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Old Aberdeen in the 17th century. - From Slezer's Theairum Scotia (1693). 



Allow.iy Mill, Ayrshire (Robert Burns' first School). 

Edinburgh Castle in 1710, from the North-East. From an old print. 

Holyrood House, Edinburgh, in 1745. From an old print. 

Ruins on Iona, Argyleskire. 


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Inverlochy Castle, Inverness-shire. From M'Culloch's celebrated picture. 


Grant Castle, Iuvcrness-sbire. From a photograph. 

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Glencoe, Argyleshire 



CS aoit-te* 

Mauehline, Ayrshire. 

Mount Oliphant, Ayrshire. 

Dunyveg Castle, Islay, Argyllshire. From au original drawing. 


Dornoch, Sutherlandshire. 

Dunblane, Perthshire, about the time of the Rebellion. From Slezer's Theatrum Scotia 1 (1693). 


Blair Castle, Perthshire. 

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Old Culloden House, Inverness-shire. From an original drawing. 
Prince Charles lodged here the night before the memorable battle on the 10th April 1746. 




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A AN or AVEN (Gael. abJminn, 'river'), a rivulet of 
/\ the Eastern Grampians, rises on the NW side 
jf"^ of Mount Battock, at an altitude of 1700 feet, 
near the meeting-point of Aberdeen, Kincardine, 
and Forfar shires. Thence it runs about 10 miles ENE 
mostly along the boundary between Aberdeen and Kin- 
cardine shires, to a confluence with the Feugh, 4 miles 
SW of Banchory. It flows in a rocky bed, is subject 
to great freshets, and is open to the public, but affords 
no very good sport. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1S71. 

Abbey, a precinct in Canongate parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, adjacent to the foot of the lines of street eastward 
from the centre of the Old Town of Edinburgh. It 
contains Holyrood Palace and Abbey, and includes the 
Queen's Park. First enclosed by James V. , it has, from 
ancient times, been a sanctuary for insolvent debtors, a 
bailie for it being appointed by commission from the 
Duke of Hamilton, and sitting in a small court-house 
on the first Saturday of every month. Its population 
has dwindled since the alteration of the law respecting 
debtors, and it now has few inhabitants except in con- 
nection with Holyrood. The objects of interest, parti- 
cularly the palace, the abbey, and their adjuncts, are 
described under Edinburgh. 

Abbey, a quoad sacra parish, formed in 1S75 out of 
South Leith and Greenside parishes, Edinburghshire. 
Its church, on London Koad, close to Abbeyhill station, 
and 1 mile ENE of Edinburgh Post Office, is a Gothic 
structure, built (1875-76) at a cost of £8000, with 855 
sittings, and tower and spire. Behind it is Abbeyhill 
school (1SS1); and not far off are London Koad U.P. 
church (1875 ; 950 sittings), a very good Early English 
edihce, also with tower and spire, and Abbeyhill Epis- 
copal mission church (1SS0 ; 300 sittings) and school. 
Pop. (1881) 41.32. 

Abbey, a village of Clackmannanshire, on the left 
bank of the river Forth, 1J mile ENE of Stirling. It 
is, in some respects, in the parish of Stirling ; in others, 
in that of Logie ; and it takes its name from the neigh- 
bouring abbey of Cambuskenneth. It communicates, 
by ferry-boat, with the Stirling bank of the Forth, and 
has a public school, which, with accommodation for 4S 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 38, and a 
grant of £31, 10s. Pop. (1881) 217. 

Abbey, a small village, with the site of a Cistercian 
nunnery, in Haddington parish, Haddingtonshire, on 
the left bank of the river Tyne, 1£ mile ENE of Had- 
dington town. The nunnery, founded in 1178 by Ada, 
mother of Malcolm IV., was the meeting-place, in 1548, 
of the parliament that arranged Queen Mary's marriage 
to the Dauphin. At the Dissolution it had 18 nuns, and 
an income of £310 ; but no traces of it now remain. 

Abbey, a quoad sacra parish in Arbroath and St 
Vigeans parishes, Forfarshire, around the ruins of Ar- 
broath Abbey, in the town of Arbroath. Constituted 
in 1869, it had a population in 1871 of 2338 within 
Arbroath parish, and 1742 within St Vigeans, and is in 

the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. The church, erected in 1787 as a chapel of 
ease, at a cost of about £2000, contained 1281 sittings, 
but was enlarged by 80 more in 1S79. Two schools 
under the Arbroath burgh school-board bear the names 
of Abbey and Abbey Church. The former, in May 1SS0, 
had an attendance of 230 ; the latter, closed during the 
day in December 1879, had then 119 evening scholars. 

Abbey, a parish of NE Renfrewshire, including part 
of the town of Paisley while completely surrounding 
the burgh parishes, and itself called sometimes Abbey 
Paisley. It also contains the town of Johnstone, the 
Dovecothall portion of Barrhead, and the villages of 
Elderslie, Thorn, Quarrelton, Inkerman, Hurlet, and 
Nitshill. It is bounded N by Renfrew parish, NE by 
Govan in Lanarkshire, E by Eastwood, SE and S by 
Neilston, W by Lochwinnoch, and NW by Kilbarchan. 
Very irregular in outline, it has an extreme length from 
E to W of 1\ miles ; its width varies between 3 and 4 j 
miles; and its area is 16,179 acres, of which 2f are 
foreshore and 252i water. The White Cart winds 
about 5 miles westward, partly along the eastward 
boundary, and partly through the interior, to Paisley, 
thence striking 1^ mile northward into Renfrew parish 
on its way to the Clyde ; at Crookston it is joined by 
the Levern, which from Barrhead traces much of the 
south-eastern and eastern border. The whole of the 
north-western border, from Milliken Park to Blackstone 
House, a distance of 4| miles, is marked by the Black 
Cart ; and all three streams are fed by several burns. 
NW of Paisley is a mineral spring ; and to the SW are 
the Stanely and Rowbank reservoirs, large artificial sheets 
of water. The northern part of the parish is almost a 
perfect level, consisting chiefly of reclaimed moss, and 
near Boghead being only 13 feet above the sea; but 
southward one passes through ' a rough and undulating 
country, with masses of grey crag interspersed with 
whinny knolls,' to Stanely Moor and the Braes of 
Gleniffer — the scene of Tannahill's songs, — whose highest 
point within the Abbey bounds is Sergeantlaw (749 feet). 
Lesser elevations, from N to S, are Mosspark (159 feet), 
Carriagehill (147), Dikebarhill (168), Windyhill (312), 
Bent (637), and Hartfield (723). The soil on the arable 
lands has great diversity of character, being in some 
places a vegetable mould derived from moss ; in others, 
especially along the streams, a rich alluvial loam. Gene- 
rally, however, it is shallow, either clayey or sandy, and 
overlying a substratum of gravel or till, which, naturally 
retentive of moisture, has been greatly improved by art. 
The rocks of these low tracts belong to the Carboniferous 
Limestone series ; those of the hills are various kinds of 
trap. In 1879, 8 collieries and 6 ironstone mines were 
in operation ; and greenstone, sandstone, limestone, 
aluminous schist, fireclay, and potter's-clay are also ex- 
tensively worked. The chief antiquity is Crookston 
Castle, and other ruins are Stanely Castle, Stewarts 
Raiss Tower, and Blackhall House. Hawkhead (Earl 


of Glasgow) and Cardonald are ancient mansions ; while 
Johnstone Castle, Ferguslie, Househill, Ralston, Barshaw, 
and Egypt Park are all of modern erection. Twenty- 
three proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 82 of between £100 and £500, 135 of between 
£50 and £100, and 263 of between £20 and £50. This 
parish is in the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr, and it contains the quoad sacra parishes 
of Elderslie and Johnstone, with almost the whole of 
Levern. The charge since 1641 has been collegiate ; 
and there are two ministers, the first of whom has an 
income of £621, and the second of £512. The parish 
church is that of the ancient abbey, described under 
Paisley, where, as also under Elderslie, Johnstone, 
and Barrhead, other places of worship of various de- 
nominations will be noticed. The landward school- 
board consists of 9 members ; and 9 schools under it, 
with total accommodation for 2294 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 155S, and grants amounting to 
£1394, 3s. 6d. Abbey parish has its own poor-law ad- 
ministration, and possesses a poorhouse and a lunatic 
asylum for itself, with respective accommodation for 
555 and 9S inmates. It is traversed by reaches of the 
Caledonian and of the Glasgow and South-Western rail- 
way, and by the Johnstone and Glasgow Canal. Valua- 
tion of lands and heritages (1881) £79,885, 12s. 6d. 
Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1871) 17,489 ; of landward 
district, 11,988. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 14,153, (1861) 
29,6S7, (1871) 30,587, (1881) 34,392, of whom 17,470 
were within the burgh. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Abbey, a burn and a small headland in Rerwick parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. The burn rises near Doon Hill, and 
runs about 6 miles southward, past Dundrennan Abbey, 
to the Solway Firth, at the small harbour of Burnfoot. 
The headland flanks the W side of that harbour, 3J miles 
E of the entrance of Kirkcudbright Bay. 

Abbey, a hill in Abbey St Bathans parish, Berwick- 
shire, 6 miles NNW of Dunse. It is one of the Lammer- 
niuirs, has a length of about 2 miles, rises to an altitude 
of 913 feet, and consists of two parts, called Inner and 

Abbey Bathans. See Abbey St Bathans. 

Abbey Craig, an abrupt eminence in Logie parish, 
Stirlingshire, on the N side of the Forth, 1J mile ENE 
of Stirling. It rises from a plain of carboniferous rocks ; 
consists at first of sandstones, shales, clay, ironstone, 
and coarse limestone ; afterwards becomes a mass of 
greenstone, similar to that of Stirling Castle and Craig - 
forth Rocks ; and culminates at a height of 362 feet 
above the level of the sea. Its limestone has drawn 
some attention ; and its greenstone, in considerable 
quantity, has been worked into excellent mill-stones. 
Its form is picturesque ; its surface is largely clothed 
with shrubbery, and traced with winding walks ; and 
its summit commands a magnificent view of the basin of 
the Forth. It bears marks of an entrenchment formed 
by the Romans, and renewed by Cromwell ; it yielded, 
about the year 1790, a number of bronze spear-heads ; 
and it was the station of the victorious army of Sir 
"William Wallace in the battle of Stirling, 11 Sept. 
1297. A monument to Wallace now crowns a tabular 
spot adjacent to a precipitous stoop at its W end. It was 
founded 24 June 1861, but not completed till Sept. 
1869, suffering interruption in its progress from defi- 
ciency of funds, and eventually costing about £1S,000. 
Designed by J. T. Roehead of Glasgow, it has the form of 
a Scottish baronial tower, surmounted by an architectural 
crown, measures 36 feet square at the base, and, rising 
to the height of 220 feet from the ground, is more con- 
spicuous than beautiful. The top may be gained, with- 
out any fee, by a winding staircase, and commands a 
noble bird's-ej'e view. 

Abbeygreen, a small town in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the left bank of the river Nethan, 3 
furlongs W of Lesmahagow station, and 6 miles SW 
of Lanark. Beautifully situated in a pleasant vale, it 
takes its name from the priory of Lesmahagow, and is 
itself often called Lesmahagow. It stands nearly in the 
centre of that parish, and contains its post office, with 


money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, under Lanark. There are besides branches 
of the Royal Bank and British Linen Co. Bank, four 
insurance offices, the parish church (1804), a Free and a 
U. P. church. Two public schools, boys' and female in- 
dustrial, with respective accommodation for 257 and 268 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 151 and 
163, and grants of £52, 3s. 2d. and £165, 6s. 6d. 
Business fairs are held on the second or the third Wed- 
nesday in May and August, and on the first three 
Wednesdays of December, and hiring-fairs on the second 
Wednesday of March and October. Pop. (1S61) 1136, 
(1871) 1448, (1881)1297. 

Abbeyhill, an old suburb of Edinburgh, adjacent to the 
N side of Holyrood gardens, and on the North British 
railway at the deflection of the northern branch from the 
main line, about 1 mile E of the centre of Edinburgh. 
It consists chiefly of the old street, containing one or two 
houses which may have been residences of the courtiers of 
Holyrood ; and in 1732 it was the death-place of the 
first Duchess of Gordon. The railway passes it partly on 
viaducts and partly on embankments. The new thorough- 
fare from Hol}Tood to Regent Road, formed for giving 
better access to Edinburgh than by the old Canongate 
route, is spanned by one of the viaducts. A station of 
the name of Abbeyhill is on the northern branch of the 
railway, in the northern neighbourhood of the old suburb, 
adjacent to the new suburb on the line of London Road. 

Abbey Land, the name borne by some houses in the 
town of Turriff, Aberdeenshire, that mark the site of an 
almshouse, founded in 1272 by Alexander Coniyn, Earl 
of Buchan, and endowed in 1329 by King Robert Bruce. 
It maintained a warden, 6 chaplains, and 13 poor hus- 
bandmen of Buchan. 

Abbey St Bathans, a hamlet and a parish in the Lam- 
mermuir district of Berwickshire, took its name partly 
from a Cistercian nunnery, party from Baithene, Columba's 
cousin and successor at Iona. The hamlet lies in a pleasant 
haugh on the river Whitadder, here spanned by a suspen- 
sion bridge, and is ih miles WSW of Grants House 
station, and 7 miles NNW of its post-town, Dunse. The 
nunnery of St Mary was founded towards the close of the 
12th century by Ada, Countess of Dunbar, was a cell of 
South Berwick, and had an income of £47, but is now re- 
presented only by the E and W walls of its chapel, which, 
originally 58 by 26 feet, was greatly curtailed and modern- 
ised about the end of last century. In its altered con- 
dition it serves as the parish church, and contains 140 
sittings. A school, with accommodation for 72 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 62, and a grant of 
£66, 12s. 

The parish has an extreme length of nearly 6 miles 
and a breadth of 4, but is broken up by Longformacns 
and Cockburnspath into three sections of respectively 
3045J, 1685, and 97i acres. The surface includes Abbey 
Hill (913 feet), Bafnside Hill (865), the Camp (803), 
and several other lower eminences, yet comprises a good 
aggregate of fertile and well-cultivated lowland ; and 
while the upper grounds are mostly bare or heathy, the 
lower slopes are often finely wooded up to a consider- 
able height. The prevailing rocks are Silurian, and a 
copper-mine was opened in 1828, but soon abandoned. 
The Whitaddek, winding from W to E, is here a beau- 
tiful stream, over 30 feet wide, and here it receives the 
Monynut Water and the Weir and Eller burns. All 
abound in trout, and Moor Cottage is a favourite anglers' 
haunt. Godscroft, on the Monynut, was the demesne of 
David Hume (1560-1630), historian of the house of Angus; 
while Abbey House is a modern erection, the property of 
John Turnbull, Esq., who owns in the shire 4842 acres, 
valued at £2526 per annum; and one other proprietor 
holds an annual value of over £500, two hold each between 
£100 and £500, and one holds less than £100. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse 
and Teviot ; its minister's income is £195. Valuation 
(1881) £2634. Pop. (1801) 138, (1831) 122, (1871) 195, 
(1SS1) 250.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 34, 1863-64. 

Abbeytown. See Airth. 

Abbey Well, a fountain a little to the E of the parish 


church of Uequhatit, Elginshire. It is the sole memo- 
rial of a Benedictine priory founded by David I. in 1124. 

Abbotrule (La.t. Bula Herevei, 'Rule Hervey,' in 1165), 
a quondam parish of Roxburghshire, divided equally in 
1777 between the parishes of Hobkirk and Southdean. 
It extended about 3 miles along the E bank of the upper 
part of Rule Water ; and its church, annexed to Jed- 
burgh by David I. , still stands in ruins 2 miles NE of 
Hobkirk (Orig. Paroch. Scot., i. 349). The estate of 
Abbotrule, comprising 2348 acres, was exposed to sale 
in 1818 at an upset price of £35,000, and now belongs 
to D. Henderson, Esq. 

Abbotsford, the mansion erected by Sir Walter Scott 
in Melrose parish, Roxburghshire. It stands on the 
right side of the river Tweed, opposite Abbotsford-Ferry 
station, and 2 miles W of Melrose. Sir Walter pur- 
chased its site, together with about 100 surrounding 
acres, in 1S11 ; he purchased an adjoining tract, up to 
Cauldskiels Loch, in 1S13; and in 1817 he made his 
most extensive purchase, the lands of Toftfield. His 
original purchase was a plain, coarse, unimproved farm, 
called Cartley Hole ; but it contained a reputed haunt 
of Thomas the Rhymer ; contained also some memorials 
of the battle of Melrose, and commanded a view across 
the Tweed of a prominent extant portion of the Cale- 
donian Catrail; and it therefore suited his antiquarian 
taste. His first care was to find a euphonious name for 
it, in room of Cartley Hole; and, with allusion to a 
shallow in the Tweed, which the abbots of Melrose had 
used for driving across their cattle, he called it Abbots- 
ford. His next care was to build a residence : his next 
to improve the land. He first built a pretty cottage, 
and removed to it from Ashiesteel in May 1812; next, 
between 1817 and 1S21, he built the present 'huge 
baronial pile,' whose internal fittings were not com- 
pleted till 1S24; and he, all the while, carried forward 
the improving and planting of the land. The mansion 
stands on a terrace of a steepish bank, between the 
Tweed and the public road from Melrose to Selkirk. 
The grounds comprise a tract of meadow at the bank 
foot, but are chiefly a broad, low hill upward to the 
southern boundary. Their present features of garden 
and park, of walk and wood, are much admired, and 
were all of Sir Walter's own creating. The mansion's 

Erecincts comprise umbrageous shrubberies, curious out- 
ouses, a cast-iron balcony walk, a turreted wall, a 
screen wall of Gothic arched iron fretwork, a front court 
of about i acre in area, and a lofty arched entrance 
gateway. The mansion itself defies all the rules of 
architecture, and has singular features and extraordinary 
proportions, yet looks both beautiful and picturesque, 
and is truly ' a romance in stone and lime. ' It presents 
bold gables, salient sections, projecting windows, hang- 
ing turrets, and surmounting towers, in such numbers 
and in such diversity of style and composition and 
ornature, as to bewilder the eye of any ordinary observer. 
Many of its designs and parts are copies of famous old 
architectural objects, as a gateway from Linlithgow 
Palace, a portal from Edinburgh Old Tolbooth, a roof 
from Roslin Chapel, a mantelpiece from Melrose Abbey, 
oak-work from Holyrood Palace, and sculptured stones 
from ancient houses in various parts of Scotland; so 
that they make the mansion also a sort of architectural 
museum. The entrance-hall is a magnificent apartment, 
about 40 feet long, floored with mosaic of black and 
white marble, panelled with richly-carved oak from 
Dunfermline Palace, and tastefully hung with pieces of 
ancient armour. A narrow arched room extends across 
the house, gives communication from the entrance-hall 
to the dining-room and the drawing-room, and contains 
a rich collection of ancient small weapons and defensive 
arms. The dining-room has a richly-carved black oak 
roof, a large projecting window, Gothic furniture, and a 
fine collection of pictures, and is the apartment in which 
Sn- Walter died. The drawing-room is cased with cedar, 
and contains beautiful antique ebony chairs, presented by 
George IV. , and several chastely -carved cabinets. The 
library is entered from the drawing-room ; measures 60 
feet by 50 ; is roofed with richly-carved oak, after ancient 


models; and contains about 20,000 volumes in carved 
oak cases, an ebony writing-desk presented by George III. , 
two carved elbow chairs presented by the Pope, a silver 
urn presented by Lord Byron, Chantrey's bust of Sir 
Walter, and a copy of the Stratford bust of Shakespeare. 
The study, in which Sir Walter wrote, is a small, plain, 
sombre room, entered from the library; and, after Sir 
Walter's death, was fitted up as an oratory. A closet is 
attached to the study, and contains, 'within a glass-case 
on a table, the clothes which Sir Walter wore as a mem- 
ber of the Celtic Society, the forest accoutrements which 
he used to carry in his strolls through his grounds, and 
the hat, coat, vest, and trousers which he wore imme- 
diately before his death. 

' Ah ! where are now the flashing eye 

That fired at Flodden field, 
That saw, in fancy, onsets fierce, 

And clashing spear and shield, — 
The eager and untiring step 

That sought for Border lore, 
To make old Scotland's heroes known 

On every peopled shore, — 
The graphic pen that drew at once 

The traits so archly shown 
In Bertram's faithful pedagogue, 

And haughty Marmion, — 
The hand that equally could paint, 

With each proportion fair, 
The stern, the wild Meg Merrilees, 

And lovely Lady Clare, — 
The glowing dreams of bright romance 

That shot across his brow, — 
Where is his daring chivalry, 

"Where are his visions now?* 

The mansion passed to Mr J. Hope Scott, who married 
Sir Walter's granddaughter, and added a Roman Catholic 
domestic chapel ; from him it passed, also by marriage, to 
the Hon. Jos. Constable Maxwell-Scott. See Lockhart's 
Life of Scott (1837-39); Washington Irving's Abbotsford 
(1835); Nathaniel Hawthorne's English Note-Books 
(1S70) ; and Jas. F. Hunnewell's Lands of Scott (1871). 

Abbotshall, a coast parish, S. Fifeshire, containing 
the Linktown or southern suburb of Kiekcaxdy (incor- 
porated with that burgh in 1876), and bounded W, NW, 
and N by Auchterderran, E by Kirkcaldy and for i mile 
by the Firth of Forth, S by Kinghorn, and SW by Auch- 
tertool. Irregular in outline, it has a varying length from 
E to W of 7 furlongs and 3| miles, an extreme breadth 
from N to S of 3 miles, and an area of 4220 acres, of 
which nearly 60 are foreshore and 25 water. The sur- 
face, low and level near the coast, rises gently, westward 
and north-westward, to 283 feet beyond Balwearie, 400 
near Raith House, 399 near Chapel, 500 near Torbain, 
and 4S4 beyond Lambswell, in the furthest west. Streams 
there are none of any size, only Tiel Burn, tracing the 
southern boundary, and another, its affluent, feeding the 
beautiful lake before Raith House, that, covering 21 acres, 
was formed in 1812. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly belong to the Limestone Carboniferous system ; and 
sandstone and limestone, the latter abounding in fossils, 
are quarried extensively, but no coalpit was working 
in 1879. The soil towards the shore is fertile, though 
light, growing good turnips and barley ; further inland 
is mostly dark or clay loam, well adapted for wheat and 
beans and other heavy crops ; and further still is chiefly 
of inferior quality, on a cold, tilly subsoil. About four- 
fifths of the whole area are in tillage, and one-sixth more 
is under wood. Balwearie Tower is the principal an- 
tiquity, only a large yew tree marking the site of the 
hall or pleasaunce of the abbots of Dunfermline, J mile 
W of the church, from which the parish received its 
name. Raith Hill, too, crowned by a conspicuous square 
tower, has yielded some ancient urns and rude stone 
coffins. William Adam, architect (flo. 1728), and 
General Sir Ronald C. Ferguson (1773-1841), were 
natives, the Fergusons having held the Raith estate 
since 1707, and the Melvilles before them since 1296 
and earlier. Raith House, 1J mile W of Kirkcaldy, is 
a good old mansion, originally built by George, first 
Earl of Melville, in 1694, with modern Ionic portico 
and wings, and with finely-wooded grounds and park. 
The present proprietor owns 7135 acres in the shire, 



valued at £13,919 (minerals, £1582) per annum ; and Mr 
Davidson of Bogie House, a castellated mansion 2 f miles 
WNW of the town, owns 398 acres, valued at£817. Five 
other proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 15 of between £100 and £500, 12 of from 
£50 to £100, and 65 of from £20 to £50. In the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, Abbotshall was 
disjoined from Kirkcaldy in 1620, but has itself given 
off a southern portion (with 1084 inhabitants in 1871) 
to the quoad sacra parish of Inveetiel ; its minister's 
income is £327. The parish church (rebuilt 1788 ; 825 
sittings) stands J mile W of Kirkcaldy, and there is also 
a Free church ; whilst a public school at Chapel village, 
2f miles NW, with accommodation for 144 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 110, and a grant of 
£98, 8s. Valuation of landward portion (1881) £10,341. 
Total pop. (1821) 3267, (1851) 5030, (1871) 5785, 674 
of them in landward portion ; for 1881 see Kiekcaldy. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Abbotshaugh, a quondam abbey, now quite obliterated, 
near Grangemouth, in Falkirk parish, Stirlingshire. The 
grange or home farm of it gave name to the Grange Burn, 
and through that to Grangemouth. 

Abbot's Isle, a small green island in the bay of Stone- 
field, on the S side, and towards the foot, of Loch Etive, 
Muekairn parish, Argyllshire. 

Abbotsrule. See Abboteule. 

Abbot's Tower, an ancient ivy-clad square ruin, over 
40 feet high, stands about 4 mile ENE of Sweetheart 
Abbey in Newabbey parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Abbot's Walls, the ruins of a summer residence of the 
abbots of Arbroath, in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, 
on the haugh opposite Aberdeen. 

Abb's Head, St, a bold rocky promontory in Colding- 
ham parish, Berwickshire, 4 miles NNW of Eyemouth. 
It presents a wall-like front to the German Ocean nearly 
200 feet high ; rises to an extreme height of 310 feet ; 
has three summits — Kirkhill on the E, Harelaw in the 
middle, Fowlis on the W ; and is separated from the 
mainland by a vale or gully, anciently spanned by a 
bridge. The neighbouring rocks are Silurian, strangely 
contorted ; but St Abb's itself is porphyritic trap, a 
portion of which, smoothed, grooved, and serrated by 
glacial action, was laid bare for the inspection of the 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club in 1866, and has been 
left exposed. On Harelaw is a lighthouse, erected in 
1S61, and showing a flashing light every 10 seconds, 
visible at the distance of 21 nautical miles ; and at Petti- 
cowick, its landing-place, where the precipice is 300 feet 
high, occurs a beautiful example of the junction of the 
trap and Silurian rocks. Numerous caves pierce the 
cliffs, are inaccessible by land, and can be approached 
by sea only at low water and in the calmest weather, 
and were formerly haunts of smugglers. This headland 
was named after St Ebba, daughter of King Ethelfrid, 
and half-sister of Oswald and Oswy, kings of Northum- 
bria, who about the middle of the 7th century founded 
upon its 'nabs' the monastery of Urbs Coludi (Sax. 
Coldingaham), and as its abbess ruled until her death, 
25 Aug. 683. It was a double monastery, containing 
distinct communities of men and women, who lived 
under her single government ; and the neck of land on 
which it stood was cut off and rendered impregnable by 
a high wall and a deep trench ; but the building itself 
was probably very humble, with walls of wood and clay, 
and thatch of straw. Hither St Cuthbert came in 661 
on a visit to Ebba, and spent the best part of the night 
in prayer and vigils, entering the sea till the water 
reached to his arms and neck, while seals came nestling 
to his side. Here, too, in 671, Ethelreda, foundress of 
Ely, received the veil from St "Wilfrid ; and here the 
monk Adamnan foretold the impending doom of 'fire 
from heaven ' that burned the house for its sins in 679. 
Rebuilt for women only, it was sacked by the Danes in 
870, when the nuns, to preserve their honour, cut off 
their noses and lips. The trench and some grassy mounds 
are all that now mark its site, a ruined chapel on the Kirk- 
hill dating only from the 14th century. See art. Ebba 
in vol. ii. of Smith's Diet. Christ. Biog. (Lond. 1880). 


Abden, an estate, with a plain old mansion, in King- 
horn parish, Fife. It long was the property of the 
Crown, and had a royal residence, the remains of which 
were removed only in the present century. A rock 
opposite the mansion exhibits rapid gradual transition 
from sandstone to quartz. 

Abdie (13th c. Ebedyn — i.e. abthen or abden, 'abbey 
lands '), a parish of NE Fife, on the Firth of Tay, con- 
tains the Mount Pleasant suburb of Newbuegh, its 
post-town and station, and also the villages of Lin- 
dores and Grange of Lindores. Till 1633 it included the 
present parish of Newburgh, by which and by Dunbog 
it is cut into three distinct portions. The middle and 
largest of these is 4 miles long by 3 ; the smallest, 3 
furlongs to the W, and on the Perthshire border, measures 
1J by f mile; and the third, 1 mile to the E, has an 
equal length and breadth of ij mile. Their total area 
is 6537J acres, of which 1585J are foreshore and 135 
water. The surface is charmingly diversified by hills 
belonging to the Ochil range, the chief elevations from 
W to E being Lumbenny (889 feet), Golden Hill (600), 
Braeside (563), Woodmill Mains (656), the Mains of 
Lindores (580), and Norman's Law (558). Some of these 
hills are clothed or crowned with plantations, but much 
of the highest ground is mere hill-pasture, dotted with 
heath and gorse. On their ascents, a deep black soil 
alternates with a light and gravelly one of very inferior 
quality ; along the Tay lies a rich alluvium, like that of 
the Carse of Gowrie, and fields have been here reclaimed 
from the Firth within the last 50 years. Devonian 
rocks form part of the basement, and include a limestone 
and red sandstone, which formerly were worked. Trap 
rocks also occur, and are quarried at three points for 
building and paving purposes. The largest sheet of 
water is Lindores Loch, near the centre of the parish, 
which, nearly 4 miles in circumference, is fed by the 
Priest's Burn, and sends off the Den rivulet to the Tay. 
The pike and perch, with which this loch abounded, 
were netted out in August 1880, with a view to stocking 
it with trout. At its foot is the site of a castle, called 
Macduff; and 'Wallace's Camp,' J mile from the Firth, 
preserves the memory of the victory of Black Irnsyde, 
said to have been gained over Aymer de Valence, Earl 
of Pembroke, in 1298. Earlier antiquities than these 
are a barrow known as Watchman's Tower, the hill-fort 
of Dunmore on Norman's Law, and a stronghold on the 
picturesque craig of Clachard, whose six westward ram- 
parts are from 5 to 6 feet high. The roofless church of 
St Magridin, on the loch's western margin, was conse- 
crated in 1242, and contains a 14th-century foliated 
tombstone ; a female recumbent effigy ; and, in the Den- 
miln Aisle (1661), some monuments of the Balfours of 
Denmiln Castle, which, now in ruins, was the seat of 
that family from 1452 to 1710. As such it was the 
birthplace of Sir James Balfour (1603-57), herald, an- 
nalist, and antiquary, and of his brother, Sir Andrew 
(1630-94), physician and founder of Edinburgh's first 
botanical garden. Modern mansions are Inchrye Ab- 
bey, a castellated building, and Lindores House; 4 
proprietors holding each an annual value of £1000 and 
upwards, 1 of £500, 2 of £400, 2 of between £200 
and £300, etc. The eastern portion of Abdie, with 107 
inhabitants, is annexed for church, school, and registra- 
tion purposes to Dunbog ; the remainder constitutes an 
ecclesiastical parish, in the presbytery of Cupar and 
synod of Fife. The church is a plain edifice, seating 
550, and erected in 1S27 at a cost of £1200; the minis- 
ter's income is £404. There is also a Free church for 
Abdie and Newburgh jointly ; and at Grange of Lindores 
is a school, which, with accommodation for 152 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 87, and a grant of 
£72, 2s. Valuation (1881) £10,439, 5s. 2d. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 725, (1841) 150S, (1871) 1164 ; of?, s. parish 
(1871) 1057, (1881) 862. See Alex. Laing, Lindores Abbey 
and Newburgh (Edinb. 1876).— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Aber, a hamiet in Kilmaronock parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, on the SE shore of Loch Lomond, 24 miles NNE 
of Kilmaronock station. An islet in the loch, 1 mile N 
of the hamlet, bears the same name. 


Aberarder, a hamlet and an estate in Daviot and Dun- 
lichity parish, Inverness-shire, on the river Nairn, 15 
miles S by W of Inverness, under which it has a post 

Aberarder, a glen on the left side of the valley of the 
Dee, in Aberdeenshire, between Crathie and Invercauld. 
It strikes laterally from the Dee Valley, and affords a 
fine vista view to Benavon (3S43 feet), a conspicuous 
summit of the Cairngorm mountains. 

Aberargie or Aberdargie, a village in the W of Aber- 
nethy parish, Perthshire, at the mouth of Glenfarg, 4 
miles ESE of Bridge of Earn, under which it has a post 

Aberbrothwick. See Arbroath. 

Abercairney, the seat of Charles Home Drummond 
Moray, Esq. , in Fowlis- Wester parish, Perthshire, stands 
1| mile NNW of a station of its own name on the 
Caledonian, which station is 4J miles E of Crieff. 
The present mansion — a splendid Gothic edifice — was 
building in 1842, when on 12 Sept. the Queen 'got out 
a moment to look at it;' and it was enlarged in 1873. 
The surrounding estate has belonged to the Morays since 
1299, when Sir John Moray de Drumsargard wedded 
Mary, sole daughter of Malise, Earl of Stratherne ; its 
present holder owns 24,980 acres in the shire, of £14,311, 
9s. annual value. Conspicuous in the beautiful grounds 
are a Spanish chestnut, a sycamore, and a bare gaunt 
ash tree, 90 feet high, and girthing 20 at 3 feet from the 

Aberchalder, a locality on the Caledonian Canal, in 
Inverness-shire, and on the river Oich, 5 miles SW of 
Fort Augustus. A regulating lock is on the canal here, 
to secure adjacent navigable minimum depth of 20 feet. 
Aberchalder House was the place where Prince Charles 
Edward mustered 2000 men (26 Aug. 1745) before com- 
mencing his march toward the low country. 

Aberchalder Wester, an estate conjoint with Aberar- 
der, in Daviot and Dunlichity parish, Inverness-shire. 

Aberchirder (Gael, abhir - chiar - dur, 'confluence of 
the dark brown water'), a village in Marnoeh parish, 
Banffshire, h\ miles SSE of Cornhill station, 7 W by 
N of Turriff, and °i\ SW of Banff. It has a post office 
under the last with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, a branch of the North of Scot- 
land Bank, and an hotel ; and contains, besides, an 
Established mission church (200 attendants ; minister's 
salary £51), a handsome Free church (built on occasion 
of the Disruption contest in Marnoch), a U.P. church, 
a Baptist chapel, St Marnan's Episcopal church (1S24 ; 
enlarged and restored, 1875-76 ; 130 attendants), and a 
Roman Catholic station, served monthly from Portsoy. 
A public and an Episcopal school, with respective accom- 
modation for 400 and 74 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 207 and 68, and grants of £132, 13s. 2d. 
and £25, 4s. The name Aberchirder, originally borne 
by the whole parish, referred probably to the moss-burn 
of Auchintoul's confluence with the Deveron. Pop. 
(1861) 1273, (1871) 1312, (1881) 1358. 

Abercorn, a village and a coast parish of Linlithgow- 
shire. Lying \ mile inland, near the confluence of the 
Cornie and Midhope Burns, the village, — a pretty little 
place, nestling among trees and gardens on the verge of 
a high bank, — is 3f miles W of its post-town South 
Queensferry, and 3 NNW of Winchburgh station. Here 
stood most probably the monastery of Aebbercurnig or 
Eoriercorn, founded about 675 under St Wilfrid as a 
central point for the administration of the northern 
part of his diocese, which included the province of the 
Picts, held in subjection by the Angles of Northumbria. 
Trumuini made this monastery the seat of his bishopric, 
the earliest in Scotland, from 681 to 685, when the 
Picts' victory at Dunnichen forced him to flee to Whitby 
(Skene, Celt. Scot, I 262-268, and ii. 224). And here 
still stands the ancient parish church, refitted in 1579, 
and thoroughly repaired in 1838, with a Norman doorway 
turned into a window, a broken cross, and a stone coffin 
lid, but minus a carved pew-back that found its way to 
the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum in 1876. 

The parish contains also the hamlets of Philipston, 2J 


miles SW of Abercorn village, and Society, on the coast, 
1J mile E by N. It is bounded N for 3f miles by the 
Firth of Forth (here 2J miles wide), E by Dalmeny, SE 
by Kirkliston, S by the Auldcathie portion of Dalmeny 
and by Ecclesmachan, SW by Linlithgow, and W by 
Carriden, from which it is parted by the Black Burn. 
It has a length from E to W of from 3J to 4J miles, an 
extreme breadth from N to S of 2f miles, and an area of 
5265 acres, of which 29J are water. Low swelling hills 
diversify the surface, but nowhere rise much above 300 
feet ; the streams are small, even for rivulets. Yet ' the 
scenery,' says Mr Thomas Farrall, ' is strikingly pic- 
turesque, the seaboard being richly wooded, the fields 
highly cultivated and of great fertility. The easteEated 
mansion of Hopetoun enjoys a commanding prospect, 
having on one side the blue sea, and on the other green 
fields, with the Pentland Hills in the background. The 
soil in this quarter is variable but fertile ; the sub- 
stratum is still more changeable, consisting of patches 
of till, gravel, sand, limestone, and sandstone. So early 
as the 17th century wheat was grown, rents being paid 
in considerable part by this commodity. What draining 
was required was mainly accomplished before 1800, and 
a large extent of land was planted and ornamented with 
clumps and belts of trees' {Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 
1877). To this need only be added that sandstone, 
whinstone, and limestone are extensively worked, but 
that a small colliery is now disused. The Anglo-Norman 
knight, Sir William de Graham, ancestor of the Dukes 
of Montrose, received from David I. (1124-53) the lands 
of Abercorn, which came by marriage to Sir Reginald 
Mure, chamberlain of Scotland in 1329. In 1454 the 
Castle was taken by James II. from the ninth and last 
Earl of Douglas, and its only vestige is a low green 
mound, fronting the church and manse ; whereas Mid- 
hope Tower, bearing a coronet and the initials J. Living- 
stone], stands almost perfect, f mile SW. At present there 
are titularly connected with this parish Sir Bruce Max- 
well Seton of Abercorn, eighth baronet since 1663, and 
the Duke of Abercorn, eldest surviving male heir of the 
Hamilton line, who takes from it his title of Baron (1603) 
and Earl (1606) in the peerage of Scotland, of Marquess 
(1790) in that of Great Britain, and of Duke (1868) in 
that of Ireland. The mansions are Hopetoun House, 
J mile E of the village, and Binns House, 2 miles WSW ; 
the property is divided between the Earl of Hopetoun 
and Sir Robert-Alexander-Osborne Dalyell. Abercorn 
is traversed in the south for 2i miles by the North 
British railway, and for 1 J mile by the Union Canal. It 
is in the presbytery of Linlithgowshire and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; the minister's income is £392. 
There is also a Free church ; and a public and a girls' 
school (Gen. As.), with respective accommodation for 
197 and 63 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of SO and 41, and grants of £71, 14s. and £36, 2s. 6d. 
Valuation (1881) £8164, 15s. Pop. (1801) 814, (1821) 
1044, (1871) 933, (1881) 865.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Abercrombie (Gael, 'curved confluence'), or St 
Monans, a coast parish of SE Fife, containing the ham- 
let of Abercrombie, and, 1J mile SSE, the fashing vil- 
lage and burgh of barony of St Monans. The latter 
has a station on the North British, 2| miles WSW of 
Anstruther, and 16 E by N of Thornton junction, and 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments. It contains, besides, the parish 
church, a Free church, gas-works, and a town-hall ; and 
is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 9 
councillors. A good harbour, partly natural, and partly 
formed by a strong pier constructed in 1865, accom- 
modates three or four trading vessels, and about 100 
large fishing-boats belonging to the port, but is seldom 
frequented by strangers ; and the herring fishery, a 
principal employment of the villagers, is now re- 
stricted to the neighbouring waters, no longer extend- 
ing to the Caithness coast. Pop. (1851) 1241, (1871) 
1648, (1881) 1918. 

The parish is bounded W, NW, and NE by Carnbee, 
E by Pittenweem, SE by the Firth of Forth (here 94 
miles wide, to North Berwick Links), and SW by Elie 



and Kilconquhar. It has an extreme length from NNW 
to SSE of If mile, a width of from 1 to If mile, and an 
area of 1282 acres, of which 79 are foreshore. Rising 
abruptly from a low rocky beach, the surface shows some 
diversities, but on the whole is fiat, and nowhere much 
exceeds 100 feet of elevation. Deeel Burn traces the 
north-eastern boundary, and Inweary or St Monans 
Burn follows the south-western, to within 5 furlongs of 
its influx to the Firth at the western extremity of St 
Monans village. The rocks belong to the Carboniferous 
formation, and coal, limestone, and ironstone have all 
been worked ; the soil is chiefly a light friable loam, 
with very little clay, and of great fertility. Balcaskie 
Park extends over the NE corner of the parish, and in 
it stands the ruined church of Abercrombie, disused for 
upwards of two centuries, but still the Anstruthers' 
burying-place. On the coast, at the SW angle, is the 
ruinous mansion of Newark, where General David Leslie, 
first Lord Newark, resided till his death in 16S2 ; and 
another family connected with the parish was that of 
the Sandilands, Lords Abercrombie from 1647 to 16S1. 
At present 2 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 or upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, 3 of 
from £50 to £100, and 22 of from £20 to £50. In- 
cluding the barony of St Monans since 1646, Aber- 
crombie is in the presbytery of St Andrews and synod 
of Fife ; its minister's income is £271. According to 
the legend of St Adrian (given under Isle of May), 
Monanus, born in Pannonia, a province of Hungary, 
preached the gospel at Inverry or Abercrombie, and 
after his martyrdom was there enshrined. Skene, how- 
ever, identifying Monanus with Moinenn, Bishop of 
Clonfert (d. 571), holds that his relics were brought 
about 845 from Ireland to Fife, and deposited in a 
church erected to his honour (Celt. Scot., ii. 311-317). 
Legend again relates how David II., praying before 
St Monans' tomb, was freed miraculously of a barbed 
arrow, and for thanks - offering founded about 1362 
the statelier cruciform church, which a century later 
James III. bestowed on the Dominicans. Standing 
at the burn's mouth, and built in the Second Pointed 
style, this church was partly destroyed by the English 
in 1544, and now retains only its stunted central tower, 
crowned by a low octagonal spire, its transept, and its 
choir ; the last measures 53 by 224 f ee t> and ' renovated 
and improved' in 1772 and 1828, serves as the parish 
church, being seated for 528 worshippers. Features of 
special interest are the sedilia, a good pointed doorway, 
and the reticulated pattern of some of the windows. Of 
a public and a General Assembly school, only the former 
was open in 1879, having then accommodation for 285 
children, an average attendance of 251, and a grant of 
£191, lis. Valuation (1881) £6073, 3s. Pop. (1801) 
852, (1831) 1110, (1861) 1498, (1871) 1761, (1881) 2054. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Aberdalgie (Abirdalgyn in 1150, Gael, abliir-dail- 
cliinn, ' confluence at the end of the field '), a parish in 
the Strathearn district of Perthshire, whose SW angle 
is § mile NE of Forteviot station, while its church 
stands H mile NW of Forgandenny station, immedi- 
ately beyond its SE border, these stations on the Cale- 
donian being respectively 6| and 3J miles SW of its 
post-town, Perth. Including, since 1618, the ancient 
parish of Dupplin, it is bounded NW and N by Tibber- 
more, NE by East-Kirk, Perth, E by a detached portion 
of Forteviot, S by Forgandenny, and SW and W by 
Forteviot. It has an extreme length from N to S of 3^ 
miles, a width of 2| miles, and an area of 4220 acres, of 
which 55 are water. The Eap.n, here a beautiful sal- 
mon river, roughly traces all the southern boundary ; 
from it the surface rises to 438 feet near the middle of 
the parish, thence sinking again towards the Almond, 
but having elevations of 367 and 222 feet on the north- 
western, and of 362 feet near the north-eastern boundary. 
The rocks belong to the Devonian system, and freestone 
is worked in several quarries ; the soil is cold and tilly 
in the N, in the S a rich loam or clay. The Earl of 
Kinnoull owns most of the property, and his park 
around Dupplin Castle occupies the south-western quar- 


ter of the parish, plantations covering much of the re- 
mainder. Near the church, but on the opposite side of 
a rivulet, from whose confluence with the Earn the 
parish received its name, is Aberdalgie House, the only 
other mansion. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living 
is worth £221. The church was built in 1773, and a 
vault at its E end is the burying-place of the Kinnoull 
family. The public school, with accommodation for 49 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 23, and a 
grant of £45, 4s. 2d. Valuation (1881) £4656, 19s. lOd. 
Pop. (1831) 434, (1861) 295, (1871) 342, (1881) 297. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Aberdargie. See Abeeabgie. 

Aberdeen, the 'Granite City,' capital of Aberdeen- 
shire, seat of a university, and chief town and seaport in 
the North of Scotland, Ires in lat. 57° 9' N, and long. 2° 
6' W, on the left bank of the Dee, at its entrance into 
the German Ocean. It is both a royal and a parlia- 
mentary burgh, the latter comprising all the district 
between the rivers Dee and Don for 3 miles inland — 
viz. , the whole of St Nicholas or City parish (794 acres), 
part of Old Machar parish (5115 acres), and part of Ban- 
chory-Devenick parish (33 acres), and thus having a 
total area of 5942 acres ; whilst the royal burgh, occupy- 
ing the SE angle of the parliamentary, includes, like it, 
the whole of St Nicholas, but only 376 acres of Old 
Machar, and measuring 1J mile from N to S by 2| 
miles from E to W ; has a total area of 1170 acres. 
Aberdeen is 98 miles NNE of Edinburgh as the crow 
flies, 111 by road, and 115J by rail (via Tay Bridge ; 135J 
via Perth and Stirling). By the North British or the 
Caledonian it further is 42 miles N by E of Montrose, 
73| NNE of Dundee, S9| NE by N of Perth, 152| NE of 
Glasgow, 513 NNW of London ; by the Great North of 
Scotland it is 43J miles E by N of Ballater, 29J ESE of 
Alford, 44J- S by W of Peterhead, 47i S of Fraserburgh, 
53£ SE of Keith, 80| SE of Elgin, 10SJ ESE of Inver- 
ness, and 202 J SE of Thurso. By sea it has regular steam 
communication southwards with Dundee, Edinburgh, 
Newcastle, Stockton, Hull, and London, northwards with 
Wick, Thurso, Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides, and 

The city proper stands on four eminences — Castle 
Hill (80 feet), School Hill (65), Woolman Hill (58), 
and Port Hill (100), and the highest points within the 
parliamentary burgh are Cairncry (446 feet), Woodhill 
(340), and Stocket Hill (320). Naturally bleak and 
tame, its environs have little of the picturesqueness 
that distinguishes those of Inverness, Perth, Stirling, and 
Edinburgh ; but they contain a few good features which 
have been highly improved by art. The approach by 
sea lies along a bleak, sandy coast, with low rocks and 
long reefs in the foreground, and a tame unfeatured sur- 
face in the rear, and becomes interesting only at the 
point of sudden ingress among the crowded shipping of 
the harbour. The land approach from the south is sin- 
gularly repulsive, traversing a broad, low, moorish out- 
skirt of the Grampians, till it bursts at once on a near 
view of the Dee and the city. The contrast, by either 
of these approaches, between the near and distant scenes, 
is very striking, and never fails to make a strong im- 
pression upon strangers. Both the city and its sur- 
roundings, as first beheld, are very beautiful. Nor do 
the main thoroughfares, when entered, disappoint the 
first impression, but rather confirm and deepen it. Union 
Street especially, with its continuation Castle Street, 
appears enchanting ; and every travelled visitor will 
readily say with the author of The Zand We Live 
In, that 'it possesses all the stability, cleanli n ess, and 
architectural beauties of the London west end streets, 
with the gaiety and brilliancy of the Parisian atmosphere. ' 
Walks, in various directions, through the city, disclose 
great diversity of structure and character, and three 
walks of 4 or 5 miles each among the environs are 
highly interesting. The first of the three goes to Old 
Aberdeen, up the Don past Grandholm, and through 
Woodside, and returns to the city by the Inverness 
road ; the second leads by the Lunatic Asylum to 


Stocket Hill, -where the best general view of the city and 
the surrounding country is obtained, proceeds thence to 
the great granite quarries of Rubislaw, and returns by 
the Skene turnpike road ; and the third goes south - 
westward to the Old Bridge of Dee, passes down the 
right bank of the river to Girdleness Lighthouse, and 
crosses by the ferry to Footdee. 

The city's alignment, structure, and extent are greatly 
different now from what they were of old. It now has 
noble streets in all directions, specially a main one 
from E to W, two others from S to N, and numerous 
fine parallel or intersecting ones, together with spacious 
and imposing outlets ; but, till near the end of last 
century, Aberdeen was all an assemblage of narrow, ill- 
built, badly arranged thoroughfares, without any good 
openings into the country. It probably began with a 
few rude huts, near the spot where Trinity Church now 
stands ; it next seems to have occupied the neighbour- 
hood of the Castle and the Green, and gradually extended 
in the direction of Shiprow, Exchequer Row, and the S 
side of Castlegate. But in 1336 it was almost totally 
destroyed by an English army under Edward III. ; and 
it then rose from its ruins, like a phcenix from the 
flames, and spread over the e min ences of Castle Hill, 
Port Hill, St Catherine's Hill, and "Woolman Hill. 
Then it was that the city took the name of New Aber- 
deen, as it is still sometimes called ; but it took it, not 
in contradistinction to the kirk town of Old Mackar, now 
called Old Aberdeen, but to its own old town destroyed 
by the English. Yet even the new town, with the ex- 
ception of its public buildings, was rude, irregularly 
arranged, and unsubstantial. Stone houses, so late as 
1545, were possessed exclusively by' grandees ; and 
even down to 1741 wooden houses formed the W side 
of Broadgate. A large fenny marsh, the Loch, occu- 
pied, till the latter part of last century, much of the 
site to the W of Gallowgate, and the very best streets, 
till then, were narrow, uneven, and paved with cobble- 
stones ; the parts most favourable to drainage and ven- 
tilation were crowded with buildings, and abominably 
filthy ; and the thoroughfares leading to the Dee and to 
the North, were steep, rough, narrow, and malodorous. 
But about the end of last century, a great change began, 
that rapidly gave the city grand new features, and at 
the same time set its finest old ones in advantageous 
lights. First, a street was opened from Broad Street to 
North Street, so as to form an improved outlet to the 
North. Next, Marischal Street was opened from Castle 
Street to the Quay ; and, though rather inconveniently 
steep, it is interesting, both as still a great thoroughfare 
from the heart of the city to the harbour, and as the 
first Aberdeen street that was paved with dressed stones. 
Next, a new and important exit to the NW was formed 
by opening George Street through the middle of the 
Loch, to communicate with a new turnpike road to 
Inverury. Next, two grand new exits were made, from 
the middle of the town at Castle Street by respectively 
Union Street to the "W, and King Street to the N, 
and these were estimated by the engineer to cost the 
Town Council about £42,000, but soon actually cost them 
£171, 2S0, and then involved them in bankruptcy. And 
both contemporaneously with these improvements and 
subsequently to them, onward till 1881, other great 
improvements, of various kinds and aggregately very 
costly, have been made, and will be mentioned in our 
notices of public buildings, public works, and the har- 
bour. Yet the very improvements, or at least the open- 
ings for the new streets, and the clearing for some public 
buildings together with the forming of railways, have 
produced the evils of placing grandeur and meanness 
side by side, and of greatly augmenting the density of 
the poorer population. No fewer than some 60 narrow 
lanes and about 168 courts or closes, of an average 
breadth of at most 7 feet, still exist ; are mostly situated 
in the immediate or near vicinity of fine new streets ; 
and occasion the average distribution of the inhabitants 
of St Nicholas to stand at so high a ratio as 16 '8 to each 
house, and of the royal burgh as 14 '8. Some closes, 
such as Smith's and Peacock's, adjacent to the east end 


of Union Street, exhibit the lower grades of civilisation 
only a few steps apart from the higher ; and other places, 
such as the courts branching from Gallowgate, are about 
the dingiest and most unwholesome to be found any- 
where in a British town. Nevertheless, the death-rate 
per 1000 diminished from 22'5 during 1S67-72, to 217 
during 1873-78, being thus below the average of the 
other large Scotch towns ; and in 1879 it further sank to 
20 '9, whilst in zymotic diseases the deaths averaged 31 
per 10,000, the lowest figures since the Registration Act 
came into force. The mean temperature is 45° 8', the 
average yearly rainfall 31 '65 inches. 

The city extends about 2 miles southward, from Kitty- 
brewster to Ferryhill, and about 2| miles westward from 
Footdee to Skene Road ; and measures about 7J miles in 
circumference ; but it is thoroughly compact over only 
about 1 by 1 J mile. The modern streets run so nearly in 
parallels or at right angles to one another, as to show 
readily the incongruities at their junctions with the old 
thoroughfares, and some of them have been constructed 
in a way of incongruity with themselves, a poor street 
being placed between two rich ones, as Gordon Street 
between Dee and Bon Accord Streets. The general 
appearance, however, is redeemed, partly by the cha- 
racter of the building material, partly by the large 
aggregate of gardens, and chiefly by the spaciousness 
and elegance of the main streets. The edifices, both 
public and private, are for the most part constructed of 
a very fine granite from the neighbouring quarries ; and 
those of the principal modern streets are so clean, so 
massive, so uniformly surfaced, and reflect the light so 
clearly from the glittering mica of the granite, as to 
look, on a sunny day, as if they had just been hewn 
and polished from the rocks upon which they stand. 
Gardens are attached to many of the houses even in the 
compacter parts of the city, and to almost all in the 
suburbs, so that, even in the absence of any such spacious 
gardens as intersect the New Town of Edinburgh, they 
produce an effect of airiness and well-being. The view 
along Union Street, westward, is one of the finest in any 
city in the world, suggesting to the imagination the tombs 
of Thebes, the Cyclopean walls, or the marble temples of 
ancient Greece, and at the same time having beauties of 
its own. This street is 1077 yards long, or, with its 
eastward and westward continuations — Castle Street and 
Union Place — 1516 yards, with a breadth of 70 feet. 
Spacious, straight, and lined on both sides with elegant 
buildings, public and private, it runs on a higher level 
than the portions of the town on its southern flank, so 
as to command a pleasant prospect over them to the S 
side of the Dee. By Union Bridge it is carried over 
two of the old streets, as well as over the ravine of the 
Den Burn, which formerly caused vast inconvenience to 
traffic. A main line of streets, 1597 yards long, and 
called successively St Nicholas Street, George Street, 
and North Broadford, strikes northward to the country 
from Union Street, at a point 320 yards E of the bridge, 
and, for the most part, is finely edificed. Market Street 
strikes southward, at a point nearly opposite St Nicholas 
Street ; is 200 yards long, spacious, and moderately 
steep ; leads direct to the station and the harbour ; 
and, since 1864, has been considerably re-edificed with 
houses of a superior character. Broad Street (425 
yards) runs nearly parallel to St Nicholas Street, strik- 
ing off at the mergence of Union Street into Castle 
Street ; is adorned by Marischal College ; and passes, at 
its N end, into line with Gallowgate (600 yards). Castle 
Street expands from the E end of Union Street, forms a 
quadrangle about 203 yards long and 43 wide, takes its 
name from an ancient fortress which stood on a rising 
ground at its E end, is rich in public ornamental struc- 
tures, and forms one of the most striking market-places 
and centres of business in the world. King Street goes 
northward from the eastern part of Castle Street ; is 11S6 
yards long, and spacious ; contains several handsome 
public buildings ; and presents, on the whole, an aspect 
little inferior to that of Union Street. Rubislaw Terrace, 
one of several new streets in the extreme W, is much 
superior to anything of its class in the aristocratic 



quarter of almost any town in Scotland ; and the other 
modern streets, whilst challenging no special notice, may 
be described in the aggregate as equal at least to the 
second and third class streets of most stone-built towns 
in Britain. Few houses, or parts of houses, remain to 
show the Aberdeen style of domestic architecture in 
former centuries ; yet enough are standing to interest 
both the architect and the antiquary. The vestige of a 
tower, said to have belonged to the Knights Templars, 
stands in Bothwell Court, adjacent to Justice Street. A 
house with projecting circular staircase and antique 
lintel, said to have been the parsonage of St Nicholas, 
stands in School Hill. A building, called Wallace 
Tower, having in a niche a rude and very ancient effigy 
of Wallace, and said to have been occupied as an hostelry, 
stands in Nether Kirkgate ; and another old tenement, 
known as Mar's Castle, with a diminutive crow-stepped 
and corbelled gable, circular staircase, and small square 
openings for windows, stands in Gallowgate, and bears 
date 1494. The four have strong generic likeness to one 
another, and challenge more attention from antiquaries 
than many old buildings elsewhere of higher note. 
Every remaining specimen of the domestic architecture 
of the later part of last century is entirely commonplace, 
but No. 64 Broad Street possesses interest as the place 
where Lord Byron passed his earliest boyhood (1790-98) 
under his mother's care ; Thackeray visited it when 
lecturing in Aberdeen on The Four Georges. 

The plain old town-house was built in 1730, and the 
court-house adjoining in ISIS ; but in 1865 it was re- 
solved to occupy their site with a new suite of county 
and municipal buildings, which, commenced in 1S67 at 
an estimated cost of £69,000, were completed at a cost of 
£80, 000 and upwards. Designed by Messrs Peddie & Kin- 
near, of Edinburgh, in the Scottish Baronial style of the 
16th century, with French and Belgian features, they 
form a four-storied, Kemnay granite pile 64 feet high, 
presenting one frontage to Castle Street of 225, and one 
to Broad Street of 109 feet ; along both facades runs a 
basement arcade of columns, at 12 feet intervals, sup- 
porting elliptical arches, and surmounted by a second 
and smaller arcaded range. At the streets' junction 
stands the magnificent clock-tower, 28 feet square and 
72 feet high, with corner pepper-box turrets 36 feet 
more ; and, over all, a lantern gablet, culminating in a 
vane at the height of 190 feet. In June 1S80 it was 
decided to hang a fine peal of bells in this tower, which 
almost dwarfs an older one to the E — sole relic of the 
former town-house — although its lead-covered spire has 
a height of 120 feet. Within are the vestibule and the 
grand staircase (35 feet square) ; the Great Hall (74 by 
35 feet, and 50 high), with five lofty traceried windows, 
oak panelling, and open timber roof; the richly-deco- 
rated town-hall, in the clock-tower (41 by 25| feet, 
and 15 high), with three old crystal lustres ; the court- 
house behind (50J by 37 feet, and 36i high), etc. : spe- 
cial adornments are Provost Davidson's armour, Steell's 
marble statue of the late Provost Blaikie, a marble bust 
of John Phillip, and portraits by him of the Queen and 
Prince Consort, of Queen Anne by Kneller, of Provost 
Hadden, the late Earl of Aberdeen, and others. — The new 
Post Office, at the foot of Market Street, was erected 
(1873-76) at a cost of £16,000, and is a simple but effec- 
tive edifice of Kemnay granite, 100 feet square and 40 
high, in the Renaissance style. — The Market Hall, Mar- 
ket Street, was built by a joint-stock company (1840-42), 
at a cost of £28,000. It is divided into a basement 
story and a galleried main floor, which, 315 feet long, 
106 broad, and 45 high, has a Gothic roof of open timber- 
work, and itself is divided by two ranges of massive 
pillars into three alleys, like the nave and aisles of a 
church. On 29 April 1882 (the fortieth anniversary 
of its opening) it was completely destroyed by fire, but 
has risen anew from its ashes very slightly altered from 
its former self. — The neighbouring Corn Exchange, in 
Hadden Street, measuring 70 by 40 feet, and 30 high, with 
open roof, was built for £1000 in 1854, and except on Fri- 
days serves as a public newsroom. — Close to the §E corner 
of Union Bridge is the Trades Hall, a fine Elizabethan 


granite structure, erected in 1847 at a cost exceeding 
£7000, and containing an antique set of carved oak chairs 
(1574), portraits by Jameson, and the shields of the seven 
incorporated trades — hammermen (1519), bakers (1398), 
wrights and coopers (1527), tailors (1511), shoemakers 
(1484 and 1520), weavers (1449), and freshers (1534)— 
whose curious inscriptions form the subject of a mono- 
graph (1863) by Mr Lewis Smith.— The Society of Advo- 
cates, chartered in 1774, 1799, and 1862, and numbering 
124 members, has a handsome new hall, behind and 
connected with the County Buildings ; in it is the valu- 
able law library of 5000 volumes, established in 1786. — 
The Medico-Chirurgical Society (1789), with 30 mem- 
bers, has also its hall, in King Street, which, built 
(1818-20) at a cost of £2000, is entered by an Ionic 
portico, and contains a large meeting-room, laboratory, 
library of 4000 volumes, portraits by Vandyke and T. 
Miles, etc. — Westward of Union Bridge, the Music Hall 
Buildings, owned by a limited company (185S), comprise 
the assembly rooms, erected in 1820 at a cost of £14,500, 
with portico of six Ionic columns, 30 feet high, and ball, 
supper, billiard, and other saloons, to which, at a cost 
of £5000, was added the music hall behind, opened by 
the Prince Consort on 12th September 1S59, with a very 
fine organ and accommodation for 2000 persons. — The 
new Theatre and Opera House, in Guild Street, was built 
in 1872 at a cost of £8400, seats 1650 spectators, and 
has a frontage of 75, a mean depth of 90, and a height 
of 50 feet.— The Masonic Hall (1871-76), in Exchange 
Street, cost £2S06, and has a lodge-room, 50 by 32 feet, 
and 20 high, with three stained windows ; the St Kath- 
erine's Halls, with an organ, were opened in 1880, in 
connection with Shiprow Cafe. — The Public Baths and 
Swimming Pond (1851-69) are in Crooked Lane ; and at 
the junction of Bridge Place and Windmill Brae is the 
five-storied Hydropathic and Turkish Bath establish- 
ment (1880), with a tower 80 feet high, six plunge 
baths, and a cafe. Of 39 inns and hotels, 5 of them 
temperance, the chief are the Imperial, Palace, Douglas, 
Lemon-tree, City, Forsyth's, Adelphi, Waverley, and 
Duffus' Temperance ; clubs are the Royal Northern 
(1854), the City, the Aberdeen Club (1S62), and the New 
Club (1867). 

Aberdeen has two native Banks, the Town and County 
(1825), and the North of Scotland (1836). The former in 
October 1880 had 1021 partners, 51 branches, a paid-up 
capital of £252,000, a reserve fund of £126,000, and de- 
posits and credit balances amounting to £1,912,603 ; the 
latter, with 2136 partners and 60 branches, had £394, 500 of 
paid-up capital, £203,441 of reserve fund, and£2,678,172 
of deposits and credit balances. The Town and County 
has splendid new premises (1863) near the junction of 
Union and St Nicholas Streets, which, Roman Classic in 
style, cost £14,000 ; as also did the North of Scotland 
Bank (1839), at the corner of Castle and King Streets, 
whose Corinthian capitals exhibit a delicate minuteness 
never before attained in granite. There are, besides, 
the National Security Savings' Bank of Aberdeen (1845), 
and branches of the following banks, with dates of their 
establishment : — The Bank of Scotland (1780), the Com- 
mercial Bank (1811), the National Bank (1833), the 
British Linen Co. (1833), the Royal Bank (1862), and 
the Union Bank (1849), with which was incorporated 
the Aberdeen Bank (1767). The Scottish Provincial 
and Northern Assurance Companies were further estab- 
lished here in 1825 and 1836, the one with 20,000 £50 
shares, the other with 30,000 £100 shares ; and there are 
4 navigation companies and about 80 insurance agencies. 

The Royal Infirmary, on the western slope of Wool- 
man Hill, was founded in 1740,' enlarged in 1753, 1760, 
and 1820, and wholly rebuilt (1833-40) at a cost of 
£17,000. A Grecian three-storied edifice, with domed 
centre and two projecting wings, it is 166 feet long, 112 
broad, and 50 high, and, containing 20 large lofty 
wards with 11 smaller apartments, can accommodate 
300 patients. Epidemic wards were built on the links 
in 1872 at a cost of £2500, and Loch-head House, with 
3 acres of ground, was purchased in 1873 for £2250, to 
serve as a convalescent hospital. In 1879 the total 


number of patients treated was 1713 at the infirmary, 
and 172 at the convalescent hospital, besides 29S1 out- 
patients ; and the income for 1880 was £6263, the expen- 
diture £6288. The managing committee is elected from 
a body composed at present of 21 ex officio and 202 life 
managers, 16 managers by annual subscription, and 46 
from presbyteries and churches. Under the same man- 
agement, but with a separate account, the Royal Lunatic 
Asylum stands amid grounds of 45 acres, well wooded 
and tastefully laid out, 1 mile NNW of the corner of 
Union and St Nicholas Streets. The original building 
of 1800 cost £3480, and that of 1819 £13,135, of which 
£10,000 was bequeathed by John Forbes of Newe. Ad- 
ditions have been made from time to time, the latest 
in 1880 ; but the most important was the erection in 
1862 of Elmhill House for higher-class patients at a 
cost of £10,866, this being a handsome building in 
the Italian villa style, designed by "William Ramage, 
whilst the architect of both asylum and infirmary was 
Archibald Simpson. During 1SOO-80 the asylum ad- 
mitted 5682 patients, of whom 1040 died, and 4108 
were dismissed as either cured or incurable ; and on 31 
Dec. 1880 the number of pauper inmates was 361, of 
private inmates 173, the income for the year ending 
with the preceding March being £18,391, the expen- 
diture £15,861. — St Nicholas Poorhouse, Nelson Street, 
with 382 inmates in April 1881, is a Tudor structure, 
built in 1849 at a cost of £9300, and enlarged in 1869 at 
a cost of £3350 more. — Other benevolent establishments 
are the Dispensary, Lying-in, and Vaccine Institution, 
Guestrow (1823 ; enlarged and refitted, 1881), which in 
1880 dealt with 3327 cases ; the Blind Asylum, Huntly 
Street (1843) ; the Deaf and Dumb Institution, Belmont 
Street (1819) ; the Sick Children's Hospital, Castle Ter- 
race (1877) ; the Hospital for Orphan and Destitute 
Female Children, Huntly Street (1849); the Female 
Orphan Asylum, Albyn Place (1840) ; the House of 
Refuge and Night Shelter, George Street (1S36) ; a Mag- 
dalene Asylum, Seabank (1864) ; a Hospital for Incur- 
ables, etc. Returns under the Endowed Institutions Act 
(1869) showed that the city's endowed charities in Sept. 
1870 had a total value of £115,068, including upwards 
of £46,000 belonging to the Guildry, and yielding an 
annual revenue of £4289. 

The East Prison, immediately behind the court-house, 
is the only gaol of Aberdeen, the West Prison having been 
discontinued since 1863 ; and the East itself is shortly 
to be transferred to a different site. Built in 1831, and 
enlarged in 186S, it contains 95 cells, and was described 
as ' bad in situation, with small dark cells, imperfect 
ventilation, and insufficient accommodation,' in the In- 
spector's Report for the year ending 31 March 1879. 
In the twelvemonth following, 1426 criminal and 5S 
civil prisoners were confined within it, and its gross 
expenditure was £1564. — During the same year Oldmill 
Reformatory (1857), 2J miles W of the town, was occu- 
pied on an average by 148 boys, and Mount Street Re- 
formatory (1862) by 25 girls, their respective receipts 
being £2645 and £578. — The Infantry Barracks, on the 
crest of the Castle Hill, stand on the site of a castle 
erected as early as 1264, and, as built in 1796 at a cost 
of £16,000, formed a plain winged oblong of three stories, 
but were greatly enlarged by the block added (1880- 
81) at a further cost of £11,000, with a frontage to 
Justice Street of 138 J- feet.— The King Street Militia 
Barracks were erected in 1863 at a cost of £10,000 in the 
old Scottish Castellated style ; the Rifle and the Artillery 
Volunteers have drill-halls in Blackfriars and Queen 

Aberdeen has 62 places of worship, belonging to 14 
different denominations. Its parishes — East, West, 
North, South, Greyfriars, and St Clement's — formed, 
up to 1828, the single parish of St Nicholas, and still in 
certain secular respects are one. There are also 8 quoad 
sacra parishes ; and the churches of all 14, with pop. for 
1881, communicants for 1878, and ministers' stipends, 
those marked with asterisks being largely supplemented 
by the congregations, are: — East (Union Street, 4207, 
1629, £300*), West (Union Street, 6328, 928, £300*), 


North (King Street, 8855, 2346, £300), South (Belmont 
Street, 2895, 1572, £250*), Greyfriars (Broad Street, 
6387, 1185, £250), St Clement's (Footdee, 7693, 1893, 
£250), Gilcomston (Summer Street, 12,616, 1456, £400), 
John Knox's (Mounthooly, 6656, 850, £327), Holburn 
(Wellington Place, 12,634, 972, £380), Ferryhill (4941, 
242, £250), Rubislaw (Queen's Cross, 3194, £508), 
Trinity (Marischal Street, 3090, 213, £250), Rosemount 
(Caroline Place, 8263, 322, £425), and St George's- 
in-the-West (John Street, 4452, £200).— The East and 
West Churches stand in a graveyard of nearly 2 acres, 
which is separated from Union Street by an Ionic 
facade, erected (1830) at a cost of £1460, and measuring 
147*- feet in length by 32* in height, with 12 granite 
columns, each consisting of a single block, and with 
a central archway. These churches occupy the site of 
the collegiate St Nicholas, which, as built between 1200 
and 1507, had a nine-bayed nave (117 feet by 66), a 
transept (100 by 20), and a seven-bayed choir (81 by 64), 
with a trigonal apse over the crypt of Our Lady of Pity. 
At the crossing a tower rose, with its oaken spire, octa- 
gonal and picturesque, to a height of 120 feet ; and in 
it hung three great harmonious bells, of which one, 
' Lowrie,' bore date 1352, and was recast in Flanders 
about 1633. After the Reformation the roodscreen gave 
place to a wall, and St Nicholas thus was divided into 
two churches, the western consisting of the former nave, 
the eastern of the choir, and the Romanesque transept 
between (known as Drum's and Collison's aisles) serving 
as vestibule. The West Church, having become dilapi- 
dated, was rebuilt (1751-55) from designs by James 
Gibbs, architect of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford and 
of the Cambridge Senate House ; ' but as if,' says 
Hill Burton, ' emphatically to show that the fruits 
of his genius were entirely to be withdrawn from his 
own countrymen, the only building in Scotland known 
to have been planned by him, this church in his native 
city, combines whatever could be derived of gloomy and 
cumbrous from the character of the Gothic architecture, 
with whatever could be found of cold and rigid in the 
details of the Classic' The East Church, too, was bar- 
barously demolished, and rebuilt(1834-37)in Gothic style ; 
but on 9 Oct. 1874, its roof and interior were destroyed 
by fire, along with the spire and its peal of bells, in- 
creased by 5 in 1859. The total loss was estimated at 
£30,000, the West Church also being much damaged by 
water ; but all has been since restored, and at a cost of 
£8500 a fine granite tower and spire erected (1878-80), 
190 feet high. The churchyard contains the graves of 
Principal Guild, Blackwell, Beattie, and Campbell ; in 
the West Church are marble monuments by Bacon and 
Westmacott, the effigy of Provost Davidson, who fell at 
Harlawin 1411, a curious brass portrait-panel of Dr Dun- 
can Liddel, executed at Antwerp in 1622, from a drawing 
by Jameson probably, and the tombstone of Provost 
Menzies (d. 1641); whilst, in the southern transept, a 
small brass to Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum is dated 
1400 (Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot, 1876, p. 450).— The North 
Church, built in 1826 at a cost of £10,500, is a Grecian 
edifice, modelled apparently after St Pancras in London, 
measures 120 by 64 feet, and has an imposing Ionic 
portico, 32 feet high, and a circular tower of 150 feet. — 
South Church, Gothic, with massive gables and a tower, 
was built in 1831. — Greyfriars or College Church formed 
part of St Mary's Observantine friary (1450-1560), and, 
consisting of a plain old Gothic hall with a modern 
E aisle, is interesting as the only pre-Reformation church 
within the municipal burgh ; Jameson, the painter, is 
buried in its churchyard. — St Clement's, founded about 
1498 for Footdee fisher-folk, was repaired in 1631, and 
since has been twice rebuilt, in 1787 and 1828, on the 
last occasion ' in the Gothic style, with an elegant belfry, 
45 feet high;' an organ was placed in it in 1874. 
— Trinity Church was built in 1S22 ; John Knox's in 
1S33 ; Rubislaw, an ornate freestone edifice, in 1876 ; 
Rosemount in 187S ; St George's in 1879, etc. 

At the Disruption in 1843 every Aberdeen minister 
and 10,000 lay adherents went out from the Establish- 
ment ; and now within the burgh there are the following 



Free churches, with their communicants in 1880, and 
ministers' incomes : — Bon Accord (Union Terrace, 710, 
£314), East (Belmont Street, 791, £481), Ferryhill 
(Rotunda Place, 210, £362), Gaelic (Gaelic Lane, 159, 
£190 and manse), Gallowgate (202, £182), Gilcomston 
(Union Street, 742, £502), Greyfriars (George Street, 
480), High (Belmont Street, 674, £417), Holburn (Hard- 
gate, 534, £306), John Knox's (Gerrard Street, 798), 
Mariners' (Commerce Street, 239), Melville (Correction 
Wynd, 618, £312), North (West North Street, 551), 
Rutherford (Loanhead Terrace, 432), Ruthrieston (176, 
£203 and manse), St Clement's (Prince Regent Street, 
591, £384), South (Belmont Street, 1197, £532 and 
manse), Trinity (Crown Street, 733, £445), Union (Ship- 
row, 342, £210), West (Union Street, 958, £532 and 
manse), and Causewayend. Of these 21 churches, Mel- 
ville, the Gaelic, and Union were built for the Estab- 
lishment in 1772, 1795, and 1822 ; East, South, and 
High (1844) form an imposing cruciform pile, Lancet 
Gothic in style, with a fine brick spire 174 feet high; 
and the West Church (1869), a Gothic structure in 
Morayshire sandstone, has a spire of 175 feet, and 
cost £12,856. Gilcomston Church has also a hand- 
some spire ; and another, 150 feet high, adorns a new 
Free church, built at Queen's Cross (18S0-81) at a cost 
of £7000. 

Six U.P. churches, with members in 1879 and mini- 
sters' incomes, are — Belmont Street (466, £350), Char- 
lotte Street (597, £300), George Street (437, £310), 
Nelson Street (137, £199), St Nicholas Lane (374, £300), 
and St Paul Street (403, £290). For the George Street 
congregation a new church has been built (1880-81) in 
Carden Place at a cost of £11,500. There are also 5 
Congregational churches, in Belmont Street, Black- 
friars Street, Frederick Street, Park Street, and Shiprow 
(1878) ; an Associate Synod church, in Skene Terrace ; 
2 Evangelical Union churches, in John and St Paul 
Streets ; 2 Baptist churches, English in Crown Terrace, 
Scotch in Academy Street ; a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, 
in Crown Terrace ; a Free Methodist chapel, in Dee 
Street; a Unitarian chapel (1840), in George Street; 
and a Quakers' meeting-house, in Diamond Street. 

The English Episcopalians have had a chapel here since 
1721, transferred to St James's, King Street, in 1866 ; 
and the Scottish Episcopalians possess 5 churches, with 
aggregate congregations of some 3000 souls. St An- 
drew's, King Street, Perpendicular in style, as built in 
1817, consisted of an aisled nave (90 by 65 feet), with a 
marble statue by Flaxman of Bishop John Skinner ; in 
18S0 a beautiful chancel (40 by 2S feet, and 45 high) 
was added at a cost of over £3000, from designs by Mr 
G. E. Street, R.A.— St John's (1849-51), in St John's 
Place, is an Early Middle Pointed structure, comprising 
chancel, four-bayed nave, and S aisle. — St Mary's (1862), 
in Carden Place, is Germanised Early First Pointed in 
style, with strong Romanesque features, and consists of 
nave (69 by 36 feet, and 60 high) and chancel (51 by 22 
feet, and 53 high), with trigonal apse, organ chamber, 
sacristy, crypt, and a Heche 112 feet high. — St Paul's 
(1865), in Gallowgate, is Second Pointed, and measures 
120 by 60 feet ; St Margaret's, Seamont Place, was 
opened as a mission church in 1S70, and consecrated in 
1879. There are two Episcopal sisterhoods — St Mar- 
garet's (1864) and the Society of Reparation (1870), the 
latter with orphanage attached ; and three Episcopal 
schools, St Andrew's, St John's, and St Margaret's, with 
total accommodation for 708 children, had (1S79) an 
average attendance of 548, and grants amounting to 
£336, 15s. 6d. 

The Catholic cathedral of St Mary's of the Assump- 
tion, Huntly Street, was built of white granite in 1S60 
in Second Pointed style, has 1200 sittings, and consists 
of an aisled nave (156 by 73 feet, and 72 high), into 
which in 1879 were introduced a chancel arch and a rood- 
screen, with colossal Crucifix and figures of the Virgin and 
St John, whilst along the nave are canopied life-size 
statues of the Twelve Apostles. A large rose window over 
the new High Altar (1881) is filled, like all the other win- 
dows, with rich stained glass ; at the W end is a very 


fine painting of the ' Visitation ; ' and the Baptistry con- 
tains a beautiful font of polished granite. By 1880 
about £15,000 had been already expended on the cathe- 
dral and its graceful spire, which, completed in 1877, is 
200 feet high, and contains a peal of 9 good bells, the 
largest of them over 30 cwt. Attached to St Mary's 
is a Franciscan convent, the nuns having charge of a 
day and boarding school with 80, and of St Joseph's 
and St Peter's schools in Constitution Street, with 336 
scholars in June 18S0, as also of two small orphanages ; 
Nazareth House, on the W side of the city, is a home 
for the aged and infirm, and for sick and abandoned 
children, and had then 150 inmates. 

Marischal College stands in a court, entered by an old 
arched gateway from the E side of Broad Street, near 
its mergence into Gallowgate. The original buildings 
were those of a Franciscan friary, suppressed at the 
Reformation. A new edifice, retaining the portions of 
the old buildings that were not destroyed by fire in 
1639, was erected in 1676, and an extension superseding 
those portions was built in 1740-41. But the whole was 
unsubstantial and in constant need of repair ; and in 
1837-41 it was replaced on the same site by a very 
extensive and most imposing pile, designed by Archi- 
bald Simpson, and erected at a cost of £30,000, includ- 
ing a royal grant of £15,000. The new structure, 
consisting of durable white granite, and in a bold but 
simple style of collegiate Gothic, forms three sides of a 
quadrangle (117 by 105 feet), rises to the height of 
two lofty stories, and presents uniform and striking 
ranges of mullioned windows. A square tower springs 
from the side of the quadrangle, and terminates in four 
ornamental turrets, at a height of 100 feet from the 
ground ; and open arcades, 48 feet long and 16 wide, 
extend from both sides of the principal entrance. The 
public school, 74 feet long and 34 wide, is on the 
ground floor ; whilst the hall, 71 feet long, 34 wide, and 
32 high, and the library and the museum, each 73 feet 
long, 34 wide, and 32 high, are all on the upper floor, 
have ornamental ceilings painted in imitation of oak, 
and are reached by a lofty staircase, with a massive 
stone balustrade and a groined ceiling. The public 
hall contains portraits of the fifth Earl Marischal, 
Bishop Burnet, Dr Arthur Johnston, Sir Paul Menzies, 
Andrew Cant, Sir Robert Gordon, and other worthies, 
several of them by the celebrated Jameson. There are 
17 class rooms, and a number of other apartments. 
A granite obelisk, to the memory of Sir James M'Grigor, 
Bart. , was erected (1S60) in the centre of the quadrangle, 
and consists of base 16 feet square and 6 high, pedestal 
9 feet square and 11 high, plinth 7 feet square and 
3 high, and shaft from 5 to 3|- feet square and 52 
high, having thus a total height of 72 feet. But both 
this monument and the dinginess of the approach from 
Broad Street mar the effect of the college buildings. 
The college was founded in 1593, by George Keith, fifth 
Earl Marischal. His charter endowed it with the 
ground and property of the Franciscan, Dominican, and 
Carmelite friars of Aberdeen, and appointed it to have 
a principal, 3 regents, 6 alumni, an economist, and a 
cook. The principal was to be an adept in sacred 
literature, and to be able to give anatomical and physio- 
logical prelections ; and the first regent was to teach 
ethics and mathematics, the second logic, and the third 
Latin and Greek. The candidates for the chairs were to 
be nominated by the earl himself and his heirs, and to 
be examined and admitted by the faculty of King's 
College, and by the ministers of Aberdeen, Deer, and 
Fetteresso. The constitution was confirmed imme- 
diately by the General Assembly, and a few months 
afterwards by Parliament. A new charter was given in 
1623, by William, Earl Marischal, and a new confirma- 
tion made in 1661 by Charles II. All the deeds 
declared that the masters, members, students, and bur- 
sars should be subject to the jurisdiction of the burgh 
magistrates. An additional regent was appointed 
within a few years of the foundation : a professorship of 
mathematics was founded in 1613, a professorship of 
divinity was added in 1616, and 7 other professorships 



were founded at different subsequent periods. The 
senatus, in 1753, directed that the students, after passing 
through the Latin and Greek classes, should be instructed 
first, in natural and civil history, geography, chronology, 
and the elements of mathematics ; next, in natural 
philosophy ; and afterwards, in moral philosophy. A 
few alterations were subsequently made, and these ad- 
justed the aggregate classes into the four faculties of 
arts, divinity, law, and medicine. But the college, 
under the University Act of 1S58, was united with 
King's College into one university, with a new constitu- 
tion, and now it is devoted entirely to the law and medicine 
classes of the united university. The library, in 1827, 
contained 11,000 volumes ; and, subsequently to that 
year, received the valuable classical collection of the late 
Dr James Melvin, and was otherwise considerably en- 

The Free Church College (1843) occupies a handsome 
Tudor edifice, with a square tower and an octagonal turret, 
erected in Afford Place in 1S50, at a cost of £2025 ; pos- 
sesses 11 scholarships and a library of 17,000 volumes ; 
and in 1SS0 had a principal, 3 other professors, a lec- 
turer, and 30 students. — The Church of Scotland and 
Free Church Female Training Colleges, in 1879, had 
respectively 72 and 68 students, and incomes of £2796 
and £2087 ; for the former, new buildings were opened 
in George Street in 1878 ; for the latter, in Charlotte 
Street, in 1SS0. — The Mechanics' Institution, founded 
in 1S24, and reorganised ten years later, has a hall, 
with class rooms and a library of 14,000 volumes, in a 
building erected in Market Street in 1S46 for £3500 ; 
and schools of science and art have been conjoined there- 
with since 1853. 

The Grammar School, dating from about 1262, shows 
a list of 26 rectors from 1418 to 1S81 and of other clas- 
sical masters from 1628. The representative secondary 
school of the North of Scotland, it attracts advanced 
pupils from the best primary schools, and has close con- 
nection, by charter and constitution, with the univer- 
sity. Its teachers, till 1863, were only a rector and 
3 classical masters, but number now a rector and 
10 under-masters. The building, from 1757 till 1863, 
was a plain structure, on School Hill, erected at a cost 
of £400, on part of the grounds of the Dominican 
Friary, forming three sides of a square, and containing 
a public hall with four class rooms; and this building 
it was proposed, in 1SS0, to fit up as a permanent art 
gallery and museum. The present Grammar School 
Buildings, in Skene Street "West, were erected in 
1861-63 at a cost of £16,605, in the Scottish Baronial 
style, and contain a rector's room, 52 feet by 30, class 
rooms, each 40 feet by 28, with accommodation for 
1215 boys, a public hall, a library, etc. They were 
vested in the magistrates and town council and in 
certain representatives of subscribers ; but by the Edu- 
cation Act of 1872 passed to the supervision of the 
burgh school-board. The curriculum extends over five 
j T ears, and the number of scholars was 350 at the end 
of 1880, when the endowment amounted to £668 per 
annum, including 33 bursaries, founded between 1629 
and 1S66, and ranging from £20 for four years to £3 
for five years. 

Gordon's Hospital, of similar character to Heriot's 
Hospital in Edinburgh, was founded in 1730 by the 
miser Robert Gordon (1665-1732), a Danzig merchant, 
who bequeathed it £10,300. Chartered in 1772, and 
further endowed by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill in 
1816, it maintains and educates sons or grandsons of 
deceased burgesses of guild and of indigent townsfolk 
generally. It admits boys of from nine to eleven years 
of age, and, retaining them till fifteen, educates them in 
English, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, geography, 
mathematics, natural philosophy, drawing, music, French, 
and Latin, afterwards apprenticing them to proper 
trades. It is governed by the magistrates, town council, 
and 4 ministers of Aberdeen ; and had 11 masters and 
200 pupils in the year ending with Oct. 18S0, when 
its income was £6291, and its expenditure £6759. 
Its building, Grecian in style, stands in grounds stretch- 

ing northward from School Hill, comprises a centre, 
erected in 1739 at a cost of £3300, and two wings, with 
neat connecting colonnades, erected in 1834 at a cost of 
£14,000 more ; presents a frontage to the S, overlook- 
ing a lawn ; and gives one of the finest views in the city. 
A marble statue of the founder surmounts the S entrance, 
and his full-length portrait hangs in the large hall. 

The Boys' and Girls' Hospital, founded in 1739, and 
incorporated in 1852, was in 1S71 transferred from Upper 
Kirkgate and Gallowgate to new buildings in King 
Street Road. Governed by the Lord Provost, 3 life 
trustees, and 12 trustees elected annually, it admits poor 
children of St Nicholas parish, from eight to eleven 
years of age, and keeping them till fourteen, teaches 
them reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, 
music, and drawing, as also, if girls, sewing, knitting, 
and household work. In 1SS0 it had 100 pupils, 60 
of whom were boys ; and its funds and property amounted 
at 31 Dec. 1879 to £55,712, the revenue for the year 
being £221 S, and the expenditure £2122. 

Composed of 13 members, the Burgh School-Board, 
in the year ending "Whitsunday 1880, had an in- 
come of £19,029 (school fees, £6651 ; Government 
grants, £4846 ; school rate, £7101, etc.), and expended 
£18,777, including £12,451 for teachers' salaries. On 
31 Oct. 18S0, it reported 72 elementary schools, 
with gross accommodation for 16,595 and an average 
attendance of 13,087 children, viz., 12 hospital and 
industrial schools (accom. 2613 ; and attendance 994) ; 
16 academies and ladies' schools (2274 and 1025) ; 15 
private adventure or dame schools (558 and 549) ; 11 
non-public but State-aided schools (3850 and 3450) ; 
and 18 public schools (6S00 and 7069). The board's own 
schools, with average attendance, number of children 
examined, and Government grant in 1880, are — Albion 
Street (346, 279, £2S0, 17s.) ; Causewayend (759, 586, 
£692); Commerce Street (537, 404, £479, 6s.); Davidson's 
(170, 114, £149, 12s. 4d.); Dr Brown's (323, 255, 
£284, 10s.); Ferryhill (465, 352, £418, 15s.); Marywell 
Street (32S, 242, £284, 19s.) ; Middle (744, 610, 
£693, 9s. ) ; Northfield (435, 338, £379, 0s. 6d. ) ; Port- 
Hill (579, 510, £397, 16s. 6d.) ; Princes Street (208, 148, 
£162, 13s.) ; St Andrew's Street (290, 220, £264, 17s.) ; 
St Clement Street (450, 337, £420, 3s.) ; St Paul Street 
(491, 367, £429, 12s. 6d.); Skene Street (409, 329, 
£376, 17s.) ; and Trinity (141, 97, £112, 8s.). 

Aberdeen till lately had no public gardens, a want the 
more felt from the scarcity of any large open spaces 
within the city ; but the Victoria Park in 1872, and the 
Union Terrace Gardens in 1879, were laid out at a cost 
respectively of £4248 and £5110. The former lying 
on the NW outskirts of the town, near the Lunatic 
Asylum, is 13 acres in extent, measuring some 400 by 
225 yards, and at its centre has a handsome granite 
fountain, presented by the master masons and workers of 
Aberdeen ; whilst Union Terrace Gardens, with well-grown 
elm and ash trees, planted in 1775, had served for some 
years as a convenient 'toom,' and extending northwards 
from Union Bridge alongthe Wside of the Denburn "Valley, 
here spanned now by another bridge leading to School 
Hill, have an utmost length and breadth of about 250 
and 50 yards. In July 1880, too, it was intimated that 
Miss Duthie of Ruthrieston contemplated the formation 
of a carriage drive along the river, from the reclaimed 
ground to Bridge of Dee, as also, at a cost of £30,000, of 
a public park of 47 acres at Arthurseat, near Allenvale 
Cemetery, its first sod being cut on 27 Aug. 1881. Aber- 
deen's best recreation ground, however, will always re- 
main the Links, a stretch of velvety sward and broken 
sandhills (the highest, Broad Hill, 94 feet), which, 410 
acres in area, extends for 2 miles along the fine level 
sands. Here are the battery, lifeboat house, bathing 
station, and golf club house ; and here, too, cricket and 
football are played, cattle shows and wapenshaws held, 
as well as the autumn horse races, revived in 1S76. 

The Cross, at the upper end of Castle Street, is a 
Renaissance, open-arched, hexagonal structure of free- 
stone, adorned with medallions of the seven Jameses. 
From its centre springs a column with Corinthian 




capitol, surmounted by a unicorn that bears an escutcheon 
charged with the Scottish lion, the basement being 
21 feet in diameter and 18 high, the column 12J feet 
more. The workmanship of John Montgomery, mason 
of Old Rayne, it first was erected, in 1686, before the 
Tolbooth, near the site of the Flesh and Fish Crosses, 
and was transferred to its present position in 1842. — The 
monument (1836) of George, fifth Duke of Gordon, 
Scott's ' Cock of the North,' stands 30 yards lower 
down, and consists of a granite statue and pedestal, the 
one 11|, the other 10J- feet high, and the latter flanked 
by two heavy pieces of ordnance, taken at Sebastopol in 
1855. — At the NW corner of Union Bridge, in a circular 
recess, is Baron Marochetti's bronze seated statue of the 
Prince Consort, in field-marshal's uniform, the jack-boots 
very prominent. The figure is 6J feet high, its pedestal 
of polished Peterhead granite 8 ; and it was unveiled in 
presence of Her Majesty, 13 Oct. 1863. — A statue of the 
Queen herself, by the late Alexander Brodie, of Aberdeen, 
wasplacedin 1866 atthe junction of Union and St Nicholas 
Streets. Of white Sicilian marble, and 8-J feet high, it 
stands on a pedestal of polished Peterhead granite, 104 
feet more. — A colossal bronze statue of Sir William 
"Wallace, 'returning defiant answer to the English am- 
bassadors before the battle of Stirling Bridge,' is also 
soon to be erected, Castle Street having been chosen for 
its site in June 1880, and Mr John Steill, of Edinburgh, 
having left £4000 for the purpose. 

The only noticeable bridge within the city is Telford's 
Union Bridge, in the line of Union Street, over the Den- 
burn (now the railway) Valley. Besides three blind 
arches, one on the "VV and two on the E, it has an open 
arch of 132 feet span, with parapets 52 feet above the 
ground below, is 70 feet wide, with carriage-way of 21, 
and was constructed (1S00-3) at a cost of £13,342. — Dee 
Bridge, 1-J- mile SW of Union Place, was till recent time 
the only great thoroughfare over the Dee from Aberdeen 
to the south, and, though rurally situated, is connected 
with the city by a chain of suburbs, and is under the 
management of the town council. It originated in a 
bequest of £20,000, left by Bishop Elphinstone, to builda 
bridge across the Dee near Aberdeen. He died 25 Oct. 
1514 ; and his successor, Bishop Gavin Dunbar, carried 
out the intention of the legacy, and finished the bridge 
in 1527. Consisting of 7 arches, each of 50 feet span, this 
bridge eventually fell into decay, was restored (1718-21) 
out of funds belonging to itself, and was widened 
(1841-42) from 14£ to 26 feet, and otherwise greatly 
improved, at a cost of £7250. — Wellington Suspension 
Bridge, spanning the Dee at Craiglug in the vicinity of 
Ferryhill, li mile below Dee Bridge, was erected in 
1831 at a cost of £10,000, and is 220 feet long by 22 
wide. — The Railway Viaduct (1848), on the Aberdeen 
section of the Caledonian, crosses the Dee transversely, 
3 furlongs above the Suspension Bridge, and designed 
by Messrs Locke & Errington, consists of 7 iron- 
girder arches, each about 50 feet in span, with two land 
arches at its northern end. — Victoria Bridge, over the 
Dee's new channel, in a line with Market Street and 
Cross Quay, is a granite five-arch structure, opened on 2 
July 1881, having cost £25,000.— The Anld Brigo' Bal- 
gownie, built about 1320, either by Bishop Cheyne or by 
King Robert Bruce, crosses the Don, 2J miles N by W of 
Castle Street. A single Gothic arch, narrow and steep, 
of 67 feet span and 34J high above the black deep 
salmon pool below, it is commemorated by Byron in Don 
Juan, where a note records how a dread prediction made 
him pause to cross it, and yet lean over it with a childish 
delight. For he was his mother's only son, and the 
prophecy runs : — 

' Brig o' Balgownie, black's your wa' (or, though wight be your wa'), 
Wi' a wife's ae son, and a meer's ae foal, 
Down ye shall fa' ! ' 

In 1605 Sir Alexander Hay left lands of a yearly value 
of £2, 8s. 5£d. to keep the Auld Brig in repair ; its ac- 
cumulated funds amounted (1872) to £23,153, though 
out of those funds in 1825 was built the new Bridge of 
Don, 500 yards lower down, for £17,100. With" five 

semicircular arches, each about 86 feet in span, this 
last is 26J feet wide and 41 high. 

The Aberdeen railway, amalgamated (1866) with the 
Caledonian, was opened for traffic up to Guild Street 
terminus in 1848 ; and the Great North of Scotland was 
opened from Huntly to Eittybrewster in 1854, and 
thence extended, two years afterwards, to Waterloo 
terminus. The break — 700 yards of crowded quays— 
between these termini had proved a great hindrance to 
interco mm unication, when, in 1864, the two com- 
panies were empowered to construct the Denburn Val- 
ley line, on a capital of £190,000, of which the Great 
North of Scotland subscribed £125,000. The junction 
railway runs If mile north-north-westward from Guild 
Street to Eittybrewster, being carried beneath Union 
Bridge, and through two short tunnels under Woolman 
Hill and Maberley Street ; and the Great North Com- 
pany abandoned their Waterloo branch, except for 
goods traffic, on the opening (1867) of the new Joint 
Guild Street station, which, over 500 feet long by 100 
wide, is one of the finest stations in Scotland, its lofty 
iron-girder roof being modelled after that of Victoria 
station, Pimlico. — Street tramways, 2 miles, 54 chains 
long, on the line of Union, King, St Nicholas, and 
George Streets, were opened in 1874, and extended to 
Mannofield in 1880, their aggregate cost of construction 
being £18,791, whilst, in the year ending June 1879, 
the passengers numbered 957,115, and the receipts 
amounted to £5080, the expenditure to £3959. 

From a cistern, formed about 1766 at the head of 
Broad Street, and fed by the Fountainhall and other 
streams, 187,200 gallons of water were daily obtained ; 
but this supply proving insufficient, the police commis- 
sioners resolved in 1830 to supplement it from the Dee. 
A pump-house was accordingly erected near the N end 
of the Bridge of Dee ; but its two engines, each of 50 
horse-power, could daily raise through a 15-inch main 
no more than 1,000,000 gallons to a granite reservoir 
at the W end of Union Street, which, with storage 
capacity of 94,728 gallons, stood 40 feet higher than 
the street itself, and 130 higher than the pumping- 
station. This fresh supply, too, proving quite inade- 
quate, the commissioners next resolved, in 1862, to 
supersede pumping by gravitation, and to that end pro- 
cured powers to abstract between 2,500,000 and 6,000,000 
gallons daily from the Dee at Cairnton, 23 miles up the 
river, and 224 feet above the level of the sea. Similar 
to those of Glasgow, and rivalled in Scotland by them 
alone, the new Aberdeen waterworks were planned by 
the late James Simpson, C.E., of London. An aque- 
duct from Cairnton intake passes, by tunnel, through 
half a mile of rock, and thence goes half a mile further 
to Invercanny reservoir, in which 10,000,000 gallons 
can be stored, and from which the main aqueduct, 18 
miles long, leads to the reservoir at Brae of Pitfodels. 
This, 1J mile WSW of Union Place, and 162 feet above 
sea-level, can hold 6,000,000 gallons; and a high-ser- 
vice reservoir on Hillhead of Pitfodels (420 feet) con- 
tains about 500,000 more. Commenced in the spring 
of 1S64, the waterworks were opened by the Queen 
on Oct. 16, 1866 ; their cost, which was estimated at 
£103,999, had reached £161,524 in 1872. During the 
three months April to June 1880, the daily water con- 
sumption was 4,378,780 gallons, 4,144,000 being from 
the low-service, and 234,780 from the high-service reser- 
voir ; while, for the twelvemonth ending with the Sep- 
tember following, the water account showed an income 
of £13,023, and an outlay of £11,426. 

Aberdeen has good natural drainage facilities, but has 
been slow to turn them to account. In 1865 there were 
but two or three common sewers in the new principal 
streets, besides the Denburn, the Holburn on the S, the 
Powis or Tyle Burn on the N, and a few tinier rills. 
Furnishing water-power to numerous works, these 
streams threw up the filth that they received ; the Den- 
burn, too, though often in summer almost dry, and 
though the outlet, within 600 yards, of between 40 
and 50 minor sewers, was disposed in cascades, and 
carried along an ornamental channel. Small wonder to 


find it described as 'highly polluted,' as 'bringing down 
to its mouth at the harbour a thick and fetid slime 
that exhales, at low water, great volumes of poisonous 
gas ; ' nay, even in the best quarters of the city some 
houses were solely drained into back -garden cesspools. 
Much has been done since then ; the Denburn in its 
lower course having been covered over, and £62,695 
expended during 1867-72 on the purchase of old, and 
the construction of new, sewers within the municipal 
bounds. In 1875, however, these works were described 
by Mr Alexander Smith, C. E. , as far from perfect, ' the 
main sewers having been laid in zones, almost on dead- 
level intercepting sewers with reversible outfalls, in- 
stead of being laid in a position to take advantage of the 
natural outfalls.' Ey one of the four main sewers 44 
acres of the Spital lands were successfully irrigated in 
1871 ; and in 1876 it was proposed thus to utilise all 
the sewage of the low-lying parts of the city, 624 acres 
being required for the purpose. Two schemes were laid 
before the town council, the cost of one being £31,221, 
of the other £29,540. In 1SS0 a surplus of £130 re- 
mained on the sewerage account, and of £336 on that of 
the public health. — The earliest Gas Light Company 
(1824) had their works near the present site of Guild 
Street station, whilst a new company (1840) had theirs 
at the Sandilands, just off the links ; and on these 
companies' amalgamation, the former premises were sold 
to the Scottish North Eastern. In 1871 the Sandilands 
works themselves were acquired by the corporation at a 
total cost of £120,809. 

Eor ages a mere expanse of open water, the harbour, 
so far back as the 14th century, seems to have been pro- 
tected by a bulwark, repaired or rebuilt in 1484. A stone 
pier on the S side of the channel was formed between 
1607 and 1610, in which latter year a great stone, called 
Knock Maitland or Craig Metellan, was removed from 
the harbour's entry ' by the renowned art and industrie 
of that ingenious and vertuous citizen, David Anderson 
of Finzeauch, from his skill in mechanics popularly 
known as Davie do a' thing. ' The eastward extension 
of the wharf, whereby a fine meadow of ground was re- 
claimed, was carried on slowly (1623-59), and before 
1661 a shipbuilding dock had been constructed at Foot- 
dee ; but, all improvements notwithstanding, navigation 
continued difficult and perilous, owing to a bar of sand, 
on which at low tide was scarcely 2 feet of water. To 
remedy this evil, the magistrates in 1770 procured a 
plan from Smeaton, in accordance wherewith the new 
N pier was built (1775-81) at a cost of £18,000. Curv- 
ing slightly northwards, it had a length of 1200 feet, a 
height of from 16 to 30 feet, and a breadth of from 20 to 
36 feet at the base, of from 12 to 24 at the top, its dimen- 
sions increasing seawards. By Telford this pier was ex- 
tended (1810-16) to a further length of almost 900 feet, 
at a cost of £66,000 ; and to protect it, a southern 
breakwater, nearly 800 feet long, was finished in 1815, at 
a cost of £14,000 more. The next great undertaking 
was the construction (1S40-4S) of the Victoria Dock, 28 
acres in extent — 7^ above Regent Bridge, — with 2053 
yards of wharfage, and tide-locks 80 feet wide, the depth 
of water on whose sill is 21 feet at ordinary spring 
tides. This left about 18 acres of tidal harbour, and so 
things stood till Dec. 1869, when was commenced the 
southward diversion of the Dee from the Suspension 
Bridge downwards. The new channel, curving a little 
over a mile, and at its bottom 170 feet wide, was com- 
pleted at a cost of £51,585 in 1872, the total sum ex- 
pended on harbour improvements up to that date since 
1810 amounting to £1,509,638. Other works under 
the Act of 1868 have been the building of a new S 
breakwater of concrete, 1050 feet long and 47 high, at 
a cost of £76,443 (1870-73) ; a further extension of the 
N pier by 500 feet, at a cost of £44,000 (1874-77) ; and 
the filling up of the Dee's old bed, on which, in a line 
with the dock-gates, it is now (1881) proposed to form a 
graving-dock, 559 by 74 feet, as also gradually to re- 
arrange the docks at a total cost of £72,000, by build- 
ing a new end to the Victoria Dock, with bridge and 
railway across, removing Regent Bridge and approaches, 


lowering the dock-sill, providing a caisson bridge, etc. 
Girdleness Lighthouse, with two fixed lights, 115 and 
1S5 feet above mean tide, was built in 1833 to the S of 
the harbour entrance, which, widened now to 400 yards, 
leads out of Aberdeen Bay, a safe enough anchorage 
this with offshore winds, though not with a NE, E, 
or SE wind. Valued at £13,874 in 1881, the har- 
bour is managed by 19 commissioners chosen from 
the town council, and by 12 other elected commis- 
sioners. The aggregate tonnage registered as belonging 
to the port was 310 in 1656, 4964 in 1788, 17,131 in 
1810, 34,235 in 1821, 30,460 in 1831, 38,979 in 1841, 
50,9S5 in 1851, 74,232 in 1861, 99,936 in 1871, 119,184 
in 1879, and 118,182 on 31 Dec. 1880, viz.,— 158 sail- 
ing vessels of 92,217, and 53 steamships of 25,965 tons. 
The harbour revenue, again, was £7215 in 1811, £9161 
in 1821, £12,239 in 1831, £18,657 in 1841, £20,190 in 
1851, £28,436 in 1861, £32,292 in 1871, and £43,645 
in 1S79, when the expenditure was £36,634. Both lists 
show almost constant growth ; as likewise does the fol- 
lowing table, giving the aggregate tonnage of vessels 
that entered and cleared from and to foreign ports and 
coastwise, in cargoes, and also — for the three last years 
— in ballast : — 

















Of the total, 2325 vessels of 534,039 tons, that entered 
in 1880, 1203 of 368,355 tons were steamers, 134 of 
12,825 tons weft in ballast, and 1969 of 439,451 tons 
were coasters ; whilst the total, 2122 of 512,393 tons, of 
those that cleared included 1177 steamers of 357,777 
tons, 1066 vessels in ballast of 222,419 tons, and 2078 
coasters of 467,306 tons. The trade is mainly, then, a 
coasting, and more an import than an export one ; and 
coal is a chief article of import, 277,356 tons having 
been received coastwise here in 1879. Other imports 
are lime, flax, hemp, jute, wool, timber, oats, wheat, 
maize, flour, salt, iron, bones, guano, etc. ; exports are 
flax and cotton fabrics, woollen cloths, grain, oatmeal, 
cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, pork, butter, eggs, salmon, 
preserved meats, granite, and Scotch pine timber. The 
amount of customs in 1862 was £92,963; in 186S, 
£S0,415; in 1869, £77,447 ; in 1879, £98,632. 

Shipbuilding was carried on as early as the 15th cen- 
tury, and in the days of wooden ships, the Aberdeen 
'clipper bow,' of Messrs Hall's invention, won for itself 
a wide repute. Its fame endures, but iron since 1S39 
has by degrees been superseding wood, in spite of re- 
moteness from coal and iron fields. During 1832-36 
there were built here 38 vessels of 6016 tons, and 
during 1875-79 48 of 28,817 tons, of which 22 of 
9595 tons were steamers ; in 1880 the number was 
7 of 5849 tons, all of them iron steamships. Aberdeen 
is head of the fishery district between Montrose and 
Peterhead, in which, during 1878, there were cured 
93,344 barrels of white herrings, besides 51,800 cod, 
ling, and hake, taken by 374 boats of 3158 tons, the 
persons employed being 1006 fishermen and boys, 53 
fish-curers, 194 coopers, and 3970 others ; and the ag- 
gregate value of boats, nets, and lines, being estimated 
at £34,261. For 1880 the herring catch was returned 
as 77,975 crans, against 76,125 in 1877, 68,740 in 1878, 
and 36,000 in 1879. 

The manufactures of Aberdeen are at once extensive 
and varied, its industrial establishments in 18S1 includ- 
ing 3 comb, 1 cotton, 3 linen, 10 woollen and wincey, 
1 carpet, 2 tape, 3 soap and candle, 3 tobacco and 
snuff, and 3 pipe factories ; 2 paper mills ; the Rubislaw 
bleachfields ; 8 breweries ; 4 distilleries ; 4 chemical 
works ; 16 engineering, iron -founding, boiler, and agri- 



cultural implement works ; 4 saw, 2 file, 6 gun, and 
4 brush factories ; 25 mills and meal stores ; 5 tan- 
ning or currying works ; 12 rope, twine, and sail 
factories ; 2 brickfields, etc. , with — last but not least 
—the yards of 53 granite polishers and 6 stone mer- 
chants. — The hosiery trade of Scotland began in Aber- 
deen, with which the African Company (1695) con- 
tracted for woollen stockings ; and at the time when 
Pennant wrote (1771), 69,333 dozen pairs of stockings 
were yearly produced here, these being worth about 30s. 
per dozen, and being chiefly exported to Holland, for 
dispersion thence through Germany. But the trade 
has since dwindled into insignificance. — The linen 
manufacture, introduced about 1745, soon grew so large 
as to pay some £5000 a-year in wages ; and now, in 
the articles of thread, sailcloth, osnaburgs, brown 
linens, and sacking, employs between 2000 and 3000 
hands. The thread manufacture was introduced at a 
later date than the spinning ; was soon carried to 
great perfection ; and employed 600 men, 2000 women, 
and 100 boys in 1795, when the sailcloth manufacture 
was commenced. — Several large flax-spinning factories 
were established on the Don, near Old Aberdeen, about 
1800. — The woollen manufacture, in the beginning of 
last century, comprised chiefly coarse slight cloths, 
called plaidens and fingroms. These were made by the 
farmers and cottagers from the wool of their own sheep, 
by the citizens from wool supplied by country hill- 
farms, and were mostly exported to Hamburg. Woollen 
factories were established in the city about 1748 ; are 
still there of considerable extent ; and belong to the 
same proprietors as factories at Garlogie and Don, with 
these consuming about 2,000,000 lbs. of wool per 
annum, and employing upwards of 1400 hands. The 
carpet manufacture has an annual value of about 
£50,000, the tweed manufacture (at Grandholm em- 
ploying nearly 600 hands) of more than £120,000, and 
the wincey manufacture of at least £250,000. The 
aggregate woollen trade employs at least 600 hand- 
looms, 230 power-looms, and 3000 or more persons ; 
and annually produces upwards of 3,000,000 yards of 
fabrics. — Banner Mill is now the only cotton factory, 
but is so extensive as to employ above 650 hands. — The 
meat-preserving trade of Scotland was commenced at 
Aberdeen in 1822 ; made slow progress for a time, till 
it overcame prejudice and created a market ; began by 
preserving salmon for exportation, and proceeded to the 
preserving of meats, game, soups, and vegetables ; is 
now carried on in several establishments ; employs up- 
wards of 500 persons, produces preserved provisions to 
the annual value of about £221,000 ; supplies a large 
proportion of the meat stores to ships sailing from 
Glasgow, Liverpool, and London ; and has extensive 
connection with India, China, and Australia. Salmon, 
caught chiefly in the Dee and Don, appears to 
have been exported from as early as 1281, and was 
shipped to the Continent towards the end of the 17th 
century, at the rate of about 360 barrels yearly, of 250 
lbs. each. The quantity sent to London, during the 
seven years 1822-28, amounted to 42,654 boxes, and 
during the eight years 1829-36 to 65,260 boxes ; but 
later years have witnessed a decline. Dried whitings 
and haddoGks, sometimes called Aberdeen haddocks 
from their being shipped at Aberdeen, oftener called 
Findon or Finnan haddocks from a village about 6 
miles to the S where they were originally dried for the 
market, are a considerable article of commerce coastwise 
as far as to London. Beef and mutton also are largely 
prepared for exportation ; and, together with live stock, 
are forwarded to the southern markets to the value of 
about £1,000,000 a-year. — Steam-engines, anchors, 
chains, cables, and all kinds of machinery are manu- 
factured in extensive ironworks at Ferryhill, Footdee, 
and other localities. — Rope-making, paper-making, soap- 
making, comb-making, and leather manufacture also 
are carried on. — The granite trade has been associated 
with Aberdeen for fully 300 years ; and now it makes a 
very great figure. Effective quarrying was not begun 
till about 1750, nor the exporting till 1764 ; whilst the 


use of machinery in quarrying dates only from about 
1795, the dressing of the granite into regular cubes 
from 1800, and the polishing of granite for manufacture 
into monuments, columns, fountains, etc. , from 1818. But 
now the trade in dressed blocks for paving, bridges, 
wharves, docks, and lighthouses, and so forth, is 
gigantic ; while that in polished granite, or in numer- 
ous and diversified ornamental articles of polished 
granite, at once exercises remarkable artistic skill, and 
is considerably and increasingly extensive. Upwards of 
80,000 tons of granite are quarried annually in Aber- 
deenshire and the contiguous parts of Kincardineshire, 
and more than half of the quantity quarried is exported. 
The quarrying employs upwards of 1000 hands ; the 
transporting and the working employ a proportionally 
large number of hands, and the polishing and con- 
structing into ornamental objects employ very many 
skilled workmen. The tons of granite exported from 
Aberdeen were 25,557 in 1840, 30,385 in 1850, 32,023 
in 1865, 43,790 in 1867, and upwards of 50,000 in 

A weekly grain market is held on Friday ; a linen 
market, on the Green, is held on the last Wednesday of 
April ; a wool market, also on the Green, is held on 
Thursday and Friday of the first week of June, and of 
the first and second weeks of July ; and a market for 
wooden utensils, in Castle Street, is held on the last 
Wednesday of August ; but none of these, except the 
weekly one, is now of importance. Hiring markets are 
held in Castle Street on several Fridays about Whit- 
sunday and Martinmas. 

A printing-press was started by Edward Raban in 
1621, from which in 1626 the earliest Scottish almanac 
was issued, and in 1748 the Aberdeen Journal, the 
oldest newspaper N of the Forth. There now are 
16 printing-offices, and 7 newspapers — the daily and 
Saturday Conservative Journal (1748), the Saturday 
Liberal Herald (1806), the Liberal Daily Free Press 
(1S53), the Tuesday Northern Advertiser (1856), the 
Saturday Liberal People's Journal (1S5S), the Saturday 
Weekly Ncics (1864), and the Evening Express (1879). 
— The Spalding Club was instituted in 1839, for printing 
historical, ecclesiastical, genealogical, topographical, and 
literary remains of the north-eastern counties of Scot- 
land ; and issued to its members nearly 40 volumes of 
great interest and value, including Dr Stewart's Sculp- 
tured Stones of Scotland and The Boole of Deer ; but it 
came to a close in 1S70. See John Stuart's Notices of 
the Spalding Club (1871). 

The Town Council consists of a Lord Provost, 6 bailies, 
6 office-bearers, 12 councillors, and 8 others ; and the 
municipal constituency numbered 1902 in 1841, 2961 
in 1851, 2701 in 1861, 9347 in 1871, and 12,193 
in 1881. The corporation revenue was £15,184 in 
1832, £18,648 in 1840, £16,894 in 1854, £11,376 in 
1864, £11,447 in 1870, £12,560 in 1874, and (including 
assessments and gas revenue) £122,328 in 18S0, when 
for the twelvemonth ending with September, the revenue 
on the general purposes account was £28,699, the ex- 
penditure £25,450, and the outlay on capital account 
£73,044. By the Aberdeen Municipality Extension Act 
of 1871, the powers of the former commissioners of 
police were transferred to the town council, the busi- 
ness of the police department being thenceforth managed 
by separate committees. The watching force for city 
and harbour consists of a superintendent (salary £350), 
2 lieutenants, 3 inspectors, 4 detectives, 9 sergeants, 
87 constables, and a female turnkey, the total cost of 
that force being £6955, 10s. in 1878 ; and the number 
of persons arrested was 1959 in 1875, 2085 in 1S76, 
1939 in 1877, 1077 in 1878, 1873 in 1879, and 19SS in 
1880, of which last number 1817 were tried, and 1755 
convicted. The sheriff court for the county is held in 
the Court-House on Wednesdays and Fridays, the small 
debt court on Thursdays, the debts recovery court on 
Fridays, the commissary court on Wednesdays, and the 
general quarter sessions on the first Tuesday of March, 
Slay, and August, and the last Tuesday of October. — 
The parliamentary constituency numbered 2024 in 1834, 


3586 in 1861, and 14,146 in 1881, of whom 3037 be- 
longed to the First Ward, 3842 to the Second, 3313 to 
the Third, 1997 to the Fourth, 522 to the Fifth or 
Ruthrieston, 849 to the Sixth or Woodside, and 586 
to the Seventh or Old Aberdeen. The burgh returns 
one member to Parliament — always a Liberal since 1837, 
the present member polling 7505 votes in 18S0 against 
his opponent's 3139.— The annual value of real property 
within the parliamentary burgh, assessed at £101,613 in 
1815, has risen since the passing of the Valuation 
Act from £17S,16S in 1856, to £193;336 in 1861, 
£226,534 in 1866, £2S3,650 in 1871, £323,197 in 
1876, and (exclusive of £14,403 for railways, tram- 
ways, and waterworks) £414,864, 4s. in 1881, this last 
sum being thus distributed : — East parish, £28,428, 
4s. lid. ; West, £36,815, 17s. 2d. ; North, £27,802, 
3s. 10d. ; South, £37,0S5, 15s. Id. ; Greyfriars, £23,298, 
8s. ; St Clement's, £48,744, 7s. 8d. ; Old Machar, 
£212,410, 17s. 4d. ; and Banehory-Devenick, £278, 10s. 
— The population is said to have numbered 2977 in 
1396, 4000 in 1572, 5S33 in 1581, 8750 in 1643, 5556 
in 170S, and 15,730 in 1755, the last being that of the 
parliamentary burgh, which during the present century 
is shown by the Census thus to have increased — (1S01) 
26,992, (1S11) 34,649, (1S21) 43,821, (1831) 56,681, 
(1S41) 63,288, (1851) 71,973, (1861) 73,805, (1871) 
8S.189, (1S81) 105,003, of whom 399 belonged to the 
City Poorhouse, 247 to the Royal Infirmary, 165 to the 
shipping, 21 to the Naval Reserve, 50,525 (26,455 
females) to St Nicholas, and 56,002 (31,140 females) to 
Old Machar, the subdivisions of these two last being 
given under the Churches, on p. 9. 

Old Aberdeen, though falling within the parlia- 
mentary burgh, and though barely 1| mile N by W of 
Castle Street, yet merits separate notice as an inde- 
pendent burgh of regality, as a quondam episcopal city, 
and as the seat of a university. Consisting chiefly of a 
single street, it commences at Spital, near the N end 
of Gallowgate, and thence extends a good mile north- 
ward to the immediate vicinity of the Don. With its 
gardens and orchards, it wears a quiet countrified 
appearance, and, but for a few modern villas here and 
there, might almost be said to have remained three 
centuries unchanged. The northern end is strikingly 
picturesque, the Chanonry there, or ancient cathedral 
precinct, containing once cathedral, episcopal palace, 
deanery, prebends' lodgings, etc., and though now 
stripped of some of its features, presenting still in the 
massive form and short spiked steeples of the cathedral, 
amid a cluster of fine old trees on the crown of a bank 
sloping down to the Don, a scene of beauty hardly ex- 
celled by aught of the kind in Britain. 

The Town-House stands about 300 yards S of the 
cathedral ; was built in 1702, and renovated towards 
the end of the century ; and contains a large hall, a 
council-room, and other official chambers.' — The cross 
stood in front of the site of the Town-House, included a 
stepped pedestal, and a shaft surmounted by a figure of 
the Virgin ; and was defaced at the Reformation, re- 
moved when the Town-House was rebuilt. — A well at 
the Town-House was formed in 1769, with a cistern in 
what had been called the Thief s Hole ; and was pro- 
vided with 625 yards of piping. — The entrance-gate to 
Powis' Garden fronts the College buildings, has a lofty 
round tower on either side, surmounted by gilded 
crescents, and forms a marked feature in the burghal 
landscape. — The Hermitage crowning an eminence in 
Powis' Garden is another picturesque object ; and a 
conical mount, the Hill of Tillydrone, a little W of the 
cathedral, is said by some to have been artificially 
formed by Bruce's soldiers for a watchguard station ; by 
others, to have served for beacon fires ; by others, to 
have been the seat of ancient civil, cr imin al, or ecclesi- 
astical courts. 

The exact date of the erection of the see of Aberdeen 
is unknown, the legend of its original foundation by 
Malcolm II. at Moktlach in Banffshire resting on five 
forged documents. Thence it is said to have been 
transferred by David I. (1124-53), but all that is certain 


is that a charter granted by the Morrnaer of Buchan for 
refounding the church of Deer early in David's reign 
was witnessed by ' Nectan, Bishop of Aberdeen,' whilst 
a bull by Pope Adrian IV. confirmed in 1157 to Edward, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, the church of Aberdeen and the 
church of St Machar, with the town of Old Aberdeen 
and other lands (Skene's Celt. Scot., vol. ii., 1876, p. 
378). Down to the Reformation, the see was held by 
26 bishops, the twelfth of whom, Alexander Kinin- 
month II. (1356-80), laid the foundations of the present 
Cathedral of SS. Mary and Machar, preserving nothing 
of two earlier structures. The work was carried on by 
his successors, and in 1532 the cathedral presented a 
five-bayed nave, an aisleless choir, a transept, lady- 
chapel, and consistory, with two western octagonal 
steeples 113i feet high, and a great central tower of 
freestone, rising 150 feet, in which hung 14 bells. De- 
struction soon succeeded to construction, for the Mearns 
rabble in 1560 despoiled the cathedral of all its costly 
ornaments, demolishing the choir ; the transepts were 
crushed by the fall of the central tower in 168S. All 
that remains is the nave, now the parish church (126 by 
67i feet), a parvised S porch, the western towers, and 
fragments of the transept walls, containing the richly 
sculptured but mutilated tombs of Henry de Lichtoun 
(d. 1440), Gavin Dunbar (d. 1532), and a third unknown 
bishop. The only granite cathedral in the world, this, 
although dating from the Second Pointed age, has many 
survivals of the Norman style, notably its short massive 
rounded piers and plain unmoulded ' storm ' or clerestory 
windows ; other features are the great western window, 
divided by six long shafts of stone, a low-browed doorway 
beneath it with heavy semicircular arch, and the finely 
carved pulpit, a relic of the wood-carvings, that else 
were hewn in pieces in 1649. The plainness of the 
whole is redeemed by the carving and gilding of a flat 
panelled oaken ceiling, emblazoned with the arms of 
48 benefactors, and restored in 1869-71, when two 
galleries also were removed, and other improvements 
effected under the supervision of the late Sir G. G. Scott 
at a total cost of £4280. Five stained-glass windows, 
too, have been inserted (1871-74), the western to the 
Duke of Gordon's memory, another to that of the 
Aberdonian painters, Jameson, Phillip, and Dyce. (See 
Billings, vol. i., 1848; and Walcott's Scoti-Monasticon, 
1874, with authorities cited there). — E of the cathedral 
the bishop's palace (c. 1470), with a large fair court and 
4 high towers, stood near the site of the present resi- 
dence of the Divinity Professor ; to the S stood the 
deanery, on ground now occupied by Old Machar Manse ; 
and to the W was a hospital founded in 1532 by Bishop 
Gavin Dunbar for 12 poor bedesmen ; its revenues now 
are distributed to 18 men in their own homes. — A 
church and a hospital, dedicated to St Peter, stood within 
Spital burying-ground, near the S end of the town ; 
and another church, St Mary ad Nives, commonly 
called Snow Kirk, stood behind houses a little NW of 
the Spital burying-ground. Both churches, by an act 
of Parliament in 1583, were united to the cathedral 
church. The western portion of Spital burying-ground 
is very ancient, but the eastern is recent ; the Snow 
Kirk burying-ground is now the Roman Catholic ceme- 
tery. — The Free church, the only place of worship now 
in Old Aberdeen besides the cathedral, stands about 
midway between it and King's College, and is a neat 
edifice, renovated in 1880. 

King's College stands on the E side of the main street, 
nearly 1 mile S of the cathedral. It was begun in 1500, 
and now exhibits a mixture of architecture, medieval 
and modern. Its original form, a complete quadrangle, 
with three towers, is depicted in a curious painting of the 
17th century, preserved within the college ; but one of 
these towers has perished, another is only a fragment. 
The third, 100 feet high, was rebuilt about 1636 at the 
NW corner, and is a massive structure, buttressed nearly 
to the top, and bearing aloft a lantern of crossed rib 
arches, surmounted by a beautiful imperial crown, 
with fmial cross. Lantern and crown somewhat re- 
semble those of St GDes', Edinburgh, and St Nicholas', 



Newcastle-on-Tyne ; but they have much less of the 
spire about them, and are far more in keeping with the 
spirit of Gothic architecture. The adjoining western or 
street front is a reconstruction of 1826, and, Perpendi- 
cular in style, is out of harmony with the tower. The 
entire original college appears to have been executed in 
a mixture of the Scottish and the French Gothic styles ; 
and was specially distinguished by the retention of the 
semicircular arch, at a time long subsequent to the 
general use of the pointed arch throughout England. 
Much of that pile still stands, preserving all its original 
features, and serving as one of the best extant specimens 
of the Scottish architecture of its period. The W side 
of the quadrangle is disposed in class-rooms ; the S 
side consists of plain building, with a piazza ; and the 
E side contains the common hall, 62 by 22J feet, en- 
riched with portraits and with Jameson's famous paint- 
ings of the Ten Sibyls. The N side contains the chapel 
and the library, and for interior character is deeply in- 
teresting. The chapel is the choir of the original college 
church, and has canopied stalls of beautifully carved black 
oak, with screens of the same material, ' which,' says 
Hill Burton, ' for beauty of Gothic design and practical 
finish, are perhaps the finest piece of carved work existing 
in the British Empire.' The tomb of Bishop Elphin- 
stone is in the middle of the chapel, and was once highly 
ornamented, but is now covered with an uninscribed 
slab of black marble. The library is the former nave, 
measures 58 feet by 29, retains the original W window of 
the church, and is separated from the chapel by a parti- 
tion wall. The university library possesses more than 
90,000 volumes, and there are also museums of natural 
history, medicine, archaeology, etc. 

