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"Rk-"^ 13?. ?s 


Satbact College Itirats 


R«.i.=d ^/oLdui 'SfO- 




J^istislital, §iBSis$YnKl, anir Historical 










Cutla aiDcMr imd Olrolgoe, VIck, 

BUrling in the beglDDlDg ottbs lilh CBUIU17. Ficm ElBO'l l^mtnan Satia. 

ChunbTud of EWqithlddtr. Pcrtbihin Tha BurUl-plw* dI Kob Hoy Mutrngor. 


The Old Tolbooth. Bdlnbui^h—" The Hurt of 

CltMlal. Latth. 

The Old Tolbooth, Edinburgh-" The Heut of MldloUiiwi ~ 


sabsoiL In an early charter of Coldingham priory, Thor 
informs his lord, Earl David, that King Edgar had 
eiven him Ednaham waste, that he had peopled it, and 
built from the foundation, and endowed witn a plough- 
gate of land, a church in honour of St Cuthbert ; and 
he prays his son to confirm his donation of the church 
to St Cuthbert and the monks of Durham. ' Here,' 
says Dr Skene, 'we have in fact the formation of a 
manor with ita parish church, and in a subsequent 
document it is termed the motiier church of Hedenham ' 
{CeU, Seotly ii. 367, 1877). Hendersyde Park, which 
is separately noticed, is the only mansion; but five 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards. Ednam is in the presbytery of Eelso and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£208. The present church, built in 1800, contains 260 
sittings ; and a public school, with accommodation for 
183 cnildren, had (1880) an average attendance of 
116, and a grant of £112, 17& Valuation (1882) 
£9268, 15& 2d. Pop. (1801) 598, (1831) 634, (1861) 
699, (1871) 613, (1881) 613.— Ord Sur,, sh. 25, 1865. 

KdnichllHii. See Eddbachillis. 

Edxadoor, a bum and a hamlet in Moulin parish, 
Perthshire. The bum runs 4^ miles south-westward to 
the Tummel, forming at one point a picturesque fall of 
120 feet, called the Black Spout ; and the hamlet, Mil- 
ton of Edradour, lies on the bum, 2 miles E of Pitlochry. 

Edradyziate, an estate, with a mansion, in a detached 
portion of Logierait parish, Perthshire, near the left 
bank of the Tay, 8 miles N£ of Aberfeldy. Its owner, 
James 'Stewart-Robertson, Esq. (b. 1823 ; sue. 1862), 
holds 1765 acres in the shire, valued at £688 per annum. 

Edzington Castle, a mined fortalice in Mordington 
parish, Berwickshire. Oowning a steep rock on the 
left bank of Whitadder Water, 5 mUes W by N of Ber- 
wick, it seems to have been a solid substantial strength, 
well fitted to check incursions and de^dations from 
the English side of the Tweed, on the W being totallv 
inaccessible. It figures frequently in Border wars and 
treaties ; and, having for some time been held by the 
English, was restored in 1534 by Henry YIII. to James 
y. QDown to the dose of last centurv it continued to 
be four stories high, but is now reducea to a small frag- 
ment Modem Edrington CSastle is in l^e immediate 
vicinity of the ruins ; and Ediington House stands on 
the E bank of a small tributary of the Whitadder, 4 
miles WN W of Berwick. 

Edrom, a vil^ge and a parish in the E of central Ber- 
wickshire. The viUage stands near the right bank of 
Whitadder Water, 5 furlongs KNW of Edrom station, 
on the Beston and Dunse branch of the Korth British, 
this being 3^ miles ENE of Dunse ; at it is a post and 
railway telegraph office. 

The parish, containing also the villa^ of Allanton, 
is bounded K by Bunkle, NE by Chimsidir, E by Hutton, 
SE by Whitsome, S by Swinton and Fogo, and W bj 
Langton and Dunse. With a very irrcwpuar outline, it 
has an utmost length from ENE to WSW of 7i miles, 
a varying breadth of 1 mUe and 4f mUes, and an area 
of 9634^ acres, of which 89i are water. Whitadder 
Water roughly traces all the northem and north-eastern 
border ; and Blackaddbr Water, coming in from the 
SW, traces for a short distance the bounduy with Foffo, 
and then runs 5 miles east-north-eastward, through uie 
interior, to the Whitadder at Allanton. A mineral 
spring, called Dunse Spa, is on the W border, 1^ mile 
SSE of Dunse ; and was long celebrated for its reputed 
medicinal qualities, but fefi into disrepute and total 
neglect. The surface lies all within the Merse, is 
mostiv low and flat, and rises nowhere higher than 286 
feet above sea-leveL The rocks are chiefly day, marl, 
and sandstone. The clay occupies about two-tiurds of 
the entire area ; the marl is in thin beds, never more 
than 2 or 8 feet thick ; and the sandstone is generally 
of a whitish hue, and has been quarried. The soils, to 
a small extent, are reclaimed moor; in general, are 
highly fertile ; and, excepting over about one-eighth of 
the entire area, occupied By r«uls, bmldings, and planta- 
tiono^ are all in tillage. Pools and lochlets formerly 


generated marsh, but have all been completely drained. 
Ancient fortalices were at Broomhouse, Nisbet, and 
Blackadder, and keeps or bastels were at Eelloe and 
two or three other places. Edrom House stands in the 
western vicinity of Edrom village, and has beautiful 
grounds. Other mansions, separately noticed, are Broom- 
house, Eelloe, Eimmerghame House, Nisbet House, 
Blackadder House, Alluibank, and Chimside-Bridge 
House ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, and 2 
of from £20 to £50. Edrom is in the presbytery oi 
Chimside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the liv- 
ing is worth £424. The parish church, built in 1732, 
contains 600 sittings ; and a Free church at Allanton 
contains 450. Edrom i>ublic, Sinclair's Hill public, 
and Allanton school, with respective accommodation 
for 172, 101, and 95 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 83, 50, and 37, and grants of £81, 13s. 6(L, 
£44, 14s., and £18, 48. Valuation (1865) £18,879, 
128. Id. ; (1882) £21,469, lis. Pop. (1801) 1355, (1831) 
1435, (1861) 1592, (1871) 1518, (1881) 1514 — Ord. Swr., 
shs. 34, 26, 1864. 

Edi^ (13th century Edale\ a village of Forfarshire 
and a parish partiy also of Kincardineshire. The vil- 
lage, formerly called Slatoford, stands, 185 feet above 
sea-level, towards the S of the parish, near the right 
bank of the river North Esk, and 6 miles N by W of 
Brechin, under which it has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. Dat- 
ing &om the 16tii century, but greatly improved since 
1839, it now is a pleasant littie place, with its neat 
stone houses, flower-j^ots, and protty environs ; and 
has a branch of the Union Bank, a National Security 
savings' bank, an insurance a^ncy, 2 inns, a ^-light 
compimy, 2 libraries and readmg-rooms, a curhng club, 
and a Highland games association. Fairs are held here 
on the third Thursd^ of February, the first Monday of 
May, 26 May, the Friday of July after Old Deer, the 
Wednesday after 26 August, the Thursday of October 
before Kirriemuir, and 22 November. 

The parish is bounded NE byStrachan, E by Fetter- 
caim, S and W by Stracathro, W by Lethnot, and NW 
by Lochlee. It has an utmost length of 11| miles from 
NNW to SSE, viz., from Mount Battock to Inchbaro 
Bridijpe ; ite greatest breadth, from E to W, is 5} miles ; 
and ite area is 20,229^ acres, of which 308§ are water, 
and 1104 belong to the Kincardineshiro or Neudos sec- 
tion, which till at least 1567 formed a distinct parish. 
The North Esk flows If mUe north-eastward along the 
Lochlee boundary, then 6 miles south-south-eastward 
through the northem interior, and lastiy 5 miles, still 
south-south-eastward, along the Eincardineahire border ; 
at the SE comer of the parish it is joined by West 
Watsb, which winds 4} miles. east-BOuth-eastward along 
all the Stracathro boundazy. The delta between these 
streams, to the S of the village, with extreme len^^ 
and brradth of 2^ and 1} miles, is low and flat, sinking 
to 120, whilst nowhere attaining 200, feet above sea- 
level. Northwards the surface rises rapidly to 748 feet 
at Colt Hill, 668 at the Blair, 1321 at the Hill of 
Corathro, 2220 at the *Hill of Wirren, 872 at Mappact 
Hill, 1986 at Bulg, 1686 at ^Oraigangowan, 968 at 
Whups Oraig, and 2250 at the * southern slope of Mount 
Battock (2555 feet), where asterisks mark those heighte 
that rest upon the confines of the parish. The rocks are 
primarv cniefly, and an iron mine was for a short time 
worked at Dalbog about the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury. Much of the arable land consiste of moderate 
black loam or stiffish day, but hardlv more than an 
eighth of the entire area is in tillage, the rest being all 
either pastoral or waste, with the exception of some 200 
acres underwood. Edzell Castle lies in a hollow, 1} 
mile W by N of the village, and 3 furlongs from the left 
buok of West Water ; ite ruins, for size and magnifi- 
cence, are matohed in Angus and Meams only by those 
of Dunnottar. Ite oldest portion, the great square doijjon 
or Stirling Tower, to the S, has walls 4 to 5 feet thick, 
and is 60 feet high ; and, tall the havoc wrought by the 
great atonn of 12 Oct. 1888, ite battlamente were eidly 



acoesalble. The extensive pile to the N, though much 
more ruinous than the keep, dates only from the 16th 
eentury, having been built by Dayid, ninth Earl of 
Crawford, and his son. ' The ^rden wall is ornamented 
by a number of elaborate carvings in stone. On the E 
wall are the celestial deities, on the S the sciences, and 
on the W the theological and cardinal virtues, forming 
one of the most interesting memorials of the kind in 
Scotland.' The Edzell estate belonged in 1296 to the 
Glenesks, after them to a branch of the Stirlings which 
failed about the middle of the 14th century in two co- 
heiresses, one of whom, Catherine, by Alexander, third 
son of Sir David Lindsay of Crawford, was mother of 
the first Earl of Crawford. The lordship of Glenesk was 
sold in 1716 to the Earl of Panmure ; and, sharing the 
fortunes of the Bbeohin proper^, it now belongs to 
the Earl of Dalhousie. In 1562 Edzell Castle received 
a visit from Queen Mary, in 1651 from Cromwell's sol- 
diery, and In 1746 from the Argyll Highlanders, to 
whom its ruinous state is in gr eat measure due. Auch- 
mull Castle, 2J miles NNw of the village, was idso 
built by the Lmdsays early in the 16th century, and 
was demoUshed in 1778. At Colmeallie, 8 mUes NKW 
of Auchmull, are two concentric ' Druidical circles,' the 
outermost measuring 45 by 86 feet, and its hishest stone 
standing being 5) feet above ground ; another, whose 
last bomder was removed in 1840, was at Dalbog, 2} 
miles NKW of the village ; and at Dalbog stood also a 

gre-Beformation chapeL Of the old parish church of 
t Lawrence, on the bank of West Water, 8 furlongs 
8SW of Edzell Castle, only the LindaEiys' dated burial 
vault remains, built by the ninth Earl of Crawford. 
George Low Q746-96), the Orkney naturalist, was a 
native. The Earl of Dalhousie owns nearly all the For- 
fiurshire, and Gladstone of Fas^ue nearly all the Kin- 
cardineshire, portion. Edzell is in the presbytery of 
Brechin and synod of Angus and Meams ; the living is 
worth £205. The present church, built at the vimge 
in 1818, contains 650 sittings. There is also a Fiie 
church ; and two public schools, Edzell and Waterside, 
with respective accommodation for 200 and 60 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 112 and 15, and 
grants of £90, 5s. and £19, 18s. 8d. Yaluation (1857) 
£4842, (1882) £6875, ds. 4d., of which £680, 14s. 6d. 
was for the Kincardineshire section. Pop. (1801) 1012, 
(1881) 974, (1841) 1064, (1871) 976, (1881) 823.— Ord. 
<9ur., shs. 57, 66, 1868-71. See the Earl of Crawford's 
Lives of the Lvndfays (8 vols. 1849), and Andrew Jer- 
vise's Lamd of the Lindaaye (1858). 

Effook Water, a mountain rivulet in Lochlee parish, 
Forfarshire, running 4) miles east-north-eastward to 
the North Esk at a point 14 mile SE of Lochlee 
church, and giving to its basin tne name of Glen Effock. 
It has, during this brief course, a total descent of 1550 
feet.— Ord. Sur,, sh. 66, 1871. 

Egg. See Eioo. 

EggeznesB. See Eagebness. 

EgilBh&y. See Eaoleshat. 

Eglin Lane. See Eagton Lanb. 

EgUnton. See Kilwinning. 

Eglinton Gajstle, the chief seat of the Earl of I^lin- 
ton, in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, on the left bank 
of Lugton Water, 2i miles N of Irvine. A castellated 
edifice of 1798, it comprises a large round keep and 
round comer turrets, connected by a curtain — ^to use 
the language of fortification. The whole is pierced 
with rows of modem sash-windows, which in some 
degree destroy the outwu^ efiect, but add to the inter- 
nal comfort The interior corresponds with the magni- 
tude and grandeur of the exterior. A spacious entiance- 
ball leads to a saloon 86 feet in diameter, the whole 
height of the edifice, and lighted from above ; and oflf 
this open the principal rooms. All are furnished and 
adomed in the most sumptuous manner ; and one of 
them in the front is 52 feet long, 82 wide, and 24 hi^h. 
Everything about the castle contributes to an imposmg 
display of splendid elegance and refined taste. Nor are 
the lawns around it lees admired for their fine woods, 
varied surfaces, and beautiful scenery. The park is 


1200 acres in extent, and has one-third of its area in 

The first of the An^lo-Norman family of Montgomerie 
that settled in Scotland was Bobert (1108-78), who 
probably was a nephew of the third Earl of Shrewsbury, 
and who, soon after June 1157, obtained from his 
father-in-law, Walter the Steward, a erant of the lands 
of Eaglesham, in Benfrewshire. Tnia was, for more 
than two centuries, the chief possession of the Scottish 
branch of the Monl^meries. Sir John de Montgomerie, 
ninth of Eaglesham, married Elizabeth, daughter 
and sole heiress of Sir Hugh de Eglinton, and through 
her acquired the baronies of Eglinton and Ardrossan, 
the former of which had been held by her ancestors 
from the 11th century. At the battle of Otterbum 
(1888) he had the command of part of the Scottish 
army under the brave Earl of l5ouglas, and, by his 
personal valour and military conduct, contributed not a 
little to that celebrated victory. The renowned Harry 
Percy, best known as Hotspur, who commanded the 
Enelish, Sir John took prisoner with his own hands ; 
and with the ransom he received for him, he built the 
castle of Polnoon in Eaglesham. His grandson. Sir 
Alexander Montgomerie, was raised by James II., before 
1444, to the title of Loni Montgomerie ; and his great- 
grandson, Hugh, third Lord Montgomerie (1460-1545), 
was created Earl of Eglinton in 1508, having pre- 
viously entered ujpon a feud with the Earl of Glencaim, 
which long contmued between their descendants, and 
occasionally broke forth in deeds of violence, such 
as the burning of Efi^inton in 1528. Hugh, fourth 
earl, a youth of singular promise, had enjoyed his in- 
heritance only ten months when he fell a victim to this 
hereditary feud. Biding from his own castle towards 
Stirling on 20 April 1586, he was, near the bridge of 
Annick, waylaid and shot by David Cunningham of 
Bobertland and other Cunninghams, emissaries of the 
Earl of Glencaim. So late as twentv vears after this 
event, on 1 July 1606, the old feud broke out in a 
violent tumult at Perth, under the very eyes of parlia- 
ment and the privy council. In the 18th century, all 
the valuable improvements in gardening, planting, and 
agriculture, which, during half a century, were made 
in the parish of Kilwinning, and throughout a great 
part of Ayrshire, proceeded, in great measure, from the 
spirited exertions, combined with the fine taste, of 
Alexander, tenth earl, who was murdered near Ardrossan 
in 1769. Nor was Hugh, twelfth eari (1740-1819), less 
distinguished for his magnificent and costly schemes to 
enrich the district of Oanningham, and advance the 
public weal of Scotland, by improving the harbour of 
Ardrossan, and cutting a canal to it from the city of 
Glasgow. Under his successor was held, in August 1889, 
a gorgeous pageant, the Eglinton Tournament, one of 
the actors in which was Pnnce Louis Napoleon, after- 
wards Emperor of the French, whilst the Queen of 
Beauty was Lady Seymour, a grand-daughter of Sheri- 
dan. The present and fourteenth Earl, Archibald 
William Montgomerie (b. 1841 ; sue. 1861), holds 
23,681 acres in Ayrshire, valued at £46,551 per annum, 
including £9520^ for minerals and £4525^ for harbour 
works. See Ardbossan, Skslmorlie, Seton, and 
William Eraser's Memoriala of the Montgomeriee (2 vols., 
Edinb., 1859).~Ord Swr,, sh. 22, 1865. 

EgUs. See Eagles. 

Eglishay. See Eagleshay. 

Egliimoiiiehl^, an ancient chapelry, now included in 
Momfieth parish, Forfarshire. The chapel stood on a 
crag above Dighty Water, nearly opposite Balmossie 
miU ; and, having continued lon^ in a state of ruin, 
was demolished for buildiD^ material about 1760. 

Eigg or Egg, an island in Small Isles parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. It lies 8 miles NE of Muck, 4 SE of Bum, 
5 SW of Sleat Point, and 7i W of Arisaig. It 
measures 6) miles in length from NKE to SS W, 4 miles 
in extreme breadth, and 5590 acres in area. It is inter- 
sected in the middle, from sea to sea, by a glen ; and it 
takes thence its name of Eigg, originally JEb, signify- 
ing a 'nick' or 'hollow.' It is j^utly low, flat, and 

arable ; partly hiUy, rockyi and waste. A proznontoiTi 
upwards of 1^ mile in leiu^h, exhibits commnar dins 
almost equal m beauty to those of Staffa, and rises into 
a hill, called the Scuir of £igg, 1889 feet in altitude, 
of peculiar romantic contour, aJdrted with precipices, 
and crowned with a lofty columnar peak, ^e rodcs, 
both in that promontoiy and in otner parts, possess 
hi^h interest for geologists, and are graphi^lly and 
mmutely described by Hugh Miller in his OruiM ofihA 
Beta}/. Numerous cayes, some of them wide and 
spaciouB, others low and narrow, are around the coast 
Xn islet, called Eilan-Ohastel or Castle Island, lies to 
the S, separated from Eigg by a sound which serves as 
a tolerable harbour for vessels not exceeding 70 tons in 
burden. About 900 acres are cultivated for cereal crops, 
and are fairly productive. Scandinavian forts, or re- 
mains of them, are in various parts ; a barrow, alleged 
to mark the grave of St Donnan, is on Eildonnain farm ; 
and a narrow-mouthed cavern in the S, enianding in- 
ward, and measuring nearly 218 feet in length, has 
G 'elded many skulls and scattered bones of human 
lings. In 617 St Donnan, one of the 'Family of 
lona,' went, with his mwimtii/r, or monastic family, 52 
in number, to the Western Isles, and took up his abode 
ui Eisg) ' where the sheep of the queen of tne countiy 
were ^pt This was tola to the queen. Let them all 
be killed, said she. That would not be a religious act, 
said her people. But they were murderously assailed. 
At this time the cleric was at mass. Let us have respite 
till mass is ended, said Donnan. Thou shalt have it» 
said they. And when it was over, they were slain every 
one of them ' (Skene's CdbUi SooOand, ii 162, 1877). 
Yet grimmer is the cavern's history. Towards the close 
of the 16th century, a band of the Madeods, chancing 
to land on the island, were hospitably welcomed by the 
inhabitants, till, having offered rudeness to the maidens, 
they were bound hand and foot, and sent adrift in a 
boat. Rescued by a party of their own clansmen, they 
were brought to Dunvegan, the stronghold of their 
chief, to ii^om tiiey told their story, and who straight- 
way manned his galleys and hastened to Eijgg. On 
descrying his approach, the Macdonalds, with their 
wives and children, to the number of 200, took refo^ 
in a cave. Here for two days they remained undis- 
covered, but^ having sent out a scout to see if the foe 
was departed, their retreat was detected. A waterfall 
partly concealed the mouth of the cave. This Madeod 
caused to be turned from its course, and, heaping up 
wood around the entrance, set fire to the pile, and 
suffocated all who were within (Skene's EigJUanden, ii 
277, 1887). Eigg has a post office under Oban, Small 
Isles parish chu^ and manse, a Boman Catholic church 
(1844), and a public school. Pop. (1881) 452, (1851) 
546, (1861) 809, (1871) 282, (1881) 291. 

W, a sea-loch, paruv in ArgyUshire, j^artly on the 
mutual border of Argyll and Inverness shires, and con- 
sisting of two distinct portions — Clipper and Lower Loch 
Eil. Upper Loch Eil, commencing 4 miles E by S of 
the head of Loch Shiel, extends uienoe 6| miles east- 
by-southwsxd, with a varying breadth of 4 and 7i fur- 
longs. Then come the Narrows, 2 miles long, and 1 
furumg wide at the narrowest ; and then from Corpach, 
at the entrance to the Caledonian Canal, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Fort William, Lower Loch Eil strikes 9f 
miles south-westward,' with varying width of 5 furlongs 
and IJ mile, to Cobsan Narrows, where it merges witn 
Loch Linnhe, of whidi it is often treated as a part It 
receives, near Fort William, the Lochy and the Nevis, 
and is overhxmg here by the mighty mass of Ben Nevis 
(4406 feet).— Ord Sur., shs. 62, 58, 1875-77. 

ElUm. SeeEiiLAN. 

Bildon HOlfl, The, are situated in the parishes of Mel- 
rose and Bowden, Boxburghshire, the town of Melrose 
lyinff in the Tweed valley on the N, and the village of 
somlen, which overloolu Teviotdale being on the S. 
They rise fr^m one base of N and S extension into three 
ooneshaped summits, tiieir length heanf H mile, and 
the^ breadth J mile. The midme summit is the highest 
(1885 feet), that to the N£ attaining 1827, and that to 


the S 1216, feet These summits stand apart, the 
northern 5 furlongs, and the southern 4, from the 
middle one. The appearance they present frx)m all sides 
is very striking, especially from the wide rich country 
to the N, E, and S swept by the Tweed and the 
Teviot, and bounded in the latter direction by the blue 
Border Cheviots. Their weird aspect from this quarter, 
where these three summits stand out in bold relief, is 
enough to justify the popular tradition which repre- 
sents them as originally one mass deft into three by the 
demon familiar of Michael Scott The view from these 
summits is of vast scope and great variety of interest 
On the E the eye ran^ over the curves of the silver 
Tweed as far as the nsing-eround overlooking Berwick 
at its mouth, on the SB ana S as far as the Cheviots and 
the long ridge of Carter Fell, on the SW to the hills of 
liddesdale and Eskdale, on the W to the heights of 
Ettrick and Yarrow, while, as it sweeps by N, it takes 
in beyond Gkdashiels the pastoral uplands of the Gala 
and the darkening range of the lonely Lammermuirs. 
The panorama thus swept is ridh in scenes of romantic 
and historic as well as physical interest On the hills 
themselves are the remains of a strong Boman encamp- 
ment as well as a tumulus which is supposed to be of 
Druidical origin, and the whole country to E and S 
swarms with legends of old Border valour. Border bal- 
lad, and Border foray. ' I can stand on the Eildon Hill,' 
said Sir Walter Scott, 'and point out forty-three places 
famous in war and verse.' There at our feet and to the 
E lie the rich lands of the Abbeys of Melrose, Drybuigh, 
Kelso, and Jedburgh, and on the horizon the classic 
battiefields of Chevy Chase and Flodden, while, over all 
breathes the magic genius of Sir WiUter, whose honoured 
ashes rest down there among those of the Dryburgh 
monk& On these hills the imagination may stm trace 
the figure of Thomas the Bhymer ; and a spot is pointed 
out on the slope of the north-eastern hill, marked by a 
stone where stood the Eildon tree, under which he con- 
ceived and delivered to superstitious eara the fortune he 
darkly foresaw in store for his native country. One of 
his prophecies that refen to this spot» forecasting what 
might seem miraculous at the time» though it has been 
often since fulfilled — 

' At Eildon lYee, If you ■hall be, 
A brig over Tiraed yon there maj tee ; *~ 

shows him to have been a man of patriotic fervour as 
wdl as natural shrewdness. The Boman encampment 
here already referred to, appean to have been of consider- 
able extent It occupied cniefly the north-eastern hill, 
where it was 1^ mile in circuit and where the remains 
of it, inclusive of two fosses, an earthen dyke, four gates, 
and the general's quarter, can still, it is said, be traced. 
To place, however, TremonHum on the Eildon Hills is 
to ob great violence to Ptolem^s text, according to Dr 
Skene, by whom TrenunUmm is identified with Bbttns- 
WASK. The supposed Druidical relic in the W is a 
mound, called tne Bouijo, of evidently artificial con- 
struction, and here the Baal priests of tne ancient Oaile- 
donians, it has been thought, were wont to ofier 
sacrifices to the sun-god. It is an oak bower, sur- 
rounded by a deep trench, and is approached by a plain 
way made to it from E to W, called the Haxalgate; 
The hUls are composed of jporphyritio trap or whuistone^ 
with a large proportion of felspar, which raflects a silvery 

gleam in uie sunshine that has wrought itself into poetic 
escription ; while the soil is hard and mostiy covered 
with grass: On the southern hill the opening of a 
quarry some yean a£0 laid bare a perpendicular cliff of 
KM^ular basaltic commns, about 20 feet elevation of 
which stands exposed, looking over Bowdenmoor to the 
W. On the sides oftheee hills, like the 'Parallel Boads 
of Glenroy,' sixteen terraces are traceable, which rise 
one above another like the steps of a stair. The Eildons 
lately became, by purchase, the property of the Duke of 
Bucdeuch ; and on their eastern slope, which is finely 
wooded, stands Eildon Hall, the residence of the Earl 
of Dalkeith, the eldest son of the Duke. Except on the 
Bowdenmoor side, and where, as on its £, there are 



woods and enclosed gronnds, cultivation extends a good 
way up from their base, though not so far as it once 
did, it would seem, under the monks, on the side of 
Melrose particularly. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See 
chap, zzxiy. of James Hunnewell's Lands o/ScoU (Edinb. 

EileaiL See Ellak. 

Eilean-Aigas. See Aigab. 

Eileaamare. See Ellakmobb. 

ElUaiL See Ellan. 

Eire. See Findhorn. 

Eifldale. See Easdalb. 

Elshart^ a sea-loch in the S of the Isle of Skye, 
Inverness-shire, separating the Strathaird peninsula 
from the upper part of the peninsula of Sleat. It opens 
at right angles to the moutn of Loch Slapin, and, strik- 
ing §i miles east-north-eastward, diminishing gradually 
from a width of 2^ miles to a near point, and terminates 
at an isthmus 8| miles broad from the head of Loch 
IndaL 'There is not,' says Alexander Smith, 'a 
prettier sheet of water in the whole world. Everything 
about is wild, beautiful, and lovely. You drink a 
strange unfamiliar air ; you seem to be sailing out of 
the 19th century away back into the 9th.' 

Elchaig, a stream of Eintail parish, SW Boss-shire, 
formed Iw two head-streams — ^the Allt na Doire Gairbhe, 
flowing 5} miles south-westward from Loch Muirichinn 
(1480 feet) ; and the Allt a Ghlomaich, which, windine 
8f miles north-north-westward from Loch a Bhealaich 
(1242 feet), makes, by the way, the beautiful Falls of 
Olomagh. From their confluence, at an altitude of 
290 feet, the Elchaig itself flows 6^ miles west-north- 
westward to the head of salt-water Loch Ling. It 
is a fine salmon and trout stream. — Ord, Sur., sh. 
72, 1880. 

Eldhles. See Enookando. 

Eloho, a ruined castle in Rhynd parish, Perthshire, 
on the right bank of the Tay, 4 mfles by river, 5J by 
road, ESE of Perth. Ee-roofed about 1830, to preserve 
it from further dilapidation, it is of considerable extent, 
and remains entire in the walls, which are strong and 
massive, in very durable material Its battlemented 
top, gained by several winding stairs, in good preserva- 
tion, commands magnificent prospects up and aown the 
river. Elcho belongs to the Earl of Wemyss, and gives 
to him, and through him to his eldest son, the titie of 
Baron Elcho, datmg from 1628.— -Oni Sur., sh. 48, 

Eldflnlie, a village in Abbey parish, Benfrewshire, 
with a station on the Glasgow and South- Western Bail- 
way, 2i miles W by S of Paisley, under which it has a 
post office. Consisting j)rincipally of two rows of houses 
alouff the road from Paisley to Johnstone, and inhabited 
chiefly by weavers and other operatives, it is notable 
as the reputed birthplace of Sir William Wallace, who 
hence is often styled the Knight of Elderslie. The 
estate on which it stands was granted in the latter half 
of the ISth centuiy to Sir Malcolm Wallace, who is sup- 
posed to have been the Scottish hero's father, and with 
whose descendants it continued till, in 1729, it came to 
Helen, onlv child of John Wallace of Elderslie, and 
wife of Archibald Campbell of Succoth. By her it was 
sold, in 1769, to the familv of Speirs. A pliun old house 
in the village claims to be that in which Sir William 
Wallace was bom ; but, though partlv of ancient struc- 
ture, bears unmistakable marks of having been built 
long after his death ; yet, very probably occupies the 
spot on which the house of Sir Malcolm Wallace stood. 
A venerable yew tree in its garden, known popularly as 
' Wallace's Yew,' must likewise have got its name, not 
from any real connection with the patriot, but simply 
from the situation in which it standjs. A still more 
famous oak tree — 'Wallace's Oak' — standing a little 
distance to the E, was ^vely asserted to have afforded 
shelter, from the pursuit of an English force, to Wallace 
and 800 of his followers ; and continued in tolerable 
vigour till 1825, when its trunk girthed 21 feet at the 
blue, ISi- feet at 6 feet from the ground, and 67 feet 
in altitude, whilst the branches covered 496 square 

yards, l^e and relic-mongers, however, had reduced 
it to little more than a blackened torso, when by the 
gale of Feb. 1856 it was levelled with the dust (pp. 
205, 206 of Trans, HigM, and Ag, Soc, 1881). At the 
village are a quoad sacra church (1840 ; 800 sittings) 
and the Wallace public schooL — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Elderslie, an estate, with a mansion, in Benfrew 
parish, Benfrewshire, named after Elderslie in Abbey 
parish. The mansion, on the left bank of the Clyde, \ 
mile E of Benfrew town, was built in 1777-82, and en- 
larged and improved at subsequent periods. Engirt by 
a fine park, it presents a handsome frontage to the 
Cl^de, and contains a number of interestmg relics as- 
sociated with the name of Sir William Wallace, and 
brought from Elderslie village. It owner, Alexander 
Arcmbald Speirs, Esq. (b. and sue. 1869), holds 11,259 
acres in the shire, valued at £14,954 per annum. 

Eldzig or Eiifg, a village in Mochrum parish, SE Wig- 
townshire, 8 miles NW of Port William. Eldrig Loch, 
1 mile to ihe N, lies 260 feet above sea-level, lias an 
utmost length and width of i mile and 1 furlong, and 
contains some fine trout — Ord, Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Eldzig. See Ellbio. 

Elgar or Ella. See Shapikshat. 

Elgin, a parish containing a city and royal burgh of 
the same name in the N of the county of Elgin. It is 
bounded on the N by Spynie ; on the NE and £ by St 
Andrews-Lhanbryd ; on the S by Bothes, Bimie, and 
Dallas ; on the W by Baffbrd, and on the NW by Alves. 
Its shape is very irr^ular, but the greatest length from 
SW to 19'E is 11 miles, and its greatest breadth from N 
to S 4^ miles. The area is 19,258 acres, of which nearly 
12,000 are under cultivation, upwards of 2000 are under 
wood, and most of the remainder is pastmas-land, very 
litde of the surface being waste. The soil varies consi- 
derably, being in many places (especially on the alluvial 
flats lying along the bcmks of the river Lossie) a good 
black loam, rich and fertile ; in other places, particukrly 
towards the S of the parish, it is a light sandy loam pass- 
ing in many parts into almost pure sand ; elsewhere, 
again, it is clay. The subsoil is clay, sand, or gravel. 
In the W of the parish the underlying rock is a hard, 
whitie^-grey sandstone, which is almost throughout of 
excellent quality for building purposes. In 1826 a con- 
siderable quantity of it from the ridge to the N of Plus- 
carden was sent to London, to be used in the construc- 
tion of the new London Brid^. In the E the underlying 
rock is an impure silidous limestone, which was at one 
time, at several places, quarried and burned for lime, but 
this, which was of a dull brown colour, was so impure 
and inferior, whether for building or agricultural pur- 
poses, that the workings have been amindoned. The 
western part of the parish is occupied by the long valley 
of Pluscarden, which is bounded on the N by the steep 
slope of theEildon or Heldun Hill (767 feet), separating 
the parish from Alves, and on the S by the gentler 
slope leading to the Hill of the Wangie (1020), which 
separates Elgin from Dallas. The surface of the rest of 
the parish is undulating, and rises gradually from N to 
S from the height of alwut 36 feet aoove sea-level at the 
extreme E end of the parish to a height of about 900 
feet on the extreme S, on the slopes of the Brown Muir 
Hill. The main line of drainage is by the river Lossie, 
and the tributanr streams that now into it. The Lossie 
entera the parish near the middle of the S side, and 
forms the boundary between Elgin and Bimie for about 
8 miles. It thereafter passes across to the northern side 
where it turns abruptly to the E and winds along, form- 
ing the boundary Between Elffin and Spynie, and be- 
tween Elgin and St Andrews-Lhanbryd. it has every- 
where a very winding course, and is confined by 
artificial banks, against which (notwithstanding its 
quiet appearance and placid flow on ordinary occasions) 
it rushes furiouslv in times of flood. About 2 miles 
from the city of Elgin it is joined by the Black Bum or 
Black Water, a stream of fair size, which flows along 
and carries off the drainage of the whole valley of Plus- 
carden. About a quarter of a mile lower it receives the 
water from a small canal formed for the drainage of the 

(Ufltiict of Moatowie in the NW oornw of the psriah. 
Other small streanu in or passing partly through the 
pariah are the T^ock and Muirton or Linkwood Bnm. 
The parish contains the citf of Elgin, the village of Kew 
Elgin, and the hamlets of Glackmarras and Muir of Mil- 
tondiiiS'. There is a distillery at Miltondu£f, a brewery 
W of the city near Bmoeland, and a small woollen mill 
at Colebnms, near the entrance of the Glen of Rothes. 
The industries carried on in or about the city are noticed 
in the following article. In the landward part of the 
parish there are a number of meal and flour mills. The 
mansion-houses of BlackhiUs and Westerton are noticed 
separately, as also is the chief object of antiquarian in- 
terest in the landward district, Pluscarden Abbey. The 
parish is traversed by the Hi^and railway, by the 
Morayshire section of the Qreat North of Scouand rail- 
way system, by the main road from Aberdeen to Inver- 
ness, and by the road to Bothes and Speyside. Four pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
38 hold between £100 and £600, 69 hold between £60 and 
£100, and 134 hold each between £20 and £60. The 
parish is in the presbytery of £lgin (of which it is the seat) 
and the synod of Moray. The char^ is collegiate, and 
the stipend of each of the ministers is £572. The senior 
minister has besides a manse and fflebe worth respec- 
tively £40 and £48 a year, while the second minister 
has a glebe worth about £17 a year. The churches are 
noticed under the city of Elgin, in which they aU 
stand, except a charee of the Free Church of Pluscarden, 
the congregation of which has accommodation in one 
of the rooms of Pluscarden Abbey. This was formerly 
a church of the royal bounty, but ceased to be con- 
nected with the Establishment at the Disruption in 1848. 
The parish is one of fifteen forming the Morayshire 
Poor Law Combination, with a poorhouse in a suburb of 
Elgm to the N, but in the parish of Spynie. The build- 
ings, which were erected in 1866, rise to a height of two 
stories, and are surrounded by walled-in grounds of fair 
Hiey are in the Elizabethan style, treated very 


plainly. The porter's lodge is at the entrance from the 
turnpike road to Lossiemouth, and from this a straight 
path leads to the chief entrance in the centre of the main 
Duilding in which are the governor's and matron's rooms, 
and the board-room, dining-hall, and chapel. On either 
side of the central portion are t^e day-rooms, with the 
dormitories above. The public schools of Mostowie, New 
fflgin, and Pluscarden, and Clackmarras school, with re- 
spective accommodation for 139, 176, 120, and 64 chil- 
dren, had (1882) an average attendance of 77, 74, 63, and 
35, and grants of £59, 8s. , £58, 2s. , £49, 9s. 6d. , and £38, 
4s. Yafuation (1881) oflands, £11,854, 5s. Pop. (1801) 
4345, (1881) 6130, (1841) 6083, (1861) 7277, (1861) 8726, 
(1871) 8604, (1881) 8741.— Oni Sur., shs. 96, 86, 1876. 

The presbytery of Elgin comprises the parishes of Elgin, 
Alves, St Andrews-Uianbryd, Bimie, Drainie, Duffus, 
Speymouth, Spynie, and Urquhart, the qiLoad sacra parish 
of Buighead, and the mission of Lossiemouth. Pop. (1871) 
22,966, (1881) 23,984, of whom 2638 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
has also a presbytery of Elgin, with 2 churches in the city 
of Elghi, 1 in the glen of Pluscarden, and 7 at respec- 
tively Alves, Burehead, Garmouth, Hopeman, Lossie- 
mouth, and Urquhart, which 9 churches together had 
3144 members in 1881. — ^The United Presbyterians have 
a presbytery of Elgin and Inverness, meetmc generally 
at Forres, and exercising supervision over 2 churches in 
Elgin and 10 at respectively Archiestown, Burghead, 
(}ampbelton, Forres, Inverness, Lossiemouth, Moyness, 
Kaim, Nicg, and Tain, which 12 churches together had 
1876 memMrs in 1880. 

Elgin, a city and royal burgh, and the county town 
of Elginshire, is one of the briffhtest and most picturesque 
little towns in Scotland, it is situated on the ri^ht 
bank of the river Lossie in the NE end of the parish 
of Elgin, and includes within the municipal and parlia- 
mentary boundaries small portions of tne parisnes of 
Spynie and St Andrews-Lhanbryd. It has a station 
on the Highland railway, and is the terminus of the 
Craigellacme and Lossiemouth sections of the Great 

North of Scotland railway system. It wHl also be the 
terminus of the new extension of that system westward 
from Portsoy by Cullen and Buckie to Elgin, the bill 
for the construction of which has recently (1882) passed 
through Parliament It is by rail 6 miles SSW of 
its seaport, Lossiemouth, 122 NNW of Craigellachie, 
18 WNW of Keith, 87 ENE of Inverness, 12 ENE of 
Forres, 71i NW by W of Aberdeen, 178 N of Edinburgh 
vid Dunkeld and Forres (187^ vid Aberdeen), and 194 
NNE of Glasgow vid Forres (223^ vid Aberdeen). The 
mainpart of the city lies tAong a low ridge running E 
and W, and sloping eently to uie S ; and this, as well 
as the adjacent lowerland on which the rest of the town 
is built, IS shut in and sheltered on all sides by well- 
wooded rising-grounds approaching close to the town, 
and by their protection greatly assisting the sandy and 
porous subsoil in producing the mild and healthy climate 
which the citizens e^joy. Much of the scenery in the 
neighbourhood is extremely beautiful, especially the 
wooded districts to the W and N, known as the Oak- 
wood and Quarrywood, and alon^ the banks of the Lossie ; 
whUe the surrounding district is so fertile, that the in- 
habitants delight, and justly so, in claiminff for the 
environs of their ancient city the distinguished appella- 
tion of ' the Garden of Scotland.' 

The origin of the name is lost, and though many 
conjectures have been made, most of them are somewhat 
unsatisfactory. The derivation that finds most favour 
is one that takes its rise from the legend on the cor- 
poration seal (SiffiUum commune eivUaiis de ffelgyn), 
and from the speUing Helgyn it is argued that the plac6 
has received its name from Helffy, a eeneral of the army 
of Sigurd, the Norwegian Ean of Orkney, who about 
927 overran Caithness, Boss, Sutherland, and Moray, 
and who may possibly have formed a settlement here ; 
but the town is noticed in 1190, in the Chartulary of 
Moray, with the name spelled Elnn as at present, 
which seems to be against this. Be that as it may, 
both name and town are very old, for we find that at an 
early period Elgin was a place of note, and a favourite 
and frequent royal residence, probably on account 
of the excellent nunting which was to be had in the 
neighbouring royal forests. Nor did the royal visits 
altogether cease till the middle of the 16th century. 
Edv^ird I., in his progress through the North in 1296, 
turned back at Elgin, after staying for two days in its 
royal castle. He also passed through it in 1308, when 
he lived for some weeks at Einloss Abbey, 10 miles to 
the W. Aflain, in 1457, James II., having resumed 
possession of the Earldom of Moray, which had been 
held by one of his foes the Douglases, and being minded 
to bestow it on his infant son, came down to set things 
in order, and was so charmed by the country that he 
stayed for some time and hunted, and often dwelt at 
one of the cathedral laanses, which used to stand at 
what is now the^NE comer of King Street James lY. 
also paid it a visit in 1490, and Queen Mary is said to 
have also been in the neighbourhood. It was a royal 
burgh in the reign of I&vid I., and received f^m 
Alexander II. a royal charter, which is still carefully 
preserved. About the same time that the city received 
this royal charter, it also became the cathedral seat of 
the neat bishopric of Moray, for in 1224 Bishop Andrew 
de Moravia settled his episcopal see — which haa hitherto 
been unfixed, and sometimes at Bimie, sometimes at 
Spynie, sometimes at Einneddu^ — permanently at the 
Cnurch of the Holy Trinity at Elgin ; and to this it 
owes the peculiar character which it had almost un- 
altered down to the beginning of the present century, 
and which it still, though to a very slight degree, 
retains. It bore, and stUl bears, a strong resembumce 
to St Andrews — a likeness which is to be attributed to 
the cireumstanoe of its having been, like that ecclesias- 
tical metropolis, the seat of an important and wealthy 
see, and the residence of a numerous band of dignified 
ecclesiastics and affluent provincial gentry, drawn to- 
gether here 88 to a common centre of attraction. Many 
of the ouaint old houses remained till a recent period, 
and a mw (not the most dharacteristic specimens) are 


still standing, although, jnst as in Edinbnigh and else- 
where, the ancient mansion-houses were long since 
'handed down' to artisans and others in the lower 
ranks of life. Though a new town has sprung up, and 
the old has in a measure 'cast its skin,' and nas thus 
become almost entirely renovated, yet the period is by 
no means remote when Elffin wore the antiquated, still, 
and venerable aspect which so well befits the habits and 
hannonises with the repose of genuine ecclesiastics in 
the full enjoyment of an intellectual ' oUum cum digni- 
tote,* Till little more than sixty years ago the town 
consisted of one main street running from £ to W, with 
narrow streets, lanes, or closes striking off from each side 
at right anjgles, like ribs from a spine. The houses that 
lined the sides of the lon^ main street, as it then existed, 
were of venerable age, with high-pitdied roofs, overlaid 
with heavy slabs of priestly grey, presenting to the 
street the fore-stair and an open piazza, consisting of a 
series of pillared arches in the front wall over the 
entrance to a paved and sheltered court within, in 
which, as well as in his humbler small dark shop or 
cellar, was the ancient merchant wont at times, with a 
perfect sense of security, to leave his goods and walk 
unceremoniously off — 'his half-door on the bar' — ^to 
breakfast, dinner, or his evening strolL The piazzas are 
all lon^ since gone, and only a very few of the houses 
in whicn they were now remain, though several of the 
pillars and arches are yet to be seen. The last house 
that had the piazza open was Elchies House, a most ^ic- 
tureeque specmien of the old buigh architecture, which 
was removed in 1845 to make way for the buildings 
occupied by the Caledonian Banlnnfr Gompanv, and 
quite recently the best of the remainmg examples was 
removed to make way for the block of buildinfis on the 
N side of High Street immediately to the W of the 
Royal Bank. A fine stone mantelpiece, which was in 
the old house, has found a position of honour in the 
new building, and so also have the Quaint gablets over 
the windows on the attic floor. The dates of their 
erection and the names of their proprietors were usually 
inscribed upon the lintels of these ancient domidles, 
and here and there mijB;ht be seen carved one of those 
religious quotations which the taste of the 16tii century 
80 much deliffhted in, and with which our Beformation 
forefathers saluted those who crossed their thresholds. 
The pavement was an ancient causeway, which tradition 
modestly reports to have been the work of Cromwell's 
soldiers, though most likely it was many ages older. 
It rose high in the middle, and the 'crown of the 
causeway,' where the higher-minded folks delighted to 
parade, was elevated, and distinguished by a row of 
huge stone blocks, while those of a more moderate size 
occupied the sloping sides. The drains, which ran along 
the street, were crossed rectangularly by the common 
gutter, which passed immediatdy to the £ of the Com> 
merdal Bank, and carried all tiie surface sewage of the 
western part of the town to an open ditch at the 
Borough Brigs. In heavv rains it often swelled into a 
rapid stream of considerable size. Iliere were no side 
pavements till the Earl of Fife, aided by tiie citizens 
and the road-trustees, introduced them in 1821. About 
the centre of the town the street then, as now, widened 
out at the point where stand the parish church and the 
water-fountain, and the centre or tiie wider space was 
occupied by the old church of St Giles and Uie Tolbooth. 
St Giles, or 'the Muckle Kirk' — ^the old parish church 
—was pulled down in the end of 1826 to make wav for 
the present parish church. It was a very old building, 
so old indeed that there is no record of its first erection, 
but it was older than the cathedral, and was very early 
mentioned as a parsonage. There is little doubt that 
the centre tower — a square heavy mass without a steeple 
— ^was as old as the 12th century. It was dedicated to 
St Giles, the patron saint of the city, said to be one of the 
' early missionaries from lona. In the palmy days of the 
cathedral's glory it was in the bishop's pastoral charge. 
The form of the church was that of a Greek croas, with 
nave, choir, and transepts. The nave had two rows of 
massive pillars, surmounted by arches ; its roof outside was 

covered with heavy slabs of hewn stone. The principal 
entrance was a large door in the W end, over which was 
a handsome three-light window. In the middle of the 
16th century it had altars belonging to the different in- 
corporated trades, who also maintamed a chaplain, but 
at uie Reformation tiiese were all swept away, and there 
were lofts or galleries erected for the various incorpora- 
tions, possibly above the sites of the old altars, ana pro- 
bably about the same time the nave and the dioir were 
separated, and the former became what was known as 
' the Muckle Eirk,' while the latter formed 'the Little 
Kirk.' The timber that supported the roof of heavy 
freestone slabs over the Muckle Eirk having become de- 
cayed, the whole of the roof fell — ^providentially between 
8ervices--on Sunday, 22 June 1679, the same day on 
which the battle of Bothwell Bridge was fought, and 
the whole of the western part of the fabric was destroyed. 
The rebuilding began the following year, and was finished 
in 1684, when two long aisles, one on each side, were 
added, and the church was reseated after the Presbyterian 
fashion. The massive oak pulpit, which cost at that 
time £244 Scote, is still to be seen in the church at 
Pluscarden. It has some curious carved work about it, 
and even yet bears the old iron rim for the baptismal 
basin, while the iron sandglass holder lies close by. Both 
are specimens of characteristic twisted iron work. Al- 
though the interior of the Muckle Kirk, — ^with ite rows of 
massive sandstone pillars running along the aisles and 
topped by high-peuced arches ; with ite beams of wood, 
from which were hunff by strong iron chains massive 
brass chandeliers ; with ite old pulpit and curious g^- 
leries, and with ite walls hun^; from place to place with 
the coate of arms of the principal heritors, or with black 
boards setting forth tiie cnarity and brotherly kindness of 

those who had 

< Mojrtlfled their ctsh, 
To mortity their beln^' 

and bequeathed sums of money to be managed by the 
kirk-session for the benefit of the poor, — possessed a 
dignity and grandeur of no common order, ito exterior 
was not at all rich in architectural display, but yet 
everything connected with it was held in such veneration 
by the citizens that ite demolition caused a general feeline 
of deep regret, if not dismay, which the unequivocal 
symptoms of decay and the impending dan^ of a repeti- 
tion of the accident of 1679 did not at all diminish. The 
original transepte were removed about 1740, and the Little 
Km was so rumous that it had to be demolished in 1800. 
The old Tolbooth stood to the W of St Giles, and down 
to 1716 must have been a very primitive sort of erec- 
tion, for in 1600 the building had a thatched roof, as is 
testified by the entry in the town's records: ' Item, £8, 
6s. 8d. for fog to theck the Tolbooth.' In 1605 a new 
one was erected, 'biggit wt stanes frae ye kirkyard 
dyke, and sclaited wt stanes frae Dolass ; but it was 
burned in 1701, and the new one, begunin 1709 andfinished 
in 1716 or 1717, was used as court-house, council-room, 
and prison, and remained in use till 1848. It had a 
massive sqaare tower, with a round comer turret and a 
clock and Wl. The bell now hann between the bur;^h 
and county buildings, and the works of the clock are m 
the museum. In the museum is also preserved the lintel 
of the doorway, with the very suggestive motto, ' Sutim 
cuiqw triJbueJ The ' Muckle Cross ' was near the E end 
of the old church of St Giles, but is now also numbered 
with the things that were, the site it occupied being 
marked by two rows of paving-stones, laid so as to form 
a cross. The cross itself was 'a hexagonal pillar of 
dressed ashlar, 12 feet high, and large enough to contain 
a spiral stair. Arouni ito base was a stone seat From 
the top of the pillar rose a shaft of stone, surmounted 

He Scottish lion rampant, and the initials (C. R.) of 
Charles II.' The ' Little Cross ' still stends near 
end of the town, opposite the Museum, and not 
far from an old house, ongmaUy with a piazza, and at 
one time the place of business of Duff of Dipple, an an- 
cestor of the Earl of Fife. It is supposed to mark the 
western limit of the chanonry or predncte of the cathe- 
dral, and to occupy the dte of a croas erected with part 

of the money paid in 1402 by Alexander, third son of 
the Lord of the Isles, in compensation for his having, 
when on a raid, attacked and plundered the chanonry of 
Elgin. The present shaft of the Little Cross is not, how- 
ever, older than the 17th century. The cathedral pre- 
cinct was surrounded by a wall about 12 feet in height 
and from 6 to 8 feet in thickness, of run lime work. A 
small part of it at the £ gate or Pann's Port still exists, 
and a considerable portion, extending across the field to 
the SW of Pann's Port, was removed so late as 1866. 
Of the three gates, which were each defended by a port- 
cullis, the Pann's Port is the only one remaining. The 
town itself seems also to have at one time had some 
defence, possibly a pallisade, for there was a gate near 
the W end, called the West Port, close to West Park ; 
a second, about the middle of Lossie Wynd, called 
the Lossie Wynd Port; a third, at the S end of Com- 
merce Street, caUed from the old name of the street the 
School Wynd Port ; and a fourth, in South College Street, 
dose to the Bied House, called the East Port These 
gates were all removed in the latter part of last century, 
and were probably erected when the town and its ap- 
proaches were restored after the destruction caused by 
the Wolf of Badenoch. They must certsdnly have been 
of later date than the 15th century, for there is a per- 
sistent tradition that previous to the Douglas troubles 
in the middle of the IStli century the old church of St 
Giles stood at the extreme E end of the town, and there 
were building extending westward alons the ridge by 
Gray's Hospital and Fleurs, as far as the knoll (now 
i mile from the city), called the Gallow HiU. In 1452, 
in the struggle agamst the ' banded Earls,' the contest 
was carried on in the North between the Earl of Huntly 
and Archibald Doufflas, Earl of Moray. After the battle 
of Brechin and the defeat of the Earl of Crawfurd, Huntly 
started in pursuit of the Earl of Moray, who had been 
laiding in Strathbogie, and pursued him beyond Elgin, 
till he took upa strong position on the heights above 
Pluacarden. Halting at Elgin,* and finding that part 
of the town was inhabited by those favourable to the 
Dou^^ cause, and the other part by those favourable 
to himself, he burned the whole of the former portion, 
and hence the proverb, ' Half done as Elgin was half 
burned.' Huntly 's men having, however, scattered in 
search of plunder, Doudas attacked them, and drove 
them into the Bog of Dunkinty, to the NW of the 
cathedral, where some 400 or 500 of them pwished, and 
this gave rise to the jeering rhyme : 

' Oh where ue your men, 
niou Ctordon so gay? 
In the Bog of Ihmldn^, 
Mowing the hay.* 

It is said that the part then burned was the western 
half, and that it was never rebuilt, but that the new 
buildings were erected to the E beyond St Giles, and so 
the town was continued eastward in the direction of the 
cathedral. This Archibald Douolas seems — ^though 
Lady Hill still belong to the Earf of Moray — ^to have 
been the last constaole of the royal castle of Elgin, 
which stood on the flattened summit of the Lady HiU, 
a conical-shaped eminence near the W end of High 
Street The ruins of the Castle are all that remain of 
the oldest building in connection with Elgin. From 
its isolated and commanding position Imj Hill no 
doubt attracted the attention of our rude ancestors at a 
very early period. It vras a place of importance, and 

Srobably fortified with earthworks, in the time of the 
leltic Mormaers of Moray. The ruins still existing are 
those of walls fiused with rough ashlar (now, alas, nearly 
all gone), and backed with run lime work, and date 
from the time of David I., for Elgin is mentioned as a 
king's buigh in his reign, and must therefore have had 
a royal castle at that time. Malcolm lY. mentions it 
in a charter granted in 1160, and it is again referred to' 
in a deed granted by William the Lyon. Both Davidf 
and William held their courts here, as also did Alexan- 

* Pitaoottie (2d edit, Olugow, 1749, p. 80) nys it was Forres, 
hot the evidence seems oondanve in fevoor of Elgin, and the 
proverb pats the matter beyond dispute. 

der II. and Alexander III. ; and Wyntoun records 
numerous visits of the former to Elgin. Edward I. re- 
sided in the Castle during his two days' stay at Elgin 
in 1296 ; and in the journal of his proceeding, preserved 
in the Cottonian MSS., it is described as ' ben ehasteU et 
howns vUUf* or 'a good castle and a good town.' It 
probably suffered, however, in the few following years, 
for some of the wooden apartments in the interior of 
the place were burned while it was held by the English 
governor (Henry de Eye), and, accordingly, when 
Edward returned in 1803, it was not seemingly con- 
sidered a fitting residence for him. From this time it 
ceased to be a royal or even a baronial residence, but 
still continued to possess its keep, chajjel, and probably 
its storehouses, and it no doubt was maintained as a fort, 
and perhaps used as a prison for at least a century and 
a half afterwards; but after the forfeiture of the 
Doufflases the buildings were neglected, and fell 
rapidly into decay. The works seem to have occupied 
the greater portion of the flat part on the top of the niU, 
which measures about 85 yards in length by 45 in 
breadth. It is difficult to form any idea of the plan of 
the buildings, but there seems to have been a strong 
outer wall and a massive keep. There seem also to have 
been an outer and an inner court, and a circular de- 
pression near the NW angle of the remains of the keep 
IS said to mark the draw-well. There were eates to both 
the E and the W, the latter being the chief one. From 
some points of view Lady Hill looks as if a smaller hill 
had been set down on the top of a larger, and for this 
tradition has assigned a reason. An earlier castle stood 
at a lower level, but the ' pest ' having appeared, hung 
over it for some time as a dark blue clouo, which was 
by some means induced to settie, and then the inhabi- 
tants gathering, covered the Castle and all its inmates 
deep under a n^h mound of earth, which now con- 
stitutes the upper part of the hilL 

' the GMtle in a single night 

With all its inmates smik quite oat of sight ; 
There at the midnight hoar is heard the sound 
Of varioas voioes talking under ground ; 
The rook of cnulles— waiung infants' cries, 
And nuises singing soothing lullabies. ' 

In 1858 excavations were made on the top of the hill 
by the Elgin Literary and Scientific Association, but 
nothine of any importance was discovered. On the top 
of the nill now stands a Tuscan column erected by sub- 
scription by the inhabitants of the county in 1839 to 
the memory of the last Duke of Gordon. A stair leads 
up the shaft, and from the top a very extensive view 
may be obtained. The statue of the duke is 12 feet 
high, and was placed on the top in 1855. The cannon 
dose by is one of those captured at Sebastopol, and was 
presented to the city of Elgin by the War Office in 1858. 
The hill takes its name — ^I^y Hill— firom the chapel in 
the Castle, which was dedicated to the Vizgin Mary, 
and a spring in the neighbourhood to the westward — 
deep-seated, and very cool in summer — is still known as 
Mary Well, no doubt for the same reason. The flat 
ffround immediately to the IS of Lady Hill, and lying 
between it and the river Lossie, is known as Blackfnars 
Haugh. It was formerly the site of a monastery, of the 
Dominicans or Black Friars, which was founded by 
Alexander II., when the order was first introduced into 
Scotland in his reign. No account of the building nor 
of anything connected with it now remains, nor is any 
trace of it left, though some parts of the ruins were in 
existence up to the middle of last century. Hiere was 
a monastery of the Franciscans or Greyfriars near the E 
end of the town. The original buildings founded also 
by Alexander II. stood on the ground now occupied by 
the garden of Dunfermline Cottage, on the S side of 
High Street, at the Little Cross, but this structure fell 
into decay in the beginning of the 15th century, between 
1406 and 1414, and the new buildings whidi stand on 
the S side of Greyfriars Street, in the ground to the E 
of Abbey Street, were erected. A dovecot and some 
ruins of the older building remained till the beginning 
of the present century, when they were demolished, ana 



the stones used in the erection of the present earden 
walls of Dunfermline Cottage. Of the newer bnildin^ 
extensive remains still exist. The walls of the church 
are pretty entire, though the roof fell about the middle 
of the last century, or perhaps earlier, for now an ash 
tree, which measures 4 feet in circumference, grows 
through one of l^e windows. Part of the monastery 
walls form part of the modem mansion-house of Grey- 
friars. The diurch was the meeting-place of the trades 
from 1676 till about 1691. Still further to the £, on a 
field now feued by the trustees of Anderson's Institution 
as a play-field, stood the Maiaon Dim, or House of God, 
a foundation dating also from the time of Alexander XL, 
and largely endowed by Bishop Andrew de Moravia for 
the reception of poor men and women. It was burned by 
the Wou of Badenoch at the same time as the cathedral 
in 1390, and was never rebuilt After the Reformation 
the revenues belonging to it, which had reverted to the 
Crown, were, by a c£irter dated 1620, granted to the 
' Provost, Bulies, Councillors, and community of Elgin,' 
to support poor and needy persons, to maintain a teacher 
of music, and to increase the common revenue of the 
burgh. The support of the poor and needy persons is 
earned out by the bied House, in South College Street, in 
which 4 poor men reside, each of whom has a small house, 
a strip of garden, and £12, 10s. a year. The original 
building was erected in 1624, but this structure having 
become ruinous was pulled down, and the present one 
erected in 1846. The tablet from the old house, with a 
representation of an old style Bied-man, and the inscrip- 
tion ' Hospitalittm Burgi de Elgin per idem conditum, 
1624,' and the text, ' Blessed is he that considereth the 
poor ; l^e Lord will deliver him in time of trouble,' has 
been built into the gablet over the doorway of the new 
building. There was a Leper House farther to the £, 
on the opposite side of the road, but the only trace of it 
remaining is the name given to the fields, viz., 'the 
Leper Lands.' Still farther to the £, close to the point 
where the Aberdeen road crosses the Lossiemouth rail- 
way, is apool, till recently of considerable depth, known 
as 'the Order Pot,' a name corrupted most probably 
from the Ordeal Pot, and the place where presumptive 
witches underwent the ordeal oy water. It may nave 
dso been the place where criminals sentenced to be put 
to death by drowning (as was sometimes the case) were 
executed, and was probably the only remaining specimen 
of such a ' pit' in Bhind's SketAea of Moray there is 
a lon^ account of the death of a supposed witch by 
drowning at this place. Traditionally it was supposed 
to be bottomless, but in the courae of yeara the amount 
of rubbish thrown into it materially diminished its size, 
and within the last year it has been numbered with the 
thinffs that were, and it will therefore no longer be 
possiole that the old prophecy that 

' The Order Pot and Loerie mjr 
Shall sweep the Cbask*jj Euk away/ 

attributed to Thomas the Rhymer, can be fulfilled. 

The crowning glory of old Elgin, as of the modem 
city, is the Cathedral, still grand, though but a ruin and 
a shadow of what once was, when the cathedral church 
of the diocese of Moray was not only ' the lantern of the 
north,' but also, as Bishop Bur states so plaintively in 
bis letter to the King, complaining of the destruction 
caused by the Wolf of Badenoch, * the ornament of the 
district, the glory of the kingdom, and the admiration 
of forei^era. 'It is,' says Chambera in his Picture of 
ScoUam, ' an allowed fact, which the ruins seem stiU 
to attest, that this was by far the most splendid speci- 
men of ecclesiastical architecture in Scotland, the abbey 
church of Melrose not excepted. It must be acknow- 
ledged that the edifice last mentioned is a wonderful 
instance of symmetry and elaborate decoration ; yet in 
extent, in loftiness, in impressive magnificence, and 
even in minute decoration, Elgin has been manifestly 
superior. Enough still remains to impress the solitary 
traveller with a sense of admiration mixed with astonish- 
ment' Shaw in his description of it does not hesitate 
to say that ' the church when entire was a building of 


Gothic architecture inferior to few in Europe.' 'At a 
period,' observes Mr Rhind, 'when the country was 
rude and uncultivated, when the dwellings of the mass 
of the people were mere temporary huts, and even the 
castles of the chiefs and nobles possessed no architectural 
beauty, and were devoid of taste and ornament, the 
solemn gp^ndeur of such a pile, and the sacred purposes 
with which it was associated, must have inspired an awe 
and a reverence of which we can form but a faint concep- 
tion. The prevailing impulse of the religion of the 
period led its zealous followera to concentrate their 
whole energies in the erection of such magnificent 
structures ; and while there was little skill or industry 
manifested in the common arts of life, and no associa- 
tions for promoting the temporal comforts of the people, 
the erand conceptions displayed in the architecture of 
the Middle Ages, the taste and persevering industry, 
and the amount of wealth and labour bestowed on these 
sacred edifices find no parallel in modem times. When 
entire, indeed, and in its pristine glory, the magnificent 
temple must have affordea a splendid spectacle. A vast 
dome, extending from the western entrance to the high 
altar, a length of 289 feet, with its richly ornamented 
arches crossing and recrossing each other to lean for 
support on the double rows of stately massive pillara — 
the mellowed light streaming through the richly stained 
windows, and mckering below amid the dark shadows 
of the pointed aisles, while the tepera of the altera 
twinkled through the rolling clouds of incense — ^the 
paintings on the walls — ^the solemn tones of the chanted 
mass, and the gorgeous dresses and imposing processions 
of a priesthood sedulous of every adjunct to dazzle and 
elevate the fancy, must have deeply impressed a people 
in a remote region with nothing around them, or even 
in their uninformed imaginations, in the slightest degree 
to compare with such splendour. No wonder that the 
people were proud of sucn a stracture, or that the der^ 
became attached to it It was a fit scene for a Latm 
author of the period, writing on the " tranquillity of the 
soul," to select for his Temple of Peace, and under its 
walls to lay the scene of his philosophical dialogues.' 
It has been already noted that the early cathedral of the 
diocese was at Bimie,£inneddar, or Spynie. This practice 
seems to have answered for a time, for though the 
bishopric of Moray was founded by Alexander I. uiortly 
after his accession (1107), it was not till 1203 that 
'Bridus the sixth oishop made application to Pope 
Innocent III. to have a nxed cathedral, and the Pope 
ordered that the cathedral should be fixed at Spynie,' 
which probably led to the foundation of what after- 
wards developed into the Bishop's Palace at that place. 
^ee Sftnie. J Bricius died in 1222, and his successor. 
Bishop Andraw de Moravia, coming in the reign of 
Elgin 8 great benefactor, Alexander II., and having 
obtained from him an extensive site on the banks of the 
Lossie, made in 1228 fresh application to Pope Honorius, 
representing the solitary unprotected site of me cathedral, 
and ito distence from market, and praying that it might 
be translated to Elgin as a more suitable place, and 
there settled at the church of the Holy Trinity, a 
little to the NE of the town, adding as an additional 
reason that the change was desired, not only by the 
chapter, hot also by the King. The Pope readily con- 
sented, and on 10 April 1224 issued a bull directed 
to the Bishop of Caithness, the Abbot of Einloes, and 
the Dean of Boss, empowerinff them to make the desired 
change if they should see nt ; and these dietaries, 
having met at Elfin on 19 July 1224, 'appointed 
the said church of the Holy Trinity to be the cathedral 
church of the diocese of Moray, and so to remain in all 
time coming;' and on the same day the foundation- 
stone of the cathedral was laid with all due pomp and 
ceremony. Bishop Andrew de Moravia lived for eighteen 
yeara after, and therefore carried the buildine far towards 
completion, if he did not, as is most likely, actually 
finisn it Of this firat buildine probably now little, if 
any, part is left, for it is recor^a by Fordun under the 
year 1270, that the cathedral of Elgin and the houses of 
the canons were burned, whether by acddent or design 


lie does not say. Part of the walls of the S transept 
Beems somewhat different in stmctnre and design from 
the rest of the huilding, and may possibly belong to the 
earlier building. The ruins now standing probably then 
date from a period immediately subsequent to this, and 
then arose that grand structure which the Ghartulary of 
Moray describes as the ' mirror of the oonntiy and the 
glory of the kingdom ; ' which Bower in his continua- 
tion of Fordun calls ' the glory of the whole land ; ' 
which Buchanan terms ' the most beautiful of all whidi 
then existed in Scotland ; ' and of which, in still later 
times, Mr Billings has written that for size and orna- 
ment, as ite lovely and majestic fragmente still indicate, 
it must have been unmatehed. Stetely as it was, it was 
doomed to still farther misfortune, for in 1890 it was 
again destroyed and burned by the Earl of Badenoch, 
Alexander Stewart, son of Robert 11. , and best known 
as the Wolf of Badenoch. The Wolf having seized 
some of the church lands in Badenoch was excommuni- 
cated, and in his ire descended on the low country in 
1890, and in May burned the town of Forres with the 
choir of the church and the manse of the archdeacon. 
In June he followed this up by coming to Elgin and 
burning a considerable part of the town of £1^, the 
church of St Giles, the Hospitid of Maison Dieu, the 
official residences of the clergy in the chanonry, and the 
cathedral itself. This sacrilegious outburst of the Earl 
of Badenoch and his 'wyld, wykked Heland-men,' as 
Wyntoun calls them, was too great to be overlooked, 
even though the aggressor was the King's son, and 
Bishop Bur sent a very plaintive appeal to the King for 
aid and reparation, and the Wolf was at last compelled 
to yield, when * on condition that he should make satis- 
faction to the bishop and church of Moray, and obtain 
absolution from the Pope,' he was absolved by the 
Bishop of St Andrews m the Blackfriars Church at 
Perth. In spite of the old sge and feebleness of Bishop 
Bur, be pressed on the rebuiMing of the church energeti- 
cally, and this was continued by his successors. Bishops 
Spynie and Innes, and even at the death of the latter 
the structure was not finished, for at the meeting of 
chapter held to elect his successor, the canons agreed 
that whichever of them was elected bishop, should 
appropriate a third of the revenues of the See for build- 
ing purposes, until the cathedral was completed. Mr 
Bulixigs thinks that the amount of destruction caused by 
the Wolf of Badenoch was very mu(^ overrated ; ' the 

Eointed arches,' he says, ' and their decorations are a 
vin^ testimony that ne had not so ruthlessly carried 
out the work of destruction ; and there is every reason 
to believe that the portions which have since gradually 
crumbled away are tne inferior workmanship of the 15tn 
and 16th centuries, while the solid and solemn masonry 
of the ISth still remains.' The immense amount of 
destruction accomplished, however, may be best esti- 
mated when we consider the long period during which 
the reconstruction had to be carried on — for the Wolfs 
raid was in 1890, and Bishop Innes died in 1414, and 
the rebuilding was not then completed ; and this not- 
withstanding the fact that the See was a wealthy one, 
and that no doubt a considerable portion of the revenue 
was devoted to the building. Even as it was some of 
the work does not seem to nave been very good, for in 
1506 the great central tower which stood at the inter- 
section of the nave, choir, and transepte, either fell or 
showed such signs of impending disaster that it had to 
be taken down. It reached to a height of 198 feet 
(including the spire), and must have been a stetely 
structure, for the rebuilding, though begun in 1507, 
was not completed till 1688, and from that time till the 
Reformation the structure remained perfect. In 1568, 
however, the privy council, hard pressed by their 
necessities, appointed the Earl of Huntiy Sheriff of 
Aberdeen and Elgin, with some others, ' to take the lead 
from the cathedral churches of Aberdeen and Elipn, and 
sell the same ' for the maintenance of Regent Moray's 
soldiers. The vessel freighted with the metal had, 
however, scarcely left the narbour of Aberdeen onr her 
way to Holland, where the plunder was to be sold, 


when she sank with all her caivo. From that time 
onward the cathedral, on which so much care and 
thought had been spent, was long left exposed to the 
ravages of wind and weather. &. 1687 tne rafters of 
the cnoir, which had been stending without cover, were 
blown down, and in 1640 Gilbert Ross, minister of 
Elgin, ' with the assistance of the young laird of Innes, 
the laird of Brodie, and others, all ardent Covenanters,' 
broke down the carved screen and woodwork inside, and 
destroyed it In the presbytery records it is minuted 
on 24 Nov. 1640 that 'that day Mr Gilbert Ross 
regreatted in Presbyterie the imsgerie in the rood loft 
of the Chanrie Elirk, yerfor the moderator and the said 
Mr Gilbert was appointed to speak to my Lord of 
Murray for demolishmgyrof.' The 'demolishing' was 
carried out on 28 Dec, and Spalding, who records the 
circumstance, tells also that the minister was anxious 
to use the timber for firewood, but that every night the 
kindlmg log went out, and so the attempt was given 
up. The tracery of the W window is said to have been 
destroyed between 1650 and 1660 by a party of Crom- 
well's soldiers. The waUs remained pretty entire down 
to 1711, when on Easter Sunday the foundations of the 
great central tower gave way, and the structure falling 
to the westwiu^, deSroyed the whole of the nave of the 
building and part of the transepts. The mass of rubbisli 
became at once a ' prey to every needy adventurer in 
want of stones to btuld a dyke, a bam, or a byre,' till 
1807, when, through the exertions of Mr Joseph Kins 
of Newnull, a waU was built round the churchyard, and 
a keeper's house was erected. In 1816 the attention of 
the Barons of the Exchequer, who claim the walls and 
all the area within as belonffing to the Crown, was 
called to the ruinous stete of the ouildings, which have 
been from that time onwards most diligently cared for 
by the Crown authorities. Some idea of the former 
condition of things may be formed when it is remem- 
bered that John Shanks, the first keeper, who was 
appointed to superintend the ruins in 1825, cleared out 
and disposed of 8000 barrow-loads of rubbish. 

Like all the churches of the time, the cathedral 
stood E and W, and had the form of a Jerusalem or 
Passion Cross. The principal entrance was at the W 
end, between two lofty square towers. On each side 
of tiie nave was a double aisle. The aisle on the S side 
of the chancel, which is known as St Mary's aisle, is 
stiH pretty entire, and so is the chapter-house, which 
stands near the angle between the a transept and the 
chancel. The great centre tower rose at the intersection 
of the nave, choir, and transepts. The western towers, 
which are still pretty entire, rise to the height of 84 
feet The communication between the different floors 
was by means of circular steirs in one of the angles in 
each tower. The great entrance is in the wall between, 
and consiste of a finely carved pointed arch, 24 feet 
high, which again divides into two pointed doorways. 
The ornamented space between, at the top, is said to 
have contained a stetue of the Virgin, and the other 
niches may have been for stetues of some of the sainte. 
Above this is the great pointed western window, 28 feet 
high, which must at one time have been filled with 
elaborate tracery, but so completely did Cromwell's men 
do their work, that of this now not a scrap remains. 
The great gateway 1b entered by a flight of steps, and 
leads to the nave, where the numerous and splendid 
processions used to teke place, while the multitudes who 
witnessed them were present in the aisles at the sides, 
which were separated from the nave by rows of stetely 
pillars risinc up to support the roof. Pillars and roof 
are now alike gone, ana only the bases of the former 
remain. Between the nave and the choir, where the 
rites were performed, stood the pillars that supported 
the walls of the great central tower, and on eacn side 
were the transepts. The choir extended eastward to the 
high altar, beyond which was the Lady Chapel. The S 
aisle and transept were dedicated to St reter and St Paul, 
and the N aisle to St Thomas k Becket, the martyr. 
The crossing was separated frt)m the choir by a screen, 
on the E side of which was a painting representing 



tbe D\j of Judgmenty and on the W was a representa- 
tion of the Cracifixion. This was destroyed in 1646, 
as has been idready noticed, by some zealous Beformers. 
Spalding records it as very wonderful, that although the 
screen had been standing exposed to the weather from 
the time of the Reformation, ' and not a whole window 
to save the same from storm, snow, sleet, and wet,* yet 
the painting ' was so excellently done tibat the colours 
and stars had never faded, but Kept whole and sound.' 
Some remains of i>aintinff may still be traced on the 
arch of the recess in St Mary s aisle, over the statue 
of Bishop John Winchester, who died in 1458. The 
high altar stood on the spot now occupied by the 
granite monument to the Bev. Lachlan Shaw, one of the 
ministers of the parish, and the first historian of the 
province of Moray. The altar was reached by an ascent 
of three steps, and must have been very strongly li^^hted, 
as the eastern gable immediately behind is pierced by two 
rows of slender lancet -headea windows, with five in 
each row, and these are again surmounted by the 
circular eastern window. The choir and the nave were 
also lighted by a double row of windows with pointed 
arches, the lower range being the largest, and both tiers 
ran along the whole extent of the cnurch. The stone- 
work intervening between the windows on both tiers 
was constructed so as to form a corridor round the 
whole building. The windows were filled with richly 
tinted glass, fragments of which have beeoi found 
amongst the ruins. The chapter-house, attached to 
the northern cloister, is extremely elegant. It is later 
in style than the other parts of the building, and was 
probably built during the incumbency of one of the 
Bishop Stewarts, of wnom there were three, in the latter 
part of the 15th century. At all events, there are on 
the roof three Stewart coats of arms. It is an octa^n 
with an elaborately groined roof. The groins sprmg 
firom the axijgles, meet at fine bosses, and again separate 
to reunite in the centre in the great ' Prentice ' FiUar, 
which is 9 feet in circumference, and is a very beautiful 
specimen of the workmanship of the period. One side 
of the octagon is occupied by the door, and each of the 
other seven is pierced by a large window. In the 
interior, over the doorway, are five niches — a row of four 
and one by itself over. The four are said to have held 
statues of the four evangelists, while the solitary one 
above contained a figure of the Saviour, but this seems 
doubtful. Opposite the doorway is the niche reached 
by steps, where the throne of the bishop was placed, 
and the space on either side was occupied by the stalls 
of the dignitaries who sat in council with him. The 
chapter-house is richly ornamented with sculptured 
figures, and it now also contains grotesque heaos and 
various other fragments of carving, which have been 
found in clearing out the ruins. It is like all the 
choice portions of the ecclesiastical buildings of the 
Middle Ages, known as the 'Apprentice Aisle,' having 
been built, according to the c^ous but hackneyed 
legend, by an apprentice in the absence of his master, 
who from envy of its excellence murdered him on his 
return — a legend so general (See Roslin) that probably 
it never applied to any cathedral in particmar, but 
originated in the mysticisms of those incorporations of 
Freemasona who in the Middle Ages traversed Europe, 
furnished with ^pal bulls, and ample privileges to 
train proficients m the theory and practice of masonry 
and architecture. On the E side of the entranoe to the 
chapter-house is a small dark chamber which was used 
as a lavatory. It has an interesting association with 
General Anderson, who left the fortune with which the 
institution at the E end of the town, now known as 
Anderson's Institution, was built, for the stone basin 
here was his cradle. The dimensions of the cathedral 
are as follows : — length from E to W, including towers, 
289 feet; breadth of nave and side aisles, 87 feet; 
breadth of choir including walls and aisles, 79 feet ; 
length across transepts including walls, 120 feet; 
height of W towers. 84 feet ; hei^t of E turrets, 60 
feet ; heijBfht of middle tower, including spire, 198 feet ; 
height of grand entrance, 24 feet; height of chapter- 


house, 84 feet ; breadth of chapter-house, including 
walls, 87 feet ; height of fl;reat western window, 27 feet ; 
diameter of eastern circular window, 12 feet ; height of 
side walls, 48 feet ; breadth of side aisles, 18 feet. 

The chapter consisted of 22 canons, who resided within 
the chanonry or colle«;e, to the boundary-wall of which 
reference has already been made, and memorials of which 
appear in the names of North College Street and South 
College Street, as well as in the modem mansion-houses of 
North College and South College, the former being the 
residence of the Dean — whose memory is embalmed in 
the adjoining flat along the river known as Deanshaugh, 
and the bend beyond known as Dean's Crook — and the 
latter of the Sub-Dean. Duffus Manse and Unthank 
Manse — ^residences of the canons who were ministers of 
Duffus and Unthank — which stood at the N end of 
King Street, remained till the early part of the present 
century ; the other 18 had disappeared long oefore. 
The canons were chosen from the clergy of the diocese 
and officiated in the cathedral, each receiving for his 
services over and above the revenues of his vicarage in 
the country parish, whence he was chosen, a manse and 
garden in the college, and a portion of land called a pre- 
bendum. The dignified clergy were the Dean, who 
was minister of Auldearn ; the Archdeacon, who was 
minister of Forres ; the Chanter, who was minister of 
Alves ; the Treasurer, who was minister of Einneddar ; 
the Chancellor, who was minister of Inveraven; 
the Sub-Dean, who was minister of Dallas; and 
the Sub-Chanter, who was mimster of Bafford. The 
Bishop had civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical courts and 
officers, and his power witliin his diocese — ^which com- 
prehended the present counties of Moray and Nairn, and 
part of those of Aberdeen, Banff, and Inverness — ^was 
almost supreme. The first Bishop of Moray on record 
is Gregory, who held the See in the reign of Alexander 
I. and the beginning of that of David I. There were 28 
Roman Cathouc and 8 Protestant Bishops — ^the last of the 
former being Patrick Hepburn, an unde of the notori- 
ous Earl of Bothwell. The Bishop's town residence, or 
the Bishop's Palace, as it is commonly called, stands 
dose to tne SW comer of the enclosing-wall of the 
cathedraL The northern part is supposed to have been 
erected by Bishop John Innes about 1406, but besides 
his initiaJs it bears also the arms of one of the bishops 
of the name of Stewart, probably David. The S wing 
was built b^ Bishop Patrick Hepburn, and bears his 
arms and initials, with the date 1557. Soon after the 
Reformation it was granted by the Crown to Alexander 
Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, who lived a considerable time 
in it, and from whom it got the name of Dunfermline 
House. Probably the Bisnops never lived much in it, 
as they had their prindpal residence at Spykis Castle. 

The revenues of the oishopric were no doubt at first 
very limited, but by the bounty of successive kings, 
nobles, and private individuals, they afterwards became 
very ample. King William the Lyon was a libend donor. 
At a very early period he granted to the See the tentii 
of all his returns from Moray. Grants of forests, lands, 
and fishings were also made by Alexander II., David 
II., and other sovereijpis, besides the Earls of Moray, 
Fife, etc. The rental for the year 1568, as taken by the 
steward of the bishop, was £1649, 7s. 7d. (Scots), besides 
a variety of artides paid in kind. At this period, how- 
ever, the revenue had been greatly dilapidated, particu- 
larly by Bishop Hepbum, and a large proportion of the 
church lands had been alienated, the rail rents were not 
stated, and probably the rental then given did not 
amount to a third of the actual income in the flourishing 
period of the bishopric. The estates with the patronages 
bdonging to the bishop remained vested in the Crown 
from the Reformation till 1590, when James YI. as- 
signed them to Alexander Xandny, a son of the Earl 
of Crawford, and grandson of CJardinal Beaton, for 
payment of 10,000 gold crowns which he had lent to 
Ids Majesty when in Denmark, Lindsay beins at the 
same time created Baron Spynie. The King afterwards 
prevailed on Lord Spynie to resign the lanas in order 
that they might be appropriated to the use of the Pro- 

testant bUhops of Mon^, bat the lighta of patroos^ 
mnkined witb tbe Spynie funi^ till ita eztinction m 
1671, wheD they were reaaanmed by the Crown u uUi- 
vau R^erea. They ware granted by chartei' in 1874 to 
James, Earl of Airlis, by whom the; were disponed to 
the Uarquia of Huntly u 1682. 

The burying-Krouitd about the cathedral contaiiu 
numy quaint and emioiU' monumentB, the inscriptions 
on Bome of the 17th and 18th century stonas being 
particnkrly noteworthy. On one dated 1777 a hna- 
Mnd racorda of his wife that— 

• Shs wu ramiulubis for 
Exact, Pnidant, OADMe] Booflomy ; 
Beadr, Equl Good Senn ; 
A OiHuUat flow ol cheartDi ^ilht* ; 

m •wMtoan at nalonl temper ; 

And he adila that ' strict justice demsnds this tribnte to 
her memory.' On another, with the date 1687, ara foni 
very pointed lines — 

■ Thti watid Is a (SUe fnll ol itreeti, 
And doth li Uia uunat that all man meeli, 

II Ijta wera a thing that moDie amid bo;. 

The poor oonld doI live and ths rich woold not die.' 

The stone coffin near tbe S entrance ie said to have con- 

the bniial-plsce of the GiordoD family, the tomb in the 
E end being that of the first Earl of Huntly (date 1170). 
The bine slab in the NW comer marlcs the borial-ploce 
of some of the bishops, and the great bine slab in the 
chanc«l, close by, marhs the grave of BiehopAndrew de 
llotavia, the founder of the cathedral. The nanite 
monument to the Bev. Lachlan Shaw has been already 
mentioned. In a line with the wall of the chanc»l and 
of the N transept is an old Celtic pillar which woe fomid 
in 1823 aboDt 2 feet below the surtscs of the High Street, 
Dou tbe ute of old St Gilee Church. Itu S feet 
long, H broAd, and 1 thick, but is evidently incomplete. 
On the obverse is a hontmg party with men, horses, 
and hawks, and, on the reverse, is a cross covei^ with 
m-called ^mic knots, and figiuea in the attitude of 


^application. The arms of Elgin are Saint OHea in a 
pastond habit holding a book iu his right band and 
a pastoral staff in his left The motto is Sic itvr ad 

The new parish church which st«nds iu the centre of 
High Street is one of the moat elwtnt itmctnree in the 
aorth of Scotland. It was erected in IS28 at a coet of 
nearly £10,000. The length, iucludins walls, is 96 feet, 
the brssdth QO}, and the neight from floor to ceiling is 
31 feet It has at the W end a spacious portico, oom- 
posed of six masEUVB Doric fluted colnmns, snrmonnted 
by a pediment At the E end ia a tower, wiUi clock and 
beUa. The lower part of tbe tower is square, the npper 
areolar, with aiz fine Coriuthiau pillarB, with a (lightly 
doma-ahaped loof, and b finiah Tbe whole riaea to 

a height of 112 feet ; and the upper part ia a copy of 
the Choiftgic monument of LydciBtee. There ia aitong 
accommodation for ahont 2000, There are two Free 
churches, two ITnited Presbyterian churches, an Epis- 
copal church, a Roman Catbolic church, a Congrega- 
tional church, a Baptist chatiel, and a bnilding m uie 
occupation of the Plymonth Brethren. Each of ^e Free 
churches haa a misaiou hall or children's church in con- 
uectloii with it The Assembly Rooms, at the comer 
of High Street and North Street, were erected by the 
Trinity Lodge of Freemasons in 1821. They contain a 
large ball-room and supper-room. There is a public 
subscription reading-room on the groond-floor. TbeElgin 
Club (1868) has a fine bnilding in Commerce Street, with 
reading-room, billiard -room, and cajd-rooms. Near the 
' Little Croea ' Is the Museum, belonging to the Elgin 
Literary and Scientific Asaociatiou. It contains a nnmber 
of interesting and curious objects, and among the foeaila 
&om the rocka of the neighbourhood are some specimena 
BO rare that they are to be seen nowhere else. The Elgin 
Institution, at the E end of the t<iwn, wss erected and 
endowed in 1882, from funda, amonnting to £70,000, 
bequeathed for the maintenance of aged men and women, 
and the maintenance and education of poor or orphan 
boya or girls, by Lieut -General Andrew Andeiaon (1746- 
1621), who was dodled in the stone basin in the lavatory 
of the cathedral, and who rose from the poaition of a private 
soldier to the rank of Msjor-General in the Honourable 
East India Company's service. The style of the bnilding 
is Grecian, and there ia a central circoUr bell-tower and 
dome. Over the principal entrance to the N is a sculp- 
tured group, representing the founder, with one baud be- 
stowing bread on an aged woman, and with the other hold- 
ing a hook before a boy and girL There is accommodation 
provided for GO children and 10 aged persona. The mon- 
Bgeinentiacarriedonbyahon*egoveTnoT,afeinale teacher, 
and a matron. On iMving the inatitution at the age of 
fouiteen, theboyaareapprenticedto any tndeor occupa- 
tion they may deaiie, and durinx their apprenticeahip 
have a yearly allowance. Attached to the institution is a 
free achool loi the education of children whose parents, 
thoneh in narrow circnmstanoss, are etiU able to maintain 
and clothe them. Standing at the oppoaite end of the 
tows, Qray'a Hospital ia another memorial of the munifi. 
cence of Elgin's aoua. It waa built and endowed from 
a fund of £26,000, left by Dr Alexander Gray (17S1- 
1808), a native of Elgin, who had acquired a large fortune 
while in the service of the Esst India Company. The 
bo^bkl ia intended for the relief of the sick poor of the 
town and connty of Elgin. Tbe building is a handsome 
erection, in tbe Grecian style, with a projecting portico 
of Doric eolnmns on the eastern front, and a central 
dome which is seen for a long distance round. It forms 
a fine termination for High Street on tbe W. There ia 
a resident physicisn, and two of the doctors in town vlait 
the building daily. Immediately to the W of the hos- 
pital is the Elgin District Lunatic Asylum. It wsa 
origiuslly built by voluntuy assessment in 1881, but 
waa greatly enlarged and improved in 1866, when it 
mssed into the charge of the Lunacy Board. The Burgh 
Court-House (1811) and County Bnildingi (1889) stand 
on the S aide of Hish Street a short diatance W from the 
Little Cross. Both buildings ti« Italiau in atyle, the 
fomier being very plain, while the latter has rusticated 
work along the lower part The centre pntjects, and ha^ 
eight Ionic colnmna, with frieze and comics. The court- 
room is 80 feet by 10. There are offices for the procurator- 
fiscal, the county-clerk, the tonn-clerk, and the ahariff- 
derk, as well as a room for Council meetings. There are 
two woollen monufactoriee cloae to the town — one at the 
Eend^Newmill, and the other in BishopmtU. The chief 
texturea made are plaids, tweeds, kerseys, and donbla- 
cloths. There is a brewery immedistely to the E of the 
cathedral. There is a flonr-mill at.Eingamills cloae by, 
and also a saw-mill ; and there ia a large saw-mill further 
to the 8, near the Morayshire railway station. There 
are large nuiaeriea at both ends of the town ; and there 
is also a ton-work near the Losaie, on the N aids. There 
ia a gas supply and a water supply by gravitation, both 


now under the charge of the corporation. There is a 
market company, established in 1850, with buildings 
comprisinff a fish, beef, and vegetable market, a com 
market hall, and a concert hall, wnich is let for concerts, 
lectures, and theatrical entertainments. There are a branch 
of the Bible Society, a literary and scientific association, 
two mason lodges, several cricket clubs, a curling club, 
a bowling club owning a fine bowling green, a boating 
dub, a foottall dub, and a horticultural society. There 
are six incorporated trades — the hammermen, the 
clovers, the tailors, the shoemakers, the weavers, and 
the square-wrights. Besides the Bied-House or Alms 
House already mentioned, there are a number of other 
charitable funds and mortifications. The Guildry divides 
an income of upwards of £400 a year for the benefit of 
decayed brethren, and of the widows and children of 
deceased members. The Guildiy Sodetv also mana^ 
the Braco and Laing's Mortifications. Tnere is a chari- 
table fund connected with the Incorporated Trades. 
There are a number of these trusts under the kirk-ses- 
S^on, the chief being Petrie's ; and a number under the 
management of the corporation, the chief being the 
Auch^ Mortification. Tnc Academy stands in Academy 
Street, near the centre of the town. There is a ' general 
school,' mentioned in the Hegistrum Moraviense as early 
as 1489 ; and this was no doubt the same as the mmmar 
school which we find mentioned in 15S5, and which was 
then under the jurisdiction of the magistrates. In 1594 

Eart of the funoB arising from Mdison DUu were granted 
y the Crown for the support of a master to teach music, 
and a 'sans school' was established. The old grammar 
school stood near the top of Commerce Street, which was 
long known as the School Wynd. The schools were 
united when the present buildings were erected in 1800. 
The Academy was one of the eleven high-class schools 
scheduled in the Education Act of 1872, and then passed 
from the management of the Town Council to tnat of 
the School-Board. There are four masters for respec- 
tively, classics, mathematics, English, and modem 
lansruages. Bishopmill public, Elgin girls' public, West 
End public, Anderston's Free, and a Roman Catholic 
school, with res^tive accommodation for 178, 415, 200, 
255, and 140 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 123, 298, 195, 195, and 77, and grants of £106, 4s. 6d., 
£252, 13s., £196, 3s. 6d., £170, 9s., and £58, 19s. 6d. 
There is also a private dav school for boys and girls ; and 
three ladies' boarding and day schools are well attended. 
Elgin has a head post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telesraph de^rtments, branches of 
the Bank of ScoUand and tne British Linen Co., Cale- 
donian, Commensal, North of Scotland, Royal, and Union 
Baiiks, a National Securities Savings' Bank, offices or 
agendes of 48 insurance companies, 5 notels, and 1 news- 
paper — Ths Elgin Courant and Cotmer (1827), published 
every Tuesday and Friday. The chief courts for the 
county are held at Elgin. A weekly market is held on 
Friday. Cattle markets are held fortnightly on the second 
and last Friday of every month. Feeinjg markets are held 
on the last Fnday of March for married farm servants, 
on the Friday before 26 May, on the last Fridiw of July 
for harvest hands, and the Friday before 22 November. 
There is a considerable trade in grain. Coaches run 
on Tuesday and Friday to Garmouth and Eingston-on- 

Elgin unites with Banff and Macduff, Cullen, Inverurie, 
Kintore, and Peterhead to form the Elgin Burghs, which 
district returns one member to Paruament (always a 
Liberal since 1837). The Corporation consists of a pro- 
vost, 4 bailies, and 12 councillors. The revenue of the 
burgh was £715 in 1832, £835 in 1860, £803 in 1870, 
and £762 in 1881. Under the Lindsay Act, the Town 
Council act as Police Commissioners, and under a 
special Road Act for the county and burgh, they act as 
Road Trustees for the burgh. "Hie police force is separate 
from the county, and consists of a superintendent, a 
seigeant, and 4 constables. The municipal comstitu- 
ency was 272 in 1854, 750 in 1875, and 921 in 1882 ; 
while the parliamentary constituency was 756 in 1875, 
and 930 m 1882. Annual value of real property 


(1815) £2435, (1845) £9031, 17s., (1872) £22,438, (1881) 
£30,297, 18s. 6d., plus £781 for raUways. Pop. of 
the royal bux^h (1831) 4493, (1861) 6403, (1871) 6241, 
(1881) 6286 ; of the parliamentary burgh (1861) 7543,. 
(1871) 7340, (1881) 7413, of whom 3257 were males and 
4156 females. Houses (1881) 1396 inhabited, 44 vacant, 
25 building. 

See Shaw's History of the Provinee qf Moray (Edinb. 
1775; new ed., Ekm, 1827; 8d ed., Glasgow, 1882);. 
YouiL^'s Armala of Elgin (Elgin, 1879) ; Sinclair's Elgin 
(Loud. 1866) ; Taylor's Edtoard L in the North of Scot- 
land (Elgin, 1858); Watson's Morayshire Described 
(El^, 1868) ; and the Registrwm. Episeopatus Moravi- 
ensts (edited for the Bannatyne Club by Cosmo Innes, 
Edinb. 1837). 

Elgtn, New, a villsfe, with a public school, in Elgin 
parish, just beyond the municipal boundary of the city, 
3 furlongs S by E of the station. Pop. (1861) 520, (1871> 
559, (1881) 625. 

Elginshire or Horaj, a maritime county on tho 
southem shore of the Moray Firth, forming the central 
division of the old Province of Moray. It used formerly 
to consist of two separate though not widely detached 
parts, a portion of Inverness-shire having, by one of 
those zig-zu^ arrangements that may be trsMsed back to- 
the days of feudal jurisdiction, got between the two 
portions. In 1870, however, by 'The Inverness and 
Elgjm County Boundaries Act,' a part of the united 

ishes of (>omdale and Inverallan, induding the vil- 
of Grantown, was transferred from Invemess to 
I, and portions of the parishes of Abemethy and 
Duthil from Elgin to Inverness. The population of the 
former district was (1861) 3377 ; and of the latter in the 
same year 2750, so that Elginshire gained somewhat in 
population by the change. The new arrangement has 
proved in many ways advantageous, and has rendered 
the county more compact. Eiffinshire is bounded on 
the N by the Moray Firth, on the E and SE by Banff- 
shire, on the S and SW by Inverness-shire, and on tho 
W by Naimshire; and on the centre of the western 
border it surrounds two small detached portions of the 
latter county. Its greatest length from NE to SW, 
from Lossiemouth to Dulnan Bridge in Strathspey, is 
34 miles; its greatest breadth from E to W, from 
Bridce of Haughs near Keith to Macbeth's Hillock 
on tne Hardmuir to the W of Forres, is 29) miles. 
The coast -line along the shore at high -water mark 
measures 30 miles, and a straight line from the mouth 
of the Spey on the E to the sea near Maviston sand- 
hills on the W measures 26 miles. The total area, 
according to the Ordnance Survey, and inclusive of 
inland waters and foreshores, is 312,378*810 acres. 
Roughly speaking, the county forms a sort of triangle, 
with a sharp apex to the NW, and somewhat blunt 
comers to the S and NE, and in this triangle the 
northern and western sides measure 25 miles, and the 
south-eastern side somewhat more — all the measure- 
ments being in straight lines. Over 25 miles of the 
accurate boundary on the^E is traced by the river Spey, 
and over 24 on the W by the watershed along the north- 
eastern prolongation of the Monadhliath Mountains; 
but everywhere else, except along the Moray Firth, the 
boundary is purely artificial Starting from the NE 
comer the boundary-line follows the pnndpal channel 
of the Spey for the time beinff for about 2 miles, and 
then strikes south-eastward through Gordon Castlo^ 
part of which is in Elginshire and part in Banffshire — 
till it reaches Bridge of Haughs about | mile to the W 
of Keith. It then skirts the S side of the Highland 
railway to near Mulben station, where it tums abruptly 
away to the S, and takes in a part of the long slojie 
of Ben Aigan. Returning to the Highland railway, it 
skirts the N side of the une as far as the bridge over 
the Spey. From this point it follows the course of 
the Spey for many miles up as far as Inveraven church, 
when it leaves the river, and takes in a part of Inveraven 
parish, measuring about 2) miles by 1 mile, passes back 
along the river Aven, and again up the Spey for a mile. 
It then strikes to the SW along the watershed of the 

Cromdale Hills, bat letnms to the Spey about 2 miles 
4lae E of GrantowB, and keeps to tne river as far as 
DnlnaB Bridge. It then turns up the Dulnan for 
about a mile, and from that point proceeds in a direction 
more or less northerly (not taking minor irregularities 
into account), until it reaches the Moray Firth about 5 
miles W of the mouth of the river nndhom. The 
lower part of the county is flat, and remarkable for its 
amenity of climate, high cultivation, and beauty of 
landscape, in which respects it holds the highest position 
in the northern lowlands. The only exception is a part 
between the mouth of the Findhom and the western 
boundary, which is covered by a mass of sand constantly 
in motion in the slightest breeze of ^vind, and known as 
tiie Culbin Sands. Culbin was at one time almost the 
richest and most fertile part of the county, but now 
some 8600 acres are little better than an arid waste. 
In 1693 the rental was worth what might be represented 
by £6000 of our present money, but in 1694 or 1695 
sand began to blow in from the shore, and rapidly 
overwhemied the whole district. From the Findhom 
eastward to Buighead, the tract along the coast Ib also 
barren and sandy, and from Lossiemouth eastward to 
the mouth of the Spey there are a series of great gravel 
ri^gee formed from the boulders brought down by the 
Spey, which have been in the course of ages carried 
westward by the inshore current, and thrown up by the 
sea. Tlie district adjoining the coast along the parishes 
of Urquhart, St Andrews- Lhanbryd, Drainie, Dufifus, 
Spynie, Alves, Einloss and Dyke, and Moy Ib rich and 
feitUe with heavy loam and strong clay soils, and is so 
flat that it might be mistaken for a porti6n of England 
set down there by accident. High wooded ridges run- 
ning through Alves, Elgin, and St Andrews-Lhanbryd 
separate this from another flat district, not, however, of 
so great extent as the last, nor so level, extending 
through Speymouth, Elgin, and Forres, and sweeping 
up to the » to the beginning of the hill country, wnich 
occupies the S part of the county, where the land is 
mostly covered with heather and given over to grouse 
and the red deer, and where cultivation, when carried 
on at idl, is under much harder conditions of soil and 
climate than in the rich and fertile ' Laich of Moray.' 
There are, however, along the courses of all the streams 
numerous, though small, flats or haughs of great fer- 
tility. The sou of the arable lands of the county may 
be classified under the general names of sand, clay, 
loam, and reclaimed moss. Sand, or a light soil m 
which sand predominates, extends, with inconsiderable 
exceptions, over the eastern half of the lowlands, or 
most of Speymouth, Urquhart, St Andrews-Lhanbr^d, 
and Drainie, the eastern part of Spynie, part of El^, 
and the lower lands of Bimie and Dallas. A clay soil 
prevails throughout Duffus and Alves, part of Spynie, 
and small stnps in the sandy district. A loamy soil 
covers extensive tracts in Duffus, Alves, and Spynie, 
and. nearly the whole of Kinloss, Forres, Dyke, the 
Jower lands of Rafibrd and Edenkillie, and the alluvial 
grounds of the highland straths. A day loam covers a 
oonsiderable part of Enockando. Moss, worked into a 
condition of tillage, occurs to a considerable extent in 
Eno<^ndo, and in strips in the flat dislricts in the low 
situations. It is superincumbent on sand, and is so 
peculiar in quality as to emit, on a hot day, a sulphureous 
smell, and to strongly affect the colour and formation of 
of rising grain : it occurs also on the flats and slopes of 
the lower hills of the uplands, peaty in quality, but 
corrected by the admixture of sand. The far extending 
upland regions are prevailing moss and heath. 

Though the low district luis a northern exposure, the 
climate is so nuld that the hardier kinds of fruit-— all 
the varieties of the apple, and most of the varieties of 
the pear and the plum — ^may, with very little attention, 
be grown abunduitly ; and fruits of greater delicacy — 
the apricot, the nectarine, and the peach — ^ripen suffi- 
ciently on a wall in the open air. The wind blows from 
some point near the W during about 260 days in the 
year, and in summer it is for the most part a gentle 
breeze, coming oftener from the S than from the a side 


of the W. Winds from the NW or IJ ceneraily bnng 
the heaviest and longest rains. The district has no 
hills sufficiently elevated to attract the douds while 
they sail from the mass of mountains in the S towards 
the heighte of Sutherland. The winter is singularly 
mild, and snow lies generally for only a very brief 
period. In the upland districte rain feJls to the amount 
of 5 or 6 inches more than the mean depth in the low 
country, and there the seasons are often ooisterous and 
severe, and unpropitious weather delays and, by no 
means seldom altogether, defies the efforte of the former. 
Rather more than half the county is drained by 
the Spey and ite tributariea Of the latter the most 
important are the Aven and the Dulnan, neither of 
which have, however, more than a very small portion 
of their course within the county. The middle part of 
the county is drained by the river Lossie. It rises near 
the centre of the upper part of the shire, and has a very 
sinuous course in a general north-easterly direction, till 
it enters the sea at Lossiemouth. Ite principal tribu- 
taries are the Lochty or Black Bum, the Bum of Glen 
Latterich, and the Bum of Shoffle. The westem part 
is drained by the Findhom and ite tributaries. The 
whole course of the Findhom is veiy beautiful and 
picturesque, till it expands, near the mouth, into the 
open sheet of Findhom Loch or Findhom Bay. There 
is at the mouth, between the village of Findhom and 
the Culbin Sands, a dangerous and much-dreaded bar. 
The principal tributaries are the Divie and the Dorbock. 
The latter issues from Lochindorb, and flows paralld 
to the westem boundary of the county, at a distence of 
about a mile, along a course of about 10 miles, when, 
after uniting with the Divie, the streams fall into the 
Findhom near Belugas. The principal lochs are — Loch- 
indorb, which lies among tne mountains, near the 
point where Elgin, Kaim, and Inverness unite. It is 
2^ miles long and 6 furlongs broad at the widest 
part. The Loch of Spynie, now only 5 furlongs long 
by 1} furlong wide, was formerly an extensive lake 
3 miles long and { mile wide, but by the drainage 
operations carried on from time to time between 1779 
and 1860, the whole of the loch was drained except- 
ing a mere pool a little to the W of the old Castle 
of Spynie. The present sheet of water has been re- 
formed by the proprietor of Pitgaveny. Loch-na-Bo 
(4 X li furL) lies 1 mile to the SE of the village of 
Lhanbryd. It contains a large number of excdlent 
trout. The banks are prettily wooded, though up to 
1778 the surrounding tract was merdy a barren heathy 
moor. There are a number of chalybeate springs in the 
county, but none of them are at all distinguished for 
their medicinal properties. The surface of the county 
rises ^dually from N to S, the ridges getting higher 
and higher till between Creag-an-Tarmachan and the 
Cromdale Hills, a height of 2328 feet is atteined. The 

Srindpal elevations going from E to W and from N to 
are Findlay Seat (1116 feet), Eildon or Heldun Hill 
(767), Hill of the.Wangie (1020), Knock of Braemory 
(1498), James Roy's Caim (1691), Caim-an-Loin (1797), 
Craig Tiribeg (1586), Cam Sgriob (1590), Creag-an-Bi^ 

Geology, — ^The geology of the Morayshire plain has 
^ven rise to considerable controversy. For a time 
indeed, the a^ of the reptlliferous sandstones N of the 
town of Elgm was one of the most keenly disputed 
pointe in Scottish geology. They had been classed for 
many years with the Old Red Sandstone formation ; but 
when Professor Huxley announced in 1858 that the 
Elgin reptiles had marked affinities with certein Triassic 
forms, geolo^te began to waver in this belief. The 
subsequent discovery of the remains of RyperodapecUm — 
a typical Elgin reptile — ^in beds of undoubted Triassic 
age, m England ana in India, caused some of the keenest 
supporters of the old classification to abandon it alto- 
gether. It must be admitted, however, that the strati- 
graphical evidence is far from being satisfactory, owinff 
to the great accumulation of glacial and post-glacial 

The oldest rocks in the county belong to the great 


cmtalline aeries composmg the central Highlfttids, of 
which excellent sections are exposed in the Findhom 
between Conlmony and the Sloie, in the Divie, the 
higher reaches of the Lossie, and in the streams draining 
the western slopes of the yalley of the Spey. They 
consist mainly of alternations of grey micaceous gneiss, 
quartzites, and mica schists, the prevalent type being 
ffneissose ; and with these are associated, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Grantown, an important bed of crystallme 
limestone. In the Findhom basin they form a well- 
marked syncline, extending in a SE direction from the 
bridge of Daltulich to the junction of the Dorbock with 
the Divie. This trend, however, is ouite exceptional, 
for when we pass eastwards to the valleys of the Lossie 
and the Spey, they assume their normal KE and SW 
strike. As the prevalent dip of the strata is towards 
the SE, it is evident that there is a gradually ascending 
series in that direction. In the valley of the Spey they 
plunge underneath the quartzites, which are so weU 
dispulyed at Boat of Bridge, on the slopes of Ben Aigan, 
and at Craigellachie ; and these are overlaid by the 
grand series of schists containing actinolite, andalusite, 
and staurolite that cover wide areas in Banffshire. 

The Old Red Sandstone strata, which come next in 
order, rest on a highly eroded platform of these crystal- 
line rocks. From the manner in which they wind round 
the slopes of the hills formed by the metamorphic series, 
sweeping up the vallevs and mling ancient noUows, it 
is evident that the old land surface must have under- 
gone considerable denudation prior to Old Bed Sandstone 
times. Within the limits of the county there are repre- 
sentatives both of the upper and lower divisions of this 
formation, which differ widely in lithological character 
and organic contents. The members of me lower divi-. 
lion are displayed on the banks of the Spey N of Boat 
of Bridge. At the base there is a coarse brecdated con* 

flomerate, which, though it attains a thickness of about 
00 feet on the right bank of the river, thins away to 
a few feet when traced to the N. This massive con- 
glomerate is overlaid by red sandstones, shales, and 
clays in the neighbourhood of Dipple, and from the 
limestone nodules embedded in l£e shales numerous 
ichthyolites have been obtained. This fossiliferous 
band, commonly known as the fish-bed, forms an im- 

Strtant horizon in the Lower Old Bed Sandstone of the 
oray Firth basin. There can be little doubt that the 
outcrop at Dipple is on the same horizon as the well- 
known bed in the T]niet Bum, about 8 mUes to the 
NE, which is one of the most celebrated localities in 
the North of Scotland for well-preserved ichthyolites. 
Amonffst the species obtained from these localities are 
the following : — CfheiraeaiUhiu Murehiaoni, DiplacanUiMi 
stricUua, (Meolepia major, and OlyptoUpU leptoptenis. 
like the succession in Tynet Bum, the Dipple fish-bed 
is overlaid by coarse conglomerate passing upwards into 
redpebbly sandstones, wnich are well seen at the bridge 
of Fochabers. The sandstones on the left bank of the 
Spey, above the fish-bed have yielded some large speci- 
mens, which are probably fragments of Pteryaottu. 1^ 
fossil, which is cnaracteristic of the Upper Silurian and 
Lower Old Red Sandstone formations, nas been found in 
the flagstones of Forfarshire, Caithness, and Orkney. 
K of the bridge of Fochabers the succession in the Spey 
is obscured b^ alluvial deposits ; but in the Tynet and 
Gollachie sections there is an ascending series to certain 
contemporaneous volcanic rocks, which are of special 
importance, inasmuch as they are the only relics of 
volcanic activity during this period in the Moray Firth 
basin. From the persistent NKW inclination of the 
strata in the Spey and Tynet sections, we would natu- 
rally expect to find the members of ti^e lower division 
extending westwards across the Morayshire plain. But 
with the exception of the great conglomerate filling the 
ancient hollow of the vale of Rothes, which may justly 
be regarded as the equivalent of the conglomerate in 
the Spey, there is no trace of the members of the lower 
division till we pass westwards to Lethen Bar in Nairn- 
riiire. They are overlapped by the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone stratai which sweep up the valleys of the 

Lossie snd the findhom till they xwt dinctly on th» 
metamorphic rocks. In other words, there is in thi» 
area a marked unconformity between the upper and 
lower divisions, which is equally apparent in the county 
of Nairn. The boundary line of the upper division 
extends from Olensheil on the Muckle Bum, eastwards 
by Sluie on the Findhom, thence curving northwards 
round the slope of the Monaughty EQll, and winding up 
the Black Bum as far as Pluscarden Abbey. From this 
point it may be traced eastwards across the Lossie to 
Scaat Craig at the mouth of the Glen of Rothes. In 
the neighbourhood of Dallas there is a small oudier of 
thick-bedded sandstones, which, in virtue of the fish 
scales embedded in them, must be grouped with the 
upper division. 

tiitholosically the Upper Old Red strata are very 
different from the older series. The dominant feature 
of the division is the occurrence of massive grey and 
vellow sandstones, fidl of Mse bedding, with occasional 
layers of conglomerate. Bv far the finest section of 
these strata is exposed on tne Findhom, between Sluie 
and Cothall, where the river has cut a deep gorge 
through them, exposing majpificent cliffs of the mas- 
sive sandstones. They are inclined to the NNW, at 
angles varying from 6"* to lO**, and in the course of 
this section upwards of 1000 feet of strata are exposed. 
At Cothall they pass undemeath a remarkable bed of 
oomstone, containing calcite, arragonite, iron pyrites, 
and chalcedony, which is overlaid on the right bank of 
the river by red marls. By means of small faults, which 
are well seen on the left bank, the comstone is repeated 
towards the N. To the S of Elgin the membera of this 
series are exposed on the Lossie and at Scaat Craig 
where they mive a similar inclination ; but, owing to 
the covering of superficial deposits, no continuous sec- 
tion is visible. At Qlasgreen, near New El^, there is 
a band of comstone cl<Mely resembling that at Cothall 
and apparently occupying me same horizon, which can 
be traced at mtervals in a NE direction to the Boar's 
Head rock on the sea-coast Again, to the N of Elfin, the 
younger series extends alonff the ridge from BishopmiU 
to Alves. They are admirably displayed in the quarries 
at the former locality, where mev nave been extensively 
worked for building purposes. The fossils obtained from 
the Upper Old Red strata consist of fish scales, bones, 
and teisth, and, though by no means plentiful, they have 
been found at various localities. They occur in the 
Whitemyre quanr on the Mnckle Bum, in the Find- 
hom dub, at Alves, in the Bishopmill and Dallas- 
quarries, and affain at Scaat Craig. The last of these 
is most widely known. Here they are embedded in a 
conglomeratic matrix, and show sims of having been 
subjected to aqueous action. The characteristic fossils 
of the upper division are HbloptyMua nobUisrifnus, 
Dendrodus UUuSf D. atriaatuSf and Pteriehthys mmor. 

In the tract of ground lying to the N of the Quarry 
Wood ridge, the strata are met with which have given 
rise to so much controversjr. They consist of pale grey 
and yellow sandstones in wmch the reptilian remains have 
been found, and with these is associated a cherty and 
calcareous band, commonly known as ' the cherty rock 
of Stotfield.' lliis term was first applied to it by the 
Rev. George Gordon, LLD., of Bimie, to whose valu- 
able researehes, extending over half a century, geologists 
are speciallv indebted for the information tiiey possess 
regardinff this district Along with the calcareous por- 
tion of me Stotfield rock there are nodular masses of 
flint, and throughout the matrix, crystals of galena, 
iron pyrites, ana blende are disseminated. Attempts 
have recently been made to work the galena at this 
locality, which have not been attended with success. 
This rock is also exposed at Invemffie and to the S 
of Loch Spynie, where, as at Stotfield, it rests on the 
reptiliferous sandstones. The latter are visible at Spvnie, 
in the Findrassie quarnr, and on the N slope of the 
Quarry Wood. They abo extend along the ridrn be- 
tween Buighead and Lossiemouth, being admirably dis- 
played on the sea-cliffs between these localities. In this 
interesting section one may study to advantage the 

I. I i:n: 

lithological chara^rs of the strata. Indeed tbe false- 
bedded character of the sandstones is so conspicuous 
that it is no easy matter to determine their true dip. 

In endeayoonng to solve the problem of the strati- 
grap^cal position of the beds now referred to, it is of 
the utmost importance to remember that the rqaiiUferous 
acMdstonea are never eeen in eofUad with the strata yields 
ing Upper Old Bed Sandstone JUh-remains, Though thej 
occur near to each other in the neighbourhood of Bishop- 
mSl and the Quarry Wood, there is no continuous section 
showing their physical relations. Along the boundary 
line at these locidities, the strata in both cases dip to 
the NNW, and to all appearance the angle of inclination 
ifi much the same. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, 
that the advocates of the old classification persistently 
maintained the existence of a perfectly conformable pas- 
sage between the Upper Old Ked beds and the reptili- 
ferous sandstones. The two sets of strata have many 
points in common, and were it not for the remarkable 
palffiontological evidence, they might naturally be re- 
garded as members of the same formation. The sugf^ 
tion has been made by Professor Judd, whose contribution 
to the literature of the subject is by far the most valu- 
able which has recently ap^peared, that the reptiliferous 
sandstones are thrown agamst the Upper Old Red beds 
by powerful faults. But no trace of these faults is to 
be seen on the surface along the lines indicated by him, 
save that on the shore at I^ssiemouth, which brings the 
patch of oolitic strata against the cherty rock of Stot- 
neld. Quite recently, however, Mr Linn of H.M. 
Geological Survey has discovered fish scales of Upper 
Old Bed age in flagstones, on the raised beach W of 
Stotfield. These fli^rstones dip to the NNW at a gentle 
angle, and it is possible that they may form part of a 
snuJl ridffe of Upper Old Bed sandstone protruding 
through the younger strata. In that case the reptQi- 
ferous sandstones may probably rest with a gentle un- 
conformity on the older strata. 

The fossils which have invested these beds with special 
importance belong to three species, viz. : StagonoUpie 
Booertaoni, Telerpeton Elginensef and Eyperodapedon 
Ocrdoni. The remains of these reptiles have been 
found in the sandstones at Lossiemouth, at Spynie, and 
in the Findrassie quarry, while in the Cummingston 
sandstones only footprints have been obtained. The 
Stagonol^ns, which, according to recent discoveries, must 
have been about 18 feet long, was a crocodile allied to the 
modem Caiman in form. Its body was protected by 
dorsal and ventral scutes ; and it possessed elongated 
jaws after the manner of existing Gfavials. The TeleT' 
peton and Hyperodapedon were species of lizards, the 
former measuring about 10 inches and the latter about 
6 feet in length. It is interesting to observe that the 
terrestrial li^rd, Telerpeton, differs but little from exist- 
ing forms, thus furnishing a remarkable example of a per- 
sistent type of organisation. The Hyperodaj)edon bears 
a close resemblance to the existing Sphenodon of New 
Zealand. The important discovery of the remains of 
Hyperodapedon in undoubted Triassic strata in War- 
wicKshire, Devonshire, and in Central India ultimately 
led^ologists to regard the reptiliferous sandstones of 
Elgin as of the same age. The paleontolo^cal evidence 
firom the £lgin sandstones is quite in keepmg with this 
conclusion, for in no single instance have reptilian 
remains been found in the same beds with Upper Old 
Bed fishes, though the strata have long been extensively 
quarried, and though careful attention has been paid to 
any indications of organic remains. On the whole, 
then, the evidence bearmg on this long disputed ques- 
ticn seems to be in favour of grouping the reptiliferous 
eand'vtones with the Trias. 

On the shore at Lossiemouth, to the N of the fault 
bounding the cherty rock of Stotfield, a small patch of 
greenish white sanastones occurs, which, from the series 
of fossils obtained by Mr Grant, must be classed wiUi 
the Lower Oolite. 

Throughout the plain of Moray there is a remarkable 
development of glacial and post-glacial deposits. Indeed, 
owing to the great accumulation of these deposits the 


stria left by the ancient glaciers are not readily found. 
A beautiful example, however, occurs on the hiU of 
Alves, where the direction of the marking is £SE, 
which is in keeping with the general trend over the 
plain along the S side of the Moray Firth. The boulder 
clay in the neighbourhood of Elgin, and in fact in the 
upland districto generally, presents the usuid character 
of a tenacious clay with striated stones. It occasionally 
contains intercalated masses of sand and gravel of inter- 

gladal age, indicating considerable climatic chooges 
urin^ that period. A remarkable example occurs on 
the left bank of the Dorbock opposite Glenemey, where, 
in a drift section about 100 feet nigh by aneroid measure- 
ment, three boulder cla3rs are exposed which are separated 
by rudely stratified sands and gravels, the whole series 
being capped by stratified sands and finely laminated 
clays. An important feature connected with the history 
of the glacial deposits in the El^ district is the occur- 
rence of numerous blocks containing secondary fossils. 
They occur in the boulder clay, and they are likewise 
strewn over the surface of the ground. From an examina- 
tion of the fossils it is evident that the boulders belong to 
the horizons of the Lower and Middle Lias, the Oxford 
clay, and the Upper chalk. The most remarkable example 
of a transportea mass occurs at Linksfield, which de- 
mands special attention on account of its enormous size. 
Unfortunately the section is now covered up, but from 
the excellent descriptions of Mr Duff and Dr Malcolmson, 
there can be no doubt that the succession of limestones 
and shales yielding fish-remains, Oyprides and Bstherice, 
rests on boulder clay and is covered by it The fossils 
obtained from this transported mass do not fix the age 
of the beds with certainty, but they probably belong 
to the horizon of the Bhstic or Lower Lias formations. 

Throughout the district there are widespread sheets 
of sand and gravel, and along the banks of the Spey, 
the Lossie, and the Findhom there are high-level ter- 
races which are evidently of fiuviatile origin. They are 
grandlv developed in the Findhom basin along the bor- 
ders of Elginshire and Nairnshire, and their character- 
istic featiues may be most conveniently described in 
connection with the post-glacial deposits of the latter 
county. The 100, 60, and 25 feet raised beaches are 
well represented within the limits of the county. The 
lowest of these forms a belt of flat land stretching 
from Lossiemouth westwards by Old Duffus Castle to 
tiie plain S of Burghead. It is evident, therefore, that 
the ridge between Lossiemouth and Inverugie must 
have formed an island in comparatively recent times. 
This sea-beach also forms a broad strip of low-lying 
ground between Burghead and the western limit of the 
county, and at various points it is obscured by great 
accumulations of blown sand, of which the most remark- 
able are the Culbin sandhills. As these deposits are 
continued into the adjoining county of Nairn their 
striking features and their mode of formation will be 
described in connection with that county. Between 
Lossiemouth and the Spey the present beach is bounded 
by a series of ridges wnich are evidently due to wave 
action. They consist of ^temations of gravel and shingle, 
the stratification of which usually coincides with the ex- 
ternal form of the mounds. They run parallel with the 
existing coast-line, and occur at no great distance from 
each otner ; indeed so rapidly do they succeed each other 
as we advance inland, that upwards of twenty of them 
may be counted in regular succession. An interest- 
ing example of a ' kitchen midden ' occurs on the old 
margin of the Loch of Spynie on the farm of Brigzes. 
From the interesting description ffiven by Dr Gordon, it 
is clear that the two mounds must nave attained consider- 
able dimensions ; the latter measuring 80 by 60 yards, 
and the smaller 26 by 30 yards. Among the shells com- 
posing the refose heap are the periwinkle, the oyster, the 
mussel, the co^le, the lii^npet, and of these the first is by 
far the most abundant. The occurrence of these mounds 
along the inner margin of the 25-feet beach furnishes 
interesting evidence of the elevation of the land since 
its occupation by man. On the other hand the sub- 
merged forest, which occurs to the W of Burghead, 



dearlj points to the depression which preceded the 
recent changes in the relative level of sea and land. 

The cultiiration of the county is, on the whole, in a 
highly advanced condition. In 1870 there were 552 
lanns not exceeding 5 acres each ; 532 of from 5 to 20 
acres ; 878 of from 20 to 50 acres ; 812 of from 50 to 
100 ; and 285 above 100 acres. Most of the farms are 
held on lease of nineteen years. The farm steadings 
have of late years undergone great improvement, and on 
the majority of the large and middle sized fkrmB there 
are comfortable and well-fitted dwelling-houses. Most 
of the farms, too, have acquired additional value by the 
enlargement of fields, the removal of dilapidated dykes, 
the covering-in of ditches, the reclamation of waste 
portions, drainage and the growth of hedge fences or 
the erection of wire paling, as well as by the extensive 
and marked improvements in farm implements, and by 
the introduction of the reapine machine. Some fanns 
are cropped on the seven ana some on the six shift 
course, out the majority of the farmers adhere to the five. 
Hie acreage under woods and plantations is 45,868, and 
according to the Board of Trade Agricultural Betums 
the tot^ acreage ' under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, 
and grass' is 108,876, including 5165 acres under per- 
manent pasture or grass not broken up in rotation. 

The cattle in Elgin are fewer in proportion to the 
cultivated acreage than in any other county N of Forfar- 
shire, but estimated by the excellence of individual 
animals, they have more than average merit. They 
are mostly a cross breed between the short homed and 
polled breeds, produced with great attention to the high 
character of the bulls. This cross breed is believed to 
be hardier, to grow more rapidly, and to take on flesh 
more readily than any other variety. There are also a 
number of well-known herds of shorthorns, and though 
pure poUed cattle are not very numerous, the Morayshire 
herds are very celebrated, and can generally manage to 
hold their own at the leading shows in Scotland and 
England, and even in France. Morayshire sheep are 
also well known* Leioesters are the standard breed for 
the lower part of the county, and the blackfaced sheep 
for the higher ground, where the conditions of existence 
are too severe for the Leicesters. Some formers keep 
crosses, and at Gordon Castle there are Southdowns. 

The manufactures of the county are comparatively 
inconsiderable. Whisky is one of the chief products, 
there being seven distilleries in full operation within 
the county. Besides the wool manufactories at Elgin 
and Colebum, in the Glen of Rothes, there are others 
at St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Forres, and Miltonduff. 
Tan works have long existed in £1^ and Forres. 
Shipbuilding on a small scale is earned on at King- 
ston, at the mouth of the Spey. There used to be a 
considerable herring fishing at Lossiemouth, Hopeman, 
and Burghead, but for a number of years the home 
fishing has been almost a complete failure, and most of 
the boats prefer to go to some of the larger ports at 
Aberdeen, Peterhead, or elsewhere. Each of the three 
seaports just mentioned has a tidal harbour, and there 
is a coasting trade, particularly in slates, coal, and pit 
props. There are chemical works at Forres and Burg- 
head. Black cattle and field produce are the princij^ 
articles of export, but in some years the cattle are in 
little or no demand, and the field produce is all re<^uired 
for home consumption. There are large quantities of 
salmon sent S from the valuable fisheries at the mouths 
(rf the Spey and Findhom, and from the fixed net fishines 
along the intervening coast Timber from the Strath- 
spey Forests has also longbeen exported. The principal 
ports are in order from £ to W, Garmouth, Kingston, 
Lossiemouth, Burghead, and Findhom, but they are all 

small, none of them being more than a sub-port At 
Burghead, cargoes are dis<mai«ed in connection with the 
chemical works at Burghead and Forres. Kumerous 

fairs for live stock ore held at Elgin, Forres, Findhom, 
Lhanbryd, and Garmouth, but thev are less valued by 
the farmers than the fsirs of Banfishire. 

