total accommodation for 237S 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 1S49, and 
grants amounting to £1702, 15s. 3d. Abbey parish has 
its own poor-law administration, and possesses a poor- 
house and a lunatic asylum for itself, with respective 
accommodation for 655 and 98 inmates. It is traversed 
by reaches of the Caledonian and of the Glasgow and 
South-Western railway. Pop. of quoad sacra parish 
(1891) 17,018 ; of landward district, 6745. Pop. of 
civil parish (1S01) 14,153, (1861) 29,687, (1871) 30,537, 
' ) 34, 392, (1891) 42,887, of whom 25,203 were within 
the burgh.— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Abbey, a burn and a small headland in Rerwick parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. The burn rises near Boon Hill, and 
runs about 6 miles southward, past Dundrennan Abbey, 
to the Solway Firth, at the small harbour of Burnfoot. 
The headland flanks the W side of that harbour, 3 J miles 
K of the entranco of Kirkcudbright Bay. 

Abbey, a lull in Abbey St Bathans parish, Berwick - 

.-hire, 6 miles NNW of Duns. It is one of the Lammer- 

mnirs, has a length of about 2 miles, rises to an altitude of 

913 feet, and consists of two parts, called Inner and Outer. 

Abbey Batbans. See Abbey St Bathans. 

Abbey Craig, an abrupt eminence in Logie parish, 

the N side of the Forth, 1J mile ENE 

It rises from a plain of carboniferous rocks ; 

. Irst of sandstones, shales, clay, ironstone, 

nicstone ; afterwards becomes a mass of 

Hilar to that of Stirling Castle and Craig- 

and culminates at a height of 362 feet 

' of the sea. Its limestone has drawn 

and its greenstone, in considerable 

;n worked into excellent mill-stones. 

ue ; its surface is largely clothed 

traced with winding walks ; and 

lands a magnificent view of the basin of 

bears marks of an entrenchment formed 

•s, and redewed by Cromwell ; it yielded, 

1 790, a nu ruber oft uronzc spear-heads ; 

the victorious army of Sir 

1 tb. i ! pf Stirling, 11 Sept. 

*' "^* crowns a tabular 

~" r end. It was 

1 Sept. 1869, 

""oehead of 

1 tower, 

"6 feet 


of Lanark. Beautifully situated in a pleasant vale, it 
takes its name from the priory of Lesmahagow, and is 
itself often called Lesmahagow. It stands nearly in the 
centre of that, parish, and contains its post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, under Lanark. There are besides branches 
of the Royal Bank and British Linen Co. Bank, several 
insurance offices, the parish church (1S04), a Free and a 
TJ. P. church. Two public schools, boys' and female in- 
dustrial, with respective accommodation for 257 and 267 
children, had (1S91) an average attendance of 180 and 
185, and grants of £175, Is. and £195, 18s. Id. 
Business fairs are held on the second or the third Wed- 
nesday in May and August, and on the first three 
Wednesdays of December, and hiring-fairs on the second 
Wednesday of March and October. Pop. (1891) 1587. 

Abbeyhill, an old suburb of Edinburgh, adjacent to the 
N side of Holyrood gardens, and on the North British 
railway at the deflection of the northern branch from the 
main line, about 1 mile E of the centre of Edinburgh. 
It consists chiefly of the old street, containing one or two 
houses which may have been residences of the courtiers of 
Holyrood ; and in 1732 it was the death-place of the 
first Duchess of Gordon. The railway passes it partly on 
viaducts and partly on embankments. The new thorough- 
fare from Holyrood to Regent Road, formed for giving 
better access to Edinburgh than by the old Canongate 
route, is spanned by one of the viaducts. A station of 
the name of Abbeyhill is on the northern branch oi 
the railway, in the northern neighbourhood of the old 
suburb, adjacent to the new suburb on the line of 
London Road. 

Abbey St Bathans, a hamlet and a parish in the Lam- 
mermuir district of Berwickshire, took its name partly 
from aCisterciannunnery, partly from Baithene.Columba's 
cousin andsuccessor at Iona. The hamlet lies in a pleasant 
haugh on the river Whitadder, here spanned by a suspen- 
sion bridge, and is i\ miles WSW of Grants House 
station, under which it has a post office. The nunnery 
of St Mary was founded towards the close of the 12th 
century by Ada, countess of Dunbar, was a cell of 
Berwick, and had an income of £47, but is now re- 
presented only by the E and W walls of its chapel, 
which, originally 58 by 26 feet, was greatly curtailed 
and modernised about the end of last century. In its 
altered condition it serves as the parish church, and 
contains 140 sittings. A school, with accommodation 
for 72 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 44, 
and a grant of £49, 3s. 

The parish was partly re-crected by the Boundary 
Commissioners in 1891. It had two detached portions, 
one sujTOunded by the parish of, the 
other separated from the rest of the parish by a detached 
part of the parish of Longformacus, The first was tra us- 
ferred to the parish of Cockburnspath, while the second 
was united to the parish of Abbey St Bathans, by the 
incorporation in it of the separating port ion oi' the parish 
of Longformacus, Including Abbey Hill (913 feet), Barn- 
side 1 1 ill (865), the Camp (S03), and several other lowor 
eminences, it yet comprises a good aggregate of fertile and 
well-cultivated lowland ; and white the upper grounds 
are mostly bare or heathy, the lower slopes are often 
finely wooded up to a considerable height. The pre- 
ling rocks are Silurian, and a copper-mine was opened 
n 1828, but soon abandoned. The Wihtamhu, wind- 

' from W to E, is hore a beautiful stream, over 30 feet. 

••, and here it receives the Monynut Water and the 

'•and Elder burns. All abound in trout, and Moor 

gc is a favourite anglers' haunt. Godscrol'l ., on the 

iut, was the demesne of David Hnmo (1500-1 630), 

•n of the house of Angus. One proprietor holds 

oal value of over £2500, another of over £500, 

old each between £100 and £500, and one holds 

'i n '.l |.ni:,li is in tho presbytery of 

and synod of Morse and Teviotdale; its minister's 

.<• is £190. Pop. (1891) 163.— Ord, Sur., sh. 33, 


bbeytown. See An. in. 
bbey Well, a fountain a little to the E of the parish 


c]ni'ct of TJrquhart, Elginshire. It is thi mo- 

rijl of a Benedictine priory founded by Dav' il24. 

Abbotrule (Lat. Rula fferev ei, ' Rule Her l 1 65), 

a quondam parish of Roxburghshire, tMviq Jly in 

1777 between the parishes \ii ' - ;idean. 

It extended about 3 miles aloiflg the E , t> upper 

part of Rule Water; and ij ishuroh, <i 3 Jed- 

burgh by David I., still f/ > I -=rin » rmesNE of 

Hobkirk (Orfjr. Paroch. &§& £ 3 49 .' ,K ; ? <tate of 
Abbotrule, comprising 234* ,4 .- X * ed to sale 

in 1818 at an upset price oi/^ ;cw belongs to 

representatives of the late S j$ ,' r 'gham, Esq. 

Abbotsford, the mansioi'/oi rtfe^ r Walter Scott 

, Melrose parish, Roxburghsh ire. stands on the 

right side of the river Tweed, opposite -ahjotsford-Ferry 
station, and 2 miles W of Melrose. Sr Walter pur- 
chased its site, together with ■»• iJ surrounding 
acres, in 1811 ; he purchased an adjoinng tract, up to 
Cauldshiels Loch, in 1813; and « 187 he made his 
most extensive purchase, the iat-ids o Toftfield. His 
original purchase was a plain, ti§i l rse, '-nimproved farm, 
caUed Cartley Hole; but it cont a - a reputed haunt 
of Thomas the Rhymer; contahW al ° some memorials 
^ the battle of Melrose, and coi.maaded a view across 
:he Tweed of a prominent exta nt prtion of the Cale- 
lonian Catrail; and it therefore su>-ed his antiquarian 
taste. His first care was to find a uphomous name for 
: t, in room of Cartley Hole; ;'* with allusion to a 
shallow in the Tweed, which the a ' D °ts of Melrose had 
used for driving across their ca+tle, he called it Abbots- 
ord. His next care was to b a residence ; his next 
to improve the land. He fi: >uilt a pretty cottage, 
and removed to it from Ash? '1 in May 1812; next, 
between 1817 and 1821, hi 41t the present 'huge 
-jaronial pile,' whose intern ittings were not com- 
pleted till 1824 ; and he, all 1 , e while, carried forward 
the improving and planting c ;he land. The mansion 
stands on a terrace of a si pish bank, between the 
Tweed and the public road roni Melrose to Selkirk. 
The grounds comprise a trXct of meadow at the bank 
foot, but are chiefly a br.' a dj l°w hill upward to the 
southern boundary. Th. »' r present features of garden 
and park, of walk and/vood, are much admired, and 
were all of Sir Walter's wn creating. The mansion's 

Erecincts comprise umbr§ geous shrubberies, curious out- 
ouses, a cast-iron balcony walk, a turreted wall, a 
screen wall of Gothic arc '- iron fretwork, a front court 
of about -J acre in are3 md a lofty arched entrance 
gateway. The mansioi itself defies all the rules of 
architecture, and has singular features and extraordinary 
proportions, yet looks (both beautiful and picturesque, 
and is truly ' a roman f* in stone and lime.' It presents 
bold gables, salient s> 'tions, projecting windows, hang- 
ing turrets, and suit iMnting towers, in such numbers 
and in such divers 1 it of style and composition and 
ornaturo, as to bewih 1 the eye of any ordinary observer. 
Many of its desigDs I parts are copies of famous old 
architectural objecu. s a gateway from Linlithgow 
Palace, a portal from Edinburgh Old Tolbooth, a roof 
from Roslin Chapel, a mantelpiece from Melrose Abbey, 
oak-work from Ho)fTood Palace, and sculptured stones 
from anciept hour's in various parts of Scotland; so 
that they make tl; mansion also a sort of architectural 
museum. The eie 1 (ance-hall is a magnificent apartment, 
about 40 feet loii% floored with mosaic of black and 
white marble, panelled with richly-carved oak from 
Dunfermline Pal' lce > and tastefully hung with pieces of 
ancient armour. ' -A- narrow arched room extends across 
the house, gives' communication from the entrance-hall 
to the dining-ro >m an <l the drawing-room, and contains 
a rich collection °f ancient small weapons and defensive 
•inns. The dining-room has a richly-carved black oak 
roof, a lai s en-ojeeting window, Gothic furniture, and a 
fine colled ' pf pictures, and is the apartment in which 
Sir W^ter d. The drawing-room is cased with cedar, 
and c< ^eautiful antique ebony chairs, presented by 

George yid several chastely-carved cabinets. The 

library ± >;red from the drawing-room ; measures CO 
feet by 50 roofed with richly-carved oak, after ancient 


models; and contains about 20,000 volumes in carved 
oak cases, an ebony writing-desk presented by George III., 
two carved elbow chairs presented by the Pope, a silver 
urn presented by Lord Byron, Chantrey's bust of Sir 
Walter, and a copy of the Stratford bust of Shakespeare. 
The study, in which Sir Walter wrote, is a small, plain, 
sombre room, entered from the library; and, after Sir 
Walter's death, was fitted up as an oratory. A closet is 
attached to the study, and contains, within a glass-case 
on a table, the clothes which Sir Walter wore as a mem- 
ber of the Celtic Society, the forest accoutrements which 
he used to carry in his strolls through his grounds, and 
the hat, coat, vest, and trousers which he wore imme- 
diately before his death. 

'Ah ! where are now the flashing eye 

That fired at Flodden field, 
That saw, in fancy, onsets fierce, 

And clashing spear and shield, — 
The eager and untiring step 

Thatsought for Border lore, 
To make old Scotland's heroes known 

On every peopled shore, — 
The graphic pen that drew at once 

The traits so archly shown 
In Bertram's faithful pedagogue, 

And haughty Harmion, — 
The hand that equally could paint, 

With each proportion fair, i 
The stern, the wild Meg Merrilees, 

And lovely Lady Clare, — 
The glowing dreams of bright romance 

That shot across his brow, — 
Where is his daring chivalry, 

Where are his visions now?* 

The mansion passed in 1S53 to Mr J. Hope Scott, who 
had married Sir Walter's granddaughter, and added a 
Roman Catholic domestic chapel; from him it passed, also 
by marriage, to the Hon. Jos. Constable Maxwell-Scott. 
Abbotshall, a coast parish, S. Fifeshire, containing 
the Linktown or southern suburb of Kirkcaldy (incor- 
porated with that burgh in 1876), and bounded W, NW, 
and N by Auchterderran, E by Kirkcaldy and for \ mile 
by the Firth of Forth, S by Kinghom, and SW by Aueh- , 
tertool. Irregular in outline, it has a varying length from 
E to W of 7 furlongs and 3§ miles, an extreme breadth 
from N to S of 3 miles, and an area of 4189 acres, of 
which nearly 60 are foreshore and 25 water. Two 
detached portions of this parish (respectively 27 acres 
and 4 acres in extent), which were wholly surrounded 
by the parish of Kirkcaldy, were in 1891 transferred to 
that parish by the Boundary Commissioners. The sur- 
face, low and level near the coast, rises gently, westward 
and north-westward, to 283 feet beyond Balwearie, 400 
near Haith House, 399 near Chapel, 500 near Torbain, and 
484 beyond Lambswell, in the furthest west. Streams 
there are none of any size, only Tiel Burn and another, 
feeding the beautiful lake before Raith House, which 
was formed in 1812. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly belong to the Limestone Carboniferous system; and 
sandstone and limestone, the latter abounding in fossils, 
are quarried extensively, but no coal has been recently 
worked. The soil towards the shore is fertile, though 
light, growing good turnips and barley ; further inland 
is mostly dark or clay loam, well adapted for wheat and 
beans and other heavy crops ; and further still is chiefly 
of inferior quality, on a cold, tilly subsoil. About four- 
fifths of the whole area are in tillage, and one-sixth more 
is under wood. Balwearie Tower is the principal an- 
tiquity, only a large yew tree marking the site of the 
hall or pleasaunce of the abbots of Dunfermline, \ mile 
W of the church, from which the parish received its 
name. Raith Hill, too, crowned by a conspicuous square 
tower, has yielded some ancient urns and rude stone 
coffins. William Adam, architect (flo. 1728), and 
General Sir Ronald C. Ferguson (1773-1841), were 
natives, the Fergusons having held the Raith estate 
since 1707, and the Melvilles before them since 1296 
and earlier. Raith House, IJ mile W of Kirkcaldy, is 
a good old mansion, originally built by George, first 
Earl of Melville, in 1694, with modern Ionic portico 
and wings, and with finely-wooded grounds and park. 
The present proprietor owns 7135 acres in the shire, 


valued at £13,919 (minerals, £15S2) per annum; and Mr 
Davidson of Bogie House, a castellated mansion 2 J miles 
WNW of the town, owns 398 acres, valued at£817. Five 
other proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 15 of between £100 and £500, 12 of from 
£50 to £100, and 65 of from £20 to £50. In the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, Abbotshall was 
disjoined from Kirkcaldy in 1620, but has itself given 
off a southern portion to the quoad sacra pariuh of 
Inyebtiex; its minister's income is £313. The parish 
church (rebuilt 1788; 825 sittings) stands J mile W of 
Kirkcaldy, and there is also a Free church, whilst a 
public school at Chapel village, 2J miles NW, with 
accommodation for 149 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of Sti, and a grant of £67, 13s. Valuation 
(1891) £5794, 19s. 5d., (1892) £5706, 19s. 8d. Total 
pop. (1821) 3267, (1851) 5030, (1S71) 5785, 674 of them 
in landward portion, (1881) 6435; for 1891 see Kikk- 
calut. — Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Abbotshaugh, a quondam abbey, now quite obliterated, 
near Grangemouth, in Falkirk parish, Stirlingshire. The 
grange or home farm of it gave name to the Grange Burn, 
and through that to Grangemouth. 

Abbot's Isle, a small green island in the bay of Stone- 
field, on the S side, and towards the foot, of Loch Etive, 
Muckairn parish, Argyllshire. 

Abbotsrule. See Abbotrule. 

Abbot's Tower, an ancient ivy -clad square ruin, over 
40 feet high, stands about J mile ENE of Sweetheart 
Abbey in Newabbey parish, Kii-kcudbrightshire. 

Abbot's Walls, the ruins of a summer residence of the 
abbots of Arbroath, in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, 
i :.- haugh opposite Aberdeen. 

Abb's Head, St, a bold rocky promontory in Colding- 
ham parish, Berwickshire, 4 '-'Lies NNW of Eyemouth. 
It presents a wall-like front t ' -German Ocean nearly 
200 feet high ; rises to as e e height of 310 feet ; 

has tlm • aits — Kirkhill le E, Harelaw in the 

middle, Fowlia on the W ; a) i separated from the 
mahdaad by i vaie or gully, .iently spanned by a 
bridge. The neighbc oring rock* -e Silurian, strangely 
contorted ; but St Abb's itself is perphyritic trap, a 
portion of which, smoothed, grooved, and. serrated by 
glacial action, wa lara for the inspection of the 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club in 1866, and has been 
loft exposed. On Harelaw is a lighthouse, erected iu 
1861 , ana showing a flashing light every 10 seconds, 
visible for 21 mil u d a log signal; while at Petti- 
cowick, its landing-place, where the precipice is 300 feet 
high, occurs a beautiful example of the junction of the 
trap and Silurian roei;s. Numerous caves pierce the 
cliffs, are inaccessible by land, and can be approached 
a only at low water and in the calmest weather, 
iud were formerly haunts of smugglers. This headland 
was named after St ELba, daughter of King Ethelfrid, 
and half-sister of Oswald ami Oswy, kings of Nortkuin- 
bria, who about the middle of the 7th century founded 
upon its 'nabs' the monastery of Urbs Oolvdi (Sax. 
Coldmgaham), and as its abbess ruled until her death, 
25 Aug. 683. It was a double monastery, containing 
distinct CO! > ' I u and women, who lived 

under her single government ; and the neck of land on 
which it stood was cut oil i udered impregnable by 

a high wall and a deep trench ; but the building itself 
was probably very huml.i. , with walls of wood and clay, 
and thatch of straw. Hither St Cuthbert came in 601 
on a v, ,i i'i Kbba, i ' i ti liest part of the night 

iu prayer and vigils entering the sea till the water 
reached to his arms a:> lile seals came nestling 

■Ids Here, too, in 871, Etholreda, foundress of 
Ely, received the veil from St Wilfrid ; and here the 
monk Adamuau foretold ti ling doom of 'lire 

from heaven ' that burned the house for its sins in 679. 
Rebuilt for women only, it was sacked by the Danes in 
870, when the nuns, to preserve their honour, cut oil' 
their noses arul lips. Tho trench and some grassy mounds 
are all that now mark its site, a ruined chapel on the Kirk- 
bill dating only from tho 14th century. See art. Ebba 
in vol. ii. of 3mitb'n Did. Christ. Biog. (Lend. 1880). 






rocks also occur, and a 
building and paving ! 
water is Lindores Loci 
which, nearly 4 miles 
Priest's Burn, and sends 


estate, with a plain old mansion, in Kin<». 
-Fife. It long was the property of tne 
ad a royal residence, the remains of which 
' only in the present century. A rock 
mansion exhibits rapid gradual transition 
from s; udstono to quartz, 

Abdi* (13th c. Ebedyn—i.e. abthen or abden, 'abbey 
lands') a parish of NE Fife, on the Firth of Tay con- 
tains tfefl Mount Pleasant suburb of Newbot-qh, its 
post-town find, station, and also the villages of Lin- 
dores and G'lvnge of Lindores. Till 1633 it included the 
present pari 1 ! of Newburgh, by which and by Dunbog 
it was, untk 1891, cut into three distinct portions 
The middle a v d largest of these was 4 miles long by 3 
and now formrt-he complete parish of Abdie; the smallest! 
3furlongsto tf> W, andonthePerthshireborder, measured 
1J by J mile, ud was transferred by the Boundary Com- 
missioners in f 91 to Newburgh parish ; and the third, 
1 mile to the >, had an equal length and breadth of 
1^ mile, and ws transferred to Dunbog parish. The 
chief elevations from W to E are Lumbenny (889 feet) 
Golden Hill (600. Braeside (563), Woodmill Mains (666)) 
the Mains of Lirioies (580), and Norman's Law (558). 
Some of these artcrowned with plantations, but much 
of the highest grand is mere hill -pasture, dotted with 
heath and gorse. *0n their ascents, a deep black soil 
alternates with a liht and gravelly one of very inferior 
quality; along the '.iy lies a rich alluvium, like that of 
the Carse of Gowrie.Hnd fields have been here reclaimed 
from the Firth wit in the last 60 years. Devonian 
rocks form part of the anient, and include a limestone 
and red sandstone, wb formerly were worked. Trap 
iarried at several points for 
oses. The largest sheet of 
ar the centre of the parish, 
ircumference, is fed by the 
■ the Den rivulet to the Tay. 
The pike and perch, ws .1 which this loch abounded, 
were netted out in Augus i 30, with a view to stocking 
it with trout. At its foot : the site of a castle, called 
Macduff; and 'Wallace's Ci p,' % mile from the Firth, 
preserves the memory of thirictory of Black Irnsyde, 
said to have been gained ovo Ayraer de Valence, Earl 
of Pembroke, in 1298. EurLr antiquities than these 
are a barrow known as Watchia^ J Tower, the hill-fort 
of Dunmore on Norman's Law ana & fcj-onghold on ths 
picturesque craig of Clachar whose ».. 'westward ram- 
parts are from 5 to 6 feet hio. The roofless church of 
St Magridin, on the loch's w/.ern margin, was conse- 
crated in 1242, and contains a 14th-century foliated 
tombstone ; a female reeuiubeiitiUigy ; and, in the Den- 
miln Aisle (1661), some monunuiL of the Balfuiirs of 
Denmiln Castle, Which, new i» ruins, was the seat of 
that family from 1452 to 11V. As sucll-u-ye Actio 
birthplace of Sir James Balfou (1603-57) House; 4 ' 
nalist, and antiquary, ::ud of 1 1 , | U| > ol £1000 and 
(1630-94), physician and foun' tween £200 and 
botanical garden. Modern u«»ns. die had, previous 
bey, a castellated building, and Uol, anr 1 registra- 
propiietors holding each ar annuai or constitutes an 
upwards, 1 of £500, 2 of £t00, 2 , of Cupar and 
£300, etc. The eastern portion of .• etnee, soatiii;.' 
to 1891, been annexed /or church, s, 0; the minis- 
tion purposes to Dun>o£; the rcmai . ^ church for 
ecclesiastical parish ■" the prcsbyl^ .^! c f Lii Ion 
synod of Fife. T'e church 1 .a pi J ufci a graV 
660, and erected & 1827 at a cost of 1 . Pop. of -uvil 
ter's income is £?2<- Thero is also a ); of q.s. pansl: 
Abdie and Newbigb jointly; undatGi ing, Lindoret 
is a school, which with accommodation 1868. 
had (18911 an a* ra g e attendance of 06 ' Dumbarton! 
£59. Valuation (1892) £0011, 0s. lld.'L r ,Ues NN T 
parish (1841) J.08, (1871) 1164) (1891) 90l ,h,.'l nitt 
1871) 1057, »1891) 778 See Alex. It 
Abbey and Nwburgh.—Ord. Sur., sh. 48 , 
Aber a l>mlet in Kilniarouock parish | 
shire, 011 tl» SE shore of Loch Lomond, '. 
of Kilmarnock station. An islet in the k 1 NT 

of the haHlet, bearp /.he same name. 


Aberarder, a hamlet and an estate in Daviot and Dun- 
Kchity parish, Inverness-shire, on the river Nairn, 15 
miles S by W of Inverness, under which it has a post 

Aberarder, a glen on the left, side of the valley of the 
Dee, in Aberdeenshire, between Crathie and Invereauld. 
It strikes laterally from the Dee Valley, and affords a 
fine vista view to Benavon (3843 feet), a conspicuous 
summit of the Cairngorm mountains. 

Aberargie or Aberdargie, a village in the W of Aber- 
nethy parish, Perthshire, at the mouth of Glenfarg, i 
miles ESE of Bridge of Earn, with a post office under 

Aberbrothwick. See Arbroath. 

Abercaimey, the seat of Colonel Home Drummond 
Moray, in Fowlis- Wester parish, Perthshire, stands 
1£ mile NNW of a station of its own name on the 
Caledonian, which station is 4J miles E of Crieff. 
The present mansion — a splendid Gothic edifice — was 
building in 1842, when on 12 Sept. the Queen 'got out 
a moment to look at it ; ' and it was enlarged in 1873. 
The surrounding estate has belonged to the Morays since 
1299, when Sir John Moray de Drumsargard wedded 
Mary, sole daughter of Malise, Earl of Stratherne ; its 
present holder owns 24,980 acres in the shire, of £14,311, 
9s. annual value. Conspicuous in the beautiful grounds 
are a Spanish chestnut, a sycamore, and a bare gaunt 
ash tree, 90 feet high, and girthing 20 at 3 feet from the 

Aberchalder, a locality on the Caledonian Canal, in 
Inverness-shire, and on th,e river Oich, 5 miles SW of 
Fort Augustus. A regulating lock is on the canal here, 
to secure adjacent navigable minimum depth of 20 feet. 
Aberchalder House was the place where Prince Charles 
Edward mustered 2000 men (26 Aug. 1745) before com- 
mencing his march toward the low country. 

Aberchalder Wester, an estate conjoint with Aberar- 
der, in Daviot and Dunlichity parish, Inverness-shire. 

Aberchirder (GaeL abhir-chiar-dtir, 'confluence of 
the dark brown water'), a police burgh in Harnoch 
parish, Banffshire, 5£ miles SSE of Cornhill station, 
7 W by N of Turriff, and 9J SW of Banff. It has a 
post office with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, a branch, of the North of Scotland 
Bank, and an hotel; and contains, besides, an Esta- 
blished mission church (200 attendants; minister's 
salary £51), a handsome Free church (built on occasion 
of the Disruption contest in Maesoch), a IT. p. church, 
a Baptist chapel, St Marxian's Episcopal church (1824 ; 
enlarged and restored, 1875-76; 150 sittings), and a 
Koman Catholic station, served monthly from Portsoy. 
A public and an Episcopal school, with respective accom- 
modation for 471 and 99 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 166 and 85, and grants of £145, 17s. 
and £72, 18s. The name Aberchirder, originally borne 
by the whole parish, referred probably to the moss-burn 
of Auchintoul's confluence with the Deveron. Pop. 
(1861) 1273, (1871) 1312, (1881) 1358, (1891) 1222. 

Abercorn, a village and a coast parish of Linlithgow- 
shire. Lying \ mile inland, near the confluence of the 
Cornie and Midhope Burns, the village, — a pretty little 
place, nestling among trees and gardens on the verge of 
a high bank,— is 3} miles W of its post-town South 
Queensferry, and 3 NNW of Winchburgh station. Here 
stood most probably the monastery of Aebbercurnig or 
Eoriercorn, founded about 675 under St Wilfrid as a 
central point for the administration of the northern 
part of his diocese, which included the province of the 
Picts, held in subjection by the Angles of Northumbria. 
Trumuini made this monastery the seat of his bishopric, 
the earliest in Scotland, from 681 to 685, when the 
Picts' victory at Dunnichen forced him to flee to Whitby 
(Skene, Celt Scot.,i. 262-268, and ii. 224). And here 
etui stands the ancient parish church, refitted in 1579, 
ana thoroughly repaired in 1838, with a Norman doorway 
•^fu " lto a winiow ) a broken cross, and a stone coffin 
iiQ, but minus a carved pew-back that found its way to 

Sr^T § h Antiquarian Museum in 1876. 

The parish contains also the hamlets of Philipston, 2^ 


miles SW of Abercorn village, and Society, on the coast, 
1J mile E by N. It is bounded N for 3£ miles by the 
Firth of Forth (here 2J miles wide), E by Dalmeny, SE 
by Kirkliston, S by the Auldcathie portion of Dalmeny 
and by Ecclesmachan, SW by Linlithgow, and W by 
Carriden, from which it is parted by the Black Burn. 
It has a length from E to W of from 3J to 4$ miles, an 
extreme breadth from N to S of 2$ miles, and an area of 
5265 acres, of which 29£ are water. Low swelling hills 
diversify the surface, but nowhere rise much above 300 
feet ; the streams are small, even for rivulets. Yet ' the 
scenery,' says Mr Thomas Farrali, 'is strikingly pic- 
turesque, the seaboard being richly wooded, the fields 
highly cultivated and of great fertility. The castellated 
mansion of Hopetoun enjoys a commanding prospect, 
having on one side the blue sea, and on the other green 
fields, with the Pentland Hills in the background. The 
soil in this quarter is variable hut fertile ; the sub- 
stratum is still more changeable, consisting of patches 
of till, gravel, sand, limestone, and sandstone. So early 
as the 17th century wheat was grown, rents being paid 
in considerable part by this commodity. What draining 
was required was mainly accomplished before 1800, aw 3 
a large extent of land was planted and ornamented wi' 
clumps and belts of trees ' ( Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. 
1877). To this need only be added that sandstone, 
whinstone, and limestone are extensively worked, but 
that a small colliery is now disused. The Anglo-Norman 
knight, Sir William de Graham, ancestor of the Dukes 
of Montrose, received from David I. (1124-53) the lands 
of Abercorn, which came by marriage to Sir Reginald 
Mure, chamberlain of Scotland in 1329. In 1454 tb.9 
Castle was taken by James II. from the ninth and last 
Earl of Douglas, and its only vestige is a low green 
mound, fronting the church and manse ; whereas Mid- 
hope Tower, bearing a coronet and the initials J. Lfiving- 
stone], stands almost perfect, 2 mile SW. At present there 
are titularly connected with this parish Sir Bruce Max- 
well Seton of Abercorn, eighth baronet since 164S, and 
the Duke of Abercorn, eldest surviving male heir of the 
Hamilton line, who takes from it his title of Baron (1603) 
and Earl (1606) in the peerage of Scotland, of Marquess 
(1790) in +hat of Great Britain, and of Duke (1868) in 
that of Ireland. The mansions are Hopetoun House, 
4 mile E of the village, and Bikns House, 2 miles WSW ; 
the property is divided between the Earl of Hopetoun 
and Mrs E. G. C. Dalyell Abercorn is traversed in 
the south for 2i miles by the North British railway, 
and for 1J mile by the Union Canal. It is in the 
presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale; the minister's income is £364. There is 
also a Free church: and a public and a girl's school 
(Gen. As.), with respective accommodation for 216 and 
64 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 136 
and 54, and grants of £104, 14s. and £40, 7s. Valua- 
tion, £8164, 15s. Pop. (1801) 814, (1821) 1044, (1871) 
933, (1891) S63.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Abercrombie (Gael, 'curved confluence'), or St 
Monans, a coa=t parish of SE Fife, containing the ham- 
let of Abercrombie, and, 1J mile SSE, the fishing vil- 
lage and burgh of barony of St Monans. The latter 
has a station on the North British, 2| miles WSW of 
Anstruther, and 16 E by N of Thornton junction, and 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments. It contains, besides, the parish 
church, a Free church, gas-works, and a town-hall; and 
is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 12 
councillors. A good harbour, partly natural and partly 
formed by a strong pier constructed in 1865, accom- 
modates three or four trading vessels, and about 100 
large fishing-boats belonging to the port, but is seldom 
frequented by strangers; and the herring fishery, a 
principal employment of the villagers, is now restricted 
to the neighbouring waters, no longer extending to the 
Caithness coast. Pop. (1851) 1241, (1871) 1648, (1881) 
1918, (1891) 1S64. 

The parish is bounded W, NW, and NE by Carnhee, 
E by Pittenweem, SE by the Firth of Forth (here 9J 
miles wide, to North Berwick Links), and SW by Elie 



and Kilconquhar. It has an extreme lengtn from NNW 
to SSE of 1| mile, a width of from 1 to lj| milo, and an 
area of 1282 acres, of which 79 are foreshore. Rising 
abruptly from a low rock) beach, the surface shows some 
diversities, but on the whole is flat, and nowhere much 
exceeds 100 feet of elevation. Drbel Burn traces the 
north-eastern boundary, and Inweary or St Monans 
Bum follows the south-western, to within 5 furlongs of 
its influx to the Firth at the western extremity of St 
Monans village. The rocks belong to the Carboniferous 
formation, and coal, limestone, and ironstone have all 
been worked ; the soil is chiefly a light friable loam, 
with very little clay, and of great fertilit}'. Balcaskie 
Park extends over the NE corner of the parish, and in 
it stands the ruined church of Abercrombie, disused for 
upwards of two centuries, but still the Anstruthers' 
burying-plaee. On the coast, at the SW angle, is the 
ruinous mansion of Newark, where General David Leslie, 
first Lord Newark, resided till his death in 1682 ; and 
another family connected with the parish was that of 
the Sandilands, Lords Abercrombie from 1617 to 16S1. 
At present 2 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 or upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, 3 of 
from £50 to £100, and 22 of from £20 to £50. In- 
cluding the barony of St Monans since 1616, Aber- 
crombie is in the presbytery of St Andrews and synod 
of Fife; its minister's income is £172. According to 
the legend of St Adrian (given under Isle of May), 
Monanus, bom in Pannonia, a province of Hungary, 
preached the gospel at Inverry or Abercrombie, and 
after his martyrdom was there enshrined. Skene, how- 
ever, identifying Monanus with Moinenn, Bishop of 
Clonfert (d. 571), holds that his relics were brought 
about 845 from Ireland to Fife, and deposited in a 
church erected to his honour (Celt. Scot., ii. 311-317). 
Legend again relates how David II., praying before 
St Monans' tomb, was freed miraculously of a barbed 
arrow, and for thanks - offering founded about 1362 
the statelier cruciform church, which a century later 
James III. bestowed on the Dominicans. Standing 
at the burn's mouth, and built in the Second Pointed 
style, this church was partly destroyed by the English 
in 1544, and now retains only its stunted central tower, 
crowned by a low octagonal spire, its transept, and its 
choir ; the last measures 53 by 22 & feet, and ' renovated 
and improved' iu 1772 and 1828, serves as tho parish 
church, being seated for 528 worshippers. Feature* of 
special interest are the sedilia, a good pointed doorway, 
and the reticulated pattern of eome of the windows. 
There are a public and a General Assembly school, the 
former having accommodation for 430 children, an 
average attendance of 325, and a grant of £289, 10s. 8d. 
Valuation (1891) £5867, 16s. Pop. (1301) 852, (1831) 
1110, (1861) 1498, (1871) 1761, (1S81) 2054, (1891) 
1998.— Ord. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Aberdalgie (Abirdalgyn in 1150, Gael ahhir-dail- 
ehinn, ' confluence at the end of the field '), a parish in 
the Strathearn district of Perthshire, whose SW anglo 
NE of Forteviot station, while its church 
stands H mile NW of Forgandenny station, immedi- 
ately beyond its SE border, these stations on the Cale- 
i being respectively 6} and 3} miles SW of its 
poBt-town, Perth. Including, since 1618, the ancient 
paiish of DrrppLW, it is bounded NWand N by Tihber- 
more, NE by Ka3t-Kirk, Perth, E by a detached portion 
teviot, 8 by Forgandenny, and SW and W by 
Forteviot It has an extreme length from N to S of 3} 
miles, a width of 2J mile3, and an area of 4220 acres, of 

I tre water. The Iahn, he.'o a beautiful sal- 

mon river, roughly traces all the southern bou 
U',m it the arface rises to 438 feet near tho middle of 
arish, thence sinking again towards the Almond, 
but having elevations of 367 and 222 feet on tho north- 
western, and of 862 tet ' i north-eastern boundary. 
The rocks belong to the Devonian system, and freestone 
is worked in several quarriee ; the soil is cold and Ully 
in the N, in the S a rich loan: or clay. The I. <' i 
Kiiinoull owns most of the property, and his park 
»r mini Duppliu Castle occupies the south-westeri 


ter of the parish, plantations covering much of the re- 
mainder. Near the church, hut on the opposite side of 
a rivulet, from whose confluence with the Earn the 
parish received its name, is Aberdalgie House, the only 
other mansion. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling; the living 
is worth £177. The church was built in 1773, and a 
vault at its E end is the burying-place of the Kinnoull 
family. The public school, with accommodation for 101 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 85, and a 
grant of £44, 15s. 6d. Valuation (1891) £4049, 8s. 3d 
Pop. (1831) 434, (1861) 295, (1871) 342, (1881) 297. 
(1S91) 230.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Aberdargie. See Aberakgie. 

Aberdeen, the 'Granite City,' capital of Aberdeen- 
shire, seat of a university, and chief town and seaport in 
the. North of Scotland, lies in lat. 57° 9' N, and long. 
2° 6' W, on both banks of the Dee, at its entrance into 
the German Ocean. It is both a royal and a parlia- 
mentary burgh, comprising all the district between the 
rivers Dee and Don for 3 miles inland — the royal burgh, 
by a recent Act, having been made co-extensive with the 
parliamentary burgh. The municipal burgh as extended 
now includes the police burghs of Old Aberdeen and Wood- 
side, and the districts of Tony and Ruthrieston. By 
this Act the city is made to embrace a portion of the 
county of Kincardine and of the parish of Nigg situated 
at Tony, and it has been proposed that the city should 
be placed wholly in the county of Aberdeen by trans- 
ferring to that county the Kincardine portion. Aberdeen 
is 98 miles NNE of Edinburgh as the crow flies, 111 by 
road, and 130A by rail (via Tay and Forth Bridges; 135J 
via Perth and Stirling). By the North British or the 
Caledonian it is 42 miles N by E of Montrose, 73f NNE 
of Dunde'e, 89| NE by N of Perth, 152£ NE of Glas- 
gow, 528 NNW of London; by the Great North of 
Scotland it is 43J miles E by N of Ballater, 29J ESE of 
Alford, 44J S by W of Peterhead, 47J S of Fraserburgh, 
53J SE of Keith, 80| SE of Elgin, 108J ESE of Inver- 
ness, and 202-J SE of Thurso. By sea it has regular 
steamboat communication southwards with Edinburgh, 
Newcastle, Hull, and London, northwards with Wick, 
Thurso, Orkney, Shetland, tho Hebrides, Glasgow, and 

The city stands on four eminences — Castle Hill (80 
feet), School Hill (65), Woolman Hill (58), and Port 
Hill (100), and its highest points are Cairncry (446 
feet), Woodhill (340), and Stocket Hill (320). Naturally 
bleak and tame, its environs have little of the pietur- 
esqueness that distinguishes Inverness, Perth, Stirling, 
and Edinburgh; but they contain a few good features 
which have been highly improved by art. The approach 
by sea lies along a bleak, sandy coast, with low rocks 
and long reefs in the foreground, and a tamo imfeatured 
surface in the rear, and becomes interesting only at the 
point of sudden ingress among the crowded shipping of 
the harbour. The land approach from the south ia 
singularly repulsive, traversing a broad, moorish out- 
skirt of the Grampians, till it bursts at once on a near 
view of the Dee and the city. The contrast by either 
of these approaches, between the near and distant scenes, 
is very striking, and never fails to make a strong im- 
pression upon strangers. Both the city and its sur- 
roundings, as first beheld, are very beautiful. Nor do 
the main thoroughfares, when entered, disappoint the 
first impression, but rather confirm and deepen it. Union 
Street especially, with its continuation Castle Street, 
appears enchanting ; and overy travelled visitor will 
readily say with the author of The Land We Lvue 
In, that ' it possesses all tho stability, cleanliness, and 
architectural beauties of the London west-end streets^ 
with tho gaiety and brilliancy of tho Parisian atmosphere.' 
Walks in various directions through tho city, disclose 

■ it diversity of structure and character, and threo 
walks of 4 or 5 miles each among the environs are 
highly interesting. The first of the three goes to Old 
AGeween B p the Don pi b Grandholm, and through 
Woodside, and returns to the city by the Inverness 
rt)!l <i | id leads by the Lunatic Asylum to 


Stocket Hill, where the best general view of the city and 
the surrounding country is obtained, proceeds thence to 
the great granite quarries of Rubislaw, and returns by 
the Skene turnpike road ; and the third goes south- 
westward to the Old Bridge of Dee, passes down the 
right bank of the river to Girdleness Lighthouse, and 
crosses by the ferry to Footdee. 

The city's alignment, structure, and extent are greatly 
different now from what they were of old. It now has 
many noble streets in all directions, and numerous fine 
parallel or intersecting ones, together with spacious and 
imposing outlets ; but, till near the end of last century, 
Aberdeen was just an assemblage of narrow, ill-built, 
badly arranged thoroughfares, without any good open- 
ings into the country. It probably began with a few 
rude huts, near the spot where the Alhambra now 
stands; it next seems to have occupied the neighbour- 
hood of the Castle and the Green, and gradually extended 
in the direction of Shiprow, Exchequer Row, and the S 
side of Castlegate. In 1336 it was almost totally de- 
stroyed by an English army under Edward III. ; but 
it soon rose from its ruins and spread over the eminences 
of Castle Hill, St Catherine's Hill, and Woolman Hill. 
Then it was that the city took the name of New Aber- 
deen, as it is sometimes called ; not in contradistinction 
to the kirk town of Old Machar, now called Old Aber- 
deen, but to its own old town destroyed by the English. 
Yet even the new town, with the exception of its public 
buildings, was rude, irregularly arranged, and unsub- 
stantial. Stone houses, so late as 1545, were possessed 
exclusively by grandees; and even down to 1741 wooden 
houses formed the W side of Broadgate. A large fenny 
marsh, the Loch, occupied till the latter part of last 
century much of the site to the W of Gallowgate, and 
the very best streets till then were narrow, uneven, 
and paved with cobble-stones ; the parts most favour- 
able to drainage and ventilation were crowded and 
filthy; and the thoroughfares leading to the Dee and to 
the North were steep, rough, narrow, and malodorous. 
But about the end of last century a great change began, 
that rapidly gave the city grand new features, and at 
the same time set its finest old ones in advantageous 
lights. First, a street was opened from Broad Street to 
North Street. Next, Marischal Street was opened from 
Castle Street to the Quay; and, though rather incon- 
veniently steep, it is interesting, both as still a great 
thoroughfare from the heart of the city to the harbour, 
and as the first Aberdeen street that was paved with 
dressed stones. Then a new and important exit to the 
NW was formed by opening George Street through the 
middle of the Loch, to communicate with a new turn- 
pike road to Inverury. And two grand new exits were 
made from the middle of the town at Castle Street by 
respectively Union Street to the W and King Street 
to the N, and these were estimated by the engineer to 
cost the town about £42,000, but actually cost it 
£171,280. Contemporaneously with these improve- 
ments and subsequently to them, onward till now, 
other great improvements, of various kinds and aggre- 
gately very costly, have been made, and will be men- 
tioned in our notices of public buildings, public works, 
and the harbour. Yet the very improvements, or at 
least the openings for the new streets, and the clearing 
for some public buildings, together with the forming of 
railways, have produced the evils of placing grandeur 
and meanness side by side, and of greatly augmenting 
the density of the poorer population. No fewer than 
some 60 narrow lanes and about 16S courts and closes, 
of an average breadth of at most 7 feet, still exist ; 
these are mostly situated in the immediate or near 
vicinity of fine new streets. Nevertheless, the death- 
rate per 1000 diminished from 22 -5 during 1867-72, 
to 20'7 during 1881-90, being thus below the average 
of the eight large Scotch towns. The nr?an tempera- 
ture is 45° 8', the average yearly rainfall 31 '65 inches. 

The city extends about 2J miles southward, from 
Woodside to Torry, and about 2J miles westward from 
Footdee to Skene Road; and measures about 7 J miles in 
circumference; but it is thoroughly compact over only 


about 1^ by 1J mile. The modern streets run so nearly 
in parallels or at right angles to one another, as to show 
readily the incongruities at their junctions with the old 
thoroughfares, and some of them have been constructed 
in a way of incongruity with themselves, a poor street 
being placed between two rich ones, as Gordon Street 
between Dee and Bon Accord Streets. The general 
appearance, however, is redeemed, partly by the char- 
acter of the building material, partly by the large 
aggregate of gardens, but chiefly by the spaciousness 
and elegance of the main streets. The edifices, both 
public and private, are for the most part constructed of 
a very fine granite from the neighbouring quarries; and 
those of the principal modern streets are so clean, so 
massive, so uniformly surfaced, and reflect the light so 
clearly from the glittering mica of the granite, as to 
look, on a sunny day, as if they had just been hewn 
and polished from the rocks upon which they stand. 
Gardens are attached to many of the houses even in the 
compacter parts of the city, and to almost all in the 
suburbs, so that, even in the absence of any such spacious 
gardens as intersect the New Town of Edinburgh, they 
produce an effect of airiness and well-being. The view 
along Union Street westward is one of the finest in any 
city in the world, suggesting to the imagination the tombs 
of Thebes, the Cyclopean walls, or the marble temples of 
ancient Greece, and at the same time having beauties of 
its own. This street is 1077 yards long, or, with its 
eastward and westward continuations — Castle Street and 
Union Place — 1516 yards, with a breadth of 70 feet. 
Spacious, straight, and lined on both sides with elegant 
buildings, public and private, it runs on a higher level 
than the portions of the town on its southern flank, so 
as to command a pleasant prospect over them to the S 
side of the Dee. By Union Bridge it is carried over 
the ravine of the Den Burn, which formerly caused con- 
siderable inconvenience to traffie, and the Great North of 
Scotland railway. A main line of streets, 1597 yards 
long, and called successively St Nicholas Street and 
George Street, strikes northwards to the country from 
Union street, at a point 320 yards E of the bridge, 
and, for the most part, is finely edificed. Market Street 
strikes southward, at a point nearly opposite St Nicholas 
Street ; is 200 yards long, spacious, and moderately", 
steep ; leads direct to the station and the harbour ; 
and, since 1864, has been considerably re-edificed with 
houses of a superior character. Broad Street (425 
yards) runs nearly parallel to St Nicholas Street, strik- 
ing off at the mergence of Union Street into Castle 
Street; is adorned by Marischal College; and passes, at 
its N end, into line with Gallowgate (600 yards). Castle 
Street expands from the E end of Union Street, forms a 
quadrangle about 203 yards long and 43 wide, takes its 
name from an ancient fortress which stood on a rising 
ground at its E end, is rich in public ornamental struc- 
tures, and forms one of the most striking market-places 
and centres of business in the world. King Street goes- 
northward from the eastern part of Castle Street; is 11S6 
yards long, and spacious ; contains several handsome 
public buildings; and presents, on the whole, an aspect 
little inferior to that of Union Street. Rubislaw Terrace, 
Queen's Terrace, and several new streets in the extreme 
W, are superior to anything of their class in the aristo- 
cratic quarter of almost any town in Scotland ; and 
the other modern streets, whilst challenging no special 
notice, may be described in the aggregate as equal at 
least to the second and third class streets of most stone- 
built towns in Britain. Few houses, or parts of houses, 
remain to show the Aberdeen style of domestic architec- 
ture in former centuries; yet enough are standing to 
interest both the architect and the antiquary. A build- 
ing, called Wallace Tower, having in a niche a rudo 
and very ancient effigy of Wallace, and said to have 
been occupied as an hostelry, stands in Nether Kirk- 
gate; and another old tenement, known as Mar's Castle, 
with a diminutive crow-stepped and corbelled gable, 
circular staircase, and small square openings for windows 
stands in Gallowgate, and bears date 1494. The two 
have strong generic likeness to one another, and chal- 



lenge more attention from antiquaries than many old 
buildings elsewhere of higher note. Every remaining 

specimen of the domestic architecture of the later part of 
last century is entirely commonplace; but No. 64 Broad 
Street possesses interest as the place where Lord Byron 
passed Ms earliest boyhood (1790-98) under his mother's 
care. Thackeray visited it when lecturing in Aberdeen 
on The Four Georges. 

The plain old town-house was built in 1730, and the 
court-house adjoining in 1818; but in 1865 it was re- 
solved to occupy their site with a new suit of county 
and municipal buildings, which, commenced in 1S67 at 
an estimated cost of £69, 000, were completed at a cost of 
£80,000 and upwards. Designed by Messrs Peddie & 
Einnear, of Edinburgh, in the Scottish Baronial style of 
the 16th century, with French and Belgian features, they 
form a four-storied, Kemnay granite pile 64 feet high, 
presenting one frontage to Castle Street of 225, and one 
Broad Street of 109 feet; along both facades runs a 
K.sement arcade of columns, at 12 feet intervals, sup- 
porting elliptical arches, and surmounted by a second 
and smaller arcaded range. At the streets' junction 
s:ands the magnificent clock-tower, 28 feet square and 
72 feet high, with corner pepper-box turrets 36 feet 
more; and, over all, a lantern gablet, culminating in a 
vane at the height of 190 feet. To the east stands the 
chief relic of the former town-house — its lead-covered 
spire, with a height of 120 feet. Within are the vesti- 
bule and the grand staircase (35 feet square); the Great 
Hall (74 by 35 feet, and 50 high), with five lofty traceried 
windows, oak panelling, and open timber roof; the richly- 
decorated town-hall, in the clock-tower (41 by 25£ feet, 
and 15 high), with three old crystal lustres; the court- 
house behind (50J by 37 feet, and 36J high), etc. : spe- 
cial adornments are Provost Davidson's armour, a 
marble statue of Her Majesty by Alex. Brodie, Steell's 
marble statue of the late Provost Blaikie, a marble bust 
of John Phillip, and portraits by him of the Queen and 
Prince Consort, of Queen Anne by Kneller, of Provost 
Hidden, the late Earl of Aberdeen, and others. — The 
Post Office, at the foot of Market Street, was erected 
(1873-76) at a cost of £16,000, and is a simple but effec- 
tive edifice of Kemnay granite, 100 feet square and 40 
high, in the Renaissance style. — The Market Hall, Mar- 
iet Street, was built by a joint-stock company (1840-42), 
at a cost of £28,000. It is divided into a basement 
story and a galleried main floor, which, 315 feet long, 
1 06 broad, and 45 high, has a Gothic roof of open timber- 
work, and itself is divided by two ranges of massive 
pillars into three alleys, like the nave and aisles of a 
church. On 29 April, 1882 (the fortieth anniversary 
of its opening) it was completely destroyed by fire, but 
has risen anew from its ashes very slightly altered from 
its former self. — The Corn Exchange, in Hadden Street, 
measuring 70 by 40 feet, and 30 high, with open roof, 
was built for £1000 in 1854, and except on Fridays 
- as a public newsroom.— Close to the SE corner 
of Union Bridge is the Trades Hall, a fine Elizabethan 

anite structure, erected in 1847 at a cost exceeding 
£7000, and containing an antique set of carved oak chairs 
(1 574), portraits by Jameson, and the shields of the seven 
■ I porated trades — hammermen (1519), bakers (1398), 
ighta and coopers (1527), tailors (1511), shoemakers 
(1484 and 1520), weavers (1449), and fleshers (1534)— 
whose curious inscriptions form the subject of a mono- 
graph (1863) by Mr Lewis Smith.— The Society of Advo- 

ites, chartered in 1774, 1799, and 1862, and numbering 

li'l members, has a handsome new hall, behind and 

connected with the County Buildings; in it is the valu- 

i iw library of 5000 volumes, established in 1786. — 

The Medico-Cliinirgical Society (1789), with 55 mem- 

. lias also its hall, in King Street, which, built 

:- 18-20) at a cost of £2000, is entered by an Ionic 

{iortico, and contains a large meeting-room, laboratory, 
il.rary of 4000 volumes, portraits by Vandyke and T. 
Miles, etc. — Westward of Union Bridge, the Music Hall 
ings, owned by a limited company (1858), comprise 
the assembly rooms, erected in 1820 at a cost of £14,500, 
with portico of six Ionic columns, 30 feet high, and ball, 


supper, billiard, and other saloons; to which, at a cost 
of £5000, was added the music hall behind, opened by 
the Prince Consort on 12th September, 1859, with a very 
fine organ and accommodation for 3000 persons. — The 
new Theatre and Opera House, in Guild Street, was built 
in 1872 at a cost of £8400, seats 1650 spectators, and 
has a frontage of 75, a mean depth of 90, and a height 
of 50 feet.— The Masonic Hall (1871-76), in Exchange 
Street, cost £2806, and has a lodge-room, 50 by 32 feet, 
and 20 high, with three stained-glass windows. The 
St Katherine's Halls were opened in 1880, in con- 
nection _ with Shiprow Cafe. — The Public Baths and 
Swimming Pond are in Constitution Street. Of numer- 
ous inns and hotels, some of them temperance, the chief 
are the Imperial, Palace, Douglas, Lemon-tree, City, 
Forsyth's, the Stanley, Mann's Palace, Adelphi, Waverley, 
and Dufl'us' Temperance; clubs are the Royal Northern 
(1854), the City, the Aberdeen Club (1862), and the New 
Club (1867). 

Aberdeen has two native Banks, the Town and County 
(1825), and the North of Scotland (1836). The former in 
October, 1891, had 1450 partners, 58 branches, a paid-up 
capital of £252,000, a reserve fund of £126,000, and de- 
posits and credit balances amounting to £2,381,297; the 
latter, with 3292 partners and 66 branches, had £400,000 
of paid -up capital,£17, 500 of reserve fund, and £3,395,362 
of deposits and credit balances. The Town and County 
has splendid new premises (1863) near the junction of 
Union and St Nicholas Streets, which, Roman Classic in 
style, cost £14,000; as also has the North of Scotland 
Bank (1839), at the corner of Castle and King Streets, 
whose Corinthian capitals exhibit a delicate minuteness 
never before attained in granite. There are, besides, 
the National Security Savings Bank of Aberdeen (1845), 
and branches of the following banks, with dates of their 
establishment : — The Bank of Scotland (1780), the Com- 
mercial Bank (1812), the National Bank (1833), the 
British Linen Co. (1833), the Royal Bank (1862), and 
the Union Bank (1849), with which was incorporated 
the Aberdeen Bank (1767). The Scottish Provincial 
(now merged in the North British & Mercantile) and 
Northern Assurance Companies were further established 
here in 1825 and 1836, the one with 110,000 £25 shares, 
the other with 30,000 £100 shares. Magnificent new 
premises for the latter were erected in 1885 at a cost of 
over £30,000. 

The Royal Infirmary, on the western slope of Wool- 
man Hill, was founded in 1740, enlarged in 1753, 1760, 
and 1820, and wholly rebuilt (1833-40) at a cost of 
£17,000. A Grecian three-storied edifice, with domed 
centre and two projecting wings, it has been found not 
to be in accordance with modern hygienic tastes, and 
new wards have been erected behind the old building, 
from a fund of about £30,000 raised as a memorial of 
the Queen's Jubilee, the latter premises being utilized 
for administrative purposes. An Epidemic Hospital was 
built on the links in 1872 at a cost of £2500, and Loch- 
head House, with 3 acres of ground, was purchased in 
1873 for £2250, to serve as a Convalescent Hospital. 
The infirmary managing committee is elected from a 
body composed at present of 30 ex officio and 202 life 
managers, 16 managers by annual subscription, and 46 
from presbyteries and churches. Under the same man- 
agement, but with a separate account, the Royal Lunatio 
Asylum stands amid grounds of 45 acres, well wooded 
and tastefully laid out, 1 mile NNW of the corner of 
Union and St Nicholas Streets. The original building 
of 1800 cost £3480, and that of 1819 £13,135, of which 
£10,000 was bequeathed by John Forbes of Newe. 
Various additions have been made from time to time, 
but the most important was the erection in 1862 
of Elmhill House for higher-class patients at a cost 
of £10,866, this being a handsome building in the 
Italian villa style, designed by William Ramage, whilst 
the architect of both asylum and infirmary was Archi- 
bald Simpson.— St Nicholas Poorhouse, Nelson Street, 
with 384 inmates in April, 1891, is a Tudor structure, 
built in 1849 at a cost of £9300, and enlarged in 1869 at 
a cost of £3350 more.— Other benevolent establishment* 


are the Dispensary, Lying-in, and Vaccine Institution, 
Guest Row (1823 ; enlarged and refitted, 1881) ; the 
Bliud Asylum, Huntly Street (1843); the Deaf and 
Dumb Institution, Belmont Street (1819) ; the Sick 
Children's Hospital, Castle Terrace (1877); the House 
of Refuge and Night Shelter, George Street (1836) ; a 
Magdalene Asylum, Seabank (1864) ; an Hospital for 
Incurables; the Milne Bequest Trust, founded by the late 
Dr John Milne of Bombay ; the Watt Bequest, established 
by the late John Watt, sen., advocate in Aberdeen, to 
be administered by the School Board; the Midbeltie 
Fund, instituted by James Allan, Esq., of Midbeltie: 
the General Sessions Fund, consisting of mortifications 
distributed by the General Kirk Session of St Nicholas 
parish; the Inveramsay Legacy, instituted by the Misses 
Smith of Inveramsay; theCalder Fund; and the Educa- 
tional Trust, created by the putting together of several 
old benevolences yielding collectively about £6000 a 
year. Among the schemes carried on by the Trust 
are — a Girls' Home and School of Domestic Economy 
and a Boys and Girls Hospital school; it also provides 
bursaries for higher education and the Grammar School, 
free scholarships at evening schools, etc. 

A new prison, at Craiginches, south of the Dee, was 
opened in 1891. Oldmill Reformatory (1857), 2J miles 
W of the town, is occupied on an average by about 
150 boys, and Mount Street Reformatory (1862) by 
some 25 girls. The Infantry Barracks, on the crest of 
the Castle Hill, stand on the site of a castle erected 
as early as 1264, and, as built in 1796 at a cost of 
£16,000, formed a plain winged oblong of three stories, 
but were greatly enlarged by the block added (1SS0- 
81) at a further cost of £11,000, with a frontage to 
Justice Street of 13SJ feet. The King Street Militia 
Barracks were erected in 1863 at a cost of £10,000 in the 
old Scottish Castellated style. The Rifle and Artillery 
Volunteers have drill-halls in Blackfriars and Queen 

The Public Libraries Acts were adopted in April 18S4, 
and a reading room opened in the autumn of 1885, well 
provided with newspapers, magazines, and books of 
reference. A Lending Library of about 19,000 volumes 
was opened in March 18S6 in the hall formerly known 
as the Mechanics' Hall, Market Street. Since then the 
new Public Library in Rosemount Viaduct, erected at 
a cost of £10,000, was opened on 5 July 1892 by Mr 
Andrew Carnegie, who had contributed £1000 of the 
sum. The number of its volumes includes the library 
of the old Mechanics' Institution, originally founded in 
1824. There is also the Anderson Library at Woodside, 
the gift of the late Sir John Anderson, a native of 
Woodside. A Museum and Art Gallery, raised by public 
subscription, was a few years ago erected in Schoolhill 
in front of the Gordon College. A handsome building, 
of the Italian Renaissance order, and largely constructed 
of light -red and dark-brown granite, it presents a novel 
and striking appearance. It is united by a noble arch- 
way to an Art School, presented by Councillor John 
Gray to the town, and erected at a cost of £5000. A 
nucleus for the Art Gallery has been formed by the 
bequest of a magnificent collection by the late Mr Alex. 
Macdonald of Kepplestone. 

Aberdeen has many places of worship, belonging to 
the different denominations. Its parishes — East, West, 
North, South, Greyfriars, and St Clement's — formed, 
up to 1828, the single parish of St Nicholas, and still in 
certain secular respects are one. There are also 10 quoad 
sacra parishes; and the churches of all 17, with popula- 
tion and communicants for 1891, and ministers' stipends 
(those marked with asterisks being largely supplemented 
by the congregations) are:— East (Union Street, 3657, 
2280, £300*), West (Union Street, 5852, 1791. £300*), 
North (King Street, 11,413, 2496, £300), South (Belmont 
Street, 2589, 1070, £250*), Greyfriars (Broad Street, 
5846, 1053, £250), St Clement's (Footdee, 8528, 1797, 
£250), Gilcomston (Summer Street, 14,734, 2143, £400), 
John Knox's (Mounthooly, 7017, 1610, £396), Holburn 
(Wellington Place, 16,594, 1340, £450), Ferryhill (6204, 
641, — ), Rubislaw (Queen's Cross, 4506, 675, £120), 


Trinity (Marischal Street, 2460, 679, £252), Rosemount 
(Caroline Place, 11,838, 934, £400), St George's-in- 
the-West (John Street, 4303, 1066, £280), Mannofield 
(1236, 284, £240), Woodside (6461, 1696, £290), Old 
Maehar (9681, 1379, first charge, £279; second charge, 
£283). The East and West Churches stand in a grave- 
yard of nearly 2 acres, which is separated from Union 
Street by an Ionic facade, erected (1830) at a cost of 
£1460, and measuring 147J feet in length by 32J in 
height, with 12 granite columns, each consisting of a 
single block, and with a central archway. These churches 
occupy the site of the collegiate St Nicholas, which, as 
built between 1200 and 1507, had a nine-bayed nave (117 
feet by 66), a transept (100 by 20), and a seven-bayed 
choir (81 by 64), witli a trigonal apse over the crypt of 
Our Lady of Pity. At the crossing a tower rose, with its 
oaken spire, octagonal and picturesque, to a height of 
120 feet; and in it hung three great harmonious bells, of 
which one, ' Lowrie, ' bore date 1352, and was recast in 
Flanders about 1633. After the Reformation the rood- 
screen gave place to a wall, and St Nicholas thus was 
divided into two churches, the western consisting of the 
former nave, the eastern of the choir, and the Romanesque 
transept between (known as Drum's and Collison's aisles) 
serving as vestibule. The West Church, having become 
dilapidated, was rebuilt (1751-55) from designs by James 
Gibbs, architect of the Radeliffe Library at Oxford and 
of the Cambridge Senate House; 'but, as if,' says Hill 
Burton, ' emphatically to show that the fruits of his 
genius were entirely to be withdrawn from his own 
countrymen, the only building in Scotland known to 
have been planned by him, this church in his native 
city, combines whatever could be derived of gloomy and 
cumbrous from the character of the Gothic architecture, 
with whatever could be found of cold and rigid in the 
details of the Classic. ' The East Church, too, was bar- 
barously demolished and rebuilt (1834-37) in Gothic style; 
but on 9 Oct. 1874, its roof and interior were destroyed 
by fire, along with the spire and its peal of bells, in- 
creased by 5 in 1859. The total loss was estimated at 
£30,000, the West Church also being much damaged by 
water; but all has been since restored, and at a cost of 
£8500 a fine granite tower and spire erected (1878-80), 
190 feet high. A carillon of thirty -seven bells was 
placed in the tower in 1887, at a cost of nearly £3500. 
The churchyard contains the graves of Principal Guild, 
Blackwell, Beattie, the author of the Minstrel, and of 
Andrew Cant, the famous Covenanting minister, Dr 
Campbell, and of other former celebrities; in the West 
Church aremarble monuments by Bacon andWestmacott, 
a curious brass portrait-panel of Dr Duncan Liddell, exe- 
cuted at Antwerp in 1622, from a drawing by Jameson 
probably, and the tombstone of Provost Menzies (died 
1641); whilst, in the southern transept, a small brass to 
Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum is dated 1400 (Proc. Soc. 
Ant. Scot., 1876, p. 450).— The North Church, built in 
1830, at a cost of £10,500, is a Grecian edifice, modelled 
apparently after St Pancras in London, measures 120 by 
64 feet, and has an imposing Ionic portico, 32 feet high, 
and a circular tower of 150 feet. — South Church, Gothic, 
with massive gables and a tower, was built in 1831. — 
Greyfriars or College Church formed part of St Mary's 
Observantine friary (1450-1560), and, consisting of a 
plain old Gothic hall with a modern E aisle, is interest- 
ing as the only pre-Reformation church within the muni- 
cipal burgh. The restoration of this old church has just 
been accomplished. — St Clement's, founded about 1498 
for Footdee fisher-folk, was repaired in 1631, and since 
has been twice rebuilt, in 1787 and 1828, on the last 
occasion 'in the Gothic style, with an elegant belfry, 
45 feet high;' an organ was placed in it in 1874. — Trinity 
Church was built in 1822; John Knox's in 1833; Rubis- 
law, an ornate freestone edifice, in 1S76; Rosemount in 
1878; St George's in 1879, etc. 

At the Disruption in 1843 every Aberdeen minister 
and 10,000 lay adherents went out from the Establish- 
ment; and now within the burgh there are the following 
Free churches, with their communicants in 1891, and 
ministers' incomes : — Bon Accord (Union Terrace, 418, 



£340), East (Belmont Street, 901, £577), Ferryhil] (Ro- 
tunda Place, 476, £417), St Coluniba (263, £'200 and 
manse), Gallowgate (156, £170), Gilcomston (Union 
Street. 629, £413), Greyfriars (George Street, 267, £193), 
High (Belmont Street, 712, £409), Holburn (Great "West- 
ern Road), John Knox's (Gerrard Street, 915, £344 and 
manse), Mariners' (Commerce Street, 275, £203), Mel- 
ville (Correction Wynd, 547, £315), North (West North 
Street, 480, £345), Rutherford (Loanhead Terrace, 470, 
£273), Ruthrieston (259, £237), St Clement's (Prince 
Regent Street, 658, £385), South (Belmont Street, 1076, 
£658 and manse), Trinity (Crown Street, 826, £503), 
Union (Shiprow, 210, £220), West (Union Street, 727, 
£5S7 and manse), Causewayend (486, £246), Queen'sCross 
(722, £507), and Old Machar (233, £200 and manse). 
Of these churches, Melville, St Columba, and Union 
were built for the Establishment in 1772, 1795, and 
1822; East, South, and High (1844) form an imposing 
cruciform pile, Lancet Gothic in style, with a fine brick 
spire 174 feet high; and the West Church (1869), a 
Gothio structure in Morayshire sandstone, has a spire 
of 175 feet, and cost £12,856. Gilcomston Church 
has also a handsome spire; and another, 150 feet high, 
adorns the church at Queen's Cross, built in 1880-81, at 
a cost of £7000. 

Six UP. churches, with members in 1891 and minis- 
ters' incomes, are — Belmont Street (539, £350), Charlotte 
Street (532, £300), Carden Place (442, £300), Nelson 
Street (111, £175), St Nicholas (Union Grove, 438, £300), 
and St Paul Street (405, £215). There are also 5 Con- 
gregational churches, in Albion Street, Belmont Street, 
Skene Street, Trinity Church, and Woodside; an Original 
Secession Church ; 2 Evangelical Union churches, in John 
Street and St Paul Street; 2 Baptist churches, in Crown 
Terrace and George Street; a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, 
in Crown Terrace; a Free Methodist chapel, in Dee Street; 
aUnitarian chapel (1840), in George Street; and aFriends' 
meeting-house, in Diamond Street. 

The English Episcopalians have had a chapel here since 
1721, transferred to St James', King Street, in 1866 ; 
and the Scottish Episcopalians possess 8 churches, with 
aggregate congregations of some 3000 souls. St An- 
drew's, King Street, Perpendicular in style, as built in 
1817, consisted of an aisled nave (90 by 65 feet), with a 
marble statue by Flaxman of Bishop John Skinner; in 
1880 a beautiful chancel (40 by 28 feet, and 45 high) 
was added at a cost of over £3000, from designs by Mr 
G. E. Street, R.A. St. John's (1849-51), in St John's 
Place, is an Early Middle Pointed structure, comprising 
chancel, four-bayed nave, and S aisle. St. Mary's (1862), 
in Carden Place, is Germanised Early First Pointed in 
style, with strong Romanesque features, and consists of 
nave (69 by 36 feet, and 60 high) and chancel (51 by 22 
feet, and 53 high), with trigonal apse, organ chamber, 
sacristy, crypt, and a fleehe 112 feet high. St Paul's 
(1865), in Gallowgate, is Second Pointed, and measures 
120 by 60 feet; St Margaret's, Seamont Place, was 
opened as a mission church in 1870, and consecrated in 
1879; St. Clement's and St. James', with a Chapel of 
Ease to St. Andrew's. There are two Episcopal sister- 
hoods — St Margaret's (1864) and the Society of Repara- 
tion (1870), the latter with orphanage attached; and 
three Episcopal schools, St Andrew's, St John's, and 
St Margaret's, with total accommodation for 942 chil- 
dren, had (1891) an average attendance of 898, and 
grants amounting to £805, 8s. 

The Catholic cathedral of St Mary's of the Assump- 
tion, Huntly Street, was built of white granite in 1860 
in Second Pointed style, has 1200 sittings, and consists 
of an aisled nave £156 by 73 feet, and 72 high), into 
which in 1879 were introduced a chancel arch and a rood- 
BCTeen, with colossalCrucifix and figures of the Virgin and 
St John, whilst along the nave are canopied life-size 
statues of the Twelve Apostles. A largo rose window 
over the new High Altar (1881) is filled, like all the 
other windows, with rich stained glass; at the W end is 
a very fine painting of the ' Visitation ;' and the Baptistry 
contains a beautiful font of polished granite. By 1880 
about £15,000 had been expended on the cathedral and 


its graceful spire, which, completed in 1877, is 200 feet 
high, and contains a peal of 9 good bells, the largest 
of them over 30 cwts. Attached to St Mary's is a 
Franciscan convent, the nuns having charge of a day 
and boarding school with an average attendance of 
86 ; Nazareth House (Convent of the Poor Sisters of 
Nazareth), Cuparstone, is a home for the aged and in- 
firm, and for sick and abandoned children. There are 
other two churches, St. Peter's (Justice Street) and St. 
Joseph's (Woodside, sittings 200). There are three 
Roman Catholic schools, St Francis', St Joseph's, and 
St Peter's, with a total accommodation in 1891 for 694 
scholars, an average attendance of 411, and a grant of 
£399, 12s. Id. 

Marischal College stands in a court, entered by an old 
arched gateway from the E side of Broad Street, near 
its mergence into Gallowgate. The original buildings 
were those of a Franciscan Monastery, suppressed at the 
Reformation. A new edifice, retaining the portions of 
the old buildings that were not destroyed by fire in 
1639, was erected in 1676, and an extension superseding 
those portions was built in 1740-41. But the whole was 
unsubstantial and in constant need of repair; and in 
1837-41 it was replaced on the same site by a very 
extensive and most imposing pile, designed by Archi- 
bald Simpson, and erected at a cost of £30,000, includ- 
ing a royal grant of £15,000. The new structure, 
consisting of durable white granite, and in a bold but 
simple style of collegiate Gothic, forms three sides of a 
quadrangle (117 by 105 feet), rises to the height of 
two lofty stories, and presents uniform and striking 
ranges of mullioned windows. A square tower springs 
from the side of the quadrangle, and terminates in four 
ornamental turrets, at a height of 100 feet from the 
ground; and open arcades, 48 feet long and 16 wide, 
extend from both sides of the principal entrance. The 
public school, 74 feet long and 34 wide, is on the 
ground floor; whilst the hall, 71 feet long, 34 wide, and 
32 high, and the library and the museum, each 73 feet 
long, 34 wide, and 32 high, are all on the upper floor, 
have ornamental ceilings painted in imitation of oak, 
and are reached by a lofty staircase, with a massive 
stone balustrade and a groined ceiling. The public 
hall contains portraits of the fifth Earl Marischal, 
Bishop Burnet, Dr Arthur Johnston, Sir Paul Menzies, 
Andrew Cant, Sir Robert Gordon, and other worthies, 
several of them by the celebrated Jameson. There are 
17 class rooms, and a number of other apartments. 
A granite obelisk, to the memory of Sir James M'Grigor, 
Bart, was erected (1860) in the centre of the quadrangle, 
and consists of base 16 feet square and 6 high, pedestal 
9 feet square and 11 high, plinth 7 feet square and 
3 high, and shaft from 5 to 3J feet square and 52 
high, having thus a total height of 72 feet. But both 
this monument and the dinginess of the approach from 
Broad Street mar the effect of the college buildings. 
The college was founded in 1593, by George Keith, fifth 
Earl Marischal. His charter endowed it with the 
ground and property of the Franciscan, Dominican, and 
Carmelite friars of Aberdeen, and appointed it to have 
a principal, 3 regents, 6 alumni, an economist, and a 
cook. The principal was to be an adept in sacred 
literature, and to bo able to give anatomical and physio- 
logical prelections; and the first regent was to teach 
ethics and mathematics, the second logic, and the third 
Latin and Greek. The candidates for the chairs were to 
be nominated by the earl himself and his heirs, and to 
be examined and admitted by the faculty of King's 
College, and by the ministers of Aberdeen, Deer, and 
Fettcresso. The constitution was confirmed imme- 
diately by the General Assembly, and a few months 
afterwards by Parliament. A now charter was given in 
1623, by William, Karl Marischal, and a new confirma- 
tion made in 1661 by Charles II. All the deeds 
declared that the masters, members, students, and bur- 
sars should be subject to the jurisdiction of the burgh 
magistrates. An additional regent was appointed 
within a few years of the foundation: a professorship of 
mathematics was founded in 1505, a professorship of 


divinity was added in 1616, and 7 other professorships 
were founded at different subsequent periods. The 
senatus, in 1753, directed that the students, after passing 
through the Latin and Greek classes, should be instructed 
first, in natural and civil history, geography, chronology, 
and the elements of mathematics ; next, in natural 
philosophy; and afterwards, in moral philosophy. A 
few alterations were subsequently made, and these ad- 
justed the aggregate classes into the four faculties of 
arts, divinity, law, and medicine. But the college, 
under the University Act of 1858, was united with 
King's College into one university, with a new constitu- 
tion, and nowit is devoted entirely to the lawand medicine 
classes of the united university, having been consider- 
ably enlarged. The library, in 1827, contained 11,000 
volumes; and, subsequently to that year, received the 
valuable classical collection of the late Dr James Melvin, 
and was otherwise considerably enriched, until it now 
comprises over 100,000 volumes. In 1891 a scheme 
was inaugurated for the extension of the college build- 
ings, and in 1892 Mr C. Mitchell (of Sir William Arm- 
strong, Mitchell, & Co., Newcastle) contributed towards 
the extension of the University from £10,000 to £12,000 
on certain conditions. 

The Free Church College (1843) occupies a handsome 
Tudoredifice, with a square tower and an octagonal turret, 
erected in Alford Place in 1850, at a cost of £2025; pos- 
sesses a number of scholarships, a museum, and a library 
of 17,000 volumes; and in 1891 had a principal, 4 other 
professors, a lecturer, and about 40 students. One of 
the latest gifts to the college is a building for the museum 
and library with reading room. The museum has among 
its treasures the watch which Mary Queen of Scots pre- 
sented to John Enox when she wanted to disarm his 
opposition to one of her schemes. — The Church of Scot- 
land and Free Church Training Colleges, in 1891, had 
80 students each, and incomes of £3682 and £3296; for 
the former, new buildings were opened in George Street 
in 1878; for the latter, in Charlotte Street, in 1880. 

The Grammar School, dating from about 1262, is the 
representative secondary school of the North of Scotland, 
attracts advanced pupils from the best primary schools, 
and has close connection, by charter and constitution, 
with the university. Its teachers, till 1863, were only 
a rector and 3 classical masters, but number now a rector 
and 14 under-masters. The building, from 1757 till 
1863, was a plain structure, on School Hill, erected at 
a cost of £400, on part of the grounds of the Dominican 
Friary, forming three sides of a square, and containing 
a public hall with four class-rooms. The present 
Gram mar School Buildings, in Skene Street West, were 
erected in 1861-63 at a cost of £16,605, in the Scottish 
Baronial style, and contain a rector's room, 52 feet by 
30, class-rooms, each 40 feet by 28, with accommoda- 
tion for 1215 boys, a public hall, a library, etc. They 
were vested in the magistrates and town council and in 
certain representatives of subscribers; but by the Edu- 
cation Act of 1872 passed to the supervision of the 
burgh school-board. The curriculum extends over five 
years, the number of scholars is about 350, and the 
endowments amount to £668 per annum, including 33 
bursaries, founded between 1629 and 1866, and ranging 
from £20 for four years to £3 for five years. 

Gordon's Hospital was founded in 1730 by Robert 
Gordon (1665-1732), a Dantzic merchant, who bequeathed 
it £10,300. Chartered in 1772, and further endowed 
by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill in 1816, it main- 
tained and educated sons or grandsons of deceased 
burgesses of guild (and of indigent townsfolk generally), 
but by a Provisional Order obtained in 1881 this re- 
striction was abolished, and the institution converted 
into day and evening schools, the application of its 
benefits being also widely extended, and it is now one 
of the best equipped colleges for instruction in technical 
education in this country. It is governed by the 
magistrates, town council, and 4 ministers of Aber- 
deen. Its building, Grecian in style, stands in grounds 
stretching northward from School Hill, comprises a 
centre, erected in 1739 at a cost of £3300, and two 


wings, with neat connecting colonnades, erected in 1834 
at a cost of £14,000 more; presents a frontage to the 
S, overlooking a lawn; and gives one of the finest views 
in the city. A marble statue of the founder surmounts 
the S entrance, and his full-length portrait hangs in 
the large hall. 

The Boys' and Gfrls' Hospital, founded in 1739, and 
incorporated in 1852, was in 1871 transferred from Upper 
Kirkgate and Gallowgate to new buildings in King 
Street Road. Governed by the Lord Provost, 3 life 
trustees, and 12 trustees elected annually, it admits poor 
children of St Nicholas parish, from eight to eleven 
years of age, and keeping them till fourteen, teaches 
them reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, 
music, and drawing, as also, if girls, sewing, knitting, 
and household work. By virtue of a provisional order 
obtained in 1888, this trust, along with several others, 
has now been placed under the charge of the Aberdeen 
Educational Trust, consisting of 15 elected members. 

Composed of 15 members, the Burgh School-Board 
in 1891 reported 22 public schools (with accommodation 
for 12,225 children, and an average attendance of 
10,398), besides industrial schools, academies, and non- 
public but State-aided schools. The board schools, 
with the accommodation provided, the average attend- 
ance, and Government grant in 1891, are — Albion Street 
(450, 368, £339, 10s.); Ashley Road (1030, 870, £975, 
12s. 2d.); Causewayend (856, 857, £845, 7s. 6d.); Com- 
merce Street (661, 668, £652, 9s.); Ferryhill (480, 415, 
£480, 8s.); Frederick Street (669, 657, £620, 15s. 5d.); 
Holburn Street (977, 399, £485, 9s. Id.);. Eing Street 
(1478, 1384, £1211); Marywell Street (574, 721 day and 
98 evening, £670, 10s. 2d. and £62, 6s.); Middle (1164, 
786, £786); Northfield (340, 356, £323, 2s. 10d.); Port 
Hill (613, 497, £460, 8s. 6d.); Primrose (85, 84, £61, 
5s.); Rosemount (836, 859, £947); Ruthrieston (265, 
266, £376, 12s. 6d.); St Andrew's Street (237, 126, 
£80, 6s.); St Clement's Street (712, 601, £529, 4s.); 
St Paul Street (623, 623, £678, 9s. 9d.); Skene Square 
(510, 464, £433, 10s. 6d.); Skene Street (763, 749, 
£720, 9s. 6d.); Westfield (217, 213, £219, 9s. 6d.); 
YorkStreet (383, 386, £376, 17s.). Also— Normal (F. C. , 
684, 421, £576, 9s. 6d.); Practising (Ch., 995, 697, £778, 
12s.); St Andrew's (Epis., 454, 412, £360, 10s.); St 
Francis (R.C., 118, 99, £94, 3s. 6d.); St John's (Epis., 
236, 236, £228, 8s.); St Joseph's (R.C. 340, 207, £188, 
19s. 7d.); St Margaret's, Mission (Epis., 252, 250, £216, 
10s.); St Peter's (R.C, 236, 115, £116, 9s.); Sheriff 
Watson's Female Industrial (113, 48, £41, 4s.). 

Aberdeen till lately had no public gardens, a want the 
more felt from the scarcity of any large open spaces 
within the city; but the Victoria Park in 1872, and the 
Union Terrace Gardens in 1879, were laid out at a cost 
respectively of £4248 and £5110. The former lying 
on the NW outskirts of the town, near the Lunatic 
Asylum, is 13 acres in extent, measuring some 400 by 
225 yards, and at its centre has a handsome granite 
fountain, presented by the master masons and workers 
of Aberdeen; whilst Union Terrace Gardens, with well- 
grown elm and ash trees, planted in 1775, (having served 
for some years as a convenient ' toom'), and extending 
northwards from Union Bridge along the W side of 
the Denburn Valley, here spanned by another bridge 
leading to School Hill, have an utmost length and 
breadth of about 250 and 50 yards. The Dutliie Park 
(named after the donor, Miss Duthie of Ruthrieston) at 
Arthurseat, near Allenvale Cemetery, within 2 miles of 
the centre of the city, was opened by the Princess 
Beatrice in 1883, the first sod having been cut on the 
1 27 August 1881. It is 47 acres in extent, and cost 
£30,000. The 'Stewart Park,' named in compliment 
to Lord Provost Stewart, was opened at Woodside in 
1894. Aberdeen's best recreation ground, however, will 
always remain the Links, a stretch of velvety sward and 
broken sandhills (the highest, Broad HilL 94 feet), 
which, 410 acres in area, extends for 2 miles along the 
fine level sands. Here are the battery, lifeboat house, 
bathing station, and golf club house. 

The Cross, at the upper end of Castle Street, is a 



Renaissance, open-arched, hexagonal structure of free- 
stone, adorned with medallions of the seven Jameses. 
Frnm its centre springs a column with Corinthian 
capital, surmounted by a unicorn that bears an escutcheon 
charged with the Scottish lion, the basement being 
21 feet in diameter and 18 high, the column 12J feet 
more. The workmanship of John Montgomery, mason 
of Old Rayne, it was first erected, in 1686, before the 
Tolbooth, near the site of the Flesh and Fish Crosses, 
and was transferred to its present position in 1842.— The 
monument (1836) of George, fifth Duke of Gordon, 
Scott's 'Cock of the North,' stands 30 yards lower 
down, and consists of a granite statue and pedestal, the 
one 11 J, the other 10J feet high. — At the NW corner 
of Union Bridge, in a circular recess, is Baron Maro- 
chetti's bronze seated statue of the Prince Consort, in 
field-marshal's uniform, the jack-boots very prominent. 
The figure is 6J feet high, its pedestal of polished Peter- 
head granite 8 ; and it was unveiled in presence of Her 
Majesty, 13 Oct. 1863. — A statue of the Queen herself, 
by the late Alexander Brodie, of Aberdeen, was placed 
in 1866 at the junction of Union and St Nicholas Streets, 
but getting impaired by the weather, was removed in 
1S86 to the corridor of the Town House. A statue 
of Her Majesty, in bronze, presented by the Royal 
tradesmen of the city, was erected in 1893. — A colossal 
bronze statue of Sir William "Wallace, ' returning defiant 
answer to the English ambassadors before the battle of 
Stirling Bridge,' has been erected at the north end of 
Union Terrace Gardens, nearly opposite the Public 
Library. It was designed by W. G. Stevenson, R.S.A., 
and unveiled by the Marquis of Lome in 1888. It is 
the gift of the late Mr John Steell, of Edinburgh, who 
left £4000 for the purpose. — At the entrance to Robert 
Gordon's College there is in the open space a bronze statue 
to the memory of General Gordon, the hero of Khartoum. 
It is 9J feet in height, is placed on a granite pedestal 9 
feet high, and was subscribed for principally by members 
of the Clan Gordon. — A bronze statue of the poet Burns, 
at the east side of Union Terrace, was unveiled in Sept. 

The most, noticeable bridge within the city is Telford's 
Union Bridge, in the line of Union Street, over the Den- 
burn (now the railway) Valley. Besides three blind 
arches, one on the W and two on the E, it has an open 
arch of 132 feet span, with parapets 52 feet above the 
ground below, is 70 feet wide, with carriage-way of 21, 
and was constructed (1800-3) at a cost of £13,342. — 
Bridgeof Dee, limileSWofUnion Place, was till recently 
the only great thoroughfare over the Dee from Aberdeen 
to the south, and, though rurally situated, is connected 
with the city by a chain of suburbs, and is under the 
management of the town council. It originated in a 
bequest of £20,000, left by Bishop Elphinstone, to build 
a bridge across the Dee near Aberdeen. He died 25 Oct. 
1514; and his successor, Bishop Gavin Dunbar, carried 
out the intention of the legacy, and finished the bridge 
in 1527. Consisting of 7 arches, each of 50 feet span, this 
bridge eventually fell into decay, was restored (1718-21) 
out of funds belonging to itself, and was widened 
(1841-42) from 14£ to 26 feet, and otherwise greatly 
improved, at a cost of £7250. — "Wellington Suspension 
Bridge, spanning the Dee at Craiglug in the vicinity of 
Ferryhill, 1| mile below Dee Bridge, was erected in 
1831 at a cost of £10,000, and is 220 feet long by 22 
wide. — The Railway Viaduct (1848), on the Aberdeen 
section of the Caledonian, crosses the Dee transversely, 
3 furlongs above the Suspension Bridge, and designed 
by Messrs Locke & Errington, consists of 7 iron- 
girder arches, each about 50 feet in span, with two land 
arches at its northern end. — Victoria Bridge, over the 
Dee's new channel, in a line with Market Street and 
Cross Quay, is a granite five-arched structure, opened on 
2 July 1881, having cost £25,000.— The Auld Brig o' 
Balgownie, built about 1320, either by Bishop Cheyne 
or by King Robert Bruce, crosses the Don, i\ miles N 
by W of Castle Street. A single Gothic arch, narrow 
and steep, of 67 feet span and 34 J high above the black 
deep salmon pool below, it is commemorated by Byron 


in Don Juan, where a note records how a dread prediction 
made him pause to cross it, and yet lean over it with a 
childish delight. For he was his mother's only son, 
and the prophecy runs: — 

' Brig o' Balgownie, black's your wa' (or, though wight be your wa '), 
Wi' a wife's ae son, and a meer's ae foal, 
Down ye shall fa' I ' 

In 1605 Sir Alexander Hay left lands of a yearly value 
of £2, 8s. 5Jd. to keep the Auld Brig in repair; its ac- 
cumulated funds amounted (1872) to £23,153, though 
out of those funds in 1825 was built the new Bridge of 
Don, 500 yards lower down, for £17,100. With five 
semicircular arches, each about 86 feet in span, this last 
is 26J feet wide and 41 high. A new bridge over the 
Don at Persley, between Woodside and Buxburn, was 
opened 9 July 1892. 

The Aberdeen railway, amalgamated (1866) with the 
Caledonian, was opened for traffic up to Guild Street 
terminus in 1848; and the Great North of Scotland 
was opened from Huntly to Kitty brewster in 1854, and 
thence extended, two years afterwards, to Waterloo 
terminus. The break — 700 yards of crowded quays — 
between these termini had proved a great hindrance to 
intercommunication, when, in 1864, the two companies 
were empowered to construct the Denburn Valley line, 
on a capital of £190,000, of which the Great North of 
Scotland subscribed £125,000. The junction railway 
runs If mile north-north-westward from Guild Street 
to Kittybrewster, being carried beneath Union Bridge, 
and through two short tunnels under Woolman Hill 
and Maberley Street; and the Great North Company 
abandoned their Waterloo branch, except for goods 
traffic, on the opening (1867) of the new Joint Guild 
Street station, which, over 500 feet long by 100 wide, 
is one of the finest stations in Scotland, its lofty iron- 
girder roof being modelled after that of Victoria station, 
Pimlico. This handsome building was erected for the 
accommodation of the Caledonian railway, the Great 
North of Scotland railway, and the Deeside railway 
companies, and is now also used by the North British. 
— Street tramways, on the line of Union, King, St 
Nicholas, and George Streets, were opened in 1874, and 
extended to Mannofield in 1880, their aggregate cost of 
construction being £18,791. 

From a cistern, formed about 1766 at the head of 
Broad Street, and fed by the Fountainhall and other 
streams, 187,200 gallons of water were daily obtained; 
but this supply proving insufficient, the police commis- 
sioners resolved in 1830 to supplement it from the Dee. 
A pump-house was accordingly erected near the N end 
of the Bridge of Dee; but its two engines, each of 50 
horse-power, could daily raise through a 15-inch main 
no more than 1,000,000 gallons to a granite reservoir 
at the W end of Union Street, which, with storage 
capacity of 94,728 gallons, stood 40 feet higher than 
the street itself, and 130 higher than the pumping- 
station. This fresh supply, too, proving quite inade- 
quate, the commissioners next resolved, in 1862, to 
supersede pumping by gravitation, and to that end pro- 
cured powers to abstract between 2, 500, 000 and 6, 000, 000 
gallons daily from the Dee at Cairnton, 23 miles up the 
river, and 224 feet above the level of the sea. Similar 
to those of Glasgow, and rivalled in Scotland by them 
alone, the new Aberdeen waterworks were planned by 
the late James Simpson, C.E., of London. An aque- 
duct from Cairnton intake passes, by tunnel, through 
half a mile of rock, and thence goes half a mile further 
to Invercanny reservoir, in which 10,000,000 gallons 
can be stored, and from which the main aqueduct, 18 
miles long, leads to the reservoir at Brae of Pitfodels. 
This, 1 J mile WSW of Union Place, and 162 feet above 
sea-level, can hold 6,000,000 gallons; and a high-ser- 
vice reservoir on Hillhead of Pitfodels (420 feet) con- 
tains about 500,000 more. Commenced in the spring 
of 1864, the waterworks were opened by the Queen 
on Oct. 16, 1866; their cost, which was estimated at 
£103,999, had reached £161,524 in 1872. 

Aberdeen has good natural drainage facilities, but has 
been slow to turn them to account. In 1865 there were 


but two or three common sewers in the new principal 
streets, besides the Den Burn, the Holburn on the S, the 
Powis or Tyle Burn on the N, and a few tinier rills. 
Furnishing water-power to numerous works, these 
streams threw up the filth that they received; the Den 
Burn, too, though often in summer almost dry, and 
though the outlet, within 600 yards, of between 40 
and 50 minor sewers, was disposed in cascades, and 
carried along an ornamental channel. Small wonder to 
find it described as 'highly polluted,' as ' bringing down 
to its mouth at the harbour a thick and fetid slime 
that exhales, at low water, great volumes of poisonous 
gas;' nay, even in the best quarters of the city some 
houses were solely drained into back-garden cesspools. 
Much has been done since then; the Den Burn in its 
lower course having been covered over, and £62,695 
expended during 1867-72 on the purchase of old and 
the construction of new sewers within the municipal 
bounds. In 1875, however, these works were described 
by Mr Alexander Smith, C. E. , as far from perfect, ' the 
main sewers having been laid in zones, almost on dead- 
level intercepting sewers with reversible outfalls, in- 
stead of being laid in a position to take advantage of the 
natural outfalls.' By one of the four main sewers 44 
acres of the Spital lands were successfully irrigated in 
1871; and in 1876 it was proposed thus to utilise all 
the sewage of the low-lying parts of the city, 624 acres 
being required for the purpose. Two schemes were laid 
before the town council, the cost of one being £31,221, 
of the other £29,540. Up to September 1892 the total 
amount spent on the drainage system amounted to 
£128,000. The earliest Gas Light Company (1824) 
had their works near the present site of Guild Street 
station, whilst a new company (1840) had theirs at the 
Sandilands, just off the links; and on these companies' 
amalgamation, the former premises were sold to the 
Scottish North Eastern. In 1871 the Sandilands works 
themselves were acquired by the corporation at a total 
cost of £120,809. 

For ages a mere expanse of open water, the harbour, 
so far back as the 14th century, seems to have been pro- 
tected by a bulwark, repaired or rebuilt in 1484. A stone 
pier on the S side of the channel was formed between 
1607 and 1610, in which latter year a great stone, called 
Knock Maitland or Craig Metellan, was removed from 
the harbour's entry ' by the renowned art and industrie 
of that ingenious and vertuous citizen, David Anderson 
of Finzeauch, from his skill in mechanics popularly 
known as Davie do a' thing.' The eastward extension 
of the wharf, whereby a fine meadow of ground was re- 
claimed, was carried on slowly (1623-59), and before 
1661 a shipbuilding dock had been constructed at Foot- 
dee; but all improvements notwithstanding, navigation 
continued difficult and perilous, owing to a bar of sand, 
on which at low tide was scarcely 2 feet of water. To 
remedy this evil, the magistrates in 1770 procured a 
plan from Smeaton, in accordance wherewith the new 
N pier was built (1775-81) at a cost of £18,000. Curv- 
ing slightly northwards, it had a length of 1200 feet, a 
height of from 16 to 30 feet, and a breadth of from 20 to 
36 feet at the base, of from 12 to 24 at the top, its dimen- 
sions increasing seawards. By Telford this pier was ex- 
tended (1810-16) to a further length of almost 900 feet, 
at a cost of £66,000; and to protect it, a southern 
breakwater, nearly 800 feet long, was finished in 1815, at 
a cost of £14,000 more. The next great undertaking 
was the construction (1840-48) of the Victoria Dock, 28 
acres in extent — 7J above Kegent Bridge — with 2053 
yards of wharfage, and tide-locks 80 feet wide, the depth 
of water on whose sill is 21 feet at ordinary spring 
tides. This left about 18 acres of tidal harbour, and so 
things stood till Dec. 1869, when was commenced the 
southward diversion of the Dee from the Suspension 
Bridge downwards. The new channel, curving a little 
over a mile, and at its bottom 170 feet wide, was com- 
pleted at a cost of £51,585 in 1872, the total sum ex- 
pended on harbour improvements up to that date since 
1810 amounting to £1,509,638. Other works under 
the Act of 1868 have been the building of a new S 


breakwater of concrete, 1050 feet long and 47 high, at 
a cost of £76,443 (1870-73); a further extension of the 
N pier by 500 feet, at a cost of £44,000 (1874-77); and 
the filling up of the Dee's old bed, on which, in June 
1885, a new and spacious graving dock was formed. 
Its total length is 524 feet; the width at the floor, 48 
feet, gradually increasing to 74 feet at the cope, the 
length of the floor being 500 feet, and the depth on the 
sill 20 feet. The dock is furnished with hydraulic 
machinery, and cost about £50,000. Girdleness Light- 
house, with one fixed and one revolving light, 115 and 
185 feet above mean tide, was built in 1833 to the S of 
the harbour entrance, which, widened now to 400 yards, 
leads out of Aberdeen Bay, a safe enough anchorage 
this with offshore winds, though not with a NE, E, 
or SE wind. The harbour is managed by 19 commis- 
sioners chosen from the town council, and by 12 other 
elected commissioners. The aggregate tonnage regis- 
tered as belonging to the port was 310 in 1656, 4964 in 
1788, 17,131 in 1810, 34,235 in 1821, 30,460 in 1831, 
38,979 in 1841, 50,985 in 1851, 74,232 in 1861, 99,936 
in 1871, 109,471 in 1881, 101,922 in 1891, and 108,719 
in 1894 — viz. 47 sailing vessels of 47,406, and 143 steam- 
ships of 61,313 tons. The harbour revenue, again, was 
£7215 in 1811, £9161 in 1821, £12,239 in 183C£1S,657 
in 1841, £20,190 in 1851, £28,436 in 1861, £32,292 in 
1871, £59,320 in 1881, when the local salmon fishings 
(now the property of the harbour commissioners) yielded 
£5706, and £52,800 in 1890, when the expenditure was 
£37,375. Both lists show almost constant growth ; as 
likewise does the following table, giving the aggregate 
tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared from and to 
foreign ports and coastwise, in cargoes, and also — for 
the last four years — in ballast: — 







British. ( Foreign. 



















































Of the total 3144 vessels of 853,074 tons that entered 
in 1894, 2614 vessels of 769,765 tons were steamers, 187 
vessels of 33,348 tons were in ballast, and 2775 of 
716,739 tons were coasters ; whilst the total 3102 of 
847,631 tons that cleared included 2572 steamers of 
762,361 tons, 1237 vessels in ballast of 380,684 tons, 
and 2931 coasters of 786,032 tons. The trade is mainly, 
then, a coasting one, and more an import than an export 
one; and coal is a chief article of import, 415,908 tons 
having been received coastwise here in 1890. The num- 
ber of vessels that arrived at the port from Montreal 
since the Canadian cattle trade commenced in 1887 up 
to the end of 1891 was 85, while from Holland there had 
been 9, from Denmark 3, and from Iceland 1 — in all, 
98. The numbers landed were — cattle, 41,896; calves, 
248 ; sheep, 4022— 46, 163. Other imports are lime, flax, 
hemp, jute, timber, oats, wheat, flour, salt, iron, bones, 
guano, etc. ; exports are flax and cotton fabrics, woollen 
cloths, grain, oatmeal, cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, pork, 
butter, eggs, salmon, preserved meats, granite, and 
Scotch pine timber. The amoimt of customs in 1862 
was £92,963; in 1868, £80,415; in 1879, £98,632; in 
1887, £186,008; in 1890, £79,478; and in 1894, £83,044. 

Shipbuilding was carried on as early as the 15th 
century, and in the days of wooden ships, the Aberdeen 
' clipper bow,' of Messrs Hall's invention, won for itself 
a wide repute. Its fame endures, but iron since 1839 
has by degrees superseded wood, and this again has 
given place to steel. During 1832-36 there were built 
here 38 vessels of 6016 tons, and during 1875-79 48 of 
28,817 tons, of which 22 of 9595 tons were steamers; in 
1880 the number was 7 of 5849 tons, all of them iron 
steamships; and in 1894 the number was 9 of 2287 tons, 
all of them steel steamships. Aberdeen is head of the 




finery district between Montrose and Peterhead, in 
which, during 1S90 there were cured 110,190 barrels of 
white herrings, besides 98,039 cod, ling, and hake, 
taken by 294 boats, the estimated value of boats, nets, 
and lines being £114,269. There is a trawling fleet of 
78 vessels sailing regularly, besides 31 occasionally, each 
first-class boat being worth about £6000. 

The manufactures of Aberdeen are at once exten- 
sive and varied, its industrial establishments includ- 
ing comb, cotton, linen, woollen and wincey, carpet, 
tape, soap and candle, tobacco and snuff, and pipe 
factories; paper mills; the Rubislaw bleachfields; brew- 
eries ; distilleries ; chemical works ; engineering, iron- 
founding, boiler, and agricultural implement works; 
saw, file, gun, and brush factories; grain mills and 
meal stores; tanning or currying works; rope, twine, 
and sail factories ; brickfields, etc., with — last but 
not least — the yards of numerous granite polishers and 
stone merchants. — The hosiery trade of Scotland be- 
gan in Aberdeen, with which the African Company 
(1695) contracted for woollen stockings; and at the time 
when Pennant wrote (1771), 69,333 dozen pairs of stock- 
ings were yearly produced here, these being worth about 
30s. per dozen, and being chiefly exported to Holland, 
for dispersion thence through Germany. But the trade 
has since dwindled into insignificance. The linen 
manufacture, introduced about 1745, soon grew so large 
as to pay some £5000 a-year in wages ; and now, in 
the articles of thread, sailcloth, osnaburgs, brown 
linens, and sacking, employs between 2000 and 3000 
hands. The thread manufacture was introduced at a 
later date than the spinning ; was soon carried to 
great perfection; and employed 600 men, 2000 women, 
and 100 boys in 1795, when the sailcloth manufacture 
was commenced. Several large flax-spinning factories 
were established on the Don, near Old Aberdeen, about 
1800. The woollen manufacture, in the beginning of 
last century, comprised chiefly coarse slight cloths, 
called plaidens and fingroms. These were made by the 
farmers and cottagers from the wool of their own sheep, 
by the citizens from wool supplied by country hill- 
farms, and were mostly exported to Hamburg. Woollen 
factories were established in the city about 1748; are 
still there of considerable extent; and belong to the 
same proprietors as factories at Garlogie and Con, with 
these consuming about 2,000,000 lbs. of wool per 
annum, and employing upwards of 1400 hands. The 
carpet manufacture has an annual value of about 
£50,000, the tweed manufacture (at Grandholm em- 
ploying nearly 600 hands) of more than £120,000, and 
the wincey manufacture of at least £250,000. The 
aggregate woollen trade employs at least 600 hand- 
looms, 230 power-looms, and 3000 or more persons ; 
and annually produces upwards of 3,000,000 yards of 
fabrics. Banner Mill is now the only cotton factory, 
but is so extensive as to employ above 650 hands. — The 
meat-preserving trade of Scotland was commenced at 
Aberdeen in 1822; made slow progress for a time, till 
it overcame prejudice and created a market; began by 
preserving salmon for exportation, and proceeded to the 
preserving of meats, game, soups, and vegetables; is 
now carried on in several establishments; employs up- 
wards of 500 persons, produces preserved provisions to 
the annual value of about £221,000 ; supplies a large 
proportion of the meat stores to ships sailing from 
Glasgow, Liverpool, and . London ; and has extensive 
connection with India and China. Salmon, caught 
chiefly in the Dee and Don, appears to have been ex- 
ported from as early as 1281, and was shipped to the 
Continent towards the end of the 17th century, at the 
rate of about 360 barrels yearly, of 250 lbs. each. 
The quantity sent to London, during the seven years 
1822-28, amounted to 42,654 boxes, and during tho 
eight years 1829-36 to 65,260 boxes ; but later years 
have witnessed a decline. Dried whitings and had- 
docks, sometimes called Aberdeen haddocks from their 
being shipped at Aberdeen, oftener called Findon or 
Finnan haddocks from a village about 6 miles to the 
■S where they were originally dried for the market, are 

a considerable article of commerce coastwise as far as 
to London. Beef and mutton are also largely prepared 
for exportation ; and, together with live stock, are 
forwarded to the southern markets to the value of about 
£1,000,000 a-year. — Steam-engines, anchors, chains, 
cables, and all kinds of machinery are manufactured 
in extensive ironworks at Ferryhill, Footdee, and other 
localities. Rope-making, paper-making, soap-making, 
comb-making, and leather manufacture also are carried 
on. The granite trade has been associated with Aber- 
deen for fully 300 years; and now it makes a very great 
figure. Effective quarrying was not begun till about 
1750, nor the exporting till 1764 ; whilst the use of 
machinery in quarrying dates only from about 1795, 
the dressing of the granite into regular cubes from 
1800, and the polishing of granite for manufacture into 
monuments, columns, fountains, etc., from 1818. But 
now the trade in dressed blocks for paving, bridges, 
wharves, docks, and lighthouses, and so forth, is 
gigantic; while that in polished granite, or in numer- 
ous and diversified ornamental articles of polished 
granite, at once exercises remarkable artistic skill, and 
is considerably and increasingly extensive. Upwards of 
SO, 000 tons of granite are quarried annually in Aber- 
deenshire and the contiguous parts of Kincardineshire, 
and more than half of the quantity quarried is exported. 
The quarrying employs upwards of 1000 hands ; the 
transporting and the working employ a proportionally 
large number of hands, and the polishing and con- 
structing into ornamental objects employ very many 
skilled workmen. The tons of granite exported from 
Aberdeen were 25,557 in 1840, 30,385 in 1850, 32,023 
in 1865, 43,790 in 1867, and upwards of 50,000 in 1891. 

A weekly grain market is held on Friday ; a linen 
market, on the Green, is held on the last Thursday of 
April; a wool market, also on the Green, is held on 
the last Thursday and Friday of June, and of the 
first and second weeks of July; and a market is held on 
the Wednesday after the third Tuesday of October, o.s. ; 
but none of these, except the weekly one, is now of 
importance. Hiring markets are held in Castle Street 
on several Fridays about Whitsunday and Martinmas. 

A printing-press was started by Edward Raban in 
1621, from which in 1623 the earliest Scottish almanac 
was issued, and in 1748 the Aberdeen Journal, the oldest 
newspaper N of the Forth. There now are 10 news- 
papers — the daily and Wednesday Conservative Journal 
(1748), the Saturday Liberal Eerald (1S06), the Liberal 
Daily Free Press (1853), the Tuesday and Friday Northern 
Advertiser (1856), the Saturday Liberal People's Journal 
(1858), the Saturday Weekly News (1864), tho Evening 
Express (1879), the Evening Gazette (1882), and the 
Northern Daily News (1891). — The Spalding Club 
was instituted in 1839, for printing historical, ecclesi- 
astical, genealogical, typographical, and literary re- 
mains of the north-eastern counties of Scotland; and 
issued nearly forty volumes of groat value, including 
Dr Stuart's Sculptured Stones of Scotland and TJie Book 
of Deer. It came to a close in 1870; but a new Spalding 
Club was started in 1887. See John Stuart's Notices o) 
tlie Spalding Club. 

The Town Council consists of a Lord Provost, 6 bailies, 
6 office-bearers, and 23 councillors; and the municipal 
constituency numbered 1902 in 1841, 2961 in 1851, 
2701 in 1861, 9347 in 1871, 12,193 in 1881, and 23,449 
in 1891. The corporation revenue was £15,184 in 1832, 
£18,648 in 1840, £16,894 in 1854, £11,376 in 1864, 
£11,447 in 1870, £12,560 in 1874 (including assessments 
and gas revenue), £122,328 in 1880, and £175,000 in 
1892. By the Aberdeen Municipality Extension Act 
of 1871, the powers of tho former commissioners of police 
were transferred to the town council, tho business of the 
police department being thenceforth managed by separ- 
ate committees. The watching force for city and har- 
bour consists of a superintendent (salary £525), 2 lieu- 
tenants, 6 inspectors, 6 detectives, 9 sergeants, and 126 
constables, the total cost of that force being £11,381 in 
1891. The sheriff court for the county is held in the 
Court-House on Wednesday and Fridays, the small debt 


court on Thursdays, the debts recovery court on Fridays, 
the commissary court on AVednesdays, and the general 
quarter sessions on the first Tuesday of March, May, and 
August, and the last Tuesday of October. — The parlia- 
mentary constituency numbered 2024 in 1834, 35S6 in 
1861, 14,146 in 1881, and 17,70S in 1891, of whom 8S32 
belonged to the North Division, and 8876 to the South 
Division. The burgh formerly returned one member to 
Parliament, but under the Redistribution, of Seats Act 
of 1885 an additional member was granted to it. — The 
annual value of real property within the parliamentary 
burgh, assessed at £101,613 in 1815, has risen since the 
passing of the Valuation Act from £178, 16S in 1S56, to 
£193,336 in 1861, £226,534 in 1S66, £2S3,650 in 1871, 
£323,197 in 1876, £414,864, 4s. in 1881, and (exclusive 
of £18,222 for railways, tramways, and waterworks) 
£568,461 in 1891, this last sum being thus distributed: — 
St Nicholas parish, £260,953 ; Old Machar, £297,118 ; 
Peterculter, £226; and Tony, £10,164.— The population 
is said to have numbered 2977 in 1396, 4000 in 1572, 
5833 in 1581, 8750 in 1643, 5556 in 1708, and 15,730 in 
1755, the last being that of the parliamentary burgh, 
which during the present century is shown by the census 
thus to have increased— (1801) 26,992, (1811) 34,649, 
(1821) 43,821, (1831) 56,681, (1841) 63,288, (1851) 
71,973, (1861) 73,805, (1871) 88,189, (1881) 105,003, 
(1891) 121,623, of whom 384 belonged to the City Poor- 
house, 219 to the Royal Infirmary, 369 to the shipping, 
10 to the Naval Reserve, 51,748 (26,607 females) to St 
Nicholas, and 71,579 (39,902 females) to Old Machar, 
the subdivisions of these two last being given under the 

Old Aberdeen, by the Extension Act of 1891, is 
incorporated with the royal burgh and city. It is barely 
1 J mile N by W of Castle Street, yet merits separate 
notice as a quondam burgh of regality, an episcopal 
city, and the seat of a university. Consisting chiefly of a 
single street, it commences at Spital, near the N end 
of Gallowgate, and thence extends a good mile north- 
ward to the immediate vicinity of the Don. "With its 
gardens and orchards, it wears a quiet countrified 
appearance, and, but for a few modern villas here and 
there, might almost be said to have remained three 
centuries unchanged. The northern end is strikingly 
picturesque, the Chanonry there, or ancient cathedral 
precinct, containing once cathedral, episcopal palace, 
deanery, prebends' lodgings, etc., and though now 
stripped of some of its features, presenting still in the 
massive form and short spiked steeples of the cathedral, 
amid a cluster of fine old trees on the crown of a bank 
sloping down to the Don, a scene of beauty hardly ex- 
celled by aught of the kind in Britain. 

The Town-House stands about 300 yards S of the 
cathedral ; was built in 1702, and renovated towards 
the end of the century ; and contains a large hall, a 
council-room, and other official chambers. — The cross 
stood in front of the site of the Town-House, included a 
stepped pedestal, and a shaft surmounted by a figure of 
the Virgin ; and was defaced at the Reformation, re- 
moved when the Town-House was rebuilt. — A well at 
the Town-House was formed in 1769, with a cistern in 
what had been called the Thief s Hole ; and was pro- 
vided with 625 yards of piping. — The entrance-gate to 
Powis' Garden fronts the College buildings, has a lofty 
round tower on either side, surmounted by gilded 
crescents, and forms a marked feature in the burghal 
landscape. — The Hermitage crowning an eminence in 
Powis' Garden is another picturesque object ; and a 
conical mount, the Hill of Tillydrone, a little W of the 
cathedral, is said by some to have been artificially 
formed by Bruce's soldiers for a watchguard station ; by 
others, to have served for beacon fires ; by others, to 
have Been the seat of ancient civil, criminal, or ecclesi- 
astical courts. 

The exact date of the erection of the see of Aberdeen 
is unknown, the legend of its original foundation by 
Malcolm II. at Mortlacb in Banffshire resting on five 
forged documents. Thence it is said to have been 
transferred by David I. (1124-53), but all that is certain 


is that a charter granted by the Mormaer of Buchan for 
refounding the church of Deer early in David's reign 
was witnessed by 'Nectan, Bishop of Aberdeen,' whilst 
a bull by Pope Adrian IV. confirmed in 1157 to Edward, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, the church of Aberdeen and the 
church of St Machar, with the town of Old Aberdeen 
and other lands (Skene's Celt. Scot., vol. ii., 1876, p. 
378). Down to the Reformation, the see was held by 
26 bishops, the twelfth of whom, Alexander Kinin- 
month II. (1356-80), laid the foundations of the present 
Cathedral of SS. Mary and Machar, preserving nothing 
of two earlier structures. The work was can-ied on by 
his successors, and in 1532 the cathedral presented a 
five-bayed nave, an aisleless choir, a transept, lady- 
chapel, and consistory, with two western octagonal 
steeples 11 3J feet high, and a great central tower of 
freestone, rising 150 feet, in which hung 14 bells. De- 
struction soon succeeded to construction, for the Meams 
rabble in 1560 despoiled the cathedral of all its costly 
ornaments, demolishing the choir ; the transepts were 
crushed by the fall of the central tower in 16S8. All 
that remains is the nave, now the parish church (126 by 
671 feet), a parvised S porch, the western towers, and 
fragments of the transept walls, containing the richly 
sculptured but mutilated tombs of Henry de Lichtoun 
(d. 1440), Gavin Dunbar (d. 1532), and a third unknown 
bishop. The only granite cathedral in the world, this, 
although dating from the Second Pointed age, has many 
survivals of the Norman style, notably its short massive 
rounded piers and plain unmoulded ' storm ' or clerestory 
windows ; other features are the great western window, 
divided by six long shafts of stone, a low-browed doorway 
beneath it with heavy semicircular arch, and the finely 
carved pulpit, a relic of the wood-carvings, that else 
were hewn in pieces in 1649. The plainness of the 
whole is redeemed by the carving and gilding of a flat 
panelled oaken ceiling, emblazoned with the arms of 
48 benefactors, and restored in 1869-71, when two 
galleries also were removed, and other improvements 
effected under the supervision of the late Sir G. G. Scott 
at a total cost of £4280. Five stained-glass windows, 
too, have been inserted (1871-74), the western to the 
Duke of Gordon's memory, another to that of the 
Aberdonian painters, Jameson, Phillip, and Dyce. (See 
Billings, vol. i., 1848; and Walcott's Scoti-Monasticon, 
1874, with authorities cited there). — E of the cathedral 
the bishop's palace (c. 1470), with a large fair court and 
4 high towers, stood near the site of the present resi- 
dence of the Divinity Professor ; to the S stood the 
deanery, on ground now occupied by Old Machar Manse ; 
and to the W was a hospital founded in 1532 by Bishop 
Gavin Dunbar for 12 poor bedesmen ; its revenues now 
are distributed to 18 men in their own homes. — A 
church and a hospital, dedicated to St Peter, stood within 
Spital burying-ground, near the S end of the town ; 
and another church, St Mary ad Nives, commonly 
called Snow Kirk, stood behind houses a little NW of 
the Spital burying-ground. Both churches, by an act 
of Parliament in 1583, were united to the cathedral 
church. The western portion of Spital burying-ground 
is very ancient, but the eastern is recent ; the Snow 
Kirk burying-ground is now the Roman Catholic ceme- 
tery. — The Free church, the only place of worship now 
in Old Aberdeen besides the cathedral, stands about 
midway between it and King's College, and is a neat 
edifice, renovated in 1880. 

King's College stands on the E side of the main street, 
nearly i mile S of the cathedral. It was begun in 1500, 
and now exhibits a mixture of architecture, mediseval 
and modern. Its original form, a complete quadrangle, 
with three towers, is depicted in a curious painting of the 
17th century, preserved within the college ; but one of 
these towers has perished, another is only a fragment. 
The third, 100 feet high, was rebuilt about 1636 at the 
NW corner, and is a massive structure, buttressed nearly 
to the top, and bearing aloft a lantern of crossed rib 
arches, surmounted by a beautiful imperial crown, 
with finial cross. Lantern and crown somewhat re- 
semble those of St Giles', Edinburgh, and St Nicholas', 



Newcastle-on-Tyne ; but they have much less of the 
spire about them, and are far more in keeping with the 
spirit of Gothic architecture. The adjoining western or 
street front is a reconstruction of 1826, and, Perpendi- 
cular in style, is out of harmony with the tower. The 
entire original college appears to have been executed in 
a mixture of the Scottish and the French Gothic styles ; 
and was specially distinguished by the retention of the 
semicircular arch, at a time long subsequent to the 
general use of the pointed arch throughout England. 
Much of that pile still stands, preserving all its original 
features, and serving as one of the best extant specimens 
of the Scottish architecture of its period. The W side 
of the quadrangle is disposed in class-rooms ; the S 
side consists of plain building, with a piazza ; and the 
E side contains the common hall, 62 by 22J feet, en- 
riched with portraits and with Jameson's famous paint- 
ings of the Ten Sibyls. The N side contains the chapel 
and the library, and for interior character is deeply in- 
teresting. The chapel is the choir of the original college 
church, and has canopied stalls of beautifully carved black 
oak, with screens of the same material, ' which,' says 
Hill Burton, ' for beauty of Gothic design and practical 
finish, are perhaps the finest piece of carved work existing 
in the British Empire.' The tomb of Bishop Elphin- 
stone is in the middle of the chapel, and was once highly 
ornamented, but is now covered with an uninscribed 
slab of black marble. The library is the former nave, 
measures PS feet by 29, retains the original W window of 
the church, and is separated from the chapel by a parti- 
tion walL The university library possesses more than 
100,000 volumes, and there are also museums of natural 
history, medicine, archaeology, etc. 

A scholastic institution, serving as a germ of the 
college, existed from the time of Malcolm IV. The col- 
lege itself originated in a bull of Pope Alexander VI. , ob- 
tained by application of James IV. , on supplication of 
Bishop Elphinstone, for a university to teach theology, 
canon and civil law, medicine, and the liberal arts, and 
to grant degrees. The bull was issued in 1494, but did 
not take effect till 1505. The college was dedicated to 
the Holy Trinity and the Virgin Mary, but being placed 
under the immediate protection of the king came to 
be known as King's College. James IV. and Bishop 
Elphinstone endowed it with large revenues. Six 
teachers for life and five for a certain number of years, 
were to carry on its tuition. The primus was styled 
principal, and was to be a master of theology ; the second, 
third, and fourth were the doctors of canon and civil 
law and of medicine ; the fifth was styled regent and sub- 
principal, and was to be a master of arts ; the sixth was 
to teach literature, and to be also a master of arts ; 
the five not holding their positions for life were like- 
wise to be masters of arts ; and all eleven, except the 
doctor of medicine, were to be ecclesiastics. A faithful 
model of the University of Paris, King's College, with its 
four ' nations' of Mar, Buchan, Moray, and Angus, par- 
took partly of a monastic, partly of an eleemosynary, 
character ; but, as it progressed, it underwent change, at 
once in it3 practical working, in the staff of its profes- 
sors, and in the amount of its endowments. It became 
comparatively very wealthy towards the era of the P k efor- 
rnatioB, and had it been allowed to retain the wealth 
which it had then acquired it might at the present day 
have vied with the great colleges of England ; but, 
through the grasping avarice of Queen Mary's courtiers, 
it was deprived of much of its property. It, however, 
received some new possessions from Charles I. ; it had, 
in 1836, an income of £2363 from endowments and 
crown grants; and it acquired £11,000 from a bequest 
by Dr Simpson, of Worcester, in 1840, when its bur- 
saries numbered 128, of tho aggregate yearly value of 
£1643. In 1838, the University Commissioners had re- 
commended that King's College hero, and Marischal 
College in Aberdeen, should be united into one univer- 
sity, to be called the University of Aberdeen, with its 
scat at Old Aberdeen, and that recommendation was 
adopted in tho Universities Act of 1858, and carried 
into effect on Sept. 15, 1860. Holding the funds of 


both colleges, and ranking from the year 1494, the date 
of King's College, the university has 250 bursaries, of 
which 223 are attached to the faculty of arts, and 27 to 
that of theology. They vary from £5 to £50, and 
average fully £20 apiece, their aggregate value being 
£5179 ; there are also eight scholarships of from £70 to 
£100 per annum. The classes for arts and divinity are 
now held in King's College, and those for law and 
medicine in . Marischal College. The session, in arts 
and divinity, extends from the beginning of November to 
the first Friday of April ; in law, from the first Monday 
of November to the end of March ; and in medicine, for 
winter, from not later than the 24 October to the end 
of April; for summer, from the first Monday of May to 
the end of July. The general council (3330 members 
in 1891) meets twice a year— on the Wednesday after 
the second Tuesday of April, and on the Wednesday 
after the second Tuesday of October. The chief officers 
are a chancellor, elected by the general council; a vice- 
chancellor, appointed by the chancellor; a lord rector, 
elected by the matriculated students; a principal, ap- 
pointed by the Crown; and eleven assessors, chosen by 
respectively the chancellor, the rector, the town council, 
the general council, and the senatus academicus. The 
university court consists of the rector, the principal, the 
lord provost of Aberdeen, and the assessors; and the 
senatus academicus consists of the principal and the 
professors. The chairs, with the dates of then- estab- 
lishment and their emoluments, including estimated 
amounts from fees, are — Greek (1505, £607); humanity 
(1505, £578); mathematics (1505, £536); natural phi- 
losophy (1505, £524); moral philosophy (1505, £492); 
natural history (1593, £468); logic (1860, £492); divinity 
and church history (1616, £486); systematic theology 
(1620, £566); Oriental languages (1674, £439); divinity 
and biblical criticism (1860, £130); law (1505, £303); 
chemistry (1505, £531); practice of medicine (1700, 
£254); anatomy (1839, £600); surgery (1839, £266); 
medical logic and medical jurisprudence (1857, £222); . 
institutes of medicine (I860, £272); materia niediea 
(1860, £242); midwifery (1860, £223); botany (1860, 
£377) ; and pathological anatomy, the Sir Erasmus 
Wilson professorship (1882). The Crown appoints to 
16 of the chairs, the university court to 5, and a com- 
posite body of 20 members to the chair of systematic 
theology. There are also four lectureships — one called 
the Murray Sunday Lecture (1821), one on practical 
religion (1825), one on agriculture (1840), and the 
Gifford lectureship on natural theology (1887); as well 
as assistantships to the Greek, humanity, mathematics, 
natural philosophy, chemistry, anatomy, materia medica, 
and medical logic and jurisprudence chairs, all instituted 
in 1860. The Act of 1S58 awarded compensation, to 
the aggregate amount of £3500 a-year, to such professors 
and others as were displaced by new arrangements, 
authorised the erection of new buildings at King's 
College, and repairs and alterations in Marischal College, 
at an estimated cost of respectively £17,936 and £800, 
and fixed a new scale of emoluments, allotting £599 
a year to the principal, and to professors as given above. 
The number of matriculated students in the winter 
session (1890-91) was 855, and in the summer session 
(1891) 422. The graduates iu 1891 were— M.A., 83; 
M.D., 23; M.B. and CM., 59; B.Sc, 2; D.Sc, 2; 
diploma in public health, 8; and B.D., 9. The Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen unites with that. of Glasgow in 
sending a member to Parliament. 

The Grammar School stands E of the 1 own-House ; is 
a very modest building, with a small playground ; has 
accommodation for 91 scholars ; and is chiefly engaged 
in preparing boys for university bursaries. It dates 
from time immemorial ; but, strictly speaking, is only 
a sessional school, connocled with tho kirk-session of 
Old Machar. The Gymnasium, or Chanonry School, 
is private property, but has some characteristics of an 
important public school ; was opened in 1848, with de- 
sign to prepare boys for the university ; has accommoda- 
tion for boarders, 9 class-rooms with capacity for at 
least 150 boys, and 2 playgrounds ; and is conducted by 


the proprietor, a rector, and 7 masters. Mitchell's 
Hospital stands in the south-western vicinity of the 
cathedral, is a one-story edifice, forming three sides of 
a square, with garden attached, and was founded in 
1801 for lodging, clothing, and maintaining a certain 
number of aged widows and unmarried daughters of 
decayed gentlemen or merchants or of burgesses of Old 
Aberdeen. There are at present 10 inmates. 