A scholastic institution, serving as a germ of the 
college, existed from the time of Malcolm IV. The col- 
lege itself originated in a bull of Pope Alexander VI. , ob- 
tained by application of James IV. , on supplication of 
Bishop Elphinstone, for a university to teach theology, 
canon and civil law, medicine, and the liberal arts, and 
to grant degrees. The bull was issued in 1494, but did 
not take effect till 1505. The college was dedicated to 
the Holy Trinity and the Virgin Mary, but being placed 
under the immediate protection of the king came to 
be known as King's College. James IV. and Bishop 
Elphinstone endowed it with large revenues. Six 
teachers for life and five for a certain number of years, 
were to carry on its tuition. The primus was styled 
principal, and was to be a master of theology ; the second, 
third, and fourth were the doctors of canon and civil 
law and of medicine ; the fifth was styled regent and sub- 
principal, and was to be a master of arts ; the sixth was 
to teach literature, and to be also a master of arts ; 
the five not holding their positions for life were like- 
wise to be masters of arts ; and all eleven, except the 
doctor of medicine, were to be ecclesiastics. A faithful 
model of the University of Paris, King's College, with its 
four ' nations ' of Mar, Buchan, Moray, and Angus, par- 
took partly of a monastic, partly of an eleemosynary, 
character ; but, as it progressed, it underwent change, at 
once in its practical working, in the staff of its profes- 
sors, and in the amount of its endowments. It became 
comparatively very wealthy towards the era of the Refor- 
mation, and had it been allowed to retain the wealth 
which it had then acquired it might at the present day 
have vied with the great colleges of England ; but, 
through the grasping avarice of Queen Mary's courtiers, 
it was deprived of much of its property. It, however, 
received some new possessions from Charles I. ; it had, 
in 1836, an income of £2363 from endowments and 
crown grants ; and it acquired £11,000 from a bequest 
by Dr Simpson, of Worcester, in 1840, when its bur- 
saries numbered 128, of the aggregate yearly value of 
£1643. In 1838, the University Commissioners had re- 
commended that King's College here, and Marischal 
College in Aberdeen, should be united into one univer- 
sity, to be called the University of Aberdeen, with its 
seat at Old Aberdeen, and that recommendation was 
adopted in the Universities Act of 1858, and carried 
into effect on Sept. 15, 1860. Holding the funds of 


both colleges, and ranking from the year 1494, the date 
of King's College, the university has 250 bursaries, of 
which 223 are attached to the faculty of arts, and 27 to 
that of theology. They vary from £5 to £50, and 
average fully £20 apiece, their aggregate value being 
£5179 ; there are also eight scholarships of from £70 to 
£100 per annum. The classes for arts and divinity are 
now held in King's College, and those for law and 
medicine in Marischal College. The session, in arts 
and divinity, extends from the beginning of November to 
the first Friday of April ; in law, from the first Monday 
of November to the end of March ; and in medicine, for 
winter, from last Wednesday of October to the end of 
April, for summer, from the first Monday of May to the 
end of July. The general council meets twice a year — 
on the Wednesday after the second Tuesday of April, 
and on the Wednesday after the second Tuesday of 
October. The chief officers are a chancellor, elected by 
the general council ; a vice-chancellor, appointed by the 
chancellor ; a lord rector, elected by the matriculated 
students ; a principal, appointed by the Crown ; and 
four assessors, chosen by respectively the chancellor, the 
rector, the general council, and the senatus academicus. 
The university court consists of the rector, the principal, 
and the four assessors ; and the senatus academicus con- 
sists of the principal and the professors. The chairs, 
with the dates of their establishment and their emolu- 
ments, including estimated amounts from fees, are — 
Greek (1505, £607) ; humanity (1505, £578) ; mathe- 
matics (1505, £536) ; natural philosophy (1505, £524) ; 
moral philosophy (1505, £492) ; natural history (1593, 
£468) ; logic (1860, £492) ; divinity and church history 
(1616, £486) ; systematic theology (1620, £566) ; 
Oriental languages (1674, £439) ; divinity and biblical 
criticism (1860, £130) ; law (1505, £303) ; chemistry 
(1505, £531) ; practice of medicine (1700, £254) ; 
anatomy (1839, £600) ; surgery (1839, £266) ; medical 
logic and medical jurisprudence (1857, £222) ; institutes 
of medicine (1860, £272) ; materia medica (1860, £242) ; 
midwifery (1860, £223); and botany (1860, £377). 
The Crown appoints to 16 of the chairs, the univer- 
sity court to 5, and a composite body of 20 mem- 
bers to the chair of systematic theology. There are 
also three lectureships — one called the Murray Sunday 
Lecture (1821), one on practical religion (1825), and one 
on agriculture (1840) ; as well as assistantships to the 
Greek, humanity, mathematics, natural philosophy, 
chemistry, anatomy, materia medica, and medical logic 
and jurisprudence chairs, all instituted in I860. The 
Act of 1858 awarded compensation, to the aggregate 
amount of £3500 a-year, to such professors and others as 
were displaced by new arrangements, authorised the 
erection of new buildings at King's College, and repairs 
and alterations in Marischal College, at an estimated 
cost of respectively £17,936 and £800, and fixed a new 
scale of emoluments, allotting £599 a-year to the prin- 
cipal, and to professors as given above. The number 
of members of the general council in 1880 was 2649 ; 
of matriculated students in the winter session (1879-80) 
701, and in the s umme r session (1880) 233. The gradu- 
ates in 1880 were— M.A., 65; M.D., 25; M.B., 51; 
CM., 48; D.D., 3; and B.D., 1. The University of 
Aberdeen unites with that of Glasgow under the Reform 
Act of 1867, in sending a member to Parliament ; they 
have always returned a Conservative since 1869, the pre- 
sent member in 1SS0 polling 2520 against his opponent's 
2139 votes. 

The Grammar School stands E of the Town-House ; is 
a very modest building, with a small playground ; has 
accommodation for 91 scholars ; and is chiefly engaged 
in preparing boys for university bursaries. It dates 
from time immemorial ; but, strictly speaking, is only 
a sessional school, connected with the kirk-session of 
Old Machar. The Gymnasium, or Chanonry School, 
is private property, but has some characteristics of an 
important public school ; was opened in 1848, with de- 
sign to prepare boys for the university ; has accommoda- 
tion for boarders, 9 class-rooms with capacity for at 
least 150 boys, and 2 playgrounds ; and is conducted by 


tne proprietor, a rector, and 7 masters. There are also 
a public school and a Bell's school, which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 200 and 353 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 235 and 280, and grants of 
£209, 7s. and £267, 19s. Mitchell's Hospital stands in 
the south-western vicinity of the cathedral, is a one-story 
edifice, forming three sides of a square, with garden at- 
tached, and was founded in 1801 for lodging, clothing, 
and maintaining 5 widows and 5 unmarried daughters 
of burgesses of Old Aberdeen. 

The magistrates, from the abolition of Episcopacy till 
1723, were appointed by the Crown, and from 1723 till 
the passing of the Municipal Act, were elected by their 
own predecessors. The town council consists now of a 
provost, 4 bailies, 8 merchant councillors, trades coun- 
cillors, and a treasurer. The magistrates are trustees of 
£2792 3 per cent, consols as endowment of Dr Bell's 
school ; and some of them share in the management of 
Mitchell's Hospital. The burgh is ill-defined as to limits, 
has little property, and no debts. There are 7 incor- 
porated trades, but no guildry. Pop. (1851) 1490, 
(1861) 1785, (1871) 1857, (1881) 2186. 

Colonel Robertson maintains, in his Gaelic Topography 
(1869), that by old writers New Aberdeen was always 
discriminated from Old Jberdon ; the former he de- 
rives from the Gaelic abhir-reidh-an ('smooth river 
confluence'), the latter from abhir-domhain ('deep con- 
fluence '). Such discrimination, however, exists in his 
imagination only, the name of both kirktown and sea- 
port being written indifferently Aberdoen, Aberdon, 
Aberdin, Aberdcne, etc., and in Latin oftenest appearing 
as Aberdonia ; so that one may take it to mean the ford 
or mouth of either Don or Dee, according as one assigns 
the priority of foundation to Old or New Aberdeen. And 
history fails us here, save only that, whilst Old Aber- 
deen was possibly the seat of a Columban monastery, 
New Aberdeen is certainly not identical with Devana, a 
town of the Taexali in the 2d century A.D., Ptolemy 
placing this fully 30 miles inland, near the Pass of Bal- 
later, and close to Loch Daven. The earliest mention, 
then, of Aberdeen is also the earliest mention of its 
see, already referred to on p. 15 ; next in Snorro's Ice- 
landic Hevmskringla, we read, under date 1153, how 
Eysteinn, a Norwegian kinglet, set forth on a freebooting 
voyage, and, touching at Orkney, thence spread his sails 
southwards, and ' steering along the eastern shores of 
Scotland, brought his ships to the town of Apardion, 
where he killed many people, and wasted the city.' 
Again, the Orkneyinga Saga records how Swein Asleifs 
son went over to Caithness and up through Scotland, 
and in Apardion was well entertained for a month by 
Malcolm IT., 'who then was nine winters old,' which 
places this visit in 1162. Of authentic charters, the 
oldest was granted about 1179 by William the Lyon at 
Perth, and confirmed to his burgesses of Aberdoen the 
free-trade privilege enjoyed by their forefathers under his 
grandsire David I. (1124-53) ; and William here esta- 
blished an exchequer with a mint, and built a palace, 
which he bestowed in 1211 on monks of the Holy 
Trinity. Alexander II. kept Yule in Aberdeen (1222), 
founded its Blackfriars or Dominican priory, and allowed 
its burgesses to hold a Sunday market ; during his reign 
the town was accidently destroyed by fire (1224). Under 
Alexander III. (1249-85) the Castle was built, the burgh 
common seal is mentioned (1271), and we first hear of a 
provost or alderman (12S4). On 14th July 1296, Edward 
I., in his progress through the realm, came unto Aber- 
deen, ' a fair castell and a good town vpon the see, and 
tarayed there v. days ;' a little later Wallace is said 
by Blind Harry to have burned 100 English vessels in 
the haven. Bruce, from his rout at Methven (1306), 
took refuge in Aberdeen ; and to this period belongs the 
legend how the citizens, waxing hot in his cause, rose 
suddenly by night in a well-planned insurrection, cap- 
tured the castle, razed it to the ground, and put to the 
sword its English garrison. ' In honour,' adds Bailie 
Skene, 'of that resolute act,' they got their Ensignes- 
Armoriall, which to this day they bear — Gules, three 
Towres triple, towered on a double- Tressure counter- 

Seal of Aberdeen. 


flowered Argent, supported by two Leopards propper ; 
the Motto, in an Escroll above, their watchword Bos 
Accord.' The legend is solely due to Hector Boece's 
inventive genius, but 
the garrison was 
really driven out, and 
in 1319 King Robert 
conveyed to the com- 
munity the royal 
forest of Stocket and 
the valuable fishings 
of the Dee and Don, 
with various other 
privileges and im- 
munities, his ' being 
the Great Charter of 
the city, from which 
it dates its political 
constitution. ' In 

1333, Edward III. 
having sent a fleet to 
harry the eastern coast, a body of English attacked by 
night the town of Aberdeen, which they burned and de- 
stroyed ; in 1336, Edward himself having marched as 
far north as Inverness, the citizens stoutly encountered 
at the W end of the Green an English force which had 
landed at Dunnottar, and slew their leader, Sir Thomas 
Roslyne. In vengeance whereof Edward, returning, once 
more burned the town, which, being rebuilt on an extended 
scale, with material aid from King David Bruce, received 
the title of ' New Aberdeen. ' That monarch resided 
some time in the city, and erected a mint and held a 
parliament at it, whilst confirming all his predecessors' 
grants ; Robert III. , too, struck coins at Aberdeen. 
During the captivity of James I. and the minority or 
James II., the citizens bore arms for their own protec- 
tion, built walls around the town, kept the gates care 
fully shut by night, and by day maintained an armed 
patrol of their own number. In 1411, when the Earl of 
Mar collected forces to oppose an inroad of Donald of the 
Isles upon the north-west of the shire, Sir Robert David- 
son, Provost of Aberdeen, led a band of the citizens to 
swell the earl's forces, and fell at their head in the 
battle of Haelaw. In 1462 the magistrates entered 
into a ten years' bond with the Earl of Huntly, to pro- 
tect them in their freedom and property, whilst, saving 
their allegiance to the Crown, they should at any time 
receive him and his followers into the city. In 1497 a 
blockhouse was erected at the entrance of the harbour 
as a protection against the English. James IV. paid 
several visits to Aberdeen ; and once, in 1507, he rode 
in a single day from Stirling, through Perth and Aber- 
deen, to Elgin. Margaret his queen was sumptuously 
entertained (1511), as also were James V. (1537) and 
Mary of Guise (1556). In 1525 the citizens were attacked, 
and 80 of them killed or wounded by a foraging party 
under three country lairds ; and in consequence the 
town was put into a better state of defence. The plague 
raged here in 1401, 1498, 1506, 1514, 1530, 1538, 1546, 
1549, 1608, and 1647 ; and on the last occasion carried 
off 1760 persons, or more than a fifth of the whole 
population. In 1547 a body of Aberdonians fought 
with great gallantry at the disastrous battle of Pinkie ; 
in the early part of 1560 the city firmly received the 
doctrines of the Reformation, and for ' first minister of 
the true word of God ' had Adam Heriott, who died in 
1574. In 1562, during the conflict between the Earl of 
Huntly's and Queen Mary's forces, Aberdeen seems to 
have been awed equally by both parties ; but it suc- 
cumbed to the queen after her victory at Corrichie, and 
at it she witnessed the execution of Sir John Gordon, 
Huntly's second son. On 20 Nov. 1571, the Gor- 
dons and Fortieses met at the Craibstone between the 
city and the Bridge of Dee ; and in a half-hour's fight 
the Forbeses were routed, with a loss of 300 men to 
themselves, of 30 to the Gordons. James VI. paid visits 
to Aberdeen in 1582, 1589, 1592, 1594, and 1600 ; on 
these occasions entailing much expense on the citizens, 
both in entertainments and in money-gifts. The witch 



persecution here about this time resulted in the death 
from torture of many persons in prison , and in the burning, 
within the two years 1596-97, of 22 women and 1 man 
on the Castle Hill (Chambers' Bom. Annals, i. 278-285). 
In 1605 a General Assembly was convened at Aber- 
deen by Melville and others of the High Presbyterian 
party, but only 9 attended, who for their pains were 
5 of them banished the realm, the others summoned to 
the English Court ; in 1616 another General Assembly 
resolved that ' a liturgy be made and form of divine 
service.' A Cavalier stronghold, Aberdeen and the 
country around it rejected the Covenant, so in 1638 a 
committee of ministers — Henderson, Dixon, and Andrew 
Cant — was sent, with the Earl of Montrose at their 
head, to compel the people to sign. Their mission was 
thwarted by the famous ' Aberdeen Doctors ; ' but Mont- 
rose nest year twice occupied and taxed the city, on 
the second occasion winning admittance by the trilling 
skirmish of the Bridge of Dee, 19 June 1639. In the 
following May, too, Monro with his thousand deboshed 
Covenanters, subjected the townsfolk to grievous oppres- 
sion ; and continued harassment had at last subdued 
them to the Covenanting cause, when, on 13 Sept. 
1644, Montrose, as Royalist, re-entered Aberdeen, having 
routed the Covenanters between the Craibstone and the 
Justice Mills. 'In the fight,' says Spalding, 'there 
was little slaughter ; but horrible the slaughter in 
the flight, the lieutenant's men hewing down all they 
could overtake within and about the town. ' So that, 
as Dr Hill Burton observes, Montrose ' in his two first 
visits chastised the community into conformity with the 
Covenant, and now made compensation by chastising 
them for having yielded to his inflictions.' Charles II. 
lodged (7 July 1650) in a merchant's house just 
opposite the Tolbooth, on which was fastened one of 
Montrose's hands ; on 7 Sept. 1651, General Monk 
led a Commonwealth army into the city, where it 
continued several years. The Restoration was hailed by 
the Aberdonians with as great delight as the Revolution 
was looked on with disfavour ; yet scant enthusiasm 
was roused in Sept. 1715 by the Earl Marischal's 
proclamation at the Cross of James VIII., who himself 
on 24 Dec. passed incognito through the city, on his 
way from Peterhead to Fetteresso, where the Episcopal 
clergy and the new Jacobite magistrates of Aberdeen 
offered him homage. In the '45 Cope's force en- 
camped on the site of Union Terrace, and embarked 
from Aberdeen for Dunbar; the Duke of Gordon's cham- 
berlain again proclaimed James VIII. ; Lord Lewis 
Gordon next occupied the city ; and lastly the Duke 
of Cumberland lodged for 6 weeks in Guestrow. Two 
or three years before, between 500 and 600 persons of 
either sex had been kidnapped in Aberdeen for trans- 
portation to the American plantations ; one of them, 
Peter Williamson, returning in 1765, and issuing the 
narrative of his bondage, was imprisoned and banished 
for defamation of the magistrates, but eventually ob- 
tained from them £285 damages (Blackwood's Mag., 
May 1848). In a riot on the King's birthday (1S02) 4 
of the populace were shot by the military ; 42 of the 
Oscar's crew were drowned in the Grayhope (1813) ; and 
out of 260 persons attacked by cholera (1S32) 105 died. 
The Queen and Prince Albert visited Aberdeen on their 
way to Balmoral (7 Sept. 1848), and the latter pre- 
sided at the British Association (14 Sept. 1S59) ; whilst 
Her Majesty unveiled the Prince Consort Memorial 
(13 Oct. 1863), and opened the waterworks (16 Oct. 
1S66), then making her first public speech since her 
bereavement. Aberdeen has been the meeting-place of the 
British Association (1859), of the Social Science Congress 
(1877), and of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
(1840, '47, '58, '6S, and 76). 

The ' brave town ' gives title of Earl of Aberdeen (ere. 
1682) in the peerage of Scotland, of Viscount Gordon of 
Aberdeen (ere. 1814) in that of the United Kingdom, to 
a branch of the Gordon family, whose seat is Haddo 
House. Its illustrious natives are — Jn. Abercrombie, 
M.D. (1780-1844) ; Alex. Anderson (flo. 1615), mathe- 
matician ; Prof. Alex. Bain (b. 1818), logician ; Jn. 


Barbour, archdeacon of Aberdeen from 1357 to 1395, 
and author of the Brus; And. Baxter (1686-1750), meta- 
physician ; Thos. Blackwell (1701-57), scholar ; his 
brother Alexander, the botanist (beheaded at Stock- 
holm, 1747); Alex. Brodie (1830-67), sculptor; Jn. 
Burnet (1729-84), merchant and benefactor; Jn. Burnett 
(1764-1810), legal writer; Jn. Hill Burton, LL.D. 
(1809-81), historian; Geo. Campbell, D.D. (1719-96), 
divine and grammarian ; Alex. Chalmers (1759-1834), 
biographer and miscellaneous writer ; Alex. Cruden (1701- 
70), author of the Concordance ; Geo. Dalgarno (1626- 
87), inventor of a universal language; Jn. Dick, D.D. 
(1764-1833), Secession divine ; Jas. Donaldson, LL.D. 
(b. 1831), rector of Edinburgh High School; Walter 
Donaldson, 17th century scholar ; Jas. Matthews Dun- 
can, M.D. (b. 1826); Wm. Duncan (1717-60), trans- 
lator; Wm. Dyce, R.A. (1806-64); Wm. Forbes (1585- 
1634), Bishop of Edinburgh ; Jn. Forbes Robertson (b. 
1822), art-critic ; Dav. Fordyce (1711-51), professor of 
philosophy in Marischal College ; his brothers, James 
Fordyce, D.D. (1720-96), and Sir Wm. Fordyce (1724- 
92), an eminent physician ; Jas. Gibbs (1688-1754), 
architect ; Gilbert Gerard (1760-1815), divine ; his son, 
Alexander (d. 1839), explorer; Thos. Gray (d. 1876), 
artist ; Dav. Gregory (1661-1710), geometrician ; Jn. 
Gregory, M.D. (1724-73), and his son, James Gregory, 
M.D. (1753-1821) ; Wm. Guild, D.D. (1586-1657), prin- 
cipal of King's College ; Gilbert Jack (1578-1628), meta- 
physician ; Alex. Jaifray (1614-73), diarist, provost, and 
Quaker; George Jameson (1586-1644), the 'Scottish 
Vandyke;' Geo. Keith (c. 1650-1715), Quaker and anti- 
Quaker; Sir Jas. M'Grigor, Bart. (1771-1S58), head 
of the army medical department ; Prof. Dav. Masson (b. 
1822), litterateur; Major Jas. Mercer (1734-1803); Colin 
Milne, LL.D. (1744-1815), botanist; Rt. Morison, M.D. 
(1620-83), botanist ; Thos. Morison (flo. 1594), physician 
and anti -papist ; Jn. Ogilvie, D.D. (1733-1814), minor 
poet; Jas. Perry (1756-1821), journalist ; Jn. Phillip, 
R.A. (1817-67) ; And. Robertson (1777-1865), minia- 
turist ; Rev. Jas. Craigie Robertson (b. 1813), ecclesi- 
astical historian; Jos. Robertson, LL.D. (1810-66), 
antiquary; Alex. Ross (1590-1654), voluminous writer 
of Hudibrastic fame; Wm. Skinner, D.D. (1778-1857), 
Bishop of Aberdeen from 1816 ; Sir John Steell, R.S.A. 
(b. 1801), sculptor; Wm. Thorn (1799-1848), weaver- 
poet ; and Dav. Wedderburn (c. 1570-1650), Latin poet. 
— Chief among many illustrious residents are Alexander 
Arbuthnott (1538-83), principal of King's College from 
1569 ; the wit Jn. Arbuthnot (1667-1735), educated at 
Marischal Col. ; Neil Arnott, M.D. (178S-1S74), ed. at 
Grammar School and Marischal Col. ; Wm. Barclay 
(1546-1605), the learned civilian, student ; Peter Bayne 
(b. 1830), journalist, M.A. of Marischal Col. ; the 'Min- 
strel,' Jas. Beattie LL.D. (1735-1803), bursar of Mari- 
schal Col. 1749, master of Grammar School 1758, and 
professor of moral philosophy and logic at Marischal Col. 
1760; Jn. Stuart Blackie (b. 1809), son of Aberdeen 
banker, there educated, and professor of Latin literature 
in Marischal Col. 1841-52 ; Hector Boece (1465-1536), 
historian, and first principal of King's Col. ; Rt. Brown, 
D.C.L. (1773-1858), botanist, educated at Marischal 
Col. ; its principal, Wm. Lawrence Brown, D.D. (1755- 
1830) ; Dav. Buchanan (1745-1812), publisher, M.A. of 
Aberdeen ; Gilbert Burnet, D.D. (1643-1715), Bishop of 
Salisbury, student at Marischal Col. 1653-56 ; Jas. 
Burnet, Lord Monboddo (1714-99), student ib. ; Chas. 
Burney (1757-1817), scholar, M.A. of King's Col. ; 
Lord Byron (1788-1824), resident 1790-98 ; Andrew 
Cant, minister in Aberdeen in 1640 ; Donald Cargill 
(1610-81), Covenanting preacher, student at Aberdeen ; 
Fred. Carmichael (1708-51), divine, student of Marischal 
Col.; Jas. Cassie, R.S.A. (1819-79); Dav. Chalmers, 
Lord Ormond (1530-92), student ; Geo. Chalmers (1742- 
1S25), historian, student at King's Col. ; Geo. Chapman, 
LL.D. (1723-1S06), bursar*. ; Jas. Cheyne (d. 1602), 
head of Douay seminary, student; And. Clark (b. 1S26), 
M.D. of Aberdeen in 1854; Pat. Copland, LL.D. (1749- 
1822), student and professor of natural philosophy 
and of mathematics at Marischal Col. ; the Banffshire 


naturalist, Thos. Edward (b. 1S14); Rt. Mackenzie 
Daniel (1814-47), the 'Scottish Boz,' student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Thos. Dempster (1579-1625), historian, stu- 
dent; Archibald Forbes (b. 183S), journalist, student; 
Jn. Forbes (1593-1648), divine, student at King's Col., 
and minister of St Nicholas ; Pat. Forbes (1564-1635), 
Bishop of Aberdeen from 1618 ; Win. Forsyth (d. 1879), 
poet and journalist ; Sir Alexander Fraser (d. 1681), 
physician to Charles II. , student ; Simon Fraser, Lord 
Lovat (1667-1747), student at King's Col. ; Al. Gerard, 
D.D. (172S-95), educated at Grammar School, student at 
Marischal Col., and professor there of nat. philos. 1752, 
of divinity 1760, minister of Greyfriars 1759, and prof, 
of theology at King's Col. 1771 ; Walter Goodal (1706- 
66), antiquary, student at King's Col. ; Rt. Gordon 
(15S0-1661), geographer and historian, student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Sir AVm. Grant (1754-1822), solicitor-gene- 
ral and master of the rolls, student at King's Col. ; 
Gilbert Gray (d. 1614), second principal of Marischal 
Col., from 1598; Dav. Gregory (1627-1720), mechanician; 
his brother, James (163S-75), student at Marischal Col., 
the famous astronomer ; Wm. Guthrie (1701-70), histori- 
cal and miscellaneous writer, student at King's Col. ; Rt. 
Hall (1764-1831), dissenting divine, student ib. ; Rt. 
Hamilton, LL.D. (1743-1829), prof, at Marischal Col. of 
nat. phil. 1779, of math. 17S0-1814 ; Jos. Hume (1777- 
1855), medical student, and M.P. for Aberdeen 1818 ; 
AVm. Hunter (1777-1815), naturalist, student at Mari- 
schal Col. ; Arthur Johnston (1587-1641), Latin poet, 
student and rector of King's Col. ; Jn. Johnston (1570- 
1612), Latin poet, student ib. ; Rev. Ales. Keith, D.D. 
(b. 1791), student at Marischal Col. ; Geo. Keith, fifth 
Earl Marischal (1553-1623), student of King's, and 
founder of Marischal Col. in 1593 ; Bishop Rt. Keith 
(1681-1757), student at Marischal Col. ; John Leslie, 
Bishop of Ross (1526-96), vicar-general of Aberdeen 155S ; 
Jn. Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe (d. 1671), student ; David 
Low, Bishop of Ross (1768-1855), student and LL.D. of 
Marischal Col. ; Geo. Low (1746-95), naturalist, student ; 
Geo. Macdonald (b. 1S24), poet and novelist, student at 
King's Col. ; AVm. Macgillivray, LL.D. (d. 1852), prof, 
of nat. hist, in Marischal Col. from 1841 ; Sir Geo. 
Mackenzie (1636-92), legal antiquary, student ; Ewen 
Maclachlan (1775-1S22), Gaelic poet, bursar of King's 
Col., and head-master of Grammar School 1819 ; Colin 
Maekurin (169S-1746), math. prof, in Marischal Col. 
1717-25 ; Jn. Maclean, Bishop of Saskatchewan (b. 
1828), student; Jas. Macpherson (173S-96), of Ossian 
celebrity, student at King's Col. 1752 ; David Mallet 
(1700-65), poet, educated at Aberdeen ; Jas. Marr (1700- 
61), M.A. of King's Col. 1721, master of Poor's Hospital 
1742; Jas. Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), prof, of nat. philos. 
in Marischal Col. 1856-60 ; AA T m. Meston (16SS-1745), 
burlesque poet, student at Marischal Col., and teacher 
in Grammar School ; Jn. Pringle Nichol (1804-59), 
astronomer, student at King's Col. ; Alexander Nicoll 
(1793-1828), orientalist, educated at Grammar School 
and Marischal Col. ; Sir- Jas. Outram (1S05-63), Indian 
general, student at Marischal Col. ; AVm. Robinson 
Pirie, D.D. (b. 1S04), divinity professor 1843, principal 
1877 ; Jas. Ramsay (1733-S9), philanthropist, bursar of 
King's CoL ; Thos. Reid (1710-96), metaphysician, stu- 
dent and librarian of Marischal Col., prof, of philos. 
in King's Col. 1752-63; Sir Jn. Rose, Bart. (b. 1S20), 
student at King's Col. ; Alex. Ross (1699-1784), poet, 
M.A. of Marischal Col. 1718; Thos. Ruddirnan (1674- 
1757), Latin grammarian, bursar of King's Col. 1690- 
94; Helenus Scott, M.D. (d. 1821), student; Hy. 
Scougal (1650-7S), prof, of philos. in King's Col. 166*9- 
73; Jas. Sharpe, Archbishop of St Andrews (1613-79), 
student at Marischal Col. ; Bailie Alex. Skene (flo. 1670), 
historian of Aberdeen; Rev. Jn. Skinner (1721-1807), 
poet, bursar of Marischal Col. ; his son, Jn. Skinner 
(1743-1816), student at Marischal Col., and Bishop 
of Aberdeen from 17S4 ; Jn. Spalding (flo. 1624-45), 
commissary clerk and diarist ; and John Stuart, LL. D. 
(1813-77), antiquary, student. It may be added that 
about 1715 Rob Roy was staying with his kinsman, 
Dr Jas. Gregory, prof, of medicine in King's Col. ; that 


in 1773 Dr Samuel Johnson and Boswell put up at the 
New Inn ; and that Bums came to ' Aberdeen, a lazy 
town,' 7 Sept 1787. 

The Synod of Aberdeen, generally meeting there, but 
sometimes at Banff, comprises the presbyteries of Aber- 
deen, Kincardine O'Neil, Afford, Garioch, Ellon, Deer, 
Turriff, and Fordyee. Pop. (1871) 285,417, of whom, 
according to a parliamentary return (1st May 1S79) 
73,S52 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878. The sums raised by its 143 congregations on 
behalf of Christian liberality amounted to £28,836 in 
1880, when there were 210 Sabbath schools within it, 
with 19,956 scholars. The presbytery of Aberdeen com- 
prises 34 congregations, viz., the 14 Aberdeen churches, 
and Ruthrieston, Old Machar, University, AVoodside, 
Banchory-Deveniek, Craigiebuckler, Belhelvie, Drum- 
oak, Durris, Dyce, Fintray, Kinnellar, Maryculter, New- 
hills, New Machar, Nigg, Peterculter, Portlethen, 
Skene, and Stoneywood. Pop. (1871) 111,807, the 
communicants numbering 22,6S7 in 1S78, and the sums 
raised for Christian liberality amounting to £13,836 in 
1880. — The Free Church synod, whose presbyteries are 
identical with those of the Established synod, in 1SS0 
had 107 churches, with 28,734 communicants ; its 
presbytery included 37 congregations with 14,378 com- 
municants — the 21 Aberdeen churches, and Banchory- 
Deveniek, Belhelvie, Blackburn, Cults, Drumoak, Dur- 
ris, Dyce, Kingswell, Maryculter, Newhills, Old Machar, 
Peterculter, Skene, Tony, AA 7 oodside, and Bourtreebush. 
—The U.P. presbytery of Aberdeen in 1S80 had 32S3 
members and 16 congregations — the 6 Aberdeen churches, 
and Banchory, Craigdam, Ellon, Lumsden, Lynturk, 
Midmar, Old Meldrnm, Shiels, Stonehaven, and AA T ood- 
side. — Since 1577 there have been 17 Protestant bishops 
of Aberdeen, to which the revived diocese of Orkney was 
added in 1S64. In 1880 the congregations of the 37 
churches within the united diocese numbered 10,759, 
the communicants 5316, and the children attending 
Episcopal schools 23SS. — After having been vacant for 
301 years, the Catholic see of Aberdeen was re-established 
in 1878 ; and in its diocese in 18S0 there were 49 priests, 
33 missions, 53 churches, chapels, and stations, 2 col 
leges, 7 convents, and 20 congregational schools. 

See, besides works cited under Aberdeenshire, 
Bailie Alex. Skene's Succinct Survey of the famous City 
of Aberdeen (16S5), AV. Thorn's History of Aberdeen (2 
vols., 1811), AVm. Kennedy's Annals of Aberdeen (2 
vols., 1818), Joseph Robertson's Book of Bon-Accord 
(1839), James Bruce's Lives of Eminent Hen of Aber- 
deen (1841), vol. i. of Billings' Baronial and Ecclesias- 
tical Antiquities (1845), Cosmo Innes' Sketches of Early 
Scottish History (1S61), Aberdeen Fifty Years Ago 
(1868), Slezer's Theatrum Scotia: (1693 ; new ed. 1874), 
an excellent series of articles in the Builder (1865-66, 
1S77) ; and, published by the Spalding Club, the Rev. 
Jas. Gordon's DescrijHion of Botlie Towns of Aber- 
deen, 1661, ed. by Cosmo Innes (1842), Extracts from 
the Council Begistcr of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 1398- 
1625, ed. by Jn. Stuart (2 vols., 1844-49), his edition of 
Spalding's llemorialls of the Trubles in Scotland and 
England, 1624-45 (2 vols., 1850-51), his Selections from 
the Records of the Kirk-Session, Presbytery, and Synod 
of Aberdeen, 1562-16S1 (1S46), and C. Innes' Eegistrum 
Episcopatxis Aberdonensis (2 vols. , 1845), and Selections 
from the Records of the University and. King's College, 
Aberdeen, 1494-1854 (1854). Besides the Ordnance 6- 
ineh and 3^ maps, there are the Ordnance 1-inch map, 
sh. 77 (1873), Keith and Gibb's lf-inch Map of the 
Environs (Ab. 1S7S), and Gibb & Hay's 9-inch Map of 
the City (Ab. 1880). 

Aberdeen and Banff Railway, a section of the Great 
North of Scotland railway, starts from the main line 
at Inveramsay, 20i miles NAV of Aberdeen. The south- 
ern part of it to Turriff (18 miles) was authorised on 
15 June lS55,under the title of the Banff, Macduff, and 
Turriff Junction ; was then designed to be prolonged 
northward to Banff and Macduff; was opened to Turriff, 
on 5 Sept. 1857; and took the name of the Aberdeen 
and Turriff Railway on 19 April 1859. The part from 




Turriff to Banff (1H miles), authorised on 27 July 
1857, under the name of the Banff, Macduff, and Turriff 
Extension, was opened on 4 June 1860, and was ex- 
tended from Banff to Macduff (} mile) in 1872. The 
entire system has a total length of 29£ miles, with 10 
stations and summit levels of 405 and 374 feet ; was in- 
corporated with the Great North of Scotland on 30 
July 1866 ; and is brought into a circle with it by the 
Banffshire Railway, extending south-westward from 
Banff harbour to Grange Junction. 

Aberdeen Railway, a railway from Aberdeen, south- 
south-westward to the centre of Forfarshire. It was 
authorised on 31 July 1845, and opened on 30 March 
1850. It cost very much more per mile than had been 
estimated, yet a good deal less than either the Scottish 
Central, the Edinburgh, Perth, & Dundee, the North 
British, or the Caledonian. It commences at Guild 
Street, adjacent to the upper dock and to the foot of 
Market Street ; crosses the Dee at Polmuir, by the 
viaduct noticed on p. 12 ; proceeds by the stations of 
Cove, Portlethen, Newtonhill, and Muchalls, to Stone- 
haven ; goes thence through the fertile district of the 
Mearns, by the stations of Drumlithie, Fordoun, Lau- 
rencekirk, Marykirk, and Craigo, to the northern border 
of Forfarshire ; sends off at Dubton Junction a branch 
3 miles and 160 yards eastward to Montrose ; sends off 
again at Bridge-of-Dun Junction a branch of 3 miles and 
862 yards westward to Brechin ; proceeds by the station 
of Farnell Road to Guthrie Junction, and makes also a 
junction with the Arbroath and Forfar railway at Friock- 
heim. That railway, previously formed, was leased to it in 
1848, and ultimately incorporated with it. The Aberdeen 
itself and the Scottish Midland Junction were amalga- 
mated in 1856, under the name of the Scottish North- 
Eastern ; and the Scottish North-Eastern, in turn, was 
amalgamated with the Caledonian, in 1866 ; so that the 
Aberdeen is now the northern part of the Caledonian 
system. The length of the Aberdeen proper, exclusive 
of branches, is 49 miles, and inclusive of branches and 
of the Arbroath and Forfar, is 72 miles. 

Aberdeenshire, a maritime county, forming the ex- 
treme NE of Scotland, lies between 56° 52' and 57° 42' 
N lat, and between 1° 48' and 3° 46' W long. It is 
bounded N and E by the German Ocean, S by the 
counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth, and W by 
those of Inverness and Banff. Its outline is very irre- 
gular ; but roughly describes an oblong extending from 
NE to SW, broadest near the middle and narrowing 
towards the SW. The greatest length, from Cairnbulg 
Head, on the E side of Fraserburgh Bay, to Cairn 
Ealer, at the meeting-point with Perth and Inverness 
shires, is 85-J miles ; the'greatest breadth, from the mouth 
of the river Dee to the head-springs of the river Don, is 
47 miles ; and the circuit line measures some 2S0 miles, 
62 of which are sea-coast. Fifth in size of the Scottish 
counties, Aberdeenshire has an area of 1970 square miles 
or 1,260,625 acres. It was anciently divided into 
Buchan in the N, Formartine, Strathbogie, and Garioeh 
in the middle, and Mar in the SW ; it is now divided 
into the districts of Deer, Turriff, Huntly, Garioeh, 
Alford, Ellon, Aberdeen, and Kincardine O'Neil. 

The surface, in a general view, consists largely of tame 
levels or uninteresting tumulations, but includes the 
long splendid valleys of the Don and Dee, and ascends 
to the grand Grampian knot of the Cairngorm Moun- 
tains. The coast is mostly bold and rugged, occasion- 
ally rising into precipices, 100 to 150 feet high, and 
pierced with extensive caverns, but in the southern 
part, adjacent to Aberdeen, sinks into broad sandy flats. 
About two-thirds of the entire surface are either moss, 
moor, hill, or mountain. Much of the scenery is bleak 
and cheerless, but around some of the larger towns, and 
along the courses of the principal rivers, it abounds 
with features of beauty or grandeur. In the SW the 
Cairngorm and the Grampian Mountains combine, with 
corries, glens, and valleys among or near them, to form 
magnificent landscapes ; throughout the shire, from N 
to S, and crosswise from W to E, the following are the 
chief summits, those marked with asterisks culminating 

on the boundary: — Hill of Fishrie (749 feet), Mormond 
Hill (769), Hill of Shenwall (957), *Meikle Balloch 
(1199), Clashmaeh Hill (1229), Corsegight (619), Dud- 
wick (572), Top of Noth (1851), Hill of Foudland (1509), 
Core Hill (804), Buck of Cabrach (2368), *Carn Mor 
(2636), Correen Hills (1699), Caillievar (1747), Ben- 
nachie (1698), Hill of Fare (1545), Brimmond Hill 
(870), Brown Cow Hill (2721), Morven Hill (2862), 
*Ben Avon (3843), *Braeriach (4248), Cairntoul (4241), 
Ben Macdhui (4296), Beinn Bhrotain (3795), *An Sgar- 
soch (3300), *Beinn a' Chaoruinn (3553), *Beinn a' 
Bhuird (3924), Cam Eas (3556), *Beinn Iutharn Mhor 
(3424), *Cairn na Glasha (3484), Lochnagar (3786), 
Mount Keen (3077), and Cock Cairn (2387). The princi- 
pal rivers are the Deveron, rising in the north-west and 
soon passing into Banffshire ; the Bogie, running to the 
Deveron, about J mile below Huntly ; the Ugie, run- 
ning south-eastward to the sea, about a mile N of 
Peterhead ; the Cruden, running eastward to the sea at 
Cruden Bay ; the Ythan, running 33-J miles north-east- 
ward and south-eastward to the sea, a little below New- 
burgh ; the TJrie, going south-eastward to the Don, at 
Inverurie; the Don, rising at an altitude of 1980 feet, 
adjacent to the county's western boundary, and making 
a sinuous run eastward of about 82J miles, all within the 
county, to the sea in the vicinity of Old Aberdeen ; and 
the Dee, rising on Cairntoul, at 4060 feet above sea- 
level, and making a sinuous run of about 87 miles, 
partly through Braemar, partly through the Aberdeen 
portions of Deeside, and partly along the boundary with 
Kincardineshire to the sea at Aberdeen. The chief 
lakes are Lochs Dhu, Muick, Callater, Brothacan, Kin- 
Ord, Drum, and Strathbeg, but are all small. Granite is 
the prevailing rock ; occurs of various kinds or qualities ; 
forms the great mass of the mountains together with ex- 
tensive tracts eastward to the sea ; has, for about 300 
years, been extensively worked ; and in recent times, up 
to 1881, has been in rapidly increasing demand as an 
article of export. The quantities shipped at Aberdeen 
alone are remarkably great. The quarries of it at Kemnay 
employ about 250 workmen, with the aid of steam power, 
all the year round, and since 1858, have raised Kemnay 
from the status of a rural hamlet to that of a small town. 
Other notable quarries are those of Rubislaw, Sclattie, 
Dancing Cairn, Persley, Cairngall, and Stirling-Hill, 
near Peterhead. The Kemnay granite has a light colour 
and a close texture, and owes to these properties its high 
acceptance in the market. The Rubislaw granite is of a 
fine dark-blue colour, and was the material used in the 
construction of great part of Union Street in Aberdeen. 
The Cairngall granite is small grained, of fine texture, 
and admirably suited for polishing and for ornamental 
work ; it furnished the sarcophagus for the remains of 
the late Prince Consort. The Stirling-Hill or Peterhead 
granite is of a red colour, and of much larger grain than 
the other granites ; it is much used for mural tablets, 
monumental stones, and ornate pillar shafts. The 
granites are sometimes associated with gneiss, with 
Silurian rocks, or with greenstone, basalt, or other 
traps ; and, viewed in connection with these, they form 
fully eight-ninths of the substrata of the entire county. 
Devonian rocks occur in the north, underlie the wide 
level moors and mosses of Buchan, and have yielded 
millstones in the parish of Aberdour. Blue slate, two 
beds of limestone, and a large vein of ironstone occur 
in Culsalmond parish, forming parts of strata which 
have been much tilted and deranged ; and both the 
slate and the limestone have been worked. Limestone 
abounds also in other localities ; but, owing to the 
scarcity of coal, except near a seaport, it cannot be 
advantageously worked. Beautiful green serpentine, 
with white and grey spots, occurs in Leslie parish, and 
is easily wrought into snuff-boxes and ornamental 
objects. Plumbago and indications of metallic ores 
have been found in Huntly parish. Gold, in small 
quantities, has been found in Braemar, and on parts of 
the coast near Aberdeen. Amethysts, beryls, emeralds, 
and other precious stones, particularly the species of 
rock crystal called cairngorms, are found in the moun- 


*= anvich %y 




tains of Braemar. Agates, of a fine polish and beautiful 
variety, have been got on the shore near Peterhead. 
Asbestos, talc, syenite, and mica also have been found. 
Mineral springs of celebrated character are at Peterhead 
and Pannanieh. 

The surface of the mountains for the most part is 
either bare rock or such thin poor soil as admits of 
little or no profitable improvement even for the purposes 
of hill pasture ; that of the moorlands and the mosses 
comprises many tracts which might be thoroughly 
reclaimed, and not a few which have, in recent times, 
been greatly improved ; and that of the lowland dis- 
tricts has a very various soil, — most of it naturally 
poor or churlish, a great deal now transmuted by judi- 
cious cultivation into fine fertile mould, and some 
naturally good diluvium or rich alluvium, now in very 
productive arable condition. Spongy humus and coarse 
stiff clays are common in the higher districts ; and 
light sands and finer clays prevail in the valleys and 
on the seaboard. So great an area as nearly 200,000 
acres in Braemar and Crathie is incapable of tillage. 
Only about 5000 acres in Strathdon parish, containing 
47,737 acres, are arable. Nearly 16,000 acres, in a tract 
of about 40,000 acres between the Dee and the Don, 
midway between the sources and the mouths of these 
rivers, are under the plough. The principal arable 
lands lie between the Don and the Ythan, in Formartine 
and Garioch, in Strathbogie, and between the Ugie and 
the sea. Much improvement arose early from the im- 
pulse given by the Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland ; and has been vigorously carried forward 
under impulse of the Garioch Farmer Club (instituted 
1808), the Buchan Agricultural Society (1829), the For- 
martine Agricultural Association (1829), the Vale of 
Alford Agricultural Association (1S31), the Ythanside 
Farmer Club (1811), the Royal Northern Agricultural 
Society (1843), the Mar Agricultural Association, the 
Inverurie Agricultural Association, and many of the 
greater landed proprietors, and of the most enterprising 
of the farmers. The recent improvements have com- 
prised, not only extensive reclamation of waste lands, 
but also more economical methods of cropping, better 
tillage, better implements, better manuring, better farm- 
yard management, better outhouse treatment of live- 
stock, and extensive sub-soil draining ; and they have 
resulted in such vast increase of produce from both 
arable lands and pastures as has changed the county 
from a condition of constant loss in the balance of agri- 
cultural imports and exports, to a condition of constant 
considerable gain. 

According to Miscellaneous Statistics of the United 
Kingdom (1879), 1,255,138 acres, with total gross esti- 
mated rental of £1,118,849, were divided among 7472 
landowners; one holding 139,829 acres (rental, £17,740), 
four together 300,827 (£86,296), five 120,882 (£35,959), 
fourteen 186,302 (£113,927), twenty -five 179,083 
(£123,251), forty-six 158,214 (£131,751), sixty 87,466 
(£109,805), fifty-eight 42,037 (£45,992), one hundred 
and twenty-six 30,441 (£69,691), thirty-eight 2658 
(£1S,S80), one hundred and eighty-two 3822 (£37,745), 
four hundred and twenty-one 1333 (£50,662), and 6492 
holding 2274 acres (£277,150). 

Tenantry-at-will is now almost entirely unknown. 
Tenant-tenure is usually by lease for from 15 to 19 
years. The tenant, in the management of his land, was 
formerly restricted to a 5 years' and a 7 years' course 
of rotation, but is now generally allowed the option 
also of a 6 years' course ; and he is usually allowed 3 
years, after entering on his farm, to determine which 
of the courses he shall adopt. The 7 years' course com- 
monly gives 1 year to turnips, the next year to barley 
or oats with grass seeds, the next 3 years to grass fallow 
or pasture, and the last 2 years to successive crops of oats. 
That course and the 5 years' one are still the most com- 
monly practised ; but the 6 years' course has come into 
extensive and increasing favour, and is generally re- 
garded as both the most suitable, to the nature of the 
prevailing soil , and the most consonant with the principles 
of correct husbandry. Arable farms generally rent from 

15s. to 30s. per acre ; but some near Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
and Inverurie, rent much higher. 

The acres under corn crops were 206,577 in 1866, 
214,676 in 1873, and 212,767 in 1SS0 ; under green crops 
—102,744 in 1866, 106,003 in 1874, and 104,203 in 1880. 
Of the total 603,226 acres under crops and grass in 1S80, 
16,564 were oats, 114 wheat, 92,972 turnips, 259,645 
clover, sanfoin, and grasses under rotation, 25,861 per- 
manent pasture, etc. The number of cattle was 133,451 
in 1866, 169,625 in 1875, and 152,106 in 1880. Tha 
cattle are of various breeds, and have on the whole 
been highly improved. The small Highland breed 
was formerly in much request, but has latterly dwindled 
to comparative insignificance. A few Ayrshire cows have 
been imported for dairy purposes ; but no Ayrshires, and 
scarcely any Galloways, are bred in the county. One 
Hereford herd here is the only one in Scotland. The 
polled Angus or Aberdeen breed has had great attention 
from Mr M'Combie of Tillyfonr ; has won him 8 splen- 
did cups, 20 gold medals, 50 silver medals, 7 bronze 
medals, and upwards of £2500 in money ; and has pro- 
duced some animals of such high qualities as to bring 
each from 100 to 200 guineas. The same breed was 
largely kept by Colonel Fraser of Castle Fraser (d. 1871), 
who won a prize for it in 186S over Mr M'Combie, 
besides a remarkable number of other prizes. Other 
great breeders of it have been the late Mr Rt. Walker of 
Portlethen, Mr Geo. Brown of Westertown, Mr Jas. 
Skinner of Drumin, and Mr Al. Paterson of Midben, 
who have found successors in Mr A. Bowie of Mains of 
Kelly, Sir Geo. Macpherson Grant of Ballindalloch, Mr 
Jas. Scott of Easter Tulloch, Mr Wm. Skinner of 
Drumin, etc. (Trans. Sight, and Arj. Soc, 1877, p. 299). 
The shorthorned breed is raised more numerously in 
Aberdeenshire than in any other Scottish county ; was 
introduced about 1830, but did not obtain much atten- 
tion till after 1850 ; comprises nine celebrated herds 
(the Sittyton, Einellar, Kinaldie, Cairnbrogie, etc.), be- 
sides many smaller ones ; and has sent off to the market, 
annually for several years, nearly 400 bull calves and 
about half as many young heifers. The number of sheep 
was 112,684 in 1856, 158,220 in 1S69, 144.SS2 in 1873, 
157,105 in 1874 and 137,693 in 18S0. The breeding 
of sheep is carried on most extensively in the upland 
districts ; and the feeding of them, in the middle 
and lower districts. The upland flocks move to the 
lowlands of Aberdeenshire and the adjoining counties 
about November, and do not return till April. Black- 
faced wethers, 2, 3,- and even 4 years old, are, on 
some farms on the lower districts, fed with grass 
in summer, and with turnips and straw in winter. 
Blackfaced sheep constitute more than one-half of all 
the sheep in the uplands ; and also are extensively 
bred in the inland districts of Braemar, Strathdon, Glen- 
bucket, Corgarff, Cromar, Cabrach, and Rhynie, but not 
in the lower districts. Cross-breeds are not so num- 
erous as the blackfaced, yet form extensive flocks, 
and are fed for the slaughter-market. Leicesters have, 
for a number of years, been extensively bred, and they 
form fine flocks at Pitmedden, Fornot-Skene, Gowner, Old. 
Meldrum, Strichen Mains, and some other places. There 
are no pure Cheviots, and few Southdowns. The num- 
ber of horses was 22,274 in 1855, 24,45S in 1S69, 
23,202 in 1S73, and 26,851 in 18S0, of which 6506 were 
kept solely for breeding. They are partly Clydesdales, 
Lincolns, and crosses ; and though not very heavy, may, 
for the most part, stand comparison with the average of 
horses throughout the best part of Scotland. The number 
of pigs was 14,763 in 1866, 7773 in 1869, 10,565 in 
1874, and 7240 in 1880. The accommodation for farm 
servants is better than it was, but still not so good as 
could be desired. The farm-house kitchens are still the 
abodes of the majority of the servants ; and homes for 
the families of the married men cannot, in many in- 
stances, be found nearer than 8, 10, and even 20 miles. 
Handsome cottages for servants have been built by 
the Duke of Richmond on several of his larger farms in 
the Strathbogie districts ; and these, it is hoped, may 
serve as models for similar buildings on other estates. 



Fann servants' wages are about double what they 
were 40 years before. Feeing markets, believed to have 
an injurious effect on the morals of the agricultural 
labourers, are being superseded by a well-organised 
system of local registration offices. 

In 1S79 orchards covered 29 acres, market gardens 
439, nursery grounds 182 ; and in 1872 there were 
93,339 acres of woods within the shire. About 
175,000 acres are disposed in deer forests. A great 
deal of land in the upper part of the Dee Valley, pre- 
viously under the plough, or used as sheep pasture, was 
converted, during the 40 years ending in 18S1, into deer 
forest. Large portions of Braemar, Glentanner, and Mort- 
lach are still covered with natural wood. ' The mountains 
there seem to be divided by a dark sea of firs, whose 
uniformity of hue and appearance affords inexpressible 
solemnity to the scene, and carries back the mind to 
those primeval ages, when the axe had not invaded the 
boundless region of the forest. ' The Scotch pine is very 
generally distributed, and flourishes up to 1500 feet 
above sea-level, as also does the larch. Birch, alder, pop- 
lar, and other trees likewise abound ( Trans. Highl. and 
Ag. Soc, 1874, pp. 264-303). Grouse, black game, the 
hedgehog, the otter, the badger, the stoat, the polecat, and 
the wild-cat are indigenous. Salmon used to beveryplenti- 
ful in the Dee and the Don, but, of late years, have greatly 
decreased. About 20,000 salmon and 40,000 grilses, in- 
clusive of those taken by stake nets, and at the beach 
adjacent to the river's mouth, are still in an average 
season captured in the Dee. The yellow trout of the 
Dee are both few and small. A small variety of salmon 
is got in Loch Callater, and excellent red trout in 
Loch Brothacan. So many as 3000 salmon and grilses 
were caught in a single week of July 1849 at the mouth of 
the river Don. Salmon, sea-trout, yellow trout, and a 
few pike are got in the Don. Pearls are found in the 
Ythan ; and the large pearl in the crown of Scotland is 
believed to have been found at the influx of Kelly Water to 
the Ythan. Salmon, sea-trout, and finnocks, in consider- 
able numbers, ascend the Ythan. Salmon ascend also the 
Ugie ; finnocks abound near that river's mouth ; and burn- 
trout are plentiful in its upper reaches and affluents. 
Tench, carp, and Loch Leven trout are in an artificial lake 
of about 50 acres at Pitfour. Bed trout, yellow trout, 
and some perch are in Loch Strathbeg. Herrings, cod, 
ling, hake, whiting, haddock, hallibut, turbot, sole, and 
skate abound in the sea along the coast; and are 
caught in great quantities by fishermen at and near the 
stations of Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Fraserburgh. 

The manufactures of Aberdeenshire figure principally 
in Aberdeen and its immediate neighbourhood, but are 
shared by some other towns and by numerous villages. 
The woollen trade, in the various departments of tweeds, 
carpets, winceys, and shawls, has either risen, or is rising 
to great prominence ; but is seated principally in Aberdeen 
and its near vicinity, and has been noticed in our article 
on Aberdeen. The linen trade, as to both yarn and cloth, 
has figured largely in the county since about 1745 ; and 
is seated chiefly at Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Huntly. 
The cotton trade employed 1448 hands in 1841, but has 
declined. Paper-making is carried on more extensively 
in Aberdeenshire than in any other Scottish county ex- 
cepting that of Edinburgh. One firm alone has a very 
large mill for writing-paper at Stoneywood, another mill 
for envelopes at what is called the Union Paper- works, a 
third mill for coarse papers at "VVoodside ; employ upwards 
of 2000 persons ; and turn out between 60 and 70 tons of 
paper, cards, and cardboard, and about 6,000,000 en- 
velopes every week. Rope-making, comb-making, boot 
and shoe making, iron-founding, machine-making, ship- 
building, and various other crafts, likewise employ very 
many hands. The leather trade proper makes little figure 
within the county, but elsewhere is largely upheld by 
constant supplies of hides to the Aberdeen market. 
The number of cattle killed for export of dead meat 
from Aberdeen is so great, that the hides sold annually 
there, taking the year 1867 for an average, amount to 
no fewer than 41,600. The commerce of the county is 
given under its two head ports, Aberdeen and Peter- 


head. The tolls were abolished at 'Whitsunday 1866 ; 
the roads have since been managed by 8 trusts, in 1881 
being kept in repair by means of an assessment of 6d. 
per pound. The railways are the Caledonian and the 
Great North of Scotland ; and, with the sections of the 
latter, the Aberdeen and Banff, the Inverurie and Old 
Meldrum, the Alford Valley, the Formartine and Buchan, 
and the Deeside, they are separately noticed. 

The royal burghs are Aberdeen, Inverurie, and Kin- 
tore ; a principal town and parliamentary burgh is Peter- 
head ; and othertownsand principal villagesare — Huntly, 
Fraserburgh, Turriff, Old Meldrum, Old Deer, Tarland, 
Stewartfield, St Combs, Boddam, Rosehearty, Inveral- 
lochy, Cairnbulg, Ellon, Newburgh, Colliston, New Pit- 
sligo, Banchory, Aboyne, Ballater, Castleton of Brae- 
mar, Cuminestown, Newbyth, Fyvie, Insch, Rhynie, 
Lumsden, Alford, Kemnay, Auchmill, Bankhead, Burn- 
haven, Buchanhaven, Broadsea, Woodside, Garmond, 
Gordon Place, Longside, Mintlaw, Aberdour, New Deer, 
Strichen, and Woodend. The chief seats are — Balmoral 
Castle, Abergeldie Castle, Huntly Lodge, Aboyne Castle, 
Slains Castle, Keith Hall, Mar Lodge, Skene House, 
Dalgety Castle, Dunecht House, Haddo House, Philorth 
Castle, Castle-Forbes, Logie-Elphinstone, Westhall, Cri- 
monmogate, Newe, Edinglassie, Fintray House, Craigie- 
var Castle, Monymusk, Hatton House, Pitmedden House, 
Finzean, Invercauld, Ballogie, Castle Fraser, Countess- 
wells, Clunie, Learney, Drum, Grandholm, Haughton, 
Ward House, White Haugh, Leith Hall, Mount-Stuart, 
Rothie, Fyvie House, Rayne, Manar, Freefield, Warthill, 
Pitcaple, Meldrum, Auchnacoy, Ellon House, Brucklay 
Castle, Tillyfour, and Pitlurg. 

The county is governed (18S1) by a lord-lieutenant, 
a vice-lieutenant, 58 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 2 
sheriffs-substitute, 3 honorary sheriffs-substitute, and 
334 magistrates ; and is divided, for administration, 
into the districts of Braemar, Deeside, Aberdeen, Alford, 
Huntly, Turriff, Garioch, Ellon, Deer, and New Machar. 
Besides the courts held at Aberdeen, a sheriff court is 
held at Peterhead on every Friday, and sheriff small debt 
circuit courts are held at Aboyne, Inverurie, Huntly, 
Turriff, and Fraserburgh, once every 3 months. The 
prisons are the East Prison of Aberdeen, and the police 
cells of Peterhead, Huntly, and Fraserburgh, all three 
legalised in 1874 for periods not exceeding 3 days. 
The criminals, in the annual average of 1841-45, were 93 ; 
of 1S46-50, 117 ; of 1851-55, 104 ; of 1856-60, 89 ; of 
1S61-65, 87; of 1864-6S, 73; of 1869-73, 60; of 1S75-79, 
52. The police force in 1880, exclusive of that for Aber- 
deen burgh, comprised 70 men ; and the salary of the chief 
constable was £350. The number of persons in 1879, ex- 
clusive of those in Aberdeen burgh, tried at the instance 
of the police, was 1450 ; the number of these convicted, 
1395 ; the number committed for trial, 16 ; the number 
charged but not dealt with, 283. The annual value of 
real property in 1815 was £325,218 ; in 1843, £605,802 ; 
in 1881, £919,203, including £52,387 for railways, etc. 
The county, exclusive of the burghs, sent 1 member to 
parliament prior to the Reform Act of 1867 ; but by that 
Act, it was constituted into 2 divisions, eastern and 
western, each sending 1 member. The constituency in 
1881, of the eastern division, was 4721 ; of the western 
division, 4139. The population in 1801 was 121,065 ; in 
1811, 133,871 ; in 1821, 155,049 ; in 1831, 177,657 ; in 
1841, 192,387 ; in 1851, 212,032 ; in 1861, 223,344 ; in 
1871, 244,603; in 1881, 267,963, of whom 139,9S5 were 

The registration county gives off parts of Banchory - 
Devenick and Banchory-Ternan parishes to Kincardine- 
shire, takes in part of Drumoak from Kincardineshire, 
and parts of Cairney, Gartly, Glass, New Machar, and 
Old Deer from Banffshire ; comprises 82 entire parishes ; 
and had in 1S61 a population of 223,344, in 1881 of 
269,014. Five of the parishes in 1880 were unassessed for 
the poor ; two, Aberdeen-St Nicholas and Old Machar, 
had each a poorhouse and a poor law administration for 
itself ; and 10 forming Buchan combination, had a poor- 
house dating from 1869. The number of registered poor 
in the year ending 14 May 1S80, was 5616; of dependants 


on these, 3494; of unregistered or casual poor, 1474 ; of 
dependants on these, 1431. The receipts for the poor in 
that year were £61,882, 14s. 2d. ; and the expenditure 
was£60,618, 8s. ljd. The number of pauper lunatics was 
704 ; and the expenditure on their account, £13,144, 4s. 
lid. The percentage of illegitimate births was 14 '5 in 
1876, 13-3 in 1877, and 137 in 1879. The climate is 
far from unhealthy, and, while varying much in different 
parts, is on the whole mild. The temperature of the 
mountainous parts, indeed, is about the lowest in Scot- 
land ; and the rainfall in the aggregate of the entire area 
is rather above the mean. The winters are not so cold 
as in the southern counties, and the summers are not so 
warm or long. The mean temperature, noted from 13 
years' observation, is 46 '7 at Aberdeen, and 43 "6 at 
Braemar, 1114 feet above sea-level. 

Religious statistics have been already given under Aber- 
deen, p. 19 ; in 1879 the county had 236 public schools 
(accommodation, 35,848), 70 non-public but State-aided 
schools (10,046), 51 other efficient elementary schools 
(4151), 1 higher-class public school (600), and44higher- 
class non-public schools (3532) — in all, 402 schools, with 
accommodation for 54,177 children. 

The territory now forming Aberdeenshire was anciently 
inhabited by the Caledonian Taexali. Many cairns and 
other antiquities, commonly assigned to the Caledonian 
times, are in the upland districts. A so-called Pict's 
house is at Aboyne ; vitrified forts are at Insch and 
Rhynie ; and a notable standing-stone, the Maiden Stone, 
is in Chapel-of-Garioch. Old castles are at Abergeldie, 
Boddani, Corgarff, Coul, Dundargue, Dunideer, Fedderate, 
Lesmore, Slains, and other places. Chief septs, in times 
down almost to the present day, have been the Farqu- 
harsons, the Forbeses, and the Gordons. Principal 
events were the defeat of Comyn by Bruce, at the 
' herschip of Buchan,' near Barrahill ; the defeat of 
Donald of the Isles by the Earl of Mar, in 1411, at Har- 
law ; the lesser conflicts of Corrichie, Alford, and the 
Craibstone ; and other incidents noticed under Aber- 
deen. See Jos. Robertson's Collections for a History of 
the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff (5 vols. , Spalding Club, 
1847-69), and Al. Smith's New History of Aberdeenshire 
(2 vols., 1S75). 

Aberdona, an estate, with a mansion, in Clackmannan 
parish, 5 miles ENE of Alloa. 

Aberdour (Gael, abhir-dur, 'confluence of the 
stream'), a village and a parish of SW Fife. The 
village lies just to the W of Whitesands Bay, a curve of 
the Firth of Forth (here 4J miles wide), and is 3 miles 
W by S of Burntisland station, and 7J NW of Leith, 
with which in summer it holds steamboat communi- 
cation from 3 to 6 times a day. Sheltered on the E 
by Hawkcraig cliff (270 feet), northward by Hillside 
and the Cullalo Hills, it nestles among finely wooded 
glades ; commands a wide prospect of the Firth's southern 
shores, of Edinburgh, and of the Pentland range beyond ; 
and by its good sea-bathing and mild climate draws 
many visitors, for whose further accommodation a terrace 
of superior villas was built (1880-81) along the Shore 
Road, on sites belonging to the Earl of Morton. The 
village proper, standing at the mouth of the Dour Burn, 
consists of 3 parts, regarded sometimes as distinct vil- 
lages — Old Town to the jSTE, Aberdour in the middle, 
and New Town to the SW. It has a good tidal har- 
bour with a picturesque old pier ; was supplied with 
water in 1S79 at a cost of £2000 ; contains the parish 
church (erected in 1790 ; and seating 579), the Free 
church, 2 inns, 3 insurance offices, a post office under 
Burntisland, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, and a hospital for 4 widows, 
founded by Anne, countess of the second Earl of Moray. 
Here, too, were formerly St Martha's nunnery of St 
Claire (1474) and the hospital of SS. Mary and Peter 
(1487), and here, concealed by brushwood, still stand the 
ruins of St Fillan's Church (c. 1178), mixed Norman and 
Second Pointed in style, with a S aisle, a porch, and 
the grave of the Rev. Robert Blair (1583-1666), Charles 
I.'s chaplain, who, banished from St Andrews by Arch- 
bishop Sharp, died in this parish at Meikle Couston. 


Steps lead from the churchyard to the broad southern 
terrace of Aberdour Castle, a ruinous mansion of the 
Earls of Morton and Barons Aberdour (1458), held by 
their ancestors since 1351, earlier by Viponts and by 
Mortimers. Its oldest portion, a massive keep tower, 
is chiefly of rough rubble work, with dressed quoins 
and windows ; additions, bearing date 1632, and highly 
finished, mark the transition from Gothic forms to the 
unbroken lines of Italian composition that took place 
during the 17th century. Accidentally burned 150 years 
since, this splendid and extensive pile has formed a 
quarry to the entire neighbourhood(Billings, i. , plate 12). 
An oyster-bed in 'Whitesands Bay employs, with whelk- 
picking and fishing, a few of the villagers ; but the 
former industries of spade-making, ticking-weaving, and 
wood-sawing are quite extinct. 

The parish, formed in 1640 by disjunction from Beath 
and Dalgety, contains also the village of Donibristle Col- 
liery, and includes the island of Inchcolm, lying 1 J mile 
to the S, and Eilrie Yetts, a detached portion of 132| acres, 
1J mile to the E. Its main body is bounded N by Beath, 
NE by Auchtertool, E by Kinghorn and Burntisland, S by 
the Firth of Forth, and W by Dalgety and Dunfermline. 
Its length from M W to SE is 4J miles, its breadth varies 
between 1 J and 3 J miles ; and the total area is 6059 J acres, 
of which 85 are foreshore. The coast is nearly 2 miles 
long, but probably comprises twice that extent of shore 
line. The western part of it rises gently inland, and is 
feathered and flecked with plantations- the eastern is steep 
and rugged, with shaggy woods descending to the water's 
edge. From NE to SW the Cullalo Hills, 400 to 600 
feet in height, intersect the parish ; and the tract to the 
S to them is warm and genial, exhibiting a wealth of 
natural and artificial beauty, but that to the N lies high, 
and, with a cold sour soil, presents a bleak, forbidding 
aspect. Near the western border, from S to N, three 
summits rise to 499, 513, and 500 feet ; on the south- 
eastern are two 574 and 540 feet high ; and Moss Mor- 
ran in the N, which is traversed by the Dunfermline 
branch of the North British railway, has elevations of 
472 and 473 feet. About 1200 acres are either hill 
pasture or waste ; some 1800 are occupied by woods, 
whose monarchs are 3 sycamores, 78, 74, and 78 feet 
high, with girths at 1 foot from the ground of 16J, 20J, 
and 13J feet. The rocks are in some parts eruptive, 
in others carboniferous ; and one colliery, the Doni- 
bristle, was at work in 1879, while fossiliferous lime- 
stone and sandstone are also extensively quarried. Man- 
sions are Hillside, Whitehill, and Cuttlehill ; and the 
chief landowners are the Earls of Morton and Moray, 
each holding an annual value of over £2000. Five others 
hold each £500 and upwards, 5 from £100 to £500, 4 
from £50 to £100, and 19 from £25 to £50. At Hill- 
side ' Christopher North,' the Ettrick Shepherd, and 
others of the celebrated Noetcs, met often round the board 
of Mr Stuart of Dunearn ; at Humbie Farm Carlyle wrote 
part of Frederick the Great. But (pace Sir Walter Scott) 
Aberdour's best title to fame rests on the grand old 
ballad of Sir Patrick Spens. A baron, it may be, of 
Wormieston in Crail, that skeely skipper conveyed in 
1281 the Princess Margaret from Dunfermline to Nor- 
way, there to be wedded to King Eric ; of his homeward 
voyage the ballad tells us how — 

' Half owre, half owre to Aberdour 

It's fifty fathoms deep, 
And there lies good Sir Patrick Spens, 

Wi' the Scots lords at his feet.' 

This parish is now in the presbytery of Dunfermline 
and synod of Fife ; anciently it belonged to Inchcolm 
Abbey, its western half having been granted by Alan 
de Mortimer, for leave of burial in the abbey church. 
The bargain was broken, for 'carrying his corpse in a 
coffin of lead by barge in the night-time, some wicked 
monks did throw the same in a great deep betwixt 
the land and the monastery, which to this day, by neigh- 
bouring fishermen and salters, is called Mortimer's Dee}}. ' 
The minister's income is £435. There are 2 board- 
schools, at Aberdour and Donibristle, with respective ac- 



commodation for 1S4 and 180 scholars, the latter having 
been rebuilt in 18S0 at a cost of £1500. These had (1S79) 
an average attendance of 118 and 120, and grants of 
£83, Is. and £80, 6s. 4d. Valuation (1881) £12,500, 
3s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1260, (1831) 1751, (1851) 1945, 
(1871) 1697, (1881) 1736. See M. White's Beauties 
and Antiquities of Aberdour (Edinb. 1869), and Ballin- 
gall's Shores of Fife (Edinb. 1872).— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 

Aberdour, a village and a coast parish of N Aber- 
deenshire. The village, called commonly New Aber- 
dour, having been founded in 1798 in lieu of an old 
kirk-hamlet, stands 7 furlongs inland, at an altitude of 
337 feet, and. is 8 miles W by S of its post-town Fraser- 
burgh, 6f NW of Strichen station. It has a post office 
with money order and savings' bank departments, 2 
inns, and fairs on Monday week before 26 May and on 
22 Nov. ; at it are the parish church (1818, 800 sittings) 
and a Free church. Pop. (1841) 376, (1871) 628. 

The parish contains, too, the fishing village of Pennan, 
3 J miles TOW. It is bounded N by the Moray Firth, 
NE by Pitsligo, SE by Tyrie, S by New Deer, W by 
King Edward and by Gamrie in Banffshire. From N to 
S its greatest length is 6f miles ; its width from E to 
W tapers southward from 5| miles to f mile ; and its 
land area is 15,508 acres, including a detached triangular 
portion (2£ by 14 mile) lying 1J mile from the SE 
border. The seaboard, 6 miles long, is bold and rocky, 
especially to the W, presenting a wall of stupendous 
red sandstone cliffs, from 50 to 419 feet high, with only 
three openings where boats can land. Of numerous 
caverns, one, called Cowshaven, in the E, afforded a 
hiding-place after Culloden to Alexander Forbes, last 
Lord Pitsligo (1678-1762) ; another, in the bay of Nether- 
mill of Auchmedden, was entered, according to legend, 
by a piper, who ' was heard playing Loehaber no more a 
mile farer ben,' and himself was no more seen. Inland, 
the surface is level comparatively over the eastern portion 
of the parish, there attaining 124 feet at Quarry Head, 
222 at Egypt, 194 at Dundarg, 248 at Coburty, and 443 
at North Cowfords ; but W of the Dour it is much more 
rugged, rising, from N to S, to 522 feet near Pennan 
Farm, 590 near West Mains, 670 near Tongue, 703 on 
Windyheads Hill, 612 near Glenhouses, 723 near Greens 
of Auchmedden, 487 near Bracklamore, and 524 at Mid 
Cowbog. This western portion is separated from Banff- 
shire by the Torr Burn, and through it 3 deep ravines, 
the Dens of Troup, Auchmedden, and Aberdour, each with 
its headlong rivulet, run northward to the sea ; but the 
drainage of the southern division is carried eastward, 
through GlasslawDen, by Gonar Burn, theUgie's northern 
headstrea,m(Smi\es' ScotchNaturalwt,lS77 , ch.viii. ). The 
prevailing rocks, red sandstone and its conglomerates, be- 
long to the oldest Secondary formation, and are quarried 
for buildingmaterial, as formerly at Pennan for millstones; 
the soils are various, ranging from fertile loamy clay in the 
north-eastern low lands to very deep peat earth on the 
south-western moors. Antiquities are 'Picts' houses, 'near 
Earls Seat ; the Cairn of Coburty, said to commemorate 
a Danish defeat ; the ruined pre-Reformation chapel of 
Chapelden ; and on the coast to the NE of the village, 
crowning a sandstone peninsula 63 feet high, the scanty 
vestiges of Dundargue Castle, built by the Englishman, 
Henry de Beaumont, fifth Earl of Buchan in right of his 
wife, and captured from him by the regent, Sir Andrew 
Moray (1333). Some will have this to be the Aberdour 
of the ' grand old ballad of Sir Patrick Spcns;' at least 
its church of St Drostan, at the mouth of the Dour, was 
certainly founded by St Columba in the latter half of 
the 6th century. ' With Drostan, his pupil, he came 
from Hi, or Iona, as God had shown to them, unto 
Abbordoboir, or Aberdour, and Bede the Cruithneck, or 
Pict, was Mormaer of Buchan before him ; and it was he 
that gave them that cathair, or town, in freedom for ever 
from Mormaer and Toisech' (vol. ii., p. 134, of Skene's 
Celt. Scot., 1877). The chief estates are Aberdour in the 
E and Auchmedden in the W, belonging to the Fordyces 
of Brucklay Castle in New Deer and the Bairds of Cam- 
busdoon in Ayr, who own respectively 20,899 and 5979 


acres in Aberdeenshire, valued at £12,744 and £2704 
per annum ; whilst 71 proprietors hold a yearly value in 
this parish of under £100. Purchased by the Gart- . 
sherrie Bairds in 1854, Auchmedden belonged from 1568 
to 1750 to their more ancient namesakes, whose last 
male representative, Wm. Baird (1701-77), compiled the 
interesting Genealogical Collections concerning the Bairds 
of Auchmedden, Newbyth, and Saughtonhall (2d. ed., 
Bond. 1870). Parts of the civil parish (with 256 inhabi- 
tants in 1871) are included in the quoad sacra parishes 
of New Byth and New Pitsligo ; the rest forms a quoad 
sacra parish in the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aber- 
deen, the living being worth £393. Four public schools 
— Aberdour, Auchmedden, New Aberdour (junior), and 
Glasslaw — with respective accommodation for 150, 130, 
102, and 70 children, had (1S79) an average attendance 
of 107, 85, 62, and 30, and grants of £65, 10s., £64, lis., 
£43, lis., and £20. Valuation (1881) £8671, 16s. 3d. 
Pop. (1801) 1304, (1841) 1645, (1861) 1997, (1871) 
2176 ; of registration district (1871) 1945, (1881) 1931.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Aberfeldy (Abyrfcaldybcg in 1301 ; Gael, abhir-fcath- 
aile, ' calm smooth confluence '), a village in detached 
portions of Dull and Logierait parishes, central Perth- 
shire, on the great highroad to the Western Highlands, 
at the terminus of a branch of the Highland railway, 
8| miles W by S of Ballinluig Junction, 16| WNW of 
Dunkeld, 32J NW of Perth, 79 1 NNW of Edinburgh, 
and 94| NNE of Glasgow. It stands on both sides of 
Urlar Burn, 1 mile below its lovely Falls of Moxess, 
and 3 furlongs S of its influx to the Tay ; which latter 
river is spanned, J mile WNW of the village, by a five- 
arched bridge, erected by General Wade in 1733, and 
variously described as ' elegant and substantial ' by 
guide-books, by Dorothy Wordsworth as ' of ambitious 
and ugly architecture. ' At least, this bridge commands 
a noble view down the Tay, eastward, to Grantully 
Castle ; up the Tay, westward, to Castle Menzies and 
Taymouth Castle, the Strath of Appin, and Glen Lyon ; 
southward of the narrow Glen of Moness, — all set in an 
amphitheatre of high ribbed hills. Within a radius of 
some 6 miles, from E to W, rise Grantully Hill (1717 
feet), Stron a Ghamhuinn (120S), Meall Dearg (225S), 
Monadh nam Mial (1975), Meall Dubh (2021), Meall Dun 
Dhomhnuill (2061), and Craig Hill (1845) to the S of 
the Tay ; and, to the N, the Bonnets (133S), Ben Eagach 
(2259), Farragon Hill (2559), Weem Hill (1638), Meall 
Tarruin'chon (2559), and Craig Odhar (1710), beyond 
which last Shiehallion (3547) and Cam Mairg (3419) 
uprear their loftier summits. Strange that with such 
surroundings Aberfeldy should most be famed for what 
it has not, and seemingly never had, the ' birks ' of 
Burns's lyric * : — ■ 

* The braes ascend like lofty wa's, 
The foaming stream deep-roaring: fa's, 
O'erhung- wi' fragrant spreading shaws, 

The birks of Aberfeldy. 
The hoary cliffs are crown'd wi' flowers, 
White o'er the linn the burnie pours, 
And, rising, weets wi' misty showers 

The birks of Aberfeldy.' 

The date of Burns's visit was 29 Aug. 1787, of Words- 
worth's and his sister's 5 Sept. 1803; and the Queen 
has driven twice through Aberfeldy, 7 Sept. 1842 and 
3 Oct. 1866. Another episode was the embodiment of 
the Highland companies known as the ' Black Watch' 
into the 43d (now 42d) Regiment, which took place 
with great pomp, May 1740, either between the village 
and Taybriage or at Boltachan, just across the river. 

Chiefly consisting of one long street, a shorter joining 
it half-way, and a little square at their junction, Aber- 
feldy is a pleasant thriving place, and a favourite summer 
resort. It is held, with few exceptions, under building 
leases of 99 years from the Earl of Breadalbane, its sole 
proprietor ; and it has recently been much improved, 
being lighted with gas, and furnished since 1875 with a 

* Rowans there are in abundance, and a myth has of course 
arisen that these have superseded the birks ; but the absence of 
the latter from Aberfeldy in 1S03 is as certain as their presence at 
Abergeldie years before Burns's day. 


thorough drainage system and public waterworks. It 
has a head post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of 
Scotland, the Commercial Bank, and the Union Bank 
of Scotland, a first-class hotel, a Young Men's Christian 
Association hall (1881), a literary society, a choral union, 
curling, cricket, and bowling clubs, a dye work, 2 saw- 
mills, and a woollen factory. A sheriff small-debt court 
sits on the Monday following the first Saturday of April, 
August, and December ; and cattle sales are held on alter- 
nate Thursdays, fairs on the first Thursday of January 
(old style), the Tuesday of March after Perth, the last 
Friday of July (old style), and the Thursday of Octo- 
ber before Doune November Tryst. To a Free church 
(Gaelic, 800 sittings) in the presbytery of Breadalbane 
and synod of Perth and Stirling, a Congregational church 
(1817 ; 700 sittings), and a Baptist church (60 sittings), 
it was resolved, on 12 Oct. 18S0, to add an Established 
church ; and Aberfeldy has besides a Roman Catholic 
station, occasionally served from Ballechin ; whilst at 
Weem, 1-|- mile WWW, is St David's Episcopal Church 
(1877). One public school, with accommodation for 
319 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 186, 
and a grant of £155, 16s. Pop. (1841) 910, (1861) 
1145, (1871) 1159—660 in Dull, 499 in Logierait, (1881) 
1260. Pop. of registration district, including parts of 
Dull, Logierait, Fortingall, Kenmore, and Weem (1861) 
2402, (1871) 22S6, (1881) 2268.— Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 

Aberfoyle (Gael, abhir-a-phuill, 'confluence of the 
pool'), a hamlet and a parish on the SW border of 
Perthshire. The hamlet stands, towards the south- 
eastern corner of the parish, on the left bank of the 
Laggan, here crossed by a high and narrow three-arched 
bridge. It is 4 miles S by W of the Trossachs, and 7 
NW of Buchlyvie station, this being 15J miles W 
of Stirling, and 14 J NE of Balloch ; by the Strath- 
endrick and. Aberfoyle Railway Bill (passed in the House 
of Lords, 15 June 1S80) it is to be brought into direct 
connection with the railway system of Scotland. It has 
a post office under Stirling, with money order and 
savings' bank departments, an orphanage, and an excel- 
lent hotel, the ' Bailie Nicol Jarvie,' successor to the 
celebrated ' Clachan,' whose site, about 1 mile westward, 
is marked by only a few large stones. Across the bridge, 
3 furlongs SSW, is the parish church (rebuilt 1744 ; re- 
paired 1839 ; and seated for 250) ; and on this bridge, 
or its predecessor, a fray took place between a christen- 
ing party of the Grahams of Duchray and the followers 
oftheEarlofAirthandMenteith,13Feb. 1671 (Chambers' 
Dom. An., ii. 309, 310). A cattle fair is held on the 
third Tuesday of April, a lamb fair on the Friday before 
the third Tuesday of August, and a cattle and hiring fair 
on the last Tuesday of October. 

The parish is bounded, N by Loch Katrine, Achray 
"Water, Loch Achray, Dubh Abhainn, and the head of 
Loch Venachar, which separate it from Callander ; E by 
Loch Drunkie and Port of Monteith ; and S, SW, and 
W by Stirlingshire, being parted for 6 J miles by Duchray 
Water from Drymen and Buchanan parishes. The great- 
est length, from near Loch Arklet at the north-western 
to Cobleland at the south-eastern angle, is 10J miles ; 
its width from NE to SW ranges between 1\ and 6 miles ; 
and its area is 29,215 acres, of which 2405 are water. 
Twenty-two rivulets flow northward into Loch Katrine, 
2 into Achray Water, 2 into Loch Achray, and 2 into 
Loch Venachar, while 3 more run eastward to Loch 
Drunkie ; but the drainage generally is carried east- 
south-eastward, belonging to the basin of the two head- 
streams of the Forth — the Avondhu and Duchray Water. 
The former, rising close to the western boundary, has a 
course of about 9 miles, and traverses Lochs Chon and 
Ard ; the latter, rising on the slopes of Ben Lomond 
(3192 feet) in Buchanan, flows 1J mile north-eastward 
through the interior of Aberfoyle, and joins the Avondhu 
near the old Clachan. Thence, as the shallow Laggan, 
their united waters wind 2J miles down the narrow Pass 
of Aberfoyle, beneath the precipices of Craigmore, to 
Cobleland, where they enter Port of Monteitn. Loch 


Katrine lies 364 feet above sea-level ; and the Inversnaid 
Road, leading up the valley of the Laggan and Avondhu, 
has an altitude of 66 feet near the hamlet, of 112 feet 
towards the head of Loch Ard, of 299 at the foot of Loch 
Chon, and of 571 at 1 mile NNW of its head. A region 
of glens and mountains, of rivers, cascades, and lakes, 
of oak and birch woods, Aberfoyle is for ever associated 
with the scenes of Scott's Lady of the Lake, WavcrUy, 
and Bob Roy; the last describes its little vale, its beauti- 
ful river, the bare yet romantic ranges of rook that hedge 
the landscape in on either side and form a magnificent 
background, while far to the eastward a glance is caught 
of the Loch of Monteith, and of Stirling Castle, dimly 
descried, along with the blue and distant line of the 
Ochils. From W to E rise Meall Meadhonach (893 
feet), Caisteal Corrach (1075), Druim nan Cam (1500), 
Sron Lochie (1643), Beinn Bhreac (2295), 'huge' Ben 
Venue (2393), Beinn an Fhogharaidh (2000), Craig- 
more (1271), Dun nam Muc (605), and Meall Ear (1091), 
to the N of the Avondhu and Laggan ; to the S are 
Beinn Uaimhe (1962) on the western border, Beinn 
Dubh (1675) and Mulan an't Sagairt (1398) on the 
south-western, Coire Eirigh (852), Innis Ard (566), Bad 
Dearg (533), and Arndrum (454). The rocks include 
trap, conglomerate, a fissile slate of excellent roofing 
quality, and hard, blue, white-veined limestone, of which 
the two last have long been regularly worked. The glens 
are so small — none more than 1 mile in length and 
J mile in breadth — that the arable area is very limited, 
and what there is has mostly been reclaimed from 
heath, to which it would revert if let to lie fallow for a 
year or two. The lands of Aberfoyle, supposed to have 
anciently belonged to the neighbouring priory of Inch- 
mahome, were disposed of by the second and last Earl of 
Airth (d. 1694) to James, third Marquis and first Duke 
of Montrose, whose great-great-grandson, the fifth duke, 
is owner of the entire parish. Among its ministers were, 
Robert Kirk (d. 1692), translator of the Psalms into 
Gaelic verse ; William Fisher (d. 1732), the last Episcopal 
clergyman who held a benefice in Scotland ; and Patrick 
Graham, author of Sketches Descriptive of Picturesque 
Scenery on the Scmthcm Confines of Perthshire (1806) ; 
whilst natives were the Shakespearian critic, William 
Richardson(1743-lS14), and the poet William Glen, writer 
of ' Wae's me for Prince Charlie. ' Among its traditions 
is the defeat, in 1653, of Colonel Reid, a Cromwellian 
leader, by Graham of Duehra}', at the Pass of Aberfoyle. 
The principal residences — Glashart, Lochard Lodge, 
Ledard, Bharhulachan, and Couligartan — lie all around 
Loch Ard. Aberfoyle is in the presbytery of Dunblane 
and synod of Perth and Stirling; the living is worth 
£201. A public school at the hamlet and a Society's 
school at Kinlochard (5 miles W by N), with respective 
accommodation for 72 and 66 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 37 and 26, and grants of £35, 2s. 
and £36, 9s. Valuation (1881) £4579, 7s. 2d. Pop. 
(1831) 660, (1841) 549, (1861) 565, (1871) 432, (1S81) 
465.— Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Abergeldie (Gael, abhir-gile, 'confluence of the clear 
stream '), the Highland residence of the Prince of Wales, 
in Crathie and Braemar parish, SW Aberdeenshire, 
stands, at an altitude of 840 feet, on the right bank of 
the Dee, 6 miles above Ballater, and 2 below Balmoral. 
Behind it rises Craig-na-Ban, a rounded granitic hill, 1736 
feet high ; and cairn-crowned Geallaig (2439 feet) fronts 
it across the river, which at this point is spanned by a 
curious ' rope-and-cradle ' bridge. The Castle is a mas- 
sive and imposing building, its oldest part a turreted 
square block-tower ; the estate, extending 10 miles along 
Deeside, is finely planted with old Scotch firs, larch, and 
the natural birch, mixed in the private grounds with 
spruce, ash, plane, and sycamore. The fiirks, indeed, 
of Abergeldie are celebrated in a time-honoured melody, 
though Burns capriciously transferred their fame to 
Aberfeldy, where (teste Dorothy Wordsworth) no birks 
were to be seen in 1803. Sir Alexander Gordon, son of 
the first Earl of Huntly, acquired the lands of Aber- 
geldie in 14S2 ; in 184S the late Prince Consort purchased 
the lease of them for 40 years. The Duchess of Kent 



spent several autumns here between 1850 and 1S61 ; and 
here the Empress Eugenie passed the October following 
the loss of the Prince Imperial (1879). 

Aberiaehan, a rivulet on the confines of the parishes 
of Inverness and Urquhart, Inverness-shire. It traverses 
romantic scenery; makes a succession of falls, from 10 
to 30 feet in leap; and enters the lower part of Loch 
Ness, about 9 miles from Inverness. A spar cave ad- 
jacent to . it, and to the road from Inverness to Fort 
Augustus, was discovered not many years ago ; measures 
about 21 feet in length, from 6 to 12 feet in height, and 
from 3 to 6 feet in width, and makes an interesting dis- 
play of stalactites and stalagmites. 

Aberlady (ane. Abcrlefdi = Gael, abhir-liobh-aite, 
' confluence of the smooth place '), a village and a coast 
parish of NW Haddingtonshire. The village stands at 
the mouth of the sluggish Peffer Burn, 3 miles NE 
of Longniddry station, and 5| NW of Haddington. 
Consisting chiefly of one long street of good appearance, 
it is an occasional resort of sea-bathers from Haddington ; 
has a post office under Longniddry, with money order 
and savings' bank departments, an hotel, and some good 
shops; is lighted with gas; and, in 1871, had a popula- 
tion of 477. 

The parish is bounded N by Dirleton, E and SE by 
Haddington, S by Gladsmuir, and W by the Firth of 
Forth. It has an equal extreme length and breadth of 
3J miles ; its area is 4928 acres, of which 21i are 
links, £81 foreshore, and 6 water. The surface rises 
very slowly from the shore, nowhere much exceeds 200 
feet of elevation, and is mostly fiat, yet has a pleasant 
aspect, abounding in artificial adornment, and command- 
ing views of the Firth and its shores away to the Lomond 
hills, the Edinburgh heights, the Pentlands, and the 
Grampians. The coast is everywhere low, and has a 
great breadth of foreshore. Vessels of 60 or 70 tons can 
ascend the channel of the Peffer, at spring tides, to 
within a few hundred yards of the village, and lie 
tolerably secure ; but they cannot easily go out during 
a westerly wind. The harbour or anchorage-ground be- 
longs to Haddington, in capacity of a port; but it is 
practically of little or no value, as the trade is trivial. 
A belt of links, or low flat sandy downs, skirts much of 
the shore, and is tunnelled by rabbit-holes ; the land 
thence inward, though now well cultivated and produc- 
tive, appears to have been, at no very distant period, 
swampy and worthless. The soil there is light and 
sandy; further back is clay, not naturally fertile; and 
further inland to the eastern border, is of excellent 
quality. The Peffer is the only stream of any size ; and 
water for the use of the inhabitants is chiefly obtained 
from wells, being good and abundant. The rocks are 
partly eruptive, but mainly of the Carboniferous forma- 
tion. Limestone and sandstone abound, but are not 
worked ; and coal, in connection with the great coalfield 
of Midlothian, is believed to extend under a considerable 
area, but not in conditions likely to compensate mining. 
Eilspindley fortalice, biiilt in 1585 between the village 
and the shore, has wholly disappeared, as have two 
ancient hospitals at Ballencrieff and Gosford. The Red 
Friar Monastery of Luffness, said to have been founded 
by Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, in 1286, is represented by 
the founder's effigy, and by the N walls of its First 
Pointed church, which measured 94 feet 10 inches by 
19 feet; and Eedhouse Castle, a large 16th-century 
mansion, near the Gladsmuir boundary, is now a com- 
plete ruin. Gosford (Earl of Wemyss), Ballencfjeff 
(Lord Elibank), and Luffness (H. W. Hope, Esq.), are 
the principal seats ; the property is divided among 
3 landowners holding £500 and upwards, 1 between £100 
and £500, 1 between £50 and £100, and 17 between £20 
and £50. The Eev. Adam Dickson (d. 1776), author of 
The Husbandry of the Ancients, was a native of this 
parish, which is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian. Its church (1773) contains 525 sit- 
tings; the living is worth £503. There is also a U.P. 
church ; and a public school here, with accommodation 
for 170 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 112, and a grant of £107, lis. Valuation (1881) 


£11,270, 9s. Pop. (1831) 973, (1861) 1019, (1871) 1022, 
(1881) 1000.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Aberlady Bay, an encurvature of the Firth of Forth, 
on the coast of Haddington and Edinburgh shires, from 
Gullane Point to Leith, measures 12 miles along the 
chord, and 3i thence to the inmost recess of the shore. 
The view over it, from Arthur's Seat, includes the coast 
towns of Portobello, Musselburgh, and Prestonpans ; the 
fertile slopes of Haddingtonshire, with the Garleton Hills 
on the right, and the conical hill of North Berwick Law in 
the distant front, and is exquisitely beautiful. It was 
from Aberlady Bay, according to legend, that Thaney, the 
virgin mother of St Kentigern, was cast adrift in a coracle. 

Aberlemno (Gael, abhir-leumnach, ' confluence of the 
leaping stream'), a village and a parish of central Forfar- 
shire. The village stands on the left bank of a rivulet, 
Z\ miles N by W of Auldbar Road station on the Cale- 
donian, and 6 NE of its post-town, Forfar. The present 
parish comprises the ancient parishes of Aberlemno and 
Auldbar ; but the former is thought to have originally 
included the portion of Oathlaw through which the 
Lemno flows, and to have had its church where that 
stream enters the South Esk. It is bounded N by 
Careston and Brechin, E by Brechin and Guthrie, S and 
SW by Rescobie, W by Oathlaw, and NW by Tannadiee. 
Of irregular outline, it measures 6i miles from NE to 
SW, and 5 from NNW to SSE ; its land area is S914 
acres. The South Esk, roughly tracing all the north- 
western and northern boundary, is the only consider- 
able stream ; the only loch, Balgavies, on the southern 
border, is £ mile long by 1 furlong wide, contains pike 
and perch, and was formerly dredged for marl. The 
surface declines towards the South Esk, and from N to S 
attains an altitude of 452 feet at the Mote, of 323 at 
Blibberhill, of 663 in the eastern summit of the Hill of 
Finhaven, of 441 near the Wood of Eellockshaw, of 492 
at Pitkennedy, of 800 in fort-crowned Turin Hill on the 
south- western border, of 348 near Framedrum, and of 
384 near Turin House. The lower grounds are for the 
most part fertile and well cultivated ; the higher are 
often clothed with broom and heath. A greyish sand- 
stone abounds in the SW, and is worked in several 
quarries both for building and for paving purposes. 
Melgund and Flemington Castles are ruins ; Auldbar 
Castle, Balgavies, and Carsegownie are interesting old 
buildings, still inhabited. Older than any of these are 
two sculptured stones, standing one in the churchyard, 
the other a little to the N. The former, about 6 feet 
high, represents a battle in which both horse and foot 
are engaged, and in which a bird attacks a helmeted man, 
vainly attempting to cover himself with a shield. Above 
are a mirror and less intelligible emblems ; on the back 
is a finely ornamented cross, surrounded by quaint 
figures of animals. ' This monument,' says Worsaae, 
' might have been reared after a victory, whether over 
the Danes remains uncertain. At all events, the stone 
is Scotch, not Scandinavian ' (Danes and Northmen, 
pp. 210-213). A third and similar stone was brought to 
Auldbar Castle from the ruins of a neighbouring chapel. 
The Earl of Minto and Viscount Melgund (ere. 1818) 
owns nearly one-half of the parish ; and 7 other pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 or upwards, 
4 of between £100 and £500, and 1 of between £20 
and £50. Aberlemno is in the presbytery of Forfar and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. The church is mainly a 
reconstruction of 1722, with some 450 sittings ; its 
minister's income is £392. There is also a Free church, 
and under the board are the Aberlemno school and a 
subscription school at Pitkennedy, which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 152 and 67 scholars, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 74 and 35, and grants of 
£63, 16s. and £31, 12s. 6d. Valuation of lands (1SS1) 
£10,210, 8s. lid. ; of railway, £664. Pop. (1831) 1079, 
(1871) 1007, (1881) 993.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Aberlour (Gael, abhir-luath-ir, 'confluence of the 
strong stream '), a village and a parish on the W border 
of Banffshire. The village of Aberlour or Charlestown 
of Aberlour stands on a haugh, at the influx of a burn of 
its own name to the Spey, and has a station on the 


Strathspey branch of the Great North of Scotland rail- 
way, 2;} miles SW of Craigellachie Junction and 17 SW 
of Keith. Founded, in 1812, by Grant of Wester Elchies, 
it is a burgh of barony by Royal Charter, and consists of 
substantial slated houses ranged in a broad street i mile 
long, with a square to the W ; it has a post office, with 
telegraph, money order, and savings' bank departments, 
branches of the Union and North of Scotland banks, 
5 insurance offices, an excellent hotel, and an impos- 
ing distillery, with tower and spire (18S0) ; fairs are 
held at it on the first Thursday of April, the Thursday 
before 26 May, and the second Thursday of Novem- 
ber. The old church of St Drostan is now a roofless 
ruin ; and a successor to it, erected in 1812, was 
destroyed by fire in 1861, when the present parish church 
was built, a good Romanesque structure, with 800 sit- 
tings and a tower 65 feet high. The Free church is also of 
recent construction ; and St Margaret's Episcopal church 
(1875-77) consists at present of only a five-bayed nave, 
60 by 36 feet, to which a chancel, 40 feet deep, and a 
spire, 85 feet high, are to be added, its total cost being 
estimated at £6000. In connection with it there are 
schools and an orphanage for 50 children, the latter 
established in 1875, and completed four years later at a 
cost of over £2000. Pop. (1871) 591. 

The parish is bounded NW for 6 miles by the river 
Spey, separating it from Elginshire ; NE for 1£ mile by 
the river Fiddich, separating it from Boharm ; E and SE 
by Mortlaeh ; and SW by Inveraven. Its greatest 
leugth, from N to SSW, is 9 miles ; its breadth is from 
1 to 5 miles ; and its land area is 14,781 acres. The Spey 
is here a deep and rapid river, which, in the great floods 
of 1S29, rose 19J feet above its ordinary level, and from 
this parish it receives the Carron and Aberlour Burns, 
the latter of which, 1 mile above its mouth, makes a 
beautiful cascade of 30 feet in leap — the Linn of Ruthlie. 
Most of the surface is hill or mountain, the chief eleva- 
tions being, in the N, Blue Hill (1062 feet), Gownie 
(1005), and Wood of Allachie (909) ; near the east- 
ern border, Edinvillie (1067), and on the western, 
Drum Wood (967) ; in the centre, Tom of Ruthrie 
(951 feet) ; and, in the S, Ben Rinnes (2755), Roy's 
Hill (1754), Braushie Cree (1477), and Restocknach 
(1196). A considerable aggregate of upland has been 
reclaimed for the plough, and still more naturally good 
arable land exists in the form of narrow vales, or 
what are here called da/ughs, along the courses of the 
streams and around the bases of the hills, so that alto- 
gether about one-half of the entire area is under cultiva- 
tion. The soil in some parts along the Spey is a rich, 
deep, alluvial loam ; in other parts, further from the river, 
is a good mould, on a bed of rough gravel ; in others, to- 
ward the foot of the hills, is prevalently argillaceous ; 
and toward the base of Ben Rinnes, is reclaimed moss or 
coarse humus. The rocks include much granite and 
some limestone, but are nowhere quarried. The birch- 
clad rock of Craigellachie figures picturesquely in the 
landscape, and thence the Strathspey railway goes up 
the Aberlour side of the river, past Aberlour village to 
Carron, where it crosses a magnificent iron viaduct. 
Aberlour House (Miss Grant) stands 1J mile SSE of 
Craigellachie, is a good modern mansion, in the Grecian 
style, with pleasant grounds, and very fine gardens ; 
on its lawn is a Doric column of Aberdeen granite, 84 
feet high, surmounted by a large globe of polished 
granite. Kinermony eminence, to the SW of the village, 
was anciently the site of a house of the Knights Tem- 
plars, and commands a fine view of part of the Spey's 
valley. Four landowners hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 3 of between £50 and £100, and 4 of 
between £20 and £50. This parish is the seat of a 
presbytery in the synod of Moray, but part of it is an- 
nexed for school, registration, and ecclesiastical purposes 
to the quoad sacra parish of Glenrinnes. The minister's 
income is £376. The board schools of Aberlour, Eden- 
ville, and Charlestown, with respective accommodation 
for 150, 130, and 14S children, had (1879) an average at- 
tendance of 16S, 71, and 58, and grants of £163, 5s., 
£67, 10s. 6d., and £54, 19s. Pop. of civil parish (1831) 


1276, (1861) 1665, (1871) 1776, (1881) 1913 ; of quoad 
sacra parish (1871) 1632, (1SS1) 1795.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
85, 1S76. 

The presbytery of Aberlour comprehends the quoad 
civilia parishes of Aberlour, Boharm, Inveraven, Knock - 
ando, and Rothes, and the quoad sacra parishes of 
Glenlivet and Glenrinnes. Pop. (1881) 9966, of whom 
2222 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878, when the sums raised by the above seven congre- 
gations in Christian liberality amounted to £901. The 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Aberlour, whose 
churches at Aberlour, Boharm, Inveraven, Knockando, 
Mortlaeh, and Rothes, had 908 communicants in 1880. 

Aberluthnet, a rivulet of S Kincardineshire, running 
to the North Esk in the vicinity of Marykirk village. 
Aberluthnet (Gael, alhir-lualh-ait, ' confluence where 
the stream is swift') was anciently the name of Marykirk 
parish, and continued an alternative name of it down to 
the beginning of last century. 

Abermele or Abermilk, an ancient parish in Annan- 
dale, Dumfriesshire. It was named from the confluence 
of the river Mele or Milk with the Annan ; and, its 
church having been dedicated to St Kentigern or Mungo, 
it has, since the Reformation, been called St Mungo. 

Abernethy, a Speyside parish of E Inverness-shire, till 
1870 partly also in Elginshire. It contains the village 
of Nethybridge, which, standing on the right bank, and 
1 J mile above the mouth of the Nethy, here spanned by 
a bridge 84 feet long, has a post office (Abernethy) under 
Grantown, an inn, and a station on the Great North of 
Scotland, 4i miles SSW of Grantown, 2SA SW of Craigel- 
lachie, 96| W by N of Aberdeen, 4| ENE of Boat of Gar- 
den, and 93J N by W of Perth. 

The parish comprises the pre-Reformation parishes of 
Abernethy and Kincardine, the former mostly to the E, 
the latter wholly to the W of the Nethy. It is bounded 
NE by Cromdale in Elginshire and Kirkmichael in Banff- 
shire, E and SE by Kirkmichael, SW by Rothiemui'chus, 
and NW by Duthil and Cromdale, having an extreme 
length from NNE to SSW of 161, and an extreme width 
from E to W of 14 miles. The Spey, here 50 yards broad, 
flows 16 miles along all the north-western border, and 
glides on smooth and unruffled, throughout this course 
having only a fall from about 690 to 600 feet above sea- 
level. The Nethy rises on the eastern slope of Cairn- 
gorm, at an altitude of 2700 feet, and after a north-north- 
westerlycourse of 14 miles, falls into the Spey near Broom- 
hill station. A brook in drought, it is subject to violent 
spates, the greatest on record being those of 1829 and 
June 18S0, when it flooded great part of Nethybridge vil- 
lage, and changed all the level below into a lake. The 
Nethy itself receives the Dorback Bum (flowing 9i miles 
WNW), and the Duack Burn (6| miles N) ; and 2 af- 
fluents of the Avon, the Water of Caiplaich or Ailnack 
and the Burn of Brown, trace 7 miles of the south-eastern, 
and 4 of the eastern border. Besides many smaller tarns, 
Loch Garten (5x3 furlongs) lies at an altitude of 726 feet, 
2J miles SW of Nethybridge; on the Rothiemurchus 
boundary are Loch Phitiulais (5x1^ furlongs, altitude 
674 feet), and pine-girt Loch Morlich (8x5 furlongs, al- 
titude 1046 feet). Save for the level strip along the Spey, 
from 3 furlongs to 2} miles in width, the surface every- 
where is hilly or grandly mountainous, ascending south- 
ward to the Cairngorm Mountains, eastward to the 
Braes of Abernethy, north-eastward towards the hills of 
Cromdale. To the W of the Nethy the chief elevations 
are Tor Hill (1000 feet), Cam Rynettin (1549), Craig- 
gowrie (2237), Creagan Gorm (2403), Meall a' Bhuachaille 
(2654), Mam Suim (2394), An t-Aonach (2117), Airgiod- 
meall (2118), *Castle Hill (2366), *Creag na Leacainn 
(3448), and *Caikngorm (4084), where the asterisks 
mark the summits culminating on the boundary. E of 
the Nethy rise Cam na Leine (1505), Beinn an Fhudair 
(1476), Cam Dearg (1378), *Tom Liath (1163), Cam 
Tuairneir (2250), Baddoch (1S63), Tom nan Damh Mora 
(1742), Tom an Fheannaige (1638), Cam an FhirOdhair 
(2257), Cam a Chnuic (1658), Cam Sheilg (2040), Cam 
Bheur (2636), Beul Buidhe (2385), Geal Charn (2692), 
Geal Cham Beag (2484), Tamh-dhruim (2463), *Caiplich 




(3574), and *A Choinneacli (3215). Planted or natural 
pme-forest covers a vast extent, far up the Nethy, around 
Loch Garten, and in Glenmoee on the border of Rothie- 
murchus ; and, whilst loch and river abound in trout and 
salmon, the glens and mountains teem with all kinds of 
game, the Earl of Seafield's Abernethy deer-forest letting 
for £1800 in 1881. The felling, too, of timber on the 
uplands, thence to be floated down the Nethy to the 
Spey, forms a great source of wealth, first opened up in 
1728 by Aaron Hill, ex-manager of Drury Lane (Cham- 
bers' Dora. Ann., iii. 547). The rocks are chiefly granitic 
and unworked ; what arable soil there is — by nature fer- 
tile — has been greatly improved by liming ; and within 
the last 30 years many acres of pasture have been brought 
under the plough, many good farm-buildings erected. 
In the NE a Roman road is thought to have run from 
Bridge of Brown to Lynemore, and on towards Cromdale 
station ; Castle Roy, near the church, a reputed strong- 
hold of the Comyns, is 90 feet long, 60 broad, and 30 
high, with no roof or loopholes, and but a single entrance. 
John Stuart, the Gaelic poet, best known as ' John Roy 
Stuart,' was born at Knock of Kincardine in 1700. The 
Earl of Seafield and the Duke of Richmond and Gordon 
are chief proprietors in Abernethy, which gives name to 
a presbytery in the synod of Moray. The living is worth 
£384 ; the parish ohurch (1000 sittings) stands 7 furlongs 
NNE of Nethybridge, and is a well-built modern edifice, 
as also are a Free church and an Established mission 
church (600 sittings) at Kincardine, 6J miles SW, on the 
Spey. Three public schools — Abernethy, Dorback, and 
Tullock — with respective accommodation for 198, 40, and 
80 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 88, 15, 
and 35, and grants of £95, 3s., £32, 9s., and £44, 13s. 
Valuation (1SS1) £8141, 9s. 7d., of which £6552, 9s. 4d. 
belongs to the Earl of Seafield. Pop., mostly Gaelic- 
speaking (1831) 2092, (1871) 1752, (1881) 1530.— Ord. 
Sur., shs. 74, 75, 1S77. 

The presbytery of Abernethy, meeting at Grantown, 
comprehends the civil parishes of Abernethy, Alvie, Crom- 
dale, Duthil, Kingussie, and Kirkmichael, and the quoad 
sacra parishes of Inch, Inverallan, Rothiemurchus, and 
Tomintoul. Pop. (1871) 11,700, of whom 1144 were 
communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878, the 
sums raised by the above 10 congregations in that year 
amounting to £526. There is also a Free Church presby- 
tery of Abernethy, having churches at Abernethy, Alvie, 
Cromdale, Duthil, Kingussie, Kirkmichael, and Laggan, 
with 2051 members and adherents in 1880. 

Abernethy, a small police burgh of SE Perthshire, and 
a parish partly also in Fife. The town has a station on 
the Ladybank and Perth branch of the North British 
railway, 8J miles SE of Perth, and 1J mile SSW of the 
influx of the Earn to the Tay. It stands on the right 
bank of the Nethy rivulet, and thence most probably 
received its name (Celt, 'ford of the Nethy'), which. 
Colonel Robertson, however, derives from Obair Neihan 
or Nechtan ('Neetan's work'). His objection to the 
former etymology is, that at Abernethy there is no con- 
fluence, the stream not joining the Earn till 1J mile 
below the town, and \ mile below Innernethy, a former 
seat of the Freers, now owned by Sir Robert Drummond 
Moncrieffe {Gael. Topog., 76-79). But, then, Skene says 
that 'Aber and Inver were both used by the southern 
Picts, though not quite in the same way, Inver being 
generally at the mouth of a river, Abcr at the ford 
usually some distance from the mouth ' ( Celt. Scot. , 
i. 220-222) ; anyhow, Isaac Taylor is certainly wrong in 
stating that ' Abernethy became Invernethy, though the 
old name is now restored ' ( Words and Places, 258-260). 
Orrea, a town of the Vernicomes, mentioned by Ptolemy, 
the Alexandrian geographer of the 2d century a.d., 
must have stood at or near Abernethy; and at Aber- 
nethy, according to the Pictish chronicle, Nectan Morbet, 
third of the shadowy line of early Pictish kings, founded 
a church in honour of St Bridget of Kildare about 462 — 
a legend inconsistent with the known date of St Bridget's 
death (525). Under the influence of Columba's teaching, 
Gartnaidh, 'supreme king of the Tay,' founded or re- 
founded here a church for Columban monks, dedicated, 

like its alleged predecessor, to St Bridget, some time 
between 584 and 596, Abernethy being then the chief 
seat of the Pictish government. It was most probably 
in the neighbouring low-lying plain that the Picts, re- 
volting from the Anglic yoke, were routed by Ecgfrid, 
with dreadful slaughter, in 672 ; thirteen years later 
Ecgfrid's own rout and death at Dunnichen restored to 
them their independence. In 717 the Columban monks 
were doubtless expelled from Abernethy by Nectan III. 
for nonconformity to Rome ; but in 865 we find it once 
more occupied by Irish clergy, as in that year it seems 
to have been visited and reorganised by Cellach, abbot 
both of Iona and of the mother church of Kildare. From 
that year, too, on to 908, Abernethy was at once the 
episcopal and the royal capital of the whole Pictish king- 
dom, Constantin, son of Kenneth mac Alpin, having 
translated the sole bishopric hither from Dunkeld. 
Three bishops held the see, whose transference to St 
Andrews under Constantin, King of Alban, stripped 
Abernethy of much of its former importance, the single 
epoch in its after-history being the homage paid at it in 
1072 to the Conqueror by Malcolm Ceannmor, ' who 
came and made peace with King William, and gave host- 
ages, and became his man ; and the king went home with 
all his forces. ' Culdees are first heard of at Abernethy 
during the reign of Eadgar (1097-1107), but it does not 
appear how long they had been introduced. They were 
holding the possessions of the ancient nunnery between 
1189 and 1198 ; but the church and its pertinents had 
been granted by William the Lyon to Arbroath Abbey, 
to whose monks the lay Abbot of Abernethy now con- 
veyed his abbatial rights, while retaining his lands, 
becoming thus a secular baron and founder of the house 
of Abernethy. A dispute in the succeeding century 
between Arbroath and these Culdees was decided by the 
Bishop of Dunblane against the latter, who in 1272 were 
converted into a priory of Canons Regular of St Augus- 
tine, valued at its dissolution at £706, lis. 2d. 

Thus Abernethy disappeared from history, yet still it 
retains a monument of bygone greatness in its tapering 
round tower, like though inferior to that of Brechdc. 
Standing by itself in the centre of the town, at an angle 
of the churchyard near the entrance-gate, it is 73 feet 
high, and has an interior diameter of 8J feet at its base, 
where the wall is 2J feet thick, while at the top the 
diameter is 5J feet, and the wall's thickness 2. It is 
built of stone, dressed to the curve and laid in 64 courses, 
the material up to the twelfth of these being a hard grey 
sandstone, which has resisted the weather ; above, a 
buff-coloured freestone, much weather-worn, especially 
at the joints. Without, it presents a continuous plane ; 
within, it is divided by string courses into six stories, 
the sixth terminating a little short of the summit in a 
platform roof, which is gained by a staircase of modern 
construction. The two lowest stories are pierced by a 
doorway only, which, fronting the N, stands 2i feet 
above the present level of the ground, is 8 feet high by 
3 wide, and has inclined jamb-posts, going right through 
and projecting externally a little from the wall, with a 
semicircular head, hewn from one solid stone. In each of 
the three next stories is a single diminutive aperture ; the 
uppermost is lighted by four round-headed windows, fac- 
ing the four points of the compass, each 5f feet high by 2 J 
feet wide, and each with inclined jambs. Such is the 
famous Abernethy tower, agreeing generally with that 
of Brechin, and with that only on the Scottish main- 
land. In Ireland, however, there still stand 76 round 
towers, presenting the characteristics of this pair ; 'there- 
fore,' says Mr Anderson, ' these two are stragglers from a 
great typical group, which has its habitat in Ireland, 
and all questions as to the origin, progress, and period 
of the type must be discussed with reference to the 
evidence derived from the principal group. ' Concerning 
the origin of the Irish towers imagination formerly ran 
riot. Buddhists, Druids, Baal worshippers, Brehon 
lawgivers, pillar-saints, Freemasons, Danes, or Phceni- 
cians had reared them ; they were minarets, phallic 
emblems, celestial indices, penitentiaries, monumental 
tombs, or what not else besides. Now, archaeologists 


are fairly agreed that one and all were built in connec- 
tion with churches, not as belfries (though afterwards 
employed as such), since large bells were not cast till 
after 1200, and not till then were campaniles erected. 
They were due to the Norsemen's raids, being meant, 
as Ruskin says of church towers generally, ' for defence 
and faithfulness of watch. ' More than this, they admit 
of classification into four groups, marking the transition 
from the flat lintelled style of ecclesiastical architecture 
to the round-arched and decorated Irish Romanesque — 
a transition accomplished between the end of the 9th 
and the beginning of the 12th century. To which of 
these groups, then, does our tower belong ? To none, 
according to Dr Petrie, who refers its erection to 712-727, 
believing it to have been built by certain Northumbrian 
architects of Jarrow monastery, summoned by Nectan 
III. to build him a church in the Roman style, which 
should be dedicated to St Peter (note appended to Sir 
J. Simpson's Archasol. Essays, i. 131). Skene objecting 
to this that no church at Abernethy was ever dedicated 
to St Peter, and that this tower has no peculiarity so 
marked as thus to remove it wholly from the class of 
similar structures, yet holds that it is 'undoubtedly 
older than that of Brechin,' and assigns it to S65, the year 
of Abbot Cellach's visit to Abernethy (Celt. Scot,, 1877, 
ii. 309, 310). Muir, on the other hand, discovered features 
in the Abernethy tower which 'place it somewhat 
lower in the scale of time than that of Brechin, e.g., 
the decidedly Norman type of the belfry windows, and 
the stones of the general building, which approach very 
nearly to the small cubical form of those we constantly 
find in Romanesque masonry ' (Old Church Arch. , 1S61). 
And Mr Anderson so far agrees with Muir, that while 
he decidedly ascribes the Brechin tower to the third of 
the four groups, i.e., to a period later than 950, this 
Abernethy tower he connects with either the third or 
fourth, ' though the difference between it and the Brechin 
one cannot be very great ' (Scotland in Early Christian 
Times, 1SS1). See also vol. ii. of Lord Dunraven's Irish 
Archeology, edited by Miss Stokes (Lond. 1877). Be- 
sides its ancient tower, rising grey and melancholy over 
the red-tiled houses, the town has nothing of much 
interest, being a mean-looking place, with irregular 
streets, but with several good cottages built to accommo- 
date summer visitors. It is a burgh of barony under 
charter granted (23 Aug. 1476) by Archibald ' Bell-the- 
Cat,' fifth Earl of Angus, and confirnied (29 Nov. 162S) 
by William, eleventh earl, to whose descendant, the 
Duke of Hamilton, it gives the title of Baron (ere. 1633). 
It is lighted with gas, has a post office under Newburgh, 
with money order and savings' bank departments, and 
holds a cattle fair on the second Thursday in November. 
The former parish church, one of the oldest in Scotland, 
was demolished in 1802, when the present plain edifice, 
containing 600 sittings, was built on a neighbouring site. 
There are also a Free church, a U.P. church, and a 
public school, with accommodation for 300 scholars, an 
average attendance (1879) of 174, and a grant of £162. 
"Weaving is the chief winter employment of the inhabi- 
tants, many of whom in summer are engaged in salmon- 
fishing on the Tay. Pop. (1841) 827, (1S61) 9S4, (1S71) 

The parish contains also the hamlets of Glenfoot and 
Aberargie, 1 and 1J mile WSW of the town. It is 
bounded N by the river Earn, dividing it from Rhynd, 
and by the Tay, dividing it from St Madoes ; E by 
Newburgh and a detached portion of Abdie, S by Auch- 
termuchty and Strathmiglo, and W by Arngask, Dron, 
and Dunbarney. Irregular in outline, it measures from 
N to S between 2| and 4f miles, from E to W between 
2J and 5 miles ; and its area within Perthshire is 78724 
acres (112 foreshore and 183^ water), within Fifeshire 
1967 acres. To the S of the town the surface is broken 
by hills, belonging to the Ochils, and rising in the 
middle of the parish to 815, 906, and 923 feet, in its 
southern portion to 879 and 629 feet. Northward the 
low ground lying along the Earn and Tat, and traversed 
by the little Farg, forms an oblong some 4 miles long 
by \\ mile broad, and is not exceeded in beauty, fer- 


tility, and cultivation by any tract of equal extent in 
Scotland. Its soil and sub-soil, down to a depth of 25 
feet, consist of strata of clay and sand, overlying a 
stratum of moss, from 1 foot to 3 feet thick, which com- 
prises remains of oak, alder, hazel, and birch. Fine rich 
haughs, protected by embankments from inundation, 
extend along the windings of the Earn and Tay ; the 
latter is here from \ to | mile broad, and is divided into 
the North and the South Deep by the long, low island 
of Mitgdrtjm, belonging to Abernethy parish. Eruptive 
rocks prevail throughout the uplands, Devonian in the 
low grounds. At Innernethy is a disused Old Red 
Sandstone quarry ; and greenstone and clinkstone are 
still worked in the hills, whilst zeolites, jaspers, agates, 
and calcareous spars abound in Glenfarg, where a quarry 
has yielded fragments of scales of ichthyolites. At the 
SE angle of the parish a hill behind Pitlour House is 
crowned by an ancient fort, with a paved road leading 
to it ; at the SW are the ruins of Balvaird Castle, a 
stronghold of the Mmrays, w-hose descendant, the Earl 
of Mansfield, takes from it his title of Baron (ere. 
1641). He, the Earl of Wemyss, Sir Robert Monerieffe, 
and 6 other proprietor's hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 13 between £100 and £500, 7 be- 
tween £50 and £100, and 22 between £24 and £50. The 
chief mansions are Ayton, Carey, and Carpow, near the 
last of which stood the castle of the Lords of Aber- 
nethy. Near it, too, in a weaver's cottage, was born the 
Rev. John Brown of Haddington (1722-87), author of 
the Self -interpreting Bible, and the great pastor of that 
Secession church, of whose four founders (1733) the Rev. 
Alexander Moncrieff, minister of Abernethy, was one. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of 
Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £409. Valua- 
tion (1SS1) of Perthshire portion, £12,788, 6s. SJd. ; of 
Fifeshire portion, £2343, 9s. 3d. Pop. of entire parish 
(1831) 1776 ; (1861) 1960 ; (1871) 1744— 15S9 in the 
Perthshire portion; (1SS1) 1714.— Ord. Sur., sh. 4S, 

Abernyte, a hamlet and a parish near the E border of 
Perthshire. The hamlet stands in a beautiful glen, by 
the confluence of two rivulets, one of them anciently 
called the Nyte ; and is 2J miles SW of its post-village 
Inchture, 4 miles NNW of Inchture station, and 11J 
miles ENE of Perth. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Longforgan, SE 
by Inchture, SW by Kinnaird, W by Collace, and NW 
by Cargill. Of irregular shape, it has an extreme length 
from E to W of 3| miles, a width from N to S of If mile, 
and an area of 2533 acres, of which 1 J are water. The 
surface has a general north-westward rise from the Carse 
of Gowrie to the Sidlaw Hills, the Braes of the Carse in 
the centre of the parish having elevations of 632 and 832 
feet above sea-level, while to the W are the slopes of 
Blacklaw (969 feet), Dunsinane Hill (1012), Black Hill 
(1182), and King's Seat (1235), whose summits, however, 
lie just outside the bounds. The glen, shut in upon three 
sides by bold but cultivated ascents, opens south-east- 
ward to the Carse ; and its united rivulets form in the 
low grounds at the head of a deep-wooded ravine a 
romantic waterfall with 40 feet of almost sheer descent. 
The rocks are chiefly sandstone and amygdaloid, con- 
taining agates ; and the soil on these lower grounds is 
light but fertile, mostly incumbent on gravel, whilst 
that of the uplands is of poorer quality, and in some 
places heathy. Two cairns crowned Glenny Law, on 
which and on Stockmuir there also stood two small 
stone-circles of 7 and 9 stones each. Abernyte House 
is the principal residence, and 7 landowners hold each 
an annual value of upwards of £50. In the presbytery 
of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, the parish 
contains an Established church (rebuilt 1736 ; living, 
£219), and a Free church for Abernyte and Rait, these 
churches standing J mile E, and 5 furlongs ESE, of the 
hamlet. A public school, with accommodation for 93 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 54, and a 
grant of £41, lis. Valuation (1881) £3011, 9s. Pop. 
(1831) 254, (1861) 310, (1871) 253, (18S1) 275.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 48, 1S68. 



Aber-Ruthven. See Aberuthven. 

Abertarf, a parish, with the seat of a presbytery, in 
the centre of Inverness-shire. The parish, named from 
the mouth of the Tarf rivulet, which enters the head of 
Loch Ness at Fort Augustus, lies principally on the 
NW side of Loch Ness, and formerly comprised also the 
district of Glenmoriston, but is now united to the parish 
of Boleskine. The presbytery of Abertarf, in the synod 
of Glenelg, comprehends the old parishes of Boleskine, 
Abertarf, Kilmalie, Kilmonivaig, Laggan, and Urquhart, 
and the quoad sacra parishes of Glengarry, Duncans- 
burgh, and Ballachulish and Corran-of-Ardgour. Pop. 
(1871) 11,370, of whom 470 were communicants in 1878, 
when the above congregations raised £190 in Christian 
liberality. The Free Church also has a presbytery of 
Abertarf, whose churches of Ballachulish, Fort Augustus, 
Fort "William, Glen Urquhart, Kilmalie, and Kilmoni- 
vaig, had 1723 members in 1880. 

Aberuchill, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Comrie parish, Perthshire, 1| mile SW of Comrie. A 
castle here, built in 1602, was long a centre of strife be- 
tween the Campbells and the Maegregors ; is a high 
square structure ; and stands adjoined to the modern 

Aberuthven (Gael. abhir-ruadJi-abhuinn, ' confluence 
of the red river '), a post office village in the north of 
Auchterarder parish, SE Perthshire, stands on the right 
bank of Ruthven Water, 1J mile S of its influx to the 
Earn, and is 2J miles SW of Dunning station, and 2| 
NE of its post-town, Auchterarder. It has a Free 
church (1S51), gas works, an inn, and a public school, 
which, with accommodation for 100 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 66, and a grant of £62, 3s. 
Cotton weaving is the staple industry, and cattle fairs 
are held on the third Tuesday of April and November. 
Across the Ruthven stands the rootless ruin of St Kat- 
tan's Chapel, the church of what once formed the 
separate parish of Aberuthven, granted in 1200 to Inch- 
affeat. Of Norman or First Pointed origin, it retains 
a couplet of narrow, ogee-headed, one-light windows, set 
widely apart in the E wall, and is the burial place of 
the Duncans of Damside and the Grammes of Inchbrakie ; 
whilst beside it is the urn-surmounted mausoleum of the 
Dukes of Montrose. 