The county is intersected by a number of railways. 
The Inverness and Keith portion of the Highland rul- 

way enters the diire near Keith, and pssses'thiomrh it 
from £ to W, by Lhanbird, Elgin, and Forres. Tben 
are branch lines to Burffhead (from Alves station), and 
to Findhom (from Kimoss) ; but the latter is not in 
the meantime being worked. At Forres, the Forres 
and Perth section branches off and passes through the 
county from N to S, till it leaves it about 4 miles S of 
of Grantown, dose to the point where the Dulnan and 
Spey unite, and therefore almost at the most southerly 
point of the shire. Starting from Elgin, as its northern 
terminus, the Great North of Scotlsnd railway system 
has a branch line from Elgin to Lossiemouth. The 
main line passes southward through the Glen of Rothes, 
passes Rothes, and leaves the county when it crosses 
the Spey at Graigellachie. At Graicellachie the Ime 
branches, one part passing on to Eeitn and Aberdeen, 
and the other turning up S^y-side. The Spey-side 
section runs for the £st 6 miles on the Banffshire side 
of the river, but at Garron it crosses to Elginshire, and 
with the exception of about | mile near Ballindal- 
loch, remains in Elginshire till it pssses into Inver- 
ness-shire, about 2 miles E of Grantown. It joins the 
Highland railway system at Boat of Garten. There 
was at one time a branch line connecting the Great 
North (Morayshire) system at Rothes with the High- 
land system at Orton, but it has not been worked for 
a number of years. A bill has now (1882) passed 
through Parliament, granting powers for the construc- 
tion of a railway along the coast, from Elgin to Portsoy. 
This line will, when made, intersect the county from 
Elgin eastwards as far as Fochabers. The roads all over 
the county are numerous and excellent A survey, 
made in 1866, gave the total length of roads withm 
the county at 489 miles. In 1864 tolls were abolished 
all over uie shire, except at the Findhom Suspension 
Bridge, near Forres, where there was at that time a 
specud debt of £2000 still remaining. 

The royal burffhs are Elgin and Forres; the other 
towns, with each more than 1000 inhabitants, are 
Branderburgh, Burehead, Fochabers, Grantown, Hope- 
man, Rothes, and Bishopmill ; and the smaller towns 
and principal villages are Lossiemouth, Findhom, Gar- 
mouth, New Elgin, Kingston, Archiestown, Lhanbryd, 
Mosstodlach, X^quhart, Stot£eld, New Duffus, Cum- 
ingston, Roseiale, Kinloss, Oook, Coltfield, Rafford, 
Dallas, Edenkillie, Dyke, Kintessack, and Whitemyre. 
The principal seats are Gordon Castle (partly in Banff- 
shire), Damaway C!astle, Innes House, Castle-Grant, Duf- 
fus House, BaUindalloch C^tle, Altyre, Roseisle, Rose- 
islehaugh, Inveraj^e, Muirton, Orton House, Sprinsfield, 
Inverugie, Dunkinty, Easter Elchies, Wester Elchies, 
Dumphail, Seapark,Kincorth,Dalvey, Westerton, Black- 
hills, Milton Brodie, Newton, Doune, Sanquhar House, 
Drumduan, Dallas Lodge, Belugas, Ix>gie, Grange Hall, 
Brodie House, Orton, Auchinroath, and Burgie. 

The county is govemed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, 27 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 8 assistant 
sheriff-substitutes, and 114 magistrates. The ordinary 
sheriff court is held at Elgin, on every Monday for 
proofs in civil causes, on every Thursday for ordinary 
business of civil causes, and on every or any Tuesday, 
as occasion requires, for criminal causes. The com- 
missary court for Elsinshire and Naimshire is held at 
Elgin. Sheriff smaU debt courts are held at Elgin on 
every Wednesday ; at Forres, six times a year ; at 
Grantown, four times a year ; at Rothes, four times a 
year; at Fochabers, three times a year. The police 
force, in 1881, exclusive of that for Elgin burgh, com- 
prised 16 men ; and the salary of the chief constable 
was £280. The number of persons apprehended or cited 
by the police in 1880, exclusive of those in Elgin burgh, 
was 289; the number of these convicted, 224; the 
number committed for trial, 22 ; the number not dealt 
with, 124. The annual committals for crime, in the 
average of 1886-40, were 19 ; of 1841-45, 85 ; of 1846-50, 
41 ; of 1851-55, 89 ; of 1856-60, 59 ; of 1861-65, 58 ; of 
1865-69, 48 ; of 1871-75, 20 ; and of 1876-80, 22. The 
prison is in Elgiu» snd is one of those still retained 
under the new Prisons' Act The annual value of real 


property, in 1815, wi^ £73,288 ; in 1845, £98,115 ; in 
1875, £208,167; in 1882, £228,078. Elgpin and Nairn 
shires retnin a member to parliament ; and the Elgin- 
«hire oCdistituency, in 1882, was 1746. Pop. (1801) 
27,760, (1821) 81,898, (1841) 36,012, (1861) 43,322, 
<1871) 43,128, (1881) 43,788, of whom 20,725 were 
males, and 23,063 females. Houses (1881) 8611 in- 
habited, 391 vacant, 71 building. 

The registration county gives off part of Cromdale 
parish to Inverness-shire, and parts of Inveraven and 
K&\h to Banffshire ; takes in part of Dyke and Moy 
from Nairnshire, and parts of Bellie, Boharm, and 
Bothes from Banffshire. It comprehends nineteen en- 
tire quoad dviHa parishes, and ha!d in 1871 a population 
of 44,549, and in 1881 a population of 45, 108 All the 
parishes are assessed for the poor. Fourteen of them, 
with one in Banffihire, form the Morayshire Combina- 
tion, which has a poorhouse at BishopmilL One is in 
the Nairn CJombination. The numW of registered 
poor, for the year ending 14 May 1881, was 1230 ; of 
dependants on these, 641 ; of casual poor, 283 ; of de- 
pendants on these, 221. The receipts for the poor were 
£12,736, Os. 8id., and the expenditure was £12,602, 
19s. 9d. The percentage of illegitimate births was 13 '6 
in 1871, 17*1 in 1878, 13 in 1879, and 16*8 in 1880. 

The county comprises the sixteen entire parishes of 
Alves, St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Bimie, Draime, Duffus, 
Elgin, Speymouth, Spynie, and Urqnhart, constituting 
the presbytery of Elgin; Dallas, Edenkillie, Forres, 
Einloss, and Bafford, in the presbytery of Forres; 
Knockandp, in the presbyteiy of Aberlour ; and Crom- 
dale, in the presb3rtery of Aoemethy. It shares with 
Banffshire the parishes of Bellie and Keith, in the pres- 
bytery of Strathbogie and Boharm; Inveraven and 
Aothes, in the presbytery of Aberlour ; and with Nairn- 
shire the parish of Dyke, in the presbytery of Forres. 
There are quoad sacra parishes at Burghead and Lossie- 
mouth, and mission churches at Advie and Enockando. 
The whole are within the jurisdiction of the synod of 
Moray. In the year ending 30 Sept 1880, the county 
had 62 schools (51 of them public), with accommodation 
for 10,202 scholars, 7466 on the registers, and 5800 in 
average attendance. The certificated, assistant, and 
puml teachers numbered respectivelv 91, 5, and 74. 

The territory now forming Elginshire belonged to the 
ancient Caledonian Yacomagi, and was included in the 
Boman division or so-called province of Yespasiana. It 
formed part of the kingdom of Pictavia, and underwent 
many changes in connection with descents and settle- 
ments of the Scandinavians. In the Middle Ages it 
formed the middle part of the ereat province of Moray 
[see Moiuly], although it early became a separate part 
of that province. It seems to have been disjoined from 
Inverness as early as 1263, for in that year Gilbert de 
Rule is mentioned in the Begistrum Moraviense as 
sheriff of Elgin. The sheriff of Inverness still, how- 
over, at times exerdsed a jurisdiction within the county 
of Elgin ; and the proper erection of the county and 
sherinaom was not till the time of James II., the earlier 
sherifGs having probably had much narrower limits to 
their power. The principal antiquities are the so-called 
Boman well and bulls at Burgh^, standing stones at 
Urmihart and elsewhere, cup-marked stones near Burg- 
head and near Alves, the cathedral, etc., at Elgin, 
Si>ynie palace, Bimie church, the abbey of Einloss, the 
priory of Pluscarden, the Michael kirk at Gordonstown, 
the old porch of Duffus church, Sueno's Stone at Forres, 
remains of Caledonian encampments on the Culbin 
Sands, a sculptured cave near Hopeman, castles at 
Elgin, Forres, Lochindorb, Bothes, and Duffus, and the 
towers at Coxton and Blervie. See Shaw's History 
of (he JProvinee of Moray (Edinb. 1775; 2d ed., El^, 
1827 ; 3d ed., Glasgow, 1882) ; A Walk Bound Moray- 
shire (Banff, 1877) ; Watson's Morayshire Described (El- 
S'n, 1868) ; Leslie and Grant's Survey qfthe Province qf 
oray (1798). 

BiriiMViir an estate, with a mansion and a ruined castle, 
in Yarrow pariah, Selkirkshire. The mansion, E^ibank 
Cottage, stands on the right bank of the river Tweed, 5} 


miles £ of Innerleithen. In 1595 the estate was granted 
to the eminent lawyer, Sir Gideon Murray, a cadet of 
the Damhall or Blackbarony line ; and by him, doubt- 
less, Elibank Tower was either wholly built or extended 
from the condition of an old Border peeL 'Now a 
shattered ruin,' says Dr Chambers, ' occupying a com- 
manding situation on the S bank of the Tweed, Elibank 
still ^owB signs of havine been a residence of a very 
imposing character, defensible according to the usages 
of the period at which it was inhabited.^ Sir Gideon's 
daughter, Agnes, was the ' Muckle-mou'ed Meg' of 
Border story, who really, in 1611, did wed young Wil- 
liam Scott of Habdsn, though the story otherwise 
seems to have no foundation; and Sir Gideon's* son, 
Patrick, was in 1643 raised to the peerage as Lord 
Elibank. Two younger sons of the fourth Lord Elibank, 
Alexander and James, are notable — ^the first as a violent 
Jacobite, and the second for his five months' defence of 
Fort St PhiUp, Minorca (1781-82), with less than 1000 
men against 40,000 French and Spaniards. The Dam- 
hall, fiallencrieff, and Elibank estates were all united 
in the person of Alexander Murray (1747-1820), who 
succeeded as seventh Lord in 1785 ; and Elibank Tower 
has since been left to sink to decay. The present Lord 
Elibank holds 1168 acres in Selkirkshire, valued at £861 
per annum. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 25, 1865. See Dabithall, 
and pp. 345-354 of Dr William Chambers' History of 
Peeblesshire (Edinb. 1864). 

Elie or Ely, a small police burgh and a parish on the 
SE coast of fife. The town stands dose to the shore at 
the head of a bay of its own name, and has a station on 
the East of Fife section of the North British, 4} miles 
WSW of Anstruther, 14 ENE of Thornton Junction, 
and 34 NE of Edinburgh. In bygone times a place of 
some importance, it retains a few antique mansions in 
a street near the beach, but mainly consists of modem 
well-built houses. It has for a long time been a place 
of considerable resort for summer sea-bathing, but 
carries on little trade, although it possesses an excellent 
natural harbour, mudi improved by quays and a pier, 
and affording mSe and accessible shelter during gales 
from the W or SW. The bay is 7 furlongs wide across 
the entrance, and thence measures 3} to its inmost re- 
cess ; it is flanked on the E by Elie Ness, and by Chapel 
Ness on the W. Wadehaven, a little to the E of the 
harbour, has 4 depth of from 20 to 22 feet of water at 
ordinary tides, and is said to have been named after 
General Wade, who recommended it to Government as a 
suitable harbour for ships of the royal navy. Imme- 
diately to the W is the small old burgh of Earlsfbbby, 
on whose capital links an ele«;ant golf club-house was 
lately erected ; and Elie itseu has a post office, with 
money order, savings* bank, and telegraph departments, 
a branch of the National Bank, 2 hotels, gas-works, 
water-works (conjointly with EarMerry and St Mon- 
ance), a subscription library of 4000 volumes, the parish 
ohur!:^ (1726 ; 610 sittings), with a spire, a Free church, 
and a public schooL Having in 1865 adopted the 
Greneral Police and Improvement Act, it is governed by 
a chief magistrate, 2 junior magistrates, and 3 other 
police comnusaioners, with a town-clerk and a treasurer. 
Burgh assessable rental (1882) £3804. Pop. (1861) 706, 
(1871) 626, (1881) 625, of whom 79 were in Eilconquhar 

The parish down to about 1639 formed part of Eil- 
conquhar, bj^ a strip of which — 5 furlongs broad at the 
narrowest — ^it now is divided into two unequal portions. 
The larger cf these, containing the town, is bounded W 
and N by Eilcon<.|uhar, NE by St Monance, and SE and 
S by the Firth A Forth, wmch here has a minimum 
width of 8jt miles. Tlie smaller or westerly portion is 
bounded NE and SE by Eilconquhar, and W bv New- 
bum. It has an utmost length and breadth of 9 and 
7i furlongs, as the main body has of 2^ and 1^ miles ; 
and the area of the whole is 2241} acres, of which 650| 
belong to the westerly section, and 21 OJ are foreshora 
The suriace is genenuly flat, and rises nowhere into a 
hilL Eilconqmiar Loch (4x8 fiirL) touches the 
northern boundary of the main body ; and Cocklemill 



Bom traces tlie Bonth-eastem border of the detached 
portion. The rocks belong chiefly to the Carboniferoos 
formation, bat include, on the coast, greenstone, basalt, 
clinkstone, and trap-tofa. The carboniferous rocks, too, 
are traversed by trap-dykes ; and they comprise sand- 
stone, limestone, shale, coal, and day-ironstone. Some 
50 acres are under wood ; and nearly all the rest of the 
land, excepting the links, is in tillage. Natives were 
Bobert Traill (1642-1716), a divine of the Church of 
Scotland, and James Horsbuxvh, F.B.S. (1762-1886), 
the eminent hydrographer. &e House, to the NNE 
of the town, was built towards the dose of the 17th 
century, and is a large edifice in the Renaissance style, 
with Deautiful grounds. Its owner, William Baird, 
Bai. (b. 1848; sue. 1864), holds 8120 acres in the 
shire, valued at £8223 per annum. Elie is in the pres- 
bytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the living is 
worth £200. The public school, with accommodation 
for 112 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
94, and a grant of £83, 10& Valuation (1866) £6136, 
(1882) £7234, 98. Pop. (1801) 730, (1831) 1029, (1861) 
826, (1871) 775, (1881) 670.— (?rd Sur., sh. 41, 1867. 

EUoek. See Elliock. 

EUston, an andent baronial pile in Kirkliston parish, 
linlithflowshire, on the left bank of the Almond, 1 mile 
ESE of I)rumshoreland station. It is supposed to have 
been an andent huntine-seat of the kings of Scotland, 
particularly of James if. and James lY. ; audit now be- 
longs to the Earl of Hopetoun. 

EUston, Benfre^iire. See Elliston. 

Bliiafleld, a village in Torthorwald parish, DumMei- 
shire, near Collin, 4} nules E by S of Dumfries. 

EUa. See Elgab. 

EUag Loch, a lake of Kincardine pariah, N Boss- 
shire, 6i miles NW of Oikell Bridse. Lying 500 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length of 2 and 1^ 
furlongs ; is notable for wild swans ; and sends off a 
stream l| mile east-north-eastward to the river OikelL — 
Ord, Sur., sh. 102, 1881. 

Ellam or EUam, an ancient parish in the N of Berwick- 
shire, now incorporated with Louffformacus. It lies 
alon^ Whitadder Water, among the Lammermuir Hills ; 
and it gives its name to Ellem inn and EUemford on 
Whitadder Water, 6 miles KW of Duns. It bdonged 
to the Earls of Dunbar, and, after their forfeiture, was 
given by the Crown to Thomas Erskine. 

Elian or An EUein, a loch in the Bothiemurchus por- 
tion of Duthil parish, Inverness-shire, stretching along the 
base of Ordban HilL Lying 840 feet above sea-level, it 
has an utmost length and breadtii of 7^ and 4^ furlongs ; 
contains an islet, with ruins of a stronghold of the Wolf 
of Badenoch ; and is skirted by some noble remains of 
the andent Caledonian forest. — Ord, Sur., sh. 74, 

EUanabriodi, a village in Kilbrandon parish, Argyll- 
shire, on the W coast of Seil island, opposite Easdale 
island, and forming practically one seat of population 
with Easdale village. See Easdale. 

Ellan-Aigaa. See Aioab. 

EUan-an-Tlghe. See Ellan-na-Kellt. 

Bllan-GhaiataL See Cabtle-Island. 

Elian CoUnmkill, a small island in Portree Bay, Ide 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. It got its name in honoxur of 
St Columba; and the bay in which it lies was long 
called Loch CoUumkill. See also Erisobt. 

EUan-Dheinlg. See Dheirkio. 

EUandonan, a small rocky idand, crowned by a 
ruined, ivv-dad, andent castle, in Kintail parish, Boes- 
shire. at the forking of Loch Alsh into Lochs Long and 
Duich, 8i miles E of Kyle Akin. The castle presents a 
picturesque appearance, backed by a noble range of hiUs. 
Occupying the dte of a Caledonian vitrified fort, it is 
said to have been given in 1266 to Colin Fitzgerald, son 
of the Earl of Desmond, and to have been the scene in 
1331 of a severe act of retributive justice by Bandolph, 
Earl of Mora^, then warden of Scotland, wno executed 
in it fifty dehn^uents. and ranged their heads round its 
walls. Certain it is that it was long a stronghold of the 
Mackenzies of Kintail, and that it sustained in 1589 a 


famous attack by Donald Gform, a claimant to the 
lordship of the Ides, whose assault on it cost him 
his life, and is odebrated in a ballad by Colin Mac* 
kende in Scott's Border Mirutrelay. In 1719 it was 
ffarrisoned by a Spanish force under William M ackende, 
fifth Earl of Seaforth, with the Earl Marischal and the 
Marquis of Tullibardine ; but three English ships-of- 
war soon battered its rude square tower to pieces, and 
its defenders retired to Glenbhisl. 

EUan-Dnixiimli, an idet (8i x lifiirL)of Ardchattan 
parish, Arayllshire, in Loch Etive, oppodte Bunawe. 
It lies in the line of the ferry over the loch, and is con- 
nected with the mainland by a raised road approach. 

EUan-Fada» an island of South Knapdale parish, 
Argyllshire, near the head of Lodi Cablisport It 
affords shelter from the heavy swells raised by the SW 
gales, and there is good anchorage for vessels on its lee 

Ellaii- Finnan, a small island of Ardnamurchan 
parish, AigyUshire, in Loch Shid, at the boundary 
with Inverness-shire. 

Ellan-Freaeh, an idet, with ruins of an andent 
fortalice, in the Sound of Islay, ArayUshire. 

Ellan-Oainvlch. See Sanda, Small Ides, AigyU- 

EUan-Ohefzilg. See Dheirbio. 

Ellangowaa. See Caeblayebogx. 

EUan-Iua. See Issat. 

EUan-Lodisear, the chief one of several idets off the 
SW dde of lismore island, Argyllshire, at the mouth 
of Portnamarloch. 

EUan-Haree, a wooded idet of Oairloch parish. Boss- 
shire, one of the smallest and most easterly of the 
idand group towards the middle of Loch luree. It 
seems to have been the dte of a pre-Beformation chapd 
dedicated to the Yiigin Mary, and hence to have got ita 
name, which some, however, derive from the QaeL 
EWm-mac-Righ, ' the island of the king^s son,' a prince 
of Norway, according to tradition, having been buried 
here. It contains remains of an andent bnrying-ground, 
and has also a deep well, consecrated in popu&r super- 
stition to Saint Maree. Till not verv long ago Eltan- 
Maree was supposed by the country folk round to possess 
a virtue for the cure of insanity— their method for 
obtaining the cure being to drag the lunatic to the shore 
of the lake, fasten him oy a rope to a rowing boat, and 
tow him round the island, after which he had to drink 
some water from the holy welL The idand was vidted 
by Queen Victoria inSept 1877. -~Oni. Sur. , sh. 92, 1881. 

Qlan-Mon, a pastonl ide of Tiree and Coll parish^ 
Argylldiire, adjacent to the NE coast of Coll island. 

Elian-More, a pastoral ide of South Knapdale parish, 
Ar^nrllshire, in tne Sound of Jura, near the mouth of 
Lo^ Swin. An ancient chapel, dedicated to St Cormae, 
stands nearly in the middle, and, measuring only 15 
feet by 8, is an arched structure, covered with flags, and 
in a state of hiffh preservation. It indudes an upper 
chamber, accesnole only by a ladder, and supposed to 
have been used for concealment ; contains an admirably 
sculptured e£5gy of a priest, under a csaooy ; and is 
a^jomed by an apartment, now roofless. The shaft of 
an andent cross stands on the highest point of the island ; 
and the disc of ttte cross, showing on one dde a quaint 
representation of the Crudfizion, on the other dde a 
scroll-work of foliage, was discovered in the vidnity in 

EUan Mnnde, an idet of Lismore and Appin paridi, 
Argyllshire, in Loch Leven, oppodte Ballacnulish and 
the mouth of the rivulet Coe. It contains the ruins of 
a church, founded, on the dte of a Cnldee cell, about 
the middle of the 10th century hj an abbot of the name 
of Mund ; and around tiie ruins is an andent cemetery 
still in use. A former parish, indudinf the island, and 
taking name from it, comprehended Glencoe and the 
adjacent parts of Appin, ana now is incorporated chiefly 
with Lismore and Appin, and partly with Kilmallie. 

Ellan-na-Ooomb or EUan-na-Nadmh, a small island 
of Tongue parish, Sutherland, separated frt)m the main- 
land by the strait of Gaol Bean, 1 furlong wide at the 


narrowest, a little W of Torrisdale Bay, and 9 furlongs 
E by S of Ellan-nan-Bon. With utmost length and 
breadth of 4} and 8^ furlongs, it rises to a height of 281 
feet, contains traces of an ancient chapel and cemetery, 
and is so tunnelled and perforated on the 3 side that 
half-flood tide, during a ncffth-westerlj gale, throws up 
from it hjei cFeau 80 feet high, followed by a detonating 
aound like the report of cannon. — Ord, Sur., sh. 114, 

EUan-na-Kelly or Ellaa-an-Tighe, the southern one 
of the three Shiant isles, in the Outer Hebrides, in the 
Minch, 6| miles SE of Ushenish Point in Lewis, and 22} 
S by E of Stomoway. It connects with Ganr-EUan by 
a neck of rolled pebbles, covered only at a concurrence 
of spring tide and tempestuous wind ; and is 1 mile lonff, 
whilst Tarying in width from 1 to 2| furlong. Its 
basaltic rock presents some columnar masses similar to 
thoae of XTlTa and Stafia ; and its tumulated but verdant 
surface affords rich sheep pasture. It appears to have 
anciently been the seat of a monastery or hermitage, 
whence it took its name, signifying the ' island of tne 
cell ; ' and it still possesses some ruins which look to have 
been ecclesiasticat — Ord. 8ur,, sh. 99, 1858. 

EUan-napNftoinilL See Ellan-na-Coomb and Gar- 
VELOOH Isles. 

BUan-naa-Oobhar, an islet in Loch Aylort, Ardna- 
murchan parish, Inyemess-shire. It is an abrupt 
irre^pilar mass of mica slate; and it contains two 
yitnfied forts within a few yards of each other — the one 
of an oblong figure, and 140 ^aces in circumference, 
the other circular, and 90 paces m dreumference. 

EUan-naa-Son (GraeL 'seal island'), an inhabited 
island of Tongue parish, N Sutherland, to the E of the 
entrance to the fcyle of Tongue, 6^ miles NKE of 
Tongue church. Measuring 1 mile by m fmlongB, and 
rising to a height of 247 feet above the sea, it is parted 
on the NW by a narrow channel from E^lan-Iosal () 
mile X 2i furl. ; 171 feet), and is cirt with high preci- 
mtous ro^, deeply channelled on uie K side by narrow 
fissures. On the N side, too, is a noble natiunl arch, 
160 feet high and 70 wide ; whilst towards the middle 
of the island is a large round hole, which is supposed to 
communicate with uie sea by a natural tunneL The 
fissures of its diffo are swept, with great violence, by 
winds impregnated with saline matter, and, leaving de- 
posits of salt, so are used, without any artificial appliance 
of salt, for curing fish.— CM2. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

EUan-Boxymore, an island in Loch Maree, Gairloch 
parish, Soss-shire. It was planted with pines about the 
year 1815, and it contains vestiges of a subterranean cir- 
cular structure, similar to a Scandinavian dun or burgh. 
John Boy, ancestor of the Mackenzies of Gairloch, held 
it as a place of security from the attacks of the Macleods ; 
and it was afterwards occupied by his son Alexander or 
Allister, who figures in tradition as a man of great 
wisdom and valour. 

EUan-Bubhainn, a wooded island of Gairloch parish, 
Boss-shire, the largest of the group towards the middle 
of Loch Maree, 5 rarlongs N of Talladale. It measures 
1 by i mile, and to the NW contains a small loch. — 
OrdL Sur,, sh. 92, 1881. 

Elian- Vow, an islet of Arrochar parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, towards the head of Loch Lomond, 24 miles N by 
W of Inversnaid. It is beautiAilly wooded, and some 
of its trees are very old, said to liave been planted by 
King Bobert Bruce. It also contains ruins of an ancient 
fortalice of the Macfarlanes ; and a vault beneath the 
ruins was inhabited, early in the present century, bv an 
ascetic of the Macfarlane dan, anabem the name of the 
Hermit's Cave. — Ord. Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Ettan-Wlir^y or EUan-Mhnire, the easternmost of the 
three Shiant isles, in the Outer Hebrides, ^ mile E of 
Garv-EllanandSfurlonj^sNEofEUan-na-Eelly. With 
a crescent-like outline, it measures 7i by 2) furlonss, 
and presents a basaltic and verdant appearance simi&r 
to that of EUan-na-Eelly.— Ord. Sur,, ih, 99, 1858. 

EDar. See Shafinshat. 

EBsmford. See Ellam. 

EUanabaldL See Ellanabbiioh. 


Ellen, Port. See Port Ellon. 

EUen'i Ue or EHean Molach, an islet of Callander 
parish, Perthshire, towards the foot of Loch Katrine, 
immediately opposite Ben Yenue. Highly romantic in 
ap^rance, craggy and wooded, it is tne centre of tho 
action of Sir Wiuter Scotfs Lady qf the Lake; and it 
contained, for some time, a modem sylvan lodse like that 
described iu the poem, decorated with tropnies of the 
chase and fray, but destroyed by accidental fire in 1887. 
Together wini the surrounding shores, aided by the 
strong natural defences of the circungacent ravines and 
mountains, it long served as a fiistness of Highland 
caterans in their marauding expeditions against the 
Lowlanders. —OnZ. Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Eller. See Shapikshay. 

EQar-Holm, a verdant isle of Shapinshay parish, 
Orkney, lyins across the mouth of EUwick Bay, on the 
S W side of Snapinshay island. 

Elllm. See Ellajc 

EIBnor. See Port Ellinor. 

Elliock, an estate, with a mansion, in San<]^uharpari8h, 
NW Dumfriesshire, on the left bank of Elliock Bum, 8 
miles SE of Sanquhar. It belonged to Bobert Crichton, 
lord advocate of Scotland in the reigns of Queen Mary 
and James YI., and &ther of James Crichton (1560-88), 
best known as ' the AdmiraUe Crichton.' The room in 
which the latter was bom is kept in nearly its original 
condition. (See Clunie, Pertnshire.) By the lord 
advocate the estate was sold to the Dalzells, afterwards 
Earls of Camwath, and from them it went to the 
Teitches, its present owner, the Bev. William Douglas 
Yeitch (b. 1801 ; sue 1878), holding 5168 acres in 
the shire, valued at £1698 per annum. Elliock Bum, 
risiuff on Wether Hill, at the Penpont border, runa 
8 miles north-north-eastward to the f!rith, and descends 
in this short course from 1400 to 400 feet above sea- 
leveL— Ord Sv/r,, sh. 15, 1864. See Patrick Fraser 
Tytler's Lifeqffhe Admirable OridUon (1819 ; 2d ed. 

ElUot Junction, a station in Arbirlot parish, Forfar- 
shire, on the Dundee and Arbroath section of the Cale- 
donian, at the junction of the branch to Carmyllie, If 
mile S W of Arbroath station. 

ElllotBton Tower. See Castlb-Semplb. 

Elliot Water, a stream of SE For&rshire, rising at an 
altitude of 550 feet above sea-level in the W of Cannyllie 
parish, and running 8 miles east-south-eastward through 
or along the borders of Carmyllie and Arbirlot, till it 
falls into the German Ocean, near Elliot Junction, Ih 
mile SW of Arbroath. Its banks, at the mansion of 
Quynd, picturesque by nature, have been highly adomed 
by art ; and its steep wooded dell below Arbirlot village 
has many memories of Dr Outhrie, and presents an 
interesting relic of the past in the grey old tower of 
Kelly Castle.— Ord Sur., shs. 57, 49, 1868-65. 

KllifiWll, an estate, with a mansion, in Peterhead 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2^ miles WNW of the town. 

Blllflland, a small farm in Dunscore parish, Dumfries- 
shire, on the ri^t bank of the broad, wooded Nith, 5} 
miles NNW of Dumfries and ^ SSE of Auldffirth sta- 
tion. Extending to 170 acres, it was rented for £50 
a year by Bob^ Bums (1759-96) from Whitsunday 
1788 to December 1791, his landlord being Mr Patrick 
Miller of Dalbwinton. A new five-roomed house was 
built ; the farm has a kindly soil, its holmland portion 
loamy and rich ; and its walks by the river-side com- 
mand fidr views of Friars Carse, Dalswinton, and 
Cowhill Tower. So here Bums set himself to work the 
ground, till in the autumn of 1789 he was appointed a 
ganger, with a salary of £50, when Ellisland was made 
a dury rather than an arable farm, with from nine to 
twelve cows, three to five horses ('Pegasus' or 'Peg 
Nicholson ' among them), and sevoral pet sheep. Things 
prospered not, and the dose of the linird year saw him 
forced to remove to Dttmfribs and bid fiueweU to 
pleasant Ellisland, 'leaving nothing there,' savs AUan 
Cunningham, ' but a putting-stone, with which he loved 
to exercise his strengith, a memory of his musings that 
can never die, and £800 of his money sunk beyond 
' 671 


redemption in a speculation from which all had angored 
happiness.' Yet was the fillisland life a frnitful one, 
for the world, if not for the poet, since here were written 
To Mary in Heomtn and Tam o* Shanter. — Ord, Sur,, 
eh. 9, 1868. See William M'Dowall's Bvms in Dum- 
friesshire (Edinb. 1870). 

Ellon, a village and a parish of E Aberdeenshire. The 
village stands, 40 feet above sea-level, on the left bank 
of the Tthan, 5 furlongs ES£ of Ellon station on the 
Formartine and Baclum section of the Great North of 
Scotland, this being 19} miles N by £ of Aberdeen, and 
Hi S by £ of Maud Junction. The ancient seat of 
junsdiction for the earldom of Buchan, it belonged, in 
pre-Beformation times, to Kinloss Abbey in Elginshire, 
and thence was often (Milled Einloss-Ellon. It now is a 
thriving centre of local trade, under the suj^rioritjr of 
Mr Goraon of Ellon, and retains the site of its ancient 
open-air courts in the Mote or Earl's Hill, a small 
mound which long was occupied by the stables of the 
^ew Inn, but which now is railed in and cleared of dis- 
figuring buildings. The Ythan is spanned here by a 
handsome three-arch bridge ; and the newer part of the 
viUaffe, to the W of this oridge, comprises a number of 
well-built houses, in rows or detached, with pretty 
garden^ fringing the water-side ; the older portion, to 
the £, is much less regular. Its salubrious climate and 
the Ythan's good trout-fishing attract a fiur number of 
summer visitors to Ellon, which possesses a post ofiSce, 
with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and railway 
telegraph departments, branches of the Aberdeen Town 
and County, North of Scotland, and Union Banks, a local 
savings' bank, 12 insurance agencies, 8 chief inns, gas- 
works (1827), a neat town-hall in connection with the 
New Inn, a orewery, and a horticultural societv. Cattle 
and grain markets are held on the first and third Mon- 
days of eveiy month ; hiring markets on the Tuesday 
after 11 April and the Wednesday after 12 November. 
The ancient cruciform church of St Mary, bestowed on 
Kinloss in 1810, was superseded in 1777 by the present 
plain parish church, which, renovated and decorated in 
1876, contains 1200 sittings. The Free church, built in 
1825 as an Independent chapel, contains 350 sitting ; 
a U.P. church of 1827 contains 840; and a fine Epis- 
copal church, St Mary of the Bock, was rebuilt (1870) 
in the Early English style from deigns by the late Mr 
O. £. Street, R.A., and consists of narthez, nave, ante- 
ohoir, and apsidal chanceL Mass, too, is celebrated 
every alternate Sunday by a priest from Strichen. Pop. 
of village (1861) 823, (1871) 811, (1881) 964. 

The pansh is bounded N by Old Deer, NE by Cruden, 
E, SE, and S by Logie-Buchan, SW by Udny, W bv 
Tarves and the Invereorie section of Methlick, and NVv 
by New -Deer. Its utmost le^jth, from N to S, is 8| 
miles ; its breadth, from E to W , varies between 8| and 
6i miles ; and its area is 22,889^ acres, of whidi 77 
are water. The Ythan has here an east-south-easterly 
course of 6^ miles, partly along the Methlick and Logie- 
Buchan borders, but mainly across the southern in- 
terior ; in the W it is joined by Ebbie Bum, and in the 
W hj the Bum of Auchmacoy. Coal lighters ascend 
to within a mile of the villa^, and spring-tides are 
perceptible as high as the Bnd^ of Ellon. S of the 
Ythan the surface attains its highest point above sea- 
level at Caimhill (256 feet), whilst northwards it rises 
gently to 229 feet near Colehill, 817 near Mossnook. 403 
at Hillhead of Argrain, 821 at Braehead, 496 at Ardarg, 
572 at the Hill of Dudwick, and 580 at Whitestone 
Hill — ^petty enough hillocks, that yet command far-away 
views to Bennochie and the Grampians. Gneiss and 
granite are the prevailing rocks, and the soil of the valley 
IS mainly fertile alluvium; elsewhere it is ^[enerally 
fNOOT, either black and moorish or a very retentive day. 
Thorough draining, however, and artificial manures 
have done much to increase its productiveness; and 
more than three-fourths of the entire area is now in 
tillage. Woods and plantations cover a small extent, 
the northern and eastern districts of the parish being 
bleak and bare. In the wall of the old church is a 
monument to the Annands of Auchterellon, with their 


arms and the date 1601 ; of Waterton, a stately seat of 
Bannermans and Forbeses between 1560 and 1770, and 
a haunt of 'Jamie Fleeman's,' slight vestiges remain ; 
but the girls' school stands on the site of the house in 
which the Bev. John Skinner wrote TuUochcprum — 
' the best Scotch song,' said Bums, ' that ever Scotland 
saw.' Of the Ellon Oastle of 1780, built by the fourth 
Earl of Aberdeen, only one tower remains ; its successor 
of 1851, with noble avenue and tastefid grounds, is the 
seat now of George John Bobert Gordon, Kaq. (b. 1812 ; 
sue. 1878), who holds 5556 acres in the shire, \^ued at 
£6195 per annum. Other mansions or estates, sepa- 
rately noticed, are Amage, Dudwick, Esslemont, and 
Tumerhall; and, in all, 8 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwi^, 4 of between £100 
and £500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 28 of from £20 
to £50. The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Aber- 
deen, Ellon gives off portions to the qu4>ad sacra parishes 
of Ardallie and Savoch; the living is worth £423. 
Barfold public, Drumwhindle public, Ellon public, and 
Ellon girls' schools, with respective accommodation for 
120, 100, 350, and 47 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 61, 45, 270, and 50, and grants of £27, 8s., 
£14, 15s. 6d., £221, 3s.. 6d., and £48, 12s. Valuation 
(1860) £15,188, (1881) £28,775, 18s. 9d. Pop. of civU 
parish (1801) 2022, (1881) 2804, (1861) 8918, (1871) 
8698 ; of registration district (1871) 8036, (1881) 8057. 
--Ord, Sur,, sh. 87, 1876. See Thomas Muir's JUcards 
<tf the Parish qf JSUon {Aher, 1876). 

The presbytery of Ellon comprises the parishes of 
Ellon, Cruden, Foveran, Losie- Buchan, Methlick, 
Slains, Tarves and Udny, and the chapelry of BiurthoL 
Pop. (1871) 15,516, (1881) 16,062, of whom 5282 were 
communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — ^1^ 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Ellon, with 
churches at Ellon, Cmden, Foveran, Methlick, New 
Machar, Old Meldrum, Slains, and Udny, which to* 
gether had 1971 communicants in 1881. 

Ellon, Port. See Pobt Ellon. 

EUxldgefaUl or ElaxicUe, a village near the southern 
border of Walston parish, £ Lanarkshire, 4^ miles NNE 
of Biggar. It is a pleasant place, in a picturesque situa- 
tion, and decidedly supenor to most small Scottish 
villages. It has a Free church and a schooL Some 
stone coffins, a number of years ago, were exhumed at 
the £ end of the village. 

EUrig, a lake in the KE of Slamannan parish, Stir- 
lingshire, 3^ miles S of Falkirk. Measuring 5} by 1} 
furlongs, it sends off a small bum, of some water power, 
9 furlongs south-westward to the Avon. 

EUxig, the highest part of the ridge of upland on the 
mutual border m East Kilbride pari^ Lanarkshire, and 
Eafflesham parish, Benfrewshire. It culminates, 4 miles 
SSE of Eagleaham village, at 1230 and 1215 feet above 
sea-level, and it cradles ooth the White Cart and head- 
streams of Calder Water. • 

Ellwand. See Allen. 

Ellwick or Elawick, a fine bay in the SW of Shapin- 
shay island, Orkney. It opens towards Kirkwall; is 
sheltered, across the entrance, by the green ialet of 
Eller-Holm; has from 4 to 6 fathoms of water, over 
a bottom of hard clay covered with sand ; is skirted, on 
the W side, by a fine beach, with abundance of excellent 
fresh water ; forms almost as good a natural harbour as 
any in Orkney ; and is overlodced by a pleasant modem 

Elphina. See Asstnt. 

ElnhinstoiM, a collier village in Tranent parish, W 
Hadoingtonshire, 2 miles S by W of Tranent town. It 
has a public school and a Irimitive Methodist chapel 
(1867). Elphinstone Tower, 5 furlongs WS W, is a square 
three-storied pile of the 14th or 15th century, a ruin, 
but well preserved, the two lower stories retaining their 
stone vaulting, and the uppermost having been re-roofed 
with slate. In the hall, on tiie second story, eight 
carved escutcheons are over ike fireplace. A manaion, 
built on to the tower in 1600, was demolished in 1865. 
The lands of Elphinstone were held in the 13th and 
14th centuries by Lord Elphinstone's ancestorOi and 


pwsed from them by marriage to the Johnstons. On a 
December nieht of vehement frost, 1545, George 
Wishart was Drought from Okmiston by the Earl of 
Bothwell to Elphmstone Tower, where was Cardinal 
Beaton ; and thenoe he was taken to St Andrews for 
trial and execution. Pop. of Tillage (1861) 888, (1871) 
488, (1881) m.^Ord. Sur,, sh. 83, 1868. 

pphfawtona, a property in Airth parish, E Stirling- 
shire. Passing b^r marriage to the Tranent Elphinstones 
about the begmning of the 14th century, it nas given 
them since 1509 the title of Baron, in the peerage of 
Scotland. See Carberby. 

Elphinstone, Port. See Pobt Elphikstonx. 

Elrick, an estate, with a mansion, in New Machar 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 1^ mUe SSW of New Machar 

Elzick, a villi^ in the B of Cabrach parish, W Aber- 
deenshire, 6} mues W by S of Rbynie. 

EMck or Elrig, Wigtownshire. See Eldrio. 

KlBhlewhieldB Tower, a mansion in Lochmaben parish, 
Dumfriesshire, on the right bank of the Water of Ae, 2 
miles NNW of Lochmaben. Partly a modem edifice, 
prtly a massive old tower, it is the seat of Theodore 
Edgar Dickson Bjrne, Esq. (b. 1888 ; sue. 1876), who 
owns 828 acres in the shire, valued at £968 per 

' Elimeaii, a promontory in Sanda island, Orkney. 
Projecting 1} mile southward from the main body of the 
parish, and flimlriTig the W side of Stywick Bay, it 
commands an extensive sea-view, and is crowned bv more 
than twenty vitrified cairns, supposed by Dr Hibbert to 
have been si^al stations of tne Norsemen for com- 
municating with their fleets. 

EhnicUe. See Ellbidgehill. 

Elawlck. See Ellwick. 

Elvanfoot^ an inn and a station in Crawford parish, 
SE Lanarkshire, on the Caledonian railway, adjacent to 
the confluence of Elvan Water and the Clyde, 5^ miles 
SE of Abington, and 12 NW of Mofiat 

ElTan water, a rivulet of Crawford parish, SE 
Lanarkshire, rising, as Shortcleuch Water, on Lowther 
Hill, close to the Dumfriesshire border. Thenoe it 
winds 7} miles north-eastward till, just after passing 
beneath a viaduct of the Caledonian Railway, it fEdls 
into the Clyde at Elvanfoot It descends during this 
course from 2000 to 885 feet above sea-level, and is 
famous for particles of gold which, from time to time, 
have been found in its sands. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 15, 

Elvisgston, an estate, with a mansion, in Gladsmuir 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 2^ miles SSE of Longniddry 

Ely. See Elie. 

Eliiotstown. See Castle-Semfle. 

EmanueL See Manuel. 

Embo, a fishing village, with a public school, in 
Dornoch parish, SE Sutherland, 2} miles NNE of 
Dornoch town. 

Endxlek Water, a stream of Stirlingshire chiefly, but 
partly of Dumbartonshire, formed, at a point 4^ miles 
SSE of Eippen village, bv the confluence of Qourlays 
and Bnmfoot Bmns, whicn, rising among the Gkugmi- 
nock HiUs at 1480 and 1450 feet above sea-level, have a 
southerly course of 3) and 2^ miles. Thence it winds 
29 miles (only 15g as the crow flies) westward, till it 
falls into Loch Lomond, towards the foot, and 2f miles 
WNW of Buchanan House. It bounds or traverses the 
parishes of Gargunnock, Fintry, Balfron, Killeam, Eil- 
maronock, Drymen, and Buchanan, under which its 
chief features — ^waterfalls, villages, and mansions — are 
described ; and it receives a number of affluents, the 
largest of them the Blane. Many parts of Stbathen- 
DBioK, or 'Sweet Innerdale,' are of great beauty ; and 
Kichard Franck, in his auaiat Northern Memoirs (1694), 
speaks of ' the memoraole Anderwick, a rapid river of 
strong and stiff streams, whose fertile banks refresh the 
borderer, and whose fords, if well examined, are argu- 
ments sufficient to convince the angler of trout, as are 
her deepsj when consulted, the noble race and treasure 


of salmon, or remonstrate his iA;nor&nce in the art of 
angling.' The waters are mostly preserved, and th9 
trout are still fairly plentiful, with a flood many pike, 
sea-trout in autnmn, and now and then a salmon. ^- 
Ord. Sur,, shs. 89, 80, 88, 1866-71. 

EnhaUow, an island of Bousay parish, Orknev, in 
the sound between the SW side of Konsay island and 
the Evie district of Pomona. It measures about a mile 
in circumference, has good soil, and is overlooked by 
the headlands and hills of Bousay and Pomona^ The 
strait between it and Bousay is beset by a reef of rocks, 
covered at high water, ana veiy dangerous to unwary 
mariners. That between it and Pomona bears the name 
of EnhaUow Sound ; offers but little width of fair way 
to vessels ; is swept by a rapid tide ; and ought never 
to be attempted except in moderate weather, and with a 
fair wind. 

Ennerdalo, the valley or basin of the river Ekdbiox, 
in Stirling and Dumbarton shires. 

Eunerio. See EmtioE. 

EnneEmrie. See Invbrtjbt. 

Emisrwick. See Innerwick. 

Emiioh or Eunach, a loch towards the head of Glen 
Eunach, in the S of the Bothiemurchus portion of 
Duthil parish, E Livemess-shire. Lying 1700 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost lenflth and breadth 
of 1^ mile and 2) furlongs; is overiiung by Sgoran 
Dubh (8658 feet) on the W, and Braeriach (4248) on the 
E ; and sends off the Allt na Beinne Moire, 10| miles 
northward to the Spey at Craigellachie. — Ord, Sur., 
sh. 78, 1878. 

Ennoch, a hamlet of Eirkmichael parish, NE Perth- 
shire, near the ri^ht bank of the Blackwater, 12} miles 
NW of Blairgowrie. 

Enoch, a hamlet in Portpatrick parish, Wigtownshire, 
li mile NE of Portpatrick town. 

Enoch, a desolate granite-beund loch of Minnigaff 

Sarish, NW Kirkcudbrightshire, on the Ayrshire &r- 
er, 5} miles SSW of the head of Loch Doon. With a 
very irregular outline, it is 6} furlongs long and fh>m 
2 to 4) furlong wide, lies 1650 feet above sea-level, 
contains three islets, and communicates with Loch Doon 
by Eagton and Gala Luies. Its waters teem with fine 
red-fleshed trout, averaging i lb. * Loch Enoch,' save 
Mr Harper, 'is the most apparent rock-basin in the 
district, beiuff situated on the highest part of the granite 
plateau, absolutely bare, grassless, treeless, and weirdly 
wild, every cape, peninsula, and island showing the 
severest ice-action ' (BambUs in GfcUhway, 1876, chap. 
xviiL).— Ord Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Enoch, a lofty hill in theSWofNewCumnockparish, 
Ayrshire, near tiie somve of the Nith, 6 miles S W by S 
of New Cumnock village. It has an altitude of 1865 
feet above sea-level. 

Enoch. See Ennoch. 

Enoch (Gelt aeruuh, 'a place ofpopular assembly'), 
a baronv in Durisdeer pansh, NW DumMesshire, be- 
tween the Nith and Garron Water, belonging to the 
fiftmily of Menzies from the bednning of the 14th cen- 
tury till 1708, when it was sold to James, second Duke 
of Queensberry, thus coming in 1810 to the Duke of 
Buccleuch. Eooch Gastie stood on a peninsular spot 
between a deep ravine and the Garron, and bore, on the 
lintel of its gateway, the date 1281. See Dr Graufurd 
Tait Bamage^ Drumlanrig Castle cmd Du/risdeer (Dum- 
fries, 1876). 

Enoehdhn, a hamlet of Moulin parish, NE Perthshire, 
at the head of Strath Ardle, 10 mUes ENE of Pitlochrie, 
under which it has a post office. 

Enrick, a troutful stream of Urquhart parish, N In- 
verness-shire, issuinff from Lochnan Eun (5x2 furl. \ 
1650 feet) in a detached portion of Eiltarlity. Thenoe 
it winds 11} miles north-north-eastward and eastward 
to Locli Meielie (9x8 fori. ; 872 feet), and thence 6 
miles eastward along wooded Glen Ubqithabt, till at 
Urquhart Bay, near Drumnadrochit, it falls into Loch 
Ness (48 feet). In its upper course it makes a very 
picturesque cascade, called Moral Fall, near which is a 
tarcre cave, where some leading Jacobites found tem- 


% € 


poiary conoealment after tne battle of Cnlloden. — OrcL 
Swr,, ah. 7S, 1878. 

Enaay, an islet of Harris parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Invemess-flhire. Lying 2 miles SW of the main body 
of Harris, it measures 6 miles in circumference, and is 
all verdant and partly cultivated. 

Enterldn, a troutful bum in Durisdeer parish, KW 
Dumfriesshire, rising, close to the Lanarkshire border, on 
the western slope of Lowthse Hill (2377 feet), at an alti- 
tude of 2000 feet above sea-level, and 2} miles S of Lead- 
hills. Thence it runs 5^ mUes south-south-westward, 
till at Enterkinfoot (280 feet), midway between Sanquhar 
and Thomhill, it falls into the Nith. It is followed 
along all its course by the old Leadhill bridle-path from 
Clydesdale into Nithsdale, that famous Enteridn Pass, 
of which the author of Eab and his Friends has written : 
A few steps and you are on its edge, looldng down 
giddv and amazed into its sudden and immense depths. 
We have seen many of our most remarkable glens and 
mountain gorces — Glencroe and Glencoe; Glen Nevis 
(the noblest of them all); the Sma' Glexi, Wordsworth's 
Glen Alnudn (Glenalmond), where Ossian sleeps; the 
lower part of Glen Lyon ; and many others of ail kinds 
of sublimity and beauty — ^but we Know nothing more 
noticeable, more unlike any other place, more impres- 
sive, than this short, deep, narrow, and sudden glen. 
There is only room for ite own stream at the boUom^ 
and the sides rise in one smooth and all but perpen- 
dicular ascent to the height, on the left, of 1895 feet in 
Thirstane Hill, and, on the right, of 1875 feet in the 
exquisitely moulded Stey Gail, or Steep Gable, so steep 
that it is no easy matter keeping your feet, and if you 
slip you might just as well go over a bona fide mural 

grecipice. '' Commodore Rogers" would feel quite at 
ome here ; we all know his merite — 

** Ck>mmodore Bogen wm a man— exoeediogly bravd— partlcolar ; 
He climbed ap veiy high rock»— ezoee&igly hi^i— perpendi- 

And what made this more inexpreaaible, 
TheM same rocks were quite inacoeasiUe." ' 

Defoe, in his Memoirs of the Church qf Scotland, givea a 
vivid descrij^tion of the rescue here by twelve country- 
men of a nunister and five other Covenanters whom a 
company of dragoons was ti^dng prisoners to Edin- 
burgh, July or August 1684. The fall of their com- 
ma n ding officer, shot through the head, so daunted the 
soldiers that without striking a blow--«fter firing one 
volley, however, according to Wodrow— they yielded 
their prisoners to the rescumg party, whose leaders were 
James and Thomas Harkness, of Locherben, in Close- 
bum.— Ord Sur,, sh. 15, 1864. See Dr Craufiird Tait 
Bamage's Drumlcmrig Castle and JOwriadeer (Dumt 
1876), and Dr John Brown's John Leech wnd other Papers 
(Edinb. 1882). 

Enterkine, an estote, with a mansion, in Tarbolton 
parish, Ayrshire, near the right bank of the river Ayr, 
2i miles S by W of Tarbolton town. 

Bnt«rkliifoot, a hamlet in Durisdeer parish, Dum- 
friesshire, at the foot of Enterkin Bum, 6 miles KNW 
of ThomhilL 

Enterkiiui-Yett, a place in Currie parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, traditionally said to have been the scene of a 
san^nary battle between the ancient Caledonians and 
an invading force of Scandinavians. 

Eniie, a namlet, a quoad sacra parish, and a district 
in the NW of Ban£^hire. The hiuttlet lies 8i miles 
ENE of Fochabers, under which it has a post office. 
The quoad sacra parish, containing also the village of 
Port Gordon, comprises the eastern part of Bellie parish 
and the westem part of Rathven. It is in the presby- 
tery of Fordyoe and synod of Aberdeen ; the minister's 
stipend is £120. The parochial church was built in 
1785, and, as enlarged in 1815 and 1822, contains 400 
sittings. There is also a Free church ; and two public 
schools, Enzie and Port Gordon, with respective accom- 
modation for 170 and 286 children, had (18^0) an average 
attendance of 112 and 171, and grante of £100, 17s. 
and £115, 2& The district ezten(& from the river Spey 
574 ^' 


to Buckie Bum, but is popularly regarded as comprising 
all Bellie and Rathven parishes, rop. of qiuMd sacra 
parish (1871) 2251, (1881) 2418.— Oni. Sur„ sh. 95, 

Eomdall. a headland in Barvas parish, Lewis, Outer 
HebridjBS, Boss-shire, 2) miles S£ of the Butt of Lewis. 

Eona, a small island of Eilfinichen and Eilvickeon 
parish, AjgyUshire, on the W side of Mull, in Loch- 
na-Eeal, 2 miles NE of Inch Kenneth. It belonged 
anciently to the Abbey of lona, and is now the pro- 
per^ of the Duke of .Aj^^vlL It was described in 1549, 
by Dean Munro, as ' fernle and fall of com,' but now is 
used only for sheep pasture. 

Eousmil, a rocky islet on the W side of North Uist, 
in the Outer Hebrides. It measures i mile in circuit, 
and is notable as a place for capturine seals. 

Eoy, an islet of the Outer Hebrides, between Barra 
and South Uist. 

Erchless CRsUa, a mansion in Eiltarlitv parish, In- 
vemess-shire, near the left bank of the Beauly, 5 frir- 
loncs K of the confiuenoe of the Glass and the Farrar, 
ana 10 miles WSW of Beauly town. A modernised, 
yet still a stately old pile, lofty and narrow, it stands 
in a fine park, completely encircled by wooded hills. 
From the 15th century onwards it has been the seat 
of the Chisholms, one of whom vaunted that in all 
the world there were but three entitled to the designa- 
tion 'The' — ^the Pope, the King, and the Chisholm. 
They were zealous Jacobites, garrisoning their castle 
aftor Killiecrankie, and fightinff at Sherifimuir and 
CuUoden. The Chisholm of to-£iy, James Sutherland 
Chisholm (b. 1806 ; sue. 1859), holds 94,828 acres in 
the shire, valued at £6566 per annum.— Ord Sur., sh. 
88, 1881. 

ErcUdoiuL See Eaki^ston. 

Eredine, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilchrenan and 
Dalavich ^rish, Ar|nrllshire, near the head of Loch 
Awe, 10 nules N by W of Lochgilphead. 

EriboU, a sea-lodi in Dumess parish, N Sutherland, 
opening from the sea between Whiten Head and Bispond 
Point, and penetrating lOJ miles south-south-westward. 
Ite breadth varies between 5 furlongs and 2^ miles ; it 
forms, over much of ite expanse, particularly at Cazuas- 
an-Duin Bav, 7 miles from ite entrance, one of the 
finest natural harbours in the world, with depth ranging 
from 15 to 60 fathoms ; and just to the N of that bay 
it is crossed by Heilem ferry. Ite eastem shore, for 4 
miles southward from Whiten Head, presente a series of 
caves and arches, pronounced by Dr Macculloch 'the 
most extensive and extraordinary on any part of the 
Scottish coast ; ' and ite upper part is overhung by 
magnificent alpine suminita--Ben Hope (3040 feet) on the 
E, and Crann Stacach (2680) on the W.— Ord Sur,, sh. 
114, 1880. 

Erichdie Water, a stream of Blair Athole parish, N 
Perthshire, formed, at a point 4^ miles N by E of Kin- 
loch Bannoch, by the confluence of the Allt Sleibh and 
the A^ft na Feith Beidhe, which, rising at altitudes of 
1550 and 1600 feet above sea-level, have an east-south- 
easterly and an east-north-easterly course of 8i and 5 
miles. The Erichdie itself runs 104 miles east-bv- 
northward, past Trinafour and Auchleeks, alouf; a wild 
glen, called from it Glen Erichdie ; and falls into the 
Garr^ at Struan, 4 miles W of Blair Athole village. It 
Ib joined, H mile above Trinafour inn, by the Allt 
Choin, running 1} mile south-eastward from Loch Choin 
(7i X 1 furL ; 1360 feet), and sometimes regarded as ite 
parent stream.— (Mi. Svr., sh. 55, 1869. 

Exioht, a river of NE Perthshire, formed near Strone 
House by the confluence of the Airdlk and the Black- 
WATEB, and winding 10 miles south-eastward, mainly 
along the boundary between Blair;g[owrie and Battray 
parishes, partly across Bendochy, till it fiills into the 
Isla, 2^ miles NNE of Coupar-Angus. During this 
course tne ' ireful ' Ericht descends from 490 to 115 feet 
above sea-level ; ite bed is rock^, ite current rapid and 
tiybulent ; and the scenery on its banks in many parte, 
pJiticularly at Craiohall and in the neighbourhood of 
Blairgowrie town, is singularly romantic. A splendid 


saliion stream before its waters were befouled by the 
works of Blaiij^wrie, it still contains a good abundance 
of treat, running from i lb. to 2 or even 8 lbs.— Orct. 
JSur.f sh. 56, 1870. 

Eilcht^ a loch on the mntnal border of Perth and 
Inyemess shires, and a stream of Fortingall parish, 
Perthshire. The loch, beginning 1 mile aW of Dal- 
whinnie station, extends 14{ miles south-south-westward; 
forms, for 6 miles, the boundary between the two 
counties ; has a varying width of ^ mile and 9 furlongs ; 
and lies among the central Grampians at an elevation of 
1153 feet above sea-leveL Overhung on its W side by 
the precipitous mountain-range of Ben Aldbk (8757 
feet), on its £ by Ben Udiaman (8806), it presents an 
aspect of wild desolation and solemn grandeur, having 
nowhere on its shores any other signs of human habita- 
tion than a couple of shooting lodges and a shefjherd's 
hut. The fishing is capital, tne saSmo-feroz running up 
to 20 and 25 lbs., whilst the trout, thouffh rather shy, 
are very plentiful. The stream, issuing fiom the foot of 
the locn, runs 5| miles south-south-eastward to Lodi 
Bannoch (668 feet), at a point 7 furlongs from that loch's 
head; flows, for the first mile or two, in slow, deep 
current ; and is afterwards a sheer torrent, lashing and 
tearing its banks with wild fdry. — Ord. Sur,. shs. 68, 
54, 1878. 

Erickstanelirae, a hill (1566 feet) contiguous to the 
meeting-^int of Dumfries, Peebles, and I^nark shires, 
overhanyng the high road from Dumfries to Edinburgh 
at a pomt 5 miles NNW of Moffat, and terminating at 
the road's side in an immense hollow, noticed in our 
article Annandale's Beef Stand. 

Erigmore. See Bisnam. 

Eiina, an estate, with a mansion, in South Enapdale 
parish, Argyllshire, on the W shore of Loch Fjne, 5 
miles N by W of Tiirbert 

Erlsa, a loch in the NW of Mull, Arffyllshire, com- 
mencing at a point 4 miles WSW of Tobermory. It 
extends 5 miles south-eastward, has a width of ] mile, 
contains salmon, grilse, and trout in abundance, and 
sends off a streamlet 4 miles east-south-eastward to the 
Sound of Mull at Arcs Castie. 

Exisay, a small island of tiie Outer Hebrides, Inver- 
nesa-shire, between North Uist and Harris. 

Exlaka, a small inhabited island of Ardchattan parish, 
Aigyllshire, in the mouth of Loch Creran, 8 furlongs W 
of Shian ferry. With utmost length and breadth of li 
mile and 5 furlongs, it rises to a height of 155 feet, and 
ia severed from the mainland by a strait Httie more than 
100 yards wide at the narrowest, and dij at low tide. 
It presentsabeautifulappearance, being variously wooded, 
pastoral, and arable; and forms a pleasant farm. — Ord, 
5i*r., sh. 45, 1876. 

Briaka (Norse Eiriksey), an island of South Uist parish. 
Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, separated hj a cniumel 
2 miles wide from the S end of South Uist island. It 
measures 8 miles in length from N to S, and 1} mile in 
breadth ; and it is notoble for having been the place 
where Prince Charles Edward first set foot on the kioff- 
dom of his ancestors, 28 July 1745. Hetlanded with his 
attendants from the Douieue, and passed the night in 
the house of the taclnman, Angus Macdonald—an un- 
comfortable night enough, since the beds were few, and 
the Prince resigned his to Sir Thomas Sheridan, whilst 
the smoke from the chimneyless fire obliged him ever 
and anon to go out into the fr^osh air. ' Wbat a plague is 
the matter with that fellow,' asked honest Angus, 'that 
he can neither sit nor stand still, and neither kmp within 
nor without doors f The cluumel between Enska and 
South Uist is used as a boat harbour for the export of 
local produce. Pop. (1841) 80, (1861) 896, (1871) 429, 
(1881) 466. 

Briaort, a long, narrow sea-loch in Lochs parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides, Boss-shire. Opening from the Minch 
at a point 7 miles S of Stomoway, it penetrates 10 miles 
west-south-westward to within li mile of the upper part 
of Loch Seaforth ; is 1} mile wide at the entrance, t>ut 
only from 2 to 7 frurlongs in its upper reaches ; and con- 
tainsy in its mouth, fifteien hilly islets (the Barkin Isles) 


and many excellent anchorages for ships of any size. 
One of its islets, called Tanneray, contains a remarkable 
cave ; on another, EUan Collumkill (1 x } mile), the 
largest of the group, stood a chapel dedicated to St 
Cohimba.-— t>r(2. Sur,, sh. 99, 1858. 

Ermit See Abmit. 

Eman Water, a rivulet in the Edin^^lassie section of 
Tarland parish, W Aberdeenshire, rising close to the 
boundary with Banffshire, and running 7i miles east- 
south-eastward, till it falls into the Don at Invereman, 
after a total descent of 1800 ioet^Ord, 8ur., sh. 75, 

Exnorogo, a small loch near the centre of Orossmichael 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. Lying 880 feet above sea- 
level,, it has an utmost len^h and breadth of 8 by IJ 
furlongs, and contains two islets, which formerly were 
frequented by sea-gidls. A streamlet, flowing from it 
to the Dee, &ves a meal mill that serves for nearly all 
the parish ; otherwise the loch might be advantageously 
drained. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Erne. See Earn. 

Erochd. See Ebioht. 

ErriboU. See Ebiboll. 

Eixickstanebrae. See Ebioestanebrae. 

Errol, a village and pariah in the Carse of Gowrie, 
Perthshire. The village stands 5 furlongs from the Tav's 
N bank, and 1^ mile S of Errol station on the Dundee 
and Perth section of the Caledonian, which station is 
lOJ miles WSW of Dundee and 11^ E of Perth, and 
near which is Errol post office, with monev order, sav- 
ings' bank, insurance, and railway telegraph departments. 
Crowning a gentie eminence that commands a delightful 
view, piracularly towards the S and W, it is under the 
superiority of Mrs Molison ; serves as a business centre 
for much of the Carse district ; is inhabited mainly by 
weavers and operatives ; and has a post office of its own 
under Errol, a branch of the Union Bank, 2 chief inns, 
gas-works, 2 schools, a readiujg-room and library, and fairs 
on the last Wednesday of July and the Saturday after 
the first Fridav of October. The parish church, built 
in 1881 after designs by Gillespie Graham, is a cruci- 
form Norman structure, with a conspicuous square tower, 
and contains 1450 sittings. There are also a Free church 
and a U.P. church, tiie latter containing 751 sittings. 
Pop. (1841) 1147, (1861) 1086, (1871) 918, (1881) 890. 

The parish, containing also the village of Leetown, is 
bounded N by ^nnaird, NE by Inchture, SE and S by 
the Firtii of Tav, W by St Madoes and Einfauns, and 
NW by Eilspincue. Its utmost length, from ENE to 
WSW, is 6 miles; its breadth varies oetween IJ and 3) 
miles ; and its area is 11,754 acres, of which 2229 are 
foreshore and 172 water. The shore is everywhere flat, 
nowhere exceeding 20 feet above high water mark ; and 
the eastern interior, to the extent of half of the entire 
area, is all but a dead level— its highest point Middle- 
bank (89 feet). The western district is more diversified, 
having sevoml low ridges extending nearly parallel with 
the Tay, and attaining, near Mains of Errol, a summit 
altitude of 156 feet. Three or four very slu^^h stream- 
lets, locally called pows, rise near or beyond the north- 
em and north-western boundaries, and, winding through 
the interior, carry the drainage to the Firth of Ta^r. 
FossUiferous sandstone and limestone are the predomi- 
Dant rocks. The sandstone is ft good building material, 
and has been largely quarried at Clashbeimie ; whilst the 
limestone, though coarse, was formerly worked at Murie. 
The soil tiiroughout the flat tracts is carse clay or strong 
aigiUaoeous loam, on tiie ridges is blackish earth, and, 
as a whole, is singularly fertile. Scarcely a rood of land 
is waste; little more than 200 acres are under wood, 
including hedgerows; and the rest of the land is so 
richly cultivated and so beautiftdly enclosed as well to 
compensate by its luxuriance of aspect for any absence 
of the picturesque. Two standing stones are at Clash- 
bennie and near Inchmartin ; an ancient artificial mound, 
the Law-EnoU, rises in Murie Park ; and at West-town 
is a small ruined pre-Beformation chapeL Considerable 
commerce, both in export and in import, is done at the 
Httie harbour of Port Allen. The lands of Errol were 


j< :*;<;«!: 

mnted bv William the Lyon (1166-1214) to his butler, 
w illiam de Haya, whose descendants, the Hays, obtained 
the hereditary high constableship of Scotland in 1816, 
and the earldom of Errol in 1452. (See Litncabtt and 
SLAms.) By them the estate was sold in 1684, and, 
after passing through a nnmber of hands, it was par- 
chased in 1872 by the late Francis Molison, Esq., who, 
at mat cost, had restored the old mansion, a three- 
stoned qnadrancnlarpile, 100 by 80 feet, with courtyard 
in the centre, wnen, upon 10 Oct. 1874, it was reduced 
by fire to a mere shell, the damage bein^ estimated at 
£9000. Since then rebuilt, Errol House is now the seat 
of his widow, Mrs Molison, who holds 2185 acres in the 
shire, valued at £7089 per annum. Other mansions, 
separately noticed, are, Murie House, Megsinch Castle, 
and Gouraiehill; and, in all, lOproprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 and 
£500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 18 of from £20 to £50. 
Errol is in the presbytery of Perth and the synod of 
Perth and Stirling; the living is worth £897. Pitrodie 
U.P. church, on the NW border, 2i miles ITW of the 
village, contains 820 sittings; and Errol public. Glen- 
doick public, and Errol female industrial schools, with 
respective accommodation for 224, 180, and 147 children, 
haa (1880) an average attendance of 157, 180, and 147, 
and grants of £112, 4&, £66, 4s., and £70, 2s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £20,089, 5s. 6d., (1882) £22,570, 14s. lid. 
Pop. (1801) 2658, (1831) 2992, (1861) 2759, (1871) 2504, 
(1881) 2421.— Or(2. Sur,, sh. 48, 1868. 

Erddne (18th centuir Irschen), a parish on the 
northern border of Benirewahire, contaming the post 
office, village, and railwav station of Bishopton, 5 miles 
NNW of Paisley. It is bounded N and NE by the river 
Clyde, E by Inchinnan, S by Houston, and SW and W 
hj Kilmalcolm. Ite utmost length, from E to W, is 7 
nules ; ite breadth, from IT to S, varies between 1{ and 
SJ miles ; and ite area is 909^ acres, of which 1189 
are foreshore and 868 water. Tlie Cltbb, a stetely sea 
river, sweeping 6| miles west-north-west\rard, here 
widens from 1 furlong to If mile, and here is crossed 
b^ Erskine and West Ferries, the former just above Old 
Kilpatrick village, witii quays so as to serve for horses 
ana carriages as well as for foot passengers ; the latter 
opposite Dumbarton Castle. The Eenfrewshire shore 
is much of it low and flat, and throughout all the eastern 
interior the surface nowhere exceeds 150 feet above sea- 
leveL The western division is hillier, attaining 317 feet 
near Netherston, 600 at Barscube, 588 at Gallahill, 626 
near Bogside, and 611 near Langside — ^heighte that com- 
mand ma^niificent views alons the Clyde, up Gare Loch 
and Loch Long, and away to the Grampians. Daigavel 
Bum traces most of the southern bounoary, and several 
short bums rise in the interior, and run to the Clyde ; 
whilst springs of excellent water are everrwhere plentiful. 
The rocks of the E are chiefly carboniferous, and those 
of the W emptive. Minerals of the zeolitic family 
abound in the latter; and fine specimens have been 
found of mesotype and amethystine quartz. Sandstone, 
for building purposes, has been worked in three quarries ; 
and trap rock, for road metel, in several places. Tlie 
soil is mainly either a light friable retentive earth, with 
tilly subsoil, or a sharp dry earth, incumbent upon 
trap. Nearly a twelfth of the entire area is imder 
woqd ; about a fifth is pastoral, mossy, or waste ; and 
all the rest is arable. In 1226 the barony of Erskine 
was held by one Henry de Erskine, of whose descendante 
the fifth had a grant of Alloa, the twelfth was created 
Earl of Mar, and bv the fourteenth this property was 
sold in 1638 to Sir John Hamilton of Orbiston. From 
the Hamiltons it was purchased in 1708 by the noble 
family of Blantyre, and it now belongs to Charles 
Stuart, twelfth Baron Blantyre (b. 1818 ; sue 1880), 
who owns 4449 acres in the shire, valued at £9016 
per annum. The present mansion stends on a rising- 
ground above the Clyde, { mile WNW of Erskine 
ferry, and 2 miles NNE of Bishopton. Built in 1828 
after desi^s by Sir Bobert Smirke, it is a splendid 
Tudor edifice, and commands a view as varied as it is 
beautiful. One feature in the finely-wooded park is an 

obelisk, 80 feet high, erected to the memory of Bobert, 
eleventJi Lord Blantvre (1777-1880), who, a^ter serving 
through the Peninsular campaign, was killed by a stray 
bullet during the Brussels insurrection. Dargavel haa 
been separately noticed, as also has Bargarran of witeh- 
craft fame. The Eev. Walter Young, D.D., F.R.S., 
and the Bev. Andrew Stewart, M.D., the former famous 
as a musician, the latter distinguished for ^eat skill in 
pulmonary complainte, were ministers of Erskine, the 
ono till 1814, the other till 1889. Seven proprietors- 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwaras, 5 of 
between £100 and £500, 9 of from £50 to £100, and 22 
of from £20 to £50. Erskine is in the presbytery of 
Greenock and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living i» 
worth £387. The yBiish church, 1^ mile NNE of 
Bishopton, was built in 1818, and is a nandsome Gothic 
edifice, containing 500 sittings. At Lakobank there 
is a quoad sacra church, at Bishopton a Free church ; 
and two public schools, Erskine and XJndercraig, with 
respective accommodation for 245 and 118 children, had 

(1880) an average attendance of 187 and 54, and grante 
of £108, 9s. 6d. and £58b. 68. Valuation (1860) 
£12,048, (1882) £20,098, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 847, 

(1881) 978, (1861) 1457, (1871) 1566, (1881) 1653 — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 80, 1866. 

Elk (Cymric toysg, Gael, uisge, ' water '), a river of E 
Dumfriesshire, formed by the confluence of the Black 
and White Esks, the former of which rises in the W of 
Eskdalemuir parish, on the NE slope of Jocks Shoulder, 
at an altitude of 1600 feet, and thence runs 12) mileft 
south-south-eastward, whilst the White Esk, springing 
from the NE acclivity (2000 feet) of Ettrick Pen, in th& 
N of the same parish, runs 14) miles south-by-eastward, 
on the way bemg joined by Gaswald Water, Moodlaw 
and Bae iBums, and a number of lesser tributaries. 
They unite, 490 feet above sea-level, at the SE comer 
of Eskdalemuir; and from this point the Esk winds 
22) miles south-eastward, and south-south-eastward 
through Westerkirk, Langholm, and Canonbie parishes, 
then for 6 furlongs flows south-south-westward along 
the English Border, and finally passes off into Cumber- 
land on ite way, past Lon^wn, to the head of the 
Solway Firth. Ite principsi affluente, durinff ite 
Scottish course, are Megget Water, Wauchope Water, 
Ewes Water, Tarras Water, and Liddel Water, all 
under chaise of the Esk and Liddel Fisheries Associa- 
tion, and aJQ, like itself, affording capital sport The 
salmon disease, however, has wrought great navoc here, 
for, according to a teble prepared by the Chief Con- 
stable of Dumfriesshire, between 1 Jan. 1881 and 81 
March 1882, 422 salmon, 8 sea-trout, 3 herlinff, 5 parr, 
and 1 yellow trout were found dead in the Esk and ite 
tributeries, besides 196 salmon and 1 herHng that were 
destroyed as bein^ affected by disease. Ite memories, 
ite geology, and ite scenery — ^heathery uplands in ite 
higner reaches, and wooded luxuriant haughs after it 
passes Langholm — are noticed under Eskdalb, Dum- 
FRiBSSHiBB, and the parishes that it traverses. — Ord, 
Sur., shs. 16, 10, 11, 1864-68. 

Edc, a river, flowing through Midlothian into the 
Firth of Forth at Mu^elbuigh. It is composed of tho 
North and South Esks, which unite 7 furlongs below 
Dalkeith Palace. The North Esk rises in the parish ot 
Linton, Peeblesshire, at Boarstone and Easter Cairn- 
hill, and, after a brief course through barren moorland 
districte, touches the boundary of Midlothian. This 
boundary it follows for 2) miles, and receives the Carlope 
Bum and some other small tributaries. It proceeds in 
a north-easterly direction through or along ue borders 
of the parishes of Penicuik, I^sswade, Glenoorse, Code- 
pen, and Dalkeith ; and in ite upper course, near Carlops, 
passes through 'Habbib's Howe,' the scene descried 
in Allan Ramsay's €fmtle Sh^herd. The moat noteble 
portion of the valley of the North Esk is where it flows 
through Boslin Glen and Hawthobndek, presenting 
here a scene of striking beauty, whidi is visited by thou- 
sands of strangers, attracted not less by the picturesque 
elemente of the scene than by the literary and historic 
recollections of the spot Below Lasswade the North E^ 

tzsveraes the magnifioent pleasare-groimdB of Melville 
Castle, and afterwards enters the policies of Dalkeith 
Palace, joining with the South £sk, uter a north-easterly 
course of 17 miles, at a scene of great sylvan beauty. 
The basin of the North Eak abounds in valuable minerals 
of the Carboniferous formation, while from Penicuik to 
Laflflwade the abundance of fine springs has made its 
banks the seat of prosperous paper manufactures. Mr 
Watson Lyall, in ms Sportman*9 Gfuide^ says : — ' While 
in a scenic point of view the Korth Esk is famous, in a 

giscatorial sense it i^ we are glad to say, a ^peat deal 
etter than it was, owins to the enterprise and judgment 
of the proprietors, whi^ is all the more praiseworthy, 
as their exertions were attended with ^peat expense. 
The refuse of all the paper-miUs, etc., on its banks used 
to be thrown into it, making it utterly worthless, but 
a great improvement has been wrought.' The South 
Esk rises, at an altitude of 1700 feet, on the western 
slope of Blaokhofb Scab (2186 feet), in the southern 
extremity of Temple parish; and thence winds 19 
miles north-by-eastward through or along the borders 
of Temnle, Borthwick, Carrington, Cockpen, Newbattle, 
and Dalkeitii. This stream receives a number of tribu- 
taries, including the Fullarton or Bedside Bum, Gore 
Water, and Dalhousie Bum, all of which vield trout of a 
small size, which are eagerlv sooght for, the waters being 
mostly free. The village of Temple is ouiet and remote, 
but is notable for its old church, once tne seat of a body 
of Bed Friars or Temi>lars, established by David I. , and 
at one time endowed with large possessions ; lower dowui 
the stream flows past Dalhousie Castle, surrounded by 
picturesque grounds, in which the river forms a pleasing 
feature, and the magnificent park of Newbattle Abbey, 
famous for its dgantic beeches, a short distance below 
which it joins the North Esk. The basin of the South 
Esk is also rich in coal measures, and in scenic attraction 
it is little inferior to the companion stream, although 
not associated with so much history or romance. Below 
the confluence of the two streams, the Esk winds 82 
imles north-by-eastward through Dalkeith Park and 
alonff an alluvial vallev, overhung by the eminence on 
which the parish church of Inveresk is situated, passins 
the villages of Cowpitts, Monktonhall, and Inveresk, ana 
reaching the sea at MirssELBiraoH. Of the many bridges 
crossing these streams, the most interesting is the old 
bridge at Musselbursh, which is of great antiquity, and 
is popularly believed to be of Boman origin. At a time 
when few oridges existed, this passage of the Esk was 
of great strategic importance, and is notable as having 
been crossed by the Scottish amiy before the battle of 
Pinkie in 1547, and dso in 1745 by the Highland army 
under Prince Charles Edward, previous to the battle at 
Prestonpans.— C>r(2. Sur,, shs. 24, 82, 1864-57. 

Eflkadale, a hamlet and a mansion in Eiltarlity 
parish, Inverness-shire, on the right bank of the river 
Beauly, 7 miles SW of Beauly town. The hamlet is 
small and rural, but contains a neat Boman Catholio 
church, St Mary's (1826 ; 600 sittings). The mansion, 
1 mile nearer Beauly, is a handsome edifice, and com- 
mands an extensive view of Strathglaas. 

Eakbank. See Dalkeith. 

Esk, Black. See Esk, Dumfriesshire. 

Eskbridge, a station adjacent to the North Esk river, 
at the boundary between Penicuik and Lasswade parishes, 
Edinburghshire, on the Edinburgh and Penicuik rail- 
way, 1 mile N£ of Penicuik. 

fiakdale, the eastern and smallest one of the three 
districts of Dumfriesshire. It is loosdy xmdentood to 
be conterminous with all the Scottish territory within 
the basin of the Esk river ; but it has sometimes been 
treated as excluding the basin of the tributary rivulet 
Ewes, which often is styled Ewesdale; and, on the 
other hand, it is commonly taken to include the parish 
of Half Morton, which lies beyond the basin of the Esk, 
and IB drained into the Sark. The parishes undoubtedly 
comprised in it are Eskdalemuir, Westerkirk, Lang- 
holm, and Canonbie. The first and the second of these 
parishes, most of the third, and all Ewes, are hilly or 
mountainous, lying within the Southern Highlands, and 


thinly peopled ; but the southern part of Langholm and 
all Canonbie and Half Morton are a fine flat country. 
Eskdale, in the early part of the 12th century, was 
nearly all divided among the Anglo-Norman families of 
Avenel, Soulis, and Eossedal ; in the times of Bobert I. 
and David 11. , was mostly acquired bv the Douglases ; 
continued to be held by them tiU their forfeiture in 
1455 ; passed then to the MaxweUs, and continued to 
be hela by them throughout the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies. A regality over it was erected in &vour of the 
Douglases; passed, through the Maxwells, to the 
Scotts of Buccleuch ; and, at the abolition of hereditary 
jurisdictions in 1747, was compensated by the payment 
of £1400 to the Duke of Bucdeuch. 

Eakdalemuir, a parish of E Dumfriesshire, whose 
church stands, 620 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of the White Esk, 14 miles NW of Langhobn, 
under which there is a post office of Eskdalemuir. It is 
bounded N by Ettrick in Selkirkshire, N£ by Boberton 
and Teviothead in Boxburghshire, E and S£ by Wester- 
kirk, S and SW by Hutton, and NW by Moffkt. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 12| miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from E to W, is 9^ miles; and its area is 
48,518i acres, of which 236} are water. The Black 
E^, lisinff on Jocks Shoulder in the W, runs 12| miles 
soulh-soutn-eastward, close to the western and south- 
westem border, tracing, indeed, for the last mile of its 
course the southern boundary with Westerkirk; and 
the White Esk. from its source on Ettrick Pen, flows 
14| miles south-by-eastward, cutting the parish into 
two pretty equal parts. By these two streams and 
their innumerable affluents, of which Fingland Bum 
and Gakwald Water form picturesque cascades, this 
parish has been channelled into mountain ridges, 
neathy moorland most of it— hence its name EskcuiU' 
muir. At the confluence of the White and Black Eski 
to form the river Esk, the surfiice declines to 490 feet 
above the sea ; and elevations, northwards thence, to 
the left or E of the White Esk, are the Pike (1001 feet). 
Blaeberry Hill (1876), •Stock HiB (1561), ^Quicknin- 
gair mil (1601), and *Blue Cairn Hill (1715), where 
asterisks mark tiiose summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. Between the White and Black 
Esks, again, rise Castle Hill (1054), Ashy Bank (1894). 
•Ettkiok Pen (2269), and *Loch Fell (2256) ; and 
lastly, to the right or W of the Black Esk are •Hart 
Fell (1085), Hareffrain Big (1386), and *Jocks Shoulder 
(1754). The rocKs are mainly Silurian, but include 
some Old Bed sandstone and conglomerate. The soil 
in general of the pastoral tracts is deep but mossy, 
carpeted with carices or with coarse herbage at tha 
best; but some of the slopes alon^ the White Edc'a 
banks are green and afford good grazing ; and here, too, 
are some 500 acres of holm-land — ^naturally wet, but 
greatly improved by draining[->that repay the trouble 
of cultivation. On every height almost are tiaces of 
ancient camps, circular, oval, or rectangular, the most 
curious of wnich, that of Castle O'er, h£s been noticed 
in a separate article. Of two stone circles upon Coatt 
farm, the more entire measured 90, and the other 
(partlydestroyed by the White Esk) 840, feet The 
Bev. William Brown, D.D. (1766-1885), author of 
AntiguUia qf the Jews, was minister for more thui 
forty years. The Duke of Buccleuch owns two-thirds 
of the parish, 2 other proprietors holding each an 
annual ^ue of more, and 2 of less, than £500. Dis* 
joined from Westerkirk in 1708, Eskdalemuir is in the 
presbytery of Langholm and synod of Dumfries ; tht 
living is worth £405. The church, bmlt in 1826, is a 
neat edifice, containing 898 sittings. A Free church is 
at Datikgtok ; and two public schools, Eskdalemuir 
and Davinffton, with respective accommodation for 60 
and 118 chBdr^ had (1880) an average attendance d 
18 and 82, and grants of £28, 8s. and £42, 19s. Talua* 
tion (1860) £8899, a882) £11,060, ISs. 5d. Pop. 
(1801) 587, (1881) 650, (1861) 590, (1871) 551, (1881) 
UZ.—Ord, Sur,, shs. 16, 10, 1864. 

Eak, North, a quoad Mura parish in Inveresk parish, 
Edinburghshjie, adljacent to Musselburgh post oflice and 



station, and inclnding the Mosselbnrgh snbnrb of 
Fisherrow. It is in tho presbytery of Dalkeith and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the nominal stipend 
is £120. The church, in Fisherrow, was built in 1838 
as a chapel of ease, and contains 1000 sittings. See 

Eak, North (the Leva of Ptolemy), a river of Forfar 
and Kincardine shires, formed, at an altitude of 820 
feet above sea-level, by the confluence of Lee and Mark 
Waters at Invermark, near Lochlee church, 17 miles 
KW of EdzelL Thence it winds 29 miles south-east- 
ward, till, at a point 4i miles NNE of Montrose, it 
enters the North Sea. During the last 15 miles of its 
course it roughly traces the boundary between Kincar- 
dine and Forfar shires; and from head to mouth it 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Lochlee, Edzell, 
Fettercaim, Stracathro, Logiepert, Marykirk, Montrose, 
and St Cyrus. Its upper tributaries are, on the right, 
the Effock, the Keeny, and the Mooran, the water of 
the last of which supplies the town of Brechin with 
500,000 gallons a day. The works, constructed in 
1874, cost over £15,000, and the suppler is conveved 
10 nules. On the left bank the Esk receives the Tarf 
at Tarfside, the Tiurret at Millden, between Lochlee 
and Edzell, and lower down the Bums of Meallie and 
AuchmulL The course of the North Esk where it 
leaves the Grampians is rufi^ed, wooded, and picturesque, 
and that part which foirms the county boundary 
pierces for a number of miles through a red sandstone 
gorse. It is crossed by the ' Loups Bridge ' and Gan- 
nochy Bridge, the latter erected in 1782 by James Black, 
a farmer in the district Passing the village of Edzell, 
it receives West and Cmick Waters at Stracathro, and 
Luther Water at Balmakewan, all from the Howe of 
the Meams ; then after passing Cndgo, Logic, Montrose 
Water-works, and Kinnaber Mills on the right, and 
Harykirk village on the left, it loses itself at length in 
the ocean. On 20 Sept 1861 the Queen and the Prince 
Consort, with Princess Alice and Prince Louis of Hesse, 
drove down Glenesk from Invermark to The Bum, in the 
course of their Fettercaim or * second great ' expedition. 
The river gives a title to a branch of the Carnegie 
family. Sir John, younger brother to the first Earl of 
Southesk, was created Lord Lour in 1639, Earl of Ethie 
in 1 647, and in 1662 received the titles of Earl of North- 
esk and Lord Bosehill, the latter from an eminence on 
the banks of the river. (See Ethie.) The river offers 
good sport, containing as it does, salmon, sea trout, 
and common trout The net fishings are valuable, 700 
to 800 salmon having been taken on the opening day of 
the season below Marykirk Bridge. — Ord, Sur,, sha 66, 
57, 1871-68. 

Eskaide. See Mubselbuboh. 

Esk, Sonth, a river of Forfarshire, 482 n^^ Ions, 
rising in the NW comer of the county, at an sltituae 
of 8150 feet above sea-level, within i mile of feeders of 
the Callader and Muick, both of which flow to the Dee. 
It flows SE for 202 mil^ to Inverquharity, to which 

Soint it is a rugged Highland stream, and thence it 
owB due E to Montrose. In its upper reaches its 
waters are supplemented by Lochs Branay and Wharral, 
Bottal and Glenmoy Bums, flowing in on the E bank, 
and on the W side by White Water from Glen Doll, 
Drums Bum, and Pbosen Water, joining it atCortachy. 
Carity Bum enters the Esk from the W, and Glenquiech 
Bum enters from the N. The South Esk then passes 
Tannadice and Finhaven Castle, and, at the last-named 
place, it receives the Lemno, and further down the 
NoBAN, a beautiful and rapid stream. Leaving Auldbar 
Castle on the right, the South Esk passes Brechin with 
its castle and cathedral, then the munds of Kinnaird 
Castle ; and soon after receiving the row, a sluggish bum 
7 miles Ions, expands into Montrose Basin, an inland 
lake at hign tide 2| miles by II mile, and 7 miles in 
•ircomference. At low tide the oasin is a melancholy 
expanse of mud with a narrow stream at the S side, 
and the Ta^cock Bum flowing in at the N£ corner. 
The basin is joined to the sea by two channels which 
Tennite and toim Bossie Island or Inchbrayock. The 


wider of the two outlets is crossed by a suspension 
bridge, built in 1828 at a cost of £20,000, and by the 
new rulway viaduct. (See Nobth Bbitish Railway. ) 
From this point seawanls the South Esk presents a fine 
navigable cnanneL It traverses or bounds the parishes 
of C^rtachv and Clova, Kirriemuir, Tannadice, Oath- 
law, Aberlemno, Caxeston, Brechin, Famell, Dun, 
Maryton, Montrose, and C^aig. The South Esk with 
its tributaries has some capitalfishin^, but it is largely 
preserved. Trout-fishing, however, is plentiful in all 
the streams, and there are three varieties of this fish — 
one yellowish, another whitish, and a third very dark, 
with small red spots deeply imbedded, and like a pike. 
The title Earl of Southesk was bestowed in 1683 on 
Lord Cunegie, formerly Sir David Camegie of Kinnaird. 
The peerage was forfeited in 1716 on account of the 
participation of the fifth Earl in the rising of the 
fifteen, but was restored in the person of the present 
Earl in 1855. See KisvA.iBJ>.—Urd, Sur., shs. 65, 56, 
57, 1870-68. 

Eak, White. See Ess, Dumfriesshiie. 

Eslemont. See Esslbmont. 

Eslln. See Glekessland. 

Esngan, a bum of Ardchattan parish, Argyllshire, 
rising at an altitude of 2100 feet above sea-level, and 
runnmg 4| miles southward to Loch Etive at Inveres- 
ragan, 2^ miles N W of Bunawe. —Ord, Sur, , sh. 45, 1876. 

Essefone, a cataract in Ulva island, Argyllshire, on 
a tiny hill stream fallinc into Ulva North Loch. Above 
it are two lesser waterfiSls ; and its own is an unbroken 
and precipitous descent of 90 feet 

Eeaenflide, a loch near the centre of Ashkirk parish, 
W Roxburghshire. Lying 680 feet above sea-level, it 
measures t^^j ^ mile, abounds in fine trout and perch, 
and sends off a streamlet to the Ale. — Ord, Sur., sk 17, 

Esset, a troutful bum of Tullynessle parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, rising among the Correen Hills, at an altitude of 
1800 feet above sea-level, and running 6^ miles south- 
eastwsu^ across the middle of the parish, till it falls into 
the Don 9 furlongs below the Bridge of Alford. It has 
a total descent of nearly 900 feet ; drives nine or ten 
mills durine the last 2} miles of its course ; is subject 
to great freshets ; and in the years 1829 and 1885 became 
for some hours a devastating and overwhelming torrent 
—Ord, Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Esrich, an estate in Invemess parish, Invemess-shire, 
4 miles S by W of the town. 

Essie, an ancient parish of NW Aberdeenshire, united 
at a remote i>eriod to Rhvnie. Its church, however, 
standmg 2} miles WNW of Rhynie village, was not dis- 
continued till about 1760. At Essie, Liuach, Macbeth's 
successor, was slain on 17 March 1058, after a nominal 
reign of seven months. 

Essie, Forfarshire. See Eassie. 

Esdemore. See Aughinchew. 

Essil, an ancient parish in the NE of Elginshire, 
united to Dipple in 1781 to form Speymouth parish. 

Esslemont, an estate, with a station and a mansion, 
in the S of Ellon parish, Aberdeenshire. The station is 
on the Formartine and Buchan section of the Great North 
of Scotland railway. If mile SSW of Ellon station. The 
mansion, 1 J mile N by W of the station, on the rifht 
bank of the Ythan, is a plain building, with a finely- 
wooded park ; its owner, Henry Wolrige Gordon (b. 1831 ; 
sue. 1874), holds 4962 acres in the shire, valued at £4503 
per annum. A ruined fortalice, called Mains of Esslemont 
Castle, is nearer the station. 

Essmore. See Auchikchew. 

Ethie. See Eathie. 

Ethlebeaton. See Monifieth. 

Ethie Castle, the seat of the Earl of Northesk, in 
Inverkeilor parish, Forfarshire, 5 furlongs from the 
coast, and 5 miles NNE of Arbroath. Built and in- 
habited by Cardinal Beaton, it was, with neighbouring 
lands, conferred by his father, in 1596, on Sir John 
Cameeie, who in 1689 was created Lord Lour, and in 
1647 Earl of Ethie— a title which he exchanged in 1662 
for that of Earl of Northesk. William, seventh Earl, 


G.O.B. (1756-1881), was third in command at Trafal|gar. 
HiB grandson, Gteorge John Carnegie, present and ninth 
Earl (b. 1848 ; sue. 1878), holds 4844 acres in the shire, 
valued at £7762 per annnm.—- Ord Swr., sh. 57, 1868. 

Eity«, a river and a sea-loch in the Lorn ^tnct of 
Argyllshire. The river issnes from Lochan Mathalr Etive 
(i X i mile ; 970 feet) on desolate Rannoch Mnir, at the 
mutual border of Lismore and Qlenorchy parishes, 2 miles 
E of Kingshouse inn. Thence, past Einqshousb and Dal- 
ness, it runs 15} miles west-soul^-westward and south- 
westward, mainly through the parish of Ardchattan, till 
it &1Ib into the head of the loch. It is fed by rivulets in- 
numerable ; near Dalness and Coileitir it forms two fine 
cascades ; and the fishing is good for sabnon and sea trout 
from Dalness downwards, for river trout higher up. Glen 
Etive is grandly alpine, flanked on the right by Buach- 
aille-Etive (8345 feet) and BenYsbdan (8766), which 
port it from Glencoe ; on the left by Clach Leathad (8602) 
and Ben Stabav (8541). ' Several houses or huts,' says 
Professor Wilson, ' become visible no long way up the 
glen ; and though that long hollow — ^half a day's jour- 
ney — ^till you reach the wild road between Inveroran and 
Kmgshouse — ^lies in gloom, yet the hillsides are cheerful, 
and you delight in the greensward, wide and rock-broken, 
shomd you ascend the passes that lead into Glencreran 
or Glencoe. But to feel the ftdl power of Glen Etive, 
you must walk up it till it ceases to be a glen. When 
in the middle of the moor, you see far off a solitary 
dwelling— ^perhaps the loneliest house in all the High- 
lands — ana the solitude is made profounder, as you pass 
by, by the voice of a cataract, hidden in an a,wful ch^n, 
bridged by two or three stems of trees, along which the 
red deer might fear to venture ; but we have seen them 
and the deer-hounds gUde over it, followed by otlier 
fearless feet, when far and wide the Forest of Dahiess 
was echoing to the hunter's horn.' 

Loch Etive extends first 10^ miles south-westward to 
Bunawe, and then winds 8i miles westward, till at 
Dunstaffnage Castle it meiges in the Firth of Lorn. Its 
width — ^from } to 1} mile over the upper locli — ^is 1} 
furlong at Bunawe ferry, 1} mile at Airas Bay, and l| 
furlong at Connel ferry. Prof. Geilde sees in Loch 
Etive a good example of an ancient submei^g^ glen, be- 
longing to the secondary stage of submeigence, higher 
than Loch Fyne and lower than Loch Karee. * It nar- 
rows, ' he remarks, ' at Connel ferry, and across the strait- 
ened part runs a reef of rocks, covered at high water, but 
IMirtly exposed at ebb. Over this barrier the flowing 
tide rushes into the loch, and the ebbing tide rushes out, 
with a rapidity which, during part of the time, breaks 
into a roar of tauaj foam like mat of a cataract The 
greatest depth of the loch above tiiese falls is 420 feet ; 
at the faUs themselves there is a depth of only 6 feet at 
low water; and outside this bsfiier the soundings reach, 
at a distance of 2 miles, 168 feet Loch Etive is thus a 
characteristic rock-basin, and an elevation of the land 
to the extent of only 20 feet would isolate the loch from 
the sea, and turn it into a long, winding, deep, fresh- 
water lake.' Many have described the beauties of Loch 
Etive, none better than Dorothy Wordsworth. *The 
loch,' she writes, 'is of a considerable width ; but the 
mountains are so very high that, whether we were dose 
under them or looked from one shore to the other, they 
maintained their dignity. I speak of the higher parts 
of the loch, above Bunawe and the river Awe, for down- 
wards they are but hills, and the water spreads out wide 
towards undetermined shores. On our right was Ben 
CaiTAOHAN (8611 feet), risinff directly from the lake, and 
on the opposite side another mountain, called Ben 
Duirinnis (1821), craggy, and exceedingly steep, with 
wild wood growing among the rocks and stones. We 
crossed the water, which was very rough in the middle, 
but calmer near the shores ; and some of the rodcy basins 
and little creeks among the rocks were as stUl as a mirror, 
and they were so beautiful with tiie reflection of the 

ceased raining, and the tops of the mountains were con 


cealed by mists, but as long as we could see across the 
water we were contented ; for though little could be seen 
of the true shapes and permanent appearances of the 
mountains, we saw enough to give us the most exquisite 
delight : the powerful lake which filled the large vale, 
roarmg torrents, clouds floating on the mountain sides, 
sheep that pastured there, sea birds and land birds. 
. . . Cruachan, on the other side of the lake, was 
exceedingly grand, and appeared of an enormous height, 
spreading out two large arms that made a cove down 
which fell many streams swollen by the rain, and in the 
hollow of the cove were some huts which looked like a 
village. The top of the mountain was concealed from 
us by clouds, and the mists floated high and low upon 
the sides of it . . . Friday, Sept, 2, 1808.— De- 
parted from Taynuilt about seven o'clock this morning, 
naving to travel 8 miles down Loch Etive and then to 
cross Connel ferry. Our road was at first at a consider- 
able distance from the lake, and out of sight of it, among 
undulating hills covered with coppice woods, resembling 
the country between Coniston and Windermere ; but it 
afterwards carried us close to the water's ed^and in 
this part of our ride we were disappointed, we knew 
that the high mountains were all at the head of the lake, 
therefore had not expected the same awful grandeur whidi 
we beheld the day before, and perceived by glimpses ; 
but the gentleman whom we met with at Dalmally had 
told us that there were many fine situations for gentle- 
men's seats on this part of the lake, which had made us 
expect ^^reater loveliness near the shores, and better 
cultivation. It is true there are pleasant bays, with 
grounds prettily sloping to the water, and coppice^Hroods, 
where houses would stand in shelter and sun, looking on 
the lake ; but much is yet wanting — waste lands to be 
ploughed, peat-mosses drained, hed^rows reared ; and 
the woods demand a grant of longer life than is now their 
privilege. But after we had journeyed about 6 miles, a 
beautiml scene opened upon us. The morning had been 
gloomy, and at this time the sun shone out, scattering 
the clouds. We looked right down the lake, that was 
covered with streams of dazzling sunshine, which revealed 
the indentings of the dark shores. On a bold promontory, 
on the same side of the loch where we were, stood Ditn- 
8TA7FNAGE Castle, an irregular tall building, not with- 
out nugesty ; and beyond, with leagues of water between, 
our eyes settled upon the island of Mull, a high moun- 
tain, peen in the sunshine, and overcast with clouds, — 
an object as inviting to the fancy as the evening sky in 
the west, and, though of a terrestrial green, auno^ as 
visionary. We saw that it was an island of the sea, but 
were unacquainted with its name : it was of a gem-like 
colour, and as soft as the sky. The shores of Loch 
Etive, in their moorish, rocky wildness, their earthly 
bareness, as they lay in length before us, produced a 
contrast which, with the pure sea, the brilliant sunshine, 
the long distance, contributed to the aSrial and romantic 

S)wer with which the island was invested.' In 1871, 
r R. Angus Smith discovered, in a large moss on the 
shores of Loch Etive, an ancient lake-dwelling, 50 feet 
lone and 28 broad, on a platform 60 feet in diameter ; 
whust a large cairn disclosed two megalithic chambers, 
connected by a narrow passage, and each of them 20 feet 
long. Belies these, possibly, of that dim, far-away 
FingaUan age, whose memories linger round 'Bebb- 
GONniH,' Dunstaffnage, and other spots on or near to the 
shores of Loch Etive. — Ord. Swr,, sns. 54, 53, 45, 1878- 
77. See pp. 143-158 of Dorothy Wordsworth's Towr in 
Scotland (dd. by Princ. Shairp, 1874) ; Professor Archi- 
bald Geilue's Scmery and Chology of Scotland (Lond. 
1865) ; and Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisnaeh (Lond. 

Etteriok, a bay on the W side of the Isle of Bute, 
0|>ening near the extremity of the Eyles of Bute, 24 
imles ENE of Ardlamont Point It measures 1 mile 
across its entrance, and 5 furlongs thence to its inmost 
recess ; a dingle extends from it, 2 miles east-north-east- 
ward across the island, to the head of Eames Bay ; and 
Glen More descends southward to its N side, and brings 
down to it a bum from a point within 1) mile of the 



nortliem eztremitj of the island.— Ori. Sur., eh. 

EttletOB, an ancient parish of Liddesdale, S Roz- 
bnr^hshire, since 1604 incorporated with Castleton 
pansh. Its church stood near the W bank of liddel 
Water, 9 forlongs SSW of Newcastleton. 

EtMckp a paxJBh of Selkirkshire, whose tree-^^ 
chnrch and manse nestle, 800 feet above sea-level, in a 
snnnv comer of the hifh green hills, J mile from the 
left bank of lEttrick Water, but with their own little 
Kirk Bum— 4i miles SSE of * Tibby Shiels,' 8* SW of 
Tushielaw Inn, and 18^ SW of the post-town, Belkiik. 
It is bounded N by Yarrow, K£ by Eirkhope, SE by 
the Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire portions of Roberton, 
S by Eskdalemuir in Dumfriesshire, W by Moffat in 
Dumfriesshire, and KW by Lyne in Peeblesshire. From 
NE to SW its utmost lensth is 12} miles ; its breadth, 
from NW to SE, varies between 7i furlong and 10 
miles, being greatest at the middle; and its area is 
42,682} acres, of which 296 are water. The Loch of the 
Lowes (6}xli furL) lies nearly all within the NW 
comer of Ettrick parish, to wnich also belongs the 
western half of the upper j mile of St Mast's Loch ; 
whilst on the eastern and south-eastern border are 
CucABBUBir Loch (2ixl furl.), Crooked Loch (2x1 
furL), and Kinqside Loch (2ixlg furL). From its 
source upon Capel Fell, at the SW extremity of the 
parish, Ettrick Wateb winds 14^ miles nortili-east- 
ward through the interior, and then 9 furlongs along 
tlie Kiikhope border, descending during this course from 
1900 to 745 feet above sea-level, and being joined by 
TiHA Water, Rankle Bum, Tushielaw Bum, and 
thirt7-four lesser tributaries. From NE to SW, the 
chief elevations to the left or NW of the Ettrick are the 
Kip (1298 feet), 'Turner Clench Law (1809), Tushie Law 
(1431), Coom Law (1619), Thirlestane Hill (1476), Waid 
Law (1951) and Craig Hill (1597) behind the church, 
Penniestone Knowe (1807), *Muckle Knees (1929), 
•Herman Law (2014), ♦Andrewhinney (2220), Black 
Knowe Head (1938), *Bodesbbck Law (2178), and 
•Capel Fell (2223) ; to the right or SE of the stream 
rise Cacra Hill (1546), Gamesdeuch Hill (1490), Law 
Kneis (1684), •Quickningair HiU (1601), Hope Head 

g697), Canld Face (1756), Black Knowe (1804), and 
tteioe Pen (2269)— -where asterisks mark those sum- 
mits that culminate on the confines of the parish. The 
Toeks are Silurian, greywacke chiefly and day slate. 
The soil of the haughs is fine alluvium, of the skirts of 
the hills is either sandy or gravelly or else a cold stiff 
day, and on their shoulders and summits is mostly a 
deep moss. Barely 400 acres are arable, barely 800 are 
unaer wood, though a start was made in 1865 to hntik 
irp the hill -sides at Bamsaydeuch for till^e, and 
though Lord Napier's plantations round Thirlestuie 
Castle have thriven exceedingly. Kor of permanent 
pasture are there more than 120 acres, altiiough from 
the ^int where the Ettrick's defile broadens into vdley, 
a mile above the churdi, meadows begin to appear, 
where cattle graze — ^Ayrshires and shoruoms, with a 
few of the Highland breed. The rest of the parish is 
fill one mighl^ sheep-walk, wave upon wave of long, 
ffreen, rounded hills, whose ridi STbss feeds enormous 
flocks of Cheviots. Fitting that Ettrick should be for 
ever associated with the 'Ettrick Shepherd,' James 
Ho^ (1770-1885). The cottage in which he was bom, 
by Ettrick Hall, 8 fnrlonj^s KSE of the churdi, fell 
down about 1880; but his grave in the drarehyard 
remains for a shrine of pilgrimage. (See Altbivb and 
6t Mast's Loch. ) There, too, are buried William 
John, dghtii Lord Napier (1766-1884), who died in 
China, %nd the Rev. Thomas Boston (1676-1782), 
minister •£ Ettrick finom 1707, and author of The Four- 
fold State. Many are the memories of this well- 
dierished divine, who tells us of his last oommimion 
liow 'there were nearly 800 communicants, great num- 
bers of them firom a considerable distainee. The 
hospitality of the farmers, and all those who had It In 
their power to acccnnmodate and support them, during 
the preaching days, was beyond aU praise. At one 


fann place they accommodated nine score, at another 
thev had half a boll of meal baken, besides a quantity 
of loaf bread ; they killed three lambe, and made np 
thirty beds.' But, indeed, to enmnerate all of interest 
that attaches to Ettrick were to write a volume which 
still remains to be written, and to trench on our article 


EiBXHOPE, and Thirlistaiob Cabtle. Mansions other 
than the last are CSacra Bank and Rodono ; and besides 
the 2 chief proprietors, the Duke of Bucdeuch and 
Lord Napier, tnere are 2 holding each an annual 
value of more, and 6 of lees, than £100. Ettrick is in 
the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Meise and 
Teviotdale; uie living is worth £842. The diurch, 
built in 1824, is a neat edifice, with a sauare tower and 
810 sittings ; and a public school, 3 farlongs to the £, 
with accommodation for 62 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 25, and a grant of £81, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation (1865) £9852, 19s. 7d., (1880) £12,356, 12s. 6d. 
Pop. (1801) 445, <1881) 580, (1861) 484, (1871) 484, 
(1881) S97. ^Ord, Swr., sh. 16, 1864. 

Ettziok-Bank, an estate, with a mansion, in Selkirk 
parish, Selkirkshire, on the left bank of Ettrick Water, 
2^ miles N by E of Selkirk town. It belongs to the 
same proprietor as Sundbbland Hall. 

Bttriok-Brldm, a village in Eirkhope parish, Sdkirk- 
shire, on Ettrick Water, 7 miles WSw of Selkirk. Itfaas 
a post office under Selkirk, an inn, and Eirkhope manse ; 
and it serves as an angling centre for the lower raachfs 
of Ettrick Water. 

Ettriok Fosieit, a popular, poetic, and historic name 
for the whole or chief part of Selkirkshire, together with 
contiguous parts of Peebles and Edinburgh shires. 
All the country drained by the Ettrick and the Yarrow, 
with part of that drained by other affluents of the 
Tweed!, as also the country now forming the upper ward 
of Clydesdale, was dothed with wood once, a remnant 
of the ancient Caledonian Forest. Oak was the com- 
monest tree, mingled with birch and hazel Great 
numbers of oaks have been dug up in mosses which 
evidently owed their foimation to the stagnation of 
water upon the n^lected woodlands. Toe forest, 
judginff nom the prmlenee of a Saxon nomendalaire 
throughout the district, appears to have been early 
settled by the Northumbrian Saxons. From the time 
of Eari David (afterwards David I.), early in the 12th 
oentu^, many grants were made, chiefly to the abbeys 
of Selku^k, Mdrose, and Kelso, of various 'easements' 
within the wide range of the forest At the dose of the 
18tfa century Edwam L, acting bs arbiter of Scotland, 
gave away the forest* s timber ; and was followed in this 
oondnct by Edward IL and Edward IIL Bobert Bruce 
est his acoeasion gave the forest to Sir James Doujglaa in 
guerdon of his servioee; and with his familv it oon- 
tinned till their forfeiture in 1455. On the 4th of Aug. 
in that year Ettrick Foiest was, by Act of parliament, 
annexed to the Crown. Abounding in beasts of chase 
and birds of pre^, the fiorest now became again— what it 
had been before its tenure by the Douglasea— a favourite 
huntin£^|;round of the Scottish kings. In 1528, 
James IN 'made proclamation to all lords, barons, 
gentlemen, landward-men, and IreeholderB, that they 
wiould compear at Edinburgh, with a monl^L'a victuals, 
to pass with the King where he pleased, to danton the 
thieves of Tiviotdale, Annandale, laddisdale, and other 
parts of that country ; and also warned all ^ntlemen 
that bad good dogs to bring them, that he might hunt 
in the saia country as he pleased : the whilk the Earl of 
Argyll, the Sari <n Huntly, the Eari of Athole, and so 
all tna rest <^ the gentlemen of the HiA^hland, did, and 
brougjht their hocmda with tiiem in nke manner, to 
hunt with the King, as he ^eased. The second ds^ of 
Jane the King past oat of Edinbni|^ to the huntine, 
with many of me nobles and gentlemen of Scotland wltn 
ham, to the somber o( twdve thousand men ; and then 
past to Mcwntland, «ad hounded and hawkiad all the 
oomitry andDoands ; that is to say, Pappert-law, fit 
llaiy-Uws, Carlaviridc, Chapd, Swindoores, and Long- 
hope. I heard aaj, he dew, in these bounds, eighteen 


Boore of hartB* (Fitscottie's HUtory €f JSeaUand, foUo 
edition, p. 14S). After this stately hmtting, James, 
who ' made the rosh-btuh keep the cow,' in order to 
inereaae his rerennes, tuned 1^000 sheep into Sttrick 
Forestj to graze there nnder tiie tending of a thrifhr 
keeper, instead of 10,000 backs that scoured its wood- 
lands during the bomiteons age of Edward L ; and by 
this act he led the way to snch a oonvendon of m 
entire fovest into sheep-pastnre, as occasioned a rapid 
and almost total destruction of the trees. The last 
sovereign of Scotland who yisited it for the sake of 
the chaee was the beautiful Mary. Excepting a fow 
stnnlin^ thorns, and some solitaiy birches, no traces 
of 'Sttncke foreste fair' now remain, although, wher- 
ever protected from the sheep, copses soon arise without 

Btfertok Bbo, a mountain on the mutual border of 
Sttrick parish, Selkirkshire, and Eskdalemuir parish, 
Dumfriesshire, at the sources of Ettrick Water and the 
White Bsk, 2} miles ENEof Ckpel Fell, and 7i ENEof 
Moffat A central height of the Southern Hiffmands, it 
attains an altitude of 2269 feet aboro sea-level, and 
oomnuaids round three-fourths of a circle a very exten- 
sive prospect; yet it is so hidden in the intervening 
segment, by mountains of similar altitude to itsdf, as 
to make but a slight figure in the general landscape.--* 
Ord. 8ur., sk 16, 1864. 

BMiick Water, a river of Selkirkshire, rising in the 
south-western extremity of the county, on Capd Pell 
(2228 feet), at an altitude of 1900 feet, 5i miles KKB of 
MofBit, and within a half-mile of afflnents of both the 
Esk and Moffat Water. Thenoe it winds 92% miles 
north-eastward through or along the borders of Ettoick, 
Kizkhope, Selkirk, and Gala^els parishes, till, 2i 
miles below Selkirk town, it falls into the ^eed. It 
makes duiinc this course a total descent of 1600 foot, 
and ia Joined by Tima and Yarrow Waters, with many 
lesser tribntsries. Its scenery and the many interesting 
spots by which it ilows are noticed in our aiticles on the 
iour above-named parishes, and on Ettridc Forest, Oc^- 
woody Bowhill, Carterhaugh, Philiphauc^, Haining, and 
Sunderland HalL The song of EUrick Banit, composed 
in the Ifth or the 17th century, but printed fint in 
Thomson's Orphmu CdledonSua (1726), 'has,' says Prot 
Veitch, 'some exquisite references to local scenery and 
trsita of the Met shepherd life, which could have been 
noted only by a native of the district, or one resident 
there, and thoroughly familiar with the people and the 
scenes.' The fishing, mostly open to the public, is 
capital, the trout ranging between i lb. and 8 lbs., 
thicnu^ running smaller fii>ove Tnahielaw.— (M. Air., 
aha. 16, 17, 26, 1864-06. 

Bo. See Ewb. 

Bwdum Water, a rivulet in Sanqvhar nnidi, NW 
Dumfriesshire, rising on the SB slope of jBlacklaxo 
Hill, dose to the meeting-point of Dunfries, Eirkcud- 
brif^ht, and Ayr shires, and running 9} miles east- 
nortb-eastwixd through mountsin scenery, till it falls 
into the Kith opposite Sanqnhar Csstle, afl»r a total 
descent of 1600 feet ^Ord, Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Bodiar, a rivulet in Lorn district, Ar^Ushirs, issuing 
from Loch Scammadale, and runninff 2 miles west-by- 
soQlfaward, then 2 north-westward, tfll it falls into the 
sea at Kilninver. It traverses a deep, rocky, and finely 
wooded ravine, and makes a waterfiul a mile above its 
month. Trout^ of i lb. each, are plentiful ; and salmon 
and sea-trout collect in a pool below the ieXL 

Eonach, Looh. See Eknioh. 

EfmBton, a village in Kilteam pazfish, Boss-«hlre, 
f mile from the Cromarty Firth, and 8 furlongs 8W of 
Novar station, this bdng 6} miles KB of Dingwall. 
Founded about 1810 on a waste piece of land, it presents 
a neat and regular appearance, better than that <^ most 
Mher villages in the North ; and ft has a post ofBoe, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, an inn, and fidrs on the first Tuesday of June 
and December. Fop. <1860) 664, (1871) 696. (18810 
480.— Ord. Air., ah. 98, 1881. 

BnD Wftt«, a stream of Lanark end Dumfries 


rising in Crawford paridi, dose to ths mmniit level 
(1012 feet) of the Caledonian railwav, and so near 
little Glydes Bum, the xe^ted heaa*stream of the 
Oltdb, as now to reosive a rill that fonneriy flowed to 
that river. Thence it nms 12^ miles south-south- 
eastward through Crawford, Mofbt, and Eirkpatrick- 
Jnxta parishes, till it falls into Annan Water, oroodte 
the influx of Moffiit Water, and 2 miles SS£ of Moffat 
town, at an altitude of 290 feet With a rocky bed, and 
a rapid or impetuous current, it traverses a glen remark- 
able for affonni^ transit both to the Glasgow and Carlisle 
road and to|the Osledonian railway though an alpine 
precipitous range of the Sonthsm Highlands. High up it 
IS conveyed bv an aq[ueduct across the line, and, soon re- 
ttipearingfar below, it afterwards is frequently crossed by 
nie railway ; whilst from head neariy to foot it is flanked 
by green mountains, rising to altitudes of 800 to 1800 
feet above asa-kvel, yet rounded and comparatively soft 
in contour. Its ^en possesses considerable amenity; 
contains, above Bsattock, the ruined castle of Aohik- 
GAss; and opens there into the fine broad strath of 
Annandale.-<A>n2. Sur., bIl 16, 1864. 

Bvidaw (popularly Ively\ an old tower in Westruther 
parish, Berwickshire, 10^ miles ENB of lAuder. One 
of the castellated houses common on the Border prior to 
the^ union of Scotland and England, it still is tolerably 

EveUflk or P«de HUl, a wooded summit (944 feet) of 
the SidlawB, in Eilspindie parish, Perthshire, 6^ milee 
ENE of Perth. Commanding one of the finest prospects 
in Scotland, it is crowned, on its SB shoulaer, with 
vestiges of an ancient fortification^ seeming to have 
comprised two concentric stone walla and a fosse. Eve- 
lick Castle, a ruin at the eastern base of the hill, was 
the ancient seat of the Lindsays, knights of Sveliok, 
and appears to have been a p3soe of oonsideirable 

Eveliz, a stream of Creich and Dornoch parishes, SE 
Sutherland, issuing from Loch an Legain (7i x 1} furL ; 
446 feet), 4^ miles NE of Bonar Bridge. Thence it 
winds 6^ mues east-south-eastward along the mutual 
boundarv of the two parishes, next 7^ miles east-south- 
eastward and west-south-westward throuf^h the interior 
of Dornoch, till it falls into Dornoch Firth at Meikle 
Ferry. Its banks, over most of its course^ are beauti<* 
fully wooded; and it affords fair trout and grilse fidiing. 
^--OrcL Sur., shs. 102, 108, 94, 1878-8L 

Everyman's Land. See Sgonb. 

Evie, a parish in tite HE of the mainland of Orkney, 
oontaining Dale hamlet, 16 nules KW of Kirkwall, 
and a pcwt office (Evie) nsder Kirkwall, with money 
order and savings' bank departments. 

The p r eocn t parish has, since the Beformation era, 
oomprised the ancient panshes of Evie end BendsU-^ 
Evie on the K, Bendali on the S ; and it lies near 
Enhallow island, within a ndle of Bousay, Wire, and 
Gatrsay islands, and 2} miles W of Shnpinahay. Bounded 
K and E by the sea, S by Firth, ana W by Hanay and 
Birsay, it has an utmost length firam NW to SE of 16 
miles, an utmost breadth m 4| miles, and an area 
of 14,720 acres. Costa Head terminates the north- 
eastern eadzemity of Evie, and is a hiU of consider- 
able size snd devation, presenting to the ooean a 
front of precipitous rock. No other headland of any 
importance is on the coasty nor are then any of those 
deep indentations ehswliere so freonent in Orkney. 
The beach, ezoeptbig at Woodwioc' Bay, is rocky, 
ssd forms, in eome parts, a moral bulwark aMnst 
the billows, but in others is low and flat Woodwiek 
Bay, on the mutual boundary of Evie and RendsJl, 
penetrates 1| mils inlsnd, and has a beach of beantifiBl 
wMte diell sand. iiairsBy island, whidi belongs tt 
Bendali, is ^w^ dreular, «nd measuies 4 milea in 
cifloumference. snm Costa Head a range of monotonoos 
hills, 800 to 400 fiset in height, and moorish mostly er 
mossy, extends along all die Bbsay and Harray bordicr, 
and sends off spun, lesB lofty than itsdl( into the interior 
of Bendali. Smmef Loch (li ^ 1 Tule) interrupts that 
btll'Tange at a distance of U milB imak Oosta Head, and 



discharges itself, by a streamlet through BiTsaji to the 
ocean. The hills were formerly all in a state of com- 
monage, but began about 1841 to be divided. The 
arable land is afi a gentle slope from the skirts of the 
hills to the shore, varying in breadth from ( to 1} mile. 
The rocks range from blue slate to white sandstone, and 
some are as hard as flint and as dark as lava, while 
others are soft and of a brownish-grey hue. Naturally 
a fine agricultural district (the best land facing north- 
ward), the arable soil is mostly a rich black loam, and 
has generally a lighter and sharper character in Rendall 
than in Evie. Agriculture is further advanced in the 
latter than in the former division, the estate of Swaney 
having been much improved by the proprietor. A peat 
moss occupies an entire large vale in Kendall ; and other 
peat mosses, which might easily be drained, occupy 
nollows in other low tracts. Turbary moss, affording an 
inexhaustible supply of excellent peat fuel, abounds in 
the vales or hollows among the hills. Aikemess, Isbister, 
Swaney, Bendall Hall, and Burgar are chief residences ; 
and the first was the birthplace of the judge. Sir William 
Honyman, Bart (1756-1825). Numerous tumuli are in 
Evie ; no fewer than nine Picts' houses stand along the 
shores of Evie and Bendall ; and a small old farmhouse 
at Cottascarth in Bendall, on being taken down in 1832, 
was found to have concealed in its walls 150 silver coins, 
a few of them Scottish, and most of the others of Eliza- 
beth, James YL, and Charles I. Two proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwams, 4 of between 
£100 and £500, 5 of from £50 to £100, and 6 of from 
£20 to £50. Evie and Bendall is in the presbytery of 
Kirkwall and synod of Orkney; the livug is worth 
£807. Evie church, buQt towards the close of last 
century, contains 498 sittings. Other places of worship 
are Bendall chapel of ease, a Free church, and a Congre- 
gational chapel ; and the four schools of Costa, Evie, 
Kendall, ana Gairsay, with respective accommodation 
for 65, 89, 86, and 20 children, had (1882) an average 
attendance of 81, 62, 45, and 7, and grants of £41, 
7s. 6d., £50, 18s., £55, 12s. 6d., and £4, 4s. Valuation 
(1881) £2163, 10s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1415, (1831) 1450, 
(1851) 1408, (1871) 1840, (1881) 1351. 

EvUx. See Eveliz. 

Evort, an intricate sea-loch on the E side of North 
Uist island, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Opening 
8jl miles S of Loch Maddy, it penetrates 7 miles west- 
ward, has numerous ramifications, and forms a safe 

Bw«, a river, a sea-loch, and an island of Gairloch 

Sirish, NW Boss-shire. The river, issuing from Loch 
aree, runs 3^ miles west-north-westwud to the head of 
the sea-loch at Poolewe, is voluminous but rapid, and, 
abounding with salmon and sea-trout of grime size and 
quality, is excelled bv no stream in the W of Scotland 
for angling. The sea-loch extends 10 miles north-north- 
westward from Poolewe to the North Minch, and from 
a width of 3 miles at the beautifxd little bay of Aultbea 
contracts to 1) mile below Cove, but expands again to 
8} miles at its entrance between Bu Bea and Greenstone 
Point Its shores are rocky ; its flanks bare, broken, 
and ridgy. The island lies nearly in the middle of the 
sea-loch, measures 2^ miles by 1 inile, and has a pleasant 
cultivated surface. Pop. (1861) 48, (1871) 50, (1881) 

Ewes, a parish in the NE of Eskdale, E Dumfries- 
shire, whose church stands, 400 feet above sea-level, on 
the right bank of Ewes Water, 4 miles N by E of Lang- 
holm, the post-town and station. It is bounded N by 
Teviothead in Boxburghshire, NE and E by Castleton, 
also in Boxbui^hshire, SE by Canonbie, S W by Lang- 
holm, and W by Westerkirk. Its utmost length, from 
N to S, is 9i miles ; its utmost breadth, from E to W, 
is 7 miles ; and its area is 25,010 acres, of which 69| 
are water. From Mosspaul (827 feet), one of its two 
sources, Ewbs Watbb flows 9^ miles south-by-west- 
ward, till it passes into Lang[holm ; whilst from Harts- 
flnrth Hill, another of the JSsk's tributaries, Tab&as 
Watkr, nms 6^ miles south-south-westward, then 1} 
mile along the Canonbie border. The entire parish, 

then, is a double basin, rimmed on three sides by moun- 
tain watershed. Along Tarras Water its surface declines 
to 450, along Ewes Water to 370, feet above the sea ; and 
elevations to the left or £ of Ewes Water, northwards, are 
Muckle Enowe (1186 feet), *Wateh Hill (1642), Arkleton 
Hill(1708), ♦Boan Fell(1862), Pike FeU(1687), and ♦Tud- 
hope Hill (1961), where asterisks mark those summite 
that culminate on the confines of the parish ; whilst to 
the right or W of the Ewes rise *Addergill Hill (1276), 
*Meg's Shank (1571), Boughbank Height (1474), *Faw 
Side (1722), and *Wisp HiU (1950). The rocks are 
mainly greywacke and greywskcke slate, but include 
some trap. Less than 1200 acres is arable, and some 
200 are under wood, nearly all the remainder being 
pastoraL Dorothv Wordsworth, who with her brother 
drove down Ewesdale on 23 Sept. 1803, gives us a vivid 
word-painting of the landscape : — ' Mosspaul, the inn 
where we were to bait. The scene, witn this single 
dwelling, was melancholy and wild, but not dreary, 
though there was no tree nor shrub ; the small streamlet 
glittered, the hills were populous with sheep ; but the 
gentle bending of the valley, and the correspondent 
softness in the forms of the hills, were of themselves 
enough to delight the eye.' The hiUs are unchanged, 
but the dwellers among them have altered greatly in 
the last two centuries. It is hardly a hundred years 
since the Lords of Justiciary rode from Jedbui||h to 
Dumfries through Ewesdale, impassable then by any 
vehicle. Here once, when Henry Home (the after Lord 
Eames) went for the first time on the circuit as advocate- 
depute, Armstrong of Sorbie inquired of Lord Minto in 
a whisper, ' What lane, black, aour-lookiuf chiel' that 
was they had got wi' them f ' ' That,' said his lordship, 
<is a man come to hang a' the Armstrongs.' 'Then,' 
was the dry retort, ' it's time the EUiote were ridm'.' 
Now the puish is traversed down all ite length by the 
high road from Edinbura^ to Carlisle. The property is 
divided among four. Ewes is in the presbytery ot 
Langholm and synod of Dumfries ; the living is wortii 
£389. The parish church, originally dedicated to St 
Cuthbert, is ahandsome Gothic edifice of 1867, containing 
230 sittings; and a public school, with accommodation 
for 60 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 32, 
and a grant of £40, 6s. Valuation (I860) £5230, (1882) 
£6663, 3s. Pop. (1801) 358, (1831) 835, (1861) 356, 
(1871) 338, (1881) 387.— Oni. Sur,, shs. 11, 10, 17» 

Ewes. See LuaoATB Watek. 

Ewesdale. See Ewes, Dumfriesshire. 