The magistrates, from the abolition of Episcopacy till 
1723, were appointed by the Crown, and from 17*23 till 
the passing of the Municipal Act, were elected by their 
own predecessors. As already stated, Old Aberdeen was 
united to Aberdeen in 1891; but before this the town 
council consisted of a provost, 4 bailies, 8 merchant 
councillors, trades councillors, and a treasurer. The 
magistrates were trustees of £2792intheBritishfundsas 
endowment of Dr Bell's school; and some of them shared 
in the management of Mitchell's Hospital. The burgh 
was ill-defined as to limits, had little property, and no 
debts. There were 7 incorporated trades, and the capital 
of the guildry was small. Pop. (1851) 1490, (1861) 
1785, (1871) 1857, (1881) 2186, (1891) 1951. 

Colonel Robertson maintains, in his Gaelic Topography 
(1869), that by old writers New Aberdeen was always 
discriminated from Old Aberdon ; the former he de- 
rives from the Gaelic ab Mr - reidk -an ( ' smooth river 
confluence'), the latter from abhir-domhain ('deep con- 
fluence '). Such discrimination, however, exists in his 
imagination only, the name of both kirktown and sea- 
port being written indifferently Aberdoen, Aberdon, 
Aberdin, Aberdene, etc., and in Latin oftenest appearing 
as A berdonia ; so that one may take it to mean the ford 
or mouth of either Don or Dee, according as one assigns 
the priority of foundation to Old or New Aberdeen. And 
history fails us here, save only that, whilst Old Aber- 
deen was possibly the seat of a Columban monastery, 
New Aberdeen is certainly not identical with Devana, a 
town of the Taexali in the 2d century A.D. , Ptolemy 
placing this fully 30 miles inland, near the Pass of Bal- 
later, and close to Loch Daven. The earliest mention, 
then, of Aberdeen is also the earliest mention of its 
see, already referred to on p. 15 ; next in Snorro's Ice- 
landic ffeimskringla, we read, under date 1153, how 
Eysteinn, a Norwegian kinglet, set forth on a freebooting 
voyage, and, touching at Orkney, thence spread his sails 
southwards, and ' steering along the eastern shores of 
Scotland, brought his ships to the town of Apardion, 
where he killed many people, and wasted the city.' 
Again, the Orkneyincja Saga records how Swein Asleif's 
son went over to Caithness and up through Scotland, 
and in Apardion was well entertained for a month by 
Malcolm IV., 'who then was nine winters old,' which 
places this visit in 1162. Of authentic charters, the 
oldest was granted about 1179 by William the Lyon at 
Perth, and confinned to his burgesses of Aberdoen the 
free-trade privilege enjoyed by their forefathers under his 
grandsire David I. (1124-53) ; and William here esta- 
blished an exchequer with a mint, and built a palace, 
which he bestowed in 1211 on monks of the Holy 
Trinity. Alexander II. kept Yule in Aberdeen (1222), 
founded its Blackfriars or Dominican priory, and allowed 
its burgesses to hold a Sunday market ; during his reign 
the town was accidently destroyed by fire (1224). Under 
Alexander III. (1249-85) the Castle was built, the burgh 
common seal is mentioned (1271), and we first hear of a 
provost pr alderman (1284). On 14th July 1296, Edward 
I. , in his progress through the realm, came unto Aber- 
deen, ' a fair castell and a good town vpon the see, and 
tarayed there v. days ;' a little later Wallace is said 
by Blind Harry to have burned 100 English vessels in 
the haven. Bruce, from his rout at Methven (1306), 
took refuge in Aberdeen ; and to this period belongs the 
legend how the citizens, waxing hot In his cause, rose 
suddenly by night in a well-planned insurrection, cap- 
tured the castle, razed it to the ground, and put to the 
sword its English garrison. ' In honour,' adds Bailie 
Skene, 'of that resolute act,' they got their Ensignes- 
Armoriall, which to this day they bear— Gules, three 
Towres triple, towered on a double- Tressure counter- 

Seal of Aberdeen. 


flowered Argent, supported by two Leopards propper; 
the Motto, in an Eseroll above, their watchword Bon 
Accord.' The legend is solely due to Hector Boece's 
inventive genius, but 
the garrison was 
really driven out, and 
in 1319 King Robert 
conveyed to the com- 
munity the royal 
forest of Stocket and 
the valuable fishings 
of the Dee and Don, 
with various other 
privileges and im- 
munities, his ' being 
the Great Charter of 
the city, from which 
it dates its political 
constitution. ' In 
1333, Edward III. 
having sent a fleet to 

harry the eastern coast, a body of English attacked by 
night the town of Aberdeen, which they burned and de- 
stroyed ; in 1336, Edward himself having marched as 
far north as Inverness, the citizens stoutly encountered 
at the W end of the Green an English force which had 
landed at Dunnottar, and slew their leader, Sir Thomas 
Roslyne. In vengeance whereof Edward, returning, once 
more burned the town, which, being rebuilt on an extended 
scale, with material aid from King David Bruce, received 
the title of 'New Aberdeen.' That monarch resided 
some time in the city, and erected a mint and held a 
parliament at it, whilst confirming all his predecessors' 
grants; Robert III., too, struck coins at Aberdeen. 
During the captivity of James I. and the minority or 
James II., the citizens bore arms for their own protec- 
tion, built walls around the town, kept the gates care 
fully shut by night, and by day maintained an armed 
patrol of their own number. In 1411, when the Earl of 
Mar collected forces to oppose an inroad of Donald of the 
Isles upon the north-west of the shire, Sir Robert David- 
son, Provost of Aberdeen, led a band of the citizens to 
swell the earl's forces, and fell at their head in the 
battle of Harlaw. In 1462 the magistrates entered 
into a ten years' bond with the Earl of Huntly, to pro- 
tect them in their freedom and property, whilst, saving 
their allegiance to the Crown, they should at any time 
receive him and his followers into the city. In 1497 a 
blockhouse was erected at the entrance of the harbour 
as a protection against 'the English. James IV. paid 
several visits to Aberdeen; and once, in 1507, he rode 
in a single day from Stirling, through Perth and Aber- 
deen, to Elgin. Margaret his queen was sumptuously 
entertained (1511), as also were James V. (1537) and 
Mary of Guise (1556). In 1525 the citizens were attacked, 
and 80 of them killed or wounded by a foraging party 
under three country lairds ; and in consequence the 
town was put into a better state of defence. The plague 
raged here in 1401, 1498, 1506, 1514, 1530, 1538, 1546, 
1549, 1608, and 1647 ; and on the last occasion carried 
off 1760 persons, or more than a fifth of the whole 
population. In 1547 a body of Aberdonians fought 
with great gallantry at the disastrous battle of Pinkie ; 
in the early part of 1560 the city firmly received the 
doctrines of the Reformation, and for ' first minister of 
the true word of God ' had Adam Heriott, who died in 
1574. In 1562, during the conflict between the Earl of 
Huntly's and Queen Mary's forces, Aberdeen seems to 
have been awed equally by both parties ; but it suc- 
cumbed to the queen after her victory at Corrichie, and 
at it she witnessed the execution of Sir John Gordon, 
Huntly's second son. On 20 Nov. 1571, the Gor- 
dons and Forbeses met at the Craibstone between the 
city and the Bridge of Dee ; and in a half-hour's fight 
the Forbeses were routed, with a loss of 300 men to 
themselves, of 30 to the Gordons. James VI. paid visits 
to Aberdeen in 1582, 1589, 1592, 1594, and 1600 ; on 
these occasions entailing much expense on the citizens, 
both in entertainments and in money -gifts. The witch 



persecution here about this time resulted in the death 
from tortureof manypersons in prison, and in thebuming, 
within the two years 1596-97, of 22 women and 1 man 
on the Castle Hill (Chambers' Dom. Annals, i. 278-285) 
In 1605 a General Assembly was convened at Aber- 
deen by Melville and others of the High Presbyterian 
party, but only 9 attended, who for their pains were 
5 of them banished the realm, the others summoned to 
the English Court; in 1616 another General Assembly 
resolved that ' a liturgy be made and form of divine 
service.' A Cavalier stronghold, Aberdeen and the 
country around it rejected the Covenant, so in 1638 a 
committee of ministers — Henderson, Dixon, and Andrew 
Cant — was sent, -with the Earl of Montrose at their 
head, to compel the people to sign. Their mission was 
thwarted by the famous ' Aberdeen Doctors ; ' but Mont- 
rose next year twice occupied and taxed the city, on 
the second occasion winning admittance by the trifling 
skirmish of the Bridge of Dee, 19 June 1639. In the 
following May, too, Monro with his thousand deboshed 
Covenanters, subjected the townsfolk to grievous oppres- 
sion ; and continued harassment had at last subdued 
them to the Covenanting cause, when, on 13 Sept. 
1644, Montrose, as Royalist, re-entered Aberdeen, having 
routed the Covenanters between the Craibstone and the 
Justice Mills. 'In the fight,' says Spalding, 'there 
was little slaughter ; but horrible the slaughter in 
the flight, the lieutenant's men hewing down all they 
could overtake within and about the town.' So that, 
as Dr Hill Burton observes, Montrose 'in his two first 
visits chastised the community into conformity with the 
Covenant, and now made compensation by chastising 
them for having yielded to his inflictions.' Charles II. 
lodged (7 July 1650) in a merchant's house just 
opposite the Tolbooth, on which was fastened one of 
Montrose's hands ; on 7 Sept. 1651, General Monk 
led a Commonwealth army into the city, where it 
continued several years. The Restoration was hailed by 
the Aberdonians with as great delight as the Revolution 
was looked on with disfavour ; yet scant enthusiasm 
was roused in Sept. 1715 by the Earl Marischal's 
proclamation at the Cross of James VIII., who himself 
on 24 Dec. passed incognito through the city, on his 
way from Peterhead to Fetteresso, where the Episcopal 
clergy and the new Jacobite magistrates of Aberdeen 
offered him homage. In the '45 Cope's force en- 
camped on the site of Union Terrace, and embarked 
from Aberdeen for Dunbar; the Duke of Gordon's cham- 
berlain again proclaimed James VIII. ; Lord Lewis 
Gordon next occupied the city ; and lastly the Duke 
of Cumberland lodged for 6 weeks in Guestrow. Two 
or three years before, between 500 and 600 persons of 
either sex had been kidnapped in Aberdeen for trans- 
portation to the American plantations ; one of them, 
Peter Williamson, returning in 1765, and issuing the 
narrative of his bondage, was imprisoned and banished 
for defamation of the magistrates, but eventually ob- 
tained from them £285 damages (Blackwood's Mag., 
May 1848). In a riot on the King's birthday (1802) 4 
of the populace were shot by the military ; 42 of the 
Oscar's crew were drowned in the Grayhope (1813) ; and 
out of 260 persons attacked by cholera (1832) 105 died. 
The Queen and Prince Albert visited Aberdeen on their 
way to Balmoral (7 Sept. 1848), and the latter pre- 
sided at the British Association (14 Sept. 1859); whilst 
Her Majesty unveiled the Prince Consort Memorial 
(13 Oct. 1863), and opened the waterworks (16 Oct. 
1866), then making her first public speech since her 
bereavement. Aberdeen has twice been the meeting- 
place of the British Association, once of the Social 
Science Congress, and repeatedly of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society. 

l"he ' brave town ' gives title of Earl of Aberdeen (ere. 
1682) in the peerage of Scotland, of Viscount Gordon of 
Aberdeen (ere. 1814) in that of the United Kingdom, to 
a branch of' the Gordon family, whose seat is Hadijo 
House. Its illustrious natives are — Jn. Abercrombio, 
M.D. (1780-1844); Alex. Anderson (flo. 1615), mathe- 
matician ; Prof. Alex. Bain (b. 1818), logician ; Jn. 


Barbour, archdeacon of Aberdeen fiom 1357 to 1395, 
and author of the Brus; And. Baxter (1686-1750), meta- 
physician ; Thos. Blackwell (1701-57), scholar; his 
brother Alexander, the botanist (beheaded at Stock- 
holm, 1747) ; Alex. Brodie (1830-67), sculptor ; Jn. 
Burnet (1729-84), merchant and benefactor; Jn. Burnett 
(1764-1810), legal writer; Jn. Hill Burton, LL.D. 
(1809-81), historian; Geo. Campbell, D.D. (1719-96), 
divine and grammarian ; Alex. Chalmers (1759-1834), 
biographer and miscellaneous writer ; Alex. Cruden (1701- 
70), author of the Concordance; Geo. Dalgarno (1626- 
87), inventor of a universal language; Jn. Dick, D.D. 
(1764-1833), Secession divine; Jas. Donaldson, LL.D. 
lb. 1831), principal of St Andrews University; Walter 
Donaldson, 17th century scholar ; Jas. Matthews Dun- 
can, M.D. (b. 1826); Wm. Duncan (1717-60), trans- 
lator; Wm. Dyce, R.A. (1806-64); Wm. Forbes (1585- 
1634), Bishop of Edinburgh ; Jn. Forbes Robertson (b. 
1822), art-critic ; Dav. Fordyce (1711-51), professor of 
philosophy in Marischal College ; his brothers, James 
Fordyce, D.D. (1720-96), and Sir Wm. Fordyce (1724- 
92), an eminent physician ; Jas. Gibbs (1688-1754), 
architect ; Gilbert Gerard (1760-1815), divine ; his son, 
Alexander (d. 1839), explorer; Thos. Gray (d. 1876), 
artist ; Dav. Gregory (1661-1710), geometrician ; Jn. 
Gregory, M.D. (1724-73), and his son, James Gregory, 
M.D. (1753-1821) ; Wm. Guild, D.D. (1586-1657), prin- 
cipal of King's College ; Gilbert Jack (1578-1628), meta- 
physician ; Alex. Jaffray (1614-73), diarist, provost, and 
Quaker; George Jameson (1586-1644), the 'Scottish 
Vandyke;' Geo. Keith (c. 1650-1715), Quaker and anti- 
Quaker; Sir Jas. M'Grigor, Bart. (1771-1858), head 
of the army medical department ; Prof. Dav. Masson (b. 
1822), litterateur; Major Jas. Mercer (1734-1803); Colin 
Milne, LL.D. (1744-1815), botanist; Rt. Morison, M.D. 
(1620-83), botanist; Thos. Morison (flo. 1594), physician 
and anti-papist; Jn. Ogilvie, D.D. (1733-1814), minor 
poet ; Jas. Perry (1756-1821), journalist ; Jn. Phillip, 
R.A. (1817-67); And. Robertson (1777-1865), minia- 
turist ; Rev. Jas. Craigie Robertson (b. 1813), ecclesi- 
astical historian; Jos. Robertson, LL.D. (1810-66), 
antiquary ; Alex. Ross (1590-1654), voluminous writer 
of Hudibrastic fame; Wm. Skinner, D.D. (1778-1857), 
Bishop of Aberdeen from 1816 ; Sir John Steell, R.S.A. 
(1804-91), sculptor ; Wm. Thorn (1799-1848), weaver- 
poet ; and Dav. Wedderburn (c. 1570-1650), Latin poet. 
— Chief among many illustrious residents are Alexander 
Arbuthnott (1538-83), principal of King's College from 
1569 ; the wit Jn. Arbuthnot (1667-1735), educated at 
Marischal Col. ; Neil Arnott, M.D. (1788-1874), ed. at 
Grammar School and Marischal Col. ; Wm. Barclay 
(1546-1605), the learned civilian, student ; Peter Bayne 
(b. 1830), journalist, M.A. of Marischal Col. ; the 'Min- 
strel,' Jas. Beattie LL.D. (1735-1803), bursar of Mari- 
schal Col. 1749, master of Grammar School 1758, and 
professor of moral philosophy and logic at Marischal Col. 
1760; Jn. Stuart Blackie (b. 1809), son of Aberdeen 
banker, there educated, and professor of Latin literature 
in Marischal Col. 1841-52; Hector Boece (1465-1536), 
historian, and first principal of King's Col. ; Rt. Brown, 
D.O.L. (1773-1858), botanist, educated at Marischal 
CoL ; its principal, Wm. Lawrence Brown, D.D. (1755- 
1830); Dav. Buchanan (1745-1812), publishor, M.A. of 
Aberdeen ; Gilbert Burnet, D.D. (1643-1715), Bishop of 
Salisbury, student at Marischal Col. 1653-56 ; Jas. 
Burnet, Lord Monboddo (1714-99), student ib. ; Chas. 
Burney (1757-1817), scholar, M.A. of King's Col. ; 
Lord Byron (1788-1824), resident 1790-98 ; Andrew 
Cant, minister in Aberdeen in 1640 ; Donald Cargill 
(1610-81), Covenanting preacher, student at Aberdeen ; 
Fred. Carmichael (1708-51), divine, student of Marischal 
Col.; Jas. Cassie, R.S.A. (1819-79); Dav. Chalmers, 
Lord Ormond (1530-92), student; Geo. Chalmers (1742- 
1825), historian, student at King's Col. ; Geo. Chapman, 
LL.D. (1723-1806), bursar ib. ; Jas. Cheyno (d. 1602), 
head of Douay seminary, student ; And. Clark (b. 1826), 
M.D. of Aberdeen in 1854; Pat. Copland, LL.D. (1749- 
1822), student and professor of natural philosophy 
and of mathematics at Marischal Col. ; the Banffshire 


naturalist, Thos. Edward (1814-86); Rt. Mackenzie 
Daniel (1814-47), the 'Scottish Boz,' student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Thos. Dempster (1579-1625), historian, stu- 
dent; Archibald Forbes (b. 1838), journalist, student; 
Jn. Forbes (1593-1648), divine, student at King's Col., 
and minister of St Nicholas; Pat. Forbes (1564-1635), 
Bishop of Aberdeen from 1618 ; Wm. Forsyth (d. 1879), 
poet and journalist ; Sir Alexander Fraser (d. 1681), 
physician to Charles II. , student ; Simon Fraser, Lord 
Lovat (1667-1747), student at King's Col. ; Al. Gerard, 
D.D. (1728-95), educated at Grammar School, student at 
Marischal Col., and professor there of nat. philos. 1752, 
of divinity 1760, minister of Greyfriars 1759, and prof, 
of theology at King's Col. 1771 ; Walter Goodal (1706- 
66), antiquary, student at King's Col. ; Rt. Gordon 
(1580-1661), geographer and historian, student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Sir Wm. Grant (1754-1822), solicitor-gene- 
ral and master of the rolls, student at King's CoL ; 
Gilbert Gray (d. 1614), second principal of Marischal 
Col., from 1598 ; Dav. Gregory (1627-1720), mechanician ; 
his brother, James (1638-75), student at Marischal Col., 
the famous astronomer ; Wm. Guthrie (1701-70), histori- 
cal and miscellaneous writer, student at King's Col. ; Rt. 
Hall (1764-1831), dissenting divine, student ib. ; Rt. 
Hamilton, LL.D. (1743-1829), prof, at Marischal CoL of 
nat. phil. 1779, of math. 1780-1814 ; Jos. Hume (1777- 
1855), medical student, and M.R for Aberdeen 1818; 
Wm. Hunter (1777-1815), naturalist, student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Arthur Johnston (1587-1641), Latin poet, 
student and rector of King's Col. ; Jn. Johnston (1570- 
1612), Latin poet, student ib. ; Rev. Alex. Keith, D.D. 
(1791-1880), student at Marischal Col. ; Geo. Keith, fifth 
Earl Marischal (1553-1623), student of King's, and 
founder of Marischal CoL in 1593 ; Bishop Rt. Keith 
(16S1-1757), student at Marischal Col. ; John Leslie, 
Bishop of Ross (1526-96), vicar-general of Aberdeen 1558 ; 
Jn. Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe (d. 1671), student ; David 
Low, Bishop of Ross (1768-1855), student and LL.D. of 
Marischal Col. ; Geo. Low (1746-95), naturalist, student; 
Geo. Macdonald (b. 1S24), poet and novelist, student at 
King's CoL ; Wm. Macgillivray, LL.D. (d. 1852), prof. 
of nat. hist, in Marischal Col. from 1841 ; Sir Geo. 
Mackenzie (1636-92), legal antiquary, student; Ewen 
Maclachlan (1775-1822), Gaelic poet, bursar of King's 
CoL, and head-master of Grammar School 1819 ; Colin 
Maclaurin (1698-1746), math. prof, in Marischal Col. 
1717-25 ; Jn. Maclean, Bishop of Saskatchewan (b. 
1828), student ; Jas. Macpherson (1738-96), of Ossian 
celebrity, student at King's Col. 1752 ; David Mallet 
(1700-65), poet, educated at Aberdeen ; Jas. Marr (1700- 
61), M.A. of King's Col. 1721, master of Poor's Hospital 
1742 ; Jas. Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), prof, of nat. philos. 
in Marischal Col. 1856-60; Wm. Meston (1688-1745), 
burlesque poet, student at Marischal CoL, and teacher 
in Grammar School; Jn. Pringle Nichol (1804-59), 
astronomer, student at King's Col. ; Alexander Nicoll 
(1793-1828), orientalist, educated at Grammar School 
and Marischal Col. ; Sir Jas. Outram (1805-63), Indian 
general, student at Marischal Col. ; Wm. Robinson 
Pirie, D.D. (1804-85), divinity professor 1843, principal 
1877 ; Jas. Ramsay (1733-89), philanthropist, bursar of 
King's Col ; Thos. Reid (1710-96), metaphysician, stu- 
dent and librarian of Marischal CoL, prof, of philos, 
in King's Col. 1752-63; Sir Jn. Rose, Bart. (1820-88) 
student at King's Col. ; Alex. Ross (1699-1784), poet 
M.A. of Marischal CoL 1718; Thos. Ruddiman (1674 
1757), Latin grammarian, bursar of King's Col. 1690 
94; Helenus Scott, M.D. (d. 1821), student; Hy. 
Scougal (1650-78), prof, of philos. in King's Col. 1669 
/3; Jas. Sharpe, Archbishop of St Andrews (1613-79) 
student at Marischal Col. ; Bailie Alex. Skene (flo. 1670) 
historian of Aberdeen; Rev. Jn. Skinner (1721-1807), 
poet, bursar of Marischal Col. ; his son, Jn. Skinner 
(1743-1816), student at Marischal CoL, and Bishop 
of Aberdeen from 1784 ; Jn. Spalding (flo. 1624-45), 
commissary clerk and diarist; and John Stuart, LL.D. 
(1813-77), antiquary, student. It may be added that 
about 1715 Rob Roy was staying with his kinsman, 
Dr Jas. Gregory, prof, of medicine in King's Col. ; that 


in 1773 Dr Samuel Johnson and Boswell, in their journey 
through Scotland, put up at the New Inn ; and that the 
poet Burns came to Aberdeen, which he briefly describes, 
in a short diary of his Highland tour, as ' a lazy town,' 
7 Sept. 1787. 

The synod of Aberdeen, meeting there on the second 
Tuesday of April and October, comprises the pres- 
byteries of Aberdeen, Kincardine O'Neil, Alford, Garioch, 
Ellon, Deer, Turriff, and Fordvce. Within the bounds 
of this synod there were 83,963 communicants of the 
Church of Scotland in 1891, and the sums raised by 
its 149 congregations on behalf of Christian liberality 
amounted to £29,487. The presbytery of Aberdeen 
comprises 35 congregations, viz., the 17 Aberdeen 
churches, and Cults, Banchory - Devenick, Craigie- 
buckler, Mannofield, Belhelvie, Drumoak, Durris, 
Dyce, Fintray, Kinnellar, Maryculter, Newhills, New 
Hachar, Nigg, Peterculter, Portlethen, Skene, and 
Stoneywood. Pop. (1891) 149,398, the communicants 
numbering 31,246 in that year, and the sums raised for 
Christian liberality amounting to £17,851. — The Free 
Church synod, whose presbyteries are identical with 
those of the Established synod, in 1891 had 112 churches, 
with 30,341 communicants; its presbytery included 38 
congregations with 16,162 communicants — the 23 Aber- 
deen churches, and Banchory - Devenick, Belhelvie, 
Blackburn, Cults, Drumoak, Durris, Dyce, Kingswells, 
Maryculter, Newhills, Peterculter, Skene, Torry, Wood- 
side, and Bourtreebush. — The TJ.P. presbytery of Aber- 
deen in 1891 had 3399 members and 15 congregations — 
the six Aberdeen churches, and Banchory, Craigdam, 
Ellon, Lynturk, Midmar, Old Meldrum, Shiels (Belhel- 
vie), Stonehaven, and Woodside. — In the Episcopal 
Church in Scotland, since 1577, there have been seven- 
teen bishops of the diocese of Aberdeen, to which the 
revived diocese of Orkney was added in 1864. In 1891 
the congregations of the 49 churches within the united 
diocese had 6028 communicants. — After having been 
vacant for 301 years, the Catholic see of Aberdeen 
was re-established in 1878; and in its diocese in 1892 
there were 60 priests, 34 missions, 54 churches, chapels, 
and stations, 2 colleges, 8 convents, and 21 congre- 
gational schools. 

See Bailie Alex. Skene's Succinct Survey of the famous 
City of Aberdeen (1685), W. Thorn's History of Aberdeen 
(2 vols., 1811), Wm. Kennedy's Annals of Aberdeen (2 
vols., 1818), Extracts from the Council Register of the 
Burgh of Aberdeen, 1398-1625 (1844-49). Besides the 
Ordnance 6 -inch and ^J maps, there is the Ordnance 
1-inch map, sh. 77 (1873). 

Aberdeen and Banff Railway, a section of the Great 
North of Scotland railway, starts from the main line 
at Inveramsay, 20J miles NW of Aberdeen. The south- 
ern part of it to Turriff (18 miles) was authorised on 
15 June 1855, under the title of the Banff, Macduff, and 
Turriff Junction ; was then designed to be prolonged 
northward to Banff and Macduff; was opened to Turriff, 
on 5 Sept. 1857; and took the name of the Aberdeen 
and Turriff Railway on 19 April 1859. The part from 
Turriff to Banff (11J miles), authorised on 27 July 
1857, under the name of the Banff, Macduff, and Turriff 
Extension, was opened on 4 June 1860, and was ex- 
tended from Banff to Macduff (J mile) in 1872. The 
entire system has a total length of 29| miles, with 10 
stations and summit levels of 405 and 374 feet; was in- 
corporated with the Great North of Scotland on 30 
July 1866; and is brought into a circle with it by the 
Banffshire Railway. 

Aberdeen Railway, a railway from Aberdeen, south- 
south-westward to the centre of Forfarshire. It was 
authorised on 31 July 1845, and opened on 30 March 
1850. It cost very much more per mile than had been 
estimated, yet a good deal less than either the Scottish 
Central, the Edinburgh, Perth & Dundee, the North 
British, or the Caledonian. It commences at Guild 
Street, adjacent to the upper dock and to the foot of 
Market Street ; crosses the Dee at Polmuir, proceeds by 
Cove, Portlethen, Newtonhill, and Muchalls, to Stone- 
haven; goes thence through the fertile district of the 



Mearns, by the stations of Drumlithie, Fordoun, Lau- 
rencekirk, Marykirk, and Craigo, to the northern border 
of Forfarshire; sends off at Dubton Junction a branch 
3 miles and 160 yards eastward to Montrose; sends off 
again at Bridge-of-Dun Junction a branch of 3 miles and 
862 yards westward to Brechin; proceeds by the station 
of Farnell Road to Guthrie Junction, and makes also a 
junction with the Arbroath and Forfar railway at Friock- 
heim. That railway, previously formed, was leased to it iu 
1848, and ultimately incorporated with it. The Aberdeen 
itself and the Scottish Midland Junction were amalga- 
mated in 1856, under the name of the Scottish North- 
Eastern; and the Scottish North-Eastern in turn was 
amalgamated with the Caledonian in 1866; so that the 
Aberdeen is now the northern part of the Caledonian 
system. The length of the Aberdeen proper, exclusive 
of branches, is 49 miles, and inclusive of branches and 
of the Arbroath and Forfar, is 72 miles. 

Aberdeenshire, a maritime county, forming the extreme 
NE of Scotland, bounded N and E by the German Ocean, 
S by the counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth, and 
W by those of Inverness and Banff. Its outline is irre- 
gular; but roughly describes an oblong extending from 
NE to SW. The greatest length, from Cairnbulg 
Head, on the E side of Fraserburgh Bay, to Cairn 
Ealer, at the meeting-point with Perth and Inverness 
shires, is 85J miles; the greatest breadth, from the mouth 
of the river Dee to the head-springs of the river Don, is 
47 miles; and the circuit line measures some 2S0 niiles, 
62 of which are sea-coast. Sixth in size of the Scottish 
counties, Aberdeenshire has an area of 1970 square miles 
or 1,251,451 acres. The boundaries of Aberdeenshire 
were rearranged by the Orders of the Boundary Com- 
missioners in 1S91 in so far as they were affected by the 
neighbouring counties of Banff and Kincardine. Of 
the parishes partly in Aberdeenshire and partly in 
Banffshire, Gartly, Glass, New Machar, Old Deer, and 
St Fergus have been transferred wholly to the county 
of Aberdeen ; while the parishes of Cabrach, Gamrie, 
Inverkeithny, Alvah, and Rothiemay have been placed 
in the county of Banff — the latter four parishes, however 
(by Section 41 of the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 
1889), being reserved to Aberdeenshire for public health 
and road administration. The Banffshire portions of 
Cairnie and King Edward have been transferred to 
Banffshire parishes, leaving these two parishes wholly 
in Aberdeenshire. Of those parishes partly in Aber- 
deenshire and partly in Kincardineshire, Drumoak has 
been transferred wholly to the former, and Banchory- 
Ternan to the latter; while the Aberdeenshire portion 
of Banchory-Devenick has been transferred to the Aber- 
deenshire parish of Peterculter, the name Banchory- 
Devenick being now restricted to the Kincardineshire 
part of the old parish. There has also been extensive 
readjustment of the interior parishes of the county, for 
which, however, see the separate articles throughout 
the work. Aberdeenshire was anciently divided into 
Buchan in the N, Formartine, Strathbogie, and Garioch 
in the middle, and Mar in the SW; it is now divided 
into the districts of Deer, Turriff, Huntly, Garioch, 
Alford, Ellon, Aberdeen, and Deeside. 

The surface, in a general view, consists largely of tame 
levels or uninteresting tumulations, but includes the 
long splendid valleys of the Don and Dee, and ascends 
to the grand Grampian knot of the Cairngorm Moun- 
tains, fhe coast is mostly bold and rugged, occasion- 
ally rising into precipices, 100 to 150 feet high, and 
pierced with extensive caverns, but in the southern 
part, adjacent to Aberdeen, sinks into broad sandy Oats. 
About two-thirds of the entire surface are either moss, 
moor, bill, or mountain. Much of the scenery is bleak 
and cheerless, but around some of the larger towns, and 
along the courses of the principal rivers, it abounds 
with features of beauty or grandeur. In the SW the 
Cairngorm and the Grampian Mountains combine, with 
cornea, glens, and valleys among or near them, to form 
magnificent landscapes; throughout the shire, from N 
to S, and crosswise from W to E, the following are the 
chief summits, those marked with asterisks culminating 


on the boundary: — Hill of Fishrie (749 feet), Mormond 
Hill (769), Hill of Shenwall (957), *Meikle Balloch 
(1199), Clashmach Hill (1229), Corsegight (619), Dud- 
wick (572), Top of Noth (1851), Hill of Foudland (1509), 
Core Hill (804), Buck of Cabrach (2368), *Carn Mor 
(2636), Correen Hills (1699), Caillievar (1747), Ben- 
nachie (1698), Hill of Fare (1545), Brimmond Hill 
(870), Brown Cow Hill (2721), Morven Hill (2862), 
*Ben Avon (3843), *Braeriach (4248), Cairntoul (4241), 
Ben Macdhui (4296), Beinn Bhrotain (3795), *An Sgar- 
soch (3300), *Beinn a' Chaoruinn (3553), *Beinn a' 
Bhuird (3924), Cam Eas (3556), *Beinn Iutharn Mhor 
(3424), *Cairn na Glasha (3484), Lochnagar (3786), 
Mount Keen (3077), and Cock Cairn (2387). The princi- 
pal rivers are the Deveron, rising in the north-west and 
soon passing into Banffshire ; the Bogie, running to the 
Deveron, about J mile below Huntly ; the Ugie, run- 
ning south-eastward to the sea, about a mile N of 
Peterhead ; the Cruden, running eastward to the sea at 
Cruden Bay ; the Ythan, running 33J miles north-east- 
ward and south-eastward to the sea, a little below New- 
burgh ; the Urie, going south-eastward to the Don, at 
Inverurie; the Don, rising at an altitude of 1980 feet, 
adjacent to the county's western boundary, and making 
a sinuous run eastward of about 82J miles, all within the 
county, to the sea in the vicinity of Old Aberdeen ; and 
the Dee, rising on Cairntoul, at 4060 feet above sea- 
level, and making a sinuous run of about 87 miles, 
partly through Braemar, partly through the Aberdeen 
portions of Deeside, and partly along the boundary with 
Kincardineshire to the sea at Aberdeen. The chief 
lakes are Lochs Dhu, Muick, Callater, Brothacan, Kin- 
Ord, Drum, and Strathbeg, but are all small. Granite is 
the prevailing rock ; occurs of various kinds or qualities ; 
forms the great mass of the mountains together with ex- 
tensive tracts eastward to the sea ; has, for about 300 
years, been extensively worked; and up to the present 
time has been in rapidly increasing demand as an 
article of export. The quantities shipped at Aberdeen 
alone are remarkably great. The quarries of it at Kemnay 
employ about 250 workmen, with the aid of steam power, 
all the year round, and since 1858, have raised Kemnay 
from the status of a rural hamlet to that of a small town. 
Other notable quarries are those of Rubislaw, Sclattie, 
Dancing Cairn, Persley, Cairngall, and Stirling-Hill, 
near Peterhead. The Kemnay granite has a light colour 
and a close texture, and owes to these properties its high 
acceptance in the market. The Rubislaw granite is of a 
fine dark-blue colour, and was the material used in the 
construction of great part of Union Street in Aberdeen. 
The Cairngall granite is small grained, of fine texture, 
and admirably suited for polishing and for ornamental 
work ; it furnished the sarcophagus for the remains of 
the late Prince Consort. The Stirling-Hill or Peterhead 
granite is of a red colour, and of much larger grain than 
the other granites ; it is much used for mural tablets, 
monumental stones, and ornate pillar shafts. The 
granites are sometimes associated with gneiss, with 
Silurian rocks, or with greenstone, basalt, or other 
traps ; and, viewed in connection with these, they form 
fully eight-ninths of the substrata of the entire county. 
Devonian rocks occur in the north, underlie the wide 
level moors and mosses of Buchan, and have yielded 
millstones in the parish of Abenlour. Blue slate, two 
beds of limestone, and a large vein of ironstone occur 
in Culsalmond parish, forming parts of strata which 
have been much tilted and deranged ; and both tho 
slate and the limestone have been worked. Limestone 
abounds also in other localities ; but, owing to the 
scarcity of coal, except near a seaport, it cannot be 
advantageously worked. Beautiful green serpentine, 
with white and grey spots, occurs in Leslie parish, and 
is easily wrought into snull'-boxes and ornamental 
objects. Plumbago and indications of metallic ores 
have been found in Huntly parish. Gold, in small 
quantities, has been found in Uracmar, and on parts of 
the coast near Aberdeen. Amethysts, beryls, emeralds, 
and other precious stones, particularly the Bpecics of 
rock crystal called cairngorms, are found in the moun- 



tains of Braemar. Agates, of a fine polish and beautiful 
variety, have been got on the shore near Peterhead. 
Asbestos, talc, syenite, and mica also have been found. 
Mineral springs of celebrated character are at Peterhead 
and Pannanich. 

The surface of the mountains for the most part is 
either bare rock or such thin poor soil as admits of 
little or no profitable improvement even for the purposes 
of hill pasture ; that of the moorlands and the mosses 
comprises many tracts which might be thoroughly 
reclaimed, and not a few which have, in recent times, 
been greatly improved ; and that of the lowland dis- 
tricts has a very various soil, — most of it naturally 
poor or churlish, a great deal now transmuted by judi- 
cious cultivation into fine fertile mould, and some 
naturally good diluvium or rich alluvium, now in very 
productive arable condition. Spongy humus and coarse 
stiff clays are common in the higher districts ; and 
light sands and finer clays prevail in the valleys and 
on the seaboard. So great an area as nearly 200,000 
acres in Braemar and Crathie is incapable of tillage. 
Only about 5000 acres in Strathdon parish, containing 
47,737 acres, are arable. Nearly 16,000 acres, in a tract 
of about 40,000 acres between the Dee and the Don, 
midway between the sources and the mouths of these 
rivers, are under the plough. The principal arable 
lands lie between the Don and the Ythan, in Formartine 
and Garioch, in Strathbogie, and between the Ugie and 
the sea. Much improvement arose early from the im- 
pulse given by the Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland ; and has been vigorously carried forward 
under impulse of the Garioch Farmer Club (instituted 
1808), the Buchan Agricultural Society (1829), the For- 
martine Agricultural Association (1829), the Vale of 
Alford Agricultural Association (1831), the Ythanside 
Farmer Club (1841), the Royal Northern Agricultural 
Society (1843), the Mar Agricultural Association, the 
Inverurie Agricultural Association, and many of the 
greater landed proprietors, and of the most enterprising 
of the farmers. The recent improvements have com- 
prised, not only extensive reclamation of waste lands, 
but also more economical methods of cropping, better 
tillage, better implements, better manuring, better farm- 
yard management, better outhouse treatment of live- 
stock, and extensive sub-soil draining ; and they have 
resulted in such vast increase of produce from both 
arable lands and pastures as has changed the county 
from a condition of constant loss in the balance of agri- 
cultural imports and exports, to a condition of constant 
considerable gain. 

According to Miscellaneous Statistics of the United 
Kingdom, 1,255,138 acres, having a total gross esti- 
mated rental of £1,118,849, were divided among 7472 
landowners ; one holding 139,829 acres (rental, £17,740) 
four together 300,827 (£86,296), five 120,882 (£35,959) 
fourteen 186,302 (£113,927), twenty - five 179,083 
(£123,251), forty-six 158,214 (£131,751), sixty 87,466 
(£109,805), fifty-eight 42,037 (£45,992), one hundred 
and twenty-six 30,441 (£69,691), thirty-eight 2658 
(£18,880), one hundred and eighty-two 3822 (£37,745) 
four hundred and twenty-one 1333 (£50,662), and 6492 
holding 2274 acres (£277,150). 

Tenantry-at-will is now almost entirely unknown. 
Tenant-tenure is usually by lease for from 15 to 19 
years. The tenant, in the management of his land, was 
formerly restricted to a 5 years' and a 7 years' course 
of rotation, but is now generally allowed the option 
also of a 6 years' course ; and he is usually allowed 3 
years, after entering on his farm, to determine which 
of the courses he shall adopt. The 7 years' course com- 
monly gives 1 year to turnips, the next year to barley 
or oats with grass seeds, the next 3 years to grass fallow 
or pasture, and the last 2 years to successive crops of oats. 
That course and the 5 years' one are still the most com- 
monly practised ; but the 6 years' course has come into 
extensive and increasing favour, and is generally re- 
garded as both the most suitable to the nature of the 
prevailing soil, and the most consonant with the principles 
of correct husbandry. Arable farms generally rent from 

15s. to 30s. per acre; but some near Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
and Inverurie rent much higher. 

The acres under corn crops were 214,676 in 1873, 
212,767 in 1880, and 215,730 in 1895 ; under green crops 
—106,003 in 1874, 104,203 in 1880, and 101,709 in 1895. 
Of the total 630,070 acres under crops and grass in 1895, 
196,755 were oats, 1 wheat, 91,647 turnips, 276,389 
clover, sainfoin, and grasses under rotation, 35,711 per- 
manent pasture, etc. The number of cattle was 133,451 
in 1866, 152,106 in 1880, and 173,961 in 1895. The 
cattle are of various breeds, and have on the whole 
been highly improved. The small Highland breed 
was formerly in much request, but has latterly dwindled 
to comparative insignificance. A few Ayrshire cows have 
been imported for dairy purposes; but no Ayrshires, and 
scarcely any Galloways, are bred in the county. One 
Hereford herd here is the only one in Scotland. The 
polled Angus or Aberdeen breed had great attention 
from Mr M'Combie of Tillyfour; won him numerous 
splendid cups, gold medals, silver medals, bronze 
medals, and upwards of £2500 in money; and has pro- 
duced some animals of such high qualities as to bring 
each from 100 to 200 guineas. The same breed was 
largely kept by the late Colonel Fraser of Castle Fraser, 
who won a prize for it over Mr M 'Combie, besides win- 
ning a considerable number of other prizes. Other 
great breeders of it have been the late Mr Rt. Walker of 
Portlethen, Mr Geo. Brown of AVestertown, Mr Jas. 
Skinner of Drumin, and Mr Al. Paterson of Mulben, 
who have found successors in Mr A. Bowie of Mains of 
Kelly, Sir Geo. Macpherson Grant of Ballindalloch, Mr 
Jas. Scott of Easter Tulloch, Mr Wm. Skinner of 
Drumin, etc. (Trans. Bighl. and Ag. Soc.) The short- 
horned breed is raised more numerously in Aberdeenshire 
than in any other Scottish county. This breed was 
introduced about 1830, but did not obtain much atten- 
tion till after 1850 ; comprises nine celebrated herds 
(the Sittyton, Kinellar, Kinaldie, Cairnbrogie, etc.), be- 
sides many smaller ones; and has sent off to the market, 
annually for several years, nearly 400 bull calves and 
about half as many young heifers. The number of sheep 
was 112,684 in 1856, 158,220 in 1869, 157,105 in 1874, 
137,693 in 1880, and 183,951 in 1895. The breeding 
of sheep is carried on most extensively in the upland 
districts, and the feeding of them in the middle 
and lower districts. The upland flocks move to the 
lowlands of Aberdeenshire and the adjoining counties 
about November, and do not return till April. Black- 
faced wethers, 2, 3, and even 4 years old, are, on 
some farms on the lower districts, fed with grass 
in summer, and with turnips and straw in winter. 
Blackfaced sheep constitute more than one-half of all 
the sheep in the uplands ; and also are extensively 
bred in the inland districts of Braemar, Strathdon, Glen- 
bucket, Corgarff, Cromar, Cabrach, and Rhynie, but not 
in the lower districts. Cross-breeds are not so nu- 
merous as the blackfaced, yet form extensive flocks, 
and are fed for the slaughter-market. Leicesters have, 
for a number of years, been extensively bred, and they 
form fine flocks at Pitmedden, Fornot-Skene, Gowner, Old 
Meldrum, Strichen Mains, and some other places. There 
are no pure Cheviots, and few Southdowns. The num- 
ber of horses was 24,458 in 1869, 23,202 in 1873, 
26,851 in 1880, and 31,114 in 1895, of which 199 were 
kept solely for breeding. They are partly Clydesdales, 
Lincolns, and crosses; and though not very heavy, may, 
for the most part, stand comparison with the average of 
horses throughout the best part of Scotland. The number 
of pigs was 7773 in 1869, 10,565 in 1874, 7240 in 1880, 
and 10,379 in 1895. The accommodation for farm 
servants is better than it was, but still not so good as 
could be desired. The farm-house kitchens are still tht 
abodes of the majority of the servants; and homes for 
the families of the married men cannot, in many in- 
stances, be found nearer than 8, 10, and even 20 miles. 
Handsome cottages for servants have been built by 
the Duke of Richmond on several of his larger farms in 
the Strathbogie districts; and these, it is hoped, may 
serve as models for similar buildings on other estates. 




Farm servants' wages are about double what they 
were 50 years ago. Feeing markets, believed to have 
an injurious effect on the morals of the agricultural 
labourers, are being superseded by a well-organised 
system of local registration offices. 

Orchards cover 11 acres, market gardens 411, nur- 
sery grounds 136; and altogether there are 108,858 
acres of woods and plantations within the shire. About 
175,000 acres are disposed in deer forests. A great 
deal of land in the upper part of the Dee Valley, pre- 
viously under the plough, or used as sheep pasture, has 
been converted, during the last 50 years, into deer forest. 
Large portions of Braemar, Glentanner, and Mortlach 
are still covered with natural wood. ' The mountains 
there seem to be divided by a dark sea of firs, whose 
uniformity of hue and appearance affords inexpressible 
solemnity to the scene, and carries back the mind to 
those primeval ages when the axe had not invaded the 
boundless region of the forest.' The Scotch pine is very 
generally distributed, and flourishes up to 1500 feet 
above sea-level, as also does the larch. Birch, alder, pop- 
lar and other trees likewise abound (Trans. Highland 
and Agricultural Society). Grouse, black game, the 
hedgehog, the otter, the badger, the stoat, the polecat, and 
the wild-cat are indigenous. Salmon used to be very plenti- 
ful in the Dee and the Don, but, of late years, have greatly 
decreased. About 20,000 salmon and 40,000 grilses, in- 
clusive of those taken by stake nets, and at the beach 
adjacent to the river's mouth, are still in an average 
season captured in the Dee. The yellow trout of the 
Dee are both few and small. A small variety of salmon 
is got in Loch Callater, and excellent red trout in 
Loch Brothacan. So many as 3000 salmon and grilses 
were caught in a single week of July 1849 at the mouth of 
the river Don. Salmon, sea-trout, yellow trout, and a 
few pike are got in the Don. Pearls are found in the 
Ythan ; and the large pearl in the crown of Scotland is 
believed to have been found at the influx of Kelly Water to 
the Ythan. Salmon, sea-trout, and finnocks, in consider- 
able numbers, ascend the Ythan. Salmon ascend also the 
Ugie ; finnocks abound near that river's mouth ; and burn- 
trout are plentiful in its upper reaches and affluents. 
Tench, carp, and Loch Leven trout are in an artificial lake 
of about 50 acres at Pitfour. Red trout, yellow trout, 
and some perch are in Loch Strathbeg. Herrings, cod, 
ling, hake, whiting, haddock, hallibut, turbot, sole, and 
skate abound in the sea along the coast; and are 
caught in great quantities by fishermen at and near the 
stations of Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Fraserburgh. 

The manufactures of Aberdeenshire figure principally 
in Aberdeen and its immediate neighbourhood, but are 
shared by some other towns and by numerous villages. 
The woollen trade, in the various departments of tweeds, 
carpets, winceys, and shawls, has either risen, or is rising 
to great prominence ; but is seated principally in Aberdeen 
and its near vicinity, and has been noticed in our article 
on Aberdeen. The linen trade, as to both yarn and cloth, 
has figured largely in the county since about 1745 ; and 
is seated chiefly at Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Huntly. 
The cotton trade employed 1448 hands in 1841, but has 
declined. Paper-making is carried on more extensively 
in Aberdeenshire than in any other Scottish county ex- 
cepting that of Edinburgh. One firm alone has a very 
large mill for writing-paper at Stoneywood, another mill 
for envelopes at what is called the Union Paper- works, a 
third for coarse papers at Woodside; employs upwards 
of 2000 persons; ana turns out between 60 and 70 tons of 
paper, cards, and cardboard, and about 6,000,000 en- 
velopes every week. Rope-making, comb-making, boot 
and shoe making, iron-founding, machine-making, ship- 
building, and various other crafts, likewise employ very 
many hands. The leather trade proper makes little figure 
within the county, but elsewhere is largely upheld by 
constant supplies of hides to the Aberdeen market. 
The number of cattle killed for export of dead meat 
from Aberdeen is so great, that the hides sold annually 
at that port amount to an average of considerably 
more than 40,000. The commerce of tho county is 
given under its two head ports, Aberdeen and Peter- 

head. The tolls were abolished at "Whitsunday 1866; 
the roads have since been managed by trusts, and are 
being kept in repair by means of an assessment. The 
railways are the Caledonian and the Great North of 
Scotland; and, with the sections of the latter, the 
Aberdeen and Banff, the Inverurie and Old Meldrum, 
the Alford Valley, the Formartine and Buchan, and the 
Deeside, they are separately noticed. 

The royal burghs are Aberdeen, Inverurie, and Kin- 
tore ; a principal town and parliamentary burgh is 
Peterhead; and other towns and principal villages are — 
Huntly, Fraserburgh, Turriff, Old Meldrum, Old Deer, 
Ta'rland, Stewartfield, St Combs, Boddam, Rosehearty, 
Inverallochy, Cairnbulg, Ellon, Newburgh, Colliston, 
New Pitsligo, Banchory, Aboyne, Ballater, Castleton 
of Braemar, Cuminestown, Newbyth, Fyvie, Insch, 
Rhynie, Lumsden, Alford, Kemnay, Auchmill, Bank-; 
head, Burnhaven, Buchanhaven, Broadsea, Garmond, 
Gordon Place, Longside, Mintlaw, Aberdour, New Deer, 
Strichen, and Woodend. The chief seats are — Balmoral 
Castle, Abergeldie Castle, Huntly Lodge, Aboyne Castle, 
Slains Castle, Keith Hall, Mar Lodge, Skene House, 
Dalgety Castle, Dunecht House, Haddo House, Philorth 
Castle, Castle-Forbes, Logie-Elphinstone, Westhall, Cri- 
monmogate, Newe, Edinglassie, Fintray House, Craigie- 
var Castle, Monymusk, Hatton House, Pitmedden House, 
Finzean, Invercauld, Ballogie, Castle Fraser, Countess- 
wells, Clunie, Learney, Drum, Grandholm, Haughton, 
Ward House, White Haugh, Leith Hall, Mount-Stuart, 
Rothie, Fyvie House, Rayne, Manar, Freefield, Warthill, 
Pitcaple, Meldrum, Auchnacoy, Ellon House, Brucklay 
Castle, Tillyfour, and Pitlurg. 

The county is governed (1891) by a lord-lieutenant, 
a vice-lieutenant, 58 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 2 
sheriffs-substitute, 3 honorary sheriffs-substitute, and 
334 magistrates ; and is divided, for administration, 
into the districts of Braemar, Deeside, Aberdeen, Alford, 
Huntly, Turriff, Garioch, Ellon, Deer, and New Machar. 
Besides the courts held at Aberdeen, a sheriff court is 
held at Peterhead on every Friday, and sheriff small debt 
circuit courts are held at Huntly and Turriff once every 
3 months. The County Council is composed of sixty 
elected members and five representatives of royal and 
parliamentary burghs (Peterhead, three; Inverurie and 
Kintore, one each). There are seven committees of the 
Council — the Finance Committee, the County Road 
Board, the County Valuation Committee, the Public 
Health Committee, the Bills Committee, the Executive 
Committee under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) 
Acts, and the General Purposes Committee. The con- 
vener and vice-convener are members of all committees. 
The Standing Joint-Committee of County is partly 
elected by the County Council and partly by the Com- 
missioners of Supply, while the Aberdeen District Board 
of Lunacy is elected partly by the County Council and 
partly by the Town Council. The prispns are the new 
Prison of Aberdeen, and the police cells of Peterhead, 
Huntly, and Fraserburgh, all three legalised in 1874 for 
periods not exceeding 3 days. The police force in 1891, 
exclusive of that for Aberdeen burgh, comprised 97 men; 
and the salary of the chief constable was £440. The 
annual value of real property in 1815 was £325,218; in 
1843, £605,802; in 1888, £929,884, including £48,728 
for railways, and in 1891, £814,887, and of railways, 
etc., £57,972. The county, exclusive of the burghs, 
sont 1 member to parliament prior to the Reform Act 
of 1867; but by that Act it was constituted into two 
divisions, eastern and western, each sending 1 member. 
The constituency in 1891, of the eastern division, was 
1 1,803; of the western division, 10,027. The population 
in 1801 was 121,065; in 1811, 133,871; in 1821, 155,049; 
in 1831, 177,657; in 1841, 192,387; in 1851, 212,032; 
in 1861, 221,569; in 1871, 244,603; in 1881, 267,990; 
in 1891, 281,332, of whom 133,861 were males and 
147,471 were females. 

The registration county gives off parts of Banohory- 
Tornan and Banchory-Devonick parishes to Kincardine- 
shire, and takes in part of Drumoak parish from the 
same county, and parts of Cabrach, Cairney, Gartly, 


Glass, New Machar, and Old Deer from Banffshire — 
all as constituted prior to their rearrangement in 
1891 ; it comprises 82 parishes, and had in 1891 a 
population of 281,963. Two parishes, Aberdeen & 
St Nicholas and Oid Machar, have each a poorhouse 
and a poor law administration; and 10, forming Buehan 
combination, have a poorhouse dating from 1869. The 
percentage of illegitimate births is about 13. The 
climate is far from unhealthy, and, while varying much 
in different parts, is on the whole mild. The tempera- 
ture of the mountainous parts, indeed, is about the 
lowest in Scotland; and the rainfall in the aggregate of 
the entire area is rather above the mean. The winters 
are not so cold as in the southern counties, and the 
s umm ers are not so warm or long. The mean tempera- 
ture, noted from observations extending over a period of 
13 years, is 467 at Aberdeen and 43 '6 at Braemar 
1114 feet above sea-level. 

Religious statistics have been already given under 
Aberdeen; in 1891 the county had 264 public and 48 
non-public but State-aided schools — in all, 312 schools — 
with accommodation for 54,800 children, 51,261 scholars- 
on the registers, and an average attendance of 41,750. 

The territory now forming Aberdeenshire was anciently 
inhabited by the Caledonian Taexali. Many cairns and 
other antiquities, commonly assigned to the Caledonian 
times, are in the upland districts. A so-called Pict's 
house is at Aboyne ; vitrified forts are at Insch and 
Rhynie ; and a notable standing-stone, the Maiden Stone, 
is in Chapel-of-Garioch. Old castles are at Abergeldie, 
Boddam, Corgarff, Coul, Dundargue, Dunideer, Fedderate, 
Lesmore, Slains, and other places. Chief septs, in times 
down almost to the present day, have been the Farqu- 
harsons, the Forbeses, and the Gordons. Principal 
events were the defeat of Comyn by Bruce, at the 
' herschip of Buehan,' near Barrahill ; the defeat of 
Donald of the Isles by the Earl of Mar, in 1411, at Har- 
law ; the lesser conflicts of Corrichie, Alford, and the 
Craibstone ; and other incidents noticed under Aber- 
deen. See Jos. Robertson's Collections for a History of 
the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff (5 vols. , Spalding Club, 
1847-69), and Al. Smith's New History of Aberdeenshire 
(2 vols., 1875). 

Aberdona, an estate, with a mansion, in Clackmannan 
parish, 5 miles ENE of Alloa. 

Aberdour (Gael, abhir-dur, 'confluence of the 
stream'), a village and a parish of SW Fife. The 
village lies just to the W of Wnitesands Bay, a curve of 
the Firth of Forth (here 4f miles wide), and is 3 miles 
W by S of Burntisland station, and 7| NW of Leith, 
with which in summer it holds steamboat communi- 
cation several times a day. Sheltered on the E by 
Hawkcraig cliff (270 feet), northward by Hillside and 
the Cullalo Hills, it nestles among finely wooded glades; 
commands a wide prospect of the Firth's southern 
shores, of Edinburgh, and of the Pentland range beyond ; 
and by its good sea-bathing and mild climate draws 
many visitors, for whose accommodation a terrace of 
superior villas has been built along the Shore Road, 
on sites belonging to the Earl of Morton. There is a 
station here of the railway from Burntisland to Inver- 
keithing in connection with the Forth Bridge scheme. 
The village proper, standing at the mouth of the Dour 
Burn, consists of 3 parts — Old Town to the NE, Aber- 
dour in the middle, and New Town to the SW. It has 
a good tidal harbour with a picturesque old pier; is 
supplied with water at an annual cost of about £300 ; 
contains the parish church (erected in 1790), the Free 
church, inns, insurance offices, a railway station post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, and an hospital for 4 widows, founded by 
Anne, countess of the second Earl of Moray. Here, 
too, were formerly St Martha's nunnery of St Claire 
(1474) and the hospital of SS Mary and Peter (1487), and 
here, concealed by brushwood, still stand the ruins of 
St Fillan's Church (c. 1178), with a S aisle, a porch, and 
the grave of the Rev. Robert Blair (1583-1666), Charles 
I.'s chaplain, who, banished from St Andrews by Arch- 
bishop Sharp, died in this parish at Meikle Couston. 


Steps lead from the churchyard to the broad southern 
terrace of Aberdour Castle, a ruinous mansion of the 
Earls of Morton and Barons Aberdour (1458), held by 
their ancestors since 1351, earlier by Viponts and by 
Mortimers. Its oldest portion, a massive keep tower, 
is chiefly of rough rubble work, with dressed quoins 
and windows ; additions, bearing date 1632, and highly 
finished, mark the transition from Gothic forms to the 
unbroken lines of Italian composition that took place 
during the 17th century. Accidentally burned 150 years 
since, this splendid and extensive pile has formed a 
quarry to the entire neighbourhood (Billings, i. , plate 12). 
An oyster-bed in Whitesands Bay employs, with whelk- 
picking and fishing, a few of the villagers. 

The parish, formed in 1640 by disjunction from Beath 
and Dalgety, contains also the village of Donibristle Col- 
liery, and includes the island of Inchcolm, lying 1 \ mile 
to the S, and until 1891 Kilrie Yetts (detached, 132| acres). 
Its main body is bounded N by Beath, NE by Auchter- 
tool, E by Kinghorn and Burntisland, S by the Firth ot 
Forth, and W by Dalgety and Dunfermline. Its length 
from NW to SE is 4J miles, its breadth varies between 
\\ and 3J miles; and the total area is 6059J acres, of 
which 85 are foreshore. This area, however, was reduced 
by the transference of the above-mentioned detached por- 
tion to the parish of Kinghorn by the Boundary Com- 
missioners in 1891. The coast is nearly 2 miles long. 
The western part of the parish rises gently inland, and is 
feathered and flecked with plantations ; the eastern is steep 
and rugged, with shaggy woods descending to the water's 
edge. From NE to SW the Cullalo Hills, 400 to 600 
feet in height, intersect the parish ; and the tract to the 
S of them is warm and genial, exhibiting a wealth of 
natural and artificial beauty, but that to the N lies high, 
and, with a cold sour soil, presents a bleak, forbidding 
aspect. Near the western border, from S to N, three 
summits rise to 499, 513, and 500 feet ; on the south- 
eastern are two 574 and 540 feet high ; and Moss Mor- 
ran in the N, which is traversed by the Dunfermline 
branch of the North British railway, has elevations of 
472 and 473 feet. About 1200 acres are either hill 
pasture or waste ; some 1800 are occupied by woods, 
whose monarchs are 3 sycamores, 78, 74, and 78 feet 
high, with girths at 1 foot from the ground of 16J, 20J, 
and Y&\ feet. The rocks are in some parts eruptive, 
while in others they are carboniferous; there is one 
colliery, the Donibristle, and fossiliferous limestone 
and sandstone are also extensively quarried. Man- 
sions are Hillside, Whitehill, and Cuttlehill ; and the 
chief landowners are the Earls of Morton and Moray, 
each holding an annual value of over £2000. Five others 
hold each £500 and upwards, 5 from £100 to £500, 4 
from £50 to £100, and 19 from £25 to £50, At Hill- 
side ' Christopher North,' the Ettrick Shepherd, and 
others of the celebrated Nodes, met often round the board 
of Mr Stuart of Dunearn ; at Humbie Farm Carlyle wrote 
part of Frederick the Great. But {pace Sir Walter Scott) 
Aberdour's best title to fame rests on the grand old 
ballad of Sir Patrick Spens. A baron, it may be, of 
Wormieston in Crail, that skeely skipper conveyed in 
1281 the Princess Margaret from Dunfermline to Nor- 
way, there to be wedded to King Eric ; of his homeward 
voyage the ballad tells us how — 

1 Half owre, half owre to Aberdour 

It's fifty fathoms deep, 
And there lies good Sir Patrick Spena, 

Wi' the Scots lords at his feet.' 

This parish is now in the presbytery of Dunfermline 
and synod of Fife ; anciently it belonged to Inchcolm 
Abbey, its western half having been granted by Alan 
de Mortimer, for leave of burial in the abbey church. 
The bargain was broken, for ' carrying his corpse in a 
coffin of lead by barge in the night-time, some wicked 
monks did throw the same in a great deep betwixt 
the land and the monastery, which to this day, by neigh- 
bouring fishermen and salters, is called Mortimer's Deep. ' 
The minister's income is £330. There are 2 board - 
schools, at Aberdour and Donibristle, with respective ac- 



commodation for 1S4 and 167 scholars, the latter having 
been rebuilt in 18S0 at a cost of £1500. These had (1S91) 
an average attendance of 127 and 138, and grants of 
£82, 2s. and £126, ISs. Valuation (1891) £14,644, 
0s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 1260, (1831) 1751, (1851) 1945, 
(1871) 1697, (1881) 1736, (1891) 1977. See M. White's 
Beauties and Antiquities oj Aberdour(1869), and W. Ross' 
Aberdour and Inchcolm (1885).— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Aberdour, a village and a coast parish of N Aber- 
deenshire. The village, called commonly New Aber- 
dour, having been founded in 1798 in lieu of an old 
kirk-hamlet, stands 7 furlongs inland, at an altitude of 
337 feet, and is 8 miles W by S of its post-town Fraser- 
burgh, 6§ KW of Strichen station. It has a post office 
with money order and savings bank departments, 2 
inns, and fail's on Monday week before 26 May and on 
22 Nov. ; at it are the parish church and a Free church. ■ 
Pop. (1891) 620. 

The parish contains, too, the fishing village of Pennan, 
3J miles WNW. It is bounded N by the Moray Firth, 
NE by Pitsligo, SE by Tyrie, S by New Deer, W by 
Alvah and by Gamrie in Banffshire. From N to S 
its greatest length is 6 J miles; its width from E to 
W tapers southward from 5| miles to f mile; and its 
land area is now 14,026 acres. A detached portion 
(1482 acres) lying 1 J mile from the SE border was trans- 
ferred by the Boundary Commissioners in 1891 to Strichen 
parish. The seaboard, 6 miles long, is bold and rocky, 
especially to the \V, presenting a wall of stupendous 
red sandstone cliffs, from 50 to 419 feet high, with only 
three openings where boats can land. Of numerous 
caverns, one, called Cowshaven, in the E, afforded a 
hiding-place after Culloden to Alexander Forbes, last 
Lord Pitsligo (1678-1762) ; another, in the bay of Nether- 
mill of Auchmedden, was entered, according to legend, 
by a piper, who ' was heard playing Loehabcr no more a 
mile farer ben,' and himself was no more seen. Inland, 
the surface is level comparatively over the eastern portion 
of the parish, there attaining 124 feet at Quarry Head, 
222 at Egypt, 194 at Dundarg, 248 at Coburty, and 443 
at North Cowfords ; but W of the Dour it is much more 
rugged, rising, from N to S, to 522 feet near Pennan 
Farm, 590 near West Mains, 670 near Tongue, 703 on 
Windyheads Hill, 612 near Glenhouses, 723 near Greens 
of Auchmedden, 487 near Bracklamore, and 524 at Mid 
Cowbog. This western portion is separated from Banff- 
shire by the Ton- Burn, and through it 3 deep ravines, 
the Dens of Troup, Auchmedden, and Aberdour, each with 
its headlong rivulet, run northward to the sea ; but the 
drainage of the southern division is earned eastward, 
through GlasslawDen, by Gonar Burn, theUgie's northern 
headstream (Smiles' Scotch Naturalist, eh. viii.) The 
prevailing rocks, red sandstone and its conglomerates, be- 
long to the oldest Secondary formation, and are quarried 
forbuildingmaterial, as formerly at Pennan for millstones; 
the soils are various, ranging from fertile loamyelay in the 
north-eastern low lands to very deep peat earth on the 
south-western moors. Antiquitiesare 'Picts' houses, 'near 
Earls Seat ; the Cairn of Coburty, said to commemorate 
a Danish defeat ; the ruined pre-Reformation chapel of 
Chapelden ; and on the coast to the NE of the village, 
crowning a sandstone peninsula 65 feet high, the scanty 
vestiges of Dundargue Castle, built by the Englishman, 
Henry de Beaumont, fifth Earl of Buchan in right of his 
wife, and captured from him by the regent, Sir Andrew 
Moray (1333). Some will have this to be the Aberdour 
of the 'grand old ballad of Sir Patrick Spcns;' at least 
its church of St Drostan, at the mouth of the Dour, was 
certainly founded by St Columba in the latter half of 
the 6th century. ' With Drostan, his pupil, he came 
from Hi, or Iona, as God had shown to them, unto 
Ahbordoboir, or Aberdour, and Bede the Cruilhnech, or 
Pict, was Mormaer of Buchan before him ; and it was he 
that gave them that crdhair, or town, in freedom for ever 
from Mormaer and Toisech ' (Skene's Celt. Scot.) The 
chief estates are Aberdour (partly transferred to Strichen 
in 1891) and Auchmedden, belonging to the Fordyccs 
of Brucklay Castle in New Deer and the Liairds of Cam- 
busdoon in Ayr, who own respectively 20,899 and 5979 


acres in Aberdeenshire, valued at £12,744 and £2704 
per annum ; whilst 71 proprietors hold a yearly value in 
this parish of under £100. Purchased by the Gart- 
sherrie Bairds in 1854, Auchmedden belonged from 1568 
to 1750 to their more ancient namesakes, wdiose last 
male representative, Win Baird (1701-77), compiled the 
interesting Genealogical Collections concerning the Bairds 
of Auchmedden, Newbyth, and Saughtonhall (2d. ed., 
Lond. 1870). Parts of the civil parish (with about 260 
inhabitants) are included in the quoad sacra parishes 
of New Byth and New Pitsligo; the rest forms a quoad 
sacra parish in the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aber- 
deen, the living being worth £294. Three public schools 
— Aberdour, Auchmedden, and Glasslaw — with respec- 
tive accommodation for 259, 114, and 70 children, had 
(1891) an average attendance of 154, 92, and 44, and 
grants of £163, 12s., £62, 9s., and £45, 3s. Valuation, 
£8671, 16s. 3d. Pop. (1801) 1304, (1841) 1645, (1861) 
1997, (1871) 2176, (1891) 2019; of registration district 
(1871) 1945, (1881) 1931, (1891) 1835.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
97, 1876. 

Aberfeldy (Abyrfealdybeg in 1301; Gael, abhir-feath- 
aile, 'calm smooth confluence'), a police burgh (1887) 
formerly in detached portions of Dull and Logierait par- 
ishes, central Perthshire, but transferred by the Boundary 
Commissioners in 1891 wholly to the parish of Dull, at the 
terminus of a branch of the Highland railway, 8| miles 
W by S of Ballinluig Junction, 32J NW of Perth, and 
79J NNW of Edinburgh. It stands on both sides of 
Urlar Burn, 1 mile below its lovely Falls of Monbss, 
and 3 furlongs S of its influx to the Tay ; which latter 
river is spanned, J mile WNW of the village, by a five- 
arched bridge, erected by General Wade in 1733, and 
variously described as ' elegant and substantial ' by 
guide-books, by Dorothy Wordsworth as ' of ambitious 
and ugly architecture. ' At least, this bridge commands 
a noble view down the Tay, eastward, to Grantully 
Castle ; up the Tay, westward, to Castle Menzies and 
Taymouth Castle, the Strath of Appin, and Glen Lyon ; 
southward of the narrow Glen of Moness, — all set in an 
amphitheatre of high ribbed Hills. Within a radius of 
some 6 miles, from E to W, rise Grantully Hill (1717 
feet), Stron a Ghamhuinn (1208), Meall Dearg (2258), 
Monadh nam Mial (1975), Meall Dubh (2021), Meall Dun 
Dhomhnuill (2061), and Craig Hill (1845) to the S of 
the Tay ; and, to the N, the Bonnets (1338), Ben Eagach 
(2259), Farragon Hill (2559), Weem Hill (1638), Meall 
Tarruin'chon (2559), and Craig Odhar (1710), beyond 
which last Schiehallion (3547) and Carn Mairg (3419) 
uprear their loftier summits. Strange that with such 
surroundings Aberfeldy should most be famed for what 
it has not, and seemingly never had, the 'birks' of 
Burns's lyric*: — 

' The braes ascend like lofty wa's, 
The foaming stream deep-roaring; fa's, 
O'erhung wi' fragrant spreading; shawa, 

The birks of Aberfeldy. 
The hoary cliffs are crown'd wi' flowers, 
White o'er the linn the burnie pours, 
And, rising, weets wi' misty sbowerB 

The birks of Aberfeldy.' 

The date of Burns's visit was 29 Aug. 1787, of Words- 
worth's and his sister's 5 Sept. 1803 ; and the Queen 
has driven twice through Aberfeldy, 7 Sept. 1842 and 
3 Oct. 1866. On a field here, in 1739, the famous 'Black 
Watch' was first embodied (this title being acquired 
from their dark tartan uniform), to commemorate which 
a monument was erected in 1887 in the shape of a cairn, 
at a cost of about £500. The town is governed by a 
chief magistrate and eight commissioners. A new 
public library, reading and recreation rooms in the 
Town Hall buildings were opened Dec. 5, 1891. Aber- 
feldy is held, with few exceptions, under building leases 
of 99 years from the Marquis of Breadalbane, its sole 
proprietor; and it has recently been much improved, 
being lighted with gas, and furnished since 1875 with a 

* Rowans there arc In abundanco, and a myth has of course 
arisen that these have superseded the birks ; but the absence ol 
the latter from Aberfeldy In 1803 is as certain as their presence at 
A beroblmk years before Burns's day. 


thorough drainage system and public waterworks. It 
has a head post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of 
Scotland, the Commercial Bank, and the Union Bank 
of Scotland, two large hotels, a Young Men's Christian 
Association hall (1881), a literary society, a choral union, 
curling, cricket, and bowling clubs, a dyework, 2 saw- 
mills, and a woollen factory. A sheriff small-debt court 
sits on the Monday following the first Saturday of April, 
August, and December; and cattle sales are held on alter- 
nate Thursdays, fairs on the first Thursday of January 
(old style), the Tuesday of March after Perth, the last 
Friday of July (old style), and the Thursday of Octo- 
ber before Doune November Tryst. To a Free church 
(Gaelic, 800 sittings) in the presbytery of Breadalbane 
and synod of Perth and Stirling, a Congregational church 
(1817; 700 sittings), and a Baptist church (60 sittings), 
there has been lately added an Established church; 
and Aberfeldy has besides a Roman Catholic station, 
occasionally served from Ballechin; whilst at Weem, 
1J mile WNW, is St David's Episcopal Church (1877). 
One public school, with accommodation for 328 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 222, and a grant 
of £215, 9s. Pop. (1841) 910, (1861) 1145, (1871) 1159, 
(1881) 1260, (1891) 1469—916 in Dull, 553 in Logierait. 
Pop. of registration district, including parts of Dull, 
Logierait, Fortingall, Kenmore, and Weem (1861) 2402, 
(1871) 2286, (1881) 2268, (1891) 2278.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
55, 1869. 

Aberfoyle (Gael, abhir-a-phuill, 'confluence of the 
pool'), a hamlet and a parish on the SW border of 
Perthshire. The hamlet stands, towards the south- 
eastern corner of the parish, on the left bank of the 
Laggan, here crossed by a high and narrow three-arched 
bridge. It is 4 miles S by W of the Trossachs, and 7 
MW of Buchlyvie station, this being 15| miles W 
of Stirling, and 14J NE of Balloch; by the Strath- 
endric and Aberfoyle railway this clachan, made classic 
by Scott's novel of Rob Roy, is brought into direct 
connection with the railway system of Scotland. It has 
a post office under Stirling, with money order and 
savings' bank departments, an orphanage, and an excel- 
lent hotel, the 'Bailie Nicol Jar vie,' successor to the 
celebrated 'Clachan,' whose site, about 1 mile westward, 
is marked by only a few large stones. Across the bridge, 
3 furlongs SSW, is the parish church (rebuilt 1744 ; re- 
paired 1839 ; and seated for 250) ; and on this bridge, 
or its predecessor, a fray took place between a christen- 
ing party of the Grahams of Duchray and the followers 
of theEarlof Airthand Menteith,13Feb. 1671 (Chambers' 
Dom. An., ii. 309, 310). A cattle fair is held on the 
third Tuesday of April, a lamb fair on the Friday before 
the third Tuesday of August, and a cattle and hiring fair 
on the last Tuesday of October. 

The parish is bounded, N" by Loch Katrine, Achray 
Water, Loch Achray, Dubh Abhainn, and the head of 
Loch Venachar, which separate it from Callander ; E by 
Loch Drunkie and Port of Monteith ; and S, SW, and 
W by Stirlingshire, being parted for 6 J miles by Duchray 
Water from Drymen and Buchanan parishes. The great- 
est length, from near Loch Arklet at the north-western 
to Cobleland at the south-eastern angle, is 10 j miles ; 
its width from NE to SW ranges between 2\ and 6 miles ; 
and its area is 29,215 acres, of which 2405 are water. 
Twenty-two rivulets flow northward into Loch Katrine, 
2 into Achray Water, 2 into Loch Achray, and 2 into 
Loch Venachar, while 3 more run eastward to Loch 
Dkunkie ; but the drainage generally is carried east- 
south-eastward, belonging to the basin of the two head- 
streams of the Forth— the Avondhu and Duchray Water. 
The former, rising close to the western boundary, has a 
course of about 9 miles, and traverses Lochs Chon and 
Akd ; the latter, rising on the slopes of Ben Lomond 
(3192 feet) in Buchanan, flows 1J mile north-eastward 
through the interior of Aberfoyle, and joins the Avondhu 
near the old Clachan. Thence, as the shallow Laggan, 
their united waters wind 2J miles down the narrow Pass 
of Aberfoyle, beneath the precipices of Craigmore, to 
Cobleland, where they enter Port of Monteith. Locb 


Katrine lies 364 feet above sea-level ; and the Inversnaid 
Road, leading up the valley of the Laggan and Avondhu, 
has an altitude of 66 feet near the hamlet, of 112 feet 
towards the head of Loch Ard, of 299 at the foot of Loch 
Chon, and of 571 at 1 mile NNW of its head. A region 
of glens and mountains, of rivers, cascades, and lakes, 
of oak and birch woods, Aberfoyle is for ever associated 
with the scenes of Scott's Lady of the Lake, Waverley, 
and Rob Roy ,• the last describes its little vale, its beauti- 
ful river, the bare yet romantic ranges of rock that hedge 
the landscape in on either side and form a magnificent 
background, while far to the eastward a glance is caught 
of the Loch of Monteith, and of Stirling Castle, dimly 
descried, along with the blue and distant line of the 
Ochils. From W to E rise Meall Meadhonach (893 
feet), Caisteal Corrach (1075), Drnim nan Cam (1500), 
Sron Lochie (1643), Beinn Bhreac (2295), 'huge' Ben 
Venue (2393), Beinn an Fhogharaidh (2000), Craig- 
more (1271), Dun nam Muc (605), and Meall Ear (1091), 
to the N of the Avondhu and Laggan ; to the S are 
Beinn Uaimhe (1962) on the western border, Beinn 
Dubh (1675) and Mulan an't Sagairt (1398) on the 
south-western, Coire Eirigh (852), Innis Ard (566), Bad 
Dearg (533), and Arndrum (454). The rocks include 
trap, conglomerate, a fissile slate of excellent roofing 
quality, and hard, blue, white-veined limestone, of which 
the two last have long been regularly worked. The glens 
are so small — none more than 1 mile in length and 
\ mile in breadth — that the arable area is ver}' limited, 
and what there is has mostly been reclaimed from 
heath, to which it would revert if let to lie fallow for a 
year or two. The lands of Aberfoyle, supposed to have 
anciently belonged to the neighbouring priory of Inch- 
mahome, were disposed of by the second and last Earl of 
Airth (ii 1694) to James, third Marquis and first Duke 
of Montrose, whose great-great-grandson, the fifth duke, 
is owner of the entire parish. Among its ministers were, 
Robert Kirk (d. 1692), translator of the Psalms into 
Gaelic verse ; William Fisher (d. 1732), the last Episcopal 
clergyman who held a benefice in Scotland ; and Patrick 
Graham, author of Sketches Descriptive of Picturesque 
Scenery on the Southern Confines of Perthshire (1806) ; 
whilst natives were the Shakespearian critic, William 
Richardson (1743-1814), and the poet William Glen, writer 
of ' Wae's me for Prince Charlie. ' Among its traditions 
is the defeat, in 1653, of Colonel Reid, a Cromwellian 
leader, by Graham of Duchray, at the Pass of Aberfoyle. 
The principal residences — Glashart, Lochard Lodge, 
Ledard, Bharhulachan, and Couligartan — lie all around 
Loch Ard. Aberfoyle is in the presbytery of Dunblane 
and synod of Perth and Stirling; the living is worth 
£295. Two public schools, at the hamlet and at Kin- 
lochard (5 miles W by N), with respective accommo- 
dation for 72 and 65 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 50 and 41, and grants of £40, lis. and 
£50, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1891) £7376, 9s. 3d. The 
population of the parish of Aberfoyle in 1S91 was 1023. 
— Ord. Stir., sh. 38, 1871. 

Abergeldie (Gael, abhir-gile, 'confluence of the clear 
stream '), the Highland residence of the Prince of Wales, 
in Crathie and Braemar parish, SW Aberdeenshire, 
stands, at an altitude of 840 feet, on the right bank of 
the Dee, 6 miles above Ballater, and 2 below Balmoral. 
Behind it rises Craig-na-Ban, a rounded granitic hill, 1736 
feet high ; and cairn-crowned Geallaig (2439 feet) fronts 
it across the river, which at this point is spanned by a 
handsome iron suspension bridge. The Castle is a mas- 
sive and imposing building, its oldest part a turreted 
square block-tower ; the estate, extending 10 miles along 
Deeside, is finely planted with old Scotch firs, larch, and 
the natural birch, mixed in the private grounds with 
spruce, ash, plane, and sycamore. The Birks, indeed, 
of Abergeldie are celebrated in a time-honoured melody, 
though Burns capriciously transferred their fame to 
Aberfeldy, where {teste Dorothy Wordsworth) no birks 
were to be seen in 1803. Sir Alexander Gordon, son of 
the first Earl of Huntly, acquired the lands of Aber- 
geldie in 1482 ; in 1848 the late Prince Consort purchased 
the lease of them for 40 years. The Duchess of KeDt 



spent several autumns here between 1850 and 1861 ; and 
here the Empress Eugenie passed the October following 
the loss of the Prince Imperial (1879), 

Aberiachan, a rivulet on the confines of the parishes 
of Inverness and Urquhart, Inverness-shire. It traverses 
romantic scenery; makes a succession of falls, from 10 
to 30 feet in leap ; and enters the lower part of Loch 
Ness, about 9 miles from Inverness. A spar cave ad- 
jacent to it, and to the road from Inverness to Fort 
Augustus, was discovered not many years ago ; measures 
about 21 feet in length, from 6 to 12 feet in height, and 
from 3 to 6 feet in width, and makes an interesting dis- 
play of stalactites and stalagmites. 

Aberlady (anc. Aberlefdi — Gael. abhir-Hobh-aite, 
' confluence of the smooth place '), a village and a coast 
parish of NW Haddingtonshire. The village stands at 
the mouth of the sluggish Peffer Burn, 3 miles NE 
of Longniddry station, and 5J NW of Haddington. 
Consisting chiefly of one long street of good appearance, 
it is an occasional resort of sea-bathers from Haddington ; 
has a post office under Longniddry, with money order, 
savings bank, and telegraph departments, a hotel, and 
some good shops; is lighted with gas; and in 1891 had 
a population of 505. 

The parish is bounded N by Dirleton, E and SE by 
Haddington, S by Gladsmuir, and W by the Firth of 
Forth. It has an equal extreme length and breadth of 
3$ miles ; its area is 4928 acres, of which 21^ are 
links, 581 foreshore, and 6 water. The surface rises 
very slowly from the shore, nowhere much exceeds 200 
feet of elevation, and is mostly flat, yet has a pleasant 
aspect, abounding in artificial adornment, and command- 
ing views of the Firth and its shores away to the Lomond 
hills, the Edinburgh heights, the Peutlands, and the 
Grampians. The coast is everywhere low, and has a 
great breadth of foreshore. Vessels of 60 or 70 tons can 
ascend the channel of the Peffer, at spring tides, to 
within a few hundred yards of the village, and lie 
tolerably secure ; but they cannot easily go out during 
a westerly wind. The harbour or anchorage-ground be- 
longs to Haddington, in capacity of a port; but it is 
practically of little or no value, as the trade is trivial. 
A belt of links, or low flat sandy downs, skirts much of 
the shore, and is tunnelled by rabbit-holes; the land 
thence inward, though now well cultivated and produc- 
tive, appears to have been, at no very distant period, 
swampy and worthless. The soil there is light and 
sandy; further back is clay, not naturally fertile; and 
further inland to the eastern border, is of excellent 
quality. The Peffer is the only stream of any size ; and 
water for the use of the inhabitants is chiefly obtained 
from wells, being good and abundant. The rocks are 
partly eruptive, but mainly of the Carboniferous forma- 
tion. Limestone and sandstone abound, but are not 
worked ; and coal, in connection with the great coalfield 
of Midlothian, is believed to extend under a considerable 
area, but not in conditions likely to compensate mining. 
Kilspindley fortalice, built in 1585 between the village 
and the shore, has wholly disappeared, as have two 
ancient hospitals at Ballencrieff and Gosford. The Red 
Friar Monastery of Luffness, said to have been founded 
by Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, in 1286, is represented by 
the founder's effigy, and by the N walls of its First 
Pointed church, which measured 94 feet 10 inches by 
19 feet; and Redhouse Castle, a large 16th-century 
mansion, near the Gladsmuir boundary, is now a com- 
plete ruin. Gokford (Earl of Wemyss), BallenOMEFF 
(Lord Elibank), and Luffness (H. W. Hope, Esq.), are 
the principal seats ; the property is divided among 
3 landowners holding £500 and upwards, 1 between £100 
and £500, 1 between £50 and £100, and 17 between £20 
and £50. The Rev. Adam Dickson (d. 1776), author of 
The Husbandry of the Ancients, was a native of tliin 
parish, which is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian. The parish church was rebuilt in 
1887 ; the living is worth £400. There is also a U.P. 
church; and a public school here, with accommodation 
for 170 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 149, and a grant of £150, 7s. lOd. Valuation (1892) 


£9500. Pop. (1831) 973, (1861) 1019, (1871) 1022, (1881) 
1000, (1891) 1063.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Aberlady Bay, an encurvature of the Firth of Forth, 
on the coast of Haddington and Edinburgh shires, from 
Gullane Point to Leith, measures 12 miles along the 
chord, and 3£ thence to the inmost recess of the shore. 
The view over it, from Arthur's Seat, includes the coast 
towns of Portobello, Musselburgh, and Preston pans; the 
fertile slopes of Haddingtonshire, with the Garleton Hills 
on the right, and the conical hill of North Berwick Law in 
the distant front, and is exquisitely beautiful. It was 
from Aberlady Bay, according to legend, that Thaney, the 
virgin mother of St Kentigern, was cast adrift in a coracle. 

Aberlemno (Gael, abhir-leumnach, ' confluence of the 
leaping stream'), a village and a parish of central Forfar- 
shire. The village stands on the left bank of a rivulet, 
3J miles N by W of Auldbar Road station on the Cale- 
donian, and 6 NE of its post-town, Forfar. The present 
parish comprises the ancient parishes of Aberlemno and 
Auldbar ; but the former is thought to have originally 
included the portion of Oathlaw through which the 
Lenino flows, and to have had its church where that 
stream enters the South Esk. It is bounded N by 
Careston and Brechin, E by Brechin and Guthrie, S and 
SW by Rescobie, W by Oatlilaw, and NW by Tannadice. 
Of irregular outline, it measures 6J miles from NE to 
SW, and 5 from NNW to SSE ; its land area is 8914 
acres. The South Esk, roughly tracing all the north- 
western and northern boundary, is the only consider- 
able stream ; the only loch, Balgavies, on the southern 
border, is J mile long by 1 furlong wide, contains pike 
and perch, and was formerly dredged for marl. The 
surface declines towards the South Esk, and from N to S 
attains an altitude of 452 feet at the Mote, of 323 at 
Blibberhill, of 663 in the eastern summit of the Hill of 
Finhaven, of 441 near the Wood of Kellockshaw, of 492 
at Pitkennedy, of 800 in fort-crowned Turin Hill on the 
south-western border, of 348 near Framedrum, and of 
384 near Turin House. The lower grounds are for the 
most part fertile and well cultivated ; the higher are 
often clothed with broom and heath. A greyish sand- 
stone abounds in the SW, and is worked in several 
quarries both for building and for paving purposes. 
Melqund and Flemington Castles are ruins ; Auldbar 
Castle, Balgavies, and Carsegownie are interesting old 
buildings, still inhabited. Older than any of these are 
two sculptured stones, standing one in the churchyard, 
the other a little to the N. The former, about 6 feet 
high, represents a battle in which both horse and foot 
are engaged, and in which a bird attacks a helmeted man, 
vainly attempting to cover himself with a shield. Above 
are a mirror and less intelligible emblems ; on the back 
is a finely ornamented cross, surrounded by quaint 
figures of animals. ' This monument,' says Worsaae, 
' might have been reared after a victory, whether over 
the Danes remains uncertain. At all events, the stone 
is Scotch, not Scandinavian ' (Banes and Northmen, 
pp. 210-213). A third and similar stone was brought to 
Auldbar Castle from the ruins of a neighbouring chapel. 
The Earl of Minto and Viscount Melgund (ere. 1813) 
owns nearly one-half of the parish ; and 7 other pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 or upwards, 
4 of between £100 and £500, and 1 of between £20 
and £50. Aberlemno is in the presbytery of Forfar and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. The church is mainly a 
reconstruction of 1722, with some 450 sittings; its 
minister's income is £253. There is also a Free church, 
and under the board are the Aberlemno school and a 
subscription school at Pitkennedy, which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 152 and 67 scholars, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 76 and 51, and grants of 
£47 and £37, 7s. 6d. Valuation of lands (1891) £8290, 
16s. ; of railway, £687. Pop. (1831) 1079, (1871) 1007, 
(1891) 926.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Aberlour (Gaol, abhir-luath-ir, 'confluence of the 
strong stream '), a village and a parish on the W border 
of Banffshire. The village of Aberlour or Charlestown 
of Aberlour stands on a haugh, at the influx of a burn of 
its own name to the Spey, and has a station on the 


Strathspey branch of the Great North of Scotland rail- 
way, 2} miles SW of Craigellachie Junction and 17 SW 
of Keith. Founded, in 1812, by Grant of Wester Elchies, 
it is a burgh of barony by Royal Charter, and consists of 
substantial slated houses ranged in a broad street J mile 
long, with a square to the W ; it has a post office, with 
telegraph, money order, and savings' bank departments, 
branches of the Union and North of Scotland banns, 
several insurance offices, an excellent hotel, and an im- 
posing distillery, with tower and spire (1880); fairs are 
held at it on the first Thursday of April, the Thursday 
before 26 May, and the second Thursday of November. 
The old church of St Drostan is now a roofless ruin; 
and a successor to it, erected in 1812, was destroyed by 
fire in 1861, when the present parish church was built; 
it has 800 sittings and a tower 65 feet high. The Free 
church is also of recent construction, and likewise St 
Margaret's Episcopal church (1875-78). In connection 
with it there are schools and an orphanage for 50 chil- 
dren of all denominations. The latter is supported by 
voluntary contributions. Upwards of 200 girls are also 
received and trained for service, these being not only 

Erovided with a home when out of a situation or ill, 
ut looked after when they leave. The demands for 
admission are so numerous that it is being enlarged. 

The parish is bounded NW for 6 miles by the river 
Spey, separating it from Elginshire ; NE for 14_ mile by 
the river Fiddich, separating it from Boharm ; E and SE 
by Mortlach ; and SW by Inveraven. Its greatest 
length, from N to SSW, is 9 miles ; its breadth is from 
1 to 5 miles ; and its land area is 14,781 acres. The Spey 
is here a deep and rapid river, which, in the great floods 
of 1829, rose 19J feet above its ordinary level, and from 
this parish it receives the Carron and Aberlour Burns, 
the latter of which, 1 mile above its mouth, makes a 
jeautiful cascade of 30 feet in leap — the Linn of Ruthlie. 
Most of the surface is hill or mountain, the chief eleva- 
tions being, in the N, Blue Hill (1062 feet), Gownie 
(1005), and Wood of Allachie (909) ; near the east- 
ern border, Edinvillie (1067), and on the western, 
Drum Wood (967) ; in the centre, Tom of Ruthrie 
(951 feet) ; and, in the S, Ben Rinnes (2755), Roy's 
Hill (1754), Braushie Cree (1477), and Restocknach 
(1196). A considerable aggregate of upland has been 
reclaimed for the plough, and still more naturally good 
arable land exists in the form of narrow vales, or 
what are here called daughs, along the courses of the 
streams and around the bases of the hills, so that alto- 
gether about one-half of the entire area is under cultiva- 
tion. The soil in some parts along the Spey is a rich, 
deep, alluvial loam ; in other parts, further from the river, 
is a good mould, on a bed of rough gravel ; in others, to- 
ward the foot of the hills, is prevalently argillaceous ; 
and toward the base of Ben Rinnes, is reclaimed moss or 
coarse humus. The rocks include much granite and 
some limestone, but are nowhere quarried. The birch- 
clad rock of Craigellachie figures picturesquely in the 
landscape, and thence the Strathspey railway goes up 
the Aberlour side of the river, past Aberlour village to 
Carron, where it crosses a magnificent iron viaduct. 
Aberlour House (Mr Findlay) stands 1J mile SSE of 
Craigellachie, is a good modern mansion, in the Grecian 
style, with pleasant grounds, and very fine gardens ; 
on its lawn is a Doric column of Aberdeen granite, 84 
feet high, surmounted by a large globe of polished 
granite. Kinermony eminence, to the SW of the village, 
was anciently the site of a house of the Knights Tem- 
plars, and commands a fine view of part of the Spey's 
valley. Four landowners hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 3 of between £50 and £100, and 4 of 
between £20 and £50. This parish is the seat of a 
presbytery in the synod of Moray, but part of it is an- 
nexed for school, registration, and ecclesiastical purposes 
to the quoad sacra parish of Glenrinnes. The minister's 
income is £296. The board schools of Aberlour, Eden- 
ville, Charlestown (Episc), and Craigellachie (females, 
E.C.), with respective accommodation for 210, 146, 266, 
and 77 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 144, 
74, 167, and 68, and grants of £135, 8s., £64. 10s., 


£150, 3s. 6d., and £59, 10s. Pop. of civil parish (1871) 
1776, (1881) 1913, (1891) 2165; of quoad sacra parish 
(1881) 1795, (1891) 2072.— Ord. Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

The presbytery of Aberlour comprehends the quoad 
civilia parishes of Aberlour, Boharm, Inveraven, Knock - 
ando, and Rothes, and the quoad sacra parishes of 
Glenlivet and Glenrinnes. Pop. (1891) 10,042, of whom 
2189 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
that year, when the sums raised by these congre- 
gations in Christian liberality amounted to £599. The 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Aberlour, whose 
churches at Aberlour, Boharm, Inveraven, Knockando, 
Mortlach, and Rothes, had 9f?9 communicants in 1891. 

Aberluthnet, a rivulet of S Kincardineshire, running 
to the North Esk in the vicinity of Marykirk village. 
Aberluthnet (Gael, abhir -luath-ait, ' confluence where 
the stream is swift') was anciently the name of Marykirk 
parish, and continued an alternative name of it down to 
the beginning of last century. 

Abermele or Abermilk, an ancient parish in Annan- 
dale, Dumfriesshire. It was named from the confluence 
of the river Mele or Milk with the Annan ; and, its 
church having been dedicated to St Kentigern or Mungo, 
it has, since the Reformation, been called St Mungo. 

Abernethy, a Speyside parish of E Inverness-shire, till 
1870 partly also in Elginshire. It contains the village 
of Nethybridge, which, standing on the right bank, and 
1J mile above the mouth of the Nethy, here spanned by 
a bridge 84 feet long, has a post office (Abernethy) under 
•Gran town, with money order, telegraph, and savings 
bank departments, an inn, and a station on the Great 
North of Scotland, 4£ miles SSW of Grantown, 4| ENE 
of Boat of Garten, and 93£ N by W of Perth. 

The parish comprises the pre-Reformation parishes of 
Abernethy and Kincardine, the former mostly to the E, 
the latter wholly to the W of the Nethy. It is bounded 
NE by Cromdale in Elginshire and Kirkmichael in Banff- 
shire, E and SE by Kirkmichael, SW by Rothiemurchus, 
and NW by Duthil and Cromdale, having an extreme 
length from NNE to SSW of 16f , and an extreme width 
from E to W of 14 miles. The Spey, here 50 yards broad, 
flows 16 miles along all the north-western border, and 
glides on smooth and unruffled, throughout this course 
having only a fall from about 690 to 600 feet above sea- 
level. The Nethy rises on the eastern slope of Cairn- 
gorm, at an altitude of 2700 feet, and after a north-north- 
westerly course of 14 miles, falls into the Spey near Broom- 
hill station. A brook in drought, it is subject to violent 
spates, the greatest on record being those of 1829 and 
June 1880, when it flooded great part of Nethybridge vil- 
lage, and changed all the level below into a lake. The 
Nethy itself receives the Dorback Burn (flowing 94 miles 
WNW), and the Duack Burn (6f miles N) ; and 2 af- 
fluents of the Avon, the Water of Caiplaieh or Ailnack 
and the Burn of Brown, trace 7 miles of the south-eastern, 
and 4 of the eastern border. Besides many smaller tarns, 
Loch Garten (5x3 furlongs) lies at an altitude of 726 feet, 
2 J miles SW of Nethybridge; on the Rothiemurchus 
boundary are Loch Phitiulais (5 x 1 £ furlongs, altitude 
674 feet), and pine-girt Loch Morlich (8x5 furlongs, al- 
titude 1046 feet). Save for the level strip along the Spey, 
from 3 furlongs to 2J miles in width, the surface every- 
where is hilly or grandly mountainous, ascending south- 
ward to the Cairngorm Mountains, eastward to the 
Braes of Abernethy, north-eastward towards the hills of 
Cromdale. To the W of the Nethy the chief elevations 
are Tor Hill (1000 feet), Cam Rynettin (1549), Craig- 
gowrie (2237), Creagan Gorm (2403), Meall a' Bhuachaille 
(2654), Mam Suim (2394), An t-Aonach (2117), Airgiod- 
meall (2118), *Castle Hill (2366), *Creag na Leacainn 
(3448), and *Cairngorm (4084), where the asterisks - 
mark the summits culminating on the boundary. E of 
the Nethy rise Cam na Leine (1505), Beinn an Fhudair 
(1476), Cam Dearg (1378), *Tom Liath (1163), Carn 
Tuairneir (2250), Baddoch (1863), Tom nan Damh Mora 
(1742), Tom an Fheannaige (1638), Cam an Fhir Odhair 
(2257), Cam a Chnuic (1658), Carn Sheilg (2040), Carn 
Bheur (2636), Beul Buidhe (2385), Geal Cham (2692), 
Geal Cham Beag (2484), Tamh-dhruim (2463), *Caiplich 



(3574), and *A Choinneach (3215). Planted or natural 
pine-forest covers a vast extent, far up the Nethy, around 
Loch Garten, and in Glenmore on the border of Rothie- 
murchus ; and, whilst loch and river abound in trout and 
salmon, the glens and mountains teem with all kinds of 
game, the Coimtess-Do wager of Seafield's Abernethy deer- 
forest being one of the largest. The felling, too, of timber 
on the uplands, thence to be floated down the Nethy to tha 
Spey, forms a great source of wealth, first opened up in 
1728 by Aaron Hill, ex-manager of Drury Lane (Cham- 
bers' JDom. Ann. , iii. 547). The rocks are chiefly granitic 
and unworked ; what arable soil there is — by nature fer- 
tile — has been greatly improved by liming ; and within 
the last 30 years many acres of pasture have been brought 
under the plough, many good farm-buildings erected. 
In the NE a Roman road is thought to have run from 
Bridge of Brown to Ljoiemore, and on towards Cromdale 
station ; Castle Roy, near the church, a reputed strong- 
hold of the Comyns, is 90 feet long, 60 broad, and 30 
high, with no roof or loopholes, and but a single entrance. 
John Stuart, the Gaelic poet, best known as ' John Roy 
Stuart,' was born at Knock of Kincardine in 1700. Tlie 
Countess Dowager of Seafield and the Duke of Richmond 
are chief proprietors in Abemethy, which gives name to 
a presbytery in the synod of Moray. The living is worth 
£331 ; the parish church (1000 sittings) stands 7 furlongs 
NNE of Nethybridge, and is a well-built modern edifice, 
as also are a Free church and an Established mission 
church (600 sittings) at Kincardine, 6J miles SW, on the 
Spey. Four public schools — Abernethy, Dorback, Glen- 
brown and Glenlochy, and Tulloch — with respective ac- 
commodation for 198, 40, 42, and 84 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 105, 11, 12, and 23, and grants 
of £118, 15s. 6d., £26, 12s., £22, 19s. lid., and £44, 
17s. 6d. Valuation £8141, of which £6552 belongs to 
the Countess-Dowager of Seafield. Pop. , mostly Gaelic- 
speaking (1891) 1354.— Ord. Sur., shs. 74, 75, 1877. 

The presbytery of Abernethy, meeting at Grantown, 
comprehends the civil parishes of Abernethy, Alvie, Crom- 
dale, Duthil, Kingussie, Kirkmichael, and Laggan, and 
the quoad sacra parishes of Advie, Inch, Inverallen, 
Rothiemurchus, and Tomintoul. Pop. (1891) 10,613, of 
whom 1171 were communicants of the Church of Scotland 
in that year, the sums raised by the above congrega- 
tions amounting to £938. There is also a Free Church 
presbytery of Abernethy, having churches at Abernethy, 
Alvie, Cromdale, Duthil, Kingussie, Kirkmichael, and 
Laggan, with 1869 members and adherents in 1891. 

Abernethy, a small police burgh of SE Perthshire, and 
until 1891 a parish partly also in Fife. The town has a 
station on the Ladybank and Perth branch of the North 
British railway, 8A miles SE of Perth, and 1J mile SSW 
of the influx of the Earn to the Tay. It stands on the 
right bank of the Nethy, and thence most probably 
received its name (Celt, 'ford of the Nethy'), which 
Colonel Robertson, however, derives from Obair Netlian 
or Ncchlan ('Nectan's work'). His objection to the 
former etymology is, that at Abernethy there is no con- 
fluence, the stream not joining the Earn till 1J mile 
below the town, and £ mile below Innernethy, a former 
seat of the Freers, now owned by Sir Robert Drummond 
Moncrieffe {Gad. Topog., 76-79). But, then, Skene says 
that 'Abcr and Invcr were both used by the southern 
Picts, though not quite in the same way, Invcr being 
generally at the mouth of a river, Abcr at the ford 
usually some distance from the mouth' {Celt. Scot., 
i. 220-222) ; anyhow, Isaac Taylor is certainly wrong in 
stating that 'Abernethy became Invernethy, though the 
old name is now restored' ( Words and Places, 258-260). 
Orrea, a town of the Vernicomes, mentioned by Ptolemy, 
the Alexandrian geographer of the 2d century A.D., 
must have stood at or near Abernethy ; and at Aber- 
nethy, according to the Pictish chronicle, Nectan Morbet, 
third of the shadowy line of early Pictish kings, founded 
a church in honour of St Bridget of Kildare about 462— 
a legend inconsistent with the known date of St Bridget's 
death (525). Under the influence of Columba's teaching, 
<;:irtnaidh, 'supreme king of the Tay,' founded or re- 
fonnded here a church for Colurnban monks, dedicated, 


like its alleged predecessor, to St Bridget, some time 
between 5S4 and 596, Abernethy being then the chief 
seat of the Pictish government. It was most probably 
in the neighbouring low-lying plain that the Picts, re- 
volting from the Anglic yoke, were routed by Ecgfrid, 
with dreadful slaughter, in 672 ; thirteen years later 
Ecgfrid's own rout and death at Dunnichen restored to 
them their independence. In 717 the Colurnban monks 
were doubtless expelled from Abernethy by Nectan III. 
for nonconformity to Rome ; but in 865 we find it once 
more occupied by Irish clergy, as in that year it seems 
to have been visited and reorganised by Cellach, abbot 
both of Iona and of the mother church of Kildare. From 
that year, too, on to 90S, Abernethy was at once the 
episcopal and the royal capital of the whole Pictish king- 
dom, Constantin, son of Kenneth mac Alpin, having 
translated the sole bishopric hither from Dunkeld. 
Three bishops held the see, whose transference to St 
Andrews under Constantin, King of Alban, stripped 
Abernethy of much of its former importance, the single 
epoch in its after-history being the homage paid at it in 
1072 to the Conqueror by Malcolm Ceannmor, 'who 
came and made peace with King William, and gave host- 
ages, and became his man ; and the king went home with 
all his forces. ' Culdees are first heard of at Abernethy 
during the reign of Eadgar (1097-1107), but it does not 
appear how long they had been introduced. They were 
holding the possessions of the ancient nunnery between 
1189 and 1198 ; but the church and its pertinents had 
been granted by William the Lyon to Arbroath Abbey, 
to whose monks the lay Abbot of Abernethy now con- 
veyed his abbatial rights, while retaining his lands, 
becoming thus a secular baron and founder of the house 
of Abernethy. A dispute in the succeeding century 
between Arbroath and these Culdees was decided by the 
Bishop of Dunblane against the latter, who in 1272 were 
converted into a priory of Canons Regular of St Augus- 
tine, valued at its dissolution at £706, lis. 2d. 

Thus Abernethy disappeared from history, yet still it 
retains a monument of bygone greatness in its tapering 
round tower, like though inferior to that of Brechin'. 
Standing by itself in the centre of the town, at an angle 
of the churchyard near the entrance-gate, it is 74 feet 
high, and has an interior diameter of 8J feet at its base, 
where the wall is 2J feet thick, while at the top the 
diameter is 5J feet, and the wall's thickness 2. It is 
built of stone, dressed to the curve and laid in 64 courses, 
the material up to the twelfth of these being a hard grey 
sandstone, which has resisted the weather ; above, a 
buff-coloured freestone, much weather-worn, especially 
at the joints. Without, it presents a continuous plane ; 
within, it is divided by string courses into six stories, 
the sixth terminating a little short of the summit in a 
platform roof, which is gained by a staircase of modern 
construction. The two lowest stories are pierced by a 
doorway only, which, fronting the N, stands 2$ feet 
above the present level of the ground, is 8 feet high by 
3 wide, and has inclined jamb-posts, going right through 
and projecting externally a little from the wall, with a 
semicircular head, hewn from one solid stone. In each of 
the three next stories is a single diminutive aperture ; the 
uppermost is lighted by four round-headed windows, fac- 
ing the four points of the compass, each 5f feet high by 2 J 
feet wide, and each with inclined jambs. Such is the 
famous Abernethy tower, agreeing generally with that 
of Brechin, and with that only on the Scottish main- 
land. In Ireland, however, there still stand 76 round 
towers, presenting the characteristics of this pair ; 'there- 
fore,' says Mr Anderson, ' these two are stragglers from a 
great typical group, which has its habitat in Ireland, 
and all questions as to the origin, progress, and period 
of the type must bo discussed with reference to the 
evidence derived from tlie principal group.' Concerning 
the origin of the Irish towers imagination formerly ran 
riot. Buddhists, Druids, Baal worshippers, Brehon 
lawgivers, pillar-saints, Freemasons, Danes, or Phoeni- 
cians had reared them ; they wore minarets, phallic 
emblems, celestial indices, penitentiaries, monumental 
tombs, or what not else besides. Now, archaeologists 


are fairly agreed that one and all were built in connec- 
tion with churches, not as belfries (though afterwards 
employed as such), since large bells were not cast till 
after 1200, and not till then were campaniles erected. 
They were due to the Norsemen's raids, being meant, 
as Ruskin says of church towers generally, ' for defence 
and faithfulness of watch.' More than this, they admit 
of classification into four groups, marking the transition 
from the flat-lintelled style of ecclesiastical architecture 
to the round-arched and decorated Irish Romanesque — 
a transition accomplished between the end of the 9th 
and the beginning of the 12th century. To which of 
these groups, then, does our tower belong ? To none, 
according to Dr Petrie, who refers its erection to 712-727, 
believing it to have been built by certain Northumbrian 
architects of Jarrow monastery, summoned by Nectan 
III. to build him a church in the Roman style, which 
should be dedicated to St Peter (note appended to Sir 
J. Simpson's Archmol. Essays, i. 134). Skene objecting 
to this that no church at Abernethy was ever dedicated 
to St Peter, and that this tower has no peculiarity so 
marked as thus to remove it wholly from the class of 
similar structures, yet holds that it is ' undoubtedly 
older than that of Brechin, ' and assigns it to 865, the year 
of Abbot Cellach's visit to Abernethy {Celt. Scot., 1877, 
ii. 309, 310). Muir, on the other hand, discovered features 
in the Abernethy tower which ' place it somewhat 
lower in the scale of time than that of Brechin, e.g., 
the decidedly Norman type of the belfry windows, and 
the stones of the general building, which approach very 
nearly to the small cubical form of those we constantly 
find in Romanesque masonry ' {Old Church Arch., 1861). 
And Mr Anderson so far agrees with Muir, that while 
he decidedly ascribes the Brechin tower to the third of 
the four groups, i.e., to a period later than 950, this 
Abernethy tower he connects with either the third or 
fourth, ' though the difference between it and the Brechin 
one cannot be very great ' {Scotland in Early Christian 
Times, 1881). See also vol. ii. of Lord Dunraven's Irish 
Archozology, edited by Miss Stokes (Lond. 1877). Be- 
sides its ancient tower, rising grey and melancholy over 
the red-tiled houses, the town has nothing of much 
interest, being a mean-looking place, with irregular 
streets, but with several good cottages built to accommo- 
date summer visitors. It is a burgh of barony under 
charter granted (23 Aug. 1476) by Archibald 'Bell-the- 
Cat,' fifth Earl of Angus, and confirmed (29 Nov. 1628) 
by William, eleventh Earl, to whose descendant, the 
Duke of Hamilton, it gives the title of Baron (ere. 1633). 
It is lighted with gas, has a post office, with money 
order, savings bank, and telegraph departments, and 
holds a cattle fair on the second Thursday in November. 
The former parish church, one of the oldest in Scotland, 
was demolished in 1802, when the present plain edifice, 
containing 600 sittings, was built on a neighbouring 
site. There are also a Free church, a U. P. church, and 
a public school, with accommodation for 359 scholars, 
an average attendance (1891) of 206, and a grant of 
£199, lis. lid. "Weaving is the chief winter employ- 
ment of the inhabitants, many of whom in summer are 
engaged in salmon-fishing on the Tay. Pop. (1871) 953, 
(1891) 852. 

The parish contains also the hamlets of Glenfoot and 
Aberargie, 1 and If mile WSW of the town. It is 
bounded N by the river Earn, dividing it from Rhynd, 
and by the Tay, dividing it from St Madoes; E by 
Newburgh, S by Auchtermuchty and Strathmiglo, and 
W by Arngask, Dron, and Dunbarney. In 1891 it was 
placed by the Boundary Commissioners wholly in the 
county of Perth, with the exception of certain lands 
which were transferred to Fife parishes, Easter Colzie 
going to Newburgh parish, and Nochnarrie and Pitlour to 
Strathmiglo. To the S of the town the surface is broken 
by hills, belonging to the Ochils, and rising in the 
middle of the parish to 815, 906, and 923 feet, in its 
southern portion to 879 and 629 feet. Northward the 
low ground lyingalong the Earn and Tay, and traversed 
by the little Fakg, forms an oblong some 4 miles long 
by 1J mile broad, and is not exceeded in beauty, fer- 


tility, and cultivation by any tract of equal extent in 
Scotland. Its soil and sub-soil, down to a depth of 25 
feet, consist of strata of clay and sand, overlying a 
stratum of moss from 1 foot to 3 feet thick, which com- 
prises remains of oak, alder, hazel, and birch. Fine rich 
haughs, protected by embankments from inundation, 
extend along the windings of the Earn and Tay; the 
latter is here from \ to J mile broad, and is divided into 
the North and the South Deep by the long, low island 
of Mugdkum, belonging to Abernethy parish. Eruptive 
rocks prevail throughout the uplands, Devonian in the 
low grounds. At Innernethy is a disused Old Red 
Sandstone quarry, and greenstone and clinkstone are 
still worked in the hills, whilst zeolites, jaspers, agates, 
and calcareous spars abound in Glenfarg, where a quarry 
has yielded fragments of scales of ichthyolites. At the 
SE angle of the parish a hill behind Pitlour House is 
crowned by an ancient fort, with a paved road leading 
to it; at the SW are the ruins of Balvaird Castle, a 
stronghold of the Murrays, whose descendant, the Earl 
of Mansfield, takes from it his title of Baron (ere. 
1641). He, the Earl of Wemyss, Sir Robert Moncrieffe, 
and 6 other proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 13 between £100 and £500, 7 be- 
tween £50 and £100, and 22 between £24 and £50. The 
chief mansions are Ayton, Carey, and Carpow, near the 
last of which stood the castle of the Lords of Aber- 
nethy. Near it, too, in a weaver's cottage, was born the 
Rev. John Brown of Haddington (1722-87), author of 
the Self -interpreting Bible, and the great pastor of that 
Secession Church, of whose four founders (1733) the Rev. 
Alexander Moncrieff, minister of Abernethy, was one. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of 
Perth and Stirling; the living is worth £291. Valua- 
tion (1891) of Perthshire portion, £10,791, 14s. 6d.; of 
Fifeshire portion, £1327, 9s. 8d. Pop. of entire parish 
(1831) 1776, (1861) 1960, (1871) 1744, (1881) 1714, 
(1891) 1585, of which 107 were in Fifeshire.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 48, 1868. 

Abernyte, a hamlet and a parish near the E border of 
Perthshire. The hamlet stands in a beautiful glen, by 
the confluence of two rivulets, one of them anciently 
called the Nyte; and is 2 J miles NW of its post- village 
Inchture, 4 miles NNW of Inchture station, and 11 J 
miles ENE of Perth. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Longforgan, SE 
by Inchture, SW by Kinnaird, W by Collace, and NW 
by Cargill. Of irregular shape, it has an extreme length 
from E to W of 3§ miles, a width from N to S of If mile, 
and an area of 2533 acres, of which lj are water. The 
surface has a general north-westward rise from the Carse 
of Gowrie to the Sidlaw Hills, the Braes of the Carse in 
the centre of the parish having elevations of 632 and 832 
feet above sea-level, while to the W are the slopes of 
Blacklaw (969 feet), Dunsinane Hill (1012), Black Hill 
(1182), and King's Seat (1235), whose summits, however, 
lie just outside the bounds. The glen, shut in upon three 
sides by bold but cultivated ascents, opens south-east- 
ward to the Carse; and its united rivulets form in the 
low grounds at the head of a deep-wooded ravine a 
romantic waterfall with 40 feet of almost sheer descent. 
The rocks are chiefly sandstone and amygdaloid, con- 
taining agates; and the soil on these lower grounds is 
light but fertile, mostly incumbent on gravel, whilst 
that of the uplands is of poorer quality, and in some 
places heathy. Two cairns crowned Gleuny Law, on 
which and on Stockmuir there also stood two small 
stone-circles of 7 and 9 stones each. Abernyte House 
is the principal residence, and 7 landowners hold each 
an annual value of upwards of £50. In the presbytery 
of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, the parish 
contains an Established church (rebuilt 1736; living, 
£200), and a Free church for Abernyte and Rait, these 
churches standing $ mile E, and 5 furlongs ESE, of the 
hamlet. A public school, with accommodation for 92 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 64, and a 
grant of £55. Valuation (1891) £2464, 12s. 5d. Pop. 
(1831) 254, (1861) 310, (1871) 253, (1881) 275, (1891) 
263.— Ord. Sur., sh. 4S, 1868. 



Aber-Ruthven. See Abekuthven. 

Abertaxf, a parish, giving name to a presbytery, in 
the centre of Inverness-shire. The parish, named from 
the mouth of the Tarf rivulet, which enters the head 
of Loch Ness at Fort Augustus, lies principally on the 
NW side of Loch Ness, and formerly comprised also the 
district of Glenmoriston, but is now united to the parish 
of Boleskine. The presbytery of Abertarf, in the synod 
of Argyll, meets at Fort William in March and at 
Fort Augustus in November. It comprehends the 
parishes of Boleskine-Abertarf, Kilmallie, and Kilrnoni- 
vaig, and the quoad sacra parishes of Ballachulish and 
Ardgour, Duncansburgh, Fort Augustus, and Gbngarry. 
Pop. (1891) 7871, of whom 447 were communicants, 
when the above congregations raised £709 in Christian 
liberality. The Free Church alio has a presbytery of 
Abertarf, whose churches of Arisaig, Ballachulish (North 
and South), Fort Augustus, Fort William, Glenmoriston, 
Glen Urquhart, Kilraallie, and Kilmonivaig, had 2232 
members and adherents m 1891. 

AberuchiU, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Comrie parish, Perthshire, If mile SW of Comrie. A 
castle here, built in 1602, was long a centre of strife be- 
tween the Campbells and the Macgregors. 

Aberuthven (Gael, abhir-ruadh-abhuinn, ' confluence 
of the red river '), a post office village in the north of 
Auchterarder parish, SE Perthshire, stands on the right 
bank of Ruthven Water, 1J mile S of its influx to the 
Earn, and is 2} miles SW of Dunning station on the 
Stirling and Perth section of the Caledonian railway, and 
2J NE of its post-town, Auchterarder. It has a Free 
church (1851), an inn, and a public school, which, with 
accommodation for 100 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 61, and a grant of £40, 17s. Cattle fairs 
are held on the third Tuesday of April and November. 
Across the Ruthven stands the roofless ruin of St Kaf- 
tan's Chapel, the church of what once formed the 
separate parish of Aberuthven, granted in 1200 to Inch- 
affray. Of Norman or First Pointed origin, it retains 
a couplet of narrow, ogee-headed, one-light windows, set 
widely apart in the E wall, and is the burial place of 
the Duncans of Damside and the Graemes of Inchbrakie ; 
whilst beside it is the urn-surmounted mausoleum of the 
Dukes of Montrose. 

Abington, a village in the E of Crawfordjohn parish, 
Lanarkshire, standing at 808 feet above sea-level on the 
left bank of the Clyde, f mile below the influx of Glen- 
gonner Water, and 14 miles SSE of Lanark by road. 
A bridge over the Clyde connects it with Abington 
station, \ mile eastward on the Caledonian ; this station 
being 9 miles S by W of Symington, 43J SW of Edin- 
burgh, and 43J SE of Glasgow. At the village are a 
Free church, a post office with money order, savings 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the Com- 
mercial Bank of Scotland, an hotel, and a school, which, 
with accommodation for 83 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 50, and a grant of £62. Coursing 
meetings are held in the vicinity, at which the best 
dogs of England and Ireland are pitted against those 
of the West of Scotland. Abington House, a little to 
the S of the village, is a handsome modern erection, 
the seat of Sir Edward Arthur Colebrooke of Craw- 
ford, fifth Bart, since 1759 (b. 1861; sue. 1890), and 
owner of 29,604 acres in the shire of an annual value 
of £9282. 

Aboyne, a village and a parish of S Aberdeenshire. 
The village, called sometimes Charlestown of Aboyne, 
has a station on the Decside section of the Great North 
of Scotland railway, 32J miles W by S of Aberdeen, and 
11 miles E by N of Ballatcr, and stands at 413 feet 
above sea-level, on the left bank of the Dee, here crossed 
by a fine suspension bridge (1831), which, 230 feet long 
by 1 4 wide, is gained from the S by two iron-trussed 
arches of 50 and 60, and by two stone arches of 20 and 
and 30, feet span. This bridge and a predecessor (1828 ; 
i oyed by the great flood of 4 Aug. 1829) were erected 
by the Earl of Aboyne at a cost of £7000; in 1871 it 
was re-constructed by the County Road Trustees. Sur- 
rounded by forest uplands, and skirting a large green, 


Aboyne is a pretty little place, possessing a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, a good 
hotel, a public library and reading-room, and a picturesque 
high-roofed school (1874). Its places of worship are a 
handsome parish church (1842, 628 sittings), a Gothic 
Free church with graceful spire ; and a Roman Catholic 
church, St Margaret's (1874, 120 sittings). A burgh of 
barony, it holds cattle and horse fairs on the third 
Thursday of the months of January, February, March, 
April, August, September, November, and December, 
on the last Wednesday of June and the last Friday 
of July, and on the first Tuesday and Wednesday of 
October (old style). 