Abington, a village in the E of Crawfordjohn parish, 
Lanarkshire, standing at SOS feet above sea-level on the 
left bank of the Clyde, | mile below the influx of Glen- 
gonner Water, and 14 miles SSE of Lanark by road. 
A bridge over the Clyde connects it with Abington 
station, J mile eastward on the Caledonian ; this station 
having a telegraph office, and being 9 miles S by W of 
Symington, 43J SW of Edinburgh, and 43$ SE of Glas- 
gow. At the village are a Free church, a post office 
with money order and savings' bank departments, a 
branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland, an hotel, 
and a school, which, with accommodation for 93 children, 
had (1S79) an average attendance of 56, and a grant of 
£61, 19s. Coursing meetings are held in the vicinity at 
which the best dogs of England and Ireland are pitted 
against those of the West of Scotland. Abington House 
a little S of the village, is a recent erection, the seat of 
Sir Thomas Edward Colebrooke of Crawford, fourth 
Bart, since 1759 (b. 1813 ; sue. 1838), M.P. for Lanark- 
shire and N Lanarkshire (1857-S1), and owner of 29,604 
acres in the shire of an annual value of £92S2. 

Aboyne, a village and a parish of S Aberdeenshire. 
The village, called sometimes Charlestown of Aboyne, 
has a station on the Deeside section of the Great North 
of Scotland railway, 32$ miles W by S of Aberdeen, and 
11 miles E by N of Ballater, and stands at 413 feet 
above sea-level, on the left bank of the Dee, here crossed 
by a fine suspension bridge (1831), which, 230 feet long 
by 14 wide, is gained from the S by two iron-trussed 
arches of 50 and 60, and by two stone arches of 20 and 
and 30, feet span. This bridge and a predecessor (1828 ; 
destroyed by the great flood of 4 Aug. 1829) were erected 
by the Earl of Aboyne at a cost of £7000 ; in 1S71 it 
was re-constructed by the County Road Trustees. Sur- 
rounded by forest uplands, and skirting a large green, 


Aboyne is a pretty little place, possessing a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, a good 
hotel, a public library and reading-room, and a picturesque 
high-roofed school (1874). Its places of worship are a 
handsome parish church (1842, 628 sittings), a Gothic 
Free church with graceful spire ; and a Roman Catholic 
church, St Margaret's (1874, 120 sittings). A burgh of 
barony, it holds cattle and horse fairs on the third 
Thursday of Jan., Feb., March, April, August, Sept., 
Nov. , and Dec. , on the last Wednesday of June and the 
last Friday of July, and on the first Tuesday and 
Wednesday of Oct. (old style). Pop. (1841) 260, 
(1851) 187. 

The present parish comprises the ancient parish of 
Glentanner, and hence is often designated the united 
parish of Aboyne and Glentanner. It is bounded N by 
Logie-Coldstone, E by Kincardine O'Neil and Birse, S 
by Lochlee in Forfarshire, and W by Glenmuick. Irre- 
gular in outline, it has a length from N to S of from 2 to 
8 1 miles, a width from E to W of from 2| to Si miles, 
and a land area of 25,265 acres. A small detached por- 
tion, called Percie, 1^ mile long by J mile wide, lies 
surrounded by Birse, on the left bank of the Feugh, 5J 
miles SE of the village and 3 miles S of the nearest point 
of the main body of the parish. With the exception of 
the lands of Balnacraig, Aboyne proper is all to the left 
or N of the Dee, between the burns of Dess on the E and 
Dinnet on the W. Its highest summit, Mortlich, rises 
upon the northern boundary to 1248 feet above sea-level, 
and is crowned by an obelisk and cross of granite 60 feet 
high, erected in 186S as a memorial of Charles, tenth 
Marquis of Huntly (1792-1863). Lesser eminences are 
Balnagowan Hill (S00 feet), Muchricha's Cross (798), 
Oldtown (580), and Balnacraig (689). Glentanner ex- 
tends from the southern bank of the Dee away to the 
Braes of Angus ; and within it, from N to S, are Creag- 
na-Slige (1336 feet), Duchery Beg (1485), Baudy Meg 
(1602), the Strone (1219), the Hill of Duchery (1824), 
Craigmahandle (1878), Little Cockcairn (2044), Cockcaim 
(23S7), Gannoch (2396), and the Hill of Cat (2435), the 
three last culminating upon the southern or south- 
eastern border. The Dee either bounds or intersects 
the parish for about 15 miles, descending within this 
distance from some 550 feet at Deecastle to 460 at the 
mouth of the Dinnet, 397 at the suspension bridge of 
Aboyne, and 296 at the Bridge of Potarch. Its principal 
affluent is the impetuous Water of Tanner, which, rising 
in Glenmuick parish on the south-western slope of Hare 
Cairn (2203 feet), takes a north-easterly course of 14 
miles to a point § mile above the suspension bridge, and 
receives on the way the united Waters of Gairney and 
Allachy and the Skinna Burn. It flows through ' a beauti- 
ful and richly-wooded glen, between high hills ' — so the 
Queen has described Glentanner, up which she drove as far 
as Etnach, with the Prince Consort and the Princess Alice, 
21 Sept. 1861 (pp. 156, 157 of Journal, ed. 1877). 
Glentanner then was 'out of sight of all habitations,' but 
this is no longer the case ; its present tenant, W. Cunliffe 
Brooks, Esq., M.P., having built at the Bridge of 
Tanner an entrance lodge like an old turreted keep, 
higher up a verandahed farm-house, with model dairy, 
stabling, and kennels, and many a quaint little cottage 
besides, all of them planned by Mr G. Truefitt, of Lon- 
don. Auld-dinnie Burn, running 4 miles northward on 
the boundary with Birse, is the only other noticeable 
stream ; in Aboyne proper, are two small sheets of 
water — Braeroddach Loch (1 j x 1 fur. ) to the NW, and, 
in the Castle policies, the artificial, islet-studded Loch 
of Aboyne (3 x 1\ fur. ). Granite, the primitive forma- 
tion, varies in hue from whitish-grey to red, the latter 
resembling Peterhead granite and taking a fine polish. 
Syenitic and ironstone boulders are also common, and 
black ferruginous fragments that seem to have been dis- 
integrated from rocks higher up the Dee. Glentanner 
yields topaz and crystallised quartz (both white and 
rose coloured) on the Firmonth, fuller's earth along 
Auld-dinnie Burn, impure limestone in small quantities, 
and traces of manganese ; whilst peat-mosses on the hills 


above Craigendinnie are found to overlie remains of oak, 
hazel, and birch, at a much higher level than that at 
which those trees now grow. The soil is generally poor 
and stony, even the narrow alluvial haughs of Deeside 
being mostly a mass of gravel, thickly covered with 
earth ; and, in spite of considerable reclamations, less 
than f of the whole area is arable. Forestry occupies 
more than double this extent. 'In the united parish,' 
writes Mr Alexander Smith, ' the ground - growing 
timber is estimated at between 8000 and 9000 acres. 
The extent of planted ground on both sides of the Dee, 
including the ornamental plantations in the policies of 
Aboyne Castle, is very large. Soil and climate seem to 
favour the growth of both pines and hardwood trees. 
Of the latter, the oak, ash, birch, and elm seem to suc- 
ceed best. Near the Castle are some fine specimens of 
the old Scotch fir, and throughout the adjoining planta- 
tion the larch, common spruce, and birch form a 
pleasant variety. Nearly 30 years ago most of the full- 
grown timber in the outlying plantations of Aboyne 
was cut down and the ground replanted ; but many 
years must elapse before the Aboyne woods attain the 
prominence they once had. Along the S bank of the 
river, from Craigendinnie westwards as far up as Deecastle, 
a large tract of muir ground has recentty been enclosed 
and planted, chiefly with Scotch fir, mixed with larch and 
hardwood trees ; and with the natural birch and hazel 
bushes the valley has been much beautified. The old 
forest of Glentanner extends from near Craigendinnie on 
the Dee, along the Tanner and its tributaries, to far up 
the lower skrpes of the Cockcairn, Montkeen, and Fir- 
month ; but from the straggling position of the trees on 
the outskirts, no exact estimate could well be formed of its 
extent. It is believed, however, that the area of ground 
covered with timber of all ages and condition is about 
6000 acres. Glentanner is said to be a remnant of the 
ancient Caledonian Forest, and within the past three- 
quarters of a century the timber in it has been twice cut 
down, and portions of it have twice been seriously in- 
jured by fire ; but for about 20 years it has been allowed 
to 'rest and be thankful.' ... In 1841 the wood 
cut down in Glentanner brought little if anything more 
than the cost of cartage to Aberdeen, owing to the in- 
approachable position of the best trees, most of them 
being too heavy to be floated by the river, except in 
time of flood. The soil of Glentanner, on the alluvial 
haughs, is good gravelly loam, overlying drift and rough 
sand, and on the lower slopes of the hills it is much of 
the same quality — rather more loamy, with disintegrated 
granite rocks. Higher up the hills these trees do not 
now grow ; it is broken moss, bleak rocky mountains, 
only partially covered with heather ( Trans. Uighl. and 
Ag. Soc, 1874, pp. 270, 271). The lands and Castle of 
Aboyne passed successively from William Bisset to the 
Knights Templars (1212), from them to the Frasers of 
Cowie, and from them, by marriage, to Sir William 
Keith, great marischal of Scotland (c. 1355), whose 
great granddaughter, Joan, brought them early in the 
15th century to Alexander do Seton, Lord of Gordon and 
first Earl of Huntly (1449). With his descendants, the 
great political dynasty of the Seton-Gordons, known 
afterwards for loyalty to the Stewarts, and long adher- 
ence to the Catholic faith, they have since continued, 
giving them title of Baron (1627), Viscount (1632), and 
Earl (1660). Their present holder is Charles Gordon, 
eleventh Marquis of Huntly since 1599, and seventh Earl 
of Aboyne (b. 1847; sue. 1S63), who owns 80,000 acres 
in the shire of an annual value of £11,215. (See Strath- 
bogie, Huntly, and Gordon ; also, Corriohie, Doni- 
bristle, Glenlivet, and Fkendratjght. ) Lying low, 
| mile N of the village, and girt by the Burn of Aboyne as 
by a moat, the Castle, with its many turrets, is rather 
imposing than beautiful. The western part was rebuilt in 
1671 by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne, the traditional hero 
of the ballad of ' Lord Aboyne,' though his countess was 
no Peggy Irvine, but Lady Elizabeth Lyon. The E 
wing was added in 1801, and in 1869 the old kitchen 
department was pulled down and replaced by new build- 
ings, all in granite with stepped gables, very simple but 


very effective. The old mansion of Balnacraig has sunk 
to a farmhouse ; but the house of Glentanner, 4J miles 
WSW of the village, has risen from a shooting-box to a 
large two-winged mansion adorned with rustic work, 
stained glass, pine dados, panelled ceilings, and antique 
furnishings. Hard by, a ruined 'laird's house,' with an 
ancient archway, has been converted into the private 
Episcopal chapel of St Lesmo (1871), a charming little 
church, 50 feet long by 20 broad, with heather thatch 
and internal fittings of pine. Other residences are 
Balfour House, Huntly Lodge, and Deeside Lodge ; two 
proprietors holding each an annual value of from £100 
to £500, and five of from £20 to £50, whilst the Marquis 
of Huntly owns some four-fifths of the entire rental. 
Natives were Father Thomas Innes (1662-1744), priest 
of the Scots College in Paris, and author of the earliest 
attempt to open up the real sources of Scottish history, 
A Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of Scotland 
(17^9) ; and Peter Williamson, kidnapped at Aberdeen 
in the first half of the 18th century, and sold into 
American slavery. Aboyne is in the presbytery of Kin- 
cardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen ; the living is 
worth £216. The mission church of Dinnet (minister's 
salary, £80) has ISO attendants; and the two public 
schools of Aboyne and Glentanner, with respective ac- 
commodation for 160 and 74 children, had (1S79) an 
average attendance of 145 and 31, and grants of £131, 
16s. 4d. and £41, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1SS1)£S004, 19s. 4d. 
Pop. (1801) 916, (1831) 1163, (1871) 1351, (1SS1) 1427.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 76, 1871-74. See 'Architecture on 
Deeside' in the Builder, 19 Sept. 1874. 

Aboyne and Braemar Railway, a line of S Aberdeen- 
shire, incorporated 5 July 1865, from the Deeside ex- 
tension at Aboyne to Bridge of Gairn, on a capital of 
£66,000 in £10 shares, and £22,000 upon loan. That 
portion of it from Aboyne to Ballater, 11 miles W by 
S, was opened in Oct. 1866, and is a single line with 
the two intermediate stations of Dinnet and Cambus 
O'May, a short tunnel under and through the village of 
Aboyne, and a light iron-girder bridge of 40 feet span 
over Tullich Burn. Aboyne station is 408 and Ballater 
670 feet above sea-level, and trains are timed to perform 
the journey in from 21 to 25 minutes. By act of 13 
July 1S76, the Deeside and the Aboyne and Braemar 
undertakings were amalgamated with the Great North 
of Scotland. 

Abroich, a burn in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, run- 
ning to Kelvin Water. 

Abruthven. See Abertjthven. 

Achacharra, a place with a large ancient Caledonian 
standing stone, in Ulva island, Argyllshire. 

Achadashemaig, an estate, with a mansion, in Salem 
parish, Mull island, Argyllshire. The mansion stands 
on a rising ground overlooking Aros Bay. 

Achaffrick, a place on Loch Shin, in the S of Suther- 

Achahoish, a hamlet in Knapdale, Argyllshire, at the 
head of Loch Killisport, 10J miles SW of Lochgilphead. 
It has a post office under Ardrishaig. 

Achaistal. See Latheron. 

Achalefen, a place in Kilmorie parish, Buteshire, in 
the S of Arran, 7 miles SW of Lamlash. 

Achalhanzie, a detached part of Crieff parish, in Perth- 
shire, lying to the E of Cultoquhey House, and consist- 
ing of one farm. 

Achalick, a small bay fishing station on the E side of 
Loch Fyne, in Argyllshire, 4 miles NE of the mouth of 
East Loch Tarbert. Ardmarnock House, the seat of J. 
Nicol, Esq. , is in its vicinity. 

Achall, a lake in Lochbroom parish, Ross-shire, about 
2J miles ENE of Ullapool. Lying 265 feet above 
sea-level, it measures 1J mile in extreme length, and 
from If to 3 furlongs in breadth ; it is embosomed 
variously in wooded promontories, green hills, and 
rugged heights ; and, under some aspects, it is one of 
the prettiest pieces of water in the Highlands. It 
abounds with salmon and trout, and is preserved, form- 
ming parts of the Duchess of Sutherland's Rhidorroch 
deer forest. 




Achallader, a ruined fortalice of the Campbells, Lairds 
of Glenorchy, in Glenorchy parish, Argyllshire, 1 mile 
above the head of Loch Tulla, and 10 miles N of TjTidrum 
station. Near it a conflict between two clans occurred in 
the latter part of the 17th century, and is commemorated 
by several cairns over the graves of the slain. 

Achally. See Benachally. 

Achanault. See Auchanatjlt. 

Achanduin or Auchindown Castle, a square, roofless 
structure, the quondam residence of the Bishops of Ar- 
gyll, in Lismore island, Argyllshire, 4 miles W of 
Lismore Cathedral. 

Achaneilein, a quagmire or quaking bog in Ardna- 
murchan parish, Argyllshire. It lies along the S side 
of Loch Shiel, is of unknown depth, and measures up- 
wards of 5 miles in length and f mile in breadth. 

Achantiobairt (Gael, achadh-an-t-iobairt, 'field of 
sacrifice'), the site of several stone crosses in Inverary 
parish, Argyllshire, 54, miles SSW of Inverary. It has 
an altitude of about 500 feet above Loch Fyne, and 
commands an extensive view. 

Achantoft, a place in E Caithness, 2 miles S of Dun- 
beath Castle. 

Achany, a mansion in Lairg parish, S Sutherlandshire, 
beautifully situated on the right bank of the Shin, 4 
miles MW of Invershin station. Purchased in 1S40, 
its estate was greatly improved by the late Sir James 
Matheson, Bart, of the Lews and Achany (1796-1878), 
owner of 424,560 acres, valued at £19,489 per annum. 
Hugh Miller speaks of ' the woods of Achany, famous for 
their nuts. ' 

Aehar, a farm, with an ancient obelisk 13 feet high, 
in Duror district, Argyllshire. 

Acharacle or Aharcle, a parliamentary parish on the 
mutual border of Argyll and Inverness shires, on the 
coast, 12 miles NW of Strontian. It consists chiefly of 
the eastern portion of Ardnamurchan parish, but com- 
prises also part of Morvern ; it includes portions of Ard- 
namurchan proper, Sunart, and Moidart, and the islands 
of Shona, Shonaveg, and Portavata ; it has its church and 
manse at the W end of Loch Shiel ; and it has a post office 
under Fort William. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Mull and synod of Argyll. The stipend is £120, paid by 
government, with a manse and a glebe worth respectively 
£15 and £16 a-year. Two public schools, Acharacle and 
Eilanshona, with respective accommodation for 90 and 
35 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 41 and 
16, and grants of £45, 12s. and £26, 18s. Pop. (1871) 
of parish, 1234, of whom 764 were in the Argyllshire 
portions; of registration district, 1414, (1881) 1425. 

Acharadale. See Achardale. 

Acharainey, a hamlet in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 
21 miles WSW of Wick. A chapel of the royal bounty, 
with 403 sittings, was formerly here, and served also for 
parts of Watten and Reay parishes. A Free Church charge 
now includes Acharainey, Westerdale, and Halsary. See 

Achardale, a hamlet in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 24 
miles SSW of Halkirk. 

Achareidh, a mansion, 1 mile W of Nairn town, the 
seat of Aug. Terry Clarke, Esq. 

Acharn, a village and a burn in Kenmore parish, 
Perthshire. The village stands at the burn's mouth, on 
the S shore of Loch Tay, 1J mile above Kenmore. A 
neat little place, it has a public school, which, with ac- 
commodation for 118 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 80, and a grant of £79, 2s. The burn 
rises on Creagan na Beinne, at an altitude of 2400 feet, 
and has a northward course of about 5 miles. Near the 
village, over the side of a wooded dell, it makes a pictur- 
esque fall, first a sheer leap of 50 feet, then in two streams 
that meet in a little pool, and thence down a series of 
inclined descents, the total height being between 80 and 
90 feet. A grotto opposite was visited on 5 Sept. 1803 
by Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy, who writes in 
her Journal (ed. by Principal Shairp, 1874) : — ' We en- 
tered a dungeon-like passage, and, after walking some 
yards in total darkness, found oxuselves in a quaint 
apartment stuck over with moss, hung about with stuffed 

foxes and other wild animals, and ornamented with a 
library of wooden books covered with old leather backs, the 
mock furniture of a hermit's cell. At the end of the room, 
through a large bow window, we saw the waterfall, and, 
at the same time, looking down to the left, the village of 
Kenmore and a part of the lake — a very beautiful prospect. ' 

Acharnie, a hamlet, near Huntly, in the NW of 

Acharynie. See Acharainey. 

Achavair, a hamlet in Latheron parish, Caithness, 
near the coast, 11 miles SSW of Wick. 

Achavandra, a hamlet in Dornoch parish, Sutherland. 
A Free Church school stood in it, and was transferred to 
the parochial school-board. 

Achavarn, a mansion in Halkirk parish, Caithness, 
near the E shore of Loch Calder, 6 miles S by W of 
Thurso. It is the seat of Colonel C. Guthrie, owner in 
the shire of 13,934 acres, valued at £2762 per annum. 

Aehavrea, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 94 
miles WSW of Wick. 

Achay, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 14, mile 
M VV of Aehavrea. 

Aehbreck, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
in Glenlivet, with a post office under Ballindalloch, its 
station, 74 miles to the NNW. It has also a chapel of 
ease (1825") to Glenlivet. 

Achenacraig. See Achnacraig. 

Achendown. See Auchindt/ne. 

Achenharvie, a hamlet in Cunninghame district, Ayr- 
shire, 5 miles NNE of Irvine. 

Achenkill, a farm, with the site of an ancient religious 
house, in Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Aehenreoch, a lake on the mutual boundary of Urr 
and Kirkpatrick-Durham parishes, Kirkcudbrightshire, 
7 miles NE by N of Castle-Douglas. It measures 14, mile 
in length, and from 4 to l| furlong in width; and 
abounds with pike and perch. 

Aehenreoch, an estate, with a commodious mansion, 
in Stracathro parish, Forfarshire, 4 miles N of Brechin. 

Aehenreoch, a moorland tract in Dumbarton parish, 
rising into Knockshanoch, 895 feet high, and forming 
the eastern part of Dumbarton Moor, 34, miles NE of 

Achentorlie, an estate, with a mansion, in Abbey- 
Paisley parish, Renfrewshire. 

Acherachan, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
on the river Livet, 8 miles N of Tomintoul. A distillery 
is here. 

Aehern, a hamlet in Wick parish, Caithness, 4 miles 
SW of Wick. 

Achernach, an estate in Strathdon parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. The mansion on it was built in 1809, and was 
long reputed the best in the district. 

Acheson's Haven. See Morrison's Haven. 

Aehilt. See Benachilt. 

Aehilty, a loch in Contin parish, Ross-shire, 34 miles 
WSW of Strathpeffer, measures about 2 miles in circum- 
ference, is limpid and very deep, and holds some char. 
It sends off its effluence by a subterranean canal into the 
river Rasay, about a mile to the NE ; an artificial islet 
in it was formerly the site of a house and garden, used 
as a retreat from danger, and accessible by a drawbridge ; 
and a ' Druidical ' stone circle stands on its eastern bank. 
Tor Aehilty, a beautiful, undulated, wooded hill, over- 
hangs the lake, and has a remarkable number of species 
of plants. 

Achin, a lake in the centre of Ross-shire, in the course 
of the river Sheen, 3 miles SE of Loch Fannich. 

Achinarrow, a hamlet in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
in the upper part of Glenlivet, lOf miles SSE of its rail- 
way station, Ballindalloeh. 

Achinbee, a place, with the site of an ancient religious 
house, in Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Achinblae. See Auchinblae. 

Aehineass or Auchen Castle, a ruined castle in Kirk- 
patrick Juxta parish, Dumfriesshire, 2 miles SW of 
Moffat. It stands on the peninsula between the Evan 
and the Garpol, near a cascade formed by the latter 
stream ; occupies a strong position, surmounting preci- 


pices and eneinctured by morass; seems once to have 
been of considerable extent, with outhouses for re- 
tainers, and a large quadrangular main building, with 
a turret at each angle, but consists now chiefly of parts 
of the walls, from 10 to 15 feet thick, and of one of the 
turrets in a good state of preservation. Held, and, it 
may be, built, by Randolph, Earl of Moray, and regent 
of Scotland (d. 1332), it passed to the Douglases of 
Morton, and is now the property of Hy. Alex. Butler- 
Johnstone, Esq. (b. 1S37 ; sue. 1879), owner of 2960 acres 
valued at £1575 per annum. His splendid seat, the 
modern castle of Achincass, stands close by. Hogg 
makes Achincass the residence of William Wilkin, the 
famous Annandale warlock : 

' To Auchin Castle Wilkin hied, 

On Evan banks sae green, 
And lived and died like other men, 

For aught that could be seen.' 

Achindarach, a place in Appin, Argyllshire, near Bal- 
Aehindavy. See Atjchendavy. 
Achinduin. See AcHANDunr. 

Achingale, a hamlet in Watten parish, Caithness, 84 
miles W of Wick. 

Achinhew, a place at the S end of the island of 

Achinlaich, an ancient fortification, on a hill-top, in 
Callander parish, Perthshire. The hill is planted, and 
the ditch and mound of the fortification on its top are 
very distinct. 

AchintouL See Auchintoul. 
Achiries. See Attchiries. 

Achleck, a rivulet with a picturesque waterfall in 
Morvern parish, Argyllshire. 
Achleeks. See Atjchleeks. 

Aehline or Auchlyne, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Trillin parish, Perthshire, on the river Dochart, 64 miles 
NW of Loehearnhead. 

Achlishie, an estate in Kirriemuir parish, Forfarshire. 
A cave is here in which a currach and some querns were 

Achluachrach, a hamlet in the SW of Inverness-shire, 
on the river Spean, under Ben Nevis, 14§ miles ENE of 
Fort William. It has a post office under Fort William. 
Aehlyne. See Achline. 
Aehmeloich. See Assynt. 

Achmerrel, a place in Watten parish, Caithness, 104 
miles W of Wick. 

Achmithie. See Auchmithie. 

Aehmore, a district of Weem parish, Perthshire, ad- 
jacent to Eillin, and extending thence 2 miles eastward 
along the river Dochart and Loch Tay. It is chiefly 
pastoral, but has a considerable amount of wood. Aeh- 
more House (Earl of Breadalbane), in a fine park, was 
converted about 1873 from 'a nice little cottage' into a 
stately chateau. The Queen rowed up to it from Tay- 
mouth, 10 Sept. 1S42. 

Achnacarry, the estate of Cameron of Lochiel, in 
Kilmalie parish, Inverness-shire, extends from Loch 
Arohaig to Loch Lochy, on either side of the river 
Archaig, 12 miles NNE of its post-town, Fort William. 
It came about 1664 into undisputed possession of Sir 
Ewan Cameron (1629-1719), the 'Ulysses of the High- 
lands,' but was forfeited by his grandson Donald, the 
' Gentle Lochiel,' for his share in the '45, and not 
restored to the family till 1784. Part of the ruined 
castle, burned by Cumberland's troops, remains ; and close 
to it is the modern Achnacarry House, which, with its 
noble avenue of ancient plane-trees and its wooded hills, 
Prince Charles's lurking-place in the August after Cullo- 
den, is one of the loveliest of Highland seats. 

Achnacloish, a picturesque small lake, in a small 
secluded glen, in Rosskeen parish, Ross-shire. 

Achnacrag, a hamlet in Latheron parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 4J miles SSW of Berriedale. 

Achnacraig or Auchnacraig, a hamlet in Torosay 

parish, island of Mull, Argyllshire, on the coast, at 

Loch Don, 84 miles W by N of Oban. It has a post 

office with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 



departments, under Oban, an inn, and a small harbour ; 
and is the principal ferry-station of Mull, first to the oppo- 
site island of Kerrera, a distance of about 4J miles, and 
thence to the mainland near Oban, a distance of 4 miles. 
Great numbers of black cattle are conveyed from it for 
the lowland markets ; and formerly those also from 
Coll and Tiree were landed on the further side of Mull, 
and here reshipped. 

Achnacroish, an estate, with a mansion of 1859, on 
the E side of Mull, 3 miles N by W of Achnacraig. 

Achnacy, a harnlet in the NW of Aberdeenshire, 4J 
miles N of Huntly. 

Achnadavel, a place in the SW of Inverness-shire, 
7 miles NE of Fort William. 
Achnagart, a place in Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 
Achnagol, a hamlet in Inverary parish, Argyllshire, 
i miles SSW of Inverary town. A cairn here, 130 feet 
long, was excavated in 1871, and yielded human bones, 
pottery, weapons, etc. 

Achnahannet, a place in the SW of Elginshire, 34, 
miles WSW of Grantown. 

Achnahannet, a hamlet, with a public school, in 
Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 

Achnahowie, a lake in the W of Sutherland, in the 
upper basin of the Helmsdale river, 9 miles NW of 

Achnaiken, a place in the W of Sutherland, on Elles- 
water, 7 miles NNW of Kildonan. 

Achnarrow, a hamlet in Glenlivet quoad sacra parish, 
Banffshire. It has a girls' school. 

Achnastank, a place in the highlands of Elginshire, 
near the E base of Ben Rinnes, 5 miles SSW of Dufftown. 
Aehnavarn, a ruined ancient castle, near Loch Calder, 
in the NW of Halkirk parish, Caithness. Its strength 
appears to have been great, but its origin is not re- 

Achollies, a place in Fetteresso parish, Kincardineshire, 
on a branch of the river Cowie, 5J miles WNW of Stone- 

Acholter, a place in the island of Bute, 24 miles NW 
of Rothesay. 

Aehosnich, a place with a Christian Knowledge Society's 
school, in Ardnamurchan parish, Argyllshire. The school, 
with accommodation for 68 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 43, and a grant of £39, ISs. 

Aohrarmie, a double cataract on the river Isla, in the 
W of Forfarshire, on the mutual boundary of Glenisla 
and Lintrathen parishes, about 2 miles below the Reeky 
Linn. The upper cataract occurs in a stupendous chasm, 
scarcely more than 9 feet in width, flanked by mural 
precipices of great height, surmounted by a profusion of 
trees ; and it descends a steep broken channel, in deep 
boiling flood, and curling wreaths of foam, with roaring 
noise and impetuous power. The lower cataract is of 
similar character, but of less force. 

Achray (Gael, achadh-reidh, 'smooth field'), a 'lovely 
loch ' of SW Perthshire, lies on the mutual boundary of 
Callander and Aberfoyle parishes, 7\ miles W by S of Cal- 
lander, and midway between Lochs Katrine and Venachar, 
its distance from each being about 1 mile. By the former 
it is fed through Achray Water, to the latter it sends 
off the Dubh Abhainn, belonging thus to the basin of 
the Teith. From W to E 1J mile long, and from 2 to 3 
furlongs broad, it is bounded at its head by the Trossachs, 
flanked on their left hand by Ben Venue (2393 feet), and 
on their right by Meall Gainmheich (1851 feet), whilst 
in the NE ' Benledi's distant hill ' rises to a height of 
2S75 feet. On the northern shore are a little church, a 
manse, and the castellated Trossachs Hotel, where Haw- 
thorne stayed in July 1S57 ; the farm of Achray stands 
at the SW angle, on the level patch that gave the loch 
its name. There are boats ; and the fishing (trout, sal- 
mon-trout, pike, and perch) is good, and open to the pub- 
lic. The Lady of the Lake, (1810) has made the world 
familiar with Achray's beauties, so sweet and lonely 
in its ' copsewood grey ; ' but others than Scott had 
found those beauties out — Coleridge, and Wordsworth, 
and his sister Dorothy. The last in her Journal (27 Aug. 
1803) describes the lake as 'small compared with Loch 



Katrine, though perhaps 4 miles long, but the misty air 
concealed the end of it. The transition from the solitary 
wildness of Loch Katrine, and the narrow valley or pass 
to this scene was very delightful ; it was a gentle place, 
with lovely open hays, one small island, cornfields, woods, 
and a group of cottages. This vale seemed to have been 
made to be tributary to the comforts of man. Loch 
Katrine for the lonely delight of nature, and kind spirits 
delighting in beauty. The sky was grey and heavy — 
floating mists on the hill-sides, which softened the objects ; 
and where we lost sight of the lake, it appeared so near 
to the sky that they almost touched one another, giving 
a visionary beauty to the prospect. "While we overlooked 
this quiet scene, we could hear the stream rumbling 
among the rocks between the lakes, but the mists con- 
cealed any glimpse of it which we might have had.' 
Again, on 11 Sept., she writes : — 'We came up to that 
little lake, and saw it before us in its true shape in the 
cheerful sunshine. TheTrossachs, overtoppedby Ben Ledi 
and other high mountains, enclose the lake at the head ; 
and those houses which we had seen before, with their 
cornfields sloping towards the water, stood very prettily 
under low woods. The fields did not appear so rich as 
when we had seen them through the vale of mist ; but yet 
as in framing our expectations we had allowed for a much 
greater difference, so we were even a second time sur- 
prised with pleasure at the same spot. We went as far 
as these houses of which I have spoken in the car, and 
then walked on, intending to pursue the road upon the 
side of Loch Katrine along which Coleridge had come ; 
but we had resolved to spend some hours in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Trossachs, and accordingly coasted the 
head of Loch Achray, and pursued the brook between 
the two lakes as far as there was any track. Here we 
found, to our surprise — for we had expected nothing but 
heath and rocks like the rest of the neighbourhood oi 
the Trossachs — a secluded farm; a plot of verdant ground 
with a single cottage and its company of outhouses. 
We turned back, and went to the very point from which 
we had first looked upon Loch Achray when we were 
here with Coleridge. It was no longer a visionary scene, 
the sun shone into every crevice of the hills, and the 
mountain tops were clear. ' See also Alexander Smith, 
A Summer in Skye, chap. ii. ; and Passages from the 
English Note-Books of Nathaniel Hawthorne, vol. ii., pp. 
303-308.— Orel. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Achriesgill, a hamlet and a rivulet in the NW of 
Sutherland. The hamlet lies at the head of Loch Ineh- 
ard, 13 miles SSW of Durness. The rivulet has a run 
of about 7 miles north-north-westward to the head of 
Loch Inchard, makes some pretty cascades over high 
rocks in its channel, and traverses a little strath nearly 
all heathy or pastoral. 

Achtercairn, a hamlet in Gairloch parish, Ross-shire. 
A public school, with accommodation for 85 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 57, and a grant of 
£51, 2s. 6d. 

Achtow, a hamlet in Balquhidder parish, Perthshire, 
1 J mile E of Balquhidder village. 

Aehvaich, a small strath in the upper part of Dornoch 
parish, Sutherland. 

Achvarasdal Burn. See Reat. 

Ackergill Tower, a mansion in Wick parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 2J miles N by W of Wick. It stands on a 
rock close to the sea, a few feet above high water mark, 
and is partly an ancient, strong, three-storied tower, 65 
feet high and 45 square, partly a recent castellated man- 
sion. Once the seat of the Earls Marischal, and defended 
on all sides but that toward the sea by a moat 12 feet 
wide and 12 deep, it now belongs to Garden Duff-Dunbar, 
Esq. (b. 1838 ; sue. 1875), owner of 22,880 acres in the 
shire, valued at £11,046 per annum. 

Ackemess, a headland on the 1ST of Westray island, in 

Adam. See Aldham. 

Add (Gael. Avon-Flmda, 'long river,' Ptolemy's 

Longus Fluvius), a river of W Argyllshire, which, rising 

in marshes at the NW extremity of Glassary parish, runs 

along the valley of Glassary, and through the moss of 



Crinan, and falls into the sea at Inner Loch Crinan. It 
occasionally in heavy rains overflows its banks, and does 
much injury to adjacent fields. It abounds with trout, 
and there is a salmon fishery at its mouth. 

Adderlaw, a hill summit, 822 feet high, in the E of 
Applegarth parish, Dumfriesshire. 

AdcQewell, a manufacturing village in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire, on the verge of the county, near 
the Cleland branch of the Caledonian railway, 1J mile 
WSW of West Calder. It has a post office under Mid- 
calder, railway connection with the Caledonian, and a 
Church of Scotland mission station. Pounded about 1866 
in connection with great chemical works, it comprises 
a great number of factory buildings, retort sheds, etc. ; 
and it looks like an assemblage of numerous factories 
and their appurtenances for a diversity of purposes. The 
works cover 70 acres, produce vast quantities of paraffin 
oil, naphtha, paraffin candles, and ammonia, and serve 
also as auxiliaries to the great chemical works in the 
vicinity of Bathgate. A public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 327 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 274, and a grant of £251, 6s. Pop. (1881) 1819. 

Addiston, an adjunct of the Dalmahoy estate, in Ratho 
parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles NW of Currie. 

Adie or Addie, a heathy hill, 893 feet high, in the SE 
of Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

Adigo, a lake in Uig parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, 

Advie, a barony in Cromdale parish, Elginshire, on 
the right bank of the river Spey, and on the Strathspey 
branch of the Great North of Scotland railway, 8 miles 
NE of Grantown. It has a post office of Advie Station, 
under Ballindalloeh, an Established mission church, and 
a public school, which, with accommodation for 90 chil- 
dren, had (1879) an average attendance of 37, and a grant 
of £32, 3s. The barony of Advie, on the right side of 
the Spey, and the barony Tulchen on the left side, an- 
ciently were a parish, now united with Cromdale, and 
they belonged to the Earl of Pife, passed in the 15th 
century to the Ballindalloeh family, and were eventu- 
ally sold to Brigadier Alexander Grant. 

Ae, an impetuous river of Dumfriesshire, rises upon 
the eastern skirts of Queensberry Hill (2285 feet), 6J 
miles WSW of Moffat. Thence it runs S, SE, and NE, 
chiefly along the boundary between Closeburn, Kirkma- 
hoe, Tinwald, and Lochmaben parishes on the right, and 
Kirkpatrick juxta and Kirkmickael parishes on the left, 
and falls into the Kinnel at a point 2J miles N of Loch- 
maben. Its length is some 16 miles ; and its affluents 
are the Deer, Bran, Capel, WTndyhill, Goukstane, Black 
Linn, and Garrel burns. 

Aebercurnig. See Abeecoen. 

Aen. See Aan. 

Affleck, an ancient castle in Monikie parish, Forfar- 
shire. It is a fine specimen of the old feudal keep ; 
and, though long uninhabited, is still almost entire. 
It stands about 5 miles from the coast, yet serves as a 
landmark to sailors. 

Affleck, Ayrshire. See Attchinxeck. 

Afforsk, a picturesque ravine in Gamrie parish, Banff- 
shire. It is deep and winding ; has precipitous, diversi- 
fied, luxuriantly plant-clad sides ; is split into two, 
about half-way down, by a steeply acclivitous ledge of 
rock, called the Ruin of Afforsk ; and descends, past the 
old church, to the sea. The view of it from the Ruin, 
both upward and downward, is strongly romantic. 

Affric (Gael, abh-riach, ' greyish water '), a lake and a 
river in Kilmorack parish, NW Inverness-shire. The 
lake lies 14 miles NW of Fort Augustus, at an altitude 
of 744 feet above sea-level, and, extending in a north- 
easterly direction, is 3| miles long and from 1J to 4 
furlongs wide. Of great depth, it abounds in trout, 
running 3 to the lb. ; receives some 18 streams and 
brooklets ; and is flanked NW by Mam Sodhail (3862 
feet) and Cam Eige (3877), N by Sgurr na Lapaich 
(3401), and NE by Am Meallan (2136), SW by Cam a' 
Choire Chairbh (2827), Tigh Mor (3222), and Sgurr nan 
Conbhairean (3634), S by Cam Glas Lochdarach (2330), 
and Aonach Shasuiim (2901), and SE by Creag nan 


Colman (2167). It belongs to The Chisholm, and a 
shooting-lodge stands at its foot. The river is formed 
by the Grianain and Fionn, both of which rise upon Drum- 
alban — the former flowing 3f miles N and E from Ben 
Fhada (3383 feet), the latter 5 NE from Sgurr a' Bheal- 
aich (3378). They unite 5 miles W by S of the head of 
Loch Affrie ; and thence the river runs 18 miles ENE, 
through Lochs Affrie and Beneveian (2g miles by 3 J fur. ), 
till, 2| miles SW of Glenaffric Hotel, it joins with the 
Amhuinn Deabhaidb to form the Glass. The scenery 
is lovely along its banks, wooded with birches and 
ancient pines, survivors of the Caledonian Forest ; and 
the plentiful trout of its waters, all owned by The Chis- 
holm, range from J to 1 lb. in weight. Salmon and 
grilse are also sometimes taken, and the rod season lasts 
from Feb. 11 to Oct. 15.— Orel. Sur., shs. 72, 73, 18S0- 

Afton, a rivulet of New Cumnock parish, SE Ayr- 
shire, rises on the northern slope of Albany Hill, at an 
altitude of 1750 feet, near the meeting-point of Ayr, Dum- 
fries, and Kirkcudbright shires. Thence it runs 9 miles 
northward, in rapid current, along the lovely valley of 
Glenafton, and falls into the Nith 3 furlongs NNE of 
New Cumnock church. It is celebrated in Burns's song, 
' Flow gently, sweet Afton, among thy green braes. ' 

Afton-Bridgend, a village in the parish and imme- 
diately S of the village of New Cumnock, Ayrshire. 
Pop. (1871) 352. 

Agabatha, an ancient military fort in Collessie parish, 
Fife, on a small eminence near Trafalgar hamlet. It 
and another fort, the Maiden Castle, appear to have 
been formed to command the pass from Newburgh to 
the central part of Fife ; and they must have been im- 
portant stations. The eminence on which Agabatha 
stood was surrounded by a moat. 

Agston. See Oxton. 

Aharcle. See Achakacle. 

Aheurich, a glen containing a considerable lake in 
Sunart district, Argyllshire, a few miles N of Strontian. 

Aich or Eich. See Beneich. 

Aicbiltibuie, a hamlet in Lochbroom parish, Ross- 
shire. A public school at it, with accommodation for 
87 children, had (1S79) an average attendance of SO, and 
a grant of £73, 12s. 

Aigas or Eilean-Aigas, a rocky islet in Kilmorack 
parish , Inverness-shire, immediately above the Drhuin, 
5J miles SW of Beauly. It is encompassed by divergent 
and convergent branches of the river Beauly ; it measures 
about f mile in length, and fully 1J mile in circum- 
ference ; it has an oval outline, and rises abruptly to a 
height of about 100 feet above the water's level ; it con- 
sists chiefly of conglomerate, and is covered with natural 
wood of birch and oak ; it communicates with the main- 
land by a bridge ; it was the retreat of Lord Lovat, after 
the denunciation of his clan by government in 1697 ; and 
it is now occupied by a handsome villa, which was the 
summer retreat of the late Sir Robert Peel. The roe 
used greatly to frequent it ; the red-deer used occasionally 
to be found on it ; and the wild turkey of America was 
introduced to it in 1842. A General Assembly's female 
school is designated of Aigas. 

Aigle. See Edzell. 

Aigrish. See Aigas. 

Aikenhauld, the site of the ancient church of Fin- 
haven, in Oathlaw parish, Forfarshire, a short distance 
below Finhaven Castle. The church was probably paro- 
chial ; and the walls of its burying-ground, enclosing a 
number of monumental stones, were standing in the 
latter part of last century. 

Aikenhead, the seat of Jn. Gordon, Esq. , in the Lan- 
arkshire portion of Cathcart parish, 4 miles S of Glas- 

Aikenway, a high rocky peninsular tract in Rothes 
parish, Elginshire, at the foot of Beneagen Hill, and 
projecting into the Spey. It is fully a mile in length ; 
rises steeply round three-fourths of its circuit from the 
Spey ; was anciently surmounted by a castle, and other- 
wise fortified ; and appears to have been a place of strong 
refuge and defence in times of danger from hostilities. 


Aikerness, a lake at the N end of Pomona or Main, 
land, in Orkney, opposite Rousay. 

Aiket Castle, a ruined ancient structure in Dunlop 
parish, N Ayrshire. It is of various dates, includes a 
lofty keep, and was once the seat of a branch of the Cun- 

Aikey Brae, a place on the W border of Old Deer 
parish, Aberdeenshire. The final overthrow of the Coniyns 
by Edward Bruce, said to have occurred here, is com- 
memorated by an annual fair, called Aikey Market, on 
the Wednesday after 19 July, as also by a cluster of 
tumuli over the graves of the men who were slain. 

Ailsa Craig, a rocky islet in the Firth of Clyde, 10 
miles W by N of Girvan, and 12f S of Arran. Forming 
part of Knockgerran barony in Dailly parish, Ayrshire, 
it belongs to the Earls of Cassillis, and gives them, in 
the peerage of Great Britain, the titles of Baron (1S06) 
and Marquis (1841). It rises almost murally from the 
water ; attains an altitude of 1114 feet above the mean 
level of the tides ; and figures conspicuously in most 
views from either the bosom of the Firth or the broad 
expanses of land which spread away from it to distant 
watersheds. Its base is elliptical, and measures 3300 
feet in one direction, 2200 feet in another. Its rock is 
columnar syenitic trap. Its columns, on a close view, 
are ill defined ; but, seen at a little distance, they look 
as distinct as those of the basaltic colonnades of Skye. 
They likewise have great magnitude, ranging from 6 to 
9 feet in breadth ; and, in one part, they rise without- 
a break to nearly 400 feet in height. ' If Ailsa Craig,' 
says Dr Macculloch, ' has not the regularity of Staffa, 
it exceeds that island as much in grandeur and variety 
as it does in absolute bulk. There is indeed nothing, 
even in the columnar scenery of Skye or in the Shiant 
Isles, superior as these are to Staffa, which exceeds, if it 
even equals, that of Ailsa. In point of colouring, these 
cliffs have an infinite advantage, the sobriety of their 
pale greystone not only harmonising with the subdued 
tints of green, and with the colours of the sea and the 
sky, but setting off to advantage all the intricacies of 
the columnar structure ; while, in all the Western 
Islands where this kind of scenery occurs, the blackness 
of the rocks is not only often inharmonious and harsh 
but a frequent source of obscurity and confusion.' A 
landing ou the Craig is difficult, and can be effected 
only on the E side, at a small beach formed by fallen 
fragments of the rock. The ascent, to a height of about 
200 feet, is easy, and leads to the ruins there of a square 
building, which may have been a hermitage, but of 
which nothing certain is known. The ascent thence is 
extremely laborious, over fragments of rock, and through 
a dense tangle of gigantic nettles. Two copious springs 
are not far from the summit ; and a scanty but fine 
herbage, with somewhat perilous footing for man or even 
beast, covers the upper parts and the top. Crowds of 
rabbits burrow in the lower parts ; a few goats subsist 
on the herbage higher up ; and countless myriads of sea 
fowl inhabit all the cliffs. The rabbits are thinned 
during January usually to the number of from 600 to 
1200, and they are of excellent quality, and find a ready 
market. A tacksman, with assistants, inhabits the rock 
during the summer months, to gather feathers and to 
catch fish. A scheme was agitated, a number of years ago, 
to make the rock a fishing station, in connection with the 
steamers from Glasgow to Liverpool, and buildings were 
actually commenced, but never finished. The favourite 
feat, in pleasure excursions by steamer along the firth, 
is to sail near the cliffs and to fire a swivel against them, 
so as to give a sudden and universal alarm to the birds. 
The scene which follows is wondrously sublime — seem- 
ing as if the mountain were resolving itself into great 
dense clouds of feathered creatures, with an accompani- 
ment of cawing and screaming almost terrific ; but, at 
the same time, it is so very singular, so exceedingly un- 
like every other kind of sublime scene, that some at- 
tempts which spirited writers have made to describe it, 
though true and graphic enough to persons who have 
witnessed it, appear bombastic and nonsensical to those 
who have not. See D. Landsborough's Excursions to 



Arran and Ailsa Craig (1851 ; new ed., Lond. 1S75). — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 7, 1863. 

Ailsh, a lake of SW Sutherland, 6J miles SSE of 
Assynt. It is fed by a streamlet from Benmore, but is 
commonly regarded as the source of the river Oikel. 

Ainort, a sea-loch in the SE of Skye, opening at the 
NW end of the Sound of Scalpa, and penetrating the 
land about 3 miles south-westward. 

Ainort, in the mainland of Inverness-shire. See 

Ainort, in South Uist. See Eynort. 

Aird, a hamlet in Inch parish, Wigtownshire, 2J 
miles E by S of Stranraer. Another hamlet, Bridge of 
Aird, on Bishop Burn, is 1 mile E of Stranraer. 

Aird, a fertile district in the E of Inverness-shire, 
in the basin of the river Beauly. It is very beautiful as 
well as fertile, and it belongs chiefly to the clan 

Aird, an extensive ruin supposed to be the remains of 
a Danish fort, on the E side of Kintyre, Argyllshire, 1 
mile N of Carradale Point, and opposite Machrie Bay in 
Arran. It crowns a rocky promontory, and overhanging 
the sea, was defended by a deep wide ditch, and had 
an outer wall 240 feet long, 72 broad, 6 thick, and 12 

Aird, a picturesque waterfall in Tynron parish, Dum- 
friesshire, on the river Shinnel, a short distance below 
Tynron Manse. 

Aird or Eye, a peninsula of Stornoway parish, on the 
E side of Lewis island, with whose mainland it is con- 
nected by an isthmus, J mile wide. It extends 7 miles 
north-eastward, from Chicken Head to Tuimpan Head, 
has a breadth of from 2 to 3J miles, and flanks all the E 
side of Broad Bay, or Loch-a-Tuath. It contains itself 
six little lochs, and its highest point is 266 feet above 
the sea. It anciently formed a chapelry called Hi or 
Uy ; and it is now included in the parliamentary quoad 
sacra parish of Knock. Its old chapel is in ruins. 

Aird, a hamlet and a headland at the north-eastern 
extremity of Skye, near Trodda Island, and 30 miles W 
by S of the mouth of Gair Loch. 

Aird, a hamlet, with a public school, in Sleat parish, 

Aird or Strathaird, a headland at the southern ex- 
tremity of Skye, terminating the peninsula between Lochs 
Scavaig and Slapin. 

Aird, Argyllshire. See Aikds. 

Aird, Ross-shire. See Coigach. 

Airdit, a hill summit, 515 feet high, on the mutual 
boundary of Leuchars and Logie parishes, NE Fife. In 
Leuchars is the ruined old mansion of Airdit. 

Airdlamont. See Ardlamont. 

Airdle or Ardle, a small river of HE Perthshire. It 
is formed by the union of two streams, the one descend- 
ing from the Grampians in the E forest of Athole, along 
Glen Fernal, — the other descending from the W along 
Glen Briarachan ; and it flows south-eastward along 
Strath-Airdle in Kirkmichael parish, and a little below 
Nether Traquhair unites with the Shee to form the 
Erich t. Its length of course is about 13 miles. 

Airdmeanach. See Ardmeanach. 

Airdnamurehan. See Ardxamurchan. 

Airdrie (Gael, airde-reidh, 'smooth height'), a parlia- 
mentary and municipal burgh in New Monkland parish, 
NE Lanarkshire, 2 miles E by N of Coatbridge, 11 E of 
Glasgow, and 32 "VV by S of Edinburgh. It stands on 
the great highroad between the two cities, with which 
it also communicates by the North British railway, 
having one station (South Side) on the main Bathgate 
line, and another (Commonhead or North Airdrie) on the 
Slamannan branch, 16 miles WSW of Manuel Junction. 
With Glasgow it is further connected by the Monkland 
Canal, extending to Calder ironworks, 1J mile to the 
SSW. Lying between two rivulets, on the side of a hill 
with a south-westward slope from Rawyards (624 feet 
above sea-level) to Coatdike (361 feet), Airdrie consists 
jf a principal street running 1 mile E and W along the 
highroad, with minor parallel or divergent streets ; and 
though well paved and lighted, airy, and regularly built, 


it wears a straggling and somewhat unlovely aspect. 
Chalmers identified its site with Ardderyd, the battlefield 
of Rhydderch and Gwendolew (573) ; but Ardderyd or 
Arthuret is far away in Cumberland (Skene, Celt. Scot. , 
i. 157), and the first that we hear of Airdrie is its erection 
into a market-town by Act of Parliament in 1695, with 
the privilege of holding a weekly market and two yearly 
fairs. Down even to the close of last century it was 
merely a large village, and its rapid expansion during 
the next five decades was due to the opening up of the 
rich beds of coal and ironstone around it, to facilities of 
communication with the markets and outlets of the West, 
and to its share in the weaving orders of Glasgow manu- 
facturers. It was made a burgh of barony in 1821, one 
of the five Falkirk parliamentary burghs in 1832, and 
a municipal burgh in 1849 ; prior to 1871 it partly 

Arms of Airdrie. 

adopted the General Police and Improvement Act. Go- 
verned by a provost, 3 bailies, and 12 councillors, with 
treasurer, town-clerk, and procurator-fiscal, Airdrie unites 
with Falkirk, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, in 
returning 1 member to parliament ; and its municipal 
and parliamentary constituency was 1802 in 1881. Airdrie 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, insur- 
ance, and telegraph departments ; branches of the Bank 
of Scotland, and of the Clydesdale, National, and Royal 
banks ; a temperance and a penny savings' bank, 27 in- 
surance offices, a gas-light company, a water company, 
conjointly with Coatbridge, a fire brigade, a prison 
(legalised 1859 ; 51 cells), a fever hospital, 3 hotels, a 
race-course, and two Saturday newspapers — the A irdric 
Advertiser (1855) and the Airdrie and Coatbridge Tele- 
graph (1879). Tuesday is market-day, and the fairs are 
on the last Tuesday of May and the third Tuesday of 

The chief public edifices are a good Town-Hall, erected 
about 1832, with spire and clock, and handsome County 
Buildings, in which are held a sheriff court every Tues- 
day and Friday, a small-debt court on Tuesday, ordinary 
and debts recovery courts on Friday, a justice of peace 
court every Monday and Thursday, and a burgh court 
on Monday. The first town in Scotland to adopt the 
Free Library Act (1866), Airdrie has now a public free 
library of 4400 volumes (transferred to new buildings in 
1880), besides a mechanics' institute and school of arts. 
There are also a public hall, a masonic hall, and a Good 
Templars' hall, and offices of a town mission, a female 
benevolent society, a young men's Christian association, 
and the New Monkland Agricultural Society (1805). 
Two public drinking fountains were erected in 1S65 — 
one, 20 feet high, in front of the Royal Hotel ; the other, 
octagonal and Early Decorated in style, at the cross- 
roads, on the site of an ancient cross. 

The quoad sacra parish of Airdrie, in the presbytery 
of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, had a pop. 
(1871) of 13,666, but this included the Flowerhill dis- 
trict at the E end of the town, which in 1875 was con- 
stituted a separate quoad sacra parish, with a pop. then 
estimated at 3S50. Airdrie parish church, built in 1835 
at a cost of £2370 as a chapel of ease, and called the West 


Church, contains 1200 sittings; under it is Rawyards 
mission station (70 attendants ; missionary's salary, 
£90). Flowerhill Church was erected for a quondam 
Reformed Presbyterian congregation, which joined the 
Establishment in 1873. Completed in 1S75 at a cost 
of £6000, it is a Romanesque structure, seating 900, 
and adorned with a bell-tower over 100 feet high. 
Other places of worship are four Free churches (West, 
Broomknoll, High, and Graham Street), two U. P. 
churches, one Baptist church, one Reformed Presby- 
terian, one Wesleyan, one Congregationalist, one Evan- 
gelical Union, and oue Roman Catholic — St Margaret's 
(1839), with 1010 sittings. The Academy was built 
in 1849 at a cost of £2500, defrayed by Mr Alexander 
of Airdrie House, who further endowed it with £80 a- 
year ; and two fine new board schools, the Albert and 
the Victoria, were opened in 1876. There are bur- 
saries for children of the town attending these schools 
(chiefly the Academy), of an aggregate yearly value of 
£100 ; and they are eligible for one or more of five col- 
lege bursaries, of £22 for five sessions. Under the burgh 
school-board there were in all eight schools in 1879 — five 
of them public (Albert, Alexander's, Alexandra evening, 
Rawyards, and Victoria), one Episcopalian, one Roman 
Catholic, and one Free Church. These eight had a total 
accommodation for 2426 children, an average attendance 
of 2064, and grants amounting to £1831, 5s. 3d. 

The manufacturing prosperity, after growing for 50 
years with the growth of a New-World rather than of 
an Old- World town, was checked for a season, again 
to show symptoms of renewed vigour. In 1879 there 
were 44 collieries and 6 ironstone mines at work in 
New Monkland parish, while the Monkland Iron and 
Coal Company had 8 furnaces in blast, at Calderbank 
and Chapelhall ; and in and without the town there are 
brass and iron foundries, engineering shops, oil and 
fireclay works, brickfields, quarries, paper-mills, silk 
and calico printing works, and cotton, wincey, hosiery, 
flannel, and tweed factories. Value of real property 
(1815) £13,903, (1843) £35,967 ; without railways (1858) 
£22,507,(1861)£30,2S4, (1872) £20,926, (1881)£33,027. 
Corporation revenue (1881) £4407. Pop. (1831) 6594, 
(1S61) 12,918, (1871) 13,4SS, (1881) 13,363.— Orel. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1S67. 

Airdrie, an estate with a mansion in Crail parish, 
Fife. The estate belonged, in the reign of David II., to 
the family of Dundemore ; in the 15th century, to the 
Lumsdens ; in the reign of James VI., to Sir John 
Preston, president of the Court of Session ; afterwards, 
to General Anstruther ; and latterly, to Methven 
Erskine, Esq: , who became Earl of Kellie, and died here 
in 1830. The mansion is embosomed in wood, crowns 
a swelling ground at the distance of 2J miles from the 
coast, and includes an ancient tower which commands a 
magnificent view from Edinburgh to the ocean and from 
St Abb's Head to the Bell Rock lighthouse. 

Airdrie Hill, a property in New Monkland parish, 
Lanarkshire, 1J mile NE of Airdrie. It is rich in iron ore, 
and has a band of ironstone from 2 to 4 feet thick, about 
3 fathoms below the black-band. Here is a new school 
under conjointly the New Monkland and the Clarkston 
school-boards. Opened in 1876, it had (1S79) accommo- 
dation for 365 children, an average attendance of 103 
day and 27 evening scholars, and grants of £90, 9s. and 
£15, 15s. 6d. 

Airds, an estate in Appin, Argyllshire, with the seat 
of Rt. Macfie, Esq. , 3 furlongs SE of Port-Appin village. 
The estate lies opposite the upper end of Lismore island, 
occupying a peninsula between Lochs Linnhe and Creran ; 
and comprises 6700 acres valued at £2027 per annum. 
Dr Macculloch, speaking of the peninsula, says : — ' I 
do not know a place where all the elements, often incon- 
gruous ones, of mountains, lakes, wood, rocks, castles, 
sea, shipping, and cultivation are so strangely inter- 
mixed, where they are so wildly picturesque, and where 
they produce a greater variety of the most singular and 
unexpected scenes. ' 

Airds, a bay in Muckairn parish, Argyllshire, on the 
S side of Loch Etive. 


Airdsmoss or Airsmoss, a morass in the E of Ayr- 
shire, between the Water of Ayr and Lugar Water. It 
begins about 1J mile ENE of Auchinleck village, ex- 
tends about 6 miles north-eastward, has a mean breadth 
of about H mile, and is approached over most of its 
SE side, and crossed over a small part of its further end, 
by the railway from Auchinleck to Muirkirk. It was 
the scene, on 20 July 1680, of a sharp skirmish between 
63 of the Covenanters and a party of dragoons, fatal to 
Richard Cameron ; and it contains, at a spot where the 
deadliest of the strife occurred, a monument popularly 
called Cameron's Stone. The present monument is neat 
and modem ; but the original one was a large flat stone, 
laid down about 50 years after the event, and marked 
with the names of the Covenanters who fell in the skir- 
mish, and with the figures of an open Bible and a hand 
grasping a sword. The skirmish of Airdsmoss is the sub- 
ject of the well-known effusion, beginning — 

' In a dream of the night I was wafted away, 
To the moorland of mist where the martyrs lay ; 
Where Cameron's sword and his Bible are seen, 
Engraved on the stone where the heather grows green.' 

Aires or Ox Rocks, rocky islets of Kirkcolm parish, 
Wigtownshire, J mile from the W coast, and nearly 1 
mile SW of Corsewall lighthouse. 

Airgoid, one of the summits of the Bengloe mountain- 
range in Blair Athole parish, Perthshire. 

Airhouse, an estate of the Earl of Lauderdale in Chan- 
nelkirk parish, Berwickshire, 5| miles NNW of Lauder. 
Near it is Airhouse Law (1096 feet), one of the Lammer- 
muir Hills. 

Airi-Innis, a lake, about 2 miles long and \ mile 
broad, in Morvern parish, Argyllshire. 

Airleywight, the seat of Thos. Wylie, Esq. , on rising 
ground, in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire, 3A miles 
NNW of Dunkeld station. 

Airlie, a parish of W Forfarshire, whose Kirkton, to- 
wards the N W, is 5 \ miles WSW of the post-town Kirrie- 
muir, and 4J miles NNW of Eassie station, this being 8 
miles WSW of Forfar, and 24f NE of Perth. At it is 
the parish church (rebuilt 1783 ; 411 sittings) ; a Free 
church standing 2i miles to the SE, and the village of 
Craigton \\ mile ESE. 

Bounded NW by Lintrathen, N by Kiugoldrum, NE 
by Kirriemuir, SE by Glamis, S by Eassie and Meigle 
(Perthshire), and W by Ruthven and Alyth (Perthshire), 
the parish has an extreme length from ENE to AVSW of 
6J miles, an extreme width from NNW to SSE of 3| 
miles, and a land area of 8923 acres. Melgam Water 
winds 1J mile along the Lintrathen border, and by 
Airlie Castle falls into the Isla, which here runs 1J mile 
southward on the Alyth boundary through the pictur- 
esque Den of Airlie, a rocky gorge with precipitous copse- 
clad braes, and after a digression into Ruthven, either 
bounds or traverses, for 1 mile more, the SW angle of 
the parish ; whilst Dean Water, its affluent, meanders 
7f miles along all the southern border. The lower half 
of the parish, belonging to Stkathmore, sinks to 120, 
and nowhere exceeds 246, feet above sea-level ; but the 
northern half is hillier, rising to 421 feet near Grange of 
Airlie, 511 near Airlie Castle, 556 near Muirhouses, and 
472 at the NE angle. The rocks, except for a trap dyke 
crossing the Isla, are all Devonian, but throughout two- 
thirds of the area are overspread by sand or gravel ; tho 
soils range from deep alluvial loam along the Dean to 
thin poor earth upon the highest grounds. The Romans' 
presence here is attested by traces of their Strathmore 
road near Reedie in the NE, and in the SW by a camp 
near Cardean ; but Airlie's memories cluster most thickly 
round the old castle of Airlie's lords. It stood on the 
rocky promontory washed by the Melgam and Isla, If 
mile WNW of the Kirkton ; and naturally strong, had 
been so fortified by art, as to be deemed impregnable. 
But in July 1640, the Earl of Argyll, raising 4000 Cove- 
nanting clansmen, under a ruthless writ of fire and sword 
issued by the Committee of Estates, swept all the moun- 
tain district between his own territory and the eastern 
coast, and came down on the Braes of Angus to attack 
the hated Ogilvies in their strongholds. The Earl of 



Airlie was away in England, and his son, Lord Ogilvy, 
fled at the host's advance ; who, having plundered, burned 
the 'bonnie house,' Argyll himself, as Gordon tells the 
tale, ' taking hammer in hand, and knocking down the 
hewed work of doors and windows till he did sweat for 
heat at his work.' A rare old ballad celebrates the in- 
cident with many poetic embellishments. The moat 
has been half filled up, and little is left of the original 
pile but the wall on its eastern and most accessible side 
— high and massive, with frowning portcullis entry ; for 
the present castle is but a goodly modern mansion, de- 
signed at first as merely a summer resort, and afterwards 
greatly enlarged. In 1458 Sir John Ogilvy, knight, of 
Lintrathen, descended from the first Thane of Angus, 
received a grant of the castle and barony. His son, Sir 
James, ambassador to Denmark in 1491, was the same 
year ennobled as Lord Ogilvy of Airlie ; and James, 
seventh lord, was in 1639 created Earl of Airlie and Baron 
Ogilvy of Alyth and Lintrathen. The present holder of 
these titles is David Stanley "William Ogilvy (b. 1856 ; 
sue. as eleventh Earl 1881), who owns within Forfarshire 
65,059, and within Perthshire 4647, acres, valued at 
£21,664 and £6218 per annum. Another chief pro- 
prietor, Sir Thos. Munro (b. 1819 ; sue. as second Bart. 
1827) owns 5702 acres in Forfarshire of a yearly value of 
£6580 ; his seat, Lindertis, If mile E of the Kirkton, is a 
castellated mansion, rebuilt in 1813. Airlie is in the 
presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns ; 
the living is worth £321. Two public schools, Airlie and 
Craigton (girls'), with respective accommodation for 104 
and 62 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 
80 and 22, and grants of £91, 12s. and £13, 2s. Valua- 
tion (1881) £11,092, 9s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 1041, (1831) 
860, (1841) 868, (1871) 778, (1S81) 844.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
56, 1870. 

Airntully. See Arntully. 

Airsmoss. See Airdsmoss. 

Airth, a village and a parish of E Stirlingshire. The 
village lies i mile from the Forth, 8 J miles Sfi of Stirling, 
5J N by E of Falkirk, and 2| E by N of Airth station 
(in St Ninians parish), on a branch of the Caledonian, 
this being 3 miles S by W of South Alloa, 3| NNE of 
Larbert Junction, 22J NE of Glasgow, and 32J ¥NW of 
Edinburgh. It has a post office under Larbert, a cross 
bearing date 1697, the parish church (1S20 ; 800 sittings), 
a Free church station, and a IT. P. church ; at Dunmore, 
14 mile NNW is St Andrew's Episcopal church (1851), 
an early English edifice, with nave and chancel, and 
several good stained windows. Pop. of Airth village 
(1841) 850, (1861) 466, (1871) 520. 

The parish contains also the port of South Alloa, 2| 
miles NNW. It is bounded S by Bothkennar, SW by 
Larbert, and W by St Ninians ; whilst NW, NE, and 
E it is washed for 6 miles by the Forth, here widening 
from 2 to 9 furlongs. From NNW to SSE it has an ex- 
treme length of 5 miles ; its breadth from E to W varies 
between 7 furlongs and 3J miles ; and its area is 63S8 
acres, of which 572 are foreshore and 339J water. Ex- 
cepting the central hills of Dunmore and Airth, the lat- 
ter and higher of which but little exceeds 100 feet, the 
surface everywhere is low and level, and seems at a late 
geological period to have all lain under the waters of the 
Forth. Strata of shells, at no great depth, are found 
throughout the low grounds ; and in 1817 the skeleton 
of a whale, 75 feet long, was discovered in cutting a road, 
more than 2 furlongs from the present beach. Much fer- 
tile land along the Forth has been recovered from the 
tide ; and still more has been reclaimed from a state of 
moss in the W, where Letham and Dunmore mosses have 
still an extent of some 300 acres, 270 more being pasture, 
and 4850 in tillage. The Pow Burn, entering from St 
Ninians, winds through the middle of the parish to the 
Forth, a little above Kincardine Ferry, and is crossed by 
the ' Abbey Town ' and other bridges ; and a spring, 
one of several said to have been medicinal, is called the 
' Lady Well ' — both names suggestive of Airth's former 
connection with Holyrood Abbey. The rocks belong to 
the Carboniferous formation, and Dunmore colliery was 
working here in 1879; sandstone, too, of various texture 


and hue, being quarried at several points. Plantations, 
luxuriant and well assorted, adorn the Airth and Dun- 
more estates, one chestnut at Airth having a height of 
65 and a circumference of 16 feet, and a Scotch pine at 
Dunmore containing upwards of 250 feet of cubic timber. 
Airth Castle, on the SE extremity of circular Airth Hill, 
which commands a magnificent view, dates partly from 
the latter half of the 16th century, partly from 1802. 
Its modern northern facade is a meagre pseudo-antique, 
but the southern and eastern fronts have many interest- 
ing features. Thus, ' Wallace's Tower ' stands on the 
outer, not inner, angle, is corbelled only on its eastern 
side, and presents a pepper-box turret, which Billings 
pronounces of native, not French or Flemish, origin ; 
and on either hand of the tower are a row of curious 
gabled dormers, one of them having a starry-headed 
tympanum (Baronial Antiquities, 1852). On the eastern 
slope of the hill stands the ruined church, once held by 
Holyrood, with a N round-headed arch, belonging to the 
Transition period or close of the 12th century, the 15th 
century Airth aisle, and the 16th century Dunmore aisle 
(Procs. Soc. Ant. Scot, 1879, pp. 165-170). An earldom 
of Airth was conferred in 1633 on William Graham, 
eighteenth Earl of Menteith, but became extinct at the 
death of its second holder in 1694 ; Aii'th Castle belongs 
now to Wm. Graham, Esq., who owns 1145 acres in the 
shire of an annual value of £3242. Dunmore, a plain, 
though castellated mansion, with splendid gardens, is 
the seat of Chs. Adolphus, seventh Earl of Dunmore 
(b. 1841 ; sue. 1845), who is fifth in descent from Chs. 
Murray, first Earl of Dunmore (ere. 1686), the second 
son of John, first Marquis of Athole, and who owns in 
Stirlingshire 4620 acres, and in Inverness-shire 60,000, 
valued at £8923 and £2239 per annum. In all, 8 land- 
owners hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
4 of between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 
8 of from £20 to £50. Airth is in the presbytery of 
Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living 
amounts to £445. Four schools, Airth public and sew- 
ing, South Alloa, and Lord Dunmore's, with respective 
accommodation for 182, 108, 80, and 79 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 128, 54, 47, and 33, and 
grants of £107, £26, 6s., £35, 8s., and £24. Valuation 
(1881) £13,769, 6s. 5d., including £1620 for railway. 
Pop. (1801) 1855, (1811) 1727, (1831) 1S25, (1861) 1194, 
(1871) 1396, (1881) 1362.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Airthmithie. See Atjohmithib. 

Airthrey, an estate, with a mansion and with mineral 
wells, in Logie parish, Stirlingshire. The estate adjoins 
Clackmannan and Perth shires, was sold about 1796 by 
Robert Haldane, the founder of Scottish Congregational- 
ism, to Gen. Sir Et. Abercromby, brother of Sh- Ralph, 
the hero of Aboukir Bay, and now belongs to Geo. Ralph 
Campbell Abercromby, fourth Baron Abercromby (b. 
1838 ; sue. 1852). The mansion stands li mile ESE 
of Bridge of Allan, was built in 1791 from a design 
by the architect Adam, is a castellated structure of 
moderate size, and has a park of remarkable beauty, 
commanding superb views of the Ochils and of the 
plain beneath them. Two standing stones are in the 
park, without inscription, emblem, or any historical 
identification, yet popularly believed to be commemora- 
tive of the total defeat of the Picts by the Scots in S39. 
The mineral wells are on the brow of an ascent from the 
Bridge of Allan, are approached thence by tasteful 
walks, have a neat bath-house, with shock, shower, 
plunge, and douche baths ; and, though four in number, 
yield only two waters, called the weak and the strong 
water. The waters act in the way of saline aperient ; 
and, for general medicinal effect against various chronic 
diseases, they have long competed in fame with the 
waters of the most celebrated spas in Britain. One pint 
of the weak water, according to the analyses of Dr 
Thomson, contains 37 '45 grains of common salt, 34 '32 
of muriate of lime, and 1"19 of sulphate of lime ; and 
one pint of the strong water contains 47 '354 grains of 
common salt, 38 '461 of muriate of lime, 4 '715 of sulphate 
of lime, and "450 of muriate of magnesia. 

Aith, a bay, a headland, and a hamlet in Aithsting 


parish, Shetland, on the W side of Mainland, 12 miles 
NW of Lerwick. The bay is good fishing ground. The 
headland flanks the NE side of the bay, and is called 

Aith or Skaill, a lake, nearly a mile long, in Sand- 
wick parish, Orkney. 

Aithernie, an estate in Scoonie parish, Fife, 2 miles 
W by N of Largo. An ancient tumulus, on the top of 
a conical hill here, was opened in 1S21, and found to 
contain about twenty stone coffins, together with other 
sepulchral remains. 

Aithova, a good harbour on the E side of Shetland, 
in Bressay Sound, near Lerwick. 

Aithsting, an ancient parish in Shetland, on the W 
side of Mainland. It is now united to Sansting. 

Aithsvoe (Norse eids rdgr, 'isthmus bay'), a creek 
or bay in the SE of Shetland, immediately N of Mousa 
island, and 9J miles S by W of Lerwick. A rune- 
inscribed stone, discovered here in 1872, is discussed in 
Procs. Soc. Ant. Scot, 1875, pp. 425-430. 

Aith Wards, the southern part of Hoy, in Orkney, 
almost insulated by Long Hope Bay. 

Aitnach, a craig, formerly crowned with an ancient 
square fort, on the bank of the rivulet Rye, in Dairy 
parish, Ayrshire. 

Ait-Suidbe-Thuin or Fingal's-Sitting-Place, a moun- 
tain at the head of Loch Portree, in Skye. It takes its 
name from a fancy that Fingal sat upon it, surveying 
the athletic exploits of his heroes ; it rises, from a broad 
base, with an easy and gentle ascent, but becomes steep 
toward the top ; it is all, except its crowning parts, 
either covered with crops or finely pastoral ; it attains 
an altitude of more than 2000 feet above sea-level ; and 
it commands a view of nearly all the W coast of Ross- 
shire, of the greater part of the Skye and Long Island 
groups of the Hebrides, and of multitudinous and pic- 
turesque forkings and disseverments of the Deueale- 
donian Sea. 

Akermoor, a small lake, on a high tableau, in the S 
of Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire. 
Akin-Kyle. See Kyle-Akin. 
Aladale. See Glenalladale. 
Alasuden. See St Boswells. 

Alaterva, the quondam Roman station on the site of 
Cramond village, Edinburghshire. 
Alauna. See Allan, Perthshire. 
Alcluid. See Aldclutd. 

Aldarder, a burn in Knockando parish, Elginshire, 
running about 4 miles to the Spey. It became wildly 
riotous, and underwent a remarkable change in the great 
flood of 1829. It previously made a waterfall of 80 feet 
in leap ; but, at the time of the flood it changed its 
course, rushed furiously against a small hill, undermined 
that hill , and swept part of it away, formed on the hill's 
site a chasm or ravine about 750 feet in length, and 
from 60 to 100 feet in depth, and underwent such altera- 
tion of its own bed as reduced its previous water-leap 
of about 80 feet to an inclined cascade of only about 7 

Aldbar. See Atjldbae. 

Aldcambus (Gael, allt-camus, 'stream of the bay'), 
an ancient parish on the coast of Berwickshire, now united 
to Cockbivrnspath. It was one of the places granted by 
King Edgar to the monks of Durham, along with his 
priory of Coldingham, in 1098 ; its ruined Norman church 
of St Helen dates from a not much later period. Crown- 
ing a cliff 200 feet high, 2 miles to the E of Cockburns- 
path village, this picturesque fragment consisted till 
recently of nave and chancel ; but the latter, barely 16 
feet in length, has been pulled down for the repair of 
dykes and barns. In a wood at Aldcambus, Bruce was 
preparing engines for the siege of Berwick (1317), when 
a monk brought him the papal truce, addressed to 
' Robert, Governor of Scotland. ' ' I listen to no bulls 
till I am treated as king, and have made myself master 
of Berwick,' was the haughty reply ; but the monk, on 
his way back was robbed of the unopened missive, which 
found its way doubtless into Brace's hands. 

Aldcathie, a detached portion of Dalmeny parish, Lin- 


lithgowshire, on the Union Canal, J mile SW of the main 
body. It has an extreme length of 1 mile 5 furlongs, a 
breadth of 7 furlongs, and an area of 656 acres (nearly 
16 water) ; and its highest point somewhat exceeds 300 
feet. Prior to the Reformation it formed a separate parish. 

Aldclune. See Auldcltjne. 

Aldcluyd. See Dumbarton. 

Alder. See Bexalpei:. 

Aldernan or Allt-Arnan, a rivulet rising on the 
southern slope of Meall nan Caora (2368 feet), in the ex- 
treme W of Perthshire, and flowing first southward, then 
eastward along the N border of Dumbartonshire, till after 
a course of 3| miles it joins the Falloch below Inverarnan 

Alderston, an estate, with a mansion, in Haddington 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 1J mile WNW of Haddington. 

Aldgirth. See Al-ldgirth. 

Aldham orHaldame, a decayed village and an ancient 
coast parish of N Haddingtonshire. The village stood 
J mile S of Tantallon Castle, and 3J miles E by S of 
North Berwick ; near it was the parish church (demo- 
lished 1770), in whose forerunner, according to the legend, 
one of St Baldred's three corpses was buried in 756. (See 
Bass. ) The parish included the lands of Aldham and 
Scougal, granted with Tynninghame and three more 
places to Durham by King Duncan (1093-94) ; it was 
united to Whitekirk in the 17th century. 

Aldie Wester, a hamlet in Fossoway parish, SE Perth- 
shire, 2 miles ESE of Rumbling Bridge station on the 
Devon Valley branch of the North British. Near it is 
Aldie Castle, the ancient seat of the Mercers of Aldie and 
Meikleour, nowrepresented by Baroness Nairne. Though 
long untenanted, it is a fine and well-preserved ruin, dat- 
ing from the 16th century. 

Aldivalloch. See Mohtlach. 

Aldourie (Gael, alll-dur, 'water stream'), the seat 
of Chs. Ed. Fraser-Tytler, Esq. (b. 1817 ; sue. 1878), in 
Dores parish, NE Inverness-shire. It stands on the 
right shore of Loch Dochfour, at the foot of Loch Ness, 
7 miles SW of Inverness. It was the birthplace of 
Charles Grant (1746-1823), statesman and philanthro- 
pist, and of the historian, Sir James Mackintosh (1765- 

Aldreguie, a streamlet of Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
falling into the Levet at the E side of the Bochle. 

Aldyonlie or Allt-Gheallaidh, an impetuous rivulet of 
Knockando parish, Elginshire, rising among the hills, 
and running 6j miles south-eastward and eastward, 
chiefly along the SW border of the parish, to the Spey. 
Its name signifies ' the burn of the covenant,' and is 
supposed to have originated in the forming of a solemn 
compact on its banks between two contending claDS. 

Ale, a rivulet of Coldingham parish, Berwickshire, is 
formed by the meeting of three rills at Threeburn Grange, 
a little above Press Castle, and runs 6 miles south-east- 
ward to the Eye at a point about 1 J mile SSE of Eye- 
mouth. Its fishing is poor, but parts of its valleys are 
deep and picturesque, rare ferns and mosses growing on 
the banks. Thomas the Rhymer has predicted how— 

' At Threeburn Grange on an after day, 
There shall be a lang and bloody fray ; 
Where a three-thumbed wight by the reins shall bald 
Three kings' horse, baith stout and bauld, 
And the Three Eurns three days will rin 
Wi' the blude o' the slain that fa' therein.' 

Ale, a river of Selkirk and Roxburgh shires, rises on 
the NW slope of Henwoodie (11S9 feet) in Roberton 
parish, and flowing north-eastward through Ashkirk and 
Lilliesleaf, eastward along the southern boundary of 
Bowden and St Boswells, and south-eastward through 
Ancrurn, falls into the Teviot, J mile S of Ancrum vil- 
lage. It has a length of 24 miles, the first 5, up to 
Alemuir Loch, broken by frequent falls ; and for two- 
thirds of its entire course it runs hemmed in by hills 
800 to 1200 feet in height. By Lilliesleaf it enters a 
broader vale where, Lauder says, the angler ' wanders on 
for one long stretch, through sweet-scented meadows, 
with the stream running deep and clear, and with its 
waters almost level with the grassy plain through which 



they flow.' The Ale's chief affluents are on the left 
hand, the Wilson Burn from Hellmuir Loch, Langhope 
Burn from Shaw's Loch, and Woll Burn ; on the right 
hand the Woo Burn — all capital trout-streams like itself. 
See Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Scottish Rivers (edit. 
1874), pp. 165-169.— Ord. Sur., shs. 17, 24, 1S64-65. 

Alemuir, a loch in Roberton parish, Selkirkshire, 6|r 
miles SW of Ashkirk. It lies in the course of the Ale 
river, has a circular outline, measuring each way J mile, 
and is, in places, 30 fathoms deep. Superstition long 
made it the haunt of a bloodthirsty water-kelpie, and 
Leyden sings : 

' Sad is the wail that floats o'er Alemuir's lake, 
And nightly bids her gulfs unbottomed quake ; 
While moonbeams sailing o'er the waters blue 
Reveal the frequent tinge of blood-red hue.' 

Alexandria, a town in Bonhill parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, on the right bank of the Leven, opposite Bonhill 
town, with which it is connected by an iron suspension 
bridge of 438 feet span, erected in 1836 at the cost 
(£2200) of Captain Smollett of Bonhill. Its station, on a 
branch of the North British, is 19 J miles WNW of 
Glasgow, 3J N of Dumbarton, 31J WSW of Stirling, 
and If S by E of Balloch Pier, Loch Lomond. From a 
clachan or 'grocery,' Alexandria has risen in less than a 
century to a busy and prosperous town, this rise being 
due' to the bleaching, printing, and dyeing works esta- 
blished in the Vale of Leven since 1768. Itself contain- 
ing one extensive calico print and Turkey-red dye work, 
and a clog and block factory, it has a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments ; a branch of the Clydesdale Banking Com- 
pany, and a savings' bank ; a Young Mens' Christian 
and a Rifle Association ; gas works, an hotel, and a public 
hall ; and the Vale of Leven Mechanics' Institute (1834), 
with a library of 3600 volumes and a handsome lecture 
hall, seating 1100, and built in 1865 at a cost of upwards 
of £3000. A cattle market is held here on the first 
Wednesday of June. There are 6 places of worship — 
Established (stipend £150), Free, IT. P., Congregation- 
alist, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic (Our Lady and St 
Mark, 1859 ; 352 sittings). Under the Bonhill school- 
board there were open here in 1879 a fine stone public 
school (erected in 1877) and a Roman Catholic school, 
which, with respective accommodation for 613 and 155 
children, had an average day attendance of 44S and 119 
(78 and 90 evening scholars), and total grants amounting 
to £451, 10s. 6d. and £126, 9s. Pop. of town (1S41) 
3039, (1871) 4650, (18S1)6173. Pop. of quoad sacra 
parish of Alexandria, in the presbytery of Dumbarton 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr- (1871) 5065, (1881)6616. 

Alford, a village and a parish of central Aberdeenshire. 
The village stands at the terminus of the Vale of Alford 
railway, 29J miles WNW of Aberdeen, and has chiefly 
arisen since that line was opened in 1859. It contains 
the Free church and St Andrew's Episcopal church 
(1869), both Early English granite edifices, branches of 
the Aberdeen Town and County and of the North of 
Scotland Banks, four insurance offices, the Haughton 
Arms Hotel, a parish library (1S39), and a post office 
under Aberdeen, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments. Important grain and cattle 
markets are held at it every third Tuesday throughout 
the year, and feuing markets on the Mondays of the 
weeks before 26 May and 22 Nov. ; and it is the centre 
of the Vale of Alford Horticultural Association (1831). 
Pop. (1871) 482, (1SS1) 529. 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Tullynessle, NE 
by Keig, SE by Tough, and S and SW by Leochel. Its 
greatest length from E to W is 6J miles, its greatest 
breadth is 3, and its land area is 9102 acres. The swift 
and shallow Don winds 6| miles along the whole 
northern border, affords here as good trout and salmon 
fishing as any in its course, and If mile WNW of the 
village is spanned by a three-arched bridge, erected in 
1S11 at a cost of £2000, 128 feet long, and leading by 
the Strathbogie road to Huntly, 21 miles to the N of 
Alford. Near this bridge stands the Forbes Arms 
Hotel, and J mile above it the Leochel joins the Don, 


after parting the parish into two unequal halves. Form- 
ing the SW portion of the Howe of Alford, the surface 
has a considerable altitude, its lowest point at the influx 
of the sluggish Bents Burn (the eastern boundary) being 
420 feet above the level of the sea. There is a general 
southward rise from the right bank of the Don, but the 
western half is much more hilly than the eastern, the 
highest points in the latter being Strone Hill (950 feet), 
Cairnballoch (906), and Carnaveron (864), all round- 
topped hills ; whilst in the former are Dorsell (1055), 
Craig Hill (1007), Langgadlie (1468), Woodhill (1147), 
and the eastern slopes of Craigievar (1747), whose sirm- 
mit, however, lies just outside the bounds. Cultivation 
is carried up to 1160 feet, and more than half the parish 
is arable ; along the Don and Leochel are extensive 
plantations of fine Scotch firs and larch, interspersed in 
the policies with silver fir and ornamental hardwood 
trees. The rocks consist of granite, syenite, and mica 
slate ; the last predominates in the western division, and 
is intersected by numerous small veins of quartz. The 
soil varies from good light loam in the valley, famous 
for turnips and cattle, to strong clay, barely repaying the 
cost of tilling it. The lions of Alford are a large round 
camp on conical Da' Mhil; a smaller one beside the 
church ; a cairn on Carnaveron, 25 feet high and 125 in 
diameter ; a ' gallow hill ; ' the ruins of the strong square 
castle of Asloon ; and, midway between the village and 
the bridge, the battlefield where, on 2d July 1645, the 
Marquis of Montrose won his last victory over General 
Baillie. Each army numbered some 2000 men, but, 
while the Covenanters had the superiority in horse, 
Montrose had the advantage of position. Though 
Baillie's cavalry fled early in the day, the fight was 
obstinate, and the slaughter of Covenanters great. The 
Royalists' loss was trifling, but included Lord Gordon, 
the Marquis of Huntly's eldest son, whom a stray shot 
brought down, in act to lay hold of Baillie's shoulder- 
belt. A stone long marked the spot where he fell, and 
in the neighbouring moss, now drained, bullets and 
coins have often been discovered ; while peat diggers, 
about 1744, came on a horse and its armour-clad rider. 
The chief mansions are Haughton, on the Don, 1 J mile 
NE of the village, for more than two centuries the seat 
of the Farquharsons ; Breda, just to the left of the 
mouth of the Leochel; and Kingsford, on its right 
bank, 1J mile SE of Alford: 3 landowners hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 5 of from 
£100 to £500, and 14 of from £20 to £50. Alford 
is seat of a presbytery in the synod of Aberdeen ; the 
living is worth £252. The church, standing upon the 
Leochel's right bank, If mile W of the village, was 
built in 1804 and enlarged in 1S26, and is a plain edifice 
with 550 seats. A pre-Reformation church here, dedi- 
cated to St Andrew, was held by the priory of Mony- 
musk, and from a ford by it over the Leochel (or mild 
ford ?) the parish probably received its name. Two 
public schools, Alford and Gallowhill, had in 1879 
respective accommodation for 146 and 126 children, an 
average attendance of 100 and S7, and grants of £93, 
19s. and £81, 9s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 644, (1831) 894, 
(1851) 1143, (1871) 1396, (1SS1) 1472.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
76, 1874. 

The presbytery of Alford comprehends Alford, Auchin- 
doir-Kearn, Cabrach, Clatt, Corgarff {quoad sacra), 
Glenbucket, Keig, Kennethmont, Eildruinmy, Leochel- 
Cushnie, Strathdon, Tough, Towie, and Tullynessle- 
Forbes. Pop. (1S71) 12,888, (1881) 12,242, of whom 
4897, according to a parliamentary return (1 May 1879), 
were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878, 
the sums raised by the above congregations amounting 
in that year to £1217. The Free Church likewise has a 
presbytery of Alford, whose churches at Alford, Auchin- 
doir, Kennethmont, Rhynie, Keig, Strathdon, and Towie 
had 782 communicants in 18S0. 

Alford, Howe or Vale of, that portion of the Don's 
basin, from Kirkton of Forbes down to the Bridge of Keig, 
a distance of some 9 miles, which comprehends parts of 
Tullynessle and Keig to the N, and of Alford, Leochel, 
and Tough to the S of the river. From 5 miles broad to 


74, it is bounded NW by the Correen HiUs (1588 feet), 
NE by Bennachie (1619), W by Callievar (1747), S by 
the hills of Alford, SE by those of Corrennie Forest (1621), 
and E by Caim William (1469). See Don, and the above- 
named parishes. 

Alford Valley Railway, a railway of south central 
Aberdeenshire, deflects from the Great North of Scotland 
at Kintore, and runs 164 miles westward, by the stations 
of Kernnay, Monymusk, Tillyfourie, and Whitehouse, to 
Alford village. Authorised in 1856, it was opened in 
1S59, and amalgamated with the Great North of Scot- 
land in 1866. Its gradients are steep, the summit level 
on Tillyfourie Hill being 636 feet ; and the journey oc- 
cupies 65 minutes. 

Aline, Loch, a hamlet and a sea-loch in Morvern parish, 
Argyllshire. The hamlet stands within the W side of 
the loch's mouth, 4 miles ESE of its post- village Mor- 
ven, is of recent origin, and has a pier and a public 
school, which in 1879 had an average attendance of 27 
and a grant of £34. The loch strikes NNE from the 
Sound of Mull, immediately W of Artornish Castle, has 
a very narrow entrance, but expands to a width of fully 
4, mile, and is 2J miles long. Its lower part is com- 
paratively tame, but its upper is rocky, intricate, and 
picturesque ; and Scott, in his Lord of the Isles, speaks 
of ' green Loch Aline's woodland shore. ' Two streams 
descend to its head — Ronach Water from Loeh-Na-Cuirn 
through Loch Ternate, at the NE angle ; and, at the 
NW, the larger Black Water, which, flowing through 
Glen Dubh, receives a tributary from Glen Geal. ' Here, 
at the mouth of the streams,' says Dr Macculloch, 
' Loch Aline is indeed beautiful, as the close mountain 
cenery, the accumulation in limited space of woods and 
rocks, and brawling streams, and cascades, and wild 
bridges, intermingled with fields and farms, gradually 
blends with the more placid scenery of the loch itself. ' 
Loch Aline House is a mansion near the village ; and 
Kinlochaline Castle is a fine, old, turreted square tower 
on a bold, high rock, near the mouth of the Black 
Water, is said to have been erected by a lady of the 
clan Machines, and was besieged and captured by Col- 
kitto, lieutenant to the Marquis of Montrose. 

Alladale. See Glenalladale. 

Allan (Gael, 'white river'), a rivulet of Teviothead 
parish, S Roxburghshire, formed by the confluence of 
the Skelfhill and Priesthaugh Burns, which rise on 
Langtae Hill (1786 feet) and Cauldcleueh Head (1996), 
near the Dumfriesshire border, and take each a north- 
ward course of some 34 miles. The Allan itself runs 
5 miles NNW, receiving the Dodburn in its course, and 
falls into the Teviot, 4| miles SW of Hawick. Since 1866 
it has furnished that town with water, and in Sept. 1880 
it was proposed to draw an additional supply from the 
Dodburn. The Allan contains abundance of small trout. 
A Border fortalice of considerable strength, called Allan- 
mouth Peel, stood at its mouth ; was last occupied by a 
brother of Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, the warden 
of the Scottish Border ; and has left some remains. 

Allan, a river of Perth and Stirling shires, rising in 
Blackford parish, SE Perthshire, on the northern slope 
of Little Corum (1683 feet), one of the Ochil Hills. 
Thence it runs NNE toward Blackford village, SW to 
Dunblane, and S to the Forth, which it enters 1 mile 
below Bridge of Allan, after a course of 20 miles, 15 of 
which are closely followed by the Caledonian line from 
Perth to Stirling. Near Blackford it receives the Danny 
Burn, at Greenloaning the Knaik, Bullie, and Millstane 
Burns, and lower down the Muckle, Lodge, and Wharry 
Burns, all, like itself, yielding very fair trout fishing, 
which is mostly open to the public. The Alauna of 
Ptolemy, a town of the Damnonii, stood at the Allan's 
confluence with the Forth, a position guarding what was 
for many centuries the chief entrance to Caledonia from 
the S. See Stbathallan. 

Allan, Melrose, Roxburghshire. See Allen. 

Allanbank, an estate in Edrom parish, Berwickshire, 
on the S bank of the Whitadder, 14, mile E by S of 
Edrom station. On it stood the ancient mansion of the 
Stuarts, Baronets of Nova Scotia from 1687 to 1849, 


which was haunted by ' Pearlin Jane,' the skeleton of a 
jilted Italian lady. Allanbank is also celebrated as the 
spot where in 1674 Blackadder, Welsh, and three other 
ministers dispensed the Communion to 3200 Covenanters 
(Lauder's Scottish Rivers, pp. 218-225). 

Allan, Bridge of, a fashionable watering-place in Logie 
and Lecropt parishes, Stirling and Perth shires. It 
stands on the left bank of Allan Water, and on the Scot- 
tish Central section of the Caledonian railway, 2 miles S 
by E of Dunblane and 3 N of Stirling, with, which it 
was further connected by tramway in 1874. A favourite 
summer retreat of invalids, at once for its healthy 
climate, its beautiful environs, and the near proximity 
of the mineral wells of Aiethrey, it annually attracts 
great numbers of visitors. It comprises two parts or sec- 
tions, an upper and a lower, the former on a small plateau 
of considerable elevation, the latter on alluvial ground 
adjacent to the river ; and the declivity between these 
sections is adorned with trees and shrubs and public walks. 
Although containing several rows of well-built houses and 
many handsome shops, it mainly consists of elegant sepa- 
rate villas, with flower plots or gardens attached. It was 
constituted a police burgh in Oct. 1870, and is governed 
by a body of commissioners, consisting of a senior and 
2 junior magistrates and 8 other members. It has a 
head post office, with money order, savings' bank, insur- 
ance, and telegraph departments, 5 first-class hotels, at 
least 140 private boarding and lodging houses, a branch 
of the Union Bank, 13 insurance offices, a bowling green, 
a public reading-room, a fine art and natural history mu- 
seum, Turkish baths, a large hydropathic establishment, 
a handsome well-house, a gas and a water company, and a 
Saturday paper, the Bridge of Allan Reporter (1859). 
Paper-making, bleaching, and dyeing are carried on ; 
and cattle fairs are on the third Wednesday of April and 
October, wdiilst in Westerton Park, on the first Saturday 
of August, are held the most famous athletic games of 
Scotland, the Strathallan Meeting. Constituted a quoad 
sacra parish in 1868, in the presbytery of Dunblane and 
synod of Perth and Stirling, Bridge of Allan has an Esta- 
blished church, with 650 sittings, a handsome Gothic 
edifice, built in 1859, and greatly enlarged in 1876 ; its 
minister's stipend is £150. There are also a U.P. church 
(1846, 500 sittings), a Free church (1853, 800 sittings), 
with spire 108 feet high, and St Saviour's Episcopal 
church (1857-72, 200 sittings), both the two last being 
Decorated in style. A public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 200 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 178, and a grant of £142, 15s. Airthrey Castle, 
Westerton House, Keir, and Kippenross are in the 
vicinity, as also are Abbey Ckaig (362 feet), Dumyat 
(1375), and other summits of the Ochil range. Pop. 
of quoad sacra parish (1871) 2584, (1881) 2462 ; of burgh 
(1861)1803, (1871)3055, (1881) 3004.— Orcl.Sur., sh. 39, 

Allander, a small river of Dumbartonshire and Stir- 
lingshire, rises in Strathblane parish, on the south- 
eastern slope of Auchinaden Hill (1171 feet), among the 
moors of the Kilpatrick Hills, and 54, miles NNW of 
New Kilpatrick. It takes a south-eastward course of 
some 9 miles, and falls into the Kelvin 2 J- miles E of New 
Kilpatrick. Through the Auldmarroch Burn it is fed 
in summer by a reservoir among the hills ; and it brings 
down water thence, in droughty weather, for the mills 
on the Kelvin, whilst itself driving extensive machinery 
at places on its own course. Its dark-hued waters indi- 
cate their mossy source. 

Allangrange. See Knookbain. 

Allanmouth. See Allan, Roxburghshire. 

Allanton, a village in Edrom parish, Berwickshire, 
situated at the confluence of the Blackadder and Whit- 
adder, both spanned by bridges here, and 2J miles E of 
Edrom station on the Dunse branch of the North 
British. It has a school, with accommodation for 95 
children, an average attendance (1S79) of 34, and a grant 
of £28 ; | mile S by E is a Free church, with 450 sit- 
tings. Blackadder House, Allanbank, and Chirn 
side Bridge paper-mill are also near. 

Allanton, a coal-mining village, in Hamilton parish, 



Lanarkshire, If mile ESE of the town. Pop. (1871) 

Allanton, a hamlet in Galston parish, NE Ayrshire, 
5| miles E of Newmilns station. It has a public school, 
with accommodation for 53 children, an average attend- 
ance (1879) of 20, and a grant of £33, 8s. 

Allanton, a mansion and estate in Cambusnethan 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2 miles NE of Newmains station. 
Having passed to his ancestors from Arbroath Abbey, it 
is a seat of Sir H. J. Seton-Steuart, seventeenth in 
descent from Alexander Stewart, fourth Lord High 
Steward of Scotland ; third Baronet since 1814 ; and 
owner of 2673 acres, of £4076 (£2197 minerals) annual 
value, in the shire. The original castellated building, 
said to have been visited by Cromwell in 1650, was 
greatly enlarged by Gillespie Graham in the latter half 
of last century. A fine large park, with a picturesque 
lake, surrounds it ; and the estate is rich in coal and iron- 

Allardice. See Af.buthnott. 

Allen, a rivulet of Melrose parish, rises in the NW 
corner of Roxburghshire, on the northern slope of Sell 
Moor, at an altitude of 1200 feet. Thence winding 9 
miles SSE, past hills 800 to 1000 feet high, it falls into 
the Tweed, 2i miles WNW of Melrose town. Its lower 
course lies through the Fairy or Nameless Dean, a nar- 
row glen, threaded by the old monks' bridle-way to 
Soutra ; and Scott laid here the scene of his Monastery. 
Instead, however, of the single peel-house of ' Glen- 
dearg,' three ruinous towers stand at the head of the 
glen — the Cairncrosses' Hillslap (1585), the Borthwicks' 
Colmslie, and Langshaw. See Lauder's Scottish Bticrs 
(edit. 1874), pp. 115-117; and Hunnewell's Lands of , Scott 
(1871), pp. 322-332. 

Allerly, a mansion near the left bank of the Tweed, 
1J mile N of Melrose, Roxburghshire. It was long the 
residence of Sir David Brewster (b. 11 Dec. 1781), and 
here he died 10 "Feb. 1S68. 

Allnaeh, a rivulet of Inverness and Banff shires, rising 
in several head-streams on the north-eastern slopes of 
Caiplich (3574 feet), one of the Cairngorm Mountains. 
It runs about 13 miles north-eastward, partly on the 
boundary between the counties, and falls into the Aven, 
1 mile S of Tomintoul. In its upper course it is known 
as Water of Caiplich. 

Alloa, a river-port, a seat of manufacture, and the 
chief town of Clackmannanshire, lies on the N bank of 
the tidal Forth, which, here emerging from its winding 
Links, has a width of J mile.* It has since 1815 held 
steamboat communication with Leith (28 miles) and 
Stirling (10J), and a steam ferry since 1853 has plied to 
South Alloa, which, as terminus of a branch of the Cale- 
donian (1 850), is 6 J miles E by N of Larbert Junction, 28| 
NE of Glasgow, and 35 WNW of Edinburgh ; whilst by 
two sections of the North British (1850-71) Alloa itself is 
6i miles E of Stirling, 134 W by N of Dunfermline, 17 
WS W of Kinross, and 32 WSW of Ladybank. The situa- 
tion is a pleasant one — in front the Lime-tree Walk (planted 
1714), leading up from the harbour ; eastward, close by, 
the old grey tower and modern mansion of the Earls of 
Mar ; westward the bonnie Links of Forth, with Stirling 
Castle beyond ; and for a background the Ochils, with 
Dumyat (1375 feet), Blairdenon (2072), Bencleuch (2363), 
and Ring's Seat (2111), all within 6 miles' range. And 
Alloa yearly assumes a more and more prosperous aspect, 
its filthy ' Old Town ' now being almost a thing of the 
past — its 'New Town,' founded in 1785, having of late 
years been greatly extended by the erection of blocks 
of dwelling-houses and numerous tasteful villas. Lighted 
with gas since 1827, and supplied with new Gartmorn 
waterworks in 1867 at a cost of £3000, it has a post office, 

* Proposals to bridge the river at this point have been enter- 
tained ever since 1817. The latest was put forward by a company 
' incorporated by Act of 11 Aug. 1S79 for the construction and 
maintenance of a railway from the South Alloa branch of the 
Caledonian to Alloa, with a bridge across the Forth. Length, 3 
miles (?). Period for completion, 5 years. Authorised capital, 
£60,000, in £10 shares. Working arrangements with the Cale- 
donian Co., which, by Act of 26 Aug. 1880, was authorised to con- 
tribute any sum not exceeding £40,000' (Bradshaw's Railway 
Manual, 1881). 


with money order, savings' bank, and insurance depart- 
ments, a railway telegraph office, branches of the Clydes- 
dale, Commercial, National, and Union banks, two 
hotels, a masonic lodge (1757), a Volunteer corps (1859), 
a Scottish Games Club (1864), etc. ; and publishes three 
papers, the Saturday Advertiser (ISil) and Journal (1844), 
and the Wednesday Circular (1868). The County Court- 
House, erected in 1863-65 at a cost of £8793, is a two- 
storied Flemish Gothic pile, with clock-tower and a court- 
room, 45 by 28 feet, and 23 feet high ; adjoining it is the 
County Prison, with 22 cells. The Corn Exchange 
(1862 ; 84 by 34 feet, and 22$ feet high) is Scottish 
Baronial in style, and accommodates 700 persons, being 
also used as an assembly hall. Other edifices are the 
handsome Municipal Buildings (1872), the Custom 
House (1861), the Hospital (1868), with two wards, each 
containing six beds, and the Hall and Museum (1874), 
in Grecian style, of a Natural Science and Archaeologi- 
cal Society, founded in 1863 ; at the head of the Walk 
stands an ornamental drinking-foimtain (1S69). The 
parish church, erected in 1817-19 at a cost of £7000, and 
restored internally in 1875 at a cost of £500 more, is an 
imposing Gothic structure, 124 feet long and 7S feet 
wide, with 1561 sittings and a spire-surmounted clock- 
tower 207 feet high. It took the place of an ancient 
church, whose tower alone remains, and whose site is 
partially occupied by the Erskine mausoleum. Of two 
Free churches, East and West, the latter is a good 
Gothic erection of 1856 ; and there are also two U.P. 
churches — Townhead, or First (rebuilt 1851 ; renewed 
1874), and West (rebuilt 1S64 at a cost of £3000), this 
being Early Gothic in style, with a tower and spire of 
115 feet. The fine Episcopal church of St John the 
Evangelist (1867-69 ; enlarged 1872) cost over £5000, and 
consists of nave, chancel, and N aisle, with a SW tower and 
spire, 112 feet high, in which hang six good bells ; it has, 
too, a splendid organ, a number of stained glass windows, 
a mosaic reredos by Salviatti, and monuments of Bishop 
John Alexander of Dunkeld (1694-1776) and members of 
the Erskine family, including a marble recumbent effigy 
of the late earl, designed by Mr Anderson, the architect. 
The former Episcopal church (1840) was converted in 
1869 into St Mungo's Roman Catholic church ; an Esta- 
blished mission station was opened in 18S0 ; and a new 
Baptist chapel was built in 1881. The Academy was 
erected in 1825, the Burgh School at a cost of £3600 in 
1S76. Greenside School, founded and endowed by Alex. 
Paton at a cost of £5000 in 1S65, was closed in 1879, 
when the other five board schools (Burgh, Infant, 
Academy, Episcopal, and Roman Catholic), with respec- 
tive accommodation for 500, 314, 78, 279, and 180 chil- 
dren, had an average attendance of 345, 26S, 52, 268, 
and 76, and grants of £334, 10s. 6d., £177, £41, 18s., 
£239, 5s., and £33, 8s. 6d. 

Defoe wrote early in last century that ' a merchant at 
Alloway may trade to all parts of the world as well as at 
Leith or at Glasgow ; ' and since his day the harbour has 
been much improved, in spite of one great disadvantage, 
the ceaseless lodgement of mud. The water rises at neap 
tides from 14 to 16 feet, at spring tides from 22 to 24, 
yet the bed of the harbour is nearly on a level with the 
top of Leith pier ; another noteworthy feature is the 
double or ' leaky ' tide at every spring ebb and flow. By 
Acts of 1754, 17S6, and 1803 the harbour trustees were 
empowered to rebuild the pier and execute new works ; 
and the Big Pow was converted (1S61-63) into a wet- 
dock, 450 feet long, 137 broad, and 24 deep, with a dock 
gate 50 feet wide, and a steam crane (1S67), a substan- 
tial high-level loading berth having also been formed in 
1862. A ' creek ' of Bo'ness from 1707 to 1S22, and next 
of Grangemouth, Alloa was made a sub-port in 1838, 
and an independent port in 1840, its district extending 
along both sides of the Forth from the new bridge of 
Stirling to Higgins Neuk on the S, and the new pans 
of Kincardine on the N. On 31 Dec. 18S0, it had on its 
register 16 sailing vessels of 4907 tons and 10 steamers 
of 226 tons, against an aggregate tonnage of 18,672 in 
1845, 14,904 in 1853, 10,512 in 1863, and 5527 in 1873. 
Tlvu ihows a falling-off ; but another tale is told by the 


following table, which gives the tonnage of vessels that 
entered and cleared from foreign and colonial ports and 
coastwise, with cargoes and also — except for the three 
first years — in ballast : — 

Of the total, 10S7 vessels of 140,719 tons, that entered 
in 1880, 327 of 44,2S1 tons were steamers, 457 of 71,678 
tons were in ballast, and 737 of 78,423 tons were 
coasters; whilst the total, 1090 of 139,976 tons, of 
ihose that cleared included 326 steamers of 41,560 tons, 
353 vessels in ballast of 36,565 tons, and 626 coasters of 
52,627 tons. The trade is mainly, then, an export one, 
and coal is the chief article of export, 159,780 tons of 
£52.940 value having been shipped to foreign countries 
in 1879, besides 15,236 coastwise. The exports (compris- 
ing also ale, whisky, pig-iron, glass bottles, bricks, leather, 
and woollen goods) amounted in that year to £57,067, the 
imports (grain, timber, iron ore, hides, etc.) to £112,260, 
and the customs to £23 ; the foreign commerce is prin- 
cipally with Baltic, French, German, Dutch, and Belgian 
ports. Shipbuilding has been carried on since 1790, and 
thegraving dock, then constructed, can nowreceivevessels 
of 800 tons, though only five sailing ships of aggregately 
1605 tons were built here during 1875-80, nor does 
fishing employ more than twelve persons, with six boats 
of 4S tons. But ' as the virtual capital,' says Mr 
Lothian, ' of a county which, though small in geogra- 
phical extent, contributes from the Excise duties levied 
on spirits, malt, etc., about a seventieth part of the 
revenue of the United Kingdom, Alloa assumes a posi- 
tion of considerable importance.' Its earliest brewery 
was started in 1774, and at the eight existing now more 
than 100,000 barrels of strong and pale ale are yearly 
produced ; whilst of two whisky distilleries, Carsebridge 
(1799) and Cambus (1806), the former alone has in a 
single week yielded as much as 48,000 gallons. The 
spinning and manufacture of wool, dating from 1S13, 
engage six factories, where fully 11,000 tons of wool, 
mostly home grown, are annually wrought into knitting, 
hosiery, and tweed yarns ; and there are further 2 
cooperages, 2 glass works, 5 saw mills and timber yards, 
6 iron, copper, and engineering works, 3 rope-walks, 2 
brick and tile yards, etc. 

Camden identified Alloa with Ptolemy's Alauna, 
which Skene rather places at the Allan's confluence with 
the Forth. Twenty cinerary urns, supposed to be Roman, 
were discovered at Marshill in 1828, along with two 
stone coffins and a pair of gold penannular armlets ; a 
sandstone block on Hawkhill, 10J feet high, and sculp- 
tured with a cross, was found the year after to mark a 
very early Christian cist. But apart from its Tower 
the town has no memories beyond its pillage by Mon- 
trose's Highlanders in 1645. A burgh of barony and 
regality, it adopted the General Police Act in 1863, and 
is governed by a senior and 2 junior magistrates, and 
9 commissioners. Sheriff county courts sit durino- ses- 
sion time every Wednesday and Friday, sheriff 'small 
debt courts every Wednesday ; and quarter sessions are 
held on the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, 
and the last Tuesday of October. Saturday is market- 
day, and fairs are held on the second Wednesday of 
February, May (cattle), August (hiring), and November 
(cattle), and on the second Saturday of October (hirincO 
Valuation (1879) £38,983. Pop. (17S4) 3482, (1831) 
4417, (1841) 5443, (1851) 6676, (1861) 7621, (1871) 
9362, of whom 7511 were in the police burgh and 934 
belonged to New Sauchie in Clackmannan : of police 
burgh alone (1881) SS12. 


The parish of Alloa contains also the villages of Cam- 
bus, 2J miles WNW of the town ; Tullibody, 2f miles 
NW ; and Collyland, 2 miles N. It is bounded N by 
Alva, the Sauchie section of Clackmannan, and Tilli- 
coultry, E and SE by Clackmannan, S by Airth and St 
Ninians, W and NW by Logie. From E to W it has an 
utmost length of 4J miles ; its width from N to S 
varies between If and 3J miles, and its area is 6186J 
acres, of which 3| are in Perthshire, 313J foreshore, and 
371 water. The Forth winds 4j miles along all the 
southern border, and here contains two low islets, Tulli- 
body and Alloa Inches, the second and larger of which 
is a valuable farm of 80 acres. The Devon traces 4 
miles of the Alva and Logie boundary, next striking If 
miles through the western interior to the Forth ; and 
the carse lands of the latter and vale of the former con- 
sist of alluvial fiats, with a fine rich soil incumbent on 
strong clay. The district between, though somewhat 
undulating, nowhere attains 300 feet above sea-level, and, 
with soils ranging from loam-covered gravel to thin 
earth resting on a cold till bottom, is all of it arable, and 
has been greatly improved by draining. The formation 
is Carboniferous, and coal has been mined in great 
abundance since 1519 ; sandstone and ironstone also 
have been worked. Gartmorn Dam, 2 miles ENE of 
the town, is an artificial lake, measuring 6 by 2-| fur- 
longs, and fed by the Black Devon. Natives were Jn. 
Erskine, sixth Earl of Mar (1675-1732), leader of the 
rebellion of 1715 ; David Allan (1748-96), the ' Hogarth 
of Scotland, ' born at the Shore of Alloa ; and Rt. Dick 
(1811-66), the Thurso geologist, born at Tullibody. Sir 
Ralph Abercrornby (1734-1801), the hero of Aboukir 
Bay, attended Alloa school. Alloa Tower, built about 
1223, was in 1360 bestowed by David II. on Sir Robert 
Erskine, Great Chamberlain of Scotland, whose seventh 
descendant, John, sixth Lord Erskine, was in 1565 
created Earl of Map. — a title which, forfeited in 1716, 
was restored in 1824, and with which that of Earl of 
Kellie (ere. 1619), was united in 182S. Their present 
holder is Walter Henry Erskine, who, born in 1S39, 
succeeded his father in 1872 as thirteenth Earl of 
Kellie, and in 1875 was declared also fourteenth Earl of 
Mar by judgment of the House of Lords (Rev. A. W. 
Hallen's Mar Peerage. Case, 1S75). The tower is square 
and of great strength, the walls 11 feet thick, the top- 
most turret 89 feet high ; and this strength it was that 
saved it from the great fire of 28 Aug. 1800, which 
destroyed all the later additions, along with a portrait 
of Mary Queen of Scots. Mary spent much of her child- 
hood here, as also did James VI. and Prince Henry ; 
and the latter's golf-club and James's cradle are still 
preserved. The modern house (1S34-38) was much en- 
larged between 1866 and 1872, when its gardens, with 
terrace and lawns sloping down to the river, were like- 
wise greatly improved. The four chief mansions in the 
parish, with distance from the town, proprietors' names, 
and the extent and yearly value of their - estates within 
the shire are : — Alloa Park, 3 furlongs E (Earl of Mar 
and Kellie, 6163 acres, £8256 + £1260 for coal) ; Tulli- 
body House, 1J NW (Lord Abercrornby of Airthrey, 
3707 acres, £5199) ; Schaw Park, 2J miles NE (Earl of 
Mansfield, of Scone Palace, 1705 acres, £1751 + £1866 
for coal) ; and Cambus House, 2 miles W by N (Rt. Mou- 
bray, 76 acres, £641). In all, 8 proprietors hold in the 
parish an annual value of £500 and upwards, 44 of be- 
tween £100 and £500, 59 of from £50 to £100, and 134 
of from £20 to £50. Alloa is in the presbytery of Stir- 
ling and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth 
£537. Two landward schools, Alloa Colliery and Tulli- 
body, with accommodation for 291 and 186 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 234 and 205, and grants 
of £191, 2s. and £179, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £26,927, 
(18S1) £55,341, 8s. 5d. Pop. (1755) 5816, (1791) 4802, 
(1831) 6377, (1841) 7921, (1851) 9493, (1861) SS67, 
(1871) 9940, (1881) 11,638.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1S69. 
See Jas. Lothian, Alloa and its Environs (3d ed. , Alloa, 
1S71) ; Jn. Crawford, Memorials of Alloa (Alloa, 1874) ; 
and various papers in the Procs. of the Alloa Soc. of Nat. 
Sci. and Archmol. (11 vols., 1865-75). 



Alloa, South, a hamlet in Aieth parish, Stirlingshire, 
on the right bank of the river Forth, at Alloa Ferry, and 
at the terminus of the Larbert and South Alloa branch 
of the Caledonian railway, 6 miles ESE of Stirling. A 
project was authorised in 1873, on a proposed capital of 
£300,000 in shares of £10, to construct a dock at South 
Alloa, with an entrance lock 126 yards long, and with 
all quays, jetties, wharves, roads, and warehouses, re- 
quisite for a good harbour ; and a bill was promoted in 
Dec. 1875 to extend the time for the works till 1880. 

Alloway, an ancient quoad civilia and a modern quoad 
sacra parish of Ayrshire, on the lowest reaches of the 
'bonny Doon,' 2J miles S of the town of Ayr. The 
ancient parish, lying wholly to the right of the Doon, 
and separated by Glengaw Burn from Ayr, was united 
to the latter towards the close of the 17th century ; the 
modern parish includes a portion of Maybole, on the 
Doon's left bank, and had 815 inhabitants in 1871 (358 
of them in Maybole). In the presbytery of Ayr and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, with a stipend of £150, it 
possesses a handsome Gothic church (1858), and a public 
school, which, with accommodation for 159 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 117, and a grant of 
£75, 13s. — ' Alloway's auld haunted lark,' a little roof- 
less ruin, First Pointed in style, stands just below the 
' Auld Brig ' of Doon. Visited now by pilgrims from 
many lands, this long had been merely the resting-place 
of unknown peasant folk, when Burns selected it for 
the scene of the demon revelry of Tarn o' Shanier. Near 
the churchyard gate, the grave of the poet's father 
(1721-81) is marked by a simple stone — not the original, 
which relic-mongers carried piecemeal away ; the poet 
himself would fain have shared that grave. The in- 
terior of the kirk has been stripped of its woodwork, 
for snuff-boxes and the like ; here is buried David Cath- 
cart, Lord Alloway (1764-1829), senator of the College 
of justice. — A cenotaph to Burns, erected in 1820, 
after a design by Hamilton of Edinburgh, at a cost of 
£3350, and comprising a triangular base, a Corinthian 
cyclostj'le, and an ornate cupola, with surmounting 
tripod, stands about 100 yards E of the old church, and 
is surrounded by an enclosed plot of 1J acre, in which a 
small grotto contains Thorn's statues of ' Tarn o' Shanter ' 
and ' Souter Johnnie. ' — The Auld Brig o' Doon, a gaunt 
structure of great antiquity, famous for the fight between 
Cassillis and Bargeny (1601), more famous for its part 
in Tom o' Shanter, crosses the river close to the monu- 
ment ; and the neat new bridge, later than Burns' day, 
spans it, some distance lower down. — The ' Auld Clay 
Biggin,' Burns' birthplace (23 Jan. 1759), and scene 
of his Colter's Saturday Night, stands about f mile to 
the N, and, theretofore a public house, was purchased 
in 1880 for £4000 from the Ayr Corporation of Shoe- 
makers by the trustees of the monument, by them to be 
converted into a kind of Burns museum. — Mount Oli- 
phant, to which Burns' father removed in 1777, is 
about 1J mile to the ESE ; and Doonbrae Cottage, 
Cambusdoon House, Rozelle, and Doonholm are seats 
within J mile of the church or monument. Alloway 
Moat, near the avenue leading to Doonholm, is an 
ancient artificial mound, used in old times for holding 
courts of justice. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1683. 

Alltacoileachan, a burn in Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire, which, rising on the NE slope of Cam a Bhodaich 
(2149 feet), flows about 4J miles WKW to the Tervie. 
The battle of Glbnlivet is named in the neighbourhood 
after it. 

Allt-an-Fhearna (Gael. ' stream of the alder tree '), a 
loch in the NE of Kildonan parish, Sutherland, con- 
nected by a burn with Baddanloch. It lies at an alti- 
tude of 433 feet, is 7 furlongs long by 5 broad, and 
abounds in small trout and char. 

Allt-Araan. See Aldbbnan. 

Almagill, a hill in Dalton parish, Dumfriesshire, 7 
miles E of Dumfries, consists of Silurian rock, and ris- 
ing to a height of 720 feet, commands a view of nearly 
all Annandale. On its northern slope is a very distinct 
British camp, called Range Castle, 306 feet in diameter, 
with a surrounding ditch 9 feet deep and 27 wide. 



Almerieclose, an estate, with a mansion, in St Vigeans 
parish, Forfarshire, contiguous to Arbroath. About 
35 acres of the estate, on the river Brothock, were feued 
for building purposes, and are now occupied by suburban 
streets and factories of Arbroath. 

Almond, a river of Lanark, Linlithgow, and Edin- 
burgh shires, rising in Shotts parish, 2 miles E of Kirk 
of Shotts, at an altitude of about 700 feet. It has an 
eastward course for 14 miles past Blackburn and Living- 
stone to near Midcalder ; and thence, in a north-easterly 
direction, follows the boundary between Linlithgow and 
Edinburgh, shires, past Almondell, Kirkliston, Carlowrie, 
and Cragiehall, to the Firth of Forth at Cramond. Its 
total length, exclusive of smaller windings, is 24 miles ; 
its bed, over great part of its course, is broad and either 
gravelly or rocky ; its waters, after heavy rains, often 
come down in great freshets, overflowing the banks 
and doing much injury to low, fertile, adjacent lands, 
but of late years have been extensively restrained by 
strong and high embankments. Its chief tributaries 
are Breich "Water on the right above Livingstone, the 
Broxburn on the left above, and the Gogar Bum on the 
right below, Kirkliston. Its lower reaches traverse a 
picturesque wooded ravine, and between Midcalder and 
Kirkliston the stream is crossed by an aqueduct of the 
Union Canal, and by a viaduct of the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow branch of the North British railway. The 
fishing, ruined by oil-works and the steeping of flax, is 
improving in consequence of legal proceedings, and trout 
are beginning to be once more found. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
31, 32, 1867-57. 

Almond, a river of Perthshire, rising in the SE corner 
of Killin parish, within 3 miles of Loch Tay, at an 
altitude of 2750 feet, and running eastward and east- 
south-eastward over a distance of 30 miles. It either 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Monzie, Crieff, 
Fowlis-Wester, Methven, Bedgorton, and Tibbermore, 
and finally falls into the Tay 2£ miles above Perth, and 
nearly opposite Scone. Its vale, Glenalmokd, is for 
a long way strictly a glen, narrow and stern, overhung 
by lofty heights. Part of it, indeed, is a chasm or 
romantic pass, with breadth of bottom sufficient only 
for the river and a road, and with flanks of bare rocky 
cliffs rising to the height of from 1000 to 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea ; here is the ancient stone- 
faced excavation, believed by some — Wordsworth among 
their number — to be the resting-place of Ossian. The 
lower half of the river's vale is flanked only by hills, 
braes, and undulations, and presents a cultivated aspect. 
That part immediately below the pass contains two 
ancient Caledonian stone circles, several ruined ancient 
fortalices, and the Scottish Episcopal College. A spot 
further down, 1\ miles NNE of Methven, is said to be the 
grave of ' Bessie Bell and Mary Gray,' famed in pathetic 
ballad. Lynedoch House, \ mile lower down, was the seat 
of General Graham, Lord Lynedoch (1750-1S43), the hero 
of Barossa. The river abounds in small trout. — Ord. Sur. , 
shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. See pp. 213,214 of Dorothy "Words- 
worth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). 

Almondbank, a village in the E of Methven parish, 
Perthshire, on the right bank of the Almond, f mile N 
by "W of a station of its own name on the Caledonian ; 
this station having a telegraph office, and being 4 miles 
WTSfW of the post-town Perth. At the village are a post 
office with money order and savings' bank departments, 
an inn, 2 bleachfields, and a public school, which, with 
accommodation for 152 children, had (1S79) an average 
attendance of 83, and a grant of £68, 12s. Pop. (1861) 
386, (1871) 371. 

Almond or Haining Castle, a ruin in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire. Built by the Crawfords in the 
reign of James III., it passed in 1540 to the Livingstones, 
and changed its name of Haining to Almond Castle in 
1633, when James, third son of the first Earl of Linlith- 
gow, was created Baron Livingstone of Almond, a title 
exchanged by him in 1641 for those of Earl of Callendar 
and Baron Almond. The castle ceased to be inhabited 
about the middle of last century, but is still a fine speci- 
men of old domestic architecture. 


Almondale. See Amondell. 

Alness, a river, a village, and a parish of Ross-shire. 
The river rises among mountains 4 miles WNVC of Loch 
Moir, and, traversing that loch, which is 1\ mileslong, and 
about f mile wide, runs thence 11 miles east-south-east- 
ward, along the boundary between Alness and Eosskeen 
parishes, to the Cromarty Firth at Alness village. Its 
vale is upland, wild, and romantic ; exhibits numerous 
scenes highly attractive to painters and poets ; and at 
one place, in particular, called Tollie, is impressively 
grand. Both its own waters and those of Loch Moir are 
well stocked with trout. 

The village stands on both banks of the river, and on 
the Highland railway, 10 miles NNE of Dingwall ; con- 
sists of two parts, Alness proper in Alness parish, and 
Alness-Bridgend in Eosskeen parish ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, an hotel, 2 large distilleries, and fairs on 
the second Tuesday of January, the first Tuesday of 
March, the Wednesday of April before the first Aniulree 
May market, the day in May after Kildary, the second 
"Wednesday of June, and the Wednesday of July, of 
August, and of September after Kyle of Sutherland. In 
1S78, during the construction of a branch line from 
Alness station to Dalmore distillery, which is close to 
the sea-shore, 18 pre-historic graves were discovered. 
All were short cists, formed of flat stones, and contained 
human bones, urns, flint and bronze implements, etc. 
[Procs. Soc. Ant. Scot., 1879, pp. 252-264). Pop. (1S71) 
of Alness proper, 202 ; of Alness-Bridgend, 709. 