Ewea Water, a rivulet of Eskdale, E Dumfriesshire, 
formed by two head-streams. Blackball and Mosspaul 
Bums, the latter of which, rising near Mosspaul inn, 
close to the Boxburghshire border, runs 2{ miles sonth- 
by-westward, whilst Blackball Bum winds 3} miles 
west-south-westward from ite source on the western 
acclivity of Tudhope Hill. Onward from their con- 
fluence Ewes Water flows 8 miles south-by-westward, 
till, after a totel descent of 900 feet from ite highest or 
Tudhope source, it falls into the Esk at Langholm town. 
All but the last 1) mile of ite course lies through the 
parish of Ewes, -and here it is joined by Unthai^, 
Meikledale, Arkleton, and flve or six lesser bums. 
Like all the Esk's tributaries, the Ewes is a capital 
trouting stream — ^ito river-trout smallish, four or so to 
the lb., but ite sea-trout running from 1 lb. to 3 lbs. — 
Ord. Sur,, shs. 17, 11, 1864-63. 

Exnaboe, a village of Dunroesness parish, in the S of 
Shetland, 3 miles irom Boddam hamlet 

Eye, a loch on the mutual border of Feam and Tain 
parishes, NE Boss-shire, { mile NE of Feam stetion. 
Lying 51 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length 
and breadth of If mile and 4^ frirlongs. — OrcL Sur,, sh. 
94, 1878. 

Eye, a small river of NE Berwickshire, rising on 
Monynut Edge at an altitude of 1260 feet above sea- 
level, and 2i miles S W of Oldhamstocks village. Thence 
it winds 20 miles east-eouth-eastward and north-north- 
eastward, till it falls into the Gferman Ocean at Eye- 
mouth town. It traverses or bounds the parishee of 


Oldhamstocks, Cockbnmspath, Abbey St Bathans, Cold- 
ingham, Ayton, and £yemoath; receives, midway 
between Ayton and Eyemouth, the considerable tribute 
of Ale Water ; traverses, for the most part, a narrow 
vale of pleasant aspect ; is followed, along great part 
of its coarse, and fre(]uently crossed and recrossed, by 
the North British railway; and abounds in trout of 
small size but excellent quality. — Ord. Sur,, shs. 83, 
Zi, 1868-64. 

JS^hnmghj or IbxiB, a basaltic islet of Dirleton 
parish, Haddingtonshire, in the Firth of Forth, } mile 
nt>m the mainland, and 82 miles W by N of North 

Eyemonth, a fishing town and a jMirish of Berwick- 
shire. The town stands 8 miles NNjBS of Ayton, and 2) 
NNW of Bummouth station, this being 5} miles NNW 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 52 E by S of Edinburgh. 
The river Eye here falls into the Qerman Ocean at the 
head of a small semicircular bay, immediately S of 
the larger bay that takes its name from Coldmgham 
Shore. On the NW side are precipitous whinstone rocks, 
and the clififs begin to rise again on the S side of the 
river, between Eyemouth and Bummouth attaining a 
height of from 70 to 839 feet above sea-leveL Out at 
the entrance to Eyemouth Bay are the ' Hurcars,' rocks 
upon which the sea, when even slightly stirred, breaks 
with much force and beauty. The place itself is not so 
greatlv altered from what it was in 1827, when 
Chambers's Picture of Scotland described it as ' dark and 
cunning of aspect, full of curious alleys, blind and other- 
wise, and having no single house of any standing but 
what could uniold its tale of wonder.' Stones of 
smu^lers, namely, for Eyemouth in last century was a 
noteaseat of the 'free-trade,' and many of the older 
dwellings retain deep hiding-holes for smuff^led goods. 
But, though the streets are still narrow anointricate, a 
good many better-class houses had been built within 
uie past three years, and the town showed every sign of 
well-being and progress, when the great disaster of 
1881 threw it back to what it was fifteen years before. 
A town-hall, built in 1874 at a cost of £1200, is a hand- 
some Bomanesque structure ; a fine new public-school 
was erected in 1876 ; and in 1880 part of the old parish 
school was opened as a reading-room, with a public 
library of 2400 volumes. Eyemouth, besides, has a post 
office under Ayton, with money order, savings' bank, 
insnrance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Commercial and iLoyal Banks, 12 insurance agencies, 
3 hotels, a gas company (1847), water-works (1856), 
now under the management of the Police Commission, 
a masonic lodge, St Abb's (1767), a cemeteiy, and fairs 
on the first Thursday of June and the last iTiursday of 
October. Places of worship are the parish church (1812 ; 
450 sittings) with a neat spire, a fine new Free church 
(1878; 450sittings),; 500 sittings), 
and an Evangelical Union chapel (250 sittings). 

The present harbour is formed by a stone E pier of 
1768 (one of Smeaton's earliest desiens), and a short W 
jettjr, with an entrance between them 154 feet wide ; 
but it is wholly inadequate, and will, one may trust, be 
ere lon^ superseded by the harbour works designed by 
Messrs Meek, C.E., of Edinburgh, at a cost of £82,891. 
Of this total, £22,282 are for inner works, viz. , extension 
of basin-jetty to 700 feet, quay on outer side of new 
basin (600 feet), undersetting existing quays, etc ; and 
£60,659 for outer works, viz., E pier (440 feet), W pier 
(1050 feet), middle pier ^680 feet), harbour quay (500 
feet), etc. The outer works would enclose an area of 2{ 
acres, or treble the existing available area^ with a depth 
of 6 feet at low water, and of 8 feet at the entrance. 
Backed by strong influence, the harbour trustees have 
applied to the harbour works loan board for £20^000, as 
a first instalment to commence the works, but as yet it 
is hard to say what will be the result of this application. 
Its urgency was terribly instanced by the great gale of 
14 Oct 1881, which cost the lives of 191 fishermen 
belonging to fishing-ports from Bummouth to Newhaven, 
129 <» them to Eyemouth alone. They left 107 widows, 
60 adult dependants, and 851 children under 15 years 


of age^ for whom a relief-fund of £50,000 was raised, 
chiefly in Scotland. Out of this fund widows and de- 
pendants ^t 5& per week, and boys and girls 2s. 6dL, 
the boys till they reach the age of 14, the girls of 15, 
years. Up to the day of the msaster 48 boats could have 
mustered at Eyemouth for the haddock fishing ; their 
number now is reduced to 28, tiiat of the fishermen from 
860 to 280. The Eyemouth winter fishing-boats are 
among the largest and finest in Scotland; and the 
fishermen among the best and most energetic to be any- 
where met with. From October 1881 to June 1882 
about 1050 tons of haddocks, of a value to the fishermen 
of £18,000, were caught by the 28 crews of the place, 
these crews consisting of 6 or 7 men each. In t^e 
capture, 900 tons of mussels, costing £1800, were used 
as bait, almost the whole of which was brought by rail 
from Boston in England. Prior to the disaster nearly 
100 boats belonging to Eyemouth were engaged in the 
herring fishery ; now they are reduced to 70. In each 
of these boats from 2 to 4 hired hands from other places 
are employed. Eyemouth is head of a fishery district 
marching with that of Leith, and extending from St 
Abb's Head southward to Amble. In this district the 
number of boats in 1882 was 601, of fishermen 1627, of 
fi^h-curers 58, and of coopers 181, whilst the value of 
boats was £44,691, of nets £42,528, and of lines £6864. 
The following is the number of barrels of herrings cured 
here in diflerent year8-<1864) 48,458, (1871) 46,127, 
(1878) 42,989, (1874) 52,060, (1878) 18,056, (1879) 
58,177, (1880) 58,689, (1881) 67,915. 

As a de^ndency of Coldingham priory, and the only 
harbour within its limits, Eyemouth acauired early im- 
portance, being known in the reign of Alexander IL 
(1214-49) as a commodious haven for the import of sup- 
plies, and the shipment of wool, hides, etc. On a small 
bold promontory, called the Fort, to the N of the town, 
is a series of grassy mounds, remains of a fortification, 
erected by the Protector Somerset in his invasion of 
Scotland, and reconstructed by Mary of Lorraine and 
Cromwell An Eyemouth notuy-public, George Sprott, 
was executed in 1608 for being privy to the Gowrie 
Conspiracy, into whidi he was <&awn by Logan of Fast 
Castle ; firom Eyemouth the Duke of Marlborough as- 
sumed his first titie of Baron in the peerage of Scotland. 
But none of its other memories are equal in interest to 
that thus jotted down in BvoBB^aBorder Tour : — ' Fridav, 
18 May 1787. Come up a bold shore from Berwicx, 
and over a wild country to Eyemouth — sup and sleep at 
Mr Grieve's. Saturday. — Spend the day at Mr Grieve's 
— ^made a royal arch mason of St Abb's lodge. Mr 
William Grieve, the oldest brother, a joyous, warm- 
hearted, jolly, dever fellow ; takes a hearty glass, and 
sings a good sonff. Mr Robert, his brother and partner 
in trade, a good fellow, but says littie. Take a sdl 
after dinner. Fishing of all kinds pays tithes at Eye- 
mouth.' The entry in the lodge 1>Doks shows that ha 
was admitted gratis, on the score of his 'remarkable 
poetical genius.^ In 1597, by a charter from James YI. 
m favour of Sir G^rge Home of Wedderbum, Eyemouth 
was erected into a free bureh of barony, with the privi- 
lege of a free port ; but having adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act (Scotlana) in 1866, it now 
is governed by a body of nine commissioners. Its 
municipal constituency numbered 568 in 1882, when 
the annual value of real property within the burgh was 
£5745. Pop. (1881) 1100, (1861) 1721, (1871) 2824, 
(1881) 2825, or, with Ayton suburb, 2877. 

The parish was andentiy induded in the territory of 
Coldingham Priory, and did not assume a parochial form 
earlier than the reign of James Y I. It still endoses the 
Hi^hlaws detached portion (80| acres) of Coldingham 
parish. Bounded K by the German Ocean, £, S, and S W 
by Ayton, and W by Coldingham, it has an utmost 
length from N to S of 1| mile, an utmost breadth from 
£ to W of 1^ mile, and an area of 1079) acres, of whidi 
64 are foreshore and 11) water. Ete Water flows 1} 
mile north-north-eastward along the eastern border to 
Eyemouth Bay ; and Alb Water, flowing 1{ mile east-by* 
southward to the Eye, traces all the 80ut£- western and 



southern botmdary. The coast rises 90 feet from the 
sea in rocky precipitous cliffs, which here and there are 
channelled by deep fiasures or goUies, and at one place 
ore pierced by a cayem ; except at two points where 
roads hare been scooped down its fissures, and at Eye- 
mouthi where it is dissevered by the Eye, it admits no 
access to the beach. The interior is undulating, or 
slightly hilly, attaining 212 feet above sea-level at a 
point on the Coldingham road 7 furlongs W of the town, 
z52 at Highlaws, and 806 on the western boundary. 
The rocks comprise traps, greywacke, and Old Bed sand- 
stone, in such connections one with another as are emi- 
nently interesting to geologists* The soil in general is 
fertile. All the und, since the latter part of last century, 
has been in productive condition* Luithill House, over- 
looking the confluence of the Ale and the Eye, 1) mile 
S by W of the town, is an old mansion, and was tiie scene, 
in 1752, of the murder of the widow of its proprietor, 
Patrick Home. Milne-Home of Wedderbum is chief 


proprietor, 7 others holding each an annual value of 
between £100 and £500, 11 of from £50 to £100, and 42 
of from £20 to £50. Eyemouth is in the presbytery of 
Ghimside and synod of Merse and Teviotdafe ; the living 
is worth £279. The public school, with accommodation 
for 800 children, had (1882) an average attendance of 
450, and a grant of £887. Valuation (1865) £5624, 
14s. Id., (1882) £9084, lis. Pop. (1801) 899, (1881) 
1181, (1851) 1488, (1861) 1804, (1871) 2872, (1881) 
2985.— Ori. Sur,, sh. 84, 1864. 

Eylt, Loob. See Rankoch. 

Eynart, a sea-loch in the E of South Uist island. Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Opening at a point di mOes 
N of the south-eastern extremity of the island, it strikes 
6 miles north-westward to within a brief distance of the 
western coast ; and, with a very irregular outline, ex- 
hibits wild and picturesque features of scenery, that 
only want trees or copsewood to render it in many 
places enchantiugly beautiful 





FAD (GaeL fada^ 'loxu;*), a narrow loch on the 
mutual border of Rotnesay and Kingarth parishes, 
Isle of Bute. Lying 48 feet above sea-leyel, it 
extends 2^ miles north-north-eastward, varies in 
width between 1 and 2J furlongs, and sends off a stream 
7 furlongs north-by-eastward to Rothesay Bay at Rothe- 
say town. It presents in its scenery a miniature of some 
of the most admired lakes in the Highlands ; contains 
perch, pike, and trout ; and has, on its western shore, 
2 miles SS W of Rothesay, a neat two-story house, Wood- 
end or Eean's Ck>ttage, built in 1827 by the tragedian 
Edmund Eean (1787-1838), and afterwards occupied 
by Sheridan Enowles (1784-1862).— Ord ^r., sh. 29, 

Fad, a lake near the centre of Colonsay island, Jura 
parish, Argyllshire. 

Fad, a iSse in Portree parish, Isle of Skye, Inverness- 
shire, Z\ miles KNE of rortree town. Measuring ) by 
\ mile, it teems with trout» and sends off a streamlet 5 
furlongs north-north-eastward to Loch Leathan (Ix-l 
mile), which streamlet, issuing from that loch, proceeds 
f mile north-eastward to the cliffs, and there descends 
to the sea in a clear leap of 800 feet 

Fad. See Inoh Fad. 

Fada. See Ellan-Fada. 

Fada-Lochan, a lake of €rairloch parish, NW Ross- 
shire. Lying 1000 feet above sea-level, and 928 acres in 
area, it has an utmost length and widUi of SJ miles and 
5 furlongs. Two streams flow from it— one 4} miles 
south-south-westward to Loch Maree, near its head ; the 
other 2} miles north-westward to Fionn Loch. — Ord», 
SSur., sh. 92, 1881. 

Faiolifield, an estate, with an old mansion, in Long- 
side parish, Aberdeenshire, 4 miles W of Peterhead, and 
2§ £S£ of Longside station. 

Faifley. See Duntogheb. 

Fail, a rivulet and the site of a monastery in Tarbol- 
ton parish, Ayrshire. The Water of Fail, rising in 
Craigie parish, winds 7i miles south-eastward, till below 
GoiusFiELD or Montgomerie it falls into the river Ayr 
at Failford, 2{ miles WSW of Mauchline. The monas- 
tery, St Mary's, stood on the right bank of the rivulet, 
1^ mile NNW of Tarbolton town, and, foimded in 
1252 by Andrew Bruce for Red or Trinity friars, was 
cast down by the lords of council in 1561, when its 
lands fell to the Wallace family. One old satirical 
poem says of its friars, that ' they never wanted gear 
enough as long as their neighbours' lasted;' and 
another runs — 

' The friars of Fail 4raak berry-brown ale. 
The best that ever was tasted ; 
The monks of Melrose made gude kail. 
On Fridays, when they fasted.' 

Failf (nd. See Fail. 
Falray. See Phasay. 

Falrbnm Tower, a ruined stronghold of the Mac- 

kenzies in Urray parish, Ross-shire, near the left bank 
of the Orrin, and 2^ miles S by E of Contin. 

Fairfolk, a tumulus near the summit of Carmyllie Hill, 
in Carmyllie parish, Forfarshire. Popular superstition 
long regarded it as a favourite haunt of fairies. Part of 
it was, many years ago, thrown down, and found 
to contain a small brass ring and some fragments of 

Fairholm, an estate, with a mansion, in the S£ of 
Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire, on the left bank of 
Avon Water, 1| mile W of LarkhalL 

FaizieB* Dyke. See Cumbrae, Gbeat. 

Fair Isle (Scand. /arr, 'a sheep'), an island of Dunross- 
nest parish, Shetland, 29 miles SSW of Sumburgh Head, 
and nearly midway between Shetland and Orkney. 
It measures 8 miles in length, and nearly 2 in 
breadth; is inaccessible except at one point on the 
N£ ; and rises into three lof^ promontories. One of 
these, the Sheep Craig, is nearly msulat^, has a conical 
shape, and rises to the height of 480 feet The upper 
grounds are mostly covered with excellent sheep pasture, 
and the lower are fairly fertile, but tibe island does not 
raise grain enough for its inhabitants. These, who 
dwell chiefly in tne middle vale, are engaged — ^the men 
in fishing, and the women in hosiery. The art of knit- 
ting woouen articles of various colours and curious pat- 
terns is said to have been taught the islanders by the 
200 Spaniards who escaped from the wreck at Strom- 
ceiler Creek of the flagship of the Duke de Medina 
Sidonia, the admiral of the Spanish Armada, when re- 
treating in 1588 before the English squadron. In 1868 
a German emigrant ship went lull sail mto Sheltie Cave ; 
but this time happily no lives were lost. Canada has 
from time to time received a good deal of the surplus 
population, and in 1874 there was serious talk of an 
emigration en nuuse to New Zealand. There is an 
Established mission church ; and a public school, with 
accommodation for 56 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 24, and a grant of £29, 15s. Pop. 
(1801) 160, (1841) 232, (1861) 380, (1871) 226, (1881) 

Fairlaw, an estate, with a mansion, in Coldingham 
parish, Berwickshire, 2 miles WSW of Beston station. 

Fairley or Farland Head. See Eilbridb, West. 

Fairlie, a coast village and a quoad sacra parish in 
the S of Largs parish, NW Ayrsnire. Sheltered east- 
ward by uplands that rise to a height of 1331 feet, the 
village is charmingly seated on the Firth of Clyde, If 
mile £ of Great Cumbrae bywater, 2| miles S by E of 
Largs by road, and 4^ N of West Eilbride by an exten- 
sion of the Glasgow and South-Westem railway, opened 
on 1 June 1880, and traversing at the back of the 
village one of the longest tunned in the S of Scotland. 
A century since it was only a tinv fishing hamlet, but 
now it has several handsome villas, an Established 
church (1833 ; 300 sittings), a Free church, a school, 
2 inns, a post office, with money order and savings 


bank departments, 2 railway stations, of which that 
at the Pier is a fine erection of 1882, a steamboat pier 
(1882), and a yacht boilding-yard, which, dating from 
1^12, has turned out some of the finest clippers afloat. 
Kelburne Castle stands IJ mile to the N ; and at the 
village itself is Fairlie House, the seat of Charles Stuart 
Parker, Esa. (b. 1829), M.P. for Perthshire from 1868 
to 1874, and for Perth from 1878, who owns 2 acres 
in the shire, valued at £100 per annum. Fairlie 
Bum, rising on Fairlie Moor (1100 feet), and hurrying 
2 miles westward to the Firth along the boundary 
between Lares and West Kilbride, threads in its lower 
course a loyely glen. Here, on a rounded knoll, above 
a waterfall, stands the ruins of Fairlie Castle, a square 
tower, built in 1521, the seat of FairUes of that ilk who 
fiffure from the 14th to the 18th century. Elizabeth 
Halket, Lady Wardlaw (1677-1727), laid in this tower 
the scene of her fine ballad Hardyknute. The quoad 
9acra parish is in the presbytery of Greenock and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. Pop. of village (1871) 294, (1881) 
672 ; of ^. 8, parish (:87l) 318, (1881) 711,— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 21, 1870. See pp. 82-85 of JFemyss Bay (Paisley, 

Fairlie, a mansion in Newhills parish, Aberdeenshire, 
5i miles W by N of Aberdeen. It is a seat of the 
owner of Tonley. 

Fairlie Hoiue, a mansion in Dundonald parish, A3rr- 
shire, on the left bank of the Irvine, 1 mile SW of 
Gatehead station, and 8^ miles WSW of Kilmarnock. 
It was the seat of the Fairlies of Robertland and Fairlie, 
of whom Sir Charles Arthur Cuningham-Fairlie (b. 
1846) succeeded in 1881 as tenth Bart, since 1630. 

Fairport. See Arbroath. 

Fairway, a sunken rock of Dunfermline parish, Fife, 
in the Firth of Forth S of the E end of Long Craigs. 
It is covered, at lowest stream ebb, by 5} or 6 feet of 

Fairy-Bridge, a place in Duirinish parish. Isle of 
Skye, Invemess-shire, 8 miles from Dnnvegan. An 
annual fair is held at it for the sale of black cattle. 

Fairy-Enowe, an eminence in Lecropt parish, Perth- 
shire, near Sonnylaw farm, in the vicinity of Bridge of 
Allan. It is crowned with an ancient Caledonian camp, 
16 feet high. 

FaU and Soatra, a united parish of Edinburgh and 
Haddington shires, containing in its Fala or Midlothian 
portion the village of Fala, whose post office is Black- 
ahiels, and which stands 3} miles S£ of Pathhead, 15jl 
SE of Edinburgh, and 8i ENE of Tynehead station. 
The parish, containing also part of the hamlet of Fala 
Dam, f mile to the NW, is bounded NE by Humble, 
SE by Channelkirk in Berwickshire, S by Stow, SW by 
Heriot, W by detached sections of Stow, Borthwick, 
Cranston, and Humbie, and KW by Crichton. Its 
utmost length, from NNE to SS W, is 5 miles ; its 
breadth, from WNW to ESE, varies between 1 mile and 
8^ miles ; and its area is 6066| acres, of which 81 26} 
belong to the Edinburghshire or Fala portion, and 
2940^ to the Haddingtonshire or Soutra portion. By 
Brothershiels Bum, Dean Bum, and East Water, Fala 
is parted from Soutra ; and Armit Water rons south- 
south-westward towards the Gala along most of the 
Channelkirk border. In the extreme N the surface 
declines to 600 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 819 
near Fala village, 1209 at Soutra HiU, and 1250 at 
Upper Brotherstone. The whole is upland, then ; but 
the northern section, comprising somewhat less than 
half of the entire area, is gently undulating, fertile, and 
well cultivated, whilst the southern maimy consists of 
the westernmost part of the Lammermuirs, and, with 
the exception of a lew arable patches, is all of it one sreat 
shee^-walk. The rocks are mainlv Silurian ; and the 
soil in general is thin and gravelly. A large moss, 
Fala Flow, 1} mile SSW of the village, has been con- 
idderably reduced by draining since 1842, but still 
wiDplies great quantities of peat. Peel towers stood at 
Fala Hall and Gilston ; but the chief antiquity, an 
ancient hospice, is separatelv noticed under Soutra. A 
mansion is Woodoot, If mile £ by S of the village ; and 

4 proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 2 of 
less, than £500. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the 
living is worth £233. The church, at the ^iUage, is a 
plain old building, containing 250 sittings. Tnere is 
alBo a IT. P. church (1787 ; 250 sitting) ; and a public 
school, with accommodation for 80 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 64, and a grant of £64, 2s. 8d. 
Valuation (1882) £2697, 18s. Pop. (1801) 854, (1881) 
487, (1861) 382, (1871) 364, (1881) 812, of whom 111 
were in Soutra. — Ord, Sur., shs. 33, 25, 1863-65. 

Fala Dam. See Crichton and Fala. 

Faldonaide, an estate, with a mansion, in Galashiels 
parish, Roxburghshire, 4} miles W by S of Melrose. Its 
owner, Miss Mune, holds 1100 acres in the shire, valued 
at £1499 per annum. 

Falfield, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilconquhar 
parish, Fife, 3i miles ESE of Ceres. 

FaUdrk, a town and parish of SE Stirlingshire. A 
parliamentary burgh, a seat of considerable trade and 
industry, and the virtual capital of the south-eastern 
portion of the county, tibie town stands near the south- 
em bank of the Forth and Clyde Canal, and SJ miles SE 
of the right shore of the Firth of Forth. By road it is If 
mile SSE of Carron Iron-works, and 7i miles ENE of 
Linlithgow ; whilst from two North British stations — 
Grahan^ton, on the Polmont and Larbert loop-line 
(1852), at the town, and Falkirk, on the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow section (1842), { mile SSW — ^it is 25^ mileB 
W by N of Edinburgh, 3 SW of Grangemouth, 11 SSE 
of Stirling, and 21] ENE of Glasgow. The site is partly 
a gentle hill-side, partlv low level ground on the southern 
skirt of the Carse of Forth, and commands magnificent 
views of the Ochils, the Denny and Campsie mils, and 
the Grampian Mountains. The town itself, as seen from 
vantage grounds to the N and NW, presents a striking 
appearance, and forms a fine foreground to the beautiful 
prospect beyond, but, when one enters it, dia»>points 
expectation, and, for its size and importuice, has few 
attractions to offer. Falkirk proper, as a whole, is still 
old-fashioned and irregular ; but its far-spreading sub- 
urbs, Grahamston, Foiganhall, Amothill, etc., comprise 
a number of good recent streets, rows, villas, and cot- 
tages ; and its environs are beautified by the woods of 
Callendar, Baktaskine, and other mansions. 

The town steeple, in the market-place, rebuilt in 1818 
on the site of a tower of 1697, is 146 feet hi^, and con- 
tains a clock and two bells ; immediately W of it is a 
stone equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, erected 
by public subscription in 1854. The bur^ buildings 
and prison (1866-69) are Scottish Baronial in style, and 
comprise a mansard-roofed SE tower, 60 feet nigh, a 
spacious court-hall, and a council-room; the prison, con- 
taining nine cells, since 1878 has merely served as a 
place of imprisonment for terms of not more than four- 
teen days. The town-hall, Italian in style, and seated 
for upwards of 1600 persons, is the com exchange of 
1859, reconstructed in 1879 at a cost of over £5000. 
Italian, too, is the Science and Art School, which, 
opened by the Earl of Bosebery in 1878, has a laigo 
hall and nve smaller ones, amon^ them a chemical la^- 
ratory. Other noteworthy edifices are the National 
Bank (1863), the Toung Men's Christian Association 
Hall (1880), and the CathoUc Institute (1881). 

The cradform parish church, said to have been founded 
by Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-93), and to have been granted 
in 1166 by the Bishop of St Andrews to Holyrood Abbey, 
was razed to the ground in 1810, when two ' most inter- 
esting ' inscriptions were found in the d^/ris — insi^rip- 
tions whose raulty Latinity and faultier chronology 
should at once have stamped them for palpable formiXes, 
The present church of 1811 is a plain be-§^leried edifice, 
with stained-gkss windows and 1300 sittings. T^ 
ancient steeple of its predecessor, 130 feet high, upbon>e 
on four lofty arches, serves for its vestibule, and contair^s 
a marble monument to the Rev. John Brown Patersoih 
(1804-35), with four life-size effigies, which, believed to bt^ 
those of the earliest feudal lords of Callendar, lay in thei 

5 transept of the old church, and were transferred to theiij 


present position in 1852. There are, besides, Grahams- 
ton quoad tacra church, Falkirk and Bainsford Free 
chnrches, West, East, and Graham's Road IJ.P. 
churches, Eyangelical Union, Ck>ngregationalist, and 
Baptist chapels, Episcopal Christ Chnrch, and Roman 
Catholic St Francis Xayier'& Of these, Grahamston 
wood mura chnrch (1874-75 ; 800 sittings) is an Earlj 
French Gothic edifice, whose hiffh-pitched front gable is 
flanked by two steeples, 120 and 62 feet high ; Graham's 
Road U.P. chnrch (1878-79 ; 600 sittings) is a striking 
example of Gothic, with square tower and octagonal 
spire, 110 feet high ; and Gothic also are Bainsford Free 
church (1879 ; 450 sittings), Christ Church (1864 ; 200 
sittings), and St Francis (1843 ; 600 sittings). 

Since the passing of the Education Act of 1872, much 
has been done in the bureh in behalf of education, 
£8592 having been ezpendea between 1878 and 1879 in 
enlargpui^ the Central or old Free Church schooli and 
in bmldrnff the Northern, Comely Park, and Bains- 
ford schools. In the year ending 15 May 1881, the 
five public schools under the burgh board — Southern, 
Cenlral, Northern, Bainsford, and Comely Park — ^with 
respective accommodation for 402, 848, 401, 800, and 
800 children, had an average attendance of 865, 265, 
416, 205, and 802, and grants of £854, 78. 6d., £221, 17a, 
£408, 2s. 8d., £176, 15s., and £278, 8s. 7d. A hand- 
some new Roman Catholic school, accommodating 200 
children, was opened in 1881 ; and there are also a 
Ragged and Industrial School (1857) and Falkirk Aca- 
demy, which gives instruction in English, classics, 
modem languages, mathematics, science, and music 

Falkirk luu a new post office (1882), with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and railway telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Clydes- 
dale, Commercial, National, and Royal Banks, a National 
Securities Savings' Bank (1845), offices or agencies of 
27 insurance companies, 6 hotels, and 2 newspapers — 
the Thursday and Saturday Liberal FcUkirk HercM 
(1846) and the Saturday Conservative Falkirk Express 
(1880). Thursday is market-day ; and cattie markets 
are held on the last Thursday of January, the first 
Thursday of March, and the Thursday before the third 
Friday of April, cattle and horse markets on the third 
Thursday of May and the second Thursday of July, and 
hiring fairs on tiie first Thursday of April and the last 
Thuisiday of October. The famous Falkirk Trysts on 
Stenhousemuir, 8 miles to the NNW, are held, for 
cattle and horses, on the second Tuesday and Wednes- 
day of August, September, and October ; for sheep, 
on the Monday before the September and October Trvsts ; 
and for hiring, on the last Thursday of October and the 
first Tuesday of November. Transferred hither from 
C&iEFF about 1770, these Trysts are among the largest 
cattle markets in the kingdom. The town conducts an 
extensive retail trade, and serves as the centre to a 
busy and populous district In or close to it are Aitken's 
large ana long -established breweij, 2 distilleries, 7 
chemical and dynamite works, 8 fire-brick and tile- 
yards, and a leather factory ; but iron-founding is the 
staple industry.* The Falkirk Iron- works, started in 
1819 by a colony of workmen from Cakbon, came to its 
present proprietors, the Messrs Kennard, in 1848, and 
now is second only to Carron itselfl The buildings 
cover 8 acres ; and the employ^ 900 men and boys, 
turn out weekly more than 800 tons of castings — stoves, 

Sates, viaduct girders, garden seats, verandahs, etc. 
ere, during the Crimean War, 16,000 tons of shot and 
shell were manufactured. Other works, with date of 
establishment and number of hands employed, are the 
Union Foundry (1854 ; 100), Abbot's Foundry (1856 ; 
120), Bumbank Foundry (1860 ; 140), Gowanbank Iron- 
works (1864; 800), Grahamston Iron-works (1862; 850), 
Camelon Iron Co. (1872 ; 180), Parkhouse Iron Co. 
(1875 ; 100), Gael Foundry (1875 ; 40), Port Downie 
(1875 ; 100), Forth and Clyde Iron-works (1676 ; 80), 
Springfield Iron-works (1876; 20), Etna Found27(1877; 
120), and Callendar Iron Co. (1877 ; 80). 

* So long ago as 1095 we find the Durien Company oontnotiiig 
Cor Falkirk unlth and catlery work. 

Seal of Falkirk. 


The town was made a buigh of barony in 1600, and a 
burgh of recality in 1646, its affairs being managed till 
1850 b^ a body of 
28 'stint -masters' 
or feuars elected by 
the different trades. 
Now the burgh — 
since July 1882 
divided into four 
wards — ia governed 
by a provost, 8 
bailies, a treasurer, 
a town-clerk, and 
9 councillors, who 
also are commis- 
sioners of police 
under the Falkirk 
Police and Improve- 
ment Act of 1859. 
With Airdrie, Ha- 
milton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, it sends one member 
to parliament (always a Liberal since 1857), Falkirk 
being the retuniing bui^h. The corporation revenue 
was £4480 in 1881, and the parliamentur and municipal 
constituency numbered 1508 in 1832, when the annual 
value of real property amounted to £48,209, against 
£28,487 in 1874. Pop. (1841) 8209, (1851) 8752, (1861) 
9080, (1871) 9547, (1881) 18,170, of whom 6748 were 
males, and 6427 females. Houses (1881) 2721 inhabited, 
114 bmldin^, 9 vacant. Pop. with suburbs (1881) 15, 599. 

Falkirk in Latin is termed Faria Oapella, and still 
is known to Highlanders as Saglaubrsae, Both mean 
'the speckled cnurch,' or 'the church of the mixed 
people ; ' and Falkirk, or rather Fawkirk, is the Sazon 
equivalent for the same, being compounded of A.-S. 
f(EM, 'of various colours,' and eiree, 'kirk or church.' 
AirroNiNUs' Wall passed just to the S, and various 
Roman relics have from time to time been found. St 
Modan, fellow-worker with St Ronan, on a mission 
connected with the Bomish part^, appears to have been 
here about the year 717 ; and in 1080, in revenge for 
Malcolm Ceannmor's devastation of Northumbenand, 
William the Conqueror sent his son Robert to Scot- 
land, ' who, having gone as far as Fgglesbreth, returned 
without accomplisnuig anything.' Prior to Sauchie- 
bum (1488) the discontented nooles occupied Falkirk, 
whose old church witnessed a solemn siibscription of 
the League and Covenant in 1648, and which two 
years later was decimated bv the plague. These are 
the leading events in Falkirk s history, oesides the two 
battles and passing visits from Robert Bums (25 Aug. 
1787), from Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy (14 
Sept 1808), and from the Queen and Prince Consort 
(18 Sept 1848). ' Like the bairns o' Fa'kirk, they'll 
end ere they mend,' says a popular by-word, bat 
Falkirk has produced one most illustrious 'bairn' in 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860), who was bom 
at Merchiston HalL Another native was Henry Belfrsge, 
D.D. (1774-1885), an eminent Secession minister; whusi 
reddents were William Symin^n (1760-1831), a daimant 
to the invention of steam navu»tion, and James Wilson, 
D. D. , author of a History of Egypt, and minister of Fal- 
kirk from 1794 to his death in 1829. 

Of the two batties of Falkirk, the first was fought on 
22 Julyl298 between Scottish and English armies, led 
by Sir William Wallace, then guardian of the kingdom, 
and Edward L of England. The invading host is said 
by the English chroniclers of the day to have numbered 
7500 mounted men-at-arms (8000 of them clad in coats 
of mail) and 80,000 foot — a force before which Wallace's 
poor army, less than a third of the enemy's, was fain to 
retreat, leaving Edward a desert to tread where neither 
was there food to eat nor man to direct him on the way. 
The plan bade fair to succeed, but treachery revealed tne 
whereabouts of WaUace, and Edward at once advanced 
from Kirkliston to Linlithgow, so eager to bring the 
matter to an issue that not even the breaking of two of 
his ribs by a kick from a horse could make him defer 
the fight For WaUace there was no alternative. ' In 



the battle of Stirling,' says Dr Hill Barton, 'the ^at 
point made was the selection of the ground ; in this he 
showed even more of the tactician in the disposal of his 
troops where they were compelled to fight. It is a 
strong testimony to skill in the ordering of an army 
that it should be not only distinct, but hold a shape 
of which we can estimate the merit by knowing how 
valuable it is in modem warfare. The English chronicler 
describes the marshalling of the Scots army with such 
clearness that a picture or diagram woula not have 
improved it Taking up a slightly inclined plain, Wallace 
drew up his small hodj of 1000 mounted cavaliers 
in the rear, and distributed the footmen into circular 
clumps. In each circle the men knelt down — those in 
the outer rim at least — and held their lances obliquely 
erect ; within the circle of lancers were the bowmen. 
The arrangement, save that it was circular instead of 
rectangular, was precisely the same as the "square to 
receive cavalry " which has baffled and beaten oack so 
many a brilliant army in later days. It seemed at first 
as if Wallace's circles were to have a similar history. 
The first elSbrts against them were inefiectual, and the 
horsemen seemed shy of charging the thick clnmpe of 
spears. The inequality of force was too great, however, 
to be neutralised by skill. The charges of Edward's 
mounted horsemen at last crushed the circles, one after 
another, and when this was done the rest was mere rout 
and slaughter. Wallace managed to carry a small body 
out of the field, and marched to Stirling. They found 
it useless to attempt to hold the place ; so, destroying 
what they could, they marched on no one knows whitner, 
the commander and his followers alike disappearing 
from the history of that war' (SisL o/ScoU., ii. 200, ed. 
1876). No monument marks the field of battle itself, 
midway between the Carron and the town ; but on the 
top of a hill, 1 mile SE of Gallendar Wood, stands 
'Wallace's Stone,' a pillar 10 feet high, erected in 1810 
to replace the smaller original slab, a Bttle to the W. In 
the churchyard of Falkirk is the gravestone of Sir John 
Graham of Abercom, who fell in the action, and who, 
as well as Sir John Stewart of BonkiU, was here interred. 
The gravestone has been trebly renovated; or rather 
there are three superincumbent stones, each of the 
upper ones being a copy of the one beneath it On all 
are the following inscriptions : 

* Mente manuque potens, et Valla fldiu Achates. 
Conditur hie Gramus, beUo interfectos ab Angus. 

'zxii. Jum,annol298' 

' Here Ijes Sir John the Grame, baith wight and wise, 
Ane of the chiefs who reschewit Scotland thrioe. 
Ane better knight not to the world wae lent. 
Nor was gude Grame of truth and hardiment.* 

The second battle of Falkirk wa^ fought on 17 Jan. 
1746, between the Highland army, 8000 strong, of Prince 
Charles Edward, and 9000 Hanoverians under General 
Hawloy, 1800 of whom were horse, and 1000 Argyll 
Highlanders. The Prince was preparing to lay siese to 
Stirling Castle, but news being Drought of Hawlej's 
advance from Edinburgh to its relief, determined to give 
him battle. The Euglish commander, arriving at Fal- 
kirk, encamped between the town and the former field 
of battle, there to wait till he should gather sufficient 
intelligence for the arrangement of his operations. The 
foe, so far from being daunted by his approach, resolved 
to attack him in his camp, and skilfully used such feiuts 
to divert and deceive the royal troops, that they were 
just about to cross the Carron at Dunipace before they 
were perceived. Hawley, a pif-headed disciplinarian, 
with an easy contempt for 'undisciplined rabbles,' was 
breakfasting at Callander House with the Jacobite Count- 
ess of Kilmarnock ; and ' Where is the General ? ' was 
his officers* frequent inquiry, till at length the General 
rode furiously up, his grey hair streaming in the wind. 
He found his men formed already, and, seeixig the High- 
landers advancing towards a hill near South Bantaskine, 
1} mile SW of the town, sent the dragoons on to seize 
and to hold the height, and ordered the foot to follow. 
The author of Douglas, John Home, who served as lieu- 
tenant in the Glasgow Volunteers, describes how, 'at 


the very instant the regiments of foot began to march, 
the day was overcast ; and by-and-bv a storm of wind 
and ram beat directly in the face of the soldiers, who 
were marching up the hill with their bayonets fixed, and 
ooold not secure their pieces from the rain. The cavalry 
was a good way before the infantry, and for some time 
it seemed a sort of race between the Highlanders and the 
dragoons which should get first to the top of the hill.' 
The Highlanders won the race, and drew up in a battle* 
array of two lines, with a reserve in the rear. The royal 
troops, making the most of their circumstances, formed 
in two lines along a ravine in front of the enemy ; but, 
owing to the convexity of the ground, saw their antago- 
nists, and were seen in turn, only in the central part 
of the line. Their dragoons were on the left, com- 
manded by Hawley in person, and stretching parallel to 
more than two-thirds of the enemy's position ; and their 
infantry were on the right, partly in rear of the cavalry, 
and outlined by two regiments the enemy's left. The 
armies standing within 100 yards of each other, both 
unprovided on the spot with artillery, Ebiwley ordered 
his dragoons to advance, sword in hand. Meeting with 
a warm reception, aerenl oompanies, after the first onsets 
and receiving a volley at the distance of ten or twcdve 

Saces, wheeled round, and galloped out of sight, disor- 
ering the infantry and exposing their left fiank by the 
flight The Highlanders, taking advantage of the con- 
fhfflon, outflanked the roval forces, rushed down upon 
them with the broadsword, compelled them to give way, 
and commenced a pursuit. The King's troops, but for 
the spirited exertions of two unbroken regiments and a 
rally of some scattered battalions, who checked the pur- 
suers, would have been annihilated; as it was, they nad 
12 officers and 65 privates killed, and in killed, wounded, 
and missing lost altogether 280 men according to their 
own returns, 1800 according to the Jacobites. Among 
the persons of rank who were left dead on the field were 
Sir Kobert Munro of Foulis, Bart, and his brother Dun- 
can, a physician. They were buried beside each other 
in the churchyard of Falkirk, and commemorated in a 
superb monument erected over their ashes, and inscribed 
with a succinct statement of the circumstances of tiieir 
death. The Jacobites' loss was only some 40 killed and 
80 wounded; and they remained at Falkirk till the 19th, 
when they returned by Bannockbum to resume the in- 
vestment of Stiblino Castle. See voL i, pp. 619-680, 
otKeme'8 History o/the Scottish ffighlands{Ed^^ 1876). 
The parish of Falkirk contains also the suburbs of 
Grahamston, Bainsford, Camelon, Parkfoot, and Gart- 
crow, and the viUages of Laurieston and Glen, part of the 
town of Grangemouth, and part of the villages of West 
Carron Iron-works and Bonnybrid^; and it formerly 
included the territories now formmg the parishes of 
Denny, Slamannan, Muiravonside, and Polmont It i» 
bounded N by Dunipace, Larbert, and Bothkennar, £ 
and SE by Polmont and Muiravonside, S by Slamannan, 
SW by Cumbernauld in Dumbartonshire (detached), and 
NW by Denny. Its utmost length, from ENE to WSW, 
is 9 1 miles ; its breadth varies Mtween 1 J and 6{ mUes ; 
and its area is 19,822| acres, of which 18} are foreshore 
and 258 water. Carbon Water rouffhly traces all the 
northern border, and quits it within the Firth of Forth'a 
foreshore, 1{ mile from the open channel of the firth ; 
its affluent, Bonky Water, winds 4 miles east-north- 
eastward on or close to the boundary with Denny; West 
QiTABTER Bum, rising in the SW of the interior, runs 
east-north-eastward to the boundary with Polmont, 
then north-north-eastward along that boundary to the 
Carron at Grangemouth ; and lastly the river Avon 
traces all the Slamannan border. Lochs EUrig (5} x 1} 
furl.) and Green (IJ x 1 furl.) lie 3} miles S and 5 miles 
WSW of Falkirk town, but present no feature of special 
interest. The land , from the confluence of Carron Water 
and West Quarter Bum, southward and west-south-west- 
ward, to the extent of about a third of the entire area, 
is all but a dead level, and consists of rich carse soil in 
the highest state of cultivation. From the town on- 
ward the surface is partly undulating, partly hilly, rising 
west-south-westwaid to 405 feet near Standalane, 612 

iiMff Vatttide, ud EH new Sanehjerig ; wnthmrd and 
Koth-Bouth-WMtwaTd to S4S near Oreencraig, fl7G neu 
Loch Allrig, and C81 near Oreenn^. Most of that region 
is arable, and much of it is dimaified b; natnral woods 
and tbriTing plantations, but a consideiable tract, near 
thesonthsTD boimdarr, is moor and moss. Of the entiro 
area, 11,000 acraa ars arable, 4851 are pistura, 1000 are 
waate, and 1800 are nnder icood. The rocks belons to 
the Coal Meainrea of the Carboniferocs formation. Coal 
of excellent qnaliCy is so abnndant as to be largely ex- 
ported : sandstone, limestone, and ironstone occur ia the 
same district as the coal ; and lead, copiper, silver, and 
cobalt hare been found, thoogh not in cousideiable 
qnantitiea. Teetiges of Antoninttb' Wali, accai la 
Tarions parti ; traces of the Soman town of Old Caicrlok 
existed till a comparatiTely recent period ; some wheat, 
anppoaed to have lain concealed from the time of the 
Boman poasession, was fonnd abont the year 1770 in the 
hollow of a quarry near Castlioabt ; fanereat nms and 
■tone coffins nave been exhmned in variona places ; and 
aereral moats or artificial earthen monnds, need in the 
Middle Ages as seats of justiciary courts and deliberative 
assemblies, are in Seabegs barony. The Forth and Clyde 
Canal, commencing at Orangemonth, traverses the parish 
thro^h nearly Its greatest length, or abont B miles ; 
the tinion Canal, deHecting fkim the Forth and Clyde 
Oanal li mile W of the town, travenea the parish to the 
length Ot fully 8 miles, pasdng on the way a tunnel S 
fnnonga In length ; the Edinburgh and Qlasgow railway 
makes a reach of nearly 71 miles within the parish, and 
traverses a long tunnel insmediately E of Falkirh station ; 
the Polmont and lorbert loop-line of the North British 
railway, and the branch from it to Grangemouth, are 
entirely within the parish ; the jnnctions of tbst line 
with Irath the Caledonian and the North British lines 
from the W, and with the branch line to Denny, are on 
the N border, about 2 miles W by N of the town. The 

western boundary, 
noticed separately, are chief mansions ; and 7 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £G00 and npwards, 71 of 
between £100 and £G0O, 89 of from £60 to £100, and 288 
of from £20 to £60. In the presbytery of Linlithgow and 
synod of Lothian and Tweaddale, this parish is eccleaiasti' 
cally divided into Falkiil proper and the quoad taera par- 
iaheaofGrahamston.Camefon.GtTanKemauth, Slamannan, 
Combemanld, and Bonnybridge ; Falhirk itself being a 
liTing worth £S83, 9s. Bythepanshschaol-board£979S, 
7s. has been expended since 1872 in the erection of the 
three new pabhc schools of Bonnybridge, Camelon, and 
lAorieston. These three and Aoclungean, with respectiTe 
accommodation for 420, 350, 800, and 67 children, had 
[1880} an average attendance of SOS, SOB, 2B0, and 43, 
and grants of £396, 11a ed., £S14, lOs. Sd., £24B, 4a, 
and £44, 6b. Valuation of landward portion of parish 
(1882) £46,233, 19s. lOd., ;>Iu> £18,481 For raUways and 
canals. Pop. of dvil parish (1801) S8S8, (1B21) 11,636, 
(1841) 14,108, (1861) 17,026, (1871)18,061, (1881)26,148; 
of?. (. pan8h(lS81) 11,646. —Oni Au-., ah. 31, 1887. See 
Bobert Gillespie's Jtound About Faikirt (Glasgow, 1888). 
Falkland, a small t^wn and a perish in the Cnpar 
district of Fifeshire. The town standi at the NE base 
of East Lomond hill, 2j miles NW of Falkland Road 
station on the North British ndlway, this being 2| miles 
8SW of Lftdybank Junction. 81 3W of Cupar-Fife. 6i 
N by W of Thornton Junction, and 26^ N of Edin. 
bursh. It once was a place of much resort, the capiljkl 
of the itewartry of Fife, the residence of Ihe retainers 
c^ the earls of Fife, and afterwards the residence of 
the courtiers of the kings of Scotland ; and it posiasiea 
memorials of its ancient consequence in the remains of 
the royal palace, some curious old houses, and such local 
names as Parliament Sqoare, College Close, and West 
Fort. It is now, and has long been, asequeatered country 
town, and thongh enlivened by a few modern erections, 


It conaiits mainly of nnpaved roadways, sloping alleys, 
intricate lanee, and picturesque old honsas. A house of 
two stories, fronting the palace, bears an inscription 
with the date 1610, intLmating it to have been a royal 
gift to Nlchol MoncrieO'; the house ai^oining it occu- 
pies the site of the residence of the royal falconer, and 
retains an insciibed stone of the year 1807 ; and there 
are houses bearing later dates in the same century, A 
three-storied house on the B of the sqnare, now need a* 
a co-operative store, was the birthplace of the famoni 
Covenanter Richard Cameron. 

Falkland was originally a burgh of barony belongiUR 
to the EaiU of Fife, but it was erected into a royal bnwh 
in 1468, during the reign of James II. The preambla 
to the charter of erection states, as the reasons for 
granting it, the frequent residence of the royal family 
* """ of Falkland, and the damage and ii "~ 


countiy-seat, for want of innkeepers and victuaUers. 
This charter was renewed by James VI. in IGSS. Among 
the privileges which theae charters conferred, waa the 
ri^ht of holding a weekly market, and of having four 
faira or public markets annuaUy. To the public markets 
two others were subsequently added—one called the 
linseed market, held in spring, and the other the harrast 
market, held in autumn. There are now Sevan publio 
markets held thronghont the year. These occur in the 
mouths of Jannanr, February, April, June, Angnat, 
September, and November, bot only the last >■ well 
attended. Like the neighbouring burgh of Anchter* 
muchty — although certainly entitled originally to bant 
done BO — Falkland does not appear at any time to hare 
exerdsed its right of electing a. member to the Scottish 
parliament ; consequently ita piivilt^ee were overiooked 
at the time of the Dnion ; but since the passing of tha 
Beform Bill, its inhabitants having the necessary qualifi- 
cation are entitled to a vote in the election of a member 
for the county. In all other respects, however, thia 
burgh eiy'oys the 

royal burg 


lyal burgh. It 
is governed by 

consisting of S 
magistrates, S 


Bui ct F&lUand. 

with the cooncii 
the civil a^rs of 
the burgh, hold 
courts from tims 
to time for the 
decuion of ques- 
tion's arising ont 
of civil contracts 
and petty delicts. No t>>wn, probably, in Scotland it 
better supplied with spring water. Tlua wae brought in 
1781 from the neighbouring Lomonda by means of pipes, 
and is distributed by wells situated in different parts of 
the burgh. This useful public work cost about £400 
sterling, and was executed at the expense of the corpois- 
tion. Falkland has a post office under Ladybank, with 
money order, savings' bank, and tel^raph departments, 
a branch office of the British Linen Company Bank, S 
insurance agencies, 2 hotels, ^-worka, and a maaontc 
lodge. The town-house, which is ornamented with a 
spire, was erected in 1803, and contains a ball in which 
the burgh courts and the meetings of the l«wii-conncil 
sre held ; its lower story, occupied now by a draper's 
shop, served originally as a lock-np house. The parish 
chunh, built in 1849, by the late 0. T. Bruce, Esq., at 
a cost of £7000. is a handsome Gothic edifice, with a 
flna aphe and 900 sittings. There is also a Free church, 
whilst at Freachie, 2 milea to the esiatward, are another 
Established and a U.P. ohuich. The mann&ctnre of 


linens and woollens is the staple industry, brewing and 
brick-making being also earned on. Pop. (1841) 181S, 
(1861) 1184, (1871) 1288, (1881) 1068, of whom 972 
were m the roval burgh. 

The lands of Falkland, inclnding what now constitutes 
the bnreh, belonged originally to the Crown, and were ob- 
tained m>m Malcolm lY. by Duncan, sixth Earl of Fife, 
upon the occasion of his marriage with Ada, the niece 
of the king. In the charter comerring them, which is 
dated 1160, the name is spelled ' Falecklen.' The lands 
of Falkland continued, with the title and other estates, 
with the descendants of Duncan until 1871, when Isobel, 
Countess of Fife, the last of the ancient race, conveyed the 
earldom and estates to Robert Stewart, Earl of Monteith, 
second son of Bobert II., who thus became seventeenth 
Earl of Fife, and in 1898 was created Duke of Albany. On 
the forfeiture of his son, Murdoch, in 1424, the lands of 
Falkland reverted to the Crown, and the town was 
shortly afterwards erected into a royal burgh. The courts 
of the stewartry of Fife— which comprehended only the 
estates of the earldom — ^were also removed from the 
county town of Cupar to Falkland, where thay were 
afterwards held as long as the office of steward existed. 
In 1601, Sir David Murray of Gospetrie, first Yiscount 
Stormont, obtained a charter of the Castle-stead of 
Falkland, with the office of ranger of the Lomonds and 
forester of the woods, and he also held the office of 
captain or keeper of the palace and steward of the 
stewartry of Fife. The lands called the Castle-stead, 
with the offices and other parts of the lands of Falkland, 
were afterwards acquired by John, first Duke of Athole, 
who was appointed one of his majesty's principal secre- 
taries of state in 1696, and lord ni^h commissioner to 
the Scottish parliament the followmg year. He was 
twice appointed to the office of keeper of the privy seal, 
and was made an extraordinary lord of session in 1712. 

At an early period, the Earls of Fife had a residence 
here, called the castle of Falkland. Not a vesti£» of 
this building now remains, but its site appears to have 
been in the immediate neighbourhood of where the 
palace was afterwards built This fortalice had in effect 
the honours of a palace while it was occupied by one of 
the blood-royal, Kobert, Duke of Albany, who, for 84 
years, had aU the power of the state in his hands, under 
the different titles of lieutenant-general, governor, and 
regent Although Bobert gives it the more humble 
designation of ' Manerium noshum de Fawkland,' it 
was, in fact, the seat of authority; for his aged and 
infirm father constancy resided in the island of Bute. 
It receives its first notoriety, in the history of our 
country, from the death here, on 27 March 1402, of 
Albany's nephew, David, Duke of Bothesay, eldest son 
of Bobert In. That madcap prince was on his way to 
seize the castle of St Andrews, whose bishop had just 
died, when at Strathtyrum he was arrested under a 
royal warrant, and brought a prisoner to the castle of 
Falkland. There, says uie popular legend, adopted by 
Scott in The Fair Maid of Perth, he was thrust into a 
dungeon, and left to die of starvation. His life was for 
some days feebly sustained by means of thin cakes, 

Sushed through a crevice in the wall by the young 
aughter of the governor of the castle; but her mercy 
beinff viewed by her ruthless &ther in the light of 
jerfidy to himself, she was put to death. Even this 
brutal act did not deter another tender-hearted woman, 
employed as wet-nurse in the family, who supplied him 
wiui milk from her breasts by means of along reed, 
until she, in like manner, fell a sacrifice to her compas- 
sion. Certain it is that the prince's body was removed 
from Falkland for burial in the Abbey of lindores, that 
public rumour loudly charged Albany and Douglas with 
Ids murder, and that a parliamentary inquiry resulted 
in a declaration to the doubtful effect that he ' died by 
the visitation of Providence, and not otherwise.' Wyn- 
toun laments his untimely death, but says nothing of 
murder ; so that by Dr Hill Burton the r^nt is ac- 
quitted of this foul blot upon his character {SieL SoolL, 
u. 880-896, ed. 1876). 
After the lands and castle of Falkland came to the 


Grown by the forfeiture of the earldom, the first three 
Jameses occasionally resided at the castle, enjoying the 
pleasures of the chase in the adjoining forest, and on 
the Lomond hills ; and in consequence of this the 
charter was granted by James II., erecting the town 
into a royal burah. It is impossible now to ascertain 
whether James III. or James lY. began to build the 
palace, as both of these monarchs were fond of architect- 
ure, and both employed workmen at Falkland ; but the 
work was completed by James Y. in 1587, and with him 
the palace is closely associated. Hence he escaped out 
of Angus's hands to Stirling, disguised as a stable-boy, 
May 1528 ; and hither, broken-hearted by the rout of 
Solway Moss, he returned to die, 13 Dec 1542. By his 
deathbed stood Cardinal Bethune, Kirkcaldy of Grange, 
and his old tutor. Sir David Lindsay, who told him of 
the birth, a few days before, of Mary at Linlithgow. 
' It came with a lass, and it will go with a lass,' said 
James ; then, turning his face to the wall, spake no- 
thing more. Here Mary of Guise, his widowed queen, 
often resided, while she governed the Idngdom for 
her infant daughter; and here she found it necessary 
to give her reluctant consent to the armistice agreed 
to near Cupar with the Lords of the Congregation. 
Here, too, the unfortunate Mary, after her return from 
France, oft sought relief in the sports of the field from 
the many troubles of her short and unhappy reign. 
She appears first to have visited it in Sept. 1501, on her 
way from St Andrews to Edinburgh. She returned in 
the beginning of the following jear, having left Edin- 
burgh to avoid the brawls which had arisen between 
Amu and Bothwell ; and resided partly at Falkland, 
and partly at St Andrews, for two or three mouths. 
She occupied her mornings in hunting on the banks of 
the Eden, or in trials of skill in archery in her garden, 
and her afternoons in reading the Greek and Latin 
classics with Buchanan, or at chess, or with music. 
During 1668, after her return from her expedition to 
the North, she revisited Falkland, and made various 
short excursions to places in the neighbourhood ; and 
again, in 1564, and after her marriage with Damley in 
1565. After tiie birth of her son, she once more visited 
Falkland ; but this appears to have been the last time, 
as the circumstances which so rapidly succeeded each 
other, after the murder of Damley, and her marriage 
with Bothwell, left her no longer at leisure to eigoy the 
retirement it had once afforded her. 

James YI., while he remained in Scotland, resided 
often at the jj^ace of Falkland ; and indeed it seems to 
have been his favourite residence. After the Baid of 
Buthven (1582), James retired here, calling his Mends 
together for the purpose of oonsultiiu; as to the best means 
of relieviuff himself from the thraMom under which he 
had been placed ; and he was again at Falkland in 1592, 
when Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, made one of his 
desuerate attempts on the king's person, and was driven 
back solely by tne timely assistance of the neighbouring 
peasantry. After the riots in Edinburgh in 1596, James 
again retired here, where he employed himself partly in 
hunting, and partly in plotting the destruction of the 
Presbyterian religion, ana the introduction of Episcopacy. 
In 1600, he was agadn residing at Falkland, when the 
first act was played of the so-cailed Gowrie Conspiracy. 
The kin{^, on 5 Aug., was about to mount his horse, to 
follow his fiivourite sport, when the mysterious message 
was delivered to him by Alexander Buthven, brother 
to the Earl of Gowrie, which induced James, after the 
buck was killed, to ride to Pbbts. In 1617, when James, 
now King of Great Britaio, visited Scotlaind, he, in hia 
progress through the kingdom, paid his last visit to 
Falkland. In 1638, when Charles L visited Scotland, 
he slept three nights here, on his way to Perth ; and on 
his return, he slept two nights in going to Edinburgh, 
and created seveivl gentlemen of uie county knights. 
Upon the 6th of Julv 1650, Charles II., who had arrived 
from Holland on the 28d of the preceding month, 
visited Falkland, where he resided some days, receiving 
the homage of that part of his subjects who were desirous 
of his restoration to the crown of his ancestors ; and 


here he again returned, after his coronation at Scone, on 
the 22d or Jan. 1651, and remained some days. 

The oldest portion of the palace, which was erected 
either by James III. or James lY., forms the S 
front, ana still is partially inhabited. On each floor 
there are six windows, sqnare-topped, and divided by 
mnllions into two lights. Between the windows, the 
front is supported by buttresses, enriched with niches 
in which statues were placed, the mutilated remains of 
which are still to be seen, and terminating in ornamented 
pinnacles which rise considerably above the top of the 
walL The lower floor is the part inhabited, and the 
upper floor is entirely occupiea by a large halL The 
western part of this front of tne palace is in the castellated 
style, and of greater height than the other ; it is orna- 
mented with two rounf towers, between which is a 
lofty archway which forms the entrance to the court- 
yard behind, and which, in former times, was secured 
by strong doors, and could be defended from the towers 
that flame it. James Y. made great additions to the 
jwlace, and appears to have erected two ranges of build- 
ing, equal in size to that described, on the E and N 
siaes of the courtyard. As completed by him, therefore, 
the palace occupied three sides of a square court, the 
fourtn or western side being enclosed bv a lofty wall. 
The ran^e of building on the N side of the court has 
now entirelv disappeared, and of that on the E, the 
bare walls alone remain, these two portions of the palace 
having been accidentally destroyea by fire in the reicn 
of Charles II. Having erected his addition to the 
palace in the Corinthian style of architecture, James 
assimilated the inner front of the older part of the 
building, by erecting a new facade in the same style 
with the rest of the ouilding. The building consisted 
of two stories, a basement or lower floor, and a principal 
one, the windows of which are large and elegant, when 
we consider the period. Between the windows, the 
fa^de is ornamented with finely proportioned Corinthian 
pillars, having rich capitals; and between the upper 
TOW of windows are medallions, presenting a series of 
heads carved in hieh relief, some of which are beautifully 
executed, and womd lead us to believe that more than 
native talent had been engaged in the work. On the 
top of the basement which supports the pillars, the 
initials of the king and of his queen, Mary of Guise, are 
carved alternately. 

The palace of Falkland, deserted by its royal inmates, 
was for a long series of years suflered to fall into decay : 

' The fretted roof looked dark and oold. 

And tottered all aronnd : 
The carved work of Bgea old 

Dropped withered on the ground; 
The caaement'a antiane traoeiy 

Was eaten by the new : 
And the night-breeze, whistling moumfolly. 

Crept keen and coldly through.' 

But it is now the property of Mr Bruce, who takes 
great interest in its carefid preservation, as well as in 
ornamenting the court-yard with flowers and shrubs, 
and the ground in its immediate neighbourhood, which 
has been laid out as a garden. The mixture of Gothic, 
Baronial, and PaUadian architecture in this building 
makes it of much interest to the antic^uarian. The 
main front, although distinctly Baromal, has been 
treated with buttresses and pinnacles, till it assumes 
the outward appearance of some ancient chapel, while 
idongside stand the two round towers of the gateway, 
with shot-holes, portcullis, and massive walls, that look 
incongruous. In the inside, this part at one time 
presented the appearance of a narrow, stone-roofed main 
ouilding, winged with two round towers corresponding 
to those at the entrance. But the space between those 
has been filled up to widen the building, and provide a 
gallery leading to the large hall, and it is on this later 
&oe that the Corinthian pillars and rows of medallions 
are shown. At a certain level on the old towers there 
is a bold string course, and it is remarked by architects 
how admirably the row of medallions, on the same level, 
carries on the line, although of such a different style of 
«pchitocture» The rained £ wing of the square presents 


similar medallions, but they are between the rows of 
windows, not alternate with the main windows as in 
the other wing, and are far less effective. The grand 
hall, occupying the main building to the front, shows a 
pannelled roof, of which some part of the colouring still 
remains, and part of the original decoration of the walls 
is also seen. One end of the hall is separated from the 
corridor by a mafipificent screen in oak, consisting of 
slender turned pillars rising from floor to ceiling, and 
displaying a very marked style of chamfering, at the 
changes from round to square, where the pmars are 
divided into stages. A stone balcony runs round the 
two towers, wiw their connecting building, and the 
main portion of the front, and from this height a venr 
delightful view of the surrounding country is obtainedl 
The view frt)m the southern parapet of the palace has 
long been admired. On the one hand, the Lomond 
hills spread out their green sides, and point their conical 
summits to the sky ; on the other, the whole strath of 
Eden, the Howe of Fife from Cupar to Strathmiglo, lies 
open and exposed. Within the railing in front of the 
j^ace stands a full-length statue of Mr Onesiphorus 
Tyndall Bruce, and in tne quadrangle are two finely- 
executed bronze stetues in a sitting posture, also by Sir 
John SteeU— one of Dr John Bruce and the other of 
Col. Bruce. 

It loight reasonably be supposed that, while Falkland 
continued to be the occasional residence of royalty, it 
was not only a place of resort to the higher classes, but 
that the peasantry would be permitted to enjoy that 
festivity here which was most congenial to their humours. 
As it was a favourite residence of that mirthful prince 
James Y., it might well be conjectured, from his peculiar 
habite, that he would be little disposed to debar from 
ite purlieus those with whom he was wont frequently 
to associate in disguise. Accordingly— althougn it is 
still matter of dispute among our poetical antiquaries, 
whether the palm should not ratner be given to his 
ancestor James I. — one of the most humorous effusions 
of the Scottish muse, which contains an express refer- 
ence to the jovial scenes of the vulgar at Falkland, has, 
with great probability, been ascribed to the fifth of this 

' Was nevir In Scotland hard nor sene 

Sic dansin nor deray, 
Nonthir at Fklkland on the Orene, . 

Nor Pebillls at the Flay 
As wee of wowaris, as I wene. 

At Christis kirk on ane day,' etc. 

According to Allan Ramsay and the learned Callander, 
' duystis Kirk ' is the kirktown of Leslie, near Falkland. 
Others have said, with less probability, that it belongs 
to the parish of Leslie, in that part of the county of 
Aberdeen called the Garioch. Pinkerton thinks that, 
besides the poems of Cfhristia Kirk and Peblis to the 
Play, a third one, of the same description, had been 
written, which is now lost, celebrating the festivities of 
' Falkland on the Orene.' This phraseology might refer 
to what has been called 'the park at Falkland.' Sir 
David Lindsay, being attached to the court, must have 
passed much of his time at this royal residence. Ac- 
cording to his own account — ^notwithstanding the badness 
of tiie ale brewed in the burgh — ^he led a very pleasant 
life here ; for, in the language of anticipation, ne bids 
adieu to the beauties of Falkland in these terms : 

'Fare weill, Falkland, the forteress of F^e. 

Thy polite park, nnder the Lowmound law. 
8am tyme In the, lied a lostie lyfe, 

The fallow delr, to ee thame ralk on raw. 

Court men to com to the, thay stand srait aw, 
Sayand, thy bursrh bene of all bnrrowia balll, 
Becaose, In the, they never gat gode aill.' 

In 1715 Bob Boy and his followers, who had hung 
about Sherifimuir, without taking part with either side 
in that struggle, marched to Falkland, and, seizing the 
place, leviedcontributions from the district. 

superior refinement in ite inhabitente ; and ' Falkland 
bred ' had become an adage. The superiority, however, 


of Falkland breeding is, like the former grandenr of the 
town and palace, now among the things tnat were. The 
place is remarkable also for a reminiscence of a totally 
opposite kind. ' A singular set of yaffrants existed long 
in Falkland called Scrapies, who ha^ no other yisible 
means of existence than a horse or a cow. Their 
ostensible employment was the carriage of commodities 
to the adjoinmg villages ; and in the intervals of work 
the^ turned out their cattle to graze on the Lomond hill. 
Their excursions at ni^ht were long and mysterious, for 
tiie pretended object oi procuring coals; but they roamed 
with their Uttle carts through the country-side, securing 
whatever they could lift, ana plundering fields in autumn. 
Whenever any inquiry was addressed to a Falkland 
Scrapie as to the support of his horse, the ready answer 
was — ''Ou, he gangs n^ the (Lomond) hill ye ken.'" 
The enclosing of the hiU and the decay of the town, 
however, ^ut an end to this vagrancy. 

The parish of Falkland contains also the villages of 
Fbbuohie and Kewton of Falkland. It is bounded N 
by Auchtermuchty, £ by Kettle, SB by Markinch, S 
by Leslie, SW by Portmoak in Einross-shire, and W 
and NW by Strathmiglo. Its greatest length, from E 
to W, is 6| miles ; its greatest breadth, from N to S, 
is 8| mUes ; and its area is 8265^ acres. By Conland, 
Maspie, and other smaU bums, the drainage is carried 
partly southward to the Leven, but mainly northward 
to the Eden, which flows just outside the northern 
boundary ; and the hijghest point in Falkland between 
the two river-basins is the East Lomond (1471 feet), 
since the loftier West Lomond (1718) falls within the 
Strathmiglo border. The parts of the parish to the N 
and £ of the town sink to 130 feet above the sea, and are 
almost a dead level ; but most of the surface is finely 
diversified with gentle valleys and wooded hillsides. 
The rocks are variously eruptive and carboniferous — 
greenstone and limestone ; and a vein of galena, dis- 
covered about 1788 on the S side of the East Lomond, 
was thought to be aigentiferous, but never repaid the 
cost of working. The soil, too, varies, but is mainly a 
fertile light friable loam. Woods and plantations cover 
some 400 acres; about a fifth of the entire area is 
pastoral or waste ; and all the rest of the land is under 
cultivation. Kilgour, 2^ miles W by N of the town, 
was the site of the ancient parish church, and anciently 
gave name to the entire parish. Traces of several pre- 
historic forts' are on the Lomond hills ; remains of 
extensive ancient military lines are in the lands of Nut- 
hill ; and several old coins, chiefly of Charles I. and 
Charles XL, have been found among the ruins of Falk- 
land Palace. The 'Jenny Nettles' of song han^d 
herself on a tree in Falkland Wood, and was buned 
under a cairn on the Nuthill estate. Falkland House, 
or Nuthill, £ mile W of the town, was built in 1889-44, 
after designs by Mr Bum, of Edinbuigh, at a cost of at 
least £80,000, and is a fine edifice in the Tudor style, 
with a pleasant well-wooded park. Its owner, Andrew 
Hamilton Tyndall-Bruce, Esq. (b. 1842; sue 1874), 
holds 7058 acres in the shire, valued at £10,092 per 
annum. Three other proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 9 of between £100 and 
£500, 10 of from £50 to £100, and 81 of from £20 to 
£50. In the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, 
this parish since 1880 has been ecdesiasticiJly divided 
into rreuchie and Falkland, the latter a living worth 
£858. Two public schools, Falkland and Freuchie, 
with respective accommodation for 280 and 265 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 182 and 255, and 
grants of £169, Is. 4d. and £178, 10s. Valuation (1866) 
£10,847, 68. lid., (1882) £12,518, 16s. 2d. Pop. 
(1801) 2211, (1831) 2658, (1861) 2987, (1871) 8069, 
(1881) 2698, of whom 1681 were in Falkland q. «._parish. 
-"Ord, Sur., sh. 40, 1867. See James W. l^aylor's 
Some HistorioaX AnHquUies, chiefly Ecclesiastical, con- 
nected with Falkland, Kettle, and Leslie (Cupar, 1861). 

FaUdaad, Newton of, a village in Falkland parish, 
Fife, 1 mile £ by S of Falkland town. It carries on 
some manufactures of dowlas and sheeting, and is 
inhabited principally by weavers. 


FalUaiid Soad, a station near the meetiiig-noint 
of Falkland, Kettle, and Markinch parishes. File, on 
the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee section of the North 
British railway, 8 miles NN W of Markinch Junction. 

Fallen Rocks, a vast mass of blocks of Old Bed 
sandstone on the N coast of Arran island, Buteshire, 
2 miles NNW of Sannox. They occur on the sea-face 
of an isolated mountain ridge, 5i miles long and 14 
mile broad, so situated as to compel the coast-road 
round the island to make a detonr there inland ; they 
consist of masses hurled from an overhanging cliff which 
fell in the way of landslip ; they strew a steep slope and 
a skirting beach in magnificent confusion ; they look 
like a rocky avalanche rushing to the shore, and form a 
piece of singularly striking scenery ; and they can be 
approached on land only on foot and by wary walking. 

Fallooh, a rivulet of Perth and Dumbarton shires, 
rising, at an altitude of 2600 feet above sea-level, on 
Ben-a-Chroin, close to the southern border of Killin 
parish. Thence it runs 8) miles north-by-westward to 
a point (568 feet) 1) mile SW of Crianlarich Hotel, and 
thence 8^ miles south-westward, 3i miles southward, 
till it falls into the head of Lodi Lomond (28 feet) at 
Ardlui. The chief of its many mountain affluents are 
the Dubh Eas and the Allt Aman or Aldernan on the 
ri£fht, and the Allt Inse on the left From the point 
whero it turns southward, it traverses the romantic 
glen named after it Glen Fallooh; forms, in one 
part, a fine cascade ; and has mostly a rapid current, 
though finally it subsides into comparative sluggishness. 
Its trout, as a rule, run small, but are so plentiful that 
from ten to twelve dozen have been taken oy one rod in 
the course of a few hours. — Ord, Swr., shs. 46, 38, 

FalMda, a station in BothweU parish, Lanarkshiro, 
on the Gla^ow South-Side and Motherwell branch of 
the Caledonian railway, 1 mile ESE of Uddingston. 

Falaide, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinneff parish, 
Eincardineshiro, 8 miles N by £ of Bervie. 

Falside Castle, an ancient peel-tower in Tranent 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 2 miles SW of Tranent town, 
and 2| ESE of Musselbuigh. The E part of its stone 
vaulted roof remains ; and a building, a little to the 
SW, though later, is quite as ruinous. Standing high, 
420 feet above sea-level, Falside commands on a clear 
day a glorious view of the Pentlands, Arthur's Seat, the 
Firth of Forth, North Berwick Law, and the Bass. 
Early in the 14th century, under King Robert the 
Bmce, the lands of Falside wero forfeited by Alexander 
de Such, who had married a daughter of Roger de 
Quincy, Earl of Winchester; and they came then to 
the great Seton family, one of whose younger branches 
styled themselves Setons of Falside. A spot near the 
castle was the scene of a disastrous skirznish in 1547, 
on the day before the battle of Pinkie. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 
82, 1857. 

Fauna, a hill near the meeting-point of Hobkirk, 
Southdean, and Castleton parishes, Roxburghshire, 
forming part of the watershed between Teviotdale and 
Liddesdale, 8^ miles SE of Hawick. It has an alti- 
tude of 1687 feet above sea-level. 

Fannioh, Loch, a lake of Contin parish, towards the 
centre of Ross and Cromarty. Lying 822 feet above 
sea-level, it extends 6| miles oast-south-eastward and 
east-by-northward, has a varying width of 3 and 7 
furlongs, and sends off a stream 6} miles east-south- 
eastward to Loch Luichart On its northern shore, 15 
miles WNW of Garve station, stands the shooting- 
lodge of Fannich deer-forest, a mountainous region, 
whose loftiest summit is Sgurr Mor (8657 feet), 8} miles 
N of the loch. Thero aro boats on the latter, but the 
trout aro small and none too plentiful — Ord, Stir., sh. 
92, 1881. 

Fannyiido, a shallow loch and a moor in Cumber- 
nauld pariah, Dumbartonshiro. The loch, 2| miles SE 
of Cumbernauld town, lies 550 feet above sea-level, and 
measures 6| furlongs in length by from 1 to 2 furlongs 
in breadth. It contains a few puce and peroh, but no 
trout The moor lies around the loch, chiefly on the 


K ride, compriBes upwards of 8 square milesi and has 
traces of a Roman road, running southward from Castle- 
caxy.—Ord. Sur,, sh. 81, 1867. 

Far. See Farb. 

Fkray. See Pharat. 

Fare, HUl ol, a broad-based granitic eminence on the 
mutual border of Aberdeen and Kincardine shires, 
belouffing to the parishes of Echt, Midmar, Kincardine 
O'Neil, and Banchory-Teman, and culminating, at 
1545 feet above sea-level, 4i miles NNW of Banchory 
village. It forms part of the northern screen of the 
basin of the Dee, is partly dissevered by the marshy 
hollow of CoRBioHiB, oontaius some valuable peat 
moss, and aifords excellent pasture for numerous flocks 
of sheep^ producing mutton of very supNBrior flavour, 
whilst its nne luxuriant heaths abound in moor-fowl, 
hares, and other game. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Fkxg, a stream of Perthshire chiefly, but partly of 
Kinross-shire and Fife, rising among the Ochils at an 
altitude of 800 feet above sea-level, and 5^ miles K by 
W of Milnathort Thence it winds 10^ miles south- 
south-westward, east-by-southward, and north-north- 
eastward, boundim^ or traversing the parishes of Forgan- 
denn^, Amgask, Dron, and Aromethy, till, at a point 
1{ mile N W of Abemethy town, it falls into the river 
Earn. Containing plen^ of bum trout, it mostly 
traverses a deep, narrow, romantic, wooded glen, called 
from it Glen Faig ; and it is followed, down that glen, 
by the turnpike road from Edinbursh to Perth. On 
6 Sept 1842 the Queen and Prince ^bert drove down 
' the valley of Glen Farg ; the hills are very high on each 
ride, and completely wooded down to the bottom of the 
valley, where a snuLll stream runs on one side of the 
the road — ^it is really lovely.' — Ord, Sur,, shs. 40, 48, 

Farigaig, a troutful stream of the Nairnshire portion 
of Daviot parish, and of Dores parish, NE Inverness- 
shire. It is formed, 840 feet above sea-level, and 1 mile 
NE of Dunmafflass Lodge, by the confluence of two 
head-streams, tiEe longer of which, the Allt Uisg an t- 
Sithein, rises at an altitude of 2500 feet, and runs 6} 
miles north-by-westward. From their point of con- 
fluence the Farigaig winds 8^ miles nortii -north-west- 
ward and south-westward, till it falls into Loch Ness at 
Inverfarigaig, 2^ miles NNE of Foyers. It receives a 
rivulet running { mile west-by-southward from Loch 
RUTHVSN (2i miles x 4) furL ; 700 feet), and it traverses 
a deep and finely wooded defile. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 78, 

Farkin or Firkin, a small bay and a small headland 
in Arrochar parish, Dumbartonshire, on the W side of 
Loch Lomona, 1} mile NNW of Rowardennan Ferry. 

Fkrland Head. See Kilbridb, West. 

Farms, a manrion in Rutherglen parish, Lanarkshire, 
on the left bank of the Clyde, 1 mile N by E of Ruther- 
^len. Consisting of a very ancient castrilated structure 
m a state of high preservation, with harmonious modem 
additions, it forms one of the finest specimens of the old 
baronial manrion-houae in the W of Scotland. The 
estate, which mainly consists of extenrive fertile haugh 
half enpit by a bold sweep of the Clyde, belonged to 
successively the royal Stewarts, the Crawfords, the 
Stewarts of Minto, the Fleming, and the Hamiltons, 
and now is held by Allan Fane, Esq. (b. 1882 ; sue. 
1879), who owns 295 acres in the shire, valued at £8189 
per annum, including £1587 for minerals.— Ord Sur.. 
sh. 81, 1867. 

FameU, a parish of E Forfarshire, whose church 
stands on the southern ride of the pretty Den of FameU, 
4 miles SSE of the poet-town Brechin, and 1 furlong 
NW of FameU Road station on the Scottish North- 
Eastern section of the Caledonian, this being 8i nules 
SW of Bridge of Dun Junction. 

The parish is bounded W, N W, and N by Brechin, NE 
by Dun, E by Maryton, SE by Cndg, S by EinneU and 
Maryton (detached), and SW by Guthrie. Its lenffth, 
from E by N to W by S, varies between 2^ and 4{ mues ; 
its utmost breadth is 8^ mUes ; and its area is 5755 acres, 
of which 49i lie detached, and 52^ are water. The river 


South EsK winds 1| mile east-by-southward alonff the 
northem border, and just beyond the NE comer m the 
parish receives Pow Bum, which, coming in from Kin- 
nell, and ranning north-eastward across the south-eastern 
interior, then along the Maryton boundary, itself is 
joined by two or three rivulets from the W. In the NE 
the surface declines to 20 feet above sea-level, thence 
risinff gently to 200 feet at the westem border, and more 
rapidly southward to 446 on Ross Muir. ' The whole 
of FameU belongs to the Earl of Southesk, whose estate 
is one of the most compact and desirable in the county, 
extending as it does to 22,525 acres, and bringing an 
annual rental of £21,811. The soU is mostly a clayey 
loam, in parts rather stiff, and in others of a moorish 
texture. The subsoU is chiefly day, mixed with gravel, 
and resting on the Old Red sandstone. On the higher 
parts whinstone shoots up here and there to within a few 
mches of the surface,' etc. {Trans. HighL amdAg. Soc, 
1881, pp. 87-89). FameU Castle, i mile WNW of the 
church, was visited by Edward I. of England on 7 July 
1296, and first is heard of as a gran|^ or reridence of the 
Bishops of Brechin. Now turned mto an iJmshouse for 
old women, it is a plain three-story pile, with a turn- 
pike staircase on its southern front ; the oldest or SW 
part was bmlt about the beginning of the 16th century, 
perhaps by Bishop MeldruuL Bishop Campbell re- 
signea the lands of FameU in 1566 to his patron and 
cmef, the fifth Earl of ArgyU, who within two years 
bestowed them on his kinswoman, Catharine, Countess 
of Crawford. Her grand-dauffhter married Sir David 
Cam^e of Kinnaira, afterwaras Earl of Southesk ; and 
with his descendants, save for the period of their for- 
friture (1716-64), FameU has since continued. Kinnaird 
Castle is noticed separately. Since 1787 compriring 
great part of the ancient parish of Cuikstone or Kin- 
naird, FameU is in the presbytery of Brechin and 
synod of Angus and Meams ; the Uving is worth £885. 
Ihe church, on a rising-ground, surrounded by fine old 
trees, is a neat Gothic edifice of 1806, containing 880 
rittings ; an ancient stone monument found here, with 
carving on it of the FaU of Adam, is fibred in Dr John 
Stuart^ Sculptured Stones qf Scotlcmd (1867). FameU 
pubUc school, with accommodation for 188 chUdren, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 120, and a grant of £106. 
Valuation (1857) £5692, (1882) £7142, 14s. 6d., plus 
£1259 for raUway. Pop. (1801) 576, (1881) 582, (1861) 
708, (1871) 580, (1881) 618.— Ord. Sur., ah. 57, 1868. 
See chap. ii. of Andrew Jervise's MeTnorials qf Angus 
and Meams (Edinb. 1861). 

FanieU Boad. See Farnell ^ 

Famoa. See Kirkhill^ Invemess-shire. 

FaxnwelL See FABNSLLb 

Fazout Head or Fair-aiid, a promontory in Dnmess 
parish, N Sutherland, projecting 2^ mUes north-north- 
westward, between Balnakiel or Baile na CiUe Bay on 
the W and the entrance to Loch EriboU on the E, tiU it 
terminates in a point 8^ nules ESE of Cape Wrath. Its 
rides rise in rocky cliffs to a height of 829 feet above 
sea-level, and present a sublime appearance ; its summit 
commands a magnificent view from Cape Wrath to 
Whiten Head.— 6^. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

Farr, a hamlet and a parish on the N coast of Suther* 
land. The hamlet, BettyhUl of Farr, lies at the head 
of Farr Bay, 9 furlongs E of the mouth of the river 
Naver, 80 mUes W by S of Thurso, and 27 NNE of 
Altnaharrow ; at it are an inn and a post office under 
Thurso, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 

The parish, containing also the hamlets of Altna- 
HABROW, Armadale, and Stbathy, is bounded N by 
the North Sea, E by Beay and KUdonan, SE by Clyne, 
S by Rogart, SW by liairg, and W by Dumess and 
Tongue. Its utmost len^, from NNE to SSW, is 32 
miles ; its breadth, from £ to W, varies between 8} and 
18i mUes ; and its area is 195,197 acres, of which 843 
are foreshore and 6422) water. The coast-line, 21) mUes 
long if one foUows its ins and outs, but only 11 mea- 
sured along a straight line, is indented from E to W by 
Strathy, Armadale, Kirtomy, and Farr Bays, and pro- 



jects a prominent headland in Strathy Point (287 feet), 
lesser ones in Eirtomy Point ^467), Fair Point (869), 
and CieaA! Ruadh (881). It is 'composed,' says Mr 
ArchibaldYotmg, ' either of bold rocks from 20 to 200 
feet high, againsrfc which the waves of the North Sea 
break with fearful violence, or of shallow sands, on 
which heavy surges are generally rolling. Tet, on all 
this extent of coast, there is nothing worthy of the 
name of a harbour ; though at Kirtomy and Armadale, 
and in one or two creeks, boats may land in moderate 
weather. It is impossible to doubt that this want of 
harbour accommodation for fishing boats vexy much 
hinders the prosecution of the fisnings of cod, ling, 
haddocks, and herrings, which abound off the coast, 
and that the establishment of a commodious and secure 
landing-place for boats would be a great boon to the 
district,^ etc. (pp. 45-50, SutherlomS, 1880). Inland, 
the sur^Ke is everywhere hilly or mountainous, from N 
to S attaining 558 feet at Naver Rock, 1728 at Beinn's 
Tomaine, 8154 at conical *Bbn Clibrick, 2669 at the 
*NE shoulder of Ben Hee, and 2278 at *Creag nah- 
lolaire, where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate on the confines of the parish. Loch Naver (6^ 
miles X 4} furl. ; 247 feet) lies towards the SW, and, 
whilst receiving the river of Mudale and other streams 
at its head, discharges from its foot the river Naver, 
mnding 18} miles north-by-eastward to the sea. The 
Naver, } mile below its efflux from Loch Naver, is 
joined by the Ifalert, which itself flows 7 miles north- 
north-eastward out of Loch Coir' anFheama(8i miles x 8} 
furL ; 570 fee^, a lake that lies towards the southern 
extremity of Farr, and at its head communicates by a 
narrow channel with Loch a' Bealaich (Ig x ^ mile). 
The eastern shore of Loch Lotal likewise belongs to 
Farr, and its effluent, the Boigie, above and Mow 
Boigie Bridge traces 2} miles of the boundary with 
Tongue; on the eastern border lies Loch nan Cuinne 
(8x1 mile ; 892 feet), the westernmost of the Baden 
chain of lakes, so that the drainage partly belongs to 
the basin of Helmsdale river. Out of Loch Strathy 
(7 X 28 furl. ; 646 feet) Strathy Water runs 14^ miles 
north-by-eastward to Strathy Bay, and drains, with its 
affluent^ the NE district of Farr, whose chief other 
stream is Armadale Water, running 5 nules north-by- 
eastward to Armadale Bay, whilst of lakes beyond num- 
ber one other only needs notice— Loch Mendie (Ig x i 
mile ; 405 feet). The rocks on the seaboard are nudnly 
Devonian, and sranite and gneiss prevail throughout 
the interior. A whitish sandstone, capable of fine 
dressing by the chisel, has been quarried at Strathy ; 
and near it is limestone, of first-rate manurial qualitj^. 
Along Strathnaver, the finest strath perhaps in all the 
counfy, there is a considerable extent of good haugh 
land, a mixture of sand, gravel, and moss ; and along 
the Strathy, too, there are nere and there arable patches 
of fertile thin sandy soiL Sheep-farming, however, is 
the staple industrv, the lar;^t of several large sheep 
farms being Ltmgdale, Rhifail, Clebrig, and Armadale. 
The scan^ vestiges of Bobve tower have been separately 
noticed ; 'duns, barrows, and standing stones make up 
the remaining antiquities. The Duke of Sutherland is 
sole proprietor. In the presbytery of Tongue and synod 
of Sutherland and Caithness, this parish is divided eccle- 
siastically into Farr and Strathy, the former a living 
worth £206. Its church, built in 1774, was restored in 
1882; in the churchyard is a very early stone obelisk, 
sculptured with crosses and other emblems. Two public 
schools, Farr and Strathy, with respective accommodation 
for 125 and 99 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 45 and 94, and grants of £80, 14s. and £25, 8s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £5496, (1882) £10,890, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 
2408, (1881) 2078, (1861) 2108, (1871) 2019, (1881) 1980, 
of whom 1140 were in Farr q» s, parish, and 790 in that 
of Strathy.— Oni Sur., shs. 114, 115, 108, 109, 1878-80. 
Farr, an estate, with a mansion, in Daviot and Dun- 
lichitjr parish, Inverness-shire, on the Nairn's left bank, 
6} miles SSW of Daviot church. Its owner, Francis 
Henry Pottinger Mackintosh, Esq. (b. 1840 ; sue. 1880), 
holds 4500 acres in the shire, valued at £985 per annum. 


Famgon Hill, a mountain in Dull parish, Perthshire, 
4 miles NNW of Abezfeldy. It rises to an altitude of 
2559 feet above sea-level, and commands an extensive 
view over a wild mountainous country. 

Farraline, Loch, a lake of Dores parish, NE Inverness- 
shire, 8 miles £ bv S of Inver&rigaig. Lyin^ 650 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length and width of 9 
and 2^ furlongs, abounds in trout, and sends off a stream 
8| miles nor£-north-ea8tward to the Farigaig. A num- 
ber of muskets, disoovered here in 1841, in the course 
of drainage operations, were supposed to have been 
thrown into tne locb. during the troubles of the '45. — 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 78, 1878. 

Fkexw, a small river of Boss and Inverness shires. 
It rises amonff mountains of SW Boss-ebire, 9 miles E 
of the head of Loch Garron, and thence winds 27} miles 
east-north-eastward and east-by-southward, expanding 
at various points into Lochs Monab, Miulie, ana 
Bunacharan (IJ mile x 2) furl. ; 867 feet), till, 5 fur- 
longs S by W of Erchless Oastle, it unites with the 
Glass to form the river Bbauly. Its glen, Strath- 
fiirrer, is a series of circular meadowy spaces, two of 
them occupied by Lochs Miulie and Bunacharan, and all 
flanked by bold, rocky, intricate, mountainous accli- 
vities, partly fringed with wood ; and it displays a rich 
variety of pictm^sque scenery. Its waters are well 
stocked with trout and grilse. A carriage road, striking 
into Strathfarrer from Strathglass, crosses tiie river, 
near its mouth, by a strong bridge, and ascends the 
glen to the foot of Loch Monar ; and a footpath goes 
thence, through a wild mountain region, and partly 
through a mountain pass, to Lochs Carron and Alsh. 
Masses of graphite or black lead lie embedded among 
gneiss roclu in the mouth of Strathfarrer. — Ord. Sur,, 
^s. 82, 83, 1882-81. 

Farthlngbank, a hamlet in Durisdeer parish, NW 
Dumfriesshire, near the right bank of the mth, 5} miles 

Faaoadale, a place on the northern coast of Ard- 
namurchan parish, Argyllshire, 20 miles NNW of 
Salen, in MulL The Oban and Skye steamer touches 

Fueny Water, a Lammermuir rivulet of Gkrvald and 
Whittinghsm parishes, S Haddingtonshire, rising close 
to the Berwickshire border at an altitude of 1550 feet 
above sea-level, and winding?^ miles east-north-eastward 
till it falls into the Whitadder at Mill Enowe, 8 miles 
WN W of Gruishaws church. It possesses great interest 
to ^logUBts as exposing a fine section of the Lammer- 
muir rodcs, and is well stocked with trout. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 88, 1863. 

Faskally, an estate, with a mansion, in Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, at theoonfluence of the rivers Tummel and 
Qtary, 2 miles NW of Pitlochry. Nature and art 
have combined to render it 'a very pretty place,' as 
Queen Victoria styles it in her Joumalf 11 Sept 1844. 
Its owner, Archibald Butter, Esq. (b. and sue. 1805), 
held 17,586 acres in the shire, valued at £5670 per 

FasldDA, an estate and a village in Old Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of North Calder 
Water, { mile W of Galderbank. The estate contains 
coal and ironstone mines, worked from an earlier period 
than any othera in the great Clydesdale mineral field. 
Pop. (1861) 514, (1871) 656, (1881) 475. 

FludaiM, a small bay in Bow parish, Dumbartonshire, 
on the E side of Oare Loch, li mile SSE of Gareloch- 
heacL An ancient castle of the Earls of Lennox here 
is now represented by only a grassy mound ; but a 
pre-Beformation chapel, dedkated to St Michael, has left 
some vestiges. 

FMnadololi, a mansion in LiBmore and Apnin parish, 
Aiig^llshire, in Glencreran, 2^ miles NE of tne head of 
Loch Creran, and 181 N of Taynuilt station. It stands 
on the NW shore of Loch Bails Mhic Chailein or Fasna- 
cloich iH X 1} furL), a beautiful expansion of the river 
Grenn, containing plenty of sea-trout and salmon ; and 
it is the seat of John Ckmpbell Stewart, Esq. (b. 1832), 
who holds 6000 acres in the shire, valued at £786 per 


annum. There is a post office of Fasnacloich. — Ord. 
&ur., sh. 53, 1877. 

Fa«nakyle, a mansion in Eilmorack parish, In^emess- 
shire, at the confluence of the Affnc and Amhuinn 
Deabhaidh to form the river Glass, 2f miles SW of 
Glenaffric Hotel 

Fas<|ae, a mansion in Fettercaim parish, SW Kincar- 
dineshire, between Crichie Bum and the bumof Garrol, IJ 
mile N by W of Fettercaim yiUa^^. Built in 1808-9 at a 
cost of £30,000 by Sir Thomas Bamsay of Balmain, seventh 
Bart since 1625, it is a large palatial looking edifice, 
commanding a wide prosjpect, and surrounded by beauti- 
ful and extensive policies, with a lake (8x1 furL) 
and many trees of great dimensions and rare grandeur. 
The Fasque estate, neld by the Ramsays from the 15th 
century, was purchased about 1828 by the Liverpool 
merchant, Mr John Gladstones (1764-1851), who in 1846 
was created a baronet as Sir John Gladstone of Fasque 
and Balfour, and whose fourth son is the Premier, 
William Ewart Gladstone (b. 1809). The eldest. Sir 
Thomas Gladstone, D.C.L., second Bart. (b. 1804), pos- 
sesses 45,062 acres in the shire, valued at £9175 per 
annum. 'The Fasque property,' writes Mr James 
Macdonald in Trans. Highl. and Ag, Soc, 1881, pp. 
114,115, * now extends from Fettercaim village to within 
less than 10 miles of Banchory on Deeside, a distance of 
over 16 miles. By far the greater portion lies on the 
Grampian range, and consists of black heath-clad hills 
intersected by numerous valleys or small straths in which 
there is a good deal of green pasture. On the immense 
estate of Glendye, purchased by Sir Thomas about 
1865 from the Earl of Southesk, there are several small 
farms in the lower parts towards Banchory, while on 
the other estates there is a large extent of excellent 
arable land, mostly good rich loam, strong and deep in 
some parts and thin in others, but all over sound and 
fertile. The property contains a great deal of valuable 
wood, not a little of which has been planted by Sir 
Thomas and his father. ... A very commodious 
farm-steading was erected on the home farm (670 acres) 
in 1872.' The Episcopal church of Fascine, St Andrew's, 
was built by Sir John, who made his place of sepul- 
ture within its walls. — Qrd. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. See 

Fasflifem, an estate, with a mansion, in the Aiyryll- 
shire section of Kilmallie parish, on the northern £ore 
of Upper Loch Eil, 7} miles WNW of Fort William. It 
was the seat of a branch of the Gamerons, to which be- 
longed CoL John Cameron (1771-1815), who fell at Quatre 
Bras, and over whose grave in Kilmallie churchyard at 
Coipach is a lofty OMlisk, with an inscription by Sir 
Walter Scott. A stone quarry on the estate supplied 
material for constracting the Caledonian Canal and 
building a quay at Fort William. 

Fastk an ancient militanr strength in Bedrule parish, 
Roxburghshire, 1 furlong NW of the ruins of Bedrule 
Castle. It seems to have been an outwork of the 
castle, and is now represented by merely a mound. 

Faat Castle, a ruinous sea-fortress in Coldingham 
parish, Berwickshire, perched on a jutting cliff that 
beetles 70 feet above the German Ocean, 4} miles NW 
of Coldingham villace, 8 WNW of St Abb's Head, and 
7 £ of Cockbumspath station. Backed by high grassy 
hill slopes, it presents one shattered side of a low square 
keep, with a fragment more shattered still overhanging 
the sea-verge of its rock, which, measuring 120 by 60 
feet, is accessible only by a path a few feet wide, and 
formerly was quite dissevered from the mainland by a 
chasm of 24 feet in width that was crossed by a draw- 
bridge. In 1410, it was held by Thomas Holden and an 
English garrison, who had long harassed the country by 
their pimcing excursions, when Patrick, second son of 
the E^l of Dunbar, with a hundred followers, took the 
castle and captured the governor. According to Holin- 
shed. Fast Castle acain fell into the hands of tiie English, 
but was recovered oy the following stratagem in 1548 — 
' The captain of Fast Castle had commanded the hus- 
bandmen adjoining to brmff thither, at a certain day, 
great store of victuals. The young men thereabouts. 


having that occasion, assembled thither at the day ap- 
pointed, who, taking their burdens from their horses, 
and laying them on their shoulders, were allowed to 
pass the bridge, which joined two high rocks, into the 
castle ; where, laying down that which they brought, 
they suddenly, by a sign given, set upon the keepers of 
the gate, slew them, and before the other Enghshmen 
could be assembled, possessed the other places, weapons, 
and artillery of the castle, and then receiving the rest 
of the company into the same, through the same great 
and open gate, they wholly kept and enioyed the castle 
for their countrymen.' Sir Nicolas Throgmorton, in 
1567, characterises it as a place ' fitter to lodge prisoners 
than folks at liberty ; ' and, in 1570, when only 
tenanted by ten Scots, Drury, Marshal of Berwick, after 
taking Home Castle, was sent to invest Fast Castle with 
2000 men, it being the next principal place that be- 
longed to the Homes. Passing from them by marriage 
about 1580, 'Fast Castle,' says Sir Walter Scott, 
in his Provincial Antiquities, * became the appro- 
priate stronghold of one of the darkest characters of 
that age, the celebrated Logan of Bestalrig. There 
is a contract existing in the charter-chest of Lord Napier 
betwixt Logan and a very opposite character, the cele- 
brated inventor of logarithms, the terms of which 
are extremely singular. The paper is dated July 1594, 
and sets forth — " Forasmuch as there were old reports 
and appearances that a sum of money was hid within 
John Logan's house of Fast Castle, John Napier should 
do his utmost diligence to search and seek out, and by 
all craft and ingiue to find out the same, and, by the 
grace of God, shall either find out the same, or mAke it 
sure that no such thing has been there." For his reward 
he was to have the extra third of what was found, and 
to be safely guarded by Logan back to Edinburgh. 
And in case he should find nothing, after all trial and 
diligence taken, he refers the satisfaction of his travel 
and pains to the discretion of Logan.' Logan was next 
engaged in the mysterious Gowrie 0>nspiracy (1600). 
It was proposed to force the King into a boat from the 
bottom of the garden of Gowrie House, and thence con- 
duct him by sea to that ruffian's castle, there to await 
the disposal of Elizabeth or of the conspirators. Logan's 
connection with thisafiVur was not known till nine years 
after his death, when the correspondence betwixt him 
and the Earl of Gowrie was discovered in the possession 
of Sprott, a notary public, who had stolen tnem from 
one John Bour, to whom they were intrusted. Sprott 
was executed, and Logan was condemned for nigh 
treason, even after his death, his bones having been 
brought into court for that purpose. Almost greater, 
however, than any historic interest connected with Fast 
Castle is the fictinous one with which Scott invested it 
in bis Bride of Lammermoorf by choosing it for proto- 
t}i)e of * Wolfs Crag,' the soUtaiy and naked tower of 
Edgar Ravenswood. — Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. See 
Perth, Diblbtok, Baldoon, and chap, xxxvi of James 
F. HunneweU's Lands qfSeott (Edinb. 1871). 

Fatlips Castle, an ancient fortalice in Minto parish, 
Boxburghshire, on the crown of Minto Crags, near the 
left bai& of the Teviot, { mile ENE of Minto House. 
Supposed to have been a stronghold of the Tumbulls, 
it is figured in Grose's Antiquities of Scotland, and 
appears there as still comprising two stories ; but it is 
now a small fragmentary ruin. 

Fatlipa CafUe, an ancient fortalice in Symington 
parish, Lanarkshire, on a spur projecting from the SE 
skirt of Tinto Hill, 2 miles NNE of Wiston. It is now 
represented by only a piece of wall hbout 6 feet high 
and fully 6 feet thick. 

Fanldhoiue, a mining village in the SW comer of 
Whitburn parish, SW Linlithgowshire, with a station 
on the Cleland and Midcalder line of the Caledonian, 
6$ miles WSW of West Calder. Lying in a bleak 
region of collieries, ironstone mines, and paraffin works, it 
stands within a mile of Crofthead and Greenburn, 
villages similar to itself, and practically forms one with 
them. It has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 



National Bank, and an endowed school. An Established 
Mission church, built at a cost of £1700, was raised to 
quoad taera status in 1872 ; St John's Roman Catholic 
church (1873 ; 550 sittings) is a good Early English 
edifice. Pop. of Fauldhouse and Crofthead (1871) 3151, 
(1881) 8000 ; of quoad sacra parish (1881) 3933.— Orci 
Sur., sh. 81, 1867. 

FaungnuM, a bum in Cranshaws and Greenlaw 
parishes, Berwickshire, rising on Erelaw, among the 
Lammermuirs, on the SE border of Cranshaws, and 
running 5 miles south-eastward and southward to Black- 
adder Water, at a point 1| mile NW of Greenlaw town, 
^Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Fawaide. See Falside. 

Fea, an eminence in Cross parish, Sanday Island, 
Orkney. It rises gently from the E, terminates in a 
maritime precipice on the W, is pierced in the base of 
the precipice by curious caverns, and commands from its 
summit very fine views. 

Feachan, Feochan, or Fenchaa, a sea-loch on the 
mutual boundary of Kilninver and Kilbride parishes, 
Ai^Ushire. Penetrating the land 4} miles, first south- 
eastward, next east-north-eastward, it is 1 mile wide at 
the entrance, and from 1 furlong to | mile higher up ; has 
a depth of 15 fathoms ; is flankMl by high rockypromon- 
tories ; receives at its head the Nell, and at Eilninver 
the Euchar ; and at the time of spring tides has the ap- 
pearance of a wide rapid river. 

Feam, a village and a coast parish of NE Ross and 
Cromarty. The village, Hill of Feam, stands 50 feet 
above sea-level, 1^ mile E by S of Feam station, on the 
Highland railway, this being 3) miles SE of Tain, and 
22 NE of Dingwall ; at it is a post office, with money 
order, savings* bank, and railway telegraph departments. 

The parish, containing also the fishing villages of 
Balintore and Hilton of Cadboll, 2} miles SE and 2$ 
ESE of Hill of Feam, is bounded NW by Tain, NE by 
Tarbat, SE by the Moray Firth, S by Nigg, and SW and 
W by Logie-Easter. Its utmost lens^h, from E to W, is 5 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 4| miles ; 
and its area is 7711| acres, of which 123} are foreshore 
and 289^ water. The coast-line, 8jt miles lon^, rises 
steeply near Geanies in precipitous cliffs to a height of 
200 feet above the sea, but southward is low and sandy ; 
inland the surface is much of it nearly flat, and nowhere 
exceeds 150 feet. Loch Ete (If mile x 44 furL ; 51 
feet), on the Tain border, is almost the only lake that 
has not been drained ; and there are no streams of any 
consequence. The predominant rock is Old Red sand- 
stone ; but the small vein of limestone that mns from 
the North Sutor to Tarbat Ness, crops out at Geanies. 
The soil is largely a very rich fertile loam, and a^- 
culture is carried to high perfection, steam-ploughmg 
having been introduced in 1875, whilst from a little 
knoll near CadboU no fewer than eighteen steam-staUcs 
may be counted. Cattle-feeding, too, is carried on, 
especially on the farms of the Cadboll property, belong- 
ing to Macleod of Inveigordon. Geames estate under- 
went great improvement from 1840 under the care of 
that eminent agriculturist, Kenneth Murray, Esq. 
(1826-76), who succeeded his brother in 1867, and who 
extended the arable area from 2016 to 4000 acres, the 
new land being partly reclaimed from bog and moss, 
partly from moor, and partly from locl^ Geanies 
House, 4 miles ENE of Hill of Feam, commands a 
glorious view over the Morav Firth, and is now the seat 
of his son, William Hu^h Eric Murray, Esq. (b. 1858), 
who holds 5308 acres in the shire, valued at £4401 

Sr annum (only £2160 in 1843). Other mansions are 
Ian House and Rhynie House, standing 1 j; mile SW 
and 1} NE of Hill of Feam. The Pnemonstratensian 
Abbey of Feam was founded in 1221 by Ferchard 
Macintaggart, Earl of Ross, in Edderton parish, but 
in 1338 was transferred to Feam to escape the ferocity of 
neighbouring clans. Of its twenty-one abbots the fif- 
teenth was the protomartyr of the Scottish Reformation, 
Patrick Hamilton (1503-28), who was bumed at St An- 
drews. He was but a youth when he obtained the abbacy 
in 1524, and it is doubtful whether he ever took orders ; 



anyhow his connection with Feam was little more than 
titular. The abbey church comprised a nave, a choir (99 
X 25i feet), a Lady chapel, and two transeptal chapels- 
First Pointed mainly in style, with later msertions and 
additions, the whole having been completed by Abbot 
James Caimcross in 1545. It servea as the parish 
church from the Dissolution till 1742, when on a Sunday 
of October the ponderous stone roof fell in, as graphically 
told in Hugh Miller's Scenes and Legends, under the 
title of 'The Washinc of the Mermaid.' Forty-four 
persons were killed, and more must have lost their lives, 
but that the stalwart preacher, Robertson of Gairlodi, 
set his shoulder a^inst the door, and so propped up the 
side walL The pile lay in ruins till 1772, when it was 
patched up to serve anew as parish church ; and though 
lamentably mutilated, with its £ end cut off for the 
Balnagowan mausoleum, it still retains manv features of 
interest — three sedilia, two piscinas, a credence, three 
monumental effigies, and some good lancet and traceried 
windows. Another antiquity, noticed separately, is 
Lochslin Castle. Five proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwaras, 8 of between £100 and £500, 
and 3 of less than £100. Feam is in the presbytery of 
Tain and synod of Ross; the living is worth £382. 
The parish or abbey church stands 5 mrlongs SE of the 
villa^, and a Free church IJ mile E by N. Three 
public schools, all of recent erection, at Balmuchy, Hill 
of Feam, and Hilton, with respective accommodation 
for 80, 120, and 178 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 51, 102, and 160, and grants of £41, 6s., 
£96, lis., and £135, 17s. Valuation (1882) £10,467, 
2s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1528, (1831) 1695, (1861) 2083, 
(1871) 2135, (1881) 2135.— Orrf. /S'tw., sh. 94, 1878. 

Feam, two districts and a rivulet in Edderton 
parish, Ross-shire. The districts are Easter Feam and 
Wester Feam; and the rivulet intersects or divides 
them northward to the inner Domoch Firth. See 

Feam or Fern, a parish in the central part of Forfar- 
shire, whose church is beautifully situated on an iso- 
lated hillock in the midst of a romantic den, 9 miles 
N by E of Forfar, and 7 W of Brechin, under which 
there is a post ofBce of Feam. It is bounded N by 
Lethnot, E by Menmuir and Careston, S and W by 
Tannadice. Its utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is 
5g miles ; its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 3^ miles ; 
and its area is 8811f acres, of which 20 are water. Clear- 
flowing NoRAX Water winds 4$ miles east -south- 
eastward along all the southern border, on its way to 
the South Esk ; and Cruick Water, an affluent of the 
North Esk, rising in the northern extremity of the 
parish, runs 5| miles south-south-eastward, then 1} 
mile eastward, through the interior, and passes off into 
Menmuir. In the SE the surface sinks to less than 
300 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 421 feet near 
Wellford, 605 near Noranside, 970 at Deuchar Hill, 
1003 at Greens of Shandford, 1009 at *Manswom Rig, 
1682 at *Benden)chie, 1377 at Crai^ of Trasta, and 1900 
at the *Hill of Garbet, where asterisks mark those sum- 
mits that culminate on the borders of the parish. Thn 
rocks include clay slate and Old Red sandstone, and the 
slate has been quarried ; whilst the soil is fertile through • 
out the Strathmore district and in parts of the central 
valley. On a rocky and precipitous reach of Noran Water 
stand the haunted ruins of the castle of Yayne, or 
ancient manor-house of Feam, originally a three-story 
pile of friable red sandstone, with a round south-wes- 
tern tower. Falsely ascribed to Cardinal Bethune, and 
greatly enlarged towards the close of the 17 th century 
by Robert, third Earl of Southesk, this, or a predii- 
cessor, was the seat of the Montealtos or Mowats, who 
held the estate of Feam from the reign of William the 
Lyon (1166-1214) till some time prior to 1450. In 
that year it was in the possession of the Earls of Craw- 
ford, from whom it passed about 1594 to the Camegica 
of SoUTHBSK. By them it was sold in 1766 to Mr John 
Mill, whose son bmlt Noranside. The small estate of Deu - 
chars has its interest, as having been owned by Deuchars 
of that Ilk from the 10th century till 1818. The ' Kel- 


pie's Footmark ' is still to be seen in a sandstone rock 
near thd castle of Yayne, but little or nothing remains 
of a ' Droidical circle/ of a drcnlar prehistoric dwelling, 
or of three tnmnli on the hills, one of which yielded a 
number of ancient nms. Noranbide is the chief man- 
sion, and the property is divided among five. Feam is 
in the presbyter^r of Brechin and synod of Anffns and 
Means ; the living is worth £220. The church, orici- 
ually founded by Bishop Colman about 666, and deai- 
cated to St Aidan, was rebuilt in 1806, and contains 
238 sittings ; whilst a public school, with accommo- 
dation for 60 chilren, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 43, and a grant of £62, lOs. Valuation (1857) £4165, 
<1882) £6194, 10s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 448, (1831) 450, 
(1861) 439, (1871) 348, (1881) 316.— Ord. Swr,, sh. 67, 
1868. See chap. v. of Andrew Jervise's Land of the 
Lindaays (Edinb. 1863). 

Feoliloy or Flcfalie, a place in Towie parish, W 
Aberdeenshire. 1} mile ElN^E of Towie church. The 
Peel of Fechley, a mound here, partly natural and 
partly artificial, measures upwards of 60 feet in height, 
and from 127 to 200 feet in summit breadtii ; is sur- 
rounded by a fosse, from 12 to 41 feet in width, and 
from 8 to 86 feet in depth ; and is crowned with vitrified 
remains of a tower. 

Fechtin Ford, a place on the border of Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire, on Avon Water, 1 mile above 
Manuel House. It is traditionally said to have been 
the scene of a feud between the shepherds of the con- 
fronting banks. 

Federate, a ruined castle in Kew Deer parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 2 miles N of New Deer villajg^e. Surrounded 
partly by a fosse, partly by a morass, it was approach- 
able only by a causeway and a drawbridge ; formed an 
incomplete square, with great thickness of wall, and 
with the comers ronnded off; and, dating from some 
period unknown to either record or tradition, is said to 
have been one of the last strongholds of the Jacobite 
forces after the battle of EdUiecrankie. 

Fender, a bum in Blair Athole parish, Perthshire, 
rising on the SW slope of Ben^lo at an altitude of 3060 
feet above sea-level, and runnmg 6g miles south-west- 
ward along an alpine glen, till, after a total descent of 
2400 feet. It falls into the river Tilt, 1 mUe N by E of 
Blair Athole village. It makes three picturesque faUs, 
the first about a mile from its mouth, the third at its 
influx to the Tilt ; approaches the last fall through a 
narrow recess ; and in a boiling and eddying series of 
five descents, to the a^|gregate depth of 30 feet, blunders 
into the Tilt at a point where the latter flows in durk 
gloom between two vertical cliffs of limestone rocks. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1869. 

Fendoch, an ancient camp in Monzie parish, Perth- 
shire, on the high ground at the lower end of the Sma' 
Glen or deep narrow defile of Olenalmond, 9 furlongs 
W by N of BucHANTT, and 3 miles NE of Monzie 
church. Overlooked bv a native strength upon Dun- 
more, it is traditionally called the Boman (>mp, and 
majr be truly regarded as the work of the Aoman 
legions under Agricola or one of his successors. It 
measures 180 paces in length bv 80 in breadth, and 
is alleged to have had accommodation for 12,000 men ; 
it was defended on two sides bv water, on the other side 
by morass and precipice; and it continued till about 
the begiuning ot the present century to retain consider- 
able portions of both rampart and fosse, but has subse- 
quently been ereatly levelled by tillage and road-making 
operations. A moor immediately £ of it was, till a 
recent period, dotted with cairns over an extent of 
several acres, — several of the cairns measuring from 10 
to 14 paces in diameter ; and it is tibought, from the 
number and size of these cairns, and from human re- 
mains having been fotmd beneath them, to have been 
the scene of some great ancient battie. — Ord, Sur., sh. 
47, 1869. 

Fenella, several localities in the SW and S of Kincar- 
dineshire. Strathfenella Hill, in the westem vicinity 
of Fordoun village, is a crescent-shaped isolated ridge 
8 miles long, and 1358 feet high. Fenella Strath, to 


the N of the hill, is a pleasant vale traversed by Luther 
Water. Fenella Castie, 1 mile W of Fettercaim villsge, 
is the vestige of an ancient stracture, situated on an 
eminence, enclosed by an inner and an outer wall, and 
surrounded on three sides by a morass. Fenella Den, 
in St OyruB parish, is traversed by a bum running to 
the North Esk river, making a cascade of 66 feet in fall, 
and crossed by two handsome bridges, one of them 
120 feet high. All these take their name from Fenella, 
daughter of the Mormaer of Angus, and wife of the 
Mormaer of the Meams, who in 994 is said to have slain 
Einff Kenneth III. at Fenella Castie, to revenge the 
death of her son. ' Not only Hector Boece,' sa^ Dr 
Hill Burton, 'but the older and graver chroniders^ 
Fordun and Wyntoun, bring out this affair in a highly 
theatrical shape. We are to suppose that the victim 
has been lured in among the avenger's toils. He was 
led into a tower of the castie " quhuk was theiket with 
copper, and hewn with mani subtle mouldry of flowers 
and imageries, the work so curious that it exceeded sll 
the stuffthereof." So says the translator of Boece. In 
the midst of the tower stood a brazen statue of the kins 
himself, holding in his hand a golden apple studded 
with gems. " That imsge," said the Lady Fenella, *< is 
set up in honour of thee, to show the world how mudi 
I honour my king. The precious apple is intended for 
a eift for the king, who wiU honour his poor subject by 
taking it from the hand of the image." The touching 
of the apple set agoing certain miushinery which dis- 
charged a nurdle of arrows into the king's body. The 
trick is copied frx)m some of those attnbuted to the 
Yehmic tribunals. The picturesque district between 
Fettercaim and the sea is alive with traditions of 
Fenella and her witcheries' (Hist, Seotl, L 339, ed. 
Fenton Bams. See Dirleton. 
Fenwick, a "tillage and a parish in Gunninghame dis- 
trict, Ayrshire. The villsge stands 430 feet above sea- 
level on the right bank of Fenwick Water, 4^ milea 
NNE of Kilmamock, under which it has a post office 
with money order and savings' bank departments. Pop. 
(1871) 469, (1881) 366. 

The parish is bounded NE by Eaclesham in Renfrew^ 
shire, £ and SE by Loudoun, S by Kilmamock, SW by 
Kilmaurs and Dreffhom, W by Stewarton, and NW by 
Stewarton and by Meams in Eenfrewshire. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 8 miles ; its breadth, from N 
to S, varies between 2 and 6^ nules ; and its area is 
18,161^ acres, of which 67 are water. Crawfurdland and 
Fenwick Waters, gathering their head-streams from 
Eaglesham, run west-south-westward and south-west- 
ward across the parish, and, passing into Kilmamock, 
there unite to form Kilmamock Water ; whilst Loch 
GoiN or Blackwoodhill Dam (7x3 furL) just touches 
the north-eastern boundary. The surface sinks, below 
Dalmustemock, in the furthest S, to 340 feet above sea- 
level, and rises thence east-north-eastward to 714 feet 
at Airtnock, 836 at Greenhill, 807 at Grins Hills, and 
932 near the eastem border; north-north-eastwai^ or 
northward to 786 at Dicks Law, 914 near Loch Goin, 
666 at East Pokelly, 764 at Greelaw, and 876 at Drumboy 
Hill. Thus, though, as seen from the hills of Cnigie 
in Kyle, Fenwick looks all a plain, it really attains no 
inconsiderable altitude, and from many a point com- 
mands far-reaching views of Kyle and the Firth of 
Clyde, away to the heights of derrick and the Arran 
and Argyllshire mountains. Originally, for the most 
part, fen or bog, the land, in spite of a general scarcity 
of trees, now wears a verdant, cultivate aspect, being 
chiefly distributed into meadow and natural pasture. 
Fossinferous limestone 1b plentiful ; in the W are a free- 
stone quarry, and a thin seam of coal ; and seams of 
ironstone, with coal and limestone, are on the Rowallan 
estate. This estate was held from the 13tii till the be- 
ginning of the 18th century by the Mures of Rowallan, 
of whom a curious HistorU, published at Glasgow in 
1826, was written by Sir William Mure (1694-1667), ' a 
man' — we have it on his ipse dixit — *tiiat was pious 
and learned, had an excellent vein in poedOi and mnch 


delyted in bmlding and planting.' His son and 
mndson both were zealous Covenanters ; and daring 
the former's time the celebrated William Guthrie, who 
was ministep of Fenwick fh>m 1644, is said to have held 
conventicles in the house of Bowallan after his ejection 
(1664). Fitly enough, the sufferings of the martjrrs 
and oottTessors of the Covenant were chronicled in the 
Scots Worffeies of a native of Fenwick, John Howie 
of Loch^in (1735-91). He was descended liH>m a 
Waldensian refugee who had settled here so long ago as 
1178 ; and Lochgbin, in the days of his great-grand- 
father, had twelve times been pillaged by the persecutor. 
In his own day that ancient and sequestered dwelling 
became ^ kind of covenanting reliquary, wherein were 
enshrined the Bible and sword of raton, the standard 
of Fenwick parish, ^o drum that was sounded at 
Dnimclog, and so forth. To revert to Bowallan, it 
passed, through an heiress, to the fifth Earl of LotTDOTiN. 
Three proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 9 of between £100 and £500, 8 of from £50 to 
£100, and 13 of from £20 to £50. Disjoined from 
Kitmarnock in 1642, Fenwick is in the presbytery of 
hvine and sn^od of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is 
worth £200. . The parish church, at the village, was 
built in 1648, and contains 850 sittings. It retains its 
ori^al black oak pulpit, with a hall-hour sand-glass ; 
and the joURS still nang from the S gable. There are 
also Free and U.P. churches; and two public schools, Fen- 
wick and Hairshaw, with respective aocommodation for 
120 and 65 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 92 and 89, and grants of £75, 198. and £31, 12s. 
Valuation (1860) £11,687, (1882) £15,635, 10s. Pop. 
(1801) 1280- (1881) 2018, (1861) 1532^ (1871) 131S, 
(1881) 111^2,— OrcL Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Ferdon, a streamlet of Fordoun parish, Kincardine- 
shire. Formed by two bums that descend from the 
frontier Grampians, and unite at Clattering-Briggs, it 
runs 5| miles south-south-eastward, jjsast the W end of 
Strathfenella' HUl, to a confluence with Luther Water, 
1|; mUe W of Laurencekirk. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Fereame or Fanese, a nmge of hills On the mutual 
border of Abbey and Neilston parishes, Renfrewshire, 
culminotii^, 1^ mile W by S of Barrhead, at 725 feet 
a'boye seo-level 

Fetfl^ofllf.a lak« (3 >c 1 fori.) on the mutual border of 
Ayr and Coyltoft parishes, Ayrshire, 4} miles S£ of Ayr 
town. It has an islet in its centre, contains pike, and 
sends off a rivulet 1 mile southward through Loch 
Snipe to Loch MArtnaham.^ — Ord. Sur,, sh. 14, 1868. 

FergOBhfll, a collier Village in Kilwinning parish, 
Ayrshire, If mile E of Kilwinning town. Founded 
about the year 1885, it has a public school for the 
ohildren of the colliers and a mission station of the 
Chnroh of Sca(9and. Pop. (1861) 279, (1871) 531, 
(1881) 587. 

Feigmdid, a western suburb of Paisley, in Renfrew- 
shire. It lies within Paisley parliamentaiy burgh, and 
was built on an estate which belonged for some time to 
fhe monks of Paisley, but was afterwards divided. An 
old castle stood on the estate, and has left some remains ; 
and a modem mansioui called Ferguslie House, is now 
on it. See Paisley. 

FefgattoB, a farm, near Bearsden station, in New 
Kilpatrick pariah, Dumbartonshire, retaining, on tho 
face of a hill, a reach of Uie fosse of Antoninus' Wall. 

Fe^iirtoish, a detached section of Naimshire, at the 
head of Gromartr Firth, surrounded by Ross-shire, 
and lying about 2| miles SE of DiufwalL It forms the 
central oustrict of the united parish of Urquhart and 
Logic- Wester ; it comprises part of the Mullbuie, and 
part of the strath at that ridge's south-western base ; it 
IS bounded, along the W, for 24 miles, by the river 
Conan and the upper part of Cromarty Firth ; and it 
comprises <^973 acres of land, partly moor, partlv 
pasture, but chiefly arable. The oarony of Fenntosh 
was purchased about 1670 by the Forbeses of Cttlloden, 
who here have a mansion, Ryefield Lodge ; and a 
privilege of distilling whisky on it, from ffrain of its 
own growth free of duty, was granted m 1689 to 


Duncan Forbes, father of President Forbes, but was 
withdrawn in 1785, being compensated by a grant of 
£20,000. The neat improvements carried out on the 
estate since 1847 in the way of reclaiming, draining, 
fencing, building, etc., are described in Trans, ffigM. 
andAg, Soc, 1877, pp. 113-116. 

Ferintoeh, Newton of, a hamlet in Ferintosh district, 
Naimshire, li mile ESE of ConanBridge. It has a 
post office under Dingwall. 

Fern, Forfarshire. See Feabn. 

FemelL See Farkell. 

Femeie. See Ferekxze. 

Femie, an estate in Monimail parish, Fife, 4 miles W 
of Cupar and 3} NNE of Ladybank. It appears to have 
beenjiart of the original demesne of the fiarls of Fife ; 
and it retains a buonial fortalice of great antiquity, 
once a place of considerable strength, surrounded by 
marshy ground. Its owner, Francis Walter Balfour, 
Esq. (b. 1831 ; sue. 1854), holds 1725 acres in the shire, 
valued at £8224 per annum. 

FeiMe, Easter, a hamlet in Monimail parish, Fife, 
2f miles W of Cupar. 

Fezziiegair, a village, with a station in Hamilton 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the Lesmahagow railway, at 
the junction of the eastward line from Hamilton, 2^ 
miles NNW of LarkhalL Pop. (1871) 395, (1881) 561. 

Femiehemt CSantle, a Border stronghold in Jedburgh 
parish, Roxbuighshire, on the right raink of Jed Water, 
2| miles S by £ of Jedburgh town. It was the ancient 
seat of the Kerrs of the Lothian line, as Cessford was 
that of the Boxburghe Kers — offshoots both of the same 
Anglo-Norman stodc, but wraneHng ever as to seniority. 
Ralph Kerr about 1350 settled in Teviotdale, and his 
seventh descendant is designated of Femieherst in the 
parliabient records of 1476. To this date, then, or 
somewhat earlier, belonged the original castle, where 
Sir Andrew or 'Dand' Kerr was taken prisoner bjr the 
English under Lord Dacre, after a valiant derence, 
24 Sept. 1528. With the aid of lyEssfi's French auzili- 
aries, ms son. Sir John, retook the castle in 1549 ; and 
his son. Sir Thomas, on 22 Jan. 1570, the day after 
Moray's murder at Linlithgow, swept over the Border 
with fire and sword, hoping to kindle a war that might 
lead to Queen Mary's release. For this, in the follow- 
ing April, the Earl of Sussex demolished Femieherst, 
which was not rebuilt till 1598. Sir Thomas's fourth 
son was Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, Sir Thomas 
Overbury's murderer; whilst the eldest son, Andrew, 
was also ennobled aS Lord Jedburgh in 1622. The 
third Lord Jedburgh, Ralph Kerr's twelfth descendant, 
died without issue in 1692, when the representation ef 
the family in the male line devolved on his second 
cousin once removed, Robert, fourth Earl of Lothian, 
who in 1701 was created Marquis of Lothian. (See 
Newbattle. ^ Not the least interesting of Femieherst's 
many memones is the visit paid to it on 21 Sept. 1803 
by Scott and Wordsworth, whose sister writes : 'Walked 
up to Femieherst, an old hall in a secluded situation, 
now inhabited by fi&rmers; the neighbouring ground 
had the wildness of a forest, bein^ irregularly scattered 
over with fine old trees. The wmd was tossing their 
branches, aiid sunshine dancing amons the leaves, and 
I hapi>ened to exclaim, ** What a life there is in trees ! " 
on which Mr Scott observed that the words reminded 
him of a young lady who had been bom and educated 
on an island of the Orcades, and came to spend a sum- 
mer at Kelso and in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 
She used to say that in the new world into which she 
was come nothing had disappointed her so much as 
trees and woods ; she complained that they were life- 
less, silent, and, compared with the grandeur of the 
ever-changinff ocean, even insipid. At first I was sur- 
prised, but the next moment I felt that the impression 
was natural . . . The valley of the Jed is very 
solitary immediately under Femieherst; we walked 
down to the river, wading almost up to the knees in 
fem, which in many parts overspread the forest ground. 
It made me think of our walks at Allfoxden, and of 
our oton park^though at Femieherst is no park at 

woao nt — and the slim fawns that we used ta startle 
trom their conching-places among the fern at the top of 
the hilL We were aooompanied on onr walk by a 
yonng man from the Braes oi Yarrow, William Laidlaw, 
an acquaintance of Mr Scott's, who, hmiDg heea mnch 
delighted with some of Williiun's poems wnich he had 
chanced to see in a newsp^>er, had wished to be iatto* 
dnced to him ; he liyed in the most retired part of the 
dale of Yarrow, where he had a hxm ; he waa fond of 
reading and well informed, bat at first meeting aa shjy 
as any of onr Grasmere lads, and not less nutio in his 
appearance.' See pp. 265-267 of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Towr in SeoOand (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874).— Ord 
Sur,, sh. 17, 1864 

Famialea. See Fskhilbb. 