The present parish comprises the ancient parish of 
Glentanner, and hence is often designated the united 
parish of Aboyne and Glentanner. It is bounded N by 
Logie-Coldstone, E by Kincardine O'Neil and Birse, S 
by Lochlee in Forfarshire, and W by Glenmuick. Irre- 
gular in outline, it has a length from N to S of from 2 to 
8 1 miles, a width from E to W of from 2^ to 84 miles, 
and a land area of 25,265 acres. A small detached por- 
tion (consisting of 349 acres), situated at or near Pereie, 
and surrounded by the parish of Birse, was by the 
Order of the Boundary Commissioners in 1891 trans- 
ferred to that parish. With the exception of the 
lands of Balnacraig, Aboyne proper is all to the left 
or N of the Dee, between the burns of Dess on the E and 
Dinnet on the W. Its highest summit, Mortlich, rises 
upon the northern boundary to 1248 feet above sea-level, 
and is crowned by an obelisk and cross of granite 60 feet 
high, erected in 1868 as a memorial of Charles, tenth 
Marquis of Huntly (1792-1863). Lesser eminences are 
Balnagowan Hill (800 feet), Muchricha's Cross (798), 
Oldtown (580), and Balnacraig (689). Glentanner ex- 
tends from the southern bank of the Dee away to the 
Braes of Angus ; and within it, from N to S, are Creag- 
na-S'ige (1336 feet), Duchery Beg (1485), Baudy Meg 
(1602), the Strone (1219), the Hill of Duchery (1824), 
Craigmahandle (1878), Little Cockcairn (2044), Cockcairn 
(2387), Gannoch (2396), and the Hill of Cat (2435), the 
three last culminating upon the southern or south- 
eastern border. The Dee either bounds or intersects 
the parish for about 15 miles, descending within this 
distance from some 550 feet at Deecastle to 460 at the 
mouth of the Dinnet, 397 at the suspension bridge of 
Aboyne, and 296 at the Bridge of Potarch. Its principal 
affluent is the impetuous Water of Tanner, which, rising 
in Glenmuick parish on the south-western slope of Hare 
Cairn (2203 feet), takes a north-easterly course of 14 
miles to a point J mile above the suspension bridge, and 
receives on the way the united Waters of Gairney and 
Allachy and the Skinna Burn. It flows through ' a beauti- 
ful and richly -wooded glen, between high hills ' — so the 
Queen has described Glentanner, up which she drove as far 
as Etnach, with the Prince Consort and the Princess Alice, 
21 Sept. 1861 (pp. 156, 157 of Journal, ed. 1877). 
Glentanner then was 'out of sight of all habitations,' but 
this is no longer the case; its present proprietor Sir 
Wiji. Cunliffe Brooks, Bart., having built at the Bridge 
of Tanner an entrance lodge like an old turreted keep, 
higher up a verandahed farm-house, with model dairy, 
stabling, and kennels, and many a quaint little cottage 
besides, all of them planned by Mr G. Truefitt, of Lon- 
don. Auld-dinnie Burn, running 4 miles northward or. 
the boundary with Birse, is the only other noticeable 
stream ; in Aboyne proper, are two small sheets of 
water— Braeroddach Loch (If x 1 fur. ) to the NW, and, 
in the Castle policies, the artificial, islet-studded Loch 
of Aboyne (3 x 2J fur. ). Granite, the primitive forma- 
tion, varies in hue from whitish-grey to red, the latter 
resembling Peterhead granite and taking a fine polish. 
Syenitic and ironstone boulders are also common, and 
black ferruginous fragments that seem to have been dis- 
integrated from rocks higher up the Dee. Glentanner 
yields topaz and crystallised quartz (both white and 
rose coloured) on the Firmonth, fuller's earth along 
Auld-dinnie Burn, impure limestone in small quantities, 
and traces of manganese ; whilst peat-mosses on the hills 


above Craigendinnie are found to overlie remains of oak, 
hazel, and birch, at a much higher level than that at 
which those trees now grow. The soil is generally poor 
and stony, even the narrow alluvial haughs of Deeside 
being mostly a mass of gravel, thickly covered with 
earth ; and, in spite of considerable reclamations, less 
than \ of the whole area is arable. Forestry occupies 
more than double this extent. In the united parish, 
writes Mr Alexander Smith, the ground-growing timber 
is estimated at between 8000 and 9000 acres. The 
extent of planted ground on both sides of the Dee, 
including the ornamental plantations in the policies of 
Aboyne Castle, is very large. Soil and climate seem to 
favour the growth of both pines and hardwood trees. 
Of the latter, the oak, ash, birch, and elm seem to suc- 
ceed best. Near the Castle are some fine specimens of 
the old Scotch fir, and throughout the adjoining planta- 
tion the larch, common spruce, and birch form a 
pleasant variety. Nearly 40 years ago most of the full- 
grown timber in the outlying plantations of Aboyne 
was cut down and the ground replanted ; but many 
years must elapse before the Aboyne woods attain the 
prominence they once had. Along the S bank of the 
river, from Craigendinnie westwards as far up as Deecastle, 
a large tract of muir ground has recently been enclosed 
and planted, chiefly with Scotch fir, mixed with larch and 
hardwood trees ; and with the natural birch and hazel 
bushes the valley has been much beautified. The old 
forest of Glentanner extends from near Craigendinnie on 
the Dee, along the Tanner and its tributaries, to far up 
the lower slopes of the Cockcairn, Montkeen, and Fir- 
month ; but from the straggling position of the trees on 
the outskirts, no exact estimate could well be formed of its 
extent. It is believed, however, that the area of ground 
covered with timber of all ages and condition is about 
6000 acres. Glentanner is said to be a remnant of the 
ancient Caledonian Forest, and within the past eighty 
or ninety years the timber in it has twice been cut 
down, and portions of it have twice been seriously in- 
jured by fire; but for about thirty years it has been 
allowed to 'rest and be thankful.' In 1841 the wood 
cut down in Glentanner brought little if anything 
more than the cost of cartage to Aberdeen, owing to 
the unapproachable position of the best trees, most 
of them being too heavy to be floated by the river, 
except in time of flood. The soil of Glentanner on the 
alluvial haughs is good gravelly loam, overlying drift 
and rough sand, and on the lower slopes of the hills 
it is much of the same quality — rather more loamy, with 
disintegrated granite rocks. Higher up the hills these 
trees do not now grow; it is broken moss, bleak rocky 
mountains, only partially covered with heather (Trans. 
High. andAg. Soc, 1874, p. 270). The lands and Castle of 
Aboyne passed successively from William Bisset to the 
Knights Templars (1242), from them to the Frasers of 
Cowie, and from them, by marriage, to Sir William 
Keith, great marischal of Scotland (c. 1355), whose 
great granddaughter, Joan, brought them early in the 
loth century to Alexander de Seton, Lord of Gordon and 
first Earl of Huntly (1449). With his descendants, the 
great political dynasty of the Seton-Gordons, known 
afterwards for loyalty to the Stewarts, and long adher- 
ence to the Catholic faith, they continued till lately, 
giving them title of Baron (1627), Viscount (1632), and 
Earl (1660). The present owner of Aboyne Castle is 
Sir William Cunliffe Brooks, Bart., whose daughter is 
married to the eleventh Marquis of Huntly, the latter 
I?! StiU occu P ier of the Castle. Part of the lands 
of Aboyne has likewise been sold to the above-mentioned 
gentleman and part to Mr Davidson of Dess. Lying low, 
1 mile N of the village, and girt by the Burn of Aboyne as 
by a moat, the Castle, with its many turrets, is rather 
imposing than beautiful. The western part was rebuilt in 
16/1 by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne, the traditional hero 
of the ballad of ' Lord Aboyne,' though his countess was 
no Peggy Irvine, but Lady Elizabeth Lyon. The E 
wing was added in 1801, and in 1869 the old kitchen 
department was pulled down and replaced by new build- 
ings, all in granite with stepped gables, very simple but 


very effective. The old mansion of Balnacraig has sunk 
to a farmhouse ; but the house of Glentanner, 4£ miles 
WSW of the village, has risen from a shooting-box to a 
large two-winged mansion adorned with rustic work, 
stained glass, pine dados, panelled ceilings, and antique 
furnishings. Hard by, a ruined 'laird's house,' with an 
ancient archway, has been converted into the private 
Episcopal chapel of St Lesmo (1871), a charming little 
church, 50 feet long by 20 broad, with heather thatch 
and internal fittings of pine. Other residences are 
Balfour House, Huntly Lodge, and Dec-side Lodge ; two 
proprietors holding each an annual value of from £100 
to £500, and five of from £20 to £50, whilst the Marquis 
of Huntly owns some four-fifths of the entire rental. 
Natives were Father Thomas Innes (1662-1744), priest 
of the Scots College in Paris, and author of the earliest 
attempt to open up the real sources of Scottish history, 
A Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scotland 
(17^9) ; and Peter Williamson, kidnapped at Aberdeen 
in the first half of the 18th century, and sold into 
American slavery. Aboyne is in the presbytery of Kin- 
cardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen ; the living is 
worth £161. The quoad sacra church of Dinnet (minis- 
ter's salary £120) has 242 communicants ; and the two 
public schools of Aboyne and Glentanner, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 187 and 66 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 131 and 43, and grants of 
£129, 18s. 6d. and £56. Valuation £8004, 19s. 4d. 
Pop. (1801) 916, (1831) 1163, (1871) 1351, (1881) 1427, 
(1891) 1463.— Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 76, 1871-74. See 
' Architecture on Deeside ' iu the Builder, 19 Sept. 1874. 

Aboyne and Braemar Railway, a line of S Aberdeen- 
shire, incorporated 5 July 1865, from the Deeside ex- 
tension at Aboyne to Bridge of Gairn, on a capital of 
£66,000 in £10 shares, and £22,000 upon loan. That 
portion of it from Aboyne to Ballater, 11 miles W by 
S, was opened in Oct. 1866, and is a single line with 
the two intermediate stations of Dinnet and Cambus 
O'May, a short tunnel under and through the village of 
Aboyne, and a bight iron-girder bridge of 40 feet span 
over Tullich Burn. Aboyne station is 408 and Ballater 
670 feet above sea-level, and trains are timed to perform 
the journey in from 21 to 25 minutes. By act of 13 
July 1876, the Deeside and the Aboyne and Braemar 
undertakings were amalgamated with the Great North 
of Scotland. 

Abroich, a burn in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, run- 
ning to Kelvin Water. 

Abruthven. See Aberuthven. 

Achacharra, a place with a large ancient Caledonian 
standing stone, in Ulva island, Argyllshire, 

Achadashemaig, an estate, with a mansion, in Salen 
parish, Mull island, Argyllshire. The mansion stands 
on a rising ground overlooking Aros Bay. 

Achaffrick, a place on Loch Shin, in the S of Suther- 

Achahoish, a hamlet in Knapdale, Argyllshire, at the 
head of Loch Killisport, 10£ miles SW of Lochgilphead. 
It has a post office under Ardrishaig. 

AchaistaL See Latheron. 

Achalefen, a place in Kilmorie parish, Buteshire, in 
the S of Arran, 7 miles SW of Lamlash. 

Achalhanzie, a detached part of Crieff parish, in Perth- 
shire, lying to the E of Cultoquhey House, and consist- 
ing of one farm. 

Achalick, a small bay fishing station on the E side of 
Loch Fyne, in Argyllshire, 4 miles NE of the mouth of 
East Loch Tarbert. Ardmarnock House, the seat of 
D. N. Nicol, Esq. , is in its vicinity. 

Achall, a lake in Lochbroom parish, Ross-shire, about 
2| miles ENE of Ullapool. Lying 265 feet above 
sea-level, it measures 1-jJ mile in extreme length, and 
from 1J to 3 furlongs in breadth ; it is embosomed 
variously in wooded promontories, green hills, and 
rugged heights ; and, under some aspects, it is one of 
the prettiest pieces of water in the Highlands. It 
abounds with salmon and trout, and is preserved, form- 
ing parts of the late Duchess of Sutherland's Rhidorroch 
deer forest. 



Achallader, a ruined fortalice of the Campbells, Lairds 
ef Glenorchy, in Glenorehy parish, Argyllshire, 1 mile 
above the head of Loch Tulla, and 10 miles N of Tyndrnm 
station. Near it a conflict between two clans occurred in 
the latter part of the 17th century, and is commemorated 
by several cairns over the graves of the slain. 

Aehally. See Benachally. 

Achanault. See Auchanault. 

Achanduin or Auchindown Castle, a square, roofless 
structure, the quondam residence of the Bishops of Ar- 
gyll, in Lismore island, Argyllshire, 4 miles W of 
Lismore Cathedral. 

Achaneilein, a quagmire or quaking bog in Ardna- 
murchan parish, Argyllshire. It lies along the S side 
of Loch Shiel, is of unknown depth, and measures up- 
wards of 5 miles in length and J mile in breadth. 

Achantiobairt (Gael, achadh-an-t-iobairt, 'field of 
sacrifice '), the site of several stone crosses in Inverary 
parish, Argyllshire, 5i miles SSW of Inverary. It has 
an altitude of about 500 feet above Loch Fyne, and 
commands an extensive view. 

Achantoft, a place in E Caithness, 2 miles S of Dun- 
beath Castle. 

Achany, a mansion in Lairg parish, S Sutherlandshire, 
beautifully situated on the right bank of the Shin, 4 
miles NNW of Invershin station. Purchased in 1840, 
its estate was greatly improved by the late Sir James 
Matheson, Bart, of the Lews and Achany (1796-1878), 
owner of 424,560 acres, valued at £19,489 per annum. 
Hugh Miller speaks of ' the woods of Achany, famous for 
their nuts. ' 

Achar, a farm, with an ancient obelisk 13 feet high, 
in Duror district, Argyllshire. 

Acharacle or Aharcle, a parliamentary parish on the 
mutual border of Argyll and Inverness shires, on the 
coast, 12 miles NW of Strontian. It consists chiefly of 
the eastern portion of Ardnamurchan parish, but com- 
prises also part of Morvern ; it includes portions of Ard- 
namurchan proper, Sunart, and Moidart, and the islands 
of Shona, Shonaveg, and Portavata ; it has its church and 
manse at the W end of Loch Shiel ; and it has a post office 
under Ardgour. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Mull and synod of Argyll. The stipend is £140, paid 
by government, with a manse and a glebe worth respec- 
tively £15 and £16 a-year. Two public schools, Achar- 
acle and Eilanshona, with respective accommodation for 
90 and 35 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 
47 and 15, and grants of £82, lis. 6d. and £27, 15s. 6d. 
Pop. (1891) of parish, 1148, of whom 656 were in the 
Argyllshire portions; of registration district (1891) 1318. 

Acharadale. See Achardale. 

Acharainey, a hamlet in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 
21 miles WSW of Wick. A chapel of the royal bounty, 
with 403 sittings, was formerly here, and served also for 
parts of Watten and Reay parishes. A Free Church 
charge now includes Acharainey, Westerdale, and Hal- 
sary. See Westerdale. 

Achardale, a hamlet in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 2J 
miles SSW of Halkirk. 

Achareidh, a mansion, 1 mile W of Nairn town, the 
seat of Montague Clarke, Esq. 

Acharn, a village and a burn in Kenmore parish, 
Perthshire. The village stands at the burn's mouth, on 
the S shore of Loch Tay, 1 j mile above Kenmore. A 
neat little place, it has a public school, which, with ac- 
commodation for 117 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 71, and a giant of £79, 9s. 5d. The burn 
rises on Creagan na Beinne, at an altitude of 2400 feet, 
and has a northward course of about 6 miles. Near the 
village, over the side of a wooded dell, it makes a pictur- 
esque fall, first a sheer leap of 50 feet, then in two streams 
that meet in a little pool, and thence down a series of 
inclined descents, the total height being between 80 and 
90 leet. A grotto opposite was visited on 5 Sept. 1803 
by Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy, who writos in 
her Journal (ed. by Principal Sliairp, 1874): — 'We en- 
tered a dungeon-like passage, and, after walking some 
yards in total darkness, found ourselves in a quaint 
apartment stuck over with mews, hung about with stuffed 


foxes and other wild animals, and ornamented with a 
library of wooden books covered with old leatherbaeks, the 
mock furniture of a hermit's cell. At the end of the room, 
through a large bow window, we saw the waterfall, and, 
at the same time, looking down to the left, the village of 
Kenmore and a part of the lake — a very beautiful prospect. ' 

Acharnie, a hamlet in Forgue parish, NW Aberdeen- 
shire, near Glendronach Distillery. 

Aeharynie. See Aohakainey. 

Aehavair, a hamlet in Latheron parish, Caithness, 
near the coast, 11 miles SSW of Wick. 

Achavandra, a hamlet in Dornoch parish, Sutherland. 
A Free Church school stood in it, and was transferred to 
the parochial school-board. 

Achavarn, a mansion in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 
near the E shore of Loch Calder, 6 miles S by W of 
Thurso. It is the seat of Colonel C. Guthrie, owner in 
the shire of 13,934 acres, valued at £2762 per annum. 

Aehavrea, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 91 
miles WSW of Wick. 

Achay, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 1$ mile 
NW of Aehavrea. 

Achbreck, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
in Glenlivet, with a post office under Ballindalloch, its 
station, 7-J miles to the NNW. It has also a chapel of 
ease (1825) to Glenlivet. 

Achenacraig. See Achnaoeaig. 

Achendown. See Auchindodn. 

Achenharvie, a hamlet in Cunninghame district, Ayr- 
shire, 5 miles NNE of Irvine. 

Achenkill, a farm, with the site of an ancient religious 
house, in Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Achenreoch, a lake on the mutual boundary of Urr 
and Kirkpatrick-Durham parishes, Kirkcudbrightshire, 
7 miles NE by N of Castle-Douglas. It measures 1 J mile 
in length, and from J to 1 J furlong in width ; and 
abounds with pike and perch. 

Achenreoch, an estate, with a commodious mansion, 
in Stracathro parish, Forfarshire, 4 miles N of Brechin. 

Achenreoch, a moorland tract in Dumbarton parish, 
rising into Knockshanoch, 895 feet high, and forming 
the eastern part of Dumbarton Moor, 3J miles NE of 

Achentorlie, an estate, with a mansion, in Abbey- 
Paisley parish, Renfrewshire. 

Acherachan, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
on the river Livet, 8 miles N of Tomintoul. A distillery 
is here. 

Achern, a hamlet in Wick parish, Caithness, 4 miles 
SW of Wick. 

Achernach, an estate in Strathdon parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. The mansion on it was built in 1809, and was 
long reputed the best in the district. 

Acheson's Haven or Newhaven. See Morison's 

Achilty, a loch in Contin parish, Ross-shire, 5 miles 
WSW of Strathpelfer, measures about 2 miles in circum- 
ference, is limpid and very deep, and holds some char. 
It sends oil' its effluence by a subterranean canal into the 
Black Water, about a mile to the E; an artificial islet 
in it was formerly the site of a house and garden, used 
as a retreat from danger, and accessible by a drawbridge ; 
and a ' Druidical ' stone circle stands on its eastern bank. 
Tor Achilty, a beautiful, undulated, wooded hill, over- 
hangs the lake, and has a remarkable number of species 
of plants. 

Achin, a lake in tho centro of Ross-shire, in the course 
of the river Sheen, 3 miles SE of Loch Fannich. 

Achinarrow, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
in the upper part of Glenlivet, 10J miles SSE of its rail- 
way station, Ballindalloch. 

Achinbee, a place, with the sito of an ancient religious 
house, in Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Achinblae. See 

Achincass or Auchen Castle, a ruined castle in Kirk- 
patrict Juxta parish, Dumfriesshire, 2 miles SW of 
Moffat. It stands on tho peninsula between the Evan 
and the Garpol, near a cascade formed by the latter 
stream ; occupies a strong position, surmounting preci- 


Eices and encinctured by morass; seems once to have 
een of considerable extent, with outhouses for re- 
tainers, and a large quadrangular main building, with 
a turret at each angle, but consists now chiefly of parts 
rf the walls, from 10 to 15 feet thick, and of one of the 
turrets in a good state of preservation. Held, and, it 
may be, built, by Eandolph, Earl of Moray, and regent 
of Scotland (d. 1332), it passed to the Douglases of 
Morton, and is now the property of William Younger, 
Esq. His splendid seat, the modern castle of Achincass, 
is a structure of considerable extent, and splendidly 
situated on a rising-ground near the Evan Water. Hogg 
makes Achincass the residence of William Wilkin, the 
famous Annandale warlock : 

4 To Auchin Castle Wilkin hied, 
On Evau banks sae green, 
And lived and died like other men, 
For aught that could be seen.* 

Achindarach, a place in Appin, Argyllshire, near Bal- 

Achindavy. See Auchendavy. 

Achinduin. See Achandtjiit. 

Achingale, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 8i 
miles W of Wick. 

AcTiirhew, a place at the S end of the island of 

Achinlaich, an ancient fortification, on a hill-top,, hi 
Callander parish, Perthshire. The hill is planted, and 
the ditch and mound of the fortification on its top are 
very distinct. 

Achintoul. See Auchintoul. 

Achiries. See Atjchiwes. 

Achleck, a rivulet with a picturesque waterfall in 
Morvern parish, Argyllshire. 

Achleeks. See Atjchleeks. 

Aeliline or Auehlyne, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Killin parish, Perthshire, on the river Dochart, 6J miles 
NW of Loehearnhead. 

Achlishie, an estate in Kirriemuir parish, Forfarshire. 
A cave is here in which a currach and some querns were 

Achluacirrach, a hamlet in the SW of Inverness-shire, 
on the river Spean, under Ben Nevis. 11 J miles ENE of 
Fort William. It has a post office' with money order 
and savings bank departments. 

Achmelvich. See Asstnt. 

Achmerrel, a place in Watten parish, Caithness, 10?, 
miles W of Wick. 

Acfcmithie. See Auchmithie. 

Achmo re, a district of Kenmore parish, Perthshire, ad- 
jacent to Killin, and extending thence 2 miles eastward 
along the river Dochart and Loch Tay. It is chiefly 
pastoral, but has a considerable amount of wood. Ach- 
rnore House (Earl of Breadalbane), in a fine park, was 
converted about 1873 from ' a nice little cottage ' into a 
stately chateau. The Queen rowed up to it from Tay- 
mouth, 10 Sept. 1812. 

Achnacarry, the estate of Cameron of Lochiel, in 
Kilmallie parish, Inverness-shire, extends from Loch 
Archaio to Loch Lochy, on either side of the river 
Archaig, 12 miles NNE of its post-town, Fort William. 
It came about 1664 into undisputed possession of Sir 
Ewan Cameron (1629-1719), the 'Ulysses of the High- 
lands,' but was forfeited by his grandson Donald, the 
'Gentle Lochiel,' for his share in the '45, and not 
restored to the family till 1784. Part of the ruined 
castle, burnedby Cumberland'stroops, remains; and close 
to it is the modern Achnacarry House, which, with its 
noble avenue of ancient plane-trees and its wooded hills, 
Prince Charles's lurking-place in the August after Cullo- 
den, is one of the loveliest of Highland seats. 

Achnacloish, a picturesque small lake, in a small 
secluded glen, in Rosskeen parish, Ross-shire. 

Achnacrag, a hamlet in Latheron parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 4J miles SSW of Berriedale. 

Achnacraig or Auchnaeraig, a hamlet in Torosay 
parish island of Mull, Argyllshire, on the coast, at 
Loch Don, 84 miles W by N of Oban. It has a post 
omco with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 


departments, under Oban, an inn, and a small harbour ; 
and was formerly the ferry-station of Mull, first to the 
opposite island of Kerrera, a distance of about i\ miles, 
and thence to the mainland near Oban, a distance of 4 
miles. Great numbers of black cattle were conveyed 
from it for the lowland markets; and at one time those 
also from Coll and Tiree were landed on the further side 
of Mull, and here reshipped. 

Achnacroish, an estate, with a mansion of 1859, on 
the E side of Mull, 3 miles N by W of Achnacraig. 

Achnacy, a hamlet in the NW of Aberdeenshire, 4J 
miles N of Huntly. 

Achnadavel, a place in the SW of Inverness-shire, 
7 miles NE of Fort William. 

Achnagart, a place in Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 

Achnagol, a hamlet in Inverary parish, Argyllshire, 
4 miles SSW of Inverary town. A cairn here, 130 feet 
long, was excavated in 1871, and yielded human bones, 
pottery, weapons, etc. 

Achnahannet, a place in the SW of Elginshire, 3J 
miles WSW of Grantown. 

Achnahannet, a hamlet, with a public school, in 
Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 

Achnahowie, a lake in the W of Sutherland, in the 
upper basin of the Helmsdale river, 9 miles NW of 

Achnaiken, a place in the W of Sutherland, on Elles- 
water, 7 miles NNW of Kildonan. 

Achnarrow, a hamlet in Glenlivet quoad sacra parish, 
Banffshire. It has a girls' school. 

Achnastank, a place in the highlands of Elginshire, 
near the E base of Ben Rinnes, 5 miles SSW of Dufftown. 

Achnavarn, a ruined ancient castle, near Loch Calder, 
in the NW of Halkirk parish, Caithness. Its strength 
appears to have been great, but its origin is not re- 

Achollies, a place in Fetteresso parish, Kincardineshire, 
on a branch of the river Cowie, 5J miles WNW of Stone- 

Acholter, a place in the island of Bute, 2J miles NW 
of Rothesay. 

Achosnich, a place with a post office under Salen, in 
Ardnamurehan parish, Argyllshire. The public school, 
with accommodation for 67 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 37, and a grant of £44, 17s. 4d. 

Achrannie, a double cataract on the river Isla, in the 
W of Forfarshire, on the mutual boundary of Glenisla 
and Lintrathen parishes, about 2 miles below the Reeky 
Linn. The upper cataract occurs in a stupendous chasm, 
scarcely more than 9 feet in width, flanked by mural 
precipices of great height, surmounted by a profusion of 
trees ; and it descends a steep broken channel, in deep 
boiling flood, and curling wreaths of foam, with roaring 
noise and impetuous power. The lower cataract is of 
similar character, but of less force. 

Achray (Gael, achadh-reidh, 'smooth field'), a 'lovely 
loch ' of SW Perthshire, lies on the mutual boundary of 
Callander and Aberfoyle parishes, 7 J miles W by S of Cal- 
lander, and midway between Lochs Katrine and Venachar, 
its distance from each being about 1 mile. By the former 
it is fed through Achray Water, to the latter it sends 
off the Dubh Abhainn, belonging thus to the basin of 
the Teith. From W to E 1J mile long, and from 2 to 3 
furlongs broad, it is bounded at its head by the Trossaehs, 
flanked on their left hand by Ben Venue (2393 feet), and 
on their right by Meall Gainmheich (1851 feet), whilst 
in the NE ' Benledi's distant hill ' rises to a height of 
2875 feet. On the northern shore are a little church, a 
manse, and the castellated Trossaehs Hotel, connected 
with Callander by telegraph ; the farm of Achray stands 
at the SW angle, on the level patch that gave the loch 
its name. There are boats ; and the fishing (trout, sal- 
mon-trout, pike, and perch) is good, and open to the pub- 
lic. The Lady of the Lake (1810) has made tho world 
familiar with Achray's beauties, so sweet and lonely 
in its ' copsewood grey : ' but others than Scott had 
found those beauties out — Coleridge, and Wordsworth, 
and his sister Dorothy. The last in her Journal (27 Aug. 
1803) describes the lake as ' small compared with Loch 



Katrine, though perhaps 4 miles long, but the misty air 
concealed the end of it. The transition from the solitary 
mildness of Loch Katrine, and the narrow valley or pass 
to this scene was very delightful; it was a gentle place, 
with lovely open bays, one small island, cornfields, woods, 
and a group of cottages. This vale seemed to have been 
made to be tributary to the comforts of man. Loch 
Katrine for the lonely delight of nature, and kind spirits 
delighting in beauty. The sky was grey and heavy — 
floating mists on the hill-sides, which softened the objects; 
and where we lost sight of the lake, it appeared so near 
to the sky that they almost touched one another, giving 
a visionary beauty to the prospect. AVhile we overlooked 
this quiet scene, we could hear the stream rumbliug 
among the rocks between the lakes, but the mists con- 
cealed any glimpse of it which we might have had.' 
Again, on 11 Sept., she writes: — 'We came up to that 
little lake, and saw it before us in its true shape in the 
cheerful sunshine. TheTrossachs, overtopped by Ben Ledi 
and other high mountains, enclose the lake at the head; 
and those houses which we had seen before, with their 
cornfields sloping towards the water, stood very prettily 
under low woods. The fields did not appear so rich as 
when we had seen them through the vale of mist; but yet 
as in framing our expectations we had allowed for a much 
greater difference, so we were even a second time sur- 
prised with pleasure at the same spot. We went as far 
as these houses of which I have spoken in the car, and 
then walked on, intending to pursue the road ujion the 
side of Loch Katrine along which Coleridge had come ; 
but we had resolved to spend some hours in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Trossachs, and accordingly coasted the 
head of Loch Achray, and pursued the brook between 
the two lakes as far as there was any track. Here we 
found, to our surprise — for we had expected nothing but 
heath and rocks like the rest of the neighbourhood of 
the Trossachs — a secluded farm; a plot of verdant ground 
with a single cottage and its company of outhouses. 
We turned back, and went to the very point from which 
we had first looked upon Loch Achray when we were 
here with Coleridge. It was no longer a visionary scene, 
the sim shone into every crevice of the hills, and the 
mountain tops were clear.' See also Alexander Smith, 
A Summer in Skyc, chap. ii. ; and Passages from Hie 
English Note-Books of Natlmnicl Hawthorne, vol. ii. , pp. 
303-308.— On*. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Achriesgill, a hamlet and a rivulet in the NW of 
Sutherland. The hamlet lies at the head of Loch Inch- 
ard, 13 miles SSW of Durness. The rivulet has a run 
of about 7 miles north-north-westward to the head of 
Loch Inchard, makes some pretty cascades over high 
locks in its channel, and traverses a little strath nearly 
all heathy or pastoral. 

Achtercairn, a hamlet in Gairloch parish, Ross-shire. 
A public school, with accommodation for 85 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 63, and a grant of 
£59, 10s. 9d. 

Achtow, a hamlet in Babiuhiddcr parish, Perthshire, 
1J mile E of Balquhidder village. 

Achvaich, a small strath in the upper part of Dornoch 
parish, Sutherland. 

Achvarasdal Burn. Sec Reay. 

Ackergill Tower, a mansion in Wick parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 1\ miles N by W of Wick. It stands on a 
rock close to the sea, a few feet above high water mark, 
and is partly an ancient, strong, three-storied tower, 65 
feet high and 45 square, partly a recent castellated man- 
sion. Once the seat of the Earls Marischal, and defended 
on all sides but that toward the sea by a moat 12 feet 
wide and 12 deep, it now belongs to Garden Duff-Dunbar, 
Esq. (b. 1838 ; sue. 1875), owner of 22,880 acres in the 
shire, valued at £11,046 per annum 

AckerneBS, a headland on the N of Wcstray island, in 

Adam. See Ai.dham. 

Add (GaeL Avon-Fhada, 'long river,' Ttolemy's 

LoTigu* Fluvitu), a river of W Argyllshire, which, rising 

in marshes at the NW extremity of Glassary parish, runs 

along the valley of Glassary, and through the moss of 



Crinan, and falls into the sea at Inner Loch Crinan. It 
occasionally in heavy rains overflows its banks, and does 
much injury to adjacent fields. It abounds with trout, 
and there is a salmon fishery at its mouth. 

Adderlaw, a hill summit, 822 feet high, in the E of 
Applegarth parish, Dumfriesshire. 

Addiewell, a manufacturing village in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire, on the verge of the county, near 
the Cleland branch of the Caledonian railway, 1J mile 
WSW of West Calder. It has a post office, with money 
order and savings bank departments, under West Calder, 
and an Established church built in 1884. Founded about 
1866 in connection with large chemical works,it comprises 
a great number of factory buildings, retort sheds, etc. ; 
and it looks like an assemblage of numerous factories 
and their appurtenances for a diversity of purposes. The 
works cover 70 acres, produce vast quantities of paraffin 
oil, naphtha, paraffin candles, and ammonia, and serve 
also as auxiliaries to the great chemical works in the 
vicinity of Bathgate. A public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 552 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 307, and a grant of £335, 17s. lOd. Pop. (1891) 1696. 
Addiston, an adjunct of the Dalmahoy estate, in Ratho 
parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles NW of Currie. 

Adie or Addie, a heathy hill, 893 feet high, in the SE 
of Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

Adigo, a lake in Uig parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, 

Advie, a barony in Cromdale parish, Elginshire, and 
on the Strathspey branch of the Great North of Scotland 
railway, 8 miles NE of Grantown. In July, 1888, it was 
erected into a parish in the presbytery of Aberuethy. 
It has a post office of Advie station, under Balliudalloch, 
and a public school, which, with accommodation for 90 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 26, and 
a grant of £36, 10s. The barony of Advie, on the right 
side of the Spey, and the Barony Tulchen on the left side, 
auciently were a parish, now united with Cromdale, and 
they belonged to the Earl of Fife, passed in the 15th 
century to the Ballindalloch family, and now belong to 
the Countess Dowager of Seafield. 

Ae, an impetuous river of Dumfriesshire, rises upon 
the eastern skirts of Queensberry Hill (2285 feet), 6£ 
miles WSW of Moffat. Thence it runs S, SE, and NE, 
chiefly along the boundary between Closeburu, Kirkma- 
hoe, Tinwald, and Lochmaben parishes on the right, and 
Kirkpatrick Juxta and Kirkmichael parishes on the left, 
and falls into the Kinnel at a point 24; miIes_N of Loch- 
maben. Its length is some 14 miles ; and its affluents 
are the Deer, Bran, Capel, Windyhill, Goukstane, Black 
Linn, and Garrol burns. 
Aebercurnig. See Aberookn. 
Aen. See Aan. 

Affleck, an ancient castle in Monikie parish, Forfar- 
shire. It is a fine specimen of the old feudal keep ; 
and, though long uninhabited, is still almost entire. 
It stands about 5 miles from the coast, yet serves as a 
landmark to sailors. 
Affleck, Ayrshire. See Auohinleck. 
Afforsk, a picturesque ravine in Gamrie parish, Banff- 
shire. It is deep and winding ; has precipitous, diversi- 
fied, luxuriantly plant-clad sides ; is split into two, 
about half-way down, by a steeply acclivitous ledge of 
rock, called the Ruin or Afforsk ; and descends, past the 
old church, to the sea. The view of it from the Ruin, 
both upward and downward, is strongly romantic. 

Affric (Gael, alh-riach, 'greyish water'), a lake and a 
river in Kiltarlity parish, NW Invcrness-shire. The 
lake lies 14 miles NW of Fort Augustus, at an altitude 
of 744 feet above sea-level, and, extending in a north- 
easterly direction, is 3J miles long and from 1J to 4 
furlongs wide. Of great depth, it abounds in trout, 
running 3 to the lb. ; recoives somo 18 streams and 
brooklets; and is flanked NW by Mam Sodhail (3862 
feet) and Cam Eige (3877), N by Sgurr na Lapaich 
(3401), and NE by Am Meallan (2130), SW by Cam a' 
Choire Chairbh (2827), Tigh Mor (3222), and Sgurr nau 
Conbhaircan (3634), S by Cam Glas Lochdarach (2330), 
and Aonach Shasuinn (2901), and SE by Oreag nan 


Colman (2167). It belongs to The Chisholm, and a 
shooting-lodge stands at its foot. The river is formed 
by the Grianain and Fionn, both of which rise upon Drum- 
alban — the former flowing 3J miles N and E from Ben 
Fhada (3383 feet), the latter 5 NE from Sgurr a' Bheal- 
aich (3378). They unite 5 miles W by S of the head of 
Loch Affric ; and thence the river runs 18 miles ENE, 
through Lochs Affric and Beneveian (2§ miles by 3J fur. ), 
till, 2f miles SW of Glenaffric Hotel, it joins with the 
Amhuinn Deabhaidh to form the Glass. The scenery 
is lovely along its banks, wooded with birches and 
ancient pines, survivors of the Caledonian Forest ; and 
the plentiful trout of its waters, all owned by The Chis- 
holm, range from J to 1 lb. in weight. Salmon and 
grilse are also sometimes taken, and the rod season lasts 
from Feb. 11 to Oct. 15.— Ord. Sur., shs. 72, 73, 1S80- 

Afton, a rivulet of New Cumnock parish, SE Ayr- 
shire, rises on the northern slope of Albany Hill, at an 
altitude of 1 7 50 feet, near the meeting-point of Ayr, Dum - 
• fries, and Kirkcudbright shires. Thence it runs 9 miles 
northward, in rapid current, along the lovely valley of 
Glenafton, and falls into the Nith 3 furlongs NNE of 
New Cumnock church. It is celebrated in Burns's song, 
' Flow gently, sweet Afton, among thy green braes. ' 

Afton-Bridgend, a village in the parish and imme- 
diately S of the village of New Cumnock, Ayrshire. 
Pop. (1891) 384. 

Agabatha, an ancient military fort in Collessie parish, 
Fife, on a small eminence near Trafalgar hamlet. It 
and another fort, the Maiden Castle, appear to have 
been formed to command tne pass from Newburgh to 
the central part of Fife ; and they must have been im- 
portant stations. The eminence on which Agabatha 
stood was surrounded by a moat. 

Agston. See Oxton. 

Aharcle. See Achakacle. 

Aheurich, a glen containing a considerable lake in 
Sunart district, Argyllshire, a few miles N of Strontian. 

Aich or Eich. See Beneioh. 

Aichiltibuie, a hamlet in Lochbroom parish, Ross- 
shire. It has a public school with accommodation tor 
87 children, an average attendance in 1891 of 86, a grant 
of £78, 15s. ; and a post office with money -order, savings 
bank, and telegraph departments. 

Aigas or Eilean-Aigas, a rocky islet in Kilmoraek 
parish, Inverness-shire, immediately above the Drhuin, 
6J- miles SW of Beauly. It is encompassed by divergent 
and convergent branches of the river Beauly ; it measures 
about f mile in length, and fully 1J mile in circum- 
ference; it has an oval outline, and rises abruptly to a 
height of about 100 feet above the water's level; it con- 
sists chiefly of conglomerate, and is covered with natural 
wood of birch and oak; it communicates with the main- 
land by a bridge; it was the retreat of Lord Lovat in 
1697; and it is now occupied by a handsome shooting- 
lodge, built in 1839 by Lord Lovat for the two brothers 
' Sobieski Stuart,' and afterwards the summer retreat of 
Sir Robert Peel. The roe used greatly to frequent it; 
the red-deer used occasionally to be found on it ; 
and the wild turkey of America was introduced to it in 

Aigle. See Edzell. 

Aikenhauld, the site of the ancient church of Fin- 
haven, in Oathlaw parish, Forfarshire, a short distance 
below Finhaven Castle. The church was probably paro- 
chial ; and the walls of its burying-ground, enclosing a 
number of monumental stones, were standing in the 
latter part of last century. 

Aikenhead, the seat of Jn. Gordon, Esq., in the former 
Lanarkshire portion of Cathcart parish— placed by the 
Boundary Commissioners in 1891 wholly in Renfrewshire. 

Aikenway, a high rocky peninsular tract in Rothes 
parish, Elginshire, at the foot of Beneagen Hill, and 
projecting into the Spey. It is fully a mile in length ; 
rises steeply round three-fourths of its circuit from the 
Spy ; was anciently surmounted by a castle, and other- 
wise fortified ; and appears to have been a place of strong 
reluge and defence in times of danger from hostilities 


Aikerness, a lake at the N end of Pomona or Main- 
land, in Orkney, opposite Rousay. 

Aiket Castle, a ruined ancient structure in Dunlop 
parish, N Ayrshire. It is of various dates, includes a 
lofty keep, and was once the seat of a branch of the Cun- 

Aikey Brae, a place on the W border of Old Deer 
parish, Aberdeenshire. The final overthrow of the Comyns 
by Edward Bruce, said to have occurred here, is com- 
memorated by an annual fair, called Aikey Market, on 
the Wednesday after 19 July, as also by a cluster of 
tumuli over the graves of the men who were slain. 

Ailsa Craig, a rocky islet in the Firth of Clyde, 10 
miles W by N of Girvan, and 12J S of Arran. Forming 
part of Knockgerran barony in JJailly parish, Ayrshire, 
it belongs to the Earls of Cassillis, and gives them, ic 
the peerage of Great Britain, the titles of Baron (1806) 
and Marquis (1841). It rises almost murally from the 
water ; attains an altitude of 1114 feet above the mean 
level of the tides ; and figures conspicuously in most 
views from either the bosom of the Firth or the broad 
expanses of land which spread away from it to distant 
watersheds. Its base is elliptical, and measures 3300 
feet in one direction, 2200 feet in another. Its rock is 
columnar syenitic trap. Its columns, on a close view, 
are ill defined ; but, seen at a little distance, they look 
as distinct as those of the basaltic colonnades of Skye. 
They likewise have great magnitude, ranging from 6 to 
9 feet in breadth ; and, in one part, they rise withoul 
a break to nearly 400 feet in height. ' If Ailsa Craig,' 
says Dr Macculloch, ' has not the regularity of Staffa, 
it exceeds that island as much in grandeur and variety 
as it does in absolute bulk. There is indeed nothing, 
even in the columnar scenery of Skye or in the Shiant 
Isles, superior as these are to Staffa, which exceeds, if it 
even equals, that of Ailsa. In point of colouring, these 
cliffs have an infinite advantage, the sobriety of their 
pale greystone not only harmonising with the subdued 
tints of green, and with the colours of the sea and the 
sky, but setting off to advantage all the intricacies of 
the columnar structure ; while, in all the Western 
Islands where this kind of scenery occurs, the blackness 
of the rocks is not only often inharmonious and harsh 
but a frequent source of obscurity and confusion.' A 
landing on the Craig is difficult, and can be effected 
only on the E side, at a small beach formed by fallen 
fragments of the rock. The ascent, to a height of about 
200 feet, is easy, and leads to the ruins there of a square 
building, which may have been a hermitage, but of 
which nothing certain is known. The ascent thence is 
extremely laborious, over fragments of rock, and through 
a dense tangle of gigantic nettles. Two copious springs 
are not far from the summit ; and a scanty but fine 
herbage, with somewhat perilous footing for man or even 
beast, covers the upper parts and the top. Crowds of 
rabbits burrow in the lower parts ; a few goats subsist 
on the herbage higher up ; and countless myriads of sea 
fowl inhabit all the cliffs. The rabbits are thinned 
during January usually to the number of from 600 to 
1200, and they are of excellent quality, and find a ready 
market. A tacksman, with assistants, inhabits the rock 
during the summer months, to gather feathers and to 
catch fish. A scheme was agitated, a number of years ago, 
to make the rock a fishing station, in connection with the 
steamers from Glasgow to Liverpool, and buildings were 
actually commenced, but never finished. In July, 1868, 
a lighthouse and two long-distance fog-signalling stations, 
one on the north and the other on the south side of the 
island, were established. The south signal is produced 
by a double-note siren, giving three blasts in quick suc- 
cession, the first a high note, the second a low note, and 
the third a high note, every three minutes. The north 
signal is produced by a single-note siren, giving a high 
note for five seconds, then silent 175 seconds. The 
signals are timed so that the north sounds 90 seconds 
after the south has ceased, in order that the sound of 
the two signals may not clash. The blasts can be heard 
at a distance of 15 miles. A favourite custom in ex- 
cursion steamers is to fire a gun and alarm the birds 



which inhabit the cliffs. The scene which follows is 
wondrously sublime— Ord. Sur., sh. 7, 1863. 

Ailsh, a lake of SW Sutherland, 6J miles SSE of 
Assynt It is fed by a streamlet from Benmore, but is 
commonly regarded as the source of the river Oikel. 

Ainort, a sea-loch in the SE of Skye, opening at the 
NW end of the Sound of Scalpa, and penetrating the 
land about 3 miles south-westward. 

Ainort, in the mainland of Inverness-shire. See 
Ainort, in South Uist. See Eynort. 
Aird, a hamlet in Inch parish, Wigtownshire, 24 
miles E by S of Stranraer. Another hamlet, Bridge of 
Aird, on Bishop Burn, is 1 mile E of Stranraer. 

Aird, a fertile district in the E of Inverness-shire, 
in the basin of the river Beauly. It is very beautiful as 
well as fertile, and it belongs chiefly to the clan 

Aird, an extensive ruin supposed to be the remains of 
.i Danish fort, on the E side of Kintyre, Argyllshire, 1 
mile N of Carradale Point, and opposite Hachrie Bay in 
Arran. It crowns a rocky promontory, and overhanging 
the sea, was defended by a deep wide ditch, and had 
an outer wall 210 feet long, 72 broad, 6 thick, and 12 

Aird, a picturesque waterfall in Tynron parish, Dum- 
friesshire, on the river Shinnel, a short distance below 
Tynron Manse. 

Aird or Eye, a peninsula of Stornoway parish, on the 
E side of Lewis island, with whose mainland it is con- 
nected by an isthmus, J mile wide. It extends 7 miles 
north-eastward, from Chicken Head to Tuimpan Head, 
has a breadth of from 2 to 3J miles, and flanks all the E 
side of Broad Bay, or Loch-a-Tuath. It contains itself 
six little lochs, and its highest point is 266 feet above 
the sea. It anciently formed a chapelry called Ui or 
Uy ; and it is now included in the parliamentary quoad 
sacra parish of Knock. Its old chapel is in ruins. 

Aird, a hamlet and a headland at the north-eastern 
extremity of Skye, near Trodda Island, and 30 miles W 
by S of the mouth of Gair Loch. 

Aird, a hamlet, with a public school, in Sleat parish, 

Aird or Strathaird, a headland at the southern ex- 
tremity of Skye, terminating the peninsula between Lochs 
Scavaig and Slapin. 
Aird, Argyllshire. See Aiicds. 
Aird, Ross-shire. See Coigach. 
Airdit, a hill summit, 515 feet high, on the mutual 
boundary of Leuchars and Logie parishes, NE Fife. In 
Leuchars is the ruined old mansion of Airdit. 
Airdlamont. See Akdlamont. 
Airdle or Ardle, a small river of NE Perthshire. It 
is formed by the union of two streams, the one descend- 
ing from the Grampians in the E forest of Athole, along 
Glen Fernal, — the other descending from the W along 
Glen Briarachan ; and it flows south-eastward along 
Strath-Airdle in Kirkmichael parish, and a little below 
Nether Traquhair unites with the Sheo to form the 
Erirlit. Its length of course is about 13 miles. 
Airdmeanach. See Abdmeanach. 
Airdnamurchan. See Ap.dnmmut.chan. 
Airdrie (Gael, airde-reidh, ' smooth height '), a parlia- 
mentary and municipal burgh in New Monkland parish, 
NE Lanarkshire, 2 miles E by N of Coatbridge, 10 E of 
Glasgow, and 32 W by S of Edinburgh. It stands on 
the great highroad between the two cities, with which 
it also communicates by the North British railway, 
having one station (South Side) on the main Bathgate 
line, and another (Commonhead or North Airdrie) on the 
Slamannan branch, 16 miles WSW of Manuel Junction. 
With Glasgow it is further connected by the Caledonian 
Railway and the Monkland Canal, extending to Calder 
ironworks, 1J mile to the SSW. Lying between two 
rivulets, on the side of a hill with a south-westward slope 
from Rawyards (624 feet above sea-level) to Coatdike 
(361 feet), Airdrie consists of several principal streets, 
with others of a smaller class diverging from them; it is 
built on a regular plan, has many excellent houses, is airy, 


well paved, and lighted, and is supplied with good water. 
Chalmers identified its site with Ardderyd, the battlefield 
of Rhydderch and Gwendolew (573) ; but Ardderyd or 
Arthuret is far away in Cumberland (Skene, Celt. Scot., 
i. 157), and the first that we hear of Airdrie is its erection 
into a market-town by Act of Parliament in 1695, with 
the privilege of holding a weekly market and two yearly 
fairs. Down even to the close of last century it was 
merely a large village, and its rapid expansion during 
the next five decades was due to the opening up of the 
rich beds of coal and ironstone around it, to facilities of 
communication with the markets and outlets of the West, 
and to its share in the weaving orders of Glasgow manu- 
facturers. It was made a municipal burgh in'1821, one 
of the five Falkirk parliamentary burghs in 1832, and 
got extended powers in 1849; and in 1885 the burgh 

Arms of Airdrie. 

boundaries were extended by a special Act. It is gov- 
erned by a provost, 4 bailies, and 10 councillors, with 
treasurer, town-clerk, and procurator-fiscal. Airdrie unites 
with Falkirk, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, in 
returning 1 member to parliament under the name of 
the Falkirk burghs. The parliamentary constituency was 
2193 in 1891; municipal, 3153. Airdrie has a post office, 
with money order, savings bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments; branches of the Bank of Scotland, and of 
the Clydesdale, National, Royal, and British Linen 
Company banks; a savings bank, insurance offices, a 
gas-light company, a water company, conjointly with 
Coatbridge, a fire brigade, a fever hospital, several 
hotels and posting establishments, a race-course, and 
a Saturday newspaper — the Airdrie Advertiser (1855). 
A weekly market is held every Tuesday, and the fairs 
are on the last Tuesday of May and the third Tuesday 
of November. 

The chief public edifices are a good Town-Hall, erected 
about 1832, with spire and clock, and handsome County 
Buildings, in which are held a sheriff court every Tues- 
day and Friday, a small-debt court on Tuosday, ordinary 
and debts recovery courts on Friday, a justice of peace 
court every Monday and Thursday, and a burgh court 
on Monday. The first town in Scotland to adopt the 
Free Library Act (1856), Airdrie has now a public free 
library of 8000 volumes (for which a building was erected 
in 1893), besides a mechanics' institute and school of arts. 
There are also a public hall, a masonic hall, and a Good 
Templars' hall, and offices of a town mission, a female 
benevolent society, a young men's Christian association, 
and the New Monkland Agricultural Society (1805). 
Two public drinking fountains were erected in 1865— 
one, 20 feet high, in ironL of the Royal Hotel ; the other, 
octagonal and Early Decorated in style, at the cross- 
roads, on the site of an ancient cross; another in 1887. 

The quoad sacra parish of Airdrie, in tho presbytery 
of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, had a pop. 
(1871) of 13,066, but this included tho Flowerhill dis- 
trict at the E end of the town, which in 1875 was con- 
stituted a separate quoad sacra parish, and in 1891 
had a pop. of 4534, when Airdrie parish had 11,924. 
Airdrie parish church, built in 1835, and called the West 


Church, contains 1200 sittings; under it is Uawyaras 
mission station. Flowerhill Church was erected for a 
quondam Reformed Presbyterian congregation, which 
joined the Establishment in 1873. Completed in 1875 
at a cost of £6000, it is a Romanesque structure, seating 
900, and adorned with a bell-tower over 100 feet high. 
An organ was introduced into the church in 1886. 
Other places of worship are four Free churches (West, 
Broomknoll, High, and Graham Street), two U. P. 
churches, one Baptist church, one Reformed Presby- 
terian, one Wesleyan, one Congregationalist, one Evan- 
gelical Union, and one Roman Catholic — St Margaret's 
(1839), with 1010 sittings. The Academy was built 
in 1849 at a cost of £2500, defrayed by Mr Alexander 
of Airdrie House, who further endowed it with £80 a- 
year ; and two fine new board schools, the Albert and 
the Victoria, were opened in 1876. There are bur- 
saries for children of the town attending these schools 
(chiefly the Academy), of an aggregate yearly value of 
£100 ; and they are eligible for one or more of five col- 
lege bursaries, of £22 for five sessions. There are in all 
five schools — four of them public (Academy, Albert, 
Chapelside, and Victoria), and one Roman Catholic. 
These five had a total accommodation for 3128 children, 
an average attendance of 2962, and grants amounting 
to £2977, 10s. Id. 

The manufacturing prosperity, after growing for 50 
years with the growth of a New- World rather than of 
an Old-World town, was checked for a season, again 
to show symptoms of renewed vigour. There are some 
50 collieries and ironstone mines at work in New Monk- 
land parish, while the Calderbank Steel and Coal Com- 
pany has several furnaces in operation at Calderbank and 
Chapelhall; and in and without the town there are 
brass and iron foundries, engineering shops, oil and 
fireclay works, brickfields, quarries, paper-mills, silk 
and calico printing works, and cotton, wincey, hosiery, 
flannel, and tweed factories. Steps have lately been 
taken towards providing an increase in the water supply, 
by Airdrie_ and Coatbridge conjointly, an Act of Parlia- 
ment having been secured for the purpose. Value of 
real property, (1861) £30,284, (1872) £30,926, (1881) 
£33,027, (1891) £48,275. Pop. (1831) 6594, (1861) 
12,918, (1871) 31,488, (1881) 13,363, (1891) 19,135.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 13, 1867. 

Airdrie, an estate with a mansion in Crail parish, 
Fife. The estate belonged, in the reign of David II., to 
the family of Dundemore ; in the 15th century, to the 
Lumsdens; in the reign of James VI., to Sir John 
Preston, president of the Court of Session ; afterwards, 
to General Anstruther ; and latterly, to Methven 
Erskine, Esq., who became Earl of Kellie, and died here 
in 1830. The mansion is embosomed in wood, crowns 
a swelling ground at the distance of 2J miles from the 
coast, and includes an ancient tower which commands a 
magnificent view from Edinburgh to the ocean and from 
St Abb's Head to the Bell Rock lighthouse. 

Airdrie Hill, a property in New Monkland parish, 
Lanarkshire, 1^ mile NE of Airdrie. It is rich in iron ore, 
and has a band of ironstone from 2 to 4 feet thick, about 
3 fathoms below the blackband. Here is a new school 
under conjointly the New Monkland and the Clarkston 
school-boards. Opened in 1876, it had (1891) accommo- 
dation for 290 children, an average attendance of 130, 
and a grant of £114, 17s. 

Airds, an estate in Appin, Argyllshire, with the seat 
of Rt. Macfie, Esq., 3 furlongs SE of Port-Appin village. 
The estate lies opposite the upper end of Lismore island, 
occupying a peninsula between Lochs Linnhe and Creran ; 
and comprises 6700 acres valued at £2027 per annum. 
Dr Macculloch, speaking of the peninsula, says :— ' I 
do not know a place where all the elements, often incon- 
gruous ones, of mountains, lakes, wood, rocks, castles, 
sea, shipping, and cultivation are so strangely inter- 
mixed, where they are so wildly picturesque, and where 
they produce a greater variety of the most singular and 
unexpected scenes.' 

Airds, a bay in Muckairn parish, Argyllshire, on the 
6 side of Loch Etive. 


Airdsmoss or Airsmoss, a morass in the E of Ayr- 
shire, between the Water of Ayr and Lugar Water. It 
begins about 1J mile ENE of Auchinleck village, ex- 
tends about 6 miles north-eastward, has a mean breadth 
of about 1J mile, and is approached over most of its 
SE side, and crossed over a small part of its further end, 
by the railway from Auchinleck to Muirkirk. It was 
the scene, on 20 July 1680, of a sharp skirmish between 
63 of the Covenanters and a party of dragoons, fatal to 
Richard Cameron ; and it contains, at a spot where the 
deadliest of the strife occurred, a monument popularly 
called Cameron's Stone. The present monument is neat 
and modern ; but the original one was a large fiat stone, 
laid down about 50 years after the event, and marked 
with the names of the Covenanters who fell in the skir- 
mish, and with the figures of an open Bible and a hand 
grasping a sword. The skirmish of Airdsmoss is the sub- 
ject of the well-known effusion, beginning — 

1 In a dream of the night I was wafted away, 
To the moorland of mist where the martyrs lay ; 
Where Cameron's sword and his Bible are seen, 
Engraved on the stone where the heather grows green.' 

Aires or Ox Rocks, rocky islets of Eirkcolm parish, 
Wigtownshire, \ mile from the W coast, and nearly 1 
mile SW of Corsewall lighthouse. 

Airgoid, one of the summits of the Bengloe mountain 
range in Blair Athole parish, Perthshire. 

Airhouse, an estate of the Earl of Lauderdale in Chan 
nelkirk parish, Berwickshire, 5f miles NNW of Lauder 
Near it is Airhouse Law (1096 feet), one of the Lammer- 
rnuir Hills. 

Airi-Innis, a lake, about 2 miles long and $ mile 
broad, in Morvern parish, Argyllshire. 

Airleywight, the seat of Thos. Wylie, Esq. , on rising 
ground, in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire, 3i miles 
NNW of Dunkeld station. 

Airlie, a parish of W Forfarshire, whose Kirkton, to- 
wards the NW, is h\ miles WSW of the post-town Kirrie- 
muir, and 4J miles NNW of Eassie station, this being 8 
miles WSW of Forfar, and 24f NE of Perth. At it is 
the parish church (rebuilt 1783 ; 411 sittings) ; a Free 
church standing 1\ miles to the SE, and the village of 
Craigton \\ mile ESE. 

Bounded NW by Lintrathen, N by Kingoldrum, NE 
by Kirriemuir, SE by Glamis, S by Eassie and Meigle 
(Perthshire), and W by Ruthven and Alyth (Perthshire), 
the parish has an extreme length from ENE to WSW of 
6J miles, an extreme width from NNW to SSE of 3$ 
miles, and a land area of 8923 acres. Melgam Water 
winds 1J mile along the Lintrathen border, and by 
Airlie Castle falls into the Isla, which here runs \\ mile 
southward on the Alyth boundary through the pictur- 
esque Den of Airlie, a rocky gorge with precipitous copse- 
clad braes, and after a digression into Ruthven, either 
bounds or traverses, for 1 mile more, the SW angle of 
the parish ; whilst Dean Water, its affluent, meanders 
7| miles along all the southern border. The lower half 
of the parish, belonging to Strathmore, sinks to 120, 
and nowhere exceeds 246, feet above sea-level ; but the 
northern half is hillier, rising to 421 feet near Grange of 
Airlie, 511 near Airlie Castle, 556 near Muirhouses, and 
472 at the NE angle. The rocks, except for a trap dyke 
crossing the Isla, are all Devonian, but throughout two- 
thirds of the area are overspread by sand or gravel ; the 
soils range from deep alluvial loam along the Dean to 
thin poor earth upon the highest grounds. The Romans' 
presence here is attested by traces of their Strathmore 
road near Reedie in the NE, and in the SW by a camp 
near Cardean ; but Airlie's memories cluster most thickly 
round the old castle of Airlie's lords. It stood on the 
rocky promontory washed by the Melgam and Isla, If 
mile WNW of the Kirkton ; and naturally strong, had 
been so fortified by art as to be deemed impregnable. 
But in July 1640, the Earl of Argyll, raising 4000 Cove- 
nanting clansmen, under a ruthless writ of fire and sword 
issued by the Committee of Estates, swept all the moun- 
tain district between his own territory and the eastern 
coast, and came down on the Braes of Angus to attack 
the hated Ogilvies in their strongholds. The Earl of 



Airlie was away in England, and his son, Lord Ogilvy, 
fled at the host's advance ; who, having plundered, burned 
the 'bonnie house,' Argyll himself, as Gordon tells the 
tale, ' taking hammer in hand, and knocking down the 
hewed work of doors and windows till he did sweat for 
heat at his work. ' A rare old ballad celebrates the in- 
cident with many poetic embellishments. The moat 
has been half filled up, and little is left of the original 
pile but the wall on its eastern and most accessible side 
— high and massive, with frowning portcullis entry ; for 
the present castle is but a goodly modern mansion, de- 
signed at first as merely a summer resort, and afterwards 
greatly enlarged. In 1458 Sir John Ogilvy, knight, of 
Lintrathen, descended from the first Thane of Angus, 
received a grant of the castle and barony. His son, Sir 
James, ambassador to Denmark in 1491, was the same 
year ennobled as Lord Ogilvy of Airlie ; and James, 
seventh lord, was in 1639 created Earl of Airlie and Baron 
Ogilvy of Alyth and Lintrathen. The present holder of 
these titles is David Stanley William Ogilvy (b. 1856 ; 
sue. as eleventh Earl 1881). Another chief proprietor 
is Sir Thos. Munro (b. 1819; sue. as second Bart. 1827); 
his seat, Lindertis, 1J mile E of the Kirkton, is a cas- 
tellated mansion, rebuilt in 1813. Airlie is in the 
presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns; 
the living is worth £240. Two public schools, Airlie and 
Craigton (girls'), with respective accommodation for 96 
and 62 children, had (1891) an average . attendance of 
66 and 22, and grants of £66, Is. and £14, 6s. "Valua- 
tion, (1891) £9114, 19s. Pop. (1801) 1041, (1831) 860, 
(1841) 868, (1871) 778, (1881) 844, (1891) 741.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Airntully. See Aentully. 

Airsmoss. See Aikdsmoss. 

Airth, a village and a parish of E Stirlingshire. The 
village lies J mile from the Forth, 8J miles SE of Stirling, 
5j N by E of Falkirk, and 2J E by N of Airth station 
(in St. Ninians parish), on a branch of the Caledonian, 
this being 3 miles S by W of South Alloa, 3| NNE of 
Larbert Junction, 22jfc NE of Glasgow, and 32J WNW of 
Edinburgh. The railway branches off again near Airth, 
one branch going on to South Alloa, the other crossing 
the Forth by the new bridge a little to the west of the 
town of Alloa. Airth has a post office, with money 
order and savings bank departments, a cross bearing 
date 1697, the parish church (1820; 800 sittings), a 
Free church station, and a U. P. church ; at Dunmore, 
1J mile NN¥ is St Andrew's Episcopal church (1851), 
an early English edifice, with nave and chancel, and 
several good stained windows. Pop. (1891) 440. 

The parish contains also the port of South Alloa, 2| 
miles NNW. It is bounded S by Bothkennar, SW by 
Larbert, and W by St Ninians ; whilst NW, NE, and 
E it is washed for 6 miles by the Forth. From NNW 
to SSE it has an extreme length of 5 miles; its breadth 
from E to W varies between 7 furlongs and 3J miles; 
and its area is 6388 acres, of which 572 are foreshore and 
339g water. Excepting the central hills of Dunmore and 
Airth, the latter and higher of which but little exceeds 
100 feet, the surface everywhere is low and level, and 
seems at a late geological period to have all lain under 
the waters of the Forth. Strata of shells, at no great 
depth, are found throughout the low grounds ; and in 
1817 the skeleton of a whale, 75 feet long, was discovered 
in cutting a road, more than 2 furlongs from the present 
beach ; later still an anchor was found in Dunmore Hill, 
half a mile from it. Much fertile land has been re- 
claimed from the tide and from a state of moss in 
the W, where Letham and Dunmore mosses have still 
an extent of some 300 acres, 270 more being pasture, 
and 4850 in tillage. The Pow Burn, entering from St 
Ninians, winds through the middle of the parish to the 
Forth, a little above Kincardine Ferry, and is crossed by 
the ' Abbey Town ' and other bridges ; and a spring, 
one of several said to have been medicinal, is called the 
' Lady Well ' — both names suggestive of Airth's former 
connection with Holyrood Abbey. The rocks belong to 
the Carboniferous formation, and Dunmore colliery was 
working here in 1879 ; sandstone, too, of various texture 


and hue, being quarried at several points. Plantations, 
luxuriant and well assorted, adorn the Airth and Dun- 
more estates, one chestnut at Airth having a height of 
65 and a circumference of 16 feet, and a Scotch pine a: 
Dunmore containing upwards of 250 feet of cubic timber. 
Airth Castle, on the SE extremity of circular Airth Hill, 
which commands a magnificent view, dates partly from 
the latter half of the 16th century, partly from 1802. 
Its modem northern facade is a meagre pseudo-antique, 
but the southern and eastern fronts have many interest- 
ing features. Thus, 'Wallace's Tower' stands on the 
outer, not inner, angle, is corbelled only on its eastern 
side, and presents a pepper-box turret, which Billings 
pronounces of native, not French or Flemish, origin ; 
and on either hand of the tower are a row of curious 
gabled dormers, one of them having a starry-headed 
tympanum (Baronial Antiquities). On the eastern slope 
of the hill stands the ruined church, once held by 
Holyrood, with a N round-headed arch, belonging to the 
Transition period or close of the 12th century, the 15th 
century Airth aisle, and the 16th century Dunmore aisle 
(Procs. Soc. Ant. Scot, 1879, pp. 165-170). An earldom 
of Airth was conferred in 1633 on William Graham, 
eighteenth Earl of Menteith, but became extinct at the 
death of its second holder in 1694 ; Airth Castle belongs 
now to Colonel Graham, who owns 1145 acres in tin 
shire of an annual value of £3242. Dunmore, a plain 
though castellated mansion, with splendid gardens, is 
the seat of Chs. Adolphus, seventh Earl of Dunmore 
(b. 1841 ; sue. 1845), who is fifth in descent from Chs. 
Murray, first Earl of Dunmore (ere. 1686), the second 
son of John, first Marquis of Athole, and who owns in 
Stirlingshire 4620 acres, and in Inverness-shire 60,000, 
valued at £8923 and £2239 per annum. In all, 8 land- 
owners hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
4 of between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 
8 of from £20 to £50. Airth is in the presbytery of 
Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living 
amounts to £370. Three schools, Airth, South Alloa, 
and Lord Dunmore's, with respective accommodation 
for 182, 100, and 84 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 123, 51, and 62, and grants of £102, 18s. 6d., 
£42, 12s., and £53, lis. Valuation £13,769, 6s. 5d., 
including £1620 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1855, (1811) 
1727, (1831) 1S25, (1861) 1194, (1871) 1396, (1881) 1362, 
(1891) 1297.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Airthmithie. See Auchmithie. 

Airthrey, an estate, with a mansion and with mineral 
wells, in Logie parish, Stirlingshire. The estate adjoins 
Clackmannan and Perth shires, was sold about 1796 by 
Robert Haldane, the founder of Scottish Congregational- 
ism, to Gen. Sir Rt. Abercromby, brother of Sir Ralph, 
the hero of Aboukir Bay, and remained in the family 
of Baron Abercromby till 1890, when it was acquired by 
Donald Graham, Esq. The mansion stands 1J mile ESE 
of Bridge of Allan, was built in 1791 from a design 
by the architect Adam, is a castellated structure of 
moderate size, and has a park of remarkable beauty, 
commanding superb views of the Oehils and of the 
plain beneath them. Two standing stones are in the 
park, without inscription, emblem, or any historical 
identification, yet popularly believed to be commemora- 
tive of the total defeat of tho Piets by the Scots in 839. 
The mineral wells are on the brow of an ascent from the 
Bridge of Allan, are approached thence by tasteful 
walks, have a neat bath-house, with shock, shower, 
plunge, and douche baths ; and, though four in number, 
yield only two waters, called the weak and the strong 
water. The waters act in the way of saline aperient ; 
and, for general medicinal effect against various chronic 
diseases, they have long competed in fame with the 
waters of the most celebrated spas in Britain. One pint 
of tho weak water, according to the analyses of Dr 
Thomson, contains 37 '45 grains of common salt, 34 32 
of muriate of lime, and 119 of sulphate of limej and 
one pint of the strong water contains 47 '354 grains of 
common salt, 38 '461 of muriatoof lime, 4 715 of sulphate 
of lime, and 0'450 of muriate of magnesia. 

Aith, a bay, a headland, and a hamlet in Aithsting 



parish, Shetland, on the W side of Mainland, 12 miles 
NW of Lerwick. The bay is good fishing ground. The 
headland flanks the NE side of the bay, and is called 

Aith or Skaill, a lake, nearly a mile long, in Sand- 
wick parish, Orkney. 

Aithernie, an estate in Scoonie parish, Fife, 2 miles 
W by N of Largo. An ancient tumulus, on the top of 
a conical hill here, was opened in 1821, and found to 
contain about twenty stone coffins, together with other 
sepulchral remains. 

Aithova, a good harbour on the E side of Shetland, 
in Bressay Sound, near Lerwick. 

Aithsting, an ancient parish in Shetland, on the W 
side of Mainland. It is now united to Sansting. 

Aithsvoe (Norse eids vdgr, 'isthmus bay'), a creek 
or bay in the SE of Shetland, immediately N of Mousa 
island, and 9^ miles S by W of Lerwick. A rune- 
inscribed stone, discovered here in 1872, is discussed in 
Proas. Soc. Ant. Scot., 1875, pp. 125-430. 

Aith Wards, the southern part of Hoy, in Orkney, 
almost insulated by Long Hope Bay. 

Aitnach, a craig, formerly crowned with an ancient 
square fort, on the bank of the rivulet Rye, in Dairy 
parish, Ayrshire. 

Ait-Suidbe-Thuin or Fingal's-Sitting-Place, a moun- 
tain at the head of Loch Portree, in Skye. It takes its 
name from a fancy that Fingal sat upon it, surveying 
the athletic exploits of his heroes ; it rises, from a broad 
base, with an easy and gentle ascent, but becomes steep 
toward the top ; it is all, except its crowning parts, 
either covered with crops or finely pastoral ; it attains 
an altitude of more than 2000 feet above sea-level ; and 
it commands a view of nearly all the W coast of Ross- 
shire, of the greater part of the Skye and Long Island 
groups of the Hebrides, and of multitudinous and pic- 
turesque forkings and disseverments of the Deucale- 
donian Sea. 

Akernioor, a small lake, on a high tableau, in the S 
of Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire. 
Akin-Kyle. See Kyle-Akin. 
Aladale. See Glenalladale. 
Alasuden. See St Boswells. 

Alaterva, the quondam Roman station on the site of 
Cramond village, Edinburghshire. 
Alauna. See Allan, Perthshire. 
Alcluid. See Dumbarton. 

Aldarder, a burn in Knockando parish, Elginshire, 
running about 4 miles to the Spey. It became wildly 
riotous, and underwent a remarkable change in the great 
flood of 1S29. It previously made a waterfall of 80 feet 
in leap ; but, at the time of the flood it changed its 
course, rushed furiously against a small hill, undermined 
that hill, and swept part of it away, formed on the hill's 
site a chasm or ravine about 750 feet in length, and 
from 60 to 100 feet in depth, and underwent such altera- 
tion of its own bed as reduced its previous water-lea ] i 
of about 80 feet to an inclined cascade of only about 7 
Aldbar. See Auldbak. 

Aldcambus (Gael. alU-camus, 'stream of the bay'). 
an ancient parish on the coast of Berwickshire, now united 
to Cockburnspath. It was one of the places granted by 
King Edgar to the monks of Durham, along with his 
priory of Coldingham, in 1098 ; its ruined Norman church 
of St Helen dates from a not much later period. Crown- 
ing a cliff 200 feet high, 2 miles to the E of Cockburns- 
path village, this picturesque fragment consisted till 
recently of nave and chancel; but the latter, barely 16 
feet in length, has been pulled down for the repair of 
dykes and barns. In a wood at Aldcambus, Bruce was 
preparing engines for the siege of Berwick (1317), when 
a monk brought him the papal truce, addressed to 
'Robert, Governor of Scotland.' 'I listen to no bulls 
till I am treated as king, and have made myself master 
of Berwick,' was the haughty reply. 

Aldeathie, formerly a detached portion of Dalmeny 
parish, Linlithgowshire, on the Union Canal, J mile 
SW of the main body. The western part of Aldeathie 

was transferred in 1891 by the Boundary Commissioners 
to the parish of Ecclesmechan, and the eastern part to 
that of Kirkliston. It has an extreme length of 1 mile 
5 furlongs, a breadth of 7 furlongs, and an area of 656 
acres; and its highest point somewhat exceeds 300 feet. 
Prior to the Reformation it formed a separate parish. 

Aldcluyd. See Dumbarton. 

Alder. See Benalder. 

Aldernan or Allt-Arnan, a rivulet rising on the 
southern slope of Meall nan Caora (2368 feet), in the ex- 
treme W of Perthshire, and flowing first southward, then 
eastward along the N border of Dumbartonshire, till after 
a course of 3J miles it joins the Falloch below Inverarnan 

Alderston, an estate, with a mansion, in Haddington 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 1J mile WKW of Haddington. 

Aldgirth. See Auldgirth. 

Aldham or Haldame, a decayed village and an ancient 
coast parish of N Haddingtonshire. The village stood 
J mile S of Tantallon Castle, and 3J miles E by S of 
North Berwick ; near it was the parish church (demo- 
lished 1 770), in whose forerunner, according to the legend, 
one of St Baldred's three corpses was buried in 756. (See 
Bass. ) The parish included the lands of Aldham and 
Scougal, granted with Tynninghame and three more 
places to Durham by King Duncan (1093-94) ; it was 
united to Whitekirk in the 17th century. 

Aldie Wester, a hamlet in Fossoway parish, Kinross- 
shire, 2 miles ESE of Rumbling Bridge station on the 
Devon Valley branch of the North British. Near it is 
Aldie Castle, the ancient seat of the Mercers of Aldie and 
Meikleour, now represented by Baroness Nairne. Though 
long untenanted, it is a fine and well-preserved ruin, dat- 
ing from the 16th century. 

Aldivalloch. See Cabraoh. 

Aldourie (Gael, allt-dur, ' water stream '), the seat 
of Edward Grant Fraser-Tytler, Esq., in Dores parish, 
NE Inverness-shire. It stands on the right shore of 
Loch Dochfour, the name given to the lower part of 
Loch Ness, 7 miles SW of Inverness. It was the birth- 
place of Charles Grant (17-16-1823), statesman and 
philanthropist, and of the historian, Sir James Mackin- 
tosh (1765-1832). 

Aldreguie, a streamlet of Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
falling into the Levet at the E side of the Bochle. 

Aldyonlie or Allt-Gheallaidh, an impetuous rivulet of 
Knockando parish, Elginshire, rising among the hills, 
and running 6f miles south-eastward and eastward, 
chiefly along the SW border of the parish, to the Spey. 
Its name signifies ' the burn of the covenant,' and is 
supposed to have originated in the forming of a solemn 
compact on its banks between two contending clans. 

Ale, a rivulet of Coldingham parish, Berwickshire, is 
formed by the meeting of three rills at Thrceburn Grange, 
a little above Press Castle, and runs 6 miles south-east- 
ward to the Eye at a point about 1| mile SSE of Eye- 
mouth. Its fishing is poor, but parts of its valleys are 
deep and picturesque, rare ferns and mosses growing on 
the banks. Thomas the Rhymer has predicted how — 

' At Threeburn Grange on an after day, 
There shall be a lang and bloody fray ; 
Where a three-thumbed wight by the reins shall hald 
Three kings' horse, baith stout and bauld, 
And the Three Burns three days will rill 
WF the blude o' the slaiu that fa' therein.' 

Ale, a river of Selkirk and Roxburgh shires, rises on 
the NW slope of Henwoodie (1189 feet) in Roberton 
parish, and flowing north-eastward through Ashkirk and 
Lilliesleaf, eastward along the southern boundary of 
Bowden and St Boswells, and south : eastward through 
Ancrum, falls into the Teviot, J mile S of Ancrum vil- 
lage. It has a length of 24 miles, the first 5, up to 
Alemuir Loch, broken by frequent falls ; and for two- 
thirds of its entire course it runs hemmed in by hills 
800 to 1200 feet in height. By Lilliesleaf it enters a 
broader vale where, Lauder says, the angler ' wanders on 
for one long stretch, through sweet-scented meadows, 
with the stream running deep and clear, and with its 
waters almost level with the grassy plain through which 



they flow.' The Ale's chief affluents are on the left 
hand, the Wilson Burn from Hellmuir Loch, Langhope 
Burn from Shaw's Loch, and Woll Burn ; on the right 
hand the Woo Burn — all capital trout-streams like itself. 
See Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Scottish Rivers,— Ord. 
Sur., shs. 17, 24, 1864-65. 

Alemuir, a loch in Roberton parish, Roxburghshire, 6£ 
miles SW of Ashkirk. It lies in the course of the Ale 
river, has a circular outline, measuring each way £ mile, 
and is, in places, 30 fathoms deep. Superstition long 
made it the haunt of a bloodthirsty water-kelpie, and 
Leyden sings : 

■ Sad is the wail that floats o'er Alemuir's lake, 
And nightly bids her gulfs unhottomed quake ; 
While moonbeams sailing o'er the waters blue 
Reveal the frequent tinge of blood-red hue.' 

Alexandria, a town in Bonhill parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, on the right bank of the Leven, opposite Bonhill 
town, with which it is connected by an iron suspension 
bridge of 438 feet span, erected in 1836 at the cost 
(£2200) of Captain Smollett of Bonhill. Its station, on a 
branch of the North British, is 19J miles TOW of 
Glasgow, 3J N of Dumbarton, 31J WSW of Stirling, 
and 1} S by E of Balloch Pier, Loch Lomond. From a 
clachan or 'grocery,' Alexandria has risen in less than a 
century to a busy and prosperous town, this rise being 
due to the bleaching, printing, and dyeing works esta- 
blished in the Vale of Leven since 1768. Itself contain- 
ing one extensive calico print and Turkey-red dye work, 
and a clog and block factory, it has a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments ; a branch of the Clydesdale Banking Com- 
pany, and a savings bank;. a Young Men's Christian 
and a Rifle Association ; gas works, a hotel, and a public 
hall; the Vale of Leven Mechanics' Institute (1834), 
with a library of 3600 volumes and a handsome lecture 
hall, seating 1100, and built in 1865 at a cost of upwards 
of £3000 ; and the Ewing Gilmour Institute, consisting 
of a libraryand reading and recreation rooms, presented to 
the town by W. Ewing Gilmour, Esq., and costing about 
£12,000. There are six places of worship — Established 
(stipend £260), Free, U.P., Congregationalist, Wesleyan, 
and Roman Catholic. There are two good Board schools, 
the one erected in 1877, and the other in 1884, and a 
Roman Catholic school, which, with respective accom- 
modation for 636, 530, and 411 children, had an average 
day attendee of 545, 416, and 286, and grants amount- 
ing to £543JO,., £435, 5s., and £245, 5s. Pop. of town 
(1841) 3039, (1881) 6173, (1891) 7796. Pop. of quoad 
sacra parish of Alexandria, in the presbytery of Dum- 
barton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, (1891) 8260. 

Alford, a village and a parish of central Aberdeenshire. 
The village stands at the terminus of the Vale of Alford 
railway, 29A miles WNW of Aberdeen, and has chiefly 
arisen since that line was opened in 1859. It contains 
the Free church and St Andrew's Episcopal church 
(erected in 1869), both Early English granite edifices, 
branches of the Aberdeen Town and County and of the 
North of Scotland Banks, several insurance offices, the 
Haughton Arms Hotel, a parish library (1839), and a 
post office, with money order, savings bank, and tele- 
graph departments. Important grain and cattle mar- 
kets are held at it every third Tuesday throughout the 
year, and feeing markets on the Mondays of the weeks 
before 26 May and 22 Nov. ; and it is the centre of the 
Vale of Alford Horticultural Association (1831). Pop. 
(1871) 482, (1881) 529, (1891) 535. 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Tullynessle, NE 
by Keig, SE by Tough, and S and SW by Leochel. Its 
greatest length from E to W is 6J miles, its greatest 
breadth is 3, and its land area is 9102 acres. The swift 
and shallow Don winds 62 miles along the whole 
northern border, affords here as good trout and salmon 
fishing as any in its course, and 1J mile WNW of the 
village is spanned by a three-arched bridge, erected in 
1811 at a cost of £2000, 128 feet long, and leading by 
the Strathbogie road to Iluntly, 21 miles to the N of 
Alford. Near this bridge stands the Forbes Arms 
Hotel, and $ mile above it the Leochel joins the Don, 


after parting the parish into two unequal halves. Form- 
ing the SW portion of the Howe of Alford, the surface 
has a considerable altitude, its lowest point at the influx 
of the sluggish Bents Burn (the eastern boundary) being 
420 feet above the level of the sea. There is a general 
southward rise from the right bank of the Don, but the 
western half is much more hilly than the eastern, the 
highest points in the latter being Strone Hill (950 feet), 
Cairnballoch (906), and Carnaveron (864), all round- 
topped hills ; whilst in the former are Dorsell (1055), 
Craig Hm (1007), Langgadlie (1468), Woodhill (1147), 
and the eastern slopes of Craigievar (1747), whose sum- 
mit, however, lies just outside the bounds. Cultivation 
is carried up to 1160 feet, and more than half the parish 
is arable ; along the Don and Leochel are extensive 
plantations of fine Scotch firs and larch, interspersed in 
the policies with silver fir and ornamental hardwood 
trees. The rocks consist of granite, syenite, and mica 
slate ; the last predominates in the western division, and 
is intersected by numerous small veins of quartz. The 
soil varies from good light loam in the valley, famous 
for turnips and cattle, to strong clay, barely repaying the 
cost of tilling it. The ' lions ' of Alford are a large round 
camp on conical Da' Mhil ; a smaller one beside the 
church ; a cairn on Carnaveron, 25 feet high and 125 in 
diameter ; Balfluig Tower; the ruins of the strong square 
castle of Asloon ; and, midway between the village and 
the bridge, the battlefield where, on 2d July 1645, the 
Marquis of Montrose won his last victory over General 
Baillie. Each army numbered some 2000 men, but, 
while the Covenanters had the superiority in horse, 
Montrose had the advantage of position. Though 
Baillie's cavalry fled early in the day, the fight was 
obstinate, and the slaughter of Covenanters great. The 
Royalists' loss was trifling, but included Lord Gordon, 
the Marquis of Huntly's eldest son, whom a stray shot 
brought down, in act to lay hold of Baillie's shoulder- 
belt. A stone long marked the spot where he fell, and 
in the neighbouring moss, now drained, bullets and 
coins have often been discovered ; while peat diggers, 
about 1744, came on a horse and its armour-clad rider. 
The chief mansions are Haughton, on the Don, 1J mile 
NE of the village, for more than two centuries the seat 
of the Farquharsons ; Breda, just to the left of the 
mouth of the Leochel; and Kingsford, on its right 
bank, 1J mile SE of Alford: 3 landowners hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 5 of from 
£100 to £500, and 14 of from £20 to £50. Alford 
is seat of a presbytery in the synod of Aberdeen ; the 
living is worth £211. The church, standing upon the 
Leochel's right bank, If mile W of the village, was 
built in 1804 and enlarged in 1826, and is a plain edifice 
with 550 seats. A pre-Reformation church here, dedi- 
cated to St Andrew, was held by the priory of Mony- 
musk, and from a ford by it over the Leochel (or auld 
ford l) the parish probably received its name. Two 
public schools, Alford and Gallowliill, had in 1891 
respective accommodation for 178 and 153 children, an 
average attendance of 134 and 82, and grants of £126, 
15s. and £70, 9s. Pop. (1801) 644, (1831) 894, (1851) 
1143, (1871) 1396, (1881) 1472, (1891) 1402.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 76, 1874. 

The presbytery of Alford comprehends Alford, Auchin- 
doir, Cabrach, Clatt, Corgarff (quoad sacra), Glenbucket, 
Keig, Kennethmont, Kildrummy, Leochel -Cushnie, 
Strathdon, Tough, Towia, and Tullynessle - Forbes. 
Top. (1871) 12,888, (1881) 12,242, (1891) 11,675, of 
whom 5017 were communicants of the Church of Scot- 
land in that year, the sums raised by the above congre- 
gations amounting to £814. The Free Church likewise 
has a presbytery of Alford, whose churches at Alford, 
Auchindoir, Keig and Tough, Kinnethmont, Rhynie, 
Strathdon, and Towie had 761 communicants in the 
year 1891. , , „ , 

Alford, Howe or Vale of, that portion of the Don s 
basin, from Kirkton of Forbes down to the Bridge of Keig, 
a distance of some 9 miles, which comprehends parts of 
Tullynessle and Koi ; to the N, and of Alford, Leochel, 
and Tough to the S of the river. From 5 miles broad to 


74, it is bounded NW by the Correen Hills (1588 feet), 
NE by Bennachie (1619), W by Callievar (1747), S by 
the hills of Alford, SE by those of Corrennie Forest (1621), 
and E by Cairn William (1469). See Don, and the above- 
named parishes. 

Alford Valley Railway, a railway of south central 
Aberdeenshire, deflects from the Great North of Scotland 
at Kintore, and runs 164 miles westward, by the stations 
of Kemnay, Monymusk, Tillyfourie, and Whitehouse, to 
Alford village. Authorised in 1856, it was opened in 
1859, and amalgamated with the Great North of Scot- 
land in 1866. Its gradients are steep, the summit level 
on Tillyfourie Hill being 636 feet ; and the journey oc- 
cupies 65 minutes. 

Aline, Loch, a hamlet and a sea-loch in Mbrvern parish, 
Argyllshire. The hamlet stands within the W side of 
the loch's mouth, 4 miles ESE of its post-village Mor- 
ven, is of recent origin, and has a pier and a public 
.school, which in 1 891 had an average attendance of SO 
and a grant of .£47, 15s. The loch strikes NNE from the 
Sound of Mull, immediately W of Artornish Castle, has 
a very narrow entrance, but expands to a width of fully 
\ mile, and is 2J miles long. Its lower part is com- 
paratively tame, but its upper is rocky, intricate, and 
picturesque ; and Scott, in his Lord of the Isles, speaks 
of 'green Loch Aline's woodland shore.' Two streams 
descend to its head — Eonach Water from Loch-Na-Cuirn 
through Loch Ternate, at the NE angle ; and, at the 
NW, the larger Black Water, which, flowing through 
Glen Dubh, receives a tributary from Glen Geal. ' Here, 
at the mouth of the streams,' says Dr Macculloch, 
' Loch Aline is indeed beautiful, as the close mountain 
cenery, the accumulation in limited space of woods and 
rocks, and brawling streams, and cascades, and wild 
bridges, intermingled with fields and farms, gradually 
blends with the more placid scenery of the loch itself. ' 
Loch Aline House is a mansion near the village ; and 
Kinlochaline Castle is a fine, old, turreted square tower 
on a bold, high rock, near the mouth of the Black 
Water, is said to have been erected by a lady of the 
clan Macinnes, and was besieged and captured by Col- 
kitto, lieutenant to the Marquis of Montrose. 

Alladale. See Glenalladale. 

Allan (Gael, 'white river'), a rivulet of Teviothead 
parish, S Roxburgh shire, formed by the confluence of 
the Skelfhill and Priesthaugh Burns, which rise on 
Langtae Hill (1786 feet) and Cauldcleuch Head (1996), 
near the Dumfriesshire border, and take each a north- 
ward course of some 34 miles. The Allan itself runs 
5 miles NNW, receiving the Dodbum in its course, and 
fallsinto the Teviot, 44, miles SW of Hawick. Since 1866 
it has furnished that town with water, and in September 
1882 an additional supply was introduced from the 
Dodbum. The Allan contains abundance of small trout 
A Border fortalice of considerable strength, called Allan- 
mouth Peel, stood at its mouth ; was last occupied by a 
brother of Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, the warden 
of the Scottish Border ; and has left some remains. 

Allan, a river of Perth and Stirling shires, rising in 
Blackford parish, SE Perthshire, on the northern slope 
of Little Corum (1683 feet), one of the Ochil Hills. 
1 hence it runs NNE toward Blackford village, SW to 
Uunblane, and S to the Forth, which it enters 1 mile 
below Bridge of Allan, after a course of 20 miles, 15 of 
winch are closely followed by the Caledonian line from 
rertn to Stirling. Near Blackford it receives the Danny 
tt™ if nloanin g th e Knaik, Bullie, and Millstane 
R,^f' a S v, Wer down the buckle, Lodge, and Wharry 

*&«?■ J ltself ' yieldin s ver y fair trout fishiD g. 

£," m f ti y °P™ to the public. The Alauna of 
rnnfhSL" ? ,T^ f S le Dan ™onii, stood at the Allan's 
fn TL + th * he F° rth ' a P° sitioa girding what was 
for many centuries the chief entrance to Caledonia from 
the fc>. See Strathallan 

Allan Melrose, Roxburghshire. See Allen. 
on^T^'i" f« te S Edrom P arish ' Berwickshire, 
5*£E ♦ * l* e W^der; n mile E by S of 
StuarK * ' ♦ 0n A? t00d t»e ancient mansion of the 
Stuarts, Baronets of Nova Scotia from 1687 to 1849 


which was naunted by 'Pearlin Jane,' the phantom of a 
jilted Italian lady. Allanbank is also celebrated as the 
spot where in 1674 Blackadder, Welsh, and three other 
ministers dispensed the Communion to 3200 Covenanters 
(Lauder's Scottish Rivers, pp. 218-225). 

Allan, Bridge of, a fashionable watering-place in Logie 
parish, Stirlingshire, as reconstituted by the Boundary 
Commissioners in 1891. It stands on the left bank of 
Allan Water, and on the Scottish Central section of the 
Caledonian railway, 2 miles S by E of Dunblane and 3 
N of Stirling, with which it was further connected by 
tramway in 1874. A favourite health and pleasure 
resort, at once for the mildness of its climate, its beau- 
tiful environs, and the near proximity of the mineral 
wells of Airthrey, it annually attracts great numbers 
of visitors. It comprises two parts or sections, an upper 
and a lower, the former on a small plateau of consider- 
able elevation, the latter on alluvial ground adjacent 
to the river; and the declivity between these sections 
is adorned with trees and shrubs and public walks. 
Although containing several rows of well-built houses and 
many handsome shops, it mainly consists of elegant sepa- 
rate villas, with flower plots or gardens attached. It was 
constituted a police burgh in Oct. 1870, and is governed 
by a body of commissioners, consisting of a senior and 
2 junior magistrates and 6 other members. It has a 
head post office, with money order, savings' bank, insur- 
ance, and telegraph departments, several first-class hotels, 
numerous private boarding and lodging houses, a branch 
of the Union Bank, insurance offices, bowling greens, 
a public reading-room, a fine art and natural history mu- 
seum, Turkish baths, a large hydropathic establishment, 
a handsome well-house, a gas anda water company, and 
two Saturday papers, the Reporter (1859) and Gazette. 
Paper-making, bleaching, and dyeing are carried on; 
and cattle fairs are on the third Wednesday of April and 
October, whilst in Westerton Park, on the first Saturday 
of August, are held the most famous athletic games of 
Scotland, the Strathallan Meeting. Constituted a quoad 
sacra parish in 1868. in the presbytery of Dunblane and 
synod of Perth and Stirling, Bridge of Allan has an Esta- 
blished church, with 650 sittings, a handsome Gothic 
edifice, built in 1859, and greatly enlarged in 1876; its 
minister's stipend is £430. There are also a U. P. church 
(1846, 500 sittings), a Free church (1853, 800 sittings), 
with spire 108 feet high, and St Saviour's Episcopal 
church (1857-72, 200 sittings), both the two last ' eing 
Decorated in style. A public school, with accoi'imoda- 
tion for 220 children, had (1S91) an average attendance 
of 176, and a grant of £175, 7s. Airthrey Castle, 
Westerton House, Keir, and Kippenross are in the 
vicinity, as also are Abbey Craig (362 feet), Dumyat 
(1375), and other summits of the Ochil range. Pop. 
of quoad sacra parish (1871) 2584, (1881) 2462, (1891) 
2690; of burgh (1861) 1803, (1871) 3055, (1881) 3004, 
(1S91) 3207.— Ord. Sur., ah. 39, 1869. 

Allander, a small river of Dumbartonshire and Stir- 
lingshire, rises in Strathblane parish, on the south- 
eastern slope of Auchinaden Hill (1171 feet), among the 
moors of the Kilpatrick Hills, and 54. miles NNW of 
New Kilpatrick. It takes a south-eastward course of 
some 9 miles, and falls into the Kelvin 24 miles E of New 
Kilpatrick. Through the Auldmarroeh Burn it is fed 
in summer by a reservoir among the hills; and it brings 
down water thence, in droughty weather, for the mills 
on the Kelvin, whilst itself driving extensive machinery 
at places on its own course. Its dark-hued waters indi- 
cate their mossy source. 

Allangrange. See Knockeain. 

Allanmouth. See Allen, Roxburghshire. 

AUanton, a village in Edrom parish, Berwickshire, 
situated at the confluence of the Blackadder and Whit- 
adder, both spanned by bridges here, and 2J miles B 
of Edrom station on the Duns branch of the North 
British. It has a school, with accommodation for 115 
children, an average attendance (1891) of 35, and a grant 
of £35, 2s. 6d. ; | mile S by E is a Free church. 

Allanton, a coal-mining village, in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire, 1 j mile ESE of the town. Pop. 438. 




AUanton, a hamlet in Galston parish, NE Ayrshire, 
5f miles E of Newmilns station. It has a public school, 
with accommodation for 46 children, an average attend- 
ance (1891) of 14, and a grant of £26, 15s. 

Allanton, a mansion and estate in Cambusnethan 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2 miles NE of Newmains station. 
Having passed to his ancestors from Arbroath Abbey, 
it is a seat of Sir A. H. Seton-Steuart, eighteenth in 
descent from Alexander Steuart, fourth Lord High 
Steward of Scotland; fourth Baronet since 1814; and 
owner of 2673 acres, of .£4076 (£2197 minerals) annual 
value, in the shire. The original castellated building, 
said to have been visited by Cromwell in 1650, was greatly 
enlarged by Gillespie Graham in the latter half of last 
century. A fine large park, with a picturesque lake, sur- 
rounds it; and the estate is rich in coal and ironstone. 

Allardice. See Ap.buthnott. 

Allan, a rivulet of Melrose parish, rises in the NW 
corner of Roxburghshire, on the northern slope of Sell 
Moor, at an altitude of 1200 feet. Thence winding 9 
miles SSE, past hills 800 to 1000 feet high, it falls into 
the Tweed, 2^ miles WNW of Melrose town. Its lower 
course lies through the Fairy or Nameless Dean, a nar- 
row glen, threaded by the old monks' bridle-way to 
Soutra; and Scott laid here the scene of his Monastery. 
Instead, however, of the single peel-house of ' Glen- 
dearg,' three ruinous towers stand at the head of the 
glen — the Cairncrosses' Hillslap (1585), the Borthwicks' 
Colmslie, and Langshaw. See Lauder's Scottish Rivers, 
pp. 115-117; and RmmeweU's Zands of Scott, pp. 322-332. 

Allerly, a mansion near the left bank of the Tweed, 
1J mile N of Melrose, Roxburghshire. It was long the 
residence of Sir David Brewster (b. 11 Dec. 1781), and 
here he died 10 Feb. 1868. 

Allnach, a rivulet of Inverness and Banff shires, rising 
in several head-streams on the north-eastern slopes of 
Caiplich (3574 feet), one of the Cairngorm Mountains. 
It runs about 13 miles north-eastward, partly on the 
boundary between the counties, and falls into the Aven, 
1 mile S of Tomintoul. In its upper course it is known 
as the Water of Caiplich. 

^illoa, a river-port and -parish; the former a seat of 
manufacture, and the chief town of Clackmannanshire, 
lies on the N bank of the tidal Forth, which, here 
emerging from its winding Links, has a width of \ mile. 
It has since 1815 held steamboat communication with 
Leith (28 miles) and Stirling (10J miles), and a steam 
ferry from 1853 until the opening of the new railway 
bridge, plied to South Alloa as terminus of a branch of 
the Caledonian from Larbert. Since then a steam launch 
leaves the ferry pier for South Alloa at intervals during 
the day. By two sections of the North British (1850-71) 
Alloa is 6J miles E of Stirling, XZ\ W by N of Dunferm- 
line, 17 WSW of Kinross, and 32 WSW of Ladybank. 
The railway bridge, which is about a mile above the ferry, 
consists of seventeen spans — two of 100 feet, two of 80, 
and thirteen of 68 feet. In the fairway of the channel 
two spans of 60 feet each, turning on a massive centre 
pier consisting of six cylindrical columns, open to allow 
vessels to pass. The piers on which the girders rest rise 
to a height of 24 feet above high-water mark, the founda- 
tions of some of them being 70 feet below the bed of the 
river. The bridge is for one line of rails only, and is about 
a quarter of a mile in length. By arrangement, the North 
British Railway Company have running powers over it, 
while theCaledonian gets the use of the former's passenger 
station, recently entirely reconstructed. The situation 
of Alloa is a pleasant one — in front the Lime-tree Walk 
(planted 1714), leading up from the harbour; eastward, 
close by, the old grey tower and modern mansion of the 
Earls of Mar and Kellie; westward the bonnie Links of 
Forth, with Stirling Castle beyond ; and for a background 
the OOHIL HULLS. Great alterations and improvements 
have of late been made in the town. In 1822 a supply 
of water was obtained at considerable expense from the 
large artificial loch called Gartmorn Dam; and though 
this supply had been greatly increased and new water- 
works erected, owing to the expansion of the town an 
additional supply, costing over £30,000, was introduced 

in 1894. In 1877 the town acquired the gasworks for 
£23, 250, the price of gas being since considerably reduced. 
Alloa has a post office, erected in 1882, branches of the 
Clydesdale, Commercial, National, Royal, and Union 
banks, and a savings bank ; several hotels, a volunteer 
drill hall, a masonic hall, a co-operative society, a county 
hospital (1893), a county court-house, four newspapers, 
etc. The town hall and public library, the gift of John 
Thomson Paton, Esq., occupies a commanding site at 
Mars Hill, and was opened in 1888. The same gentle- 
man, in 1S95, erected public baths and gymnasium for 
the town. In the same year Mr. Forrester Paton, chair- 
man of the School Board, offered to build and equip a 
new secondary school in connection with the Academy; 
while his sister, Miss Forrester Paton, offered either to- 
reconstruct and modernize the existing hospital or build 
an entirely new one. . The corn exchange is also used 
as an assembly hall. Other edifices are — the muni- 
cipal buildings (1872), the custom house (1861), the 
hospital (1868), and the hall and museum (1874), in 
Grecian style, of a Natural Science and Archaeological 
Society, founded in 1863; at the head of the Walk stands 
an ornamental drinking-fountain (1869). The parish 
church (1817-19), restored internally in 1875, is an 
imposing Gothic structure, 124 feet long and 78 feet 
wide, with 1560 sittings and a spire-surmounted clock- 
tower 206 feet high. It took the place of an ancient 
church, whose tower alone remains, and whose site is 
partially occupied by the Erskine mausoleum. St An- 
drew's, seated for 800, was opened in 1882. There are 
two Free churches, East and West, and two U. P. churches 
— Townhead, or First (rebuilt 1851 ; renewed 1874), and 
West (rebuilt 1864). The fine Episcopal church of St. 
John the Evangelist (1S67-69), enlarged 1872, cost over 
£5000, and consists of nave, chancel, and N aisle, with 
a SJV tower and spire, 120 feet high, in which hang six 
good bells; it has, too, a splendid organ, a number of 
stained glass windows, a mosaic reredos by Salviatti, and 
monuments of Bishop John Alexander of Dunkeld (1694- 
1776) and members of the Erskine family, including a 
marble recumbent effigy of the late earl, designed by Mr 
Anderson, the architect. The former Episcopal church 
(1840) was converted in 1869 into St Mungo's Roman 
Catholic church. A new Baptist ehapel was built in 1SS1, 
and there is one for Swedenborgians. The Academy was 
erected in 1825, the Burgh School at a cost of £3600 in 
1876. Greenside School, founded and endowed by Alex. 
Paton at a cost of £5500 in 1865, was closed in 1879, 
when the other four board schools (Academy, Burgh, 
Broad Street, and Ludgate), and an Episcopal and Roman 
Catholic, with total accommodation for 1802 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 1572, and grants 
amounting to £1494, 12s. Besides the Lime Tree Walk, 
there is the West End Park, acquired in 1877 as a feu from 
the Earl of Mar and Kellie, extending to over 20 acres. 
The harbour though improved has one great disadvan- 
tage, the ceaseless lodgment of mud. The water rises at 
neap tides from 14 to 16 feet, at spring tides from 22 to 24, 
yet the bed of the harbour is nearly on a level with the 
top of Leith pier ; another noteworthy feature is the 
double or 'leaky' tide at every spring ebb and flow. By 
Acts of 1754, 1786, and 1803 the harbour trustees were 
empowered to rebuild the pier and execute new works; 
and tho Big Pow was converted (1861-63) into a wet- 
dock, 600 feet long, 150 broad, and 24 deep, with a dock 
gate 50 feet wide, and a substantial high-level loading 
berth. The dock has since been greatly enlarged, and 
a powerful steam dredger obtained. Connected with 
the harbour is a fine graving dock and steam cranes. 
A 'creek' of Bo'ness from 1707 to 1822, and next of 
Grangemouth, Alloa was made a sub-port in 1838, and 
an independent port in 1840, its district extending along 
both sides of tho Forth from the new bridge of Stirling 
to Higgins Neuk on the S, and tho new pans of Kin- 
cardine on the N. On 31 Dec. 1894, it had on its register 
2 sailing vessels of 1339 tons and 6 steamers of 115 tons, 
against an aggregato tonnage ol'18,672 in 1845, 14,904 in 
1853, 10,512 in 1863, 5527 in 1873, and 5133 in 1880. 
This shows a falling-off; but another talo is told by the 



following table, which gives the tonnage of vessels that 
entered and cleared from foreign and colonial ports and 
coastwise, with cargoes and also — except for the three 
first years — in ballast : — 




British. Foreign. 





























































Of the total 900 vessels of 149,863 tons that entered 
in 1894, 304 of 64,473 tons were steamers, 355 of 61,988 
tons were in ballast, and 375 of 48,825 tons were coasters; 
whilst the total 965 of 161,865 tons of those that cleared 
included 309 steamers of 68,274 tons, 203 vessels in 
ballast of 33,847 tons, and 363 coasters of 47,290 tons. 
The trade is mainly, then, an export one, and coal the chief 
article of export, some 160,000 tons being shipped annu- 
ally to foreign countries, besides about 15,000 coastwise. 
The exports (comprising also ale, whisky, pig-iron, etc.) 
amount to about £57,000, the imports to £112,000 ; 
the customs are small ; the foreign commerce is prin- 
cipally with Baltic, French, German, Dutch, and Belgian 
ports. Shipbuilding has been carried on since 1790, and 
the graving dock, then constructed, cau now receive 
vessels of 800 tons, and one sailing ship of 377 tons, and 
five steamers of 799 tons net were built here during 1894. 
There are 29 fishing boats of 242 tons, the number of 
persons employed being 62 men and boys. But 'as 
the virtual capital,' says Mr Lothian, 'of a county 
which, though small in geographical extent, contributes 
from the excise duties levied on spirits, malt, etc., 
about a seventieth part of the revenue of the United 
Kingdom, Alloa assumes a position of considerable im- 
portance.' Its earliest brewery was started in 1784, and 
at the eight existing now more than 100,000 barrels of 
strong and pale ale are yearly produced; whilst of two 
whisky distilleries, Carsebridge (1799) and Cambus(1806), 
the former alone in a single week can produce from 
50,000 to 60,000 gallons. The spinning and manufac- 
ture of wool, dating from 1813, engage several factories, 
where thousands of tons of wool, mostly home grown, 
are annually wrought into knitting, hosiery, and tweed 
yarns; and there are cooperages, glass works, saw mills 
and timber yards, copper and engineering works, rope 
walks, brick and tile yards, a dyewood work and chemical 
manufactory, an iron foundry, and a pottery. 

Camden identified Alloa with Ptolemy's Alauna, 
which Skene rather places at the Allan's confluence with 
the Forth. Twenty cinerary urns, supposed to be Roman, 
were discovered at Mars Hill in 1828, along with two 
stone coffins and a pair of gold penannular armlets ; a 
sandstone block on Hawkhill, 10J feet high, and sculp- 
tured with a cross, was found the year after to mark a 
very early Christian cist. But apart from its Tower 
the town has no memories beyond its pillage by Mon- 
trose's Highlanders in 1645. A burgh of barony and 
regality, it adopted the General Police Act in 1863, and 
is governed by a senior and 2 junior magistrates, and 
6 commissioners. Sheriff county courts sit during ses- 
sion time every Wednesday and Friday, sheriff small 
debt courts every Wednesday ; and quarter sessions are 
held on the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, 
and the last_ Tuesday of October. Saturday is market- 
day, and fairs are held on the second Wednesday of 
February, May (cattle), August (hiring), and November 
(cattle), and on the second Saturday of October (hiring). 
Valuation £38,983. Pop. (1784) 3482, (1831) 4417, 
(1841) 5443, (1851) 6676, (1861) 7621, (1871) 9362, (1891) 
12,643, of whom 903 were in the Sauchie portion and 
986 in the New Sauchie portion; of police burgh alone 
The parish of Alloa contains also the villages of Cam- 

bus, 2J miles WNW of the town ; Tullibody, 2| miles 
NW ; and Collyland, 2 miles N. It is bounded W and 
NW by Logic, N by Alva and Tillicoultry, E and SE 
by Clackmannan, while its S boundary is traced by 
the river Forth. In the readjustment of the parish 
by the Boundary Commissioners in 1891, the small 
piortion in Perthshire (3| acres) was transferred to 
the county of Stirling and parish of Logie, while the 
Blackgrange district of Logie and the detached por- 
tion (1028 acres) of the parish of Clackmannan situated 
at Sauchie were transferred to the parish of Alloa, which 
is now wholly within the county of Clackmannan. The 
Forth winds 4f miles along all the southern border, and 
here contains two low islets, Tullibody and Alloa Inches, 
the second and larger of which is a valuable farm of 80 
acres. The Devon traces 4 miles of the Alva and Logie 
boundary, next striking If miles through the western 
interior to the Forth ; and the carse lands of the latter 
and vale of the former consist of alluvial flats, with a 
fine rich soil incumbent on strong clay. The district 
between, though somewhat undulating, nowhere attains 
300 feet above sea-level, and, with soils ranging from 
loam-covered gravel to thin earth resting on a cold till 
bottom, is all of it arable, and has been greatly improved 
by draining. The formation is Carboniferous, and coal 
has been mined in great abundance since 1519; sand- 
stone and ironstone also have been worked. Gartmorn 
Dam, 2 miles ENE of the town, is an artificial lake, 
measuring 6 by 2J furlongs, and fed by the Black Devon. 
Natives were Jn. Erskine, sixth earl of Mar (1675-1732), 
leader of the rebellion of 1715; David Allan (1748-96), 
the ' Hogarth of Scotland, ' born at the Shore of Alloa ; 
and Rt. Dick (1811-66), the Thurso geologist, born at 
Tullibody. Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801), the 
hero of Aboukir Bay, attended Alloa school. Alloa 
Tower, built about 1223, was in 1360 bestowed by David 
II. on Sir Robert Erskine, Great Chamberlain of Scot- 
land, whose seventh descendant, John, sixth Lord 
Erskine, was in 1561 created Earl of Mar — a title which, 
forfeited by the Jacobite earl in 1716, was restored in 
1824, and with which that of Earl of Kellie (ere. 1619) 
was united in 1828. As the result of a lengthened litr- 
gation Mr Goodeve-Erskine was in 1S85 declared twenty- 
sixth Earl of Mar (an Act of Parliament being passed to 
confirm the title), though the title of Earl of Mar and 
Kellie still remains with the Erskine family. Its present 
holder is Walter J. Francis, who succeeded on the death 
of his father in September 1888, when in his 23rd year. 
The Erskines have been connected with this parish since 
the time of King Robert Bruce, previous to which they 
dwelt in Renfrewshire. The tower is square and of 
great strength, the walls 11 feet thick, the topmost 
turret 89 feet high ; and this strength it was that saved 
it from the great fire of 28 Aug. 1S00, which destroyed 
all the later additions, along with a portrait of Mary 
Queen of Scots. Mary spent much of her childhood 
here, as also did James VI. and Prince Henry; and the 
latter's golf-club and James's cradle are still preserved. 
The modern house (1834-38) was much enlarged between 
1866 and 1872, when its gardens, with terrace and lawns 
sloping down to the river, were likewise greatly im- 
proved. The three chief mansions in the parish, with 
distance from the town, proprietors' names, and the 
•extent and yearly value of their estates within the 
shire are : — Alloa Park Mansion, 4 furlongs E (Earl of 
Mar and Kellie, 6163 acres, £8256 + £1260 for coal); Tulli- 
body House, li NW (Lord Abercromby of Airthrey, 
3707 acres, £5199); Schaw Park, 24 miles NE (Earl of 
Mansfield, of Scone Palace, 1705 acres, £1751 + £1866 
for coal). In all, 8 proprietors hold in the parish an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 44 of between £100 
and £500, 59 of from £50 to £100, and 134 of from 
£20 to £50. Alloa is in the presbytery of Stirling and 
synod of Perth and Stirling; the living is worth £559. 
There are two landward schools, Alloa Parish and Tulli- 
body, with accommodation for 355 and 205 children. 
Valuation, £55,341, 8s. 5d. Pop. (1891) 12,434.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. See Jas. Lothian, Alloa and 
its Environs ; and Jn. Crawford, Memorials of A lloa. 



Alloa, South, a hamlet and small seaport in Airth 
parish, Stirlingshire, on the right bank of the Forth, 
at Alloa Ferry, and at the terminus of the Larbert and 
South Alloa goods branch of the Caledonian railway, 
6 miles ESE of Stirling. A steam ferry crosses to Alloa 
at intervals during the day. It has extensive timber 
yards and sawing and planing mills. As there are no 
harbour dues, merchants importing from the Baltic and 
other eastern ports, by discharging here save the heavy 
dues charged at Leith and Grangemouth. 

Alloway, an ancient quoad civilia and a modern quoad 
sacra parish of Ayrshire, on the lowest reaches of the 
'bonny Doon,' 2| miles S of the town of Ayr. The 
ancient parish, lying wholly to the right of the Doon, 
and separated by Glengaw Burn from Ayr, was united 
to the latter towards the close of the 17th century; the 
modern parish included a portion of Maybole, on the 
Doon's right bank, transferred to the parish of Ayr by 
the. Boundary Commissioners in 1891. In the presby- 
tery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, with a stipend 
of £150, it possesses a handsome Gothic church (1858), 
enlarged in 1890, and a public school for 160 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 133, and a grant of 
£111, Is. — 'Alloway's auld haunted kirk,' a little roof- 
less ruin, First Pointed in style, stands just below the 
' Auld Brig ' of Doon. Visited now by pilgrims from 
many lands, this long had been merely the resting-place 
of unknown peasant folk, when Burns selected it for 
the scone of the demon revelry of Tarn o' Shantcr. Near 
the churchyard gate, the grave of the poet's father 
(1721-84) is marked by a simple stone — not the original, 
which relic-mongers carried piecemeal away ; the poet 
himself would fain have shared that grave. The in- 
terior of the kirk has been stripped of its woodwork, 
for snuff-boxes and the like ; here is buried David Cath- 
cart, Lord Alloway (1764-1829), senator of the College 
of Justice. — A cenotaph to Burns, erected in 1820, 
after a design by Hamilton of Edinburgh, at a cost of 
£3350, and comprising a triangular base, a Corinthian 
cyclostyle, and an ornate cupola, with surmounting 
tripod, stands about 100 yards E of the old church, and 
is surrounded by an enclosed plot of 1J acre, in which a 
small grotto contains Thorn's statues of ' Tam o' Shanter' 
and ' Souter Johnnie.' — The Auld Brig o' Doon, a gaunt 
structure of great antiquity, famous for the fight between 
Cassillis and Bargeny (1601), more famous for its part 
in Tarn o' Shantcr, crosses the river close to the monu- 
ment ; and the neat new bridge, later than Burns' day, 
spans it, some distance lower down. — The 'Auld Clay 
Biggin,' Burns' birthplace (25 Jan. 1759), and scene 
of his Colter's Saturday Night, stands about f mile to 
the N, and, theretofore a public house, was purchased 
in 1880 for £4000 from the Ayr Corporation of Shoe- 
makers by the trustees of the monument, by them to be 
converted into a kind of Burns museum. — Mount Oli- 
phant, to which Burns' father removed in 1777, is 
about 1J mile to the ESE ; and Doonbrae Cottage, 
Cambusdoon House, Rozelle, and Doonholm are seats 
within J mile of the church or monument. Alloway 
Moat, near the avenue leading to Doonholm, is an 
ancient artificial mound, used in old times for holding 
courts of justice. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1683. 

Alltacoileachan, a burn in Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire, which, rising on the NE slope of Cam a Bhodaich 
(21 49 feet), flows about 4 J miles WNW to the Tervie. 
The battle of is named in the neighbourhood 
after it. 

Allt-an-Fhearna (Gael. ' stream of the alder tree '), a 
loch in the NE of Kildonan parish, Sutherland, con- 
nected by a burn with Baddanloch. It lies at an alti- 
tude of 433 feet, is 7 furlongs long by 5 broad, and 
abounds in small trout and char. 

Allt-Araaii. See Aldernan. 

Almagill, a hill in Dalton parish, Dumfriesshire, 7 
miles E of Dumfries, consists of Silurian rock, and ris- 
ing to a height of 720 feet, commands a view of nearly 
;ill Annandale. On its northern slope is a very distinct 
British camp, called Range Castle, 306 feet in diameter, 
with a surrounding ditch 9 feet deep and 27 wide. 


Almerieclose, an estate, with a mansion, in St Vigeans 
parish, Forfarshire, contiguous to Arbroath. About 
35 acres of the estate, on the river Brothock, were feued 
for building purposes, and are now occupied by suburban 
streets and factories of Arbroath. 

Almond, a river of Lanark, Linlithgow, and Edin- 
burgh shires, rising in Sliotts parish, 2 miles E of Kirk 
of Shotts, at an altitude of about 700 feet. It has an 
eastward course for 1 4 miles past Blackburn and Living- 
stone to near Midcalder ; and thence, in a north-easterly 
direction, follows the boundary between Linlithgow and 
Edinburgh shires, past Almondell, Kirkliston, Carlowrie, 
and Cragiehali, to the Firth of Forth at Cramond. Its 
total length, exclusive of smaller windings, is 24 miles ; 
its bed, over great part of its course, is broad and either 
gravelly or rocky ; its waters, after heavy rains, often 
come down in great freshets, overflowing the banks 
and doing much injury to low, fertile, adjacent lands, 
but of late years have been extensively restrained by 
strong and high embankments. Its chief tributaries 
are Breich Water on the right above Livingstone, the 
Broxburn on the left above, and the Gogar Burn on the 
right below, Kirkliston. Its lower reaches traverse a 
picturesque wooded ravine, and between Midcalder and 
Kirkliston the stream is crossed by an aqueduct of the 
Union Canal, and by a viaduct of the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow branch of the North British railway. The 
fishing, ruined by oil-works and the steeping of flax, is 
improving in consequence of legal proceedings, and trout 
are beginning to be once more found. — Ord. Sur. , shs. 
31, 32, 1867-57. 

Almond, a river of Perthshire, rising in the SE corner 
of Killin parish, within 3 miles of Loch Tay, at an 
altitude of 2750 feet, and running eastward and east- 
south-eastward over a distance of 30 miles. It either 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Monzie, Crieff, 
Fowlis- Wester, Methven, Redgorton, and Tibbermore, 
and finally falls into the Tay 1\ miles above Perth, and 
nearly opposite Scone. Its vale, Glenalmond, is for 
a long way strictly a glen, narrow and stern, overhung 
by lofty heights. Part of it, indeed, is a chasm or 
romantic pass, with breadth of bottom sufficient only 
for the river and a road, and with flanks of bare rocky 
cliffs rising to the height of from 1000 to 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea ; here is the ancient stone- 
faced excavation, believed by some — Wordsworth among 
their number — to be the resting-place of Ossian. The 
lower half of the river's vale is flanked only by hills, 
braes, and undulations, and presents a cultivated aspect. 
That part immediately below the pass contains two 
ancient Caledonian stone circles, several ruined ancient 
fortalices, and the Scottish Episcopal College. A spot 
further down, 1\ miles NNE of Methven, is said to be the 
grave of ' Bessie Bell and Mary Gray,' famed in pathetic 
ballad. Lynedoch House, J mile lower down, was the seat 
of General Graham, Lord Lynedoch (1750-1843), the hero 
of Barossa. The river abounds in small trout. — Ord. Sur. , 
shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. See pp. 213,214 of Dorothy Words- 
worth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Print Shairp, 1874). 

Almondbank, a village in the E of Methven parish, 
Perthshire, on the right bank of the Almond, f mile N 
by W of a station of its own name on the Caledonian ; 
this station having a telegraph office, and being 4 miles 
WNW of the post-town Perth. At the village are a post 
office with money order and savings' bank departments, 
an inn, 2 bleachfields, and a public school, which, with 
accommodation for 151 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 59, and a grant of £56, 13s. 6d. Pop. 
(1861) 386, (1871) 371, (1881) 351, (1891) 289. 

Almond or Haining Castle, a ruin in Muiravonside 
palish, Stirlingshire. Built by the Crawfords in the 
reign of James III., it passed in 1540 to the Livingstones, 
and changed its name of Haining to Almond Castle_ in 
1633, when James, third son of the first Earl of Linlith- 
gow, was created Baron Livingstone of Almond, a title 
exchanged by him in 1641 for those of Earl of Callendar 
and Baron Almond. The castle ceased to be inhabited 
about the middle of last century, but is still a fine speci- 
men of old domestic architecture. 


Almondale. See Amondell. 

Alness, a river, a village, and a parish of Ross-shire. 
The river rises among mountains 4 miles WNW of Loch 
Moir, and, traversing that loch, which is 2^ mileslong, and 
about f mile wide, runs thence 11 miles east-south-east- 
ward, along the boundary between Alness and Rosskeen 
parishes, to the Cromarty Firth at Alness village. Its 
vale is upland, wild, and romantic ; exhibits numerous 
scenes highly attractive to painters and poets ; and at 
one place, in particular, called Tollie, is impressively 
grand. Both its own waters and those of Loch Moir are 
well stocked with trout. 

The village stands on both banks of the river, and on 
the Highland railway, 10 miles NNE of Dingwall ; con- 
sists of two parts, Alness proper in Alness parish, and 
Alness-Bridgend in Rosskeen parish ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, an hotel, 2 large distilleries, and fairs on 
the second Tuesday of January, the first Tuesday of 
March, the Wednesday of April before the first Amulree 
May market, the day in May after Kildary, the second 
Wednesday of June, and the Wednesday of July, of 
August, and of September after Kyle of Sutherland. In 
1878, during the construction of a branch line from 
Alness station to Dalmore distillery, which is close to 
the sea-shore, 18 pre-historic graves were discovered. 
All were short cists, formed of fiat stones, and contained 
human bones, urns, flint and bronze implements, etc. 
{Procs. Soe. Ant. Scot., 1879, pp. 252-264). Pop. (1891) 
of Alness proper, 309 ; of Alness-Bridgend, 705. 

The parish is bounded N by Kincardine, E by Ross- 
keen, S by Cromarty Firth, and W by Kiltearn. Its 
greatest length from N to S is about 20 miles, and its 
average breadth is 5. The lands along the shores of 
Cromarty Firth are prevailingly flat, cultivated, and 
beautiful ; those inland and northward are hilly, heathy, 
and bleak. The hills, though not arranged in ridges, are 
high, and in some cases mountainous, Fyrish Hill rising 
1478 feet above sea-level. Springs of excellent water are 
everywhere numerous; andtheAuLTGRANDE river, follow- 
ing the Kiltearn boundary, presents very grand features. 
The rocks are Devonian and Silurian, the former occur- 
ring in conglomerate, while the Silurian merge into gneiss. 
Vast erratic blocks or boulders abound in many parts, 
and have with great difficulty been blasted or otherwise 
removed in the cultivated tracts. Great improvements 
have been effected within the last forty years on the Cul- 
cairn and Novar properties, in the way of reclaiming, 
draining, fencing, building, etc. The rental of the lat- 
ter estate increased from £2413 in 1868 to £3124 in 
1877, one cause of such increase being the great extent 
of waste brought under larches and Scotch firs. Three 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 2 of between £100 and £500, and 2 of from £20 
to £50. Two cairns and a ruined pre-Reformation chapel 
are the chief antiquities. Alness is in the presbytery of 
Dingwall and synod of Ross ; its minister's income is 
£244. The parish church, built in 1780, contains S00 
sittings, and there is also a Free church ; whilst 3 pub- 
lic schools, Alness, Boath, and Glenglass, with respective 
accommodation for 120, 70, and 52 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 72, 29, and 49, and grants of 
£69, 8s., £42, 3s., and £63, 7s. Valuation £8531, 4s. 9d. 
Pop. (1871) 1053, (1881) 1033, (1891) 1039. 

Alnwick or Annick Lodge, a collier village in Irvine 
parish, Ayrshire, 3 miles NE of Irvine town. There is 
a public school with accommodation for 200 children, 
which had (1891) an average attendance of 124, and a 
grant of £116, 2s. 

Alpety, a place in Arbuthnot parish, Kincardineshiie, 
4 miles NW of Bervie. 
Alsh, Loch. See Lochalsh. 
Altachoylachan. See Alltacoileaohan. 
Altamarlach. See Altimarlach. 
Altando, a coast hamlet in Lochbroom parish, N¥ 
Ross-shire, 32 miles NW of Ullapool. A public 
school at it, with accommodation for 90 children, had 
(1891) an average attendance of 78, and a grant of 
£94, 10s. 


Altavaig, an islet of Kilmuir parish, off the NE coast 
of Skye, 2| miles SSE of Aird Point. It contains re- 
mains of a small pre-Reformation chapel. 

Altdouran, a rivulet in Leswalt parish, Wigtownshire. 
It issues from a moss of nearly 1000 acres, traverses a 
romantic glen, makes a fine cascade at entering the glen, 
and passes on to the Sole Burn, about a mile above that 
stream's influx to Loch Ryan. Its name signifies ' the 
Otters' burn.' 

Altens, a coast hamlet in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, 
2J miles SSE of Aberdeen. It was formerly a consider- 
able fishing settlement ; but owing to the badness of its 
harbour, and the want of suitable means for curing had- 
docks, it became deserted by fishermen. 

Altgrad. See Aultgrande. 

Altimarlach, a burn in the parish of Wick, Caithness, 
flows through the Loch of Winless, and falls into Wick 
Water, 4 miles to the W of the town. Its banks were 
the scene of a famous conflict on 13 July 1680, between 
the Campbells and the Sinclairs. Sir John Campbell 
of Glenorchy, afterwards Earl of Breadalbane, claimed 
the Earldom of Caithness, but was resisted in his claim 
by George Sinclair of Keiss ; and, to enforce it, marched 
at the head of 700 Argyll Highlanders from the banks 
of the Tay to beyond the promontory of the Ord. Keiss, 
on his part, was revelling with 400 followers at Wick, 
when tidings reached him, ' The Campbells are coming. ' 
All mad with drink, his men rushed out to the fight, 
were instantly routed, and fell in such numbers that 
' the victors crossed the Altimarlach dry-shod on their 
bodies ; ' but Keiss next year obtained the earldom by 
award of Parliament. 

Altin or Haltin, a glen in Snizort parish, Isle of Skye, 

Altirlie, a small headland in Petty parish, Inverness- 
shire, 5 miles NE of Inverness. 

Altivaig. See Altavio. 

Altmore, an impetuous rivulet formed by several head- 
streams in the SE of Rathven parish, Banffshire, and 
running 5J miles southward till it falls into the Isla. 

Altnabreac, a station on the Caithness railway, 10 
miles SW of Halkirk, with a telegraph post office. A 
shooting lodge, costing about £4000, was erected here 
in 1892 by Sir Tollemache Sinclair. 

Altnacn. See Allnach. 

Alt-na-Giuthasach, a lodge in Balmoral forest, SW 
Aberdeenshire, near the foot of Loch Muick, and 9 miles 
SSE of Balmoral Castle. At this her 'humble little 
bothie, ' the Queen first heard of the Duke of Welling- 
ton's death, 16 Sept. 1852. 

Altnaharra (Gael, allt-na-charra, 'stream of the 
stone pillar '), a hamlet in Farr parish, Sutherland, near 
the head of Loch Naver, on the road from Bonar-Bridge 
to Tongue, 21 miles N of Lairg station, and 17 S of 
Tongue. It has a post office under Lairg, an inn, a Free 
church, a school, and a fair for cattle and horses on the 
Friday of September before Kyle of Sutherland. 

Altnakealgach. See Assynt. 

Altnalait, a burn in the E of Ross-shire, running along 
the southern boundary of Kiltearn parish to Cromarty 

Altnarie, a burn in Ardclach parish, Nairnshire, ris- 
ing and running among mountains, with a southerly 
course, to the Fiudhorn. It makes a profound and very 
romantic fall within a deep, wooded, sequestered glen. 

Alton, a village in Loudoun parish, Ayrshire, 1£ mile 
N of Galston. The name is a contraction from Auld- 

Altrive, a stream and a farmstead in Yarrow parish, 
Selkirkshire. The former rises in the two head-streams 
of Altrive Lake and Altrive Burn, on the declivities 
of the Wiss (1932 feet) and Peat Law (1737), and runs 
about 3£ miles NNE to the Yarrow river, at a point 2 
miles ENE of the foot of St Mary's Loch. The farm- 
stead stands upon the stream's left bank, \ mile above 
its mouth, and was the home of Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, from 1814 down to his death, 21 Nov. 1835. He 
held it of the Duke of Buccleuch at a nominal rent, and 
had, said Allan Cunningham, ' the finest trout in the 



Yarrow, the finest lambs on its braes, the finest grouse 
on its hills, and as good as a sma' still besides.' 