The parish is bounded N by Kincardine, E by Eoss- 
keen, S by Cromarty Firth, and W by Kiltearn. Its 
greatest length from N to S is about 20 miles, and its 
average breadth is 5. The lands along the shores of 
Cromarty Firth are prevailingly flat, cultivated, and 
beautiful ; those inland and northward are hilly, heathy, 
and bleak. The hills, though not arranged in ridges, are 
high, and in some cases mountainous, Fyrish Hill rising 
1478 feet above sea-level. Springs of excellent water are 
everywhere numerous ; andthe Atjltgeande river, follow- 
ing the Kiltearn boundary, presents very grand features. 
The rocks are Devonian and Silurian, the former occur- 
ring in conglomerate, while the Silurian merge into gneiss. 
Vast erratic blocks or boulders abound in many parts, 
and have with great difficulty been blasted or otherwise 
removed in the cultivated tracts. Great improvements 
have been effected within the last forty years on the Cul- 
cairn and Novar properties, in the way of reclaiming, 
draining, fencing, building, etc. The rental of the lat- 
ter estate increased from £2413 in 1868 to £3124 in 
1877, one cause of such increase being the great extent 
of waste brought under larches and Scotch firs. Three 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 2 of between £100 and £500, and 2 of from £20 
to £50. Two cairns and a ruined pre-Eeformation chapel 
are the chief antiquities. Alness is in the presbytery of 
Dingwall and synod of Eoss ; its minister's income is 
£261. The parish church, built in 17S0, contains 800 
sittings, and there is also a Free church ; whilst 2 pub- 
lic schools, Alness and Glenglass, with respective ac- 
commodation for 100 and 50 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 63 and 31, and grants of £44, 14s. 
and £35, 16s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £8531, 4s. 9d. Pop. 
(1S31) 1437, (1S61) 1178, (1871) 1053, (1SS1) 1033. 

Alnwick or Annick Lodge, a collier village in Irvine 
parish, Ayrshire, 3 miles NE of Irvine town. A public 
school at it, with accommodation for 124 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 55, and a grant of £42, 9s. 
Pop. (1871) 352. 

Alpety, a place in Arbuthnot parish, Kincardineshire, 
4 miles NW of Bervie. 

Alsh, Loch. See Lochalsh. 

Altachoylachan. See Alltacoileachan. 

Altamarlach. See Altimarlach. 

Altando, a coast hamlet in Lochbroom parish, NW 
Eoss -shire, 32 miles NW of Ullapool. A public 
school at it, with accommodation for 65 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 47, and a grant of 
£52, 12s. 6d. 


Altavig or Altivaig, two islets off the NE coast of 
Skye, 2i miles SSE of Aird Point. The larger contains 
remains of a small old chapel. 

Altdouran, a rivulet in Leswalt parish, Wigtownshire. 
It issues from a moss of nearly 1000 acres, traverses a 
romantic glen, makes a fine cascade at entering the glen, 
and passes on to the Sole Burn, about a mile above that 
stream's influx to Loch Eyan. Its name signifies ' the 
Otters' burn.' 

Altens, a coast hamlet in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, 
2£ miles SSE of Aberdeen. It was formerly a consider- 
able fishing settlement ; but owing to the badness of its 
harbour, and the want of suitable means for curing had- 
docks, it became deserted by fishermen. 

Altgrad. See Atjltgraxde. 

Altimarlach, a burn in the parish of Wick, Caithness, 
flows through the Loch of Winless, and falls into Wick 
Water, 4 miles to the W of the town. Its banks were 
the scene of a famous conflict on 13 July 16S0, between 
the Campbells and the Sinclairs. Sir John Campbell 
of Glenorchy, afterwards Earl of Breadalbane, claimed 
the Earldom of Caithness, but was resisted in his claim 
by George Sinclair of Keiss ; and, to enforce it, marched 
at the head of 700 Argyll Highlanders from the banks 
of the Tay to beyond the promontory of the Ord. Keiss, 
on his part, was revelling with 400 followers at Wick, 
when tidings reached him, ' The Campbells are coming. ' 
All mad with drink, his men rushed out to the fight, 
were instantly routed, and fell in such numbers that 
' the victors crossed the Altimarlach dry-shod on their 
bodies ; ' but Keiss next year obtained the earldom by 
award of Parliament. 

Altin or Haltin, a glen in Snizort parish, Isle of Skye, 

Altirlie, a small headland in Petty parish, Inverness- 
shire, 5 miles NE of Inverness. 

Altivaig. See Altavig. 

Altmore, an impetuous rivulet formed by several head- 
streanis in the SE of Kathven parish, Banffshire, and 
running 5J miles southward, along the mutual boundary 
of Keith and Grange parishes, till it falls into the Isla 2 
miles ENE of Keith. 

Altnabreac, a station on the western border of Caith- 
ness, on the Caithness railway, 10 miles SW of Halkirk. 

Altnach. See Allnach. 

Alt-na-Giuthasach, a lodge in Balmoral Forest, SW 
Aberdeenshire, near the foot of Loch Muick, and 9 miles 
SSE of Balmoral Castle. At this her ' humble little 
bothie,' the Queen first heard of the Duke of Welling- 
ton's death, 16 Sept. 1852. 

Altnaharrow (Gael, allt-na-charra, 'stream of the 
stone pillar'), a hamlet in Farr parish, Sutherland, near 
the head of Loch Naver, on the road from Bonar-Bridge 
to Tongue, 21 miles N of Lairg station, and 17 S of 
Tongue. It has a post office under Lairg, an inn, a Free 
church, and a fair for cattle and horses on the Friday of 
September before Kyle of Sutherland. 

Altnakealgach. See Assynt. 

Altnalait, a burn in theE of Boss-shire, running along 
the southern boundary of Kiltearn parish to Cromarty 

Altnarie, a burn in Ardclach parish, Nairnshire, ris- 
ing and running among mountains, with a southerly 
course, to the Findhorn. It makes a profound and very 
romantic fall within a deep, wooded, sequestered glen. 

Alton, a village in Loudoun parish, Ayrshire, 1£ mile 
N of Galston. The name is a contraction from Auld- 

Altrive, a stream and a farmstead in Yarrow parish, 
Selkirkshire. The former rises in the two head-streams 
of Altrive Lake and Altrive Burn, on the declivities 
of the Wiss (1932 feet) and Peat Law (1737), and runs 
about 34 miles NNE to the Yarrow river, at a point 2 
miles ENE of the foot of St Mary's Loch. The farm- 
stead stands upon the stream's left bank, J mile above 
its mouth, and was the home of Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, from 1S14 down to his death, 21 Nov. 1835. He 
held it of the Duke of Buccleuch at a nominal rent, and 
had, said Allan Cunningham, 'the finest trout in the 




Yarrow, tlie finest lambs on its braes, the finest grouse 
on its hills, and as good as a sma' still besides.' 

Altruadh, a rivulet in Eothiemurchus parish, Inver- 

Alt-Torquil, a streamlet in Eildonan parish, Suther- 

Altyre, a burn, an estate, and a quondam parish, in 
Elginshire. The burn rises in Edinkillie parish, on the 
SW slope of the Hill of Glasohyle, at an altitude of 950 
feet ; and flowing some 10 miles northward, past Altyre 
House and Forres, falls into Findkorn Bay, 1 mile WSW 
of Einloss. It has an impetuous current, often flooding 
the neighbouring low grounds, and covering them with 
debris ; in its lower reaches it takes the name of Forres 
"Water. Altyre House, 4 miles S of Forres, belongs to 
Sir William-Gordon Gordon-Cumming, fourth Bart., re- 
presentative of the ancient Earls of Badenoch ; and is a 
fine modern mansion in the Italian style, standing on 
the right bank of the burn, at an altitude of 212 feet 
above sea-level. Its estate consists mainly of wooded 
hill and of pasturage, but also includes much arable land, 
with thin but productive soil. The parish belonged to 
the parsonage of Dallas, till in 1661 it was annexed by 
Act of Parliament to Eafford. Its ancient church, f 
mile N of Altyre House, is a small but interesting First 
Pointed structure ; and a hill where the capital sentences 
of the baron court of Altyre were carried out, still bears 
the name of Gallow Hill. 

Alum Well, a mineral spring in Dysart parish, Fife, 
a little W of Dysart town. Its water has long been famed 
for curing sores ; and, besides being much visited on the 
spot, is often sent in bottles to considerable distances. 

Alva (Gael. ailNicach, 'rocky'), a town and a parish, 
annexed from Clackmannan to Stirling shire about the 
beginning of the 17th century, but politically reincor- 
porated with the former by the Eeform Act of 1832. By 
road the town is 2 miles W of Tillicoultry, 3 J N of Alloa, 
and 6J ENE of Stirling ; as terminus of a branch of the 
North British, opened in 1863, it is 3J miles NE of Cam- 
bus Junction, 54 from Alloa, 7f from Stirling, and (vid 
South Alloa) 34£ NE of Glasgow, 40J WWW of Edin- 
burgh. A police burgh, and the seat of thriving indus- 
tries, it lies upon Alva Burn, 45 feet above sea-level, at 
the southern base of the Ochils, and across the month of 
beautiful Alva Glen ; it has a post office under Stirling, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the Union Bank, gasworks, 2 hotels, 
a town-hall, a Young Men's Christian Institute (1880), 
public baths and wash houses (1874), and a people's park 
(1856), 10 acres in extent — the last two both the gift of 
Mr Johnstone. A hamlet seems to have stood here from 
the close of the 13th down to the opening of the 18th 
century, when a village was projected, to have the form 
of a square. Only two sides of it were built, however, 
other houses arising on no fixed plan, till about 1767 
the village was formally enlarged. In 1795 it contained 
some 140 houses; between 1798 and 1841 eight woollen 
factories were opened, causing rapid extension of dwell- 
ings and population. Blankets and serges were the only 
fabrics produced up to 1829, when shawls were intro- 
duced ; and tartan dress goods, tweeds, handkerchiefs, 
plaids, and shirtings followed. Nine spinning mills are 
now at work, with 37 sets of carding engines, driven by 
steam and water power. The yearly value of raw material 
used is about £123,000, and of goods manufactured be- 
tween £200,000 and £250,000; whilst the hands em- 
ployed number some 220 in the spinning mills, 700 jour- 
neymen, 100 apprentices, and 550 female winders and 
twisters, besides a number of draw-boys. There are, too, 
a brickfield, and a shuttle, an oil, and an engine factory. 
The parish church, anciently dedicated to St Serf, and 
held by Cambnskenneth Abbey, stands on rising ground 
a little to the E, and, twice rebuilt (in 1632 and 1815), 
was enlarged in 1854, so as now to contain 700 sittings. 
Alva has also a Free church, aU.P. church, and 3 schools 
(Park Place, Infants', and Norton), which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 600, 226, and 105 children, had 
a total average attendance of 847 in June 1880, the ex- 
penditure for the preceding twelve months amounting 

to £1059, 9s., and the grants for 1879 to £640, lis. 7d. 
Pop. (1791) 600, (1841) 2092, (1851) 3058, (1861) 3147, 
(1871) 4096 (1881) 4961. 

The parish, forming a detached north-eastern portion 
of Stirlingshire, and lying 2f miles N, 3J miles E of 
the main body of that shire, is bounded NW by Ardoch 
and Blackford in Perthshire, on all other sides by Clack- 
mannanshire, viz. , E by Tillicoultry, S by Clackmannan 
and Alloa, and W by Logie. From NNE to SSW it has 
an extreme length of 4J miles ; its greatest width from 
E to W is 2 J miles ; and its area is 5473 J acres, of which 
15£ are water. The Devon winds 4 miles westward 
along all the southern boundary, and midway is joined 
by Alva Burn, which, rising at an altitude of 1750 feet, 
runs 4 miles southward, itself on the left receives Glen- 
winnel Burn (2J miles long), and in Alva or Strude Glen 
forms 3 cascades, the largest of them over 30 feet high. 
The beauties of this romantic glen, steep, narrow, and 
rocky, have been opened up to lovers of the picturesque 
by an excellent pathway, constructed by Mr Johnstone 
(1869-70). Between the Devon and the Ochils is a low, 
rich arable tract, from 3 to 6 furlongs wide, with first an 
alluvial soil, next one of stiffish clay, then a moss-stratum 
resting upon clay, and lastly good hazel mould, inter- 
mixed with gravel and small stones. NE of this valley 
or Hill-foot, as it is called, a bluff, 220 feet high, is finely 
surmounted by Alva House (If mile ENE of the town), 
whose ' bonnie woods ' climb far up the slopes of Wood 
Hill to the rear. The top of Wood Hill is 1723 feet 
above sea-level, and left of it rise Middle Hill (1436 feet) 
and West Hill (1682) ; behind these, Craighorn (1904) 
and Bengengie (1855). Still further N are Benbuck 
(2000) and Blairdenon (2072) ; but the summit of Ben- 
cletjch (2363), highest of all the Ochils, falls just within 
the Tillicoultry border. The rocks of the Hill-foot are 
chiefly carboniferous, and a colliery — closed in 1879 — 
has yielded some of the finest coal ; those of the hills are 
eruptive, containing cobalt, and lead, copper, and iron 
ores ; and here, in the glen between Middle and Wood 
Hills, Sir John Erskine, Bart. , discovered a silver mine 
(c. 1712) with this result: — 'Walking with a friend over 
his estate, he pointed out a great hole and remarked, 
" Out of that hole I took £50, 000 ; " then presently, walk- 
ing on, he came to another excavation, and, continued he, 
" I put it all into that hole."' Sir John it was to whom 
' Alexr. Steuart, found guilty of death for theft at Perth 
the 5th of December 1701,' was 'gifted by the Justiciars 
as a perpetual servant, ' according to the inscription of a 
brass collar dredged from the Forth in Logie parish(1784), 
andnowpreservedin the Edinburgh AntiquarianMuseum; 
and Sir John's nephew, Lord Alva, a lord of session, pre- 
sented (1767) two communion cups of native silver to 
Alva church. The Erskines of Alva, now represented by 
the Earls of Rosslyn, sprang from the fourth son of the 
seventh Earl of Mar, and held the estate (before them owned 
by Stirrings and Menteiths) from 1620 to 1775, when 
Lord Alva sold it to a cadet of the Westerhall Johnstones. 
Their present descendant, Jas. Johnstone, Esq., owns 
1587 acres in Clackmannanshire, and 5340 in Alva, with 
a yearly value respectively of £721 and £4504 (including 
£500 for minerals). Of the latter sum, £2286 is for the 
seven farms of Alva parish, whose total area comprises 
3150 acres in tillage, 2120 in pasture, and 188 under wood. 
Twenty -three lesser proprietors hold each an annual value 
of from £50 to £100, 32 of from £20 to £50. Alva is in 
the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
the stipend amounts to £228. Valuation (1843) £4853, 
(1S81) £13,971, including £439 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
787, (1821) 1197, (1841) 2136, (1861) 3283, (1871)4296, 
(1881) 5113.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Alvah, a parish on the NE border of Banffshire. It 
has no village, but lies from 2 to 7J miles S of its post- 
town Banff, and is readily accessible from the railway 
stations of Plaidy and King Edward. It is bounded N 
by a detached portion of Aberdeenshire, NE by Gamrie, 
E by Aberdeenshire, S by Forglen, SW by Marnoch, and 
NW by Banff. Its greatest length, from N to S, is 5£ 
miles, its greatest breadth is 5, and its land area is 
11,488 acres. This parish and Forglen originally formed 


one parish, but were separated prior to the middle of the 
17th century. The eastern boundary of Alvah is partly 
defined by the Deveron, partly by artificial lines east- 
ward of that river, which has a course, within or along the 
border of the parish, of 7 J miles. The surface is very diver- 
sified, elevations from S to N being Brownside Hill (600 
feet), Herod Hill (700), Newton Crofts (443), Cowie Hill 
(605), the Hill of Ord (573), Muiry Hill (472), Green Law 
(444), and the isolated Hill of Alvah (578), which serves as 
a landmark to mariners. The scenery along the Deveron, 
at some points soft and charming, at others is bold and 
picturesque. The chasm of the Craigs of Alvah, about 
£ mile from the church, contracts the river's waterway 
between two rugged precipices to a width of but 27 feet, 
occasions a pool there 56 feet deep, and, checking the 
current in freshets, so throws it back as often to cause 
great floods above. It is spanned, at a height of 55J 
feet, by a Roman-looking bridge, with majestic arch, 
erected in 1772 by the Earl of Fife. The scene around 
this bridge is deeply impressive ; northward it opens 
into a rocky amphitheatre, rising to a height of nearly 
100 feet, and richly clothed with herbage, shrubs, and 
trees. About 7000 acres of the area are under cultiva- 
tion, 750 under wood, and 3500 waste or pasture land. 
The rocks are chiefly greywacke and clay slate ; the 
soils and subsoils mostly diluvial. A noted fountain, 
called St Colme's Well, was not long ago converted into 
a source of constant and copious supply of pure water to 
the town of Banff. Other springs of pure water are 
numerous ; and there are several chalybeate wells. An 
ancient castle, said to have been built by an Earl of Buchan, 
stood in a swamp, now a fertile field, near Mountblairy, 
and a chapel crowned an adjoining eminence ; but both 
have disappeared. A large tumulus and two small cairns 
may still be seen ; but two ancient Caledonian stone 
circles have been almost entirely destroyed. George 
Chapman, LL.D. (1723-1803), a writer on education, was 
a native. Mountblairy House and Dunlugas House are 
the chief mansions ; four landowners hold each an 
annual value of £500. Part of the parish, with 206 in- 
habitants in 1S71, is annexed quoad sacra to Ord ; the 
rest is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, 
its minister's income amounting to £372. The church 
stands near the northern border, was built in 1792, and 
contains 600 sittings. Under the school-board are Alvah 
school and girls' schools at Dunlugas and Linhead, which, 
with respective accommodation for 100, 48, and SO chil- 
dren, had (1879) an average attendance of 35, 38, and 72, 
and grants of £24, 17s., £36, 15s., and £64, 7s. Valua- 
tion (1882) £9910, 6s. lOd. Pop. (1831) 1278, (1861) 1467, 
(1871) 1436, (1881) 1356.— Ord. Sur., shs. 86, 96, 1876. 

Alves, a village and a coast parish of Elginshire. The 
village stands J mile jSTE of a station of its own name on 
the Great North of Scotland railway, at the junction of 
the Bui-ghead branch, and 5£ miles W of Elgin, is small 
and straggling, and has a post office under Forres. 

The parish formerly included a large portion of what 
is now Kinloss, but was curtailed in 1659 or 1660. It 
is bounded Nff for 3J- furlongs by Burghead Bay, NE 
by Duffus, E by Spynie, SE by Elgin, SW by Rafford, 
and W^ by Kinloss. Its length, from N to S, is 64 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 5i miles ; and its land 
area is 9404 acres. Alves contains no stream of any 
size ; and the conical Knock (335 feet), at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, is the only noteworthy summit 
in its upper half. This is crowned by the modern York 
Tower, and claims, like several neighbouring localities, 
to have been the meeting-place of Macbeth and the 
Witches. The lower half of the parish consists entirely 
of wooded uplands, that culminate in Eildon Hill (767 
feet) on the SE border. A hard and very durable sand- 
stone is quarried for building purposes, and a rock suit- 
able for millstones is also worked. Aslisk Castle, 2 miles 
SW of the village, is a ruined baronial fortalice ; and 
near the old Military Road stood Moray's Cairn, thought 
to commemorate a battle, but now destroyed. Near it 
some Lochaber and Danish axes have been exhumed. 
Four landowners hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, and 1 of from 


£50 to £100. Alves is in the presbytery of Elgin and 
synod of Moray ; its minister's income is £351. The 
church is a long, narrow building, erected in 1760, and 
containing 590 sittings. There is also a Free church, 
rebuilt in 1S78 at a cost of £1000, which measures 50 by 
42 feet, seats 500, and has a spire 53 feet high. A board 
school, with accommodation for 200 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 90, and a grant of £100, 5s. 
Pop. (1831) 945, (1871) 1018, (1881) 1117.— Ord. Sur., 
shs. 85, 95, 1876. 

Alvie, a parish of Badenoch, SE Inverness-shire, tra- 
versed for 10 miles from its south-western to its north- 
eastern border by the Spey, Wade's military road, and 
the Highland railway, with the central station on the 
last of Kincraig, 18J miles SSW of Grantown. It is 
bounded NE and E by Duthil, SE by Aberdeenshire, S 
by Perthshire, W by Kingussie, and NW by Moy ; its 
greatest length from N to S being 21 h miles, its breadth 
from 3 to 11 miles, and its land area 86,618 acres or 135 
square miles. Most of this area is occupied by moun- 
tains, those to the left of the Spey forming part of the 
Monadhliath range ; those to its right, of the Grampians. 
The former culminate in Cam na h'Easgainn (2656 feet) 
on the western boundary beyond the Dulnan river, 
and, between the Didnan and Spey, in Geal Charn Mor 
(2702 feet) and Beinn Bhreac (2618). These heights are 
surpassed by those of the SE or Glen Fishie portion, 
where an outskirt of Braeriaeh rises upon the eastern 
border to 4149 feet, while lesser elevations are Sgoran 
Dubh (3658 feet), Cam Ban (3443), Meall Dubh-achaidh 
(326S), and Monadh Mor (3651). There are in the 
whole parish 27 summits exceeding 2000 feet above sea- 
level or 1279 above Loch Insh, the lake into which 
the Spey expands, and the western shore of which 
belongs to Alvie. Loch Alvie, in the NE, the only 
other lake of any size, measures 1 by J mile, and com- 
municates with the Spey, which has a width here of 150 
feet, and which, 3 miles higher up, receives the Fishie. 
The latter stream, rising in the extreme south of the 
parish, winds 23 miles northward ; its glen was the ob- 
ject of the ' delightful, successful expedition ' made by 
the Queen and Prince Consort, 4 Sept. 1860. ' The 
Fishie,' Her Majesty writes, 'is a fine rapid river, full 
of stones. As you approach the glen, which is very 
narrow, the scenery becomes very fine, particularly after 
fording the Eidart [a considerable affluent]. . . . The 
rapid river is overhung by rocks, with trees, birch and 
fir ; the hills rise very steeply on both sides, with rich 
rocks and corries — while the path winds along, rising 
graduaBy higher and higher. It is quite magnificent ' 
(Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, 
ed. 1877, pp. 140-144). The Journal goes on to relate 
how the royal party came upon ' a most lovely spot, the 
scene of all Landseer's glory,' and 7 miles lower down 
emerged in Strathspey, where they saw the cairn at 
which Argyll halted before the battle of Glenlivet (1594), 
and passed by Kinrara. This lodge belongs to the Duke 
of Richmond and Gordon, and gives him since 1876 the 
title of Earl of Kinrara, but at present is tenanted by the 
Earl of Stamford. It stands between Loch Alvie and the 
Spey, on a rocky knoll embosomed in continuous beech- 
forest ; was visited by Prince Leopold (afterwards King 
of the Belgians) in 1821 ; and was the summer residence 
of the ' sprightly ' Duchess of Gordon (1746-1812), whose 
grave in the valley below, at a spot she had chosen her- 
self, is marked by a beautiful monument. Above on 
Tor Alvie are a granite column, 90 feet high, to her son, 
the fifth Duke (1770-1836), and a cairn to the officers 
of the 42d and 92d slain at Waterloo, the 92d Gordon 
Highlanders having been raised in Strathspey in 1794. 
Belleville House, 2| miles SW of Loch Insh, stands 
where Raits Castle, the Coinyns' ancient stronghold, 
stood ; and, built by ' Ossian Macpherson ' (173S-96), 
was the scene of his literary labours and death. A 
marble obelisk, J mile distant, is sculptured with the 
Bard of Morven's bust ; and a pond in a meadow before 
the house is the ' Lochandhu ' of Sir Thomas Dick 
Lauder's romance (1825), a birch-grove that once 
surrounded it having formed the retreat of the bandit 



Borlum. A cairn, two concentric circles, and an obelisk 
at Delfour, make up with some tumuli the antiquities 
of Alvie, whose sparse population is almost confined to 
Strathspey, the only arable , portion of the parish. 
' Most striking,' writes the Queen, 'was the utter soli- 
tude on our whole long journey. Hardly a habitation ! 
and hardly meeting a soul ! ' At Lynwilg in the NE is 
a post office (under Aviemore) ; Lynehat is a hamlet in 
the extreme SW ; near Loch Alvie stand the parish 
church (1798), the manse, and a school, with (1879) 
an average attendance of 70 children, and a grant of 
£61, lis. ; at Kincraig are a Free church and another 
post office (under Kingussie). Valuation (1881) £8947, 
6s. 6d., of which £3337, 18s. 6d. belonged to The Mac- 
kintosh, and £2319, 15s. to Sir Geo. Maepherson-Grant 
of Bailindalloch. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking (1821) 
S63, (1831) 1092, (1871) 882, (1881) 707.— Ord Sur., 
shs. 64, 74, 1874-77. 

Alyth, a town of E Perthshire, and a parish partly also 
in Forfarshire. Standing upon the Burn of Alyth, 300 
feet above sea-level, the town by road is 5i miles ENE 
of Blairgowrie, 3£ NW of Meigle, and 29 S"by E of Brae- 
mar, whither a railway was planned in July 1880 ; 
as terminus of a branch of the Caledonian, opened in 
1861, it is 51 miles NW of Alyth Junction, 174 W by S 
of Forfar, 23J NW of Dundee, 25f NE of Perth, 72| N 
of Edinburgh, and 88f NE of Glasgow. It is a burgh 
of barony under charter of James III. (14S8), with the 
Earl of Airlie, Baron Ogilvy of Alyth and Lintrathen, for 
superior ; and created a police burgh in 1875, it is go- 
verned by a baron bailie, and by a body of 12 commis- 
sioners, a town clerk, and a treasurer. Some of the 
houses, perched high up, and gained by steep winding 
lanes, may well have beheld the one marked episode in 
Alyth's history, when in August 1651 — Monk then be- 
sieging Dundee — the Committee of Estates, only 40 in 
number, assembled here, and here were surprised by 500 
troopers under Col. Aldrich, who shipped them all off to 
London, his captives including the elder Leslie, Earl of 
Leven, the Rev. Rt. Douglas, and the Rev. Jas. Sharpe, 
archbishop that was to be (Hill Burton's Hist. , vii. 43, 
ed. 1876). Mainly, however, the town is modern, pos- 
sessing a post office under Meigle, with money order and 
savings' bank departments, a railway telegraph office, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Royal Bank, 
3 hotels, a public coffee house (1881), gasworks, new 
waterworks (1870), bowling and curling clubs, and a pub- 
lic library of 3000 volumes bequeathed by the late Hon. 
Wm. Ogilvy of Loyal. A bailie court, for civil causes 
not exceeding 40s. , sits on the first Tuesday of every 
month ; and fairs are held on the third Tuesday of May, 
the second Tuesday of June o. s. , the first Tuesday of 
August, the first Tuesday and Wednesday of November 
o. s., the second Tuesday after 11 Nov. o. s. , and the 
fourth Monday of January, February, March, April, and 
December. The manufacture of brown and other linens 
is the staple industry, employing 2 mills, one of which, 
Smith & Sons (1873), to flax adds jute spinning, with 
bleaching, dyeing, and calendering ; and there is also a 
woollen factory. The parish church (1290 sittings), a 
Norman structure with lofty spire, was erected in 1839 
in place of the ancient Second Pointed church of St Moloc 
or Malaehi ; other places of worship are a Free church 
(1844; 750 sittings), a U.P. church (17S1 ; 270 sittings), 
a Roman Catholic church (1879), and St Ninian's Epis- 
copal church (1856 ; 150 sittings), this, too, in Norman 
style, with a stained wheel window (1880) to the memory 
of the late Sir Geo. Ramsay. Three schools at the town 
— public, Episcopalian, and Church of Scotland girls' in- 
dustrial — and another at Gauldswell, 2J miles to the 
NW, with respective accommodation for 300, 101, 199, 
and 49, had (1879) an average attendance of 134, 70, 206, 
and 16, and grants of £74, 14s., £48, 10s., £171, 5s., 
and £28, 2s. Pop. (1774) 555, (1792) 1060, (1841) 1846, 
{1861) 2106, (1871) 2134, (1881) 2377. 

The parish is bounded NE by Glenisla, E by Airlie and 
Ruthven, SE by Meigle, SW and W by Bendochy, Blair- 
gowrie, Rattray, and Kirkmichael. From NNW to SSE, 
viz., from Mount Blair to the Isla near Einloch, it 


has an utmost length of 13f miles ; its breadth varies 
from 11 to 6 miles ; and its area is 23,962| acres, of which 
3923 (to the NW) are in Forfarshire, and 68J are water. 
The Isla traces 3 miles of the eastern, and, after travers- 
ing Ruthven, 4| of the south-eastern border ; and the 
Burn of Alyth, rising at 1200 feet of altitude in the Forest 
of Alyth, joins it at Inverquiech, having first run 9 miles 
south-eastward to just below the town, next 2J miles east- 
north-eastward. The Black Water, too, a head-stream of 
the Erich t, at two points flows along the western boundary, 
for 2 J and 1^ miles ; and in the interior are 4 or 5 smaller 
burns. That portion of the parish between the Isla and 
the Burn of Alyth belongs to Strathmoke ; and here, 
in the furthest S, the surface sinks to 100 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising north-westward to 208 feet at 
Chapelhill, 398 near New Alyth, and 533 at Johnshill ; 
N of the Burn of Alyth, to 535 feet near Bruceton, 668 
on Barry Hill, 871 on Loyal Hill, 966 on the Hill of 
Alyth, and 1221 on Bamff or Balduff Hill. Beyond, comes 
the treeless Forest of Alyth, where the chief elevations— 
those marked with asterisks culminating on the north- 
eastern boundary — are Craighead (1083 feet), the Hill of 
Three Cairns (1243), Eingseat (1250), Drumderg (1383), 
Runnaguman (1313), *Black Hill (1454), and *Knockton 
(1605) ; whilst further still, in the Forfarshire section, 
rise *Caim Gibbs (1706), *Meall Mhor (1804), and Mount 
Blair (2441). The rocks are chiefly Devonian in the 
Strathmore low land, crystalline slates in the Forest of 
Alyth and the Blacklunans (a fertile strip along the Black 
Water), and trap on the hills, but include limestone at 
Mount Blair, and a well-defined dyke or vein of ser- 
pentine a little below Bamff House. The soils of the 
arable lands — barely one-fourth of the entire area — are in 
Strathmore a fine deep fertile loam, on the hill-slopes a 
good sharp gravel, in the Blacklunans a light but rich 
black loam, and elsewhere a strong detrital mixture of 
clay, gravel, and stones ; plantations cover more than 
1000 acres. One castle (styled the King's Castle in 1394) 
was at Inverquiech, and another at Corb in the Forest, 
where, too, are many cairns, stone circles, and standing 
stones ; but Alyth's chief antiquity is an oval British 
fort on Barry Hill, which, 450 feet in circumference, was 
defended by a rude stone rampart, and to E and S by a 
deep fosse 10 feet wide, and, according to local tradition, 
was the prison of Wander, Vanora, or Guinevere, King 
Arthur's queen (Glennie's Arthurian Localities, 1869, p. 
53). The Lindsays of the Crawford line were connected 
with this parish from 1303 to 1620 ; and the Ramsays 
have held the lands of Bamff since 1232. Their founder, 
Nessus de Ramsay, was physician to Alexander II., as 
to King James and Charles I. was his descendant Alex- 
ander Ramsay, whose son, Sir Gilbert, for gallantry in 
the battle of the Pentlands, was made a baronet in 1666. 
Mansions, with distance from the town, proprietors' 
names, and the extent and yearly value of their estates 
within the shire, are — Bamff House, 3-J miles NW (Sir 
Jas. Hy. Ramsay, b. 1832 ; sue. as tenth Bart. 1871 ; 
12,845 acres, £3391) ; Loyal House, J mile NE (Earl of 
Airlie, 4647 acres, £6218); Balhary House, 2 miles SE 
(trustees of late Rt. Snrythe, 1865 acres, £935); Jordan- 
stone House, 2 miles ESE (Wm. G. Knight, 515 acres, 
£604) ; and Hallyards, 2^ miles ESE (Geo. D. C. Hen- 
derson, 396 acres, £649). In all, 7 landowners hold 
within Alyth an annual value of £500 and upwards, 14 
of between £100 and £500, 12 of from £50 to £100, and 
38 of from £20 to £50. Alyth is in the presbytery of 
Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £418. Valuation (1865) £17,058, (1881) £25,062, 
including £1296, 5s. for the Forfarshire section. Pop. 
(1841) 2910, (1861) 3422, (1871) 3352; of quoad sacra 
parish (1871) 3151, (1SS1) 3372.— Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 

Amatan, a burn in Bower parish, Caithness, running 
eastward to Wester Water. 

Amisfield, a village and a mansion in Tinwald parish, 
Dumfriesshire. The village stands on a head-stream of 
Lochar Water, near the Dumfries and Lockerbie branch 
of the Caledonian, under the Tinwald Hills, 4 miles 
NNE of Dumfries. It has a station on the railway, and 


a post office under Dumfries. The mansion, standing 
J mile NNW of the village, is partly a modern edifice, 
partly an old baronial fortalice, one of the most in- 
teresting of its kind. It belonged from the 12th cen- 
tury to the Anglo-Norman family of Charteris, of whom 
Sir Thomas became Lord High Chancellor of Scotland 
in 1280 ; Sir John was Warden of the West Marches 
under James V., and by that king (as ' Gudeman of 
Ballangeich ') was punished for wrong-doing to a widow ; 
and another Sir John was an active Royalist during 
the Great Rebellion, as also was his brother Captain 
Ales. Charteris, beheaded at Edinburgh in 1650. An 
oak door, curiously carved with 'Samson and the lion,' 
and dated 1600, has found its way from Amisfield 
Castle to the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. Re- 
mains of a little fort, which may have been Roman, are 
on the Amisfield estate, near the line of a Roman road. 

Amisfield, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss, in the parish 
and county of Haddington, on the right bank of the 
Tyne, | mile ENE of Haddington. It is a handsome 
Grecian edifice of red sandstone, faces the river, con- 
tains some fine paintings, and stands in the midst of 
an extensive park. It was built by the fifth Earl of 
Wemyss (1787-1808), heir of his maternal grandfather, 
the infamous Colonel Charteris (1675-1732), who had 
purchased the lands of Newmills, and changed their 
name to Amisfield from the ancient seat of his forefathers 
in Nithsdale. In Lauder's Scottish Rivers (ed. 1874), p. 
309, is a lively account of the Tyneside games, instituted 
by Lord Elcho in Amisfield Park. 

Amondell or Almonddale, the seat of the Earl of 
Buchan, in Uphall parish, SE Linlithgowshire, stands 
on the left bank of the Almond, \h mile NE of Mid- 
calder. From 1812 till his death here on 8 Oct. 1817, 
it was the residence of the Hon. Henry Erskine, Lord 
Advocate of Scotland in 1783 and 1806. 

Amulree, a village in Dull parish, Perthshire, on the 
left bank of the Bran, 10 miles WSW of Dunkeld 
station. Its site was pronounced by Dr Buckland to 
have been fashioned by a group of low moraines ; and 
the country around it presents an assemblage of wild, 
bare, rugged uplands, whose lochs and streams are 
favourite anglers' haunts. The village has a post 
office under Dunkeld, an inn at which Wordsworth 
and his sister halted on 9 Sept. 1803, an Established 
church, and a Free Church station. The Established 
church, originally built by Government to serve for a 
district containing upwards of 1000 inhabitants, in 
1871 was constituted a quoad sacra parochial church ; 
and was rebuilt in 1881 at a cost of £900. Fairs for 
cattle and sheep are held at the village on the first 
Tuesday and Wednesday of May, and on the Friday 
before the first Wednesday of November, but they have 
sunk immensely in importance during the last 35 years. 

Anabich, an island in Harris parish, Outer Hebrides, 

Ancrum, a village and a parish of Roxburghshire. 
The village stands upon rising ground, on the right 
bank of the river Ale, f mile N of its influx to the 
Teviot, being 2 miles W of Jedfoot Bridge station, and 
3-i miles NNW of Jedburgh, under which it has a post 
and telegraph office. Its original name was Alnecrom, 
signifying 'the crook of the Alne,' — as the Ale was 
anciently called ; and that name is exactly descriptive 
of the situation, on a bold sharp curve of the river. The 
surrounding scenery is softly picturesque ; and the pre- 
sent village, though most of its buildings are modern, 
wears a somewhat decayed appearance, and dates from a 
considerable antiquity. A Caledonian fort stood near 
it ; a monastic establishment of some kind was founded 
at it by David I. ; faint vestiges exist of its so-called 
Maltan Walls, a preceptory of the Knights of Malta ; 
and a 13th century cross, supposed to have been ori- 
ginally surmounted by. the arms of Scotland, stands in 
the middle of its green. This village was long called 
Nether Ancrum, to distinguish it from the now extinct 
hamlet of Over Ancrum, and both were burned to the 
ground during the hostilities connected with Hertford's 
raid in 1545. Pop. (1861) 538, (1871) 412. 


The parish contains also the hamlets of Longnewton 
and Belses, the latter wdth a station on the North British, 
3J miles W of the village, 45J SE of Edinburgh, and 
7i NE of Hawick ; and it includes the old parish of 
Longnewton, annexed in 1684. It is bounded NW by 
St Boswells, NE by Maxton, E by Crailing, SE by Jed- 
burgh and Bedrule, SW by Minto, and W by Lilliesleaf 
and Bowden. Its length from N to S is 4J miles ; its 
greatest breadth is 4J miles ; and its area is 10,389 acres, 
of which 93J are water. The Ale in ' many a loop and 
link,' flows through the parish from WNW to ESE ; 
and the Teviot, to the length of some 4J miles, roughly 
traces all the south-eastern border. Both rivers afford 
abundant sport to the angler for salmon and for trout, 
and also are haunted by otters. The surface, through- 
out the NW, in the quondam parish of Longnewton, is 
flat and tame ; but elsewhere, along the Ale, and south- 
ward to the Teviot, though containing no prominent 
hills, rises into considerable eminences, the chief of which 
from N to S are Ancrum Moor (771 feet), Woodhead 
(501), Hopton (531), Ancrumcraig (629), Troneyhill 
(755), and Chesters Moor (585). The tract along the 
Ale, in particular, exhibits steep rugged rocks, part naked, 
part richly wooded, overhanging the river's course, and 
shows a succession of picturesque and romantic scenery. 
Sandstone, of two colours, the one red, the other white, 
and both of superior quality for building purposes, is quar- 
ried. The soil, in the lower grounds toward the Teviot, 
is chiefly a fertile loam ; on the flat grounds, both in 
the north and near the Ale, is a rich though stiffish 
clay ; and on the higher grounds and the northern de- 
clivities, is of moorish quality on a cold clay bottom. 
About 7500 acres are under cultivation, and upwards of 
800 are in wood. Ancrum House (Sir William Scott, 
seventh Bart, since 1671, and owner of 2131 acres in 
the shire) stands near the site of the ancient village of 
Over Ancrum, and of a rural palace of the Bishop of 
Glasgow, and was a fine old Border mansion, command- 
ing a noble view of Teviotdale away to the Cheviot 
Mountains, and surrounded by an extensive deer-park, 
with craggy knolls and grand old trees. Its central and 
older portion, built in 155S by Robert Eerr of Fernie- 
herst, was, with later additions, totally destroyed by 
fire on 3 Dec. 1873, the damage being estimated at 
£35,000. The mansion has been since rebuilt in Scottish 
Baronial style. Chesters House, situated on the Teviot, 
is a large handsome edifice, erected about the beginning 
of this century ; and Kirklands, on a wooded height 
above the Ale, is a modern Elizabethan structure. Fif- 
teen caves occur along the rocky banks of the Ale above 
Ancrum House, all at the least accessible spots, artifi- 
cially hewn, provided with fire-places, and thought to 
have served for hiding-places during the Border raids. 
One of them was a favourite retreat of the author of 
The Seasons, who was a frequent inmate of Ancrum 
Manse, and is known as ' Thomson's Cave,' his name 
being carved on its roof, it is said, by his own hand. 
Remains of a Caledonian stone circle existed within this 
century at Harestanes, near Mounteviot, but all its 
stones save one have been removed ; and a Roman road 
skirts Ancrum Moor, 1J mile NW of the village, which 
moor was the scene of one of the last great conflicts in 
the international war between Scotland and England. 
An English army, 5000 strong, under Sir Ralph Evers 
and Sir Bryan Latoun, in 1544, overran and wasted the 
Scottish Border northward to Melrose. Returning with 
their booty, they were overtaken at Ancrum Moor and 
utterly routed by a Scottish force under the Earl of Angus 
and Scott of Buccleuch. Lilliard, a maid of Teviotdale, 
made desperate by the loss of her lover, fought in the 
Scottish ranks till she fell beneath many wounds ; and 
she has bequeathed to part of the battlefield the name of 
Lilliard's Edge. A monument, now broken and defaced, 
stands on the spot, and bore this legend, — 

'Fair Maiden Lilliard lies under this stane ; 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the English loons she laid mony thumps, 
And when her legs were cuttid off, she fought upon her stumps.' 

Ancrum was the birthplace of Dr William Buchan 



(1729-1805), a medical writer ; perhaps, too, of the Rev. 
John Home (1722-1808), the author of Douglas, this 
honour being also claimed for Leith. Among its mini- 
sters was the Rev. John Livingston (1603-72), one of 
the commissioners sent to confer with Charles II. at 
Breda in 1650. Seven landowners hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 and £500, 
5 of from £50 to £100, and 8 of from £20 to £50. In 
the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale, this parish has an Established church, built 
in 1762, repaired in 1832, and containing 520 sittings ; 
the minister's income is £432. There is also a Free 
church ; and at Ancrum and Sandystones are public 
schools, which, with respective accommodation for 153 
and 78 children, had an average attendance (1879) of 
112 and 67, and grants of £59, 18s. 6d. and £20, 18s. 9d. 
Yaluation (1880) of lands, £14,162, 15s. 4d. ; of rail- 
way, £1601. Pop. (1831) 1454, (1861) 1511, (1871) 
1391, (1881) 1365.— Orel. Sur., shs. 17, 24, 1864-65. 

Anderston, a suburb of Glasgow, and a quoad sacra 
parish in Barony parish, Lanarkshire. The suburb 
adjoins the western extremity of Argyle Street ; stood 
quite apart from Glasgow till about 1830 or later ; com- 
municated with Glasgow by an open thoroughfare, 
called Anderston Walk, at present the middle and 
western parts of Argyle Street. Completely enveloped 
now in the western extensions of Glasgow, it stands 
amidst these extensions with old dingy features of its 
own, in strong contrast to those of the surrounding archi- 
tecture ; impinges on the Clyde along what is now a 
dense and very busy part of the harbour, but what 
formerly lay all far westward beyond the old harbour's 
lower extremity ; comprises a main street deflecting at 
an acute angle from Argyle Street and leading on to- 
ward Partick, a number of narrow old streets very 
densely peopled, and a number of newer or more airy 
ones, mostly going parallel with one another to the 
Clyde ; being bounded E by M Alpine Street, N by close 
but irregular impact of the spacious streets of the new 
Glasgow western extension, W by Finnieston. It was con- 
stituted a borough of barony by Crown charter in 1324 ; 
had a town council consisting of a provost, 3 bailies, a 
treasurer, and 11 councillors, elected by proprietors for 
liferenters of heritable subjects, and by tenants paying 
£20 or upwards of annual rent ; was annexed in 1846 to 
the municipal borough of Glasgow ; has, since that time, 
returned a certain proportion of members to the city 
council ; and shares largely in much of the industry of 
Glasgow, particularly in various kinds of factories, and 
in foundries and ship-building yards. In or near it 
are 4 churches of the Establishment, 4 of the Free 
Church, 3 of United Presbyterians, 1 of Indepen- 
dents, 1 of Methodists, 1 of Plymouth Brethren, and 
1 of Episcopalians. One of the Established churches 
bears distinctively the name of Anderston ; stands at 
the corner of St Vincent Street and Dumbarton Road ; 
was built in 1S65 at a cost of £7000 ; supplied the place 
of an old chapel of ease in Clyde Street, destroyed by 
fire 1849 ; ranked itself as a chapel of ease till 1875 ; 
contains 1000 sittings ; and is now the quoad sacra 
parish church. One of the Free churches also bears dis- 
tinctively the name of Anderston. One of the United 
Presbyterian churches likewise bears distinctively the 
name of Anderston ; and is a spacious, neat, compara- 
tively recent erection in lieu of a previous old plain 
building. The quoad sacra parish was constituted in 
1875 ; had then a population of about 7000, and is in 
the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. One of the ten registration districts of Glasgow 
takes name from Anderston, and had, in 1881, a popu- 
lation of 39,069. 

Andet, an ancient chapelry in Methlick parish, Aber- 
deenshire, If mile SSW of Methlick village. Its church 
of St Ninian has disappeared ; but is commemorated in 
the names of a farmhouse and a spring, called Chapel- 
Park and Chapel-Well. 

Andhu. See Lochandhu. 

Andunty, a lake in Petty parish, Inverness-shire, on 
the ridge toward Croy. 


Angel's Hill (Gael. Cnoc nan Angeal), a hillock, 
crowned by a small stone circle and cairn, in the 
island of Iona, Argyllshire, 1J mile WSW of the cathe- 
dral. It is said by legend to have been the scene of a 
conference between Columba and angels. 

Angry or Lennoc Burn, a rivulet in the uplands of 
Elginshire, traversing Glen Latterach, along the boundary 
between Birnie and Dallas parishes, i miles northward 
to the Lossie. It is voluminous and very impetuous after 
rains ; it makes, about 2 miles below its source, a sheer 
descent of 50 feet into a basin called the Kettle ; and a 
little further down it makes another fall into a basin 
called the Pot. Lofty cliffs screen these falls, and want 
only woods to render their scenery very grand. 

Angus, an ancient district nearly or quite conterminous 
with Forfaeseiee. Some archaeologists think that it 
got its name from Angus, a brother of Kenneth II., and 
recipient of title to proprietorship of the district, or to 
lordship over it, immediately after the conquest of 
the Picts ; but others think that a hill a little to the 
eastward of Aberlemno church bore the name of Angus 
long previous to Kenneth II. 's time ; had been a noted 
place of rendezvous on great public occasions ; and gra- 
dually or eventually gave its name to the surrounding 
country. A finely diversified strath or valley, from 4 to 
6 miles broad, and. upwards of 30 miles long, extending 
from the western boundary of Kettins parish to the 
month of the North Esk river, is called the Howe or Hol- 
low of Angus. An earldom of Angus was created in 
favour of the Douglas family, some time prior to 1329 ; 
came in that year into the line of the Dukes of Hamil- 
ton ; and ranks now as the oldest one of the present 
duke's numerous peerages. 

Angus and Mearns, a synod of the Church of Scotland, 
meeting on the fourth Tuesday of April and October, and 
comprising the presbyteries of Meigle, Forfar, Dundee, 
Brechin, Arbroath, and Fordoun. Pop. (1871) 271,197, 
of whom 57,750 were communicants of the Church of 
Scotland in 187S, the sums raised by them that year 
in Christian liberality amounting to £23,169. — The Free 
Church also has a synod of Angus and Mearns, meeting 
on the same days as, and comprising presbyteries identical 
with, those of the Established synod. Its communicants 
numbered 25,354 in 18S0. 

Ann, a burn in Galston parish, Ayrshire, running to 
Irvine Water at Galston town. Its channel contains the 
beautiful stone called Galston pebble. 

Annan (Gael. ' quiet river '), a river that, flowing all 
through central Dumfriesshire from N to S, gives it the 
name of Anxandai.e. It rises 1200 feet above the sea, 
near the meeting-point of Lanark, Peebles, and Dumfries 
shires, within 1 J mile of Tweed's Well, and 3 J miles of 
Clyde's Burn, so that according to an old-world rhyme — 

* Annan, Tweed, and Clyde, 
Rise a' out o' ae hill-side.' 

Its virtual headstreams, however, are the Lochan and 
Auchencat Burns, which also rise in Moffat parish, on 
the western and southern slopes of Hartfell (2651 feet), 
and after receiving which the Annan becomes a stream 
of considerable volume, inclining a little eastward, and 
forming the boundary between Kirkpatrick Juxta and 
Moffat. Passing Moffat town, it is joined from the NE 
by Birnock Water, which rises on Swatte Fell (2388 feet), 
and by the Frenchland Burn ; a little lower down it 
receives at the same point, from the NW and the NE, 
Evan and Moffat Waters. The next important tri- 
butary is Wampheat Water, soon after whose confluence 
the Annan becomes exceedingly meandering, though still 
bearing southward to within 1 mile of Loehmaben and 2 
of Lockerbie, and thereabouts receiving the Kinsel and 
the Dryfe. From the southern extremity of Dryfesdale 
parish it makes a south-eastward bend past St Mungo's 
Church, the rocking-stone, and Hoddom Castle, receiving 
here the Water of Milk ; but from the confluence of the 
Mein onward it resumes a southerly course to Annan 
town, whence its estuary sweeps first in a SW, then in 
a SE direction into the upper part of the Solway Firth 
at Barnkirk Point. The Annan is 49 miles long, of 
which the first 5 lie through a mountain glen, with the 


singular hollow of Annandale's Beef-Stand. Its basin 
thence is a valley from 3 to 18 miles wide, which, at no 
distant geological period, must have lain under the sea, 
and now with a rich alluvial soil presents a soft and pas- 
toral appearance. Its waters are well stocked with sal- 
mon, trout, and coarser fish, the trout running from 1 
to 1 j lb. , but sometimes exceeding 4 and even 5 lbs. ; 
and sea-trout ascend in May and June. The rod season 
is from Feb. 11 to Oct. 31 ; and permission to fish is 
generally granted by the 15 proprietors who own the 
best part of the stream— 'the silver Annan,' as Allan 
Cunningham styled it, but, in time of spate, ' a drumlie 
river,' according to the ballad {Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border, vol. iii. , p. 284 of CadeU's edn. ). 

Annan, a royal and parliamentary burgh of S Dum- 
friesshire, on the E bank and 2 miles above the mouth 
of the Annan, which here is spanned by a three-arched 
bridge, rebuilt in 1824 at a cost of £8000, and by a via- 
duct of the Glasgow and South-Western railway (1848). 
It has stations on this and on the Solway Junction section 
of the Caledonian, by the former being 8 miles W by S 
of Gretna Green, 17| N¥ of Carlisle, 15J ESE of Dum- 
fries, and 73 f SE of Kilmarnock; by the latter, 2 J miles 
NNW of Bowness, 5i SSW of Kirtlebridge Junction, 
89| S by W of Edinburgh, and 93J SSE of Glasgow. 
' The country round is flat upon the whole, but near the 
town are two or three heights, one of which, dignified as 
' ' Annan Hill, " commands a magnificent view of Annan- 
dale, the Solway, and the Cumberland Mountains. North- 
ward, are seen the little red town, lying amid green trees, 
the gleaming river, and numberless small dark woods and 
bare monotonous hills ; southward, the sandy shore of 
the Firth, the Solway Viaduct, the sunlit sea, the grey 
hills of Kirkcudbrightshire, the long English coast, the 
picturesque windmill of Bowness, and the great Lake 
mountains, with Skiddaw, in what Wordsworth calls his 
"natural sovereignty, " towering above the rest' ('Annan 
and its Neighbourhood,' by F. Miller, mthe Border Mag. , 
Oct. 1880). The town itself made Dorothy "Wordsworth 
' think of France and Germany, many of the houses large 
and gloomy, their size outrunning their comforts ; ' but 
now, as improved of recent years, it is a thriving well- 
built place, only unsatisfactory in its sanitary condition, 
and this should be soon improved, new drainage and 
waterworks having been undertaken in the autumn of 
1880 at a cost respectively of £2S50 and £S372. It has 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land, the British Linen Co. , and the Commercial Bank, 
a local savings' bank (1835), 18 insurance offices, a gas 
company, 3 hotels, a coffee-house with reading and re- 
creation rooms (1879), a mechanics' institute, a Free 
Templars' hall, and a Friday paper, the A nnan Observer 
(1857). The town-hall was rebuilt (1876-77) in the 
Scottish Baronial style, at a cost of £3000, and, besides 
burgh offices, contains a large court and council hall, 
where sheriff courts sit thrice a-year, and justice of peace 
small debt courts on the first Monday of every month. 
Friday is market-day, and hir- 
ing fairs are held on the first 
Friday of May and August and 
the third Friday of October. At 
or near the town are a cotton 
mill (1785), a manure factory, 
I a tannery, a distillery, 5 bacon- 
curing establishments, 2 rope- 
walks, and 2 saw mills ; and a 
considerable trade is done with 
Liverpool and Whitehaven in 
the export of grain, wool, bacon, 
and live-stock, and the import 
of coal, slate, iron, herrings, 
salt, etc. The port is free, and ships of 250 tons can 
ascend to within J mile of the town, but larger vessels 
must load and discharge at two wooden jetties, 420 feet 
long, at the mouth of the river. Here, by the Annan 
AVaterfoot Dock and Railway Co. Bill (1881), it is pro- 
posed to construct a dock on the E side of the river, cover- 
ing 5J acres, and connected with the Solway Junction 

Seal of Annan. 


railway by a branch of 7y furlongs — the whole to be 
finished in five years' time, on a capital of £66,000 in 
£10 shares. Places of worship are the parish church 
(1790 ; 1190 sittings) with an elegant spire, a Free church 
(1845), aU.P. church, an Independent church, a 'Church 
of Christ,' St John's Episcopal church (1843 ; HOsittings), 
and St Columba's Roman Catholic church (1S39; 300 sit- 
tings). The Academy, rebuilt in 1S20, is an excellent 
higher-class school, at whose predecessor Thomas Carlyle 
(1795-1881) led 'a doleful and hateful life ' (1803-10) 
under Old Adam Hope, and later was mathematical mas- 
ter (1814-15). Distinguished Annanites were the blind 
poet Thomas Blacklock (1721-91), James Johnstone, M.D. 
(1730-1802), Bryce Johnstone, D.D. (1747-1805), Hugh 
Clapperton (1788-1827), the African explorer, and Edward 
Irving (1792-1S34), the great-souled founder of a little 
sect. A place of indefinable antiquity, Annan, say some 
authorities, was a Roman station, and in 1249 possessed 
a royal mint. Its closeness to the Border exposed it to 
frequent assaults, and in 129S it was burned by the Eng- 
lish ; Robert Bruce two years later built or restored the 
Castle, on what is now the old churchyard, and this he 
made his occasional residence. Hither Edward Baliol, in 
December 1332, within three months of his coronation 
at Scone, summoned the nobles to do him homage ; and 
here Archibald Douglas, at the head of 1000 horsemen, 
surprised him by night, slew Henry, his brother, with 
many lesser adherents, and drove him to flee on a bare- 
backed steed, half-naked, to Carlisle. In 1547, after a 
valiant resistance, the town was taken by Lord Wharton, 
who sacked and burned it ; it suffered so grievously 
from the English raids of the two next years, that the 
sum of £4000 was levied from the bishops and the clergy 
to repair and strengthen its defences, and, 6000 French 
auxiliaries landing soon after in the Clyde, the greater 
part of them were sent to form its garrison. The castle, 
once more demolished in 1570 by the Earl of Sussex, was 
once more rebuilt ; but in 1609 the townfolk, too poor 
to build a church themselves, by leave of Parliament 
either converted it into a place of worship or used its 
stones to build one, and no trace of it now is left, the 
last having disappeared in 1875 along with the old town- 
hall. The Great Rebellion brought Annan to a miserable 
plight, from which it was rescued soon after the Restora- 
tion by the privilege of collecting customs ; at Annan 
the retreating army of Prince Charles Edward bivouacked, 
20 Dec. 1745. Under a charter of James VI. (1612), re- 
newing one granted by James V. (153S), the burgh is 
governed by a provost, 3 bailies, and 9 councillors, with 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a town clerk. It unites 
with Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and San- 
quhar in returning one member to Parliament, its parlia- 
mentary and municipal constituency numbering 422 in 
18S1, when the corporation revenue amounted to £618, 
and the annual value of real property within the burgh 
to £10,805 (£5164 in 1843). Pop. of municipal burgh 
(1841)4409, (1861)4620, (1871) 4174, (1881) 4629; of 
parliamentary burgh (1841) 3321, (1861) 3473, (1871) 
3172, (1881) 3366. 

The parish of Annan also contains the villages of Bride- 
kirk and Creea, 3 miles N by W and 4 J NE of the town. 
Bounded N byHoddom andMiddlebie,E byKirkpatrick- 
Fleming and Dornock, S by the Solway Firth, and W 
by Cummertrees, it has a length from N to S of from 3J 
to 5-J- miles, a width from E to W of from 2} to 4} miles, 
and an area of 12,047j acres, of -which 994i are foreshore 
and 137J water. The Kirtle traces for f mile the 
boundary with Kirkpatrick-Fleming, and the Annan 
flows 3| miles on the Hoddom border, and 4| through 
the interior to the Firth, which here was crossed by the 
open iron Solway Viaduct (1866-69). Was, since that 
' triumph of engineering art, ' suffered such damages from 
masses of floating ice on 31 Jan. 1881, as to need almost 
entire reconstruction. With banks from the English and 
Scottish shores, 440 and 154 yards long, it had itself a 
length of 1960 yards, divided into 10 yard spans, ran 34 
feet above the Solway's bed, and with the embankments 
cost £100,000. The shore of the Firth— Similes in Annan 
parish — is low and sandy ; and inland the surface is coni- 



paratively level, at Woodcock Air in the NW and Hill- 
town towards the NE but little exceeding 400 feet of 
altitude, whilst lesser elevations are Hillside (100 feet), 
Whitesprings (223), Creca (356), Bonshawside (323), and 
Mossfoot (305). The rocks, belonging to the Carboni- 
ferous formation, yield plenty of good sandstone, but not 
any workable coal ; the soils are exceedingly various, in- 
cluding rich alluvium, strong argillaceous and fine friable 
loam, reclaimed moss, and barren moor, but most of the 
area is under cultivation. Mansions, with distance from 
the town, proprietors' names, and the extent and yearly 
value of their estates within the shire, are : — Mount 
Annan, 2 miles N (Lieut. -Col. Thos. Dirom, 1502 acres, 
£1480) ; Newbie, 2 miles SW (W. D. Mackenzie, 2929 
acres, £5263) ; Ashly Grange, 1 mile (Mrs Halbert, 
356 acres, £1079) ; Fruidspark, less than 1 mile ( — Bogie, 
238 acres, £612) ; Northfield, 1 mile N ; and Warnian- 
bie, 1 J mile N. In all, 7 proprietors hold within Annan 
a yearly value of £500 and upwards, 34 of between £100 
and £500, 57 of from £50 to £100, and 84 of from £20 
to £50. The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Dum- 
fries, Annan is divided between the quoad sacra parishes 
of Annan (living £477), Bridekirk, and Greenknowe, and 
contains, too, the mission church of Eirtle. Five public 
schools are the Academy, the infant and girls' schools, 
Breconbeds, Greenknowe, and Bridekirk, the last under 
a separate school-board. With respective accommodation 
for 197, 225, 138, 176, and 169 children, these had in 
1879 an average attendance of 116, 214, 89, 119, and 97, 
and grants of £101, £167, £73, 16s., £74, 3s., and £87, 
10s. Valuation (1SS1) £15,801, 7s. 5d. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 2570, (1851) 5848, (1871) 5240, (1881) 
6791 ; of quoad sacra parish (1SS1) 4943. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 6, 10, 1863-64. 

The presbytery of Annan comprehends the old parishes 
of Annan, Cummertrees, Dornock, Graitney, Hoddom, 
Kirkpatrick-Fleming, Middlebie, and Ruthwell, ihequoad 
sacra parishes of Bridekirk and Greenknowe, and the 
chapelry of Kirtle. Pop. (1871) 14,676, (1881) 14,426, 
of whom, according to a Parliamentary return (1 May 
1879), 2312 were communicants of the Church of Scot- 
land in 1878, the sums raised by the above 11 congrega- 
tions amounting in that year to £861. 

Annandale, the middle one of the three divisions of 
Dumfriesshire. It is bounded N by Lanarkshire and 
Peebleshire, NE by Selkirkshire, E by Eskdale, S by the 
Solway Firth, W by Nithsdale, and NW by Lanark- 
shire. Regarded now as commensurate with the basin 
of the river Annan, together with small adjacent portions 
of seaboard, it anciently included parts of what now are 
the southern extremities of Eskdale and Nithsdale. 
Under the name of ' Estra-hanent,' it was given by 
David I., in 1124, to Robert de Bruis, grandson of one of 
William the Conqueror's Norman barons. This Robert, 
eventually disagreeing with David on a question of 
national policy, in 1138 renounced his allegiance to the 
king; in 1141 he died at Guisburn, or Guisborough, in 
Yorkshire, leaving his patrimony there to his elder son. 
His younger son, also called Robert Bruce, adhered to 
David I., received the inheritance of Annandale, and 
lived through the reign of Malcolm IV. into that of 
William the Lyon. His son, another Robert, succeeded 
him in Annandale, married a natural daughter of Wil- 
liam the Lyon, and died in 1191. Robert, fourth Lord 
of Annandale, laid the foundation of the royal house of 
Bruce by marrying Isabella, second daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, and brother of William the Lyon. 
His son and namesake opposed the Comyn influence in 
the affairs of Scotland, and, at the age of 81, engaged in 
the competition for the Scottish crown, but ultimately 
resigned his rights in favour of his son. That son, still 
Robert, went in 1269 to Palestine with Edward of Eng- 
land ; married, soon after his return, Margaret, Countess 
of Carrick in her own right ; came thence to be known 
as Earl of Carrick ; and had, by his lady, five sons, the 
eldest of whom became the royal Bruce. Annandale, 
throughout the time of the Bruces, and specially under 
King Robert, figured conspicuously in Scottish history. 
Lochmaben was the chief seat of the family ; and it 


abounds to the present day in memorials or traditions 
of their princely grandeur. All Annandale, indeed, is 
rich in relics and memories of the Roman times, of the 
great struggle for the Scottish crown, and of Border 
wars and forays. Its Roman antiquities and mediaeval 
castles outnumber those of any other district of equal 
extent in Scotland. The lordship of Annandale passed, 
about 1371, on the demise of David II., to Randolph, 
Earl of Moray ; and afterwards, with the hand of his 
sister Agnes, went to the Dunbars, Earls of March. The 
Douglases got it after the forfeiture of the Dunbars ; and 
they eventually lost it by their own forfeiture. A mar- 
quisate of Annandale was conferred in 1701 on the 
Johnstones, who previously had been created Barons 
Johnstone of Lochwood (1633), and Earls of Annandale 
and Viscounts of Annan (1643). The marquisate became 
dormant in 1792, at the death of George, third marquis, 
and is now claimed by Sir Frederick John William John- 
stone of Westerhall, Bart., John James Hope- Johnstone, 
Esq. of Annandale, and three others. The famous Ben 
Jonson was really not a Jonson but a Johnstone, a 
descendant of the Annandale Johnstones. See Mrs 
Cumming Brace's Family Records of the Bruces and the 
Oomyns (Priv. prin., Edinb. 1S70). 

Annandale's Beef-Stand, Marquis of, or Devil's Beef- 
Tub, a strange conchoidal hollow in Moffat parish, 
Dumfriesshire, 5 miles NNW of Moffat town. It lies 
near the source of Annan Water, just off the pass of 
Erickstane Brae from Annandale into Tweeddale, and to 
the N is overhung by Great Hill, 1527 feet high. ' It 
received its name,' says the Laird of Summertrees in 
Scott's Rcdgaunllet, ' because the Annandale loons used 
to put their stolen cattle in there ; and it looks as if four 
hills were laying their heads together to shut out day- 
light from the dark, hollow space between them. A 
deep, black, blackguard-looking abyss of a hole it is, and 
goes straight down from the roadside, as perpendicular 
as it can do, to be a heathery brae. At the bottom 
there is a small bit of a brook, that you would think 
could hardly find its way out from the hills that are so 
closely jammed around it.' At the bottom also is a 
martyred Covenanter's grave ; and its second alias, 'Mac- 
Cleran's Loup,' records the escape of a Highland rebel in 
the '45, who, wrapped in his plaid, rolled like a hedge- 
hog down the steep declivity amid a shower of musket- 
balls — an incident Scott used in his romance (Lauder's 
Scottish Rivers, ed. 1874, p. 37). 

Ann at, a davoch in Kiltarlity parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the N side of the river Beauly. 

Annaty, a burn in Scone parish, Perthshire, running 
westward to the Tay. It affords several good waterfalls 
for the driving of machinery. 

Annbank, a mining village in the SW of Tarbolton 
parish. Ayrshire, with a station on the Ayr and Muir- 
kirk line, 5 miles ENE of Ayr. It has a post oflice with 
money order and savings' bank departments under Tar- 
bolton Station, a chapel of ease to Tarbolton erected in 
1871, and a school which in 1879 had an average atten- 
dance of 342 day and 65 evening scholars, and received 
grants of £246, 15s. and £30, 7s. 6d. Pop. (1871) 1151, 

Annet, a burn in Kilmadock parish, S Perthshire, 
formed by two rivulets that rise in the Braes of Doune, 
on the southern slope of Uamh Bheag (2179 feet). In- 
cluding the longer of these, it has a SSE course of 6J 
miles, making a number of beautiful cascades, and falling 
into the Teith, 1 J mile WNW of Doune. 

Annick, a small river, partly of Renfrewshire, but 
chiefly of Ayrshire, rises in Mearns parish, to the E of 
Long Loch, and flowing south-westward past Stewarton, 
falls into Irvine Water, 1 mile above Irvine town, after 
a course of 16 miles. Its chief affluents are the Swinsey, 
East, and Clerkland burns above, and the Glazert burn, 3 
miles below, Stewarton — all of them better trouting 
streams than the Annick itself. 

Ann's Bridge, a picturesque locality in Johnstone 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the river Kinnel, 7J miles 
N by W of Lochmaben. A bridge here, on the line of road 
from Dumfries to Edinburgh, was built in 17S2, rebuilt 


in 1795, and widened and improved in 1817. A reach 
of the Kinnel's vale, above and below the bridge, is 
exquisitely beautiful ; and the splendid mansion of Rae- 
hills, with its fine gardens and grounds, is'close by. 

Anstruther, a fishing and seaport town of SE Fife, 
comprising the royal and parliamentary burghs of An- 
struther-Easter and Anstruther- Wester, and contiguous 
eastwards to the royal burgh of Cellaedyke or Nether 
Kilrenny. Situated at the entrance of the Firth of 
Forth, it stretches along its shore about 1£ mile, and by 
water is 5^ miles WNW of the Isle of May, llg N of 
North Berwick, and 25 NE of Leith, while, as terminus 
of the Leven and East of Fife section of the North 
British system, it is 18| miles E by N of Thornton 
Junction, and 38| NE of Edinburgh, vid Granton. By 
road, again, it is 9| miles SSE of St Andrews, whither 
a railway is constructing (1881) at a cost of £38,000, 
to be 16 miles long, with five intermediate stations, 
at Crail, Kingsbarns, Dunino, etc., and to be worked 
by the North British. Anstruther has a post office 
with money order and savings' bank departments, a rail- 
way telegraph office, branches of the Clydesdale, Com- 
mercial, and National banks, gasworks, two hotels, 

a custom house, a 
town-hall(1871 ; ac- 
commodation 800), 
a masonic lodge, a 
musical association, 
etc., and publishes 
a Friday paper, the 
East of Fife Record 
(1856). Friday is 
market - day ; and 
industrial establish- 
ments are 2 rope 
and sail, 3 oil, and 
4 oilskin and fish- 
ing - gear factories, 
a brewery, and a 
tannery. A bridge 
Burn joins Anstru- 
ther-"\Vester to Anstruther-Easter, where are Free, U.P., 
Baptist, and Evangelical Union churches, besides the 
parish church (1634-44 ; 750 sittings), whose picturesque 
tower has a low spire and 
gabled stair-turret ; the manse 
is another quaint old building, 
erected in 1590 by James, a 
nephew of the more celebrated 
\ Andrew, Melville. Anstruther- 
Wester has its own parish 
/church, consecrated in 1243; 
lidless stone coffin in its 
churchyard is wrongly ima- 
gined to be St Adrian's. On 10 
June 1559, Knox marched here 
with a ' rascal multitude ' (the 
phrase is his own), and preached 
his 'idolatrous sermon,' with 
the usual outcome of pillage and demolition : ' several 
alive well remember the rows of fine arches left standing 
in this church, which now is a tasteless erection within 
and without' (Gordon's Seotichronicon, 1867, p. 307). 
A Spanish war-ship, one of the scattered Armada, put 
in at the harbour in 1588 ; in 1645 many of the towns- 
folk, zealous Covenanters, fell at the battle of Kilsyth ; 
and the town itself, in 1651, was plundered by the 
English. Great inundations (1670-90) did grievous 
damage, the first destroying the harbour, and the second 
a third of the houses ; the Union, too, gave a serious 
shock to commerce, which, till then carried on by 24 
home vessels, employed but 2 in 1764. Three natives 
and contemporaries were the great Dr Thomas Chalmers 
(1780-1847), a minor poet, Captain Charles Gray, R.N. 
(1782-1851), and William Tennant (1784-1848), author 
of Anster Fair, whose heroine ' Maggie Lauder ' lived, 
it is said, on Anstruther East Green. 

A head port from 1710 to 1827, since then a creek or 

Seal of Anstruther-Easter. 

Seal of Anstruther-Wester. 


sub-port of Kirkcaldy, Anstruther possesses a harbour 
of its own, enclosed by two piers ; but, this being found 
too small, the Union Harbour was commenced at Cellar- 
dyke in 1866. With a western breakwater and eastern 
pier, both built of concrete, and the latter 1200 yards 
long, it has an area of 7 acres, and, owing to frequent 
interruptions from storms, was only completed in 1877, 
at a total cost of over £80,000. Its revenue was £616 
in 1880 ; and Anstruther is head of all the fishery dis- 
trict between Leith and Montrose, in which during 1879 
there were cured 9119i barrels of white herrings, besides 
127,705 cod, ling, and hake — taken by 775 boats of 
8839 tons ; the persons employed being 3175 fishermen 
and boys, 38 fish-curers, 80 coopers, and 2460 others, 
and the total value of boats, nets, and lines being es- 
timated at £123,488. In the year ending 31 March 
1SS1, the herring catch alone was 17,000 crans, against 
S630 in the twelve months before. Anstruther-Easter 
was made a royal burgh in 1583, and Anstruther-Wester 
in 1587, but the latter lost its municipal status in 1852, 
not to regain it till 1869. With St Andrews, Crail, 
Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, they return one mem- 
ber, the parliamentary and municipal constituencies of 
Anstruther-Easter numbering 202 and 190, of Anstru- 
ther-Wester 91 and 89, in 1S80-S1, when the corporation 
revenue and the valuation of the former amounted to 
£401 and £4752, of the latter to £172 and £1925. Pop. 
of Anstruther-Easter (1S01) 969, (1831) 1007, (1851) 
1146, (1871) 1169, (1881) 1349. Pop. of Anstruther- 
Wester (1851) 365, (1861) 367, (1871) 484, (1881) 594. 

The parish of Anstruther-Easter, conterminous with 
its burgh, has an area of only 5J acres of land and 
15f of foreshore. That, however, of Anstruther-Wester, 
having also a landward district, is bounded W and 
N by Carnbee, E by Kilrenny, S by the Firth and 
Pittenweem, and has an extreme length from E to 
W of 1J mile, a width from N to S of 7 furlongs, 
and an area of 978J acres, of which 67J are foreshore. 
The surface nowhere much exceeds 100 feet above sea- 
level ; the formation is Carboniferous. Grangemuir 
House, a good modern mansion, 1 mile NNW of 
Pittenweem station, is the seat of Walter Douglas - 
Irvine, Esq., owner in the shire of 2697 acres of 
£5298 yearly value ; and there are three other land- 
owners. In the presbytery of St Andrews and synod of 
Fife, Anstruther-Wester is a living worth £261, and 
Anstruther-Easter £264. The former has one public 
school, the latter two, E and W ; and these three, with 
respective accommodation for 134, 229, and 104 children, 
had in 1879 an average attendance of 114, 172, and 69, 
and grants of £88, 2s., £171, 19s., and £50, 8s. Valua- 
tion (1881) of landward district of Anstruther-Wester, 
£1664, Ss. Pop. of its entire parish (1801) 296, (1831) 
430, (1861) 421, (1871) 545, (1881) 673.— Ord, Sur., sh. 
41, 1857. 

Antermony House, a mansion in Campsie parish, S 
Stirlingshire, near Milton station, and 2J miles ESE 
of Lennoxtown. Here was born and here died John 
Bell of Antermony (1691-1780), well known by his 
Travels from St Petersburg to Various Parts in Asia (2 
vols., Glasgow, 1763). Antermony Loch is a sheet of 
water measuring 3J by 2 furlongs. 

Antoninus' Wall, a Roman rampart extending from 
Carriden on the Firth of Forth to Chapel-Hill J mile 
below Old Kilpatrick village on the Clyde. Agricola in 
81, having two years earlier passed the shores of the Sol- 
way Firth, overran the country thence to the Forth and 
the Clyde, and raised a line of forts along the tract 
from Carriden to Chapel-Hill. Lollius Urbicus, in 139, 
the year after Antoninus Pius assumed the purple, was 
deputed as propraetor of Britain, to quell a general revolt. 
Marching northward to the Forth and the Clyde, he 
subdued the hostile tribes, and, both to repel any further 
attacks which might be made from the north, and to 
hold in subjugation the country to the south, constructed 
a great new work on the line of Agricola's forts. This 
new work was the rampart afterwards known as Anton- 
inus' Wall. It measured 39,726 Roman paces, or nearly 
361 English statute miles, in length ; it consisted of 



earth on a foundation of stone, and was 24 feet thick 
and 20 high ; it had 3 forts at each end, and 15 inter- 
mediate forts at 2-mile intervals ; it was defended, along 
all the N side, by a fosse 20 feet deep and 40 wide ; 
and it had, along the S side, for ready communication 
from fort to fort, a paved military road. Very few and 
slight traces of it now exist ; but many memorials of it, 
in the form of tablets and other sculptured stones, have 
been dug up, and are preserved in museums ; and both 
vestiges and relics of it will be noticed in our articles on 
Camden, Falkirk, Kirkintilloch, Chapel-Hill, etc. The 
popular name of the rampart, or rather of its re- 
mains, came to be Grime's or Graham's Dyke — a name 
that has greatly perplexed archaeologists and philolo- 
gists. It was long fancied, from a fiction of Fordoun, 
Boece, and Buchanan, to point to an ancient Scottish 
prince of the name of Grime, who, with a body of troops, 
broke through the wall somewhere between Camelon and 
Castlecary ; and it has been hesitatingly derived from 
either a Gaelic word for ' black ' or a Welsh word signi- 
fying 'strength.' See — besides Gordon's Itinerarium 
Septentrionale, Eoy's Military Antiquities, and Stuart's 
Caledonia Momana — vol. i., pp. 31-36 of Hill Burton's 
History of Scotland (ed. 1876) ; vol. i., pp. 76-79 of 
Skene's Celtic Scotland (1876) ; and pp. 1023-1025 of 
The Builder (1S77). 

Antonshill, an estate, with a mansion, in Eccles 
parish, Berwickshire, 4J miles NW of Coldstream. 

Anwoth, a coast parish of SW Kirkcudbrightshire, 
with the Fleet Street suburb of its post-town Gatehouse 
in the E, and Drpmore station in the N, on the Port- 
patrick branch of the Caledonian, 39 miles WSW of 
Dumfries. It is bounded W and N by Kirkrnabreck, E 
by Girthon, SE by Fleet Bay, and S by Wigtown Bay ; its 
length from N to S is 7J miles ; its breadth varies between 
1J and 4J miles ; and its area is 12,861| acres, of which 
1036| are foreshore and 33| water. The whole of the 
eastern border is traced by the river Fleet ; and Skyre- 
burn, rising upon Meikle Bennan, follows the upper 
portion of the western border till, joined by Cauldside 
Burn, it strikes south-south-eastward through the in- 
terior, and, traversing a lovely wooded glen, enters Fleet 
Bay after a course of 3f miles. Its sudden and violent 
freshets have given rise to the local proverb of ' a Skyre- 
burn warning,' of which 'Scarborough warning' in flar- 
ington's Ariosto (1591) is thought to be a corruption. 
The seaboard, though generally rocky, is low except at 
Kirkclaugh in the W, where a steep and rocky promon- 
tory rises to over 100 feet ; and inland, too, the highest 
points are near or upon the western border, viz. , from N 
to S Meikle Bennan (1100 feet), Stey Fell (1000), Cairn- 
harrow (1497), Ben John (1150), and Barholm Hill 
(1163), eastward of which rise Kenlum Hill (900), Ard- 
wall Hill (600), and Trusty's Hill (225). Underlying a 
fertile rock - soil, the formation is chiefly Silurian ; a 
vein of lead, extending across the parish, and including 
small quantities of zinc and copper, was formerly worked 
on the estate of Rusco. Only about one-third of the 
entire surface is arable, much of the land along and to 
some distance from the Fleet being under wood ; at Ard- 
wall still stands the splendid beech that in 1800 was 
saved from the woodman by Campbell's Beech Tree's 
Petition. Behind Ornockenoch is a rocking-stone, 1 ton 
in weight ; and prehistoric antiquities are two cairns and 
' Druidical ' circles, a vitrified fort and a broad flat stone 
inscribed with so-called Runic characters on Trusty's 
Hill, the Moat of Kirkclaugh, and near it a thin, flat 
obelisk, 5|feethigh, with a rude cross carved upon either 
side. Rusco Castle, a seat of the Gordons of Lochinvar, 
is a square tower, crowning a knoll in the Vale of Fleet, 
3 miles NNW of Gatehouse, and habitable, though dat- 
ing from the 15th century. Cardoness Castle, also upon 
the Fleet, 1 mile SSW of Gatehouse, is a similar but 
roofless tower, last tenanted by Sir Godfrey M'Culloch, 
who in 1697 was beheaded at Edinburgh for the murder 
of William Gordon at Bush o' Bield (Chambers' Domestic 
Annals, ii. 321, 322, and iii. 174-176). The latter, 
another baronial mansion (demolished in 1827), was long 
the residence of Samuel Rutherford (1600-61 ), the eminent 


Covenanting minister of Anwoth, who was visited here 
by Archbishop Usher, and two of whose 'Witnesses' are 
standing yet — the three large stones that he reared as a 
protest against Sabbath football playing. His church 
(1626) is an ivy-clad ruin, with a stone in its graveyard 
to John Bell of Whyteside, ' barbarously shot to death 
on Kirkconnel Moor for adherence to the Covenants ' in 
1685 ; and to Rutherford's own memory was erected in 
1842 upon a hill on Boreland farm a granite obelisk, 56 
feet high, which, struck by lightning in 1847, was re- 
built in 1851. Ardwall, Cardoness House (Sir William 
Maxwell, third Bart.), and Kirkclaugh are the chief 
mansions ; and 3 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 and 
£500, 2 of between £50 and £100, and 4 of between 
£20 and £50. Anwoth is in the presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright and synod of Galloway ; the minister's income is 
£311. The present church (1826) stands If mile W by 

5 of Gatehouse, and contains 400 sittings. At Fleet 
Street, too, are the U. P. church of Gatehouse and boys' 
and girls' schools, which had respectively an average at- 
tendance of 81 and 91, and grants of £79, 4s. and £90, 8s. 
in 1S79, when Laggan school was closed, but when that 
of Skyreburn had an attendance of 33 and a grant of 
£39, 4s. Valuation (1881) £6797, 3s. 6d. Pop. (1831) 
830, (1861) 899, (1871) 827, (1881) 72S. See pp. 99-109 
of Harper's B.amblcs in Galloway (Edinb. 1876). — Orel. 
Sur., shs. 4, 5, 1857. 

Aonachan, a hamlet near the centre of the mainland 
of Inverness-shire, with formerly a post office under 
Fort Augustus. 

Aonacn-Shasuinn, a mountain 2902 feet high, 2J 
miles S of Loch Affric, NW Inverness-shire. 

Appin, one of the five sections of Dull parish, Perth- 
shire, comprehends the Strath of Appin, down which 
the Keltney Burn flows from the skirts of Schichallion 

6 miles south-eastward to the Tay, at a point 2 miles 
NE of Kenmore. Thence it is prolonged down the 
strath of the Tay, past Aberfeldy, to near Grandtully 
Castle ; and contains Dull church, and many fine artifi- 
cial features. It is one of the most picturesque tracts 
in the Perthshire Highlands. 

Appin, an estate, with a colliery, in Dunfermline 
parish, Fife, 1J mile HTSfE of Dunfermline. 

Appin (Abthania or Apthane, i.e., 'abbatial lands' 
of Lismore), a village, a quoad sacra parish, and a terri- 
torial district, on the coast of Argyllshire. The village 
stands at the head of Appin Bay, on the SE side of 
Loch Linnhe, 15 miles NNE of Oban ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments. The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 
1868, is in the civil parish of Lismore, extends along 
the SE side of Loch Linnhe, measuring about 18 miles 
by 12, and abounds in interesting features. The shore 
is sandy, broken with islands and indentations ; the 
coast behind is generally high, but not rocky, em- 
bellished with woods and mansions. The interior ranges 
from undulating meadow along the coast to high moun- 
tain on the farther watershed, or rises away in great 
variety of height and contour, and terminates in alpine 
masses, cleft by deep glens, and striped with torrents 
or cataracts. The scenery everywhere is richly diversified 
and strikingly picturesque. The Airds of Appin, lovely 
with lawn and wood, occupy the peninsula between 
Lochs Linnhe and Creran ; Port-Appin, with an inn, 
fronts the N end of Lismore ; Portnacroish village, with 
another inn, stands on the northern horn of Appin Bay ; 
and opposite Shuna island is Appin House, the seat of 
Miss Downie, Lady of the Barony of Appin, and owner 
of 37,000 acres, valued at £2265 per annum. This 
parish, forming part of Lismore and Appin civil parish, 
is in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, the 
stipend being £150, with manse and glebe. There ia 
also a Free church for Appin and Lismore. Pop. oi 
quoad sacra parish (1871) 1327 ; of registration district 
(1871) 728, (1881) 762. The territorial district com- 
prehends likewise Glen -Creran, Glen-Duror, Kingair- 
loch, and Glencoe, and is upwards of 5 miles long, and 
from 10 to 15 broad. Appin abounds in legends of 


Caledonian times ; possesses some interesting mediaeval 
antiquities ; and was the country of the Stewarts, or 
Stuarts, long famed as ' the uneonquered foes of the 
Campbell, ' but ultimately overmastered. Their history 
may be read in The Stewarts of Appin (Edinb. 1880) by 
John H. J. Stewart and Lieut. Col. Duncan Stewart ; 
and Hogg, the Ettriek Shepherd, has celebrated their 
fame in verse : — 

' I sin j of a land that was famous of yore, 

The land of green Appin, the ward of the flood ; 
Where every grey cairn that broods over the shore, 
Marks a grave of the royal, the valiant, or good ; 
The land where the strains of grey Ossian were framed, — 

The land of fair Selma and reign of Fingal, — 
And late of a race, that with tears must be named, 
The noble Clan Stuart, the bravest of all. 
Oh-hon, an Rei ! and the Stuarts of Appin ! 
The gallant, devoted, old Stuarts of Appin ! 
Their glory is o'er, 
For the clan is no more, 
And the Sassenach sings on the hills of green Appin.' 

Appleby, a place on the 1ST border of Glasserton parish, 
Wigtownshire, 2J miles W by N of "Whithorn. 

Applecross, a hamlet and a parish on the W coast of 
Ross-shire. The hamlet lies at the head of a small bay 
of its own name, opposite the central parts of Skye, 24 
miles W by N of Strathcarron station on the Dingwall 
and Skye railway, and 14 by water NE by E of Broad- 
ford. It has a post office under Lochcarron, a stone 
jetty, and a good inn. The name is commonly referred 
either to an 18th century proprietor's having planted 
five apple-trees crosswise in his garden, or to a monkish 
tradition that apples grown here bore the sign of the 
cross ; but Applecross is really a corruption of the 
ancient Aporcrosan or Abercrossan, the most northerly 
of all the Scottish abers. The church of Aporcrosan 
was founded in 673 by St Maelrubha, who, coming over 
from the Irish monastery of Bangor, made this his centre 
for the evangelisation of all the western districts be- 
tween Lochs Carron and Broom (Skene, Celt. Scot., 
ii. 169 and 411, 412). A relic, probably, of this Colum- 
ban monastery is an upright slab in the churchyard, bear- 
ing the figure of a collared cross. The reach of sea 
before the hamlet, separating Eaasay and Bona islands 
from the mainland, is known as Applecross Sound. A 
stream, some 10 miles long, flows south-south-westward 
from high mountains to Applecross Bay at the hamlet, 
is very impetuous in its upper reaches, but becomes quiet 
lower down, and abounds with salmon and trout. Apple- 
cross House, a seat of Lord Middleton's, stands near the 
hamlet, is a fine old chateau, and has a garden where 
fuchsias, geraniums, and similar plants flourish out of 
doors all the year round, and a park with magnificent 
trees. The mainland approach to the hamlet is from 
Jeantown ; and the road thence goes through a pic- 
turesque defile to Courthill, at the head of the northern 
horn of Loch Carron, and then ascends, by zigzag tra- 
verses, a steep mountain corrie to the height of 1500 
feet, overhung by stupendous precipices, and command- 
ing a view wellnigh as savage and sublime as that of 

The parish, which, prior to 1726, formed part of Loch- 
carron parish, comprises all the country between Lochs 
Carron and Torridon, and from N to S has an extreme 
length of 164 miles. The coast-line is very irregular — 
not more than 45 miles in direct measurement, but fully 
90 if one follows the bends and windings of every loch 
and bay. The shores are in some places high and rocky, in 
others lowand sandy, but almost everywhere monotonous. 
The interior mainly consists of hills and mountains, 
either altogether bare, or covered only with heath and 
coarse grass ; among them are Beinn Garavegult (1602 
feet), Beinn Clachan (2028), and Beinn Bhein (2397). 
Valleys there are both beautiful and fertile ; but hardly 
2000 acres are under cultivation, and they have generally 
a soil neither deep nor loamy, but rather shallow, 
and either sandy or gravelly. Two other rivulets be- 
sides the Applecross stream, and likewise several lochs 
(the largest, Lundie), contain trout and other fish ; the 
sea-waters, too, abound in molluscs, are occasionally 


frequented by shoals of herring, and yield considerable 
quantities of cod, ling, flounders, etc. The shootings 
are extremely valuable, Lord Middleton's deer-forest 
alone being rented at £3500. In 1875 the rainfall was 
47 '89, and rain fell on 216 da}'s throughout that year. 
Bed and purple sandstones and conglomerates of Cam- 
brian age are the prevailing rocks, to which the scenery 
owes its peculiar character ; and copper has been worked 
at Kishorn. Part of the civil parish is included in the 
quoad sacra parish of Shieldaig ; the remainder forms 
another quoad sacra parish in the presbytery of Loch- 
carron and synod of Glenelg, its minister's income 
amounting to £193. The parish church, built in 1817, 
contains 600 sittings ; and there is also a Free church. 
Seven public schools are those of Aligin, Applecross, 
Arinacrinachd, Callakille, Kishorn, Shieldaig, and Torri- 
don. With total accommodation for 430 children, these 
had (1S79) an average attendance of 178, and grants of 
£191, 19s. 3d. Valuation (1881) £4414, 17s. 2d. Pop., 
mostly Gaelic-speaking, of civil parish (1801) 1896, (1831) 
2892, (1S61) 2544, (1871) 2470 ; of quoad sacra parish 
(1861) 1064, (1871) 1129, (1SS1) 955. 

Applegarth (Norse 'apple-yard,' — orchard), a parish 
of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, whose western half is tra- 
versed by the Caledonian, and contains the two stations 
of Nethercleuch and Dinwoodie, 3 and 6 miles respectively 
N by W of its post-town Lockerbie. Including since 1609 
the ancient parish of Sibbaldbie, it is bounded N by Wam- 
phray, NE and E by Hutton, S by Dryfesdale, and W by 
Lochmaben and Johnstone. From N to S its greatest 
length is 6f miles ; its breadth from E to W varies be- 
tween 3 and 5 J miles ; and its area is 11,928| acres, of 
which 59J are water. The Annan traces nearly all the 
western boundary ; and a fertile alluvial valley, extend- 
ing thence to a little beyond the railway, rarely in the 
N exceeds 300, in the S 200, feet above the level of the 
sea. Dryee Water runs south-south-eastward towards 
the Annan through the uplands above this valley ; and 
heights to the W of it — from N to S — are Dinwoodie 
Hill (871 feet), Blaeberry Hill (635), Gayfield Type (714), 
Sibbaldbieside (6S2), and Cleuch-heads (518) ; to the E 
of it, Mid Hill (721), Adderlaw (822), Bowhill (813), and 
Balgray Hill (770). About two-thirds of the entire area 
are arable, and some 300 acres are under wood ; the 
rocks are variously volcanic, Silurian, and Triassic. Jar- 
dine Hall (Sir Alexander Jardine, seventh Bart, since 
1672, and owner of 553S acres in the shire) lies If mile 
NNW of Nethercleuch station, and is a good mansion, 
built in 1814 ; other residences are Balgray, Hewk, Four- 
merkland, and Dinwoodie Lodge ; and the landed pro- 
perty is divided among six. A Boman road is thought 
to have run through Applegarth, in which there are no 
fewer than 3 camps and 14 hill-forts — 2 of the latter on 
Dinwoodie Hill, where is also the graveyard of a chapel, 
said to have belonged to the Knights Templars. At the 
SW angle of the parish stood its old church, where, on 7 
July 1300, Edward I., then marching to besiege Caer- 
laverock, offered oblation at the altars of SS Nicholas 
and Thomas & Becket. The site of Sibbaldbie church is 
marked by Xirkcroft on the Diyfe's left bank, 2J miles 
NE of Nethercleuch. Applegarth is in the presbytery 
of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries ; its minister's in- 
come is £357. The present church (built 1760 ; repaired 
1822) stands near where the old one stood, 2 miles SW 
of Nethercleuch, and contains 380 sittings. Two public 
schools, Sandyholm and Sibbaldbie, with respective ac- 
commodation for 90 and 66 children, had (1879) an aver- 
age attendance of 48 and 62, and grants of £38, 6s. and 
£52, 14s. Valuation (18S1) £11,979, Is. Pop. (1831) 
999, (1871) 902, (1881) 969.— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Appletree Hall, a hamlet in Wilton parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, 2| miles NNW of Hawick. 

Aquharaney, a mansion and estate in the W of Cruden 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 8 miles NE of Ellon. 

Aquhorthies. See Inverurie. 

Arasaig or Arisaig, a village and a territorial district 
in Ardnamurchan parish, on the W coast of Inverness- 
shire. The village stands on a small sea-loch, nearly 
opposite the N end of Eigg island, 22 miles NE of Ard- 



namurchan Point, and 38J W by N of Fort William. A 
small place, with only a few scattered houses, it serves as 
a centre of business and a point of communication for an 
extensive but thinly-peopled tract of country ; maintained 
formerly a regular ferry to Skye, and still can furnish 
boats for passengers thither ; communicates regularly 
with the steamers plying between the Clyde and Skye ; 
and has a post office under Fort William, a large inn, a 
mission church of the Establishment, a Free Church mis- 
sion station, a Roman Catholic chapel (1849 ; 600 sittings), 
a Christian Knowledge Society's school ; and fairs on the 
Saturday before the second Wednesday of June, on the 
fourth Tuesday of August, and on the third Tuesday of 
October. The minister of the Established mission church 
receives £60 a-year from the Royal Bounty grant, and has 
a manse. Arasaig House, near the village, was the resi- 
dence of the tenth Lord Cranstoun (1809-69). 

The territorial district is bounded by Loch Morar on 
the N, by Loch Aylort on the S ; has a rugged, sterile, 
mountainous character; and terminates seaward in a pro- 
montory, called Arasaig Point, nearly opposite the middle 
of Eigg island. Pop. of registration district (1861) 1343, 
(1871) 1131, (1881) 1130. 

Aray or Ary (Gael, a-reidh, 'smooth water'), a stream 
of the Argyll district of Argyllshire, rising in several 
head-streams near the watershed between the head of 
Loch Fyne and the foot of Loch Awe, and running about 
9 miles southward to Loch Fyne, which it enters near 
Inverary Castle, giving name to Inverary. It is crossed 
at its mouth by a bridge on the line of road along the 
W shore of Loch Fyne, and is followed down its whole 
course by the road from Oban to Inverary. It runs on 
a rocky bed, along the bottom of a romantic glen, be- 
neath bare hills first, and then between finely wooded 
banks. Col. Robertson's etymology notwithstanding, it 
has an impetuous current, makes several picturesque falls, 
and is called by Skene the ' furious Aray. ' The finest 
fall occurs about 3 miles from Inverary, and bears the 
name of Lenach-Gluthin. The stream here rushes through 
a rocky cleft, and leaps down a precipice 60 feet high 
into a whirlpool below, thence shooting through a narrow 
opening. Salmon and grilse often ascend to the pool, 
leap from it into the vertical cataract, and reach the first 
ledge of the precipice, only to be hurled back by the force 
of the water. Another beautiful fall, Carlonan Linn, 
occurs about mid-way between Lenach-Gluthin and In- 
verary. The upper Aray is open to anglers from the 
Argyll Arms, Inverary, and sport is very good, especially 
in July and August.— Ord. Sur., shs. 45, 37, 1876. 

Arbigland, a coast estate, with a handsome mansion 
and finely planted grounds, in Kirkbean parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 1J mile SE of Kirkbean village. Its 
owner, Col. Blackett, holds 1453 acres in the shire, 
valued at £3291 per annum. In a cottage here the 
naval adventurer Paul Jones was born 6 July 1747, his 
reputed father being gardener, and his mother cook, to 
Mr William Craik, whose grandfather had bought the 
estate from the Earl of Southesk in 1722. 

Arbikie, a place in the south-western extremity of 
Lunan parish, Forfarshire. A range of small tumuli 
here, at equal distances from one another, over a length 
of about 2400 feet, is supposed to mark the site of some 
ancient sanguinary battle. 

Arbirlot (Gael. ' ford of the Elliot '), a village and a 
coast parish of Forfarshire. The village, on the left bank 
of Elliot Water, is 2f miles W by S of Arbroath, 2 miles 
WNWof Elliot Junction; has a post office under Arbroath, 
a cattle fair on the second Wednesday of November, a 
parish library, the parish church (rebuilt 1832; 639 sit- 
tings), and a Free church ; and is described as ' lying in 
a secluded hollow beside the stream, where, with the 
cottages nestling in their greenery, the bridge, the mill, 
and foaming water, the scene is more than ordinarily 
picturesque.' The old manse here 'was replaced in 1835 
by another (almost, if not altogether, the best manse 
in Scotland) on the height across the stream — a spot 
which Mr Guthrie selected as commanding a view of 
the sea.' 

The parish contains also the village of Bonnington, 2 


miles W by S. Bounded N by St Vigeans, NE by Ar- 
broath, SE by the German Ocean, S by the Hatton sec- 
tion of St Vigeans and by Panbride, SW by Panbride, 
and NW by Carmyllie, it has a varying length from E 
to W of 2| and 4| miles, an utmost width from N to S 
of 3J miles, and a land area of 6747 acres. The coast, 
1£ mile long, is fiat and sandy ; inland, the surface rises 
gently west-north-westward to 258 feet near Pitcundrum, 
262 near Bonnington, 338 near Wester Knox, 273 near 
Easter Bonhard, 400 near Lynn, 295 on Kelly Moor, and 
304 near Lochaber. The rocks, Devonian and eruptive, 
contain rock-crystals; the soils of the arable lands (about 
four-fifths of the entire area) are in some parts argillaceous, 
in most parts a light rich loam incumbent on gravel, while 
those of the higher grounds (about one-sixth) are wet and 
moorish. The only distinctive features in the landscape 
are found along the gentle valley of the Elliot. It here 
has an east-south-eastward course of 3J miles, receives 
from the W the Rottenraw Burn, and sweeps below the 
village through a steep wooded dell past the old grey 
tower of Kelly Castle, which, held by the Auchterlonies 
from the 15th to the 17th century, came in 1679 to the 
Earl of Panmure, an ancestor of the Dalhousie family. 
See Brechin. George Gladstanes, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, was minister of Arbirlot in 1597, 
as also was the great Dr Guthrie from 1830 to 1837 ; and 
in Arbirlot was born, in 1833, John Kirk, M.D. , suppres- 
sor of the East African slave trade. The Earl of Dal- 
housie is chief proprietor, 2 other landowners holding 
each an annual value of between £100 and £500, and 4 
of from £20 to £50. Arbirlot is in the presbytery of 
Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £245. Its public school, erected in 1876, with 
accommodation for 129 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 81, and a grant of £58, 12s. Valuation 
(1881) £13,224, including £2329 for 1J mile of the Dun- 
dee and Arbroath, and 3g miles of the Carmyllie, branch 
of the Caledonian. Pop. (1801) 945, (1831) 1086, (1871) 
919, (1881) 822.— Ord. Sur., shs. 49, 57, 1865-68. See 
part iv. and chap. iii. of the Autobiography and Memoir 
of Thomas Guthrie (Lond. 1874). 

Arbory Hill, a conical hill in the SW angle of Laming- 
ton parish, S Lanarkshire, on the right bank of the Clyde, 
1 mile below the mouth of Glengonnar Water. It rises 
to a height of 1406 feet above sea-level, and is crowned 
by extensive rude relics of an ancient Caledonian work. 
First are a wide fosse and a rampart ; next, about 18 
feet farther up, are another fosse and a large earth- 
work ; next, about 48 feet still farther up, is a circle of 
stones upwards of 20 feet thick and about 4 high ; and, 
finally, is an enclosed or summit space about 132 feet in 

Arbroath (anc. Aberbrothoek, Celt, 'ford of the Bro- 
thock '), a royal, police, and parliamentary burgh, a sea- 
port, and a seat of manufacture on the SE coast of For- 
farshire, at the mouth of the Brothock Burn. It stands 
at the junction of the Arbroath and Forfar railway, opened 
in 1839, the Dundee and Arbroath Joint line, opened in 
1840, and the Arbroath and Montrose railway, opened 
in 1881 ; and by ran is 14J miles SE by E of Forfar, 15J 
SSW of Montrose, 57^ SSW of Aberdeen, 16J ENE of 
Dundee, 38J ENE of Perth, 59f NNE of Edinburgh (vid 
Tayport), and 100| NE of Glasgow. Its site is chiefly a 
little plain, engirt on the land sides by eminences of 
from 100 to 200 feet, which command an extensive view 
of the sea, of Forfarshire, and of the elevated parts of 
Fife. The old royal burgh consisted chiefly of one main 
street less than 1 mile in length, crossed by another 
smaller street, and by a few still smaller lanes. But the 
modern town has spread widely from Arbroath into St 
Vigeans parish. Newgate, Seagate, Marketgate, New 
Marketgate, Grimsby, Millgate, Lordburngate, Applegate, 
Rotten Row, and Cobgate, mentioned in an official docu- 
ment of 1445 as crofts orrural thoroughfares, are all now, 
and have long been, edificed streets. Newgate is the only 
one of them not built upon till recent times ; Grimsby 
was feued in the latter part of last century ; and Rotten 
Row and Cobgate are the parts of High Street respec- 
tively above and below the present parish church. One 


portion ot the St Vigeans extension, about 35 acres of 
the Almerieclose estate, was covered with streets and 
factories in an incredibly short space of time ; and others 
were added till what was at first a trivial suburb became 
coequal with all the original town. Two or three of the 
modern streets are handsome, several more are neat or 
tolerably good, and many possess some excellent houses ; 
but most are narrow and more or less mean. Much im- 
provement, in various ways, has been made at many 
periods, particularly since 1871 ; yet fails to give the 
town, on the whole, an architectural appearance pro- 
portionate to its size or importance. Yet in 1773 Dr 
Samuel Johnson was pleased to say, referring to the 
abbey, that he should scarcely have regretted his journey, 
had it afforded nothing more than the sight of Aber- 

The Town-house, built in 1803, is a handsome edifice, 
and contains a large elegant apartment, a town-clerk's 
office, a small debt court-room, and a council chamber. 
The Guild Hall, a plain building, was completely de- 
stroyed by fire (10 Oct. 1880), but has been since rebuilt 
in a handsome style. The Trades' Hall was erected 
in 1815 at a cost which weighed heavily on the incor- 
porations, and, having been sold, is now in private 
hands. The Market House was erected in 1856, at a 
cost of about £7000, and is an ornamental structure. 

Seal of Arbroath. 

The Public Hall was erected in 1865, and contains a 
museum and a large hall for concerts and public meet- 
ings. The museum is open to the public on every lawful 
day, and in 1870 was enriched with a valuable collection 
of fishes, minerals, and other subjects, gifted by Mr James 
Kenny of Edinburgh, and with three-fourths of the late 
Professor Fleming's collection of insects, shells, and fos- 
sils. The public subscription library contains 13,000 
volumes. The mechanics' institute has a library of 
more than 1500 volumes and a reading-room. Other 
institutions are a public subscription reading-room, a 
scientific and literary association, an educational insti- 
tute, science and art evening classes, cricket, football, 
and cm-ling clubs, an infirmary and dispensary, 2 des- 
titute sick societies, a ladies' clothing society, a town 
mission, a female home mission, and 12 charity funds 
or mortifications, bequeathed between 1738 and 1880. 
The infirmary, opened in 1845, received 220 cases in 
the year 1879-80, besides treating 877 out-patients; its 
income for that year was £881, 5s. 2d., and its endow- 
ment had reached £8000. 

Arbroath has 22 places of worship, divided among 12 
denominations, and all of them modern but one. The 
Old or parish church, built about 1590, with the materials 
of the abbey dormitory, and enlarged or repaired in 1762, 
1788, 1823, and 1869, has a handsome Gothic spire added 
in 1831 at a cost of £1300, and 152 feet high, also old 
carving in its pews, and 2 bronze alms-dishes, taken pro- 
bably from the abbey. Abbey Church, built in 1797 at 
a cost of £2000, was greatly altered, though hardly im- 
proved (1876-78), at a cost of £2000 more, new windows 
being struck out, and old ones closed, a fiat panelled eeil- 


ing inserted, the gallery stairs transferred to the outside, 
etc. Inverbrothock Church was built in 1828, Ladyloan 
in 1838, the latter being adorned in 1875 with two me- 
morial stained-glass windows ; and all these three, Abbey, 
Inverbrothock, and Ladyloan, have been raised from 
chapels of ease to quoad sacra churches in respectively 
1869, 1855, and 1865. St Margaret's chapel of ease was 
erected (1877-79) at a cost of £6000, exclusive of a spire 
to be added. Free churches are East (rebuilt at Brothock 
Bridge 1875), Inverbrothock (1846), High Street (the for- 
mer Episcopal chapel, 1856), Knox's (1867), and Lady- 
loan (1845), in connection with which last a mission 
meeting-house was opened in 1872. The United Pres- 
byterians have 3 churches, Erskine(1851), Princes Street 
(1S67), and Park Street (1826) ; whilst each of the fol- 
lowing bodies has 1 — United Original Seceders (1821), 
Evangelical Union (1863), Congregationalists (1S66), Bap- 
tists (1873), Wesleyans (opened by Wesley himself, 1772), 
'Balchristians' (1783), and Irvingites (1865). St Mary's 
Episcopal church (1852-54) is a good Gothic building 
with spire ; the Catholic church of St Thomas of Canter- 
bury (1848) was in 1880 beautified by the insertion of 
4 stained-glass windows. The Academy, built in 1821, 
in 1S61 took the name of High School, on amalgamation 
with the Educational Institution (1844), and in 1S72 
passed to the charge of the school-board ; with a rector, 
8 under-masters, and accommodation for 609, it furnishes 
higher-class education to over 300 pupils. The Abbey, 
Hill, Keptie, Inverbrothock, Ladyloan, and Park Street 
public schools are also all under the board, which in June 
1880 reported the number of children on the school rolls 
as 3501, of children in average attendance as 3099, whilst 
the aggregate grants to the above 6 schools amounted 
(lS79Tto £1811. 

An ancient abbey, now in a state of picturesque decay, 
is much the most imposing object in the town. This 
stands in High Street, near the parish church. It was 
founded in 1178 by William the Lyon, and dedicated 
to SS. Mary and Thomas a Becket. Becket had been 
martyred at the high altar of Canterbury Cathedral 
only seven years before, and William the Lyon had re- 
cently suffered shameful defeat and ignominious capture 
by the English at Alnwick ; but William had been per- 
sonally acquainted with Becket, and is supposed to have 
regarded him as a private friend. ' Was this the cause, ' 
Cosmo Innes asks, ' or was it the natural propensity to 
extol him, who, living and dead, had humbled the 
crown of England, that led William to take St Thomas as 
his patron saint, and to entreat his intercession whei? 
he was in greatest trouble ? Or may we consider the 
dedication of his new abbey, and his invocation of the 
martyr of Canterbury, as nothing more than the signs 
of the rapid spreading of the veneration for the new 
saint of the high church party, from which his old 
opponent himself, Henry of England, was not exempt ? ' 
The abbey received great endowments, not only from 
William, but from many subsequent princes and barons; 
received also, in 1204, a charter of privileges from King 
John of England ; and was one of the richest in Scot- 
land. Its monks were of the Tyronensian order ; and 
the first ones were brought from Kelso. Its abbots 
had several special privileges ; they were exempted from 
assisting at the yearly synods ; they had the custody 
of the Brecbennach, or consecrated banner of Columba ; 
they acquired from Pope Benedict, by Bull dated at 
Avignon, the right to wear a mitre ; and they, in some 
instances, were the foremost churchmen of the kingdom. 
The last abbot was Cardinal Beaton, at the same time 
Archbishop of St Andrews. The abbey was not com- 
pleted till 1233 ; and, after the death of Beaton, it felt 
the blows of the iconoclastic Reformers. Its property 
then was converted into a temporal lordship in favour 
of Lord Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of 
Chatelherault ; passed soon to the Earl of Dysart ; and 
passed again in the reign of James VI. to Patrick Maule 
of Panmure, ancestor of the Earl of Dalhousie. 

A stone wall, from 20 to 24 feet high, enclosed the 
precincts of the abbey, and was 1150 feet in length along 
the E and W sides, 706 along the N side, and 484 along 



the S side. A tower, 24 feet square and 70 high, stood 
at the NW corner ; was used for some time as the 
regality prison ; was afterwards, in its ground - fiat, 
converted into a butcher's shop ; and is still entire. 
Another tower, somewhat smaller, stood at the SW 
angle ; had raised upon it a slated spire ; served for 
many years as a steeple to the parish church ; but, 
becoming ruinous, was taken down in 1830, to give 
place to the church's present steeple. A stately porch, 
in the N wall, formed the main entrance ; seems to 
have been furnished with a portcullis, which now forms 
the armorial bearings of the town ; and was demolished 
as insecure about 1825. Another entrance, called the 
Darngate, far inferior in architectural structiu-e to the 
main entrance, stood at the SE corner. The church 
stood in the northern part of the enclosure ; measured 
276 feet from E to W ; seems to have been 67 feet high 
from the pavement to the roof ; and had two western 
towers, and a great central tower. The nave, of nine 
bays, was 148, and the three-bayed choir 76;];, feet long ; 
the central aisle was 35, and each of the side aisles 16J, 
feet wide ; whilst the transept was 132 feet long and 
45J wide. The whole structure is now in a state of 
chaotic ruin, and mingles with fragments of the cloisters 
and other attached buildings in prostrate confusion ; 
yet, by attentive observation, can still be traced as to 
its cruciform outline, and considerably re-constructed, 
in imagination, as to its several parts and its main 
details. The great western doorway is still entire, and 
forms a grand object. A rose window, seemingly of 
great size and much beauty, surmounted the great wes- 
tern doorway, and has left some vestiges. Another of 
smaller size is yet seen on the upper part of the wall 
of the S transept. The S wall and part of the E end 
are still standing ; and they retain some windows, or 
portions of windows, and some other features, which 
distinctly show the characteristic architecture. The 
pillars which supported the roof are all demolished, but 
can still be easily traced in their sub-basements or 
foundations ; and those at the intersection of the nave 
or transept have been so much larger than the others as 
evidently to have been piers supporting the central 
tower. The architecture was partly Norman, but mainly 
Early English ; and it exhibits these styles in a closeness 
of blending, and in a gentleness of transition to be seen 
elsewhere in only a very few buildings. The great 
western door is Norman, in rather peculiar mouldings, 
but evidently of the later or latest Norman type ; and 
the gallery above the interior of that doorway has 
the Early English arch resting on the Norman pillar 
and capital. The building material, however, was a 
dark-red sandstone so very friable that the mouldings 
and tracery, excepting only at a few places, are very 
much obliterated. Large masses of the pile, too, have 
fallen at comparatively recent periods — one of them 
immediately before Pennant visited the ruins in 1772. 
Operations were undertaken by the Exchequer to pre- 
vent further dilapidation ; but these, though well meant 
and in some sense highly serviceable, have introduced 
flat new surfaces of masonry, utterly discordant with 
the rugged contiguous ruins. A building, said to have 
been the chapter-house, adjoins the S transept on the 
E ; consists of two vaulted apartments, the one above 
the other ; and is in a state of good repair. The cloisters 
appear to have stood in front of that building and of the 
S transept, but have been utterly destroyed. The ab- 
bot's house stood at a short distance from the S wall of 
the nave ; and a portion of it is still inhabited as a 
private mansion. The tomb of King AVilliam the Lyon, 
who was buried before the high altar 9 Dec. 1214, was 
discovered in 1816 during the Exchequer's operations ; 
it consists of hewn freestone. There are also several in- 
teresting monuments, among them the effigies of three of 
the thirty -two abbots of Arbroath. One of these is in blue 
sandstone ; another has pouch and girdle of madrepore. 
Many tombs or gravestones of a very remote antiquity are 
in the graveyard near the church ; but they want distinc- 
tive character, and are remarkable mainly for having the 
primitive form of the cross among their sculptures. 


Arbroath has a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments ; 3 hotels; 
offices of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co., the 
Clydesdale, Commercial, and Royal banks ; a local sav- 
ings' bank (1815) ; 39 insurance offices ; a plate-glass 
insurance association ; a Montrose and Arbroath freight 
association ; three vice-consulships, of respectively the 
North German Confederation, Sweden and Norway, and 
Belgium ; a custom-house ; and a Liberal Saturday paper, 
the Arbroath Guide (1842). Saturday is market-day, and 
hiring fairs are held on the last Saturday of January, 
26 May, 18 July, and 22 Nov., provided these days are 
Saturdays, otherwise on the Saturday following. The 
manufacture of brown linens was introduced in the early 
part of last century ; took a great start, about the year 
1738, from a local weaver's discovery of the mode of 
making osnaburgs, and by a few local capitalists then 
engaging in the manufacture ; and made such progress 
that, in the year 1792, so many as 1,055,303 yards of 
osnaburgs and brown linen, valued at £39,660, were 
stamped in the town. The making of sailcloth, in the 
same year, employed nearly 500 weavers, and was almost 
as productive in point of value as the other manufac- 
ture. The making of linen thread was introduced about 
1740, prospered for nearly half a century, and then 
dwindled rapidly to extinction. The spinning of flax by 
steam power was introduced in 1S06, came to a crucial 
trial in the Inch mill about 1808, and then took root as 
a permanent employment. A grand rush of increased 
business in the various departments of the linen trade 
occurred between 1820 and 1S26, but was greatly im- 
pelled by over-speculation ; and, in the latter part of 
1825, and the early part of 1826, it received a tremen- 
dous cheek in a most disastrous crisis. The linen manu- 
facture seemed, at the instant, to be overwhelmed ; and 
it went on for a time with faltering progress and ex- 
treme caution ; yet it eventually resumed its previous 
breadth, and became as vigorous as ever. The spinning 
mills were 16 in 1832, 19 in 1842, when the quantity of 
flax spun was about 7000 tons, the value of the yarn 
about £300,000, the number of linen weavers 732 (about 
a third of them women), and the number of canvas 
weavers 450 (about a fifth of them women). In 1851 the 
nominal horse-power of the engines was 530, the number 
of spindles 30,342, of power-looms 806, and of persons 
employed 4620. The mills in 1867 were 18, but aggre- 
gately had larger space and did more work than the same 
number in 1842, their nominal horse-power being 892, 
and the number of spindles 36,732, of power-looms S30, 
and of persons employed 4941. In 1S75 there were 34 
spinning mills and factories, all driven by steam, with 
40,000 spindles, and fully 1100 power-looms, which, to- 
gether, turned out weekly about 450,000 yards of cloth. 
There are also bleaehfields, calendering establishments, 
tanneries, engineering works, asphalt and tar factories, 
chemical works, and a shipbuilding yard, in which 3 
sailing vessels of aggregately 400 tons were built during 
1875-S0 ; fishing employs 154 boats of 953 tons, and 
about 2S0 men and boys. 

The Abbot's Harbour (1394), a wooden pier projecting 
from Danger Point, ' was not much liked by mariners ; ' 
accordingly, the Old Harbour was formed (1725-42) 
to the westward, at a cost of over £6000. Its W 
pier was rebuilt (1789), a lighthouse erected (1798), 
and a patent slip laid down (1827) ; but it admitted 
vessels of only 100 tons at low tide, of only 200 at 
spring tide. Between 1841 and 1846, then, £58,000 
was expended on the improvement of the Old and 
the construction of the New Harbour ; this, with a break- 
water, admits at spring tides ships of 400 tons ; had 
conveyed to it the property and shore dues of the Old 
Harbour on payment of £10,000 to the community; and 
is administered by a body of 23 trustees, comprising the 
provost, 10 parliamentary burgh electors, 4 county re- 
presentatives, &c. Lastly, between 1871 and 1877, at a 
cost of more than £29,000, including £20,000 from 
Government, the Old Harbour has been converted into a 
wet dock, the New Harbour and the entrance from the 
Bar have been deepened, and a new patent slip has been 


formed for ships of 700 tons. In 18S0 the harbour 
revenue was £4776 (£4245 from shore-dues) ; whilst the 
aggregate tonnage registered as belonging to the port was 
900 in 1781, 1704 in 1791, 6700 in 1S33, 15,251 in 1851, 
13,320 in 1S60, 11,915 in 1870, 10,256 in 1878, and 
8118 in 1S80, viz., 3S sailing vessels of 7581 and 3 
steamers of 537 tons. The following table gives the 
aggregate tonnage of vessels that cleared and entered 
from and to foreign and colonial ports and coastwise in 
cargoes and in ballast : — 




j 1SS0 


For'gn. j Total. 










Of the total, 334 vessels of 38,371 tons, that entered in 
1SS0, 60 of 8905 tons were steamers, 32 of 15S8 tons 
were in ballast, and 275 of 24,S13 tons were coasters; 
whilst the total, 355 of 40,253 tons, of those that cleared 
included 63 steamers of 9248 tons, 250 vessels in ballast 
of 30,744 tons, and 34S coasters of 39,048 tons. The 
trade is mainly, then, an import coastwise one ; and 
coal is a chief article of import, 28,187 tons having been 
received here coastwise in 1878, 25,652 tons in 1879. 
Other imports are flax, hemp, jute, cordilla, hides, oak 
bark, bones, timber, and groceries, the total value in 
1S79 of foreign and colonial merchandise being £194,793 
(£445,335 in 1877) ; of exports, £1934 (£4214 in 1S78) ; 
and of customs, £18,273. 

Till then most probably a burgh of regality, Arbroath 
in 1599 received a charter of novodamus from James VI. , 
by which it became a royal burgh. It is governed by a 
provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 12 
councillors. The corporation property comprises com- 
mon lands, houses, mills, feu-duties, entries, customs, 
and imposts ; and, in Oct. 1870, was estimated to be 
worth £40,593, 10s. Id. The general purposes' revenue 
was £4207, and the expenditure £4484, for the year 
ending 15 May 1881, when the whole bonded debt 
of the commissioners amounted to £25,200. The cor- 
poration revenue, in 1788, was £864; in 1S38, £3859; 
in 1842, £1692; in 1874, £1495; in 1881, £1667. The 
annual value of real property in 1881, within the parlia- 
mentary burgh, was £79,365, of which £519 was for 
railways, and £40,232 was within the parish of St 
Vigeans. There is a guildry incorporation ; and there are 
incorporated trades of hammermen, glovers, shoemakers, 
weavers, wrights, tailors, and bakers, the first dating 
from 1592, the last from 1653. The General Police and 
Improvement Act of Scotland was adopted prior to 1S71. 
A police court, with the magistrates as judges, sits every 
Monday ; a justice of peace court on the first Monday of 
every month ; and a sheriff small debt court on the third 
Wednesday of January, March, May, July, September, 
and November. The police force, in 18S0, comprised 16 
men, and the salary of the superintendent was £230. 
The number of persons in 1879 tried at the instance of 
the police was 479 ; convicted, 46S ; committed for trial, 
9 ; charged, but not dealt with, 1. The Nolt Loan 
water supply, with reservoir, pumping-engine, and nume- 
rous street wells, was provided in 1S71, at a cost of 
£1700 ; the gas corporation's revenue was £S972 in 
18S0, its expenditure £8211. The burgh unites with 
Montrose, Forfar, Brechin, and Bervie in sending a 
member to parliament, and in 1SS1 its municipal con- 
stituency was 3366, its parliamentary 3383. Pop. of 
municipal burgh (1861) 7984, (1871) 20,068, an increase 
due to extension of the burgh's boundaries. Pop. of 
parliamentary burgh (1831) 13,795, (1841) 14,576, (1861) 
17,593, (1871) 19,973, (1881) 21,758. 

From a fishing hamlet under the abbey's protection, 
Arbroath grew up in the 14th century to be a place of 
some foreign trade. A parliament assembled in the 
abbey in April 1320, adopted a solemn address to the 
Pope on behalf of Scottish independence, and is remark - 


able as the earliest parliament in which we find distinct 
evidence of a formal representation of the burghs. 

Jurisdiction over the criminal affairs of the abbey and 
over its prison was resigned by the monks to a layman ; 
and in the year 1445 the election to this office led to 
very disastrous consequences. The monks that year 
chose Alexander Lindsay, eldest son of the Earl of Craw- 
ford, and commonly known by the appellation of The 
Tiger or Earl Beardie, to be the bailie or chief-justiciar 
of their regality ; but he proved so expensive by his num- 
ber of followers and high way of living, that they were 
obliged to remove him, and appoint in his stead Alex- 
ander Ogilvy of Inverquharity, nephew to John Ogilvy 
of Airlie, who had an hereditary claim to the place. This 
occasioned a cruel feud between the families ; each as- 
sembled their vassals ; and 'there can be little doubt,' 
says Mr Fraser Tytler, ' that the Ogilvies must have sunk 
under this threatened attack, but accident gave them a 
a powerful ally in Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, after- 
wards Earl of Hunt! y, who, as he returned from court, 
happened to lodge for the night at the castle of Ogilvj r , 
at the very moment when this baron was mustering his 
forces against the meditated assault of Crawford. Seton, 
although in no way personally interested in the quarrel, 
found himself, it is said, compelled to assist the Ogilvies, 
by a rude but ancient custom, which bound the guest to 
take common part with his host in all dangers which 
might occur so long as the food eaten under his roof re- 
mained in his stomach. With the small train of atten- 
dants and friends who accompanied him, he instantly 
joined the forces of Inverquharity, and proceeding to the 
town of Arbroath, found the opposite party drawn up in 
great strength on the outside of the gates. ' As the two 
lines approached each other, and spears were placing in 
the rest, the Earl of Crawford, anxious to stay the fight, 
suddenly appeared on the field, and, galloping up between 
the two armies, was accidentally slain by a soldier. The 
Crawfords, assisted by a large party of the vassals of 
Douglas, and infuriated at the loss of their chief, thereupon 
attacked the Ogilvies with a desperation which quickly 
broke then- ranks, and put them to irreclaimable dis- 
order. Such, however, was the gallantry of their resist- 
ance, that they were almost entirely cut to pieces. Nor 
was the Ogilvies' loss in the field their worst misfortune ; 
for Lindsay, with his characteristic ferocity, and protected 
by the authority of Douglas, let loose his army upon their 
estates, and the flames of their castles, the slaughter of 
their vassals, the plunder of their property, and the cap- 
tivity of their wives and children instructed the remotest 
adherents of the justiciar of Arbroath, how terrible was 
the vengeance which they had provoked. 

During the war in 1781, this coast was annoyed by a 
French privateer, the Fearnought of Dunkirk, commanded 
by one Fall. On the evening of the 23d of May, he came 
to anchor in the Bay of Arbroath, and fired a few shots 
into the town ; after which he sent a flag of truce on 
shore, with the following letter : — 

'At sea, May twenty -third. 
' Gentlemen, I send these two words to inform you, that I will 
have you to bring to the French colour, in less than a quarter of 
an hour, or I set the town on fire directly ; such is the order of 
my master the king of France I am sent by. Send directly the 
mair and chiefs of the town to make some agreement with me, or 
I'll make my duty. It is the will of yours. 
'To Monsieurs Mair of the town called \ 
Arbrought, or in his absence, to the > 
chief man after him, in Scotland.' j 

The worthy magistrates, with a view to gain time to 
arm the inhabitants, and send expresses for military aid, 
in the true spirit of subtle diplomacy gave an evasive 
answer to Monsieur Fall's letter, reminding him that he 
had mentioned no terms of ransom, and begging he would 
do no injury to the town till he should hear from them 
again. Upon this Fall wrote a second letter to them in 
the following terms : — 

' At sea, eight o'clock in the afternoon, 

' Gentlemen, I received just now your answer, by which you 

say I ask no terms. I thought it was useless, since I asked you 

to come aboard for agreement. But here are my terms ; I will 

have £30,000 sterling at least, and 6 of the chiefs men of the town 



for otage. Ee speedy, or I shoot your town away directly, and I 
set fire to it. I am, gentlemen, your servant. I sent some of my 
crew to you ; but if some harm 'happens to them, you'll be sure 
will hang up the main-yard all the preseners we have aboard. 
4 To Mousieurs the chiefs men of 1 
Arbrought in Scotland.' j" 

The magistrates having now got some of the inhabitants 
armed, and their courage further supported by the arrival 
of some military from Montrose, set Fall at defiance, and 
' ordered him to do his worst, for they would not give 
him a farthing.' "Whereupon, says the worthy historian 
of this memorable transaction in the annals of Arbroath, 
terribly enraged, and no doubt greatly disappointed, he 
began a heavy fire upon the town, and continued it for 
a long time ; but happily it did no harm, except knock- 
ing down some chimney-tops, and burning the fingers of 
those who took up his balls, which were heated. 