Fenillee, a hamlet on the S bordflr of (Galashiels parish, 
Selkirkshire, on the left bank of the riTer Tweed, near 
Yair Bridge, 5^ miles NNW of Selkirk. Femilee 
mansion here, now a decayed edifice, was the seat of the 
Bntherfords, and in one of its turrets the beantif ol Miss 
Alison Rutherford (1712-94), who in 17S1 became the 
wife of Patrick Cockbum, advocate, wrote her version 
(Tve seen the smiling,' etc.) of the Flowers of the 

FenipTower, a mansion in Crieff parish, Perthshire, 
on the SE slope of the pine-dad knock (911 feet), 
2 miles NK£ of Crieff town. In 1810 Sir David Baird 
(1757-1829), the hero of Seringapatam, married Miss 
Ann Campbell Preston of Yallevfield and Fern-Tower ; 
and it was at Fern-Tower that he spent his last years 
and died. His widow survived hun till 1847; and 
now the estate belongs to Lord Abercromby, who holds 
in StLrlingshire 10,407 acres, valued at £6007 per annum. 
See Tom-a-Chastbl, Aisthbey, and Tulusodt. 

Ferxintosh. See Fbriktosh; 

Ferry. See Qusenhfsbbt. 

Ferrybank, an estate, with a mansion, in Cupar parish, 
Fife, 1 mile S W of the town. 

Ferryden, a fishing villajze in Craig parish, Forfarshire, 
on the right bank of the South Esk river, 1 mile above 
its mouth, directly opposite Montrosb, but IJ mile 
therefrom by road. liO the river was bridged, it was 
the ferry-station on the road from Aberdeen, by way of 
Montrose, to the S of Scotland. It conducts a fishery 
so extensive as to employ about 200 men in boats, to 
send off loads of fish to uie markets of Montrose, Brechin, 
Forfar, Dundee, Perth, and other towns, and to supply 
immense quantities to fish-curers in Montrose for the 
markets of the South. It contains a post office under 
Montrose, the Free church of Craig, and two public 
schools. Pop. (1861) 1113, (1871) 1395, (1881) 162a<^ 
Ord, Sur,, sh. 57, 1868. 

Fezxy, Bast and Woirt. See Bsovortt Febbt. 

FerzyfleU, a print-work in Bonhill parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the left bank of the river Leven, in 
the vicinity of Bonhill town. 

ForryhilL See Abxhdeek, p^ 9. 

Ftrry Hill, a peninsula in Inverkeithing parish, Fife, 
bearing on its point the village of North Queensferry. 
It is connected with the mainland by an isthmus 4^ 
furlongs broad, and rises to an altitude of 200 feet above 

F«ny, Little, a ferry (1 fdrlon^ broad) on the mutual • 
boundary of Dornoch and Golspie parishes, Sutherland, 
across the neck of water between Loch Fleet and the sea, 
4^ miles N by £ of Dornoch town. An action was 
fought on the K side of it, in 1746, between the 
Jacobites and the militia. 

Ferry, Meikle, a ferry (5jt furlongs broad) on the 
mutual boundary of Boss-shire and Sutherland, across 
a contracted part of the Domoefa Firth, 4 miles ITW of 
Tkin, and 4} WSW of Dornoch. It formerly was used 
as the chief thoroughfare between the eastern parts of 
the two counties ; but it suffers much obstruction from 
winds and currents ; and the road round by Bonar 
Bridge, thouffh exceedingly circuitous, has long been 
generally preferred. 

Fttzy-Port-on-Cralg, a town and a parish in the ex- 
treme N£ of Fife. Standing on the southern side of 

the entrance of the Firth of Tay, the town by water is 
7 furlongs S of Broughty Feny and 3^ miles S by S of 
Dundee, whilst by rail it is llf miles NNS of Cupar 
and 45i NXE of Edinburgh. It sprang into being and 
took its name from an ancient ferr^f, whose port was 
dominated by a rock or craig ; and it acquired a great 
and sudden increase of prosperity, trom the purchi^ in 
Sept 1842 of the right of fexr^ by the Edinburgh sod 
Northern (now the North British) Company, by whom 
the ferry has since been worked in connection with the 
railway. Thenceforth it came to be occa«ionally known 
as Taj^rt, a name that has now almost superseded its 
older designation ; and it has, ever since the opening of 
the railway, been a place of important thorough&i». 
Tayport, besides, is a favourite oathinff resort, witii 
many new villas and cottages commancung delightful 
views of the opposite coast; and employment is fur- 
nished to its townspeople by a flax and jute spinning 
mill, 2 linen factories, 2 sawxnills, a timber-yard, engine 
works, a bobbin factory, and a shipbuilding yard, as 
also by the valuable ssJmon fisheries and mussel dredg- 
ing of the Tay. It has a post office, with money order, 
saviiu^s' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the North of Scotland SauK, 7 insurance M^endes, gas- 
works, 8 inns, a new public school, a l^ung Men's 
Christian Association, a masonic hall, and a temperance 
hall, which last, erected in 1877, measures 60 by 34 
feet, and has accommodation for 600. The parish 
chiutsh (1794 ; repaired 1882) is a neat edifioe, con- 
taining 850 sittings ; and other places of worship are 
Free and U.P. churches. The railway works include a 
large artificial basin ; an outer mole or breastwork, con- 
structed with great skill and at vast expense, to shelter 
this basin from £ and N winds ; an inner breastwork or 
landing-slip, 600 feet long and 80 high, divided into 
two inclined planes with rails idong them, for readv 
conveyance or the carriages to the steamer's deck at aU 
states of the tide ; and a quay-wall, 200 feet lon^, at the 
eastern end of the basin, to facilitate embarkation and 
debarkation in even the most unfavourable oiroumstanoes 
of tide and weather. The harbour thus o(Mnprises a 
sheltered floating basin, fully 60O feet long and 200 in 
average breadth, with a depth of 28 feet of water at full 
spring tides, and of not less than 8 feet at the lowest 
tides. Steamers ply regularly in direct line tQ Dundee ; 
w^ that both the townspeople snd railwi^ passengers 
have the option of going either direct to Dundee or 
circuitously by way of Broughty Ferry. Pop. of town 
(1831) 1538, (1861) 1773, (1871) 2498, (1881) 263^ 

The parish, constituted in 1606, and supposed to have 
previously formed part of Leuchars, is bounded N by 
the Firth of Tay, £ by the GermAn Ocean, SE by 
Leuchars, and SW and W by Forgan. \ta utmost 
length, from WNW to ESE, iB 4| miles ; tts utmost 
br^th is Ig mile; and its area is 49Mii lucres, of 
which 2177i are foreshore. The coast to the £ of the 
town is flat and for the most part sandy, mcludinff 
nearly all this laige expanse of foreehore, iot westward 
of the town it is rocky and irregular) and iiJand the 
surfiEUM) rises rapidly to 129 feet at SpearshiU, and to 300 
at Waterloo Towers and Scotscraig Law. The rocks are 
chiefly eruptive, and include considerable quantities of 
beautiful spar. In i>art of the parish the soU, though 
Hght and variable, is kindly and fertile ; and upon 
Scotscraig Mains there are a lew fields of very superior 
hmd, the rental of the entire farm, which extends over 
502 acres, having risen from £977 in 1864 to i^l210 in 
1876. Two lighthouses, to E and W of the village, 
serve, with those om the Forfar shore of the firth, to 
guide the navigation of the Tay. An old building, now 
represented by scanty vestiges, and usually called the 
Outie, seems to have been erected subsequent to the 
invention of gunpowder, and was probably designed to 
act, in concert with Broughty Castle^ ipst defence of the 
entrance of the firth. Sgotbobaio is the chief mansion, 
and Maitland Dougall is a principal proprietof , 3 others 
holding each an annual value of £500 and upwi^rds, 1 
of between £100 and £500, 6 of from £50 to £100, and 
28 of from £20 to £50. This parish is in the presbytery 



of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the living is worth 
£279. The public school, with accommodation for 576 
children, had (1880) an ayerage attendance of 848, and 
a grant of £286, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1866) £5972, 
12a 9d., (1882) £10,168, 14s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 920, 
(1841) 1714, (1861) 2018, (1871) 2674, (1881) 2818.— 
Ord, Sur., sh. 49, 1865. 

Ferrytowii-of-Cree. See Cbeetown. 

Fealde, a rapid stream of Alvie parish, SE Inyemess- 
shire, rising among the Grampian Mountains at an 
altitude of 2750 feet, and 5^ miles W by N of the 
meeting-point of Aberdeenshire, Inverness-shire, and 
Perthshire. Thence it winds 28 miles northward, mostly 
along the Kingussie border, till, nearly opposite Kincraig 
station, it falls into the river Spey, after a total descent 
of fully 2000 feet. Quite early in its course the Feshie 
approaches within ^ mile of Geldie Bum, a rise of barely 
50 feet here parting the basins of the Spey and the Dee. 
It was by this route, up Glen Geldie and down Glen 
Feshie, that the Queen and the Prince Consort rode from 
Deeside to Strathspey on 4 Sept 1864. (See ALyiB.) 
In the great flood of Aug. 1829 the Feshie did enormous 
damage, and rose at the romantic old bridge of Inver- 
eshie to a height of 25 feet above its ordinary leveL — 
OrcL Sur.f shs. 64, 74, 1874-77. See chap. zii. of Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (8d ed. 1878). 

Feahie-Bridge, a hamlet in Kingussie parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, on the left bank of the Feshie, 1^ mile above 
its mouth, and 2^ miles SE of Kincraig station. It has 
a post ofBice under Kingussie. 

Fetheray. See Fiddbie. 

FetUur, an island and a civil parish in the N of Shet- 
land. The island lies 8 miles £ of Yell, 4 S of Unst, 
and 88 N by £ of Lerwick, under which it has a post 
office. Its greatest length, from NW to S£, ia 6} miles ; 
its greatest breadth is Ij miles ; and its area is estimated 
at 5500 acres. The outline is rendered so irregular by 
numerous headlands and sea inlets as to give a large 
extent of sea coast. The principal bays or sea inlets are 
Tresta, with a sand^ beach ; Aith, with a pebbly beach ; 
Funzie, used as a ling fishing station ; Gruting, with a 
pebbly beach ; Urie, with a rude pier ; Sand, of small 
extent and sandy ; and Mowick, used for the transport- 
ing of ]^ts from an inland hill by sea to the other Days 
of the island. The interior comprises several hills and 
vales, but nowhere exceeds 521 feet above sea-leveL The 
rocks comprise gneiss, syenite, cranite, quartzite, sven- 
itic greenstone, mica slate, cmorite slate, day slate, 
serpentine, and diallage rock. Bog iron ore, of a vei^ 
rich quality, occurs in peat moss ; chromate of iron is 
found in the serpentine rock ; and some veins of copper 
ore have been found. About 1200 acres are unaer 
cultivation, and have, for the most part, a tolerably 
fertile soil of sand and loam. Not a tree or shrub is 
anywhere to be seen. Brough Lodge is the principal 
residence. Pop. (1831) 848, (1861) 548, (1871) 517, 
(1881) 481. 

The parish, including also the northern nart of Tell 
island, and bearing the name of Fetlar and I^orth Yell, 
has a total area of 26,659 acres. The Yell portion of it 
is much more rugged than Fetlar, but will oe described 
in our article oiiYell. The Earl of Zetland is chief 
proprietor, but 2 others hold each an annual value of 
between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 2 
of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Burravoe and 
synod of Shetland, Fetlar forms one quoad aaera parish 
and North Yell another, the former a living worth £222. 
Its church, rebuilt in 1790, contains 267 sittings. There 
is also a Tree church of Fetlar ; and 3 public schools — 
Fetlar, Braeside, and Sellafirth — with respective accom- 
modation for 70, 30, and 54 children, nad (1880) an 
average attendance of 48, 48, and 12, and grants of 
£45, 28., £42, 5s., and £17. Valuation (1881) £1877, 
lis. 8d. Pop. 1(1793) 1346, (1831) 1680, (1861) 1480, 
(1871) 1410, (1881) 1252. 

Fettenngns, a village in the Banffshire (detached) 

section of Old Deer parish, 5 furlongs from the right 

bank of N Ugie Water, and 2 miles ^NW of Mintlaw, 

under which it has a post office. Here is a girls' 



endowed school Pop. (1881) 845, (1871) 862, (1881) 

Fetteroaim (10th century Fotherkem), a village and 
a parish of S W Kincardineshire. A buxgh of mirony, 
the village stands, 220 feet above sea-level, at the con- 
fluence of Crichie and Balnakettle Bums, lOf miles 
NN£ of Brechin, 12 NNW of Montrose, and 4$ WNW 
of Laurencekirk, under which there is a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments. It hH, besides, a branch of the North of 
Scotiand Bank, a national security savings' bank, 3 
insurance agencies, an inn, gas-works, a public hall, a 
library, ^uoit, cricket, and curling clubs, a farmers' 
club, a distillery, and cattle and hirmg fairs on the days 
before Whitsunday and Martinmas. At the W end of 
the bridge a graceful triumphal arch has been erected to 
commemorate the royal visit of 20 Sept. 1861, a visit 
thus described in the Queen's Journal : ' At a quarter- 
past seven o'clock we reached the small quiet town, or 
rather village, of Fettercaim, for it was very small — ^not 
a creature stirring, and we got out at the quiet little 
inn, "Bamsay Arms,*' quite unobserved, and went at 
once upstairs. There was a very nice drawing-room, 
and, next to it, a dining-room, both very clean and 
tidy — ^then to the left our bed-room, which was exces- 
sively small, but also very dean and neat, and much 
better than at Grantown. Alice had a nice room, the 
same size as ours ; then came a mere morsel of one (with 
a "press-bed"), in which Albert dressed; and then 
came Lady Churchill's bedroom just beyond. Louis 
[Prince Louis of Hesse] and General Grey had rooms in 
an hotel, called "The Temperance Hotel," opposite. 
We dined at eight, a very nice, clean, cood dinner. 
Grant and Brown waited. They were rauier nervous, 
but General Grey and Lady Churchill carved, and they 
had only to chan^je the plates, which Brown soon got 
into the way of doing. A little girl of the house came 
in to help— but Grant turned her round to prevent her 
looking at us 1 The landlord and landlady knew who 
we were, but no one else except the coachman, and tiiey 
kept the secret admirably. The evening being bright 
and moonlight and very still, we all went out, and 
walked through the whole village, where not a creature 
moved ; through the principal littie square, in the 
middle of which was a sort of pillar or Town Cross on 
steps, and Louis read by the light of the moon a pro- 
climiation for the collections of charities which was 
stuck on it. We walked on along a lane a short way, 
hearing nothing whatever — not a leaf moving — but the 
distant barkioj; of a dog ! Suddenly we heard a drum 
and fifes 1 We wero greati^ alarmed, fearing we had 
been recognised; but Louis and General Grey, who 
went back, saw nothing whatever. Still, as we walked 
slowly back, we heard tiie noise from time to time, and 
when we reached the inn door we stopped, and saw six 
men march up with fifes and a drum (not a creature 
taking any notice of them), go down the street, and 
back affsin. Grant and Brown wero out, but had no 
idea what it could be. Albert asked the littie maid, 
and the answer was, " It's just a band," and that it 
walked about in this way twice a week. How odd ! 
It went on playing some time after we got home. We 
sat till half-past ten working, and then retired to rest 
-^Saturday, Sept 21.) Got to sleep after two or three 
o'clock. lUie morning was dull and close, and misty 
with a littie rain ; hardly any one stirring ; but a few 
people at their work. A traveller had arrived at night, 
and wanted to come up into the dining-room, which 
is the "commercial travellers' room;" and they had 
difficulty in telling him he could noi stop there. He 
joined Grant and Brown at their tea, and on his asking 
" What's the matter here ? " Grant answered, *' It's a 
wedding party from AberdeeTi." At "The Temperance 
Hotel " they were very anxious to know whom they had 
got All, except (general Grey, breakfasted a little 
before nine. Brown acted as my servant, brushing my 
skirt and boots, and taking any message, and Grant as 
Albert's valet At a quarter to ten we started the same 
way as before, except that we were in the carriage which 


Lady Ghnrchill and the General had yesterday. It was 
tmfortanately misty, we could see no distance. The 
people had just discovered who we were, and a few 
cheered ns as we went along.' The cross referred to 
here is an octsgonal shi^t, rising from a dmdar stepped 
basement, and was originally erected at the extinct 
town of Kincardine by John, first Earl of Middleton. 
It bears his arms and initios, with the Scottish lion 
and the date 1670. In the centre of the village there is 
also a drinking fountain, a memorial to Sir John H. 
Stuart Forbes (1804-66). Pop. of village (1841) 280, 
(1861) 889, (1871) 891, (1881) 898. 

The parish is t)ounded KW by Strachan. NE and E 
by Fordoun, S£ by Marvkirk, S hy Stracatnro in For- 
farshire, and W by EJzell, also in Forfarshire. Its 
utinost length, from N to S, is 8| miles ; its breadth, 
from E to W, varies between 4^ frirlongs and 4g miles ; 
and its area is 18,808^ acres, of which 76 are water. The 
North EsK flows 4i miles south-south-eastward along 
the Edzell boundary, and for 1} furlong touches the 
parish again at its south-eastern comer ; 1 mile N of 
Edzell village, it is spanned by the romantic Bridge of 
Chumochy, which, built in 1782 and widened in 1796, 
is founded on two stupendous rocks, and rises to groat 
height above the river's bed. Black Bum, the fisk's 
immediate tributary, drains the level and low-lying 
southern interior, which forms a ^rtion of the Howe of 
Meams. The Bum of Garrol, rising on the southem 
acclivity of Hound Hillock, runs 6^ miles south-east- 
ward and south-by-eastward, mainly along the north- 
eastern and eastern border, till, at a point 5 furlong 
SE of the village, it is joined by the confluent Crichie 
and Balnakettle Bums; as Dourie Bum the united 
stream winds If mile onward along the eastem border, 
then passes on into Marykirk on its way to Luther 
Water, and so ultimately to the North Esk. In the 
furthest SE the surface declines to 115 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising northwurds gently to 194 feet near 
Amhall and 200 at Bogmuir, more rapidly to 428 near 
West Woodtown, 1035 near Garrol Wood, and 1698 at 
heath-clad Hound Hillock, dose to the northernmost 
point of the parish. The rocks are partly eraptive, 
partly Devonian, including granite, quartzite, mica 
slate, greenstone, red sandstone, limestone, etc., which, 
in a section along the North Esk, are seen in every 
Idnd of irregular stratification. Yery fine porcelain clay 
occurs on the banks of Balnakettle Bum ; and at Balna- 
kettle bog iron ore has been found of the latest forma- 
tion. Bather more than half of the entire area is in 
tills^, nearly one-seventh is under wood, and the rest 
is either pastoral or waste. The soil is deep, stronff, 
rich loam around the village, but in other parts of the 
parish not a little of the land consists of moderate black 
loam or stiffish clay. Great improvements, described in 
Trans, Highl and Aa. Soc (1881, pp. 118-115), have 
been carried out within the last thirty years on the 
lands of Fasque, The Burn, Balmain, and Fettercaim, 
the first two of which estates have been noticed sepa- 
rately. That of Fettercaim or Middleton was held for 
upwards of five centuries by the Middleton family, of 
wnom General Middleton (1610-78) was at the Bestora- 
tion created Earl of Middleton and Lord Clermont and 
Fettercaim. Forfeited by his son, the second and last 
earl, the estate was purchased in 1777 by Sir John 
WicAiart Belsches or Stuart, Bart, and through his 
daughter's marriage (1797) passed to Sir William Forbes, 
Bart of PiTSLioo. His grand-daughter, Harriet WiUia- 
mina (d. 1869), in 1858 married Charles Trefusis, twen- 
tieth Baron Clinton of Maxtock since 1299 (b. 1884 ; 
sue. 1866) ; and their son, Charles John Robert (b. 
1863), now holds in Kincardineshire 5007 acres, 
valued at £4057 per annum. Fettercaim House, a 
little N by E of the village, was built in 1666 by the 
first Earl of Middleton, and enlarged in 1829 by Sir 
John Stuart-Forbes, and asain by Lord (]Unton in 1877. 
Balbegno and Fenella Casus, the chief antiquities, have 
separate articles. Fettercaim is in the presbytery of 
Fordoun and synod of Angus and Meams ; the living is 
worth £356. The parish church, at the villi^, was 


built in 1804, and contains 800 sittings. There are also 
a Free church and Fasque Episcopal church, St Andrew's ; 
and three schools — Fettercaim public, Inch public, and 
Fasque-— with respective accommodation for 180, 120, 
and 78 children, nad (1881) an average attendance of 
114, 49, and 66, and grants of £89, 18&, £85, 
19s., and £54, 2s. Valuation (1856) £9412, (1882) 
£12,057, 6s. Pop. (1801) 1794, (1841) 1791, (1861) 
1700, (1871) 1589, (1881) 1508. —Oni Sur., shs. 66, 57, 

Fettereiso f 10th century Fodreaa^), a hamlet and a 
coast parish of Kincardineshire. The hamlet lies on the 
left bank of Carron Water, 1^ mile W of Stonehaven. 
The parish contains also aU the New Town or northern 
part of Stokehayek, the post office village of Mughallb, 
the fishing- villages of Cowie, Stranathro, and Skateraw, 
and the stations of Stonehaven, Muchalls, and Newton- 
hilL It is bounded N by Maryculter and Banchoiy- 
Bevenick, E by the German Ocean, S by Dunnottar, W 
by Glenbervie, and NW by Durris. Its utmost length, 
from E to W is 7i miles ; its breadth, from N to S, 
varies between 5 and 7^ miles ; and its area is 27,529 
acres, of which 223^ are foreshore, and 61 water. 
Cabbon Water runs ii miles eastward, mainly along 
the southem boundary to the sea at Stonehaven, 
uniting just above its mouth with Cowie Water, which 
here winds 71 miles east-south-eastward, for tiie first 
i mile along the Glenbervie border, and then through 
the southem interior. The central and northern 
districts are drained by Muchalls Bum and the Bum of 
Elaick, running to the sea, and bv Crynoch Bum, flow- 
ing east-north-eastward and northward, past Netherley 
House, till itpasses into Maryculter on its way to the 
river Dee. The coast is bold and rocky, niched and 
vandyked by a score of small bavs and headlands (the 
chief of these GkLiron Point), and risine rapidly to 100 
feet and more above sea-leveL Inland the surface is 
irregular, though nowhere mountainous, the chief eleva- 
tions to the S of Cowie Water beingCheyne Hill (552 
feet), the Hill of Swanley (700), Elf HiU (715), and the 
Hill of Trusta (1051), whilst to the N of it rise Kemp- 
stone Hill (432), White Hill (495), Curlethney Hfll 
(806), Meikle Carewe HUl (872), the Hill of Pitspunkie 
(666), Oraigneil (886), and, on the northem border, 
Berry Too (558). The landscape presents a striking 
contrast of picturesqueness and the most utter bleak- 
ness. The vales of the Carron and the Cowie, and 
spots on the seaboard, are very lovely ; but other dis- 
mcts are comparatively tame. Gneiss and Old Bed 
sandstone are the prevailing rocks ; but granite, por- 
phyry, and chloride slate occur as welL Near Stone- 
haven the soil is mostly sharp friable loam, but in the 
more inland and higher parts it is an inferior dayey or 
moorish loam. Various improvements in the way of 
draining and building have Been carried out since 1855, 
and considerable reclamations effected within this 
century. The latest, about 1860, was the dividing of 
the commonty of Cowie, 2000 acres or thereby, amonff 
the proprietors interested, who then let it out in smafl 
lots to tenants on improving leases. About 2000 acres 
are tmder wood. Ancient Caledonian remains were 
formerly more numerous than now ; but Baedyke Camp, 
Caledonian, not Roman, one of the many sites of the 
Battle of the Grampians, is still almost entire, occupy- 
ing a space of 71 acres on a hill 4 miles NW of Stone- 
haven. Another camp, more evidently Roman, was 
formerly on ground contiguous to Stonehaven. Numer- 
ous tumuli, most of them small, but some of them very 
larffe, are on Kempstone Hill, 2^ miles N of the town, 
and are supposed to be sepulchral monuments, raised on 
a battlefield. Remains of a small old castle and of St 
Mary's pre-Reformation chapel, are on the coast at 
CowiB. Malcolm's Mount, 1 mile W of Stonehaven, 
takes its name from Malcolm I., King of Alban (942-54)^ 
who, according to the Ulster Annals, was slain here by 
the men of Meams, though later chronicles remove his 
death further N — to Ulum in Moray. Fetteresso 
Castle, near the left bank of Cowie Water, 2 miles W 
by S of Stonehaven, stands in a park adomed with 



manj yener&ble trees. A seat once of the great Earls 
Manschal, it was partly rebuilt and greatly extended 
about 1830 by Colonel Duff, whose grandson, Robert 
William Duff, Esq., M.P. (b. 1886 ; sue 1861), holds 
8722 acres in Kincardineshire, valued at £4586 per 
annum. (See Cuxtbb, Aberdeenshire, and GLASSAiraH.) 
Other mansions, separately noticed, are Oowie, Elsick, 
Muohalls, Netherlejr, Newtonhill, Riokarton, and IJry ; 
and, in all, 9 propnetors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 10 of between £100 and £500, 17 of 
fh>m £50 to £100, and 47 of from £20 to £50. In the 
presbytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Meams, 
this parish is ecclesiastically divided into Fetteresso 
proper, Cookne^ (formed 1859), and Riokarton (1872), 
the first a livmg worth £473. The plain but ve^ 
ancient church, St Caran's, at Fetteresso hamlet, is 
still represented by its walls or shell, and by its la£go 
kirkyard, one of Stonehaven's three cemeteries; The 
present parish church, near the town, was built in 1810, 
and, as enlarged and greatly improved (1876-78) at a 
cost of £3000, contains 1300 sittings, and possesses a 
fine organ. Other places of worship are noticed under 
Stonehaven, Cockney, Riokarton, and Muchalls. The 
eight schools of Caimhill, Cookney, Muchalls, Nether- 
ley, Rickarton, Stonehaven, Tewel, and Newtonhill — 
the last Episcopalian, the others all public — ^with total 
accommodation for 964 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 667, and grants amounting to £539, 
18s. Valuation (1856) £21,147; (1888) £32,730, 12b., 
pltut £4346 for raUway. Pop. (1801) 3687, (1881) 5109, 
(1861) 5527, (1871) 5665. (1881) 5541, of whom 3565 were 
in Fetteresso registration district, and 3102 in Fetteresso 
ecclesiastical parish. — OrcL Sur., shs. 67, 66, 1871. 

Fettexneax, an ancient chapelry and an estate in the 
S of Chapel of Oarioch parish, Aoerdeenshire, near the 
left bank of the Don, 1 mile NNW of Kemnay station. 
The chapelry was constituted in 1109 ; its original church 
was built in the same year ; and ruins of that church or of 
a successor of it, together with its cemetery, still exist. 
The estate belonged to the bishops of Alierdeen, and, 
conveyed by the last Roman Catholic bishop to the 
Leslies of Balquhain, is held now by Charles Stephen 
Leslie, Esq. (b. 1832 ; sue. 1870), who owns 8940 acres 
in the shire, valued at £7388 ^r annum. Its mansion 
was originally a summer lodgmg of the bishops when 
surveying the canons and priests of the chapelry church, 
and is now a handsome and commodious modem resi- 
dence. A Roman Catholic church, St John's, was 
founded near the site of the ancient church in 1859, 
but not opened till 1869, and consists of nave, chancel, 

Sorch, and belfry, all built of granite, with sandstone 
ressings. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Feuohan. See Feaohan. 

Fengh, Water of, a stream of Aberdeen and Kincardine 
shires, rising, at an altitude of 1800 feet above sea-level, 
in the S of Birse parish, close to the Forfarshire border, 
8 miles WNW of Mount Battock. Thence it winds 19i 
miles east-north-eastward either through or along the 
borders of Birse, Strachan, and Banchory-Teman, till it 
falls into the Dee opposite Banchory village, after a 
total descent of 1640 feet. Its lowest reach is spanned 
by the Brid^y^e of Feiigh, and includes a romantic water- 
fall ; its principal affluents are the Aan and the D^e, 
both separately noticed ; and it is a capital troutmg 
stream, containing also salmon in its lower waters. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Fewin or Fionn, a loch on the mutual border of Assynt 
parish, SW Sutherland, and the Coigach section of 
Cromartyshire, 8i miles S£ of Lochinver. The lower- 
most of a chain of lakes in the basin of the river Eirkaio, 
and lying 857 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost 
lenffth and width of 2) miles and 8 furlones, and teems 
with beautiful trout, ranging between i Id. and 10 lbs. 
— Orrf. Sw., sh. 101, 1882. 

TiSLg or Fiodhaig, a rivulet in Lairg parish, Suther- 
land, issuing from Loch Fiodhaig (IJ mile x 5^ furL ; 
650 feet), and running 5f miles southward to Loch Shin 
(270 feet), at a point 5} miles ESE of that lake's head. 
It traverses a glen called from it Glen Fiodhaig, and 

abounds in capitsd trout, with a few salmon. ^M. SUr., 
sh. 108, 1880. 

Flddioh, a small river of Banffshire, rising in the S of 
Moitlach parish, on the NE slope of Corryhabbie Hill, 
at an altitude of 2800 feet, and 4^ miles SSE of Ben 
Rinnes. Thence it winds 18{ miles north-north-eartward 
and north-westward, till, after a total descent of nearly 
2000 feet, it Mk into the river Spey at Ctaigellachie 
Junction. It is a capital trout and salmon stream ; and 
its basin is partly an upland glen, partly a beautiful 
vale, bearing the name of Glenfiddicn or FLddicfasdde, 
and is proverbially notable m its lower readies for 
ferfciiity. DuUan Water is its principal i^oent; it 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Mortlach, Bohann, 
and Aberlonr ; and it flows by Anchindoun, Dufftown, 
and Balvenie, all three of which are noticed aepantely. 
— OrdL Sw., shs. 75, 85, 1876. 

FIdra or Fetberay, a rocky basaltic islet of Dirieton 
parish, Bbddington^iire, 8 furlongs from the coast, and 
2i miles WN W of North Berwick. It has ruins of a 
small old chapeL 

Fifft or Flfaibixia, a maritime county on the E side of 
Scotland. It is bounded on the N by the Firth of Tay, 
on the E by the German Ocean, on the S by the Firth 
of Forth, and on the W by Perth, Clackmannan, 
and Kinross shires. Its greatest length, from "Fife Ness 
west-south-westwaxd to "^rry, is 41^ miles ; its greatest 
breadth in the opposite direction, from Newburgh on the 
Tay to Bumtieiiand on the Firth of Forth, is 21 miles ; 
ana its area is 513 square miles or 828,427 acres, of 
which 12,838i u« foreshore and 1082 water. Tha 
western boundary, 61 miles long if one follows its ins 
and outs, is marked here and uiere, from S to N, by 
Comrie Bum, Loch Glow, Lochomie Bum, Benarty 
Hill, and the rivers Leven and Farg, but mostly is arti- 
ficial. The northern coast, which Idas little curvature, 
trends mostly in an east-north-easterly direction, and 
measures 20f miles in length; the eastern is deeply 
indented by St Andrews Hay or the estuary of the 
Eden, and in its southern part forms a triangular 
peninsula, terminating in Fife Ness, on the N of the 
entrance to the Firth of Forth. The coast measures in 
a straight line from Tents Moor Point to Fife Ness 14) 
miles, out along its curvatures 24 miles. The southern 
eoast^ 55 miles long, fh>m Fife Ness to North Queensferry 
runs generally in a south-westerly direction, and from 
North Queensferry to the westem boundary takes a west- 
north-westerly turn. The shore-line projects slightly at 
Elie Ness, Einghom Ness, and North Queensferry, and 
has considerable bays at Laivo and Inverkeithing. It 
offers a pleasing variety of beach and shore, partly 
rocky and partly sandy, but generally low and gentle. 
The sea has, from time to time, made great encroach- 
ments on the shores of Fife, at Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, 
Dysart, Crail, St Andrews, and other places, eating away 
fields, gardens, fences, piers, and even dwelling-houses. 

Fife, for its size, has a smaller fresh-water area than 
has any other Scotch county, smaller indeed than have 
several Highland parishes. The only streams of any 
consequence are the Edes, wincUng 29) miles east- 
north-eastward to St Andrews Bay ; the Leven, flowing 
16) miles eastward (the first 1) in Einross-shiro) out of 
Loch Leven to Laigo Bay; and the Orr, creeping 
17 miles east-by-norl£ward to the Leven a little above 
Oimeron Bridge. The lakes, too, all are small — 
Eilconquhar Ix>ch (4x8 forL), in the SE; Einghom 
Loch (lixl) furl.), Camilla Loch (2x1 furl.), Loch 
Gelly (5i x 3) furl). Loch Fitty (8x2 furL), and Loch 
Glow (6x3) fiirl.), in the S and SW; and Lindores 
Loch (6|x3 fori.), in the NW. And the surface, 
though mostly undulating or hilly, is nowhere moun- 
tainous, the principal heights being Lucklaw Hill (626 
feet), in the NE; Eellie Law (500) and La^ Law 
(965), in the SE ; Bumtisland Bin (632) and Duneam 
Hill (671), in the S ; East Lomond (1471) and West 
Lomond (1713), near the middle of the W border; 
Benarty Hill (1167), Knock HUl (1189), and Saline Hill 
(1178), in the SW ; and Green Hill (608), Black Craig 
(665), Norman's Law (850), and Lumbenny Hill (889), 

in the K W. So that Mr HutchiBon is fnllj jostiflied- in 
saying that 'the physical aspect of Fife posseBses 
nothing specially remarkable, and, compared with por- 
tions of the contiffnoos counties, may he describea as 
rather tame. OeSogically, it consists of one or two 
extensive open valleys and some smaller ones, with the 
alternating high lands, and then a mdtud slope all 
roond the coast towaids l^e sea. Lofty moimtaltts 
thers lire none ; oidy hiUs, of which the principal aa*e 
Wilkie's "ain bine LomondsL" Larffo Law, and Nor- 
man's Law. The Eden asMl the Leven, with some 
tributary streams, are the only rivers in the interior ; 
bnt the absence of anv imposing volume of water inland 
is amply atoned for by tne two noble estuaries of the 
Forth and the Tay, which, with the German Ocean, 
surround three-fourths of the county. Fife, as a whole, 
although the surface 10 nowhere flal^ but pleasantly 
undulating all over, except; perhaps, in what is called 
the " Howe of Fife," is lacking in Doth the picturesque 
and the sublime, «nd it has never been regarded as a 
hunting-field for tourists. Its ^nd attracnve featurej 
however, in the way of scenery, is the sea-coast ' ' He, " 
says Defoe, *' that will view the county of Fife, must go 
roimd the coast ; " and Mr Billings remarks that " a 
ramble amoncst the grey old towns which skirt the 
ancient Kingdom of ^e might well re^y the archi- 
tectural or aroheoloGpcal invesidgator." We might add 
that the tourist who was daring enough to abjure 
Schiehallion and Loch Maree for a season, and "do" 
the coast of Fife instead, would be equally surprised 
and delighted with his vacation trip ; a seaboard which 
is begirt with a score or more of towns and townlets, 
nearly as many ruined castles, several islands, and bays 
and creeks and picturesque projections innumerable.' 

Otology, — ^Theddest rocks in the county belong to 
the volcanic series of the Lower Old Bed Sandstone. 
The members of this series, consistinff of a great succes- 
sion of lavas abd tufis, can be tracea from the Ochils 
where they are folded into a broad anticline N£ by the 
SidlaWB to Dimmottar in Kincardineshire. The high 
grounds bounding the Howe of Fife on the N side are 
composed of these igneous materials, indeed they cover 
the whole area between Damhead and Tayport They 
are inclined to the SSE at gentle angles, so that we 
have only the southern portion of the anticlinal arch 
represented in the county. Lithologically these ancient 
lavas are composed of red and purple porph3rrites, 
which, at certoin localities, are associated with ex- 
tremely coarse agglomerates. In the neighbourhood of 
Auchtermuehty, and even to the £ of that locality, 
the agglomerates present appearances indicating partial 
rearrangement hy water; indeed in some places they 
are incSstii^uisnable from conglomerates fonned by 
aqueous action. MThen we come to describe the pro- 
longations of these rocks in Forfarshire and Kincardine- 
shire it will be seen that the volcanic accumulations, 
which, in Perthshire and Fifeshire, have hardly any 
intercalations of sedimentary material, are associated in 
the former counties with conglomerates, sandstones, and 
shales, till at Dunnottar they are represented by a few 
thin sheets of porphyrite. It is probable, therefore, that 
the jpartially waterwom agglomerates at Auchtermuehty 
are mdications of the change of physical conditions. 
On the slope overlookine the Tay, near the village of 
Balmerino, some thin beds of sandstone and Ghailes are 
intercalated with the porphyrites which have yielded 
remains of fishes similar to those obtained in the For- 
fieffShire flagstones. 

A long interval must have elapsed between the dose 
of the Lower and the bemnnin^ of the Upper Old Bed 
Sandstone periods, which is indicated by a strong un- 
conformity oetween the two series. This vast interval 
was characterised by certain striking physical changes 
Which may be briefly summarised. Setween the Ochils 
and the flanks of tlw Gramjiians a great soeecession of 
sedimentary deposits, nearly 10,000 feet in thicSoMSs, 
test* conformably on the volcanic series, which originally 
extended far to the S of their present limits. Indeed 
they must have completely buried the volcanic accumu- 


lations, though not necessarily to the extent indicated 
by their thickness N of the Ochils. The Grampian 
^ain formed the northern mai^on of the inland sea in 
which these deposits were laid down, and the sediment 
may have decreased in thickness in proportion to the 
distance firom the old land surface. At any rate, during 
the inteftral referred to, the volcanic rocks and overlying 
sedimentary deposits were folded into a great anticlinal 
arch, the latter were removed by denudation fi:om the 
top of the anticline, and the volcanic series was exposed 
to the action of atmospheric agencies. Further, the 
great igneous plateau, during its elevation above the 
sea^levei, mitttharre been carved into hills and valleys 
ere the deposition of the Upper Old Bed Sandstone. 

The members of the latter series are traceable from 
Loch Leven through the Howe of Hfe by Cupar to the 
se^ coast Alons this tract they rest unconformably on 
the volcanic rocxs just described, and they pass con- 
formably below the Cementstone series of the Carboni- 
ferous system. They consist of honeycombed red and 
yeliow sandstones which become conglomeratic towards 
the l^esl base, t^e pebbles being derived from the under- 
lying rocks. On the W side of the Lomonds they dip 
to ^e S, while in the neighbourhood of Strathmiglo, 
where their tl^ckness must be about 1000 feet, they are 
incltaedto the SSE. This series has become femous 
for the well-preserved fishes obtained in the yellow sand- 
stones of Dura Den, comprising Phaneropleu/ron, Ander- 
stmt, PienrieMkys hydropnUua, Qlyptolamius Kinnairdi, 
&lfffftopomuB minor f Jffoloptychius Andersoni. The last 
form seems to have been fossilised in shoals. Holoptyehius 
noibU-MmiSM and Pterichthys major are found in the 
underlying Md saadstonea 

The upper Old Bed Sandstone is succeeded by the 
various dmsions of the Carboniferous system whicn are 
well represented in tiie county. The succession may be 
readHy understood from the following table of the strata 
given in dieseending order : — 

/Bed wndstones. 
/Sandstones, shales, with several 
J workable coal aeams and Iron- 
\ stonea 




Oarbonif eroQS 

Ooane sandstone 

and oon- 

^pper Limestone series. 
Middle aerlea with coals and 

ironstones but containing no 

^Lower Limestone series. 

'Cementstone series comprising 
black and bine shales with 



marine craies, limestones, suid- 
stones with thin seams and 
streaks of coal passing con- 
formably downwards into red 
and yellow sandstones (Upper 
Old Bed Sandstone). 

The Cementstoneseries occupies several detached areas, 
and presents two distinct types. Along the counlr 
bounaary between Fife and Kinross there is a small 
outlier on the N slopes of the Cleish Hills representing 
the W type. There the strata consist of blue clays ana 
sandstones with cementstone bands and nodules. The 
members of this series, of a type approaching that to 
the S of St Andrews, crop out also on the W and N 
^opes of the Lomonds, and they extend £ by Cults 
ana Owes to the coast. By far the most important 
development of this series, however, occurs in the 
triangular ai«a between Elie and St Andrews and round 
the snore by Fife Ness. The essential feature of the 
group is the occurrence of a great thickness of shales 
with marine bands characterised chiefly by Myalima 
madiolifwrnis and Shhizodua SaUeH, These shales alter* 
nate with sandstones and limestones, the latter being 
charged with true Carboniferous Limestone forms. About 
midway between St Monans and Pittenweem on the 
coast, the members of this series pass conformably 
below the basement beds of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone wi^ an inclination to the W, and from this 
point E to Anstruther there is a steady descending 

series for 2 miles. Upwards of 8900 feet of strata are 
exposed in this section, and yet the underlying red 
sandstones are not brought to the surface. At Anstruther 
the beds roll over to the £, and the same strata are re- 
peated by ffentle undulations as far as Fife Ness. It is 
probable, therefore, that the beds at Anstruther are the 
oldest of the Cementstone series now exposed at the sur- 
face between Elie and St Andrews. From the valuable 
researches of Mr Eirkby, it appears that all the fossils, 
save ScmguinolUea Abdensig, which are found in the 
marine btmds near the top of the series at Pittenweem, 
occur also in the Carbomferous limestone. Not until 
nearlv 8000 feet of strata have been passed over, do we 
find lorms that are peculiar to this horizon, some of 
which are given in the following list: — LUiorina 
acotobnnLigaUvuis, Cyprtcardia bieosUt, MyaZina modioU- 
farmis, SanguinoliUsAbdensis, Schizodua SdUeri, Bairdia 
niiida, Oythare superbOf Kirkbya spiralis. Another dis- 
tinffuishing feature of this type of the Cementstone series 
is the presence of numerous cases of ostraood crustaceans, 
of which the most abundant form is LeperdUia Oketii 
var. SeotoburdigaleTuia, Numerous thin seams and 
streaks of coal, varying from a few inches to 2 feet in 
thickness, are exposed m this coast section. They rest 
on fireclays whicn are charged with stigmarian rootlets. 

The Cementstone group is likewise met with in the 
neighbourhood of Burntistand, an area which is invested 
with special importance on account of the great develop- 
ment of volcamc rocks to be described presently. In 
this district they occupy a semicircular area extending 
from Inverkeithin^ Bay to near Kirkcaldy. A line 
drawn from Donibnstle N bv Camilla Loch near Auchter- 
tool, thence winding round Baith Park and S to the 
sea-shore at Seafield Tower, marks the rim of the semi- 
circle. Along this line they fttss conformably below 
the basementl>eds of the Carboniferous limestone. The 
sedimentary strata with the interbedded volcanic rocks 
are folded into an anticlinal arch, the lowest beds being 
exposed near Burntisland where tiiey are inclined to the 
N and NNW. From the presence of marine zones in 
the Calciferous Sandstones of this area, it is evident 
that the Burntisland district forms a connecting link be- 
tween the tjrpes represented in Midlothian and between 
Pittenweem and at Andrews. The Orange limestone 
at Burntisland is regarded as the equiwent of the 
Burdiehouse limestone to the S of Edinburgh. 

In the W of Fife the members of the Carboniferous 
Limestone lap round the anticlinal arch of the 
Cementstone series at Burntisland, and they cover the 
whole of the area between that arch and the Cleish 
Hills. To the £ and W they pass below the Dysart 
and Einglassie coal-fields respectively, reappearing to the 
N in the Lomond HiUs, ana being traceable from thence 
into East Fife as far as Westfield and Rademie. As in 
other districts in Scotland this series is divisible into 
three groups, described in the foregoing table. The 
limestones of the lowest group occur at Boscobie, Dun- 
fermline, Potmetal, and on the Lomond Hills. The 
middle division consists of a succession of sandstones 
and shales with coals and ironstones, comprising the 
Torrvbum, Oakley, Saline, Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, 
and Markinch coal-fields. Indeed, this group forms the 
chief source of the gas coals and blackoand ironstones 
of Fife. The limestones of the upper group are com- 
paratively insignificant They crop out on the coast E 
of Pathhead, where they pass below the Millstone Grit 

The latter series, oonsistinff of coarse sandstone and 
coxiglomerate, fonns a narrow oorder round the Dysart 
coal-field on the W and the Kinglassie coal-field on the 
S. It is well exposed on the shore to the B of Path- 
head, where it is rapidly succeeded by the true Coal- 
measures. The latter are best developed in the Dysart 
and Leven coal-fields, though a small area is also met 
with at Kinglassie. This series consists of sandstones, 
shales, numerous workable coal seams, clayband iron- 
stones, and an overlyini? group of red sandstones. In 
the Dysart and East Wenms coal-field there are no 
fewer than fourteen seams of coal which are inclined to 
the E at angles varying from 10* to 20^ 


A remarkable feature of the Carboniferous svstera as 
represented in Fife is the great development of contem- 
poraneous Mid intrusive volcanic rocks. In this county 
volcanic activity seems to have begun somewhat later than 
in the Edinburffh district, and tonave been partly coeval 
with that in West Lothian. In the neighDourhood of 
Burntisland there must have been a contmuation of the 
volcanic action from the horizon of the Grange lime- 
stone in the Cementstone series to the basement beds of 
the Carboniferous limestone. The basaltic lavas and 
tufis which were ejected during that period are admir- 
ablv displayed on the shore section between Burntisland 
and Seafield Tower near Kirkcaldy, where they are 
interstratified with marine limestones, sandstones, and 
shales. But on the Saline Hill in West Fife there is 
conclusive evidence that volcanoes must have been 
active even during the deposition of the coal-bearing 
series of the Carboniferous limestone. That eminence 
marks the site of a vent from which tuff was ejected 
which was regularly interbedded with the adjacent 
stratSL Seams of coal and ironstone are actuaJly worked 
underneath the tuff on the S side of Saline Hill, and not 
far to the E a bed of gas coal is mined on the slope of 
the Knock Hill which forms another 'neck' belonging 
to that period. 

In East Fife, as the researches of Professor A. Geikie 
have conclusively shown, there is a remarkable develop- 
ment of volcanic vents which are now filled with tuff or 
agglomerate. Upwards of fifty of these ancient orifices 
occur between Leven and St Andrews, piercing the 
Calciferous sandstones, the upper or true Coal-measures, 
and even the overlying red sandstones, which are die 
youngest members of tne Carboniferous system. It ia 
evident, therefore, that most of these 'necks' must 
be of later date than the Oi^boniferous period. Nay, 
more, from the manner in which tiiey rise along lines 
of dislocation, and pierce anticlinal arches as well as 
synclinal troughs, m>m the way in which the volcanic 
ejectamenta rest on the denuded edges of tilie Carboni- 
ferous Limestone series, there can be no doubt that they 
were posterior to the faulting, folding, and denudation 
of the strata. Professor A. Geikie has suggested that 
they probably belong to the period of volcanic activity 
indicated by the ' necks ' of Permian age in Ayrshire. 
Largo Law is a strikinff example of one of the cone- 
shaped necks, and so also is the Binn Hill at Burnt- 
island. Another great vent, upwards of ^ mile in 
length, occurs on the shore at Eincraig Point, E of 
Lai^ Bay, which is fiUed with tuff. In this case the 
tuff IB pierced by a mass of columnar basalt, the columns 
rising to a height of 150 feet above the sea-leveL The 
occurrence of veins and masses of basalt is a common 
feature among these necks, but it is seldom that such a 
remarkable example of columnar structure is displayed 
in the series. The Bock and Spindle near St Andrews 
is an excellent instance of the radial arrangement of the 

No less remarkable are the great intrusive sheets of 
basalt and dolerite which are conspicuously developed 
in the Carboniferous rocks of Fife. Indeed, in none of 
the other counties in Scotland do they occur in such 
numbers. From the Cult Hill near Saline, they are 
traceable B along the Cleish Hills to Blairadam. They 
cap Benarty and the Lomonds, and from that range 
they may be followed in irregular masses to St Andrews 
and Dunino. Another belt of them extends from 
Torrvbum by Dunfermline to Burntisland, thence 
winding round by Auchtertool to Kirkcaldy. They 
occur mainly about the horizon of the lowest limestones 
of the Carboniferous Limestone series, and are, in iJl 
probabiH^, the E extexfBion of the intrusive sheets at 
Stirling Castle and Abbey Craig. But in addition to 
these great intrusive masses of Carboniferous age, there 
are various dykes of basalt having a general £ and W 
trend, which may probably belong to the Tertiary 
period. Of these, the best examples are met with in the 
Old Bed Sandstone area, near Damhead, and W of 

The direction of the ice flow during the glacial period 


was S£ acToes the OcliilB, but as the ice sheet approached 
the Firth of Forth it veered round to the £ and ENE. 
An instance of this latter movement occurs near Petty- 
cur N of Burntisland, where the strie point E IS"* N. 
Throughout the countv there is a widespread covering 
of bomder day, which, like the deposit on the S£ 
slopes of the Sidlaws, contains an assemblage of 
boulders derived from the Grampians. A great series 
of sands and gravels rests on the boulder clay at 
certain localities, which seems to have a direct connec- 
tion with the retirement of the ice. Where there are 
open valleys forming passes across the Ochils, great 
ndges of gravd are met with parallel to the trend 
of the valleys. Near the mouths of the passes the 
material is very coarse, but it gradually becomes finer 
and more water-worn as we advance southwards. 
Similar deposits are met with in the £ of Fife, which 
are, to a laige extent, of the same origin. There is no 
trace of the later glaciation within the county. 

The 100-feet beach is traceable round the greater part 
of the coast-line, being well developed at Dunfermuue, 
Kirkcaldy, and in the Howe of Fife. The arctic shells 
at £lie occur in the fine clays of this beach, and in a 
similar deposit of the same age near Cupar, bones of a 
seal have been exhumed. Aloug the estuary of the Tay 
this beach forms but a narrow terrace of gravel, owing 
to the comparatively steep slope flanking the shore. In 
that neighbourhood there are indications of an old sea 
margin at the level of 75 feet, as if there had been a 
slight pause in the upheaval of the laud. The 50 and 
25 feet beaches are well represented, the one merging 
into the other. In the East Keuk of Fife the latter is 
bounded by an inland diff, in which sea-worn caves are 
not uncommon. 

The soil — ^we abridge from Mr Macdonald — ^to the N 
of the Eden is quick and fertile, nowhere very deep or 
very strong, but kindly, highly productive, and speciallv 
suited for the cultivation of grass. The Howe of Fife 
or Stratheden, comprising both sides of the Eden up as 
far as Cupar, has a rich fertile soil, parts of it being 
exceedingly productive. S of the Eden the land rises 
nadually, till, in Cameron parish, it reaches 600 feet. 
On this high land the soil is cold and sti£f and of a 
clayey chiuracter, with a mixture of lime. Bound Lady- 
bank it is very light and shingly, as though its richest 
earthy coating h^ been swept o£f by a current of water. 
The land on the rising-ground in Collessie, Monimail, 
Cults, and Kettle parishes is heavier and more valuable 
than in the valley of Ladvbank. In the neighbourhood 
of the Lomonds and on the hiffh land of Auctermuchty, 
Leslie, and Kinghiraie the son is light, but sharp and 
valuable for grass ; in Beath, Auchterderran, and Bal- 
lingrv it is principally cold and stiff, though several 
excellent highly-cultivated farms are in these parishes. 
A good deaf of land on the K side of Dunfermline is 
strong retentive clav, on the S is thin loam with a 
strong clayejr subsoil In Saline, Torrybum, and Car- 
nock the soil is mainly a mixture of clay and loam, 
and is generally very fertile. All along the coast, too, 
though variable in composition, it is rich and productive. 
The * Laich of Dunfermline ' has a^strong clayey soil, very 
fertile on the whole, but somewhat stiff to cultivate. 
The sou between Inverkdthing and Leven varies from 
light dry to strong dayey loam, rendered highly pro- 
ductive and friable by superior cultivation ; it is aeep 
rich loam about Largo, and light in Elie, both equally 
fertile and productive ; and along the £ coast it is deep, 
strong, ana excellent, consisting chiefly of clay and rich 
loam. Near St Andrews the soil is bv no means heavy, 
while the section N£ of Leuchars village is sandy and 
verv liffht, especially on the E coast, where a large tract 
of lana known as Tent*s Moor is wholly covered with 
sand, and iJmost useless for agricultural purposes. In 
Forgan and part of Ferrjnport-on-Craig the soil, though 
light and variable, is kindly and fertile. 

In the whole of Scotland the percentM;e of cultivated 
area is only 24 '2 ; in Fife it rises as high as 74*8, a 
figure approached by only six other counties — Linlith- 
gow (78 1), Berwick (65*4), Haddington (64*4), Kinrosi 

(62-8), Renfrew (57*8), and Edinburgh (57*1). This 
being the case, little has been reclaimMl of recent years 
in life, since little was left to reclaim ; but great im- 
provements have been effected since 1850 in the way of 
draining and re-draining, fencing, building, etc. The 
six-course shift of rotation predominates; leases are 
nearly always for 19 years ; and ' in the matter of land 
apportionment Fife is almost all that could be desired.' 
Out of 2892 holdings, there are 1807 of 50 acres and 
under, 217 of from 50 to 100, 648 of from 100 to 800, 
192 of from 800 to 500, 82 of from 500 to 1000, and 1 
only of orer 1000. In 1875 rents varied between 1 7s. 6d. 
and £5 (or in Crail even £8) an acre, but the latter 
high figures have had to come down in the face of the 
great recent agricultural depression. Fife, having more 
to lose, has perhaps suffered more than anv other Scotch 
county ; ana in the summer of 1880 no fewer than 18 
of its farms, extending over 8801 acres, were vacant, 
whilst several others had been stocked and taken imder 
diar]^ of their hmdlords. Fife is not a great countv 
for live-stock, and the majority of its cattle are Irish 
bred. The few cows kept are crosses mostlv of some- 
what obscure origin ; the oulls are almost all shorthorns. 
Since the dispersion of the famous Keavil herd in 1869, 
the breeding of pure shorthorns has all but ceased. 
Neither is sheep-farming practised to the extent one 
might look for, soil and climate considered. The sheep 
are almost all hoggs — good crosses between Cheviot 
ewes and Leicester tups — ^with a few black-faced in the 
western and higher parts of the shire. Nearly all the 
farm-horses are Clydesdales or have a strong touch of 
the Clydesdale, powerfullv built and very hardy, great 
care havine been exerdsea of recent vears in the selec- 
tion of stmions, with highlv successnil results. Many 
good ponies are kept, and hunters and carriage-horses 
are generally of a superior class. Swine are not nume- 
rous, but biave been greatly improved 1^ crossing the 
native sows with Ber^hire boars. The following table 

gives the acreage of the chief crops and the number of 
ve-stock in File in different years : — 

1 1866. 









Barley,. . . . 





Oats, ...» 





Sown GrawM, . 





Potatoes, . . . 





Turnips, . . . 





Cattle,. . . . 





Sheep, .... 





Horses, . . . 





Swine, .... 





The yearly rainfkll varies considerably, from 21 i 
inches at Cupar to 86} at Loch Leven, which, though 
in Einross-snire, may be taken as representing the 
western portion of the Fife peninsula. Still, it is not 
by any means heavy ; and the dimate, greatly improved 
by thorough drainage, and modified by the nearness of 
the sea, is mild and equable. Westerly winds prevail, 
and the biting £ winds that sometimes sweep the coast 
are broken infimd by the numerous bdts ana clumps of 
plantation that stud the fields. Less than one- twenty- 
third of the whole of Scotiand is under woods ; in Fife 
the proportion is fully one-seventeenth, viz., 19,471 
acres, a figure surpassing twenty, and surpassed by only 
twelve, of the Scottish counties. Dr Samuel Johnson 
remarked in 1778 * that he had not seen from Berwick 
to St Andrews a single tree which he did not believe to 
have grown up far within the present century.' So far 
the remark did good, that, widdy read by the landed 
gentry, it stimumted the planting fever to intensity, 
and hundreds of acres of hilldde now are dothed with 
trees which otherwise might have retained their primeval 
bareness. It was fiilse, none the less, as shown bv five 
tables in Transadions qf the ffighland and AaricuUural 
Society for 1879-81, where sixteen of the ' old and re- 

• Induded all horses, not only those engaged in farming. 



markable ' trees described are trees of Fi£s — 4 Spanish 
chestnuts at Aberdour and Bahnerino, 2 ash-troes at 
Otterston and Donibristle, 8 sycamores at Aberdoor and 
Donibristle, 1 oak at Donibristle, and 6 beeches at 
Otterston, Donibristle, Eellie Castle, Leslie House, and 
Balmerino. To which might haye been added the two 
famous walnuts of Otterston, planted in 1589, and felled 
by the ereat sale of January 1882. 

The damask manufacture of Dunvsbmlikb is probably 
unequalled in the world for excellence of design and 
beauty of finish. Other linen manu&ctures, compris- 
ing sail-cloth, bed-ticking, brown linen, dowlas, duck, 
checks, and shirting, together with the spinning of tow 
and flax, are carried on at Dunfermline, Eibkcaldy, 
Dysart, Leslie, Auchtermuchty, Kingskettle, Ladybank, 
Strathmiglo, Falkland, Ferryport-on-Oraig, and other 
places. The cotton manufacture has never employed 
much capital, but maintains many workmen in the 
service of Gla^w houses. Breweries are numerous, and 
there are seveiul pretty extensive distilleries. The manu- 
facture of floor-cloth (at Kirkcaldy), ironfounding and 
the making of machinery, the tannins of leather, the 
manufacture of earthenware and porcelain, paper, and 
fishing-nets, coach-building, ship-building in iron and 
wood, and the making of bricks and tiles, are also carried 
on. The maritime traffic is not confined to any one 
or two ports, but diffuses itself round nearly all the 
coasts, at the numerous towns and villages on the Tay, 
the Oerman Ocean, and the Forth, though chiefly on 
the latter. It is of considerable aggregate extent, 
and has grown very rapidly of recent years, according 
to the statistics of the one headport, Kibkoaldt. 
Lastly, there are the fisheries, for cod, ling, hake, etc, 
in the home waters, and for herrings as fiir afield as 
Wick and Yarmouth. The following are the fishing 
towns and villages, with the number of their boats an3 
of their resident fishermen in 1881 : Limekilns (5, 12), 
Inverkeithing (7, 24), Aberdour (5, 8), Burntisland 
(21, 45), Kinghom (11, 20), Kirkcaldy (18, 27), and 
Dysart (6, 10), belonging to Leith district ; and Buck- 
haven (198, 410), Methil (6, 20), Leven (1, 8), Largo 
(34, 60), Elie and Earlsferry (13, 24), St Monance 
(147, 405), Pittenweem (91, 240), Anstruther and 
Gellardyke (221, 578), Chrail (34, 50), Kingsbams 
(8, 30), Boarhills (3, 8), and St Andrews (57, 145), 
belonging to Anstbtttheb district Total, 886 boats 
and 2114 men and boys. In the Anstruther district 
the number of barrels of herrings cured was (1866) 
19,618, (1873) 7523, (1881) 10,816* ; of cod, ling, and 
hake taken (1866) 82,569, (1873) 104,647, (1881) 
209,426. Steam ferries are maintained between Newport 
and Dundee, between Ferryport-on-Oraig (Tayport) and 
Broughty Ferrv, between Burntisland and Granton, and 
between North Queensferry and South Queensferry. 
There was formerly a ferry from Dirleton in Hadding- 
shire to Earlsferry, also from Kirkcaldy and Pettycur to 
Leith and Newhaven ; but these have been long since 

A main line of railway, connecting by ferry with 
Granton, commences at Burntisland, coes along the 
coast to Dysart, strikes thence northwara to Ladybank, 
and forks there into two lines — the one going north- 
eastward to Tayport (communicating there by ferry with 
Broughty Ferry), and the other going nortn-westward 
to Newburgh, and proceeding thence into Porth^iire 
towards Perth. One branch fine leaves from the Tay- 
port fork, in the vicinity of Leuchars, and goes south- 
eastward to St Andrews ; and another branch leaves 
the same fork north-westward to the vicinity of New- 
port, to communicate by the viaduct across the Firth of 
Tay, now in process of reconstruction, the first Tay 
Bridge having fallen in 1879. Another line, coming 
eastward from Stirling, passes Alloa, .Dunfermline, 
Crossgates, and Lochgelly, forming a junction with the 
mainline at Thornton. From the last-named station a 
railway runs eastward along tilie coast to Leven, Largo, 
£lie, and Anstruther ; and a line connecting Anstruther 
with St Andrews is (1882) under construction. From 
Alloa and Kinross a railway enters the upper reach of 


Eden valley, passing to the vicinity of Auchtermuchty, 
and thence oE to a junction with the main line at 
Ladybank. A railway from Cowdenbeath goes north- 
north-westwurd into Einross-shire, to join the Alloa 
and Ladybank line at Kinross. A railwi^ has been 
constructed, by the owner of the property, m>m Thorn- 
ton to Buckhaven and Wemyss. A line from North 
Queensferry to Dunfermline, worked in connection with 
the ferry, is intended to afford a through line to the 
N on tne construction of the Forth Bndge, and con- 
necting lines to Perth through Glenfaig, and between 
Inverkeithing and Burntisland, form part of the 
scheme. The Cupar district contains 85 miles of turn- 
pike roads and 126 miles of statute labour roads ; the 
Dunfermline district, 45} of turnpike roads and 49 J of 
statute labour roads ; the St Andrews district, 135} of 
turnpike roads and 73i of statute labour roads ; the 
Kirkcaldy district, 77 of turnpike roads and 67i of 
statute labour roads ; the Cupar and Kinross district, 
22} of roads ; the Outh and Nivingston district, 27} of 
turnpike roads ; the Leven Bridge district, 7} of roads. 

The county returns one member to parliament (always 
a Liberal since 1837) ; and its constituency was 4845 m 
1882. Boyal burghs exercising the parliamentary 
franchise are — ^Dumermline ^constituency 2330) and 
Inverkeithing (188), included in the Stirling district of 
burghs; the Kirkoddy district of burghs, comprising 
Kirkcaldy (2018), Burntisland (645), Dysart (1773), 
and Kinghom (225), with a total constituency of 4661 ; 
and the St Andrews district of burghs, comprising 
St Andrews (766), Anstruther-Easter (207), Anstruther- 
Wester (86), Crail (190), Cupar (738), Kibenny (348), 
and Pittenweem (804), with a total constituency of 
2634. The royal burehs not now exercising the parlia- 
mentary franchise are Newburgh, Auchtermuchty, Falk- 
land, and Earlsferry. Leslie, Leven, linktown, West 
Wemyss, and Elie are burghs of barony or of regality ; 
and Ladybank and Lochgelly are police burghs. 

Mansions, all noticed separately, are Balcaskie, Bal- 
carres, Birkhill, Broomhill, Oambo, Charleton, Craw- 
ford Priory, Donibristle, Dysart House, Elie House, 
Falkland House, Fordel, GibUston, Grangemuir, Inch- 
daimie, Inchrye Abbey, Kiloonquhar, Largo House, 
Leslie House, Naughton, Otterston, Pitcorthie, Baith, 
Wemyss Castle, and many others. According to Mis- 
ceUaneous Siaiitties of the UnUed Kingdom (1879), 
304,363 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of 
£905,577, were divided among 10,410 landowners, two 
together holding 20,595 acres (rental £29,081), five 
32,847 (£58,854), fifty-two 92,748 (£187,004), thirty- 
five 47,724 (£133,689), sixty-five 45,484 (£80,435), two 
hundred and one 51,157 (£117,993), etc. 

The county is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, forty-nve deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, two 
sheriffs-substitute, and 344 commissioners of supply and 
justices of peace. It is divided into an eastern and a 
western district, each with a resident sheriff-substitute : 
and sheriff ordinary and debts recovery courte are hela 
in Cupar, Dunfermline, and Kirkcaldy. Shoiff small- 
debt courte are tJso held at Cupar, Dunfermline, Kirk- 
caldy, St Andrews, Anstruther, Auchtermuchty, Leven, 
and "Newburgh. There is a bur^h police force in Dun- 
fermline (11), and in Kirkcaldy (16); the remaining 
police in the county comprise 67 men, under a chief 
consteble, whose yearly pay is £375. The number of 
persons tried at the instance of the police in 1880 was 
1049 ; convicted, 959 ; committed for trial, 85 ; not 
dealt with, 120. The committals for crime in the 
annual average of 1836-40 were 167 ; of 1841-45, 147 ; 
of 1846-50, 138; of 1851-55, 103; of 1856-60, 125; of 
1861-65, 142 ; of 1865-69, 141 ; of 1871-75, 75 ; of 
1876-80, 61. The registration county gives off a part 
of Abemethy parish to Perthshire ; takes in parts of 
Amgask parish from Perthshire and Kinross-shire ; and 
had in 1881 a population of 172,181. The number of 
registered poor in the year endiing 14 May 1881 was 
8293 ; of dependante on these, 2120 ; of casual poor, 
1876 ; of dependante on these, 1197. The reoeipte for 
the poor in tnat year were £89,593, 17s. S^L ; and the 


expenditure was £88,099, 16b. O^d. The number of 
pauper lunatics was 482, their cost of maintenance 
Deing £8881, 9s. 6d. The percentage of illegitimate 
births was 7*5 in 1872, 7'1 in 1878, and 6*8 in 1880. 

Although seventeenth in size of the thirty-three 
Scotch counties, Fife ranks as fifth in respect of rental- 
roll (only Aberdeen, Ayr, Lanark, and Perth shires sur- 
passing it), its valuation, ezdnsive of the seventeen 
royalburghs, of railways, and of water-works, being 
(1815) £405,770, (1856) £548,586, (1865) £581,127, 
(1875) £698,471, (1876) £686,388, (1880) £700,651, 
(1882) £697,448, l7s., or £2, 28. 6d. per acre. Valua- 
tion of railways (1882) £57,683 ; of water-works (1882) 
£4551 ; of burghs (1866) £146,129, (1879) £246,555, 
(1882) £288,472. In point of population it stands 
seventh, the six hi^er counties bemg Aberdeen, Ayr, 
Edinburgh, Porfar, Ijanark, and Renfiew shires. Pop. 
(1801) 93,743, (1811) 101,272, (1821) 114,556, (1831) 
128,839, (1841) 140,140, (1851) 153,546, (1861)154,770, 
(1871) 160,735, (1881) 171,981, of whom 80,893 were 
males and 91,088 females, and of whom 88,146 were in 
16 towns, 44,577 in 65 villages, and 89,208 rural, the 
corresponding figures for 1871 oeing 76,449, 48,182, and 
41,104. Houses (1881) 36,854 inhabited, ^079 vacant, 
199 building. 

The civil county comprehends sixty-one quoad eivilia 
parishes and parts of two others, with the extra-parochial 
tract of the isle of May. There Are also axteen qy>oad 
sacra parishes and three chapels of ease belonging to the 
Churcii of Scotland. The places of worship within it 
in 1882 were, 86 of the Church of Scotland (85,071 
communicants in 1878), 51 of the Free Church (11,663 
communicants in 1881), 41 of United Presbyterians 
(10,747 members in 1880), 1 of United Original Seceders, 
5 of the Congregationalists, 5 of the Evangelical Union, 
7 of Baptists, 8 of Episcopalians, and 4 of Soman Catho- 
lics. The Eistabli^ed S(ynod of Fife, meeting atlBirk- 
caldy on the second Tuesday of April and at Cupar in 
October, comprehends the presbyteries of Dunfermline, 
Kinross, Kirkcaldy, Cupar, and St Andrews, and thus 
takes in Kinross-shire and the Perthshire parishes of 
Culross, Fossoway, and Muckart. Pop. il871) 170,823, 
(1881) 179,636, of whom 37,251 were communicants of 
the Church of Scotland in 1878. The Free Church Synod 
of Fife, meeting at Kirkcaldy on the second Tuesday of 
April, and at dupar, St Andrews, or Dun&rmline on the 
second Tuesday of October, comprises. presbyteries iden- 
tical with those of the Established Church, and had 
12,727 communicants in 1881. 

It is claimed by the natives of Fife that it has a more 
peaceful history than most other counties in Scotland, 
containing no great battlefields, and although prominent 
in many important events, displaying to view Tew signal 
crimes and no great national disasters. Ancient stone 
circles, standing stones, and cairns or tumuli abounded, 
but are not now to be found, though remains of hill forts 
exist in several places. On Duneamtiiere are remains of 
such a fort, and another strong one was on Cameil Hill, 
near Camock, and stood adjacent to some tumuli which 
were found in 1774 to enshrme a number of urns contain- 
ing Boman coins. Traces of two fioman military stations 
are found near the same locality ; and a Boman camp for 
Agricola's ninth legion was pitched in the vicinity of 
LcNch Orr, confronting BenartyHiU on the right and the 
Cleish Hills on the left. Human skeletons, found at 
various periods on the southern seaboard, are r^arded 
as relics of conflicts with invading Danes in the 9th 
and following centuries. Great monastic establidiments 
were formed at St Andrews, Dunfermline, Balmerino, 
lindores, Inchcohn, and Httenweem, and have left 
^considerable remains. Medieval castles stood at St 
Andrews, Falkland, Leuchars, Kellie, Dunfen:dine, Bam- 
briech, Balcomie, Dairsie, Aberdour, Seafield, Lodi Orr, 
Tarbet, Rosyth, Inverkeithinff, Bavenacraig, Wemyss, 
Monimail, Balwearie, etc, and nave left a large aggregate 
of interesting ruins. Old churches, with more or less of 
interest, exist at Crail, St Monance, Leuchars, Dysart, 
Kirkforthar, Dunfermline, Dairsie, and St Andrews. 

Early in the summer of 88 a.d. Agricola had lus anny 


conveyed across the Bodotria, or Firth of Forth, and 
landing, as is said, at Bubntisland, gradually but 
thoroughly made himself master of Fife, whilst his fleet 
crept round its shores, and penetrated into the Firth of 
Tay. The eastern half of tne peninsula was then pos- 
sessed b^ the Yemicomes, and the western bjr tiie 
Danmomi, one of whose three towns, the ' Victoria ' of 
Ptolemy, was situated at Loch Orr, a lake, now drained, 
in Ballingry parish. The Damnonii, sa^ Dr Skene, 
' belonged to tne Oomish variety of the British race, and 
appear to have been incorporated with the southern 
Hcts, into whose language they introduced a British 
element. The Frisian settlements, too, on the shores 
of the Firth of Forth, prior to 441, may also have left 
their stamp on this paxt of the nation ; and the name of 
Fothrik, applied to a district now represented by Kin- 
ross-shire and the western part of Fife, may preserve a 
recollection of their Bik or kingdom.' Ptfe itself is 
probably the Frisian jS^A, 'a forest ; ' the name Frisian 
Sea is applied by Nennius to the Firth of Forth ; and 

gart of its northern shore was known as the Frisian 
here. By the establishment of the Scottish monarchy 
in the person of Kenneth mac Alpin (844-60) Fib or Fife, 
as part of southern Pictavia, became mer^d in the king- 
dom of Alban, of which under Constantm III. (900-40) 
it is described as forming the second of seven provinces, 
a province comprising the entire peninsula, along with 
the district of Gowne. It thus mcluded the ancient 
Pictish capital, Abernethy, whither in 865 the primacy 
was transferred from Dunkeld, and whence in 908 it was 
again removed to St Andrews. In 877 the Danes, ex- 
pelled by the Norwegians from Ireland, sailed up the 
Firth of Clyde, cross^ the neck of the mainland, and 
attacked the province of Fife. They routed the * Scots ' 
at Dollar, and, chasing them north-eastward to Inver- 
dovet in Forgan, there gained a second and more signal 
victory. King Constantin, son of Kenneth mac Alpin, 
being among the multitude of the slain. On two ac- 
counts this battle is remarkable, first as the only great 
conflict known for certain to have been fought on Fife 
soil ; and, secondly, as the earliest occasion when the 
term ' Scotti ' or Scots is applied to any of the dwellers in 
Pictavia. According to Hector Boece and his followers, 
Kenneth mac Alpin appointed one Fifus Dufifus thane or 
governor of the province of Fife, but thanes of Fife there 
never were at any time, and the first Macdufif, Earl of 
Fife, figures in three successive charters of David I. 
(1124-53), first as simply ' Gillemichel Makduf,' next as 
' Gillemichel Comes,' and lastiy as ' Gillemichel Comes 
de Fif.' In earlier charters of the same reign we hear, 
indeed, of other Earls of Fife — Edelrad, son of Malcolm 
Ceannmor, and Constantin^ — ^but between these and the 
Macduff's tiiere seems to have been no connection. 'The 
demesne of the Macduff Earls of Fife appears to have 
consisted of the parishes of Cupar, Kilmany, Ceres, and 
Cameron in Fife, and those of Strathmif lo and Auchter- 
muchty in Fothriff, near which Macduff's Cross was 
situateo. Whether this sept were the remains of the 
old Celtic inhabitants of the province, or a Gaelic clan 
introduced into it when its cnief was made Earl, it is 
difficult to say ; but it is not impossible that it may have 
been a northern clan who followed Macbeth (1040-57) 
when the southern districts were subjected to his rule, 
and that there may be some foundation for the legend 
that the founder of the clan had rebelled against him, 
and adopted the cause of Malcolm Ceannmor, and so 
maintained his position. Some probability is lent to 
this supposition by the fS&ct that the race from whom 
the Mormaers of Moray derived their origin is termed 
in one of the Irish genealogical MSS. Clan Duff, and 
that the E^ls of Fife undoubtedly possessed from an 
early period large possessions in the "North, including the 
district of Strathaven. The privileges of the clan, how- 
ever, stand on a different footing. From the earliest 
period the territorj^ of Fife comes prominentiy forward 
as the leading provmce of Scotland, and its earls occupied 
the first place among the seven earls of Scotland. The 
first two privileges, of placing the king on tiie Coronation 
Stone, and of heading the van in the army, were probably 



attached to the province of Fife, and not to any par- 
ticnlar tribe from which its earls mi^ht have issued ; on 
the other hand, the third seems denved from the insti- 
tution connected with the ancient FvnA^ etc. (Skene's 
(kUU Scotland, iii. 61-63, 806, 806, 1880). 

The history of Fife centres round no one town, as that 
of Dumfriessnire round Dumfries, but is divided among 
three at least — St Andrews for matters ecclesiastical ; 
for temporal, Dttkferjilins and Falklaih). Each of 
the latter has its royal palace ; and Dunfermline was the 
burial-place of eight of Scotland's kings, from Malcolm 
Ceannmor (1093) to the great Robert Bruce (1829), thus 
including Alexander III., who met with his death in Fife, 
being dashed from his horse over the headland of Eino- 
HORN (1286). Duncan, Earl of Fife, was one of the three 
ffaardians appointed to rule the southern district of the 
kingdom in the absence of Alexander's infant daughter, 
the Maid of Norway ; but he was murdered in 1288 ; 
and his son, the next earl, was too young to seat John 
Baliol on the Coronation Stone (1292; or to take any part 
in the earlier scenes of the War of Independence. During 
that war, in 1298, the Scottish victorjr of * Black Im- 
syde ' is said to have been won by Wallace over Aymer 
de Valence in Abdie parish, near Newburgh. The youujg 
Earl was absent at the EngUsh court in 1306, but his 
sister, the Countess of Bucmm, discharged his functions 
at Bruce's coronation, for which, being captured by 
Edward, she was hung in a cage firom one of the towers 
of Berwick. Presently, however, we find him on Bruce's 
side ; and, according to Barbour, it was he and the 
sheriff of Fife who, with 600 mounted men-at-arms, were 
flyinff before an English force that had landed at Doni- 
bristie, when they were rallied by William Sinclair, 
Bishop of Dunkeld. Another English force under the 
Earl of Pembroke, in 1327, landed in Fife, and stormed 
the Castle of Leuchars ; and in 1332 Edwiurd Bruce and 
the 'disinherited barons'landedatEinghom, and inarched 
north-westward to Dupflin, in Stratheam. A parlia- 
ment was held at Dairsie Castle in 1336, but faued to 
accomplish its purposes ; and another was then held at 
Dunfermline, and appointed Sir Andrew Moray to the 
regency. The English immediately afterwards invaded 
Scotland, sent a powerful fleet into the Firth of Forth, 
and temporarily overmastered Fife. A Scottish army, 
soon collected oy Sir Andrew Moray to confront them, 
besieged and captured the town and castle of St Andrews, 
and, save in some strongly garrisoned places, drove the 
English entirely from the county. The Steward of Scot- 
land (afterwards Robert IL ) succeeded Sir Andrew Moray 
in the command and direction of that army ; and, in the 
year of his accession to the throne (1371) the earldom of 
Fife was resigned by the Countess Isabella, last of the 
Macduff line, to his third son, Robert, Earl of Menteith, 
whose brother Walter had been her second husband. The 
new Earl of Fife was created Duke of Albany in 1398, 
and it is as the Recent Albany that his name is best 
known in history, iiniilst the deed whereby that name is 
most familiar was the murder — ^if murder it were — of the 
Duke of Rothesay at Falkland (1402), which figures in 
Sir Walter Scott's Fair Maid of Perth. 

Andrew Wood, in 1480, attacked and repulsed a 
hostile English squadron, which appeared in tne Firth 
of Forth ; and he received, in ffueraon of his services, a 
royal grant of the village and lands of Larffo. A body 
of 13,000 infantry and 1000 horse, suddemy levied in 
Fife and Forfarshire, formed part of the Scottish army, 
which, in 1488, fought in the h&ttXe of Sauchiebum. The 
Douf^lases, in 1626, after defeating their opponents at 
Linhthgow, advanced into Fife, and pillaffed Dunferm- 
line Abbey and St Andrews Castle. Fife figures pro- 
minently in Scottish Reformation history. At St An- 
drews were burned the English Wiclifite, John Reseby 
(1408), the German Hussite, Paul Crawar (1432), and 
Scotland's own martyrs, Patrick Hamilton (1628), Henry 
Forrest (1633), and Geoige Wishart (1646). Barely two 
months had elapsed ere the last was avenged by the 
murder of Cardinal Beaton, and barely thmeen years 
ere, in the summer of 1669, John Knox's 'idolatrous 
sermon ' had roused, in Tennant's words — 


* The fteir, ttrabiuh, and strilo, 
Whan, bidcerin' fne the towns o' Fife, 
Great buigi o' bodies, thick and rUe, ' 

Qaed to Saoct Androis town. 
And wl' John Oalvln i* their heads. 
And hammers i* their hands and spades. 
Enraged at idols, mass, and beads. 

Dang the Oathedral down.' 

At Crail the crusade began, and from Crail the preacher 
and his ' rascal multitude ' passed on to Anstrutner, Pit- 
tenweem, St Monanoe, St Andrews, the abbeys of Bal- 
merino and Lindorea, and almost every other edifice in 
the county, large or small, that seemed a prop of the 
Bomish religion. Queen Marv, in 1668, spent nearly 
four months in Fife, moving Jrequently from place to 
place, but residing chiefly at FalMand and St Andrews, 
where Chastelard was beheaded for having burst into her 
chamber at Burntisland. Nextyear,uie spent some 
time at the same places ; and at Wemyss Casue in Feb. 
1 666 she first met ner consin, Lord Damley. DonibrisUe, 
in 1692, was the scene of the murder oommemorated in 
the ballad of The Bonnie Earl o' Moray ; and Falkland 
Palace, in 1600, was the scene of the antecedent of the 
mysterious affair known as the Cowrie Conspiracy. Fife 
suffered more iigury to trade than most other disMcts of 
Scotland, from the removal of the court to London, at 
the accession of James Y L to the crown of England (1603). 
Its enthusiasm for the Covenant was great, and the sea- 
ports put themselves in a state of defence when, on 1 May 
1639, the Marquis of Hamilton arrived in the Firth of 
Forth with 19 Koyalist vessels and 6000 well-armed men, 
of whom, however, only 200 knew how to fire a musket. 
This alarm passed off with the nacification of Berwick ; 
and the next marked episode is the battle of Pitseavie, 
fouffht near Inverkeithinff on 20 Julv 1651, when 6000 
of (^mwell's troopers dereated 4000 adherents of Charles 
IL , killing 1600 and taking 1 200 prisoners. Then comes 
that darkest scene in all Fife's history, the murder by 
men of Fife on Magus MinK of Archbisnop Sharp, 3 May 
1679, so strongly illustrative of the fanaticism, the super- 
stition, and the unwarlike spirit of its perpetrators. Ilie 
Revolution (1688) was followed by a long and severe 
famine, a great depression of commerce, and an exhaus- 
tion of almost every resource ; the Darien scheme (1696- 
99) proved more disastrous to Fife than to most other 
parts of Scotland ; at the Union (1707) legitimate com- 
merce was all but annihilated, its place beinff taJcen by 
smuggling. (See Dtsabt.) The Earl of Mar landed 
from London at Elie in Aug. 1716, the montht of the 
famous gathering at Braemar; on 12 Oct. Bru^adier Ifoc- 
Intosh of Borlum succeeded in conveying 1600 Jacobites 
from Fife to East Lothian over the Firth of Forth ; and 
about the same time the Master of Sinclair, proceeding 
from Perth through Fife with 400 horsemen, surprised two 
Government vessels at Burntisland, which furnished tiie 
rebels with 420 stands of arms. Tlie plundering of the 
custom-house at Pittbnweem by Wilson, Kobertson, and 
other smugglers, is memorable as leading to the Porteous 
Riot at Edinbuboh (1736). Among many illustrious 
natives are Tennant andDrChalmers, bom at Anstruther; 
Lady Ann Barnard, at Balcarres ; Alexander Htmiilton, 
at dreich ; Sir David Wilkie, at Cults ; Lord Chanodlor 
Campbell, at Cupar ; Charles I. and Sir KoSl Paton, at 
Dunfennline; luchard Cameron, at Falkland; Adam 
Smith, at Kirkcaldy ; Alexander Selkirk, at Largo ; Sir 
David Lindsav, at Monimail ; Major Whyte Melville, at 
Mount Melville, near St Andrews ; and Lady Elizabeth 
Halket, at Pitreavie. 

A characteristic feature of Fife is its larse number of 
small seaport towns, in many places so close as to be 
practically a continuous town. Buchanan used the ex- 
pression oppidulis praBeingitwr to describe it, and James 
V L called the county a grey cloth mantle with a golden 
frin^ The modem demand for harbours capable of 
admitting lar^ vessels has tended to concentrate the 
shipping of Fife at Burntisland, and the establishment 
of large factories has in like manner concentrated popula- 
tion in such places as Dunfermline and Eirkcaldv. Thus, 
though Fife is rich and fruitful in its land, and nas many 
important industries, as well as large import and export 

trades, most of the coast towns are so qmet and decayed 
as to give the casual visitor a much less favourable imo 
pression of the county than a complete examination 

The county acquired its popular name of the ' Kingdom 
of Fife,* partly from its great extent and value, and^artlv 
£rom its forming an important portion of the rictish 
dominion. It anciently, as we have seen, was much more 
extensive than it now is, comprehending nearly all the 
region between the Tay and uie Forth, or the present 
counties of Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan, the detached 
or Culross district of Perthshire, and the districts of Strath- 
earn and Monteith. Dismemberments of it were made at 
variousperiods. In li26thecount7of Kinross was formed; 
other cmmges were afterwards made to form the stewartries 
of Clackmannan and Culross ; and in 1686 three parishes 
were cut off to complete the present county of Kinross. 
Numerous ancient hereditaiy jurisdictions existed in 
the county, and, in common with similar j^xrisdictions 
in other parts of Scotland, were abolished, under com- 
pensation, in 1747. The chief of these were that of the 
steward of the stewartry of Fife, for which the Duke of 
Athole received £1200 ; that of tiie bailie of the regality 
of Dunfermline, for which the Marquis of Tweeddale 
received £2672, 7& ; that of the bailie of the regality 
of St Andrews, for which the Earl of Crawford received 
£3000 ; that of the resality of Aberdour, for which the 
Earl of Morton receivea £93, 2s. ; that of the regally of 
Pittenweem, for which Sir John Anstruther received 
£282, 15s. 8d. ; that of the regality of landores, for 
which Antonia Barclay of CoUemy received £215 ; and 
that of the regality of Balmerino, which had been for- 
feited to the (^own through Lord Balmerino's participa- 
tion in the rebellion of 1745, and so was not valued. 

See Sir Bobert Sibbald's EisUny qf Fif6 (Edinb. 1710 ; 
new ed., Cupar, 1803); J. M. Leighton's History of Fifi 
(3 vols., Glasgow, 1840) ; Thomas Rodger's Kmgdom qf 
Fife (2 vols., Cupar, 1861) ; Walter Wood's East Nevk 
of Fife (Edinb. 1862) ; M. F. ConoUv's Biograpldcat 
JXdionary of Eminent Men of Fife (Cupar, 1862) ; his 
Fifiawi (Cupar, 1869) ; William Ballingall's Shares of 
Fife (Edinb. 1872) ; James W. Taylor's ffistorieal An- 
OquUies of Fife (2 vols., Edinb., 1875) ; James Mac- 
donald's ' Aniculture of Fife,' in Trains, ffighi. and Ag, 
Soc (1876); T. Hutchison's 'Kin^omof Fife,'in JVeuer'tf 
Magasvne (1878) ; besides works cited under Balmekino, 
Burntisland, Cellakdtks, Cbail, Duntesmlinx, 
Dura Den, Dysart, Falkland, Inohoolx, Lindores, 
Isle of Mat, and St Andrews. 

Fife-Keith. See Keith. 

Fife NesB, a low headland in Crail parish, Fife, 2 miles 
NE of Crail town, 5 N by W of the Isle of May, and 16 
NKE of North Berwick. It flanks tibe northern side of 
the entrance of the Firth of Forth, is the most easterly 
point in Fife, and terminates the tract ponularly called 
the East Neidc of Fife. It has traces of a aefensive wall 
running across it, and said to have been constructed by 
the Danes in 874 to cover an invasive debarkation ; and 
it is subtended for a considerable distance seaward by a 
dangerous reef, noticed in our article on Carr. — Ord, 
Sur,, sh. 41, 1857. 

Fife Bailway, West of. See Korth British Railway. 

Flfeahire. See Fife. 

Figach. See Fiao. 

Figgate Bun. See Dttddingston. 

Flggate Whina, a tract of land in Duddingston 
parish, Edinbui^hshire, traversed and mainly drained 
by Ilggate Bum. It was anciently a forest, where Sir 
William Wallace is said to have mustered his forces for 
the siege of Berwick, and Gibson of Duris to have been 
jNounc^ upon by Christy's Will — this latter a false ver- 
sion of the story. In 1762 it was sold for only £1500 ; 
and it now is partly the site of the widespread watering- 
place of Portooello, and partly the fertile tract extendi^ 
south- westvnid &enoe to the eastern skirts of Arthur's 

nie. See Benfilb. 

Fillan, a stream of KiUin parish, W Perthshire, rising, 
at an altitude of 2980 feet, on the northern side of Ben* 


LOT (8708 feet), close to the Argyllshire border. Thence 
it winds 11^ miles east-north-eastward and east-south- 
eastward, past Dalree and Crianlarich, along a glen caUed 
from it Strathfillaii, till it falls into the head of Loch 
DocHART, or rather expands into tiiat loch, beinff thus 
the remotest head-stream of the river Tay. It is followed 
along all its lower course b^ the Callander and Oban 
railway. Within i mile of its left bank, and 22 miles 
SSE of Tyndrum, stand the ruins of an Austin priory 
church, dedicated in 1814 to St Fillan by Bobert Bruce 
as a thank-offering for the victory of Bannockbum. The 
square-shaped ' Bell of St Fillan,' of cast bronze, with 
double-headed dragonesque handle, lay on a gravestone 
here till 1798, when it was stolen bv an English traveller. 
In 1869 it was restored to Scotland, and now is deposited 
in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum, where also now 
is the ^igrach or silver head of St Fillan's crozier, car- 
ried to Cuiada in 1818, and returned by its hereditary 
keeper, Mr Alex. Dewar, to Scotland in 1877. This beU 
used to be rung during that curious superstitious rite— 
a kind of forerunner of the SpirituaUsts' rope-trick — ac* 
oordi^ to which lunatics were brought to the neighbour- 
inff ' Holy Pool of Fillan,' and plunged in its waters just 
before sunset, then bound hand and foot, and left all 
night in the ruins beside what was known as ' St Fillan's 
Tomb.' If in the morning they were found still bound, 
the case was abandoned as hopeless ; but if the knots 
were untied, it was deemed the merciftd work of the 
saint, and the sufferers were quit for ever of th^ malady. 
Of St Fillan himself verv little is known, except that he 
belonged to the close of the 5th century, is called an lobar 
('the leper'), was a disciple of Aillie in Emly, and in 
the Irish calendar is said to have been of Math JBrenn in 
Alban, or Hhe fort of the Earn in Scotland.' Some 
luunoloffists, however, maintain that this leprous saint 
of otrauieam was distinct from him of StrathnUan, whom 
they assign to a century later. — Ord. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Fllhuia, 8t^ a village in Comrie parish, Perthshire, 
on the N bank of the river Earn, just below its efflux from 
Loch Earn, 18 miles W W N of Crieff, under which it 
has a post and telegraph office. Both as to situation and 
structure one of the pleasantest villages in Scotland, it 
comprises a range of slated one-story houses, mantled 
with ivy and honeysuckle, an hotel, called the Drummond 
Arms, a Free church, and a public schooL On a fjreen 
level plain here the St FUlans Highland Society, insti- 
tuted in 1819, for twelve years held a famous annual 
meeting for athletic sports. Dundum and the conical 
hill of Dunfillan have been separately noticed. — Ord, 
Swr., sh. 47, 1868. 

Finaglen or FinglflB, a g^en, traversed by a mountain 
bum, in Comrie parish, Perthshire, descending from 
Ben Bhan, Ig mile north-north-eastward to Loch Earn, 
at a point 2 miles W by S of St Fillans. 

Finart, an estate, with a mansion, in Bow parish, 
Dumbartonshire. The mansion, standing on the E shore 
of Loch Long, 8 miles N of Garelochhead, is the seat of 
Edward Caira, LLD., professor of moral philosophy in 
Glasgow University since 1866. It has finely wooded 
grounds, and is overhunff by a hill and mountain that 
command a superb view of Loch Long. HiU and moun- 
tain are often called Finart, but reslly consist of, first, 
Tom Buidhe (986 feet), 1 mile NE of the mansion, and, 
next, Ben Mhanarch (2828), culminating 9 furlongs ESE 
of that hill.— Onf. Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Finart* Arj^llshire. See Glxntinart. 

FtnaTon. SeeFnraAYSN. 

Flneastle, a north-eastern district of Dull parish, 
Perthshire, extending 8} miles along the K bank of the 
Tummel from the foot of Loch Tummel to Bonskeid 
House, and H mile along the S bank of the Garry from 
Blair Athole village to Auldclune. Fincastie Bum flows 
through the midst to the Tummel, along a fertile narrow 
strath, and near its left bank stands Fincastie House, the 
seat and death-place of Sir Robert Gihnour Colquhonn, 
E.C.B. (1808-70), who for seven years served as Consul- 
General in B^rpt The district takes its name from 
having andenuy contained no fewer than fifteen casties, 
yeetiges of a number of which may still be seen ; and it 


fives the title of Viscount to the Earl of DvmcoBB. 
t has a post oi&ce nnder Pitlochryi 6 miles to the SBL— 
Ord. Sur,, sh. 66, 1869. 

Findhom, a seaport village in Kinloas parish, KW 
Elginshire, at the right side of the mouth of Findhom 
river, and on the point of a p^minsula between Find- 
hom and Buighead Bi^s. By road it is 6 miles N 
of Forres and 3| N£ of Sinless station on the Highland 
railway, this station being 9} miles W by S of El^n 
and 27| BNE of Inverness. A branch line from SSn- 
loss to Findhom, opened in 1860, has now for some 
years been discontinued. The original town, which 
stood at least 2 miles westward of the present one, was 
destroyed by the driffcingof the Culbin Sands ; the 
next one stood a mile NW, on ground now covered by 
the sea, and was swallowed in a few hours by the 
f^reat inundation of 1701 ; and even the present town 
15 so beset with surge-lashed sand-banks, that it, too, 
possibly ma^ some day share their fate. A place of 
worship in it, used first as a dissenting meeting-house, 
and next as a chapel of ease, was built on the sand, and 
fell in Jan. 1848. The town, from its situation at the 
mouth of the Findhom, known in Gaelic as the Eme^ 
is commonly called by the Highlanders Innereme, It 
ranks as a burgh of bmny ; is me centre of an extensive 
fishery distridk between Buckie and Oromarty; and 
carries on some commerce^.in the export of salmon, grain, 
and other coods, and in the import of coals, groceries, 
and mani&oturod wares. It has a post office under 
Forres, a good harbour, a Free church, a girls' public 
school, and a public library. The harbour is partly 
natural, partly artificial, with a stone pier, two quays 
of hewn stone, and a breastwork connecting the pier 
with one of the quays ; and has, in the shallowest part 
of the channel at its entrance, 10) feet of water in the 
lowest neap tide, and from 18 to 17 feet in spring tides. 
In 1881, tne number of boats employed in the district 
was 470, of fishermen and boys 2068, of fish-curers 49, 
and of coopers 64 ; the value of the boats being £29,428, 
of the nets £41,827, and of the lines £4909. The foUow- 
ing is the number of biurrels of herrings salted or cured 
in different years !--(1866) 29,672, (1870) 16,811, (1878) 
2389, (1879) 9448, (1880) 16,266, (1881) 9763 ; of cod, 
ling, or hake taken (1866) 20,779, (1878) 67,887, (1879) 
66,191, (1880) 84,266, (1881) 16,266. Pop. (1841) 806, 

(1861) 891, (1871) 701, (1881) 606 Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 


nndhom, a river of Invemess, Nairn, and Eknn shires, 
xisinff in the southern extremi^ of Moy and Dalarossie 
parish, among the Monadhliath Mountains, 6J miles N 
by W of Laggan Brid^, and thence winding 62^ miles 
north-eastward, till it fells into the Moray Firth at 
Findhom village. In the first 7i miles of its course it 
bears the name of Abhainn Gro Chlach (' stream of the 
stone fold ') ; and a 13th century charter alludes to it 
as the Eam, so that Findhom is possiblv a corruption 
of JUmn-ear'an, ' wan east-flowing nver,' the greater part 
of its basin being still known as Strathdeam. It is 
joined by the Eskin, Moy Bum, the Divie, Mudkle 
Bum, and numerous mountain torrents; it expands, 
between Forres and Findhom village, into a triangular 
tidal lagoon, 2 miles long and 2| wide, called FincDiom 
Bay or Harbour, and again contracts to 2) furlongs at 
its mouth. Its scenerv, alpine at first, then moderately 
mountainous, and finally lowland, exhibits almost every 
variety of picturesqueness, from the wildly g^rand to 
the softly beautiful, abounding in features of wood and 
rock, gor^ and cliff, fertile valley and finely-oontoured 
hill, and is not excelled, either in diversity of attraction 
or in aggregate richness, by the scenery of any equal 
length of stream in Scotland. From 2800 feet above 
seaUevel at its mossy source, it descends to 1627 at the 
Kskin's confluence, 960 at IHndhom Bridge, 680 at the 
Brid^ of Dulsie, and 280 near Belugas House; and 
thus its current is impetuous in the upper, swift in the 
middle, and broad and placid in the lower reaches. Its 
volume varies greatly in time of drought and in time of 
heavy rain ; and it is subject to such strong, sudden 
freshets as sometimes to roll down a wall-like wave of 

water with irresistible and destractive force along the 
narrow or contracted parts of its bed, and to overflow 
its banks and make a lake of all the lowland portions of 
its valley. In the Plain of Forres, over 20 square miles 
were so inundated by it in the memorable floods of 
Aug. 1829, that a large boat, in full sail, swent along 
its basin to within a few yards of the town. Tne Find- 
hom is still a fine salmon and trout river, though not 
what it was half a century since, when in a single day 
860 salmon were taken from one pooL It traverses or 
bounds the parishes of Moy and Dalarossie, Cawdoi. 
Ardclach, EdmkiUie, Forres, Dyke and Moy, and Kin- 
loss ; and in our articles on these, its various features 
of bridge, mansion, village, and town are noticed. — 
Ord. Sur.f shs. 78, 74, 84, 94, 1876-78. See chaps, 
ii. -X. of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (Elgm, 
1830 ; 3d ed. 1873). 

Findlater, an estate on the coast of Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. It formerly belonged to the Ogilvies of 
Deskford, and ^ve them the tiUe of earl from 1638 till 
1811. That title expired at the death of the seventh 
Earl of Findlater ana fourth of Seafield, who was suc- 
ceeded in his estates and in the earldom of Seafield by 
his cousin. Findlater Castle stood on a peninsulated 
rock i)verhanging the sea, 2 miles E of Cullen, and 4 
W by N of Portsoy, and, withpermission of the Crown, 
was fortified in 1446 by Sir Walter Ogilvie, knight, of 
Auchleven. It was one of the places which refused to 
receive Queen Marjr on her visit to the North (1662), and 
is now a curious picturesque ruin. See Cullen. — Ord. 
Sur.f sh. 96, 1876. 

Fi&doohty, a fishing-village in Rathven parish, Banff- 
shire, 34 miles W by K of Cullen. Founded in 1716 
by a colony of fishermen from Fraserburgh, it has an 
infant public school, 141 boate, and 800 men and boys 
engagea in fishing. Ite sheltered harbour, with 24 feet 
depth of water, and 270 feet of width at the entrance, was 
greatiy imjjroved by the Fishery Commissioners in 1882- 
83. Near it is a medicinal spring situated within high 
water mark. Pop. (1861) 393, (1871) 812, (1881) 936.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Findogitak. See Qase, 

Flndon, an estete in Urquhart and Logie- Wester parish, 
Ross-shire, on the SE shore of Cromartv Firth, 6 miles 
N£ of Conan Bridge. Traversed by a bum of ite own 
name, that makes a fine cascade of 20 feet in a yawning 
bosky gorge, it belongs to Mackenzie of Mouzvtobiiald, 
and by improvemente in the way of draining, fencing, 
and building, had ite rental raised from £3774 in 1867 
to £4624 in 1876. 

FSndoa, a farm in Ckmrie'parish, N£ Banffshire, 6 fur- 
longs S by W of Oardenstown. Ite rocks are famous for 
great abundance and variety of fossil fish, ganoids chiefly, 
many of which were figured and described by Agassiz. 

Findoa or Flimaii, a fishing -village in Banchory- 
Devenick parish, Kincardineshire, 1} mile N£ of Port- 
lethen stetion, this being 8 miles S by W of Aberdeen. 
It is a little place, of no more consequence than other 
fishing villages on the E coast; but it has gained 
celebrity for having been the first place to prepare the 
dried fish, called from it Findon or Finnan haddocks. 
Ite boate number 80, ite fishermen 96 ; and there is a 
pubUc school. Pop. (1861) 190, (1871) 830. — Orf. Sur. , 
sh. 67, 1871. 

Flndnok, an estete, with an old mansion, in Lum- 
phanan parish, Aberdeenshire, 2) miles ENE of Lum- 
phanan stetion. It was sold in 1670 bv Sir Robert 
Forbes of Leamey to the Erasers; ana ite present 
owner, Francis Ghunien Eraser (b. 1816; sue. 1824), 
holds 1600 acres in the shire, valued at £896 i>er annum. 

nndraade, an estete, with a mansion, in Spynie 
parish, Elginshire, 2i miles NW of Elgin. It belonged, 
from the first half of the 16th century, to a branch of 
the Leslies, descended from Robert, younsest son of the 
third Earl of Rothes ; but, sold in 1826 by Sir Charles 
Leslie, fifth Bart, since 1626, it now is the seat of Mrs 
Forster, only daughter and heiress of the late James 
Ogilvie Tod, Esq. (d. 1887), who holds 690 acres in 
tiie shire, valued at £602 per annum. 

FIna See Fyne. 

FineUa. See Fskella. 

Finfan, a farm in Urquhart parisli, NE Elginsliire, 1} 
mile WSW of Gannouth. It has a mineral well, of 
Bimilar quality to Strathpeffer spa, and a neat cottage 
was built at it by General Sir James DuJQf for supplying 
the water to occasional visitors. 

Fiagal's Cav». See Staffa. 

Fingal's Fort. See Dun Fionk and Enockfin. 

Fingal's Oiiddle, an ancient Caledonian monument 
in Ardnamurchan parish, Argyllshire. It is situated 
on Ormsaigmore, and consists of large stones in the 
form of a rude altar, surrounded by remains of a circle 
of smaller stones. 

Fingal's Oak, a famous old tree in Ardchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, near Barcaldine House. It girthed 29 feet 
(only half its original size) in 1835, and continued so to 
decay and crumble, that in 1844 it measured but 23 feet 
in girth. 

Fingal's Seat See Arr-SurDBS-TnuiN. 

Fingal's Stair. See Benxaddan. 

Fingask, an estate, with a mansion of 1834, in Daviot 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2 miles W of Old MeldrunL A 
small enclosure on the estate is thought to have com- 

prised a pre - Reformation chapeL Its owner, John 



a pre -J 

I Esq., 

holds 685 acres, valued at £860 per 

Fingask or Karlee, a loch in the S of Blairgowrie 
parish, NE Perthshire. Lying 139 feet above sea-level, 
it has an utmost length and breadth of 3 and 2 furlongs^ 
is connected by rivulets with Black and White Lodis of 
similar extent, and sends off a stream J mile south- 
south-westward to Lunan Bum. It is notable for hav- 
ing furnished from its bed great quantities of manurial 
clay or marL — OrcL Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Fingask Castle, a fine old mansion in Eilspindie 
parish, Perthshire, 8^ miles NNW of Errol station. It 
stands on the W side of a wooded glen, 200 feet above 
the Garse of Gowrie, and by Dr Chambers is described as 
an irregular but picturesque structure, comprising a tall 
front tower of 1694 ; a still older central portion ; an 
addition of about 1676, with pepper-boz turrets at the 
angles; and a modem dining-room, conservatory, etc. 
On one side is a windins avenue of pines and sycamores ; 
on the other a beautiful garden, with a terrace beyond, 
that commands a magnificent view of the Furth of Tay, 
the Sidlaws, and the Grampians. Within are portraits 
of the Old Chevalier, Clementina his wife. Prince Charles 
Edward, his brother Henry, Cardinal of York, the poet 
William Hamilton of Bangour, and many members of the 
Threipland family, which seems to have migrated from 
Thriepland in Eilbucho parish, Peeblesshire, about the 
beginning of the 17th century* and which in 1672 
bought Fingask from a cadet of the Bmces of Clack- 
mannan, two years later addingthereto the adjacent 
estate of Einkaibd. Patrick Threipland, becoming 
provost of Perth in 1665, was knighted in 1674 for 
diligence in suppression of convenbdes, was made a 
baronet of Nova Scotia in 1687, and in 1689 died a 
prisoner in Stirling Castle. His son. Sir David (1666- 
1746), in 1716 was one of the first to join the standard 
of the Earl of Har, with his eldest son and namesake. 
The latter was captured whilst crossing the Firth of 
Forth under Macintosh of Borlum, but effected a daring 
escape from Edinbursh Castle. The Old Chevalier 
passed the night of 7 Jan. 1716 in the 'State-room ' of 
Fingask, and was lu^ain there in the following month; 
in March Sir David was a fugitive, and his castle was 
occupied by a party of Government dragoons. The 
forfeited estate, however, was leased by Lady Threipland 
from the York Building Company, who had bought it 
for £9606. In the '46 the eldest son, David, fell at 
Prestonpans; but the youngest, Stuart (1716-1805), 
went through the entire campaign, for some time shared 
in the Prince's wanderings, and at length escaped to 
France, disguised as a bookseller's assistant, Bingask 
meantime having been plundered by dragoona Betnm- 
ing in 1747, he set np as a physician in Eldinburgh, and 
in 1783 bought back the estate for £12,207, whilst to 


his son, Patrick (1762-1837), the baronetcy was restored 
in 1826. His son, the fifth baronet, Sir Patrick-Murray 
Threipland (1800-82), dying without issue, was succeeded 
by his cousin, William, second son (b. 1867) of William 
Scott Kerr, Esq. of Chatto and Sunlaws, Roxburgh- 
shire, who holcts 2814 acres in Perthshire, valued at 
£3019 per annum, besides the estate of Toftinoall in 
Caithness, and who has assumed the name of Murrav 
Threipland in accordance with the last baronet's wilL 
— Om. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See Robert Chambers, 
LL.D., 7%« Threiplanda of Fingask (Edinb. 1880). 
^ Fingland, a bum in Traquair parish, Peeblesshire, 
rising just within Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire, at an 
altitude of 1300 feet, and flowing 4} miles north-by- 
westward till it falls into Quair water a little above 
Traquair village. 

Fugland, a oum in Eskdalemuir parish, NE Dumfries- 
shire, running to the White Esk at a point i mile NNE 
of Davington Free church. A cascade on it, called 
Wellsbumspout, makes a leap of 66 feet, and shows pic- 
turesquely m times of heavy rain. 

Fin Glen, a glen in the W of Campsie parish, Stirling- 
shire, traversed by a bum which, rising in the S of 
Killeam parish, on the NE shoulder of Earl's Seat (1894 
feet), runs 4| miles south-south-eastward, till, near 
Campsie Glen station, it unites with the Pow and Eirk- 
ton Bums to form the Glazert. Though somewhat les^ 
picturesque than Kirkton Glen, Fin Glen has a lareer 
volume of water and two very beautiful waterfalls ; whikt, 
like Kirkton Glen, it presents features of gorge, crag, and 
wood somewhat similar to those of the Tros^^hs. — OnL 
Sur., sh. 81, 1866. 

Finglen, Perthshire. See Fikaolek. 

Finhaven (anc. FothneDyn=:GAe\. fodha-fainn, 'place 
under a hill ), a ruined castle in Oathlaw parish, Forfar- 
shire, on a rising-ground at the influx of Lemno Bum to 
the South Esk, 5} miles NNE of Forfar and 8 WSW of 
Brechin. A stately five-storied tower, 86 feet high, lar^r 
but plainer than Edzell, it dates in its present condition 
from the latter half of the 16th century. ' The N wall is 
yet entire, but the S one is rent through two-thirds of 
the length of the building, and on some frosty moming 
at no distant date will inevitably crumble to pieces. 
According to Thomas the Rhymer's prediction : 

' When FinluiTen Gastle rini to sand, 
The warld*8 end is near at hand.' 

The ruin is a very storehouse of strange memories. 
Hither David, third Earl of Crawford, and his foeman 
but brother-in-law, Ogilvy of Inverquharity, were 
brought, sore wounded, from the battle of Arbboath 
(1446). The Earl died after a week of lingering torture ; 
and scarce was he dead, when the Countess hurried to 
Inverquharity's chamber, and smothered him with a 
pillow, thus avenging her husband by murdering her 
own brother. 'Earl Beardie' or 'the Tiger' Eul of 
Oawford fled to Finhaven from the rout of BBEonnr 
(1452), and, on alighting from his horse, exclaimed that 

gladly would he pass seven years in hell to gain the 
onour of Huntly^s victory. Eleven months later he 
was pardoned by James II., who here received a sump- 
tuous entertainment; but the King, having swom in 
his wrath 'to make the highest stone of Fmhaven the 
lowest,' must needs, to keep his word, go up to the roof 
of the castle and thence throw down a stone that was 
lying loose on the battlements. On the Covin Tree of 
Finhaven, crown from a chestnut dropped by a Roman 
soldier, Ean Beardie hanged Jock Barefoot, the Careston 
gillie who had dared to cut a walking-stick therefrom, 
and whose ghost oft scares the belated wayfarer. The 
Covin Tree was levelled to the ^und in 1760 ; but, in 
the secret chamber of Glamis, Earl Beardie still drees 
his weird, to play at cards until the clap of doom. In 
1530 David, eighth Earl, was for thirteen weeks 
imprisoned in the dungeons of Finhaven by his son, the 
Wicked Master, who eleven years after was stabbed by a 
Dundee cobbler for taking firom him a stoup of drink. 
David, tenth Earl, in 1546 married Margaret, daughter 
of Cardinal Beaton. The nuptials were solemnised at 



Finharen with great magnificence, in presence of the 
CSardinal, who that same month was murdered at St 
Andrews. Held by the Lindsays since 1875, the estate 
was sold in 1629 by the fourteenth Earl of Crawford to 
his cousin, Lord Spynie. Later it was owned by the 
Cameffies, till in 1775 it was sold for £19,500 to the 
Earl of Aboyne. It was sold again in 1805 for £45,000 
to a Mr Ford, and was re-sold in 1815 for £65,000 to a 
subsequent Earl of Aboyne, belonging now to that 
Earl's representative, the Marauis of Huntly. Wooded 
Finhaven Hill extends along all the south-eastern border 
of Oathlaw parish, and some way into Aberlemno. Cul- 
minating at a height of 751 feet above sea-level, it com- 
mands a beautiful view of Strathmore, and is crowned, 
on its north-eastern shoulder, with a vitrified fort, in the 
form nearly of a parallelogram 380 feet long and 112 at 
the broadest. Anciently mere was a parish of Finhaven, 
divided now between Oathlaw and Aoerlemno ; and well 
on into the present century the former parish was oftener 
called Finhaven thui Oathlaw. The church, standing 
1 mile E of the castle, was built in 1380, and fell into 
disuse about the b^ginnin^ of the 17th century. In its 
side aisle, however, the thirteenth Earl of Crawford was 
buried as late as 1622, and this aisle was left standing till 
1815. In 1849 the ancient encaustic pavement of the 
church was laid bare, and two monuments were found at a 
considerable depth, one beinff of a robed ecclesiastic. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. See chap. iv. of Andrew 
Jervise's Land of the Lindsays (Edinb. 1853). 

nnk, St, a hamlet and an ancient chajpelry in Bendochy 
parish, Perthshire, 2] miles NE of Blairgowrie. The 
chapelry included the tract above the confluence of the 
Ericht and the Isla. 

Finlagan, a hill-girt loch in Eillarrow and Eilmeny 
parish. Isle of Islay, Argyllshire, 4} miles W by N of 
rort Askai^. Measuring 1 by J mile, it send^ off a 
rivulet of its own name to salt-water Loch Gruinard, 
and abounds with trout and salmon, the former averaanng 
i lb. each. An islet in it is crowned by the ruins of the 
castle and chapel of the Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles ; 
and on its shore are traces of a pier for communicating 
with the castle. 

Finlarig, a picturesoue ruined castle in Eillin parish, 
Perthshire, at the head of Loch Tay, H mile K by E of 
Kill in village. An ancient seat of the Earl of Breadal- 
bane's ancestors, it figures in Sir Walter Scott's Fair 
Maid of Perth as the £ath-place of the chief of the clan 
Quhele, and is a narrow three-stoxy ivy-clad pile, with a 
square tower at one comer. Adjoining it is the burying- 
vault of the Breadalbane familv; and around is an un- 
dulating park with grand old trees. The scene of a 
sanguinary fi^ht between the Campbells and the Mac- 
donalds is in its neighbourhood. —Ord. Sur. , sh. 46, 1872. 

Ftnlas, a lake in Straiten parish, Ayrshire, 5 miles S 
by W of Dalmellington. Lying 840 feet above sea-level, 
it extends IJ mile from KW to SE, has a varying width 
of i furlong and 2} furlongs, is fed from Loch Derclach 
at its head, and from its foot sends off Garpel Bum 1) 
mile north-eastward to Loch Doon. Boats are kept on 
it, and the trout fishing is good. — Ord. Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Finlas, a streamlet m Luss parish, Dumbartonshire, 
rising at an altitude of 1800 feet, and running 4{ miles 
south-eastwurd along an alpine glen, called from it 
Olenfinlas, and eastward and north-oy-eastward through 
low, rich, wooded grounds, till it falls into a baylet of 
Loch Lomond 3 funongs SW of Bossdhu House. — Ord. 
Sur., sh, 38, 1871. 

Finlay'B CaBtle. See Nairn. 

Flnlay*! Mixtt. See Monquhitteb. 

FinlajTBton Honae, a mansion in the NW comer of 
Kilmalcolm parish, Renfrewshire, near the S shore of 
the Clyde, 1} mile W by K of Langbank station, and 
8 miles E by S of Port Glasgow. Fartly an edifice of 
the latter half of the 15th century, it was long a resi- 
dence of the Earls of Glencaim ; and, under the fifth or 
'Good' Earl, was the scene of a notable celebration of 
the Lord's Supper by John Knox (1556). It is also 
associated witia the name of Alexander Montgomery, a 
poet who flourished in the time of James YL, and wrote 


The Cherrie and the Sloe; and it commands a brilliant 
view across and along the Clyde.— Orct. Sur., sh. 30, 

Finnan, a stream in the Invemess-shire section of 
Ardnamurchan parish, rising at an altitude of 1586 feet 
above sea-level, close to the Eilmallie border, and thence 
mnninff 51 miles souHi-south-westward to the head of 
Loch Sniel, along a narrow rocky mountain glen, called 
from it Glenfinnan. The glen, toward the mouth of 
the stream, opens in four Erections, somewhat in the 
manner of four diveigent streets; and, terminating at 
the head of the loch in a small plain, is crossed l^ere by 
a road leading 35 miles westward from Bamavie, up Loch 
Eil, to Arasaig. This was the scene of the unfuning of 
Prince Charles Edward's banner at tiie commencement 
of the Rebellion of 1745, an event sung finely by Pro- 
fessor Aytoun in his Lays of the Cavaliers, ' The spot,' 
says Hill Burton, 'adopted for the 0&therinff was easily 
accessible to all the garrisons of the Hichlana forts. U 
was only 18 miles distant from Fort WiUiam, and almost 
visible from the ramparts ; but when a general gathering 
in force was intended, the presence of the forts — ^wefl 
adapted as they were to keep down petty attempts — ^was 
no impediment to it. The 19th of August was the day 
fixed for the momentous ceremony ; but the Prince's 
faith in his destiny was again tried, for, when he arrived, 
the glen was silent and deserted, save by the ragged 
children of the hamlet, who glared with wondering eyes 
on the mysterious strangers. After two hours thus 
spent, the welcome sound of a distant bagpipe was 
heard, and the Camerons, between seven and eight hun- 
dred strong, appeared on the sky-line of the hill. Before 
the group dispersed in the evening, the number assembled 
amounted to 1500 men. The^ost of honour on the 
occasion was given to the old Marquis of Tullibardine, 
heir to the dukedom of Athole, who, like his young 
master, had come to ' ' regain his own. " ' Prince Charles^ 
Monument here, a tower with a Gaelic, Latin, and 
English inscription, was founded in 1815 by Alex. Mac- 
donaldof Glenaladale, whose namesake lodged the Prince 
on the night preceding the Gathering, and whose de- 
scendant, John Andrew Macdonald, Esq. of Glenaladale 
(b. 1837 ; sue. 1870), has his seat at Glenfinnan, holding 
24,000 acres in the shire, valued at £1550 per annum. 
Glenfinnan has also a jpost office under Fort William, an 
inn, a public school, with accommodation for 33 children, 
and the Roman Catiiolic church of SS. Mary and Finnan, 
an Early EngUsh edifice of 1873. St Pinnan's green 
islet, at the head of Loch Shiel, has been the burial place 
of the Macdonalds since their first settlement in these 
lonely glens ; and a square bronze beU — one of three to 
be found in Scotland, and as old, it may be, as Columba's 
day — still rests on the altar slab of its ruined chapeL 
See Shiel, Loch. — Ord. Sur., sh. 62, 1875. 

Finnan, Kincardineshire. See Findon. 

Finnart, a shooting-lodge in Fortingal parish, NW 
Perthshire, on the S shore of Loch Rannoch, just below 
its head, 10 miles W by S of Einloch Rannoch. On the 
shootings, which form part of the Struan Robertson 
property, there were killed between 12 Aug. and 8 Oct 
1881 no fewer than 3002 head of mme, including 2253 
grouse and 671 blue hares. A little SW of the lodge is 
an Established mission chapeL — Ord. Sur., sh. 54, 1878. 

Finnart, Dumbartonshire. See Finabt. 

Finnich or Gamook Bun. See Cabnock. 

Flnnieaton. See Glasgow. 

Finny. See Vennt. 

Finnyfold or Whinnyfold, a fishing hamlet in the S 
of Craden parish, Aberdeenshire, 2} miles SSE of the 
church. The rocks in its vicinity exhibit transition 
from gneiss to granite, and form a good study for geolo- 

Flnatown, a viUage in Firth and Stenness parish, Ork- 
ney, at the head of Firth Bay, 6 miles WNW of EirkwalL 
It has a post office, with money order, saving' bank, 
and telegraph departments ; horse and cattle fairs on the 
third ^naay of every month ; and a recently erected 
pier, 500 feet long, where an extensive trade is carried on 
m coal, lime, manures, grain, etc. Pop. (1881) 160. 


Ffaitray, a vilkge and a parish of SE Aberdeenshire. 
The village, Hatton of Fintray, stands within 3 furlongs 
of the Don's left bank, 8^ miles £ by N of Eintore, and 
1^ mile KN£ of Einaldie station on the Great North 
of Scotland, this being 10^ miles NW of Aberdeen, under 
which Fintray has a post office. Fairs are held here on 
the first Saturday of Februs^, April, and December. 

The parish is bounded KE by the Banffshire section 
of New Machar and by Udny, £ by the main body of 
New Machtf, S by Dyce and Kinneliar, SW by Eintore, 
and W and N W by EeithhalL Rudely resembling a tri- 
angle in outline, with northward apex, it has an utmost 
lenffth from N by W to S by E of 4 miles, an utmost 
yriath from £ to W of 5| miles, and an area of 7389 acres, 
of which 69i are water. The Don, winding 7i miles 
east-by-southward, from just below Eintore to opposite 
the manse of Dyce, roughly traces all the south-western 
and southern boundary ; and, where it quits the parish, 
the surface sinks to 116 feet aboye sea-level, thence rising, 
in gentle knolls and rounded eminences, to 300 feet at 
Woodhill, 245 at the parish church, 325 near Caimie, 
and 415 at the HiU of Tillykerrie in the fm-thest N. 
Granite and gneiss are the prevailing rocks, traversed by 
veins of coarsish limestone ; and ^e soil of the haughs 
along the Don is a rich alluvium, of the grounds above 
them is dry and early on a gravelly subsoil, and elsewhere 
ranges from peat earth ana blue gravelly clay to yellow 
loam of a more productive nature. Eleven-fourteenths of 
the entire area areregularly or occasionally in tillage, about 
660 acres are under wood, and the rest is either pastoral 
or waste. Cothal Mill here was a large woollen fac- 
tory, now stopped, with steam and water power, and 
upwards of 100 hands. Patrick Ck>pland, LL.D. (1749- 
1822), professor of natural philosophy at Aberdeen, was 
a native, his father being parish minister. Fintray House, 
near the bank of the Don, 7 furlongs E of the village, is 
a large modem mansion in the Tudor style ; the estate 
was acquired in 1610 by the first of the Forbeses of 
Cbaiqieyar, having belonged to the Abbey of landores 
in Fife from 1224 down to the Reformation. Another 
residence is Disblair Cottage ; and 3 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwaras, 2 of between 
£100 and £500, and 2 of less than £100. Fintray is in 
the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen; the living is 
worth £391. The church, at the village, is a neat and 
substantial structure of 1821, containing 800 sittings ; 
and 2 public schools, Disblair and Hatton, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 100 and 140 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 57 and 116, and grants of £40, 
18b. and £91, 6s. Valuation (1860) £5583, (1882) £7965, 
14s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 886, (1831) 1046, (1861) 1003, 
(1871) 1108, (1881) 1032.— Ord. Sur., sh. 77, 1873. 

Fintty, a hamlet and a parish of central Stirlingshire. 
The hamlet stands, 400 feet above sea-level, on the left 
bank of Endrick Water, 5 miles ESE of Balfron, 16 WSW 
of Stirling, and 17 N by E of Glasgow, under which it 
has a post office. Gronachan hamlet lies 5 furlongs £ by 
S of i^ and Newtown hamlet { mile WNW. 