Altruadh, a rivulet in Rothieniurchus parish, Inver- 

Alt-Torquil, a streamlet in Kildonan parish, Suther- 

Altyre, a burn, an estate, and a quondam parish, in 
Elginshire. The burn rises in Edinkillie parish, on the 
SW slope of the Hill of Glaschyle, at an altitude of 950 
feet ; and flowing some 10 miles northward, past Altyre 
House and Forres, falls into Findhorn Bay, 1 mile WSW 
of Kinloss. It has an impetuous current, often flooding 
the neighbouring low grounds, and covering them with 
debris; in its lower reaches it takes the name of Forres 
Water. Altyre House, 4 miles S of Forres, belongs to 
Sir "William-Gordon Gordon-Cumming, fourth Bart., re- 
presentative of the ancient Earls of Badenoch ; and is a 
tine modern mansion in the Italian style, standing on 
the right bank of the burn, at an altitude of 212 feet 
above sea-level. Its estate consists mainly of wooded 
hill and of pasturage, but also includes much arable land, 
with thin but productive soil. The parish belonged to 
the parsonage of Dallas, till in 1661 it was annexed by 
Act of Parliament to Rafford. Its ancient church, J 
mile N of Altyre House, is a small but interesting First 
Pointed structure ; and a hill where the capital sentences 
of the baron court of Altyre were carried out, still bears 
the name of Gallow HilL 

Alum Well, a mineral spring in Dysart parish, Fife, 
a little W of Dysart town. Its water has long been famed 
for curing sores ; and, besides being much visited on the 
spot, is often sent in bottles to considerable distances. 

Alva (Gael, ailbkeach, 'rocky'), a town and a parish, 
annexed from Clackmannan to Stirling shire about the 
beginning of the 17th century, but reincorporated with 
the former by the Boundary Commissioners in 1S91. 
By road the town is 2 miles W of Tillicoultry, 3J N of 
Alloa, and 6J ENE of Stirling ; as terminus of a branch 
of the North British, opened in 1863, it is 3J miles NE 
of Cambus Junction, 5i from Alloa, 7J from Stirling, 
and (vid Alloa Bridge) 35 KE of Glasgow, 40^ WNW 
of Edinburgh. A police burgh, and the seat of thriving 
industries, it lies upon Alva Burn, 45 feet above sea- 
level, at the southern base of the Ochils, and across thfc 
mouth of beautiful Alva Glen ; it has a post office, with, 
money order, savings bank, and telegraph departments, 
a branch of the Union Bank, gasworks, 2 hotels, a town- 
hall, a Young Men's Christian Institute (1880), a new 
cemetery (1873), public baths and washhouses (1874), 
and a people's park (1856), 10 acres in extent — the last 
two both the gift of the late James Johnstone, Esq., of 
Alva House. A hamlet seems to have stood here front 
the close of the 13th down to the opening of the 18th 
century, when a village was projected, to have the form 
of a square. Only two sides of it were built, however, 
other nouses arising on no fixed plan, till about 1767 
the village was formally enlarged. In 1795 it contained 
some 140 houses ; between 1798 and 1841 eight woollen 
factories were opened, causing rapid extension of dwell- 
ings and population. Blankets and serges were the only 
fabrics produced up to 1829, when shawls were intro- 
duced ; and tartan dress goods, tweeds, handkerchiefs, 
plaids, and shirtings followed. A number of spinning 
mills are now at work, with numerous sets of carding 
engines, driven by steam and water power. The yearly 
value of raw material used is over £120,000, and of goods 
manufactured between £200,000 and £250,000; whilst 
the hands employed number some 200 in the spinning 
mills, 700 journeymen, 100 apprentices, and 550 female 
winders and twisters. There are, too, a brickfield, and 
! i uttle, an oil, and an engine factory. The parish 
■h, anciently dedicated to St Serf, and held by 
Cambuskenneth Abbey, stands on rising ground a little 
to the E, and, twice rebuilt (in 1632 and 1815), was 
enlarged in 1854, so as now to contain 700 sittings.- 
Alva has also a Free Church, a U.P. church, a Baptist 
chapel, and 2 schools (Park Place and Alva), which, with 
tive accommodation for 1020 and 220 children, 
had an average attendance of 722 and 181 in 1891, with 


grants amounting to £631, 15s., and £132, 9s. 6cL 
Pop. (1791) 600, (1841) 2092, (1851) 3058, (1861), 3147, 
(1871) 4096, (1881) 4961, (1891) 5225. 

The parish is bounded NW by Ardoch and Blackford 
in Perthshire, and on all other sides by Clackmannan 
parishes — namely, by Tillicoultry, by Clackmannan, and 
by Alloa. From NNE to SSW it has an extreme 
length of 4 J miles; its greatest width from E to W is 
2J miles ; and its area is 5473J acres, of which 15^ are 
water. When the parish was retransferred to the county 
of Clackmannan, the Menstrie district of the parish of 
Logie was added to it. TheDEVON winds 4 mileswestward 
along all the southern boundary, and midway is joined 
by Alva Burn, which, rising at an altitude of 1750 feet, 
runs 4 miles southward, itself on the left receives Glen- 
winnel Burn (2-1- miles long), and in Alva or Strude Glen 
forms 3 cascades, the largest of them over 30 feet high. 
The beauties of this romantic glen, steep, narrow, and 
rocky, have been opened up to lovers of the picturesque 
by an excellent pathway, constructed by Mr Johnstone 
(1869-70). Between the Devon and the Ochils is a low, 
rich arable tract, from 3 to 6 furlongs wide, with first an 
alluvial soil, next one of stiffish clay, then a moss-stratum 
resting upon clay, and lastly good hazel mould, inter- 
mixed with gravel and small stones. NE of this valley 
or Hill-foot, as it is called, a bluff, 220 feet high, is finely 
surmounted by Alva House (If mile ENE of the town), 
whose ' bonnie woods ' climb far up the slopes of Wood 
Hill to the rear. The top of Wood Hill is 1723 feet 
above sea-level, and left of it rise Middle Hill (1436 feet) 
and West Hill (1682) ; behind these, Craighorn (1904) 
and Bengengie (1855). Still further N are Benbuck 
(2000) and Blairdenon (2072) ; but the summit of Ben- 
oleuch (2363), highest of all the Ochils, falls just within 
the Tillicoultry border. The rocks of the Hill-foot are 
chiefly carboniferous, and a colliery — closed m 1879 — 
yielded some of the finest coal; those of the hills are 
eruptive, containing cobalt, and lead, copper, and iron 
ores ; and here, in the glen between Middle and Wood 
Hills, Sir John Erskine, Bart., discovered a silver mine 
(c. 1712) with this result: — 'Walking with a friend over 
his estate, he pointed out a great hole and remarked, 
"Out of that hole I took £50,000;" then presently, walk- 
ing on, he came to another excavation, and, continued he, 
" I put it all into that hole.'" Sir John it was to whom 
' Alexr. Steuart, found guilty of death for theft at Perth 
the 5th of December 1701,' was 'gifted by the Justiciars 
as a perpetual servant,' according to tho inscription of a 
brasscollar dredged from the Forth in Logie parish(1784), 
andnowpreserved in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum ; 
and Sir John's nephew, Lord Alva, a lord of session, pre- 
sented (1767) two communion cups of native silver to 
Alva church. The Erskiues of Alva, now represented by 
the Earls of Rosslyn, sprang from the fourth son of the 
seventh Earl of Mar, and held the estate (before them owned 
by Stirlings and Menteiths) from 1620 to 1775, when 
Lord Alva sold it to a cadet of the Westorhall Johnstones. 
Their present descendant, J. Augustus Johnstone, Esq., 
owns 6927 acres in Clackmannanshire, of which 5340 
acres are in Alva, with a yearly value of £5225 (in- 
cluding £500 for minerals). Of the latter sum, £2286 
is for the seven farms of Alva parish, whose area (exclu- 
sive of the minstrie district) comprises 3150 acres in 
tillage, 2120 in pasture, and 188 under wood. Twenty- 
three lesser proprietors hold each an annual value of from 
£50 to £100. Alva is in the presbytery of S til-ling and 
synod of Perth and Stirling; the stipend is £213. Valua- 
tion (1881) £13,971, including £439 for railway. Pop. 
(1801)787, (1821) 1197, (1841) 2136, (1861)3283, (1871) 
4296, (1881) 5113, (1891) 5360.— Ord. Sur. sh. 39, 1869. 

Alvah, a parish on the NE border of Banffshire. It has 
no villago, but lies from 2 to 7i miles S of its post-town 
Banff, and is readily accessible from the railway stations 
ofPlaidyand KingKdward. It is bounded NE by Gamrio, 
E by Aberdeenshire, S by Forglon, SW by Marnoeh, 
and NW by Banff. Its land area was 11,488 acres, but 
this was increased by tho Boundary Commissioners in 
] 891 adding to it tho detached portion of the parish of 
King Edward. Alvah and Forglen originally formed 


none parish, but were separated prior to the middle of the 
17th century. The eastern boundary of Alvah is partly 
defined by the Deveron, partly by artificial lines east- 
ward of that river, which has a course, within or along the 
borderof the parish, of 7 J miles. The surface is very diver- 
sified, elevations from S to N being Brownside Hill (600 
feet), Herod Hill (700), Newton Crofts (443), Cowie Hill 
(605), the Hill of Ord (573), Muiry Hill (472), Green Law 
(444), and the isolated Hill of Alvah (578), which serves as 
a landmark to mariners. The scenery along the Deveron, 
at some points soft and charming, at others is bold and 
picturesque. The chasm of the Craigs of Alvah, about 
| mile from the church, contracts the river's waterway 
between two rugged precipices to a width of but 27 feet, 
occasions a pool there 56 feet deep, and, checking the 
current in freshets, so throws it back as often to Cause 
great floods above. It is spanned, at a height of 554 
feet, by a Roman-looking bridge, with majestic arch, 
erected in 1772 by the Earl of Fife. The scene around 
this bridge is deeply impressive ; northward it opens 
into a rocky amphitheatre, rising to a height of nearly 
100 feet, and richly clothed with herbage, shrubs, and 
trees. About 7000 acres of the area are under cultiva- 
tion, 750 under wood, and 3500 waste or pasture land. 
The rocks are chief!}' greywacke and clay slate ; the 
soils and subsoils mostly diluvial. A noted fountain, 
called St Colnie's Well, was not long ago converted into 
a source of constant and copious supply of pure water to 
the town of Banff. Other springs of pure water are 
numerous ; and there are several chalybeate wells. An 
ancient castle, said to have been built by an Earl of Buchan, 
stood in a swamp, now a fertile field, near Mountblairy, 
and a chapel crowned an adjoining eminence ; but both 
have disappeared. A large tumulus and two small cairns 
may still be seen ; but two ancient Caledonian stone 
circles have been almost entirely destroyed. George 
Chapman, LL.D. (1723-1803), a writer on education, was 
a native. Mountblairy House and Dunlugas House are 
the chief mansions ; four landowners hold each an 
annual value of £500. Part of the parish, with 206 in- 
habitants in 1871, is annexed quoad sacra to Ord • the 
rest is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, 
its minister's income amounting to £295. The church 
stands near the northern border, was built in 1792, and 
contains 600 sittings. Under the school-board are Alvah 
school and girls' schools at Dunlugas and Linhead, which, 
with respective accommodation for 143, 48, and 80 chil- 
dren, had (1891) an average attendance of 76, 40, and 45, 
and grants of £73, 9s., £42, 14s., and £29, 3s. 6d! 
Valuation £9910, 6s. lOd. Pop. (1831) 1278, (1861) 
1467, (1891) 1332.— Ord. Sur., shs. 86, 96, 1876. 

Alves, a village and a coast parish of Elginshire. The 
village stands i, mile NE of a station of its own name on 
the Highland Railway, at the junction of the Burg- 
head branch, and 5i miles W of Elgin, is small and 
straggling, and has a post office under Forres. 

The parish formerly included a large portion of what 
is now Kinloss, but was curtailed in 1659 or 1660. It 
is bounded NW for 34 furlongs by Burghead Bay, NE 
by Duffus, E by Spynie, SE by Elgin, SW by Rafford, 
and W by Kinloss. Its length, from N to S, is 6J, 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 5| miles ; and its land 
area is 9404 acres. Alves contains no stream of any 
size ; and the conical Knock (335 feet), at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, is the only noteworthy summit 
m its upper half. This is crowned by the modern York 
Tower, and claims, like several neighbouring localities, 
to have been the meeting-place of Macbeth and the 
V\ itches, The lower half of the parish consists entirely 
ot wooded uplands, that culminate in Eildon Hill (767 
teet) on the SE border. A hard and very durable sand- 
stone : 1* quarried for building purposes, and a rock suit- 
awe i* r millstones is also worked. Aslisk Castle, 2 miles 
» » <if the village, is a ruined baronial fortalice ; and 
near the old Military Road stood Moray's Cairn, thought 
to commemorate a battle, but now destroyed. Near it 
sorr e Lochaber and Danish axes have been exhumed. 
*o\ r landowners hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, and 1 of from 


£50 to £100. Alves is in the presbytery of Elgin and 
synod of Moray ; its minister's income is £310. The 
church is a long, narrow building, erected in 1760, and 
containing 590 sittings. There is also a Free church, 
rebuilt in 1878 at a cost of £1000, which measures 50 by 
42 feet, seats 500, and has a spire 53 feet high. A board 
school, with accommodation for 200 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 139, and a grant of £114, 16s. 
Pop. (1831) 945, (1871) 1018, (1881) 1117, (1891) 1096. 
— Ord. Sur., shs. 85, 95, 1876. 

Alvie, a parish of Badenoch, SE Inverness-shire, tra- 
versed for 10 miles from its south-western to its north- 
eastern border by the Spey, Wade's military road, and 
the Highland railway, with the central station on the 
last of Kincraig, 18J miles SSW of Grantown. It is 
bounded NE and E by Duthil, SE by Aberdeenshire, S 
by Perthshire, W by Kingussie, and NW by Moy ; its 
greatest length from N to S being 21J miles, its breadth 
from 3 to 11 miles, and its land area 86,618 acres or 135 
square miles. Most of this area is occupied by moun- 
tains, those to the left of the Spey forming part of the 
Monadhliath range ; those to its right, of the Grampians. 
The former culminate in Cam na h'Easgainn (2656 feet) 
on the western boundary beyond the Dulnan river, 
and, between the Dulnan and Spey, in Geal Cham Mor 
(2702 feet) and Beinn Bhreac (2618). These heights are 
surpassed by those of the SE or Glen Feshie portion, 
where an outskirt of Braeriach rises upon the eastern 
border to 4149 feet, while lesser elevations are Sgoran 
Dubh (3658 feet), Cam Ban (3443), Meall Dubh-achaidh 
(3268), and Monadh Mor (3651). There are in the 
whole parish 27 summits exceeding 2000 feet above sea- 
level or 1279 above Loch Insh, the lake into which 
the Spey expands, and the western shore of which 
belongs to Alvie. Loch Alvie, in the NE, the only 
other lake of any size, measures 1 by \ mile, and com- 
municates with the Spey, which has a width here of 150 
feet, and which, 3 miles higher up, receives the Feshie. 
The latter stream, rising in the extreme south of the 
parish, winds 23 miles northward ; its gien was the ob- 
ject of the ' delightful, successful expedition ' made by 
the Queen and Prince Consort, 4 Sept. 1860. ' The 
Feshie,' Her Majesty writes, 'is a fine rapid river, full 
if stones. As you approach the glen, which is very 
narrow, the scenery becomes very fine, particularly after 
fording the Eidart [a considerable affluent]. . . . The 
rapid river is overhung by rocks, with trees, birch and 
fir ; the hills rise very steeply on both sides, with rich 
rocks and corries— while the path winds along, rising 
gradually higher and higher. It is quite magnificent ' 
(Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, 
pp. 140-144). The Journal then goes on to relate 
how the royal party came upon ' a most lovely spot, the 
scene of all Landseer's glory,' and 7 miles lower down 
emerged in Strathspey, where they saw the cairn at 
which Argyll halted before the battle of Glenlivet (1594), 
and passed by Kinrara. This lodge belongs to the Duke 
of Richmond and Gordon, and gives him since 1876 the 
title of Earl of Kinrara, but at present is tenanted by the 
Earl of Zetland. It stands between Loch Alvie and the 
Spey, on a rocky knoll embosomed in continuous beech- 
forest ; was visited by Prince Leopold (afterwards King 
of the Belgians) in 1821 ; and was the summer residence 
of the * sprightly ' Duchess of Gordon (1746-1812), whose 
grave_ in the valley below, at a spot she had chosen her- 
self, is marked by a beautiful monument. Above on 
Tor Alvie are a granite column, 90 feet high, to her son, 
the fifth Duke (1770-1836), and a caim to the officers 
of _ the 42d and 92d slain at Waterloo, the 92d Gordon 
Highlanders having been raised in Strathspey in 1794. 
Belleville House, 1\ miles SW of Loch Insh, stands 
where Raits Castle, the Comyns' ancient stronghold, 
stood ; and, built by ' Ossian Macpherson ' (173S-96), 
was the scene of his literary labours and death. A 
marble obelisk, \ mile distant, is sculptured with the 
Bard of Morven's bust ; and a pond in a meadow before 
the house is the ' Lochandhu ' of Sir Thomas Dick 
Lauder's romance (1825), a birch-grove that once 
surrounded it having formed the retreat of the bandit 



Borlum. A cairn, two concentric circles, and an obelisk 
at Delfour, make up with some tumuli the antiquities 
of Alvie, whose sparse population is almost confined to 
Strathspey, the only arable portion of the parish. 
' Most striking,' writes the Queen, ' was the utter soli- 
tude on our whole long journey. Hardly a habitation ! 
and hardly meeting a soul !' At Lynwilg in the NE is 
a post office (under Avieniore) ; Lynchat is a hamlet in 
the extreme SW ; near Loch Alvie stand the parish 
ohurch (1798), the manse, and a school, with (1891) 
an average attendance of 65 children, and a grant of 
£89, 17s. 6d. ; at Kineraig are a Free church and another 
post office (under Kingussie). Valuation £8947, 6s. 6d. 
of which £3337, 18s. 6d. belonged to The Mackintosh, 
and £2319 15s. to Sir Geo. Macpherson-Grant of Ballin- 
dalloch. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking (1881) 707, (1891) 
656.— Or A. Sur., shs. 64, 74, 1874-77. 

Alyth, a town of E Perthshire, and a parish formerly 
partly also in Forfarshire. Standing upon the Burn of 
Alyth, 300 feet above sea-level, the town by road is 5J 
miles ENE of Blairgowrie, 3^ N¥ of Meigle, and 29 8 
by E of Braemar ; as terminus of a branch of the Cale- 
donian, opened in 1861, it is 5^ miles NW of Alyth 
Junction, 17i W by S of Forfar, 23J NW of Dundee, 
and 25| NE of Perth. It is a burgh of barony under 
charter of James III. (1488); and created a police burgh 
in 1875 it is governed by a chief magistrate and 8 com- 
missioners, including a town clerk and a treasurer. A 
substantial stone bridge was erected in 1883 over the 
Burn of Alyth, at a cost of nearly £900. In 1887 a 
very ancient sculptured stone was discovered embedded 
in the ground at the front door of the Established Church 
manse ; while some of the houses, perched high up, and 
gained by steep winding lanes, may well have beheld 
the one marked episode in. Alyth's history when in 
August 1651 — Monk then besieging Dundee — the Com- 
mittee of Estates, only 40 in number, assembled here, 
and were surprised by 500 troopers under Col. Aid- 
rich, who shipped them all off to Loiidon, his captives 
including the elder Leslie, Earl of Leven, the Rev. Kt. 
Douglas, and the Rev. Jas. Sharpe, archbishop that was 
to be (Hill Burton's Hist., vii. 43). Mainly, however, 
the town is modern, possessing a post office, with money 
order, telegraph, and savings bank departments, branches 
of the Bank of Scotland and the Royal Bank, 2 hotels, 
a public coffee house (1881), gasworks, new water- 
works (1870), bowling and curling clubs, and a pub- 
lic library of 3000 volumes bequeathed by the late Hon. 
Wm. Ogilvy of Loyal. A bailie court, for civil causes 
not exceeding 40s., sits on the first Tuesday of every 
month ; and fairs are held on the third Tuesday of May, 
the second Tuesday of June o. s. , the first Tuesday of 
August, the first Tuesday and Wednesday of November 
o. s., the second Tuesday after 11 Nov. o. s., and the 
fourth Monday of January, February, March, April, and 
December. The manufacture of brown and other linens 
is the staple industry, employing 2 mills, one of which, 
Smith & Son's (1873), to ilax adds jute spinning, with 
bleaching, dyeing, and calendering ; and there is also a 
woollen factory. The parish church (1290 sittings), a 
Norman structure with lofty spire, was erected in 1839 
in place of the ancient Second Pointed church of St Moloc 
or Malaehi ; other places of worship are a Free church 
(1844; 750 sittings), a U.P. church (1781 ; 270 sittings), 
a Roman Catholic church (1879), and St Ninian's Epis- 
copal church (1856 ; 150 sittings), this, too, in Norman 
style, with a stained wheel window (1880) to the memory 
of the late Sir Geo. Ramsay. Three schools at the town 
— public, Episcopalian, and Church of Scotland girls' in- 
dustrial — and another at Gauldswell, 2J miles to the 
NW, with respective accommodation for 311, 101, 282, 
and 48, had (1891) an average attendance of 313, 82, 196, 
and 27, and grants of £356, 18s., £72, 5s., £204, 15s. 6d., 
and £33, 17s. Pop. (1881), 2377, (1891) 2322. 

The parish is bounded NE by Glenisla, E by Airlio and 
Ruthven, SE by Meigle, SW and W by Bendochy, Blair- 
gowrie, Rattray, and Kirkmichael. l'rom NNW to SSE 
its length is about 14 miles; its breadth varies from \\ 
to 6 miles ; and its area ia 23,296 acres, of which 3324 


(to the NW) were formerly in Forfarshire. The whole 
of the Forfarshire portion was, in 1891, by the Bound- 
ary Commissioners, transferred to the county of Perth. 
The Isla traces 3 miles of the eastern, and, after travers- 
ing Ruthven, 4f of the south-eastern border ; and the 
Burn of Alyth, rising at 1200 feet of altitude in the Forest 
of Alyth, joins it at Inverquiech, having first run 9 miles 
south-eastward to just below the town, next 2^ miles east- 
north-eastward. The Black Water, too, a head-stream of 
the Erich t, at two points flows along the western boundary, 
for 2 J and \{ miles ; and in the interior are 4 or 5 smaller 
burns. That portion of the parish between the Isla and 
the Burn of Alyth belongs to Strathmore ; and here, 
in the furthest S, the surface sinks to 100 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising north-westward to 208 feet at 
Ohapelhill, 398 near New Alyth, and 533 at Johnshill ; 
N of the Burn of Alyth, to 535 feet near Bruceton, 668 
on Barry Hill, 871 on Loyal Hill, 966 on the Hill of 
Alyth, and 1221 on Bamff or Balduff Hill. Beyond, comes 
the treeless Forest of Alyth, where the chief elevations — 
those marked with asterisks culminating on the north- 
eastern boundary — are Craighead (1083 feet), the HOI of 
Three Cairns (1243), Kingseat (1250), Drumderg (1383), 
Runnaguman (1313), 'Black Hill (1454), and *Knockton 
(1605) ; whilst further still, in the Forfarshire section, 
rise *Cairn Gibbs (1706), *Meall Mhor (1804), and Mount 
Blair (2441). The rocks are chiefly Devonian in the 
Strathmore low land, crystalline slates in the Forest of 
Alyth and the Blacklunans (a fertile strip along the Black 
Water), and trap on the hills, but include limestone at 
Mount Blair, and a well-defined dyke or vein of ser- 
pentine a little below Bamff House. The soils of the 
arable lands — barely one-fourth of the entire area — are in 
Strathmore a fine deep fertile loam, on the hill-slopes a 
good sharp gravel, in the Blacklunans a light but rich 
black loam, and elsewhere a strong detrital mixture of 
clay, gravel, and stones ; plantations cover more than 
1000 acres. One castle (styled the King's Castle in 1394) 
was at Inverquiech, and another at Corb in the Forest, 
where, too, are many cairns, stone circles, and standing 
stones ; but Alyth's chief antiquity is an oval British 
fort on Barry Hill, which, 450 feet in circumference, was 
defended by a rude stone rampart, and to E and S by a 
deep fosse 10 feet wide, and, according to local tradition, 
was the prison of Wander, Vanora, or Guinevere, King 
Arthur's queen (Glennie's Arthurian Localities, 1869, p. 
53). The Lindsays of the Crawford line were connected 
with this parish from 1303 to 1620 ; and the Ramsays 
have held the lands of Bamff since 1232. Their founder, 
Nessus de Rarnsay, was physician to Alexander II., as 
to King James and Charles I. was his descendant Alex- 
ander Ramsay, whose son, Sir Gilbert, for gallantry in 
the battle of the Pentlands, was made a baronet in 1666. 
Mansions, with distance from the town, proprietors' 
names, and the extent and yearly value of their estates 
within the shire, are — Bamlf House, 3J miles NW (Sir 
Jas. Hy. Ramsay, b. 1832 ; sue. as tenth Bart. 1871 ; 
12,845 acres, £3391) ; Loyal House, J mile NE (Pro- 
fessor G. G. Ramsay) ; Balhary House, 2 miles SE 
(G. W. A. Kinloch Smythe, 1865 acres, £935) ; Jordan- 
stone House, 2 miles ESE (518 acres, recently sold for 
£6520) ; and Hallyards, 2J miles ESE (Geo. D. C. Hen- 
derson, 396 acres, £649). In all, 7 landowners hold 
within Alyth an annual value of £600 and upwards, 14 
of between £100 and £500, 12 of from £50 to £100, and 
38 of from £20 to £50. Alyth is in the presbytery of 
Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £328. Valuatiou (1891) £20,467, 17s. 9d., in- 
cluding £1100, 10s. for the Forfarshire section. Pop. 
(1841)2910, (1861)3422, (1871)3352, (1881)3521, (1891) 
3453 ; of quoad sacra parish (1871) 3151, (1881) 3372, 
(1891) 3275.— OrA. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Amatan, a burn in Bower parish, Caithness, running 
eastward to Wester Water. 

Amisfield, a village and a mansion in Tmwald pansn, 
Dumfriesshire. The village stands on a head-sfcrcum of 
Lochar Water, near the Dumfries and Lockerbio brancn 
of the Caledonian, under the Tinwald Hills, 4, miles 
N NE of Dumfries. It has a station on the railway, awJ 


a post office under Dumfries. There is a public school, 
■with accommodation for 146 children, and an average 
attendance in 1891 of 85, and a grant of £61, 16s. 6d. The 
mansion, standing J mile NNW of the village, is partly 
a modern edifice, partly an old baronial fortalice, one 
of the most interesting of its kind. It belonged from 
the 12th century to the Anglo-Norman family of Char- 
teris, of whom Sir Thomas became Lord High Chancellor 
of Scotland in 1280; Sir John was Warden of the West 
Marches under James V., and by that king (as 'Gude- 
man of Ballangeich') was punished for wrong-doing to 
a widow; and another Sir John was an active Royalist 
during the Great Rebellion, as also was his brother 
Captain Alex. Charteris, beheaded at Edinburgh in 1650. 
An oak door, curiously carved with ' Samson and the 
lion,' and dated 1600, has found its way from Amisfield 
Castle to the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

Amisfield, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss, in the parish 
and county of Haddington, on the right bank of the 
Tyne, § mile ENE of Haddington. It is a handsome 
Grecian edifice of red sandstone, faces the river, con- 
tains some fine paintings, and stands in the midst of 
an extensive park. It was built by the fifth Earl of 
Wemyss (1787-1808), heir of his maternal grandfather, 
the infamous Colonel Charteris (1675-1732), who had 
purchased the lands of Newmills, and changed their 
name to Amisfield from the ancient seat of his forefathers 
in Nithsdale. In Lauder's Scottish Rivers, p. 309, is a 
lively account of the Tyneside games instituted by Lord 
Eleho in Amisfield Park. 

Amondell or Almonddale, the seat of the Earl of 
Buchan, in TJphall parish, SE Linlithgowshire, stands 
on the left bank of the Almond, 1^ mile NE of Mid- 
calder. From 1812 till his death here on 8 Oct. 1817, 
it was the residence of the Hon. Henry Erskine, Lord 
Advocate of Scotland in 1783 and 1806. 

Amulree, a village in V ill parish, Perthshire, on the 
left bank of the Bran, 10 miles WSW of Dunkeld 
station. Its site was pronounced by Dr Bucldand to 
have been fashioned by a group of low moraines; and 
the country around it presents an assemblage of wild, 
bare, rugged uplands, whose lochs and streams are 
favourite anglers' haunts. Here the clans were armed 
and sworn at the rising of 1715. The village has a post 
office under Dunkeld, a hotel, an Established Church, 
and a Free Church station. The Established Church in 
1871 was constituted a quoad sacra parochial church; 
and was rebuilt in 1881 at a cost of £900. There are 
two public schools, at Amulree and Shian, with accom- 
modation for 71 and 42 children, and an average attend- 
ance in 1891 of 24 and 8, and grants of £38 and £23, Is. 6d. 
Fairs for cattle and sheep are held at the village on the 
first Wednesday of May and day before, and on the 
Friday before the first Wednesday of November. 
. Anabich, an island in Harris parish, Outer Hebrides, 

Ancrum, a village and a parish of Roxburghshire. 
The village stands upon rising ground, on the right 
bank of the river Ale, § mile N of its influx to the 
Teviot, being 2 miles W of Jedfoot Bridge station, and 
3J miles NNW of Jedburgh; it has a post, money order, 
and telegraph office. Its original name was Alnecrom, 
signifying 'the crook of the Alne,' — as the Ale was 
anciently called; and that name is exactly descriptive 
of the situation, on a bold sharp curve of the river. The 
surrounding scenery is softly picturesque; and the pre- 
sent village, though most of its buildings are modern, 
wears a somewhat decayed appearance, and dates from a 
considerable antiquity. A Caledonian fort stood near 
it; a monastic establishment of some kind was founded 
at it by David I. ; faint vestiges exist of its so-called 
Maltan Walls, a preceptory of the Knights of Malta; 
and a 13th century cross, supposed to have been ori- 
ginally surmounted by the arms of Scotland, stands in 
the middle of its green. This village was long called 
Nether Ancrum, to distinguish it from the now extinct 
hamlet of Over Ancrum, and both were burned to the 
ground during the hostilities connected with Hertford's 
raid in 1545. 


The parish contains also the hamlets of Longnewton 
and Belses, the latter with a station on the North British, 
3| miles W of the village, 45J SE of Edinburgh, and 
7£ NE of Hawick ; and it includes the old parish of 
Longnewton, annexed in 16S4. It is bounded NW by 
St Boswells, NE by Maxton, E by Crailing, SE by Jed- 
burgh and Bedrule, SW by Minto, and W by Lilliesleaf 
and Bowden. Its length from N to S is i% miles ; its 
greatest breadth is 4J miles ; and its area is 10,389 acres, 
of which 93£ are water. The Ale in ' many a loop and 
link,' flows through the parish from WNW to ESE ; 
and the Teviot, to the length ef some 4£ miles, roughly 
traces all the south-eastern border. Both rivers afford 
abundant sport to the angler for salmon and for trout, 
and also are haunted by otters. The surface, through- 
out the NW, in the quondam parish of Longnewton, is 
flat and tame ; but elsewhere, along the Ale, and south- 
ward to the Teviot, though containing no prominent 
hills, rises into considerable eminences, the chief of which 
from N to S are Ancrum Moor (771 feet), Woodhead 
(501), Hopton (531), Ancrumcraig (629), Troneyhill 
(755), and Chesters Moor (585). The tract along the 
Ale, in particular, exhibits steep rugged rocks, part naked, 
part richly wooded, overhanging the river's course, and 
shows a succession of picturesque and romantic scenery. 
Sandstone, of two colours, the one red, the other white, 
and both of superior quality for building purposes, is quar- 
ried. The soil, in the lower grounds toward the Teviot, 
is chiefly a fertile loam ; on the flat grounds, both in 
the north and near the Ale, is a rich though stiffish 
clay ; and on the higher grounds and the northern de- 
clivities, is of moorish quality on a cold clay bottom. 
About 7500 acres are under cultivation, and upwards of 
800 are in wood. Ancrum House (Sir William Scott, 
seventh Bart, since 1671, and owner of 2131 acres in 
the shire) stands near the site of the ancient village of 
Over Ancrum, and of a rural palace of the Bishop of 
Glasgow, and was a fine old Border mansion, command- 
ing a noble view of Teviotdale away to the Cheviot 
Mountains, and surrounded by an extensive deer-park, 
with craggy knolls and grand old trees. Its central and 
older portion, built in 155S by Robert Kerr of Fernie- 
herst, was, with later additions, totally destroyed by 
fire on 3 Dec. 1873. It was again burnt on 23 February 
1885. The mansion has been since rebuilt in Scottish 
Baronial style. Chesters House, situated on the Teviot, 
is a large handsome edifice, erected about the beginning 
of this century ; and Kirklands, on a wooded height 
above the Ale, is a modern Elizabethan structure. Fif- 
teen caves occur along the rocky banks of the Ale above 
Ancrum House, all at the least accessible spots, artifi- 
cially hewn, provided with fire-places, and thought to 
have served for hiding-places during the Border raids. 
One of them was a favourite retreat of the author of 
The Seasons, who was a frequent inmate of Ancrum 
Manse, and is known as ' Thomson's Cave, ' his name 
being carved on its roof, it is said, by his own hand. 
Remains of a Caledonian stone circle existed within this 
century at Harestanes, near Mounteviot, but all its 
stones save one have been removed ; and a Roman road 
skirts Ancrum Moor, 1J mile NW of the village, which 
moor was the scene of one of the last great conflicts in 
the international war between Scotland and England. 
An English army, 5000 strong, under Sir Ralph Evera 
and Sir Bryan Latoun, in 1544, overran and wasted the 
Scottish Border northward to Melrose. Returning with 
their booty, they were overtaken at Ancrum Moor and 
utterly routed by a Scottish force under the Earl of Angus 
and Scott of Buccleuch. Lilliard, a maid of Teviotdale, 
made desperate by the loss of her lover, fought in the 
Scottish ranks till she fell beneath many wounds ; and 
she has bequeathed to part of the battlefield the name of 
Lilliard's Edge. A monument, now broken and defaced, 
stands on the spot, and bore this legend, — 

' Fair Maiden Lilliard lies under this stane ; 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the English loons she laid mony thumps, 
And when her legs were cuttid off, she foug-ht upon her stumps.' 

Ancrum was the birthplace of Dr William Buchart 



(1729-1805), a medical writer; perhaps, too, of the Rev. 
John Home (1722-1S0S), the author of Douglas, this 
honour being also claimed for Leith. Among its min- 
isters was the Rev. John Livingston (1603-72), one of 
the commissioners sent to confer with Charles II. at 
Breda in 1650. Seven landowners hold each an annua] 
value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 and £500, 
5 of from £50 to £100, and 8 of from £20 to £50. In 
the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale, this parish has an Established church, built 
in 1890 at a cost of £2000; the minister's income is 
£306. There is also a Free church; and at Ancrum and 
Sandystones are public schools, which, with respective 
accommodation for 195 and 94 children, had an average 
attendance(1891)of 133 and 80, and grants of £128, 4s. 6d. 
and £66, 19s. 6d. Valuation of lands, £14,162, 15s. 4d.; 
of railway, £1601. Pop. (1861) 1511, (1871) 1391, 
(1881) 1365, (1891) 1241.— Ord. Sur., shs. 17, 25, 1864-65. 

Anderston, a district in the W of Glasgow. It was 
formerly a distinct burgh, having been constituted a 
burgh of barony by Crown charter in 1824; and had a 
town council consisting of a provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, 
and 11 councillors, elected by proprietors for liferenters 
of heritable subjects and by tenants paying £20 or 
upwards of annual rent. Its boundaries were, on the B 
M 'Alpine Street, on the N the spacious streets of the 
west-end, which impacted somewhat irregularly on it, 
on the W Finnieston, and on the S the river. It com- 
prised a main street, leading from Argyle Street in a 
north-westerly direction to Partick, a number of narrow 
old streets very densely peopled, and some newer or 
more airy ones, mostly running parallel to one another 
to the Clyde. It was annexed to Glasgow in 1846, since 
which time it has been completely absorbed in the city, 
whose western boundary extends far beyond the limi ts 
of the old burgh of Anderston. Two old graveyards in 
the district, one in North Street and the other in Cheap- 
side Street, are now closed for burying purposes, but are 
maintained as open spaces. Of the old institutions of 
Anderston, one of the few remaining is the Weavers' 
Society, a charitable institution which still goes on 
increasing in its membership and in its usefulness. 
In common with other districts in Glasgow, great im- 
provement has taken place in this portion. Anderston 
Walk has been completely merged in Argyle Street. 
Main Street has been raised to a level with Argyle Street 
and Dumbarton Road, and the old houses on either side 
have almost entirely given place to splendid rows of 
fine shops and dwelling-houses. Stobcross Street, for- 
merly tortuous and narrow, has become a fine wide 
thoroughfare, communicating directly with the Queen's 
Dock. Anderston Cross has been opened up, and a 
railway station is placed here in connection with the 
central underground line of the Caledonian system. The 
manufacturing industries have fully kept pace with the 
general progress of the city, the foundries, engineering 
shops, factories of different kinds, general provision and 
hamcuring establishments, and bakeries, being all on 
the largest and most extensive scale, rivalling in appli- 
ances and extent those of any other city in the United 
Kingdom. Numerous warehouses and stores — bonded 
and free — -line the streets adjoining the river. St 
Matthew's, St Marks, and Anderston parish churches 
are in the district. Of four Free churches, St Marks, 
Anderston, St Matthew's, and Finnieston, the last three 
have been removed from the district further west. There 
are a United Presbyterian church, an Episcopal, a Roman 
Catholic, and others. There are also two or three large 
Board schools in the district. Anderston gives name 
to one of the registration districts of the city, which had 
a population in 1891 of 42,263. 

Andet, an ancient chapclry in Methlick parish, Aber- 
deenshire, If mile SSW of Methlick village. Its church 
of St Ninian has disappeared; but is commemorated in 
the names of a farmhouse and a spring, called Chapel- 
Park and Chapel-Well. 

Andhu. See Loijhandhu. 

Andunty, a lake in Petty parish, Inverness-shire, on 
the ridgo toward Croy. 


Angel's Hill (Gael Cnoe nan Angeal), a hillock 
crowned by a small stone circlo and cairn, in the 
island of Iona, Argyllshire, 1^ mile WSW of the cathe- 
dral. It is said by legend to have been the scene of a 
conference between Columba and angels. 

Angry or Lennoc Burn, a rivulet in the uplands of 
Elginshire, traversing Glen Latterach, along the boundary 
between Birnie and Dallas parishes, 4 miles northward 
tothe Lossie. It is voluminous and very impetuous after 
rams ; it makes, about 2 miles below its source, a sheer 
descent of 50 feet into a basin called the Kettle ; and a 
little further down it makes another fall into a basin 
called the Pot. Lofty cliffs screen these falls, and want 
only woods to render their scenery very grand. 

Angus, an ancient district nearly or quite conterminous 
with Forfarshire. Some archaeologists think that it 
got its name from Angus, a brother of Kenneth II., and 
recipient of title to proprietorship of the district, or to 
lordship over it, immediately after the conquest of 
the Picts ; but others think that a hill a little to the 
eastward of Aberlemno church bore the name of Angus 
long previous to Kenneth II. 's time ; had been a noted 
place of rendezvous on great public occasions ; and gra- 
dually or eventually gave its name to the surrounding 
country. A finely diversified strath or valley, from 4 to 
6 miles broad, and upwards of 30 miles long, extending 
from the western boundary of Kettins parish to the 
mouth of the North Esk river, is called the Howe or Hol- 
low of Angus. An earldom of Angus was created in 
favour of the Douglas family, some time prior to 1329 ; 
came in that year into the line of the Dukes of Hamil- 
ton; and ranks now as the oldest one of the present 
duke's numerous peerages. 

Angus and Mearns, a synod of the Church of Scotland, 
meeting on the fourth Tuesday of April and October, and 
comprising the presbyteries of Meigle, Forfar, Dundee, 
Brechin, Arbroath, and Fordoun. Within the bounds of 
this synod there were 64,177 communicants of the Church 
of Scotland in 1891, the sums raised by them that year 
in Christian liberality amounting to £27,939.— The Free 
Church has also a synod of Angus and Mearns, meeting 
on the same days as, and comprising presbyteries identical 
with, those of the Established synod. Its communicants 
numbered 28,189 in 1891. 

Ann, a burn in Galston parish, Ayrshire, running to 
Irvine Water at Galston town. Its channel contains the 
beautiful stone called Galston pebble. 

Annan (Gael, 'quiet river'), a river that, flowing all 
through central Dumfriesshire from N to S, gives it the 
name of Annandale. It rises 1200 feet above the sea, 
near the meeting-point of Lanark, Peebles, and Dumfries 
shires, within 1J mile of Tweed's Well, and 3J miles of 
Clyde's Burn, so that according to an oid-world rhyme — 
'Annan, Tweed, and Clyde, 
Rise a' out o' ae hill-side.' 

Its virtual headstreams, however, are the Lochan and 
Auchencat Burns, which also rise in Moffat parish, on 
the western and southern slopes of Hartfell (2651 feet), 
and after receiving which the Annan becomes a stream 
of considerable volume, inclining a little eastward, and 
forming the boundary between Kirkpatrick Juxta and 
Moffat. Passing Moffat town, it is joined from the NE 
by Birnock Water, which rises on Swatte Fell (2388 feet), 
and by the Frenchland Burn ; a little lower down it 
receives at the same point, from the NW and the NE, 
Evan and Moffat Waters. The next important tri- 
butary is Wamphray Water, soon after whose confluence 
the Annan becomes exceedingly meandering, though still 
bearing southward to within 1 mile of Lochmaben and 2 
of Lockerbie, and thereabouts receiving the Kinnel and 
the Dryfe. From the southern extremity of Dryfesdale 
parish it makes a south-eastward bend past St Mungo's 
Church, the rocking-stone, and Iloddom Castle, receiving 
here the Water of Milk ; but from the confluence of the 
Mein onward it resumes a southerly course to Annan 
town, whence its estuary sweeps first in a SW, then in 
a SE direction into the upper part of the Solway Firth 
at Barnkirk Point. The Annan is 49 miles long, of 
which the first 5 lie through a mountain glen, with the 


singular hollow of Annandale's Beef-Stand. Its basin 
thence is a valley from 3 to 18 miles wide, which, at no 
distant geological period, must have lain under the sea, 
and now with a rich alluvial soil presents a soft and pas- 
toral appearance. Its waters are well stocked with sal- 
mon, trout, and coarser fish, the trout running from 1 
to 1 j lb. , but sometimes exceeding 4 and even 5 lbs. ; 
and sea-trout ascend in May and June. The rod season 
is from Feb. 11 to Oct. 31 ; and permission to fish is 
generally granted by the 15 proprietors who own the 
best part of the stream— ' the silver Annan,' as Allan 
Cunningham styled it, but, in time of spate, ' a drumlie 
river,' according to the ballad (Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border, vol. iii. , p. 284 of Cadell's edn. ). 

Annan, a royal and parliamentary burgh of S Dum- 
friesshire, on the E bank and 2 miles above the mouth 
of the Annan, which here is spanned by a three-arched 
bridge, rebuilt in 1824 at a cost of £8000, and by a via- 
duct of the Glasgow and South- Western railway (1848). 
It has stations on this and on the Solway Junction section 
of the Caledonian, by the former being 8 miles W by S 
of Gretna Green, 17| NW of Carlisle, 15J ESE of Dum- 
fries, and 73| SE of Kilmarnock ; by the latter, 2f miles 
MIW of Bowness, t>\ SSW of Kirtlebridge Junction, 
89| S by W of Edinburgh, and 93J SSE of Glasgow. 
' The country round is flat upon the whole, but near the 
town are two or three heights, one of which, dignified as 
" Annan Hill," commands a magnificent view of Annan- 
dale, theSolway, and the Cumberland Mountains. North- 
ward, are seen the little red town, lying amid green trees, 
the gleaming river, and numberless small dark woods and 
bare monotonous hills ; southward, the sandy shore of 
the Firth, the Solway Viaduct, the sunlit sea, the grey 
hills of Kirkcudbrightshire, the long English coast, the 
picturesque windmill of Bowness, and the great Lake 
mountains, with Skiddaw, in what Wordsworth calls his 
"natural sovereignty," towering above the rest' ('Annan 
and its neighbourhood, ' by F. Miller, in the Border Maga- 
zine). The town itself made Dorothy Wordsworth 
'think of France and Germany, many of the houses large 
and gloomy, their size outrunning their comforts;' but 
of late years it has been much improved by new streets 
and buildings. There is a plentiful supply of water. 
The new waterworks were opened 21st July, 1881, and 
eostabout£12,000. The reservoir, 74 miles from Annan, 
holds 27,000,000 gallons, and 150,000 gallons per day 
may be passed. Annan has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Bank of Scotland, the British 
Linen Co., and the Commercial Bank, a local savings' 
bank (1835), insurance offices, a gas company, several 
hotels, a ooffee-house with reading and recreation rooms 
(1879), a mechanics' institute, stock auction marts, 
and a Friday paper, the Annan Observer (1857). The 
town-hall was re-built (1876-77) in the Scottish Baronial 
style, at a cost of £4000, and, besides burgh offices, 
contains a large court and council hall, where sheriff 
courts sit thrice a year, and justice of peace small debt 
courts on the first Monday of 
every month. Friday is mar- 
ket-day, and hiring fairs are 
held on the first Friday of May 
and August and the third Fri- 
day of October. At or near 
the town are a cotton mill 
(1785), a manure factory, a 
tannery, a distillery, 5 bacon- 
curing establishments, 2 rope- 
walks, and 2 saw mills ; and a 
considerable trade is done with 
Liverpool and Whitehaven in 
the export of grain, wool, bacon, 
and the import of coal, slate, iron, 
The port is free, and ships of 250 

Seal of Annan. 

and live-stock, 
herrings, salt, etc. 

tons can ascend to within J mile of the town, but larger 
vessels must load and discharge at two wooden jetties, 
420 feet long, at the mouth of the river. Vessels 
generally make the passage between Annan and Liver- 
pool within 12 hours — that is, in one tide only, from 


harbour to harbour. The convenience afforded by the 
rapidity of communication with Liverpool has greatly 
increased the trade. Just outside the town are the 
nurseries of Messrs. Palmer & Son, of world-wide reputa- 
tion, and covering more than 120 acres. There are the 
parish church, a Free church, a U.P. church, a Congre- 
gational church, a ' Church of Christ, ' St John's Epis- 
copal church, and St Columba's Roman Catholic church. 
The Academy is an excellent higher-class school, at 
whose predecessor Thomas Carlyle led 'a doleful and 
hateful life ' under Old Adam Hope, and later was 
mathematical master. Distinguished Annanites were 
the blind poet Thomas Blacklock (1721-91), Hugh Clap- 
perton (1788-1827), the African explorer, and Edward 
Irving (1792-1834), the founder of a new sect, to whose 
memory a statue has been erected in front of the town- 
hall. A place of indefinable antiquity, Annan, say some 
authorities, was a Roman station, and in 1249 possessed 
a royal mint. Its closeness to the Border exposed it to 
frequent assaults, and in 1298 it was burned by the Eng- 
lish ; Robert Brute two years later built or restored the 
Castle, on what is now the old churchyard, and this he 
made his occasional residence. Hither Edward Baliol, in 
December 1332, within three months of his coronation 
at Scone, summoned the nobles to do him homage ; and 
here Archibald Douglas, at the head of 1000 horsemen, 
surprised him by night, slew Henry, his brother, with 
many lesser adherents, and drove him to flee on a bare- 
backed steed, half-naked, to Carlisle. In 1547, after a 
valiant resistance, the town was taken by Lord Wharton, 
who sacked and burned it ; it suffered so grievously 
from the English raids of the two next years, that the 
sum of £4000 was levied from the bishops and the clergy 
to repair and strengthen its defences, and, 6000 French 
auxiliaries landing soon after in the Clyde, the greater 
part of them were sent to form its garrison. The castle, 
once more demolished in 1570 by the Earl of Sussex, was 
once more rebuilt ; but in 1609 the townfolk, too poor 
to build a church themselves, by leave of Parliament 
either converted it into a place of worship or used its 
stones to build one, and no trace of it now is left, the 
last having disappeared in 1875 along with the old town- 
hall. The Great Rebellion brought Annan to a miserable 
plight, from which it was rescued soon after the Restora- 
tion by the privilege of collecting customs ; at Annan 
the retreating army of Prince Charles Edward bivouacked, 
20 Dec. 1745. Under a charter of James VI. (1612), re- 
newing one granted by James V. (1538), the burgh is 
governed by a provost, 3 bailies, and 15 councillors, with 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a town clerk. It unites 
with Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and San- 
quhar in returning one member to Parliament, its parlia- 
mentary and municipal constituency numbering 520 in 
1891, when the corporation revenue amounted to £886, 
and the annual value of real property within the burgh 
to £1 3, 856 (exclusive of railways, £808). Its boundaries 
were extended in 1892. Pop. of municipal burgh (1871) 
4174, (1881) 4629, (1891) 4860; of parliamentary burgh 
(1871) 3172, (1881) 3366, (1891) 3478. 

The parish of Annan also contains thevillagesof Bride- 
kirk and Creca, 3 miles N by W and 4| NE of the town. 
Bounded N by Hoddom and Middlebie, E by Kirkpatrick- 
Fleming and Dornock, S by the Solway Firth, and W 
by Cummertrees, it has a length from N to S of from 3J 
to 5 J miles, a width from E to W of from 2J to 4£ miles, 
and an area of 12,047f acres, of which 994A are foreshore 
and 137i water. The Kirtle traces for f mile the 
boundary with Kirkpatrick-Fleming, and the Annan 
flows 3§ miles on the Hoddom border, and 4| through 
the interior to the Firth, which here was crossed by the 
open iron Solway Viaduct (1866-69). Was, since that 
' triumph of engineering art ' suffered such damages from 
masses of floating ice on 31 Jan. 1881, as to need almost 
entire reconstruction. With banks from the English and 
Scottish shores, 440 and 154 yards long, it had itself a 
length of 1960 yards, divided into 10 yard spans, ran 34 
feet above the Solway's bed, and with the embankments 
cost £100,000. The shore of the Firth — 3 \ miles in Annan 
parish — is low and sandy ; and inland the onrface is com- 



paratively level, at Woodcock Air in the JfW and Hill- 
town towards the NE tmt little exceeding 400 feet of 
altitude, whilst lesser elevations are Hillside (100 feet), 
Whitesprings (223), Creca (356), Bonshawside (323), and 
Mossfoot (305). The rocks, belonging to the Carboni- 
ferous formation, yield plenty of good sandstone, but not 
any workable coal ; the soils are exceedingly various, in- 
cluding rich alluvium, strong argillaceous and fine friable 
loam, reclaimed moss, and barren moor, but most of the 
area is under cultivation. Mansions, with distance from 
the town, proprietors' names, and the extent and yearly 
• value of their estates within the shire, are: — Mount 
Annan, 2 miles N. (Mrs Pasley Dirom, 1502 acres, 
£1480) ; Newbie, 2 miles SW (W. D. Mackenzie, 2929 
acres, £5263); Ashly Grange, 1 mile (Mrs Halbert, 
356 acres, £1079) ; Fruidspark, in the neighbourhood 
of the town ; Northfield, 1 mile N ; and Warmanbie, 
1J mile KT. In all, 7 proprietors hold within Annan 
a yearly value of £500 and upwards, 34 of between £100 
and £500, 57 of from £50 to £100, and S4 of from £20 
to £50. The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Dum- 
fries, Annan is divided between the parish of Annan 
(living £336) and the quoad sacra parishes of Bride- 
kirk, Greenknowe, and Kirtle. Five public schools are 
the Academy, the infant and girls' school, Breconbeds, 
Greenknowe, and Bridekirk, the last under a separate 
school-board, and a Roman Catholic school (St Columba's) 
for 189 children, with an average attendance of 46 and 
a grant of £32, 19s. With respective accommodation 
for 291, 267, 165, 228, and 169 children, these had in 
1S91 an average attendance of 177, 253, 120, 185, and 
111, and grants of £168, 4s. 6d.. £221, 7s. 6d., £100, 
5s., £153, 16s. 6d.,and£88, 17s. 4d. A new Board school 
was erected in 1894, at an expense of about £10,000, with 
accommodation for 800 pupils. Pop. of parish (1881) 
6791, (1891) 5941.— Ord. Sur., shs. 6, 10, 1863-64. 

The presbytery of Annan comprehends the parishes of 
Annan, Cummertrees. Dornock, Gretna, Hoddam, Kirk- 
patrick-Fleming, Middlebie, and Ruthwell, the quoad 
sacra parishes of Bridekirk, Greenknowe, and Kirtle. 
Pop. (1891) 14,463, of whom 2483 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in that year, the sums raised 
by these congregations amounting to £1148. 

Annandale, the middle one of the three divisions of 
Dumfriesshire. It is bounded N by Lanarkshire and 
Peebleshire, NE by Selkirkshire, E by Eskdale, S by the 
Solway Firth, W by Nithsdale, and NW by Lanark- 
shire. Regarded now as commensurate with the basin 
of the river Annan, together with small adjacent portions 
of seaboard, it anciently included parts of what now are 
the southern extremities of Eskdale and Nithsdale. 
Under the name of ' Estra-hanent,' it was given by 
David I., in 1124, to Robert de Bruis, grandson of one of 
William the Conqueror's Norman barons. This Robert, 
eventually disagreeing with David on a question of 
national policy, in 1138 renounced his allegiance to the 
king; in 1141 he died at Guisburn, or Guisborough, in 
Yorkshire, leaving his patrimony there to his elder son. 
His younger son, also called Robert Bruce, adhered to 
David I., received the inheritance of Annandale, and 
lived through the reign of Malcolm IV. into that of 
William the Lyon. His son, another Robert, succeeded 
him in Annandale, married a natural daughter of Wil- 
liam the Lyon, and died in 1191. Robert, fourth Lord 
of Annandale, laid the foundation of the royal house of 
Bruce by marrying Isabella, second daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, and brother of William the Lyon. 
His son and namesake opposed the Comyn influence in 
the affairs of Scotland, and, at the age of 81, engaged in 
the competition for the Scottish crown, but ultimately 
resignedT his rights in favour of his son. That son, still 
Robert, went in 1269 to Palestine with Edward of Eng- 
land ; married, soon after his return, Margaret, Countess 
of Carrick in her own right ; came thence to be known 
as Earl of Carrick ; and had, by his lady, fivo sons, the 
eldest of whom became the royal Bruce. Annandale, 
throughout the time of the Bruces, and specially under 
Ring Robert, figured conspicuously in Scottish history. 
Lochmaben was the chief seat of the family ; and it 


abounds to the present day in memorials or traditions 
of their princely grandeur. All Annandale, indeed, is 
rich in relics and memories of the Roman times, of the 
great struggle for the Scottish crown, and of Border 
wars and forays. Its Roman antiquities and mediaeval 
castles outnumber those of any other district of equal 
extent in Scotland. The lordship of Annandale passed, 
about 1371, on the demise of David II., to Randolph, 
Earl of Moray ; and afterwards, with the hand of his 
sister Agnes, went to the Dunbars, Earls of March. The 
Douglases got it after the forfeiture of the Dunbars ; and 
they eventually lost it by their own forfeiture. A mar- 
quisate of Annandale was conferred in 1701 on the 
Johnstones, who previously had been created Barons 
Johnstone of Loch wood (1633), and Earls of Annandale 
and Viscounts of Annan (1643). The marquisate became 
dormant in 1792, at the death of George, third marquis, 
and is now claimed by Sir Frederick John William John- 
stone of Westerhall, Bart. , John James Hope-Johnstone, 
Esq. of Annandale, and three others. The famous Ben 
Jonson was really not a Jonson but a Johnstone, a 
descendant of the Annandale Johnstones. Annandale 
gives name to a presbytery of the U.P. Church, with 
thirteen charges. 

Annandale's Beef-Stand, Marquis of, or Devil's Beef- 
Tub, a strange conchoidal hollow in Moffat parish, 
Dumfriesshire, 5 miles NNW of Moffat town. It lies 
near the source of Annan Water, just off the pass of 
Erickstane Brae from Annandale into Tweeddale, and to 
the N" is overhung by Great Hill, 1527 feet high. ' It 
received its name,' says the Laird of Summertrees in 
Scott's Eedgauntlet, ' because the Annandale loons used 
to put their stolen cattle in there ; and it looks as if four 
hills were laying their heads together to shut out day- 
light from the dark, hollow space between them. A 
deep, black, blackguard-looking abyss of a hole it is, and 
goes straight down from the roadside, as perpendicular 
as it can do, to be a heathery brae. At the bottom 
there is a small bit of a brook, that you would think 
could hardly find its way out from the hills that are so 
closely jammed around it.' At the bottom also is a 
martyred Covenanter's grave ; and its second alias, 'Mac- 
Cleran's Loup,' records the escape of a Highland rebel in 
the '45, who, wrapped in his plaid, rolled like a hedge- 
hog down the steep declivity amid a shower of musket- 
balls — an incident Scott used in his romance (Lauder's 
Scottish Rivers. 

Annat, a davoch in Eiltarlity parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the N side of the river Beauly. 

Annaty, a burn in Scone parish, Perthshire, running 
westward to the Tay. It affords several good waterfalls 
for the driving of machinery. 

Annbank, a mining village in the SW of Tarbolton 
parish, Ayrshire, with a station on the Ayr and Muir- 
kirk line, 5 miles ENE of Ayr. It has a post office with 
money order and savings' bank departments under Tar- 
bolton Station, a chapel of ease to Tarbolton erected in 
1871, and a school which in 1891 had an average attend- 
ance of 370 day and 75 evening scholars, and received 
grants of £323, 15s. and £36, 14s. Pop. (1871) 1151, 
(1881) 1240, (1891) 1284. 

Annet, a burn in Kilmadock parish, S Perthshire, 
formed by two rivulets that rise in the Braes of Doune, 
on the southern slope of Uamh Bheag (2179 feet). In- 
cluding the longer of these, it has a SSE course of 6J 
miles, making a number of beautiful cascades, and falling 
into the Teith, 1 J mile WNW of Doune. 

Annick, a small river, partly of Renfrewshire, but 
chiefly of Ayrshire, rises in Mearns parish, to the E of 
Long Loch, and flowing south-westward past Stewarton, 
falls into Irvine Water, 1 mile above Irvine town, after 
a course of 16 miles. Its chief affluents are the Swinsey, 
East, and Clerkland burns above, and tho Glazert burn, 3 
miles below, Stewarton — all of them better trouting 
streams than tho Annick itself. 

Ann's Bridge, a picturesque locality in Johnstone 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the river Kinncl, 7J miles 
N by W of Lochmaben. A bridge hore, on the line of road 
from Dumfries to Edinburgh, was built in 1782, rebuilt 



in 1795, and widened and improved in 1817. A reach 
of the Kinnel's vale, above and below the bridge, is 
exquisitely beautiful; and the splendid mansion of Rae- 
hills, with its fine gardens and grounds, is close by. 

Anstruther, a fishing and seaport town of SE Fife, 
comprising the royal and parliamentary burghs of An- 
struther-Easter and Anstruther-Wester, and contiguous 
eastwards to the royal burgh of Cellardyke or Nether 
Kilrenny. Situated at the entrance of the Firth of 
Forth, it stretches along its shore about 1J mile, and by 
water is 5 J miles WNW of the Isle of May, llf N of 
North Berwick, and 25 NE of Leith, while, as a station 
on the Leven and East of Fife section of the North 
British system, it is 18| miles E by N of Thornton 
Junction, and 50 NE of Edinburgh, vid Forth Bridge. 
By road, again, it is 9 J miles SSE of St Andrews, whither 
a railway was constructed in 1881, at a cost of £38,000, 
which is 16 miles long, with five intermediate stations, at 
Crail, Kingsbarns, Dunino, etc., and is worked by the 
North British. Anstruther has a post office with money 
order, savings bank, and telegraph departments, branches 
of the Clydesdale, Commercial, and National banks, a 
gaswork, hotels, a custom house, a town-hall (1S71; ac- 
commodation 800), 
a masonic lodge, 
several insurance 
offices, a library and 
reading room, a life- 
boat station, and a 
fishery office. Friday 
is market-day; and 
industrial establish- 
ments are rope and 
sail, net, oil, and 
oilskin and fishing- 
gear factories, and 
a brewery. Abridge 
Burn joins Anstru- 
ther - Wester to 
Anstruther - Easter, 
where are Free, 
TJ. P. , Baptist, and Evangelical Union churches, besides 
the parish church (1634-44; 750 sittings), whose pic- 
turesque tower has a low spire and gabled stair-turret; 
the manse is another quaint old 
building, erected in 1590 by 
James, a nephew of the more 
celebrated Andrew Melville. 
The chief educational establish- 
ment is the Waid Academy, 
which was opened Sept. 6, 1886. 
It was endowed from funds 
mainly mortified by Andrew 
Waid, lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy, a native of Anstruther- 
Easter, who died in 1803, and 
meant to provide for the main- 
tenanceand education of orphan 
and seamen's boys. The funds 
being inadequate, and as an hospital at Anstruther for 
the purpose contemplated by him would now be of com- 
paratively little value, on account of the changed con- 
ditions of naval warfare, the scheme of the Waid Academy 
was promoted by the trustees and the School Board, and 
finally approved of by the Queen in Council in 1884. 
Anstruther-Wester has its own parish church, conse- 
crated in 1243; a lidless stone coffin in its churchyard 
is wrongly imagined to be St Adrian's. On 3 June, 
1559, Enox preached here, and as a consequence the 
church was afterwards stripped of its images and 
altars, though the building was preserved as a place of 
worship: ' several alive well remember the rows of fine 
arches left standing in this church, which now is a 
tasteless erection within and without ' (Gordon's Scoti- 
chronicon, p. 307). A Spanish war-ship, one of the 
scattered Armada, put in at the harbour in 1588; in 
1645 many of the townsfolk, zealous Covenanters, fell 
at the battle of Kilsyth; and the town itself, in 1651, 

Seal of Anstruther-Easter. 

Seal of Anstruther-Wester. 

was plundered by the English. Great inundations 
(1670-90) did grievpus damage, the first destroying the 
harbour, and the second a third of the houses; the 
Union, too, gave a serious shock to commerce, which, 
till then carried on by 24 home vessels, employed but 2 
in 1764. Three natives and contemporaries were the 
great Dr Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), a minor poet, 
Captain Charles Gray, R.N. (1782-1851), and William 
Tennant (1784-1848), author of Aiister Fair, whose 
heroine ' Maggie Lauder ' lived, it is said, on Anstruther 
East Green. 

A head port from 1710 to 1S27, since then a creek or 
sub-port of Kirkcaldy, Anstruther possesses a harbour 
of its own, enclosed by two piers; but, this being found 
too small, the Union Harbour was commenced in 1866. 
With a western breakwater and eastern pier, partly 
built of concrete, and the latter fully 1200 feet long, 
it has an area of 7 acres, and, owing to frequent 
interruptions from storms, was only completed in 1877, 
at a total cost of over £80,000. Anstruther is head of 
all the fishery district between Leith and Montrose, and 
fish-curing is the staple trade. Anstruther-Easter was 
made a royal burgh in 1583, and Anstruther-Wester in 
1587, but the latter lost its municipal status in 1852, 
not to regain it till 1869. The former is governed by 
a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and nine councillors; 
Anstruther-Wester by a chief magistrate, one bailie, 
a treasurer, and nine councillors. With St Andrews, 
Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, they return 
one member to parliament. Pop. of Anstruther-Easter 
(1891) 1134 ; of Anstruther-Wester, 538. 

The parish of Anstruther-Easter, conterminous with 
its burgh, has an area of only 25J acres of land and 
32 of foreshore. The boundaries of the parishes of 
Anstruther-Wester and Pittenweem, previously badly 
defined, were re-adjusted in 1891 by the Boundary 
Commissioners. The new boundary follows the parlia- 
mentary boundary between the burghs of Anstruther- 
Wester and Pittenweem from the north boundary of 
Pittenweem parish down to the Pittenweem and An- 
struther road. It then strikes east from the parlia- 
mentary boundary, running along the centre of this 
road to its junction with the Chain Road, down which 
it runs to the sea. All to the west of this new boundary 
is now in the parish of Pittenweem, and all to the east 
in the parish of Anstruther-Wester. In the presbytery 
of St Andrews and synod of Fife, Anstruther-Wester is 
a living worth £206, and Anstruther-Easter £240. The 
former has one public school, the latter two, E and W ; 
and these three, with respective accommodation for 141, 
228, and 104 children, had in 1891 an average attendance 
of 78, 127, and 89, and grants of £67, 8s. 6d., £140, 
10s. 6d., and £77, 17s. 6d. Pop. of its entire parish 
(1801) 296, (1831) 430, (1861) 421, (1871) 545, (1881) 
673, (1891) 593.— Ord. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Antermony House, a mansion in Campsie parish, S 
Stirlingshire, near Milton station, and 2-J miles ESE 
of Lennoxtown. Here was born and here died John 
Bell of Antermony (1691-1780), well known by his 
Travels from St Petersburg to various parts in Asia (2 
vols., Glasgow, 1763). Antermony Loch is a sheet of 
water measuring 3| by 2 furlongs. 

Antoninus' Wall, a Roman rampart extending from 
Carriden on the Firth of Forth to Chapel-Hill, J mile 
below Old Kilpatrick village on the Clyde. Agricola in 
81, having two years earlier passed the shores of the Sol- 
way Firth, overran the country thence to the Forth and 
the Clyde, and raised a line of forts along the tract 
from Carriden to Chapel-Hill. Lollius Urbicus, in 139, 
the year after Antoninus Pius assumed the purple, was 
deputed as propraetor of Britain, to quell a general revolt. 
Marching northward to the Forth and the Clyde, he 
subdued the hostile tribes, and, both to repel any further 
attacks which might be made from the north, and to 
hold in subjugation the country to the south, constructed 
a great new work on the line of Agricola's forts. This 
new work was the rampart afterwards known as Anton- 
inus' Wall. It measured 39,726 Roman paces, or nearly 
36J English statute miles, in length; it consisted of 



earth on a foundation of stone, and was 24 feet thick 
and 20 high ; it had 3 forts at each end, and 15 inter- 
mediate forts at 2-mile intervals ; it was defended, along 
all the N side, by a fosse 20 feet deep and 40 wide ; 
and it had, along the S side, for ready communication 
from fort to fort, a paved military road. Very few and 
slight traces of it now exist ; but many memorials of it, 
in the form of tablets and other sculptured stones, have 
been dug up, and are preserved in museums ; and both 
vestiges and relics of it will be noticed in our articles on 
Camden, Falkirk, Kirkintilloch, Chapel-Hill, etc. The 
popular name of the rampart, or rather of its re- 
mains, came to be Grime's or Graham's Dyke — a name 
that has greatly perplexed archaeologists and philolo- 
gists. It was long fancied, from a fiction of Fordoun, 
Boece, and Buchanan, to point to an ancient Scottish 
prince of the name of Grime, who, with a body of troops, 
broke through the wall somewhere between Camelon and 
Castlecary ; and it has been hesitatingly derived from 
either a Gaelic word for ' black ' or a Welsh word signi- 
fying ' strength. ' See — besides Gordon's Itinerarium 
Septentrwnale, Roy's Military Antiquities, and Stuart's 
Caledonia JRomana — voL i., pp. 31-36 of Hill Burton's 
History of Scotland (ed. 1876); vol. i., pp. 76-79 of 
Skene's Celtic Scotland (1876); and Waldie's Walks 
along the Northern Roman Wall (Linlith. 1887). 

Antonshill, an estate, with a mansion, in Eccles 
parish, Berwickshire, 4J miles NW of Coldstream. 

Anwoth, a coast parish of SW Kirkcudbrightshire, 
with the Fleet Street suburb of its post-town Gatehouse 
in the E, and Dromore station in the N, on the Port- 
patrick branch of the Caledonian, 39 miles WS"W of 
Dumfries. It is bounded W and N by Kirkmabreck, E 
by Girthon, SE by Fleet Bay, and S by "Wigtown Bay ; its 
length from N to S is 7 J miles ; its breadth varies between 
li and 4J miles ; and its area is 12,861J acres, of which 
1036J are foreshore and 33| water. The whole of the 
eastern border is traced by the river Fleet ; and Skyre- 
burn, rising upon Meikle Bennan, follows the upper 
portion of the western border till, joined by Cauldside 
Burn, it strikes south-south-eastward through the in- 
terior, and, traversing a lovely wooded glen, enters Fleet 
Bay after a course of 3f miles. Its sudden and violent 
freshets have given rise to the local proverb of ' a Skyre- 
bum warning,' of which 'Scarborough warning' in Har- 
ington's Arioslo (1591) is thought to be a corruption. 
The seaboard, though generally rocky, is low except at 
Kirkclaugh in the W, where a steep and rocky promon- 
tory rises to over 100 feet ; and inland, too, the highest 
points are near or upon the western border, viz. , from N 
to S Meikle Bennan (1100 feet), Stey Fell (1000), Cairn- 
harrow (1497), Ben John (1150), and Barholm Hill 
(1163), eastward of which rise Kenlum Hill (900), Ard- 
waU Hill (600), and Trusty's Hill (225). Underlying a 
fertile rock - soil, the formation is chiefly Silurian ; a 
vein of lead, extending across the parish, and including 
small quantities of zinc and copper, was formerly worked 
on the estate of Rusco. Only about one-third of the 
entire surface is arable, much of the land along and to 
some distance from the Fleet being under wood ; at Ard- 
wall still stands the splendid beech that in 1800 was 
caved from the woodman by Campbell's Beech Tree's 
Petition. Behind Ornockenoch is a rocking-stone, 1 ton 
in weight ; and prehistoric antiquities are two cairns and 
' Druidical ' circles, a vitrified fort and a broad flat stone 
inscribed with so-called Runic characters on Trusty's 
Hill, the Moat of Kirkclaugh, and near it a thin, flat 
obelisk, SJfeethigh, with a rude cross carved upon either 
side. Rusco Castle, a seat of the Gordons of Lochinvar, 
is a square tower, crowning a knoll in the Vale of Fleet, 
3 miles NNW of Gatehouse, and habitable, though dat- 
ing from the 15th century. Cardoness Castle, also upon 
the Fleet, 1 mile SSW of Gatehouse, is a similar but 
roofless tower, last tenanted by Sir Godfrey M'Culloch, 
who in 1697 was beheaded at Edinburgh for the murder 
of William Gordon at Bush o' Bield (Chambers' Domestic 
Annals, ii. 321, 322, and hi. 174-176). The latter, 
another baronial mansion (demolished in 1827), was long 
the residence of Samuel Rutherford (1600-61), the eminent 


Covenanting minister of Anwoth, who was visited here 
by Archbishop Usher, and two of whose ' Witnesses' are 
standing yet — the three large stones that he reared as a 
protest_ against Sabbath football playing. His church 
(1626) is an ivy-clad ruin, with a stone in its graveyard 
to John Bell of Whyteside, ' barbarously shot to death 
on Kirkconnel Moor for adherence to the Covenants ' in 
1685 ; and to Rutherford's own memory was erected in 
1842 upon a hill on Boreland farm a granite obelisk, 56 
feet high, which, struck by lightning in 1847, was re- 
built fh 1851. Ardwall, Cardoness House (Sir Wm. F. 
Maxwell, fourth Bart.), and Kirkclaugh are the chief 
mansions ; and 3 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 and 
£500, 2 of between £50 and £100, and 4 of between 
£20 and £50. Anwoth is in the presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright and synod of Galloway; the minister's income is 
£254. The present church (1826) stands If mile W by 

5 of Gatehouse, and contains 400 sittings. At Fleet 
Street, too, are the U.P. church of Gatehouse and a 
public school, which had accommodation for 175 children, 
and an average attendance in 1891 of 144, and a grant 
of £161, 18s. 6d., when Skyreburn public school, with 
accommodation for 94 children, had an attendance of 48 
and a grant of £58, 7s. Valuation (1888) £6500. Pop. 
(1831) 830, (1861) 899, (1871) 827, (1881) 728, (1891) 
724. See pp. 99-109 of Harper's Rambles in Galloway. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 4, 5, 1857. 

Aonachan, a hamlet near the centre of the mainland 
of Inverness-shire, with formerly a post office under 
Fort Augustus. 

Aonach-Shasuinn, a mountain 2902 feet high, 2 J 
miles S of Loch Affric, NW Inverness-shire. 

Appin, one of the five sections of Dull parish, Perth- 
shire, comprehends the Strath of Appin, down which 
the Keltney Burn flows from the skirts of Schiehallion 

6 miles south-eastward to the Tay, at a point 2 miles 
NE of Kenmore. Thence it is prolonged down the 
strath of the Tay, past Aberfeldy, to near Grandtully 
Castle ; and contains Dull church, and many fine artifi- 
cial features. It is one of the most picturesque tracts 
in the Perthshire Highlands. 

Appin, an estate, with a colliery, in Dunfermline 
parish, Fife, 1J mile NNE of Dunfermline. 

Appin (Abihania or Apthane, i.e., 'abbatial lands' 
of Lismore), a village, a quoad sacra parish, and a terri- 
torial district, on the coast of Argyllshire. The village 
stands at the head of Appin Bay, on the SE side of 
Loch Linnhe, 15 miles NNE of Oban ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments. The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 
1868, is in the civil parish of Lismore, extends along 
the SE side of Loch Linnhe, measuring about 18 miles 
by 12, and abounds in interesting features. The shore 
is sandy, broken with islands and indentations ; the 
coast behind is generally high, but not rocky, em- 
bellished with woods and mansions. The interior ranges 
from undulating meadow along the coast to high moun- 
tain on the farther watershed, or rises away in great 
variety of height and contour, and terminates in alpine 
masses, cleft by deep glens, and striped with torrents 
or cataracts. The scenery everywhere is richly diversified 
and strikingly picturesque. The Airds of Appin, lovoly 
with lawn and wood, occupy the peninsula between 
Lochs Linnhe and Creran ; Port-Appin, with an inn, 
fronts the N end of Lismore ; Portnacroish village, with 
another inn, stands on the northern horn of Appin Bay ; 
and opposite Shuna island is Appin House. This parish, 
forming part of Lismore and Appin civil parish, is in 
the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, the stipend 
being £200, with manse and glebe. A new parish church 
was built in 1890. Glen-Creran mission church was 
opened in 1888. There is also a Free church for Appin 
and Lismore. Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1871) 1327, 
(1891) 669; of registration district (1S71) 728, (1881) 
762, (1891) 669. The territorial district compre- 
hends likewise Glen-Creran, Glen-Duror, Kingairloch, 
and Glencoe, and is upwards of 5 miles long, and 
1'nuii 10 to 15 broad. Appin abounds in legends of 


Caledonian times; possesses some interesting mediaeval 
antiquities; and was the country of the Stewarts, or 
Stuarts, long famed as ' the unconquered foes of the 
Campbell, ' but ultimately overmastered. Their history 
may be read in The Stewarts of Appin, by John H. J. 
Stewart and Lieut. -Col. Duncan Stewart; and Hogg, 
the Ettrick Shepherd, has celebrated their fame in 
verse: — 

*I sing of a land that was famous of yore, 

The land of green Appin, the ward of the flood ; 
Where every grey cairn that broods over the shore, 
Marks a grave of the royal, the valiant, or good ; 
The land where the strains of grey Ossian were framed — ■ 

The land of fair Selma and reign of Fingal, — 
And late of a race, that with tears must be named, 
The noble Clan Stuart, the bravest of all. 
Oh-hon, an Rei I and the Stuarts of Appin 1 
The gallant, devoted, old StuartB of Appin I 
Their glory is o'er, 
For the clan is no more, 
And the Sassenach sings on the hills of green Appin.' 

Appleby, a place on the N border of Glasserton parish, 
Wigtownshire, 2£ miles W by N of Whithorn. 

Applecross, a hamlet and a parish on the W coast of 
Ross-shire. The hamlet lies at the head of a small bay 
of its own name, opposite the central parts of Skye, 24 
miles W by N of Strathcarron station on the Dingwall 
and Skye railway, and 14 by water NE by E of Broad- 
ford. It has a money order office under Lochcarron, a 
stone jetty, and an inn. The name is commonly referred 
either to an 18th century proprietor's having planted 
five apple-trees crosswise in his garden, or to a monkish 
tradition that apples grown here bore the sign of the 
cross ; but Applecross is really a corruption of the 
ancient Aporcrosan or Abercrossan, the most northerly 
of all the Scottish abers. The church of Aporcrosan 
was founded in 673 by St Maelrubha, who, coming over 
from the Irish monastery of Bangor, made this his centre 
for the evangelisation of all the western districts be- 
tween Lochs Carron and Broom (Skene, Celt. Scot., 
ii. 169 and 411, 412). A relic, probably, of this Colum- 
ban monastery is an upright slab in the churchyard, bear- 
ing the figure of a collared cross. The reach of sea 
before the hamlet, separating Raasay and Rona islands 
from the mainland, is known as Applecross Sound. A 
stream, some 10 miles long, flows south-south-westward 
from high mountains to Applecross Bay at the hamlet, 
is very impetuous in its upper reaches, but becomes quiet 
lower down, and abounds with salmon and trout. Apple- 
cross House, a seat of Lord Middleton's, stands near the 
hamlet, and has a garden where fuchsias, geraniums, 
and similar plants flourish out of doors all the year 
round. The mainland approach to the hamlet is from 
Jeantown ; and the road thence goes through a pic- 
turesque defile to Courthill, and then ascends, by zigzag 
traverses, a steep mountain corrie overhung by stupendous 
precipices, and commanding a view well-nigh as savage 
and sublime as that of Glencoe. 

The parish, which, prior to 1726, formed part of Loch- 
carron parish, had its boundaries re-adjusted in 1891 by 
the Boundary Commissioners. That part of it which 
lay east of the river Kishorn and south of the north 
march of Kishorn estate was transferred to Lochcarron. 
In this way three out of the four detached parts of 
Lochcarron that were surrounded by the parish of Apple- 
cross were united to the main portion of Lochcarron. 
The fourth portion and a part of the main portion lying 
to the east of it were transferred to Applecross. The 
coast-line is very irregular — not more than 45 miles in 
direct measurement, but fully 90 if one follows the 
windings of every loch and bay. The shores are in 
some places high and rocky, in others low and sandy. 
The interior mainly consists of hills and mountains; 
among them are Beinn Garavegult (1602 feet), Beinn 
Clachan (2028), and Beinn Bhein (2397). Valleys there 
are both beautiful and fertile; but hardly 2000 acres are 
under cultivation, and they have generally a soil neither 
deep nor loamy, but rather shallow, and either sandy or 
gravelly. Two other rivulets besides the Applecross 
stream, and likewise several lochs (the largest, Lundie), . 


contain trout and other fish ; the sea-waters, too, abound 
in molluscs, are occasionally frequented by shoals of 
herring, and yield considerable quantities of cod, ling, 
flounders, etc. The shootings are extremely valuable, 
Lord Middleton's deer-forest being one of the largest. 
The climate is very moist, torrents of rain being frequent 
all the year round. Red and purple sandstones and 
conglomerates of Cambrian age are the prevailing rocks, 
to which the scenery owes its peculiar character; and 
copper has been worked at Kishorn. Part of the civil 
parish is included in the quoad sacra parish of Shieldaig ; 
the remainder forms another quoad sacra parish in the 
presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg, its 
minister's income amounting to £150. The parish church, 
built in 1817, contains 600 sittings; and there is also a 
Free church. Seven public schools are those of Aligin, 
Applecross, Arinacrinachd, Callakille, Shieldaig, Dia- 
baig, and Torridon. With total accommodation for 
451 children, these had (1891) an average attendance of 
226, and grants of £333, 18s. 6d. Valuation £4414, 
17s. 2d. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking, of civil parish 
(1891) 2029; of quoad sacra parish, 2038. 

Applegarth (Norse, ' apple-yard, ' — orchard), a parish 
of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, whose western half is tra- 
versed by the Caledonian, and contains the two stations 
of Nethercleuch and Dinwoodie, 3 and 6 miles respectively 
N by W of its post-town Lockerbie. Including since 1609 
the ancient parish of Sibbaldbie, it is bounded N by Warn- 
phray, NE and E by Hutton, S by Dryfesdale, and W by 
Lochmaben and Johnstone. From N to S its greatest 
length is 6f miles; its breadth from E to W varies be- 
tween 3 and 5 \ miles; and its area is 11,928| acres, of 
which 59J are water. The Annan traces nearly all the 
western boundary; and a fertile alluvial valley, extend- 
ing thence to a little beyond the railway, rarely in the 
N exceeds 300, in the S 200, feet above the level of the 
sea. Dryee Water runs south-south-eastward towards 
the Annan through the uplands above this valley; and 
heights to the W of it — from N to S — are Dinwoodie 
Hill (871 feet), Blaeberry Hill (635), Gayfield Type (714), 
Sibbaldbieside (682), and Cleuch-heads (518); to the E 
of it, Mid Hill (721), Adderlaw (822), Bowhill (813), and 
Balgray Hill (770). About two-thirds of the entire area 
are arable, and some 300 acres are under wood; the 
rocks are variously volcanic. Silurian, and Triassic. Jar- 
dine Hall (Sir Alexander Jardine, seventh Bart, since 
1672, and owner of 5538 acres in the shire) lies 2J mile 
NNW of Nethercleuch station, and is a good mansion, 
built in 1814; other residences are Balgray, Hewk, Four- 
merkland, and Dinwoodie Lodge; and there is also a 
steam saw-mill in the parish. A Roman road is thought 
to have run through Applegarth, in which there are no 
fewer than 3 camps and 14 hill -forts — 2 of the latter on 
Dinwoodie Hill, where is also the graveyard of a chapel 
said to have belonged to the Knights Templars. At the 
SW angle of the parish stood its old church, where, on 7 
July 1300, Edward I., then marching to besiege Caer- 
laverock, offered oblation at the altars of SS Nicholas 
and Thomas a Becket. The site of Sibbaldbie church is 
marked by Kirkcroft on the Dryfe's left bank, 2J miles 
NE of Nethercleuch. Applegarth is in the presbytery 
of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; its minister's in- 
come is £305. The present church (built 1760; repaired 
1822) stands near where the old one stood, 2 miles SW 
of Nethercleuch, and contains 380 sittings. Two public 
schools, Sandyholm and Sibbaldbie, with respective ac- 
commodation for 90 and 66 children, had (1891) an aver- 
age attendance of 56 and 46, and grants of £41, lis. 6d. 
and £51, 10s. Valuation £11,979, Is. Pop. (1831) 999, 
(1871) 902, (1891) 858.— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Appletree Hall, a hamlet in Wilton parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, 2| miles NNW of Hawick. 

Aquharaney, a mansion and estate in the W of Cruden 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 8 miles NE of Ellon. 
Aquhorthies. See Inverurie. 

Axasaig or Arisaig, a village and territorial district 
in Ardnamurchan parish, on the W coast of Inverness- 
shire. The village stands on a small sea-loch, nearly 
opposite the N end of Eigg island, 22 miles NE of Ard- 



namurehan Point, and 38J W by N of Fort William. A 
small place, with only a few scattered houses, it serves as 
a centre of business and a point of communication for an 
extensive but thinly-peopled tract of country ; maintained 
formerly a regular ferry to Skye, and still can furnish 
boats for passengers thither ; communicates regularly 
with the steamers plying between the Clyde and Skye ; 
and has a post office, with money order, savings bank, 
and telegraph departments, under Fort William, a large 
inn, a mission church of the Establishment, a Free 
Church mission station, a Roman Catholic chapel (1849; 
600 sittings), a Christian Knowledge Society's school, 
and a Roman Catholic school, with accommodation for 
68 and 114 children respectively, an average attendance 
in 1891 of 9 and 53, and grants of £7, 15s. and £54, 19s. ; 
there is also a public library and reading room. The 
minister of the Established mission church receives £60 
a-year from the Royal Bounty grant, and has a manse. 

"The territorial district is bounded by Loch Morar on 
the N, by Loch Aylort on the S; has a rugged, sterile, 
mountainous character; and terminates seaward in a pro- 
montory, called Arasaig Point, nearly opposite the middle 
of Eigg island. Pop. of registration district (1891) 929. 

Aray or Ary (Gael, a-reidh, 'smooth water'), a stream 
of the Argyll district of Argyllshire, rising in several 
head-streams near the watershed between the head of 
Loch Fyne and the foot of Loch Awe, and running about 
9 miles southward to Loch Fyne, which it enters near 
Inverary Castle, giving name to Inverary. It is crossed 
at its mouth by a bridge on the line of road along the 
W shore of Loch Fyne, and is followed down its whole 
course by the road from Oban to Inverary. It runs on 
a rocky bed, along the bottom of a romantic glen, be- 
neath bare hills first, and then between finely wooded 
banks. CoL Robertson's etymology notwithstanding, it 
has an impetuous current, makes several picturesque falls, 
and is called by Skene the ' furious Aray. ' The finest 
fall occurs about 3 miles from Inverary, and bears the 
name of Lenach-Gluthin. The stream here rushes through 
a rocky cleft, and leaps down a precipice 60 feet high 
into a whirlpool below, thence shooting through a narrow 
opening. Salmon and grilse often ascend to the pool, 
leap from it into the vertical cataract, and reach the first 
ledge of the precipice, only to be hurled back by the force 
of the water. Another beautiful fall, Carlonan Linn, 
occurs about mid-way between Lenach-Gluthin and In- 
verary. The upper Aray is open to anglers from the 
Argyll Arms, Inverary, and sport is very good, especially 
in July and August. — Ord. Sur., shs. 45, 37, 1876. 

Arbigland, a coast estate, with a handsome mansion 
and finely planted grounds, in Kirkbean parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 1J mile SE of Kirkbean village. Its 
owner, Col. Blackett, holds 1453 acres in the shire, 
valued at £3291 per annum. In a cottage here the 
naval adventurer Paul Jones was born 6 July 1747, his 
reputed father being gardener, and his mother cook, to 
Mr William Craik, whose grandfather had bought the 
estate from the Earl of Southesk in 1722. 

Arbikie, a place in the south-western extremity of 
Lunan parish, Forfarshire. A range of small tumuli 
here, at equal distances from one another, over a length 
of about 2400 feet, is supposed to mark the site of some 
ancient sanguinary battle. 

Arbirlot (Gael. ' ford of the Elliot '), a village and a 
coast parish of Forfarshire. The village, on the left bank 
of Elliot Water, is 2 J miles W by S of Arbroath, 2 miles 
WNWof Elliot Junction; has a post office under Arbroath, 
a cattle fair on the second Wednesday of November, a 
parish library, the parish church (rebuilt 1832; 639 sit- 
tings), and a Free church ; and is described as ' lying in 
a secluded hollow beside the stream, where, with the 
cottages nestling in their greenery, the bridge, the mill, 
and foaming water, the scene is more than ordinarily 
picturesque.' The old manse here 'was replaced in 1835 
by another (almost, if not altogether, the best manse 
in Scotland) on the height across the stream — a spot 
which Dr Guthrie selected as commanding a view of 
the sea. ' 

The parish contains also the village of Bounington, 2 


miles W by S. Bounded N by St Vigeans, NE by Ar- 
broath, SE by the German Ocean, S by the Hatton sec- 
tion of St Vigeans and by Panbride, SW by Panbride, 
and NW by Carmyllie, it has a varying length from E 
to W of 2^ and 4| miles, an utmost width from N to 3 
of 3§_miles, and a land area of 6747 acres. The coast, 
1J mile long, is flat and sandy ; inland, the surface rises 
gently west-north-westward to 258 feet near Pitcunurum, 
262 near Bonnington, 338 near Wester Knox, 273 near 
Easter Bonhard, 400 near Lynn, 295 on Kelly Moor, and 
304 near Lochaber. The rocks, Devonian and eruptive, 
contain rock-crystals ; the soils of the arable lands (about 
four-fifths of the entire area) are in some parts argillaceous, 
in most parts a light rich loam incumbent on gravel, while 
those of the higher grounds (about one-sixth) are wet and 
moorish. The only distinctive features in the landscape 
are found along the gentle valley of the Elliot. It here 
has an east-south-eastward course of 3| miles, receives 
from the W the Rottenraw Burn, and sweeps below the 
village through a steep wooded dell past the old grey 
tower of Kelly Castle, which, held by the Auchterlonies 
from the 15th to the 17th century, came in 1679 to the 
Earl of Panmure, an ancestor of the Dalhousie family. 
See Brechin. George Gladstanes, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, was minister of Arbirlot in 1597, 
as also was Dr Guthrie from 1830 to 1837 ; and in Arbir- 
lot was born, in 1833, Sir John Kirk, M.D., to whom 
is largely due the suppression of the East African slave 
trade. The Earl of Dalhousie is chief proprietor, two 
other landowners holding each an annual value of be- 
tween £100 and £500, and four of from £20 to £50. 
Arbirlot is in the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of 
Angus and Mearns; the living is worth £195. Its 
public school, erected in 1876, with accommodation for 
129 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 90, 
and a grant of £82, 5s. 6d. Valuation (1891) £11,069, 
10s. (including £2367 for railways and waterworks). 
Pop. (1801) 945, (1831) 1086, (1871) 919, (1881) 822, 
(1891) 848.— Ord. Sur., shs. 49, 57, 1865-68. See part 
iv. and chap. iii. of the Autobiography and Memoir of 
Tlminas Guthrie. 

Arbory Hill, a conical hill in the SW angle of Laming- 
ton parish, S Lanarkshire, on the right bank of the Clyde, 
1 mile below the mouth of Glengonnar Water. It rises 
to a height of 1406 feet above sea-level, and is crowned 
by extensive rude relics of an ancient Caledonian work. 
First are a wide fosse and a rampart ; next, about 18 
feet farther up, are another fosse and a large earth- 
work ; next, about 4S feet still farther up, is a circle of 
stones upwards of 20 feet thick and about 4 high ; and, 
finally, is an enclosed or summit space about 132 feet in 

Arbroath (anc. Abcrbrothock, Celt, 'ford of the Bro- 
thock '), a royal, police, and parliamentary burgh, a sea- 
port, and a seat of manufacture on the SE coast of For- 
farshire, at the mouth of the Brothock Burn. It stands 
at the junction of the Arbroath and Forfar railway, opened 
in 1839, the Dundee and Arbroath Joint line, opened in 
1840, and the Arbroath and Montrose railway, opened 
in 1881 ; and by rail is 14£ miles SE by E of Forfar, 153 
SSW of Montrose, 57J SSW of Aberdeen, 16J ENE of 
Dundee, 38J ENE of Perth, 77 NNE of Edinburgh (vid 
Tay Bridge), and lOOf NE of Glasgow. Its site is chiefly 
a little plain, engirt on the land sides by eminences of 
from 100 to 200 feet, which command an extensive view 
of the sea, of Forfarshire, and of the elevated parts of 
Fife. The old royal burgh consisted chiefly of one main 
street less than 1 mile in length, crossed by another 
smaller street, and by a few still smaller lanes. But the 
modern town has spread widely from Arbroath into St 
Vigeans parish. Newgate, Seagate, Marketgate, New 
Marketgate, Grimsby, Millgato, Lordburn, Applegate, 
Rotten Row, and Cobgato, mentioned in an official docu- 
ment of 1445 as crofts or rural thoroughfares, are all now, 
and have long been, edificed stroots. Newgate is the only 
one of them not built upon till roccnt times ; Grimsby 
was feued in the latter part of last century ; and Rotten 
Row and Cobgato are the parts of High Street respec- 
tively above *nd below the present parish church. One 


portion of_ the St Vigeans extension, about 35 acres of 
the Almerieclose estate, was covered with streets and 
factories in an incredibly short space of time; and others 
were added till what was at first a trivial suburb became 
coequal with all the original town. Two or three of the 
modern streets are handsome, and many possess some 
excellent houses. These, together with several other 
buildings, numerous new churches and other places of 
worship, add much to the appearance of the town. The 
stone used in its buildings is mostly red. In 1773 Dr 
Samuel Johnson, referring to the abbey, said that he 
should scarcely have regretted his journey had it afforded 
nothing more than the sight of Aberbrothock. 

The Town -house, built in 1803, is a handsome edifice, 
and contains a large elegant apartment, a town-clerk's 
office, and a council chamber. The Guild Hall, a plain 
building, was completely destroyed by fire (10 Oct. 1880), 
but has been since rebuilt in a handsome style. The 
Trades' Hall was erected in 1815, and is now the pro- 
perty of the Corporation. The new Market Buildings 
and Corn Exchange are handsome buildings. The Public 
Hall was erected in 1865, and contains a museum and 

Seal of Arbroath. 

a large hall for concerts and public meetings. The 
Museum is open to the public on every lawful day, and 
in 1870 was enriched with a valuable collection of fishes 
minerals, and other subjects, gifted by Mr James Renny 
of Edinburgh, and with three-fourths of the late Pro- 
fessor Fleming's collection of insects, shells, and fossils. 
The Public Subscription Library contains 13,000 volumes 
The Mechanics' Institute has a library of more than 
1500 volumes and a reading-room. Other institutions 
are a public subscription reading-room, a scientific and 
literary association, an educational institute, Youno- 
Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations (both 
of which secured suitable premises for their meetings in 
1891), science and art evening classes, cricket, football 
and curling clubs, an infirmary and dispensary, 2 des- 
titute sick societies, a ladies' clothing society, a town 
mission, a female home mission, and about a dozen 
chanty funds or mortifications, bequeathed since 1738. 
lhe infirmary and dispensary, a handsome buildin°- 
opened in 1845, is situated on the high common 

Arbroath has over 20 places of worship, divided anion" 
12 denominations, and all of them modern but one° 
>fv, P Ti clmrch ' built ab °ut 1590 with the materials 
?loo 7.J dor ™ to ry, and enlarged or repaired in 1762, 
li\ • 82 1 3 o'„ and 1869 > had a handsome Gothic spire 
added in 1831 at a cost of £1300, and 152 feet high, also 
old carving in its pews, and 2 bronze alms-dishes* taken 
probably from the abbey. It was completely destroyed 
by fire on 14 Nov 1892, a few hours after a crowded 
congregation had left it. Very fortunately, the spire, 
Til A 6 ha ° d i ™ es t of its kind in Scotland, escaped 
Abbey Church, built m 1797 at a cost of £2000, was 
greatly altered, though hardly improved (1876-78) at a 
cost of £2000 more, new windows being struck out and 
old ones closed a flat panelled ceiling inserted, the gal- 
lery stairs transferred to the outside, etc. A new tower 


and front were built in 1885. Inverbrothock Church 
was built in 1828, Ladyloan in 1838, the latter being 
adorned in 1875 with two memorial stained-glass win- 
dows; and all these three, Abbey, Inverbrothock, and 
Ladyloan, have been raised from chapels of ease to 
quoad sacra churches in respectively 1869, 1855, and 1865. 
St Margaret's was erected (1877-79) at a cost of £6000, 
and became a quoad sacra church in 1886. St Nmian's 
chapel was opened in 1885. Free churches are East 
(rebuilt at Brothock Bridge 1875), Inverbrothock (rebuilt 
1890), High Street (the former Episcopal chapel, 1856), 
Knox's (1867), and Ladyloan (1845). There are three 
U.P. churches, Erskine (1851), Princes Street (1867), 
and St Paul's (rebuilt 1888), whilst each of the following 
bodies has one— United Original Seceders (1821), Evan- 
gelical Union (1878), Congregationalists (1866), Bap- 
tists (1873), Wesleyans (opened by Wesley himself, 
1772), ' Balchristians ' (1783), and Irvingites (1865). St 
Mary's Episcopal church (1852-54) is a good Gothic 
building with spire; the Catholic church of St Thomas 
of Canterbury (1848) has 4 stained-glass windows. The 
Academy, built in 1821, in 1861 took the name of High 
School, on amalgamation with the Educational Institu- 
tion (1844), and in 1872 passed to the charge of the 
school board; with a rector, 8 under-masters, and ac- 
commodation for 613, it furnishes higher-class educa- 
tion to over 300 pupils. The Abbey, Hill, Keptie, 
Inverbrothock (rebuilt at Cairnie in 1890), Ladyloan, 
and Parkhouse (rebuilt in 1892) public schools, a half- 
time school, taught in the old Inverbrothock school 
buildings at Stobcross, Abbot Street school, and St 
Thomas's B.C. school, have accommodation for 4147 
children, an average attendance of 3114 in 1891, and 
total grants amounting to £3088, 17s. 3d. 
_ An ancient abbey, now in a state of picturesque decay, 
is much the most imposing object in the town. This 
stands in High Street, near the parish church. It was 
founded in 1178 by William the Lyon, and dedicated 
to SS. Mary and Thomas a Becket. Becket had been 
martyred at the high altar of Canterbury Cathedral 
only seven years before, and William the Lyon had re- 
cently suffered shameful defeat and ignominious capture 
by the English at Alnwick ; but William had been per- 
sonally acquainted with Becket, and is supposed to have 
regarded him as a private friend. ' Was this the cause ' 
Cosmo Innes asks, ' or was it the natural propensity to 
extol him, who, living and dead, had humbled the 
crown ol England, that led William to take St Thomas as 
his patron saint, and to entreat his intercession when 
he was m greatest trouble ? Or may we consider the 
dedication of his new abbey, and his invocation of the 
martyr of Canterbury, as nothing more than the signs 
otthe rapid spreading of the veneration for the new 
samt of the high church party, from which his old 
opponent himself, Henry of England,-was not exempt !" 
lhe abbey received great endowments, not only from 
William, but from many subsequent princes and barons- 
received also, in 1204, a charter of privileges from Kinr? 
John of England ; and was one of the richest in Scot 
land. Its monks were of the Tyronensian order; and 
the first ones were brought from Kelso. Its abbots 
had several special privileges; they were exempted from 
assisting at the yearly synods ; they had the custody 
ot the Brecbennaeh, or consecrated banner of Columba- 
they acquired from Pope Benedict, by Bull dated at 
Avignon, the right to wear a mitre; and they, in some 
instances, were the foremost churchmen of the kingdom 
lhe last abbot was Cardinal Beaton, at the same time 
Archbishop of St Andrews. The abbey was not com- 
pleted till 1233; and, after the death of Beaton, it felt 
the blows of the iconoclastic Reformers. Its property 
then was converted into a temporal lordship in favour 
of Lord Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of 
Chatelherault; passed soon to the Earl of Dysart- and 
passed again in the reign of James VI. to Patrick Maule 
of Panmure, ancestor of the Earl of Dalhousie 

A stone wall, from 20 to 24 feet high, enclosed the 
precincts of the abbey, and was 1150 feet in length along 
the E and W sides, 706 along the N side, and 484 along 



the S side. A tower, 24 feet square and 70 high, stood 
at the NW corner ; was used for some time as the 
regality prison ; was afterwards, in its ground - flat, 
converted into a butcher's shop ; and is still entire. 
Another tower, somewhat smaller, stood at the S"\V 
angle ; had raised upon it a slated spire ; served for 
many years as a steeple to the parish church ; but, 
becoming ruinous, was taken down in 1830, to give 
place to the church's present steeple. A stately porch, 
in the N wall, formed the main entrance ; seems to 
have been furnished with a portcullis, which now forms 
the armorial bearings of the town ; and was demolished 
as insecure about 1825. Another entrance, called the 
Darngate, far inferior in architectural structure to the 
main entrance, stood at the SE corner. The church 
stood in the northern part of the enclosure ; measured 
276 feet from E to W ; seems to have been 67 feet high 
from the pavement to the roof ; and had two western 
towers, and a great central tower. The nave, of nin e 
bays, was 148, and the three-bayed choir 76^, feet long ; 
the central aisle was 35, and each of the side aisles 16£, 
feet wide ; whilst the transept was 132 feet long and 
45^ wide. The whole structure is now in a state of 
chaotic ruin, and mingles with fragments of the cloisters 
and other attached buildings in prostrate confusion ; 
yet, by attentive observation, can still be traced as to 
its cruciform outline, and considerably re-constructed, 
in imagination, as to its several parts and its main 
details. The great western doorway is still entire, and 
forms a grand object. A rose window, seemingly of 
gTeat size and much beauty, surmounted the great wes- 
tern doorway, and has left some vestiges. Another of 
smaller size is yet seen on the upper part of the wall 
of the S transept. The S wall and part of the E end 
are still standing ; and they retain some windows, or 
portions of windows, and some other features, which 
distinctly show the characteristic architecture. The 
pillars which supported the roof are all demolished, but 
can still be easily traced in their sub-basements or 
foundations ; and those at the intersection of the nave 
or transept have been so much larger than the others as 
evidently to have been piers supporting the central 
tower. The architecture was partly Norman, but mainly 
Early English ; and it exhibits these styles in a closeness 
of blending, and in a gentleness of transition to be seen 
elsewhere in only a very few buildings. The great 
western door is Norman, in rather peculiar mouldings, 
but evidently of the later or latest Norman type ; and 
the gallery above the interior of that doorway has 
the Early English arch resting on the Norman pillar 
and capital. The building material, however, was a 
dark-red sandstone so very friable that the mouldings 
and tracery, excepting only at a few places, are very 
much obliterated. Large masses of the pile, too, have 
fallen at comparatively recent periods — one of them 
immediately before Pennant visited the ruins in 1772. 
Operations were undertaken by the Exchequer to pre- 
vent further dilapidation ; but these, though well meant 
and in some sense highly serviceable, have introduced 
flat new surfaces of masonry, utterly discordant with 
the rugged contiguous ruins. A building, said to have 
been the chapter-house, adjoins the S transept on the 
E ; consists of two vaulted apartments, the one above 
the other ; and is in a state of good repair. The cloisters 
appear to have stood in front of that building and of the 
S transept, but have been utterly destroyed. The ab- 
bot's house stood at a short distance from the S wall of 
the nave ; and a portion of it is still inhabited as a 
private mansion. The tomb of King William the Lyon, 
who was buried before the high altar 9 Dec. 1214, was 
discovered in 1816 during the Exchequer's operations ; 
it consists of hewn freestone. There are also several in- 
teresting monuments, among them the effigies of three of 
the thirty-two abbots of Arbroath. One of these is in blue 
sandstone ; another has pouch and girdle of madrepore. 
Many tombs or gravestones of a very remote antiquity arc 
in the graveyard near the church ; but they want distinc- 
tive character, and are remarkable mainly for having the 
primitive form of the cross among their sculptures. 


Arbroath has a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, and 
two branch post offices; several hotels; offices of the 
Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co., the Clydesdale, 
Commercial, and Royal banks, a local savings bank (1815) ; 
numerous insurance offices ; three vice-consulships, of 
respectively the German Empire, Sweden and Norway, 
and Belgium ; a custom-house ; two Liberal papers, 
the Arbroath Guide (Saturday; 1842), and the Arbroath 
Herald (Thursday). Saturday is market-day, and 
hiring fairs are held on the last Saturday of January, 
26 May, 18 July, and 22 Nov., provided these days are 
Saturdays, otherwise on the Saturday following. The 
manufacture of brown linens was introduced in the early 
part of last century ; took a great start, about the year 
1738, from a local weaver's discovery of the mode of 
making osnaburgs, and by a few local capitalists then 
engaging in the manufacture ; and made such progress 
that, in the year 1792, so many as 1,055,303 yards of 
osnaburgs and brown linen, valued at £39,660, were 
stamped in the town. The making of sailcloth, in the 
same year, employed nearly 500 weavers, and was almost 
as productive in point of value as the other manufac- 
ture. The making of linen thread was introduced about 
1740, prospered for nearly half a century, and then 
dwindled rapidly to extinction. The spinning of flax by 
steam power was introduced in 1806, came to a crucial 
trial in the Inch mill about 1808, and then took root as 
a permanent employment. A grand rush of increased 
business in the various departments of the linen trade 
occurred between 1820 and 1826, but was greatly im- 
pelled by over-speculation ; and, in the latter part of 
1825, and the early part of 1826, it received a tremen- 
dous check in a most disastrous crisis. The linen manu- 
facture seemed, at the instant, to be overwhelmed ; and 
it went on for a time with faltering progress and ex- 
treme caution ; yet it eventually resumed its previous 
breadth, and became as vigorous as ever. The spinning 
mills were 16 in 1832, 19 in 1842, when the quantity of 
flax spun was about 7000 tons, the value of the yarn 
about £300,000, the number of linen weavers 732 (about 
a third of them women), and the number of canvas 
weavers 450 (about a fifth of them women). In 1851 the 
nominal horse-power of the engines was 530, the number 
of spindles 30,342, of power-looms 806, and of persons 
employed 4620. The mills in 1867 were 18, but aggre- 
gately had larger space and did more work than the same 
number in 1842, their nominal horse-power being 892, 
and the number of spindles 36,732, of power-looms 830, 
and of persons employed 4941. There are now over 30 
spinning mills and factories, all driven by steam, with 
40,000 spindles, and fully 1100 power-looms, which, 
together, turn out weekly about 500,000 yards of cloth. 
There are also bleachfields, calendering establishments, 
tanneries, engineering works, asphalt and tar factories, 
chemical works, iron foundries, roperies, and a ship- 
building yard ; the manufacture of boots and shoes 
employs 600 or 700 hands. Fishing employs 146 boats 
of 1169 tons, and over 600 men and boys. 

The Abbot's Harbour (1394), a wooden pier projecting 
from Danger Point, ' was not much liked by mariners ;' 
accordingly, the Old Harbour was formed (1725-42) 
to the westward, at a cost of over £6000. Its "W 
pier was rebuilt (1789), a lighthouse erected (1798), 
and a patent slip laid down (1827) ; but it admitted 
vessels of only 100 tons at low tide, of only 200 at 
spring tide. Between 1841 and 1846, then, £58,000 
was expended on the improvement of the Old and 
the construction of the New Harbour ; this, with a break- 
water, admits at spring tides ships of 400 tons j had 
conveyed to it the property and shore dues of the Old 
Harbour on payment of £10,000 to the community; and 
is administered by a body of 23 trustees, comprising the 
provost, 10 parliamentary burgh electors, 4 county re- 
presentatives, &c. Lastly, between 1871 and 1877, at a 
cost of more than £29,000, including £20,000 from 
Government, the Old Harbour was converted into a 
wet dock, the New Harbour and the entrance from the 
Bar were deepened, and a new patent slip was formed 


for ships of 700 tons. In 1891 the harbour rovenno was 
£4328. The aggregate tonnage registered as beloneing 
to the port was 2319 in 1894 — viz. 13 sailing vessels of 
2296 tons and 1 steamer of 23 tons. The following table 
gives the aggregate tonnage of vessels that cleared and 
entered from and to foreign and colonial ports and 
coastwise in cargoes and in ballast : — ■ 

















Of the total, 264 vessels of 27,160 tons, that entered in 
1894, 177 of 19,700 tons were steamers, 34 of 1881 tons 
were in ballast, and 245 of 21,846 tons were coasters; 
whilst the total, 266 of 28, 071 tons, of those that cleared 
included 178 steamers of 20,743 tons, 137 vessels in 
ballast of 20,007 tons, and 262 coasters of 27,672 tons. 
The trade is mainly an import coastwise one, and coal 
is a chief article of import. 

Till then most probably a burgh of regality, Arbroath 
in 1599 received a charter of novodamus from James VI., 
by which it became a royal burgh. It is governed by a 
provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 12 
councillors. There is a guildry incorporation; and there 
are incorporated trades of hammermen, glovers, shoe- 
makers, weavers, Wrights, tailors, and bakers. The 
General Police and Improvement Act of Scotland was 
adopted prior to 1871. A police court sits every Monday; 
a justice of peace court on the first Monday of every month ; 
and a sheriff small debt court on the third Wednesday of 
January, March, May, July, September, and November. 
The Nolt Loan water supply was provided in 1871 at a 
cost of £1700, and a water tower added in 1886 at a cost 
of over £7000. The burgh unites with Montrose, Forfar, 
Brechin, and Bervie in sending a member to parliament. 
Pop. of royal burgh (1891) 22,987; of parliamentary 
burgh, 22,800. 

The following is a list of the principal charity funds 
or mortifications of the town: — Carmichael's, founded 
1738, out of which the widows of seven shipmasters get 
a division half-yearly; Colvill's, founded 1812, out of 
which £60 annually is paid to the Educational Trust, 
£10 to the Scotch Episcopal clergymen, £10 each to the 
poor of Arbroath and of St Vigeans, and the residue to 
twenty poor householders; Dove's, founded in 1841, for 
the education of native-born boys of poor parentage; 
Mrs Renny Strachan's, which amounts to £50 yearly, 
to be expended in purchasing coals and oatmeal for dis- 
tribution at Christmas amongst the most necessitous 
poor; Forbes' fund, founded 1S64, from which sums of 
not less than £8 nor more than £10 yearly are given for 
the relief of destitute widows and old unmarried females 
in the town of Arbroath; Gibson fund, founded 1868, 
annual produce of residue of trust estate of the late 
William Gibson, applied as follows: — £100 to the Edu- 
cational Trust for the higher education of poor lads by 
bursaries or otherwise, and the remainder divided yearly 
in sums of not less than £20 and not more than £25 
among poor householders of the town of Arbroath; 
Gibson Christmas Charity, 1868, annual revenue of £2000 
applied one-half in purchase of coals, other half in 
groceries, oatmeal, and clothes for distribution among 
the necessitous poor of the town; Gibson Mortification, 
1868, annual revenue of a sum of £4000 divided yearly 
among sixteen poor householders of the town. Besides 
these there are— Duncan's Charity (1869), Arbikie Fund 
(1876), Smith's Charity (1880), Miln's Charity (1880), 
Arrott's (1885), and Petrie's. 

From a fishing hamlet under the abbey's protection, 
Arbroath grew up in the 14th century to be a place of 
some foreign trade. A parliament assembled in the 
abbey in April 1320, adopted a solemn address to the 
Pope on behalf of Scottish independence, and is remark - 


able as the earliest parliament in which we find distinct 
evidence of a formal representation of the burghs. 

Jurisdiction over the criminal affairs of the abbey and 
over its prison was resigned by the monks to a layman ; 
and in the year 1445 the election to this office led to 
very disastrous consequences. The monks that year 
chose Alexander Lindsay, eldest son of the Earl of Craw- 
ford, and commonly known by the appellation of The 
Tiger or Earl Beardie, to be the bailie or chief-justiciar 
of their regality ; but he proved so expensive by his num- 
ber of followers and high way of living, that they were 
obliged to remove him, and appoint in his stead Alex- 
ander Ogilvy of Inverquharity, nephew to John Ogilvy 
of Airlie, who had an hereditary claim to the place. This 
occasioned a cruel feud between the families ; each as- 
sembled their vassals ; and ' there can be little doubt,' 
says Mr Fraser Tytler, 'that the Ogilvies must have sunk 
under this threatened attack, but accident gave them a 
powerful ally in Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, after- 
wards Earl of Hunt) y, who, as he returned from court, 
happened to lodge for the night at the castle of Ogilvy, 
at the very moment when this baron was mustering his 
forces against the meditated assault of Crawford. Seton, 
although in no way personally interested in the quarrel, 
found himself, it is said, compelled to assist the Ogilvies, 
by a rude but ancient custom, which bound the guest to 
take common part with his host in all dangers which 
might occur so long as the food eaten under his roof re- 
mained in his stomach. With the small train of atten- 
dants and friends who accompanied him, he instantly 
joined the forces of Inverquharity, and proceeding to the 
town of Arbroath, found the opposite party drawn up in 
great strength on the outside of the gates. ' As the two 
lines approached each other, and spears were placing in 
the rest, the Earl of Crawford, anxious to stay the fight, 
suddenly appeared on the field, and, galloping up between 
the two armies, was accidentally slain by a soldier. The 
Crawfords, assisted by a large party of the vassals of 
Douglas, and infuriated at the loss of their chief, thereupon 
attacked the Ogilvies with a desperation which quickly 
broke their ranks, and put them to irreclaimable dis- 
order. Such, however, was the gallantry of their resist- 
ance, that they were almost entirely cut to pieces. Nor 
was the Ogilvies' loss in the field their worst misfortune ; 
for Lindsay, with his characteristic ferocity, and protected 
by the authority of Douglas, let loose his army upon their 
estates, and the flames of their castles, the slaughter of 
their vassals, the plunder of their property, and the cap- 
tivity of their wives and children instructed the remotest 
adherents of the justiciar of Arbroath, how terrible was 
the vengeance which they had provoked. 

During the war in 1781, this coast was annoyed by a 
French privateer, the Fearnought of Dunkirk, commanded 
by one Fall. On the evening of the 23d of May, he came 
to anchor in the Bay of Arbroath, and fired a few shots 
into the town ; after which he sent a flag of truce on 
shore, with the following letter : — 

'At sea, May twenty-third. 

' Gentlemen, I send these two words to inform you, that I will 

have you to bring to the French colour, in less than a quarter of 

an hour, or I set the town on fire directly ; such is the order of 

my master the king of France I am sent by. Send directly the 

mair and chiefs of the town to make some agreement with me, or 

I'll make my duty. It is the will of yours. 

'To Monsieurs Mair of the town called "] 

Arbrought, or in his absence, to the J 

chief man after him, in Scotland.' 

The worthy magistrates, with a view to gain time to 
arm the inhabitants, and send expresses for military aid, 
in the true spirit of subtle diplomacy gave an evasive 
answer to Monsieur Fall's letter, reminding him that he 
had mentioned no terms of ransom, and begging he would 
do no injury to the town till he should hear from them 
again. Upon this Fall wrote a second letter to them in 
the following terms : — 

'At sea, eight o'clock in the afternoon. 

' Gentlemen, I received just now your answer, by which you 

say I ask no terms. I thought it was useless, since I asked you 

to come aboard for agreement. But here are my terms ; I will 

have £30,000 sterling at least, and 6 of the chiefs men of the town 




for otage. Be speedy, or I shoot your town away directly, and 1 
set fire to it. I am, gentlemen, your servant. 1 sent some of my 
crew to you ; but if some harm happens to them, you'll be sure 
will hang up the main-yard all the preseners we have aboard. 
' To Monsieurs the chiefs men of > 
Arbrought in Scotland.' J 

The magistrates having now got some of the inhabitants 
armed, and their courage further supported by the arrival 
of some military from Montrose, set Fall at defiance, and 
' ordered him to do his worst, for they would not give 
him a farthing.' Whereupon, says the worthy historian 
of this memorable transaction in the annals of Arbroath, 
terribly enraged, and no doubt greatly disappointed, he 
began a heavy fire upon the town, and continued it for 
a long time ; but happily it did no harm, except knock- 
ing down some chimney-tops, and burning the fingers of 
those who took up his balls, which were heated. 

Arbroath is the ' Fairport' of Scott's Antiquary ; and 
both in itself and in its surroundings, it can easily be 
identified with his descriptions. Among its illustrious 
natives are David Pierson (flo. 1628), author of the rare 
Varieties; David Carey (1782-1824), poet and novelist ; 
and Neil Arnot, M.D. (1788-1874), scientific inventor. 

The parish of Arbroath is bounded N and NE by St 
Vigeans, SE by the German Ocean, SW by Arbirlot. 
A detached portion of St Vigeans parish was added to 
the parish of Arbroath in 1891 by the Boundary Com- 
missioners, while that part of Arbroath parish lying to 
the north of the road leading from the Arbroath and 
Forfar highway to Cairnconan, and another part of it 
lying to the east of the Arbroath and Forfar highway 
and to the north of the parliamentary boundary of the 
burgh, were transferred to the parish of St Vigeans. 
The coast extends about 1J mile; has a flat surface, 
with a rocky bottom; and adjoins a high mural reach of 
rock-coast, pierced with' caves, and torn with fissures, in 
the parish of St Vigeans. The land rises gradually be- 
hind the town, onward to the north-western boundary, 
and attains there an elevation of more than 200 feet 
above sea-level. The Brothock Burn comes in from St 
Vigeans, and has a course of only about £ mile within 
Arbroath parish to the sea. A small lake called Bishop's 
Loch lay about 2 miles from the town, but has long 
been drained. The rocks are chiefly Devonian. The 
soil along the coast is light and sandy, behind the town 
is black loam, and in the NW is reclaimed moor on a 
clay bottom. Two landowners hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 36 of between £100 and £500, 70 
of from £50 to £100, and 197 of from £20 to £50. 
Arbroath is seat of a presbytery in the synod of Angus 
and Mearns ; its living is worth £250. Valuation of 
landward portien (1891) £1900, 13s. Pop. of entire 
parish (1831) 6660, (1861) 9847, (1891) 9657.— Ord. 
Sur., shs. 49, 57, 1865-67. 

The presbytery of Arbroath comprises the parishes 
of Arbroath, Arbirlot, Barry, Carmyllie, Guthrie, Inver- 
keilor, Kinnell, Kirkden, Lunan, Panbride, and St 
Vigeans, the quoad sacra parishes of Abbey, Auchmithie, 
Carnoustie, Colliston, Friockheim, Inverbrothock, Lady- 
loan, and St Margaret's, and St Ninian's chapel. Pop. 
(1891) 37,029, of whom 9,737 were communicants of 
the Church of Scotland in that year, when the above- 
named congregations raised £3785 in Christian liberality. 
— A Free Church presbytery of Arbroath has churches at 
Arbirlot, Barry, Carmyllie. Carnoustie, Colliston, Friock- 
heim, Inverkeilor, and Panbride, besides the 5 at the 
town itself, these 13 congregations numbering 4327 
communicants in 1801. — A U.P. presbytery of Arbroath 
has 3 churches there, 3 at Brechin, 3 at Montrose, and 
others at Carnoustie, Forfar, Johnshaven, and Muii ton, 
the 13 numbering 4115 members in 1891. 

See Liber S. Thomas de Abcrbrolhoc 1178-1329, edited 
for the Bannatyne Club by Cosmo Innes and P. Chalmers 
(1848); Billings' Antiquities (1852); D. Miller's Ar- 
broath and Us Abbey (1860); Geo. Hay's History of 
Arbroath (1876); and T. Adam's Abcrbrothoek illus- 
trated (1886). 

Arbroath and Forfar Railway, a railway of Forfar - 
*hire, from the E side of Arbroath harbour, 16J miles 

west-north-westward to a junction with the Scottish 
Midland section of the Caledonian at Forfar. Incorpo- 
rated 17 May 1836, it was formed at a cost of £131,644, 
and was opened partially in Sept. 183S, wholly in 
Jan. 1S39. It is leased now in perpetuity to the Cale- 
donian, at a yearly rental of £13,500. 

Arbruchill. See Abertjchiia. 

Arbuckle, a village of NE Lanarkshire, 2£ miles from 

Arbuthnott (12th c. Abirbothcnnolhe — Gael, abhir- 
bothan-neithe, ' confluence at the booth of Neithe's 
stream'), a parish of E Kincardineshire, whose SE angle 
is J mile distant from Bervie terminus, and whose W and 
NW borders are respectively J and \ mile from Fordoun 
and Drumlithie stations on the main Caledonian line. 
It is bounded NW and N by Glenbervie, E by Kinneff, 
S by Bervie, SW by Garvock, and W by Fordoun. Its 
length from N to S by W is 6 miles ; its breadth varies 
from 1 to 5 miles ; and its land area is 9585 acres. The 
river Bervie, after following at intervals the boundary 
with Fordoun and Garvock, winds li mile through the 
interior, past Arbuthnott Church, and traces next the 
boundary with Bervie ; and the boundary with Glenber- 
vie is formed by its affluent, the Forthie Water. The 
surface rises everywhere from the vale of the Bervie, is 
much diversified with hill and dale, and attains at 
Bruxie Hill, on the NE border, an extreme altitude of 
710 feet — other summits being Water Hill (460 feet), 
Gallow Hill (465), Hillhead (571), and Birnie Hill (482). 
The vale of the Bervie has many curves and windings, 
abounds in large haughs and steep wooded banks, and 
at many points presents scenes of great beauty. The 
rocks are chiefly trap and Devonian, but include de- 
tached masses of gneiss and granite. Very fine pebbles, 
suitable for gems, have been found in trap-rock, a little 
below Arbuthnott House ; calcareous spar is not uncom- 
mon ; and, in Hare's Den, a deep ravine nearly oppo- 
site the parish church, are tiny veins of manganese. 
About two-thirds of the land are under the plough, and 
some 300 acres under wood. The knightly family of 
Arbuthnott obtained the greater portion of this parish in 
1105 ; and Sir Robert, the fourteenth in descent, was 
created Viscount Arbuthnott and Baron Inverbervie in 
1644. Arbuthnott House, the family seat, stands amid 
beautiful grounds near the left bank of the Bervie, which, 
spanned by a handsome bridge (1821), is joined here by 
a rapid rivulet (? anc. Neilhe). Kair House, a neat 
modern mansion, succeeded the seat of a branch of the 
Sibbalds, extinct in the 17th century ; Allardice, now 
afamuhouse, belonged in the 12th century to a family that 
has also become extinct in Captain Robert Barclay- 
Allardice (1799-1854), the famous pedestrian. Alex- 
ander Arbuthnott (1538-83), the first Protestant princi- 
pal of King's College, Aberdeen, was minister, and pro- 
bably a native of this parish, as certainly was Dr John 
Arbuthnot (1667-1735), most learned of the wits of Queen 
Anne's reign. Arbuthnott is in the presbytery of Fordoun 
and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the minister's income is 
£214. Its church, St Ternan's, stands near Arbuthnott 
House, 2J miles WNW of Bervie, contains 440 sittings, 
and is an ancient structure apparently of Romanesque 
date. On the SW of the chancel is the Second Pointed 
chapel of St Mary, built by Sir Robert Arbuthnott in 
1505, and consisting of two stories, the lower of which, 
vaulted and open to the church by a large semicircular 
arch, was the Arbuthnotts' former burial-place. Theupper 
chamber is reached by a stair in a picturesque turret 
with a conical stone roof, and in both chambers are 
piscinas, besides a stoup at the entrance of the upper 
one (Muir's Old Church Arch., p. 75). In February 
1889, the church was gutted out by fire, and in June 
1890 it was reopened after its restoration at a cost of 
£1215. The nave and chancel were restored as at the 
time of its consecration in 1242. The public school, 
with accommodation for 129 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 85, and a grant of £79, 17s. : 
and Arbuthnott has also a share in Laurencekirk 
school. Valuation (1891) £7421, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1881) 
809, (1891) 795.— Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 67, 1871. 