Arbroath is the 'Fairport' of Scott's Antiquary; and 
both in itself and in its surroundings, it can easily be 
identified with his descriptions. Among its illustrious 
natives are David Pierson (flo. 1628), author of the rare 
Varieties; David Carey (1782-1824), jxiet and novelist ; 
Neil Arnott, M.D. (1788-1874), scientific inventor ; and 
Win. Sharpey, M.D. (b. 1S02): it was also the residence, 
from 1793 to 1814, of Alex. Balfour, poet and novelist. 

The parish of Arbroath is bounded N and NE by St 
Vigeans, SE by the German Ocean, SW by a detached 
portion of St Vigeans and by Arbirlot. Its outline 
roughly resembles that of a boot, with the sole resting on 
the shore. Its length from NV to SE is about 3 miles ; 
its breadth varies from 1 to 10 furlongs ; and its land 
area is 943 acres. The coast extends about 1 J mile ; 
has a fiat surface, with a rocky bottom ; forms the ter- 
minal portion of the level seaboard extending from the 
mouth of the Tay ; and adjoins a high mural reach of 
rock-coast, pierced with' caves, and torn with fissures, in 
the parish of St Vigeans. The land rises gradually be- 
hind the town, onward to the north-western boundary, 
and attains there an elevation of more than 200 feet 
above sea-level. The Brothock Burn comes in from St 
Vigeans, and has a course of only about J mile within 
Arbroath parish to the sea. A small lake called Bishop's 
Loch lay about 2 miles from the town, but has long 
been drained. The rocks are chiefly Devonian. The 
soil along the coast is light and sandy, behind the town 
is black loam, and in the NW is reclaimed moor on a 
clay bottom. Two landowners hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 36 of between £100 and £500, 70 
of from £50 to £100, and 197 of from £20 to £50. 
Arbroath is seat of a presbytery in the synod of Angus 
and Mearns ; its living is worth £42S. Valuation of 
landward portion (1881) £1419, 14s. Pop. of entire 
parish (1831) 6660, (1861) 9847, (1871) 9877, (1SS1) 
9900.— Orel. Sur., shs. 49, 57, 1865-67. 

The presbytary of Arbroath comprises the old parishes 
of Arbroath, Arbirlot, Barry, Carmylie, Guthrie, Inver- 
keilor, Kinnell, Kirkden, Lunan, Panbride, and St 
Vigeans, the quoad sacra parishes of Abbey, Carnoustie, 
Colliston, Friockheim, Inverbrothock, and Ladyloan, 
and the chapelries of St Margaret's and Auchmithie. 
Pop. (1871) 33,811, of whom 8702 were communicants of 
the Church of Scotland in 1878, when the above-named 
congregations raised £4074 in Christian liberality. — A 
Free Church presbytery of Arbroath has churches at 
Arbirlot, Barry, Carmylie, Carnoustie, Colliston, Friock- 
heim, Inverkeilor, and Panbride, besides the 5 at the 
town itself, these 13 congregations numbering 4456 
communicants in 1880.— A U.P. presbytery of Arbroath 
has 3 churches there, 3 at Brechin, 3 at Montrose, and 
others at Carnoustie, Forfar, Johnshaven, and Muirton, 
the 13 numbering 3977 members in 1879. 

See Liber S. Thomas de Abcrbrothoc 1178-1329, edited 
for the Bannatyne Club by Cosmo Innes and P. Chalmers 
(1848); Billing's Antiquities (1852); D. Miller's Ar- 
broath and its Abbey (1860) ; C. Innes' Sketches of Early 
Scotch History (1861) ; and Geo. Hay's History of Ar- 
broath (1876). 

Arbroath and Forfar Railway, a railway of Forfar- 
shire, from the E side of Arbroath harbour, 15i miles 


west-north-westward to a junction with the Scottish 
Midland section of the Caledonian at Forfar. Incorpo- 
rated 17 May 1836, it was formed at a cost of £131,644, 
and was opened partially in Sept. 1838, wholly in 
Jan. 1839. It is leased new in perpetuity to the Cale- 
donian, at a yearly rental of £13,500. 

Arbruehill. See Abeetjchill. 

Arbuckle, a village of NE Lanarkshire, 2£ miles from 

Arbuthnott (12th c. Abirbothennothe = Gael. abhir- 
bothan-neithe, ' confluence at the booth of Neithe's 
stream'), a parish of E Kincardineshire, whose SE angle 
is J mile distant from Bervie terminus, and whose W and 
NW borders are respectively f and J mile from Fordoun 
and Drumlithie stations on the main Caledonian line. 
It is bounded NW and N by Glenbervie, E by Einneff, 
S by Bervie, SW by Garvock, and W by Fordoun. Its 
length from N to S by W is 6 miles ; its breadth varies 
from 1 to 5 mil es ; and its land area is 9585 acres. The 
river Bervie, after following at intervals the boundary 
with Fordoun and Garvock, winds lij mile through the 
interior, past Arbuthnott Church, and traces next the 
boundary with Bervie ; and the boundary with Glenber- 
vie is formed by its affluent, the Forthie Water. The 
surface rises everywhere from the vale of the Bervie, is 
much diversified with hill and dale, and attains at 
Bruxie Hill, on the NE border, an extreme altitude of 
710 feet — other summits being Water Hill (460 feet), 
Gallow Hill (465), Hillhead (571), and Birnie Hill (482). 
The vale of the Bervie has many curves and windings, 
abounds in large haughs and steep wooded banks, and 
at many points presents scenes of great beauty. The 
rocks are chiefly trap and Devonian, but include de- 
tached masses of gneiss and granite. Very fine pebbles, 
suitable for gems, have been found in trap-rock, a little 
below Arbuthnott House ; calcareous spar is not uncom- 
mon ; and, in Hare's Den, a deep ravine nearly oppo- 
site the parish church, are tiny veins of manganese. 
About two-thirds of the land are under the plough, and 
some 300 acres under wood. The knightly family of 
Arbuthnott obtained the greater portion of this parish in 
1105 ; and Sir Robert, the fourteenth in descent, was 
created Viscount Arbuthnott and Baron Inverbervie in 
1644. Arbuthnott House, the family seat, stands amid 
beautiful grounds near the left bank of the Bervie, which, 
spanned by a handsome bridge (1821), is joined here by 
a rapid rivulet (? anc. Neithe). Kair House, a neat 
modern mansion, succeeded the seat of a branch of the 
Sibbalds, extinct in the 17th century ; and Allardice, 
now a ruin, belonged in the 12th century to a family that 
has also become extinct in Captain Robert Barclay- 
Allardice (1799-1854), the famous pedestrian. Alex- 
ander Arbuthnott (1538-83), the first Protestant princi- 
pal of King's College, Aberdeen, was minister, and pro- 
bably a native of this parish, as certainly was Dr John 
Arbuthnot (1667-1735), most learned of the wits of Queen 
Anne's reign. Arbuthnott is in the presbytery of Fordoun 
and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the minister's income is 
£269. Its church, St Ternan's, stands near Arbuthnott 
House, 2} 2 miles WNW of Bervie, contains 440 sittings, 
and is an ancient structure apparently of Romanesque 
date. On the SW of the chancel is the Second Pointed 
chapel of St Mary, built by Sir Robert Arbuthnott in 
1505, and consisting of two stories, the lower of which, 
vaulted and open to the church by a large semicircular 
arch, was the Arbuthnotts' former burial-place. The upper 
chamber, which is reached by a stair in a picturesque 
turret with a conical stone roof at the NW angle of the 
chapel, once held the theological library bequeathed to 
his successors by the Rev. John Sihbald ; and in both 
chambers are piscinas, besides a stoup at the entrance of 
the upper one (Muir's Old Cliurch Arch., p. 75). The 
public school, with accommodation for 107 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 45, and a grant of 
£46, 16s. ; and Arbuthnott has also a share in Laur- 
encekirk school. Valuation (1881) £9766, 17s. 5d., 
the property being divided among five. Pop. (1831) 
944, (1871) 924, (1881) 809.— Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 67, 



Archaig or Arkaig, a lake of Lochaber, Kilmallie 
parish, Inverness-shire, 10 miles N of Fort William, ex- 
tends from W to E, and is 12 miles long, f mile wide, 
and 140 feet above the level of the sea. The Pean and 
Dessarry, each about 6 miles long, after a united course 
of f mile, flow into the head of the lake, which besides 
100 smaller feeders receives on its southern side the AUt 
Camgharaidh and the Mallie, 5£ and 9 miles long respec- 
tively, and which at its foot sends off the Archaig river 
to Loch Lochy, 1J mile to the eastward. Mountains 
enclose the lake on every side — at its head, Monadh 
Gorm (1542 feet) ; to the N, Fraoch Bheinn (2S08), Sgor 
Mhurlagain (2S85), Meall Bhlair (2153), Sg6r Choinich 
(2450), Beinn Chraoibh (2014), and Glas Bheinn (2398) ; 
to the S, Culvain (3224), Mullach Coire (2373), Druim 
a' Ghiubhais (1846), Mullach na Briobaig (1244), and 
Beinn Bhan (2613) ; and at its foot, Tor Ghallain (407). 
Only two islets break the long extent, Eilean a Ghiubhais 
midway near the southern shore, and another at the 
lower end, with a ruined chapel and the burying-place 
of the Camerons of Lochiel, holders of the estate of Ach- 
nacarry. The shores are beautifully wooded here, but 
the grand forest of oaks and pines that formerly belted 
the entire lake is only recovering from the woodman's 
axe. The Enoidart road follows the northern bank, and 
thence goes on to Loch Lochy through the Mil-dubh 
(' dark mile '), a narrow, exquisitely wooded pass, asso- 
ciated with the wanderings of Prince Charles Edward in 
the August after Culloden ; at Kinlocharkaig, near the 
upper end, is the shell of a fort erected to overawe the 
Clan Cameron. Herds of red deer are often to be seen, 
but salmon can rarely now ascend to the lake. Its 
trout run about three to the lb., and from 5 to 10 lbs. 
is an average day's catch. The fishing is open to the 
public, the season lasting from the end of April to 
September.— Orel. Sur., sh. 62, 1875. 

Arcan, a hamlet of E Ross-shire, 6J miles from its 
post-town, Beauly. 

Archasig-Haven, a small harbour on the W side of 
Eona island, in Portree parish, Inverness-shire. It has 
a double entrance, and offers a convenient refuge for 
coasting vessels ; but, except to the natives of Rona and 
the neighbouring islands, it is very little known. 

Archerbreck, a burn and a coalfield in Canonbie 
parish, Dumfriesshire. The burn has ouly a short run, 
and goes to the Liddel. The coalfield has a main seam 
5 feet 10 inches thick, and another seam, 3 yards below 
that, 3J feet thick, and is worked by an open level. 

Archerfield, a seat of Lady Mary Nisbet-Hamilton 
in Dirleton parish, Haddingtonshire, 3 miles WSW of 
North Berwick. It is a plain edifice in a level park, 
skirted with plantations, but commands a fine view 
over the Firth of Forth. 

Archiestown, a village in Knockando parish, Elgin- 
shire, 6J miles SW of Rothes, and 2£ NNE of Carron 
station on the Strathspey section of the Caledonian. 
Founded in 1760, and partly burned in 1783, it now 
consists of a main street, a square, and several lanes, 
and it has a post office under Craigellachie (4 miles E by 
N), a U. P. church, and a General Assembly school, which, 
with accommodation for 90 children, had (1879) an ave- 
rage attendance of 59, and a grant of £52, 4s. 6d. Pop. 
(1861) 174, (1871) 338, (1881) 374. 

Arclet. See Arklet. 

Ard, a lake in Aberfoyle parish, Perthshire. It lies 
in the course of the northern head-stream of the Forth, 
5J miles E by S of the summit of Ben Lomond (3192 
feet), 2| miles S of Ben Venue (2393), and 2$ miles W 
of the hamlet of Aberfoyle. Upper Loch Ard is 2 J miles 
long from W to E, and from 3 to 6 furlongs wide ; the 
so-called lower loch, \ mile to the eastward, is less a lake 
than a mere expansion of the Avondhu, measuring 5 fur- 
longs in length, but barely 1 in width. The shores are 
intricate, and finely wooded ; two hills, \ mile to the 
S, Innis Ard and Bad Dearg, are only 566 and 533 feet 
high, yet are so broken and bosky as to be more impres- 
sive than lofty bare mountains ; and the westward back- 
ground is ever the soaring mass of Ben Lomond. The 
scene is best described in Scott's Rob Roy, chap. xxx. : — 

1 On the right, amid a profusion of thickets, knolls, and 
crags, lay the bed of a broad mountain lake. High hills, 
rocks, and banks, waving with natural forests of birch and 
oak, formed the borders of this enchanting sheet of water ; 
and as their leaves rustled to the wind and twinkled 
in the sun, gave to the depth of solitude a sort of life 
and vivacity. . . . The road now suddenly emerged, 
and, winding close by the [northern] margin of the loch, 
afforded us a full view of its spacious mirror, which re- 
flected in still magnificence the high dark heathy moun- 
tains, huge grey rocks, and shaggy banks, by which it 
is encircled.' A romantic copse-clad ravine, about f 
mile below the head of the lake, on its northern side, 
contains the cascade of Ledai-d — a double fall of first 12 
and then 50 feet, where Captain Waverley met Flora 
Mac Ivor. A mural rock near the foot, from 30 to 50 
feet high, gives a distinct echo, repeating a few words 
twice, and a gnarled oak trunk, overhanging it, is pointed 
out as the 'ragged thorn which, catching hold of the 
skirts of Bailie Nicol Jarvie's riding coat, supported 
him dangling in mid air, not unlike to the sign of 
the Golden Fleece. ' One rocky islet lies near the upper 
head, and on the neighbouring southern promontory are 
the ruins of a castle, built by Murdoch, Duke of Albany, 
regent of Scotland, and said by tradition to have been 
the place of his retreat, whence he was taken captive to 
be executed at Stirling (1425). Loch Ard belongs to the 
Duke of Montrose, but the hotel-keeper at Aberfoyle has 
the fishing on it, and lets out boats to anglers. The 
trout average f ib., and are equal in flavour to Loch 
Leven trout ; there are likewise pike of from 15 to 20 
lbs.— Orel. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Ard or Aird. See Aird. 

Ardalanish, a headland in the SW of Mull, Argyll- 
shire, 10 miles SE of Iona, and 14 WSW of the mouth 
of Loch Buy. 

Ardali, a hamlet in Ulva parish, Argyllshire. 

Ardallie, a quoad sacra parish in Old Deer, Cruden, 
Ellon, and Longside parishes, Aberdeenshire. Its post- 
town is Mintlaw; and its population, in 1871, was 523 
within Old Deer, 481 within Cruden, 293 within Ellon, 
and 59 within Longside — altogether 1356. The parish 
is in the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen. 
Stipend, £150. Two public schools, with respective 
accommodation for 110 and 60 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 72 and 37, and grants of 
£46, 2s. and £30, 19s. 6d. 

Ardargie, an estate, with a mansion, in Forgandenny 
parish, Perthshire, on the river May, 6 miles SSW of 
Perth. A well-preserved small Roman camp is here, 
on a high sloping bank overlooking the May ; commands 
an extensive prospect of the Ochils, and along the course 
of the Roman road from the Tay to Ardoch ; forms an 
exact square, of about 270 feet ; and is defended, on one 
side, by a deep hollow traversed by a brook, on the 
other sides, by trenches 30 feet wide and 14 deep. 

Ardavasar or Ardvarsar, a hamlet in the SE of the 
Isle of Skye, on a small bay of its own name on the 
Sound of Sleat, about 6 miles ENE of the Point of Sleat 
and 17 S of Broadford. It has a post office under Broad- 
ford. A small headland flanks its bay, and is the ordi- 
nary landing-place from Arasaig. 

Ardbeg, a headland on the E side of the Isle of Bute, 
flanking the N side of Rothesay Bay and the S side of 
Karnes Bay. 

Ardchadnill, a headland in Lochbroom parish, Ross-shire. 

Ardchattan (Gael, 'height of St Catan'), a large 
highland parish in the Lorn district of Argyllshire, 
lying upon both sides of Loch Etive. On the Oban 
and Callander railway, opened in July 1880, it has the 
station of Loch Awe at the foot of Ben Cruachan, 70} 
miles WNW of Callander, and 22 E by S of Oban. It 
is bounded E and SE by Glenorchy ; S and SW by 
Loch Awe, the river Awe, and the lower waters of Loch 
Etive, which separate it from Muckairn ; W by Loch 
Linnhe ; and NW and N by Loch and Glen Creran 
and the parish of Lismore and Appin. From its NE 
angle near Stob Dearg to Ledaig Point in the extreme 
SW it measures 24£ miles, its width from E to W varies 




oetween 4 and 20 miles ; and its area is roughly esti- 
mated at nearly 400 square miles. The whole almost 
of this area is wildly mountainous, at more than forty 
points exceeding 2000, and at fourteen 3000, feet above 
the level of the sea. The summits to the E of Loch 
and Glen Etive are generally somewhat loftier than 
those of the western half, including, from N to S, Sron 
Creise (2952 feet), Beinn Mine Chasgaig (2766), Clach 
Leathad (3602), Stob Dubh (2897), Mean Odhar (2875), 
Meall Tarsuinn (2871), Stob Coir an Albannaich (3125), 
Glas Bheinn Mhor (3258), Ben Starav (3511), Meall 
Dubh (2239), Stob an Duine Ruaidh (2624), Beinn nan 
Aighean (3141), Beinn Suidhe (2215), Beinn nan Lus 
(2327), Meall Beidh (2237), Beinn Lurachan (2346), 
Meall Copagach (2656), Beinn Eunaich (3242), Aonach 
Breac (2395), Beinn a' Choehuill (3215), Beinn a Bhui- 
ridh (2935), and Ben Crtjachan (3611). In the western 
portion, however, are Stob nan Cabar (2547 feet), Stob 
Dearg (3345), Buchaille (3120), Bidean nam Bran (3766), 
Beinn Maol Chalium (2967), Sgor na h'Ulaidh (3258), 
Beinn Fhionnlaidh (3139), Beinn Sguliaird (3058), Beinn 
Trilleaehan (2752), Meall Garbh (2400), Beinn Bhreae 
(2324), Beinn Molurgainn (2270), Meall Dearg (1897), 
Beinn Mheadhonach (2344), and Beinn Duirinnis (1821). 
The extreme south-western district, beyond Gleann 
Salach, and between Loch Creran, Loch Linnhe, and the 
foot of Loch Etive, is level comparatively, its only sum- 
mits being Na Maoilean (1145 feet), Beinn Lora (1007), 
and Sgor M6r (722). Arable lands lie on both sides of 
the Benderloch range, in Glenure, and in a few other 
spots of the west and north ; but, as to their main 
aggregate, they commence below Barcaldine House, 
extend thence, by Shian Ferry, Lochnell House, and 
Keil, onward to Connel Ferry, and stretch thence east- 
ward, with partial interruptions, to the ferry over Loch 
Etive opposite Bunawe. The chief streams are the Awe, 
along the boundary from Loch Awe to Loch Etive, and 
the Etive, the Kinglass, the Liver, the Noe, the Creran, 
the Ure, the Buie, the Teithil, and the Dearg, running 
along the glens. Two cascades are on the Etive at 
Dalness and Coileitir ; two others, rather cataracts 
than falls, of very great depth, are on wild torrents of 
Buchaille-Etivo ; and a number of others are on burns 
or torrents descending from other mountains. Several 
fresh-water lakes lie in various parts, none of them of 
great extent, but most of them well stocked with trout. 
Perennial springs are everywhere abundant, and afford 
constant supplies of the purest water. The rocks are 
chiefly granite, mica-slate, and porphyry, but include 
at one place a stratum of coarse marble. The soil of 
the arable lands is principally a light loam on a gravelly 
bottom. Caledonian antiquities are numerous, especially 
stone circles and standing stones. A famous Dalriadic 
antiquity is at Dunmacsniochan, and will be noticed 
under Berigonium. Grandly situated on Loch Etive, 
4 miles NW of Taynuilt, are the ruins of St Modan's 
priory, founded in 1231 by Duncan Mackowle or Mac- 
Dougal of Lorn, for monks of the order of Vallis 
Caulium. Little remains but the First Pointed choir, 
66 feet by 28, with a north aisle or chapel, a piscina 
under a tooth-moulded arch, and fragments of massive 
piers suggesting a central tower. The sculptured tomb- 
stones of two priors, members of the MacDougal family, 
bear date 1500 and 1502. Here in 1308 Robert Bruce 
is said to have held a parliament, the last in which 
Gaelic was the language spoken ; in 1644 the Macdonalds 
burned the priory, under their leader Colkitto. Only the 
prior's lodge escaped, — massive, high-roofed Ardehattan 
House, to the SW of the church (E. C. Batten, Beauty 
Priory, with notices of the Priories of Pluscardine and 
Ardehattan, Grampian Club, 1877). Ardehattan House 
is the seat of Mrs Popham, owner in the shire of 8000 
acres of £1342 annual value ; and two other principal 
mansions, Lochnell and Barsaldine, belong to Dun- 
can Campbell, Esq., and Mrs Mary Cameron, who own re- 
spectively 39,000 and 20,000 acres, valued at £6801 and 
£2079 per annum. United quoad civilia to Muokaien, 
Ardehattan forms by itself a quoad sacra parish in the 
presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll ; its minister's 

income is £341. The old ruined parish church stands 
| mile N of the Priory at Balmodan or Balimhaodan 
(' St Modan's town '), a name that records the mission 
to Lorn, in connection with the Roman party, of SS. 
Modan and Ronan, early in the 8th century. The 
present church, 3 miles to the "W", was built in 1836, 
and contains 430 sittings ; and the chapelries of Glencoe 
and Glencreran fall mainly within Ardehattan parish, 
which also has a Free church, on Loch Creran, S miles 
NUW of the parish church. Three public schools, 
Barcaldine, Glenetive, and Lochnell, with respective 
accommodation for 60, 25, and 85 children, had (1879' 
an average attendance of 24, 15, and 50, and grants or 
£31, lis., £28, and £16, 10s. Valuation of Ardchattan- 
Muckairn (1881) £15,190, 10s. Pop. (1831) 2420, 
(1861) 2346, (1871) 1962, (1881) 2221, of whom 1390 
were in Ardehattan. — Ord. Sur., shs. 45, 53, 1876-77. 
See pp. 141-158 of Dorothy "Wordsworth's Tour in Scot- 
land (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874), P. G. Hamerton's A 
Painter's Camp in the Highlands (1862 ; 2d ed. 1868), and 
an article in the Cornhill for Jan. 188L 

Ardcheanochrochan, a quondam cottage-inn at the 
E end of the Trossachs, in Perthshire, on the spot now 
occupied by the Trossachs Hotel. The name signifies 
' the high end of the rock. ' 

Ardchonnel, a hamlet with a public school in Kil- 
chrenan parish, Argyllshire. The school, with accommo- 
dation for 40 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 27, and a grant of £38, 14s. 

Ardchullarie, a mansion on the E side of Loch Lub- 
naig, in Callander parish, Perthshire. It was the re- 
treat of James Bruce of Kinnaird, at the time when 
he was writing the account of his travels in Abyssinia 

Ardclach (Gael. ' high stony ground'), a hamlet and a 
parish of E Nairnshire. The hamlet, on the left bank 
of the Findhorn, 5i miles SW of Dunphail station, 11 
SSW of Forres, and 10 SE of Nairn, has a post office 
under Forres, and near it are the parish church (rebuilt 
1839 ; 686 sittings) and Free church. 

The parish is bounded N by Auldearn, E by Edinkillie 
in Elginshire, SE by Cromdale in Elgin and Duthil in 
Inverness shire, W by Cawdor and Nairn. In shape re- 
sembling a triangle with vertex to the S, it has a length 
of 13J miles, an utmost breadth from E to W of 7J miles, 
and an area of 40,037J acres, including 327 of water, and 
2855-i- of the outlying Glenerney section, which, 1J mile 
to the E, is all surrounded by Edinkillie, and measures 
2J miles by 7 furlongs. From the south-western to the 
north-eastern border the beautiful Findhorn winds for 
12 miles through a richly-wooded valley, receiving here 
from the S the Leonach and Tomlachlan burns, and at 
Bridge of Dulsie, 5 miles above the church, being spanned 
by a fine old arch of 46 feet that carries over Wade's 
military road from Grantown to Fort George. The 
Muokle Burn drains the north-western corner of the 
parish, and 1 mile to the N of the hamlet lies Belivat 
Loch (3J x 1 furlong), with no perceptible outlet. At 
Mill of Lethen on the Muckle Burn the surface sinks to 
262, at Relugas Bridge on the Findhorn to 331, feet 
above sea-level ; but elsewhere it everywhere rises south- 
westward or southward intofir-clad or heath-covered hills. 
The chief elevations W of the Findhorn, from N to S, 
are Tom Fade (463 feet), Lethen Bar (862), Carn Achadh 
Gaibhre (737), *Carn a Chrasgie (1314), Cam na Callich 
(1218), Tom nam Meann (872), and*Carn Sgumain (1370), 
where those marked with asterisks culminate just on the 
border ; E of the Findhorn rise *Carn Dubhaidh (989), 
the *Hill of Aitnoch (1351), Tomlachlan (940), Maol an 
Tailleir (1373), *Carn nan Clach Garbha (1362), *Carn 
Allt Laoigh (1872), and in Glenerney, Cairn Eney (908). 
The prevailing rocks are gneiss, granite, and quartz ; the 
soil for the most part is light and sandy, arable lands bear- 
ing a small proportion to woods and moorland and moss. 
On Lethen Bar are traces of a stone circle and several 
tumuli ; but the most famous relic of antiquity is the 
Princess Stone, on a lovely sequestered haugh below 
Dulsie Bridge. A cairn, surmounted by a slab, 8 feet 
by 4. with cross and knots carved thereon, it belongs to 


the class of so-called 'Sculptured Stones,' though tradi- 
tion makes it of Eunic origin — the monument of a Celtic 
princess, who, in fording the Findhorn, was drowned 
with her Danish lover. Mansions are Coulmony House 
(1746) and Glenferness House (1837), the former stand- 
ing on the left hank of the Findhorn below, and the lat- 
ter on the right bank above, the hamlet. Their owners, 
Alex. Brodie of Lethen (b. 1876 ; sue. 1880) and the 
Earl of Leven and Melville (b. 1817 ; sue. 1876), hold 
22,378 and 7805 acres in the shire, valued at £4947 and 
£1317 per annum ; and there are 4 other proprietors, 1 
holding a yearly value of more, and 3 of less, than 
£500. Ardclach is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod 
of Moray ; the living is worth £320. Three schools — 
Ardclach, Lethen, and Col. Campbell's — with respective 
accommodation for 60, 70, and 100 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 27, 27, and 44, and grants of 
£37, £2S, 3s., and £54. Valuation (1882)£6777,15s.l0d, 
Pop. (1801) 1256, (1861) 1330, (1871) 1197, (1881) 1117. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Ardeer, a desolate tract of sand hills, and a seat of ex- 
tensive industry in Stevenston parish, Ayrshire. The 
tract lies on the coast between a sinuous line of ancient 
sea-beach and the present shore, extends from within 
1} mile of Saltcoats to the mouth of Irvine Water, com- 
prises an area of about 1200 acres, is all low and dismal, 
and lies upon rocks of the Carboniferous formation. 
Twelve separate seams of coal are beneath it, the upper- 
most 26 fathoms, the lowermost 129 fathoms, below the 
surface ; and they have, more or less, been mined since 
about the year 1675. The seat of industry originated in 
the leasing of the mines about the year 1851 ; is situated 
in the south-western part of the tract, 2 miles E of Salt- 
coats ; and has a branch railway, upwards of J mile long, 
going into junction with the Kilwinning and Ardrossan 
section of the Glasgow and South -Western system. Iron- 
works were erected ; several spacious squares of work- 
men's houses were built near the furnaces ; the mining 
operations were largely extended ; chemical works, em- 
ploying about 200 men and boys, were established ; and 
in the very first years of the enterprise, so many as 850 
men, besides a great number of boys, were employed ag- 
gregately on the works. The iron-works at once pro- 
duced between 900 and 1000 tons of pig-iron per week, 
and at an early date were greatly extended ; but in 1878 
only 2 of their 5 furnaces were in blast. The output of 
coal, in one of the first years, was 130,000 tons. The 
chemical works proved to be uncompensating, and were 
relinquished ; but a dynamite factory has been recently 
established. A schoolhouse was built for the children 
of the workmen ; and a missionary, supported by some 
members of the Established Church, was engaged for the 
colliers and furnacemen. The entire seat of industry is 
called Ardeer Works ; and its population, at the census 
of 1871, was 915. An extensive sandstone quarry, one 
of the most valuable in the West of Scotland, is in Ar- 
deer. The stone abounds in vegetable organic remains ; 
is of a grey tint, susceptible of a fine polish, and very 
durable ; can be raised in blocks of large size ; suits well 
for ornamental portions of public buildings ; and is often 
shipped to Ireland and other distant places. The post- 
town of Ardeer is Stevenston. 

Ardelister, a group of islets in Eildalton parish, Ar- 

Ardelve, a village in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire, 4 
miles from Lochalsh church. It has a post office under 
Lochalsh, a public school, and cattle fairs on the Satur- 
day after the last Tuesday of May and July, and on the 
Saturday after the third Friday of September. 

Arden, a series of tracts of limestone, aggregately about 
2 miles long, in Eastwood parish, Renfrewshire. 

Arden, a hamlet in New Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, 3J miles NE of Airdrie. 

Ardenadam, an alias of Sandbank, or rather the name 
of the south-eastern portion of that village. 

Ardenconnel, an estate, with a mansion, in Row parish, 
Dumbartonshire, adjacent to Row village. 

Ardentinny (Gael, ard-an-teine, ' height of the fire '), 
a picturesque village on the western shore of Loch Long, 


in the Kilmun portion of Dunoon-Eilmim parish, Cowal, 
Argyllshire, i\ miles N of Strone Point, and \\ mile W 
of Coulport, with which it is connected by a ferry. Stand- 
ing upon a spit of low ground, at the base of wood-skirted 
Stronehullin Hill (1798 feet) and Cnap Ream (1067), 
with Ben Ruadh (2178) in their rear, it mainly consists 
of a few snug cottages, the summer resort of Glasgow 
citizens ; and with Glasgow and Greenock it communi- 
cates twice a day by the Lochgoilhead and Arrochar 
steamers, while a good carriage-road up Glen Finart, leads 
U miles NNW to Whistleneld Inn upon Loch Eck. It 
has a post office under Greenock, an hotel, an Established 
church (erected in 1839 by A. Douglas, Esq., at a cost of 
£500), and a public school, which, with accommodation 
for 45 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 24, 
and a grant of £31, 9s. TamiahiU's exquisite song, The 
Lass o' Arrantecnie (published in 1807), has made this 
village famous ; but nothing is known of the 'sweet lass' 
herself, whether she ever lived, or was only a creature of 
the poet's fancy. — The quoad sacra parish of Ardentinny 
was erected in 1874 out of Eilmun and Lochgoilhead, 
measures 6J by 4J miles, and in winter has a population 
of barely 250. 

Ardeonaig (Gael. ' Eonog's height '), a hamlet on the 
right or southern shore of Loch Tay, in a detached por- 
tion of Eillin parish, Perthshire, 7-J miles ENE of Killin 
village, and Hi- miles NNW of Comrie by Glen Lednock. 
Backed by Meall na Creige (2683 feet), Creag Uigeach 
(2S40), and Ruadh Bheul (2237), it stands near the mouth 
of the Finglen Burn, and has a ferry over the loch (here 
f mile broad), a good inn, a Gaelic Free church (Ig mile 
NE), and a public school, which, with accommodation 
for 56 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 31, 
and a grant of £46, 10s. 6d. 

Ardersier (Ardrosser in 1266 — Gael, ard-ros-iar, 'high 
western promontory '), a coast parish at the NE corner 
of Inverness-shire. It contains the fishing village of 
Campbelltown, Fort George, and a post office of its 
own name, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments ; j mile beyond its southern border 
is Fort George station on the Highland railway, 10^ 
miles NE of Inverness, and 15J W by S of Forres. 
Bounded W and N by the Moray Firth, E by Nairn- 
shire, and S by Petty, Ardersier has an extreme length 
from E to W of 4, and a breadth from N to S of 3i 
miles ; its land area is 3824 acres. The shore is sandy 
and fiat (etymology notwithstanding), and to the W has 
suffered considerable encroachment from the sea ; inland 
the surface is generally tame, nowhere attaining 200 feet 
of altitude above sea-level. In 1792 the rental of this 
parish amounted to only £365, but a vast improvement 
has been carried out, acres on acres of barren moor or 
moss having been added to the arable area since 1S45, 
whilst in the E an extensive tract is occupied by woods. 
The roads are exceedingly good, that to Fort George 
being one of General Wade's. Antiquities are the hill- 
fort of Tom Mhoit or Cromal (Cromwell's Mount), be- 
hind Campbelltown, and the ' Cabbac Stone,' 6 feet 
high and 3 broad, on the boundary with Nairnshire, 
which tradition asserts was reared over a chieftain slain 
at Inverness in an affray about a cheese ; and a curious 
sword and spear head — Roman according to Roy — have 
also been discovered. Anciently divided between the 
Bishops of Ross and the Knights of St John of Jeru- 
salem, Ardersier is now chiefly the property of the Earl 
of Cawdor, one other landowner holding an annual 
value of between £100 and £500, and three of from £20 
to £50. It is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod of 
Moray ; and its church, built in 1802, with over 500 
sittings, stands f mile NE of Campbelltown. The 
minister's income is £191. There are, besides, a Free 
church, a TJ.P. church at Campbelltown, and a public 
school, which in 1879 had accommodation for 200 
children, an average attendance of 95, and a grant of 
£72, 18s. Valuation (1881) £4386, 8s. lOd. Pop. (1831) 
1268, (1861) 1239, (1871) 1284, (1881)2084.— On?. Sur. 
sh. 84, 1876. 

Ardessie, a hamlet of W Ross-shire, 8 miles from its 
post-village, UllapooL 



Ardfern, a hamlet of SW Lorn, Argyllshire, near the 
head and on the W side of Loch Craignish, with a post 
office under Lochgilphead, IS miles to the SE. 

Ardgartan, a small low promontory on the western 
shore and near the head of Loch Long, in Lochgoilhead 
parish, NE Cowal, Argyllshire, If mile SW of Arrochar. 
In the grounds of Ardgartan House, traversed by Croe 
Water, is a splendid Spanish chestnut, the finest per- 
haps in Scotland, being 90 feet high, and girthing 20f 
feet at 5 feet from the ground. 

Ardgay, a village of Kincardine parish, N Ross-shire, 
near the southern shore and the head of Dornoch Firth, 
and 1J mile SW of Bonar Bridge. It has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and tele- 
graph departments, a good hotel, and the Bonar Bridge 
station on the Highland railway, 13§ miles WNW of 
Tain. A deed, granted in 1686 to erect it into a burgh 
of barony, was never carried into effect. 

Ardgour, a hamlet and district of N Argyllshire. 
The hamlet lies near Corran Ferry, at the nexus between 
Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, 10 miles SSW of Fort Wil- 
liam ; and has a post office with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, under Fort William. 
A church, erected here in 1829 by the parliamentary 
commissioners, is in the quoad sacra parish of Balla- 
chulish and Ardgour ; its minister receives £60 a-year 
from the Royal Bounty grant and £20 from heritors. 
Ardgour House, in its vicinity, is the seat of A. T. 
Maclean, Esq., owner of 40,000 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2515 per annum. The district is bounded 
N and E by Loch Eil, S by Morvern, SW by Sunart, 
and NW by Loch Shiel. Its length, from NNE to 
SSW, is 13 miles ; and its breadth varies from 8 to 11 
miles. Its surface is wildly upland, and culminates in 
Sgor Dhomhail (Scuir-Donald) at an altitude of 2915 
feet above sea-level. A parliamentary road commences 
on its E coast at Corran Ferry, and goes south-westward 
through its interior to Strontian. Pop. of registration 
district of Corran of Ardgour (1881) 248. 

Ardgowan, a mansion in Inverkip parish, Renfrew- 
shire, 3| miles N by E of Wemyss Bay. It is the seat 
of Sir Michael Robert Shaw-Stewart, of Greenock and 
Blackhall, owner of 24,951 acres in the shire, of £14,501 
gross annual value (£573 quarries), seventh Baronet 
since 1667, and seventeenth in direct male descent from 
Sir John Stewart, a natural son of Robert III., who re- 
ceived from his father three charters of the lands of 
Ardgowan, Blackhall, and Auchingoun, in 1390, 1396, 
and 1404. Erected early in this century from designs 
by Cairncross, and raised on a terrace overhanging the 
Firth of Clyde, the present mansion is a large and 
stately building, screened in the rear by noble trees, but 
in front commanding a wide, unbroken, prospect over 
the waters and mountain-flanks of the firth. Near it 
stand the private Episcopal chapel of St Michael and 
All Angels, and the remains of an ancient square tower, 
a fragment of that Castle of Inverkip which was held by 
the English in the days of Robert Bruce. Thither fled 
Sir Philip de Mowbray, after his rout by the Black 
Douglas. He came by Kilmarnock and Kilwinning, 
thence to Ardrossan — ■ 

' Svne throu the Largis hita alane, 
Till Innerkyp,' 

which (Barbour adds) was 'stuffyt all with Inglessmen,' 
who received him ' in daynte\ ' 

Ardhullary. See Akdchullaky. 

Ardincaple, a stately mansion in Row parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the N side of Gareloch, amid fine 
lawns, grand old woods, and swelling ridges, immedi- 
ately W of Helensburgh. It is in the old Scottish 
Baronial style, chiefly somewhat modern, but partly very 
ancient, perhaps as old as the first half of the 12th cen- 
tury ; and it was long, from time to time, the residence 
of the Dowager-Duchesses of Argyll, but is now a seat 
of Sir James Colquhoun of Luss, Bart. 

Ardincaple, a mansion in Seil island, Argyllshire. It 
was long the residence of Dr Archibald Smith, the 
writer on Peru. 


Ardinning, a lake in Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. 
It covers about 60 acres, and is unadorned. 

Ardkenneth, a place in South Uist parish, Outer He- 
brides, Inverness-shire. It has a Roman Catholic chapel, 
built in 1829, repaired in 1869, and containing 400 

Ardkinglass, an estate, with a mansion, and with ves- 
tiges of an ancient castle, in Lochgoilhead parish, Argyll- 
shire. The mansion stands on the shore of Loch Fyne, 
at the mouth of Glenkinglass, in the southern vicinity of 
Kairndow, 10^ miles NE of Inverary. It succeeded a 
previous mansion destroyed by fire about 1840, and 
has very beautiful grounds with luxuriant gardens, 
old lawns, bosky banks, stately woods, and picturesque 
overhanging mountains. The ancient castle is of un- 
ascertained date, but is known to have been repaired in 
1586, and was a strong fortalice, with three separate 
towers, connected by curtain walls, and arranged round 
a court ; but stood in such a low situation that it could 
not resist a regular investment. An old residence of its 
owners, a precursor of the modern mansion, but now 
represented by only slight vestiges, stood, at a small 
distance from the castle, on a more commanding site. 
Long the seat of the Campbells, baronets, Ardkinglass 
now is the property of Geo. Fred. Wm. Callander of 
Craigforth, owner of 51,670 acres in the shire, valued 
at £5626 per annum. 

Ardlamont, a headland at the extreme S of Kilfinan 
parish, in Cowal district, Argyllshire, separating Loch 
Fyne from the Kyles of Bute, and terminating 2^ miles 
W of the nearest point of the Isle of Bute. 

Ardle. See Aip.dle. 

Ardler, a railway station on the SW border of Forfar- 
shire, on the Scottish Midland section of the Caledonian 
system, 2| miles NE of Coupar-Angus. 

Ardlui, a locality in Arrochar parish, Dumbartonshire, 
at the influx of Falloch Water to the head of Loch 
Lomond, 8 miles N of Tarbet. It has an hotel and a small 
pier where the Loch Lomond steamers lie ; and it com- 
municates by coach with Crianlarich station. The tract 
around it is a small expanse of rich low strath ; the hills 
around it are covered with foliage, and streaked with 
torrents or waterfalls ; the mountains in the distance 
sweep round the horizon, in a curving series of alpine 
peaks ; and the whole scene is a most diversified, pic- 
turesque, sublime amphitheatre. Ardlui House stands 
near the water, and is a recent erection. 

Ardlussa, an estate, with a mansion, in Jura, Argyll- 
shire. The mansion stands on the coast of the Sound 
of Jura, 10 miles SW of the mouth of Loch Crinan, and 
was built nearly 40 years ago by Lord Colonsay (1793- 
1874), Lord Advocate ; its present proprietor is Jn. Mac- 
farlane, Esq., owner of 17,939 acres, valued at £903 per 
annum. The grounds are of great beauty, enriched for 
several miles with either natural wood or recent plan- 
tations. A stream, running through the estate to the 
sea, abounds in sea-trout ; and a public school is on the 

Ardmacknish. See Ardnacknish. 

Ardmaddy Castle, a seat of the Earl of Breadalbane 
in Kilbrandon parish, Argyllshire. It stands on a coni- 
cally-shaped rising ground, at the head of a fine small 
bay, opposite Seil island, 2 miles N of Loch Melford and 
12 SSWofOban; commands an extensive prospect of 
sea and land ; is a very old building ; belonged to the 
Macdougals, Lords of Lorn ; passed to the Campbells of 
the House of Argyll ; was occupied and enlarged by 
Lord Neil Campbell, who suffered during the persecu- 
tion in the time of Charles II., and was put to death in 
1685 ; became the residence of Colin Campbell, the father 
of the late Marquis of Breadalbane, and was the birthplace 
of the marquis. Pennant was hospitably entertained at 
it, and wrote, in the form of a vision in it, his reflections 
on the social condition of the Highlands. A small cave, 
in the face of a rock, at a short distance from it, is pointed 
out as a hiding-place of Lord Neil Campbell in the time 
of the persecution. A belt of sea, called Clachan Sound, 
separates the mainland around the castle from Seil 
island ; resembles the Kyles of Bute, but is narrower, 


more diversified, and more richly scenic ; and is spanned 
at the narrowest part by a one-arched bridge. 

Ardmair, a hamlet in the W of Ross-shire, 3 miles 
NW of its post-town Ullapool. 

Ardmarnock, an estate, with a modern mansion (D. 
N. Nicol, Esq. ), in Kilfman parish, Argyllshire, on the 
E side of Loch Fyne, 4| miles NE of Tarbert. 

Ardmeanach, or Mullbuie, a broad-based, extensive, 
ridgy hill, in the counties of Nairn, Ross, and Cromarty, 
forming the backbone of the Black Isle, or peninsula 
between the Beauly and Moray Firths and the Firth of 
Cromarty. Its length, from SW to NE, is about 16 
miles, its culminating point is 838 feet above sea-level, 
and its breadth is proportionate far more to its length 
than to its height. It has a gently-featured outline, 
and commands very pleasant prospects. Its surface, 
for the most part, was long allowed to lie half waste, 
chiefly in a state of commonage, yet was all pro- 
nounced, by good judges, at an early period of the age 
of agricultural improvement to be, every yard of it, 
available for the plough, with generally as good soil as 
the low grounds of the peninsula. Its prevailing rock 
is the Devonian sandstone, and has been extensively 

Ardmellie, an estate, with a mansion, in Marnoch 
parish, Banffshire. The mansion co mm ands an exten- 
sive view of the valley of the Deveron, and the grounds 
have fine features both of natural beauty and of artificial 
embellishment. Catstone or Ardmellie Hill (851 feet), 
the highest ground in the parish, is steep and wooded. 
Limestone abounds, and formerly was worked. 

Ardmherigie. See Ardverikie. 

Ardmichael, a small rocky promontory, with a bury- 
ing place, on the W side of South Uist island, Outer- 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, about 12 miles SSW of the 
south-western extremity of Benbecula. 

Ardmiddle, a hill 557 feet high, and a mansion in 
Turriff parish, N Aberdeenshire. The mansion is the 
seat of Mrs Milne, owner of 1100 acres, valued at 
£1070 per annum. Ardmiddle public school, with ac- 
commodation for 100 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 71, and a grant of £58, 6s. 

Ardmile, a small rocky promontory on the W side of 
South Uist island, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, 4 
miles S of Ardmichael. 

Ardmillan, the seat of Mrs Jas. Craufurd, widow of 
the late judge, Lord Ardmillan (d. 1876), in Girvan 
parish, Ayrshire, on the coast, 2§ miles SSW of Girvan. 
The estate connected with it is believed to be rich in 
copper ore. 

Ardminish, a bay about the middle of the E side of 
Gigha island, Argyllshire. It has good anchorage in 
depths of 6 or 7 fathoms, and is frequented by vessels 
bringing coal, lime, and other imports, and taking 
away the produce of the island. Ardminish Point, 
flanking its N side, with the church and manse of 
Gigha parish at its head, is identified by Skene with 
Arddanesbi, the scene of a naval battle in 719. 

Ardmore, a beautiful wooded promontory in Cardross 
parish, Dumbartonshire, 2J miles SSE of Helensburgh. 
It connects with the mainland by a narrow isthmus ; 
projects about a mile into the Firth of Clyde ; expands 
into a circular head 103 feet high and about 5 fur- 
longs in diameter, popularly called the Hill of Ardmore ; 
consists elsewhere of flat alluvium ; and, at low water, is 
flanked only by bare silt or foreshore. It forms a fine 
feature in the magnificent lagoon-like scenery of the 
Firth. Ardmore House stands upon it, amid pleasant 
grounds, and is a good modern mansion. 

Ardmore, a headland in Kildalton parish, Argyllshire, 
on the E side of Islay island, 5 miles S by E of the S 
end of the Sound of Islay. 

Ardmore, a headland in the N of Mull, Argyllshire, 
nearly opposite Ardnamurchan village. 

Ardmore, a headland in the W of Skye, Inverness- 
shire, in the Vaternish section of Duirinish parish. A 
hostile party of the Macdonalds of Uist once landed 
here, while many of the Macleods of Skye were assembled 
in the adjacent church of Trumpan, and they suddenly 


surrounded the church, set fire to it, and destroyed 
nearly all who were in it ; but, before they got back to 
their boats, a great number of them were slain by a body 
of avengers pouring down upon them at the call of ' the 
fiery cross.' 

Ardmore, a harbour in Eddertoun parish, Ross-shire, 
at the head of the Dornoch Firth, near Tain. It affords 
accommodation to vessels of 150 tons' burden, and is 
frequented in summer by smacks and schooners, chiefly 
with cargoes of coal and lime. 

Ardmucknish, a beautiful bay in Ardchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, at the mouth of Loch Etive, and extending 
from the vicinity of Connel Ferry 2J miles northward to 
the neck of the peninsula of Lochnell. It has a finely 
pebbled beach, is environed with picturesque scenery, 
and commands noble views. The vestiges of the reputed 
ancient capital of Dalriada are on its E side, and will 
be noticed under Berigonium. 

Ardnacallioch, a promontory and a bay at the E end 
of Ulva island, in Argyllshire. The promontory exhi- 
bits, to the S, a remarkably well-defined natural bust 
of an old woman, and it takes thence its name, which 
signifies ' the old wife's point. ' 

Ardnacross, a small bay and an estate in Campbeltown 
parish, Argyllshire, 6 miles NNE of Campbeltown. The 
bay affords anchorage to vessels. 

Ardnadam. See Sandbank. 

Ardnafuaran, a village in Arasaig district, Inverness- 
shire. It is the same as Arasaig village, having merged 
its own proper name in the name of the district. A 
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary stood at it in the 
Romish times, and has left some remains. 

Ardnamurchan (Gael, ard-na-mor-chinn, 'height of 
the great headland '), a hamlet and a promontory in 
Argyllshire, and a parish partly also in Inverness-shire. 
The hamlet lies on the southern coast of the promontory, 
7 miles NNW of Tobermory, and has a post office, with 
money order and savings' bank departments, under Fort- 
William. The promontory forms the extreme NW of 
the mainland of Argyllshire, as also the most westerly 
point of the mainland of Scotland, lying 137 miles in a 
straight line W of the mouth of the South Esk river in 
Forfarshire ; was, from the time of Somerled till the 
reign of James VI. , the boundary between the two great 
divisions of the Hebrides, Northern and Southern ; and 
has a bluff, wild character, more notable in aspect and 
more terrible to mariners than any other headland be- 
tween Cape Wrath and the Mull of Kintyre. The neigh- 
bouring rugged shores have been the destruction of mul- 
titudes of vessels, and the seaboard here, and onward on 
either side for many miles, is all mountainous, bleak, 
and wild. A dreary spot in a creek, at its uttermost 
point, contains the graves of shipwrecked seamen. A 
castle-like lighthouse was built here in 1849, at a cost of 
£13,738 ; its fixed light, 180 feet above sea-level, is 
visible at the distance of 18 nautical miles. 

The parish contains also the post office villages or 
hamlets of Kinlochmoidart, Arasaig, and Strontian, all 
under Fort William, and comprises the districts of Ard- 
namurchan proper, Sunart, Moidakt, Arasaig, and 
South Morar — the first and second in Argyllshire, the 
three others in Inverness-shire. It is bounded N by 
Loch Morar and the river Morar, which separate it 
from North Morar in Glenelg ; NE by the Ardgour, 
Locheil, and Locharchaig districts of Kilmalie; E by 
the Kingerloeh district of Loch Lismore ; S by Loch 
Sunart, which separates it from Morvern ; W and NW 
by the Atlantic. Its greatest length, measured along 
the shortest practicable line of road, cannot be less than 
70 miles, its greatest breadth is about 40 miles, and its 
area is estimated at 200,000 acres of land and 73,280 of 
water. Ardnamurchan proper is a peninsula, extending 
E and W ; projects, at the promontory, 4 miles westward 
of the longitude of Tobermory in Mull ; is washed to 
the S by the northern end of the Sound of Mull and by 
Loch Sunart ; connects, at the E end, by an isthmus of 
3 miles in width, with the Sunart district ; measures 
about 16 miles in length, and about 7 in extreme breadth ; 
and consists chiefly of a range of comparatively low hills, 



running from E to W. Kilchoan or Ardnamurchan 
harbour, adjacent to the hamlet, is of great utility, 
serving for communication with Tobermory and with 
vessels coming up the Sound of Mull, and used to be an 
occasional resort of craft conveying cattle from some of 
the Western islands to the mainland. Glenmore Bay, 
about J mile W of the first narrows within Loch Sunart, 
also affords good anchorage. Much of the seaboard, for 
about 10 miles from the vicinity of the promontory east- 
ward, consists of well-cultivated arable land. The hills 
along the same distance consist of palseozoie rocks, with 
a carpeting of very fine pastoral soil. The seaboard 
farther E includes scanty patches of cultivated land, and 
the hills there consist chiefly of gneiss or mica-slate 
rocks, partly bare, and partly covered with coarse her- 
bage. The isthmus, at the eastern end, is partly flat 
moss, and partly low or sloping ground. Wood is scanty 
throughout the western half, but occurs in considerable 
masses in the S of the eastern. The districts of Ardna- 
murchan proper and Sunart are computed to comprise 
4134 Scotch acres of arable land, 10,371 of pasture, 
259S of woods, 2690 of flat moss, 67,472 of moor, and 
4SS of lakes, or, altogether, 87,753 Scotch acres. Alex- 
ander Macdonald, a Gaelic poet of last century, was a 
native ; a curious episode in the history of the parish 
was the foundation in 1723 of the mining village of New 
York by Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope. Chambers' 
Domestic Annals (iii. 474-476) gives a full account of the 
failure of his plans. Nine proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, and five of between 
£100 and £500. Ancient Caledonian remains, in the 
form of a rude altar with a circle of small stones, and 
known as Fingal's Griddle, are at Ormsaigmore in Ardna- 
murchan proper; and at Ormsaigbeg is a very small 
ruined tower, called the Black Castle of the Minstrels. 
So late as the year 1630, Ardnamurchan proper was a 
parish of itself, called Kilchoan, from a church dedi- 
cated to St Coan ; while the other districts formed the 
separate parish of Eileinfinnan or Island-Finnan, named 
after a beautiful little island in Loch Sheil. The districts 
of Arasaig and South Morar also, in more ancient times, 
formed a third parish, called Kilnrarie or Kilmorie, and 
had its church at Ardnafuaran, now the village of Ara- 
saig. Ardnaniurchan parish is in the presbytery of 
Mull and synod of Argyll ; its minister's income is 
£350. The parish church stands at the hamlet, was 
built in 1830, and contains 600 sittings. Most of the 
quoad sacra parishes of Acharacle and Strontian, and the 
missions of Achosnish, Arasaig, and Laga, are within 
the civil parish, whose own quoad sacra portion had 
2293 inhabitants in 1871. There are Free churches of 
Ardnamurchan and Strontian, Episcopal churches of 
Kinlochmoidart and Strontian, and Roman Catholic 
churches of Arasaig, Glenfmnan, Mingarry, and Glenuig; 
and the quoad sacra parish has eight schools under its 
board — three of them in Argyll, viz., Kilchoan, Kil- 
morie, and Achosnish (Society's) ; and five in Inverness- 
shire, viz., Glenfmnan, Glenuig, Arasaig (Soc), Arasaig 
(R. Cath. ), and Polnish (Soc. ). With total accommoda- 
tion for 457 children, these had (1879) an average 
attendance of 236, and grants amounting to £287, 17s. 
Valuation (1881) £19,455, 9s. 10d., of which £10,372 
was in Argyllshire. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking, 
(1831) 5669, (1861) 4700, (1871) 4259, (1881) 4102, 
of whom 914 were in Ardnamurchan proper. 

Ardnave, a headland in Kilchoman parish, Argyll- 
shire, on the W side of Islay, opposite Nave island, 14 
miles SW of Kuvaill Point. 

Ardneil Bank, a mural cliff at Farland Head in 
AVest Kilbride parish, Ayrshire, 6 miles NNW of Ard- 
rossan. It rises to the height of about 300 feet, extends 
in a straight line to a length of about 1 mile, and is 
separated from the sea-margin only by a very narrow 
belt of verdant land. A crescent-shaped bay here forms 
good bathing ground. 

Ardnoe, a headland at the left side of the mouth of 
Loch Crinan, in Argyllshire. 

Ardo, an estate in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, 1 mile S of Cults station. 


Ardoeh, a hill 700 feet high in the W of Dairy 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Ardoeh, a rivulet in Kilmadock parish, Perthshire, ris- 
ing in the Braes of Doune, and running about 7 miles, 
chiefly south-south-eastward, to the Teith in the neigh- 
bourhood of Doune. 

Ardoeh (Gael, ardach, 'high field'), a parish of S 
Perthshire, containing (1) the village of Greenloaning, 
with a U.P. church, and a station on the Caledonian, 
10| miles NNE of Stirling, and 22£ SW of Perth ; and 
(2) the village of Braco, 1 J mile N of Greenloaning station. 
Standing on the right bank of the Knaik, Braco was feued 
in 1815, and now has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 2 
inns, the parish church (1780 ; 600 sittings), and a Free 
church ; cattle fairs are held at it on the first Wed- 
nesday of January, the first Tuesday of August, and the 
last Tuesday of April and October. Pop. (1836) 384, 
(1861) 337, (1871) 343. 

The parish, formed in 1857 out of Muthill, Dunblane, 
and Blackford, is bounded NW and NE by Muthill, E 
by Blackford, and SE and SW by Dunblane. It has an 
extreme length from NNW to SSE of 9 miles, an extreme 
width from E to W of 7f miles, and an area of 22,280J 
acres, of which 153 are water. The Allan, in its upper 
course, flows 7| miles west-south-westward through Ar- 
doeh, and here receives the Knaik, Bullie, Millstone, 
Muckle, and several other burns ; its valley sinks to less 
than 400 feet above sea-level. From it the surface rises 
northward to 678 feet on Orchill Muir, 525 near Faulds, 
879 on Cambushinnie Hill, 1334 on Cromlet, 1496 on a 
summit marking the western boundary, 1215 on Meall 
a' Choire Raibhaich, and 1117 on Meall a' Choire Odhar 
— southward to 640 feet near Tarneybuckle, and over 
1000 on the western slope of the Corums, this southern 
wing comprising part of Sheriff Muir. Along the 
Allan lie considerable haughs, with, for the most part, a 
good light loamy soil, incumbent on sand or gravel ; the 
rest of the parish is mainly hilly and moorish. The Braco 
estate was formerly held by a branch of the Grahams, 
descendants of the third Earl of Montrose, and baronets 
from 1625 to 1689 ; and its old mansion, Braco Castle, 
1 4 mile NNW of the village, is at present the seat of 
Geo. K. M'Callum, Esq. , owner in the shire of 1838 acres, 
valued at £1155 per annum. Ardoeh House, \ mile E 
of Braco village, is a modem seat of Chs. S. H. Drum- 
mond-Moray, Esq., who owns 24,930 acres, of a yearly 
value of £14,311 ; within its grounds, skirting the Knaik's 
left bank, and occupying the site of Lindum, a town of 
the Damnonii, is the celebrated Roman camp of Ardoeh. 
Traces of numerous Caledonian entrenchments and hill- 
forts occur in such positions in its neighbourhood, as 
clearly to indicate that the Roman forces here made a 
strong and prolonged lodgment, and encountered a vigor- 
ous resistance. The camp is one of the best preserved of 
its kind in Britain ; it challenges attention also for its 
large dimensions ; and it has been the subject of volu- 
minous controversy on questions respecting the scene of 
the great Battle of the Grampians. It consists of four 
parts — the station or citadel, the procestrium, the great 
camp, and the small camp. The station or citadel, de- 
signed as a permanent work, crowns an eminence near 
the E bank of the river, and rising 50 feet above its 
waters, has a quadrangular outline, with the four sides 
nearly facing the cardinal points ; measures, within the 
entrenchments, 420 feet by 375 ; had four gates, three of 
which can still be clearly distinguished ; was defended, 
on the N and E, by five deep ditches and six ramparts, on 
the S by two fossa? and a deep morass, on the W by the 
steep descent to the Knaik, and by two fossae between that 
descent and the river's bank ; and contained a pnetorium 
and accommodation for 1200 men. The prastorium, for 
the general and his staff, is a regular square of 60 feet, 
situated on rising ground to the rear of the station ; 
appears to have been enclosed by a stone wall ; and now 
contains foundations of a building, 30 feet by 27, thought 
to have been a post-Roman place of worship. The pro- 
cestrium adjoins the N side of the station ; seems to have 
been a subsequent work, and strongly fortified ; had an 


oblong form, 1060 by 900 feet ; possessed accommodation 
for 4000 men ; and, excepting vestiges of two gates on the 
N and the S, has all been obliterated by the plough. The 
great camp, lying NW of the procestrium ; has an ap- 
proximately oblong outline, 2800 feet by 1950 ; could ac- 
commodate 26,000 men ; seems to have had, on the 
northern part of the E side, considerable outworks, com- 
prising a square redoubt and a clavicle ; is diametrically 
traversed by the old road from Stirling to Crieff; and can 
now be traced by vestiges in only its eastern half. The 
small camp lies on the W of the great camp, or rather 
lies one-half within that camp, and one-half westward ; 
occupies higher ground than the other works ; appears 
to have been constructed after the great camp ceased to 
be used ; measures 1910 feet by 1340 ; could accommo- 
date 12,000 men ; and is still in a comparatively perfect 
condition (R. Stuart's Caledonia Eomana, Edinb. 1845, 
pp. 187-194). Ardoch is in the presbytery of Auchterarder 
and synod of Perth and Stirling ; its living is worth 
£195. The East and "West public schools at Braeo, and 
a third at Greenloaning, with respective accommodation 
for 71, 60, and 75 children, had (1879) an average at- 
tendance of 34, 66, and 45, and grants of £29, 10s., 
£57, 12s., and £34, 2s. Pop. (1861) 1418, (1871) 1316, 
(1881) 1102.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Ardonald, a place with great limeworks (now aban- 
doned) in Cairnie parish, Aberdeenshire. The quantity 
of calcined lime turned out here, in the years 1818-1841, 
was 620,269 bolls, sold for £69,771. 

Ardovie, a place in Brechin parish, Forfarshire, 2J 
miles SSW of Brechin. 

Ardoyne, a hill, 600 feet above sea-level, in the N of 
Oyne parish, Aberdeenshire. It commands an exten- 
sive view. 

Ardpatrick, a hamlet and a headland at the N side 
of the mouth of West Loch Tarbert, and at the SW 
extremity of Knapdale, Argyllshire. The hamlet is 10 
miles SW of Tarbert, and has a post office, with money 
order and savings' bank departments, under Greenock. 
The headland is said to have been the landing-place of 
St Patrick, on his way from Ireland to Iona. 

Ardrishaig (Gael, arcl-driseaeh, 'height full of briars'), 
a seaport village in South Knapdale parish, and a quoad 
sacra parish partly also in Glassary parish, Argyllshire. 
The village stands on the W side of Loch Gilp, at the 
entrance of the Crinan Canal, 2 miles SSW of Lochgilp- 
head. The entrep6t of the canal, the port of Lochgilp- 
head, and the centre of an extensive herring fishery, 
it mainly consists of plain-looking cottages with a few 
neat villas, pleasantly situated on a green hill-side ; and 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, an excellent hotel, 
a commodious harbour, with a pier and a slip, an Es- 
tablished church (1860), and a Free church. The ves- 
sels passing through the Crinan Canal occasion consider- 
able business, five steamers daily in summer arriving 
and departing from and to Greenock, the chief one of 
them running to Oban, Iona, and Inverness ; large 
quantities of sheep and cattle are shipped ; and dur- 
ing the fishing season, upwards of 100 fishing boats are 
in service. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert landed 
here 18 Aug. 1847, on their way from Inverary to Ard- 
verikie. Pop. of village (1861) 902, (1871) 1177, (1881) 
1209. The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1875, is 
7 miles long and 4 broad, and is in the presbytery of In- 
verary and synod of Argyll ; its minister's income is £182. 

Ardross, a hamlet and a mansion of NE Ross-shire. 
The hamlet, in Rosskeen parish, lies in the valley of 
the Alness river, 5 miles NNW of Alness, under which 
it has a post office. Its public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 111 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 65, and a grant of £77, 15s. 6d. Ardross Castle is 
the seat of Sir Alexander Matheson, Bart. (ere. 1882), 
M. P. , owner of 220,433 acres in the shire, valued at 
£20,246 per annum. A large modern castellated edifice, 
it was altered and improved in 1881 at a cost of nearly 
£7000. The Ardross estates, purchased between 1840 
and 1861, extend between Alness and Rorie Waters 
westward into the uplands along the sources of these 


streams, the former fastness of the clan Ross ; at a cost 
to Mr Matheson of fully £150,000, they have undergone 
vast improvements. 

Ardross, an ancient barony in Elie parish, Fife. It 
comprised the greater part of the parish ; belonged to a 
family of the name of Dischington ; passed, about the 
beginning of the 17th century, to Sir William Scott ; and 
went, about the close of that century, to Sir William An- 
struther. The ruins of its mansion, or old baronial castle, 
still stand on the coast, about 1 mile ENE of Elie village. 

Ardrossan (Gael, ard-rois-an, ' highish foreland '), 
a seaport town and watering-place of Cunninghame, N 
Ayrshire, 1 mile TOW of Saltcoats. By water it is 13 
miles E by N of Brodick in Arran, 144 NNW of Ayr, 
and 87 NE of Belfast ; and by a section of the Glasgow 
and South-Western railway, it is Si miles SSE of Fairlie 
terminus, 6 WSW of Kilwinning Junction, 9-i WNW of 
Irvine, 20J NNW of Ayr, 17i WNW of Kilmarnock, 
31J SW of Glasgow, and 79J WSW of Edinburgh. Ly- 
ing on the northern shore of Ayr Bay, at the entrance 
of the Firth of Clyde, Ardrossan has its own little North 
and Soutli Bays, parted by the low headland of Castle 
Craigs, which got its name from the great stronghold 
of the Montgomeries. By them acquired about 1376 
through marriage with the sole heiress of Sir Hugh de 
Eglinton, this castle according to tradition had been the 
scene of one of Wallace's exploits, who by filing the 
neighbouring hamlet lured forth its English garrison 
to quench the flames, slew them as they returned, and 
cast their bodies into a dungeon, thereafter known as 
' Wallace's Larder. ' Cromwell is said to have demolished 
it ; and its scanty but picturesque remains comprise only 
the angle of one tower, the vaulted kitchen, and two 
arched cellars, with a broad stepped passage leading 
down to them. On the Cannon Hill, hard by, stood 
the old parish church, overwhelmed by the storm of 
1691 ; a tombstone in its kirkyard is sculptured with 
two escutcheons, one of them bearing the lion ram- 
pant of Scotland, and is popularly associated with a war- 
lock baron, the ' Deil o' Ardrossan. ' It was believed 
that ' were any portion of the mould to be taken from 
under this stone and cast into the sea, forthwith would 
ensue a dreadful tempest to devastate sea and land. ' 

The town, which arose as an adjunct of the harbour, 
consists of wide, well-built streets, crossing each other 
at right angles, with a handsome crescent to the E, a 
good many tasteful villas, and the Pavilion, an occasional 
residence of the Earl of Eglinton. Erected into a burgh 
of barony in 1846, it partially adopted the General 
Police Act prior to 1871, and is governed by a provost, 
2 junior magistrates, and 6 commissioners. It has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of 
Scotland and the Royal Bank, 29 insurance agencies, 
a gas and water company, a large hotel with baths 
(1S07 ; refitted 1833), a neat town-hall, a reading-room, 
a library, a Good Templars' hall, a lifeboat institution, 
and two Saturday papers, the Liberal Ardrossan and 
Saltcoats Herald (1853) and the Conservative Ayrshire 
Weekly Neios (1859). Places of worship are the New 
Parish or quoad sacra church (1844 ; cost over £3000 ; 
840 sittings) with a spire, a Free church (1859 ; cost 
£2000) also with a spire, a U.P. church (1857; cost 
£1300), an Evangelical Union church (1S61 ; cost £550), 
and St Andrew's Episcopal church (1875), a good Early 
English structure, at present wanting chancel and tower. 
Two public schools, with respective accommodation for 
138 and 500 children, had (1S79) an average attendance of 
113 and 351, and grants of £98, 17s. 6d. and £345, 9s. 9d. 

The harbour was founded on 31 July 1806 by Hugh, 
twelfth Earl of Eglinton (1740-1819), who the same 
year was raised to the British peerage as Baron Ardros- 
san. Steam-tugs were then unknown, and the naviga- 
tion of the Clyde above the Cumbraes was often baffling 
and tedious, above Port Glasgow open to none but very 
small craft, so his lordship's idea was to make this the 
port of Glasgow, with which it should be connected by 
the Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnstone Canal. Ac- 
cordingly the works were projected on a scale so magni- 



ficent as would have rendered them almost the finest in 
Britain ; but, far exceeding the estimates, they were 
brought to a standstill in 1815, over £100,000 having 
already been expended, and Telford and Eennie requir- 
ing £300,000 more. They were not resumed till 1833, 
when the thirteenth earl came of age, and then were 
completed on a greatly reduced though still considerable 
scale, the total cost being upwards of £200,000, and the 
harbour comprising two tidal basins of 6 and 18 acres, 
and a wet-dock of 4 acres, with 19 feet at high water 
over the lock -sill. The whole is well supplied with steam- 
cranes and other appliances for loading and discharging ; 
whilst a lighthouse with white flashing light stands at 
the N¥ point of the outer breakwater, and a beacon tower 
on sheltering Horse Island, a low and grassy islet of some 
12 acres, lying | mile to the WW. At first a sub-port 
of Irvine, Ardrossan was constituted a head port in 1858, 
and at the close of 1880 had on its register 108 sailing 
vessels of 12,553 and 11 steamers of 3547 tons, against 
an aggregate tonnage of 10,326 in 1S60, 11,396 in'lS64, 
12,173 in 1869, and 12,943 in 1874. The following table 
gives the tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared from 
and to foreign and colonial ports and coastwise, in cargoes 
and also — for the three last years — in ballast : — 

























Of the total, 3117 vessels of 360,293 tons, that entered 
in 1880, 1062 of 210,917 tons were steamers, 2155 of 
175,132 tons were in ballast, and 3055 of 339,011 tons 
were coasters ; whilst the total, 3070 of 365,723 tons, of 
those that cleared, included 1067 steamers of 212,098 
tons, 449 vessels in ballast of 43,937 tons, and 2913 
coasters of 307,991 tons. The principal foreign trade is 
with France, the United States, Spain, and Portugal; and 
imports are timber, grain, limestone, iron ore (S66S tons in 
1878, 1407 in 1879), and pyrites (14,643 tons in 1879) ; 
exports being coal (221,567 tons coastwise, 66,230 to 
foreign countries, in 1879) and pig-iron. In 1879 the 
total value of foreign and colonial imports was £53,671 
(£115,900 in 1S76), of exports £95,543, and of customs 
£66. A floating dock and a patent slip can each accom- 
modate ships of 500, and a graving-dock ships of 1500, 
tons ; and here during 1875-80, 22 sailing vessels of 
1392 tons were built. Fishing employs 15S boats of 
767 tons ; and there are 6 timber yards, a large iron 
foundry, 3 iron-works, besides 3 sail-making, 2 nail- 
making, and 3 block and pump establishments. A grain 
market is held every Thursday, and a fair on the second 
Tuesday of June. Pop. (1837) 920, (1851) 2071, (1861) 
3192, (1871) 3845, (1881) 4009. 

The parish contains also the western portion of Salt- 
coats. Bounded N by Dairy, E by Kilwinning, SE by 
Stovenston, SW by the Firth of Clyde, and W by West 
Kilbride, it has an extreme length from N to S of 4f 
miles, a varying breadth of 1J and 2§ miles, and an area 
of 7145J acres, of which 435| are foreshore and 41^ 
water. Montfode and Stanley Burns descend to the 
shore to W and E of the town, and Caaf "Water with 
its affluent the Munnock Burn traces most of the 
northern boundary ; Knockdewart Loch (If x J fur- 
long), in the NW, is the only lake of the interior, 
Ashmore Loch ( J x J mile) lying just within Stevenston. 
The surface has a general northward rise, attaining 208 
feet near the ruins of Montfode or Montfort Castle 
(If mile NW of the town), 237 near Sorbie, 464 on 
Knockrivock Mount, 351 on Moss Mulloch, 500 near 
Drumcastle Mill, 356 near Low Dykehead, 536 near 
Coalhill, and 794 on the cairn-crowned KnockdewartHills. 
The rocks are chiefly of the Carboniferous formation, in- 
cluding coal and ironstone, neither of them worked, 


and excellent limestone and sandstone. Trap rocks, 
too, at the town, eruptive through the carboniferous 
strata, were largely quarried for the breakwater. The 
soil is generally light and sandy between the shore and 
the foot of the hills, and a stiffish clay on the uplands, 
but almost everywhere has been long and highly culti- 
vated. Much the largest proprietor is the Earl of Eglin"- 
ton, owner in the shire of 23,631 acres of an annual 
value of £49,551 (£9520J for minerals, £45254 for 
harbour works) ; but 4 other landowners hold within 
Ardrossan a yearly value of £500 and upwards, 25 of 
between £100 and £500, 46 of from £50 to £100, and 
114 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Irvine 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, the civil parish is 
divided between two quoad sacra parishes — New Parish, 
consisting of the town, and Ardrossan parish, including 
all the rest, together with a bit of West Kilbride. 
Ardrossan parish has its church at Saltcoats, a living 
worth £403 per annum, and a population (1871) of 
3420. Valuation of civil parish (1843) £11,775, (I860) 
£23,077, (1880) £39,904, 12s., including £2420 for rail- 
ways. Pop. (1801) 1S46, (1821) 3200, (1841) 4947, (1861) 
6776, (1871) 7221, (1881) 7687.— Orel. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Ardrosser. See Ardersier. 

Ardscalpsie, a headland in the W of the Isle of Bute, 
flanking the N side of Scalpsie Bay, 2 miles ESE of the 
S end of Inchmarnock. 

Ardshiel, an estate, with a mansion, in the N of Appin, 
Argyllshire. The mansion stands to the W of Kentallen 
Bay, below the junction of Lochs Linnhe and Leven, 
and belongs to a descendant of the Stewarts of Appin. 
Its owner led 300 Appin Highlanders in the rebellion of 
1745, sharing prominently in the action of Culloden, 
and in the perils which followed. A cave in the side of a 
deep ravine, overhung by Benavere, was his hiding- 
place for about three months. The cave adjoins a rush- 
ing waterfall, which screens it so perfectly, as by a 
curtain, that no stranger coming near it would suspect 
its existence. Sir Walter Scott, in boyhood, was a 
frequent visitor at Ardshiel, and he afterwards drew, 
from recollections of its scenery, some portions of the 
imagery which enriches his works. 

Ardstinchar. See Ballantrae. 

Ardtalnaig, a hamlet in Kenmore parish, Perthshire, 
on the SE shore of Loch Tay, 9-| miles NE of Killin. 
A public school at it, with accommodation for 86 
children, had (1S79) an average attendance of 30, and a 
grant of £41, 12s. 

Ardtella, a small headland and a small bay in Kildalton 
parish, Argyllshire, near the middle of the E side of Islay. 

Ardtoe, a small bay on the N side of Ardnamurchan 
proper, in Argyllshire. It has a small pier, and it 
affords safe harbourage to small coasting vessels. 

Ardtornish. See Artornish. 

Ardtun, a grand basaltic headland in the SW of 
Mull, Argyllshire, projecting from the N side of the 
Ross of Mull, at the mouth of Loch Scriden. It is 
cut by a wild ravine, called the Goblins' Dell ; it rises 
to a height of about 130 feet ; it shows basaltic scarcely 
inferior to those of Staffa ; and it includes a thin stratum 
of coal beneath its basalt, and three leaf beds aggregately 
about 6 feet thick, and probably belonging to the 
middle portion of the geognostic Tertiary period. Dr 
Johnson, when on his way from Inch Kenneth to Iona, 
greatly admired its columnar formation ; and Dr Mae- 
culloch, the present Duke of Argyll, and the late Pro- 
fessor Edward Forbes, made interesting investigations 
into its geological peculiarities. 

Ardullie, a seat of Sir Charles Munro of Foulis, 
Bart., in the E of Ross-shire, 3 miles from Evanton. 

Arduthie, an estate in the SE of Fetteresso parish, 
Kincardineshire. It was purchased, about the year 
1759 for £1500, and long prior to the year 1842 it 
yielded an annual rental of £1000. The New Town of 
Stonehaven was built upon it, and was long called the 
Links of Arduthie. 

Ardvare, a sea-loch, with a small harbour in the IS W 
of Assynt parish, Sutherland, immediately S of Kyle- 
Sku, and 9 miles by land NNE of Loch Inver. 


Ardvarsar. See Ardavasak. 

Ardvech, a place in the SW of Perthshire, near Loch- 

Ardverikie (Gael. ard-a-bh,uiridh, ' height of the 
roaring'), a mansion in Lochaber, Inverness-shire, on 
the SE side of Loch Laggan, 20 J miles WS W of Kingussie. 
It stands on a green flat, at the head of a small bay, 
flanked by a wooded promontory, and was built in 1840 
by the Marquis of Abercorn. From 21 Aug. to 17 Sept. 
1847 it was occupied by the Royal Family, and is de- 
scribed by her Majesty as ' a comfortable shooting-lodge, 
■with many nice rooms in it. Stags' horns are placed 
along the outside and in the passages, and the walls of 
the drawing-room and anteroom are occupied with beauti- 
ful drawings of stags by Landseer' (pp. 56-58 of the 
Queen's Journal, ed. 1877). Ardverikie afterwards 
passed into the possession of Sir John Ramsden of Byroin, 
Yorkshire ; on 15 Oct. 1873 it was almost totally de- 
stroyed by fire, the damage being estimated at nearly 
£50,000. A mound in the garden is said to mark the 
grave of Fergus and four other ancient Scottish kings ; 
the grounds around are said to have been a favourite 
hunting-field of many of the old Scottish monarchs ; and 
in the lake are the Isle of Kings and the Isle of Dogs. The 
hunting grounds now comprise a great extent of moor 
and mountain, are some 40 miles round, and contain 
about 2000 red deer. 

Ardvoirlich, an estate, with a mansion, the property 
of Col. Rt. Stewart, in Comrie parish, Perthshire. The 
mansion stands on the S side of Loch Earn, 9 J miles W 
of Comrie village ; is the Darnlinvarach of Sir Walter 
Scott's Legend of Montrose ; and contains a large gem. 
seemingly white rock crystal, bound with four silver 
bands in very antique workmanship, and long regarded 
by the surrounding population as a talisman, giving to 
water in which it was dipped virtue for healing all sorts 
of diseases of cattle. 

Ardvoirlich, a small bay in Arrochar parish, Dumbar- 
tonshire, on the W side of Loch Lomond, 5 miles N 
of Tarbet. 

Ardvreck. See Assynt. 

Ardvrecknish, a mansion on the E side of Loch Awe, 
in Argyllshire, between Cladich and Port Sonachan. 

Ardwall, an island at the SE entrance of Fleet Bay, 
S Kirkcudbrightshire, \ mile from the mainland, to 
which it is joined at low water. It is 4 furlongs long 
by 2J broad, rises to 109 feet, and, belonging to Borgue, 
had 3 inhabitants in 1871. See also Anwoth. 

Ardwell, an estate, with a mansion and with various 
places of its own name, in Stoneykirk parish, Wigtown- 
shire. It extends across the peninsula between Luce 
Bay and the Irish Sea ; has its mansion about \ mile 
from Luce Bay and 9 miles SE of Portpatrick ; and con- 
tains Mains of Ardwell near the mansion, Ardwell Mill 
2 miles to the N, Lower Ardwell \\ mile to the WNW, 
High Ardwell 1 j mile to the W, South Ardwell 2 miles 
to the SW, and Ardwell Bay and Ardwell Point, on the 
Irish Sea, 2J miles to the WSW. An ancient moat lies 
to the E of the mansion ; and some remains of Cale- 
donian antiquities, variously megalithic and military, 
are in other parts. Ardwell Inn has a post office under 
Stranraer ; and Ardwell School, under the parochial 
board of Stoneykirk, with accommodation for 160 chil- 
dren, had (1879) an average attendance of 105, and a 
grant of £95, 10s. 

Areeming, an estate in Kirkpatrick-Durham parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. An ancient church, unknown to re- 
cord, was on it, and can still be traced in its sub-basement. 

Argrennan, an estate, with a mansion, in Tongland 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. The mansion, the seat of 
John Maitland, Esq., M.P. for the shire (1874-80), stands 
on the river Dee, 4 miles SW of Castle-Douglas. It was 
mainly built about the year 1818 ; bore, for some time, 
the name of Deebank ; and is a spacious edifice, engirt 
by woods. 

Argyll, a district of Argyllshire, bounded NW and N 
by Loch Melford, Loch Avich, and the lower part of Loch 
Awe, which separate it from Lorn ; E and SE by the 
upper reach of Loch Fyne, which separates it from Cowal ; 


S by Loch Gilp and the Crinan Canal, which separate it 
from Knapdale ; W by reaches and straits of the Atlantic 
Ocean, which separate it from the Slate Islands and Mull. 
Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 32 miles ; and its 
greatest breadth is 15 miles. Abounding in grand roman- 
tic scenery of lake and mountain, particularly along Loch 
Fyne, up the course of the river Ary, and along the shores 
of Loch Awe, it is rich, too, in old historic associations ; 
and as to both its contour and its history, it answers well 
to its name, which is said to be derived from the Gaelic 
words Airer-Gaedhil, signifying 'land of the Gael.' It 
has given the title of Earl since 1457, and the title of 
Duke since 1701, in the peerage of Scotland, to the noble 
family of Campbell. — One of the synods of the Church 
of Scotland bears the name of Argyll ; meets at Ardri- 
shaig on the first Wednesday of September ; includes or 
superintends the presbyteries of Inverary, Dunoon, Kin- 
tyre, Islay and Jura, Lorn, and Mull, and, through these, 
exercises jurisdiction over all the old parishes of Argyll- 
shire but one, and over five of the six old parishes of 
Buteshire. Pop. (1871) 90,948, of whom 9581 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1878, when the 
sums raised in Christian liberality by its 76 congrega- 
tions amounted to £7464. — There is also a Free Church 
synod of Argyll, meeting at Lochgilphead on the fourth 
Wednesday of April ; comprising or superintending pres- 
byteries of Dunoon, Inverary, Kintyre, Lorn, Mull, and 
Islay ; and through these exercising jurisdiction over 54 
congregations, with 12,816 members or adherents in 1880. 
— The Episcopal Church of Scotland has a diocese of Argyll 
and the Isles, comprehending 25 churches or mission 
stations. The Cathedral is at Cumbrae, and the bishop's 
residence is Bishopton, near Lochgilphead. — There is also 
a Roman Catholic see of Argyll and the Isles, comprising 
the counties of Argyll and Inverness, Bute, Arran, and 
the Hebrides. In 1881 it had 18 priests, 19 missions, 
37 churches, chapels, and stations, and 4 day schools. 

Argyll's Bowling Green, a range of mountains in the 
NE of Cowal, Argyllshire, occupying the peninsula 
northward from the junction of Lochs Goil and Long. 
Precipitous, rugged, and lofty, they present a savage 
and sublime appearance, with mural cliffs, jumbled 
masses, and wildly jagged summits ; and they form a 
magnificent background or sky-line to most of the 
splendid landscapes seen from the north-westward and 
the northward parts of the upper sweeps of the Firth of 
Clyde. Summits, from S to N, are Meall Daraich 
(474 feet), Clach Bheinn (1433), Tom Molach (1210), 
the Saddle (1704), Beinn Reithe (2141), Cnoc Coinnich 
(2497), and the Brack (2500). 

Argyllshire, a maritime, western, Highland county, the 
second in Scotland as to size, the twelfth as to popula- 
tion. It comprehends a very irregularly outlined por- 
tion of the mainland, and a large number of the Western 
islands, the chief being Mull, Islay, Jura, Tiree, Coll, 
Rum, Lismore, and Colonsay. Extending from the ex- 
tremity of Locheil district 11 miles N of Fort William 
to the extremity of Kintyre, 14 miles NE of the Antrim 
coast of Ireland, it is only 22 miles short of being half 
as long as the entire mainland of Scotland. It is bounded 
N by Inverness-shire, E by Perthshire, Dumbartonshire, 
and the northern ramifications and main expanse of the 
Firth of Clyde, S by the Irish Sea, and AY by the Atlantic 
Ocean. Its greatest length, from N to S, is 115 miles ; 
its greatest breadth, exclusive of the islands, is 55 miles ; 
its greatest breadth, inclusive of the islands, is 87 miles ; 
its breadth, over the southernmost 27 miles, is nowhere 
more than 9J miles ; and its area is 2,083,126 acres, or 
3255 square miles, of which islands comprise about 1000 
square miles. The outlines are so exceedingly irregular, 
the projections of mainland into ocean so bold, the inter- 
sections of mainland by sea-lochs so numerous and great, 
the interlockings of mainland and islands so intricate, 
and the distributions everywhere of land and water so 
manifold and erratic, that no fair notion of them can be 
formed except by examination of a map. No part of the 
interior is more than 12 miles distant from either the sea 
or some sea-loch. The entire circumference has been 
roughly stated at about 460 miles, and the proportion of 




the circumference washed hy sea- water has been roughly 
stated at about 340 miles ; but both of these estimates, 
if all the sinnosities of outline and sea-coast and sea-loch 
shore be followed, are greatly short of the reality. 

The coast has every variety of elevation and contour, 
from alluvial flat and gentle slope to mural cliff and 
towering mountain, but generally is bold and upland, 
and takes much of its character from long narrow inter- 
penetrations of the land by the sea. Loch Moidart and 
Kinnaird Bay are in the extreme NW. Loch Sunart 
strikes far eastward between Ardnamurchan and Morvern. 
The Sound of Mull, with its 'thwarting tides,' separates 
Morvern from Mull, and sends off Loch Aline north-east- 
ward from the vicinity of Artornish. Loch Linnhe 
strikes north-eastward from the SE end of the Sound of 
Mull, embosoms Lismore and Shuna islands, sends off 
Loch Creran to the E, separates Morvern from Appin, and 
ramifies, at its 3STE end, into Lochs Eil and Leven, on 
the boundaries with Inverness-shire. The Firth of Lorn 
strikes southward from the junction of the Sound of Mull 
and Loch Linnhe, sends off Loch Etive far to the E, em- 
bosoms Eerrera island and the Slate islands, separates 
Lorn from Mull, and projects Loch Feochan into Lorn 
and Loch Melford between Lorn and Argyll. Loch Tua, 
Loch-na-Keal, and Loch Scriden deeply intersect the W 
side of Mull. A sound 7 miles wide separates Mull from 
Coll ; and another sound, 3 miles wide, separates Coll from 
Tiree. The Sound of Jura opens from the S end of the 
Firth of Lorn, round Scarba island and past the Gulf of 
Corrievrekin ; projects from its northern part Loch 
Craignish north-north-eastward, and Loch Crinan east- 
south-eastward ; separates Knapdale from Jura and Islay ; 
and is joined on the E side of its lower part by succes- 
sively Loch Swein, Loch Killisport, and West Loch Tar- 
bert, all nearly parallel to one another, and not far from 
parallel to the Sound of Jura itself. Another Loch Tar- 
bert intersects Jura from the W, and nearly cuts it in 
two. The Sound of Islay, a narrow strait, separates Jura 
from Islay ; and Loch Indal, striking with much breadth 
from the SW, penetrates Islay to the centre. The Firth 
of Clyde, in its greatest width or southernmost expanse, 
separates the southern part of Kintyre from Ayrshire. 
Kilbrannan Sound, an arm of the Firth of Clyde, separates 
the upper part of Kintyre from Arran. Loch Fyne, a 
continuation jointly of Kilbrannan Sound and of another 
arm of the Firth of Clyde, penetrates the mainland, first 
north-north-westward, next north-north-eastward ; sepa- 
rates all Cowal from Kintyre, from Knapdale, and from 
Lorn ; and sends off, from the extremity of its north- 
north-westward reach, Loch Gilp, with entrance into the 
Crinan Canal. The Kyles of Bute, a narrow semicircular 
belt of sea, connected at both ends with the Firth of 
Clyde, separates Cowal from the Isle of Bute, and pro- 
jects Loch Riddon and Loch Striven northward into 
Cowal. The upper reach of the Firth of Clyde, leading 
round to the influx of the Clyde river, separates Cowal 
from the Cunninghame district of Ayrshire and from 
Renfrewshire, and projects Holy Loch north-westward 
into Cowal. Loch Long striking northward, nearly in 
a bine with the Firth of Clyde, separates Cowal from 
Dumbartonshire, and projects Loch Goil north-north- 
westward into Cowal. 

The mainland isdivided into the six districts of North- 
ern Argyll, Lorn, Argyll, Cowal, Knapdale, and Kintyre. 
Northern Argyll comprehends all the parts N of Loch 
Linnhe and Loch Eil, and is subdivided into the sub- 
districts of Locheil, Ardgour, Sunart, Ardnamurchan, 
and Morvem. The Lorn district includes Appin sub-dis- 
trict in the NW, and is bounded N by Lochs Linnhe and 
Leven, E by Perthshire, SE by the lower reaches of Loch 
Awe, S by Lochs Avich and Melford, and W by the Firth 
of Lorn. The Argyll district lies immediately S of Lorn, 
aaid is bounded SE by Loch Fyne, S by Loch Gilp and 
the Crinan Canal. The Cowal district is all peninsular, 
or nearly engirt by Loch Fyne, the Kyles of Bute, the 
Firth of Clyde, and Loch Long. The Knapdale district 
is bounded N by the Crinan Canal and Loch Gilp, E by 
the lower reach of Loch Fyne, S by East and West Lochs 
Tarbert. The Kintyre district is all peninsular, stretch- 

ing southward from the Lochs Tarbert to the Irish Sea. 
A few islets lie within the waters or the reaches of the 
Firth of Clyde, and are included in the neighbouring 
mainland districts. The other islands lie all in the 
waters or sea-lochs of the Atlantic, and are classified 
into the three groups of Mull, Lorn, and Jura and Islay. 
The Mull group includes Mull, Carina, Rum, Muck, 
Coll, Tiree, Gometra, Ulva, Staffa, Iona, and a number 
of adjacent islets. The Lorn group includes Lismore, 
Shuna, and some islets in Loch Linnhe ; and Eerrera, 
Seil, Easdale, Luing, Lunga, Scarba, and a number of 
adjacent islets in the Firth of Lorn. The Jura and Islay 
group includes Jura, Islay, Colonsay, Oronsay, Gigha, 
and a number of neighbouring islets. The territorial 
divisions of the county, however, serve mainly to indi- 
cate the physical distribution of its parts, or at best 
afford some aid to tracing the ancient history of its 
several sections, but have not much value for showing 
the distribution of its population, or the facilities and 
means of its economy and government. The entire 
county, therefore, mainland and islands, has been other- 
wise divided into the six districts of Mull, Lorn, Inverary, 
Cowal, Kintyre, and Islay. Mull, in this view, compre- 
hends both the northern territorial division of the main- 
land and the Mull group of islands ; Lorn comprehends 
both the mainland Lorn and the Lorn group of islands ; 
Inverary is identical with the Argyll territorial division ; 
Cowal also is identical with the territorial Cowal ; Kin- 
tyre comprehends part of Knapdale and all territorial 
Kintyre ; and Islay comprehends part of Knapdale and 
all the Jura and Islay group of islands. 

The coasts and sea-lochs present a marvellous wealth 
of picturesque scenery. The views of the Firth of Clyde 
are endlessly diversified ; up Loch Long, are first richly 
impressive, next sternly grand ; up Loch Goil and Holy 
Loch, combine simplicity with grandeur ; round the 
Kyles of Bute, are a circle of witchery ; up Loch Fyne, 
pass from much variety of both shore and hill to strik- 
ing scenes of wooded heights and lofty peaks ; up the 
Firth of Lorn, are a gorgeous panorama of almost all 
styles and combinations of landscape ; up Loch Linnhe, 
or round Mull island, are a rich succession of the beauti- 
ful and the romantic ; and in many other quarters, as 
up Loch Etive, the Sound of Jura, West Loch Tarbert, 
and Kilbrannan Sound, are equally diversified and 
opulent. Their attractions, since the era of steam navi- 
gation, both for summer visitors and for transient tourists, 
have been very great. Not a few places or parts formerly 
without an inhabitant, or possessing only rude clachans 
or small villages, on points of the coasts or sea-lochs most 
easily accessible from Greenock or Glasgow, such as on 
the shores of Loch Long, Loch Goil, Holy Loch, the 
Firth of Clyde, the Kyles of Bute, and Loch Riddon, are 
now occupied by long ranges of villas and cottages-ornees. 
Most of the sea-waters, too, as well those most remote 
from Greenock as those near to it, are daily traversed 
during the summer months, by one or more of a fleet of 
first-rate steamers, carrying crowds of tourists mainly or 
solely to enjoy the delights of the scenery. No equal 
extent of coast in the world combines so largely a rich 
display of landscape with concourse of strangers to behold 
it. A great drawback, however, is excessive humidity 
of the climate, the rainfall at Oban being 65 '29, the 
mean temperature 47 '3. Another drawback, though 
operating vastly more in the summer than in the winter 
months, is occasional, fitful, severe tempestuousness ; 
and this combines with the prevailing boldness and roeki- 
ness of the shores to render navigation perilous. Light- 
houses are at Corran in Loch Eil, Mousedale in Lismore, 
Runa-Gall in the Sound of Mull, Ardnamurchan Point 
at the extreme NW of the mainland, Skerryvore WSW 
of Tiree, Rhu-Vaal at the N end of the Sound of Islay, 
Macarthur's-Head at the S end of the Sound of Islay, 
Ehinns at Oversay in Islay, Dune Point in Loch Indal, 
Skervuile near the S end of the Sound of Jura, Mull of 
Kintyre at the southern extremity of Kintyre, Sanda 
island, 6 miles ESE of the Mull of Kintyre, and Devaar 
island at the mouth of Campbeltown Loch. 

Much of the inland surface is as diversified as tho 


coast, much is as richly picturesque as it ; hut in a main 
degree is wildly mountainous, containing many of the 
loftiest and most massive heights of Scotland, many of 
the longest and deepest glens, many of the largest tracts 
of tabular moor, so as to form no mean portion of ' the 
land of the mountain and the flood. ' Such tracts as the 
glen of the Ary and the shores of the lower parts of 
Loch Awe are pre-eminently brilliant — such as Glencroe, 
Glencoe, and parts of Mull are impressively sublime — 
and such as Staffa island and Ardtun have a romance 
peculiarly their own ; but many others, broad and long, 
are dismal and repulsive. Many tracts closely con- 
tiguous to the very brightest ones on the coast are 
sterile, lofty, trackless moor ; and nearly all the region 
N of Loch Limine, and in the NE of Lorn, and thence 
southward through the centre of Cowal, though inter- 
spersed with narrow sheltered glens, is mountainous, 
rugged, and bleak. The county, as a whole, both main- 
land and islands, with comparatively small exception, 
is little else than a congeries of mountains, cloven with 
glens, and occasionally skirted with low seaboard. Some 
of its mountains are vast isolated masses ; others form 
groups or ranges ; many are so agglomerated one into 
another as to be only summits of great tableaux ; and 
not a few present such conflicting appearances of feature, 
mass, and altitude, as not easily to admit of distinctive 
description. The loftiest or more conspicuous summits 
are Bidean nam Bian, between Glencoe and Glen Etive 
(3766 feet) ; Ben Laoigh, on the Perthshire border (3708) ; 
Ben Cruachan, between Lochs Etive and Awe (3611) ; 
Ben Starav, E of the head of Loch Etive (3541) ; Ben-a- 
Bheithir, SW of Ballachulish (3362) ; Buachaille-Etive, 
overhanging Glen Etive (3345) ; Culvain, on the north- 
ern border (3224) ; Benmore, in Mull (3185) ; Sgor 
Dhomhail, between Lochs Shiel and Linnhe (2915) ; the 
Paps of Jura (2565) ; Ben Arthur, or the Cobbler, at the 
head of Loch Long (2891) ; Benmore, in Rum (2367) ; 
Ben Tarn or Ben Yattan, in Morvern (2306) ; Bishop's 
Seat, W of Dunoon (1651) ; Cruach-Lassa, eastward of 
Loch Swin (1530) ; Ben-an-Tuirc, in Kintyre (1491) ; and 
Ben Varna in Islay, and the Peak of Scarva, each 1500 

The streams are all short and rapid, and mostly rush 
down deep and narrow glens. Among them are numbers 
of torrents careering to the sea-lochs or sea-belts in the 
northern district ; the Creran, the Etive, the Talla, and 
others in the NE ; the Orchy, the Strae, and the Avich, 
running to Loch Awe ; the Awe, voluminous but short, 
carrying off the superfluence of Loch Awe to Loch Etive ; 
the Fyne, the Kinglass, the Shira, the Ary, the Douglas, 
and others, running to the upper part of Loch Fyne ; 
the Cur, running to the head of Loch Eck, and the 
Eachaig carrying off that lake's superfluence to Loch 
Long ; the Ruel, running to the head of Loch Riddon ; 
and a multitude of others, mostly mere burns, in Knap- 
dale, Kintyre, Mull, Jura, and Islay. — The freshwater 
lakes, as also might be expected from the configuration 
of the country, are conspicuous ; and they have been 
computed to cover aggregately an area of about 52,000 
acres. Loch Awe, the largest of them, ranks among the 
first-class lakes, for both extent and pieturesqueness, in 
all Scotland ; expands at its foot around the skirts of 
Ben Cruachan into two great branches, and graduates 
from head to foot in a succession of ever-different and 
ever-increasingly impressive scenery. Other lakes are 
Loehs Avich, lying to the W of the upper centre of Loch 
Awe ; Lydoch, in the extreme NW, and partly within 
Perthshire ; Tolla, in the upper part of Glenorchy ; Eck, 
in Cowal, stretching along a fine graceful glen ; Arienas, 
in Morvern ; Nell, in the N W of Lorn ; Arisa, in Mull, etc. 

Granite forms the great mountain-masses in the NE 
parts of the county, and. south-westward to Ben Cruachan. 
Mica slate predominates in many parts of both the main- 
land and the islands. Porphyry forms an extensive 
tract on the NW side of Loch Fyne. Trap of various 
kinds prevails in some districts ; and basalt, in par- 
ticular, is prominent in Staffa, and in parts of Mull, 
Morvern, and Ardnamurchan. Rocks of the Limestone 
Carboniferous formation, with much sandstone, are in 


the S of Kintyre, and the output here of Drumlemble 
colliery, near Campbeltown, amounted to 105,596 tons in 
1S78, the seam being limited in area, but of great thick- 
ness and highly productive. Thin strata of coal lie 
tilted up and denudated on some small portions of the 
trap ; a thin seam of coal, and small portions of lias and 
tertiary rocks occur in the SW of Slull. Fissile clay 
slate, of quality to form excellent roofing slates, consti- 
tutes the main hulk of Easdalo, Luing, and Seil islands, 
and of a large tract around Ballacht/lish in the N of 
Appin, and both at Easdale and at Ballachulish is very 
extensively quarried. Limestone abounds in many parts, 
and seems to form the whole body of the large rich 
island of Lismore. Marble exists in various parts, and 
occurs of good quality in Tiree and Iona. Lead ore is 
worked in Islay (353 tons in 1879), where copper ore 
also occurs ; and a little cobalt has been found in Glen- 
orchy. Strontites, or carbonate of strontium, became 
first known to mineralogists by the discovery of it in 
1790 in the Strontian lead mines, which were discon- 
tinued in 1855, having been wrought for about 150 
years. A great variety of rare calcareous spars, in- 
cluding splendid specimens of staurolite, also occurs in 
the strontium mines. The summits and shoulders of 
the mountains are generally bare rock ; and large aggre- 
gates of the tableaux and even of the comparatively low 
grounds are utterly barren. A prevalent soil on such 
lofty mountains as are not bare, and along the banks of 
streams descending from these mountains, is gravel 
mixed with vegetable mould. A common soil, or rather 
covering, on extensive moors and on low grounds from 
which water does not freely flow, is peat moss. A pre- 
valent soil in the westerly parts of the mainland and. in 
some of the islands is a barren sand, consisting of dis- 
integrated sandstone or disintegrated mica slate. Most 
of the soil in the fertile parts of Mid Lorn, Nether Lorn, 
Craignish, and other tracts not greatly elevated above 
sea-level, are either disintegrated limestone or disin- 
tegrated slate mixed with coarse limestone ; and the 
former kind is generally light, the latter stiffer. Other 
kinds of soil suited to the plough and more or less fertile 
elsewhere occur, and several kinds sometimes graduate 
imperceptibly into one another. A fine alluvium lies 
along the banks of the lower reaches of some of the 
streams ; a light loam mixed with sand, on a bottom of 
clay or gravel, is common on many low tracts ; and a 
light gravel, incumbent on till, prevails on the skirts and 
acclivities of many hills. 

Agriculture, up to the abolition of the feudal system 
in 1745, and even into the second decade of the present 
century, was in a very low condition ; but, from various 
causes, it has undergone great improvement. The aboli- 
tion of the feudal system, the conversion of corn-rents, 
or rents in kind and services, into money rents, the 
suppression of smuggling, the constructing of the Crinan 
and Caledonian Canals, the formation of good roads 
under the auspices of the parliamentary commissioners, 
the spread of school education and of industrial intelli- 
gence, the introduction and promotion of a system of 
farming suited to the capabilities of the soil and the 
climate, the incorporation of small holdings into pro- 
ductively large farms, the diffusion of information as to 
the best modes of cultivating land and managing live 
stock, and, above all, the introduction of steam naviga- 
tion, with the rich facility afforded by it for reciprocal 
intercourse within the county, and for access to the 
great markets on the Clyde — have, each and severally in 
succession, originated and promoted great agricultural 
improvement. The compensatory results, nevertheless, 
have been greatly more in the department of live stock 
than that of husbandry, as is shown by the comparative 
tables of our Introduction. The cattle are chiefly Kyloes 
or West Highlanders, a small shaggy race, much superior 
to the Dunrobins and Skibos or North Highlanders, 
also older and more improved, likewise divided into 
numerous sub-breeds of very various value ; and, not- 
withstanding their small size, are highly esteemed in 
the general market, and exported in vast numbers to 
the towns on the Clyde, and to places in the E and S. 



The sheep are of the black-faced breed, introduced many 
centuries ago from Northumberland to the southern 
counties of Scotland, and introduced thence about the 
middle of last century to Argyllshire. They are a hardy 
race, well suited to the country and the climate, and 
valuable for their mutton, but have a coarse fleece. 
Red deer abound in several of the forests, especially 
Blaekmount and Dalness ; feathered game is more varied 
than plentiful ; but its streams and lochs make Argyll- 
shire a very angler's paradise. In 1S72 45,641 acres 
were covered with woods, and all over the county plan- 
tations are springing up. 

The manufactures are not great. A large quantity of 
kelp used to be made along the shores, but was driven 
out of the market by foreign barilla. Some leather is 
manufactured, and coarse woollen yarns, stuffs, and 
stockings, for home use, are still extensively made. 
Valuable manufactures of iron have been carried on at 
Bunawe and Islay ; but the Lorn Furnace, at the former 
place, the only one now in the county, was out of blast 
in both 1878 and 1879. The distillation of whisky is 
conducted on a large scale in Islay and at Campbel- 
town. Slates are turned out in vast quantities from the 
quarries of Easdale and Ballachulish. Fisheries through- 
out the Campbeltown and Inverary districts, and partly 
in connection with the Rothesay district, are exten- 
sively conducted in all the surrounding intersecting 
seas. Campbeltown is the only head port ; but the com- 
merce of the county has a vastly wider reach that what 
the shipping of Campbeltown represents, sharing very 
largely in the shipping of Greenock and Glasgow, and 
giving employment to no mean portion of the great fleet 
of steam vessels belonging to the ports of the Clyde. 
No similarly peopled region in any other part of Great 
Britain has such facilities of steamship communication, 
and none with seemingly so few resources supplies so 
large an amount of tonnage to coasting commerce. The 
only railway, the final section of the Callander and 
Oban line, was opened on 1 July 1880. 

The royal burghs are Inverary and Campbeltown ; 
a parliamentary burgh is Oban ; and other towns and 
chief villages are Dunoon, Lochgilphead, Ardrishaig, 
Tobermory, Bowmore, Ballachulish, Tarbert, Kilmun, 
Strone, Kirn, Sandbank, Tighnabruaich, Portnahaven, 
Port Ellen, Port Charlotte, Easdale, and Ellenabuich. 
The chief seats are Inverary Castle, Colonsay House, 
Kildalloig, Strontian, Fassifern, Dunstaffnage, Kilmory, 
Glenfeochan, Achindarroch, Inverneil, Sonachan, Glen- 
daruel, Stonefield, Lochnell, Balliveolan, Possill Aros, 
Jura House, Inverawe, Ormsary, Ballochyle, Glenfin- 
art, Glencreggan, Castle- Toward, Dunans, Eingairloch, 
Glenvar, Airds, Maclachlan, Pennycross, Ardgour, Pol- 
talloch, Kildalton, Coll, Skipness, Ardpatrick, Ard- 
meanach, Orinaig, Benmore, Barcaldine, Dunach, Gal- 
lanach, Fasnacloich, Pennygowan, Carskey, Oatfield, 
Hafton, Glenstriven, Knockdow, Milton, Ardnave, Ard- 
lussa, Daill, Killundine, ITlva, Craignish, Ardkinglass, 
Strachur, Saddell, Sanda, and Asknish. According to 
Miscellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom (1879), 
2,030,948 acres, with total gross estimated rental of 
£430,152, were divided among 2864 landowners; two 
together holding 347,540 acres (rental, £66,837), seven 
419,917 (£61,041), sixteen 489,869 (£44,110), twenty- 
seven 363,570 (£61,906), thirty-four 232,921 (£47,336), 
thirty -eight 121,291 (£28,285), twenty -two 30,413 
(£8392), eto. 

The county is governed (1881) by a lord lieutenant and 
high sheriff, 37 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 4 sub- 
sheriffs, and 143 magistrates. The sub-sheriffs are 
stationed at Inverary, Campbeltown, Tobermory, and 
Fort William. Assizes courts are held twice a-year at 
Inverary ; sheriff small debt courts are held 8 times a- 
year at Dunoon, 4 times at Oban, Lochgilphead, and 
Bowmore ; and quarter sessions are held at Inverary on 
the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, and the 
last Tuesday of October. The police force, in 1880, 
comprised 51 men, and the salary of the chief constable 
was £250. Prisons are at Inverary, Campbeltown, Tober- 
mory, and Fort William ; police cells at Dunoon, Loch- 


gilphead, and Oban. The crimes committed in the 
yearly average of 1841-45, were 135 ; of 1846-50, 136 ; 
of 1851-55, 155; of 1856-60, 151 ; of 1861-65, 111 ; of 
1864-68, 126 ; of 1869-73, 140 ; of 1872-76, 114 ; of 
1875-79, 123. The number of persons, in 1879, tried at 
the instance of the police was 985 ; the number of these 
convicted, 887 ; the number committed for trial, 150 ; 
the number charged but not dealt with, 69. The an- 
nual value of real property in 1815 was £227,493 ; in 
1843, £261,920; in 1873, £429,384 ; and in 1881, 
£499,736 — both the two last exclusive of canals. Be- 
sides its three burghs joining with Ayr, the county 
sends a member to parliament (always a Liberal since 
1857), and in 1881 had a constituency of 3426. Pop. 
(1801) 81,277, (1811) 86,541, (1821) 97,316, (1831) 
100,973, (1841) 97,371, (1851) 89,298, (1861) 79,724, 
(1871) 75,679, (1881) 76,440. 

The registration county gives off part of Small Isles 
parish to Inverness-shire, whilst taking from it part of 
Ardnamurchan ; comprises 38 entire parishes ; and had, in 
1 88 1, a population of 80, 693 , Thirty -three parishes are as- 
sessed, ana 5 unassessed, for the poor. One, Campbeltown, 
has a poorhouse for itself; and 26, in groups of 4, 5, 10, and 
7, have poorhouses in the 4 combinations of Islay, Loch- 
gilphead, Lorn, and Mull. The number of registered 
poor, in the year ending 14 May 1880, was 2353 ; of 
dependents on these, 855 ; of casual poor, 499 ; of depen- 
dents on these, 272. The receipts for the poor in that 
year were £30,087, 12s. 3d., and the expenditure was 
£27,408, 10s. 3jd. The number of pauper lunatics was 
336, and the expenditure on them £6149, 9s. 4d. The 
percentage of illegitimate births was 7'1 in 1S73, 8 '3 in 
1874, 7-6 in 1S77, and 8'0 in 1879. 

Religious statistics have been already given under 
Ap.gtll ; in 1879 the county had 150 public schools 
(accommodation, 13,354), 25 non-public but State- 
aided schools (2204), 11 other efficient elementary schools 
(585), and 2 higher-class non-public schools (105) — 
in all, 188 schools, with accommodation for 16,248, 
the number of children of school age being estimated 
at 13,737. 

An ancient Caledonian tribe, called the Epidii, occu- 
pied the great part of what is now Argyllshire. They 
took their name from the word Eoyd, signifying 'a 
peninsula,' and designating what is now Kintyre, which 
hence was anciently called the Epidian promontory. 
They spread as far N as to Loch Linnhe and the Braes of 
Glenorchy ; they must have lived in a very dispersed 
condition ; they necessarily were cut into sections by 
great natural barriers ; they likewise, from the character 
of their boundaries on the N and the E, must have been 
much separated from the other Caledonian tribes ; and 
they do not appear to have been disturbed even re- 
motely by the Romans. They were, in great degree, an 
isolated people ; and in so far as they had communica- 
tion with other territories than their own, they seem to 
have had it, for a long time, far more with Erin than 
with Caledonia. Some of them, at an early period, pro- 
bably before the Christian era, emigrated to the NE 
coast of Ireland, and laid there the foundation of a 
prosperous settlement, under the name of Dalriada. A 
native tribe, called the Cruithne, was there before them ; 
took its name from words signifying ' eaters of corn ; ' 
is thought to have been addicted to the cultivation of 
the ground, in contrast to a pastoral or roving mode of 
life ; and seems to have easily yielded itself into absorp- 
tion with the immigrants. An intermingled race of 
Epidii and Cruithne arose, took the name of Dalriads 
or Dalriadans, adopted the Christian faith from the early 
Culdees of Erin, and are presumed to have combined the 
comparatively pastoral habits of the Epidii with the 
land-cultivating habits of the Cruithne. A colony of 
these Dalriads or Dalriadans came, in the year 503, to 
Kintyre ; brought with them the practices of the 
Christian religion, and improved practices in the com- 
moner arts of life ; sent off detachments to various 
centres of the old Epidian region, especially to Islay and 
to Lorn ; acquired ascendancy through all the country 
of the Epidii ; and established at Dunstaffnage, in the 



neighbourhood of Oban, a monarchy which is usually 
regarded by historians as the parent monarchy of Scot- 
land. Further notices of that early monarchy will be 
given in our Introduction and under Dunstaffnage. 
King Kenneth, who began to reign at Dunstaffnage in 
835, was the maternal grandson of a king of Pictavia, who 
died without any male heir in 833, and he made a claim 
to be that king's successor, contested the claim for 
several years with two competitors, and eventually en- 
forced it by strength of victory ; united the crown of 
Pictavia to the crown of Dalriada ; and established, in 
breadth and permanency, the kingdom of Scotland. 

The territory now forming Argyllshire, while it had 
been the cradle of the Scottish kingdom, became thence- 
forth no more than an outlying portion of it ; and it 
soon began to be much disturbed by invasions and 
forays of Norsemen and other depredators who swept 
the seas. Numerous battles and heroic achievements, 
in consequence, took place within its bounds ; but 
these, on account of its main territory becoming then 
much linked in history with the entire Western High- 
lands, will be more appropriately noticed in our article 
on the Hebrides. Some great events, indeed, if we 
may repose any confidence in the voice of tradition, 
events relating to Fingal and his heroes, were peculiarly 
its own, or at least belonged largely to its northern 
tracts of Morvern and Glencoe ; but they are too doubt- 
ful and shadowy to admit of other than slight notice in 
merely the articles on the particular localities with which 
they are associated. The Macdougals of Lorn and the 
Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles, were almost independent 
thanes during much of the Middle Ages — the former in 
Lorn, Argyll, and Mull — the latter in Islay, Kintyre, 
and some other parts ; but they were eventually reduced 
to subjection by James III. The leading events during 
their times will be noticed in our article on the He- 
brides. The Stewarts afterwards became the leading 
clan in Appin ; the Macarthurs, about Loch Awe ; the 
Macgregors, in Glenorchy ; the Macnaughtens, about 
parts of Loch Fyne ; the Campbells, in parts of Lorn 
and Argyll. The Campbells, in particular, soon got 
high ascendancy, not only in their own original terri- 
tory, but throughout the county and beyond it ; they 
thoroughly defeated an insurrection of the Macdonalds 
in 1614 ; they extended their own acquisitions of terri- 
tory near and far, till they came to hold an enormous 
proportion of all the land ; and they concentrated their 
strength of descent in the two great noble families of 
Argyll and Breadalbane. The Argyll family got the 
Scottish peerage titles of Baron Campbell in 1452, Earl 
of Argyll in 1457, Baron of Lorn in 1470, Duke of 
Argyll, Marquis of Lorn and Kintyre, Earl of Campbell 
and Cowal, Viscount of Lochowe and Glenisla, and 
Baron Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tiree in 1701 ; they 
also got, in the peerage of Great Britain, the titles of 
Baron Sundridge in 1766 and Baron Hamilton in 1776 ; 
they likewise are hereditary keepers of the castles of 
Dunoon, Dunstaffnage, and Carrick ; and, in 1871, 
through marriage of the Marquis of Lorn, the duke's 
eldest son, to the Princess Louise, they became allied to 
the Royal Family. 

The antiquities of Argyllshire are many and various. 
Caledonian remains, particularly stone circles and me- 
galithic stones, occur frequently. Dalriadic remains, 
or what claim to be such, are prominent at ' Berigonium ' 
and Dunstaffnage. Danish forts, in the shape of what 
are called ' duns,' occur on different parts of the coast. 
Ecclesiastical remains occur on Iona, on Oronsay, in 
Ardchattan, at Kilmun, etc. Mediaeval castles, inter- 
esting for either their history, their architecture, or 
their remains, are at Dun oily, Kilchurn, Artornish, 
Mingarry, Skipness, and Carrick ; and foundations of 
others are at Dunoon, Ardkinglass, and some other 
places. See J. Denholm, Tour to the Principal Lakes 
in Dumbartonshire and Argyllshire (1804) ; Capt. T. P. 
White, Archaeological Sketches in Kintyre and Knapdale 
(2 vols. 1873-75) ; and an excellent article by Duncan 
Clerk, ' On the Agriculture of the County of Argyll,' in 
Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 1878 

Aricliny or Araich-lin, a lake containing trout and 
char, and measuring 6 by 2 J- furlongs, in Kildonan parish, 
Sutherland, 2 miles NNW of Embrace station. 

Arienas, a lake in Morvern district, Argyllshire, send- 
ing off its superfluence by a small rivulet to the head 
of Loch Aline. 

Arinangour, a village in Coll Island, Argyllshire, near 
the middle of the coast. It has a harbour, with a pier, 
and pretty safe, but obstructed at the entrance by rocks. 

Arisaig. See Aeasaig. 

Arity, a rivulet of S Forfarshire. It rises in the N 
of Monikie parish ; runs through a section of Guthrie ; 
intersects Inverarity nearly through the centre ; is joined 
there, on the left, by Corbie Burn ; proceeds along the 
boundary between Kinnettles and Glammis ; falls into 
the Dean river at a point If mile NNE of Glammis 
village ; and has altogether a run, north-westward, of 
about 8 miles. 

Arkindeith, a ruined tower in Avoch parish, Ross- 
shire. It seems to have belonged to a castellated man- 
sion of the early part of the 17th century, probably 
erected by the Bruces of Kinloss, and it is now reduced 
to the lowest or dungeon story. 

Axkland, a place, with a fine view of the picturesque 
valley of the Scarr, in Penpont parish, Dumfriesshire. 

Arkle, a rounded and massive mountain in Eddrachillis 
parish, Sutherland, 4 miles E of the head of Loch Lax- 
ford, and 5 SE of Rhiconich. It rises 2582 feet above 
sea-level, and has a somewhat tabular top, presenting a 
glassy appearance, especially after rain. 

Arklet, a lake in Buchanan parish, Stirlingshire, which, 
commencing within 5 furlongs of the SW shore of Loch 
Katrine, extends 1 mile 1| furlong westward, with a 
breadth of from 2 to 3 furlongs. It abounds in fine red- 
fleshed trout, presents a gloomy appearance, is followed 
along its northern side by the road from Loch Katrine 
to Inversnaid, and sends off a stream of its own name, 
about 2| miles westward to Loch Lomond at Inveesnaid. 

Arlary, an estate, with a mansion (R Glass), in Orwell 
parish, Kinross-shire, 1J mile NE of Milnathort. 

Armadale, a police burgh in Bathgate parish, W Lin- 
lithgowshire, 2J miles W by S of Bathgate town, and 1 
mile N by W of a station of its own name on the Edin- 
burgh-Airdrie-Glasgow section of the North British. 
Standing amid extensive fields of coal and ironstone, 
limestone, and brick-clay, it was merely a hamlet up to 
about 1851, when, owing to the establishment of neigh- 
bouring chemical and paraffin works, it suddenly rose to 
a town. At present it is lighted with gas, and has a 
post office under Bathgate, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments ; an Established mis- 
sion church (minister's salary £120 ; 300 attendants), a 
Free church, St Paul's Episcopal church (built 1858 ; 
300 attendants), and a Wesleyan chapel, while the one 
public school open in 1879 had then accommodation 
for 400 children, an average attendance of 300, and a 
grant of £199, 14s. Pop. of burgh (1861) 2504, (1871) 
2708, (1881) 2642, besides 383 in landward portion. 

Armadale, a fishing village, a bay, and a burn, in 
Farr parish, NE Sutherland. The village stands to the 
W of the bay, at 200 feet of elevation, and has a post 
office under Thurso, 23 miles to the E by N. The bay, 
flanked eastward by Strathy Point, is 2| miles wide and 
If mile long, its innermost indentation being f mile 
long, and from 5 to 3J furlongs wide, and it is one of 
the few points in all the rock-bound coast of Farr where 
boats may land in moderate weather. The burn runs 5 
miles NNE and NNW from Loch Buidhe Mor to the 
head of the bay. 

Armadale Castle, the seat of Lord Macdonald, in Sleat 
parish, Isle of Skye, on the S coast, 7 miles NE of Sleat 
Point. It stands on a gentle slope, amid well-wooded 
grounds ; is a Gothic edifice of 1815, after a design by 
Gillespie Graham ; has an octagonal tower on each side 
of the doorway ; contains an elegant portrait of Somerled, 
Lord of the Isles, in stained glass, by Egginton of Bir- 
mingham ; and commands an extensive view of the sub- 
limely picturesque seaboard of Glenelg, Knoidart, Morar, 
and Arasaig. 



Armit, a rivulet of Berwickshire and Edinburghshire, 
running about 8 miles south-westward to the Gala, at a 
point about 1 mile N of Fountainhall station. 

Arnabost, a hamlet with a public school in Coll island, 

Arnage, a railway station in Ellon parish, E Aberdeen- 
shire, on the Aberdeen-Peterhead branch of the Great 
North of Scotland railway, 3k miles N by W of Ellon. 
Arnage House (J. L. Ross), 5 furlongs 1STNE, is an old 
and interesting Gothic mansion, formerly the seat of the 
Cheynes, towhom.belonged Jas. Cheyne (d. 1602), rector 
of the Scots college at Douay. 

Arnal, a burn in Barvas parish, island of Lewis, run- 
ning about 6 miles to the Atlantic. 

Arnbarrow, a hill 1060 feet high in the Wof Fordoun 
parish, Kincardineshire, projecting as a spur from a low 
range of the Grampians. 

Arnbeg, a place in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire, about 
1 mile W of Kippen village, famous for the observance 
of the Lord's Supper at it, by a large assemblage of Cove- 
nanters, under cloud of night, in the year 1676. 

Arnbrae, a hamlet in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, 1 
mile W of Kilsyth. Oliver Cromwell spent a night in a 
house in it which still is, or recently was, standing. 

Arncroaeh, a village in Carnbee parish, Fife, 2f miles 
ENE of Colinsburgh. It has a post office under Pitten- 
weem, and it contains a Free church, designated of Carn- 
bee, and a public school. 

Arndilly. See Boharm. 

Arneybog, a mineral tract, with a colliery in the N of 
Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

Arnfinlay, an ancient castle in Kippen parish, near the 
Forth boundary between Perthshire and Stirlingshire. 

Arngask, a parish in the counties of Perth, Kinross, 
and Fife, near whose meeting-point, and towards the 
centre of the parish, is the village of Damhead (with a 
post office under Kinross), 3 miles MW of Mawcarse 
station, and 4§ N by E of the post-town Milnathort. 
Duncrevie, f mile S of Damhead, is another small village 
in Arngask, which is bounded N by Dron, E by Aber- 
nethy, SE by Strathmiglo, S by Orwell, and W by For- 
teviot and Forgandenny. Its greatest length from 1ST to 
S is 4 J miles ; its breadth is 4 miles ; and its area is 6455| 
acres, of which 2820J belong to Perthshire, 1801 to Kin- 
ross-shire, and 1834J to Fife. The upper waters of the 
beautiful Farg have a length of about 5 miles within 
the parish, dividing its Perthshire portion from the re- 
maining two, and here receiving the Strawyearn and other 
burns ; in the Perthshire portion are Loch Whirr and 
two smaller lakelets. The surface is charmingly diver- 
sified with hills belonging to the Ochil system, elevations 
from N to S being Berry Hill (900 feet), and points near 
Letham (789), the Church (588), Pittillock (670), Plains 
on the western border (973), and Candy (830). The rocks 
are chiefly various kinds of trap, and the soils, for the 
most part, consist of disintegrations of these rocks, and 
generally have a black loamy character. About 1300 
acres are uncultivated, and some 240 under wood, the 
whole being pastoral rather than arable. Some 28 pro- 
prietors (10 of them resident) hold each an annual value 
of £50 and upwards. Arngask is in the presbytery of 
Kinross and synod of Fife ; the minister's income is £210. 
The original church was a private chapel of the Balvaird 
family, and in 1282was granted to Cambuskenneth Abbey. 
The present building, erected in 1806, had 380 sittings 
as enlarged in 1821, and was restored in 1879. There is 
also a Free church in the presbytery of Perth and synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; and a public school, with accom- 
modation for 155 children, had (1879) an average attend- 
ance of 102, and a grant of £90, 5s. Valuation (1881) 
of Perthshire portion, £2505, lis. 4d. ; of Fife portion, 
£2375, 14s. 8d. Pop. (1831) 712, (1861) 705, (1871) 565, 
(1881) 547.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Arngibbon, the seat of "Wm. Forrester, Esq. (b. 1861 ; 
sue. 1878), in the Perthshire portion of Kippen parish, 
2 miles S by E of Port of Menteith station. 

Arngomery, the seat of Mich. J. Jamieson, Esq., 
in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire, f mile W of Kippen 


Arnhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Fettercairn 
parish, Kincardineshire, at the boundary with Forfar- 
shire, 6-J miles W by S of Laurencekirk. The estate was 
purchased by Mr Brodie, from Sir David Carnegie, in 1796, 
for £22,500 ; had been undergoing great improvement ; 
and continued in Mr Brodie's hands to undergo much 
further improvement ; was sold in 1814 to Mr John 
Shand for £70,000, and afterwards, in reclamation of 
moss, and in other ways, was further greatly improved. 
A small establishment is on it for carding wool and mak- 
ing coarse woollen cloth. 

Arniefoul, a village in Glamis parish, Forfarshire, 
2J miles SSE of Glamis station. 

Araisdale, a village in Glenelg parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the side of Loch Hourn, amid sublime scenery, about 
13 miles S of Glenelg village. 

Arnish, a headland, with a lighthouse and a beacon, 
at the S side of the entrance of Loch Stornoway, in the 
island of Lewis. See Stornoway. 

Amisort, a hamlet in the Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, 
on a sea-loch of its own name, branching from Loch 
Snizort. It has a post office under Portree. 