The parish is bounded NW by Balfron, NE by Gar- 
gunnock, £ by St Ninians, SE by Eilsyth, S by Campsie, 
SW by Strathblane, and W by Eilleam. Its utmost 
length, from £ to W, is 6| miles ; its breadth, from N 
to S, varies between 2} and 5 miles; and its area is 
13,881 acres, of which 109 are water. From its source 
(1600 feet) upon Campsie Muir, in the S of the parish, 
the river Cabron flows 6 miles east-north-eastward, at 
first alonff the boundary with Cami^e, but chiefly 
through the south-eastern interior, till it passes off'east- 
ward into Eilsyth. Endrick Water, gathering its head- 
streams frx>m the N of Fintry and the S W of Gargunnock, 
winds 3i miles south-eastward and southward along the 
Gar^^unnockandStNiniansborder, then, bending shaSrply, 
eontmues 5| miles west-by-northward, and passes off 
into Balfron. About a mile below its westerly bend, 
it hurls itself over a precipice 94 feet high, and makes a 
superb cascade — ^the 'Loup of Fintry.' Dun^il (1396 
feet) and Gartcarron Hill (1006) form the ' divide ' be- 
tween these streams, which at one point ap|>roach within 
7 furlongs of each other— the C!arron running eastward 



to the Firth of Forth, and the Endrick westward to Loch 
Lomond, and so to the Firth of Clyde. The surface 
mainlv consists of soft green hills, part of the range that 
stretches from Stirling to Dumbarton — ^the Fintry Hills 
in the N, in the S the Campsie Fells. It declines along 
the Carron to 750 feet above sea-level, along tibe Endrick 
to 270 ; and the highest points in the parish are Stronend 
(1676 feet) near the north-western, Meikle Bin (1870) 
near the south-eastern, and Holehead (1801) exactly on 
the southern, border. The only inhabited jMurts are the 
two intersecting valleys, watered by respectively the 
Carron and the Endrick. The Carron*s valley, so far as 
within the Pjuish, is mostly meadow, and has few in* 
habitants. The Endrick's valley, narrow at its eastern 
extremitv, opens gradually to a width of about a mile, 
and partly exhibits, partly commands, a series of richly 
picturesque scenes. Cultivated fields, interrupted by 
fine groves, along the river's banks, hedgerows and plan- 
tations around CMlcreuch on the N side, and some well* 
arranged clumps of trees on the skirts and Moulders of 
the hills to the S, combine to form an exquisite picture. 
The flanking hill-ranges, occasionally broken and pre- 
cipitous, wreathed sometimes in clouds, and always wear* 
ing an aspect of loveliness and dienity, produce an im> 
posing effect along the entire readi of the valley ; and 
the summits of Ben Lomond and other mountains of the 
frontier Grampians, seen in vista away to the W, pro- 
sent a noble perspective. In a hill called the Dun, near 
the hamlet, is a range of basaltic pillar& Seventy pillars 
are in front, some of them separable into loose blocks, 
others apparently unjointed from top to bottom. Some 
are square, othera pentagonal or hexagonal ; and they 
rise perpendicularly td a heisht of 50 feet. At tiie E end 
of the range they are divided by interstices of 3 or 4 
inches ; but as the range advances they stand closer and 
closer, till at last they are blended in one solid mass of 
honeycombed rock. Trap also constitutes most of the 
other hills, which often nave such forms or projections 
as add no little to the beauty of the scenery. Granite 
occurs in detached fragments, and coal in several small 
seams ; in Dun Hill are extensive beds of red ochre ; 
and firo stone, jasper, and fine specimens of zeolite are 
found among the rocks. The sou, in most parts of the 
valleys, is light and fertile ; but of the entire area only 
1020 acres are in tillage and 100 under wood, the rest 
of the land being either pastoral or waste. Fintry or 
Graham's Castle, the ancient stronghold of the Grahams 
of Fintry, stood near the left baiu: of Endrick Water, 
on the St Ninians side, 3^ miles E of Fintry hamlet, 
and now is represented by mere vestiges. Sir Danid 
Macnee (1806-82), portrait painter, and president of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, was a native. Culcreuch, 
which has been noticed separately, is the only mansion; 
and its owner and the Duke of Montrose divide nearly all 
the property. Fintry is in the presbytery of Dumbarton, 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the living is worth 
£228. The churoh, at the hamlet, was built in 1823, 
and is a neat edifice, with a W tower and 500 sittings. 
A public school, and a free school endowed with £8000 
by the late John Stewart, Esq., with respective accom* 
modation for 90 and 82 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 33 and 57, and grants of £32, Is. 6d. and 
£60, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £4532, (1882) £5329, 
14& 6d Pop. (1801) 958, (1831) 1051, (1851) 823, (1861) 
685, (1871) 499, (1881) 414— a decrease due to the stop- 
page of a cotton mill— Oni. Sur,, shs. 31, 30, 39, 38» 

Fintry, an estate in Mains and Strathmartine parish, 
Forfarshiro, 3 miles NNE of Dundee. From the Earls 
of Angus it passed by marriage to the Grahams of Fintry ; 
was held by them for several centuries; contained Cla- 
YERHOirsE, the family seat of the famous Viscount Dun- 
dee ; and went eventually to Erskine of Linlathen. 
Fintry Castle, built in 1311 on the steep bank of a 
rivulet amidst a dense mass of lofty trees, comprised a 
quadrangle, with a strong tower pierced by a principal 
gateway facine W ; had a passage over that gate, whence 
missiles could be showered upon assailants ; was de- 
fended by several outworks ; and is now extinct The 



soatisoleTim of the Grahams is still in the parish church- 

Fintry, a small bay on the W side of Big Oumbrae 
island, Buteshire. It is a mere incurvature 6 furlongs 
lonff ; but it has a fine beach of yellow sand nearly 800 
yaras broad, overlooked by a succession of pleasant 
natural terraces ; and so it is well situated to become 
some day the site of a watering-place. 

Finxean Hoiue, a mansion in Birse parish, S Aber- 
deenshire, 7 miles S£ by E of Aboyne station, this being 
82^ miles W by S of Aberdeen. A fine old building, 
forming three sides of a quadrangle, it stands amid 
large and richly wooded grounds. Its owner, Robert 
Farquharson, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. (b. 1887 ; sue. 
1876), was electea Liberal member of West Aberdeen- 
shire in 1880, and holds 16,809 acres in the county, 
valued at £6167 per annum.— CM. Sur., sh. 66| 1871. 

Fiodhaig. See Fiao. 

Fionaven. See FoiNAVEy. 

Fionnehaim or Finchazn, a ruined fortalice in Kil- 
michael-Glassary parish, Argyllshire, on the steep SB 
maigin of Loch Awe, 2| miles EKE of Ford, near the 
loch s head. A small but strong keep, it is said by 
tradition to have belonged to a chieftain called Mac Mhic 
Jain, and to have been oumed by a vassal whose wife he 
had wronged, and by whom he himself was slain. 

Fionn Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Gairloch 
and Lochbroom parishes, NW Boss-shire, 8} miles K 
of Letterewe on Loch Maree, and 6 £ of Poolewe. 
Lying 559 feet above sea-level, and 2288) acres in area, 
it extends 5f miles north-north-westward, has a vary- 
ing width of 4 furlong and 1^ mile, teems with trout, 
and sends off the Little Greinord 54 miles north-by- 
eastward to the head of Gbeikobd Bay. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
92, 1881. 

Firhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Nairn parish, 
Kaimshire, on the left bank of the river Kaim, £ mile S 
of Nairn station. 

Firkin Point, a small headland in Airochar parish, 
Dumbartonshire, on the W side of Loch Lomond, 22 
miles SSE of Tarbet. 

Firth, a bay in the mainland of Orkney. Opening on 
a line westward from the String, or the sound between 
the mainland and Shapinshay, it measures 2} miles 
from N to S across the entrance, penetrates 8i miles 
west-south-westward, and contracts to a width of 11 fur- 
longs, but re-ezpands presently to a width of 15. It is 
noted for its oyster beds ; contains, in its upperpart, the 
islets of Damsay and Grimbister Holm ; sends off^^om its 
KW comer, the little bay of Isbister ; and is bounded on 
the lower reach of its northern side by Rendall parish, 
of its southern side by Kirkwall or St Ola parish. 

Firth, a parish in the mainland of Orkney, bounded 
N by Benoall parish, £ by Firth Bay and Kirkwall 
parish, S by Orphir and Stenness, and W by Harray. 
It includes the islets of Damsay and Grimbister Holm ; 
contains Finstown village ; and is united to Stenness. 
The united parish of Firth and Stenness, in its SW or 
Stenness portion, communicates by a bridge with Strom- 
ness parish, and is largely bounded by Stenness Loch and 
Hoy Sound. Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 8} 
miles ; and its greatest breadth is 4} miles. The shores 
of the united parish are undulating and fertile ; but the 
interior consists largely of moor and hill, covered with 
heath and peat-moss. Between 1841 and 1879, how- 
ever, the late Mr Robert Scarth of Binsoabth did 
much in the way of reclaiming, enclosing, draining, 
liming, and plantmg — ^improvements described at lengUi 
in pp. 48-51 of Trans, Btghl, and Ag. 8oe, (1874). A 
lake and a singular Caledonian monument are noticed in 
our article on Stenness. Two proprietors hold each an 
annual value of between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 
to £100, and 4 of from £20 to £60. This parish is in 
the presbytery of Cairston and synod of Orkney ; the 
living is worth £225. There are 2 parish churches, 
that of Firth built in 1818, and that of Stenness in 
1798. There are also a U.P. church of Firth and Free 
churches of Firth and Stenness ; and 2 public schools, 
Firth and Stenness, with respective accommodation for 


160 and 100 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 77 and 62, and grants of £82, 5s. 6d., and £64, 10s. 
Valuation of Firth and Stenness (1881) £1752, 10s. lOd. 
Pop. (1801) 1272, (1861) 1498, (1871) 1434, (1881) 

FisheroM, a village near Sauchie in the detached 
portion of Olackmannan parish, Clackmannanshire, 2 
miles NKE of AUoa. Fop., together with Sauchie, 
(1871) 419, (1881) 820. 

Fiflherie, a hamlet in King Edward parish, NW 
Aberdeenshire 8 miles NNE of Turriff, under which it 
has a post office. 

FisheiTOw. See Musselbxtboh. 

Fiaherton, a hamlet and a mwad aaera parish in May- 
bole parish, Ayrshire. The hamlet lies near the coast, 
li mue SW of the Head of Ayr, and 6 miles SW of Ayr, 
its station and post-town. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the minister's 
stipend is £120. The church was orifrinally a chapel 
of ease, and was preceded by a preaching station com- 
menced about 1820. Pop. (1871) 609, (1881) 609.— 
Ord, Sur,, sh. 14, 1868. 

Flflhertown, Banffshire. See Cullsn. 

FlBh-Hofan, a small island in Delting parish, Shetlandj 
8 miles S of the southern extremity of YeU. 

Fiahia. See Feshib. 

Fishlin, a small island in the N of Shetland, 6 miles 
S of the southern extremity of Yell. 

FlBhtown. See Citllen. 

Fiahwick, an ancient parish of SE Berwickshire, 
united to Hntton in 1614. Its small, long, narrow 
church, standing close to the left bank of the Tweed, 
7 furlongs above the Union Chain Bridge, and 5} miles 
WSW of Berwick, belonged for some time to the monks 
of Coldingham, and is now a picturesque ruin. The 
ancient cemetery lies around the ruin, and is still 
occasionally in use. 

Fishwivea' Ganaeway. See Ditddinoston. 

Fitch, a village in the S of Shetland, 8^ miles from 
its post-town, I^rwick. 

ntfol Head (Old ISoTaoJU-ficai), a large bold headland 
in Dunrossness rarish, Shetland, flanking the NW 
side of Quendale Yoe, 6 miles NW of Sumburgh Head. 
It rises to a height of 929 feet; is seen at a great 
distance by vesscSis approaching from the SW ; and 
consists chiefly of clay slate. In the Pirate Scott fixes 
here the abode of the prophetess. Noma. 

Fithle, a beautiM lake ^^x^ furL), with wooded 
shores, in Forfar parish, Forfarshire, 2 miles ENE of 
the town. 

Fithle, a rivulet of SW Forfarshire. It rises on 
Balcallo Hill at an altitude of 800 feet above sea- 
level, and running 8 miles south-eastward, through or 
alon^ the borders of Tealing, Murroes, Dundee, and 
Monifieth piurishes, faUs into Dichty Water, 1| mile 
above that stream's entrance to the Firth of Tay. 
It makes, in its lowermost reach, valuable aUuvial 
deposits on its banks. — Ord, Stir,, shs. 48, 49, 1868-65. 

Fittiek; a place in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, on 
Nigg Bay, If mile SE ofADerdeen. It was the site of 
an ancient cnurch, St Fittick's, now extinct; and it 
once gave name to Nigg Bay. 

Fitty, a lake on the mutual border of Dunfermline 
and Beath parishes, Fife, 8 miles NE of Dunfermline 
town. It measures 1 by J mile ; is rather shallow, and 
of tame aspect ; receives a stream of 8^ miles in length 
of run from the Saline Hills ; sends off Lochfltty Bum 
4 miles east-north-eastwud to the Orr ; and contains 
pike, perch, and mussels. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 40, 1867. 

Fit^, a hill in the W of Westray island, Orkney. 
The highest part of a ranffo, called elsewhere Skea 
and Gallo, it rises to the height of 652 feet above sea- 
level, and served and was used in 1821 as a station of 
the Trigonometrical Survey. 

Fire KUe House, a hamlet in Liff and Benvie 
parish, Forfarshire, 5 miles NW of Dundee, under which 
it has a post office. 

Fladda, an island of Portree parish, Invemess-shtre, 
in Raasay Sound, 4 miles £ of the nearest part of Skye, 

snd KE of Portree town. It metBtures li by i mile, 
and ia separated from Baasay only by a narrow atnait, 
which ia dry at half-tide. Pon. (1861) 45, (1871) 54, 
(1881) 54. 

Fladda» an island of South Uiat parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, inunediately N of Bona island, and 8} 
miles SE of the nearest part of North Uist island. It 
measures 4) miles in ctrcnmference. Pop. (1861) 48, 
(1871) 76, (1881) 87. 

Fladda, a small island of Bam parish. Outer Hebrides, 
Invemess-shire, 2 miles S of Yatersay. 

Fladda, the northernmost of the Treshinish isles in 
Eilninian and Eilmore parish, Argyllshire, S miles SW 
of Treshinish Point, a north-western extremity of MulL 
Its surface is flat and monotonous. 

Fladida, an islet of Kilbrandon and Kilchattan parish, 
Arayllshire, near Easdala A lighthouse on it ^ows 
a nxed light visible at the distance of 11 nautical miles, 
red tows^ the Boffha-Kuadh rock, and white toward 
the mainland and channel to the S, but masked in other 

FUdda, a flat islet in the KW extremity of Harris 
parish. Outer Hebrides, Invemess^shire, in the mouth 
of Loch Beasort. 

FUdda, an uninhabited pastoral islet of Kilmuir 
parish, InvemesS'Shire, 4^ miles SS of Aird Point in 

Fladdaohnain, an uninhabited pastoral islet of Kilmuir 
parish, Inverness-shire, 6 miles NW of Aird Point in 
okye. It measures { mile in length and 800 yards in 
average breadth ; is clothed with remarkably fine grass ; 
had anciently three burylng-plaoes ; and also, till a 
recent period, retained nine stones of an ancient Oale- 
donian stone circle. A one-inch diameter rtog, of plaited 

gold wires, was found in a moss here, and bought for 
the Edinbuigh Antiquarian Museum in 1851. 
Fladibistor, a hamlet in Dunroesness parish, Shetland, 

8 miles S of Lerwick. 

Flanders Hosa, a tract of low, flat ground in the KE 
of Drymen parish, SW Stirlingshire, on the southern 
bank of the Forth. Lying from 40 to 60 feet above 
sea-level, it is believed to have passed fiom the condi- 
tion of a rich alluvial plain to tne condition of a bog, 
'throu^ the overthrow of a forest on it by the Boman 
army m the time of Severus ; and has, to a great extent, 
in recent times, been redsimed by means of channel 
cuttings to the Forth. It is skirted, to the SE, by the 
Forth and Clyde Junction section of the North British 
railway. — Ori. Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Flannan Isles or Bavan Hnntan, a group of seven 
small uninhabited islands in Uig parish. Outer Hebrides, 
BoBs-shire, 21 miles WNW of Gallon Head in Lewis. 
Galled by Buchanan InmkB Saerof, they possess some 
monuments, supposed to be religious relics oi the ancient 
Caledonians, but seemingly as late as the 7th or 8th 
century ; and they are frequented by immense flocks of 

Fleet, a small river of SS Sutherland, risinff at an 
altitude of 750 feet above sea-level, 2 miles £ by S of 
Laiiff church, and thence winding 16{ east-soutii-east- 
ward, till it fails below IntUe Fibbt into the Dornoch 
Firth. Its nrindpal affluent is the Cairnaig, and it 
intersects or bounds the parishes of Laiif^, Bogaort, Gol- 
spie, and Dornoch. In its upper and middle reaches it 
traverses a fine glen called from it Strathfleet ; lower 
down it expands into a tidal lagoon, Lodi Fleet (Si x Ig 
miles), similar to the lagoons of the Forilurshire South 
Esk and the Findhom ; but in the last mile above its 
mouth it again contracts to a width of from 1 to 2} 
furlongs. Its strath, from a point near the source all 
down to the head of the Is^n, is traversed by tile 
Sutherland railway, in a gradient of 1 in 84 ; and its 
stream, { mile N W of Bogart station, near the High 
Bock of Craigmore, is crossed by the rsilway on a stone 
viaduot with a single arch of 55 feet in span. The 
lagoon is crossed towards ita head by tb» Mound, an 
embankment 995 yards long, which, tsJdng over the 
public road for the eastern seaboard of Sutherland, was 
completed in 1816 at a coat of £12,500, and is pierced 


at its B end with four arches and sluices for the transit 
of the river and of tidal currents. Above the Mound 
the lagoon is now mainly a swampy flat, covered with 
alders ; below, it has been curtailed to the extent of 400 
acres, hj the reclamation of ita bed from the tides ; and 
within ita mouth it contains a harbour 260 yards broad, 
with 18 feet of water at ebb tide, perfectly sheltered in all 
weather, and serving for the importation of coals, lime, 
bone-dust, and general merchandise, and for the expor- 
tation of agricultural and distillery produce. The nver 
is frequented by sea-trout, grilse, and salmon ; and the 
neck of it between the lagoon and the sea contains a 
fine salmon cast — ' the only spot in the kingdom where 
angling for salmon has been successfullv practised in 
salt water.' The depth of water over the bar at the 
river's mouth is 18 feet at full spring tide, and 4} feet 
at ebb tidc^Ord Sur,, shs. 102, 103, 1881-78. 

Flaat Street. See Anwoth and Gatehousb. 

Fleets Water of, a small river of Girthon parish, SW 
Eirkcudbrightahire. The Big Water of Fleet is formed 
at ajpoint 2| miles above a 20-arch viaduct of the Port- 
patnck railway, by the confluence of Carrouch, Mid, 
and Cardson Burns, which all three rise on the eastern 
side of Caibnsmobe or FlIsbt (2381 feet). Thence it 
runs 6^ miles south-south-eastward alons the Kirkma- 
breck and Anwoth border, till it is joined by the Little 
Water of Fleet, which, issuing from triangular Loch 
Fleet (8x2 ftirL ; 1120 feet), nas a south-by-easterly 
course of 7i miles. After their union, near Castramont, 
the stream, as Water of Fleet, flows 4f miles south-by- 
eaatward, and then, a little below Gatehouse, expands, 
over the last 8| miles of ita course, into the fine estuary 
of Fleet Bay. It traverses charming scenery throughout 
ita middle or lower reaches, and is navigable by small 
vessels up to Gatehouse. Ita waters are strictly pre- 
served, and trout, sea-trout, and herlings are plentiful, 
but salmon nowadays are few and far oetween. — Ord. 
8ur,f shs. 4, 5, 1857. 

Flemlngton, a village in Avondale parish, Lanarkshire, 
containing Strathaven station, and ^ mile N£ of the 

FlemJngton, a villM;e in Ayton parish, Berwickshire, 
near the North British railway, { mile £ by N of Ayton 

Flemingtoa, a bum in Newlands parish, Peebles- 
shire, running 4^ miles south-westward, till, after a total 
descent of 700 feet, it falls into Lyne Water, 2 miles S 
by E of Bomanno Bridge. 

Flsmington, an estate, with an old castle, in Aber- 
lemno parish, Forfarshire, the property of Patrick Web- 
ster, Esq. of Westfield. The castle, standing 800 yards 
E of the parish church, presenta a strong and stately 
appearance. It was inhabited by the proprietor till 
about 1880, and afterwards was occupied by farm- 

FlfOmington, a collier village, of recent growth, in 
Cambuidang parish, NW Lanarkshire, 1 mile from Cam- 
buslang viltage. Pop. (1881) 691. 

Flemington, an estate, with a mansion, in Petty parish, 
N£ Inverness-shire, { mile NE of Fort George station. 
Separated from Eilravock in 1787, it is now the propertv 
of Lewis Carmichael Urquhart, Eso., of Elgin. Loch 
Flemington (4} x li furl.) lies 1 mile SSE on the Croy 
border, half in Nairn and half in Inverness shire. — Ord, 
Sur.t sh. 84, 1876. 

Flauxfl. See Floobs. 

Flflzflald, a hamlet in Mouswald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 62 miles E by S of Dumfries. 

FUiit» an eastern offshoot of the Broughton Heighta, 
on the mutual border of Stobo and Eirkurd narishes, 
Peeblesshire, H miles NNE of Bachan Mill. It has an 
altitude of 1756 feet above sea-leveL 

FUdc, a parish of N Fife, whose church to the NE 
stands 1 furlon^i S of the Firth of Tay, 6 miles ENE of 
Newburgh station, and 7i NNW of the post-town 
Cupar, whilst on ita SW border is the little village of 
Glendnckie, 4^ miles E by N of Newburgh. Bounded 
NW and N by the Firth of Tay, E byBalmerino, SE by 
GreiclL S by the Aytonhill section of Abdie^ and SW 



bv Dmiboff, it has an utmost length from ENE to WSW 
of 4^ miles, a varying breadth of H furlongs and 2 
miles, and an area of 2854f acres, of which 240i are 
foreshore. The firth, expanding here from 1^ to 8 miles, 
is fringed by a level stnp 70 to 650 yards m breadth, 
beyond which the surface rises rapidly to 714 feet at 
Olenduckie Hill, 800 on the boundary with Abdie, and 
600 on that with Creich, whilst from Olenduckie sinking 
again to less than 200 on the Dunbog border. The 
rocks are partly eruptive, partly Devonian, and the soil 
in general is a clayey loam. Bather more than one- 
tenth of the entire area is under wood, one-fifteenth is 
natural pasture, and all the rest is under cultivation. 
Ballanbreich Castle, a picturesque ruin, has been separ- 
ately noticed. Two parsons of Flisk in the first half of 
the 16th century, John Waddell and James Balfour, 
were judges of the Covat of Session ; and another, John 
Wemvss, towards the close of that century, became 
principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews. The 
property is mostly divided among three. Giving off a 
portion qitoad sacra to Dunbog, Flisk Ib in the presby- 
tery of Cupar and e^od of Fife ; the living Ib worth 
£269. The parish church, bmlt in 1790, contains 168 
sittings ; and a public school, with accommodation for 78 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 40, and a 
grant of £49, 6s. Valuation (1866) £8666, 168. 8d., 
(1882) £4462, 2s. lOd. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 800, 
(1881) 286, (1861) 818, (1871) 280, (1881) 269 ; of q, 8. 
parish (1871) 212, (1881) 2lS.—0rd. Sur.,8tL 48, 1868. 

Float Bay or Fort Float, a small bay in Stoneykirk 
parish, Wigtownshire, 6 miles S£ of Portpatrick. It is 
said to have got its name from the wreck here of some 
of the ships of ^e Spanish Armada or ' Flota ; ' but 
above it is the moss or flow of * Meikle Float.' 

Float HosB, a large expanse of low meadowy ground 
m Carstairs, Carnwath, and Pettinain parishes, I^ark- 
shire, along the banks of the Clyde, in the south-eastern 
vicinity of Carstairs Junction. It used to be frequently 
flooded by freshets of the river, so as at times to resemble 
a large and dreary-looking lake ; and it took its name 
from a float or large boat which formerly served in lieu 
of a bridge across the Clyde, and which cost £600. The 
Caledonian railway goes across it, on works which were 
formed at great expense ; and it has here timber viaducts 
for allowing free scope to the freshets of the river. 

Flodda. See Fiadda. 

FlodJgarry, an ancient house in Kilmuir parish, Isle 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. A loud rumbling noise, heard 
from beneath an eminence in its close vicinity, is sup- 
posed to be caused by the roll of sea-billows into some 
natural tunnel or subterranean cavern. 

Ficon Castle, the seat of the Duke of Boxburghe, in 
Kelso parish, Boxburchshire, 8 furlongs from the K 
bank of the Tweed, and IJ mile WNW of Kelso town. 
As built for the first Duke in 1718 b^ Sir John Yanbru^h, 
a better playwright than architect, it was severely plain, 
not to say heavy-looking ; but in 1849 and following 
years the whole was transformed by Playfair of Edin- 
Durgh into a sumptuous Tudor pile— one of the most 
palatial residences of the Scottish nobility. The gar- 
dens, too, already beautiful, were greatiy extended 
(1867-60) ; the home farm, to the rear of the castle, 
was rearranged and in great measure rebuilt (1876); 
and no fewer than 120 model cottages were erected on 
the estate — all these improvements Ming carried out by 
James, sixth Duke (1816-79), who had the honour of 
receiving visits here from Queen Victoria ( Au^ 1867), the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, 
the Duke of Albany, etc. John, third Duke (1740- 
1804), is remembered as a famous bibliomaniac His 
library, numbering nearly 10,000 books, was sold in 
1812, when the &8t edition of the Decameron (1471) 
brought £2260, and Caxton's ffistarye of Troye (1461) 
1000 guineas. James Heniy Bobert Innes-Ker, present 
and seventh Duke since 1707 (b. 1889 ; sue 1879), holds 
60,469 acres in the shire, valued at £48,820, 8s. per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1866. See BoxBUBOH, 
Kelso, and Cessford. 

Flotta, an island in the S of Orkney, lying nearly 


midway between Hoy and South Ronaldshay, and flank* 
ing part of the soutnem side of Scalpa Flow, 16 miles 
SSW of KirkwalL It has a post office under Stromnesa 
It measures 8^ miles in length from N£ to SW, by 2i 
miles in extreme breadth, and is deeply pierced on the 
north-eastern side by an elongated bay called Pan- 
hope, which forms an excellent harbour. The coast 
is mostiy hi^h and rocky ; the interior low, tame, and 
heathy, consisting mainly of sandstone and sandstone- 
flag. Specially well situated for fishing, and famous 
for its excellent fishing boats, it was the residence 
of the ancient Norwegian historiographer, sent from 
Norway to collect information respecting Scotiand, and 
gave name to his work, the Codex FloUicenM, from 
which Torfseus and subse<^uent historians drew much of 
their materials on the ancient condition of the northern 
districts of Scotland. Ecclesiastically, the island is 
included in the parish of Walls and Flotta. Pop. 
(1841) 406, (1861) 420, (1871) 428, (1881) 426. 

FlottarCalf, a pastoral island of Flotta parish, Orkney, 
adjacent to the north-eastern extremity of Flotta island, 
and measuring 2 miles in dreumference. 

Flowexdalo, an old-fashioned mansion of the middle 
of last century, with beautifrilgrounds and finely-wooded 

S slides, in Gabloch parish, NW B<Ms-shire, adjacent to 
airloch village, and to the head of the Gair Loch. It 
is the seat of Sir Kenneth-Smith Mackenzie of Gairloch, 
sixth Bart since 1702 (b. 1882 ; sue. 1848), who holds 
164,680 acres in the shire, valued at £7842, 16s. per 
annum. His ancestor, ' Eachin Roy ' or ' Red Hector,' 
second son of Alexander, seventh chieftain of Kintiul, ob- 
tained a grant of Gairloch barony from James IV. in 1494. 

Flowerfaill. See Aibdrib. 

Flnohtar, a village in Baldemock parish, SW Stirling- 
shire, 2 miles £ of Milngavie. 

Fludha, an estate, witii a mansion, in Kirkcudbright 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 1} mile from the town. 

Foohabera, a small town in Bellie parish, N£ Elgin- 
shire. It stands, 140 feet above sea-level, on the rieht 
bank of the Spey, 4 miles above its mouth, and 8 nmes 
£ bvN of Fochabers station, in Speymouth parish, on 
the Highland railway, this station being 6^ miles £SE 
of Elgin and 11} WNW of Keith. Its present site is 
an elevated eravel terrace in a deep woodM valley, but 
it stood in the immediate vicinity of Gordon Castls 
till the dose of last century, when, to improve the 
grounds of that noble mansion, it was rebuilt on the line 
of road from Aberdeen to Inverness, about a mile 
farther S. The ancient market-cross still stands in 
the ducal park. A handsome three-areh bridge, 882 
feet long, that spans the Spey here, was parUv swept 
away by the great flood of 1829, which raised the river 
nearly 9 feet above its ordinary level The town has a 
quadrangular outline, with central square and streets at 
right angles one to another ; presents a neat, well-built, 
and modem appearance ; serves as a business centre for 
a considerable extent of surrounding country; com- 
municates by coach with Keith and Portsov ; and has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and railway telegraph departments, branches of the 
Union and Aberdeen Town and Goun^ Banks, a branch 
of the Elgin Savings' Bank, a penny savings* bank, 9 
insurance agendes, an hotel called the Gordon Arms, a 
county police station (1869), a reading-room and library, 
and a gas-light company. Thursday is the day of a 
weeklv com market ; fain are hdd on the third Thurs- 
day of January and February, the fourth Wednesday of 
Mareh, the fourth Thursday of April and May, the first 
Thursday of July, the second Wednesday of August, 
and the first Thursday of October and December ; and 
sheriff small debt courts sit on the Saturday after the 
second Monday of Febmary, June, and Octoller. Bellie 
parish church, on the S dde of the square, is a hand- 
some edifice of 1797, with a portico and a spire. Other 
places of worship are a Free chureh, a Roman Catholic 
churoh (1828), and an Episcopal church, which, built 
in 1885 at a cost of £1200, was, at a further cost of 
over £2000, internally restored in 1874. The antiquary, 
Geox^ Chalmera (1742-1826), and William Marshall 


(1748-1838), wbom BnroB styles 'the first composer of 
Strathspeys of the age/ were both bom at the old towxL 
Hilne's Free School arose from a bequest of £20,000 by 
Alexander Milne, another native, who died at New 
Orleans in 1888. Opened with great ceremony in 1846, 
it is a splendid edifice, finely sitnated, and comprises a 
hall (58 by 22 feet), 4 other class-rooms, and a rector's 
dwelling-hotito. It is conducted by a rector, an 
English master, an arithmetic and writing master, and 
a mistress — all appointed by a body of &ectors, and, 
with accommodation for 723 children, it had (1881) an 
average attendance of 836, and a grant of £284, 2s. 
The town is a borffh of barony, goyemed by a baron 
bailie under the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Pop. 
(1841) 1185, (1861) 1149, (1871) 1227, (1881) 1189.— 
Ord, Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Fodderty, a parish of south-eastern and central Boss 
and Cronuuty, traversed for 6^ miles by the Dingwall 
and Skye branch of the Hifhland railway, from a point 
If mile W by N of Dingwul to the foot of Loch Garve. 
Strathpeffer station thereon lies 4^ miles WNW of 
Dingwall ; and the parish also contains St&athpeffeb 
Spa, AtrcHTEBNBED hamlet, and Mabybttbgh village. 
It is bounded N by Kincardine, KE by Alness, Eilteam, 
and Dingwall, S£ by Urquhart, S by Urray, and SW 
hj Contin. Its utmost length, from NW to SE, is 23 
nules ; its width varies between 1 mile and 7} miles ; 
and its area is 65,264f acres, of which 988) are water, and 
2720} belong to the Marybutgh or south-easternportion, 
detadied from the main b<3y by a strip of Dingwall 
parish, § furlong broad at the narrowest. Through this 
south-eastern section the Gonan flows If mile north- 
north-eastward to the head of Gromarty Firth ; whilst 
in the main body, the Pbffeb, rising at an altitude of 
1750 feet, winds 7} miles south-south-eastward and east- 
by-northward, till. If mile above its mouth, it passes 
off into DingwalL I^kes are Loch Ussie (6) x 4} furL ; 
419 feet), lying partly in Dingwall and ptuily in the 
detached portion ; Lochs Garve (1) x i mile ; 220 feet) 
and Gorm (2 x 2} furl. ; 1900 feet), on the Gontin bor- 
der ; GsoM Loch (j mile x 8} furl. ; 1720 feet), on the 
Kincardine border ; and Loch Toll a' Mhuic (5} x 2 
furl. ; 880 feet), in the north-western interior. The 
surface declines to 20 feet above sea-level along the 
Peffer, and S of the railway attains 579 feet at conical 
Knock Farril, 801 at Greag Ulladail, and 874 at Greag 
an Fhithich ; north-westward it rises to 1172 at Druim 
a' CThuilein, 1705 at Gam Gorm, 3106 at An CSabar, 8429 
at huge lumpish *BsN Wyvis, 2206 at *Gaxn nan Gon 
Ruadha, and 2551 at Meall a' Ghrianain, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the coi^es of 
the parish, the highest point in whose detached portion 
is 628 feet A calcareo-bituminous rock — ^fish-bed schist 
of the Old Red sandstone series— occurs in large quan- 
tities in the lower parts of Fodderty. It emits, when 
broken, a j)eculiar foatid odour ; and to it the Wells 
owe their ingredients and properties. A seam of soft 
friable bitumen in a hill above Gastle-Leod is capable of 
yielding a high percentage of oil, though not enough to 
repay the cost oi working, as proved by investigations of 
1870-71. The rocks of tiie mountainous north-western 
region are gneissose chiefly, of Silurian age. The soil 
of the arable lands ranges from a strong reddish clay to 
a fine free loam, and ereat improvements have been 
carried out on the Duchess of Sutherland's property 
since 1867 in the way of reclaiming, fencing, planting, 
building, etc. ; still the arable area is smal^ compared 
with hill-pasture and moorland. A cairn, measuring 
260 feet by 20, is on the lands of Hilton, where and on 
Gromarty estate are remains of two stone circles ; two 
standing stones adjoin the parish church ; and several 
kistvaens or ancient stone coffins have been found to 
the N of the churchyard. The chief antiquity, the 
vitrified fort on Knock Fabbil, is noticed separately, 
as also is the chief mansion, Gastle-Lbod. Four pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of between £100 and £500, and 6 of less than £100. 
Giving off portions to t^e quoad sacra parishes of C!ar- 
nach and £jnlochluichart, Fodderty is in the presbytery 


of Dingwall and synod of Ross ; the living is worth 
£354. The parish church, 9 furlongs £S£ of Strath- 

?effer station, was built in 1807, and, as enlarged in 
835, contains 640 sittings. There are two Free churches, 
one of Maryburgh and one of Fodderty and Gontin ; and 
two ]f ublic schools, Fodderty and Marybui^h, with re- 
spective accommodation for 165 and 121 children, had 

(1881) an average attendance of 111 and 117, and grants 
of £84, Is. and £107, Is. 6d. Valuation (1860) £7538, 

(1882) £12,583, 15s. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 1829, 
(1831) 2232, (1861) 2247, (1871) 2121, (1881) 2047, of 
whom 1381 were Gaelic-speaking ; of ecclesiastical parish 
(1871) 1943, (1881) 1880.— Or(2. Swr,, shs. 83, 93, 1881. 

Foffarty, a property in Kinnettles parish, Forfarehixe, 
3 miles SSW of Forfiu. A Roman Gatholic chapel, with 
manse and offices, was built here soon after the Refer* 
mation, on the margin of a den at the foot of Kincaldrum 
Hill ; and, burned by a party of royal dragoons in 1745, 
remained in a roofless and ruinous condition for many 
years, till it was razed to the foundations in 1816. 

Fogo, a hamlet and a parish of central Berwickshire. 
The hamlet lies on the right bank of Blackadder Water, 
li mile £ of Karchmont station, and 4^ miles S by W 
of its post-town, Duns. 

The parish is bounded N and N£ by Edrom, E by 
Swinton, S by Eccles, SW by Greenlaw, and NW by 
Polwarth. Its utmost length, from £N£ to WSW, is 
5} miles ; its utmost breadth is 2 miles ; and its area is 
4669 acres, of which 17i are water. Blackadder Water 
winds 3f miles north-eastward through the north-western 
interior, and then for 1 mile traces &e northern border ; 
its channel is a sort of huge frtrrow here, between 
parallel ranges of low heights, that nowhere sink much 
below 300, or much ezcMd 500, feet above sea-level. 
Sandstone, the principal rock, was formerly quarried ; 
and boulder clay lies so deep that the steep banks of the 
Blackadder can be ploughed within a few yards of the 
stream. The soil on the nigher grounds is a deep black 
loam, extremely fertile ; that of tiie lower grounds is 
thinner, and lies on till, yet is very far fi^m being un- 
productive. Some 300 acres are under wood, 40 or so 
are natural pasture, and all the rest of the land is under 
cultivation. A Roman camp, crowning a commanding 
elevation (500 feet) at Ghesters, near the south-western 
extremity of the parish, and approached by a causeway 
through a marsh, has been nearly obliterated by the 
operations of a^culture. Galdra and Gharterhall, both 
separately noticed, are mansions ; and the property is 
divided among four. Fogo is in the presbytery of 
Duns and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living 
is worth £300. The parish church, on the Blackadder's 
bank, at the village, is an old and picturesque, ivy- 
mantled building, enlarged in 1858, and containing 278 
sittings. A puUic school, with accommodation for 123 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 57, and a 
grant of £52, 18s. 6d. Valuation (1882) £7959. Pop. 
(1801) 507, (1831) 433, (1851) 604, (1861) 559, (1871) 
502, (1881) 468.-07x2. Sur., shs. 26, 25, 1864-63. 

Foinaven or Foiime-Bheinn, a mountain (2980 feet) 
on the mutual border of Eddrachillis and Durness parish, 
NW Sutherland, 5i miles WSW of the head of Loch 

Folda, a hamlet in Glenisla parish, NW Forfarshire, 
13 miles NN W of Alyth. It has a Ghristian Knowledge 
Society school and a post office under Alyth. 

Follart, Loch. See Dunvboan. 

Foodiecaat, a hamlet in the SW comer of Dairsie 
parish, Fife, If mile K of Gupar. 

Footdee. See Abbbsben, p. 9. 

Fopaohy, a landing-place for vessels, but without 
any proper harbour, in KirkhiU pariah, Inverness-shire, 
on the S side of the Beauly Firtii, i mile NW of Bun- 
chrew station. 

Forbes, a hamlet and an ancient parish In Aberdeen- 
shire. The hamlet lies on the left bank of the river 
Don, at the Bridge of Alford, li mile WNW of Alford 
village, and has a good inn, the Forbes Arms, and a 
post office under Aberdeen. The parish was annexed in 
1722 to Keam, frxmi which it is separated by a range of 


UIli ; and has, since 1808, been united to Tnllynessle. 
It has belonged, from the 18th century, to the noble 
fiunily of Forbes of Castls VoKSE&^Ord. Sur,, sh. 76, 

Ford, a TillagB in Borthwick and Cranston parishes, 
Edinburghshire, on the left bank of the river Tyne, i mile 
W by N of Fathhead, 4i miles ESE of Dalkeith, and 10} 
S£ of £dinbiirg[h. It practically forms one village with 
Fathhead, bat it has a post oflSce of its own name under 
Dalkeith, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 

Dih departments, and a United Presbyterian church, 
t in 1861. See Cbakbton and Fathhbad. — Ord. 
Sur,, sh. 38, 1868. 

Ford. See FoaD-LocHAWis. 

Fordel, an estate, with a mansion, in Dak^ety parish, 
Fife. The mansion, standinff 2^ miles NN£ of Inver- 
keithing, is a castellated edifice, whose picturesque 
grounds contain a darkly wooded glen, with a cascade 
of 60 feet in faU. It was the seat of Geoige William 
Mercer-Henderson, Esq. (1823-81), who owned 1966 acres 
in the shire, valued at £6843 per annum, and on whose 
death Fordel passed to his youi^gest sister, Edith Isabella, 
married in 1866 to the Hon. Hamilton • Hew - Adam 
Duncan, second son of the first Earl of Gamperdown. 
Extensive coal mines, worked on the estate since 1600, 
still yield a large though a diminished output They 
lie beneath a suzface risinff trota a few feet to 420 feet 
above sea-level, bein^ chieSy situated in the southern 
and south-eastern vicinity of Crossgates ; and have a 
tram railway, called the Fordel railway, 4 miles in 
length, communicating with the seaboard village of St 
Davids, 1^ mile E by S of Inverkeithing. — Ord, Star., 
shs. 40, 82, 1867-67. 

Fordel Sqnaare, a collier village in Dalcety parish, 
Fife, contiguous to the boundary with Aberaour, and on 
the Fordel railway, near its northern extremity, { mile 
ESEofCrossffates. Part of it is called Wemyss Square, 
and the whole is often called simply Fordel. Fop. 
(1861) 813, (1871) 641, (1881) 488. 

Ford-Loehawe, a village in Eilmartin and Glassary 
parishes, Ars^llshire, i mile SSW of the head of Loch 
Awe, and 12 miles N of Lochgilphead, under which 
it has a ^ost and telegraph office. During the summer 
months it forms a point of communication between a 
public coach running from Ardrishaig and a small 
steamer sailing up from Brander, at the foot of Loch 
Awe ; and it has an inn, a public school, and an Estab- 
lished mission station, conjoint with one at Lochgair. — 
Ord, SuT,, sh. 87, 1876. 

Ford of Ftev, a ford in the river Forth, on the 
mutual boundary of Stirlingshire and Perthshire, 8 
furlongs N£ of Eippen station. It was formerly de- 
fended by a small fortress. 

Ford of Fltonr, a hamlet in Eettins parish, Forfar- 
shire, 3 miles SE of Courar-Anffus. 

Fordoun, a parish in Kincardineshire, containing the 
post-office village of Atjohinblax, 6} miles K by E of 
Laurencekirk, and 2^ NNW of Fordoun station, on the 
Scottish NorUi-Eastem section of the (Caledonian, which 
station is 27i miles SSW of Aberdeen, and 80 NE of 
For&r, and at which is a post office of Fordoun, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 

The parish is bounded N W and N by Strachan, NE by 
Glenbervie, SE by Arbuthnott, S by Laurencekirk and 
Marykirk, and W by Fettercaim. its greatest lengtii, 
from E to W, is 104 miles ; its utmost breadth, from N 
to S, is 7| miles ; and its area is 26,987 acres, of which 88^ 
are water. Bebvib Water, ^thering its four head- 
streams in the northern extremity of the parish, winds 11 
miles south-eastward and south-by-westward, chiefly 
along the Glenbervie and Arbuthnott borders ; Lxttheb 
Water, from its source above Drumtochty, curves 6{ 
miles south-eastward and southward, past Auohinblae, 
on its way to the river North Esk ; and of two of its 
own little tributaries, Ferdun Water and Dourie Bum, 
the former traverses the western interior, the latter 
traces the boundary with Fettercaim. Sinkiag along 
Bervia Water to 170, along Luther WaUr to 190, feet 


above sea-level, the surface thence rises to 717 feet 
at Knock Hill, 726 at Herscha HUl, 1066 at Black Hill, 
1868 at Strathfinella Hill, 1000 at Ambarrow Hill, 1664 
at *WhitelawB, 1488 at *Caira O'Mount, 1194 at Hill of 
Annahar, 1627 at *Ck)vle Hill, 1146 at Aikenhead, and 
1291 at the *Buil^ where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate ri^t on the north-western border. The 
northern and larger portion of the parish, known as the 
Biae district, consists, thus, of rid^ and spurs of the 
frontier Grampians, with intersecting glens and vales ; 
and presents, especially along the course of Luther Water, 
and around the base of Strathfinella Hill, not a few scenes 
of more than common beauty. The southern district, 
part of the Howe of the Meams, is all nearly level, 
nowhere attaining 800 feet above sea-level. The 
principal rocks of the uplands are clay slate, mica slate, 
and other metamorphic rocks ; those of the Howe are 
New Bed sandstone, sandstone conglomerate, and 
intraded trap ; and limestone occurs at Drumtochty and 
Glenfarquhar. The soil of this, the most important agri- 
cultural parish in the countv, is very various. A li^ge 
Ertion is strong clayey loam, a considerable extent 
medium loam, and a pretty large area hght loam, 
lubsoil is a mixture of clay and gravel in some 
parts, and hard gravel in others {Tfxms. HigM, and 
Ag. Soc, 1881, pp. 116-117). Fully one-thirteenth 
of the entire parish is under wood, and rather less 
than one-half is arable. Near Fordoun House are 
traces of a Roman camp ; the ' Priest's Wells,' in 
'Friar's Glen,' above Dramtochty, mark the probable 
site of a religious house, said to have been a CJarmelite 
friary ; a stone circle stood on Herscha Hill, an 
ancient castle in Glenfarquhar; and Ambarrow Hill 
was traversed by the Deer Dyke. Antiquities no- 
ticed separatdy are Finblla Gastlb, Castlbtoh, and 
the site of the town of Kikoabdikb, the former capital 
of the counter* Geoige Wishart, burned at St Andrews 
as a heretic m 1646, was of Pittarrow; and other natives 
of Fordoun were Alexander Hamilton, M.D. (1789-1802), 
an eminent physician, and the judge James Burnet, Loid 
Monboddo (1714-99), who anticipated Darwin in an evo- 
lution theory-— of monkeys whose tails wore off with con- 
stant sitting. So, too, according to Gamden, was John 
of Fordun, a 14th centurv chronicler, whose 'carefully 
manipulated fictions' — ^the SeotUhrtmieon — ^have been 
edited bv Dr Skene (Edinb. 1871) for the ' Historians of 
Scotland' series. To Fordun this parish is mainly in- 
debted for its supposed connection with the ' chief apostie 
of the Scottish nation,' St Palladius, whose name is pre- 
served in Paldy Fair, andwhoeechapel, with ajrudepiscma, 
still stands in the parish churchyard. In 480, we are 
told, Pope C^lestine sent him to Sicotland (' in SeUiam ') 
'as the first bishop therein, with Serf and Teman for 
fellow-workers ; ana at Fordoun he founded a church, and 
shortly afterwards there was crowned with martyrdom.' 
But ' Scotia' in 480 could have meant Ireland only ; and 
Skene, in voL ii. of his OOtie SeoOand (1877, pp. 26-82), 
shows tiiat St Serf belonged to the latter part of the 7th 
century. His solution is, that Teman, and Teman 
alone, really was a disciple of Palladius, and brought his 
relics from either Ireland or Galloway to his own native 
district in the territories of the southern Picts, who had 
been converted by St Ninian, and that, as founder of 
the church of Fordoun in honour of Palladius he became 
to some extent identified with him. (See also Bakchoby- 
Tbknam and Cvlross.) Fordoun House, 1| mile SSE 
of Auchinblae, belongs to Tiscount Arbuthnott, but is 
merely a farmhouse now. Other mansions, treated of 
separately, are DBtTHTOOHTT Castle and Mokboddo 
House ; and 11 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £600 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £600, 8 of 
from £60 to £100, and 16 of from £20 to £60. Fordoun 
ffives name to a presbytery in the synod of Angus and 
S£eams ; the living is wortn £440. The church, a littie 
to the S of Auchinblae, is a good Gothic stracture of 
1829, with 1230 sittings, and a conspicuous tower 98 feet 
high. There is also a Free church. The 'Minstrel,' 
James Beattie (1786-1808), was parish schoolmaster from 
1768 to 1768. Three public schools — Fordoun, Land send, 


and Tipperty— with respective accommodation for 208, 
60, and 49 children, had (1881) an aTeraffe attendance 
of 181, 88, and 88, and grants of £180, 48. wL, £24, 178., 
and £48, 168. Valuation (1856) £15,949, (1882) £21,610, 
lOs. 8d., pltu £1821 for nulway. Pop. (1801) 2208, 
(1881) 2288, (1861) 2297, (1871) 2118, (1881) 1992.— Ord 
Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

The presbyteiy of Fordonn, now meeting at Latunenoe- 
kirk, comprises the quoad eiviZia parishes of Arbuthnott, 
Benholm, Berrie, Dnnnottar, Fettercaim, Fetteresso, 
Fordonn, Garvock, Olenbervie, Kinneff and Caterline, 
Laarencekirk, Maiykirk, and St Cvms, with the qu>oad 
sctera parishes of Cookney and Rickarton. Pop. (1871) 
28,895, (1881) 28,880, of whom 7479 were commmiicants 
of the Chnrch of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
also has a presbytery of Fordoun, with churches at Ben- 
holm, Bervie, Fettercaim, Fordoim, Glenbervie, Kinneff, 
Laurencekirk, Maiykirk, St Cyrus, and Stonehaven, 
which together had 1572 communicants in 1881. 

Fordyce, a village and a coast narish of Banfishire. 
The village, standing on the right hank of the Bum of 
Fordyce, 2) mUes S W of Portsoy and 4 ESE of Cullen, 
is a burffh of barony under the Earl of Seafield, having 
received its fint charter in 1499, and another in 1592. 
It has a post office under Banff, and a fair on the second 
Wednesday of November. 

The pansh contains also the town of Pobtsot, with 
the villages of Sandend and Newmills, and prior to the 
Beformation comprehended likewise the present parishes 
of Cullen, Deskford, and Ordlquhill. It is bounded N 
bythe Moray FirtK S by Boyndie, S£ by Ordiquhill, 
S W by Orange, and W by Deskford and Cullen. Its 
utmost length, ^m NNE to SSW, is 7g miles; its 
utmost breadth, from £ to W, is 5f miles ; and its area 
is 17,480 acres, of which 1971 are foreshore, and 84{ 
water. The Bum of Botxe, rising on the northern 
slope of Knock Hill, runs first across the southern 
interior, then 7 miles north-north-eastward along all 
the Boyndie border to the sea; Durn Bum rans 6 
miles through the middle of the parish to the sea at 
Portsoy; and Fordyce Bum, rising at the boundary 
with Deskford, runs 8^ miles across the north-western 
district to the sea at Sandend Bay. The coast, which, 
measured alons; its sinuosities, is 8i miles long, is some- 
what bold and rocky, with boys at Portsoy and Sand- 
end, and headlands called East Head, Bedhythe Point, 
Crathie Point, and Logie Head (189 feet). It is pierced 
with several caves, me principal Dove, Kitty, Bow, 
Cloutty, and Findlater Caves, none of them of any great 
extent The interior is partly a fine flat, with fifequent 
inequalities or rising-grouncu, and piurtly a series of 
hills, with intervening and flanking vales and dales. 
Chief elevations, from K to S, are Cowhythe (257 feet), 
Crannoch Hill (800), Durn Hill (651), Fordyce Hill 
(580), the HiU of Inverkindlin^ (928), and Knock Hill 
(1409), the last of which, culmmating at the meeting- 
point with Grange and Ordiquhill, presents a majestic 
appearance, and serves as a landmark to mariners 
throughout a considerable sweep of the Moray Firth. 
The rocks exhibit great diversity, at once of character 
and of interconnection ; and, from the time of Hutton 
downward, have strongly attracted the attention of 
geologists. A beautiful serpentine forms two masses, 
respectively 78 and 1500 feet wide, in the vicinity of 
Portsoy, and is associated with syenite, homblende, 
quartzite, day slate, limestone, and talc or mica slate, 
whilst containing asbestos, amianthus, mountain cork, 
steatite, schiller-spar, magnetic iron, chromate of iron, 
and other minerals. Mostly greenish and reddish in 
hue, sometimes yellowish and greyish-white, it has 
often been called Portsoy marble, and is highly valued 
as a material for omamental objects, havine been 
exported in some quantity to France for aaoming 
Versailles Palace, veins of graphite granite, compris- 
ing quartz and felspar crystals in such arrangement, 
that a polished section resembles radely formed letters, 
occur m the same neighbourhood; and a beautiful 
quartzite, suitable for use in potteries, has been quarried 
on the northern side of Dum Hill, and exported to 


England. Limestone has been worked in three quarries 
near Fordyce village, near Sandend, and at the mouth 
of the Bum of Boyne ; and trap rodts, comprising com* 
mon greenstone, syenitio greenstone, hypersthenic 
j;reenstone, and auntie greenstone, occupy most of the 
interior. The soil is variously a light or a day loam, 
and a strong clay, very productive along the seaboard, 
but cold and wet towards the S. One-half of tha 
entire area is regularly or occaaionalljr in tillage ; one- 
fifteenth is under wood ; and the rest ia either pastoral 
or waste. Olassaugh House is a chief mansion, and 
Findlater Castle a <mief antiquity, both being separately 
noticed Other antiquities are remains of an ancient 
camp on Durn Hill, and cairns, tumuli, and remains of 
andent Caledonian stone circles in various places. Four 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 6 of from £50 to £100, and 18 of from £20 to 
£50. The seat of a presbyteiy in the synod of Aber- 
deen, this pariah is divided ecdesiastically into Fordyce 
proper and the qttoad sacra parish of Portsoy, the former 
a living worth £418. Its pariah church, at the village, 
was built in 1804, and contains 1100 sittings. At tne 
villaffe, too, is a Free church ; and five other places of 
worship are noticed under Portsoy. Fordyce Academy, 
an institution for the education and board of nine boys 
of the name of Smith, natives of the parish, was founded 
and endowed in 1790 by Mr Oeoige Smith of Bombay. 
Besides three schools at Portsoy, uie five public schoolB 
of Bogmuchals, Brodiesord, Fordyce, Fordyce female, 
and Sandend, with respective accommodation for 49, 70, 
124, 72, and 64 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 85, 89, 186, 66, and 42, and grants oi £81, 88. 
6d., £82, 10s. 6d., £121, 12s., £57, 15s., and £87, 5s. 
Valuation (1843) £8712, 8s. 5d., (1882) £19,216, 48. 
Pop. (1801) 2747, (1881) 8864, (1861) 4145, (1871) 
4158, (1881) 4289, of whom 1976 were in the ecdesiastical 
parish and the registration district of Fordyce. — OrcL 
Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 
The presbyteiy of Fordyce comprises the quoad ewUia 

Siktishes of Banff, Boyndie, Cullen, Deskford, Fordyce, 
rdiquhill, and Bathven, the quoad sacra parishes of 
Buckle, Enzie, Ord, and Portsoy, and the chapelry of 
Seafield. Pop. (1871) 25,776, (1881) 26,845, of whom 
4507 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878. — ^The Free Church also has a presbytery of For- 
dyce, whose ten churches of Banff, Bo^die, Buckie, 
CJnllen, Deskford, Enxie, Fordyce, Ordiquhill, Port- 
knockie, and Portsoy, together nad 2514 communicants 
in 1881. 

ForelMUik. See Dititdee, p. 418. 

Foreholm, a small island of Sandsting parish, Shet- 
land, i mile E of the nearest point of the mainland, and 
5 miles S by W of the southern extremity of YelL 

Foreman or ^ouman TOll, an eminence at the meet- 
ing-point of Forgue, Huntly, and Bothiemay parishes, 
on the mutual boraer of Aberdeen and Banff shires, above 
the right bank of the river Deveron, 5 mUes NE by N of 
Huntly town. It rises to a height of 1127 feet above 
sea-level; has a beautiful form, somewhat conical; is 
finely wooded for a good way up ; and commands an ex- 
tensive and diversified view. Queen Mary, when on her 
way to Bothiemay House, passed over it by what is still 
called the Queen's Boad.— Oni Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Foreneaa, a small peninsula in SandstiiLr parish, 
Shetland, opposite Foreholm, and between Sand Voe 
and Sand Sound Toe. 

Forestfteld. See FonEfisTrniLi). 

ForeatmiU, a hamlet, with a public school, in Claok- 
mannan parish, Clackmannanshire, on the left bank of 
the Black Devon, 8) miles ENE of Clackmannan town. 
The poet Michael Brace (1746-67) taught a school here 
in 1766. 

Foirewood. See Mubiestok. 

Focfar, a royal and parliamentary burgh, the seat of 
a presbytery, and the capital of Forfarsmre or Angus, 
is situated m the centre of the southern portion of the 
county. By road it is 122 miles SW of Brechin, 14 
NKE of Dundee, and 54 KKE of Edinburgh ; whilst, 
as the junction of the Dundee and For£ar branch (1870) 



of the Caledonian with its ' throngh ' line to Aberdeen 
(1889-50), it is 15} miles WSW of Bridge of Dux June- 
tion, 67i SSW of Aberdeen, 17J N by W of Bronghty 
Fernr, 68$ NNE of Edinbmgh, 82i N£ of Perth, and 
96 if £ of Glasgow. The conntiy round is undulating ; 
and the town stands, 200 feet above sea-level, in a kind 
of basin formed by the sorrounding slopes. It is a bnrgh 
of great antiqnity, having been a royal residence in the 
time of Malcolm Ceannmor, whose castle was situated on 
the Castlehill, a conical mound at the N£ end of the town. 
This is alleged by Boece and Buchanan to have been the 
meeting-pl£» of the parliament held in 1057, at which 
surnames and titles were first conferred on the Scottish 
nobility. The castle, from remains in existence at the 
begixmmg of this century, is supposed to have been very 
extensive, and the ruins furnished building material for 
the old steeple and the W entrance of the old church, as 
well as for many houses in the town. A figure of the 
castle appears in the common seal of the burgh as well 
as on tne market-cross of 1684, which was removed a 
good many vears aco by the magistrates to the site of 
the old castle. Mfllcolm's queen, St Margaret, had also 
a residence on the Inch in Forfar Loch, a sheet of water 
which, lying in Glamis parish, but immediately W of 
the town, at an altitude of 171 feet, has been reduced 
by draining operations to an utmost length and breadth 
of 9 and 2 furlongs. The Inch, reduced now to a 
peninsula, was for many years regarded as wholly arti- 
ndid, a ' crannog ' in fiEict or lake-dwelling ; but recent 
researches shew that it is ' the highest part of a narrow 
ridge of natural gravel which runs into the loch, and 
the so-called causeway is a continuation of this ridge as 
it dins into the deep water' {Ancient SeoUish Zake- 
DwdtingSf Edinb. 1882). This causeway, which was sup- 
posed to run the whole length of the island, was said by 
tradition to have been used in former days as a means 
of passing from the island. Tradition, too, associates 
some weapons found in the loch in 1770 wiUi the mur- 
derers of Malcolm II., who, after committing the crime 
in Glamis Castle, tried to cross Forfar Loch on the ice, 
and were drowned. Besides these scraps of questionable 
history, memorials of royal residence survive in the 
designations of such localities as the King's Muir, the 
Queen's Well, the Queen's Manor, the Palace Dykes, and 
so on. An annual fite in honour of Queen Marsaret, 
held on the Inch, was long a vestige of the royal con- 
nection with Forfar. The charter elevating the town 
to tiie dignity of a royal burgh was granted by David I. 
(1124-58), and the records of the paruaments of Scotland 
show that assemblies were held there by William the 
Lyon, by Alexander II., and by Bobert II. The town 
was almost totally destroyed by accidental fire in 1244. 
In 1291 King Edward I. of England was refused admis- 
sion to the castle by Gilbert de Umfraville ; but it was 
occupied by him and his suite from the 8d till the 6th 
of July 1296. In 1808, when 'stuffit all with Inglis- 
men,' this castle was captured by Bruce and Philip, the 
forester of Plater, who, making an escalade under cover 
of night, slew all the garrison, and 'brek doun the 
walL It was never rebuilt. In the Great Rebellion 
Forfar adhered to the King, so, after the English had 
ti^en Dundee, Colonel Ocky marched thence to Forfar 
with a considerable body of dragoons, and not only 
liberated an imprisoned spy, but pillaged and harassed 
the town. In 1665 a charter of confirmation of its 
early j>rivileges was granted by Charles II. in requital 
of this plundering and of the protest of ex-Provost 
Strang in 1647 against the proposal to hand over 
Charles I. to the tender mercies of the English rebels. 
In 1684 the market-cross was erected at the expense of 
the Crown, and stood in its original position for a cen- 
tury and a half, till removed as before noted. In con- 
nection with Provost Strans, or rather with his posterity, 
a curious story is told, l^o of this family had settled 
at Stockholm, where they prospered. About the end 
of the 17th century they sent home a fine-toned bell for 
the parish church steeple. When the ^t arrived at 
Dundee, the magistrates of that place claimed it on the 
ground that it was too good for Forfar. A struggle 


took place, in the course of which the tongue of the 
bell, said to have been of silver, was wrench^ out and 
thrown into the river. After a time the Forfar folk got 
possession of their property, but the Dundee magistrates 
refused to let it be conveyed away unless the town of 
Forfar bought all the ground it would paas over between 
the quay and the boundary of Dundee. A large sum 
had to be paid, and the road is known still as Forfar 
Loan. The townsfolk of Forfar turned out in holiday 
costume to welcome the sift on its arrival. A new 
tongue was not supplied tot a century, and even now 
the clapper in use is regarded as insufficient to bring 
out the full tones of the toIL Dundee was not the only 
town with which Forfar got at loggerheads. The mton 
of Forfar and the weoMra of ^niemuir had a long- 
standing feud, which often used to result in blows. 
Drummond of Hawthomden relates that, when he 
visited Forfar in 1648, he was refused shelter because 
he was a poet and a rovalist. He passed on to Kirrie- 
muir, where they equally abhorred these two ' crimes ; ' 
but, anxious to diner from the Forfarians, they made 
him heartily welcome. In return he wrote a quatrain, 
in which Kirriemuir was praised and Forfar satirised. 
A body of William of Orange's forces, stationed at 
Forfar in 1689, ate and destroyed dl kinds of victual 
to the value of £8000, forced horses, carts, and free 
quarters to the extent of £2000 more, and left the tol- 
booth and schoolhouse in a state of ruin. Another 
reminiscence of the ' good old times ' is centred in a 
specimen of the 'branks' c^ed tiie witches' bridle, 
which, long preserved in the old steeple, is now in the 
public library. It consists of a collar in four sections, 
nin^d so as to enclose the neck. Behind is a short 
cham, and in front a proiu^, like the rowel of a spur, 
projects inwards, and was meed in the mouth to act as 
a gag at the executions. The victims were led by the 
chain to the Witches' Howe, a small hollow N of the 
town, where the stake was erected. The bridle was 
picked up from the ashes after the execution. Nine 
women were burned at Forfar between 1650 and 1662 ; 
and ' Johne Kinked, pricker of the witches in Trenent,' 
beins brought to Forfar, was made a freeman of the 
bui^ just ten days after that honour had been con- 
ferred on a cadet of the noble family of Keith-Marischal. 
A highwayman hanged on Balmasnanner Hill in 1785 
was uie last person executed in Scotland by sentence of a 
sheriff. Patrick Abercrombie, physician and historian, 
was bom at Forfar in 1656 ; and John Jamieson, D.D. 
(1759-1889), of ' Scottish Dictionary' fame, was minister 
of the Seoession congregation from 1780 till 1797. Archi- 
bald Douglas, son of the second Marquis of Douglas, was 
in 1661 created Earl of Forfar, a title which devolved 
on the Duke of Douglas at the death of the second Earl 
from seventeen wounds received at Sheriffmuir (1715), 
and with the Duke it expired (1761). One curious 
thing in connection with Forfar is the fajci that, down 
to 1598, its market-day was Sunday. 

Before considering iJie present condition of Forfar, it 
is interesting to look at some details of its X)eculiaritie8 
given in the Old Statistical Account The minister of 
the parish, writing there in 1793, tells tiiat before 1745 
there were not aoove seven tea-kettles and the same 
number of watches and pairs of bellows in the burgh ; 
while in his time every house had a kettle and bellows, 
and 'almost every menial must have his watch.' In 
the middle of last century, a Forfarian who bought a 
shilling's worth of butcher meat or an ounce <» tea 
would nide the fact from his neighbours as if he had 
committed a crime. One ox, valued at forty shillines, 
supplied the flesh market for a fortnight, and indeed a 
carcase was seldom killed unless mSet of it were be- 
spoken. Each man built his house as he chose, and the 
town was both irregular and dirty. The dirtiness of 
the burgh was the cause of a murder on 9 May 1728. 
Charles, sixth Earl of Strathmore, was returning from a 
funeral entertainment with a partv of centlemen, when 
Carnegie of Finhaven was jostled by Lyon of Brigton 
into a kennel in Spout Street He rose covered with 
mud, and, making a thrust at Brigton, ran the Earl 


tbrough the bod^, for which he wu tried, but ftC(initt«d 
through the abilitj of his counsel, Bobert Dnndaa of 

On his ftognm to Landoit in 1603, Jutua TI., mns 
the stor;, wm enterbufed vith RTsat magnificence 
bj the mayor of one of the English botghs; and 
some of the Enslish coartiera hinted that anch open- 
huidedness would be tsjs in Scotland. ' Fient a bit o' 
that,' wid canny Jamea, 'the Provost o' mybnnrh o' 
Forfar, whilk is by no means the lu^^ town in Scot- 
land, keeps open house a' the year ronud, and &ye the 
mae that comes the welcomer. The provost kept an 
alehouse. It was in Forfar that a neighboui's cow drmik 
up the browst which a brewater'a wife had set to the 
docT to cool. The alewife raised an action against her 
neighboar, who was assoiliied, since, by immemorial 
cnstom, nothing was ever chu^d for a atandingdrink 
or Etirmp-cup. And it was Foifar Loch that an Earl of 
Strathmore proposed to drain, by tumblins a few hogs- 
heads of whisky into it, and setting the 'drockea 
writers of Forfar ' to drink it dry. 

In lCi2B Boece speaks of Forfar as 'having in time 
past been a notable citie, though now it is broDght to 
little more than a conntria v^age, replemshea with 
simple cottages ; ' down to the middle of last century its 
'stDaons and ill-compacted streets consisted chiefly of 
old thatched houses ; ' but the Forfar of to-day is a 
comfortable and well-bmlt town with several good 
public buildings. The Hwh Street, with West Port, 
extends ureguUrly, from SW to NE, to a length of 
about 12D0 yards. Castle Street branches oS to tbe 
northward, and contains the sheriff-court houses, built 
in ISflB-n. They consist of a centre of two atoriea 
with wings and attics, and comprise a principal court- 
room to feet long, S3 brood, and 20 high ; and a 
smaller conrt-room 21 by 24 feet. The old county 
buildings were near these coorta, and were built about 
1S80 at a cost of nearly ^000. In 1869, aftor the open- 
ing of the sheriff-court honses, they were condemned as 
unsuited to their porposes, and a difficulty arose as to 
whst ehonld bo done with them. Ultimately they were 
polled down, and new county buildings, desigoed by Mr 
Wardrop, erected in their stead. They cost £4000, and 
include a county hall 65 by 3G feet, and other apart- 
ments, one of them a strong-room for records. In the 
e portraits of the hero of Camperdown by Opie, 

and affords accommodation to the free library, which, 
opened on 7 Jan. 1871, contains 4450 volumes. The 
county police station stands at the E comsr of the 
county buildings, with which it communicates on both 
stories. In 18S9 a hall for public meetings was erected 
br Mr Peter Reid, of * Forfar Bock ' celebrity, at a cost 
of £G0OO. Mr Reid afterwards spent £1000 m furnish- 
ing and adorning the hall. During his lifetime he was 
to draw the revenues of the ball, keeping it in good re- 
pair, and in June 1874 he made a disposition by which 
It and all its contente should go to the town on his 
death. In Nov. 1870 a pubfio meeting resolved to 
place a marble bust of Mr Beid in the Eall, and this 
resolnCioii was carried into effect, Mr J. Hutchison, 
B.S. A, being the sculptor. The county prison, which 
stands a little to the northward of tbe town, was erected 
in 184S, legalised in 18S2, and closed by order of the 
Home Office in 1SS2. 

The Priory church of Heatenneth served for the parish 
church till 1GE>1, wheq a chnrch was built at the town. 
Tbe present parish church was built in 1791, and, as 
altered in 1833, contains ISOD sittings. Its handsome 
spire, 150 feet high, was added in 1814 ; and an organ 
waaintrodncedinlSei. St JameB's?iM>iKi sacra church, 
seating 1100 people, was built In 1830 at a cost of 
£1200. Of two Free churches— Forfar and East— the 
former is a fine new edifice of 1880-81, built in West 

of about £S60. Th« Episcopal church of St John tha 
Evangelist, in East High Street, is in the Early English 
style, and was erected in 1870-81, at a cost of £12,000, 
from designs by Mr B. B. Anderson. It consists of a 
nave (BO feet by 31), with a N aisle (74 x t8{ feet) and 
a chancel (42{ x 21^ feet). The spire at the eztremitj 
is incomplete, 40 feet only of the projected 163 having 
been constmcted. The height of the church to the apex 
of the nave is 42 feet, and the building is seated for 600. 
The organ, by Consgher, stands in a chamber 24 by 12 
feet, and the esse, like ti)e pulpit and choir stalls, la of 
carved oak. This is the third Episcopal choich in 
Forfar since 1775. At the Revolution of 1S88 the Elds- 
copalians were not ejected from the parish church, bnt 
remained till the beginning of the 18th century, and 
communion was administered there by them at Cbnstmaa 
and EasMt til! 1721. After that, service was unin- 
termptedl; held in the old Priory cbtirch of Bestennetb, 
and after 174^in hooses in secret till 177G, when achnrch 
Iding still stonda, ~ 
copal congregation 
Dean Skinner bmlt the church that was pulled down 
in 1870 to make room for the present one, A Baptist 
chapel in Manor Street is an Early Qotbio edifice, boilt 
in 1876 at a cost of £1700, and containing 400 sittings. 
In 1881 the following were the aiz schools under tna 
bnigh school-board, with aci^mmodation, average at- 
tendance, and Government grant : — Academy (534, 28S, 
£189, 18s.), East (300, 296, £2G9), For&r (278, 188, 
£155), Industrial (184, 94, £68, 7s.), North (300, 800, 
£262, 6a.), Wellbraehead (280, 250, £177, 7b.), and 
West (800, 269, £229, 2s. 6d.;|. 

There are in the bnrgh, an infirmary, a choral onion, 
a subscription library {founded 1796), a mechanics' 
reading-room, horticultotal, bnilding, debating, golf, 
angling, cricket, bowling, and other societies and clabs^ 
including two good templar lodges. A fine cemetery, 
11 acres in extent, to the southward of the town, was 
opened in ISGO, and contains a monoment, erected in 
1862 by subscription, to Sir Robert PeeL The figora 
stands upon a large pedestel, and is snrmomited by a 
dome upborne on eight pillars. The architect was Ml 
James Maclaren of Dundee, and the scolptor Mr Wm. 
Anderson of Perth. The gas-works are managed by the 
corporation ; and a first-class supply of gravitation water 
was introduced into the town in 1881. 

As regards manufactures Forfar makes a small show 
compared with other towns in tbe county. Coaiw 
linen and jute manufactote, tanning, and one or two 
minor industries practicaUy exhaust the catalogue. In 
old days For&r waa famous for the manufacture of 
wooden soled shoes or brogues, &om which arises the 
appellation 'the mtan of Forfar,' above alluded to. 
There are three incorporated trades ^glovers, shoe- 
makers, and tailors, that of the shoemakera bung the 
most ancient. 
The incorpora- 

wBs aboliahed by 
an Act of Parlia- 

Eivement of the 
en trade. For- ( 
far has a post ' 
office, with money 
order, savings' i 
bank, insurance, > 
and telegraph 

branches of the 
Bank of Scotland 
and of the Royal, 

British Linen, 

National, Union, 8(al ol Fortar. 

and Commerciu 

Buks, a National Secniity saving' bank, 26 insur- 
ance agencies, 6 hotels, and a Friday liberal paper, 
the fb^ar Herald (1878). The bnrgh is governed by a 
provost, 3 belies, a treaiurer, and 10 coondllors, who 


also act u police commisnoneTB. The regular courts are 
the bnigh or bailie coorts, and the bnnrh police court. 
Forfar unites with Montbose, ArbroatD, Brechin, and 
Bervie to return a member to parliament, its parlia- 
mentary and municipal constituency beinff 1452 in 1882. 
The corporation rerenue was £3094 in 1881. Annual 
value of real property (1866) £17,484, (1876) £28,255, 
(1882) £84,080, Us. 3d. , plus £1919 for railways. Pop. 
of royal burgh (1881) 18,579 ; of parliamentary burgh 
(1841) 8362, (1851) 9811, (1861) 9258, (1871) 11,081, 
(1881) 12,817, of whom 5686 were males, and 7181 
females. Houses (1881) 2868 inhabited, 69 yacant, 15 

The parish of Forfar, containing also Lunanhead, 
Carsebum, and Kingsmnir hamlets, 1) mile NE, 1^ 
KN£, and 1{ S£ of &e town, is bounded N by Bescobie, 
£ by Bescobie and Dunnichen, S by Inverarity, SW by 
Einnettles, W by Kinnettles and Olamis, and NW by 
Kirriemuir. Its utmost lengl^, from K to S, is 4g 
miles ; its breadth, from £ to W, varies between 2i and 
4^ miles ; and its area is 8879^ acres, of which 26i are 
water. Loch Fithie (8} x i fiirL ), 2 mUes £N£ of the 
town, is a pretty little sheet of water, with wooded 
rising banks ; Bratenneth Loch, near Lunanhead, was 
dnuned many years ago for its marL Streams there are 
none of any consequence ; but the drainage is partly 
carried eastward to the Lunan, and partly westward to 
Dean Water. The surface, all part ofStrathmore or the 
Howe of Angus, is flat to the N of Hhe town, sinking 
little below, and little exceeding, 200 feet above sea- 
level, but rises southwards to 572 feet at Balmashanner 
Hill and 761 near Lour. The rocks are Devonian, 
lower or Forfarshire flagstones ; and the soil is mainly 
a fertile loam. There are traces of a ' Pictish camp ' at 
Bestenneth, and of a * Boman camp ' a little more than 
i mile N£ of the town, the latter ' capable of holding 
upwards of 26,000 men ; ' but Bestenneth Priory is the 
chief antiquity. This is noticed separately, as also is 
the only mansion, Lour House. Eignt proprietors hold 
each an annuel value of £500 and upwards, 28 of 
between £100 and £500, 87 of from £50 to £100, and 
128 of from £20 to £50. The seat of a presb^twy in 
the synod of Anffus and Mearas, this parish is eccle- 
siastically divided into Forfar proper and St James's 
quoad sacra parish, the former a livinf^ worth £540. 
Two landwara public schools, Kinpmmr and Lunan* 
head, with respective accommodation for 80 and 120 
chilifren, had f 1881) an averaffe attendance of 69 and 89, 
and grants of £58, 178. and £77, 8s. 6d. Valuation 
(1857) £7955, (1882) £12,346, 15s. lU., plus £»701 for 
railways. Pop. (1801) 5167, (1881) 7049, (1861) 10,838» 
(1871) 12,585, (1881) 14,470, of whom 3882 were in St 
James's, and 10,588 in Forfar ecclesiastical parish, — 
Ord. Sur,, sh. 57, 1868. 

The presbytery of Forfar comprehends the pMod 
eivUia parishes of Forfar, Aberlemno, Gortachy, Dun> 
nichen, Glamis, Inverarity, Einnettles, Kirriemuir, 
Oathlaw, Bescobie, and Tannadice, the quoad sacra 
parishes of Clova, Forfar St James, Kirriemuir-South, 
and Glenprosen. Pop. (1871) 27,694, (1881) 35,201, of 
whom 8429 were communicants of the Church of Scot* 
land in 1878. — The Free Church also has a presbytery 
of Forfar, with 2 churches in Forfieir, 2 in Kirriemuir, 
and 4 in respectively Aberlemno, Dunnichen, Kin- 
nettles, and Memus, which eight had together 2140 
communicants in 1881. 

Forfar and Arbroath Railway. See Akbboath akd 


Forfanhira, a large maritime and affricultural county, 
nearly corresponding to the ancient district of Asqvb, 
occupies the south-eastern comer of the central penin- 
sula of Scotland, havine for its seaboard the Firth of 
Tay on the S, and the German Ocean on the E, and for 
its inland boundaries, on the K£ Kincardineshire^ on 
the K Aberdeenshire, and on the W Perthshire^ Its 
limits are. on the S, Dundee, 66* 27' ; on the K, Mount 
Keen, 56^ 58', N latitude: and on the £, the Ness, 
near Montrose, 2* 26' ; on the W, at Blacklunans, 8** 24', 
longitude W of Greenwich. Eleventh in point of sise 


of the counties of Scotland, it haa an utmost length 
from N to S of 86 miles, an utmost width from £ to W 
of 86^ miles, and an area of 890 square miles or 569,840 
acres, of which 6486 are foreshore and 8178 water. It 
is divided into four well-marked natural divisions — ^the 
shore district, consisting chiAy of sandy dunes and 
links, 87 miles long, with a breadth of from 8 to 8 miles ; 
the range of the Sidlaw Hills, 22 miles long by 3 to 6 
miles broad ; Strathmore, the ' great valley, ouierwise 
called the Sou)e qf Afiqus, 82 miles by 4 to 6 miles 
broad ; and the hilly district or Brats qf AnguSf rising 
into the Grampian range, and measuring 24 miles by 
5 to 9 miles broad. 

The Grampian district forms the north-western divi- 
sion, and includes about two-fifths of the superficial 
area. Like the rest of the range, the Grampian moun- 
tains here run from SW to ]N £, forming the barrier 
between the Highlands and the Lowlands of Scotland ; 
and exhibit rid^ behind ridge, with tomdj intervening 
valleys cut out oy streams and torrents, till they form, 
at their water-line or highest ridge, the boundary line 
of the county. The iK)rtions of them included in For- 
fieurshire are called ttxe Benchinnin Mountains; and, 
viewed in the group, are far from possessing either the 
grandeur of the alpine districts of the West, or the 
picturesqueness ana beauty of the highlands of the 
South, from the hif^her summits of the Grampians, a 
brilliant view is obtained, not only of Forfarshire and 
part of Perthshire, but of Fife, East Lothian, and the 
heights of Lammermuir. 

The Strathmore district of Forfarshire is part of the 
great valley of that name, and stretches from the western 
boundary of the pariah of Kettins, away north-eastward 
through the whole county, to the lower part of the 
North £ak. From its northern point south-westward 
it lies sJong the foot of the Foriarshire Grampians, till 
it forms the parish of Airlie ; and it thenceforth, till 
the termination of the parish of Kettins, shares the con* 
tinuation of Strathmore with Perthshire. Its surface is 
beautifully diversified by gentle eminences, fertile fields, 
plantations, villages, and ^gentlemen's seats. Small por- 
tions of it are covered with water during wet seasons, 
and, in other respects, have perhaps not received due 
attention from the cultivators of the soiL 

The Sidlaw district of Forfarshire derives its distinc- 
tive features from the Sidlaw Hills. These are a con- 
tinuation or offshoot of a range which runs parallel 
to Strathmore or the Grampians, from the Hill of Kin- 
noull near Perth, to the NFi extremity of Kincardine- 
shire. Seen from Fifeshire, the Sidlaws appear to rise 
at no great distance from the estuaiy of the Tay, and 
shut out from view the scenery of Strathmore and the 
lower Gramniana They culminate in Auchterhouse Hill 
at an altitude of 1899 feet above the level of the sea ; and 
in some places are covered with stunted heath, while in 
others, tney are cultivated to the top. The Sidlaw dis- 
trict terminates at Bed Head, a promontory on the 
coast, in the parish of Inverkeilor, between Arbroath 
and Montrose. From some of the detached hills, 
respectively on the north-western and the south-eastern 
sides of the range, brilliant views are obtained, on the 
one hand, of the whole extent of Strathmore, and, on 
the other, of the scenery along the Firth of Tay and the 
German Ocean. 

The maritime district of Forfarshire is, for a brief 
way, in the parish of Inverkeilor, identified with the 
Sidlaw distnct, but extends from the Tay and the 
limits of Liff and Lundie on the S to near the mouth of 
the North £sk on the N. In its southern part, it is at 
first of very considerable breadth; but it cradually 
narrows as it becomes pent up between the Sidlaw Hills 
and the ocean ; and, overleaping the former, it thence 
stretches northward parallel to the Howe of Angua 
Tliis district is, with a few exceptions, fertile and 
hkrhly cultivated. Excepting a few rounded jutting 
hiIjs---eome of which are oeeignated by the Gaelic name 
of Dun — ^its surface slopes gently to the Firth of Tay on 
the S, and the German Ocean on the B. At Broughtv 
Ferryi where the Firth of Tay is very much oontractea. 


an Qxtenaive tract of links or sandy downs oommenoes, 
and thence sweeps ^onpr a great part of the parishes of 
Honifieth and Barry. Two other sandy tracts of inoon* 
siderable breadth stretch along the coast respectively 
between Panbride and Arbroath, and between the 
embonchures of the South Esk and the North Esk. In 
manj places these downs eyince, by extensive beds of 
marine diells, at heights ranging from 20 to 40 feet, 
that they were at one period covered with the sea. The 
maritime district is adorned with towns and villages, 
elegant villas and comfortable farm-steads, numerons 
plantations, and, in genend, ample results of successful 
culture and busy enterprise. 

The Tay, though it expands into an estuary 12 miles 
before touching we county, and cannot, while it washes 
its shores, be considered as a river, is greatly more 
valuable to Forfarshire than all its interior waters. 
Sandbanks in various places menace its navigation, but 
are rendered nearly innocuous by means of fiffhthouses 
and other appliances. From the mouth of the Tay to 
near Westhaven, the coast on the German Ocean is 
sandy ; and thence north-eastward to near Arbroath, it 
cannot safely be approached on account of low, and, in 
many cases, sunken rocks. At a distance of llf males 
SE of Arbroal^, the Bill Book Lighthouse lifts its 
fine form above the bosom of the ocean. A mile north- 
eastward of Arbroath tiie coast becomes bold and rocky, 
breaking down in perpendicular precipices, and, in many 
places, perforated at the base with long deep caverns, 
whose floors are boisterously washed by the Dillows of 
the sea. The Bed Head, a rocky promontory, 267 feet 
in almost sheer ascent, terminates this bold section of 
the coast, as it does the inland range of the Sidlaws. 
Lunan Bay now, with a small sweep inward, presents 
for nearly 8 miles a fine sandy shore, and offers a safe 
anchorage. The coast again becomes rocky and bold as 
far as to the mouth of the South Esk ; and thence to 
the extremity of the county, it is low and sandy. 

At Brouqhty Fkrry there is a rocky promontory on 
which stands Broughty Castle, and from this point to 
the boundary of Perth on the W the coast-line is flat 
and alluviaL Excepting a cantle cut out on the W by 
Perthshire, the county is nearly square, and lines inter- 
secting the limit points named meet near Shielhill 
Bridge in the parish of Tannadioe, where 

' The wttteis of Prosen, Esk. and Oarity 
Meet at tha birken bosh of InTerquharity.' 

The surface of Forfanhire is much diversified. Along 
the northern and western boundaries extends the Gram- 
pian range, havinff Glas Maol (8502) as the highest 
point, with upwaros of sixty peaks exceeding 2000 feet 
The Sidlaw Hills, on the S of the great fflen, form 
a picturesque element in the scenery of the county. 
These are verdant hills, with a maTimnm height of 1899 
feet at Auchterhouse Hill, and run down gradually to 
the eastward, where the range ib cultivated to the top. 
Principal summits in the Grampian range are Cairn na 
Glasher (8484 feet). Cairn Bannoch (8814), Broad Cairn 
(8268), Tolmount (8148), Driesh (8105), Mount Keen 
(8077), Mayar (8048), Finally (2954), Braidcaim (2907), 
Ben Tirran (2989), White HiU (2544), Cam Aiffhe (2824), 
Bonstie Ley (2868), Monamenach (2649), Mount Bat- 
tock (2555), Black Hill (2469), Hill of Cat (2485), Oiim 
Inks (2488), East Oaim (2518), Mount Blair (2441), 
Cock Cairn (2887), West Knock (2800), the Hill of 
Wirren (2220), The Bulg (1986), Naked Tam (1607), 
and the White Caterthun (976). In the Sidlaw Hills, 
theGallowhill (1242 feet), Gash (1141), Keillor (1088), and 
Havston Hill (1084) are notable. Dundee Law, over- 
looking the town, is 571 feet in height. In the Braes 
of Angus the county presents much that is grand and 
characteristic in hill scenery ; and in the souuem parts 
the finely-wooded and richly-cultivated landscape pre- 
sents great beauty and attractiveness. The lochs oithe 
county, as well as its rivers, are insignificant in view of 
the la^ district drained, the course of the streams 
being necessarily short, as from the position of the 
watershed the county receives no strsuns from other 
districts, while it gives off some that increase in bulk 


before augmenting the Tay, which reckons as a Perth- 
shire river. Two mountain bums, the Lee and tha 
Eunoch or Unich, unite in Lochlee parish, 1{ mile 
above the lake of that name, which, measuring 9 by 21 
furlongs, is ' a wild lake closed in bv mountains. ' The 
Lee, flowing from the loch, joins the Mark at Invermark, 
forming the North Esk, a stream which, after a course 
of 29 miles, falls into the German Ocean, and taces, 
during the last 15 miles of its course, the boundary 
between Forfar and Kincardine. Its principal affluent 
in the county is West Water, rising in Lethnot parishi 
and joinins the Esk at Stracathro. The South Esk, 
rising in Ciova, has a course of 481 miles, and runs into 
Montrose Basin. In its upper course it is a mountain 
stream, but, after receiving its principal tributaries, it 
runs due E through Strathmore as a quiet lowland 
river. Parallel with its upper course is Glen Prosen, 
whence the South Esk receives Prosen Water. The other 
main affluents are the Carity, the Noran, the Lemno, 
and the Pow. Further is tne beautiftil valley of Glen 
Isla, where the Isla has its rise. One-third of the total 
course of this stream is in Perthshire, where it Joins the 
Tay, after receiving the waters of many small streams. 
On the Isla is a waterfikU of 80 feet, the ' Beeky Linn,' 
so called from the doud of spray constantly thrown up ; 
and further down are the dlugs of Auchnmnie, a dark 
channel where the river runs between steep roc^s. One 
affluent of the Isla, the Dean, issues from Fobfas Loch ; 
and one of the Dean's tributaries, the Arity, presents the 
peculiarity of rising within 7 miles of the mouth of the 
Tay, and running a course of 70 miles before it &lls 
into the German Ocean. The smaller streams flowing 
direct to the sea embrace the Lunan, running into the 
bay of that name, the Brothock, the Elliot, the Dighty, 
rismg in the Lochs of Lundie and receiving the Fithie, sJl 
of wmch reach the ocean between Arbroath and Brought^ 
Ferry. The lochs and streams of Forfarshire afford excel- 
lent sport for the angler. The North Est yields salmon, 
sea-trout, and common trout, the net fishings being very 
valuable, as many as 700 or 800 salmon bemg taken on 
the firat day of the season. The South Esk and its tri- 
butaries yield trout, while salmon are also plentifdl 
from Brechin downwards, but the latter are strictly 
weserved. The Isla, both in its Foriarshire and its 
Perthshire sections, receives a high character from Mr 
Watson Lyall in lus 8portaman*s Ouide; salmon pene- 
trate to the Slugs of Auchrannie, and up to this point 
there are heavjr pike and trout of very fine quality. 
Above the Beekie linn the stream yields first-rate sport. 
Loch Wharral, in the same locality, is abundant in good 
small trout. Loch Brandy, situated amidst wild and 
beautiful scenery, 2070 feet above sea-level, is uncertain, 
but freauentlv gives good sport Loch Esk, in Clova, 
affords tarcn Dut shy trout. Dun's Dish, an artifidai 
loch near Bridge of Dun, and private property, yields 
perch. Forfar lioch is famous for large pike and perch, 
the former running to 80 lbs. on oc^uion. Loch Leeu 
the largest in the county, yields trout of two kinds and 
char in abundance. The Lochs of Lundie, in the pariah 
of Lundie, belong to Lord Camperdown, and 3rield perch 
and pike. The reservoirs of Monikie have been stocked 
with Lodi Leven and other trout, and yield fair sport 
Loch Bescobie yields perch, pike, and eels, and is open 
to the public. The county contains several notable deer 
forests, including those of Clova, Caanlochan, Bachna- 
gaim, and Invermark. In the latter the Mark stream 
flows, and at the 'Queen's Well,' formerly the WhiU 
WeUf and now named in commemoration of the fiict of 
Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort having roBtad 
and lunched here in Sept 1861 in travelling fnmi 
Balmoral to Invermark Lodge, the Earl of DaShousie 
has erected a handsome monument of three open crossed 
arches resembling a Scottish crown. It bears an in- 
scription in imitation of that in Marmion — 

* B«slk weaiy tiaTeDor. oa this lonely gnen. 
And drink and pnj for Seotland's Qwen.' 

The Queen describes the scene as very grand and wild, 
the ' Ladder Bum,' running down a steep and winding 
path, as ' very fine and very striking.' 


Oeoloffy, — The connty of Forfar is divided into two 
distinct geological areas by a line drawn from lantrathen 
Loch N£ by Gortachy Castle to near EdzelL The tract 
l3ring to the W of this line is occupied by metamorphosed 
Silorian strata ; while to the £, the Old Red Sandstone 
formation stretehes across Strathmore and the chain of 
the Sidlaws to the sea coast 

The Silurian rocks occurring along the margin of the 
Old Bed Sandstone area are comparatively unaltered, 
oonsistinff mainly of grey and green clay slates with 
occasional pebbly grits. These beds are inclined to the 
KW, but as we ascend the valleys of the Isla, the 
Frosen, and South Esk, they are thrown into a great 
synclinal fold, and they re-appear in a highly altered 
form with a SE dip. In their metamorphosed condition 
they consist of mica schiste and gneiss, with bands of 
pebbly quartzito which are well displayed on the Braes 
of Angus. Beyond the area occupied oy these stratified 
rocks, a great mass of granite stretches from Calm Ban- 
noch to Mount Battock along the confines of Forfarshire 
and Aberdeenshire. 

The Old Bed Sandstone of Forfarshire has lon^ been 
celebrated for the fishes and eurypterids found in the 
^hales and flagstones. The recent discovery of myriapods 
in the same strata has tended to increase the interest in 
the history of this formation as developed in the coun^. 
The researches of Lvell, Woodward, Luikester, Powrie, 
Page, Hitehell, and otiiiers, have amply revealed the 
nature of the organisms which flourisn^ during that 
ancient period. The fossils occur on two distinct 
horizons, the position of which has now been accurately 
defined. But apart from the interesting series of organic 
remains, this formation claims attention on account of 
ito remarkable development in Forfarshire and Kincar- 
dineshire. The total thickness of the Lower Old Bed 
Sandstone in these two counties cannot be less than 
20,000 feet, and yet neither the top nor the base of the 
series is visible. This vast series was deposited on the 
bed of an inland sheet of water to which the name of 
Lake Caledonia has been applied by Professor A. Geikie. 
The northern marein of that ancient lake was defined 
bv the Grampian cnain, and even during tiie deposition 
of the highest members of the series, a portion of that 
tableland must have remained above the water. One of 
the most interesting phases of that period was the dis- 
play of volcanic activity which gave rise to great sheete 
of lavas and ashes, the icTieous materials being regularly 
interbedded with the sedimentery strate. The volcanic 
aeries attains ite greatest development in Perthshire, as 
will be shown in the description of the geology of that 

The geological structure of the area occupied by the 
Lower Old Ked Sandstone of Forfarshire is comparatively 
simple. Two great flexures, which can be traced far 
into Perthshire on the one side, and into Kincardine- 
shire on the other, cross the county in a SW and N£ 
direction. In Strathmore, the strata form a synclinal 
trough, the axis of which extends from the mouth of 
the bum of Alyth to Stracathro, and in the centre of 
this basin the highest beds in the county are exposed. 
Again the chain of the Sidlaws coincides with a mat 
anticlinal fold which brings to the surface the oldest 
members of this formation in the county. It oueht to 
be remembered, however, that in the Lower Old Bed 
Sandstone of Perthshire we find strata which occupy a 
higher horizon. A line drawn from the neighbourhood 
of liongforgan N£ to Montrose, marks the crest of the 
arch referred to, from which the strate dip in opposite 
directions at angles varying from lO"* to 16 . The oldest 
beds, consisting of brown and grey sandstones, flag- 
stones, and shales, are exposed along the crest of the 
anticline between Lonsforgan and Leysmills £ of 
FriockheinL The well-&own Arbroath paving stones 
belong to this horizon, but ^rhaps the most con- 
spicuous member of this sub-division is a thin band of 
anale from 1 to 8 feet thick forming the lower fish bed. 
It can be traced along the NW side of the axial fold 
from Balradderv Den to Tealinff, and on the SE side 
from Duntrune by Carmyllie to Leysmills. At cdl these 


localities it has yielded fish remains, huge emrpterids, 
myriapods, and fragmente of land plants. The strate 
just described are succeeded on both sides of the arch 
by the members of the volcanic series oonsistine of thick 
sheete of diabase-porph^te which are interbedded with 
sandstones, flags, and tmn bands of conglomerate. These 
ancient lavas are the northern prolongations of the vol- 
canic series of the Ochils. Thou^ they form pro- 
minent ridges in the Sidlaws, their thickness is insig- 
nificant when compared with their development in the 
former range. 

The volcanic series is conformably overlaid along the 
NW side of the arch by sandstones and conglomerates 
containing an importent band of shales and a bed of 
comstone. This band of shales which constitutes the 
Upper or Turin fish bed has been traced from Turin 
Hin N£ by Famell to Canterland in Kincardineshire^ 
a distence of 14 miles. Similar organic remains to those 
already described have been obtained from this bed at 
these three localities. The members of this subdivision 
are inclined to the NW at angles varying from 10° to 
15^ and this dip continues till the centre of the basin 
is reached near Tannadice, where the highest beds in 
the countv are exposed, consisting of red sandy marls. 
Though the latter resemble some of the strata belon^g 
to the Upper Old Bed Sandstone, they are in r^ity 
only a conformable portion of the lower division. At 
Coranside, N of Tannadice, they occupy a strip of ground 
about 2 miles broad, but when followed to the N£, the 
basin gradually widens till at the county boundary the 
sandy marls cover an area about 8 miles in breadth. 
They 'tail off,' however, near Tannadice, and the under- 
lying sandstones and conglomerates occupy the centre 
of the syncline till we pass westwards to Alyth, where 
the sandy marls re-appear and are well developed in the 
Tay at Stanley. 

Alon^ the northern margin of the trough the strate 
rise rapidly to the surface. They are incuned at hifh 
angles owing to the great fault which runs along the 
flanks of the Grampians from Stonehaven to the Firth 
of Clyde. Throughout a great part of ite course this 
dislocation throws the Old Bed Sandstone against the 
crystalline rocks of the Higiilands, but between Cor- 
tachy in Forfarshire and Crieff in Perthshire, it traverses 
the Old Bed Sandstone area. In the latter case it 
brings different members of this formation aeainst each 
other. At various localities between Cortachy and the 
county boundary near EdzeU, the position of the fault 
is admirably defined. The coarse conglomerates and 
sandstones underlying the red sandy marls are tilted 
against the Silurian day slates at angles varying from 
60^ to 80^ The same high an^le is observable on the 
£ side of the dislocation where it traverses the Old Bed 
Sandstone W of Cortachy, particularly in the river Isla 
at Airlie Castie. On the W side of the fault between 
Cortachy and the Isla and onwards to the Tay the vol- 
canic series reappears dipping to the SE at comparatively 
low angles. The members of this series rest unconfor- 
mably on the Silurian rocks, but differ considerably in 
character from their representatives in the Sidlaws and 
the Ochils. Instead of great sheete of porphyrite and 
tuffs we have massive trappean conglomerates with tihin 
beds of lava. This difference is readily accounted for 
by their proximity to the marrin of the ancient lake. 
Even the strata, which Immediately underlie the red 
sandy marls W of Tannadice and Stracathro, are more 
markedly conglomeratic than the beds occupying the 
same horizon on the £ side of the trough. 

The followinff list comprises the fosisus obtained from 
the two fish beds of Forfarshire :— (Fishes), Aeanihodes 
MitcheUi, DipJacaiUhiis gmcUis, MUhaeanthus M'Nicoli, 
K graeilit, E, eUgans, E, grandis, E. eurtiu, Parexua 
incurmu, P,/cUoaiu8f ClimcUiuareticu/atua, C. tmeinaiiu^ 
C. scutigeTf C^halopienis Pagei, Pteiu^ria MitcheUi, 
Eueephakt^ Lyellii, E. Powrei, E. Pagei, E, atper, 
Soapheupis Loydii, (Eurypterids), Pterygatus ATtglieus, 
P, minor, Stylommu Potorei, S, ScoUeua, S. enaiformis, 
EurypUnia BrewaUri, E. pygmaeus. (Myriapods), 
Kampecaris Forfarensis, Archideamua M*Nidoli» Tha 


occurrenoe of myriapods in these beds has onlv recently 
been proved. The flenns Kamptcaris or grao shrimp, 
which was disooverea by the kte Dr Page in the For- 
&rshire flagstones, and which conld not be accurately 
described owing to the imperfect preservation of the 
fosflils, was regarded by nim as probably a small 
phyllopod or the larval form of an isopod cmstacean. 
From specimens recently obtained, Mr B. N. Peach has 
pointea oat that KampeoaHa comprises two genera of 
myriapods which differ from all otner forms in having 
their body se^ents free, and possessing only one pair 
of walking limbs. These are the oldest known air- 
breathers, and must have flourished when Upper Silurian 
forms were still in existence. 

To the N of Dundee the axial beds are traversed by a 
series of intrusive dolerites which have altered the 
strata in immediate contact with them. Dundee Law 
is probably the site of an old ' neck ' from which some 
of the contemporaneous volcanic rocks were probably 

The only patch of Upper Old Red Sandstone in the 
county occurs on the shore about 1 mile N of Arbroath. 
The strata cover about \ mile of the coast-line at 
Cardingheugh Bay, and on the S side of the bay thej 
rest unconformably on the members of the lower divi- 
sion, while to the ^ they are brought into conjunction 
with each other by a fault. They consist of soft honey- 
combed red sandstones and breccias which as yet have 
proved unfossiliferoua. 

During the glacial period the ice sheet moved down 
the glens of the Isla, the Prosen, and South Esk, cross- 
ing Strathmore and surmounting the Sidlaws in its 
march towards the sea. The general trend of the ice- 
flow was SE though its course was considerably deflected 
by the Sidlaws. In order to override this barrier the 
ice sheet must at least have been upwards of 1500 feet 
thick. The boulder clay which accumulated underneath 
the ice is well developed throughout the county. To 
the £ of the Old Bed Sandstone boundary, boulders 
of various metamorphic rocks frt>m the Grampians are 
associated with Old Red conglomerates, sandstones, 
flagstones, and volcanic rocks in this deposit. This 
feature is observable not only in the sections throughout 
Strathmore, but even on the S£ slopes of the Siuaws. 
The latter fact clearly indicates that the moraine prof onde 
must have been transported across the chain and de- 
posited in the lee of the hills. But these foreign blocks 
are likewise met with, perched on the slopes and tops 
of various eminences in the Sidlaws, ss for instance on 
the hills between Lunnelly Den and Lundie at a height 
of 1000 feet, and on the summit of Craigowl at a height 
of 1500 feet. The widespread sheets of clay, sand, and 
gravel, and the long ndges of the same materials in 
Strathmore were prolMibly formed by the vast torrents of 
water caused by the melting of the retreating glaciers. 
As the glaciers shrunk buik into the glens uiey de- 
posited moraines of which the creat transverse barrier 
at Glenaim in the valley of Souui Esk is a remarkable 
example. An interesting description of this sreat ter- 
minal moraine has been ffiven by Sir Charles LydL 
When seen from the S side it resembles an immense 
rampart about 200 feet high athwart the valley. Its 
breadth from N to S is about \ mile, and on the £ 
side it has been denuded by the £sk for a space of 300 
yards. The lower portion of this rampart, from 50 to 
80 feet thick, consists of unstratified mud chaiged witi^ 
boulders, while the upper portion, from 50 to 100 feet 
thick, is composed of finely stratified materials. The 
alluvial flat above the barrier represents the site of an 
ancient loch which was eventual^ drained by the water 
cutting a channel through the morainic deposits. The 
100, 50, and 25 feet raised beaches are represented at 
various points on the coast The lowest of them may 
be traced continuously from Broughtjr Ferry to Ar- 
broath, swelling out mto a broad plain to the S of 
Barry and Carnoustie, where it is covered in great part 
by sand dunes. The stratified sands and eravels com- 
posing this terrace contain shells identical with those 
now hving. 


The soils of Forfarshire may be classified into primary 
and secondary, or those formed by diBint^;ration of 
native rocks, and those deposited frt>m a distance by 
running water ; and, in a general view, the^ are mostly 
of a red or reddish colour, frequently inclining to 
brown, dark brown, or black. The primary soils, on 
the uplands of the Grampian district, are genexally 
moorish and thin, restinff on whitish retentive clay, 
and frequently perforated oy rodcs. In other districts 
with gravelly bottoms the soil is generally thin, moss>% 
and encumbered with loose stones ; while those districts 
with sandstone bottoms are chiefly of a tenacious clay, 
very unfertile, yet capable of being so worked as to 
produce excellent wheat. On clayev or tUly bottoms 
the soil is a strong da^, redder and decidedly better 
than those named, while those parts with trap rock 
below are ffenerallv friable and very fertile clays; but 
often on the northern declivity, and among the hol- 
lows of the Sidlaw Hills, too shallow to admit the 
plough. The secondary soils, in t^e glens of the 
Gramj^ian district, are generally so sandy as to be loose 
and friable, or so strong as to be practically unmanage- 
able. In the other districts these soils are often so 
intermixed with the primary soils that thev can hardly 
be distinguished, yet occurring distinctively along the 
l»nks of streams, or in old beds of lakes and river-expan- 
sions, and frequently a considerable way up the slopes 
a4jacent to these. In the Strathmore district, the low 
tracts range in character from sand, through different 
kinds of gravel, to trap dilria, vegetable mould, and 
carse clay, and are comparatively unfertile. In hollows 
these soils have been saturated with moisture, and con- 
verted into fens or mosses. Around Montrose Basin are 
patches of a carse clay, similar to that of the carses 
of Gowrie and Falkirk. In the whole of Scotland the 
percent!^ of cultivated area is only 24*2 ; in Forfar- 
shire it is 44*4, a percentage higher than that of twenty- 
one, and lower than that of ten, other Scottish counties. 
Less than one twenty-third of the whole of Scotland is 
under woods ; in Forfarshire the proportion is more than 
one-nineteenth, viz., 30,287 acres. The finest of its trees 
are noticed under Einnaird, Gray, and Panmure. 

Agriculture continued long in Forfarshire to be as 
inert or rude as in most other parts of Scotiand, but it 
shared early in the activity of the new agricultural era, 
and acquired vigour from the efforts or Dempster of 
Dunnichen and other extensive landowners, and from 
the Lunan, the Strathmore, the Angus and Meams, and 
Angus and Perthshire, and the Eastern Forfarshire 
A^cultural Associations. For many years prior to 
1872, it exhibited an energy, a skiU, and a success 
little inferior to those of the Lothians. As indicating 
the progress of agriculture in Forfarshire in recent times, 
the following interesting summary is ouoted from Mr 
James Macdonald's prize paper on Forrar and Eincar- 
dine, published in the TfUTiscutums qf tki Highland and 
Affrimltural Sodety, fourth series, vol. xiiL, 1881 : — 

' From the Rev. Mr Rodger's report on Forfiirshire, 
drawn up in 1794, it appears that wheat was then culti- 
vated in every parish m the lower part of the county ; 
that Angus oate, still famous, had thus a wide reputa- 
tion ; that some grasses were used on almost every iann ; 
that turnips were freely grown ; and that potatoes were 
cultivated with great success, the yield in some instances 
being as high as from 50 to 60 bolls of 16 stones per 
acre. The number of cattie was estimated At 36,499 — 
a small breed, ranging in weight from 16 to 20 stones 
avoirdupois, occupying the hiuier ground, and a laiger 
breed, weighing from 40 to 70 stones, the lower parts. 
Sheep numbered 58,970, and were mostiy of the black 
faced, a few being of the ancient dun or white-faced 
kind, and others of mixed breeding. On some of the 
better managed farms, and around proprietors' residencec, 
there was a good deal of enclosed land, mostiy under 
pasture. Farm implements were still primitive, but 
improvements were fast bein^ introduced. The clumsy 
old Scotch plough, modernised by metal boards, was 
still in use, but improved ploughs, chiefly of Small's 
make, were speedily superseding it It was not un- 



common to see fonr horses attached to a plough ; and 
oxen were employed on many farms. Jplonghmen's 
wages without board averaged about Is. 8d. per day, 
There was then a large extent of wood in the oountr. 
and early in the present century the area was greatly 
increased by Lord Airlie, Sir James Gamegie, the Strath- 
more &mily, and others. The Bev. Mr Headrick states 
the number and rental of the fieurms in 1818 as follo¥r8^— 
viz., under £20 of annual value, 1574 farms ; £20 and 
under £50, 565 ; £50 and under £100, 682 ; £100 and 
under £300, 815 ; above £800, 86 ; total, 8222. 

' The spirit of improvement aroused in the last oen- 
tuiy has never been allowed to lie dormant. True, 
during the last 25 years a smaller extent of land has 
been reclamed than during either the last 25 years of 
the 18th century or the first 25 of the present, but that 
has not been due to any flagging in the spirit of im- 
provement, but simply to the fact that only a limited 
area of suitable land remained for the proprietors and 
tenants of the past 25 years to bring under cultivation. 
There has been less done lately simply because there has 
been less to do. No reliable data exist upon which to 
estimate the extent of land reclaimed during the first 
half of the present century. The Bev. Mr Headrick 
estimated the arable land in Forfarshire in 1818 at 
340,648 acres, but it is clear that that far exceeded the 
actual extent ; for the area at present under all kinds 
of crops — ^bere, fallow, and grass^— falls short of it by 
nearly 90,000 acres. 

< Confining ourselves to the last 25 years, we find that 
there has been a substantial increase in the extent of 
arable land. The following table affords a pretty correct 
indication : arable area in 1854, 219,721 acres ; in 1870, 
288,009; in 1880, 258,878. The percentage of the 
arable area in Fori'arabire under cultivation in 1870 was 
41 '8, now it is 44*5. This increase, equal to 1246 acres 
a year, must be regarded as highly creditable, especially 
when it is considered that, as previously stated, agricul- 
tural improvement had been carried to a great length 
long before the period to which the above table refers, 
so far, indeed, as to leave comparatively little to be 
done. The main portion of the new land lies in the 
Braes of Angus along the foot of tho Grampians, but 
there is also a fair proportion on the Sidlaw range. 

'The reclamation of land, however, has not consti- 
tuted the whole of the agricultural improvements in the 
county during the last 25 years. Indeed, it is doubtful 
if it has not in outlay been far exceeded by the improve- 
ment in farm buildings, draining, fencing, roadmaking, 
and other accessories which tend to develop the resonroes 
of the soil There has been a great deal done in the 
improvement of turn buildings, and these are now, on 
the whole, folly abreast of the times. In several |»rts 
of Forfarshire, re-draining might be carried out with 
advantage ; but still, since 1854, a great improvement 
has been effected in the condition of the land in this 
respect In the wheat and potato districts there is yet 
a laige stretch of open land, but in the parts where the 
pastming of Uve-stock holds a prominent place in the 
economy of the fiirm, a great extent of fencing, mostiy 
wire and stone dvkes, has been erected within the last 
25 or 80 years. In service or farm roads, too, as well as 
in the countv roads, there has been considerable im- 
provement, while not a little has been done in the way 
of straightening watercourses, squaring fields, draining 
small pieces of lake or swamp, clearing the land of 
stones, and in other small but useful works.' 

The areas under various crops are given in the follow- 
ing table :— 

Grain Crops — Acres. 

FOBT A B8 H ntiB 
Grass, Boot Crops, &a— Acres. 






1864, . 
1870, . . 
1876, . . 
1881.. . 









Hagr, Grass, 

and Penna- 







The agricultural live-stock in the county is shown in 
the following table : — 







1864, . 
1870, . 
1876, . 
1881, . 










The polled Angus breed of cattie has a history of 
peculiar interest, and the herds existing in the county 
are valuable and important From Mr Macdonald's 
report on the agriculture of the county, we learn that 
last century the excellent beef producing qualities of the 
herd had been discovered, and that several polled herds 
were formed. The credit of being the first to commence 
the systematic improvement of the breed belongs to Mr 
Hugh Watson, Keillor, an intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott, and associated with Booth, Wetherell, and other 
noted improvers of the cattle breeds of the kingdom. 
His herd was founded in 1808, and consisted of 6 cows 
and a bull left him by his &ther, and of 10 of the best 
heifers and the best bull he could find at Trinity Muir 
Fair. Although no complete record exists of Mr Wat- 
son's Bvstem, ms theory was to ' put the best to the best 
regardless of afl^ty or blood.' His herd was dispersed 
in 1860. The entrance of rinderpest dealt a heavy blow 
to the cultivation of breeding herds, but there has been 
a revival, and the county contains several well-known 
herds, including that at Mains of Kelly, founded in 
1810. The breeding of shorthorns was lonp; carried on 
by Mr Lyall at Kincrak, near Brechin, and afterwards 
at Old Montroee, but this herd, nearly extinguished by 
rinderpest in 1865, was finally dispersed in 1874. Mr 
Arkley of Ethiebeaton and other shorthorn breeders 
have small herds in the county. 

The breed of black cattle, previous to the introduction 
of turnips and sown grasses, was small, and the cattle 
were yoked in the plough in teams. The breed still re- 
mains smaller in the remote than in the more cultivated 
districts, but, as stated by Mr Maodonald, it has been 
improved throughout most of the county by crossing 
and importations, so as to correspond in progress with 
the progress in the arts of tillage. The distinction be- 
tween the best feeding and the best milking breed, so 
essential to improvement in matters of the dairy, is 
much less maintained or observed than in Ayrshire and 
other dairy districts. The original breed of sheep was 
the small white-faced shee^, believed to have been the 
aboriginal breed of Britam ; but, in the early part of 
the present century, it was almost wholly superseded by 
the black-faced sheep, brought principally from Peebles- 
shire. Qoats were at one time se^ in the mountainous 
districts, but on account of the iinury they did to plan- 
tations they were extirpated in the latter part of last 

The manufacture of coarse fabrics from flax, lute, and 
hemp, is carried on to a vast extent in For&rshire, and 
comprises considerably more than half of the entire 
linen trade of Scotlana. The spinning of yam in large 
miUs, and the working of canvas, oroad sheetings, 
bagging, and other heavy fobrics in factories, are con- 
structs on a vast scale in the laige towns; and the 
weaving of osnabuighs, dowlas, and common sheetings 
employs an enormous number of handlooms in the 
smaller towns and villages. Mr A. J. Warden gives 
the number of linen factories, in Sept. 1867, as 72 in 

Dundee, 18 in Arbroath and its neighbourhood, 6 in 
Montroee and its neighbourhood, 6 in Forfor, 4 in 
Brechin, and 2 in Carnoustie — altogether 108 ; and they 
had 278,664 spindles, 11,829 power-looms, and 7715 of 
nominal horse-power, and employed 46,571 persons. 
The spinning, weaving, and bleaching of linen are car- 
ried on in various other quuters, but chiefly for manu- 
facturers in these towns. Manufactures of leather, 
gloves, soap, candles, hand cards, machinery, confec- 
tionerv, and other articles also are carried on in con- 
siderable ma^initnde, but onlv or chiefly in the large 
towns, principally Dundee, Arbroath, and Montrose, 
and are noticed in our articles on these places. The 
railways of the county embrace the Dundee and Perth, 
which runs a few miles along the coast to Dundee ; the 
Dundee and Arbroath; the North British, Montrose, 
and Arbroath, along the coast, to Montrose ; the Mon- 
trose and Bervie, ^ing along the coast into Kincardine- 
shire ; the Ttkj Bndge connections at Dundee ; and the 
connections and branches to Forfar, Brechin, E^'emuir, 
eta (See Caledoniak Railway and No&xh Bbitish 

Forfarshire, with a constituency of 8642 in 1882, 
returns one member to parliament, always a liberal 
since 1887, there having been only one contested election 
(in 1872) during all mat period, and even then both 
candidates were Liberals. Dundee returns two members ; 
and Montrose, Arbroatii, Brechin, and Foi&r, forming 
with Bervie the Montrose Burghs, return one. Other 
towns are Kirriemuir, Lochee, Broughty Ferry, Car- 
noustie, and part of Ooupar- Angus ; and the principal 
villages are Auehmtthie, Bamhm, Claverhouse, Down- 
field, Edzell, Ferryden, Friockheim, Glamis, Hillside, 
Letham, Monifietn, Newtyle, and Korthmuir. Man- 
sions, aQ noticed separately, are Airlie Castle^ Cortaohy 
Castle, Ethie Castta, Glanus Castle, Einnaird Castle, 
Brechin Castle, Auldbar Castle, Panmure House, Inver- 
mark Lodge, Caraldston Castle, Bossie, Duntrune, 
Oditerlony, Hospitalfield, Stracatiiro, Bandirran, Lin- 
dertis, Liulathen, Baldovan, Invergowrie, Baldowie, etc. 
A great proportion of the landed proper^ of the county 
at the beginning of the 18th century was held by the 
Lyons, the Maules, the Douglases, the Ogilvies, the 
Caxnegiee, and a few other ancient families ; but much 
of the large estates, after the introduction of manufac- 
tures and trade, underwent subdivision, and passed into 
otiier hands. Not one-third of 40 barons, recorded by 
Edward in 1676 as proprietors in the county, are now 
represented by their descendants, and a portion of even 
the few ancient families who continue to be proprietors 
are now non-resident So rapidly has landed property 
in many parishes passed from hand to hand, that the 
average term of possession by one £unily does not exceed 
40 years. According to MisceUaneous StatiisbkB nf the 
United KiTigdom (1879), 555,994 acres, with a total 
gross estimated rental of £1,248,109, were divided 
among 9839 proprietors, one holding 186,602 acres 
(rental £55,602), one 65,059 (£21,664), two together 
44,418 (£25,827), two 27,884 (£22,456), fourteen 
90,807 (£72,096), twenty-five 88,744 (£96,566), thirty 
41,695 (£64,222), forty-two 29,254 (£1M,781), one 
hundred and four 28,148 (£76,719), etc. 

The county is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, 81 deputy-lieutenants, and 281 justices of 
the peace. It forms a sherifidom, with resident sheriffs- 
substitute at Dundee and Forfieur, courts being held at 
the former town on Wednesday and TiidAj, and at the 
latter on Thursday, throughout the session. A sheriff 
small-debt court is also held at For£ar on Thursdav, 
and at Dundee on Tuesday. Small debt courts are held 
at Montrose on the third Friday, at Arbroath on the 
third Wednesday, and at Kirriemuir on the third Mon- 
day, of January and every alternate month. There is 
a burgh police force in Arbroath (18 men), Brechin (6), 
Dnn£e (161), Forfar (9), Kirriemuir (2), and Montrose 
(12); the remaining pouoe in the county comprise 48 
men, under a chief constable, whose yearly pay is £800. 
In 1880 the number of persons in the county and in the 
six burghs tried at the instance of the police was 479 


and 6461; convicted, 449 and 6242; committed for 
trial, 42 and 473 ; not dealt with, 189 and 1970. The 
registration county, divided into 54 registration dis- 
tricts, had 268,658 inhabitants in 1881. The number 
of registered poor in the year ending 14 May 1881 was 
5550; of dependants on these, 2787; of casual poor, 
1612 ; of dependants on these, 1194. The receipts for 
the poor in that year were £58,712, 17s. 7id. ; and 
the expenditure was £54,880, 78. 8d. The number of 
pauper lunatics was 789, their cost of maintenance 
Deing £15,848, 88. lid. The percentage of illegitimate 
births was 11*6 in 1871, 10 in 1877, and 9*9 in 1880. 

Althou^ eleventh in size of the thirty-three Scotch 
counties, Forfarshire ranks as sixth, or next to Fife, in 
respect of rental roll, its valuation, exclusive of railways 
and burghs, being (1856) £870,519, (1866) £462,138, 
(1876) £554,407, (1882) £590,382, Is. 60,, plus £101,194 
for railways and £823,875, 6s. lid. for the five parlia- 
mentary burghs. Total (1882) £1,514,951, 8s. 5d. In 
point of population it stiands fourth, Aberdeen, Edin- 
Durgh, and Lanark shires alone surpassing it Pop. 
(1801) 99,058, (1811) 107,187, (1821), 113,365, (1881) 
139,606,(1841) 170,453, (1851) 191,264,(1861) 204,425, 
(1871) 237,567, (1881) 266,360, of whom 120,091 were 
males, and 146,269 females. In 1881 the number of 
persons to each square mile was 304 ; and the dwellers 
m the nine towns numbered 214,760, in the thirteen 
villages 8261, and in the rural districts 43,339, the 
corresponding figures for 1871 being 186,185, 7130, and 
44,252. Houses (1881) 52,688 inhabited, 3236 vacant, 
115 building. 

The county is divided into 56 civil parishes, of which 
6 are partly situated in other counties. Edzell has a 
small piece in Kincardineshire ; Alyth, Caputh, and 
Coupor-Angus are principEJly in Perthshire; and por- 
tions of Lm and Benvie, Lundie and Fowlis, are in the 
latter county. There are 25 mioad sacra parishes, and 
these with the civil go to make up the presbyteries of 
Forfar, Brechin, and Arbroath, and partly to form 
those of Dundee and Meigle— all of them included in 
the synod of An^ and Meams. The Free Church 
has similar divisions, with 62 charges within Forfar- 
shire ; and the United Ftesbyterian Church, in its 
presbjrteries of Arbroath and Dundee, has 27 ForfiEur- 
shire charges. The Scottish Episcopal Church has 13 
churches; the Roman Catholic, 6; and other places 
of worship are 2 English EjNscopal, 7 Evangelical 
Union, 11 Congregational, 4 Wesleyan, 6 Baptist, 1 
Unitarian, and 2 United Original Seceders. In the 
year ending Sept 1881 there were 195 schools (147 

Eublic), which, with accommodation for 38,411 children, 
ad 36,244 on the rolls, and an average attendance of 
26,901. Their staff consisted of 313 certificated, 55 
assistant, and 289 pupil teachers. 

The territory now constituting Forfarshire belonged 
to the Caledonian tribe of the Vemicomes. It formed, 
till the time of Kenneth II., a part of Southern Pic- 
tavia ; and from 985 and earlier to 1242 was included 
in the old Celtic mormaership or earldom of Angus. 
Its civil history possesses hardly a distinctive feature ; 
and, exceptiiu; a few facts which properly belong to 
the history of its principal towns, Brechin, Arbroath, 
Dimdee, Forfar, and Montrose, and to its castles, as 
Finhaven, Edzell, and Airlie, it is blended in the 
general history of the counties N of the Forth. The 
chief immigrant barons, at the period of the Anglo- 
Saxon colonisation, whose descendants continued to 
figure most conspicuously in the county, were the 
Lyons, the Maules, and the Camojiies. Sir John 
Lyon, a gentleman of Norman extraction, having mari 
ried a daughter of King Robert II., obtained, among 
other grants, the castle and lands of Glanus, and was 
the founder of the noble family of Barons Glamis, 
Tannadioe, Sidlaw, and Strathdighty, and Earls of 
Strathmore. Guarin de Maule accompanied William 
the Conqueror f^m Normandy to En^and ; Robert ds 
Maule, a son of Guaiin, followed Earl David, afterwards 
King David, into Scotland ; Roger, the second son of 
that Robert, married the heiress of William de Yalonii^ 




Lord of Panmure and chamberlain of Scotland in the 
time of Alexander IL ; and from them sprang the 
Hanles, afterwards Earls of Panmure, and the Fox- 
Kanle-Bamsays, now Barons Panmure and Earls of Dal- 
housie. The Camegies ramified into several branches, 
two of which became respectively Earls of Southesk and 
Earls of Northesk. 

Remains of vitrified forts are found on Finhaven HiU 
in Oathlaw parish, on Drumsturdy Moor in Monifieth 
parish, and on Dundee Law. Ancient hill forts are 
traceable on White Caterthun and Brown Caterthun 
in Menmuir parish, at Denoon Law, 2} miles SW of 
Glamis, and on Dunnichen Hill, Dumbarrow Hill, Car- 
buddo Hill, Lower Hill, and several other eminences. 
In many instances these forts are indicated onl^ by heaps 
of loose stones. Cairns and ancient standing stones 
are in various places, particularly in Aberlemno and 
Monikie parishes. Vestiges of Roman camps are at 
HaerfauldB in Lour Moor, at a part in Forlar Moor 
about i mile N£ of Forfar town, and at War Dykes or 
Black Dikes, 2| miles N of Brechin. At Dunnichen 
the revolted Picts defeated and slew Ecgfrid, the Nor- 
thumbrian king, recovering thus their independence, 
20 May 685. O&rved stones at Glamis are believed to 
refer to the drowning of the murderers of Malcolm II. , 
who are said to have perished by falling through the 
ice on Forfar Loch. In Rescobie Castle, Donald Bane, 
brother to Malcolm Ceannmor, was tortured by his 
nephew Edgar, and died in 1097, his enemy dyin^ ten 
years later. Queen Mary, in her joumev N, visited 
the abbey at Conpar-Angus and the castle of Edzell. 
Great medisval castles were at For&r and Dundee, but 
have long been extinct; and other medisval castles, 
stUl represented by considerable remains, in various 
conditions of conservation or of ruin, are Broughty 
Castle at Broughty Ferrv, Red Castle at the head of 
Lunan Bay, Airlie Castle in Airlie parish, Finhaven 
Castle in Oathlaw parish, Invermark Castle and Edzell 
Castle in Glenesk, Kelly Castle near Arbroath, and 
Affleck Castle in Monikie parish. A round tower, 
similar to the famous round towers of Ireland, and the 
only one in Scotland except one at Abemethy, is at 
Brechin. Interesting ancient ecclesiastical edifices, or 
ruins of them, are the parish church or quondam cathe- 
dral of Brechin, the tower of the town churches of 
Dundee, the abbey of Arbroath, the Priory of Restenneth, 
and the churches of Eettins and Fowlis. Several monas- 
tic edifices, of inferior note to Arbroath Abbey, were in 
Dundee, Montrose, Brechin, and other places, but have 
in most instances entirely disappeared. See Andrew 
Jervise's Memorials of Angus and Meams (Edinb. 1861), 
and Land of the Lindsays (Edinb. 1858) ; William Mar- 
shall's Historic Scenes in Forfarshire (Edinb. 1875); 
J. C. Guthrie's Fale of Strathmare (Edinb. 1875); 
T. Lawson's Report on the Past and Present Agriculture 
qf Forfarshire (Edinb. 1881); James Macdonald's 'Agri- 
culture of the County of Forfar' in Trans, qftheffighl. 
and Ag. Soc (1881) ; Alex. J. Warden's Angus or For- 
farshire, the Land and People (4 vols. , Dundee, 1880-83) ; 
and works referred to under Arbroath, Brechin, 
CouPAR- Angus, Dundee, and Maryton. 

Forlanhire Railway. See Dundee and Forfar 

ForgEn, a parish in the N of Fife, on the Firth of 
Tav, containmg the post-town of Newport and the 
village of Woodhayen, the former 11 miles NNE of 
Cupar and 1^ mile SSE of Dundee (by steam ferry). It 
is bounded NW bv the Firth of Tay, E by Ferryport- 
on-Craig and Leuchars, S by Leuchars, Logic, and Eil- 
many, and W by Balmerino. Its utmost length, from 
£ by N to W by S, is 5) miles ; its breadth varies be- 
tween li and 8 miles ; and its area is 5082} acres, of 
which 100 are foreshore. The Firth of Tay, contracting 
here from 2} miles to IJ mile, is crossed at Wormit 
Bay, in the western extremity of the parish, by the 
new Ta^ Bridge. The coast-line, SJ miles long, trends, 
with abffht curvature, from SW to NE ; and ^ve and 
below Newport projects the small headlands of Pluck 
the Crow Point and Craig Head (formerly Skamess). 