Archaig or Arkaig, a lake of Lochaber, Eilmallie 
parish, Inverness-shire, 10 miles N of Fort William, ex- 
tends from W to E, and is 12 miles long, f mile wide, 
and 140 feet above the level of the sea. The Pean and 
Dessarry, each about 6 miles long, after a united course 
of j mile, flow into the head of the lake, which besides 
100 smaller feeders receives on its southern side the Allt 
Camgharaidh and the Mallie, 5£ and 9 miles long respec- 
tively, and which at its foot sends off the Archaig river 
to Loch Lochy, 1J mile to the eastward. Mountains 
enclose the lake on every side — at its head, Monadh 
Gorm (1542 feet) ; to the N, Fraoeh Bheinn (2808), Sgor 
Mhurlagain (2885), Meall Bhlair (2153), Sgor Choinich 
(2450), Beinn Chraoibh (2014), and Glas Bheinn (2398) ; 
to the S, Culvain (3224), Mullach Coire (2373), Druim 
a' Ghiubhais (1846), Mullach na Briobaig (1244), and 
Beinn Bhan (2613) ; and at its foot, Tor Ghallain (407). 
Only two islets break the long extent, Eilean a Ghiubhais 
midway near the southern shore, and another at the 
lower end, with a ruined chapel and the burying-place 
of the Camerons of Lochiel, holders of the estate of Aoh- 
NAOAKE.T. The shores are beautifully wooded here, but 
the grand forest of oaks and pines that formerly belted 
the entire lake is only recovering from the woodman's 
axe. The Enoidart road follows the northern bank, and 
thence goes on to Loch Lochy through the Mil-ctubh 
(' dark mile'), a narrow, exquisitely wooded pass, asso- 
ciated with the wanderings of Prince Charles Edward in 
the August after Culloden ; at Einlocharkaig, near the 
upper end, is the shell of a fort erected to overawe the 
Clan Cameron. Herds of red deer are often to be seen, 
but salmon can rarely now ascend to the lake. Its 
trout run about three to the lb., and from 5 to 10 lbs. 
is an average day's catch. The fishing is open to the 
public, the season lasting from the end of April to 
September.— Ord. Sur., sh. 62, 1875. 

Arcan, a hamlet of E Ross-shire, 6J miles from its 
post-town, Beauly. 

Archasig-Haven, a small harbour on the W side of 
Rona island, in Portree parish, Inverness-shire. It has 
a double entrance, and offers a convenient refuge for 
coasting vessels ; but, except to the natives of Rona and 
the neighbouring islands, it is very little known. 

Archerbreck, a burn and a coalfield in Canonbie 
parish, Dumfriesshire. The burn has only a short run, 
and goes to the Liddel. The coalfield has a main seam 
5 feet 10 inches thick, and another seam, 3 yards below 
that, 3J feet thick, and is worked by an open level. 

Archerfield, a seat of Miss Constance Msbet-Hamilton 
in Dirleton parish,, Haddingtonshire, 3 miles WSW of 
North Berwick. It is a plain edifice in a level park, 
skirted with plantations, but commands a fine view 
over the Firth of Forth. 

Archiestown, a village in Knockando parish, Elgin- 
shire, 6J miles SW of Rothes, and 2J NNE of Carron 
station on the Strathspey section of the Caledonian. 
Founded in 1760, and partly burned in 1783, it now 
consists of a main street, a square, and several lanes, 
and it has a money order post office under Craigellachie 
(4 miles E by N), a U. P. and a Free church, and a General 
Assembly school, which, with accommodation for 90 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 80, and a 
grant of £78, 7s. Pop. (1881) 374, (1891) 359. 

Arclet. See Arklet. 

Ard, a lake in Aberfoyle parish, Perthshire. It lies 
in the course of the northern head-stream of the Forth, 
5J miles E by S of the summit of Ben Lomond (3192 
feet), 2| miles S of Ben Venue (2393), and 2| miles W 
of the hamlet of Aberfoyle. Upper Loch Ard is 2 J miles 
long from W to E, and from 3 to 6 furlongs wide ; the 
so-called lower loch, -| mile to the eastward, is less a lake 
than a mere expansion of the Avondhu, measuring 5 fur- 
longs in length, but barely 1 in width. The shores are 
intricate, and finely wooded ; two hills, J mile to the 
S, Innis Ard and Bad Dearg, are only 566 and 533 feet 
high, yet are so broken and bosky as to be more impres- 
sive than lofty bare mountains ; and the westward back- 
ground is ever the soaring mass of Ben Lomond. The 
scene is best described in Scott's Bob Boy, chap. xxx. : — 


' On the right, amid a profusion of thickets, knolls, and 
crags, lay the bed of a broad mountain lake. High hills, 
rocks, and banks, waving with natural forests of birch and 
oak, formed the borders of this enchanting sheet of water ; 
and as their leaves rustled to the wind and twinkled 
in the sun, gave to the depth of solitude a sort of life 
and vivacity. . . . The road now suddenly emerged, 
and, winding close by the [northern] margin of the loch, 
afforded us a full view of its spacious mirror, which re- 
flected in still magnificence the high dark heathy moun- 
tains, huge grey rocks, and shaggy banks, by which it 
is encircled.' A romantic copse-clad ravine, about f 
mile below the head of the lake, on its northern side, 
contains the cascade of Ledard — a double fall of first 12 
and then 50 feet, where Captain Waverley met Flora 
Mac Ivor. A mural rock near the foot, from 30 to 50 
feet high, gives a distinct echo, repeating a few words 
twice, and a gnarled oak trunk, overhanging it, is pointed 
out as the 'ragged thorn which, catching hold of the 
skirts of Bailie Mcol Jarvie's riding coat, supported 
him dangling in mid air, not unlike to the sign of 
the Golden Fleece. ' One rocky islet lies near the upper 
head, and on the neighbouring southern promontory are 
the ruins of a castle, built by Murdoch, Duke of Albany, 
regent of Scotland, and said by tradition to have been 
the place of his retreat, whence he was taken captive to 
be executed at Stirling (1425). Loch Ard belongs to the 
Duke of Montrose, but the hotel-keeper at Aberfoyle has 
the fishing on it, and lets out boats to anglers. The 
trout average J lb., and are equal in flavour to Loch 
Leven trout ; there are likewise pike of from 15 to 20 
lbs.— Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Ard or Aird. See Aikd. 

Ardalanish, a headland in the SW of Mull, Argyll- 
shire, 10 miles SE of Iona, and 14 WSW of the mouth 
of Loch Buy. 

Axdali, a hamlet in Ulva parish, Argyllshire. 

Ardallie, a quoad sacra parish in Old Deer, Cruden, 
Ellon, and Longside parishes, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
post-town, Mintlaw; and its population, in 1891, was 
489 within Old Deer, 439 within Cruden, 240 within 
Ellon, and 52 within Longside — altogether 1220. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aber- 
deen. Stipend £180. Two public schools, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 110 and 60 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 81 and 58, and grants of 
£76, 4s. and £59, 6s. 

Ardargie, an estate, with a mansion, in Forteviot 
parish, Perthshire, on the river May, 6 miles SSW of 
Perth. A well-preserved small Roman camp is here, 
on a high sloping bank overlooking the May ; commands 
an extensive prospect of the Ochils, and along the course 
of the Roman road from the Tay to Ardoch ; forms an 
exact square, of about 270 feet; and is defended, on one 
side, by a deep hollow traversed by a brook, on the 
other sides, by trenches 30 feet wide and 14 deep. 

Ardavasar or Ardvarsar, a hamlet in the SE of the 
Isle of Skye, on a small bay of its own name on the 
Sound of Sleat, about 6 miles ENE of the Point of Sleat 
and 17 S of Broadford. It has a post office under Broad- 
ford, and a public school. A small headland flanks its 
bay, and is the ordinary landing-place from Arasaig. 

Ardbeg, a headland on the E side of the Isle of Bute, 
flanking the N side of Rothesay Bay and the S side of 
Karnes Bay. 

Ardchadnill,aheadlandinLochbroom parish, Ross-shire. 

Ardehattan (Gael, 'height of St Catan'), a large 
highland parish in the Lorn district of Argyllshire, 
lying upon both sides of Loch Etive. On the Oban 
and Callander railway, opened in July 1880, it has the 
station of Loch Awe at the foot of Ben Cruaehan, 70| 
miles WNW of Callander, and 22 E by S of Oban. It 
is bounded E and SE by Glenorchy ; S and SW by 
Loch Awe, the river Awe, and the lower waters of Loch 
Etive, which separate it from Muckairn ; W by Loch 
Linnhe ; and NW and N by Loch and Glen CKEEAir 
and the parish of Lismore and Appin. From its NE 
angle near Stob Dearg to Ledaig Point in the extreme 
SW it measures 24| miles, its width from E to W varies 



oetween 4 and 20 miles ; and its area is roughly esti- 
mated at nearly 400 square miles. The whole almost 
of this area is wildly mountainous, at more than forty 
points exceeding 2000, and at fourteen 3000, feet above 
the level of the sea. The summits to the E of Loch 
and Glen Etive are generally somewhat loftier than 
those of the western half, including, from N to S, Sron 
Creise (2952 feet), Beinn Mhio Chasgaig (2766), Clach 
Leathad (3602), Stob Dubh (2897), Meall Odhar (2S75), 
Meall Tarsuinn (2S71), Stob Coir an Albannaich (3425), 
Glas Bheinn Mhor (325S), Ben Starav (3541), Meall 
Dubh (2239), Stob an Duine Ruaidh (2624), Beinn nan 
Aighean (3141), Beinn Suidhe (2215), Beinn nan Lus 
(2327), Meall Beidh (2237), Beinn Lurachan (2346), 
Meall Copagach (2656), Benin Eunaich (3242), Aonach 
Breac (2395), Beinn a' Choehuill (3215), Beinn a Bhui- 
ridh (2935), and Ben Cruachan (3611). In the western 
portion, however, are Stob nan Cabar (2547 feet), Stob 
Dearg (3345), Buchaille (3120), Bidean nam Bran (3766), 
Beinn Maol Chalium (2967), Sgor na h'Ulaidh (3258), 
Beinn Fhionnlaidh (3139), Beinn Sguliaird (3058), Beinn 
Trilleachan (2752), Meall Garbh (2400), Beinn Bhreac 
(2324), Beinn Molurgainn (2270), Meall Dearg (1897), 
Beinn Mheadhonach (2344), and Beinn Duirinnis (1821). 
The extreme south-western district, beyond Gleann 
Salach, and between Loch Creran, Loch Linnhe, and the 
foot of Loch Etive, is level comparatively, its only sum- 
mits being Na Maoilean (1145 feet), Beinn Lora (1007), 
and Sgor M6r (722). Arable lands lie on both sides of 
the Benderloch range, in Glenure, and in a few other 
spots of the west and north ; but, as to their main 
aggregate, they commence below Barcaldina House, 
extend thence, by Shian Ferry, Lochnell House, and 
Keil, onward to Connel Ferry, and stretch thence east- 
ward, with partial interruptions, to the ferry over Loch 
Etive opposite Bunawe. The chief streams are the Awe, 
along the boundary from Loch Awe to Loch Etive, and 
the Etive, the Kinglass, the Liver, the Noe, the Creran, 
the Ure, the Buie, the Teithil, and the Dearg, running 
along the glens. Two cascades are on the Etive at 
Dalness and Coileitir ; two others, rather cataracts 
than falls, of very great depth, are on wild torrents of 
Buchaille-Etive ; and a number of others are on burns 
or torrents descending from other mountains. Several 
fresh-water lakes lie in various parts, none of them of 
great extent, but most of them well stocked with trout. 
Perennial Bprings are everywhere abundant, and afford 
constant supplies of the purest water. The rocks are 
chiefly granite, mica-slate, and porphyry, but include 
at one place a stratum of coarse marble. The soil of 
the arable lands is principally a light loam on a gravelly 
bottom. Caledonian antiquities are numerous, especially 
stone circles and standing stones. A famous Dalriadic 
antiquity is at Dunmacsniochan, and will be noticed 
under Beheoonium. Grandly situated on Loch Etive, 
4 miles NW of Taynuilt, are the ruins of St Modan's 
priory, founded in 1231 by Duncan Mackowle or Mac- 
Dougal of Lorn, for monks of the order of Vallis 
Caulium. Little remains but the First Pointed choir, 
66 feet by 28, with a north aisle or chapel, a piscina 
under a tooth-moulded arch, and fragments of massive 
piers suggesting a central tower. The sculptured tomb- 
stones of two priors, members of the MacDougal family, 
bear date 1500 and 1502. Here in 1308 Robert Bruce 
is said to have held a parliament, the last in which 
Gaelic was the language spoken ; in 1644 the Macdonalds 
burned the priory, under their leader Colkitto. Only the 
prior's lodge escaped, — massive, high-roofed Ardchattan 
House, to the SW of the church (E. 0. Batten, Beauly 
Priory, with notices of the Priories of Pluscardinc and 
JrdchoMan, Grampian Club, 1877). Besides Ardchattan 
House there are two other principal mansions, namely, 
Lochnell and Baiioaldine, the former a handsome 
mansion destroyed by fire about 1859. The present 
proprietor of Lochnell Mansion, Archibald Argyll Loch- 
nell Campbell, Esq. (born 1849, succeeded 1882), holds 
39,000 acres in the shire, valued at £6801 per annum. 
United r/uoad civilia to Muokairn, Ardchattan forms 
by itself a quoad sacra parish in the presbytery of Lorn 


and synod of Argyll; its minister's income is £314. 
The old ruined parish church stands f mile N of the 
Priory at Balmodan or Balimhaodan ( ' St Modan's town '), 
a name that records the mission to Lorn, in connection 
with the Roman party, of SS. Modan and Ronan, early 
in the 8th century. The present church, 3 miles to the 
W, was built in 1836, and contains 430 sittings; and 
the quoad sacra parish of Glencoe falls mainly within 
Ardchattan parish, which also has a Free church, on 
Loch Creran, 8 miles NNW of the parish church. Six 
public schools, Achaleven, Ardchattan, Barcaldine, Glen- 
etive, Lochnell, and Taynuilt, and Ardchattan Episcopal 
school, with total accommodation for 491 children, had 
(1891) an average attendance of 262, and total grants of 
£407, 12s. Valuation of Ardchattan-Muckairn £15,190, 
10s. Pop. (1831) 2420, (1861) 2346, (1871) 1962, (1881) 
2005, (1891) 1975, of whom 1253 were in Ardchattan. 
— Ord. Sur., shs. 45, 53, 1876-77. See pp. 141-158 of 
Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ. 
Shairp), and P. G. B.a.mevton's Painter's Camp in theEigh- 
lands(2ded. 1868), and R. Badha,aa,n'sIPebridIsles(lS8S). 

Ardeheanocnrochan, a quondam cottage-inn at the 
E end of the Trossachs, in Perthshire, on the spot now 
occupied by the Trossachs Hotel. The name signifies 
' the high end of the rock. ' 

Ardcnonnel, a hamlet with a public school in Kil- 
chrenan parish, Argyllshire. The school, with accommo- 
dation for 37 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 17, and a grant of £41, 10s. 

Ardchullarie, a mansion on the E side of Loch Lub- 
naig, in Callander parish, Perthshire. It was the re- 
treat of James Bruce of Kinnaird, at the time when 
he was writing the account of his travels in Abyssinia 

Ardelach (Gael, 'high stony ground'), a hamlet and a 
parish of E Nairnshire. The hamlet, on the left bank 
of the Findhorn, 5J miles SW of Dunphail station, 11 
SSW of Forres, and 10 SE of Nairn, has a post office 
under Dunphail, and near it are the parish church (re- 
built 1839; 686 sittings) and Free church. 

The parish is bounded N by Auldearn, E by Edinkillie 
in Elginshire, SE by Cromdale in Elgin and Duthil in 
Inverness-shire, W by Cawdor and Nairn. In shape re- 
sembling a triangle with vertex to the S, it has a length 
of 13| miles, a breadth from E to W of 7i miles, and an 
area since 1891 of 37,448 acres, having then lost 2869 
acres, the area of two detached parts which the Boundary 
Commissioners transferred to the county of Elgin and 
parish of E dinkilli e, From the south-western to the 
north-eastern border the beautiful Findhorn winds for 
12 miles through a richly -wooded valley, receiving here 
from the S the Leonach and Tomlachlan burns, and at 
Bridge of Dulsie, 5 miles above the church, being spanned 
by a fine old arch of 46 feet that carries over Wade's 
military road from Grantown to Fort George. The 
Mttckle Burn drains the north-western corner of the 
parish, and 1 mile to the N of the hamlet lies Belivat 
Loch (3£ x 1 furlong), with no perceptible outlet. At 
Mill of Lethen on the Muckle Burn the surface sinks to 
262, at Relugas Bridge on the Findhorn to 331, feet 
above sea-level ; but elsewhere it everywhere rises south- 
westward or southward in to fir-clad or heath-covered hills. 
The chief elevations W of the Findhorn, from N to S, 
are Tom Fade (463 feet), Lethen Bar (862), Cam Achadh 
Gaibhre (737), *Carn a Chrasgie (1314), Cam na Callich 
(1218), Tom nam Meann (872), and*Carn Sgumain (1370), 
where those marked with asterisks culminato just on the 
border ; E of the Findhorn rise *Carn Dubhaidh (989), 
the *Hill of Aitnoch (1351), Tomlachlan (940), Maol an 
Tailleir (1373), *Carn nan Clach Garbha (1362), *Carn 
Allt Laoigh (1872), and in Glenerney, Cairn Eney (908). 
The prevailing rocks are gneiss, granite, and quartz ; the 
soil for the most part is light and sandy, arable lands bear- 
ing a small proportion to woods and moorland and moss. 
On Lethen Bar are traces of a stone circle and several 
tumuli ; but the most famous relic of antiquity is the 
Princess Stone, on a lovely sequestored haugh below 
Dulsie Bridge. A cairn, surmounted by a slab, 8 feet 
hy 4. with cross and knots carved thereon, it belongs to 


the class of so-called ' Sculptured Stones,' though tradi- 
tion makes it of Runic origin — the monument of a Celtic 
princess, who, in fording the Findhorn, was drowned 
■with her Danish lover. Mansions are Coulmony House 
(1746) and Glenferness House (1837), the former stand- 
ing on the left bank of the Findhorn below, and the 
latter on the right bank above, the hamlet. Their owners 
are, Mrs. Brodie of Lethen and the Earl of Leven and 
Melville (born, 1835; succeeded, 1889), who hold 22,378 
and 7805 acres in the shire, valued at £4947 and 
£1317 per annum; and there are 4 other proprietors, 1 
holding a yearly value of more, and 3 of less, than 
£500. Ardclach is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod 
of Moray ; the living is worth £290. Three schools — 
Ferness, Fornighty, and Col. Campbell's — with respective 
accommodation for 60, 66, and 70 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 38, 48, and 14, and grants of 
£46, Is., £59, 0s. 10d., and £28, 15s. 6d. Valuation, 
£6777, 15s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1256, (1861) 1330, (1871) 
1197, (1881) 1117, (1891) 991.— Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 
Ardeer, a desolate tract of sand hills, and a seat of 
extensive industry in Stevenston parish, Ayrshire. The 
tract lies on the coast between a sinuous line of ancient 
sea-beach and the present shore, extends from within 
1J mile of Saltcoats to the mouth of Irvine "Water, com- 
prises an area of about 1200 acres, is all low and dismal, 
and lies upon rocks of the Carboniferous formation. 
Twelve separate seams of coal are beneath it, the upper- 
most 26 fathoms, the lowermost 129 fathoms, below the 
surface ; and they have, more or less, been mined since 
about the year 1675. The seat of industry originated in 
the leasing of the mines about the year 1851 ; is situated 
in the south-western part of the tract, 2 miles E of Salt- 
coats ; and has a branch railway, upwards of J mile long, 
going into junction with the Kilwinning and Ardrossan 
section of the Glasgow and South-Western system. Iron- 
works were erected ; several spacious squares of work- 
men's houses were built near the furnaces ; the mining 
operations were largely extended ; chemical works, em- 
ploying about 200 men and boys, were established ; and 
in the very first years of the enterprise, so many as 850 
men, besides a great number of boys, were employed 
aggregately on the works. The iron-works at once pro- 
duced between 900 and 1000 tons of pig-iron per week, 
and at an early date were greatly extended. The out- 
put of coal, in one of the first years, was no less than 
130,000 tons. The chemical works proved to be un- 
compensating, and were relinquished ; but a dynamite 
factory (that of Nobel's Company) was established in 1873 
(see Stevenston). A schoolhouse was built for the chil- 
dren of the workmen; and amissionary, supported by some 
members of the Established Church, was engaged for the 
colliers and furnacemen. The entire seat of industry is 
called Ardeer Works. An extensive sandstone quarry, one 
of the most valuable in the West of Scotland, is in Ar- 
deer. The stone abounds in vegetable organic remains ; 
is of a gray tint, susceptible of a fine polish, and very 
durable ; can be raised in blocks of large size; suits well 
for ornamental portions of public buildings; and is often 
shipped to Ireland and other places. The post-town of 
Ardeer is Stevenston. 

Ardelister, a group of islets in Kildalton parish, Ar- 

Ardelve, a village in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire, 4 
miles from Lochalsh church. It has a money-order office 
tinder Strome Ferry, a public school, and cattle fairs on 
the Saturday after the last Tuesday of May and July, and 
on the Saturday after the third Friday of September. 

Arden, a series of tracts of limestone, aggregately about 
2 miles long, in Eastwood parish, Renfrewshire. 

Arden, a village in New Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, 3J miles NE of Airdrie. Pop. (1891) 397. 

Ardenadam, an alias of Sandbank, or rather the name 
of the south-eastern portion of that village. 

ArdenconneL an estate, with a mansion, in Rowparish, 
Dumbartonshire, adjacent to Row village. 

Ardentinny (Gael, ard-an-teine, 'height of the fire'), 
a picturesque village on the western shore of Loch Long, 
in the Kilmun portion of Dunoon-Kilmun parish, CowaJ, 


Argyllshire, 4J miles N of Strone Point, and 1J mile W 
of Coulport, with which it is connected by a ferry. Stand- 
ing upon a spit of low ground, at the base of wood-skirted 
Stronchullin Hill (1798 feet) and Cnap Ream (1067), 
with Ben Ruadh (2178) in their rear, it mainly consists 
of a few snug cottages, the summer resort of Gl as 6 0W 
citizens ; and with Glasgow and Greenock it communi- 
cates frequently daily by the Lochgoilhead and Arrochar 
steamers, while a good carriage-road up Glen Finart leads 
4£ miles NNW to Whistlefield Inn upon Loch Eck. It 
has a post office under Greenock (nearest money-order 
office, Blairmore), a hotel, an Established church (erected 
in 1839), and a public school with accommodation for 
44 children. Tannahill's exquisite song, The Lass o' 
Arranteenie (published in 1S07), has made this village 
famous. ' The poet, ' says Hugh Macdonald, ' in leaving 
the solitary hostel, or rather hut, had left his heart 
behind him, and on returning to his loom — for it was at 
the loom alone his muse found happiest utterance — he 
gave vent to his passion in the lay. ' Years afterwards 
he revisited the spot, only to find his ' sweet lass ' the 
' gaucy ' wife of a fisherman, the mother of twins and 
no end of kilted urchins. The quoad sacra parish of 
Ardentinny was erected in 1874 out of Kilmun and Loch- 
goilhead. Pop. (1891) 219. 

Ardeonaig (Geal. 'Eonog's height'), a hamlet on the 
right or southern shore of Loch Tay, in Kenmore parish, 
Perthshire, 7J miles ENE of Killin village, and ll| miles 
NNW of Comrie by Glen Lednock. Backed by Meall na 
Creige (2683 feet), Creag Uigeach (2840), and Ruadh 
Bheul (2237), it stands near the mouth of the Finglen 
Burn, and has a ferry over the loch, a post office under 
Killin, an inn, a Gaelic Free church, and a public school 
with accommodation for 51 children. 

Ardersier (Ardrosser in 1266 — Gael, ard-ros-iar, 'high 
western promontory '), a coast parish at the NE corner 
of Inverness-shire. It contains the fishing village of 
Campbeltown, Fort George, and has a post office of 
its own name, with money order, savings bank, and tele- 
graph departments ; § mile beyond its southern border 
is Fort George station on the Highland railway, 9J 
miles NE of Inverness, and 15J W by S of Forres. 
Bounded W and N by the Moray Firth, E by Nairn- 
shire, and S by Petty, Ardersier has an extreme length 
from E to W of 4, and a breadth from N to S of 3J 
miles ; its land area is 3824 acres. The shore is sandy 
and flat (etymology notwithstanding), and to the W has 
suffered considerable encroachment from the sea ; inland 
the surface is generally tame, nowhere attaining 200 feet 
of altitude above sea-level. In 1792 the rental of this 
parish amounted to only £365, but a vast improvement 
has been carried out, acres on acres of barren moor or 
moss having been added to the arable area since 1845. 
whilst in the E an extensive tract is occupied by woods. 
The roads are exceedingly good, that to Fort George 
being one of General Wade's. Antiquities are the hill- 
fort of Tom Mhoit or Cromal (Cromwell's Mount), be- 
hind Campbeltown, and the 'Cabbac Stone,' 6 feet 
high and 3 broad, on the boundary with Nairnshire, 
which tradition asserts was reared over a chieftain slain 
at Inverness at an affray about a cheese ; and a curious 
sword and spear head — Roman according to Roy — have 
also been discovered. Anciently divided between the 
Bishops of Ross and the Knights of St John of Jeru- 
salem, Ardersier is now chiefly the property of the Earl 
of Cawdor, one other landowner holding an annual 
value of between £100 and £500, and three of from £20 
to £50. It is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod of 
Moray ; and its church, built in 1802, with over 500 
sittings, stands J mile NE of Campbeltown. The 
minister's income is £1S1. There are, besides, a Free 
church, a U.P. church at Campbeltown, and a public 
school, which in 1891 had accommodation for 200 
children, an average attendance of 111, and a grant of 
£93, 9s. Valuation, £4386, 8s. lOd. Pop. (1831) 
1268, (1861) 1239, (1871) 1284, (1881) 2084, (1891) 1914. 
— Ord. Sur. sh. 84, 1876. 

Ardessie, a hamlet of W Ross-shire, 8 miles from its 
post-village, Ullapool. 


Ardfern, a hamlet of SW Lorn, Argyllshire, near the 
head and on the W side of Loch Craignish, with a post 
and telegraph office under Kilmartin money-order office. 
Ardgartan, a small low promontory on the western 
shore and near the head of Loch Long, in Lochgoilhead 
parish, NE Cowal, Argyllshire, If mile SW of Arrochar. 
In the grounds of Ardgartan House, traversed by Croe 
Water, is a splendid Spanish chestnut, the finest per- 
haps in Scotland, being 90 feet high, and girthing 20q 
feet at 5 feet from the ground. 

Ardgay, a village of Kincardine parish, N Ross-shire, 
near the southern shore and the head of Dornoch Firth, 
and 1J mile SW of Bonar Bridge. It has a post office' 
with money order, savings bank, insurance, and tele- 
graph departments, a good hotel, and the Bonar Bridge 
station on the Highland railway. A public hall was 
presented by Lady Ross of Balnagown, Jan. 30, 1892, the 
day after that on which Bonar bridge was swept away. 
Ardgour, a hamlet and district of N Argyllshire. 
The hamlet lies near Corran Ferry, at the nexus be- 
tween Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, 10 miles SSW of Fort 
William ; and has a post office with money order, sav- 
ings bank, and telegraph departments. A church, erected 
here in 1S29 by the parliamentary commissioners in 
connection with the quoad sacra parish of Ballachulish 
and Ardgour, was in 1894 raised to quoad sacra status, 
the minister's stipend being £140. Ardgour House is in 
the vicinity. The district is bounded N and E by Loch 
Eil, S by Morven, SW by Sunart, and NW by Loch Shiel. 
Its length, from NNE to SSW, is 13 miles; and its breadth 
varies from 8 to 11 miles. Its surface is wildly upland, 
and culminates in Sg6r Dhomhail (Scuir-Donald) at an 
altitude of 2915 feet above sea-level. A parliamentary 
road commences on its E coast at Corran Ferry, and 
goes south-westward through its interior to Strontian. 
Pop. of registration district of Corran of Ardgour (1891) 
277. ' 

Ardgowan, a mansion in Inverkip parish, Renfrew- 
shire, 3f, miles N by E of Wemyss Bay, a fine build- 
ing pleasantly situated on a kind of peninsula a 
little north of the village. It is the seat of Sir 
Michael Robert Shaw-Stewart, Bart., of Greenock and 
Blackhall, owner of 24,951 acres in the shire, of £14,501 
gross annual value (£573 quarries), seventh Baronet 
since 1667, and seventeenth in direct male descent from 
Sir John Stewart, a natural son of Robert III., who re- 
ceived from his father three charters of the lands of 
Ardgowan, Blackhall, and Auchingoun, in 1390, 1396, 
and 1404. Erected early in this century from designs 
by Cairncross, and raised on a terrace overhanging the 
Firth of Clyde, the present mansion is a large and 
stately building, screened in the rear by noble trees, but 
in front commanding a wide, unbroken, prospect over 
the waters and mountain-flanks of the firth. Near it 
stand the private Episcopal chapel of St Michael and 
All Angels, and the remains of an ancient square tower, 
a fragment of that Castle of Inverkip which was held by 
the English in the days of Robert Bruce. Thither fled 
Sir Philip de Mowbray, after his rout by the Black 
Douglas. He came by Kilmarnock and Kilwinning, 
thence to Ardrossan — 

' Syne throu the Largis him alane, 
TU1 Innerkyp,' 

which (Barbour adds) was ' stuff yt all with Inglessmen,' 
who received him ' in daynteV 

Ardhullary. See Akijciiullarie. 

Ardincaple, a stately mansion in Row parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the N side of Gareloch, amid fine 
lawns, grand old woods, and swelling ridges, immedi- 
ately W of Helensburgh. It is in the old Scottish 
Baronial style, chiefly somewhat modern, but partly very 
ancient, perhaps as old as the fust half of the 12th cen- 
tury ; and it was long, from time to time, the residence 
of the Dowager-Duchesses of Argyll, but is now a seat 
of Sir James Colquhoun of Luss, Bart. 

Ardincaple, a mansion in Soil island, Argyllshire. It 
was long the residence of Dr Archibald Smith, the 
writer on Peru. 


Ardinning, a lake in Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. 
It covers about 60 acres, and is unadorned. 

Ardkenneth, a place in South List parish, Outer He- 
brides, Inverness-shire. It has a Roman Catholic chapel, 
built in 1829, repaired in 1869, and containing 400 
sittings. ° 

Ardkinglass, an estate, with a mansion, and with ves- 
tiges of an ancient castle, in Lochgoilhead parish, Argyll- 
shire. The mansion stands on the shore of Loch Fyne 
at the mouth of Glenkinglass, in the southern vicinity of 
Kairndow, 10J mDes NE of Inverary. It succeeded a 
previous mansion destroyed by fire about 1840, and 

has very beautiful grounds with luxuriant gardens 
old lawns, bosky banks, stately woods, and picturesqui 
overhanging mountains. The ancient castle is of un 

ascertained date, but is known to have been repaired in 
1586, and was a strong fortalice, with three separate 
towers, connected by curtain walls, and arranged round 
a court ; but stood in such a low situation that it could 
not resist a regular investment. An old residence of its 
owners, a precursor of the modern mansion, but now 
represented by only slight vestiges, stood, at a small 
distance from the castle, on a more commanding site, 

Ardlamont, a headland at the extreme S of Kilfinan 
parish, in Cowal district, Argyllshire, separating Loch 
Fyne from the Kyles of Bute, and terminating 2J miles 
W of the nearest point of the Isle of Bute. On the point 
embosomed amid beautiful woods, stands Ardlamont 
House, long the seat of the chief of the ancient clan 
Lamont. See Lamont. 

Ardle. See Airdle. 

Ardler, a railway station on the SW border of Forfar- 
shire, on the Scottish Midland section of the Caledonian 
system. It has a post office under Meigle. Ardler be- 
came a quoad sacra parish in 1885. 

Ardlui, a locality in Arrochar parish, Dumbartonshire, 
at the influx of Falloch Water to the head of Loch 
Lomond, 8 miles N of Tarbet. It has an hotel and a small 
pier where the Loch Lomond steamers lie; and also 
a station on the West Highland railway. The tract 
around it is a small expanse of rich low strath ; the hills 
around it are covered with foliage, and streaked with 
torrents or waterfalls ; the mountains in the distance 
sweep round the horizon, in a curving series of alpine 
peaks ; and the whole scene is a most diversified, pic- 
turesque, sublime amphitheatre. Ardlui House stands 
near the water, and is a recent erection. 

Ardlussa, an estate, with a mansion, in Jura, Argyll- 
shire. The mansion stands on the coast of the Sound 
of Jura, 10 miles SW of the mouth of Loch Crinan, and 
was built nearly 50 years ago by Lord Colonsay (1793- 
1874), Lord President ; its present proprietor, Walter 
Macfarlane, Esq., owns 17,939 acres, valued at £903 per 
annum. The grounds are of great beauty, enriched for 
several miles with either natural wood or recent plan- 
tations. A stream, running through the estate to the 
sea, abounds in sea-trout ; and a public school is on the 

Ardmacknish. See Ardmucknish. 

Ardmaddy Castle, a seat of the Earl of Breadalbane 
in Kilbrandon parish, Argyllshire. It stands on a coni- 
cally-shaped rising ground, at the head of a fine small 
bay, opposite Seil island, 2 miles N of Loch Melford and 
12 SSW of Oban ; commands an extensive prospect of 
sea and land ; is a very old building ; belonged to the 
Macdougals, Lords of Lorn ; passed to the Campbells of 
tho House of Argyll ; was occupied and enlarged by 
Lord Neil Campbell, who suffered during the persecu- 
tion in the time of Charles II., and was put to death in 
1685; became the residence of Colin Campbell, the father 
of the late Marquis of Breadalbane, and was the birthplace 
of the marquis. Pennant was hospitably entertained at 
it, and wrote, in the form of a vision in it, his reflections 
on the social condition of tho Highlands. A small cave, 
in the face of a rock, at a short distance from it, is pointeu 
out as a hiding-place of Lord Neil Campbell in the time 
of the persecution. A belt of sea, called Clachan Sound, 
separates the mainland around the castle from Seil 
island • resembles the Kyles of Bute, but is narrower, 


more diversified, and more richly scenic ; and is spanned 
at the narrowest part by a one-arched bridge. 

Ardmair, a hamlet in the W of Ross-shire, 3 miles 
KW of its post-town Ullapool. 

Ardmarnock, an estate, with a modern mansion (D. 
N. Nicol, Esq. ), in Killinan parish, Argyllshire, on the 
E side of Loch Fyne, 4£ miles NE of Taibert. 

Ardmeanach, or Mullbuie, a broad-based, extensive, 
ridgy hill, in the counties of Nairn, Koss, and Cromarty, 
forming the backbone of the Black Isle, or peninsula 
between the Beauly and Moray Firths and the Firth of 
Cromarty. Its length, from SW to NE, is about lb' 
miles, its culminating point is 838 feet above sea-level, 
and its breadth is proportionate far more to its length 
than to its height. It has a gently-featured outline, 
and commands very pleasant prospects. Its surface, 
for the most part, was long allowed to lie half waste, 
chiefly in a state of commonage, yet was all pro- 
nounced, by good judges, at an early period of the age 
of agricultural improvement to be, every yard of it, 
available for the plough, with generally as good soil as 
the low grounds of the peninsula. Its prevailing rock 
is the Devonian sandstone, and has been extensively 

Ardmellie, an estate, with a mansion, in Marnoch 
parish, Banffshire. The mansion commands an exten- 
sive view of the valley of the Deveron, and the grounds 
have fine features both of natural beauty and of artificial 
embellishment. Catstone or Ardmellie Hill (851 feet), 
the highest ground in the parish, is steep and wooded. 
Limestone abounds, and formerly was worked. 

Ardmherigie. See Ardveeikie. 

Ardmichael, a small rocky promontory, with a bury- 
ing place, on the W side of South Uist island, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, about 12 miles SSW of the 
south-western extremity of Benbecula. 

Ardmiddle, a hill 557 feet high, and a mansion in 
Turriff parish, N Aberdeenshire. The mansion is the 
seat of John A. Milne, Esq. , owner of 1100 acres, valued 
at £1070 per annum. Ardmiddle public school, with 
accommodation for 100 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 64, and a grant of £63, 4s. 

Ardmile, a small rocky promontory on the W side of 
South Uist island, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, 4 
miles S of Ardmichael. 

Ardmillan, a mansion, which is now the property of 
the trustees of the late Patrick Playiair, Esq., in Girvan 
parish, Ayrshire, on the coast, 2| miles SSW of Girvan. 
The estate connected with it is believed to be rich in 
copper ore. 

Ardminish, a bay about the middle of the E side of 
Gigha island, Argyllshire. It has good anchorage in 
depths of 6 or 7 fathoms, and is frequented by vessels 
bringing coal, lime, and other imports, and taking 
away the produce of the island. Ardminish Point, 
flanking its N side, with the church and manse of 
Gigha parish at its head, is identified by Skene with 
Arddanesbi, the scene of a naval battle in 719. 

Ardmore, a beautiful wooded promontory in Cardross 
parish, Dumbartonshire, 2| miles SSE of Helensburgh. 
It connects with the mainland by a narrow isthmus ; 
projects about a mile into the Firth of Clyde ; expands 
into a circular head 103 feet high and about 5 fur- 
longs in diameter, popularly called the Hill of Ardmore ; 
consists elsewhere of fiat alluvium ; and, at low water, is 
flanked only by bare silt or foreshore. It forms a fine 
feature in the magnificent lagoon-like scenery of the 
Firth. Ardmore House stands upon it, amid pleasant 
grounds, and is a good modern mansion. 

Ardmore, a headland in Kildalton parish, Argyllshire, 
on the E side of Islay island, 5 miles S by E of the S 
end of the Sound of Islay. 

Ardmore, a headland in the N of Mull, Argyllshire, 
nearly opposite Ardnamurchan village. 

Ardmore, a headland in the W of Skye, Inverness- 
shire, in the Vaternish section of Duirinish parish. A 
hostile party of the Macdonalds of Uist once landed 
here, while many of the Macleods of Skye were assembled 
in the adjacent church of Trumpan, and they suddenly 


surrounded the church, set fire to it, and destroyed 
nearly all who were in it ; but, before they got back to 
their boats, a great number of them were slain by a body 
of avengers pouring down upon them at the call of ' the 
fiery cross.' 

Ardmore, a harbour in Eddertoun parish, Ross-shire, 
at the head of the Dornoch Firth, near Tain. It affords 
accommodation to vessels of 150 tons' burden, and is 
frequented in summer by smacks aud schooners, chiefly 
with cargoes of coal and lime. 

Ardmucknish, a beautiful bay in Ardchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, at the mouth of Loch Etive, and extending 
from the vicinity of Connel Ferry 2£ miles northward to 
the neck of the peninsula of Lochnell. It has a finely 
pebbled beach, is environed with picturesque scenery, 
and commands noble views. The vestiges of the reputed 
ancient capital of Dalriada are on its E side, and will 
be noticed under Beregoniuji. 

Ardnacallioch, a promontory and a bay at the E end 
of Ulva island, in Argyllshire. The promontory exhi- 
bits, to the S, a remarkably well-defined natural bust 
of an old woman, and it takes thence its name, which 
signifies ' the old wife's point. ' 

Ardnacross, a small bay and an estate in Campbeltown 
parish, Argyllshire, 6 miles NNE of Campbeltown. The 
bay affords anchorage to vessels. 

Ardnadam. See Sandbank. 

Ardnafuaran, a village in Arasaig district, Inverness- 
shire. It is the same as Arasaig village, having merged 
its own proper name in the name of the district. A 
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary stood at it in the 
Romish times, and has left some remains. 

Ardnamurchan (Gael, ard-na-mor-chinn, 'height of 
the great headland '), a hamlet and a promontory in 
Argyllshire, and a parish partly also in Inverness-shire. 
The hamlet lies on the southern coast of the promontory, 
7 miles NNW of Tobermory, and has a post office, with 
money order and savings bank departments, under 
Ardgour. The promontory forms the extreme NW of 
the mainland ot Argyllshire, as also the most westerly 
point of the mainland of Scotland, lying 137 miles in a 
straight line W of the mouth of the South Esk river in 
Forfarshire ; was, from the time of Somerled till tlu> 
reign of James VI. , the boundary between the two great 
divisions of the Hebrides, Northern and Southern ; and 
has a bluff, wild character, more notable in aspect and 
more terrible to mariners than any other headland be- 
tween Cape Wrath and the Mull of Kin tyre. The neigh- 
bouring rugged shores have been the destruction of mul- 
titudes of vessels, and the seaboard here, and onward on 
either side for many miles, is all mountainous, bleak, 
and wild. A dreary spot in a creek, at its uttermost 
point, contains the graves of shipwrecked seamen. A 
castle-like lighthouse was built here in 1849, at a cost of 
£13,738 ; its fixed light, 180 feet above sea-level, is 
visible at the distance of 18 nautical miles. 

The parish contains also the post office villages or 
hamlets of Kinlochmoidart, Arasaig, and Strontian, and 
comprises the districts of Ardnamurchan proper, Sunart, 
Moidart, Arasaig, and South Morar— the first and 
second in Argyllshire, the three others in Inverness-shire. 
It is bounded N by Loch Morar and the river Morar, 
which separate it from North Morar in Glenelg ; NE by 
the Ardgour, Locheil, and Locharchaig districts of Kil- 
mallie ; E by Kingerloeh district of Loch Lismore ; S 
by Loch Sunart, which separates it from Morvern ; W 
and NW by the Atlantic. Its greatest length, measured 
along the shortest practicable line of road, cannot be less 
than 70 miles, its greatest breadth is about 40 miles, 
and its area is estimated at 216,969 acres of land and 
73,280 of water. 'Every consideration of convenience," 
say the Boundary Commissioners, 'points to the de- 
sirability of dividing so great a parish into two ' — the 
Argyllshire portion and the Inverness-shireportion. They 
had not power to do so, however, but expressed approval 
of it. Ardnamurchan proper is a peninsula, connecting 
at the E end by an isthmus with the Sunart district; 
measures about 16 miles in length, and about 7 in breadth; 
and consists chiefly of a range of comparatively low hills, 



running from E to W. Kilchoan or Ardnamurchan 
harbour, adjacent to the hamlet, is of great utility, 
serving for communication with Tobermory and with 
vessels coming up the Sound of Mull, and used to be an 
occasional resort of craft conveying cattle from some of 
the Western islands to the mainland. Glenmore Bay, 
about h mile W of the first narrows within Loch Sunart, 
also affords good anchorage. Much of the seaboard, for 
about 10 miles from the vicinity of the promontory east- 
ward, consists of well-cultivated arable land. The hills 
along the same distance consist of palaeozoic rocks, with 
a carpeting of very fine pastoral soil. The seaboard 
farther E includes scanty patches of cultivated land, and 
the hills there consist chiefly of gneiss or mica-slate 
rocks, partly bare, and partly covered with coarse her- 
bage. The isthmus, at the eastern end, is partly flat 
moss, and partly low or sloping ground. Wood is scanty 
throughout the western half, but occurs in considerable 
masses in the S of the eastern. The districts of Ardna- 
murchan proper and Sunart are computed to comprise 
4134 Scotch acres of arable land, 10,371 of pasture, 
2598 of woods, 2690 of flat moss, 67,472 of moor, and 
488 of lakes, or, altogether, 87,753 Scotch acres. Alex- 
ander Macdonald, a Gaelic poet of last century, was a 
native ; a curious episode in the history of the parish 
was the foundation in 1723 of the mining village of New 
York by Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope. Chambers' 
Domestic Annals (iii. 474-476) gives a full account of the 
failure of his plans. Nine proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, and five of between 
£100 and £500. Ancient Caledonian remains, in the 
form of a rude altar with a circle of small stones, and 
known as Fingal's Griddle, are at Ormsaigmore in Ardna- 
murchan proper; and at Ormsaigbeg is a very small 
ruined tower, called the Black Castle of the Minstrels. 
So late as the year 1630, Ardnamurchan proper was a 
parish of itself, called Kilchoan, from a church dedi- 
cated to St Coan ; while the other districts formed the 
separate parish of Eileinfinnan or Island-Finnan, named 
after a beautiful little island in Loch Sheil. The districts 
of Arasaig and South Morar also, in more ancient times, 
formed a third parish, called Kilmarie or Kilmorie, antt 
had its church at Ardnafuaran, now the village of Ara- 
saig. Ardnamurchan parish is in the presbytery of 
Mull and synod of Argyll ; its minister's income is 
£246, The parish church stands at the hamlet, was 
built in 1830, and contains 600 sittings. Most of the 
quoad sacra, parishes of Acharacle and Strontian, and the 
missions of Achosnish, Arasaig, and Laga, are within 
the civil parish, whose own quoad sacra portion had 
1885 inhabitants in 1891. There are Free churches of 
Ardnamurchan and Strontian, Episcopal churches of 
Kinlochmoidart and Strontian, and Roman Catholic 
churches of Arasaig, Glen/innan, Mingarry, andGlenuig; 
and the quoad sacra parish has nine schools under its 
board — four of them in Argyll, viz., Kilchoan, Kil- 
morie, Ardnish, and Achosnish ; and five in Inver- 
ness-shire, viz., Glenfinnan, Glenuig, Arasaig (Soc), 
Arasaig (R. Cath.), and Polnish (Soc.) With total ac- 
commodation for 514 children, these had (1891) an aver- 
age attendance of 218, and grants amounting to £332, 
9s. Valuation, £19,465, 9s. 10d., of which £10,372 is 
in Argyllshire. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking (1831) 
6669,(1861) 4, '00, (1871) 4259, (1881)4102,(1891) 3C36, 
of whom 2634 were in Argyllshire. 

Ardnave. a headland in Kilchoman parish, Argyll- 
shire, on tli'- W side of Islay, opposite Nave island, 14 
miles SW of Kuvaill Point. 

Ardneil Bank, a mural cliff at Farland Head in 
West Kilbride parish, Ayrshire, 6 miles NNW of Ard- 
rossan. It rises to the height of about 300 feet, extends 
in a straight line to a length of about 1 mile, and is 
separated from the sea-margin only by a very narrow 
belt of verdant land. A cresceut-shaped bay here forms 
good bathing ground. 

Axdnoe, a headland at the left side of the mouth of 
Loch Crinan, in Argyllshire. 

Ardo, an estate in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, 1 mile S ol Cults station. 


Ardoch, a hill 700 feet high in the W of Dairy 

parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Ardoch, a rivulet in Kilmadock parish, Perthshire, ris- 
ing in the Braes of Doune, and running about 7 miles, 
chiefly south-south-eastward, to the Teith in the neigh- 
bourhood of Doune. 

Ardoch (Gael, ardach, 'high field'), a parish of S 
Perthshire, containing (1) the village of Greenloaning, 
with a D.P. church, and a station on the Caledonian, 
10J miles NNE of Stirling, and 22J SW of Perth ; and 
(2) the village of Braco, 1 J mile N of Greenloaning station. 
Standing on the right bank of the Knaik, Braco was feued 
in 1815, and now has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 2 
inns, a grain mill, the parish church (1780; 600 sittings), 
a Free church, and a public school. The present bridge 
over the Knaik at the mill is comparatively new, 
and replaced one of General Wade's bridges still stand- 
ing beside it. 

The parish, formed in 1855 out of Muthill, Dunblane, 
and Blackford, is bounded NW and NE by Muthill, E 
by Blackford, and SE and SW by Dunblane. It has an 
extreme length from NNW to SSE of 9 miles, an extreme 
width from E to W of 7| miles, and an area of 22,280| 
acres, of which 153 are water. The Allan, in its upper 
course, flows 7f miles west-south-westward through Ar- 
doch, and here receives the Knaik, Bullie, Millstone, 
Muckle, and several other burns ; its valley sinks to less 
than 400 feet above sea-level. From it the surface rises 
northward to 678 feet on Orchill Muir, 525 near Faulds, 
879 on Cambushinnie Hill, 1334 on Cromlet, 1496 on a 
summit marking the western boundary, 1215 on Meall 
a' Choire Raibhaich, and 1117 on Meall a' Choire Odhar 
— southward to 640 feet near Tarneybuckle, and over 
1000 on the western slope of the Corums, this southern 
wing comprising part of Sheriff Muir. Along the 
Allan lie considerable haughs, with, for the most part, a 
good light loamy soil, incumbent on sand or gravel ; the 
rest of the parish is mainly hilly and moorish. The Braco 
estate was formerly held by a branch of the Grahams, 
descendants of the third Earl of Montrose, and baronets 
from 1625 to 1689 ; and its old mansion, Braco Castle, 
1^ mile NNW of the village, is the seat of Lieut. -CoL 
Geo. K. M'Callum, owner in the shire of 1838 acres, 
valued at £1155 per annum. Ardoch House, J mile 
E of Braco village, is the property of Colonel Home 
Drummond, who owns 24,930 acres, of a yearly value 
of £14,311 ; within its grounds, skirting the Knaik'e 
left bank, and occupying the site of Lindum, a town of 
the Damnonii, is the celebrated Roman camp of Ardoch. 
Traces of numerous Caledonian entrenchments and hill- 
forts occur in such positions in its neighbourhood, as 
clearly to indicate that the Roman forces here made a 
strong and prolonged lodgment, and encountered a vigor- 
ous resistance. The camp is one of tho best preservedof 
its kind in Britain ; it challenges attention also for its 
large dimensions ; and it has been the subject of volu- 
minous controversy on questions respecting the scene T>f 
the great Battle of the Grampians. It consists of four 
parts— the station or citadel, the procestrium, the great 
camp, and the small camp. The station or citadel, de- 
signed as a permanent work, crowns an eminence near 
the E bank of the river, and rising 60 feet above its 
waters, has a quadrangular outline, with the four sides 
nearly facing the cardinal points ; measures, within the 
entrenchments, 420 feet by 375 ; had four gates, three of 
which can still be clearly distinguished ; was defended, 
on the N and E, by five deep ditches and six ramparts, on 
the S by two fossa; and a deep morass, on the W by tho 
steep descent to tho Knaik, and by two fossa; between that 
descent and the rivor's bank ; and contained a pnetorium 
and accommodation for 1200 men. Tho pr«torium, for 
tho general and his staff, is a regular square of 60 feet, 
situatod on rising ground to the rear of the station ; 
oppears to have been enclosed by a stone wall ; and now 
contains foundations of a building, 30 feet by 27, thought 
to havo been a post-Roman place of worship. The pro- 
cestrium adjoins the N side of the station ; seems to have 
bocn a subsequent work, and strongly fortified ; had an 


oblong form, 1060 by 900 feet; possessed accommodation 
for 4000 men ; and, excepting vestiges of two gates on the 
N and the S, has all been obliterated by the plough. The 
great camp, lying NW of the procestrium, has an ap- 
proximately oblong outline, 2800 feet by 1950; could 
accommodate 26, 000 men ; seems to have had on the 
northern part of the E side considerable outworks, com- 
prising a square redoubt and a clavicle; is diametrically 
traversed by the old road from Stirling to Crieff; and can 
now be traced by vestiges in only its eastern half. The 
small camp lies on the W of the great camp, or rather 
lies one-half within that camp, and one-half westward ; 
occupies higher ground than the other works; appears 
to have been constructed after the great camp ceased to 
be used; measures 1910 feet by 1340; could accommo- 
date 12,000 men; and is still in a comparatively perfect 
condition (R. Stuart's Caledonia Romana, pp. 187-194). 
Ardoch is in the presbytery of Auchterarder, in the 
synod of Perth and Stirling, and its living is worth 
£138. The public schools at Braco and Greenloaning, 
with respective accommodation for 153 and 75 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 67 and 52, and 
grants of £61, 6s. 6d. and £42, 2s. Pop. (1861) 1418, 
(1871) 1316, (1881) 1102, (1891) 959.— Ord. Sun., sh. 
39, 1869. 

Ardonald, a place with great limeworks (now aban- 
doned) in Cairnie parish, Aberdeenshire. The quantity 
of calcined lime turned out here, in the years 1818-1841, 
was 620,269 bolls, sold for £69,771. 

Ardovie, a place in Brechin parish, Forfarshire, 2J 
miles SSW of Brechin. 

Ardoyne, a hill, 600 feet above sea-level, in the N of 
Oyne parish, Aberdeenshire. It commands an exten- 
sive view. 

Ardpatrick, a hamlet and a headland at the N side 
of the mouth of West Loch Tarbert, and at the SW 
extremity of Knapdale, Argyllshire. The hamlet is 10 
miles SW of Tarbert, under which it has a post office, 
with money order and savings bank departments. 
The headland is said to have been the landing-place of 
St Patrick, on his way from Ireland to Iona. 

Ardrishaig (Gael, ard-driseach, 'height full of briers'), 
a seaport village in South Knapdale parish, and a quoad 
tacra parish partly also in Glassary parish, Argyllshire. 
The village stands on the W side of Loch Gilp, at the 
entrance of the Crinan Canal, 2 miles SSW of Lochgilp- 
head. The entrepfit of the canal, the port of Lochgilp- 
head, and the centre of an extensive herring fishery, 
it mainly consists of plain-looking cottages with a few 
neat villas, pleasantly situated on a green hill-side; and 
it has a post office, with money order, savings bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, several hotels, 
a very commodious harbour, with a pier and a slip, an 
Established church (1860), a Free church, a Board school 
to accommodate 238 children, and an Episcopal school. 
The vessels passing through the Crinan Canal occasion 
considerable business, several steamers daily in summer 
arriving and departing from and to Greenock; large 
quantities of sheep and cattle are shipped; and dur- 
ing the fishing season about 170 fishing boats are in 
service. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert landed here 
18 Aug. 1847, on their way from Inverary to Ardverikie. 
Pop. of village (1871) 1177, (1881) 1224, (1891) 1258. 
The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1875, is 7 miles 
long and 4 broad, and is in the presbytery of Inverary 
and synod of Argyll; its minister's income is £195. 

Ardross, a hamlet and a mansion of NE Ross-shire. 
The hamlet, in Rosskeen parish, lies in the valley of 
the Alness river, 5 miles SN¥ of Alness, under which 
it has a post office. Its public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 114 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 51, and a grant of £63, 2s. Ardross Castle is the 
property of Sir Kenneth James Matheson, Bart., who 
is owner of 220,433 acres in the shire, valued at £20,246 
per annum. The Ardross estates extend between Alness 
and Rorie Waters westward into the uplands along the 
sources of these streams, the former fastness of the clan 
Ross; they have at various times undergone vast im- 


Ardross, an ancient barony in Elie parish, Fife. It 
comprised the greater part of the parish ; belonged to a 
family of the name of Dischington; passed, about the 
beginning of the 17th century, to Sir William Scott; and 
went, about the close of that century, to Sir William An- 
struther. The ruins of its mansion, or old baronial castle, 
still stand on the coast, about 1 mile ENE of Elie village. 

Ardrossan (Gael, ard-rois-an, 'highish foreland), 
a seaport town and watering-place of Cunningham, N 
Ayrshire, 1 mile WNW of Saltcoats. By water it is 13 
miles E by N of Brodick in Arran, 14J NNW of Ayr, 
and 87 NE of Belfast; and by a section of the Glasgow 
and South-Western railway it is 11 miles SSE of Largs 
terminus, and 6 WSW of Kilwinning Junction. Lying 
on the northern shore of Ayr Bay, at the entrance of 
the Firth of Clyde, Ardrossan has its own little North 
and South Bays, parted by the low headland of Castle 
Craigs, which got its name from the great stronghold 
of the Montgomeries. By them acquired about 1376 
through marriage with the sole heiress of Sir Hugh de 
Eglinton, this castle, according to tradition, had been 
the scene of one of Wallace's exploits, who by firing the 
neighbouring hamlet lured forth its English garrison 
to quench the flames, slew them as they returned, and 
cast their bodies into a dungeon, thereafter known as 
' Wallace's Larder. ' Cromwell is said to have demolished 
it; and its scanty but picturesque remains comprise only 
the angle of one tower, the vaulted kitchen, and two 
arched cellars, with a broad stepped passage leading 
down to them. On the Cannon Hill, hard by, stood 
the old parish church, overwhelmed by the storm of 
1691; a tombstone in its kirkyard is sculptured with 
two escutcheons, one of them bearing the lion ram- 
pant of Scotland, and is popularly associated with a 
warlock baron, the ' Deil o' Ardrossan. ' It was believed 
that ' were any portion of the mould to be taken from 
under this stone and cast into the sea, forthwith would 
ensue a dreadful tempest to devastate sea and land.' 
There is also upon an adjoining eminence a handsome 
monument, erected to a deceased philanthropic gentle- 
man who during the later years of his life interested 
himself deeply in the various institutions connected with 
the place. 

The town, which arose as an adjunct of the harbour, 
consists of wide, well-built streets, crossing each other 
at right angles, with a handsome crescent to the E, a 
good many tasteful villas, and the Pavilion, an occasional 
residence of the Earl of Eglinton. Erected into a burgh 
of barony in 1846, it partially adopted the General 
Police Act prior to 1871, and is governed by a provost, 
2 junior magistrates, and 6 commissioners. The gas 
and water supply are under their control. It has a post 
office, with money order, savings bank, insurance, and 
telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of Scotland, 
the Royal, the Union, and the Clydesdale Bank, a large 
hotel, a bathing establishment, the Railway Hotel, a 
neat town-hall, a reading-room, a lifeboat institution, 
and two Friday papers, the Ardrossan and Saltcoats 
Herald (1853) and the Ayrshire Weekly News (1859), 
and an Agricultural Society. Places of worship are the 
New Parish or quoad sacra church (1844; 840 sittings) 
with a spire, a Free church (1859) also with a spire, a 
U.P. church (1857), an Evangelical Union church (1861), 
and St Andrew's Episcopal church (1875). Two public 
schools, with respective accommodation for 138 and 565 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 126 and 
407, and grants of £106, 12s. and £413, 14s. There is 
also an academy, with accommodation for 254 pupils. 

The harbour was founded on 31 July 1806 by Hugh, 
twelfth Earl of Eglinton (1740-1819), who the same 
year was raised to the British peerage as Baron Ardros- 
san. Steam-tugs were then unknown, and the naviga- 
tion of the Clyde above the Cumbraes was often baffling 
and tedious, above Port Glasgow open to none but very 
small craft, so his lordship's idea was to make this the 
port of Glasgow, with which it should be connected by 
the Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnstone Canal (now 
a branch of the Glasgow and South-Western railway). 
Accordingly the works were projected on a scale so 



great as would have rendered them almost the finest in 
Britain; but, far exceeding the estimates, they were 
brought to a standstill in 1815, over £100,000 having 
been then expended, and Telford and Rennie requiring 
£300,000 more. They were not resumed till 1833, 
when the thirteenth earl came of age, and then were 
completed on a greatly reduced though still considerable 
scale, the total cost being upwards of £200,000, and the 
harbour comprising two tidal basins of 6 and 18 acres, 
and a wet-dock of 4 acres, with 19 feet at high water 
over the lock-sill. In 18S6, however, it was found 
necessary to provide greater depth of water, and to 
accommodate, in addition to the extensive traffic from 
the Glasgow and South-Western railway, the traffic 
from the Caledonian railway upon the opening, in 1888, 
of the Lanarkshire and Ayrshire line to Ardrossan. 
The Ardrossan Harbour Company was accordingly formed 
with a capital of £300,000, Lord' Egliu ton himself taking 
£200,000 worth of shares, and an additional dock (the 
Eglinton) has been built, with an area of about 10 acres 
and a depth of 27 feet, where the largest vessels can lie 
afloat at all times. An outer tidal basin has also been 
formed, about 5 acres in extent, with a depth of 18 feet 
at low water and of 27 feet at high. These alterations, 
with other improvements, including a wide entrance 
channel and extensive quay accommodation, and the 
construction of a new breakwater, 1320 feet in length, 
outside the harbour, make the port capable of berthing 
the largest vessels. The new dock was opened 4 April 
1892. The harbour is well supplied with hydraulic and 
steam hoists and cranes for loading and discharging; 
whilst a lighthouse with white flashing light stands at 
the N W point of the outer breakwater, and a beacon tower 
on sheltering Horse Island, a low and grassy islet of some 
12 acres, lying § mile to the WW. At first a sub-port 
of Irvine, Ardrossan was constituted a head port in 1858, 
and at the close of 1894 had on its register 62 sailing 
vessels of 10,857, and 9 steamers of 8693 tons. The 
following table gives the tonnage of vessels that entered 
and cleared from and to foreign and colonial ports and 
coastwise, in cargoes, and also in ballast : — 













76,972 j 
360,293 | 



294,623 1 
296,690 j 
331,916 1 
525,840 ! 

Of the total 2923 vessels of 536,440 tons that entered 
in 1894, 2319 of 494,391 tons were steamers, 1982 of 
253,126 tons were in ballast, and 2794 of 427,654 tons 
were coasters; whilst the total, 2895 of 525,840 tons of 
those that cleared included 2306 steamers of 487, 122 tons, 
1526 vessels in ballast of 264,785 tons, and 2747 coasters 
of 420,083 tons. The principal foreign trade is with 
France, the United States, Spain, and Portugal; and 
imports are timber, grain, limestone, iron ore, and 
pyrites; exports being coal and pig-iron. A floating 
dock and a patent slip can each accommodate ships of 
500 tons, and a graving-dock ships of 1500; and here 
in 1891 five steel sailing vessels, of 1847 tons net, were 
built. Fishing employs 108 boats of 386 tons; and there 
are several timber yards, a largo iron foundry, iron-works, 
besides sail-making, nail-making, and block and pump 
establishments. A grain market is held every Thursday, 
and a fair on the second Tuesday of June. Pop. (1837) 
920, (1861) 3192, (1891) 5294. 

The parish contains also the western portion of Salt- 
coats. Bounded N by Dairy, E by Kilwinning, SE by 
SteveMton, SW by the Firth of Clyde, and W by West 
Kilbride, it has an extreme length from N to S of 4J 
miles, a varying breadth of 1| and 2| miles, and an area 
of 7145J acres, of which 435J are foreshore and 41 It 
water. In 1891 the island of Little Cumbrae, which 
had previously formed part of the parish ef Ardrossan 


and of the registration district of West Kilbride, was 
transferred by the Boundary Commissioners to the parish 
and registration district of Cumbrae, Buteshire. Mont- 
fode and Stanley Burns descend to the shore to W and 
E of the town, and Caaf Water with its affluent the 
Munnock Burn traces most of the northern boundary ; 
Knockdewart Loch (If x ^ furlong), in the NW, is the 
only lake of the interior. The surface has a general 
northward rise, attaining 208 feet near the ruins of 
Montfode or Montfort Castle (If mile NW of the town), 
287 near Sorbie, 464 on Knockrivock Mount, 351 on 
Moss Mulloch, 500 near Drumcastle Mill, 356 near Low 
Dykehead, 536 near Coalhill, and 794 on the cairn- 
crowned Knockdewart Hills. The rocks are chiefly of 
the Carboniferous formation, including coal and iron- 
stone, neither of them worked, and excellent limestone 
and sandstone. Trap rocks, too, at the town, eruptive 
through the Carboniferous strata, were largely quarried 
for the breakwater. The soil is generally light and 
sandy between the shore and the foot of the hills, and 
a stifflsh clay on the uplands, but almost everywhere 
has been long and highly cultivated. Much the largest 
proprietor is the Earl of Eglinton, owner in the shire 
of 23, 631 acres of an annual value of £49, 551 ; but 4 other 
landowners hold within Ardrossan a yearly value of 
£500 and upwards, 25 of between £100 and £500, 46 of 
from £50 to £100, and 114 of from £20 to £50. In the 
presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, 
the civil parish is divided between two quoad sacra 
parishes — New Parish, consisting of the town, and 
Ardrossan parish, including all the rest, together with 
a bit of West Kilbride. Ardrossan parish has its church 
at Saltcoats, a living worth £359 per annum, and a 
population (1891) of 4549. There is also North Church, 
a chapel at Saltcoats. Pop. (1881) 7687, (1891) 9897. 
— Orel. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Ardrosser. See Aedeesier. 

Ardscalpsie, a headland in the W of the Isle of Bute, 
flanking the N side of Scalpsie Bay. 

Ardshiel, an estate, with a mansion, in the N of Appin, 
Argyllshire. The mansion stands to the W of Kentallen 
Bay, below the junction of Lochs Linnhe and Leven. 
Its owner led 300 Appin Highlanders in the rebellion of 
1745, sharing prominently in the action of Culloden, 
and in the perils which followed. A cave in the side of 
a deep ravine, overhung by Benaveee, was his hiding- 
place for about three months. The cave adjoins a rush- 
ing waterfall, which screens it so perfectly that no 
stranger coming near it would suspect its existence. 

Ardtalnaig, a hamlet in Kenmore parish, Perthshire, 
on the SE shore of Loch Tay, 94 miles NE of Killin, 
with a post office. A public school at it, with accom- 
modation for 84 children, had (1891) an average attend- 
ance of 20, and a grant of £31, 4s. 

Ardtella, a small headland and a small bay in Kildalton 
parish, Argyllshire, near the middle of the E side of Islay. 

Ardtoe, a small bay on the N side of Ardnamurchan 
proper, in Argyllshire. 

Ardtornish. See Artoenish. 

Ardtun, a grand basaltic headland in the SW of 
Mull, Argyllshire, projecting from the N side of the 
Ross of Mull, at the mouth of Loch Scriden. It is 
cut by a wild ravine, called the Goblins' Dell; it rises 
to a height of about 130 feet; it shows basaltic scarcely 
inferior to those of Staila; and it includes a thin stratum 
of coal beneath its basalt, and three leaf beds aggregately 
about 6 feet thick, and probably belonging to the 
middle portion of tho gcognostic Tertiary period. 

Ardullie, a seat of Sir Hector Munro of Foulis, Bart., 
in the E of Ross-shire, 3 miles from Evanton. 

Arduthie, an estate in the SE of Fetteresso parish, 
Kincardineshire. It was purchased about the year 
1759 for £1500, and long prior to the year J842 it 
yielded an annual rental of £1000. Tho New Town of 
Stonehaven was built upon it, and was long called the 
Links of Arduthie. 

Ardvare, a sea-loch, with a small harbour in the NW 
of Assynt parish, Sutherland, immediately S of Kyle- 
SUu, and 9 miles by land NNE of Loch Inver. 


Ardvarsar. See Ardavasak. 

Ardvech, a place in the SW of Perthshire, near Loch- 

Ardverikie (Gael. ard-a-bhuiridh, 'height of the 
roaring '), a mansion in Badenooh, Inverness-shire, on the 
SE side of Loch Laggan, 20J miles WSW of Kingussie. 
It stands on a green flat, at the head of a small bay, 
flanked by a wooded promontory, and was built in 1840 
by the Marquis of Abercorn. From 21 Aug. to 17 Sept. 
1847 it was occupied by the Royal family, and is de- 
scribed by her Majesty as ' a comfortable shooting-lodge, 
with many nice rooms in it. Stags' horns are placed 
along the outside and in the passages, and the walls of 
the drawing-room and anteroom are occupied with beau- 
tiful drawings of stags by Landseer' (pp. 56-58 of the 
Queen's Journal). Ardverikie afterwards passed into 
the possession of Sir John "W. Ramsden, Bart. , of Byrom, 
Yorkshire; on 15 Oct. 1873 it was almost totally de- 
stroyed by fire, the damage being estimated at nearly 
£50,000. A mound in the garden is said to mark the 
grave of Fergus and four other ancient Scottish kings; 
the grounds around are said to have been a favourite 
hunting-field of many of the old Scottish monarchs; and 
in the lake are the Isle of Kings and the Isle of Dogs. 
The hunting grounds now comprise a great extent of 
moor and mountain, are some 40 miles round, and con- 
tain about 2000 red deer. 

Ardvoirlich, an estate, with a mansion, the property 
of Col. John Stewart, R.A., in Comrie parish, Perthshire. 
The mansion stands on the S side of Loch Earn, 9J miles 
W of Comrie village ; is the Darnlinvarach of Sir Walter 
Scott's Legend of Montrose; and contains a large gem, 
seemingly white rock crystal, bound with four silver 
bands in very antique workmanship, and long regarded 
by the surrounding population as a talisman, giving to 
water in which it was dipped virtue for healing all sorts 
of diseases of cattle. 

Ardvoirlich, a small bay in Arrochar parish, Dumbar- 
tonshire, on the W side of Loch Lomond. 

Ardvreck. See Asstnt. 

Ardvrecknish, a mansion on the E side of Loch Awe, 
in Argyllshire, between Cladich and Port Sonachan. 

Ardwall, an island at the SE entrance of Fleet Bay, 
S Kirkcudbrightshire, \ mile from the mainland, to 
which it is joined at low water. It is 4 furlongs long 
by 2J broad, rises to 109 feet, and, belonging to Borgue, 
is uninhabited. See also Anwoth. 

Ardwell, an estate, with a mansion and with various 
places of its own name, in Stoneykirk parish, Wigtown- 
shire. It extends across the peninsula between Luce 
Bay and the Irish Sea; has its mansion about \ mile 
from Luce Bay and 9 miles SE of Portpatrick ; and con- 
tains Mains of Ardwell near the mansion, Ardwell Mill 
2 miles to the N", Lower Ardwell 1J mile to the WNW, 
High Ardwell li mile to the W, South Ardwell 2 miles 
to the SW, and Ardwell Bay and Ardwell Point, on the 
Irish Sea, 2J miles to the WSW. An ancient moat lies 
to the E of the mansion; and some remains of Cale- 
donian antiquities, variously megalithic and military, 
are in other parts. Ardwell Inn has a post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, and an Estab- 
lished church ; and Ardwell School, under the paro- 
chial board of Stoneykirk, has accommodation for 160 

Areeming, an estate in Kilpatrick-Durham parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. An ancient church, unknown to re- 
cord, was on it, and can still be traced in its sub-basement. 

Argrennaii, an estate with a mansion, in Tongland, 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. The mansion stands on 
the river Dee, 4 miles SW of Castle-Douglas. It was 
mainly built about the year 1818; bore, for some time, 
the name of Deebank; and is a spacious edifice, engirt 
by woods. 

Argyll, a district of Argyllshire, bounded NW and N 
by Loch Melford, Loch Avich, and the lower part of Loch 
Awe, which separate it from Lorn; E and SE by the 
upper reach of Loch Fyne, which separates it from Cowal; 
S by Loch Gilp and the Crinan Canal, which separate it 
from Knapdale; W by reaches and straits of the Atlantic 


Ocean, which separate it from the Slate Islands and MulL 
Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 32 miles; and its 
greatest breadth is 15 miles. Abounding in grand roman- 
tic scenery of lake and mountain, particularly along Loch 
Fyne, up the course of the river Ary, and along the shores 
of Loch Awe, it is rich, too, in old historic associations; 
and as to both its contour and its history it answers well 
to its name, which is said to be derived from the Gaelic 
words Airer-Gaedhil, signifying 'land of the Gael.' It 
has given the title of Earl since 1457, and the title of 
Duke since 1701, in the peerage of Scotland, and in that 
of the United Kingdom since 1892, to the noble family 
of Campbell. — One of the synods of the Church of 
Scotland bears the name of Argyll ; meets at Oban, 
Rothesay, and Ardrishaig in rotation; includes or super- 
intends the presbyteries of Inverary, Dunoon, Kintyre, 
Islay and Jura, Lorn, Mull, and Abertarff, and, through 
these, exercises jurisdiction over all the old parishes of 
Argyllshire but one, and over five of the six old parishes 
of Buteshire. Within the bounds of this synod there 
were 11,735 communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1891, when the sums raised in Christian liberality by 
its 82 congregations amounted to £12,531. — There is 
also a Free Church synod of Argyll, meeting at Loch- 
gilphead on the fourth Wednesday of April; comprising 
or superintending presbyteries of Dunoon, Inverary, 
Kintyre, Lorn, Mull, and Islay; and through these 
exercising jurisdiction over 60 congregations, with 15,021 
members or adherents in 1891. — The Episcopal Church 
of Scotland has a diocese of Argyll and the Isles, com- 
prehending 36 churches or mission stations. The cathe- 
dral is at Cumbrae, and the bishop's residence at North 
Ballachulish. — There is also a Roman Catholic see of 
Argyll and the Isles, comprising the counties of Argyll 
and Inverness, Bute, Arran, and the Hebrides. In 1891 
it had 25 priests, 2 convents, 21 missions, 38 churches, 
chapels, and stations, and 7 day schools. 

Argyll's Bowling Green, a playful name for a range 
of mountains occupying the peninsula of Cowal, north- 
ward from the junction of Lochs Goil and Long. Pre- 
cipitous, rugged, and lofty, they present a savage and 
sublime appearance, with mural cliffs, jumbled masses, 
and wildly jagged summits; and they form a magnificent 
background or sky-line to most of the splendid land- 
scapes seen from the north-westward and the northward 
parts of the upper sweeps of the Firth of Clyde. Summits, 
from S to N, are Meall Daraich (474 feet), Clach 
Bheinn (1433), Tom Molach (1210), the Saddle (1704), 
Beinn Reithe (2141), Cnoc Coinnich (2497), and the 
Brack (2500). 

Argyllshire, a maritime, western, Highland county, the 
second in Scotland as to size, the thirteenth as to popula- 
tion. It comprehends a very irregularly outlined por- 
tion of the mainland, and a large number of the Western 
islands, the chief being Mull, Islay, Jura, Tiree, Coll, 
Rum, Lismore, and Colonsay. Extending from the ex- 
tremity of Locheil district 11 miles N of Fort William 
to the extremity of Kintyre, 14 miles NE of the Antrim 
coast of Ireland, it is only 22 miles short of being half 
as long as the entire mainland of Scotland. It is bounded 
N by Inverness-shire, E by Perthshire, Dumbartonshire, 
and the northern ramifications and main expanse of the 
Firth of Clyde, S by the Irish Sea, and W by the Atlantic 
Ocean. Of the three parishes partly in the county of 
Argyll and partly in that of Inverness, Ardnamurchan 
remained untouched by the Boundary Commissioners in 
1891 (see Ardnamurchan), but the portion of Kilmallie 
north of Loch Eil and the whole of Small Isles were 
transferred to Inverness-shire. The boundaries of several 
of the interior parishes were also rearranged, for which 
see the different articles throughout the work. The 
county outlines are so exceedingly irregular, the in- 
tersections of mainland by sea-lochs so numerous and 
great, and the interlockings of mainland and islands 
so intricate, that no fair notion of them can be formed 
except by examination of a map. No part of the in- 
terior is more than 12 miles distant from either the sea 
or some sea-loch. The entire circumference has been 
roughly stated at about 460 miles, and the proportion of 



the circumference washed by sea-water has been roughly 
stated at about 340 miles ; but both of these estimates, 
if all the sinuosities of outline and sea-coast and sea-loch 
ihore be followed, are greatly short of the reality. 

The coast has every variety of elevation and contour, 
from alluvial flat and gentle slope to mural cliff and 
towering mountain, but generally is bold and upland, 
and takes much of its character from long narrow inter- 
penetrations of the land by the sea. Loch Moidart and 
Kinnaird Bay are in the extreme NW. Loch Sunart 
strikes far eastward between Ardnamurchan and Morvern. 
The Sound of Mull, with its 'thwarting tides,' separates 
Morvern from Mull, and sends off Loch Aline north-east- 
ward from the vicinity of Artornish. Loch Linnhe 
strikes north-eastward from the SE end of the Sound of 
Mull, embosoms Lismore and Shuna islands, sends off 
Loch Creran to the E, separates Morvern from Appin, and 
ramifies, at its NE end, into Lochs Eil and Leven, on 
the boundaries with Inverness-shire. The Firth of Lorn 
strikes southward from the junction of the Sound of Mull 
and Loch Linnhe, sends off Loch Etive far to the E, em- 
bosoms Ken-era island and the Slate islands, separates 
Lorn from Mull, and projects Loch Feochan into Lorn 
and Loch Melford between Lorn and Argyll Loch Tua, 
Loch-na-Keal, and Loch Scriden deeply intersect the W 
side of Mull A sound 7 miles wide separates Mull from 
Coll ; and another sound, 3 miles wide, separates Coll from 
Tiree. The Sound of Jura opens from the S end of the 
Firth of Lorn, round Scarba island and past the Gulf of 
CorrievTekin ; projects from its northern part Loch 
Craignish north-north-eastward, and Loch Crinan east- 
south-eastward ; separates Knapdale from Jura and Islay ; 
and is joined on the E side of its lower part by succes- 
sively Loch Swein, Loch Killisport, and West Loch Tar- 
bert, all nearly parallel to one another, and not far from 
parallel to the Sound of Jura itself. Another Loch Tar- 
bert intersects Jura from the W, and nearly cuts it in 
two. The Sound of Islay, a narrow strait, separates Jura 
from Islay ; and Loch Indal, striking with much breadth 
from the SW, penetrates Islay to the centre. The Firth 
of Clyde, in its greatest width or southernmost expanse, 
separates the southern part of Kintyre from Ayrshire. 
Kilbrannan Sound, an arm of the Firth of Clyde, separates 
the upper part of Kintyre from Arran. Loch Fyne, a 
continuation jointly of Kilbrannan Sound and of another 
arm of the Firth of Clyde, penetrates the mainland, first 
north-north-westward, next north-north-eastward ; sepa- 
rates all Cowal from Kintyre, from Knapdale, and from 
Lorn ; and sends off, from the extremity of its north- 
north-westward reach, Loch Gilp, with entrance into the 
Crinan Canal The Kyles of Bute, a narrow semicircular 
belt of sea, connected at both ends with the Firth of 
Clyde, separates Cowal from the Isle of Bute, and pro- 
jects Loch Riddon and Loch Striven northward into 
Cowal The upper reach of the Firth of Clyde, leading 
round to the influx of the Clyde river, separates Cowal 
from the Cunninghame district of Ayrshire and from 
Renfrewshire, and projects Holy Loch north-westward 
into Cowal Loch Long striking northward, nearly in 
a line with the Firth of Clyde, separates Cowal from 
Dumbartonshire, and projects Loch Goil north-north- 
westward into Cowal 

The mainland is divided into the six districts of North- 
ern Argyll, Lorn, Argyll, Cowal, Knapdale, and Kintyre. 
Northern Argyll comprehends all the parts N of Loch 
Linnhe and Loch Eil, and is subdivided into the sub- 
districts of Locheil, Ardgour, Sunart, Ardnamurchan, 
and Morvern. The Lorn district includes Appin sub-dis- 
trict in the NW, and is bounded N by Lochs Linnhe and 
Leven, E by Perthshire, SE by the lower reaches of Loch 
Awe, S by Lochs Avich and Melford, and W by the Firth 
of Lorn. The Argyll district lies immediately S of Lorn, 
and is bounded SE by Loch Fyne, S by Loch Gilp and 
the Crinan Canal. The Cowal district is all peninsular, 
or nearly engirt by Loch Fyne, the Kyles of Bute, the 
Firth of Clyde, and Loch Long. The Knapdale district 
is bounded N by the Crinan Canal and Loch Gilp, E by 
the lower reach of Loch Fyne, S by East and West Lochs 
Tarbert. The Kintyre district is all peninsular, stretch- 


ing southward from the Lochs Tarbert to the Irish Sea. 
A few islets lie within the waters or the reaches of the 
Firth of Clyde, and are included in the neighbouring 
mainland districts. The other islands lie all in the 
waters or sea-lochs of the Atlantic, and are classified 
into the three groups of Mull, Lorn, and Jura and Islay. 
The Mull group includes Mull, Canna, Rum, Muck, 
Coll, Tiree, Gometra, Ulva, Staffa, Iona, and a number 
of adjacent islets. The Lorn group includes Lismore, 
Shuna, and some islets in Loch Linnhe ; and Kerrera, 
Seil, Easdale, Luing, Lunga, Scarba, and a number of 
adjacent islets in the Firth of Lorn. The Jura and Islay 
group includes Jura, Islay, Colonsay, Oronsay, Gigha, 
and a number of neighbouring islets. The territorial 
divisions of the county, however, serve mainly to indi- 
cate the physical distribution of its parts, or at best 
afford some aid to tracing the ancient history of its 
several sections, but have not much value for showing 
the distribution of its population, or the facilities ana 
means of its economy and government. The entire 
county, therefore, mainland and islands, has been other- 
wise divided into the six districts of Mull, Lorn, Inverary, 
Cowal, Kintyre, and Islay. Mull, in this view, compre- 
hends both the northern territorial division of the main- 
land and the Mull group of islands ; Lorn comprehends 
both the mainland Lorn and the Lorn group of islands ; 
Inverary is identical with the Argyll territorial division ; 
Cowal also is identical with the territorial Cowal ; Kin- 
tyre comprehends part of Knapdale and all territorial 
Kintyre ; and Islay comprehends part of Knapdale and 
all the Jura and Islay group of islands. 

The coasts and sea-lochs present a marvellous wealth 
of picturesque scenery. The views of the Firth of Clyde 
are endlessly diversified ; up Loch Long, are first richly 
impressive, next sternly grand ; up Loch Goil and Holy 
Loch, combine simplicity with grandeur ; round the 
Kyles of Bute, are a circle of witchery ; up Loch Fyne, 
pass from much variety of both shore and hill to strik- 
ing scenes of wooded heights and lofty peaks ; up the 
Firth of Lorn, are a gorgeous panorama of almost all 
styles and combinations of landscape ; up Loch Linnhe, 
or round Mull island, are a rich succession of the beauti- 
ful and the romantic ; and in many other quarters, as 
up Loch Etive, the Sound of Jura, West Loch Tarbert, 
and Kilbrannan Sound, are equally diversified and 
opulent. Their attractions, since the era of steam navi- 
gation, both for summer visitors and for transient tourists, 
have been very great. Not a few places or parts formerly 
without an inhabitant, or possessing only rude clachans 
or small villages, on points of the coasts or sea-lochs most 
easily accessible from Greenock or Glasgow, such as on 
the shores of Loch Long, Loch Goil, Holy Loch, the 
Firth of Clyde, the Kyles of Bute, and Loch Riddon, are 
now occupied by long ranges of villas and cottages-ornSes. 
Most of the sea-waters, too, as well those most remote 
from Greenock as those near to it, are daily traversed 
during the summer months, by one or more of a fleet of 
first-rate steamers, carrying crowds of tourists mainly or 
solely to enjoy the delights of the scenery. No equal 
extent of coast in the world combines so largely a rich 
display of landscape with concourse of strangers to behold 
it. A great drawback, however, is excessive humidity 
of the climate, the rainfall at Oban being 65 '29 inches, 
the mean temperature 47 '3°. Another drawback, though 
operating vastly more in the summer than in the winter 
months, is occasional, fitful, severe tempestuousness; 
and this combines with the prevailing boldness and rocki- 
ness of the shores to render navigation perilous. Light- 
houses are at Corran in Loch Eil, Mousedalo in Lismore, 
Runa-Gall in the Sound of Mull, Ardnamurchan Point 
at the extreme NW of tho mainland, Skerry vore WSW 
of Tiree, Rhu-Vaal at tho N end of the Sound of Islay, 
Macarthur's-Head at the S end of tho Sound of Islay, 
Rhinns at Oversay in Islay, Dune Point in Loch Indal, 
Skervuile near the S end of the Sound of Jura, Mull of 
Kintyre at the southern extremity of Kintyre, Sanda 
island, miles ESE of tho Mull of Kintyre, and Devaar 
island at the mouth of Campbeltown Loch. 

Much of tho inland surface is as diversified as th» 



eoast, much is as richly picturesque as it ; but in a main 
degree is wildly mountainous, containing many of the 
loftiest and most massive heights of Scotland, many of 
the longest and deepest glens, many of the largest tracts 
of tabular moor, so as to form no mean portion of ' the 
land of the mountain and the flood. ' Such tracts as the 
glen of the Ary and the shores of the lower parts of 
Loch Awe are pre-eminently brilliant — such as Glencroe, 
Glencoe, and parts of Mull are impressively sublime — 
and such as Staffa island and Ardtun have a romance 
peculiarly their own ; but many others, broad and long, 
are dismal and repulsive. Many tracts closely con- 
tiguous to the very brightest ones on the coast are 
sterile, lofty, trackless moor ; and nearly all the region 
N of Loch Linnhe, and in the NE of Lorn, and thence 
southward through the centre of Cowal, though inter- 
spersed with narrow sheltered glens, is mountainous, 
rugged, and bleak. The county, as a whole, both main- 
land and islands, with comparatively small exception, 
is little else than a congeries of mountains, cloven with 
glens, and occasionally skirted with low seaboard. Some 
of its mountains are vast isolated masses ; others form 
groups or ranges ; many are so agglomerated one into 
another as to be only s umm its of great tableaux ; and 
not a few present such conflicting appearances of feature, 
mass, and altitude, as not easily to admit of distinctive 
description. The loftiest or more conspicuous summits 
are Bidean nam Bian, between Glencoe and Glen Etive 
(3766 feet) ; Ben Laoigh, on the Perthshire border (3708) ; 
Ben Cruachan, between Lochs Etive and Awe (3669) ; 
Ben Starav, E of the head of Loch Etive (3541) ; Ben-a- 
Bheithir, SW of Ballachulish (3362) ; Buachaille-Etive, 
overhanging Glen Etive (3345) ; Culvain, on the north- 
ern border (3224) ; Benmore, in Mull (3185) ; Sgor 
Dhomhail, between Lochs Shiel and Linnhe (2915) ; the 
Paps of Jura (2565) ; Ben Arthur, or the Cobbler, at the 
head of Loch Long (2891) ; Benmore, in Rum (2367) ; 
Ben Tarn or Ben Yattan, in Morvern (2306) ; Bishop's 
Seat, W of Dunoon (1651) ; Cruach-Lassa, eastward of 
Loch Swin (1530) ; Ben-an-Tuirc, in Kintyre (1491) ; and 
Ben Varna in Islay, and the Peak of Scarva, each 1500 

The streams are all short and rapid, and mostly rush 
down deep and narrow glens. Among them are numbers 
of torrents careering to the sea-lochs or sea-belts in the 
northern district ; the Creran, the Etive, the Talla, and 
others in the NE ; the Orchy, the Strae, and the Avich, 
running to Loch Awe ; the Awe, voluminous but short, 
carrying off the superftuenee of Loch Awe to Loch Etive ; 
the Fyne, the Kinglass, the Shira, the Ary, the Douglas, 
and others, running to the upper part of Loch Fyne ; 
the Cur, running to the head of Loch Eck, and the 
Eaehaig carrying off that lake's superfHence to Holy 
Loch ; the Ruel, running to the head of Loch Riddon ; 
and a multitude of others, mostly mere burns, in Knap- 
dale, Kintyre, Mull, Jura, and Islay. — The freshwater 
lakes, as also might be expected from the configuration 
of the country, are conspicuous ; and they have been 
computed to cover aggregately an area of about 52,000 
acres. Loch Awe, the largest of them, ranks among the 
first-class lakes, for both extent and picturesqueness, in 
all Scotland ; expands at its foot around the skirts of 
Ben Cruachan into two great branches, and graduates 
from head to foot in a succession of ever-different and 
ever-increasingly impressive scenery. Other lakes are 
Lochs Avich, lying to the W of the upper centre of Loch 
Awe ; Lydoch, in the extreme NW, and partly within 
Perthshire ; Tolla, in the upper part of Glenorchy ; Eck, 
in Cowal, stretching along a fine graceful glen ; Arienas, 
in Morvern ; Nell, in the N W of Lorn ; Arisa, in Mull, etc. 

Granite forms the great mountain-masses in the NE 
parts of the county, and south-westward to Ben Cruachan. 
Mica slate predominates in many parts of both the main- 
land and the islands. Porphyry forms an extensive 
tract on the NW side of Loch Fyne. Trap of various 
kinds prevails in some districts ; and basalt, in par- 
ticular, is prominent in Staffa, and in parts of Mull, 
Morvern, and Ardnamurchan. Rocks of the Limestone 
Carboniferous formation, with much sandstone, are in 

the S of Kintyre, and the annual output here of Drum- 
lemble colliery, near Campbeltown, amounts to 100,000 
tons, the seam being limited in area, but of great thick- 
ness and highly productive. Thin strata of coal lie 
tilted up and denudated on some small portions of the 
trap ; a thin seam of coal, and small portions of lias and 
tertiary rocks occur in the SW of Mull. Fissile clay 
slate, of quality to form excellent roofing slates, consti- 
tutes the main bulk of Easdale, Luing, and Seil islands, 
and of a large tract around Ballachulish in the N of 
Appin, and both at Easdale and at Ballachulish is very 
extensively quarried. Limestone abounds in many parts, 
and seems to form the whole body of the large rich 
island of Lismore. Marble exists in various parts, and 
occurs of good quality in Tiree and Iona. Lead ore is 
worked in Islay (some 300 tons annually) ; copper ore 
also occurs ; and a little cobalt has been found in Glen- 
orchy. Strontites, or carbonate of strontium, became 
first known to mineralogists by the discovery of it in 
1790 in the Strontian lead mines, which were discon- 
tinued in 1855, having been wrought for about 150 
years. A great variety of rare calcareous spars, in- 
cluding splendid specimens of staurolite, also occurs in 
the strontium mines. The summits and shoulders of 
the mountains are generally bare rock ; and large aggre- 
gates of the tableaux and even of the comparatively low 
grounds are utterly barren. A prevalent soil on such 
lofty mountains as are not bare, and along the banks of 
streams descending from these mountains, is gravel 
mixed with vegetable mould. A common soil, or rather 
covering, on extensive moors and on low grounds from 
which water does not freely flow, is peat moss. A pre- 
valent soil in the westerly parts of the mainland and in 
some of the islands is a barren sand, consisting of dis- 
integrated sandstone or disintegrated mica slate. Most 
of the soil in the fertile parts of Mid Lorn, Nether Lorn, 
Craignish, and other tracts not greatly elevated above 
sea-level, are either disintegrated limestone or disin- 
tegrated slate mixed with coarse limestone ; and the 
former kind is generally light, the latter stiffer. Other 
kinds of soil suited to the plough and more or less fertile 
elsewhere occur, and several kinds sometimes graduate 
imperceptibly into one another. A fine alluvium lies 
along the banks of the lower reaches of some of the 
streams ; a light loam mixed with sand, on a bottom of 
clay or gravel, is common on many low tracts ; and a 
light gravel, incumbent on till, prevails on the skirts and 
acclivities of many hills. 

Agriculture, up to the abolition of the feudal system 
in 1745, and even into the second decade of the present 
century, was in a very low condition ; but, from various 
causes, it has undergone great improvement. The aboli- 
tion of the feudal system, the conversion of corn-rents, 
or rents in kind and services, into money rents, the 
suppression of smuggling, the constructing of the Crinan 
and Caledonian Canals, the formation of good roads 
under the auspices of the parliamentary commissioners, 
the spread of school education and of industrial intelli- 
gence, the introduction and promotion of a system of 
farming suited to the capabilities of the soil and the 
climate, the incorporation of small holdings into pro- 
ductively large farms, the diffusion of information as to 
the best modes of cultivating land and managing live 
stock, and, above all, the introduction of steam naviga- 
tion, with the rich facility afforded by it for reciprocal 
intercourse within the county, and for access to the . 
great markets on the Clyde — have, each and severally in 
succession, originated and promoted great agricultural 
improvement. The compensatory results, nevertheless, 
have been greatly more in the department of live stock 
than that of husbandry. According to the agricultural 
statistics of 1895, only 134,063acres are under cultivation. 
The cattle are chiefly Kyloes or West Highlanders, a 
small shaggy race, much superior to the Dunrobins and 
Skibos or North Highlanders, also older and more im- 
proved; and, notwithstanding their small size, are highly 
esteemed in the general market, and exported in vast num- 
bers to the towns on the Clyde, and to places in the E aud 
S. The stock of cattle in the county in 1890 was 60,005. 



The steep are of the black-faced breed, introduced many 
centuries ago from Northumberland to the southern 
counties of Scotland, and introduced thence about the 
middle of last century to Argyllshire. They are a hardy 
race, well suited to the country and the climate, and 
valuable for their mutton, but have a coarse fleece. The 
stock of sheep in the county in 1895 was 1,026,712. 
Red deer abound in several of the forests, especially 
Blackmount and Dalness; feathered game is more varied 
than plentiful ; but its streams and lochs make Argyll- 
shire a very angler's paradise. About 64,000 acres are 
covered with woods. 

The manufactures are not great. A large quantity of 
kelp used to be made along the shores, but was driven 
out of the market by foreign barilla. Some leather is 
manufactured, and coarse woollen yarns, stuffs, and 
stockings, for home use, are still extensively made. 
Valuable manufactures of pig-iron were formerly carried 
on at Bunawe and Islay, but these have now ceased. 
The granite quarries of Bunawe, however, employ 
about 200 workmen. The distillation of whisky is 
conducted on a large scale in Islay and at Campbel- 
town. Slates are turned out in vast quantities from the 
quarries of Easdale and Ballaehulish. Fisheries through- 
out the Campbeltown and Inverary districts, and partly 
in connection with the Rothesay district, are exten- 
sively conducted in all the surrounding intersecting 
seas. Loch Fyne indeed is celebrated as furnishing the 
finest herrings found on the coast of Scotland, and it is 
estimated that there are caught in this arm of the sea 
alone from 20,000 to 30,000 barrels annually ; but the 
take has greatly fallen off in later years. The large 
catches, however, that are still occasionally made, show 
that the herring has not finally deserted the loch. 
Campbeltown is the only head port ; but the commerce 
of the county has a vastly wider reach than what the 
shipping of Campbeltown represents, sharing very largely 
in the shipping of Greenock and Glasgow, and giving 
employment to no mean portion of the great fleet of 
steam vessels belonging to the ports of the Clyde. 
No similarly peopled region in any other part of Great 
Britain has such facilities of steamship communication, 
and none with seemingly so few resources supplies so 
large an amount of tonnage to coasting commerce. The 
railways are the Callander and Oban railway, and 
the West Highland railway, which begins near Helens- 
burgh and runs in a north-westerly direction, crossing 
the Oban railway at Crianlarich, to Fort William. 

The royal burghs are Inverary and Campbeltown ; 
a parliamentary burgh is Oban ; and other towns and 
chief villages are Dunoon, Lochgilphead, Ardrishaig, 
Tobermory, Bowmore, Ballaehulish, Tarbert, Kilmun, 
Strone, Kirn, Sandbank, Tighnabruaich, Portnahaven, 
Tort Ellen, Port Charlotte, Easdale, and Ellenabuich. 
The chief seats are Inverary Castle, Colonsay House, 
Kildalloig, Strontian, Fassifern, Dunstaffnage, Kilmory, 
Ol'-nfeochan, Achindarroch, Inverneil, Sonachan, Glen- 
daruel, Stonefield, Lochnell, Balliveolan, Possill Aros, 
Jura House, Inverawe, Ormsary, Ballochyle, Glenfin- 
art, Glencreggan, Castle-Toward, Dunans, Kingairloch, 
Glenvar, Airds, Maclachlan, Pennycross, Ardgour, Pol- 
talloch, Kildalton, Coll, Skipness, Ardpatrick, Ard- 
mcanach, Orinaig, Benmore, Barealdine, Dunach, Gal- 
lanaeh, Fasnacloich, Pennygowan, Carskey, Oatfield, 
Ilafton, Glenstriven, Knockdow, Milton, Ardnave, Ard- 
lussa, Daill, Killundine, Ulva, Craignish, Ardkinglass, 
Strachur, Saddel, Sanda, and Asknish. According to 
latest Miscellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom, 
2,030,948 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of 
£430,152, were divided among 2864 landowners; two 
together holding 347,540 acres (rental, £66,837), seven 
4KI.917 (£61,041), sixteen 489,869 (£44,110), twenty- 
seven 363,570 (£61,906), thirty-four 232,921 (£47,336), 
thirty-eight 121,291 (£28,285), etc. 

The county is now governed by a lord lieutenant and 
high sheriff, 44 deputy lieutenants, a sheriff, 4 sub- 
sheriffs, and 143 magistrates. The sub-sheriffs are 
stationed at Inverary, Campbeltown, Oban, and Fort 
William. Ordinary small debt and debts recovery courts 


are held at Inverary, Campbeltown, and Oban, every 
Friday, and at Fort William every Thursday during 
session. Circuit courts, under the Small Debt and Debts 
Recovery Acts, are held at Dunoon and Tobermory once 
a month, at Lochgilphead six times a-year, and at Bow- 
more (Islay) four times a year. Quarter sessions are held 
at Inverary on the first Tuesday of March, May, and 
August, and the last Tuesday of October. There are 
prisons at Inverary and Campbeltown, and police cells at 
Oban. The Duke of Argyll is lord-lieutenant and high 
sheriff, and he and the Marquis of Breadalbaneare the prin- 
cipal proprietors. The county council is composed of 52 
elected members — 6 for Mull district, 4 for that of Ard- 
namurehan, 9 for Lorn, 9 for North and South Argyll, 
10 for Cowal, 8 for Kin tyre, and 6 for Islay — and 2 
representatives each for the burghs of Oban and Camp- 
beltown, and 1 for that of Inverary. There are seven 
district committees in the county (one for each of the 
above districts), a County Road Board, a standing Joint 
Committee (composed of county councillors and com- 
missioners of supply), and a District Lunacy Board. 
The annual value of real property in 1815 was £227,493; 
in 1843, £261,920 ; in 1873, £429,384 ; in 1881, 
£499,736 — both the two last exclusive of canals; 
and in 1892, £429,050, exclusive of burghs, railways, 
and canals. Besides its three burghs of Campbeltown, 
Inverary, and Oban, returning along with Ayr and 
Irviue a 2>arliamentary representative, the county sends a 
member to parliament, and in 1891 had a constituency 
of 9874. Pop. (1881) 76,440, (1891) 75,003. 

The registration county had, in 1881, a population of 
80,693 ; in 1891, 79,317. Thirty-four parishes are as- 
sessed, and four unassessed, for the poor. One, Campbel- 
town, has a poorhouse for itself ; and 26 in groups of i, 
5, 10, and 7, have poorhouses in the 4 combinations of 
Islay, Lochgilphead, Lorn, and Mull. 

Religious statistics have already been given under 
Argyll ; in 1891 the county had 159 public and 14 
non-public but state-aided schools — in all 173 schools, 
with accommodation for 16,399 children, and an average 
attendance of 9900. 

An ancient Caledonian tribe, called the Epidii, occu- 
pied the great part of what is now Argyllshire. They 
took their name from the word Ebyd, signifying 'a 
peninsula, ' and designating what is now Kin tyre, which 
hence was anciently called the Epidian promontory. 
They spread as far N as Loch Linnhe and the Braes of 
Glenorchy ; they must have lived in a very dispersed 
condition; they necessarily were cut into sections by 
great natural barriers; they likewise, from the character 
of their boundaries on the N and the E, must have been 
much separated from the other Caledonian tribes; and 
they do not appear to have been disturbed even re- 
motely by the Romans. They were, in great degree, an 
isolated people; and in so far as they had communica- 
tion with other territories than their own, they seem to 
have had it, for a long time, far more with Erin than 
with Caledonia. Some of them, at an early period, pro- 
bably before the Christian era, emigrated to the NE 
coast of Ireland, and laid there the foundation of a 
prosperous settlement, under the name of Dalriada. A 
native tribe, called the Cruithne, was there before them; 
took its name from words signifying 'eaters of corn;' 
is thought to have been addicted to the cultivation of 
the ground, in contrast to a pastoral or roving mode of 
life; and seems to have easily yielded itself into absorp- 
tion with the immigrants. An intermingled race of 
Epidii and Cruithne arose, took the name of Dalriads 
or Dalriadans, adopted the Christian faith from the early 
Culdees of Erin, and are presumed to have combined the 
comparatively pastoral habits of the Epidii with the 
land-cultivating habits of the Cruithne. A colony of 
these Dalriads or Dalriadans came, in the year 503, to 
Kintyre; brought with them the practices of the 
Christian religion, and improved practices in the com- 
moner arts of life ; sent off detachments to various 
centres of the old Epidian region, especially to Islay and 
to Lorn; acquired ascendency through all the country 
of the Epidii; and established at Dunstaffnage, in the 


neighbourhood of Oban, a monarchy which is usually 
regarded by historians as the parent monarchy of 
Scotland. Further notices of that early monarchy 
will be given under the heading Dunstaffnage. King 
Kenneth, who began to reign at Dunstaffnage in' S35, 
was the maternal grandson of a king of Pictavia, who 
died without any male heir in 833, and he made a claim 
to be that king's successor, contested the claim for 
several years with two competitors, and eventually en- 
forced it by strength of victory; united the crown of 
Pictavia to the crown of Dalriada; and established, in 
breadth and permanency, the kingdom of Scotland. 

The territory now forming Argyllshire, while it had 
been the cradle of the Scottish kingdom, became thence- 
forth no more than an outlying portion of it; and it 
soon began to be much disturbed by invasions and 
forays of Norsemen and other depredators who swept 
the seas. Numerous battles and heroic achievements, 
iu consequence, took place within its bounds ; but 
these, on account of its main territory becoming then 
much linked in history with the entire "Western High- 
lands, will be more appropriately noticed in our article 
on the Hebrides. Some great events, indeed, if we 
may repose any confidence in the voice of tradition, 
events relating to Fingal and his heroes, were peculiarly 
its own, or at least belonged largely to its northern 
tracts of Morvern and Glencoe ; but they are too doubt- 
ful and shadowy to admit of other than slight notice in 
merely the articles on the particular localities with which 
they are associated. The Macdougals of Lorn and the 
Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles, were almost independent 
thanes during much of the Middle Ages — the former in 
Lorn, Argyll, and Mull — the latter in Islay, Kintyre, 
and some other parts ; but they were eventually reduced 
to subjection by James III. The leading events during 
their times will be noticed in our article on the He- 
brides. The Stewarts afterwards became the leading 
clan in Appin ; the Macarthurs, about Loch Awe ; the 
Macgregors, in Glenorchy ; the Macnaughtens, about 
parts of Loch Fyne ; the Campbells, in parts of Lorn 
and Argyll. The Campbells, in particular, soon got 
high ascendency, not only in their own original terri- 
tory, but throughout the county and beyond it ; they 
thoroughly defeated an insurrection of the Macdonalds 
in 1614 ; they extended their own acquisitions of terri- 
tory near and far, till they came to hold an enormous 
proportion of all the land ; and they concentrated their 
strength of descent in the two great noble families of 
Argyll and Breadalbane. The Argyll family got the 
Scottish peerage titles of Baron Campbell in 1452, Earl 
of Argyll in 1457, Baron of Lorn in 1470, Duke of 
Argyll, Marquis of Lorn and Kintyre, Earl of Campbell 
and Cowal, Viscount of Lochowe and Glenisla, and 
Baron Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tiree in 1701 ; they 
also got, in the peerage of Great Britain, the titles of 
Baron Sundridge in 1766, Baron Hamilton in 1776, and 
Duke of Argyll in 1892; they likewise are hereditary 
keepers of the castles of Dunoon, Dunstaffnage, and 
Carrick; and, in 1871, through the marriage of the Mar- 
quis of Lorn, the duke's eldest son, to the Princess 
Louise, they became allied to the Royal family. 

The antiquities of Argyllshire are many and various. 
Caledonian remains, particularly stone circles and me- 
galithic stones, occur frequently. Dalriadic remains, 
or what claim to be such, are prominent at 'Beregonium ' 
and Dunstaffnage. Danish forts, in the shape of what 
are called 'duns,' occur on different parts of the coast. 
Ecclesiastical remains occur on Iona, on Oronsay, in 
Ardchattan, at Kilmun, etc. Medifeval castles, inter- 
esting for either their history, their architecture, or 
their remains, are at Dunolly, Kilchurn, Artornish, 
Mingarry, Skipness, and Carrick ; and foundations of 
others are at Dunoon, Ardkinglass, and some other 
places. See J. Denholm, Tour to the Principal Lakes 
in Dumbartonshire and Argyllshire; Capt. T. P. White, 
Archaeological Sketches in Kintyre and Knapdale; and 
an excellent article by Duncan Clerk, ' On the Agricul- 
ture of the County of Argj'll,' in the Transactions of the 
Highland and Agricultural Society (1878). 


Aricliny or Araich-lin, a lake containing trout and 
char, and measuring 6 by 2£ furlongs, in Kildonan parish, 
Sutherland, 2 miles NNW of Kinbrace station. 

Arienas, a lake in Morvern district, Argyllshire, send- 
ing off its superfluence by a small rivulet to the head 
of Loch Aline. 

Arinangour, a village in Coll Island, Argyllshire, near 
the middle of the coast. It has a harbour, with a pier, 
and pretty safe, but obstructed at the entrance by rocks. 

Arisaig. See Abasaig. 

Arity, a rivulet of S Forfarshire. It rises in the N 
of Monikie parish; runs through a section of Guthrie; 
intersects Inverarity nearly through the centre; is joined 
there, on the left, by Corbie Burn; proceeds along the 
boundary between Kinnettles and Glamis; falls into 
the Dean river at a point If mile NNE of Glamis 
village; and has altogether a run, north-westward, of 
about 8 miles. 

Arkindeith, a ruined tower in Avoch parish, Ross- 
shire. It seems to have belonged to a castellated man- 
sion of the, early part of the 17th century, probably 
erected by the Braces of Kinloss, and it is now reduced 
to the lowest or dungeon story. 

Arkland, a place, with a fine view of the picturesquo 
valley of the Scarr, in Penpont parish, Dumfriesshire. 

Arkle, a rounded and massive mountain in Eddrachillis 
parish, Sutherland, 4 miles E of the head of Loch Lax- 
ford, and 5 SE of Rhiconich. It rises 2582 feet above 
sea-level, and has a somewhat tabular top, presenting a 
glassy appearance, especially after rain. 

Arklet, a lake in Buchanan parish, Stirlingshire, which, 
commencing within 5 furlongs of the SW shore of Loch 
Katrine, extends 1 mile 1A furlong westward, with a 
breadth of from 2 to 3 furlongs. It abounds in fine red- 
fleshed trout, presents a gloomy appearance, is followed 
along its northern side by the road from Loch Katrine 
to Inversnaid, and sends off a stream of its own name, 
about 2| miles westward to Loch Lomond at Inversnaid. 

Arlary, an estate, with a mansion (R. Glass), in Orwell 
parish, Kinross-shire, 1£ mile NE of Milnathort. 

Armadale, a police burgh in Bathgate parish, W Lin- 
lithgowshire, 2§ miles W by S of Bathgate town, and 1 
mile N by W of a station of its own name, where there 
is a railway sub-post office, on the Edinburgh-Airdrie- 
Glasgow section of the North British. Standing amid 
extensive fields of coal and ironstone, limestone and 
brick-clay, it was merely a hamlet up to about 1851, 
when, owing to the establishment of neighbouring chemical 
and paraffin works, it suddenly rose to a town. It has 
nine commissioners, is lighted with gas, and has a post 
office, with money order, savings bank, and telegraph 
departments; a quoad sacra parish church (minister's 
salary £188), a Free church, St Paul's Episcopal church 
(built 1858), and a Wesleyan chapel, while the one public 
school open in 1891 had then accommodation for 703 
children, an average attendance of 588, and a grant of 
£735, Is. 3d. Pop. of burgh (1S61) 2504, (1871) 2708, 
(1881) 2642, (1891) 3190. 

Armadale, a fishing village, a bay, and a burn, in 
Farr parish, NE Sutherland. The village stands to the 
W r of the bay, at 200 feet of elevation, and has a post 
office under Thurso, and a small public school. The bay, 
flanked eastward by Strathy Point, is 2£ miles wide and 
Iff mile long, its innermost indentation being f mile 
long, and from 5 to 3J furlongs wide, and it is one of 
the few points in all the rock-bound coast of Farr where 
boats may land in moderate weather. The burn runs 5 
miles NNE and NNW from Loch Buidhe M6r to the 
head of the bay. 

Armadale Castle, the seat of Lord Macdonald, in Sleat 
parish, Isle of Skye, on the S coast, 7 miles NE of Sleat 
Point. It stands on a gentle slope, amid well-wooded 
grounds ; is a Gothic edifice of 1815, after a design by 
Gillespie Graham ; has an octagonal tower on each side 
of the doorway ; contains an elegant portrait of Somerled, 
Lord of the Isles, in stained glass, by Egginton of Bir- 
mingham ; and commands an extensive view of the sub- 
limely picturesque seaboard of Glenelg, Knoidart, Morar, 
and Arasaig. 



Armlt, a rivulet of Berwickshire and Edinburghshire, 
running about 8 miles south-westward to the Gala, at a 
point about 1 mile N of Fountainhall station. 

Araabost, a hamlet with a public school in Coll island, 

Arnage, a railway station in Ellon parish, E Aberdeen- 
shire, on the Aberdeen-Peterhead branch of the Great 
North of Scotland railway, 3$ miles N by W of Ellon. 
Arnage House (J. L. Ross), 5 furlongs NNE, is an old 
and interesting Gothic mansion, formerly the seat of the 
Cheyne9, to whom belonged Jas. Cheyne (d. 1602), rector 
of the Scots college at Douay. 

Arnal, a burn in Barvas parish, island of Lewis, run- 
ning about 6 miles to the Atlantic. 

Arnbarrow, a hill 1060 feet high in the W of Fordoun 
parish, Kincardineshire, projecting as a spur from a low 
range of the Grampians. 

Arnbeg, a place in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire, about 
1" mile W of Kippen village, famous for the observance 
of the Lord's Supper at it, by a large assemblage of Cove- 
nanters, under cloud of night, in the year 1676. 

Arnbrae, a hamlet in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, 1 
mile W of Kilsyth. Oliver Cromwell spent a night in a 
house in it whieh still is, or recently was, standing. 

Arncroach, a village in Carnbee parish, Fife, 2f miles 
ENE of Colinsburgh. It has a post office under Pitten- 
weem, and it contains a Free church, designated of Carn- 
bee, and a public school. 

Arndilly. See Boharm. 

Arneybog, a mineral tract, with a colliery in the N of 
Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Arnfinlay, an ancient castle in Kippen parish, near the 
Forth boundary between Perthshire and Stirlingshire. 

Arngask, a parish formerly in the counties of Perth, 
Kinross, and Fife, but placed by the Boundary Commis- 
sioners in 1891 wholly in the county of Perth. Towards 
the centre of the parish is the village of Damhead, 3 miles 
NN"W of Mawcarse station, and 4J N by E of the post- 
town Milnathort. Duncrevie, J mile S of Damhead, is 
another small village in Arngask, which is bounded N 
by Dron, E by Abernethy, SE by Strathmiglo, S by 
Orwell, and W by Forteviot and Forgandenny. Its 
greatest length from N to S is 4 J miles; its breadth is 

4 miles; and its area is 6455 J acres. The upper waters 
of the beautiful Fakg have a length of about 5 miles 
within the parish, dividing what formed the Perthshire 
portion from the other two portions in Kinross and Fife, 
and here receiving the Strawyearn and other burns; 
in the former Perthshire portion are Loch Whirr and 
two smaller lakelets. The surface is charmingly diver- 
sified with hills belonging to the Ochil system, elevations 
from N to S being Berry Hill (900 feet), and points near 
Letham (789), the Church (588), Pittillock (670), Plains 
on the western border (973), and Candy (830). The rocks 
are chiefly various kinds of trap, and the soils, for the 
most part, consist of disintegrations of these rocks, and 
generally have a black loamy character. About 1300 
acres are uncultivated, and some 240 under wood, the 
whole being pastoral rather than arable. Some 28 pro- 
prietors (10 of them resident) hold each an annual value 
of £50 and upwards. Arngask is in the presbytery of 
Kinross and synod of Fife ; the minister's income is £188. 
The original church was a private chapel of the Balvaird 
family, and in 1282 was granted to Cambuskenneth Abbey. 
The present building, erected in 1806, had 380 sittings 
as enlarged in 1821, and was restored in 1879. There is 
also a Free church in the preBbytery of Perth and synod 
of Perth and Stilling ; and a pmblic school, with accom- 
modation for 150 children, had (1891) an average attend- 
ance of 85, and a grant of £79, 14s. 6d. Valuation 
£5521, 9s. Pop. (1831) 712, (1861) 705, (1871) 565, 
(1881) 547, (1891) 564.— Orel. 8wr., sh. 40, 1867. 

Arngibbon, the seat of Wm. Forrester, Esq. (b. 1861; 
•uc. 1878), formerly in the Perthshire portion of Kippen 
parish, but placed with this portion in the county of 
Stirling in 1891 by the Boundary Commissioners, 2 miles 

5 by E of Port of Menteith station. 

Arngomery, a mansion in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire, 
J mile W of Kippen village. 


Arnhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Fettercairn 
parish, Kincardineshire, at the boundary with Forfar- 
shire, 6J miles W by S of Laurencekirk. The estate was 
purchased by Mr Brodie, from Sir David Carnegie, in 1796, 
for £22,500 ; had been undergoing great improvement ; 
and continued in Mr Brodie's hands to undergo much 
further improvement ; was sold in 1814 to Mr John 
Shand for £70,000, and afterwards, in reclamation of 
moss, and in other ways, was further greatly improved. 
A small establishment is on it for carding wool and mak- 
ing coarse woollen cloth. 

Amiefoui, a village in Glamis parish, Forfarshire, 
2J miles SSE of Glamis station. 

Arnisdale, a village in Glenelg parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the side of Loch Hourn, amid sublime scenery, about 
13 miles S of Glenelg village, with a post office. 

Arnish, a headland, with a lighthouse and a beacon, 
at the S side of the entrance of Loch Stornoway, in the 
island of Lewis. See Stornoway. 

Axnisort, a hamlet in the Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, 
on a sea-loch of its own name, branching from Loch 
Snizort. It has a post office under Portree. 

Arniston, an estate in Borthwick and Temple parishes, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion on it stands on the 
South Esk river, 1| mile WSW of Fushiebridge station, 
is a massive and imposing edifice of no great age, and 
has extensive and very beautiful grounds. The original 
estate was comparatively small ; belonged to Sir James 
Dundas, who was knighted by James V. ; has come 
down regularly to his descendants, famous as lawyers 
and as statesmen ; and has, from time to time, been 
greatly enlarged by additions from neighbouring pro- 
perties. The soil of most of it was naturally poor, but 
has been much improved by art. Rich beds of coal hero 
have been largely worked ; and the Emily Pit has a 
depth of 160 fathoms, being the deepest in the E of 
Scotland. Sawmills and other industrial works also are 
on the estate. 

Arnot. See Armit. 

Arnprior, a village in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire, 
near the Forth and Clyde railway, 2J miles W of Kippen 
village, with a post office and a public school, having 
accommodation for 100 children, an average attendance 
of 67, and a grant of £63, 19s. 6d. 

Arnsheen, a hamlet and a quoad sacra parish in Col- 
monell parish, Ayrshire. The hamlet is 12 miles S of 
Gh'van. The quoad sacra parish contains also the vil- 
lage of Barhill with a money order and savings bank 
post office; was constituted in 1872; had a population 
of 912 in 1891; and is in the presbytery of Stranraer 
and synod of Galloway. Stipend £120, with a manse. 

Arntully, a village and an estate in Kinclaven parish, 
Perthshire. The village stands If mile NNW of Stan- 
ley Junction station, is inhabited by linen weavers, but 
has greatly declined. The estate was improved at a cost 
of nearly £4000 immediately before 1843, when it was 
still further improved. 

Aros, a village, an ancient castle, a rivulet, and a bay, 
on the NE coast of Mull island, Argyllshire. The vil- 
lage stands contiguous to the bay, 7 miles SSE of Tober- 
mory, on the road thence to at once the south-eastern, 
the southern, and the western parts of the island ; over- 
looks the central part of the Sound of Mull ; is the resi- 
dence of the Duke of Argyll's factor ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, under Oban, and an inn. The castle stands 
on a high basaltic promontory at the side of the bay ; 
was built before the time of Robert Bruco, and inhabited 
by the Lords of the Isles ; was defended, on the land 
side, by moat and drawbridge ; has a spacious esplanade 
extending to the extremity of the rock, and probably 
enclosed by a wall ; was itself no moro than a massive 
oblong tower, about 40 feet high ; and is now reduced 
to two of its walls and part of a third. , The site of it is 
strong, and the grounds adjacent to it soar into wild 
cliffs, seamed by fissures and channelled by cascades. 
The rivulet drains Loch Eriza, a lake about 4 miles long, 
extending to within 3 miles of Tobermory ; and it runs 
from the lake about 3J miles south-eastward to the bay 


at the village. The bay has not much capacity, and ia 
of half-moon outline ; yet is made by Sir Walter Scott 
the rendezvous of the ships of the ' Lord of the Isles,' — 

' Look, where beneath the castle grey, 
His fleet unmoors from Aros Bay.' 

Arpafeilie, a place in the Black Isle district of Ross- 
ihire. 'It has St John's Episcopal chape] (1S16), ana its 
post-town is Fortrose, under Inverness. 

Arran (Gael, 'lofty isle'), the largest island in the 
Firth of Clyde, forms part of the county of Bute. 
It lies, like the rest of Buteshire, in the Firth of Clyde, 
being bounded SW and NW by Kilbrannan Sound, 
which separates it from Kintyre in Argyllshire ; NE by 
the Sound of Bute, parting it from the Isle of Bute ; and 
E and S by the main expanse of the Firth. Measuring 
at the narrowest, its extreme points are 3 miles E of 
Kintyre, 5| SW of the Isle of Bute, 9g W by S of the 
mainland of Ayrshire, and respectively 13 N and 30 N 
by W of Ailsa Craig and Kirkholm Point at the mouth 
of Loch Ryan. Its outline is that of an irregular ellipse, 
little indented by bays or inlets, and extending length- 
wise from N to S. Its greatest length is 19J miles ; its 
greatest breadth is 10| miles, contracting to 7J at a line 
drawn westward from Brodick Bay ; and its area is about 
165 square miles. Its W side and its N end communi- 
cate with steamers plying between Greenock and Camp- 
beltown ; its E side is regularly visited by steamers from 
Greenock, both by way of Rothesay and by way of Mill- 
port, and by steamers in connection with trains from 
Glasgow at Ardrossan ; and its S end communicates with 
steamers plying between Ayr and Campbeltown. Post 
officesare at Brodick, Lamlash, Whiting Bay (money order, 
telegraph, and savings bank offices), Kilmorie, Shiskine 
(money order offices), Corrie (telegraph office), Black - 
waterfoot, Dipping, Kingscross, Lochranza, and Pirnmill. 
Its principal place of thoroughfare is Brodick, midway 
along^the eastern coast, 14 miles WSW of Ardrossan, 14J 
SW of Millport, and 26 SSW of Rothesay ; and its next 
largest is Lamlash, on the same coast, 5$ miles farther 
S. Its shores and surface are wonderfully picturesque, 
exhibiting landscape in almost every style, from the 
softly gentle to the sublimely terrible. The views of it, 
in all directions, at any distance, either from the Clyde 
itself or from its far extending screens, are very striking ; 
the views within it, both on the seaboard and in the 
interior, are endlessly diversified ; and the views from 
it, specially from its higher central vantage grounds, 
display the richest combinations of land and water, in- 
tricate shore-lines, and grand mountain backgrounds. A 
carriage road round it, a distance of 60 miles, commands 
no mean proportion of all the scenery, while two other 
roads cross the island from shore to shore — one from 
Lagg to Lamlash, the other from Shiskine to Brodick; 
but only wild, almost impracticable, footpaths lead to the 
sublimestviews. Itsgeology,mineralogy,botany, zoology, 
and archaeology, possess the highest attractions, and 
have combined with its gorgeous scenery to draw to it 
annually, since the era of steam navigation, great num- 
bers of summer tourists. Its climate is highly salubrious, 
the longevity of the people being remarkable. All the 
streams but two are free to the angler, but though game 
is abundant it is scrupulously preserved ; there are no 
restrictions, however, on the peregrinations of visitors. 