Arniston, an estate in Borthwick and Temple parishes, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion on it stands on the 
South Esk river, If mile WSW of Fushiebridge station, 
is a massive and imposing edifice of no great age, and 
has extensive and very beautiful grounds. The original 
estate was comparatively small ; belonged to Sir James 
Dundas, who was knighted by James V. ; has come 
down regularly to his descendants, famous as lawyers 
and as statesmen ; and has, from time to time, been 
greatly enlarged by additions from neighbouring pro- 
perties. The soil of most of it was naturally poor, but 
has been much improved by art. Rich beds of coal here 
have been largely worked ; and the Emily Pit has a 
depth of 160 fathoms, being the deepest in the E of 
Scotland. Sawmills and other industrial works also are 
on the estate. 

Arnot. See Armit. 

Arnprior, a village in the Perthshire section of Kippen 
parish, near the Forth and Clyde railway, 2J miles W 
of Kippen village. 

Arnsheen, a hamlet and a quoad sacra parish in Col- 
monell parish, Ayrshire. The hamlet is 12 miles S of 
Girvan. The quoad sacra parish contains also the vil- 
lage of Barrhill with a post office under Girvan ; was 
constituted in 1872 ; had then a population of about 
1100 ; and is in the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of 
Galloway. Stipend £143, with a manse. The church is 
in Arnsheen hamlet, was originally a chapel of ease, 
and cost only about £240. 

Arntully, a village and an estate in Kinclaven parish, 
Perthshire. The village stands If mile NiSTW of Stan- 
ley Junction station, is inhabited by linen weavers, but 
has greatly declined. The estate was improved at a cost 
of nearly £4000 immediately before 1843, and was then 
undergoing further improvement. 

Aros, a village, an ancient castle, a rivulet, and a bay, 
on the NE coast of Mull island, Argyllshire. The vil- 
lage stands contiguous to the bay, 7 miles SSE of Tober- 
mory, on the road thence to at once the south-eastern, 
the southern, and the western parts of the island ; over- 
looks the central part of the Sound of Mull ; is the resi- 
dence of the Duke of Argyll's factor ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, under Oban, and an inn. The castle stands 
on a high basaltic promontory at the side of the bay ; 
was built before the time of Robert Bruce, and inhabited 
by the Lords of the Isles ; was defended, on the land 
side, by moat and drawbridge ; has a spacious esplanade 
extending to the extremity of the rock, and probably 
enclosed by a wall ; was itself no more than a massive 
oblong tower, about 40 feet high ; and is now reduced 
to two of its walls and part of a third. The site of it is 
strong, and the grounds adjacent to it soar into wild 
cliffs, seamed by fissures and channelled by cascades. 
The rivulet drains Loch Eriza, a lake about 4 miles long, 
extending to within 3 miles of Tobermory ; and it runs 
from the lake about 3J miles south-eastward to the bay 


at the village. The bay has not much capacity, and is 
of half-moon outline ; yet is made by Sir Walter Scott 
the rendezvous of the ships of the ' Lord of the Isles,' — 

' Look, where beneath the castle grey, 
His fleet unmoors from Aros Bay.' 

Arpafeilie, a place in the Black Isle district of Ross- 
shire. It has St John's Episcopal chapel (1816), and its 
post-town is Fortrose, under Inverness. 

Arran (Gael, 'lofty isle'), an island of Buteshire, 
forming the southern and larger portion of that county. 
It lies, like the rest of Buteshire, in the Firth of Clyde, 
being bounded SW and NW by Kilbrannan Sound, 
which separates it from Kintyre in Argyllshire ; NE by 
the Sound of Bute, parting it from the Isle of Bute ; and 
E and S by the main expanse of the Firth. Measuring 
at the narrowest, its extreme points are 3 miles E of 
Kintyre, 5| SW of the Isle of Bute, 9 J W by S of the 
mainland of Ayrshire, and respectively 13 N and 30 N 
by W of Ailsa Craig and Kirkholm Point at the mouth 
of Loch Ryan. Its outline is that of an irregular ellipse, 
little indented by bays or inlets, and extending length- 
wise from N to S. Its greatest length is 19 J miles ; its 
greatest breadth is lOf miles, contracting to 7i at a line 
drawn westward from Brodick Bay ; and its area is about 
165 square miles. Its W side and its N end communi- 
cate with steamers plying between Greenock and Camp- 
beltown ; its E side is regularly visited by steamers from 
Greenock, both by way of Rothesay and by way of Mill- 
port, and by steamers in connection with trains from 
Glasgow at Ardrossan ; and its S end communicates with 
steamers plying between Ayr and Campbeltown. Its N 
end has a post office of Lochranza under Greenock ; 
and its other parts have post offices of Arran, Corrie, 
Brodick, Lanilash (money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph), Shiskine, and Kilmorie, under Ardrossan. 
Its principal place of thoroughfare is Brodick, midway 
along'the eastern coast, 14 miles WSW of Ardrossan, lih 
SW of Millport, and 26 SSW of Rothesay; and its next 
largest is Lamlash, on the same coast, 5-| miles farther 
S. Its shores and surface are wonderfully picturesque, 
exhibiting landscape in almost every style', from the 
softly gentle to the sublimely terrible. The views of it, 
in all directions, at any distance, either from the Clyde 
itself or from its far extending screens, are very striking ; 
the views within it, both on the seaboard and in the 
interior, are endlessly diversified ; and the views from 
it, specially from its higher central vantage grounds, 
display the richest combinations of land and water, in- 
tricate shore-lines, and grand mountain backgrounds. A 
carriage road round it, generally near the shore, commands 
no mean proportion of all the scenery ; but only wild 
footpaths, or no paths at all, practicable by none but 
mountaineers, lead up to the sublimest views among its 
glens and mountains. Its geology, mineralogy, botany, 
zoology, and even, in some degree, its angling and its 
archaeology, likewise possess the highest attractions, and 
have combined with its gorgeous scenery to draw to it 
annually, since the era of steam navigation, great num- 
bers of summer tourists. Much of its E coast, in par- 
ticular, vies now with the most favourite seaside places 
higher up the Firth as a summer retreat, not only to 
families from Greenock and Glasgow, but to families 
from the E of Scotland. 

A flat belt of land, in form of a terrace, from 10 to 20 
feet above the present tide-level, and from a few yards 
to i mile broad, goes round all the shore ; consists of an 
ancient sea-beach, common to all the banks of the Firth 
of Clyde as far up as Dumbarton ; is bounded, on the 
land side, by sea- worn cliffs, pierced in many parts with 
caves or torn with fissures ; and is traversed, with a few 
intervals, by the road round all the coast. The views 
from this terrace inland are modified, from stage to 
stage, by the structure of the interior ; sometimes are 
blocked by lofty wall-like cliffs ; sometimes are overhung 
by cloud-piercing mountain summits ; sometimes include 
romantic features on the seaward side ; sometimes sweep 
far into stupendous glens ; and sometimes open over 
bays or over considerable expanses of low land. Chief 


seaward cliffs, or other striking seaward features, are 
Holy Isle, in the mouth of Lamlash Bay, rising tier 
above tier to the altitude of 1030 feet ; Clauchlands 
Hills, 2 miles N of Holy Isle, at the point of a penin- 
sular tract eastward of the carnage road, rising 800 feet 
from the shore, and pierced with caves ; the skirts of 
Goatfell, 3$ miles N of Brodick, coming precipitously 
down from alpine mural abutments, and terminating 
in romantic cavernous cliffs ; the Fallen Rocks, on the 
sea-face of an isolated mountain ridge, 5 miles NNW 
of the Goatfell cliffs, only approachable by wary walk- 
ing, and looking like an avalanche of shattered blocks 
of rock rushing to the shore ; the Scriden Rocks, near 
the northern extremity of the island, or 3 miles NW 
of the Fallen Rocks, and presenting an appearance simi- 
lar to theirs, but on a grander scale ; and the Struey 
Rocks, at the southern extremity of the island, a short 
way E of Lag, and consisting of a range of basaltic sea 
cliffs, rising to the altitude of 400 feet, deeply cut by 
vertical fissures, and pierced by a curious, long, wide 
cavern, the Black Cave. The chief glens descending 
to the coast are Glen Cloy, Glen Shurig, and Glen Rosie, 
converging to a mountainous semi-amphitheatre, round 
the head of Brodick Bay ; Glen Sannox, opening out 
from behind the alpine buttresses of Goatfell, and pre- 
eminently silent, sombre, stupendous, and impressive ; 
Glen Ranza, commencing in precipices nearly 1000 feet 
high, and descending about 4 miles to the head of Loch 
Ranza, 2 miles SW of the Scriden Rocks ; Glen Catacol, 
coming down from alpine central mountains, with itself 
a romantic pastoral character, to a small bay, 2 miles 
SSW of the mouth of Loch Ranza ; and Glen Iorsa, 
descending S§ miles south-south-westward from grand 
central mountains, joined on its right side by two long 
ravines, and declining toward the coast, 9 miles S of the 
mouth of Glen Catacol. The chief bays are Lamlash 
Bay, measuring 2J miles across the mouth, occupied 
more than one-half there by Holy Isle, and forming one 
of the best harbours of refuge to be found anywhere in 
Great Britain ; Brodick Bay, 2J miles across the mouth, 
having a half-moon outline, and engirt by successively 
a smooth beach, a sweep of plain, and the mountainous 
semi-amphitheatre cloven by Glen Cloy, Glen Shurig, 
and Glen Rosie ; Loch Ranza, at the mouth of Glen 
Ranza, 7 furlongs long and 3| wide, with a pleasant 
verdant peninsula projecting from its SW shore ; Mach- 
rie Bay, southward from the mouth of Glen Iorsa, de- 
scribing the segment of a circle 3J miles along the chord 
and about 1 mile thence to the inmost shore ; Druma- 
doon Bay at the S end of a range of cavernous cliffs 
about 300 feet high, extending about 2 miles to it from 
the S end of Machrie Bay, and forming itself a segmen- 
tary indentation about 1 J mile along the chord ; and 
Whiting Bay, separated on the S from Lamlash Bay only 
by Kingscross Point, and forming a crescent 3 miles 

The northern half of the island is densely mountain- 
ous. Its many summits look, in some views, like a 
forest of peaks ; range in altitude from the Cock of 
Arran, at the northern extremity, 1083 feet high, to the 
top of Goatfell, 2 miles from the eastern shore, and 3 
NNW of the head of Brodick Bay, 2866 feet high ; and 
are interlocked or conjoined with one another at great 
heights, by spurs and cross ridges. But the masses, 
though all interconnected, are easily divisible into the 
three groups of Goatfell, Cir Vohr or Mhor, and Ben 
Varen or Bharrain. The Goatfell group rises so abruptly 
and ruggedly from the E shore as to present a stern ap- 
pearance from the sea ; has a bold ascent from the S, 
yet in such gradients as permit it to be scaled without 
difficulty by two paths leading up from Brodick ; starts 
aloft on both the W and N in mural cliffs and tremen- 
dous acclivities from encircling glens, yet projects high 
spurs toward the adjacent Cir Vohr group on the W, in- 
cluding a col or cross ridge, 1000 feet high ; and spreads 
in its upper part into a kind of triangular tableau, with 
divergencies eastward, southward, and westward. The 
Cir Vohr group extends 7\ miles northward and south- 
ward, at a distance of about 34 miles from the E 



shore ; has a sharp, jagged, irregular summit-line, no- 
where much lower than 1600 feet above sea-level ; 
and lifts at least 3 peaks to altitudes of 2000 feet and 
upwards, these being Castell-Avael, 2735 feet high, 
with Cir Vohr proper (2618 feet) and Ben Tarsuinn 
(2706) to the SE and S. The Ben Varen group is situated 
to the W of Cir Vohr ; extends parallel with it, or about 7 
miles northward'and southward ; has greater breadth but 
less height and less sublimity than either the Goatfell or 
the Cir Vohr group, culminating at 2345 feet ; is longi- 
tudinally split by the upper part of Glen Iorsa, so as to 
flank both sides of that glen ; and, as seen from the 
mouth of Glen Catacol, presents an outline like that of 
a long house with rounded roof, and shows on its summit 
two great mural reaches of granite blocks meeting each 
other at right angles. The southern half of the island 
consists of a rolling plateau, fronted round the coast with 
declivities, breaks, and cliffs of much romantic beauty, 
but characterised through the interior by tameness and 
bleakness. The plateau has a general elevation of from 
500 to 800 feet above sea-level ; and is traversed by irre- 
gular ridges, generally in a direction nearly E and W, 
and rising to elevations of from 1100 to 1600 feet above 
sea-level. Glens and vales descend to the E, S, and W ; 
have mostly a mountainous or loftily upland character 
round their head ; decline to a comparatively lowland 
character in their progress ; and, in many instances, 
are so interlaced that the upper parts of westward ones 
are nearer the E coast than the upper parts of eastward 
ones, and the upper parts of eastward ones nearer the W 
coast than the upper parts of westward ones. The close 
views throughout the S aggregately are very far inferior 
to those throughout the N, but the more distant views 
there, especially the views thence of the northern 
mountains, are very grand. 

The rocks of Arran, both igneous and sedimentary, 
are exceedingly diversified ; they also, in their relations 
to one another, and in their mutual contacts, present 
very interesting phenomena ; and at once by their 
geological ages, by their inter-connectional character, 
and by their lithological constitution, they are unparal- 
leled by the rocks of any equal extent of territory in 
almost any part of the globe, and form, in a main degree, 
an epitome of the geology of Britain. ' The variety, in- 
deed, ' says Dr Bryce, ' is so great, and the interest so 
lively and pleasing, which an examination of the struc- 
ture of the island and its charming scenery excites, that, 
as Professor Phillips has remarked, every geologist who 
visits Arran is tempted to write about it, and finds 
something to add to what has already been put on 
record. For the student there cannot be a finer field. 
The primary azoic rocks, the metamorphic slates, the 
lower palaeozoic strata, the newer erupted rocks, and 
phenomena of glacial action, may all be examined by 
him in easy excursions of a few days ; and the exposi- 
tion of the strata is so complete in the rugged moun- 
tains, deep precipitous glens, and unbroken sea- coast 
sections, that the island may truly be called a grand 
museum arranged for his instruction by the hand of 
nature. ' Granite forms all the northern region to within 
from 1 mile to 1J mile from the shore, but is of coarse 
grain in the coastward parts, of fine grain in the interior 
parts, and has been the subject of much recent discus- 
sion among geologists as to its age. Metamorphic 
slates form a belt round all the granitic region, extend- 
ing quite to the shore in all the NW and W, and 
measuring averagely about 1 mile in breadth along the 
S, but separated by other rocks from the shore on the E 
and NE. Devonian rocks form a belt exterior to the 
slate belt, along all the E, SW, and S, from the Fallen 
Eocks on the N to Machrie Bay on the W ; about 1 mile 
wide at Glen Sannox, very much narrower further S 
and onward to the SW, but widening to about 2f miles 
in the extreme W. Carboniferous rocks form a 
narrow belt along the NE coast, from beyond the 
Scriden Rocks to the Fallen Rocks ; form again a 
broader belt on the E seaboard, from a point N of Corrie 
down to Brodick Bay ; expand there into a belt from 
3J to 4J miles broad, southward to Lamlash Bay, and 


eastward and westward across the whole width of the 
island ; are interrupted throughout a considerable 
aggregate of that broad belt by regions and patches of 
other rocks ; send ramifications from around Lamlash 
Bay southward and south-westward along the E coast 
and along Monamore Glen and Glen Scorsdale ; ramify 
thence again into narrow belts along most of the S coast 
and through four parts of the interior ; and finally form a 
very narrow belt along the N end and W side of Holy 
Isle. Porphyritic rocks form two patches 2 miles SE 
and 1J mile SW of Brodick ; form another patch on the 
W coast at Drumadoon Point ; form another region 
about 2J miles by 1J on the coast immediately SSE of 
Drumadoon Bay ; form also a patch on the S coast at 
the E side of the Struey Eocks ; and finally form the 
greater portion of Holy Isle. Trap rocks, variously 
greenstone, basalt, and of other kinds, form three con- 
siderable isolated patches at the E coast, the E centre, 
and the W central parts of the great Carboniferous belt 
which extends across the island, and form all the region 
between that great belt and the S coast, except the por- 
tions occupied by the Carboniferous ramifications and by 
the porphyritic rocks. Beautiful crystals of amethyst 
are found in quartzose sandstone on the S side of Glen 
Cloy ; smoke quartz crystals are found in coarse-grained 
and rapidly disintegrating granite on the great northern 
mountain ridge ; sulphate ofbarytes is found and worked 
in Glen Sannox ; and numerous other interesting 
minerals are found in other places. 

The chief streams are the rivulets or torrents rush- 
ing down the great glens in the NE, the N, and the 
NW ; the Iorsa, traversing Glen Iorsa down to the N of 
Machrie Bay ; the Machrie, running about 6 miles 
south-westward to the southern part of Machrie Bay ; 
the Black Water, running about 6 miles west-south- 
westward and southward to Drumadoon Bay ; the Slid- 
dery, running about 6 miles south-south-westward to a 
point 4J miles SSE of the mouth of the Black Water ; 
the Torrylin, running about 5 miles south-westward 
to a point 2 miles W of the Struey Eocks ; the Ash- 
dale, running 4 miles south-eastward and eastward to 
Whiting Bay ; and the Monamore and the Benlister, 
running respectively about 3f and 3 miles eastward to 
Lamlash Bay. The rarer plants of the island, or those 
which either are nearly peculiar to it or can seldom be 
found in other parts of Scotland than the W coast, 
amount to no fewer than about 320 species ; and the 
marine animals amount to about 283 species. Adders 
exist, contrary to a statement in Farrar's St Paul, three 
having been killed here in the summer of 1880. The 
agricultural statistics are included in those of Bute- 
shire, but only about S000 acres are arable ; about 613 
acres are under wood ; and a considerable aggregate of 
ground on the NE and the NW coast is under coppice. 
The island is divided, territorially, into the districts of 
Lamlash, Brodick, Lochranza, Shiskine, and Southend ; 
politically, into the parish of Kilmorie in the W, and 
the parish of Kilbride in the E ; ecclesiastically, into 
the old parishes of Kilmorie and Kilbride, and the quoad 
sacra parish of Brodick ; registrationally, into the dis- 
tricts of Kilbride, Brodick, Kilmorie, and Lochranza. 
The chief villages are Brodick, Lamlash, Whiting Bay, 
Lochranza, and Corrie — all of them lying on the coast. 
The chief residences are Brodick Castle, Kilmichael, 
Corriegills, and numerous villas. The whole, with the 
exception of the estate of Kirkmichael (3632 acres), be- 
longs to the Duke of Hamilton. Valuation (1881) 
£20,157. Pop. (1801) 5179, (1821) 6541, (1841) 6241, 
(1861) 5574, (1871) 5234, (1881) 4673, of whom 2854 were 

The Monarina of Ptolemy, Arran is associated in 
legendary story with Fingal and his heroes ; and it 
may really have been the scene of unrecorded events 
to which those legends owe their origin. The Norse- 
men are known to the Irish annalists as Fiongall, or 
'white foreigners ;' and early Norsemen not improbably 
made descents on the coasts of Arran ; while later 
Norsemen are certainly known to have held posses- 
sion of its territory. Somerled, ruler of Argyll in the 


12tli century, founder of the great family of Macdonald, 
Lords of the Isles, wrested Arran and Bute from the 
power of Norway, and retained possession of them till 
his defeat and death at Renfrew (1164). A division of 
Arran is thought to have been attempted between his 
sons Reginald and Angus, and is conjectured to have been 
the reason of a deadly feud which arose between these 
brothers. Arran and Bute, nevertheless, appear to have 
reverted to the dominion of Norway, and to have lain 
more or less under it till 1266, when they were poli- 
tically detached from the Western Isles with which 
they had been associated, and were annexed directly to 
the Scottish Crown. Robert Bruce, after his defeat at 
Methven (1306), and after seeking refuge in successively 
Aberdeenshire, Breadalbane, Argyllshire, and the Irish 
island of Rathlin, in Arran once more raised his stan- 
dard. Sir James Douglas, with a band of Bruce's de- 
voted adherents, had contrived to retain the island, and 
to seize Brodick Castle, which had been garrisoned by 
the English ; and Bruce, coming hither from Rathlin, 
with a fleet of 33 galleys and 300 men, joined Douglas' 
band ; made preparation here for a descent on the main- 
land ; and, at a preconcerted signal fire, lighted near 
Turnberry Castle on the coast of Ayrshire, sailed hence 
to drive the English from Scotland, and to make his way 
securely to the throne. A cave, partly artificial, in the 
range of cliffs between Machrie and Drumadoon Bays, 
is said to have been his temporary abode prior to his 
going to Rathlin, and bears the name of the King's 
Cave ; and the promontory between Whiting and Lam- 
lash Bays is said to have been the point whence he set 
sail for Ayrshire, and bears the name of King's Cross. 
Arran was erected into an earldom in favour of Sir 
Thomas Boyd in 1467, on his marriage to the Princess 
Mary, eldest sister of James III., but as to both estates 
in it, and peerage title, it soon passed to the family of 
Hamilton ; and, save for the usurpation of Captain 
James Stewart (1581-85), it has continued to belong to 
the Hamilton family till the present day. The chief 
antiquities in the island are many cairns and megalithic 
standing stones, several imperfect stone circles, a few 
Norse or Danish forts, slight Columban vestiges on Holy 
Isle, the site of St Bride's Convent at Loch Ranza, a 
ruined monastic cell at Balnacula, a ruined chapel at 
Binniegarragan, a ruined castle at Loch Ranza, the 
ancient watch-tower or small fortalice of Kildonan, at 
the south-eastern extremity of the island, and the 
older portions of Brodick Castle. See D. Landsborough, 
Arran, its Topography, Natural History, and Antiqui- 
ties (Edinb. 1851 ; 2d ed., by his son ; Lond. 1875) ; 
Jas. Bryce, The Geology, etc., of Arran (Edinb. 1864 ; 4th 
ed., 1875) ; Jn. M 'Arthur, Antiquities of Arran, with 
an Historical Sketch of the Island (Glasg. 1861) ; and 
Arch. M'Neilage, ' On the Agriculture of Bute and 
Arran,' in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 1SS1. 

Arran, Cock of, an isolated sandstone hill, on the N 
coast of Arran, in the eastern vicinity of the Scriden 
Rocks, and 2£ miles E of the mouth of Loch Ranza. It 
rises direct from the beach to an altitude of 1083 feet ; 
is a noted landmark to mariners ; and used, when seen 
in front from the sea, to have an outline like that of a 
cock, with outspread wings, in the act of crowing, but 
now, having lost its head, has less that appearance than 

Arrienhas. See Aeienas. 

Arrochar, a village and a parish of N Dumbartonshire. 
The village stands on the eastern side of the head of salt- 
water Loch Long, -with Ben Artht/r (2891 feet) rising 
right opposite ; it is If mile W by S of Tarbet on Loch 
Lomond, 20J miles E by S of Inverary, and 17J N of 
Helensburgh, with the two first places communicating 
by coach, by steamer with the last. It has a post and 
telegraph office under Dumbarton, an excellent hotel, 
and a number of pleasant villas ; here Coleridge parted 
from Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy, 29 Aug. 1803. 

The parish is bounded N by Killin in Perthshire, E 
by Buchanan in Stirlingshire and by Loch Lomond 
(i to 1 mile in breadth), S by Luss, and W by Row, 
Loch Long, and Lochgoilhead parish in Argyllshire. 


From N to S it has an extreme length of 12J miles ; its 
width from E to W varies between 1 J and 6 j miles ; and 
its area is 28,832J acres, of which 58f are foreshore and 
2915J water. Most of the Perthshire border is traced 
by the Aldernan running eastward, and the Allt-Innse 
westward, to the Fallooh, which has a southerly course 
in Arrochar to the head of Loch Lomond of 1J mile. 
From Luss the parish is parted by the Douglas, flowing 
eastward to Loch Lomond, and from Argyllshire for 2J 
miles by Loin Water, flowing southward to the head of 
Loch Long ; whilst the chief stream of the interior is 
Inveruglas Water, running 2J miles south-eastward and 
eastward to Loch Lomond out of Loch Sloy, a lonely 
lake that, 9 furlongs long but barely 1 in width, lies 
midway between Ben Vorlich and Ben Vane. Save for 
the isthmus between the village and Tarbet, and for 
narrow strips along the lochs and streams, the surface 
everywhere is grandly mountainous. The principal 
heights are, eastward of the Falloch and Loch Lomond, 
*Parlan Hill (2001 feet), Cnap Mor (536), Cruach (1675), 
*Stob nan Eighrach (2011), and *Beinn a' Choin (2524); 
and westward thereof, from N to S, 'Beinn Damhain 
(2242), Stoban Fhithich (1272), Cnap na Cliche (1611), 
*Maol Breac (2115), *Maol Meadhonach (1981), Cnoc 
(1614), Ben Vorlich (3092), Little Hills (2602), *Beinn 
Dhubh (2509), *Ben Vane (3004), Dubh Chnoc (945), 
Cruach Tairbeirt (1364), Ben Reoch (2168), *Tullick 
Hill (2075), Beinn Bhreac (2233), and Stob Gobhlach 
(1413), where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate just on or close to the borders of the parish. 
The rocks consist mainly of mica slate, though including 
some clay slate, amorphous quartz, and trap veins ; of 
arable land there are hardly 400 acres, but woods and 
plantations cover a considerable area along Lochs Lomond 
and Long. From the 13th down to the 18th century, 
this was the country of the ' wild Maefarlane's plaided 
clan,' who took their slogan from their gathering place, 
Loch Sloy. Supporters of the Stewart Earls of Lennox, 
they fought at Glasgow Muir, and Pinkie, and Langside; 
but one of the last of them, Walter Macfarlane of that 
ilk, the antiquary (d. 1767), is ' no less celebrated among 
historians as the collector of ancient records than were 
his ancestors among the other Highland chiefs for 
prowess in the field' (Keltie's Scottish Highlands, 1875, 
vol. ii., pp. 173-175). At present by far the largest pro- 
prietor is Sir Jas. Colquhoun of Luss. Lord Jeffrey's 
favourite residence, Stuckgown House, which lies on 
Loch Lomond, 1 mile SSE of Tarbet, belongs to Jas. 
M 'Munich, Esq., owner of S51 acres in the shire, valued 
at £814 per annum ; and other mansions are Blarannich, 
\\ mile NNE of Tarbet, and Benreoch House, near the 
village. Disjoined from Luss in 1658, Arrochar is in 
the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; the living is worth £2S5. The parish church 
(rebuilt in 1847) stands just to the S of the village, and 
a Free church J mile W of Tarbet ; whilst Arrochar 
public school, with accommodation for 92 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 29, and a grant of £29, 
6s. 9d. Valuation (1SS1) £5291, 14s. Pop. (1801) 470, 
(1841) 580, (1851) 562, (1861) 629, (1871) 525, (1881) 
517.— Orel. Sur., sh. 36, 1871. See pp. 77-81, 115-119, 
of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by 
Princ. Shairp, 1874). 

Arrol. See Ekkol. 

Artendol or Arndilly. See Boharm. 

Arthurhouse, a farm in Garvock parish, Kincardine- 
shire. About one-fourth of a cairn is on it, some 20 
feet in diameter, recently enclosed within a planted tract 
of fully half an acre. The other three-fourths of the 
cairn were removed about 1830 for conversion into road 
metal, and were then found to conceal a megalithic stone 
circle, and to cover an ancient sarcophagus ; among 
the stones of them, near the outskirts, were found two 
coins of respectively Alexander I. and Robert Bruce, and 
about twenty other coins, seemingly of silver, but so 
greatly corroded as to be undecipherable. 

Arthurlee, an ancient estate, now divided among 
various proprietors, and dotted with mansions, public 
works, and villages, in the immediate vicinity of Barr- 



head, on the NE border of Neilston parish, Renfrewshire. 
The estate belonged to a branch of the Darnley family, 
and continued till the latter part of the 18th century to 
be rural ; but it then and afterwards was cut into sections 
with diversity of names, and became a seat of great manu- 
facturing industry. One of the earliest bleachfields in 
Scotland was established at Cross-Arthurlee about 1773 ; 
a cotton mill was built at Central-Arthmiee in 1790 ; a 
new and very extensive printfield for all kinds of calicoes 
was established at South-Arthurlee in 1835 ; and other 
works and erections at subsequent dates have brought 
the entire place into connection with Barrhead The 
Glasgow and Neilston branch of the Caledonian railway 
runs through its western part, and has a station at 
Barrhead. The chief mansions are Arthurlee House 
and Upper Arthurlee House, both on the E side of 
Barrhead. The chief villages are Cross-Arthurlee and 
West-Arthurlee ; and these, in 1861, had populations of 
663 and 474 ; in 1871, of 790 and 481. 

Arthur's Oven or Arthur's O'on, a famous quondam 
Roman antiquity in Larbert parish, Stirlingshire, on a 
sloping bank about 300 feet N of the NW corner of the 
Carron iron-works. It was demolished in 1743, for the 
purpose of lining a mill-dam across Carron river ; was 
considered up to the time of its destruction to be the 
most complete and best preserved Roman building in 
Great Britain ; was described and discussed in enthusi- 
astic manner by many antiquaries ; was accurately 
depicted in Camden's Britannia, and in several later 
works of high authority ; can still be well understood 
by means of copies of the drawings made of it ; and 
perhaps may continue for many ages as interesting 
to the curious as any great existing monument. The fol- 
lowing account of it is given in R. Stuart's Caledonia 
JLomana (1845) : — ' This building was of a circular form, 
its shape in some measure resembling that of a common 
beehive. It measured at the base from 29 to 30 yards in 
circumference, and continued of the same dimensions to 
the height of 8 feet, from which point it converged gra- 
dually inwards in its ascent, till at an elevation of 22 feet 
the walls terminated in a circle, leaving in the top of the 
dome a round opening 12 feet in diameter. On its 
western side was an arched doorway, 9 feet in extreme 
height, and above it an aperture resembling a window 
of a slightly triangular form, 3 feet in height, and 
averaging nearly the same in width. The whole was 
formed of hewn freestone, laid in regular horizontal 
courses, the first of them resting upon a thick massive 
basement of the same material, which, to follow out the 
simile, represented with curious fidelity the common 
circular board on which the cottage hive is usually 
placed. The interior of the structure corresponded 
with its general appearance from without, the only 
difference being in the concavity of the shape, and in its 
having two projecting stone cornices round its interior 
surface, the one at a height of 4 and the other of 6 feet 
from the ground. The style of the workmanship was 
singularly perfect, and showed an intimate acquaintance 
with masonic art. No cement of any description had 
been made use of in its construction, yet the stones were 
so accurately joined together that even the difficult 
process of forming so diminutive a cupola by the con- 
centration of horizontal courses was accomplished there 
in the. most skilful and enduring manner.' 

Arthur's Seat, a picturesque and conspicuous hill in 
the immediate eastern environs of Edinburgh. It cul- 
minates at a point above 1J mile SE of the centre of 
the city ; has an altitude of 822 feet above the level of the 
sea ; descends rollingly, to the N and to the E, over a 
base each way of about 5 furlongs ; presents an abrupt 
shoulder to the S ; and breaks down precipitously to 
the W. A narrow dingle, called the Hunter's Bog, 
extends N and S along its western base. Salisbury 
Craigs rise in regular gradient from the western side of 
the Hunter's Bog to a height of 574 feet above the 
level of the sea ; break sharply down in a semicircular 
sweep, with bold convexity toward the city ; are crested 
round the brow of the semicircle, to an average depth 
of 60 feet, with naked wall of rugged greenstone 


cliff; and thence descend rapidly to environing low 
ground, with smooth and regular declivity, in form of a 
talus. Both Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Craigs are 
within the Queen's Park ; and the Queen's Drive runs 
3J miles round them, at altitudes of from 112 to 390 
feet. Both command most magnificent views of the city, 
and of a great extent of country, away to distant horizons 
— from Ben Lomond to North Berwick Law, and from the 
Ochils to the Lammermuirs. A fragment of the chapel 
of St Anthony's Hermitage, founded in 1435, is on a pre- 
cipitous knoll at the N base of Arthur's Seat ; and a 
spring, St Anthony's Well, celebrated in the old plaintive 
song, ' O waly, waly up yon bank,' is at the SW foot of 
the knoll. Mushet's Cairn, marking the scene of a 
terrible wife murder in 1720, was in 1822 transferred 
from Hunter's Bog to near the Jock's Lodge entrance, 
that George IV. might see it without wetting his feet. 
Three lochs lie around the hill — to the N, St Margaret's 
(240 x 85 yards) ; to the E, Dunsappie (233 x 67 yards), 
at 360 feet of altitude ; and to the SE, Duddingston 
(580 x 267 yards). The S end of Arthur's Seat, projecting 
with abrupt shoulder from the central mass, terminates at 
the base, partly in what is called the Echoing Rock, an 
isolated rugged eminence giving off good reverberations 
to the S, and partly in what is called Samson's Ribs, 
a lofty cliff exhibiting a range of basaltic columns. The 
outline of the hill, as seen at some little distance 
from the WSW, closely resembles that of a lion 
couchant. The summit is small, tabular, and rocky ; 
was one of the stations of the Trigonometrical Survey ; 
and is so strongly magnetic that the needle, at some 
points of it, is completely reversed. The general mass 
of the hill comprises a diversity of eruptive rocks, to- 
gether with some interposed and uptilted sedimentary 
ones ; and it forms a rich study to geologists, and pre- 
sents phenomena about which the ablest of them disagree 
or are in doubt. The chief rock is trap, which in vast 
tabular masses has broken through the carboniferous 
strata, and frequently encloses portions of hardened sand- 
stone, the whole presenting many interesting geological 
features, volcanic and glacial, which are discussed in C. 
Maclaren's Geology of Fife and the Lothians (1866), J. 
W. Judd's ' Structure and Age of Arthur's Seat ' {Journal 
London Geol. Soc., 1S75); and A. Geikie's Geology of the 
Neighbourhood of Edinburgh (1876). See also pp. 256- 
258 of J. Hunnewell's Lands of Scott (1871). 

Arthur's Seat, a rock in Dunnichen parish, Forfar- 
shire, on the N side of Dunbarrow hill. 

Arthur's Seat, Argyllshire. See Ben Arthur. 

Artney, a rivulet in Comrie parish, Perthshire, tra- 
versing the upper part of Glenartney, and becoming 
identified with the river Paichil. 

Artornish, a ruined dark -grey castle in Morvern dis- 
trict, Argyllshire, on a low basaltic headland of the 
Sound of Mull, at the E side of the entrance of Loch 
Aline, 3J miles TOW of the point of Inninmore. A 
stronghold of the Lords of the Isles, and meeting-place 
of their legislative assemblies, it is said to have been 
the scene of negotiations between the fourth Lord and 
Edward I. of England, which issued in a league 
against the crown of Scotland. It now comprises 
little more than the remains of a keep and some 
fragments of outer defences ; but, in the times of its 
integrity, it was a place of great strength and splendour. 
Sir Walter Scott describes it as ' on its frowning steep, 
twixt cloud and ocean hung ; ' he speaks of its ' turret's 
airy head, slender and steep, and battled round, o'er- 
looking Mull ; ' he mentions its raised portcullis arch, 
' the wicket with its gates of brass, the entrance long 
and low, flanked at each turn by loopholes ; ' he de- 
picts the passage to it, hewn through a rock, ' so straight, 
so high, so steep, that, with peasant's staff, one valiant 
hand might well the dizzy pass have mann'd 'gainst 
hundreds armed with spear and brand, and plunged 
them in the deep ; ' and he makes the castle the gather- 
ing place of magnates and minstrels, ' from mainland and 
from isle, Ross, Arran, Islay, and Argyll,' to do honour 
to the nuptials of the hapless maid of Lorn. 

Ary. See Akay. 



Ascaig, a lake, measuring 6J by 1$ furlongs, in Kil- 
donan parish, Sutherland, 3| miles NW of Kildonan 

Ascog, a village, a bay, and a lake in the E of the 
isle of Bute. The village is in Eingarth parish ; com- 
mences on the coast 1J mile SE of Rothesay ; extends 
about 2 miles southward along the shore ; consists of 
a chain or uncontinuous line of neat houses ; and has 
a post office under Rothesay, a Free church, and a bury- 
ing-ground, with the grave of the painter Montague 
Stanley. Ascog House, Ascog Hall, Ascog Bank, Ascog 
Tower, Ascog Point House, Ascog Lodge, Mid Ascog 
House, Craigmore, Mountfort, and other pleasant resi- 
dences are in the neighbourhood. The bay indents the 
coast 1 J mile S of Bogany Point at the entrance of Rothe- 
say Bay, but is of small extent. The lake, on the mutual 
boundary of Eingarth and Rothesay parishes, is 1 mile 
long, and from 1 to 2 furlongs wide, and contains pike 
and perch. 

Ascrib, a cluster of uninhabited islets in Duirinish 
parish, Skye, Inverness-shire, nearly in the centre of 
Loch Snizort. 

Ashare, the northern of the three divisions of Ed- 
drachillis parish, Sutherland. 

Ashdale, a rivulet and a glen in the S of Eilbride 
parish, SE Arran. The rivulet, rising at 1300 feet above 
the sea, runs 4 miles SE and E to Whiting Bay ; and 
makes two beautiful cascades, 50 and more than 100 feet 
in leap. The glen is grandly picturesque, and presents 
some interesting basaltic features. 

Ashdow, a narrow, winding, picturesque ravine in the 
W of Killearn parish, Stirlingshire, in the course of 
Carnock burn, 3 miles SW of Killearn village. It 
occurs in red sandstone rock, is about 70 feet deep, 
has the closeness and the obscurity of a chasm, and is 
wildly adorned with overhanging woods. 

Ashenyard or Ashgrove, a triangular lake (J x J mile) 
in the extreme N of Stevenston parish, Ayrshire. 

Ashey or Ashie, a lake in Dores parish, Inverness-shire, 
2 miles W of the foot of Loch Ness, and 1\ SSW of In- 
verness. It is about 2 miles long, by \ mile broad, sup- 
plies Inverness with water, and contains trout running 
up to 4 lbs. but very shy. 

Ashfield, a hamlet, with a public school, in North 
Enapdale parish, Argyllshire. 

Ashiesteel, a mansion in the N of Yarrow parish, 
Selkirkshire, on the S bank of the Tweed, 5-i miles WSW 
of Galashiels. Long a seat of the Russefls, of Indian 
military fame, it was tenanted from 1804 to 1812 by their 
kinsman Walter Scott, then Sheriff of Selkirkshire. It 
stands on a beautiful reach of the river, backed by green 
Peel Hill (991 feet), Ashiesteel Hill (1314), and South 
Height (1493) ; and is a Border tower with five additions 
of different dates. The house in Scott's day possessed 
its present centre and W wing ; the N bedroom was his 
library and dressing-room ; a ground-floor room at the 
end of the W wing was drawing-room ; and what is now 
a passage was both the dining and his writing room, in 
which were composed the Lay of tlie Last Minstrel, the 
Lady of the Lake, and Marmion, as well as about a 
third of Waverley. The present owner is Miss Russell, 
daughter of General Sir James Russell, K.C.B. (1781- 
1859), and grand-daughter of Coh Wm. Russell (d. 1S02). 

Ashintully, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkmichael 
parish, Perthshire, 15 miles NNW of Blairgowrie. 

Ashkirk, a village of W Roxburghshire, and a parish 
partly also in Selkirkshire. The village stands on the 
right bank of the Ale, 5 J miles S of Selkirk station, and 
64 NNW of Hawick, and has a post office under the 
latter town. 

The parish is bounded NW by Selkirk parish, E by 
Lilliesleaf, SE by Wilton, S by Roberton, SW by a de- 
tached portion of Selkirk parish, and W by Kirkhope ; 
its Selkirkshire portion is in two sections — the eastern 
lying detached from, the south-western compact with, 
the main body of that county. The length of the entire 
parish, from NE to SW is 7f miles ; its breadth varies 
between 5 furlongs and 3| miles ; and the area of the 
Roxburghshire portion is S417 acres, of which 78J- are 

water ; that of the Selkirkshire portion 3385 acres, of 
which 2161 are in the detached section and 15f water. 
The river Ale winds for about 6 miles from the south- 
western to the north-eastern border, and here receives 
the Woo, Todrig, and Woll burns ; with it communicate 
the little lochs of Shielswood, Ashkirk, Essenside, and 
Headshaw. The surface is hilly, the principal heights, 
as one descends the Ale, being, on the left hand, Ham- 
mel Side (1022 feet), Whitslade Hill (1134), Leap Hill 
(1047), 3 nameless summits (1030, 1126, and 1178), Broad- 
lee Hill (S71), Woll Rig (1113), Headshaw (896), Stob- 
shaw Hill (1051), and Cock Edge (990) ; on the right 
hand, Esdale Law (1167), Cringie Law (1155), Ashkirk 
Hill (967), and Blackcastle (908). The rocks are chiefly 
greywacke and clay slate ; marl is plentiful and of ex- 
cellent quality ; and the soil is in some parts peaty, in 
most parts light and sandy, about 2800 acres being 
under the plough, and some 400 planted. Near the 
manse stood a residence of the archbishops of Glas- 
gow, whose site is still known as ' Palace Walls ; ' of a 
strong baronial fortaliee at Salanside hardly a trace 
remains. An ancient camp at Castleside is fairly en- 
tire, and vestiges of others occur at various points. Up 
to the Reformation great part of Ashkirk belonged to the 
see of Glasgow, and later almost all of it was divided 
among the family of Scott. The principal mansions are 
Ashkirk House, Sinton House, and Woll House ; and 6 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 5 of between £100 and £500. This parish is in 
the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale ; the minister's income is £433. The church, built 
in 1791, contains 202 sittings ; and there is also a Free 
church with 200 sittings ; whilst a public school, with 
accommodation for 131 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 84, and a grant of £97, 6s. Valuation 
(1880) £7955, 13s. 2d. (incl. £2727, 5s. 8d. in Selkirk- 
shire). Pop. (1831) 597, (1861) 578, (1871) 550 
(148 in Selkirkshire), (1S81) 500.— Oral. Sur., sh. 17, 

Ashley, an estate, with the seat of Mrs W. H. Brown, 
in Ratlio parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles ESE of Ratho 

Ashton, the south-western part of Gourock village, in 
Innerkip parish, Renfrewshire. Commencing at Kem- 
pock Point, it extends about 1 mile along the shore, its site 
being chiefly a narrow belt of low ground, overhung by 
steep braes. It includes some houses on a line of terrace- 
road across the face of these braes, together with gar- 
dens running down the slopes ; and is mainly an array of 
spacious two-story houses and handsome villas, with a 
neat United Presbyterian church on the low ground, and 
a small Episcopalian chapel on the upper terrace. Bright 
and attractive in appearance, it confronts the exquisite 
scenery on the western screens of the Firth of Clyde, 
from Roseneath peninsula, round by Loch Long, Kilmun 
Hill and Holy Loch, to the long sweep of Dunoon town 
and Bishop's Seat ; and is a favourite summer retreat and 
bathing-place of the citizens of Glasgow. The part of 
it nearest Kempock, and fully h mile onward, is some- 
times called West Bay; while the part further on is 
more distinctively known as Ashton. 

Askaig, Port, a seaport village on the NE coast of 
Islay, near the middle of the S side of the Sound of Islay, 
opposite Jura, 10 miles NNE of Bowmore. It has a 
post ofBce, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, under Greenock, and a good inn ; it 
communicates regularly with the steamers from the Clyde 
to Islay ; and it forms "the best landing-place for tourists 
who wish to get a good knowledge of the island. Lead 
mines were, at one time, worked a little to the NW. 

Aslisk, a ruined baronial fortaliee in the N of Elgin- 
shire, 5 miles E by N of Forres. 

Assel, a rivulet of Girvan parish, Ayrshire, running 
about 5 miles south-westward to the Stinchar, opposite 
Pinmore House, in Colmonell. 

Assleed, a rivulet of Aberdeenshire, rising in the NE 
of Monquhitter parish, separating that parish from the 
parishes of New Deer and Methlick, and pursuing alto- 
gether a southerly course of about 7h miles to the Ythan. 



Assynt (Gael, as agus innte, ' out and in '), a hamlet 
and a coast parish of SW Sutherland. The hamlet, 
called also Inchnadamff, stands at the head of Loch 
Assynt, 33J miles WNW of Lairg station, and 13 E of 
Lochinver ; comprises the parish church (built about 
1770 ; repaired 1816 ; and seating 270), a Free church, 
an inn, and a post office under Lairg, with money order 
and savings' bank departments ; and holds fairs on the 
Friday of August before Kyle of Sutherland, and the 
Monday of September before Beauly. Lochinver is the 
chief place in the parish, lying at the NE angle of a sea- 
loch of its own name, which is 2J miles long, and from 
3 to 6 furlongs wide. A Glasgow steamer calls at its pier 
fortnightly in winter, weekly in summer ; and it has an 
Established mission church, a post office under Lairg, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
and an inn ; whilst Culag House, a former lodge here of 
the Duke of Sutherland, was opened in May 1880 as a 
first-class hotel, with accommodation for 60 guests, and 
shooting and fishing over 12,000 acres. Other inns are 
Unapool, at Kylesku Ferry, 10 miles N by W of Inchna- 
damff ; and Altnakealgach, on the south-eastern border, 
7J miles S by E. 

The parish is hounded W and N by the Minch, NE 
by the great sea-loch Kylesku and its south-eastern 
branch Glexooul, E by Eddrachillis, Creich, and Ross- 
shire, and S by the western portion of Cromarty, from 
which it is separated by Lochs Veyatie and Feyto, and 
by the river Kirkaig, the link and outlet of those long, 
narrow lakes. It is 18 miles long from Unapool to the 
Cromalt Hills, and 16J wide from Coinne-mheall to Rhu- 
kirkaig ; its area is 119,677J acres. From Kylesku Ferry 
westward to the Point of Stoir is a distance of 10 miles, 
and thence south-south-eastward to Loch Kirkaig of 11^ 
more ; hut both distances would be trebled or quadrupled, 
were one to follow the infinite windings of the high, rock- 
bound coast — the bays or lochs of Ardvar, Nedd, Clais- 
messie, Culkein, Ballcladich, Stoir, Clachtoll, Roe, Inver, 
and Kirkaig. Along it are scattered some 30 uninhabited 
islands and islets, the largest being Ellen-na-ghawn in 
Kylesku, Ellen-riri, Oldany, and Crona on the northern, 
Soyea and Clette on the south-western, coast. Inland, 
' rough moor and heather-tufted rock alternate with lochs, 
which lie under some of the wildest and most imposing 
mountains of Scotland. ' To the S of Loch Assynt rise 
the sharp summits of Canisp (2779 feet) and Suilven 
(2399), the 'sugar-loaf this of sailors. Glasven (2541 
feet) and Quinag (2653) extend their precipices along its 
northern shore. And ESE, just over the border of Creich 
parish, Benmoee Assynt, the loftiest mountain of Suther- 
land, culminates at 3273 feet, whilst sending into Assynt 
awestern shoulder, Coinne-mheall, 3234 feet high. These 
are the oldest mountains in the British Isles, for, while 
Benmore is made up of Silurian quartzite and trap, the 
others consist of Cambrian conglomerate and sandstone, 
Quinag being capped with Silurian quartzose. A strip 
of the Laurentian system on the coast is overlaid by 
Silurian beds as one advances inland, and the two result 
in a bare bleak country, treeless, almost devoid of bushes, 
and intersected by a streak of limestone, which runs up 
into a stupendous ridge, 1£ mile long, and over 200 feet 
high, at Stronechruhie, to the left of the road between 
Inchnadamff and Loch Awe. To this limestone belongs 
the bright white marble, formerly quarried in Glen 
Assynt, where Dr Macculloch came upon marble cot- 
tages. Excepting a few spots, chiefly consisting of moss, 
none of the surface is fit for cultivation ; the climate is 
moist to an extreme, the annual rainfall being some 60 
inches ; but for the naturalist and the fisherman Assynt 
is indeed a happy hunting-ground. Golden eagles still 
build upon Quinag, though not as in 1846, when one 
keeper shot 16 in three weeks ; like peregrine falcons, 
they are now preserved. Ospreys and badgers are re- 
cently extinct ; but to-day's fauna includes wild-cats, 
martens, blue hares, herons, all kinds of game, and sea- 
fowl in abundance ; the flora, alpine and bog plants, as 
well as a few rare ferns. Of freshwater lochs there is a 
perfect net- work, particularly in the N"W. Their tradi- 
tional number is 300, and the Duke of Sutherland's 


i-inch map (1853) shows 225, of which by far the largest 
is Loch Assynt, occupying the centre of the parish. 
Curving from ESE to WW, it is 6| miles long, and 
from 3 to 6 furlongs wide, at several points is more than 
100 fathoms deep, and with its birch-clad southern shore, 
its baylets, ruins, and amphitheatre of overhanging hills, 
presents a picture singularly lovely. It abounds with 
the common and the great lake trout, and, in the season, 
with sea-trout and grilse ; its outlet is the Inver river ; 
and at its head it receives the Loanan from Loch Awe, 
and from Benmore the half-subterranean Traligill. Near 
the source of the latter is Loch Mulack-Corrie, supposed 
(but wrongly) to contain the true gillaroo trout ; and 
other noticeable lakes are, in the SE, Boeeolan, Ueigill, 
and Camaloch ; in the NW, Beanoch (2 miles long, by 
1 to 3 furlongs wide), isleted Crokach (1| mile, by £ to 
3 furlongs), Clashmore and Culfralchie, all yielding 
capital sport, as also do innumerable burns. Assynt has 
one most memorable association — the capture in it of the 
great Marquis of Montrose. After the rout of Inver- 
charron he and the Earl of Kinnoull escaped into Assynt ; 
and here, after two days' wandering, 'the Earl,' says 
Gordon's contemporary History of Sutherland, ' being 
faint for lack of meat, and not able to travel any further, 
was left among the mountains, where it was supposed 
he perished. James Graham had almost perished, but 
that he fortuned in this misery to light upon a small 
cottage in that wilderness, where he was supplied with 
some milk and bread. . . . The Laird of Assynt, 
Neil Macleod, was not negligent, but sent parties every- 
where ; and some of them met James Graham, accom- 
panied with one Major Sinclair, an Orkneyman, appre- 
hend them, and bring them to Ardvreck, the laird's 
chief residence. James Graham made great offers to the 
Laird of Assynt, if he would go with him to Orkney, 
all which he refused, and did write to the Lieutenant- 
General. James Graham was two nights in Skibo, and 
from thence he was conveyed to Braan, and so to Edin- 
burgh' — there to be hanged, 21 May 1650. The beauti- 
ful ruins of Ardvreck Castle (built about 1591) stand at 
the end of a long rocky peninsula, on the NE shore, and 
H mile from the head, of Loch Assynt ; a little higher 
up is the shell of Calda House, a mansion erected about 
1660 by Kenneth Mackenzie, third Earl of Seaforth, and 
destroyed by fire towards the middle of last century. 
The forfeited Seaforth lands were purchased in 175S by 
the Earl of Sutherland, whose descendant, the present 
duke, owns the entire parish. Sheep-farming is the 
staple industry, and lobster-fishing is also carried on. 

The north-western part of Assynt forms the quoad 
sacra parish of Stoer ; the remainder is a parish in the 
presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and 
Caithness, and its minister's income is £228. Under 
a school-board for the whole civil parish there are 7 
public schools — at Achmelvich (in W), Assynt, Culkein 
(NW), Drumbaig (N), Elphine (SE), Lochinver, and 
Stoer. These had in 1879 a total accommodation for 
366 children, an average attendance of 275, and grants 
amounting to £289, 7s. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speak- 
ing, of ecclesiastical parish (1871) 1499 ; of civil parish 
(1801) 2395, (1S61) 3178, (1871) 3006, (1881) 2778._ See 
Origines Parocliiales, ii. 2, 692 ; an interesting article in 
the Comhill for July 1S79 ; and pp. 89-119 of A. Young's 
Angler's and Sketcher's Guide to Sutherland (Edinb. 
1880).— Ord. Sur., sh. 107, 1881. 

Asta, a village and a lake in Shetland, 1 mile from its 
post- village, Scalloway. 

Athelstaneford, a village and a parish of 1ST central 
Haddingtonshire. The village is 3 miles NNE of Had- 
dington, and has a post office under Deem, another post 
office hamlet in this parish, 2^ miles to the NNW, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
and with the junction of the North Berwick branch of 
the North British railway. The name Athelstaneford 
is supposed to commemorate a victory of Hungus or 
Angus mac Fergus, King of the Picts (731-761), and 
founder of St Andrews, over one Athelstane, ' dux ' o> 
commander of Eadbert King of Northumbria (Skene, 
Celt. Scot., i. 299). 


The parish is hounded N hy Dirleton and North Ber- 
wick, NE, E, and SE by Prestonkirk, and S and W by 
Haddington. Its greatest length from E to W is 4i 
miles ; its greatest breadth is only 2J miles ; and its area 
is 50S0J acres, of which 16J lie detached, and 3^ are 
water. The surface rises in the AV to over 400 feet 
above sea-level ; consists mainly of a broad-based ridge, 
extending E and W between the two Peffer Burns, 
which run westward and eastward along the northern 
and southern borders ; and, excepting some 40 acres of 
hill pasturage and about 210 under wood, is all arable. 
The rocks are chiefly different kinds of trap, overlying, 
or thought to overlie, the coal measures. The former 
have been quarried, and some beautiful specimens of 
rock crystal found ; but various searches for coal have 
had little or no success. The parish, till 1658, com- 
prised not more than 1000 acres, and all belonged to the 
Earl of Wintoun, whose seat of Garlton is now a com- 
plete ruin ; but then it was enlarged by annexations 
from Prestonkirk and Haddington. At present 7 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, 1 between £50 
and £100 ; but the only large mansion is Gilmerton 
House, which, with about one-third of the entire parish, 
belongs to Sir Alexander Kinloch, tenth holder (since 
1879) of a baronetcy created in 1686. Illustrious natives 
were Thomas Gwilliam, provincial of the Dominicans 
of Scotland, and ' the first man from whome Mr Knox 
receaved anie taste of the truthe ; ' Sir John Hepburn 
(1598-1636), field-marshal of France in the Thirty Years 
War ; and Robert Blair of Avontoun (1741-1811), Lord 
President of the Court of Session. The last was son of 
the author of the Grave, who was minister of Athel- 
staneford from 1731 to 1746, and whose successor, John 
Home (1746-57), here wrote his tragedy of iJouglas. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£320, with glebe. There are some remains of the church 
that Ada, Countess of Northumberland, built about 1178, 
and granted to her Cistercian nunnery of Haddington. 
A new parish church of 1780 gave place in 1868 to the 
present building (500 sittings ; cost, over £1500). A 
public school, with accommodation for 160 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 88, and a grant of £S5, 9s. 
Valuation (1S81) £11,723, lis. Pop. (1831) 931, (1861) 
902, (1871) 844, (1881) 762.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Athole, a mountainous district in the N of Perthshire. 
It is bounded on the N by Badenoch in Inverness-shire, 
on the NE by Mar in Aberdeenshire, on the E by For- 
farshire, on the S by Stormont and Breadalbane in Perth- 
shire, on the W and NW by Lochaber in Inverness-shire. 
Its area has been computed at 450 square miles. Its 
surface is highly picturesque, presenting lofty moun- 
tains, deep glens, solemn forests, extensive lakes, grand 
waterfalls, impetuous rivers, and all other striking fea- 
tures of Highland scenery. A central portion of it, 
around Blair Castle, and forming the most populous 
and cultivated portion of Blair Athole, is open fertile 
vale, traversed by the river Garry, and generally pre- 
senting only low rounded eminences ; but most of the 
rest is alpine, and ascends to the lofty watershed of the 
Central Grampians. The chief mountains in it are Ben- 
vrackie, Benvuroch, Benglo, Ben Dearg, Ben-a-Chual- 
laich, Coire-Cragach, Sron-na-Eagaig, and Benvolach ; 
and several of these, as well as others on the boundaries, 
rise to altitudes of more than 3000 feet. Chief glens 
are Glen Garry, Glen Erichdie, and Glen Tummel 
through the centre ; Glen Edendon, Glen Bruar, and 
Glen Tilt in the north ; and Glen Brerachan, Glen Fear- 
nach, and Glen Shee in the west. The principal rivers 
traverse these glens, and bear their names ; and all are, 
directly or indirectly, tributaries of the Tay. The chief 
lakes are Erichd on the north-western boundary, Garry 
in the NW, Rannoch in the W, and Tummel in the 
S centre. The chief waterfalls are on the Bruar and the 
Tummel. — Athole Forest is a part of the district pre- 
served for deer and other game ; comprises upwards of 
100,000 acres ; is famed above every other forest for its 
hunting attractions and its magnificent scenery ; pos- 


sessed, in former times, great immunities and privileges ; 
belongs now to the Duke of Athole ; is stocked with 
about 7000 red deer, and with numerous roe-deer ; 
aboimds with red and black game, plovers, partridges, 
and ptarmigans ; has also multitudes of foxes, wild-cats, 
polecats, martins, weasels, and alpine hares ; is fre- 
quented, in some parts, by the jay, the woodpecker, the 
kestrel, and the eagle ; and possesses a rich variety of 
rare indigenous plants. — Athole gives the titles of Earl, 
Marquis, and Duke, in the peerage of Scotland, to a 
branch of the family of Murray The earldom was 
grafted on a prior earldom of Tulfibardine, and created 
in 1629 ; the marquisate was created in 1676 ; and the 
dukedom was given to the second marquis in 1703. The 
seat of the family is Blair Castle. — Athole is celebrated 
in song, claims special excellence for its performers on 
the bagpipe, and was once noted for a compound of 
whisky, honey, and eggs, called Athole brose. 

Athole and Breadalbane, a poor-law combination in 
the N of Perthshire, comprehending the parishes of 
Blair Athole, Caputh, Dowally, Dull, Little Dunkeld, 
Fortingall, Eenmore, Killin, Logierait, Moulin, and 
Weem. Pop. (1871) 19,412. Its poorhouse has accom- 
modation for 60 inmates. 

Auchaber, an estate, with a mansion, in Forgue parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 11^ miles E by N of Huntly. 

Auchaixn. See Achaen and Acheen. 

Auehairne, an estate, with a mansion, in Ballantrae 
parish, SW Ayrshire, 2 miles E by S of Ballantrae village. 

Auchallader. See Achallader. 

Auchanault, a place in the S of Ross-shire, on the 
Dingwall and Skye railway, 21J miles W of Dingwall. 
It has a station on the railway, an inn, and a post office. 

Auchans, an estate, with a mansion, in Dundonald 
parish, Ayrshire. The estate belonged, for a number of 
ages, to the Wallaces of Dundonald ; went, about 1640, 
to Sir William Cochrane, afterwards Earl of Dundonald ; 
and passed, subsequently, to the Earls of Eglinton. It 
has considerable plantations ; and it retains part of an 
ancient orchard, whence a famous pear, originally got 
from France, but known as the Auchans pear, was dis- 
persed through much of Scotland. The mansion stands 
near the ruins of Dundonald Castle and near Dundonald 
village, 4 miles SSE of Irvine ; is situated on a gentle 
eminence, on a grand curvature of a beautiful sylvan 
bank nearly 1 mile long, and generally more than 100 
feet high ; bears upon its walls the date 1644, but ap- 
pears to have been constructed of materials taken from 
Dundonald Castle ; and is a curious edifice, with consi- 
derable variety of outline and very picturesque features. 
'Thus,' says Billings, 'the square balustraded tower is in 
direct opposition to the cone-covered staircase, which 
breaks the monotony of the main wall-face of the man- 
sion in its centre. But the picturesque is more particu- 
larly evinced in the arrangement of the crow-stepped 
gables, and especially of the one surmounting the round 
tower to the right. The flank wall of this gable con- 
tinues the line of the house, instead of being corbelled 
upon the tower, which is finished by being simply sloped 
off to the wall, leaving as a questionable feature what 
has evidently been a change from the original design.' 
At Auchans, in 1773, Dr Johnson and Boswell 'spent a 
day well' in visiting Susannah, Dowager-Countess of 
Eglinton, the witty beauty to whom Allan Ramsay had 
dedicated his Gentle Shepherd (1725), and who died here 
in 17S0 in her ninety-first year. 

Auchenairn, a village in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 
3 furlongs SSE of Bishopbriggs station, and 3 miles 
NNE of Glasgow. It consists of two parts, old and new ; 
is said to have been visited by the plague in 1666 ; and 
has an endowed school and a public school. The 
former is supported by bequests of the Rev. James 
Warden in 1745 and the Rev. Dr Leechman in 1764, 
and was rebuilt in 1826 ; the latter, with accommoda- 
tion for 300 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 112, and a grant of £101. Pop. (1S61) 744, (1871) 

Auchenbathie, a barony in the SE of Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire, contiguous to Ayrshire, 3J miles 




ESE of Loehwinnoch town. It belonged to the Wal- 
laces of Elderslie ; it is mentioned by Blind Harry as 
one of the places which Malcolm Wallace, the father of 
Sir William Wallace, ' had in heritage ; ' and it has re- 
mains of a small ancient castle, called Anchenbathie 
Tower. Another Auchenbathie is in the neighbourhood, 
and, as having belonged to another family than the 
Wallaces, is called Auchenbathie Blair. 

Auchenbeatty, a burn in Closeburn and Kirkmahoe 
parishes, Dumfriesshire, running 6 miles south-eastward 
to the Kith near Kirkniahoe village. 

Auchenblae. See At/chixblae. 

Auehenbowie, a hamlet, an estate, and a burn in 
Stirlingshire. The hamlet and the estate are in St 
Ninians parish, If mile SSW of Bannockburn ; and the 
mansion on the estate stands in the southern vicinity of 
the hamlet. Productive collieries are on the estate, and 
may be regarded as in the same coalfield with the col- 
lieries of Greenyards, Plean, and Bannockburn. The 
burn rises on the skirts of Drummarnock Hill, flows 3 
miles eastward thence to the vicinity of the hamlet, 
turns there to the S, and proceeds 3 miles southward to 
the Carron in the vicinity of Denny. 

Auchencairn, a village and a quoad sacra parish in the 
civil parish of Berwick, Kirkcudbrightshire. The vil- 
lage is pleasantly situated at the NW angle of a bay of 
its own name, about 10 miles E of Kirkcudbright, 8 
SSE of Castle-Douglas, and 7£ SSW of Dalbeattie, with 
which last station it communicates twice a week by 
coach. With good sea-bathing, it is a rising little place, 
containing an Established church (1856), a Free church, 
two hotels, gas-works, a post office under Castle-Douglas, 
with money order and savings' bank departments, and a 
school which in 1879 had an average attendance of 159 
children, and a grant of £139, 2s. 6d. Just to the S, on 
ground that rises from the shore, stands Auchencairn 
House (J. G. Mackie, Esq. ), a good red freestone man- 
sion, with tasteful grounds and a fine collection of 
modern British paintings ; and to the S again of this is 
Auchencairn Moss. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway ; its minister's 
stipend is £120. Pop. of village (1861) 390, (1871) 474, 
(1881)441; of quoad sacra parish (1871) 1103, (18S1) 

Auchencairn Bay runs 2\ miles north-westward from 
the Solway Firth (or 2|, reckoning its right hand pro- 
longation, Orchakdton Bay), and has an average breadth 
of 1^ mile. Its entrance is guarded by Almorness Point, 
100 feet high, on the right ; on the left by Balcary 
Point (200 feet) ; and half-way across it lies the green 
isle of Hestan (3 furlongs long, 1J wide, and 100 feet 
high), giving its waters a land-locked, lake-like appear- 
ance. At low tide the bay presents an unbroken bed of 
smooth sand, so dry and firm that horse-races have been 
run upon it. — Ord. Stir., sh. 5, 1857. 

Auchencloich, a hamlet in Sorn parish, Ayrshire, 
2 miles JSTE of Mauchline. It has a post office under 

Auchencrow. See Auchincraw. 

Auchencruive, an estate, with a mansion and a 
station, in St Quivox parish, Ayrshire, on the river 
Ayr, and on the Ayr and Mauchline railway, 1 f mile 
ENE of Ayr. The mansion is a splendid edifice — 
the seat of Rich. Alex. Oswald, Esq. , owner in Ayrshire 
of 10,004 acres, and in Kirkcudbrightshire of 24,160 
acres, valued respectively at £17,826 (£3530 minerals) 
and £16,185 per annum. 

Auchendavy or Auchendowie, a hamlet in Kirkin- 
tilloch parish, Dumbartonshire, 2 miles ENE of Kirkin- 
tilloch town. One of the forts of Antoninus' Wall 
stood here, but was obliterated partly by the forming 
of the Forth and Clyde Canal, partly by subsequent 
operations. A pit 9 feet deep, situated immediately 
beyond the SW angle of the fort, was accidentally dis- 
covered at the forming of the canal, and found to con- 
tain four Roman altars, part of another altar, a muti- 
lated stone figure, and two ponderous iron hammers. 
' Three of the altars,' says the Caledonia Eomana, 'had 
been broken through the middle, and all were lying 

huddled together, as if they had been hastily thrown in, 
and then covered with earth to conceal them from view, 
telling, as they lay, a silent but expressive tale of the 
sudden order of retreat, the precipitate muster of the 
garrison, the hurried dismantling of the station, and of 
the retiring footsteps of the legionary cohorts, as they 
defiled upon a southern route ; while, perhaps, the 
shouts of the advancing Britons were already heard in 
the distance, startling the wild boar in the woods beyond 
Inchtarf, and the waterfowl among the sedges of the 
Kelvin. ' 

Auchendenny. See Attchindimtt. 

Auchendolly, an estate in Crossmichael parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. It has a chalybeate spring. 

Auchendrane, an extinct ancient castle and a modern 
mansion in the W of Ayrshire, on the river Doon, 4 
miles S of Ayr. The castle was centre of the events 
which formed the subject of Sir Walter Scott's drama, 
the Ayrshire Tragedy ; and is still traceable in its 
foundations. The mansion was originally called Blair - 
stone House ; belonged to the Muir family ; passed by 
marriage, in 1793, to David Cathcart, Lord Alloway ; 
and in 1868 was purchased by Sir Peter Coats, Knt. 
(ere. 1869). A picturesque edifice in the old castellated 
style, it was enlarged (1880-81) by the addition of a 
conservatory, aviary, new wing, tower, etc. 

Auchendryone, a village in Crathie parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the W side of the Clunie, opposite Castleton 
of Braemar. It is often regarded as part of Castleton ; 
and, in the old times, it was the scene of great gather- 
ings for hunting deer in Braemar' forest. 

Auehengeith, a hill in the N of Kirkmahoe parish, 
D umf riesshire. It projects southward from the Queens- 
berryrange, and has an altitude of 984 feetabove sea-level. 

Auchengelloch, an eminence, 1514 feet above sea-level, 
in the south-eastern uplands of Avondale parish, W 
Lanarkshire, 5J miles S of Strathaven. A frequent 
meeting-place of the Covenanters for religious worship 
in the times of the persecution, it is quite inaccessible to 
cavalry, and seems never to have been approached by 
the mounted troopers ; and it has now a small stone 
monument, erected about 1830, in memory of the meet- 
ings held at it. 

Auchengool, an estate, with a mansion, in Rerwick 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 4 miles ESE of Kirkcud- 
bright. It belonged to John Ramsay M'Culloch (17S9- 
1864), the distinguished political economist and statist. 

Auehengray, a hamlet of Carnwath parish, Lanark- 
shire, with a station on the Caledonian, which is 5f 
miles NNE of Carstairs, and 21 J SW of Edinburgh, has 
a telegraph and post office, and is the junction for 
Wilsontown. The hamlet, f mile NNE, has an Esta- 
blished mission church (80 attendants in 1880), and a 
public school, with accommodation for 132 children, an 
average attendance (1879) of 47, and a grant of £48, 5s. ; 
near it are brickworks, quarries, and a coal pit. 

Auchenharvie, a ruined castle in Stewarton parish, 
Ayrshire, the seat once of a branch of the Cunninghams, 
4 miles WSW of Stewarton town. 

Auchenheath, a collier village in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire, 2J miles N of Abbey Green. Standing on 
the right bank of the Nethan, it has a station on the 
Lesmahagow branch of the Caledonian, and boys' and 
girls' schools, with total accommodation for 312 children, 
an average attendance (1879) of 152, and grants amount- 
ing to £138, 12s. 3d. Two coal pits, at work here in 
1879, belong to the Carboniferous Limestone series, and 
furnish fine cannel coal, employed in the Glasgow and 
other gas-works. Pop. (1861)716, (1871)763, (1881) 

Auchenleck, a hill in the NW of Closeburn parish, 
Dumfriesshire, 34, miles NE of Thornhill. It overhangs 
Cample Water, and rises 1431 feet above sea-level. 

Auehenloch, a village in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 
1 mile SSE of Lenzie Junction, thence 6^ miles NE of 
Glasgow. It has a public school, with accommodation 
for 81 children, an average attendance (1879) of 48, and 
a grant of £38, Is. ; near it is the Glasgow Convalescent 
Home, instituted in 1864 for 67 inmates. 


Auchenreoch. See Achenkeoch. 

Auchenroath, a hamlet and a mansion (W. Robertson, 
Esq.) in Rothes parish, Elginshire, If mile WNW of 
Rothes town. 

Auchensaugh or Auchenshauch, a broad-based hill 
in Douglas parish, Lanarkshire, 2J miles SSE of Douglas 
town. Its cairn-crowned top, 1286 feet above sea-level, 
was the meeting-place of the Cameronians (27 July 
1712), who, entering on the ' Auchenshauch Declaration 
and Engagement,' renewed therein the Covenants, while 
protesting against all schism and sinful separation from 
the Church of Scotland (themselves, to wit), and solemnly 
binding themselves to extirpate Prelacy, and all rites, 
ceremonies, heresies, and false doctrines. The ' Auch- 
enshauch Wark ' is memorable as the organising of the 
first Secession — the Reformed Presbyterian Church. See 
vol. viii. , pp. 237-242, of Hill Burton's History of Scotland 
(ed. 1876). 

Auchenskeigh, a romantic sylvan dell in Dairy parish, 
Ayrshire, 2 miles from Dairy town. Limestone rocks 
here are rich in fossils ; and a cavern, 183 feet long and 
from 5 to 12 broad and high, penetrates a precipitous 
limestone crag, and is so panelled and ceiled with cal- 
careous incrustations as to present the appearance of 
Gothic fretwork. 

Auchenskeoch, an estate with a ruined castle, which 
passed from the Crichtons to the M'Kenzies, in Colvend 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 5J miles ESE of Dalbeattie. 

Auchentibber. See Auchixtieber. 

Auchentorlie, an estate, with a mansion, in Old 
Kilpatrick parish,' Dumbartonshire. The mansion stands 
amid wooded grounds in the north-western vicinity of 
Bowling Bay. The estate includes a portion of the 
Kilpatrick hills, and contains there vestiges of a Cale- 
donian hill-fort. 

Auchentoshan, a mansion amid wooded grounds in 
Old Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire, in the western 
vicinity of Duntoeher. Several vestiges of Antoninus' 
■Wall are within the grounds. 

Auchentroig. See Atjchintroig. 

Aucherachan. See Acherachan. 

Auchernach. See Achernach. 

Auchinairn. See Auchenairx. 

Auchinarrow. See Achinareow. 

Auehinbee. See Achinbee. 

Auchinblae, a village in Fordoun parish, Kincardine- 
shire, on a gentle rising ground, adjacent to the rivulet 
Luther, amid the beautiful scenery of Strathfinella, 2J 
miles HW of Fordoun station, and 5J NNE of Laur- 
encekirk. It holds under Mr Farquharson ; contains 
many substantial houses, and a flax-spinning mill ; 
presents a clean thriving appearance ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, under Fordoun, 2 hotels, branches of the 
North of Scotland and Aberdeen Town and County 
banks, a National Security savings' bank, a town-hall, 
and a mutual improvement society. Hand-loom linen 
weaving is extinct ; cattle markets are held on the third 
Thursday of April, the "Wednesday after the second 
Tuesday of May, old style, and the first Thursday of 
July ; a cattle fair, called Paldy Fair, is held on the 
first Wednesday of July ; a horse fair is held on the 
Friday after the first Tuesday of July, old style ; and 
hiring markets are held on the 26 May, or Old Whit- 
sunday, and on the 22 November, or Old Martinmas. 
Pop. (1861) 570, (1871) 496, (1881) 411. 

Auchincarroch, an estate, with a mansion, in Bon- 
hill parish, Dumbartonshire, 2 miles NE of Alexan- 

Auchincass. See Achincass. 

Auchinchew, a romantic vale in the S of Arran, Bute- 
shire, descending 2 miles southward to the Sound of 
Pladda, 7 miles S of Lamlash. It begins at the base of 
Cnoo na Garbad (959 feet), a hill commanding an exten- 
sive view, and supposed to have been a watch-post of the 
Dalriadans, and it expands into a rocky amphitheatre, 
walled with lofty mural cliffs, ribbed with ravines, and 
streaked with leaping rills. Essiemore waterfall is 
the chief one of the cascades ; makes a sheer leap of 


about 100 feet ; is sometime overarched by a brilliant 
rainbow ; and serves, to a distance of some miles, as a 
landmark to mariners. 

Auchincloch, a hamlet in Kilsyth parish, Stirling- 
shire, 3J miles ENE of Kilsyth town. Numerous 
human bones have been exhumed in fields adjacent to 
the hamlet, and are believed to be those of men who 
fell in the battle of Kilsyth, fought in 1645. 

Auchineloich, a ruined ancient castle in Ochiltree 
parish, Ayrshire. 

AuchLncraw, a village in Coldingham parish, Berwick- 
shire, 2 miles WSW of Reston station, and 3 NNW of 
Chirnside. It has a post office under Ayton, and a pub- 
lic school ; and it was notable, in old times, for reputed 
pranks of witchcraft. The school, with accommodation 
for 104 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 
47, and a grant of £39, 18s. 

Auchindarroeh, a mansion in Knapdale, Argyllshire. 
It is separated from Lochgilphead by the Crinan Canal, 
but most of that town is built on its estate. It is the 
seat of Alex. Campbell, Esq., owner of 7017 acres, valued 
at £1600 per annum. 

Auchindinny, a village and an estate near the mutual 
boundary between Lasswade and Glencorse parishes, 
Edinburghshire. The village stands in a hollow, on 
Glencross Burn, near its influx to the North Esk river, 
J mile E of Greenlaw Barracks, and 2J miles NNE of Peni- 
cuick. Auchindinny House, J mileS of the village, was 
the residence of Henry Mackenzie (1745-1831), author of 
The Mail of Feeling, and at it died Archibald Fletcher 
(1745-1828), the 'father of burgh reform.' 

Auchindoir and Kearn, a united parish of W Aber- 
deenshire, containing the village of Lumsden, 3J miles 
NNW of Alford, and 8 miles SSW of Gartly station, 
with which it communicates daily by the Strathdon 
coach. Founded some fifty years since by Mr Leith 
Lumsden of Clova, it has a post office under Aberdeen, 
a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, an inn, a Free 
church (1843), and a U.P. church (1803 ; 203 sittings). 
Fairs are held here on the first Monday of January, 
February, March, April, and December, and (old style) 
on the last Tuesday of April, the last Friday of May, 
and the third Tuesday of August. Pop. (1840) 243, 
(1871) 507. 

Kearn is much smaller than Auchindoir, of which it 
forms a south-eastern adjunct, and to which it was 
annexed in 1811, having from 1722 to 1808 been united 
to Forbes. The present parish is bounded N by Rhynie- 
Essie, E by Clatt and Tullynessle-Forbes, S by Kil- 
drummy, and W by Cabrach. Very irregular in out- 
line, it has an extreme length from N to S of 6J miles, 
a width from E to W of from 3 J to 5 J miles, and a land 
area of 15,310 acres. The southern boundary is traced 
for If mile by the river Don, and further westward 
by its affluent, the Mossat ; whilst the Bogie has 
here a north-north-eastward course of about 4 miles, 
chiefly along the Rhynie border, being formed near the 
parish church by the burns of Corchinan, Glenny, and 
Craig, which, rising in mossy ground, have a strong 
antiseptic quality. The Craig flows eastward through 
a romantic glen, the Den of Craig, makes several beauti- 
ful falls, and in the floods of 1829 rose IS feet above its 
ordinary level. The surface is everywhere hilly, emi- 
nences in the half of the parish to the E of the highroad 
from Huntly to Alford being Badingair Hill (1556 feet 
above sea-level), Brux Hill (1558), Edinbanchory Hill 
(1531), and Lord Arthur's Cairn (1699), all of them 
belonging to the Correen Hills. In the western half 
rise the "White Hill of Bogs (1341 feet), the Hill of 
Tombhreach (1409), and the Hill of John's Cairn (1745); 
but one and all are overtopped by the pyramidal, cairn- 
crowned Buck of Cabrach (2368 feet), which culminates 
upon the western border, at the extremity of a narrow 
strip of Auchindoir, projecting into the parish of Cabrach. 
White sandstone prevailing over a wide tract from N to 
S, and in places of very fine quality, has been extensively 
worked for building purposes ; and mica slate abounds 
in large masses on the Correen Hills, and has been 
quarried for paving flags. Greenstone, limestone, ser- 



pentine, clay slate, talc, soapstone, and asbestos in small 
quantity, are also found. In the W are large stretches 
of peat-moss, and the hills are mostly covered with poor 
moorish soil ; but the lower grounds present a sharp, 
dry, productive mould, or, above the sandstone, a rich 
alluvial loam. Except in the hills, the parish is well 
cultivated ; excellent crops of barley and oats are grown, 
and many cattle and sheep are reared. Plantations 
cover a large area, but are mostly young, consisting of 
larch, Scotch fir, spruce, and birch, with older forest trees 
along the Don, and some goodly planes in the Druminnor 
policies. A little hill above the present church was in 
the 15th century surmounted by a castle, the Gastrum 
Auehindorice of Boece ; andacrosstheCraigaretheivy-clad 
ruins of the ancient church, a rare example of the transi- 
tion from Romanesque to First Pointed, retaining an 
aumbry for reservation of the Eucharist, a holy-water 
stoup, a sculptured crucifix, and the date 1557 on the N 
gable. Other antiquities are three ' Picts' houses, ' traces 
of a vitrified fort on the green conical hill of Cnoc- 
allioohie, and numerous cairns, of which Lord Arthur's 
possibly gave name to Kearn ; while the popular etymo- 
logy of Aucliindoir (Gael, 'field of the chase') alludes 
to the one historical episode with which this parish is asso- 
ciated — the flight through it of Lulach, Macbeth's suc- 
cessor, to Essie, where he was slain, 17 March 1058. 
Craig Castle, 1 mile W by N of the church, crowns the 
left bank of Craig Burn, amid the ' horrible rocks and 
precipices, the caves and dens,' described in Johnston's 
Parerga (Aberdeen, 1632). Its oldest portion is a huge 
square keep, 60 feet high, which, bearing date 1528, is 
probably of earlier erection, additions having been 
made to it in 1667, 1726, and 1832, these latest 
the most considerable. For nearly three centuries 
it has been the seat of a branch of the Gordons, 
whose present representative owns 3333 acres in 
the shire, of an annual value of £1339. Druminnor 
House (the original Castle Forbes, 1456) is another fine 
old mansion in the Baronial style, and dates in its 
present state from 1577, six years before which time, 
according to tradition, it was the scene of the murder 
at a banquet of several Gordons by the Forbeses. It 
stands in a well-timbered park on the left bank of the 
Burn of Kearn, an affluent of the Bogie that traces the 
upper half of the eastern boundary ; and it is now the 
seat of Robert Grant, owner of 4197 acres of £2902 
value. The House of Clova, 1J mile W of Lumsden, 
with a Roman Catholic church (18S0) in its grounds, 
is the seat of Hugh Gordon Lumsden, owner of 15,499 
acres of £6687 value ; and 1 other proprietor holds a 
rental of £500 upwards, 1 of between £100 and £500, 
while 7 hold each from £20 to £50. Aucliindoir is 
in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen. 
The church (1811 ; 450 sittings) stands 2 miles N by E 
of Lumsden ; its minister's income is £184. Also within 
the parish, but close to the Rhyme boundary, are the 
Episcopal church of St Mary (1859 ; 56 attendants), an 
Early English edifice, and the Free church of Rhynie. 
Two public schools, Auchindoir and Lumsden, with re- 
spective accommodation for 49 and 216 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 41 and 113, and grants 
of £25, 3s. and £97, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £6405, 
9s. Id. Pop. (1821) 889, (1841) 1188, (1861) 1593, 
(1871) 1545, (1881) 1514.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Auehindoun, a ruined castle on the left side of Glen 
Fiddioh, in Mortlach parish, Banffshire, 2-J miles SE 
of Dufftown. Massive and three-storied, it crowns a 
steep limestone rock, at least 200 feet high, which is 
washed on three sides by the Fiddich, and on the fourth 
is guarded by a moat ; within it contains a noble Gothic 
hall, its vaulted roof upborne on fluted pillars. Supposed 
to date from the 11th century, it is said to have been 
rebuilt by the 'mason' Cochrane, James III.'s minion, 
who was hanged over Lauder Bridge in 1482 ; and to 
have passed from the Ogilvies to the Gordons about 
1535. Sir Adam Gordon of Auehindoun, sixth son of 
the fourth Earl of Huntly, defeated the Forbeses at the 
Craibstane in 1571, and afterwards burned the castle of 
Towie ; his brother and successor, Sir Patrick, was one 


of the signers of the 'Spanish blanks' in 1592, and 
was slain at Glenlivet, 4 Oct. 1594. The ballad that 
tells how Auehindoun was burned by Willie Macintosh, 
about 1544 or 1670 (both dates have been given, with 
tragical and circumstantial details), seems not to rest on 
any firmer basis than does that of ' Fair Helen of Auch- 
intoul ; ' we only know that somewhere about 200 years 
have passed since last the castle was inhabited. Queen 
Mary rode by it in 1562 ; and in 1867 Queen Victoria 
picnicked on the opposite bank with the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon, owner of all the old barony of Aueh- 
indoun. See chap. iii. of James Brown's Eouivil Table 
Club (Elgin, 1873). 

Auchindrain, a hamlet in Inverary parish, Argyllshire, 
6 miles SSW of Inverary. 

Auchingill, a village in Cannisbay parish, Caithness, 
on the coast, 10 miles N of Wick. 

Auchingramont, a suburb of Hamilton, in Lanark- 
shire. It has a United Presbyterian church. 

Auehingray, an estate, with a mansion, in New 
Monkland parish, Lanarkshire, adjacent to Linlithgow- 
shire and to Hillend reservoir, 7 miles ENE of Airdrie. 

Auchingree, a hamlet in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. A 
factory for turnery work is here, and two Roman urns 
were found in the neighbourhood. 

Auchinhew. See Auchinohew. 

Auchinhove, an estate in Lumphanan parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It belonged to the Duguids from about the 
year 1434 ; it was forfeited by the representative in 1745, 
in result of his joining the Pretender's forces ; and the 
mansion on it was burned by a party of the Duke of 
Cumberland's soldiers. 

Auchinleck (often pronounced Affieck=Gael. achadh- 
nan-Uac, ' field of the flat flagstone '), a village and a 
parish of Kyle, E Ayrshire. The village lias a station on 
the Glasgow and South-Western, the junction for Muir- 
kirk, and by rail is 15 J miles E of Ayr, 13f SSE of Kilmar- 
nock, 44J NW of Dumfries, and 47 A S by W of Glasgow. 
It contains the parish church (built 1838, and seating 
800), a United Original Secession church, five inns, a 
railway telegraph office, a post office under Cumnock, 
with money order and savings' bank departments, and 
a public and a female school, which, with respective 
accommodation for 178 and 71 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 170 and 73, and grants of 
£133, 7s. and £58, 3s. 2d. A fair for grit ewes and 
hoggs is held here on the last Thursday in March, and 
an important lamb fair on the last Tuesday in August. 
Pop. (1861) 1053, (1871) 1199, (1881) 1528. 

The parish contains, too, — likewise, in its western 
half, — the villages and stations of Lugar and Cronberry, 
and the hamlet of Darnconnar. It is bounded N by 
Mauchline, Sorn, and Muirkirk ; NE by Muirkirk and 
Lanarkshire ; SE by Dumfriesshire and New Cumnock ; 
S by Old Cumnock ; and W by Ochiltree. From E to 
W., viz., from Threeshire Stone to the confluence of 
Dippol Burn and Lugar Water, it is 1 5f miles long ; its 
breadth from N to S varies between f mile and 5 miles ; 
and its area is 24,295 acres, of which 165| are water. 
Guelt and Glenmore Waters, head-streams of the 
' winding Lugar, ' trace with the latter all the southern 
and the western boundary ; that to the extreme N, 
from Dalfram to just above South Limmerhaugh, a dis- 
tance of 2J miles, is marked by the river Ate, which is 
joined by the Lugar, 1J mile beyond the NW extremity 
of Auchinleck. By these and by the Lugar's tribu- 
taries, Gass Water and Auchinleck Burn, the drainage 
everywhere is carried westward ; and westward the 
surface everywhere declines, elevations from E to W being 
Stony Hill (1843 feet), Auchitench (1527), West Fore- 
dibban (1489), Black Hill (1404), Wardlaw Hill (1630), 
Whiteyards (1235), Glenmuir (1025), Airdsmoss (753), 
and Darnlaw (489). Nearly two-thirds of the surface 
are occupied by cold, bleak uplands, fit only for the 
pasturage of sheep, and by Aiedsmoss, the broad, 
wild swamp, so sadly famous in Cameronian story ; 
thence onward, some 4 miles to the western border, low 
grounds present a fertile fairly-wooded aspect, level and 
somewhat tame. But if outwardly poor for the most 


part, the soil has its hidden treasures, ironstone, lime- 
stone, and coal ; a lease of which upon the Auchinleck 
estate, obtained about 1848 by the owners of the Clyde 
Iron-works, has passed to the Eglinton Company. Their 
Lugar iron-works had four furnaces in blast in 1879, 
when one ironstone mine (Cronberry) and two collieries 
(Ballochmyle and Gilmilnscroft) were at work within 
the parish. The lands of Auchinleck were granted in 
1504 by James IV. to Thomas Boswell, a cadet of the 
Balmnto line, who had married a daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir John Auchinleck of that ilk. Among his 
descendants were Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck 
(d. 1782), a judge of the Court of Session ; his son, 
James Boswell (1740-95), 'the first of biographers;' 
and his son, Sir Alexander Boswell, Bart. (1775-1822), 
remembered by his black-letter library, his Auchinleck 
printing-press, and his death in a duel. Auchinleck 
House (Lady Jessie Boswell, widow of the second and last 
baronet, and owner of 11,977 acres in the shire) stands 
3| miles WKW of the village, between the Dippol and 
Lugar, is a good Grecian edifice built by Lord Auchin- 
leck shortly before his death, and therefore is not the 
house where Johnson stayed in 1773. Near it are the 
remains of the baronial fortalice, figured by Grose, and 
thus referred to by the Lexicographer : — ' I was less 
delighted with the elegance of the modern mansion than 
with the sullen dignity of the old castle. I clambered 
among the ruins, which afford striking images of ancient 
life. It is, like other castles, built upon a point of 
rock, and was, I believe, anciently surrounded with a 
moat.' Another ruin is Kyle Castle, 7 miles ESE of the 
village, at the confluence of the Glenmore and Guelt. 
Natives are William M'Gavin (1773-1832), author of 
The Protestant, and the Rev. A. E. H. Boyd, 'The 
Country Parson ' (b. 1825) ; Peden, the Prophet of the 
Covenant, r ,was laid in the kirkyard (1686), whence, forty 
days after, his body was lifted by dragoons, to be 
reinterred beneath the Old Cumnock gallows. Lady 
Boswell holds almost two-thirds of the valued rental, 
the rest being divided among the Marquis of Bute and 
ten other proprietors. Held in 1265 by the Abbey of 
Paisley, this parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; its minister's income is 
£236. There are also a chapel-of-ease at Lugar and 
a mission church at Darnconnar ; whilst under the 
school-board are six schools — the two at the village, and 
at Glenmnir, Cronberry, Darnconnar, and Lugar. These, 
with a total accommodation for 1096 children, had 
(1879) an average attendance of 1047, and grants 
amounting to £858, 16s. 2d. Valuation (1880) of 
lands £24,797, 19s. 3d. ; of railways, £6832. Pop. 
(1831) 1662, (1861) 4213, (1871) 6174, (1881) 6681.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 14, 15, 1863-64. 

Auchinloch. See Auohenloch. 

Auchinmully, or Lower Banton, a village in Kilsyth 
parish, Stirlingshire, 2J miles ENE of Kilsyth. It is 
inhabited chiefly by miners, colliers, and sickle-makers. 
The church of Banton stands about J mile to the S. 

Auchinraith. See Blanttre. 

Auchinskich. See Auchenskeigh. 

Auchintibber. See Blanttre. 

Auchintibber, a hamlet in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, 
4J miles NE of Kilwinning village. A public school at 
it, with accommodation for 110 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 50, and a grant of £45, lis. 

Auchintoshan. See Auchentoshan. 

Auchintoul, an estate, with a mansion, in Marnoeh 
parish, Banffshire. The estate comprises upwards of 
3400 acres, contains the village of Aberehirder, and 
belonged to General Gordon, who rose to high command 
in the Russian army under Peter the Great, wrote a 
memoir of that monarch in two volumes, took part in 
the Jacobite insurrection in 1715, and commanded the 
Highland clans at Sheriffmuir. The mansion occupies 
a commanding site within J mile SW of Aberehirder ; 
was partly built by General Gordon, and much im- 
proved within the present century ; and is a plain large 
edifice, forming three sides of a square. It is now the 
seat of Col. Wia Gordon Cumming. 


Auchintroig, a hamlet, with a public school, in 
Drymen parish, W Stirlingshire, 1J mile WSWof Buek- 
lyvie station. 

Auchiries, a village in Cruden parish, E Aberdeenshire, 
9J miles NE of Ellon. At it are Cruden post office and 
a public school. 

Auchlane, a hamlet and a burn in Kelton parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. The hamlet lies on the burn, 3£ 
miles SW by S of Castle-Douglas. The burn rises on 
Bengairn, and runs about 4J miles northward, north- 
westward, and westward to the Dee, 1J mile below 
Bridge of Dee. 

Auchleeks. See Blair Athole. 

Auchlee, an estate in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. Two well-preserved Caledonian stone cir- 
cles are on it ; and one of them consists of a double row 
of stones, and had in its centre a stone coffin. 

Auchleven, a village in Premnay parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the river Gady, 9J miles WNW of Inverurie. 
It has a post office under Insch, a two-arched bridge 
built in 1836, and a carding and spinning woollen 

Auchlishie. See Achlishie. 

Auchlochan, a hamlet in Lesmahagow parish, Lanark- 
shire, on the river Nethan, 1 J mile S of Abbeygreen. 

Auchlossan, a quondam lake in Aboyne and Lum- 
phanan parishes, Aberdeenshire, adjacent to the Deeside 
Extension railway, 25 miles W by S of Aberdeen. It 
was partially drained near the close of the 17th century ; 
it afterwards covered about 180 acres with open water, 
and about 60 with aquatic marsh ; it abounded with 
various kinds of fish, including pike of unusual size and 
weight ; it also was frequented by flocks of waterfowl, 
so plentifully as to be one of the best spots for duck- 
shooting in the N of Scotland ; and, at the same time, 
it was a nuisance to the surrounding country, exhaling 
so much noxious gas from decaying vegetation as to 
injure the salubrity of the climate. The Marquis of 
Huntly, Farquharson of Finzean, and Shaw of Auchin- 
hove are proprietors of the lands around it ; and in 1859 
they jointly formed a plan to have it drained by a tenant 
under an advantageous lease of the loch itself, and of 
180 contiguous acres of arable land. A tenant was not 
found till 1S60, when Mr James W. Barclay got pos- 
session and commenced operations ; and he proceeded 
with such success as to have upwards of 20 acres of the 
lake's bottom under an excellent crop of oats in 1863, 
and all the rest of the bottom under luxuriant crops of 
grain in 1868. The draining was done, partly by deep 
cutting, partly by tunnelling, partly by other operations, 
and cost upwards of £6000 ; but it proved abundantly 
compensating, and serves as a fine model for bold, 
sweeping, agricultural improvements. A black alluvial 
subsoil, becoming almost white on exposure to the 
atmosphere, was found to lie near the surface over all 
the bottom ; and under the treatment which Mr Barclay 
gave it, proved to possess similar fertility to that of the 
virgin soils of the American prairies. Both the bulk 
of straw and the yield of grain in the crops raised upon it 
have been extraordinary. The straw of the year 1868 
was sold for more than £500 ; and the grain weighed 
from 40 lb. to 44 lb. per busheL 

Auchlunkart. See Boharm. 

Auchmacoy, an estate, with an elegant turreted man- 
sion, built about 1835, in Logie-Buchan parish, E Aber- 
deenshire, near the left bank of the Ythan, 2J miles E 
by N of Ellon. The estate has belonged since 1318 to 
the Buchans of Auchmacoy, one of whom, General 
Buchan, was defeated at the Haughs of Cromdale 
(1690); its present owner is Miss Louisa Buchan (sue. 

Auchmannoch, an estate, with a mansion, in Sorn 
parish, Ayrshire, 5 miles NE of Mauchline. Auch- 
mannoch Muir (964 feet) extends from behind the man- 
sion 2 miles north-eastward into mergence with Barr 
Muir in Galston parish. 

Auchmedden. See Aberdour, Aberdeenshire. 

Auchmill, or Auchmull, a village in Newhills parish, 
SE Aberdeenshire, 3 miles NW of Aberdeen. It has a 



post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, under Aberdeen, two inns, and the 
Newhills Free church. 

Auchmillan, a village in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire, 
2 miles NE of Mauchline town. 

Auchmithie, a fishing village in St Vigeans parish, 
Forfarshire, on a rocky bank rising about 150 feet from 
the beach, 3J miles NNE of Arbroath. It holds of the 
Earl of Northesk, is irregularly built, but contains 
several good houses, and has a sort of harbour at the 
foot of an opening in the rocky bank, a post office under 
Arbroath, an inn, and an Established mission church 
(1829-34 ; minister's salary, £80). Water and drainage 
works were formed in 1880. Auchmithie is the 'Mussel- 
crag ' of Scott's Antiquary ; its fishermen contend with 
great difficulties, having after every voyage to draw 
their boats inward from the beach, to prevent their 
destruction by the violence of the waves. Pop. (1871) 

Auchmore. See Achmoee. 

Auchmull. See At/chmill. 

Auchmure, a tract, including Auchmure Braes, Auch- 
mure Bridge, East Auchmure, West Auchmure, and 
South Auchmure, at the eastern verge of Kinross-shire, 
on or near the river Leven, 1\ miles W by S of Leslie. 

Auchmuty, a village conjoint with Balbirnie Mills 
in Markinch parish, Fife, on the river Leven, \\ mile 
W of Markinch town. Pop. , with Balbirnie Mills (1871) 

Auchnacarry. See Achnacaeey. 

Auchnacraig. See Achnaceaig. 

Auchnaeree, an estate, with a mansion, in Fearn parish, 

Auehnagatt, a hamlet in Old Deer parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the Aberdeen and Fraserburgh railway, 7J 
miles NNW of Ellon. It has a post office with tele- 
graph department under Ellon, and a railway station. 

Auehnahow, a small strath in the W side of Kildonan 
parish, Sutherland, descending to Helmsdale Water. 

Auchnamara, a burn in North Knapdale parish, 

Auchnasheen, a hamlet of SW Ross-shire on the 
Dingwall and Skye railway, 27f miles WSW of Ding- 
wall. It has a post office under Dingwall, and a railway 

Auchnashellach, a station in the SW of Ross-shire, 
on the Dingwall and Skye railway, in the upper part 
of Strathcarron, 12 miles NE of Strome Ferry. 

Auchness, a burn in Dallas parish, Elginshire, run- 
ning to the Lossie. 

Auchrannie. See Acheansie. 

Auchriddie, a hamlet in the N of Aberdeenshire. Its 
post-town is New Deer under Aberdeen. 

Auchry, an estate, with an old mansion (Jn. F. Lums- 
den, Esq.), in Monquhitter parish, Aberdeenshire, 5 J 
miles ENE of Turriff. 

Auchter, a rivulet in the NE centre of Lanarkshire. 
It rises near Bontyhilloek in Carluke parish ; runs some 
distance along the boundary between Carluke and Cam- 
busnethan ; and pursues a serpentine course through the 
centre of Cambusnethan to the South Calder at Bridgend. 

Auchterarder (Gael, uachdar-ard-thir, 'upper high 
land '), a town and a parish in the southern side of 
Strathearn district, SE Perthshire. The town is seated 
on the brow of a low hill, 3 J furlongs from the left bank 
of Ruthven Water, which is spanned by a bridge (rebuilt 
in 1880) that leads to a station on the Scottish Central 
section of the Caledonian, this station being 1 mile SE 
of Auchterarder, 13| miles SW of Perth, 19J NE of 
Stirling, 49 J NE of Glasgow, and 56 NW of Edinburgh. 
A castle, small but very strong, remains of which stand 
J mile NW of the parish church, is said to have been 
built as a hunting-seat by Malcolm Ceannmor (1058-93), 
who is further believed to have given to the town the 
western commonage of 228 acres ; but the earliest cer- 
tain mention of Auchterarder occurs in the charter granted 
to Inchaffkay by its founder, Gilbert, Earl of Strathearn 
(1200), wherein he endowed that Austin canonry with 
the church of St Mechesseoc of Auchterarder. On the 


same abbey in 1227 Alexander II. conferred the teinds 
of his rents of Auchterarder, which, as the head burgh of 
Strathearn — perhaps a royal burgh — had a common seal, 
and returned a member to parliament. It figures in 
two ordinances of Edward I. of England ; and Robert 
Bruce in 1328 bestowed its lands on one of his great 
barons, but confirmed the liberties of the burgh and its 
burgesses as they had been in the reign of Alexander III. 
We know not when or how those liberties were lost, 
but in 1581 an Act described ' Vchtirardour ' as ' pure 
and oppressit be brokin men and lymmeris,' whilst 
ordaining that a yearly fair for the encouragement 
of trade be held there, in all time coming, on the 
25 Nov. (old style). According to the New Statis- 
tical, Auchterarder was one of the Scottish towns 
ironically compared by George Buchanan with the fine 
English cities. Some English nobleman vaunting the 
latter to King James, the Scot replied that he knew a 
town in Scotland with 50 drawbridges ; the explanation 
being that at ' a country village between Stirling and 
Perth, called Auchterardoch, there is a large strand 
running through the middle of the town, and almost at 
every door there is a long stock or stone laid over this 
strand, whereupon they pass to their opposite neigh- 
bours, and when a flood comes they lift their wooden 
bridges in case they should be taken away, and these they 
call drawbridges.' On 28 Jan. 1716, when the royalist 
troops under the Duke of Argyll were advancing upon 
Perth, the Earl of Mar burned the whole of Auchterarder 
except one house ; and on the 30th, when Argyll arrived, 
he could find no accommodation, but spent the night 
upon the snow, 'without any other covering than the fine 
canopy of heaven. ' Newte, who visited this place in 
1782, says that it ' seems to have lain under the curse 
of God ever since it was burnt. The dark heath of the 
moors of Orchill and Tullibardine, a Gothic castle be- 
longing to the Duke of Athole, — the naked summits of 
the distant Grampians — and the frequent visitations of 
the presbytery, who are eternally recommending fast- 
days, and destroyiug the peace of society by prying into 
little slips of life, together with the desolation of the 
place, render Auchterarder a melancholy scene, where- 
ever you turn your eyes, except towards Perth and the 
lower Strathearn, of which it has a partial prospect.' 
Fifty years later it rose to fame by becoming the scene 
of the first, and not the least, of those struggles in the 
Established Church that ended in the Disruption, thus : — ■ 
' The Evangelical party in the Church had always held 
it as a principle that the Church could not, without 
sin, act under any system of patronage that was subver- 
sive of the congregational call ; and that party, having 
now become the majority, passed in 1S34 the Veto Act, 
according to which no minister was to be intruded on a 
parish contrary to the will of the people. In the 
autumn of the same year Mr Young was presented by 
the patron to Auchterarder. But as a majority of the 
parishioners were opposed to his settlement, the non- 
intrusion party declared the presentation to be null and 
void. Thereon both patron and presentee appealed to 
the Court of Session, which decreed (1837) that the 
presbytery proceed to ordain Mr Young. The Court 
disclaimed any desire or any right to interfere with the 
Church, or to review or interfere with the decisions of 
her courts, when acting within her own recognised con- 
stitution : only it claimed, as representing the law, a 
third party, neither Church nor State, the right to decide 
firstly, the legal point, that, in terms of the compact 
between the Church and the State, the former had no 
right to alter the constitution on whose basis she was 
established, and therefore that passing the Veto Act 
was ultra vires of the Church ; and, secondly, the civil 
case between parties within the Church, in which one 
party complained of being injuriously affected by the 
illegal proceedings of another. As soon as this decision 
was given, the non-intrusion party declared that the 
Church of Scotland was the creature of the State, or 
was Erastian in constitution, inasmuch as she recognised 
the right of the State to interfere, and of the civil 
courts to judge, in matters falling within her proper 


sphere and jurisdiction. And the same party declared 
in the General Assembly of 1838 (being a majority) 
that the supremacy and sole headship of the Lord Jesus 
Christ they would assert, and at all hazards defend. 
When the judgment had been confirmed on appeal by 
the House of Lords, May 1S39, the General Assembly 
by a large majority passed a resolution pledging the 
Church implicitly to obey the civil courts in all matters 
of civil interest, but firmly refusing their control in 
things spiritual. ... A second case arose out of 
the patron and the presentee raising an action for 
damages against the presbytery, which the Court of 
Session decided they were entitled to. In the first case 
it had been decided by the Supreme Civil Court, simply 
that the presbytery had acted illegally in setting the 
presentee aside by the Veto Act ; and from the injurious 
effects of this new interpretation (as the non-intrusion 
party considered it) of the law of patronage, the Church 
might have been protected by a legislative change in 
that law. When the negotiations for relief in that way 
failed, the party desiring it passed in the Assembly of 
1842 their " Claim, Declaration, and Protest." . . . 
Matters were supposed to be made worse than ever by the 
decision of the House of Lords (Aug. 1842), confirm- 
ing on appeal that of the Court of Session in the second 
Auchterarder case ' (article ' Free Church ' in the Globe 
Encyclopedia, 1881). 

Chiefly consisting of one main street, extending north- 
eastward for over a mile along the great highroad from 
Stirling to Perth, Auchterarder wears a modern and pros- 
perous aspect. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Union Bank, 
a printing office, gas-works, 5 inns, a coffee house (1SS0) 
with reading and recreation rooms, a library (the Smeaton), 
a Freemasons' lodge, and 1 mile SSW, a new combination 
poorhouse for Auchterarder and 15 neighbouring parishes. 
The principal public buildings are the town -hall and the 
Aytoun public hall. The former stands near the middle 
of the town, and, founded in 1872, cost £1600, and has 
accommodation for 600 persons. The latter, not far from 
the Cross, and fronting an elegant fountain, was erected 
(1870-72) as a memorial to the late Captain Aytoun of 
Glendevon, in recognition of services rendered to the 
town. A Gothic edifice with a handsome tower to the 
W, it contains a hall of 60 by 40 feet, front rooms of the 
same dimensions, and smaller apartments ; and cost, with 
the fountain, more than £2000. Places of worship are 
the parish church (1784-1811 ; 930 sittings) ; the Free 
church (1843-45) with a tower 80 feet high, and with 
a stained-glass window (1879) representing the 'Good 
Shepherd;' 2 U.P. churches, Worth and South ; and a 
Konian Catholic chapel (1879). A sheriff small debt 
court sits on the last Monday of January, April, July, 
and October, and has jurisdiction over the parishes 
of Auchterarder, Dunning, Glendevon, Blackford, and 
Trinity Gask ; Saturday is market-day ; and cattle fairs 
are held on the first Wednesday of February, May, 
and December, the last Wednesday of March, and the 
Wednesday before October Falkirk Tryst, the greatest 
being the December fair. The manufacture of tartan 
and galas, introduced many years ago, is a thriving 
industry ; and in or near the town there are now 6 
woollen mills, besides 2 dyeworks, a brewery, a malt 
kiln, 3 flour mills, an agricultural implement factory, 
and a saw mill. Pop. (1791) 594, (1831) 1981, (1861) 
2844, (1871) 2599, (1881)2854. 

The parish contains also the villages of Aberuthven, 
2J miles NE of the town, and Boreland Park, J mile W 
by S ; and it comprises the ancient parish of Aberuthven, 
annexed some time before the Revolution. Bounded 
NW and N by Trinity Gask, E by Dunning, S by Glen- 
devon, and W by Blackford, it has an extreme length 
from N to S of 6g miles, a width from E to W of from 
2J to 3J miles, and an area of 11,227J acres, of which 
12J lie detached, and 46J are water. The Earn roughly 
traces the northern boundary, and from it the surface 
rises southward to the green, pastoral Ochils, attaining 
67 feet at the NE angle of the parish, 200 near Coul, 500 


just to the SE of the town, 400 by the poorhouse, 1250 
in Craig Rossie and Beld Hill, 1000 near Upper Cloan, 
1096 in Black Mallet, 1306 in Muekle Law, 1559 in Corb 
Law, 1582 in Sim's Hill, 1594 in Steele's Enowe, and 
1552 in Carlownie Hill, these 4 last culminating on the 
south-eastern or the southern border. Ruthven Water, 
rising in the SE of Blackford parish on the western slope 
of the Seat (1408 feet), flows first north-north-westward 
through Glen Eagles to Tullibardine Castle, thence north- 
north-eastward past Kincardine Castle, and so on through 
Auchterarder parish to its confluence with the Earn, 1J 
mile N of Aberuthven, after a course of some 9^ miles. 
At 3 furlongs SW of Auchterarder station, or just beyond 
the confines of the parish, its narrow dell is spanned by 
a splendid eight-arched railway viaduct, 498 feet long 
and 98 high; and, 1£ mile NNE of this, its principal 
affluent, the Pairney Burn, winding of miles north-north- 
westward from Corb Law, and itself receiving the Coul 
Burn (2 miles long) from Sim's Hill, is crossed by another 
viaduct of 2 successive arches, the upper one carrying the 
railway over, and the lower the Dunning road. Trap 
rocks form the main mass of the hills, and intersect the 
low country with dykes ; while sandstone of various 
kinds, some of them quarried for building purposes, 
abounds through the centre and the N, where limestone 
also is found. Coal has been sought without success ; 
but agate, chalcedony, jasper, and other precious minerals 
are fairly plentiful among the skirts of the hills. The 
soil is various — clayey loam in the N, sandy in the E, 
and a rich black loam near the town ; nearly one-half of 
the entire area is pasture or waste, and plantations cover 
some 300 acres. On the summit and western slope of 
Beld Hill are traces of ancient encampments, outposts 
probably of the Roman station at Ardoch ; and other an- 
tiquities are the ruins of Malcolm's castle, of Aberuthven 
church, and of the old parish church of Auchterarder, 
which, standing f mile N of the town, was dedicated to 
St Mungo or Kentigern, and was either of Norman or 
First Pointed origin. Auchterarder House in Elizabethan, 
and Colearn in Scottish Baronial style, are both of modern 
erection-; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 14 of between £100 and £500, 13 of 
from £50 to £100, and 54 of from £20 to £50. Auchter- 
arder is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of Perth 
and Stirling ; its minister's income is £376. Under 
the school-board there are the 3 public schools of Auch- 
terarder (an Elizabethan structure, erected in 1875 at a 
cost of £2000), Townhead, and Aberuthven, and a charity 
school, founded by John Sheddan, Esq., of Lochie, in 
1811, to furnish free education to 12 poor children, and 
endowed with land of £1000 value. With respective 
accommodation for 250, 154, 100, and 203 children, these 
had (1879) an average attendance of 122, 129, 66, and 
107, and grants of £108, 12s., £107, 3s., £62, 3s., and 
£78, 2s. Valuation (1S81) £19,451, 10s. 4d. Pop. (1755) 
1194, (1801) 2042, (1831) 31S2, (1S61)4208, (1871)3795, 
(1SS1) 3648.— Orel. Sur., shs. 39, 47, 1869. 

The presbytery of Auchterarder comprehends Ardoch, 
Auchterarder, Blackford, Comrie, Crieff, Crieff West 
church {quoad sacra), Dunning, Foulis-Wester, Gask, 
Glendevon, Madderty, Monzievaird and Strowan, Mut- 
hill, and Trinity Gask. Pop. (1871) 20,457, of whom 
4611 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878, the sums raised by the above 15 congregations in 
that year amounting to £4611. The Free Church, too, 
has a presbytery of Auchterarder, whose churches at 
Aberuthven, Auchterarder, Blackford, Braco, Comrie, 
Crieff, Dunning, Madderty, Monzie, and Muthill had 
2783 communicants in 1S80. 

Auchterderran, a hamlet and a parish of SW Fife. The 
hamlet stands f mile N by W of Cardenden station, 
and 2| NE of Lochgellt, a town with a head post office 
and another station, lying within the western border of 
this parish. The latter is bounded N by Kinross-shire 
and Kinglassie, E by Kinglassie and Dysart, SE by 
Kirkcaldy and Abbotshall, S by Auchtertool, SW by 
Beath, and W by Ballingray. With a very irregular 
outline, rudely resembling a cross, it has a length from 
E to W of from 2J to 6-J miles, a width from N to S of 



from 3 furlongs to 4| miles, and an area of 7968J acres, 
of which 150J are water. Loch Gelly (5J x 3J furlongs) 
lies on the Auchtertool border, and sends off a rivulet to 
the Ore, a sluggish stream, which winds through the 
middle of the parish from W to E along a low alluvial 
plain, traversed also by the Dunfermline branch of the 
North British railway. 

' Colquhally and the Sillertoun, 
Pitcairn and Bowhill, 
Should clear their haughs ere Lammas spates 
The Ore begin to fill '— 

so the rhyme warns four farms in Auchterderran, and 
the warning is wholesome enough, since the Ore very 
readily overflows its banks. N and S of it hills rise to 
a height of 400 and 500 feet above sea-level, points of 
elevation being Charleston (344 feet), Harelaw (445), 
Auchterderran hamlet (287), Wester Colquhally (504), 
Lochgelly House (500), and Muirhead (437). The soil, 
mixed clay and sand, or black earth resting upon trap, 
is principally cold and stiff, yet there are large well- 
cultivated farms, Dothan (424 acres) letting for £693 in 
1875, whilst Balgreggie (130 acres) is all of it under 
grass. Woods occupy some 520 acres ; and the entire 
surface is parcelled out into arable and pasture lands, 
plantations, limestone quarries, coal and ironstone mines, 
thoroughfares, etc. The mining interest is very exten- 
sive ; and seven collieries, belonging chiefly to the Car- 
boniferous Limestone series, were at work here in 1879, 
that of Lochgelly being noteworthy for the great fire of 
1870-71. A ruin, named Carden Tower, near the SE 
border, is the only antiquity. Four proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 13 of 
between £100 and £500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 
21 of from £20 to £50. For ecclesiastical and school- 
board purposes, Auchterderran forms one quoad sacra 
parish, and Lochgelly another, both in the presbytery 
of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife. The ancient church 
of Auchterderran was given by Fothad, last Bishop 
of Alban (1059-93), to God, St Serf, and the hermit 
Culdees of Lochleven ; the present building was erected 
at the hamlet in 1789, and its minister's income is 
£463. The public school, with accommodation for 
350 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 189, 
and a grant of £177, 10s. Valuation (1881) £19,294, 
10s. Pop. of quoad, sacra portion (1871) 1623, (1881) 
1747; of entire parish (1811) 2403, (1841) 3352, (1871) 
4017, (1881) 4332, of whom 2484 were in Lochgelly 
burgh.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Auchtergaven (Gael, uaclidar-garnhainn, 'upland of 
the yearling cattle '), a village and a parish in the Strath- 
tay district of Perthshire. The village of Auchtergaven 
or Bankfoot stands at 226 feet above sea-level, on the 
Corral Burn, a little above its confluence with the Garry, 
and on the highroad from Perth to Dunkeld, and is 3 \ 
miles NNW of Luncarty station on the Highland railway, 
this being 4J miles N by W of Perth. A modern place, 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments ; sheep and cattle fairs on the 
Thursday of May after Amulree and the Friday of Nov- 
ember after Dunkeld ; gas-works ; and three inns, at one 
of which the Queen changed horses, 7 Sept. 1842. Here, 
too, are the parish church, an oblong building with a 
tower, seating nearly 1200, and erected about 1812 ; a 
Free and a XJ. P. church ; and a public school, which, 
with accommodation for 300 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 164, and a grant of £153, 12s. 
Weaving is the staple industry, many of the inhabitants 
being employed in the neighbouring Airleywight linen 
works. Pop. (1861) 748, (1871) 689, (1881) 

The parish contains also the station and most of the 
village of Stanley, at its south-eastern angle, 3J miles 
ESE of Bankfoot, and the hamlet of Waterloo, 1$ mile 
NNW ; and it comprises the small old parish of Logie- 
bride, annexed in 1618 and again about 1647. It is 
bounded NE by Little* Dunkeld ; E by Kinclaven, parted 
from it by the Benshiel Burn ; SE for If mile by the 
winding Tay, separating it from Cargill and St Martins, 
and by Redgorton ; S by Moneydie ; SW by the Shochie 
Burn, dividing it from Monzie and the Mullion portion 


of Redgorton ; W by Little Dunkeld and the Tully- 
beagles portion of Methven. Presenting a very irregular 
outline that rudely resembles a tooth with long north- 
westward-pointing fangs, it has a length from NW to 
SE of from 1§ to 6J miles, an extreme width of 5 miles, 
and an area of 13,004| acres, of which 121| lie detached, 
and 63J are water. The Benshiel, the confluent Garry 
and Ordie, the Shochie, and lesser burns, all take a 
south-eastward or east-south-eastward course towards 
the Tay ; and the surface accordingly rises north-west- 
ward and west-north-westward. In the latter direction 
it has an altitude above sea-level of 107 feet at Newmill, 
207 near Loak, 282 at Rashieley, 392 near Tullybelton 
House, 464 near Corrielea, 1022 near Drumquhar, and 
1493 in Creag na Criche ; in the former, of 230 feet near 
Stanley, 320 near Ardonachie, 378 near Coulterenny, 
429 near Muirlands, 578 at Upper Obney, and 1323 in 
the Obney Hills, whose summit is 1| mile S by W of 
that of Birnam Hill in Little Dunkeld. The tract along 
the Tay ends in bold rocky banks ; and a spit from it, 
consisting of trap rock, crosses the river's bed near 
Stanley, forming the celebrated Linn of Campsie. Cairn - 
leith Moss in the NE was once a dismal waste, a robbers' 
fastness, and the spot where legal retribution was signally 
dealt upon Highland caterans ; but it has been so drained, 
planted, and otherwise improved as well to harmonise 
with what Scott described as ' one of the loveliest and 
richest views of Scotland — the NW opening of Strath- 
more.' The rocks of the hills are clay -slate and grey - 
wacke, with masses of quartz and roofing slates, both 
blue and grey ; those in the S are chiefly Devonian ; and 
close-grained sandstone, greenish and taking a fine polish, 
is quarried here. The soils are various, but may be 
generally described as sandy loam, mixed with gravel or 
small stones. Antiquities are St Bride's Well, marking 
the site of Logiebride church, 1J mile SW of Bankfoot, 
a stone circle, standing stones at three different points, 
and a court hill. Thomas Nairne of Mukkersy had a 
charter of the lands of Auchtergaven in 1605 ; his grand- 
son, Robert Nairne of Strathord (d. 1683), was, for loyalty 
in the Great Rebellion, created Lord Nairne in the 
peerage of Scotland in 1681. John, the third Lord 
(1691-1777), was out in the '15, and again in the '45 ; 
on the second occasion he had just done building Nairne 
House, near Loak, to which in September he welcomed 
Prince Charles Edward, and which three years later was 
wholly demolished by the Duke of Athole, its purchaser. 
The forfeited title was restored in 1824 to William 
Murray Nairne (1757-1S30), husband of Carolina Oli- 
phant of Gask ; with William, their son, it became ex- 
tinct in 1837, but was again revived in 1874 in favour 
of Baroness Keith of Meikleour. Robert Mcoll (1814- 
37), styled 'Scotland's second Burns' by Ebenezer Elliot, 
was born at Little Tullybelton farm, and records how 
'the memories o' his father's hame and its kindly 
dwellers a' 

' Are twined wi' the stanes o' the silver bum 
An 1 its fairy crooks and bays, 
That onward sang 'neath the gowden broom 
Upon bonnie Ordie braes ' — 

those braes where a boy he tended cattle, as is told in 
the touching memoir prefixed to the latest and best 
edition of his Poems (Paisley, 1877). The principal 
residences are Stanley House, Airleywight, and Tully- 
belton House, at whose predecessor (then owned by 
Patrick Graeme of Inchbrakie) the great Marquis of 
Montrose arrived in disguise, to enter on his campaign 
of 1644-45. Baroness Nairne, the Duke of Athole, 
Sir Archibald Drummond-Stewart, and two others, hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards ; 3 proprietors 
hold between £100 and £200, 2 between £50 and £100, 
and 10 between £20 and £50. In 1877 Stanley was 
erected into a quoad sacra parish ; the remainder of 
Auchtergaven is in the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, its minister's income being £355. 
Valuation of civil parish (1881) £15,047, 16s. 7d. Pop. 
thereof (1755) 1677, (1831) 3417, (1871) 2141, (1881) 
2194 ; of quoad sacra parish (1881) IZZS.—Ord. Sur., 
sh. 48, 1868. 


Auchterhouse/a village and a parish of SW Forfarshire. 
The village or Kirkton of Auchterhouse, occupying a 
central position, has a post office under Dundee, and, £ 
mile WSW, a station with telegraph office on the Cale- 
donian, 12J miles NW of Dundee and 4 J SE of New- 
tyle. At it stands the parish church, described in Muir's 
Characteristics of Old Church Architecture (Edinb. 
1861): — 'Erected in 1630 on the site of a decayed church, 
as appears by some fragments of tracery and other carved 
work lying about, it consists of chancel, 27 feet by 21 
feet 5 inches, nave, 56 feet 7 inches by 33 feet, and a 
square tower at the W end. All the windows are square- 
topped, and of three lights, except the E one, which is 
of two lights and placed in the gable. The chancel 
doorway is also flat-headed, that in the nave is of semi- 
classic character, with a three-centred arch, imposts, and 
moulded jambs. On the N side both divisions of the 
church are blank. The chancel arch is acutely pointed, 
and may possibly be a remnant of the older building, 
though it has nothing of the patched appearance of an 
ancient fabric remodelled.' This the last specimen of 
early church architecture in Scotland contains some 400 
sittings, and at its E end has a mortuary chapel of the 
Airlie family. 

The parish includes also the hamlets of Dronley near 
the southern, and of Boniton near the north-western, 
border. It is bounded N by Glands, E by Glamis, 
Tealing, and Mains, S by Liff and Perthshire, W by 
Lundie, and NW by Newtyle. It has an extreme length 
from N to S of 3| miles, a'breadth from E to W of from 
2| to 3J miles, and a land area of 5708 acres. The 
southern border is traced by a rivulet, which, flowing 
eastward out of Lundie, unites near Dronley with the 
Dronley Burn to form the Dighty ; and. from a point 
near the confluence of these two streams the surface rises 
northward and north-westward up to the Sidlaw Hills — 
to 552 feet at 3 furlongs SE of the Kirkton, 1399 feet 
in Auchterhouse Hill at the NE angle of the parish, and 
950 feet in a summit behind East Mains, 2J furlongs 
from the western boundary. About five-eighths of the 
entire area are under cultivation, one-fourth is under 
wood, and one-twelfth in hill pasture ; the cultivated 
portion having for the most part a soil of black 
mould over a stratum of till or clay, or a bed of 
marl incumbent upon rock, and mixed in some places 
with sand. The rocks are chiefly Devonian, even in the 
hills, but there are intersected by trap dykes or overlaid 
with expanded trap ; and sandstone is worked by two 
stone merchants. ' Weems, ' or ancient cave-dwellings, 
occur, and in one of them were found a quern, some 
bones, and a brass ring. The fine old baronial mansion 
of Auchterhouse, 1 mile SW of the Kirkton, is a seat of 
the Earl of Airlie, who holds more than half of the 
rental of the whole parish, three other proprietors 
dividing most of the remainder ; near it are fragments 
of a castle, said to have belonged to a Sir John Ramsay, 
and to have^ been visited by Wallace on his landing at 
Montrose with French auxiliaries. In the words of an 
old metrical record — ■ 

' Good Sir John Kamsay, and the Euthven true, 
Barclay and Bisset, with men not a few 
Do Wallace meet,— all canty, keen, and crouse, 
And with three hundred march to Ochterhouse.' 
Auchterhouse is in the presbytery of Dundee and 
synod of Angus and Mearns. Its minister's income is 
£391. The one public school, with accommodation for 
16S children, had (1879) an average attendance of 95 
and a grant of £72, 12s. Valuation (1881) of lands 
£8o32, 19s. ; of railway, £1833. Pop. (1831) 715, (1871) 
721, (1881) 661.— Orel. Sur., sh. 48flS68. 

Auchterless (Gael, uachdar-shlios, ' upper side '), a 
village and a parish on the NW border of Aberdeenshire. 
The village or Kirktown has a central position upon 
the left bank of the Ythan, 3 miles SW of Auchterless 
station on the Inveramsay-Banff branch of the Great 
North of Scotland railway ; which station, lying just 
beyond the NE angle of the parish, 4 miles S by E of 
Turriff, and 34J miles NNW of Aberdeen, has a tele- 
graph office. At the village are a post office under 


Turriff, the manse (1867), and the parish church (1780 ; 
wing added, 1835 ; 650 seats) ; the Free church stands 
| mile SSW. 