The shore at ebb tide is entirely silt or clay, at high 
water shows a line of gravel or boulders ; and the coast 
is all bold or rocky, rising rapidly in places to a height 
of 100 feet above sea-level. The interior presents an 
irregular and undulating surface, a series of heights and 
hollows that attains 800 feet near Northfield, Inverdovet, 
St Fort, and Wormithill, and 400 at Newton Hill in 
the SW comer of the parish. The land slopes generally 
towards the Tay ; and the immediate seaboara is, to a 
larffe extent, studded with villas of Dundee merchants 
ana manufacturers, and, finely adorned with gardens, 
shrubberies, and woods, commands magnificent views 
across and along the Tay. The principal rocks are 
sandstone, sandstone oon^omerate, fine-grained green- 
stone-trap, and amygdaloidal greenstone, the last of 
which has been largej^ quarried, both for house-building 
and for enclosures. The soil, over the greater part of the 
area, consists of the dibris of the trap rocks, being partly 
light and gravelly, but chiefly either a good black loam 
or a clayey earth. About four-fifths of the entire area 
are in tillage, the rest being pretty equally divided be- 
tween grass and plantations. Cairns or tumuli, com- 
posed of small stones, were formerlv numerous; and 
rude ancient urns have been found at Newport, at 
Westfield, and in Tayfield Park. At Inverdufatha or 
Inverdovet, in 877, the Danes, pursuing the Scots from 
Dollar, gained a great victory, in which EingConstantin 
mac Kenneth was among the ^;reat multitude slain. St 
Fort and Tayfield are uie chief mansions ; and 6 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
14 of between £100 and £500, 27 of from £50 to £100, 
and 80 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of St 
Andrews and synod of Fife, this parish since 1878 has 
been ecclesiastically divided into Forgan proper and New- 
port, the former a living worth £857. Its old church 
standing in ruins at a beautiful sequestered spot, 2^ miles 
SE of Newport, was anciently held by St Andrews priory ; 
the present one was built in 1841, and contains 550 sit- 
tings. Four other places of worship — Established, Free, 
U.r. , and Congregational — are noticed under Newport ; 
and two public schools, Forgan and Newport, with 
respective accommodation for 130 and 421 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 106 and 272, and 
grants of £91, 17s. lOd. and £270, 98. Valuation 
(1866) £12,705, (1882) £26,188, 2s. 2d. Pop. of civQ 
parish (1801) 916, (1881) 1090, (1851) 1125, (1861) 
1826, (1871) 2248, (1881) 3808 ; of ecclesiastical parish 
(1881) 1538.— Or<^. Sur,, shs. 49, 48, 1865-68. 

Forgandenny, a post-office village in Perthshire, and 
a parish partly also in Einross-shire. The village 
stands 180 feet above sea-level, 3 miles W of its post- 
town. Bridge of Earn, and 1 mile S of the river Earn, 
and of a station of its own name on the Scottish Central 
section of the Caledonian railway, this station being 4^ 
miles S W of Perth. 

The parish, containing also the hamlet of Path of 
Condie, 5 miles S by W, is bounded N by Aberdalgie 
and the Craigend section of Forteviot, £ by Dunbamy, 
Dron, and Amgask, S by the southernmost section of 
Forteviot and by Orwell, and W by Dunning and the 
main body of Forteviot Its utmost length, from N by 
£ to S by W, is 7i miles ; its breadth varies between 
If and 8i miles ; and its area is 8998^ acres, of which 
1218} belong to Einrbss-shire, and 52^ are water. The 
river Earn, winding 2{ miles eastward along or just 
beyond all the norSiem boundary, describes some of 
those graceful curves, and forms some of those beautiful 
peninsulas, for which it has been so much admired ; and 
the Water of May, its affluent, has here a course of 5| 
miles — ^the first 2 miles north-eastward along the bound- 
ary with Dunning, and the last \ mile northward along 
that with Forteviot. Both the Earn and the Ma^, the 
former all along the northern boundary, the latter in its 
lower reach, sometimes oveiflow their oanks ; but they 
amply compensate any damage they inflict by bringing 
down rich deposits of fertilising silt. One or two 
springs adjacent to the eastern boundary possess exactly 
tne same medicinal properties as the Pitcaithly wells. 
The northern district, from 80 to 160 feet above the sea. 


is part oi the beautiful vallej of Strathearn, and, 
tiiough ascending gradually southwards, is on the 
\7hole leyeL The southern, beyond the village, com- 
prises fully three-fourths of the entire area, and runs up 
among the Ochil Hills, attaining 800 feet on Dumbuils, 
1028 on Castle Law, 624 near Ardaigie Mains, 797 near 
Boasieochill, and 1854 at Slungie mil, whose summit, 
however, falls just within Orwell pcoish. It mainly 
consists of hill and upland, with little intersecting vale ; 
yet has but a small aggregate of bare or rocky surface, 
and is mostly disposer in either good pasture or corn- 
fields. The rocks are partly Devonian, but principally 
eruptive ; and they include some limestone, some iron- 
stone, and great abundance of such kinds of trap as 
are suitable for building. The soil on some of the lands 
adjacent to the Earn is carse clay, on others a sandy 
alluvium ; further S is a rich, black, argillaceous loam ; 
and on the arable lands of the centre and the S is 
variously a sandy earth, a black earth, and a reddish 
day, better adapted for oats than any other sort of 
grain. Much buid formerly pastoral or waste has been 
reclaimed ; and barely 1000 acres have never been sub- 
jected to the plough. The mansions of Ardargie, 
Condie, Freeland, and Bossie are separately noticed, as 
likewise are a small Roman camp on Ardargie estate, an 
extensive Danish fortification on Castle Law, and 
remains of another ancient fortification on Dumbuils. 
Five proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, and 4 of from 
£20 to £50. Foreandenny is in the presbytery of 
Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is 
worth £272. The parish church at the village is very 
old, and contains 410 sittings. There is also a Free 
church ; and two public sdiools, Forgandenny and Path 
of Condie, with respective accommodation for 118 and 
64 children, had (1881) &n average attendance of 79 and 
40, and grants of £67, 2s. ana £44, 68. Valuation 
(1882) £7918, 8s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 958, (1881) 917, 
(1861) 739, (1871) 632, (1881) 627, of whom 10 were in 
Einross-shire.— (M. Swr.^ shs. 48, 40, 1868-67. 

Fraglem, a parish of NE Banffshire, whose church 
stands 2} miles WNW of Turriff, under which there Is 
a post office of Forglen. It is bounded N and NE by 
Alvah, £ and S by Turriff in Aberdeenshire, and SW 
and W by Mamoch. Its utmost len^, from NW to 
SE, is 5| miles ; its utmost breadth is 8} miles ; and 
its land area is 6249 acrea The river Devebon flows 
3 J miles east- north -eastward along all the southern, 
then 8^ miles along all the eastern and north-eastern, 
border. Sinking in the NE to 75 feet above sea-level, 
the surface thence rises to 400 feet at Todlaw Wood, 
328 near Sawmill Croft, 557 at Auldtown Hill, 600 
near Craiglug, and 575 at Craig Aithry. It thus is 
beautifully varied with gently rising grounds, having 
a gradual slope towards the I)everon, and beong well 
shdtered by woods and hills. Greywacke rock pre- 
vails in the W, and appears also in the N and the 
centre; whilst day slate predominates in the lower 
grounds and towards the S. The soil is generally light 
— sandy along the Deveron, clayey in parts of the 
interior, and seldom loamy. Fully one-fifth of the 
entire area is under wood, and nearly all the rest of the 
land, partly in result of recent reclamation, is either 
regularly or occasionaUy in tillage. Fonden House, on 
the left bank of the Deveron, 2} miles N W of Turriff, is 
a noble castellated edifice of 1842, successor to an older 
mansion that dated from the middle of the 15th 
century. It is the seat of Sir Bobert John Abercromby 
of BirKenbog, chief of the clan Abercromby, and seventh 
Bart since 1686 (b. 1850 ; sue. 1872), who owns 8053 
acres in the shire, valued at £6290 per annum. Car- 
nousie, the other mansion, is noticed separately ; and 
the property is divided among three. Constituted a 
mrisn about 1640 out of portions of Alvah and Mamoch, 
Forglen was sometimes known as Tennan or St Eonan 
(Adamnan) from an ancient chapel in it, remains of 
which still exist This chapel, or a predecessor, was 
Adamnan's principal church among the northern Picts 
towards the close of the 7th century ; and in it was pre- 


served the Bridtcmnoehf or banner of Columba. For* 

§len is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aber* 
een ; the living is worth £225. The present paruji 
church, built in 1806, contains 450 sittincs. A Free 
church stands 2^ miles to the WNW ; and two public 
schools, boys' and girls', with respective accommooation 
for 120 and 85 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 76 and 47, and grants of £85 and £42, 8s. 2d. 
Valuation (1860) £4470, (1882) £6378, 14s. 8d. Pop. 
(1801) 605, (1881) 820, (1861) 788, (1871) 845, (1881) 
744.— Ord. Swr., sh. 86, 1876. 

Forgne, a parish on the nortii-westem border of Aber- 
deenshire. The church, near which a hamlet once 
existed, is situated 5^ miles £ of Bothiemay station, 
and 7i NE of Huntly, under which there is a post 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Inverkeithny 
in Bannshire, E by Auchterless, S by Culsalmond and 
Insch, W by Drumblade and Huntly, and NW by 
Bothiemay in Banffshire. Its utmost length, from N 
to S, is 7fi miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies 
between 2 and 5| miles ; and its area is 17,379^ acres, 
of which 25i are water. The river Devebon winds 
9 furlongs along the Bothiemay border ; Glen Water or 
the Uby, flowing 2| miles eastward through the Glen of 
Foudland, traces all the southern boundary ; the 
Ythan rises in the southern interior, and passes off into 
Auchterless; whilst Forgue and Frendraught Bums, 
uniting below the church, carry most of the drainage 
northward to the Deveron. The surface declines along 
the Deveron to 242 feet above sea-level, at the confluence 
of Forgue and Frendraught Bums to 232, along the Ury 
to 538, and along the Ythan to 508 ; and the interior 
is a fine alternation of vales and hillocks, holms and 
knolls. The north-western extremity is occupied by 
part of Foreman Hill (1127 feet) ; and in the S rise 
Broom HiU (1006), Wether Hill (943), and the HiU of 
Bainshole (1042). The chief rocks are greywacke, clay 
slate, limestone, granitic gneiss, and syenitic ereenstone, 
of which the slate and Umestone were formerly quarried 
at Lambhill and Pitfancy. The soils are various — 
sandy, gravelly, loamy, clayey, and mossy ; some rich 
and grateful, others poor and barren ; some yielding 
from eight to ten returns of the seed sown, others re- 
turning no more than two or less than three. Much of 
the land incaj^ble of being turned to any better account 
is covered with plantations. An interesting ruin, 
famous in ballad and separately noticed, is Frendraught 
Castle; other antiquities are remains of several an- 
cient Caledonian stone circles, and of what is conjec- 
tured to have been a Boman redoubt. The Admirable 
Crichton (1560-83) has been claimed as a native, falsely, 
since Eliock, in Dumfriesshire, was his birtiiplace ; but 
in Foigue was bom the eminent antiquary, John Stuart, 
LIi.D. (1818-77). A larce distillery is at Glendronach, 
and fairs are held at HawlchalL In 1875 a neat cottage 
hospital was built in this parish by Mrs Morison of 
Bognie, for patients resident in the parishes of Forgue, 
Ythan- Wells, Auchterless, and InverKeithny. In fr^nt 
of it is a granite cross 20 feet high, erected bv the 
tenantry in 1876 as a memorial to her husband^ the 
late Alexander Morison, Esq., in pursuance of whose 
wishes this hospital was founded. Mansions are Auch- 
aber, Auchamie, Boyne's Mill, Cobairdv, Corse, Dram- 
blair House, Drumluair Cottage, Frendniught, Haddo, 
and Temple-land; and 5 proprietors hoM each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 
and £600, and 3 of less than £100. In the presbytery 
of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, this parlsn includes 
the chief part of Ythan-Wellb quoad aaara piuish. 
itself bein^ a living worth £343. Its church, erected 
in 1819, IS a substantial edifice, with 900 sittingSL 
Gothic windows, and a fine-toned organ, presentoa 
by Walter Scott, Esq. of Glendronach, in 1872. There 
are also a Free church of Forgue, and an Episco* 
pal church, St Margaret's, which Utter, rebuilt in 1857. 
IS an Early Ei^Ush stmcture, with nave, chancel, ana 
a tower and spire 110 feet hi^h. Forgue public, hofp^ 
public, and Forgue Episcopalian school, with respecttvt 



aocommodation for 140, 100, and 60 children, liad 
(1881) an average attendance of 79, 82, and 51, and 
grants of £71, 6s, 6d., £76, lis., and £34, 8s. Yalnation 
<1860) £11,006, (1881) £13,588, Is. 9d. Pop. of civil 
iiorish (1801) 1768, (1831) 2286, (1861) 2686, (1871) 
8628, (1881) 2422 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1871) 1332, 
(1881) 1308.— Ord. Sur„ sh. 86, 1876. 
ForUngB, a hamlet of S Roxburghshire, 9 milea E by 

5 of Hawick. 

Forkixia. See Wilsontowf. 

Formal, Knock of, a hill near the SW border of lin- 
trathen parish, W Forftirshire, on the western shore of 
the Loch of Lintrathen, 4 miles N by £ of Alvth. It 
rises to an altitude of 1158 feet above sea-level, and is 
covered with wood to the top. 

Forman. See Foreman. 

Fonnartlne, a central district of Aberdeenshire. It 
is bounded on the KE bv Buchan, on the E by the 
German Ocean, on the S by Aberdeen, on the S W by 
Garioch, on the NW by Strathbogie. It comprises all 
the seaboard from the Vthan to the Don ; extends up 
the N side of the Tthan's basin and past Turriff to the 
Deveron ; and is separated by a ridge of low hills, near 
Old Meldrum, from Garioch. It contains 16 pioad 
eivilia parishes, and has an area of about 280 square 
miles. It consists partly of a strong soil intersected bv 
bo^B, and partly of an excellent clay capable of a high 
degree of improvement ; and it gives the title of Yiscount 
to the Earl of Aberdeen. 

Fomeih, a hamlet in Clunie parish, NE Perthshire, 

6 miles W by S of Blairgowrie, under which it has a post 
office. Fometh House, i mile nearer Blaiigowrie, 
crowns a fine elevation on the NW bank of the loch of 
Glunis, and commands a beautiful prospect of the lake, 
its islet, and surrounding scenea 

Fomoiighty, a hamlet in Bathven parish, KW Banff- 
shire, 3} miles S of Buckie. 

Forres (Gael, far-uis, * near the water *), a parish in 
the NW of the county of Elgin, is bounded on the NE 
by Einloss, on the £, S£, and S by Rafford, on the 
S W by Edinkillie, and on the W by Dyke and Moy. 
Near the middle of the western boundary, at Moy OaiBe 
westward from Invereme, the boundary is formed by a 
detached portion of Nairnshire, measuring 4 ftirlonffs by 
2. With this exception, the boundary on the SW and 
W is the river Findhom ; elsewhere it|is artificial and 
excessively irregolar. lliere is a long narrow strip 
Tunning N and S, and from the middle of this a horn- 
like projection runs eastward into the parish of Rafford, 
and terminates near Califermoss. The greatest length 
trom the point on the N in Findhom Bay, where Forres 
unites with the parishes of Einloss and Dyke and Moy, 
to thepoint on the S where it unites with the parishes 
of Bafford and EdinkUiie, is 6 J miles ; and the breadth, 
from E to W, from the most easterly point of the long 
projection already mentioned, to the point on the W on 
the river Findhom, where the parishes of Forres, Edin- 
killie, and Dyke and Moy unite, is 5). Owing, how- 
ever, to its irregular shape, the area is cmly 5440 acres. 
The surface in the northern district is low and level, 
and is highly cultivated, as is also that of the central 
district, wmch is diversified by small round hills 
crowned with dumps of trees that, along with the hedge- 
rows, five to the neighbourhood of Forres a peculiarly 
English aspect In the eastward projection the ffround 
rises more steeply, and at Califer HiU attains a neight 
of 700 feet above sea-level. The wooded ridge of Cluny 
Hill, close to the town of Forres, is noticed in the 
following article. The woods of Altyre in the S are 
extensive and, in some places, picturesque. The soil 
of the lower and central districts is mostly a good 
loam, but in parts it is liffht and sandy, and, like 
most of the ' Laich of Moray, of which an old proverb 
says, that 

' A misty Ifay uid a dnppin' June 
Pat th« bonnie Land o^Moxay abone,' 

it takes a gpod deal of rain in the earlier part of the 
season to bring the crops to full perfection. The soil of 
the southern portion is poorer and in parts mossy. The 


underlying rocks are sandstone and impure limestone, a 
ouarry in the latter in the extreme S of the parish, near 
dothidl, being sometimes worked. The climate is good 
and the air dry and pure. The parish is drained by the 
river Findhom, flowing 6f miles northward along aU the 
western border, and by the Bum of Forres or Alttke, 
which, entering fr^m Rafford parish, winds 6^ miles 
northward past the W end of the town, till it falls into 
Findhom Bay. Although the mouth of this bum and 
the mouth proper of the river Findhom are a mile apart 
along the edge of the bav, and the edge of the bay is 
more than a mile and a half from the town of Forres, 
yet, during the great flood of the 8 and 4 Aug. 1829, 
80 much were botl^ river and bum swollen, tluit their 
watera united near the W end of the town at the Castle 
Hill, the whole of the low countrv to the N being under 
water. ' The view of the inundated plain of Forres,' 
says Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, ' from the Castlehill of 
the borough, on the morning of the 4th, though truly 
magnificent, was such as to overwhelm the mind of the 
spectator with dismay. From Mundole, about 2 miles 
to the W of Forres, and from Forres to Findhom, about 
6 miles to the N, the whole plain was under water. 
The river and the bum met under the Castlehill, and 
the inundation spread over the rich and variously 
cropped fields, and over hedges, gardens, orchards, and 
plantations. In this " worla of watera " the mansions 
of proprietora, the &rmhouses and oflSces, the trees, and 
especially the hedgerows, giving its peculiarly Enclish 
appearance to the environs of Forres — ^the riclcs of nay, 
and here and there a few patches of com standing on 
situations more elevated than the rest, presented a truly 
wonderful scene. One-half of the bridge of Forres, over 
the bum immediately under tiie Castlehill, had disap- 
peared during the night, having parted longitudinally; 
and, over the part that yet remain^ the people on the w 
side of the bum were hastily removing their funilies, 
cattle, and furniture to the hill on which Forres stands, 
afber having waded to the middle to rescue them from the 
flood.' The Loch of Blaira, measuring 3 by 2 furlongs, 
and lying 2) miles SSW of the town, is partly in Forres 

Sirish, yartlj in Rafford. The parish is traversed by the 
ighland railway system. The line from Inverness to 
Keith passes across the parish near the centre from SW to 
NE for a distance of 2 miles. At the W end of the town 
of Forres the Perth section of the line branches off and 
passes in a SE direction throuffh the parish for more 
than 2) miles. At the SW end of the Inverness and 
Keith section, the Findhom is crossed by a heavy plate- 
girder bridge with 8 spans of 150 feet each, the girdera 
oeinff supported by massive abutments on each side, 
and by 2 piera in the waterwav, of the river. The piera 
are founded on rock 15 feet below the bed. The great 
road from Aberdeen to Invemess passes through the 
parish a little to the S of the railway for a distance of 
2 jr miles. It passes through the town of Forres, and 
crosses the Findhom by an elegant suspension bridge, 
which was erected in 1881 from designs by Sir Samuel 
Brown, R.N. The rivor was formerly crossed at the 
same place by a handsome bridge of 8 arches, but it was 
swept away by the great flood of 1829, and, at the same 
time, a mile of the tumpike road to the £ was destroyed, 
and ' left in deep holes foil of salmon. ' The present bnd^n 
was eracted to replace the one destroyed by the flood. It 
cost nearly £10,000, and the last remaining toll in the 
county of Elgin was its lately-abolished pontage. The 
chains are supported at either side of the river by well 
proportioned Gothic towers. The industries of the parish 
are connected with the town of the same name, and are 
noticed in the following article. Sanquhar House, { 
mile S of the town, is an Elizabethan strocture, in plan 
resembliuff a double cross, and peatly enlarged in 1863. 
The main DuUding is two stones high, and at the NW 
comer rises an octagonal three-story tower. There 
are good ffardens, and in the park are a number of fine 
trees; whilst to the N of the house is a beautiful 
artificial lake. William Fraser-Tytler (1777-1858), 
eldest son of Lord Woodhouselbb, in 1801 married 
Margaret Cussans, only daughter and heiress of George 

Onmt of BnrdsTBTds or Saaqnliar ; and his second sob, 
Charles Edward Fraser-Tytler of Aldourie aad Balmain 
(1816-81), who held ISIO acres in Elgin^re, and 
15,078 in InTemese-shiie, rained afe £1818 and £8151 
per annum, hsa left Aldovbib in the former county to 
nis eldest sorKving son, Edward Grant, and Sanqimar 
to the third, Wiluam Thsodoze. Invereme Hcmse, 
which is H mile N by W of the town, is a qnad- 
rangnlar bmldiBg cf fonr stories, bnilt in 181& The 
old name of it was TannachT, and it belonged to the 
family of ToUoch of Tannachy, who^ however, had to 
part with it in 1772. Thenamehas been changed since 
the present propriety acquired it fxk 1884. It was at 
one time the residence A Charles St John, the well- 
known author of Wild Sports qf the Sighiamda and el 
Natural Eisbory and Spori iat Mvn^ Yom» Honse, 
which is on the outslortB of the town, has a large 
ffarden and policies extending to the base of the duny 
HilL The site was formerly occupied by a fine old 
mansion-house which also belonged to the Tannachy 
family. Drumdnan House is near the E end of the 
town. Seren proprietors hold each an annuel Talue of 
£500 or upwards^ 15 of between £100 and £500, 48 
of from £50 to £100, and 69 of from £20 to £5a 
The pariah is in the presbytery of Forres and ^ynod 
of Moray ; the living ia wortn £886. The public, 
the infant public, and the industrial Episcopalian 
school, with respectLTO accommodation for 400, 109, 
and 108 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
269, 118, and 86, and ^nts of £240, 10s., £^, 17s., 
and £76, 13s. Valuation, exclusive of burgh, (1881) 
£7787, 4s. Pop. (1801) 8114, (1831) 3895, (1861) 4112, 
(1871) 4562, (1881) 4752.— Ord Sur., aha. 84, 85, 94, 

Forres is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of 
Moray, comprehending the parishes of Forres, Dallas, 
Dyke, Edinkillie, Einloss, and Bafford. Pop. (1871) 
10,859, (1881) 10,202, of whom 760 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
has also a presbytei^ of Forres, induding churches 
in the same six panshea, which together had 1960 
members in 1881. 

Fonw, a town, with the privile^ of a royal buigh, 
in the centre of the foregoing pansh. It stands on a 
terraced ridge, extendingfrom E to W, and slopine 

Sntly to the N and S. The site is pleasant and weu 
eltered, the surrounding countxy miely wooded and 
beautifdl ; and the sheltned situation combined with 
the dry soil makes it one of the healthiest places in 
Scotland, so much so, indeed, that it haa sometimes 
been called the Montpelier of Scotland. The large 
number of detached villas and the great extent of 
garden ground give the town the appearance of being 
much luger and having a f^^aX many more inhabitants 
than is actually the case. The station on the Highland 
railway, grsatly improved in 1876-77, is the junction of 
the Inverness, the Keith, and the Perth sections of the 
system. The railway convenience thus afforded has 
f^reatly aided in the development of the town and the 
increase in its trade and population that have taken 

Elace in recent years. By rul it is 6 nules S of Find- 
om, 12 W by S of EkM, 30 WNW of Keith, 83iNW 
by W of Aberdeen, 25 ENS of Inverness, 166 NNw of 
Edinburgh, and 182 NNE of Glasgow. 

The name Forres is probably the GaeUc/ar, 'near,' and 
uis, * water ; ' but however that may be, it is a place of 
considerable antiouity. It has be^ by many writers 
identified with tne Farria of Ptolemy's chart, and 
mention is made by Boece that so early as 535 certain of 
its merchants were for some trifling cause put to death 
and their goods confiscated to the kuur. Malcolm I. is 
said to have resided in the neighbouraood ; and Ulum 
or Ylem, where, according to the later chronicles, he 
was killed in 954, has by some writers been ident&ed 
with Blervie Castle, H milea ESE of Forrea. (See 
Fjcttxrebso.) King Dubh or Duflhis, the son of Mal- 
colm, is said to have been murdered in the castle at 
Forres by Donald, the governor, in 967 ; and there is a 
curious story that his Iwdy was hidden under the bridge 

of Einloss, and that, till it was fovnd, the sun did not 
ohine. At Forres, according to Boeoe^ the 'mcious' 
King Duncan held his court, and Shakespeare, founding 
thereon, haa. made Macbeth and Banquo, going to the 
camp, meet the weird sisters on the Hard Muir, in the 
parish of Dyke dose by*^ 

' Hdw ter is^ celled to Forrest* 

Though early Forres thus ima evidmitly a place of as 
much importance as or even more than El^rin, it does 
not seem to have been able to kee|| pace with its rival 
after the foundation of the bishopric, wh^i £3gin be- 
came the eentre of ecclesiastical power and influence in 
theprovinco. At what date Forres became a royal burgh 
is uncertain, as all the older charters have been loat, 
and the oldest now remaining is one of De novo danm», 
granted bv King James IV., and dated 28 June 1496. It 
narrates that the king, 'understanding that the ancient 
charters granted to the town of Forres have been de- 
stroyed in time of war or by the violence of fire,' now 
flrants anew in free burgage iJl the knds and rights 
formerly belonging to the community, with power to 
elect a provost and bailies, etc., who were to exercise 
jurisdiction within the burgh boundaries. Liberty was 
also given to erect a cross and to hold ' a weekly mar- 
ket on Friday, and an annual fair, beginning on the 
Vigil of St Lawrence, and to continue for eight days 
. . . with all and sundry other privileges and im< 
munitiee of a free buigh.' The oldest notices of the 
place that exist firom contemporary documents are in 
connection with the castle, which stood on a green 
mound at the W end of the town, now known as the 
Castle Will. A northern bard has declared that 

"... Form, in the dajg of yore, 
A name 'nung SootU't dtlea bora. 
And there her Judges o'er and o'er 

tid SooUanaB laws dispense ; 
And there the monarchs of the land 
In former days held high eonunand. 
And ancient architeete had planned, 
Byroles of art tn order giaad. 
The royal reeidenoe.' 

The older castle of Forres^ where King Duffus is said to 
have been murdered, and which is said to have been 
razed after his death, was probably by no means so 
grand as this, and was very posaibly of wood. ' Its 
keep and walls were no doubt strengthened, if not 
rebuilt, in the reign of David I., when the town which 
it protected is first mentioned sa a king'a )amigfi. It was 
then snrronnded by a forest, in which the bnigeases had 
the privil^^ of wood-bote granted to them by that 
monarch.' The castle was a royal residence, and 
William the Lyon dated charters here in 1189 and 1198, 
and Alexander II. dated a charter from the same place 
in 1238. In 1264 William Wiseman, aheriff of Forrea, 
paid £10 for the erection of a new tower beyond the 
king^s chamber; and in the chamberlain's accounts 
about the same time, in the reign of Alexander III., 
there are entries of expenditure lor various articles for 
the kinfi^s table here. KinA David II. issued a writ at 
the casue of Forres in 186^ and it is mentioned sgain 
in 1871 under Robert II. The castle was the official 
residence of the hereditary sherifils of Moray, and so 
was in the possession of the fionily of Dunbar of West- 
field for more than 800 vears. From them itpasaed to 
the Earl of Seafield, and now beloiijgs to Sir Charles B. 
Ma(»rigor, Bart, London. The ruins which now stand 
on £e Castle HiU are not the remains of the old castle, 
but the relics of a house projected and partly bnilt by 
William Dawson, provost of Forres, about 1712. The 
foundations of the old castle were exposed when the NW 
slope of the hill was being planted with trees nearly 
twenty years affo. On the level space to the W of the 
ruins stands a Toftv obelisk of polished Peterhead gran« 
ite restinff on a freestone basiB. This baso is 24 feet 
square ; &e die of the obelisk is 9| feet square ; and 
the whole structure rises to a height of 65 feet. It was 
erected by public subscription, in 1867, in memorv of 
Asdstant-Surgeon James Thomson, who, as set forth in 
the inscription, was present with the 54th Regiment 'at 



the battle of Alma in 1854 ; and a few days afterwards^ 
when the British were leaving the field, volunteered 
to remain behind with 700 desperately wounded Rus- 
sians. Isolated from his countrymeui endangered bv 
the vicinity of large bodies of Cos&Acks, ill-suppued with 
food, and exposed to the risk of pestilence, he succeeded 
in restoring to health about 400 of the enemy and em- 
barking them for Odessa. He then died from the effects 
of excessive hiurdshipa and privation. This public 
monument is erected as a tribute of respect for the virtue 
of an officer whose life was useful and whose death was 
glorious.' Dr Thomson was a native of Cromarty, but 
the autiiorities there refused a suitable site for the 
obelii^, and the subscribers accepted the offer of Dr 
Thomson's friend. Sir Cbarles R. Mac^^rigor, of this site 
on the Castie Hill at Forres. Opposite the entrance to 
the Castle Hill on the site now occupied by Auchemack 
Cottage stood a humble house, where James Dick (1748- 
1828), the founder of the Dick Bequest, was bom. Early 
in the present century Mr Dick had accumulated in 
America the large fortune of £140,000. This fortune he 
at his death bequeathed to trustees for the benefit of the 
parodiial schoolmasters in the counties of Aberdeen, 
BEUiff, and Eljrin ; and so well has the fund been man- 
aged by the Society of Writers to the Signet, that the 
principal teacher of one school in every parish in these 
counties receives, after passing a qualifying examination, 
from £20 to £80 from this fund. Besides the castle, 
other objects of antiquarian interest that may be men- 
tioned are Sueno's Stone and the Witch's Stone. Both 
are at the E end of the town near the old toll-house, 
Sueno's Stone being to the E and the Witch's Stone to 
the W of it. Sueno's Stone is an elaborately carved 
pillar of hard reddish grey sandstone, about 23 feet high, 
4 wide at the base, ana 15 inches thick. The broad 
faces are towards the N and S. On the N side are three 
divisions. Below are two figures seemingly bending 
towards one another, while a smaller human figure 
stands behind each. In the upper division is a long 
cross, with a circle at the intersection of the arms. The 
cross and the whole of the centre division are covered 
with elaborate carving, forming so-called Runic knots. 
The edges are also covered with Runic knotting, and at 
the base of one of them are several figures, seemingly 
females. On the S side there are five divisions. The 
first shows groups of figures, with the walls of some 
building in the background ; the second has a body of 
horsemen advancing at full gallop, and infantry follow- 
ing with spears in l£eir hands and shields on tiieir arms. 
The sculptured figures in the third are engaged in battle ; 
at the top warriors seem to be attacking a gateway ; and 
in one of the comers are a number of headless bodies. 
The fourth division shows bound captives, some appar- 
ently women, while above is a row of warriors wim un- 
sheathed swords. The last division is much wom, but 
seems to have contained a number of figures on horse- 
back. The stone received its name from Boeoe's sup- 
gosition that it was erected to commemorate a victory of 
neno, son of Harald, Kintt of Denmark, gained at 
Forres over the forces of Audcolm II. in 1008. Dr 
Skene, however, inclines to the belief that it comme- 
morates a fray in the year 900 between Sigurd the 
Powerful, Norwegian Earl of Orkney, and a Scottish 
earl, Melbrigda, in which the latter feU and all his men 
with him. ' Earl Sigurd and his men fastened their 
heads to the saddle-straps in bravado, and so they rode 
home triumphing in their victory. As they were proceed- 
ing Earl Sigurd, intending to lack at his horse with his 
foot, strack the calf of his leg against a tooth protrad- 
ing from Earl Melbriffda's head, which scratched him 
slightly; but it soon oecame swollen and painful, and 
he died of it. He was buried in a mouna at Ekkials- 
bakki,' which Dr Skene proceeds to identify with the 
river Findhom {CeUie Scollcmd, i. 837, 1876). In 
1818 eight human skeletons were found near the pillar ; 
and in 1827 a large stone coffin was dug out of a steep 
bank above the Findhom. Of the pillar there is an 
excellent drawing in the first volume of Stuart's 5cu2p- 
iuredSUme9(ifScUland(VlBLUAT^fm.-iLx\,). The Witch's 

Stone is at the foot of the hawthorn hedge on the S side 
of the turnpike road to the W of the old toll-house. It 
is the remaming one of three stones which traditionally 
marked the spot where three witches, accused ofplotting 
the death of King Duffus, were put to death. The king, 
according to the tradition preserved, after returning from 
one of his visits to Forres, was taken ill at Scone. His 
physicians, unable to check the disease, concluded that 
he had been bewitched while in the North, and instrac- 
tions were sent to the govemor of the castle to institute 
inquiries. The witches were surprised at midnight, and 
found with a wax image of the king slowly meltine 
before the fire. They were immediately seized ana 
taken to the top of Cluny Hill, and there each was 

S laced in a barrel. The liarrels were then sent rolling 
own the hill, and at the place where they stopped they 
and their contents were burned, and stones set up to mark 
the spot. The survivor at one time was broken up for 
building purposes, but the town authorities caused the 
pieces to be brought back, clasped with iron, and placed 
m the ori^nal position. A stone within the field on 
the opposite side of the road is said to be another of 
the three, but this is doubtfuL Forres seems to have 
been, from the days of the weird sisters downwards, a 
place of note for witches ; and the last of them, an old 
woman named Dorothy Oalder, was, by the aid of fifteen 
cart-loads of peats, burned to death early in last cen- 
tury on the top of Drumduan Hill, the common place 
of execution. Near the centre of the town stands the 
town-house, built in 1839 on the site of the old Tol- 
booth, which dated from 1700. The present building 
is in the Tudor style, with a handsome square tower. 
It contains the council chamber, the town-clerk's offices, 
and the court-room. Close to it, in the centre of the 
street, is a neat little market-cross, erected in 1844. 
It is an imitation of the great crosses of the Middle 
Ages, and somewhat resembles, though on a very small 
scale, the Edinburgh monument to Sir Walter Scott 
A little to the W is the Falconer Museum (1870), a 
neat building in the Italian style. The expense of its 
erection was covered by a sum of money bequeathed for 
this purpose by Alexander Falconer in 1856, and a far- 
ther oequest by his brother, the late Dr Hugh Falconer 
(another of the distinguished sons of Forres), so well 
known for his paltsontological labours, who besides be- 
queathed to it a number of curiosities as a nucleus for 
the collection. It contains a number of the Sewalik 
fossils discovered and admirably described by Dr Fal- 
coner, and the collection of Old Red sandstone fishes 
formed by the late Lady Gordon-Cumming of Altyre, 
many of them being specimens described and named by 
A^assiz. The Mechanics' Institute is on the N side of 
I&h Street. It is a massive quasi-classical building, 
with a good library, etc., and contains two largo halls, 
which are used for public meetings, concerts, etc 
Anderson's Institution was erected in accordance with a 
deed of settlement of a native of Forres, Jonathan An- 
derson, who, in 1814, made over to the mamstrates and 
town council the lands of Cowlairs, near Glasgow, for 
the purpose of erecting a school and paying a teacher, so 
that the children of necessitous parents in the parishes 
of Forres, Rafford, and Einloss might be instructed in 
reading, English, writing, arithmetic, and such other 
branches of education as the provost, ma^trates, and 
town council should judce proper. It is a Grecian 
stmcture of 1824, remodeUea in 1881, at a cost of over 
£8000, to meet the requirements of the Education Act 
The Agricultural Hall was erected, in 1867, by a joint- 
stock company at a cost of £1700. It is an oblong 
building, Grecian in style, and measures 150 by 58 feet. 
In it are held the Christmas shows of the Forres and 
Northern Fat Cattle Club. A gallery along the sidee 
and the N end gives space for the display of grain, 
seeds, farm-implements, etc. The market buildings 
were erected also by a joint-stock company in 1851 ; 
and an auction mart was opened in 1877. Gas was 
introduced in 1837, and water in 1848. The parish 
church was built in 1775, and repaired in 1839, and 
again in 1860 ; there is accommooation for over 1000 


wonhippera. It stands on the site of the old ehnrcli of 
St Lawrence. There are a Free church (788 sittings), a 
Gothic United Presbyterian church (1871), with several 
stained-glass windows, superseding a biuldins of date 
1812, St John's Episcopal churc£ (1840), Italian in 

3~e, a Qothic Inaependent church (1866), an Evan- 
cal Union church, and a Baptist chapel (I860). 
To the SE of the town is the wooded ridge of the 
Cluny Hill, which belongs to the buigh, and is laid out 
for the recreation of the inhabitante. The ridge is 
covered with fine plantations, and walks wind alon^ in 
all directions amid the trees. There are three distinct 
hills, and on the summit of the highest is an octagonal 
tower, erected by public subscription in 1806 to com- 
memorate Lord Nelson and his victories. It is 24 feet 
in diameter, and 70 high. On panels on the outside 
are inscribed 'In memory of Admiral Lord Nelson,' 
'Nile, 1 August 1798,' 'Copenhagen, 2 April 1801,' 
and 'Trafalgar, 21 August 1805.' There are a number 
of floors, and the room on the first contains a marble 
bust of Lord Nelson. The top is reached by a spiral 
stair, and the view therefrom la magnificent. The 
eye ranges over a wide eziMuise of country, beginning 
with the richly wooded plains of Einloss, Forres, ana 
Dyke and Moy, and passing over the Morav Firth to 
the distant blue hills of Boss and Sutherland. On the 
southern dope of the hill is the Cluny Hill Hydro- 
pathic Estabushment, admirably situated on dry soil, 
with a sheltered and sunny exposure, and commanding 
an extensive and fine view. 

Forres has a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, offices 
of ^e British linen, Nationu, Caledonian, and Boyal 
Banks, a National Security Savings' bank, agencies of 
19 insurance companies, 9 hotels and inns, a branch of 
the Bible Society, a number of religious and charitable 
societies, a property investment companv, 8 masonic 
lodges, a cncket club, etc There are also a woollen 
manu&ctory, a chemical work, a bone-mill, two flour- 
mills, a saw-mill, and a brewery. The Liberal Forres, 
Elgin, and Nairn OazeUe (1887) is published on Wed- 
nesday; the Independent Moray and Nairn J&^ess 
(1880) on Tuesday and Friday. A weekly market is held 
on Tuesday, and fairs for cattle and other live stock are 
held on the Tuesday before the third Wednesday of 
January, February, March, and April, on the Tuesday 
before tiie second Wednesday of May, on the second 
Tuesday of June, on the first Tuesday of August, on the 
fourth Tuesday of September and October, and on the 
Tuesday before the third Wednesday of November. A 
lamb fair is held on the first Tuesday of July, and a fair 
for &t stock on the Tuesday in December before the 
London Christmas market Hiring fairs are held on 
the Saturday before 26 May, on the first Tuesday of 
August, and on the Saturday before 22 November. 
Justice of Peace courts sit on the first Monday of 
each month, and the sheriff holds a small debt circuit 

court on the second 
Monday of Febru- 
ary, April, June, 
Aui^t, October, 
and December. 
The town is gov- 
erned by a provost, 
3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, 
and 11 councillors, 
who, under the 
ed in 1865, are also 
commissioners of 
police. The town 
possesses extensive 
umds, the bound- 
ary of which, ex- 
tending over about 
15 miles, was officially perambulated in 1840. The arms 
of the town are Saint Lawrence (the patron saint) 
in a long habit, holding a gridiron : round his head 

Sealof Foms. 


is a nimbus, at his right side is a crescent, and at the 
left a star of six points ; in his right hand is a book. 
The motto is Jehova tu mihi Deus, quid dust t Forres 
unites with Inyerkbss, Nairn, and Fortrose in return- 
ing a member to parliament, its parliamentary and 
municipal constituency numbering 407 in 1882. Cor- 
poration revenue (1882) £620, (1854) £707, (1879) 
£2285, (1881) £1715. Burgh valuation (1867) £7796, 
(1875) £11,116, (1882) £14,498. Pop. of parliamentary 
and police burgh (1851) 8468, (1861) 4112, (1871) 3959, 
(1881) 4080, of whom 2257 were females, and 3110 were 
in the royal burgh. — Ord, Svr,, sh. 84, 1876. 

FoRestifield, a North British station, at the N border 
of Shotts parish, Lanarkshire, near the meeting-point 
with Linlithgow and Stirling shires, 6^ nules ENE of 
Airdrie, and 8 W by S of Batiigate. 

ForrMtiiilU. See Foiiestmill. 

FozTig. See Fobottx. 

Fona, a rivulet of Torosay mrish, Mull island, Argyll- 
shire. Rising on the skirt of Bentalloch, it runs 6^ miles 
north-north-westward along a glen called from it Glen- 
forsa, and falls into the Sound of MuU at Pennygown, 
where its width is 22 yards. It contains both salmon 
and sea-trout, and is open to anglers from the Salen 
Hotel. Glenforsa has an average width of f mile, and 
is flanked by grassy or heathy nills, that rise mih an 
acclivity of 80 degrees. 

Forse, an estate, with a mansion, in Latheron ^rish, 
Caithness, 2^ miles W of Lybster. Its owner, George 
Sutherland, Esq. (b. 1827 ; sue. 1846), holds 8000 acres 
in the county, valued at £2482 per annum. Forse 
fishing hamlet, 2 miles WSW of Lybster, has an inn ; 
and on the clifis here is the site of an old castle. 

Foninard, a station, an inn, and a post office in Beay 
parish, E Sutherland^ on the Sutherland and Caitii- 
ness railway, 20jt miles SW of Halkirk, 24^ NNW of 
Helmsdale, and 85i WSW of Wick. 

Fons, a stream and an estate of NW Caithness. Forss 
Water, issuing from Loch Shurrery (321 feet), winds 12^ 
miles north^^d, through or along the borders of Beay, 
Halkirk, and Thurso parishes, till it falls into the North 
SeaatCrosskirkBay. It is subject to sreat freshet^ doing 
much injury to the lands near its banks ; and is weu 
frequented by sea-trout and grilse. Forss House, near 
the ri|[ht buok of the stream, 5^ miles W of lliurso 
town, IS the seat of Charles Wemyss Sinclair, Esq. (b. 
1862; sue. 1876), who owns 12,700 acres in the county 
valued at £5610 per annuuL There is a post office of 
Forss under Thurso.— Orei 8ur., sh. 115, 1878. 

Fort Augnstns. SeeAuansrus Fobt. 

Fort Charlotte. See Lbbwick. 

Forter, an ancient castie of the Ogilvies in Glenisla 
parish, Forfarshire, on the right bcmk of the Isla, 4 
miles NNW of Kirkton of GleniEla. Commanding the 
glen, together with passes leading to Glenshee and Brae- 
mar, it was plundend and destroyed by the Earl (later 
Martinis) oi Argyll in July 1640 — the month of the 
bummg of the ' bonnie house of Aisus.' It appears to 
have been a place of considerable size and strength ; 
and is now represented by walls partly almost entire, 
and partiy ruinous. — Ord, Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Fortoviot, a village and a parish of SE Perthshire. 
The village stands, 60 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of May Water, i mile above its influx to the Earn, 
and has a station on the Scottish Central section of the 
Caledonian, 7 miles SW of Perth, under which there is 
a post office of Forteviot. On a small eminence now 
caUed the Halyhill, at the W end of the village, over- 
hanging May Water, stood Fortevieth, the ancient 
capital of Fortrenn. According to the legend of the 
foundation of St Andrews, Angus mac Fergus, King of 
the Picts (781-61), here built a churchy his three sons 
having already dedicated a tenth of the city to God and 
St Andrew ; and in Ms palace here Kenneth mac Alpin 
died in 860. Wynton records a curious storv tnat 
Malcolm Ceannmor was an illegitimate son of King 
Duncan by the miller of FortevioFs daughter : anyhow, 
Forteviot was a favourite residence with Malcolm ; and 
on the 'Miller's Acre,' near the Halyhill, Edward 



Baliol's army encamped before the battle of DtrrPUEr 

The parieh, comprisiiig the encient parishes of Fort- 
eyiot and Muokeme, (xmsists of three separete^portioQB 
— ^the main body, containiBff the village ; the Kirkton 
Hill section, immediately W of Graigend yiUsfSr vul 2 
milee £NB of the main body ; and the Stride section, 
14 mile SB of the sonthem extzemity of the main body. 
The said main body is bounded N by Tibbennore asKi 
Aberdalgie, £ and SE by Foi^pandenny, S W by Dminingi 
and W by Dunning and Findo Gask. Ita ntmotk length, 
from NNW to SSS, is 4i miles ; and its ntoiost breatibh, 
from £ to W, is 2i miles. The Stniie section (2| x Ig 
miles) is bounded £ by Amgask, S£ and SW by Orw«ll» 
and on all other sides by Forgandenny ; and the Kirkton 
Hill section (Ig x Ig mile) is boonded N and N£ by 
Perth, £ by Danbamy, S by Dunbamy and Fornsn- 
denny, and W by Aberdalgie. The aiea of the whole is 
7962i acree, of which 2898} bdong to the detaohed 
sections, and 167^ are water. In t£» mun body, the 
£abn winds 8i miles east-north-eastward, vis., 6 foe- 
longs along the Findo Qaak and Dunning border, next 
li mile across the interior, then Ig mile along the 
Aberdalgie border; and its beautiful affluent. Mat 
Water, uter tracing i mile of the Forgandenny border, 
runs 8 miles westward and north-by- westward threi^h 
the interior. Dupplin Lake (8^ x 2^ forL) lies, ait an 
altitude of 410 feet, towards the north-western comer. 
Along the £am the surfiuie declines to close upiMi 80 
feet apoTe sea-level, thence rising to 481 feet near Upper 
Caimie and 604 near Inyermay home farm. The Stiuie 
section is drained by Slateford Bum to May Water, 
which itself traces 4^ furlongs of the north-western 
border ; its surface, a portion of the Ochils, rises north- 
ward from 600 feet to 1194 on Dochrie Hill at its 
southern extremity. Lastly, the nortii-eastem section 
attains 696 feet in Kirkton Hill, and is washed on the 
S by the winding Bam. The rocks are chiefly entptiye 
and Devonian ; and the soil along the £am ia of lugh 
fertility ; whilst the southern a^ north-western por- 
tions of the main body are finely wooded* iNVSBifibY, 
the chief mansion, is noticed separately ; and 4 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual yalue of ^00 and up- 
wards, 6 of between £100 and £600; 2 of fh>m £60 to 
£100, and 2 of from £20 to £60. Forteviot is in the 
presb^ery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirlii^; 
the hying is worth £889. The church, at the village, 
erected in 1778, contains 260 sittimn; and the old 
church of Muckeisie, on the May's loSt bank, 1 mile 
ESB of Inyermay, was long the burving-place of the 
Belshes family. A public school, with accommodation 
for 98 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 61, 
and a grant of £62, 48. 6d. Valuation (1843) £6801, 
(1882) £8261, 18s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 786, (1881) 624, 
(1861) 696, (1871) 667, (1881) 618.— Ord Suir., sha. 48, 
40, 1868-67. 

Fort Gaorga. See OsoBaB, Fosr. 

Forth, a miningvillage and a quoad aaera parish in 
Gamwalh parish, B Lanarkshire. The villun, standing 
800 feet above sea-level, is 1 mile SS W of Wilsontown, 
8 miles W of Auchennay station, and 7g NNB of 
lAnark, under which it nas a post office. At it are an 
Bstablished church, a Free church, a branch bank of 
the British Linen Co., an hotel, and a pul^ school, 
which, with accommodation for 260 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 141, and a grant of £116, 12a. 
The quoad ioara parish, in the presbytery of I^nark 
and synod of Gla^w and Ayr, was constituted in 
1881. Pop. of viUage (1871) 784, (1881) 767 ; of parish 
(1881) 2072.— Ord Sur,, sh. 28, 1866. 

Forth, a river and an estuary flowing throng or 
between Stirlingshire, Perthshire, Cladkmannanshira, 
Fife, and the Ix»thians. The river is formed by two 
head-streams, Duchrav Water and the Avondhu (' black 
water '), rising 2g miles distant fh>m one another, and 
efiectinff a confluence at apoint 1 mile W of the hamlet 
of Abenoyle. Dnchrav Water, rising, at an altitude of 
8000 feet, on the N side of Ben Lomond (8192), Ig mile 
£ of the shore of the loch, winds 18g miles north- 

north-eastward, south-eastward, and east-north-eastward 
through the interior or alon^ tiie borders of Buchanan, 
Drymen, and Aberfoyle ^anshes, for 6{ miles tracing 
the boundary between Stirling and Perth shires. The 
Avondhu, nsinft on the western border of Aberfoyle 
pariah, at an aKtude of 1900 feet, flows 9 miles east- 
south-eastward, snd earpands, in its progress, into Loch 
Cbon (Ig X g mile ; 290 feet) and the iamoaa Loch Asd 
(2i miles x g mile ; 108 feet). Both of the head-streams 
traverse a grandly mountainous country, and abound in 
imposing and romantic scenery. Frcmi their confluence, 
801iMt above sea-level« the united stream winds east- 
south-eastward to Stirling, through or along the borders 
of the parishes of Aberfoyle, Drymen, Port of Monteith, 
Kippen, Gargunnock, Kincardine, St BTinians, Lecroft, 
and Logic, during £^ter part of this course forming 
the boundary between Stirlingshire and Perthshire. At 
Stirling the river, from the co^uenoeof its head-streams, 
has made a direct distance of about 18^ mOes, but mea- 
sures 89 alon^ the curves and meanderings of its bed. 
It flows prinapallv through low, flat, alluvial grounds, 
but is overlookea everywhere, at near distances, by 
picturesque hills, and exhibits great wealth of scenery, 
embracing the softly beautiful as well as the brilliant 
and the grand. Two important and beautiftd tribu- 
taries, the * arrowy ' Teith and Allan Water, join the 
Forth 8g and Ig miles above Stirling. From Stirling 
to Alloa the rivar separates Stirlininhire from Perth- 
shire and Clackmannanshire ; and while the direct line 
measures only 6g miles, the windings of the river^ 
popularly called the Links of Forth, are 12g miles lone. 
The stream is flanked bv broad carse lands, of sucn 
value thati aocording to the old rhyme, 

la woita an «aikk>m o* the north.' 

Below Alloa the river becomes less remarkable for its 
sinuosity of movement^ and, losing partly its fresh- 
water character, begins to expand slowly into a fine 
estuaiT, reachioie the Qerman Ocean at a distance of 
61^ miles fromioloa. The Firth of Forth, as it is now 
cauedi divides Clackmannanshire, part of Perthshire, 
and Fife from Stirlingshire, Linlithgowshire, Bdin- 
bm^hshire, and Haddingtonshire ; and has a width of 
^ mile at Alloa, ( mile at Kincardine ferry, and 8 miles 
just above Borrowstounness. At Queenrfenj, in conse- 
quence of a peninsula on the K side, the basm suddenly 
contracts to a width of 11 mile ; but below Queensferry 
it again expands to 6} miles at Granton and Bumtidand 
ferry, snd between Prestonpans and Leven to a maxi- 
mum width of 17 miles. The Firth aoain contracts, 
between Dirleton and ELie Kess, to 8^ miles ; and enters 
the ocean, between Fife Ness and the mouth of the 
river Tyne, with a width of 17} miles. The islands, 
with the exception of Inchganrie and two or three other 
rocky islets in the vicinity of Queensferry, are in the 
wider parts of the Firth, comprismg Ikchoolh, Cra- 
MONP island, and Inchkkith. The last, measuring 
6 by H furlongs, is crowned with a lighthouse, and in 
1881 waa renderad defensible bv the erection of three 
batteries with heavy gnna Half a dozen small islands 
(FiDBA, CsAiOLETTH, ctc.) lie off the Haddingtonshire 
coast; while the entrance in flanked by tiie romantic 
Bass Bock on the S and the Isle of Mat on the N. 
The eetuaxy in mid channel has a ma^riTm^m depth of 
87 fathoms; opposite Queensfeny the soundings are 
in 9 fathoms ; on the expanse known as Leith Koads, 
they vary from 8 to 16 fathoms ; opposite Elie Kess 
thev reach 28 fathoms ; and, in the vicinity of the Isle 
of May, run from 14 to 16 fathoms. The tides are so 
affected by conflicting currents, bv islands and shiJlows, 
and by the irregulanties of the shores, as to vary much 
both in respect of velocity and time. The flowing tide, 
over the sands of Leith, runs 1) knot an hour, and 
appears to flow for only four hours, while the ebbing 
tide continues for eight hours. The tides on the ^ 
shore, opposite these Boads, run from 8 to 8^ knots an 
hour, and have an equal duration in flow and in ebb. 
The flowing tide, from Einghom Ness to the promontory 


Baliol'8 an 

eyiot and 1 
— the mail 
Hill sectio: 
miles £NE 
U mile SE 
Tdb said s 
and Why] 
from NN\^ 
from E to 
miles) is N 
and on all • 
HiU sectic 
Perth, E 
denny, ant 
7952i acn 
sections, a 
Eabn win4 
longs alon 
1^ mile a 
Water, aft 
nms 8 mil 
the interim 
altitude ol 
Alonff the 
feet ai)oye 
section is 
which ita 
border; 11 
ward fron 
southern > 
attains 69 
S by the i 
and Deyo] 
tions of ti 
the chief 
prieton 1| 
wards, 6 ( 
iSlOO, and 
the hyin^ 
erected b 
church of 
ESE of I 
Belshes fa 
for 98 chi 
and a gre 
(1882) £i 
(1861) 59J 
40, 1868-( 


Forth, i 
800 feet c 
8 miles 
lAnark, i 
the Britii 
which, wi 
an ayerag 
The qttoa 
and syno 
1881. P< 
(1881) 20' 

Fife, and 
water '), i 
of Abeno 
8000 feet, 
E of the 


W of Aberdonr, rans at the rate of 8} knots on hoar ; 
through the contraction at Queenefeny, it rana at the 
late (n 5 knots an hour, and, 6 miles above that con- 
traction, at from 2 to 2^ miles an honr. The ebb 
tide, at about 6 miles above Queensfeny, runs at the 
same rate as the flow tide ; but, through the contractioa 
at Queensferry, it runs at the rate of 6 knots an hour ; 
and| in Inverkeithing Bay, immediately £ of that ow- 
traction, turns for two hours to the W at the rate of 1^ 
knot an. hour. The estuary presents safe roadsteads at 
EIi« Boads, Leith Boads, Burntisland Boads, Inver- 
keithing Bay, St Margaret's Hope immediatdy above 
Queensferry, and various other localities. It has good 
docksatIieith,Granton,BorrowBtounness^Gn igemouth, 
and Burntisland ; good harbours at Dunbar, nstruther, 
Gockenzie, and Fisherrow; and numerous aarbours of 
varying character and caj>acit^ along the N shore from 
Crail to AlloiL The navigation was long regarded as 
dangerous ; but, thougli shoally in various localities, 
and somewhat obstructed bv sandbanks, it k now, with 
the aid of lighthouses on the islands of May and Inch- 
keith and of accurately drawn and minute diarts, so 
signally safe as rarely to be marked with a shipwreck. 
Seven vessels^ however, were stranded on the Oakb 
reef, off Fife Kess, during 1870-81 ; and the geJe of 
14 Oct 1881 did dreadful havoc to the fishing boats 
of Kewhayen and Fishebbow. Numerous industrial 
works are on. the shores, from Alloa and Borrowstoun- 
ness downward ; vast repositories of coal, limestone, and 
ironstone aro so near it, on both shores and westward 
from its head, as to send down much of their ou^ut to 
it for shipment ; and all these, along with tiie extensive 
and productive fisheries of Lbith and ANaTBUTHBB dis- 
tricts, attiaat large numbers of vessels of all sizes. 

The basin of the Forth is estimated at 646 squsce 
miles. The length of the river and its eoFtoary, bma- 
sured in a direct line from the Duchray's source on Ben 
Lomond to the entrance, is only 80 miles ; but, follow- 
ing the bends of river and estuary, is 116^ miles, vis., 
52| to Stirling, 12g thence to AUoa, and 51^ thenoe to 
the German Ocean. The chief tributaries above Alloa 
are. on the right bank, Kelij Water, Boquhan Bum, 
and Bannock Bum ; on the left bank, Goodie Water, the 
Teith, Allan Water, and the Devon; and the chief 
streams flowing into the estuary are, on l^e right side, the 
Oarron, the Avon, the Almond, the Water ol Leith, and 
the £sk ; on the left side, the Leven. The river contains 
salmon, grilse, sea-trout, trout, pike, perch, and e^ ; and 
its salmon are large and delicate. Several food salmon 
casts for the angler occur about the influx of tiie Teith ; 
but all the sa&on fisheries below that point are held 
strictly as private property, and are let under stringent 
conditions. The estuary abounds with white fish oF all 
kinds ; and large fleets of fishing-boats from Newhaven, 
Fisherrow, Buckhaven, Anstmther, and other places 
procure abundant supplies for the daily markets of 
neighbouring and distant towns. Of late years the use 
of steam trawlers has been introduced, and, while the 
catch is thus increased, the older style of fbhers kllege 
that the spawn and spawning beds are injured by the 
trawl nets. Herrings genendly ehoal into the iiritk 
once a year, and have in some years yielded a prodi- 
fpous produce ; but they are esteemed in some respects 
inferior in quality to the herrings of the western coastb 
The extensive sand beds, together with immense quan- 
tities of seaweed, are favourable to the deposit of the 
spawn of fishes; and mnssels, contributing so largely 
to the support of the finny tribee^ are very abundant. 
Oysters formerly lay in beds adjacent to Oramond and 
Inch Mickery, as well as near Prestonpans ; but they 
were over-fished, almost to comparative exhaustion ; and 
they are now inferior, both in queJity and in size, to the 
oysters obtained in many other parts of the British coasts. 

An ancient ferry crosses the river at Queensferry, and 
connects on the S side with a branch from the Edin- 
burffh and Glasgow section of the North British railway 
at Satho station, and with a line to Dunfermline on the 
K. A still more important ferry is that from Granton 
to Burntisland, which, in the meantime, forms the link 


between the southern and the northern portions of the 
Korth British railway system. Both of the ferries named 
are now in the hands of the Korth British Railway 
Company, and are maintained under certain statutory 
obli^tions as to the fare to be charged, and the mini- 
mum number of passages to be made daily. In former 
times the Queensferry was on the line of tiie Great 
North Boad, the mails crossing here e» rouie for Kin- 
ross, Perth, and the "^oiHt The ferry between Leith 
or Newhaven and Kir](oaldy or Pettycur has long 
siuce been abimdoned, as has alao the ' Earl's Ferry, ' froni 
a ^laoe in Fife still bearing that name to the nearest 
pomt in East Lothian. Many projects have been made 
to bridffo the Forth or to tunnel it, the latter prc^posal 
being described in. several pamphlets published early 
in the present century. Altnoi^ tl^re are, with the 
railway bridges, several stractures now spanning the 
Forth there, the bridge of StirUng was at one timfi an 
important because almost solituy access to the North. 
A oridgB is known to have existed here six centuries 
ago, aiKi some remasis of it, about i mile above the 
existing 'old bridge,' are still, it is said, to be seen. 
Below Stirli^ a bridge has been erected (1882-88) by 
the Alloa Railway Company, to connect with the Soutn 
Alloa Branch of the QEdeaonian railway. The main 
feature of this bridge is a swing-opening by which the 
river, at high watw, remains navigal^e by steamers 
and snudl vessels to Stii^g as heretofore^ Several 
plans have been drawn i^> for improving the crossing at 
Queensferry and below. In 1851 Sir Thomas Bouch 

g^rfected me 'floating railway' between Granton and 
umtisland, a plan in which by the use of adjustible 
loading apparal^, and of large flat steamers, the rail' 
way company was enabled to carry goods trains over the 
fony witnout breaking bulk. This svstem has remained 
in constant operation for upwards of thirty year& In 
1861 a railway firom Edinburgh to Perth was projected 
by Bouch, the proposal being at that time to carry the 
tsaina over by ' fikutting railways ' similar to those used 
at Bumtishmd. Three years later the first design for 
a bridge over the Forth was proposed by him. The 
bridge wsfr to be 8 miles long, crossing the shallower 
part of the river a mile above Charleston, with a height 
of 12j» feet above the river, and 5 spans of 500 feet each 
in the fairway. In 1878, after the Tay Bridge had been 
begun, the bolder design of crossing at QvLoensSBTry, 
usmg the island of Inchgarvie as the central support for 
2 spuis of 1600 feet each, was put forward by Sir 
Thomas Bouch. This scheme was eagerly taken up, 
despite the fact that it was to be partly on the suroen- 
sion principle, and required piers of 600 feet high to 
bear the ohaina It was reported on, in its scientific 
aspects, by Hawkshaw, Barlow, Bidder, and other en- 
gineers, and, as regards wind pressure, by Dr Pole and 
Sir Geoiffo Airey, me astronomer royal. But the fall of 
tiie Tay Bridge disparaged the project, and it was aban- 
doned. In 1882, however, under an absolute guarantee 
for the interest on the capital by the North British, 
Midland, Great Northern, and North Eastern railways, 
the Forth Bridge proposal at Queensferry has been re- 
newed, and statutory powers for its erection have been 


The Firth of Forth has played a not unimportant 
part in the troul^ua history of Scotland, having been 
visited by hostile fleets at various times from S a.d. 
downwards. In 1549, the island of Inohkeith was seized 
and fortified by the English under the Duke of Somer- 
set, from whom it was taken by the French commander, 
then in alliance with the Scots. In 1567, an act was 
passed for the demolition of the fort on Inchkeith, and 
though this was not fully carried out (since Johnson and 
Boswell found the fort in fair preservation in 1778), the 
F^h for three centuries remained defenceleas. At 
the entrance to Leith harbour a Martello tower was 
erected, and there is, nominallr, a fort in thrt town, 
but the former is disused, and both are inadequate for 
defence agunst modem ordnance. After many- years' 
Mutation, steps were in 1880-81 taken for the constrac- 
tion of thiHoe oatteries on Inchkeith, and one on King- 



horn Ness, which, monnted with heayy guns, completely 
command the channels N and S of the island. — Ora, 
JSur., shs. 88, 89, 81, 82, 40, 88, 41, 1857-71. See 
David M. Home's Eduary of the Forth and adjoining 
JHstricU vmoed gtologioaUy (Edinb. 1871), and works 
cited under Fife and Stirlxngshibe. 

Forth and Clyde Canal or Great Canal, The, con- 
stmcted to connect the Firths of Forth and Clyde, was 
opened for traffic in 1790. The possibility of making a 
snort cut through this neck of Scotland was diBcussed as 
early as the reign of Charles II., and the plan was 
revived without success in 1728 and 1761, — ^the survey 
in the former year being made by Mr Gk>rdon, author of 
the Itinerariwn Septentrumale, and in the latter, at Lord 
Napier's expense, bv Mr BolMBrt Mackell. The latter 
survey was approved by the Board of Manufactures of 
Scotland, who, in 1763, employed Mr Smeaton to make 
a survey of the proposed route. This engineer put 
down the expense as £80,000, which was thought too 
great to justify further proceedings. In 1766 some 
Glasgow merchante began a subscription of £80,000 for 
a canal 4 feet deep and 24 broad, but parliament refused 
to sanction the scheme, owing to the smaUness of the sum, 
which had been folly subsmbed in two days after the 
proposal. Another combination was made, and a new sub- 
scnption for £150,000 set on foot In 1767 parliament 
gave the required permission for the incorporation of 
^The Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde 
Navigation,' tne stock to consist of 1600 shares of £100 
each, with liberty to borrow £50,000. Work was begun 
in 1768 under the superintendence of Mr Smeaton, the 
first sod being cut by Sir Lawrence Dundas on 10 July. 
In July 1775 the canal was completed up to Stocking- 
field, at which point a branch to GlaiM^ow was con- 
structed and was carried to Hamilton Hill near that 
city, where a basin and storehouses were made. By 
this time all the capital and the loan had been spen^ 
as well as the income from other sources. The revenue 
from the part then opened was only £4000, and the pros- 
pecte were gloomy all round, the shares falling to half 
their original price. In 1784 assistance was given by 
the Government, who handed £50,000 of the revenue 
from the forfeited estates of the Jacobites to the corpora- 
tion. This was not a gift, for the Government stipu- 
lated that the Crown should draw the ordinary dividend 
for that sum. In July 1786 the cutting of the canal 
was resumed under the superintendence of Mr Bobert 
Whitworth, and, by July 1790, it was opened from sea 
to sea. At the opening ceremony the chairman, accom- 
panied by the magistrates of Glasgow, poured a barrel 
of Forth water into the Clyde, — ^uiis interesting cere- 
mony being witnessed by a large concourse of people. 
The first vessel to pass through was the sloop Aanea of 
80 tons burthen, belon^g to Port Glasgow, and built 
at Leith for the herrmg fishery and coasting trade. 
This took place on 81 Aug. ; and on 9 Sept the sloop 
Mary M'JBwan was the first to accomplish the journey 
the other way. The Hamilton Hill biudn was found too 
small, and the large depot at Port Dttkdas was 
constructed to answer the needs of Glasgow. Here 
a junction was afterwards effected with the Monk- 
land Canal, and the two were amalgamated in 1846. 
The branch connecting the two was furnished with 
substantial quav walls for the accommodation of barses 
unloading ; and up to 1850, the sum expended on the 
Forth and Clyde and Monkland Canals was £1,090,880. 
Althoup;h the canal was planned to be only 7 feet 
deep, ite depth was practically 10. Ito length was 
88] miles — 85 miles direct between the ForUi and 
Clyde, 2i miles of the branch to Port Dundas, and a 
mile of the continuation to the Monkland CanaL Hie 
greatest height of the canal above the sea is 156 feet, 
and this is attained by means of twenty locks on the 
eastern and nineteen on the western sides, a differ- 
ence due to the different water-level of the two rivers. 
The locks are each 74 feet long and 20 broad, with 
a rise of 8 feet They admit the passage of vessels 
of 68 feet keel, 19 feet beam, and 8) feet draught of 
water. The average breadth of the canid on the sur- 


face is 56 feet, and at the bottom 27 feet Above 
thirty bridges span the canal, and it in turn crosses 
about forty aqueducts, the largest of which is that over 
the Kelvin at Maryhill, consisting of four arches 88 feet 
high, which convey the waterway across a dell 400 feet 
wide. This work was begun in June 1787, and com- 
pleted in April 1791, at a cost of £8500. Water for the 
canal is supplied from eight reservoirs, covering a space 
of 721 acres. 

The canal begins, at the £ end, about a mile up the 
river Carron at Grangemouth. Hence it goes souUi- 
westward to Grahamston and Bainsford, where a basin 
was made for the Carron Company's traffic. It then 
continues in the same direction to Camelon, and then 
trends to the W to Lock 16, where it is joined by 
the Union Canal from Edinbuigh. Thence to Wind- 
ford Loch, near Castlecary (where it attains ite greatest 
elevation), it goes in a westerly and south-westerly 
direction. A quarter of a mile further on it leaves 
Stirlingshire, though for many miles it keeps closelv 
to the borders of that county. Passing K of Kilsyth 
it comes to Kirkintilloch, and J mile further on enters 
Lanarkshire. In 4 miles the branch to Port Dundas 
is reached (this branch being on the summit level 
throughout), and from this point the canal proceeds 
northward a little. As it approaches l^e Kelvin 
viaduct the locks become numerous, and the scenery 
through which the canal passes is picturesque and 
romantic. At this point it re-enters Dumbartonshire, 
and thence it proceeds about 5 miles till it is joined by 
a Junction canal, extending to the Clyde at the mouth 
of the Cart, formed in 1839 for the lienefit of Paisley. 
For 8f miles the Forth and Clyde navigation follows the 
course of the Clyde in a north-westerly direction, finally 
joining the river at Bowling Bay, where a harbour and 
wharves were constructed at a cost of £85,000. For a 
great part of ite course the canid follows the line of 
"Graham's Dyke,' or Antoninus* Wall, showing how 
closely the Romans atteined the shortest line between 
the two great estuaries. The completion of this work 
was no small event, for we read that, as there was 
only 7 feet of water at the Broomielaw, while the canal 
was 8 feet deep, ite basin, 'immediately on ite beins 
made open for traffic, became a more im^rtant port 
than the Broomielaw.' The whirli^ of tmie has cer- 
tainly brouffht in ite revenges in this case. 

Considerable scientific and historical interest attaches 
to the Forth and Clyde Canal as the scene of early ex- 
perimento in steam navigation. After Mr Patrick 
Miller and Mr Symington had, on Dalswinton Loch, 
proved the feasibility of using steam on the water, they 
came to Edinburgh, and had a boat of 80 tons burthen 
constructed at Carron. In November 1789 this vessel 
was launched on the Forth and Clyde Canal. In presence 
of hundreds of people the vessel started, and attained a 
speed of 6 miles an hour. On reaching Lock 16 un- 
happily the floate of the paddlewheels gave way, and the 
experiment had to be stopped. Ten years later Lord 
Dundas desired Symington to construct a steamer to be 
used as a tug on the canal, and in March 1802 the Char- 
lotU DuncUu towed two laden bar^ of 70 tons burthen 
each a distance of 19} miles with great ease. This 
vessel was built by Mr Hart, of Grangemouth, and ite 
hull lay for many yean in a creek between Locks 8 and 
9 ; her timben were afterwards made into furniture or 
other relics. In consequence of the success of this ex- 
periment, a proposal was made to the proprietors to use 
steam tugs instead of horse power, but it was rejected 
on the ground that the wash from the paddles would 
destroy the banks of the canal. Another result of 
Symington's success was a poem by a Mr Muir of Kirk- 
intillodi, which cives expression to the common won- 
derment at the phenomenon — 

' When flzBt. by lAboiir, Forth and Clyde 
Were tauffht o'er 8ootia*i hilla to ride 
Id a ceoaideep, laag, and wide, 

Naeoody wougbt 
Sic wonden, without win' or tlde^ 
wad e'er be wroogfat 


' Bat lately we hee seen a lighter 
Wi' in her tail a fknner'e fighter, 
1^ bid boat-haulers a' gae dight her 

Black sooty Tent; 
Than half a doaen hone she's wighter 

By ten per cent. 

* It was sae odd to see her poDin*, 
An' win' an' water baith imwillln' ; 
Tet deil may care, die, onward swellio'. 

Defied them baith, 
As constant as a mill that's fnllin' 

Glide English clalth. 

' Osn e'er, thought I, a flame o' rede. 
Or boilin' water^s caudron smeek, 
Tbo* it was keepit for a week. 

Perform sic wunners, 
As quite surprise amaist the f eclc, 

</gaiin' hunnersf ' 

In September 1889 another experiment in the use of 
steam was made on the canal, but this time the power 
was proposed to be supplied by an enmne running along 
the bank ; and a light railway haying been formed along 
the path near Lock 16, a locomotire engine of moderate 
power was put on it. On 11 Sept. the engine was 
attached successiyely to passenger boats, lightly and 
heavily laden ; to sloops, smgle and in pairs ; and to a 
string of nine nuscellimeous sailing vessels. The pas- 
senger boats were drawn at a rate of 16 or 17 miles an 
hour, the single sloops at 8), and the string of vessels at 
2^. Greater velocities could have been attained, but, 
though the wash was seen to have little efifect on the 
banks, the rates were restricted to those mentioned. 
All the experiments were satisfactory, but as the appli- 
cation of the system to the whole canal would have 
been very costly, it was abandoned. 
All that remains of the histoiy of the canal may be 

fathered firom a sketch of its financial fortunes. In 
841 it was stated that ' this canal has been most lucra- 
tive to the proprietors. In 1820 their capital was 
£619,840, and the income in 1886 was £68,748.' In 
1889 the revenue was £95,475 ; and in 1850, four years 
after their amalgamation, the returns from the Forth and 
Clyde and Mox^land Canals was £115,621, while the 
total sum spent on the two from the beginning was 
£1,090,880. In 1867 thejoint-undertakings were taken 
over by the Caledonian Bailway Company, when they 
were valued at £1,141,838. The terms of transfer were 
that the railway company should pay an annuity of 
£71,883, being a guaranteed dividend of 6^ per cent 
secured by a lien over the works and revenues. In 1881 
for convenience the stock was nominally increased, so 
as to amalgamate it with other guaranteed stocks at 
an equal rate of 4 per cent. From the half-yearly 
balance-sheet of the company, published in Sept. 188^ 
it appears that the receipts from the canal were £48,882, 
88. fiijd., while the expenditure for the six months was 
£14,509, 5s. Oid. 

Forth and Clyde Bailway. See Nobth Bbitish 

Forihar, a place with extensive lime-works in Kettle 
parish, Fife, 2 miles S by W of Kettle villi^. The 
limestone at it contains 98 per cent of pure lime ; and 
the working of it gives permanent employment to a 
great number of men. 

Fortliar Castle, Forfarshire. See Fobter. 

Fortlilll, an eminence in Monifieth parish, Forfarshire, 
ji mile NW of Broughty Castle. A fort, erected on 
it in 1548 as a flanking post of the EngUsh nrrison in 
Brought^ Castle, was dismantled in 1550 ; left remains 
12 feet high till 1782 ; and is now completely obliter- 
ated. A camp was formed on the same eminence fuUy 
i mile £ of the fort, and has left slight traces of its 

Forthie Water, a rivulet of Kincardineshire, ri8in£[ in 
the W of Dunnottar parish, and winding 4^ miles 
south-westward, chiefly along the mutual boundary of 
Olenbervie and Arbuthnott, till it faUs into Bervie 
Water 1 mile S of Drumlithie.— -(^rd Sur,, shs. 67, 66, 

Forth Inm-worka. See Cabnock and Oaklet. 


FortlngaU, a hamlet and a larse highland parish of 
Athole and Breadalbane districts, N W Perthshire. The 
hamlet stands, 400 feet above sea-level, 8 furlongs N of 
the left bank of the Lyon, If mile K of the lower waters 
of Loch Tay, and 8 miles W by S of Aberfeldy, under 
which it has a post ofSoe. Here is a good hotel ; and 
fiurs are held here on 9 Aug. o.s., and 6 and 7 Dec. 

The parish contains also Kinlogh Bannoch village, 
18 miles NNW of Fortingall bv road, but onlv 8i as 
the crow flies, and Innerwick hamle^ lOJ miles W ; 
and it comprises two detached portions. The main 
body is bounded N£ bv Blair Athole, E by Dull, S by 
Kenmore and detached sections of Weem, Kenmore, 
and Killin, W by Glenorchy and liBmore in Argyllshire, 
NW and N by Kilmonivaig and Laggan in Inverness- 
shire. Its utmost length, from £ to W, is 20^ miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 20^ miles ; and 
its area is 185,551 acres. The Boltbacks or eastern 
detached portion, lying 1 mile W by S of Aberfeldy, 
and measuring 4f by 1^ miles, is bounded N for 1| 
mile by the Tay, and on all other sides by detached 
sections of Logierait, Dull, and Weem. The larger 
south-western detached portion, containing Loch Lyon, 
has an utmost length and breadth of 7i and 6| miles, 
and is bounded £ and SE by sections of Weem and 
Kenmore, on all other sides by Glenorchy parish in 
Argyllshire. The area of the whole is 204,846) acres, 
or 819 square miles, of which 18,795^ acres belong to 
the detached portions, and 7668) are water. In the 
south-western detached portioiv the river Lyon rises 
close to the Argyllshire Dorder at 2400 feet above sea- 
level, and runs 4 miles northward to Loch Lyon (If x i 
mile ; 1100 feet), below which it here has an east-by- 
northerly course of 2) miles along the Kenmore and 
Weem border. Through Weem it continues 1 mile 
eastward, and then, entering the main body of Fortin- 
gall, winds 25^ miles east-north-eastward and east-by- 
nordiward, chiefly throufi;h the southern interior, but 
at three points tracing tne southern boundary, till at 
length, wnere the Keltnev joins it, and 1) mile above 
its own confluence with the Tay, it passes off to Dull. 
Thus Fortingall claims all but 2) miles of its entire 
course (86 miles), during which its chief affluent ia 
Keltnby Bum, rising at 2700 feet upon Cam Mairg, 
and hurrying 5§ miles east-by-northward through the in- 
terior, then 8) south-south-eastward along the ooundary 
with DulL Loch Laidon or Lydoch (5^ miles x ) mile ; 
924 feet), on desolate Bannoch Muir, belongs purtly to 
Glenorchy, but mainly to Fortincall ; from it the Gauir 
winds 7 miles eastwud to the head of Loch Bakkoch 
(9$ miles x 5} to 9 furl. ; 668 feet). The river TumcEL, 
issuing from the foot of Loch Bannoch, has here an 
eastward course of 6} miles, 8| thereof marking the 
southern boundary of the Lochgarry section of ^gie- 
rait; and to Loch Bannoch, towards its head, the 
Ebicht rans 5| miles south-south-eastward out of Loch 
Ericht (1158 feet), whose lower 7 miles are partly in 
Laggan but chiefly in FortingalL Such, broadly, are 
the drainage features of this parish, which, lyinff all 
within the basin of the Tay, at the very heart of the 
Grampians, ofiers rich variety of highland landscape- 
soft valley and ragged glen, jagged ridge and soarine 
summit, with, westwards, mile on mile of moorland 
plateau. Along tiie Tummel the surface sinks to 600, 
alongthe Lyon to 850, feet above sea-level ; and from 
£ to W, the principal heights to the N of the Tummel, 
Loch Bannocn, the Gauir, and Loch Laidon, are Ben 
Hholach (2758 feet), Stob an Aonaich Mhoir (2805), 
*Ben Chumhann (2692), Ben Phablagaik (2886), 
*Sgur Gaibhre (8128), *Cam Deaig (8084), and *Cbt7ach 
^420); between Loch Bannoch and the Lyon, Meall 
Crumach (2217), conical Schieealuon (8547), Cabn 
Maibo (8419), *Cam Gorm (8870), Ben M^^gemie 
(2158), *Garbh Mheall (8000), and *Stuchd an Lochain 
(8144) ; to the S of the Lyon, ""Meall Luaidhe (2558), 
*Ben nan Oi^hreag (2978), and *Meall Ghaordie (8407), 
where astensks mark those summits that culminate 
right on the conflnes of the parish. In the south- 
western detached portion, around Loch Lyon, rise Meall 



Daill (2868), *Bbn Creaohait (8540), *Bks Aoh- 
ALLADER (8889), Bbn Vannooh (8125), *Bkn-a- 
Chaistbil (2897), *Creag Mhor (8805), sad 'Ben 
Heasgamioli (3530); in the eastern or Bolfracks sec- 
tion, *Orai^ HiU (845), MeaU Hor (1«26), and MeaU 
Don Dhomlmmll (2061). The Moor of Bannoch lies, 
in lai^e measure, upon granite ; elsewhere t^e rocks are 
principally quartzose, of Silurian age. C3ay ^ate, of 
fissile character, Appears in a hill above Fortingall 
hamlet and on the eastern side of Sddehallion. Good 
limestone is plentiful in the £; and several veins of 
marble, of varied hues occur in dififerent parts. Bock 
crystals, spaxs, and pebbles of great variety and 
brilliancy are often found among the mountains ; aad 
a vein of lead ore in Glenlyon, seemingly of consider- 
able richness, was worked for some tmie about the 
beginning of last century. The soil of the level strips 
along the vales is genenlly gravelly and dry ; on Hke 
skirts and lower slopes of tne hills, though cold, yields 
good enough pasturage ; and on the higher acclivities is 
for the most part bleak and barren moor. Very little 
of the land u arable, an enormous proportion being 
either sheep-walk, crouae-moor, or deer-forest SUI^ 
(preat improvements nave been made within this century 
in the reclamation and enclosing of land, and in farm- 
building Ohief antiquities are an ancient Caledonian 
stone mrcle, near the parish church ; a Koman camp 
between the hamlet and the Lyon, by Skene regarded 
as an outfK>8t of the Emperor Severus beyond the Tay 
(208 A.D.); traces of fourteen wide circular forts ; and 
the striking ruin of Garth Castle. This is separately 
noticed, as also are the chief mansions— Glenlyon House, 
Garth House, and ChesthiU, near Fortingall hamlet ; 
Meggemie Castle, above Innerwick ; Bannoch Lodffe, 
Pinnart Lod^e, and Croiscrag, at or towards tae 
head of Loch Bannoch; DaLdiosnie, Dun Alastair, 
and Innerhadden, near Kinloch Bannoch; and Bol- 
fracks, in the eastern detached portion. Thiiteen pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of more, and two of 
less, than £500. In the presbytery of Weem -and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, this parish is ecclesiastically 
divided into FortingaU proper, Innerwick or Glenlyon, 
and Einloch Bannoch — the fint a living worth ^07. 
Its church, at Fortingall hamlet, is a veneraUe building, 
containing 876 sittings; and in the churchyaid, pro- 
tected by iron rails, is the shattered torso <tf the famous 
yew-tree, supposed to be fully 3000 years old — ' probably 
the oldest authentic specimen of vegetation inSurope.' 
In Pennant's day (1772) it meamired no less than 56 feet 
in rarth, but now there are only two fragments of the 
shelL These still put forth branches and leaves, and 
outside the enclosure is a vigorous scion, 86 feet high, 
and fully 150 years old. A Free church stands on the 
same bank of the Lyon, i mile E of the hamlet ; and a 
new public school, with aoeommodation for 100 children^ 
had (1881) an average attendance of 57, and a ffrant of 
£67. Other churches and schools are noticed under 
Glenlyon and Kiklooh Bannooh. Valuation (1866) 
£17.651, 14s. Id., (1882) £21,268, 14s. 2d. Pop. <^ 
civil parish (1801) 8875, (1881) 8067, (1861) 2181, (1871) 
1766, (1881) 1690, of whom 1898 were Gaelic-speaking ; 
of ecdesiastioal parish (1871) 700, (1881) 616 ; of regu- 
tration district (1881) 568.— On2. /SW., shs. 55, 54, 46, 
47, 1869-78. 

Forirose, a royal and parliamentary burgh in the 
parish of Bosemarkie, Boss-shire, is situated on the 
NW side of the inner Moray Firth, at the north-eastern 
extremity of the Black Isle Boad, nearly opposite Fort 
George, 8} miles S bv E of Inveigordon Ferry, 9 8SW 
of Cromarty, and lOJ NNE of Inverness. It consists 
of two towns, Chakonet and Bosbmaekib, ( mile dis- 
tant from each other, and first politically united under 
James II. in 1455, when they were constituted a fiee 
buigh in &vour of the Bishop of Boss. The bmgh 
lapsed to the Crown after the reformation, but in 1^0 
Chanonrv was enfranchised ; and in 1592 the towns were 
re-unitea under the title of the royal buigh of Fortress, 
afterwards softened into the present name Fortrose. 
Chanonry Point, a long tongue of land, covered witii 

fine links, and edged with sandy beach, which stretches 
into the sea between the towns, has suggested an ety- 
mology for the name, meaning * fort of the peninsula ; ' 
other authorities explain it as 'strong fort A light- 
house of the second class was bmlt in 1846 at the extremity 
of this point, whence also there is a ferry (1 mile broad) to 
Fort George and the Inverness coast Fortrose ^or at 
least one of its component parts) early appears in history 
as an ecclesiastical seat Lugadius or Moluog, an abbot 
and bishop of lismore, who died in 577, founded a Colum- 
ban monastery in Bosemarkie. About the 8th century, 
Albanus Kiritinus, sumamed Bonifacius, who seems to 
have been a bishop of the Irish-Boman Church, named 
Curitan, came to Scotland ; and, in 716, says Wynton, 

' In Bos he fowndyd BoaauakyiM,' 

dedicating his church to St Peter. When David I. came 
to the throne in 1124 he founded the bishonric of Boss, 
andplaced the diocesan seat at Bosmarkyn or Bosemarkie. 
The presence of an educated clergy raised the place to a 
high degree of culture ; and famous schools of divinity 
and law flourished under the shadow of the cathedraL 
Down so late even as the time of Cromwell the little 
town enjoyed a considerable amount of general prosperity. 
Now, however, Fortrose has no trade ; and its connection 
with the outer world is chiefly maintained through the 
summer visitors, who are annually attracted by the 
beantifrd situation of the town, its picturesque neigh- 
bourhood, its fine links, and its facilities for sea-baithing. 
New houses have reoentiv begun to spring up for the 
better accommodation of tneae visitors. Fortrose is regu- 
larly built, well-lighted with gas, and abundantij 
supplied with water. Its most interesting edifice is 
the ruined cathedral dedicated to SS. Peter and Boni- 
&cius, situated within a wide, grassy enclosure in the 
centre of the town. The sole remains now are the S 
aisle of the chancel and nave, and a detached chapter- 
house ; and an old bell is also preserved, dated 1460. 
When perfect the cathedral was a handsome red sand- 
stone building, presenting a beautiful specimen of the 
pure Early Decorated styk, and dating nom about the 
beginning of the 14th century. Its total length was 
120 feet ; and it comprised a nave of 4 bays, with aisles 
14 feet wide, and round-headed windows ; a choir, with 
aisles. Lady-chapel, west-tower, quasi-tranaept, rood 
turret, and, to the NE, a vaulted chapter-house over a 
cxypt The greater part of the cathodal and the whole 
of the former bishop^ residence were removed by Oliver 
Cromwell to proviae building material for lus fort at 
Inverness. Within the precincts of the cathedral stood 
the various residences of the high officials of the chapter, 
the archdeacon's house, the rectory of Kirkmichael, and 
the manses of the parochial changes of Cullicuaden, 
Lemlair, Boaskera^ Alness, Eilteam, Contin, Eilmuir, 
West Kilmuir, Kincardine, Logic, Obstill, and St 
Eatherine's; but of these no vestiges remain. In 
Jan. 1880, a hoard of 1100 silver coins of Bobert III. 
was discovered, buried in the cathedral green, halfway 
between the sites of Kilteam manse and of tiie ancient 
tumulus (now levelled) known as the 'Holeridge.' A 
huge new volunteer hall, capable of seating 400 persons, 
was erected in the town in 1881. Fortrose is the seat ol 
the presbyterv of Chanonry. It contains two Established 
churches. Bosemarkie parish church (1821 ; 800 sit- 
tings) is said to occupy the site of an ancient church 
buut by, and dedicated to, St Bonifieunus ; Fortrose church 
from a ehapel of ease was raised to ^[noad $aem status in 
1878. The Free church is a tasteless edifice in the 
Pointed s^le^ The Episcopalian church of St Andrew 
was built in 1828 at a cost of about £1100, and is seated 
for 190. It is Gothic in style, and looks well from the 
sea. There is also a Baptist chapel (1806) in the town. 
The histcffian, Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1882), who 
was bom at Aldotj&ib, was educated at Fortrose from 
1775 to 1780. The present acad^ny, which offers a 
very good secondary education, was founded in 1791. 
Its management is vested in subscribers of 50 guineas, 
whose rights are hereditary, and who are sach entitled 
to present a bursar or free-scholar ; in subscribers of 20 

of CbuionTy pcvBpfWTjr; Bua m uifl pniTOBbai f onrmu. 

Ib ism it bad 02 achoWs, vitli • teMhins-ataff of B. 
BoMmukie Public scbool, imder tbe •ohool'Doant, con- 
tbting of a choinntn and 4 membMa, had in 1S82 a 
teaching-staff of 2, and 81 scholan. Then ii also an 
iniiuit school Ibr girla. Hie Hechanies' lastitate pos- 
•eaiBi an azedlent libnrj and a Msdln^room. The 
town emOtita aa «ffice of the Caledonun bank and 
•gandea of 7 inKBHice oompanisa. Then are S chief 
hotels, nie Black ble Steam fihip^iig CompanT'e 
at«ainar nuu betwoeu InTemeea and rortrcae twice • 
da; on H«adan, WsdneadayH, and Thandaja, and once 
on Tnaadayl, FridaTB, and Satniday^ dniing snmmer, 
and (HKw a day in winter ; whilst other itaamera afford 

mail-gig alao nuu daily to loTemen. 
•tation ta Fort George on the Highland raHway, 6 milee 
to the B8B ; bat to laaeh it, the Port Geoi^ or Arder- 
aiai Feny Ims to be arooaed. The harbour of Fortroae 
il safe and convenient, and wai thorongbl; repaired 
in 1881 ; and at the aame date a new wooden pier, 
about 240 yards long, was orectad. Steamers can enter 
the old haibonronlj at certain atatea of the tide: but tine; 
can now touch at this pier at any time. There are 
markela at Fortrose for cattle, grain, and farm produce 
eveiT mont^, on the Honday precedins the Muir of Ord 
market, except in April and June, when the dates are 
mpactardy the first and the third Wednesdays of the 
month. Hiring markets are combined with the abore 
in April, Angust, and November. 

The borgh has an independent revenue, besides eqjoy- 
ing the buiefit of various charitable mortiGcatioai, so 

Beat <tf FortiOM 

that the late of taxation is low. The bnigh has adopted 
the liudaajr Police Act, under which the council, consist- 
ing of provoct, 8 bailiss, dean itfjniild, tmasnrsr, and B 
coDndilors ate commissiouerB. The same body are also 
commisBJofmrs for. the harbour, under a providonal order 
for ita management The shsriS'.subatitats of Dingwall 
hidda qnarterly circuit small-dsbt oourti at Fortrose ; 
and a ioatiee of peace court is held on the first Wednesday 
of ead> mouth. With iKnunsa, Foms, and Nairn, 
Forttoae returns a member to padiuuaut, ita parlia- 
mentary and munidpal constitaMicy nnmbering 141 bi 
1S82, when the annual value of raal property within 
tiiB burgh amonnted to £8418, its corporation revenue 
baing <esSS. Fop. (18E1) S32, (1841) 1082, (18C1} 1148, 
iisn) W8, (1871) all, M8S1) 869 ; of royal bnrgh be- 
yond the parUamentary limita (1881] 117 ; of Fortrose 
fuead taera parish (-1881) 402.— Ord Sur., sh. 84, 167fl. 
Stt the Bev. J. IL Neale's SeOuMofieal Ifota on Boa 
<Lond. 1848), and A. B. Scott's nivtlraUont qfFoTtnK 
OaOtdral (Edlub. Architect Assoc, 1873). 

FoH, a hamlet and • quoad sacra parish in Dull 
wish, Perthshire. The hamlet stands near the right 
bank of the river Tnmmel, 1} mile W8W of the h^dof 
Loch Tmnmal, and 12 milsa W of its post-town, Pit- 
lochry. It has a fkir on the second Taeaday of Uaidi, 

old style. Vo» Honse, I mile nearer the loch, is a seat 
of Sir Bobert Henziee, Bart, of OABTi.E-MBNZ[Ba. The 
parish, coustitnted by ecclesiastical authority in 1830, 
by civil authori^ in 184B, is in the presbytery of Weem 
and synod of Perth and StWing ; ita minister's stipend 
b £120. Pop. (1871) 270, (1881) 228.— Ord 9ut., sh. 
GG, 18fiS. 

Foasovay, a parish i^efly in Perthshire, but partly 
in Einross-shira, containiiiK the villages of Buikimooiix, 
Chdok or Dkvok, and Cabnbo, and comprising the 
ancient pariahss of Foesoway aud TolUebole, united 
abont 1014. Teir inegular iu outline, it is bounded N 
by Dmming, NE by OrweD, E by Eiuroea, SE by Oteish, 
S by TotTybum and Saline in Fife, SW by Clackmannan 
and Dollu in Q lAf-ltmannKn*!!!!^ , an d W by Muckui 
and Glendevon. Its length, ftom BKB to W8W, varies 
between 2| and 8J miles ; ite atmost bnadth, &om N to 
S, ia Gi milee ; and its area is 17,8564 acres, of which 
6804} belong to the Einroas-shln or TolUebole section. 
On or dose to the Qlendevoa and Huckart border, the 
' crystal Devon ' winds Sg milee south-eastward and 
west-Boath -westward, from just abore Downhill to ueM 
Pitgober, the point where it first touches aud that 
where it leaves this parish being only 4^ miles distant 
as the crow flies. During this course it exhibits the 
finest of its bmons scen^, described iu our articles 
Devil's Hill, Hnmbling-Bridge, and Caldron Linn. 
Other chief streams are Oaimey Water, which falls into 
the Devon below the Oaldion Linn, and South Queich 
Wat«T, nmning to Loch Leven. Pereimial sjolnga of pore 
water are everywhere abnudant ; a petrifying spring is 
on the landa of Devonshaw ; aud a medidnal spring, 
erroneously known aa Dollar Water, ia on the lands of 
Blairingone. The suTface decliuea alone the Devon to 
close on 100 feet above sea-level, uid B of Crook of 
Devon, it, though nndnlating, nowhere much exceeds 
600 feet ; bnt northwards it rises to 734 feet near 
Enockintinny, 1496 at LendHck Hill, 1131 at Cloon, 
1G78 at Hellock Hill, and 1621 at lunerdonny Hill— 
summits these of the Ochils. The rocks are partly 
eruptive, portly carboniferous. Trap and sandstone are 
quarried iu several places ; coal haa been worked in three 
mines, ironstone In one ; and limestone occurs in con- 
nection with both, whilst copper ore, not rich enongb 
to repay the coat of working, is found near Bnmbling- 
Bridge. The soils are variously clayey, loamy, gravelly, 
and mossy ; and soma are fertile, others veiy inferior. 
Fully three-fifths of all the land are regularly or occa- 
doually in tillage, and some SGO acres are under wood. 
Aldie and Tnlliebole castles are prominent objects, both 

separatdy noticed ; manstons """ " *" ' "'""" 

Tower ; and an old drcnlar n 
an oblong moated mound on 
the Oallow Knowe adjacent t- 

aud the Monk'e Grave between the lands of Oartwhinean 
and those of Pitfar, are chief antiquities. Four pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £B00 and upwards, 
23 of between £100 and £500, of from £50 to £100, 
and 18 of from £20 to £60. Giving off a portion to the 
gvoad taera pansh of Blairingone, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Kinross and synod of Fife ; the liring is 
worth £28C>. The parish chorch, near (>ook of Devon 
village, was bnilt m 1806, and contsJns G2G sittings. 
There is also a Free church of Foeeoway ; and two pnblk: 
schools, Cambo and Foasoway, with respective accommo- 
datiou for 88 and 170 children, had {1881) an average 
attendance of 42 and 77, and grants of £G2, 12s. and 
£61, 4s. 2d. ValnaHon (1882) £8782, 6s. 8d. Pop, 
(1801) 1312, (1831) 1576, (1841) 1724, (18S1) 1GS4, 
(1871) 14S1, (1881) 1267, of whom 772 belonged to the 
Perthshire sectien, and 934 to the ecclesiastical parish 
of Fossoway.— Ont Sur., ahs. 40, 89, 1867-89. 

"-"-■ — ^ — - Scottish Baronial mandonof 18BB, 

ire, at the southern base of wooded Fothringham 
HiU [800 feet\ 6 miles 5 by E of Forfar. It is a seat of 
Walter Thoe. Jaa. Scrymaonre-Fothri ngh am , Esq. of Pow- 
niB, Fothringham, and TBALtMO (b. 1S62; sue. 1864), 
who owns ]2,t29Bcre8ia the conntj, valued at £13,400 


per anntun, and whose ancestor settled in Forfarshire in 
the latter half of the 14th century, ^^d Swr,, sh. 57, 

Fondland, an npland tract in Forgae, Insch, and 
Colsalmond parishes, Aberdeenshire. Flanking the upper 
basin of the Ury, and extending £ and W, it rises to a 
maximum altitude of 1529 feet above sea-level, and 
has in main degree a bleak moorish surface. Slates 
of clear light blue colour and excellent quality abound 
in the Ii^ch part of it; were long quarried to the 
amount of nearly a million pieces a year, chiefly for 
the market of Aberdeen; but ceased to be in high 
request, principally in consequence of the greater cheap- 
ness of sea-borne slates from the quarries of Easdale m 
Ajrayllshire.— -Orci. Bur,^ sh. 86, 1876. 

Foola. See Fowla. 

Fonlden, a village and a parish in the eastern part 
of Merse district, Berwickshire. The village stands 1 
mile to the N of Whitadder Water, and 5} mUes S of 
Ayton station, 4 E by S of Chimside, and 5 WNW of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, under which it has a post office. 
A pretty httle place, it once was a burgh of barony and 
a place of considerable size and note, and had its border 
peel-tower, whilst its church, on 23 March 1587, was the 
meeting-place of Elizabeth's commissioners with those 
of James Y I., to vindicate the execution of Queen Mary. 

The parish is bounded N by Ayton, E and SE by 
Mordington, S by Hutton, and W by Chimside. Its 
utmost length, fbom E to W, is 2^ miles; its utmost 
breadth, from N to S, is 2g miles ; and its area is 3298 
acres, of which 20 are water. Whitadder Water winds 
24 miles east-by-southward between steep banks along 
all the southern border, and receives three little bums 
from this parish, one of which traces most of the 
boundary with Mordington. The surface declines at 
the SE comer to less than 100 feet above sea-level, 
thence rising to 889 feet near BUnkbonny, 461 near 
Mosspark, 421 near St Johns, and 642 at Greenfield — 
heiffhts that command a wide and magnificent view of 
Flc^iden and other famous historic scenes. The rocks 
are mainly Devonian ; and the soil ranges from stony 
clay in the S to loamy towards the centre, and light and 
moorish in the K. Bather more than one-twdftn of the 
entire area is under wood, chiefly in the central dis- 
trict ; one-ninth is natural pasture ; and all the rest is in 
tillage. Foulden House, to the E of the villace, is the 
seat of the chief proprietor, John Wilkie, Esq. (o. 1806 ; 
sue 1817), who holds 2560 acres in the shire, valued 
at £5245 per annum. Another mansion is Newlands 
House, i mile N of the village. Foulden is in the 

Sresbytery of Chimside and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
ale ; the living is worth £260. The church, rebuilt in 
1786, contains 166 sitting ; and a public sdiool, with 
accommodation for 72 cmldren, had (1881) an average 
attendsmce of 41, and a grant of £38, 9s. 6d. Valuation 
(1865) £5563, 2s. lOd., (1882) £6529, 16s. Pop. (1801) 
893, (1831) 424, (1861) 431, (1871) 425, (1881) 393.— 
Ord, Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

FonliB Castle, a mansion in Eilteam parish, Ross- 
shire, standing } mile NW of, and 200 feet above, the 
Cromarty Fir^ close to whose shore is Foulis station 
en the Highland railway, 2 miles SSW of Evanton 
or Novar, and 4^ NKE of DingwalL A splendid 
pile, with beautiful grounds, it is the seat of Sir Charles 
Munro, ninth Bart, since 1634 (b. 1795; sue. 1848), 
the chief of the clan Munro, who, after serving imder 
Wellington, was made a Columbian general by Bolivar 
in 1818, and who owns 4458 acres in the shire, valued 
at £3781 per annum. The Foulis estate has been held by 
the Munroes since early in the 12th century, on the tenure 
of furnishing a snowball, if required, at midsummer, 
niey fought at Bannockbum, Halidon Hill, Harlaw, 
Pinkie, Fontenoy, and Falkirk; and Robert Munro, the 
eighteenth or ' Black ' Baron, with 700 men from his own 
estate, served under the ' Immortal ' Qustavus, and died 
of a wound at Ulm in 1633. The Munroes' slogan is 
'Castle Foulis in flames. '—Ord Sur., sh. 93, 1881. 

Fonlshiela, a ^ace in Selkirk parish, Sellorkshire, on 
the left bank of Yarrow Water, opposite Kewark Castle, 


and 3i miles W by N of Selkirk town. A fiumhouse 
(now ruinous) here was the birthplace of the African 
traveller, Mungo Phrk (1771-1805), and the place of his 
residence on the eve of his second and fatal expedition. 
"-Ord. Sur,, sh. 25, 1865. 

Fonntainbleau. See Dttmfbies. 

FonntaSnhall, the seat of Sir Thomas H. Dick lauder, 
Bart, in Pencaitland parish, Haddingtonshire, 1^ mile 
SW of Pencaitland village, and 5 miles SSE of Tranent. 
The lands of Fountainhall were acquired by Sir John 
Lauder, who in 1688 was created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia, and whose ancestors had been lairds of the Base 
Rock from the 13th to the 16th century. His son, Sir 
John (1646-1722), an eminent lawyer and statesman, 
was appointed a lord of Session in 1689, with the title 
of Lord Fountainhall. He is remembered by his Ded* 
aions, as is his fourth descendant^ Sir Thomas Dick- 
Lauder (1784-1848), by his fictions and other writings. 
The present and ninth oaronet, Sir Thomas-North Dick- 
Lauder (b. 1846 ; sue. 1867), holds 600 acres in East 
and 68 in Mid Lothian, valued at £1174 and £1066 per 
annum.— Ord Sur,, sh. 33, 1863. See Sir T. Dick- 
Lander's SeoUish Eiverg (Edinb. 1874). 

Fountainhall, a hamlet in Stow parish, SE Edin- 
bm^hshire, on the riffht bank of Gala Water, with a 
station on the North British railway, 4} miles NNW of 
Stow village, under which it has a post office. 

FoQzman HilL See Fobsma^t. 

Fonrmerkland, Apiece in Holywood parish, Dum- 
friesshire, 5 miles VfNVf of Dumfries. A small tower 
here was built by R. Maxwell in 1590. 

Fonxmilehonse, a village in Teiding parish, Forfar- 
shire, 4 miles N by E of Cundee. 

Foreran, a coast parish of £ Aberdeenshire, contain- 
ing the seaport village of Newbttboh, which stands at 
the right side of the Ythan's embouchure, 5 miles S£ 
of Ellon station, 6} E W N of Udny station on the 
western border, and 13^ NNE of Aberdeen, under which 
it has a post and telegraph office, and with which it 
communicatee by coach. It is bounded N by Logie- 
Buchan, NE by Slains, E by the German Ocean, S by 
Belhelvie, and W and Nw by Udny. Its utmost 
length, fin>m £ to W, is 6^ miles ; its greatest breadth 
is Si miles ; and its area is. 10,844 acres, of which 248{ 
are foreshore, and 63 water. The Tthak, in placea 
here i mile broad at high water, flows 1^ mile south- 
south-eastward between Foveran and Slains to its bar- 
obstructed mouth in the German Ocean, and at New- 
burgh is joined by Foveran Bum, which, rising near 
Tillery, runs 7i miles through the interior; whilst 
another of its tributaries. Tarty Bum, traces most of 
the Udny border. The coast-line, 1} mile long, is low 
and sandy ; and from it the surface rises gently inland 
to 300 feet at Hillhead of Ardo, 78 at the parish church, 
212 near Davieshill, and 400 at the western border near 
Edgehill. The principal rocks are trap, gneiss, mica 
slate, and conglomerate; and the soil varies from a 
sandy loam to a rich clay loam and a strong day. The 
pariah is poorly wooded, its eastern exposure stuntinflr 
what trees there are ; and nearly all the land is devotea 
to agriculture, laige tracts of waste having been drained 
and enclosed about the bennning of the present cen- 
tury. The castle of Enockhall, 1 mile NnW of New- 
burgh, built by the Udny fSunily in 1565, was captured 
by uie Oovenantera under the Earl Marischal and the 
£!arl of Errol in 1639 ; and, accidentally burned in 1734, 
still stands in a ruinous state. Of Foveran Castle, near 
Foveran House, not a vestige remains. The oldest pari 
bore the name of Turing's Tower, after its first pos- 
sesson, from whom it pcSsed, about the middle of the^ 
17th century, to a branch of the Forbeses of Tolquhoun. 
A rhyme, ascribed to Thomas of Ercildoune, foretold — 

' When Taring's Tower tells to the land, 
Qladflnnir ■nail be near at hand ; 
When Toiing*s Tbwer falls to the sea, 
Gladsmnlr the next year Shall be.' 

The tower did fall not lon|^ before 1720, and in 1746- 
the Highlanden were for giving the name of Gladsmuir 


to their victory at Prestonpans (Chamben's Popular 
Shymes, p. 219, ed. 1870). An ancient buirin^-gronnd 
near the village retains a fragment of the 'Red Chapel 
of Bnchan/ or Chapel of the Hol^ Rood. Foveran 
House, 1 mile SSW of Newbnigh, is an old mansion ; 
whikt Tilleiy, in the W of the parish, 1^ mile SSE of 
Udny station, is a more recent Qredan edifice. Five 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and np- 
wanis, 6 of between £100 and £500, 1 of from £50 to 
£100, and 6 of frx>m £20 to £50. Foveran is in the 
presbytory of Ellon and synod of Aberdeen ; the living 
IS worth £296. The pariah church, on the right bank 
of Foveran Bum, 1^ mile SW of Newbuigh, is a plain 
edifioe of 1794, containing 700 sittings, and a marble 
monument with two fine ousts of Col. John Augustus 
and CoL Robert Fullerton Udny, of Udny and Dudwick, 
who died in 1859 and 1861. There is also a Free 
church If mile further SSW ; and three public schools 
— Cultorcullen, Foveran, and Newburgh Mathers — ^with 
respective accommodation for 100, 170, and 169 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 128, 105, and 170, 
and grants of £116, 178., £74, 14s., and £143, 9s. 
Valuation (1860) £9099, (1881) £18,166, ISs. 7d. Pop. 
(1801) 1891, (1881) 1609, (1861) 1891, (1871) 1859, 
(1881) 2042,— Ord. Sur., sh. 77, 1878. 

Fowla or Foula, a Shetland island belon|;ing to WaUs 
parish, 16 miles WSW of the nearest part of the Shetland 
mainland, and 85 NNE of the nearest part of Orkney. 
It measures about S miles in length by 1) mile in breadth ; 
and, as viewed at a little distance, appears to consist of 
five conical hills, rising steeply from the water, till the 
highest attains an altitude of 1800 feet. It is easily 
seen on a clear day from the northern parts of Orkney ; 
and, tested bv Tacitus* words in speaking of the ut- 
most limits of Agricola's victories, it has oettor claims 
than any other island to be deemed the Ultima Thule 
of the ancients. Only one spot, the fishing station of 
Ham, situated on its £ side, is available as a landing- 
place ; the coast all round, except at that spot, is almost 
one unbroken precipice, rising sublimely and terribly to 
the shoulders or tops of the hms ; and the brink of these 
cUfis, 1100 to 1200 feet high, commands a most giddy, 
impressive, and magnificent view over wide expanses of 
the encircling Atlantic The single landing-place is 
much frequented as a fishing-station ; the cBfis are 
denizened with myriads of cormorante, kittywakes, 
guUs, and other sea-fowl ; and the rocks are sandstone, 
except where daystone slate occurs near Ham. ' Fowla,' 
says a writer in Trans, ffighl. and Ag. Soe, (1874), 
' seems to be chieflj valued as a fishing and curing stetion, 
and the only agriculture practised in it is that of the 
Shetlander pure and simple. Yet, in our opinion, it is 
capable of producing finer cro^ than any other island 
in the group. Much of the soil is naturally good, and 
the climate is manifestly more hugely afiected by the 
Gulf Stream than that of any other part of Scotland. 
Nowhere else have we seen crons of here, oate, and 
pototoes grow so luxuriantlv ; while the natural }>asture 
of the steep but grassy hills is rich and varied in the 
nature of ite com][>onent plants. On the other hand, 
nowhere are the ruinous enecte of the " scalping" system 
more conspicuous, a whole district of the islano, between 
the tillage and the mountain, being laid utterly bare, 
the turf carried ofi", and the naked rocks left to glare 
in the sunshine.' Fowla belongs to the proprietor of 
MxLBT estote, on the western coast of Mainland. Ite 
islanders are remarkably hardy, have few wante, and 
feel strong attachment to their rugged home. Fop. 
(1887) 202, (1861) 288, (1871) 257, (1881) 267. 

Fowlia Castle. See Fouus. 

Fowlis-Eaater, a parish on the eastern border of 
Perthshire, containing the village of Fowlis, 6 miles 
WNW of Dundee ; and, since 1618, united to the con- 
tiguous parish of LT717DIE in Forfarshire. It is bounded 
S W by Iiongforgan in Perthshire, and N by Lundie, E 
and S by Lm and Benvie, in Forfarshire. Ite utmost 
length, from WNW to ESE, is 48 miles ; ite width 
from i mile increases eastward to 2^ miles; and ite 
area is 2827 acres, of which nearly 8 are water. The wax* 


face ascends, from flat carse lands to the braes of the 
Carse of Cowrie, from less than 180 feet above sea-level 
near Mains of Fowlis to 929 at Blacklaw Hill, at the 
north-western extremity, which commands a beautUul 
view of the Carse and of the southern screens of ttM 
Tay. A lake of 55 acres, the Piper-Dam, lay in ite 
upper part, but was drained about 1780 for sake of ite 
marl. About two-thirds of the land are in tillage ; and 
the rest is mainly disposed in woodland and pasturage. 
By David I. Fowlis and other lands were granted, for 
gallantry at the Battle of the Standard (1188), to William 
of Maule, who was succeeded by his son-in-law, Roger 
of Mortimer. From the latter's descendant, Fowlia 
passed by marriage (1877) to Sir Andrew Gray of Brox. 
mouth, the first Lord Gray ; and by the ninth Lord it 
was sold, in 1669, to an ancestor of the present pro* 
prietor, Keith-Murray of Ochtertyre. Fowlis Castle 
stends to the S of the village, towards the head of the 
beautiful Den of Fowlis or Balrt7DDBBT, a fi&vourite 
field alike for geologist and botanist. From 200 to 800 
yean old, it was differed to go to decav towards the 
close of last centurv, but has recently been rendered 
habitoble for farm labourers. A church of Fowlis-Eastet 
is first mentioned in 1180, and in 1242 was dedicated 
to St Maman. The present church is commonly said 
to date from 1142, but is Second Pointed in style, and 
probably was built about 1452 by Andrew, second Lord 
Gray of Fowlis, who made it collegiate for a provost and 
several prebends. Measuring externally 89^ by 29 feet, 
it is all of hewn stone, and retains a nnely-sculptured 
aumbrye, a mutilated octagonal font (restored from 
Ochtertyre), and a curious carved rood screen, with 
paintings of the Crucifixion, the B. Y. Miuy and the 
mfant Christ, St John Baptist and the Agnus Dei, St 
Peter, etc Of three round-headed doorways, one has 
been blocked up ; and one, the priest's, is enriched with 
a crocheted canopy. In the churchyard are a cross* 
carved coflSn-slab and a plain passion cross 6 feet high. 
A public school, with accommodation for 91 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 48, and a grant of 
£49, 19s. Valuation (1882) £3781, 178. 2d. Pop. (1881) 
822, (1861) 817, (187l) 291, (1881) 811.— Oni. Sur., 
sh. 48, 1868. See vol ii of Billings' Baronial and 
Ecclesiastical AnbiquiUea (1852) ; T. B. Muir's Descrip* 
tive Notices of Ancient Parockiai and Collegiate Cfhurchee 
of Scotland (Lond. 1848) ; and an article by Andrew 
Jervise ia voL vii. of Procs. Soc, Ants. ScoU. (1870). 

FowIiA-Weater, a parish of central Perthshire, con- 
taining Fowlis village, 2| miles NNE of Abercaimey 
stetion, and 4f ENE of Crieff, under which it has a post 
office. Gilmerton, 2 miles NE of Crieff, with another 
post office, lies on the western border of the parish, 
which consiste of two slenderly united sections and a 
small detached north-westerly district The main body 
is bounded N by Little Dunkeld, E by Little Dunkeld, 
a detached section of Monzie, and Methven, SE by 
Methven, S by Madderty, SW by (Meff, W by Crieflf 
and Monzie, and NW by the Amulree section of DulL 
Ite utmost length, from iN to S, is 10} miles ; ite breadth 
varies between 5 frirlongs and 6J miles ; and ite area is 
22,858ji acres, of which 55^ are water, and 590| belong 
to the detached portion, which extends for 4} furlongs 
alonff the river Almond, 5 miles WSW of Amulree. 
Keany 9 miles lower down the Almond has an east-by- 
northerly courae of 9 furlongs along the boundary with 
Crieff, 51 furlongs across the interior at the neck of the 
main body, and 1} mile along the boundary with Monzie 
(detached) ; whilst the Biuln winds 3} miles along all 
the northern border. Other boundaries of the parish 
are traced by Fendoch, Shiligan, and Milton Bums, and 
slug^psh Pow Water separates it from Madderty. Here, 
in the S£, along the Pow, the surface declines to less 
than 200 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 441 feet 
at Aldie, 706 near Drummick, 806 at Murray's Hill, 
1098 at Stroness, 1158 at Meall Quhanzie, and 2117 at 
Meall Tanuinn. The northern portion of the main 
body, whilst sinking to 490 feet along the N bank of 
the Almond, rises north-north-westward to 982 feet at 
Castlehill. 1787 at Craig Lea, 2025 at Meall Reamhar, 



2044 at Meall nan Gaoraich, and 1569 at Dalreoch Hill, 
from which again it descenda to 700 feet along[ the 
Bran. Lastly, the detached position yaries in altitude 
from 800 feet to 2867 on Beinn na Gainimh at its 
north-eastern comer. The northern division of the 
main body, consistinff of n2£^;ed spurs of the Grampians, 
and dividing Strathoran m>m Glenalmond, is, with 
trifling exception, all of it wild or pastoiaL The 
southern, in a general view, has a singniarl^ varied and 
unequal surface, flecked and clum^d with coppices 
and groves; but along Pow Water, throughout the 
southern border, consists of an opulent and miely-shel- 
tered valley. The dells and ravines of the hillier por- 
tions are graced in numerous places with tiny cascades, 
and abound throughout with other features of fine close 
scenery. The hills themselves, with their laige extent 
of southern exposure, are so adorned with wood and fine 
enclosures as to present a very charming appearance ; 
and, from many points, they command magnificent 
views of Stratheam. Granite, clay slate, and sandstone 
are the prevailing rocks ; but columnar trap and lime- 
atone also occur. The slate, of beautiful dark blue 
colour, possesses superior properties for roofing purposes, 
andhasIongbeenla^lyqnamedatC&AiOLEA. Thesand- 
atone in places suits well for building, having a beauti- 
ful colour and a durable texture ; admits of fine polish ; 
and has been quarried on the lands of Abercaimey and 
Cultoquhey. The soil, alluvial in the valley of the Pow, 
is elsewhere variously gravelly, sandy, loamy, and 
clayey. Little more than a fourth of the entire area is 
in tillage; woods and plantation coversomelSOO acres; and 
the rest ia pastoral or waste. The castle of the ancient 
Earls of Stratheam stood on the E side of a ravine { mile 
E of FowUs village, and is now represented by only a 
grassy knolL Remains of a double concentric stone cirde, 
comprising 40 stones in the exterior range, and measur- 
ing 54 feet in circumference, crown the brow of a hill to 
the N of the village; and three other ancient Gale- 
donian standing stones and a cromlech are on the W ; 
whilst in the middle of the village square stands the 
' Cross of Fowlis,' transferred to its present site from Bal 
na croisk, near the mouth of the Sma' Glen, and sculp- 
tured with figures of men and animals. Buchanty has 
been noticed separately, as likewise are tiie four mansions, 
Abercaimey, Cultoauhey, Glen Tulchan, and Keillor 
Castie. Sir David Moray of Gorthie, author of The Tra- 
ffusal Death of Scph(mi8ba {1611), and governor to Prince 
Henry, was bom at Abercaimey ; and at the parish school 
were educated the Bev. William Taylor, D. D. (1744-1823), 
principal of Glasgow University, and the Bev. Archi- 
KMdd Alison (1757-1839), author of the Essay on Taste. 
Fowlis- Wester gives off portions to Monzie and Logie- 
almond, and itself is a living, of £327 value, in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. The church, at the village, is a long and uglv 
edifice of Reformation time, with 500 sittinss, and with 
a fine lych-gate, bearing date 1644, but eviaentiy older. 
The patron saint was Beanus, bom *apud Fovlis in 
Stratheme ; ' and till 1877 a yearly market was held at 
Fowlis village on his birthday, 26 Oct o.s, Bidgowan 
public, Fowlis public, and Glenidmond subscriptic school, 
with respective accommodation for 84, 114, and 67 chil- 
dren, had (1881) an average attendance of 60, 58, and 14, 
and grants of £54, 2s. , £45, ISs. , and £27, 6s. Valuation 
(1866) £14,092, (1883) £15,569, 19a lid. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 1614, (1831) 1680, (1861) 1433, (187l) 1161, 
(1881) 1112, of whom 51 were Gaolic-speaking ; of eccle- 
siastical parish (1871)850, (1881)771 ; of registration dis- 
trict (1871) 1028, (1881) 978.— Or<«. Sur,, sh. 47, 1869. 

Fowlihengh, a range of cliffs on the coast of Dunnot- 
tar parish, Kincardineshire, 2} miles S of Stonehaven. 
Measuring upwards of a mile in length, and risinff very 
boldly from the sea, it consists of Old Red sandstone 
and conglomerate, the latter containing nodules of quartz 
and limestone. Myriads of gulls, coots, and other sea- 
fowl here build their nests ; and it is let to a tenant for 
the perilous privilege of taking the birds and their Qggs 
by means of ropes lowered from the top. 

Fowlshiela. See Foulbhiels. 

Foxfaall, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkliston 
pariah, Linlithgowshire, near the left bank of the Al- 
mond, 3 furlongs E by S of Kirkliston village. 

Foxton, an estate, with a mansion, in Cupar parish, 
Fife, 2 miles N£ of the town. 

Foyan or FeoUiii, a small river of Boleskine and 
Abertarff parish, central Invemess-ahire, issuing from 
Loch KiLLiN (li X i mile ; 1050 feet), and thence wind- 
ing 9 miles north-north-westward and northward, till it 
faQs into Loch Ness, opposite the peak of Mealfourvonie 
(2284 feet), and 10^ miles NE of^Fort Augustus. Its 
course is chiefly along a high glen, with wild mountain 
screens, and during the last IJ mile it makes a total 
descent of 400 feet, including two surpassingly pictur- 
esque falls, amid grandly romantic accompaniments of 
rock and wood. Foyers House, the property of Fountaine 
Walker, Esq. of Ness Castle, stands at the left side of 
its mouth ; and on the right side, above the steamboat 
jetty, is the Foyers Hotel, on the site of what was called 
the 'General'a Hut,' from General Wade of road-making 
celebrity. A carriage-way ascends by easy traverses from 
the pier to the falls, and footpaths afford short cuts for 
pedestrians. The upper fall is a leap of 40, and the 
lower fall of 165, feet. Dr E. D. Clarke, the celebrated 
traveller, pronounced the lower fall to be a finer cascade 
than that of Tivoli, and inferior only to the Falls of 
Temi ; and Robert Bums, as he stood beside it on 5 
Sept. 1787, wrote : — 

' Among the heathy hllla and nigged woods, 
The roaring Foyen pours his mossy floods. 
Till fall he dashes on the ro^y momids, 
Where thro* a shapeless breach Mb stream resounds. 
As high in air the bursting torrents flow« 
As deep recoiling surges foam below. 
Prone down the rock the whitening sheet descends^ 
And viewless echo's ear, astonish'd, rends. 
Dim-seen, thro* rising mists and ceaseless showers, 
The hoary cavern, wide surrounding, lowers ; 
Still thro' the gap the struggling river toils. 
And still below the horrid caldron boils.' 

'The fall of Foyers,* says Professor Wilson, 'is the 
most magnificent cataract, out of all sight and hearing, 
in Britain. The din is ^uite loud enough in ordinary 
weather — and it is only in ordinary weather that you 
can approach the place from which you have a full view 
of all its grandeur. When the fall is in flood — ^to say 
nothing of being drenched to the skin — ^vou are so 
blinded by the smirp spray smoke, and so deafened by 
the dashing and daishmg and tumbling and rumbling 
thunder, that your condition is far from enviable, as you 
cling, "lonely lover of nature," to a shelf by no means 
eminent for safety, above the horrid gulf. In ordinary 
Highland weather — ^meaning thereby weather neither 
very wet nor very dry — ^it is worth walking a thousand 
miles for one hour to behold the fall of Foyers. The 
spacious cavity is enclosed by " complicated cliffs and 
perpendicular precipices" of immense height; and 
though for a while it wears to the eye a savace aspect, 
jet beauty fears not to dwell even there, and uie horror 
IS softened by what appear to be masses of tall shrobs or 
sinf;le shrubs almost like trees. And they are trees, 
which on the level plain would look even stately ; but 
as they ascend, ledge above ledge, the walls of that 
awful chasm, it takes the eye time to see them as they 
really are, while on our first discernment of their char- 
acter, serenely standing among the tumult, they are felt 
on such sites to be subUme. Between the falls and the 
strath of Stratherrick, a space of three or four miles, the 
river Foyers flows through a series of low rocky hills 
clothed with birch. They present various quiet glades 
and open spaces, where little patches of cultivated 
^una are encircled by wooded hillocks, whose surface 
18 pleasingly diversified by nodding trees, bare rocks, 
empurpled heath, and bracken-bearing herbage. It was 
the excessive loveliness of some of the scenery there that 
suggested to us the thought of going to look what kind 
of a stream the Foyers was above the £ei11. We went, 
and in the quiet of a summer evening, found it 

' *' Was even the gentlest of all gentle things.*" 

See StbathebbioXi Boleskinb akd Abebtabff, and 



chap. h. of James Brown's Round Table Club (Elgin, 
1878).— Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Fracafleld, a village in Shetland, 8^ miles from 

Fraisgill, a cavern in Dnmess parish, Sutherland, 
on the W base of Whiten Head and the £ coast of Loch 
Eriboll, 6 miles NNE of Heilem ferry. Measuring 50 
feet in height and 20 in width at the entrance, it runs 
about i mile into the bowels of the earth, and gradually 
contracts into lowness and narrowness. Its walls are 
vari^ted with a thousand colours so softljr and deli- 
cately blended, as to outvie the finest productions of the 
painter's brush. — Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

France, Little, a hamlet at the boundary between 
Liberton and Newton parishes, Edinbuighshire, i mile 
8 of Craigmillar Castle, and 3 miles S£ of Edinburgh. 
It got its name from being the residence of some of 
Queen Mury's retainers, brought with her from France. 

Frankfield, a lake (2^ x 2 furL), near Millerston, on 
the mutual border of Barony and Gadder parishes, 
Luiarkshire, sending o£f a rill to Hoeranfield I^h. 

Fraooh Eileaa, a small island in Loch Awe, Ar^ll- 
shire, 2i miles SW of Kilchum Castle and i mile JNE 
of Inishail. The hero Fraoch, going to gather its ser- 
pent-guarded apples, which the fair Mego lonffed for, 
slew and was slain by the monster — a legena which 
recalls the classic myth of the Hesperides, and which 
forms the theme of an ancient Gaelic poem, translated 
about 1770 by the Bev. Dr John Smith. In 1267 the 
islet was granted by Alexander III. to Gilbert Mac- 
naughton ; and it contains the ruins of a strong fortalice, 
in which the Mocnaughton chieftains resided. — Ord. 
Sur,, sh. 45, 1876. 

Fxaoohy, LocIl See Fbeuchib. 