A fiat belt of land, in form of a terrace, from 10 to 20 
feet above the present tide-level, and from a few yards 
to J mile broad, goes round all the shore ; consists of an 
ancient sea-beach, common to all the banks of the Firth 
of Clyde as far up as Dumbarton ; is bounded, on the 
land side, by sea-worn cliffs, pierced in many parts with 
caves or torn with fissures ; and is traversed, with a few 
intervals, by the road round all the coast. The views 
from this terrace inland are modified, from stage to 
stage, by the structure of the interior ; sometimes are 
blocked by lofty wall-like cliffs ; sometimes are overhung 
by cloud-piercing mountain summits ; sometimes include 
romantic features on the seaward side ; sometimes sweep 
far into stupendous glens ; and sometimes open over 
bays or over considerable expanses of low land. Chief 


seaward cliffs, or other striking seaward features, are 
Holy Isle, in the mouth of Lamlash Bay, rising tier 
above tier to the altitude of 1030 feet ; Clauchlands 
Hills, 2 miles N of Holy Isle, at the point of a penin- 
sular tract eastward of the carriage road, rising 800 feet 
from the shore, and pierced with caves ; the skirts of 
Goatfell, 3J miles N of Brodick, coming precipitously 
down from alpine mural abutments, and terminating 
in romantic cavernous cliffs ; the Fallen Rocks, on the 
sea-face of an isolated mountain ridge, 5 miles NNW 
of the Goatfell cliffs, only approachable by wary walk- 
ing, and looking like an avalanche of shattered blocks 
of rock rushing to the shore ; the Scriden Rocks, near 
the northern extremity of the island, or 3 miles NW 
of the Fallen Rocks, and presenting an appearance simi- 
lar to theirs, but on a grander scale ; and the Struey 
Rocks, at the southern extremity of the island, a short 
way E of Lag, and consisting of a range of basaltic sea 
cliffs, rising to the altitude of 400 feet, deeply cut by 
vertical fissures, and pierced by a curious, long, wide 
cavern, the Black Cave. The chief glens descending 
to the coast are Glen Cloy, Glen Shurig, and Glen Rosie, 
converging to a mountainous semi-amphitheatre, round 
the head of Brodick Bay ; Glen Sannox, opening out 
from behind the alpine buttresses of Goatfell, and pre- 
eminently silent, sombre, stupendous, and impressive ; 
Glen Ranza, commencing in precipices nearly 1000 feet 
high, and descending about 4 miles to the head of Loch 
Ranza, 2 miles SW of the Scriden Rocks ; Glen Catacol, 
coming down from alpine central mountains, with itself 
a romantic pastoral character, to a small bay, 2 miles 
SSW of the mouth of Loch Ranza ; and Glen Iorsa, 
descending 8f miles south-south-westward from grand 
central mountains, joined on its right side by two long 
ravines, and declining toward the coast, 9 miles S of the 
mouth of Glen Catacol. The chief bays are Lamlash 
Bay, measuring 2| miles across the mouth, occupied 
more than one-half there by Holy Isle, and forming one 
of the best harbours of refuge to be found anywhere in 
Great Britain ; Brodick Bay, 2J miles across the mouth, 
having a half-moon outline, and engirt by successively 
a smooth beach, a sweep of plain, and the mountainous 
semi-amphitheatre cloven by Glen Cloy, Glen Shurig, 
and Glen Rosie ; Loch Ranza, at the mouth of Glen 
Ranza, 7 furlongs long and 3f wide, with a pleasant 
verdant peninsula projecting from its SW shore ; Mach- 
rie Bay, southward from the mouth of Glen Iorsa, de- 
scribing the segment of a circle 3J miles along the chord 
and about 1 mile thence to the inmost shore ; Druma- 
doon Bay at the S end of a range of cavernous cliffs. 
about 300 feet high, extending about 2 miles to it from 
the S end of Machrie Bay, and forming itself a segmen- 
tary indentation about 1| mile along the chord ; and 
Whiting Bay, separated on the 1ST from Lamlash Bay only 
by Kingscross Point, and forming a crescent 3 miles 

The northern half of the island is densely mountain- 
ous. Its many summits look, in some views, like a 
forest of peaks ; range in altitude from the Cock of 
Arran, at the northern extremity, 1083 feet high, to the 
top of Goatfell, 3 miles from Brodick Bay, 2S66 feet 
high, and overlooking the three kingdoms ; and are 
interlocked or conjoined with one another at great 
heights, by spurs and cross ridges. But the masses, 
though all interconnected, are easily divisible into the 
three groups of Goatfell, Cir Vohr or Mhor, and Ben 
Varen or Bharrain. The Goatfell group rises so abruptly 
and ruggedly from the E shore as to present a stern ap- 
pearance from the sea ; has a bold ascent from the S> 
yet in such gradients as permit it to be scaled without 
difficulty by two paths leading up from Brodick ; starts 
aloft on both the W and N in mural cliffs and tremen- 
dous acclivities from encircling glens, yet projects high 
spurs toward the adjacent Cir Vohr group on the W, in- 
cluding a col or cross ridge, 1000 feet high ; and spreads 
in its upper part into a kind of triangular tableau, with 
divergencies eastward, southward, and westward. The 
Cir Vohr group extends 7\ miles northward and south- 
ward, at a distance of about 3J miles from the E 



shore ; has a sharp, jagged, irregular summit-line, no- 
where much lower than 1600 feet above sea-level ; 
and lifts at least 3 peaks to altitudes of 2000 feet and 
upwards, these being Castell-Avael, 2735 feet high, 
with Cir Vohr proper (2618 feet) and Ben Tarsuinn 
(2706) to the SE and S. The Ben Varen group is situated 
to the W of Cir Vohr ; extends parallel with it, or about 7 
miles northward and southward ; has greater breadth but 
less height and less sublimity than either the Goatfell or 
the Cir Vohr group, culminating at 2345 feet ; is longi- 
tudinally split by the upper part of Glen Iorsa, so as to 
flank both sides of that glen ; and, as seen from the 
mouth of Glen Catacol, presents an outline like that of 
along house with rounded roof, and shows on its summit 
two great mural reaches of granite blocks meeting each 
other at right angles. The southern half of the island 
consists of a rolling plateau, fronted round the coast with 
declivities, breaks, and cliffs of much romantic beauty, 
but characterised through the interior by tameness and 
bleakness. The plateau has a general elevation of from 
500 to S00 feet above sea-level ; and is traversed by irre- 
gular ridges, generally in a direction nearly E and W, 
and rising to elevations of from 1100 to 1600 feet above 
sea-level. Glens and vales descend to the E, S, and W ; 
have mostly a mountainous or loftily upland character 
round their head ; decline to a comparatively lowland 
character in their progress ; and, in many instances, 
are so interlaced that the upper parts of westward ones 
are nearer the E coast than the upper parts of eastward 
ones, and the upper parts of eastward ones nearer the W 
coast than the upper parts of westward ones. The close 
views throughout the S aggregately are very far inferior 
to those throughout the N, but the more distant views 
there, especially the views thence of the northern 
mountains, are very grand. 

The rocks of Arran, both igneous and sedimentary, 
are exceedingly diversified ; they also, in their relations 
to one another, and in their mutual contacts, present 
very interesting phenomena ; and at once by their 
geological ages, by their inter-connectional character, 
and by their lithological constitution, they are unparal- 
leled by the rocks of any equal extent of territory in 
almost any part of the globe, and form, in a main degree, 
an epitome of the geology of Britain. ' The variety, in- 
deed,' says Dr Bryee, ' is so great, and the interest so 
lively and pleasing, which an examination of the struc- 
ture of the island and its charming scenery excites, that, 
as Professor Phillips has remarked, every geologist who 
visits Arran is tempted to write about it, and finds 
something to add to what has already been put on 
record. For the student there cannot be a finer field. 
The primary azoic rocks, the metamorphic slates, the 
lower palaeozoic strata, the newer erupted rocks, and 
phenomena of glacial action, may all be examined by 
him in easy excursions of a few days ; and the exposi- 
tion of the strata is so complete in the rugged moun- 
tains, deep precipitous glens, and unbroken sea-coast 
sections, that the island may truly be called a grand 
museum arranged for his instruction by the hand of 
nature. ' Granite forms all the northern region to within 
from 1 mile to If mile from the shore, but is of coarse 
grain in the coastward parts, of fine grain in the interior 
parts, and has been the subject of much recent discus- 
sion among geologists as to its age. Metamorphic, 
slates form a belt round all the granitic region, extend- 
ing quite to the shore in all the NW and W, and 
measuring averagely about 1 mile in breadth along the 
S, but separated by other rocks from the shore on the E 
and NE. Devonian rocks form a belt exterior to the 
slate belt, along all the E, SW, and S, from the Fallen 
Rocks on the N to Machrie Bay on the W ; about 1 milo 
wide at Glen Sannox, very much narrower further S 
and onward to the SW, but widening to about 2| miles 
in the extreme W. Carboniferous rocks form a 
narrow belt along the NE coast, from beyond the 
Scriden Rocks to the Fallen Rocks; form again a 
broader belt on the E seaboard, from a point N of Corrie 
down to Brodick Bay; expand there into a belt from 
Z\ to 4J miles broad, southward to Lamlash Bay, and 


.' eastward and westward across the whole width of the 
J island ; are interrupted throughout a considerable 
i aggregate of that broad belt by regions and patches of 
other rocks ; send ramifications from around Lamlash 
Bay southward and south-westward along the E coast 
and along Monamore Glen and Glen Scorsdale ; ramify 
thence again into narrow belts along most of the S coast 
and through four parts of the interior ; and finally form a 
very narrow belt along the N end and W side of Holy 
Isle. Porphyritic rocks form two patches 2 miles SE 
and \\ mile SW of Brodick ; form another patch on the 
W coast at Drumadoon Point ; form another region 
about 2| miles by \\ on the coast immediately SSE of 
Drumadoon Bay ; form also a patch on the S coast at 
the E side of the Struey Rocks ; and finally form the 
greater portion of Holy Isle. Trap rocks, variously 
greenstone, basalt, and of other kinds, form three con- 
siderable isolated patches at the E coast, the E centre, 
and the W central parts of the great Carboniferous belt 
which extends across the island, and form all the region 
between that great belt and the S coast, except the por- 
tions occupied by the Carboniferous ramifications and by 
the porphyritic rocks. Beautiful crystals of amethyst 
are found in quartzose sandstone on the S side of Glen 
Cloy ; smoke quartz crystals are found in coarse-grained 
and rapidly disintegrating granite on the great northern 
mountain ridge ; sulphate of barytes is found and worked 
in Glen Sannox ; and numerous other interesting 
minerals are found in other places. 

The chief streams are the rivulets or torrents rush- 
ing down the great glens in the NE, the N, and the 
NW ; the Iorsa, traversing Glen Iorsa down to the N of 
Machrie Bay ; the Machrie, running about 6 miles 
south-westward to the southern part of Machrie Bay ; 
the Black Water, running about 6 miles west-south- 
westward and southward to Drumadoon Bay ; the Slid- 
dery, running about 6 miles south-south-westward to a 
point 4 J miles SSE of the mouth of the Black Water ; 
the Torrylin, running about 5 miles south-westward 
to a point 2 miles W of the Struey Rocks ; the Ash- 
dale, running 4 miles south-eastward and eastward to 
Whiting Bay ; and the Monamore and the Benlister, 
running respectively about 3| and 3 miles eastward to 
Lamlash Bay. The rarer plants of the island, or those 
which either are nearly peculiar to it or can seldom be 
found in other parts of Scotland than the W coast, 
amount to no fewer than about 320 species ; and the 
marine animals amount to about 283 species. Adders 
exist, contrary to a statement in Farrar's St Paul, three 
having been killed here in the summer of 1880. The 
agricultural statistics are included in those of Bute- 
shire, but only about 8000 acres are arable ; about 613 
acres are under wood ; and a considerable aggregate of 
ground on the NE and the NW coast is under coppice. 
The island is divided, territorially, into the districts of 
Lamlash, Brodick, Lochranza, Shiskine, and Southend ; 
politically, into the parish of Kilmorie in the W, and 
the parish of Kilbride in the E ; ecclesiastically, into 
the old parishes of Kilmorie and Kilbride, and the quoad 
sacra parish of Brodick ; rcgistrationally, into the dis- 
tricts of Kilbride, Brodick, Kilmorie, and Lochranza. 
The chief villages are Brodick, Lamlash, Whiting Bay, 
Lochranza, and Corrie — all of them lying on the coast. 
The chief residences are Brodick Castle, Kilmichael, 
Corriegills, and numerous villas. The whole belongs 
to the Duke of Hamilton, with the exception of the 
estate of Kirkmichael (3632 acres), its owner being lineal 
descendant of Fergus MacLuis of Fullerton, who received 
it from Bruce for services rendered when in hiding. 
Valuation £20,157. Pop. (1881) 4673, (1891) 4824. 

The Monarina of Ptolemy, Arran is associated in 
legendary story with Fingal and his heroes ; and it 
may really have been the scene of unrecorded events 
to which those legends owe their origin. The Norse- 
men are known to the Irish annalists as Fiongall, or 
'white foreigners ;' and early Norsemen not improbably 
made descents on the coasts of Arran ; while later 
Norsemen are certainly known to have held posses- 
sion of its territory. Somerled, ruler of Argyll in the 


12th century, founder of the great family of Macdonakl, 
Lords of the Isles, wrested Arran and Bute from the 
power of Norway, and retained possession of them till 
his defeat and death at Renfrew (1164). A division of 
Arran is thought to have been attempted between his 
sons Reginald and Angus, and is conjectured to have been 
the reason of a deadly feud which aroso between these 
brothers. Arran and Bute, nevertheless, appear to have 
reverted to the dominion of Norway, and to have lain 
more or less under it till 1266, when they were poli- 
tically detached from the Western Isles with which 
they had been associated, and were annexed directly to 
the Scottish Crown. Robert Bruce, after his defeat at 
Methven (1306), and after seeking refuge in successively 
Aberdeenshire, Breadalbane, Argyllshire, and the Irish 
island of Rathlin, in Arran qpce more raised his stan- 
dard. Sir James Douglas, with a band of Brace's de-~ 
voted adherents, had contrived to retain the island, and 
to seize Brodick Castle, which had been garrisoned by 
the English ; and Bruce, coming hither from Rathlin, 
with a fleet of 33 galleys and 300 men, joined Douglas' 
band ; made preparation here for a descent on the main- 
land ; and, at a preconcerted signal fire, lighted near 
Turnberry Castle on the coast of Ayrshire, sailed hence 
to drive the English from Scotland, and to make his way 
securely to the throne. A cave, partly artificial, in the 
range of cliffs between Machine and Drumadoon Bays, 
is said to have been his temporary abode prior to his 
going to Rathlin, and bears the name of the King's 
Cave ; and the promontory between Whiting and Lam- 
lash Bays is said to have been the point whence he set 
sail for Ayrshire, and bears the name of King's Cross. 
Arran was erected into an earldom in favour of Sir 
Thomas Boyd in 1467, on his marriage to the Princess 
Mary, eldest sister of James III., but as to both estates 
in it, and peerage title, it soon passed to the family of 
Hamilton ; and, save for the usurpation of Captain 
James Stewart (1581-85), it has continued to belong to 
the Hamilton family till the present day. The chief 
antiquities in the island are many cairns and megalithic 
standing stones, several imperfect stone circles, a few 
Norse or Danish forts, slight Columban vestiges on Holy 
Isle, the site of St Bride's Convent at Loch Ranza, a 
ruined monastic cell at Balnacula, a ruined chapel at 
Binniegarragan, a ruined castle at Loch Ranza, the 
ancient watch-tower or small fortalice of Kildonan, at 
the south-eastern extremity of the island, and the 
older portions of Brodick Castle. The island is noted 
for its situation as a herring fishery, but this is pursued 
by only a comparatively small portion of the inhabitants, 
chiefly at the north end. The staple industry is agri- 
culture, which is attaining to a high degree of excellence. 
See D. Landsborough, Arran, its Topography, Natural 
History, and Antiquities; Jas. Bryce, The Geology, etc., 
of Arran; Jn. M Arthur, Antiquities of Arran. 

Arran, Cock of, an isolated sandstone hill, on the N 
coast of Arran, in the eastern vicinity of the Scriden 
Rocks, and 2J miles E of the mouth of Loch Ranza. It 
rises direct from the beach to an altitude of 1083 feet ; 
is a noted landmark to mariners ; and used, when seen 
in front from the sea, to have an outline like that of a 
cock, with outspread wings, in the act of crowing, but 
now, having lost its head, has less that appearance than 

Arrienhas. See Arienas. 

Arrochar, a village and a parish of N Dumbartonshire. 
The village stands on the eastern side of the head of salt- 
water Loch Long, with Ben Arthur ('the Cobbler,' 
2891 feet) rising right opposite; it is 1| mile W by S of 
Tarbet on Loch Lomond, 20^ miles E by S of Inverary, 
and 17J N of Helensburgh, with the two first places 
communicating by coach, by steamer with the last. 
The village consists of straggling rows of houses and 
pleasant villas, and has a hotel, the ' Colquhouu Arms.' 
It has a post and telegraph office under Tarbet. 

The parish is bounded N by Killin in Perthshire, E 
by Buchanan in Stirlingshire and by Loch Lomond 
(J to 1 mile in breadth), S by Luss, and W by Row, 
Loch Long, and Lochgoilhead parish in Argyllshire. 


From N to S it has an extreme length of 12J miles ; its 
width from E to W varies between 1 J and 6f miles ; and 
its area is 28,832J acres, of which 58§ are foreshore and 
2915J water. Most of the Perthshire border is traced 
by the Aldernan running oastward, and the Allt-Innse 
westward, to the Falloch, which has a southerly course 
in Arrochar to the head of Loch Lomond of 1J mile. 
From Luss the parish is parted by the Douglas, flowing 
eastward to Loch Lomond, and from Argyllshire for 2 J 
miles by Loin Water, flowing southward to the head of 
Loch Long ; whilst the chief stream of the interior is 
Inveruglas Water, running 1\ miles south-eastward and 
eastward to Loch Lomond out of Loch Sloy, a lonely 
lake that, 9 furlongs long but barely 1 in width, lies 
midway between Ben Vorlich and Ben Vane. Save for 
the isthmus between the village and Tarbet, and for 
narrow strips along the lochs and streams, the surface 
everywhere is grandly mountainous. The principal 
heights are, eastward of the Falloch and Loch Lomond, 
*Parlan Hill (2001 feet), Cnap Mor (536), Cruach (1675), 
*Stob nan Eighrach (2011), and *Beinn a' Choin (2524); 
and westward thereof, from N to S, "Beinn Damhain 
(2242), Stoban Fhithich (1272), Cnap na Criche (1611), 
*Maol Breac (2115), *Maol Meadhonach (1981), Cnoe 
(1614), Ben Vorlich (3092), Little Hills (2602), *Beinn 
Dhubh (2509), *Ben Vane (3004), Dubh Chnoc (945), 
Cruach Tairbeirt (1364), Ben Reoch (2168), *Tullich 
Hill (2075), Bcinn Bhreac (2233), and Stob Gobhlach 
(1413), where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate just on or close to the borders of the parish. 
The rocks consist mainly of mica slate, though including 
some clay slate, amorphous quartz, and trap veins ; of 
arable land there are hardly 400 acres, but woods and 
plantations cover a considerable area along Lochs Lomond 
and Long. From the 13th down to the 18th century, 
this was the country of the ' wild Macfarlane's plaided 
clan,' who took their slogan from their gathering place, 
Loch Sloy. Supporters of the Stewart Earls of Lennox, 
they fought at Glasgow Muir, and Pinkie, and Langside ; 
but one of the last of them, Walter Macfarlane of that 
ilk, the antiquary (d. 1767), is ' no less celebrated among 
historians as the collector of ancient records than were 
his ancestors among the other Highland chiefs for 
prowess in the field ' (Keltie's Scottish Highlands, 1892, 
vol. ii., pp. 173-175). At present by far the largest pro- 
prietor is Sir Jas. Colquhoun of Luss. Lord Jeffrey's 
favourite residence, Stuckgown House, lies on Loch 
Lomond, 1 mile SSE of Tarbet. Other mansions are 
Blarannich, 1J mile NNE of Tarbet, and Benreoch 
House, near the village. The West Highland railway 
runs through the parish, skirting the northern shores of 
Loch Long and Loch Lomond. Disjoined from Luss in 
1658, Arrochar is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the living is worth £249. 
The parish church (rebuilt in 1847) stands just to the S 
of the village, and a Free church J mile W of Tarbet; 
whilst Arrochar public school, with accommodation for 
90 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 36, and 
a grant of £49, 17s. No finer drives are to be found in 
the West Highlands than those in the neighbourhood 
of Arrochar. Valuation, £5291, 14s. Pop. (1801)470, 
(1841) 580, (1851) 562, (1861) 629, (1871) 525, (1881) 
517, (1891) 1457.— Ord. Sur., sh. 36, 1871. 

ArroL See Errol. 

Artendol or Arndilly. See Bohaem. 

Arthurhouse, a farm in Garvock parish, Kincardine- 
shire. About one-fourth of a cairn is on it, some 20 
feet in diameter, recently enclosed within a planted tract 
of fully half an acre. The other three-fourths of the 
cairn were removed about 1830 for conversion into road 
metal, and were then found to conceal a megalithic stone 
circle, and to cover an ancient sarcophagus ; among 
the stones of them, near the outskirts, were found two 
coins of respectively Alexander I. and Robert Bruce, and 
about twenty other coins, seemingly of silver, but so 
greatly corroded as to be undecipherable. 

Arthurlee, an ancient estate, now divided among 
various proprietors, and dotted with mansions, public 
works, and villages, in the immediate vicinity of Barr- 



head, on the NE border of Neilston parish, Renfrewshire. 
The estate belonged to a branch of the Darnley family, 
and continued till the latter part of the 18th century to 
be rural ; but it then and afterwards was cut into sections 
with diversity of names, and became a scat of great manu- 
facturing industry. One of the earliest bleachfields in 
Scotland was established at Cross-Arthurlee about 1773 ; 
a cotton mill was built at Central-Arthurlee in 1790 ; a 
new and very extensive printfield for all kinds of calicoes 
was established at South-Arthurlee in 1S35 ; and other 
works and erections at subsequent dates have brought 
the entire place into connection with Barrhead. The 
Glasgow and Neilston branch of the Caledonian railway 
runs through its western part, and has a station at 
Barrhead. The chief villages are Cross-Arthurlee and 
"West- Arthurlee; mansions, Arthurlee House and Upper 
Arthurlee House. The public school at Cross-Arthurlee 
has accommodation for 529 children, an average attend- 
ance (in 1891) of 398, and a grant of £389, 6s. 

Arthur's Oven or Arthur's O'on, a famous quondam 
Roman antiquity in Larbert parish, Stirlingshire, on a 
sloping bank about 300 feet N of the NW corner of the 
Carron iron-works. It was demolished in 1743, for the 
purpose of linin g a mill-dam across Carron river ; was 
considered up to the time of its destruction to be the 
most complete and best preserved Roman building in 
Great Britain ; was described and discussed in enthusi- 
astic manner by many antiquaries ; was accurately 
depicted in Camden's Britannia, and in several later 
works of high authority ; can still be well understood 
by means of copies of the drawings made of it ; and 
perhaps may continue for many ages as interesting 
to the curious as any great existing monument. The fol- 
lowing account of it is given in R. Stuart's Caledonia 
Romana (1845) : — ' This building was of a circular form, 
its shape in some measure resembling that of a common 
beehive. It measured at the base from 29 to 30 yards in 
circumference, and continued of the same dimensions to 
the height of 8 feet, from which point it converged gra- 
dually inwards in its ascent, till at an elevation of 22 feet 
the walls terminated in a circle, leaving in the top of the 
dome a round opening 12 feet in diameter. On its 
western side was an arched doorway, 9 feet in extreme 
height, and above it an aperture resembling a window 
of a slightly triangular form, 3 feet in height, and 
averaging nearly the same in width. The whole was 
formed of hewn freestone, laid in regular horizontal 
courses, the first of them resting upon a thick massive 
basement of the same material, which, to follow out the 
simile, represented with curious fidelity the common 
circular board on which the cottage hive is usually 
placed. The interior of the structure corresponded 
with its general appearance from without, the only 
difference being in the concavity of the shape, and in its 
having two projecting stone cornices round its interior 
surface, the one at a height of 4 and the other of 6 feet 
from the ground. The style of the workmanship was 
singularly perfect, and showed an intimate acquaintance 
with masonic art. No cement of any description had 
been made use of in its construction, yet the stones were 
so accurately joined together that even the difficult 
process of forming so diminutive a cupola by the con- 
centration of horizontal courses was accomplished there 
in the. most skilful and enduring manner.' 

Arthur's Seat, a picturesque and conspicuous hill in 
the immediate eastern environs of Edinburgh. It cul- 
minates at a point above 1} mile SE of the centre of 
the city ; has an altitude of 822 feet above the level of the 
sea ; descends rollingly, to the N and to the E, over a 
base each way of about 5 furlongs ; presents an abrupt 
shoulder to the S ; and breaks down precipitously to 
the W. A narrow dingle, called tho Hunter'B Bog, 
extends N and S along its western base. Salisbury 
Crags rise in regular gradient from tho wentern side of 
the Hunter's Bog to a height of 574 feet above the 
level of the sea ; break sharply down in a semicircular 
sweep, with hold convexity toward the city ; are crested 
round the brow of the semicircle, to an average depth 
of 60 feet, with naked wall of rugged greenstone 


cliff; and thence descend rapidly to environing low 
ground, with smooth and regular declivity, in form of a 
talus. Both Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags are 
within the Queen's Park ; and the Queen's Drive runs 
3J miles round them, at altitudes of from 112 to 390 
feet. Both command most magnificent views of the city, 
and of a great extent of country, away to distant horizons 
— from Ben Lomond to North Berwick Law, and from the 
Ochils to the Lammermuirs. A fragment of the chapel 
of St Anthony's Hermitage, founded in 1435, is on a pre- 
cipitous knoll at the N base of Arthur's Seat ; and a 
spring, St Anthony's "Well, celebrated in the old plaintive 
song, ' O waly, waly up yon bank,' is at the SW foot of 
the knoll Mushet's Cairn, marking the scene of a 
terrible wife murder in 1720, was in 1822 transferred 
from Hunter's Bog to near the Jock's Lodge entrance, 
•that George IV. might see it without wetting his feet 
Three lochs lie around the hill — to the N, St Margaret's 
(240 x 85 yards) ; to the E, Dunsappie (233 x 67 yards), 
at 360 feet of altitude ; and to the SE, Duddingston 
(580 x 267 yards). The S end of Arthur's Seat, projecting 
with abrupt shoulder from the central mass, terminates at 
the base, partly in what is called the Echoing Rock, an 
isolated rugged eminence giving off good reverberations 
to the S, and partly in what is called Samson's Ribs, 
a lofty cliff exhibiting a range of basaltic columns. The 
outline of the hill, as seen at some little distance 
from the WSW, closely resembles that of a lion 
couchant. The summit is small, tabular, and rocky ; 
was one of the stations of the Trigonometrical Survey ; 
and is so strongly magnetic that the needle, at some 
points of it, is completely reversed. The general mass 
of the hill comprises a diversity of eruptive rocks, to- 
gether with some interposed and uptilted sedimentary 
ones ; and it forms a rich study to geologists, and pre- 
sents phenomena about which the ablest of them disagree 
or are in doubt. The chief rock is trap, which in vast 
tabular masses has broken through the carboniferous 
strata, and frequently encloses portions of hardened sand- 
stone, the whole presenting many interesting geological 
features, volcanic and glacial, which are discussed in C. 
Maclaren's Geology of Fife and five Lothians, J. W. 
Judd's 'Structure and Age of Arthur's Seat' (Journal 
London Geol. Soc., 1875); and Sir A. Geikie's Geology 
of the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. See also pp. 256-258 
of J. Huunewell's Lands of Scott. 

Arthur's Seat, a rock in Dunnichen parish, Forfar- 
shire, on the N side of Dunbarrow hill 

Arthur's Seat, Argyllshire. See Bek Aethur. 

Artney, a rivulet in Comrie parish, Perthshire, tra 
versing the upper part of Glenartney, and becoming 
identified with the river Ruchil 

Artornish, a ruined dark-grey castle in Morvern dis- 
trict, Argyllshire, on a low basaltic headland of the 
Sound of Mull, at tho E side of the entrance of Loch 
Aline, 3J miles WNW of the point of Inninmore. A 
stronghold of the Lords of the Isles, and meeting-place 
of their legislative assemblies, it is said to have Deen 
the scene of negotiations between the fourth Lord and 
Edward I. of England, which issued in a league 
against the crown of Scotland. It now comprises 
little more than the remains of a keep and some 
fragments of outer defences ; but, in the times of its 
integrity, it was a place of great strength and splendour. 
Sir Walter Scott describes it as ' on its frowning steep, 
twixt cloud and ocean hung ; ' ho speaks of its ' turret s 
airy head, slender and steep, and battled round, o'er- 
looking Mull ; ' he mentions its raised portcullis arch, 
' the wicket with its gates of brass, the entrance long 
and low, flanked at each turn by loopholes ; ' he de- 
picts the passage to it, hewn through a rock, ' so straight, 
so high, so stoep, that, with poasant's staff, one valiant 
hand might well the dizzy pass have mann'd 'gainst 
hundreds armed with spear and brand, and plunged 
them in the deep ; ' and he makes the castle the gather- 
ing place of magnates and minstrels, 'from mainland and 
from isle, Ross, Arran, Islay, and Argyll,' to do honour 
to tho nuptials of tho hapless maid of Lorn. 

Ary. See Abay. 


Aacaig, a lake, measuring 6J by 1J furlongs, in Kil- 
donan parish, Sutherland, 3| miles KW of Kildonan 

Ascog, a Tillage, a bay, and a lake in the E of the 
isle of Bute. The village is in Kingarth parish ; com- 
mences on the coast 1J mile SE of Rothesay ; extends 
about 2 miles southward along the shore ; consists of 
a chain of neat houses ; and has a post office with 
telegraph under Tlothesay, a Free church, and a bury- 
ing-ground, with the grave of the painter Montague 
Stanley. Ascog House, Ascog Hall, Ascog Bank, Ascog 
Tower, Ascog Point House, Ascog Lodge, Mid Ascog 
House, Craigmore, Mountfort, and other pleasant resi- 
dences are in the neighbourhood. The bay indents the 
coast 1 J mile S of Bogany Point at the entrance of Rothe- 
say Bay, but is of small extent. The lake, on the mutual 
boundary of Kingarth and Rothesay parishes, is 1 mile 
long, and from 1 to 2 furlongs wide, and is one of the 
two lochs from which Rothesay draws its water supply. 

Ascrib, a cluster of uninhabited islets in Duirinish 
parish, Skye, Inverness-shire, nearly in the centre of 
Loch Snizort. 

Ashare, the northern of the three divisions of Ed- 
drachillis parish, Sutherland. 

Ashdale, a rivulet and a glen in the S of Kilbride 
parish, SE Arran. The rivulet, rising at 1300 feet above 
the sea, runs i miles SE and E to Whiting Bay ; and 
makes two beautiful cascades, 50 and more than 100 feet 
in leap. The glen is grandly picturesque, and presents 
some interesting basaltic features. 

Ashdow, a narrow, winding, picturesque ravine in the 
W of Killearn parish, Stirlingshire, in the course of 
Carnock burn, 3 miles SW of Killearn village. It 
occurs in red sandstone rock, is about 70 feet deep, 
has the closeness and the obscurity of a chasm, and is 
wildly adorned with overhanging woods. 

Ashenyard or Ashgrove, a triangular lake (|x J mile) 
in the extreme N of Stevenston parish, Ayrshire. 

Ashey or Ashie, a lake in Dores parish, Inverness-shire, 
2 miles W of the foot of Loch Ness, and 7£ SSW of In- 
verness. It is about 2 miles long, by J mile broad, sup- 
plies Inverness with water, and contains trout running 
up to 4 lbs. but very shy. 

Ashfield, a hamlet, with a public school, in North 
Knapdale parish, Argyllshire. 

Ashiesteel, a mansion in the N of Yarrow parish, 
Selkirkshire, on the S bank of the Tweed, 5J miles WSW 
of Galashiels. Long a seat of the Russells, of Indian 
military fame, it was tenanted from 1804 to 1812 by their 
kinsman Walter Scott, then Sheriff of Selkirkshire. It 
stands on a beautiful reach of the river, backed by green 
Peel Hill (991 feet), Ashiesteel Hill (1314), and South 
Height (1493); and is a Border tower with five additions 
of different dates. The house in Scott's day possessed 
its present centre and W wing ; the N bedroom was his 
library and dressing-room ; a ground-floor room at the 
end of the W wing was drawing-room ; and what is now 
a passage was both the dining and his writing room, in 
which were composed the Lay of the Last Minstrel, the 
Lady of the Lake, and Marmion, as well as about a 
third of Waverley. The present owner is Miss Russell, 
daughter of General Sir James Russell, K.C.B. (1781- 
1859), and grand-daughter of Col. Wni. Russell (d. 1802). 

Ashintully, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkmichael 
parish, Perthshire, 15 miles NNW of Blairgowrie. 

Ashkirk, a village and parish in Selkirkshire. The 
village stands on the left bank of the Ale, 5J miles 
S of Selkirk station, and 6£ NNW of Hawick, and has 
a post office under the latter town. Previous to 1891 
the village was in Roxburghshire, and the parish partly 
in that county and partly in Selkirkshire. In that 
year, however, the Boundary Commissioners, while 
transferring to the parish of Ashkirk a detached portion 
(1430 acres) of the parish of Selkirk, removed Ashkirk 
parish wholly into the county of Selkirk. 

The parish is bounded on the NW by Selkirk parish, 
on the E by Lilliesleaf, on the SE by Wilton, on the 
S by Roberton, and on the W by Kirkhope. The length 
of the entire parish, from NE to SW, is 8 miles; its 


breadth varies between 5 furlongs and 3| miles; and the 
total area is 15,393 acres, of which 94 J acres are water. 
The river Ale winds for about 6 miles from the south- 
western to the north-eastern border, and here receives 
the Woo, Todrig, and Woll burns ; with it communicate 
the little lochs of Shielswood, Ashkirk, Essenside, and 
Headshaw. The surface is hilly, the principal heights, 
as one descends the Ale, being, on the left hand, Ham- 
mel Side (1022 feet), Whitslade Hill (1134), Leap Hill 
(1047), 3 nameless summits (1030, 1126, and 1178), Broad- 
lee Hill (871), Woll Rig (1113), Headshaw (896), Stob- 
shaw Hill (1051), and Cock Edge (990) ; on the right 
hand, Esdale Law (1167), Cringie Law (1155), Ashkirk 
Hill (967), and Blackcastle (908). The rocks are chiefly 
greywacke and clay slate ; marl is plentiful and of ex- 
cellent quality ; and the soil is in some parts peaty, in 
most parts light and sandy, about 2800 acres being 
under the plough, and some 400 planted. Near the 
manse stood a residence of the archbishops of Glas- 
gow, whose site is still known as ' Palace AValls ; ' of a 
strong baronial fortalice at Salanside hardly a trace 
remains. An ancient camp at Castleside is fairly en- 
tire, and vestiges of others occur at various points. Up 
to the Reformation great part of Ashkirk belonged to the 
see of Glasgow, and later almost all of it was divided 
among the family of Scott. The principal mansions are 
Ashkirk House (the seat of A. Cochrane, Esq. ), Sinton 
House (the seat of John Scott, Esq. ), and Woll House ; 
and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500. This parish 
is in the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale; the minister's income is £313. The church, 
built in 1791, contains 202 sittings ; and there is also a 
Free church with 200 sittings ; whilst a public school, 
with accommodation for 130 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 67, and a grant of £77, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation, £7955 13s. 2d. Pop. (1831) 597, (1861) 578, 
(1871) 550, (1881) 500, (1891) 466.— Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 

Ashley, an estate, with the seat of Col. W. H. Brown, 
in Ratho parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles ESE of Ratho 

Ashton, the south-western part of Gourock village, in 
Innerkip parish, Renfrewshire. Commencing at Kem- 
pock Point, it extends about 1 mile along the shore, its site 
being chiefly a narrow belt of low ground, overhung by 
steep braes. It includes some houses on a line of terrace- 
road across the face of these braes, together with gar- 
dens running down the slopes ; and is mainly an array of 
spacious two-story houses and handsome villas, with a 
neat United Presbyterian church on the low ground, and 
a small Episcopalian chapel on the upper terrace. Bright 
and attractive in appearance, it confronts the exquisite 
scenery on the western screens of the Firth of Clyde, 
from Rosneath peninsula, round by Loch Long, Kilmun 
Hill and Holy Loch, to the long sweep of Kim, Dunoon, 
and Bishop's Seat ; and is a favourite summer retreat and 
bathing-place of the citizens of Glasgow. The part of 
it nearest Kempock, and fully J mile onward, is some- 
times called West Bay; while the part further on is 
more distinctively known as Ashton. 

Askaig, Port, a seaport village on the NE coast of 
Islay, near the middle of the S side of the Sound of Islay, 
opposite Jura, 10 miles NNE of Bowmore. It has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, under Greenock, and a good inn ; it 
communicates regularly with the steamers from the Clyde 
to Islay ; and it forms the best, landing-place for tourists 
who wish to get a good knowledge of the island. Lead 
mines were, at one time, worked a little to the NW. 

Aslisk, a ruined baronial fortalice in the N of Elgin- 
shire, 5 miles E by N of Forres. 

Assel, a rivulet of Girvan parish, Ayrshire, running 
about 5 miles south-westward to the Stinchar, opposite 
Pinmore House, in ColmonelL. 

Assleed, a rivulet of Aberdeenshire, rising in the NE 
of Monquhitter parish, separating that parish from the 
parishes of New Deer and Methlick, and pursuing alto- 
gether a southerly course of about 7 j miles to the Ythan. 



Assynt (Gael, as agus innte, ' out and in '), a hamlet 
and a coast parish of SW Sutherland. The hamlet, 
called also Inchnadamff, stands at the head of Loch 
Assynt, 33J miles WNW of Lairg station, and 13 E of 
Lochinver ; comprises the parish church (huilt about 
1770 ; repaired 1816 ; and seating 270), a Free church, 
an inn, and a post office under Lairg, with money order 
and savings' bank departments ; and holds fairs on the 
Friday of August before Kyle of Sutherland, and the 
Monday of September before Beauly. Lochinver is the 
chief place in the parish, lying at the NE angle of a sea- 
loch of its own name, which is 2J miles long, and from 
3 to 6 furlongs wide. A Glasgow steamer calls at its pier 
weekly; and it has an Established mission church, a post 
office with a daily despatch to and from Lairg, and with 
money oraer, savings' Dank, and telegraph departments, 
and an inn ; whilst Culag House, a former lodge here of 
the Duke of Sutherland, was opened in May 1SS0 as a 
first-class hotel, with accommodation for 60 guests, and 
shooting and fishing over 12,000 acres. Other inns are 
Unapool, at Kylesku Ferry, 10 miles N by W of Inchna- 
daniii" ; and Altnakealgach, on the south-eastern border, 
7i miles S by E. 

The parish is bounded W and N by the Minch, NE 
by the great sea-loch Kylesku and its south-eastern 
branch Glencoul, E by Eddrachillis, Creich, and Ross- 
shire, and S by the western portion of Cromarty, from 
which it is separated by Lochs Vetatie and Fewn, and 
by the river Kiukaig, the link and outlet of those long, 
narrow lakes. It is 18 miles long from Unapool to the 
Cromalt Hills, and 164; wide from Coinne-mheall to Rhu- 
kirkaig ; its area is 119,6774 acres. From Kylesku Ferry 
westward to the Point of Stoir is a distance of 10 miles, 
and thence south -south-eastward to Loch Kirkaig of 11^ 
more ; but both distances would be trebled or quadrupled, 
were one to follow the infinite windings of the high, rock- 
bound coast — the bays or lochs of Ardvar, Nedd, Clais- 
messie, Culkein, Ballcladich, Stoir, Clachtoll, Roe, Inver, 
and Kirkaig. Along it are scattered some 30 uninh abited 
islands and islets, the largest being Ellen-na-ghawn in 
Kylesku, Ellen-riri, Olda-N'Y, and Crona on the northern, 
Soyea and Clette on the south-western, coast. Inland, 
' rough moor and heather-tufted rock alternate with lochs, 
which lie under some if the wildest and most imposing 
mountains of Scotland.' To the S of Loch Assynt rise 
the sharp summits of Canisp (2779 feet) and Suilven 
(2399), the 'sugar-loaf' this of sailors. Glasven (2541 
feet) and Quinag (2653) extend their precipices along its 
northern shore. And ESE, just over the border of Creich 
parish, Ben'Moke Assynt, theloftiest mountain of Suther- 
land, culminates at 3273 feet, whilst sending into Assynt 
awestern shoulder, Coinne-mheall, 3234 feet high. These 
are the oldest mountains in the British Isles, for, while 
Benmore is made up of Silurian quartzite and trap, the 
others consist of Cambrian conglomerate and sandstone, 
Quinag being capped with Silurian quartzose. A strip 
of the Laurentian system on the coast is overlaid by 
Silurian beds a3 one advances inland, and the two result 
in a bare bleak country, treeles9, almost devoid of bushes, 
and intersected by a streak of limestone, which runs up 
into a stupendous ridge, 1J mile long, and over 200 feet 
high, at Stronechrubie, to the left of the road between 
Inehnadamll and Loch Awe. To this limestone belongs 
the bright white marble, formerly quarried in Glen 
Assynt, where Dr Macculloch came upon marble cot- 
tages. Excepting a few spots, chiefly consisting of moss, 
none of the surface is fit for cultivation ; the climate is 
moist to an extreme, the annual rainfall being some 60 
inches ; but for the naturalist and the fisherman Assynt 
ii indeed a happy hunting-ground. Golden eagles still 
build upon Quinag, though not as in 1846, when one 
keeper shot 16 in three weeks ; like peregrine falcons, 
they are now preserved. Ospreys and badgers are re- 
cently extinct ; but to-day's fauna includes wild-cats, 
martens, blue hares, herons, all kinds of game, and sea- 
fowl in abundance ; the flora, alpine and bog plants, as 
well as a few rare ferns. Of freshwater lochs there is a 
perfect net-work, particularly in the N\V. Their tradi- 
tional number is 300, and the Duke of Sutherland's 


i-inch map (1853) shows 225, of which by far the largest 
is Loch Assynt, occupying the centre of the parish. 
Curving from ESE to AYNW, it is 6f miles long, and 
from 3 to 6 furlongs wide, at several points is more than 
100 fathoms deep, and with its birch-claa southern shore, 
its baylets, ruins, and amphitheatre of overhanging hills, 
presents a picture singularly lovely. It abounds with 
the common and the great lako trout, and, in the season, 
with sea-trout and grilse ; its outlet is the Inver river ; 
and at its head it receives the Loanan from Loch Awb, 
and from Benmore the half-subterranean Traligill. Near 
the source of the latter is Loch Mulack-Corrie, supposed 
(but wrongly) to contain the true gillaroo trout ; and 
other noticeable lakes are, in the SE, Bokrolan, Ueigill, 
and Camaloch ; in the NW, Beanoch (2 miles long, by 
1 to 3 furlongs wide), isleted Crokach (l 1 mile, by j to 
3 furlongs), Clashmore and Culfralchie, all yielding 
capital sport, as also do innumerable burns. Assynt has 
one most memorable association — the capture in it of the 
great Marquis of Montrose. After the rout of Inver- 
charron he and the Earl of Kinnoull escaped into Assynt ; 
and here, after two days' wandering, 'the Earl,' says 
Gordon's contemporary History of Sutherland, ' being 
faint for lack of meat, and not able to travel any farther, 
was left among the mountains, where it was supposed 
he perished. James Graham had almost perished, but 
that he fortuned in this misery to light upon a small 
cottage in that wilderness, where he was supplied with 
some milk and bread. . . . The Laird of Assynt, 
Neil Macleod, was not negligent, but sent parties every- 
where ; and some of them met James Graham, accom- 
panied with one Major Sinclair, an Orkneyman, appre- 
hend them, and bring them to Ardvreck, the laird's 
chief residence. James Graham made great offers to the 
Laird of Assynt, if he would go with him to Orkney, 
all which he refused, and did write to the Lieutenant- 
General. James Graham was two nights in Skibo, and 
from thence he was conveyed to Braan, and so to Edin- 
burgh' — there to be hanged, 21 May 1650. The beauti- 
ful ruins of Ardvreck Castle (built about 1591) stand at 
the end of a long rocky peninsula, on the NE shore, and 
1J mile from the head, of Loch Assynt ; a little higher 
up is the shell of Calda House, a mansion erected about 
1660 by Kenneth Mackenzie, third Earl of Seaforth, and 
destroyed by fire towards the middle of last century. 
The forfeited Seaforth lands were purchased in 1758 by 
the Earl of Sutherland, whose descendant, the present 
duke, owns the entire parish. Sheep-farming is the 
staple industry, and lobster-fishing is also carried on. 

The north-western part of Assynt forms the quoad 
sacra parish of Sxoee ; the remainder is a parish in the 
presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and 
Caithness, and its minister's income is £228. Under 
a school-board for the whole civil parish there are 7 
public schools — at Achmelvich (in W), Assynt, Culkein 
(NW), Drumbaig (N), Elphine (SE), Lochinver, and 
Stoer. These had in 1891 a total accommodation for 
464 children, an average attendance of 300, and grants 
amounting to £454, 18s. Id. A coach runs to and from 
Lairg and Lochinver on week days. Pop. mostly Gaelic- 
speaking, of ecclesiastical parish (1891) 1270; of civil 
parish (1861) 3178, (1871) 3006, (1881) 2778, (1891) 
2551. See Origines Parochiales, ii. 2, 692; and pp. 
89-119 of A. Young's Angler's and Slcclelier's Guide to 
Sutherland.— Ord. Sur., sh. 107, 1881. 

Aflta, a village and a lake in Shetland, 1 mile from its 
post-village, Scalloway. 

Athelstaneford, a village and a parish of N central 
Haddingtonshire. The village is 3 milos NNE of Had- 
dington, and has a post office under Duem, another post 
office hamlet in this parish, 2J miles to the NNW, 
with money order, savings bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, and the junction of the North Berwick branch of 
the North British railway. The name Athelstaneford 
is supposed to commemorate a victory of Hungus or 
Angus mac Fergus, King of the Picts (731-761), and. 
founder of St Andrews, over one Athelstane, ' dux ' on 
commander of Eadben, King of Northumbria (Skene, 
Celt. Scot., I 299). 


The parish is bounded N by Dirleton and North Ber- 
wick, NE, E, and SE by Preston kirk, and S and W by 
Haddington. Its greatest length from E to W is 4J 
miles ; its greatest breadth is only 2 J miles ; and its area 
is 5080J acres, of which 3J are water, and 16J were de- 
tached, which the Boundary Commissioners transferred 
to the parish of Prestonkirk. The surface rises in the 
W to over 400 feet above sea-level; consists mainly of 
a broad-based ridge, extending E and W between the 
two Peffer Burns: and, excepting some 40 acres of 
hill pasturage and about 210 under wood, is all arable. 
The rocks are chiefly different kinds of trap, overlying, 
or thought to overlie, the coal measures. The former 
have been quarried, and some beautiful specimens of 
rock crystal found ; but various searches for coal have 
had little or no success. The parish, till 1658, com- 
prised not more than 1000 acres, and all belonged to the 
Earl of Wintoun, whose seat of Garlton is now a com- 
plete ruin ; but then it was enlarged by annexations 
from Prestonkirk and Haddington. At present 7 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, 1 between £50 
and £100 ; but the only large mansion is Gilmerton 
House, which, with about one-third of the entire parish, 
belongs to Sir Alexander Kinloch (b. 1830, s. 1879), tenth 
holder of a baronetcy created in 1686. Illustrious natives 
were Thomas Gwilliam, provincial of the Dominicans 
of Scotland, and ' the first man from whome Mr Knox 
receaved anie taste of the truthe ; ' Sir John Hepburn 
(1598-1636), field-marshal of France in the Thirty Years 
"War; and Robert Blair of Avontoun (1741-1811), Lord 
President of the Court of Session. The last was son of 
the author of the Grave, who was minister of Athel- 
staneford from 1731 to 1746, and whose successor, John 
Home (1746-57), here wrote his tragedy of Douglas. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£325, with glebe. There are some remains of the church 
that Ada, Countess of Northumberland, built about 1178, 
and granted to her Cistercian nunnery of Haddington. 
A new parish church of 1780 gave place in 1868 to the 
present building (500 sittings ; cost, over £1500). A 
public school, with accommodation for 164 children, had 
(1891) an average attendance of 98, and a grant of £83, 
2s. lOd. Valuation (1892) £9357, Is. Pop. (1831) 931, 
(1861)902,(1881)762,(1891)745.— Oral. Sur. ,sh. 33, 1863. 

Athole, a mountainous district in the N of Perthshire. 
It is bounded on the N by Badenoch in Inverness-shire, 
on the NE by Mar in Aberdeenshire, on the E by For- 
farshire, on the S by Stormont and Breadalbane in Perth- 
shire, on the W and NW by Lochaber in Inverness-shire. 
Its area has been computed at 450 square miles. Its 
surface is highly picturesque, presenting lofty moun- 
tains, deep glens, solemn forests, extensive lakes, grand 
waterfalls, impetuous rivers, and all other striking fea- 
tures of Highland scenery. A central portion of it, 
around Blair Castle, and forming the most populous 
and cultivated portion of Blair Athole, is open fertile 
vale, traversed by the river Garry, and generally pre- 
senting only low rounded eminences ; but most of the 
rest is alpine, and ascends to the lofty watershed of the 
Central Grampians. The chief mountains in it are Ben- 
vracMe, Benvuroch, Benglo, Ben Dearg, Ben-a-Chual- 
laich, Coire-Cragach, Sron-na-Eagaig, and Benvolach ; 
and several of these, as well as others on the boundaries, 
rise to altitudes of more than 3000 feet. Chief glens 
are Glen Garry, Glen Erichdie, and Glen Tummel 
through the centre ; Glen Edendon, Glen Bruar, and 
Glen Tilt in the north ; and Glen Breraehan, Glen Fear- 
nach, and Glen Shee in the west. The principal rivers 
traverse these glens, and bear their names ; and all are, 
directly or indirectly, tributaries of the Tay. The chief 
lakes are Erichd on the north-western boundary, Garry 
in the NW, Rannoch in the W, and Tummel in the 
S centre. The chief waterfalls are on the Bruar and the 
Tummel. — Athole Forest is a part of the district pre- 
served for deer and other game ; comprises upwards of 
100,000 acres ; is famed above every other forest for its 
hunting attractions and its magnificent scenery ; pos- 


sessed, in former times, great immunities and privileges ; 
belongs now to the Duke of Athole ; is stocked with 
about 7000 red deer, and with numerous roe-deer ; 
abounds with red and black game, plovers, partridges, 
and ptarmigans ; has also multitudes of foxes, wild-cats, 
polecats, martens, weasels, and alpine hares ; is fre- 
quented, in some parts, by the jay, the woodpecker, the 
kestrel, and the eagle ; and possesses a rich variety of 
rare indigenous plants. — Athole gives the titles of Earl, 
Marquis, and Duke, in the peerage of Scotland, to a 
branch of the family of Murray. The earldom was 
grafted on a prior earldom of Tullibardine, and created 
in 1629 ; the marquisate was created in 1676 ; and the 
dukedom was given to the second marquis in 1703. The 
seat of the family is Blair Castle. —Athole is celebrated 
in song, claims special excellence for its performers on 
the bagpipe, and was once noted for a compound of 
whisky, honey, and eggs, called Athole brose. 

Athole and Breadalbane, a poor-law combination in 
the N of Perthshire, comprehending the parishes of 
Blair Athole, Caputh, Dowally, Dull, Little Dunkeld, 
Fortingall, Kenmore, Eillin, Logierait, Moulin, and 
Weem. Its poorhouse near its post-town, Ballinluig, 
has accommodation for 70 inmates. 

Auchaber, an estate, with a mansion, in Forgue parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 11J miles E by N of Huntly. 

Auchairn. See Acharn and Achern. 

Auchairne, an estate, with a mansion, in Ballantrae 
parish, SW Ayrshire, 2 miles E by S of Ballantrae village. 

Auchallader. See Achallader. 

Auchanault, a place in the S of Ross-shire, on the 
Dingwall and Skye railway, 21J miles W of Dingwall. 
It has a station on the railway, an inn, and a post office. 

Auchans, an estate, with a mansion, in Dundonald 
parish, Ayrshire. The estate belonged, for a number of 
ages, to the Wallaces of Dundonald ; went, about 1640, 
to Sir William Cochrane, afterwards Earl of Dundonald ; 
and passed, subsequently, to the Earls of Eglinton. It 
has considerable plantations ; and it retains part of an 
ancient orchard, whence a famous pear, originally got 
from France, but known as the Auchans pear, was dis- 
persed through much of Scotland. The mansion stands 
near the ruins of Dundonald Castle and near Dundonald 
village, 4 miles SSE of Irvine ; is situated on a gentle 
eminence, on a grand curvature of a beautiful sylvan 
bank nearly 1 mile long, and generally more than 100 
feet high ; bears upon its walls the date 1644, but ap- 
pears to have been constructed of materials taken from 
Dundonald Castle ; and is a curious edifice, with consi- 
derable variety of outline ana very picturesque features. 
'Thus,' says Billings, 'the square balustraded tower is in 
direct opposition to the cone-covered staircase, which 
breaks the monotony of the main wall-face of the man- 
sion in its centre. But the picturesque is more particu- 
larly evinced in the arrangement of the crow-stepped 
gables, and especially of the one surmounting the round 
tower to the right. The flank wall of this gable con- 
tinues the line of the house, instead of being corbelled 
upon the tower, which is finished by being simply sloped 
off to the wall, leaving as a questionable feature what 
has evidently been a change from the original design. ' 
At Auchans, in 1773, Dr Johnson and Boswell ' spent a 
day well' in visiting Susannah, Dowager-Countess of 
Eglinton, the witty beauty to whom Allan Ramsay had 
dedicated his Gentle Shepherd (1725), and who died here 
in 1780 in her ninety-first year. 

Auchenairo, a village in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 
3 furlongs SSE of Bishopbriggs station, and 3 miles 
NNE of Glasgow. It consists of two parts, old and new ; 
is said to have been visited by the plague in 1666 ; and 
has an endowed school and a public school. The 
former is supported by bequests of the Rev. James 
Warden in 1745 and the Rev. Dr Leechman in 1764, 
and was rebuilt in 1826 ; the latter, with accommoda- 
tion for 300 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 183, and a grant of £193, 9s. lOd. Pop. (1861) 744, 
(1871) 823, (1881) 634, (1891) 683. 

Auchenbathie, a barony in the SE of Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire, contiguous to Ayrshire, 3$ miles 



ESE of Loehwinnoeh town. It belonged to the Wal- 
laces of Elderslie ; it is mentioned by Blind Harry as 
one of the places which Malcolm Wallace, the father of 
Sir William Wallace, ' had in heritage ; ' and it has re- 
mains of a small ancient castle, called Auchenbathie 
Tower. Another Auchenbathie is in the neighbourhood, 
and, as having belonged to another family than the 
Wallaces, is called Auchenbathie Blair. 

Auchenbeatty, a burn in Closeburn and Kirkinahoe 
parishes, Dumfriesshire, running 6 miles south-eastward 
to the Nith near Kirkmahoe village. 
Auchenblae. See Atjchinblae. 
Auchenbowie, a hamlet, an estate, and a burn in 
Stirlingshire. The hamlet and the estate are in St 
Ninians parish, If mile SSW of Bannockburn ; and the 
mansion on the estate stands in the southern vicinity of 
the hamlet. Productive collieries are on the estate, and 
may be regarded as in the same coalfield with the col- 
lieries of Greenyards, Plean, and Bannockburn. The 
burn rises on the skirts of Drumrnarnock Hill, flows 3 
miles eastward thence to the vicinity of the hamlet, 
turns there to the S, and proceeds 3 miles southward to 
the Carron in the vicinity of Denny. 

Auchencairn, a village and a quoad sacra parish in the 
civil parish of Berwick, Kirkcudbrightshire. The vil- 
lage is pleasantly situated at the NW angle of a bay of 
its own name, about 10 miles E of Kirkcudbright, 8 
SSE of Castle-Douglas, and 7£ SSW of Dalbeattie, with 
which last station it communicates twice a week by 
coach. With good sea-bathing, it is a rising little place, 
containing an Established church (1856), a Free church, 
two hotels, gas-works, a post office under Castle-Douglas, 
with money order, savings bank, and telegraph depart* 
ments, public library and reading room, and a school 
which in 1891 had an average attendance of 137 children, 
and a grant of £141, 15s. 6d. Just to the S, on ground 
that rises from the shore, stands Auchencairn House 
(J. G. Mackie, Esq.), a good red freestone mansion, 
with tasteful grounds and a fine collection of modern 
British paintings ; and to the S again of this is Auchen- 
cairn Moss. The parish is in the presbytery of Kirk- 
cudbright and synod of Galloway ; its minister's stipend 
is £120. Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1881) 1037, 
(1891) 806. 

Auchencairn Bay runs 2J miles north-westward from 
the Solway Firth (or 2f, reckoning its right hand pro- 
longation, Orchabdton Bay), and has an average breadth 
of 1J mile. Its entrance is guarded by Almorness Point, 
100 feet high, on the right ; on the left by Balcary 
Point (200 feet) ; and half- way across it lies the green 
isle of Hestan (3 furlongs long, 1J wide, and 100 feet 
high), giving its waters a land-locked, lake-like appear- 
ance. At low tide the bay presents an unbroken bed of 
smooth sand, so dry and firm that horse-races have been 
run upon it. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Auchencloich, a hamlet in Sorn parish, Ayrshire, 
2 miles NE of Mauchline. It has a post office under 
Kilmarnock, and a public school. 
Auchencrow. See Auohinokaw. 
Auchencruive, an estate, with a mansion and a 
station, in St Quivox parish, Ayrshire, on the river 
Ayr, and on the Ayr and Mauchline railway, 3J miles 
ENE of Ayr. The mansion is a splendid edifice — 
the seat of Rich. Alex. Oswald, Esq. , owner in Ayrshire 
of 10,001 acres, and in Kirkcudbrightshire of 21,160 
acres, valued respectively at £17,826 (£3530 minerals) 
and £16,185 per annum. 

Auchendavy or Auchendowie, a hamlot in Kirkin- 
tilloch parish, Dumbartonshire, 2 miles ENE of Kirkin- 
tilloch town. One of the forts of Antoninus' Wall 
stood here, but was obliterated partly by the forming 
of the Forth and Clyde Canal, partly by subsequent 
operations. A pit 9 feet deep, situated immediately 
beyond the SW angle of the fort, was accidentally dis- 
covered at the forming of the canal, and found to con- 
tain four Roman altars, part of another altar, a muti- 
lated stone figure, and two ponderous iron hammers. 
' Three of the altars,' says the Caledonia Rnmana, ' had 
heen broken through the middle, and all were lying 


huddled together, as if they had been hastily thrown in, 
and then covered with earth to conceal them from view, 
telling, as they lay, a silent but expressive tale of the 
sudden order of retreat, the precipitate muster of the 
garrison, the hurried dismantling of the station, and of 
the retiring footsteps of the legionary cohorts, as they 
defiled upon a southern route ; while, perhaps, the 
shouts of the advancing Britons were already heard in 
the distance, startling the wild boar in the woods beyond 
Inchtarf, and the waterfowl among the sedges of the 
Kelvin. ' 

Auchendenny. See Auchindinny. 

Auchendolly, an estate in Crossmichael parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. It has a ffialybeate spring. 

Auchendrane, an extinct ancient castle and a modern 
mansion in the W of Ayrshire, on the river Doon, 4 
miles S of Ayr. The castle was centre of the events 
which formed the subject of Sir Walter Scott's drama, 
the Ayrshire Tragedy ; and is still traceable in its 
foundations. The mansion was originally called Blair- 
stone House ; belonged to the Muir family ; passed by 
marriage, in 1793, to David Cathnsrt, Lord Alloway ; 
and in 1868 was purchased by the late Sir Peter Coats. 
A picturesque edifice in the old castellated style, it 
was enlarged (1880-81) by the addition of a conserva- 
tory, aviary, new wing, tower, etc. 

Auchendryone, a village in Crathie parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the W side of the Clunie, opposite Castleton 
of Braemar. It is often regarded as part of Castleton ; 
and, in the old times, it was the scene of great gather- 
ings for hunting deer in Braemar forest. 

Auchengeith, a hill in the N of Kirkmahoe parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It projects southward from the Queens- 
berryrange, and has an altitude of 984 feetabove sea-level. 

Auchengelloeh, an eminence, 1514 feet above sea-level, 
in the south-eastern uplands of Avondale parish, W 
Lanarkshire, 5f miles S of Strathaven. A frequent 
meeting-place of the Covenanters for religious worship 
in the times of the persecution, it is quite inaccessible to 
cavalry, and seems never to have been approached by 
the mounted troopers ; and it has now a small stone 
monument, erected about 1830, in memory of the meet- 
ings held at it. 

Auchengool, an estate, with a mansion, in Rerwick 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 4 miles ESE of Kirkcud- 
bright. It belonged to John Ramsay M'Culloch (17S9- 
1864), the distinguished political economist and statist. 

Auchengray, a hamlet of Carnwath parish, Lanark- 
shire, with a station on the Caledonian, which is 5| 
miles NNE of Carstairs, and 21| SW of Edinburgh, has 
a telegraph and post office, and is the junction for 
Wilsontown. The hamlet, % mile NNE, has an Esta- 
blished mission church, and a public school, with ac- 
commodation for 132 children, an average attendance 
(1891) of 53, and a grant of £64, 8s. 6d.; near it are 
brickworks, quarries, and a coal pit. 

Auchenharvie, a ruined castle in Stewarton parish, 
Ayrshire, the seat once of a branch of the Cunninghams, 
4 miles WSW of Stewarton town. 

Auchenheath, a collier village in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire, 2£ miles N of Abbeygreen. Standing on 
the right bank of the Nethan, it has a station on the 
Lesmahagow branch of the Caledonian, a post office, and 
a public school, with accommodation for 165 children, 
an average attendance (1891) of 144, and a grant 
amounting to £133, 12s. Two coal-pits at work here 
belong to the Carboniferous Limestone series, and 
furnish fine cannel coal, employed in the Glasgow and 
other gas-works. Pop. (1861) 716, (1871) 763, (1881) 
612, (1891) 735. 

Auchenleck, a hill in the NW of Closeburn parish, 
Dumfriesshire, 3J miles NE of Thornhill. It overhangs 
Cample Water, and rises 1431 feet above sea-level. 

Auchenlooh, a village in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 
•1 mile SSE of Licnziu Junction, thonce 6J miles NE of 
Glasgow. It has a public school, with accommodation 
for f45 children, an average attendance (1891) of 92, 
and a grant of £88, 10s. ; near it is the Glasgow Con- 
valescent Home, instituted in 1864. 


Auchenreoch. See Achenreoch. 
Auchenroath, a hamlet and a mansion in the parish 
of Rothes, Elginshire, If mile WNW of the town of 

Auchensaugh or Auchenshauch, a broad-based hill 
in Douglas parish, Lanarkshire, 2J miles SSE of Douglas 
town. Its cairn-crowned top, 12S6 feet above sea-level, 
was the meeting-place of the Cameronians (27 July 
1712), who, entering on the 'Auchenshauch Declaration 
and Engagement,' renewed therein the Covenants, while 
protesting against all schism and sinful separation from 
the Church of Scotland (themselves, to wit), and solemnly 
binding themselves to extirpate Prelacy, and all rites, 
ceremonies, heresies, and false doctrines. The ' Auch- 
enshauch Wark ' is memorable as the organising of the 
first Secession — the Reformed Presbyterian Church. See 
vol. viii., pp. 237-242, of Hill Burton's History of Scot- 
land ; and. The Church of Scotland, Past and Present. 

Auchenskeigh, a romantic sylvan dell in Dairy parish, 
Ayrshire, 2 miles from Dairy town. Limestone rocks 
here are rich in fossils ; and a cavern, 183 feet long and 
from 5 to 12 broad and high, penetrates a precipitous 
limestone crag, and is so panelled and ceiled with cal- 
careous incrustations as to present the appearance of 
Gothic fretwork. 

Auchenskeoch, an estate with a ruined castle, which 
passed from the Crichtons to the M'Kenzies, in Colvend 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 5J miles ESE of Dalbeattie. 
Auchentibber. See Blantyre. 
Auchentorlie, an estate, with a mansion, in Old 
Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. The mansion stands 
amid wooded grounds in the north-western vicinity of 
Bowling Bay. The estate includes a portion of the 
Kilpatrick hills, and contains there vestiges of a Cale- 
donian hill-fort. 

Auchentoshan, a mansion amid wooded grounds in 
Old Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire, in the western 
vicinity of Duntocher. Several vestiges of Antoninus' 
Wall are within the grounds. 
Auchentroig. See Attchintroig. 
Aucherachan. See Acherachan. 
Auchernach. See Achernach. 
Auehinairn. See Axjchenairn. 
Auchinarrow. See Achinarrow. 
Auchinbee. See Achixbee. 

Auchinblae, a market town in Fordoun parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, on a gentle rising ground, adjacent to the 
rivulet Luther, amid the beautiful scenery of Stratk- 
finella, 2| miles NNW of Fordoun station, and 5£ NNE 
of Laurencekirk. It has a park of 75 acres; contains 
many substantial houses, and a flax-spinning mill ; 
presents a clean thriving appearance ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, under Fordoun, 2 hotels, branches of the 
North of Scotland and Aberdeen Town and County 
banks, a National Security savings' bank, a town-hall, 
and a mutual improvement society. Hand-loom linen 
weaving is extinct ; cattle markets are held on the third 
Thursday of April, the "Wednesday after the second 
Tuesday of May, old style, and the first Thursday of 
July ; a cattle fair, called Paldy Fair, is held on the 
first Wednesday of July ; a horse fair is held on the 
Friday after the first Tuesday of July, old style ; and 
hiring markets are held on the 26 May, or Old Whit- 
sunday, and on the 22 November, or Old Martinmas. 
Pop. (1861) 570, (1871) 496, (1881) 411, (1891) 430. 

Auchincarroch, an estate, with a mansion, in Bon- 
hill parish, Dumbartonshire, 2 miles NE of Alexan- 
Auchincass. See Achincass. 

Auchinchew, a romantic vale in the S of Arran, Bute- 
shire, descending 2 miles southward to the Sound of 
Pladda, 7 mile3 S of Lamlash. It begins at the base of 
Cnoc na Garbad (959 feet), a hill commanding an exten- 
sive view, and supposed to have been a watch-post of the 
Dalriadans, and it expands into a rocky amphitheatre, 
walled with lofty mural cliffs, ribbed with ravines, and 
Streaked with leaping rills. Essiemore waterfall is 
the chief one of the cascades ; makes a sheer leap of 


about 100 feet ; is sometime overarched by a brilliant 
rainbow ; and serves, to a distance of some miles, as a 
landmark to mariners. 

Auchincloch, a hamlet in Kilsyth parish, Stirling- 
shire, 3J miles ENE of Kilsyth town. Numerous 
human bones have been exhumed in fields adjacent to 
the hamlet, and are believed to be those of men who 
fell in the battle of Kilsyth, fought in 1645. 

Aucliincloich, a ruined ancient castle in Ochiltree 
parish, Ayrshire. 

Auchincraw, a village in Coldingham parish, Berwick- 
shire, 2 miles WSW of Reston station, and 3 NNW of 
Chirnside. It has a post office under Reston, and a pub- 
lic school ; and it was notable, in old times, for reputed 
pranks of witchcraft. The school, with accommodation 
for 104 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 
48, and a grant of £50, lis. 6d. 

Auchindarroch, a mansion in Knapdale, Argyllshire. 
It is separated from Lochgilphead by the Crinan Canal, 
but most of that town is built on its estate. It is the 
seat of Alex. Campbell, Esq., owner of 7017 acres, valued 
at £1600 per annum. 

Auchindinny, a village and an estate near the mutual 
boundary between Lasswade and Glencorse parishes, 
Edinburghshire. The village stands in a hollow, on 
Glencross Burn, near its influx to the North Esk river, 
J mile E of Greenlaw Barracks, and 1\ miles NNE of Peni- 
cuick. Auchindinny House, J mileS of the village, was 
the residence of Henry Mackenzie (1745-1831), author of 
The Man of Feeling, and at it died Archibald Fletcher 
(1745-1828), the ' father of burgh reform.' 

Auchindoir and Kearn, a united parish of W Aber- 
deenshire, containing the village of Lumsden, 9% miles 
WNW of Alford, and 8 miles SSW of Gartly station, 
with which it communicates daily by the Strathdon 
coach. Founded some sixty years ago by Mr Leith 
Lumsden of Clova, it has a money order, telegraph, and 
savings bank post office under Aberdeen, a branch of the 
North of Scotland Bank, an inn, a Free Church (1843), 
and a U.P. church (1803 ; 203 sittings). Fairs are held 
here on the first Monday of January, February, March, 
April, and December, and on the first Tuesday of May, 
the first Friday of June, and the fourth Tuesday oi 
August. Pop. (1840) 243, (1871) 507, (1891) 501. _ 

Kearn is much smaller than Auchindoir, of which it 
forms a south-eastern adjunct, and to which it was 
annexed in 1811, having from 1722 to 1808 been united 
to Forbes. The present parish is bounded N by Rhynie- 
Essie, E by Clatt and Tullynessle-Forbes, S by Kil- 
drummy, and W by Cabrach. Very irregular in out- 
line, it "has an extreme length from N to S of 6 J miles, 
a width from E to W of from 3 J to 5 J miles, and a land 
area of 15,310 acres. The southern boundary is traced 
for If mile by the river Don, and further westward 
by its affluent, the Mossat ; whilst the Bogie has 
here a north-north-eastward course of about 4 miles, 
chiefly along the Rhynie border, being formed near the 
parish church by the burns of Corchinan, Glenny, and 
Craig, which, rising in mossy ground, have a strong 
antiseptic quality. The Craig flows eastward through 
a romantic glen, the Den of Craig, makes several beauti- 
ful falls, and in the floods of 1S29 rose 18 feet above its 
ordinary level. The surface is everywhere hilly, emi- 
nences in the half of the parish to the E of the highroad 
from Huntly to Alford being Badingair Hill (1556 feet 
above sea-level), Brux Hill (1558), Edinbanchory Hill 
(1531), and Lord Arthur's Cairn (1699), all of them 
belonging to the Correen Hills. In the western half 
rise the White Hill of Bogs (1341 feet), the Hill of 
Tombhreach (1409), and the Hill of John's Cairn (1745) ; 
but one and all are overtopped by the pyramidal, cairn- 
crowned Buck of Cabrach (2368 feet), which culminates 
upon the western border, at the extremity of a narrow 
strip of Auchindoir, projecting into the parish of Cabrach. 
White sandstone prevailing over a wide tract from N to 
S, and in places of very fine quality, has been extensively 
worked for building purposes ; and mica slate abounds 
in large masses on the Correen Hills, and has been 
quarried for paving flags. Greenstone, limestone, ser- 



pentine, clay slate, talc, soapstone, ami asbestos in small 
quantity, are also found. In the W are large stretches 
of peat-moss, and the hills are mostly covered with poor 
moorish soil ; but the lower grounds present a sharp, 
dry, productive mould, or, above the sandstone, a rich 
alluvial loam. Except in the hills, the parish is well 
cultivated ; excellent crops of barley and oats are grown, 
and many cattle and sheep are reared. Plantations 
cover a large area, but are mostly young, consisting of 
larch, Scotch fir, spruce, and birch, with older forest trees 
along the Don, and some goodly planes in the Druminnor 
policies. A little hill above the present church was in 
the 15th century surmounted by a castle, the Castrum 
Aucfiindorios of Boece ; andacrosstheCraigaretheivy-clad 
ruins of the ancient church, a rare example of the transi- 
tion from Romanesque to First Pointed, retaining an 
aumbry for reservation of the Eucharist, a holy-water 
stoup, a sculptured crucifix, and the date 1557 on the N 
gable. Other antiquities are three ' Picts' houses,' traces 
of a vitrified fort on the green conical hill of Cnoc- 
alliochie, and numerous cairns, of which Lord Arthur's 
possibly gave name to Kearn ; while the popular etymo- 
logy of Auchindoir (Gael. ' field of the chase ') alludes 
to the one historical episode with which this parish is asso- 
ciated — the flight through it of Lulach, Maebeth's suc- 
cessor, to Essie, where he was slain, 17 March 1058. 
Craig Castle, 1 mile W by N of the church, crowns the 
left bank of Craig Burn, amid the ' horrible rocks and 
precipices, the caves and dens,' described in Johnston's 
Parerga (Aberdeen, 1632). Its oldest portion is a huge 
square keep, 60 feet high, which, bearing date 1528, is 
probably of earlier erection, additions having been 
made to it in 1667, 1726, and 1832, these latest 
the most considerable. For nearly three centuries 
it has been the seat of a branch of the Gordons, 
whose present representative owns 3333 acres in 
the shire, of an annual value of £1339. Druminnor 
House (the original Castle Forbes, 1456) is another fine 
old mansion in the Baronial style, and dates in its 
present state from 1577, six years before which time, 
according to tradition, it was the scene of the murder 
at a banquet of several Gordons by the Forbeses. It 
stands in a well-timbered park on the left bank of the 
Burn of Kearn, an affluent of the Bogie that traces the 
upper half of the eastern boundary ; and it is now the 
seat of Robert Grant, owner of 4197 acres of £2902 
value. The House of Clova, lj mile W of Lumsden, 
with a Roman Catholic church (1880) in its grounds, 
is the seat of Hugh Gordon Lumsden, owner of 15,499 
acres of £6687 value ; and 1 other proprietor holds a 
rental of £500 upwards, 1 of between £100 and £500, 
while 7 hold each from £20 to £50. Auchindoir is 
in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen. 
The church (1811 ; 450 sittings) stands 2 miles N by E 
of Lumsden ; its minister's income is £178. Also within 
the parish, but close to the Rhynie boundary, are the 
Episcopal church of St Mary (1859 ; 80 sittings), an 
Early English edifice, and the Free church of Rhynie. 
Two public schools, Craig and Lumsden, with respective 
accommodation for 48 and 200 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 28 and 155, and grants of £39, 10s. 
and £148, 6s. 6d. Valuation (1891) £6405, 9s. Id. 
Pop. (1821) 889, (1841) 1188, (1861) 1593, (1SS1) 1514, 
(1891) 1374.— Od. Swr., sh. 76, 1874. 

Auchindoun, a ruined castle on the left side of Glen 
FiDDicn, in Mortlach parish, Banffshiro, 2J miles SE 
of Dufftown. Massive and three-storied, it crowns a 
steep limestone rock, at least 200 feet high, which is 
washed on three sides by the Fiddich, and on the fourth 
is guarded by a moat ; within it contains a noble Gothic 
hall, its vaulted roof upborne on fluted pillars. Supposed 
to date from the 11th century, it is said to have been 
rebuilt by the 'mason' Cochrane, James III.'s minion, 
who was hanged over Lauder Bridge in 1482 ; and to 
liave passed from the Ogilvies to the Gordons about 
1535. Sir Adam Gordon of Auchindoun, sixth son of 
the fourth Earl of Huntly, defeated the Forbeses at the 
Craibstane in 1571, and afterwards burned the castle of 
Towib ; his brother and successor, Sir Patrick, was one 


of the signers of the 'Spanish blanks' in 1592, and 
was slain at Glenlivet, 4 Oct. 1594. The ballad that 
tells how Auchindoun was burned by Willie Macintosh, 
about 1544 or 1670 (both dates have been given, with 
tragical and circumstantial details), seems not to rest on 
any firmer basis than does that of ' Fair Helen of Auch- 
intoul ; ' we only know that somewhere about 200 years 
have passed since last the castle was inhabited. Queen 
Mary rode by it in 1562 ; and in 1867 Queen Victoria 
picnicked on the opposite bank with the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon, owner of all the old barony of Auch- 
indoun. See chap. iii. of James Brown's Round Table 

Auchindrain, a hamlet in Inverary parish, Argyllshire, 
6 miles SSW of Inverary. 

Auchingill, a village in Cannisbay parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 10 miles N of Wick. 

Auchingramont, a suburb of Hamilton, in Lanark- 
shire. It has a United Presbyterian church. 

Auchingray, an estate, with a mansion, in New 
Monkland parish, Lanarkshire, adjacent to Linlithgow- 
shire and to Hillend reservoir, 7 miles ENE of Airdrie. 

Auchingree, a hamlet in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. A 
factory for turnery work is here, and two Roman urns 
were found in the neighbourhood. 

Auchinhew. See Atjohinchew. 

Auchinhove, an estate in Lumphanan parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It belonged to the Duguids from about the 
year 1434 ; it was forfeited by the representative in 1745, 
in result of his joining the Pretender's forces ; and the 
mansion on it was burned by a party of the Duke of 
Cumberland's soldiers. 

Auchinleck (often pronounced Affleck=Gael. achadli- 
nan-lcac, ' field of the flat flagstone '), a village and a 
parish of Kyle, E Ayrshire. The villagers a station on 
the Glasgow and South-Western, the junction for Muir- 
kirk, and by rail is 15£ miles E of Ayr, 13| SSE of Kilmar- 
nock, 44J NW of Dumfries, and 47J S by W of Glasgow. 
It contains the parish church (built 1838, and seating 
800), a United Original Secession church, a Roman 
Catholic chapel, several inns, a post office, with money 
order, telegraph, and savings bank departments, and 
a public school, which, with accommodation for 312 
children, had (1891) an average attendance of 240 day 
and 52 evening scholars, and grants of £221 and 
£26, 10s. A fair for grit ewes and hoggs is held here 
on the last Thursday in March, and an important lamb 
fair on the last Tuesday in August. Pop. (1861) 1053, 
(1871) 1199, (1881) 1528, (1891) 1489. 

The parish contains, too, — likewise, in its western 
half, — the villages and stations of Lugar and Cronberry, 
and the hamlet of Darnconnar. It is bounded N by 
Mauchline, Sorn, and Muirkirk ; NE by Muirkirk and 
Lanarkshire ; SE by Dumfriesshire and New Cumnock ; 
S by Old Cumnock ; and W by Ochiltree. From E to 
W., viz., from Threeshire Stone to the confluence of 
Dippol Burn and Lugar Water, it is 15| miles long ; its 
breadth from N to S varies between J mile and 5 miles ; 
and its area is 24,295 acres, of which 165f are water. 
Guelt and Glenmore Waters, head-streams of the 
' winding Lt/oar,' trace with the latter all the southern 
and the western boundary ; that to the extreme N, 
from Dalfram to just above South Limmerhaugh, a dis- 
tance of 2A miles, is marked by the river Ayr, which is 
joined by tho Lugar, 1 J mile beyond tho NW extremity 
of Auchinleck. By these and by tho Lugar's tribu- 
taries, Gass Water and Auchinleck Burn, the drainage 
everywhere is carried westward ; and westward the 
surface everywhere declines, elevations from E to W being 
Stony Hill (1843 feet), Auchitench (1527), West Foro- 
dibban (1489), Black Hill (1404), Wardlaw Hill (1630), 
Whitoyards (1235), Glenmuir (1025), Airdsmoss (753), 
and Darnlaw (489). Nearly two-thirds of the surface 
are occupied by cold, bloak uplands, fit only for the 
pasturage of sheep, and by Aikdsmoss, the broad, 
wild swamp, so sadly famous in Cameronian story ; 
thence onward, some 4 miles to the western border, low 
grounds present a fertilo fairly- wooded aspect, level and 
somewhat tamo. But if outwardly poor for the most 


part, the soil has its hidden treasures, ironstone, ume- 
stone, and coal ; a lease of which upon the Auchinleck 
estate, obtained about 1848 by the owners of the Clyde 
Iron-works, has passed to the Eglinton Company. Their 
Lugar iron-works have several furnaces in blast, and 
one ironstone mine (Cronberry) and two collieries 
(Ballochmyle and Gilmilnscroft) are at work within 
the parish. The lands of Auchinleck were granted in 
1504 by James IV. to Thomas Boswell, a cadet of the 
Balmuto line, who had married a daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir John Auchinleck of that ilk. Among his 
descendants were Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck 
(d. 1782), a judge of the Court of Session; his son, 
James Boswell (1740-95), 'the first of biographers;' 
and his son, Sir Alexander Boswell, Bart. (1775-1822), 
remembered by his black-letter library, his Auchinleck 
printing-press, and his death in a duel. Auchinleck 
House (still the property of the Boswell family, and 
transferred in 1891 by the Boundary Commissioners from 
the parish of Ochiltree to the parish of Stair) stands 
Si miles WFW of the village, is a good Grecian edifice 
built by Lord Auchinleck shortly before his death, and 
therefore is not the house where Johnson stayed in 1773. 
Near it are the remains of the baronial fortalice, figured 
by Grose, and thus referred to by the lexicographer : — 
'I was less delighted with the elegance of the modern 
mansion than with the sullen dignity of the old castle. 
I clambered among the ruins, which afford striking 
images of ancient life. It is, like other castles, built 
upon a point of rock, and was, I believe, anciently sur- 
rounded with a moat.' Another ruin is Kyle Castle, 
7 miles ESE of the village, at the confluence of the 
Glenmore and Guelt. Natives are William M 'Gavin 
(1773-1832), author of The Protestant, and the Rev. 
A. K. H. Boyd, 'The Country Parson' (b. 1825); Peden, 
the Prophet of the Covenant, was laid in the kirkyard 
(1686), whence, forty days after, his body was lifted by 
dragoons, to be reinterred beneath the Old Cumnock 
gallows. Lady Boswell's trustees hold almost two- 
thirds of the valued rental, the rest being divided among 
the Marquis of Bute and other proprietors. Held in 
1265 by the Abbey of Paisley, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; its 
minister's income is £162. There are also established 
churches at Lugar and Darnconnar; whilst under the 
school-board are five schools — the one at the village, 
and at Glenmuir, Cronberry, Darnconnar, Lugar Iron 
Works, and a Roman Catholic school. These, with a 
total accommodation for 1538 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 1087, and grants amounting to 
£968, 13s. 6d. Valuation of lands £24,797, 19s. 3d.; 
of railways, £6832. Pop. (1831) 1662, (1861) 4213, 
(1871) 6174, (1881) 6681, (1891) 6202.— Ord. Sur., shs. 
14, 15, 1863-64. 

Auchinloeh. See Auchenlooh. 

Auchinmully, or Lower Banton, a village in Kilsyth 
parish, Stirlingshire, 1\ miles ENE of Kilsyth. It is 
inhabited chiefly by miners, colliers, and sickle-makers. 
The church of Banton stands about J mile to the S. 

Auchinraith. See Blantyre. 

AuchinsMch. See Auohbnskeioh. 

Auchintibber. See Blantyre. 

Auchintibber, ahamletinKilwinningparish, Ayrshire, 
4| miles NE of Kilwinning ^village. A public school at 
it, with accommodation for 110 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 55, and a grant of £54, 2s. 6d. 

Auchintoul, an estate, with a mansion, in Marnoch 
parish, Banffshire. The estate comprises upwards of 
3400 acres, contains the village of Aberchirder, and 
belonged to General Gordon, who rose to high command 
in the Russian army under Peter the Great, wrote a 
memoir of that monarch in two volumes, took part in 
the Jacobite insurrection in 1715, and commanded the 
Highland clans at Sheriffmuir. The mansion occupies 
a commanding site within \ mile SW of Aberchirdor ; 
was partly built by General Gordon, and much im- 
proved within the present century ; and is a plain large 
edifice, forming three sides of a square. It belongs now 
to the Duke of Fife. 


Auchintroig, a hamlet, with a public school, in 
Drymen parish, W Stirlingshire, \\ mile WSW of Buck- 
lyvie station. 

Auchiries, a village in Cruden parish, E Aberdeenshire, 
9% miles NE of Ellon. At it are Cruden post office and 
a public school. 

Auchlane, a hamlet and a burn in Kelton parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. The hamlet lies on the burn, 3J 
miles SW by S of Castle-Douglas. The burn rises on 
Bengairn, and runs about 4£ miles northward, north- 
westward, and westward to the Dee, 1J mile below 
Bridge of Dee. 

Auchleeks. See Blair Athole. 

Auchlee, an estate in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. Two well-preserved Caledonian stone cir- 
cles are on it ; and one or them consists of a double row 
of stones, and had in its centre a stone coffin. 

Auchleven, a village in Premnay parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the river Gady, 9J miles WNW of Inverurie. 
It has a post office under Insch, a two-arched bridge 
built in 1836, and a carding and spinning woollen 

Auchlishie. See Achlishie. 

Auchlochan, a hamlet in Lesmahagow parish, Lanark- 
shire, on the river Nethan, 1 J mile S of Abbeygreen. 

Auchlossan, a quondam lake in Aboyne and Luni- 
phanan parishes, Aberdeenshire, adjacent to the Deeside 
Extension railway, 25 miles W by S of Aberdeen. It 
was partially drained near the close of the 17th century ; 
it afterwards covered about 180 acres with open water, 
and about 60 with aquatic marsh ; it abounded with 
various kinds of fish, including pike of unusual size and 
weight ; it also was frequented by flocks of waterfowl, 
so plentifully as to be one of the best spots for duck- 
shooting in the N of Scotland ; but, at the same time, 
it was a nuisance to the surrounding country, exhaling 
so much noxious gas from decaying vegetation as to 
injure the salubrity of the climate. The Marquis of 
Huntly, Farquharson of Finzean, and Shaw of Auchin- 
hove were proprietors of the lands around it; and in 1859 
they jointly formed a plan to have it drained by a tenant 
under an advantageous lease of the loch itself, and of 
180 contiguous acres of arable land. A tenant was not 
found till 1860, when Mr James W. Barclay got pos- 
session and commenced operations ; and he proceeded 
with such success as to have upwards of 20 acres of the 
lake's bottom under an excellent crop of oats in 1863, 
and all the rest of the bottom under luxuriant crops of 
grain in 1868. The draining was done, partly by deep 
cutting, partly by tunnelling, partly by other operations, 
and cost upwards of £6000 ; but it proved abundantly 
compensating, and serves as a fine model for bold, 
sweeping, agricultural improvements. A black alluvial 
subsoil, becoming almost white on exposure to the 
atmosphere, was found to lie near the surface over all 
the bottom ; and under the treatment which Mr Barclay 
gave it, proved to possess similar fertility to that of the 
virgin soils of the American prairies. Both the bulk 
of straw and the yield of grain in the crops raised upon it 
have been extraordinary. The straw of the year 1868 
was sold for more than £500 ; and the grain weighed 
from 40 lb. to 44 lb. per busheL 

Auchlunkart. See Bohakm. 

Auehmacoy, an estate, with an elegant turreted man- 
sion, built about 1835, in Logie-Buchan parish, E Aber- 
deenshire, near the left bank of the Ythan, 2J miles E 
by N of Ellon. The estate has belonged since 1318 to 
the Buchans of Auehmacoy, one of whom, General 
Buchan, was defeated at the Haughs of Cromdale 
(1690) ; its present owner is Miss Louisa Buchan (sue. 

Auchmannoch, an estate, with a mansion, in Sorn 
parish, Ayrshire, 5 miles NE of Mauchline. Auch- 
mannoch Muir (964 feet) extends from behind the man- 
sion 2 miles north-eastward into mergence with Barr 
Muir in Galston parish. 

Auchmedden. See Aberdouk, Aberdeenshire. 

Auchmill.or Auchmull, a village in Newhills parish, 
SE Aberdeenshire, 3 miles NW of Aberdeen. It has a 



post office, with money order, savings bank, and tele- 
graph departments, extensive paper mills, three inns, 
and the Newhills Free church. Pop. (1891) 2448. 

Auehmillan, a village in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire, 
2 miles NE of Mauchline town. 

Auchmithie, a fishing village in St. Vigeans parish, 
Forfarshire, on a rocky Dank rising about 150 feet from 
the beach, 3^ miles NNE of Arbroath. It holds of the 
Earl of Northesk, is irregularly built, but contains 
several good houses, and has a sort of harbour at the 
foot of an opening in the rocky bank, a post office under 
Arbroath, a hotel, a public hall, and a quoad sacra 
parish church (1885; minister's salary, £120). Water 
and drainage works were formed in 18S0. Auchmithie 
is the 'Musselcrag' of Scott's A ntiquary. A new fishery 
harbour has been erected, but in storms the fishermen 
have still to haul their boats inward from the beach, to 
prevent their destruction by the violence of the waves. 
Pop. (1871) 412, (1881) 359, (1891) 353. 

Auchmore. See Achmore. 

AuchmuU. See Auchmill. 

Auchmure, a tract, including Auchmure Braes, Auch- 
mure Bridge, East Auchmure, "West Auchmure, and 
South Auchmure, at the eastern verge of Kinross-shire, 
on or near the river Leven, 2} miles W by S of Leslie. 

Auchmuty, a village conjoint with Balbirnie Mills 
in Markinch parish, Fife, on the river Leven, 1} mile 
W of Markinch town. Pop. , with Balbirnie Mills (1871) 
403, (1881) 447, (1S91) 419. 

Auchnacarry. See Achnacarry. 

Auchnacraig. See Achnacraig. 

Auchnacree, an estate, with a mansion, in Fearn parish, 

Auchnagatt, a hamlet in Old Deer parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the Aberdeen and Fraserburgh railway, 7J 
miles NNW of Ellon. It has a post office with tele- 
graph department under Ellon, and a railway station. 

Auchnahow, a small strath in the W side of Kildonan 
parish, Sutherland, descending to Helmsdale Water. 

Auchnatnara, a burn in North Knapdale parish, 

Auchnasheen, a hamlet of SW Ross-shire on the 
Dingwall and Skye railway, 27| miles WSW of Ding- 
wall. It has a post office with telegraph department at 
railway station. 

Auchnashellach, a station, with a post office, in the 
SW of Ross-shire, on the Dingwall and Skye railway, 
in Strathcarron, 12 miles NE of Strome Ferry. 

Auchness, a burn in Dallas parish, Elginshire, run- 
ning to the Lossie. 

Auchrannie. See Achrakkie. 

Auchriddie, a hamlet in the N of Aberdeenshire. Its 
post-town is New Deer under Aberdeen. 

Auchry, an estate, with an old mansion (Jn. F. Lums- 
den, Esq.), in Monquhitter parish, Aberdeenshire, 5 J 
miles ENE of Turriff. 

Auchter, a rivulet in the NE centre of Lanarkshire. 
It rises near Bontyhillock in Carluke parish ; runs some 
distance along the boundary between Carluke and Cam- 
busnethan ; and pursues a serpentine course through the 
centre of Cambusnethan to the South Calder at Bridgend. 

Auchterarder (Gael, uachdar-ard-lhir, 'upper high 
land'), a town (formed into a burgh in 1892) and a 
parish in Strathearn, SE Perthshire. The town is seated 
on the brow of a low hill, 3J furlongs from the left bank 
of Ruth ven Water, which is spanned by a bridge (rebuilt 
in 1880) that leads to a station on the Scottish Central 
section of the Caledonian, this station being 1 mile SE 
of Auchterarder, 13$ miles SW of Perth, 19} NE of 
Stirling, 49} NE of Glasgow, and 56 NW of Edinburgh. 
A castle, small but very strong, remains of which stand 
} mile NW of the parish church, is said to have been 
built as a hunting-seat by Malcolm Ceannmor (1058-93), 
who is further believed to have given to the town the 
western commonage of 228 acres ; but the earliest cer- 
tain mention of Auchterarder occurs in the charter granted 
to Inchaffra Y by its founder, Gilbert, Earl of Strathearn 
(1200), wherein he endowed that Austin canonry with 
the church of St Mackessock of Auchterarder. On the 


same abbey in 1227 Alexander II. conferred the teinds 
of his rents of Auchterarder, which, as the head burgh of 
Strathearn — perhaps a royal burgh — had a common seal, 
and returned a member to parliament. It figures in 
two ordinances of Edward I. of England ; and Robert 
Bruce in 1328 bestowed its lands on one of his great 
barons, but confirmed the liberties of the burgh and its 
burgesses as they had been in the reign of Alexander III. 
We know not when or how those liberties were lost, 
but in 15S1 an Act described ' Vchtirardour ' as 'pure 
and oppressit be brokin men and lymmeris,' whilst 
ordaining that a yearly fair for the encouragement 
of trade be held there, in all time coming, on the 
25 Nov. (old style). According to the New Statis- 
tical, Auchterarder was one of the Scottish towns 
ironically compared by George Buchanan with the fine 
English cities. Some English nobleman vaunting the 
latter to King James, the Scot replied that he knew a 
town in Scotland with 50 drawbridges ; the explanation 
being that at ' a country village between Stirling and 
Perth, called Auchterardoch, there is a large strand 
running through the middle of the town, and almost at 
every door there is a long stock or stone laid over this 
strand, whereupon they pass to their opposite neigh- 
bours, and when a flood comes they lift their wooden 
bridges in case they should be taken away, and these they 
call drawbridges.' On 28 Jan. 1716, when the royalist 
troops under the Duke of Argyll were advancing upon 
Perth, the Earl of Mar burned the whole of Auchterarder 
except one house ; and on the 30th, when Argyll arrived, 
he could find no accommodation, but spent the night 
upon the snow, ' without any other covering than the line 
canopy of heaven.' Newte, who visited this place in 
1782, says that it ' seems to have lain under the curse 
of God ever since it was burnt. The dark heath of the 
moors of Orchill and Tullibardine, a Gothic castle be- 
longing to the Duke of Athole, — the naked summits of 
the distant Grampians — and the frequent visitations of 
the presbytery, who are eternally recommending fast- 
days, and destroying the peace of society by prying into 
little slips of life, together with the desolation of the 
place, render Auchterarder a melancholy scene, where- 
ever you turn your eyes, except towards Perth and the 
lower Strathearn, of which it has a partial prospect.' 
Fifty years later it rose to fame by becoming the scene 
of the first, and not the least, of those struggles in the 
Established Church that ended in the Disruption, thus : — 
' The Evangelical party in the Church had always held 
it as a principle that the Church could not, without 
sin, act under any system of patronage that was subver- 
sive of the congregational call ; and that party, having 
now become the majority, passed in 1S34 the Veto Act, 
according to which no minister was to be intruded on a 
parish contrary to the will of the people. In the 
autumn of the same year Mr Young was presented by 
the patron to Auchterarder. But as a majority of the 
parishioners were opposed to his settlement, the non- 
intrusion party declared the presentation to be null and 
void. Thereon both patron and presentee appealed to 
the Court of Session, which decreed (1837) that the 
presbytery proceed to ordain Mr Young. The Court 
disclaimed any desire or any right to interfere with the 
Church, or to review or interfere with the decisions of 
her courts, when acting within her own recognised con- 
stitution : only it claimed, as representing the law, a 
third party, neither Church nor State, the right to decide 
first, the lar/al point, that, in terms of the compact 
between the Church and the State, the former had no 
right to alter the constitution on whose basis she was 
established, and therefore that passing the Veto Act 
was ultra vires of the Church ; and, secondly, the civil 
case between parties within the Church, in whicji one 
party complained of being injuriously affected by the 
illegal proceedings of another. As soon as this decision 
was given, the non-intrusion party declared that the 
Church of Scotland was the creature of the State, or 
was Erastian in constitution, inasmuch as she recognised 
the right of the State to interfere, and of the civil 
courts to judge, in matters falling within her proper 


sphere and jurisdiction. And the same party declared 
in the General Assembly of 1838 (being a majority) 
that the supremacy and sole headship of the Lord Jesus 
Christ they would assert, and at all hazards defend. 
When the judgment had been confirmed on appeal by 
the House of Lords, May 1839, the General Assembly 
by a large majority passed a resolution pledging the 
Church implicitly to obey the civil courts in all matters 
of civil interest, but firmly refusing their control in 
things spiritual. ... A second case arose out of 
the patron and the presentee raising an action for 
damages against the presbytery, which the Court of 
Session decided they were entitled to. In the first case 
it had been decided by the Supreme Civil Court, simply 
that the presbytery had acted illegally in setting the 
presentee aside by the Veto Act ; and from the injurious 
effects of this new interpretation (as the non-intrusion 
party considered it) of the law of patronage, the Church 
might have been protected by a legislative change in 
that law. When the negotiations for relief in that way 
failed, the party desiring it passed in the Assembly of 
1842 their " Claim, Declaration, and Protest." . . . 
Matters were supposed to be made worse than ever by the 
decision of the House of Lords, confirming on appeal 
that of the Court of Session in the second Auchterarder 
case ' (article ' Free Church ' in Globe Uncyclopcedia. 
See also Church of Scotland, Past and Present). 

Chiefly consisting of one main street, extending north- 
eastward for over a mile along the great highroad from 
Stirling to Perth, Auchterarder wears a modern and pros- 
perous aspect. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Union Bank, 
gas-works, several hotels, Auchterarder and Smeaton 
libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, Co-opera- 
tive Society, Moray Institute, a Freemasons' lodge, and 
1 mile SSW a new combination poorhouse for Auchter- 
arder and 15 neighbouring parishes. The principal 
public buildings are the town-hall and the Aytoun 
public hall. The former stands near the middle of the 
town, and, founded in 1872, cost £1600, and has ac- 
commodation for 600 persons. The latter was erected 
(1870-72) as a memorial to the late Captain Aytoun of 
Glendevon, who introduced the town's water supply in 
1832, and cost, with its fountain, more than £2000. 
The burgh owns about 200 acres of arable land, which 
was unsuccessfully bored for coal in 1873, yielding in- 
stead a splendid flow of excellent water, known as the 
Coalbore Springs, which have run ever since. It is 
governed by a provost, two bailies, and six commission- 
ers, under the Burgh Police Act of 1892. Places of 
worship are the parish church (1784-1811), the Free 
church(1843-45)withatower80feethigh, 2 U.P. churches, 
and a Roman Catholic chapel (1879). A sheriff small 
debt court sits on the last Monday of January, April, 
July, and October, and has jurisdiction over the parishes 
of Auchterarder, Dunning, Glendevon, Blackford, and 
Trinity Gask; Saturday is market-day; and cattle fairs 
are held on the first Wednesday of February, May, 
and December, the last Wednesday of March, and the 
Wednesday before October Falkirk Tryst, the greatest 
being the December fair. The manufacture of tartan 
and galas is a thriving industry; and there are several 
woollen mills, dyeworks, a brewery, a malt kiln, flour 
mills, and a saw mill. Pop. (1891) 2524. 

The parish contains also the villages of Aberuthven, 
2| miles NE of the town, and Boreland Park, £ mile W 
by S; and it comprises the ancient parish of Aberuthven, 
annexed some time before the Revolution. Bounded 
NW and N by Trinity Gask, E by Dunning, S by Glen- 
devon, and W by Blackford, it has an extreme length 
from N to S of 6f miles, a width from E to W of from 
2J to 3£ miles, and an area of 11,227J acres, of which 
46f are water, and 12J being separated by a detached 
portion of Dunning parish, were transferred to that parish 
by the Boundary Commissioners in 1891. The Earn 
traces the northern boundary, and from it the surface 
rises southward to the green, pastoral Oohils, attaining 
67 feet at the NE angle of the parish, 200 near Coul, 500 


just to the SE of the town, 400 by the poorhouse, 1250 
in Craig Rossie and Beld Hill, 1000 near Upper Cloan, 
1096 in Black Mallet, 1306 in Muckle Law, 1559 in Corb 
Law, 1582 in Sim's Hill, 1594 in Steele's Knowe, and 
1552 in Carlownie Hill, these 4 last culminating on the 
south-eastern or the southern border. Ruthven Water, 
rising in the SE of Blackford parish on the western slope 
of the Seat (1408 feet), flows first north-north-westward 
through Glen Eagles to Tullibardine Castle, thence north- 
north-eastward past Kincardine Castle, and so on through 
Auchterarder parish to its confluence with the Earn, 1J 
mile N of Aberuthven, after a course of some 9^ miles. 
At 3 furlongs SW of Auchterarder station, or just beyond 
the confines of the parish, its narrow dell is spanned by 
a splendid eight-arched railway viaduct, 498 feet long 
and 98 high; and, 14 mile NNE of this, its principal 
affluent, the Pairney Burn, winding 5f miles north-north- 
westward from Corb Law, and itself receiving the Coul 
Burn (2 miles long) from Sim's Hill, is crossed by another 
viaduct of 2 successive arches, the upper one carrying the 
railway over, and the lower the Dunning road. Trap 
rocks form the main mass of the hills, and intersect the 
low country with dykes ; while sandstone of various 
kinds, some of them quarried for building purposes, 
abounds through the centre and the N, where limestone 
also is found. Coal has been sought without success ; 
but agate, chalcedony, jasper, and other precious minerals 
are fairly plentiful among the skirts of the hills. The 
soil is various — clayey loam in the N, sandy in the E, 
and a rich black loam near the town ; nearly one-half of 
the entire area is pasture or waste, and plantations cover 
some 300 acres. On the summit and western slope of 
Beld Hill are traces of ancient encampments, outposts 
probably of the Roman station at Ardoch ; and other an- 
tiquities are the ruins of Malcolm's castle, of Abertjthven 
church, and of the old parish church of Auchterarder, 
which, standing | mile N of the town, was dedicated to 
St Mungo or Kentigern, and was either of Norman or 
First Pointed origin. Auchterarder House in Elizabethan, 
and Colearn in Scottish Baronial style, are both of modern 
erection ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 14 of between £100 and £500, 13 of 
from £50 to £100, and 54 of from £20 to £50. Auchter- 
arder is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of Perth 
and Stirling ; its minister's income is £250. Under 
the school-board there are the 3 public schools of Auch- 
terarder (an Elizabethan structure, erected in 1875 at a 
cost of £2000), Townhead, and Aberuthven, and a charity 
school (now closed), founded by John Sheddan, Esq., of 
Lochie, in 1811, to furnish free education to 12 poor 
children, and endowed with land of £1000 value. With 
respective accommodation for 296, 100, and 153 children, 
these had (1891) an average attendance of 175, 149, and 
61, and grants of £141, 2s., £143, 14s. 6d., and £40, 17s. 
Valuation (1891-92) £17,735, 16s. Pop. (1755) 1194, 
(1801) 2042, (1831) 3182, (1S61) 4208, (1871) 3795, (1881) 
3648, (1891) 3494.— Ord. Sur., shs. 39, 47, 1869. 

The presbytery of Auchterarder comprehends Ardoch, 
Auchterarder, Blackford, Comrie, Crieff, Crieff West 
church {quoad sacra), Dunning, Foulis-Wester, Gask, 
Glendevon, Madderty, Monzie, Monzievaird and Strowan, 
Muthill, Trinity Gask, and St Fillans. Pop. (1891) 
18,567, of whom 4686 were communicants of the Church 
of Scotland in that year, the sums raised by the above 
16 congregations amounting to £2657. The Free Church, 
too, has a presbytery of Auchterarder, whose churches 
at Aberuthven, Auchterarder, Blackford, Braco, Comrie, 
Crieff, Dunning, Madderty, Monzie, and Muthill had 
2544 communicants in 1891. 

Auchterderran, a hamlet and a parish of SW Fife. The 
hamlet stands § mile N by W of Cardenden station, 
and 2J NE of Lochqelly, a town with a head post office 
and another station, lying within the western border of 
this parish. The latter is bounded N by Kinross-shire 
and Kinglassie, E by Kinglassie and Dysart, SE by 
Kirkcaldy and Abbotshall, S by Auchtertool, SW by 
Beath, and W by Ballingray. With a very irregular 
outline, rudely resembling a cross, it has a length from 
E to W of from 2J to 6& miles, a width from N to S of 



from 3 furlongs to 4| miles, and an area of 79CSJ acres, 
of which loOj are water. Some 60 acres of the parish 
of Ballingry, near Spittal, that were surrounded by 
Auchterderran parish, were transferred to the latter 
by the Boundary Co mmis sioners in 1891. Loch Gelly 
(5}x3i furlongs) lies on the Auchtertool border,, and 
sends off a rivulet to the Ore, a sluggish stream, which 
winds along a low alluvial plain, traversed by the Dun- 
fermline branch of the North British railway. 

' Colquhally and the Sillertoun, 
Pitcairn and Bowhill, 
Should clear their haughs ere Lammas spates 
The Ore begin to fill'— 

so the rhyme warns four farms in Auchterderran, and 
the warning is wholesome enough, since the Ore very 
readily overflows its banks. N and S of it hills rise to 
a height of 400 and 500 feet above sea-level, points of 
elevation being Charleston (344 feet), Harelaw (445), 
Auchterderran hamlet (287), Wester Colquhally (504), 
Lochgelly House (500), and Muirhead (437). The soil, 
mixed clay and sand, or black earth resting upon trap, 
is principally cold and stiff, yet there are large well- 
cultivated farms. Woods occupy some 520 acres; and 
the entire surface is parcelled out into arable and pasture 
lands, plantations, limestone quarries, coal and ironstone 
mines, thoroughfares, etc. The mining interest is very 
extensive; and a number of collieries, belonging chiefly 
to the Carboniferous Limestone series, are at work, 
that of Lochgelly being noteworthy for the great fire of 
1870-71. A ruin, named Carden Tower, near the SE 
border, is the only antiquity. Four proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 13 of 
between £100 and £500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 
21 of from £20 to £50. For ecclesiastical and school- 
board purposes, Auchterderran forms one quoad sacra 
parish, and Lochgelly another, both in the presbytery 
of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife. The ancient church 
of Auchterderran was given by Fothad, last Bishop 
of Alban (1059-93), to God, St Serf, and the hermit 
Culdees of Lochleven; the present building was erected 
at the hamlet in 1789, and extended in 1891; its minister's 
income is £306. The public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 403 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 228, and a grant of £229, 17s. 6d. Valuation 
(1891-92) £19,452, 15s. Pop. of quoad sacra portion 
(1871) 1623, (1881) 1747, (1891) 2042; of entire parish 
(1811) 2403, (1841) 3352, (1871) 4017, (1881) 4332, 
(1891) 6185, of whom 3958 were in Lochgelly burgh.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Auchtergaven (Gael, uachdar-gamliainn, 'upland of 
the yearling cattle '), a village and a parish in the Strath- 
tay district of Perthshire. The village of Auchtergaven 
or Bankfoot stands at 226 feet above sea-level, on the 
Corral Burn, a little above its confluence with the Garry, 
and on the highroad from Perth to Dunkeld, and is 3 j 
miles NN W of Luncarty station on the Highland railway, 
this being 4 J miles N by W of Perth. A modern place, 
it has a post office, with money order, savings bank, and 
telegraph departments, gas-works, and several inns, at 
one of which the Queen changed horses, 7 Sept. 1842. 
Here, too, are the parish church, an oblong building 
with a tower, seating nearly 1200, and erected about 
1812; a Free and a U.P. church, and a Roman Catholic 
chapel; a public hall; and a public school, which, with 
accommodation for 312 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 167, and a grant of £176, 13s. 6d. 
Weaving is the staple industry, many of the inhabit- 
ants being employed in the neighbouring Airleywight 
linen works. 

The parish contains also the station and most of the 
village of Stanley, at its south-eastern angle, 3J miles 
ESE of Bankfoot, and the hamlet of Waterloo, 1J mile 
NNW; and it comprises the small old parish of Logie- 
bride, annexed in 1618 and again about 1647. It is 
bounded N and NE by Little Dunkeld; E by Kinclavcn, 
parted from it by the Benshiel Burn; SE for 1J mile by 
the winding Tay, separating it from Cargill and St 
Martins, and by Redgorton; S by Moneydie; SW by 
Monzie ; and NW by little Dunkeld. It has an extreme 


length from NW to SE of about 9 miles, and an extreme 
width of 3J miles. A detached portion of the parish 
situated at Moneydieroger, in the south of the parish 
of Moneydie, and comprising 121| acres, was in 1891 
transferred by the Boundary Commissioners to the parish 
of Moneydie, and another part of the parish — that ad- 
joining the detached part of Redgorton parish — was trans- 
ferred to the parish of Monzie, while to Auchtergaven was 
transferred the detached part of Methven parish situ- 
ated at Tullybeagles, and comprising 2823 acres. The 
Benshiel, the confluent Garry and Ordie, the Shoohie, 
and lesser burns, all take a SE or ESE course towards 
the Tay; and the surface accordingly in the WNW 
direction has an altitude above sea-level of 107 feet at 
Newmill, 207 near Loak, 282 at Rashieley, 392 nearTully- 
belton House, 464 near Corrielea, 1022 near Drumquhar, 
and 1493 in Creag na Criche; in the NW, of 230 feet near 
Stanley, 320 near Ardonachie, 378 near Coulterenny, 
429 near Muirlands, 578 at Upper Obney, and 1323 in 
the Obney Hills. The tract along the Tay ends in bold 
rocky banks; and a spit from it crosses the river's bed near 
Stanley, forming the celebrated Linn of Campsie. Cairn - 
leith Moss in the NE was once a dismal waste, a robbers' 
fastness, and the spot where legal retribution was signally 
dealt upon Highland caterans ; but it has been so drained, 
planted, and otherwise improved as well to harmonise 
with what Scott described as ' one of the loveliest and 
richest views of Scotland — the NW opening of Strath- 
more.' The rocks of the hills are clay -slate and grey- 
wacke, with masses of quartz and roofing slates, both 
blue and grey; those in the S are chiefly Devonian; and 
close-grained sandstone, greenish and taking a fine polish, 
is quarried here. The soils are various, but may be 
generally described as sandy loam, mixed with gravel or 
small stones. Antiquities are St Bride's Well, marking 
the site of Logiebride church, 1£ mile SW of Bankfoot, 
a stone circle, standing stones at three different points, 
and a court hill. Thomas Nairne of Mukkersy had a 
charter of the lands of Auchtergaven in 1605; his grand- 
son, Robert Nairne of Strathord (d. 1683), was, for loyalty 
in the Great Rebellion, created Lord Nairne in the 
peerage of Scotland in 1681. John, the third lord 
(1691-1777), was out in the '15, and again in the '45; 
on the second occasion he had just done building Nairne 
House, near Loak, to which in September he welcomed 
Prince Charles Edward, and which three years later was 
wholly demolished by the Duke of Athole, its purchaser. 
The forfeited title was restored in 1824 to William 
Murray Nairne (1757-1830), husband of Carolina Oli- 
phant of Gask ; with William, their son, it became ex- 
tinct in 1837, but was again revived in 1874 in favour 
of Dowager Marchioness of Lansdowne. Robert Nicoll 
(1814-37), styled ' Scotland's second Burns' by Ebenezer 
Elliot, was born at Little Tullybelton farm, and records 
how ' the memories o' his father's hame and its kindly 
dwellers a' 

1 Are twined wV the stanes o' the silver burn 
An' its fairy crooks and bays, 
That onward sang 'neath the gowden broom 
Upon bonnie Ordie braes' — •. 

those braes where a boy he tended cattle, as is told in 
the touching memoir prefixed to the latest and best 
edition of his Poems (Paisley, 1877). The principal 
residences are Stanley House, Airleywight, and Tully- 
belton House, at whose predecessor (then owned by 
Patrick Grseme of Inchbrakie) the great Marquis of 
Montrose arrived in disguise, to enter on his campaign 
of 1644-45. Baroness Nairne, the Duke of Athole, 
Sir Archibald Drummond-Stewart, and two others, hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards; 3 proprietors 
hold between £100 and £200, 2 between £50 and £100, 
and 10 between £20 and £50. In 1877 Stanley was 
erected into a quoad sacra parish; the remainder of 
Auchtergaven is in the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, its minister's income being £271. 
Valuation of civil parish (1891-92) £13,155, lis. 7d. 
Pop. thereof (1755) 1677, (1831) 3417, (1871) 2141, 
(1881) 2194, (1891) 2092; of quoad sacra parish (1881) 
1338, (1891) 1268,— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 


Auchterhouse, a village and a parish of SW Forfarshire. 
The village or Kirkton of Auchterhouse, occupying a 
central position, has a post office under Dundee, and, f 
mile WSW, a station with telegraph office on the Cale- 
donian, 12J miles NW of Dundee and 4J SE of New- 
tyle. At it stands the parish church, described in Muir's 
Characteristics of Old Church Architecture (Edinb. 
1861): — 'Erected in 1630 on the site of a decayed church, 
as appears by some fragments of tracery and other carved 
work lying about, it consists of chancel, 27 feet by 21 
feet 6 inches, nave, 56 feet 7 inches by 33 feet, and a 
square tower at the W end. All the windows are square- 
topped, and of three lights, except the E one, which is 
of two lights and placed in the gable. The chancel 
doorway is also flat-headed, that in the nave is of semi- 
classic character, with a three-centred arch, imposts, and 
moulded iambs. On the N side both divisions of the 
church are blank. The chancel arch is acutely pointed, 
and may possibly be a remnant of the older building, 
though it has nothing of the patched appearance of an 
ancient fabric remodelled.' This the last specimen of 
early church architecture in Scotland contains some 400 
sittings, and has a mortuary chapel of the Airlie family. 

The parish includes also the hamlets of Dronley near 
the S, and of Boniton near the NW, border. It is 
bounded N by Glamis, E by Glamis, Tealing, and Mains, 
S by Liff and Perthshire, W by Lundie, and NW by 
Newtyle. It had a land area of 5708 acres previous to 
1891, when the two detached portions of the parishes of 
Caputh and Tealing (of 285 and 195 acres respectively) 
were added to it by the Boundary Commissioners. The 
southern border is traced by a rivulet, which, flowing 
eastward out of Lundie, unites near Dronley with the 
Dronley Burn to form the Dighty ; and from a point 
near the confluence of these two streams the surface rises 
northward and north-westward up to the Sidlaw Hills — 
to 552 feet at 3 furlongs SE of the Kirkton, 1399 feet 
in Auchterhouse Hill at the NE angle of the parish, and 
950 feet in a summit behind East Mains, 2J furlongs 
from the western boundary. About five-eighths of the 
entire area are under cultivation, one-fourth is under 
wood, and one-twelfth in hill pasture ; the cultivated 
portion having for the most part a soil of black 
mould over a stratum of till or clay, or a bed of 
marl incumbent upon rock, and mixed in some places 
with sand. The rocks are chiefly Devonian, even in the 
hills, but there are intersected by trap dykes or overlaid 
with expanded trap ; and sandstone is worked by two 
stone merchants. ' Weems,' or ancient cave-dwellings, 
occur, and in one of them were found a quern, some 
bones, and a brass ring. The fine old baronial mansion 
of Auchterhouse, 1 mile SW of the Kirkton, is a seat of 
the Earl of Airlie, who holds more than half of the 
rental of the whole parish, three other proprietors 
dividing most of the remainder ; near it are fragments 
of a castle, said to have belonged to a Sir John Ramsay, 
and to have been visited by Wallace on his landing at 
Montrose with French auxiliaries. In the words of an 
old metrical record — 

' Good Sir John Ramsay, and the Ruthven true, 
Barclay and Bisset, with men not a few, 
Do Wallace meet,— all canty, keen, and 'crouse. 
And with three hundred march to Ochterhouse." 

Auchterhouse is in the presbytery of Dundee and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Its Minister's income is 
£341. The one public school, with accommodation for 
168 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 78, 
and a grant of £67, 17s. 6d. Valuation (1891-92) £6551, 
9s. ; of railways and waterworks, £3476. Pop. (1881) 
661, (1891) 532.— Ord. Sur., ah. 48, 1868. 

Auchterless (GaeL uachdar-shlios, 'upper side'), a 
village and a parish on the NW border of Aberdeenshire. 
The village or Kirktown has a central position upon 
the left bank of the Ythan, 3 miles SW of Auchterless 
station on the Inveramsay-Banff branch of the Great 
North of Scotland railway ; which station, lying just 
beyond the NE angle of the parish, 4 miles S by E of 
Turriff, and 34J miles NNW of Aberdeen, has a tele- 
graph ofhce. At the village are a post office under 


Turriff, the manse (1867), and the parish church (1780 ; 
wing added, 1835 ; 650 seats) ; the Free church stands 
J mile SSW. 

The parish contains also the hamlet of Badenscoth, 2 
miles SSW of Kirktown of Auchterless and 3 NNW of 
Rothie Norman station, with a post office under the latter 
place. It is bounded N by Turriff, E and SE by Fyvie, 
S by Rayne and Culsalmond, W by Forgue, and NW by 
Banffshire. It has an extreme length from N to S oi 
6£ miles, a breadth from E to W of 5| miles, and a land 
area of 16,826 acres. The Ythan, entering the parish 
1J mile from its source in Forgue, flows 2| miles east- 
ward, next strikes 5 miles north-north-eastward to the 
old castle of Towie, and, thence bending southward, 
forms for 2 miles the eastern boundary, descending in 
this course from about 500 to 134 feet above sea-level. 
One affluent, Pitdoulsie Burn, traces the northern 
boundary ; another, Rothie Burn, the southern ; and a 
third, Carries Burn, flows through the north-western 
half of the parish to Knockleith. On either side of the 
Howe of Auchterless the surface rises into rounded hills, 
rarely too steep for cultivation ; and points of altitude 
from E to W are Seggat (420 feet) Thomastown (490), 
Gordonstown Hill (582), Blackford or Drumsinnie Hill 
(649), Braestairie (678), and Berryhill of Logie (850). 
Everywhere resting on greywacke, the soil of the up- 
lands is a thin slaty clay, better for cereals and roots 
than for grass ; but on the lower slopes and along the • 
howe are clay loams of considerable fertility. Planta- 
tions cover some 500 acres, and are mostly young upon 
Seggat, Thomastown, and Knockleith ; but the firs and 
larches of Hatton, Templand, and Badenscoth, and the 
ash trees by the church, are of older growth. Antiqui- 
ties are Glenmellan camp at the western border, a 
parallelogram of nearly 130 acres, and probably of 
Roman construction (Roy's Mil. Ants., pi. li. ) ; a triple 
stone circle on the Kirkhill or Berryhill of Logie ; re- 
mains of three ' Picts' houses ;' the ' Cumines trench' or 
camp (a.d. 1308) ; the artificial Moat Head, seat of the 
old baronial courts ; a Gallows Hill ; and, at Seggat, a 
ruined chapel and well of Our Lady. The chief resi- 
dences are Knockleith, Badenscoth, Hatton, and Temp- 
land ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, and 
1 between £20 and £50. Auchterless is in the presby- 
tery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen ; its minister's 
income is £339. There are four schools under the boaid — 
two for boys and two for girls at Badenscoth and the 
Kirktown. With a total accommodation for 450 chil- 
dren, these had (1891) an average attendance of 279, 
and total grants amounting to £264, 15s. Valuation 
according to the latest returns, £14,771, 13s. 5d. Pop. 
(1831) 1701, (1871) 1971, (1881) 2144, (1891) 1853.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Auchtermuchty (Gael, uachdar-muic, ' upper land of 
the wild sow '), a town and a parish of NW Fife. The 
town is divided by the Loverspool, a tiny affluent of the 
Eden, into two nearly equal portions; and has a station 
on the Fife and Kinross section of the North British, 
10£ miles NE of Kinross, 33J ENE of Stirling, 4| WNW 
of Ladybank Junction, 10J WSW of Cupar, and 42 N of 
Edinburgh (vid the Forth Bridge). It was made a royal 
burgh in 1517, and confirmed in its rights in 1595, but 
had ceased to return a member to Parliament some time 
before the Union; and, becoming bankrupt in 1816, it 
Buffered the sequestration of all its corporation property, 
except town-house, jail, steeple, bell, and customs. 
Governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, a pro- 
curator-fiscal, a town-clerk, and 8 councillors, it has 
sheriff small debt courts on the second Monday of 
January, April, July, and October ; a weekly corn 
market is held on Monday ; and there are cattle, horse, 
and sheep fairs on the first Monday of February, 
the last Monday of April, the second Monday of July, 
and the first Monday of October and December. With 
three main streets and several lanes, Auchtermuchty is 
irregularly built, but of late years has been considerably 
improved, and commands fine views of the East and 
West Lomond Hills, which, distant 3J miles S and 



4 miles SW, are 1471 and 1713 feet high. It was the 
birthplace of the Rev. John Glas (1698-1773), founder 
of the sect of Glasites; but it is better known by the 
famous old ballad of The Wife of Auchtermuchty, wrongly 
ascribed to James V. There are a town-hall; the Vic- 
toria Hall, erected in 1865 for lectures, concerts, and 
public meetings; the People's Institute, comprising read- 
ing, recreation, and temperance refreshment rooms; 
Auchtermuchty Reading Room and Stark Library; a 
post office, with money order, savings bank, and tele- 
graph departments; branches of the Bank of Scotland 
and Union Bank ; a savings bank, and insurance agencies ; 
gas-works; 2 hotels; and agricultural and horticultural 
societies. Places of worship are the parish church (built 
17S0; enlarged 1S38; and seating 900), a Free, 2 U.P. 
(North and South), and a Baptist church ; and the North 
and South public schools, with respective accommoda- 
tion for 194 and 135 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 120 and 106, and grants of £105, 14s. and 
£64, 16s. The industrial works comprise a bleachfield, 
an extensive distillery, 2 malt kilns, a scale-beam and 
weighing-machine factory, and linen factories. The 
weaving of diapers, huckabacks, sheetings, etc. (chiefly 
by handloom), has long been the staple industry; there 

Seal of Auchtermuchty. 

are now some 600 looms in the town, and 200 more in 
the parish. Burgh valuation (1891-92) £2438, 12s. 
Pop. of royal burgh (1871) 1082, (1881) 824, (1891) 

The parish, which also contains the village of Dun- 
shelt, is bounded N by Perthshire, E by Collessie, S 
by Falkland and Strathmiglo, W by Strathmiglo and 
Abernethy. Its length from NW to SE is 4J miles; its 
greatest breadth from E to W is 2| miles; and its area 
is 3533 acres, of which 3^ are water. Three streams 
flow eastward — Beggar's Burn along most of the northern 
boundary, Barroway Burn through the southern interior, 
and the river Eden, near or upon the southern bor- 
der; and from this last the surface rises north-west- 
ward to the Ochils — from 137 feet above sea-level at a 
point near Dunshelt to 554 feet at Mairsland, 898 in 
Pitlour Wood on the western boundary, and 843 in the 
north-western angle of the parish. The soil of the low- 
lands is fertile and well cultivated, that in the SE 
being deep rich alluvium, part of a plain that formerly 
was often flooded in winter, but is now as well-drained 
and luxuriant a district as any almost in Scotland; the 
soil of the uplands is light, but sharp and valuable for 
grass. About 220 acres arc under wood. Myres Castle, 
\ mile S by E of the town, is the only considerable 
mansion. It was long the residence of the Moncrieffs 
of Reddie, and was greatly enlarged about 1828. Two 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 12 of between £100 and £500, 12 of from £50 
to £100, and 36 of from £20 to £50. Auchtermuchty 
is in tho presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife; the 
minister's income is £31 7. Valuation (1891-92) £8003, 
0s. lOd. Pop. of entire parish (1811) 2403, (1841) 
3352, (1871) 2958, (1881) 2322, (1891) 2002.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 40, 1867. 