The parish contains also the hamlet of Badenscoth, 2 
miles SSW of Kirktown of Auchterless and 3 NNW of 
Rothie Norman station, with a post office under Aber- 
deen. It is bounded N by Turriff, E and SE by Fyvie, 

5 by Rayne and Culsalmond, W by Forgue, and NW by 
Banffshire. It has an extreme length from N to S of 

6 J miles, a breadth from E to W of 5f miles, and a land 
area of 16,826 acres. The YthaS", entering the parish 
1J mile from its source in Forgue, flows 2j miles east- 
ward, next strikes 5 miles north-north-eastward to the 
old castle of Towie, and, thence bending southward, 
forms for 2 miles the eastern boundary, descending in 
this course from about 500 to 134 feet above sea-level. 
One affluent, Pitdoulsie Burn, traces the northern 
boundary ; another, Rothie Burn, the southern ; and a 
third, Games Burn, flows through the north-western 
half of the parish to Knockleith. On either side of the 
Howe of Auchterless the surface rises into rounded hills, 
rarely too steep for cultivation ; and points of altitude 
from E to W are Seggat (420 feet) Thomastown (490), 
Gordonstown Hill (582), Blackford or Drumsinnie Hill 
(649), Braestairie (678), and Berryhill of Logie (850). 
Everywhere resting on greywacke, the soil of the up- 
lands is a thin slaty clay, better for cereals and roots 
than for grass ; but on the lower slopes and along the 
howe are clay loams of considerable fertility. Planta- 
tions cover some 500 acres, and are mostly young upon 
Seggat, Thomastown, and Knockleith ; but the firs and 
larches of Hatton, Templand, and Badenscoth, and the 
ash trees by the church, are of older growth. Antiqui- 
ties are Glenmellan camp at the western border, a 
parallelogram of nearly 130 acres, and probably of 
Roman construction (Roy's Mil. Ants., pi. li. ) ; a triple 
stone circle on the Kirkhill or Berryhill of Logie ; re- 
mains of three ' Picts' houses ; ' the ' Cumines trench ' or 
camp (a.d. 1308) ; the artificial Moat Head, seat of the 
old baronial courts ; a Gallows Hill ; and, at Seggat, a 
ruined chapel and well of Our Lady. The chief resi- 
dences are Knockleith, Badenscoth, Hatton, and Temp- 
land ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, and 
1 between £20 and £50. Auchterless is in the presby- 
tery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen ; its minister's 
income is £410. There are 5 schools under the board — 2 
apiece for boys and girls at Badenscoth and the Kirk- 
town, and one at Backhill on the eastern border. With 
a total accommodation for 470 children, these had (1879) 
an average attendance of 322, and grants amount- 
ing to £277, 6s. 9d. Valuation (1881) £14,771, 13s. 5d. 
Pop. (1831) 1701, (1S71) 1971, (1881) IMS.— Oral Sur., 
sh. 86, 1876. 

Auchtermuchty (Gael, uachdar-muic, ' upper land of 
the wild sow'), a town and a parish of NW Fife. The 
town is divided by the Loverspool, a tiny affluent of the 
Eden, into two nearly equal portions ; and has a station 
on the Fife and Kinross section of the North British, 
10J miles NE of Kinross, 33| ENE of Stirling, 4| WNW 
of Ladybank Junction, 10J WSW of Cupar, and 33 N of 
Edinburgh (via Burntisland). It was made a royal 
burgh in 1517, and confirmed in its rights in 1595, but 
had ceased to return a member of Parliament some time 
before the Union ; and, becoming bankrupt in 1816, it 
suffered the sequestration of all its corporation property, 
except town-house, jail, steeple, bell, and customs. 
Governed by a provost, 2 bailies, 2 treasurers, a pro- 
curator-fiscal, 2 joint-town-clerks, and 8 councillors, 
it has sheriff small debt courts on the second Mon- 
day of January, April, July, and October ; a weekly 
corn market is held on Monday ; and there are cattle, 
horse, and sheep fairs on the first Wednesday of February, 
the last Monday of April, the second Monday of July, 
and the first Monday of October and December. With 
three main streets and several lanes, Auchtermuchty is 
irregularly built, but of late years has been considerably 
improved, and commands fine views of the East and 
West Lomond Hills, which, distant 3i miles S and 



i miles SW, are 1471 and 1713 feet high. It was 
the birthplace of the Rev. John Glas (1698-1773), founder 
of the sect of Glasites ; but it is better known, by the 
famous old ballad of The Wife of Auchtermuchty , wrongly 
ascribed to James V. There are a town-hall ; the Vic- 
toria Hall, erected in 1865 for lectures, concerts, and 
public meetings; a post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, and telegraph departments ; branches of the 
Bank of Scotland and Union Bank ; a savings' bank, and 
8 insurance agencies ; gas-works ; 3 hotels ; a choral union ; 
and agricultural and horticultural societies. Places 
of worship are the parish church (built 1780 ; enlarged 
1838; and seating 900), a Free church, and 2 U.P. 
churches (North and South) ; and the Madras Esta- 
blished school and North and South public schools, 
with respective accommodation for 127, 194, and 135 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 103, 129, 
and 102, and grants of £80, 15s., £121, 5s. 6d., and 
£86, 9s. The industrial works comprise a printing 
office, a bleachfield, an extensive distillery, 2 malt kilns, 
a scale-beam and weighing-machine factory, 3 sawmills, 
and 5 linen factories. The weaving of diapers, hucka- 
backs, sheetings, etc. (chiefly by handloom), has long 

Seal of Auchtermuchty. 

been the staple industry, but since 1S17 has been carried 
on less by resident manufacturers than for houses in 
Kirkcaldy, Dunfermline, Dundee, Glasgow, and Aber- 
deen ; there are now some 600 looms in the town, and 
200 more in the parish. Burgh valuation (1881) £2506. 
Pop. of royal burgh (1S71) 1082, (1881) 824; of town 
(1841) 2394, (1861) 2438, (1871) 2195, (1881) 1673. 

The parish, which also contains the village of Dun- 
shelt, is bounded N by Perthshire, E by Collessie, S 
by Falkland and Strathmiglo, W by Strathmiglo and 
Abernethy. Its length from NW to SE is 4J miles ; its 
greatest breadth from E to W is 2| miles ; and its area 
is 3533 acres, of which 3J are water. Three streams 
flow eastward — Beggar's Burn along most of the northern 
boundary, Barroway Burn through the southern interior, 
and the river Eden, near or upon the southern bor- 
der ; and from this last the surface rises north-west- 
ward to the Ochils — from 137 feet above sea-level at a 
point near Dunshelt to 554 feet at Mairsland, 898 in 
Pitlour Wood on the western boundary, and 843 in the 
north-western angle of the parish. The soil of the low- 
lands is fertile and well cultivated, that in the SE 
being deep rich alluvium, part of a plain that formerly 
was often flooded in winter, but is now as well-drained 
and luxuriant a district as any almost in Scotland ; the 
soil of the uplands is light, but sharp and valuable for 
grass. About 220 acres are under wood. Myres Castle 
(Mrs Tyndall Bruce), £ mile S by E of the town, is the 
only considerable mansion. It was long the residence 
of the Moncrieffs of Beedie, and was greatly enlarged 
about 1828. Two proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 12 of between £100 and £500, 12 
of from £50 to £100, and 36 of from £20 to £50. 
Auchtermuchty is in the presbytery of Cupar and synod 
of Fife ; the minister's income is £465. Valuation of 
landward portion (1881) £8497, 15s. 6d. Pop. of entire 


parish (1811) 2403, (1841) 3352, (1871) 2958, (1881) 
2322.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Auchterneed, a hamlet in Fodderty parish, Ross and 
Cromarty shires, which furnishes lodgings to visitors at 
the neighbouring Strathpeffer Spa. 

Auchtertool (Gael, uachtar-tuill, ' above the hollow'), 
a village and a parish of SW Fife. The village stands 3 
miles S of Cardenden station, and 4J W of Kirkcaldy ; 
it has a post office under the latter and a large distillery. 
Pop., including the neighbouring hamlet of Newbigging 
(1871) 331. 

The parish is hounded N by Auchterderran, NE by 
Abbotshall, E and SE by Kinghorn, S and SW by Aber- 
dour, and NW by Beath. Its length from ENE to WSW 
varies between 1| mile and 3§ miles, its breadth between 
7 furlongs and 1| mile ; and its area is 2755j acres, of 
which 17J are water. The surface rises westward to the 
Cullalo Hills, attaining 420 feet above sea-level near the 
ruined baronial mansion of Hallyards in the E, 430 
at 2 furlongs S of the village, 556 at 3 furlongs NW 
of the church, 526 at Pilkhambrae in the SW, and 
438 in the NW, 7 furlongs ENE of Cowdenbeath 
station. These heights, which fall off steeply to the 
S, command fine eastward views of the Isle of May, 
the Bass, and North Berwick Law. Two streams flow 
eastward, Doonachy Burn through the interior, and 
Bottom Burn along the southern boundary ; in the E, 
near Hallyards, is Carmilla Loch (2x1 furl. ) ; and the 
south-western corner of Loch Gelly lies within the 
northern border. Trap, sandstone, and limestone have 
all been quarried, and coalpits opened in the NW angle 
of the parish ; its soils are variously loam, clayey, and 
mossy. Two proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, 1 
between £50 and £100, and 3 hold between £20 and 
£50. Auchtertool is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and 
synod of Fife. The church, f mile WSW of the village, 
was repaired in 1833, and seats 280 ; the minister's in- 
come is £223. A public school, with acco mm odation 
for 99 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 63, 
and a grant of £50, 7s. Valuation (1881) £7788, 
lis. 5d. Pop. (1831) 527, (1861) 609, (1871) 529, (1881) 
706.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Auchtertyre, a hamlet in Newtyle parish, Forfarshire, 
| mile W of Newtyle village. Near it are traces of a 
small square camp, supposed to have been formed by 
Montrose's army during the civil wars. 

Auchtow. See Achtow. 

Auckingill. See Attohingill. 

Augustus, Fort (Gael. Cilla-chuimcin, 'the cell or 
church of Cumin,' probably the ' Cumineus albus ' who 
was abbot of Iona 657-669), a village in Boleskine- 
and-Abertarff parish, Inverness-shire, at the head of Loch 
Ness, and on the right bank of the Caledonian Canal, 
by which it is 33£ miles SE of Inverness, and 31J NW 
of Fort William. It has a post office under Inverness, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a first-class hotel, and a fair on the Monday before 
the second Wednesday of June. There are an Established 
mission church, a Free church, and St Peter's Catholic 
church (1840) ; a board school, with accommodation for 
100 children, had (1879) an average attendance of 51, and 
a grant of £53. Pop., mostly Gaelic-speaking, of the 
village, 530 ; of registration district of Fort Augustus 
or Abertarff (1871) 897, (1881) 872. 

To overawe the disaffected clans, a barrack was built 
in 1716 on the peninsula beyond the village, with the 
Oich salmon river on its NW, and the Tarff on its SE side, 
in front the deep waters of Loch Ness. As strengthened 
and enlarged in 1730 by General Wade, who named it 
Fort Augustus out of compliment to William Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland, it was a square work, capable of 
accommodating 300 men, with a bastion at each angle 
mounting 12 six-pounders, and with a ditch, covert way, 
and glacis. In March 1746 it was taken and dismantled 
by the insurgents after a two days' siege, a shell from a 
neighbouring height having caused the explosion of its 
powder magazine ; in May its eponymous hero, Cumber- 
land, formed a camp at it, to which, among other prisoners, 


Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, was carried in a litter. Re- 
stored to more than its former strength, it was occupied 
by a garrison down to the Crimean War ; in 1857 it was 
sold for £5000 to the late Lord Lovat, whose son, the 
fifteenth lord, presented it in 1876 to the Fathers of the 
English Benedictine congregation, along with 16 acres 
of land, and the rental for 19 years of Borlum farm, an 
adjacent holding of 200 acres. On 13 Sept. 1876 the 
Marquis of Ripon laid the foundation-stone of a college, 
monastery, and hospice ; the college was opened on 16 
Oct. 1878, and on 24 to 26 Aug. 1880 the completed build- 
ings were inaugurated by a solemn triduo. They occupy 
3 sides of a quadrangle, 100 feet square — the college on 
the N ; the hospice, with 30 bedrooms, on the W ; and the 
monastery, for 40 monks, on the E. The S side is closed 
at present merely by the magnificent cloisters, which 
run right round the quadrangle, and which open here 
into a fine scriptorium already furnished with a printing- 
press, and hereafter to contain 12,000 volumes ; but on 
this side it is intended to erect an octagonal chapter- 
house and a splendid church, which will bring the present 
cost (£65,000)uptoabout£100,000. A Scottish baronial 
tower, with clock and 9 bells, rises from the college to a 
height of 110 feet; over the monastery is another tower, 
140 feet high ; and the 15 windows of the refectory are 
filled with the arms of benefactors — Lords Lovat, Bute, 
Norfolk, Eipon, Stafford, Hemes, Denbigh, and Beau- 
mont, Mr Hunter Blair, and others. The whole is in 
Early English style, from designs by Mr J. Hansom and 
Messrs Pugin & Pugin ; and, girt by terraced pleasure- 
grounds, and set among wooded mountains, lake, and 
streams, St Benedict's may vie with the grandest religious 
foundations of pre-Eeformation days. Its college, as- 
sociated with Glasgow University, is designed to provide 
a liberal education for 100 sons of Catholic gentlemen ; 
is divided into a preparatory, an intermediate, and a 
high school ; and is furnished with halls, dormitories, 
library, billiard room, etc. Besides the usual course in 
classics and science, instruction is given in land-survey- 
ing, geology, agricultural chemistry, and other branches. 
It remains to be noticed that St Benedict's site was for- 
merly Benedictine property, given in 1232 by Sir John 
Bisset of Lovat to Beattly priory, granted by the last 
prior in 1558 to the sixth Lord Lovat, and forfeited by 
Alexander MacKenzie of Fraserdale for his part in the 
'15. The present monastery is an incorporation and a 
resuscitation of an ancient English and of a still more 
ancient Scottish Benedictine abbey, both situate on the 
Continent. The latter was the Scots abbey of St James 
at Eatisbon, dating from the 11th century ; the former 
was the famous abbey of Lamspring or Lansperg in 
Hanover, founded as a Benedictine nunnery in the 9th 
century, and converted into an abbey of English Bene- 
dictine monks in 1643. — Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Auldbar Castle, the seat of Patrick Chalmers, Esq. , 
in the NE angle of Aberlemno parish, Forfarshire, 1\ 
miles SW of Brechin. A modernised baronial fortalice, 
it has a good library, and stands in a finely-planted park. 
In the extreme S of the parish, some 5 \ miles to the SSE, 
and 5 miles E of Forfar, is Auldbar Road station, on the 
Arbroath and Forfar section of the Caledonian. 

Auldcambus. See Aldoambtjs. 

Auldcathie. See Aldcathie. 

Auldclune, a hamlet in the extreme "W of Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the Garry, and on the 
Highland railway, 2 miles ESE of Blair Athole village. 

Auldearn (Gael, allt-fearn, ' stream of the alder tree '), 
a post office village and a coast parish of NE Nairnshire. 
The village stands 1 f mile inland at 69 feet above sea- 
level, and is 2J miles ESE of its post-town and railway 
station, Nairn. A burgh of barony, it holds a cattle and 
horse fair on 20 June if a Wednesday or Thursday, 
otherwise on the Wednesday after, and a produce fair on 
the Tuesday of November after Inverness. Pop. (1841) 
351, (1871) 350. 

The parish is hounded NW, for 4J miles, by the 
Moray Firth ; E by Dyke, in Morayshire; S by Ardclach ; 
W by Nairn and the Eaitknock portion of Cawdor. It 
has a length from N to S of from 3J to 6J miles, a 


breadth from E to W of from 3^- to 5| miles, and a land 
area of 14,035 acres. The Mtjckle Burn here winds 
about 6 miles, first on the southern border of the parish, 
next across its south-eastern corner, and then on the 
eastern border ; the western interior is traversed by the 
Auldearn Burn, which, rising in the north-western angle 
of Ardclach, and joining the Nairn 1 mile below its 
mouth, has a total northward and westward course of 
some 5 miles, and just below Auldearn village itself re- 
ceives a burn from the SE. Within 3 furlongs of the 
coast-line Loch Loy (9 x lj fur.) lies at an altitude of 12 
feet ; J mile E of it is Cran Loch (3 J x 1 J fur. ). With 
a foreshore that widens north-eastward from 1 furlong 
to 2 miles, and is fringed by the Maviston Sandhills, the 
northern portion of Auldearn is generally low, and the 
highest gradient on the 3| miles of the Highland railway 
within its bounds is only 129 feet. Further inland the sur- 
face becomes more undulating, and rises to 305 feet near 
Blackhills, 379 near Easter Arr, 423 near Lethen House, 
473 near Easter Clune, and 600 in the south-eastern 
angle of the parish ; hut nowhere are the hills too steep 
to plough. The rocks belong chiefly to the strip of Old 
Red sandstone that borders the Moray Firth, and have 
been extensively quarried. Marl also abounds ; and fir 
roots and entire trees are found in great quantities in 
Inshoch Moss. For a distance from the shore of J mile 
on the W and of 1 mile on the E, the soil is sheer sand, 
covered with bent ; elsewhere it is various, but for the 
most part fertile, about one-third of the entire area being 
arable, one-fourth under woods and plantations, and 
four-elevenths pasture or waste. Antiquities are two 
stone circles, the ruins of Inshoch Castle, and vestiges of 
that of Moyness. According to later chronicles it was 
in Auldearn that Donald, King of Alban, fell in battle 
with the Danes (900), and that Malcolm his son was 
slain by the men of Moray (954) ; but Skene, out of 
of older records, proves these events to have taken place 
at Dunnottar and Fetteresso (Celt Scot., i. 338, 364). 
Of one engagement at least this parish certainly has 
been the scene, since just to the S of the village was 
fought, on 9 May 1645, the battle of Auldearn, Mon- 
trose's fourth victory over the Covenanters. The 
general of the latter, John Hurry or Urry, surprised and 
pursued to Inverness, had there obtained reinforcements 
that, swelling his army to 400 horse and 3500 foot, em- 
boldened him to offer battle to the Marquis's 1700, 250 
of whom were cavalry. Lured from its strong position, 
the Royalist right under Kolkitto was retiring from the 
charge in great disorder, when Drummond, who com- 
manded Hurry's horse, by wheeling unskilfully, broke 
the ranks of his own infantry. Montrose at this crisis 
charged with his whole force, and the Highland rush 
proved irresistible. The veterans only (some 1200 
strong) attempted to withstand it manfully, while the 
new levies fled in consternation, and were chased several 
miles by Lord Gordon's cavalry. The losses on both 
sides were variously estimated — the Royalists' at from 
15 to 200 men, of whom Captain Macdonald and William 
Macpherson of Invereschie were the only persons of 
mark ; the Covenanters' at from 1000 to 3000, including 
Col. Campbell of Lawers, Sir John and Sir Gideon 
Murray, Col. James Campbell, and 87 married Frasers. 
Drummond for his blunder or his treachery was tried by 
court-martial and shot ; Hurry drew off his shattered 
army, and joining Bailiie, shared with him eight weeks 
later in the defeat of Alford (See vol. i., pp. 209-212 of 
Keltie's Hist, of the Scottish Highlands, Edinb. 1875). 
The principal residences are Boath House, 3 furlongs N of 
the village, and Lethen House, near the southern boun- 
dary ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 4 of from £20 to £50. Auldearn 
is in the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray. Its 
parish church is situated at the village, and was built in 
1757 in place of an older structure, dedicated to St 
Colm, and anciently held by the sub-dean of Elgin 
cathedral. This is an ill-proportioned, oblong edifice, 
with 477 sittings, and a graveyard containing several 
interesting monuments of Hurry's followers, of the 
Hays of Lochloy and Moyness, and of Nairn townsfolk, 




most of whom (the fishing class only excepted) have 
their burial places here. The minister's income is 
£380. There are also a Free church, 1 mile S of the 
village, and Moyness IT. P. church at Boghole, 3f miles 
E, the latter built about 1780, repaired in 1817, and 
seating 353. ''The three public schools of Auldearn, 
Innes, and Moyness, with respective accommodation for 
84, 81, and 83 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 39, 61, and 56, and grants of. £40, 2s. 6d., £39, 18s., 
and £52, 19s. Valuation (1882), £10,091, 15s. 5d. Pop. 
(1831) 1653, (1861) 1328, (1871) 1279, (1881) 1292.— 
Ord. Sur.,sh. 84, 1876. 

Aulderg, a burn in Dallas parish, Elginshire, run- 
ning to the river Lossie. 

Auldfield, a section of Pollokshaws town in East- 
wood parish, Renfrewshire. The quoad sacra parish 
church of Pollokshaws is here, bore originally the name 
of Auldfield chapel of ease, was built in 1840, and is a 
neat edifice with a spire. 

Auldgirnaig, a hamlet in Moulin parish, Perthshire, 
on the river Garry, at the mouth of Glen-Gimaig, con- 
tiguous to the N end of the Pass of Killiecrankie, 4 
miles NNW of Pitlochry. 

Auldgirth, a place in the southern angle of Closebum 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the river With and on the Glas- 
gow and South-Western railway, 8 miles NW by N of 
Dumfries. It has a bridge over the Nith, a station on 
the railway, a good inn, and a post office under Dum- 
fries, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments. A famous old three-trunked tree, called 
the Three Brethren, stood near it, but has been de- 
stroyed. The adjacent reach of the valley of the Nith, 
for about 2 miles, is contracted to the narrowness of 
almost a gorge, and exhibits views of singular pic- 

Auldgrande. See Aultgrande. 

Auld-Hill, a hill in West Kilbride parish, Ayrshire, 
crowned with remains of a circular building, which pro- 
bably was occupied as a watch-tower. 

Auldhouse, a hamlet, with a public school, in East 
Kilbride parish, Lanarkshire, 3 miles S by W of the 
village of East Kilbride. 

Auldhouse, a burn in the E of Renfrewshire, rising in 
Mearns parish, and running about 5J miles north-east- 
ward past Thornliebank village to the White Cart at 

Auldkirk. See Innerkip. 

Auldmuir, a place, with extensive limeworks, in 
Dairy parish, Ayrshire. 

Auldna, a mineral tract, with excellent worked coal, 
in the upper part of New Cumnock parish, Ayrshire. 

Auldnachuirn and Auldnacuish, two burns in Dallas 
parish, Elginshire, running to the Lossie. 

Auldtown. See Alton. 

Auld Water. See Old Water. 

Auld Wick Castle, an old baronial fortalice in Wick 
parish, Caithness, surmounting a dismal chasm in cliffs 
at the S side of the entrance of Wick Bay, If mile SE 
of Wick. It belonged, in the beginning of the 14th 
century, to Sir Reginald de Cheyne, passed to the 
Oliphants, the Earls of Caithness, the Dunbars, and 
Lord Duffus ; is now dismantled and ruinous ; forms an 
excellent landmark to mariners, and is commonly called 
by them ' the Aul' Man o' Wick. ' 

Auld Wives' Lift, a famous cromlech in Baldernock 
parish, SW Stirlingshire, 1 mile NNE of the church, 
and 3 miles WSW of Lennoxtown. A trilith or com- 
plete cromlech, it consists of three stones only — two of 
nearly equal length supporting the huge capstone, a 
block of basalt 18 feet long, 11 broad, and 7 thick. 
Through the narrow triangular space between the three 
stones every stranger must creep, if, runs the rustic 
creed, he would not die childless ; and those stones, he 
is told, were brought hither by three old women in their 
aprons, for a wager which should bear the heaviest load. 
Then from the top, though barely 400 feet above sea- 
level, he may look right across the island from firth to 
firth, see the smoke of one steamer entering the Clyde, 
and of another below Grangemouth in the Forth. See 

Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland (2d ed. 1863), 
and Nimmo's Stirlingshire (3d ed. 1880). 

Aulich, a hamlet in Fortingal parish, Perthshire, on 
the N side of Loch Rannoch, at the mouth of a burn of 
its own name, 3J miles W of Kinloch Rannoch. 

Aultandow. See Altando. 

Aultanfhiler or Fiddlers' Burn, a brook in the NE of 
Inverness-shire, running along the boundary between 
Inverness and Petty parishes. 

Aultbea, a coast hamlet in Poolewe quoad sacra 
parish, W Ross-shire, 7 miles NNE of Poolewe village. 
It has a post office, an inn, a schoolhouse, a Free 
church, and fairs on the Friday before the first Tuesday 
of July and the Wednesday in October before Beauly ; 
with Glasgow it communicates by steamboat. 

Ault-Gheallaidh. See Aldyonlie. 

Aultgrande or Altgraat, a rivulet of the E side of 
Ross-shire. It issues from Loch Glass ; runs east-south- 
eastward, about 7 miles, along the boundary between 
Alness and Kiltearn parishes ; passes through a pro- 
found, narrow, bosky chasm, seeming to have been 
formed by the stroke of an earthquake ; makes, in its 
progress, a series of romantic cateracts and cascades ; 
falls into the Cromarty Firth, about 1 mile NE of 
Kiltearn village ; and, when swollen by heavy rains, is 
frequented by finnocks, sea-trout, and a few salmon. 

Aultguish, a burn-torrent in Urquhart and Glenmoris- 
ton parish, Inverness-shire, in the Forest of Ruisky, 
down the precipitous alpine mountains of Mealfourvou- 
nie, to the NW side of Loch Ness, nearly opposite the 
famous Fall of Foyers. It makes, in one place, a sheer 
leap of at least 100 feet ; and, as seen from Loch Ness, 
it looks like a long white ribbon, streaked and figured 
with the intervening trees. 

Aultkollie, a very deep, tortuous, and romantic gully, 
traversed by a burn, on the coastward side of Loth parish, 

Aultmore. See Altmore. 

Aultnacaillich, a place in Durness parish, Sutherland, 
in Strathmore, 18 miles SSE of Durness village. It was 
the birthplace of Robert Calder Mackay (1714-78), com- 
monly called Rob Donn (' Brown Robert'), regarded as 
the Burns of the Northern Highlands. A fine waterfall 
is on one side of it ; and the famous tower or round 
burg of Dornadilla on the other. A neat monument to 
Rob Donn, with inscriptions in Gaelic, English, Latin, 
and Greek, was erected in Durness churchyard in 1829. 

Aultnaharrow. See Altnaharra. 

Aultnancarrach, a burn of E Ross-shire, running into 
the Aultgrande rivulet. Productive lead ore has been 
found on its banks. 

Aultsigh, a burn on the boundary between Urquhart 
and Glenmoriston, in the united parish of Urquhart and 
Glenmoriston, Inverness-shire. Issuing from a lakelet 
on the lofty western shoulder of Mealfourvounie (2284 
feet), it tumbles and leaps down a rocky channel to 
the base of a precipice nearly 1500 feet high ; is 
screened in its progress by beetling cliffs and wooded 
acclivities ; makes two beautiful falls, one about midway 
down its course, the other near its mouth, both under 
shades of thick foliage ; and passes into Loch Ness at a 
point 2| miles NE of Invermoriston. A rocking-stone, 
about 20 feet in circuit, movable by two persons, is 
on the mountain shoulder SW of the burn. A memor- 
able conflict between a party of the Macdonalds of Glen- 
garry, and a party of the Mackenzies of Ross-shire, was 
fought on the burn in the early part of the 17th century, 
and is commemorated in a celebrated pibroch, ' The 
Raid of Kil-Christ.' 

Auquhirie, an estate, with a mansion, in the W of 
Dunnottar parish, Kincardineshire. 

Ausdale, a hamlet and a burn in Latheron parish, 
Caithness. The hamlet lies on the burn, at the N base of 
the Hill of Ord, 4 miles SW of Berriedale. The burn runs 
south-eastward, at a course of only about . 3 miles, and 
leaps over a cliff of about 100 feet in depth into the sea. 

Auskerry, a small island in Stronsay parish, Orkney, 
2| miles S of Stronsay. It is used chiefly for pasturing 
sheep and cattle ; has remains of an ancient chapel and 



of an edifice called Monk's House ; is crowned by a light- 
house, showing a fixed light, visible at the distance of 
16 nautical miles ; and, at the census of 1871, had 6 in- 

Aven, a modern provincial abbreviation of ' Avona- 
Portieosa,' the ancient name of the island Sanda in 
Southend parish, Argyllshire. 

Aven, Lanarkshire. See Avon. 

Aven or Avon, a lake and a river of S Banffshire. The 
lake lies at the south-western extremity of the county, 
22 miles NW of Castleton of Braemar ; occupies a stu- 
pendous hollow amid the central masses of the Cairn- 
gorm Mountains ; lies at an elevation of 2250 feet above 
sea-level; is immediately overhung by the steep and 
almost mural mosses of Cairngorm (4084 feet), Ben 
Macdhui (4296), and Ben Mheadoin (3883) ; measures 
1| mile in length from SW to NE, and from 1 to 14 
furlong in breadth ; exhibits scenery of solemn and most 
impressive grandeur ; and abounds in small black trout 
very different from those of the stream which flows 
from it. Its water is so clear ' that you can see the 
fishes hanging in every pool ; ' at its head is the Shelter 
Stone, a sort of cave large enough to accommodate 12 
or 15 men, and formed by an immense fallen block of 
granite resting on two other blocks in situ. The river 
issues from the NE end of the lake ; runs first about 
9 miles east-north-eastward, next about 13 miles north- 
north-westward, next about 5j miles northward ; and 
falls into the Spey at Ballindalloch. It flows mainly 
within Kirkmichael parish, but its last 2J miles lie 
within or on the boundary of Inveravon parish ; it 
passes the village of Tomintoul, and has its course 
partly along a profound mountain glen, partly along a 
deep ravine, partly along a narrow vale. It rose, in 
the great floods of 1S29, to a height of 23 feet above its 
usual level in the ravine of Poll-du-ess, and to a height 
of 6 feet more than in the flood of 1768 at its mouth. It 
receives the Water of Ailnack, near Tomintoul, Conglass 
Water, the Burn of Lochy, and, near Drumin Castle, 
Livet Water. It abounds in trout, and, from June till 
November, is frequented by salmon. ' The Aven,' says 
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, ' flows with so great pellucidity 
through its deep and dark glen, that many accidents 
have occurred to strangers by its appearing fordable in 
places which proved to be of fatal depth. This quality 
is marked by an old doggerel proverb — ■ 

1 "The Water of Aven runs so clear, 

It would beguile a man of a hundred year.'" 

The Queen and Prince Consort visited Loch Aven, 
28 Sept. 1861.— Ord. Sur., shs. 74, 75, 85, 1876-77. 

Aven or Avon, a river of Dumbartonshire, Stirling- 
shire, and Linlithgowshire. It issues from Loch Fanny- 
side, in Cumbernauld parish ; runs about 8 miles east- 
ward through Cumbernauld and Slamannan, and be- 
tween the latter parish and Muiravonside ; then goes 
about 12 miles, chiefly north-eastward, along the boun- 
dary between Stirlingshire and Linlithgowshire to the 
Firth of Forth about midway between Grangemouth 
and Borrowstounness. Its chief affluents are Polness 
Burn and Ballencrief Water, both on its right bank. 
Much of its course winds along a shallow glen amid 
softly beautiful scenery ; but its entrance into the Firth 
is along a deep muddy cut through a wide expanse of 
sands and silts, which lie bare at low water. A splendid 
aqueduct of the Union Canal and a grand 23-arched 
viaduct of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway span its 
glen on the boundary between Linlithgow and Muiravon- 
side parishes. — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Aven-nan-Geren, a stream in Harris island, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. It is frequented by salmon 

Avernish, a hamlet in the SW of Eoss-shire. Its 
post-town is Lochalsh. 

Avion (Gael, abh-ach, ' field of the water'), a beautiful 
little loch in the Dalavich portion of Eilehrenan- 
Dalavich parish, Lorn, Argyllshire, 1J W of Loch Awe, 
to which it sends off the Avich rivulet. Rudely resem- 
bling a triangle, with apex to the WSW, it is 3J miles 
long by 5$ furlongs at its foot ; lies 311 feet above sea- 

level ; and is flanked to the N by Cruach Maolachy 
(1239 feet), Cruach Narrachan (1223), and Meall Odhar 
(1255), to the S by Carn Duchara (1407) and Tom an 
t'Saoir (1191). A ruined castle stands near its head on 
an islet famous in Fingalian legend ; its waters abound 
in trout, bright hued, well shaped, and two or three to the 
lb. ; but salmon are stopped by a fall upon the rivulet. 

Aviemore (Gael, abh-mor, ' great water '), a station on 
the Highland railway in Duthil parish, E Inverness- 
shire, near the left bank of the Spey and at the base of 
Craigellachie, 12J miles SW of Grantown. Here is a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments ; and 3 furlongs to the N is Aviemore 

Avoch (Gael, abh-ach, ' field of the stream '), a village 
and a parish on the E side of the Black Isle district of 
Eoss-shire. The village stands on a small bay of the 
Moray Firth, If mile SW of Fortrose, and 9 NNE of 
Inverness. It carries on an extensive fishery, mainly 
for the supply of the Inverness market ; exports some 
grain and wood, whilst importing coal, lime, bone-dust, 
and salt ; and has a post office under Inverness, with 
money order and savings' bank departments, a good 
inn, a commodious and substantial pier, a parish church 
(1760-92 ; 600 sittings), and a Free church. Pop. (1861) 
1597, (1871) 1114, 

The parish is bounded N by Eesolis and Rosemarkie, 
SE by the Moray Firth, S by Munlochy Bay, separating 
it from Enockbain, SW by Eilmuir-Wester, and W by 
Urquhart. Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 4J 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 3 miles ; and its area is about 
6198 acres. The surface, in a general view, is a declina- 
tion from the lower part of the Ardmeanaeh or Mullbuie 
broad range of hills to the Moray Firth ; but, over the 
lower half, is crossed by several ridges running parallel 
to the main range ; so that it presents an agreeable 
diversity of hill and dale. A steep romantic ridge of 
conglomerate rock extends along the coast from the 
village to the northern boundary, and is covered with 
wood and with a rich variety of indigenous plants. A 
large mass of conglomerate rock occurs also at the en- 
trance of Munlochy Bay, and is so completely denuded 
of soil, and so weathered into small comes and rounded 
summits as to present a close resemblance to a miniature 
volcanic hill. The intermediate parts of coast and all the 
beach are sandy and gravelly. Devonian sandstone and 
conglomerate rocks predominate ; but a high granitic 
ridge, to the NE and N of the village, has so upheaved 
them as to tilt their strata into all sorts of irregular 
inclinations, yet does not, to any great extent, over- 
top them. The Moray Firth is 5 miles wide here, 
from Avoch village to Campbelltown ; looks, in conse- 
quence of the projection of Chanonry Point at Fortrose, 
like an inland lake ; and, with Fort George at one end 
of its reach beyond Chanonry Point and Inverness at 
the head of its reach beyond Eessock Ferry, presents a 
highly picturesque appearance. Avoch Burn rises mainly 
within the parish, runs to the Firth at Henrietta Bridge 
close to the village, and has water-power enough to drive 
a wool-carding mill and 3 corn mills. A beautiful pool, 
called Littlemillstick, lies near the burn's source ; and 
another sheet of fresh water, Scadden's Loch, lay near 
the north-eastern boundary, and covered 14 acres, but 
many years since was drained. Vast improvements in 
reclamation of waste land, in planting, in building, and 
in the introduction of the best methods of husbandry, 
have been effected by Mr James Fletcher, since his pur- 
chase in 1864 of the estate of Rosehaugh from Sir James 
Mackenzie for £145,000. To Eosehaugh he has added 
the estates of Bennetsfield, Ethie, and Avoch ; and on 
Eosehaugh he has built a fine new mansion in the Ee- 
naissance style (Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 1877, pp. 
104-107). Avoch Castle stood on a rocky mound, about 
200 feet above sea-level, J mile W of the village ; 
appears to have been a structure of great strength ; was 
the death-place of the regent Andrew Moray (1338) ; 
belonged afterwards to the Earls of Eoss ; and passed 
eventually to the Crown. Arkindeith Tower stood on 
a hill-side a short way above the offices of Avoch ; be- 



loDged to a castellated mansion of no great antiquity ; 
and is now represented by only the lower or dungeon 
story. Avoch is in the presbytery of Chanonry and 
synod of Ross ; its minister's income is £369. Two 
public schools, Avoch and Eillen, with respective accom- 
modation for 160 and 78 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 161 and 59, and grants of £113, 2s. and 
£48, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £7395, 10d., of which 
£7030, 10s. lOd. belonged to Jas. Fletcher of Rosehaugh. 
Pop. (1831) 1956, (1861) 1788, (1871) 1828, (1881) 1693. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Avon, a river of Lanarkshire, rising upon the Ayr- 
shire boundary, on the southern slope of Distinkhorn 
Hill (125S feet), near head sources of the rivers Ayr 
and Irvine. Thence it runs 4J miles north-eastward 
along the boundary between Ayr and Lanark shires ; 
goes thence north-eastward through Avondale parish 
and along the boundaries between Stonehouse and 
Dalserf parishes on the right, and Avondale, Glassford, 
and Hamilton parishes on the left, to a point near Lark- 
hall ; turns there to the NW into Hamilton parish ; and 
runs, in a north-westerly direction, through that parish 
to the Clyde, at a point 1 mile ENE of the town of 
Hamilton. Its length of course, inclusive of windings, 
is about 24J miles. It receives Glengavel Water about 2 
miles after entering Lanarkshire ; Drumelog Burn, about 
2 miles further on ; Little Calder Water, 2| miles WSW 
of Strathaven ; and the Kype, its largest tributary, 1 
mile SSE of that town, besides a number of lesser 
burns. It passes within 7 furlongs of Strathaven, and 4 
of Stonehouse ; and, in the last reaches of its course, 
flows through the Duke of Hamilton's grounds. It is 
reckoned one of the best trouting streams in Scotland, 
and used to be frequented, almost to its source, by sal- 
mon. The scenery of its upper reaches is bleak and 
moorish ; that of its central reaches is of various charac- 
ter, and abounds with beauty ; and that of its lower 
reaches is gorgeous and romantic. Its banks, along 
much of the lower reaches, are alternately bold and pre- 
cipitous, knolly and broken, softly green and wildly 
wooded ; and at length they become a stupendous tum- 
bling gorge, of similar character to the glen of the Esk 
at Roslin, but on a grander scale, and superior to every 
other celebrated sylvan Scottish defile in combinations 
of romance and power. The crags tower up in many 
places to the height of 250 or 300 feet ; the summits and 
ledges, and many 'a jutting frieze,' are festooned with 
shrubs, or crowned with stately timber ; and the alter- 
nations of recess and abutment, of grandeur and grace- 
fulness, almost speak to the imagination like a colossal 
copy of Gothic masonry. Half way along this gorge, 
crowning a rock, nearly 200 feet above the bed of the 
river, like 'sentinel of fairy land,' stand the ruins of 
Cadzow Castle, the original seat of the ducal family of 
Hamilton, destroyed by command of the Regent Moray 
after the battle of Langside ; and on the opposite side 
of the ravine stands the modern summer-house of Chatel- 
herault, so called from the French dukedom which the 
Hamiltons possessed, and presenting a fantastic foil to 
the natural scenery around by its red walls, its four 
square towers all in a line, its gaudy pinnacles, its 
globular ornaments, and its rich parterres. The 
ancient forest of Cadzow or wooded park of the 
Dukes of Chatelherault, 'when princely Hamiltons' 
abode ennobled Cadzow's Gothic towers,' had this roman- 
tic glen for its centre, and spread out from its mouth 
over the haugh along the Clyde. Hither arrived James 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, in frenzied flight, from his 
assassination of the Regent Moray at Linlithgow ; and, 
here, accordingly is laid the scene of Sir Walter Scott's 
ballad of Cadzow Castle, which tells how a hunting 
party, headed by the duke, were inspiriting one another's 
fierce party quarrel against the Regent — and how the 
frantic murderer rode headlong into the midst of them, 

' From gory selle and reeling: steed 

Sprang the fierce horseman with a bound, 
And, reeking from the recent deed, 
He dashed his carbine on the ground. 


' Sternly he spoke — " 'Tis sweet to hear 
In good greenwood the bugle blown, 
But sweeter to revenge's ear 
To drink a tyrant's dying groan. 

' Then speed thee, noble Chatelherault, 
Spread to the wind thy banner'd tree ; 
Each warrior bend his Clydesdale bow ; " 
Moray is fallen, and Scotland's free." ' 

Avonbridge, a village on the right bank of the Avon, 
in the NE angle of Slamannan parish, SE Stirlingshire, 
with a station on the North British, f mile W of Black- 
stone Junction and 11 J ENE of Falkirk. It has a post 
office under Falkirk, a TJ.P. church (1803 ; 308 sittings), 
an Evangelical Union chapel, and a public school for 
Slamannan and Muiravonside conjointly, which, with 
accommodation for 150 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 99, and a grant of £90, 8s. 8d. 

Avondale, a parish at the south-western extremity of 
the middle ward of Lanarkshire, containing towards its 
north-eastern angle the post-town of Strathaven, with a 
station on the Caledonian, 9h miles S by W of Hamilton, 
and 19J (15 by road) SSE of Glasgow. Bounded NW 
by East Eilbride, N and NE by Glassford, E by Stone- 
house and Lesmahagow, S by Muirkirk in Ayrshire, and 
W by the Ayrshire parishes of Sorn, Galston, and 
Loudoun, it has a length from N to S of from 6J to 9J 
miles, a width from E to W of from 4J to 8 miles, and 
an area of 37,666j acres, of which 133J are water. The 
Avon, rising in the extreme SW, takes a north-eastward 
course of 13 miles, first on the boundary with Galston, 
next through the whole interior, and then on the Stone- 
house border, quitting the parish at 2 miles E by N of 
Strathaven. During this course its principal affluents are 
Glengavel Water on the right, flowing 5 miles NNW ; 
Calder Water on the left, curving 5-J miles E by N, 
and tracing, with its sub-affluent the Little Calder, 
great part of the boundary with East Eilbride ; Lochar 
Water on the right, flowing 3J miles NNW ; Kype 
Water on the right, curving SJ- miles, first NE, then 
NNW along the Lesmahagow and the Stonehouse border ; 
and Powmillan Burn on the left, curving 7 miles SE 
through Strathaven, and tracing, with its sub-affluent 
the Black Burn, the rest of the boundary with East 
Kilbride. The surface follows the channels of these 
streams, but has a general south-westward rise, attaining 
to the left or N of the Avon 805 feet above sea-level at 
High Coldstream, 624 near Netherfield, 846 near High 
Hook, 837 near TJndergreen, and 933 at Hairshawhill. 
To the right or S of the Avon are the following eminences, 
of which those marked with an asterisk culminate on 
the southern boundary — Craigmuir (632 feet), Burnhead 
(783), Kypes Rig (1134), Middle Rig (1173), Martinside 
(1206), Berry Moss (1161), Hawkwood (1251), Side Hill 
(1411), Harting Rig (1475), AuckengHlocli (1511), *Good- 
bush Hill(1556), Dungavel Hill (1502), Long Bank (1272), 
Regal Hill (1328), Millstone Rig (1212), Avonside (711), 
Mill Rig (1096), *Bibblon Hill (1412), *Backend Rig 
(1122), "Twopenny Knowe (973), Anderside HiU (1033), 
*Burnt Hill (1109), Little Hartmidden (1152), and Hart 
Hill (1294). The rocks are mainly trap or carboniferous, 
presenting many interesting phenomena at the junctions 
of the erupted masses with the strata. There are several 
limestone quarries, and clay is found for the manufacture 
of drain tiles ; but a shaft that was opened some years 
ago to a seam of inferior coal, employed in the lime- 
kilns, has been abandoned. The uplands consist of 
stretch upon stretch of boggy grouse-moor, all naked 
now, but anciently clothed with the great Caledonian 
Forest, trunks of whose giant oaks are found from time 
to time among the mosses near the head of the Avon. 
The central and north-eastern parts, however, are rela- 
tively level and well-cultivated ; and Hamilton of Wishaw 
must have referred to their light, dry soils, when, about 
1710, he described this 'great paroeh' as 'a plentiful 
country, especially in grain, and no want of corns' 
(Sheriffdoms of Lanark and Renfrew, new ed. 1878). 
Somewhat more than one-half of the entire area is arable; 
but it is by its dairy-farming that Avondale has long 
won most celebrity, the farmers of the Strath being 


scarcely equalled in fattening calves for the butcher. A 
Roman road, running parallel to the Avon, is traceable 
for 2| miles, from Lochar Mill to Sandford ; Auchen- 
gilloch in the S, and Drumclog in the W, make Avon- 
dale famous in the annals of the Covenanters. Its local 
annals are thus epitomised by Hamilton : — ' This baronie 
did anciently [temp. Alexander III., 1249-86] belong to 
the Eairds, and thereafter came to Sinclair, and from 
them to the Earl of Douglas, with whom it continued 
several ages, and after his fatal forfaulture, in anno 1455, 
it was given by King James the Third to Andrew Stewart, 
whom he created Lord Avendale [1457], and it continued 
with him and his heirs until 1538 or thereby, that he 
exchanged it with Sir James Hamilton for the baronie 
of Ochiltree, in the parliament 1543. From which tyme 
it continued with the successors of Sir James Hamilton 
until it was acquired by James, first of that name, Mar- 
quess of Hamilton [1533-1604] ; and continueth with 
his successors since. There are many small vassals in 
this parish, besyde three or four gentlemen, — Overtoun, 
Netherfield, Rylandsyde, Lethem, and Kype ; but all of 
them hold of the familie of Hamilton. ' To-day the chief 
mansions are Netherfield House, 1J mile ENE, and 
Lethame House, 1J mile W, of Strathaven ; and the 
Duke of Hamilton owns about one-fourth of all the 
lands in the parish, with superiority over the rest, these 
being shared among 5 proprietors holding each £500 
annual value and upwards, 60 between £100 and £500, 
51 between £50 and £100, and S8 between £20 and £50. 
In the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr, this parish is divided, quoad sacra, into 
Avondale (pop. 3259 in 1S71) and the chapelry of East 
Strathaven (pop. 2201). The living is worth £473 ; 
and both churches, being situated at Strathaven, 
will be noticed in the article thereon, along with the 
Free church, three TJ.P. churches, and Roman Catholic 
church. Under the school-board there are 5 public and 
3 denominational schools, viz. , Barnock, Chapel, Cross- 
hill, Drumclog, Gilmourton, Glengivel (Gen. As. ), Strath- 
aven (Free Ch.), and Strathaven (R. Cath.). With total 
accommodation for 946 children, these had (1879) an 
average attendance of 766, and grants amounting to 
£681, 18s. 5d. Valuation (1SS1) £39,947, 12s. Pop. 
(1831) 5761, (1861) 6125, (1S71) 5460, (1881) 5466, of 
whom 3S12 belonged to Strathaven. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
23, 1865. 

Avondow, the upper part of the river Forth, from its 
source about 12 miles east-south-eastward, through the 
parishes of Abeefotle and Port of Monteith in Perth- 
shire, to the influx of Kelly Water on the boundary 
with Stirlingshire. The name signifies ' the Black 
Stream.' See Forth. 

Avonhead, a village in New Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, with a public school, which in 1879 had accommo- 
dation for 200 children, an average attendance of 54, 
and a grant of £42, 12s. 

Avonholm, an estate, with a mansion, in Glassford par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. Three tall upright stones are here, and 
have been variously regarded as Caledonian remains, as 
monuments of ancient noblemen, and as monuments of 

Avonlussa, a burn in Jura island, Argyllshire. It 
abounds with trout and salmon. 

Avonsuidb or Fin Castle, a seat of the Earl of Dun- 
more, on the W coast of Harris island, Inverness-shire. 

Avontoun, a mansion in Linlithgow parish, near the 
river Avon, 1J mile WSW of Linlithgow. Built by 
Lord President Blair (1741-1811), it is now the seat of 
his grandson, Hy. Temple Blair, Esq. (sue. 1873). 

Awe (Old Gael. A, 'water'), a loch in the SW of 
Assynt parish, Sutherlandshire, 34 miles S of the head 
of Loch Assynt, with which it communicates by the 
Loanan. Lying at the south-eastern base of Canisp 
(2786 feet), midway between Inchnadamff and Altnakeal- 
gach Inns, it is shallow and weedy, measures 7 furlongs 
by from 2 to 3, is studded by six wooded islets, and 
abounds with fine red-fleshed trout. Mr Young caught 
271 of 84 lbs. weight in four days' fly-fishing during June 
and July. See his Sutherland (Edinb. 1880), pp. 113. 114. 


Awe, a lake and a river of central Argyllshire, both 
easily accessible since the opening (1 July 1880) of the 
final section of the Callander and Oban railway, Loch 
Awe station at the foot of the lake being 48| miles 
NNW of Callander, 64f of Stirling, and 101 of Edin- 
burgh. A fine hotel, in the Scottish Baronial style, has 
been erected near the station. The lake commences at 
a point 3 miles E of the head of Loch Craignish, and 8 
NE of the W end of the Crinan Canal, and extends, 
in a north-easterly direction, to the eastern skirts of 
Ben Cruachan at the mouth of Glenorchy. Its length is 
22J miles ; its breadth varies between 3 furlongs and 
1 1 mile, or 3J miles where it sends off the river Awe ; and 
its altitude above sea-level is 118 feet. Its outline, all 
down to the last 6 miles, is pretty uniform, or has only 
such indentations as do not prevent it from being a con- 
tinuous belt of water ; but its outline over the last 6 
miles has the form of an expansion of the belt, forking 
at its end into two offsets, the one round the SE of Ben 
Cruachan to receive the Orchy river, the other round the 
SW of Ben Cruachan to send off the river Awe. Its 
basin, round the head and along the upper quarter, is 
low ground embosoming swamps and tumulated with 
hills ; over all the central parts is flanked by parallel 
ranges of high hills with moorish summits ; and, around 
all the foot, is overhung by alpine mountains, with 
the monarch Ben Cruachan (3611 feet) grandly 
dominant in the front. Its general appearance, in a 
comprehensive view, looks as if the head were the foot, 
as if the NE offset were the head, and as if the NW 
offset, or real foot, were a bay branching from the side. 
The original outlet of its superfluenee was really at the 
present head, along a vale, south-westward to Loch 
Crinan, near the W end of the Crinan Canal ; and the 
present outlet appears to have been formed by an earth- 
quake stroke through the SW skirt of Ben Cruachan, 
and is a profound ravine or gorge, leading to Loch Etive. 
The scenery is tame at the head, and sublime at the 
foot ; exhibits great diversity, both in its main charac- 
teristics and in the intermediate ones which connect and 
modify them ; and displays its force of feature in a 
reverse order to that of most Highland lakes, or with 
progressive increase, not from foot to head but from head 
to foot. The upper reaches present very little character ; 
the middle reaches show pleasing pictures, without 
much brilliance, and with little better than gradual 
ascents on each side to the distance of about 4 miles, 
diversified with heights, hollows, and the beds of burns ; 
and the lower reaches rise rapidly into the utmost mag- 
nificence, in all styles of imposing landscape, from 
richly beautiful to overwhelmingly sublime. The mar- 
gins, in most parts, but chiefly toward the foot, are in- 
tricated with baylets and headlands, and considerably 
embellished with verdure or with wood ; and the bosoms 
of the central and the lower portions are gemmed with 
picturesque islands. The views all below Port Sonachan, 
or below the point at which the road comes down from 
Inverary, or over the lower 8 miles, are not excelled in 
magnificence by those of any other lake scenery in 
Britain. ' The shores and islands, with their farms, and 
woods, and edifices, look smiling and lovely, the moun- 
tains in the E, Ben-laoidh, Ben-a-Cleidh, and Meall-nan- 
Tighearnan, look stern and noble ; the cuts and open- 
ings amongst them into the interior glens look wild 
and mysterious ; and the monster mass of Ben Cruachan, 
rising right up from all the northern margins of both 
neck and arms, and soaring steeply to the clouds, looks 
overpoweringly majestic. The lake here, in spite of 
being at its greatest breadth, and even with the aid of 
its branching offsets, appears almost dwarfed into a pool 
within the mighty magnitude of its mountain frame- 
work ; and yet it draws a keener attention from the 
observer to the beauty of its own bosom and banks, and 
imparts to him from this a more thrilling delight than 
if it lay within smooth green hills, or upon an embel- 
lished plain.' Some of the most interesting objects on 
its banks will be noticed under Kilchurn, Glenorchy, 
Cladich, and the principal mountains ; and the most 
interesting of its islands will be noticed in our articles 



on Innishail, Innis-Fraoch, Innis-Chonnel, and 
Innis-Ereich. The depth of the lake, in one place, is 
51 fathoms. Its waters contain salmon, salnio-ferox, 
common trout, pike, perch, char, two or three species of 
sea-trout, and some other kinds of fish. The salmon 
abound most in the NE offset, toward the mouth of the 
Orchy river, but are found also in sheltered baylets and 
creeks. The salmo-ferox run from 6 to 20 lbs ; one of 
39-^ lbs. was caught in 1866 in the upper pool of the 
river Awe. The common trout abound more or less in 
various parts, according to the situation of the feeding- 
grounds, and average f lb. The pike are thought to be 
of recent importation, and they have made great ravages 
among the smaller and more delicate kinds of fish. 
The char frequent the head of the lake, around the 
place of its original outlet. The lake lies partly in Lorn, 
partly in Argyll district ; and, from the influx of the 
Avich rivulet on its left side, about 9 miles from its 
head, all downward to its foot, it forms the boundary 
between these two districts. Its islands, shores, and 
flanks were distributed, in the mediaeval times, among 
the clans Campbell, Maearthur, and Macgregor ; and its 
basin gave to the Campbells their slogan or war-cry, 
' It's a far call to Lochow ! ' intimating derision of any 
attempt of foes to reach or penetrate its powerful 

The river Awe runs from the extremity of the NW 
offset of the lake, 5 miles north-westward to Loch Etive, 
at Bunawe. It steals slowly and silently from the lake 
into a narrow, deep, tremendous gorge, the Pass of 
Brander ; rushes thence along a rocky bed, much ob- 
structed by reefs and boulders ; and sometimes is slow 
enough to form a pool or a ford, but generally careers 
headlong in a succession of rapids and cataracts. Its 
width averages about 45 yards ; and its depth varies 
from 2 or 3 feet to 20. Its waters abound with trout 
and salmon, and afford excellent sport in rod fishing ; 
but they severely test the skill and hardihood of the 
angler, and can scarcely anywhere he satisfactorily 
fished without wading. Sea-trout ascend the river in 
considerable numbers. The salmon plays in it with more 
attraction than in almost any other river in Scotland ; 
and the salmo-ferox ascends the streamlets falling 
into it to spawn. The river's banks, in places terribly 
savage and wildly romantic, in others are fair with 
trees ; yet, for about three-fourths of their entire range, 
from the commencement of the Pass of Brander down- 
ward, they are properly not banks at all, but cliffs and 
precipices. Their height and steepness, too, especially 
along the Pass, are most imposing. The crags rise 
often from the water like a wall along most of the 
Pass, showing no space or level at their base, but de- 
scending sheer to the river's brink. The height of them 
at one place, measured from base to crest, is no less than 
1308 feet. The Pass, indeed, through all its length, is 
a gorge ; and, at its lower end, is almost blocked by 
two confronting rocks, so as there to present an appear- 
ance somewhat similar to that of the lock of a canal ; 
and it formerly was overhung by entangling woods. It 
always, nevertheless, was a point of transit or thorough- 
fare between the regions of Glenorchy and West Lorn ; 
and it is believed to have anciently had some sort of 
rude bridge ; yet, even with aid of either bridge or boat 
or other contrivance, it never could be traversed without 
much danger, or by any but a sure-footed mountaineer ; 
for it was barred by a mural ascent still called the 
Ladder Rock, and long commanded by a fortalice on the 
crown of the ascent. But now the Pass is crossed by a 
substantial bridge on the line of public road from 
Stirling and Dumbarton to Oban, and by a three-span 
railway viaduct. The Pass was the scene in 1300 of an 
exploit of Sir William Wallace ; and in 1308 of a severe 
skirmish between King Robert Bruce and Macdougal of 
Lorn. A spot near the bridge, too, is the scene of Sir 
Walter Scott's Highland Widow. See pp. 134-152 of 
Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ. 
Shairp, 1874) ; P. G. Hamerton's A Painter's Camp in 
the Highlands (1862 ; 2d ed. 1868) ; and an article in the 
Cornhill for Jan. 1881.— Ord. &<r., shs. 37, 45, 1876. 


Aylort, a sea-loch in the Inverness-shire section of 
Ardnamurchan parish. It strikes from the SE side of 
Loch Na-Nua ; penetrates the land about 5 miles east- 
ward ; forms part of the boundary between Moidart and 
Arasaig ; is generally less than J mile wide ; terminates 
at Kineliregan ; and receives there a short stream from 
an isleted freshwater lake, Loch Ailt or Rannoch. 

Aylort Kinloch. See Kinloch Aylort. 

Ayr, a river which, traversing Ayrshire through its 
broadest part, cuts the county into two nearly equal 
portions. The Vindogara of Ptolemy, it is supposed to 
have got its modern name from the Gaelic a-reidh 
( ' smooth water ') ; it bore the name originally in the 
form of Are, afterwards in the forms of^ir and Ayr, 
and it obviously gives its name to the town and county 
of Ayr. It is formed in Muirkirk parish, close to the 
Lanarkshire border, by head-streams that rise at an alti- 
tude of from 1200 to 1500 feet above sea-level ; and 
thence it runs about 38 miles, in the direction of W 
by S, but with many a bend, to the Firth of Clyde at 
the town of Ayr. Its course, for a few miles, lies 
through bleak moors and upland meadows ; but after- 
wards traverses a fertile champaign country, chiefly 
along a deep, narrow, bosky dell or chasm. Its princi- 
pal tributaries are the Garpol, the Greenock, the Lugar, 
and the Coyle. It traverses or bounds the parishes of 
Muirkirk, Sorn, Auchinleck, Mauchline, Tarbolton, 
Stair, Ayr, and St Quivox, and passes by Muirkirk, 
Wellwood, Limmerhaugh, Holhouse, Sorn, Catrine, 
Ballochmyle, Barskimming, Failford, Stair,Auchincruive, 
and Whitletts ; while places near it are Airdsmoss, 
Auchinleck, Mauchline, Tarbolton, Coylton, and St 
Quivox. Many reaches of it are richly picturesque ; 
many abound with striking close scenes ; and not a few 
are touched graphically, or worked into strong associa- 
tions, in the poems of Burns. Its waters contain yellow 
trout, and formerly were rich in salmon, but now have 
a very diminished repute among anglers. Its volume, 
in the winter months, is subject to heavy floods ; and 
then, as Burns says, designating Ayr harbour by the 
old name of Ratton Key, — 

' From Glenbuck down to the Ratton Key, 
Auld Ayr is just one lengthened tumbling sea.* 

Ayr, the capital of Ayrshire, is a seaport, a seat of 
manufacture, and a royal and parliamentary burgh. It 
stands on the river Ayr, at its influx to the Bay of Ayr, 
and at a convergence of railways southward, south-west- 
ward, and northward. By sea it is 23 miles SSE of 
Garroch Head in Bute, 14-i SSE of Ardrossan, 16J W of 
Arran, 25 NE of Ailsa Craig, and 59 ENE of Torcar 
Point in Antrim, Ireland ; by rail it is 15J SSW of 
Kilmarnock, 33 SSW of Paisley, 40-i SW by W of 
Glasgow (34 by road), 50-1 WSW of Carstairs, 78 SW 
by W of Edinburgh, 60 NW by W of Dumfries, 93 NW 
by W of Carlisle, and 66J NNE of Portpatrick. Its 
site is low ground, on the lip or sea-margin of a cham- 
paign, about 4 or 5 miles broad, screened all round by 
gently -rising heights, which form a great natural amphi- 
theatre. Its outskirts and environs, and many of its 
streets and houses, command a magnificent view over a 
large expanse of the Firth of Clyde, to Ailsa Craig, the 
alps of Arran, the Cumbrae isles, the hills of Bute, the 
mountains of Argyll, and the hanging plains of Cunning- 
hame. Its own outlines, as seen with the great amphi- 
theatre around it for a background, particularly from 
the brow of Brown Carrick Hill (940 feet), which 
overhangs the left bank of the river Doon, 4f miles to 
the SSW, form a singularly brilliant and imposing pic- 
ture. The general view from Brown Carrick Hill, in- 
deed, away across Kyle and Cunninghame, and over the 
Firth of Clyde, is so extensive, and all so brilliant and 
exquisite as to dwarf the town and its environs into only 
one small feature of the whole ; but that one feature, 
nevertheless, is very striking. Suburban villas and 
blocks of buildings, all more or less shaded by planta- 
tions, are seen on the hither side ; the Gothic mass of 
Wallace Tower, and the lofty tapering spire of the 
Town's Buildings soar from the centre; the chimney 



tops and gable ends of the old parts of the town start 
up irregularly on the further side, and are seen through 
such vistas or in such arrangements as make the town 
appear much larger than it really is ; and the entire 
place sits so grandly on the front of the great amphi- 
theatre, with the firth sweeping round it in a great 
crescent blocked on the further side by the peaks of 
Arran, as to look like a proud metropolis of an extensive 
and highly picturesque region. 

The town comprises Ayr proper on the left bank of the 
river, and the continuous suburbs of Newton-upon-Ayr 
and Wallacetown on the right. Consisting of two nearly 
equal parts, separated from each other by the river, it 
must be treated here in some respects as only Ayr 
proper, in others as including the two trans-fluviatile 
suburbs. These, Newton and Wallacetown, have a 
topography, local interests, and a history of their own, 
and will be noticed in separate articles ; but they 
stand compact with one another, and all mutually 
contiguous to Ayr proper ; and they and it are one 
town both for all business purposes and for parlia- 
mentary representation ; so that all, in considerable 
degree, require to be described together in the present 

Ayr proper, so late as the early part of the present 
century, presented a motley aspect, and could boast 
of little street improvement. It had just acquired the 
very fine extension of Wellington Square, but, with that 
exception, it consisted mainly of mean buildings, with 
fronts, gables, and corners projecting to the roadways 
as chance or caprice had directed. Its only thorough- 
fares were High Street, Carrick Vennel, Mill Vennel, 
Old Bridge Street, New Bridge Street, Sandgate Street, 
and Wellington Square ; and these were wretchedly 
paved, very indifferently cleaned, ill-lighted, and desti- 
tute of side pavements for foot-passengers. The prin- 
cipal approach to it from the N, too, was then a squalid 
winding way through Wallacetown ; and what is now 
the principal approach through Newton was then the 
water-way of a mill-lade, blocked by an old huge build- 
ing, partly mill and partly dwelling-house. But the 
improvement which began in the erection of Wellington 
Square went rapidly forward ; it accomplished more in 
the twenty years up to 1835, than had been accomplished 
during the previous hundred years ; it made a further 
start at and after the opening of the railway to Glasgow 
in 1840 ; and it has issued in giving the town a high 
rank for at once orderliness, cleanliness, and beauty, 
among the second-class towns of Scotland. Wellington 
Square stands in the SW, and, as regards at once the 
neatness of its houses, the spaciousness of its area, the 
fineness of its situation, and the fine seaward view com- 
manded by its windows, is scarcely excelled by any 
modern extension in any other provincial town in the 
kingdom. Handsome suburbs, with numerous villas, 
have radiated from Wellington Square or arisen beyond 
it ; and these, with the square itself, constitute an or- 
nate and urban West End. All the parts nearest the 
river and toward the shore have, generally speaking, 
a modern town-like aspect ; those in the centre and 
towards the S continue, in considerable degree, to be 
either antiquated, mean, or of village-like character. 
High Street is still to be the principal street, winding 
through both the modern regions and the old, and par- 
taking the character of both. 

A Roman road led from Dumfriesshire, through Gal- 
loway, into Ayrshire ; passed by way of Dalmellington 
and Ponessan to Ayr ; traversed the site of the town along 
the bine of what is now Mill Street ; and seems to have 
terminated in either a military station or a harbour at 
the mouth of the river. It could be traced in many 
parts within the town, so late as about the beginning of 
the present century ; is still traceable in the SW of Castle- 
hill Gardens, within 1 J mile of the town ; and, till about 
the beginning of the 18th century, formed the only line 
of communication from Ayr to Galloway and Dumfries. 
Some urns, culinary utensils, and other small objects, 
believed to be Roman, have been found when digging 
foundations in the town. — A castle was built near the 

mouth of the river, about 1192, by William the Lyon, 
and is mentioned by him as his 'new Castle of Ayr,' in 
a charter erecting the town into a burgh about 1200. 
Often destroyed and rebuilt in the course of successive 
wars, it held a strong garrison in 1263, to watch the pro- 
gress of the Norwegian invasion under Haco, when it is 
said to have been assaulted and captured by the Norse- 
men. In 1298 it was burned by Robert Bruce, to pre- 
vent its becoming a stronghold of the English arm}-, who 
were marching westward to attack him ; but it was so 
repaired before 1314 as then to be garrisoned by Edward 
Bruce's army of 'full seven thousand men and mair,' 
raised for his expedition into Ireland; and it is said, but 
on very questionable authority, to have existed down to 
Cromwell's day. No trace of it appears to have been 
visible for several centuries ; but its site is supposed to 
have been a rising ground near the river, behind the 
present academy. The burgh 
seal is thought to have been 
adopted from the castle, ex- 
hibiting three battlemented 
towers, together with em- 
blems of St John the Baptist. 
— A temporary barrack, 
known in history as the 
Barns of Ayr, was erected 
by the forces of Edward I. 
of England on the SE side of 
the town, probably because 
they found the castle not 
Seal of Ayr. sufficiently commodious or 

in improper condition for 
their occupancy; and that barrack was in 1297 the 
scene of the famous tragical exploit of Sir William 
Wallace, separately noticed under Bakns of Aye. — A 
citadel, afterwards called the Fort, was erected by Oliver 
Cromwell in 1652, on ground extending from the sea 
to the site of the present Fort Street ; was built chiefly 
with stones freighted from Ardrossan, and at so great 
a cost as to have made Cromwell exclaim that it seemed 
to have been built of gold ; occupied an area of about 
12 acres, on a hexagonal ground plan; had bastions 
at the angles, with the main one close to the harbour, 
and commanding the entire circuit of the fortifications, 
the river's mouth, and the town itself; and enclosed 
the cruciform church of St John the Baptist, founded 
in the 12th century, and converted by Cromwell into 
an armoury and guard-room. The citadel was con- 
structed for the occupancy of a large body of troops, 
both to command the town and harbour of Ayr, and to 
overawe and defend the W and S of Scotland ; and it 
continued to be garrisoned till the end of Cromwell's 
time, but was dismantled after the Restoration. The 
ground it occupied, together with such of its buildings 
as remained, was given to the Earl of Eglinton, in com- 
pensation for losses sustained during the Great Rebel- 
lion, and, under the name of Montgomerystown, it was 
created a burgh of regality, and became the seat of a con- 
siderable trade. In 1726, however, it was purchased 
by four merchants of the town, and during a few years 
prior to 1870, it was most of it covered with handsome 

Part of a gateway of the town, called the Old Port, 
still stood at the Townhead within the present century, 
projecting on the pavement, in connection with the 
present ' Tarn o' Shanter Tavern. ' — The original Tol- 
booth, in which, according to Blind Harry, Sir William 
Wallace was confined, stood in High Street, and was 
supplanted by a house, long since removed, which, in 
its front, had a carved head, claiming to be a bust of 
Wallace. — A house in New Market Street, built in lieu 
of the one demolished, contains in a niche a figure of 
Wallace. — The next tolbooth, known to record as the 
Old Jail, stood on the rising ground in the centre of 
Sandgate, and, leaving barely room for carriages to pass, 
was the first object that attracted a stranger's attention 
on entering the town by the New Bridge. It was gained 
from the street by a stair of nineteen steps, so that 
prisoners taken into it were said to have gone up the 



nineteen st >.ps ; and had in front a steeple surmounted 
by a spire rising to the height of 135 feet, and furnished 
with a public clock, called in Burns' Brigs of Ayr ' the 
drowsy dungeon clock.' The building dated from some 
time unknown to record, and it remained long without 
a steeple. A mere belfry, ' for the use of the town and 
the Kirk,' was erected on it in 1614 ; a steeple was 
projected in 1697, but rose to only the first story in 
1715, and was not completed till about 1726. The 
entire structure, in consequence of its obstructing and 
almost blocking the thoroughfare, was taken down in 
1826. — The Fish Cross, round which the fishwives 
vended their fish, stood near the river, and was a 
very plain structure, with a two-stepped basement 
and a surmounting pillar. — The Malt Cross stood near 
the site of the present Town-Hall ; was an elegant 
structure, with hexagonal base, surmounting pillar, 
and crowning unicorn, somewhat similar to the ancient 
cross of Edinburgh ; was the scene of a notorious 
burning of a lady of the name of Osborne, for im- 
puted witchcraft, about the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury ; and, after the building of the New Bridge and 
opening of the thoroughfare thence to Sandgate, about 
1788, was taken down. — The massive three-story man- 
sion of the Osborne family on the N side of High 
Street, believed to have been the residence of the 
reputed witch, was demolished in 1881, and a fine 
hotel erected on its site. — A large turreted house stood 
near the Osborne mansion, separated from it only by 
a lane leading down to the river ; belonged originally to 
the Blairs of Adamton, afterwards to the Chalmerses of 
Gadgirth ; and later than 1S0O was partly occupied as 
the 'Queen's Head Inn.' — An ancient small baronial 
tower at the corner of High Street and Mill Vennel 
belonged for some time to the Cathcarts of Corbieston, 
was purchased by the town council in 1673, and acquired, 
one knows not why, the designation of Wallace Tower. 
Partly reconstructed in 1731, it gave place in 1834 to an 
elegant edifice in the Gothic style, 113 feet high, now 
one of the most prominent buildings in the town, and ac- 
cepted in popular belief as the veritable Wallace Tower or 
true representative of that in which the hero lay. In it 
are the clock and bells of the quondam 'dungeon' steeple, 
and its front is 'adorned ' with a statue of Wallace, carved 
by the well-known self-taught sculptor Thorn. — Newton 
Castle, in the Newton suburb, on a site between Garden 
Street and the Old Bridge, was a strong edifice, suited 
alike for military and domestic purposes. It was taken 
by the Norwegians in 1263, prior to the battle of Largs ; 
belonged in 1468 to Adam Wallace, a relative of the 
Craigie family, and passed, in the time of James V., 
with the lands of Sanquhar, to Sir William Hamilton, 
then taking the name of Sanquhar-Hamilton Castle. 
In 1585 it was the temporary residence of the Earl of 
Arran ; in 1588 passed to the family of Craigie ; and 
was demolished in 1701. 

The bridges wdiich link Ayr proper to its suburbs are 
' The Twa Brigs ' of Burns' famous poem. They stand 
within 150 yards of one another. The Auld Brig is the 
upper one ; seems, on the evidence of record, to have 
been built at some time between 1470 and 1525 ; but is 
commonly said, without a shadow of proof, to have been 
erected in the reign of Alexander III. (1249-S6), at the 
expense of two maiden sisters of the name of Lowe, 
whose effigies, now crumbled away, were pointed out 
near the S end of the eastern parapet. It comprises four 
lofty and strongly-framed arches ; and has a narrow 
enough roadway to have been fairly liable to the New Brig 
Spirit's taunt about its ' poor narrow footpath of a street, 
where twa wheelbarrows tremble when they meet. ' A 
ford, the Ducat Stream, immediately above the bridge, 
seems to have been the only passage from the town in 
olden times ; and, prior to the erection of the bridge, was 
yearly the scene of much loss of life during the floods of 
winter and spring. The New Bridge was built (1785- 
88) chiefly through the exertions of Provost Ballantyne, 
to whom Burns dedicated his poem, and it was a neat 
structure, with five arches, after a design by Robert 
Adam. Injured by the floods of 1877. it was rebuilt 


(1878-79) for over £15,000, and repaired (1881-82) for 
£2000 more, thus fulfilling the Auld Brig's prophecy — 

' And tho' wi' crazy eild I'm sair forfairn, 
I'll be a brig when ye're a shapeless cairn.' 

The railway viaduct, 3 furlongs above the Auld Brig, 
is 26 feet wide, and consists of 4 arches, each of 60 feet 
span, with a footpath outside the parapet. — The County 
Buildings on the NW side of Wellington Square were 
built from a design by Mr Wallace, after the model of 
the temple of Isis in Home, at a cost of more than 
£30,000. They have a portico decorated with columns 
of Arran stone ; their upper story contains Justiciary and 
County halls, the latter enriched with portraits of the 
twelfth Earl of Eglinton, the fourth Earl of Glasgow, 
and the late Mr Hamilton of Sumdrum. — The Town's 
Buildings, erected in 1828, at the junction of High 
Street and Sandgate — the latter in a line with the New 
Bridge — were originally a tasteful structure, surmounted 
by a beautiful spire 226 feet high, and were greatly 
enlarged and improved in 1880-81 at an estimated cost 
(considerably exceeded) of £19,952, by the addition of 
a fine new police court and a town-hall with stained- 
glass portraits of Wallace, Bruce, John Welsh, Burns, 
Scott, and Shakespeare, and with a powerful organ. 
— The prison, since 18'SO the only one in the shire, 
stands near the shore behind the County Buildings, 
and contains 149 cells, in which, during the year 
ending 31 March 1880, there were confined 1459 
criminal offenders, the gross expenditure being £2433. 
— The northern station, built by the Glasgow and Ayr 
Railway Company in 1840, and standing at Lottery 
Ha' in the Newton suburb near the New Bridge, is a 
neat Tudor edifice erected at a cost of about £8000. It 
was converted into a luggage station in 1857 on the 
opening of the southern passenger station at the Town- 
head, in connection with the Dalmellington railway, 
which southern station is now (1881) about to be 
rebuilt. New locomotive sheds were erected in 1877 
on the N side of the town ; the engine shed, a fine stone 
building, is 300 feet long and 90 broad. — A bronze 
statue of Brigadier-General Jas. Geo. Smith-Neill (1810- 
57), who fell at the first relief of Lucknow, stands in 
Wellington Square, where he was born ; and a monu- 
ment to Archibald William, thirteenth Earl of Eglinton 
(1812-61), of tournament memory, stands on the W side 
of the Square, facing the portico of the County Build- 
ings. Designed like General Neill's by Mr Noble, it 
was erected in 1865 ; and comprises a granite pedestal 
16 feet high and more than 40 tons in weight, and a 
bronze statue 12 feet high and 4i tons in weight. 

St John the Baptist Church was either the original 
church of Ayr or at least a very ancient building, and was 
the meeting-place in 1315 of the parliament of King 
Robert Bruce which assigned the succession to his 
brother Edward. It stood between the town and the 
river's mouth, on a site afterwards enclosed within 
Cromwell's citadel ; and was a cruciform structure, 
with a tower at its W end terminating in a crow-stepped 
roof. It continued the parish church till the erection 
of Cromwell's citadel, when it was converted into an 
armoury and guard-room. The present old parish church 
was built in 1653-55, at a cost of £170S sterling, partly 
defrayed by Cromwell. It stands in a retired space 
behind High Street ; has a cruciform shape, somewhat 
resembling that which St John's Church had, yet pre- 
sents nothing to vie with the grand Gothic ecclesiastical 
edifices of preceding times ; was, not long since, re- 
seated and adorned with splendid memorial stained-glass 
windows ; and also hasaveryfine organ. The New Church 
was built in 1810 at a cost of £5703 ; was re-roofed about 
1830, at considerable expense ; and, both without and 
within, is handsome enough, though lacking the im- 
portant feature of tower or spire. The total sittings in 
the two parochial churches are 1982. The parish church 
of Newton was built towards the close of last century, 
and that of Wallacetown in 1834-36, this being a Gothic 
building, raised in 1874 to quoad sacra status. Four 
Free churches are Ayr, Martyrs', Wallacetown, and 


Newton ; two U.P. churches are Cathcart Street (1816 ; 
1182 sittings) and Darlington Place (1860 ; 820 sittings). 
Other places of worship are a United Original Secession 
church (1799 ; 605 sittings), a Moravian cliapel, an 
Evangelical Union chapel, a Wesleyan chapel (1813 ; 
530 sittings), Trinity Episcopal church (1839), Early 
English in style, and the pro-cathedral of the Bishop of 
Glasgow, and St Margaret's Roman Catholic church 
(1827 ; 684 sittings), a Gothic edifice, built at a cost of 
£1900. — The original cemetery lay around St John's 
Church ; the next cemetery was that around the old 
parochial church ; and a beautiful new cemetery is 
on the river Ayr, about i mile from the town. — A 
Dominican friary, St Catherine's, was founded in 1230 
somewhere about the head of Mill Street, but has been 
so completely effaced that even its precise site cannot 
now be ascertained. An Observants' friary, founded 
in 1472, stood on the site of the present Old Church ; 
and is now represented by nothing but an excellent 
spring, the Friars' Well. A chapel dedicated to St 
Leonard stood in what is now called Chapel Park, 
about 1^ mile SW of the town ; and left ruins which 
existed into the present century, but have now entirely 

A public school, dating from 1264, or perhaps from 
1233, was connected till the Reformation with St John's 
Church, passing thereafter under the town council's 
management. It had for its rector, in 1727 and follow- 
ing years, the celebrated grammarian Mair, author of 
the Introduction to Latin Composition. Reconstituted, 
under the name of Ayr Academy, in 1794, it received a 
royal charter in 1798 ; gives instruction (1881) to 394 
pupils in classics, modern languages, mathematics, etc. ; 
is conducted by a rector, four masters, and a large staff of 
assistants ; and passed under the Burgh school-board in 
1873. The original building stood at the head of School 
Vennel, the present Academy Street ; and was a plain 
quaint structure, with a thatched roof. The next, in an 
open healthy situation, near the site of Cromwell's citadel, 
w T as erected in 1810 at a cost of £3000, and in 1880 was 
superseded by the present edifice, which, costing £8000, 
stands in front of the old, and can accommodate between 
500 and 600 pupils. A plain but massive Grecian two- 
storied structure, with rustic basement, centre, and two 
wings, it measures 140 by nearly 300 feet ; a tetrastyle 
Corinthian portico is adorned with medallions of Wilkie, 
Watt, and Burns. The public schools, with their accom- 
modation, average attendance, and grants for the year 
1879-80, were :— the Grammar School (245, 245, £233, 
2s. 6d.), Newton Academy (400, 233, £202, 12s.), Smith's 
Institution (351, 271, £180), Lady Jane Hamilton's school 
(350, 174, £142, 3s. ), Wallacetown (4S6, 328, £238, lis.), 
and Newtonhead (4S6, 492, £369, 5s. ). Totals for the 
six were : — average attendance, 1743 ; number examined, 
1362 ; number of passes, 3044 ; school fees, £1194, 
7s. lOd. ; grants, £1365, 13s. 6d. There are also Epis- 
copal and Roman Catholic schools, which, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 176 and 155 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 140and 123, and grants of £120, 
2s. and £69, 14s. — The mechanics' institution, founded 
in 1825, had a large and excellent library, but it has 
since been incorporated with the public library and read- 
ing-room in Macneille Buildings. Other institutions are 
a branch of the Royal Lifeboat Institution, an auxiliary 
shipwrecked fishers' and mariners' benevolent society, a 
sailors' society (1581), an incorporation of whipmen, a 
religious tract society, a Bible society, an agricultural 
association, etc. The district lunatic asylum, opened in 
July 1S69, has accommodation for 230 patients, and in 
July 1880 had 97 inmates. The Kyle union poorhouse 
(1860), to the E of the station, contains accommodation 
for 168 paupers ; and had 126 inmates in July 1880. A 
little beyond it a new two-storied hospital, 400 feet long, 
for 44 general and 20 fever patients, is (1881) in course 
of erection at a cost of £8000, the fever ward being 

The town has a head post office, branches of the 
Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co., the Clydes- 
dale, Commercial, National, Royal, and Union banks ; 


and 45 insurance agencies. There are 12 chief hotels 
and inns, besides 3 temperance hotels, and a Working 
Man's Public House, erected in 18S0 at a cost of £6000 
by Henry and William Houldsworth, Esqs. Papers 
are the Thursday Liberal Ayr Advertiser (1803), the 
Tuesday and Friday Conservative Ayr Observer (1832), 
the Saturday Ayrshire Aryus and Express (1857), and 
the Tuesday and Friday Liberal Ayrshire Post (1880). 
Tuesday and Friday are market-days, and fairs are 
held on New Year's day, the Thursday before the 
second Wednesday of January, the first and third 
Tuesday and the last Friday of April, the Thursday 
and Friday before the second Monday of July, and the 
second Thursday and third Tuesday of October. On the 
racecourse, to the S of the town, is held in September 
the three days' Western Meeting. Coaches, in com- 
munication with railway trains run to Kirkmiehael and 
Straiton every Tuesday, and to Ochiltree and Cumnock 
every Tuesday and Friday. The town had anciently so 
great trade as to be styled by Buchanan ' emporium, non 
ignobile;' and Brereton in 1634 described it as 'a dainty, 
pleasant-seated town, most inhabiting in which are 
merchants trading into and bred in France.' From 
causes, however, not well understood, it greatly declined 
in prosperity, so that Defoe wrote early in the 18th 
century : — ' It is now like an old beauty, and shows the 
ruins of a good face, but is still decaying every day ; 
and from having been the fifth best town in Scotland, 
as the townsmen say, it is now the fifth worst ; which is 
owing to the decay of its trade. So true it is that com- 
merce is the life of cities, of nations, and even of king- 
doms. What was the reason of the decay of trade in this 
place is not easy to determine, the people themselves 
being either unwilling or unable to tell ' ( Tour through 
Great Britain, ed. 1745, p. 114). The writer of the 
New Statistical account of it in 1837 also says : — ; It has 
often been a matter of surprise, that Ayr has not been 
more benefited by manufactures and public works, pos- 
sessing, as it does, so many advantages for this purpose, 
and such facilities of communication with other places, 
both by sea and land. With such an extensive grain 
country surrounding it, distilleries could not fail to 
thrive ; the price of labour is low rated, and all the 
other requisites are easily procurable. Cotton works 
might prosper as well here as at Catrine, the town being 
as favourably situated in regard to all the materials 
necessary — coal, water, and labourers in abundance ; 
while it has greatly the advantage, by enjoying the 
means of sea, as well as of land, carriage. And we can see 
nothing to hinder the manufacture of wool in its various 
branches, particularly in the weaving of carpets, from 
succeeding as well in this place as in Kilmarnock, which 
owes to this cause so much of its wealth and prosperity. ' 
The woollen manufacture, as a matter of fact, was in- 
troduced in 1832, and has been prosperous. Begun, for 
wool-spinning and carpet-weaving, in a small building, 
once a cotton mill, it succeeded so well as to occasion 
great extensions of the premises from time to time, till 
they came to cover a large area ; and in these premises 
are employed some 150 carpet weavers, and 350 other 
persons. Another factory, built about 1863, employs 
some 35 persons in the weaving of winceys and flannels ; 
and several other small factories carry on considerable 
trade in the making of blankets, flannels, plaidings, and 
various kinds of woollen wearing apparel. Muslin- 
flowering, for the manufacturers of Glasgow, rose gradu- 
ally into importance, all round the town, and through 
much of the county, from about the end of last century ; 
but it received a sudden and severe check in 1857, and 
it does not now exist to one-half its former extent. 
Shoemaking for the foreign market was carried on to 
a large extent in the early part of the present century, 
and is still very prosperous. Among recent works 
may be noticed the sawmills of Messrs Paton & Sons, 
transferred in 1S81 from the S to the N quay, and 
now 8 acres in extent, also a lace factory opened in the 
same year. There formerly were nine incorporated 
trades ; and six of them — hammermen, weavers, tailors, 
squaremen, shoemakers, and fleshers — still retain an 



embodied form, with deacons, deacon-convener, and 
trades' house ; but they do little more than supply the 
demands of the local population. A fishery at the 
town formerly swept well-nigh the entire firth, for the 
supply of Greenock, Glasgow, and other places, and 
likewise made great capture of salmon in the rivers Ayr 
and Doon, sometimes sending them as far as Carlisle 
and London ; but it shrank into u, comparatively narrow 
sphere after the introduction of steam navigation, yet 
still is productive enough to bring abundant supply of 
all kinds of fish to the local market, and employs 270 
boats of 799 tons. Shipbuilding was anciently carried 
on for several of the Kings of Scotland ; and it still, in 
a small way, gives some employment. One sailing 
vessel of 98 tons was built in 1867, one of 93 in 1869, 
and one of 94 in 1875, this being the last to the close 
of 1880. 

The harbour lies within the river's mouth, and for- 
merly was nothing more than a shallow, narrow, natural 
tidal basin, with no better appliance than an old range 
of storehouses. A bar, obstructing the river's mouth, 
seemed for a long time to resist removal, in consequence 
of constant fresh deposits on it of alluvial matter ; but 
after great expenditure of labour and money, was consi- 
derably reduced, and finally got rid of altogether. A 
pier, from 20 to 25 feet high, diminishing from about 24 
to 8 feet in width, and extending to about 1100 feet in 
length, was constructed on the S side seaward about the 
year 1827 ; another pier, of similar dimensions, was 
constructed on the N side seaward a few years later ; and 
a breakwater outward from the extremity of the piers, 
and shielding the mouth of the entrance to the harbour, 
was constructed subsequently to 1837. Two light- 
houses, with three lights, give the line for taking the 
harbour. The lights bear SE by E J E 850 feet ; two 
of them are bright, the other red ; and one of the bright 
ones and the red one are in the same building, and show 
all night. Between 1874 and 1S81 a wet dock and slip 
dock were constructed at a cost respectively of £140,000 
and £13,500. The former (opened 18 July 1878) is 
7J acres in area, has 15 feet of water at low tide and 
2000 feet of quayage, and is provided with hydraulic 
hoists ; in connection with the latter an esplanade, pro- 
tected by a concrete bulwark, is being formed along the 
S beach. In 1880 the harbour income was £11,846; 
the expenditure, £16,088. From 2459 in 1836 the 
aggregate tonnage registered as belonging to the port 
rose to 3684 in 1843, 6668 in 1S52, 8758 in 1866, 
8317 in 1874, 11,471 in 1878, and 14,095 in 1880, 
viz., 40 sailing vessels of 13,195 and 8 steamers of 
900 tons. The following table gives the aggregate 
tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared from and to 
foreign and colonial ports and coastwise in cargoes and 
also — for the three last years — in ballast :— 






















Of the total, 2124 vessels of 224,281 tons, that entered 
in 1880, 673 of 67,657 tons were steamers, 1022 of 
112,741 tons were in ballast, and 2090 of 212,842 tons 
were coasters ; whilst the total, 2155 of 228,084 tons, of 
those that cleared, included 620 steamers of 62,167 tons, 
131 vessels in ballast of 14,273 tons, and 2118 coasters of 
217,475 tons. The trade is mainly then an export coast- 
wise one, and coal is the chief article of export — 137,499 
tons in 1864, 102,684 in 1869, 176,571 in 1873, 384,S46 
in 1878 (10,368 thereof abroad), and 86,419 in the second 
quarter of 1881. The commerce of bygone days included 
much import of wine from France, and much export of 
corn and salmon. The modern commerce was long and 
severely curtailed through the great improvements in the 
navigation of the Clyde carrying up much trade to Green- 


ock, Port-Glasgow, and Glasgow, and likewise through the 
formation of Ardrossan harbour ; yet, notwithstanding the 
continuance and increase of competition from these quar- 
ters, it has undergone great revival, due partly to" the 
opening of the railways, partly to mining extension and 
agricultural improvement. The owners and the workers 
of the rich mineral-fields in Kyle and Carrick, and the 
farmers and corn-merchants throughout most of these 
districts must ever regard Ayr as a valuable seaport. 
The chief imports now are whisky from Campbeltown ; 
beef, butter, barley, yarn, linen, limestone, whiting, 
and porter, from Ireland ; slates and bark from Wales ; 
guano from Liverpool and Ichaboe ; bones from South 
America ; spars, deals, and heavy timber, from North 
America and the Baltic ; and tar and pitch from 
Archangel. The chief exports are coal, pig-iron, farm 
produce, leather, ale, and manufactured goods. In 
1880 the value of foreign and colonial imports was 
£57,709 (£73,427 in 1875); of exports, £5403; and 
of customs, £2317. Steamers sail regularly to Greenock, 
Glasgow, Campbeltown, Girvan, Stranraer, and Liver- 

Ayr was made a royal burgh about 1200 by a charter 
of William the Lyon, 'which,' says Hill Burton, 'is 
perhaps the oldest known charter absolutely bringing a 
burgh into existence ; ' and it then received the extensive 
privileges it still enjoys. The municipal burgh includes 
Ayr proper, Newton, and Wallacetown. as likewise does 
the parliamentary burgh, which unites with the four other 
Ayr burghs, Irvine, Campbeltown, Inverary, and Oban, 
in sending a member of Parliament — a Liberal (1837- 
74), a Conservative (1874-80), and now again a Liberal, 
who polled 2303 against his opponent's 1420 votes. 
The town council comprises a provost, 4 bailies, a cham- 
berlain, a treasurer, a dean of guild, a procurator-fiscal, 
and 18 other councillors. The General Police and Im- 
provement Act was adopted in all its parts prior to 1871. 
In 1880 the police force numbered 20 men (superinten- 
dent's pay, £200) ; in 1879 1106 persons were tried at 
the instance of the police, 31 committed for trial, 1048 
convicted, and 23S not dealt with. The annual value 
of real property within the parliamentary burgh was 
£52,168 in 1871, £90,781 (j)lus £3297 for railways) in 
1881, when the municipal and parliamentary constitu- 
ency numbered 2136. The corporation revenue was 
£2057 in 1833, £2646 in 1864, £3482 in 1874, and £3245 
in 1880. Pop. (1841) 15,749, (1851) 17,624, (1861) 18,573, 
(1871) 17,853, (1881) 20,812, of whom 9809 were males, 
and 11,003 females. Houses (1881) 4276 inhabited, 242 
vacant, and 62 building. 

Ayr may be presumed to have been a place of some 
importance long before the period of authentic record. 
It is not mentioned by any Roman writer ; yet it 
clearly appears, from the Roman road to it, and from 
Roman relics found in and near it, to have been well 
known to the Roman forces in Britain. It comes into 
notice in the time of William the Lyon in aspects which 
imply it to have long before possessed at once political and 
commercial consequence. It also figured prominently 
both in the War of Independence and throughout the 
religious struggle at and after the Reformation. Wal- 
lace and Bruce on the one hand, and the forces of 
Edward I. of England on the other, stand boldly out in 
connection with Ayr. Even the local disturbers of the 
public peace, the heads of septs in Kyle and Carrick, 
the Crawfurds, the Campbells, and the Kennedys, in the 
16th and 17th centuries, made it the focus or scene of 
some of their endless quarrels. Famous natives and 
residents, too, have thrown lustre over the town. 
Joannes Scotus Erigena, who shone like a star amid the 
darkness of Europe in the 9th century, is claimed by 
Ayr, but was more probably an Irishman. John Welsh, 
the famous High Presbyterian divine, was minister of 
Ayr from 1590 to 1605 ; at Ayr, in 1625, died his wife, 
Elizabeth Knox, daughter of the great Reformer ; and 
in Young's Life of him, edited by the Rev. Jas. Ander- 
son (1866), is much of interest regarding Ayr. Andrew 
Michael Ramsay (1686-1743), commonly called the 
Chevalier de Ramsay, well known for his Travels of 


Cyrus, but better known as a convert to Romanism and 
as tutor to the Young Pretender, was a native. Dr 
M'Gill who, by his Essay on the Death of Christ, led 
the way to a great heresy in the latter part of last cen- 
tury, was one of the ministers of Ayr, and lies in its 
churchyard ; his colleague was Dr Dalrymple, who figures 
in a poem of Burns as 'D'rymple mild.' Dr William 
Peebles, who dragged M'GiU's heresy into notice, and is 
styled by Burns ' Poet Willie,' was minister of Newton. 
Natives, too, were John Loudon Macadam (1756-1836) of 
road-making celebrity ; David Cathcart, Lord Alloway 
(1764-1829), judge of the Court of Session ; Archibald 
Crawford (1779-1843), a minor poet ; and Jas. Fergus- 
son, D.C.L. (b. 1808), writer on architecture. But on 
Alloway, Burns' birthplace, Ayr rests its highest claim 
to fame. He made the town so thoroughly his own by 
his graphic descriptions and humorous effusions, that 
it blends itself with much of his biography, both as 
a man and as a poet ; and he knew it so long and so 
intimately that his panegyric may well be taken for 
true — 

' Auld Ayr, wham ne'er a town surpasses 
For honest men and bonny lasses.' 

The civil parish of Ayr comprises the ancient parishes 
of Ayr and Alloway, which, nearly equal to each other 
in extent, are separated by Glengaw Burn. The united 
parish is bounded N by the river Ayr, parting it from 
Newton and St Quivox ; E by Coylton ; SE by Dal- 
rymple ; SW by the river Doon, which separates it 
from Maybole ; and W by the Bay of Ayr or Firth of 
Clyde. It has an extreme length and breadth of 4J 
miles, and an area of 7139J acres, of which 106J are 
foreshore, and 93J water. The surface for a good way 
from the beach is low and flat, but afterwards rises 
gradually eastward and south-eastward, attaining 100 
feet near Kincaidston, 126 near Crofthead, 225 near 
Macnairston, 381 near Cockhill, and 208 near Brom- 
berry. The low level tracts in the SW were long bleak 
and barren, or covered mostly with firs and heath, but 
both these and all the other low level lands are now so 
enriched by cultivation and so embellished with wood as 
to look almost like a series of pleasure-grounds. The 
parts farthest inland are cold and bleak, and have a very 
tame appearance. The rocks lie deep, can be seen only 
in the river beds, in quarries, or in mines, and belong 
mainly to the Carboniferous formation, partly to mas- 
sive or intersecting traps. Sandstone was formerly 
quarried, but it lies too deep to be now economical^ 
worked. A species of clay stone, well-known to artisans 
as ' Water of Ayr stone,' and used Jo r whetting fine- 
edged tools and for polishing marble and metals, is got 
in the bed of the Ayr. Some fine specimens of agate 
are occasionally found on the shore. The soil, near the 
coast, is light and sandy ; over the next 2 miles, or 
nearly so, is a light, rich, fertile mould ; farther back, 
becomes somewhat churlish ; and, on the boundary 
heights, is a cold, stiff, tilly clay. A lake, Loch Fergus, 
(3x1 furlong), with an islet in its centre, lies on the SE 
boundary ; and another smaller lake, Carcluie Loch, lies 
toward the S. The chief country residences are Castle- 
hill, Belmont Cottage, Rozelle, Doonholm, Bellisle, 
Cambusdoon, and Mount Charles. A battle is said to 
have been fought between the Romans and the Cale- 
donians, in the year 360, on the banks of Doon. 
Another battle figures obscurely, in the writings of Hol- 
lingshed, Boethius, and Buchannan, as having been 
fought, at some early period, between tribes of the 
Caledonians, somewhere on the south-western border of 
the parish ; and is represented as having been fatal both 
to Fergus I. , King of the Scots, and Coilus, King of the 
Britons. Loch Fergus is said to have been named from 
the former of these kings, and Coylton and Kyle from 
the latter. Seven proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 67 of between £100 and £500, 
94 of from £50 to £100, and 100 of from £20 to £50. 
The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr, the civil parish contains part of the quoad sacra 
parish of Alloway. The charge is collegiate or double, 



the income of the first minister being £568, of the second 
£336. Valuation of landward portion (1881), £14,948, 
3s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 5492, (1831) 7606, (1861) 9308, 
(1871) 9589,(1881) 10,182.~Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. Sea 
D. Murray Lyon's Notes on Ayr in the Olden Time (1875), 
and the Marquess of Bute's Burning of the Barns of Ayr 

The presbytery of Ayr, meeting there on the first Wed- 
nesday of February, April, May, July, October, and De- 
cember, comprises the old parishes of Auchinleck, Ayr, 
Barr, Coylton, Craigie, New Cumnock, Old Cumnock, 
Dailly, Dalmellington, Dalrymple, Dundonald, Galston, 
Girvan, Kirkmichael, Kirkoswald, Mauchline, Maybole, 
Monkton, Muirkirk, Newton-on-Ayr, Ochiltree, St 
Quivox, Riccarton, Sorn, Stair, Straiton, Symington, 
and Tarbolton ; the quoad saera parishes of Alloway, 
Catrine, Crosshill, Fisherton, Fullarton, Girvan-South, 
Maybole-West, Patna, Troon, and Wallacetown ; and 
the chapelries of Annbank and Lugar. Pop. (1871) 
100,556, of whom 18,734 were communicants of the 
Church of Scotland in 1878, when the sums raised by 
the above congregations in Christian liberality amounted 
to £12,165. The Free Church also has a presbytery of 
Ayr, in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, with four 
churches at Ayr, and others at Ballantrae, Barr, Barr- 
hill, Colmonell, Crosshill, New Cumnock, Afton, Bank, 
Old Cumnock, Dailly, Dalmellington, Dalrymple, Dun- 
donald, Girvan, Kirkoswald, Maybole, Monkton, Ochil- 
tree, Stair, Symington, Tarbolton, and Troon. In 1880 
the members of these 26 churches numbered 4822. The 
United Original Seceders likewise have a presbytery of 
Ayr, comprehending charges at Ayr, Auchinleck, Col- 
monell, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning, and Stranraer, and 
two charges in Ireland. 

Ayr, Bay of, an eastward expansion of the Firth of 
Clyde, opposite the island of Arran. It sweeps into the 
coast of Ayrshire in a concave form, and has an outline 
somewhat similar to that of a crescent moon. The 
chord of it, or the geographical line separating it from 
the main body of the firth, extends from Farland Head, 
at the E side of the entrance of the strait between Cum- 
brae islands and the mainland, 22 miles south-south- 
eastward to the Head of Ayr or promontory of Brown 
Carrick Hill, 2 miles WSW of the mouth of the river 
Doon. The longest line, at right angles with the chord, 
to the mainland at the mouth of Irvine Water, is 64 
miles. The extent of shore-line, exclusive of minor 
curvatures, is 25 miles. The aggregate of foreshore is 
about 2870 acres. The coast, in a general view, is all 
low, or but little diversified ; and it has indentations of 
any consequence only at Ardrossan, Saltcoats, and Troon. 
An islet, called Horse Island, lies near Ardrossan. 
Another islet, called Lady Isle, lies 2J miles SW of 
Troon ; and two rocks or skerries, Lappoch Rock and 
Meikle Craig, lie respectively 2 miles N by W, and 1£ 
mile S by E, of Troon. The parishes on the coast are 
West Kilbride, Ardrossan, Stevenston, Irvine, Dun- 
donald, Monkton, Newton, Ayr, and Maybole. The 
chief streams flowing into the bay are the Garnock and 
the Irvine, in the vicinity of Irvine ; the Ayr, at Ayr 
harbour ; and the Doon, 2 miles S of Ayr. The scenery 
of the bay blends on the N with that of Cumbrae and 
Bute, on the E with that of great part of Ayrshire, on 
the S with that of Ailsa Craig and the main body of the 
firth, on the W with Arran and the Argyllshire moun- 
tains ; and is surpassingly diversified and magnificent. 

Ayr and Glasgow Railway. See Glasgow, Paisley, 
Kilmarnock, and Ayr Railway. 

Ayr and Maybole Railway, a railway from Ayr south- 
ward to Maybole. The first reach of it, to the length of 
3J miles, is part of the Glasgow and South-Western 
system, and forms a trunk-line to jointly the Maybole 
proper and the Dalmellington, the latter going south- 
eastward to a distance of 15 miles from Ayr. The next 
reach is the Maybole proper ; goes 5| miles southward 
and south-south-westward to Maybole town; was author- 
ised in 1854, on a capital of £33,000 in shares and 
£10,000 on loan; was opened in Octoberl857 ; was worked 
and maintained, under an Act of 1863, by the Glasgow 



and South-Western ; and in 1871 was vested in that 
company at 7 per cent. Another and longer reach, in 
continuation of the Maybole proper, and called the May- 
bole and Girvan, extends 12J miles southward and south- 
south-westward from Maybole to Girvan. Authorised in 
1856 on a capital of £68,000 in shares and £22,600 on 
loan, it was opened in 1S60, and became amalgamated in 
1865 with the Glasgow and South-Western. 

Ayr, Head of. See Head of Ayr. 

Ayr, Newton upon. See Newton-ttpon-Ayr. 

Ayr Road, a railway station in Lanarkshire, on the 
Lesmahagow branch of the Caledonian railway, 1J mile 
SE of Larkhall. 

Ayr Road. See Cumnock. 

Ayrshire, a maritime county of SW Scotland. It is 
bounded N by Renfrewshire, NE by Renfrew and Lanark 
shires, E by Lanark and Dumfries shires, SE by Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, S by Wigtownshire, W by the North 
Channel and the Firth of Clyde. Its outline resembles 
that of a broad crescent, convex to the E, concave to the 
W. Its boundaries all round the landward sides are 
mainly artificial, i.e., though partly formed by water- 
sheds, rivulets, and lakes, are principally capricious or 
conventional. Its length, from Kelly Burn, on the 
boundary with Renfrewshire on the N, to Galloway 
Burn on the boundary with Wigtownshire on the S, is 
60 miles in a direct line, but 90 miles by the public road, 
the difference being chiefly due to the curvature of the 
coast ; its breadth increases from 3^ miles at the northern, 
and 6^ at the southern, extremity to 28 eastward from Head 
of Ayr; and its area comprises 722, 229 J acres of land, 
6075J of foreshore, and 6957 of water — in all 1149 square 
miles. The rivers Irvine and Doon, the former running 
westward, the latter north -north -westward, cut the entire 
area into three sections, Cunninghame in the N, Kyle in 
the middle, Carrick in the S. These sections, if the 
entire area be represented as 52, have the proportions of 
respectively 13, 19, and 20. The first and the second 
are predominantly lowland, while the third is predomi- 
nantly upland. Cunninghame and Kyle also in a main 
degree have the form of an amphitheatre, rich in inner 
beauty, and all looking across to the grand western moun- 
tain-screen of the Firth of Clyde ; while Carrick, in a 
considerable degree, is a tumbling assemblage of brae 
and hill and mountain, with only close views in vale or 
glen, and outward views from seaboard vantage grounds. 
Yet the three sections somewhat fuse into one another in 
landscape character, and have peculiarities of feature 
each within itself. The north-western section of Cun- 
ninghame, lying like a broad wedge between Renfrew- 
shire and the Firth of Clyde, southward to the vicinity 
of Farland Head, is mainly a mass of lofty hills, with 
intersecting narrow vales, and has mostly a rocky coast. 
The rest of Cunninghame is principally a pleasant diver- 
sity of hill and dale and undulation, declining to the 
Bay of Ayr and to the river Irvine ; yet rises in the 
extreme SE into high moors contiguous to those around 
Drumclog in Lanarkshire, and dominated within its own 
limits by the conspicuous cone of Loudon Hill (900 feet). 
The upper part of Kyle, to the average breadth of 9 or 
10 miles, all round from the sources of the river Irvine 
to the source of the river Doon in Loch Doon, is mostly 
moorish, and contains a large aggregate both of high 
bleak plateau and of lofty barren mountain. In the N 
is Distinkhorn (1258 feet), to E and S of which rise 
Blackside (1342), Dibblon Hill (1412), Middlefield Law 
(1528), Priesthill Height (1615), etc. Cairn Table, on 
the boundary with Lanarkshire, 2J miles SE of Muir- 
kirk, has an altitude of 1944 feet ; Wardlaw hill, 2^ 
miles WSW of Cairn Table, has an altitude of 1630 feet; 
Blacklorg, on the Dumfriesshire boundary, 6$ miles SSE 
of New Cumnock, has an altitude of 2231 feet ; and 
Blackcraig Hill, 1J mile N by W of Blacklorg, has an 
altitude of 229S feet. All the section S and SW of New 
Cumnock, to within 2| miles of Dalmellington, also lies 
within the basin of the river Nith, and is separated by 
lofty watersheds from the rest of the county. The 
middle and the western parts of Kyle are traversed 
through the centre by the river Ayr, dividing them into 


Kyle-Stewart on the N and King's Kyle on the S ; they 
form, in a general view, to within about 4 miles of 
the coast, a continuous hanging plain, little diversified 
except by deep beds of streams, and by swelling knolls 
and hillocks ; they terminate in a flatfish fertile sea- 
board ; and, to a large aggregate of their extent, they 
are richly embellished with culture and with wood. A 
graphic writersays, respecting all Kyle: 'The hill-country, 
towards the east, is bleak, marshy, uncultivated, and 
uninteresting ; and on that side, except at one or two 
places, the district was formerly impervious. In advan- 
cing from these heights to the sea, the symptoms of 
fertility and the beneficial effects of cultivation rapidly 
multiply; but there is no "sweet interchange of hill 
and valley," no sprightliness of transition, no bold and 
airy touches either to surprise or delight. There is little 
variety, or even distinctness of outline, except where 
the vermiculations of the rivers are marked by deep 
fringes of wood waving over the shelvy banks, or where 
the multitudinous islands and hills beyond the sea exalt 
their colossal heads above the waves, and lend an ex- 
terior beauty to that heavy continuity of flatness, which, 
from the higher grounds of Kyle, appears to pervade 
nearly the whole of its surface. The slope, both here 
and in Cunninghame, is pitted with numberless shallow 
depressions, which are surmounted by slender promin- 
ences, rarely swelling beyond the magnitude of hillocks 
or knolls. Over this dull expanse the hand of art has 
spread some exquisite embellishments, which in a great 
measure atone for the native insipidity of the scene, but 
which might be still farther heightened by covering 
many of these spaces with additional woods, free from 
the dismal intermixture of Scotch fir. ' Carrick contains 
several fine long narrow valleys, and numerous strips of 
low ground ; but is mainly occupied by the western 
parts of the mountain ranges which extend across Scot- 
land from the German Ocean, at the mutual border of 
Haddington and Berwick shires, through the south- 
eastern wing of Edinburghshire, Selkirkshire, Peebles- 
shire, the S of Lanarkshire, the NW of Dumfriesshire, 
the SE wing of Kyle, and the N of Kirkcudbrightshire, 
to the Firth of Clyde and the North Channel, along the 
whole seaboard of Carrick. These mountains are frequently 
designated the Southern Highlands of Scotland. Many 
of their summits around the sources of the rivers Tweed, 
Annan, and Clyde have altitudes of from 2000 to 2764 
feet above the level of the sea ; and their chief summits 
within Carrick have altitudes of from 1000 to 2520 feet; 
the latter being the height of Shalloch on Minnoch in 
Barr parish, the loftiest summit of Ayrshire. Keirs 
Hill, 4J miles WNW of Dalmellington, is 1005 feet 
high; Dersalloch Hill, 2 miles S of Keirs Hill, 1179 
feet ; Strawarren Fell, 6 miles E by S of Ballantrae, 
1040 feet; Altimeg Hill, 4 miles SSE of Ballantrae, 
1270 feet ; and Beneraird, nearly midway between 
Altimeg Hill and Strawarren Fell, 1435 feet. Most 
of Carrick is bleak and moorish ; but many parts have 
rich scenery, ranging from the beautiful to the romantic 
or the wild. 

The climate of Ayrshire generally resembles that of 
the other western parts of Scotland. The winds blow 
from the SW for more than two-thirds of the year ; the 
rains are often copious, and sometimes of long duration. 
The principal streams, besides the Irvine, the Ayr, and 
the Doon, are the Garnock, in W of Cunninghame, re- 
ceiving the Rye, the Caaf, the Dusk, and the Lugton, 
and running to the Irvine, at the Irvine's mouth ; the 
Annick, in the E centre of Cunninghame, running to the 
Irvine, 2J miles E of Irvine town ; the Kilmarnock, in 
the E of Cunninghame, formed by the confluence of the 
Fenwick and the Craufurdland, and running to the 
Irvine at Kilmarnock town ; the Cessnock, in the N 
of Kyle, running to the Irvine 2 miles W of Galston ; 
the Greenock, the Garpel, and the Lugar in the E of 
Kyle, running to the Ayr ; the Nith, in the SE of Kyle, 
receiving the Afton, and running into Dumfriesshire ; 
the Girvan, in the N of Carrick, running to the Firth of 
Clyde at Girvan town ; and the Stinchar, in the S of 
Carrick, receiving the Duisk, and running to the Firth 


of Clyde at Ballantrae. The chief lake is Loch Doon, 
on the boundary with Kirkcudbrightshire. Other lakes 
are Kilbirnie, on the northern border of Cunninghame ; 
Dornal, on the boundary with Wigtownshire ; several 
small lakes in the interior of Cunninghame and Kyle ; 
Bogton, on the boundary between Kyle and Carrick, 
near Dalmellington ; and Finks, Bradan, Linfern, 
Eiecawr, and Macaterick in the SE of Carrick. Two 
streams of uncommon magnitude are in Maybole parish, 
and springs of excellent water, copious and perennial, 
are in most parts. Mineral springs, some chalybeate, 
some sulphurous, are in almost every parish ; but none 
of them possesses any special excellence. 

Erupted rocks, of various kinds, form considerable 
masses in Carrick, and some lesser masses, together with 
dykes, in the higher parts of Kyle and Cunninghame. 
Silurian rocks, often on a basis of clay slate, predominate 
in Carrick and in the SE of Kyle. Carboniferous rocks, 
including coal, sandstone, limestone, and in some parts 
ironstone, underlie the valley of Girvan and great part 
of the low tracts of all Kyle and Cunninghame. Bitu- 
minous coal is mined at Dairy, Kilwinning, Stevenston, 
Eiccarton, Galston, Muirkirk, St Quivox, Coylton, 
and other places. Blind coal, akin in character to 
anthracite, is also largely mined. Cannel coal of ex- 
cellent quality occurs at Bedlarhill, near Kilbirnie, and 
atAdamton, nearTarbolton. Ayrshire, after Lanarkshire, 
is the chief mining county of Scotland, its coal-mining 
alone employing 12,972 persons in June 1881. In 1878, 
it had 104 collieries at work, whose total output amounted 
to 3,184,429 tons. Of these collieries 26 belonged to the 
Irvine-Kilwinning-Dalry district in the NW, 32 to the 
Kilmarnock-Galston district in the N, 25 to the Cum- 
nock-Muirkirk district in the E, and 21 to the Ayr- 
Dalmellington-Girvan district in the S. In Muirkirk 
parish, in the extreme NE, is an iron mine that in 1878 
yielded 7567 tons of haematite ore ; and from the coal 
measures more ironstone is raised than in any other 
county of Scotland, — viz., 947,636 tons in 1879, when 
the Ayrshire output of fireclay was 61,938, of oil shales 
12,754 tons. Limestone is largely worked, and sand- 
stone quarried, in many places. Millstones are quarried 
near Kilbride, and a species of fire-stone near Auchinleck. 
Clay, of quality suitable for tiles and bricks, is exten- 
sively worked. Copper ore and lead ore have been mined ; 
the latter to a considerable extent at Daleagles in New 
Cumnock. Gold is said to have been dug somewhere in 
the county, by an Englishman, about the year 1700. 
Antimony and molybdena have been found in Stairparish. 
A few specimens of agates, porphyries, and calcareous 
petrifactions are got in the Carrick hills. 

The soils may be classified into mossy and moorish, 
sandy or light, and clayey or argillaceous. Chalmers, 
assuming the entire acreage to be 665,600, assigns to 
the mossy and moorish soils 283,530 acres, to the sandy 
or light soils 120,110 acres, and to the clayey or argil- 
laceous soils 261,960 acres. Aiton, assuming the entire 
acreage to be 814,600, assigns to the mossy and moorish 
soils 347,000 acres, to the sandy or light soils 147,000 
acres, and to the clayey or argillaceous soils 320,000 
acres. Aiton also assigns 54,000 acres of the mossy and 
moorish soils, 16,000 of the sandy or' light soils, and 
135,000 of the clayey or argillaceous soils to Cunning- 
hame ; 93,000 of the mossy and moorish soils, 41,000 of 
the sandy or light soils, and 175,600 of the clayey or 
argillaceous soils to Kyle ; and 200,000 of the mossy and 
moorish soils, 90,000 of the sandy or light soils, and 
10,000 of the clayey or argillaceous soils to Carrick. 
Much of what is classed as clayey or argillaceous is 
really loam ; and part of that is of alluvial formation on 
the banks of streams or in the low level parts of valleys ; 
part also is natural clay, worked into loamy condition 
by the arts of improved agriculture ; and much more is 
naturally light soil, worked into loam by admixtures 
with it of clay, lime, and various manures. Agriculture, 
in all departments, has undergone vast improvement. 
Reclamation of waste lands, particularly of moors and 
mosses, has been effected to a great extent, so as to 
bring under the plough, not only a large aggregate of 


ground which lay waste till the beginning of the present 
century, but also to affect materially the relative pro- 
portions of the different kinds of soils since the time 
when Chalmers and Aiton wrote. Furrow-draining was 
begun with the use of merely small stones ; but it soon 
went on so vigorously and extensively as to require the 
use of many millions of tiles, and it speedily resulted 
in rendering multitudes of fields productive of double 
the previous quantities of grain. The rotation of crops, 
the selecting of manures, the adapting of seed to soil, 
the adjusting of connection between the arable and the 
pastoral husbandries, the choice of improved imple- 
ments, and most of the other arts of effective cultivation, 
have had corresponding attention, and been correspon- 
dingly successful. The improvement, since the middle 
or even the end of last century, has been wonderful. 
Agriculture throughout the county, at no very remote 
date, was in a miserable condition ; wheat was seldom 
seen, beyond the limits of a nobleman's farm, prior to 
the year 1785 ; turnips were not introduced till about 
the middle of last century, and then by the Earls of 
Eglinton and Loudoun ; rye grass, thoxigh a native 
plant, remained unnoticed till about 1760, and did not 
come into general use till 1775 ; animal food, till a com- 
paratively late date, was only an occasional luxury of 
the middle classes, and a thing almost unattainable by 
the peasantry ; and the entire estates of some of the 
landlords, even into the present century, were so 
sparsely productive as to be scarcely or not at all suffi- 
cient for the maintenance of their own families. But 
now the county, viewed as a whole, is agriculturally 
rich, not only for the liberal sustenance of its own popu- 
lation, but also for the purposes of a large export trade. 
Even so long ago as 1S37 a writer in the New Statistical 
Account could say respecting it — ' During the last few 
years, the farmers have in general devoted much of their 
attention to the study of agriculture as a practical 
science ; and erroneous processes in the cultivation of 
the soil, which antiquated prejudice or inveterate cus- 
tom had long retained, are gradually becoming obsolete ; 
while useful improvements and discoveries are eagerly 
substituted in their place. Farmers' societies have clone 
much to introduce a more enlightened mode of hus- 
bandry than formerly prevailed. This has been greatly 
aided also by the example of many of the landed pro- 
prietors, who themselves farm on a large scale.' This 
progress is markedly shown by the tables given in our 
Introduction. The gardens, orchards, and pleasure 
grounds, on account of both their extent and their 
tastefulness, have long challenged general admiration. 
The planting of trees, throughout the low tracts and in 
some of the higher grounds, has been sufficiently exten- 
sive to give the country both a sheltered and an embel- 
lished aspect ; yet often has been done in an injudicious 
way, both by the crowding of trees into narrow belts 
or choking clumps, and by a too predominant selection 
of the Scottish pine. About one thirty-third of the 
entire area is under wood. 

Sheep, of various breeds, receive some attention in the 
lowland districts ; and sheep, chiefly of the black -faced 
breed, are objects of general care on the upland pastures. 
But cattle, specially dairy cows, throughout most of the 
county, are so pre-eminently cared for as to occasion 
comparative neglect of all other kinds of live stock. 
The Galloway cattle, a well-shaped, hardy, hornless 
breed, are prevalent in Carrick. The Irish, the High- 
land, and the Alderney breeds occur in some parts, but 
are few in number. The Holderness, the wide-horned, 
the Craven, the Lancashire, and the Leicester breeds 
have been shown and recommended, but cannot be said 
to have been introduced. The Ayrshire breed is native 
to the county, or has come into existence within tho 
county ; yet it does not appear to have existed earlier 
than about the third or fourth decade of last century ; 
and it came into being in some way or under some cir- 
cumstances which cannot be clearly traced. It is a 
middle-horn breed, and evidently allied to the North 
Devon, the Hereford, the Sussex, the Falkland, and the 
West Highland breeds, or to other descendants of the 



aboriginal cattle of Great Britain ; and it possibly passed 
slowly into distinctive variety, under the modifying in- 
fluences of Ayrshire local soil and local climate. It may 
really, as to nascent distinctive character, have existed 
long prior to last century ; it may have begun to chal- 
lenge attention only when men began to be agriculturally 
scientific ; and it seems to have acquired development of 
shape, colour, and other characteristics under crossing with 
imported individuals of English breeds. Several cows and 
a bull, thought to have been of the Tees Water breed, or of 
some other English breed allied to the Tees Water, and 
all of a higli brown and white colour, were brought, in the 
year 1750, to the Earl of Marchmont's estates in Kyle ; 
and these may have been a source of the colours which 
now prevail in the Ayrshire breed. But however this 
breed originated, it was fully formed about the year 1780, 
and was then adopted, to the exclusion of every other 
breed, by the opulent fanners of Dunlop and Stewarton 
parishes ; and it afterwards was adopted, as an exclusive 
breed, throughout most of the lowland farms of all Cun- 
ninghame, Kyle, and Carrick. Nor did it spread merely 
throughout Ayrshire, but also into Lanarkshire, Ren- 
frewshire, and large portions of Stirlingshire, Dumbar- 
tonshire, and Linlithgowshire. The best cows vary in 
weight from 20 to 40 stone, according to the quality or 
quantity of their food ; they are esteemed mainly for the 
abundance of their milk ; and they yield so much as 
from 10 to 13 or even 14 Scotch pints per day. They 
were long, and generally considered the most lactiferous 
cows in Great Britain ; but, though not in Ayrshire, yet 
in some other Scottish counties, and especially in Eng- 
land, they are now regarded as inferior to the short- 
horns. The Ayrshires, according to the verdict of the 
best judges based on comprehensive evidence, ought to 
be retained as milkers only on cottage holdings, moor- 
side farms, and similar situations ; and are far less 
eligible than the short-horns on any middle-sized or 
large dairy farm. Short-horned cows are much larger 
than the Ayrshires, yet do not consume more food in 
proportion to their size ; and they produce more valu- 
able calves, yield larger quantities of milk, require less 
extent of pasture, are less subject to disease, and occasion 
less care or labour proportionally to their produce. The 
beef of the Ayrshires is of good quality, and possesses a 
good admixture of lean and fat, but makes bad returns 
to the butcher, and is in no great request. The back 
of a prime specimen is straight and nearly level, yet 
has one straight depression at the top of the shoulder, 
and an evident tendency to another over the loin ; the 
ribs are pretty round ; the sides are deep, but show a 
deficiency in the fulness of the buttocks ; the breast is 
comparatively narrow ; the upper surface of the body 
shows far less breadth at the shoulder than at the hocks, 
and has a kind of wedge-shaped outline ; the length of 
the body is proportionately greater than the height ; the 
legs are comparatively short ; the rmrzzle is fine ; the 
face is broad but rather short ; the eye is complacent ; 
the expression of the face is gentle but dull ; the horns 
are short and turned up ; the skin is smooth and thin ; 
the touch is good, yet wants the mellowness which ac- 
companies a thick soft skin ; and the colours are red and 
white like those of the short-horns, but not so rich in 
hue, sometimes mixed with black, and always arranged 
in blotches and patches which are irregular, seldom cir- 
cular, and never grizzled. The greater portion of the 
milk throughout Ayrshire is manufactured into cheese. 
The best of the cheese bears the name of Dunlop, from 
the parish where the Ayrshire breed was first systemati- 
cally appreciated for the dairy ; and it lias long and 
steadily been in high demand as an article of export. 
The bull calves are usually fed for veal ; and the heifer 
calves are kept to renew the stock of cows. Attention 
to cattle and to the dairy appears to have prevailed from 
a remote period, for Ortelius wrote in 1573 that ' in 
Cai-rick are oxen of large size, whose flesh is tender and 
sweet and juicy,' and the well-known antiquated couplet 
runs — 

* Kyle for a man, Carriek for a cow, 

Cunninglmine for butter and cheese, and Galloway for woo'.' 


The manufactures of Ayrshire are various and im- 
portant. The yearly value of Scotch carpets woven at 
Kilmarnock rose from £21,000 in 1791 to £150,000 in 
1837, but afterwards fell off to about £100,000. The 
weaving of Brussels carpets was begun at Kilmarnock in 
1857, and has been prosperously conducted on a large 
scale. The weaving of Scotch carpets, and the spinning 
of yarns for Brussels carpets, were begun at Ayr in 1832, 
and employ some 500 persons. The making of woollen 
bonnets at Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs, and Stewarton em- 
ploys about 4160 men, women, and children, and turns 
out goods to the annual value of £146,500. The weav- 
ing of winceys, flannels, plaidings, blankets, tweeds, 
tartans, and some other woollen fabrics, employs about 
800 persons in Ayr-, Kilmarnock, and Dalrymple. The 
spinning of woollen yarn employs about 60 persons at 
Crookedholm, and about 350 at Dairy. Linen was 
manufactured in Ayrshire more extensively in former 
years than now. So many as 22 lint-mills were in the 
county in 1772 ; but only 3 flax-mills, employing 172 
persons, were in it in 1838. The chief localities of the 
linen manufactures have been Kilbirnie and Beith. The 
cotton manufacture has failed in some places, as Ayr, 
but has largely succeeded in other places, as Catrine, 
Kilbirnie, and Patna. The number of cotton mills 
within the county in 183S was 4 ; and these employed 
703 persons. Hand-loom cotton-weaving, chiefly for 
manufacturers in Glasgow, is largely carried on in Fen- 
wick, Saltcoats, Tarbolton, Maybole, Girvan, and some 
other towns. The embroidering of muslin employed 
multitudes of women from about the year 1825 ; was 
carried on chiefly in connection with manufacturers in 
Glasgow, and acquired such excellence at the hands of 
the Ayrshire workers, that the produce of it became 
generally known, in both the home and the foreign mar- 
kets as Ayrshire needlework ; but sustained a severe 
check in 1857, and is not now carried on to so much as 
half its previous extent. In 1S79, out of 42 furnaces 
built in the shire, 27 were in blast, together producing 
276,552 tons of pig-iron. The manufacture of orna- 
mental wooden snuff boxes and other small ornamental 
wooden articles long employed many persons in Cum- 
nock, Mauchline, and Auchinleck ; but has very greatly 
declined. Calico-printing, bleaching, silk-weaving, hat- 
making, tanning, shoemaking, machine-making, ship- 
building, and other departments of industry, employ a 
large number of persons. 