Ftaaerbnrgh, a town and a parish in the N£ extrem- 
itv of Aberdeenshire. Founded by Alexander Fraser of 
Philorth in 1569, at first the town was known as Faith- 
lie, the name of a free burgh of baronv erected by 
charter of Queen Mary five years earlier ; but by a new 
charter of 1601, it was constituted 'a free port, free burgh 
of barony, and free r^;ality, to be called in all time 
coming, the Burgh ana Begality of Fraserburgh.' It 
is built on the southern slope of Einnaird's Head, and 
along the western shore of Fraserburgh Bay, by road 
being 22 miles E of Banff and 17i NNW of Peterhead, 
whilit by rail, as terminus of the Formartine and 
Buchan branch (1865) of the Great North of Scotland 
railway, it is 18 miles NNE of Maud Junction, 41 NNE 
of Byce Junction, 47i N bv E of Aberdeen, 162^ NNE 
of Edinburgh, and 200 NE by N of Gla^w. Einnaird's 
Head (the Promontorium TaexaZium of Ftolemy), ^ mile 
to the N, is a rocky headland, composed of mica slate, 
and 61 feet high. The Frasers' castle here, dating from 
1570, is a rectangular four-storied tower, 89 feet by 27 ; 
on its roof a lighthouse was built in 1787, whose lantern, 
rising 120 feet above high water mark, shows a fixed 
li^ht, red over Battray Briggs, white in all other 
directions, and visible at a distance of 17 nautical miles. 
A sea-crag, 50 yards to the eastward, is crowned by the 
massive ' Wine Tower,' which, measuring 25^ by 20 
feet, and 25 high on the landward side, contiuns two 
vaulted apartments. The only doorway is on the upper 
story, and the wooden stair leading up to this is 
modem, so that how the tower was lormerlv entered, 
and what was its purpose, remain a puzzle to the 
antiquary. The style, nowever, of five freestone carv- 
ings, that adorn the roof and two windows, is thought 
to refer it to the 15th century. Beneath it is a cave, 
the Seiches Hole, believed to penetrate 100 feet, but now 
much choked with stones. Scarce a vestige remains of 
a square three-storied tower at the W end of the town, 
part of a college be^pm by Alexander IVaser, he having 
obtained a charter m 1592 to erect a university. The 
scheme fell through, but his buildinff was once called 
into requisition, when, on the outbreak of the plague at 
Aberdeen in 1647, King's College for a time removed to 
Fraserburp^h. Hie town itself, overlooking the harbour 
and bav, is neat and regular. Its principal streets run 
parallel to the bay, with others crossing at right angles ; 

and recent shoreward improvements and northward 
extensions have alwa^rs tended to enhance its symmetry. 
The Town House, built in 1855, is a handsome Grecian 
edifice, whose dome-crowned tower contains a niche^ 
with a statue of Alexander Fraser, sixteenth Lord Saltoun 
(1785-1858), a hero of Waterloo and of the Chinese opium 
war. His portrait hangs in the town-hall, on the second 
floor, with one of his ancestor, the founder of the town. 
A market-cross, erected by that founder, stood ori^nally 
on a large hexagonal basement, with nine gradations of 
steps ; and, as restored in 1858, is an oval stone shaft 
12 feet in height, surmounting a pedestal, and itself sur- 
mounted bv the Roval and Fraser arms. The prison 
since 1874 has served only for the detention of prisoners 
whose period does not exceed three days. The parish 
church, rebuilt in 1802 and restored in 1878-74, is a 
plain structure, with clock-tower and spire and 1000 
sittings. The new West quocui sacra church (1877 ; 800 
sittings) cost £4000, and has a ver^ effective spire. A 
fine new Free church was erected m 1880 at a cost of 
£6398 ; and other places of worship are the U.P. church 
(1875 ; 850 sitting^, the Congregational church (1858 ; 
550 sittings), the Evangelical Union church (1854), the 
Baptist church (1880), and St Peter's Episcopal church 
(1791 ; 800 sittings). The last is a cruciform pseudo- 
Norman edifice, enlarged and refitted in 1840 and 1880, 
with a good organ and a marble tablet to Bishop Alex- 
ander Jolly, D.D. (1755-1838), who from 1788 till his 
death was minister here, and a Life of whom, by the 
Bev. W. Walker (2d ed., Edinb., 1878), contains much of 
interest relating to Fraserburgh. The Academy, opened 
in 1872, was built at a cost of £2700, and further endowed 
with £5000, by the late James Park, merchant; the 
Girls' Industrial school (1863) was mainly founded by 
the late Miss Strachan of Cortes, as a memorial to her 
brother, James Strachan, Esq., M.D., Inspector General 
of Army Hospitals, Madras ; and a new public school, 
costing over £6000, was opened in Sept. 1882. It has 
accommodation for 800 children, and supersedes the 
former burgh schooL The hospital was built b^ the 
late Thomas Walker, fishcurer, and gifted by him to 
the town ; whilst the Dalrymple public hall and caf(i 
was buHt at a cost of £4500, upwards of £2800 of which 
was given by tiie late Captain John Dalrymple. It is 
Scottish Baronial in style, and the hall has accommoda- 
tion for 1100 persons. 

The town nas, besides, a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, insurance, and tel^^ph depart- 
ments, branches of the Bank of Scotland and the 
Aberdeen Town and County, North of Scotland, and 
Union Banks, 13 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a sas-light 
company, a water supply from Ardlaw, complete new 
sewage works, formed at a cost of over £4000 in 1877, a 
custom-house, a mechanics' library, a news-room, a 
masonic lodge, a lifeboat (1880), an Independent Friday 
paper, the Fraserburgh Advertiser (1852), etc. There is 
a weekly cattie auction ; corn markets are held on Tues- 
day and Friday ; and a sheriff small debt court sits four 
times a year. Whale and seal fishing is quite extinct ; 
and shipbuilding has dwindled awav, only 4 vessels of 
418 tons having been launched here during 1875-78, and 
none during 1879-81. Some employment is furnished by 
two breweries, a bone-mill, two rope and sail yards, and 
four saw-mills ; and a large trade is done in the export 
of agricultural produce, and the import of coals, timber, 
and groceries, Fraserburgh being a 'creek' of Peterhead; 
but herring fishing is the staple industry. 

The harbour, founded by Alexander Fraser on 9 March 
1576 ' in the name of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' 
had only one small pier. The north, south, and middle 
piers were buUt between 1807 and 1837 at a cost of 
£80,000, the space within the pier heads being nearly 
8 acres, with a depth, according to the tides, of 11 to 
16 feet of water inside and along the quays, and of 6 
to 20 feet at the entrance. In 1855 and following ^ears 
a new N harbour of 8 acres of sheltered water, with a 
low-water depth of 10 feet at the entrance, was formed 
by the construction of a pier and breakwater, giving a 
total berthage of 8850 feet, of which 6025 are available 



for flliipping. The estimated cost of this N harbotir 
(£25,000) was more than doubled, and even then the 
breakwater was left unfinished tiU 1875, when, and in 
following years, it was carried to a length of 850 feet. 
The latest undertaking Q881) has been the deepen- 
ing of both harbours and the widening of the quays, 
JCdO,000 hayiuff been borrowed for that purpose from 
the Public "V^rks Loan Commissioners. 'Of late 
years,' to quote from an article on 'Fraserburgh' in 
the Seoteman of 11 April 1882, 'the chief increase 
in the herring fishery has been from the Aberdeen- 
shire ports, the principal of which are Aberdeen, 
Peterhead, and Fraserburgh. During the season of 
1874, about the most productive year on record up till 
1880, more than 1800 boats were fishing from these 
ports and their immediate neighbourhood, and about 
400,000 crans of fish, or more than one- third of the 
entire take of herrings in Scotland, were captured by 
these boats ; so that the market value of the herrings 
now brought into the Aberdeenshire ports in an average 
y&Bii is equal to the whole land rental of the county. 
The sea is thus as productive as the land ; and if there 
were better harbour accommodation — ^though that of 
late years has been considerably improved — ^me produc- 
tion of the sea might be still furtner increaseol The 
requisites of a pertect fiishing-boat harbour are an en- 
trance that will allow the largest class of boats to have 
free access and egress at all times of the tide ; perfect 
shelter within the entrance ; sufficient space for all the 
boats that frequent the place during the fishing season 
to lie together without crowding or jostling ; enough 
depth of water inside to enable tuem to be afloat at all 
times of the tide ; and proper facilities for fitting out, 
ta^ng in their nets, lines, and other gear, and for 
landing their fish. Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Fraser- 
burgh are the only ports on the stormy £ coast of 
Scotland that possess to a considerable extent these 
requisites, and they have, consequently, reaped, and 
will continue to reap, a rich reward. Their proximity 
to the best fishing grounds of the teeming In orth Sea 
certainly gives them exceptional advantages ; but with- 
out the sums judiciously expended at all the three places 
on harbour extension and improvement, these natural 
advantages would have been comparatively useless. The 
following statistics with regard to Fraserburgh, where 
for many years past the Harbour Commissioners have 
been engajy^ed in improving and extending the harbour 
accommo&tion, are remarkable and interesting : — 

' I. Number of Boats, Crans, and Barbels of Fish, 
' AND Total Value of Herrings. 


No. of 




Total Valno 





of Exports 







• 1869 
















































































• • ■ « 

• • • • 

'Of these laige values two-thirds are estimated on 

reliable data to be expended on labour. 

'II. Number of Fishinq-Boats Owned within 

lERBURQH District on 1 Jan. 1882.— Number of 

of all kinds, 688 ; ^umber of fishermen employed, 

; value of boats, £49,199 ; value of nets, £55,115 ; 

value of lines, £5450 ; total value of boats, nets, and 

lines, £109,764. 

'III. Harbour Revenue.— (1850) £1559, 17s. Id. ; 
(1855) £1743, ISa. 3d. ; (1860) £1458, 198. 8d. ; (1865) 


£2361, 18s. 9d.; (1870) £3680, Is.; (1875) £6844, 
Is. 5d.; (1880) £10,185, Os. lid. 

' IV. The total rental of fish-curing yards in Fraser- 
burgh amounted, in 1862, to £398, 15s.— say £400 at 
twenty years' purchase, £8000. In 1880-81 the rental 
of fish-curing yards is seen by the valuation roll to be 
£2842, 18s., besides ground rent charged otherwise in 
the roll— say £3000 at twenty years' purchase, £60,000. 
The curing stations at Balaklava belonging to the Har- 
bour (Domnusqioners contain an area of 7297 square 
vaixis, and rented, in 1862, for £65, 10s. ; in 1877-78, 
for £352 ; and in 1880-81, for £506. The curing yards 
belonging to the Town Council contain an area of 8422 
square yards, and rented, in 1862, for £55; and, in 
1880.81, for £207, 5s. 

' Such is a brief account of the wonderful prosperity 
and development of Fraserburgh during the last thirty 
years — a result owing in part to the advantsges of its 
situation with reference to the best fishing nounds in 
the North Sea, but chiefly due to the sull and per- 
severance with which the harbour has been enlaraed, 
deei>ened, and improved. There is now not on^ a 
spacious inner haroour, extending over an area of 20 
acres, but beyond its entrance a breakwater, inside 
which there is an area of about 8 acres of sheltered 
water, with from 1 to 2 fathoms at low tide, where the 
largest class of fishing-boats can at all times lie water- 
borne and in perfect safety. The above-quoted harbour 
returns show that where fishermen are supplied with a 
ffood harbour they are willing to pay adequate dues for 
the shelter and safety which it enables them to com- 

The harbour is managed by 13 commissioners ; and 
the town, as a burgh of baronv, is governed hj a pro- 
vost (Lord Saltouii), a baron bailie, 14 councillors, a 
dean of guild, and a buivh fiscaL In 1871 it adopted 
the General Police and Improvement Act (ScoUana) of 
1862, to be administered b^ an elected body of 12 police 
commissioners. The municipal constituency numoered 
1050 in 1882. Pop. (1851) 3093, (1861) 3472, (1871) 
4268, (1881) 6583, of whom 6529 were in the police 

The parish of Fraserbuigh, known as Philorth or 
Faithlie till early in the 17th century, consists of a main 
body and a considerable detached district The main 
body is bounded N by the Moray Firth, NE by Fraser- 
burgh Bay, SE and S by Bathen, SW and W by 
Pitsiigo. Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, is 3§ 
miles ; whilst its width, from NNE to WSW, varies 
between 2} and 3} miles. The detached district, lying 
1^ mile SSW of the main body, has an utmost length 
and breadth of 2| and 2$ miles ; it is bounded NE and 
E by Rathen, S by Strichen, SW and W by Aberdour 
(detached), and NW by Tyrie. The area of the whole 
is 8667i <^<!i^* of which 2747i lie detached, 258| are 
foreijiore, and 41J are water. The northern coast, 
extending 2^ miles alon^ the Moray Firth, is low 
though rocky, but rises into bold headland at EiN- 
naird's Head (61 feet) ; the north-eastern, extending 
2f miles along Fraserburgh Bay, is most of it low and 
sandy, skirted by bent-covered hillocks. Fraserbui]p;h 
Bay measures 2^ miles across the entrance, from Em- 
naird's Head to Oairnbulo Point, and 9 frirlonoB 
thence to its inmost recess ; on a fine summer day, wiu 
a fleet of vessels riding at anchor in it, it presents a 
charming scene. The Water of Philorth creeps 2} 
miles north-north-eastward, alonff all the south-eastern 
border, to its mouth in Fraserburgh Bay; and two 
bums, draining the rest of the main body, flow north- 
ward and north-eastward to the sea. The surface, 
throughout the main body, rises from the coast, but so 
slowly as to appear almost flat, and attains its maximum 
altitude in the Sinclair Hills (167 feet). The detached 
district is hillier, attaining 315 feet at Mountsolie, 
whilst the summit of Mormond Hill (769 feet] falls just 
beyond its SE comer. Mica slate, granite, limestone, 
and ironstone are plentiful; and there are several 
chalybeate springs. The soil in many parts is sandy 
and light, in othen loamy and clayey ; and nearly all 


the land, except 400 acres of plantations and 200 of 
moss in the detached portion, is arable. Philorth 
House, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; and 
Lord Saltonn is much the larflest proprietor, 2 others 
holding each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 6 of 
between £100 and £600, 22 of from £60 to £100, and 
64 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Deer and 

Snod of Aberdeen, this parish since 1877 has been 
yided into Fraserburgh proper and West Church 
quoad mora parish, the former a living worth £407. A 
chapel of ease, served by a missionary, stands at Tech- 
mmry in the detached portion, 5^ miles SS W of the town. 
Five schools — Fraserburgh public, the Girls' Industrial, 
St Peter's Episcopalian, Broadsea General Assembly, and 
Techmuiry pubhc — ^with respective accommodation for 
417, 288, 804, 77, and 115 cMldren, had (1881) an aver- 
age attendance of 417, 283, 804, 77, and 115, and grants of 
i^41, 6s., £207, 128., £188, 19s., £70, 14s. 6d., and 
£88, 168. Valuation (1855) £12,078, (1875) £28,568, 
(1882) £87,176, 16s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 2215, (1821) 2881, 
(1841) 8615, (1861) 4511, (1871) 5801, (1881) 7596, of 
whom 54 were on board vessels in the harbour, 4804 
in the ecclesiastical parish of Fraserburgh, and 8288 
in that of West Church. ->(M. Swr.^ sh. 97, 1876. 

FreaageaL See Fbaisoill. 

Ftoebom, a hamlet in Moy and Dakrossie parish, 
Inverness-shire, on the left bank of Findhom river, 16^ 
miles S£ of Inverness, and IJ mile NN W of Fin<Uiom 
Bridge. It has an inn ; and fairs are hejd at it, for 
cows, on the Saturday after 19 May ; for lambs, on the 
Friday after 12 August ; for cattle, on the Monday in 
August after Beamy, the Monday after the third 
Tuesday of September, and the Saturday in October 
after Beauly. 

Freefield, an estate, with a mansion, in Kayne parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 4^ miles N£ of Insch. Its plain man- 
sion was built about the middle of last century, has 
beautifully wooded grounds, and is a seat of Alexander 
Leith, Esq. of Freeneld and Glenkindie (b. 1817 ; sue. 
1859), who owns 8566 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4217 per annum. His father. Gen. Sir Alexander 
Leith, K.C.B., was a distinguished Peninsular officer. 
— Ord awr,^ sh. 86, 1876. 

Freeland, an estate, with a mansion, in Forgandenny 
parish, SE Perthshire, f mile SSE of Forgandenny 
station, and 2} miles W of Bridge of Earn. 

Freoohland Tower. See Moffat. 

Tteidxanght, an estate, with an old mansion, in 

whose basement story was vaulted with stone, the three 
upper floors being iJl of wood, and which, one October 
ni^t of 1680, was tiie scene of the tragedy known as 
the 'Burning of Frendrau^t.' Sir James Crichton, 
great-grandson of the first Lord Cbichton, chancellor 
of Scotland, about the dose of the 15th century ob- 
tained the lordship of Frendraught, in the heart of the 
Gordon country. A feud between his descendants and 
the Gordons (whose chief was the Marquis of Huntly) 
had led to a skirmish on 1 Jan. 1680, in which 
Gordon of Bothiemav was slain ; and this affair the 
Marquis had patched up by desiring Crichton to ^y 
60,000 merks to Botniemay's widow. Some nine 
months later the Marquis again was called upon to act 
as arbiter, this time between Crichton and Leslie of 
Pitcaple, whose son had been wounded in another 
fray ; and this time he decided in Crichton's favour. 
Leslie rode off from Bog of Gight or Gordon Castle with 
threats of vengeance; and the Marauis, fearful for 
Crichton's safefy, sent him home under escort of his 
eldest son, young Lord Aboyne, and others-— one of 
them, strangely enough, the son of the slaughtered 
Bothiemay. ' They rcMle,' says Spalding, ' without in- 
terruption to the place of Frendraught, without sight 
of Pitcaple by the way. Aboyne took his leave from 
the hdra, but upon no condition would he and his lady 
suffer him to go, and none that was with him, that 
night, but earnestly urged him (though against his 


will) to bide. They were well entertained, supped 
merrily, and to bed went joyfully. The Viscount was 
laid in a bed in the old tower (going off the hall), and 
standing upon a vault wherein was a round hole, de- 
vised of old, just under Aboyne's bed. Bobert Gordon, 
bom in Sutherland, his servant, and English Will, his 
page, were both laid beside him in the same cham- 
ber. The Laird of Bothiemay, with some servants, was 
laid in an upper chamber, just above Aboyne's. . . . 
Thus, being all at rest, about midnight this dolorous 
tower took fire in so sudden and furious a manner that 
the noble Viscount, the Laird of Bothiemay, English 
Will, Colin Ivat, and other two, being six in number, 
were cruelly burned and tormented to death, without 
help or rehef. Sutherland Bobert^ being in the Vis- 
count's chamber, escaped this fire with the life, {reoi^^ 
Chalmers and Captain Bollick, being in the third room, 
escaped also this fire ; and, as was said, Aboyne might 
have saved himself aJso if he would have gone out of 
doors, which he would not do, but suddenly ran upstairs 
to Bothiemay's chamber and wakened him to rise ; and, 
as he is wakening him, the timber passage and lofting 
of the chamber hastily takes fiire, so that none of them 
could win down stairs again ; so they turned to a win- 
dow looking to the close, where they piteouslv cried 
muiy times, "Helpl help I for God's cause. '^ The 
Laird and the Lady, with their servants, iJl seeing and 
hearing the woeful crying, made no help nor manner of 
helping, which they perceiving cried oftentimes mercv 
at God's hands for their sins, syne clasped in each 
other's arms, and cheerfully suffered their martyrdom.' 
The Marquis of Huntly, in the belief that the fire 
was no accident, but that gunpowder and combustibles 
had been piled in the vault below, instituted pro- 
ceedings ; and a commission, sent to inspect the pre- 
mises, reported that the fire must have been raised 
designedly and from within. For a short time im- 
prisoned but never brought to trial, Crichton on his 
part sought to fasten the crime upon Pitcaple, one of 
whose kmsmen, John Meldrum, was actually hanged 
and quartered as the perpetrator. One tiling seems 
certain, that Crichton had court influence in his favour, 
Charles I. desiring to counterbalance Huntiv's feudal 
sway ; and in Crichton's own lifetime, his eldest son, 
James, was created Viscount Frendraught (1642). The 
title en>ired with the fourth Viscount m 1698 ; and the 
lands of Frendraught now belong to the widow of the late 
Alex. Morison, Esq. of Bognie, whose ancestor married 
the widow of the second viscount. — Ord, Sur., sh. 86, 
1876. See voL ii of Chambers' Ikmeatie AnnaU (1858) ; 
Sir A. Leith Hay's CasteUaied Architecture of Aherdta^ 
fSwn (1849) ; voL vi, pp. 209-218, of Hill Burton's 
Higtory of Scotland (ed. 1876) ; and, for the fine old 
ballad, 'The Fire of Frendraught,' Prot Aytoun's 
Bailads of Scotland (1861). 

Fteiwiok, a township, a mansion, and a bay in 
Canisbay parish, Caithness. The township, near the 
coast, 4 miles S of John o' Groat's House, and 12 N of 
Wick, has a girls' public school, and fairs on the second 
Tuesday of February and of December. Freswick House, 
on the SW shore of the bay, at the mouth of the Gill 
Bum, 1 mile SE of the school, is the property of Tliom- 
son-Sinclair of Dunbeath. John o Groat's Housb 
and BncHOLix Castie are on the estate. Freswick Bay, 
measuringl^ mile across the entrance between Skirsa 
and Ness Heads, and | mile thence to its inmost recess, 
has a half-moon form, and lies completely exposed to 
the K^Ord Sur,, sh. 116, 1878. 

Freaoh or FtaodL See Claiq. 

FJrenchle, a loch in detached portions of Dull and 
Eenmore parishes, Perthshire, in Glenquaidi, 1{ mile 
W of Amulree. Lying 880 feet above sea-level, it hss 
an utmost length and breadth of 1} and 8} fiurlongs ; 
sends ofif to the E the river Braan ; and contains small, 
lively treut, with far too manv pike. Glenquaich 
Lodge, a shooting-box of the Earl of Breadalbane, is on 
its south-western shore. — Ord, Swr,, 47, 1869. 

Ftenohie, a village near the E border of Falkland 
parish, Fife, li mile NNW of Falkland Boad station, 



alid 2 miles E bj S of Falkland town. A quaint old 
place, with narrow winding streets, small courts, and 
DttUet-paved closes, it stri&ngly represents the times 
vhen folks travelled only on foot or on horseback, and 
when all goods were conveyed by pack-horses ; and it 
anciently lay in such relation to the precincts of Falk- 
land, that disgraced courtiers were sent hither on their 
dismissal, whence the proverbial saying, ' Go to 
Freuchie/ It has a post office under I^ybank, a 
branch bank of the British Linen Co., an hotel, a 
power-loom linen factory, an Established church, a 
United Presbyterian church, and a public school. The 
Established church, built in 1875 at a cost of £1100, 
contains 400 sittings, and in 1880 was raised to qitoad 
Mcra status ; the United Presbyterian church contains 
450 sittings. Pop. of village (1841) 713, (1861) 961, 
(1871) 1195, (1881) 1059 ; of qwHxd taera parish (1881) 
1117.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Frew. See Foed of Frew. 

Friazdykes, a place in Stenton parish, Haddington- 
shire, the site of a cell of Melrose Abbey, used for 
rusticating refractory monks. 

Friars Brae, an eminence in Linlithgow parish, on 
the S side of the town. It was ancienl^v crowned by a 
Carmelite friary, founded in 1290, and dedicated to the 

Frian Garse, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunscore 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the right bank of the Nith, 
2 miles SSE of Auldgirth station, and 6i NNW of 
Dumfries. It was the seat, in pre-Beformation times, 
of a cell of Melrose Abbey ; and in the avenue leading 
to the mansion are a number of antique sculptured 
stones, believed to have belonged thereto. Passing at 
the Reformation to the Eirkpatricks, then the pro- 
prietors of Ellisland, it went in 1634 to the MazwellB 
of Tinwald, afterwards to the Riddels of Gleniiddel, 
and later to Dr Crichton, who bequeathed it to 
found the Crichton Institution at Dmnfries. Built, 
about 1774, on a piece of rising grotmd, round which 
the Kith makes a graceful curve, it often was visited 
by Robert Bums during his three years' tenancy 
of Ellisland. Here he foregathered with ' fine, fat, 
fodffel ' Grose, a brother antiquary of Captain Riddd*s ; 
and here he acted as arbiter in the great Bacchanalian 
tourney of the WTUsUe. * As the aul^entic prose his- 
tory,' says Bums, 'of the Whistle is curious, I shall 
here give it. In the train of Anne of Denmark there 
came over a Danish gentleman of gigantic stature and 
great prowess, and a matchless champion of Bacchus. 
He had a little ebony whistle, which at the commence- 
ment of the orgies he laid on the table, and whoever 
was the last able to blow it was entitled to carry it off 
as a trophy of victory. After many overthrows on the 
part of the Scots, the Dane was encountered by Sir 
Robert Lawrie of Maxwelton, who, after three days' 
and three nishts' hard contest, left the Scandinavian 
under the table, 

« (f 

And blew on the whistle his requiem ehri]].' 

Sir Walter, son to Sir Robert, afterwards lost the 
Whistle to Walter Riddel of Glenriddel; and on 
Friday, 16 Oct 1790, at Friars Carse, the Whistle was 
onoe more contended for by Sir Robert of Maxwelton, 
Robert Riddel of Glenriddel, and Alexander Fergusson 
of Craigdarroch, which last gentleman carried off the 
hard-won honours of the field.' Allan Cunningham 
adds that 'the Bard himself, who drank bottle and 
bottle about, seemed quite disposed to take up the con- 
queror when the day dawned.' Another of nis poems 
was written in Friars Carse Hermitage, which, now a 
ruin, was then ' a snug little stone bmlding, measuring 
lOi feet by 8, and supplied with a window and fire- 
place. Captain Riddel gave him a key, so that he could 
go in and out as he pleased.' An autoeraph copy of the 
InMU is in the Thomhill Museum ; and the pane of glass 
fh>m the Hermita^^e on which Bums wrote the opening 
lines of the ode is in the possession of Arch. Fnllarton, 
Bsq.— Orcf. Sur., sh. 9, 186S. See chap, i of William 
M<t)owall'B Bums in Dun\firi€Sihire (Edinb. 1870). 


Frlan Croft. See Dttnbab. 

Ftian DabU. See Bebyie. 

Frian Olen, a sequestered glen in Fordonn parish, 
Kincardineshire, at the base of Strathfinella HUl, 
beyond Drumtochty Castle. A small Carmelite friary 
here is still represented 1^ foundations. 

Friochlan. See Inch Frieohlak. 

Ftlockheim, a modem village in Eirkden parish, 
Forfarshire, on the right bank of Lunan Water, with a 
station on the Arbroath and Forfar section of the Cale- 
donian railway, 6^ miles NW hj W of Arbroath and 
li mile ESE of Guthrie Junction. About the year 
1830 operatives connected with textile manufactures 
were induced to feu houses at a cheap rate on the estate 
of Middleton ; and Friockheim acquired material in- 
crease of importance, first by the Arbroath and Forfar 
railway (1889) placing it on a grand thoroughfare be- 
tween these towns, next by the Aberdeen railway 
(1850) making it a centre of transit of all places N of 
the Tay. It has a post office, with money order, 
savines bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the ]North of Scotland Bank, 4 insurance agencies, a 
police station, gas-works, a cemetery, an assembly hall, 
a library and reading-room, a horticultural socie^ and 
cattle, sheep, and hirine fairs on 26 May or the Thurs- 
day after, on the Monday in Julv after Arbroath fair, 
and on 22 November or the Thursday after. The quoad 
sacra parish, constituted in 1870, is in the presbytery 
of Arbroath, and synod of Angus and Meams ; the 
stipend is £120, with a manse. Its church, built in 
1836 and enlarged in 1840, is a neat edifice, with a 
steeple and 500 sitting. There are also a Free church 
and an Evangelical Union chapel ; and a public school, 
with accommodation for 250 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 210, and a grant of £188, 15s. 
Pop. of village (1841) 805, (1861) 1239, (1871) 1119, 
(1881) 1098 ; of ^. «. parish (1871) 1482, (1881) 1501, of 
whom 860 were in Inverkeilor and 1141 in Eirkden. — 
Ord, Sur,, sh. 57, 1868. 

Frogden, a farm in Linton parish, Roxburghshire. 
A spot on it, marked with five or six upright stones in 
circular arrangement, is cidled the Tryste, and was a 
place of muster in the old times for Border forays into 

Ftoon. See Fbuin. 

FrosUy, a bum in Teviothead parish, Roxburghshire, 
rising, sjs Linhope Bum, close to the Castleton border, 
at an altitude of 1480 feet, and running 5 miles north- 
north-westward, along a narrow glen, tiU, after a descent 
of 900 feet, it falls into the Teviot just below Teviot- 
head church. — Ord, Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Fmchle. See Fbeuohie. 

Fmid Water, an upland bum in Tweedsmuir parish, 
SW Peeblesshire, rising close to the Dumfriesshire bor- 
der, at an altitude of 2500 feet, on the N side of HABt- 
FELL (2651). Thence it runs 8 miles north-north-west- 
ward, mainly along a beautiful glen, flanked bv hi^ 
ffreen hiUs, till, uter a total descent of 2626 feet, it 
falls into the Tweed IJ mile SSW of Tweedsmuir church. 
Vestiges of an ancient Border peel are on its right bank 
at Fruid farm, 3^ miles from its mouth. — OnL S^,, 
sh. 16, 1864. 

Fniin Water, a troutful stream of W Dumbartonshire, 
rising on Maol an Fheidh (1934 feet), at an altitude of 
1500, in the NW of Row parish, 2 miles N£ of the 
head of Gare Loch, and thence winding 12) miles south* 
eastward and east-north-eastward, through or alons the 
borders of Row and Luss parishes, till it falls into Loch 
Lomond, nearly opposite the lower end of Inchmurrin 
island and 2^ miles N by W of Balloch pier. Its upper 
glen, named after it Glenfrain, is flanked, on the N£ 
side, by Bek Chaobach (2338 feet), Ben Thabsttinn 
(2149), and Balcnock (2092), a mountain range that 
ngures grandly in the sky-lme of the views from the 
upper waters of the Firth of Clyde, and on the SW side 
by the Row hills (1183) ; whilst the last 4 miles of its 
course are through a low and luxuriant plain. Dumfin 
(200 feet), an eminence here, 3 miles £^E of Helens- 
buigh, 18 crowned by traces of a ' FingaUan ' fort ; and 


on the light or opposite bank of the stream stands the 
mined castle of JBannachra, where in July 1692 Sir 
Humphry Colqnhoun, the Laird of Luss, was besieged 
by an invading pc^ of Macfarlanes and Macgregors. 
Tne loophole still is shown through which he was shot 
dead by an arrow, goided by the treacherous torch of 
one of nis own servants. At Strone, 8 miles ESE of 
Garelochhead, was fought the bloody dan conflict of 
Glenfrain in 1608. Early in that year Allaster Mac- 
gregor of 61enstra» followed by 400 men, chiefly of his 
own dan, but including also some of the clans Cameron 
and Anverich, armed with ' halberschois, pow-aizes, 
twa-handit swordis, bowis and arrowis, and with hag- 
butis and pistoletis,' advanced into the territory of Luss. 
Alexander Colquhoun, under his royal commissioni 
granted the year before in consequence of the Macgre- 
gors' outrage at Glenfinlas, had raised a force which 
some writers state to have amounted to 800 horse and 
600 foot ' On 7 Feb. the Mac^gors/ savs Mr Fraser, 
' were in Glenfruin in two divisions, one of them at the 
head of the glen, and the other in ambuscade near the 
farm of Strone, at a hollow or ravine called the Crate. 
The Colquhouns came into Glenfruin from the Luss 
side, which is opposite Strone — probably by Glen Luss 
and Glen Mackum. Alexander Colquhoun pushed on 
Ids forces in order to get through the glen before en- 
counterinff the Macgregors ; but, aware of his approach, 
Allaster Macffregor also pushed forward one division of 
his forces and entered at the head of the glen in time 
to prevent his enemy from emerging from the upper end 
of the ^len, whilst ms brother, J3m Macgregor, with 
the division of his dan, which lay in ambuscade, by a 
detour took the rear of the Colquhouns, which prevented 
their retreat down the glen without fighting their way 
through that section of the Macgregors who had got in 
their rear. The success of the stratagem by whidi the 
Cola uhouns were thus placed between two fires seems to 
be tne onl v way of accounting for the terrible slaughter 
of the Coktuhouns and the much less loss of ^e Mac- 
gregors. The Colquhouns soon became unable to main- 
tain their ground, and, falling into a moss at the farm 
of Auchingaich, they were tiirown into disorder, and 
made a hasty and disorderly retreat, which proved even 
more disastrous than the conflict, for they had to force 
their wav through the men led by John Macgregor, 
whilst thev were pressed behind by Allaster, who, 
reuniting the two divisions of his army, continued the 
pursuit All who fell into the victors' huids were in- 
stantly dain ; and the chief of the Colqidiouns barely 
escaped with his life after his horse had been killed 
under him. Of the Colquhouns 140 were slain, and 
many more wounded, among them a number of women 
and children. When the pursuit was over, tiie work of 
plunder commenced. Hundreds of live stock were 
carried off, and many of the houses of the tenantry were 
burned to the ground. The reckoning, however, was 
speedy, for on 8 April the name of Gre^r or Ma^pregor 
was for ever abolished by Act of the Pnvy Coundi ; and 
by 2 March 1604 thirty-five of ^e dan Gresor had 
been executed, among them Allaster himsdZ — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 88, 80, 1871-66. See William Fraser's Chitfa 
of Colqyhoivm and their Country (Edinb. 1869). 

Fnda, a small fertile island of Barra pansh. Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, \ mile NE of the nearest 
point of Barra island. It exhibits a number of granite 
veins, impregnated with iron. Of its 6 inhabitants, in 
1871, 4 were males ; of the same number, in 1881, 5 
were females. 

Fuinafort, a place in Eilfinichen and Eilvickeon 
parish, Mull island, AigyllBhire, 6 miles from Bonessan. 
It has a post office under Oban. 

Foirdfftone, an ancient tower on Wester Balnabriech 
farm, in Caraldston parish, Forfarshire. Demolished 
earlv in the present century, it formerly gave its name 
to the parish. 

Fnldao. See Foitlden. 

Fnlgae, a loftv skerry of Shetland, on the ITW coast 
of Papa Stour island. It rises almost murally from the 
sea, and is pierced with caverns. 


FnllartOM. See Mabtton. 

Fnllarton. See Tollcross. 

Fnllarton, an Ajrshire burgh of barony, within the 
bounds of the parliamentary burgh of Irvine, but lying 
in Dundonald parish, on tne left or oppodte bank of 
the river Irvine. With Irvine it is connected by a 
handsome stone four-arch bridge of 1746, and from 1690 
to 1828 it was supposed to belong to Irvine parish, 
havinff in the former of those years been technically 
united thereto ; but, an appeal being made to the Court 
of Session in 1828, it was found to have legally bdonged 
all along to Dundonald. An Established church, built 
as a chapel of ease in 1886 at a cost of £2000, contains 900 
sittings, and in 1874 was rused to qvaad mcra status, 
its parish being in Ayr presbytery and the svnod of 
Gla^w and Ayr. There are also a Free churcn and a 
pubhc school See Ibyine and DDinx)NALD. Pop. of 
parish (1881) 4009.— Ortf. 8ur,, sh. 22, 1865. 

Fnllarton House, a seat of the Duke of Portland in 
Dundonald parish, Ayrshire, 1 \ mile ESE of Troon. The 
estate around it belonged to tlie Foulertouns or Fullar- 
tons of that ilk from the 18th century till 1805, when 
it was sold to the third Duke of Portland by CoL Wil- 
liam Fnllarton (1754-1808). This eallant soldier and 
author, immortalised in Bums's Vtsunif was bom at 
Fnllarton House, which was bmlt by his father in 1745. 
It has since been twice enlarged by the addition of 
wings, and what was once the &ck is now the front — a 
great improvement, any sacrifice of architectural grace 
being more than compensated by the fact that the house 
now faces the Firth of Clyde and isle of Arran. That 
Louis Napoleon stayed here in 1889 is false ; but the 
fourth Duke's third son, the Conservative leader and 
sportsman. Lord George Bentinck (1802-48), passed 
much of his boyhood at Fullarton. John William 
Arthur Charles James Cavendish Bentinck, present and 
sixth Duke since 1716 (b. 1857; sue. 1879), holds 
24,787 acres in Ayrshire, valued at £60,588 per annum, 
including £10,708 for harbour works, and £16,199 for 
minerals. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 22, 1865. See LANOWELLand 
the Rev. J. Eirkwood's Troon and Dundonald (3d ed., 
Eilmar., 1881). 

Fnlton. See Bedbule. 

Folwood Moss, a former peat-moss in Houston parish, 
Benfrewshire, a little W of Houston station, and 8^ miles 
NW of Paisley. Extending over 98 acres, it was re- 
claimed by the Glasgow Corporation in 1879-80 at a 
cost of £4589, no fewer than 1882 waggons, or fully 
12,000 tons, of Glas^w rubbish being shot into the 
moss. The reclamation, besides giving work to 800 of 
the unemployed, has proved a financial success, good 
crops of potatoes having already been raised from what 
was previously worthless ground. — Ord, Sur., sh. 80, 

Fnntadc, a bum in Moy and Dalarossie parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, winding 2| miles east-south-eastward along 
Strathdeam, from Loch Moy to the river Findhom. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Foniie, a bay of FeUar island, Shetland, the only ling- 
fishing station in the island. It is overlooked oy re- 
mains of a pre-Beformation chapd. 

Furnace, a post-office village in Inverary parish, Ar- 

g^Ushire, on the shore of L^h Fyne, in uie mouth of 
lenleacainn, 8 miles SSW of Inverary town. It took 
its name from an iron smelting work of the early part 
of the present century, but it now depends on the great 
granite quarry of Duv Leacainn, started in 1841, and 
rendered famous by its ' monster blasts ' of Oct. 1871, 
Sept 1876, and Sept. 1880. In the glen, a little way 
above the village, is a gunpowder manufactory, consist- 
ing of small houses scattered over a considerable area. 

Fnabiebridge, a village in Borthwickparish, Edin- 
burghshire, near the left bank of Gore Water, 1 mile S 
by E of Gorebridce. Across the streun lies Fushiebridfle 
station on the Waverlev route of tiie North British, 1§} 
miles SSE of EdinburgL 

TjLB, a mountain rivulet and a large sea-lodi in Aigyll- 
shire. The rivulet, ri sing on the south-western skirts 
of BxziiiOT, a little KW of the meeting-point witii 


Dumbtrton and Perth shires, mns 6} miles sonth-aotith- 
vestward, alons; a wild Highland glen, called from it 
Glenfyne, and tails into the head of the sea-loch 7 fur- 
longs KS of Caimdow.~Orc2L Sw.^ shs. 46, 45, 87, 

The sea-loch first strikes 27 miles south-westward ; then 
makes a sudden expansion, and sends off to the N the 
considerable bay of Loch Gilp, leading into the Obikak 
Canal ; and then strikes 1Z\ miles south-by-eastward, 
till, opponte Ardlamont Point, it merges in the Sound 
of Bute, the E^les of Bute on the left, and Eilbrennan 
Sound, all passing into the Firth of Clyde. Its breadth 
is 1§ furlong near Caimdow, Ifi mile at Inverary Fenr, 
1 mile near Strachur, 2 miles at Lachlan Bay, Ijk mue 
at Otter Ferry, i\ miles at Kilfinan Bay, 21 mues at 
Barmore Island, and 5 miles at Ardlamont Point. Its 
screens, from head to foot, show great varietur of both 
shore and height, and present many scenes of singular 
force and beauty ; but as a whole they offer little of the 
grandeur and romance that characterise the screens of 
many others of the great Highland sea-lochs. Around 
the head, and downwards past Inverary, they have strik- 
ing forms and lofty altitudes, attaining 2955 feet in 
Ben-an-Lochain and 2557 in Ben Bheula.; round 
Inverary, too, they have great masses of wood, and some 
strongly picturesque featm^ of hill and glen and park. 
In most of the reaches thence they have much veraure, 
some wood, and numerous hUls, but rarelv exhibit 
stronger features of landscape than simplv the beautiful ; 
towsjda the entrance, however, they combine, into great 
variety and magnificence, with the islands of Bute and 
Arran. The waters have been notable from time imme- 
morial for both the prime qmJity and the great abun- 
duLce of their herrincs. One of the twenty-five fishery 
districts of Scotland has its headquarters at Inverary ; 
and two others have their headquarters at respectively 
Rothesay and Campbeltown. — Ord. Swr,, shs. 87, 
29, 1876-78. See pp. 124-132 of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ Shairp, 1874). 

Fyrish or Gnoc Fjnrish, a wooded hill in Alness parish, 
Boss-shire, culminating IJ mile NNW of Novar House at 
an altitude of 1483 feet above sea-leveL It seems to have 
been used in ancient times as a station for beacon fires ; 
and is crowned by an artificial structure of upright stone 
blocks in rude form of an Indian temple. — 6m Sur,^ 
ah. 98, 1881. 

Flyvie, a parish of Aberdeenshire, containing Wood- 
head village, 2i furlongs from the left bank of the river 
Ythan, and 8 miles £ by S of Fyvie station on the 
Banff branch of the Great North of Scotland railway, 
this station being 7 miles SSE of Turriff, and 81} KNW 
of Aberdeen. In 1673 Alexander, third Earl of Dun- 
fermline, obtained a charter, erecting the lordship of 
Fyvie into a free burgh of l»rony, with a tolbooth and 

market cross, at which should be held three annual 
fairs. With this burgh of Fyvie, Woodhead has been 
dentified ; and its dilapidated cross was rebuilt in 1846, 
ome years before which date the tolbooth — ^long a 
dwelling-house — ^had been pulled down. The fairs have 
been discontinued, but a cattle market is held on the 
third Thursday of every month at Fyvie station, and on 
the second Mondav of every month at Bothie station, 
also in Fyvie parish, 8^ miles to the SW. Fvvie besides 
has a post office, with money order, savings bank, and 
railway telegraph departments, a branch of the Aber- 
deen Town and County Bank, 8 insurance agencies, 
and a horticultural association. 

The parish is bounded N and KE by Monquhitter, E 
by Methlick, SE by Tarves, S by Meldrum, SW by 
Daviot and Bayne, W by Auchterless, and NW by 
Turriff. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is lOf 
miles; its breadth varies between 7 furlonffs and 6^ 
mUes ; and its area is 29,650 acres, of whi(3i 64f are 
water. From Towie Castle, at the NW comer of tiie 
parish, the Ythan, a small stream here, first traces 2 
miles of the boundary with Auchterless, next winds 8jt 
miles south-eastward and north-eastward through the 
interior, and lastiy flows 2f miles east-by-nortiiward 
along the Methlick border. It receives in its course a 

good many little affluents, and divides the parish into 
two pretty equal parts. Where, below Gight Castie, it 
passes off into Methlick, the surfiEice declines to 88 feet 
above sea-level, tiience rising south-westward to 499 
feet at the Hill of Blairfowl, 691 near Stoneyfield, 629 
near Waulkmill, and 700 on the Bayne border ; north- 
westward to 466 near Monkshill, 587 near Gourdas, and 
585 at Deers HilL The leading rocks are greywacke 
and slate in the SW, Old Bed sandstone over a small 
portion of the NW, and elsewhere greenstone or basalt» 
often intersected by veins of quartz, calcareous spar, 
hematite, etc The soil alongj the banks of the Ythan is 
a lightish loam of great fertility, especially in the part 
called the Howe S Fyvie ; and in other parts is ex- 
tremelv various — ^velly, mossy, etc Fully four- 
sevenths of the entire area are in tillace, one-fifteenth is 
under wood, one-tenth is pasture, and the rest is either 
moss or heath. Founded by Fergus, Earl of Buchan, In 
1179 for Benedictines of Tiron, and subordinate to 
Arbroath Abbev, St Mary's priory stood in a meadow 
between the Ythan and the parish church, a cross, on a 
base of hewn stones, surmounting a rough round cairn, 
having been erected in 1868 on the site of its church, 
which was built by Prior Mason in 1470. Gioht 
Castle, on the Ythan, towards the eastern extremity of 
the parish, is an interesting ruin, noticed separatelv ; 
and a ruined mill, IJ mile 1m E of Fyvie Castle, was the 
scene of the ballad of Mill o* Tift^s Annie, or Agnes 
Smith, who died in 1678. On the outskirts of St John's 
Well fieinn are remains of a cairn, Caimchedly, which 
has yielded a number of small earthen urns ; and, to the 
NE of the Castle, Montrose, in Oct 1644, was nearly 
surprised by Argyll with a greatiy superior force — an 
episode known as the 'Skirmish of Fyvie' Fyvie 
Castie, on the Ythan's left bank, i mile NE of Fyvie 
station, dates from remote antiquity, it or a predecessor 
having received a visit from Edward I. of England in 
1296. It tiien was a royal seat, and such it continued 
till 1880, when the Earl of Carrick (later Bobert IIL) 
made it over to his cousin, Sir James de Lindsay. From 
him it passed in 1897 to Sir Henry Preston, his brother- 
in-law, and from him about 1438 to the Meldrums, who 
sold it in 1596 to Sir Alexander Seton, an eminent 
lawyer, created first Earl of Dunfermline in 1606. The 
fourth and last Earl being outlawed in 1690, his forfeited 
estate was purchased irom the Crown in 1726 by 
William, second Earl of Aberdeen, whose descendant, 
the present proprietor, Alexander Henry Gordon, Esq. 
(b. 1818 ; sue 1880), holds 11,700 acres in the shire, 
valued at £8741 per annum. The Fyvie Castie of to- 
day is a stately chateau -like pile erected at various 
periods, from the 15th on to the 18th century ; and 
stands in the midst of a finely-wooded park, with an 
artificial lake (i milex| furL). Other mansions are 
Bothie-Norman and Eintroon, and, in all, 7 proprie- 
tors hold eadi an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
8 of between £100 and £500, and 9 of from £20 to £50. 
In the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, 
Fyvie comprises chief part of Millbrex quoad aaera 
parish, and itself is a living worth £869. The church, 
originally dedicated to St Peter, stands near the left 
bank of the Ythan, If mile SE of Fyvie station ; asd, 
rebuilt in 1808, contains 1114 sittings. At Woodhead 
are St Ma^s Established mission church, a plain but 
commodious Free diurch, altered and decorated in 1878, 
and All Saints' Episcopal church, which. Early English 
in style, was built in 1849, and received the addition of 
a tower and spire in 1870. Another Episcopal church, 
St Geor^'s (1796-1848), is at MeiklefoUa, 1} mile SSE 
of Bothie station. Seven schools— Fyvie, MeiklefoUa, 
Steinmanhill, Woodhead, All Saints', Fyvie female, and 
St Eatherine's — ^with total accommodation for 841 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 518, and 
grants amounting to £428, 8s. 6d. Valuation (1860) 
£18,668, (1881) £28,885, 14s. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 
2891, (1881) 8252, (1861) 4844, (1871) 4511, (1881) 
4408 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881) 8285 ; of registra- 
tion district (1871) 8806, (1881) 8817.— Oni. Sur., sh. 
86, 1876. 




GUDGIBTH, an estate, with a mansion, in Coylton 
parish, Ayrshire, on the left bank of the river 
Ayr, 4 miles SSW of Tarbolton. Its owner, 
Major-Gkn. Frauds Claud Burnett (b. 1811 ; sue. 
188$), holds 1500 acres in the shire, valued at £2106 per 

Gadie, a bum of Aberdeenshire, risins in Clatt parish, 
and running 10) miles east-by-northward through LesUe, 
Premnay, and Oyne parishes, till it falls into the Ury, 
9 furiongs £ of Oyne church. It is celebrated in several 
of the I^tin noems of Arthur Johnston, and also in a 
fine old ballao, beginning — 

' O an I were where Gadle rlns, 
'Mang (ngrant heath and yeUow whlnil^ 
Or brawlln down the boelnr linns, 
At the back o* Bennocme.' 

After the capture of Pondicherry in 1793, a Highland 
regiment, marching into the town, was suddenly arrested 
by hearing this bafiad sung by a Scottish lady £rom an 
open window. — Ord, Stur,, sh. 76, 1874. 

Gaiok, a desolate alpine tract, a forest once, in Kin- 
gussie parish, Inverness-shire, around the head of 
Glentromie, contiguous to the Perthshire border. It 
touches, or rather overlaps, tiie watershed of the central 
Grampians, its mountain summits culminating at an 
altitude of 2929 feet above sea-level; and it abounds 
in crandly romantic scenery, including on its southern 
boraer one of the most accessible and picturesque of the 
passes over the central Grampians. It partly contains, 
partly adjoins, three lakes-^Loch an Dum (10 x 1) fiirL ; 
1680 feet). Loch Bhradain (4) x 1| furL ; 1460 feet), and 
Loch an t-Seilich (9x^ furl. ; 1400 feet). Wood there 
is none now, except some scattered birch copse ; but the 
' forest ' is stocked by numerous herds of rod deer, be- 
longing to Sir George Macpherson Grant, Bart of Inver- 
eshie ; and by him it is let for £2000 a year. It contains 
only one house, Gaick Lodge, 10 miles S by £ of Kin- 
gussie. — Ord. Sur., sh. 64, 1874. 

Oainvich. See Sanda, Argyllshire. 

Gairbridge. See Guabd Bbidoe. 

Gairden. See Gairn. 

Qairia, a rivulet of Kirriemuir and Glamis i>ari8hes, 
Forfarshiro, flowing round two sides of Kirriemuir town, 
and, after a south-south-easterly course of 7i miles, fall- 
ing into Dean Water 2 miles JN£ of Glamis village.— 
Ord, Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Gair Loidh. See Gairlooh, Boss-shire. 

Gairlooh (Gael gearr-loek, ' short loch '), a coast vil- 
lage and parish of W Boss-shiro. The sea-loch, that gives 
them name, strikes 6| miles east-south-eastward from 
the North Minch, and measures 8} across the entrance, 
whero lies the ishmd of Longa, whilst Similes higher up, 
near the southern shore, is the smaller island of Horns- 
dale. Gairloch village stands on its north-eastern shoro, 
by water being 80 mues NNE of Portree in Skye, by road 
6 SW of Poo&we, 9 WNW of Talladale or Lochmaree 
hotel, 18 WNW of Kinlochewe hotel, and 28 WNW of 
Auchnasheen station on the Dingwall and Skye section 
(1870) of the Highland railway, this station heing 25^ 
miles N£ of Strome Ferry and 272 WSW of Dingwall 
It communicates with Auchnasheen bv a daily coach, 
with Portroe by a weekly steamer; and nas a post office, 
with money order, savinss' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the Catedonian Bank, a steamboat pier, 
and a good hotel, greatly enlarged in the last few years. 

The parish, oontainiiig also Poolewe, Talladale, and 
Kinlochewe, is bounded ^£ by Greinord Bay and Loch- 
broom parish, £ by 0)ntin parish, S£ by iJochalsh and 
Lochcarron parishes, S by Applecross parish and Loch 
Torridon, and W by the Nortn Kinch. It has an utmost 
length, from £ to W, of 25 miles ; an utmost width, 
from N to S, of 22 miles ; and an area of 856 squaro 
miles, or 227,880} acres, of which 1689} aro foreshore 
and 16,996} water. Hie seaboard, 90 miles lonff, is 
bold and rocky, rising rapidly to 100 and 400 feet arove 
sea-level, and deeply indented by Greikord Bay, Loch 

£wB, Gair Loch, and Loch Torridok. The river Coulin 
or A Ghairbhe, entering from Lochcarron parish, winds 
61 miles northward, through Lochs Ck>ulm and Clair, 
along the Lochcarron border and through the interior 
to mnlochewe, whero it is joined by a rivulet, running 
8} miles north-westward down Glen Docherty. As Kin- 
lochewe river, the united stream flows 2{ miles north- 
westward to the head of famous Loch Maree (12| miles 
X 8 fiirl. to 2^ miles ; 82 feet above sea-level), and from 
its foot, as the river £we, continues 2} miles north-north- 
westward, till at Poolewe it faUs into Loch £we. Lochan 
Fada (82 miles x 5 furl. ; 1000 feet), Iving near the Loch- 
broom border, sends off a stream 42 miles south-south-west- 
ward to Loch Maree, near its head ; and Fionn Loch (5f x 
1} miles ; 559 feet), lyin^ right on the Lochbroom boraer, 
sends off the Little Gremord along that border 5} miles 
north-by-eastward to the head of Groinord Bay. These 
aro the principal streams and lakes of Gairloch parish, 
whose very large fresh-water aroa (moro than fifteen 
times larger than that of the whole of Fife) comprises 
the 70902 acres of Loch Maroe, the 2238} of half of Fionn 
Loch, the 928 of Lochan Fada, the 203 of part of Dubh 
Loch (9x8 furL) at the head of Fionn Loch, the 845} of 
Loch na h-Oidhche (12 mile x 8} furl.), the 166 of Loch 
ToUie (7} X 5 furl.), etc. The surface is grandly diversi- 
fied by tall pyramidal quartz mountains, the chief being 
Ben Airidh a'Char (2598 feet), Ben Lair (2817), Ben 
Sleooh (3217), and Ben a'Mhuinidh (2231), to the Nfi 
of Loch Maree ; to the SW, Bus-bheinn (2869) and Ben 
£ay or Eighe (8809). The rocks aro primAry, of Lauren- 
tiim, Cambrian, or Devonian age. Less than 5000 acres, or 
one-fortieth of the entiroarea, is returned as ' arable, wood- 
land, or rough pasturo,' the rest being all of it mountain, 
moor, and deer-forest So that Gairloch depends far 
less on agriculture proper than on sheep-farming and the 
fisheries of the streams and lochs and neighbourmg seas. 
In 1828 Hugh Miller was sent to Gairloch village with 
a party of fdlow-quarrymen, and chapters zii. and xiii. * 
of My Schools ana Sdioolmasiers give a graphic descrip- 
tion of his sojourn here. ' For about six weeks,' he 
writes, ' we had magnificent weather ; and I greatly en- 
joyed my evening rambles amid the hills or along the 
sea-shoro. I was struck, in these walks, by the amazins 
abundance of wild flowers which coveroa the natural 
meadows and lower hill-slopes. . . . How ezqmsitely 
the sun sets in a clear, calm summer evening over the 
blue Hebrides ! Within less than a mile of our barrack 
thero rose a tall hill (1256 feet), whose bold summit 
commanded all the Western Isles, from Sleat in Skye to 
the Butt of the Lewis. . . . The distaff and spmdle 
was still in extensive use in the district, which did not 
boast a single spinning-wheel, a horse, or a plough, no 
cart having ever forced, its way along the shores of Loch 
Maree. . . . They tell me, that, for certain, the 
fairies have not left this part of the country yet' The 
chief anti(}uities of Gairloch aro described under Loch 
Maree, which, from the 12th to the 19th of September 
1877, received a visit from Queen Victoria. Miinsions, 
both noticed separately, aro Flowerdale and Letter- 
ewe; and Sir Kenneth Mackenzie owns rather more 
than two-thirds of the entiro rontaL In the prosbyterj 
of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg, this parish since 
1851 has been ecclesiastically divided into Gairloch and 
Poolewe, the former a living worth £819. Its churoh, 
built in 1791, contains 500 sittings ; in the graveyard 
lies buried the GaeUc bard, William Boss (1762-90), who 
was schoolmaster hero for the last four years of his life. 
Thero aro Free churohes of Gairloch and roolewe ; and ten 
public schools— -Achtercaim, Bnalnaluib, Inverasdaley 
Kinlochewe, Laide, Mellon Udregle, Melvaig, Opinan, 
Poolewe, and Sand — with total accommodation for 820 
childron, had (1881) an average attendance of 880, and 
grants amounting to £378, lis. Valuation (1860) 
£6849, (1882) £10,700, 9s. lid. Pop. of civil parish 
(1801) 1487, (1821) 4518, (1861) 5449, (1871) 5048, 
(1881) 4594, of whom 4816 wero Gaelic-speaking; of 
' 65 

ecclesiastical parish (1871) 2425, (1881) 2277 ; of regis- 
tration district (1881) 4479, of whom 1461 were in the 
northern and 8018 in the southern diyision. — Ord, Sur,, 
shs. 91, 92, 81, 82, 100, 1881-82. 
Qairloch, Dumbartonshire. See Gaselooh. 

Qalrlochy, a hamlet in Kilmallie parish, ^vemess 
t the foot of Loch Lochy, 8 miles W~~ 

shire, at the foot of Loch Lochy, 8 miles WN W of Spean 

Gaizn, a small river of Crathie and Glenmuick par- 
ishes, SW Aberdeenshire, rising, on the eastern side 
of Ben Avon, at 3550 feet above sea-level, and thence 
winding 20 miles east-south-eastward along a mountain 
glen ca&ed from it Glekgairn, till, after a total descent 
of 2810 feet, it falls into the Dee at a point 1§ mile 
NW of Ballater. The Bridge of Gaim, on the line of 
road from Aberdeen to Castleton, spans it } mile above 
its mouth, and here is a post office under Aberdeen. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 75, 65, 1876-70. 

Oaizney Bridge, a farm at the KB verge of Gleish 
parish, Elnross-shire, on the left bank of Gaimey Water, 
1} mile SS£ of Kinross. In a public house here, on 
the site of the farmstead stables, Ebenezer Erskine and 
the three other fathers of the Secession formed them- 
scdves into a presb^ry, 15 Dec. 1733 ; and on the site 
of the farmhouse itself, the young poet Michael Bruce 
(1746-67) taught a small school in 1765-66.— C^. Swr., 
sh. 40, 1867. 

Gaizney Water, a bum of Glenmuick and Aboyne 
paiishes, SW Aberdeenshire, rising at an altitude of 
2500 feet, and running 5|- miles north-north-eastward, 
through Glentanner Forest, till, after a descent of 1880 
feet, it faUs into Tanner Water at a point 5^ miles SW 
of Aboyne village.— Or(2. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Gaiziiay Water, a rivulet partly of Perthshire, but 
chiefly of Einross-shire. Bismg among the hills of the 
Perthshire section of Fossoway parish, it runs SJ miles 
east-south-eastward, chiefly along the boundeuy be- 
tween Perth and Kinross shires ; and then proceeds 4} 
miles east-b^-northward, chiefly along the boundary 
between Gleish parish on the ri^ht and Fossoway and 
Kinross parishes on the left, till it faUs into Loch Leven 
2 miles S£ of Kinross town.— 0(2. ^8^., sh. 40, 1867. 

GaimBide. See Glengairn. 

Gairaay, an island of Evie and Kendall parish, Ork- 
ney, IJ mile £ of the nearest part of Onmey main- 
land, and H NW of Shapinshay. It measures 2 miles 
i^ greatest length, and 1^ mile in greatest breadth ; con- 
sists chiefly of a conical hill of considerable altitude ; 
rises steeply on the W side ; includes, on the £ and on 
the S, some low, fertile, well-cultivated land ; contains, 
close to the S shore, remains of a fine old mansion, once 
the seat of Sir William Graiffie ; and has a small harbour, 
called Millbum, perfectly sheltered on all sides, mainly 
by Gairsay itself, and partly by a small island in the 
harbour's mouth. Pop. (1851) 41, (1871) 34, (1881) 37. 

Ckdtnip, a range of coast crags in the S of Kirkwall 
parish, Orkney, on the £ side <m the npper part of Sca^ 
Bay. Several caverns penetrate it, all formed by dism- 
tegrating action of the sea ; and one, like a narrow wind- 
ing tunnel, over 800 feet long, and from 12 to 20 feet 
high, is beautifully studded with stalactites. 

Galashiels, a parliamentary burgh and parish of Sel- 
kirkshire. The town is situated on both banks of the 
river Gala, 4 miles WNW of Melrose, 6 N of Selkirk, 
18 ESE of Peebles, and 28 SSE of Edinburgh by road. 
It is a station on the Waverley section of the North 
British railway, and from it oiverge branch lines to 
Selkirk and Peebles. The name, from Gala and ahiela 
or shielings, signif^ng shepherds' huts, appears to 
have desippnated onginally a small village, on the site 
of what IS now caUed the old or high town, which 
had found its nucleus in the baronial seat of Gala, on 
the S bank of the river. This Gallowschel was a place 
of considerable antiquity, and is traditirnally said to 
have contained a huntinff-seat of the Scottish monarchs. 
Its name appears in a charter of the early part of the 
14th century ; it is mentioned as containing a tower of 
Earl Douglas in 1416 ; and it figures in documents 
relatinpf to the marriage of James I v. with the Princess 

Anns of GalwaMftTi. 


Maigaret of England. The old peel tower, known as 
' Hunters' HaV stood tiU the end of last century ; and 
ivy-dad ruins of the tolbooth, whose vane bore date 
1669, were demolished in the summer of 1880. The 
decay of the village has been arrested by the prosperity 
of the modem town, and its site is now occupied by 
numerous handsome villas and dwelling-houses. The 
armorial bearings of Galashiels are a fox and a plum- 
tree, and are said to have been 
assumed in memory of an event 
that occurred durmg Edward 
IIL's invasion of Scotland 
(1337). A party of English, 
encamped in or near the town, 
had begun to straggle through 
the neighbouring woods m 
search of wild plums, when 
the inhabitants of Gslashiels 
fell suddenly upon them, drove 
them headlong to a spot on the 
Tweed, nearly opposite Abbots- 
ford, still known as the ' Eng- 
lishmen's Syke,' and cut them 
down almost to a man. Con- 
gratulating themselves on an 
exploit that had proved to be 
sourer fruit for the invaders than the plums they had 
been seeking, the villagers dubbed themselves ' the Sour 
Plums o' Galashiels,' and are celebrated under that name 
in an old song. The arms of the town, however seem 
to indicate some confusion of thought between this event 
and the fable of the fox and grapes. 

The modem town owes its origin, as well as ite growth 
and prosperity, to the spirit of manufacturing enterprise, 
whicn first seized the people in last centuir. Galashiels 
has no history apart from the narrative of the develop- 
ment of ite manufactures, and although mills on the 
Gala are mentioned in the early 17th century, it was 
not till the 18th that a general move was made down to 
the banks of the stream which afforded such excellent 
water-power. Dorothy Woidsworth, speaking of the 
place in 1803, describes it as ' the village of Galashiels, 
pleasantly situated on the banks of the stream ; a pretty 
place it once has been, but a manufactory is esteblished 
there ; and a townish bustie and ugly stone houses are 
fast taking place of the brown-roofed thatohed cottages, 
of which a great number yet remain, partly overshadowed 
by trees. ' Since that time the prosperity and activity of 
the burgh have reached a very hi^h pitch. An important 
factor in furthering the prosperity of the town was the 
opening of the various railways — to Edinburgh and 
Hawick, to Selkirk, and to Peebles — ^which furnished 
access to the best markete at a lessened cost for the 
manufactures of tbe town. 

The burgh of Galashiels stretches for 2 miles along 
both sides of the Gala, which flows through the narrow 
town from NW to SE. For the most part it Is built on 
the alluvial ground alonff the banks, out it also sends 
offshoote, extending up the slopes of the adjacent hills. 
It is flsmked or overlooked on the one side by Meigle 
Hill (1387 feet) and Gala Hill, and on the other by 
Buckholm and Langlee Hills; and the environs are 
picturesque and varied in their scenery. Situated thus 
on the border between Selkirkshire and BoxburghshirOi 
the burgh belongs to two parishes — Melrose and Gala- 
shiels— which are, however, for all civil and police 
purposes, regarded as one community in Selkirkshire, 
though for parochial matters each parish rates ite own 
district. Tne boundary between them is exceedingly 
irrc^nolar; and though Melrose parish, which takes in 
the Ladhope district of the burgh, lies to the N of the 
Gala, and Galashiels parish generally to the S, the stream 
does not form the boundary between them. Some time 
a^ both districte were about equal in population, but 
with the recent opening up of Gala policies, a new town 
has arisen in Galashiels parish, both larger and finer in 
appearance than the Me&ose portion. 

The aspect of the town is unassuming. Most of it 
is either straggling or irregular; the central parte 

and both extremities, contiffuoas to the river, ooneiflt 
nudnly of fectoriee, shops, omces, and workmen's houses. 
The part S of the Gala is made up chiefly of one lonff 
irregular street, with two newer and shorter streets ana 
detached buildings, stretching alon^ the narrow level 
strip that intervenes between the nver and the hills. 
The northern part of the town, which is the qnartv 
showing the neatest extension and improvements in 
recent times, nas a number of short, irregular streets 
and rows and clusters of buildings that reach up the 
face of the hilL The suburbs, especially Abbotsford 
Road, Melrose Boad, and Windy Knowe, are adorned 
with large and elegant villas, offering one of the best 
and most visdble evidences of the prosperity of the 
Galashiels manufacturers. The river, which is spanned 
by five bridges, of which two are railway viaducts, is, in 
times of drought, almost entirelv drawn off by the fac* 
tones ; but in times of freshet it is not always prevented 
by stronff bulwarks from flooding the a<yacent streets. 
A heavy flood on 12 Julv 1880, and another on 10 March 
1881, were attended witn great damage to property along 
its banks. Tliere is no drainage system whatever, and 
at all times the Gkda serves as uie common sewer for the 
refuse from the factories and houses — a fact which at 
times is unpleasantly impressed upon the olfactory nerves 

of visitors to the town. The railway within the buiffh 
is crossed by one foot-bridge and two for wheeled traffic. 
Galashiels has no imposing show of buildings. The 
houses, with the exception of the suburban villas, are in 
a plain and unambitious style ; and even the shops are 
few and small in consideration of the ponulation and 
relative importance of the town. The public buildings 
are neither very numerous nor very fine. The town- 
hall, built in 1860 at a cost of £8000, is a handsome 
edifice of two stories, with a larfe hall capable of con- 
taining 600 persons, besides a smaUer hall and committee- 
rooms. The Com Exchange was erected in 1860 at a 
coet of £1100, and has a hall with accommodation for 
500 persona The Volunteers' Hall was built in 1874, 
and cost £8600 ; the Masonic Hall buildings, including 
shops and small dwelling-houses, as well as the public 
rooms, were erected in 1876 for about £8000 ; and the 
Good Templar Hall can accommodate 800 persons. AU 
these halls are the propertv of various companies of 
shareholders. The public hospital was projected in 
1872. The public library was erected in 1878 at a cost 
of about £1000, and is managed by a committee chosen 
from among the town council and uie householders. In 
1881-82 the income of the library was £296, derived chiefly 
from an assessment of Id. per £ ; and the expenditure was 
£271. There is a very large number of associations and 
combinations for various purposes — social, commercial, 
helpful, and pleasurable—among the people of Galashiels. 
These include a Mechanics' institute and library, a cot- 
tacera' horticultural society, two fiurmera' dubs, a pro- 
viaent building society, a provision store and several 
co-operative store companies, a manufiusturen' corpora- 
tion, masonic, good templar, and foresters' lodges, clubs 
for angling, cricket, football, bicycling, bowling, curling, 
etc, a literary society, two total abstinence societies, 
and various religions societies, an ornithological society 
and dub, an entomologiod sodety, and several benefit 
sodeties. The churches and meetinff -houses are numerous 
andcapadous. The parish church is a semi-Gothic edifice 
dating from 1818, and contains about 850 sittings. Lad- 
hope church serves for a quoad sacra parish constituted in 
1855, and comprising part of the town within Melrose 
parish. It contains about 900 sittings. The West church 
serves for a qttoad ioera parish constituted in 1870, and 
was built at a cost of £1400 In Nov. 1881 a fine new 
church was opened, its erection, begron in 1878, being 
the result of the growing needs of the populous town. 
It serves as a consort to the pariah churcn, the parish 
minister and his assistant holding alternate services in 
the two buildinfpB. The st^le of the new edifice is Early 
Decorated Gothic ; the estimated coet is £18,000, exdu- 
sive of the spire, whi(^ is designed to be 190 feet hiffh, but 
of which only the tower is as yet completed. The cnurch, 
which is seated for 950 persons, has a nave 88 feet long, 


besides aisles and transepts ; the height to the apex of 
the roof is 62 feet A large organ was placed in this 
church at a cost of £1150. Galashiels Frae church was 
built in 1875 at a cost of about £5150, to supersede a 
previous edifice. It is in the Gothic style, with two 

rbles in the transept, and is seated for 650 persons. 
haU in the same style adjoins it. Ladhope Free 
church contains 550 dttmgs. The East United firesby- 
terian church, built in 1844, with 840 sittings, super- 
seded a previous church that was nearly as dd as the 
modem town. The West United Presbyterian church 
was opened in 1880, also on the site of a former diurch, 
and affords room for upwards of 800 hearera. The South 
United Presbyterian church, an edifice in the Early 
English style, with a square tower 70 feet high, was 
opened in Aug. 1880. It cost £4500, and accommodates 
between 750 and 800 persons. St Peter's Episcopal 
church, an Early English building datine from 1858, 
was enlaiged by the addition of a new chancel and S 
aisle in 18el , when a new organ also was erected, and con- 
tains between 450 and 500 sittings. The Gothic Boman 
Catholic church of Our Lady and St Andrew, opened in 
1858, with 400 dttincs, was not entirdy completed till 
1872. Other places of worship are an Evangeh(»d Union 
chapel (rebuilt 1872) ; two fiaptist chapefi, Galashiels 
(1804) and Stirling Street (1875); two meeting-houses 
of Plymouth Brethren ; and one of Christaddpmans. 

Schools, in the year ending 80 Sept. 1881, with accom- 
modation, average attendance, and grant, were the 
burgh public (470, 546, £452, 4s. 6d«), the infant public 
(156, 187, £85, 17&), Ladhope public (252, 204, £118, 
19s.), the Episcopalian (268, 265, £281, 7& 6d.), the 
Boman Catholic (818, 109, £94, 18s. 6d.), and Glendin- 
ning Terrace public (800, 850, £828, 168.), this last being 
under the Melrose school-board. The burgh public 
school in Gala Park was erected in 1875 at a cost of 
£4200 ; and £8500 has since been spent in providing 
additional accommodation. There are various private 
schools, induding three young ladies' schools and the 
academy for boys, which will probably soon be recog- 
nised as a higher class public school, and which the 
burgh school-board has agreed to lease, provided they 
obtain the sanction of the Education Department 

Galashiels contains a head post pffice, with all the 
usual departments, including a savings' bank. The 
other banks comprise branches of the Bank of Scotland, 
British Linen Company, Commerdal Bank, Nationid 
Bank, and Royal Bank of Scotland. Thirty-six insur- 
ance companies are represented by brandies or agents 
in the town. There are 7 inns and hotels. Two weekly 
newspajpers, both Liberal in politics, are published at 
Galashiels — T?ie Border Advertiser, establisned in 1848, 
and The ScoUieh Border Beeord, established in 1881. A 
weekly market is held each Tuesday, a spedal market 
for seed-corn on the third Wednesday in March, another 
for wool on the second Thursday of July, and one for 
general business on 7 Oct 

Galashiels contains 4 iron and brass foundries and 8 
engineering works, 8 dye-works, 1 skinnery, perhaps 
the largest in Scotland, though at present (1882) only 
in course of being rebuilt after a destructive fire, and 
several establishments for the production of such mill 
furnishings as shuttles, heddles, etc ; beddes ^e usual 
shops for the local trade of a country town. But by 
far its most important interest centres in the manu- 
facture of woollen cloth ; the greater part of the popu- 
lation is connected with it ; the largest buildings m the 
town are its woollen mills, and Sie most ornate the 
mandons of its tweed manufacturera. The industry 
seems to have been followed in the district from an early 
period ; for a charter of 1622 makes mention of certain 
waulk-mills (fulling-mills). But even in 1774, 150 
yean later, no great prog^^ss had been made, for only 
some 170 cwts. of wool was used at Galashiels^ and 
woven into blankets and coarse ' Galashiels Greys.' At 
the same date, the united rental of the three waulk-milla 
in the town was £15. But before the close of the 18th 
centuiy an advance was begun. In 1790 the first carding 
machine in Scotland was erected at Galaahiela and thK 



was only the forenmner of many new machines and 
modes introduced by the active and enterprising manu- 
facturers. In that year mills began to oe erected for 
the reception of the new machinery ; but by far the 
^ater piEirt of the 660 cwts. of wool used in the district 
in 1792 was woven in the dwellings of the weavers. 
Few years passed in the beginning of the present century 
without the introduction of some improvement that 
enhanced the quality of the cloth, or lessened the cost 
of production. The chief products up till 1829 were, 
as beforSi blankets and doth of home-grown wool, with 
knitting yams and flannels ; but the oepression of that 
year, co-operating with a change of fashion, inflicted a 
check on the prosperity of Gkdashiels. The manufac- 
turers skilfully adapted themselves to circumstances, 
and introduced new fabrics, of which the chief were 
tartans and mixed trouserings in tweed. Thenceforward 
the prosperity of the town has been steady and uniform ; 
and, notwithstanding the keen and growing rivalry of 
the mills in Selkirk, Hawick, Dumfries, Innerleithen, 
etc, the manufacturers of Galashiels, as they were the 
first to introduce the woollen manufactures into the 
south of Scotland, have constantly maintained their posi- 
tion at the head of the industry. The chief fabrics now 
produced at Galashiels are the world-renowned tweeds ; 
out yams, blankets, plaids, shawls, tartans, narrow 
cloths, grey and mixed crumb-doths, and blanket shawls 
of variegated patterns, also bulk largeljr in its trade re- 
turns. In 1882 there were 17 wooUen-niills in operation, 
and 8 lar^ and 1 small yam-spinning mills. There are 
no factories for the manufacture of hosiery, although 
there are two or three stocking-makers in the town who 
do a little business privately. There are also 8 tweed 
warehouses, on a tolerably extensive scale, which carry 
on a home and foreign trade. The manufieusturers are 
exceedingly averse to affording information concerning 
the extent of their operations ; and it is difficult to ob- 
tain accurate returns as to the number of hands employed 
or the yearly value of goods manufactured. 

Galashiels proper was made a burgh of barony in 
1599, and, till 1850, was administered by a baron-bailie 
under the Scotts of Gala, who succeeded the Fringles of 
Gala as superiors in 1682. The town adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act for Scotland in 1864, and 
began to be governed under that Act by a provost, 2 
junior magistrates or bailies, and 12 councillors or com- 
missioners of police. In 1868 it was constituted a 
parliamentary burgh, and it unites with Hawick and 
Selkirk in returning one member to parliament In 
1876 the boundaries of the burgh were extended for 
munidpal purposes, though not for {Murliamentary elec- 
tion purposes. In 1882 tne corporation consisted of a 
provost, 4 bailies, a treasurer, and 9 councillors, elected 
in terms of a bill introduced into parliament in 1876 for 
extending the limits of the police ourgh, and for invest- 
ing the goveminff body with efficient powers. The same 
bill authorised the corporation to constmct waterworks, 
with a compensation reservoir on theCaddon, a dear water 
reservoir on Howesdean, and a service reservoir to the S 
of Leebrae. These were completed in 1879 at a cost of 
about £60,000. The police force, in 1882, consisted of 
12 men, and a superintendent, receiving a salary of £116. 
Police courts are held as occasion may require. Small 
debt courts are held on the second Mondays of February, 
April, June, and December, on the last Monday of July, 
and on the first Monday of October. A gas company 
was established in 1886, and a water company in 1839. 
Great improvements were made in the matter of dean- 
ing and lighting the town after 1864 ; but both the 
water supply and the drainage continued for several 
years in an unsatisfactory condition. The only fands 
at the disposal of the magistrates and council are such 
as arise under the Police Act The annual value of 
real property in the parliamentary buigh, exdusive of 
railways, was £29,888 in 1872 ; £56,904, Ss. 5d. in 1882 ; 
£56,699, 12s. lid. in 1888, this being the first decrease 
on record. The munidpal constituency, in 1888, was 
2758 ; and the parliamentaiy, 1828. Fop. of the par- 
liamentary burgh (1871) 9678, (1881) 12,485 ; of the 


entire town (1881) 2209, (1851) 5918, (1861) 6488, (1871) 
10,812, (1881) 15,880, of whom 7250 were males and 
8080 females, whilst 9140 were in the parish andpolice 
burgh of Galashiels and 6190 in Melrose parish. Houses 
(1881) 8128 inhabited, 114 vacant, 82 building. 

Galashiels parish is situated partly in Selkirkshire 
and partly in Roxburghshire, its larger portion being 
in the former county. It indudes the andent parishes 
of Boldside in Selkirkshire, and Tiindean in Roxburgh- 
shire; and the union aj^pears to have been earned 
through in 1640. The parish as it now exists is bounded 
on the NE and £ by Melrose, on the SE by Bowden, on 
the S by Selkirk, on the W by Selkirk and the Selkirk- 
shire section of Stow, and on the NW by the Selkirk- 
shire section of Stow. Its greatest length, from KW 
to SE, is 6i miles ; its greatest breadth is 8^ miles ; 
and its area is 8589 acres, of which 150 are water, 
and 5710 belong to Selkirkshire. From Caddonfoot 
to the Ettrick's influx the river Tweed winds S| 
miles east-south-eastward along the boundary with 
Selkirk parish, and tiien, bending 2} miles north- 
north-eastward, divides tiie Boldside from the Lin- 
dean section and from the Abbotsford comer of Md- 
rose. The Ettuok, for the last 1} mile of its course, 
divides the lindean section from Selkirk parish. Cad- 
don Water, over its last 6j^ furlongs, traces the N half 
of the westem border ; and Gala Water, for 8} miles 
above its junction with the Tweed, traces the boundary 
with Melrose parish on the NE. CAULDSHiEia Loch 
(2i X 1 frirL ) is in the Lindean section ; in the Boldside is 
HoUybush Loch (2 x J furl. }, 1} mile S of the town. The 
whole parish of Galadiiels is hillv ; but the hills expand 
on wide bases, and have in general rounded tops and a soft 
outline. They yield a good quantity of land to the plough 
and for plan&tion, and afford excellent pasture-land lor 
sheep, and they are usually separated from each other 
by beautiful narrow valleys. llie prindpal heights are, 
in Selkirkshire, Meigle Hill (1387 feet), MossHee HiU 
(1264), Neidpath Hfll (1203), Blakehope HiU (1099), 
and Gala Hill (904); in Roxburghshire, Cauldshiels 
Hill (1076 feet), White Law (1059), lindean Moor (968), 
and Broad Hill (948). Greywacke and day slate are 
the prevailing rocks, and tiiese furnish most of the 
local Duilding material Ironstone has been found, but 
no quantity of sandstone, limestone, or coaL The soil 
along the river banks is sandy, on the rising-ground N 
of the Tweed, dr^ and gravelly ; and on similar ground 

5 of the Tweed, it has a considerable admixture of clay 
resting upon tiU. Some small patches of table-land, 
distant from the rivers, have black mould. Nearly 
one-third of the land is arable ; most of the remainder 
is pasture, though a respectable number of acres is 
under wood. Antiquities are represented by the be^- 
ning of the Catrail, a reach of Roman road, the Rink 
camp on the Rink Hill, relics of various other Roman 
and Pictish fortifications, and Fxbkileb Tower. Gala 
House, a littie S of the town, is a recent Scottish Baronial 
edifice, one of the last works of the late David Bryoe ; 
its owner, John H. F. Scott, Esq. (b. 1859 ; sue 1877), 
holds 8600 acres in Selkirkshire, valued at £3896 per 
annum. Another mansion is Faldonsidb ; and, in all, 

6 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 18 of between £100 and £500, 16 of from £50 
to £100, and 56 of from £20 to £50. In the presby- 
tery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, tlus 
pansh is ecdesiasti(»lly divided into Galashiels proper, 
West Church mtoad sacra parish, and part of the quoad 
saera parish of Caddonfoot, the first a hvin^ worth £527. 
Under the landward school-board, Gidashiels and lin- 
dean public schools, with respective accommodation for 
266 and 60 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 182 and 61, and grants of £71, 8s. 4d. and £59, 16s. 
Valuation of landward portion (1881) £4743, Ss. 4d. 
Pop. (1801) 844, (1831) 1584, (1861) 8879, (1871) 6062 
(1881) 9742, of whom 6847 were m the ecdesiastical 
division of Galashiels, 8252 in that of West (Thurch, and 
143 in that of Caddonfoot— (TreZ. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Omla Water, a river of Edinbuigh, Selkirk, and Rox- 
burgh shires, rising among the Mooifoot Hills in ths 


first-named county, and joining the Tweed near Melrose, 
after a coarse of 21 miles, daring which it descends 
from 1100 to 800 feet above sea-IeveL From its soarce 
on the northern verge of Heriot parish, the Gala first 
flows for 2 miles eastward to the boundary of a detached 
portion of Stow pariah, and thence takes a soath- 
south-easterly direction, which it maintains to the 
S£ border of Edinburghshire, successively crossing 
the eastern wing of Heriot parish, tracing the boundary 
between Heriot and Stow, and traversing the main 
body of the last-named parish. Within Stow parish it 
receives, on the right, the Heriot Water and the Lug- 
foXe Water — ^the former a tributarv almost as large as 
the Gala itself — and on the left, the smaller affluents, 
Armit or Ermet Water, Cockum Water, and Stow Bum. 
Its further course lies in a south-easterly direction, 
chiefly along tiie boundary between Roxburghshire and 
Selkirkshire, till it reaches the Tweed, into which it 
falls a little below Abbotsford, and about 2^ miles W of 
Melrose. The course of the Gala is remarkably sinuous ; 
and the road from Edinburgh to Jedbuigh and Carlisle, 
which traces the windings of the river along the E bank 
is, aajs Mr Chambers, at least a third longer than the 
crow-flight An older road ran along the W bank ; but 
the North British railway line, which traverses ahnost 
the entire length of the valley, crosses and recrosses the 
stream several times. The river-basin consists for the 
most part of a narrow valley flanked with rounded hills, 
and presents scenery with all the usual characteristics of 
the Scottish Lowlands, alternating agricultural and 
pastoral scenes with the rougher beauty of uncultivated 
nature. At the beginning of the century, the Gala dale 
was almost entirenr pastoral and nearly destitute of 
trees ; but since then much of the ground has been 
broken up by the plough ; and numerous plantations 
have arisen, in many cases as the protection or ornament 
of the ]^rivate mansions along the banks. Of these last 
the chief are Crookston, Bumhouse, Torsonoe, Bow- 
land, Torwoodlee, and Gala. As a fishing-stream, the 
Gala was once famous for the abundance of its trout ; 
now, however, it has been so much over-fished, that a 
considerable amount of time and skill, and perhaps a 
certain amount of good fortune, are required to secure 
even a small basket. The Gala waters Stow village, 
and 2 miles of its course lie through the busy town of 
Galashiels, whose nulls sometimes m summer draw off 
almost all the water from its natural channeL There 
are several ruined castles and towers in the valley of the 
river, and traces of perhaps a dozen ancient camps. The 
name Gida has been connected with the Welsh garw, 
'rough ; ' some authorities derive it from the Gaelic otraZa, 
meaning 'a full stream.' An ancient name lor the 
valley was Wedale, sometimes explained as meaning the 
vale of woe, as having been the scene of some sangumary 
TOehistoric struggle ; others connect it with the Norse 
KCf a temple or church, and translate the name ' holy 
house dale.' In Wedale Dr Skene places Guinnion, the 
scene of one of the twelve battles of Arthur. Two bal- 
lads, one of them by Bums, celebrate the ' braw lads o' 
Gala Water. '~0r(2. Stir,, sh. 25, 1865. See Sir Thomas 
Dick-Lauder's ScoUish Riven (Edinb. 1874). 

Gfllatown. See Gallatown. 

Ckdbraith. See Inch Galbbatth. 

Oftldry or Gauldzy, a village in Balmerino parish, 
Fife, on a plateau on the centre of a ridge of hill, IJ mile 

5 of the Furth of Tay and 44 miles S W of Newport It 
has a police station. 

Gftllangad, a bum of Dumbarton and Eilmaronock 
parishes, Dumbartonshire, rising near Dougnot Hill 
(1228 feet), and winding 8^ milee north-by-eastward, 
till, near Drjrmen station, it fidls into Endrick Water. 
During the last 2i miles of its course it traces the boun- 
dary between Dumbarton and Stirling shires, and here 
bears the name of Catter Bum. — Ord, Sur,^ ah. 80, 1866. 

Oallaxy. See Gallebt. 

GaUatown, a suburban village in Dysart parish, Fife, 

6 furlonfls NNW of Dysart station, commencing at the 
N end of Sinclairtown, and extending } mile northward 
along the road firom Kirkcaldy to Cupar. It is included 


in the parliamentary bursh of Dysart, but (since 1876) 
in the royal burgh of Kirkcaldy. Originally called Gal« 
lowstown, it took that name either from me frequent 
execution at it of criminals in feudal times, or from the 
special execution of a noted robber about three centuries 
ago ; and it long was famous for the maldng of nails. 
It now ^rticipates ^nerally in the industry, resources, 
and institutions of Smdairtown ; and it has a Free church 
and a public school 

Gallengad. See Gallanoad. 

Gallery, an estate, with a mansion, in Losiepert parish, 
Forfarshire, on the right bank of the North Esk, 5 miles 
NNW of Dubton Junction. Its owner, David Lyall, 
Esq. (b. 1826), holds 1576 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1932 per annum. A hamlet, Upper GkJlery, stands 
3 miles nearer Dubton. — Ord. Swr.^ sh. 57, 1868. 

Oallow or Gala Lane, a rivulet of Kirkcudbright and 
Ayr shires, issuing from the Dungeon Lochs, and running 
6Jr miles north-by-eastward, cmefly alonff the mutual 
boundary of the two counties, to the head of Loch 
Doon.— (?rd. Sur,, sh. 8, 1863. 

Galloway, an extensive district in the south-westem 
comer of Scotland, which originally and for a consider- 
able period included also parts of Ayrshire and Dum- 
friesshire, has for ages past been identified simply and 
strictly with the shire of Wigtown and the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright. The name, though inextricably inter- 
woven wim Scottish history, designates no political 
jurisdiction, and is unsanctioned by the strict or civil 
nomenclature of the country. The district is bounded 
on the N by Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire, on the E by 
Dumfriesshire, on the S by the Solway Firth and Irish 
Sea, and on the W by the Irish Channel and Firth of 
CUyde. Its greatest length, from E to W, is 631 miles ; 
and its createst breadth, from N to S, is 43 miles. It 
is divided into three districts — ^Upper Galloway, includ- 
ing the northern and more mountainous parte of the 
two shires ; Lower Galloway, embracing tne southern 
and lowland sections E of Luce Bay ; ana the Rhinns of 
Galloway, consisting of the peninsula SW of Luce Bay 
and Loch Ryan. Galloway has long been famous as an 
excellent pastoral district; and though its unsettled 
condition long kept its agriculture in a backward state, 
the last hundred years have seen splendid progress 
made. The GaUoway breed of horses is celebrated, and 
large droves of polled black cattle used to be reared for 
the southem markets. Of late, however, Ayrshire 
cattle have been superseding the native breed; and 
dairy-farming is coming into favour. The absence of 
coal, lime, and freestone has protected Galloway from 
the erection of busy industrial or manufacturing centres. 
The surface, on the whole, is undulating ; and to quote . 
Mr Henry Inglis, ' there is no district of Scotland more 
rich in romantic scenery and association, few which 
possess the same combination of sterile grandeur and 
arcadian beauty, and fewer still which are blessed with 
a climate eoual in mildness of temperature to that of 
Galloway. The tulip-tree flourishes and flowers at St 
Mary's Isle, and the arbutus bears fmit at Kirkdale.' 
But for all save historical details, we must refer to our 
articles on Kiskcudbriohtshirb and Wiotownshiee. 

The district, afterwards called Galloway, was in early 
times held by tribes of the nation of the Brigantes. 
Ptolemy, writing in the 2d century of our era, calla 
them Novantes and Selgovss. The former occupied the 
country W of the Nith, and had two towns — Lucopibia 
at Whithom, and Rerigonium on the E shore of Loch 
Ryan. The Selgova or Elgovee lay to the B, extend- 
ing over Dumfriesshire, and their towns were Trimon- 
tium, Uxellum, Corda, and Carbantorigum, whose sites 
Dr Skene finds respectively on Birrenswark Hill, on 
Wardlaw Hill, at Sanquhar, and at the Moat of Urr, 
between the Nith and Dee. A large amount of ethno- 
logical controversy has been waged over these peoples ; 
some authorities recognising in mem a (Gothic, others a 
Cymric, and others a Gaehc, race. The auUiority we 
have just named considers them to have been (Celtic 
tribes of the Gaelic branch. Intercepted by the Britona 
of Strathdyde from their northern Craelio relations, and 



■nmimded in their little comer by a natural girdle of 
sea and mountain, this people long retained their 
individuality. They were known as the Picts of 
Galloway centuries after the word Pict had disappeared 
elsewhere from the country ; and they appeared under 
that name as a division of the Scottish army at the 
Battle of the Standard in 1188. We know little con- 
cerning Galloway in Roman times. Agricola, overrun- 
ning it in 79 A. D., added it to the Roman province in 
Britain, and Roman military remains are tolerably 
fre<]|uent in certain districts. In 897 it is related that 
St 19'inian bui]t a church at Candida Gasa, formerly 
Lucopibia, dedicated it to St Martin of Tours, and 
began the conversion of the Picts. After the departure 
of the Romans from Britain, GaUoway appears, from 
the evidence of topographical names and old chronicles, 
to have been governed by a series of Pictish kings ; but 
probably early in the 7th century the Northumbrian 
rulers of Bemicia brought it under their sovereignty, 
and for several centuries remained the nominal superiors 
of its lords. There is no authori^7 for the common 
narrative of immigrations of Irish Celts into Galloway 
during the 8th and following centuries. It is at this 
period that the modem name emen;es. The district 
was known to the Irish as Gallgaickl or Gallgaidhel, 
and to the Welsh as Galwyddel, from the Celtic gall, * a 
stranger ; ' and the name, besides indicating the land of 
strangers, seems to have some reference also to the fact 
that the Gaelic population was under the rule of the 
Anglian Galle or strangers. From the above terms 
came Gallweithia, Galwethia, and many otiier forms. 
Latinised as Gallovidia, and appearing now as Galloway. 
Towards the end of the 8th century the power of the 
Angles began to decline. Bede, who fives to the 
GaUowegian Picts the alternative name of Kiduari from 
Nid or Nith, like Novantse from Novius, the name 
under which Ptolemy knew the same river, relates that 
one of the four bishoprics into which Korthumbria was 
divided had its seat at Candida Casa. The first bishop 
was appointed in 727 ; the Angles appear to have been 
too weak to appoint another alter Beadulf about 796. 
The Northmen, who first appeared in England in this 
century, did not overlook Galloway ; and there is some 
ground for believing that the Galfowegians themselves 
partly adopted a piratical life. During the next two 
or three centuries Galloway was pro&bly ruled by 
native rulers in tolerably complete independence ; and 
it had the honour of being the locality whence Kenneth 
mac Alpin emerged to obtain the throne of Scotia. 
About trie middle of the 11th century the name Galweya 
was used to include the whole country from Solway to 
Clyde. In the Orkneyinga Saga, which narrates the 
history of the Norwegian Jarl Thorfinn, a contemporary 
of Macbeth, Galloway is referred to imder the name of 
Gadgeddli ; and it probably formed one of the nine 
earldoms that Thorfinn possessed in Scotland. Malcolm 
Ceannmor, who succeeded to the throne of Scotia in 
1057, recovered Galloway from the Norse supremacy, 
though it is probable that many Northmen remained in 
the district. In 1107, David, youngest son of Malcolm 
Ceannmor, received Scotland S of the Forth and C^vde 
as an earldom ; and in the chiuter which he granted in 
1113 to the newly-founded monastery of Selkirk, he 
assigned to the monks the tenth of nis ' can ' or dues 
from Galweia. David's ascent of the Scottish throne in 
1124 may be regarded as the date of the union of 
Galloway with Scotland. 

Various attempts ha^e been made to furnish Galloway 
with a line of independent lords durinff the earlier parts 
of its obscure history, and we even near of a certain 
Jaoob, Lord of Galloway, as having been one of the 
eight rejroli who met Edgar at Chester in 978. But all 
these enorts are entirely unauthentic^ and are based 
u^n comparatively modem authorities. From the 
reign of David I. we are on more historical ^und. 
After the death of Ulgric and Duvenald, descnbed as 
the native leaders of the Galwenses, at the Battle of the 
Standard in 1188, Fergus, who may possiblv have been 
of Ncrwegian connections, was appomted ant Earl of 


Galloway. This powerful noble married Elizabeth, a 
natural daughter of Henry I. of England. In 1160 he 
joined Somerled, Norse ruler of iSrgyll, in a revolt 
against Malcolm IV., but was subdued after three 
battles and compelled to resign his lordship to his sons. 
He retired as canon regular to Holyrood, where he died 
in the following year. His gifts and endowments to 
Holyrood Abbey were very extensive ; and that house 
possessed more lands in the stewartry than any other. 
Uchtred and Gilbert, sons and successors of Fergus, 
accompanied King William the Lyon on his expedition 
to England in 1178 ; but when he was taken prisoner 
they hurried home, expelled with cruel slaughter the 
English and Norman inhabitants of Galloway, and 
attempted to establish their independence of the Scottish 
government, even offering to swear fealty to England. 
William, on his release in 1174, marched at once to 
Galloway, where, however, Gilbert, who had craelly 
murdered his brother at Loch Vema, made humble 
submission and gave hostages. Gilbert died in 1185, 
and Roland, son of the murdered Uchtred, succeeded, 
after first quelling a revolt under Gilpatridc, and sub- 
duing Gilcolm, a powerful freebooter, who had invaded 
Galloway. Duncan, the son of Gilbert, received the 
earldom of Carrick. Roland married Elena, daughter 
of the Constable of Scotland, and eventually succeeded 
to his father-in-law's high office. It i& said that Roland 
swore allegiance to Henry II. of England for the lands 
of Galloway, and that the English monurchs continued to 
look upon that district as part of their lawful dominions. 
Alan succeeded his father in 1200 as Lord of (Callo- 
way. He assisted King John in his Irish expedition in 
1211, and appeared as one of the barons who extorted 
the Magna Charta from that king. Later, however, he 
returned to his Scotch allegiance, and succeeded to his 
father's office of constable. He died in 1284, leaving 
three daughters and an illegitimate son. On the king's 
refusal either to accept the lordship himself or to pre- 
vent the partition of the land among the Norman hus- 
bands of the three heiresses, the Gallowegians rose in 
fierce revolt, and were with difficulty reduced to 
obedience in 1285. Roger de Quincy, husband of Elena, 
Alan's eldest daughter, received the lordship. This 
strict enforcement of the rule of legitimate succession 
marks the transition in Galloway from the Brehon law 
to feudalism. From that date lands began to be held by 
charter and lease, the rights of property began to be 
more secure, and agriculture began to be attempted. 
De Quincy died in 1264. In 1291, when the Scot- 
tish succession was disputed after the death of the 
Maid of Norway, one-half of the lordship of Galloway 
belonged to John Baliol, a son of Alan by Margaret, 
granddaughter of David I. ; the other half was shared 
by William de Ferrers, Alan de Zouch, and Alexander 
domyn. Earl of Buchan, husbands of the three daughters 
of De Quincy. Of the three last Comyn alone is of im- 
portance in the history of Galloway. The Gallowegians, 
during the wars of the succession, naturally sided with 
the Comyns and the Baliols, and speedily shared in 
their disasters. When John Baliol was obliged to resign 
his dependent crown, Edward I. considered Galloway as 
his own; and he immediately appointed over it a 

fovemor and a justiciary, disposed of its ecclesiastical 
enefices, and obliged the shenfis and bailiffs to account 
for the rents and profits of their bailiwicks in his ex- 
chequer at Berwick. In 1296 he granted to Thomas of 
GaUoway all the lands, etc., that had been granted to 
him there by his father Alan ; and at the same time he 
restored all their former liberties and customs to the 
men of Galloway. In 1297, Wallace is said to have 
marched into the west ' to chastise the men of Gallo- 
way, who had espoused the party of the Comyns, and 
supported the pretensions of the feufflish ; ' and a field 
in the farm of Borland, above the vulage of Minnigaff, 
still bears the name of Wallace's camp. During his 
campaign of 1800, Edward I. marched from Carlisle 
through Dumfriesshire into Galloway; and though 
opposed first by the remonstrances, and next by the 
warlike demonstrations of the peoploi he overran the 


whole of the low country from the Kith to the Cree, 
pushed forward a detachment to Wigtown, and coznpelled 
the inhabitants to submit to his yoke. In 1807, Kobert 
I. marched into Galloway, and wasted the country, the 
people haying refosed to repair to his standard ; but he 
was obliged speedily to retire. In the following year, 
Edward Bruce, the sing's brother, inyaded the district, 
defeated the chids in a pitched battle near the Dee, 
oyerpowered the English commander, reduced the 
seyeral fortlets, and at length subdued the entire terri- 
tory. Galloway was imm^ately conferred on him by 
the kinff, as a reward for his gallantry ; but after the 
death of Alexander, his illegitimate son, whom the king 
had continued in the lordship, in 1888, it reverted to 
the crown. When Edward Baliol entered Scotland to 
renew the pretensions of his father, Galloway became 
again the wretched theatre of domestic war. In 1884, 
assisted and accompanied by Edward III., he made his 
way through this district into the territories to the N, 
ana laid Siem waste as far as Glasgow. In 1847, in 
consequence of the defeat and capture of David II. at 
the battle of Durham, Baliol regamed possession of his 
^trimonial estates, and took up his residence in Buittle 
Castle, the ancient seat of his family. In 1847, heading 
a leyy of Gallowegians, and aided by an English force, 
he invaded Lanarkshire and Lothian, and made Scotland 
feel that the power which had become enthroned in 
Galloway was a scourge rather than a protection. In 
1858, Sir William Douglas overran Bahol's territories, 
and compelled M'Dowu, the hereditary enemy of the 
Bruces, to renounce his English adherence and swetfr 
fealty to his lawful sovereign. After the restoration of 
David IL and the expmsion of Baliol, Archibald 
Douflas, the Grim, obtained, in 1869, Eastern and 
Middle Galloway, or Kirkcudbrightshire, in a grant 
from the crown, and, less than two years after, Western 
Galloway, or Wigtownshire, by purchase from Thomas 
Fleming, Earl of Wigtown. This illegitimate but most 
ambitious son of the celebrated Sir J^mes Douglas ob- 
tained, at the death of his father, in 1888, on the field 
of Otterbum, the high honours and the original estates 
of the house of Douglas ; and now, while holding in 
addition the superiority of sH Galloway, became the 
most powerful as well as the most oppressive subject of 
Scotland. On an islet in the Dee, surmountinjg the 
site of an ancient fortlet, the residence of formerlords 
of Galloway, he built the strong castie of Threave, whence 
he and his successora securely defied the enemies that 
their violence and oppression raised against themu 
About the middle of the 15th century one of those earls 
of Douglas and lords of Galloway carried his lawless in- 
solence so far as, on the occasion of a <^uarrel, to seize 
Sir Patrick Maclellan of Bombie, the sheriff of GkJloway, 
and to hang him ignominiously as a felon in Threave 
Castle. The Douglases experienced some reverses, and 
were more than once sharply chastised in their own 
persons, vet they continued to oppress the Gallowegians, 
to disturb the whole country, and even to overawe and 
defy the crown, till their turbulence and treasons ended 
in their forfeiture. James, the ninth and last earl, and 
all his numerous relations, rose in rebellion in 1458 ; 
and, two years afterwards, were adjudged by par- 
liament, and stripped of their immense possessions. 

The lordship of Galloway with the earldom of Wigtown 
was annexed to the crown, and in 1469 was connrred, 
with other possessions, upon Margaret of Denmark, as 
part of her dowry when she married James II. But 
although the king had introduced a milder and juster 
rule, the troubles of Galloway were not yet over. For 
some time after the fall of the Douglases it was occa- 
sionally distracted by the feuds of petty chiefs, &miliarly 
known by the odd name of 'Neighbour Weir.' Early 
in the 16th century a deadly feud between Gordon of 
Lochinvar and Dunbar of Mochrum led to the daughter 
of Sir John Dunbar, who was then steward of Kirkcud- 
bright ; and, during the turbulent minori^ of James 
v., another feud between Gordon of Lochinvar and 
Maclellan of Bombie led to the slaughter of the latter 
at the door of St Giles's Church in Edinburgh. In 


1547, during the reign of Mary, an English army over- 
ran Eastern Galloway, and compelled the submission of 
the principal inhabitants to the English government ; 
and after the defeat of Langside, Mary is falsely said to 
have 80up;ht shelter in Dundbbnnan Abbey, previous 
to her flight into England across the Solway. In the 
following month (June 1568) the regent Moray entered 
the distnct to punish her friends ; and he enrorced the 
submission of some and demolished the houses of others. 
In 1570, when Elizabeth wished to overawe and punish 
the friends of Mary, her troops, under the Earl of Moray 
and Lord Scrope, overran and wasted Annandale and 
part of Galloway. As the men of Annandale, for the 
most part, stood between the Gallowegians and hann« 
they expected to receive compensation m>m their western 
neighboun for their service; and when they were re- 
fuel it, they repaid themselves by plundering the dis- 
trict. The people of GaUoway warmly adopted the 
Covenant, and suffered much in the religious perse- 
cutions of the time. The story of the martyra of 
Wigtown will be told elsewhere. The rising that was 
cru^ed by General Dalziel, in 1666, at Ruflion Green 
had its beginning at Dairy in Kirkcudbrightshire. 
Among the strict Cameronians and 'wild western 
Whi^,' the men of Galloway were represented. In a 
happier age Loch Ryan sheltered William II I. 's fleet on 
his voysge to Ireland in 1690 ; and since then the his- 
tory of Galloway has mainly consisted in the advance 
of agriculture and of the social condition of the people. 

Galloway gives name to a sjiiod of the Churcn of 
Scotland, a synod of the Free Church of Scotland, and 
to a presbytery of the United Presbyterian Church. The 
former synod, meeting at Newton-Stewart, and indud- 
ing the presbyteries of Stranraer, Wigtown, and Kirk- 
cudbright, comprises the whole of Wigtownshire and all 
Kirkcudbrightsnire W of the river Urr, besides Ballan- 
trae and Colmonell parishes in Ayrshire. Pop. (1871) 
67,280, (1881) 66,788, of whom 14,402 were communi- 
cants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. The Free Churoh 
synod, having the same limits, with the exclusion of the 
two Ayrehire parishes, and divided into three presby- 
teries of the same names as above, had 4512 membere in 
1881 ; whilst the United Presbyterian presbytery had 
1704 in 1880. The pre-Reformation Church of Scotland 
had a see of Galloway, with a church at Whithobn ; 
and the present Roman Catholic Churoh has a diocese of 
Gallowa^r. re-established in 1878. The Episcopal Church 
has a united diocese of Glasgow and GaUoway. 

See Andrew Symson's Description of OaUovHxiy 
mdelxxasiv. (Edinb. 1828); Thomas Murray's Liierary 
History of QaUovoay (Edinb. 1822) ; William Mackenzie's 
History if OaUoway (2 vols., Kirkc., 1841) ; Sir Andrew 
Agnew^s History of the Hereditary Sheriffs of OcUloway 
(£iinb. 1864) ; P. H. MacKerlie's Hisiory of the Lands 
€md their Ounurs in OaUoway (5 vols. Edmb. , 1870-78) ; 
Malcolm Harper's BcmbUs in GaUoway (Edinb. 1876) ; 
and works referred to under Kibkoudbriohtshirb and 

Galloway Honse, the family seat of the Earls of Gal- 
loway, in Sorbie parish, S£ Wigtownshire, within J mile 
of Rigg or CRiTGaLBTON Bay, and 1} SE of Garliestown 
station, this being 9} miles SSE of Wigtown. BuUt in 
1740, it is a plain laige edifice, with projecting wings, a 
fine conservatory, beautiful gardens, and a nobly wooded 
park ; and it commands a magnificent prospect of the 
shores of Wigtown Bay and the Solway Tirtn, awa^^ to 
the Isle of Man and the far, blue Cumberland mountains. 
Witkin hang thirty family portraits, beginning with Sir 
Alexander Stewart, who was thirteenth descendant of 
Alexander, fourth lord high steward of Scotland, through 
his youncer son. Sir John Stewart of Bonkill or Bunkle, 
ahd the Stewarts of Dalswinton and Garlibs, and who 
in 1607 was created Lord Garlies, in 1628 Earl of Gallo- 
way. Alan Plantagenet-Stewart, present and tenth 
Earl (b. 1885 ; sue. 1878), holds 28,208 acres in Wig- 
townshire and 55,981 in Kirkcudbrightshire, valued at 
£24,864 and £7834 per annum.— (TrttT Sur,, sh. 4, 1857. 

OiUloway, Mull of, a precipitous headland, forming 
the southernmost point of the Rhinna of Galloway, ana 




•oof Seotluid (Iftt. G4° 38' N, long. t° G3' W), in Eirk- 

—■■' '■■'^ SW Wigtownshire. By water it is 26 

.f Ireland, 22J NNW ot the Isle of Man, 

parish, SW Wigtownshire. 

i by N of Ireland, 22J NNW t . 

W hr N of Cambarluiii ; whilst by road it it 

miles 9 by E of Dnunor« and 22} SSE of Stranraer. Ex- 
tending H mile easttrard, and from IjJ to 3 furlongs broad, 
it riaas to 210 feet above Bea-Ievel at ita eastsm extrem- 
ity, which is crowned by a lighthoose that, SO feet high, 
was erected in 182S-30at a cost of £8378. Ita light, snp- 

Slied by a new apparatus of ISSO, is intermittent, viaible 
IT 30 and eclipwid for 15 aeconda ; and can be seen at a 
distauc« of 23 oautical miles. ' The prospect from the 
lighthotu«,'BiyBHrM'nraith,'iBTet7nne. To the Kara 
the fields of Cardryne, Cardrain, and Unll. Awav to the 
eastward stretches the Bay of Lace, with the rocliy scars 
looming through the sea mist ; and beyond are the oot- 
Itnea of the Uachars and MinnigaCf Hills. Southward is 
the wild bine sea, and od the horizon, very plain in clear 
weather, is the Isle of Man. Ireland is discernible in 
the slitteiiug west' The Novanta of Ptolemy, the Mull 
retains ramams of considerable earthworks, Scandinavian 
probably ; whilst, according to tradition, it was the last 
asylum of the two last of the Picts — ' short wee men they 
were, wi' r«d hair and long arms, and feet sae braid that 
when it rained they could turn them up owre their heads, 
and then they served for umbrellas.' How they did not 
reveal their myateiy of brewing heather ale is delisht- 
folly told in Coambera's Pomtiar Ehymts, though there 
the story is not localised. Half a mile N of the narrow 
neck that joins the Mull to the mainland, at the foot of 
the steep cliffs, ia St Medaa's Cave or the Old Chapel at 
the MuD, of which the late Mr T. S. Muir wrote that 
' the cave is very small, ita length being only II feet, its 
greatest width rather over 9, and the root so low as 
scares' ^-=' -' - 

nave, so to speak, of toe chancel-like cell, it is cations 
to observe how largely the labour has been economised 
by asing the rocks, which, rising perfectlv npright and 
smooth, form its two side walu. The ooildra walls, 
which, with those of nature's fumishiiig, enclose an area 
of nearly 15 feet bv 11}, are of great OiickiieES, and are 
composed priodpafiy of clay slate, well put together, but 
without lime, 'rhatrrontingtheaea, now little more than 
breast high, haianairow window at about its middle, and 
there is a pretty wide doonray wanting the lintel close 
to the rock-waU on the S. 'The rear wall, covering the 
fiice of the crag, rises much higher, and maj^ perbspa be 
as high as ever it was ; bnt on no part of it is there any 
trace of a roof.' Hard by is the Well of the Co, or Chapel 
Well ; and here, on the fir^t Sunday in May, die country 

ale used to assemble, at no Bitch remote period, to 
a in the well, leave gifts in the cave, and pass the 
day in gossiping and amosements. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 1, 
1856. See pp. 2G3-265 of M. Harper's -flomiluteffaUo- 
way (Edinb. lS7e), and pp. 1S9-112 of W. M'llraith'a 
W^it^tcn^hire (2d ed., Dumf., 1877). 

Oalloway, New, a post-town and royal burgh in the 
parish of Kells, Eirkcudbrightshire, is situated on the 
right bank of the Een, at the intersection of the road 
from Kirkcndbright to Ayrshire with that from Newton- 
Stewart to Damrries, 17i miles NE by E of Newton- 
Stewart, 19 NNW ot Kirkcndbright, 26 W of Dnm- 
Me«, and 8S SE of Aw. It stands, 200 feet above 
sea-level, at the foot of an irregular ridge of fn^mtd 
in the vicinity of Eenmure Castle ; and it is sur- 
roDnded by charming and picturesqae scenery. Loch 
Een, 1| mile SSE, and the neiRhbburing streams are 
good troutinj; waters. Although New Galloway ia a 
place of monicipal dignity, it can hardly be described 
as more than a viUage. It consists for the most part 
of a main street running N and S, cut by a cross street 
about half as lone running E and W, and a scanty 
sprinkling of detached houses ; while the populatioa has 
been almost stationary in point of number (or the last 
eighty years. The burgh is clean and neat. At the 
cantre or cross stands the town-hall, with a seat spire, 
and a clock placed there in 1872 by sabscription. The 
office of the Clydesdale Bank is a neat granite edifice. 


Half a mile N, bnt not within the royalty, the pariah 
church of Eells, built in 1322, raises ita neat stone front 
and square tower. A handsome stone bridge of five arches, 
erectM in the aame year as the church, spans the river 
i mile to the E. The station of New Galloway ia abont 8 
miles SSE of the town ; and a 'bus runs between them 
twice a day. A sort of suburb of the burgh, in the 
form of a number of detached cottages, called the Mains 
of Kenmnre, lies scattered to the E between the town and 
the bridge. 

Eing Chsrles I. bestowed apon Sir John Gordon of 
Lochinvar a charter, dated 15 Jan. Itt29, emjiowering 
him to create a royal buwh of Galloway on his estates 
in Eirkcudbtightshire. 'The site fixed upon wu prol»bly 
St John's Claughan of Dairy, bnt no settlement aeema to 
have followed this first charter, which was changed by 
another charter under the Great Seal, dated 19 Nov. 
1830, and confirmed by Act of Parliament in June 1S38 

Bc^ ol New OmUomr- 

Under this latter charter the present site was selected, 
and the burgh privileges aeem to have soon attracted a 
few settlers ; but the place could never acquire any trade 
or manofacbire, and the inhabitants were for the most 
part simple mechanics, agricnltuial labourers, and a few 
ale-house and shop keepera, while the houses were, even 
at the beginning of the present ceutnrr, tow, ill built, 
straw-thatched, and often dilapidated. Since then, 
however, the appearance of the honsea and the social 
condition of the people have made considerable advances. 
By charter the corporation of the burgh was to comprise 
a provost, i bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, and 12 
councillors ; but by the sett, as reported to and sanc- 
tioned by ibe convention of royal burghs on 15 Joly 
1708, the council was then declared to consist of 1 pro- 
vost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 cooncillora. In 1832 
the entire parliamentary constitaency, as enrolled, was 
14, and consequently it was quite impossible to snpplya 
council of the usual number. The corporation consists 
of a provost, 2 bailies, and 9 conncillots. Faira are held 
here on the first Wednesday of April a. $., and on the 
Thursday of August before Lockerbie. Jastice of Peace 
courts are held on the firet Monday of every month, and 
steward's circuit small debt courts on 6 Feb., 12 Ajiril, 
and 26 Sept. The burgh has s parliamentary constita- 
encj of 60, and unitee with Wigtown, Stranraer, and 
Whithorn in returning a member to parliament. The 
Eells parochial school at New Galloway, with accom- 
modation for 193 scholars, had (1881) an average at- 
tendance of 123, and a grant of £115, IGs. Valuation 
(1876) £898, {1882} 16104*. Pop. of parliamentary 
bu^ {1841} 408, (1801) 1S2, (1871) 407, {1881} 422, of 
whom 232 were females. In the royal buigh beyond 
the parliamentary limits the population, in 1681, was i. 
Honsea, inhabited OS, vacant 8, building 0.— Ord. Snr., 
sh. B, 1833. 
QallowflA^ an estate, with ■ mansion, in Entheiglui 


pariah, Lanarkgliire. It was acquired, in 1759, b^ 
ratrick Bobertson, W.S., whose great-ffiandson, Fzancis 
Bobertson-Beid (b. 1822 ; sua 1866), holds 70 acres in 
the shire^ rained at £4824 per annrnn. An ancient 
tomnlns here was snrronnded oj a fosse, ont of which a 
fish pond was formed in 1778, when a payed passage, 
6 feet broad, was discovered leading np to the top of 
the tnmnlns. 

Gftllowgate. See Abbbdeen and Glasgow. 

OallowgTMii. See Paisley. 

Gallowhill, a hamlet, with apnblic school, in Alford 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 1} mile W by S of Alford village. 

GallowBlot See Threats. 

Oalston, a town and a parish in the NE of Kyle 
district, Ayrshire. The town stands chiefly on the 
sonthem bank of the river Irvine, and on the New- 
milns branch of the Glasgow and Sonth-Westem rail- 
way, 1 mile SSW of Loudonn Castle, 2 miles W by S 
of Kewmilns, and 5 E by S of Kilmarnock, under 
which it has a post oflice, with money order, savinf^s' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments. Its site 
is low, snrronnded by gentle risinff-ffronnds, and over- 
hung on the N by the woods and braes of Loudoun ; 
and with its chuming environs it presents a very 
pleasing appearance. A fine stone three-arch bridge 
across the Irvine unites a Loudoun suburb to the town, 
which long was a mere hamlet or small village, main- 
tained chiefly by tilie making of shoes for exportation 
through Kilmarnock. It acquired sudden increase of 
bulk and gradual expansion mto town by adoption of 
lawn and gauze weaving for the manufftcturers of Paisley 
and Gla^ow, and had 40 looms at work in 1792, 460 in 
1828. Weaving is still the staple industry, there now 
being seven muslin and blanket factories, besides a 
paper-millboard factor^r and a steam saw-mill; and 
Galston wields a considerable local influence as the 
centre of an extensive coalfield and of an opulent 
agricultural district It has a station, branches of the 
British Linen Co. and Union banks, offices or agencies 
of 10 insurance companies, a stately pile of the feudal 
times called Lockharfs Tower, 4 hotels, a gas company, 
and fairs on the third Thursday of April, the first 
Thursday of June, and the last Wednesday of Novem- 
ber. The parish church, erected in 1808, has a spire 
and dock, and contains 1028 sittings. Other places of 
worshipare a Free church, an Evangelical Union diapel, 
and a u.P. church, the last a handsome recent edifice 
in the Byzantine style; whilst in Oct 1882 a costly 
Boman Catholic church was about to be bidlt Blair's 
Free School, an elegant massive edifice, affords education 
and clothing to 108 children; and Brown's Institute, 
built by Miss Brown of Lanfine in 1874 at a cost of over 
£8000, comprises reading and recreation rooms, with a 
library of nearly 8000 volumes. In 1864 the town par- 
tially adopted the General Police and Improvement Act 
of Scotland ; and it is governed, under that Act, by 8 
magistrates and 6 comnussionerB. Valuation (1882) 
£6633. Pop. (1831) 1891, (1851) 2588, (1861) 8228, (1871) 
4727, (1881) 4085, of whom 434 were in Loudoun parish. 

The parish, containing also the hamlet of Allanton, 
with parts of the villages of Newkilns and Dabyel^ is 
bounded N by Kilmarnock and Loudoun, E by Avon- 
dale in Lanarkshire, S by Som, Blauchline, and Bic- 
carton (detached), SW by Cj^gie, and W by Biocarton. 
Its utmost length, from E to ^WT is 10 miles ; its breadth, 
from N to S, varies between 1| and 3^ miles ; and its 
area is 15,804 acres, of which 60i are water. Ayon 
Water, rising in the south -esstem comer, runs 4} 
miles north-eastward along the Lanarkshire border. 
Cbssnock Water, at three different points, tiacee 7i 
furlong of the boundaiy with Mauduine, 2| miles of 
that with Craigie, and l| mUe of that with Biccarton ; 
whilst the river Irvine, from a little below its sonroe, 
flows 10 miles westward on or close to sll the northern 
boundary, and from the interior is ioined by Logan 
Bum, Bum Anne, and several lesser tributaries. Where, 
in the NW, it quits the parish, the BwrUce declines to 
less than 140 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 859 
feet near Millands, 566 near Somhill, 618 at Molmont, 


797 near Bumhead, 965 near Greenfield, 1054 near 
Hardhill, 982 at Tulloch Hill, and 1259 at Distink- 
HORK. A strip of rich alluvial level, highly fertile 
and well cultivated, lies all along the Irvine ; a belt of 
brae, largelv covered with woodland, extends southward 
from the alluvial level to the distance of 2} miles ; and 
much of the remaining area consists of rising-grounds 
and hills which, bleak and sterile till 1810, are now 
variously arable land, good pasture, or covered with 
plantation. In the extreme £ and SE is a considerable 
tract of high upland, mostly carpeted with heath or 
moss, and commanding magnific>ent prospects over all 
Cunninghame, most of Kyle, and a great part of Carrick, 
awav to Arran and the dim distant coast of Ireland. 
Loch Gait, at the eastern extremity, was once a sheet of 
deep water, but now is a marsh ; and Loch Bruntwood, 
too, in the south-western extremity, has been completely 
drained. The rocks are partly eraptive, partly car- 
boniferous. Trap rock appears on the summits and 
shoulders of many of the hiUs ; coal is largely mined in 
the W ; sandstone, of a kind suitable for paving and 
roofing flag, is quarried ; and limestone also is worked. 
Agate and chalcedony, though seldom of a character to 
be cut iuto gems, are often found at Molmont ; and a 
beautiful stone, called the ' Galsten pebble,' occun in 
the upper channel of Bum Anne. The soil ranges in 
character, from rich alluvium to barren moor. Nearly 
two-thirds of all the land are arable ; woods and planta- 
tions cover some 1000 acres; and the rest is either 
pastoral or mossy. An ancient (^edonian stone cirele 
at Molmont has been destroyed ; in the E of the parish 
a Boman coin of Csasar Augustus was discovered in 
1831 ; and here an extensive Boman camp above 
Allanton has left some traces. Sir William Wallace 
fought a victorious skirmish with the English at or 
near this camp ; he had several places of retirement 
among the eastern uplands of Galston and Loudoun; 
and he has bequeathed to a hill in the former, and to a 
ravine in the latter, the names of respectively Wallace's 
Caim and Wallace's GilL The ' Patie's Mm ' of son^ 
is in the neighbourhood of Gkdston town. Cessnock 
Castle and Lanfine House are separately noticed. 
Seven proprietora hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwaids, 50 of between £100 and £500, 83 of from 
£50 to £100, and 11 of from £20 to £50. Giving off 
since 1874 a portion to Hurlford quoad sacra parish, 
Galston is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The value of the living is returned 
as £298, but a considerable extra revenue has of late 
yeara been derived from the working of minerals in the 
glebe. Three public schools — ^Allanton, Barr, and Gal- 
ston — ^with respective accommodation for 58, 868, and 
887 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 26, 
840, and 370, and grants of £21, 17s. 6d., £205, 12s., 
and £115, 12s. lid. Valuation (1860) £16,475 ; a882) 
£80,808, 9s. 2d., plus £2614 for railway. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 2113, (1831) 3655, (1861) 5254, (1871) 6831, 
(1881) 5961 ; of ecclesiastical pariah (1881) 5768.~(M. 
8wr,t shs. 22, 28, 1865. 

Oaltway, an ancient parish in Kirkcudbrightshire, 
united about the year 1683 to Kirkcudbright, and now 
forming the central part of that parish. It contained 
the pnory of St Mary's Isle, subordinate to Holyrood 
abbey, and its chnreh and limds, till the Beformation, 
belonged to that priory. Its chnreh stood on l^gh 
ground, 2 miles SSE of Kirkcudbright town, measured 
80 feet by 15, and has left some traces of its walls ; 
whilst the churchyard, now completely engirt by plan- 
tation, and presenting a ver^r sequestered appearance, is 
still used by the Selkirk family. 

GalTBl or CKmldweU Gastla. See Bohabk. 

Qamaaclmich, a ruined tower in Ettrick parish, Sel- 
kirkshire, near the right bank of Ettrick Water, If mile 
E of Ettrick chnreh. It was built about the middle of 
the 16th century by Simon, second son to Sir John S<x>tt 
of Thirlestane, Iiord Napier's ancestor ; but, according 
to tradition, was never occupied, Simon having been 
pMOLBoned by his stepmother the night before his mar- 
riage. A bum on which it stands lus a norUi-weatward 



run of If mile, and is flanked, on tlie right aide, by 
Gameadeueh Hill, rising to an altitude of 1490 feet 
above sea-leveL— dn2. Sur,, ah. 16, 1864. 

GflunMhope, a small lake (1 x } furL) and a bum in 
Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire. Lying 1860 feet above 
sea-levcJ, witnin 1^ mile of the Dumfriesshire border, 
and 2 miles N£ of the summit of Hartfell, it occupies 
a lofty upland hollow, and is the highest tam in all the 
Southern Highlands. The bum, rising close to the 
Dumfriesshire border, 2 miles £ by N of the summit 
of Hartfell, runs 4$ miles north-by- westward ; receives, 
at a point 1^ mile from its source, a short small affluent 
from the loch ; and falls into Talla Water at a point 8 
miles SE of that stream's influx to the Tweed. Both 
the loch and the bum abound in excellent dark-coloured 
trout— Ord. Sur,, sh. 16, 1864, 

Qamhalr. See Qauib. 