Auchterneed, a hamlet in Fodderty parish, Ross and 
Cromarty shires, which furnishes lodgings to visitors at 
the neighbouring Strathpeffer Spa. It has a post office 
under Dingwall, and a station on the Highland railway. 
Auchtertool (Gael, uachtar-tuill, 'above the hollow'), 
a village and a parish of SW Fife. The village stands 
3 miles S of Cardenden station, 4^ W of Kirkcaldy, and 
the same from Kinghorn; it has a post office under 
Kirkcaldy and a large distillery. 

The parish is bounded N by Auchterderran, NE by 
Abbotshall, E and SE by Kinghorn, S and SW by Aber- 
dour, and NW by Beath. Its length from ENE to WSW 
varies between If mile and 3g miles, its breadth between 
7 furlongs and If mile; and its area is 27555 acres, of 
which 17f are water. The surface rises westward to the 
Cullalo Hills, attaining 420 feet above sea-level near the 
ruined baronial mansion of Hallyaeds in the E, 430 
at 2 furlongs S of the village, 556 at 3 furlongs NW 
of the church, 526 at Pilkhambrae in the SW, and 
438 in the NW, 7 furlongs ENE of Cowdenbeath 
station. These heights, which fall off steeply to the 
S, command fine eastward views of the Isle of May, 
the Bass, and North Berwick Law. Two streams flow 
eastward, Doonachy Burn through the interior, and 
Bottom Burn along the southern boundary; in the E, 
near Hallyards, is Carmilla Loch (2x1 furl. ) ; and the 
south-western corner of Loch Gelly lies within the 
northern border. Trap, sandstone, and limestone have 
all been quarried, and coalpits opened in the NW angle 
of the parish; its soils are variously loam, clayey, and 
mossy. Two proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, 1 
between £50 and £100, and 3 hold between £20 and 
£50. Auchtertool is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and 
synod of Fife. The church, f mile WSW of the village, 
was repaired in 1833, and seats 280 ; the minister's 
income is £182. A public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 143 children, had (1891) an average attendance 
of 94, and a grant of £75, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1881-82) 
£7788, lis. 5d., (1891-92) £6419, 6s. 9d. Pop. (1831) 
527, (1861) 609, (1871) 529, (1881) 706, (1891) 721.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Auchtertyre, a hamlet in Newtyle parish, Forfarshire, 
| mile W of Newtyle village. Near it are traces of a 
small square camp, supposed to have been formed by 
Montrose's army during the civil wars. 
Auchtow. See Achtow. 
Auckingill. See Auchingill, 

Augustus, Fort (Gael. Cilla-chuimein, ' the cell or 
church of Cumin, ' probably the ' Cumineus albus ' who 
was abbot of Iona 657-669), a village and a quoad sacra 
parish in Inverness-shire, at the head of Loch Ness, 
and on the right bank of the Caledonian Canal, by 
which it is 33£ miles SW of Inverness, and 31 J NE 
of Fort William. It has a post office under Inverness, 
with money order, savings bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a first-class hotel, and a fair on the Monday before 
the second Wednesday of June. There are an Established 
church, a Free church, and St Peter's Roman Catholic 
church (1840); a board school, with accommodation for 
100 children, an average attendance (1891) of 67, and 
a grant of £81, 4s. 6d., and a Roman Catholic school. 
Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking, of the villago (1891) 611; 
of registration district of Fort Augustus or Abertarff 
(1871) 897, (1881) 872, (1891) 930. 

To overawe the disaffected clans, a barrack was built 
in 1716 on the peninsula beyond the village, with the 
Oich salmon river on its NW, and the Tarff on its SE side, 
in front the deep waters of Loch Ness. As strengthened 
and enlarged in 1730 by General Wade, who named it 
Fort Augustus out of coniplimont to William Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland, it was a square work, capable of 
accommodating 300 men, with a bastion at each angle 
mounting 12 six-pounders, and with a ditch, covert- way, 
and glacis. In March 1746 it was taken and dismantled 
by the insurgents after a two days' siege, a shell from a 
neighbouring height having caused the explosion of its 
powder magazine; in May its eponymous hero, Cumber- 
land, formed a camp at it, to which, among otherprisoncr3, 


Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, was carried in a litter. Re- 
stored to more than its former strength, it was occupied 
by a garrison down to the Crimean War ; in 1857 it was 
sold for £5000 to the late Lord Lovat, whose son, the 
fifteenth lord, presented it in 1876 to the Fathers of the 
English Benedictine congregation, along with 16 acres 
of land, and the rental for 19 years of Borlum farm, an 
adjacent holding of 200 acres. On 13 Sept. 1876 the 
Marquis of Ripon laid the foundation-stone of a college, 
monastery, and hospice ; the college was opened on 16 
Oct. 1878, and on 24 to 26 Aug. 1880 the buildings, so 
far as they were then completed, were inaugurated by a 
solemn triduo. They occupy four sides of a quadrangle, 
100 feet square — the college on the N ; the hospice, with 
thirty bedrooms, on the W; the monastery, for forty 
monks, on the E; and on the S a magnificent church, 
with an octagonal chapter house, which was consecrated 
in 1890. Fine cloisters run right round the quadrangle, 
and open here into a noble scriptorium furnished with a 
printing-press, and capable of accommodating 12,000 
volumes ; the total cost of the entire pile has been 
close on or over £100,000. A Scottish baronial tower, 
with clock and nine bells, rising from the college to a 
height of 110 feet; over the monastery is another tower, 
140 feet high ; and the 15 windows of the refectory are 
filled with the arms of benefactors — Lords Lovat, Bute, 
Norfolk, Ripon, Stafford, Hemes, Denbigh, and Beau- 
mont, Mr Hunter Blair, and others. The whole is in 
Early English style, from designs by Mr J. Hansom and 
Messrs Pugin & Pugin ; and, girt by terraced pleasure- 
grounds, and set among wooded mountains, lake, and 
streams, St Benedict's may vie with the grandest religious 
foundations of pre-Reformation days. Its college, as- 
sociated with Glasgow University, is designed to provide 
a liberal education for 100 sons of Catholic gentlemen ; 
is divided into a preparatory, an intermediate, and a t 
high school ; and is furnished with halls, dormitories, 
library, billiard room, etc. Besides the usual course in 
classics and science, instruction is given in land-survey- 
ing, geology, agricultural chemistry, and other branches. 
It remains to be noticed that St Benedict's site was for- 
merly Benedictine property, given in 1232 by Sir John 
Bisset of Lovat to Beatjlt priory, granted by the last 
prior in 1558 to the sixth Lord Lovat, and forfeited by 
Alexander MacKenzie of Fraserdale for his part in the 
'15. The present monastery is an incorporation and a 
resuscitation of an ancient English and of a still more 
ancient Scottish Benedictine abbey, both situate on the 
Continont. The latter was the Scots abbey of St James 
at Ratisbon, dating from the 11th century ; the former 
was the famous abbey of Lamspring or Lansperg in 
Hanover, founded as a Benedictine nunnery in the 9th 
century, and converted into an abbey of English Bene- 
dictine monks in 1643. — Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1S78. 

Auldbar Castle, the seat of Patrick Chalmers, Esq. , 
in the NE angle of Aberlemno parish, Forfarshire, 2J, 
miles SW of Brechin. A modernised baronial fortalice, 
it has a good library, and stands in a finely -planted park. 
In the extreme S of the parish, some 5J miles to the SSE, 
and 5 miles E of Forfar, is Auldbar Road station, on the 
Arbroath and Forfar section of the Caledonian. 
Auldcambus. See Aldcambtjs. 
Auldcathie. See Aldcathie. 

Auldclune, a hamlet in the extreme W of Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the Garry, 2 miles ESE of 
Blair Athole village, under which it has a post office. 

Auldearn (Gael, allt-feam, ' stream of the alder tree '), 
a village and coast parish of Nairnshire. The village, 
with a money-order post office and a hotel, stands If 
mile inland at 69 feet above sea-level, and is 2J miles ESE 
of its post-town and railway station, Nairn. A burgh of 
barony, it holds a cattle and horse fair on 20th June if 
a Wednesday or Thursday, otherwise on the Wednesday 
after, and a produce fair on the Tuesday of November 
after Inverness. . Pop. (1891) 364. 

The parish is bounded NW, for 4J miles, by the 
Moray Firth ; E by Dyke, in Morayshire; S by Ardclach ; 
W by Nairn and the Raitknock portion of Cawdor. It 
has a length from N to S of from 3J to 6J miles, a 


breadth from E to W of from 3-|- to 5J miles, and a land 
area of 14,035 acres. The Muckle Burn here winds 
about 6 miles, first on the southern border of the parish, 
next across its south-eastern corner, and then on the 
eastern border ; the western interior is traversed by the 
Auldearn Burn, which, rising in the north-western angle 
of Ardclach, and joining the Nairn 1 mile below its 
mouth, has a total northward and westward course of 
some 5 miles, and just below Auldearn village itself re- 
ceives a burn from the SE. Within 3 furlongs of the 
coast-line Loch Loy (9 x If fur.) lies at an altitude of 12 
feet ; i mile E of it is Cran Loch (3 J x 1J fur.). With 
a foreshore that widens north-eastward from 1 furlong 
to 2 miles, and is fringed by the Maviston Sandhills, the 
northern portion of Auldearn is generally low, and the 
highest gradient on the 3f miles of the Highland railway 
within its bounds is only 129 feet. Further inland the sur- 
face becomes more undulating, and rises to 305 feet near 
Blackhills, 379 near Easter Arr, 423 near Lethen House, 
473 near Easter Clune, and 600 in the south-eastern 
angle of the parish ; but nowhere are the hills too steep 
to plough. The rocks belong chiefly to the strip of Old 
Red sandstone that borders the Moray Firth, and have 
been extensively quarried. Marl also abounds ; and fir 
roots and entire trees are found in great quantities in 
Inshoch Moss. For a distance from the shore of J mile 
on the W and of 1 mile on the E, the soil is sheer sand, 
covered with bent ; elsewhere it is various, but for the 
most part fertile, about one-third of the entire area being 
arable, one-fourth under woods and plantations, and 
four-elevenths pasture or waste. Antiquities are two 
stone circles, the ruins of Inshoch Castle, and vestiges of 
that of Moyness. According to later chronicles it was 
in Auldearn that Donald, King of Alban, fell in battle 
with the Danes (900), and that Malcolm his son was 
slain by the men of Moray (954) ; but Skene, out ot 
older records, proves these events to have taken place 
at Dunnottar and Fetteresso (Celt. Scot, i. 338, 364). 
Of one engagement at least this parish certainly has 
been the scene, since just to the S of the village was 
fought, on 9 May 1645, the battle of Auldearn, Mon- 
trose's fourth victory over the Covenanters. The 
general of the latter, John Hurry or Urry, surprised and 
pursued to Inverness, had there obtained reinforcements 
that, swelling his army to 400 horse and 3500 foot, em- 
boldened him to offer battle to the Marquis's 1700, 250 
of whom were cavalry. Lured from its strong position, 
the Royalist right under Kolkitto was retiring from the 
charge in great disorder, when Drummond, who com- 
manded Hurry's horse, by wheeling unskilfully, broke 
the ranks of his own infantry. Montrose at this crisis 
charged with his whole force, and the Highland rush 
proved irresistible. The veterans only (some 1200 
strong) attempted to withstand it manfully, while the 
new levies fled in consternation, and were chased several 
miles by Lord Gordon's cavalry. The losses on both 
sides were variously estimated — the Royalists' at from 
15 to 200 men,^of whom Captain Macdonald and William 
Macpherson of Invereschie were the only persons of 
mark ; the Covenanters' at from 1000 to 3000, including 
CoL Campbell of Lawers, Sir John and Sir Gideon 
Murray, Col. James Campbell, and 87 married Frasers. 
Drummond for his blunder or his treachery was tried by 
court-martial and shot ; Hurry drew off his shattered 
army, and joining Baillie, shared with him eight weeks 
later in the defeat of Alford (see vol. i., pp. 209-212 of 
Keltie's Hist, of the Scottish Highlands). The princi- 
pal residences are Boath House, 3 furlongs north of 
the village, and Lethen House, near the southern boun- 
dary ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£50"0 and upwards, 4 of from £20 to £50. Auldearn 
is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray. Its 
parish church is situated at the village, and was built in 
1757 in place of an older structure, dedicated to St 
Colm, and anciently held by the sub-dean of Elgin 
cathedral. This is an ill-proportioned, oblong edifice, 
with 477 sittings, and a graveyard containing several 
interesting monuments of Hurry's followers, of the 
Hays of Lochloy and Moyness, and of Nairn townsfolk, 


most of wliom (the fishing class only excepted) have 
their burial places here. The minister's income is 
£296. There are also a Free church, 1 mile S of the 
village, and Moyness U.P. church at Boghole, 3| miles 
E, the latter built about 17S0, repaired in 1817, and 
seating 353. The two public schools of Auldearn and 
Moyness, with respective accommodation for 167 and 77 
children, had (1S91) an average attendance of 112 and 33, 
and grants of £117, 17s. 6d. and £42, 9s. 6d. Valuation, 
£10,091, 15s. 5d. Pop. (1831) 1653, (1861) 1328, 
(1871) 1279, (1881) 1292, (1891) 1315.— OrcZ. Sur., sh. 
84, 1876. 

Aulderg, a burn in Dallas parish, Elginshire, run- 
ning to the river Lossie. 

Auldfield, a section of Pollokshaws town in East- 
wood parish, Renfrewshire. The quoad sacra parish 
church of Pollokshaws is here, bore originally the name 
of Auldfield chapel of ease, was built in 1840 and is a 
neat edifice with a spire. 

Auldgirnaig, a hamlet in Moulin parish, Perthshire, 
on the river Garry, at the mouth of Glen-Girnaig, con- 
tiguous to the N end of the Pass of Killiecrankie, 4 
miles NNW of Pitlochry. 

Auldgirth, a place in the southern angle of Closeburn 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the river Nith and on the Glas- 
gow and South-Western railway, 8 miles NW by N of 
Dumfries. It has a bridge over the Nith, a station on 
the railway, a good inn, and a post office under Dum- 
fries, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments. A famous old three-trunked tree, called 
the Three Brethren, stood near it, but has been de- 
stroyed. The adjacent reach of the valley of the Nith, 
for about 2 miles, is contracted to the narrowness of 
almost a gorge, and exhibits views of singular pic- 

Auldgrande. See Aultgrande. 

Auld-Hill, a hill in West Kilbride parish, Ayrshire, 
crowned with remains of a circular building, which pro- 
bably was occupied as a watch-tower. 

Auldhouse, a hamlet, with a public school, in East 
Kilbride parish, Lanarkshire, 3 miles S by W of the 
village of East Kilbride. 

Auldhouse, a burn in the E of Renfrewshire, rising in 
Mearns parish, and running about 5J miles north-east- 
ward past Thornliebank village to the White Cart at 

Auldkirk. See Innerkip. 

Auldmuir, a place, with extensive limeworks, in 
Dairy parish, Ayrshire. 

Auldna, a mineral tract, with excellent worked coal, 
in the upper part of New Cumnock parish, Ayrshire. 

Auldnachuirn and Auldnacuish, two burns in Dallas 
parish, Elginshire, running to the Lossie. 

Auldtown. See Alton. 

Auld Water. See Old Water. 

Auld Wick Castle, an old baronial fortalice in Wick 
parish, Caithness, surmounting a dismal chasm in cliffs 
at the S side of the entrance of Wick B9y, If mile SE 
of Wick. It belonged, in the beginning of the 14th 
century, to Sir Reginald de Cheyne, passed to the 
Oliphants, the Earls of Caithness, the Dunbars, and 
Lord Duffus ; is now dismantled and ruinous ; forms an 
excellent landmark to mariners, and is commonly called 
by them 'the Aul' Man o' Wick.' 

Auld Wives' Lift, a famous cromlech in Baldernock 
parish, SW Stirlingshire, 1 mile NNE of the church, 
and 3 miles WSW of Lennoxtown. A trilith or com- 
plete cromlech, it consists of three stones only — two of 
nearly equal length supporting the huge topstone, a 
block of basalt 18 feet long, 11 broad, and 7 thick. 
Through the narrow triangular space between the three 
stones every stranger must creep, if, runs the rustic 
creed, lie would not die childless ; and those stones, he 
is told, were brought hither by three old women in their 
aprons, for a wager which should bear tho heaviest load. 
Then from the top, though barely 400 feet above sea- 
level, he may look right across the island from (irth to 
firth, see the smoke of one steamer entering the Clyde, 
and of another below Grangemouth in tho Forth. See 


Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, and Nimmo's 

Aulich, a hamlet in Fortingal parish, Perthshire, on 
the N side of Loch Rannoch, at the mouth of a burn of 
its own name, 3J miles W of Kinloch Rannoch. 

Aultandow. See Altando. 

Aultanfhiler or Fiddlers' Burn, a brook in the NE of 
Inverness-shire, running along the boundary between 
Inverness and Petty parishes. 

Aultbea, a coast hamlet in Poolewe quoad sacra 
parish, W Ross-shire. It has a post office, an inn, a 
sehoolhouse, an Established mission church (1891), a Free 
church, and fairs on the Friday before the first Tuesday 
of July and the Wednesday in October before Beauly ; 
with Glasgow it communicates by steamboat. 

Ault-Gheallaidh. See Aldtonlie. 

Aultgrande or Altgraat, a rivulet of the E side of 
Ross-shire. It issues from Loch Glass ; runs east-south- 
eastward, about 7 miles, along the boundary between 
Alness and Kiltearn parishes ; passes through a pro- 
found, narrow, bosky chasm, seeming to have been 
formed by the stroke of an earthquake ; makes, in its 
progress, a series of romantic cateracts and cascades ; 
falls into the Cromarty Firth, about 1 mile NE of 
Kiltearn village ; and, when swollen by heavy rains, is 
frequented by finnocks, sea-trout, and a few salmon. 

Aultguish, a burn-torrent in Urquhart and Glenmoris- 
ton parish, Inverness-shire, in the Forest of Ruisky, 
down the precipitous alpine mountains of Mealfourvou- 
nie, to the NW side of Loch Ness, nearly opposite the 
famous Fall of Foyers. It makes, in one place, a sheer 
leap of at least 100 feet ; and, as seen from Loch Ness, 
it looks like a long white ribbon, streaked and figured 
with the intervening trees. 

Aultkollie, a very deep, tortuous, and romantic gully, 
traversed by a burn, on the coastward side of Loth parish, 

Aultmore. See Altmore. 

Aultnacaillich, a place in Durness parish, Sutherland, 
in Strathmore, 18 miles SSE of Durness village. It was 
the birthplace of Robert Calder Mackay (1714-78), com- 
monly called Rob Donn (' Brown Robert '), regarded as 
the Burns of the Northern Highlands. A fine waterfall 
is on one side of it ; and the famous tower or round 
burg of Dornadilla on the other. A neat monument to 
Rob Donn, with inscriptions in Gaelic, English, Latin, 
and Greek, was erected in Durness churchyard in 1829. 

Aultnaharrow. See Altnaharra. 

Aultnancarrach, a burn of E Ross-shire, running into 
the Aultgrande rivulet. Productive lead ore has been 
found on its banks. 

Aultsigh, a burn on the boundary between Urquhart 
and Glenmoriston, in the united parish of Urquhart and 
Glenmoriston, Inverness-shire. Issuing from a lakelet 
on the lofty western shoulder of Mealfourvounie (2284 
feet), it tumbles and leaps down a rocky channel to 
the base of a precipice nearly 1500 feet high ; is 
screened in its progress by beetling cliffs and wooded 
acclivities ; makes two beautiful falls, one about midway 
down its course, the other near its mouth, both under 
shades of thick foliage ; and passes into Loch Ness at a 
point 2 j miles NE of Invermoriston. A roeking-stone, 
about 20 feet in circuit, movable by two persons, is 
on the mountain shoulder SW of the burn. A memor- 
able conflict between a party of the Macdonalds of Glen- 
garry, and a party of the Mackenzies of Ross-shire, was 
fought on the burn in the early part of the 17th century, 
and is commemorated in a celebrated pibroch, ' Tho 
Raid of Kil-Christ' 

Auquhirie, an estate, with a mansion, in the W of 
Dunnottar parish, Kincardineshire. 

Ausdale, a hamlet and a burn in Latheron parish, 
Caithness. The hamlet lies on the burn, at tho N hase of 
the Hill of Ord, 4 miles SW of Herriedale. The burn runs 
south-eastward, has a course of only about 3 miles, and 
leaps over a cliff of about 100 feet in depth into the sea. 

Auskerry, a small island in Stronsay parish, Orkney, 
2J miles S of Stronsay. It is used chiefly for pasturing 
sheep and cattle ; has remains of an ancient chapel and 



of an edifice called Monk's House ; is crowned by a light- 
house, showing a fixed light, visible at the distance of 
16 nautical miles ; and, at the census of 1891, had 7 in- 

Aven, a modern provincial abbreviation of ' Avona- 
Porticosa,' the ancient name of the island Sanda in 
Southend parish, Argyllshire. 

Aven, Lanarkshire. See Avon. 

Aven or Avon, a lake and a river of S Banffshire. The 
lake lies at the south-western extremity of the county, 
22 miles NW of Castleton of Braemar ; occupies a stu- 
pendous hollow amid the central masses of the Cairn- 
gorm Mountains ; lies at an elevation of 2250 feet above 
sea-level; is immediately overhung by the steep and 
almost mural masses of Cairngorm (4084 feet), Ben 
Macdhui (4296), and Ben Mheadoin (3883) ; measures 
If mile in length from SW to NE, and from 1 to 14 
furlong in breadth ; exhibits scenery of solemn and most 
impressive grandeur ; and abounds in small black trout 
very different from those of the stream which flows 
from it. Its water is so clear ' that you can see the 
fishes hanging in every pool ; ' at its head is the Shelter 
Stone, a sort of cave large enough to accommodate 12 
or 15 men, and formed by an immense fallen block of 
granite resting on two other blocks in situ. The river 
issues from the NE end of the lake ; runs first about 
9 miles east-north-eastward, next about 13 miles north- 
north-westward, next about 5J miles northward ; and 
falls into the Spey at Ballindalloch. It flows mainly 
within Kirkmiehael parish, but its last 2J miles lie 
within or on the boundary of Jnveravon parish ; it 
passes the village of Tomintoul, and has its course 
partly along a profound mountain glen, partly along a 
deep ravine, partly along a narrow vale. It rose, in 
the great floods of 1829, to a height of 23 feet above its 
usual level in the ravine of Poll-du-ess, and to a height 
of 6 feet more than in the flood of 1768 at its mouth. It 
receives the Water of Ailnack, near Tomintoul, Conglass 
Water, the Burn of Lochy, and, near Drumin Castle, 
Livet Water. It abounds in trout, and, from June till 
November, is frequented by salmon. ' The Aven,' says 
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, ' flows with so great pellucidity 
through its deep and dark glen, that many accidents 
have occurred to strangers by its appearing fordable in 
places which proved to be of fatal depth. This quality 
is marked by an old doggerel proverb — 

'"The Water of Aven runs so clear, 

It would beguile a man of a hundred year.'" 

The Queen and Prince Consort visited Loch Aven, 
28 Sept. 18,61.— Ord. Sur., shs. 74, 75, 85, 1876-77. 

Aven or Avon, a river of Dumbartonshire, Stirling- 
shire, and Linlithgowshire. It issues from Loch Fanny- 
side, in Cumbernauld parish ; runs about 8 miles east- 
ward through Cumbernauld and Slamannan, and be- 
tween the latter parish and Muiravonside ; then goes 
about 12 miles, chiefly north-eastward, along the boun- 
dary between Stirlingshire and Linlithgowshire to the 
Firth of Forth about midway between Grangemouth 
and Borrowstounness. Its chief affluents are Polness 
Burn and Ballencrief Water, both on its right bank. 
Much of its course winds along a shallow glen amid 
softly beautiful scenery ; but its entrance into the Firth 
is along a deep muddy cut through a wide expanse of 
sands and silts, which lie bare at low water. A splendid 
aqueduct of the Union Canal and a grand 23-arched 
viaduct of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway span its 
glen on the boundary between Linlithgow and Muiravon- 
side parishes.— Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Aven-nan-Geren, a stream in Harris island, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. It is frequented by salmon. 

Avennsh, a hamlet in the SW of Ross-shire. Its 
post-town is Lochalsh. 

Avich"(Gael. abh-ach, ' field of the water'), a beautiful 
little loch m the Dalavich portion of Kilchrenan-Dala- 
vich parish, Lorn, Argyllshire, 1J mile W of Loch Awe, 
to which it sends off the Avich rivulet. Rudely resem- 
bling a triangle, with apex to the WSW, it is 34 miles 
long by 5 J furlongs at its foot ; lies 811 feet above sea- 

level ; and is flanked to the N by Cruach Maolachy 
(1239 feet), Cruach Narrachan (1223), and Meall Odhar 
(1255), to the S by Cam Duchara (1407) and Tom an 
t'Saoir (1191). A ruined castle stands near its head on 
an islet famous in Fingalian legend ; its waters abound 
in trout, bright hued, well shaped, and two or three to the 
lb. ; but salmon are stopped by a fall upon the rivulet. 

Aviemore (Gael, abh-mor, ' great water '), a station on 
the Highland railway in Duthil parish, NE Inverness- 
shire, 12J miles SW of Grantown. Here is a post office, 
with money order, savings bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments; and 3 furlongs to the N is Aviemore House. 
The Can-bridge section of the new through line, from 
Aviemore to Inverness, was opened in July 1892. 

Avoch (Gael, abh-ach, ' field of the stream '), a village 
and a parish on the E side of the Black Isle district of 
Ross and Cromarty. The village stands on a small bay 
of the Moray Firth, 1 j mile SW of Fortrose, and 9 NNE 
of Inverness, and has a station on the Black Isle branch 
of the Highland railway. It carries on an extensive 
fishery ; exports some grain and wood, whilst importing 
coal, lime, bone-dust, and salt ; and has a post office 
under Inverness, with money order, savings bank, and 
telegraph departments, an inn, a pier, and parish, Free, 
and Congregational churches. A water supply was intro- 
duced to Avoch and Fortrose in 1893. Pop. (1891) 1217. 

The parish is bounded N by Resolis and Rosemarkie, 
SE by the Moray Firth, S by Munlochy Bay, separating 
it from Knockbain, SW by Kilmuir-Wester, and W by 
Urquhart. Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 4J 
miles; its greatest breadth is 3 miles, and its area is about 
8030 acres. The surface, in a general view, is a declina- 
tion from the lower part of the Ardmeanacn or Mullbuie 
broad range of hills to the Moray Firth ; but, over the 
lower half, is crossed by several ridges running parallel 
to the main range ; so that it presents an agreeable 
diversity of hill and dale. A steep romantic ridge of 
conglomerate rock extends along the coast from the 
village to the northern boundary, and is covered with 
wood and with a rich variety of indigenous plants. A 
large mass of conglomerate rock occurs also at the en- 
trance of Munlochy Bay, and is so completely denuded 
of soil, and so weathered into small corries and rounded 
summits as to present a close resemblance to a miniature 
volcanic hill. The intermediate parts of coast and all the 
beach are sandy and gravelly. Devonian sandstone and 
conglomerate rocks predominate ; but a high granitic 
ridge, to the NE and N of the village, has so upheaved 
them as to tilt their strata into all sorts of irregular 
inclinations, yet does not, to any great extent, over- 
top them. The Moray Firth is 5 miles wide here, 
from Avoch village to Campbelltown ; looks, in conse- 
quence of the projection of Chanonry Point at Fortrose, 
like an inland lake ; and, with Fort George at one end 
of its reach beyond Chanonry Point and Inverness at 
the head of its reach beyond Kessock Ferry, presents a 
highly picturesque appearance. Avoch Burn rises mainly 
within the parish, runs to the Firth at Henrietta Bridge 
close to the village, and has water-power enough to drive 
a wool-carding mill and 3 corn mills. A beautiful pool, 
called Littlemillstick, lies near the burn's source ; and 
another sheet of fresh water, Scadden's Loch, lay near 
the north-eastern boundary, and covered 14 acres, but 
many years since was drained. Vast improvements in 
reclamation of waste land, in planting, in building, and 
in the introduction of the best methods of husbandly, 
have been effected by Mr James Fletcher, since his pur- 
chase in 1864 of the estate of Rosehaugh from Sir James 
Mackenzie for £145,000. To Rosehaugh he has added 
the estates of Bennetsfield, Ethie, and Avoch ; and on 
Rosehaugh he has built a fine new mansion in the Re- 
naissance style (Trails. Highland and Agricultural 
Society). Avoch Castle stood on a rocky mound, about 
200 feet above sea-level, J mile W of the village ; 
appears to have been a structure of great strength ; was 
the death-place of the regent Andrew Moray (1338) ; 
belonged afterwards to the Earls of Ross ; and passed 
eventually to the Crown. Arkindeith Tower stood on 
a hill-side a short way above the offices of Avoch ; be- 



longed to a castellated mansion of no great antiquity ; 
snd is now represented by only the lower or dungeon 
story. Avoch is in the presbytery of Chanonry and 
synod of Ross ; its minister's income is £282. Two 
public schools, Avoch and Killen, with respective accom- 
modation for 160 and 84 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 189 and 67, and grants of £200, 7s. and 
£S3, 13s. There is also the Avoch Mackenzie foun- 
dation, with accommodation for 110 children, an average 
attendance (1S91) of 81, and a grant of £86, 15s. 6d. 
Pop. (1S91) 1817.— Ord. Sur. { sh. 84, 1876. 

Avon, a river of Lanarkshire, rising upon the Ayr- 
shire boundary, on the southern slope of Distinkhorn 
Hill (1258 feet), near head sources of the rivers Ayr 
and Irvine. Thence it runs 4J miles north-eastward 
along the boundary between Ayr and Lanark shires ; 
goes thence north-eastward through Avondale parish 
and along the boundaries between Stoneh-ouse and 
Dalserf parishes on the right, and Avondale, Glassford, 
and Hamilton parishes on the left, to a point near Lark- 
hall ; turns there to the NW into Hamilton parish ; and 
runs, in a north-westerly direction, through that parish 
to the Clyde, at a point 1 mile ENE of the town of 
Hamilton. Its length of course, inclusive of windings, 
is about 24J miles. It receives Glengavel Watei- about 2 
miles after entering Lanarkshire ; Drumclog Burn, about 
2 miles further on ; Little Calder Water, 1\ miles WSW 
of Strathaven ; and the Kype, its largest tributary, 1 
mile SSE of that town, besides a number of lesser 
burns. It passes within 7 furlongs of Strathaven, and 4 
of Stonehouse ; and, in the last reaches of its course, 
flows through the Duke of Hamilton's grounds. It is 
reckoned one of the best trouting streams in Scotland, 
and used to be frequented, almost to its source, by sal- 
mon. The scenery of its upper reaches is bleak and 
moorish ; that of its central reaches is of various charac- 
ter, and abounds with beauty ; and that of its lower 
reaches is gorgeous and romantic. Its banks, along 
much of the lower reaches, are alternately bold and pre- 
cipitous, knolly and broken, softly green and wildly 
wooded ; and at length they become a stupendous tum- 
bling gorge, of similar character to the glen of the Esk 
at Roslin, but on a grander scale, and superior to every 
other celebrated sylvan Scottish defile in combinations 
of romance and power. The crags tower up in many 
places to the height of 250 or 300 feet ; the summits and 
ledges, and many ' a jutting frieze,' are festooned with 
shrubs, or crowned with stately timber ; and the alter- 
nations of recess and abutment, of grandeur and grace- 
fulness, almost speak to the imagination like a colossal 
copy of Gothic masonry. Half way along this gorge, 
crowning a rock, nearly 200 feet above the bed of the 
river, like 'sentinel of fairy land,' stand the ruins of 
Cadzow Castle, the original seat of the ducal family cf 
Hamilton, destroyed by command of the Regent Moray 
after the battle of Langside ; and on the opposite side 
of the ravine stands the modern summer-house of Chatel- 
herault, so called from the French dukedom which the 
Hamiltons possessed, and presenting a fantastic foil to 
the natural scenery around by its red walls, its four 
square towers all in a line, its gaudy pinnacles, ita 
globular ornaments, and its rich parterres. The 
ancient forest of Cadzow or wooded park of the 
Dukes of Chatelherault, 'when princely Hamiltons' 
abode ennobled Cadzow's Gothic towers,' had this roman- 
tic glen for its centre, and spread out from its mouth 
over the haugh along the Clyde. Hither arrived James 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, in frenzied flight, from his 
assassination of the Regent Moray at Linlithgow ; and, 
here, accordingly is laid the scene of Sir Walter Scott's 
ballad of Cadzow CaslU, which tells how a hunting 
Darty, headed by the duke, were inspiriting one another's 
fierce party quarrel against the Regent — and how the 
frantic murderer rode headlong into the midst of them, 

' From gory Belle and reeling Bteerl 

Sprang the fierce horseman with a, bound, 
And, reeking from the recent deed, 
lie dashed his carbine on the ground. 


■ Sternly he spoke—" 'Tis sweet to hear 
In good greenwood the bugle blown, 
But sweeter to revenge's ear 
To drink a tyrant's dying groan 

'Then speed thee, noble Chatelherault, 
Spread to the wind thy banner'd tree ; 
Each warrior bend his Clydesdale bow; 
Moray is fallen, and Scotland's free."' 

Avonbridge, a village on the right bank of the Avon, 
in the NE angle of Slamannan parish, SE Stirlingshire, 
with a station on the North British, 11J miles ENE of 
Falkirk. It has a post office, with money-order and 
savings bank departments, a U.P. church (1803 ; 308 
sittings), an Evangelical Union chapel, and a public 
school for Slamannan and Muiravonside conjointly, 
which, with accommodation for 150 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 86, and a grant of £76, 8s. 6d. 

Avondale, a parish at the south-western extremity of 
the middle ward of Lanarkshire, containing towards its 
north-eastern angle the post-town of Strathaven, with a 
station on the Caledonian, 9i miles S by W of Hamilton, 
and 19-1 (15 by road) SSE of Glasgow. Bounded NW 
by East Kilbride, N and NE by Glassford, E by Stone- 
house and Lesmahagow, S by Muirkirk in Ayrshire, and 
W by the Ayrshire parishes of Som, Galston, and 
Loudoun, it has a length from N to S of from 6£ to 9J 
miles, a width from E to W of from 1J to 8 miles, and 
an area of 37, 666 j acres, of which 133 J are water. The 
Avon, rising in the extreme SW, takes a north-eastward 
course of 13 miles, first on the boundary with Galston, 
next through the whole interior, and then on the Stone- 
house border, quitting the parish at 2 miles E by N of 
Strathaven. During this course its principal affluents are 
Glengavel Water on the right, flowing 5 miles NNW ; 
Calder Water on the left, curving 5J miles E by N, 
and tracing, with its sub-affluent the Little Calder, 
great part of the boundary with East Kilbride ; Lochar 
Water on the right, flowing 3J miles NNW ; Kype 
Water on the riglit, curving 8J miles, first NE, then 
NNW along the Lesmahagow and the Stonehouse border ; 
and Powmillan Bum on the left, curving 7 miles SE 
through Strathaven, and tracing, with its sub-affluent 
the Black Burn, the rest of the boundary with East 
Kilbride. The surface follows the channels of these 
streams, but has a general south-westward rise, attaining 
to the left or N of the Avon 805 feet above sea-level at 
High Coldstream, 624 near Netherfield, 846 near High 
Hook, 837 near TJndergreen, and 933 at Hairshawhill. 
To the right or S of the Avon are the following eminences, 
of which those marked with an asterisk culminate on 
the southern boundary- — Craigmuir (632 feet), Burnhead 
(783), Kypes Rig (1134), Middle Rig (1173), Martinside 
(1206), Berry Moss (1161), Hawkwood (1251), Side Hill 
(1411), Harting Rig (1475), Auchengilloch (1511), •Good- 
bush Hill (1556), Dungavel Hill (1502), Long Bank (1272), 
Regal Hill (1328), Millstone Rig (1212), Avonside (711), 
Mill Rig (1096), *Bibblon Hill (1412), *Backend Rig 
(1122), "Twopenny Knowe (973), Andcrside Hill (1033), 
*Burnt Hill (1109), Little Hartmidden (1152), and Hart 
Hill (1294). The rocks are mainly trap or carboniferous, 
presenting many interesting phenomena at the junctions 
of the erupted masses with the strata. There are several 
limestone quarries, and clay is found for the manufacture 
of drain tiles ; but a shaft that was opened some years 
ago to a seam of inferior coal, employed in the lime- 
kilns, had to be abandoned. The uplands consist of 
stretch upon stretch of boggy grouse-moor, all naked 
now, but anciently clothed with the great Caledonian 
Forest, trunks of whoso giant oaks are found from time 
to time among the mosses near tlio head of the Avon. 
The central and north-eastern parts, howover, are rela- 
tively level and well-cultivated ; and Hamilton of Wishaw 
must have referred to their light, dry soils, when, about 
1710, he described this 'groat paroch ' as 'a plentiful 
country, especially in grain, and no want of corns' 
(Sheriffdoms of Lanark arid llcvfrcw). Somewhat more 
than one-half of the entire area of the parish is arable; 
but it is by its dairy-farming that Avondale has long 
won most celebrity, the farmers of the Strath being 


scarcely equalled in fattening calves for the butcher. A 
Roman road, running parallel to the Avon, is traceable 
for 2f miles, from Lochar Mill to Sandford ; Auchen- 
gillooh in the S, and Drumclos in the W, make Avon- 
dale famous in the annals of the Covenanters. Its local 
annals are thus epitomised by Hamilton : — ' This baronie 
did anciently [temp. Alexander III., 1249-86] belong to 
the Bairds, and thereafter came to Sinclair, and from 
them to the Earl of Douglas, with whom it continued 
several ages, and after his fatal forfaulture, in anno 1455, 
it was given by King James the Third to Andrew Stewart, 
whom he created Lord Avendale [1457], and it continued 
with him and his heirs until 1538 or thereby, that he 
exchanged it with Sir James Hamilton for the baronie 
of Ochiltree, in the parliament 1543. From which tyme 
it continued with the successors of Sir James Hamilton 
until it was acquired by James, first of that name, Mar- 
quess of Hamilton [1533-1604] ; and continueth with 
his successors since. There are many small vassals in 
this parish, besyde three or four gentlemen, — Overtoun, 
Netherfield, Rylandsyde, Lethem, and Kype ; but all of 
them hold of the familie of Hamilton. ' To-day the chief 
mansions are Netherfield House, li mile ENE, and 
Lethame House, 1£ mile W, of Strathaven ; and the 
Duke of Hamilton owns about one-fourth of all the 
lands in the parish, with superiority over the rest, these 
being shared among 5 proprietors holding. each £500 
annual value and upwards, 60 between £100 and £500, 
51 between £50 and £100, and 88 between £20 and £50. 
In the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr, this parish is divided, quoad sacra, into 
Avondale (pop. 5466 in 1881, and 5069 in 1891) and 
tile chapeliy of East Strathaven. The living is worth 
£400 ; and both chu-rches, being situated at Strathaven, 
will be noticed in the article thereon, along with the 
Free church, three U.P. churches, and Roman Catholic 
church. Under the school-board there are 5 public and 
one denominational school, viz., Ball Green, Barnock, 
Crosshill, Drumclog, Gilmourton, Glengivel (Gen. As.) 
"With total accommodation for 928 children, these had 
(1891) an average attendance of 640, and grants amount- 
ing to £778, 4s. Valuation, according to the latest 
published statistics. £39,947, 12s. Pop. (1831) 5761, 
(1861) 6125, (1871) 5460, (1881) 5466, (1891) 5069, of 
whom 3478 belonged to Strathaven. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
23, 1865. 

Avondow, the upper part of the river Forth, from its 
source about 12 miles east-south-eastward, through the 
parishes of Aberfoyle and Port of Monteith in Perth- 
shire, to the influx of Kelly Water on the boundary 
with Stirlingshire. The name signifies 'the Black 
Stream.' See Forth. 

Avonhead, a village in New Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, with a public school, which in 1891 had accommo- 
dation for 191 children, an average attendance of 74, 
and a grant of £63, 13s. 6d. Pop. (1891) 472. 

Avonholm, an estate, with a mansion, in Glassford par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. Three tall upright stones are here, and 
have been variously regarded as Caledonian remains, as 
monuments of ancient noblemen, and as monuments of 

Avonlussa, a burn in Jura island, Argyllshire. It 
abounds with trout and salmon. 

Avonsuidh or Fin Castle, a seat of the Earl of Dun- 
more, on the W coast of Harris island, Inverness shire. 

Avontoun, a mansion in Linlithgow parish, near the 
river' Avon, 1£ mile WSW of Linlithgow. Built bv 
Lord President Blair (1741-1811), it is now the seat of 
his grandson, Hy. Temple Blair, Esq. (sue. 1873). 

Awe (Old Gael. A, ' water '), a loch in the SW of 
Assynt parish, Sutherlandshire, 3J miles S of the head 
of Loch Assynt, with which it communicates by the 
Loanan. Lying at the south-eastern base of Canisp 
(2786 feet), midway between Inchnadamff and Altnakeal- 
gach Inns, it is shallow and weedy, measures 7 furlongs 
by from 2 to 3, is studded by six wooded islets, and 
abounds with fine red-fleshed trout. Mr Young caught 
271 of 84 lbs. weight in four days' fly-fishing during 
June and July. See his Sutherland, pp. 113, 114. 


Awe, a lake and a river of central Argyllshire, both 
easily accessible since the opening (1 July 1880) of the 
final section of the Callander and Oban railway, Loch 
Awe station at the foot of the lake being 48f miles 
WNW of Callander, 64J of Stirling, and 101 of Edin- 
burgh. A fine hotel, in the Scottish Baronial style, has 
been erected near the station. The lake commences at 
a point 3 miles E of the head of Loch Craignish, and 8 
NE of the W end of the Crinan Canal, and extends, 
in a north-easterly direction, to the eastern skirts of 
Ben Cruachan at the mouth of Glenorchy. Its length is 
22J miles ; its breadth varies between 3 furlongs and 
1J mile, or 3 J miles where it sends off the river Awe ; and 
its altitude above sea-level is 118 feet. Its outline, all 
down to the last 6 miles, is pretty uniform, or has only 
such indentations as do not prevent it from being a con- 
tinuous belt of water ; but its outline over the last 6 
miles has the form of an expansion of the belt, forking 
at its end into two offsets, the one round the SE of Ben 
Cruachan to receive the Orchy river, the other round the 
SW of Ben Cruachan to send off the river Awe. Its 
basin, round the head and along the tipper quarter, is 
low ground embosoming swamps and tumulated with 
hills ; over all the central parts is flanked by parallej 
ranges of high hills with moorish summits ; and, around 
all the foot, is overhung by alpine mountains, with 
the monarch Ben Cruachan (3689 feet) grandly 
dominant in the front. Its general appearance, in a 
comprehensive view, looks as if the head were the foot, 
as if the NE offset were the head, and as if the NW 
offset, or real foot, were a bay branching from the side. 
The original outlet of its superfluence was really at the 
present head, along a vale, south-westward to Loch 
Crinan, near the W end of the Crinan Canal ; and the 
present outlet appears to have been formed by an earth- 
quake stroke through the SW skirt of Ben Cruachan, 
and is a profound ravine or gorge, leading to Loch Etive. 
The scenery is tame at the head, and sublime at the 
foot ; exhibits great diversity, both in its main charac- 
teristics and in the intermediate ones which connect and 
modify them ; and displays its force of feature in a 
reverse order to that of most Highland lakes, or with 
progressive increase, not from foot to head but from head 
to foot. The upper reaches present very little character ; 
the middle reaches show pleasing pictures, without 
much brilliance, and with little better than gradual 
ascents on each side to the distance of about 4 miles, 
diversified with heights, hollows, and the beds of burns ; 
and the lower reaches rise rapidly into the utmost mag- 
nificence, in all styles of imposing landscape, from 
richly beautiful to overwhelmingly sublime. The mar- 
gins, in most parts, but chiefly toward the foot, are in- 
tricated with baylets and headlands, and considerably 
embellished with verdure or with wood ; and the bosoms 
of the central and the lower portions are gemmed with 
picturesque islands. The views all below Port Sonachan, 
or below the point at which the road comes down from 
Inverary, or over the lower 8 miles, are not excelled in 
magnificence by those of any other lake scenery in 
Britain. ' The shores and islands, with their farms, and 
woods, and edifices, look smiling and lovely, the moun- 
tains in the E, Ben-laoidh, Ben-a-Cleidh, and Meall-nan- 
Tighearnan, look stern and noble ; the cuts and open- 
ings amongst them into the interior glens look wild 
and mysterious ; and the monster mass of Ben Cruachan, 
rising right up from all the northern margins of both 
neck and arms, and soaring steeply to the clouds, looks 
overpoweringly majestic. The lake here, in spite of 
being at its greatest breadth, and even with the aid of 
its branching offsets, appears almost dwarfed into a pool 
within the mighty magnitude of its mountain frame- 
work ; and yet it draws a keener attention from the 
observer to the beauty of its own bosom and banks, and 
imparts to him from this a more thrilling delight than 
if it lay within smooth green hills, or upon an embel- 
lished plain. ' Some of the most interesting objects on 
its banks will be noticed under Kilohtjrn, Glenorchy, 
Cladich, and the principal mountains ; and the most 
interesting of its islands will be noticed in our articles 



on Innishail, Innis-Fraoch, Innis-Chonkel, and 
Innis-Errich. The depth of the lake, in one place, is 
51 fathoms. Its waters contain salmon, salruo-ferox, 
common trout, pike, perch, char, two or three species of 
sea-trout, and some other kinds of fish. The salmon 
ahound most in the NE- offset, toward the mouth of the 
Orchy river, but are found also in sheltered baylets and 
creeks. The salmo-ferox run from 6 to 20 lbs ; one of 
39J lbs. was caught in 1866 in the upper pool of the 
river Awe. The common trout abound more or less in 
various parts, according to the situation of the feeding- 
grounds, and average f lb. The pike are thought to be 
of recent importation, and they have made great ravages 
among the smaller and more delicate kinds of fish. 
The char frequent the head of the lake, around the 
place of its original outlet. The lake lies partly in Lorn, 
partly in Argyll district ; and, from the influx of the 
Avieh rivulet on its left side, about 9 miles from its 
head, all downward to its foot, it forms the boundary 
between these two districts. Its islands, shores, and 
flanks were distributed, in the medieeval times, among 
the clans Campbell, Macarthur, and Macgregor ; and its 
basin gave to the Campbells their slogan or war-cry, 
' It's a far call to Locho w ! ' inti mating derision of any 
attempt of foes to reach or penetrate its powerful 

The river Awe runs from the extremity of the NW 
offset of the lake, 5 miles north-westward to Loch Etive, 
at Bunawe. It steals slowly and silently from the lake 
into a narrow, deep, tremendous gorge, the Pass of 
Brander ; rushes thence along a rocky bed, much ob- 
structed by reefs and boulders ; and sometimes is slow 
enough to form a pool or a ford, but generally careers 
headlong in a succession of rapids and cataracts. Its 
width averages about 45 yards ; and its depth varies 
from 2 or 3 feet to 20. Its waters abound with trout 
and salmon, and afford excellent sport in rod fishing ; 
but they severely test the skill and hardihood of the 
angler, and can scarcely anywhere be satisfactorily 
fished without wading. Sea-trout ascend the river in 
considerable numbers. The salmon plays in it with more 
attraction than in almost any other river in Scotland ; 
and the salmo-ferox ascends the streamlets falling 
into it to spawn. The river's banks, in places terribly 
savage and wildly romantic, in others are fair with 
trees ; yet, for about three-fourths of their entire range, 
from the commencement of the Pass of Brander down- 
ward, they are properly not banks at all, but cliffs and 
precipices. Their height and steepness, too, especially 
along the Pass, are most imposing. The crags rise 
often from the water like a wall along most of the 
Pass, showing no space or level at their base, but de- 
scending sheer to the river's brink. The height of them 
at one place, measured from base to crest, is no less than 
1308 feet. The Pass, indeed, through all its length, in 
a gorge ; and, at its lower end, is almost blocked by 
two confronting rocks, so as there to present an appear- 
ance somewhat similar to that of the lock of a canal ; 
and it formerly was overhung by entangling woods. It 
always, nevertheless, was a point of transit or thorough- 
fare between the regions of Glenorchy and West Lorn ; 
and it is believed to have anciently had some sort of 
rude bridge ; yet, even with aid of either bridge or boat 
or other contrivance, it never could be traversed without 
much danger, or by any but a sure-footed mountaineer ; 
for it was barred by a mural ascent still called the 
Ladder Rock, and long commanded by a fortalice on the 
crown of the ascent. But now the Pass is crossed by a 
substantial bridge on the line of public road from 
Stirling and Dumbarton to Oban, and by a three-span 
railway viaduct. The Pass was the scene in 1300 of an 
exploit of Sir William AVallaco ; and in 1308 of a severe 
skirmish between King Robert Bruce and Macdougal of 
Lorn. A spot near the bridgo, too, is the scene of Sir 
Walter Scott's Highland Widow. The most convenient 
hotels for the angler are the Loch Awe, Dalmally, and 
Port Sonachan hotels. See Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour 
in Scotland, and P. G. Hamerton's A Painter's Camp in 
the Highlands.— Ord. Bw., shs. 37, 45, 1876. 


Aylort, a sea-loch in the Inverness-shire section of 
Ardnamurchan parish. It strikes from the SE side of 
Loch Na-Nua ; penetrates the land about 5 miles east- 
ward ; forms part of the boundary between Moidart and 
Arasaig ; is generally less than J mile wide ; terminates 
at Kinchregan ; and receives there a short stream from 
an isleted freshwater lake, Loch Ailt or Rannoch. 

Aylort Kinloch. See Kinloch Aylort. 

Ayr, a river which, traversing Ayrshire through its 
broadest part, cuts the county into two nearly equal 
portions. The Vindogara of Ptolemy, it is supposed to 
have got its modern name from the Gaelic a-reidh 
( ' smooth water ') ; it bore the name originally in the 
form of Are, afterwards in the forms of Air and Ayr, 
and it obviously gives its name to the town and county 
of Ayr. It is formed in Muirkirk parish, close to the 
Lanarkshire border, by head-streams that rise at an alti- 
tude of from 1200 to 1500 feet above sea-level ; and 
thence it runs about 38 miles, in the direction of W 
by S, but with many a bend, to the Firth of Clyde at 
the town of Ayr. Its course, for a few miles, lies 
through bleak moors and upland meadows ; but after- 
wards traverses a fertile champaign country, chiefly 
along a deep, narrow, bosky dell or chasm. Its princi- 
pal tributaries are the Garpol, the Greenock, the Lugar, 
and the Coyle. It traverses or bounds the parishes of 
Muirkirk, Sorn, Auchinleck, Mauchline, Tarbolton, 
Stair, Ayr, and St Quivox, and passes by Muirkirk, 
Wellwood, Limmerhaugh, Holhouse, Sorn, Catrine, 
Ballochmyle, Barskimming, Failford, Stair, Auchincruive, 
and Whitletts ; while places near it are Airdsmoss, 
Auchinleck, Mauchline, Tarbolton, Coylton, and St 
Quivox. Many reaches of it are richly picturesque ; 
many abound with striking close scenes ; and not a few 
are touched graphically, or worked into strong associa- 
tions, in the poems of Burns. Its waters contain yellow 
trout, and formerly were rich in salmon, but now have 
a very diminished repute among anglers. Its volume, 
in the winter months, is subject to heavy floods ; and 
then, as Burns says, designating Ayr harbour by the 
old name of Ratton Key, — 

' From Glenbuck down to the Ratton Key, 
Auld Ayr is just one lengthened tumbling sea. 

Ayr, the capital of Ayrshire, is a seaport, a seat of 
manufacture, and a royal and parliamentary burgh. It 
stands on the river Ayr, at its influx to the Bay of Ayr, 
and at a convergence of railways southward, south-west- 
ward, and northward. By sea it is 23 miles SSE of 
Garroch Head in Bute, 14£ SSE of Ardrossan, 16J E of 
Arran, 25 NE of Ailsa Craig, and 59 ENE of Torcar 
Point in Antrim, Ireland ; by rail it is 15J SSW of 
Kilmarnock, 33 SSW of Paisley, 40J SW by W of 
Glasgow (34 by road), 50J WSW of Carstairs, 78 SW 
by W of Edinburgh, 60 NW by W of Dumfries, 93 NW 
by W of Carlisle, and 66J NNE of Portpatrick. Its 
site is low ground, on the lip or sea-margin of a cham- 
paign, about 4 or 5 miles broad, screened all round by 
gently-rising heights, which form a groat natural amphi- 
theatre. Its outskirts and environs, and many of its 
streets and houses, command a magnificent view over a 
large expanse of the Firth of Clyde, to Ailsa Craig, the 
alps of Arran, the Cumbrae isles, the hills of Bute, the 
mountains of Argyll, and the hanging plains of Cunning- 
ham. Its own outlines, as seen with the great amphi- 
theatre around it for a background, particularly from 
the brow of Brown Carrick Hill (9'10 feet), which 
overhangs the left bank of the river Doon, 4J miles to 
the SSW, form a singularly brilliant and imposing pic- 
ture. The general view from Brown Carrick Hill, in- 
deed, away across Kyle and Cunningham, and over the 
Firth of Clydo, is so extensive, and all so brilliant and 
exquisite as to dwarf the town and its environs into only 
one small feature of the wholo ; but that one feature, 
nevertheless, is very striking. Suburban villas and 
blocks of buildings, all more or less shaded by planta- 
tions are seen on the hither Bide ; the Gothic mass oi 
Wallace Tower, and the lofty tapering spire of the 
Town's Buildings soar from the centre ; the chimney 


tops and gable ends of the old parts of the town start 
up irregularly on the further side, and are seen through 
such vistas or in such arrangements as make the town 
appear much larger than it really is ; and the entire 
place sits so grandly on the front of the great amphi- 
theatre, with the firth sweeping round it in a great 
crescent blocked on the further side by the peaks of 
Arran, as to look like a proud metropolis of an extensive 
and highly picturesque region. 

The town comprises Ayr proper on the left bank of the 
river, and the continuous suburbs of Newton-on-Ayr 
and Wallacetown on the right. Consisting of two nearly 
equal parts, separated from each other by the river, it 
must be treated here in some respects as only Ayr 
proper, in others as including the two trans-fluviatile 
suburbs. These, Newton and Wallacetown, have a 
topography, local interests, and a history of their own, 
and will be noticed in separate articles ; but they 
stand compact with one another, and all mutually 
contiguous to Ayr proper ; and they and it are one 
town both for all business purposes and for parlia- 
mentary representation ; so that all, in considerable 
degree, require to be described together in the present 

Ayr proper, so late as the early part of the present 
century, presented a motley aspect, and could boast 
of little street improvement. It had just acquired the 
very fine extension of "Wellington Square, but, with that 
exception, it consisted mainly of mean buildings, with 
fronts, gables, and corners projecting to the roadways 
as chanqe or caprice had directed. Its only thorough- 
fares were High Street, Carrick Vennel, Mill Vennel, 
Old Bridge Street, New Bridge Street, Sandgate Street, 
and Wellington Square ; and these were wretchedly 
paved, very indifferently cleaned, ill-lighted, and desti- 
tute of side pavements for foot-passengers. The prin- 
cipal approach to it from the N, too, was then a squalid 
winding way through Wallacetown ; and what is now 
the principal approach through Newton was then the 
water-way of a rnill-lade, blocked by an old huge build- 
ing, partly mill and partly dwelling-house. But the 
improvement which began in the erection of Wellington 
Square went rapidly forward ; it accomplished more in 
the twenty years up to 1835, than had been accomplished 
during the previous hundred years ; it made a further 
start at and after the opening of the railway to Glasgow 
in 1840 ; and it has issued in giving the town a high 
rank for at once orderliness, cleanliness, and beauty, 
among the second-class towns of Scotland. Wellington 
Square stands in the SW, and, as regards at once the 
neatness of its houses, the spaciousness of its area, the 
fineness of its situation, and the fine seaward view com- 
manded by its windows, is scarcely excelled by any 
modern extension in any other provincial town in the 
kingdom. Handsome suburbs, with numerous villas, 
have radiated from Wellington Square or arisen beyond 
it; and these, with the square itself, constitute an or- 
nate and urban West End. All the parts nearest the 
river and toward the shore have, generally speaking, 
a modern town-like aspect ; those in the centre and 
towards the S continue, in considerable degree, to be 
either antiquated, mean, or of village-like character. 
High Street is still the principal street., winding through 
both the modern regions and the old, and partaking 
of the character of both. 

A Roman road led from Dumfriesshire, through Gal- 
loway, into Ayrshire ; passed by way of Dalmellington 
and Ponessan to Ayr ; traversed the site of the town along 
the line of what is now Mill Street ; and seems to have 
terminated in either a military station or a harbour at 
the mouth of the river. It could be traced in many 
parts within the town, so late as about the beginning of 
the present century ; is still traceable in the SW of Castle- 
hill Gardens, within 1 J mile of the town ; and, till about 
the beginning of the 18th century, formed the only line 
of communication from Ayr to Galloway and Dumfries. 
Some urns, culinary utensils, and other small objects, 
believed to be Koman, have been found when digging 
foundations in the town. — A castle was built near°the 

Peal of Ayr. 


mouth of the river, about 1192, by William the Lyon 
and is mentioned by him as his ' new Castle of Ayr,' if 
a charter erecting the town into a burgh about 1200. 
Often destroyed and rebuilt in the course of successive 
wars, it held a strong garrison in 1263, to watch the pro 
gress of the Norwegian invasion under Haco, when it is 
said to have been assaulted and captured by the Norse 
men. In 1298 it was burned by Robert Bruce, to pre- 
vent its becoming a stronghold of the English army, who 
were marching westward to attack him ; but it was so 
repaired before 1314' as then to be garrisoned by Edward 
Bruce's army of 'full seven thousand men and mair,' 
raised for his expedition into Ireland ; and it is said, but 
on very questionable authority, to have existed down to 
Cromwell's day. No trace of it appears to have been 
visible for several centuries ; but its site is supposed to 
have been a rising ground near the river, behind the 
present academy. The burgh 
seal is thought to have been 
adopted from the castle, ex- 
hibiting three battlemented 
towers, together with em- 
blems of St John the Baptist. 
— A # temporary barrack, 
known in history as the 
Barns of Ayr, was erected 
by the forces of Edward I. 
of England on the SE side of 
the town, probably because 
they found the castle not 
sufficiently commodious or 
in improper condition for 
their occupancy; and that barrack was in 1297 the 
scene of the famous tragical exploit of Sir William 
Wallace, separately noticed under Baens op Aye.— A 
citadel, afterwards called the Fort, was erected by Olivei 
Cromwell in 1652, on ground extending from the sea 
to the site of the present Fort Street ; was built chiefly 
with stones freighted from Ardrossan, and at so grent 
a cost as to have made Cromwell exclaim that it seemed 
to have been built of gold ; occupied an area of about 
12 acres, on a hexagonal ground plan; had bastions 
at the angles, with the main one close to the harbour, 
and commanding the entire circuit of the fortifications, 
the river's mouth, and the town itself; and enclosed 
the cruciform church of St John the Baptist, founded 
in the 12th century, and converted by Cromwell into 
an armoury and guard-room. The citadel was con- 
structed for the occupancy of a large body of troops, 
both to command the town and harbour of Ayr, and to 
overawe and defend the W and S of Scotland ; and it 
continued to be garrisoned till the end of Cromwell's 
time, but was dismantled after the Restoration. The 
ground it occupied, together with such of its buildings 
as remained, was given to the Earl of Eglinton, in com- 
pensation for losses sustained during the Great Rebel- 
lion, and, under the name of Montgomerystown, it was 
created a burgh of regality, and became the seat of a con- 
siderable trade. In 1853 it became the property of 
Mr John Miller, who transformed the old castle into its 
present state, and feued out the whole ground, which is 
now occupied by elegant villas. 

Part of a gateway of the town, called the Old Port, 
still stood at the Townhead within the present century, 
projecting on the pavement, in connection with the 
present ' Tarn o' Shanter Tavern. ' — The original Tol- 
tiooth, in which, according to Blind Harry, Sir William 
Wallace was confined, stood in High Street, and was 
supplanted by a house, long since removed, which, in 
its front, had a carved head, claiming to be a bust of 
Wallace. A building at the corner of Newmarket 
Street and High Street contains in a niche a figure of 
Wallace. The next tolbooth, known to record aa the 
Old Jail, stood on the rising ground in the centre of 
Sandgate, and, leaving barely room for carriages to pass, 
was the first object that attracted a stranger's attention 
on entering the town by the New Bridge. It was gained 
from the street by a stair of nineteen steps, so that 
prisoners taken into it were said to have gone up the 



nineteen stsps ; and had in front a steeple surmounted 
by a spire rising to the height of 135 feet, and furnished 
with a public clock, called in Burns' Brigs of Ayr ' the 
drowsy dungeon clock.' The building dated from some 
time unknown to record, and it remained long without 
a steeple. A mere belfry, ' for the use of the town and 
the Kirk,' was erected on it in 1614 ; a steeple was 
projected in 1697, but rose to only the first story in 
1715, and was not completed till about 1726. The 
entire structure, in consequence of its obstructing and 
almost blocking the thoroughfare, .was taken down in 
1S26. — The Fish Cross, round which the fishwives 
Tended their fish, stood near the river, and was a 
very plain structure, with a two-stepped basement 
and a surmounting pillar. — The Malt Cross stood near 
the site of the present Town-Hall ; was an elegant 
structure, with hexagonal base, surmounting pillar, 
and crowning unicorn, somewhat similar to the ancient 
cross of Edinburgh ; was the scene of a notorious 
burning of a lady of the name of Osborne, for im- 
puted witchcraft, about the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury ; and, after the building of the New Bridge and 
opening of the thoroughfare thence to Sandgate, about 
1788, was taken down. — The massive three-story man- 
sion of the Osborne* family on the N side of High 
Street, believed to have been the residence of the 
reputed witch, was demolished in 1881, and a fine 
hotel erected on its site. — A large turreted house stood 
near the Osborne mansion, separated from it only by 
a lane leading down to the river ; belonged originally to 
the Blairs of Adamton, afterwards to the Chalmerses of 
Gadgirth ; and later than 1800 was partly occupied as 
the ' Queen's Head Inn. ' — An ancient small baronial 
tower at the corner of High Street and Mill Vennel 
belonged for some time to the Cathcarts of Corbieston, 
was purchased by the town council in 1673, and acquired, 
one knows not why, the designation of Wallace Tower. 
Partly reconstructed in 1731, it gave place in 1834 to an 
elegant edifice in the Gothic style, 113 feet high, now 
one of the most prominent buildings in the town, and ac- 
cepted in popular belief as the veritable Wallace Tower or 
true representative of that in which the hero lay. In it 
are the clock and bells of the quondam ' dungeon ' steeple, 
and its front is 'adorned ' with a statue of Wallace, carved 
by the well-known self-taught sculptor Thorn. — Newton 
Castle, in the Newton suburb, on a site between Garden 
Street and the Old Bridge, was a strong edifice, suited 
alike for military and domestic purposes. It was taken 
by the Norwegians in 1263, prior to the battle of Largs; 
belonged in 1468 to Adam Wallace, a relative of the 
Craigie family, and passed, in the time of James V., 
with the lands of Sanquhar, to Sir William Hamilton, 
then taking the name of Sanquhar-Hamilton Castle. 
In 1585 it was the temporary residence of the Earl of 
Arran ; in 1588 passed to the family of Craigie ; and 
was demolished in 1701. 

The bridges which link Ayr proper to its suburbs are 
' The Twa Brigs ' of Burns' famous poem. They stand 
within 500 yards of one another. The Auld Brig is the 
upper one ; seems, on the evidence of record, to have 
been built at some time between 1470 and 1525 ; but is 
commonly said, without a shadow of proof, to have been 
erected in the reign of Alexander III. (1249-86), at the 
expense of two maiden sisters of the name of Lowe, 
whose effigies, now crumbled away, were pointed out 
near the S end of the eastern parapet. It comprises four 
lofty and strongly-framed arches. The scour of the 
river, in the early spring of 1892, had so injured 
the foundation that measures had to be adopted 
to secure the stability of the bridge. A ford, the 
Ducat Stream, immediately above the bridge, seems 
to have been the only passage from the town in olden 
times ; and, prior to the erection of the bridge, 
yearly the scene of much. loss of life during the floods of 
winter and spring. The New Bridge was built (1785- 
88) chiefly through the exertions of Provost Ballantyno, 
to whom Burns dedicated his poem, and it was a neat 
ttructure, with five arches, after a design by Robert 
Adam. Injured by the floods of 1877, it was rebuilt 


(1S78-79) for over £15,000, and repaired (1881-82) for 
£2000 more, thus fulfilling the Auld Brig's prophecy — 

' And tho' wi' crazy eild I'm sair forfairn, 
I'll be a brig when ye're a shapeless cairn.' 

The railway viaduct, 3 furlongs above the Auld Brig, 
is 26 feet wide, and consists of 4 arches, each of 60 feet 
span, with a footpath outside the parapet. — The County 
Buildings on the NW side of Wellington Square were 
built from a design by Mr Wallace, after the model of 
the temple of Isis in Rome, at a cost of more than 
£30,000. They have a portico decorated with columns 
of Arran stone ; their upper story contains Justiciary and 
County halls, the latter enriched with portraits of the 
twelfth Earl of Eglinton, the fourth Earl ef Glasgow, 
and the late Mr Hamilton of Sumdrum. — The Town's 
Buildings, erected in 1828, at the junction of High 
Street and Sandgate — the latter in a line with the New 
Bridge — were originally a tasteful structure, surmounted 
by a beautiful spire 226 feet high, and were greatly 
enlarged and improved in 1880-81 at an estimated cost 
(considerably exceeded) of £19,952, by the addition of 
a fine new police court and a town-hall with stained- 
glass portraits of Wallace, Bruce, John Welsh, Burns, 
Scott, and Shakespeare, and with a powerful organ. 
— The prison stands near the shore behind the County 
Buildings. The northern station, in the Newton suburb 
near the New Bridge, and built in 1840, was converted 
into a luggage station in 1857 on the opening of the 
southern passenger station at the Townhead. In June, 
1886, the Glasgow and South-Western Railway Com- 
pany opened a new and commodious station here, its 
platform covering an area of 3000 square feet, and in 
connection with it a large and handsome hotel. In an 
open space immediately in front of this a statue to the 
memory of Burns was erected in 1891, facing the birth- 
place of the poet, who is represented with arms partly 
folded. The figure, which is of bronze, is of colossal 
size, stands on a pedestal of Aberdeen granite, the 
whole being surrounded by a handsome railing, the gift 
of Sir William Arrol, of bridge-building fame. — A bronze 
statue of Brigadier-General Jas. Geo. Smith-Neill (1810- 
57), who fell at the first relief of Lucknow, stands in 
Wellington Square, where he was born ; and a monu- 
ment to Archibald William, thirteenth Earl of Eglinton 
(1812-61), of tournament memory, stands on the W side 
of the Square, facing the portico of the County Build- 
ings. Designed like General Neill's by Mr Noble, it 
was erected in 1865 ; and comprises a granite pedestal 
16 feet high and more than 40 tons in weight, and a 
bronze statue 12 feet high and i\ tons in weight. 

St John the Baptist Church was either the original 
church of Ayr or at least a very ancient building, and was 
the meeting-place in 1315 of the parliament of King 
Robert Bruce which assigned the succession to his 
brother Edward. It stood between the town and the 
river's mouth, on a site afterwards enclosed within 
Cromwell's citadel ; and was a cruciform structure, 
with a tower at its W end terminating in a crow-stepped 
roof. It continued the parish church till the erection 
of Cromwell's citadel, when it was converted into an 
armouryand guard-room. The present old parish church 
was built in 1653-55, at a cost of £1708 sterling, partly 
defrayed by Cromwell. It stands in a retired space 
behind High Street ; has a cruciform shape, somewhat 
resembling that which St John's Church had, yet pre- 
sents nothing to vie with the grand Gothic ecclesiastical 
edifices of preceding times ; was, not long since, re- 
seated and adorned with splendid memorial stained-glass 
windows ; and also has a very fine organ. The New Church 
was built in 1810 at a cost of £5703; recently a fine 
organ was introduced into it; and, both without and 
within, it is handsome enough, though lacking the im- 
portant feature of tower or spire. The total sittings in 
the two parochial churches are 1982. The parish church 
of Newton was built towards the close of last cen- 
tury, and that of Wallacetown in 1834-36; other Estab- 
lishment churches being North Newton (1885), and St 
Leonard's (1886). A new mission hall was erected in 


1886 for Wallacetown church at a cost of £1300. Five 
Free churches are Ayr, Martyrs', Wallacetown, Newton, 
and St Andrew's ; two U. P. churches are Cathcart Street 
(1182 sittings) and Darlington Place (820 sittings). 
Other places of worship are a United Original Secession 
churoh (1799 ; 605 sittings), a Moravian chapel, an 
Evangelical Union chapel, a Wesleyan chapel (1813 ; 
530 sittings), Trinity Episcopal church (rebuilt 1891), 
Ayr Baptist temple (formerly the Queen's rooms and 
theatre), and St Margaret's Roman Catholic church 
(1827; 684 sittings), a Gothic edifice, built at a cost of 
£1900. — The original cemetery lay around St John's 
Church; the next cemetery was that around the old 
parochial church ; and a beautiful new cemetery is 
on the river Ayr, about % mile from the town. An 
Observants' friary, founded in 1472, stood on the site 
of the present Old Church ; and is now represented by 
nothing but an excellent spring, the Friar's Well. 

A public school, dating from 1264, or perhaps from 
1233, was connected till the Reformation with St John's 
Church, passing thereafter under the town council's 
management. It had for its rector, in 1727 and follow- 
ing years, the celebrated grammarian Mair, author of 
the Introduction to Latin Composition. Reconstituted, 
under the name of Ayr Academy, in 1794, it received a 
royal charter in 1798 ; gives instruction in classics, 
ancient and modern languages, mathematics, etc. ; is 
conducted by a rector, four masters, and a large staff 
of assistants; and passed under the Burgh school-board 
in 1873. The original building stood at the head of 
School Vennel, the present Academy Street, and was a 
plain quaint structure, with a thatched roof. The next, 
in an open healthy situation, near the site of Cromwell's 
citadel, was erected in 1810 at a cost of £3000, and in 
1880 was superseded by^the present edifice, which, cost- 
ing £10,000, stands in front of the old, and can accom- 
modate between 500 and 600 pupils. A plain but 
massive Grecian two-storied structure, with rustic base- 
ment, centre, and two wings, it measures 140 by nearly 
300 feet; a tetrastyle Corinthian portico is adorned with 
medallions of Wilkie, Watt, and Burns. The public 
schools, with their accommodation, average attendance, 
and grants for the year 1890-91, were: — The Grammar 
School (403, 396, £502, 16s. 6d.), Newton Academy 
(400, 354, £353, 9s. 6d. ), Smith's Institution (550, 427, 
£373, 12s. 6d.), Lady Jane Hamilton's school (350, 99, 
£110, 13s. 6d.), Wallacetown (484, 410, £358, 15s.), 
Newtonhead (784, 725, £634, 7s. 6d.), and Russell 
Street (755, 395, £382, 17s. 6d.) There are also Epis- 
copal and Roman Catholic schools, which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 297 and 200 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 254 and 255, and grants of 
£203, 14s. 7d. and £217.— The mechanics' institution, 
founded in 1825, had a large and excellent library, but 
it has since been incorporated with the public library and 
reading-room, for which, the town having adopted the 
Free Libraries' Act, a handsome pile of buildings 
was erected in 1893 at the foot of Main Street, Newton-, 
towards the cost of which Mr Carnegie, the American 
millionaire, contributed £10,000. At the head of the 
same street a Unionist Club-house has also been erected. 
Other institutions are a branch of the Royal Lifeboat 
Institution, an auxiliary shipwrecked fishers' and mari- 
ners' benevolent society, a sailors' society (1581), etc. The 
requirements of the cattle trade having outgrown the 
accommodation of the old market, a new one was opened 
in 1890, to the south of the railway station, the railway 
line running into it. The district lunatic asylum, opened 
in July, 1869, has accommodation for 324 patients. The 
Kyle union poorhouse (1860), to the E of the Btation, 
contains accommodation for 168 paupers. A little be- 
yond it a new two-storied hospital, 400 feet long, for 
44 general and 20 fever patients, was opened in 1883, 
the fever ward being detached. The Cholera and Small- 
pox Hospital, in Mainholm Road, was built in 1894; 
and in the same year were erected the Municipal Electric 
Supply Works. In connection with the erection of the 
new slip dock, a broad substantial esplanade, protected 
by a concrete bulwark, has been made, extending from 


the harbour to the mouth of the Doon — a distance of 
fully a mile. The Low Green, a finely situated recrea- 
tion park, extends along the shore from Wellington 
Square to Doon foot. A golf course of nine holes, with 
a round of a mile and a quarter, was opened at North- 
field in 1894. 

The town has a head post office, erected in Sandgate 
Street in 1893, and adjoining the site of an old post office 
that preceded the late one in Newmarket Street. Scot- 
tish baronial in style, it contains a public office 30 feet 
by 21, a sorting room 25 by 23, telegraph instrument 
room 30 by 23, and minor rooms. There are branches of 
the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co. , the Clydes- 
dale, Commercial, National, Royal, and Union Banks, 
and a savings bank ; numerous hotels and inns, several 
temperance hotels, and a Working Man's Public House, 
erected in 1880 at a cost of £6000 by Henry and William 
Houldsworth, Esqs. Papers are the Thursday Liberal 
Ayr Advertiser (1803), the Tuesday and Friday Conser- 
vative Ayr Observer (1832), and the Friday Liberal Ayr- 
shire Post (1880). Tuesday and Friday are market-days, 
and fairs are held on the Thursday before the second 
Wednesday of January, the third Tuesday and the last 
Friday of April, the Thursday before the second Monday 
and third Tuesday of July, and the second Thursday 
and third Tuesday of October. On the racecourse, to 
the S of the town, is held in September the three days' 
Western Meeting. Coaches, in connection with railway 
trains, run to Kirkmichael and Straiton every Tuesday, 
to Ochiltree and Cumnock every Tuesday and Friday, 
and to Prestwick six times a day. The town had an- 
ciently so great trade as to be styled by Buchanan ' em- 
porium non ignooile;' and Brereton in 1634 deaoribed it 
as ' a dainty, pleasant-seated town, most inhabiting in 
which are merchants trading into and bred in France. ' 
From causes, however, not well understood, it greatly 
declined in prosperity, so that Defoe wrote early in the 
18th century: — ' It is now like an old beauty, and shows 
the ruins of a good face, but is still decaying every day; 
and from having been the fifth best town in Scotland, 
as the townsmen say, it is now the fifth worst; which is 
owing to the decay of its trade. So true it is that com- 
merce is the life of cities, of nations, and even of king- 
doms. What was the reason of the decay of trade in this 
place is not easy to determine, the people themselves 
being either unwilling or unable to tell ' (Tour through 
Great Britain, ed. 1745, p. 114). The writer of the 
New Statistical account of it in 1837 also says: — 'It has 
often been a matter of surprise, that Ayr has not been 
more benefited by manufactures and public works, pos- 
sessing, as it does, so many advantages for this purpose, 
and such facilities of communication with other places, 
both by sea and land. With such an extensive grain 
country surrounding it, distilleries could not fail to 
thrive; the price of labour is low rated, and all the 
other requisites are easily procurable. Cotton works 
might prosper as well here as at Catrine, the town being 
as favourably situated in regard to all the materials 
necessary — coal, water, and labourers in abundance ; 
while it has greatly the advantage, by enjoying the 
means of sea, as well as of land, carriage. And we can see 
nothing to hinder the manufacture of wool in its various 
branches, particularly in the weaving of carpets, from 
succeeding as well in this place as in Kilmarnock, which 
owes to this cause so much of its wealth and prosperity. ' 
The woollen manufacture, as a matter of fact, was in- 
troduced in 1832, and has been prosperous. Begun, for 
wool-spinning and carpet-weaving, in a small building, 
once a cotton mill, it succeeded so well as to occasion 
great extensions of the premises from time to time till 
the present. Several other factories carry on considerable 
trade in the making of blankets, flannels, plaidings, and 
various kinds of woollen wearing apparel. Shoemaking 
for the foreign market was carried on to a large extent 
in the early part of the present century, and is still very 
prosperous. Besides the extensive woodyards and saw- 
mills of Messrs Paton & Sons, transferred in 1881 from 
the S to the N quay, and of Messrs Alexander & Sons, 
about half a mile up the river on the same side, there 



are several large engineering and ironfounding works; 
and tanning and currying is also carried on. There are 
also powerloom and lace goods factories; two extensive 
chemical works (both in Newton), a large starch and 
gum mill, and the famous nurseries of Messrs Imrie & 
Co. , which are beautifully laid out, and no restriction 
is made to persons walking through them. There for- 
merly were nine incorporated trades; and four of them — 
hammermen, tailors, squaremen, and shoemakers — still 
retain an embodied form, with deacons and trades' house. 
A fishery at the town formerly swept well-nigh the entire 
firth, for the supply of Greenock, Glasgow, and other 
places, and likewise made great capture of salmon in the 
rivers Ayr and Doon, sometimes sending them as far as 
Carlisle and London ; but it shrank into a comparatively 
narrow sphere after the introduction of steam navigation, 
yet still is productive enough to bring abundant supply 
of all kinds of fish to the local market, and employs 200 
3oats of 564 tons. Shipbuilding was anciently carried 
Dn for several of the Kings of Scotland ; and it still con- 
tinues to give some employment. The shipbuilding 
yard and slip dock erected on the south side of the har- 
bour are leased out, and a considerable business is being 
done by the present holders of the lease, 9 steel steam 
ships in 1891 having been built. 

The harbour lies within the river's mouth, and for- 
merly was nothing more than a shallow, narrow, natural 
tidal basin, with no better appliance than an old range 
of storehouses. A bar, obstructing the river's mouth, 
seemed for a long time to resist removal, in consequence 
of constant fresh deposits on it of alluvial matter; but 
after great expenditure of labour and money, was con- 
siderably reduced, and finally got rid of altogether. A 
pier, from 20 to 25 feet high, diminishing from about 24 
to 8 feet in width, and extending to about 1100 feet in 
length, was constructed on the S side seaward about 
the year 1827; another pier, of similar dimensions, was 
constructed on the N side seaward a few years later; and 
a breakwater outward from the extremity of the piers, 
and shielding the mouth of the entrance to the harbour, 
was constructed subsequently to 1837. Two light- 
houses, with three lights, give the line for taking the 
harbour. The lights bear SE by E J E 850 feet; two 
of them are bright, the other red; and one of the bright 
ones and the red one are in the same building, and show 
all night. Between 1874 and 1881 a wet dock and slip 
dock were constructed at a cost respectively of £140,000 
and £13,500. The former (opened 18 July 1878) is 
7J acres in area, has 15 feet of water at low tide and 
2000 feet of quayage, and is provided with hydraulic 
hoists. For some years past the revenue of the harbour 
has averaged about £25,000. From 2459 in 1836 the 
aggregate tonnage registered as belonging to the port 
rose to 3684 in 1843, 6668 in 1852, 8758 in 1866, 8317 
in 1874, 11,471 in 1878, and 14,095 in 1880, but de- 
clined to 4710 in 1894 — viz. 17 sailing vessels of 3491 
and 12 steamers of 1219 tons. The following table gives 
the aggregate tonuage of vessels that entered and cleared 
from and to foreign and colonial ports and coastwise in 
cargoes, and also in ballast : — 























Of the 1964 vessels of 287,885 tons that entered in 1894 
1585 of 232,229 tons were steamers, 927 of 112,069 tons 
were in ballast, and 1877 of 242,626 tons were coasters; 
whilst the 1954 of 281,988 tons of those that cleared 
included 1583 steamers of 229,971 tons, 443 vessels 
in ballast of 66,148 tons, and 1882 coasters of 252,297 
tons. The trade is mainly then an export coastwise one, 
and coal is the chief article of export. The commerce 


of bygone days included much import of wine from 
France, and much export of corn and salmon. The 
modern commerce was long and severely curtailed 
through the great improvements in the navigation of 
the Clyde carrying up much trade to Greenock, Port- 
Glasgow, and Glasgow, and likewise through the forma- 
tion of Ardrossan harbour; yet, notwithstanding the 
continuance and increase of competition from these 
quarters^ it has undergone great revival, due partly to 
the opening of the railways, partly to mining extension 
and agricultural improvement. The owners and the 
workers of the rich mineral-fields in Kyle and Carrick, 
and the farmers and corn-merchants throughout most 
of these districts, must ever regard Ayr as a valuable 
seaport. The chief imports now are whisky from Camp" 
beltown; beef, butter, barley, yarn, linen, limestone, 
whiting, and porter, from Ireland; slates and bark from 
Wales; guano from Liverpool and Ichaboe; boues from 
South America; spars, deals, and heavy timber from 
North America and the Baltic; and tar and pitch from 
Archangel. The chief exports are coal, pig-iron, farm 
produce, leather, ale, and manufactured goods. In 
1894 the value of foreign and colonial imports was 
£145,09S (£141,411 in 1893); of exports, £11,139; and 
of customs, £2170. Steamers sail to Greenock, Glasgow, 
Campbeltown, Girvan, Stranraer, Liverpool, Belfast, 
Lame, and Garliestown. 

Ayr was made a royal burgh about 1200 by a charter 
of William the Lyon, 'which,' says Hill Burton, 'is 
perhaps the oldest known charter absolutely bringing a 
burgh into existence;' and it then received the extensive 
privileges it still enjoys. The municipal burgh includes 
Ayr proper, Newton, and AVallacetown, as likewise does 
the parliamentary burgh, which unites with Irvine, 
Campbeltown, Inverary, and Oban, in sending a member 
to Parliament. The town council comprises a provost, 
4 bailies, a chamberlain, a treasurer, a dean of guild, 
a procurator-fiscal, and 12 councillors. The General 
Police and Improvement Act was adopted in all its parts 
prior to 1871. In 1S91 the police force numbered 27 
men (superintendent's pay, £200). The annual value 
of real property within the parliamentary burgh was 
£52,168 in 1871, £127,383 (plus £5299 for railways) in 
1892, when the municipal and parliamentary constitu- 
encies numbered respectively 4033 and 3219. The cor- 
poration revenue was £2057 in 1833, £2646 in 1864, 
£3482 in 1874, £3245 in 1880, and £6144 in 1891. Pop. 
(1841) 15,749, (1851) 17,624, (1861) 18,573, (1871) 17,853, 
(1881)20,812, (1891)24,791, of whom 11,561 were males, 
and 13,230 females. 

Ayr may be presumed to have been a place of some 
importance long before the period of authentic record. 
It is not mentioned by any Roman writer ; yet it 
clearly appears, from the Roman road to it, and from 
Roman relics found in and near it, to have been well 
known to the Roman forces in Britain. It comes into 
notice in the time of William the Lyon in aspects which 
imply it to have long before possessed at once political 
and commercial consequence. It also figured promi- 
nently both in the War of Independence and throughout 
the religious struggle at and after the Reformation. 
Wallace and Bruce on the one hand, and the forces of 
Edward I. of England on the other, stand boldly out in 
connection with Ayr. Even the local disturbers of the 
public peace, the heads of septs in Kyle and Carrick, 
the Crawfurds, the Campbells, and the Kennedys, in the 
16th and 17th centuries, made it the focus or scene of 
some of their endless quarrels. Famous natives and 
residents, too, have thrown lustre over the town. 
Joannes Scotus Erigona, who shone like a star amid the 
darkness of Europe in the 9th century, is claimed by 
Ayr, but was more probably an Irishman. John Welsh, 
the famous High Presbyterian divine, was minister ol 
Ayr from 1590 to 1605; at Ayr, in 1625, died his wife, 
Elizabeth Knox, daughter of the great Reformer; and 
in Young's Life of him, edited by the Rev. James An- 
derson, is much of interest regarding Ayr. Andrew 
Michael Ramsay (1686-1743), commonly called the 
C'bavalier de Ramsay, well known for his Travels of 


Cyrus, but better known as a convert to Romanism and 
as tutor to the Young Pretender, was a native. Dr 
M'Gill who, by his Essay on the Death of Clirist, led 
the way to a great heresy in the latter part of last cen- 
tury, was one of the ministers of Ayr, and lies in its 
churchyard; his colleague was Dr Dalrymple, who figures 
in a poem of Burns as ' D'rymple mild.' Dr William 
Peebles, who dragged M 'Gill's heresy into notice, and is 
styled by Burns ' Poet Willie,' was minister of Newton. 
Natives, too, were John Loudon Macadam (1756-1836) of 
road-making celebrity ; David Cathcart, Lord Alloway 
(1764-1829), judge of the Court of Session ; Archibald 
Crawford (1779-1843), a minor poet ; and Jas. Fergus- 
son, D.C.L. (b. 1808), writer on architecture. But on 
Alloway, Burns' birthplace, Ayr rests its highest claim 
to fame. He made the town so thoroughly his own by 
his graphic descriptions and humorous effusions, that 
it blends itself with much of his biography, both as 
a man and as a poet ; and he knew it so long and so 
intimately that his panegyric may well be taken for 
true — 

■ Auld Ayr, wham ne'er a town surpasses 
For honest men and bonny lasses.' 

The civil parish of Ayr until 1895 comprised the ancient 
parishes of Ayr and Alloway, nearly equal to each other 
in extent, and separated by Glengaw Burn. On the 31 
Jan. of that year, however, an order was issued by the 
Secretary for Scotland combining the parishes of Ayr, 
Newton-upon-Ayr, and St Quivox into one parish, to be 
called the Parish of Ayr. The school boards of these 
parishes, exclusive of that for the burgh, were superseded 
in the same year by one for the combined parish. A small ■ 
part of the parish of Maybole that lay on the right 
bank of the estuary of the Doon (and which included 
part of Sir Wm. Arrol's property of Seafield, also 
Abercromby Cottage, etc.) was in 1891 transferred 
by the Boundary Commissioners to the parish of Ayr. 
The low level tracts in the SW were long bleak and 
barren, or covered mostly with firs and heath, but 
both these and all the other low level lands are now so 
enriched by cultivation and so embellished with wood as 
to look almost like a series of pleasure-grounds. The 
parts farthest inland are cold and bleak, and have a very 
tame appearance. The rocks lie deep, can be seen only 
in the river beds, in quarries, or in mines, and belong 
mainly to the Carboniferous formation, partly to mas- 
sive or intersecting traps. Sandstone was formerly 
quarried, but it lies too deep to be now economically 
worked. A species of clay stone, well-known to artisans 
as ' Water of Ayr stone,' and used for whetting fine- 
edged tools and for polishing marble and metals, is got 
in the bed of the Ayr. Some fine specimens of agate 
are occasionally found on the shore. The soil, near the 
coast, is light and sandy ; over the next 2 miles, or 
nearly so, is a light, rich, fertile mould ; farther back, 
becomes somewhat churlish ; and, on the boundary 
heights, is a cold, stiff, tilly day. A lake, Loch Fergus, 
(3x1 furlong), with an islet in its centre, lies on the SE 
boundary ; and another smaller lake, Carcluie Loch, lies 
toward the S. The chief country residences are Castle- 
hill, Belmont Cottage, Rozelle, Doonholm, Bellisle, 
Cambusdoon, and Mount Charles. A battle is said to 
have been fought between the Romans and the Cale- 
donians, in the year 360, on the banks of Doon. 
Another battle figures obscurely, in the writings of 
Hollingshed, Boethius, and Buchanan, as having been 
fought, at some early period, between tribes of the 
Caledonians, somewhere on the south-western border of 
the parish ; and is represented as having been fatal both 
to Fergus I.., King of the Scots, and Coilus, King of the 
Britons. Loch Fergus is said to have been named from 
the former of these kings, and Coylton and Kyle from 
the latter. Seven proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 67 of between £100 and £500, 
94 of from £50 to £100, and 100 of from £20 to £50. 
The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr, the civil parish contains part of the quoad sacra 
garish of Alloway. The charge is collegiate or double, 


the income of the first minister being £433, of the second 
£370. Valuation of landward portion £14,948, 3s. 2d. 
Pop. (1801) 5492, (1831) 7606, (1861) 9308, (1871) 9589, 
(1881) 10,182, (1891) 11,149.— Orel. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 
See D. Murray Lyon's Notes on Ayr in the Olden Time, 
and the Marquess of Bute's Burning of the Barns of Ayr. 

The presbytery of Ayr, meeting there on the first Wed- 
nesday of February, April, May, July, October, and 
December, comprises the parishes of Auchinleck, Ayr, 
Barr, Coylton, Craigie, New Cumnock, Old Cumnock, 
Dailly, Dalmellington, Dalrymple, Duudonald, Galston, 
Girvan, Kh'kmichael, Kirkoswald, Mauchliue, Maybole, 
Monkton, Muirkirk, Newton-upon-Ayr, Ochiltree, St 
Quivox, Riccarton, Sorn, Stair, Straiton, Symington, 
and Tarbolton; the quoad sacra parishes of Alloway, 
Catrine, Crossbill, Fisherton, Fullarton, GirvanrSouth, 
Glenbuek, Maybole-West, Patna, St Leonard's, Troon, 
and Wallacetown ; and the chapeiries of Annbank, Darn- 
connar, Lugar, and Newton-North. Pop. (1891) 112,328, 
of whom 21,562 were communicants of the Church ot 
Scotland in that year, when the sums raised by the 
above congregations in Christian liberality amounted 
to £12,247. The Free Church also has a presbytery of 
Ayr, in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, with five 
churches at Ayr, and others at Ballantrae, Barr, Barr- 
hill, Colmonell, Crosshill, three at New Cumnock, 
Old Cumnock, Dailly, Dalmellington, Dalrymple, Dun- 
donald, Girvan, Kirkoswald, Maybole, Ochiltree, Prest- 
wick etc. , Stair, Symington, Tarbolton, and Troon. In 
1891 the members of these 27 churches numbered 5030. 
The United Original Seceders likewise have a presbytery 
of Ayr, comprehending charges at Ayr, Auchinleck, 
Darvel, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning, and Stranraer, and 
two charges in Ireland. 

Ayr, Bay of, an eastward expansion of the Firth of 
Clyde, opposite the island of Arran. It sweeps into the 
coast of Ayrshire in a concave form, and has an outline 
somewhat similar to that of a crescent moon. The 
chord of it, or the geographical line separating it from 
the main body of the firth, extends from Farland Head, 
at the E side of the entrance of the strait between Cum- 
brae islands and the mainland, 22 miles south-south- 
eastward to the Heads of Ayr or promontory of Brown 
Carrick Hill, 2 miles WSW of the mouth of the river 
Doon. The longest line, at right angles with the chord, 
to the mainland at the mouth of Irvine Water, is 6£ 
miles. The extent of shore-line, exclusive of minor 
curvatures, is 25 miles. The aggregate of foreshore is 
about 2870 acres. The coast, in a general view, is all 
low, or but little diversified ; and it has indentations of 
any consequence only at Ardrossan, Saltcoats, and Troon. 
An islet, called Horse Island, lies near Ardrossan. 
Another islet, called Lady Isle, lies 2J miles SW of 
Troon ; and two rocks or skerries, Lappoch Rock and 
Meikle Craig, lie respectively 2 miles N by W, and 1J 
mile S by E, of Troon. The parishes on the coast are 
West Kilbride, Ardrossan, Stevenston, Irvine, Dun- 
donald, Monkton, Newton, Ayr, and Maybole. The 
chief streams flowing into the bay are the Garnock and 
the Irvine, in the vicinity of Irvine ; the Ayr, at Ayr 
harbour ; and the Doon, 2 miles S of Ayr. The scenery 
of the bay blends on the N with that of Cumbrae and 
Bute, on the E with that of great part of Ayrshire, on 
the S with that of Ailsa Craig and the main body of the 
firth, on the W with Arran and the Argyllshire moun- 
tains; and is surpassingly diversified and magnificent. 
In the bay are two lifeboat stations, one at Ayr and the 
other at Ardrossan. The lifeboat at the latter was 
renewed in 1892. 

Ayr and Portpatrick Railway, a section of the Glas- 
gow and South-Western system. The first reach of it, 
to the length of 3| miles, forms a trunk-line to jointly 
the Portpatrick and the Dalmellington, the latter 
going south-eastward to a distance of 15 miles from 
Ayr. The next reach goes 5f miles southward and 
south-south-westward to Maybole town; was opened in 
October 1857; was worked and maintained, under an Act 
of 1863, by the Glasgow and South-Western; and in 1871 
was vested in that company at 7 per cent. Another 



reach, called the Maybole and Girvan, extends 12J miles 
southward and south-south-westward from Maybole to 
Girvan; was opened in 1S60, and became amalgamated 
in 1866 with the Glasgow and South-Western. The 
Girvan and Portpatrick reach was opened in 1877, and 
was acquired by the Glasgow and South-Western in 

Ayr Road, a railway station in Lanarkshire, on the 
Lesmahagow branch of the Caledonian railway, 1J mile 
SE of Larkhall. 

Ayrshire, a maritime county of SW Scotland. It is 
bounded N by Renfrewshire, NE by Renfrew and Lanark 
shires, E by Lanark and Dumfries shires, SE by Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, S by Wigtownshire, W by the North 
Channel and the Firth of Clyde. Its length, from Kelly 
Burn in the N to Galloway Burn in the S, is 60 miles 
in a direct line, but 90 miles by the public road; its 
breadth increases from 3J miles at the northern, and 
6^ at the southern, extremity to 28 eastward from the 
Heads of Ayr; and its area comprises 723,873J acres of 
land, 6075J of foreshore, and 6957 of water — in all 1149 
square miles. The parishes of Beith and Dunlop pre- 
vious to 1891 were situated partly in the county of Ayr 
and partly in the county of Renfrew. In that year 
the Boundary Commissioners transferred the Renfrew- 
shire portion of these parishes (543 and 1101 acres 
respectively) to the county of Ayr. The Buteshire por- 
tion (island of Little Cumbrae) of the parish of Ardrossan 
was at the same time transferred to the Buteshire parish 
of Cumbrae, but no change in the county boundary was 
caused by this transfer. There has also been some re- 
adjustment of the parishes within the county bounds, 
for which, however, see the separate articles. The 
rivers Irvine and Doon cut the entire area of the county 
into three sections, Cunninghame in the N, Kyle in 
the middle, Carrick in the S. These sections, if the 
entire area be represented as 52, have the proportions of 
respectively 13, 19, and 20. The first and the second 
are predominantly lowland, while the third is predomi- 
nantly upland. Cunninghame and Kyle also in a main 
degree have the form of an amphitheatre, rich in inner 
beauty, and all looking across to the grand western moun- 
tain-screen of the Firth of Clyde ; while Carrick, in a 
considerable degree, is a tumbling assemblage of brae 
and hill and mountain, with only close views in vale or 
glen, and outward views from seaboard vantage grounds. 
Yet the three sections somewhat fuse into one another in 
landscape character, and have peculiarities of feature 
each within itself. The north-western section of Cun- 
ninghame, lying like a broad wedge between Renfrew- 
shire and the Firth of Clyde, southward to the vicinity 
of Farland Head, is mainly a mass of lofty hills, with 
intersefrting narrow vales, and has mostly a rocky coast. 
The rest of Cunninghame is principally a pleasant diver- 
sity of hill and dale and undulation, declining to the 
Bay of Ayr and to the river Irvine ; yet rises in the 
extreme SE into high moors contiguous to those around 
Drumclog in Lanarkshire, and dominated within its own 
limite by the conspicuous cone of Loudon Hill (900 feet). 
The upper part of Kyle, to the average breadth of 9 or 
10 miles, all round from the sources of the river Irvine 
to the source of the river Doon in Loch Doon, is mostly 
moorish, and contains a large aggregate both of high 
bleak plateau and of lofty barren mountain. In the N 
ij Distinkhorn (1258 feet), to E and S of which rise 
Blackside (1342), Dibblon Hill (1412), Middlefield Law 
(1528), Priesthill Height (1615), etc. Cairn Table, on 
the boundary with Lanarkshire, 2J miles SE of Muir- 
kirk, has an altitude of 1944 feet ; Wardlaw hill, 2J 
miles WSW of Cairn Table, has an altitude of 1630 feet; 
Blacklorg, on the Dumfriesshire boundary, 6J> miles SSE 
of New Cumnock, has an altitude of 2231 feet ; and 
Blackcraig Hill, IJ mile N by W of Blacklorg, has an 
altitude of 2298 feet. All the section S and SW of New 
Cumnock, to within 2J miles of Dalmellington, also lies 
within the basin of the river Nith, and is separated by 
lofty watersheds from the rest of the county. The 
middle and the western parts of Kyle are traversed 
through the centre by the river Ayr, dividing them into 


Kyle-Stewart on the N and King's Kyle on the S ; they 
form, in a general view, to within about 4 miles of 
the coast, a continuous hanging plain, little diversified 
except by deep beds of streams, and by swelling knolls 
and hillocks ; they terminate in a flatfish fertile sea- 
board ; and, to a large aggregate of their extent, they 
are richly embellished with culture and with wood. A 
graphic writersays, respecting all Kyle: ' The hill-country, 
towards the east, is bleak, marshy, uncultivated, and 
uninteresting ; and on that side, except at one or two 
places, the district was formerly impervious. In advan- 
cing from these heights to the sea, the symptoms of 
fertility and the beneficial effects of cultivation rapidly 
multiply; but there is no "sweet interchange of hill 
and valley," no sprightliness of transition, no bold and 
airy touches either to surprise or delight. There is little 
variety, or even distinctness of outline, except where 
the vermiculations of the rivers are marked by deep 
fringes of wood waving over the shelvy banks, or where 
the multitudinous islands and hills beyond the sea exalt 
their colossal heads above the waves, and lend an ex- 
terior beauty to that heavy continuity of flatness, which, 
from the higher grounds of Kyle, appears to pervade 
nearly the whole of its surface. The slope, both here 
and in Cunninghame, is pitted with numberless shallow 
depressions, which are surmounted by slender promin- 
ences, rarely swelling beyond the magnitude of hillocks 
or knolls. Over this dull expanse the hand of art has 
spread some exquisite embellishments, which in a great 
measure atone for the native insipidity of the scene, but 
which might he still farther heightened by covering 
many of these spaces with additional woods, free from 
the dismal intermixture of Scotch fir. ' Carrick contains 
several fine long narrow valleys, and numerous strips of 
low ground ; but is mainly occupied by the western 
parts of the mountain ranges which extend across Scot- 
land from the German Ocean, at the mutual border of 
Haddington and Berwick shires, through the south- 
eastern wing of Edinburghshire, Selkirkshire, Peebles- 
shire, the S of Lanarkshire, the NW of Dumfriesshire, 
the SE wing of Kyle, and the N of Kirkcudbrightshire, 
to the Firth of Clyde and the North Channel, along the 
whole seaboard of Carrick. These mountains are frequently 
designated the Southern Highlands of Scotland. Many 
of their summits around the sources of the rivers Tweed, 
Annan, and Clyde have altitudes of from 2000 to 2764 
feet above the level of the sea ; and their chief summits 
within Carrick have altitudes of from 1000 to 2520 feet ; 
the latter being the height of Shalloch on Minnoch in 
Barr parish, the loftiest summit of Ayrshire. Keirs 
Hill, 4 % miles WNW of Dalmellington, is 1005 feet 
high; Dersalloch Hill, 2 miles S of Keirs Hill, 1179 
feet ; Strawarren Fell, 6 miles E by S of Ballantrae, 
1040 feet; Altimeg Hill, 4 miles SSE of Ballantrae, 
1270 feet ; and Beneraird, nearly midway between 
Altimeg Hill and Strawarren Fell, 1435 feet. Most 
of Carrick is bleak and moorish ; but many parts have 
rich scenery, ranging from the beautiful to the romantic 
or the wild. 

The climate of Ayrshire generally resembles that of 
the other western parts of Scotland. The winds blow 
from the SW for more than two-thirds of the year ; the 
rains are often copious, and sometimes of long duration. 
The principal streams, besides the Irvine, the Ayr, and 
the Doon, are the Garnock, in W of Cunninghame, re- 
ceiving the Rye, the Caaf, the Dusk, and the Lugton, 
and running to the Irvine, at the Irvine's mouth ; the 
Annick, in the E centre of Cunninghame, running to the 
Irvine, 2J miles E of Irvine town ; the Kilmarnock, in 
the E of Cunninghame, formed by the confluence of the 
Fenwick and tho Craufurdland, and running to the 
Irvine at Kilmarnock town ; the Cessnock, in the N 
of Kyle, running to the Irvine 2 miles W of Galston ; 
tho Greenock, the Garpol, and the Lugar in the E of 
Kyle, running to the Ayr ; the Nith, in the SEof Kyle, 
receiving the Afton, and running into Dumfriesshire ; 
tho Girvan, in the N of Carrick, running to the Firth of 
Clyde at Girvan town ; and the Stinchar, in the S of 
Carrick, receiving the Duisk, and running to the Firth 


of Clyde at Ballantrae. The chief lake is Loch Doon, 
on the boundary with Kirkcudbrightshire. Other lakes 
are Kilbirnie, on the northern border of Cunninghame ; 
Dornal, on the boundary with Wigtownshire ; several 
small lakes in the interior of Cunninghame and Kyle ; 
Bogton, on the boundary between Kyle and Carrick, 
near Dalmellington ; and Finlas, Bradan, Linfern, 
Riecawr, and Macaterick in the SE of Carrick. Two 
streams of uncommon magnitude are in Maybole parish, 
and springs of excellent water, copious and perennial, 
are in most parts. Mineral springs, some chalybeate, 
some sulphurous, are in almest every parish ; but none 
of them possesses any special excellence. 

Erupted rocks, of various kinds, form considerable 
masses in Carrick, and some lesser masses, together with 
dykes, in the higher parts of Kyle and Cunninghame. 
Silurian rocks, often on a basis of clay slate, predominate 
in Carrick and in the SE of Kyle. Carboniferous rocks, 
including coal, sandstone, limestone, and in some parts 
ironstone, underlie the valley of Girvan and great part 
of the low tracts of all Kyle and Cunninghame. Bitu- 
minous coal is mined at Dairy, Kilwinning, Stevenston, 
Riccarton, Galston, Muirkirk, St Quivox, Coylton, 
and other places. Blind coal, akin in character to 
anthracite, is also largely mined. Cannel coal of ex- 
cellent quality occurs at Bedlarhill, near Kilbirnie, and 
at Adamton, near Tarbolton. Ayrshire, after Lanarkshire, 
is the chief mining county of Scotland, its coal-mining 
alone employing some 13,000 persons. There are 104 
collieries at work, whose total output amounts to more 
than 3,000,000 tons. Of these collieries 26 belonged to the 
Irvine-Kilwinning-Dalry district in the NW, 32 to the 
Kilmarnock-Galston district in the N, 25 to the Cum- 
nock-Muirkirk district in the E, and 21 to the Ayr- 
Dalmellington-Girvan district in the S. In lioirkirk 
parish is an iron mine that annually yields between 
7000 and 8000 tons of haematite ore; and from the coal 
measures more ironstone is raised than in any other 
county of Scotland — about 1,000,000 tons a year — while 
the Ayrshire output of fireclay is 62,000, of oil shales 
13,000 tons. Limestone is largely worked, and sand- 
stone quarried, in many places. Millstones are quarried 
near Kilbride, and a species of fire-stone near Auchinleck. 
Clay, of quality suitable for tiles and bricks, is exten- 
sively worked. Copper ore and lead ore have been mined ; 
the latter to a considerable extent at Daleagles in New 
Cumnock. Gold is said to have been dug somewhere in 
the county, by an Englishman, about the year 1700. 
Antimony and molybdena have been found in Stair parish. 
A few specimens of agates, porphyries, and calcareous 
petrifactions are got in the Carrick hills. 

The soils may be classified into mossy and moorish, 
sandy or light, and clayey or argillaceous. Chalmers, 
assuming the entire acreage to be 665,600, assigns to 
the mossy and moorish soils 283,530 acres, to the sandy 
or light soils 120,110 acres, and to the clayey or argil- 
laceous soils 261,960 acres. Aiton, assuming the entire 
acreage to be 814,600, assigns to the mossy and moorish 
soils 347,000 acres, to the sandy or light soils 147,000 
acres, and to the clayey or argillaceous soils 320,000 
acres. Aiton also assigns 54,000 acres of the mossy and 
moorish soils, 16,000 of the sandy or light soils, and 
135,000 of the clayey or argillaceous soils to Cunning- 
hame ; 93,000 of the mossy and moorish soils, 41,000 of 
the sandy or light soils, and 175,600 of the clayey or 
argillaceous soils to Kyle ; and 200,000 of the mossy and 
moorish soils, 90,000 of the sandy or light soils, and 
10,000 of the clayey or argillaceous soils to Carrick. 
Much of what is classed as clayey or argillaceous is 
really loam ; and part of that is of alluvial formation on 
the banks_ of streams or in the low level parts of valleys ; 
part also is natural clay, worked into loamy condition 
by the arts of improved agriculture ; and much more is 
naturally light soil, worked into loam by admixtures 
with it of clay, lime, and various manures. Agriculture, 
in all departments, has undergone vast improvement. 
Reclamation of waste lands, particularly of moors and 
mosses, has been effected to a great extent, so as to 
bring under the plough, not only a large aggregate of 


ground which lay waste till the beginning of the present 
century, but also to affect materially the relative pro- 
portions of the different kinds of soils since the time 
when Chalmers and Aiton wrote. Furrow-draining was 
begun with the use of merely small stones ; but it soon 
went on so vigorously and extensively as to require the 
use of many millions of tiles, and it speedily resulted 
in rendering multitudes of fields productive of double 
the previous quantities of grain. The rotation of crops, 
the selecting of manures, the adapting of seed to soil, 
the adjusting of connection between the arable and the 
pastoral husbandries, the choice of improved imple 
ments, and most of the other arts of effective cultivation, 
have had corresponding attention, and been correspon- 
dingly successful. The improvement, since the middle 
or even the end of last century, has been wonderful. 
Agriculture throughout the county, at no very remote 
date, was in a miserable condition ; wheat was seldom 
seen, beyond the limits of a nobleman's farm, prior to 
the year 1785 ; turnips were not introduced till about 
the middle of last century, and then by the Earls of 
Eglinton and Loudoun ; rye grass, though a native 
plant, remained unnoticed till about 1760, and did not 
come into general use till 1775 ; animal food, till a com- 
paratively late date, was only an occasional luxury of 
the middle classes, and a thing almost unattainable by 
the peasantry ; and the entire estates of some of the 
landlords, even into the present century, were so 
sparsely productive as to be scarcely or not at all suffi- 
cient for the maintenance of their own families. But 
now the county, viewed as a whole, is agriculturally 
rich, not only for the liberal sustenance of its own popu- 
lation, but also for the purposes of a large export trade. 
Even so long ago as 1837 a writer in the New Statistical 
Account could say respecting it — ' During the last few 
years, the farmers have in general devoted much of their 
attention to the study of agriculture as a practical 
science. ; and erroneous processes in the cultivation of 
the 3oil, which antiquated prejudice or inveterate cus- 
tom had long retained, are gradually becoming obsolete ; 
while useful improvements and discoveries are eagerly 
substituted in their place. Farmers' societies have done 
much to introduce a more enlightened mode of hus- 
bandry than formerly prevailed. This has been greatly 
aided also by the example of many of the landed pro- 
prietors, who themselves farm on a large scale.' This 
progress is markedly shown by the agricultural statistics 
of the county. The gardens, orchards, and pleasure 
grounds, on account of both their extent and their 
tastefulness, have long challenged general admiration. 
The planting of trees, throughout the low tracts and in 
some of the higher grounds, has been sufficiently exten- 
sive to give the country both a sheltered and an embel- 
lished aspect ; yet often has been done in an injudicious 
way, both by the crowding of trees into narrow belts 
or choking clumps, and by a too predominant selection 
of the Scottish pine. About one thirty-third of the 
entire area is under wood. 

Sheep, of various breeds, receive some attention in the 
lowland districts ; and sheep, chiefly of the black -faced 
breed, are objects of general care on the upland pastures. 
But cattle, specially dairy cows, throughout most of the 
county, are so pre-eminently cared for as to occasion 
comparative neglect of all other kinds of live stock. 
The Galloway cattle, a well-shaped, hardy, hornless 
breed, are prevalent in Carrick. The Irish, the High- 
land, and the Alderney breeds occur in some parts, but 
are few in number. The Holderness, the wide-horned, 
the Craven, the Lancashire, and the Leicester breeds 
have been shown and recommended, but cannot be said 
to have been introduced. The Ayrshire breed is native 
to the county, or has come into existence within the 
county ; yet it does not appear to have existed earlier 
than about the third or fourth decade of last century ; 
and it came into being in some way or under some cir- 
cumstances which cannot be clearly traced. It is a 
middle-horn breed, and evidently allied to the North 
Devon, the Hereford, the Sussex, the Falkland, and the 
West Highland breeds, or to other descendants of the 



aboriginal cattle of Great Britain ; and it possibly passed 
slowly into distinctive variety, under the modifying in- 
fluences of Ayrshire local soil and local climate. It may 
really, as to nascent distinctive character, have existed 
long prior to last century ; it may have begun to chal- 
lenge attention only when men began to be agriculturally 
scientific ; and it seems to have acquired development of 
shape, colour, and othercharacteristics under crossing with 
imported individuals of English breeds. Several cows and 
a bull, thought to have been of the Tees Water breed, or of 
some other English breed allied to the Tees Water, and 
all of a high brown and white colour, were brought, in the 
year 1750, to the Earl of Marchmont's estates in Kyle ; 
and these may have been a source of the colours which 
now prevail in the Ayrshire breed. But however this 
breed originated, it was fully formed about the year 1780, 
and was then adopted, to the exclusion of every other 
breed, by the opulent farmers of Dunlop and Stewarton 
parishes ; and it afterwards was adopted, as an exclusive 
breed, throughout most of the lowland farms of all Cun- 
ninghame, Kyle, and Carrick. Nor did it spread merely 
throughout Ayrshire, but also into Lanarkshire, Ren- 
frewshire, and large portions of Stirlingshire, Dumbar- 
tonshire, and Linlithgowshire, and into districts other 
than those of Scotland. The best cows vary in weight 
from 20 to 40 stone, according to the quality or quantity 
of their food; they are esteemed mainly for the abund- 
ance of their milk; and they yield so much as from 
10 to 13 or even 14 Scotch pints per day — a feature of 
the Ayrshire cow being the length of time over which 
its milk-producing powers extend. Altogether it is such 
a wonderful milker — no cow in the British Islands giving 
more milk according to its weight (though unfortunately 
that is not great, the animal being somewhat diminu- 
tive) — that it is pre-eminently the dairyman's cow, the 
animals best adapted for the dairy farm being those 
that will give an abundance of milk. The milk of the 
Ayrshire breed, further, is rich in butter-making pro- 
perties. A mixture of bloods, however, that ' would 
give quantity of milk with largeness of frame aud apti- 
tude to feed would no doubt be more preferable. Con- 
sequently the Ayrshire shorthorns are much prized, 
both for the purposes of the dairy and the butcher. The 
beef of the Ayrshires is of good quality, and possesses a 
good admixture of lean and fat, but makes bad returns 
to the butcher, and is in no great request. The back 
of a prime specimen is straight and nearly level, yet 
has one straight depression at the top of the shoulder, 
and an evident tendency to another over the loin ; the 
ribs are pretty round ; the sides are deep, but show a 
deficiency in the fulness of the buttocks ; the breast is 
comparatively narrow ; the upper surface of the body 
shows far less breadth at the shoulder than at the hocks, 
and has a kind of wedge-shaped outline ; the length of 
the body is proportionately greater than the height ; the 
legs are comparatively short ; the muzzle is fine ; the 
face is broad but rather short ; the eye is complacent ; 
the expression of the face is gentle but dull ; the horns 
are short and turned up ; the skin is smooth and thin ; 
the touch is good, yet wants the mellowness which ac- 
companies a thick soft skin ; and the colours are red and 
white like those of the short-horns, but not so rich in 
hue, sometimes mixed with black, and always arranged 
in blotches and patches which are irregular, seldom cir- 
cular, and never grizzled. The greater portion of the 
milk throughout Ayrshire is manufactured into cheese. 
The best of the cheese bears the name of Dunlop, from 
the parish where the Ayrshire breed was first systemati- 
cally appreciated for the dairy ; and it has long and 
steadily been in high demand as an article of export. 
The bull calves are usually fed for veal ; and the heifer 
calves are kept to renew the stock of cows. Attention 
to cattle and to the dairy appears to have prevailed from 
a remote period, for Ortelius wrote in 1573 that 'in 
Carrick are oxen of large size, whose flesh is tender and 
swoet and juicy,' and the well-known antiquated couplet 
runs — 

1 Kyle for a man, Carrick for a cow, 

Cunninghamc for butter and cheese, and Calloway for woo'.' 


The manufactures of Ayrshire are various and im- 
portant. The yearly value of Scotch carpets woven at 
Kilmarnock rose from £21,000 in 1791 to £150,000 in 
1S37, but afterwards fell off to about £100,000. The 
weaving of Brussels carpets was begun at Kilmarnock in 
1857, and has been prosperously conducted on a large 
scale. The weaving of Scotch carpets, and the spinning 
of yarns for Brussels carpets, were begun at Ayr in 1832, 
and employ some 500 persons. The making of woollen 
bonnets at Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs, and Stewarton em- 
ploys about 4000 men, women, and children, and turns 
out goods to the annual value of £146,000. The weav- 
ing of winceys, flannels, plaidings, blankets, tweeds, 
tartans, and some other woollen fabrics, employs about 
800 persons in Ayr, Kilmarnock, and Dalrymple. The 
spinning of woollen yarn emploj's about 60 persons at 
Crookedholm, and about 350 at Dairy. Linen was 
manufactured in Ayrshire more extensively in former 
years than now. So many as 22 lint-mills were in the 
county in 1772 ; but only 3 flax-mills, employing 172 
persons, were in it in 1838. The chief localities of the 
linen manufactures have been Kilbirnie and Beith. The 
cotton manufacture has failed in some places, as Ayr, 
but has largely succeeded in other places, as Catrine, 
Kilbirnie, and Patna. The number of cotton mills 
within the county in 1838 was 4 ; and these employed 
703 persons. Hand-loom cotton -weaving, chiefly for 
manufacturers in Glasgow, is largely carried on in Fen- 
wick, Saltcoats, Tarbolton, Maybole, Girvan, and some 
other towns. The embroidering of muslin employed 
multitudes of women from about the year 1825 ; was 
carried on chiefly in connection with manufacturers in 
Glasgow, and acquired such excellence at the hands of 
the Ayrshire workers, that the produce of it became 
generally known, in both the home and the foreign mar- 
kets as Ayrshire needlework ; but sustained a severe 
check in 1S57, and is not now carried on to so much as 
half its previous extent. Some forty furnaces in the 
shire, not, however, always in blast, together produce 
about 276,000 tons of pig-iron. The manufacture of 
ornamental wooden snuff-boxes and other small wooden 
articles long employed many persons in Cumnock, 
Mauohline, and Auchinleck ; but has ' very greatly 
declined. Calico-printing, bleaching, silk-weaving, hat- 
making, tanning, shoemaking, machine-making, ship- 
building, and other departments of industry, employ a 
large number of persons. 

The roads from Glasgow to Dumfries and Portpatrick, 
and from Greenock and Paisley to all the Border counties, 
pass through Ayrshire ; and excellent roads connect all 
the county's own towns with one another, and with every 
place of consequence beyond. The main line of the 
Glasgow and South-Western railway enters Ayrshire near 
Beith ; proceeds by way of Dairy, Kilmarnock, Mauch- 
line, Old Cumnock, and New Cumnock ; and passes 
down the valley of the Nith into Dumfriesshire. A 
great branch of the same system, originally the southern 
part of the Glasgow and Ayr railway, leaves the main 
line near Dairy, and proceeds past Irvine and along the 
coast to Ayr. Local railways, or branches of the Glas- 
gow and South-Western, go from Ayr to Girvan, from 
Ayr to Dalmellingtou, from Ayr to Mauchline, from 
Troon and also from Irvine to Kilmarnock, from Kil- 
winning to Ardrossan, from Hurlford to Newmilns, and 
from Auchinleck to Muirkirk, etc. ; and, together with 
the main lines of the Glasgow and South-Western, form 
a connected system of communication through great 
part of the county. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction 
railway was authorised in 1865, and opened in 1877. 
The Greenock and Ayrshire railway, authorised in 1865, 
and amalgamated with the Glasgow and South-Western 
in 1872, gives direct communication from all the Ayr- 
shire stations of the Glasgow and South-Western system 
to Greenock, but has its connection with the system, and 
all its course, within Renfrewshire. The Greenock and 
Werayss Bay railway, opened in 1865, at its terminus 
is within a short distance of tho Ayrshire border, passing 
over the romantic glen of Inverkip. The Glasgow and 
Kilmarnock direct railway, authorised in 1865, and com- 


pleted in 1S73, starts from the Glasgow and Neilston 
branch of the Caledonian system at Crofthead on the 
southern border of Renfrewshire, sends off a branch to 
Beith, and goes by way of Stewarton to Kilmarnock, 
the Caledonian railway sending off a branch for Ar- 
drossan by Kilwinning, while running powers give that 
railway direct access to Ayr. The seaports of Ayrshire 
are Girvan, Ayr, Troon, Irvine, Saltcoats, Ardrossan, 
and Largs. 