The roads from Glasgow to Dumfries and Portpatrick, 
and from Greenock and Paisley to all the Border counties, 
pass through Ayrshire ; and excellent roads connect all 
the county's own towns with one another, and with every 
place of consequence beyond. The main line of the 
Glasgow and South- Western railway enters Ayrshire near 
Beith ; proceeds by way of Dairy, Kilmarnock, Mauch- 
line, Old Cumnock, and New Cumnock ; and passes 
down the valley of the Nith into Dumfriesshire. A 
great branch of the same system, originally the southern 
part of the Glasgow and Ayr railway, leaves the main 
line near Dairy, and proceeds past Irvine and along the 
coast to Ayr. Local railways, or branches of the Glas- 
gow and South-Western, go from Ayr to Girvan, from 
Ayr to Dalmellington, from Ayr to Mauchline, from 
Troon to Kilmarnock, from Irvine to Busby, from Kil- 
winning to Ardrossan, from Hurlford to Newniilns, and 
from Auchinleck to Muirkirk, etc. ; and, together with 
the main lines of the Glasgow and South-Western, form 
a connected system of communication through great 
part of the county. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction 
railway was authorised in 1865, and opened in 1876. 
The Greenock and Ayrshire railway, authorised in 1865, 
and amalgamated with the Glasgow and South-Western 
in 1S72, gives direct communication from all the Ayr- 
shire stations of the Glasgow and South-Western system 
to Greenock, but has its connection with the system, and 
all its course, within Renfrewshire. The Greenock and 
Wemyss Bay railway, opened in 1865, has a short run 
within the Ayrshire border to Wemyss Bay, and may 
eventually be prolonged to Largs. The Glasgow and 
Kilmarnock direct railway, authorised in 1865, and com- 



pleted in 1S73, starts from the Glasgow and Neilston 
Branch of the Caledonian system at Crofthead on the 
southern border of Renfrewshire, sends off a branch to 
Beith, and goes by way of Stewarton to Kilmarnock. 
(See Wm. M'llraith's History of the Glasgow and South- 
western Railway, Glas. 1880.) — The head seaports of 
Ayrshire are Ayr, Troon, and Ardrossan ; and the other 
chief harbours are Ballantrae, Girvan, Irvine, Saltcoats, 
and Largs. 

The royal burghs are Ayr and Irvine ; a parliamentary 
burgh is Kilmarnock ; police burghs are Ardrossan, Cum- 
nock, Galston, and Stewarton ; other towns are Beith, 
Catrine, Dairy, Girvan, Hurlford, Kilbirnie, Kilwin- 
ning, Largs, Maybole, Muirkirk, Newmilns, Saltcoats, 
Stevenston, Troon, Annbank, Auchinleck, Bankhead, 
Dalmellington, Darvel, Eglinton - Works, Kilmaurs, 
Lugar, Mauehline, Tarbolton, Waterside, and West Kil- 
bride ; and the principal villages are Afton-Bridgend, 
Alnwick-Lodge, Ballantrae, Barrmill, Bensley, Castle, 
Colmonell, Common-Dyke, Connel Park, Craigbank, 
Craigmark, Cronberry, Crosshill, Crosshouse, Dailly,Dal- 
rymple, Den, Dernconner, Doura, Drakemuir, Dreghorn, 
Dunlop, Elderslie, Fardlehill, Fairlie, Fenwick, Fergus- 
hill, Gaswater, Gateside, Glenbnck, Glengarnock, Kirk- 
michael, Kirkoswald, Langbar, Monkton, New Prestwick, 
Ochiltree, Overton, Pathhead, Patna, Prestwick, Riddens, 
Skelmorlie, Sorn, Southfield, Symington, Whitletts, New 
Cumnock, and Straiton. Some of the principal mansions 
are Culzean Castle, Dumfries House, Fullarton House, Eg- 
linton Castle, Loudoun Castle, Kelburne House, Brisbane 
House, Auchinleck House, Killochan Castle, Kilkerran, 
Blairquhan Castle, Dalquharran Castle, Bargany, Ber- 
beth, Enterkine, Barskimming, Sundrum, Auchencruive, 
Balloehmyle, Craufurdland, Logan House, Fairlie House, 
Cambusdoon, Shewalton, Lanfine, Craigie, Auchen- 
drane, Rozelle, Pinmore, Glenapp, Sorn Castle, Milrig, 
Auchans, Caldwell, Blanefield, Corsehill, Auehenames, 
Knock Castle, Auchenharvie, Treesbank, Gadgirth, New- 
field, Cairnhill, Rowallan Castle, Doonholm, Bourtree 
Hill, Glenmore House, Mansfield House, Knoekdolian, 
and Swinlees. According to Miscellaneous Statistics of 
the United Kingdom (1879) 721,947 acres, with total 
gross estimated rental of £1,121,252, were divided among 
9376 landowners ; one holding 76,015 acres (rental, 
£35,839), sis together 175,774 (£182,405), nine 134,543 
(£89,326), seven 52,592 (£27,729), thirty-nine 116,543 
(£126,786), forty-seven 68,573 (£205,299), fifty 34,879 
(£55,224), two hundred and two 42,921 (£89,322), one 
hundred and forty-one 9925 (£23,452), two hundred and 
fifty-two 5818 (£31,084), five hundred and sixty-nine 
1916 (£51,748), and eight thousand and fifty 2251 acres 

The county is governed (1S81) by a lord-lieutenant, a 
vice-lieutenant, 4S deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 2 sheriff- 
substitutes, and 288 magistrates ; and is divided, for 
administration, into the two districts of Ayr and Kil- 
marnock. The sheriff court for the Ayr district is held 
at Ayr on every Tuesday and Thursday during session ; 
the commissary court, on every Thursday ; the sheriff 
small debt court, on every Thursday ; the justice of 
peace court, on every Monday ; the quarter sessions, on 
the first Tuesday of March, the fourth Tuesday of May, 
the first Tuesday of August, and the third Tuesday of 
November. The sheriff court for the Kilmarnock "dis- 
trict is held at Kilmarnock on every Wednesday and 
Thursday during session ; the sheriff small debt court, 
on every Thursday ; the justice of peace court, on every 
alternate Monday. Sheriff small debt courts are held 
also at Irvine in every alternate month, at Beith and 
Cumnock four times a year, and at Girvan three times 
a year. The police force, in 1880, exclusive of that in 
Ayr and Kilmarnock, comprised 120 men, and the salary 
of the chief constable was £400. The number of persons, 
in 1879, exclusive of those in Ayr and Kilmarnock, tried 
at the instance of the police, was 1106; convicted, 104S; 
committed for trial, 31 ; and charged but not dealt with, 
238. The prison is at Ayr, Kilmarnock having been dis- 
continued in 1880. The committals for crime, in the 
annual average of 1836-40, were 71 ; of 1841-45, 118 ; of 

1846-50, 178 ; of 1851-55, 125 ; of 1S56-60, 105 ; of 1861- 
65, 100 ; of 1864-68, 94 ; of 1869-73, 83 ; of 1870-74, 76 ; 
of 1875-79, 93. The annual value of real property, in 1815, 
was £409,983 ; in 1843, £520,828 ; in 1865, £876,438 ; 
in 1881, £1,257,881, 14s. 3d., of which £113,819 was for 
railways. The amount for lands and messuages, in the 
last of these years, comprised £381, 740 in Kyle, £388,150 
in Cunninghame, and £176,261 in Carrick. The county, 
exclusive of its three burghs, sent one member to parlia- 
ment prior to the Reform Act of 1867 ; but it was divided 
by that into two sections, north and south ; and it now 
sends one member from each of the two sections. The 
constituency in 1S81 of the northern section was 3711 ; 
of the southern, 3920. Pop. (1801) 84,207, (1811) 
103,839, (1821) 127,299, (1831) 145,055, (1841) 164,356, 
(1851) 189,858, (1S61) 198,971, (1871) 200,809, (1881) 
217,504, of whom 106,724 were males and 110,780 females. 
Houses inhabited (1881) 40,789; vacant, 3654; building, 

The registration county takes in part of West Kilbride 
parish from Buteshire, and parts of Beith and Dunlop 
from Renfrewshire ; comprises 46 entire parishes ; and 
had, in 1SS1, a population of 217,615. Forty -four of the 
parishes are assessed, and two unassessed, for the poor ; 
and 35 of them, in three combinations of 13, 16, and 6, 
have poorhonses at respectively Ayr, Kilmarnock, and 
Maybole. The number of the registered poor, in the 
year ending 14 May 1SS0, was 4760 ; of dependants on 
these, 3682 ; of casual poor, 2781 ; of dependants on 
these, 2905. The receipts for the poor in that year 
were £50,712, 10s. ; the expenditure was £47,424, 
9s. 2Jd. The number of pauper lunatics was 475 ; and 
the expenditure on their account was £8613, 15s. 6d. 
The percentage of illegitimate births was 8 '5 in 1872, 
7'1 in 1878, and 77 in 1S79. 

Excepting Ballantrae, Colmonell, and Glenapp, in 
the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, and 
Largs, in the presbytery of Greenock, all the parishes of 
Ayrshire are in the presbyteries of Aye. and Divine and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. In 1879 the county had 
123 public schools (accommodation, 27,789), 32 non- 
public but State-aided schools (7037), 20 other efficient 
elementary schools (1816), and 2 higher-class public 
schools (1070) — in all, 177 schools, with accommodation 
for only 37,712 children, the number of children of 
school age being estimated (1878) at 38,607. 

The ! territory now forming Ayrshire was in the 2d 
century a.d. the southern part of the region of the 
Damnonii, one of whose towns, 'Vandogara,' is placed 
by Skene ' on the river Irvine, at Loudon Hill, where 
there are the remains of a Roman camp, afterwards con- 
nected with " Coria " or Carstairs by a Roman road. ' 
Two battles are said to have been fought, in early times, 
in the SW of Kyle, the one between some native tribes 
and the Romans, the other between two confederacies 
of states of the natives themselves ; but both battles, as 
to at once their date, their scene, the parties engaged, 
and the results, are so obscure as scarcely to be matters 
of history. Even the ancient inhabitants, as to who 
they were, whether descendants of the Damnonii or 
immigrants from the regions of some other tribes, from 
the establishing of the Roman domination onward 
through many centuries, cannot be historically identified. 
They seem, on the whole, from such evidence as exists, 
to have been in some way or other, more purely Celtic 
than the inhabitants of most of the other low countries be- 
tweeen the Grampians and the Tweed. Their descend- 
ants, too, down to so late a period as the 16th century, 
appear to have spoken the Gaelic language, or at least 
to have understood it. The entire territory, after the 
withdrawal of the Romans, became part of the kingdom 
of Strathclyde or Cumbria ; but, in the 8th century, 
Kyle and Cunninghame became subject to the kings of 
Northumbria. The Saxons, under these kings, seem 
to have taken a firm grasp of the country, to have re- 
volutionised its customs, and to have indoctrinated it 
with love of Saxon usages ; and they have left in it 
numerous traces of their presence and power. Alpin, 
King of the Scoto-Irish, invaded the territory in the 



9th century, but was defeated and slain in a battle at 
Dalmellington. Haco, King of Norway, in the course 
of his contest for the sovereignty of the Hebrides, made 
descents upon it in 1263, and suffered overwhelming 
discomfiture in a famous battle at Largs. The forces 
of Edward I. of England, in the course of the wars of 
the succession, made considerable figure in it, particu- 
larly in Kyle and in the N of Carrick ; and suffered 
humiliating reverses from Wallace and from Bruce at 
Ayr, at Turnberry, and particularly at Loudon Hill. 
The career of Wallace began in the vicinity of Irvine ; 
a signal exploit of his occurred at Ayr ; the grand coup 
for wrenching the territory from the English was struck 
at Loudon ; and the first parliament under Bruce was 
held at Ayr. The county, as a whole, played a vigor- 
ous, an honourable, and a persistent part throughout 
all the struggle which issued in Scottish independence. 
Nor was it less distinguished in the subsequent, higher, 
nobler struggle, from the time of Mary till the time of 
James VII., for achieving religious liberty. Both 
Wishart and Knox pursued their labours frequently in 
it ; and many of the leaders of the Covenanting move- 
ments against the oppressive policy of Charles II. and 
James VII., either were natives of its soil, rallying 
around them multitudes of zealous neighbours, or were 
strangers welcomed and supported by ready, generous 
local enthusiasm. Much of the history of the later 
Covenanters, specially what relates to the antecedents 
of the fights at Drumclog, at Kullion-Green, and at 
Airdsmoss, reads almost like a local history of Ayr- 
shire. So conspicuously did the Ayrshire men contend 
for the rights of' conscience, that they became the special 
object of the savage punishment inflicted by the Govern- 
ment, in 1678, in the letting loose of the wild well-known 
' Highland Host. ' 'We might from these circumstances, ' 
says Chalmers, ' suppose that the people of Ayrshire 
would concur zealously in the Revolution of 1688. As 
one of the western shires, Ayrshire sent its full pro- 
portion of armed men to Edinburgh to protect the 
Convention of Estates. On the 6th of April 16S9, the 
forces that had come from the western counties, having 
received thanks from the Convention for their seasonable 
service, immediately departed with their arms to their 
respective homes. They were offered some gratification ; 
but they would receive none, saying that they came 
to save and serve their country, not to enrich them- 
selves at the nation's expense. It was at the same time 
ordered "that the inhabitants of the town of Ayr should 
be kept together till further orders. " On the 14th of 
May arms were ordered to be given to Lord Bargeny, 
an Ayrshire baronet. On the 25th of May, in answer to 
a letter from the Earl of Eglinton, the Convention 
ordered "that the heritors and fencible men in the shire 
of Ayr be instantly raised and commanded in conformity 
to the appointment of the Estates. " But of such proofs 
of the revolutionary principles of Ayrshire enough ! 
The men of Ayr not only approved of the Revolution, 
but they drew their swords in support of its establish- 
ment and principles. On that memorable occasion not 
only were the governors changed, but new principles 
were adopted, and better practices were introduced ; 
and the Ayrshire people were gratified by the aboli- 
tion of Episcopacy and by the substitution of Presby- 

Antiquities, of various kinds, are numerous. Cairns, 
stone circles, and suchlike Caledonian remains are at 
Sorn, Galston, and other places. Vestiges of a Roman 
road are in the vicinity of Ayr. Traces of Danish 
camps are at Dundonald and in the neighbourhood of 
Ardrossan. Mediaeval castles, or remains of them, are 
at Loch Doon, Turnberry, Dundonald, and Sorn. Fine 
old monastic ruins are at Crossraguel and Kilwinning ; 
and a ruined church, immortalised by Burns, is at Allo- 
way. The most ancient families are the Auchinlecks, 
the Boswells, the Boyds, the Cathcarts, the Crawfords, 
the Cunninghams, the Dalrymples, the Dunlops, the 
Fullartons, the Kennedys, the Lindsays, the Mont- 
gomerys, and the Wallaces. The oldest peerage con- 
nected with the county is the Earldom of Carrick, which 


belonged to Bruce, and belongs now to the Prince of 
Wales. Other peerage titles are Baron Kilmaurs, 
created about 1450, united to the Earldom of Glencairn 
in 1503, and dormant since 1796 ; Earl of Eglinton, 
created in 1508, and conjoined with the title of Baron 
Ardrossan in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 
1806 ; Earl of Cassillis, created in 1511, and conjoined 
with the title of Marquis of Ailsa in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom in 1S01 ; Baron Ochiltree, created 
in 1543, and dormant since 1675 ; Earl of Loudoun, 
created in 1633 ; Viscount of Ayr, created in 1622, and 
conjoined since 1633 to the Earldom of Dumfries, and 
since 1796 to the Marquisate of Bute ; Viscount Irvine, 
created in 1611, and extinct since 177S ; Earl of Kilmar- 
nock, created in 1661, and attainted in 1716 ; and Earl 
of Dundonald, created in 1669, and united then with 
the title of Baron Cochrane of Paisley and Ochiltree. 
Distinguished natives of Ayrshire have been very nume- 
rous ; the greatest of them has almost given it a new 
name — the 'Land of Burns.' See Jas. Paterson, His- 
tory of the County of Ayr (2 vols., 1847-52); Arch. Stur- 
rock, ' Report on the Agriculture of Ayrshire ' in Trans. 
HigU. and Ag. Soe. (1866); and Thos. Farrall 'On 
the Ayrshire Breed of Cattle,' in same Transactions 

Ayton (anc. Eitun, ' Eye-town '), a village and a coast 
parish of Berwickshire. The village stands near the left 
bank of Eye Water, 2^ miles inland and J mile NW 
of Ayton station on the North British, this being 7£ 
miles NW by W of Berwick-upon-Tweed and 49J ESE 
of Edinburgh. A pleasant, well-built place, it has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Commercial 
and Royal Banks, gas-works, 3 inns, a volunteer hall, 2 
saw-mills, and a tannery. Thursday is market-day, and 
justice of peace courts are held on the first Thursday of 
every month but September ; sheriff small debt courts 
on the first Monday of February, the second Monday of 
May, the Tuesday before the last Friday of July, and 
the first Thursday of October. Places of worship are the 
parish church (750 sittings) and two U.P. churches — 
Summerhill (561 sittings) and Springbank (350 sittings; 
rebuilt, for £1210, in 1872). The parish church, erected 
(1S64-66) at a cost of £7000, is a beautiful First Pointed 
structure, with nave, S aisle, transept, and chancel, a 
SW spire 120 feet high, and stained-glass chancel and 
transept windows. Pop. (1S31) 663, (1861) 875, (1871) 
745, (1SS1)771. 

The parish contains also the fishing village of Burn- 
mouth, 2 J miles to the E. Bounded N by Coldingham 
and Eyemouth, E by the German Ocean, SE by Mor- 
dington, S by Foulden, and W by Chirnside and Col- 
dingham, it has an utmost length and breadth of 3£ 
miles and an area of 6S32 acres, of which 105| are fore- 
shore and 27 water. The coast, about 3 miles long, 
forms an almost continuous but much-indented preci- 
pice, rising, from N to S, to 71 feet near Nestends, 149 
on Gunsgreenhill, 160 at Scout Point, 339 near Hurker, 
310 on Burnmouth Hill, and 170 at Ross. The cliffs 
are pierced by two or three caverns, accessible only from 
the sea, and famous in smuggling annals ; three islets at 
the northern extremity, during strong easterly gales, 
drive the waves up in sheets of foam to a height of from 
70 to 100 feet. The SE portion of the interior presents 
an assemblage of softly-contoured, richly-wooded hills, 
the highest of them Ayton Hill (654 feet) 1| mile SE of 
the village, whilst lesser eminences are Millerton Hill, 
Bastleridge (375), Ayton Cocklaw (315), Flemington 
(275), and Redhall (320). The NW portion between the 
Eye and the Ale, though lower is everywhere undulat- 
ing, attaining 251 feet near Aytonwood House, 291 in 
the Drill plantation, and 297 on the Coldingham border. 
The Eye runs If mile south-eastward near or upon the 
western boundary, till, striking north-eastward, it winds 
for 2?i miles through the interior, next for 1J mile along 
the Eyemouth border to the sea. Its scenery here is very 
pretty and varied, as, too, is that of the tributary Ale, 
which flows 3J miles east-south-eastward along the Col- 
dingham and Eyemouth confines, and of the North British 


railway, which curves 4J miles from W to SE through 
Ayton. The rocks, Silurian and Devonian, exhibit all 
sorts of inclinations, curvatures, and contortions, as seen 
in the cliffs, and furnish good building stone and road 
metal. The soils range from loamy to gravelly, are 
mostly as fertile as any in the shire, and overlie great 
quantities of boulders and course gravel. Plantations 
cover some SOO acres ; between 200 and 300 are in pas- 
ture ; and all the rest are highly cultivated. Traces of 
five camps, ascribed to Romans, Picts, Saxons, and 
Danes, and remains of an ancient Romanesque parish 
church, make up the antiquities ; of the castle founded 
by the Norman baron De Vesci, and demolished in 1498 
by the Earl of Surrey, no vestige now exists. Modern 
mansions, with owners and the extent and yearly value 
of their Berwickshire estates, are : — Ayton Castle, J 
mile NE of the village (Alex. Mitchell-Innes, 5780 acres, 
£10,950) ; Peelwalls, 1J S by W (Jn. Allan, 701 acres, 


£1720) ; Netherbyres, 2J miles NNE (Major Jn. Kamsay 
IV Amy, 65 acres, £229) ; and Gunsgreen, 3 miles NNE, 
opposite Eyemouth (Pair. Home, 520 acres, £852). Of 
these, Ayton Castle is a splendid Baronial edifice of 
reddish stone, built in 1851 on the site of a predecessor 
destroyed by fire in 1834, and standing out prominently 
from its surrounding woods. In all 8 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 6 of between 
£100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 33 of from 
£20 to £50. Ayton is in the presbytery of Chirnside 
and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£443. Two public schools, Ayton and Burnmouth, 
with respective accommodation for 265 and 85 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 180 and 89, and 
grants of £126, 6s. 4d. and £78, 9s. Valuation (1881) 
£17,045, 12s. 9d. Pop. (1755) 797, (1801) 1453, (1841) 
1784, (1861)2014, (1871) 1983, (1SS1) 2037.— Orel. Sur., 
sh. 34, 1864. 

BA (Gael. ' cow's stream '), a lake and rivulet in 
Torosay parish, Mull, Argyllshire. The lake, 
lying towards the middle of the island, is 2J 
miles long from E to W, and about J mile wide ; 
the rivulet, issuing from its western end, runs about 2 
miles NW and W to head of Loch na Eeal ; and both 
lake and stream abound in salmon, sea-trout, salmo- 
ferox, and common brown trout. 

Ba or A-Baw, an isleted loch in Glenorchy parish, 
NE Argyllshire, on Rannoch Muir, 6 miles SE of King- 
house Inn, Glencoe. Very irregular in outline, it has an 
extreme length and breadth of 2J miles and | mile, lies 
at an altitude of 957 feet, and teems with trout ; the 
river Ba, i\ miles long above, and 1J below, the lake, 
connects it with Loch Laidon, and so with Loch Ran- 

Ba, an islet of Applecross parish, W Ross-shire, with 
5 inhabitants in 1861, but none in 1871. 

Ba or Bahill, a wooded eminence 700 feet high in 
Drumblade parish, Aberdeenshire, 14 mile SSE of 
Huntly. It is thought to have got its name from foot- 
ball contests in bygone days. 

Baads, a moorish tract in the W of Cullen parish, 
Banffshire. It is falsely said by the later chronicles to 
have been the scene of a fierce battle between Norwegians 
and Indulph, King of Alban (954-62), in which the 
latter was slain ; but certainly it is thickly studded 
with tumuli, containing decayed bones, fragments of 
arms, and other relics. 

Baberton, an estate, with a mansion, in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion stands 1 mile NE of 
Currie village, is said to have belonged to James VI. , 
and was a temporary residence of Charles X. of France. 

Babylon. See Bothweix. 

Bach, two of the Treshinish Isles, Bach-more and 
Bach-beg, off the mouth of Loch Tua, on the W side of 
Mull, Argyllshire. 

Bachnagairn, a picturesque fall on the South Esk 
river, in Cortachy parish, Forfarshire. It occurs about 
1 mile S of Loch Esk ; makes a leap of more than 60 
feet ; and is flanked by high, wooded, precipitous rocks. 
A shooting lodge of the same name is near. 

Back, a village on the E coast of Lewis island, Ross- 
shire, 7 miles NNE of Stornoway. It has a Free church. 
Pop. (1861) 403, (1871) 515. 

Back, a burn winding round the base of Tower Hill, 
in Pittencrieff Glen, contiguous to Dunfermline, Fife- 

Back, a burn of NW Elginshire, issuing from the 
Loch of Romach on the southern boundary of Rafford 
parish, and winding down the valley of Pluscardine. 

Backaskail, a bay in Cross and Burness parish, 
Sanday island, Orkney. It produces enormous quan- 
tities of shell -fish. 

Backies, a hamlet in Golspie parish, Sutherland, 2 
miles N of Golspie village. It has a public school, and re- 
mains of an ancient tower, which, probably built by the 
Norsemen, commanded as extensive prospect over both 
sea and land. 

Backlass, a hill, 300 feet above sea-level, in Watten 
parish, Caithness, 2J miles WSW of Watten village. 
A fair is held here on 15 Sept., old style, if a Tuesday, 
otherwise on the Tuesday after. 

Backmuir.'a village in Liff and Benvie parish, For- 
farshire, near the Perthshire boundary, 54 miles NW of 

Backmuir, a village on the northern border of Largo 
parish, Fife, 2J miles SE of Ceres. 

Backwater, a burn and a hamlet in Lintrathen parish, 
Forfarshire. The burn rises in the northern extremity 
of the parish, and runs southward to a confluence with 
the Melgam, a little above Lintrathen church. The 
hamlet takes name from the burn, and has a public 

Badcaul, a rivulet and a bay in Eddrachillis parish, 
Sutherland. The rivulet brings down the superfluence 
of a chain of small lakes, which abound in trout ; and 
it runs about 6 miles westward to the head of the bay. 
The church of Eddrachillis and a public school are at 
the head of the bay, 8i miles NW of Kyle-Sku Ferry. 
The bay forms a well-sheltered sea-inlet, about 1^ mile 
long ; and has, across its mouth, a picturesque and 
numerous group of small islands. 

Baden or Baddanloch, the third and most easterly 
of a chain of three lakes in Kildonan parish, Sutherland, 
5J miles W by N of Kinbrace station. The three are 
Loch nan Cuinne, 3 miles long from N to S, and from 1 
to 6 furlongs wide ; Loch a Chlair, It by 1 mile ; and 
Loch Baden itself, 1J mile long from NW to SE, and 
from 4 to 7 furlongs wide. They lie 392 feet above sea- 
level, send off a stream to Helmsdale river, and all of 
them teem with trout and char. — Orel. Sur., sh. 109, 

Badenoch, the south-eastern district of Inverness- 
shire, bounded NW by the watershed of the Monadhliath 
Mountains, separating it from Stratherrick and Strath- 
dearn ; NE by Elginshire, and partly there by a line 
drawn across the Braes of Abernethy ; SE by the water- 
shed of part of the Braes of Abernethy, the watershed of 
the central Grampians, and a line drawn across Loch Ericht 
and round the S base of Ben Alder, separating it partly 
from Aberdeenshire, mainly from Perthshire ; and SW 
by an artificial line striking the foot of Loch Laggan, 
and separating it from Lochaber. Its greatest length, 
from NE to SE, is 45 miles ; and its greatest breadth is 
19 miles. It includes part of Glen Spey in the SW, 
and all Glen Truim in the S ; and it is traversed, from 
thp. convereeace of these glens, onward to its north- 



eastern boundary, by the river Spey. The surface, in a 
general view, is mountainous and wild, and comprises 
but a small aggregate of low or cultivated land. The 
south-western third of it is entirely Highland, diversi- 
fied only by Loch Laggan, the upper part of Loch 
Ericht, and a few deep narrow glens. The south- 
eastern border also, to an average breadth of at least 7 
miles, is all a continuous mountain mass of the Gram- 
pians and the Abernethy Braes, cleft by wild glens. 
The central tract along the course of the Spey is the 
principal scene of culture and the principal seat of popu- 
lation ; and that, as may be seen from the account of the 
greater part of it under Alvie and Eothiemurohus, 
abounds in features of exquisite beauty. Yet many spots 
in the glens are attractive both in natural character and 
in artificial embellishment ; and a large aggregate of the 
skirts and shoulders of the mountains is covered with 
wood. — Badenoch, from the reign of Alexander II. till 
that of Robert Bruce (1230-1306), was held and despoti- 
cally ruled by the family of Comyn ; and it retains 
vestiges of their fortresses, as at Loch-an-Eilan and Loch- 
indhorb, which show a massiveness and a strength of 
masonry never seen in the ordinary baronial fortalices of 
Scotland. The Comyns, as is well known, contested 
the crown of Scotland with the Bruces, and acted pro- 
minently in the intrigues and conflicts of the wars of the 
succession. Robert Bruce slew the Red Comyn at Dum- 
fries, and gave the lordship of Badenoch to Randolph, 
Earl of Moray. In 1371 Robert II. transferred the lord- 
ship, with extraordinary powers of barony and regality, 
to his own illegitimate son, the Earl of Buchan, com- 
monly known as the Wolf of Badenoch. This man was 
a sort of Celtic Attila, ferocious in temper, cruelly tyran- 
nical in behaviour ; and both performed and provoked 
such deeds of spoliation and slaughter as gave full war- 
rant for his sobriquet. But various persons, called the 
king's kindly tenants, and also various churchmen, 
with tenures independent of the local authority, ob- 
tained grants of portions of land within Badenoch ; 
and these afterwards maintained many a struggle with 
the superiors of the soil. The Earls of Huntly, and 
their successors, the Dukes of Gordon, from 1452 ruled 
over most of Badenoch. Yet the Clan Chattan, or 
rather the Macpherson section of that clan, early got 
possession of the upper section of the district, and 
always continued to hold that section ; while the 
Macintoshes and the Grants obtained and have held 
possession of some other parts. Laggan Roman Catholic 
chapel, designated of Badenoch, was built in 18-16, and 
contains 272 sittings. 

Badenscoth. See Atjchterless. 

Badensgill, a hamlet and a burn in Linton parish, 
Peeblesshire. The hamlet lies on the burn, near its 
mouth, 2J miles NNW of Linton parish. The burn 
rises on the Pentland Hills, and runs 2J miles south- 
eastward to the Lyne. 

Badentoy. See Banchory-Devenick. 

Badenyon, a house in Glenbucket parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, celebrated in the Rev. John Skinner's song, 
John o' Badenyon. A lodge was built on or near its site, 
in 1840, by the Earl of Fife. 

Badlieu, a burn in Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire, 
rising upon the NE slope of Clyde Law (1789 feet), on 
the Lanarkshire boundary, and running, past Badlieu 
Rig (1374 feet) 1\ miles north-eastward, to the Tweed, 
3 miles N of Tweeds Well. 

Baggage-Knowe, a small hill in Kilsyth parish, 
Stirlingshire, associated in relics or reminiscences with 
the battle of Kilsyth, fought in 1645. 

Baidland, a hill in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. It rises 
to an altitude of 1099 feet above sea-level ; and, at a 
height of 850 feet, it has a vein or dyke of cannel coal, 
between two walls of carboniferous sandstone. 

Baikie, an estate, with a small plain modern mansion, 
in Airlie parish, Forfarshire. A deposit of marl, about 40 
acres in area and from 18 to 21 feet deep, lay in Baikie 
Moss, and forms the subject of an interesting paper by Sir 
Charles Lyell, in the Transactions of tlie Geological Society. 

Bailford, an estate in Penpont parish, Dumfriesshire. 


An ancient monument here consists of a two-stepped 
base and a slender pillar about 10 feet high ; has sculp- 
tures, now so weather-worn as to he almost effaced ; and 
defies speculation as to either origin or object. 

Baillieston, a large mining village and a quoad sacra 
parish, in the civil parish of Old Monkland, Lanark- 
shire, with 'a station on the Rutherglen-Coatbridge 
branch of the Caledonian, 34 miles W by S of Coat- 
bridge, and 64, miles E of Glasgow. The village is 
lighted with gas, has a post office under Glasgow, and a 
railway telegraph office, and contains an Established, a 
Free, and a U.P. church, besides St John's Episcopal 
and St Bridget's Roman Catholic churches. Under Old 
Monkland school-board there are a Sessional and a 
Roman Catholic school, which, with respective accom- 
modation for 215 and 143 children, had an average at- 
tendance(1879) of 209 and 149, and grants of £213, Ss. 6d. 
and £127, lis. The Baillieston and Shettleston min ing 
district included in that year 22 active collieries, 16 of 
them at Baillieston itself. Pop. of village (1861) 1832, 
(1871) 2805, (1881) 2990 ; of q. s. parish (1871) 4924, 
(1881) 3477. 

Baillivanich, a lake, with a small islet, in the island 
of Benbecula, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Re- 
mains of a monastery are on the islet. 

Bainsford. See Brainsford. 

Bainshole, a hamlet of NW Aberdeenshire, 7 miles 
from Insch, under which it has a post office. 

Bainton. See Baneton. 

Bairdston, a village in East Kilbride parish, Lanark- 
shire, 9 miles S of Glasgow. 

Balachulish. See Ballachdxish. 

Balagich or Ballagioch, a hill in Eaglesham parish, 
Renfrewshire, 2 j miles WSW of Eaglesham village. It 
overhangs the E side of Binend Loch, and has an alti- 
tude of 1084 feet above sea-level. Several pieces of 
barytes have been got at or near it. 

Balaklava, a village on the E border of Kilbarchan 
parish, Renfrewshire, 1 mile NNE of Johnstone. It 
was founded in 1856, on the lands of Clippens, for 
working extensive ironstone mines ; and it is sometimes 
called Clippens Square. Pop. (1871) 339. 

Balallau. a village in Lochs parish, Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides, Ross-shire, 14 miles SW of Stornoway. Pop. 
(1871) 514. 

Balantradoch, an ancient chapelry in Temple parish, 
Edinburghshire. It contained the chief seat of the 
Knights Templars in Scotland ; passed in 1312 to the 
Knights of St John ; and after the Reformation was 
consolidated with Clerkington parish and Moorfoot 
chapelry into the modern parish of Temple. The church , 
54^ by 17J feet, is First Pointed in style, and retains a 
piscina, an Easter sepulchre, and on its eastern gable 
an inscription which has puzzled antiquaries. 

Balbardie, an estate, with a mansion and fine park, in 
Bathgate parish, Linlithgowshire, in the northern 
vicinity of Bathgate town. 

Balbeggie, a village in a detached section of Kinnoul 
parish, Perthshire, 5J miles NE of Perth. It has a 
post office under Perth, a United Presbyterian church, 
and a public school, which, with accommodation for 120 
children, had (1879) an average attendance of 6S, and 
a grant of £58, 13s. 

Balbegno, an old castellated mansion in Fettercairn 
parish, Kincardineshire, 4f miles WNW of Laurence- 
kirk. Built in 1509, it bears that date on a parapet 
wall ; it is said to have been so costly that the lands of 
Balnakettle and Littlestrath were sold for means to com- 
plete it ; and it contains a lofty hall, with groined roof 
exhibiting the armorial bearings of 16 Scottish peers ; 
under the form of Balniain it gives appellation to Sir 
Al. Entwisle Ramsay(b. 1837 ; sue. as fourth Bart. 1875), 
a great nephew of the late Dean Ramsay (1793-1872). 

Balbirnie, an estate, with a mansion, in Markinch 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands" in a romantic hollow 
amid extensive grounds, £ mile NW of Markinch village ; 
was erected by the late General BaKour ; and is an 
elegant edifice with an Ionic portico. The estate ex- 
tends to the SW of Markinch village ; and has there, 


on the banks of the river Leven, paper-mills, a woollen 
factory, extensive collieries, and a village called Balbirnie 
Mills. Pop. of the village conjointly with that of Auch- 
mity (1871) 403, (1881) 436. 

Balbirnie, a hamlet in Euthven parish, Forfarshire, 
near the Perthshire boundary, 2t miles NE of Meigle. 

Balbithan, an estate, with a mansion, in Keith-hall 
parish, Aberdeenshire, on the left bank of the Don, 1J 
mile NNE of Kintore. The mansion, the property of 
the Earl of Kintore, is a curious old structure ; was a 
rendezvous of the Marquis of Montrose and his friends 
in the times of the Covenanters ; and gave refuge to 
several of the Pretender's adherents after Culloden. A 
beech tree, girthing 14 feet at 1 foot from the ground, is 
on the estate. 

Balblair, a village in Eddertoun parish, Ross-shire, 
5^ miles W by N of Tain. It has a post office under 
Inverness, and a large distillery. 

Balblair, a hamlet in Criech parish, Sutherland, on 
the Kyle of Sutherland, 1 J mile NW of Bonar-Bridge. 

Balblair, a spot in Nairn parish, Nairnshire, on the 
top of a lofty terrace, near the coast, about 1 mile W by 
S of the town of Nairn. It was the camping-ground of 
the royal army on the eve of Culloden ; and it overlooks 
all the route which the Highlanders had to take in 
their proposed night attack. 

Balbrogie, a hamlet in the Perthshire section of the 
parish of Coupar- Angus. 

Balbunnoch, a village in Longforgan parish, Perth- 
shire, adjacent to Forfarshire, 4 miles W of Dundee. 
It is conjoint with Mylnefield, which has a post office 
under Dundee. A bleachfield was formerly in its neigh- 
bourhood ; and a paper-mill now is there. 

Balcail. See Balkail. 

Balcaithly, an estate in Dunino parish, Fife. An 
urn, supposed to be Roman, was exhumed in a field be- 
longing to it in 1836. 

Balcarres (Gael, laiU-carrais, ' town of the contest '), 
a mansion in Kilconquhar parish, East Neuk of Fife, 
| mile NNW of Colinsburgk. It stands, engirt by trees, 
on a sunward slope, 300 feet above and 3 miles to the 
N of the Firth of Forth, across whose waters it looks 
away to the Bass, the Lammermuirs, and Edinburgh. 
Originally built in 1595, in the Scoto-Flemish Gothic 
of the period, it retains its fine dining-room, its turn- 
pike stair, and its thick-walled bedchamber, ' Oliver 
Cromwell's Room ; ' but otherwise was much enlarged 
and altered in the first half of the present century. A 
ruined ivy-clad chapel, hard by, erected about 1635, 
serves as the family burial-place ; and, 200 yards to the 
E, Balcarres Craig, a turreted rock of clinkstone, rises 
abruptly from the Den Burn's deep ravine. The estate 
was purchased in 1587 by the lawyer-statesman John 
Lindsay (1552-9S), Lord Menmuir, second son of the 
ninth Earl of Crawford, who in 1592 obtained a royal 
charter uniting the lands of Balcarres, Balneill, and 
Pitcorthie into a free barony. His second son, David, 
the Rosicrucian (15S6-1641), became Lord Lindsay of 
Balcarres in 1633 ; and his son, Alexander, feasted 
Charles II. here in 1651, the year that he was created 
Earl of Balcarres, and died an exile at Breda in 1659. 
The third Earl, Colin (d. 1722), was a Jacobite, though 
cousin by marriage to William of Orange, saw Claver- 
house's ghost, and founded Colinsburgh ; the fifth Earl, 
James (d. 1768), was 'the first that brought Fifeshire 
"agriculture to any degree of perfection. ' His daughter, 
Lady Ann Barnard (1750-1825), composed in 1771 Auld 
Robin Gray, the name of the old Balcarres herdsman ; 
and his eldest son, Alexander, sixth Earl (d. 1825), fought 
a duel with the traitor Arnold, and in 1789 sold the 
lands of Balcarres to a younger son, the Hon. Rt. 
Lindsay (d. 1836). Title and lands were thus dissevered, 
the former now being held by Jas. Ludovic Lindsay, 
twenty-sixth Earl of Crawford and ninth of Balcarres 
(b. 1847 ; sue. 1880 ; seat, Duneoht House) ; and the 
latter by Sir Coutts Trotter Lindsay, second Bart, since 
1821 (b. 1S24 ; sue. 1837), who is seventh in lineal 
descent from Lord Menmuir, and owner of 4672 acres 
in the shire, valued at £9619 per annum. See the late 


Earl of Crawford's Lives of the Lindsays (3 vols. , Lond. 

Balcary, an old mansion, a baylet, a hill, and a head- 
land in Berwick parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the 
SW side of Auchencairn Bay, about 9 miles E of Kirk- 
cudbright. The bay is an expansion of Auchencairn 
Bay, 2 miles SE of Auchencairn village ; and was de- 
signed by the projectors of the Ayrshire and Galloway 
railway to be provided with a commodious artificial 
harbour, in connection with a terminous of the railway. 
The hill and the headland intervene between Balcary 
Bay and the W of the entrance of Auchencairn Bay. 

Balcaskie, a mansion in the SE angle of Carnbee 
parish, Fife, 1 j mile NW of Pittenweem. A fine old 
building with a park extending into Abercrombie 
parish, it is the seat of Sir Robert Anstruther, fifth 
Bart, since 1694, and owner of 2121 acres in the shire, 
valued at £5116 per annum. 

Balcastle, a hamlet and collieries in Slamannan parish, 
Stirlingshire, near Slamannan station, 5f miles SSW 
of Falkirk. 

Balchristie, an estate, with a mansion, in Newburn 
parish, Fife, 1J mile WSW of Colinsburgh. The 
Culdees here had a church and lands, which went, by 
deed of David I., to the monks of Dunfermline ; but 
were afterwards vainly claimed by the prior and canons 
of St Andrews. 

Balcomie, an ancient castle, a farm-house now, in 
Crail parish, Fife, 1 mile W of Fifeness, and If NNE 
of Crail. It belonged in 1375 to a John de Balcomie ; 
passed in the time of James IV. to the Learmonths, in 
1705 to Sir William Hope, and afterwards to succes- 
sively Scott of Scotstarvet and the Earl of Kellie. In 
June 1538 it entertained Mary of Guise on her land- 
ing at Fifeness to be married to James V. Originally 
an edifice of great size and splendour, it was reduced 
by the Earl of Kellie to only one wing, but it still is of 
considerable size, and serves as a landmark to mariners. 
A small cave near is falsely alleged to have been the 
scene of the beheading of Constantin, King of the 
Picts (863-77), by Northmen ; and a group of islets, J 
mile NW of Fifeness, is called Balcomie Brigs. See part 
ii. of Thos. Rodger's Kingdom of Fife (Edinb., n. d.). 

Balconie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kiltearn parish, 
Ross-shire. The mansion, f mile ESE of Evanton village, 
is a castellated edifice, and was formerly a seat of the 
Earls of Ross. Hugh Miller, in chap. vi. of his Scenes 
and Legends, gives the weird tradition of the Lady of 

Balcraig, a quondam ancient castle in Newtyle parish, 
Forfarshire, a short distance S of the ruins of Hatton 
Castle. Scarcely any traces of it remain. Some urns, 
in a broken state, were, a number of years ago exhumed 
about its site. 

Balcruvie or Pitcruvie, an ancient castle, now re- 
duced to one square tower in Largo parish, Fife, on 
Keil Burn, 1-J mile N by W of Lower Largo village. It 
was built by Sir John Lindsay, an ancestor of the Earls 
of Crawford. 

Balcurvie, a village in the SE of Markinch parish, Fife, 
near Cameron Bridge station. A public school here, 
with accommodation for ISO children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 86, and a grant of £59, 10s. 

Baldermonocks, the ancient bishops' lands in Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire, comprehending aU the parish, ex- 
cept the entailed estate of Cadder. 

Baldernock (Gael, baile-dur-chnoc, ' town of the 
stream at the knoll'), a hamlet and a parish of SW 
Stirlingshire. The hamlet stands in the W of the 
parish, 2J miles ENE of Milngavie station, and 74 
miles N of its post-town Glasgow ; and comprises the 
parish church (1795 ; 406 sittings), a Free church, 
their manses, a school, and a few scattered cottages. 

The parish also contains the village of Balmore, 2J 
miles ESE. It is bounded N and NE by Campsie, S 
by Cadder in Lanarkshire, SW and W by New Kil- 
patrick, and NW by Strathblane ; and has an extreme 
length from N to S of 2| miles, a breadth from E to W 
of from 1J to 3J miles, and an area of 4411 \ acres, of 



which 88J are water. The sluggish Kelvin flows be- 
tween embankments 3 miles along the southern border, 
while its affluent, Allandek Water, traces the south- 
western for 1J ; and to these two streams three or four 
burns run southward through the interior of the parish, 
in whose SW corner are Bardowie Loch (4 x 2§ furl.) 
and the best part of Dougalston Loch (4£ x 1 furl.). 
From the flat Balmore Haughs along the Kelvin the 
surface rises northward towards the Campsie Hills, 
having an altitude of 100 feet above sea-level near Tor- 
rance Bridge in the SE, of 200 near Longbank in the 
SW, of 187 at Craighead, 361 near Blairskaith, 313 by 
the church, 413 at Blochairn, 633 at Craigmaddie Muir 
on the northern border, and 700 at Blairskaith Muir in 
the NE. The rocks are carboniferous in the S, eruptive 
in the N ; and coal, ironstone, pyrites, fireclay, lime, 
and alum have all at times been worked. Of soils there 
is a great and strongly-marked diversity, from the rich 
alluvium of Balmore Haughs to the clay incumbent upon 
till of the middle slopes, and the light sharp soil of the 
upland moors beyond ; about 4000 acres are in tillage, 
240 under wood. Antiquities are a famous cromlech 
called Auld Wives' Lift, some round or oblong cairns 
on Blochairn farm, the Hamiltons' ruined castle by 
Bardowie Loch, and remains of a moated tower in the 
park of Craigmaddie House near the north-western 
angle of the parish. The barony around this tower was 
held from 1238 and earlier by the Galbraiths, and in 
the latter half of the 14th century came through an 
heiress to John de Hamilton, a scion of the Cadzow line, 
and founder of that of Baldernock and Bardowie. 
Modern mansions are Bardowie, North Bardowie, and 
Glenorchard ; and the property is divided among 3 
landowners holding each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 11 of from £100 to £500, 7 of from £50 
to £100, and 6 of from £20 to £50. Baldernock is 
in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr ; its minister's income is £213. The public 
school, with accommodation for 125 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 60, and a grant of £66, 15s. 
Valuation (1881) £6609, lis. 5d. Pop. (1801) 796, 
(1841) 972, (1871) 616, (1881) 569.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
30, 1S66. 

Baldoon Castle, the corner of one crumbling tower, 
with a few yards of ivy-clad wall, in Kirkinner parish, 
Wigtownshire, 3 furlongs from the S bank of Bladenoch 
river, and If mile SSW of Wigtown. Hence Scott 
derived the ground-plot of the Bride of Lammermoor, 
for here, according to its Introduction and to Chambers' 
Domestic Annals (ii. 326-328), the final act of the real 
tragedy was played in August 1669, with Janet Dal- 
rymple, Lord Stair's daughter, for ' Lucy,' David Dun- 
bar of Baldoon for ' Bueklaw,' Lord Rutherford for 
' Bavenswood,' and so forth. But antiquaries now re- 
ject the ' bonny bridegroom ' version of the story, con- 
ceding only that the bride died broken-hearted just a 
month after her bridal in Glenluce kirk. David Dun- 
bar is described as an agricultural improver ; and at the 
present day the Baldoon Mains are famous for their 
dairy-farms. Eastward in Wigtown Bay are the Baldoon 
Sands, from 1J to 2 miles broad at low- water ; and 
northward is Baldoon Quay, a small proprietorial har- 
bour on the Bladenoch. See J. G. Murray's Stair 
Annals (1S75), and Trans. Sight, and Ag. Soc, 1875, 
lip. 53-60. 

Baldovan, a village, with a railway station, in Mains 
and Strathmartin parish, Forfarshire, on the river 
Dighty, and on the Dundee and Newtyle railway, 3 
miles KW of Dundee. Baldovan House, in the vicinity, 
is the seat of Sir John Ogilvy, ninth Bart, since 1625, 
and owner of 1431 acres, valued at £3626 per annum. 
Baldovan Asylum for Imbecile Children was erected in 
1854, by the benevolence of Sir John and Lady Jane 
Ogilvy ; is a fine structure, after designs by Coe & Good- 
win ; and, as considerably enlarged in 1869, accommo- 
dates some 50 inmates. It was the first institution of 
its kind, and long the only one in Scotland. 

Baldovie, a post office hamlet in Dundee parish, For- 
farshire, 4 miles ENE of Dundee town. 


Baldowrie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kettins 
parish, Forfarshire. On the estate is an ancient stand- 
ing stone, 6 feet high, with nearly defaced sculptures. 

Baldragon, a station in Forfarshire, on the Dundee 
and Newtyle railway, 1 mile NNV of Baldovan station. 
See pp. 262-264 of Chambers' Popular Rhymes (ed. 1870). 

Baldridge, several localities — Baldridge, West Bald- 
ridge, Baldridge House, and North Baldridge, in Dun- 
fermline parish, Fife, around the Wellwood colliery, 
from | to 1J mile NNW of Dunfermline. 

Balerno, a village in Currie parish, Edinburghshire, 
on the right bank of the Water of Leith, with a station 
on a loop line of the Caledonian, 1 mile WSW of Currie, 
and 7 SW of Edinburgh. It has a post office under 
Currie, with money order and savings' bank departments, 
a U.P. church (1829 ; 500 sittings), 2 inns, 2 paper-mills, 
and a public and an Episcopal school, which, with ac- 
commodation for 176 and 126 children, had (1879) an 
average attendance of 109 and 57, and grants of £93, 12s. 
and £33, 12s. Pop. (1861) 510, (1871) 490. 

Balerno Railway, an Edinburghshire loop line of the 
Caledonian, 5^V miles long, from Slateford to Ravelrig 
siding. A single line, it was authorised in 1870, formed 
at a cost of £42,000, and opened in 1S74 ; it four times 
crosses the Water of Leith, has steepish gradients, and 
at Colinton traverses a tunnel 150 yards long. 

Baleshare. See Balleshake. 

Balevil, a small estate, with a residence, in ITrquhart 
parish, Ross-shire. It was bought and occupied, in the 
present century, by General John Mackenzie. 

Balfour, an estate, with a mansion, in Markinch 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands on the right bank of 
the river Leven, near the influx of the Ore, 1J mile NE 
of Thornton ; is the seat of Admiral C. R. D. Bethune ; 
and contains an original portrait of Cardinal Beaton. 
The estate belonged anciently to the family of Balfour ; 
was originally called Balorr, with reference to its situa- 
tion near the Ore ; and passed by marriage, in 1360, to 
the Bethunes. 

Balfour, a ruined ancient castle in the S of Ktngoldrum 
parish, Forfarshire. It is in the Gothic style ; was built 
by Cardinal Beaton ; became the seat of the Ogilvies 
of Balfour, a branch of the noble Ogilvies of Airlie ; 
passed to the Fotheringhams and the Farquharsons ; 
and about 1838, was denuded of two wings, for the 
erection of a farm-house. 

Balfour, a hamlet in Shapinshay parish, Orkney, 5 miles 
NE of Kirkwall, under which it has a post office. Balfour 
Castle, in its vicinity, is the seat of David Balfour, Esq. , 
owner of 29,054 acres, valued at £7578 per annum. 

Balfron, a village and a parish of W Stirlingshire. 
The village lies toward the south-western corner of the 
parish, 2 furlongs from the right bank of the Endrick, 
and 2 miles E of Balfron station on the Forth and Clyde 
Junction section of the North British, that station, with 
a telegraph office, being 20 miles WSW of Stirling, and 
10 J ENE of Balloch. From Glasgow BalfroH is 19 miles 
NNW by road, or 24 by coach to Killearn and thence by 
rail over Lennoxtown ; but the Strathendrick and Aber- 
foyle railway (sanctioned June 1880) will bring them 
into more direct connection. Built on a gentle slope, 
it looks across the river and the Ballikinrain woods to 
Earl's Seat, highest of the Campsie Fells (1894 feet), 3J 
miles SSE ; 11 miles NNW and 14i NW rise Ben Venue 
(2393 feet) and Ben Lomond (3192), with lesser sum- 
mits of the great Highland wall. The place itself was 
founded by Robert Dnnmore, Esq. of Ballindalloch, who 
opened a cotton- mil] in 1789 ; and, neat and regular, it 
prospered greatly for the first fifty years, till handloom- 
weaving, its stapleindustry, wassuperseded bymachinery. 
Now it looks somewhat deserted, but still has a branch 
bank of the British Linen Co. , a post office under Glas- 
gow, with money order and savings' bank departments, 
5 inns, a library, and 1 large factory, the Ballindalloch 
cotton-spinning works ; and fairs are held at it on the 
last Tuesday of May, July (hiring), and October (horses 
and cattle). Places of worship are the parish church 
(1S32 ; 690 sittings), a Free church (for Killearn and 
Balfron), and a new U.P. church (1882) ; a public 


school, with accommodation for 208 children, had (1879) 
an average attendance of 180, and a grant of £168, 2s. 
Pop. (1831) 1700, (1861) 1179, (1871)1085, (1881) 970. 

The parish is bounded N by Drymen and Kippen, E 
by Gargunnock, SE by Fintry, S by Killearn, and IW 
by Drymen. It has an extreme length from E to W of 
7§ miles, a width from N to S of from 7 furlongs to 2i 
miles, and an area of 7847J acres, of which 28 are water. 
The westward-flowing Endrick roughly traces all the 
southern border, and the surface along its right bank 
has an altitude of less than 200 feet above sea-level, but 
rises northward to 491 feet at Cairnhall, 446 near Edin- 
bellie, 627 on Ballmdalloch Muir, and 577 on Balgair 
Muir, — north-eastward to Stronend (1676 feet), which 
culminates just beyond the SE frontier ; and from Stron- 
end it sinks again north-eastward to 554 feet near the 
confluence of the Boquhan and Pow Burns, marking the 
eastern, and part of the northern, boundary. The rocks 
are mainly eruptive, and the profitable working of 
abundant limestone has only been hindered by the ab- 
sence of coal. In 1841 more than two-thirds of the 
entire area were either pastoral or waste, but great re- 
clamations have been since effected, those of a single 
proprietor costing, in two years, upwards of £40,000. 
Mr Gillespie, however, in his edition of Nimmo's Stir- 
lingshire (1S80) distributes the area — 3420 acres in till- 
age, 4295 waste, and 105 under wood. In the old 
heathen days the children of Balfron are said to have 
all been killed by wolves, whence its name Baile-bhroin 
('town of mourning') ; other traditions record how Bal- 
lindalloch and Edinbellie were seats, if not the birth- 
places, of Alexander Cunningham, the ' Good ' Earl of 
Glencairn (d. 1574), and Napier of Merchiston (1550- 
1617), how at Cloekburn Skarpe's murderers first drew 
rein, fresh from their bloody work on Magus Moor (1679). 
Certain, at least, it is that Edinbellie was the scene of 
the forcible abduction of Jean Key (3 Dec. 1750) by Rob 
Roy's sons, for which Robin Oig, the principal, was three 
years after hanged at Edinburgh ; and that Balfron gave 
birth to the eminent Glasgow architect, Alexander Thom- 
son (1817-75). Ballmdalloch, J mile W of the village, 
is now the seat of H. R. Cooper, Esq. , who divides this 
parish with 13 more (non-resident) proprietors. It is in 
the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr; the minister's income is £251. Valuation (1881) 
£6615, 9s. Id. Pop. (1801) 1634, (1831) 2057, (1851) 
1900, (1871) 1502, (1881) 1327.— Ord. Sur., shs. 38 and 
39, 1871-69. 

Balgair, an estate in the E of Balfron parish, Stirling- 
shire, 34. miles E of Balfron village. It includes Balgair 
proper, Hill of Balgair, "Wester Balgair, and Balgair Muir ; 
aud it formerly was the place of a large annual cattle mar- 
ket, now held on Kippen Moor. 

Balgarvie, an estate, with a handsome modern man- 
sion, in Monimail parish, Fife. 

Balgavies. See Aberlejino. 

Balgay. See Dundee. 

Balgedie, two hamlets, Easter and "Wester, in Port- 
moak parish, Kinross-shire, at the foot of West Lomond 
Hill, 1 mile from the E shore of Loch Leven, J and 1 mile 
NNW of Kinnesswood, and about 5 miles by road E by 
N of Kinross. They have a United Presbyterian church. 

Balglass, an estate in the NE corner of Killearn parish, 
Stirlingshire. An ancient castle here is said to have 
formerly been well fortified, and once to have afforded 
protection to Sir William Wallace. 

Balgonar, an estate, with a mansion, in Saline parish, 

Balgone. See North Berwick. 

Balgonie, two villages and an estate in Markinch 
parish, Fife. Balgonie proper or Milton of Balgonie 
stands on the left bank of the river Leven, 1§ mile USE 
of Markinch station ; and has a post office under Mark- 
inch, and a former chapel of ease, with 650 sittings, 
erected in 1875 into a quoad sacra church. Flax-mills 
are adjacent, and form three sides of a rectangle, 160 by 
140 feet. — Coalton of Balgonie village stands near the 
North British railway, H mile S of Markinch, and has 
two suburbs called West Coalton and Lady's Square. A 


bleachfield is on the Leven, a little N of Lady's Square, 
and nearly a mile W of Milton. — In 1823 Balgonie estate, 
having belonged to the Earls of Leven from the reign of 
Charles I. , was purchased for £104,000 by James Balfour 
of Whittinghame, whose son, Charles Balfour (1823-72) 
was owner of 919 acres, valued at £1763 per annum. 
The ancient mansion on it, Balgonie Castle, stands on 
the banks of the Leven, about 36 feet above the bed of 
the stream, in the western vicinity of Milton ; is an 
edifice of different ages, large and massive, strong and 
picturesque ; comprises two sides of a quadrangle, with 
a strong wall on the other two sides, enclosing an oblong 
area of 108 by 65 feet ; and includes a donjon or keep, 
45 feet long, 36 wide, and 80 high. Rich coal mines 
are on the estate, and have been worked for centuries. 
The title of Baron Balgonie (ere. 1641) is still borne by 
the Earls of Leven, the first of whom, Alex. Leslie, the 
celebrated Presbyterian general, died at Balgonie in 

Balgowan, an estate, with a mansion and a railway 
station, in the SW of Methven parish, Perthshire, on 
the Perth and Crieff railway, 2 miles WSW of Methven 
village. The mansion is the seat of Maitland Thomson, 
Esq. (b. 1847 ; sue. 1879), owner of 2953 acres, valued 
at £3877 per annum. A public school here, with accom- 
modation for 84 children, had (1879) an average attend- 
ance of 52, and a grant of £44, 3s. 

Balgown, a small bay on the E side of Kirkniaiden 
parish, Wigtownshire, 9 miles N by "W of the Mull of 

Balgownie. See Aberdeen. 

Balgray, a hamlet on the NW border of Lanarkshire, 
on the river Kelvin, 3 miles NNW of Glasgow. A quarry 
of excellent sandstone is near it, about 600 yards from a 
wharf on the Forth and Clyde Canal ; and this, about 
the year 1S32, disclosed upwards of twenty stumps of 
exogenous fossil trees, all standing in a group, in their 
natural position. Not more than two of the stumps 
retained their roots, and no organic remains whatever 
were visible in the superincumbent rock. 

Balgray Hill, a place in Springburn parish, Lanark- 

Balgreggan, an estate, with a mansion, the seat of 
Wm. Maitland, Esq. (7S48 acres, £58S2 per annum), in 
Stoneykirk parish, Wigtownshire. A mote near the man- 
sion, 460 feet in circumference and 60 high, was engirt by 
a large fosse, and has on the top a curious excavation. 

Balhousie, an old castellated mansion in the northern 
vicinity of Perth. 

Ballntore Castle, a mansion in Lintrathen parish, W 
Forfarshire, 9 miles WNW of Kirriemuir. It is a seat 
of Major Wm. Lyon, owner of 6S88 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1428 per annum. 

Balintore, a fishing village in Fearn parish, Ross- 
shire, on a flat piece of coast, 6 miles NNE of the 
Souters of Cromarty, and 7 SE of Tain. Pop. (1871) 
387. . 

Balintraid, a harbour in Kilmuir-Easter parish, Ross- 
shire, on the Cromarty Firth, 3 miles NE of Invergordon. 
It has a pier, and serves a large part of Easter Ross for 
the exportation of grain and fir-timber, and for the im- 
portation of coals and general merchandise. 

Balisheae, an island in North Uist parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, near the SW coast of North 
Uist island. It is about 3J miles long. 

Balivanich, a hamlet in Benbecula island, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. It has a public school, 
which, with accommodation for 98 children, had (1S79) 
an average attendance of 56, and a grant of £42, 8s. 

Balkail, an estate, with a mansion, in Old Luce parish, 
Wigtownshire, J mile SE of Glenluce village. 

Balkello, a hamlet in Tealing parish, Forfarshire. Its 
post-town is Auchterhouse, under Dundee. 

Balkissoek, a mansion in Ballantrae parish, SW Ayr- 
shire, 3 miles E of Ballantrae village. It is the seat of 
Arthur Hughes-Onslow, Esq. (b. 1862; sue. 1870), owner 
of 14,426 acres in the shire, valued at £3235 per annum. 

Ballachroy, a village on the W side of Kintyre, Argyll- 
shire, 4 miles NNE of Tayinloan. 



Ballachulish (Gael, bail - a - chaolais, ' town of the 
strait'), a large but straggling village of Lismore and 
Appin parish, Argyllshire, extending along the southern 
shore of salt-water Loch Leven, on either side of the 
Laroch river, up to the mouth of Glencoe. Its central 
point, the bridge over the Laroch, is If mile "VVSW of 
Bridge of Coe, 2§ miles ESE of Ballachulish Terry, and 
16J S of Fort William ; by coach and steamer Ballachu- 
lish in summer has constant communication with Tyn- 
drum and Oban, and so with all parts of Scotland. At 
Ballachulish Ferry, where the entrance of Loch Leven 
narrows to 1 furlong, stands an excellent hotel ; the 
steamboat pier is 1 mile further W ; and the village has 
a post and telegraph office under Glencoe, an Established 
mission church (enlarged 1880), a Free church, St John's 
Episcopal church (1842-48 ; congregation, 600) in pseudo 
Early English style, and St Mun's Roman Catholic 
church (1836 ; 100 sittings). A public and an Episco- 
pal school, accommodating5S and 126 children, had (1879) 
an attendance of 67 and 84, and grants of £48, 12s. and 
£28, 10s. Pop. of village (1871) 944; of Glencoe and Bal- 
lachulish registration district (1871) 1529, (1881) 1441. 

' The slate quarries,' to quote from Trans. Higlil, 
andAg. Soc. (1878), p. 77, 'were commenced about 1760, 
and at present are worked with great vigour under the 
trustees of the late Sir George Beresford. The vein 
of slate, which is at an angle of 80°, stretches S and 
E from the shore along the side of Meall Mor (2215 
feet), and then runs into the centre of it. The face of 
the rock is laid open by workings fronting N and W, 
the inclination of the vein being towards the E. The 
workings of the main or E quarries are conducted in four 
levels, above the common highway, and three sinkings, 
making an aggregate working face of 436 feet in depth 
—an increase of 230 feet since 1843. The \V end work- 
ings are conducted upon a similar method — one with 3 
upper levels, and 2 depths of sinkings. Recently there 
have been several new quarries opened, which promise 
well. The material from the upper parts is conveyed 
from the respective levels by powerful brake-drums, the 
weight of the loaded waggons descending taking up the 
empty waggons without difficult}'. Material from the 
sinkings is taken up to the surface in inclined planes by 
3 stationary engines, which, by auxiliary gearing, keep 
the sinkings free of water — no small matter in such a 
rainy district, and with such great watersheds. The 
rock, after being quarried, is conveyed partly by railway 
locomotives. In all the workings there are from 10 to 11 
miles of firm and permanent lines of iron rails used, and 
130 substantial iron waggons. For deep boring a power- 
ful patent rock drill is put to work to rend the hill into 
pretty large blocks, which are afterwards easily disposed 
of by the regular manual process, i.e., one man, in a 
half- recumbent position, regulating the boring - drill, 
while another wields a large hammer, doing great execu- 
tion. At times this process would appear alarming to 
the inexperienced spectator, inasmuch as the operators 
are slung at giddy heights by ropes twisted round their 
bodies, the pressure of which, combined with physi- 
cal exertions required in the manual toil, must prove no 
mean test of their strong and healthy frames. The 
slate-making portions, or " blocks," are conveyed on 
" lines " along the banks formed by the refuse, and laid 
down at little sheds where they are, by one man, split 
up to the required thickness, and, by another, cut into 
shape, after which they are ready for export. There are 
three safe and commodious shipping harbours, all formed 
by the banks of rubbish projecting into the sea in arms 
of two to each harbour, thus completely sheltering ves- 
sels in any weather. The slates are of a deep blue 
colour, and spangled with pyrites, called by the work- 
men " diamonds ;" and these gold-coloured drops are so 
incorporated with the slate that they cannot be sepa- 
rated from it. The slates are allowed to possess in a 
pre-eminent degree all the qualities of permanence of 
colour and durability of material essential to roof slates. 
There are five different descriptions of slates made, viz. , 
queens, duchesses, countesses, sizables, and undersized. 
The annual production of manufactured slates is 28,000 


to 30,000 tons, or, in numbers, 16,000,000 to 17,000,000. 
There are over 600 men employed in the works, earning 
from 20s. to 40s. per week.' — Ord. Sur., sh. 53, 1877. 

Ballachulish and Corran of Ardgour, a quoad sacra 
parish in Kilmalie parish, Inverness and Argyll shires. 
It comprises two districts, North Ballachulish in Inver- 
ness-shire and Ardgour in Argyllshire, separated from 
each other by the northern end of Loch Linnhe, and its 
continuation of that, Loch Eil, but communicating with 
each other by Corran Ferry, 4 miles by road NW of Bal- 
lachulish Ferry, and itself | mile broad. North Ballachu- 
lish district is bounded S by Loch Leven and the river 
Leven, being separated only by these from Ballachulish 
proper and the region of Glencoe, and it measures 17 
miles in length and 7 in breadth.- The parish, consti- 
tuted first by the General Assembly in May 1833, next 
by the Court of Teinds in December 1845, is in the pres- 
bytery of Abertarff and synod of Glenelg ; its minister's 
income is £136. Two churches for the two districts, 
standing about 4 miles apart, were built in 1829, each 
at a cost of £1470 ; and that of Ballachulish contains 
300 sittings. Pop. (1871) 849, (1881) 748, of whom 248 
belonged to Corran of Ardgour. 

Ballagan, an estate, with a mansion and with a fine 
waterfall, in Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. The man- 
sion stands on the upper reach of the Blane river, called 
the Laggan Burn, J mile E by N of Strathblane village, 
and commands, from its windows, a view of the waterfall, 
which, known as the Spout of Ballagan, makes a descent 
of 70 feet, and somewhat resembles Corra Linn. 

Ballagioeh. See Balagioh. 

Ballanachist, a rivulet in Harris, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, frequented by salmon, and open for rod 
and line fishing from 10 Sept. to 31 Oct. 

Ballanbreicn (popularly Bamhreich), a ruined ancient 
castle in Flisk parish, Fife, on a steep bank overhanging 
the Firth of Tay, 2J miles NE of Newburgh. It was a 
parallelogram, 180 feet long by 70 wide, with an enclosed 
court ; consisted, on three sides, of buildings four stories 
high, on the fourth side of a high curtain wall ; was 
surrounded by a moat ; and is now a mere shattered 
shell, of picturesque outline, embosomed in a small plan- 
tation. The Earls of Rothes long resided in it, and took 
from it the title Baron Ballanbreich (ere. 1457). The 
estate connected with it was purchased by Sir Lawrence 
Dundas, grandfather of the first Earl of Zetland. Au 
ancient place of worship stood adjacent to the E side of 
the castle, on what is still called Chapel Hill. 

Ballancrieff. See Ballencrieef. 

Ballandarg, a burn of W Forfarshire, rising in Kirrie- 
muir parish, and running southward to the Dean river, 
in Glamis parish. 

Eallangeich. See Stirling. 

Ballanree. See Berigonium. 

Ballantrae (Gael. baile-na-traigJi, ' town on the shore '), 
a fishing village and a coast parish of Carrick, SW Ayr- 
shire. The village lies in the NW corner of the parish, 
between the sea-shore and the right bank of the Stinchar, 
which here, at J mile from its mouth, is crossed by a 
three-arched bridge. It is 13 miles SSW of its post- 
town Girvan, and 10 WSW of Pinwherry station on the 
Girvan and Portpatrick Junction railway (1876); with 
a one main street, it has a branch of the Commercial 
Bank, an hotel, a public hall and reading-room, a post 
office with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a neat parish church (rebuilt 1819 ; 600 
sittings), a Free church, and a school, which, with 
accommodation for 219 children, had (1879) an average 
attendance of 143, and a grant of £100, lis. The tidal 
harbour, constructed at a cost of £6000, is a basin ex- 
cavated from the solid rock, with a strong pier built 
upon a rocky ledge ; and Ballantrae is centre of the 
south-western fishery district, in which, during 1879, 
there were cured 25,42S barrels of white herrings, besides 
6882 cod, ling, and hake, taken by 569 boats of 1363 
tons, the persons employed being 952 fishermen and 
boys, 78 fish-curers, 49 coopers, and some 800 others, 
while the total value of boats, nets, and lines was esti- 
mated at £11,375 — figures that indicate a great advance 


over preceding years. A century since the village was 
noted as a smugglers' haunt, a rude and primitive 
place, hut in 1617 it was a burgh of harony; and the 
picturesque ruins of Ardstinchar Castle, with clock- 
surmounted tower, still crown a rock close by. The 
key to Carrick, this was the seat of the Kennedys, lairds 
of Bargeny, whose feud with the Earls of Cassillis closed 
(1601) with the slaughter of young Kennedy in a fray 
near the Brig of Doon (Chambers' Dom. Ann., i. 292, 
310, 359). Pop. (1831) 456, (1861) 557, (1871) 515, 

The parish is bounded N and E by Colmonell, SE by 
New Luce and S by Inch in Wigtownshire, SW by the 
entrance to Loch Ryan, and W by the Irish Channel, 
36 miles across. It has an extreme length from N to S 
of 9 miles, a breadth from E to W of from 4J to 8 miles, 
and an area of 33,S76J acres, of which 164 are foreshore 
and 151 J water. The coast-line, 9i miles long, over the 
first 2, northward from the village, presents a low sandy 
shore, the Girvan road at one point running only 17 feet 
above the level of the sea ; but elsewhere it is steep and 
rockbound, rising within 3 furlongs to over 300 and 600 
feet, and commanding grand views of Ailsa Craig (11 
miles NNW) and the Firth of Clyde, of Ireland and the 
Rhinns of Galloway. The Stinchae has here a south- 
westerly course of 4J miles, on the Colmonell border and 
through the north-western corner of the parish ; 2 miles 
above the village it is joined by Tig Water, which flows 
first 3J miles northward along the eastern boundary, 
nest 5^ westward along the northern and through the 
northern interior. The Water of Luce, too, with the 
Pinwherran, Laganabeastie, and others of its tributary 
burns, winds southward into Wigtownshire ; but the 
stream that has shaped the most prominent features of 
Ballantrae is the shallow Water of App, rising between 
Smirton and Beneraid hills, and running 6 miles south- 
westward to Loch Ryan through beautiful Glen App. 
With the north-eastward flowing Dunnock Burn, an 
affluent of the Tig, it divides the parish into two nearly 
equal halves, in the western of which from S to N rise 
Sandloch Hill (803 feet), Penderry(1075), Carlock (1054), 
Auchenerosh (1067), Smirton (1213), Big Fell (1032), 
and Leffie Donald Hill (760), with Cairn Hill (539), 
Bencummin (739), and Knockdhu (755) beyond the Tig. 
In the eastern are Muillbane (741 feet), Altimeg (1270), 
Highmilldown (1104), Milljoan (1320), Beneraid (1435 ; a 
station of the Ordnance Survey, 4J miles SE of the 
village), Benaw (1380), Strawarren Fell (1040), Wee 
Fell (850), Millmore (1052), and Loch Hill (870); whilst 
in the SE, flanking the Water of Luce, are Bennan Hill 
(1157), Park Hill (761), Ardnamoil (944), and Drum- 
bracken (803). Triangular Killantringan Loch (3x1 
furl.) lies 2J miles S by E of the village. The rocks 
belong to the Lower Silurian ; the soils are alluvial in 
the valleys, light and sandy towards the NW coast, and 
generally moorish on the uplands. Less than a fifth of the 
whole area is arable, besides some 370 acres under plan- 
tation ; and dairy -farming forms a chief source of wealth. 
Mansions or summer lodges are Finnart House (Rt. F. 
Kennedy), Glenapp House (James Hunter), Glenapp 
Lodge (G. Oliver), Balkissoek House (Arthur Hughes- 
Onslow), Gurphur House (D. M'Gibbon), Auchairne 
House (C. Hunter), and Auchenflower (P. Walker) ; 
and 7 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 12 of between £100 and £500, and 
4 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Stranraer 
and synod of Galloway, this parish was formerly called 
Kirkcudbright-Innertig ; and its church, St Cuthbert's 
(anciently held by Crossraguel Abbey), stood up to 1617 
near the confluence of the Tig and the Stinchar, where 
some ruins may yet be seen. In 1874 the Glenapp 
portion, which has a post office under Girvan, was 
formed into a quoad sacra parish. There are four 
public schools, in addition to the one in the village 
— at Auchenflower, 2f miles E by N ; Ballaehdowan, 3 
miles S ; Glenapp, 6J miles S ; and Shennas. With 
total accommodation for 179 children, these had, in 1879, 
an average attendance of 93, and grants amounting to 
£114, lis. lid. Valuation (1880) £15,213, 16s. Pop. 


(1801) 836, (1831) 1506, (1851) 1801, (1871) 1277, (1SS1) 
1442.— Ord. Sur., sh. 7, 1S63. _ 

Ballat, a bog in Drymen parish, Stirlingshire, on the 
watershed between the river systems of the Forth and 
the Clyde, 3 miles NNE of Drymen village. It is the 
lowest ground on the summit-level between the E and 
W coasts of Scotland, excepting Dullater Bog, on the 
Forth and Clyde Canal ; its elevation is 222 feet above 
the level of the sea. 

Ballater (Gael, laile-na-lcitir, 'town near the slope 
of the hill '), a village in Glenmuick parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, at the terminus of the Deeside Extension section 
(1S66) of the Great North of Scotland, 43J miles WSW 
of Aberdeen by rail, and 17J ENE of Castleton of Brae- 
mar by road. It lies 66S feet above sea-level, between 
the wooded hills of Pananieh (1S96 feet) and Craigan- 
darroch (1250), on the left bank of the Dee, which here 
is spanned by- a wooden four-arched bridge, erected in 
1834 at a cost of £2000, its two stone predecessors of 
1790 and 1S09 having been swept away by the great 
floods of 1799 and 1829. The village itself was founded 
about 1770, to accommodate visitors to the Pananich 
Mineral Wells ; and, lighted with gas (1S63), supplied 
with water from the Gairn at a cost of £2500 (1873), and 
since efficiently drained, it enjoys fine bracing air and an 
equable climate, the mean temperature being 44 '6°, the 
rainfall 33 '40 inches. With slated houses built of red- 
dish granite, a square in the middle, and spacious regidar 
streets, it is a pleasant, neat, clean place, a favourite 
resort of summer visitors ; at it are a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, branches of the Union, North of Scotland, 
and Aberdeen Town and County banks, a local savings' 
bank (1821), 4 insurance agencies, the Invercauld Arms 
hotel, Deans's temperance hotel, and St Nathalan's 
masonic lodge. Fairs are held on the Tuesday of Feb- 
ruary before Aboyne, the first Tuesday of May, old style, 
the Wednesday of July after Brechin wool market, the 
second Monday and Tuesday of September, old style, and 
the Saturday before 22 Nov. The principal buildings 
are the handsome parish church (rebuilt 1875) ; a neat 
new Free church, 7 furlongs to the NW ; the Barracks 
(1869), consisting of seven Elizabethan cottages, for the 
Queen's guard of honour ; the Albert Memorial Hall, 
erected (1875) by Mr A. Gordon, at a cost of upwards 
of £2000, and comprising a public hall, reading, and 
billiard rooms, a square tower, etc. ; and a new public 
school (1877), which, with accommodation for 260 chil- 
dren, had in 1879 an average attendance of 214, and a 
grant of £185, 12s. Pop. (1841) 271, (1861) 362, (1871) 
691, (1SS1) 759.— Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1S70. 

Ballater, Pass of, a ' wild and anciently impregnable ' 
defile, f mile N of Ballater village, leading from Milton 
of Tuilich to Bridge of Gairn, a distance of 2 miles, and 
overhung to the S by Craigandarroch (1250 feet), to the 
N by Creagan Riach (1750) and other offsets of Morven 
Hill (2862). 

Ballatrich or Ballaterach, a farm-house in Glenmuick 
parish, Aberdeenshire, near the S bank of the Dee, ih 
miles E of Ballater. The place where Lord Byron spent 
part of his boyhood, it retains some relics of the poet, 
and for his sake is visited by many strangers. 

Balleave, a hamlet in Kinross parish, Kinross-shire, 
on Kelly Burn, 4 mile SW of Kinross. It has a tartan 

Ballechin, an estate, with the seat of Jn. Steuart, 
Esq. (b. 1837; sue. 1876),; in Logierait parish, Perth- 
shire, 3 miles WNW of Ballmluig Junction. 

Balledgarno or Ballerno, a village in Inchture parish, 
Perthshire, 7 miles W of Dundee. It is supposed to 
have taken its name from an ancient castle, built by a 
Prince Edgar, and now extinct. Balledgarno House 
stands in its south-western vicinity, and is a fine man- 
sion, surrounded by plantations. 

Ballenach, a hamlet in North Knapdale, Argyllshire, 
near the Crinan Canal, 6 miles WNW of Lochgilphead. 

Ballenbreich. See Ballanbeeich. 

Ballencrieff, a mansion in Aberlady parish, Hadding- 
tonshire, 1 j mile SE of Aberlady village. It is a seat of 



Lord Elibank, owner of 1863 acres in the shire, valued 
at £5565 per annum. Occupying a fine site, and sur- 
rounded by stately trees, it enjoys an extensive prospect. 
Patrick Murray, fifth Lord Elibank, here entertained Dr 
Samuel Johnson in 1773. A hospital, dedicated to St 
Cuthbert, is said to have been founded here in the 12th 
century. See Darn Hall. 

Eallencrieff, several localities and a rivulet in Linlith- 
gowshire. The localities lie in the northern vicinity of 
Bathgate, and include a ruined ancient mansion and 
lime-works. The rivulet rises 1J mile NE of Bathgate, 
makes a circuit of about 4J miles, round the SE and centre 
of Bathgate parish, to the western vicinity of Bathgate 
town ; runs thence about 2§ miles north-westward, partly 
in Bathgate parish, partly along the boundary with Tor- 
phichen ; and makes a confluence with Barbauchlaw Burn, 
to form the river Luggie, which runs about f mile north- 
westward to the Avon. 

Ballendrick, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Dun- 
barnie parish, Perthshire, 1 mile WSW of Bridge of Earn. 

Ballerno. See Balledoarno. 

Balleshare, an island in North Uist parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, in the western part of the 
sound dividing North Uist island from Benbecula. It 
nearly blocks the W entrance of the sound ; has an ir- 
regular outline and much indented shores ; and measures 
about 10 miles in circumference. Pop., together with 
that of Illeray, (1861) 199, (1871) 246./" ~ ' 

Ballevullin, a hamlet in Tiree island, Argyllshire. 

Ballewan, a farm, with a mineral spring, in Strath- 
blane parish, Stirlingshire. 

Balliasta, an ancient chapelry, with ruins of an old 
church, and with limestone quarries, in Uist island, 

Ballibeg, a hamlet of E Argyllshire. Its post-town is 
Strachur under Glasgow. 

Ballichroisk, a hamlet in the W of Perthshire. Its 
post-town is Killin under Crieff. 

Ballied, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinloch parish, 
Perthshire, 3i miles W of Blairgowrie. 

Balligill, a loch (2| x 1J furl.) in Farr parish, Suther- 
land, 24 miles SW of Melvich. Its trout run up to 3 lbs. 

Ballikinrain, an estate, with a mansion, in Killearn 
parish, Stirlingshire. The mansion stands on a burn of 
its own name, near the burn's influx to the river En- 
drick, 1 mile ESE of Balfron ; and is the seat of Arch. 
Orr-Ewing, M.P. for Dumbartonshire since 1868. The 
burn rises, at 1250 feet of altitude, on the northern 
shoulder of Earl's Seat (1894 feet), the highest summit 
of the Campsie Fells ; runs about 2 miles down Balli- 
kinrain Muir, making in its descent a number of fin e 
cascades ; and afterwards flows about f mile across the 
valley of the Endrick. 

Ballimore, a hamlet in a detached part of Logierait 
parish, Perthshire, on the river Tummel, 2f miles E by 
N of Kinloch Rannoch. 

Ballimore, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Kil- 
finan parish, Argyllshire, on Loch Fyne at Otter Ferry, 
5 miles ESE of Lochgilphead. It is the seat of Camp- 
bell Macpherson Campbell, Esq. (b. 1844 ; sue. 1862), 
owner of 9521 acres, valued at £1933 per annum. 

Ballincrieff. See Ballencrieff. 

Ballindalloch, a hamlet and an estate in Inveravon 
parish, Banffshire. The hamlet lies at the confluence 
of the Avon and the Spey, adjacent to the Craigellachie 
and Boat of Garten branch of the Great North of Scot- 
land railway, 12 miles WSW of Craigellachie ; and has 
a station on the railway, and a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. The 
estate belongs to Sir George Macpherson-Grant (b. 1839; 
sue. 1850), third Bart, since 1838, M.P. for Elginshire 
since 1879, and owner of 7848 acres in the shire, valued 
at £2476 per annum ; it has extensive woods with some 
noble trees, and boasts great numbers of roe deer. The 
mansion on it, Ballindalloch Castle, was formerly a fine 
specimen of the old Scottish fortalice ; comprised a square 
building, flanked by three circular towers ; and about 
1845, was much enlarged in the castellated style, so as 
to be rendered a very splendid mansion. 


Ballindalloch. See Balfron. 

Ballindean, a hamlet in Inchture parish, Perthshire, 
1J mile NW of Inchture village. Ballindean House 
(Hon. Mrs Trotter ; 1175 acres, £2375), in its vicinity, 
is a tasteful modem mansion ; and Ballindean Hill (559 
feet), near the hamlet, is part of the Carse Braes. 

Ballingry (popularly Bingry .- Gael, baile-na-greigh, 
' town of the flock '), a hamlet and a parish of W Fife. 
The hamlet stands in the NE, 14 mile SSE of Loch 
Leven, and 2J miles N by W of the station, 3 of the 
post-town, of Lochgelly, which partly lies within the 
SE border ; at it are the parish church (1831 ; renovated 
1876) and the public school (1874). 

Rudely resembling a top-heavy hour-glass in outline, 
the parish is bounded N by Kinross, E and SE by 
Auchterarder, SW by Beath, and W by Beath and 
Cleish, Kinross-shire. It has an extreme length from 
N to S of 4 miles, a width from E to W of from J mile 
to 2|, and a area of 4621J acres. The Ore has an east- 
ward course here of 2J miles, along the Cleish border 
and through the interior ; and from its right bank the 
surface rises to 531 feet above sea-level near South 
Lumphinnans, from its left bank to 621 feet near 
Benarty House, 1167 on flat-topped Benarty Hill in the 
NW, and 721 on Navity Hill in the NE. The rocks 
belong to the Limestone Carboniferous series, and two 
collieries were at work in 1879, Lumphinnans and Loch- 
ore ; the soil, by nature cold and stiff, has been greatly 
improved, and the bed of Loch Ore (drained towards 
the close of last century) yields capital crops, but 
Lumphinnans farm, of 803 acres, let only for £693 in 
1875. About a third of the whole area is under tillage, 
and plantations cover some 250 acres. Ptolemy's Vic- 
toria, a town of the Damnonii, was situated at Loch 
Ore, and near it was a Roman station (Skene, Celt. Scot. , 
i. 74), whilst an islet on it was crowned by a fortress, 
founded in the latter half of the 11th century by Duncan 
de Loch Orr, from whose descendants the domain came to 
the Wardlaws of Torry, to Sir John Malcolm (c. 1630), 
and to Miss Jobson, who married the 2d Sir Walter 
Scott. At present the mansions are Benarty (Wm. B. 
Constable) and Lochore (Alex. Burns), and the pro- 
perty is divided among 4 holding each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 and £500, 2 
of from £50 to £100, and 1 of from £20 to £50. For 
school and church purposes the southern portion of 
Ballingry is included in the quoad sacra parish of 
Lochgelly ; the rest forms a parish in the presbytery of 
Kinross and synod of Fife, its minister's income being 
£375. The school, with accommodation for 250 chil- 
dren, had (1879) an average attendance of 86, and a 
grant of £34, 13s. 9d. Valuation (1881) £8035, 14s. 9d. 
Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1881) 605 ; of civil parish 
(1S01) 277, (1831) 392, (1851) 568, (1861) 736, (1871) 
9S2, (1881) 1065, 113 of whom were in Lochgelly burgh. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1S67. 

Ballinluig, a village in Logierait parish, Perthshire, 
on the Highland railway at the junction of the Aber- 
feldy branch, 8 miles NNW of Dunkeld. It has a 
station and a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, and telegraph departments. 

Ballintomb, a burn in Knockando parish, Elgin- 
shire, running to the Spey. Its banks are beautiful, 
and they have, in one place, three large stones of a 
quondam Caledonian stone circle. 

Ballintore. See Balintore. 

Ballintraid. See Balintraid. 

Ballintuim, a village in Persie quoad sacra parish 
and Kirkmiehael quoad civilia parish, Perthshire, 11 
miles NNW of Blairgowrie. It has a post office under 
Blairgowrie, and a public school, which, with accom- 
modation for 56 children, had (1879) an average atten- 
dance of 38, and a grant of £47, 17s. 

Ballo, one of the Sidlaw hills, 1029 feet high, in the 
N of Longforgan parish, E Perthshire. 

Balloon (Gael, bcalach, ' a pass '), a village in Bonhill 
parish, Dumbartonshire, on the left bank of the Leven, 
here spanned by a suspension bridge (1842) leading to 
Balloch station, which, as junction of two sections of 


the North British, is 30J miles WSW of Stirling, £ mile 
SSE of Balloeh pier on Loch Lomond, 1J N of Alex- 
andria, and 20J miles NW of Glasgow. The village has 
an excellent hotel ; and a cattle fair is held at it on 
17 April, a horse fair (one of the largest in Scotland) 
on 15 Sept. Pop. of registration district (1881) 2925. 

Balloch, an old castle in Kenmore parish, Perthshire, 
the predecessor of Taymouth Castle, the Earl of Bread- 
albane's seat, and now represented by only a remnant 
to the right of the great quadrangle. 

Balloch, a lake, about J mile in circuit, in Muthil 
parish, Perthshire. It lies at the foot of Torlum Hill, 
and sends off its superfluence to the Earn. 

Balloch, a small bay on the E side of Great Cumbrae 
island, Buteshire, 2 miles SW of Largs. It affords safe 
anchorage in any wind, and it contains good oysters. 

Balloch, a tract of land in Kirriemuir parish, Forfar- 
shire. It includes a moss of considerable extent, and 
on an average 16 feet in depth ; and it contains an in- 
teresting dyke of serpentine, described by Sir Charles 
Lyell in the Edinburgh Journal of Science. 
Ballochbuie Forest. See Crathie. 
Ballochmyle (Gael, bcalach-maol, ' bare opening '), a 
mansion and an estate in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire. 
The mansion, on the right bank of the Ayr, opposite 
Catrine village, and 1$ mile ESE of Mauchline town, is 
the seat of Lieut. -Col. Claud Alexander (b. 1831 ; sue. 
1861), M.P. for South Ayrshire since 1874, and owner 
of 4332 acres, valued at £10,377 per annum (£6182, 
minerals). Barskimming stands on the left bank of the 
river, 2| miles WSW. The river between these seats and 
in their neighbourhood winds along a deep precipitous 
chasm. The Glasgow and South- Western railway crosses 
the chasm below Ballochmyle on a noble viaduct 95 feet 
high, with an arch 100 feet in span ; and the road from 
Mauchline to Stair crosses it above Barskimming, on a 
bridge of similar character, 90 feet high. The estate of 
Ballochmyle comprises about two-fifths of Mauchline 
parish ; has home-grounds luxuriantly wooded, liberally 
open to the public, and provided with seats and 
pavilions at the best of its many fine points of view ; 
and passed, in the time of the poet Burns, from the 
ancient family of Whiteford to that of Alexander. 
Burns was a frequent wanderer in the Ballochmyle 
woods ; he witnessed the grief of one of the Whiteford 
ladies at leaving the property, and had an accidental 
meeting with one of the Alexander ladies soon after she 
came to it, and he wrote, in sympathy with the one 
lady, and in admiration of the other, his Farewell to 
Ballochmyle and Lass o' Ballochmyle. He also wrote, 
at a crag here, his Man was made to Mourn ; and, at 
Catrine House, in the neighbourhood, he first ' dinner'd 
wi' a lord.' Caleb Whiteford, of the Ballochmyle family, 
is celebrated by Goldsmith in a postscript to his Retalia- 
tion ; and Colonel Allan Whiteford, another of the 
family, was the original of Sir Walter Scott's ' Colonel 
Talbot' in Waverley. 

Ballocliney, a village and a railway of N Lanarkshire. 
The village stands adjacent to the N side of Airdrie, in 
New Monkland parish, and is within the municipal 
boundaries of Airdrie burgh. — The railway joins on 
the W the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway, on the E the 
Slamannan railway ; was formed between 1826 and 
1840, on a capital of £70,000 ; in 1848 was amalga- 
mated with the Monkland system ; comprises a main 
line of about 3 miles from W to E, and branches of 
3 miles more to several collieries and to Airdrie ; serves 
largely for the coal and ironstone traffic of that rich mining 
district ; and includes two beautiful self-acting inclined 
planes, each 1100 yards long, the first works of their 
kind, on any great scale, ever constructed in Scotland. 

Ballochvoy, a village in Mull island, Argyllshire, 
about 4 miles WSW of Tobermory. It consists of a 
single street of small neat houses. 
Ballogie. See Birse. 

Ballowmill, a burn in the NW of Fife, running 
southward to the Eden at a point 2J miles NE of Kettle, 
and giving name to several places on its banks. 
Ballumbie, an estate, with the seat of Rt. M 'Gavin, 


Esq., and with remains of an old castle, in Murroes 
parish, Forfarshire, 14 miles NE of Dundee. The old 
castle was the seat of the ancient Anglo-Norman family 
of Lovel, now long extinct. 
Ballychelish. See Ballaohulish. 
Ballygrant, a hamlet in the SE of Islay island, 
Argyllshire. It has a post office under Greenock ; and 
it forms, conjointly with Portellen and Lots, a mission 
of the Church of Scotland, supported by an annual 
grant of £50. The place of worship is a schoolroom. 

Ballykellet, an ancient barony in Big Cumbrae island, 
Buteshire. It belonged to the Montgomerys, and be- 
longs now to the Earl of Glasgow. 

Ballyphuill, a hamlet in Kincardine parish, Ross- 
shire, about 20 miles WSW of Bonar-Bridge. Here is a 
mission station of the Church of Scotland. 
Ballyshare. See Balleshare. 

Ballyshear, an estate, with a mansion, in Southend 
parish, Argyllshire, 5 miles S of Campbeltown. 

Balmaeaan, a seat of the Earl of Seafield in Urquhart 
parish, Inverness-shire, in the mouth of Glen Urquhart, 
near Loch Ness, 17 miles SW of Inverness. Behind it 
stretches Balmaeaan deer-forest, rented at £3000. 

Balmacarra, a village in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire, 
on the N side of Loch Alsh, 3 miles E by N of Kyleakin 
Ferry. It has an hotel, a branch of the Commercial 
Bank, a parish church, a Free church, and has also 
the head post office of Lochalsh, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments. 

Balmaclellan (Gael, 'town of Maclellan'), a village 
and a parish of NE Kirkcudbrightshire. The village, 2 
miles NE of its post-town New Galloway, has an inn, a 
post office, and the parish church (built 1722 ; enlarged 
1833 ; 366 sittings). In the kirkyard are the grave of 
a martyred Covenanter, Robert Grierson (16S3), a column 
to five natives who fell in the Crimean War, and a stone 
to the family of Robert Paterson ('Old Mortality'), 
whose wife kept a school here from 1765 to 1785. 

The parish is bounded NW by Dairy, N by Dumfries- 
shire, E by Dumfriesshire and Kirkpatrick-Durham, Sby 
Parton, and SW and W by Kells. From its north-eastern 
to its south-western angle it measures 10J miles ; its 
breadth varies between 3J and 6J miles ; and its area is 
23, 346 acres, of which 327J are water. The Ken and Loch 
Ken mark all the western, Loch Urr and its outlet Urr 
Water great part of the western border, while along the 
north-western and northern flow Garpel Burn to the 
Ken, Blackmark Burn and Castlefern Water to the 
Cairn ; along the southern, Dullarg Burn to Loch Ken, 
and Crogo Burn to the Urr. In the interior are Shir- 
mers and many smaller burns, as well as six lochs — 
Barscobe (2J x f furl.), Brack (If x f), Howie (6 x 1), 
Skae (2 x 1J), and the two Lowes lochs, each about 1 j 
furlong in length. Most of these waters afford fairish 
trout fishing, Shirmers Burn being really a first-class 
stream. The surface has a general north-eastward rise, 
from Kenmure Bridge (155 feet above sea-level) to Bar- 
scobe Hill (825), Troquhain Hill (1139), Blackcraig Hill 
(1332), and Fell Hill (1775), 3 furlongs SE of Loch Skae. 
Thence it declines north-eastward to Craigmuie Moor 
(875 feet), south-eastward to Crerroch (671) and Crogo 
Mains (500). Belonging to the beautiful district of 
Glenkens, the western valley, about 2 miles wide, has a 
light, gravelly soil, and comprises most of the arable 
area (less than one-fifth of the entire parish), besides 
some 300 acres under wood. The rest is moorland ; and 
the prevailing rocks are trap and slate, the latter quar- 
ried at two points. Mansions are Holm House, J mile 
NW of the village, with a statue in its grounds of ' Old 
Mortality,' and Barlay, 21- miles to the ESE ; and 6 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 1 holds between £100 and £500, and 1 between 
£20 and £50. The antiquities include the supposed site 
of a Roman camp, at the NE angle of the parish ; a 
mote-hill, close to the village ; the habitable castle of 
Barscobe, 1| mile NNE, built (1684) by William Mac- 
lellan, a scion of the Kirkcudbright family ; and the 
ivy-clad ruins of Shirmers tower, the reputed birth- 
place of Thomas Gordon (1690-1750), editor of the 



pendent Whig. The Rev. Geo. Murray (1813-81), poet 
and antiquary, was minister of Balmaclellan for 43 years. 
Part of it is included for church, school, and registration 
purposes in the quoad sacra parish of Coksook ; the 
remainder is a parish in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway, its minister's income amount- 
ing to £311. There are two schools, a free endowed one 
at the village, the other at Tronmaccannie, 2^ miles S 
by E ; and the two, with respective accommodation for 
145 and 56 children, had (1879) an average attendance 
of 123 and 27, and grants of £110, 10s. 6d. and £36, Is. 
Valuation (1881) £11,564, 18s. lid. Pop. of quoad 
sacra parish (1881) 787 ; of civil parish (1811) 734, 
(1831) 1013, (1861) 1086, (1871) 1057, (1881) 937.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Balmaduthy. See Belmaduthy. 

Balmaghie (Gael, 'town of Macghie'), a parish of 
central Kirkcudbrightshire, which contains near its 
south-eastern boundary the Bridge of Dee station on the 
Glasgow and South- Western, 7J miles NNE of Kirkcud- 
bright, and 3 SW of Castle-Douglas ; and which is also 
accessible from Crossmichael, Parton, and New Galloway 
stations, lying just beyond its north-eastern and north- 
ern border. In it are the post office hamlets of Glen- 
lochar and Laurieston, respectively 3 miles NW and 6 
WNW of their post-town Castle-Douglas ; and further 
westward is Lochenbreck Spa, 4 miles S by W of New 
Galloway station. Balmaghie is bounded ST by Kells, 
NE by Parton, E by Crossmichael, SE by Kelton, S by 
Tongland and Twynholm, and W by Girthon. Its 
greatest length from E to W is 7i miles ; its width from 
N to S varies between 4J and 5-J miles ; and its area is 
21,824 acres, of which 756J are water. Grobdale Lane 
or Airie Burn traces the western border to the Dee, 
which, following the northern, passes through Stroan 
Loch, and 3 miles lower down receives the Ken. A 
capital salmon and trout river, the Dee thence sweeps 
round the north-eastern, eastern, and south -eastern 
boundary, widening at intervals to 2 or 3{j furlongs, and 
wearing there the aspect of a lake. Bargatton Loch 
(3| x 2J furl. ) lies on the Tongland border ; and sheets 
of water in the interior are Glentoo Loch (4 x 2f furl.), 
Dornell Loch (3x2), Blates Loch (2Jxlj,), Grenoch 
or Woodhall Loch (1J milex 1 to 2 furl.), and Lochen- 
breck Loch (2J x 2 furl. ) — all of them yielding toler- 
able sport, and all communicating with the Dee by 
burns. Level and fertile in the SE, with pastures and 
well-tilled fields, the surface has a general westward rise 
from Glenlochar Bridge (150 feet above sea-level) to 
Kenick or Hill of Health (862 feet), Loch Hill (900), and 
Airie (900) ; but though nearly three-fourths of it are 
hilly waste — boulder-strewn heath or moss, — it nowhere 
attains 1000 feet of elevation. The antiquities include 
the supposed site of a Roman camp, near Hensol ; Dun- 
nance Moat, 1 mile SW of Laurieston ; and the noble 
ruins of Threave Castle, on an islet in the Dee, 
li mile W of Castle-Douglas. Mansions are Hensol or 
Duchrae (R. Cunninghame) in the N ; Woodhall (W. 
K. Laurie), near Laurieston, an old-fashioned house, 
with finely-planted park ; and Balmaghie (G. Hutchi- 
son), a good modern residence standing on an estate that 
is said to have been acquired by an Irish chieftain, 
M'Ghie, whose descendants obtained charters from James 
IV., V. , and VI. At present 6 landowners hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 9 between £100 and 
£500, 1 between £50 and £100, and 3 between £20 and 
£50. Balmaghie is in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway ; its minister's income is £384. 
The parish church, a picturesque building (1794), with 
tiny spire and 360 sittings, is situated on the Dee, oppo- 
site Crossmichael, and 3J miles NNW of Castle-Douglas. 
Two David Hallidays, shot for adherence to the Cove- 
nant (1685), rest in the graveyard ; a former minister 
was the Rev. John MacMillan (1669-1753), who founded 
the Reformed Fresbyterian Church, and from whom a 
section of the Cameronians have sometimes been called 
MaeMillanites. There is also a Free church ; and 3 
schools were open in 1879 — at Glenlochar, Laurieston, 
and Bridge of Dee (Christ. Knowledge Society's). These 


had then respective accommodation for 60, 120, and 65 
children ; an average attendance of 55, 42, and 36 ; and 
grants of £57, 6s. 6d., £35, Is., and £13, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation (1881) £11,919, 17s. 4d. Pop. (1831) 1416, 
(1871) 1085, (1881) 922.— Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Balmaha, a hamlet in Buchanan parish, Stirlingshire, 
on the eastern shore and near the foot of Loch Lomond, 
just opposite Inchcailloch isle, and 4 miles NW of Dry- 
men. It has a pier, where the steamers call, and near 
which are the chemical works of Turnbull & Co., yearly 
consuming some 700 tons of small wood in the making 
of pyroligneous acids and dye-stuffs. 

Balmain. See Balbegno. 

Balmakelly, a burn in Marykirk parish, Kincardine- 
shire, running to the North Esk. 

Balmakewan, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Marykirk parish, Kincardineshire, 5 miles SW of Lau- 

Balmalcolm, a village in Kettle parish, Fife, i mile 
SE of Kettle village. 

Balmaleedie, a burn in Marykirk parish, Kincardine- 
shire, running to the North Esk. 

Balmangan. See Boegue. 

Balmanno, an estate, with a mansion, in Marykirk 
parish, Kincardineshire. A very fine spring, formerly 
held in superstitious veneration, and called St John's 
Well, is adjacent to the mansion ; and sandstone is 
quarried on the estate. 

Balmanno, an ancient castellated mansion in Dron 
parish, Perthshire, 3 miles WSW of Abernethy. It 
was the seat of the Murrays, baronets of Balmanno ; 
is now partly occupied by a farmer ; and is a fine speci- 
men of the old Scottish baronial mansion. A rocking 
stone, 10 feet long and 7 broad, on a neighbouring brae, 
is easily set in motion by pressure of a finger. 

Balmaqueen, a hamlet in the N of the Isle of Skye. 
Its post-town is Kilmuir under Portree. 

Balmashanner, a hill 572 feet above sea-sevel, f mile 
S of Forfar. Its sandstone has been extensively quar- 
ried for building and paving. 

Balmerino (popularly Ba'mernie; in 1227 Balmorinach 
— Gael, baile-mor-n'ach, ' large town of the field '), a 
village and a parish of N Fifeshire. The village stands 
on the southern shore of the Firth of Tay, 3 J miles SW 
of Dundee by water, 5J WSW of its post-village and 
station Newport, and 7| N by W of Cupar. Ninety 
years since it ranked as a sub-port of Dundee, annually 
shipping over 7000 bolls of grain ; but fishing is now 
the sole employment, and this too has greatly fallen off. 

The parish contains also the villages of Bottomcraig 
and Gauldry, 1 and If mile ESE of Balmerino village ; 
and is bounded NW for 4J miles by the Firth of Tay 
(here from 2J to 2g miles broad), E by Forgan, SE and 
S by Kilmany, SW by Creich, and W by Flisk. From 
ENE to WSW, its greatest length is 4J miles ; its width 
from N to S varies between 7§ furlongs and 2J miles ; 
and its area is 413H acres, of which 1^ are 'inks' and 
698| foreshore. The surface rises steeply from the 
Firth's rocky shore with a general west-south-westward 
ascent, being traversed by two parallel spurs of the 
Ochils, and attaining 243 feet above sea-level near Wor- 
mit Bay, 333 near Gauldry, 337 on Scurr Hill, 423 near 
Priorwell, and 584, 528, and 608 on wooded Coultra, 
Ardie, and Green Hills. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly Devonian ; and the soil is extremely variable, as 
may be inferred from the fact that in 1875 rents ranged 
from £1, 10s. to close on £3 per acre. On most of the 
northern and southern slopes it consists of thin black 
loam, suited for any crops, whilst in the valley between 
it has either a light gravelly or a strong plastic argilla- 
ceous character. About 470 acres are under wood, and 
nearly all the rest are arable. A height behind the 
village, commanding a view of the Firth up to the 
mouth of Strathearn, was crowned by the Cistercian Abbey 
of SS. Mary and Edward the Confessor, founded in 1227 
by Ermengarda, William the Lyon's widowed queen, 
who six years later was burned before the high altar of 
its cruciform church. This must have been a stately 
Second Pointed edifice, measuring 240 by 140 feet, and 


parted by eight octangular piers into two parallel aisles ; 
but little remains now of the entire pile save scanty ivy- 
clad ruins of the transept, the sacristy, the chapter-house 
vestibule, and the substructure of the dormitory, it 
having been burned by the English in 1548, and sacked 
by the Reformation rabble in 1559. Its lands were 
erected into a barony for Sir James Elphinstone, in 
1604 created Lord Balmerino — an ill-starred title, whose 
two first holders were sentenced to death, while the 
sixth and last was actually beheaded on Tower Hill 
(18 Aug. 1746) for his part in the '45. His forfeited 
estate was purchased from the Crown by the York 
Building Company, and sold by them to the Moray 
family. A field between Bottomcraig and Gauldry, 
Battle Law, is said to have got its name from a defeat 
of the Danes following that battle of Luxcarty which 
Hill Burton sets down as a recent invention ; on a 
rock to the N are vestiges of Naughton Castle, a strong- 
hold of the Hays. Modern mansions are Birkhill and 
Naughton House, 2 miles WSW, and If mile E of 
Balmerino village, whose owners, Henry Scrymgeour- 
Wedderburn and Mrs Duncan Morison, hold respec- 
tively 1456 and 1591 acres in the shire, valued at £2827 
and £3421 per annum. Balmerino is in the presbytery 
of Cupar and synod of Fife ; its minister's income is 
£522. The church (1811; 400 sittings) near Bottom- 
craig succeeded one built at Kirkton in 1595, when 
the abbey church was disused ; and two public schools, 
Balmerino (at Gauldry) and Priorwell (7 furlongs S 
of Balmerino village), with respective accommodation 
for 129 and 56 children, had in 1879 an average attend- 
ance of 71 and 31, and grants of £50, 4s. and £15, 
5s. 8d. Valuation (1881) £6925, 16s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 
786, (1831) 1055, (1851) 945, (1871) 717, (1S81) 664.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See the Rev. Jas. Campbell's 
Balmerino and its Abbey ; A Parochial History (Edinb. 

Balmodan. See Ardchattan. 

Balmoral, a royal residence in Crathie parish, Aber- 
deenshire, on the southern bank of the Dee, 9 miles 
W by S of Ballater, 52£ W by N of Aberdeen, and 9f 
ENE of Castleton of Braemar. It stands on a strip of 
level meadow, which, 926 feet above sea-level, is bounded 
on one side by a fine curve of the Dee, overlooked on 
another by the hill of Craig-Gowan (1437 feet), and 
commands an extensive sweep of striking scenery. A 
previous pile, occupied several autumns by the Royal 
Family, stood on adjacent ground further from the river, 
but was irregular and incommodious. It belonged 
originally to the late Earl of Fife ; was rented on a lease 
of 38 years, and very greatly enlarged, by the late Sir 
Robert Gordon, brother of the Earl of Aberdeen ; and, 
in 1848, when 27 years of the lease had yet to run, was 
sold in reversion to the Queen. The nucleus of it, or 
part built by the Earl of Fife, was a long, steep-roofed, 
high-gabled, small-windowed house, and Sir Robert 
Gordon's additions were so numerous and various, in 
the farm of turrets, central tower, and so forth, as to 
destroy all architectural character. The pile belonged 
to no recognised order, and displayed no unity of design, 
but Her Majesty saw in it, on occasion of her first visit 
(8 Sept. 1848), ' a pretty little castle in the old Scottish 
style. ' The foundation stone of the present edifice was 
laid on 28 Sept. 1853 ; and it was not quite finished 
when the Royal Family entered it, on 7 Sept. 1855. It 
was built of granite, from designs by William Smith 
of Aberdeen, at a cost of about £100,000 ; is in the 
Scottish Baronial style ; and consists of two blocks, con- 
nected by wings, and with a massive tower to the E, 
which, 35 feet square and 80 high, has a round corner 
stair-turret, 20 feet higher. A handsome suspension 
bridge in connection with the royal residence was con- 
structed across the Dee at a cost of £5000, and forms 
a communication with the N side of the river at Crathie 
church. The estate of Balmoral was purchased in 1852 
by the late Prince Consort for £31,500. It comprises 
about 11,000 acres, extends from the Dee to the summit 
of Lochnagar, joins the estates of Abf.rgeldie and 
Birkhall, which also became royal property ; and the 


three estates constitute one demesne, extending 11 miles 
along the Dee, and southward thence to the watershed 
of the Dee's basin. Her Majesty owns in the shire 
25,350 acres, valued at £2393 per annum. Many objects 
of interest are noticed in separate articles ; one only shall 
be noticed here — the cairn that was reared on Craig- 
Gowan in 1863 in honour of him who had planned the 
entire work. It bears inscription : ' To the beloved 
memory of Albert the Great and Good, Prince Consort, 
erected by his broken-hearted widow, Victoria R. — 
Wisdom of Sol., iv. 13, 14.'— See pp. 65, 86, 105, 109, 
115, 116. and 130 of Leaves from the Queen's Journal 
in the Highlands (ed. 1877).— Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Balmore, a village in the SE of Baldernock parish, 
Stirlingshire, 3 furlongs N of the right bank of the 
Kelvin, and 3J miles E by S of Milngavie. 

Balmossie, an ancient chapelry in Monifieth parish, 
Forfarshire. The chapel stood on a crag above the river 
Dichty, nearly opposite the present mill of Balmossie ; 
and was razed to the ground, after having long been a 
ruin, about the year 1762. 

Balmule, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunfermline 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands £ mile W of Loch 
Fitty and 3 miles NNE of Dunfermline ; belonged to 
Sir Henry Wardlaw, chamberlain to Queen Anne of 
Denmark ; and is associated with the memory of Lady 
Elizabeth Wardlaw (nie Halket, 1677-1727), whose 
name now figures largely in connection with the old 
ballad literature of Scotland. 

Balmullo, a straggling village in Leuchars parish, 
Fife, If mile WSW of Leuchars village. It has a post 
office under Leuchars, and a public school. Pop. , with 
Lucklawhill (1871), 326. 

Balmvmgo, an estate, with a mansion, in St Andrews 
parish, Fife, 1J mile SSE of St Andrews. 

Balmuto, an estate, with a mansion, in Einghorn 
parish, Fife. The mansion stands 3 miles N by W 
of Burntisland, has finely wooded grounds, and is 
mainly a modern edifice, but includes a very old square 

Balm Well, a bituminous spring in Liberton parish, 
Edinburghshire, at St Catherine's, f mile S of Liberton 
village. It partly holds mineral oil or petroleum in 
solution, partly throws it up in numerous little masses 
to the surface ; and, in pre-Reformation days was held 
in great veneration. 

Balnaboth, an estate, with a mansion, the seat of 
Donald Ogilvy of Clova, in the upper part of Kirriemuir 
parish, Forfarshire, 12 miles from Kirriemuir. 

Balnacross, an ancient parish, now incorporated with 
Tongland, in Kirkcudbrightshire. The name signifies 
'the hamlet of the cross ;' and, in the corrupted form 
of Bancrosh, continues to be the name of a Tongland 
farmstead. The church, St Michael's, belonging origi- 
nally to the Culdees of Iona, was given by William 
the Lyon to the monks of Holyrood, and transferred by 
Robert Bruce to those of Tongland. 

Balnagard, a village in Little Dunkeld parish, Perth- 
shire, adjacent to the Highland railway and the river 
Tay, 7 miles ENE of Aberfeldy. It has a Christian 
Knowledge Society's school. 

Babnageith, a village of N Elginshire, 2 miles from 
its post-town Forres. 

Balnagowan, a mansion in Kilmuir-Easter parish, E 
Ross-shire, 1 J mile N of Nigg Bay in Cromarty Firth, J 
mile NW of Kildary station, and 5 J miles S by W of Tain. 
Standing amid romantic grounds, it commands a magnifi- 
cent prospect ; was a seat of the Earls of Ross in feudal 
times ; is partly very ancient, partly an erection of 1836 ; 
and presents an imposing appearance, chiefly in the 
old Scottish Baronial style. It is a seat of Sh- Charles 
F. A. Boss (b. 1872; sue. 1883), eighth Bart since 
1668, and owner of 110,445 acres in the shire, valued at 
£12,653 per annum. 

Balnagowan, a small island in Loch Linnhe, Argyll- 
shire, a little SW of the mouth of Loch Leven. 

Balnahuaigh, one of the Slate islands in Argyllshire. 
It lies between Lunga and Easdale, belongs to Jura 
parish, measures only 1 mile in circuit, and is all 



one slate quarry. Pop. (1861) 142, (1871) 146, (1881) 

Balnakiel, a small bay in Durness parish, Sutherland. 
Balnakiel House, in its vicinity, was built about 1744 ; 
was an occasional residence of the Lords Reay ; and 
occupies the site of a summer residence of the Bishops of 
Sutherland and Caithness. 

Balnakyle, a picturesque cascade on the Black Water 
rivulet, in Clyne parish, Sutherland. 

Balnamoon, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Men- 
muir parish, Forfarshire, 4J miles WNW of Brechin. 

Balnellan, a ferry on the river Spey, between Elgin- 
shire and Banffshire, immediately above the mouth of 
the river Aven. 

Balone, a hamlet in St Andrews parish, Fife, If 
mile SW of St Andrews city. 

Balone, a large old castellated building in Tarbat 
parish, Ross-shire, said to have been erected by the 
Earls of Ross. It was inhabited by the Earls of Cro- 
marty, and by the Mackenzies of Ardloch-Assynt ; but, 
though still almost entire, it has been deserted since 
about 1640. 

Balquhain Castle, a ruin in Chapel-of-Garioch parish, 
Aberdeenshire, about £ mUe SE of the parish church. 
The seat from 1340 of the Leslies of Balquhain, it gave 
lodging to Queen Mary on the eve of the battle of Cor- 
richie in 1562, and was burned by the Duke of Cumber- 
land in 1746. Here was born John Leslie, Bishop of 
Raphoe (d. 1671). 

Balquhapple, an ancient chapelry within the quondam 
parish of Lang, now annexed to Kincardine, in Perth- 

Balquhatston, an estate, with a mansion, in Slaman- 
nan parish, Stirlingshire, adjacent to the Slamannan 
station and Slamannan village. Coal of excellent 
quality is largely mined on the estate, and sent to Edin- 
burgh and other places. 

Balquhidder (Gael, baile-chul-tir, ' town of the back- 
lying country'), a Highland parish of W Perthshire, 
whose eastern portion is traversed by 114 miles of the 
Callander and Oban railway, with Strathyre and Loch 
earnhead stations thereupon, the latter being 3 miles 
NNE of the former, 12 NNW of Callander, and 28 Nff 
of Stirling. It contains four villages — Kirkton of Bal- 
quhidder, at the foot of Loch Voil, 3 miles W by S of 
Lochearnhead station, with a post office under Stirling ; 
Achtow, 1 J mile to the E, near King's House Inn ; Loch- 
earnhead, 2 miles NNE of its station, with a post 
office, having money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments ; and Strathyre, with another post office 
under Stirling, and with two inns, at one of which 
Wordsworth and his sister lodged 13 Sept. 1803. 

In shape resembling a triangle with vertex to the W, 
the parish is bounded NW by Dumbartonshire (for | 
mile) and Killin, E by Comrie, SE and S by Callander ; 
and has an extreme length from E to W of 15J miles, an 
extreme width from N to S of 10 miles, and an area of 
56,149:| acres, of which 1474§ are water. The drainage 
belongs in part to the basin of the Tay, but chiefly to 
that of the Forth. To the Tay, since the NE corner of 
the parish includes the head of Loch Earn, which from 
Balquhidder receives the Ogle (flowing 4 miles SSE), 
the Oleann Ceann Droma (4£ miles SE and NE), and 
the Ample, with a fine waterfall (5 miles N). To the 
Forth, since the central Lochs Doine and Voil are fed 
and connected with one another and Loch Lubnato by 
the river Balvag, a head-stream of the Teith. Rising 
close to the border of Dumbartonshire, this head-stream 
has a course (ENE and SSE) through the parish of 21 
miles or so — 8 J miles to Loch Doine, 7 J furlongs through 
that lake (itself 2 furlongs wide), 1$ furlong to Loch 
Voil (1 to 3 furlongs wide, and 3J miles long), 6 miles 
from Loch Voil to Loch Lubnaig, and 2 miles through 
the upper waters of that lake, which fall within the SE 
angle of Balquhidder. Loch Voil has an altitude above 
sea-level of some 414, Loch Earn of 306, and Loch Lub- 
naig of 405 feet ; and from the shores of these three 
lakes the surface rises everywhere into steep craggy 
mountains. That portion of the parish to the N of the 


Balvag and the W of the railway is occupied by the 
Braes of Balquhidder, celebrated by Tannahill ; and" here 
the chief elevations from W to E are *Beinn a Chroin 
(3101 feet), *Stob Glas (2673), Beinn Tulachan (3099), 
*Stob Garbh (3148), *Am Binnein (3827), *Stob Coire 
an Lochan (3497), Meall Monachyle (2123), *Stob 
Creagach (2966), Stob Luib (1579), *Stob Meall naFrean 
(2457), *Meall na Lochain (2010), and Meall an t'Seal- 
laidh (2792), where the asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on the boundary. In the southern 
division rise *Meall Mor (2451), *Stob a Choin (2839), 
*Taobh na Coille (2250), *Lag a Phuill (1649), Beinn 
an t'Shithein (1871), and *Benvane (2685) ; and to the 
E of the railway, from N to S, are Ben Our (2250), Meall 
nan Oighreag (1899), *Stuc a Chroin (3189), and *Beinn 
Each (2660). The scenery from Loch Katrine to Loch 
Voil and thence to Loch Lubnaig is thus described by 
Dorothy Wordsworth, whose brother's ' Highland Lass ' 
was here suggested: — ' We waded the river and crossed 
the vale, perhaps half a mile or more. The mountains 
all round are very high ; the vale pastoral and unen- 
closed, not many dwellings, and but very few trees ; the 
mountains in general smooth near the bottom. They 
are in large unbroken masses, combining with the vale 
to give an impression of bold simplicity. ... At 
the foot of Loch Voil the vale is wide and populous — 
large pastures with many cattle, large tracts of corn. 
Walked down Strathyre, and saw in clear air and sun- 
shine what had been concealed from us when we travelled 
before in the mist and rain. We found it less woody 
and rich than it had appeared to be, but, with all 
deductions, a very sweet valley. ' The prevailing rocks 
are mica and clay slate, quartz, greenstone, and por- 
phyry ; and veins of galena traverse some parts of the 
mica slate, but have not been worked for their ore. 
Heath, till about the beginning of this century, dotted 
most of the uplands, but almost everywhere has given 
place to grass of soft and silky texture, while natural 
woods and plantations cover a considerable extent. The 
Maclaurins are said to have acquired from Kenneth Mac- 
alpin(844-60) the districts of Balquhidder and Strathearn; 
and they were once so numerous that none durst enter 
Balquhidder Church till they had taken their seats — a 
right that gave rise to many brawls, in one of which the 
vicar, Sir John Maclaurin, was slain (1532). In 1869 a 
handsome granite monument was erected in the church- 
yard to the memory of ' the Clan Laurin, the chief of 
whom, in the decrepitude of old age, together with his 
aged and infirm adherents, their wives and children, the 
widows of their departed kindred — all were destroyed in 
the silent midnight hour by fire and sword, by the 
hands of a banditti of incendiarists from Glendochart, 
a.d. 1558.' The said banditti of incendiarists were the 
Macgregors of Rob Roy's tribe ; and Rob himself died in 
his house at Balquhidder, 28 Dec. 1734. Near the 
old kirk he had fought his last fight with Stewart of In- 
vernahyle, the Maclaurins' champion ; and in its grave- 
yard his tombstone is pointed out, lying flat on the 
ground to the E of the chancel gable, along with two 
others assigned by tradition to Helen his wife and to one 
of their sons. Tradition maybe right enough, but all 
three stones are shown by their carvings, of sword and 
knot and suchlike emblems of Celtic art, to be centuries 
older than the outlaw's day, to belong, in fact, to the 
so-called ' sculptured stones ; ' a fourth ' represents an 
ecclesiastic with a chalice in his hands, and formerly 
stood within the church, in front of the Altar, but was 
removed in order to destroy a superstitious desire that 
existed among the parishioners to stand or kneel on it 
during a marriage or baptism. The stone is still called 
Clach Aenais (the stone of Angus), who, according to 
tradition, was a disciple of Columba, and the first Chris- 
tian missionary in the district ' {Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland, 1867). On 6 Sept. 1869 Queen Victoria visited 
Rob Roy's grave, which Wordsworth has sung in a well- 
known poem, though he never stood beside the grave 
itself, wrongly supposing it to be near the head of Loch 
Katrine. As to the ivy-mantled ruined church, with 
its primitive font, it is said in the New Statistical to 


have been built in 1631, but Muir's Church Architecture 
(1861) ascribes it to the First Pointed period, i.e., to the 
12th or 13th century ; anyhow, Robin Oig, Rob's fifth 
and youngest son, here wedded the widow whom he had 
ravished from Balfron, and hither three years later his 
corpse, after execution, was brought by a large company 
of sorrowing kinsfolk. Robin it was that in 1736 on In- 
vernenty farm shot one of those Maclaurins, the writ for 
whose ejectment was served by a young attorney — the 
future Sir Walter Scott. This was in 1790, and, eight 
years after, the estate of Edenchip, between Lochearn- 
head village and the station, was purchased from the 
Commissioners of Forfeited Estates by Sir John Murray 
of Lanrick, Bart. (ere. 1795), chief of the Gregor clan, 
whose descendant, Sir Malcolm Macgregor, fifth Bart, 
(b. 1873 ; sue. 1879), is owner of 4050 acres in the shire, 
of an annual value of £1131, 5s. Another proprietor, 
David Carnegie, Esq. of Stronvar, near the SE corner 
of Loch Voil, holds 22,205 acres of £3558, 10s. value ; 
and 3 more hold £500 and upwards, 2 between £100 
and £500, mansions being Craigrule on the N shore of 
Loch "Voil and Edinample Castle near Lochearnhead. 
A native was Dugald Buchanan (1716-68), the eminent 
Gaelic poet. Balquhidder is in the presbytery of Dun- 
blane and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is 
worth £305. The present church (1855 ; 460 sittings) is 
a handsome Gothic edifice, and there is also a Free 
church ; while, besides 2 schools at Lochearnhead, Bal- 
quhidder public school and Strathyre Society's school, 
with respective accommodation for 88 and 50 children, 
had (1879) an average attendance of 26 and 18, and 
grants of £36, 3s. and £29. Valuation (1881) £8832, 
Is. 5d. Pop., mostly Gaelic speaking, of civil parish, 
(1801) 1377, (1831) 1049, (1851) 874, (1871) 743, (1881) 
759. Pop. of quoad sacra parish, which includes part 
of Connie, (1881) 904. See pp. 217, 235-240, of Dorothy 
Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 
1874), and vol. ii., pp. 243-250, 279-280, of Jn. S. 
Keltie's Scottish Highlands (1875). — Ord. Sur., shs. 38, 
46, 1871-72. 

Balquholly, an ancient baronial castle in Turriff parish, 
Aberdeenshire, now mainly demolished, but partly in- 
corporated (1814) with Hatton Castle. It belonged to 
the Mowats, and was the residence of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of Cromarty (c. 1605-60), translator of Ra- 

Balranald, a small harbour in North Uist, Outer He- 
brides, Inverness-shire. 

Balruddery, an estate, with a handsome modern man- 
sion, in Lift' and Benvie parish, Forfarshire, 6i miles W 
by N of Dundee. The mansion, on a south-eastward 
slope, commands an extensive view over the Firth of 
Tay ; the estate contains romantic, finely -wooded dells, 
and is notable both for rare indigenous plants and for 
the exhumation of interesting fossils. 

Balshagry, a hamlet in Govan parish, Lanarkshire, a 
short distance WNW of Glasgow Botanic Garden. Re- 
cent marine shells, like extant ones in the Firth of 
Clyde, have been found in stratified clay, in the hamlet's 
vicinity, at a height of not less than 80 feet above sea- 

Balshando, a small lake in Lundie parish, Forfar- 
shire, sending off a head-stream of Dighty Water. 

Balta, an islet in Unst parish, Shetland, lying to the 
E of Unst island. Balta Sound, separating it from Unst, 
is 2 miles long, and about \ mile wide, and is so closed 
at the ends by Balta as to look, at a distance, like a lake. 
The land on both sides of the Sound is in a state of high 
cultivation. A hamlet here bears the name of Balta- 
sound, and has a post office under Lerwick, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, and a 
public school, which, with accommodation for 100 chil- 
dren, had (1879) an average attendance of 42, and a 
grant of £89, 8s. 5d. 

Baltebun. See Saddel. 

Balthayock, a detached section of Kinnoul parish, 
Perthshire. Lying \ mile E of the main body of the 
parish, it has an extreme length from NW to SE of 2J 
miles, and varies in breadth from 5 furlongs to 1 mile. 


Balthayock House in the S, 3 miles E of Perth, dates 
partly from 1578, partly from some two cen