Qamhna, a lake in the W of Rothiemurchus, Inver- 
ness-shire, 1 furlong S£ of Loch-an-Eilein. Lying 895 
feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length and brSidth 
of 8i and H ftirlongs, and is encircled by tall, dark 
Scottish pines. — Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Gamrto (12th century Oameryn), a coast parish of 
Banffshire, containing the post-town, seaport, and 
station of Macdttff, with the fishing villages of 6ar- 
DEN8T0WN and Croyib. It belongs to Buchan district, 
and is connected only for two brief spaces with the 
main body of Banffshire. It is bounded N by the 
Moray Firth, E and S£ by Aberdour in Aberdeenshire, 
8 by King Edward in Aberdeenshire, and W by Alvah, 
the Montcoffer or detached section of King Edward, 
and Buiff. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 8} miles ; 
its breadth, from N to S, varies between 1| and 4| miles ; 
and its area is 17,293^ acres, of which 240 are foreshore 
and 11 water. Torr Bum, running to the sea, traces 
for 8^ miles the eastern boundary ; and Logic Bum, 
running in a landward direction to fall eventually into 
the Deveron, follows much of the Kins Edward border ; 
whilst the Deveron itself, immediately above its influx 
to the sea, separatee Gamrie from Banff. Numerous 
bums drain the interior, some of them running to the 
sea, others belonging to the Deveron's basin, and most 
of them traversing romantic dells. Kot a drop of water 
runs into Gamrie from any other parish ; but all its 
hums either rise within itself or merely touch its bor- 
ders ; and several of them are highly interesting for 
either the fitfulness of their course, the beauty of their 
faUs, or the utility of their water-power. Towards the 
SE is a very small lake, the Stanning Loch, which lies 
in a hollow ingirt by hillocks, nearly the highest ground 
in the parish, and in early spring is a nightly resort of 
wild geese. A mineral sprint, called Tarlair Well, is 
on the coast near Macduff, and has enjoyed considerable 
medicinal repute. The coast, if one follows its bends, 
measures fuHy 10 miles in extent, and is one of the 
grandest and most picturesque of any in Scotland, at- 
taining 866 feet at l^up Head, 868 at Crovie Law, 
536 near More Head, and 404 at Melrose Law. A 
rockj rampart, in some places perpendicular, in all 
precipitous, presents everywhere such features of 
savage grandeur as thrill or overawe the mind. Farts 
of it are inaccessible to the foot of man, and others 
bend just enough from the perpendicular to admit a 
carpetmg of jpreenswaid, and here and there are tra- 
versed by a wmding footpath like a staircase, which few 
but native cragsmen are venturesome enough to scale. 
The summits of this rampart are only a few furlongs 
broad, and variously ascend or decline towards the 
S, then breakinff down in sudden decUvities into ravines 
and dells, whidi run parallel to the shore ; and they 
command sublime views of the ever-changefol ocean to 
the N, and of a great expanse of plains and woods, of 
tumulkted surfaces and mountain-tops, to the S and W. 
Several miffhty chasms cleave the rampart from top to 
bottom, and look like stn^ndous rents made bv shodc of 
earthquake ; they yawi\ widely at the shore, and take the 
form of dells towud the interior ; and they have zigzag 
projections, with protuberances on the one side oorre- 
spondinff to depressions or hollows on the other. The 


most easterly of these is at Cullykhan, near Troup 
House ; anouier is at Crovie fishuig village ; a third, 
the chief one, called Afforsk Den, ia at Gamrie old 
church ; and the most westerly, called Oldhaven, is 
between the lands of Melrose and those of Cullen. 
Several caverns pierce the sea-bases of the rocky ram- 
part ; and two oi these, in the neighbourhood of Troup, 
are of great extent and very curious structure, and bear 
the singular names of Hell's Lum and Keeidle's Eye. 
The villaces of Gardenstown and Crovie nestle on such 
contracted spots at openings of the great rampart as to 
have harder standing room, requiring even to project 
some of their houses into shelves or recesses of the accli- 
vities ; and are so immediately and steeply overhunc by 
the braes, that persons on the tops of the braes might 
fancy that they could peer into the chimneys of the 
houses. The interior of the parish, all southward from 
the summit of the coast range of rampart, slopes away, 
mostly in a southerly or south-westerly direction, to the 
basin of the Deveron, and is finely diversified by hills, 
dells, and precipices, rising to 588 feet above sea-level 
at Troup Hill, 652 at the Torr of Troup, 643 near Dub- 
ford, 608 near Littlemoss, 558 near Millhow, and 461 
near Headitown. The rocks possess great interest for 
ffeologists, and have been specially diKUSsed or noticed 
oy Sedgwick, Murchison, Iirestwick, Hugh Miller, and 
others. Granite has been occasionally worked; and 
^vwacke, greywacke slate, and clay slate, in exceed- 
ingly tilted, fractured, and contorted positions and 
mutual relations, predominate on the seaboard and 
through much of the interior. The ereywacke is 
quarried for building purposes, and the day slate was 
formerly worked at Melrose as a coarse roofing slate and 
slab-stone. Old Red sandstone. Old Bed conglomerate, 
and Devonian shales alao occur, but rest so unconform- 
ablv on the edges of the slates, and present such faults 
and dislocations, that their connections with one another 
and with related rocks cannot be easily determined. 
The soils vary from a fertile loam to a barren benty 
heath; and those on the sandstone and conglomerate 
are more fertile than those on tiie slate. Woods cover 
some 750 acres ; and of the rest about one-half is under 
cultivation, the other either pastoral or waste. Findon 
Castle, near the old church, is said to have been garri- 
soned by a Scottish force to watch and resist invasions 
by the Danes, and now is represented bv only a green 
conical mound. The ruins, too, of Wallace Tower, 
occupying the Ha' Hill upon Pit^iir farm, consist only 
of two detached masses of walL Vestiges and memo- 
randa of Danish invasion are in numerous places. 
Troup House, the chief mansion, is separately noticed ; 
and its owner divides the best pEut or the pi^rish with 
the Earl of Fife, 7 lesser proprietors holding each an 
annual value of between £100 and £500, 18 of from £50 
to £100, and 42 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery 
of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, this parish is divided 
ecdeslastically into Gamrie proper and Macduff, the 
fomier a living worth £415. The ancient parish churdi 
of Gamrie, St John's, allesed to have been founded in 
1004 bv the Momiaer of Budian in place of one demo- 
lished by invading Danes, and sranted by William the 
Lyon to the monuof Arbroath between 1189 and 1198, 
is now an interestinff ruin, situated at the head of 
Gamrie Bay, on a hiS-terrace in the mouth of Afforsk 
Den, i mile WS W of Gardenstown. The present parish 
church, 1{ mile SSW of Gardenstown, is a very neat 
edifice of 1830, containing 1000 sittings. Other places 
of worship are a Free church and those of Gardenstown 
and Macduff; and five schools — ^Braooden, Clenterty, 
Longmanhill, Macduff, and Macduff Murray's Institu- 
tion — ^with reapective accommodation for 400, 150, 104, 
700, and 100 cnildren, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 194, 90, 71, 554, and 60, and grants of £161, 98., 
£79, Is., £60, 14s. 6d., £494, Os. 7d., and £81, 12s. 
Valuation (1882) £20,683, 198. Id., of which £7210, 
19s. 9d. was for Gamrie proppr. Pop. of civil parish 
(1801) 8052, (1881) 4094, (1861) 6086, (1871) 6561, 
(1881) 6756 ; ofq. a. pariah (1881) 2652 ; of registration 
district (1871) 8151, (1881) 8106.— (M. Sur., sh. 96, 


1876. See chaps. viiL, z., zL, of Samael Smiles's lAft 
cf a SeoUh Naiwndiat (1876). 

Ckuuul BuiL See Gloomingside. 

Gannodhy, Bridge o£ See Fetteboaibn. 

Gannh or QalinHmh, a triangular lake (2 x 1} farL) 
in the upper part of Eildonan parish, Sutherland, 6 miles 
W of rorsinard station. It abounds with tront and 
«har.— Ord. Swr,, sh. 109, 1878. 

GanbOBt. See Oariulbost. 

Garallan, a collier village, with a public school, in 
Old Cumnock parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles S W of Cumnock 
town. Giurallan House is the seat of Patrick Charles 
Douglas Boswell, Esq. (b. 1815), who holds 594 acres 
in the diire, valued at £1738 per annum. 

Gazan or GaranhilL See Muibkibk. 

Gazan or An Garbh-eUdan, an islet of Durness 
parish, Sutherland, 4} miles £ by S of Cape Wrath, and 
\ mile firom the shore. It measures 8 furlongs in circum- 
ference and 60 feet in height, and is a ^crowded resort of 
WA-ioyH—Ord. Sur,, sh. 114, 1880. 

Garbh AUt, a mountain bum of Braamar, Aberdeen- 
shire, formed by two head-streams that rise on Loch- 
nagar, and running 1 mile north-by-westward to the 
Dee, at a point { mile £ of Invercauld bridge. It is an 
imnetuous stream, traversing a romantic glen ; and it 
makes one splendid fall. 

Gaztdi Allt, a mountain bum in Arran island, Bute- 
shire. It rises, 4 miles NW of Brodick, on the eastern 
side of Ben Tarsuinn, and runs 2} miles south-south- 
eastward and east-by-nortiiwuxl down a wild and de- 
clivitous glen, careering and leaping along a granite 
channel in a series of striking falls, tuL it plunges head- 
long into confluence with Glenrofiie Water, at a point 
2 miles WKW of Brodick.— Ord Sur., sh. 21, 1870. 

Gartth Bhreao, a lake (2 x IJ furL ; 926 feet) in Eil- 
tarlity parish, Invemess-shire, 8i miles SSW of Eich- 
less Outle. It abounds in trout. 

GarbhdlLiiii, a picturesque waterfall on the river 
Oauir, in Fortingall pariah, Perthshire. 

Garbh Hhaall. See Fortingall. 

Gaibhreifla> an islet of Craignish pariah, Argyllshire. 
The laigest of a group of five, it is faced with clifis, and 
flanks one side of the strait called the Great Door. 
See Cbaionish. 

Garbh Uiage* a reach of the northem head-stream of 
the river Teith in Callander pariah, Perthshire. Issuing 
from Loch liUbnaig, and traversing the Pass of Leny, 
it winds 3} miles south-eastward, 1^, at a point 3 fur- 
longs SW of Callander town, it unites with the £as 
Gobhain to form the Teith.— Ord. Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Garobaiy. See Dbe, Aberdeenshire. 

Garohoniie, a tract of land on the mutual border of 
Callander and Port of Monteith parishes, Perthshire, 
between Loch Yenachar and Callander town. A san- 
guinary conflict, in woods here, was fought between two 
Highland clans. 

Garden, an estate, with a mansion, in Eippen parish, 
Stirlingshire, 1^ mile £N£ of Bucklyvie. Its owner, 
James Stirling, £sq. (b. 1844 ; sue. 1856), holds 8238 
acres in StirBng and Perth shires, valued at £2752 
per annum. 

Gardens, a village of central Shetland, 1 mile from 

Gardenatown, a fiahinf village in Gamrie pariah, 
Banffshire, in the mouth of a romantic ravine at the head 
of Gamrie Bay, 8 miles £N£ of Ban£f, under which it 
haa a post and telanaph office. Founded in 1720 by 
Alexander Garden, fsq. of Troup, it stands so close to 
the high overhanging clifib as to be almost directly 
under tne eye of any one standing on the top, and rises 
from an older part close upon the sea to a newer part 
on ledges and in recesses of the difis. At it are a har- 
bour for fishing boats, a branch of the North of Scotland 
Bank, an £stablished mission station (1873 ; 360 sit- 
tinjjs), and a U.P. church. In 1881 the number of its 
fishing boats was 98, and of its fishermen and boys 155. 
Pop. (1841) 348, a861) 607, (1871) 717, (1881) 871.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Garderlumaa^ a hamlet in Sandsting parish, Shetland, 


15 miles WNW of Lerwick, under which it has a poet 

Gardnendda, a village near BeUshill in Bothwell 
pariah, Lanarkshire. 
- Garae. SeeOABREE. 

Gara Looh, a branch of the Firth of Clyde, projects 
into Dumbartonshire between the parishes of Roseneath 
and Row, running oft almost due N from the upper 
waters of the Fir^. The part of the Firth of Clyde 
lying between a line drawn from Roseneath Point to 
Helensburffh, and one from Roseneath to Row Point, is 
not properly included in theCjare Loch, though frequently 
spoken of as forming part of it This external portion 
is at first about IJ mile wide, but contracts tolerably 
rapidly to a breadth of 4^ furlongs, just before it ezpan^ 
again into a rude circle, of which RcMseneath Bay forms 
one hemisphere. At tiie entrance to the Gare Loch 
proper the breadth of the passage is only 1 furlong. 
The total length of the extemiu portion is 2 miles. 
The Gare Loch proper extends for 4^ miles in a norUi- 
north-westerly direction between the parishes of Rose- 
neath on the W and Row on the £, to within 1^ mile of 
Loch Long. For nearly its entire length it keeps an 
avera^ breadth of 7 furlongs, but about 6^ from its 
head it suddenlv contracts to 8 furlongs, which breadth 
it retains to the northem extremi^. Immediately 
before this contraction Farlane Bay, on the £ side, in- 
creases the breadth temporarily to nearly 7i furlongs. 
The only other noteworthy bay is Stroul Bay, imme- 
diately to the NW of the narrow entrance to the loch. 
The shores of the Gare Loch are low and slungly, and, 
with the exception of Row Point, have no projections of 
importance. Camban Point is the name given to a 
blunt angle just K of Shandon on the Row side. The 
tidal current is strons;, and runs at the rate of 3 to 
4 miles an hour, while off Row Point especiallv it is 
forced in varying directions. The depth in mid-channel 
varies from 10 to 80 fathoms. 

The basin of the Gare Loch is a narrow and shallow 
cup amongthe Dumbartonshire hills. Along the Rose- 
neath or W side the loch is flanked partly by the well- 
wooded and imdulating erounds of Roseneath Castle, 
but chieflv by a softly oumned chain of moorland hills, 
that nowhere rises to a ^;reater height than 651 feet. 
On the Row or eastern side a narrow belt of low-lyine 
or ffently-sloping ground intervenes between the beach 
and a chain of rounded summits, that culminates nearly 
midway between Helensburgh and Garelochhead at a 
height of 1183 feet Around the N end of the Gare Loch, 
and between the flankine ranges of hills, runs a semicir- 
cular connecting link in tne shape of a heathy saddle, 256 
feet high, over which tower the lofty containing moun- 
tainsof Loch Long. The water-basin thus limited ia not 
wider than from ^ to 4 miles, so that the streams which 
fall into the Gare Loch, though numerous, are small, the 
longest having a course of omy 2} miles. The scenery 
on the Gare Loch, though by no means grand, is pic- 
turesque ; the outlook from its mouth towards Ardmore 
and Erakine, and the view of the lofty Argyllshire 
hills over its northem end, especially so. The climate 
of the valley of the Gare Loch is mild in winter and 
spring, but it tends to become sultry and relaxing in 
summer. The rainfall is large ; and the wind, though 
not frequent nor strong, is gusty ; and as squalls coming 
down tne valleys between the hills are not infrequent, 
the naviflation of the loch is somewhat dangerous for 
small sauing boats. For large vessels, however, the 
Gare Loch affords an excellent anchora^, with good 
shelter; and the measured miles on which the speed 
and strength of new Clyde-built steamers are usually 
tested and their compasses adjusted is plied in the Gare 
Loch. The training-ship (htmb0rltma, in which boys 
are^ educated as seamen, is permanently stationed off 
Row. The various villages on the Gare Loch are 
favourite summer residences for sea-bathers and others ; 
and several steamers maintain communication between 
them and Glasgow, Greenock, Helensburgh, etc. On 
the Row side of the Gare Loch are situated, to the S, the 
outlying portions of Helensburgh, and the villages ot 



RoW| Shandon, and Garelochhead ; while the intervals 
between these are studded with mansions, yillas, and 
ornate cottages, for the most part the oonntrv quarters 
of the rich merchants of Glasgow and its neighoourhood. 
Among the best known of these is the mansion of West 
Shandon, now largely added to and occupied as a hydro- 
pathic establishment On the opposite shore are the 
piers of Mambeg, Bachane, Clynder, and Boseneath, 
similarly separated from each other by private resi- 
dences, though a great part of the coast lies within the 
policies of Boseneath Gristle, the property of the Duke 
of Argyll.— Onf. Sur.. shs. 87, 38, 80, 1866-76. 

Qanloehhoad, a village in Bow pajrish, Dumbarton- 
shire, just at its junction with Boseneath parish, is 
Fleasantly situated at the head of the Garb Looh, 
i miles NNW of Helensburgh, the nearest station, 
and 2 miles SSE of Portincaple Ferry on Loch Long. 
The viUage is small, and contains neat little houses 
standing amidst garden-plots and shrubberies, and it 
ranks as one of the favourite watering-places on the 
Clyde. It communicates by steamers with Helens- 
bm^h, Glasgow, Greenock, etc. The Established church, 
a neat modem edifice, was built as a chapel of ease, and 
became in 1874 a quoad sacra parish church. There are 
also a Free diurcn and a public school in the village. 
Pop. of village (1871) 483, (1881) 460 ; of g. «. pansh 
(1881) 761.— Orrf. Sur,, sh. 88, 1871. 

Gftxf Water, a rivulet of Wiston and Boberton parish, 
in the upper ward of Lanarkshire, running 6) miles 
eastward along the southern base of the Tinto range, 
till, just below a viaduct of the Caledonian railwajr, it 
falls into the Clyde at a point 1| mile NNW of Laming- 
ton station. 

Gargnnnock, a village and a parish in the N of 
Stirlingshire. The villBge stands 7 furlongs SW of 
Garffunnock station on toe Forth and Clyde Junction 
section of the North British, this being 24| miles ENE 
of Balloch, and 6 W by N of Stirling, under which 
there is a post and telegraph office. Occupying a 
pleasant site on the slope of a rising-ground, whose 
summit commands an extensive and dutiful view, 
it is a neat place, with little gardens attached to its 

The parish is bounded N by Eilmadock and Kincar- 
dine in Perthshire, E and S£ by St Kinians, SW by 
Fintrv, and W by Balfiron and Eippen. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 5g miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from E to W, is 4 miles ; and its area is 9918} acres, of 
which 54f are water. The river Forth winds 11) miles 
east-by-southward along all the northern border, though 
the point where it first touches and that where it ouits 
the parish are only 8} miles distant as the crow nies. 
It here has an average breadth of 60 feet, with a depth 
of 12 feet, and, at a point a mUe from the eastern 
boundaiT, approaches close to Gargunnock station. En- 
DKICK Water, in two of its head-streams, traces much 
of the south-eastern and south-western borders ; whUst 
BoQUHAN Bum, oominxr in from Fintry, runs 4 miles 
north-by-eastward to the Forth along all the western 
boundary, and traverses a glen so grandly romantic and 
so beautiMly wild as to have been sometimes compared 
to the Trossachs. Several bums rise in the interior, 
and run, some to Endrick Water, more to Boquha^ 
Bum, or to the Forth ; and some of them have con- 
siderable volume, and rush impetuously down craegy 
steeps, forming in times of heavy rain far-seen and mr- 
heard cataracts. Perennial springs are numerous, and 
two chalybeate springs are near Boquhan Bum. The 
northern district, all within the folds of the Forth, and 
a short distance southward thence, is carse land, from 
36 to 44 feet above sea-level, and was covered for cen- 
turies by part of the ancient Caledonian Forest Passing 
thereafter into a condition of moss so deep and swampy 
as to be almost worthless, it was in the course of last 
century completely reclaimed, and thenceforth possessed 
a value and fertility similar to the Carses of Stirling, 
Falkirk, and Gk>wrie. The middle district, down to a 
line from nearly 2 miles to nearly 8) S of the Forth, 
rises gently from the carse distnct, and lay in a ne- 


glected state, mostly waste and wild, overrun with 
nirze and broom, till towards the close of last century 
it was thoroughly reclaimed by draining and hedging, 
and now is all an expanse of beauty, mostly under the 
plouffh, and largely embellished and sheltered with 
wood. The southern district consists entirely of the 
north-western portion of the Lennox range, ciuLled the 
Gargunnock Hills, whose hu;hest point, Carleatheran 
(1591 feet), is 2 miles SSW of the village. It once was 
all, or nearly all, a moorish waste, but now in result of 
improvements is a capital sheep-walk, and commands 
from the summits and shoulders of its hills a wide, 
diversified, and splendid prospect The rocks beneatii 
the low lands include red and white sandstone, and are 
thought to be carboniferous; those of the hills are 
chiefly eraptive. The soil of the carse is a rich, loamy 
clay, on a subsoil of blue or yellow clay, with subjacent 
bed of sea-shells ; that of the middle district, in ports 
adjacent to the carse, is a fertile loam, and elsewhere 
is clayey and sandy ; whilst that of the hills is partly 
clay and jgartly wet gravel Of the entire area, 1120 
acres are in tillage ; 574 are under wood ; 8638 are in 

gisture ; and nearly all the rest of the land is waste, 
eir Hill, near the village, was a fortified place in the 
end of the 18th century, and appears to have been sur- 
roxmded by a rampart, and defended by two confluent 
streams and a fosse. It rises to a considerable elevation, 
and measures 140 yards in circumference on the summit. 
Gargunnock Peel, on a rising-ground, 50 yards from 
the Forth and 1 mile NE of the village, was erected 
seemingly to command a ford on the river, and was 
surrounded by a rampart and a fosse, but now is repre- 
sented by only part of the fosse. Sir William Wallace, 
with a band of retainers, is said to have taken post 
upon Eeir Hill, while an English garrison held Gargun- 
nock Peel; and he sallied from the hill, drove the 
English from the peel, and then crossed the Forth by 
the Bridfle of Offers J mile higher up. An ancient 
tower belonging to the Grahams stood on the lands of 
Boquhan ; its ruins were removed about the year 1760. 
A battle between the Grahams and the Leckies was 
fought, at some unrecorded period, on the western 
border of the parish; and here a great quantity of 
human bones, with spearheads and fragments of brass 
armour, were exhumed about 1800. Gargunnock House, 
5 furlongs E by N of the village, is an interesting 
building, with a fine modem front, but a massive £ 
wing of considerable antiquity; its owner. Col. John 
Stirling Stirling (b. 1882 ; sue 1889), holds 1881 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1489 per annum. Other man- 
sions, separately noticed, are Boquhan, Leckie, and 
Meiklewood; and 8 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwardis, 8 of between £100 and £500. 
Gaiminnock is in tne presbytery of Stirling and synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £246. The 
parish church, at the village, was built in 1774, and 
contains 500 sittings. There is also a Free church 
station ; and a public school, with accommodation for 
167 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 57* 
and a grant of £50, Is. Valuation (1860) £7724, 
(1882) £8009, 19s. 6d., plus £1550 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 954, (1881) 1006, (1841) 808, (1861) 728, (1871) 
675, (1881) 698.-.Ord. Sur,, sL 89, 1869. 

Gkurie. See Gairie. 

Garifad, a viUage in the Isle of Skye, Invemess-shirc. 
Its post-town is Kilmuir, under Portree. 

dftriodi, an inland district of Aberdeenshire. It is 
bounded on the NE and £ by Formartine, on the S by 
Mar, on the W by Mar and Strathbogie, and on the N W 
by Strathbogie. It has an area of about 150 square 
imles, contains 15 parishes, and gives name to a presby- 
tery in the synod of Aberdeen. It is bounded or bor- 
dered by a range of hills, extending about 20 miles 
westward from tiie vicinity of Old Meldrum ; it com- 
prises fertile, warm, well-sheltered valleys, notable for 
the salubrity of their climate ; it used, on account of 
its fertility, to be called the granary of Aberdeenshire ; 
it has long been &med as a summer resort for invalids ; 
it experienced great development of its resources from 


the opening of the Inverurie Canal, and now enjoys 
better advantages from the superseding of that canal by 
the Great North of Scotland railway; and it has a 
farmers' dub, dating from 1808, and a medical associa- 
tion, dating from 1867. The presbytery of Garioch, 
meeting at Inverurie and Insch, comprehends the 
parishes of Bourtie, Chapel of Garioch, Culsahnond, 
baviot, Insch, Inverurie, Keithhall, Eemnay, Eintore, 
Leslie, Meldnmi, Monymnsk, Ojrne, Premnay, and 
Bayne, with the chapelry of Blturdaff. Pop. (1871) 
20,182, (1881) 20,186, of whom 5781, according to a 
ParliamentaiT Betum (1 May 1879), were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
also has a jiresbytery of Garioch, meeting at Pitcaple, 
and comprising churches at BLunieLff, Chapel of Garioch, 
Culsalmond, Insch, Inverurie, Eemnay, Eintore, Leslie, 
Oyne, and Rayne, which ten churches together had 
2178 communicants in 1881. 

Qariooh, Chapel of. See Chapel of Gabiooh. 

Gallon, a place on the N£ border of Dalserf parish, 
lAnarkshire, 2^ miles SE of Tjarkhall. A oridge 
here over the nver Clyde, erected in 1817, has thi^ 
arches, each 65 feet in span, with a roadway 21} feet 
wide ; and measures 34 feet in height frt)m the bed of 
the river to the top of the parapet 

Oarleton, a range of porpnyrite hills in the N of Had- 
dington parish, culminating, 1} mile N of the town, at 
an utitude of 590 feet above sea-leveL A western spxa 
is crowned by a conspicuous column, a monument to 
John, fourth Earl of Hopetoun (1766-1828), the Penin- 
sular hero. Garleton Castle, at tne N base of the range, 
was once a superb mansion, a seat of the Earls of 
Winton, but is now a fragmentary ruin. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 
83, 1863. 

Garlies, a ruined castle in Minnicaff parish, Eirk- 
cudbrightshire, 2} miles N by £ of Newton-Stewart. 
From tne latter half of the 18th century the seat of the 
ancestors of the Earl of Galloway, it gives to the Earl 
the title of Baron (ere. 1607). It nas, for several 
hundred years, been in a state of ruin ; and, though 
now in a fragmentary condition, it has walls so very 
tightly mortar-bound as to be nearly as solid as rock. 

Qarliestown, a small town and a bay in Sorbie puish, 
SW Wigtownshire. Founded about 1760, by John, 
seventh Earl of Galloway, then Lord Garlies, the town 
stands on the W shore of the bay, in the northern 
vicinity of Galloway Hottss, and by the Wigtownshire 
branch (1875) of the Caledonian is 5 miles KNE of 
Whithorn, and 9} SSE of Wigtown. It bends in the 
form of a crescent round the bay, and, consisting of 
neat substantial houses, built of whinstone, presents a 
pleasant appearance. Bope and sail maJcing, ship- 
building, nshing, and a saw-mill afford emph>yment. 
A consiaerable commerce in the export of agricultural 
produce, and the import of coal, lime, manures, eta, is 
carried on from a harbour, which, naturally good, was 
artificially enlarged and improved about 1855 ; and 
Garliestown has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telesraph departments, two hotels, a Congre- 
0itional chapel, a pubhc school, a bowling green, and a 
Good Templars' hall, with accommodation for 300 per- 
sons. By steamboat it communicates with Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and Douglas in the Isle of Man. Pop. (1861) 
685, (1871) 688, (1881) 699. 

QarlieBtown Bay, striking north-westward from the 
Irish Sea in the same direction as Wigtown Bay, has a 
breadth of ^ mile at the entrance between Esgemess 
Point and the breakwater, a lengtii thence of 5 furlongs 
to its inmost recess, and a deptti of from 20 to SO feet 
at high water, though at low tide its upper part is all left 
dry. Engirt for the most part by flat sandy shores, but 
partly overlooked by rising grounds, it lies on a bed of 
such deep soft clay as to aSbrd secure anchorage, and is 
admirably adapted to accommodate the coasting vessels 
between many points, particularly between Dublin and 
Whitehaven. The tide runs out from Wigtown Bay six 
hours, and takes the same time to return, but in (Garlies- 
town Bay it flows five hours from the S, and ebbs seven. 
"^Ord, Sur., ah. 4, 1857. 


GarlQgie, a villa^, with a woollen factory, in Skene 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2^ miles SW of Skene Church, 
and 10 W of Aberdeen. The factory draws water power 
frx>m Loch Skene ; and has attached to it a comm^ous 
schoolhouse, for the children of the work-people. 

OarlpooL See Gabpol, Dumfriesshire. 

QanttODd, a viUa^ in Monquhitter parish, NW Aber- 
deenshire, on a nsing-ground 1^ mile N by B of 
Cuminestown, and 7 nmes ENE of Turriff. It was built 
in the latter part of last century. 

Gannoath, a seaport villa^s in Urquhart parish, 
Elginshire, on the left bank of the river Spey, t °ulo 
S of Eingston at its mouth, 4| miles N by W of Foch- 
abers, and 5 NE W B of Lhanbryd station, this being 
8^ miles E by S of Elffin. A burgh of barony, under 
the Duke of Kichmond and Gordon, it chiefly consists 
of modem houses, neatly arranged in regular street lines ; 
it has a harbour naturally good, but severely damaged 
by the great flood of 1829, and always subject to fiish 
sniftings and obstructions of ground from heavy freshets 
of the Spey ; and it, at one time, conducted a remarkably 
laige timl)er trade, in the export of tree-trunks floated 
down to it from the forests of Glenmore, Abemethy, 
Rothiemurchus, and Glenfishie. It still deals lai;^y 
in timber, both for exportation and for local shipbuildmg, 
the latter industry having somewhat revivea in 1870, 
after a great depression; and it also imports coal, 
exports agricultural produce, and carries on a valuable 
salmon fiuiery. Garmouth was plundered by the Mar- 
quis of Montrose in the February, and burned in the 
May, of 1645 ; and at it Eing Charles II. landed from 
Holland on 23 June 1650. It has a post office, with 
mon^ order and savings' bank departments, a branch of 
the (!«ledonian Bank, gas-works (1857), a fair on 30 
June, a Gothic Free church (1845), with an octagonal 
tower, and a public school. The last, on an eminence 
between it and Eingston, is a handsome Elizabethan 
edifice, erected in 1875-76 at a cost of over £1600. 
Pop. (1881) 750, (1861) 802, (1871) 636, (1881) 626.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Oarmyltoo. See Haddikotok. 

Gaznet Hill. See Glasgow. 

Gamgad Hill. See Glasgow. 

Qaznklrk, a station, a seat of fireclay manufacture, 
and an estate near the southern border of Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. The station, on the Glasgow and Gam- 
kirk section (1831) of the Caledonian railway, is 51 miles 
ENE of Buchanan Street station in Glas^w, and 4 
WNW of Coatbridge. The fireclay works, m the near 
vicinity of the station, comprise larf^e buildings, and 
produce vases, flower-pots, cans, crucibles, water-pipes, 
and other articles of remarkable elejpance and dura- 
bility. The Gamkirk fireclay, occumng in beds from 
4 to 19 feet tiiick, and equal if not superior to Stour- 
bridge clay, resembles iight-colonrea sandstone in 
tint, and withstands a much stronger heat than any 
other fireclay known in Scotland. Its composition is 
53 '4 per cent, of silica, 43*6 of alumina, 0*6 of lime, 
1*8 of peroxide of iron, and 0*6 of protoxide of man- 
ganese ; while that of Stourbridge clay is 63*30 of silica, 
23*30 of dumina, 0*73 of lime, 1*80 of oxide of iron, 
and 10*30 of water. Gamkirk House, { mile NNW of 
the station, is the property of Alex. Sprot, Esq. (b. 
1853 ; sue. 1870), wno holds 1792 acres in the snire, 
valued at £4068 per annum, including £1043 for 
minerals Pop. of Gamkirk, Crow Bow, and Heath- 
field, (1861) 664, (1871) 656, (1881) 782.— (?rd Swr., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Qamock, a small river of Cunninghame district, Ayr- 
shire, rising among the Mistylaw Hills, at an altitude 
of 1600 feet above sea-level, close to the Renfrewshire 
border, and winding 21| miles southward till it falls 
into the Irvine, } mile above that river's influx to the 
sea, and unites with it to form Irvine harbour. It 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Eilbimie, Dairy, 
Eilwinning, Stevenston, and Irvine; makes, before 
reaching Kilbimie village, a wild and lonely cataract, 
the Spout of Gamock ; lower down proceeds slowly 
through a flat fertile country, over a gravelly bed, with 



an ayentge breadth of 60 feet ; and receives on its right 
bank Rye and Caaf Waters, on its left bank Lngton 
and Dusk Waters. Always subject to freshets, it some- 
times overflows its banks in its lower reaches with 
devastating effects ; and, on an antmnn day of 1790, it 
rose 4 feet higher than it had ever been known to do 
before, destroyed a great quantity of standing com, and 
carried away many sheaves to the sea. The trout and 
salmon fishing is very fair, the waters being everywhere 
preserved. A viscountcy of Gamock was created in 
1703 in favour of John Crawford of Eilbimie, whose 
grandson, the fourth Viscount, succeeded in 1749 to the 
earldom of Crawford. It beoune dormant in 1808. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 80, 22, 1866-65. 

Ctaunqneen, a village, with brickworks, on the mutual 
border of New MonkLLnd and Cadder parishes, Lanark- 
shire, near Glenboig station. Oamqueen Loch here 
receives a bum from New Monkland parish, and sends 
off one, by way of Croftfoot Mill, into confluence with 
the bums from bishop and Johnston Lochs. Pop. of 
village (1871) 807, (1881) 934. 

Qaipal, a bum in Glenkens district, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, rising in Dairy parish, and running 5} miles 
south-westward, through that parish and on the bound- 
ary with Balmaclellan, to the river Ken, 1^ mile N by 
£ of New Galloway. It has, in some parts, a narrow 
TVL^ed channel, overhung by lofty wooded precipices, 
ana it makes a f^ fine ndls, the most picturesque of 
which bears the name of Holy Linn, and is associated 
with events in the persecution of the Covenanters. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

(Hipel Water, a bum in Muirkirk parish, E Ayrshire. 
It rises, at an altitude of 1755 feet, close to the boundary 
with Lanarkshire, and rans 4^ miles north-westward 
tiU it falls into the river Ayr at a point 1 mile WSW of 
Muirkirk town. — Ord, Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

(Carpel or Garlpool Water, a bum of Eirkpatrick- 
Juxta parish, Dumfriesshire, rising close to the Lanark- 
shire border at an altitude of 1300 feet, and winding 5g 
miles east-by-southward, partly along the Moffat bound- 
ary, but mamly through the interior, tiU, after forming 
a cascade near Achincass Castle, it falls into Evan 
Water at a point 1^^ mile SW of Moffat town. A very 
strong chalybeate, called Garpol Spa, near it, is pro- 
perly not a spa or spring, nor perennial, but is formed, 
ntfcdly and occasionally, in warm weather, by rain water 
imbibmg and dissolving mineral constituente from fer- 
mgino-tuuminous soil. — Ord, Sttr,, sh. 16, 1864. 

Chmr. See Garry, Auchtergaven, Perthshire. 

Gairabost, a village in the Eye peninsula, Storaoway 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Koss-shire, 7 miles E by 
N of Stomoway town, under which it has a post office. 
A Free church was built here in 1881. Pop. (1861) 
418, (1871) 482, (1881) 809. 

Garraghniim Cave. See Coll, Stomoway. 

Garrallan. See Garallan. 

Gazrawalt. See Garawalt. 

OarreL See Garyald. 

OarrlBon, The. See Millport. 

Garrooh, an estate, with a modem mansion, in Eells 
pari^, Kirkcudbrightshire, 5 miles NW of New Gallo- 

Oarroch Head, a headland, 210 feet high, at the 
southern extremity of Bute island, Buteshire, 2f miles 
W of Little Cumbrae. The peninsula that it terminates 
is loined to the rest of Eangarth parish by a low sandv 
isthmus 9^ furlongs wide, and, with an utmost length 
and breadth of 2) and 2 miles, attains 485 feet at Torr 
Mor, 119 at Dunaooil, and 517 at Suidhe Plantetion, 
near l^e SW shore of Eilchatten Bay. See St Blake's 
Chapel and Devil's Cauldron. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 21, 

OaxTOchory. See Garachary. 

GazTon, a headland in Fetteresso parish, Kincardine 
shire, flanking the N side of Stonehaven Bay. It con- 
siste of a light green coloured rock, of intermediate 
character between trap and serpentine, and passing into 
chloride slate. 

Garry, a bum in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire. 


It rises in boggy ground at the head of Glen Garr, a hill 
pass on the mutual border of Auchtermven and Little 
Dunkeld parishes ; runs 7i miles south-eastward, past 
Auchtergaven manse ; receives the tribute of Corral 
Bum ; and f&lls, at Loak, into Ordie Bum. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. 

Gairy, a lake and a river of Blair Athole parish, TX 
Pertiishire. Lying 1330 feet above sea-level, and having 
a mairimum width of 2) furlongs. Loch Garry extends 
2§ miles north -north-eastward to within | mile of Dalna- 
spidal station on the Highland railway. It is screened, 
all round, by bare, lofty, rugged mountains ; receives a 
dozen mountain torrente, flowing to it through gorges 
among the mountains ; and exhibits a wild, sequestered 
aspect, being in some parte so closely beset by ite moun- 
tem screens, as to have scarcely a foot-breadth of shore. 
Ite trout are numerous, but small and shy. The river 
Garry, issuing from the foot of the lake, runs 22 miles 
east-south-eastward, mainly through Blair Athole parish, 
but over the last 5 miles of ite course, below Blair Athole 
village, along the borders of Dull and Moulin parishes, 
till, at Faskally House, below the Pass of Eillib- 
ORANKiE, it fSedls into the Tummel, after a total descent of 
nearly 1000 feet It receives, on ite left bank, the Eden- 
don, £nder, Bruar, Tilt, and Allt Gimaig, and on ite right 
the Erichdie ; is closely followed, from head to foot, by 
the Highland railway and by the great road from Inver- 
ness to Perth ; and changes, in scenic character, from 
alpine wildness and dismal bleakness to a rich variety 
of picturesqueness. One of the most impetuous rivers 
of Scotland, it is, as the Queen writes, ' very fine, rolling 
over large stones, and forming perpetual falls, with birch 
and mountain-ash growing down to the water's edge.' 
In times of freshet it comes down with sudden burst 
and tumultuous fury, tearing up ite slaty or gravelly bed, 
carrying off heavy fragmente, and menacing the very 
clifis upon ite banks. — Ord. Siir., shs. 54, 55, 1873-69. 

Gazry, a river and a lake in Glenqarbt district, In- 
vemess-shire. The river, issuing from the foot of Loch 
QuoiOH (555 feet above sea-level), runs 10^ miles east- 
ward to Loch Grarry (258 feet), on emerging from which 
it winds 3| miles south-eastward and east-by-northward, 
till it falls into Loch Oich (105 feet), on the line of the 
Caledonian Canal, at Invxrgarbt, 7} miles SW of Fort 
Augustus. Loch Garry is thus an expansion of the 
river, having a len^h of 4^ miles east-by-northward, 
with a var3ring widw of 1 furlong and i mile. It lies 
in a beautiftd glen, with lofty receding mountains, and, 
immediately engirt by a series of low, swelling, birch- 
dad eminences, burste into view, from foot to head, at 
a point near ite eastern extremity. Towards ite foot it 
conteins a little island, by which and a peninsula it is 
almost divided in two. Both lake and nver abound in 
salmon, salmo-ferox, and trout— Ord. Sur., shs. 62, 63, 

Gaizynahine, a hamlet in Uig parish, Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides, Ross-shire, at the head of Loch Boag, 14 
miles W by S of Stomoway, under which it has a post 
office. Here, too, is a good hoteL 

Ganoaddeo, an estete, with a mansion and a village, 
in New Eilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. Held by 
successively the Flemings, the Erskines, and the Gal- 
braiths, the estete passed about 1664 to the CampbeU 
Colquhouns of Killermont The mansion, standing If 
mile WSW of Bearsden station and 3 miles WNw of 
Maryhill, is remarkable for a castellated Gothic gate- 
way, l^SPBr and more imposing than any similar structure 
in the W of Scotland. The work of a fanciful architect 
near Paisley, named Charles Ross, this gateway was for- 
merly embellished with fantastic omamento, and much 
visited by pedestrians from Glasgow and Paisley as a 
nine-days' wonder ; and, though now stripped of ite oma- 
mento, IS still somewhat of an architectural curiosity. 
Pop. of the vUlage (1871) 602, (1881) 649.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

Garsonbe, an estete, with a mansion, in New Eilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire. The mansion, stending on the 
right bank of the river Kelvin, 1 mile NW of Maryhill 
station and 5 miles NW of Glasgow, was erected in 


1827, after designs by W. Bum, in tlie Elizabetban 
style, and has very beantiful grounds. Acquired by the 
Colquhouns in 1558, the estate of Garscube passed about 
the middle of the 17th century to John GaxnpbeU of 
Succoth, whose descendant, Islay Campbell, was created 
Lord Advocate in 1784, President of the Court of Ses- 
sion under the title of Lord Succoth in 1789, and a 
baronet in 1808. His son, Sir Archibald, became a 
Lord of Session in 1809, also under the title of Lord 
Succoth ; and hia grandson, Sir George (1829-74), held 
8895 acres in Dumoartonshire, 926 in Stirlingshire, and 
253 in Lanarkshire, valued respectiyely at £6257, £1567, 
and £571 per annum. He was succeeded as fifth Bart, 
by his cousin, Archibald Spencer Lindsay Campbell (b. 
lS52).—Ord. 8ur., sh. 80, 1866. 

Gartoosh, a village and station in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the Caledonian railway, 2| miles NW 
of Coatbridge and 7 SNE of Glasgow. Near it are 
Qartcosh Firechiy Works. Pop. (1881) 856. 

Oartfeny, an estate, with a mansion, in Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2i miles KNE of Gamkirk station. 

Garih, a village in I)elting parish, Shetland, 2 miles 
from Mossbank. 

Garth Castle, a mansion in Fortingall parish, KW 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the Lyon, IJ mile ENE 
of Fortingall hamlet, and 7 miles W by S of Aberfeldy. 
It was the birthplace of Major-General David Stewart 
(1772-1829), Governor of St Luda, and author of 
Sketchea of the Highlanders; and the seat of Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell, G.C.B., Bart (1770-1848), Governor of 
New Brunswick and commander-in-chief in the Burmese 
war. Now it is the property of Sir Donald Currie, 
E.C.M.G. (b. 1825), who purchased the estate for 
£51,000 in 1880, the year of his election as Liberal 
member for Perthshire, and who has built a consider- 
able addition, including a tower. Old Garth Castle, 2} 
mUes NNE, near the right bank of Eeltney Bum, is a 
ruinous square keep, crowning a rockv promontory 150 
feet high. It was a stronghold of Alexander Stewart, 
Earl of Buchan (the * Wolf of Badenoch'), in the latter 
half of the 14th century.— OnZ. Sur,, sh. 55, 1869. 

Garth Castle or Calsteal Dabh, a ruined fortalice in 
Moulin parish, Perthshire, among a larch plantation 
^ mile S£ of Moulin village. It looks, from its style of 
architecture, to have been built in the 11th or 12th 
century, but is unknown to record. 

Garthland, an estate, with a mansion, in Lochwin- 
noch parish, Renfrewshire, in the western vicinity of 
Lochwinnoch town. Purchased by his ancestor in 1/27, 
it belongs to Henry Macdowall, Esq. (b. 1845 ; sue. 
1882), who holds 2825 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2707 per annum. 

OartUand Kains, a farm in Stoneykirk parish, Wig- 
townshire, d{ miles SSE of Stranraer. Here in 1840 
was demolished a square tower, which, 45 feet high, 
bore on its battlements the date 1274, and was long the 
stronghold of the ancient and powerful family of the 

Qajtinqneen Loch. See GASKQiniBiEN. 

Oartloch, an estate, with a mansion, in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the NW shore of Bishop's Loch, 1 mile 
SSE of Gamkirk station. 

Gartly, a parish of NW Aberdeenshire, comprising a 
detached portion of Banffshire, and, near its southern 
border, containing Gartly station on the Great North of 
Scotland railway, 5 miles S of Huntly and 85^ NW of 
Aberdeen, with a post and railway telegraph office. 
Bounded NE by Drnmblade, SE by Insch, S bv Ken- 
nethmont and Bhy nie, W by Cabrach and Glass in 
Banffshire, and NW and N by Huntly, it has an utmost 
length frt)m £ to W of 10^ miles, an utmost breadth 
frx>m N to S of 4i miles, and an area of 18,126) acres, of 
which 881are water, and 6848| belong to the Banffshire 
section. The Bogie winds 8} miles northward through 
the interior, having the Barony or Banffshire section to 
the £ and tJie Braes or Aberdeenshire section to the W, 
and then proceeds 1^ mile north-north-westward along 
the Drumblade border. The TJby has its source in the 
£ of the Barony ; and the Braes is drained to the Bogie 


by Kirkney Bum and by Lag Bum and Priesf s Water, 
unitinff to form Ness Bogie, whose lateral vales, as also 
Strathbogie itself, abound in charming scenes of quiet 
pastoral beauty. The surface is hilly, sinking along the 
DO^e to 886 feet above sea-level, and thence ascending 
in the Barony section to 682 feet at Birkenhill, 1029 at 
Wind's Eye, 1375 at Wishach Hill, and 1869 at the 
Hill of Corskie ; in the Braes, to 1148 at the * southern 
shoulder of Clabhhach Hill, 1069 at the Hill of Col- 
lithie, 1495 at the *Hill of Kirkney, 1268 at the *Hill 
of Bogairdy, 1248 at Sloujzh Hill, 1086 at the Hill of 
Drunlergue, and 1724 at *Grumack Hill, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate right on the borders 
of the parish. Basalt or greenstone appears along 
Kirkney Burn, but the rocks are mainly Silurian — 
greywacke, with strata of limestone and laminate clay 
slate, which, grey or bluish-creen in hue, has been 
largely quarried at Corskie. The soil in Strathbo^e 
ana in the transverse vales is for the most pai't a fertile 
day loam ; that of the Barony is li^ht and sandy, in- 
cumbent on a hard retentive subsoil. A good many 
acres have been reclaimed since 1841, but barely a third 
of the entire area is in tillage, the rest being either 
pasture, moor, moss, or a scanty proportion of wood. 
From the 12th to the 16th century, the Barony of 
Gartly belonged to a branch of the Barclays, who, as 
hereditary high sheriffs of Banffshire, procured its 
annexation to that county ; at their castle here (now 
in ruins) Queen Mary spent a ni^ht of October 1562, 
the month of the Battle of Comchie. A number of 
cairns that formerly stood on Millhill farm, near the 
parish church, are believed to have been sepulchral 
monuments of a skirmish fought there after the Battle 
of Harlaw, and, being openea and removed about the 
year 1801, were found to contain some broken fragments 
of armour. Of other and more ancient cairns on Faich- 
hill and Riskhouse farm, one was found to contain a 
funereal urn ; in the Braes were four pre-Beformation 
chapels. John Barclay (1546-1605), jurist and satirist, 
was probablv a native. The Duke of Richmond and 
Gordon is sole proprietor. Gartly is in the presbyteiy 
of Strathbogie and synod of Moray ; the living is worth 
£861. The parish church, near the right buik of the 
Bogie, 2 miles N by E of Gartly station, is a handsome 
Gothic edifice of 1880, with 400 sittings and E and W 
gable rose-windows filled, like the rest, with cathedral 
glass. Its predecessor was a plain old building of 1621, 
originally dedicated to St Andrew. A Free church 
stands, across the river, 9 furlongs to the NW ; and 
Barony public. Braes public, and (^rtly female schools, 
with respective accommodation for 82, 60, and 50 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 42, 21, 
and 82, and grants of £88, 8s., £28, 10s., and £28, Is. 
Valuation (1860) £5165, (1888) £6801, 6s. lOd. Pop. 
(1801) 958, (1881) 1127, (1861) 1029, (1871) 972, (1881) 
890, of whom 476 were in Aberdeenshire, and 414 in 
Banfishire.— (>rc2. Sur., sh. S6, 1876. 

Gartmore, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Port 
of Monteith parish, SW Perthshire. The village stands 
on the peninsula between the river Forth and Kelty 
Water, Ij miles NW of Bucklyvie, and 1 mile from 
Gartmore station on the Strathendrick and Aberfoyle 
railway (1JB82). It has a post office under Stirling, and 
a jfree library, the gift of Mr John M 'Donald, a Glasgow 
merchant. Gartmore House, ^ mile NE of the village, 
is a commodious mansion, a seat of William Cunning- 
hame Graham-Bontine, Esq. of Ardoch and Gartmore 
(b. 1825; sue. 1868), who owns 2009 acres in Perthshire, 
6981 in Stirlingshire, and 1940 in Dumbartonshire, 
valued resnectively at £1499, £4134, and £2662 per 
annum. Tne parish, constituted in July 1869, is in the 

Eresbytery of I)unblane and synod of Perth and Stir- 
ng ; its minister's stipend is £120, with a manse. The 
church, built as a chapel of ease in 1790 at a cost of 
£400, underwent great improvements in 1872, and con- 
tains 415 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
Gartmore public and Dalmary sessional school, with re- 
spective accommodation for 185 and 54 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 88 and 42, and grants 



of £78, 10s. 6d., and £48, Os. 2d. Pop. of q. 8. parish 
(1871) 868, (1881) 718, of whom 848 were in Drymen 
parish, Stirling8hire.--0ri Sur., sh. 88, 1871. 

Gartmom I&in, a reservoir on the mutual border of 
Alloa and Clackmannan parishes, Clackmannanshire, 2 
miles £N£ of Alloa town. Formed about the year 1700, 
and repaired and improved in 1827 and 1867, it has an 
utmost lencth and breadth of 6 and 2A furlongs ; is fed 
from the Black Devon rivulet in Clackmannan parish ; 
and supplies water-power for the machinery of Alloa 
Colliery and of several factories.— Ord Sur. , sh. 89, 1869. 

GmrtnaTdL See Glasqow. 

Qaxtnesi, a village, with iron-works, in Shotts pariah, 
Lanarkshire, on the left bank of North Calder Water, 
2 miles ESE of Airdrie. 

CkurtneBS, a station and an estate on the W border of 
Stirlingshire. The station is on the Forth and Clyde 
Junction section of the North British railway, 1^ mile 
£N£ of Drymen station, and 22 miles WSW of Stirling. 
The estate lies around the station, alons £ndrick 
Water, on the mutual border of Drymen ana Eilleam 
parishes; and possesses much interest, both for its 
scenexT and for association with the life and labours of 
John Napier of Merchiston (1650-1617), the inventor of 
logarithms. £ndrick Water here, over a run of J mile, 
traverses a natural cleft in the solid rock, and rushes 
vezedly over a series of mural ledges ; in one part, it 
passes through a caldron-shaped cavity, the Pot of 
Gartness, and forms there a picturesque cascade. A 
woollen factory hard by succeeded an ancient mill, the 
noise of which, along with that of the cataract, disturbed 
the mathematician amid his studies. Though falsely 
claimed as a native of Gartness, he at least was the 
member of a family who held the estate from 1496, 
and he is known to have resided here at various periods 
of his life, and here to have prosecuted those studies 
which have immortalised his name. An old castle, 
overhanging the Pot of Gartness, was his place of resi- 
dence, and nas left some fragments ; a stone taken from 
its ruins, and bearing the date 1674, is built into the 
gable of the factory ; and some stones, with markings or 
engraving on them believed to have been made by 
him, are in possession of the present proprietor of the 
estate.— C?rd Sur., sh. 80, 1866. 

Oartney or Strathgaztney, an upland tract in the W 
of Callander parish, Perthshire, along the northern 
shore of Loch Aatrine. 

GartshezTle, a suburban town and a quoad sacra 
parish in Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. The 
town is partly identical witn the E side of Coatbridj^, 
partly extends about a mile to the NNW ; and, lying 
along the Monkland Canal and reaches of the Cale- 
donian and North British railway systems, presents an 
urban aspect throughout its identity with Coatbridge, 
and a stnctly suburban aspect in its north-westward ex- 
tension. It contains, in its urban part, the parish 
church and a large academy, — in its suburban part, 
extensive iron -works and dwelling-houses for tiie 
operatives in these works, being collectively the most 
prominent of the seats of iron manufacture which give 
to Coatbridge district its characteristic aspect of flame 
and smoke and busy traffic. It has a station of its own 
name on the Caledonian railway, near the forking of the 
line towards respectively Glasgow and Stirling, 1^ mile 
NNW of Coatbndge station. The church, crowning an 
eminence { mile S of the iron-works, was built in 1839 
at a cost of £8300, chiefly defrayed by Messrs Baird. A 
handsome edifice, with a spire 186 feet high, it figures 
in the general landscape as a striking feature of Coat- 
bridge, and contains 1060 sittings. The academy, near 
the church, is also a handsome and prominent edifice, 
and supplies a liberal course of instruction, under a 
rector and three male and two female assistants. It 
and a school at the iron-works, with respective accom- 
modation for 666 and 612 children, had (1881) an aver- 
age attendance of 400 and 268, and grants of £417, 88. 
and £188, 16s. The iron-works of Messrs Baird, first 
put in blast on 4 May 1880, are amouff the best oigan- 
laed manufactories in Scotland, and nave long had a 


wide and high reputation for producing iron of superior 
quality. The furnaces, fourteen in number, stand in 
two rows, one on each side of the canal, and about 40 
yards distant firom it Built at different periods, in 
different patterns, they have generally a cylindrical 
shape, 22 feet in diameter and 60 high ; are worked on 
the not-blast system ; and have four engines for generat- 
ing the blasty three on one side of the canal, one on the 
other side, and the four with an aggregate power equal 
to 760 horse. There are 400 woroien*s houses, each 
with two or three apartments, a small garden plot, and 
a dieap supply of gas and water. Gartsherrie House, 
near the station, is a modem mansion, a seat of George 
Frederick Russell Colt, £sq. (b. 1837 ; sue. 1862), who 
owns 1416 acres in Lanarxshire, valued at £6421 per 
annum, of which £4023 is for minerals. It was the 
residence and death-place of Alexander Whitelaw, £sq. 
(1828-79). Conservative member for Glasgow from 1874. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod 
of Glas^w and Ayr, and was endowed entirely by the 
late James Baird, £sq. of Cambusdoon ; its minister's 
stipend is £120. Pop. of parish (1871) 10,041, (1881) 
9070.— Ord. Sur., sh. 81, 1867. See Andrew Miller's 
Riae and Progress qf Coatbridge amd the Surrounding 
Neighbourhood (Glasg. 1864). 

Gartahore, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkintilloch 
^irish, Dumbartonshire. The mansion, standing 3 miles 
£ of Kirkintilloch town, is a fine old edifice, with beau- 
tiful surrounding woods. The estate was purchased, a 
few years before his death, by Alexander Whitelaw, 
£sq., who owned 1710 acres in Dumbartonshire, valued 
at £6766 per annum, of which £3781 was for minerals. 
See Gaktshbbbie. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 31, 1867. 

Gart» The, a fine mansion in Callander parish, Perth- 
shire, on the left bank of the river Teith, 1^ mile S£ of 
the village. Built about 1882 by Admiral Sir William 
Houston Stewart, it now is the seat of Daniel Ainslie, 
£8q., who holds 180 acres in the shire, valued at 
£212 per annum. 

Qarturk, a quoad sacra parish in the south-eastern 
district of Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. It was 
constituted in January 1870 ; and its post-town is Coat- 
bridge, H mile to the NW. It comprises a compact 
area, including the villages of Whiffuet, Rosehall, 
and CaJiDSB, and also the Calder Iron-works, belonging 
to the firm of William Dixon (Limited). These works 
are interesting, as the place where the famous and valu- 
able blackband ironstone, which has proved such a 
source of wealth to Scotland, was first discovered. The 
discovery was made in 1806 by Robert Mushet, from 
whom it received the name of ' Mushet Blackband,' and 
as such it is still known. In this parish there are also 
several other large iron and engmeering works, and 
numerous coal mines of considerable depth. The parish, 
which is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr, was endowed at a cost of upwards of 
£8000, of which £1600 was from the General Assembly's 
£ndowment Fund, the remainder being raised by volun- 
tary subscription. The church, erected in 1869 and 
renewed in 1880, is a handsome edifice — the interior, 
which is richly ornamented, being one of the finest 
specimens of the Decorated stvle to De seen in this part 
of the country. Ad[joining the church and under the 
same roof with it is a very comfortable manse, prettily 
situated amidst a plantation of trees. The parish con- 
tains two good schools — one close beside tne church, 
supported by the proprietors of Calder Iron- works ; the 
other in Rosehall, maintained by the owners of Rosehall 
colliery. Witii respective accommodation for 227 and 
173 chUdren, these schools had (1881) an average at- 
tendance of 278 and 208, and grants of £238, 9s. and 
£172, Is. Pop. (1871) 3888, (1881) 4266.— Ori. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

QaxVald, a village and a parish in Haddingtonshire. 
The villa£» stands towards the N of the parish, 460 feet 
above sea-level, on the left bank of Papana Water, 6} 
miles S of £ast Linton stotion, and 6f £S£ of Hadding- 
ton ; it has a post office under Prestonkirk. 

The present parish, comprising the ancient parishes of 


Ckuryald and Bara, united in 1702, is bounded K, N£, 
£, and S£ by WMttinffham, S by Lander in Berwick- 
«hiie, W by Yeeter and Haddington, and KW by Morham. 
Ita utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 81 miles ; its 
breadth varies oetween If and H miles; and its area 
is 18,442 acres. The northern division, comprising 
about one-fourth of the entire area, is a lowlana tract, 
all rich in the characters of soil, cultivation, and beauty, 
that mark the great plain of East Lothian ; but the other 
•divisions consist of portions of the Lanmiermuir Hills, 
ascending to their watershed at the Berwickshire border, 
and are mostly bleak, heathy, and mossy, with occasional 

Satches of vwdure. In the N the surface declines to 
90 feet above sea-level, and rises thence to 900 at Snaw- 
don, 1250 at Kangely Eipp, and 1681 at Lowrans Law. 
Hope*s Water and two other head-streams of Giffbrd 
Water, descending from the southern heights, unite near 
the western boundary, and pass into Yester on their way 
to the Tyne. Papana Water rises on the south-eastern 
border, and, winmng 6 miles northward through the in- 
terior, past the village, to the northern boundary, pro- 
ceeds thence, under mfferent names, to the sea at Bel- 
haven Btky ; within this parish it runs along a very rocky 
bed, and is subject to violent freshets, sweeping down 
Atones of great weight, and overflowing portions of its 
banka In 1765 it rose to so great a volume as to flood 
some houses in the village to tiie depth of 8 feet The 
rocks in the N include excellent sandstone, which has 
been|quarried ; and those of the hills are chiefl v Silurian. 
The soil in the K is a deep rich clav ; in the X^E is of a 
light graveUy nature ; and on the hiUs is thin and spongy. 
iuQ ancient circular camp, 1500 feet in circumference, ia 
on Garvald farm, and four or five others are dotted over 
the hills. Whitecastle and Yester Castle, the chief an- 
tiquities, are noticed separately, as likewise are the two 
mansions, Hopes and Nnnraw. Four proprietors hold 
each an annual value of more, and two ofless, than £500. 
Garvald is in the presbvtery of Hadding^ton and synod 
of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £803. 
The parish church, at the village, is an old building, 
enlarged in 1829, and containing 860 sitting There is 
also a Free churdi ; and a public school, with accommo- 
dation for 110 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 75, and a grant of £57, 18s. 6d. Valuation 
(I860) £9444, (1878) £10,046, 19s., (1888) £9320, 10s. 
Pop. (1801) 749, (1881) 914, (1861) 891, (1871) 882, 
(1881) 758.— Ord Sur., sh. 88, 1868. 

Garvald or Garrel, an ancient parish and a bum in 
Dumfriesshire. The parish was annexed, about 1674, 
partly to Johnstone, chiefly to Eirkmichael; and it 
continues to give name to the two farms of Upper and 
Nether GarreL Its church, rebuilt so late as 1617, 
stood on the rifiht bank of Garvald Bum, 8^ miles NE 
of KirkmichaeL church; and now is represented by 
mined walls and an enclosed burying-ffround. The 
bum, rising at an altitude of 1050 feet above sea-level, 
winds 7i miles south-south-eastward through all the 
length of the parish, till it glides into Ae Water, 2 mfles 
NKWofLochmaben. Wi& a total descent of 860 feet, 
it forms a number of tiny cascades and cataracts, making 
in one place a fisdl of 18 feet over a mural rock.— 6^ 
£hir,y sL 10, 1864. 

Garvald or Ganel, a hill and a bum in Kilsyth parish, 
S Stirlingshire. The hill is part of the Kilsyth range, 
and culminates 2} miles Kw by N of Kilsyth town 
at an altitude of 1881 feet above sea-leveL The bum, 
issumff from a reservoir on a hi|^ plateau, IJ mile 
WSW of the hill's summit, and running 1^ eastward 
under the name of Birken Bum, proceeds 2} miles 
south-eastward to Kilsyth town, during which course it 
makes an aggregate descent of 1000 feet, necessarily 
forming cataracts and falls. It next goes 1 1 mile south- 
westward across Kilsyth plain to the river Kelvin ; but, 
in traversinff the plain, is so drawn off for water-power 
and to a lake as to be generally dry except durmg a 
freshet— Ord Sur,, sh. 81, 1867. 

Garvald or Garwald Water, a stream of Eskdalemuir 
parish, Dumfriesshire, rising, on the southern slope of 
Etibigk P£n, at an altitude of 1850 feet, close to the Sel- 


kirkshire border, and thence winding 6| miles south- 
south-eastward and east-north-eastwara till it falls into 
the White Esk, 2 miles NKW of Eskdalemuir church. 
It receives a number of mountain tributaries, and makes 
a magnificent waterfidl, called Garvald Linn. This linn 
is a long descent over a stony channel, sloping here, and 
there nrecipitous, between rockv flanks, for the most part 
naked, but clothed at intervals with copse and brush- 
wood ; and forms now a cascade, now a capricious cata- 
ract, now a rushing rapid.— Oni Sur,, sh. 16, 1864. 

Garvald House, a mansion in Linton parish, NW 
Peeblesshire, near the left bank of South Medwin Water, 
li mile NW of Dolphinton station, and 4^ miles WSW 
of West Linton. Having passed by marriage to the 
Dicks of Prestonfield from a flimily of the name of 
Doiu^las, it was purchased in 1827 for £11,650 by John 
Woodropk Esq. of Dalmamock, whose son, William 
Allan- Woddrop, Esq. (b. 1829 ; sue. 1845), holds 2225 
acres in Peeblesshire and 8205 in Lanarkshire, valued 
at £760 and £3029 per annum. See Biggab.— -Ord 
Sur,, sh. 24, 1864. 

Garvald Point. See Gbeenook. 

Garvalt. See Gabawaxt. 

Garvan, a hamlet, with a public school, in the Argyll- 
shire section of Kilmallie parish, on the southern shore 
of upper Loch Eil towards its head, 9^ miles W by N 
of Fort William. 

Garvary or Blar Garvazy, a hill (864 feet) in Kincar- 
dine parish. Boss-shire, ^ miles SSW of the church. 

Garva, a loch on the mutual border of Contin and 
Fodderty parishes, Ross-shire, { mile S£ of Garve station 
on the Dinffwall and Skye railway, this station beinff 
11| miles W by N of Dinflwall, and having a post ana 
railway teleuo^raph office. Here also there is a good inn. 
Lyine 220 feet above sea-level, the loch has an utmost 
length and breadth of 1^ and i mile, has finely wooded 
shores, ia traversed by the Blackwater, and contains 
abundance of trout, mnning 2 or 8 to the lb. — Ord, 
Sur,, sh. 88, 1881. 

Garv-Eilan or Garbh-Eilean, the north-westernmost 
of the three Shiant Isles in the Outer Hebrides, Boss- 
shire, in the North Minch, 4^ miles ESE of the nearest 
point of the Lewis, and 21 S of Stomoway. Triangular 
in shape, it has an utmost length and breadth of 7{and 
8 furlongs ; is separated from EUan-na-Kelly only by 
a neck of rolled pebbles, commonly dry, except at a 
concurrence of sprmg tide and tempestuous wind ; has a 
surface diversified with hollows and dedivities ; and 
abounds in rich pasture.— Ord Sw,, sh. 99, 1858. 

Garvallan. SeeGASAK. 

Garvellodh, a group of fourpastoral islets in Jura 
parish, Argyllshire, 2} miles W of Lunga. They ex- 
tend 4 miles from NE to S W, and are nowhere more than 
i mile broad ; are now valuable soldy on account of the 
excellence of their pasture for sheep and black cattle ; 
but have yielded marble, a specimen of which exists at 
Inverarv Oastle. Adamnan terms them Insula ffinba 
or Hifuntui, and in 545 St Brendan seems to have 
founded a monastery on the most westerly of the group, 
Eileen na Naoimh ( ' island of the saints '). Swept away 
by the defeat of the Dalriadan Scots in 560, this monas- 
tery was refoonded a few years after by St Columba ; 
and 'still,' says Dr Skene, 'there are remains of some 
very primitive ecclesiastical buildings which we can 
identify with Golumba's monastery, the first he founded 
after that of lona, and which, fortunately for us, owinff 
to the island being uninhabited, not very accessible, and 
little visited, have not disappeared before the improving 
hand of man. The remains are ^uped together about 
the middle of the island, on its north-eastern side. 
Here there is a small sheltered port or harbour, and near 
it a spring of ?rater termed ToSar CfhaUwm na ChiUs, or 
Columba's Well. Near the shore, S of this, in a sh^- 
tered grassy hollow, are the remains of the cemetery, 
with traces of graves of great age ; and adjoining it a 
square enclosure, or smafi court, on the E of which are 
the remains of buildings of a domestic character. N of 
this is the church, a roofless buildinff, formed of slates 
without mortar, and measuring 25 Met by 15. NE of 



tliis is a bnilding resembling the cells appropriated to 
the abbots of these prixnitive monasteries. I^rther off, 
on higher mnnd, are the remains of a kiln, and on a 
slope near the shore two beehiTe cells resembling those 
used by anchorites.' See Appendix to Dr Beeves' 
Adamnan (Edinb. 1874), andvoL iL,pp. 78, 97, 128, 
248, of Dr Skene's OelHe SeoOand (Edinb. 1877). 

Ctarvel Point. See Gkbenook. 

Garrock is a parish in Kincardineshire, bonnded on 
the KE by the parish of Arbnthnott, on the SE by Ben- 
holm and St CyruB, on the SW by Marykirk, and on 
the NW by Lanrencekirk. Its extreme length, from 
ITE to SW, is rather more than 7 miles ; its greatest 
breadth, from NW to SE, about 4 miles ; and its area is 
7982 acres, of which 16 are water. The name is derived 
from two Celtic words denoting a 'rough marsh or 
meadow.' Though cultivation has done much in the 
way of improvement, there are still parts of the parish 
to which the original name is not inappropriate. It is 
intersected, but very unequally, by what is distinctively 
named the ' Hill of Oarvock,' a ra nge of hi^h land 
covered with heath. On the NW of this ndge are 
Bamhill, and the upper lands of several farms otherwise 
lying in LaurencekirE. On its S Hes much the laiger 
part of the parish, descending gently to form a hollow 
plain, chiefly of cultivated lana, and rising again to 
higher ground (where it borders upon Benholm and St 
Gyms) varied by a single narrow opening, the source of 
tiie romantic Den Finella. Bervie Water, well known 
to anglers, winds 1{ mile along the border of Oarvock, 
senarating it from Arbuthnott It receives two incon- 
naerable streams in the parish, one of them flowing, 
when not checked by drought, through the picturesque 
Woodbumden. The surface of the parish along the 
Bervie Water is 140 feet above the level of the sea. It 
rises thence, and at Denhead attains a height t>f 462 
feet, falling; on the SE border to 465 feet The three 
highest pomts of the Hill of Oarvock are cairns, situated 
from the parish church respectivelv 7 farloxi|gs NE, 8 
forlongs NW, and 12 furlongs Sw, and their various 
altituaes being 854, 818, and 915 feet On the last the 
tower of Johiuton is bmlt Those cairns and others in 
different parts of the parish are supposed to be relics of 
the Druids; and several have been found to contain 
evidence of having been places of sepulture at a very 
earlv period. There is one on BamhiD, which tradition 
marks as the grave of two travelling merchants who, 
early in the 18th centuiy, quarrelled and fought on the 
spot, and were botii killed. Here it may be noted, in 
the words of Mr Jervise, that ' stone cists, flint arrow- 
heads, and curious stone balls have been found in vari- 
ous parts of Ckirvock ; and in March 1875 there was 
discovered, at a depth of 15 inches, in a gravel hillock 
near Brownies' Leys, an oval-shaped vessel made of 
burned clay, about 11 inches deep by about 8 inches 
wide, and containing part of a skull and other human 
renudna ' But the spot which has attained the ffreatest 
celebrity is that known as Brownies' Kettle, or Sheriff's 
Kettle, on the farm of Brownies' Leys and estate of Dava 
Here was the caldron in which John Melville of Olen- 
bervie. Sheriff of the Meams, met his cruel fate at the 
hands of his brother barons, beine ' sodden and suppit 
in bree,' in literal compliance with the too hasty sen- 
tence of his majesty James I. The story is too well 
known for a deteOed account to be given here. The 
unnatural deed was peipetrated about 1420 or 1421, 
and on 1 Sept of the latter year, Hugh Arbuthnott, 
Oeorge Barclay, Alexander Falconer, William the Ora- 
ham, Gilbert Middleton, Patrick Barclay, and Alexander 
of On^am were received ' to the lawes of Olane Macduff 
for the deid of quhillome John the Malaville, Laird of 
Glenbervy.' The chief actor, David Barclay, preferred 
to seek for safety by building the Kaim of Mathers, to 
the security of which he retired for a time. The heri- 
tors are James Badenoch Nicholson, for the lands of 
Artiiurhouse; Hercules Scott, for the lands of Balha- 
garty ; David Scott Porteous, for the lands of Bradie- 
ston ; Oeorge Taylor, for the lands of Oraig and 
Biadiestown; Alfred Farrell, for ths estate of Davo; 


David A. Pearson, for lands of Johnston, etc. ; trustees 
of the late Earl of Kintore, for the knds of Bedford ; 
Patrick Dickson, for the estate of Bamhill; James 
Scott, for Easter Tulloch; trustees of the late John 
Scott, for Upper Tulloch ; and Viscount Arbuthnott, for 
the lands oi Whitefield. The soil has been described aa 
' mostly either thin or medium loam resting on a hard 
subsoil, or stiff clayey loam lying on a cold sour bottom. 
Considering that a large portion of this pariah consists 
of uncultivated hilly ground, the rise in rental must be 
regarded as very lai^ As already indicated a larae 
extent of land has been reclaimed on the slope of Oarvock 
Hill during the last twen^-five years ' ( Trmu, EighL amd 
Ag, Soe. , 1881, p. 112). Tradition bears that a luge part 
of Oarvock was in ancient times a forest, and there are 
traces of the deer-dyke by which it was enclosed. It is 
uncertain how much interest was held in the pariah hj 
Huffh le Blond, who had owned the patronage, ana 
land also in the neighbourhood, of the church, or how 
long that interest continued in the family of Arbuth- 
nott But in the first quarter of the 14th century the 
lands of Oaruocis were among the gifts to Sir Alexander 
Eraser, Thane of Gowie, brother-in-law of Kins Bobert 
I., and Oreat Chamberlain of Scotland, who feu at the 
Battle of Dupplin in 1829. His mnd-daughter, Mar- 
flaret Eraser, became the wife of Sir William Keith, 
founder of tiie castle of Dunnottar, and the barony of 
Oaruocis was for several ^^erations in possession of the 
Keiths-MarischaL It is mduded in charters to the first 
earl and the fourth, who died in 1581. In lus time a 
lease of the lands of ShieUs was given to James Keitii, 
great-grandson of the second earl, 'a man of purts and 
merits,' devoted to Queen Mary, a favourite of nis chief, 
and captain of the castle of Dunnottar. He was head, 
of the family of Craig, and, though possessed of lands 
in several counties, including some in Oarvock, he made 
his residence on Shiells. There he had virtually exer- 
cised the powers of baron, administerins justice and 
holding; councils on the Baron-hill (Bamhul) ; while the 
adjoinme height, still known as Oallow-ban]^ had been, 
utilised by l£e grim < finisher' of the law. The 17th 
century b^gan the breaking up of the barony into vari- 
ous holdings. Before 1628, Bradieston ('town of the 
flat meadow land ') was in |X)6session of Robert Keith, 

Sandson of the above-mentioned James, and Provost of 
ontrose, who subsequently acquired the barony of 
Scotston and Powbum and the lands of Haddo. He 
was commissioner from the bui^h of Montrose in the 
Scottish Parliament of 1689, and he died in 1666. His 
initials, 'R. 1666 K.,' with shield and crest, are still 
found on a stone which had been part of a funeral 
monument, and is now built into a wall of the church. 
The lands of Balhagarty ('town of the priest') are 
known to have belong m 1687 to Earl Marischal, and 
they were in possession of Scott of Scotstarvet before 
1672. There was a charter of the lands of Whitefield 
in 1617 to Sir Robert Arbuthnott and his wife, Mary 
Keith ; and in 1677 the Hon. Alexander, younger son 
of the first Viscount Arbuthnott, had a charter of the 
lands of TuUochs (' little hills '). In the last quarter of 
the 17th century three branches of a distinguished 
fiimily were conterminous proprietors. In 1672 the 
lands of Bamhill and Henstown were in possession of 
Lord Falconer of Haulkerton ; in 1682 Snuddiehill and 
adjoining parts belonged to Sir David Falconer of New- 
ton ; and m 1684 the lands of Shiells were disponed to 
Sir Alexander Falconer of Olen&rquhar. The eldest 
branch succumbed, and the Haulkerton title and estates 
passed to Olenfiuiquhar, who eigoyed them only for . 
three years, when David Falconer of Newton succeeded, 
as fifth Lord Falconer ; and, coming into possession of 
the whole lands which had belonged to the three 
families, was probably the largest heritor of Oarvock for 
the time. Si>ace cannot be given for a detailed account 
of the transmission of the various lands to their present 
respective proprietors, but it may be stated that in 
course of this transition the parish numbered among its 
heritors more branches than one of the Barclays, descend- 
ants of the once powerful De Berkeleys. The church 


was rated in 1275 at 3 8 merks. In 1 282 Hngh le Blond, 
Lord of Arbnthenoth, granted to the monks of Arbroath 
the patronace of the church of Ganrock, with an ox-gang 
of land and some common pasture. The earliest re- 
corded yicar was William, who did homage to King 
Edward in 1296. Coming to Beformation times, the 
church with three others was served, in 1574, b^ one 
minister, who had the Eirklands and a money stipend 
of £188, 68. 8d. Scots. The reader had £20 Scots, 
fniere has been no vacancy in the office of parish minis- 
ter since 1698, the sncoessive incumbents having all had 
assistants and successors ordained before their death. 
The stipend is returned as £188; the manse (built in 
1866) is valued at £25, and the glebe at £15. The 
church (built in 1778) is seated for about 800 people. 
The churchyard has a few old gravestones ; and on the 
manse offices there is the fragment of one with date 
1608. The church was dedicated to St James ; and a 
well in the den near the manse, called St James's Well, 
had the reputation once of working miraculous cures. 
St James's Fair, now at Laurencekirk, was long held 
near the church on Bamhill, where the site may stiU be 
traced by the turf seats which did service in the 
various tents. The parish has always been well pro- 
vided with the means of education. The public school 
(built in 1866) has accommodation for 92 pupils. In 
1881 there was an average attendance of 87, and the 
l^ovemment grant was £41, 2s. 6d. Garvock has also a 
joint interest in the school at Waterlair, and gives an 
average attendance there of about 80 scholars. The 
valuation of the parish, in 1856, was £4215. In 1888 it 
had reached £6270, 18s. lid. The population, in 1755, 
was 755 ; in 1801 it was 468. The highest point it has 
reached since was 485 in the year 1811 ; and the late 
census (1881) reduced it to a minimum of 428. — Ord, 
Sur., shs. 66, 57, 1871-68. 

Garvock. See Pitliysb. 

Garvock, an estate, with a modem mansion, in Dun- 
ning parish, Perthshure, 1 mile ENE of the town. Its 
owner, Robert Greeme, Esq. (b. 1841 ; sue. 1859), holds 
644 acres in the shire, valued at £844 per annum. 

Qaicon Hall, an ancient castle, now a ruin, in the 
SE comer of Trinity Gask parish, Perthshire, on the K 
hank of tiie £am, IJ mile WNW of Dunning station. 
Tradition makes it the place where Sir William Wallace^ 
according to Blind Harxy's narrative, encountered the 
ghost of Faudon; but it must have been built long 
after Wallace's day. The real Gascon Hall appears to 
have stood about 1} mile NE of this castle, on a spot 
amid the present woods of Gask. 

Gaak or Flndo Gtaudc, a hamlet and a parishTin Strath- 
eam district, Perthshire. The hamlet lies 1^ mile SSE 
of Balgowan station, and 2i_mile8 N by W of Dunnine 
station, this being ^ miles WSW of Perth, and 4^ NE of 
Auchterarder, under which there is a post office of Gask. 

The parish, containing also Clathy village, and hav- 
ing Balgowan station on its north- westem border, is 
bounded NW by Madderty and Methven, E by Tibber- 
more and Forteviot, S by Dunning, SW by Auchterarder, 
and W by Trinity Gaslc. Its utmost length, from N to 
S, is 4 zniles ; its utmost breadth, from jB to W, is 2} 
miles ; and its area is 5227^ acres, of which 42 are water. 
The river Eabn, winding 8} miles eastward, roughly 
traces all the southern boundary ; and the surface, 
sinking along it to close upon 80 feet above sea-level, 
thence rises gently to 882 feet near Charlesfield, and 
427 near the manse, from which point it again slopes 
softly down to 190 feet along Cowgask Bum, flowing 1} 
mile south-westward on the boundary with Maddtfty. 
Sandstone and grey slate have both l)een quarried, and 
marl occurs in several places. The soil is partly argil- 
laceous, partly a fertile loam. More than 1200 acres 
are under wood. A Roman road, traversing the summit 
ridge, on the line of communication between two camps 
in Scone and Muthill parishes, has a breadth of 20 feet, 
and consists of compactly-built rough stones. It is 
flanked, at intervals, by traces of fortified posts, each 
to be garrisoned by from 12 to 19 men. One of these 
posts has from time immemorial been called the Witch 


Enowe, and is said to have been the scene of executions 
for the imputed crime of sorcery. William Taylor, 
D.D. (1744-1828), afterwards Principal of Glasgow TJni- 
varsity, was minister of Gask ; and natives were Thomaa 
Smeaton (1586-88), an early Presbyterian divine, and 
the sculptor, Lawrence Macdomdd (1798-1878). So, 
too, was Carolina Oliphant, Lady Nairn (1766-1845), 
who was author of The Laird o' Cochpen^ The Land o' 
the LecU, The Auld House, and others of Scotland's 
choicest songs. Her ancestor, Sir Williun Oliphant, 
about the b^inning of the 14th century, acquired broad 
lands in Pertnshire from Robert the Brace, and became 
the Lord of Gasknes and Aberdalgie; and Lawreneo 
Oliphant, his descendant, was in 1458 created Lord 
Oliphant The fifth of the title, ' ane base and unworthy 
man,' soon after 1600 sold all his ereat estates but Gask, 
which in 1625 was purchased by ms cousin, the first of 
the * Jacobite lairds.' On 11 Sept. 1745, Prince Charlea 
Edward breakfasted at the 'auld house,' and a lock of 
his hair is still a familv heirloom; in the following 
February Gask was ransacked by the Hanoverians. The 
present mansion, begun in 1801, stands 9 Airlon^ SW 
of the hamlet, amid finely wooded grounds, and is the 
seat of Mrs Graeme Oliphant, the widow of James Blair 
Oliphant (1804-47), who was eighteenth in unbroken 
male descent from Sir William. She holds 4940 acres 
in the shire, valued at £4854 per annum. Gask is in 
the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; the living is worth £288. The church, at the 
hamlet, was built in 1800, and contains nearly 400 sit- 
tixigs. A public school, with accommodation for 76 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 85, and a 
grant of £44, 19s. 6d. Valuation (1882) £5119, 8s. 6d. 
Pop. (1801) 601, (1881) 428, (1861) 899, (1871) 369, 
(1881) 864.— (ML Swr., shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. See T. 
L. Kington Oliphant's JacobUe La^rda of Qaak (Gram* 
pian Club, 1870). 

Gask Hfll. See Collessis. 

Gask Hoiue, an old mansion in Turriff parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 1{ mile S by E of the town. From the 
Forbeses it passed through several hands to the fourth 
Earl of Fife early in the present century ; by him was 
let to the seventh Earl of Eintore for a hunting box ; 
but now is merely a farm-house. 

Gasstown, a village in Dumfries parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 1} mile SSE of Dumfries town, under which 
it has a post office. It was founded about 1810 by 
Joseph Gass. Pop., with Heathery Bow, (1871) 521, 
(1881) 467. 

Gatehead, a collier village in the S of Eilmaurs parish^ 
Ayrshire, near the right bank of the river Irvine, 2} 
miles WSW of Eilmamock. It has a station on the 
Kilmarnock and Ayr section of the Glasgow and South- 
Westem railwav. 

Gatehope, a bum in Peebles parish, Peeblesshire, ris- 
ing at an altitude of 1750 feet on the southern slope of 
Gudon Law (1928), near the meetinff-point with Inner- 
leithen and Eddleston parishes. Thence it runs 4^ 
miles south-south-westward, till, after a total descent of 
1245 feet, it falls into the Tweed 6 furlongs ESE of 
Peebles town. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 24, 1864. 

Gatehouse, a town of SW Kirkcudbrightshire, on the 
Water of Fleet, 9 miles WNW of Kirkcudbright and 6 
SE by S of Drumore, with both of which it communi- 
cates twice a day by coach. Gompiising Gatehouse 
proper on the left bank of the river in Girthon parish, 
and Fleet Street suburb on the right bank in Anwoth 
parish, it has picturesque environs, that ascend from 
luxuriant valley to an amphitheatre of distant hills, and 
commands navigable communication 1^ mile down Fleet 
Water to that river's expansion into Fleet Bay or estuary, 
and so to Wip:town Bay and the Irish Sea. It sprang, 
about the middle of last century, from a single house 
situated at the gate of the avenue to Cally House — 
hence its name Gatehouse-of-Fleet — and rapidly rose to 
manufacturing importance, so as to have, at the begin* 
ning of the present centuij, four cotton factories, a fair 
proportion of cotton-weaving hand-looms, a wine com* 
pany, a brewery, a tannery, and workshops for nearly 


e7ery class of artisans. It made a grand effort, too, by 
deepening Fleet Water to the sea and otherwise, to 
establish a great oommercial trade, and seemed for a 
time to menace the Glasgow of the West with the 
eneivetic nyalrjr of a Glasgow of the South. Somewhat 
saddenly it suffered such arrest to flirther prosress as 
has made it from 1816 stationary or retrograde ; and 
now its only industrial works are a bobbin and bark 
mill and a brewery. StiU, it consists of neat and 
regular streets, and presents, in its main body or Gate- 
house proper, a sort of miniature of the original New 
Town of Eiiinburgh, beinff one of the handsomest towns 
in Gkdloway, eoualled inaeed by very few in Scotland. 
It has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Bank of Scotland and tne Umon Bank, offices or agencies 
of 6 insurance companies, 2 hotels, a handsome dock- 
tower, a fine stone oridge across the Fleet, the parish 
church, a Free church, a United Presbyterian church, 
an English Episcopalian church, a pubhc news-room, a 
public library, a gas company, a weekly market on 
Saturday, a cattle market on the second Saturday of 
every month, and hiring fairs on the Saturdays before 
Gastle-Douglas fair. The dock-tower, of Oralniair 
granite, bmlt in 1871, stands at the N end of the 
prindpfd street, and rises to a height of 75 feet. The 
oridge succeeded one of the 18th century, has twice 
been widened, and comprises two spadons arches. The 
parish church of Girthon was built in 1817, and contains 
714 sittings ; and another parish churdi, that of Anwoth 
(1826 ; 400 dttings), stands 1| mile W by S. The United 
Presbyterian churdi is in the Fleet Street suburb ; and 
the Episcopalian church stands in the grounds of Gaily. 
The improvement on the Fleet's navigation indudes a 
canal or straight cut along the river, made at a cost of 
about £8000, and enables vessels of 60 tons' burden to 
come up to the town. The exports are prindpally grain, 
the imports prindpally coal and lime. Thib town was 
made a burgh of oarony, by royal charter, in 1796 ; 
adopted the Police Act in 1862; and is governed by 
a provost, 2 bailies, and 4 councillors, and by com- 
missioners of police, with the provost at tibeir head. 
A justice of peace small debt court is hdd on the first 
Saturday of every month. Four schools — Girthon, Gaily, 
Fleetside boys', and Fleetside girls' — ^with respective ac- 
commodation for 149, 189, 91, and 86 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 101, 86, 68, and 84, and 
grants of £96, 9s., £79, 6s., £68, 6s. 8d.,and£87, 6s. lid. 
The munidpal constituency numbered 102 in 1882, when 
the annual value of real property was £2826. Pop. 
(1861) 1760, (1861) 1685, (1871) 1608, (1881) 1286, of 
whom 887 were in Anwoth. — Ord. Swr,, sh. 5, 1867. 

Oatadda, a village in Beith parish, Ayrshire, 1 mile £ 
by S of Beith town. Pop. (1871) 850, {1881) 874. 

Gateaida, a villaee in Neilston parish, Benfrewshire, 
on the left dde of Levem Water, and on the Glasgow 
and Neilston railway, 1} mile WSW of the centre of 
Barrhead. One of the duster of seats of manufacture, 
all popularly called Barrhead, it had a cotton &ctory so 
early as 1786. Pop. (1861) 466, (1871) 899, (1881) 466. 

Qatedda, a small villace in Kirkgunzeon parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 8 furlongs ESE of Kirkgunzeon 
church, and 4) miles NNE ofDalbeattie. 

Oateside, a farm in Garaldston parish, Forfarshire, 
near the N bank of the South Esk, 4} miles W by S of 
Brechin. It is supposed to acyoin the site of the 
Ro m an station JEsica, and to have got its name from 
a gate or port of the station towards the river. 

Qatosiad, a viUage in Whitburn parish, Linlithgow- 
shire, i mile W by S of Whitburn town. 

Qftteiride, a hamlet in Markind^ parish, Fife. Ih mile 
NNW of Markinch village. 

Gateilda, a village in Strathmiglo parish, Fife. See 

Qattoiudde, a village in Melrose parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, on the left side of the Tweed, 1 mile N by W of 
Melrose town, under which it has a post office, and with 
which it communicates by a foot suspension-bridge. 
Lying scattered among groves and orchards, 800 feet 

j^rtAiat ABHAINH 

above sea-level, it retains some traces of a large and 
beautiful pre-Reformation chapd ; it is celebrated for 
both the quality and the quantity of its fruit ; and it 
is overlooked, on the N, m>m Alien Water to Leader 
Water, by a range of softly outlined hdghts, the Grat- 
tonside Hills, that culminate at 927 feet (Sattonside 
was granted by David I. to Melrose Abbey in 1148, and 
places round it still bear such names as the Abbot's 
Meadow, the Vineyard, Friar's Close, the (Dellazj 
Meadow, etc. Crattonside House, i mile to the W, is 
the seat of Robert Blair Maconocnie, Esq., W.S. (b. 
1814), second son of the late Lord Msadowbank, who 
holds 298 acres in the shire, valued at £486 per annum. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1866. 

Gauhanaia, a place on the W coast of Dunrossness 
parish, Shetland, near Fitful Head. A vein or bed of 
iron pyrites here was, many years ago, unsuccessfully 
worked with the view of finding copper ore ; and then 
produced many hundred tons of iron pyrites, which 
were thrown into the sea. 

Ganir or Gaoire, a stream of Fortingall parish, NW 
Perthshire, issuing from Loch Laidon (924 feet), which 
at its head recdves the Ba, and winding 7 miles east* 
ward to Loch Rannooh (668 feet), mainly across bleak 
Rannoch Muir. It expands midway, in times of heavy 
rain, into a large temporary lake. Loch Eigheach; 
forms several tumultuous fisr-sounding waterfidk ; enters 
the head of Loch Rannoch by two clumnels, enclosing a 
green triangular islet ; and contains abundance of trout, 
running from | to 8 Ihe.— Ord, Sur., sh. 64, 1878. 

GauL See Lochnaoaul and Loghnakoaul. 

Qauldzy. See Galdbt. 

GaveL See Geil. 

Oavidsida, a viUa^ of recent origin in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles N by E of West Calder 
town. Pop. (1871) 660, (1881) 466. 

Gavinton, a vUlage in Langton parish, Berwickshire, 
2 miles SW of Duns. Built in 1760 to supersede the 
andent village of Langton, which stood i mile to the 
N, it took its name from Mr Gavin, the then proprietor, 
and is a neat place, on a regular plan, with a post office 
under Duns and Langton parish church. 

Gawreer or Garrler, a bum in Cunninghame district, 
Ayrdiire, rising 2 miles S by W of Stewarton, and run- 
ning 6^ miles south-south-westward along the boundary 
between Dreghom parish on the right and Eilmaurs on 
the left, till it £eu1s into Carmd Water, 4^ furlongs 
above the (^Eurmel's influx to the river Irvme. — OjxL 
Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Gayl0t Pot or Gaaiy Pot^ a cavern and a natural 
shaft on the coast of St Yiffeans parish, Forfarshire, 
about a mile S of Auchmi£ie village. The cavern, 
piercing the base of a cliff* 160 feet high, opens from 
the sea in a rude archway about 70 feet hijp and 40 
wide, penetrates the land to the distance of 800 feet, 
and gradually contracts to a minimum height and 
width of 10 or 12 feet The shaft opens in the midst 
of an arable fidd, goes perpendicularly down to the 
extremity of the cavern, is proximately circular at the 
mouth, measures there 160 feet in diameter, and, in its 
descent to the cavern, has an outline resembling that 
of an inverted urn. The sea enters the cavern, and 
takes up to the foot of the shaft the fluctuations of the 
tide; and when it is urged by an easterly wind, it 
bursts in at high water with amazing impetuodty, 
surges and roars with a noise which only tiie oreat depth 
ana contzactedness of the shaft prevent from beinff 
heard at a condderable distance, and then recedes with 
proportionate violence, and makes a bellowing exit from 
the cavern's mouth. — Ord. Sur., sh. 67, 1868. 

GMnach or Gannodi, a mountain in Birse parish, S 
Aberdeenshire, 4 miles WNW of Mount Battock, near 
the meeting-point with Kincardineshire and Forfazdiire. 
It bdongs to tiie Grampian range, and has an altitude 
of 2896 &t above sea-leveL 

Geanies Hoiue. See Fsasn, Ross-shire. 

Gaair Abhainn, a river in Inverary parish, Ar^U- 
shire, running 6 furlongs southward from the nver 
Shira's expansion of Douloch to Loch Fyne. Its 


water is alternately firesh and salt, according to the ebb 
or flow of the tide ; and is well stored with trout, sal- 
mon, white fish, and shell fish. Its name signifies 
' short river,' and alludes to the shortness of its course. 
—Ord. £fur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Oeary Pot See Gatlbt Pot. 

Oeanly or €Mealy. See Gbldiv Busk. 

Qed. See Jed. 

Oeddas House, a mansion in Nairn parish, Kaimshire, 
4 miles S of Kaim town. Standing amid highly em- 
bellished grounds, it is the seat of John Mackintosh- 
Walker, Esq. (b. 1828 ; sue. 1872), who holds 878 acres 
in the shire, valued at £988 per annum. See Naibn. 
—Ord. Swr.j ah. 84, 1876. 

Qeil or CHengavel Water, a rivulet in Avondale 
parish, Lanarkshire, rising close to the Ayrshire bor- 
der, and running 6 miles north-north-westward, tiU it 
falls into the Avon at a point 5} miles S W of Strathaven. 
—Ord. Swr,, sh. 28, 1865. 

Oeldie Bum, a trout and salmon stream of Crathie 
and Braemar pariah, SW Aberdeenshire, rising, at an 
altitude of 2300 feet above sea-level, 9 f^louffs SE of 
the meeting-point of Aberdeen, Perth, and Invemess 
shires, and runnins 8} miles northward and eastward, 
till, after a total descent of 982 feet, it faXia into the 
Dee at a point 8 miles WSW of the Linn of Dee. See 
Feshie.— (M. Sur,, sh. 64, 1874. 

Geletra. See Gomstka. 

GeUy, Fife. See Lochoeixt. 

CMston or Gilston, a village in Eelton parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 2) mUes SS£ of Gastle-Douglas, under 
which it has a post office, (klston Castle, i mile SE 
of the village, was built by the late Sir William Doug^ 
Bart, whose niece and heiress, Mrs Maitland-Eirwan, 
holds 5080 acres in the shire, valued at £3967 per 
annum. An ancient parish of Gelston now forms the 
south-eastern district of Eelton. Its church stood ad- 
jacent to a ravine or gill, traversed by a brook, and has 
left some vestiges. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Gelt or Qnelt Water, an Ajrshire bum formed by the 
confluence of Back Lane and ulocklowie Bum, and wind- 
ing 4} miles west-north-westward along the boundary 
between New and Old Cumnock on the left and Auchin- 
leck on the right, till it unites with Glenmore Water at 
Kyle Castle, 6 miles £ of Cumnock town. — OnL Sur,, 
sh. 15, 1864. 

General's Bridge. See Bowhill. 

General's Hutb See Fotebs. 

Ctonoch, an estate, with an old-fashioned mansion, in 
Old Luce parish, Wigtownshire, 1} mile SW of Dunragit 

George, Fort, a strong regular fortress in Ardersier 
parish, Inverness-shire, on a promontory projecting into 
the Mor^ Firth, 8 miles NNW of Fort Geoige station 
on the Highland railway, this being 52 miles WSW of 
Kaim and 9^ NE of Invemess. Station and fortress 
have each a post office, with monev order, savings' baiQc, 
and telegraph departments. Built three years after the 
rebellion of 1745, at an estimated cost of £120,000, but 
an actual cost of more than £160,000, it covers 12 acres 
of ground ; has a polvgonal line, with six bastions ; is 
defended, on the land side, by a ditch, a covert way, 
a glacis, two lunettes, and a raveUn; is bomb-proof 
and strong, yet could readily be assailed from neu^h- 
bouring ground ; and contains accommodation for 2180 
men. It is the depdt of the Seaforth or 78th and the 
Cameron or 79th Highlanders ; and its inmates num- 
bered 1202 in 1881, of whom 948 were militaiy.— CM. 
Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Geoigemaa Junction, a station in Halkirk parish, 
Caithness, on the Sutherland and Caithness railway, 
14 miles WNW of Wick, and 6f SSE of Thurso. 

Geozgetown, a village in Dumfries parish, Dumfriee- 
shire, ^ miles ESE of the town. 

Gezardlne'a Cave. See Draikix. 

Geylet Pot. See Gatlet Pot. 

G^wn Brlgga, a shoal or broad bar across the Dor- 
noch Firth, on the mutual border of Boss-shire and 
Sutherland, 8 miles below Tain. It greatly obstructs 


navigation, and sometimes occasions a tumultuous roar 
of breakers. 

Gharafata, a headland in Eilmuir parish, Isle of 
Skye, Invemess-shire. 

Gboet'i Knowe. See Craigengelt. 

Ghnlbhniim or Ben Gulabln, a hill (2641 feet) at the 
head of Glenshee in Eidcmichael parish, N£ Perthships. 

Giant's Chair, a picturesque spot on the river Dullan 
in Mortlach parish, BaniBbhire. A beautiful small cas- 
cade here is oJled the Linen Apron. 

Giant's Fort (GaeL Jhrn^TM-foghmhar), one of two 
conjoint ancient circular enclosures in the southern 
division of Eillean and Eilchenzie parish, Eintyre, 
Argyllshire. The other is called Dun ihinn or Fingal's 
Fort They have few characters definable by anti- 
quaries; but they attract the attention of travellers, 
and are vulgarly regarded as ancient residences of Fingal 
and his ffiants. 

Giant% Leg, a natural arch on the S coast of Bressay 
island, Shetluid. It pnnects from a cliff into the sea, 
and stands in such depth of water that boats can pass 
through it in favourable weather. 

Giant's Stone, a standing-stone in Tweedsmuir parish, 
SW Peeblesshire, near the right bank of the Tweed, i 
mile SS W of the church. It is 5 feet high, and adjoins 
two smaller boulders. 

Gibbieetoa, a vil^ro in Auchtergaven parish, Perth- 
shire, Si miles W by jN^ of Bankfoot 

Gibbon. See Craig Gibbon. 

Gibb's Gross, a place on the moors of Wedderlie farm 
in Westrather parish, Berwickshire, 8 miles NNE of 
Westrather village. It is traditionally said to have 
been the scene of a martyrdom for the Protestant faith. 

Gieoly. See Gbldie Bubs, 

GiiVsn. See Bbith. 

Gifltorton or CUffordtown, a village in CoUessie parish, 
Fife, 1} mile NW of Ladybank. It is of modem erec- 
tion, and consists of neat comfortable houses. 

Giifnock, a hamlet in Eastwood parish, Benfrewshire, 
IJ mile S of PoUokshaws. It has a station on the Glas- 
gow and Busby railway, and lies near extensive quarries 
of an excellent building sandstone, popularly called 
* liver rock.' 

Gifford, a village in the K of Tester parish, Hadding- 
tonshire, lying, 840 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of Gifford Water, 4^ miles SSE of Haddington. 
Set in a wooded vale, and sheltered by well cultivated 
hills, it is a pretty little place, its two streets of unequal 
length consisting chiefly of neat two-story houses, and 
one of them ending in the fine long avenue that leads 
up to Tester House. It has a post office under Had- 
dington, with money order, savings' bank, and telejo^raph 
departments, an inn, two public schools, and fairs on 
the last Tuesday of March, the third Tuesday of June, 
and the first Tuesday of October — ^this last having still 
some importance. Here, too, are Tester parish church 
(1708 ; 560 sittings) and a handsome new Free church 
(1880 ; 810 sitting). The latter occupies a prominent 
position on the nsing-ground above the village, and, 
built at a cost of £1700 in the Gothic style of the 14th 
century, has a NE tower and spire. Gifford has claimed 
to be uie birthplace of John Knox, the great Beformer. 
Beza in his locmea (1580) calls him ' Giffordiensis ; ' and 
Spottiswood states in his history (1627) that Knox 'was 
bom at Gifford in the Lothians. ' But two contemporary 
Catholic writers, Archibald Hamilton (1577) and James 
Lainff (1581), assign to Haddington the honour in 
question; and recent investigation has proved, more- 
over, that no village of Gifford was in existence until 
the latter half of uie 17th century. So that the late 
r^vid Ledng, who in 1846 had followed Knox's bio- 
grapher, Dr Thomas M'Crie, in preferring Gifford, 
reversed his verdict in 1864 in favour of the (Sffordgate, 
a suburb of Haddington (article 'Enox' by the Eev. 
C. G. M'Crie, in JBhueyeL Britamdeci, 9th ed., voL xiv., 
1882). Two lesser divines at least were natives — James 
Craig (1682-1744) and John Witherspoon, D.D. (1722- 
94), the president of Prinoetown College, New Jersey. 
Though the village thus is hardly two centuries old, it 



derived its name from the GiffordSi who nnder William 
the Lyon (1165-1214) added Yestred or Yester to their 
Lothian possessions, and after whom the parish itself is 
often, thong^h not legally, called Gifford. Their male 
line failed with one Sir Hugh in 1409, but his daughter 
wedded an ancestor of the Marquis of Tweeddale, the 
present superior of Gifford. Pop. (1861) 458| (1871) 
455, (1881) 882.— Ord Sur,, sh. 88, 1868. 

Oiffordgate. See Haddington. 

CKfFordtown. See Giffeston. 

Gifford Water, a bum of Haddingtonshire, rising, as 
Hope Water, among the Lammermuirs, at an altitude 
of 1500 feet, in the southern extremity of Garrald and 
Bara parish, close to the Berwickshire border. Thenoe 
it winds 11} miles northward and north-westward 
through or along the borders of Garvald, Yester, Bol- 
ton, and Haddington parishes, till it falls into the 
Tyne, at a point Ij mile SSW of the town of Hadding- 
ton, and 190 feet above sea-leveL A first-rate trout- 
stream of much gentle beauty, it traverses the wooded 
grounds of Yester House, Eaclescamie, Coalstoun, and 
Lennoxlove, and bears in its lower reaches the name of 
Coalstoun Water.— Ord. Sur., sh. 83, 1868. 

Gigalom. See Gioulttm. 

Oigha, an island and a parish of Ar^llshire. The 
island lies IJ mile W of the nearest point of Eintyre, 
and 2} miles NW of Moniemore, near Tayinloan, by 
ferry to Ardminish. It has a post office under Greenock, 
and communicates by boat from its northern extremity 
with the steamers on the passage between Tarbert and 
Port Ellen or Port Askaig^ in Islay. It measures 6 
miles in length from NNjB to SS W ; varies in width 
between 1| furlonjp; and 1} mile ; and, with the neigh- 
bouring idand of Gara, has an area of 3918} acres, 
of which 266} are foreshore. Its coast is so jagged 
as to measure 25 miles in extent ; and, bold and roScy 
on the W side, has there two caverns, the Great and 
the Pigeons* Caves, the latter of which is coated with 
calcareous spar, and much frec^iented by wild pigeons. 
At the south-western extremity it is pierced by a 
natural tunnel 133 feet long, with two vertical aper- 
tures, and so invaded by surginp^ billows in a storm 
as to emit dense vapour and loud noises. Much, 
too, of the £ coast, although not high, is bold and 
rocky enough ; and here are various sandy bays, very 
suitable for sea-bathing, whilst those of ArdininiBh, 
Druimyeon, and East Tarbert afford good anchorage. 
The harbour, on the N side of the islet of Gigulum, is 
much frequented by coasting vessels, and is considered 
safe in all sorts of weather. The interior westward 
attains 225 feet beyond the church, 260 at Meall 
a Chlamaidh, and 153 at Cnoc Loi^^ The rodks 
are mica slate, felspar slate, chlorite slate, and horn- 
blende slate, with veins of quartz and a few transverse 
dykes of basalt. The soil, except on the hills, is a 
rich loam, with a mixture here and there of sand, 
c]a,y, or moss. About three-fifths of the land are 
in tillaffe, but barely 7 acres are under wood. Springs 
of good water are plentiful, and two of them afford 
water-power to a corn-mill. Some ten boats are 
employed during three or four months of the year in 
coa and ling fishing on banks 2 or 8 miles distant. 
Dunchifie or Keefe's Hill, towards the middle of the 
island, appears to have been andentiy crowned with a 
stronff fortification ; and a hill, now uised as a steamer 
signal-post, at the northern end of the island, is crowned 
by a cairn, called 'Watch Cairn,* and seems to have 
formerly served as a beacon station for givinff alarm 
in case of invasion. Achamore House, 7 rarlongs 
SSW of the church, is the Scottish seat of the pro- 
prietor, Capt. William James Scarlett (b. 1839 ; sue. 
1880). — The parish comprises also the brownie-haunted 
island of Cara, 1 mile to the S of Gigha, and 185 feet 
high at the Mull of Cara, with the uninhabited islet of 
Gigulum in the sound between them, and bews the name 
of Gigha and Cara. It is in the i>resbytery of Eintyre 
and svnod of Argyll ; the living is worth £298. The 
church, which stands at the head of Ardminish Bay, was 
built about 1780« and contains 260 sittinga An ancient 


chapel, } mile SSW, is now represented b]r ruined walls 
ana a burying-ground. A public school, with accommo- 
dation for 83 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 39, and a grant of £44, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1882) 
£2466, 7s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 556, (1831) 534, (1861) 
467, (1871) 390, (1881) 382, of whom 4 belonged to Cara. 
^Ord. Swr,, sh. 20, 1876. See Captain Thomab P. 
White's ArchcBologioal Sketches in Kv/Uyre and Oigha 
(2vols., Edinb., 1873-75). 

Oighay, a small pastoral island of Barra parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, 2 miles SW of Eriskay, and 
8 N£ of the nearest point of Barra island. 

€Mght^ a ruined castle in Fyvie parish, N Aberdeen- 
shire, on the left bank of the Ythan, 3} miles ENE 
of Woodhead or Fyvie village, and 9 S£ of Turriff. 
Crowning the brink of a rocky eminence, with the Braes 
of Gight on one side, and the Braes of Haddo or For- 
martine on the other, it commands a circle of exquisite 
scenery, dates from remote times, and continued to be 
inhabited till the latter part of last centurv. It figures 
commonly in history as the House of Gight, was plun- 
dered by the Covenanters in 1644, and now is remarkable 
only for the great strength of its remaining walls. The 
estate, having belonged for many generations to the 
Maitlands, b^me about 1479 the property of William 
Gordon, third son of the second Earl of Huntly. 'It 
remained in possession of his lineal descendants till 1785, 
when the last heiress, Catherine Gordon of Gight, 
married the Hon. John Byron ; so that it would have 
passed to their son. Lord Byron the poet, had it not 
been sold in 1787 to the third Earl of Aberdeen.— Or^. 
iSrw., sh. 87, 1876. 

Gighty, a bum of Forfiirshire, lisins near Rossie Re- 
formatory, and running 5} miles soul£-westward along 
the borders of Craig, Maryton, Lunan, Einnell, and In- 
verkeilor parishes, till it falls into Lunan Water at a 
point 1} xnile E of Friockheim. It drives several mills. 
— Ord. Sur,, sh. 57, 1868. 

GJi^iim, an uninhabited islet of Gigha parish, Argyll- 
shire, in the sound between Gigha isUlnd and Cara. It 
measures 2} furlongs by 1. 

Gilbertfield, a decayed mansion in Cambuslanc^ parish, 
Lanarkshire, at the N base of Dechmont HiU, 1 mile 
SE of the town. Built in 1607, it was for some time 
the residence of Allan Ramsay's friend and brother- 
poet, Lieutenant William Hamilton of Gilbertfield 

Oil Bum, a rivulet in Borrowstounness parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire, rising near the centre of the parish, and 
running alozig a beautiful ravine to the Firth of Forth. 
Its glen, according to tradition, is haunted by the 
wraith of Ailie or ^ce, Lady Lilbume, who threw her- 
self down from the walls of Kinneil House, and who was 
either the mistress of a Duke of Hamilton or the wife of 
the CromweUian colonel for some time resident at 

Giloomaton. See Abkbdb3EN. 

Oildeimoxzy, a place in Alness parish, Ross-shire. 
It is the site of a pre-Reformation chapel ; and near it 
are two huffe stones of verv extraordinary appearance, 
Cflaeh-nam-ban ('stone of the women'), which are said 
to mark the spot where several women were smothered 
by a snowstorm on their way to the chapel. 

Gilfillan, a place near the middle of Sorbie parish, 
Wigtownshire. It was the site of an ancient church. 

Gill, a reach of the river Cree on l^e mutual boi^- 
dary of Eirkcudbriffhtshire and Wi^ownshire, com- 
mencing about a mile NNW of Minmgaff church. It 
traverses a narrow gorge, richly fringed with wood, and 
romantically picturesque. 

Gill or Port GUI, a small bay on the mutual bolder 
of Stonykirk and Kirkmaiden parishes, Wigtownshire, 
8} miles SE by S of Portpatrick. 

Gillaader, a cave in the E of Golspie parish, S>hther- 
land. It occurs on the face of a white sandstoiie rock, 
and seems to have been gradually formed by atoioepheric 

OlUeaa. See Lochalsh. 

Oilla, a village and a bay in Canisbay parish, Caith- 


neas. The Tillage stands at the head of the hay, 1} mile 
W of the parish church, and 15} miles E hy N of Thurso. 
The bay lias a tiiangnlar outline, measorinp; 8 miles 
across the entrance, and 7 fnrlongs thence to its inmost 
recess. It is sheltered by Stroma island, but lies open 
to the N£ and the NN w, and has a beach of flat rocks 
and shingles.— Ord Sur,, sh. 116, 1878. 

Qmybnin, a hamlet in Little Dnnkeld parish, Perth- 
fihire, i mile N W of Morthly station. 

GilmjLZiBclaach, a rayine, trayersed by a bom, in 
Eirkhope parish, Selkirkshire, descending from Black- 
knowe Hill (1806 feet) 1} mile to the riyer Ettrick at a 
point 8i miles N£ of Tnshielaw Inn. 

Gilmtrton, a mansion in Athelstaneford parish, Had- 
^dingtonshiro, 4 miles NE of Haddington, and SJ ESE 
•of Drem Junction. It is the seat of Sir Alexander 
Kinloch, tenth Bart since 1686 (b. 1880 ; sue. 1879), 
-who holds 2846 acres in the shire, yalued at £7678 per 
annum. — Ord, Sur,, sh. 88, 1868. 

CHlmerton, a modem, well-built yillM^e in Fowlis- 
Wester parish, Perthshire, 2 miles NE of Crieff, under 
-which it has a post office. 

GilmerUm, a yillage and a quoad Mcra parish in 
liberton parish, Edinburghshire. The yillage by road 
is 4 miles SSE of Edinburgh, and 8 WNW ofDalkeith ; 
whilst its station on the Loanhead and Glencorse branch 
of tiie North Briti^, i mile SSE, is 8} miles from 
the former city. Standing high, 400 feet aboye sea- 
leyel, and commanding a fine yiew of Edinburgh, it 
comprises t^ree street and mainly consiBts of low 
one-story cottages. At it are a post office, an inn, a 
police station, 8 schools, an adult and a children's 
conyalescent home (1881), and the quoad sacra church ; 
whilst on its SW outsmart stands Gilmerton House, 
an old-&shioned white mansion, whose owner. Sir 
Dayid Baird of Newbtth, Bart, holds 761 acres in 
Hie shire, yalued at £8456 per annum, besides £400 for 
minerals. Coal of prime quality has here been mined 
fiince 1627 and earlier, and down to the opening of the 
Dalkeith railway the carters or coal-bearers of Gilmer- 
ton. who largely furnished Edinburgh with fuel, formed 
a class by ^emselyes. The humours of their annual 
horse races, 'My Lord's,' as tJieywere called, are yiyidly 
sketched by Moir in ifanrie Wauck, Ironstone, too, 
has been mined for a number of years ; and the work- 
ing of it is likely to be greatly extended under the 
management of the newly-formed Caledonian Steel 
and uon Company. A little to the NW of the yil- 
lage is a limestone quarry of yast extent, the oldest 
perhaps in Scotland, at aU eyents worked from imme- 
morial time. At first it was worked from the sur- 
face, afterwards it was mined ; and the produce was 
brought up in successiye epochs by women, by asses, 
tmd by steam-power. Eyen with tne aid of machinery 
it ceased at length to repay the cost of working, and 
since 1827 it has been almost entirely abandoned. Now, 
like a huge deep trench, f mile lonff, it presents a 
shelying decliyity, oyenrown with bruuiwooa and wild 
flowers, and sending off lateral cayems, whose roof of 
solid rock is upborne by massiye piers, left as props in 
the process of mining. This yast colonnaded cayem, 
instead of proceeding far inwards, where the rapid dip 
of the stratum — at an an^e of 45** — would haye carried 
the miner too far beneath tiie snrfoce, adyances obliquely 
up the side of the ridge or hiU, and thus one ma^ wan- 
der some way undersround and yet neyer lose the light of 
day. At the yilLige itself, near the entrance from 
Edinburgh, is a singular caye, hewn from the solid rock 
during 1710-24 by a blacksmith named George Paterson. 
Booms, beds, and a table beturing aloft a punch-bowl, 
all are nicely chiselled from the rock, which thus pro- 
yided both dwelling-house and furniture. Seyeral aper- 
tures in the roof seryed for windows to let in the light 
from aboye. The constructor of this strange subter- 
ranean abode had it fitted up with a well, a washing- 
house, and a forge ; and here, pursuing his ciaft, he 
liyed with his fimily till his death, about 1785. The 
<»ye was for ^rears a j^t object of curiosity, and eyen 
yet has occasional yisits paid to it The quoad sacra 


parish is in the presbytery of Edinbmgli and synod of 
lx>thian and Tweeddale ; the stijiend, from enaowment 
of 1860, is £120 with a manse. The church was built 
as a chapel of ease in 1887, and enlarged by two aisles 
in 1882. The public, the female industrial, and Mr 
Moore's school, with respectiye accommodation for 267, 
76, and 110 children, had (1881) an ayerage attendance 
of 101, 78, and 90, and grants of £92, 18s. 6d., £64, 6&, 
and £48, 17a 8d. For the female industrial school an 
elegant new schoolroom and teacher's house were buHt in 
1882 at the expense of the Misses Anderson of Moredun. 
Pop. of yillage (1861) 696, (1871) 765, (1881) 1082; of 
q. 8. parish (1871) 1062, (1881) 18S0.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
82, 1867. 

GUmilnsoroftk a mansion in Som parish, Ayrshire, 2^ 
miles E by S of Catrine. Its owner, Miss Gray Far- 
Quhar (sue. 1845), the representatiye of an old Ayrshire 
family, holds 2886 acres in the shire, yalued at £1071 
per annum. — Ord, Sur., sh. 14, 1868. 

Gilmoor's Uim, a beautiful cascade on Touch Bum, 
in St Ninians parish, Stirlingshire. 

Gilnockie, a station on the Langholm branch of the 
North British railway, in Canonme parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 2| miles N by W of Biddings Junction, and 4^ 
SSE of Langholm. The Border peel-tower of Gilnockie 
stood on a small promontory, washed on three sides by 
the riyer Esk, so steep and rocky as to be scarcely ac- 
cessible except on the land side, and defended there 
by a deep ditch. It gaye desi^pation to Johnie Arm- 
strong, tne Border freebooter o? ballad fame, and puts 
in a claim against Hollows Tower, a little higher up 
the riyer, to haye been his principal residence. Seem- 
ingly it became ruinous soon after Armstrong's execu- 
tion by James Y. at Caerlanrig (1529) ; and, eyentuidly 
obliterated to make room for a bridge oyer the riyer, it 
is now not represented by eyen the lightest yestige. 
(See DtJBDB.) Distinct remains of a Roman station are 
on a rising-ground a little N of the station. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 11, 1868. 

Oilp, a bum and a bay on the mutual boundary of 
Eilmichael - Glassary ana North Enapdale parisnes, 
Argyllshire. The bum has a brief course south-east- 
wara to the bay's head. The bay. Loch Gilp, descends 
from the bum's mouth, 2} miles south-south-eastward, 
into line with the great southward reach of Loch Fyne, 
and broadens gradually from 8 furlongs to 1{ mile. It 
sends off, from its W side, the Crinan Canal ; and is 
mostly so shallow as not to be nayigable for boats of any 
considerable burden at low tide. See Loohqilphead, 
Ardrishaio, and Csiitak Canaj<. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 

GUiton, Kirkcudbrightshire. See Gelbton. 

Gionly. See Geldie Burn 

Girdle Ness, a promontory in Nigg parish, Kincar- 
dineshire, flanking the S side of the mouth of the riyer 
Dee, and terminating 2 miles ESE of Abeordeen. It 
forms the eastern ex&emity of a spur of the Grampian 
moxmtains ; and ia crowned with a lighthouse, which, 
built in 1888 at a cost of £11,940, shows two fixed 
lights, 115 and 185 feet aboye mean tide, and yisible at 
the distance of 16 and 19 nautical mileB. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 77, 1878. 

GlrUrta. See TniowALL. 

Gimigoe. See Castles Gibnigob and Sikolaib. 

Oimock Bum, a riyulet in Crathie and Braemar 
parish, SW Aberdeenshire, rising at an altitude of 1800 
feet, and running 6f miles north-north-eastward to the 
riyer Dee, at a point 8 miles W by N of Ballater. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Qlrtligate, an ancient bridle-road in Roxburghshire 
and Edinburghshire, leadinff northward from CM Mel- 
rose up the yale of Allen Water and oyer the moors to 
the ancient hospice of Soutra. Traces of it still exist 
^Ord. Sur., shs. 25, 88, 1865-68. 

Glrthhead, an estate, with a mansion, in Wamphray 
parish, Dumifriesshire, on the left bank of the Annan, 
li mile S by W of Wamphray station. 

Girthon, a parish of S W Eukcudbrightshire, contain- 
ing the greater part of the post-town of Gatehousb^ and 



trayeised across its northern lialf by 4f miles of the 
Portpatrick section of the Glasgow and South-Westem 
raUway. It is bounded N and NE by Kells, E by Bal- 

"^ — O — — — — -— g 7 -# -- — 

miles ; its breadth varies between Ig and 6} miles ; an' 
its area is 84,998^ acres, of which 948} are foreshore 
and 675i water. The river Dee winds 6 miles east* 
south-eastward alone all the boundary with Eells, and 
from Girthon is fed oy a dozen or so of bums ; but the 
drainajge mainly belongs to the Water of Fleet, which, 
with its principal he^l-stream, traces all the western 
border, and from the interior receives Little Water of 
Fleet and numberless lesser tributaries. Four lakes, 
with their utmost length and breadth and their altitude 
above sea-level, are Loch Whinyeon (4) x 4} furl. ; 
725 feet), on the Twynholm border; Loch Seebbow 
(5i X 4 furl. ; 425 feet), close to the Balmaghie border ; 
Loch Fleet (3x2 furl. ; 1120 feet), in the north-western 
interior ; and Loch Grenkooh (2 miles x 8 furL ; 680 
feet), on the Minnigaff border. Three-fourths of the 
land, comprising all the northern and most of the cen- 
tral division, with a strip alone the eastern border, is 
bleak and heathy upland, with but few snots devoted to 
tillage or capable of producing com. Tne upland con- 
sists rather of broad masses, irregularly intersected by 
water-courses, than of continuous ridges or distinct 
hiUs, and rarely rises to mountain altitude. Some of 
the principal summits, from S to K, are Caimtook Hill 
(1000 feet), Castramont Hill (700), White Top of Cul- 
reoch (1000), Craiglowrie (1079), Oraigronald (1684), 
Craigwhinnie (1367), Auchendoy Hill (684), Shaw HUl 
(1255), and Round Fell (1819). The rest of the land, 
comprising a strip along the middle and lower reaches 
of the Fleet, is chiefly undulatine, partly flat or gently 
sloping, and all of it fertile, nnel]^ cultivated^ and 
highly embellished. Granite predominates throughout 
the uplands, and metamorphic rocks, chiefly clay slate, 
prevail in the lowlands. Slate has been quarried on 
Culreoch farm ; and a vein of copper ore, on the lands 
of Enrick, was leased, and for some time worked, by a 
Welsh company. The soil of the uplands is very poor ; 
that of the lowlands is naturally various, and has been 
highly improved. About 4000 acres are reeularlv or 
occasionally in tillage, and a fair proportion throughout 
the lowlands is under wood. Three small ancient moats 
are at Castramont, Enrick, and Bush Park; and at 
Enrick stood an occasional residence of first the abbots 
of Tongland, next the bishops of Gallowav, which has be- 
queathed to its site the name of Palace Yard. The Bev. 
William Erskine, who %ures among the wortiiies in 
Wodrow's History qf the Offerings of the Ohtareh qf Scot- 
land, was minister of this parish, in which, at Auchen- 
clojr, Claverhouse shot four Covenanters, 18 Dec. 1684. 
Besides the three Faeds, the celebrated artists, already 
noticed under Barlay Mill, natives of Girthon were 
Captain James Murray Denniston (1770-1857), author of 
Legends of Gfallou>ay, and Thomas Murray, LL.D. 
(1792-1872), author of the Literary ffisttyrvof OalUnoay. 
Mansions, both separately noticed, are Cally and Castra- 
mont ; and 2 proprietors hold each an annuad value of 
£500 and upwards, 17 of from £20 to £50. Girthon is 
in the presb^ry of Kirkcudbright and synod of Gallo- 
way; the living is worth £203. The old church, 2 
miles SSE of Gatehouse, is a roofless ruin, with a erave- 

Crd, the Broughton vault, and the grave of ' £obert 
nnoz, who was shot to death by Grier of Lagg, in the 
paroch of Tongland, for his a&erence to Sootland's 
Covenants, 1685.' A little further S is the site of the 
Mill of Girthon or the Lake, whose miller was fined in 
1300 by Edward L of England. The present parish 
church is noticed, with three other places of worship 
and the schools, under Gatehouse, valuation (I860) 
£7828, (1882) £8942, 2s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1727, (1831) 
1761, (1861) 1702, (1871) 1586, (1881) 1415.— Ont Swr., 
flhs. 5, 4, 8, 9, 1857-68. 

Girvan, a town and a parish in Carrick district, Ayr- 
shire. The town stands on the coast at the mouth of 


the Water of Girvan, 10 miles by sea E by S of Ailsa 
Craig, whilst by two sections of the Glasgow and South- 
Westem railway — the Maybole and Girvan (1860) and 
the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction (1876)— it is 21)- 
miles SSW of Ayr, 62 SSW of Glasgow, and 45 NIO: of 
Portpatrick. Its name originallv was Invergarvan, ia 
allusion to Girvan Water, which was formerly called 
the Garvan ; and it seems to have been foundea in the 
11th century, but never till a recent period rose above- 
the condition of a village. Extending southward froia 
the river's mouth along the shore, and overlooked by 
hiUs that culminate a mile inland at 827 feet above sea- 
level, it enjoys a delightful site, picturesque surround- 
ings, and a splendid view of the Firth of Clyde, but 
possesses few attractions of its own. Robert Heron, in 
Lis Journey through the Western ComUies qf Scotland in 
1792, though liberal enough in pndses generally, of 
Girvan wrote: — 'The houses are huts more miserable 
than those of Ballantrae. They are so low as to seem, 
at the S end of the village, rather caves dug in the 
earth than houses built upon it ; though, on the NW 
side and close upon the ranks of the river, there are 
some more decent and commodious houses.' The town 
has been greatly extended and vastly improved since 
Heron's day, and it now contains some very fair public 
buildings and numerous comfortable private houses; 
yet it still is hi inferior in structure and aspect to- 
many Scotch towns of its size, and looks more like an 
overgrown village than even a third-rate considerable 
town. Many or most of its houses are still one-storv 
cottages, containing merely a dwelling-room and weaver s- 
workshop ; and even a considerable proportion of the 
recently- Duilt ones are small untidy tenements, occupied 
by cotton weavera, not a few of them immigrant Irish. 
The parish church (1770 ; 750 sittings) in the autumn 
of 1882 was about to be rebuilt at a cost of £4000. 
The South diurch, built as a chapel of ease in 1839, and 
containing 900 sittings, was raised in 1875 to qiLoad 
sacra status. Other maces of worship are a Free church 
(1844), a U.P. church (1870 ; 450 eattings), St John's- 
Episcopal church, and the Roman Catholic church of the 
Sacred Hearts (1860 ; 200 sittings). Girvan, besides, 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, in- 
surance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
British Linen Co., (Commercial, National, Royal, and 
Union Banks, offices or agencies of 25 insurance com- 
panies, 2 hotels, a town-nail, assembly rooms, a Me- 
chanics' Institute, a reading-room, a lifeboat institution,, 
a sas-light company, a weekly market on Monday, and 
faira on the first Monday of April and October. Cotton- 
weaving is still carried on, though not as in 1888, when 
the number of hand-looms, including a few in the neigh- 
bourhood, was no less than 1800, the &brics woven 
being almost all coarae cottons for the manufacturera of 
Glasgow. A harbour, at the mouth of Girvan Water, 
was formerly capable of admitting only vessels of small 
burden, but has undergone great improvement of recent 
years. The latest extension, undeitaken in 1881, and 
estimated to cost £12,000, includes the carrying out of 
a pier from the W side, and of a breakwater from the 
NE side, of the present harbour, which will, when 
completed, resemble that of Eyemouth. A steamer 
plies backwards and forwards to Glasgow once a week. 
A burgh of barony under the superiority of the pro- 
prietor of Bargany, Girvan received its &st charter in 
1696, but did not ei^oy burgh privileges till 1785. It 
is governed by 2 baihes and 12 other councillors, whilst 
the harbour is managed bv 12 commissioners. Sherifl' 
small debt courts are held three times a year ; and a 
justice of peace small debt court sits on the nnt Monday 
of every month. Municipal constituency (1882) 310. 
Pop. (1836) 5800, (1851) 7306, (1861) 5927, (1871) 4791, 
(1881) 4505. Houses (1881) 875 inhabited, 80 vacant, 
1 building. 

The parish of Girvan is bounded N by Eirkoswald, 
NE by Dailly, SE by Barr, S by (3olmoneU, and W by 
the Firth of Clyde. Its utmost 1^^, from N to S, is 
7i miles ; its breadth, from E to W7 varies between Ig 
«nd 5} miles ; and its area is 14,954 acres, of which 822 


are foreshore and 52 water. The coast-line, 8} miles 
long, is closely skirted by the road to Ballantrae, and, 
offering few and inconsiderable curvBtores, over all bnt 
the southernmost 2^ miles is low, with a boulder-strewn 
beach, covered thickly with seaweed. From Ardwell 
southwards to Finhain it is bold and rocky, the road 
itself attaining 100 feet aboye sea-level at the southern 
extremity of tne parish, and the surface thence rising 
rapidly inland to 978 feet at Grey Hill and 784 at Pin- 
ham HilL The Water of Uieyan winds 1 mile 
south-south-westward along the Daillv border, then 8^ 
miles west-south-westward through the interior to its 
mouth at Girvan harbour ; and, at the S£ comer of the 
parish, the Stinosajl traces 1 mile of the boundary 
with Barr and Colmonell, and from Girvan is fed by 
the Water of Assel, running 5 miles south-westward, 
southward, and south-eastward. The surface generally 
is hilly, from N to S attaining 275 feet above sea-level 
near Bo^ead, 689 near Brae, 970 at Saugh Hill, 928 at 
Trower Hill, 888 near La^n, 701 at Syne Hill, and 
971 at Kir