The royal burghs are Ayr and Irvine; a parliamentary 
burgh is Kilmarnock; police burghs are Ardrossan, Cum- 
nock, Galston, Girvan, Kilwinning, Largs, Maybole, 
Newmilns, Saltcoats, and Stewarton; other towns are 
Beith, Catrine, Dairy, Darvel, Hurlford, Kilbirnie, 
Muirkirk, Stevenston, Troon, Annbank, Auchinleck, 
Bankhead, Dalmellington, Eglinton-Works, Kilmaurs, 
Lugar, Mauchline, Tarbolton, Waterside, and West Kil- 
bride; and the principal villages are Afton-Bridgend, 
Alnwick-Lodge, Ballantrae, Ban-mill, Bensley, Castle, 
Cobnonnell, Common-Dyke, Connel Park, Craigbank, 
Craigmark, Cronberry, Crosshill, Crosshouse, Dailly, Dal- 
rymple, Den, Dernconner, Doura, Drakemuir, Dreghorn, 
Dunlop, Elderslie, Fardlehill, Fairlie, Fenwick, Fergus- 
hill, Gaswater, Gateside, Glenbuck, Glengarnock, Kirk- 
michael, Kirkoswald, Langbar, Monkton,New Prestwick, 
Ochiltree, Overton, Pathhead, Patna, Prestwick, Riddens, 
Skelmorlie, Sorn, Southfield, Symington, Whitletts, New 
Cumnock, and Straiton. Some of the principal mansions 
are Culzean Castle, Dumfries House, Fullarton House, Eg- 
lhiton Castle, Loudoun Castle, Kelburne House, Brisbane 
House, Auchinleck House, Killochan Castle, Kilkerran, 
Blairquhan Castle, Dalquharran Castle, Bargany, Ber- 
beth, Enterkine, Barskimming, Sundrum, Auchencruive, 
Ballochmyle, Craufurdland, Logan House, Fairlie House, 
Cambusdoon, Shewalton, Lanfine, Craigie, Auchen- 
drane, Rozelle, Pinmore, Glenapp, Sorn Castle, Milrig, 
Auchans, Caldwell, Blanefleld, Corsehill, Auchenames, 
Knock Castle, Auchenharvie, Treesbank, Gadgirth, New- 
field, Cairnhill, Rowallan Castle, Doonholm, Bourtree 
Hill, Glenmore House, Mansfield House, Knockdolian, 
Seafield, and Swinlees. According to Miscellaneous 
Statistics of the United Kingdom 721,947 acres, with total 
gross estimated rental of £1, 121, 252, were divided among 
9376 landowners ; one holding 76,015 acres (rental, 
(£35,839), six together 175,774 (£182.405), nine 134,543 
(£89,326), seven 52,592 (£27,729), thirty-nine 116,543 
(£126,786), forty-seven 68,573 (£205,299), fifty 34,879 
(£55,224), two hundred and two 42,921 (£S9,322), one 
hundred and forty-one 9925 (£23,452), two hundred and 
fifty-two 5818 (£31,084), five hundred and sixty-nine 
1916 (£51,748), and eight thousand and fifty 2251 acres 

The county is governed (1891) by a lord-lieutenant, a 
vice-lieutenant, 38 deputy -lieutenants, a sheriff, 2 sheriff- 
substitutes, and 288 magistrates; and is divided, for 
administration, into the two districts of Ayr and Kil- 
marnock. The sheriff court for the Ayr district is held 
at Ayr on every Taesday and Thursday during session; 
the commissary court, on every Thursday; the sheriff 
small debt court, on every Thursday ; the justice of 
peace court, on every Monday; the quarter sessions, on 
the first Tuesday of March, the fourth Tuesday of May, 
the first Tuesday of August, and the third Tuesday of 
November. The sheriff court for the Kilmarnock dis- 
trict is held at Kilmarnock on every Wednesday and 
Thursday during session; the sheriff small debt court, 
on every Thursday; the justice of peace court, on every 
alternate Monday. Sheriff small debt courts are held 
also at Irvine in every alternate month, at Beith and 
Cumnock four times a year, and at Girvan three times 
a year. The police force, in 1891, exclusive of that in 
Ayr and Kilmarnock, comprised 135 men, and the salary 
of the chief constable was £500. The prison is at Ayr, 
Kilmarnock having been discontinued in 1880. The 
County Council is composed of fifty-four elected mem- 
bers and two no mi nated by the burgh of Irvine, the 
Standing Joint-Committee of county being appointed 
partly by the council and partly by the commissioners 
of supply. Besides the District Board of Lunacy for 


the county, there is the County Road Board, divided 
into four committees, for the Northern, Kilmarnock, Ayr, 
and Carrick districts. The annual value of real property, 
in 1815, was £409,983 ; in 1843, £520,828 ; in 1865, 
£876,438 ; in 1881, £1,257,881 ; in 1891, £1,065,223, 
including railways. The county, exclusive of its three 
burghs, sent one member to parliament prior to the Re- 
form Act of 1867; but it was divided by that into two sec- 
tions, north and south ; and it now sends one member 
from each of the two sections. The constituency in 1891 
of the northern section was 12,261 ; of the southern, 
14,912. Pop. (1801) 84,207, (1811) 103,839, (1821) 
127,299, (1831) 145,055, (1841) 164,356, (1851) 189,858, 
(1861) 19S,971, (1871) 200,809, (1881) 217,519, (1891) 
226,283,of whom 110, 987 were males and 115,296 females. 
Houses inhabited (1891) 45,252; vacant, 3126; building, 

The registration county includes parts of Beith and 
Dunlop from Renfrewshire, and until 1891 also part of 
West Kilbride parish from Buteshire. The Buteshire por- 
tion was the island of Little Cumbrae, which was assigned 
in the census to the parish of West Kilbride, but to that 
of Ardrossan in the Ordnance maps and valuation rolls. 
The Boundary Commissioners, as already remarked, have 
transferred this portion to the Buteshire parish and 
registration district of Cumbrae, while the Renfrew- 
shire portions of the parishes of Beith and Dunlop have 
been left untouched. The registration county com- 
prises 46 parishes; and had, in 1891, a population of 
226, 403. Forty -five of the parishes are assessed, and one 
unassessed for the poor; and 35 of them, in three com- 
binations of 13, 16, and 6, have poorhouses at respectively 
Ayr, Irvine, and Maybole — namely, Kyle, with accom- 
modation for 168; Cunninghame, with accommodation 
for 479 ; and Maybole, with accommodation for 48. The 
percentage of illegitimate births is about 7. 

Excepting Ballantrae, Colmonell, and Glenapp, in 
the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, and 
Largs, in the presbytery of Greenock, all the parishes of 
Ayrshire are in the presbyteries of Ayr and Ibtoste and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. In 1891 the county had 
146 public and 41 non-public but State-aided schools— 
in all 107 schools, with accommodation for 45,889 chil- 
dren, and an average attendance of 32,726. Besides 
these there are four industrial schools — namely, two at 
Ayr and two at Kilmarnock. 

The territory now fo rmin g Ayrshire was in the 2d 
century a.d. the southern part of the region of the 
Damnonii, one of whose towns, ' Vandogara, ' is placed 
by Skene ' on the river Irvine, at Loudon Hill, where 
there are the remains of a Roman camp, afterwards con- 
nected with "Coria" or Carstairs by a Roman road.' 
Two battles are said to have been fought, in early times, 
in the SW of Kyle, the one between some native tribes 
and the Romans, the other between two confederacies 
of states of the natives themselves; but both battles, as 
to at once their date, their scene, the parties engaged, 
and the results, are so obscure as scarcely to be matters 
of history. Even the ancient inhabitants, as to who 
they were — whether descendants of the Damnonii or 
immi grants from the regions of some other tribes — 
from the establishing of the Roman domination onward 
through many centuries, cannot be historically identified. 
They seem, on the whole, from such evidence as exists, 
to have been in some way or other more purely Celtic 
than the inhabitants of most of the other low countries 
between the Grampians and the Tweed. Their descend- 
ants, too, down to so late a period as the 16th century, 
appear to have spoken the Gaelic language, or at least 
to have understood it. The entire territory, after the 
withdrawal of the Romans, became part of the kingdom 
of Strathclyde or Cumbria ; but, in the 8th century, 
Kyle and Cunninghame became subject to the kings of 
Northumbria. The Saxons, under these kings, seem 
to have taken a firm grasp of the country, to have re- 
volutionized its customs, and to have indoctrinated it 
with love of Saxon usages, and they have left in it 
numerous traces of their presence and power. Alpin, 
king of the Scoto-Irish, invaded the territory in the 



9th century, but was defeated and slain in a battle at 
Dalmellington. Haco, King of Norway, in the course 
of his contest for the sovereignty of the Hebrides, made 
descents upon it in 1'263, and suffered overwhelming 
discomfiture in a famous battle at Largs. The forces 
of Edward I. of England, in the course of the wars of 
the succession, made considerable figure in it, particu- 
larly in Kyle and in the N of Carrick ; and suffered 
humiliating reverses from Wallace and from Bruce at 
Ayr, at Turnberrv, and particularly at Loudon Hill. 
The career of Wallace began in the vicinity of Irvine ; 
a signal exploit of his occurred at Ayr ; the grand coup 
for wrenching the territory from the English was struck 
at Loudon ; and the first parliament under Bruce was 
held at Ayr. The county, as a whole, played a vigor- 
ous, an honourable, and a persistent part throughout 
all the struggle which issued in Scottish independence. 
Nor was it less distinguished in the subsequent, higher, 
nobler struggle, from the time of Mary till the time of 
James YIL, for achieving religious liberty. Both 
Wishart and Knox pursued their labours frequently in 
it ; and many of the leaders of the Covenanting move- 
ments against the oppressive policy of Charles II. and 
James VII., either were natives of its soil, rallying 
around them multitudes of zealous neighbours, or were 
strangers welcomed and supported by ready, generous 
local enthusiasm. Much of the history of the later 
Covenanters, specially what relates to the antecedents 
of the fights at Drumclog, at Rullion-Green, and at 
Airdsmoss, reads almost like a local history of Ayr- 
shire. So conspicuously did the Ayrshire men contend 
for the rights of conscience, that they became the special 
object of the savage punishment inflicted by the Govern- 
ment, in 1678, in the letting loose of the wild well-known 
' Highland Host. ' 'We might from these circumstances, ' 
says Chalmers, ' suppose that the people of Ayrshire 
would concur zealously in the Revolution of 1688. As 
one of the western shires, Ayrshire sent its full pro- 

Sortion of armed men to Edinburgh to protect the 
onvention of Estates. On the 6th of April 1689, the 
forces that had come from the western counties, having 
received thanks from the Convention for their seasonable 
service, immediately departed with their arms to their 
respective homes. They were offered some gratification ; 
but they would receive none, saying that they came 
to save and serve their country, not to enrich them- 
selves at the nation's expense. It was at the same time 
ordered "that the inhabitants of the town of Ayr should 
be kept together till further orders. " On the 14th of 
May arms were ordered to be given to Lord Bargeny, 
an Ayrshire baronet. On the 25th of May, in answer to 
a letter from the Earl of Eglinton, the Convention 
ordered "that the heritors and fencible men in the shire 
of Ayr be instantly raised and commanded in conformity 
to the appointment of the Estates. " But of such proofs 
of the revolutionary principles of Ayrshire enough I 
The men of Ayr not only approved of the Revolution, 
but they drew their swords in support of its establish- 
ment and principles. On that memorable occasion not 
only were the governors changed, but new principles 
were adopted, and better practices were introduced ; 
and the Ayrshire people were gratified by the aboli- 
tion of Episcopacy and by the substitution of Presby- 
terianism. ' 

Antiquities, of various kinds, are numerous. Cairns, 
stone circles, and suchlike Caledonian remains are at 
Sorn, Galston, and other places. Vestiges of a Roman 
road are in the vicinity of Ayr. Traces of Danish 
camps are at Dundonald and in the neighbourhood of 
Ardros3an. Mediaeval castles, or remains of them, are 
at Loch Doon, Turnberry, Dundonald, and Sorn. Fine 
old monastic ruins are at Crossraguel and Kilwinning ; 
and a ruined church, immortalised by Burns, is at Allo- 
way. The most ancient families are the Auchinlecks, 
the Boswells, the Boyds, the Cathcarts, the Crawfords, 
the Cunninghams, the Dalrymples, the Dunlops, tho 
Fullartons, the Kennedys, the Lindsays, the Mont- 
gomerys, and the Wallaces. The oldest peerage con- 
nected with the county is the Earldom of Carrick, which 


belonged to Bruce, and belongs now to jthe Prince of 
Wales. Other peerage titles are Baron Kilmaurs, 
created about 1450, united to the Earldom of Glencairn 
in 1503, and dormant since 1796 ; Earl of Eglinton, 
created in 1508, and conjoined with the title of Baron 
Ardrossan in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 
1806 ; Earl of Cassillis, created in 1511, and conjoined 
with the title of Marquis of Ailsa in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom in 1801 ; Baron Ochiltree, created 
in 1543, and dormant since 1675 ; Earl of Loudoun, 
created in 1633 ; Viscount of Ayr, created in 1622, and 
conjoined since 1633 to the Earldom of Dumfries, and 
since 1796 to the Marquisate of Bute ; Viscount Irvine, 
created in 1611, and extinct since 1778 ; Earl of Kilmar- 
nock, created in 1661, and attainted in 1716 ; and Earl 
of Dundonald, created in 1669, and united then with 
the title of Baron Cochrane of Paisley and Ochiltree. 
Distinguished natives of Ayrshire have been very nume- 
rous ; the greatest of them has almost given it a new 
name — the 'Land of Bums.' See James Paterson, His- 
tory of the County of Ayr (2 vols.); Archibald Sturrock, 
'Report on the Agriculture of Ayrshire' in the Trans- 
actions of the Highland and Agricultural Society ; and 
Modem Practical Farriery : section ' Cattle and their 
Breeds and Merits. ' 

Ayton (anc. Eitun, ' Eye-town '), a village and a coast 
parish of Berwickshire. The village stands near the left 
bank of Eye Water, 2J miles inland and J mile NW 
of Ayton station on the North British, this being 7J 
miles NW by W of Berwick-upon-Tweed and 49| ESE 
of Edinburgh. A pleasant, well-built place, it has a 
post office, with money order, savings bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Commercial 
and Royal Banks, gas-works, inns and hotels, a volun- 
teer hall, and a saw-mill. Thursday is market-day, and 
justice of peace courts are held on the first Thursday of 
every month but September ; sheriff small debt courts 
on the first Monday of February, the second Monday of 
May, the Tuesday before the last Friday of July, and 
the first Thursday of October. Places of worship are the 
parish church (750 sittings) and two U.P. churches — 
Summerhill (561 sittings) and Springbank (350 sittings; 
rebuilt, for £1210, in 1872). The parish church, ereeted 
(1864-66) at a cost of £7000, is a beautiful First Pointed 
structure, with nave, S aisle, transept, and chancel, a 
SW spire 120 feet high, and stained-glass chancel and 
transept windows. Pop. (1831) 663, (1861) 875, (1871) 
745, (1881) 771, (1891) 653. 

The parish contains aiso the fishing village of Burn- 
mouth, 2$ miles to the E. Bounded N by Coldingham 
and Eyemouth, E by the German Ocean, SE by Mor- 
dington, S by Foulden, and W by Chirnside and Col- 
dingham, it has an utmost length and breadth of 3J 
mileB and an area of 6832 acres, of which 105| are fore- 
shore and 27 water. The coast, about 3 miles long, 
forms an almost continuous but much-indented preci- 
pice, rising, from N to S, to 71 feet near Nestends, 149 
on GunsgreenhUl, 160 at Scout Point, 339 near Hurker, 
310 on Burnmouth Hill, and 170 at Ross. The cliffs 
are pierced by two or three caverns, accessible only from 
the sea, and famous in smuggling annals ; three islets at 
the northern extremity, during strong easterly gales, 
drive the waves up in sheets of foam to a height of from 
70 to 100 feet. The SE portion of tho interior presents 
an assemblage of softly-contoured, richly-wooded hills, 
the highest of them Ayton Hill (654 feet) 1| mile SEof 
the village, whilst lesser eminences are Millerton Hill, 
Bastleridge (375), Ayton Cocklaw (315), Flemington 
(275), and Redhall (320). The NW portion between the 
Eye and the Ale, though lower is everywhere undulat- 
ing, attaining 251 feet near Ayton wood House, 291 in 
the Drill plantation, and 297 on the Coldingham border. 
The Etb runs ljj! mile south-eastward near or upon the 
western boundary, till, striking north-eastward, it winds 
for 2J miles through the interior, next for 1J mile along 
the Eyemouth border to the sea. Its scenery here is very 
pretty and varied, as, too, is that of the tributary Ale, 
which flows 3i miles east-south-eastward along the Col- 
dingham and Eyemouth confinos, and of the North British 


railway, which curves 4J miles from W to SE through 
Ayton. The rocks, Silurian arid Devonian, exhibit all 
sorts of inclinations, curvatures, and contortions, as seen 
in the cliffs, and furnish good building stone and road 
metal. The soils range from loamy to gravelly, are 
mostly as fertile as any in the shire, and overlie great 
quantities of boulders and coarse gravel. Plantations 
cover some 800 acres; between 200 and 300 are in pas- 
ture; and all the rest are highly cultivated. Traces of 
five camps, ascribed to Romans, Picts, Saxons, and 
Danes, and remains of an ancient Romanesque parish 
church, make up the antiquities. Urns with pieces of 
broken armour have been occasionally brought to the 
surface by the plough. Of the castle founded by the 
Norman baron De Vesci, and demolished in 1498 by 
the Earl of Surrey, no vestige now exists. Modern 
mansions are the following: — Ayton Castle, \ mile NE 


of the village; Peelwalls, 1J S by W; Netherbyres, 1\ 
miles NNE; Gunsgreen, 3 miles NNE, opposite Eye- 
mouth; Prenderguest, and Whiterig. Of these, Ayton 
Castle is a splendid baronial edifice of reddish stone, 
built in 1851 on the site of a predecessor destroyed by 
fire in 1834, and standing out prominently from its 
surrounding woods. In all 8 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 6 of between £100 
and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 33 of from £20 
to £50. Ayton is in the presbytery of Chirnside and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£358. Two public schools, Ayton and Burnmouth, 
with respective accommodation for 328 and 146 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 148 and 104, and 
grants of £141, 18s. and £87, 5s. Valuation, £17,045, 
12s. 9d. Pop. (1841) 1784, (1861) 2014, (1871) 1983, 
(1881) 2037, (1891) 1827.— Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

BA (Gael. ' cow's stream '), a lake and rivulet in 
Torosay parish, Mull, Argyllshire. The lake, 
lying towards the middle of the island, is 2^ 
miles long from E to W, and about J mile wide ; 
the rivulet, issuing from its western end, runs about 2 
miles NW and W to head of Loch na Keal ; and both 
lake and stream abound in salmon, sea-trout, salmo- 
ferox, and common brown trout. 

Ba or A-Baw, an isleted loch in Glenorchy parish, 
NE Argyllshire, on Rannoch Muir, 6 miles SE of King- 
house Inn, Glencoe. Very irregular in outline, it has an 
extreme length and breadth of 2J miles and | mile, lies 
at an altitude of 957 feet, and teems with trout ; the 
river Ba, 4J miles long above, and 1J below, the lake, 
connects it with Loch Laidon, and so with Loch Ran- 

Ba, an islet of Applecross parish, W Ross-shire, with 
5 inhabitants in 1861, but none since. 

Ba or Bahill, a wooded eminence 700 feet high in 
Drumblade parish, Aberdeenshire, 14 mile SSE of 
Huntly. It is thought to have got its name from foot- 
ball contests in bygone days. 

Baads, a moorish tract in the W of Cullen parish, 
Banffshire. It is falsely said by the later chronicles to 
have been the scene of a fierce battle between Norwegians 
and Indulph, King of Alban (954-62), in which the 
latter was slain ; but certainly it is thickly studded 
with tumuli, containing decayed bones, fragments of 
arms, and other relics. 

Baberton, an estate, with a mansion, in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion stands 1 mile NE of 
Currie village, is said to have belonged to James VI. , 
and was a temporary residence of Charles X. of France. 

Babylon. See Bothwell. 

Bach, two of the Treshinish Isles, Bach-more and 
Bach-beg, off the mouth of Loch Tua, on the W side of 
Mull, Argyllshire. 

Bachnagaim, a picturesque fall on the South Esk 
river, in Cortachy parish, Forfarshire. It occurs about 
1 mile S of Loch Esk ; makes a leap of more than 60 
feet ; and is flanked by high, wooded, precipitous rocks. 
A shooting lodge of the same name is near. 

Back, a village on the E coast of Lewis island, Ross- 
shire, 7 miles NNE of Stornoway, under which it has a 
post office. It has a Free church. Pop. (1891) 596. 

Back, a burn winding round the base of Tower Hill, 
in Pittencrieff Glen, contiguous to Dunfermline, Fife- 

Back, a burn of N"W Elginshire, issuing from the 
Loch of Romaeh on the southern boundary of Rafford 
parish, and winding down the valley of Pluscardine. 

Backaskail, a bay in Cross and Burness parish, 
Sanday island, Orkney. It produces enormous quan- 
tities of shell-fish. 

Backies, a hamlet in Golspie parish, Sutherland 1 - 
shire, 2 miles N of Golspie village. It has some re- 
mains of an ancient tower, which, probably built by the 
Norsemen, commanded an extensive prospect over both 
sea and land. 

Backlass, a hill, 300 feet above sea-level, in Watten 
parish, Caithness, 2| miles WSW of Watten village. 
A fair is held here on 15 Sept., old style, if a Tuesday, 
otherwise on the Tuesday after. 

Backmuir, a village in Liff and Benvie parish, For- 
farshire, near the Perthshire boundary, 5J miles NW of 

Backmuir, a village on the northern border of Largo 
parish, Fife, 2A_ miles SE of Ceres. 

Backwater, a burn and a hamlet in Lintrathen parish, 
Forfarshire. The burn rises in the northern extremity 
of the parish, and runs southward to a confluence with 
the Melgam, a little above Lintrathen church. The 
hamlet takes name from the burn, and has a private 

Badcaul, a rivulet and a bay in Eddraehillis parish, 
Sutherland. The rivulet brings down the superfluence 
of a chain of small lakes, which abound in trout ; and 
it runs about 6 miles westward to the head of the bay. 
The church of Eddraehillis and a public school are at 
the head of the bay, 8J miles NW of Kyle-Sku Ferry. 
The bay forms a well-sheltered sea-inlet, about 14 mile 
long ; and has, across its mouth, a picturesque and 
numerous group of small islands. 

Baden or Baddanloch, the third and most easterly 
of a chain of three lakes in Kildonan parish, Sutherland, 
h\ miles W by N of Kinbrace station. The three are 
Loch nan Cuinne, 3 miles long from N to S, and from 1 
to 6 furlongs wide ; Loch a Chlair, \\ by i mile ; and 
Loch Baden itself, \\ mile long from NW to SE, and 
from 4 to 7 furlongs wide. They lie 392 feet above sea- 
level, send off a stream to Helmsdale river, and all of 
them teem with trout and char. — Ord. Sur., sh. 109, 

Badenoch, the south-eastern district of Inverness- 
shire, bounded NW by the watershed of the Monadbiiata 
Mountains, separating it from Stratherrick and Strath- 
dearn ; NE by Elginshire, and partly there by a line 
drawn across the Braes of Abernethy ; SE by the water- 
shed of part of the Braes of Abernethy, the watershed of 
the central Grampians, andaline drawn across LochEricht 
and round the S base of Ben Alder, separating it partly 
from Aberdeenshire, mainly from Perthshire ; and SW 
by an artificial line striking the foot of Loch Laggan, 
and separating it from Lochaber. Its greatest length, 
from NE to SE, is 45 miles ; and its greatest breadth is 
19 miles. It includes part of Glen Spey in the SW, 
and all Glen Truim in the S ; and it is traversed, froir 
the convergence of these glens, onward to its norti>- 



eastern boundary, by the river Spet. The surface, in a 
general view, is mountainous and wild, and comprises 
but a small aggregate of low or cultivated land. The 
south-western third of it is entirely Highland, diversi- 
fied only by Loch Laggan, the upper part of Loch 
Ericht, and a few deep narrow glens. The south- 
eastern border also, to an average breadth of at least 7 
miles, is all a continuous mountain mass of the Gram- 
pians and the Abernethy Braes, cleft by wild glens. 
The central tract along the course of the Spey is the 
principal scene of culture and the principal seat of popu- 
lation ; and that, as may be seen from the account of the 
greater part of it under Alvib and Rothiemt/rchtts, 
abounds in features of exquisite beauty. Yet many spots 
in the glens are attractive both in natural character and 
in artificial embellishment ; and a large aggregate of the 
skirts and shoulders of the mountains is covered with 
wood. — Badenoch, from the reign of Alexander II. till 
that of Robert Bruce (1230-1306), was held and despoti- 
cally ruled by the family of Comyn ; and it retains 
vestiges of their fortresses, as at Loch-an-Eilan and Loch- 
indhorb, which show a massiveness and a strength of 
masonry never seen in the ordinary baronial fortalices of 
Scotland. The Comyns, as is well known, contested 
the crown of Scotland with the Bruces, and acted pro- 
minently in the intrigues and conflicts of the wars of the 
succession. Robert Bruce slew the Red Comyn at Dum- 
fries, and gave the lordship of Badenoch to Randolph, 
Earl of Moray. In 1371 Robert II. transferred the lord- 
ship, with extraordinary powers of barony and regality, 
to his own illegitimate son, the Earl of Buchan, com- 
monly known as the Wolf of Badenoch. This man was 
a sort of Celtic Attila, ferocious in temper, cruelly tyran- 
nical in behaviour ; and both performed and provoked 
such deeds of spoliation and slaughter as gave full war- 
rant for his sobriquet. But various persons, called the 
king's kindly tenants, and also various churchmen, 
with tenures independent of the local authority, ob- 
tained grants of portions of land within Badenoch ; 
and these afterwards maintained many a struggle with 
the superiors of the soil. The Earls of Huntly, and 
their successors, the Dukes of Gordon, from 1452 ruled 
over most of Badenoch. Yet the Clan Chattan, or 
rather the Macpherson section of that clan, early got 
possession of the upper section of the district, and 
always continued to hold that section ; while the 
Macintoshes and the Grants obtained and have held 
possession of some other parts. Laggan Roman Catholic 
chapel, designated of Badenoch, was built in 1846, and 
contains *!72 sittings. 

Badenscoth. See Attchterless. 

Badensgill, a hamlet and a burn in Linton parish, 
Peeblesshire. The hamlet lies on the burn, near its 
mouth, 2i miles NNW of Linton parish. The burn 
rises on the Pentland Hills, and runs 2 J miles south- 
eastward to the Lyne. 

Badenyon, a house in Glenbucket parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, 7 miles WNW of Bridge of Bucket, celebrated in 
the Rev. John Skinner's song, John o' Badenyon. A 
shooting lodge was built on or near its site, in 1840, by 
the Earl of Fife. 

Badlieu, a burn in Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire, 
rising upon the NE slope of Clyde Law (1789 feet), on 
the Lanarkshire boimdary, and running, past Badlieu 
Rig (1374 feet) 2J miles north-eastward, to the Tweed, 
3 miles N of Tweeds Well 

Eaggage-Knowe, a small hill in Kilsyth parish, 
Stirlingshire, associated in relics or reminiscences with 
the battle of Kilsyth, fought in 1645. 

Baidland, a hill in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. It rises 
to an altitude of 1099 feet above sea-level ; and, at a 
height of 850 feet, it has a vein or dyke of cannel coal, 
between two walls of carboniferous sandstone. 

Baikie, an estate, with a small plain modern mansion, 
in Airlie parish, Forfarshire. A deposit of marl, about 40 
acres in area and from 18 to 21 feet deep, lay in Baikie 
Moss, and forms the subject of an interesting paper by Sir 
Charles Lyell, in the Transactiowoj 'the Geological Society. 

Bailford, an estate in Penpont parish, Dumfriesshire. 


An ancient monument here consists of a two-stepped 
base and a slender pillar about 10 feet high ; has sculp- 
tures, now so weather-worn as to be almost effaced ; and 
defies speculation as to either origin or object. 

Eaillieston, a large mining village and a quoad sacra 
parish, in the civil parish of Old Monkland, Lanark- 
shire, with a station on the Rutherglen-Coatbridge 
branch of the Caledonian, 3£ miles W by S of Coat- 
bridge, and 6J miles E of Glasgow. The village is 
lighted with gas, has a post office under Glasgow, with 
money order, savings bank, and telegraph departments, 
and an Established, a Free, and a U.P. church, besides 
St John's Episcopal and St Bridget's Roman Catholic 
churches. Under Old Monkland school-board there 
are a public and a Roman Catholic school, which, with 
respective accommodation for 420 and 461 children, had 
an average attendance (1891) of 309 and 310, and grants 
of £306, 6s. 6d. and £271, 5s. The Baillieston and 
Shettleston mining district includes some two dozen 
active collieries, most of which are at Baillieston itself. 
Pop. of village (1871) 2805, (1881) 2927, (1891) 4026; 
oiq. s. parish (1871) 4924, (1881) 3477, (1891) 3995. 

Baillivanich, a lake, with a small islet, in the island 
of Benbecula, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Re- 
mains of a monastery are on the islet. 

Bainsford. See Bkainsfoed. 

Bainshole, a hamlet of NW Aberdeenshire, 7 miles 
from Insch, under which it has a post office. 

Bainton. See Baneton. 

Bairdston, a village in East Kilbride parish, Lanark- 
shire, 9 miles S of Glasgow. 

Balagich or Ballageich, a hill in Eaglesham parish, 
Renfrewshire, 2|- miles WSW of Eaglesham village. It 
overhangs the E side of Binend Loch, and has an alti- 
tude of 1084 feet above sea-level. 

Balaklava, a village on the E border of Kilbarchan 
parish, Renfrewshire, 1 mile NNE of Johnstone. It 
was founded in 1856, on the lands of Clippens, for 
working extensive ironstone mines, and received its 
name from the celebrated battle of the Crimean war. 
It is sometimes called Clippens Square. Pop. (1891) 428. 

Balallan, a village in Lochs parish, Lewis, with a 
public school. It is 14 miles SW of Stornoway, under 
which it has a post office with telegraph department. 
Pop. (1891) 521. 

Balantradoch, an ancient chapelry in Temple parish, 
Edinburghshire. It contained the chief seat of the 
Knights Templars in Scotland; passed in 1312 to the 
Knights of St John ; and after the Reformation was 
consolidated with Clerkington parish and Moorfoot 
chapelry into the modern parish of Temple. The church, 
54£ by 17§ feet, is First Pointed in style, and retains a 
piscina, an Easter sepulchre, and on its eastern gable 
an inscription which has puzzled antiquaries. 

Balbardie, an estate, with a mansion and fine park, 
in Bathgate parish, Linlithgowshire, in the northern 
vicinity of Bathgate town. 

Balbeggie, a village formerly in a detached section of 
Kinnoull parish, Perthshire, 5J miles NE of Perth, but 
transferred by the Boundary Commissioners in 1891 
wholly to the parish of St Martins. It has a post office 
under Perth, a United Presbyterian church, and a public 
school with accommodation for 120 children. 

Balbegno, an old castellated mansion in Fettercairn 
parish, Kincardineshire, 4| miles WNW of Laurence- 
kirk. Built in 1609, it bears that date on a parapet 
wall ; it is said to have been so costly that the lands of 
Balnakettle and Littlestrath were sold for means to com- 
plete it ; and it contains a lofty hall, with groined roof 
exhibiting the armorial bearings of 16 Scottish peers; 
under the form of Balmain it gives appellation to Sil 
Al. Entwisle Ramsay(b. 1837 ; sue. as fourth Bart. 1875), 
a great nephew of the late Dean Ramsay (1793-1872). 

Balbirnie, an estate, with a mansion, in Markinch 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands in a romantic hollow 
amid extensive grounds, J mile N W of Markinch village ; 
was erected by the late General Balfour ; and is an 
elegant edifice with an Ionic portico. The estate ex- 
tends to the SW of Markinch village ; and has there, 


on the banks of the river Leven, paper-mills, a woollen 
factory,extensive collieries, and a village called Balbirnie 

Balbirnie, a hamlet in Ruthven parish, Forfarshire, 
near the Perthshire boundary, 2J miles NE of Meigle. 

Balbithan, an estate, with a mansion, in Keith-hall 
parish, Aberdeenshire, on the left bank of the Don, 1J 
mile NNE of Kintore. The mansion, the property of 
the Earl of Kintore, is a curious old structure; was a 
rendezvous of the Marquis of Montrose and his friends 
in the times of the Covenanters ; and gave refuge to 
several of the Pretender's adherents after Culloden. A 
beech tree, girthing 14 feet at 1 foot from the ground, is 
on the estate, 

Balblair, a village in Eddertoun parish, Ross-shire, 
5J miles W by N of Tain. It has a post office with 
telegraph department under Invergordon, and a large 

Balblair, a hamlet in Criech parish, Sutherland, on 
the Kyle of Sutherland, 1 J mile NW of Bonar-Bridge. 

Balblair, a spot in Nairn parish, Nairnshire, on the 
top of a lofty terrace, near the coast, about 1 mile W by 
S of the town of Nairn. It was the camping-ground of 
the royal army on the eve of Culloden; and it overlooks 
all the route which the Highlanders had to take in 
their proposed night attack. 

Balbrogie, a hamlet in the parish of Coupar-Angus, 

Ealbunnoch, a village in Longforgan parish, Perth- 
shire, adjacent to Forfarshire, 4 miles W of Dundee. 
It is conjoint with Myluefield, which has a post office 
under Dundee. A bleachfield was formerly in its neigh- 
bourhood ; and a paper-mill now is there. 

Balcail. See Balkail. 

Balcaithly, an estate in Dunino parish, Fife. An 
urn, supposed to be Roman, was exhumed in a field be- 
longing to it in 1836. 

Balcarres (Gael, baile-carrais, ' town of the contest '), 
a mansion in Kilconquhar parish, East Neuk of Fife, 
J mile NNW of Colinsburgh. It stands, engirt by trees, 
on a sunward slope, 300 feet above and 3 miles to the 
N of the Firth of Forth, across whose waters it looks 
away to the Bass, the Lammerrnuirs, and Edinburgh. 
Originally built in 1595, in the Scoto-Flemish Gothic 
of the period, it retains its fine dining-room, its turn- 
pike stair, and its thick-walled bedchamber, ' Oliver 
Cromwell's Room ; ' but otherwise was much enlarged 
and altered in the first half of the present century. A 
ruined ivy-clad chapel, hard by, erected about 1635, 
serves as the family burial-place ; and, 200 yards to the 
E, Balcarres Craig, a tnrreted rock of clinkstone, rises 
abruptly from the Den Burn's deep ravine. The estate 
was purchased in 1587 by the lawyer-statesman John 
Lindsay (1552-98), Lord Menmuir, second son of the 
ninth Earl of Crawford, who in 1592 obtained a royal 
charter uniting the lands of Balcarres, Balneill, and 
Pitcorthie into a free barony. His second son, David, 
the Rosicrucian (1586-1641), became Lord Lindsay of 
Balcarres in 1633 ; and his son, Alexander, feasted 
Charles II. here in 1651, the year that he was created 
Earl of Balcarres, and died an exile at Breda in 1659. 
The third Earl, Colin (d. 1722), was a Jacobite, though 
cousin by marriage to William of Orange, saw Claver- 
house's ghost, and founded Colinsburgh ; the fifth Earl, 
James (d. 1768), was ' the first that brought Fifeshire 
agriculture to any degree of perfection. ' His daughter, 
Lady Ann Barnard (1750-1825), composed in 1772 Auld 
Robin Gray, the name of the old Balcarres herdsman ; 
and his eldest son, Alexander, sixth Earl (d. 1825), fought 
a duel with the traitor Arnold, and in 1789 sold the 
lands of Balcarres to a younger son, the Hon. Rt. 
Lindsay (d. 1836). Title and lands were thus dissevered, 
the former now being held by Jas. Ludovic Lindsay, 
twenty-sixth Earl of Crawford and ninth of Balcarres 
(b. 1847 ; sue. 1880 ; seat, Ddnecht House) ; and the 
latter by Sir Coutts Trotter Lindsay, second Bart, since 
1821 (b. 1824 ; snc. 1837), who is seventh in lineal 
descent from Lord Menmuir, and owner of 4672 acres 
in the shire, valued at £9619 per annum. See the late 


Earl of Crawford's Lives of the Lindsays (3 vols., Lond 

Balcary, an old mansion, a baylet, a hill, and a head- 
land in Rerwick parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the 
SW side of Auchencairn Bay, about 9 miles E of Kirk- 
cudbright. The bay is an expansion of Auchencairn 
Bay, 2 miles SE of Auchencairn village ; and was de- 
signed by the projectors of the Ayrshire and Galloway 
railway to be provided with a commodious artificial 
harbour, in connection with a terminus of the railway. 
The hill and the headland intervene between Balcary 
Bay and the W of the entrance of Auchencairn Bay. 

Balcaskie, a mansion in the SE angle of Carnbee 
parish, Fife, If mile NW of Pittenweem. A fine old 
building with a park extending into Abercrombie 
parish, it is the seat of Sir Ralph William Anstruther, 
sixth Bart, since 1694, and owner of 2121 acres in the 
shire, valued at £5116 per annum. 

Balcastle, a hamlet and collieries in Slamannan parish, 
Stirlingshire, near Slamannan station, 6f miles SSW 
of Falkirk. 

Balchristie, an estate, with a mansion, in Newburn 
parish, Fife, 1£ mile WSW of Colinsburgh. The 
Culdees here had a church and lands, which went, by 
deed of David I. , to the monks of Dunfermline ; but 
were afterwards vainly claimed by the prior and canons 
of St Andrews. 

Balcomie, an ancient castle, a farm-house now, in 
Crail parish, Fife, 1 mile W of Fifeness, and If NNE 
of Crail. It belonged in 1375 to a John de Balcomie ; 
passed in the time of James IV. to the Learmonths, in 
1705 to Sir William Hope, and afterwards to succes- 
sively Scott of Scotstarvet and the Earl of Kellie. In 
June 1538 it entertained Mary of Guise on her land- 
ing at Fifeness to be married to James V. Originally 
an edifice of great size and splendour, it was reduced 
by the Earl of Kellie to only one wing, but it still is of 
considerable size, and serves as a landmark to mariners. 
A small cave near is falsely alleged to have been the 
scene of the beheading of Constantin, King of the 
Picts (863-77), by Northmen ; and a group of islets, f 
mile NW of Fifeness, is called Balcomie Brigs. See part 
ii. of Thos. Rodger's Kingdom of Fife. 

Balconie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kiltearn parish, 
Ross-shire. The mansion, f mile ESE of Evanton village, 
is a castellated edifice, and was formerly a seat of the 
Earls of Ross. Hugh Miller, in chap. vi. of his Scenes 
and Legends, gives the weird tradition of the Lady of 

Balcraig, a quondam ancient castle in Newtyle parish, 
Forfarshire, a short distance S of the nuns of Hatton 
Castle. Scarcely any traces of it remain. Some urns, 
in a broken state, were, a number of years ago exhumed 
about its site. 

Balcruvie or Pitcruvie, an ancient castle, now re- 
duced to one square tower in Largo parish, Fife, on 
Keil Burn, 1J mile N by W of Lower Largo village. It 
was built by Sir John Lindsay, an' ancestor of the Earls 
of Crawford. 

Balcurvie, a village in the SE of Markinch parish , Fife, 
near Cameron Bridge station. A public school here, 
with accommodation for 292 children, had (1891) an 
average attendance of 175, and a grant of £174, 0s. 6d. 

Baldermonocks, the ancient bishops' lands in Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire, comprehending all the parish, ex- 
cept the entailed estate of Cadder. 

Baldernock (Gael, baile-dur-chnoc, ' town of the 
stream at the knoll '), a hamlet and a parish of SW 
Stirlingshire. The hamlet stands in the W of the 
parish, 2J miles ENE of Milngavie station, and 74 
miles N of its post-town Glasgow ; and comprises the 
parish church (1795 ; 406 sittings), a Free church, 
their manses, a school, and a few scattered cottages. 

The parish also contains the village of Balmore, 2J 
miles ESE. It is bounded N and NE by Campsie, S 
by Cadder in Lanarkshire, SW and W by New Kil- 
pa trick, and NW by Strathblane ; and has an extreme 
length from N to S of 2f miles, a breadth from E to W 
of from 1J to 3J miles, and an area of 4411 J acres, of 



which 88 j are water. The sluggish Kelvin flows be- 
tween embankments 3 miles along the southern border, 
while its affluent, Allandek. Water, traces the south- 
western for 1J; and to these two streams three or four 
burns run southward through the interior of the parish, 
in whose SW corner are Bardowie Loch (4 x 2 J furl. ) 
and the best part of Dougalston Loch (4 J x 1 furl.). 
From the flat Balmore Haughs along the Kelvin the 
surface rises northward towards the Campsie Hills, 
having an altitude of 100 feet above sea-level near Tor- 
rance Bridge in the SE, of 200 near Longbank in the 
SW, of 187 at Craighead, 361 near Blairskaith, 313 by 
the church, 413 at Blochairn, 633 at Oraigmaddie Muir 
on the northern border, and 700 at Blairskaith Muir in 
the NE. The rocks are carboniferous in the S, eruptive 
in the N; and coal, ironstone, pyrites, fireclay, lime, 
and alum have all at times been worked. Of soils there 
is a great and strongly -marked diversity, from the rich 
alluvium of Balmore Haughs to the clay incumbent upon 
till of the middle slopes, and the light sharp soil of the 
upland moors beyond; about 4000 acres are in tillage, 
240 under wood. Antiquities are a famous cromlech 
called At/ld Wives' Lift, some round or oblong cairns 
on Blochairn farm, the Hamil tons' ruined castle by 
Bardowie Loch, and remains of a moated tower in the 
park of Craigmaddie House near the north-western 
angle of the parish. The barony around this tower was 
held from 1238 and earlier by the Galbraiths, and in 
the latter half of the 14th century came through an 
heiress to John de Hamilton, a scion of the Cadzow 
line, and founder of that of Baldernock and Bardowie. 
Modern mansions are Bardowie, North Bardowie, and 
Glenorchard ; and the property is divided among 3 
landowners holding each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 11 of from £100 to £500, 7 of from £50 
to £100, and 6 of from £20 to £50. Baldernock is 
in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr; its minister's income is £153. The public 
school, with accommodation for 122 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 62, and a grant of £73, 2s. 6d. 
Valuation £6609, lis. 5d. Pop. (1801) 796, (1841) 
972, (1871) 616, (1881) 569, (1891) 553.— On*. Sur., sh. 
30, 1866. 

Baldoon Castle, the corner of one crumbling tower, 
with a few yards of ivy-clad wall, in Kirkinner parish, 
Wigtownshire, 3 furlongs from the S bank of Blaaenoch 
river, and If mile SSW of Wigtown. Hence Scott 
derived the ground-plot of the Bride of Lammermoor, 
for here, according to its Introduction and to Chambers' 
Domestic Annals (ii. 326-328), the final act of the real 
tragedy was played in August 1669, with Janet Dal- 
rymple, Lord Stair's daughter, for ' Lucy, ' David Dun- 
bar of Baldoon for ' Bucklaw, ' Lord Rutherford for 
' Ravenswood, ' and so forth. But antiquaries now re- 
ject the ' bonny bridegroom ' version of the story, con- 
ceding only that the bride died broken-hearted just a 
month after her bridal in Glenluce kirk. David Dun- 
bar is described as an agricultural improver; and at the 
present day the Baldoon Mains are famous for their 
dairy-farms. Eastward in Wigtown Bay are the Baldoon 
Sands, from 1J to 2 miles broad at low-water; and 
northward is Baldoon Quay, a small proprietorial har- 
bour on the Bladenoch. See T. Murray Graham's Htair 
Annals (1875). 

Baldovan, a village, with a railway station, in Mains 
and Strathmartin parish, Forfarshire, on the river 
Dighty, and on the Dundee and Newtyle railway, 3 
miles NW of Dundee. Baldovan House, in the vicinity, 
is the seat of Sir Reginald H. A. Ogilvy, tenth Bart, since 
1 025, and owner of 1431 acres, valued at £3626 perannum. 
Baldovan Asylum for Imbecile Children was erected in 
1854, by the benevolence of the late Sir John and Lady 
Jane Ogilvy; is a fine structure, after designs by Coe & 
Goodwin; and, as considerably enlarged, accommodates 
some 70 inmates. It was the first institution of its 
kind, and long the only one in Scotland. 

Baldovie, a post office hamlet in Dundee parish, For- 
farshire, 4 miles ENE of Dundee town. 

Ealdowrie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kettins 


parish, Forfarshire. On the estate is an ancient stand- 
ing stone, 6 feet high, with nearly defaced sculptures. 

Baldragon, a station in Forfarshire, on the Dundee 
and Newtyle railway, 1 mile NNW of Baldovan station. 
See pp. 262-264 of Chambers' Popular Rhymes. 

Baldridge, several localities — Baldridge, West Bald- 
ridge, Baldridge House, and North Baldridge, in Dun- 
fermline parish, Fife, around the Wellwood colliery, 
from f to li mile NNW of Dunfermline. 

Balerno, a village in Currie parish, Edinburghshire, 
on the right bank of the Water of Leith, with a station 
on a loop line of the Caledonian, 1 mile WSW of Currie, 
and 7 SW of Edinburgh. It has a post office with 
money order and savings bank departments, a U.P. and 
a Roman Catholic church, 2 inns, 2 paper-mills, and a 
public and an Episcopal school, which, with accommo- 
dation for 176 and 126 children, had (1891) an average 
attendance of 131 and 78, and grants of £131, 15s. 6d. 
and £63, 9s. 6d. Pop. (1861) 510, (1871) 490, (1881) 
474, (1891) 619. 

Balerno Railway, an Edinburghshire loop line of the 
Caledonian, 5J miles long, from Slateford to Ravelrig 
siding. A single line, it was authorised in 1870, formed 
at a cost of £42,000, and opened in 1874; it four times 
crosses the Water of Leith, has steepish gradients, and 
at Colinton traverses a tunnel 150 yards long. 

Baleshare. See Balleshare. 

Balevil, a small estate, with a residence, in Urquhart 
parish, Ross-shire. It was bought and occupied, in the 
present century, by General John Mackenzie. 

Balfour, an estate, with a mansion, in Markinch 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands on the right bank of 
the river Leven, near the influx of the Ore, 1£ mile NE 
of Thornton; is the seat of Mrs C. C. Bethune; and 
contains an original portrait of Cardinal Beaton. The 
estate belonged anciently to the family of Balfour; was 
originally called Balorr, with reference to its situation 
near the Ore; and passed by marriage, in 1360, to the 

Balfour, a ruined ancient castle in the S of Kingoldrum 
parish, Forfarshire. It is in the Gothic style; was built 
by Cardinal Beaton; became the seat of the Ogilvies 
of Balfour, a branch of the noble Ogilvies of Airlie; 
passed to the Fotheringhams and the Farquharsons; 
and about 1838 was denuded of two wings, for the 
erection of a farm-house. 

Balfour, a hamlet in Shapinshay parish, Orkney, 5 miles 
NE of Kirkwall, under which it has a post office. Balfour 
Castle, in its vicinity, is the seat of Mrs Eleanor Balfour, 
owner of 29,054 acres, valued at £7578 per annum. 

Balfron, a village and a parish of W Stirlingshire. 
The village lies toward the south-western corner of the 
parish, 2 furlongs from the right bank of the Endrick, 
and 2 miles E of Balfron station on the Forth and Clyde 
Junction section of the North British, that station, with 
a telegraph office, being 20 miles WSW of Stirling, and 
10J ENE of Balloch. From Glasgow Balfron is 19 miles 
NNW by road, or 24 by the Killearn and Lennoxtown 
branch of the North British railway, and is supplied 
with water from a spring on Spittal Farm (at a cost of 
£800). Built on a gentle slope, it looks across the river 
and the Ballikinrain woods to Earl's seat, highest of 
the Campsie Fells (1894 feet), 3| miles SSE; 11 miles 
NNW and 14J NW rise Ben Venue (2393 feet) and Ben 
Lomond (3192), with lesser summits of the great High- 
land wall. The place itself was founded by Robert 
Dunmore, Esq. of Ballindalloch, who opened a cotton- 
mill in 1789; and, neat and regular, it prospored greatly 
for the first fifty years, till handloom-weaving, its staple 
industry, was superseded by machinery. Now it looks 
somewhat deserted, but still has a branch bank of the 
British, Linen Co., a post office under Glasgow, with 
money order, savings bank, and telegraph departments, 
several innB, a public coffco and reading room and library, 
and a large factory; and fairs are held at it on tho last 
Tuesday of May, July (hiring), and October (horses and 
cattle). Places of worship are the parish church (1832; 
690 sittings), a Free church (for Killearn and Balfron), 
a U.P. church (1882), and a Roman Catholic chapel; a 


public school, with accommodation for 208 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 147, and a grant of 
£145, ISs. Pop. (1881) 970, (1891) 885. 

The parish is bounded N by Drymen and Kippen, E 
by Gargunnock, SE by Fintry, S by Killearn, and NW 
by Drymen. It has an extreme length from E to W of 
7| miles, a width from N to S of from 7 furlongs to 2J 
miles, and an area of 7847f acres, of which 28 are water. 
The westward-flowing Endrick roughly traces all the 
southern border, and the surface along its right bank 
has an altitude of less than 200 feet above sea-level, but 
rises northward to 491 feet at Cairnhall, 446 near Edin- 
bellie, 627 on Ballindalloch Muir, and 577 on Balgair 
Muir, — north-eastward to Stronend (1676 feet), which 
culminates just beyond the SE frontier; and from Stron- 
end it sinks again north-eastward to 554 feet near the 
confluence of the Boquhan and Pow Burns, marking the 
eastern, and part of the northern, boundary. The rocks 
are mainly eruptive, and the profitable working of 
abundant limestone has only been hindered by the ab- 
sence of coal. In 1841 more than two-thirds of the 
entire area were either pastoral or waste, but great re- 
clamations have been since effected, those of a single 
proprietor costing, in two years, upwards of £40,000. 
Mr Gillespie, however, in his edition of Nimmo's Stir- 
lingshire, distributes the area thus — 3420 acres in till- 
age, 4295 waste, and 105 under wood. In the old 
heathen days the children of Balfron are said to have 
all been killed by wolves, whence its name Saile-bhroin 
('town of mourning '); other traditions record how Bal- 
lindalloch and Edinbellie were seats, if not the birth- 
places, of Alexander Cunningham, the ' Good ' Earl of 
Glencairn (d. 1574), and Napier of Merchiston (1550- 
1617), how at Clockburn Sharpe's murderers first drew 
rein, fresh from their bloody work on Magus Moor (1679). 
Certain, at least, it is that Edinbellie was the scene of 
the forcible abduction of Jean Key (3 Dec. 1750) by Rob 
Roy's sons, for which Robin Oig, the principal, was three 
years after hanged at Edinburgh; and that Balfron gave 
birth to the eminent Glasgow architect, Alexander Thom- 
son (1817-75). Ballindalloch, J mile W of the village, 
was the seat of the late H. R. Cooper, Esq. , who divided 
this parish with 13 more (non-resident) proprietors. It 
is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr ; the minister's income is £185. Valuation 
£6615, 9s. Id. Pop. (1801) 1634, (1831) 2057, (1851) 
1900, (1871) 1502, (1881) 1327, (1891) 1203.— Ord. Sur., 
shs. 38 and 39, 1869-71. 

Balgair, an estate in the E of Balfron parish, Stirling- 
shire, 3J miles E of Balfron village. It includes Balgair 
proper, Hill of Balgair, "Wester Balgair, and Balgair Muir; 
and it formerly was the place of a large annual cattle 
market, now held on Kippen Moor. 

Balgarvie, an estate, with a handsome modern man- 
sion, in Monimail parish, Fife. 

Balgavies. See Aberlemno. 

Balgay. See Dundee. 

Balgedie, two hamlets, Easter and Wester, in Port- 
moak parish, Kinross-shire, at the foot of West Lomond 
HilL 1 mile from the E shore of Loch Leven, ^ and 1 mile 
NNW of Kiunesswood, and about 5 miles by road E by 
N of Kinross. They have a United Presbyterian church. 

Balglass, an estate in the NE corner of Killearn parish, 
Stirlingshire. An ancient castle here is said to have 
formerly been well fortified, and once to have afforded 
protection to Sir William Wallace. 

Balgonar, an estate, with a mansion, in Saline parish, 
Fife. L 

Balgone. See North Berwick. 

Balgonie, two villages and an estate in Markinch 
parish, Fife. Balgonie proper or Milton of Balgonie 
stands on the left bank of the river Leven, 1£ mile ESE 
of Markinch station; and has a post office under Mark- 
inch, a public school, and a quoad sacra church with 
650 sittings. The principal industry of the neighbour- 
hood is bleaching, which employs a considerable number 
of persons. Coalton of Balgonie village stands near the 
North British railway, 1£ mile S of Markinch, and has 
two suburbs called West Coalton and Lady's Square. A 


bleachfield is on the Leven, a little N of Lady's Square, 
and there is a public school. — In 1823 Balgonie estate, 
having belonged to the Earls of Leven from the reign of 
Charles I., was purchased for £104,000 by James Balfour 
of Whittinghame, whose son, Charles Balfour (1823-72) 
was owner of 919 acres, valued at £1763 per annum. 
The ancient mansion on it, Balgonie Castle, stands on 
the banks of the Leven, about 36 feet above the bed of 
the stream, in the western vicinity of Milton; is an 
edifice of different ages, large and massive, strong and 
picturesque ; comprises two sides of a quadrangle, with 
a strong wall on the other two sides, enclosing an oblong 
area of 108 by 65 feet; and includes a donjon or keep, 
45 feet long, 36 wide, and 80 high. Rich coal mines 
are on the estate, and have been worked for centuries. 
The title of Baron Balgonie (ere. 1641) is still borne by 
the Earls of Leven, the first of whom, Alex. Leslie, the 
celebrated Presbyterian general, died at Balgonie in 

Balgowan, an estate, with a mansion and a railway 
station, in the SW of Methven parish, Perthshire, on 
the Perth and Crieff railway, 2 miles WSW of Methven 
village. The mansion is the seat of Captain Black, 
owner of 2953 acres, valued at £3877 per annum. A 
public school here, with accommodation for 84 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 52, and a grant of 
£61, 13s. 

Balgown, a small bay on the E side of Kirkmaiden 
parish, Wigtownshire, 9 miles N by W of the Mull of 
Balgownie. See Aberdeen. 

Balgray, a former hamlet in the NNW of Glasgow, 
near the Kelvin, but now included in the city. A quarry 
of excellent sandstone is near it, about 600 yards from a 
wharf on the Forth and Clyde Canal; and this, about 
the year 1832, disclosed upwards of twenty stumps of 
exogenous fossil trees, all standing in a group, in their 
natural position. Not more than two of the stumps 
retained their roots, and no organic remains whatever 
were visible in the superincumbent rock. 

Balgray Hill, a part of the Springburn district of 

Balgreggan, an estate, with a mansion, the seat of 
Mrs Maitland (7848 acres, £5882 per annum), in Stoney- 
kirk parish, Wigtownshire. A mote, near the mansion, 
460 feet in circumference and 60 high, was engirt by a 
large fosse, and has on the top a curious excavation. 

Balhousie, an old castellated mansion in the northern 
vicinity of Perth. 

Balintore Castle, a mansion in Lintrathen parish, W 
Forfarshire, 9 miles WNW of Kirriemuir. It is a seat 
of Mr Andrew Chirnside, owner of 6888 acres in the 
shire, valued at £1428 per annum. 

Balintore, a fishing village in Fearn parish, Ross- 
shire, on a flat piece of coast, 6 miles NNE of the 
Souters of Cromarty, and 7 SE of Tain. Pop. (1871) 
387, (1881) 369, (1891) 361. 

Balintraid, a harbour in Kilmuir-Easter parish, Ross- 
shire, on the Cromarty Firth, 3 miles NE of Invergordon. 
It has a pier, and serves a large part of Easter Ross for 
the exportation of grain and fir-timber, and for the im- 
portation of coals and general merchandise. 

Balisheae, an island in North Uist parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, near the SW coast of North 
Uist island. It is about 3£ miles long. 

Balivanich, a hamlet in Benbecula island, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. It has a public school, 
which, with accommodation for 98 children, had (1891) 
an average attendance of 36, and a grant of £54, 15s. 6d. 
Balkail, an estate, with a mansion, in Old Luce parish, 
Wigtownshire, \ mile SE of Glenluce village. 

Balkello, a hamlet in Tealing parish, Forfarshire. Its 
post-town is Auchterhouse, near Dundee. 

Balkissock, a mansion in Ballantrae parish, SW Ayr- 
shire, 3 miles E of Ballantrae village. It is the seat of 
Arthur Hughes-Onslow, Esq. (b. 1862; sue. 1870), owner 
of 14,426 acres in the shire, valued at £3235 per annum. 
Ballachroy, a village on the W side of Kintyre, Argyll- 
shire, 4 miles NNE of Tayinloan. 



Eallachulish (Gael, bail-a-chaolais, 'town of the 
strait'), a large but straggling village of Lismore and 
Appin parish, Argyllshire, extending along the southern 
shore of salt-water Loch Leven, on either side of the 
Laroeh river, up to the mouth of Glencoe. Its central 
point, the bridge over the Laroeh, is If mile WSW of 
Bridge of Coe, 2§ miles ESE of Ballachulish Ferry, and 
16£ S of Fort William ; by coach and steamer Ballachu- 
lish in summer has constant communication with Tay- 
nuilt and Oban, and so with all parts of Scotland. At 
Ballachulish Ferry, where the entrance of Loch Leven 
narrows to 1 furlong, stands an excellent hotel ; the 
steamboat pier is 1 mile further W ; and the village has 
a post office, with money order, telegraph, and savings 
bank departments, an Established church (enlarged 
1880), and St John's Episcopal church (1842-48; con- 
gregation, 600) in pseudo-Early English style. A public 
and an Episcopal school, accommodating 150 and 170 
children, had (1S91) an attendance of 100 and 105, and 
grants of £108, 16s. 6d. and £108, 10s. Pop. of village 
(1891) 1045; of Glencoe and Ballachulish registration 
district (1881) 1441, (1891) 1480. 

'The slate quarries,' to quote from Trans. Highl. 
ajid Agricult. Society, 'were commenced about 1760, 
and at present are worked with great vigour under the 
trustees of the late Sir George Beresford. The vein 
of slate, which is at an angle of 80°, stretches S and 
E from the shore along the side of Meall Mor (2215 
feet), and then runs into the centre of it. The face of 
the rock is laid open by workings fronting N and W, 
the inclination of the vein being towards the E. The 
workings of the main or E quarries are conducted in four 
levels, above the common highway, and three sinkings, 
making an aggregate working face of 436 feet in depth 
— an increase of 230 feet since 1843. The W end work- 
ings are conducted upon a similar method — one with 3 
upper levels, and 2 depths of sinkings. Recently there 
have been several new quarries opened, which promise 
well. The material from the upper parts is conveyed 
from the respective levels by powerful brake-drums, the 
weight of the loaded waggons descending taking up the 
empty waggons without difficulty. Material from the 
sinkings is taken up to the surface in inclined planes by 
3 stationary engines, which, by auxiliary gearing, keep 
the sinkings free of water — no small matter in such a 
rainy district, and with such great watersheds. The 
rock, after being quarried, is conveyed partly by railway 
locomotives. In all the workings there are from 10 to 11 
miles of firm and permanent lines of iron rails used, and 
130 substantial iron waggons. For deep boring a power- 
ful patent rock drill is put to work to rend the hill into 
pretty large blocks, which are afterwards easily disposed 
of by the regular manual process, i.e., one man, in a 
half - recumbent position, regulating the boring- drill, 
while another wields a large hammer, doing great execu- 
tion. At times this process would appear alarming to 
the inexperienced spectator, inasmuch as the operators 
are slung at giddy heights by ropes twisted round their 
bodieB, the pressure of which, combined with physi- 
cal exertions required in the manual toil, must prove no 
mean test of their strong and healthy frames. The 
slate-making portions, or " blocks," are conveyed on 
" lines " along the banks formed by the refuse, and laid 
down at little sheds, where they are, by one man, split 
up to the required thickness, and, by another, cut into 
shape, after which they are ready for export. There are 
three safe and commodious shipping harbours, all formed 
by the banks of rubbish projecting into the sea in arms 
of two to each harbour, thus completely sheltering ves- 
sels in any weather. The slates are of a deep blue 
colour, and Bpangled with pyrites, called by the work- 
men " diamonds ;" and these gold-coloured drops are so 
incorporated with the slate that they cannot bo sepa- 
rated from it. The slates are allowed to possess in a 
pre-eminent degree all the qualities of permanence of 
colour and durability of material essential to roof slates. 
TTiere are five different descriptions of slates made, viz., 
queens, duchesses, countesses, sizablcs, and undersized, 
llie annual production of manufactured slates is 28,000 


to 30,000 tons, or, in numbers, 16,000,000 to 17,000,000. 
There are over 600 men employed in the works, earnin? 
from 20s. to 40s. per week.'— Orel. Sur., sh. 53, 1877. 

Ballachulish and Corran of Ardgour, a quoad sacra 
parish in Kilmalie parish, Inverness and Argyll shires. 
It comprises two districts. North Ballachulish in Inver- 
ness-shire and Ardgour in Argyllshire, separated from 
each other by the northern end of Loch Linnhe, and its 
continuation of that, Loch Eil, but communicating with 
each other by Corran Ferry, 4 miles by road BW of Bal- 
lachulish Ferry, and itself f mile broad. North Ballachu- 
lish district is bounded S by Loch Leven and the river 
Leven, being separated only by these from Ballachulish 
proper and the region of Glencoe, and it measures 17 
miles in length and 7 in breadth. The parish, consti- 
tuted first by the General Assembly in May 1833, next 
by the Court of Teinds in December 1845, is in the pres- 
bytery of Abertarff and synod of Glenelg ; its minister's 
income is £120. Two churches for the two districts, 
standing about 4 miles apart, were built in 1829, each 
at a cost of £1470; and that of Ballachulish contains 
300 sittings. Pop. (1891) 757, of whom 277 belonged 
to Corran of Ardgour. 

Ballagan, an estate, with a mansion and with a fine 
waterfall, in Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. The man- 
sion stands on the upper reach of the Blane river, called 
the Laggan Burn, f mile E by N of Strathblane village, 
and commands, from its windows, a view of the waterfall, 
which, known as the Spout of Ballagan, makes a descent 
of 70 feet, and somewhat resembles Corra Linn. 

Ballageich. See Balagich. 

Ballanachist, a rivulet in Harris, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, frequented by salmon, and open for rod 
and line fishing from 10 Sept. to 31 Oct. 

Ballanbreich (popularly Bambrcich), a ruined ancient 
castle in Flisk parish, Fife, on a steep bank overhanging 
the Firth of Tay, 2f miles NE of Newburgh. It was a 
parallelogram, 180 feet long by 70 wide, with an enclosed 
court ; consisted, on three sides, of buildings four stories 
high, on the fourth side of a high curtain wall ; was 
surrounded by a moat ; and is now a mere shattered 
shell, of picturesque outline, embosomed in a small plan- 
tation. The Earls of Rothes long resided in it, and took 
from it the title Baron Ballanbreich (ere. 1457). The 
estate connected with it was purchased by Sir Lawrence 
Dundas, grandfather of the first Earl of Zetland. An 
ancient place of worship stood adjacent to the E side of 
the castle, on what is still called Chapel HilL 

Ballancrieff. See Ballencrieff. 

Ballandarg, a burn of W Forfarshire, rising in Kirrie- 
muir parish, and running southward to the Dean river, 
in Glamis parish. 

Ballangeich. See Stirling. 

Ballanree. See Beregonium. 

Ballantrae (Gael, baile-na-traigh, ' town on the shore '), 
a fishing village and a coast parish of Carrick, SW Ayr- 
shire. The village lies in the NW corner of the parish, 
between the sea-shore and the right bank of the Stinchar, 
which here, at J mile from its mouth, is crossed by a 
three-arched stone bridge. It is 13 miles SSW of Girvan, 
and 10 of Pin wherry station ; with one main street, it 
has a branch of the Commercial Bank, a hotel, a public 
hall and reading-room, a post office with money order, 
savings bank, and telegraph departments, a neat parish 
church (rebuilt 1819; 600 sittings), a Free church, and 
a school, which, with accommodation for 182 children, 
had (1891) an average attendance of 123, and a grant 
of £120, 16s. A considerable number of new buildings 
have recently been erected, and a new burying-ground 
has been added to the old church. The tidal harbour, 
constructed at a cost of £6000, is a basin excavated 
from the solid rock, with a strong pior built upon a 
•rocky ledge; and Ballantrae is centre of the south- 
western fishery district, in which, during 1890, there 
were cured 1322 barrols of white herrings, taken by 516 
boats, the persons employed being 921 fishermen and 
.boys, 78 fish-curers, 51 coopers, and some 800 others, 
while the total value of boats, nets, and lines was esti- 
mated at £16,975— a sum that indicates a great advance 


over preceding years. A century since the village was 
noted as a smugglers' haunt, a rude and primitive 
place, but in 1617 it was a burgh of barony; and the 
picturesque ruins of Ardstinchar Castle, with clock- 
sunnonnted tower, still crown a rock close by. The 
key to Carrick, this was the seat of the Kennedys, lairds 
of Bargeny, whose feud with the Earls of Cassillis closed 
(1601) with the slaughter of young Kennedy in a fray 
near the Brig of Doon (Chambers' Bom. Ann., i. 292, 
310, 359). Pop. (1831) 456, (1861) 557, (1871) 515, 
(1881) 426, (1891) 524. 

The parish is bounded N and E by Colmonell, SE by 
New Luce and S by Inch in Wigtownshire, SAY by the 
entrance to Loch Kyan, and W by the Irish Channel, 
36 miles across. It has an extreme length from N to S 
of 9 miles, a breadth from E to W of from 4 J to 8 miles, 
and an area of 33,S76J acres, of which 164 are foreshore 
and 151J water. The coast-line, 9^ miles long, over the 
first 2, northward from the village, presents a low sandy 
shore, the Girvan road at one point running only 17 feet 
above the level of the sea ; but elsewhere it is steep and 
rockbound, rising within 3 furlongs to over 300 and 600 
feet, and commanding grand views of Ailsa Craig (11 
miles NNW) and the Firth of Clyde, of Ireland and the 
Ehinns of Galloway. The Stinchar has here a south- 
westerly course of 4 J miles, on the Colmonell border and 
through the north-western corner of the parish ; 2 miles 
above the village it is joined by Tig Water, which flows 
first 3J miles northward along the eastern boundary, 
next 5J westward along the northern and through the 
northern interior. The Water of Luce, too, with the 
Pinwherran, Laganabeastie, and others of its tributary 
burns, winds southward into Wigtownshire ; but the 
stream that has shaped the most prominent features of 
Ballantrae is the shallow Water of App, rising between 
Smirton and Beneraird hills, and running 6 miles south- 
westward to Loch Kyan through beautiful Glen App. 
With the north-eastward flowing Dunnock Burn, an 
affluent of the Tig, it divides the parish into two nearly 
equal halves, in the western of which from S to N rise 
Sandloch Hill (803 feet), Penderry (1075), Carlock (1054), 
Auchencrosh (1067), Smirton (1213), Big Eell (1032), 
and Leffie Donald Hill (760), with Cairn Hill (539), 
Bencummin (739), and Knoekdhu (755) beyond the Tig. 
In the eastern are Muillbane (741 feet), Altimeg (1270), 
Highmilldown (1104), Milljoan(1320), Beneraird (1435; a 
station of the Ordnance Survey, 4 j miles SE of the 
village), Benaw (1380), Strawarren Fell (1040), Wee 
Fell (850), Millmore (1052), and Loch Hill (870) ; whilst 
in the SE, flanking the Water of Luce, are Bennan Hill 
(1157), Park HOI (761), Ardnamoil (944), and Drum- 
bracken (803). Triangular KiUantringan Loch (3x1 
furl.) lies 2J miles S by E of the village. The rocks 
belong to the Lower Silurian ; the soils are alluvial in 
the valleys, light and sandy towards the NW coast, and 
generally moorish on the uplands. Less than a fifth of the 
whole area is arable, besides some 370 acres under plan- 
tation ; and dairy -farming forms a chief source of wealth. 
Mansions or summer lodges are Finnart House (H. F. 
Kennedy), Glenapp House (James Hunter), Glenapp 
Lodge (G. Oliver), Balkissock House (Arthur Hughes- 
Onslow), Gurphur House, Auchairne House (J. N. Don- 
aldson), and Auchenflower; and 7 proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 12 of between 
£100 and £500, and 4 of from £20 to £50. In the pres- 
bytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, this parish 
was formerly called Kirkcudbright- Innertig; and its 
church, St Cuthbert's (anciently held by Crossraguel 
Abbey), stood up to 1617 near the confluence of the Tig 
and the Stinchar, where some ruins may yet be seen. 
In 1874 the Glenapp portion, which has a post office 
under Ballantrae, was formed into a quoad sacra parish. 
There are four public schools, in addition to the one in 
the village— at Auchenflower, 2f miles E by N; Ballach- 
dowan, 3 miles S; Ballantrae, and Glenapp, 6 J miles 
S. With total accommodation for 332 children, these 
had, in 1891, an average attendance of 185, and grants 
amounting to £217, 12s. Valuation, £15,213, 16s. Pop. 
(1801) 836, (1831) 1506, (1851) 1801, (1871) 1277, (1881) 


1442, (1891) 1268. Pop. of registration district, 1268. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 7, 1863. 

Ballat, a bog in Drymen parish, Stirlingshire, on the 
watershed between the river systems of the Forth and 
the Clyde, 3 miles NNE of Drymen village. It i3 the 
lowest ground on the summit-level between the E and 
W coasts of Scotland, excepting DuKater Bog, on the 
Forth and Clyde Canal; its elevation is 222 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

Ballater (Gael, baile-na-leitir, ' town near the slope 
of the hill'), a village in Glenmuick parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, at the terminus of the Deeside Extension section 
(1866) of the Great North of Scotland, 434 miles WSW 
of Aberdeen by rail, and 17J ENE of Castleton of Brae- 
mar by road. It lies 668 feet above sea-level, between 
the wooded hills of Pannanich (1896 feet) and Craigan- 
darroch (1250), on the left bank of the Dee, which here 
is spanned by a substantial four-arched granite bridge, 
erected in 1885 at a cost of £7000. Its immediate pre- 
decessor, a wooden bridge, was erected in 1834-5 by 
public subscription, chiefly through the exertions of the 
Kev James Smith, then schoolmaster. The village itself 
was founded about 1770, to accommodate visitors to the 
Pannanich Mineral Wells; and supplied with water 
from the Gairn at a cost of £2500 (1873), and since 
efficiently drained, it enjoys fine bracing air and an 
equable climate, the mean temperature being 44 p 6°, the 
rainfaU 33 '40 inches. With slated houses built chiefly 
of gray granite, a square in the middle, and spacious 
regular streets, it is a pleasant, neat, clean place, a 
favourite resort of summer visitors ; at it are a post office, 
with money order, savings bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, branches of the Union, North of Scotland, 
and Town and County banks, a local savings bank (1821), 
insurance agencies, the Invercauld Arms hotel, temper- 
ance hotel, and St Nathalan's masonic lodge. Fairs are 
held on the Tuesday of February before Aboyne, the 
first Tuesday of May, old style, the Wednesday of July 
after Brechin wool market, the second Monday and 
Tuesday of September, old style, and the Saturday be- 
fore 22 Nov. The principal buildings are the handsome 
parish church (rebuilt 1875) ; a Free church, in the out- 
skirts; the Barracks (1860, for about 50 men), consisting 
of seven Elizabethan cottages, for the Queen's guard of 
honour; the Albert Memorial Hall, erected (1875) by Mr 
A. Gordon, and endowed by him in 1887, comprising a 
public hall, reading and billiard rooms, a square tower, 
etc. ; and a public school. A new iron suspension foot 
bridge was in 1892 built over the Dee at Polquhollick, 
2 miles to the W. Ballater is a police burgh. Pop. 
(1891) 9S3.— Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Ballater, Pass of, a 'wild and anciently impregnable' 
defile, f mile N of Ballater village, leading from Milton 
of Tullich to Bridge of Gairn, a distance of 2 miles, and 
overhung to the S by Craigandarroch (1250 feet), to the 
N by Creagan Riach (1750) and other offsets of Morven 
Hill (2882). 

Ballatrich or Ballateraeh, a farm-house in Glenmuick 
parish, Aberdeenshire, near the S bank of the Dee, 4i 
miles E of Ballater. The place where Lord Byron spent 
part of his boyhood, it retains some relics of the poet, 
and for his sake is visited by many strangers. 

Balleave, a hamlet in Kinross parish, Kinross-shire, 
on Kelly Burn, -J mile SW of Kinross. It has a tartan 

Ballechin, an estate, with the seat of Jn. Steuart, 
Esq. (b. 1837; sue. 1876),! in Logierait parish, Perth- 
shire, 3 miles WNW of Ballinluig Junction. 

Balledgarno or Ballerno, a village in Inchture parish, 
Perthshire, 7 miles W of Dundee. It is supposed to 
have taken its name from an ancient castle, built by a 
Prince Edgar, and now extinct. Balledgarno House 
stands in its south-western vicinity, and is a fine man- 
sion, surrounded by plantations. 

Ballenach, a hamlet in North Knapdale, Argyllshire, 
near the Crinan Canal, 6 miles WNW of Lochgilphead. 

Ballenbreich. See Ballanbkeich. 

Ballencrieff, a mansion in Aberlady parish, Hadding- 
tonshire, 19 mile SE of Aberlady village. It is a seat of 



Lord Elibauk, owner of 1863 acres in the shire, valued 
at £5565 per annum. Occupying a fine site, and sur- 
rounded by stately trees, it enjoys an extensive prospect. 
Patrick Murray, fifth Lord Elibank, here entertained Dr 
Samuel Johnson in 1773. An hospital, dedicated to St 
Cuthbert, is said to have been founded here in the 12th 

Ballencrieff, several localities and a rivulet in Linlith- 
gowshire. The localities lie in the northern vicinity of 
Bathgate, and include a ruined ancient mansion and 
lime-works. The rivulet rises 1J mile NE of Bathgate, 
makes a circuit of about 4| miles, round the SE and centre 
of Bathgate parish, to the western vicinity of Bathgate 
town; runs thence about 2f miles north-westward, partly 
in Bathgate parish, partly along the boundary with Tor- 
phichen; and makes a confluence with Barbauchlaw Burn, 
to form the river Luggie, which runs about f mile north- 
westward to the Avon. 

Ballendrick, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Dun- 
barnie parish, Perthshire, 1 mile WSW of Bridge of Earn. 

Ballerno. See Balledgarno. 

Balleshare, an island in North Uist parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Invemess-shire, in the western part of the 
sound dividing North Uist Island from Benbecula. It 
nearly blocks the W entrance of the sound; has an ir- 
regular outline and much indented shores ; and measures 
about 10 miles in circumference. Pop., together with 
that of Illeray, (1861) 199, (1881) 266, (1891) 318. 

Ballevullin, a hamlet in Tiree island, Argyllshire. 

Ballewan, a farm, with a mineral spring, in Strath- 
blane parish, Stirlingshire. 

Balliasta, an ancient chapelry, with ruins of an old 
church, and with limestone quarries, in Uist island, 

Ballibeg, a hamlet of E Argyllshire. Its post-town is 
Strachur under St Catherines. 

Ballichroisk, a hamlet in the W of Perthshire. Its 
post-town is Killin. 

Ballied, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinloch parish, 
Perthshire, 3 J miles W of Blairgowrie. 

Balligill, a loch (2§ x 1£ furl.) in Farr parish, Suther- 
land, 2 J miles SW of Melvich. Its trout run up to 3 lbs. 

Ballikinrain, an estate, with a mansion, in Killearn 
parish, Stirlingshire. The mansion stands on a burn of 
its own name, near the burn's influx to the river En- 
drick, 1 mile ESE of the village of Balfron, and is the 
seat of Sir William Orr-Ewing, Bart. The burn rises, 
at 1250 feet of altitude, on the northern shoulder of 
Earl's Seat (1894 feet), the highest summit of the 
Campsie Fells; runs about 2 miles down Ballikinrain 
Muir, making in its descent a number of fine cascades; 
and afterwards flows about f mile across the valley of 
the Endrick. 

Ballimore, a hamlet in Logierait parish, Perthshire, 
on the river Tummel, 2| miles E by N of Kinloch 

Ballimore, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Kil- 
finan parish, Argyllshire, on Loch Fyne, at Otter Ferry, 
5 miles ESE of Lochgilphead. It is the seat of Colonel 
Burnley Campbell, Esq., owner of 9521 acres, valued at 
£1933 per annum. 

Ballincrieff. See Ballencrieff. 

Ballindalloch, a hamlet and an estate in Inveravon 
parish, Banllshire. The hamlet lies at the confluence 
of the Avon and the Spey, adjacent to the Craigellachie 
and Boat of Garten branch of the Great North of Scot- 
land railway, 12 miles WSW of Craigellachie; and has 
a station on the railway, and a post office, with money 
order, savings bank, and telegraph departments. The 
estate belongs to Sir George Macpherson-Grant, Bart., 
and was formerly in the Elgin portion of the parish, 
which, in 1891, was placed oy the Boundary Commis- 
sioners wholly in Banffshire; it has extensive woods with 
some noble trees, and boasts great numbers of roe deer. 
The mansion on it, Ballindalloch Castle, was formerly a 
line specimen of the old Scottish fortalice; comprised a 
square building, flanked by three circular towers; and 
about 1845 was much enlarged in the castellated style, 
so as to be rendered a very splendid mansion. 


Ballindalloch. See Balfron. 

Ballindean, a hamlet in Inchture parish, Perthshire, 
1J mile NW of Inchture village. Ballindean House 
(W. F. Stead, Esq.; 1175 acres), in its vicinity, is a 
tasteful modern mansion; and Ballindean Hill (559 feet), 
near the hamlet, is part of the Carse Braes. 

BallingTy (popularly Bingry: Gael, baile-na-grcigh, 
' town of the flock '), a hamlet and a parish of W Fife. 
The hamlet stands in the NE, 1£ mile SSE of Loch 
Leven, and 2$ miles N by W of the station, 3 of the 
post-town of Loohoelly, which partly lies within the 
SE border; at it are the parish church (1831; renovated 
1876) and the public school (1S74). 

The parish is bounded N by Kinross, E and SE by 
Auchterarder, SW by Beath, and W by Beath and 
Cleish, Kinross-shire. It contains the mining villages 
of Lumphinnans and Lochore, and part of Lochgelly 
burgh, and has an extreme length from N to S of 4 miles, 
a width from E to W of from \ mile to 2i, and an area 
now of 3912 acres. Two detached portions of the parish 
(of 649 and 60 acres respectively) were transferred by the 
Boundary Commissioners in 1891, partly to theFifeshire 
parishes of Kinglassie and Auchterderran, and partly to 
the parish of Portmoak in the county of Kinross. The 
Ore has an eastward course here of 2| miles, along the 
Cleish border and through the interior; and from its 
right bank the surface rises to 531 feet above sea-level 
near South Lumphinnans, from its left bank to 621 feet 
near Benarty House, 1167 on flat-topped Benarty HOI 
in the NW, and 721 on Navity Hill in the NE. The 
rocks belong to the Limestone Carboniferous series; the 
soil, by nature cold and stiff, has been greatly improved, 
and the bed of Loch Ore (drained towards the close of 
last century) yields capital crops. About one-half of 
the area is under tillage, the other half under wood and 
pasture. Ptolemy's Victoria, a town of the Damnonii, 
was situated at Loch Ore, and near it was a Roman 
station (Skene, Celt. Scot., i. 74), whilst an islet on it 
was crowned by a fortress, founded in the latter half of 
the 11th century by Duncan de Loch Orr, from whose 
descendants the domain came to the Wardlaws of Torry, 
to Sir John Malcolm (c. 1630), and to Miss Jobson, who 
married the 2d Sir Walter Scott. At present the man- 
sions are Benarty (Wm. B. Constable) and Lochore 
(Alex. Burns). For school and church purposes the 
southern portion of Ballingry is included in the quoad 
sacra parish of Lochgelly ; the rest forms a parish in the 
presbytery of Kinross and synod of Fife, its minister's 
income being £300. The school, with accommodation 
for 250 children, had (1891) an average attendance of 
171, and a grant of £143, 15s. Valuation (1892) £13, 170, 
lis. Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1881) 605, (1891) 982; 
of civil parish (1801) 277, (1831) 392, (1851) 568, (1861) 
736, (1871) 982, (1881) 1065, (1891) 2275, 175 of whom 
were in Lochgelly burgh. — Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Ballinluig, a village in Logierait parish, Perthshire, 
on the Highland railway at the junction of the Aber- 
feldy branch, 8 miles NNW of Dunkeld. It has a 
station and a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings bank, and telegraph departments. 

Ballintomb, a burn in Knockando parish, Elgin- 
shire, running to the Spey. Its banks are beautiful, 
and they have, in one place, three large stones of a 
quondam Caledonian stone circle. 

Ballintore. See Balintore. 

Ballintraid. See Balintraid. 

Ballintuim, a village in Persie quoad sacra parish 
and Kirkmichaol quoad civilia parish, Perthshire, 11 
miles NNW of Blairgowrie. It has a post-office with 
telegraph department under Blairgowrie, and a public 
school, which, with accommodation for 63 children, had 
(1891) an average attendance of 26, and a grant of 
£38, 5s. 

Ballo, one of the Sidlaw hills, 1029 feet high, in the 
N of Longforgan parish, E Perthshire. 

Balloch (Gael, bcalach, ' a pass '), a village in Boniiill 
parish, Dumbartonshire, on the left bank of the Leven, 
liore spanned by a suspension bridge (1842) leading to 
Balloch station, which, as junction of two sections of 



the North British, is 30 J miles WSW of Stirling, J mile 
SSE of Balloch pier on Loch Lomond, 1 J mile N of Alex- 
andria, and 20J miles NW of Glasgow. The village has 
an excellent hotel, a post office under Jamestown, a 
cattle fair on Tuesday before last Wednesday in April, and 
a horse fair (one of the largest in Scotland) on 15th 

Balloch, an old castle in Kenmore parish, Perthshire, 
the predecessor of Taymottth Castle, the Marquis of 
Breadalbane's seat, and now represented by only a rem- 
nant to the right of the great quadrangle. 

Balloch, a lake, about J mile in circuit, in Muthil 
parish, Perthshire. It lies at the foot of Torlum Hill, 
and sends off its superfluence to the Earn. 

Balloch, a small bay on the E side of Great Cumbrae 
island, Buteshire, 2 miles SW of Largs. It affords safe 
anchorage in any wind. 

Balloch, a tract of land in Kirriemuir parish, Forfar- 
shire. It includes a moss of considerable extent and | 
on an average 16 feet in depth; and it contains an in- 
teresting dyke of serpentine, described by Sir Charles 
Lyell in the Edinburgh Journal of Science. 

Ballochmyle (Gael, bealach-maol, ' bare opening '), a 
mansion and an estate in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire. 
The mansion, on the right bank of the Ayr, opposite 
Catrine village, and 1J mile ESE of Mauchline town, is 
the seat of Sir Claud Alexander, Bart. (b. 1831 ; sue. 
1861), owner of 4332 acres, valued at £10,377 per 
annum (£6182, minerals). Barskimming stands on the 
left bank of the river, lower down, some 2 miles 
SSW of Mauchline. The river between these seats and 
in their neighbourhood winds along a deep precipitous 
chasm. The Glasgow and South-Western railway crosses 
the chasm below Ballochmyle on a noble viaduct 95 feet 
high, with an arch 100 feet in span ; and the road from 
Mauchline to Stair crosses it above Barskimming, on a 
bridge of similar character, 90 feet high. The estate of 
Ballochmyle comprises about two-fifths of Mauchline 
parish ; has home-grounds luxuriantly wooded, liberally 
open _ to the public, and provided with seats and 
pavilions at the best of its many fine points of view ; 
and passed, in the time of the poet Bums, from the 
ancient family of Whiteford to that of Alexander. 
Burns was a frequent wanderer in the Ballochmyle 
woods ; he witnessed the grief of one of the Whiteford 
ladies at leaving the property, and had an accidental 
meeting with one of the Alexander ladies soon after she 
came to it, and he wrote, in sympathy with the one 
lady, and in admiration of the other, his Farewell to 
Ballochmyle and Lass 0' Ballochmyle. He also wrote, 
at a crag here, his Man was made to Mourn ; and, at 
Catrine House, in the neighbourhood, he first ' dinner'd 
wi' a lord. ' Caleb Whiteford, of the Ballochmyle family, 
is celebrated by Goldsmith in a postscript to his Retalia- 
tion ; and Colonel Allan Whiteford, another of the 
family, was the original of Sir Walter Scott's ' Colonel 
Talbot' in Waverley. 

Ballochney, a village and a railway of N Lanarkshire. 
The village stands adjacent to the N side of Airdrie, in 
New Monkland parish, and is within the municipal 
boundaries of Airdrie burgh. — The railway joins on 
the W the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway, on the E the 
Slamannan railway ; was formed between 1826 and 
1840, on_ a capital of £70,000 ; in 1848 was amalga- 
mated with the Monkland system ; comprises a main 
line of about 3 miles from W to E. and branches of 
3 miles more to several collieries and to Airdrie ; serves 
largely for the coal and ironstone traffic of that rich mining 
district ; and includes two beautiful self-acting inclined 
planes, each 1100 yards long, the first works of their 
kind, on any great scale, ever constructed in Scotland. 

Ballochvoy, a village in Mull island, Argyllshire, 
about 4 miles WSW of Tobermory. It consists of a 
single street of small neat houses. 

Ballogie. See Birse. 

Ballowmill, a burn in the NW of Fife, running 
southward to the Eden at a point 2£ miles NE of Kettle, 
and giving name to several places on its banks. 

Ballumbie, an estate, with the seat of Rt. M'Gavin, 

Esq., and with remains of an old castle, in Murroea 
parish, Forfarshire, 14 miles NE of Dundee. The old 
castle was the seat of the ancient Anglo-Norman family 
of Lovel, now long extinct. 

Ballychelish. See Ballachulish. 

Ballygrant, a hamlet, Islay, with a lead mine, the 
lead containing some silver. It has a post office, and 
forms, conjointly with Portellen and Lots, a mission 
of the Church of Scotland, supported by an annual 
grant of £50. The place of worship is a schoolroom. 
_ Ballykellet, an ancient barony in Great Cumbrae 
island, Buteshire. It belonged to the Montgomerys, 
and belongs now to the Marquis of Bute. 

Ballyphuill, a hamlet in Kincardine parish, Ross- 
shire, about 20 miles WSW of Bonar-Bridge. Here is a 
mission station of the Church of Scotland. 

Ballyshare. See Balleshare. 

Ballyshear, an estate, with a mansion, in Southend 
parish, Argyllshire, 5 miles S of Campbeltown. 

Babnacaan, a seat of the Countess Dowager of Seafield 
in Urquhart parish, Inverness-shire, in the mouth of 
Glen Urquhart, 17 miles SW of Inverness. Behind it 
stretches Balmacaan deer-forest. 

Balmacarra, a village in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire, 
on the N side of Loch Alsh, 3 miles of Kyleakin Ferry. 
It has a hotel, a branch of the Commercial Bank, a 
parish church, a Free church, a Board school, and has 
also the head post office of Lochalsh, with money order, 
savings bank, insurance, and telegraph departments. 

Balmaclellan (Gael, 'town of Maclellan'), a village 
and a parish of NE Kirkcudbrightshire. The village, 2 
miles NE of its post-town, New Galloway, has an inn, a 
post office, the parish church (built 1722, enlarged 1833), 
and a Board school. In the kirkyard are the grave of 
a martyred Covenanter, Robert Grierson (1683), a column 
to five natives who fell in the Crimean War, and a stone 
to the family of Robert Paterson ('Old Mortality'), 
whose wife kept a school here from 1765 to 1785. 

The parish is bounded NW by Dairy, N by Dumfries- 
shire, E by Dumfriesshire and Kirkpatrick-Durham, S by 
Parton, and SW and W by Kells. From its north-eastern 
to its south-western angle it measures 10J miles ; its 
breadth varies between 3J and 6J miles ; and its area is 
23,346 acres, of which 327 J are water. The Ken and Loch 
Ken mark all the western, Loch Urr and its outlet Urr 
Water great part of the western border, while along the 
north-western and northern flow Garpel Burn to the 
Ken, Blackmark Burn and Castlefern Water to the 
Cairn ; along the southern, Dullarg Burn to Loch Ken, 
and Crogo Burn to the Urr. In the interior are Shir- 
mers and many smaller burns, as well as six lochs — 
Barscobe (2 J x | furl.), Brack (If x f), Howie (6 x 1), 
Skae (2 x 1J), and the two Lowes lochs, each about 1 j 
furlong in length. Most of these waters afford fairish 
trout fishing, Shirmers Burn being really a first-class 
stream. The surface has a general north-eastward rise, 
from Kenmure Bridge (155 feet above sea-level) to Bar- 
scobe Hill (825), Troquhain Hill (1139), Blackcraig Hill 
(1332), and Fell Hill (1775), 3 furlongs SE of Loch Skae. 
Thence it declines north-eastward to Craigmuie Moor 
(875 feet), south-eastward to Crerroch (671) and Crogo 
Mains (500). Belonging to the beautiful district of 
Glenkens, the western valley, about 2 miles wide, has a 
light, gravelly soil, and comprises most of the arable 
area (less than one-fifth of the entire parish), besides 
some 300 acres under wood. The rest is moorland ; and 
the prevailing rocks are trap and slate, the latter quar- 
ried at two points. Mansions are Holm House, § mile 
NW of the village, with a statue in its grounds of ' Old 
Mortality,' and Barlay, 2i miles to the ESE ; and 6 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, and 1 between 
£20 and £50. The antiquities include the supposed site 
of a Roman camp, at the NE angle of the parish ; a 
mote-hill, close to the village ; the habitable castle of 
Barscobe, 1J mile NNE, built (1684) by William Mac- 
lellan, a scion of the Kirkcudbright family ; and the 
ivy-clad ruins of Shirmers tower, the reputed birth- 
place of Thomas Gordon (1690-1750), editor of the Inde- 


pendent WTiig. The Rev. Geo. Murray (1813-81), poet 
and antiquary, was minister of Balmaclellan for 43 years. 
Part of it is included for church, school, and registration 
purposes in the quoad sacra parish of Coksock ; the 
remainder is a parish in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway, its minister's income amount- 
ing to £302. There are three schools, a free endowed one 
at the village, one at Tronmaccannie, 2£ miles S by E, 
and the other at Monybuie, with respective accommoda- 
tion for 144, 60, and 30 children, an average attendance 
(1S91) of 61, 20, and 12, and grants of £65, 0s. 6d., 
£32, 13s., and£25, 8s. Valuation (18S8) £10,556, 3s. 9d. 
Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1S81) 7S7, (1891) 652; of 
civil parish (1871) 1057, (1881) 937, (1891) 745. Pop. 
of registration district, 652.— Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Balmaduthy. See Belmaduthie. 

Balmaghie (Gael, 'town of Macghie'), a palish of 
central Kirkcudbrightshire, which contains near its 
south-eastern boundary the Bridge of Dee station on the 
Glasgow, and South-Western, 7J miles NNE of Kirkcud- 
bright, and 3 SW of Castle-Douglas ; and which is also 
accessible from Crossmichael, Parton, and New Galloway 
stations, lying just beyond its north-eastern and north- 
ern border. In it are the post office hamlets of Glen- 
lochar and Laurieston, respectively 3 miles NW and 6 
WW of their post-town Castle-Douglas ; and further 
westward is Lochenbreck Spa, 4 miles S by W of New 
Galloway station. Balmaghie is bounded N by Kells, 
NE by Parton, E by Crossmichael, SE by Kelton, S by 
Tongland and Twynholm, and W by Girthon. Its 
greatest length from E to W is 7J miles ; its width from 
N to S varies between 4J and 5j miles ; and its area is 
21,824 acres, of which 755 J are water. Grobdale Lane 
or Airie Burn traces the western border to the Dee, 
which, following the northern, passes through Stroan 
Loch, and 3 miles lower down receives the Ken. A 
capital salmon and trout river, the Dee thence sweeps 
round the north-eastern, eastern, and south-eastern 
boundary, widening at intervals to 2 or 3J furlongs, and 
wearing there the aspect of a lake. Bargatton Loch 
(8£ x 2i furl. ) lies on the Tongland border ; and sheets 
of water in the interior are Glentoo Loch (4 x 2£ furl.), 
Dornc-11 Loch (3x2), Blates Loch (2Jxl4), Grenoch 
or Woodhall Loch (lj mile x 1 to 2 furl.), and Lochen- 
breck Loch (2J x 2 furl. ) — all of them yielding toler- 
able sport, and all communicating with the Dee by 
burns. Level and fertile in the SE, with pastures and. 
well-tilled fields, the surface has a general westward rise 
from Glenlochar Bridge (150 feet above sea-level) to 
Kenick or Hill of Health (862 feet), Loch Hill (900), and 
Airie (900) ; but though nearly three-fourths of it are 
hilly waste — boulder-strewn heath or moss, — it nowhere 
attains 1000 feet of elevation. The antiquities include 
the supposed site of a Roman camp, near Hensol ; Dun- 
nance Moat, 1 mile SW of Laurieston ; and the noble 
ruins of Threave Castle, on an islet in the Dee, 
1J mile W of Castle-Douglas. Mansions are Hensol or 
Duchrae (R. D. B. Cuninghame) in the N; Woodhall 
(W. K. Laurie), near Laurieston, an old-fashioned house, 
with finely-planted park ; and Balmaghie (G. Hutchi- 
son), a good modern residence standing on an estate that 
is said to have been acquired by an Irish chieftain, 
M'Ghie, whose descendants obtained charters from James 
IV., V., and VI. At present 6 landowners hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 9 between £100 and 
£500, 1 between £50 and £100, and 3 between £20 and 
£50. Balmaghie is in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway ; its minister's income is £329. 
The parish church, a picturesque building (1794), with 
tiny spire and 360 sittings, is situated on the Dee, oppo- 
site Crossmichael, and 3 J miles NNW of Castle-Douglas. 
Two David Hallidays, shot for adherence to the Cove- 
nant (1685), rest in the graveyard ; a former minister 
was the Rev. John MacMilian (1669-1753), who founded 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and from whom a 
'-" of the Caineronians have sometimes been called 
MacMillanites (see Chwrth of Hcouand, 1'axt and Present). 
There is also a Free church; and 2 schools were open in 
1891 — at Glenlochar and Laurieston. These had then 


respective accommodation for 60 and 120 children, an 
average attendance of 54 and 64, and grants of £49 
7s. and £59, 9s. 6d. Valuation (18SS) £10,210, 4s. 2d' 
Pop. (1831) 1416, (1871) 1085, (1891) 839.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 5, 1857. 

Balmaha, a hamlet in Buchanan parish, Stirlingshire, 
on the eastern shore and near the foot of Loch Lomond, 
just opposite Inchcailloch isle, and 4 miles NW of Dry- 
men. It has a pier, where the steamers call, and near 
which are the chemical works of Turnbull & Co. , yearly 
consuming some 700 tons of small wood in the making 
of pyroligneous acids and dye-stuffs. 

Balmain. See Balbegno. 

Balmakelly, a burn in Marykirk parish, Kincardine- 
shire, running to the North Esk. 

Bahnakewan, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Marykirk parish, Kincardineshire, 5 miles SW of Lau- 

Bahnalcolm, a village in Kettle parish, Fife, 4, mile 
E of Kettle village. 

Balmaleedie, a burn in Marykirk parish, Kincardine- 
shire, running to the North Esk. 

Balmangan. See Borgue. 

Balmanno, an estate, with a mansion, in Marykirk 
parish, Kincardineshire. A very fine spring, formerly 
held in superstitious veneration, and called St John's 
Well, is adjacent to the mansion ; and sandstone is 
quarried on the estate. 

Balmanno, an ancient castellated mansion in Dron 
parish, Perthshire, 3 miles WSW of Abernethy. It 
was the seat of the Murrays, baronets of Balmanno ; 
is now partly occupied by a farmer ; and is a fine speci- 
men of the old Scottish baronial mansion. A rocking 
stone, 10 feet long and 7 broad, on a neighbouring brae, 
is easily set in motion by pressure of a finger. 

Balmaqueen, a hamlet in the N of the Isle of Skye. 
Its post-town is Kilmuir under Portree. 

Balmashanner, a hill 572 feet above sea-sevel, f mile 
S of Forfar. Its sandstone has been extensively quar- 
ried for building and paving. 

Balmerino (popularly Ba'mcrnie; in 1227 Balmorinach 
= Gael, baile-mor-n'ach, ' large town of the field '), a 
village and a parish of N Fifeshire. The village stands 
on the southern shore of the Firth of Tay, 3 J miles SW 
of Dundee by water, 5J WSW of its post-village and 
station Newport, and 7i N by W of Cupar. A hundred 
years ago it ranked as a sub-port of Dundee, annually 
shipping over 7000 bolls of grain ; but fishing is now 
the sole employment, and this too has greatly fallen off. 

The parish contains also the villages of Bottomcraig 
and Gauldry, 1 and If mile ESE of Balmerino village ; 
and is bounded NW for 44 miles by the Firth of Tay 
(here from 2J to 2$ miles broad), E by Forgan, SE and 
S by Kilmany, SW by Creich, and W by FUsk. From 
ENE to WSW, its greatest length is 44, miles ; its width 
from N to S varies between 7J furlongs and 2J miles ; 
and its area is 4131J acres, of which IJ are 'inks' and 
698| foreshore. The surface rises steeply from the 
Firth's rocky shore with a general west-south-westward 
ascent, being traversed by two parallel spurs of the 
Ochils, and attaining 243 feet above sea-level near Wor- 
mit Bay, 333 near Gauldry, 337 on Scurr Hill, 423 near 
Priorwell, and 584, 528, and 608 on wooded Coultra, 
Ardie, and Green Hills. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly Devonian ; and the soil is extremely variable, as 
may be inferred from the fact that in ono year ronts ranged 
from £1, 10s. to close on £3 per acre. On most of the 
northern and southern slopes it consists of thin black 
loam, suited for any crops, whilst in the valley between 
it has either a light gravelly or a strong plastic argilla- 
ceous character. About 470 acres are under wood, and 
nearly all the rest are arable. A height behind the 
village, commanding a view of the Firth up to the 
mouth of Strathearn, was crowned by the Cistercian Abbey 
of SS. Mary and Edward the Confessor, founded in 1227 
by Ermengarda, William the Lyon's widowed queen, 
who six years later was buried boforo the high altar of 
its cruciform church. This must have been a stately 
Second Pointed edifice, measuring 240 by 140 foot, and 


parted by eight octangular piers into two parallel aisles ; 
but little remains now of the entire pile save scanty ivy- 
clad ruins of the transept, the sacristy, the chapter-house 
vestibule, and the substructure of the dormitory, it 
having been burned by the English in 1548, and sacked 
by the Reformation rabble in 1559. Its lands were 
erected into a barony for Sir James Elphinstone, in 
1604 created Lord Balmerino — an ill-starred title, whose 
two first holders were sentenced to death, while the 
sixth and last was actually beheaded on Tower Hill 
(18 Aug. 1746) for his part in the '45. His forfeited 
estate was purchased from the Crown by the York 
Building Company, and sold by them to the Moray 
family. A field between Bottomcraig and Gauldry, 
Battle Law, is said to have got its name from a defeat 
of the Danes following that battle of Luncaett which 
Hill Burton sets down as a recent invention ; on a 
rock to the N are vestiges of Naughton Castle, a strong- 
hold of the Hays. Modern mansions are Birkhill and 
Naughton House, 2 miles WSW, and 1§ mile E of 
Balmerino village, whose owners, Henry Scrymgeour- 
Wedderburn and Miss Morrison-Duncan, hold respec- 
tively 1456 and 1591 acres in the shire, valued at £2827 
and £3421 per annum. Naughton House was built 
towards the close of last century, but has been much 
altered and improved since. Balmerino is in the presby- 
tery of Cupar and synod of Fife ; its minister's income 
is £424. The church (1811 ; 400 sittings), near Bottom- 
craig, succeeded one built at Kirkton in 1595, when the 
abbey church was disused; and a public school, Balmerino 
(at Gauldry), with accommodation for 129 children, had 
in 1891 an average attendance of 110, and a grant of 
£103, 19s. Valuation, £6925, 16s. 8d; (1892) £5983, 
16s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 786, (1831) 1055, (1851) 945, 
(1871) 717, (1881) 664, (1891) 688.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 
1868. See the Rev. Jas. Campbell's Balmerino and its 
Abbey; A Parochial History. 

Balmodan. See Ardchattan. 

Balmoral, a royal residence in Crathie parish, Aber- 
deenshire, on the southern bank of the Dee, 9 miles 
W by S of Ballater, 52J W by N of Aberdeen, and 9| 
ENE of Castleton of Braemar. It stands on a strip of 
level meadow, which, 926 feet above sea-level, is bounded 
on one side by a fine curve of the Dee, overlooked on 
another by the hill of Craig-Gowan (1437 feet), and 
commands an extensive sweep of striking scenery. A 
previous pile, occupied several autumns by the Royal 
Family, stood on adjacent ground further from the river, 
but was irregular and incommodious. It belonged 
originally to the late Earl of Fife ; was rented on a lease 
of 38 years, and very greatly enlarged, by the late Sir 
Robert Gordon, brother of the Earl of Aberdeen ; and, 
in 1848, when 27 years of the lease had yet to run, was 
sold in reversion to the Queen. The nucleus of it, or 
part built by the Earl of Fife, was a long, steep-roofed, 
high-gabled, small-windowed house, and Sir Robert 
Gordon's additions were so numerous and various, in 
the form of turrets, central tower, and so forth, as to 
destroy all architectural character. The pile belonged 
to no recognised order, and displayed no unity of design, 
but Her Majesty saw in it, on occasion of her first visit 
(8 Sept. 1848), ' a pretty little castle in the old Scottish 
style.' The foundation stone of the present edifice was 
laid on 28 Sept. 1853 ; and it was not quite finished 
when the Royal Family entered it, on 7 Sept. 1855. It 
was built of granite, from designs by William Smith 
of Aberdeen, at a cost of about £100,000 ; is in the 
Scottish Baronial style ; and consists of two blocks, con- 
nected by wings, and with a massive tower to the E, 
which, 35 feet square and 80 high, has a round corner 
stair-turret, 20 feet higher. A handsome suspension 
bridge in connection with the royal residence was con- 
structed across the Dee at a cost of £5000, and forms 
a communication with the N side of the river at Crathie 
church. The estate of Balmoral was purchased in 1852 
by the late Prince Consort for £31,500. It comprises 
about 11,000 acres, extends from the Dee to the summit 
of Lochnagar, joins the estates of Abeegeldie and 
BlMHALL, which also became royal property ; and the 


three estates constitute one demesne, extending 1 1 miles 
along the Dee, and southward thence to the watershed 
of the Dee's basin. Her Majesty owns in the shire 
25,350 acres, valued at £2393 per annum. Many objects 
of interest are noticed in separate articles ; one only shall 
be noticed here — the cairn that was reared on Craig- 
Gowan in 1863 in honour of him who had planned the 
entire work. It bears inscription : ' To the beloved 
memory of Albert the Great and Good, Prince Consort, 
erected by his broken-hearted widow, Victoria R. — 
Wisdom of Sol., iv. 13, 14.'— See pp. 65, 86, 105, 109, 
115, 116, and 130 of Leaves from the Queen's Journal 
in the Highlands.— Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Balmore, a village in the SE of Baldernock parish, 
Stirlingshire, 3 furlongs N of the right bank of the 
Kelvin, and 3J miles E by S of Milngavie. 

Balmossie, an ancient chapelry in Monifieth parish, 
Forfarshire. The chapel stood on a crag above the river 
Dichty, nearly opposite the present mill of Balmossie ; 
and was razed to the ground, after having long been a 
ruin, about the year 1762. 

Balmule, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunfermline 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands \ mile W of Loch 
Fitty and 3 miles NNE of Dunfermline ; belonged to 
Sir Henry Wardlaw, chamberlain to Queen Anne of 
Denmark ; and is associated with the memory of Lady 
Elizabeth Wardlaw (nte Halket, 1677-1727), whose 
name now figures largely in connection with the old 
ballad literature of Scotland. 

Balmullo, a straggling village in Leuchars parish, 
Fife, 1| mile WSW of Leuchars village. It has a post 
office under Leuchars, and a public school. Pop. , with 
Lucklawhill (1871), 326, (1881) 316, (1891) 322. 

Balmungo, an estate, with a mansion, in St Andrews 
parish, Fife, 1\ mile SSE of St Andrews. 

Balmuto, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinghorn 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands 3 miles N by W 
of Burntisland, has finely wooded grounds, and is 
mainly a modern edifice, with a very old square tower. 

Balm Well, a bituminous spring in Liberton parish, 
Edinburghshire, at St Catherine's, f mile S of Liberton 
village. It partly holds mineral oil or petroleum in 
solution, partly throws it up in numerous little masses 
to the surface; and in pre-Reformation days was held 
in great veneration. 

Balnaboth, an estate, with a mansion, the seat of 
Mrs Ogilvy of Clova, in a detached part of Kirriemuir 
parish, Forfarshire, that was transferred by the Bound- 
ary Commissioners in 1891 to the united parish of 
Cortachy and Clova. 

Balnacross, an ancient parish, now incorporated with 
Tongland, in Kirkcudbrightshire. The name signifies 
' the hamlet of the cross;' and, in the corrupted form 
of Bancrosh, continues to be the name of a Tongland 
farmstead. The church, St. Michael's, belonging origi- 
nally to the Culdees of Iona, was given by William 
the Lyon to the monks of Holyrood, and transferred by 
Robert Bruce to those of Tongland. 

Balnagard, a village in Little Dunkeld parish, Perth- 
shire, adjacent to the Highland railway and the river 
Tay, 7 miles ENE of Aberfeldy. It has a public school. 

Balnageith, a village of N Elginshire, 2 miles from 
its post-town Forres. 

Balnagowan, a mansion in Kilmuir-Easter parish, E 
Ross-shire, 1J mile N of Nigg Bay in Cromarty Firth, ^ 
mile NW of Kildary station, and 5 J miles S by W of Tain. 
Standing amid romantic grounds it commands a magnifi- 
cent prospect; was a seat of the Earls of Ross in feudal 
times; is partly very ancient, partly an erection of 1836; 
and presents an imposing appearance, chiefly in the 
old Scottish Baronial style. It is a seat of Sir Charles 
Lockhart-Ross (b. 1872; sue. 1883), eighth Bart, since 
1668, and owner of 110,445 acres in the shire, valued at 
£12,653 per annum. 

Balnagowan, a small island in Loch Linnhe, Argyll- 
shire, a little SW of the mouth of Loch Leven. 

Balnahuaigh, one of the Slate islands in Argyllshire. 
It lies between Lunga and Easdale, belongs to Jura 
parish, measures only 1 mile in circuit, and is all 



one slate quarry. Pop. (1S61) 142, (1871) 146, (1881) 
108, (1891) 68. 

Balnakiel, a small bay in Durness parish, Sutherland. 
Balnakiel House, in its vicinity, was built about 1744 ; 
was an occasional residence of the Lords Reay ; and 
occupies the site of a summer residence of the Bishops of 
Sutherland and Caithness. 

Balnakyle, a picturesque cascade on the Black Water 
rivulet, in Clyne parish, Sutherland. 

Balnamoon, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Men- 
muir parish, Forfarshire, 4$ miles WNW of Brechin. 

Balnellan, a ferry on the river Spey, between Elgin- 
shire and Banffshire, immediately above the mouth of 
the river Aven. 

Balone, a hamlet in St Andrews parish, Fife, 1J 
mile SW of St Andrews city. 

Balone, a large old castellated building in Tarbat 
parish, Ross-shire, said to have been erected by the 
Earls of Boss. It was inhabited by the Earls of Cro- 
marty, and by the Mackenzies of Ardloch-Assynt ; but, 
though still almost entire, it has been deserted since 
about 1640. 

Balquliain Castle, a ruin in Chapel-of-Garioch parish, 
Aberdeenshire, about J mile SE i>i the parish church. 
The seat from 1340 of the Leslies OS* Balquhain, it gave 
lodging to Queen Mary on the eve of the battle of Cor- 
richie in 1562, and was burned by the Duke of Cumber- 
land in 1746. Here was born John Leslie, Bishop of 
Raphoe (d. 1671). 

Balquhapple, an ancient chapelry within the quondam 
parish of Lang, now annexed to Kincardine, in Perth- 

Balquhatston, an estate, with a mansion, in Slaman- 
nan parish, Stirlingshire, adjacent to the Slamannan 
station and Slamannan village. Coal of excellent 
quality is largely mined on the estate, and sent to Edin- 
burgh and other places. 

Balquhidder (Gael, baile-chul-tir, ' town of the back- 
lying country'), a Highland parish of W Perthshire, 
whose eastern portion is traversed by 114 miles of the 
Callander and Oban railway, with Strathyre and Loch 
eamhead stations thereupon, the latter being 3 miles 
NNE of the former, 12 NNW of Callander, and 28 NW 
of Stirling. It contains four villages — Kirkton of Bal- 
quhidder, at the foot of Loch Voil, 3 miles W by S of 
Lochearnhead station, with a post office under Loch- 
earnhead; Achtow, 1J mile to the E, near King's House 
Inn; Locheabnhead, 2 miles NNE of its station, with 
a post office, having money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments; and Strathyre, with a post office 
under Stirling, and with two inns, at one of which 
Wordsworth and his sister lodged 13 Sept. 1803. 

In shape resembling a triangle with vertex to the W, 
the parish is bounded NW by Dumbartonshire (for j 
mile) and Killin, E by Comrie, SE and S by Callander ; 
and has an extreme length from E to W of 1 5£ miles, an 
extreme width from N to S of 10 miles, and an area of 
56,149J acres, of which 1474J; are water. The drainage 
belongs in part to the basin of the Tay, but chiefly to 
that of the Forth. To the Tay, since the NE comer of 
the parish includes the head of Loch Earn, which from 
Balquhidder receives the Ogle (flowing 4 miles SSE), 
the Gleann Ceann Drorna (4J miles SE and NE), and 
the Ample, with a fine waterfall (5 miles N). To tho 
Forth, since the central Lochs Doine and Voil are fed 
and connected with one another and Loch Lubnaio by 
the river Balvag, a head-stream of the Teith. Rising 
close to the border of Dumbartonshire, this head-stream 
has a course (ENE and SSE) through the parish of 21 
miles or so — 8§ miles to Loch Doine, 7 J furlongs through 
that lake (itself 2 furlongs wide), 1£ furlong to Loch 
Voil (1 to 3 furlongs wide, and 3J miles long), 6 miles 
from Loch Voi] to Loch Lubuaig, and 2 miles through 
the upper waters of that lake, which fall within tho SE 
angle of Balquhidder. Loch Voil has an altitude above 
sea-level of some 414, Loch Earn of 306, and Loch Lub- 
naig of 405 feet ; and from the shores of these three 
lakes the surface rises everywhere into steep craggy 
mountains. That portion of the pariah to the N of the 


Balvag and the W of the railway is occupied by the 
Braes of Balquhidder, celebrated by Tannahill ; and here 
the chief elevations from W to E are *Beinn a Chroin 
(3101 feet), *Stob Glas (2673), Beinn Tulachan (3099), 
*Stob Garbh' (3148), *Am Binnein (3827), *Stob Coire 
an Lochan (3497), Meall Monachyle (2123), *Stob 
Creagach (2966), Stob Luib (1579), *Stob Meall naFrean 
(2457), *Meall na Lochain (2010), and Meall an t'Seal- 
laidh (2792), where the asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on tho boundary. In the southern 
division rise * Meall Mor (2451), ♦Stob a Choin (2839), 
*Taobh na Coille (2250), *Lag a Phuill (1649), Beinn 
an t'Shithein (1871), and *Benvane (2685) ; and to the 
E of the railway, from N to S, are Ben Our (2250), Meall 
nan Oighreag (1899), *Stuc a Chroin (3189), and *Beinn 
Each (2660). The scenery from Loch Katrine to Loch 
Voil and thence to Loch Lubnaig is thus described by 
Dorothy Wordsworth, whose brother's ' Highland Lass ' 
was here suggested: — ' We waded the river and crossed 
the vale, perhaps half a mile or more. The mountains 
all round are very high ; the vale pastoral and unen- 
closed, not many dwellings, and but very few trees ; the 
mountains in general smooth near the bottom. They 
are in large unbroken masses, combining with the vale 
to give an impression of bold simplicity. ... At 
the foot of Loch Voil the vale is wide and populous — 
large pastures with many cattle, large tracts of corn. 
Walked down Strathyre, and saw in clear air and sun- 
shine what had been concealed from us when we travelled 
before in the mist and rain. We found it less woody 
and rich than it had appeared to be, but, with all 
deductions, a very sweet valley.' The prevailing rocks 
are mica and clay slate, quartz, greenstone, and por- 
phyry ; and veins of galena traverse some parts of the 
mica slate, but have not been worked for their ore. 
Heath, till about the beginning of this century, dotted 
most of the uplands, but almost everywhere has given 
place to grass of soft and silky texture, while natural 
woods and plantations cover a considerable extent. The 
Maclaurins are said to have acquired from Kenneth Mac- 
alpin(844-60) the districts of Balquhidder and Strathearn; 
and they were once so numerous that none durst enter 
Balquhidder Church till they had taken their seats — a 
right that gave rise to many brawls, in one of which the 
vicar, Sir John Maclaurin, was slain (1532). In 1869 a 
handsome granite monument was erected in the church- 
yard to the memory of ' the Clan Laurin, the chief of 
whom, in the decrepitude of old age, together with his 
aged and infirm adherents, their wives and children, tho 
widows of their departed kindred — all were destroyed in 
the silent midnight hour by fire and sword, by the 
hands of a banditti of incendiarists from Glendochart, 
a.d. 1558.' The said banditti of incendiarists were the 
Macgregors of Rob Roy's tribe ; and Rob himself died in 
his house at Balquhidder, 28 Dec. 1734. Near the 
old kirk he had fought his last fight with Stewart of In- 
vernahyle, the Maclaurins' champion ; and in its grave- 
yard his tombstone is pointed out, lying flat on the 
ground to the E of the chancel gable, along with two 
others assigned by tradition to Helen his wife and to one 
of their sons. Tradition may be right enough, but all 
three stones are shown by their carvings, of sword and 
knot and suchlike emblems of Celtic art, to be centuries 
older than the outlaw's day, to belong, in fact, to the 
so-called ' sculptured stones ; ' a fourth ' represents an 
ecclesiastic with a chalice in his hands, and formerly 
stood within the church, in front of the Altar, bat was 
removed in order to destroy a superstitious desire that 
existed among the parishioners to stand or kneel on it 
during a marriage or baptism. The stone is still callod 
Clack Aenais (the stone of Angus), who, according to 
tradition, was a disciple of Columba, and the first Chris- 
tian missionary in the district ' {Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland). On 6 Sept. 1869 Queen Victoria visited 
Rob Roy's gravo, which Wordsworth has sung in a well- 
known poem, though he nover stood beside the real grave, 
and round which a bronze protecting rail was erected 
in 1890. As to tho ivy-mantled ruined church, with 
its primitive font, it is said in tho New Statistical to 


hare been built in 1631, but Muir in Ms Church Architec- 
ture ascribes it to the First Pointed period, i.e., to the 
12th or 13th century ; anyhow, Robin Oig, Rob's fifth 
and youngest son, hero wedded the widow whom he had 
ravished from Balfron, and hither three years later his 
corpse, after execution, was brought by a large company 
of sorrowing kinsfolk. Robin it was that in 1736 on In- 
vernenty farm shot one of those Maclaurins, the writ for 
whose ejectment was strved by a young attorney — the 
future Sir "Walter Scott. This was in 1790, and, eight 
years after, the estate of Edenchip, between Lochearn- 
head village and the stition, was purchased from the 
Commissioners of Forfeited Estates by Sir John Murray 
of Lanrick, Bart. (ere. 1795), chief of the Gregor clan, 
whose descendant, Sir Malcolm Maegregor, fifth Bart, 
(b. 1873 ; sue. 1S79), is owner of 4050 acres in the shire, 
of an annual value of £1131, 5s. Another proprietor, 
James Carnegie, Esq. of Stronvar, near the SE corner 
of Loch Voil, holds 22,205 acres of £3558, 10s. value ; 
and 3 more hold £500 and upwards, 2 between £100 
and £500, mansions being Craigrule on the N shore of 
Loch Voil and Edinample Castle near Lochearnhead. 
A native was Dugall Buchanan (1716-68), the eminent 
Gaelic poet. Balquhidder is in the presbytery of Dun- 
blane and synod a Perth and Stirling ; the living is 
worth £295. The p-esent church (1855; 460 sittings) is 
a handsome Gothic edifice, and there is also a Free 
church; while, beskes 2 schools at Lochearnhead, there 
are the Balquhidderand Strathyre public schools, with 
respective accommolation for 84 and 50 children, an 
average attendance (1S91) of 39 and 23, and grants 
of £56, Is. and £39, 16s. 6d. Valuation (1891) £7695, 
10s. Id. Pop., nio^ly Gaelic speaking, of civil parish, 
(1801) 1377, (1S31)!049, (1851) 874, (1871) 743, (1881) 
627, (1891) 612. lop. of quoad sacra parish, which 
includes part of Cohrie, (1S81) 904, (1891) 728. See 
pp. 217, 235-240, cf Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in 
Scotland (ed. by Priic. Shairp), and vol. ii., pp. 243- 
250, 279-280, of Ji. S. Eeltie's Scottish Highlands 
(1892).— Ord. Sur., as. 3S, 46, 1871-72. 

Balquholly, an ancint baronial castle in Turriff parish, 
Aberdeenshire, now jiainly demolished, but partly in- 
corporated (1814) wih Hatton Castle. It belonged to 
the Mowats, and ws the residence of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of Cromartr (c. 1605-60), translator of Ra- 

Balranald, a smal. harbour in North Uist, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-sire. 

Balruddery, an estae, with a handsome modern man- 
sion, in Lift' and Benvi parish, Forfarshire, 6J miles W 
by N of Dundee. Th mansion, on a south-eastward 
slope, commands an etensive view over the Firth of 
Tay; the estate contais romantic, finely- wooded dells, 
and is notable both fc rare indigenous plants and for 
the exhumation of inteisting fossils. 

Balshagry, a hamlet n Govan parish, Lanarkshire, a 
short distance WNW ofjlasgow Botanic Gardens. Re- 
cent marine shells, lik extant ones in the Firth of 
Clyde, have been found i stratified clay, in the vicinity, 
at a height of not less tin 80 feet above sea level. A 
number of villa residence have sprung up here recently. 
Balshando, a small Ike in Lundie parish, Forfar- 
shire, sending off a headtream of Dighty Water. 

Balta, an islet in Unsparish, Shetland, lying to the 
E of TJnst island. Balta ound, separating it from Unst, 
is 2 miles long, and abou A mile wide, and is so closed 
at the ends by Balta as toook, at a distance, like a lake. 
The land on both sides ofhe Sound is in a state of high 
cultivation. A hamlet >re bears the name of Balta- 
sound, and has a post ofrb under Lerwick, with money 
order, savings' bank, andelegraph departments, and a 
public school, which, wit accommodation for 80 chil- 
dren, had (1891) an avage attendance of 37, and a 
grant of £24, 9s. 6d. 

Balthayock, a forme detached section of Kin- 

noull parish, Perthshire, 

ut by rearrangement of the 

Boundary Commissionersji 1891 with the parish of 
Scone it was partly tra if erred to that parish and 
partly united with the n,n body of Kinnoull parish. 


Balthayock House in the S, 3 miles E of Perth, dates 
partly from 1578, partly from some two centuries earlier ; 
it is the seat of Wm. Lowson, Esq. Balthayock Castle, 
close by, is the ruin of an oblong tower, supposed to 
have belonged to the Knights Templars. 

Baltilly, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Ceres 
parish, Fife, just to the "W of Ceres village. 

Ealvag. See Balquhidder. 

Balvaird. See Abernethy, Perthshire. 

Balvenie, an ancient castle in Mortlach parisn, Banff- 
shire, on the left bank of the Fiddich, a little below the 
influx of the Dullan, 5 furlongs N of Dufftown. It crowns 
a beautiful wooded knoll, and commands a rich though 
limited range of charming scenery. Uninhabited more 
than a century, it now is merely a well-preserved shell, 
which retains, however, its original architectural features. 
It is of various dates (from c. 1460), large, massive, and 
very magnificent, reminding one of Kinclaven and Castle 
Roy. The general characteristics are those of the Scot- 
tish Baronial style. It belonged to successively the 
Douglases, the Stuarts, and the Inneses (1615), and it 
is now the property of the Duke of Fife. The motto of 
the Stuarts, Earls of Athole, ' Fvrth. Fortvin. And.. Fil. 
Thi. Feitris, ' is inscribed on its front, high over a massive 
iron ' yett. ' A member of the house of Douglas, in the 
15th century, took from it the title of Lord Balvenie; 
and a member of the house of Innes in 1628 was created 
a baronet of Nova Scotia, under the title of Sir Robert 
Innes of Balvenie. Views of it are given in Billings' 
Baronial Antiquities, also in Cordiner, and in Ross and 
M'Gibbon. The House or 'new Castle of Balvenie,' 1J 
mile N of Dufftown, is a large, white, mill-like edifice 
(c. 1725), long untenanted, now converted into a distillery. 

Balvicar, a village in Seil island, Kilbrandon parish, 
Argyllshire, 14 miles SS"W of Oban. 

Balvie, an estate, with a mansion, in New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire, 1J mile W of Milngavie. 

Balvraid. See Dornoch. 

Balwearie, a ruined tower in Abbotshall parish, Fife, 
2 miles "W by S of Kirkcaldy. It must have been 50 or 
60 feet high and 43 square, with walls of 6i feet thick- 
ness; but only the E wall, and fragments of the N 
and S walls, now remain. From the 13th to the 17th 
century it was held by a branch of the Scotts, repre- 
sented to-day by the Scotts of Ancrum ; and the second 
of the line was one Sir Michael Scott, whom Boece iden- 
tified with the dread wizard of Dante's Inferno and Sir 
"Walter's Lay. (See Melkose. ) Dates hardly favour 
Hector's theory, inasmuch as the wizard, after studying 
at Oxford, Paris, Padua, and Toledo, became astrologer 
to Kaiser Frederick II., who died in 1250 ; whilst Bal- 
wearie's Baron sailed in 1290 to Norway to bring back 
Margaret the infant queen, in 1292 swore fealty to 
Edward I., and in 1310 went on a second embassy to 
Norway to demand the cession of the Orkney Isles. One 
is loth to give up the picture drawn in Tytler's Scottish 
Worthies of ' the white-haired, venerable sage sitting in 
Oriental costume on the roof of his tower, observing the 
face of the heavens and communing with the stars ; ' 
still it seems safer merely to make Balwearie t